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7 FEBRUARY 2005 






7 FEBRUARY 2005 


Copyright 2005 

University of Michigan I lerbarii 

All rights reserved 

Printed in the United Sta 
Volume 24 

Editor: Christiane Anderson 

For information about the availability and prices of previous volumes of tl 
Contributions, consult the Herbarium website: 
or write to: Publications. University of Michigan Herbarium, 3600 Varsity Dri\ 
Ann Arbor 48108-2287, U.S.A. 

7 February 2005 

( alphimia (Malpighiaceae) in South America Christiane/ 

Two new species of Galphimia (Malpighiaceae), and a key 

to the Mexican species with deciduous petals Christiane / 
Pterandra viridiflora (Malpighiaceae), a new species from Brazil 

Christiane / 
Heteropterys oxenderi, a new name for Mascagni 

Tetrapterys anomala, a new species of Malpighiac 

Catalog of Honduran Acanthao 

Type specimens of vascular plants in the Herbarium of the Instituto Politecnic 
Nacional in Durango, Mexico (CIIDIR) 

I. L. Lopez-Enri'quez, M. S. Gonzalez-Elizondo, 
and M. Gonzalez-Elizondo 
Marcus E. Jones in Mexico, 1892 Rogers McVaugh 

New Euphorbiaceae from Mexico. II. Victor W. Steinmann 

Gazetteer of some possibly puzzling collecting localities for Michigan plants 
Edward G. Voss 
Sanaia acuta, a new name proposed for Scinaia c 

Two new species of Bryopsis (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from the Sultanate 
Oman, with a census of currently recognized species in the genus 

Michael J. Wynne 


Christiane Anderson 

University of Michigan Herbarium 

3600 Varsity Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 

Abstract. A revision of the South American species oi Galphimia (Mi Ipij hiaceae) is presented. 
Four species. G. amamhayensis, G. australis. G brasiliensis, and G. platyphylla, are recognized. Full descrip- 
tions, a key, and two maps are provided. Each taxon is illustrated. One new species, G. amamhayensis, is 

Galphimia (Malpighiaceae) includes large herbs and shrubs characterized by yel- 
low petals and a schizocarpic fruit separating into three cocci. The calyx lacks the oil 
glands found in most genera of New World Malpighiaceae; however, in some species 
of Galphimia a small gland, which resembles the leaf glands, is borne at the base of 
the sinus of some or all adjacent sepals (Castro et al. 2001). Most of the ca. 20 species 
of the genus occur in Mexico, adjacent Texas, and northern Central America, but the 
remainder are found in South America, south of the Amazon Basin. The Mexican 
species may be assigned to one of three groups defined by details of the inflores- 
cence and flower. In two, the flowers are large and borne on a pedicel subtended by 
a peduncle; in one group the petals are deciduous, in the other they are persistent. 
The third group includes two species most similar in overall aspect to the South 
American taxa: the petioles are very short (mostly less than 1 cm long), the peduncle 
is rudimentary or absent, and the flowers are small (the petals deciduous). 

Three species of Galphimia have been proposed for South America: G. australis 
Chodat, G brasiliensis (L.) Adr. Juss., and G. platyphylla Chodat; however, most bota- 
nists have followed Niedenzu (1914, 1928), who recognized only one polymorphic 
species, G brasiliensis, comprising several varieties and forms. A recent review of the 
South American collections of Galphimia showed them to belong to four species. 
Galphimia brasiliensis occurs in northeastern Brazil (Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, 
and Bahia). The variable G australis ranges from central Brazil to western Bolivia, 
southern Paraguay, Uruguay, and adjacent Argentina, and the closely related G. 
platyphylla is found in eastern Paraguay and adjacent Brazil. The material from east- 
ern Paraguay included one collection that represents a species here newly described, 
G amamhayensis. The relationships of the South American taxa with the Mexican 
ones can be addressed only after a review of the entire genus. The taxonomy of the 
South American species is presented here as an aid to current floristic projects. 

A key to the four species is presented below; however, they are quickly separated 
by geography and obvious morphological characters. Only G brasiliensis occurs in 
northeastern Brazil, and has strigose vesture, composed of hairs with a persistent 
tuberculate base, and uniformly velutinous ovaries/fruits. Galphimia amamhayensis 
occurs within the range of the widespread G. australis and near to that of G. platy- 
phylla; it differs by its tomentose sepals and inflorescences, and partly velutinous 
ovaries/fruits; the sepals and ovaries/fruits of G. au i rid G. platyphylla are 
glabrous. As the specific epithet implies, G. platyphylla differs from G australis in its 
much broader leaves (length/width ratio 1.2-2.3 (-3) vs. (2-) 2.5-7 (-9). 


Key to the Species oi- Galphimia in South America 


1. Sepals glabrous or with scattered hairs near the base and/or with a lull of hairs at the apex; ovary 

and 1 1 li i 1 glabrous or uniformly velutinous. 

2. Ovary and fruit velutinous; sepals usually with a tuft of hairs at the apex; petioles 3-10 mm 
long, strigose with the hairs mostly borne on tubercles, or in older leaves only the persistent 
tubercles remaining; peduncles present. 0.4 2 (-3) mm long; Brazil ( Bahia, Parafba, Pernam- 
bucii. and adjacent Piauf). G. brasiliensis 

2. Ovary and fruit glabrous; sepals entirely glabrous: petioles 1 .5 h mm long, glabrous; peduncles 
absent or rudimentary, sometimes to I .5 (-2.5) mm long. 
3. Laminas linear to linear-lanceolate to lanceolate to narrow l> elliptical, (i) > ) I 3.5 i ;.5) 

sometimes glabrous; sepals 2.5 3.5 (-4) mm long, 1 l.Smm wide; petal limb 3-5 mm long; 

(> " ' mm loic ^ ,, , mi id iliioiMjiioni h, M, H i'il vo si, in I liugua\. Paraguay. 

and adjacent Bolivia and Argentina. G. australis 

3. Lammas elliptical, broadly lanceolate, ovate to broadly ovate, occasionally suborbicular. 
(1.5-) 2-4 cm wide, length/width ratio 1.2 2.3 (-3); pedicels glabrous; sepals 4-5.7 mm 

1 >" i! ' ' » l ' f'fiii N s mm lonii cocci 4-S mm long Paraguay (Amamba\ 

< 'iMi ndiyu) ad adjacent Brazil ( lain (no o do nl) G. platyphylla 

Galphimia amambayensis ( . Anderson, sp. nov.— Type: Paraguay. Amambay: 30 km 
al N del cruce Bcllavista y Pedro Juan Cahallero. en matorral. 1 1 Feb 1982, 
Fernandez Casus & Molero 6190 (holotypc: NY!; isotype: MO!). Fig. 1. 

Suffrutex. Laminae 4.5-6.5 cm longae. 1.5-2.8 cm latae, ellipticae, sparse pubes- 
centes demum glabrescentes, margine integra, glandulis 0.4-0.5 mm diametro, ses- 
silibus; petioli 3.5-6 mm longi; stipulae 4-4.5 mm longae. Inflorescentia racemosa, 
tomentosa. Petala decidua, subaequalia. ungue ea. 2 mm longo, limbo 5-5.5 mm longo, 
4-4.5 mm lato, late triangular! Antherae ca. 1.3 mm longae. Ovarium velutinum 
proximaliter, suturis pubeseentibus distaliter; styli subaequales. 5.5-6.5 mm longi. 
Cocci ca. 4.5 mm longi. 

Subshrubs to O.b in: stems lomentose when young, becoming glabrous in age. 
Vesture of crisped or curled, reddish brown hairs 0.3-0.7 mm long, except straight 
and appressed on the laminas. Laminas of the larger leaves 4.5-6.5 cm long, 1.5-2.8 
cm wide, elliptical or narrowly so, apex apiculate, base acute, adaxially and abaxially 
sparsely pubescent when young, mostly glabrous when mature but sometimes with 
some scattered hairs remaining, costa prominent ab mdarj veins barely 

prominulous or not evident; margin entire; petioles 3.5-6 mm long, glabrous; leaf 
glands a pair borne on the margin near the base of the lamina or to 6 mm above it, 
each gland 0.4-0.5 mm in diameter, circular and Hush with the margin; stipules 4-4.5 
mm long, 0.7-1 mm wide, linear. Inflorescence a terminal raceme, the axes densely 
tomentose, glabrescent in age; peduncles absent or rudimentary, pedicels 4-6.5 mm 
long, densely tomentose; bracts 2.5-3.5 mm long. 0.7-0.8 mm wide, linear, bracteoles 
1.2-1.5 mm long, ca. 0.5 mm wide, linear, bracts and bracteoles abaxially tomentulose. 
Sepals 3.5-5 mm long, 1.3-1.5 mm wide, narrowly elliptical, abaxially tomentulose 
or patchily so, glands absent. Petals deciduous, subequal (?), yellow, becoming red 
in age, abaxially sprinkled with hairs on the claw and on the limb on and adjacent to 
the midrib, or sometimes glabrous; claw ca. 2 mm long. ca. 0.5 mm wide, limb 5-5.5 
mm long, 4-4.5 mm wide, broadly triangular, base acute. Stamens with heteromorphic 
filaments but subequal anthers; filament opposite anterior sepal 3.5-4 mm long. 


FIG. 1. Galphimia omamhayensis. a. Leaf. b. Detail of lamina showing marginal gland, c. Portion of 
inflorescence, d. Opt nin bud bonu on p In I ilh poiiion ..I nnloi i i 11 c Petal, abaxial view. f. 
Ciynoccmm < Coccus abaxial view Scale ha. -. a 4 cm b.Smm c. 2 cm d i> 1 mm (Based on Fernandez 

filaments opposite anterior-lateral petals 4-4.5 mm long, filaments opposite anterior- 
lateral sepals 3.5-4 mm long, filaments opposite posterior-lateral petals 4.5-5 mm 
long, filaments opposite posterior-lateral sepals 3.8-4.3 mm long, filament opposite 
posterior petal 4.8-5.2 mm long; anthers ca. 1.3 mm long. Ovary velutinous, but in 
the distal 1/3 only on the sutures and adjacent to them and glabrous on the surface; 
styles subequal (?), 5.5-6.5 mm long. Cocci ca. 4.5 mm long, ca. 3 mm in diameter, 
velutinous like the ovary but glabrescent in age. 

Galphimia amambayensis is known only from the type collection from eastern 
Paraguay (Fig. 5). It is readily separated from the other three species by its dense 
tomentum on the c i I Lflorescence axes. The leaves are sparsely pubescent 

on both surfaces when young. The ovary is velutinous in a distinctive pattern: the 
vesture is present along the sutures but on the surfaces only in the proximal 2/3-3/4. 
In the type collection most of the petals are abaxially sprinkled with hairs but a few 
are apparently glabrous, though in these instances the hairs may have been broken 
off. Such petal pubescence occurs sporadically in some species of Malpighiaceae that 
usually have glabrous petals, and only additional collections of G. amambayensis can 
resolve whether pubescent petals are indeed characteristic of this species. 

Galphimia australis Chodat, Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat., ser. 3, 24: 500. 1890. Galphimia 
brasiliensis var. australis (Chodat) Chodat, Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve, ser. 2, 9: 
96. 1917.— Type: Paraguay. Guaira: Prairies de Cosme, entre Villa Rica et 
Caaguazu, Nov 1874, Balansa 2393 (lectotype, here designated: G!; isolec- 
Galphimia hn > ,.,-.- \dr. Juss. in A. St.-Hil., Fl. bras, merid. 3: 

72. 1833 ["1832"].— Type: Brazil. Rio Grande do Sul: ad ripas Uruguay 
juxta vicum S.-Francisco de Borja [Sao Borja 
(holotype: P!). 

Hilaire C2, 2495bis 


Galphimia australis I. an»its ft folia Chodal. Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 31(2:3): 23. 
1892. Galphimia brasilicns v f. an} < ih Nied., Arbeiten Bot. 

Inst. Konigl. Lyceum Hosianum Braunsberg 5: 22. 1914.— Type: Paraguay: 

1 i.i: paun:)! I Itangu, pies de Villa-Rica, 17 Feb 1876. Batansa 2.W 

(holotype:G!). Fig. 2. 

-I'h-ini I'- lin ■ mi HjlMo 1 m 1 aimuas of the larger leaves 2.5-7 (-8) cm 

long, (0.5-) 1-2.5 (-3.3) cm wide, length/width ratio 2.5-7 (-9), linear to linear-lanceolate 
to lanceolate to narrowly elliptical, apex apii ulal lsi ute; glabrous adaxially and abaxi- 
ally, costa prom men aba iall tin secondai veins barely prominulous or not evident; mar- 
gin entire; petioles (1.5 -) 2 h i-ni S( ii' In hi I. il "I m i I,. ,n u the margin near the 
base of the lamina oi t< » (» 8i i ibovi il usi 11 paii ii imetim ith I or 2 additional 
glands, or sometimes on l\ 1 -Ian » h dam! a - n i gland 0.2 0.5 mm in diameter, 
circular, flush with the margin or prominent or sometimes with a stalk to 0.5 mm high; stip- 
ules (1.5-) 2-4.2 (-5) mm long, 0.5-1 mm wide, linear. Inflorescence a terminal raceme, 
I- - i i - h ,, I ite mage sometimes glabrous 

already at anthesis, sometimes the vesture retained in age; peduncles absent or rudimentary, 
sometimes to 1.5 (-2.5) mm long; pedicels 2-5 (-10) mm long, usually tomentulose or at 
least with some scattered hairs but sometimes glabrous; bracts 1-5 (-7) mm long, 0.4-1 .2 
mm wide, linear to narrow 1\ tria igula bracl »1< s 5 1.5 (-2) mm long, 0.2-0.5 (-0.7) mm 
wide, linear, bracts and bracte il b i 'h 1 br< us Sepals 2 s 3 5(4) mm long, 1-1.8 
mm wide, oblong, glabrous, glands 0.2-0.5 mm in diameter, sessile, mostly 1 but some- 
times 2 glands borne in the sinus at the base of 2 sepals, or glands absent. Petals deciduous, 
subequal, the posterior petal sometimes a little larger, yellow, becoming red in age; claw 
1 .3-1.5 (-1 .7) mm long, limb 3-5 mm long, 2.5-4 mm wide, triangular-ovate, base acute to 
tri | iex obtuse. Stamens with heteromorphic filaments but subequal anthers; filament 

opposite anterior sepal 2.5-3 (-3.4) mm long, filaments opposite anterior-lateral petals 2-2.3 
(-2.5) mm long, filaments opposite anterior-lateral sepals 2.5 2 5 ( 3) mm long, filaments 
opposite posterior-lateral petals 1.8 2 ( 2.5) mm long, filaments opposite posterior-lateral 
sepals 2-2.3 (-3) mm long, filament opposite posterior petal ( 1 .8 -) 2-2.2 (-2.5) mm long; 
anthers 1-1.2 mm long. Ovary glabrous; styles subequal but the anterior two always a little 
longer than the posterior one, anterior styles 3.8^.6 (-5.2) mm long, posterior style 3.5-4.2 
(-5) mm long. Cocci 3-3.8 mm long, 2-2.5 mm in diameter, glabrous. 

Phenology. Collected in flower and fruit throughout the year. 

Distribution (I ig J) South rnBra il tdj ntl li ia Para i northeastern Argen- 
tina, western Uruguay; open woodlands and ;ra I ad errado, caatinga, campo limpo, 
eampo sujo maton il aid ndi] i t <>!) >;»:),,, 

Represeniaiim Si-immins Vrgentina. Cokriiniin Depto Santo Iome Plavadito 17 km W of 
Apostoles. Anderson 12362 (CAS, MBM, MICH, NY); Deplo. Santo Tonic. Avo. Ch'imiray, Krapovickas 
A Cnsiohal 25105 (CI ES): Depto. Mercedes. Mercedes, a lia Co, a. Avo. I'av-I Inc. Quarin & Gonzalez 
2036 (CTES, ENCB); Dcplu. lie, on de Aslnula, 4h km W cie lia Ibalc. Valencia Sclunini 14017 (CTES, 
F.MICH).— Entri Rios: Depto. Concordia. Parcjiic Ki\ iidavui. Ihirktin A Iron, ; ,w 27703 (NY ); Depto. 
Federation, Santa Ana. barranca del Rio Uruguay. Shirk, in a a/. 2<>55>-> I ( I !• S. ( I ! I ): ( oncepcion del Uru- 
guay, Lorentz 563 (BM. I'. ( i. (i| i. K). -Misu.m-s: '> km al N\\ de ( 'onecpcion ,\v la Sierra Krapovickas 
etal. 15148 (C, CTES, MBM, MO. P, WIS), Depto < I'u.,toR,co M , t -y<, M « |[S Ml. ] , 
Deplo. Apostoles, Apostoles, Xifreda & Maldonado 38! (MBM). Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Prov. Velasco, 
San Enacio Kill Lm N cornuiiidad San Miguelito, Bruderreck 24 (CITS. NY): Prov. Nullo de Chavez. 
Embocada del Carmen ca 10 1 n SSW d. ' on, , ion Ih AS a' 2(V\\ Krapovickas & Sclunini 32/5! 
(CTES, F, MBM, MICH); Prov. Sandoval. San Matins, Ih 2TS. s,S 2(Y\V. Krapovickas & Sclunini 36157 
(CTES, MICH); Prov. Andres Ibanez, Jardin Bolamco de Santa ( 'ruz. 1 2 km E ol center of Santa Cruz on 
road to Cotoea, \'ce 44434 (NY); Prm: Sara, lomena de Buena Vista, Stcinbach 7370 (A, BM, F, ( i. (j( )ET. 


FIG. 2. Galphimia australis. a. Habit, b. Node with stipules and basal portions of leaves, c. Bud borne 
i pedicel, with portion oi mil ■ <m. i\is note calyx glands, d. Flower and detail showing petal apex. 
Distal portions of stamens, abaxial (left) and adaxial (right) views, f. Gynoecium. g. Style apex. h. Fruit 
ibtended by calyx and filament Coccu haxial vi j oca id m. I \i^ k Seed. 1. Embryo. Scale 

ir=a,4cm;b,8mm;c,f,4mm:(l,.Smm(ii|)i 4 mm e, 2 mn g.0.4 mm; h-j. 5 mm:l 1 S mm. (Based 
, , . >,/»„,„, I U>r U ! / uunnuka v himm '21 I ) 


80° 70° 60° 50° 40° 


\ (I J 

~ "- 

G. australis 

v ) 

■ 10° 

'. ■ 1 

*• // 

/ / 

80° 70° 60° 50° 40° 30° 

MO, S). Brazil. Goian: Mpio. ( aldas Novas. 12 km due W of the eitv of Caldas Novas, IleriiiRer & liiten 
747W(HB,K,MO SPI I,) )']•: lv , kin Sf d. \, „a K is /,,„,,„! „ Us A ( mfc>/> fl / 42948 (K, MBM. 

MICH) MmoGrosso. Oasis -I km I I iu i n i ,„ DSm d, s \iai<is, Kiapox u Ar/s el 

til. 40260 (MICH) Mpio.Cuiaba Rod BR (170 ( onto. no Sul », IBM).— Mato G rosso 

do Sul: Mpio. Campo dand. Ku> \nhandui Hatschbach "IS! ?< MBM); Mpio. Rio Brilhante, Rod. 
BR-267, entroncame m , ' , // /j 'if ; 1) I; |, \ ist.i III l> I m ( > Heisthbach 49160 (BR, G, 

MBM, US); Mpio. PoM ■ uiIihIhi. iiu.l mi< < ini p > j„dio hi/eiida mi Uoee 7 latseiihueh el til 

7W(MK II) M P ,o RioXudt hiSLtsuipuk hSu. i \k ., - jihi, J, | ,„\ U J, - /(/l „ )hl , wh 
2%'7#(CIES) -Minv>Oirus ea S km St ul Pauu mi hum , , „I V./'^il \il< II MOW, l mi id , 
Santo Hipolito a Diamantina, Km 69. Shepherd ei at. .W7(MBM. NY).— Parana: [bare o PP . Morun- 
gava praedium, /Jn.vr,/ /TV/..' <c . ii 1, MO, S); Km 127, Mpio. Laranjeiras do Sul, Hatsehhach ' ,7 ' ? ( MBM 
MICH)— Rio Grandi no Si i : BR 1(11. Km h. ( amp.. Bomto. ra. S km S\\ de Torres, Krapovickas & 
K.r.oUl .W.S/K 11 S Ml( ||) I \s IMm;iv. ( ^Vm„/(J (I IIBN\) S \ni \ Cai \rina Rod 

^pi" ' " ^>\.> i'i>h< t ,ies, 4'-' (('FPU ( II S MBM I B)_ S\oP\ilo Dist 

Rubiao Junior, 1-2 km SW da Faeuldade de ( i, m i l ,i, , ,<>( mmuis de Botueatu Goitsber^e, & 

Campos 14-301072 (F, MBM. MIOI I. ( B):.lnles, Pasios de Retiro. i incline SI'I I loir, (MBM,RB). Para- 
guay. Alto Parana: Fa. Santa Elena. Pira Pytn.Sctnnini A Caballem M. 27152 (G, MICH).— Amambay: 
32 km SE de Bella Vista. Ayo. Ne;T,, Sehuun, 21-1"- < I, ( ,. MK 1 1 ). ( n.,1 x/, : ( oloma Pindo. eamino 


entre Itaquyry y Curugual 14 " )' chinini & Caballero M. 30243 (MICH).— Canendiyu: iter 

ad Yerbales montium Sierra de Maracayu, in regione fluminis ( lorrientes, Hassler 4524 (BM, F, G, GH, K, 

NY,W).— CoNCEPdos [.imp |»i m «. ' « ^'IHMii ■ *i'i ) ' <> inn \\<\ Pinbebuy, Colonia 

Pedro Pablo Caballero Rojas l?731 (S W) Gi \ika Iturbe Montes 12595 (CTES, MICH).— Itapua: 

, ,, , , ),, „ | i j ! ,,. K.I lint. ! In I «! u.i .1.1 hi m » • ' ■"" I'" <> < " '"""' '"' 

(CTES, G, MICH) — M i m i l( /Imvl^ n„]! t i tanu.u, i .ui .1 ' „ » Ao.Arbo etal.6141 {G, 
MICH).— Neembic i Mi lii.iii . uli n /mm \ .Wi(< 1 '-« Mi') I' im,i -i National Park Ybycu'i, 
in, i ,, H Ion i o\ » Mm i (' 01 •> d M, "• mm </// u> J.V-'o ' ( Mo i i i ,ii>i mi 

Hayes: Primavera, Woo/.v/w; 192 (NY. S). Uruguay. Paysamm: Chapicuy. nnllas del Rio Uruguay, Sta. 
Sofia, Rosengurtt B-3278 1/2 (GH, MO, SP). 

Galphimia australis is a widespread and variable species found from central Brazil to 
Bolivia and eastern Argentina. It is distinguished by glabrous leaves borne on very short 
petioles (to 6 mm long) and small flowers with a glabrous calyx and ovary. Although the 
youngest branchlets and inflorescence axes are pubescent, the vesture is soon shed and 
the more mature parts are usually glabrate to glabrous. In specimens from Rio Grande do 
Sul (Brazil) the vesture is retained in the racemes and leafy branches, and only the oldest 
vegetative branches are essentially glabrous. This variant was named by Jussieu (1833) 
and accepted by Niedenzu (1914, 1928) as G brasiha, > \\ . ■ ^ ■ *v.J .*. >|\m ul 
populations with persistent vesture occur occasionally in other parts of the range as well 
(e.g., Argentina, Lorentz 563, Entre R iiftvtla & A-i wad >«S7, Misiones) and are not 
accorded taxonomic recognition here. 

Throughout most of the range G. australis bears narrow laminas, ranging from linear 
to linear-lanceolate to lanceolate to narrowly elliptical, that taper toward the apex and are 
3_6 (-9) times as long as wid( ( >c< i ■ < nally. some laminas on a specimen are only 2.5 
times as long as wide. Chodat (1892) assigned specimens with very narrow leaves to his 
forma angusti/oliu. > do 'al isa 2394 from Paraguay. Schimni 14017 and Schinini 
et al. 23447, both from Argentina, are two similarly narrow-leaved collections. In some 
populations some of the leaves or sometimes even all are wider than usual, and approach the 
leaf shape found in G. amambayensis and G. platyphylla (e.g., Hassler 4524, Hatschbach 
25071, 49160, Krai 81 Kra\ rid \ tobal 25195). These variants match 

G. australis in all other aspects. 

Galphimia brasiliensis (L.) Adr. Jussieu in A. St.-Hilaire, Fl. bras, merid. 3: 71. 1833 
["1832"]. Thryallis brasiliensis L., Sp. pi., ed. 2, 2: 554. 1762.— Type: "Frutice- 
scens herba pisonis. Margr. bras. 79. f. 3" [the illustration; p. 79, in Piso, G.: 
De medicina brasiliensi; Marcgrave, G.: Historiae rerum naturalium brasiliae, 
Galphimia bras . ■ n mtb cen s . <uita Nied., Arbeiten Bot. Inst. Komgl. 
Lyceum Hosianum Braunsberg 5: 22. 1914.— Type: Brazil. Bahia: without 
locality, 1830, Salzmann s.n. (lectotype, here designated: G!; isolectotypes: 

Fig. 4. 

Subshrubs and shrubs to 1 .5 m, often sprawling and scrambling; stems pubescent 
when young, becoming glabrous but often roughened by persistent tubercles. Ves- 
ture of all vegetative parts of straight to wavy, light brown to white hairs, 0.3-0.8 mm 
long, each hair borne on a persistent tubercle up to 0.25 mm high or the epidermis 
only slightly raised at point of attachment. Laminas of the larger leaves 2-5 cm long, 
1-3.8 cm wide, ovate or elliptical, apex apiculate or acute, base acute to truncate, 
glabrous but often with a few scattered hairs on the abaxial costa and along the 
margin near the base, costa prominent abaxially, secondary veins prominulous or 



/ . \ 

FIG. 4. Galphimi 
gland, c. Leaf. d. Peta 
peial( right );abaxiah 
peduncle, with portion of inflorescence 

liensis. a. Branch with nm* m, h ii i mi base, showing marginal 

anicii opposing posterior lateral sepal (left) and stamen opposing posterior 
Gynoecium.g. Fruit, subi nu \ Ihvcalvx m.liilam m home on pedicel and 

xis. h. Coccus, lateral view. i. Coccus, adaxial view. Scale bar = a. 

i; g, 4 mm. (Based on: a. d-g. Anderson 1/737: b, c, Harley 16312; 

barely so abaxially; margin entire or commonly v h tent tubercles near 

the base; petioles 0.3-1 cm long, tuberculate-strigose or only the tubercles remain- 
ing; leaf glands borne on the margin, to 6 ram above the base of the lamina, usually a 
pair, or sometimes with only 1 gland or the glands absent, each gland 0.1-0.3 mm in 
diameter, disklike and prominent or sometimes drawn out into a tooth to 0.3 (-0.5) 
mm long; stipules 1.5-2.7 mm long, 0.3-0.6 wide, linear or very narrowly triangular. 
Inflorescence a terminal raceme, the axes tuberculate and strigose; peduncles 0.4-2 
(-3) mm long, glabrate, pedicels 2.5-5.5 mm long, strigose; bracts 1.2-2 mm long, 
0.4-0.5 mm wide, linear, bracteoles 0.5-0.8 mm long, 0.3-0.4 mm wide, linear. Sepals 
ca. 2.5 mm long, 1-1.1 mm wide, narrowly elliptical, glabrous or with scattered hairs 
at the base, usually with a tuft of hairs at the apex, glands absent. Petals deciduous, 
subequal but the posterior petal sometimes with a wider claw than the lateral ones, 
yellow, often marked with red, becoming pink/red in age; claw 0.5-1 mm long, 0.4-0.5 
mm wide, limb ca. 4 mm long, ca. 3 mm wide, triangular-ovate, base acute. Stamens 
with heteromorphic filaments but subequal anthers; filaments of stamens opposing 
lateral sepals 3.2-3.3 mm long, of stamen opposing anterior sepal ca. 3.5 mm long, 
filaments of stamens opposing petals subequal, ca. 2 mm long; anthers 0.7-0.8 mm 
long, cylindrical. <)\ai \ u-lui i , q M.3.3 4. miuii U.nsi. (occi ca.3.6 mm nun in diameter, velutinous. 

Phenology. Collected in flower and fruit throughout the year. 

Distribution (Fig. 5). Eastern Brazil (Bahia, Parafba, Pernambuco, and adjacent 
Piauf); in caatinga, ccrnidi I h ,, ilerv forests, in thorn scrub" 

280-1 150 m. 



V ^ f \ I o G.plal 

♦ G. amambayen 

▲ G. brasiliensis 

G. platyphylla 

C.x I),- 

I (Jdlphimia iimciniht.ivcnsis G hrasilienst a 

3 Conceicao do Coite, 

CIMENS E.XAMIM l>. ISritzil. 

1 1°38'S, 39°W, ,W<?/™n 77737 (CAS, MBM, MICH, NY); Valente, 6 km N of Valente on rd to Santaluz, 
^n^r5O«7J689(MICH);caminodeFiladelfiaaPindoba5u,al4kmdelaBR-407,10 4.SS 10 L4 N,Arbo 
et al. 7334 (CEPEC); BR-324, 12 km NW de Jacobina, camino a Umburanas, 11°06'S, 40°36'W, Arbo et 
„l ■*, hi n ( Ma< u I<n ! i| I" U" >" ( vV ',,w.' 7. ..<",<. '•.(' T r U T\, I I? l ' 
, „ ,| [ c „,u i Iki.iIm Wr>, /»'(< ri'I . r I II) A.lh.-u lot ihh ,>l„, l ,i„il046(G),2184(BM, 
i ; .,/_• (BM,F, G); Serra da Jacobina, 5/™c7ier 2674 (BM, BR, C, G, MO, NY, P, W); Conceicao de Feira, 
margem esquerda do Rio Paraguacu, 12°32'35"S, 39°03'06"W, Carvalho et al. 544 (CEPEC, MICH); Bar- 
,,.,,„,! .„u,hm, . kIkki. . MkuoMio Mr.u-ua.Lic latuipi 1 ' • W, d W . Cavalo 201 (CEPEC, 
MICH)- entre Jeremoabo c Paulo Afonso. Goncalves 41 (CEPEC); Uagoa de Eugenia, southern end near 
Camaleao, Hurley 16227 (CEPEC); 64 km N of Senhor do Bonfim on BA-130 to Juazeiro, 09°55'S, 40°15'W, 
Harley 16312 (K, MICH, MO, NY, RB); Serra da Jacobina, 8 km N of Senhor do Bonfim on BA-130 to 
Juazeiro, 10°23S 40 i • i i > > (<> I « 1 * 1 ' r . I • in < / '</ (I ) It .1 u ,M 1 <l 

Morros, Hatschbach 1986 (MO); Milagres, arredores, //atec/i&acTz 42452 (Ml : i Ml- I }.; : .1 
MorTOS,Hatschbach4> .■'.-:. Ill \1BM,MICH); Morro da Garrafa, 12°45T8"S,39°51'W,Me/o e/ 
«/. :W.? (CEPEC); Pasto Buffel, Faz. Serra da Monta, Itaberaba, Oliveira 544 (MO); Main Olh eira 647 
(MO);Faz.Lagoado( i / • - Faz.Viirzeal h (C I PEC MO); Santa 

Terezinha, 0.6 km NE de Sta. Terezinha, na e 
39°32'05"W, Qwe/roz et al. 1540 (CEPEC, F, N 


3070 (CEPEC, MICH); hci Rcmonso. (//<• 7IS0 ((,); Sanla Luz, 30 km W o[ Queimadas, 15 km NW of 
Santa Luz, 11"09'S,39"28'W, Webster 25670 (CAS. MICH). -Pakaira: without locality. Coelho de Monies 
2116 (A, NY, S).— Pi rnamiu < o: Serinma ba/enda ( oxi. Mencir a (Ml( 'I I): Aiea-projeto Suapc. Cabo 
de Sto.Agostinho.paile antei inr ( |-.Mai>> I)), Amlmde I inui A Mcleiros-i ash! -IS (F); Cabo. Arca-pro- 
jeto Suapc, Cabo de Santo Agostinho., & Medenns-Cosn, *'(MUM); near Pernambuco, 
Gardner 944 (BM, GH, NY. S. W): 20 km de Pelrolma em dueam a Airanio. Heru^er et al. 185 (UB);20 
'">! lVt nlun , \|, mio // „„ M , /«/'^f(RH). without In I iv' / HiR);01inda,PJcite/676 

(SP); without locality, Ridley e! ai >{\ v ,\\ .omh SWvmil iruarii C a-< / 120 (MICH).— Piaup 
Lagoa Comprida, Gardner 2077 (BM, GH). 

Galphimia bras a; w, il 1a Hu I jI . ui i. u )sc" vesture, the 
mostly ovate leaves, and a uniformly velutinous ovary and fruit. The androecium is 
also distinctive in that the filaments of stamens opposing the petals are only 2/3 as 
long as those of stamens opposing the sepals. The hairs of vegetative parts are borne 
on small tubercles, which persist after the li air i ! ugh 1 ol'i il it ih I m 
petioles, pedicels, and even the abaxial costa and margins of laminas are often tuber- 
culate. Such tubercles are also found in the Mexican species G arenicola C.Ander- 
son, G. hirsuta Cav., and G. tuhcrculaia { Rose) Nied.The glands of larger laminas are 
sometimes drawn out into a tooth (Fig. 4b). 

Galphimia platyphylla Chodat, Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat., ser. 3, 24: 500. 1890. Galphimia 
brasiliensis var. platyphylla (Chodat) Nied. in Chodat & Hassl., Bull. Herb. 
Boissier, ser. 2, 7: 294. 1907. Galphimia brasiliensis f. platyphylla (Chodat) 
Nied., Arbeiten Bot. Inst. Konigl. Tyceum Hosianum Braunsberg 5: 22. 
1914.— Typi:: Paraguay. Caaguazu: dans les campos, Caagua/ti. Nov IS74. 
Balansa 2396 ( holotype: P!: isotype: G!). Fig. 6. 

Subshrubs to 0.5 m, from a woody catulex; stems sparsely pubescent when young, soon 
becoming glabrous i I ,| , < >. n , \ , , , -,,.,. or ui sped but sometimes 

straight, reddish brown hairs 0.2-0.7 mm long. Laminas of (he larger leaves 3-7.5 cm long, 
(1.5-) 2-4 (-5) cm wide, length/width ratio 1.2-2.3 ( -3), elliptical to lanceolate to ovate to 
broadly ovate, occasionally suborbicular, obtuse or acute or sometimes apiculate, acute to 
truncate, glabrous adaxially and ahaxially. costa prominent abaxially. the secondary veins 
barely prominulous or not evident; margin entire; petioles 1.5-6 mm long; leaf glands borne 
on the margin near the base of the lamina or to 0.5 em above it, usually a pair, or sometimes 
with 1 or 2 additional glands, or sometimes only 1 gland or the glands absent, each gland 
0.2-0.5 mm in diameter, circular and prominent; stipules 2-4 mm long, 0.6-1.2 mm wide, 
triangular to narrowly so. Inflorescence a terminal raceme, the axes mostly tomentulose 
during anthesis; pedun h il senl pedicels 1.5-8 mm long, glabrous; bracts 1-5 (-7) mm 
long, 0.4-1.2 mm wide, linear to narrowly triangular, braeteoles 0.5-1.5 (-2) mm long, 
0.2-0.5 (-0.7) mm wide, lincai biacL ^<\ biadeoles abaxulb dubious. Sepals 4-5.7 
mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, ellipuealoi souk mi, [,|«, , » . , |„. u -i , I i . . , M1 , 
diameter, each borne in the sinus at the base of 2 sepals, or occasional!) glands absent. Pet- 
als deciduous, subequal, the posterior petal sometimes a little larger, yellow, becoming red 
in age; claw 2-2.5 mm long, limb 7-8.5 mm long, (4-) 5-5.5 mm wide, triangular-ovate, 
base acute to truncate, apex obtuse. Stamens with heteromorphic filaments but subequal 
anthers; filament opposite anterior sepal 3.3-4.5 mm long, filaments opposite anterior-lateral 
petals 2.7-3.5 mm long, filaments opposite anterior-lateral sepals 3 4 mm long, filaments 
opposite posterior-lateral petals 2.5 3.3 mm long, filaments opposite posterior-lateral sepals 
2.8-3.7 mm long, filament opposite posterior petal 2.5 3.5 mm long. Ovary glabrous; styles 
subequal, 4.2-5.3 mm long. Cocci 4-5 mm long, 3-3.7 mm in diameter, glabrous'. 



1 amin;i base showing marginal glands, c. Old flower (the 
f inflorescence axis; note calyx glands, d. Petal, e. Stamen 

ior lateral se| ! (led) and i opposing posterior pel ! (right) ii axial view 1 Gynoe- 

u adnialxiev (I. it),!. id Lit. i.ilu, u <.i»ht) Seal, l.i = \ 4 on. h S mm e .1 Minn e i 
, (Cased on ii-c Utissler 9132:^.1 I Pedcrsen I472fr.s Kivpovichis ci id 15943.) 

Phenology. Collected in flower and fruit in March and from July through 

Distribution (Fig. 5). Eastern Paraguay (Amambay, Caaguazu, Canendiyu) and 
adjacent Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul); campo, cerrado, campo limpo, open wood- 
lands; 300-400 m. 

Additional Si'i ( imi ns L;xaminn> lti:»/il. Mmo Guosso do Si a Mpio. < imapu i i apao R dond . 
Hatschbach 33058 (MBM < ): Mph 'onta Por: 'acori. liaischhach 45921 (BR, G, MBM, MICH); 
Amambai, rod. p/ Ponta Pora, Hatschbach 48498 (MBM, MICH); Coxim, 5 km S, Oliveira 162 (MBM); 
Mpio. Guia Lopes de Laguna on rel (BR-?.67) from Maracaju to Gu.a Lop. , ea 12 km W of Ervania, 
Pedersen 14726 (C MI'H) [».» i«iu\ '■> m ' ' ■ " ' '' ' ' 'W (BM, G, NY, W); 

alrededores de Pedro Juan i iballen ru 5 , kka ( al ■"' I'l G.MICH) Caaguazu: 

i.t p. f iNiii/l/o/n <'/.'(I.M I v i.H k Nl I'S V\ ) Ru. - Pj i i • mii A-197 , Krapovickas 
& Cristobal 13355 (CI I S) , ,, .,>.»,! ihu I ' km Nd. « ,..j a ,. S /„/»;/» t v a/. 2&?26 (CTES); Cnia. Pindo, 
camino entre Itaquyr\ > i u i ji. -i •>»>.„ ,K r .,>/>/.//-■>.. V- ., .11 S.VI< 1 1 ), near J. E. Estigarribia, 

Zardini& Guerrero 49141 (MICH) -( mum in e-u in uibal. , - i< | -ml m-h 

raguay[?],//arcter-^J-< .'I r ^ VW')x\ u\ Ml. .. mm - > n > <<< I n i 

,.,„....■., . ., (I 1 G.W);Mbaracayu Natural Reserve, a 

t:„„n,c: !! T/fPMMO) - Dcpto. u 

Ito nana ' ' '■ iiebri 

Galphimia platvphvlla is distinctive in its thick and broad leaves. The laminas range 
from broadly elliptical or broadly lanceolate to broadly ovate or even suborbicular, 
are only 1.2-2.3 times as long as wide, and often have an obtuse apex. Compared to 


G australis, the flowers and fruits are larger, and the plants are apparently shorter 
(to 0.5 m vs. to 1 m tall) and more robust, i.e., the axes tend to be stouter. Future 

iieklwork may uncover ecological differences between these two species. 

Galphimia pubescens (Adr. Juss.) Herter, Fl. illustr. Uruguay 14(11): 491. 1956.— 
The combination is not validly published, because 1 lerter did not cite the basionym 
(Article 33.3). 


I ' HI i i i I " i ii , I | i i i ! ii ii nl on the 

manuscript. Kann DoullnUhev lh. handsonx iliu> rations II u rural oi of h iollowiiH', hcrbana kind Is 
permitted access to their collections and/or provided loans \ li\1 |;R . i s.s. u PI ( ( II S I \( B 
F.G. GH,GOEX HB, K, MICH. MUM. M( ). NY, f>, RB. s. SR I :R US. W. WIS. 


Castro, M. A., A. S. Vega, and M. E. Mulgura. 2001 . Structure and ultrastructure of leaf and calyx glands in 

(iulfluinia Imisiliciisis { Malpighiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1935-1944. 
Chodat.R 1892 Mal,n In i u , \|. ,, Soe lh < nest M(2:3) 1-27 1833 [ IS,' | Malpi hlaeeae In Flora brasilicnsis meridionalis bv A. de Saint-Hilaire 3' 

5-86, t. 161-180. Paris: A. Belin. 
Nieden/u. V. 1914. Galphimiu. Arbeiten Bot. Inst. Konigl. Lyceum Hostanum Braunsberg 5: 21-28. 
. 1928. Malpighiaceae. In Das A. Em-let I\'. 141 1-.S7U. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engel- 

24: l3-iy.:'.(«)5. 




Christiane Anderson 

University of Michigan Herbarium 

3600 Varsity Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 

Abstract. Galphimia mirandae and G. oaxacana, two new Mexican S] 
als, are described and illustiated. A key to all 14 Mexican species of Galphir, 


Galphimia Cav. (Malpighiaceae) comprises ca. 20 species of large herbs, shrubs, 
and treelets, all but four occurring in Mexico. Species of Galphimia have yellow 
petals, often suffused with red. The petals are deciduous in most species, but in 
those grouped in the G. glauca complex the petals become stiff and spreading, and 
are persistent. The calyx lacks the oil glands that are found in most genera of New 
World Malpighiaceae; however, in a few species a small gland, which resembles the 
leaf glands, is borne at the base of the sinus of some or all adjacent sepals (Castro 
et al. 2001). The fruit is a schizocarp breaking into three cocci. The genus is placed 
in the tribe Galphimieae, along with Lophanthera Adr. Juss., Spachea Adr. Juss., and 
Verrucularia Adr. Juss. (W. R. Anderson 1978; Cameron et al. 2001; Davis et al. 2001). 
Many species included in Galphimia were first described in Thryallis L. or were 
transferred to it; however, the name Thryallis Mart, is conserved over Thryallis L. (C. 
Anderson 1995, 2003), and Galphimia Cav. is the correct name for this genus. 

A few of the Mexican species with deciduous petals are aptly named and easily 
recognized, e.g., ( , , ■ i i (a: however, most species are 

less distinctive, and the name "G. gracilis" is widely misapplied to them. Galphimia 
gracilis occurs in Tamaulipas and Veracruz, as well as in adjacent regions of Hidalgo, 
Puebla, Queretaro, and San Luis Potosi. It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental 
in warm regions worldwide. A recent review of the Mexican collections of Galphi- 
mia revealed three undescribed species among material that was associated with 
G langlassei (C. Anderson 2003), and two additional novelties, G mirandae and G. 
oaxacana, are described here. 

A key is presented below to aid in the correct identification of the 14 Mexican 
species with deciduous petals. Commonly encountered synonyms for some names 
are noted in brackets. 


Galphimia mirandae C. Anderson, sp. nov.— Type: Mexico. Puebla: Mpio. Tehuitz- 
ingo, 12 km al NW de El Pitayo, carr. a Izucar de Matamoros, 1350 m, 28 Jul 
1983, Torres C. 3296 (holotype: MEXU!; isotype: MBM!). Fig. 1. 

•■ ! KSII'i ')! MH [II, ' 11! : !' M-'ll ■ 

FIG. {.('jtilphinuu mint, i, inc. a. heal wild o\alc lamma; detail of base oflamina, showing marginal 
gland, b. Leaf with elliptical lamina, c. blower borne on pedicel and pcdariclc. with portion of inflores- 
cence axis; note calyx gland, d. Lateral petal, e. Posterior petal, f. Abaxial view of six stamens; outermost 
stamen at left opposes posterior petal, outermost stamen at right opposes anterior sepal, g. Gynoecium. 
Scale bar = a, 4 cm. insel 4 mm; b. 4 cm; e. 1 cm: d. c, s.7 mm: I ... I mm. {Rased on: a. Miranda ?l~l : l> <> 
Torres C. 3296.) 

Frutcx vel arbor parva. Laminae 3 6,5 cm longae. 2 4 cm lalae. ellipticae vel 
ovatae vel obovatae vel rhombicae, glabrae, succulcnlac. margine Integra, glandibus 
0.5-1 mm diametro, sessilibus; petioli 0.5-1 cm longi; slipulae 2-4 mm longae. Inflo- 
rescentia racemose Petala Lecidua;pi da later alia ungue 2.5 1.8 mm longo, 0.5 mm 
lato, limbo 7-8.5 mm longo, 4.5-5.5 mm lato, elliptico vel anguste triangulari; petalum 
posticum ungue 4-4.2 mm longo, 1-1.2 mm lato, limbo 6.2-7.5 mm longo, 6-7 mm 
lato, triangulari \ci interdum aiborbu ilan Anihei tic 3.3-3.7 mm longae. Ovarium 
glabrum vel suturis pubescens; styli anteriores 6-6.6 mm longi, stylus posticus 5-5.7 
mm longus. Fructus ignotus. 

Shrub or treelet to 4 m, stems tom< niulo non dabrescenl to glabrous. Ves- 
ture of all vegetative parts of sessile, wavy to crisped, reddish brown hairs 0.4-1 mm 
long. Laminas of the larger leaves ( 1 .5-) 3-6.5 cm long. ( 1-) 2-4 cm wide, elliptical to 
broadly so, obovate, rhombic, or oval< ap >blu euh base acute to decurrent 

(especially in larger leaves), glabrous, succulent, costa prominent abaxially, second- 
ary veins prominulous or not l i I. i .iiilmi (,< ,, holes 0.5-1 cm long, glabrous; 
leaf glands commonly a nan, borne on the margin of the lamina well above or at the 
base, if base decurrent then superficially appearing placed on the petiole, sometimes 
1 or more additional glands borne on the margin of I lie lamina, each gland discoid 
and with a thick rim, 0.5-1 mm in diameter; stipules 2-4 mm long, 0.7-1.2 mm wide, 
narrowly triangular. Inflorescence a terminal raceme, the axes, peduncles, and pedi- 
cels tomentulose but becoming sparsely so in age; peduncles 3 6 mm long, pedicels 
14.5-18.5 mm long, the pubeso m e ofti n < oncenb it d i i a line, with a ring of hairs at 
the articulation, peduncles 0.2-0.3 limes as long as pedicels; bracts 2.5-3.2 mm long, 
0.5-0.8 mm wide, bracteoles 1.5-2 mm long, 0.3-0.5 mm wide, bracts and bracteoles 
linear, abaxially glabrous or with a lew scattered hairs; bracteoles borne at about the 
middle of the peduncle, subopposite or up to 0.3 mm apart. Sepals 3.5-4.2 mm long. 


1-1.5 mm wide, narrowly ovate to oblong, glabrous or at the apex red-ciliate, glands 
absent or rarely with a gland 0.5 mm in diameter. Petals deciduous, unequal, yellow; 
lateral petals: claw 2.5-2.8 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, limb 7-8.5 mm long, 4.5-5.5 mm 
wide, elliptical or narrowly triangular; posterior petal: claw 4-4.2 mm long, 1-1.2 
mm wide, limb 6.2-7.5 mm long, 6-7 mm wide, triangular or sometimes suborbicu- 
lar. Stamens with heteromorphic filaments but subequal anthers; filament opposite 
anterior sepal 4^4.5 mm long, filaments opposite anterior-lateral petals 3-3.2 mm 
long, filaments opposite anterior-lateral sepals 3.7-4 mm long, filaments opposite 
posterior-lateral petals 2-2.2 mm long, filaments opposite posterior-lateral sepals 
3.6-4 mm long, filament opposite posterior petal 2-2.3 mm long; anthers 3.3-3.7 mm 
long, tapered from the base to the apex. Ovary glabrous or with a row of hairs along 
the sutures in the proximal 2/3-4/5, sometimes only with a few hairs scattered along 
the sutures; styles unequal, anterior styles 6-6.6 mm long, posterior style 5-5.7 mm 
long. Mature fruit not seen. 

Mil m i.Si>lci\ii-\ Hxaminh). McxiiM iiiii 'i i i al : 1 •' « >• < in >ancingo, sobre la carre- 
tera a Chichihualco 1350m ImI L966 [stein a (] B) '/ I abreras.n (ENCB), Rzedowski 22755 (DS, 
ENCB, MICH, TEX) Pu-.hi.a: | u id iiannm> lull Umtiuhi 2147 (MEXU). 

Galphimia mirandae is recognized by its succulent laminas with large, thick- 
rimmed glands on the margin; if the base is decurrent the glands may at first glance 
appear to be borne on the petiole, but careful examination shows them embedded 
in the laminar tissue. The pedicels are quite long (14.5-18.5 mm), and the anterior 
styles slightly exceed the posterior one. The label data for the type collection include 
the note "suelo pedregoso"; perhaps this species is associated with substrates derived 
from volanic deposits. 

This species is named for the eminent Mexican botanist Faustino Miranda 
(1905-1964), who first collected it. 

Galphimia oaxacana C.Anderson, sp. nov. — Type: Mexico. Oaxaca: Dtto. Tehuante- 
pec, Rancho Ricardo, al N de Buenos Aires, entrando por Hierba Santa, 12 
Sep 1985, Torres C. 7306 (holotype: MICH! isotypes: F! MEXU!). Fig. 2. 

Frutex vel arbor parva. Laminae 3.5-6 cm longa , ! ci atae, ellipticae vel 

ovatae vel lanceolatae, adaxialiter glabrae, abaxialiter papillosae vel parum papil- 
losae, coriaceae, margine integra, glandibus 0.4-0.7 mm diametro, sessilibus; petioli 
0.8-1.5 cm longi; stipulae 1.5-2.5 mm longae. Inflorescentia racemosa. Petala decidua; 
petala lateralia ungue (1.5-) 2-2.5 mm longo,0.5 mm lato, limbo (5-) 6.5-8 mm longo, 
(3.8-) 4-4.5 mm lato, elliptico vel anguste ovato; petalum posticum ungue (3-) 4-5 
mm longo, (1-) 1.2-1.5 mm lato, limbo (4.5-) 5-6.5 mm longo, (4-) 5.5-6 mm lato, 
triangulari. Antherae (2.5-) 2.8-3.5 mm longae. Ovarium suturis pubescens; styli 
subaequales, (4.7-) 5-5.3 mm longi. Coccus ca. 3.5 mm longus, suturis pubescens. 

Shrub or treelet to 6 m; stems sparsely pubescent, soon glabrous. Vesture of all 
vegetative parts of sessile, straight to wavy, reddish brown hairs 0.3-0.8 mm long. 
Laminas of the larger leaves 3.5-6 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm wide, elliptical or ovate 
to lanceolate, apex apiculate or sometimes acute, base acute, adaxially glabrous, 
abaxially papillose or sometimes only slightly so (the epidermis at least blistered), 
coriaceous, costa and secondary veins (at least the first two pairs) prominent abaxi- 
ally (usually appearing white in dry material), the tertiary veins slightly or not at 
all evident; margin entire; petioles 0.8-1.5 cm long, glabrous or with a few scattered 

lVr.RSirYOI-MlCHH Nl i ! i it Ml i 

FIG. 2. Ckilphiinia mnannui. ;i. I lowering branch, b. c. Proximal porlion of two leav 
d. Flower borne on | li Ian mi with ] rti i ol id nee axis; note calyx g 

petal. I". Posterior petal. g.Adaxial u. ol a mien opposing posterior petal (at right) and | 
sepal (at left) h Gynoei linn i two oeci h wn in laxial anU lain il view Scale bai = a,- 
e.f.Smm g.4mm h ,„„, , [ «55:c-f,h Torres 

hairs; leaf glands usually a pair borne on the margin of the lamina 8-15 mm above 
the base or sometimes with 3 6 glands, each gland 0.4 0.7 mm in diameter, disklike 
and sessile or raised ca. 0.2 mm above the epidermis, or sometimes embedded in 
the margin; stipules 1 .5-2.5 mm long, 0.8-1 mm wide, narrowly triangular, abaxially 

glabrous. Inflorescence a terminal raceme the a < > , . i [ i-in 

peduncles 3.5-6.5 mm long, pedicels (7-) 10-15 mm Ion; !.. h -.hi! ■ i i. i n , 
often more densely at the articulation, in the pedicel the hairs (alien concentrated in 
a line extending from the articulation to the calyx, peduncles 0.3 0.5 times as long 
as pedicels; bracts (\.5-) 2-2.8 mm long. 0.5-0.9 mm wide, linear, bracteoles 0.8-1.7 
mm long, 0.3-0.6 mm wide, linear, bracts and bracteoles glabrous; bracteoles borne 
in the proximal 1/5-1/2 of the peduncle, subopposilc. | Sometimes shrubs with only 
the terminal branches bearing a Hush of small leaves along short internodes (to ca. 
1 cm long) and a short inflorescence, the leaves 1-2.5 cm long, 0.5-0.9 cm wide; see 
discussion.] Sepals 2.5-3 mm long. 1.3-1.5 mm wade, oblong, glabrous, occasionally 
the margin distally fringed with hairs to 0.2 mm long, the calyx with 1-3 (-4) glands, 
each borne in the sinus at the base of two sepals, glands 0.3-0.5 mm in diameter, 
prominent and raised to 0.2 mm above the epidermis. Petals deciduous, unequal, 
yellow, the claws suffused wilh red; lateral petals: claw ( 1.5-) 2-2.5 mm long, 0.5 mm 
wide, limb (5-) 6.5-8 mm long, (3.8-) 4 4.5 mm wide, narrowly ovate to elliptical; 
posterior petal: claw (3-) 4-5 mm long. (1-) 1.2-1.5 mm wide, limb (4.5-) 5-6.5 mm 
long, (4-) 5.5-6 mm wide, triangular, apex broadly obtuse. Stamens with heteromorphic 


filaments but subequal anthers; filament opposite anterior sepal 4-4.5 mm long, fila- 
ments opposite anterior-lateral petals 2.5-3 mm long, filaments opposite anterior- 
lateral sepals 3.6-4.2 mm long, filaments opposite posterior-lateral petals 1.5-2 mm 
long, filaments opposite posterior-lateral sepals 3.3-3.5 mm long, filament opposite 
posterior petal 1.5-2 mm long; anthers (2.5-) 2.8-3.5 mm long, tapered toward the 
apex. Ovary pubescent along the dorsal sutures, otherwise glabrous; styles subequal, 
(4.7-) 5-5.3 mm long. Coccus ca. 3.5 mm long, ca. 2.7 mm in diameter, dorsal crest to 
0.5 mm wide and pubescent on the suture, otherwise glabrous; areole ca. 3 mm long, 
ca. 2.5 mm wide; mature seed not seen. 

Phenology. Collected in flower from August to October, in fruit from September 
to December. 

Distribution. Mexico (Oaxaca); in deciduous forest ("selva baja caducifolia") and 
transition to pine-oak forest; 500-1100 m. 

Additional Specimens Examined. Mexico. Oaxaca: alrededores del Cerro Guiengola, a 10 km aprox. 
al NW de Tehuantepec, Cabrera 7413 (MEXU, MO); Dtto. Santo Domingo Tehuantepec, Mpio. Mixte- 
quilla, a 18 km de Mixtequilla, carretera a Paso Escondido. If- ,- \ I '" ' ■ hada 19255 (MEXU); 
Mpio. Santiago Laollaga, recorrido por el aguaje Coyol, al W de Laollaga, 16°34'N, 95°14'W, Campos V. 
4039 (F, MEXU, MO); Mpio. Santiago Laollaga, recorrido hacia y por el Arroyo de Hierba Santa, al E de 
Guichixu, brecha Laollaga-Guevea de Humboldt, 16°41'N, 95°16'W, Cam 1 • I 4129 (F, MEXU, MO); 
Dtto. Tehuantepec, Mpio. Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, rumbo a El Cerro Arenal, Martinez R. 55 (IEB, 
MICH); Dtto. Tehuari. ( in . I . '.I. ' >• , « ->'<v i '.H)), Dtto. Tehuantepec, 
"Las Palmitas," ladera oriente del Cerro Guiengola, Torres ( . :22 ; il 1 V M . MO); Dtto. Tehuante- 
pecll kmalWdelaC lu-i,, o.u i„ I ... Iii.-nm .*.>/• ', < ^717 (MEXU, MICH, XAL); Dtto. Tehuantepec, 
12.2kmalWdela(Tmi H.ici.i I . < In- m i u>m /20(V.\\\ vU). Dtto T-liuantepec, 11.3 km al N 

de La Chiviza. /■ >; / - s I <i M a tfm-z. 5HH0 (MEXU, MICH). 

Galphimia oaxacana, known only from the Pacific slope of the Isthmus of Tehuan- 
tepec, is distinctive in its leaves and flowers. The abaxial surface of the thick laminas is 
commonly papillose, and the costa and secondary veins are prominent. Calyx glands 
are present in all or nearly all flowers of an inflorescence, and the ovaries and cocci 
are beset with fine hairs along the dorsal sutures. 

The collections Torres C. 122, Torres C. 5717, and Torres C. & Martinez 5880 dif- 
fer in that they consist of terminal branches bearing a flush of small leaves along short 
internodes (to ca. 1 cm long) and a short inflorescence; the leaves are 1-2.5 cm long, 
0.5-0.9 cm wide. This growth form may reflect particularly dry conditions. 

Peduncles absent, the pedicels subtended by a bract and a pair of bracteoles. 

2. Leaves essentially glabrous or with a few scattered hairs, especially on the midrib abaxially; 
Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, San Luis 
Potosf, Sinaloa, Sonora,Tamaulipas. '» ".",. tifoli 1 • nil |-'iion in (, linijoiu • Gray] 

> i .1 hi i, i <ii li mi sin oa.Sonora. G. vestita S. Watson 

Peduncles present, subtended by a bract and bearing a pair of bracteoles, the articulation com- 
monly marked with a band of hairs. 

3. Ovaries and fruits densely and evenly pubescent. 

4. Inflorescence entirely glabrous (except for pubescent ovary); calyx glands present; petals 
mostly red with yellow markings; leaf glands borne on the petiole, commonly in the proxi- 
mal 1/6-1/2 (rarely distally); Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Sinaloa. 

G. glandulosa Cav. [synonyms: Thryallis pahncri Rose. /. dasycarpa Small] 

4. Inflorescence sparsely or abundantly pubescent; calyx glands absent or present; petals yel- 
low, usually with red markings; leaf glands borne on the margin of the lamina. 

»M I l« I I ,1 i . • ! I! ! K, 

(till ll Hf ill. d\ Jl I I ! I, I I ) I I, |1 1 II I 1 1 1 |l Hi ill! I 

Colima. Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa. 

nhi'i 'wiln I ud |s\nonvin: (i. huniilis (Rose) Nit 
5. Petioles smooth gl ibi >u .,, \ im . ,| ,| ul > g |, hlcts smooth or the 

6. Anthers 3 4 mm lorn;, narrow l\ triangular m ouiline (ihe base ea. twice as wide as 
ih. apex); lilameut oi siamen opposing the anterior sepal 3.5— 1 mm long, filament 
of siamen opposing the posterior petal shorter than that of stamens opposing the 
posterior-lateral sepals (1.6 2.6 mm vs. 3.5- 4.6 mm ): peduncles 0.6 1.3 ( 1.6) times 
as long as pedicels; Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan. 

G langlassei (Blake) C. An den 
6. Anthers 2.3-2.5 (-2.S) mm long, oblong or elliptical in outline (equally wide at base 
mil (i i: hlamciii ol slamrii opposing ill leiio i I mm I i m 

I I UK .1 || Ih I | III H.I O. ! II l|IO ill I )l| lv I || ,,,. .| I 

lateral sepals subcqual [1.5 -1.7 (-2) mm vs. 1.5-1.8 (-2.2) mm]; peduncles 0.3-0.5 
I il ) linii i I n nil oi , i ii I | i 

G.mexiaeC. Anders 

7. Petioles beset with hairs hoi ne on persistent tubercles and/or only the tubercles (the hairs 
already shed); branchlets commonly roughened by Ihe persistent tubercles (in G. gracilis 

8. Laminas abundantly pubescent alum- and below with hairs borne on tubercles, the 

haus L\cntuall\ slo i -Ii .1 ..ii m I i In I iimn i m i h persistent tubercles; 

Guerrero. G. hirsuta C 

8. Laminas glabrous or glabratcohcn with some scattered bans on the midrib below, the 

lammai surfaces smooth. 

l) ' ' i) i I i i inn I t 4 a I i» mm m i ili I i I i margin; bracteoles 

borne at ot just b. low ih, ap. ; oi tin p ( ,i |, p. (H -I II nun Ion - ( » du n I. 

0/i I fin i lo ii | ll I I n Hi| i ii n I i i i 

of Hidalgo, Puebla, Queretaro, and San Luis Potosf. G. gracilis Bartli 

i; I i i ii ib nuh ii i d in i I i h i I, hi [i i, i 

processes, leaf gland prom it to tall d I les borne on the peduncle in 

the proMinal I 4 lo I J. pedicels 2 a mm long, peduncles 1.2 ' limes as long as the 
pedicels; coastal Oaxaca. , <a ,n , , mlei 

7. Petioles smooth, glabrous oi with sessile or subsessile bans: branchlets smooth or the hark 
lightly fissured. 
10. Leaves subsessile, the petioles rudimentary; leaf glands mostly absent. Oaxaca. 


10. I i i. u I I i n i ll\ | in 

11. Petals subcqual; ban ImilsloO i long priiolcs 1 .5 2.3 cm long, 

laminas 7-12 cm long; Guerrero. G. radiaiis ( . Anders 

11. Petals unequal, limb of lateral petals narrower than limb of posterior petal; hairs 
on ovarii s bints toll I mm long oi ovaries turn glabrous; petioles 0.4 1.5 cm long. 
laminas 2 6 cm long. 

12. ("aly\ glands present in all (or almost all) flowers of an inflorescence: laminas ah 
axially commonly papilli (oi h epidern u I i lislered), coriaceous, the 
secondary veins prominent ahaxiallv: maiies funis with hairs on the sutures; 
Pacific slope of Oaxaca. G. oaxacana ( . Anders 

I '. ( "alv\ glands absent, or one oi a lew flowers of an inflorescence with I or 2 calyx 
glands (rarely many flowers with calyx glands); laminas abaxially smooth, suc- 
culent or chartaccous, ih hihhIim ii m, mil u m IiuiK .4 bonis 
or with hairs on the sutures. 

13. Laminas succulent, elliptical to broadh ovate lo suborbicular. the base often 
dm uiiiMit. glands 0.6 I mm in diametet scssil on ih margin; | i I 
14.5 18.5 mm long; Guerrero, Puebla. G. miramiac ( Anders- 

13. I .aminas chartaccous. ovate oi eilipiical oi narrowly elliptical, the base acute, 
glands 0.4-0.6 mm in diameter, raised abo\e Ihe margin or borne on the 
I nob pe In els 5 5 10.5 mm long. 


. Bracteoles borne at or just below the apex of the peduncle (i.e., just be- 
]i.u the articulation): lamina: dliplu< al or narrowly so, with an apical tuft 
of hairs (best seen in younger leaves); peduncles 0.5-1 times as long as 
pi li< < Is ; iitcrior styles longer than the posterior style; ovary glabrous; 
calyx eglandular; Tamaulipas and Veracruz, and adjacent regions of 
Hidalgo, Puebla, Queretaro, and San Luis Potosi. C. gracilis Bartling 

. Bracteoles borne near the middle of the peduncle, or one near the 
middle and the other near the base; laminas ovate or lanceolate, without 
an apical tuft of hair; peduncles 0,2 0.6 times as long as the pedicels; 
styles subequal; ovary glabrous or with hairs on the sutures; calyx glands 
present or absent Guen o Jalisco Michoacan, Nayarit, Sinaloa, and 
southwestern Durango and Zacatecas. G. montana (Rose) Nied. 


I thank William R. Anderson and Gordon McPherson for their advice and comments on the 
manuscript, and Karin Douthit for the handsome drawings. 1 am grateful to she curators of the following 

leibaii rmakin t i coll lion o, k nh in i liiablc to 1 N( B b IEB. MEXU. MBM, 



Anderson, C. 1995. Revision of Thruilli.s ( Malpighiaceae). Contr. Uni 
. 2003. Resolution of the ( .alphnnni Imwjassci complex (Malp 

Mexico. Syst. Bot. 24: 714-722. 
Anderson, W. R. 1978 ["1977"]. Byrsonimoideae, a new subfamily of the Malpighiaceae. Leandra 7: 5-1! 
Cameron, K. M., M. W. Chase, W. R. Anderson, and H. G. Hills. 2001. Molecular systematics of Malpighia 

ceae: evidence from plastid rbcL and matK sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1847-1862. 
Castro. M. A., A. S.Vega, and M. E. Miilgura. 2001. Structure and ultrastructure of leaf and calyx glands i: 

Calphimm bin '// ii i (Milpolni i » m I Bo •., » " I" ' 
Davis. C. C, W. R. Anderson, and M. J. Donoghue. 2001. Phylogeny of Malpighiaceae: evidence from chic 

roplast tnliir.uMl i il ' n< 1 uml, U |n u iil I I'm S 1830-1846. 

Conti Unn Michigan Herb 24:21 -23 


Christiane Anderson 

University of Michigan Herbarium 

3600 Varsity Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 

Pterandra Adr. Juss. is a genus of trees and shrubs of Central and South America 
(Fig. 1), which is named for its winged anthers (Fig. 2e). It is readily recognized by its 
stipules and inflorescences. The intra- and epipetiolar stipules are entirely to partly 
connate, forming two broadly triangular structures that act as valvate bud scales. 
The inflorescences consist of 2-6-flowered fascicles borne in the axils of bracts or 
leaves that are crowded at branch apices. The peduncles are absent, and each pedicel 
is subtended by a bract and two bracteoles. The petals are abaxially pubescent and 
persistent in fruit. In my monograph of Pterandra (Anderson 1997), I recognized 
14 species; to these I add the novelty here described. 

C. Anderson, sp. nov. — Type: Brazil. Minas Gerais: Berilo, 
UHE-Irape, E. Tameirao Neto 3204 (holotype: MICH!). Fig. 2. 

Frutex. Laminae 6-8.5 cm longae, 2.5^1.1 cm latae, obovatae vel ellipticae, supra 
glabrae praeter costam dense sericeam, subtus tomentulosae; petioli 0.4-1 cm longi, 
dense aureo-sericei; stipulae (2.5-) 3-4 mm longae lataeque, connatae, adaxialiter 
hirsutae, abaxialiter aureo-sericeae. Inflorescentia ex fasciculis sessilibus et axil- 
laribus constans, floribus cujusque fasciculi 2-\\ pedicelli 2.1-2.7 cm longi, 0.5-0.6 
mm diametro, dense aureo-sericei. Petala pallide viridia, limbo late elliptico vel late 
obovato vel suborbiculari; limbi petalorum lateralium 5-5.5 mm longi, 3-3.3 mm 
lati, obovati, limbus petali postici ca. 5.5 mm longus, ca. 4 mm latus, suborbicularis. 
Filamenta praeter caespitem basalem glabra. Styli ca. 4.5 mm longi. Cocci ca. 3.5 mm 
alti diametroque, hirsutulo-tomentosi. 

Shrub; young branchlets densely golden-sericeous, older ones glabrous. Laminas 
6-8.5 cm long, 2.5-4.1 cm wide, obovate to elliptical, apex obtuse-mucronate or some- 
times emarginate, base cuneate, adaxially tomentulose when young but glabrate to 
glabrous at maturity except for the pubescent costa, abaxially sericeous or sparsely 
so but densely so on the costa, the vesture composed of hairs 0.2-0.7 mm long, medi- 
fixed, terete, straight, more or less appressed, mostly white or sometimes golden, and 
with scattered longer and thicker hairs, ca. 0.8-1.2 mm long, subsessile or with a stalk 
up to 0.05 mm long, translucent dots present on abaxial surface, costa and second- 
ary veins prominent abaxially, tertiary veins usually slightly raised as well; petioles 
0.4-1 cm long, densely golden-sericeous; stipules (2.5-) 3-4 mm long and wide, 
connate, adaxially hirsute, abaxially sericeous. Inflorescence of sessile, 2^1-flowered 
fascicles, each fascicle borne in the axil of a leaf; pedicels 2.1-2.7 cm long, 0.5-0.6 
mm in diameter, densely golden-sericeous; bracts 2-2.2 mm long, 0.8-1 mm wide, 

.rNivi-.usrrYni-MiriiuiAN hiriiarium volume 2 

triangul ir. hra< i ng, ca. ,, , I i . , nd I' adcoles 

with the apex acute, abaxia] i ■ n-sericeous. Sepals ca. 2.5 mm long, ca. 

2 mm wide, triangular (the distal 2/3 ligulate), recurved, glands ca. 2 mm long, ca. 0.8 
mm wide. Petals light green, margin erose. abaxially densely pubescent on claw and 
center of limb; lateral petals: claw 1.5-1.7 mm long, limb 5-5.5 mm long. 3-3.3 mm 
i i I il I o i. j » t o petal: claw ca I mm long, limb ca. 5.5 mm long, ca. 
4 mm wide, the limb suborbicular. Filaments glabrous except for a basal tuft of hairs, 
those of stamens opposing sepals ca. 2.5 mm long, those of stamens opposing petals 
ca. 3 mm long; anthers ca. 1 mm long, wing of outer locules 0.2 mm wide. Styles ca. 
4.5 mm long, ca. 0.3 mm in diameter, with scattered hairs adaxially in the proximal 
1/4. Cocci ca. 3.5 mm high and in diameter, hirsutulose-tomentulose; torus ca. 1 mm 
igh ii i. a mi' seed not seen. 

Ptcrandra viridifiora is known only from the type. It is distinctive in its green pet- 
als and the placeim i < • I I lie mllorescenci • In mosl specie 1 1 - fascicles are borne 
on a leafless node of a short shoot, often below a Hush of new leaves, and subtended 
by a bract compos, d of lh> i mules and a rudimentary leaf; in P. flavescens and P. 
sericea (occasional i I. aie placed in the axil of a new leaf. In P. viridifiora 

the fascicles are borne in the axils of well-developed leaves of a young shoot. 

Because most species ol 'Ptcrandra are known from le colli ions, their ranges 
are not well known (Fig. 1 ). An exception is the showy P. pyroidea, which is common 
in MinasGerais, the Distrito Federal, an hi lluu y similar P. hatsch- 

bachii was found to the west in Mato Grosso. Both species are low shrublets and have 
large pink petals ' rand, -a vir'uiitiora oi col led ei in <i n I mas Gerais, but in 
all aspects resembles more the northern species, wh - i lai hrubs to trees and 

FIG. 2. Pterandni i ill m > I Dclaii slunvii iseilioi f;i I n Mi \ I 

'i m. in ( I" i- nole die heart shaped inlr; ml epincliolar stipuli Ueral petal, abaxial vie\v d 

Posterior petal ( Hag"), abaxial view tamen laxia ind ide views. I n del i m I 

mm; c, d, 4 mm; e, 2 mm; f, 2.7 mm. (Based on Tameirao Nero 3204.) 

have smaller petals, white to cream (yellow in age). Green petals are otherwise un- 
known in the genus, although . • -Niiown only from the type, was reported 
on the label to have greenish white petals. The label data for P. viridiflora did not 
include notes on stature, only that it is shrub. 


William R.Andersc 
of Pterandra viridiflora. 


f/V/Y//?f/ra(MalpiL',hiac( le) > onti Univ. Michigan Herb. 21: 1-27. 

/. Michigan Herb. 24: 25-27. 2005. 


William R. Anderson 
University of Michigan Herbarium 

3600 Varsity Drive 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 

\bstraci Hie name Heteropterys oxenderi W. R nderson i prop< eel for the species Mascagnia 
discolor W R.Anderson when it is transferred to the genus Hei, roptet in which the < p ihel dis< -lot is 
preoccupied. Heteropterys oxenderi, known only from La Paz province, Bolivia, is related to H. sylvatica 
Adr.Juss. and//, mollis (i\i d ) \i d in En I pt m sol .oiini. in EoIih.u, i«I idja . nt Brazil and Argentina. 

In 1995 I described a flowering specimen from Bolivia as Mascagnia discolor W. 
R. Anderson. At that time I was confident of its generic placement, even without the 
diagnostic fruits, but I was mistaken. A subsequently received collection of the species 
with fruits showed it to belong to the genus Heteropterys, and the epithet discolor 
has already been used in Heteropterys, so it is necessary to propose a new name for 
M. discolor in Heteropterys. The description given below is modified from that in the 
protologue to include data from the second collection. 

Heteropterys oxenderi W. R. Anderson, nom. nov. Mascagnia discolor W. R. Ander- 
son, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 20: 33. 1995, non Heteropterys discolor 
Adr. Juss. in A. St.-Hil. — Type: Bolivia. La Paz: Inquisivi Province, 19 km N 
of Choquetanga, 16°41'S, 67°20'W, 1800 m, matorral, 27 Nov 1991 fl, Lewis 
40696 (holotype: MICH!; isotypes: MO! NY!). Fig. 1. 

Shrub 2-3 m tall with leaning branches, the stems tomentose with strongly 
twisted reddish brown hairs, eventually glabrescent. Leaves opposite or subopposite; 
lamina of larger leaves 7-10.7 cm long, 4.7-8 cm wide, ovate or broadly elliptical, 
broadly cuneate or truncate at base, abruptly short-acuminate to rounded at apex, 
bearing a series of bulging marginal glands on the distal third ± hidden by the vesture, 
tomentose to eventually glabrescent above with the epidermis visible between the 
brown (eventually whitish), stalked, strongly twisted hairs, persistently tomentose 
below, the hairs mostly pale yellow to near- white except brown along veins, very fine, 
with a sinuous or twisted crosspiece 1-2.2 mm long raised on a stalk 0.5-1 mm long, 
the hairs in aggregate producing a dense woolliness that nearly or completely hides 
the epidermis; petiole 9-22 mm long, densely and persistently brown-tomentose, 
bearing (0-1-) 2 bulging glands 1-2 mm in diameter at apex or up to 5 mm below 
apex; stipules not found. Inflorescence an axillary pseudoraceme, unbranched, 7-13 
cm long, reddish-brown-tomentose to eventually glabrescent, the 15^40 flowers borne 
ascending to nearly horizontal and evenly distributed, not congested except for very 
immature buds at apex; bracts 1.5-2.5 mm long, subulate or narrowly triangular, 
deciduous during anthesis; peduncle (2-) 3-8 mm long, tomentose to glabrescent in 
fruit; bracteoles 1-1.7 mm long, triangular, ovate, or elliptical, persistent, borne at 
or somewhat below apex of peduncle, one eglandular and the other bearing 1 large 
eccentric abaxial gland; pedicel 1.5-3 mm long, tomentose to glabrescent in fruit. 
Lateral 4 sepals bearing 8 glands 2.5-3 mm long, the sepals 1.5-2 mm long beyond 

CON MM M ! MSI ['>()! \ll! MICA [{| I'll \IMI ' i 





1/ W v' V ' 

M r 

glands, x2.5. f. Flower t 

Unas 3051, MICH.) 

. Samara, xl. (Based o 

the glands; anterio t > ul i I > mil u i I H 1 adjacent glands: 

all sepals ovate or ellipti i minutely denticulate margin and rounded apex, 

abaxially loosely sericeous in center and > hi:<n iov.,miiii it <>n adaxially glabrous. 
appressed in anthesis. Petals "yellow-orange."' glabrous, exposed in enlarging bud, 
abaxially smooth, the lateral 4 strongly reflexed in the claw, with the limb 4.5-5 mm 


long, 3-3.2 mm wide, obovate or elliptical, minutely denticulate, truncate or slightly 
hastate at the base, the claw 1.3-1.5 mm long; posterior petal hardly different, but 
with the claw thicker and spreading, not reflexed, and the limb spreading to reflexed. 
Filaments 2.5-3 mm long, slightly longer opposite sepals than petals, glabrous, con- 
nate in the basal half; anthers 1.3-1.6 mm long, glabrous, reflexed in anthesis. Ovary 
ca 2 mm high, densely hirsute; styles 1.5-1.8 mm long, divergent distally, with a short 
dorsal hook (0.1-0.2 mm long) at the apex. Samara 35-40 mm long; nut 10-13 mm 
long, 8-10 mm high, without any sort of winglets or other outgrowths on sides, brown- 
tomentose to glabrescent; dorsal wing 25-37 mm long, 13-18 mm wide, ± persistently 
brown-tomentose or whitish-subsericeous; ventral areole 6-7 mm high, ca 3 mm wide, 

Additional (nun ii'.\ Fwmimd. Kolivii) I \ P\/. Inqmsiu IVaiiuv comunidad Khora- 
Lakachaca, cuenca del Rio Miguillas, 20 km de Choquetanga, L6°40'S, 67 20W, 1450 m, bosque, May fr, 
Salinas 3051 (MICH). 

Heteropterys oxenderi is a member of a group of three species, the other two 
being H. sylvatica Adr. Juss. and H. mollis (Nied.) Nied. in Engl. The H. sylvatica 
group is defined by stipules epipetiolar if present; petioles usually biglandular 
between middle and apex; lamina glands marginal if present; inflorescence an 
unbranched axillary pseudoraceme; bracts long, narrow, and deciduous in anthesis; 
peduncle longer than pedicel; bracteoles apical or subapical, one or both usually 
bearing 1-2 large abaxial glands; sepals appressed in anthesis; and petals yellow. 
Heteropterys oxenderi, known only from La Paz province of Bolivia, differs from the 
other two species in these ways: the lamina, even in age, is abaxially so densely woolly 
that the long-stalked hairs completely hide the epidermis; the abaxial hairs are brown 
on the midrib and lateral veins and stramineous or white between the veins; the distal 
third of the lamina bears large bulging marginal glands ± hidden by the vesture; the 
pseudoracemes are stout and 7-13 cm long; and the two posterior calyx glands are 
hardly or not at all more decurrent than the other six. In contrast, H. mollis and H. 
sylvatica are known from Santa Cruz, Bolivia (both), Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (H 
sylvatica), Jujuy, Argentina (both), and Salta, Argentina (H. sylvatica). Their abaxial 
lamina hairs are all white and short-stalked, and even at their densest they never 
completely hide the epidermis of older leaves; the lamina margin is usually eglandu- 
lar, but may bear few to many small discoid glands; the slender pseudoracemes are 
2-7 (-10) cm long; and the two posterior calyx glands are notably more decurrent 
onto the pedicel than the other six. The only reliable distinction between H sylvatica 
and H, mollis is that in the former the lamina is abaxially glabrate at maturity, while 
in the latter the lamina is persistently tomentose below. 

The epithet of Heteropterys oxenderi honors my friend and former student Ben- 
jamin J. Oxender (b. 1977), in appreciation of his assistance to me during his years in 
the University of Michigan Herbarium. 


Karin Douthit prepared the lovely drawing of Heteropterys oxendt 
via (LPB). 

Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 24: 29- 


William R. Anderson 
University of Michigan Herbarium 

3600 Varsity Drive 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 

Abstract. The new species Tetrapterys anomala W. R. Anderson is described, illustrated, and dis- 
cussed. Among the known species of Tetrapterys subgenus Tetn Herys\ i dqut in its coherent styles, 
andnearly unique in coiiilri mi' i ituii li incl.intfrpi.rnoh.) I ipules with glands on the abaxial surface 
of the lamina. The presence of miniature leaves in the inflorescence and outgrowths between the dorsal 
and lateral wings of the samara suggests that its closest relatives may be T. discolor (G. Mey.) DC. and 
allies in section Tetrapterys. 

Niedenzu (1928) placed the species of Tetrapterys with umbels (as opposed to 
pseudoracemes) in his subgenus Caulolepis Nied., which we would today call subge- 
nus Tetrapterys because it includes the lectotype of the genus, T. inaequalis Cav. All of 
those species have the stipules interpetiolar, i.e., borne on the stem between and quite 
distinct from the petioles. Niedenzu' s groupings within that subgenus rely heavily on 
whether the stipules between each pair of petioles are distinct or connate. Another 
informative character in that subgenus (not emphasized by Niedenzu) is the position 
of the lamina glands, marginal or borne on the abaxial surface. The plant described 
here does not have its states of those two characters associated as they are in most 
species of the subgenus, and its gynoecium is most peculiar. I am proposing for this 
species the epithet anomala to draw attention to its gynoecium and to its association 
of distinct stipules with glands on the surface of the lamina. 

Tetrapterys anomala W. R. Anderson, sp. nov.— Type: Guyana. Potaro-Siparuni 
Region: Mt. Ayanganna, east face, plateau above first escarpment, 1 km N 
of camp, 1100 m, 05°20T9"N, 59°56'46"W, dense forest on white sand, sand- 
stone, and peat, 13 Jun 2001 fl, Clarke 9105 (holotype: MICH!). Fig. 1. 

Liana caulibus pertinaciter sericeis; lamina foliorum majorum 6.5-9 cm longa, 
3.2-4.5 cm lata, abaxialiter tenuiter sed pertinaciter sericea et multis glandulis minutis 
dispersis inter costam et marginem instructa; petiolus 7-12 mm longus, eglandulo- 
sus; stipulae nullae (?) vel minutae, distinctae, interpetiolares; inflorescentia foliis 
diminutis instructa, floribus in umbellis 4-floris portatis; petala aurantiaca, glabra; 
stamina ± aequalia; styli 3, aequales, crassi, erecti, cohaerentes sed non connati, stig- 
matibus non terminalibus; samara 4 alis lateralibus 15-20 mm longis, 5-8 mm latis, 
ala dorsali 7 mm alta, 3-5 mm lata, nuce inter alam dorsalem et alas laterales aliquot 
alulis linearibus usque ad 6 mm longis et 1 mm latis instructa. 

Liana, the stems densely and persistently sericeous or, when young, velutino- 
sericeous. Lamina of larger leaves 6.5-9 cm long, 3.2-4.5 cm wide, ovate to nearly 
elliptical, cuneate to rounded at base, abruptly short-acuminate at apex, originally 
sericeous above but soon glabrate or persistently loosely sericeous on midrib, per- 
sistently sericeous below with the hairs short, straight, strongly appressed and paral- 
lel, numerous but not nearly abundant enough to hide epidermis except on midrib, 


glands. x5. c. Node lo show minute Mipulcs mi miei pctiolar ridge. ■ S. ,! 4-llowcrcd umbel, x2.5. e. Flower 
111(111 ll,l >' 1 ' |»>M.-r,or petal uppermost, - ' ..> I'. Lateral sepal, abaxial view, *7. 5. g. Two stamens, abaxial 
view, x 1 5. h. Gynoecium from young flower with styles coherent. ,1(1. i. ( Ivnoeeium from old (lower after 
styles have separated, x 10. j. Apex ol stvle, ■ ?5 k. Samara, abaxial view, x 1.5. (Based on: a j, Clarke V105, 
M1CI I; k. Redden 2510, MICH.) 

bearing impressed in abaxial surface between midrib and margin 6-12 tiny glands 
on each side, ca. 0.3 mm in diameter, irregularly dispersed (i.e.. not in a single row) 
with none at very base, the principal lateral veins f> 9 on each side; petiole 7-12 mm 
long, densely and ± persistently sericeous, eglandular; stipules absent (?) or distinct 
triangular nubbins ca. 0.3 mm long, borne on the low tnterpetiolar ridge, often ± hid- 
den by hairs, persistent (always'?)- Inflorescence axillary and terminal, densely and 
persistently golden-velutino-senccous, a panicle containing much-reduced elliptical 
or orbicular leaves (non-fiord. , v i t li the lamina 5-15 mm long and 3-12 

mm wide, the petiole 2 s mi imv im i>i ,i , nil- < nsJ\ set iceous on both sides, 
the flowers borne i Ml. 1 I cts 1.5-2.2 mm long, 0.8-1.2 

mm wide, lanceolate or elliptical, abaxtallv set iceous. adaxially glabrous, eglandular, 
persistent; peduncle 2.5 fo mm long, persistently loosely sericeous; bracteoles like 


bracts but mostly somewhat smaller, borne at apex of peduncle; pedicel 4-7 mm 
long, originally loosely sericeous but irn ;ularly glabn cent to nearly glabrate in age. 
Sepals 1.2-1.5 mm long beyond glands, 1.5-2 mm wide, broadly rounded, appressed 
in anthesis, abaxially sericeous in center and glabrous toward margin, adaxially 
glabrous, the lateral 4 biglandular with the glands yellow, 2-2.3 mm long, broadly 
elliptical, symmetrical, sessile, the anterior sepal eglandular or bearing 1 small gland. 
Petals orange, glabrous, entire or slightly erose; 4 lateral petals spreading, the limb 
4 mm long, 4-4.5 mm wide, orbicular or obovate or slightly oblate, the claw 1.5-1.7 
mm long; posterior petal suberect, the limb 3.5 mm long, 4.5 mm wide, oblate, the 
claw 2.5 mm long and thicker than in lateral petals. Filaments ca. 2 mm long, ± alike, 
straight, connate proximally, abaxially pilose at base, adaxially glabrous; anthers ca. 1 
mm long, ± alike, glabrous (?) or sparsely sericeous on sides. Ovary ca. 1.5 mm high, 
densely hirsute, all 3 locules fertile; styles 3, ca. 1.5 mm long, glabrous, alike, stout, 
erect, pressed together in anthesis (coherent but not connate) and turned so that 
their large (but not decurrent) stigmas face outward, obtuse at apex; styles separat- 
ing in old flowers. Samaras separating from a pyramidal torus 3 mm high and 2.5 mm 
across; samara loosely sericeous or tomentose on nut, sericeous on wings; 4 lateral 
wings well developed, 15-20 mm long, 5-8 mm wide, narrowly obovate, subequal or 
the upper pair slightly larger than the lower pair; dorsal wing 7 mm high, 3-5 mm 
wide, semicircular or roughly triangular, extending between lateral wings at apex; nut 
ribbed at right angles to dorsal wing and bearing between dorsal and lateral wings 
several irregular linear outgrowths up to 6 mm long and 1 mm wide; ventral areole 
3-4 mm high, 3 mm wide, ovate. 

Additional Specimen Examined. Guyana. Cuyuni-Ma/.akim Ri oi<>\: Pakaraima Mts., Mazaruni 
River, NW of Chi-Chi Falls, alum- stream between two tepuis. ca. 1.5 km above Base Camp 2, 762 m. 
05 o 35'48.6"N,60 c 12'4i very moist, dense loi t. Feb tr. Redden 25lO(\\\i I) 

This species is known only from the two collections cited above. The label with 
the type said it was a liana; that with Redden 2510 described it as a "tree to 4 m." 
Given the fact that most species in this genus are woody vines, I believe this one is 
more likely to be a liana than a tree. 

I can find only one other species of Tetrapterys thai consistently combines 
distinct interpetiolar stipules with glands on the surface of the lamina, the condi- 
tion found in T. anomala. That species is T mucronata Cav., which is common and 
widespread in South America. As 1 have noted before (Anderson 2001, p. 183), T. 
mucronata is a variable species that may deserve division, but it could not possibly 
accommodate the plants described here as T. anomala. Tetrapterys mucronata has the 
leaves glabrous or soon glabrate, and the stems are usually similar. The inflorescence 
lacks the miniature leaves found in T. anomala, the floriferous bracts are very narrow, 
and the calyx glands (if present) become stalked in age. The styles are distinct, long 
and slender, tapered distally, with the small stigma terminal or slightly internal. The 
upper lateral wings of the samara are much longer than the lower, about twice as 
long. These characters suggest that T anomala and T mucronata are not even very 
closely related. 

The presence of miniature leaves (non-floriferous bracts) in the inflorescence 
suggests that the closest relatives of T. anomala are probably to be found in section 
Tetrapterys (section Lophogynixa Nied.), in which such bracts are common. Perhaps 
one should look to T. discolor (G. Mey.) DC. and allied species, because those plants 
have well-developed outgrowths between the dorsal and lateral wings of the samara. 


as in T. anomala, b I 1 1 much larger stipules that are connate in interpeti- 

olar pairs, which are often caducous. 

The gynoecium in T. anomala is unlike any I have seen before in Tetrapterys. In 
early flower the three styles are coherent but easily separated, forming a columnar 
structure as if they were standing back-to-back with their stigmas facing outward; the 
appearance is reminiscent of the gynoec ; vies of Bunchosia. The stigma 

is presumably on the internal angle of the style, which suggests that the styles must 
be twisted so that the stigmas will face outward, but that twisting is not obvious in 
the very limited material now available for study. The stout styles and large stigmas 
are consistent with species of Tetrapterys section Tetrapterys. but the stigma here is 
not decurrent, as it is in in i ci< oi . Lion > ,< r\ 



RE. Berry. K.Yatskie 

ci son W. R. 2001. Malpiiihiaceae. In Flora o, 

fthe Venezuelan Guayan 

and H. K. Hoist. (V N2 [NY St. Louis: Missot 

iri Botanical Garden Pn 

len/u. I-'. D2S. Malpigluaceae. In Deis PfUm. 

zenreich, ed. A. Engler, 


Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 24: 33^4. 2005. 


William R. Anderson 

Charles C. Davis 

University of Michigan Herbarium 

3600 Varsity Drive 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 

Abstract. A revision is provided lor the Mascagmn cordifolia group, live Soulli American species 
with hasally biglandular pel ioles. The group comprises M. aptera W. R. Anderson, M. cordifolia ( Adr. Juss. 
in A. St.-Hil.) Griseb. in Mart., and three new species: M. aequatorialis W. R. Anderson & C. Cav. Davis, 
M. affinis W.K. Anderson & C '".n Davis and M. glabrata W.R.Anderson & C. Cav. Davis. The treatment 
includes a key, descriptions, specimens studied, notes, a distribution map, and illustrations of M. aequato- 

: (Bertero ex DC.) Colla, as treated by Niedenzu (1928) and other 
authors, is a diverse assemblage of about 100 species of wing-fruited Malpighiaceae. 
Anderson (e.g., 1990, p. 51) has suggested repeatedly that the genus in the broad tra- 
ditional sense is possibly or probably polyphyletic, and recent molecular phylogenies 
(Cameron et al. 2001; Davis et al. 2001,2002) have supported his opinion— they show 
that Mascagnia sens. lat. comprises at least six distinct clades. In a separate paper, now 
in preparation, W. R. Anderson will divide Mascagnia sens. lat. into several putatively 
monophyletic genera. 

Mascagnia sens. str. is by far the largest clade within Mascagnia sens. lat. Most 
species of Mascagnia sens. str. can be recognized by the following combination of 
character-states (W. R. Anderson, unpublished data): vines with interpetiolar stipules, 
glands impressed in the abaxial surface of the lamina, glabrous petals exposed in the 
enlarging bud, orbicular membranous samaras with arching and anastomosing veins 
in the lateral wing, and a smooth three-lobed disciform structure subtending the fruit. 
The genus is easily subdivided: about 20 of the approximately 50 species have yellow 
petals, and the others have petals that are pink, lilac, or white. Among the latter, one 
group of five species is delineated by an easily observed character — a pair of large 
glands at the base of the petiole. Those species, which we are calling the Mascagnia 
cordifolia group, are the subject of this paper. Morphologically, the species of the 
M. cordifolia group are typical of Mascagnia sens, str., and plastid DNA sequences 
from M. cordifolia (C. C. Davis, unpublished data) nest it among other species of the 
genus. The group comprises Mascagnia cordifolia (Adr. Juss. in A. St.-Hil.) Griseb. 
in Mart., three species that are essentially sympatric with and morphologically very 
similar to M. cordifolia (M. affinis W. R. Anderson & C. Cav. Davis, M. aptera W. R. 
Anderson, and M. glabrata W. R. Anderson & C. Cav. Davis), and one species (M. 
aequatorialis W. R. Anderson & C. Cav. Davis) that is morphologically distinct and 
geographically isolated (Fig. 1). Basally biglandular petioles are otherwise unknown 
in Mascagnia, and are putatively synapomorphic for the M. cordifolia group. The 
five species treated here also have pink petals that are abaxially carinate or alulate 
and straight styles that are dorsally rounded or truncate at the apex. On the basis of 
overall morphological similarity it seems very likely that M. cordifolia, M aptera, \i 
affinis, and M. glabrata are monophyletic. It will be interesting to test whether the 
monophyly of the whole group will be supported when we get better morphological 

■ aequatorialis 
T affinis 
O aptera 

A glabrata 

7H - ^ 

information aboul \l. acijiimorialis and representative sequence data for members 
of the group and for other pink-flowered species of Mascagnia sens. str. See under 
M. cordifolia a discussion of M. strigin » (Kusi -. ed. in 1 ngl., a species that 
'■•iif'ik', "' <- i>hh>li,i u .' Hi f laiacRis but lacks the petiole glands that we have 
used to circumscribe the group. 

Key to the Species of the Mascagnia cor 

Lamina densely and persistently silver-metallic-sericeous below; A 

I .am ma hair\ to L'.lnbr ale below, \clutmous. tomentose. or looseh s 
lie-sericeous; Amazonian and sunihmn ika/il and adjacent Peru ai 
'. Seandenl subshrub; samara reduced to a nut with dorsal crest 

> (ii«n i> 
n Heuador. 


Vigorously twining vine, often forming thickets or climbing high in trees; samara with a large 
1 wing (as in most species of the genus), 
a densely and persistently velutinous below, the hairs V-shaped. M. cordif 

a tomentose or loosely sericeous to glabrate below, the hairs (if present) straight to 

only on midrib and lateral veins. M. glabratci 

Mascagnia aequatorialis W. R. Anderson & C. Cav. Davis, sp. nov. — Type: Ecuador. 
Napo: Estacion Biologica Jatun Sacha, Rio Napo, 8 km E of Misahualli, 
01°04'S, 77°36'W, 450 m, disturbed wet tropical forest, 22 Oct 1988 imm fl, 
Ceron M. & Iguago 5475 (holotype: MICH!; isotype: MO!). Fig. 2. 

Liana; lamina foliorum majorum 11-16.5 cm longa, 7.5-14 cm lata, late ovata, 
abaxialiter dense et pertinaciter argenteosericea; petiolus 15-25 (-30) mm longus, 
basi biglandulosus; flores in pseudoracemis 25-70-floris portati, pedunculis 10-15 mm 
longis, pedicellis immaturis 3-5 mm longis; 1 bracteola cujusque paris eglandulosa, 
altera 1 glandula magna instructa; petala rosea, abaxialiter carinata; styli recti erec- 
tique, apice dorsaliter rotundati. 

Liana, the stems brown-sericeous with the hairs persistent during first year of 
growth, the leafy flowering branches borne on old woody stems. Lamina of larger 
leaves 11-16.5 cm long, 7.5-14 cm wide, broadly ovate, broadly cuneate, rounded, or 
broadly cordate at base, abruptly short-acuminate at apex, persistently subsericeous 
above with the hairs sessile and nearly straight but the branches somewhat raised, 
densely and persistently silver-metallic-sericeous below with sessile, straight, ± 
appressed hairs, bearing an abaxial row of 4-5 impressed glands on each side between 
midrib and margin with the most proximal glands remote from base, the principal 
lateral veins 6-8 on each side; petiole 15-25 (-30) mm long, persistently sericeous, 
biglandular at base with the glands 1-2 mm in diameter; stipules 1-1.8 mm long, nar- 
rowly triangular, sericeous, borne on stem between petioles. Inflorescences axillary, 
6-11 cm long, unbranched or branched near middle and then a panicle of 3 (-5) pseu- 
doracemes, each pseudoraceme containing 25-70 or more crowded ascending flowers, 
the axes (including peduncles and pedicels) brown- or white-sericeous; bracts 1-2 mm 
long, triangular, abaxially white-sericeous, eglandular or the lowest pair biglandular; 
peduncle 10-15 mm long; bracteoles 0.8-1.1 mm long, borne 0.5-2 mm below apex 
of peduncle, abaxially white-sericeous, usually 1 of each pair eglandular and the 
other bearing 1 prominent discoid eccentric abaxial gland 0.6-1 mm in diameter, but 
sometimes 1 bracteole bearing 2 glands and rarely both bracteoles bearing glands; 
pedicel (in bud) 3-5 mm long, much shorter than peduncle. Flowers known only in 
bud. Sepals 0.5-1 mm long beyond glands, abaxially white-sericeous, all 5 apparently 
biglandular but glands on the anterior sepal smaller or connate with adjacent glands. 
Petals pink, glabrous, abaxially carinate with the keel 0.2-0.3 mm wide on lateral pet- 
als, narrower on posterior petal. Stamens glabrous; filaments longer opposite sepals 
than opposite petals; anthers alike, 1.3-1.5 mm long. Ovary densely sericeous; styles 
alike, straight and erect, dorsally rounded at apex. Fruit unknown. 

The epithet of Mascagnia aequatorialis refers to the source of its type and 
only known collection, which came from just south of the equator in the country 
named for the equator (Fig. 1 ). In spite of the immaturity of the type and the lack of 
samaras, we have no doubt that it belongs in Mascagnia sens, str., because no other 

CONlR.l'NIVTRSn ()! IK'UKi l[| , \\U\ I CM (IMF 2-1 

' l( < - M'^ • ! i iii J stem, crossed by y( 

b. Node showing stipules and petiolar glands, x4. c. Enlargement of abaxial surface c 
gland and appiesstd . im< ,! ■ i n h. ij i L u o [ ,.> , |„ m ,,„,] ,,01(10 
axis, <2.n. I'. Siamen from bud, x7.5. g. Gynoecium from bud. ' S. (Based on t rron A 

genus shows this combination of interpetiolarslij ! I ■ landular petioles, 

impressed leaf glands, elongated many-flowered pseudoracemes, bracteoles with one 
of each pair bearing a large eccentric abaxial gland, and pink carinate petals. Within 
the M. cordifolia group, M. aequatorialis is immediately distinguished by its metallic- 
sericeous leaves, ah i , i . ., n , s I,m -disjunct from the 
other members of the group. The thick stems to which the leafy branches of the type 
arc atU<Ju d si. ■ ^ ' « ■ ] .. ■ i I . woody liana. 


Mascagnia affinis W. R. Anderson & C. Cav. Davis, sp. nov.— Type: Brazil. Mato 
Grosso: Rod. MT-265, Km 60-70 do trevo com a Rod. BR-174 (Mun. Porto 
Espiridiao), cerrado, 27 Oct 1995 fl/imm fr, Hatschbach 63949 (holotype: 

Mascagniae cordifoliae affinis, sed laminis supra subsericeis et subtus dense et 
pertinaciter subsericeis vel tomentosis. 

Woody vine, the stems persistently brown-velutinous or subsericeous. Lamina 
of larger leaves 5-17 cm long, 3.5-11 cm wide, elliptical or (mostly) ovate to rotund, 
sometimes wider than long, truncate, rounded, or cordate at base, acute or abruptly 
short-acuminate or apiculate to rounded at apex, subsericeous above with the very 
short hairs appressed to somewhat raised and often abraded in age, densely and per- 
sistently subsericeous to tomentose below with the hairs dense enough to touch over 
the whole surface, varying from nearly straight and appressed to raised and many 
hairs sinuous to twisted, bearing an abaxial row of 2-4 impressed glands on each side 
between midrib and margin with the most proximal glands remote from base, the 
principal lateral veins 4-7 on each side; petiole 7-35 mm long, persistently brown- 
velutinous or tomentose, biglandular at base with the glands 0.5-1.2 mm in diameter; 
stipules 1-1.5 mm long, narrowly triangular, loosely sericeous, borne on stem between 
petioles. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, 2-9 cm long, unbranched pseudoracemes 
containing 10-40 or more crowded to somewhat distant flowers, the axes (including 
peduncles) brown- or stramineous-velutinous or tomentose or subsericeous; bracts 
1-2 mm long, narrowly triangular, eglandular or the lowest pair biglandular; pedun- 
cle 5-12 mm long; bracteoles 0.8-1.5 mm long, 1 or both borne up to 3 mm below 
apex of peduncle, 1 of each pair usually eglandular and symmetrically triangular, 
the other bearing 1 prominent eccentric discoid gland 0.5-1.1 mm in diameter and 
asymmetrically lanceolate or falcate, sometimes 1 bracteole bearing 2 glands or both 
bracteoles bearing 1 gland; bracts and bracteoles loosely sericeous; pedicel 4-8 mm 
long, loosely sericeous, the hairs white. Sepals 1 mm long beyond glands, triangular 
or ovate, rounded at apex, abaxially densely sericeous, adaxially glabrous, appressed 
in anthesis; glands 2-2.5 mm long, 8 on 4 lateral sepals, the anterior sepal eglandular. 
Petals pink, glabrous, abaxially carinate or alulate with the keel or winglet 0.2-0.5 
mm wide; lateral petals spreading or reflexed, the limb 4.5-5.5 mm long, 3.5-4.5 mm 
wide, denticulate or erose at margin, the claw 1-1.5 mm long; posterior petal with 
claw erect and limb reflexed, the limb 4.5-5 mm long, 3 mm wide, corrugated, dentate 
or lacerate at margin, the claw 1.5 mm long. Stamens glabrous; filaments distinct, 
1.5-2.5 mm long, longer opposite sepals than opposite petals; anthers 1.2-1.5 mm 
long, ± alike. Ovary 1.2 mm high, densely sericeous; styles glabrous, 2-2.5 mm long, 
alike, erect from base, straight or distally recurved, dorsally rounded or truncate at 
apex. Samara thinly sericeous on wing, tomentose on nut, orbicular or broadly ovate, 
the lateral wing membranous, 20-30 mm high and wide, continuous at base and apex, 
entire or shallowly emarginate at base, notched up to halfway to nut at apex; dorsal 
wing 9-12 mm high, 3-4 mm wide, triangular or rounded; ventral areole ca 4 mm 
high, 2-3 mm wide, ovate. 

Phenology. Collected with flowers and fruits in October and November. 

Distribution (Fig. 1). Southwestern Mato Grosso, Brazil, and adjacent Bolivia; 
cerrado and forest; 155^416 m. 

Additional Specimens Examined. Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Robore, Cardenas 2974 (F); Prov. Velasco: 
Serrania de Huanchaca, P. N. Noel Kempfl, 14 '/ S 60 42 W Fo tei 13721 (I ): P. N. Noel Kempff, 
14°33'19"S, 60°55'55"\V. (irrlcch et at. 17/01 & 19/01 (MICH); Campamento El Refugio, 14 o 33'30"S, 
60°45'41"W, Guillen •• v//i atierra 2 U)7 (MK I l ) P. N. Noel Kempff, 25 km de Los Fierros, 14°33'30"S, 


This species is similar in niosl characters to Mascagnia cordifoda, which is why 
we chose an epithet meaning "near." However, while the many collections of M. cor- 
difolia studied consistently have the lamina velutinous on both sides with V-shaped 
hairs, the plants treated here as M. affuns have the lamina subsericeous above and 
subsericeous to tomentose below. One collection not cited above merits comment. 
Guillen & Roca 2495 (MICH), from Velasco, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, at 14°22'S, 61°09'W, 
is intermediate in its leaf vesture between M. a [finis, which is known from the same 
general area, and M. cordi folia, which has not been collected in Santa Cruz. It may be 
!l,Ml l > close! related |x:ci< both ceui ' lasco and hybridize there. 

Mascagnia aptera W. R.Anderson, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 14: 17. 1980.— Type: 
Brazil. Mato Grosso: Chapada dos Guimaraes. 22 Oct 1973 fl/fr. Prance el 
al. 19274 (holotype: INPA!; isotypes: MICH! NY! US!). Fig. 3. 

Scandent subshrub, the stems velutinous to glabrale. Lamina of leaves 2.5-5.8 
cm long, 1.8-5 cm wide, broadly elliptical or suborbicular, cordate at base, rounded 
and apiculate at apex, rugose above and persistently velutinous with the hairs sessile 
and V-shaped or short-stalked and Y-shaped, densely and persistently white-lanate 
below with the hairs sessile, long and soil, substraight or twisted, appressed or some- 
what spreading, with 3-4 impressed glands on each side of abaxial surface in a row 
between margin an. I im hil i 1 inosl pn una :.! nd i emote from base; petiole 2-5 
mm long, velutinous, bearing 2 large glands at or just above base: stipules 0.4 mm 
long, triangular, borne on stem between petioles. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, 
unbranched pseudoracemes 2-3.5 cm long, containing 6-14 flowers crowded in distal 
half, the axis velutinous or loosely sericeous: bracts 1-2 (-3) mm long, narrowly trian- 
gular or subulate, eglandular or the lowest pair biglandular; peduncle 4-5.5 mm long, 
velutinous; bracteoles borne slightly below apex of peduncle, 1 of each pair 1-1.5 
mmlong, eglandu n n n< J in ,i > il kiu l be othei 1.5-2 mm long, bearing 1 
large eccentric abaxial gland, falcate: bracts and bracteoles velutinous; pedicel 2.5-5.5 
mm long, pilose-sericeous. Sepals 0.5-1 mm long beyond glands, ovate or triangular, 
obtuse or rounded at apex d\ixi ■ ' i idaxially glabrous, 

appressed in anthesis; glands ca 2 mm long, 8 on 4 lateral sepals, the anterior sepal 
eglandular. Petals reddish pink, glabrous; lateral petals spreading or reflexed, the limb 
4.8-5 mm long, 3-3.5 mm wide, erose or denticulate at margin, abaxially alulate with 
the winglet 0.4 mm wide, the claw 1-1.2 mm long; posterior petal erect, the limb 5.5 
mm long, 3 mm wide, flat or corrugated, proximally denticulate and distally fimbriate 
at margin, abaxially carinate, the claw 1-1.2 mm long. Stamens glabrous; filaments 
connate at base, 2.1-2.5 mm long, longer opposite sepals than opposite petals; anthers 
1 .3-1 .5 mm long, ± alike. Ovary 1 .2 mm high, loosely pilose-sericeous; styles glabrous, 
2.5 mm long, ± alike, straight and erect or diverging distally, dorsally rounded at apex. 
Samara pilose, reduced to a nut 3.5-4 mm long bearing a dorsal crest 0.5-1.5 mm 
wide, the lateral' n • < mplcirb ib^ent; ventral aieole 3.5 mm high, ovate. 

This peculiar species is still known only from the type, which was collected 
among sandstone rocks at 720 m in October. Its samara has lost the large membra- 
nous lateral wing found in almost all oilier species of Mascagnia sens. str. In that loss 
M. aptera is unique; unlike most of the larger samara-bearing genera, Mascagnia sens, 
str. has not experienced the repealed loss of wings discussed by Anderson (2001, 
pp. 84-85). Indeed, the samaras >1 Mascagnia an s< conserved as to make them of 


FIG. 3. Mascagnia aptera. a. Flowering branch, x0.5. b. Node showing stipules and petiolai inlands. 
x5. c. Hairs from adaxial surface ot lamina <35. d. H in from abaxial surface of lamina, x35. e. Flower, 
x5.f. Anthers, left opposite petal, righl opposite sepal, ><12.5.g. Distal portion of style, x30.h. Fruit with 2 
samaras removed, x4. i. Samara, adaxial view, x4. (Based on Prance etal. 19274, MICH.) 

limited taxonomic value i 
resembles M. cordifolia, i 
that are densely velutino 

)st cases. Aside from that difference, M. aptera strongly 
i is a vigorously twining woody vine with larger leaves 
i both surfaces; its stipules are also longer. 

cordifolia (Adr. Juss. in A. St.-Hil.) Griseb. in Mart., Fl: Bras. 12( I ) 95. 

1858. Hiraea cordifolia Adr. Juss. in A. St.-Hil., Fl. Bras. Merid. 3: 19, pi. 

164. 1833 ["1832"].— Type: Brazil. Near Curumatahy [=Curimatai, Minas 

Gerais?], A. St.-Hilaire (lectotype, designated by W. R. Anderson, 1993: P!; 

isolectotypes:P!). Fig. 4. 

Hiraea cordifolia var. mollifolia Adr. Juss. in A. St.-Hil., Fl. Bras. Merid. 3: 19. 

1833 ["1832"].— Type: Brazil. Goias:"Mato Grosso," A St.-Hilaire Cat. CI 

no. 840 (lectotype, here designated: P!, the sheet shown in WRA negative 

81-21-16 [MICH]; isolectotypes: P!). 
Mascagnia rubra Griseb. in Mart.,Fl. Bras. 12(1): 90. 1858.— Type: Brazil. Tocan- 

tins ["Goias"]: Natividade, Gardner 3067 (isotype: K!). 


Mascagnia cordifolia var. cormfolia Griseb., Vidcnsk. Mcddcl. Dansk. Naturhist. 
Foren. Kj0benhavn 1875: 147. 1875.— Type: Brazil. Minns Gerais: l.agoa 
Santa [fide Grisebach] (holotype: B-W 8862, microfiche!). 

Hiraea voluhilis S. Moore, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Ser. 2, Bot., 4: 328. 1895. — 
Type: Brazil. Mato Grosso: "Santa Cruz," Oct-Nov 1891 fl, Moore 647 
(lectotype, here designated: BM!; isolectotypes: K! NY! P!). 

Mascagnia cordifolia var. cinerasccns Skottsb., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. 
1 ii I ; r i(n): 4. 1001.— Type: Brazil. Mato Grosso: Cuiaba, Afa/w/e IMU p.p. 
(7/2/1894 Mr) (holotype: S!; isotypes: S!). 

Mascagnia cordifolia var. fiisca Suess., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 42: 46. 
1937.— Type: Brazil. Acre: Rio Macauhan, 4 Sep 1933 fl, Krukoff 5781 
(holotype: M; isotypes: F! G! K! MICH! MO! NY! U!). 

Woody vine, often forming thickets, the stems persistently brown-velutinous. 
Lamina of larger leaves 6-15 (-20) cm long, 5-10 (-12) cm wide, broadly elliptical 
or (mostly) ovate to rotund, broadly cuneate, rounded, or cordate at base, abruptly 
short-acuminate or apiculale to rounded at apex, persistently velutinous above (or 
the hairs abraded in age) with the hairs V-shaped from a swollen base, densely and 
persistently velutinous below with the hairs V-shaped, bearing an abaxial row of 2-7 
impressed glands on each side between midrib and margin with the most proximal 
glands remote from base, the | rinci u I t I n I -ems 5-6 on each side and connected 
by scalariform cross-veins; petiole 7-25 ( 30) mm long, persistently brown-velutinous, 
biglandular at base with the glands 1-2 mm in diameter; stipules 1-3 mm long, nar- 
rowly triangular, loosely sericeous, borne on stem between petioles. Inflorescences 
axillary, 2-22 cm long, unbranched or sometimes branched near middle and then a 
panicle of 3 (-5) pseudoracemes. each pseudoraceme containing 10-50 crowded to 
distant flowers, the axis (including peduncles) brown (rare I v white- or stramineous-) 
velutinous; bracts 1-3.5 mm long, narrowly triangular or subulate, eglandular (very 
rarely bearing 2 tiny marginal glands at base); peduncle 4-10 mm long; bracteoles 
1-2 mm long, borne at apex of peduncle or up to 2 mm below, usually 1 of each pair 
eglandular and symmetrically triangular, the other bearing 1 prominent eccentric 
discoid gland 0.7-1.5 mm in diameter and asymmetrically lanceolate or falcate, 
sometimes 1 bracteole bearing 2 glands or both bracteoles bearing 1 gland; bracts 
and bracteoles abaxially velutinous or subsericeous; pedicel 4-9 mm long, velutinous 
to loosely sericeous, the hairs white. Sepals 1-1.5 mm long beyond glands, ovate or 
triangular, obtuse or rounded at apex, abaxially densely sericeous, ciliate on margin, 
adaxially glabrous >| i . . ■ l, , l,i ids I > 3 mm long, 8 on 4 lateral sepals, 

the anterior sepal eglandular (?) or its glands connate with adjacent glands. Petals 
pink or pink and white, glabrous; lateral petals spreading or reflexed, the limb 4-6 
mm long, 3-5 mm wide, entire or denticulate at margin, abaxially ± prominently 
alulate with the winglet 0.3-0.6 mm wide, the claw 1-1.6 mm long; posterior petal 
erect, the limb 5-6 mm long. 3.5-4 mm wide, corrugated, dentate or short-fimbriate 
at margin, abaxially proximally carinate or alulate with the keel 0.2-0.3 mm wide, the 
claw 1.5 mm long. Slamens glabrous; filaments connate at very base, 1.5-2 mm long, 
longer opposite sepals than opposite petals; anthers 1.3-1.8 mm long, ± alike. Ovary 
1.5 mm high, densely pilose; styles glabrous, 1.5-2.5 mm long, alike or the anterior 
slightly shorter and slenderer than the posterior 2. erect from base, straight or distally 
recurved, dorsally rounded or truncate (to rarely apiculate) at apex. Samara thinly 
sericeous on wing, tomentose on nut, orbicular or wider than high, the lateral wing 
membranous, (16-) 20-35 mm high, (20-) 25-40 mm wide, eoniinuous at base and 


in, i i' ca ia >rdifolia a Flowering branch, x0.5.b. Node showing stipules and glands at base 
>f petioles, x2.5. c. Enlarged portion of abaxial surface of lamina, showing vesture and gland, x2.5. d. Hairs 
rom abaxial surface of lamina (left) and adaxial surface (right), xl5. e. Large leaf, adaxial view, x0.5. f. 
Hower bud and portion of inflorescence axis, x3.5. g. Lateral petal, side view, x5. h. Posterior petal, abaxial 
'iew, x5. i. Abaxial view of four stamens, those with longer filaments opposite sepals, x7.5. j. Gynoecium, 
7S k SamarasabiM I ii .) . i i i il ^'l« ' ' Sduaum 60 MICH; 

•., Hatschbach 49588. MICH t'-j. Silvti ci al. J.JI-L M I CI I; k, Anderson 11311, MICH.) 


apex, notched up to halfway to nut at apex; dorsal wing 8-16 mm high, 2-5 mm wide, 
triangular and widest at base or irregular in shape; ventral areole 3-4 mm high, 
2 mm wide, ovate. 

Phenology. Collected with flowers and fruits in all months, but most commonly 
from August through December. 

Distribution (Fig. 1). Southern Brazil from about 10°S to about 24°S (except 
Bahia) and adjacent Bolivia, with outlier populations farther north in Amazonas and 
Para; most often in cerrado but also in eampo. thickets, secondary forest, and at the 
edge of wet forest; 230-1 400 m. 

mi ) i ii < i n Bolivia. Hi i. I'rin i O , , ih i Urn hacia el S, Beck 20464 

(MICH); E side ol'Rilvralta 11 oil's, oh l)Y\\ Solomon ( '^(MK 1] MO. NY) P \ndo: Prov. Manuripi, 
30 km al N de Puerto America. I I 35'3TS. OS "0 -SI!" W. hmiun et al. YO(MK 'II). Brazil. Amazonas: 
Estrada Manaus-Itaeoal ma km l<u.< ,, //,„,,„/ -.,, [IM'\ Yi|;i si Manaus Itacoatiara road Km 
214, Prance et al. 4889 (NY), Disiri m Fi di k ai .: Catetinho. Is km SW of Brasilia, Irwin & Soderstrom 
6150 (MO, NY); Corrego Jeriva. Ml km ! ,.i Hr.-isi'liu, Irwin et al. 8351 (MO, NY); Fazenda Agua Limpa, 
15°58'25"S, 47°54'37"W, Pereira Neto & Alvarenga 368 (MICH). Fsrimm Santo: Reserva Natural da 

CVRD, Linhares, estrada Santa Terezinha. iolh <S< ><U !i mm < |, „| uos Veadeiros, E of Alto 

Parafso on road to Nova Roma, Amlerson ew83 ( NY ): ( 'hapada dos Veadeiros, 7 km de Colinas/Caval- 
caate, Silva et al. 23 1 4 ( 1 , In, ,h|i , I llm.l. u|m-| m.ha, 14 2C3X"S,4S 26'13"W, Fonseea 
etal. 1151 (MICH); M I ,, II \-, 17 4 VS, 48°42'W, Heringer & Eiten 

14225 (MICH, MO) Sena clot n, P o so km S of ( napoma on road to .lata, h win & Soderstrom 7341 
(MICH,MO,NY);7(lk,uSI ,1 \ M ., K son. oh to Pi, inwn , / ,// / Ire, < MICH, NY); Mozarlan- 
dia. Pcivim 364 (M\CU)-Mau> iuiosst* do Sri Mun Rio Vent neai Rio Verde, Anderson 11246 
(MBM,MICH,MO,NY);Pantanal do Rio Negro, 19°3()'S, 50 H ' . O] 1). Mun. Ratagua<ju, 

Porto XV, Hatschhach 24993 (NY): Mun. Nioaque. Hatschhach 32433 { MICI I. MO); Mun. Aquidauana! 
Serra de Maracaju, Hatschhach 63403 (MICH ).-Mato Cmosso: 1 km S of Rondon6polis.,\^/mY^ 11311 
(MBM, MICH, MO, NY >• Ribeirao ( laro. NW ot Alio Araguaia, Anderson 11398 (MBM, MICH, NY); 
Mun. Alto Paraguay, road Ctirupira-Arenapolis, 14 57'S. 56 5 1 'W. Dubs 1706 (MICH); Mun. Barra do 
Gar ? as,ValedoSonh . i ej., < hapada dos (Juimaraes, Agua Friz, Hatschhach 

66852 (MICH): 2 km S oi \ ;IV nnima. 14 4DS. 52 20' W. Irwin A Soderstrom 6299 (MICH. NY); 50 km N 
of Barra do Garcas on road to \a\anima. Irwin S. Soderstrom 6893 (MICH. MO. NY); 200 km NW of 
Cuiaba, Maguire et al. 56857 (MICI I, NY). Mis as ( ,i i m , ,m,e 1'iuipora e Monies Claros, Castellanos 
242/3 (NY);Tnangulo region, (loodland S40 (MICH. NY): Mun. Oliveira. Corrego Dias, Hatschhach 
49588 (MICH); 12 km W de Itapagipe. Krapovickas S: ( nstdhal 437(>S { Ml( 1 1 ): ( ampina Verde, Macedo 
5583 (MICH); Mun. Santana do Riaeho. Distr. Cardeal Mota, Martins 3 (MICH); Mun. Uberlandia, Est. 
Ecol. do Panga, Schiavini 69 (MICH); Mun. Belo Horizonte. Mono das Pedras, Williams & Assis 7460 
(MO).— Para: Serra dos Carajas. Serraria km 12, Silva A Rtbeiro 3653 (MICH),— Rondonia: 13 km de 
Vilhena, estrada para Chapada dos Pareeis. 12 45'S. 60 1()'W. mata alia. Vieira et al. 903 (MICH, MO, 
NY).— Sao Paulo: Mini. Sao Carlos. Sao Carlos. Campos 41 (MO); Mun. Raneharia, Hatschhach 34810 
(MICH); Mun. Avare, Represa Jtirumirim, Ifatu Iduu It OrC,<M[< ill M u n , iinuii,,i Imkcl^n 
[SPSF-727] (MICH). 

This common and widespread species is morphologically rather uniform 
throughout most o\' its range. The disjunct populations in Amazonas and Para (see 
Fig. 1) that are assigned here to M. cordifolia agree in most or all respects with the 
populations of the Planalto cerrados. 1 he single collection known from Espirito Santo 
is atypical in several characters. Its lamina is not as densely velutinous as in most 
populations, the pel mP mtl icleof gkuu are small, the stem and inflorescence 
hairs are not as erect as usual, and the petals are only cat mate, not alulate. Yet, in a 
qualitative sense the plant of Espirito Santo agrees reasonably well with M. cordi- 
folia, and there is no otln i « if « . pet i thai could accommodate it, so for the 
present ii is best left in tins species with its closest relatives. 

Not treated here is the I 'How ngcoll ction Bra u . Para \pprox. 70 km from 
Tucuruf, 65 km SSW on old BR422, then 5 km NW on new logging road, 04°11'S, 
49°44'VV, forest on terra firme, Nov fr, Daly et al. 1436 (MICH, MO, NY). This plant 


resembles M. cordifolia in most characters, including large glands at the base of the 
petiole. However, the collectors did not give a petal color and we can find no old pet- 
als that would tell us whether or not they were alulate. The lamina is short- velutinous 
above and subsericeous below, such that these specimens are somewhat intermediate 
between M. affinis and M. cordifolia in their vesture. As Fig. 1 shows, the only other 
collection from near this locality is the single one we have cited from Para, from the 
Serra dos Carajas. The best disposition of Daly et al. 1436 will have to await further 
study of Mascagnia sens, str., which may be aided by additional collections from Para 
when they become available. 

There is another species of Mascagnia in the Amazon. M. strigulosa (Rusby) 
Nied. in Engl., that resembles M. cordifolia, because it has pink (or lilac) petals, leaves 
that are persistently velutinous on both sides, axillary pseudoracemes, a large gland 
on one of each pair of bracteoles, and erect to divergent styles. Mascagnia strigulosa is 
easily excluded from this group of species because its petioles are always eglandular. 
It further differs from M. cordifolia in having 2-4 large glands (1-2 mm in diameter) 
at the abaxial base of the lamina, and its lateral petals are only carinate, with a nar- 
row keel ca 0.1 mm wide. 

Mascagnia glabrata W. R. Anderson & C. Cav. Davis, sp. nov. — Type: Brazil. Rondo- 
nia: Mineracao Taboca, 10°15'S, 63°20'W, capoeira, solo pedregoso, 11 Oct 
1979 fl/imm r,l ■ ' chi, Silva, Mota & Ramos 390 (holotype:INPA!; 

Mascagniae cordifoliae affinis, sed laminis supra sparsim velutinis vel glabratis et 
subtus sparsim sericeis vel glabratis. 

Woody vine, the stems persistently brown- velutinous or subsericeous or glabres- 
cent in age. Lamina of larger leaves 8-16 cm long, 6-10.5 cm wide, ovate, rounded 
or cordate at base, acuminate to rounded and apiculate at apex, thinly velutinous 
to glabrate above, the V- or Y-shaped hairs dense enough to touch only on midrib 
and lateral veins, thinly sericeous to glabrate below, the mostly ± straight, sessile or 
short-stalked hairs dense enough to touch only on midrib and lateral veins, bearing 
an abaxial row of 2-5 impressed glands on each side between midrib and margin with 
the most proximal glands remote from base, the principal lateral veins 5-7 on each 
side and connected by scalariform cross-veins; petiole 10-30 mm long, brown- or 
whitish velutinous or tomentose or subsericeous, biglandular at base with the glands 
1-2 mm in diameter; stipules 1-2 mm long, narrowly triangular, loosely sericeous, 
borne on stem between petioles. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, 4-16 cm long, 
unbranched or sometimes branched near middle and then a panicle of 3 pseudora- 
cemes, each pseudoraceme containing 15-65 flowers, the axis (including peduncles) 
brown-velutinous or subsericeous; bract 1.3-2 mm long, narrowly triangular, eglan- 
dular; peduncle 8-14 mm long; bracteoles 0.7-2 mm long, borne at apex of peduncle 
or up to 2 mm below, 1 of each pair eglandular and symmetrically triangular, the 
other bearing 1 prominent eccentric discoid gland 0.8-1.1 mm in diameter and ± 
asymmetrically lanceolate or falcate; bracts and bracteoles loosely sericeous; pedicel 
4-6 mm long, sericeous or subsericeous, the hairs white. Sepals ca 1 mm long beyond 
glands, triangular or ovate, obtuse or rounded at apex, abaxially densely sericeous 
or distally glabrous, adaxially glabrous, appressed in anthesis; glands 2-3 mm long, 8 
on 4 lateral sepals, the anterior sepal eglandular. Petals pink, glabrous; lateral petals 
spreading or reflexed, the limb 4.5-6 mm long, 3-6 mm wide, denticulate or erose at 
margin, abaxially carinate or alulate with the keel or winglet 0.2-0.5 mm wide, the 


claw 1-1.5 mm long; posterior petal erect, the limb 4.5-5 mm long, 4 mm wide, cor- 
rugated, dentate or short-fimbriate at margin, abaxially carinate with the keel 0.1-0.3 
mm wide, the claw 1.5 mm long. Stamens glabrous; filaments connate at base, 1.7-2 
mm long, wider opposite petals than opposite sepals, slightly longer opposite sepals 
than opposite petals; anthers 1.3 l.d mi - hary 1-1.5 mm high, densely 

sericeous; styles glabrous or sericeous al base, 2-2.5 mm long, alike or the anterior 
slightly shorter than the posterior 2, erect from base, straight or distally recurved, 
dorsally rounded or truncate at apex. Immature samara thinly sericeous on wing, 
nut, orbicular, the lateral wing membranous, 25-30 mm high and wide, 
; at base and apex, entire al base, notched 1/2 3/4 to nut at apex: dorsal wing 
10 mm high, 4 mm wide, triangular; ventral areole ca 4 mm high, 3 mm wide, ovate. 

Phenology. Collected with flowers from September to November, and with fruits 
in October. 

Distribution (Fig. 1). Western Brazil, northern Bolivia, and southeastern Peru 
between about 10°S and 15°S; in thickets and high wet forest; 270-580 m. 

Ammmuwi Si': i vu v, I-wmi's, n. Kolma |,.\ p A /: P, ov Abel luirralde, Parque Nacional Madidi. 
bosque tropical lluvioso pi imam.. Monti et al. -IMI C\S0 m. Ma\ ster. MICH) & 6929 (320 m. Mar ster. 
MICH). Brazil. Mato Grosso: Aripuana, near Humholdl Centre on road to Rio Juruena, 10°12'S. 
59°21'W, forest on terra lirme, Oct II. Lleras & Lima P/8256 (MICH): Mini. Porto dos Gauchos, 59.5 
km W of Rio Teles Pires on road to Porto dos Gauchos, 1 1 4()'S. 5(V I7'W. Sep II, Thomas el al. 3986 
(MICH). Peru. Madre or: Dios Pro\ Mann Pai i innal \i mi Rio Manu 11 S6 S 71 16'W 350 

m, high forest on low !1<»«h1|. la n ... II , tei 13254 (MICH); Prov.Tambopala, Distr. Puerto Maldonado, 
Cusco Amazonico 13 OS'S. h9 '(, \\ 1 M)() m bosque primario. No\ II \alen:,n la A Uuamamupa 101 

Like Mascagnia affinis, Uascaiuua ^lahran, is a segregate I torn M. cordifolia, 
differing from it in the vesture of the leaves, which are thinly velutinous to glabrate 
above and thinly sericeous to glabrate below. 


We are grateful to Christiane Anderson loi her helpful ad\iee. lo Kami Domini iui drawim: the 
llustrations, lo Scott Mori for his helpful review, and to the curators of the following herbaria for giving us 
iccess to their collections and ioi sending specimens to MICH as mhs and ),,;ins: KM. CEN, CTES, CVRD, 


Anderson, W. R. 1990. Notes on neotropical Malpighiaccae— III. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 17: 39-54. 

■ 1993. Notes on neotropical Malpighiaccae- IV. Contr. I Iniv. Michigan 1 lerb. 19: 355-392. 

.2001. Malpighiaccae. In Flora of the Venezuelan P. P. Berrv. K. Yatskievvch, and 

B. K. Hoist, 6: 82-185. St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 
Cameron, K. M., M. W. Chase. W. R. .Anderson, and H. G I tills. 2001 . Molecular systematica of Malpighia- 

Davis, C. C, W. R. Anderson, and M. J. Donoghue. 2001. Phvlogeny of Malpighiaccae: Evidence from 
chloroplast ndiiF *nd nixi.-F nucleotide sequences. Amer. J. Bot.88: 1830-1846. 

Davis, C. C, C. D. Bell. S. Mathews, and M. J. I )onoghue. 20a 1 . 1 aurasian migration explai 
disjunctions: Evidence from Malpighiaccae. Pioc. Natl. Acad. U.S.A. 99: 6833-6837. 

Nieden/u I 1928 M I, |. m i< < I , ;/,. - . „ , I, eii \ 1 nulei IV. 141: 1-870. L 


William R. Anderson 

Charles C. Davis 

University of Michigan Herbarium 

3600 Varsity Drive 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 

Abstract. Mascagnia leticiana W. R. Anderson is transferred to Malpighia to become Malpighia 
leticiana (W.R. Anderson) W.R. Anderson &( < n Davi on the basis of a new phylogenetic analysis of 
DNA sequences and morphological characters. The morphology of M. leticiana is illustrated and discussed 

in the context of the piohlrm i)l uistin-Lii-hi ' U't . u l,W/»<.</w,' and Mascagnia 

Anderson (1990) assigned Mascagnia leticiana W. R. Anderson to Mascagnia 
because of its samara-like fruit. In a new, unpublished phylogenetic analysis of Mal- 
pighiaceae, Mascagnia leticiana is nested within a very strongly supported Malpighia 
clade (see Fig. 1). The purpose of this paper is to transfer this species from Mascag- 
nia to Malpighia, and to discuss its morphology and the problem of distinguishing 
between Malpighia and Mascagnia. 

a leticiana (W. R. Anderson) W. R. Anderson & C. Cav. Davis, comb. nov. 
Mascagnia leticiana W. R. Anderson, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 17: 48. 
1990. Fig.2a-g. 

This species could fit into either Malpighia or Mascagnia in terms of its stip- 
ules, leaf glands, petal color, androecium, and gynoecium; those characters support 
Anderson's contention (1990) that Malpighia and Mascagnia are closely related, but 
do not provide a basis for assigning M. leticiana to one genus or the other. On the 
other hand, the golden needle-like hairs of M. leticiana are found in no species of 
Mascagnia but are common in Malpighia, and no species of Mascagnia forms trees 
6 m tall, which was the size of the type and only known collection of M. leticiana; such 
trees do occur in Malpighia. On both of these bases M. leticiana belongs in Malpi- 
ghia. In addition, the short axillary umbels of M. leticiana are like the inflorescences 
of many (but not all) species v . vhereas most species of Mascagnia have 

the flowers ultimately borne in pseudoracemes. This character, however, should be 
interpreted with caution, because the umbels of Malpighia a i condensed pseudo- 
racemes and the inflorescence may not prove to be a reliable discriminator between 
these genera (Anderson 2001). 

The real problem with M I ti • ma lies in its i lit: ] \al\ i *hia and Mascagnia 
have, for the most part, very different fruit types. In Malpighia the fruit is a fleshy 
bird-dispersed berry, indehiscent except in M. albiflora (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. and M. 
verruculosa W. R. Anderson, in which the fleshy pyrenes grow apart as they mature 
and separate at maturity. In Mascagnia the fruit is dry and dehiscent, breaking apart 
at maturity into three membranous samaras with large lateral wings; for an example 
of those samaras, see the illustration in this volume of Mascagnia cordifolia (Adr. 
Juss.) Griseb. (Anderson & Davis 2005). This seemingly unequivocal distinction is 
weakened by the presence of rudimentary winglets on the pyrenes of Malpighia, 



Aspidopterys elliptic 
Aspidopterys t 
Caucanthus auriculatus 
Madagasikaria andersonii 
Microsteira sp. 
Rhynchophora humbertii 
Rhynchophora phillipsonii 
Triaspis hypericoides 
Malpighia albiflora 
Malpighia emarginata 
Malpighia stevensii 
Malpighia glabra 
Mascagnia leticiana 

Mascagnia parvifolia 
Mascagnia arenicola 
Mascagnia arenicola 
Mascagnia australis 
Mascagnia cordifolia 
Mascagnia polybotrya 
Mascagnia polybotrya 
Mascagnia vacciniifolia 
Mascagnia brevifolia 


Triopterys paniculata 

eojnlnnrd l)l\A sci|ue 
were sequenced for al 
are given in Appendix 

1 * ! 'V "I ' !, < up , 'i in ih in l| inn i, 

above brandies for clades supported al 50%. The reduced 

from a larger ph\l on t Hl ,| , »i Malpighiaceae using 

:,ndhl mdrbcl nuclear PHY( and morphology; all genes 

son, unpublished dala). Vouchers lor collections sequenced 

buried in the fleshy pericarp (Anderson L978; sec here Fig. 2h j; note that the fruit 
shown in i and j was not dehiscent, but when the flesh holding the pyrenes together 
was removed the pyrenes could be separated) Those rudimentary winglets suggest 
the probable orig » < , mccstor with a winged, 

wind-dispersed fruit. Nevertheless, tor most species the distinction between Malpi- 
ghia and Mascagnia is easy if one has fruits— if the fruit is indehiscent and fleshy the 
genus is Malpighia, and if it is dry, dehiscent, and samaroid the genus is Mascagnia. 
When Anderson ( 1W0 ■ !, tl rn Hire fruits on the type of M. leticiana, 
he found them to bi mall and oriaceous (suggesting that they may have been some- 
what fleshy), but conspicuously winged (Fig. 2g). The fruits were not dehiscent, but 
he had no difficulty separating the mericarps and concluded that they probably do 
separate at maturity. We have no way of knowing how fleshy the fruits may have been 


FIG. 2. Malpighia leticiana, M. no\ogahcuina nd V - <> <> Ku i ;_ "" / luuina a. Branch with 
fruits, x0.5. b. Node and abaxial surface of leal ' >vi(h one icedle-lil hair enlarged, x5. c. Flower, 

i< , i h j»»m. ikm [„ nl ti| |.i '-.'I Post. n< i o. i -4. ,ii ho^cium and gynoecium, 

with anterior style in center and anthers removed from three posterior stamens, x6. f. Apex of style, x20. 

cross-section of immature fruit to show developing wings of pyrenes, xl.5. i,j. M. rz.edowskii. i. Dried fruit, 
intact, x 1.5. j. Pyrenes with flesh removed, adaxial view (left) and abaxial view (right), xl.5. (Based on: a-g, 
. 29, MICH; h, Bornstein 89b, MICH; i, j, McVaugh 16037, MICH.) 


before being dried. The mericarps oi V i // an perpl< ing because they do 

not quite resemble the samaras of Mascagnia or the pyrenes of any known species of 
Malpighia. Faced with this dilemma, Anderson chose to rely on the dry (?) dehiscent 
(?) winged fruits as the most reliable indicator of generic position and assigned the 
species to Mascagnia. 

Given our new phylogene i rial i u I tin i ihologii it iracters mentioned 
above, we now believe this species is best placed in Malpighia; however, it remains 
anomalous and problematic in that genus, too. Anderson suggested that M. leticiana 

might represent an intermediate between \hi\ ign I Malpiglua, "with small 

leathery samaras that became fleshy, thereby shifting from wind to birds as the agent 
of dispersal" (Anderson 1990, p. 48). There may still be some conceptual merit in 
thinking about this plant in that way, especially if future analyses place M. leticiana 
sister to the core fleshy-fruited Malpighia clade; however, at the moment there is very 
little support for the exact position of this species within Malpighia (Fig. 1). Alter- 
natively, if M. leticiana is confirmed to be well nesl , . ! him ' 'n qhia, as suggested 
(albeit weakly) by Fig. 1, it will have to be considered a species in which an indehis- 
cent fleshy fruit reverted to something that secondarily resembles a Mascagnia-hkc 
cluster of three samaras. 


C. Davis was support! by NS1 Al'ol. (FT 04-31.742). by ;i Rackham I aeuliy grant from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, ami In Hie Michigan Society of bellows, bigure 2 is a composite of drawings made by 
Karin Douthit at various times over the last 17 years; her talent and consistent production of beautiful 


Anderson. W. R. I97N ["IT' '"] Myrsonimoidcae. a new subinmih oi the Malpighiaceae. Leandra 7: 

. 1990. Notes on neotropical Malpighiaceae- III. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 17: 39-54. 

o I I l| i in , 1 i / / , i , > /„/,, , | 

Ste\cns C Ulloa Ulloa \ I'-.ol imlOM \\> m M n.,-1 S i 15m -5( 2) 945-1910. 
Anderson W. R.. and C. C. Davis. 2005. The Mascagnia coulifolia sno nuM ilpn In n en. i < .,nu 

Michigan Herb. 24: 33-44. 
Davis, C. C..W. R.Anderson, and M. J. Donoghue. 2001. Phytogeny of Malpighiaceae: Evidence 

ehloroplast v/w/'and /ky/.-/- nucleotide sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1830-I84h. 

Aspidoplervs elliptic,' ( Hlumc ) Adr. .hiss.: Hogor XVI.G.U0 (BO) 
AspitUipiei-Ys louicnosa (Blume) Adr.Ji^s.: /si Zhanhuo V2-I2I (M()| 
Ctmainthus uuriciilauis (Radlk.) Nied.: Knox 2128 (MICH) 
Madagasikaria andersonn C. Cav, Davis: Davis 20-01 (A) 
Malpighia albiflon, (l untree.) Cuatrcc.: Anderson I Mil 5 (MICH) 
>'/'''>'>< l '" >'<'i u '. ucal Garden 20626 ( 

. I ,. '. 

■uaaaDi \i,derso„ 13621 (MICH) 

1; '•"'"-'•/ '.., 

/ L.: Fairchild Tropical Garden X-12-104 (FTG) 

, ,"/-. ,l,< 1,1, a, 

a Mill.: Fairchild Tropical Garden S1-303B (FTC) 

Mascagnia leticii 

via W. R. Anderson | i i ' , \ . i| 

Malpighia sieve, 

i.v/7 W. R. Anderson: Davis 1019 (MICH) 

Mascagnia areni 

cola C.Anderson: Chase l >(>!<>(> (Ml( 1 1 ); Chase W165 (MICH) 

Mascagnia austr, 

alls C.Anderson: Anderson 13592 (MICH) 


MiiscagniiihreviJhlio.inM b Mee >MW(MJ( (I) 
Mascagnia cordifoliu ( Adi lu<- ) Ciriscb !//</< ww / 1626 (MICH) 
,-',. ,m mirltxw,, M(II 1 ' r i -I »,»/, /,„,// WW (MICH) 
Mascagnia parvifolia (Adr. Juss.) Nied.: Salinas T. 5444 (MICH) 
Mascagnia polybotrya I •<!, ,,-< j Nied Lndercon A- Laskowski 4098 (MICH); McVai 

V/fl.vrfl^/7/rt vacdniijblu icd I !</<■ , „ / ? ' (MICH) 
Microsteira sp.: Dara 35-M (A) 
Rhynchophora humbertii Arenes: Davis 18-01 M (A) 

( i ' ' i 2 i/) (7/ (A) 
■ ., ,< ,/,,• i.m < > •}!>,,! I, nan 650 (PRE) 
Triopterys jamaicensis L.: Hammel 17816 (MICH) 
/ > , u-i\ pi.,i,i ,ilw»K Mill (Small l,/,> nii/^'iMKH) 

Contr. Univ. Michigan Hci 


Thomas F. Daniel 

Department of Botany 

California Academy of Sciences 

Golden Gate Park 
San Francisco, California 94118 

Abstract. A taxonomic revision of Honduran Acanthaceae based on field and herbarium studies 
reveals the presence of 96 species of that family in the country. Seventy-four of these species are treated 
as native to Honduras; eight of them are endemic there. Four of the endemic taxa Aphelandra molinae, 
Justicia pilzii, Pseudcn i t I \ i il I | i 

to science. Two genera and 12 previously described species are reported from Honduras for the first time. 
, , i ii i > 1 1 i ■ ■ ' ' Oust [syn. Hans te in ia 

sessilifolia (Oerst.) Durkee], and one new name, /"•,//• u> < /.' '/ « 1 -a-, -< I on Beloperone blechioides Leonard 
[non Justicia blechoides (Lindau) Steam], are proposed. A lectotype is designated for Ruellia molinae 
Gibson, a synonym of Rn, ■lln< iuh'ii'n Vidi S. > n i in « i I plied to Honduran taxa are placed in 
synonymy of other names. Honduras has relatively low numbers of both total native species and endemic 
species of Acanthaceae compared to several smal i i hli un in the Mesoamerican region. This is 
attributed to several factors, including the prevalence of pine forests there. For each native species the 
catalog include distributional data (botl vithin and <tcrnal to 1 londuras). habital n I londui period 
of flowering and fruiting in Honduras, specimen citations for each Honduran department in which the 
species is known to occur, and descriptions and/or taxonomic discussions where appropriate. 


Located in the center of the Mesoamerican region, Honduras is the second 
largest Central American nation. Physiographically, it consists of a large mountain- 
ous core bounded by narrow Caribbean lowlands in the north and a small Pacific 
lowland in the south. The entire region has long been settled by pre-Colombian and 
subsequently European cultures, and much of the land area comprises second-growth 
forests. There is no recent treatment of the Honduran vascular flora, but estimates 
of the number of species there vary from 5000 (Gentry 1978) to 6000 (Gomez et al. 
1997). Brief summaries of botanical activities in Honduras were provided by Nelson 
(1990, 1996) and Nelson et al. (1996). The country is divided politically into 18 depart- 
ments (Fig. 1). 

With the publication of the Flora de Nicaragua (Stevens et al. 2001), Honduras 
is the only nation in Central America for which a recent account of Acanthaceae is 
lacking. Other than descriptions of undescribed taxa and reports of range extensions, 
little has been published about this large, mostly tropical family in Honduras. The 
only previous account of Honduran Acanthaceae is that of Molina (1975), in which 
the names of 80 native and exotic (including cultivated) species of the family were 
listed. With the exceptions of the herbarium collections at EAP, F, and MO, Hon- 
duran Acanthaceae are not well represented in the world's major herbaria. For the 
family, Honduras is both the least known and least collected region in Mesoamerica. 
The following study was undertaken in order to document those Acanthaceae known 
from Honduras, to revise their nomenclature and taxonomy, assess the status of the 
family in Honduras relative to the other Central American nations, and to provide 
additional collections of Acanthaceae from the country. Herbarium collections in 


CON I 1 i I I M < ' li Hi' > i I lii 


^— ^ 

^5— x 

CP j 7 

( 17 

31 Y 



OC 9 ) L , 

36 pM 

• 29 






6 ;: 

1 I 

FIG. 1. Map of Hoik n i In>\\ni" [mini iM. |, nn u ( , n 

in, id iliniul, .11 Choluleca.CI Colon. CM Comayagua. CP = Copan,CR = Cortes, 

EP= El Paraiso, FM - hanascn Mo,a/an. ( ,D -- Cracias a Dios. I - Inlibnca. IH -. Islas de la Bahfa. L = 
Lempira, LP = La Paz, OC = Ocotepeque. OL < Mancho. SI! - San [a. Barbaia.V = Valle, Y = Yoro. 

lomiuiMsJl I'mlo Stairs in iiu [k v ( tudiei ind field studies in 13 depart- 
ments of Honduras were conducted for six weeks in 2000 and 2001. 

Summary of Acan'i hacfxhjs Flora of Honduras 

Herein, % species of Acanthaceae are documented from Honduras. Of these, 74 
are treated as occui ing n i I here and 22 are native to other regions of the world 
and either cultivated and/ot rial in li I in the country. Four species, Aphelandra 
molinae Justicia /■;/.-/.. !'■■■.: . ■ -. I Stenostephanus hondurensis, 

are newly described from Honduras; two g 1 1 I oetacanthus and Stenostepha- 
nus) are newly reported from Honduras; and 12 previously described species of 
Acanthaceae (Ih ■•.,.•.■■ •• . !m\i\ Mendomia 

guatemalensis. \l 

Ruellia metallic a Jl. si an die \t ■■ pd..-..> ■: S/. >./,./, ./,/,..■, t u. ,>■ i.-nthemoideum, Ste- 
nostephanus sessilij Hi } ai rc| o ted as native lo oi naturali/ed in the country for 
the first time. Among genera of Honduran Acanthaceae. Justicia is the largest genus 
with 19 native species and Rw lia is tl i ind largest with 1 1 native species. These 
are the two largest <■ raoi . nth i i he! " oi Id. The most widely distrib- 

uted species in Honduras is , [»h l> ,dtu ,, '>!<■ a Inch occurs in all 18 departments. 

Eight species ( 
Justicia caHiantli, n > > , •> , > mum liesneri, and 

Stenostephanus hondurensis) in recogn ! j to the country. Three others 

(Anisacanthus tela, , i I / ,/ i i near 1\ endemic there (i.e., 

they occur only in Honduras and Bel I Jalvadoi I uatemala, and/or Nicaragua). 


Although neither the total number of native species of vascular plants nor the 
number of those endemic to Honduras are known, based on the estimates of Davis 
et al. (1986; i.e., 5000 species and 148 endemic species) about 3% of the species are 
endemic to the country. The percentage of endemic Acanthaceae (11%) is thus 
more than three and one half times greater than the overall rate of endemism for 
the country. 

Taxonomic reassessments made during this study have resulted in a new name 
(Justicia ciriloi for Beloperone blechioides), a new combination (Stenostephanm 
sc- '':;■-'., . in: '/,.•.■.'.•" > , 'alius), the recognition of a species {Dicliptera anti- 
dysenterica) previously treated as conspecific with another, and the placing of seven 
currently accepted names (Dyschonsu ,,■,,■ • ehi,J. rothschuhii, 

Ruellialatibracteata,R.molin, R.\ id Siphai ass amosa var. hondu- 

rensis) in the synonymy of others. 

The following account includes species that are known to occur in Honduras 
as documented by specimen vouchers. Based on their presence in adjacent regions 
of Central America, additional species of Acanthaceae might be expected to occur 
in Honduras, but have yet to be collected in the country. These include Aphelandra 
gigantiflora Lindau, Chileranthemum pyramidatum (Lindau) T. F. Daniel, Dicliptera 
guttata Standi. & Leonard, Justicia caudata A. Gray,/, eburnea D. N. Gibson, J.fim- 
briata (Nees) V. A. W. Graham, /. grandiflora D. N. Gibson, /. montana (Standi. & 
Leonard) D. N. Gibson, /. silvicola D. N. Gibson, J. soliana Standi., Razisea spicata 
Oerst, Ruellia daimell-smiihii Leonard, R. pereducta Standi, ex Lundell, R. pygmaea 
Donn. Sm., Schaueria parviflora (Leonard) T. F. Daniel, and Tetramerium tenuis- 
simum Rose. 

Distribution and Habitats 

Wilson and Meyer (1982) presented a concise and informative account of 
Honduran physiographic, climatic, and ecological parameters in which they recog- 
nize nine ecological formations varying from arid to dry to moist to wet. American 
Acanthaceae occur in diverse communities but are particularly abundant in wet and 
dry lowland formations and in moist to wet montane forests. The habitat informa- 
tion provided in this treatment reflects that noted on herbarium specimens, which 
is sometimes imprecise or incomplete. From the pooled ecological data for a given 
species, it is often possible to determine whether it occurs in moist to wet vs. dry 
habitats, however. Among native Honduran Acanthaceae that can be unambiguously 
assigned to either moist to wet or dry formations, 46 species appear restricted to the 
former and only three (Henrxa insula is, Tetramerium nemorum, and T. nervosum) 
to the latter. Few tropical American Acanthaceae occur in pine forests (including 
oak-pine forests), which are the most common and widespread plant communities in 
Honduras. Only 10 species of native Honduran Acanthaceae have been specifically 
noted to have been collected in such forests. 

Figure 1 shows the numbers of native species of Acanthaceae in each depart- 
ment of Honduras. Major concentrations of species are present in the three central, 
mountainous departments of Comayagua (36), Olancho (32), and Cortes (31). Each 
of these departments contains a diversity of habitats, including extensive areas of 
both moist to wet and dry formations (Wilson & Meyer 1982). Olancho is the larg- 
est department of Honduras and, according to Nelson (1989), Comayagua is one of 
the few relatively well-collected departments. Departments with the fewest native 
Acanthaceae are Islas de la Bahia (5) and Valle (6). The low numbers there are likely 


due to the small sizes of thesi <J par-inn a ih lack ol" ha nil id ci sky (each depart- 
ment consists mostly or entirely of a single ecological formation), and the high level 
of human disturbance in the landscape (i.e., Valle). Although the Bay Islands were 
apparently connected Id tin mail land throughout much of the Tertiary (Wilson & 
Meyer 1982), other small Caribbean islands near the Central American mainland are 
also poor in Acanthaceae (e.g., Fosberg et al. 1982). 

Given the country's central location and diverse communities, it is perhaps not 
surprising that numerous Acanthaceae attain the northern- or southernmost extent 
of their distributions in Honduras. Non endemic native Acanthaceae that attain 
the northernmost extent of their continental distributions in Honduras consist of 
Herpetucunthits pi uellia Jul \ Si / • ssilifo/ius All are 

species of moist to wet formations. Fifteen species of non-endemic Acanthaceae 
reach the southern- or easternmost extent of their continental distributions in Hon- 
duras: Anisac anth flora, J. tuxtlensis, 
Louteridium domi< . ma albiflorum, O. 
cuspidatuiiK O h Ilia harvey ana, R. 
puberula,Spatiuuu '<< >, • u I ,< ,, t t h, , l moideum. Most of 
these species also occur predominantly or exclusively in moist to wet formations. It is 
a mystery to me why five times more northerly-oc( i < ach the southern 
(or eastern) limit of their distributional range in Honduras than southern species 

n li nv (heir northern 1 

Pm \<)i mo 

In general for Honduras, wet and dry periods are correlated with wind patterns 
resulting from migrations of the thermal equator and intertropical convergence zone 
(Wilson & Meyer 1982); however, given the diverse topography, local weather pat- 
terns are sometimes greatly influenced by regional physiography. In general, rains 
normally commence in 1 londuras in April or May, followed by a short dry season 
(the so-called "veranillo") in late July and early August. Another period of rain 
commences following the veranillo and lasts until November or December. This is 
followed by the mam dry season of live to six months duration. At least five species 
oi nai londi in canllia. i« llower more or less throughout the year: Aphel- 

andra aurantiaca, 1 v< ithrc,.. .hisi'nia rant a ',> n< , ,, < unar forme, and Ruellia 
hookeriana.Thc \ .isi maji . i ,. ol ine remaining native Honduran 

Acanthaceae flower during the long dry season from December into April or May. 
I i ■ i ■!( h. 1 1 sea son The known flow- 

ering periods of eight species (Herpetaca ■ nsiflora, Mendon- 

cia retusa. Pseuden i ... la.Spathacanlhus 

hahnianus, and St ■ i si ml 'hey fiowei primarily or 

exclusively during the rainy scason(s). Several of these species arc known from rela- 
tively few collections and additional observations would be helpful to confirm their 
flowering periods. Flowering collections (i.e., with corollas present) of Lophostachys 
zunigae and Ruellit, :t<iiiiilcxi from Honduras remain unknown. Fruiting usually 
occurs simultaneously with flowering or lags only a month or two behind. 

Honduran Acanthaceah in a Regional Context 

For its relative size, location in the tropics, and topographic complexity, Hondu- 
ras seems depauperate in the total number of native species ot Acanthaceae. Table 

I h ) i mi i (i )i mil iceae in Central \merican nations as well as in 


Table 1. Floristic Data for Regions of Northern Latin America 

The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico comprises the states of Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatan. 
Sources for numbers of total vascular plant species are: Mexico (J. L. Villasefior, pers. comm.), Yucatan 

Peninsula (G.Carnc\ li.peis. < i ) In pa ( i dl v« \" h ielize (Balick et al. 2000), Guatemala 

' .m « l-> I, I (...... r II M, ■ i,.., i ii L997) Nicaragua (Stevens et 

• 1 I'M ,H i.. ,>. ,■ to u ) ,,nKi (llui.nkl u u ) I. Hum HI' \ic\ 1987), Colombia 

(E. Forrero, pers. coram). Sources oi d ita loi lative Acanthaceae are: Mexico (Daniel, unpublished), 
Yucatan Peninsula (Di, .-I mij I ■ I < In, ,. i ( I mi I' - I '" i I,. h/ L (Daniel 1997), Gua- 
temala (Daniel 2001 and unpublished) l. ; ,l Salvadot (Daniel ! (K)1 ) I londuras (present study), Nicaragua 
(Daniel 2001), Costa Fi (Daniel 2001 ). Panama (I miel !()i) id Colombia (Daniel, unpublished); 
numbers for endemic Acanthaceae an derived from same sources and from additional unpublished 

El Salvador 
1 londuras 
Costa Rica 

of Acanthaceae of Acanthaceae endem 

Mexico and Colombia to the immediate north and south. Given its relatively large 
size and habitat diversity, Honduras has fewer total species and endemic species of 
Acanthaceae than several smaller regions to the north and south. This same situa- 
tion is evident to an even greater extent in Nicaragua, the largest Central American 
nation, which has only 59 total native species and just two endemic species of Acan- 

One can attribute the relatively small numbers of Acanthaceae in Belize and El 
Salvador to such factors as the relatively small sizes of these nations, the disturbance 
there caused by humans (both pre- and post-Columbian), and the lack of a diversity 
of major vegetation types. But what accounts for the small numbers in Honduras and 
Nicaragua'' It u I . ind h gi eater diversity of vegetation types. Assum- 

ing that both countries are as well collected as Costa Rica, Panama, and Guatemala, 
there are several possible reasons for the relative paucity of Honduran (and presum- 
ably Nicaraguan) Acanthaceae compared with surrounding regions: 

1) There are not as many regions at high elevations in Honduras as there are 
in Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama. The highest point in Honduras (Montana 
Celaque at 2850 m) is considerably lower than the higher mountains in these coun- 
tries (each of which has several peaks above 3000 m). Although Acanthaceae are not 
abundant in the cloud forest habitats that are generally found at these elevations, 
several genera (e.g Spathaca/itlms Sfena > phanus) uid sp cies in oihei gem ra 


(e.g., Aphelandra tonduzii Leonard. Dicliptcra iopits l.indau. /). skutchii Leonard, 
Justicia imgustibructeuta Leonard. ./. fortunensis T. F. Daniel & Wassh.) are mostly or 
entirely confined to such locations. 

2) There is a general absence of climatic extremes, both wet and dry, in Honduras 
compared with several othei > ; - ime i< an r. i »n I he more or less continuous 
dry forest or thornscrub thai extends from Mexico lo Costa Rica along the Pacific 
Coast occupies very little area in Hond i .. i Ilk i > la onn i topography. As in 
several of the other regions of the country supporting dry forest and thornscrub, 
the limited dry region of the Pacific lowlands in southern Honduras has been highly 
degraded throuuln -n- I !>•.,;> ■ iues to be severely 
impacted by o\ei i i tock and agriculture. There is also little truly wet 
i i i i i flu i In, i in porhon »l the low to mid elevation, moist to wet forests 
of the Caribbean versant in Honduras have a definite drv season that decreases their 
diversity compared to the we I montane forests of oilier regions of Central America. 
Even moist to wet regions at high elevations that are referred to as cloud forests in 
Honduras (and which indeed contain cloud foresl elements) have a definite dry sea- 
son and are not nearly as rich in species as cloud forests to the north or south. 

3) The presence of pine forests covering much of the country would appear to be 
a limiting factor for many species of Acanthaceae, as noted above. Pine forests are 
notably lacking in Acanthaceae wherever both occur, from the southeastern United 

tan i hi i m ! i< id noiihern ( entral America to Nicaragua, where this for- 
est type reaches its southern extent. Hence, the lack of Acanthaceae in this plant 
community and its prevalence in I londuras likely help to explain the relatively low 
number of acanthaceous species in the country. 

It is probable that there is no single reason for the low numbers of both species 
and endemic taxa in Honduras (and Nicaragua) compared to smaller political units 
in the Mesoamerican region. Those numbers may result from all of the factors men- 
tioned and from additional factors that are not obvious to me. Based on the numbers 
of total species presented in Table 1 and figures cited by Bramwell (2002), it appears 
that taxa other than Acanthaceae show a similar pa It rninthi i »u -n. Indeed, Almeda 
(1996) noted a similar situation for Honduran Melastomataceae. 

Conservation and Future Studies 

Even with a lower number of acanthaceous species in Honduras compared 
with some other Mesoamerican region th i ount] i home to a diverse, unique, 
and interesting as emblagi I * . anthaceae. Indeed, the percentage of Acanthaceae 
endemic to Honduras (Table 1) is similar lo that of Guatemala and Chiapas, regions 
with considerably more species. Several undescribed species are described below 
and additional lava will und i i ■ > I londuras as remote regions 

are explored. Fortunately, several of the endemic Acanthaceae occur in protected 
reserves (e.g.. . \pL in Parque Nacional de Celaque and Lophostachys 

zunigae in Parque Nacional Pico Bonito). It is difficult to assess lire conservation 
status of the majority of acanthaceous species in Honduras. Some formerly common 
species may be seriously threatened by loss of habitat (e.g.^Anisacanthus tetracaulis, 
see below), whereas other species appear to be quite rare and are not known to 
occur in protected areas (e.g.. Aphelandra dunlapiana). 1 lopefully, the information 
presented in the catalog below can help to assess the conservation priorities and 
needs for this family in Honduras. 


Collections representing three species of Honduran Acanthaceae, two of Justi- 
cia and one of Dicliptera, could not be identified; they do not sufficiently resemble 
known species in their respective genera from North and Central America to be 
associated with a name. In this catalog, they are treated under their respective genera 
but will require additional studies to determine whether they represent undescribed 
species, fall within the circumscription of poorly known South American taxa, or 
represent variation within species that require taxonomic reconsideration. 

La Mosquitia (i.e., that part of northeastern Honduras mainly occupied by the 
indigenous Miskito people, with extensive areas of lowland pine savanna, and com- 
prising most of the department of Gracias a Dios) is perhaps the least explored and 
least collected region of Honduras (Proctor 1983). Undoubtedly, additional native 
Acanthaceae will be found there. It is also likely that there were additional Acantha- 
ceae in Honduras that have been extirpated during the past several hundred years. 

Contents of Catalog 

In the following enumeration of Honduran Acanthaceae at least one collection 
is cited from each department in which the species is known to occur. For native 
and naturalized species the habitats, elevational ranges, and flowering and fruiting 
times noted are based solely on Honduran collections. Distributions in the Western 
Hemisphere are noted for each native species. Detailed descriptions are provided 
here only for poorly known species and Honduran endemics. Pollen morphology 
is often useful for both classifying and identifying Acanthaceae. Scanning electron 
micrographs of pollen grains are shown for rare and endemic species, or to illustrate 
characteristics used in taxonomic discussions. Keys to and descriptions of most Acan- 
thaceae occurring in Honduras are available in one or more of the following recent 
treatments of American Acanthaceae: Daniel (1995b), Durkee (1978, 1986, 2001), 
and Gibson (1974). The catalog also includes Acanthaceae cultivated in Honduras as 
they are represented in herbaria. In addition to those noted here, there are undoubt- 
edly other exotic Acanthaceae cultivated in the country. Types of all names based on 
Honduran Acanthaceae are noted. Taxonomic reconsiderations are discussed where 


Acanthus montanus (Nees) T Anders. 

This native of western tropical Africa is cultivated in gardens in Honduras. Other 
species of Acanthus L. are likely grown for ornament in the country as well. Nelson 
(1986) noted A. mollis L. as being cultivated there, but no specimens of it have been 

ty of Siguatepeque, planted in garden. P. Stmullcy ct- ./. 

Anisacanthus tetracaulis Leonard 

Shrubs to 2 (-3) m tall. Young stems quadrate to quadrate-sulcate, ± bifariously 
to ± evenly pubescent with retrorse to flexuose to antrorse eglandular trichomes 
0.1-1 mm long, distally often with an understory of evenly disposed eglandular to 
subglandular and glandular trichomes less than 0.05 mm long as well. Leaves petiolate, 


petioles to 44 mm long, blades ovate to ovate-elliptic, 25-120 mm long, 10-77 mm 
wide, 1.5-3.3 times longer than wide, acuminate at a] e 1 i tn il I i rounded to acute 
at base, surfaces pubescent (especially along major veins) with flexuose to antrorse 
eglandular trichomes, the abaxial surfaci ils pubescenl with in understory of erect 
glandular trichomes to 0.1 mm long (sometimes restricted to midvein). Inflorescence 
of axillary and terminal dichasiate spikes (to racemes to thyrses), these sometimes 
branched at base and collectively forming a term ii il] i uses evenly pubes- 

cent with erect eglandular to subglandular and glandular trichomes to 0.1 mm long, 
and usually also w ■ ■■■■ ■ .4 'l.mdular trichomes like those of young 

stems (especially proximally); dichasia alternate, 1 per axil, secund, sessile to subses- 
sile (i.e., with peduncles to I mm long). In , ubi 1 .5-2.5 mm long, 0.2-0.5 mm 

wide, abaxial surface pubescenl h in rorse ej mi nl I ii ' m - 0.2-0.5 mm long. 
Bracteoles subulate, 1.5-2.5 mm long, 0.3-0.4 mm wide, abaxial surface pubescent like 
bracts and with understory trichomes like those of rachis as well. Flowers sessile to 
pedicellate, pedicels to 3 mm long. Calyx 6-9 mm long (during anthesis, up to 1 1 mm 
long in fruit), tube 1-1.5 mm long, lobes lance subulate, 4.5-8 mm long, 3.8-8 times 
longer than tube, 0.8-1.6 mm wide, abaxially pubescent with an understory of erect 
glandular and eglandular trichomes 0.05-0.2 mm long and an overstory (sometimes 
absent) of flexuose to antrorse eglandular trichomes to 0.6 mm long. Corolla red, 
;: 'Xmiulong.e I llv pub<. cei vith flexuose to retrorse eglandular trichomes 
0.1-0.3 mm long, tube 13-15 mm long, upper lip 11-15 mm long, 2-lobed at apex, 
lobes to 0.8 mm long, lower lip 11—14 mm long, lobes ovate, 3.5-6.5 mm long, 2.5-4 
mm wide. Stamens 21-37 mm long, thecae red, 2.5-3.3 mm long; pollen (Fig. 2a, b) 
3-colporate, 6-pse ■ tale, i periu ria reticulate. Style 23-38 mm 

long, stigma 0.3 mm long, lobes not evident. Capsule 11-16 mm long, glabrous, head 
ib nil o il lo >me h; li, ii. l,o in lip.i m « -inline, o 9 mm long. Seeds 

2-4 per capsule, sublenticular to concavo-convex, 4.5 5.8 mm long, 3.5^4.6 mm wide, 
no i ni'l Jii.M an iuIi reulal 

Phenology. Flowering: November-May; fruiting: February-May. 

Distribution and i il u ii I % - si ad n Ion I i op n fields in region of moist 
I..,, i , , ,i I i |i i il i, i,. ,i as di\ loicds di\ biusln quebradas, roadsides; 
800-1200 m. 

ii \i Si'i i ii ' - i v I ml il . . 1 1 1 i i «! i I i ( iIkIu 1 Ruhio 7(MO.PMA).— Ei. 

Paraiso: Rio de los Aguacates N ol" Yuscaran. P. Shuullev 25718 (HAP). -Francisco Morazan: Rio de 
La Orilla.SW del Valle\)c, A. Molina li. .W,S'(I-AI', F, CiH).— Oi.anc ho: Campamento, tf. Ramos 

« il i iiijl i « «li. li. mi I iln pccii i )!'>> n n hi oulsul fin Inra in 

icl 2001). The type [Francisco Mora/an: region of Cahuite. 800 1075 m, dry brushy 
quebrada, 5 March 1 947. P. Standley et oil. 5012 (holotvpe: US!; isotypes: F! NY!)] and 
most other collections are from the department of Francisco Morazan. Two species 
of Anisacaiuhus (ca. 20 species, mostly from North America and South America) are 
known from Central America, this one and the recently described A. nicaraguensis 
Durkee from Nicaragua (Durkee 1999) According t< Durkei L999),A tetracaulis 
differs from A. nicaraguensis by its shorter corollas (22-27 vs. 33-35 mm long), 
shorter calyces (6-9 vs. 11-15 mm loni-i i I u I n i I ^ ' 

3.5-4.5 mm long), and shorter thecae (2.5-3.3 vs. 3.6-3.8 mm long). Leonard (1950) 
indicated that A tei auh i elated to the South American species,/!, caducifolius 
(Griseb.) Linda u, whu h ii> nidi- ited cliff* red h\ its terete stems, shorter inflores- 
cence, and smaller calyces. Daniel (2001) noted some of the distinctive characters of 



FIG. 2. Pollen oil londuran Acanlhaci . . \nisacanthu iclracatdi ( ,'nrkcr 62'J from F.l ! I idor) vie\ I- ' </,/,,< // (Tad rt " i ii « | tin I i ■ ''dm , | (Molina et al. 31415), 
mleraperturai view <l Odoiiloncnut honditt nsi (Darnel & [raqiic 9500) mi> i ,i;»-ituial view. e. O. hondu- 
rense (Daniel & Araqu. 0500) puln ic\ i Mcliptt u antidxsentcricu (Dunia • \ra<iu '>>> ) iperUiral 
view. g. D. antidysentenca {Daniel tv Araqne 9612), interapertural view, h Pscudennuhenuun liesneri 

A. tetracaulis with respect to Salvadoran Acanthaceae, but a full description of this 
poorly known species seems warranted and is provided above. 

It appears that Anisacantiuis tetracaulis is becoming rare in Honduras. It was 
rather commonly collected in the vicinity of Tegucigalpa and in the Yeguare Valley 
until about 1950. It has been collected only rarely since that time, and I was unable 
to locate populations of it during 2000 and 2001 in spite of extensive searching in 
regions where it had previously been collected. Both regions have experienced con- 
siderable increases in human population and environmental alteration in the years 
since 1950. 


Aphelandra aurantiaca Lindl. 

Phenology. Flowering: throughout the year; fruiting: December, March- April, 

Distribution and habitat. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa 
Rica, Panama, Colombia, Surinam, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil; 
moist forests, wet forests; 30-360 m. 

Ri-tiu SL-MATivi Simumi-nn Yi i ,\Yi n>\ I.iiHinll 11 m in i i t ilia from Lancetilla 

Botanical Garden, ca. I 5 "44 'N. S7 11' W. T. Daniel A J. Araqm- '/AS'.? (CAS. FAR MO). -Cortes: La Cum- 
bre desprendimiento de Sierra ue ( )moa. A. Molina R. .CC. ( 1 CAP. I-'. CS).— Islas or la Bahi'a: Guanaja, 
Fruit Harbour Bight. \Y. Matamoros 1X7 (TEF'H). -Yoro: Cordillera NAmbre de Dios, ca. 2.5 km S of 
San Jose de Texfguat, between Rio Guan Guan and Oncbrada Agiiac;ii;il. 15 Al'N, ST27.5'W, R. Evans 
1316 (CAS, MO). 

The narrow-leaved form of the species, sometimes treated as A. repanda Nees or 
A. aurantiaca var. stenophylla Standi., is known from northwestern Honduras (e.g., 
Standley 52635 at EAP, Standley 53875 at F).The type of the latter name is from this 
region: Atlanttda: I .ancclilla Valley near Tela, 150 m, wet forest, 22 December 1927, 
Standley 53487 (holotype: F!). 

Aphelandra dunlapiana Standi. & T. O. Williams 

Perennial herbs or shrubs to 2 m tall. Young stems subquadrate to quadrate, 
evenly pubescent with erect to antrorse to antrorsely appressed eglandular trichomes 
0.2-0.5 mm long. Leaves opposite, peliolate. petioles to 110 mm long, blades elliptic, 
200-350 mm long. 66 138 mm wide, 2.3-4.0 times longer than wide, acuminate at 
apex, gradually or abruptly attenuate at base, surfaces pubescent (especially along 
major veins) with erect to llexuose to antrorse eglandular trichomes, margin entire to 
subsinuate. Spikes terminal, elongate, up to 180 mm long (excluding flowers), 40-49 
rum n 4 i i (. i im i > is) nun mJ i>il. i ins e\ enl\ pubescent with 
erect to flexuose eglandular trichomes 0.3-0.6 mm long. Bracts tinged reddish when 
dry, spreading with age, ovate to elliptic to narrowly elliptic, 16-29 mm long, 4-10 
mm wide, 2.9-4 times longer than wide, acute and erect at apex, abaxial surface and 
margin pubescent with flexuose to antrorse eglandular trichomes 0.2-0.4 mm long 
and distally pubescent with ereel glandular trichomes 0.1-0.2 mm long as well, mar- 
gin dentate with 1 (-2) teeth per side, teeth 0.2-3.5 (—1.5) mm long. Bracteoles often 
deciduous, subulate, 1.2-2.5 mm long, 0.2-0.4 mm wide, abaxial surface pubescent with 
antrorse eglandular trichomes 0.2-0.6 mm long. Calyx 9-14 mm long, lobes lanceo- 
late to lance-ovate, 2-2.7 mm wide at base, subanstate to ai istale at apex, abaxially 
pubescent with flexuose to antrorse eglandular trichomes 0.2-0.6 mm long. Corolla 
red, 60-67 mm long, externally pubescent with flexuose glandular (and a few eglan- 
dular) trichomes 0.3-1 .2 mm long, upper lip 24-26 mm long, entire or 2-lobed at apex, 
lobes to 1 mm long, margin flared except at apex and base, lower lip ± perpendicular 
to or forming an obtuse angle with upper lip, 27-32 mm long, lateral lobes linear- 
elliptic, 22-24 mm long, 2.5-6 mm wide, lower-central lobe elliptic, 25-30 mm long, 
7-12 mm wide, 1-1 .3 times longer and 1 .7-3.4 times wider than lateral lobes. Stamens 
55-58 mm long, filaments pubescent with eglandular trichomes throughout length, 
thecae 6.5-7.5 mm long, apically pubescent with cobwebby trichomes, posterior pair 
extended up to 1.5 mm hi one n rim ir: pollen ( Fn> \i c) > eolpate;staminode 
not seen. Style 54-60 mm long, pubescent through tit length i ma symmetrically 
funnelform, 0.2-0.3 mm long. Capsule 17-19 mm long, glabrous. Seeds ± flattened. 


FIG. 3. Pollen of Aphelandra dimlaphmu ( lluzlctt a at. S022) and A. molinae (Daniel &/ 
a. A. dunlapiana, apertural view. b. A. tiiudapiaiui. mlerapertural view; c. . A. dimlupiuna. pol 
molinae, apertural vie\ • i. mnlnuir. ini< aperimal \ie* I <»- ;///;</t\ polar view. Scale t 

5-5.5 mm long, 4-4.5 mm wide, surface covered with unbranched papilla-like tri- 
chomes to 0.2 mm long. 

Phenology. Flowering: April; fruiting: April. 

Distribution and habitat. Endemic to Honduras; moist to wet forests; 150-270 m. 

REPRisrM \n\i Sri < imi vii da: ravim F o exisiuat River. I km V ol aldea I.a Aurora 

15°30'N, 87°26'W, D lit leu n <il <> ' (( S. HAP) V'oko: Cuenca de I ' >m Inada El Aguacatal, al S 
de San Jose de Iexigual. I5A0 1 HFN SV ^7 2 ? W. ,' f;«//a//<'C 704 (CAS, MO). 

The specimens cited above represent the first collections of this species since the 
type [Atlantida: vicinity of San Alejo, at base of hills S of San Alejo near Rio San 
Alejo, 22-27 April : - idley 7<5iS(holotype:F!;isotype: US!)] was collected in 
1947. They reveal that this species, endemic to Honduras and with particularly showy 
flowers, persists in the Caribbean lowlands of the northwestern part of the country. 
The description of A. dunlapiana given above is based on all known collections. 


Aphelandra molinaeT. F. Daniel, sp. nov.— Type: Honduras. Lcmpira: Parque Nacio- 
nal de Celaque, ca. 7 km W of Gracias. summit trail from visitor center to Las 
Minas, 14'33-34'N, 88738-40'W, 1500 m, moist montane forest. 16-17 January 
2001, 77 Daniel & J. Araque VHH5 (holotvpe: (AS!; isolvpes: EAP! MICH! 
MOITEFH!). Fig. 4. 

Frutex usque ad 1 .5 m altus. Folia opposita, laminae ellipticae. 1 10-205 mm lon- 
gae, 28-59 mm latae, 3.5-4.0-plo longiores quam latiores. Spicae ± elongatae, 40-55 
mm diametro ad medium. Bracteac ovatae vel ellipticae vel obovatae, 28-40 mm 
longae, 12-15 mm latae, margine integrae, pagina abaxi b< ens trichomatibus 

glandulosis et eglandulosis. Bracteolae lanceolatae, 15-18 mm longae. Corolla rubra, 
■»" 70 niiii I .nga . ius pubi ■.'. ns labium ink 1'um lobis lateralibus obovatis, 16-18 
mm longis, 8.5-1 1 mm latis.Thecac 6 6.2 mm longae, pubesccntes. Capsula pubescens 
Inch ii 1 i i >l;u!i ulo i 

Shrubs to 1.5 m tall. Youn- i i >.,.(, i. . m, i ■ . sparsely pubes- 
cent with antrorsely appressed eglandular trichomes 0.1-0.3 mm long. Leaves oppo- 
site, petiolate, petioles (naked portion) to 65 mm long, blades elliptic, 1 10-205 mm 
long, 28-59 mm wide, 3.5-4.0 times longer than wide, acuminate to falcate at apex, 
attenuate-decurrent at base, surfaces ± sparsely pubescent (especially along major 
veins) with antrorsely appressed eglandular trichomes, margin entire. Spikes terminal, 
' '■ i -i i ••- k). 40 55 mm in diameter (excluding 

flowers) near midspike, rachis evenly and + densely pubescent with erect to flexuose 
eglandular and glandular trichomes 0.3-0.7 mm long. Bracts maroon-tinged, ovate to 
elliptic to obovate, 28-40 mm long, 12-15 mm wide. V 7 s times longer than wide, 
erect to spreading, ± abruptly acuminate to subcaudate and erect to recurved-spread- 
ing at apex, abaxial surface and margin pubescent with erect to llcxuose eglandular 
and glandular trichomes 0.1-0.6 mm m ■ (gl ndi i n pubescent), margin entire. 
Bracteoles lanceolate, 15-18 mm long, 1.7-2.6 mm wide, abaxial surface glandular 
pubescent. Calyx 16-18 mm long, lobes free to base, lanceolate, 2.5-3 mm wide at 
base, abaxially glandular pubescent. Corolla red, 67-70 mm long, externally glandular 
pubescent, upper lip 24 26 mm long, emarginate at apex, lower lip perpendicular to 
upper lip to reflexed. 26 28 mm long, lateral lobes obovate, 16-18 mm long, 8.5-11 
mm wide, lower-central lobe obovate, 25-27 mm long, 17-22 mm wide, 1.5-1.6 times 
longer and 1 .8-2.1 times wider than lateral lobes. Stamens 49-55 mm long, posterior 
pair inserted 1 mm distal to anterior pair, filaments proximally pubescent with flex- 
uose eglandular trichomes, distally sparsely pubescent to glabrous, thecae 6-6.2 mm 
long, all apically pubescent, posterior pair dorsally pubescent as well, anterior pair 
dorsally sparsely (if at all) pubescent; pollen (lag, 3d I) 3 -colpalc, each colpus with a 
fusiform band of thickened exine in the centei , each pole with 3-armed aperturelike 
indentation; staminode I mm i -ng Style 60 (Ann i long pubescent with eglandular 
trichomes throughout, stigma 0.2 0.5 mm long, t symmetrically I unnelform. Capsule 
17-23 mm long, pubescent with erect to flexuose to antrorse to retrorse eglandular 
trichomes 0.2-0.3 mm long. Seeds not seen. 

Phenology. Flowering; January; fruiting: January. 

Distribution an. 1 ibital I ndemic to western Honduras; moist montane forests; 
1500 m. 

Thisshowy species is similai t |,;/ , „ ,, - I ind m in most features; 

however, it differs sufficiently from that taxon to warrant taxonomic recognition. 
These two species can be distinguish^ .y the I ing couplet: 




FICi 4 Apia laiuli amoliiw (Ihmh-IJ wqih %S5) i lahK with II vvi D.h.h >■ ol 

,\ilh anthci S.i Pislal norlion ol i! villi h ( <l " insul with ilvx and one bractcoL 

■.Apexofbractcolc sliov-iiisi nah, . a.. , av. n b\ I'aiil la\. 


Bracts ± abruptly acumin 

i I ii> i .1 I'll.. ..!.«.> ii. 1|| mm >» i,|, |,»u, , , , nil il 1« 
n lateral lobes; thecae d-d. 2 mm long: Honduras. 
(rounded to) acute to gradually acuminate at apex; bi 

in long: southern 

: species of Aphel- 

1. ,Aba\ial surface of In acts with ..' submaigmnl dinners ol padlike nee! a lies ( up to Id per cluster); 
corolla 30-45 mm long, lateral lobes of lower lip reduced h, vestigial toothdtke appendages' 
i i ii i i i i hp a. scabra 

lobes of lower lip conspicuous, u.s /M nun long, uoi aiiaehed to upper lip. 

2. Young stems t llattened: bracts dentate with 7 Is teeth per side; lateral lobes of lower lip of 

corolla s>.5 IS nun long: iheeae -I 5 mm long. A. awantiaea 

2. Young stems sublerete to quadrate to quadrale-sulcate; bracts entire or dentate with 1 (-2) 
teeth per side; lateral lobes of lower lip of corolla In -24 mm long; thecae 6-7.5 mm long. 
3. Inflorescence raclus pubescent Willi eglandular Inchomcs only: bracts lo-2s> mm long. 4- 10 
mm wide, 2.9-4 times longer than wide, acute at apex, margin dentate with 1 (-2) teeth per 
side: braeteoles subulate. 1.2 2.5 mm long; lateral lobes of lower lip of corolla linear-elliptic, 
22 24 mm long inumwidi i ii ill -In. on A. dunlapiana 

3. Inflorescence rachis pubescent with eglandular an. I glandular 1 1 ichomcs: bracts 28- 40 mm 
long, 12-15 mm wide. 3.2 2.8 times longer than wide. > abrupt!) acuminate to subcaudate 
at apex, margin entire; braeteoles lanceolate. 15 IS mm King; lateral lobes of lower lip of 
corolla obovate, 16-18 mm long. 8.5-1 1 mm wide; capsule pubescent. A. moliuae 

It is a pleasure to name this striking species in honor of Don Antonio Molina R. 
(b. 1926), long-time taxonomist with the Escucla Panamericana Agrfcola, able col- 
lector of American plaids, and dedicated proponent of Central American botanv 
(Malo 1999). 

Aphelandra scabra (Vahl) Sm. 

Phenology. Flowering: September-April. July: ii nil nig: January-May. 

Distribution and habitat. Mexico, Guatemala. Belize. Id Salvador, Honduras. 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana. Surinam, Brazil; 
moist forests, pine forests, pine oak forests, oak forests, thickets, aloim streams, brushy 
slopes; 0-1900 m. 

Rhi'Ki sini \ii\i So ■cimi-ns. All \miii\: Puerto Escondido. I'unia Sal. 25 km Ode Tela, C Nelson 
7860 (TEFH).-C moi.ii < x ne.u In ll,\,si., / U ,//„,„„ i \ u,,/,,,,, A lov> A \P) -Colon: base of 

( ( ^ s > < "M^ v. i x Sicuukpccpu / Idnaoh AMI ( IS) ( , „ vn I km \ ( op m Rumas /) / en,: 
1744(EAP).—Cniuis: K,o I 4ua. I'mucnta. . \. Molina A' vjJMEAP. E). El Paraiso: road to Yuscaran, 

i '"■ bi ado del Mm... ./ 'milieu 11335 (NY.t:S). Eras, is. . . \|, >, { \/ 

ca. 5 km S of Fd Xamoi ano. ca 1 * S.S'N. 86 VAVV. 7. IhmicI A' J Aruquc 0444 (( 'AS. EAP. MO).— Graoias a 
Dios: Barra Platano. 15 53'K.84 42 W. I'. Fryxcll 2834 (CAS), -Mini < a: Ouebrada Santiago near SW base 
of Sierra de Monlecillo-, ca. 2-l.s km SW ol Snmalcpcque toward Jesus dc Otoro.ea. 14 '3EN. 87"59'W. '/.' 
Daniel & J. Anu/ue 9642a (CAS, EAP) .— Isi as di i a Baiiia: Isla de Roatan. ( . Nelson & E. Romero 4584 
(CAS).— La Paz: 300 m S de Cuajiquiro. R. Keyset- 1384 (EAP), -Li-mi'ira: Celaque National Park, ca. 7 
km W of Gracias. ca. 14 54'N. 88 38'W. /.' Darnel A ./. Anu/ue <AM6 (CAS. EAP). C)< , m i-i -. >i i : vicinilv ot 
Nuevo Ocotepequc, I' Siandlev JAW (CAP) Oi am m< ,: lower slopes of Sierra de Ai>alta, 3-5 km above 
(N) of Catacamas ca I I 31 \ ss s \ \\ / /w«/A (, hi <a<a<( \S 1 \P, S\m\B\kb\r\ Lago 
Yojoa,Punta Gorda. 14 52'N. 88 00 \\. ./. UaeDou&tl ei til. 3/13 (( AS). Yah 1 : ca. 3.5 km SE of Covolito 
on Isla Zacate Grande, ca. 13'4 9'N, 87'36'W. /. Daniel A ./. . [uinae 'AS'.'/ ((AS. EAR MO). Yoro: Rio 
Jacagua. 15 km O dc Victoria, ( . Nelson et ul. 7039 (TEFH). 


The widespread occurrence (in all 18 departments) of this species in Honduras is 
likely a result of its broad ecological amplitude rather than "weediness," as in some 
other widely distributed Acanthaceae (e.g., Blechumpyramidatum). 

Aphelandra sinclairiana Nees 

This native of southern Central America, which differs from Honduran species 
by its orange bracts and pink corollas, is known only from cultivation in Honduras. 

Representative specimens. Corn s: garden in San Pedro Snla. T. Perez E. s.n. (EAP, F). 

Asystasia gangetica T Anderson 

This native of Africa and the Indian Subcontinent is cultivated and possibly 
naturalized in Honduras. 

Representative Specimi ns. Corii v garden in San Pedro Sula. T. Perez li. s.n. (EAP).— Gracias a 
Digs: cultivada en Puerto Lempira, C. Nelson & E. Yin-as 5/66 (MO.TLFH). Is. as de laBahIa: Gua- 
najii I ruit i ! irhom ighl M on W 0\ I 

nly from cultivation in Hon- 

Barleria oenotheroides Dum. Cours. 

Phenology. Flowering: November January, May; fruiting: December, March- 
Distribution and habitat. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador. Honduras, 

Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana; pine-oak forests, pine 

forests, moist thickets, along streams: 750-1 101) m 

Representative Spicimins Choieih \ Cerm ( manacan o ! ■ km I SI <l< ■ holm ea .' eh,,,,, 
1457 (TEFH).— Comayagua: Chichipak Rio nire, 30 km L l igo Yojoa. ( \elson et al. 6607 (MO. 
TEFH).— Copan: Hwy CA4 between Guatemalan border at Agua Caliente and Santa Rosa de Copan, at 
Rio Higuito near village of Cucuyagua Co] < »u & D Harmon 63862 (CAS).— El 

Paraiso: Montana Cifuentes entre El Urraco \ Okienk- . "//<«• lii'l\ \ ' ' n <'<< 

Morazan: Suyapa, A Yoh,«> 1 ~0 > 1 1 P) Inline f.tuelaad Sauna- i . i SW base of Sierra de 
Monteeillos. ca. 24.5 km SW of Siguatepeque kv ai >• i • >. ' h -ro ea. 14 °31'N. 87 °59'W, T. Daniel & 
./. Arai/iii 96W (CAS EAP) — I i m I | " ' ' n <iiu.sC \tlson el al 247 (MEXU, 

Ibl-ll)— Oi who RioPalue, i (, (nizllU II I ill > I > i 

Barbara, ca. 14 °55'N. 88 14'W, T. Daniel & J. , Vraque 9620 (CAS, EAP K. MO. US). 

New World collections of this species have long been identified with the name 
Barleria micans Nees. Daniel (1995a) and Balkwill and Balkwill (1997) have shown 
that American plants of B. micans are conspecific with the western African species 

B. oenotheroides. 

Blechum grandiflorum Oerst. 

Phenology. Flowering: January- April; fruiting: February-May. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua; cloud for- 
ests, moist forests, pine forests, moist thickets, cafetales; 400-1700 m. 

Representative Specimens. Com n.,r..\ Montaiiuela^ \ Molina P U7S4(\ \P) — Corils: cafetal 
Los Naranjos near Lav.o Yojoa. ./ Diekson .11 'S (LAP).— El Pxraiso: Monlana Apauhis sobre Danli. 


1600 m, bosque de nubes, 24 Sep 1952. A Molina R. 5119 (type of Ruellia laahraeteaia I). N. Gibson: 
holotype:F!;isotypes: LAP! (iH!). -Fkanusco Mora/an: faldas de Cordillera de Misoco, A Mo///ia ft. 
6054 (EAR F).— Olam no: along Rio Olaneho. on road between San Lsieban and Bonito Oriental. 3.3 
mi SW of border with Colon Dept., along Rio Grande, 20.8 mi SW of jet. in hwy to La Ceiba and Trujillo. 
15°3LN,85A?'W. T. Croat t £ 1). Ilannon 64507 (CAS. FA P. MO). Yonn: I'iedia Colorada, A Molina R. 
6885 (EAP,F). 

Ruellia latibracteuta is treated here as a synonym of II grandifiorum. It was 
based on collections from several departments of Honduras (Gibson 1972). Most 
of the collections cited above were originally i I as -Ruellia locuples Standi. 

& L. Williams," a name that was never validly published. Similar collections from 

•' ' "f Iii I " i' "I mii t i\ t been n ikd ^ eithei /< mirandana Rama- 

moorthy & Hornelas (Ramamoorthy & Hornelas 1988) or Blechum gmndiflorum 
Oerst. (Daniel W)5h\ Durkee 2001 ). Daniel ( 1 99S a ) discussed the generic position 
of this species and the generic distinctions between Medium and Ruellia. Plants of 
R. latibracteata from Honduras have the diagnostic characteristics of the former 
genus. Plants from the western portion of the range of the species (Mexico and Gua- 
temala) differ from most of those in the eastern portion of the range (Honduras and 
Nicaragua; including the type of R. latibracteata) by having inconspicuous glandular 
trichomes on the surfaces of the bracts and bracteoles. Pubescence, if any, on the 

bracts and bracteoles of most plants 1'iom J loiulni. md i >• I , 

antrorse to antrorsely appressed eglandular trichomes mostly along the midvein. A 
few of the inconspicuous glands are evident on Dickson J 178 at RAP however. In all 
'■"I iii •' i'iii <' A tii'i'it; i.-aia from Honduras concur with those treated as 
B. grandijtorum elsewhere in tropical America. 

Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb. 

Phenology. Flowering: November .lime; fruiting: November-June. 

Distribution and habitats. U.S.A., Mexico. Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica. Panama. West Indies. Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, 
Surinam, French Guiana, Ecuador. Peru, Bolivia, naturalized in the Old World; pine- 
oak forests, moist forests, wet thickets, disturbed thickets, waste ground, lawns, along 


lilla Botanical Garden, ca. 15 44 
along road between Panamcric;: 
/.Daniel A. f. Araque 9815 (C A: 
1219 (TEFH).— El 
Ruiiias, A Molina R. fo95 (EA1 
&A. Molina R. 12386 (RAP. F) 
(EAP).-Francisc o Mora/an: : 
86°59'W. T. Daniel & ./. Araque < 

of Sierra de Montecillos, ca. 24.: 

T. Daniel & J. Araque 9641 (CAS).— Islas de la Bahia: 4 km E of Coxen 

R. 20724 {HAP, L US). -La Paz: Aldea La Honda G km SI de Maieala M. Martinez M. 151 (MO) 
Ocothpeque: vicinity of Nueva Gcolepc M ue. /' Slum/lev 27994 (LAP). Oi \n< ik>: ca. 2.5 km above I 
Calacamas on lower slopes of Siena de Alalia, ea. 14 5.LN. ,S4"54'W, /.' Daniel X (1. Cil:, 9585 (C. 
EAP).— Santa Barbara ea. <) km SW of IVna Blanea. in wash near Los Laureles and along road t 
km beyond toward El 1 ligneron. ea. 14 5CN. NK 04' W. T. Daniel A- ./. Araque 96/4 (CAS, EAP).— Val 

S7 <2 V\ / Dana I A I \ „ <0,m< i , , , ' „■ I i , | , | ''!,,", \ ( '/ w „, ' 

Martmer, 1871 (TEFH). 


Bravaisia integerrima (Spreng.) Standi. 

Phenology. Flowering: February-May; fruiting: February. 

Distribution and habitat. Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, Panama, West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela; primary forests; 10-90 m. 

Represents im Spkcimi s. Cholutixa: 4 km SO d< Marcovia L Mcxander s.n. (74-16) (TEFH).— 
Coma^agua Valle tk ( in. vauia D Hcirf it 1 1 J (F AP)— (mun l>io ' rm Sipul I km ! ik 
Krausirpe,15°03'N,84 52' W. •" ••' »»sr » \"7 (BM,F,MEXU,MO,TEFH). 

This is one of the few arborescent species of Acanthaceae; in Honduras, it 
reaches heights to 20 meters. Data on House 2287 attribute a local name ("yauma") 
to the Tawahka inhabitants in Gracias a Dios, and note that this species is used for 
firewood and its ash is used to treat maize kernels before grinding them to make 

Carlowrightia arizonica A. Gray 

Phenology. Flowering: March; fruiting: March. 

Distribution and habitats. U.S.A., Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica; habitat unknown; 640 m. 

Representative Specimens, Comayac;i;a: El Banco./ Valeria R. 2470 (EAR !•'). 

Crossandra iRfundibuliformis (L.) Nees 

This native of Africa, Arabia, and the Indian Subcontinent is known only from 
cultivation in Honduras. 

Dicliptera antidysenterica A. Molina R. 

Perennial herbs or shrubs to 1.5 m tall. Young stems quadrate-sulcate to sub- 
hexagonal, ± bifariously pubescent with retrorse to retrorsely appressed eglandular 
trichomes 0.1-0.3 mm long. Leaves petiolate, petioles to 75 mm long, blades ovate 
to elliptic, 35-185 mm long, 18-104 mm wide, 1.2-2.1 times longer than wide, acumi- 
nate at apex, (truncate to) rounded to acute to subattenuate at base, surfaces pubes- 
cent (especially along major veins) with flexuose to antrorse eglandular trichomes. 
Inflorescence of pedunculate cymes in axils of distal leaves and subfoliose bracts 
(inflorescence bracts) at or near shoot apex, inflorescence bracts often caducous, 
rachis pubescent with retrorse to retrorsely appressed eglandular trichomes 0.2-0.4 
mm long, trichomes ± concentrated in 2 vertical lines, cymes (1-) 2-3 (-4) per axil, 
opposite at nodes, peduncles 2-23 mm long, pubescent like rachis, inflorescence bracts 
petiolate, ovate to narrowly elliptic, 8-18 mm long, 2-5.5 mm wide, pubescent like 
leaves, paired bracts subtending cymes lance-subulate to lanceolate to lance-ovate 
to linear, 5-14 mm long, 0.8-2.2 mm wide, abaxial surface nearly glabrous to sparsely 
pubescent with eglandular trichomes, margin ciliate with erect to flexuose eglandular 
trichomes to 1.2 mm long; cymules (3-) 4-6 (-7) per cyme, sessile to pedunculate, 
peduncles to 3 mm long. Outer cymule bracteoles unequal, the larger one obovate 
(to obovate-elliptic), 8-17 mm long, 1.2-1.7 times longer than shorter one, 2.4-7 mm 
wide, the shorter one elliptic to ovate, 6.5-10 mm long, 1.8-3 mm wide, both bracte- 
oles rounded to acute (or sometimes slightly apiculate) at apex, mucro absent (or if 


present, then up to 0.2 mm long), abaxial surface pubescent with Ilexuose to antrorse 
to antrorsely oppressed eglandular Irichomes 0.1-0.4 mm long, adaxial surface pubes- 
cent with flexuose glandular and eglandular Irichomes to 0.4 mm long, margin ciliate 
with erect to flexuose eglandular trichomes to 1 .5 mm long, inner cymule bracteoles 
lanceolate, 5.5-9 mm long, 0.9-1 .4 mm wide, abaxial surface pubescent with flexuose 
to antrorse eglandular trichomes 0.2-0.3 mm long. Calyx 4 5.5 mm long, lobes subu- 
late, unequal, 3-4 mm long, abaxiallv pubescent like inner cymule bracteoles. Corolla 
resupinate, cream white with laml maroon markings on upper lip. 15-19 mm long, 
externally pubescent with flexuose eglandular and sometimes glandular (sparse and 
inconspicuous when present) trichomes 0.2- (US mm long, lube 7.5 9.5 mm long, 1-1.5 
mm in diameter near midpoint, upper lip 7-1 1 mm long, 3-lobed, lobes 0.3-0.6 mm 
long, lower lip 7-1 1 mm long, entire. Stamens inserted near mouth of corolla tube, 
10-12 mm long, filaments pubescent with eglanduiar (and sometimes a few glandular) 
trichomes, thecae 1-1.4 mm long, ± equal in size, subparallel to subperpendicular, 
unequally inserted (overlapping by 0.4-0.7 mm long), dehiscing toward upper lip; 
pollen (Fig. 2f, g) 3 eolporale. 6 psettdoeolpate with much deformity and/or fusion 
of pseudocolpi. Style 14-15 mm long, pubescent with eglandular trichomes, stigma 
lobes 0.3-0.5 mm long. Capsule subslipitate, 6.5-7.5 mm long, pubescent with flexuose 
glandular (especially near apex) and eglandular trichomes 0.1-0.5 mm long, stipe 
0.5-0.8 mm long. Seeds 2.3-3 mm long, 2.2-3 mm wide, surface knobby with low, 
rounded papillae. 

Phenology. Flowering: February-May; fruiting: February-May. 

Distribution and habitats. 1 ndemic to Honduras; moist forests, along streams, 
along trails, cafetales; 760-2 1 00 in 

Ui pki simai i\ i Sim < i\ii as. ( \ >\i \v\« ,i \: along Ouebi ada Agua I lelada. jusl outside San Jose de Los 
Planes, ea. 14 km F. of Fago Yojoa. 14 47'N. S7Y1 W. R. /-Ivans LW (CAS. FAP. MO, TEFH).— Cortes: 
cafetal Los Naranjos near Fago V.joa../. Dickson 7/77 (PAP) Saia Hakuara: F slopes of Cerro Santa 
Barbara, 2100 m, 4 Apr F)5I, P. Aden ct til. 01)54 (holotype: I!: isotypes: FAP! US!). 

In the protologue, Allen's type collection number is erroneously cited as -6056." 
This species is usually equaled with /). sitmichrasti Lindau (e.g.. Gibson 1974), a spe- 
cies described from Mexico. Although studies ol Didipicra in Mexico and Central 
America are incomplete, the distinctions between D. aniidyscnterica and D. sumi- 
chrasti appear as great as between numerous other species currently recognized in 
the genus. Didipicra cttuidxscntcnca and IX sitmichrasti can be distinguished by the 
following couplet: 

Inflorescence bracts ovale to narrowly elliptic: outer cymule bracteoles rounded to acute (sometimes 

slightly apiculate) at apex, cmucionale (oi mucro it present, up to I) ^ mm long) maigm ciliate 

4-5.5 mm long: external surface of corolla pubescent with eglandular trichomes only (or glands, 
if present, very sparse and inconspicuous): capsules pubescent with eglandular and glandular 

Inflorescence bracts lanceolate; outer cymule bracteoles acute to spmose-anstate at apex with 
mucro to 1 mm long, margin ciliate with antrorse eglandular trichomes 0.1 0Y mm lour: inner 
cMimle bracteoles Ys 4.7 mm loim: calyx 5-3.5 mm lorn-: external sin lace of coiolla jmi1vmv,,i 
^ ll|] ul:mdulai (conspicuous) and eglandular Irichomes: capsules pubescent with ctjaiulular 

In the protologue of D. aum, ncita I < na(i l )< I noted that roots of of this 
species (and others of this genus) are crushed and cooked in order to make a remedy 
for amoebic dysentery in rural regions of 1 londuras. 


Dicliptera sexangularis (L.) Juss. 

Phenology. Flowering: February-April; fruiting: March-May. 

Distribution and habitats. U.S.A., Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Hon- 
duras, Panama, West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guiana, Brazil; 
moist forests, moist thickets, dry thickets, disturbed areas, along streams; 0-900 m. 

Represents i\ i Specimi Co vacua meb i Jeto i< n it\ of Comayagua, P. Standley & J. 

Chacon P. 6000 (F AP ' ' lityofLa ima, Rio Chamelecon, P. Standley &J. Chacon P. 7092 

(EAR F).— El Paraiso: Montana Apahuis, N of Danli above Los Arcos, ca. 14°01 'N, 86°33'W, T. Daniel & 

[,, » / < (. FAH Pi <i (i r i >i / \ ' urn ii mm liititi.u.i km SWofTalanga,ca. 

14°24 , N,87"07'W, T. Darnel A G. Pitz 957H (CAS. EAP) de la Baiiia: Roatan Island, A. Molina R. 
20652 (EAR F, US ).— O i uio:ca. 2.5 km above ( l)Calacama on lowei lopes of Sierra de AgalU ca 
14°53'N,84°54 I W,7/)^/./,, ■ /'/- >wi' \s 1 'MO 1 Si S \m v Barbara: Los Dragos on Rio 
Chamelecon, SW of Qurnii I i >' in d! \ " Lind lie 73/9 (EAP,F). 

Dicliptera unguiculata Nees 

Phenology. Flowering: November-April; fruiting: November-April. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru; moist forests, pine-oak forests, moist thickets, 
along streams, disturbed areas; 800-2000 m. 

Representative Specimens. Choluteca: vicinity of San Marcos de Colon, P. Standley 15737 (EAR 
F).— Comayagua: Siguatepeque, ./. Valeria R. 2716 (EAR F).— Cortes: Aldea Santa Elena, 10 km E de 

LagoYojoa, R Maid, (I l v iloi ■ urn Manzanagua and 

Mo.olkd ca X km SI ol San I iiuis ' 1 « Pamel & J Araque 9809 (BR, CAS, EAR K, MO, 

, ' l ' , i v oMo //-/( 7^7(1 miiuc x vicinity of La 

Esperanza and Intibuca P. lumdk \ 15599 ( EAP ) -La Pa> icai Marcala, F. Barkley & M. Hernandez 
• , -> i( .1 I I 1 1 I 1 f »< ■ i < i I cm ' Nil. « ■ k i i | 'I 1 '" : s ' /' " - < N l » 

Information on the label of Molina R. 27344 notes the local name "quita diarrea" 
for this species, and Nelson (1986) noted that it is used as a remedy for dysentery. 

Several superficially similar species have been described from Guatemala 
(e.g., D. debilis Leonard, D. guttata Standi. & Leonard, D. inutilis Leonard, and D. 
membranacea Leonard), but their status and range of morphological variation have 
not been adequately studied. Several of these species are known only by the types, 
which are sometimes fragmentary. The Honduran collection noted above superfi- 
cially resembles these species and D. antidysenterica, but differs from all of them by 
the following combination of characters: paired bracts subtending cymes linear to 
elliptic, 8.5-10 mm long, 1.1-2.7 mm wide; cymules 3 per cyme, sessile to subsessile; 
outer cymule bracteoles obovate, unequal, 10.5-15, 4-6 mm wide, abaxially sparsely 
pubescent eglandular trichomes, margin ciliate with flexuose eglandular trichomes to 
1.3 mm long, apex rounded-apiculate; and corolla "fuchsia," resupinate, 30 mm long, 
externally pubescent with glandular and eglandular trichomes. It may represent an 
undescribed species, but it would seem imprudent to describe yet another species in 
this complex, based on a single and fragmentary specimen, at the present time. A bet- 
ter understanding of species o Dicliptera mi cntral America and fruiting collections 
resembling Molina R. et at 31415 should ultimately assist in determining its status. 
Pollen from this collection is shown in Fig. 2c. 


Dyschoriste capitata (Oerst.) Kuntze 

Phenology. Flowering: February July: fruiting: February-July. 

Distribution and habitats, \k\ko ( i< ituu. ' i I mi In , i< ui ma; pine forests, 
open savannas, wet meadows, dry meadows; 1050-1500 m. 

< i i<>t I ' \'a k,i, ,< < > ; , i < i J< I I [Ml 

l>\scln»risH- quadiungiiiuiis (( )erst.) Kuntze 

Phenology. Flowering: Oe to be i \pril. fruiiing >ci \pril 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, ( iuatemala, Fl Salvador, I londuras, Nicaragua; 

moist forests, moist thickets, dry thickets, along streams, disturbed areas; 480-1100 m. 

i i ■ i i m. inn oi in i ,i ,, (U n Inn / , ,//, \ 15702 (F \F) 

Comayagua: vicinity of ( 'omayaiuui. I> Standlev A ./. Chacon l\ 50 7. ? ( FAR F). Copan: Copan Ruinas 
airport, A. Molina R. et a!. 3217V ( F.AP. MO). Fi Parais. >: edge of di v lake near ( ialeras, 800 m,5 January 
1947, L. Williams A A. Medina R //>// |, ivpc of /). hondtnvnsis Leonard: hololype: US!; isotypes: EAP! 
GH!).— Francisco Mokazan: grounds of Fseiicla Agncola Panamcricann in II Zamorano, S of livestock 
sheds, ca. 14-0 FN. 87 OF W. 7. Daniel 07SS (( 'AS. 1 AP. MO.TFFI 1 ) -Fa Paz: 3 km N de Fa Paz. B. Hoist 
362 (EAP).— Olanc ho: ca. 1 km upstream on Rio H,, H |ueroii iiom Puenle Hoqucron on Juticalpa-Cata- 
camas hwy., ca. 12 km SW of ( atacamas, ca. 14 47'N. 86'00'W. T. Daniel A (,. I'll: 0582 (FAS. EAP). 

Examination of the type of /). Iiotulnrcnsis Leonard reveals it to be similar in 
all characters to the wid i ,s and the ioimei name is 

herewith placed into the synonymy of the latter. Color of the corollas of plants from 
Honduras varies from white to pink to purplish. The type of D. lumdiiremis was 

noted to have blue flowers. 

Elytraria imbricata (Vahl) Pers. 

Phenology. Flowering: October May; fruiting: ( )ctober-May. 

Distribution and habitats. U.S.A., Mexico, Guatemala. Beli/e. El Salvador, Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua. Costa Rica, Panama. West Indies, Colombia. Venezuela. Ecuador, 
Peru, Bolivia. Brazil. Argentina: moist forests, moist thickets, dry forests, dry thickets, 
disturbed areas; 20-950 m. 

i Si>i:cimi:ns. C'iioi.i n ( a: Fa Faguna. /.. Williams A A. Molina R. 12081 (FAP. F). 
Comayagua: 1 1 km O de Zambrano. ( . Nelson A R Andino 12570 ( I Fit 1 ).- ( \ tan: ( opan Ruins airport, 
A. Molina R. el al. 32150 (t-AP).— Corii:s: Oeote Arraneado. 51) km N de Fago de Yojoa. C. Nelson et al. 
5032 (MO.TFFH).— Fkam isro Moka/an: mounds oi Escucla Auricula Panamei icana in El Zamorano 
ca. 14°()I'N 87 01 W / Darnel Q4t>4 (C AS L VP) -Imihi < a: Agua ( 'ahente. Fas Manas,/ Martinez 422 
(TEFFI).— Olanciio: between Juticalpa and Fa Concepcion, I'. Siandley 17005 (EAP, F).— Santa Bar- 
bara: carretera Chamckvon ( unfradia. 1 Molina R. 5872 ( I Al' I . ( .11).— Vai it: along road between 
Puerto Solo and Coyolilo. ea. 7 km NE of ( ovolito. ca. 13 2 1 'N. 87 36AV. /. Dame! A ./. Araque 9818 (CAS, 
FAPTFFI I).— Yoro: Victoria, Rio Sulaco. C Nelson et al. 7I7S (MO.TEFH). 

The species generally has blue corollas, and those Honduran collections that 
note corolla color also indicate blue corollas. Daniel 9824 from Francisco Morazan 
has corollas entirely white. The population from which this collection was made 
occurs in a pine plantation on the grounds of the Fscuela Agncola Panamericana. In 
this population, the ratio of plants with blue flowers to those with white flowers was 
approximately 1:1 among about 100 individuals seen. Plants grown from seed from 
these white-flowered individuals have white flowers themselves. Thus, they do not 
appear to represent an albinic form, but rather an unusual local expression of the 
species or an unrecognized taxon. 


Eranthemum pulchellum Andr. 

This native of the Indian Subcontinen 

[orazAn: El Picacho, Tegucigalpa,./. I alcrio R. 3< 


, known only from cultivatk 

Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff. 

This species presumably is native to insular Malesia and is known only from 
cultivation in Honduras. 

Representative specimen. Cortes: Aldea F.l Zapotal, IS km NE cle San Pedro Sula, C. Onega 199 
(TEFH).— Francis, o M. )R \/ \\: Zam< aano, ./. \ alcrio R. 3026 (EAP, F). 

Hemigraphis alternata (Burm. f.) T.Anderson 

This species presumably is native to insular Malesia. It is cultivated in Honduran 
gardens and purportedly escapes therefrom on occasion. Information on the label of 
Molina R. 10380 notes that the plants were a probable escape from cultivation. 

I'nii i i n\ ■[• Sim-.c i\n v - >-\:i rca do Fslacio I petimeiUal do ancetilla, A. Molina R. 

10380 (EAP.F).— CoMAYAta \ vicinin of Siguatepeque P. Standi, v d: ./. £7/« n I'. 6646 (F).— Cortes: San 
Pedro Sula, jardin, T. Perez K. s.n. (EAP).— Francisco Mora/an: cultivada en jardin, campus de la EAP, 
El Zamorano, A Molina R. 14576 (LL). 

Henrya insularis Nees ex Benth. 

Phenology. Flowering: April-May; fruiting: April-June. 

Distribution and habitats. U.S.A., Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica; dry thickets; 170-1800 m. 

Repri sin tai ivc Specimens. Pi- 

iancisco Morazan: Rio Guarabuqui, terranc 

>s de k 

)S indios Xicaques 

de la Montana de La Flor, A. Molin, 

a R 3017 (EAP, F).— La Paz: 6 km N de La F 

le de Comayagua, 

B. Hoist 1677 (CAS, EAP, MO).— 

San i a Harp.ara: hwv to Copan at double J 

5, /. Dickson 1443 

(EAP, US). 

Herpetacanthus panamensis Leonard 

Phenology. Flowering: November; fruiting: November. 
Distribution and habitats. Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Ric 

Representative specimen. Yoro: Cordillera N 

ombre de Dios, slopes abov 

o F. pari ol S; 

in Jose in 

Rio Lean Valley, between Rio Texiguat and Rfo Gue 

in< n m 15°3<).5'N -/ ^ 

/. MticDoui'al 

d at.. 3291 

(CAS, MO). 

This is the first report of this genus and species in Honduras and represents the 
northernmost known station for both. Herpetacanthus Nees comprises about 10 spe- 
cies occurring in Central America and South America (primarily Brazil). The genus 
resembles Justicia n nan i al ires, but its androecium consists of four (vs. two in 
Justicia) fertile stamens (one pair dithecous and one pair monothecous). Indeed, 
molecular data indicate closer affinities to a lineage of Justicieae including Pseuderan- 
themum and Odontonema than to the lineage including Justicia (McDade et al. 2000). 


Pollen of the two known Central American species is 3-colporate, 6-pseudocolpate. 
The sole Honduran collection differs from those of //. paiuunoisis in southern Cen- 
tral America by its glabrous (vs. sparsely pubescent, at least distally) capsules and 
inconspicuously (vs. conspicuously) eiliate bracts. It lacks corollas but label data on 
the specimen notes lhal buds were white. 

Hygrophila costata Nees 

Phenology. Flowering: September, December-June; fruiting: September, Decem- 

Distribution and habitats. U.S.A.. Mexico, Guatemala. Belize. Honduras. Nicara- 
gua, Costa Rica, Panama, West Indies. Colombia, Surinam, French Guiana, Ecuador, 
; ■ ■ ■ ' ii 'i w el ihickets, along 

streams; 50-1 200 m. 

Ri i'Ki si m mix i Sim < imi ns. A i i \mida: Eancclilla \ 'ill lev. ca. 3 km up Rio Lance lilla from l.ancetilla 
Botanical Garden, ui 1^44 \ NT 2^ \\ IDannlAI Iiw/h.^WK \S 1 \P k MO t S) — ( hoi i n c \ 
vicinity of San Marcos de Colon, P. Snmdlcy 13730 (EAP, F).— Colon: Trujillo, Rio Negro, S. Cerna 112 
(MO,TEFH).— Comavvii A:Sigii;ilqvqiie../. \aleno R. "667 (RAI . E). Francisco Morazan: Col. Ger- 
mania, Rio Choluteca, R. Rodriguez 134 (TEEH). -Gramas a 1 )■< c: Onehrada de Una was, 3 km NE de 
Krausirpe, 15°03'N, 84'50'W, /' House 1316 (E. MO. II- EH).- Oi anc ho: ca. 22 km NE of Catacamas on 
road to Dulce Nombre de Culnn, ca. 14 '54'N. <S5 43' W. '/: Daniel A (i. I'll:. <W2 (CAS, EAP, MO). 

Hypoestes phyllostaehya Baker 

Phenology. Flowering: October, January -May; fruiting: October, January-May. 

Distribution and habitats. Madagascar; both widely cultivated and naturalized in 
the American tropics: gardens, disturbed areas (e.g.. roadsides), moist forests, pine- 
oak forests, dry forests; sea level to 1850 m. 

Representative Specimens. Ah antida: garden in Tela, A. Molina R. A- A. Molina 34699 (EAP).— 
CoMAYAGUA:Aldea Agua Dulce. 14 km NE de Sigualepeque, S. Ramos 107 { TEE1I), -El. Paraiso: Mon- 
tana Navijupc, Erijolares, between Galeras and Man/.anngua, 2 km N ol Man/anagua, 13°5()'N, 86°59'W, 
T. Daniel & ./. Araque 9794 (CAS, EAP, MO).— Francisco Mora/an: along road to Parque Nacional La 
Tigra, 22-25 km NE oi legucigalp I I C \ s i)7'V\ I ( roauK /> lUmnon 6.^7 {{ \S. EAP).— La Paz: 
7 km S de Marcala. cultnada. R. Kcxser 1642 (LAP). Yoro: Anuenia public school uarden A Molina 
R. 33829 (EAP). 

This species is both cultivated and naturalized in Honduras. 

,!uslid;i aurea Schltdl. 

Phenology. Flowering: September-April; fruiting: March 

Distribution auc habitats. Mexico. Guatemala. Belize. I I Salvador, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama; wet forests, moist forests, moist thickets; 8-1600 m. 

Representative Specimens. Ateantida: Estacion Experimental de Lancelilla, A. Molina R. 10397 
(EAR F).— Cortes: W side of Lake Yojoa near IVna Blanca. /.. Williams & R. Williams 1S736 (EAR F 
< il I. US). I'., Par ms, , : N idnit> of 1 )anli. /' Siandley 16323 ( FAP F).- ]•',< w ,s< , , Mora/an: San Juancito 
camino a Montana La Tigra. A. Molina R. 3323 (LAP I . I \S).— Gu \< ias \ I )ios: between Rio Platano and 
camp. Camp Tiro. 2 mi N\V ol Rulebar. e;i. 15 4TN.S4 S(|'\V../. Saumlers 1/43 (NY),-Lempira: camino a 
la Montana Puca entre Guatan v Cuabanos. A. Molina R. 12910 (EAP. I-', NY). -Oi.anciio: trail between 
Catacamas and La Presa, N ol ( atacamas, l> Stamllex 13363 (EAP. E). San i a Barbara; carrelera Cha- 
melccon-Cofradia, A Molina R. 3360 (IA,\ I, I IS). Yoro: camino de Yoro a la moiilana Buenos A, res 
C XelsonS-J. Marline: /7o6(TEFH). 


;rn montane Mexico is cultivated in Honduras. Because sev- 
eral herbarium specimens do not indicate that the plants were cultivated, the species 
might have become naturalized in some places as well. Possibly naturalized plants 
occur in moist and dry forests at elevations from 460 to 1500 m. Plants flower and 
fruit from January through July. 

Hiii iaiim Si'i u\ ( ui'\\: Copan I i i. Molina i \. Molina 34 1 1 1 < ) 

Cortes: vicinity of La Lima. P. Siandk U Imam f. W(LAP.L) Ei Paraiso: 5 km S de El Paraiso, 
N. Pastor 796 (EAP).— Francisco Morazan: Santa Lucia. 10 km NL de Tegucigalpa, /. Cambar 166 (CAS, 
MO).— Lempira: Gracias, C. Nelson et al. 289 (TEFH).—< ii< >: Aldca de ( asas Viejas, 6 km NO de 
Juticalpa. F F lores 151 (NY). 

Justicia breviflora (Nees) Rusby 

Phenology. Flowering: March, December; fruiting: March, December. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras; 
wet forests; 240-300 m. 

Representative Specimens. ( 'nun s: Montana de Rio Piedras.A Molimi R. 3545 (EAP,GH). 

This species is apparently known only from two Honduran collections, that cited 
above and C. Thieme 5 tOl (US) from San Pedro Sula. 

Justicia calliantha Leonard 

Perennial herbs or shrubs to 2 m tall or long, sometimes weak and clambering. 
Young stems subterete to subquadrate, multistriate with greenish striate depressions, 
evenly or bifariously pubescent with fiexuose to retrorse eglandular trichomes 0.2-1 
mm long. Leaves petiolate, petioles to 18 mm long, blades ovate to broadly ovate to 
cordate, 25-103 mm long, 16-56 mm wide, 1.3-1.9 times longer than wide, (rounded 
to) acute to acuminate at apex, truncate to rounded to cordate at base, surfaces 
pubescent (mostly along major veins) with erect to fiexuose eglandular trichomes, 
margin entire. Inflorescence of opposite or alternate pedunculate clusters of flow- 
ers in leaf axils, peduncles 5-17 mm long, evenly pubescent with erect to fiexuose 
eglandular trichomes 0.1-1 mm long, clusters 1-5-flowered, 1 cluster per axil, some- 
times with a short rachis evident among flowers, rachis (if present) pubescent like 
peduncles. Bracts opposite to alternate, (lance-ovate to) subulate, 3-5.3 mm long, 
0.5-1 .3 mm wide, abaxial surface pubescent with an understory of erect eglandular 
and/or subglandular to glandular trichomes to 0.1 mm long and an overstory of erect 
to fiexuose eglandular (and sometimes glandular) trichomes 0.2-0.5 mm long. Brac- 
teoles subulate, 3.5-6 mm long, 0.5-7 mm wide, pubescent like bracts. Flowers sessile 
to short-pedicellate (i.e., pedicels to 2 mm long). Calyx 4-lobed, 6-9.5 mm long, lobes 
lanceolate, 4-8 mm long, 0.8-1 .3 mm wide, abaxially pubescent with an understory of 
erect subglandular to glandular trichomes to 0.1 mm long and an overstory of erect 
to fiexuose glandular and eglandular trichomes 0.2-0.3 mm long. Corolla red, 29-33 
mm long, external surface pubescent with erect to fiexuose glandular and eglandu- 
lar trichomes 0.1-0.3 mm long, tube 15-18 mm long, gradually expanded distally, 
2.8-3 mm in diameter near midpoint, throat not evident, upper lip 13-17 mm long, 
2-lobed, lobes to 0.5 mm long, lower lip 16-19 mm long, lobes 0.5-1.5 mm long, 0.8-2 
mm wide, central lobe largest. Stamens 14-16 mm long, filaments glabrous (at least 
distally), thecae 2-3.2 mm long, subparallel to perpendicular, unequally inserted, 
overlapping by 1.9-2 mm, unequal in size (distal theca larger), distal theca dorsally 


pubescent with eglandular Inchoines; pollen (Fig. 5a) 2-aperturatc, apertures flanked 
on each side by 2 rows of insulae. Style 26-31 mm long, proximally pubescent with 
eglandular trichomes, distally glabrous, stigma unequally 2-lobed, 1 lobe 0.2 mm long, 
other lobe rudimentary. Capsule IS 20 mm long, externally pubescent with erect 
to retrorse glandular and eglandular trichomes to 0.2 mm long, head ellipsoid with 
medial constriction, 9-13 mm long. Seeds 4, 3.8-4.8 mm long. 3.5 mm wide, surfaces 
and margin with prominent conical tubercles. 

Phenology. Flowering: November-March; fruiting: December-March. 

Distribution and habitats. Endemic to Honduras; oak forests, thornscrub, alone 
streams; 600-1050 m. 

Repri::si:ntatiyi Spi a imias. ('dmavuii a: Los .beams, s km SE de I.amam. B. Hoist 020 (EAP).— El 
Paraiso: Las Casilas. P. Stundlcy et al. 020 ( I : AP. F).— [-"ram isr< i Mora/an: Rio Yeguare near San Fran- 
cisco, 800 m, rocky knolls, 24 November PMfi. !.. Williams t v A. Molina R. 10971 (holotype: US!; isotype: 

This species is very similar to three species from Mexico and Central America, 

Justicia nicaraguch ■, > i ; •,</;///>, ' ( ■ . ) ■ , ■! n ; - >, - - 

T. F. Daniel. It differs from all of these by its corollas, which are red (vs. yellow or 
orange) and pubescent with both glandular and eglandular (vs. eglandular only) 

Justicia candelariae (Oerst.) Leonard 

Phenology. Flowering: January-April; fruiting: March-April. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, licli/e. Honduras, Costa Rica, 
Panama; moist forests; 970-1500 m. 

Rei'R1-:si-:ntaii\i Spi , an v.. ; u\, -a vj \: Uuebrada I '.I Emu on, between LI Portillo and El Porvenir, 
lOkmWol'Siguatepemie.A Molina R. A ■ . \. Molina lUhl (EAP, [-'. US). -La Pa/.: La Florida de Marcala, 
1 km N de la escuela nucva. R. Kevser 1707 (EAP). 

Justicia carthagenensis Jacq. 

Phenology. Flowering: October- January; fruiting: November- January. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico. Guatemala, F.l Salvador. Honduras. Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, Panama, West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guiana, 
Ecuador, Peru; scrub forests, swampv thickets, disturbed thickets, along streams; 
0-960 m. 

Refrksi-ntativi Si<iumi\s. Choi i ik a: along road beH\een Panamcrican Hwy and Cedcno. ca. 1 
km S of Las Llanilos and ea. 14 km S ul Pnnamei iean I Iwy. I ; 1 / '\, N7 /'Mil'. /, Daniel A J. Araque 9814 
(CAS, EAP, MO, TEI- 1 1) -Comayaoi a: Agua Caliente. vaguada de nos (Tamo v Hnmuva, C. Nelson e! al. 
"-'(>'' ( li J H)„ (nun vol ilia ile I Rio 1 ;nmii\a.4() km ,\ Santa Cm/ de Yojoa. U \'e!son et al. 5839 (MO, 
TEFH).— Francisco Mok\/\s \ ill I ' mu , in Ml km I di Lutiemalp i \ Ihtetlo 2 (TEFH).-Gra- 
cias A Dios: Rio Segovia, C. Nelson A E. Vargas 4972 (MO, TEFH).- V.m i i : along Salamar beach, 2 km 
E of San Lorenzo, l-onseea ( bill, . t. Molina R. A A. Molina 22760 ( l)S, EAP, E NY). Yoro: Victoria. Rio 
Sulaco, ( '. Nelson 7035 (MO, TEFH). 

Justicia ciriloi T. F Daniel, nom.nov. Hoi, ,< / /, ', ,, u < s I eonard. J. Wash. Acad. 

Sci. 32: I Nd. I 942. non Justicia blvchoidcs ( 1 .indau } Stearn, 1971 .— Typf.: Gua- 
tf.mala. Chiquimula; Montana Nonoja, 3-5 mi. F of Camotan, 600-1 S00 m. 
11 Nov 1939,./. SYm, rm irk U 40 (holotype: F!). 

Perennial herbs to 1 m tall. Young s 
h an inconspicuous understory (some 

[}/\NH-;i.: HONDl 'RAN AC'AN Ti lACT.AI- 

FIG. 5. Pollen aUuslicui. a../, ailliantlm (Molina R. IS57I ). apertural new. b. ./. ariloi ( \cl.son n el. 
6773), apertural view c I. aril ,(\ 1 », nil. 6 7.?) mierunertural vic> «l ' p ( / '^wh 7450). apertural 
view e / p (Ditkum '( ) \ 1 i i I I. tu.xilcnsis (Mo'lin 2W I) iperMu I icvv.g../. ramulosa (Croat 
& Harmon 64117), apertural view. h../. ramulosa ( Wood 1116! I'roni Bolivia), apertural view. i. 7. ramulosa 
(Zardini 4585 from Paraguay), interapertural view. Scale bar = 10 urn. 

long and an overstory of erect to flexuose eglandular trichomes 0.5-1.5 mm long, 
trichomes ± evenly disposed (at least on youngest growth) or concentrated in (but 
not restricted to) 2 lines. Leaves petiolate, petioles to 27 mm long, blades ovate, 
50-135 mm long, (17-) 23-62 mm wide, 2-2.9 times longer than wide, acuminate at 
apex, rounded to acute to subattenuate at base, surfaces pubescent with flexuose to 


antrorse eglandul i m n i n 1 n i il uii.i < ( | «i« dvein) and margin 

with an understorv of glandular trichomes 0.05-0.5 mm long as well, glandular tri- 
chomes present on leaves even when absent on young stems, margin entire to sinu- 
ate-crenate. Inlloi inal i i hiacteate 4-sided 

dichasiate spikes to 5.5 cm 1< i; (iuehidii pi In d ; nd excluding flowers), 20-25 
mm in diameter near midspike, peduncles to 15 mm long, pubescent like young stems, 
rachis pubescent ! ..urn E i umimi »| do I n. - l 1 per axil, sessile. 

Bracts opposite, usually tinged with maroon along margin (at least near apex), ses- 
sile (or proximal b ai I ; ul ilio e and petiolate), ovate to ovate elliptic, 13-19 mm 
long, 8- 10 mm wide (proximal bracts often subfoliose and larger), apically rounded 
to acute to subacuminate. abaxial surface pubescent with antrorse eglandular tri- 
chomes 0.1-0.7 mm long, margin ciliate wit h llexuose < >.landiikn liichomes to I i mm 
long. Bracteoles linear-elliptic to elliptic. 7-13 mm long, 1.4-3 mm wide, pubescent 
like bracts. Flowers sessile. Calyx 5-lobed. o N.3 mm long, lobes lanceolate to linear- 
elliptic, subequal, 4.5-7.5 mm long, 0.9-1.2 mm wide, abaxially pubescent like bracts. 
Corolla white or yellow v , ,, he lips. 2N simhiii long, externally 

pubescent with fiexuose eglandular trichomes 0.2-1 mm long, tube subcylindric to 
± gradually expanded distallv, lb 22 nun long, uppei lip 9.5 15 mm long, 2-lobed, 
lobes 0.4-0.6 mm long, lower lip 9.5- IS mm long, lobes 1-5 mm long, 1.6-4 mm wide. 
Stamens inserted near apex of corolla tube, 12-17 mm long, filaments pubescent with 
fiexuose eglandular trichomes. thecae maroon tinged. 1.5-2.2 mm long (including 
basal appendage), equal, subparallel to subperpend u] r. superposed (contiguous or 
with gap to 0.3 mm long), dorsallv pubescent with cobwebby eglandular trichomes, 
)■ ' ' In >■ i i i buibou ba il ppeiu I age 0.4-0.6 mm long; pollen (Fig. 5b, c) either 
3-colporate and 6-pseudocolpate or 3-apert urate with apertures flanked on each side 
by 1 row of insulae oi exhibilin m nt rn liaU stak between these two extremes. 
Style 19-25 mm long, pubescent with eglandular trichomes. stigma subequally to 
unequally 2-lobed, lobes 0.05 0.2 mm long. Capsule 9-10 mm long, pubescent with 
erect to fiexuose eglandular trichomes 0.1-0.5 mm long, stipe 3-3.5 mm long, head 
ovoid to subsphcric. 6 mm long. Seeds 4. lenticular. 2.5 -3 mm long. 2-2.1 mm wide, 
inn m- I p lpilk s I id •' 1 1 ■■ c >iir , 

Phenology. Flowering: December-January: fruiting: January. 

Distribution and habitats. Guatemala. I Iondnras: riparian forests; 200 300 m. 

Ri i'i<i siaianvi: Sri ciMi ns. ( '< )\i \v\( , i' ,\: ( hichipates. orilla del Rio Yure. All km F. La go Yojoa, C. 
Nelson el ul. 6608 (TEEH. MO). 677J ( M( ). I EM I ). Yoito: orilla del Rio .laca-ua. 15 km O de Victoria, 
C. Nelson etal. 7250 (TEFH). 

These Honduran collections, made in 19X0 and 19S I, greatly resemble the type, 
and only known collection, of Hcloptrouc blcchioi.'lcs from the department of Chiqui- 
mula in east-central Guatemala. They represent the first records of the species in 
Honduras, and apparently the lust eo Ik i « i since that of the type in 

1939. In 1984, J. Simmons collected cuttings of Shis species m the department of Yoro 
(42 km E of Santa Rita to Morazan); these were subsequently grown at the Royal 
Botanic Gardens. Kew. A specimen from the plants cultivated at Kcw was sent to 
l AS (( AS 930274) and conforms to the description above. 

Because Beloperone is now treated as congeneric with .lusticia, and because a 

confusingly similar epithet (i.e., "blechoides") has already been used in the latter 

|| me is provided bove for this "rediscovered" taxon. as allowed by 

Aiud. ■■.. i i i i i, i i Botanical Noi nclature (Greuter 


et al. 2000). The name honors Prof. Cirilo Nelson (b. 1938) of the Universidad 
Autonoma de Honduras, who participated in the collection of all recent Honduran 
specimens of it. 

Labels of the Honduran collections note that corollas were yellow or white-yel- 
low. Label data on the type of B. blechioides notes that corollas were "white spotted 
with purple around lip. " Living plants cultivated at Kew from Simmons's cuttings 
(seen in 2002) have pale yellow corollas with maroon markings on the lips. 

Gibson (1974) noted that Justicia fulvicoma Schltdl. (including Beloperone bel- 
chioides in her circumscription of that species) was known from Honduras. The basis 
for her inclusion of Honduras within the range of this species remains unknown. The 
illustration (her Fig. 87) labeled as '\lusiU in fulvicoma" in her treatment of Guatema- 
lan Acanthaceae pertains to /. ciriloi. Information in the description above includes 
5 from the Guatemalan type. 

Justicia colorifera V. A. W. Graham 

Phenology. Flowering: March-April, July; fruiting: March- April. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia; thickets, hedges; 1050-1215 m. 

Rei'resentatiyi- Si'i cimi-nk. Coyiayagia: vicinity of Siiainlepcque. /' SniihIIcv & J. Chacon P. 6179 
(E-iAP) OmiivSan Pedro Suhi. C. Thieme 5400 (GH. US).— I. ,\ Paz: ;iIoul' Marcala River, vicinity of 
Marcala town. A. Molina R. & A. Molina 24272 ( ( AS. EAP, F, NY). 

Known in Honduras as "sacatinta" and "anil" (fide SuuuUcy & Chacon P. 6179): 
both names allude to the use of this plant as a dye and as a bluing agent in launder- 
ing fabric. 

Justicia comata (L.) Lam. 

Phenology. Flowering: November-January, April-July; fruiting: December- Janu- 
ary, April- July. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, 
French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, introduced into 
Asia; wet depressions in moist to wet forests, round lake swamps along stream: 

Rhkesem \ii\i Sim i ,i n\ » mcelilhi 1 1 1 <- ca 1 in up u I i icUilla from Lancetilla 

Botanical Garden, ca. lv44N, S7 2/'W. T. Daniel <t ./. Araque 9481 (CAS, EAR K. MICH, MO, US).— 
CoLON:Trujillo,5km W <» rirnoit >l ro ! to < iMilhi../ aim, I i (NY) Comayagua: Pitosolo, Lago 

Yojoa,./. ValerioR. 2957 (EAP. Y) Cortes: San Pcilro Sula, < hicni -i ;.(ill » I \ i.. 

Imi \/^ Ri« ,...,, / \„i, u > !' *-,-" (i I It in v i\s \ Dm Klaul i, poblado al W de Brus, 
E Vargasetal 351 (MI XI MO) ( )i who vicinih ol IuIil I '^U (EAP, F).— Santa 

Balm i ill dcdoi d anta 1 rl i Ri I lu t Wolim R 303 (LAP).— Yoro: Quebrada Seca, 
P. Sia, allay 55921 (F.US). 

Justicia ensiflora (Standi.) D. N. Gibson 

Phenology. Flowering: August, November; fruiting: August, November. 

ibulion a bil iuatemal Belize, Honduras; moist forests; 50 m. 


Justicia niacrantha Benth. 

Phenology. Flowering: October-Jan im ) h uiting: unknot 

Distribution >u , ii I i . '1 a , ( matcmala, Hondura: 
moist forests, roadsides; 700-1300 m. 

.Jiishda itiiir aulJia (Oersi.) V. A. W. CI rah am 

I) in >«'■,! .\m i hi > '' kin i \la\ 'i nli ig Man h Ma . 
Distribution and habitats. Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, 
Colombia, Vene/u i ! loist M i loi di\ thickets, dry 

forests; 220-700 m. 

Ri - i'1-ii si \i.\ii\ i Sim c i mi ns. Comayach a: Agua Calientc. vatiuada dc n'os Chamo v Humuva, 35 km 
E Lago Yojoa, C. Nelson el al. 6.W (TEFH). Ei Valle .lamastran cnlrc Rio Los Almendros 
y Chichicaste, A. Molina R. 11300 (LAP. F. EL, NY).— Olancho: ca. 1 km upstream on Rio Boqucron 
from Puente Boqucron on .luticalpa ( 'atacamas huv. ca. I. 1 km S\\ ' ol ( atacamas. ca. 14 47'N. SfYOO'W. /. 
Daniel & (i. Pilz 05X3 (CAS. LAP. K. MICH. MO. US). Yniin: Victoria, onlla del Rio Sulaco, C. Nelson 
et al, 7036 (MO). 

Pollen of Daniel cv I'd: l l\S3 is 2-aperturale with apertures Hanked on each side 
by 2 rows of insulae (Fig. 6a. b). This species was ongmalh described from Nicaragua 
as Chaetothylopsi licmniih Oersi. Il lia » n treat el under the names Chaetothy- 
lax leucwitlms I cnn.ud (d I .11 , hschuhii (Lindau) 

Durkee (=Cluwu>ihylux rot/iscluihii Lindau; also described from Nicaragua). 

.lusiina pcdoralis Jacq. 

Phenology. Flowci in g hi tar) April, August; fruiting: February. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, Panama, West Indies. Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana. Surinam, French 
Guiana, Ecuadoi I mi ><»h i m > n , ., i , k o>. rimi i Impressions in moist 
to wet forests, along streams; 30-1400 m. 

Rhprfsi:ntaii\i Sri < imi as. Ailamida: Lancvlilla \allc\.ca. 7 km up Kio l.ancctilla from Lancetilla 
Botanical Garden ca. U 44'N. X7 77 AY. / Daniel & / \raqm O4S0 ({ \S I \I'k MO US).— Comayagua 
Siguatepeque../. Valeria R. 7777 (LAP. F) — Coi'av Copan Rumas. cultivated m hotel garden. A. Molina R. 
& A. Molina 342H5 (LAP).— Er Parish: Trinchc-ras.S km S de LI Paraiso. .V. l>astanS04 (EAP).— Fran- 
cisco Mora/an: Zamorano.,/. Valeria R. 3723 (LAP). Gracias a Dm is: Rio Mocoron. aldea de Mocoron. 
C. Nelson & E. Vargas 5047 ( MO. 'I'El -H. US), Olancho: trad between Catacamas and la presa, N of 
Catacamas. P. Standlev 1S55! (EAP.F). 

This native speck s is s< n uli , d in Honduras. 

Justicia pilzii T. F. Daniel, sp. nov.— Type: Honduras. Atlantida: 1-2 km NNW of 
( 'abeza del Negro, 15°29'N, 87°27'W, 200-500 m, 26 April 1994, D. llazlvii & 
A. Brant 8096 (holotype: I -A I '!;is< >1 - 1 >e s BM! ( IAS! MEXU! MO!). 

Herbae perennes vel frutices usque ad 1 m alti. Folia petiolata, laminae nodo 
inaequalibus, margine integris. Infiorescentia floribus in spicas axillares (vel termi- 
nates); dichasia tun i< n, i. in i , m!i,' p. .hi u ill ml i, \v 1 lineares vel anguste 
ellipticae, 0.8-2 mm longae. Calyx 5-lobus. 3-4.1 mm longus, lobis homomorphis. 


FIG. 6. Pollen ot litslicia a I micramha (Daniel d Pih "A") ipertnral view I. / nucmntha (Daniel 

& Pilz 95SJ), interapertural iow / >il ii (Ha hit <v Brani (" i ipertural vi w J /. pilzii (Hazlett & 

Brant 8096), inteiapu . du i ' [ rtural view. f.J. trichotoma (Chacon 

, 1(11 from ia l'i> ) int. i ip« urn il i - »cale hai - h pni 

Corolla viridi-alba vel viridi-lutea et purpureo-notata, 6.5-10 mm longa, extus pube- 
scens trichomatibus eglandulosis. Stamina thecis 0.8-1.2 mm longis, pubescentibus, 
theca inferna basi calcarata. Capsula 6.5-10 mm long, pubescens trichomatibus 

Perennial herbs to shrubs to 1 m tall. Young stems quadrate to quadrate-sulcate to 
± flattened, pubescent with antrorse eglandular trichomes 0.1-0.3 mm long, trichomes 
often conspicuously septate with maroon septa, appearing ± evenly disposed or con- 
centrated in 2 lines. Leaves petiolate, petioles to 13 mm long, blades ovate-elliptic 
to broadly elliptic, those of a pair at nodes unequal in size, larger blades 23-95 mm 
long, 13-34 mm wide, 1.4-3.6 times longer than wide, smaller blades 5-53 mm long, 
3-25 mm wide, 1.2-2.1 times longer than wide, larger blades 1.8-9.6 times longer 
than smaller blades, all blades (rounded to) acute to acuminate at apex, (rounded to) 
acute (to attenuate) at base, surfaces pubescent with antrorse to antrorsely appressed 
eglandular trichomes restricted to major veins, margin entire. Inflorescence of axillary 
(and terminal) pedunculate dichasiate spikes to 20 mm long (including peduncle and 
excluding flowers), spikes opposite or alternate at nodes, peduncles to 6 mm long, rachis 
evenly pubescent with erect to flexuose to antrorse eglandular trichomes 0.05-0.2 



mm long and erect to flexuose glandular trichomes 0.1-0.3 mm long (glandular 
pubescent); dichasia 1 -flowered, alternate (but not secund), sessile. Bracts opposite to 
subopposite, subulate to linear to narrowly elliptic, 0.8-2 mm long, 0.3-0.6 mm wide, 
abaxial surface glandular pubescent (or glandular trichomes sometimes absent). 
Bracteoles subulate to linear, 0.7-1.5 mm long, 0.2-0.4 mm wide, abaxial surface 
pubescent like brads. Flowers subsessile (i.e., borne on pedicels to 0.5 mm long). 
Calyx 5-lobed, 3-4.1 mm long, lobes lance subulate, equal in size, 2.3-3.5 mm long, 
abaxially glandular pubescent Corolla gi • <\Kvmsh yellow with purple 

markings, 6.5-10 mm long, exiernally pubescent with erect to flexuose eglandular 
trichomes 0.1-0.3 mm long, tube 5-7 mm long, upper lip 2-3.5 mm long, entire to 
emarginate at apex, lower lip 2-3.8 mm long, lobes 0.5 0.N nun long, 0.6-0.9 mm wide. 
Stamens 3 mm long, thecae unequally inserted (overlapping by 0. 1-0.2 mm) to super- 
posed (contiguous), parallel, 0.8-1 .2 mm long (including basal appendage), unequal 
in size (lower theea longer), pubescenl with flexuose eglandular trichomes, upper 
theca with a basal appendage up to 0.1 mm long, lower theea with basal appendage 
0.4-0.5 mm long: pollen (lag. (x d)3~colporal loeolpate, exine reticulate to 

bireticulate. Style 5-7 mm long, proximalh pubescent and distally glabrous, stigma ± 
funnelform,0.1 mm long. Capsule 6.5-10 mm long, externally pubescent with erect to 
flexuose to retrorse eglandular trichomes 0.1-0.3 mm long. Seeds 4, lenticular, 1.7-2.3 
mm long, 1.7-2.2 mm wide, surface smooth to ± rugose. 

>log\ S lo 

: January, April: fruiting: Apri 

to Honduras; along s' 

Paratypes. Honduras. A 1 1 \vi id a: vicinity of San Alejo, base of hills S of San Alejo near Rio San 
lejo. / Staiullcx 7 9, i F F F) mcetilla ille\ n n lei a I itainlln > '96< (I) >5396 (A. F); along 
trail W of Tela River. Puerto Sierra, P. Wilson 219 (NY). 

The species is readily recognizable among Honduran Acanthaceae by the con- 
spicuously unequally sized leaves at each node. Honduran specimens of this species 
were treated by Standley (1931) as J. trichotoma (Kuntze) Leonard. Both species occur 
in wet forests of the Caribbean lowlands. While /. pilzii resembles /. trichotoma of 
southern Central America by its antrorse cauline trichomes, anisophyllous leaves, 
similar inflorescences, equally 5-lobed calyces, relatively small and similarly shaped 
corollas, and pubescent thecae, it differs in numerous significant characters, which are 
summarized in the following couplet: 

Cauline trichomes eglandular; leaf margin entire; calyx 3-4.1 mm long; corolla 6.5-10 mm long; the- 
cae 0.8 1 .2 mm long, the lower theca with a basal appendage 0.5 mm long; pollen 3-aperturate, 
apertures flanked on each side by a pseudocolpus (i.e., 6-pseudocolpate ); capsule 6.5-10 mm long; 
seed surface smooth to rugose; Honduras. J. pilzii 

mm long; corolla 15-17 mm long; thecae 0.5-0.7 mm long, the lower theca with a basal appendage 
0.2 mm long; pollen 2-aperturate, apertures flanked on each side by peninsulae: capsule 12-15 mm 
long; seed surface gemmate to baculate; Costa Rica and Panama. /. trichotoma 

The palynological differences (Fig. 6c-f) were noted in multiple collections of 
each species (./. pih.i. /lar.'nt " firnwStm SV.,- ■■ ■ •■ • «> -in. Wilson 219; J. tricho- 
toma: Chacon G. 1015, Ifammel 7736, and. Jimenez M. 1909). 

Although present, glandular trichomes are neither as numerous nor conspicuous 
in the inflorescence of Wilson 219 as in the other collections of/, pilzii observed. 

The epithet of this species honors Dr. George Pilz (b. 1942) of the Escuela Agri- 
cola Panamericana in Honduras, student of Nyctaginaceae, devoted teacher and 
ji iable colleague, who helped make this account possible. 

Justicia ramosa (Oerst.) V. A. W. Graham 

Phenology. Flowering: throughout the year; fruiting: December, March- August. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa 
Rica, Colombia; moist forests, moist thickets, along streams, oak thickets, dry thickets, 
dry forests, thornscrub; 400-1300 m. 

Representative Shi-mmi ns. Comayahka: Fl Banco,./. Valeria R. 2-149 (HAP F). — El Parai'so: road 
between Yuscaran and Oropolf, 10-14 km N of (■ polf,< 13AV1 (V4 « I 'Daniel et al. 9566 (CAS, 
EAR MO. US). — Fk we im ( ) Mora/an: ca. 21 km SF of Talanga along road to Villa de San Francisco, 
ca 14 14 N 87 01 \\ / l&i I M 5.EAP,] tO,US) Ocotepeque: vicinity of Nueva 

Ocotepeque, P. Standley 27993 (EAP).— Olancho vicinity ol Calacani . Sttm<in>\ 18161 (EAR F). 

Both Gibson (1974; see under Siphonoglossa Oerst.) and Durkee (2001) treated 
/. ramosa and /. sessilis Jacq. as conspecific. Hilsenbeck (1989; as Siphonoglossa) studied 
these species and their types in detail and concluded that they are distinct on the 
basis of the flowers (sessile in the leaf axils in /. sessilis vs. borne in bracteate spikes in 
/. ramosa) and seeds (surface with bullate encrustations 0.3-0.5 mm long in J. ramosa 
vs. surface with tuberculate or papillose protuberances 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter in 


J. sessilis). Until they arc again thoroughly studied from throughout their ranges, 
both species, as distinguished >\ tils mbei k ; re n - ognized here. As treated here,./. 
ramosa includes Siphojio^lo-- : standi. & Ste\erm. [=S. ramosa var. hon- 

durensis (Standi. & Steyerm.) I lilsenb.|. the type of which was collected in Honduras 
[Francisco Morazan: region de La Travesfa, cerca de Suyapa. 1 100 m, 18 Sep 1948, P. 
Standley 12459 (holotype: F!; isotype: EAP!)]. Hilsenbeck (1989) indicated that var. 
hondurensis could be distinguished from var. ramosa by its dark brown stems, more 
ovately-lanceolatc leaves, and usually shorter corollas. These characters appear to 
vary throughout the range of the species. As noted by Ayers and Boufford I L988) th< 
t\pe ol lusiii hi ' A I i fin ' olombia also pertains to this species. 

Justicia ramulosa (Morong) C. Ezcurra 

Phenology. Flowering: Jam i h uiting: May. 

I !| ill 'I'd, ■!■ I I'll. I • <h i. Hi ,1) 1 'II. 1,1 I I'M ... ■ |' I '. • U.) 

Argentina; moist forests, ea let ales; 400-600 m. 

Ri mi si mai iv! Si>[< iMi ns. (',>] iciii it \ oi i u i o| xi 1 1 K u mas. ca. 1 -4 5 1' N. NVOS'W. 7 Daniel 

& J. Araque 9624 (CAS. EAR K. Ml( H. MO. US).- Oi am no: along Rio Olancho. W of main Teguci- 1 km upstream from and NWnl I'ihtiU Boqucron, Sm mi SW of Catacamas,6 
mi SW i.l'Sla. Maria del Real. 1-1 4.VN. NMKl'W. T. Croat ,v D. Ilannon rW//7(CAS.MO). 

Central AmeiiL n -1 i ii -I i!i > i have been treated as Charioih l-i\ 
cuspidatus I). N ( i (G i liclii L. H. Durkee (Durkee 

1999; a new name in Justicia for ( cuspi < n u< il) Comparison of 

Central American collections to those of./, ramulosa from South America (including 
an isotype of /^c/f , ' lf ne ramulosa M »rong) reveals that the> are similar in every 
lil. 1 i i « mola I il i |" » uspidait > < uatemala as Z?e/o- 
perone ranuilosa South Arm n n plant mow more variation than was observed 

among Central American plants in the ! 1 1 >- hai ml i n. density of cauline 

pubescence (trichi m ■ n nb absent U .pais, lodmis. dens, bract shape (ovate 
to elliptic to obovate vs. obovate), degree of development of aristate bracteal apex 
(poorly to well developed vs. well developed), and capsule pubescence (glabrous to 
pubescent vs. pubesm i), i ^ im s.- 'i \ M , K n • , ,- ,,, n- , >,| '•■ i 

Central American plants in all ol these features. 

As interpreted here../, ronu'lo-a •■■ lnl< ii in mi. . in .ujini tnd amphi-equa- 
torial distribution. At least two other species of Acanthaceae have a similar distribu- 
tion pattern, occurring in Mexico and southern South America: Ruellia erythropus 
(Nees) Lindau (Ezcurra 1993) and R. cocrulca Morong (Daniel 1995b). 

Pollen of Croat , c4! 17 is 2-aperturate with apertures flanked on each 

side by 2-3 rows of insulae (I ; iy 5y i. It' m I .. e.Ue-. pollen ol' J. ramulosa from 
South America (i.e.. Wood 1 !/(>/ from Bolivia and /.ardini 4585 from Paraguay; Fig. 
5h, i). Capsules and seeds, hitherto unknown for Central American representatives 
of J. ramulosa, can ie di ribed as tollows: capsules 6.5-8 mm long, pubescent with 
erect to flexuose to retrorsi i I ndulai inchomes 0.05 0.2 mm long, stipe 2-3 mm 
long, head subellipsoid with a slight medial constriction. 4.5-5 mm long; seeds 4, 
sublenticular, 1.5-1.9 mm long, 1.4-1.5 mm wid< ml < ■ m n m « ei d nh 
trichomclike papillae (pilae and baculae). 

Justicia spicigera Schltdl. 

Phenology. Flowering: April; fruiting: unknown. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica; moist thickets; 900 m. 


Representative Specimens. Oi ancho: ijucbrada Cataeamas ecrca de la presa en Montana Pena 
Blanca, A. Molina R. 8346 (EAR F, NY). 

It is possible that this commonly cultivated species is not native in Honduras 
(although it is so treated here). Because of its uses as a bluing agent in laundering 
fabric, a blue dye, and a remedy in domestic medicine, if has likely been cultivated 
for centuries throughout Mexico and Central America. The limits of its native distri- 
butional range are not known with certainty. 

Justicia tuxtlensis T. F. Daniel 

Phenology. Flowering: April: fruiting: April. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Honduras; moist forests; 200 m. 

This species was recently described from the lowland rain forests on the Gulf 
slope of southeastern Veracruz in Mexico. Herewith, it is reported from Honduras 
for the first time. In spile of the apparent geographic disjunction in the range of./. 
tuxtlensis, its occurrence in Honduras is not surprising. The Caribbean lowlands in 
Honduras form a discontinuous portion of the moist to wet lowland formations that 
extend from southeastern Mexico (i.e., Veracruz) to Panama. The collection noted 
above agrees with the description provided by Daniel (2002), except that the bracts 
of a pair vary from only slightly heteromorphic to homomorphic (vs. heteromorphic) 
and the corollas are noted on the label to be pale yellow (vs. whitish). Pollen of the 
sole Honduran collection (Fig. 5f) also concurs with Mexican collections of the spe- 
cies (i.e., 3-colporate, 6-pseudocolpate). Additional representative of this species 
should be sought in the moist to wet forests between the LosTuxtlas region of Vera- 
cruz and northern Honduras. 

Justicia sp. 

I am unable to associate this collection with a known species of Justicia from 
northern Latin America. It differs from all other Honduran Justicia by the following 
combination of characters: dense, antrorse to antrorsely appressed and ± evenly dis- 
posed cauline trichomes; crcnate leaf margins; short axillary spikes; triangular bracts 
1-2 mm long; equally 5-lobed and glandular pubescent calyces; red-orange and glan- 
dular pubescent corollas 21-25 mm long; 2-aperturate pollen (Fig. 5d, e) with apertures 
flanked by 2 rows of insulae; and glandular pubescent capsules 13.5-16.5 mm long. 
Whether it represents an undescribed species or one that has been overlooked in 
recent floristic accounts (e.g., the status of several names and species from southern 
Mexico has yet to be assessed) remains to be determined. Additional collections from 
Honduras that resemble this plant are also highly desirable. 

Justicia sp. 2 

An wTiiEx: Camparnento (.hicbrada Grande, ea. 10 km SW of La ( cilia, base of N slope of Pico 
Bonito, 15°42'N,86 SI'W. 80-100 in. gravel bai along river, moist evergreen forests. 11 May 1993 (fir, frt). 
R.Liesner 26190 (EAR MO). 


This collection lacks mature flowers and seeds. It can be distinguished from all 
other species of Jasticia in Honduras by the following combination of characters: 
tawny-colored, anii i i to introi eh appn sed trichomes concentrated in (but not 
restricted to) two lines; terminal panicles with axillary spikes; heteromorphic bracts 
at each spike node wit h one bract obovate to circular, 3-4 mm wide, and subtending 
a 1-flowered dichasium and with the other brad subulate, less than 0.5 mm wide, 
and sterile; calyces equally 5-lobed. the loin , ii h h ilhn margins; whitish corollas 
less than 10 mm long and externally pubescent with eglandular trichomes only; and 
capsules 7 mm long, pubescent will) eglandular trichomes only. Liesner's collection 
superficially resembles other species with heteromorphic bracts from Mexico and 
Central America (Wasshauscn cv: Daniel 1995) and lour species from southern Cen- 
tral America with axillary and terminal, conspicuously bracteate inflorescences and 
relatively small corollas (Daniel & Wasshausen 1990). It differs from all of these in 
characters observable on the two specimens studied, however. Additional collections 
with mature flowers, pollen, and seeds are needed to fully assess its status. 

Lepidagathis alopecuroidea ( Vahl) R. Br. ex Griseb. 

Phenology. Flowering: Jam,' j Mai i i ting: January-May. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico. Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, Panama, West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French 
Guiana, Bolivia, Paraguay. Brazil: moist forests. dr\ forests, dry thickets; 70-1100 m. 

Ri 1'Ki:nlmaii\[ Sim umi ns. Ai i an i im: Parque Nacional Pico Boniio. ca. 13 km SW of La C'ciba at 
N base of Cordillera Nombrc de Dios, ca. IS 42N. 8635 1 'W. T. Dame! A ./. Araque 9509 (CAS, EAP).— El 
Paraiso: Brefiales a lo largo del Rio (hiayambre. Vallc Jamastian. . 1. Molina R. 7354 (EAP, F).— Fran- 
cisco Mora/an: Montana de La Llor. U. liynw I (TEFH), Okauas a Dios: Ouebrada Unawas, 3 km 
NE de Krausirpe, 15 03'N, S4 "50' W, /> House 1X12 (CAS. MO. TEF1 I).— Oi anciio: ca. 2.5 km above (N) 
Catacamas on lower slopes of Siena de Agalta, ca. 14353'N. X4 54'W, /.' Daniel & G. Pilz 9586 (CAS, 
EAP).— Yoro: Cordillera Nombrc de Dios, ca. 30 km SW ot'Tcla La Cciba 1 Iwv between San Jose de 
Texfguat and Campo Nuevo. ca. I5'2 1 )'N, 87 27' W. T. Daniel <t ./. Anique 9492 (CAS. EAP, MO). 

l.imhosladvNS /unigae ( '. Nelson 

Perennial of unknown height Young nor ub L |uadiale hilariously pubescent 
with flexuose to antrorse to appressed eglandular trichomes to 0.4 mm long, soon gla- 
brate; leaves petiolate, petioles to 30 mm long, blades ovate elliptic to elliptic, 80-150 
mm long, 26-46 mm wide, 3.1 3.6 limes longer than wide, reduced in size distally (e.g., 
to 26 mm long and 5 mm wide and up to 5.2 times longer than wide), acuminate at 
apex, attenuate at base, abaxial surface pubescent along major veins with eglandular 
trichomes. Inflorescence of terminal ± pedunculate dichasiate spikes to 55 mm long 
(including pedum I. si id < hnmi > il . i ) i n . i 1 a in « n ■• ih up ■ u 
pointing eglandula i trichomes 0.2 0.7 mm long, dichasia opposite, sessile; bracts ovate 
to lance-ovate, 9-15 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide, abaxial surface pubescent like rachis or 
with trichomes becoming ± appressed, margin ci liati with i ect I i flexuose eglandu- 
lar trichomes 0.2-0.8 mm long: bracteoles subulate to lance subulate, 7.5-12 mm long, 
0.4-1 mm wide, abaxial surface pubescent like brads: flowers sessile. Calyx drying ± 
straw-colored (and sometimes t green distally). 21 25 mm long, anterior lobe (next 
to bract) obovate, 20-25 mm long, 5. 1 7 mm wide, 2 lobed at apex (divided 0.06-0.15 
its length) with lobes 0.5-3.3 mm long, lateral lobes lance -subulate, 1 1-12.5 mm long, 
0.9-1 mm wide, posterior lobe ■'■>•■. u < -- 2S mm long, 6.5-7.6 mm wide, entire, 
lobes abaxially ami ii. . m. II | b. <> i Ii l bi ids ( omll.i not seen. Stamens not 
seen. Style 21 mm long, stigma subcapitate, 0.2 mm long. Capsule 1 1.2-13 mm long, gla- 
brous. Seeds 2.5-4 mm long. 2.5 3.5 mm wide, covered with appressed trichomes. 



Lophostachys zunigae is known only from the collection cited above and the 
type: Atlantida: Quebrada de Oro, Montana de Bufalo, 20 km SO de La Ceiba, 
bosque humedo tropical, 780-1800 m, 3-6 May 1989, R. Zuniga 453 (holotype: 
TEFH!; isotypes: EAP! MO! US!). Although the flowers are noted to be light purple 
on the label of Hawkin's collection at MO and the presence of styles suggest that 
corollas were recently on the plant collected, corollas are not present on the two 
specimens examined. The label of Hawkins 937 at EAP attributes (erroneously) the 
collection to Cusuco National Park in Cortes on 3 May 1993. 

This species differs from all other Mexican and Central American species of 
Lophostachys (Daniel 1993a) by the following combination of character states: calyx 
21-25 mm long, the anterior calyx lobe obovate, apically divided less than one-half 
the length of the lobe, the apical segments 0.5-3.3 mm long; bracteoles subulate to 
lance-subulate, 7.5-12 mm long; capsules 11.2-13 mm long, glabrous. When corollas 
and stamens of this species become known, additional distinguishing character states 
should be sought in these structures. 

Louteridium donnell-smithii S. Watson 

Phenology. Flowering: January- June; fruiting: February- June. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras; wet forests, 

moist forests, commonly on limestone; 300-1540 m. 

Representative Sri mmian. Comavv.i a: (Juebrada el Caliche. SE de la Villa Taulabe. /). Ruiz / W 
r IN li) < >i >nt in pinlu ,anio I . <)- J * W. 7 Hciwkin A D Mejia 185 (EAP, 

[()).— Cor-i i . i u PitoSolo v Aluui /ill I 10 Yojo i. a olnia I It 6/< ( ! i ) > s h \>,.\ 
eastern slopes of Cerro . ata irb ra I '//« i etal. 6047 (CAS, EAP, F,GH, US). 

Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau 

This species, presumably native in northern South America, is probably known 
only from cultivation in Honduras; however, not all collections cited below note that 
the plants were cultivated. 

Representative Specimens. Choluteca: San Juan Arriba de Corpus. G. Sandoval API 6 (EAP).— 
Colon: Faust, 4 km N de Sonaguera, N. Pastor 970 (EAP).— El Parai'so: Santa Cruz, 9 km NO de El 
Parafso, N. Pastor 646 (EAP) .— Fkan. is< o Moua/.an: vicinity of bil Zamorano. A. Molina R. etal. 34186 
(EAP MO). 

Mendoncia guatemalensis Standi. & Steyerm. 

Phenology. Flowering: December, April-May; fruiting: December, August. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras; wet forests, moist 
forests; 60-1 100m. 

Representative Spec imens.Copan: 3 km Sot'Dulo Nombn de Copan. / Williams ft al : "C" ( I -A 

Kl.iS').— ( nun «iiii ,;hi„ \/uh >|. Eisio tk \ o]o t , \ \t,>li,ic A _ C<M ; 'l 1 I) -(lluilli 

Montana de ChifiiinL'i '0 km I. ■ impamento Solo p 5(\[f). TE I ■ < mino R il I 

San Jose Texiguat a Campo Nuevo en un lugar llamado Las Letras al oeste del Cerro Cabeza de Negro, 

IS 2<S 00 N N, 2h I ■'. R ,-,///, , I R I vans 1071 !< vS M< •» 

ide, apically acumii 


in llexuose 

1.3-2.2 times longe 

r than wide. 


This species is iv| rl ron loiului i !iriK 1'hc three species of 

'<, ■ / ( / known from the count i \ can he di gui I n 

e^landular tnchomes 0.1-0.8 mm long. 

I ' .)[ II hit h \ ii. i ■•Hi] I] li iM ' . in n i ul lli| ii i 

i[ i iM' » I t<» i m ,ij i ill H to < ii n. i, ul i Im I mi ! t on i i ni , n ill 

tnchomes 0.3-1 (-1.5) mm long: drupe- glabrous or meaK -glandular. 
' l.i i, (eoh It.' 1 turn long, i l! n *vi I. ouikK ! io u uh pn ul L it [h it i ! urine. 

evenly and ± densely put /i < m \ iiImou | > m i u. im m eh oppressed trichomes 

0.4-lmm long, dun, 1 • n n» 1 1 -15 mm in diameter. M. guatemalensis 

ii cteol m ;tl I ' 1. 6 limes longer than wide, retuse-apiculate at apex, abaxial sut face gli t- 

brous orvery spaiseh |uii i < m villi ,i u \ < tiiu I n il >|>i i ssed trichomes 0.2-0.3 

mm long or pubeiuleiit vnh in < ii ml in m en iiiulniin, ii i o .1 mm long; drupe 14-17 

Mendoncia lindavii Rusby 

Phenology. Flowering: April-May; in jil ng: \pril Ma 

Distribution and habitats. Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, 
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia; moist forests: 130-200 m. 

Atlantida: Parque Nacional Pico 12 km SW of La Ceiba at N base of Cordillera Nombre 
de Dios, ca. 15°42'N, 86 51'W, T. Daniel A ./. \t<u)i<. <>>!!> (< -.'. I i 1- > I ) Parque Nacional Pico 

iinol Ui I 1 i o I , io . ! ik lit i t ii i i i o Regional del Litoral 

Atlantico) camp buikhn ' on iln ■ m hi .in, m<l< ■ i I In !>m , i mlm i n. with the Rio Bonito, 

ca. lOkmSWoi Lituhihi \ t) i. I \„i It, On I i< ) I I i ( i >• 

section [=Agua A/ul lid, , Vh if" ner atmm '()()[ | I ike Yoji i /■' If, muni ct ul. (:>H1 (GIL US). 

All known I duran le< ■ is speci lid reported for the 

country, are cited above. A/< • . i (< i and South America) superfi- 

cially resembles V ht ffm ■ .-1111(1 Nees (South America). The two species appear 

to be distinguishable by the pubescence of the bracteoles and peduncles, which is 

idin in /I ■ and appressed-strigose in Yi futann ■ ■ : ■ 


I'ii ■.■!'•'•..! |.< i t mi i A - tut t , I uiting: November-March. 

Rl'l'Rl-SeNTAllYh' Sl>I ( IMI'NS. All ANTII) 

i < i i i hi i ii u , I ; il iih,i a 

RioP\Ahmo.K.mococlul. />/(TII II}. 

Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. 

r . n !.■;■-, u» i ■>_• ! 'iti i" a ui! ii > Mil ,i 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, 
Panama, West Ind . ol« ii ni i ana azil,0 i habitat unknown; 

1200 m. 


Odontonema albiflorum Leonard 

Phenology. Flowering: May; fruiting: May. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras; habitats and 
elevation unknown. 

Copan: Mac. HI Lmion to F.I Pararso.Y. Make 7353 (US). 

This species was documented from Honduras by Leonard (1936) and is apparently 
known from there only by Blake's collection made in 1919. Blake noted on the speci- 
men label that the corollas were white with maroon-purple spots on the limb. The 
Honduran species of Odontonema can be identified with the following key: 

2. Dichasia sessile, at least some (usually most) whorled at inflorescence nodes; rachis nearly 

glabrous or pul cent with appn cd glandular trichomes in lim O. tub ae forme 

2. Dichasia suhsessile to pedunculate, at least some (usually most) clearly pedunculate in each 
ill ■>! o| ] >sit< i illoi eeni a li i ithi ^ il ml c n « tn elect eglandular 

1. Corolla yellow or white ••• ith puipli ;li markings on limb. 

v Inlloi. huh i oi d a Linl),aui h. d daieh. blanched ii has. ) ilu ha nil in ulciih 

d isia mosih whorled at mllon een nod< i o oil ,1m uh pi i | .h !i markings on limb, 

externally glabrous. O. albiflorum 

3 I ah i i i iu o! open pan icli tf dichasiatc raceni dichasia opposite ;il inlloi escence nod 

corolla yellow, externally pubescent with glandular and eglandular ti iehomes. (). hondurense 

Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze 

Phenology. Flowering: January, June, September; fruiting: January. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Honduras, West Indies; moist forests, moist 
thickets; 200-1300 m. 

Representative Specimens Copan neai Santa Rita village. .4 Molina R. et al. 33659 (EAP, 
MO). — Cortes: along road between Villa Nueva and Pimienta. A. Molina R. & A. Molina 3 1-134 { RAP. I . 
NIC)).- a \ -i<( < i \:( ii< 1 i nla >ec; viciml niMiiul, Hull \ Uolina R. & A. Molina 34234 
(EAP. MO). 

< ! '■< ■■■ • • ins •■datum was previously known from native populations only 
in Mexico and the West Indies (Daniel 1995c). Standley (1931) and Yuncker (1940) 
applied this name to plants of ( ! uhacforme from Allantida.'l he species is sometimes 
cultivated in other tropical regions, including Honduras. Collections from cultivated 
plants have been made in the departments of Cortes and Francisco Morazan. None of 
the collections noted above indicate that the plants were cultivated, and they all appear 
to represent either native or naturalized populations of the species in Honduras. 
These plants all have the rachis evenly pubescent with short, erect, and eglandular 
trichomes; the lower dichasia usually pedunculate; and the corolla red with the throat 
shorter and narrower than in O. tubaeforme. 

Gibson (1974) included - ' ■ -in ■ . u- forme, both red- 

flowered species, .is <•!.. - n< >a it h the purple-flowered O. callistachyum (Schltdl. 
& Cham.) Kuntze I ted this latter species as occurring in Honduras. Daniel 
(1995c) recognized all three species and indicated that O. callistachyum was known 
from native populations only in Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala. Both O. cuspidatum 
and O. tubaeforme are herein treated as native to Honduras, although the former spe- 
cies may be represented in the country only by cultivated and naturalized plants. 


i hondurense (Lindau) D. N. Gibson 

Phenology. Flowering: October .Juh I'miling Ocloboi Ma) 
Distribution and tabital •< iz< hia ra da, Honduras; wet forests, moist forests, 
along streams; 30-830 (-1680) m. 

R] PR] SENTATlvi Sri ii \n -,v A i! w iiii\: 1 ancclilla Vallm ca. 3 kin up Rn< I aucetilla hum I aiuv 
tilla Botanical Garden, ca. 15'44'N. 87 27' W. /.' Daniel A ./. Araque 94S5 (CAS. LAP. MO, US).— Colon: 
in. inn mi iln.'i il\ '- hi liupllo / Saunders 2 ->Y> (\Y).- Coi '- Iimmh |inn u::o, trail between San i id n 'mi on il 1 < n nl in In u lundi I Hawkins I SI 

(EAR MO).— Corti s: Cuyamel, M. Carleton 457 (US).- Gracias a Dios: alrededores del Rio Platano, 
dentro de 10 km de la eosta Atlantic;!. 15'30 55'N. 84 40" SyOO'W. A. Clewell & G. Cruz 4209 (EAR 
MO).— Olanc no: cerca Rio Paulava. M) km NNF de ( ulmi. R. Revser 1525 (TFFH ).— Yoro: along road 
from San Jose de'lexiunai io ( miim Sum n m ( i-i.klk. , i mn i -i I'm lj : 1 km SW of Tela-La Ceiba 
hwy (#13), ca. 15°3FN, X7"2fi'W. /.' Daniel A ./. A,w///c </W« (CAS. FAR MO. US). 

l'he type ol" the basionyn ." irinaaindm ', ', > is Lindau is from Honduras: 
Atlantida: along trail near Bolefs Plantation, Puerto Sierra (=Tela, fide A. Molina R., 
pers. comm. 2001), 20 Jan 1903, P. Wilson 129 (holotype: NY. photo! at http://www. 
n\ bo on- bsci bu.l i < iheIii i in nil i i i, i im this species shows 

considerably more variation in pubescence than was suggested by Daniel (1995c). 
For example, the inflorescence niduses vary from virtually glabrous (e.g., Clewell & 
Cruz 4209) to inc. n-, ml i I (c / icsnei 26409, CAS) to conspicu- 

ously pubescent ( . ■ i its exceptionally 

long (to 27 mm long) i i II. id i oc< ce al b 80 m elevation. Odontonema 

hondurense can In < I « ' urn I hmdm I 

its yellow corollas, which are externally pubescent. Pollen (Fig. 2d, e) of this species 
is 3-colporali im (i-pseiklocol[ i i >sl f its VI « ici n >n " m « 

Odontonomy mhiiHmitK- ( iertol.) Kuntze 

1 li* " I , • | 1)1 ' F l< )> h< II h< ■ I) | 1.11 II" l h l ! Illi Jh'l| i 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala. Belize. El Salvador, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama wet I'm n is dr\ forests, moist thickets, 

cafetales, along streams; 20-1600 m. 

Quebrada Grande, ca. 10 km SW of La Ceiba, IS 42N. NfvSl \Y. A. Evans 1589 (EAP).— CoL6N:Trujillo, 
edge of Rio Negro, A. Clewell el til. 4515 ( EAR MO).— Comavagi a: Rio Frio. ca. 2 km NE de Fa Libertad, 
14°46'N, 87 °35' W. ./. Linares et al. 2522 ( EAP).— Copan: ca. 1 .5 km W of Santa Rita on road from Copan. 
./. Poole & W. Watson 943 (LI.).- Corti s: ca. 3 km beyond ( oliadia toward Cusiico National Park. ca. 
15°25 , N,<SX°1()'W, '/.' Daniel & ./. Araque W,22 (CAS. FAR K. MO. US)— El. Pakaiso: Montana Apauhis. 
cerca de Danh',/1. Molina R. 7444 (LAP) — Grac ias a Dios: orilla del Rio Mocoron. aldea dc Mocoron. C. 
Nelson & E. Vargas 5094 ( ( 'AS. MO ). Im im < a: Quebrada de Pelon de Guise. A. Molina R. 6407 (EAP. E 
LL).— LEMPiRA:Parquc National de ('claque, summit trail from visitor center lo Las 14°33-34'N, 
XX' 38 40' W, '/: Daniel A ./. Araque <ASW> (CAS, EAP).— Oi.ancho: ca. 2.5 km above (N) Catacamas on 
lower slopes of Sierra de 14 53'N,84 54' W. /. Daniel A (i. Pilz 9555 (CAS, EAP, MO).— Santa 
Barbara: ca. 9 km SW of Pcna Hlanca. in wash near I.os Faureles and along road to 2 km beyond toward 
El Higueromca. 14 '.%'N. NX 04 W. /. Daniel A ./. Araque 961 1 (CAS. EAP) -Yoro: Rio Guaimas (Guay- 
man) on hwy between Progrcsso and Ida. 15 30'N. S7 40AV, (/, Davulse el al. 34554 (EAP). 

Unlike plants iii I I -1 nlm - InJn I nil << m hJ , ,/,< and O. glaber- 

rimum (M. E. Jont I I lum (Daniel ' 'i>l ), those from Honduras generally share 

the distinctions seen in Mexican plants of O. tubaeforme noted by Daniel (1995c): 
whorled and scssih ■ i -I - I h nppicsscd cglan- 

dular li ichonx n I r 1 i i n ' n . ' I il l Ran ones. 


■ < nxi.v v<,i \ la I iberlad ' ( ahullem I A ( J 1 I II).-Copan: Copan 
na 34304 (EAP).— Ei Paraiso 1 I ii d in km S de El Paraiso 

:'<> Moi \/a I I imoi mi) I < n. 1 , iin'eol Pan mi, ricana I Molina 

Poikilacanthus macranthus Lindau 

Phenology. Flowering: April-May; fruiting: April-May. 

Distribution and habitats Me rico, « ruatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, 
Panama; cloud forests, moist forests, along streams; (600-) 1400-2200 m. 

Representative Specimens. Cortes: Siena de Mercndbn. Montana del Carmen, T. Perez E. s.n. 
(EAP).— El Paraiso: Planes de Cifuentes. SO km E do Danh. C. Nelson A R. Andino 10309 (TEFH).— 
Gra< i\s \ 1 'io ilu.Ldoi I ! in PI i ii,,, ni.i In i . .1, ,n n \ ista 15°40'N, 85°00'W, 

1 Clewed t ', « m 4206 [l \P.MO) ()i \x,no \galla Nail Park trail belvveen La Chorrera campsite h \,^i t:>n I I- ,\ h Hui , .astern slopes of Cerro 

Santa Barbara. P. Allen et al. 6058 (EAP. F). 

Variation in pubescence among collections of this species was noted by Daniel 
(1991a). The more conspicuously pubescent form of the species, formerly treated as 
P. setiferus Standi. & Steyerm., is represented by Perez E. s.n. from Cortes. The lower 
elevation limit is an estim n< >ase< < n lot il ■ data from Clewell & Cruz 4206 and 
topographic maps of the region. 

Pseuderanthemum alatum (Nees) Radlk. 

Phenology. Flowering: September; fruiting: unknown. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua; moist for- 

imi ns. ()i am lioA.nllas Ouebrada El Ocole. 14 km NE de Juliealpa. (A , 

Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (Seem.) Guillaumin 

This species, purportedly native to Polynesia, is probably known only from culti- 
vation in Honduras (although not noted as such on specimen labels). 

AtlAntida: La Union, Ceiba, /). Veldst/uez D. 121 (NY,TEFH).— Cortes: Aldea Tulian,5 km W de 
Puerto Cortes, S.Muhoz 125 (TEI II) El Par Id ii hi. cast* J. Sanchez Ch. 126 (TEFH).— 

Francesco Morazan: Nueva Armenia, O. Mendez 123 (TEFH). Vai.i e: Amapala../. Valeria R. 3351 
(EAP, F. RSA).- Yoko: 1 km N de hot-rcso, R. Guevara 141 (TEFH). 

Pseuderanthemum cuspidatum (Nees) Radlk. 

Phenology. PI we ring Ma \ugust-Decembei (chasmogamous) September- 
March (cleistogai j,: Sepn k\ December. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, 
Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador; cloud forests, moist thickets, along streams; 500-1600 m. 

Representative Specimens. Comv, \<a \: Id Kcsiimiden>. -1 km W de : a Laguna. B. Hoist 1351 
(LAP)— ( urii s: Montana do La Nieve. 20 km S de San Antonio de Cortes. C. Nelson e! al. 7902 (CAS, 
MEXU, MO).— El Paruso Mpi. I I P n ii o < nn n ...III hm il Dm nil m > i i nn < i it 
4022 (EAP, MEXU).— Lempira: I'aldas de Montana Puca entrc Guatan y Cuabanos. A Molina R. 12944 

(EAP), (Ji \m Ho;LioV\ampu.NEdeCulim, C. Nelson & A. Clcwcll 694 (LAV; MO). Vnm >: km p,,,,| 
Valley. 6-7 km S of Nueva Lsperan/a. IS O'N.N? CWv. /A I jesne, AoW (( AS. EAP MO, TEFH). 


Plants with onl\ 1-11' Hi tl'isloi'ii i Ho i pi im -i i n< ' im ih I > 

ers (e.g., corollas i ■ Omml ■ - i u -i I s intermediate between these 

extremes (e.g., corollas ca. 10 mm long) are evident among Honduran representatives 
of this species. Cleistogamous-flowered individual i i • / hemum have been 

treated as various species of Ihtccra^aiiu (heenm. (Daniel 1995a). 

Pseuderanthemum liesneri T. F. Daniel, sp. nov— Type: Honduras. Atlantida: Cam- 

pamento Quebrada Cirande, ca. 10 km SW of La Ceiba, base of N slope o! 
Pico Bonito, from camp to 2 km S of camp, Rio Bonito, 15°42'N, 86°51'W, 
80-140 m, edge of forest next to cacao plantation. 14 May 1993. R. Liesner 
26343 (holotype: CAS!: isotypes: EAP, MEXU! MO! TEFH). Fig. 8. 

Frutices usque ad I 5 in ill. Folia bn ■. i | laia j im.iiia bcoriaceae, ellip- 

ticae. Flores in paniculam racemoideam terminalem dispositi, rhachides puberulae 
trichomatibus eglandulosis, minus quam 0.05 mm longis; dichasia opposita, sessilia 
vel subsessilia, um . i i II i ■>■ i,,n ( alw 1 V-1.5 mm longus. 

Corolla lavandula. 9-11.5 nun longa. exlus puberula trichomatibus glandulosis et 

Shrubs to 1.5 m. Young stems > evenly and minutely puberulent with erect eglan 
dular trichomes less than 0.05 mm long, Leaves petiolate. petioles to 12 mm long, 
hi id. in.- ..i m .ii i !lipii< ';'/ Ilhmiiil n n 7 ^ mm wide 2 6-3 7 times longer 
than wide, subacuminatc to acuminate at apex, rou d cute at base, surfaces 
appearing ± glabrous but with at least midvein minutely puberulent, margin entire to 
subsinuate, midvein canaliculate on adaxial surface. Inflorescence a terminal panicle 
ofracemes, rachises minutely pnbei i enudicl ■ -site, sessile to subsessile (i.e., 

borne on peduncles to 0.2 mm long). L -flowered, 1 per axil. Bracts triangular-subu- 
late to subulate, 0.9-1.5 mm long, abaxial surface pubescent with erect to antrorse 
eglandular trichomes to 0.05 mm long. I tria I mlate, 0.5-1.1 mm 

long, abaxial surface pubescent like bracts. Flowers pedicellate, pedicels 1.5-2.2 mm 
long. Calyx 5-lobed, 1.3-1.5 mm long, lobes O.S 1 mm long, abaxially puberulent like 
bracts. Corolla lavender, 9-1 1.5 mm long, externally puberulent with erect glandular 
and eglandular trichomes to 0.05 mm long, tube 5-6 mm long, sometimes ± expanded 
distally for 1-2 mm into a throat, limb 7 9 mm in diameter, upper lip 3.5-4.5 mm long, 
lobes 3.2-3.6 mm long, 2-2.2 mm wide, lower lip 4-5.5 mm long, lobes 3.9-4.2 mm 
ioiiL' ' i mi ' m 1 1 - 1. i t ted. 4.5 5.2 mm long thecal 0.8 1.2 mm long, 
subequally inserted, subequal in size; pollen oblate-spheroidal to subprolate, 3-col- 
porate, 6-pseudot' - i um -d>> i ■ in k s i m with rudimentary 

thecae. Style 2-3 r in !< mi > ;- i I- | ibr m -, . hi,'! r- n,. ubcapitate, 2-lobed, 
less than 0.1 mm long. Ovary pubescent with antrorse eglandular Iriehomes. Capsule 
and seeds not seen. 

Phenology. Flow, i iu" \bi N r-mb i bim nil i m 

Distribution and habitats Endemi to n< rth< rn Hi lura I , ilantida); moist 
forests; 100-300 m. 

There is neithei a i '0 i I i« in i i / 
the North Amei it, M i ntt ' nerii in o South American species. Pseuderanthe- 
imim liesneri does r, >' « ■ < m,i a Inmhiin ,|-« ,< - i oiiaid ( 19>8) antt 




differs from all other Mc\ic< i and G ti -f i leans vcies of the genus by its small 
calyces (1.3-1.5 vs. 1.5-12 mm long) and chasmogamous corollas (9-11.5 vs. 15-45 
mm long). Among Mesoamerican species, it superficially resembles P. verazpazense, 
which also occurs in Honduras (see below), but can be distinguished from that spe- 
cies by the following couplet: 

1 Ierbs to 6 dm tall; young stems with at least some internodes bifariously pubescent with flexuose 
to recurved triehomes 0.1-0.8 mm long; calyx 2.5-4 mm long, abaxially pubescent with glandular 

md 'landular trichome orolla ( 16-) I inn In- tairu hided in coroll till Ivh 

13-20 mm long. P. verapazense 

Shrubs to 1.5 m tall: young stems ± evenly puberulent with erect triehomes less than 0.05 mm long; 
calyx 1.3-1.5 mm long, abaxially pubescent with eglandular triehomes only; corolla 9-1 1.5 mm 
long; stamens exserted from mouth of corolla; style 2.6-3 mm long. P. liesneri 

The androecial and gynoeeial distinctions noted above may reflect different floral 
forms of heterostylous species. Heterostyly has been noted among various species of 
Pseuderanthemum (Daniel 1995b), but it has not been reported in P. verapazense. If P. 
liesneri is heterostylous, then the two known collections represent the "thrum" form. 
Cleistogamous flowers, which are also frequent among species of Pseuderanthemum 
(Daniel 1995a), were not observed on the collections of P. liesneri. Pollen of P. liesneri 
(Fig. 2h, i) resembles that reported for other Mexican and Central American species 
(Daniel 1998). 


iV'mlrrJUffiomnsir j>nK'eo\ \'< nlh.) 1 eonard 

Phenology. Flowering: November, February-May; fruiting: March-May. 

D nhii h hi I ii l-i u de iui ■ hi 'mil MS.! ii I- I i< .iiniii i ii 'i i u 
Costa Rica; cloud forests, evergreen montane forests, pine-oak forests, pine forests, 
meadows and along streams, secondary shrubby vegetation; 1050-2430 m. 

Ri i'ki si \i \n\i Si'i( imins. C'oMAV\t;r\: Barr;mo) <Y Ii mchei as |ca. ''i km N ol Siguatepeque] 
/.. Williams & A. Molina R. 12530 (HAP). -Francisco Mora/ an: near Hova Grande, /„ Williams & A. 
Molina R. 109% (LAP) .— Iniiihk \: Banos Pas Piletas. Pa Esperan/a. A. Molina R. 6211 (EAP).— La 
Pa/: Montana Verde on Cordillera Guajiquiro. A. Molina R. cv A. Molina 2J.W ( PAP F. NY).— Limpira: 
Parque Nacional de ( Ylaque. ca. 7 km W of Gracias, summit trail. 14 "33-34'N, N8'3K 40"W, T. Daniel & ./. 
S). — Oron i>i ol r: Reserva Bioldgica Guisayote. 
a Rosa de Copan-Nucva Ocolepcquc 13 
km E of Nueva Ocotepeque. 14 2<S'N, 89 05' W. 2010 m. «. Aivhi.v /57/ (EAR MO). 

Daniel (lW5b) tentatively recognized both Psciulenuulieinum j'asciculatum 
(Oerst.) Leonard and P.piiu < <;\ in < in i 1 i> < M i ol mts were treated 

as P. j'asciculatum (Daniel 2001). Examination of Honduran collections referable to 
these taxa reveals that plants conforming to P. praecox differ from those conform- 
ing to P. fasciculatum only by lacking leaves. All Honduran (and Salvadoran) plants 
are here considered to belon i ingli lecies, P. praecox, until such time as the 

taxonomy of this germs has been fully studied and resolved. 1 londuran plants of P. 
praecox differ from those of /' cuspidaium b\ Ihci g< rn ralb longer and glandular 

Pseuderanthemum verapazense Donn. Sm. 

I'Ik iolo<e\ I l<r\i 111 'lii i i- u ,.iii limtmi! \pnl 
Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras; riverine forests; 
265-360 m. 

The sole collects i the occurrence of this sped 

ehasmogamous flowers, but otherwise resembles specimens of this species occurring 
to the west of Honduras (described in Daniel 1 WSb). This represents the first report 
of P. verapazense in Honduras. 

Ruellia coerulea Morong 

Phenology. Flow ei ing: May; fruiting: unknown. 

Distribution and habitat I 1 ico pn nivabb nato - -oil i. brazil. Paragua\ 
Uruguay, Argent m ,1 i !. '- . nl i n •. na null- in ih -tern Hemisphere; 

moist forests: sea level to 700 m. 

Ri I'ki-si ni \iivi Sri i on ns. An \niii)\: El Naranjo. Pas Mangas. \y R. M. "'<■> ( 1 1 ■ td I ). -Ki \mji i \ 
Bahia: Roatan, Flowers Bay, C. Nelson 20(u ( TEN 1). Sania Barhara: Fago de Yojoa.W shore near El 
Rmeon.Y Htaekinore A M. Chorlex 3M5 (MO). 

The Honduran collections of K. coerulea represent l ulti\aled (e.g.. Nelson 20(o) 
and possibly naturalized plants. Darnel ( lW5b) discussed ihe taxonomy and distribu- 
tion of this species i >cen treated as R. hrittoniana Leonard. 


Ruellia fulgida Andr. 

Phenology. Flowering: January-May; fruiting: May. 

Distribution and habitats. Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, 
West Indies; moist forests and thickets, cafetales; 600-900 m. 

Olanuio Catacami > i n « Hi m > ,inn I. Hi S l h km >i ,. ', ilath! l '4f 

(MO),ca 25kmabo\e (NL ai i m »n I I | <>i Si n i <l t V ^ ill i t > 1 1 V, N,84°54'W. T. Daniel 

& G. Pilz 9587 (CAS, EAP); Quebrada Catacam ts cerca de la pn en Montana Pena Blanca, 900 m, 28 
pin \ \!„l ' (I. .<»!)- » molmm n o„ 1, , I dialed: F!; isolectotype: 

EAP!); faldas del Cerro El Boqueron, 20 km NE de Juticalpa, /. Segovia 178 (MO,TEFH); trail between 
Catacamas and La Pi « >' " « n:> „,//>/. mI I'i- < m>., u n n < . id >n 

inbui i oi the Rio Agua (RioPuente (ji.ih , . ',, - . <> f 06] (MO). 

All of the Honduran specimens studied are cited above. In the protologue of 
Ruellia molinac. ( i i ■ > >n ■; ' ~ ' ■ i licated that the type was Mo/ma 8343 at F and EAP. 
Because she annotated the specimen at F as the holotype in 1972, it is designated 
as the lectotype of the species. Gibson (1973) compared R. molinae to R. pereducta 
Standi, ex Lundell, to which it appears closely related; however, R. molinae is indistin- 
guishable from R. fulgida, and the name R. molinae is here included in the synonymy 
of that species. This pair of superficially similar species, R. pereducta and R. fulgida, can 
be distinguished in Honduras by the characters in the following couplet: 

,11, ,,, |, j with II "i LTowdi.-d in! headli dusti.-r at distal nd f peduncle (when sec- 
ondary peduncles rai civ pn mi l\v an nm mini a headlike cluster and terminating in another 
headlike cluster); peduncles, abaxial surface of calyx lobes, and capsules conspicuously (and often 
± densely) pubescent; corolla red; Honduras to South America. R. fulgida 

Axillary dichasia conspicuously expanded be twe en I' i (i conspicuou condary peduncles 
present and flowers not crowded into headlike clusters); peduncles, abaxial surface of calyx lobes, 
and capsules glabi i or with | rs ind inconspicuou trichomes: corolla pink or pinkish purple; 

i, Belize. R- pereducta 

Whether these differences are better reflective of distinctions at the specific level 
(as treated here) or infraspecific variation that is largely correlated with geographic 
distribution remains a matter of conjecture at present. 

Ruellia geminiflora H. B. K. 

Phenology. Flowering: March-July, October; fruiting: March-December. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, 
French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina; oak forests, 
pine forests, savannas, wet pastures, brushy slopes, along streams, disturbed areas; 
350-1100 m. 

Representative Specimens. ( omayagia: Siguatepeque. ,/. Valeria ft. 2654 (EAP, F).— Copan: ca. 18 
kmNEofCopanon i i d k.S n l\ h.» Mih • I li ,V » . >; W-/ (LI ) Curies: Rio Armentas, 
C rhicnw 53V6 (CAS. L'S) -Fi Pu< \isn: bcl<.« - , , >■ in II i- n. Quebrada Jagua, A. Molina R. 652 
(EAP).— Francisco Morazan: grounds of Escuela Agrfcola Panamericana in El Zamorano, ca. 14°01 'N. 
87°01 ' W, T. Daniel 9466 ( CAS LA I'). 1 .i mpira: Celaque National Park, ca. 7 km W of Gracias, ca. 1434'N, 
88 °38'W, T. Daniel & ./. iraque 9625 (( AS, EAP) Oi ^ncho road to Las Lomas, NE of Catacamas, P. 
Standley 18473 (EAP).— Yoro: ca. 5 km SE of Nueva Esperanza, ca. 15'16'N, 87°34'W, T. Daniel & J. 
!,.,„.■■■ .' c- • I I' M«.- iv 

Nelson (1986) ascribed numerous medicinal attributes to this species, including 
use as an emetic and as a remedy for pneumonia, dysentery, jaundice, and intestinal 


Ruellia harveyana Stapf 

Phenology. Flowering: April; fruiting: May. 
Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Hondi 

SE Trujillo. ./. Stun 

Ruellia hookeriana (Nees) Hemsl. 

Phenology: Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nica- 
ragua; pine forests iin< oakfi i is, thickets, along streams, pastures; 360-1600 m. 

Rh'rlm \i \mi Sfi ( imi \s. ( noi i u< \ Mpio , u ,,, i , |, | i uacate, ca. 3 mi S of San 
Francisco, 13*21 'N, 86°54' W, G. Davidse et al. 35070 (E AP, MO).— Comayagua: Valle Comayagua, entre Las 
Mercedes y Villa de Flores, A. Molina It 14372 ( EAP).- Coi'an: Yaragua Creek. 1 mi W of Copan Ruinas, 
A. Molina R. & A. Molina 30866 (F.AP. F. MO).-Cori i s: San Pedro Sula. /.' Perez E. s.n. (EAP).— El 
Paraiso: 15 km N of Yuscaran. L. Williams A I. Molina P. IS318 < EAP F).— Francisco Morazan: near 
El Jicarito, toward Ped,vo ;i | / Siamllev 20856 (EAP. F) Imihk \: Quebrada Santiago, ca. 24.5 km SW 
of Siguatepeque toward Jesiis de ( >tom nc;ir SW base of Sierra de Montccillos. ca. 14AFN, 87°59'W. T. 
Daniel <H J Auufm vt> < ! < s <>< n i . i i <)< h . i 1 1 , im between Sinuapa and 

La Providencia, A. Molina R. 22391 (EAP F).— Oi.ancho: Mpio. La t >mon, ca. 10 mi E of La Union on 15°03'N, 86°35'W. G. Davidse el al. 35070 (1 AP). S vm x Bukhara: Los Dragos, on 

Rio Chamelecon SW i ■ , - . // -,,„/,/,, , ■ i \|>i)_ \ < mo. Aguan River valley, 

vicinity of Coyoles, above village of 1 ,os Flores, /.' Yuneker el al. SI 43 ( F, MO, NY). 

Considerable variation is evident in vegetative pubescence of this species. 
Densely pubescent plants from Honduras have been treated as a distinct species,/?. 
williamsii Leonar< [tyj nci Mora Iraina of the Rio Yeguare, ca. 14°N 
and 87 D W, near Las Mesas. 900 m barraneo m pine oak forest, 11 Jul} 1948, L. Wil- 
liams 14187 (holotype: US!)]. Leonard (1950) noted that R. williamsii is very closely 
related to R. hookeriana md ih; i aclilition il studies might show it to be merely a 
form of that species. 1 le distinguished R. williamsii on the basis of its densely pilose 
younger stems, smaller (up to 4 cm long and 2 cm wide vs. mostly 5-6 cm long and 
' '" ! Meal'bla< uid out h; longer ( 1 >ng vs. ca. 10 mm long) calyx 

' ' ' ' i i" > ' i I i.i Ik Kit ihve distinctions are 

encompassed by specimens of R. hookeriana from Chiapas. Mexico (Daniel 1995b). 
Thus,i?. williamsii ith in . d in the synonvn \ ol R hookeriana. Davidse et 

al. 35478 from Olancho differs from other individuals of R. hookeriana by its linear- 
oblanceolate (vs. subulate) calyx lobes. 

Ruellia inundata H. B. K. 

Phenology. Flowering: November-May; fruiting Movembei May. 

Distribution and h ibil its Mexico. Gnalem ila, 1 I Salvador, Honduras, Nicara- 
gua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil; moist thickets, dry thickets, dry 
forests, thornscrub, along streams, disturbed areas; 1 10-1400 m. 

Rhpri-si:ntativi Si'i ( imi ns. Choi ihka: vicinity of San Marcos de Colon, P. Siandlev 15789 (EAP, 
F).— Comayagua: Mpio. Villa de San Antonio, entre Villa de San Antonio v Ciudad de La Paz, ca. 3 km 
NE de Villa de San Anion, o. 14 2! 'N. NA37AV,./. / mares ei al. 3303 { I c\P),- Corics: Manacal Ranch,/ 
Dickson 1148 (US).— Ei. Paraiso: Rio Choluteea near Ojo de A-ua, /.. Williams .il- A. Molina R. 12727 


hi ol i <) i.l. Ylouleeillo ca. 24.5 1 m >W of iigi alepequ< loward Fl u di Oloro ca II 'I N. S7 >'\\ 
T. Daniel & J. Araque 9642b (CAS, EAP).— La Paz between S idarui i Rn < i and Llano San Antonio, A 
Molina R. 24127 (EAP. F). Own peoi 'e: enfre Anligua Oeniepeque and Nueva Ocotepeque, C Ae/scw 

efa/. 1495(EAP).— Oi \Nnio:beiwc calpa nd 1 i( nice] ion P. iiamllex 17926(1 ,1'. F ).— Santa 

Barbara: along n\cied ltint- or. nil i nhara,ea. 14' 557 > I4 1 ". I. Daniel ,t- ./. A raque 9621 (CAS, 
EAP, MO, US).— Valle: vicinit\ ol Amapala Isli Immc /' V«,/<//, i '<> < '< ( Ji S) Nor., I,u«.,'ii 
OlanchitoandYoro ca 5 km L ol i mil ca. I «V5I / />«»"'/ < / 1 "«/»«' 9516 (CAS, EAP). 

Variation in color of the corollas has been noted elsewhere for this species (Dan- 
iel 1995b). In Honduras, most plants have pink corollas, but both lavender and white 
corollas have been noted on herbarium labels. 

Ruellia malacosperma Greenm. 

Phenology. Flowering: September-November, May-June; fruiting: Septem- 
ber-November, June. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, cultivated and/or naturalized in other regions, 
moist thickets, dry forests; 10-950 m. 

Represem \ii\f Splumins (<>\i\wa\ \iunil\ ol s., (J11 it. | c <\iu Uulh\ u< I) ' \nrull \ A < 
Chacon P. 6641 (F).- ( '< >k i i s: beiween Villa Nueva and Pimienta toward San Pedro Sula, A Molina R. & 
A. Molina 34428 (EAP. F. MO). Fk.wcisco Mora/.an: Colonia Fas Colinas. Tegucigalpa, A Molina R. 
Mil (I \P)- \ \in \mipal > \l>I i ' - I I '" i 

This species is commonly cultivated in warm regions, including Honduras. On the 
label of Molina R. 33853, from a ravine in Tegucigalpa, it is noted that the plants had 
probably escaped from cultivation. It remains to be determined whether the species 
is native or naturalized in Honduras, but the latter status seems more likely, and it 
is so treated here. The taxonomic status (e.g., whether it is distinct from R. coemlea) 
and origins (e.g., whether it is a hybrid) of this species have been widely speculated 
upon (e.g., Turner 1991; Daniel 1995b). 

Ruellia matagalpae Lindau 

Phenology. Flowering: January-May; fruiting: January-May. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua; 
moist forests, oal forests second; owth along rivers; 100-750 m. 

Representativi Specimens. Com.-v, \ui v: i|iiebnula El Caliche vieinitv ol J. 1 1 ilabe. A. Molina R. &A. 
Molina 3 1668 (EAP ', I . MOI C<mn SW ol" Fake Yojoa near Punta nmia. / Mien 6470 (EAP, F, GH, 
S) -I i \ i. i i \in\ o.ilan .aminod, I itncli i Si Huls W h /. do 129 (F).— Olancho: 
lower slopes of Sierra de \-alta CS km ahnu (N) ol ' al „ iiuas ca. 14 N S5 54" W, T. Daniel & G. 

i Leonard 

Phenology. Flowering: April; fruiting: January, April. 

Distribution and habitats. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, 
Panama; moist forests; 50-120 m. 

iENS.An.AMinxl.aP iilla alley, e; i km up Rio anceiilla from Fancetilla 
I'N, 87°27'W, T. Daniel & ./. Araque 9482 (CAS, EAP, K, MICH, MO, US).— 
olon I km .I I i ii in I ) r 4 «>'W I'. House 1856 (TEFH). 


Ruellia nudiflora (Engelm. & A. Gray) Urb. 

Phenology. Flowering: November. March. June August: fruiting: November- 

Distribution and habitats. U.S.A.. Mexico. ( iuatemala. I Jeli/e. ! londuras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, Panama, West Indies; deciduous forests, thickets, disturbed areas; 60-830 m. 

TEs:San Pedro Sula,A Molina R.&A. Molina 34332 (EAP).— Francisco Morazan: finca in Agua Blanca, 
ca. 5 km SW of Talanga, ca. 14°24'N, 87°07' W. 7. Daniel d (i. I'll:. <M>03 ( ( AS, 1 A I', MO. US).— Olancho: 
waste ground in Cataeamas. T. Daniel & (3. Pilz 0530 ( CAS. F A P. M( ) ), Y< >i« ,: Mpio. Olanchilo. 20 mi W 
of Olanchilo on mad |.. Yoio. i S :7'N. ,S(> -I.V\V. « /. thtvUIsc el al. 35320 (( AS EAP. MO). 

Among Hondurau collections, this name has often been applied to plants treated 
here as Ruellia pubenihi (see below). 

Ruellia paniculata L. 

Phenology. Flowering: February April: fruiting: February April. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, (iuatemala. I I Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, Panama, West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela. Hra/il; moist lake shores, 
thickets; 8-640 m. 

Representative Spec .mens. 14 km SO Choluteca. /•'. Rrpuhki 043 (EAP).— Comayagua: 
El Banco..). Valerio R. 3373 (EAP. F). C'ories: Rio Findo (o Potrerillos / . Williams &A Molina R 17861 
(EAP. F, US). 

Ruellia puberula (Leonard) Tharp & F. A. Barkley 

Phenology. Flowering April- October; fruiting: throughout the year. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala. Fl Salvador, Honduras; moist 
forests, moist thickets, dry thickets, arid scrub, disturbed areas: 500-1800 m. 

Ri prim m \mi Specimens. Comayaci a: Y'alle ( omavagua entre Fas Mercedes and Villa de Flores, 
A. Molina R. 14358 (FAP) -G.pan: Fa Florida to I lac. Espcritu Santo. S. Wake 7401 (US).— Cortes: 
Lago de Yojoa. Fsla de Ycnado. ,1/ ( lama ,SV> (NY). Ki Paraiso: alrededorcs de Fl Rodeo, ca. 10 km S 
de Yuscaran.7. Linares A R. Meis K vr /r>7/ ( EAP).— Francisco Morazan: Rfo Guarabuquf. terrenos de los 
indios Xicaques de la Montana de I.;. Flo. ,! Molina R. W.v ( i; A p F). Intiiuk a: above Rfo Otono. /.' 
Barkley & ./. Hernandez R. 4041/, (Gil).- Fa Pa/: viciniu of I .a Pa/. I' Siaudlev 2400/ (EAP).— Oi.ancho: 
Kanclm Oucmado. W. Gillis 9602 (US). 

Ruellia puberula was treated as a variety of R. nudiflora bv Leonard (1927), and 
most Honduran collections of it have been identified as the latter species. Honduran 
collections of R. puberula differ from those of R. mud flora bv the characters in the 
following couplet: 

Plants prostrate or procumbent; leaves mostly 1 3-4.S mm long and 5-20 mm wide; inflorescence of 

Ions: pedunculate, cidnudulai dicliasia from leal' axils above the base of the plant, a terminal ;:lan 
dnlar inflorescence absent; coiollu cxlcrnallv pubescent with cglandulai tnchomes (or if glandular 
tnchomes present, then these lew and inconspicuous): capsules varviug iioin cnlirelv pubescent 
c Mb eglandular trichomes (sometimes with glands at the apex) to pubescent only in the distal 
half and moMlv I I -a l( , ,| | , | R. puberula 

Plants erect; leaves mostly aS- | 25 mm long and 17-45 mm wide: inflorescence of 1) basal, long- 
P^luiiLiiln uuU hiKliilii oi spnscK nl.ind.ulu dich isi i 2) iluminil 1 nduhi mllon ml im 

;|IU| ^ lateralis s| c ad ,i i lb • I. a, an! n 3h hasi i belw , n tic basal m.l u nninal inflorescence 

corolla externally pubescent with glandular and eglandular trichomes. Hie glands conspicuous: 
capsules entirely pubescent and including glandular tnchomes (at least at apex). R. nudiflora 


Ruellia standleyi Leonard 

Phenology. Flowering: unknown; fruiting: May. 

Distribution and habitats. Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica; moist 
forests; 700 m. 

This distinctive species with crenate leaf margins, a densely glandular terminal 
inflorescence, greenish corollas, and linear-ellipsoid capsules has not been reported 
previously from Honduras. 

Ruellia tuberosa L. 

Phenology. Flowering: September; fruiting: April, August-September. 
Distribution and habitats. West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, naturalized in 
tropical regions worldwide; gardens and waste places; near sea level. 

Alcla i. 15 47 2 V.T. Ihmicl d- J \rnqm '4 ' (i 

This species is apparently both cultivated and naturalized in Honduras. Daniel 
& Araque 9489 was naturalized in waste ground in Tela, whereas another collection 
from Tela (Nelson 778 J, US) was collected from the patio of a house. Plants of this 
species typically produce both cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers. 

Sanchezia parvibracteata Sprague & Hutch. 

This native of southern Central America and northern South America is likely 
known only from cultivation in Honduras. 

^: Sieuatepequt. ,/. Yak-rio R. ALA (HAP, F).— Francisco 

A collection (Rodriguez 192, CAS, MO) from Montana La Tigra in Francisco 
Morazan was not noted to have been cultivated and might represent a naturalized 
individual or population. 

Spathacanthus hahnianus Baill. 

Phenology. Flowering: August-September; fruiting: March. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras; moist forests; 900-2300 m. 

Representative Sitc ivi \s. Cokm s: 2 km N\\ lcl.iquchi.i-1 d.-(:m1il. I . V N. 88"15'W, C. Nelson 
etal. 16631 (TEFH).— Llmimka: Paiqm cional lontana A claqu n juacatal. Las Chimis,San 

Manuel Colohete, P. House n at. /,A (tiAP).— Yoro: ca. 16 km from Yarucha [=Yaruca?] on Quebrada 
de Oro to Cerro Bufalo, W. Holmes 4392 (NY, TEX). 

Spathacanthus hahnianus was reported from Honduras by Daniel (1999b), who 
also provided a key to the three known species of the genus. These rare trees (to 12 
m tall according to Hou ;e et al 185) and shrubs remain poorly known in Honduras. 
House et al. 185 lacks corollas but likely represents this species. 

Stenandrium chameranthemoideum Oerst. 

Phenology. Flowering: March-May; fruiting: March-April. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Honduras; moist forests; 1200-1500 m. 


Ri PRi:siiNiA[[vi Specimens. Com ayaoua: 
R. 1368 (EAP), 6964 (EAR F), A. Molina R. 
12517 (EAP), /M59 (EAP). 

This is the fiisl reporl of this species in 1 lomlurns and Central America. All five 
known Honcluran collections ,, / <> , ! < no,,, ;/ come from the same locality 

and are cited above. The Honduran plants differ from those in Mexico only by the 
young stems with antrorsely appressed (vs. erect to tlexuose to retrorse) trichomes. 

Sinunnliumi [u-ritiiinihttinii ( ». >nn. Sm.) Leonard 

Phenology. Flowering: June-November; fruiting; June November. 
Distribution and habitats. Mexico. Guatemala. 1:1 Salvador. Honduras, Nicaragua; 

pine forests, moist forests, along streams, grassy slopes; 800-1 100 m. 

Representative Specimens. Choeuteca: near El Banquito. L. Will, urns A A. Malum R. 10796 (EAP. 
F, US).— El Paraiso: Rio l.izapa. Llano tic I izapa. A. Molina R. .W.v> ( EAP. I. MO. US).— Francisco 
MorazAn: near San Francisco, drainage ol Rio Yeguare, 14N. S7 W. ,1. Molina R. 2 IS (EAP, F, GH). 

Stenostephanus hondurensis T. F. Daniel, sp. nov.— Type: Honduras. Copan: El 

Paraiso. ( erro A/ul, 15 0(>'N, 88 SS'\V. 1700 m. bosquc montano,8 Mar 2000, 
L. Zelaya & S. Laincz 336 (holotype: TEFH ! ). Fig. C 

Perennis. Folia petiolaLa, laminae elliptieae, 120-175 mm longae, 36-70 mm latae, 
2.5-3.4-plo longiores quam laliores. Inlloi escentia thyrsi, rachis pubescens trichoma- 
tibus eglandulosis, dichasia pedunculata ( I ) 3-llora. (lores pedicellati. Corolla rubra, 
17-18 mm longa, extus pubescens, labium superiorus 7 -9 mm longum, labium inferi- 
ors 8-1 1 mm longum lobis 2 4.5 mm longis. Capsula ignota. 

Perennials of uul a.-.n i ndu u,w > ■-u ins subt ere le to subquadrate, ± evenly 
pubescent with antrorsely appressed eglandular trichomes 0.2-0.4 mm long, soon 
glabrate. Leaves petiolate. petioles to 25 mm long, blades elliptic. 120-175 mm long, 
36-70 mm wide, 2.5-3.4 times longer than wide, acuminate at apex, attenuate at base, 
surfaces with antrorse eglandular trichomes, trichomes ± restricted to major veins, 
margin entire, ciliate. Inflorescence a terminal thyrse to 110 mm long (including peduncle), 
peduncle and rachis ± flattened to ridge-angled, evenly pubescent with erect to 
flexuose eglanduC irii In n . 0.05-0 ^ nun long; dichasia opposite, (1-) 3-flowered, 
pedunculate, peduncles 1.5-2.5 mm long, pubescent like rachis. Bracts triangular- 
subulate, 1-1.2 mm long, 0.4-0.5 mm wide, abaxial surface pubescent like rachis or 
with the trichomes becoming ± antrorse. Bracleoles linear to triangular-subulate, 
0.6-0.8 mm long, 0.2 mm wide, pubescent like bracts. Flowers pedicellate, pedicels 
2.5-4 mm long, pubescent like rachis. lateral flowers borne on secondary peduncles 
1.5-2 mm long. Calyx 1.5-2 mm long, abaxially pubescent with erect to antrorse 
eglandular trichomes to 0.05 mm long, lobes triangular-subulate, 1.2-1.5 mm long, 
subequal in length, 0.6-0.8 mm wide. Corolla linear to ± c-shaped in bud, red, 17-18 
mm long, externally pubescent with erect to antrorse eglandular trichomes 0.05-0.1 
mm long, tube 6-8 mm long, ± gradually expanded distally forming a ± distinguish- 
able throat, narrow proximal portion 3.5-4 mm long, throat 3 4.5 mm long, 3-3.2 mm 
in diameter, widest near midpoint, upper lip straightforward lo spreading, 7-9 mm 
long, 2 mm wide, lower lip 3-lobed, 8- 1 1 mm long, lobes 2-4.5 mm long, 0.9-1.4 mm 
wide. Stamens inserted near base ol corolla lube (in proximal 1/3), 16-17 mm long, 
thecae red, 3.2-3.8 mm long: pollen (lag. 10c) globose-spherical. 2-porate, surface of 


a & Lainez 336). a. Leaf and ii 

x5.6. c. Portion of floral peduncle, bracteok 

1 surface of corolla, x!9. Drawn by Jennifer 

circular regions densely baculate to gemmate, peripheral band apparently continu- 
ous, baculate to gemmate. Style red, 20-22 mm long, glabrous, stigma 0.1 mm long, 
minutely 2-lobed. Ovary glabrous. Capsule and seeds not seen. 

Phenology. Flowering: March; fruiting: unknown. 

Distribution and habitats. Endemic to western Honduras; montane forests; 1700 m. 

Stenostephanus Nees is a neotropical genus with about 75 species occurring 
from Mexico to Bolivia. This represents the first report of the genus in Honduras. It 
can be distinguished from other Honduran genera of Acanthaceae by the following 
combination of characters: cystoliths present, two stamens with 1-thecous anthers, 
and 2-porate pollen divided into two gemmate regions by a continuous or interrupted 
peripheral band. Species of Stenostephanus usually have very restricted distributions, 
and they tend to occur in cloud forests at relatively high elevations. 

Hansteinia Oerst. and Habracanthus Nees are now treated as congeneric with 
Stenostephanus (Daniel 1995a, 1999a; Wasshausen 1999), but many of the nomencla- 
tural combinations for Central American species have yet to be made. Daniel (1999a) 
revised the Mexican species; the Central American species are currently being studied. 
Stenostephanus hondurensis does not conform to any of the 24 currently recognized 
species of these genera from Mexico and Central America nor does it appear to be 
conspecific with South American taxa (Leonard 1958; Wasshausen 1999; Wasshausen 
& Wood 2001; Wood 1988). Superficially, it resembles Habracanthus ruberrimus D. N. 
Gibson from Guatemala by its more or less flattened to ridge-angled inflorescence 
peduncles and rachises, its red corollas, and generally similar pollen (Fig. 10c-e).That 

r<>NiR.rNivi,Ksrn oi-'mk \m\.\s iii-rkakic; 

FIG. 10. Pollen of Stenostephanus. a. S. sessilifolius ( l.iesner 2667>). aperUiral view. b. S. sessilifolius 
(Liesner 26675), inleraperlural view. c. S. hondmensis (Zelara A Luincz 336), interapertural view. d. S. 
ruberrimus (Contreras 01,21 bum ( iualcmala). aperlural view. e. S. ruin-minus (Contreras 6621). inlcnip- 
ertural view. Seale bar: = 5 urn. 

species differs from S. hondurensis by its inconspicuously bifariously pubescent rachis 
with antrorse to antrorsely appressed trichomes, dichasia borne on peduncles 3-13 
mm long, subulate bracts 1 .5-3.5 mm long, calyx 5-6 mm long and abaxially glabrous, 
and corolla 25-36 mm long with the external surface covered with papillae less than 
0.05 mm long. 

Stenostephanus sessilifolius (Oerst.) T. F. Daniel, comb. nov. Glockeria sessilifolia 
Oerst., Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kj0benhavn 1854: 141. 
l%55. Galeottia -■ ssifift Iiu (< lerst.) Kunt/.e. Revis.gen. pi. 2:490. 1891. Hanstei- 
nia sessilifolia (Oerst.) Durkee, Fieldiana, Botr(n.s.) 18: 44. 1986.— Typh: 
Costa Rica. 1 leredia: "in monte Barba/" 6000 it. Mav 1 847. A Oersted 10659 

Phenology. Flowering: May; fruiting: May. 

Distribution and habitals. Honduras. Cosla Rica; along streams; 1300-1500 m. 


A new combination in Stenostephanus is proposed for the species most recently 
treated as Hansteinia sessiliflora (Durkee 1986). Wood (1988) and Daniel (1995a) 
discussed the relationships of these and other genera with two monothecous stamens 

bi] ate pollen. 

This represents the first report of this species in Honduras. In late April of 2000, 
I was unsuccessful in relocating the population from which the only known Hondu- 
ran collection was made in the region southeast of Nueva Fsperanza. Morphological 
characters evident on ! lesner's specimens fall within the range oi variation observed 
on specimens of S. sessilifolius from Costa Rica, although they tend to have more 


trichomes on the rachis and peduncles of the inflorescence. Label data on Liesner's 
collection describe the corollas as orange. Most plants of S. sessilifolius have corollas 
that are red dorsally and yellow ventrally. Corollas on some collections from Costa 
Rica (e.g., Koptur SK-92) are sometimes described as "orange-red," when it is evi- 
dent (even from the dried corollas) that they are red dorsally and yellow ventrally. 
In their dried state, it is not possible to determine the color of the corollas from the 
sole Honduran specimens. Pollen of S. sessifolius from Honduran plants (Fig. 10a, b) 
concurs with that of Costa Rican plants. 

The two species of Stenostephanus in Honduras can be distinguished using the 
following couplet: 

Inflon ;ence peduncles and rachis evenly pubescent; bracteoles linear to triangular-subulate, 0.6-0.8 
mm long; calyx 1.5-2 mm long; corolla externally pubescent; thecae 12 .V,S mm long; pollen with 
peripheral band baculate to gemmate. S- hondurensis 

Inflorescence peduncles and rachis glabrous to bifariously pubescent; bracteoles subulate, 1-1.7 (-2.5) 

mm long; calyx 5-1 u long: corolla externally glabrou thecae '.5 ' mm long: pollen with 

peripheral band psilate to subpsilate. S. sessilifolius 

Tetramerium nemorum Brandegee 

Phenology. Flowering: February-May; fruiting: May. 

Distribution and habitats. Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua; 
dry forests, thornscrub, along streams; 350-690 m. 

T. Daniel etal. 9569 (CAS, EAP,K, MO, US).— Francisco Moi *:ca LkmSI El jaalongroad 

to Villa de San Francisco, ca 14'14'N, «S7 C ()1 'W. T. Darnel <t (, Pit 9606 ( ( \S. EAP, K, MEXU. MICH. 
MO, UPS). 

The type of the taxonomic synonym, Averia melanosperma Leonard, is from 
Honduras: El Paraiso, thicket along Choluteca River near Ojo de Agua, 559 m, 1 Feb 
1947, L. Williams & A. Molina R. 14050 (holotype: US!; isotype: F!). 

Tetramerium nervosum Nees 

Phenology. Flowering: January-February, May; fruiting: January-February, May. 

Distribution and habitats. U.S.A., Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru; dry forests, 
thornscrub, disturbed areas, along streams; 110-1200 m. 

Representativ i Sin < i\,i , C hoi i n ( \ LI EmjuI htrnW >L n I i. ncisco, C. Nelson 1364 
(EAP).— El Paraiso: vicinity of Rio California, between Rio Choluteca and Jacalapea, P. Standley 29163 
(EAP, F). — Francisco Morazan: grounds of Escuela Agricola Panamericana in El Zamorano, S of live- 
stock sheds, ca 14 01 N. S7 01 \\ / del f9 S, EAP, MO, US).— Valle: Gulf of Fonseca, Tiger 
[ s ] i, I I, 8 > Sinclaii t. (typi >f T. polystachyum Nees: holotype: K!). 

Daniel (1986) equated T. polystachy - ith T. n vomuii. Plants resembling the 
type of the former name have since been recollected on Isla Tigre (e.g., P. Standley 
20700 at NY and US). Sinclair's type specimen represents one of the first known 
plants to have been collected in Honduras (Nelson 1990, 1996). 

Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims 

Phenology. Flowering: throughout the year; fruiting: July-September, Decem- 


: tropics; garden 

Representative Si'i < imp ns. A 1 1 an i Ida: N. I km S ol'l.u Ceiha near km ( ':iiii",ivjal on road to Yaruca. 
T. Darnel & J, Araqne V5I4 (CAS, EAP, MO. US), Ciiolcil, a: vicinity of San Marcos dc Colon, /> 
Standley 15701 (EAP, I-'). C'ok.n: Trujillo, ,1. Clewed el al. 4282 (LAP MO).— Comayagua: vicinity of 
Siguatepeque, £ Standby & ./. C/wai/i /> 66.15 (F).— Copan: 10 mi W of Copan toward La Entrada. T. 
Croat 42513 (MO).— Corti s: vicinity of La Lama. P. Standley & .1. Chacon P. 7P>3 (F).— El Paraiso: El 
Paraiso, A. Molina R. 27207 (EAR F, US).— Francisco Mora/an: Zamorano. ./. Valeria R. 3543 (EAP, 
F US).— La Paz: vicinity of Marcala town. Marcala Ki\ci 1. Molina A: A ,i. Molina 24277 (EAP F 
NY).— Lempira: Cd. Ciracias. ca. 14 25' N. 8NA5AV. C Nelson et ai P()(MO), -Ocotepeque: vicinity of 
Nuevo Ocotepeque.Smuapa River. A. Molina R. 22160 (EAP. F. NY), Olanciio: Campamento, /. Guerra 
C 112 (MO).— Santa Barbara: alrcdedores de Sanln Barbara. Rio { Inn. A. Molina R. 5804 (FAP I ( il I 
US).— Yoro: near Progresso, P. Standley 55008 (F. US). 

p a , he ili . ulii u. < H i i inn ,|, ■< i i „„,,, 

i.) T.Anderson 

n tropical Africa is kno 

2242 (EAP, F). 

Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. 

Phenology. Flowering: December-February, May, August; fruiting: Decem- 
ber-February, May. 

Distribution and habital India o Lurali/ed in man iropical regions; gardens, 
disturbed areas; 40- 1 000 m. 

Representative Specimens. Ateantida: near Lancctilla. I. Yimekcr 5017 (F. NY).— Comayagua: 
Agua Caliente, vaguada de Rio Chaino v Rio Humuya. C Nelson ei al. f,447 (MFXFJ. MO).— Cortes: 5 
kmde San Pedro Sula, Rio Arenales. El Sauce., 1. Molina R. AAA ( I . A P. L (ill. US).— El Paraiso: vicin- 
ity of Danlf, R Standley 10081 (HAP. F), -Francisco Mora/an: Cemenleno General, Comayaguela, C. 
Sherman 152 (NY).— La Paz: alredcdoies de Fa Pa/. ,\/. Medina 25lH \1( )). V, , K o; neai Mindanao / 
Dickson y//(EAP). 

This species is both cultivated and naturalized in Honduras. 

Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. 

Phenology. Flowering: November-May, August; fruiting: unknown. 

Distribution and habitats. India through southeastern Asia, cultivated and natu- 
ralized in tropical regions; gardens, disturbed areas; 80-800 m. 

Representative Speclui ns. Ai i an tida: Fancetilla Experiment Station. / Yuneker 5030 (NY).— Gio- 
LUTECAialdea Las Delieias. A) kin N de ( 'holutcca.,/. Segovia 40 ( MliM i ). Ei Paraiso: outskirts of Danlf, 
N. Harriman 14580 (MO), Francisco Mora/an: El Zamorano I. M,dina R. A A. Molina 347 i >5 (E A P. 
MO).— Olanciio: vicinity of Julicalpa, P. Standlev 18084 (EAP). 

This species is cullivalcd and reputedly naturalized (e.g.. Standley 18084) in Hon- 
duras. Some cultivated plants from El Zamorano (e.g.. IW/mV; ft. 1097, 2289, both at 
EAP) have narrow leaves lacking large marginal teeth (they also have coarsely and 
irregularly sinuate margins and three major veins). They are suggestive of Thunbergia 

i. It i and may represent that species. 


Excluded Names 

The following names have been cited from Honduras in 
They are excluded based on the reasons provided. 

. = Aphelandra scabra (Vahl) Sm. (Daniel 

jca (Daniel 

Asystasia coromandeliana Nees = Asystasia gangetica T.Anderson (Fosberg et al. 1993). 

Averia longipes (Standi.) Leonard = Tetramerium nemorum Brandegee (Daniel 1986). 

Averia melanosperma Leonard = Tetramerium nemorum (Daniel 1986). 

Barleria micans Nees = Barleria oenotheroides Dum. Cours. (Daniel 1995a). 

Beloperone guttata Brandegee = Justicia brandegeana Wassh. &. L. B. Sm. (Daniel 1989). 

Beloperone variegata Lindau.— This name is a synonym of Justicia chamaephyton 
D. N. Gibson (Daniel 1993b), a species known only from southern Costa Rica. 
Molina's (1975) inclusion of it among Honduran Acanthaceae was likely based 
on a misidentification. 

Beloperone violacea Planch. & Linden.— This name was applied to plants collected 
from the Gulf of Fonseca by Hemsley (1882), who also noted the taxonomic 
synonym, Justicia carthagenensis Jacq. If these two names do indeed apply to the 
same species, then the correct name for it in Justicia is /. carthagenensis. 

Blechum brownei Juss. Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb. (Daniel 1995a). 

Buceragenia glandulosa Leonard = P sender anthemum cuspidatum (Nees) Radlk. 
(Daniel, 1995b, and see above). 

Carlowrightia costaricana Leonard = Carlowrightia arizonica A. Gray (Daniel 1995b). 

Chaetothylax rothschuhii Lindau = Justicia micrantha (Oerst.) V. A. W. Graham (see 

Crossandra undulaefolia Salisb. = Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees (Bailey 

Dicliptera assurgens (L.) Juss. = Dicliptera sexangularis (L.) Juss. (Daniel 1995b). 

Dicliptera brachiata Spreng.— This name applies to a species of the southern United 
States and northern Mexico. Molina's (1975) inclusion of it from Honduras was 
based on a misidentification. 


Dicliptera Lindau.- See above under Dicliptera antidysenterica A. 
Molina R. 

Dicliptera vahliana Nees = Dicliptera scxangularis (Daniel lW95b). 

Dyschoriste hondurensis Leonard = Dyschoriste qiiadrangularis (Oerst.) Kuntze (see 

Dyschoriste oaxacensis kobuski ■= Dyschoriste eapitata (Oerst.) Kuntze (Daniel 1995b). 
Dyschoriste skutchii Leonard = Dyschoriste eapitata (Daniel 1995b). 

Eranthemum nervosum (Vahl) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. = Eranthemum pulchellum 
Andr. (Fosberg et al. 1993). 

Henry a scorpioides (L.) Nees- Although this name is commonly applied to plants 
of H. insularis Nees ex Benth., its basionvm pertains to Dicliptera sexan^ularis 
(Daniel 1990). 

Hygrophila conferta Nees = Hygrophila costata Nees (Daniel 1995b). 

Hygrophila guianensis Nees = Hygrophila costata ( Daniel 1995b). 

Hypoestes sanguinolenta Hook, f.— This name is commonly misapplied to Hypoestes 
phyllostachya Baker (Daniel 1995b). 

"Jacobinia pohliuiiu var. velutuia llort. "—This "name" was cited by Molina (1975). 
I find no evidence for its publication. 

Jacobinia spicigera (Schltdl.) L. H. Bailey = Justicia spicigera Schltdl. (Daniel 1995b). 

Jacobinia umbrosa (Benth.) Blake hr . , i 

Justicia chamaephyton D. N. Gibson.— This species of southern Costa Rica is not 
known from 1 londu as M Juki's ( 1975) mi lusmn of it was based on a misiden- 

Justicia corynimo < •, J. (iil , / ijd, ,r tl enensis laeq (Daniel 1995b). 

Justicia fulvicoma Schltdl.— See above under Justicia ciriloiT. F. Daniel. 

Justicia olanchan a in. I .. V iams, nomen nudum — Although listed by Molina 

(1975), this manuscript name was never published; plants so annotated are Jus- 
ticia ramulosa (Morong) C. Ezcurra. 

Justicia peckii (S. F. Blake) Standi. = Justicia bivvijloru (Nees) Rusbv (Daniel 1995b). 


Justicia tinctoria (Oerst.) D. N. Gibson = Justicia colorifera V. A. W. Graham (Daniel 

Justicia trichotoma (Kuntze) Leonard. — See above under Justicia pilzii T. F. Daniel. 

Mendoncia costaricensis Oerst.— Standley (1931) used this name for plants from 
the Lancetilla Valley, and Molina (1975) included it in his list of Honduran 
Acanthaceae. A Standley collection from Lancetilla at F that was labeled with 
this name is Mendoncia retusa Turrill. Mendoncia costaricesis is not known from 

Nelsonia brunelloides (Lam.) Kuntze— Although this name has often been used in 
referring to plants treated above as Nelsonia canescens (Lam) Spreng., Barker 
(1986) indicated that its basionym pertains to Hemigraphis. 

Odontonema callistachyum (Schltdl. & Cham.) Kuntze. — Not known from Honduras; 
see above under O. cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze. 

Odontonema paniculiferum S. F. Blake.— Yuncker (1940) used this name for plants 
from Atlantida. It was included in the synonymy of Odontonema hondurense 
(Lindau) D. N. Gibson by Daniel (1997). 

Poikilacanthus setiferus Standi. & Steyerm. = Poikilacanthus macranthus Lindau 
(Daniel 1991a, and see above). 

Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum (W. Bull) Radlk. = Pseuderanthemum carruthersii 
(Seem.) Guillaumin (Daniel 1995b). 

Razisea spicata Oerst.— Standley 14158 (F). supposedly collected from moist pine-oak forest at 1600 m at 
Monte Oscuro in the department of Francisco Morazan, has written across the label, "mixed label, 
this plant may not be from Honduras." Lacking additional confirmation of the presence of this spe- 
cies in Honduras, it is excluded from the acanthaceous flora of the country. As noted above, it might 
be expected to occur there in moist forests. 

Ruellia brittoniana Leonard = Ruellia coerulea Morong (Daniel 1995b). 

Ruellia campestris (Oerst.) Hemsl.— This name, based on a fragmentary collection 
from Costa Rica and not treated by Durkee (1986), has been applied to plants 
from Honduras. Honduran specimens determined with this name (e.g., Gillis 
9602 at US) are treated here as Ruellia puberula. 

Ruellia latibracteata D. N. Gibson = Blechum grandiflorum Oerst. (see above). 

Ruellia molinae D. N. Gibson = Ruellia fulgida Andr. (see above). 


» / ; ' isii l.< on ii I R lh i liookcrimm ( cs) Nemsl (sei above) 

y».v//f/« rawasY/ (Oerst.) V. A. W. 

1 ■ ' s iJibson See above under Jitsticiu rumosu. 

Teliostachya alopecuroidea (Vahl) Nees = Lepidagathis alopecuroidea (Vahl) R. Br. 
ex Griseb. (Daniel 1995b). 

Tetramerium polystachyimi Nees = Tctnuncrium nervosum Nees(Daniel 1986). 

Thimbergia alba S. Moore.— Molina (1975) listed this name for cultivated acantha- 
ceous plants, probably in reference to white-flowered individuals of T. alata Boje] 


I thank the Nation il < ,, ogr; plucSo. u t\ lo, funding im held in-i in rbanum studies in Honduras; the 
American Philosophw i , \grfcola Panamericana 

at El Zamorano for providing logistical support; Jorge Araquc ( I A I'), who was a pleasant and helpful field 
companion for many \u ks;(, .it pj| ,i \P). wlui facilitated mv visits to Honduras, made many local 
arrangements, and who i eomp ni ( m, in lln held Xntomo M hn (I \l') who issisted me in the Paul 
Standley Herbarium, identified m\ non acamhaccous collections, and who accompanied me in the held; 
Cirilo Nelson and Paul I n . h , ., d. i, i I i ,,, h (i mil I it.i and arranged for a 

critical loan of specimens; Jennifer Kane and Paul , lot la i i ti u. the new species; Scott Serata for 
assistance with the scanning elettii i mica, p, in ,,, )choa lor providing the map; and the curators of 
the following herbaria loi allowing access to theii collections: A. CAS. DS, EAP. F, GH, K LL MEXU 
MO, NY, PM A, RSA, TEFH, UC. and US. 


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i.24: l(jy-ll.\?.()()5. 


M. Socorro Gonzalez-Elizondo 

CIIDIR, Instituto Politecnico Nacional 

Apdo. Postal 738 

Durango, Dgo., 34000, Mexico 

Anton A. Reznicek 

University of Michigan Herbarium 

3600 Varsity Drive 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 U.S.A. 

Abstract. Eleocharis ignota S. Gonzalez & Reznicek (Cyperaceae), previousl} 
montevidensis Kunth forma angustior, is elevated to the rank of species. Its differences 
densis and E. dombeyana are discussed. 

Resumen. Eleocharis ignota S. Gonzalez et Reznicek (Cyperaceae), previamente 
montevidensis Kunth forma angustior. es reconocida a nivel de especie. Se comentan su 

During 1991 and 1992, while revising sedges for the upcoming volume of the 
Flora Novo-Galiciana, Rogers McVaugh found an unknown element of Eleocharis 
that was provisionally named "E. ignota" He asked Socorro Gonzalez-E. for her 
opinion regarding this novelty and invited her to describe it. After collecting more 
material in Jalisco and reviewing a number of specimens of the complex surrounding 
E. montevidensis Kunth, Gonzalez-E. concluded, with considerable doubts, that "£. 
ignota" could represent only a regional form of the variable and widely distributed 
E. montevidensis and described it as E. montevidensis forma angustior S. Gonzalez 
& McVaugh (McVaugh 1993). The epithet for the forma reflects the shape of the 
spikelets, which are longer and relatively narrower than those of other populations 
of E. montevidensis. 

Recent studies on Eleocharis subseries Truncatae from Mexico reveal that the 
name E. montevidensis has been broadly applied to a complex of species, and that 
E. montevidensis forma angustior represents one of these. Therefore, this taxon is 
elevated to the rank of species. 

Eleocharis ignota S. Gonzalez & Reznicek, sp. nov. Eleocharis montevidensis 
forma angustior S. Gonzalez & McVaugh, Flora Novo-Galiciana 13: 362. 
1993.— Type: Mexico. Jalisco: 22 km de Lagos de Moreno, por la carretera 
a Guadalajara, en charcos, 12 Aug 1992, S. ( onz lez 5249 with A. Garcia y 
L. Lopez (holotype: CIIDIR!; isotypes: ANSM! CHAP! CHAPA! ENCB! 
IBUG! IEB! MEXU! MICH! NMSU!). Figs. 1,2. 

Caespitose perennial from a hard, ligneous rhizome covered by remains of older 
culm bases (usually the rhizome absent in herbarium specimens and the clumps 
appearing to arise from a vertical or ascending caudex). Culms erect, 20^14 cm long, 
0.4-1 mm wide, rectangular to subterete and strongly flattened, with 3-4 blunt ridges 
on each of the wide sides, flattened or subterete at summit. Basal sheaths membra- 
nous, easily disintegrating, purple at the base, the apex oblique, rounded, the mouth 

(XiNI R I'NIYL.RSITY OI \|]( 'I [|i i,\.\ 1 ll-RUA KIIW 

1< < I /■/<■"< /; ( //vs /!;//.)/,/. f Libit of flowering plai 

rounded or v-shaped; upper sheath 2.4-5 cm long, tight, cylindrical pale green or 
purple, the apical margin reddish, thickened, truncate, with an erect subulate frag- 
ile cusp (0.5-) 0.8-2 mm long, 0.1-0.2 mm wide at the base. Spikelets lanceoloid to 
ellipsoid (ovoid when immature), 9-13 mm long, 1.8-3.5 mm thick, usually acute to 
narrowl He. I I'ten >tus ea. (35 ) 70-1 60-flowered; floral scales 1.7-2.1 mm 

long, 0.8-1.2 mm wide, polystichous, appressed, narrowly ovate to narrowly elliptic, 
obtuse to acute, the midvein stramineous or reddish, laterally membranous, dark 
purple to almost black, the margins and apex scarious, colorless, gradually translucent, 
with one or two horizontal wrinkles near the apex; (lie two lowermost scales sterile, 
the lowermost amplexicaulous. 1.8 2 mm long, l.o 2 mm wide, the median part green 
and up to 1.2 mm wide, appearing to be a continuation of the culm, the margins and 
apex scarious, colorless, translucent, wrinkled, the apex 0.8-1.1 mm long, rounded to 



'migh l6915.M\Cll:d-\\(>onzdlc; 


broadly acute. Achene 0.8-1.1 (-1.3) mm long including base and tubercle, the body 
0.7-1 mm long, ca. 0.6-0.8 mm wide, broadly obovate in outline, obtusely triangular or 
plano-convex with the dorsal angle slightly costulate, pale yellow, finely reticulate and 
striate with many rows of linear, vertical cells, sometimes appearing nearly smooth, 
shiny; tubercle 0.15-0.23 mm long, 0.28-0.32 mm wide at the base, conic to deltoid, 
slightly spongy, whitish or greenish, sessile or with a short constriction at the sum- 
mit of the achene. Perianth of 5-7 bristles appressed to achene, somewhat recurved 


YOI UMI- .'4 


Cusp at apex of the 

mucronulate to mi 

Size of cusp on apex 
of the upper sheath 

0.1-0.5 (-0.9) mm 1< 
0.2-0.3 mm wide 

Spikelets (shape) 

ovoid to ellipsok 

usualh obi use 

n ' l> ' minwii 

(0.5-) 0.8-2 mm long, 

Spikelets (length) 3-12 mm 4- 

Floral scales (apex) broadly rounded subaci 

Floral scales (color) orange-brown to red- dark purf 

licula diola.l 


and quite variable in length, shorter than or slightly longer than achene, colorless or 
slightly reddish 1 ii d, translucenl ti :1\ spinulose with translucent, colorless 
irregular prolongations, proximally slightly flail ene I lisi i.I mm long at the 

base of the achene. Style trifid. Stamens 3, filaments whitish to reddish, anthers pale 
hecae L— 1.5 mm long, the connective not prolonged. 

Phenology. Flowering: May to August; fruiting: August (perhaps until November). 

Distribution. Central Plateau of central-western Mexico (Durango, Jalisco, 
Guanajuato, and Michoacan); locally abundant in water-filled depressions in grass- 
lands with shrubs (e.g., Acacia schaffnei I \ clay soils, often halophytic; 
1800-2200 m. 

Anm-noNAi Sim c mi ' Vllem'ti Ipio >uchil IU en id 

3kmalSdeEl Aleman > . i, m I i i i .inn I o ui. >mh^ 2" 18'35"N, 104 10'( 
) m, 6 Aug 1986, F. Acevedo 172 (CIIDIR).— Guanajuato: 8 km al E de Yuri 


a Salvatierra, pastizal hal6fil< 1800 m 11 \u> I9Ni f. R don ' 40306 < IIDIR. IEB) (distribute 
Eleocharis aff. montevidensis) Jalisco neai Km i7, just E of the Aguascalientes state line, road from 
Ojuelos, about 13 mi \\ ol 'asodel I. j | rmanentl wet depressions in level grassland, 2000 m, 17 Aug 

I' • ' \ , n 04' II M) li i I in I I .ill 1 iSinh tn.l I )_o .<»i I i uirretera a Lagos de 

Moreno, suelos humm. it nil Mi I It n.i i h > t ,, > i 

. < , ,i ". / /(' "ll'l < ) I iit can / . F, l ■ <» ■ will. <'. . iniilim u ,n no .uni- 

inundado, A Rodriguez 1287 (CIIDIR, IEB).— Mn iioacan: NF. de Maravatfo, en terreno piano, dentro 
del agua, orilla de camm poircro. 2S Jim l9Sf I. Santos Martiin i'^K II > R IEB) (distributed as 
Eleocharis ati. montevidensis): Mpio. Morelia.3 km adelante de San Jose Itzicuaro, rumbo a Quiroga,2000 
n \m\,M.l 7 lores-Cruz564,A.Espejo&A.R.L6p u \ I R, UAMIZ) 

Eleocharis ignota belongs to subgenus Eleocharis subseries Truncatae, a strictly 
American group (Svenson 1932) strongly in need of revision. Eleocharis ignota most 
closely resembles E mom ■• isis; it can be separated from that species by a com- 
bination of characters: rhizomes ligneous, without long internodes, not long-creep- 
ing; apex of the upper sheaths truncate (versus truncate to slightly oblique), with a 
longer, subulate and fragile cusp; spikelets often acute and averaging longer; paler 
perianth bristles; and lighter, smoother achenes. The characters in which E. ignota 
differs from E. montevidensis and E. dombeyana Kunth, another widespread member 
of Eleocharis subseries Truncatae with which E. ignota can be confused, are given in 
Table 1 and illustrated in Fig 2. Eleocharis dombeyana was excluded from the Flora 
Novo-Galiciana (McVaugh 1993, p. 368), although Svenson had annotated a speci- 
men as an anomalous form of this species; this collection (McVaugh 17041, MICH) 
represents E. ignota. 


We are grateful to Rogers McVaugh for first pointing out this novelty. He should have been an author 
of this manuscript, but graciously deflected our attempts to convince him. An anonymous reviewer pro- 
vided critical comments that helped to improve the manuscript. Figure 2 was prepared by Noel Bielaczyc. 
We thank Jorge A. Tena, 1. 1 ,orena Lopez E., and Abel Garcia A. for help in this study, and the curators of 
the following herbaria for making specimens available: CIIDIR, ENCB, IBUG, IEB, MEXU, and MICH. 
The first author also acknowledges CGPI, EDI, and COFAA of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional for 
iippcd mi research. 


McVaugh, R. 1993. Cyperaceae. In Flora Novo-Galiciana, ed. R. McVaugh and W. R. 

225-440. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Herbarium. 
Svenson, H. K. 1932. Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis. Rhodora 34: 193-227. 


Department of Biology 

University of Victoria 

Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3N5, Canada 


Department of Ecology and Evolution 

University of Colorado at Boulder 

Boulder, Colorado 80309-0334 


Department of Zoology 

North Carolina State University 

Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 

illustrated. This novelty is similai to /) serpyllijhlia (< iriseb.) from Hispaniola and Cuba. A key to the four 
species now known from Puerto Rico is provided. 

Dendrophthora is a neotropical genus of about 110 species (Kuijt 2000). Beyond the 
Greater Antilles, it ranges from southern Mexico to Bolivia and is mostly Andean in South 
America. In the Caribbean, about 32 species are recorded, with major concentrations 
in Cuba and Hispaniola. Three of the Caribbean species are known from Puerto Rico. 
The present contribution reports a fourth species from the Cabo Rojo region. 

Dendrophthora bermejae Kuijt, Carlo & Aukema, sp. nov.— Type: Puerto Rico. Cabo 
Rojo: roadside, Hwy PR-302, 17°58'07.8"N, 67°08'04.09"W, on Guaiacum 
officinale L., 30 m, 29 Aug 2004, T. A. Carlo & J. E. Aukema 37 (holotype: 
UPR!; isotypes: LEA! MAPR! NY! UPRRP! US!). Fig. 1. 

Planta glabra, plus minusve erecta, paucifolia, monoica. Inflorescentia plerumque 
2-4-juga, internodiis fertilibus unisexualibus, quaque bractea fertili 3-10 flores sub- 
tenenti, floribus uniseriatis. Fructus 6 x 3.5 mm, petalis erectis. 

Somewhat erect, glabrous, leafy plants, internodes to 4 cm, terete, grooved when 
dry; base of lateral branches and inflorescences subtended by brownish, carinate 
prophylls with slightly fimbriate margins, these prophylls occasionally subtending 
additional inflorescences or innovations; cataphylls absent or one small pair to 1.5 
cm above the base, these often fertile. Basal foliar structures transverse. Leaves few, 
to 5 cm long, to 2 cm wide, obovate, apex rounded to truncate, base tapering to an 
indistinct petiole ca. 2 mm long; venation more or less palmate, with several veins 
running far towards the leaf tip. Monoecious. Inflorescences both single on older 
growth in axillary positions below leaves and in compound, squamate groups distal 
to them, where usually composed of two or three pairs of lateral inflorescences plus 
one terminal one. Individual inflorescences to 6.5 cm long, peduncle 1.5-3 cm long, 
without cataphylls, followed by 3-4 somewhat flattened, uniseriate, fertile internodes, the 
proximal one or two (three) female, the distal one or two male, the female internodes 

FIG. 1. Dendrophihoru hcrmcjtie (the sex of female internodes is not indicated \ 

i |l "i> ! ! ""' ■ 'ii '"""in iniloi c, ii. . in. .in |» tl l (.iiji.IixH I. Smaller compound 

iiitlouseciRY v\iili hasal ejt.iph', Ii . >., ■ I lual inflorescences subtended by foliage leaves. 
i I divi .... i iteral inflorescence, placed below foliage leaves 1 . i.l ■. . mode, the lower flow- 
ers replaced by small m if - ...... .< .. .! ,uh , nil O LI A, b. Carlo & Aukema 5, LEA;c, 

d. Curio ci ul.JJ, LEA.) 

with up to 8 flowers per series (16 per internode), the male internodes to 10 flowers 
per series (20 per internode), the latter crowded in a groove with low, delicate parti- 
tions between flowers. Fruit 6 mm long, 3.5 mm in diameter, ovoid, yellowish green, 
petals erect. 


Additional Specimens Examined. Puerto Rico. Caho Rojo: Las Palmas, road side, PR-303 at 
entrance to Pitahaya State Forest, on (uutiuatm officinalis. Carlo el ul. 32 (LEA)...?..? (I. LA), Carlo A 
\iikcmn III ) (LPR);La Salmi n Uutiuaim offumali Chardon , al 500 (UPR); Quebrada 
Cajii, Liogier 36831 (UPR); Barrio Boqueron, Penones de Melones, upper slopes near summit, dry 
forest on limestone, 17°59.83'N, 67°10.97'W, 100 m, on Gutmiawi ofliam I wlro l <S flu nu* S ' 
( t PRRP) — Without locality: R.O. Woodbury .v./,. (ft 01.5025) (UPR). 

Dendrophthora bermejae represents a remarkable endemic apparently restricted 
to the southwestern Sierra Bermeja and Costa Bermeja area, where it is presently 
endangered by residential, commercial, tourist, and agricultural development. It is not 
known to occur within any protected area. The species appears to be related to D. ser- 
!■■ Ill i. lia I ( rriseb.) Krug & Urb. from Hispaniola and Cuba but, aside from its much 
larger general stature, is distinct in a number of important respects. Dendrophthora 
serpyllifolia has leaves that rarely exceed 1 cm in length, with a mucronulate apex, 
and the placement of foliage leaves is irregular. Dendrophthora bermejae, instead, has 
leaves to 5 cm in length, more or less rounded at the tip. Dendrophthora serpyllifolia 
also has cataphylls in several positions, especially on all vegetative laterals and on the 
lowest inflorescence units of its compound ones (Kuijt 1961); D. bermejae has fewer 
cataphylls. The flowers of D. serpyllifolia occur in much smaller series (2-3 flowers per 
fertile bract) than in D. bermejae (to 10 flowers per fertile bract). The sex distribution 
in D. serpyllifolia is uncertain but the species is probably dioecious; in any case, it 
does not have the almost invariable, curious distribution of male and female flowers, 
or the slightly flattened fertile internodes exhibited by the present species. 

Dendrophthora bermejae shows an unusual variability in several morphological 
aspects. Some inflorescences and lateral branches bear basal cataphylls, while others 
do not; we have not found any regularity in this feature except that the individual 
inflorescences making up a compound arrangement never seem to bear cataphylls. It 
is common for inflorescences to be associated with the axils of cataphylls, a phenom- 
enon not known elsewhere in Dendrophthora although known from several species 
of the closely related Phoradendron (Kuijt 2003). The inflorescences of a compound 
cluster may be subtended by foliage leaves or not. 

In one of the collections cited {Carl \, tl lowest two flowers of a num- 

ber of female fertile internodes have been replaced by small lateral inflorescences 
(Fig. Id). This is probably teratological in nature, and is also occasionally encountered 
in other species of Dendrophthora and Phoradendron (see Kuijt 1959, Fig. lie). 

The four species of Dendrophthora known from Puerto Rican may be distin- 
guished with the following key. 

Key to the Species of Dendrophthora in Puerto Rico 

1. Fruits 1 or 2 pei fertile bract; plants monoecious or dioecious. 

2. Young branch ith rninuh "hi mng epid rm 1 haii i mile flowers (1) 2 per fertile bract; 
prophylls inconspicuous, not obviously fused. D. brachylepis \ Jrb. 

2. Young branches glabrous; ten i iK' (1 A\e. I per fertile bi el |io|>h\li < onspicuous, fused into 

a compound structure. /). domingmsis (Spreng.) Eichler 

1. Fruits 3-8 pei i« nil. bi < i pi nt mom e< ion 

3. Male and female flowers intermixed; inflorescence branches often sinuous, fertile internodes 
1-12 ( 20) pi i (in 1 . >r < . i o , ( ) i I til > I mi t ill a ■ 1 [I 
along the fertile internode. D. fiagelliformis (Lam.) Krug & Urb. 

3. Male and female flowers on separate internodes, the male flowers on terminal internode, the 
female flowers on lower ones; inflorescence branches more oi less ;ti light: fertile internodes 
3 or 4 per inflorescence, each bearing 3-10 (lowers; fruits crowded on fertile internode. 



il alllllOI H k IO' JC |g, IJH illl HI. i;il Up|)< I 1. III. I 111 ii .' I. MO > nul I n>' 

Council ol Canada! II , (h. .iiu.n.l , „ ,. hum I s \ ( » DEB-04-07826; I 

1 1 Smith Conservuiion Research Fellowship (JEA). Wc thank J. CTrejo and an anonyi 
helpful s 


jt, J. 1954. A study of hcterophylly and inflorescence structure in Dentin 
(Loranthaceae). Acta Bot. Neerl. 8: 506-546. 

. 1961. A revision of /) ( v/<// luhora I oranili ac ) Wcntia 6: I -145. 

.2000. An updaU oi I In /' mln iphihorn ( Vim iceae) Bot lahr 

.2003. Monograph ol ' I'Iu>,;hI hlmn ( \'isca . i. i Sysl Boi Monoju ( 




Irma Lorena Lopez-Enrfquez 

M. Socorro Gonzalez-Elizondo 

Martha Gonzalez-Elizondo 

CIIDIR, Instituto Politecnico Nacional 

Apdo. postal 738 

Durango, Dgo., 34000 Mexico 

Abstract. The type specimens in the Herbarium CIIDIR of the National Polytechnic Institute 
in Durango, Mexico .),. I led. CIIDII i in ional < II. lion holding mon I han 42,000 specimens of 
vascular plants mainly from the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Chihuahuan desert of northern Mexico. 

unvntlv X~i in italogued in< In ling U hol« lyp< / i I- p. i id 1 i o i< oi | 

Resumen. Se registran los especimenes tipo depositados en el herbario CIIDIR del Instituto Poli- 
tecnico Nacional en Durango, Mexico. CIIDIR es una coleccion regional que cuenta con mas de 42,000 

especimenes de plant i- ulan ineluiclo | ilmcnh I 1 crraMadi Occidental y del Desierto 

Chihuahuense. Se tienen catalogados 87 tipos: 9 holotipos, 77 isotipos y 1 isoneotipo. 

Herbaria are essential for documenting plant diversity and for accurate plan- 
ning of actions for the sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems. 
CIIDIR is a research center for floristic and ecological studies that is part of the 
National Polytechnic Institute based in Durango, Mexico. The Herbarium CIIDIR 
was founded in 1981 with a focus on vascular plants. It is the first institutional her- 
barium in Durango and now houses one of the largest scientific collections in north- 
western Mexico. In the last 22 years the collection was moved six times within the 
state of Durango and still does not have a permanent facility. The collection currently 
comprises more than 42,000 sheets with ca. 8,000 additional specimens awaiting 
accession. The main families represented in the herbarium are Asteraceae, Poaceae, 
Leguminosae, and Cyperaceae (Lopez et al. 2001). The importance of these families 
in the herbarium is indicative of the floristic composition of the state of Durango 
and reflects the research interests of the curators. Most of the collections are from 
the northern and central Mexico, particularly from the Sierra Madre Occidental and 
the Chihuahuan Desert. The remainder includes largely material from other parts 
of Mexico, as well as a lesse] 1 1 presentation from the U.S.A. and South America. A 
database of the vascular plants of the Mexican state of Durango currently contains 
more than 28,000 records. 

Several publications summarize the contents and importance of collections in 
Mexican herbaria and their potential use in understanding the biodiversity of the 
country. For example, Rzedowski (1976), and Arreguin and Valenzuela (1986) have 
published catalogues of the herbaria in Mexico, and Davila and German (1991) 
described in more detail the collections in the National Herbarium of Mexico. Shet- 
ler (1973) addressed the importance of recording information about type specimens. 
More recently, CONABIO (The Mexican Agency of the Understanding and Use of 
Biodiversity) has made available electronic catalogues that include lists of Mexican 


herbaria [http \w i il < • ■ i i il i ■ i html; http://www. i l< ttax/doctos/dircolecciones.html], taxonomic experts 
[http://www.conabi i nsii i ' i n I], and taxonomic 

III U, hi | ■ • -I |HH» II Ml HIM Hill • II I ' ' ' ' I .11 In M 1 

Information about type specimens deposited in Mexican herbaria is still scarce 
(Arreguin et al. 1996). In the Appendix we present data from the type specimens 
housed in the Herbarium C1IDIR as of August. 2003. The collection data are pre- 
sented as complete as possible, and the names of authors follow Villasefior (2001), 
based on Brummitt and Powell (1992). The Herbarium CIID1R has cataloged 87 
types, including 9 holotypes, 77 isotypes. and I isoneotypc. More than one third of 
the taxa represented belong to the Asteraceae (32). and 13 belong to Cyperaceae. In 
addition, the 1 ki I i [ID] iratypes, as well as many pho- 

tographs of types and many specimens collected in type localities (topi r pes) 


We thank professors J. Rzedowski and ( .. Rzedowski (1EB), and the staff at the herbaria of athe 
University of Texas at Austin and nl the I mbcrsity oi Michigan for literature donated to CIIDIR. Pro- 
fessor Rzedowski has , m n In hli oil ction n 11)11 v. i 1 i m pe specimens sent in 

exchange. We also acknowledge Jorge A.Tena and ■> uidr; lcna-< ■ < mzalez for their comments on a draft 
of the manuscript, and .lose Pancro for his review. We are grateful to CGPI. EDI. and COFAA of the 


■.[i,' mi \ I aiu, i: al, i luh l",'(, s, "n,ui,> . <tii)h«.><> , I, m, //, , / ntnos institucionales Mexicanos. 143 

PI i H o I i ■>! i i i v I i 1 Iota de Mexico. 

Arreguin Sanchez, M. L.. R. Fernandez, and A. Rodriguez. 1 996. ( 'alalogo de los ejemplares tipo de plantas 

\ascul.ues del I leibano de I i 1 -,< 1 1 ■_ ' . « h 1>« < n ii< i > i.i lo-i i o\ I'O. del Instituto Poli- 

h i nieo N u ion i! i ' i 3 ilil i . i I 

Arreguin Sanchez M 1 R luium. \ ' Ku ml I'unu m ' I >' ^ ( it iloito llustiado dc 

111] 'I II I i i I I il | i ill i I » I i iM • II I 

l.lolo'utns d- I llislilnlo I .hi i nuo I i, mil il I ol. mi I ' ' ■ -i I ) ' ! I 

Brummitt, R.K. and C. E. Powell (eds.). 1992. Authors of plant names. Kevv: Royal Botanic ( .iardens. 
) il i i ni.l \ \ \ in i 1 >" i > < / • ' u < • il t s del Instituto de Biologia. 122 pp. 

, ill. ii i. i i ui I ii mi-o ii i,l ..i.i i on iii dc Mexico. 
Hernandez R and R Ini l» I < I I i i I u il tie Mexico (MEXU). 

I. Criptogamas y Gramtneas. An. Inst. Biol. I 'niv. Nac. Aulon. Mex. Ser. Bol. 61(2): 45-63. 
Lopez Enrique/.. I. L.. M. S. Gonzalez Elizondo. M. Gonzalez I dizondo. and J. A.Tena Flores. 2001. El 

Herbario CIIDIR. Bol. Amaranlo 14(2): 1 1-18. 
Martinez Gonzalez. R. E. 1995 ["1993"']. La coleccibn tie los ejemplares tipo del I lerbario IBUG, Univer- 

sidad de Guadalajara. Mexico. Boletin IBUG 1(6): 449-459. 
Rzedowski,! f 976. Prima ■ ctitulo • s 15 pp. Mexico. D.F.: Sociedad 

Botanica de Mexico. 
Shetler.S. G. 1973. An iiituuliiclion lo the Botanical Tvpe Specimen Re.yistei Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 

12: 1-186. 

\acional Aulonoma tie Mexico CONABIO. 


\cottrth (( ! >i 1 nzal li ond< Phytol i i d 1 1 / I'J, 

Seem.] — Mexico. Durango: Mpio. Vicente Guerrero, Rincor 

2180 m. 16 Feb 1985. S. Accvcdo 163.—Houy\ ype; Isotype. 
Acourlia wishzcnn (A i. i,i\ ) I*< * al .' I" I i i< i uh wn >s<i B. L. Turner, Phytologia 74: 409. 

1993.— Mexico. Durango: Mpio. El Mezquital. 1.5 km de Los Charcos, 2650 m, 21 Sep 1982. R. 

Fernandez N. 1161. — Isotype. 
Ageratina acevedoana B. L.Turner. Phytologia 75: 402. 1993.— Mexico. Durango: Mpio. Canelas, 10 km 

de Canelas, poi 1 1 . mmo ,i i an <> i i , i .mi ,, . I0(,0m 10 Iarl9NP.S \a\edo & D. Bayona 

Ageratina gonzalezorum B. L.Turner, Phytologia \S 4').', \'K< - Mrvico. Durango: Mpio. El Mezquital, 

19 km de Los Charcos. por c! camino a Sin. Ma. Ocotan. 2,100 in. 5 Oct 1983. S. Gonzalez & M. 

Gonzalez 2558. — Isotype. 
Astermoranensisvdx.n <cn I 1) iiincl! «' k>n< Mull Ion Bot. Club 113 173 1 986 —Mexico. Durango: 

Mpio. El Mezquital. \\ cl '. an! i M i d. Ocotan. a lo largo de margencs de arroyo, 16 Oct 1984, M. 

Gonzalez 1518 <& S Accvedo. Iso n it.. 
Axiniphyllum duraiiKt >lion , I" M«-\ico. Di ^ w,< ■ Mpio. El Mezquital, 

alrededores de Plfitano I iti mm,., a 12 km de La Guajolota), en margenes de arroyo, en cienaga, 12 

Sep 1985,/. Softs 294.— Isotype. 
Erigeron basascachensis G I ' sum Phytologia 66: 426. 1989.— Mexico. Chihuahua: Mpio. Ocampo, 

area of La Cascada of Basaseachic at the confluence of Rio Candamena and Rio Durazno, ca. 2 mi 

5 of village of Basa ln< !N'02'i\ 107 5.- (MM) 2100 in I, \ug 1984. G. L. Nesom 5089 with P. 

Lewis. — Isotype. 

Erigeron caulinifolius G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 66: 428. 1989.— Mexico. Chihuahua: Mpio. Guadalupe y 
Calvo. NW side of Cerro Molimo, i. ca 12.5 mi SW ol Guadalupe - < alvo past turnoff to peak, 
downslope on road toward Sinaloa 16°00 L07°03'W 1470m " Aug 1 988. G. L. Nesom 6483a with 
A. McDonald. — Isotype. 

Erigeron coroniglandifer G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 66: 432. 1989. — Mexico. Ci in a ami a: Mpio. Guadalupe y 
Calvo, 78.9 km S\\ .11 mel on mad t« uadalii| Calvo. < 11 km -A of Hidalgo del Parral 
ca. 1.3kmSofbridgeinTuruachi ' lacing ulc of deep N S trending canyon, 26°09'N, 106°44 , W. 
in i ■ I 1 , , , , I I,, 

Erigeron sceptrifer G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 69: 248. 1990.— Mexico. Chihuahua: Mpio. Cuauhtemoc, 17.6 
km W of Cuauhtemoc n Ih U ';>()0ft 1 uigl9<Sl < / \esom 4477.— Isotype. 

Erigeron zacatensis G. L. Nesom, Pi iol _i « < PI 90 Mexico. Zm mi < \s: ca. 2 mi W of Sombrerete 
on Hwy 45, at crest of hill overlooking town, 8200 ft. 1 8 Aug 1 98 1 G. !.. Nesom 4423.— Isotype. 

Gaillardia powellii B. L.Turner. Souths turalist ] 183 L972 Mexico. Coahuila: Estacion Hermanas, 
0.5 nil S, growing in pure gypseous soil, 11 Apr 1970, B. L. Turner 6023. -Isotmt. 

Haplopappus thiniicola Rz. d A I Ezcurra ' i im i rm 26 1( 19 6 | /' icrolhcca thiniicola (Rzed. 

6 E. Ezcurra) B. L. Turner j Mexico. Sonora: Mpio. Puerto Penasco, Gran Desierto de Altar, 8 km 
M de la eslacion uslavo otelo, duna di iren parabolica cmi-nn il. 1 I )cc 1984, E. Ezcurra 
84001 .—Isotype. 

Isocoma tomentosa G. L. Nesom, Phytologia 70: 109. 1991. — Mexico. Chihuahua: Bafios de San Diego, 
1.8KmEofSanDiegodeAlcala,ca. 16 km I- J ol jet ol local road * ith Hvv\ 45 (the jet. 19.5 km 
SE of Cd. Chihuahua), gypseous area of hot springs and small streams flowing into salt flats, small 
hills of exposed gypsum, 28 36'N. 105 31'\V. ca. 1""00 m. 14 Oct 1986. G. L. Nesom 5478 with L. 
Vorobik. — Isotype. 

Jaegueria glabra B. L. Rob var. nana B. I i inner, Phytologia 55: 248. 1984.— Mexico. Chihuahua: 5 km NE 
of El Vergel on Hwy 24 toward Parral, aquatic, abundant in water of roadside ditches and permanent 
pools beside road mh I . Om m ;\ on ! u i of pin* oal madrono. 9000 i'l ' I si 1981. r ' om 


Laennnecia spellenbergii G. 1.. Nesom, I'hviolngia 73: 307. 1992. Mexico. i)i k wgo: Mpio. Siichil, ca. 

47 air km SSW of Vicente Guerrero on road to I .as Margaritas, on the Rcsciva de la Biosfera "La 
Michilia," on general south slope of C'erro Blanco. 2590 m. 23 Jul I WO. li. Spellenherg 10285. S. 

Scibazid^onzalcziw U.L lurnei I'h i I mi . i 19 [ // , mini gonzalezae (B. L. Turner) B. L. 

Turner]— Mexico. Durango: Mpio. El Mezquital. 20 km de I a ( iuajolota. por el carnino a San Fco. 

Ocolan.2440 m. 14 No\ 1985. A/. Gonzalez cv al. 1882, Isotype. 
Senecio izesnerifolius B. L.Turner, Phytologia (>3: 75. 1987. Mexico. Dikam.h: Mpio. El Mezquital, 

26.5 km de La Guajolota por el carnino a 1'latanitos. 2610 in. 15 Mar 1985. M. Gonzalez & id. 

1 677.— Isotype. 

■urango: Mpio. El Mezquital. 3 km 
■vedo 1558. -Isotype. 
'ax dtirangensis Garcia A re v.. Acta Bot. Me\. 12: 9. 1990, Mexico. Durango: Mpio. El Mezquital, 

aprox.4 km de Candelarita Chico. 21 Aug 1988. /. Solis 'W.— Hoi.otype. 
u:\iiui tluiwixcnsistt.\ I'limci !' login 00(4) 154 1 980 Mexico, Gula^,. >: Mpio. El Mezquital, 

alrededores de La Gu.ii )Kh i I', i l l -> / So//v 22 c >.— IsonpE. 
>esm,i hxyn'piidii Panero & Villasenor. Conlr. I niv. Michigan I lerh. 19: 181. 1995. -Mexico. Durango: 

14 km E of Canelas on road to Santiago Papasquiaro. 2180 m, 28 Aug 1991,7. /.. Panero 2253. S. 

Gonzalez A S. Aeevedo. Isotype. 
>esina navariiensis li. I I inner. I In lologia <i - 10. 1987 Mexico. \ w \Rii: Mpio. I luajicori. 2 km del 

Rancho de Los Sauces, 8 Nov 1985. /. Soli's 560.— Isotype. 
'>e\ina napasijlliara Panero & 

Durango: 93 km NW of Canal 

2264. S. Gonzalez, and S, Aeevedo.— Isotype. 
liera Imajieona B I I'limci Phylologia '2 >5 I'' 1 ' 1 Mc>iu in ;>iu I luajicori, 2 km del 

Rancho de los Sauces, 3 Nov 1985. /. Soli's 556. 
liera inegii S. Gonzalez. M. Gonzalez-Elizondo & Rzcd.. Acta Bot. Me\. 53: 39. 2000.— Mexico. 

l>i k \.\go: Mpio. Rodeo, Las Animas, -J I km al NE. sobre la carrelcra a N;iz;is. 25'08'36"N. 

104'25'59"W, 1340 in. 5 Aug 1997, S. Gonzalez 5007. M. Gonzalez it .V. Aeevedo.— Isotype. 
tiera oligantha S. Gonzalez, M. Gonzalez-Elizondo & Rzcd Ada Bot. Mex. 53: 37. 2000.— Mex- 
ico. Durango: Mpio. Rodeo. Las Animas ±1 km al NE, sobre la carretera a Nazas. 25 8'36"N, 

10425*59" W. 1340 in. 5 Aug 1997, S. Gonzalez 5000. M. Gonzalez cv .V. Aeevedo.— Isotype. 
lelia tzonzaleziantm 111. l'urnei (as gonz.ali zonnn) Plntologia <o. : 349. 1988. Mexico. Durango: 

Mpio. El Mezquital. al W de Sla. Maria Ocoian. 16 Oct 1984. M. Gonzalez 1525 with S. Aeevedo.— 

seralaiiri/merlaeH/ci.X: Ualdcron. \cla Bot. Mex. 52: 75. 2000,- Mexico. O.vvu a: Mpio.Totolapan, 
3 km ;il NE de San Juan Guegoyache 950 m. 9 Aug 1970.7. Rzedowski '34383.— Isotype. 

.sera medranoana Rzcd. & L. Ortiz, Acta Bot. Mex. 1:17. 1988. - Mexico. Hum go: Mpio. Gardonal, 
fondodela Barranca de iolantongo, 1300 m, 50 May 1984.7. Rzedowski 38401a.— Isotype. 

.vera palaeiosii Rzcd. & Galderon. Acta Bot. Mex. 50: 47. 2000.— Mexico. Jalisco: Mpio. La Huerta, 
Estaeion de Biologia < hiimekr ceica de ( hamcla. 100 in. 2d Jul 1982.7. Rzedowski 37882.— Isotype. 

sera rihana Rzcd. ^ Galdcmii, Acta Bot. Mex. 50: 51. 200(1. Mexico. J ai isco: Mpio. Iomallan, 6 km al 

.vera vazqiiezvanesii R/ed. A: Galderon. Acta Bot. Mex. 50: 55. 2000. Mexico. Jalisco: Mpio. Cabo 
Gorrientes. 14 km al W de El I into, sobre el carnino a Llano Grande de Ipaki. 500 m, 27 Jul 1982, 
J.Rzedowsk, .V.SW?.— IsmYPE. 



Commelina nivea Lopez-Ferrari, Espejo & Ceja, Acta Bot. Mex. 41: 10. 1997. — Mexico. Durango: Mpio. 
Pueblo Nuevo, 20 km despues de El Salto, rumbo a Mazatlan, 23°44'32"N 105°30'13"W, 2730 m, 7 
Aug 1996, A Espejo 5458. A. R. Lopez Ferrari. J. Ceja & A. Mendoza R.— Isotype. 

Commelina socorrogonzaleziae Espejo & Lopez-Fen ari , Sida 15: 441. 1 993.— Mexico. Durango: Mpio. El 
Salto [Pueblo Nuevo], 2 km despues de Coyotes, sobre la desviacion a San Miguel de Cruces, llanos 
inundables, 2420 m.2<S Jul 1991. M. Flares Cruz (502). A. Espejo & A. R. Lopez Ferrari.— Isotype. 

Maianthemum mexicanum Garcia Arev., Ada Bot. Mex. 1 7: 19. 1992.— Mexico. Durango: Mpio. Durango, 
Predio Las Bayas do la I U ED, Arroyo La lecolota, 2X00 m. 16 Jul 1991. A. Garcia 1008 with S.Ace- 

Sedum clausenii E. Perez-Calix, Acta Bot. Mex. 43: 1. 1998. — Mexico. Guanajuato: Mpio. Victoria, 3.5 
km al N de Joya Fria, camino a Puerto de Palmas, 2380 m, 25 Abr. 1997, E. Perez C. 3615 & E. Car- 
ranza. — Isotype. 


Carex boliviensis subsp. occidental^ Reznicek & S. Gonzalez, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 23: 342. 200 1 . — 
Mexico. Durango: Mpio. Durango, aprox. 61 km al S de Durango, por el camino a La Flor, 2670 m, 

13 Jul 1990, S. Gonzalez 4461 with A. Garcia & S.Acevedo. IIoi.otypk 
Carex complanata sub p no/mali Rt ni< k .'. ' nmz It ('in 'im ' tin an mI. U-l 

2001.— Mexico. Cm >,i>\s Mpio I arrain/.ai aU ng road between San Audrey I arrainzar and Puerto 
Cato )(, S5'() N ) i, V\ 12 lnl I (, 7 ' aiz.ak I. A /■', tucel 10515 M Gonzalez & M. 

Carex congestiflora Reznicek & S. Gonzalez, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 22: 121. 1999.— Mexico. Chi- 
apas: Mpio. Tenejapa, ca. 1 km S of Tenejapa, (Km 26.7) along road to San Cristobal de las Casas, 
16°49'03"N,92"30US"V\ 2100 m Mi Jul 1997 S i ' Reznicek 10472, \f Gonzalez & M. 
Pinedo. — Isotype. 

Carex longiligula Re/ni I <. I * . i ' m li I i ., i I i ' lUxhu , 

apas: Mpio. Tenejapa. along the road to Matzam, 2.3 km 1 1 ,\v tin j< i al i he San Cristobal de las 
Casas-Tenejapa road, in marsh along a small, clear stream, 16°46'51"N, 92°32'01 "W. 2400 m, I I Jul 
1997. .V. Gonzalez, A. A. Reznicek 10506. M Gonzalez & '..' Fmedo.— Isotype. 

Carex pinophila Reznicek & S. Con/ale/:. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 21: 294. 1997.— Mexico. Quere- 
taro: Mpio. Landa de Matamoros, ca. 2 km SW of Pinal de Amoles on road (Hwy 120) to San 
Juan del Rio, 21°07'47"N, 99°38'02"W, 2700 m, 15 Jul 1996, S. Gonzalez A I Re: nu eh 1029 1 M 

don >kii Reznicel Gonzalez. < out 1 in Michigan Herb '(I 18 1995. 

j: Mpio. Morelia, alrededores de Loma Caliente, proxima a Umecuaro, lugares 
7 Nov 1991,./. Rzcdowsk, 5/552.- Isoiyit-.. 

124 CONTR.UNi-l SI1 ' 

Carex tenejapensis Reznicck A S. Con/ale/. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 22: 121. 1999.— Mexico. Chi- 
apas: Mpiii. Icnejapa. en. 1 km S ot Tenejapa (Km 26.7) alone road to San Cristobal de las Casas. 
16 "4M'()3 ,, N,y2"30 l ()S' , W. 21(10 m. 10 Jul 1997,Y Gonzalez. A. A. Rezmeek 10467, M. Gonzalez & M. 
Pineda. — Isotype. 

Eleoeharis eamndeyuensis V. Mercies A S. (.on/ale/, Candollea 5N: 7.^ 3003. Paraguay. Canendeye: 

Hahn 2069. — Isotypb. 
Eleoeharis dehilis f. anonuda S. (ion/ale/ cv< Re/nicck. Novon 6(4): US. I 99h Venezuela. Amazonas: 

Atabapo. Salto Yureba. Ccrro Yureba. lower Ventuari. riverbank. 04 03'N. 6601 'W. 350 m, 14 Mar 

1985. R. L. Liesner 1X670.— Isotype. 
Eleoeharis montevidensis f. an^nsdor S. ( ion/ale/ & McVaugh. Flora Novo-( ialiciana 1 3: 362. 1993.— Mex- 
ico. Jausco: 22 km de Lagos de Moreno, por la . iricie ladalajarn en chaicos, I 2 Aug 1992, S 

Gonzalez 5249. A. Garcia & E. Eopez.—WoLOWW. 
Eleoeharis rzedowskii S. Gonzalez. Phvtologia 57: 381. 1985.— Mexico. Neevo Leon: Mpio. Galeana, 

I aguna tic I abi adores, a nulla de lagima. "^ Aug I9N4..V. Gon^.ale A .1 Tend 2946.- -I lot.oi vim . 
Eleodiaus wcnwiuana ^ i 4 I'hi I I' 1 - Mexico. I)i r \\(,o Mpio. El Mezquilal, 

31 km de La Guajolota, onlla de cslaiKjue. 3000 ni N ( h:\ 1983. V Gonzalez 2666. M. Gonzalez & S. 

Acevedo. — Holotype. 

i ic< .< : ■. 


;. Carran/a. BntUmia 46: 335. 1994. Mexico. Cmm n \: Lstacion t 
.-Siillillo. Carr. 40.25 2d 'N. 101 OfVW. l,S00m,2Jun 1992../. A. Villain' 
Lozano & S. Conipardn. — Isotype. 

i Hoe Mc\. 20: 45. 1992. Mexico. Derango: Mpio. I.erdo. Sierra d 
i! de imcioondas Sapioris carr.49,30 km al SE de l.crdo. 1750-1800 r 
790 & M. A. Carranza. — Isoiype. 


(Juereus mevaughii Spellcnb.. Amer. J. Rot. 79 

\ l OH ill I) ' ,|M I I i i . 1 

wsoi G. L. Nesom & B. L.Turner, Sida 14: 227. 1990.— Mexico. Deranoo: Mpio. Put 
ededores de LI Salto. 2700 m, 4 Oct 1981, .V. Gonzalez. A S. Acevedo 2053.— Isotype:. 
'gensis Villarreal, Acta Bot. Mux. 34: 19. |99d. Mexico. 1 E r \\< ,< »: Mpio. ( anelas. ( an. 
or el camino a Durango. 2«o(i m . 6 Oct OSS. V. Gonzalez 5464.— Isotype. 


C tan II h «epa/a subsp. durangmsw Villarreal, Sida 17:111.1996.— Mexico. Durango: Mpio. Cane- 
las, Canelas. 28.5 km nor el cammo a Durango. 7650 m. 6 Oct 1985. S. Gonzalez 3446. M. Gonzalez 
& Y. Herrera.— Isotype. 

Nemastylis latifolia Weath., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 45: 423. 1910. \=Scssiltmihera latifolia (Weath.) 

Molseed & Cruden|— Mexico. Gi ikriro: hills near Iguala. 3000 ft. 39 July 1907, C. G. /Ving/e 

10391.— Isotype. 
Sisyrinchium arguellesiae Ceja, Espejo & Lopez-Ferrari, Acta Bot. Mex. 44: 88. 1998.— Mexico. Quiritaro: 

1 | m il S' d, in 1 -1 mob obn h c irrctci i i i irron 00 n. 1 Mar 1987../ /• ed i. / 

426^5.— Isotype. 
Sisyrinchium zamudu-i I s:-. r > I o| . / I eirari & Ceja, Acta Bot. Mex. 45: 44. 1998.— Mexico. San 

Luis PotosI: Mpio. Villa Juares cerros entr< Guaxacama j Buenavista uelo yesoso y pedregoso, 

22°12'27"N, 100°17'03"W, 1290 m. 15 Nov 1997. J. Ceja 622. A. Espejo. A. R. Lopez Ferrari & A. 

Mendoza R.— Isotype. 
Tigridia estelae Lopez-Ferrari & Espejo Novon 4: 386. 1994 .— Mexico. Di rango: Mpio. Pueblo Nuevo, 

El Madrono, can etera 1 lalto Ma/atlan ' m 29 Jul 199. A.R. Lopez Ferrari 1520. A. Espejo & 

M. Flores.—2 Isotypes. 

Cunila crenata Garcfa-Pena & Tenori Vnale ist. Biol ah Jac Anion. Mexico. Ser. Bot. 68( I): 1. 

1997._Mexico. Durango: Mpio Topia ropia 1 150-1800 m, 19 Sep 1985. P. Tenorio L. 9809, C. 

Romero dt ! I ignaeio » < /' Ihh ila lor pi 
Heel ma minqit wrvata Hartl Lt 'i .in i wcad Mi 14:6 ' 1909. [ Hedeoma costatum Gray var. 
(osialum] Mexico, *A , \o lo- Sien i M.idn above Monterrey. 3000 fl, 9 Apr 1906, C. G. Pringle 

Stachys herrerana Rzed. & Calderon, Acta Bot. Mex. 3: 2. 1988.— Mexico. Hidalgo: Mpio. Epazoyucan, 

I I mi il Sd M m I , 00 m ' V ii 1 M / -' /is// ' it I nn 

Stachys vulnerabdis K, v I m i' a M, I 1 .! —Mexico Ni \oln Mpio Galeana, Cima del 

Cerro Potosi, 3460 m / lui 1987.3, Gonzale: 4029.- Isotypi 


Pinguecula gracilis Zamudio, Acta Bot Mex i 25 1988,- Mexico. Nui-.vo l.i-< >n Mpio. Monterrey, ladera 

N del Cerro de las Mitras. 1430 ni. 19 Feb 19N7..S'. Zamudio 33 S. Gonzalez 5184.— Isotype. 
Pinguicula moranensis var. neovolcanica Zamudio, Acta Bot. Mex. 49: 27. 1999.- Mexico. Hidalgo: 

Mpio. Real del Monte. I 10 1 o la anligj na 1 ' in 00 i 

S. Zamudio R. 9144.— Isotype. 
Pinguicula takakii Zamudio & Rzed 1 h lol ,< i » 60 '60 1986— Mexico. San Li is Potosi Mpio. Villa 
" Juarez, minas de Guascama. ?. km al Buenavista. 1400 m. ladera vesosa. 18 Dee 19S0...V /.aim, 

dio R. 3789.— Isotype. 


Megacorax gracielaims S. Gonzalez & W. L. Wagner. Novon 12: 361. 2002.— Mexico. Durango: Nuevo 
Ideal, Sierra de N de Dr. Castillo del Valle, por el < amino a Igi aao Zaragoza,25°05'H"N, 
104 57' 10 \\ "I0,ii Io\ '001 l,u d •' / <>/< t « v s < "'i " h / '" 1 lom-i 


Bletia greenwoodiana So a 5i ttonia '-.208 1 1. 1994.— Mexico. Durango: Mpio. El Mezquital, 22 km al 
S de Charcos,camino a Sta Maria Ocotan '.250 m. 6 Oct 19 R F, uind, ~ \ 7 847.— Isotype. 

Liparis volcanica R.Gon/alc, I iniau. .' Zamudio v i. Foi Mev ' 60 ;,4 199 Mexico. Mi mu 
Mpio. Uruapan,2 km al N de C eli/ontzin. 1 700 m. 2 Sep 1991, E. Perez 2594 & S. Zamudio.— Isotype. 

('CM K.I IV] R .ih : »] MI. UK V 1,1 \U) Ml 

Hi I' I luJiK no -, 1 s in Mi'mki. Y , w \iiimis 

Mpio. San Jose de Gracia, NW of Aguascalicntes. 12 km NW from La ( om-oja. Plava Mariqui- 
las, Monlc Grande dc la Siena Bna, 22'45"6.7 ,I N. 102 37'.'I.9'YV 2S.S0 ,„. s Nov 1986. G. Garcia 

ili-nhcrfiia duran^nsis Y. I lerrera. Phylologia 63: 457. 1987. -Mexico. Diranco: Mpio. El Mezquital, 
32 km de Los Chareos, P or el cammo a La Cuajolota. 2040 m. 15 Mar 1985. M. Gonzalez a ui 
1659.— Holotype. 


/■lacuna uxpanapensis Lorenee, Bol. Soe. Bot. Me\. 45: 65. 1983.— Mexico. Oaxaca: Mpio. Matfas 
Romero. 2 km al SVV del Aserradero La Lloresta. sobre eammo al Rio Verde, 15 km al S de Esmer- 
alda. 17°()3'N. 94 47' W. 250 m. 25 Mav I WE /.' W'emlt J2W. S. Koch. A. Villalohos J Garcia et al 

Papains guzmananllcnsis A. Vazquez & Cnevas. Aeta Bot. Me 
Easimiro Caslillo. 1-2 km al NE de Casimiro Castillo, 1 9 Al 
1988, R. Cucvas & L. Guzman 3224. — Isotype. 


Castillcja chlorosccpiron G. I . Nesom. Phytologia 75: 137. 1992. Mexico. Di r \\< ;, >: Mpio. Canelas, on the 
road loTopia and Ganclas.6 km E of ( 'anelas. .50 km I ■'. of junction ol (his mad with road loTopia (at 
Gucvccillas). 17/0 m, 29 Jun 1 992. A'. Spcllcnhcrv li(h') lV ./. Bacon.— Isotype. 

Castillcja gonzalezac G. L. Nesom. Phvtologia 76:465. 1994. Mexico. Di kanco: Mpio. El Mezquital, 33 
km de LaGuajolota.porel cammo a Platanitos. 2220 m. 16 Mar 1985. 57. Gonzalez I6V.I— Isotype. 

Mimuhts mumtiflorus Vickery, Madrono 4: 392. 1997.— Mexico. 12a ranch: Km 1 65.5 in Mexico Hwy 40, in 
«-plu'merallv iiioisl, siinnv aieas. 3."0 m. 12 Mav 1976. R. k. \ ickcrv, Jr. 2W! .—Isotype. 

Mimulus yecorensis Vickery. Madrono 4:391. 1997. Mexico. Sonoka: 17 km I of Yeeora on Mexico I Iwy 
16, on mossy banks of small stream in the pine forest. 26 Apr 1982. I). A. I'olhcmos .v./;.— Isotype. ' 


Symplocos citrca Lex. in La Llavc & Lex.. Nov Veg. Descr. I: 22. 1824. Mexico. Michoacan: Mpio. 
Moielia. Ichaqueo. //. /)/,/.- Ihun-u ~2ht). IsiAwnn . [Neolype designated by Diaz Barriga and 
( hazaro, Ada Bol. Mex. 23: 43. 1993.] 

Dirca mcxicana G. L. Nesom & Mayfield, Sida 16: 459. 1995.— Mexico. Tamai upas: Mpio. Hidalgo, along 
. Engracia (damps.) to Dulces Nombre (N. Leon). Arroyo Oscuro. 2.0 road mi NE 


Rogers McVaugh 
Herbarium, University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3280 

i i v i Marcus I Ion \i u -m/ed \pcrt on th Mora otitic v tern part of the United 

States, and a self-taught geologist, when in 1.S92 h. was < ommissioned to travel on the Pacific side of 

Mexico, to look into potential silts u h tin < ploitation i' min ia.1 u < Hi p< > sibility of building new 

railroads to those silts u hi pinnm lininmn ml mil I I" H u I hei barium specimens 

,i tal o .out ll nil ii n i I i | Ik ltt stts Hi collection as a whole is important because 

he was the first botanist to gather significant samples from a si ii in south-central Jalisco 

and adjacent Colima 1 he priman ct ol pecimen tho from J in pn t< h it uiiim nnv housed n 
Rancho Santa Ana (RSA-POM), have been om< hat neglected by com mporary specialists. 


Marcus Eugene Jones (1852 1934) was a brilliant, opinionated, controversial, 
careless, and difficult man who, in the words of his biographer Lee W. Lenz (1986), 
"above all else [he] a supe i field botanist who traveled over more of the West 
and for a longer period of time than any other botanist of his day, bridging the eras 
of travel with a team and wagon and that of the model-T Ford." The following sum- 
mation is also from Lenz (1986, p. 199): 

"To understand Marcus Jones it is necessary to recognize certain facts: he 
abhorred pretension, deception and pomposity, and was strictly truthful as he under- 
stood the matter. To him everything was right or wrong, black or white, true or false, 
there was no place in his life for shades of gray and he had little use for the views of 
others with whom he disagreed. He was also prone to exaggeration and was given to 
making sweeping and sometimes unguarded statements, often expressing himself in 
an unnecessarily crude or caustic manner." 


Jones was interested in plants from the time of his childhood in Iowa. He 
attended Iowa College (later Grinnell College), where he became proficient in Latin 
and probably (Lenz 1986, pp. 16, 17) took the classical course of study, which included 
English, Latin. Gn ek Sanskril i id Anglo-Saxon, as well as geography, mathematics, 
and "natural philosophy." He graduated in 1875 and continued his studies, concen- 
trating on Latin, until 1878, when he was awarded the degree of Master of Arts. 

While he was in college, Jones began in earnest to collect the local plants in 
quantity and support himself at least in part by selling sets of duplicate herbarium 
specimens. By 1878 he was offering sets of 500 species of Iowa plants, which he sold 
for twenty dollars per set. In the summer of 1878 he moved his base of operations to 
Colorado, and at about the same time he established an arrangement with an Aus- 
trian, Karl Keck, who wanted sets of Western plants to sell in Europe. Jones returned 
to Grinnell in October, reportedly (Lenz 1986, p. 24) with 40,000 specimens, and spent 
the winter identifying his specimens and making up sets to send to Keck. 


For the next lew years Jones continued his plant-collecting (along with other 
activities) in the western States, particularly in Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, 
and also in Baja ( alilorma. Beyond botany, as early as 1884 his writings began to 
reflect a concern about the economic d< vi U j»nu m [\ iah lcrritor\ and the geologic 
implications of tins (I en/ 1986. p. 70). i lis geological expertise evidently continued 
to increase, as by 1 SSS lie was being consulted about the validity of mining claims in 
Utah. He was consulted by the Territorial governors of Utah and Arizona on matters 
relating to the water supply and the reclamation of arid lands, and increasingly he 
became known as a reputable geologist. 

His botanical work was treated with some respect by his contemporaries, particu- 
larly for the enormous energy he showed as a field-collector. Although some bota- 
nists were patient with In- ie jii. ' i . I< ' i I. ii' , i ,i his "new" discoveries in the 

relatively unexplored "West," he became increasingly frustrated by what he took to 
be a condescending attitude on the part of the "Eastern establishment." He felt that 
the "Eastern" botanists, especial!) those at New York and at Harvard, looked down 
on his work on "Western" plants, although thev had had little or no field-experience 
with them and did not understand the geographical implications as he did. Perhaps 
unduly influenced by his prejudices, and always highly confident of his own abilities, 
he turned more and more toward identifying his own plant-specimens before making 
them up into sets of duplicates for sale or exchange. 

After about 1890, and several papers in the Brandegees' short-lived journal 
Zae, and elsewhere. Jones began to edit and publish his "( 'ontnbutions to Western 
Botany" (the later ones printed on his own press), which made altogether a sizeable 
volume, 18 papers devoted first and foremost to the publication of the names and 
descriptions of new species. According to Lenz (1986. p. 237) Jones published the 
"relatively modest number" of about 793 taxa between 1881 and 1933. "Relatively 
modest" was in comparison with some of Jones's contemporaries, e.g., Thomas How- 
ell (who was credited with 3290 new taxa), E. L. Greene ("some 3000 new taxa"), 
Wm. Suksdorf ( 1 690), and Aven Nelson (849). 

During the first part of his career, Jones concentrated geographically on the 
Great Basin of the western United States. When still relatively young he became well 
known as an expert on the floras of the western states, partly through the distribu- 
tion of multiple sets of his specimens. At the same time he gradually became known 
as a field geologist, bate in his life he developed an interest in the vascular flora of 
Mexico, and undertook special collecting trips to the western part of the mainland 
in 1926, 1927, 1928 and 1930. His published papers, especially the later ones like his 
18th Contribution to Western Botany (1933) show that he studied the collections 
in depth and identified most of them to his own satisfaction, but not always to the 
satisfaction of others. 


In 1890 (Lenz 1 986, pp. 77, 9 1 ) Jones was approached by Gen. W. J. Palmer, who 
after the American Civil War had returned to private life and become "one of the 
most enterprising of the early Western railroad men," who also organized and devel- 
oped a number of mining towns along the railroads. Among his accomplishments was 
the successful completion of the Mexican National Railway from Laredo to Mexico 
City. Jones did some work for him in 1890 and 1891 . On April 7, 1892, Jones [while in 
Salt Lake City] received from Gen. Palmer a telegram asking him to go immediately 
to Mexico "to make an examination of Sierra Mojada. Zacatecas, Guanahuato [sic], 


and the properties along the Mexican National] R. R. from Irapuato to Manzanillo." 
Another version, in Joneses own words (Lenz 1986, p. 91) says that on this trip he 
was to study the mines and ore production of the leading mining camps in [western] 
Mexico and report on them for three proposed railroad routes. His first destination 
was the established mining district at Sierra Mojada in far-western Coahuila. 

According to Lenz (1986, p. 93) Jones wrote of the 1892 collections, "[J. N] Rose 
named most of them. I put up three sets, one at the U.S. National [Herbarium], one 
my own, and I presume the third [to be at the]Missouri Botanical Garden." [There 
is also a substantial set at MSC, the herbarium of Michigan State University, East 
Lansing.] His private herbarium, including the undistributed part of his own set of the 
1892 plants, was acquired by Pomona College in 1923. A survey conducted during the 
latter part of the year 2003 shows that perhaps four-fifths of the numbered gatherings 
are still represented at POM-RSA, but a very large number of these have never been 
more than casually identifiei am many h Lve been grossly misidentified by Jones 
or someone else. If Rose actu ill n imed a I irge \ ercentagi 1 the specimens, Jones 
must have felt it was superfluous to go back at the time and make his own decisions 
on their identities. 

Because of his obligation in 1892 to his (geological) sponsor, the hours when 
he could "botanize" were limited. In spite of that he managed to amass a botanical 
collection of some 750 gatherings, the majority of them with several duplicates. He 
collected specimens from about 30 localities. The counts listed below are presum- 
ably smaller than the actual totals, as no more than four-fifths of Jones's numbers 
have been located at POM or elsewhere. The importance of his botanical collections 
derives from his established practice of trying to "collect the whole flora" at each 
locality (as he said of himself), and secondly because he was the first (and often the 
last) collector to visit the localities in question. On the upper slopes of the Nevado de 
Colima, for example, where he preceded by one year the great collector of Mexican 
plants, C. G. Pringle, Jones made at least 85 gatherings in two days, including many 
alpine and subalpine species. 

The numbered collections of 1892 include at least 85 from the massif of the Nevado 
de Colima (Jal.), 75 from the Sierra Mojada (Coah.), 65 from La Palma (Jal), 50 from 
Chiquilistlan (Jal.), 45 from Santa Cruz (Jal., near Tapalpa), 40 from Colima (Col.), 30 
from Ojo Caliente (Zac), and ai least 25 from each of the following: Pihuamo (Jal), 
"Sacoalco" (Jal.), Tapalpa (Jal), Ferrerfa de Tula (Jal), Manzanillo (Col.), and what 
Jones called the Rio Cuvianes (Jal., Col.). At the end of the trip Jones numbered the 
collections, sent some of them to specialists for determination, named the others as best 
he could and sent out several sets of the duplicates to his customers. 

Authors of recent monographic studies of Mexican genera or families of plants 
have mostly overlooked the Pomona herbarium, which remains a valuable source of 
information about the vascular flora of south-central Jalisco and adjacent Colima as 
it was a little more than a century ago. 

As far as I can determine, Jones paid little attention to his 1892 collections after 
his first distribution of some of the sets. At that time he had no particular interest in 
the flora of Mexico, except that he had done some plant-collecting in the arid north- 
west. In the years 1892-1893 his interest was still primarily in the Great Basin and 
adjoining areas. It seems that he was also too busy with other matters to go back to 
the details of his Mexican collection. Furthermore, in 1892 his primary responsibil- 
ity was to search for potential sites where ores might be exploited profitably and 
for potential railroad routes to these sites. As McVaugh (1 972, p. 352) noted, "In the 
typewritten itinerary prepared by Jones. . .and now at Pomona College, he said [p. 21]: 


botany was a side issue and I had to get specimens as my other business would allow. 
For this reason 1 got only about 5 specimens of a kind, and never could work up a 
flora as was my wont." [See above for a slightly different version ol this story]. 

Jones kept a diary during most of his field excursions, and later dictated a chrono- 
logical account of his travels and exploration, which was published [LeaflLWest. Bot. 
10 (no. 12): 193- -23d. 3.9 Nov 1965] under the title of Botanical Exploration of Marcus 
E. Jones, 1876 to 1919: an Autobiographical Account. This was apparently a version of 
what Lenz (1986, p. 1 1 ) cited frequently in abbreviated form (as BM), and called "the 
best of the autobiographical accounts but Hawed by errors of fact and transcription 
and | which | inn i lie used with caution/' 

By 1893 Jones had begun to be absorbed in his long-time study of Astragalus, 
and much of his attention must have been devoted to the preparation of his papers 
for Zoe that were published in that year. In 1894 he spent the field season (March 
to October) in Utah, where he was employed as a "Special Field Agent" of the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture (Lenz 1986, pp. 253-290). By that time his two-year-old 
Mexican collections must have been low on his list of priorities, where they subse- 
quently remained, with lew exceptions. 


Jones made a practice throughout his career of collecting several or many 
duplicate examples of each gathering and arranging these in sets for sale. Many 
of his collections from the earlier years were not serially numbered, or at least the 
numbers were not mentioned in publication (see Lenz, 1986, pp. 403-465, "New 
Taxa Described by Jones"), but beginning with the Mexican trip of 1892 he eventu- 
ally gave numbers to most of the gatherings, though he seems to have attached little 
importance to this. 

The numbering of the collections of 1892 is of some general interest. Now, at the 
beginning of the 2 1 st Century, scientifically-inclined collectors generally number their 
gatherings serially and chronologically, beginning with No. 1 and continuing a life- 
time series as a unique record. Such a series constitutes a valuable historical source 
for subsequent investigators who may need to know the exact whereabouts of the 
collector in time or space, or both. In 1 S'P the numbering of collections was already 
a long-established practice, but individual collectors often began their numbering 
anew with each field-season, and editors (who often were the same botanists that 
had named the plants) felt free to disregard these "field numbers" and assign new 
numbers based on some preferred "Natural System" of classification. A victim" of this 
latter method was the great collector Charles Wright, whose work with the Mexican 
Boundary Survey was described by Asa ( 1 1. 1\ in i . >>\ i, 1 n < • i, " ' 

1853), but whose precise dates and collecting localities were mostly unknown until 
they were elucidated by Elizabeth Shaw (1987) on the basis of Wright's field-numbers 
as he had recorded them elsewhere. 

For more than 30 years (ever since I began to notice Mexican specimens col- 
lected in 1892 by Marcus E. Jones and housed at US, MO, MSC or GH, or when I 
noticed citations of such specimens in the literature of systematic botany). I have 
been "keeping book" on this collection as a part of the record of botanical exploration in 
Nueva Galicia. 1 published a general paper on the latter (McVaugh 1972), in which 
three pages of text were devoted to Jones's trip of 1892, and included a transcript 
of his diary from ^2 Ma\ through IS Inl- \| [fiat lime m\ record of the collections 


made by Jones was very incomplete— only about one quarter of the numbered col- 
lections had surfaced and most of the numbers were between 1 and 500, although in 
memoranda Jones recorded that his collection included numbers as high as 752, and 
I had seen no. 769. About half of the available information was in a list of collections 
accessioned at the U.S. National Herbarium (US), which came to me through the 
kindness of George Russell. 

In August 2003 I enlisted the help of Curator Steve Boyd at RSA-POM. He very 
kindly suggested the name of a member of the herbarium staff, Lisa M. Rojas, who 
spent many hours during the rest of that year and into the next, searching for the 
original set of specimens from Jones's herbarium, recording the data on each one, and 
making digital images of the specimens for my study. Thanks chiefly to Ms. Rojas, and 
also to Michael Denslow and Gary Wallace, we now have a record of about four-fifths 
of the numbers, including many of the higher ones (above 500). 

Before the receipt of the data gathered by Ms. Rojas and collaborators, I had 
no reliable way to guess how the numbers were assigned to the Jones collections of 
1892. The first hundred numbers, seemingly chosen at random, include several dated 
as of 19 April, when Jones began to collect in Coahuila, several from 13 July when 
he was on his way home to Utah, and many from intervening dates and unrelated 
localities in May and June. This seems effectively to rule out a strictly chronological 
arrangement, and gives no clue to any other arrangement. 

One principal scenario suggests itself. While Jones was in the field, traveling on 
foot or by wagon, or on muleback, botanizing when he could find the time, camping 
in open mountainous country, trying to collect in several sets, make sure the speci- 
mens were dried expeditiously (even during rainy periods) and preserved thereafter, 
he had neither the time nor the facilities to consider making labels as he went along, 
or even to arrange the specimens in any way. It seems likely that the most he could 
do was to bundle up his specimens from each locality as soon as they dried, and write 
the locality and date on each bundle. 

When Jones returned to the United States (perhaps to the National Herbarium 
in Washington, D.C., where J. N. Rose "named most of them"), there must have been 
a grand opening of 25 to 50 or more bundles, and a beginning of random numbering, 
perhaps after the selection of a sample of species and genera already known to Rose 
(or to Jones), or for submission to a specialist 

The numbers from one to eleven (no. 3 is missing and no. 2 is applied to two differ- 
ent species) include, in order, members of the families Clethraceae, Myrsinaceae, Legu- 
minosae, Valerianaceae, Polygonaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Piperaceace, Melastomataceae, 
Capparidaceac. L< i in h i i id Malpighiaceae. This seems to rule out the better- 

known Natural Systems of classification as bases for numbering Jones's collections. 

On the other hand, the numbers from 128 to 138, from seven different localities 
and collected on seven different days, are all members of the Rosaceae except no. 132 
(a species of Casearia in the Flacourtiaceae) and no. 133 {Ximenia parviflora in the 
Olacaceae), either of which might have been taken by Jones as "rosaceous." Further, 
the specimens from No. 141 to 216 are all members of the Leguminosae, except for 
about six scattered through the long series. Soon it must have become evident to 
Jones that in families like the Leguminosae there were so many specimens that it 
would be most efficient to sort the entire collection by plant-family and proceed with 
the identifications, species by species, without having to repeat the labor of keying 
out the same species more than once. 

Once the entire collection had been sorted to the family level, it would have 
been comparatively simple to arrange the bundles and assign numbers more or less 


in accord with a system like that used by J. M. Coulter in his contemporary "Botany 
of western Texas" (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 2: [i-iv], v, 1-588. 1891-1894). A scan of 
the list of Jones's collections shows that the numbers follow Coulter's system rather 
closely (although with many unusual intercalations) until the end of the Pterido- 
phytes at No. 542. 

Notable arc the Caclaceae, which were numbered 259 to 258; the Euphorbiaceae 
(nos. 411-435 including some misidentifications). the showy-flowered Monocots (nos. 
447-473), and ferns or fern-allies ( nos. 497 to 542. except lor a lew scattered numbers; 
the dates of collection ranging from 19 April to 13 July). 

I suspect that this concluded the numbering of the colled ions of 1892 that were 
to be distributed in sets. It is not clear why Jones discontinued the sorting (if that is 
really what he did), with some 200 numbers still unlabelled and mostly unstudied. 

Labels for numbers below No. 550 are commonly typed or (except for the name 
of the plant) handwritten by Jones himself. Above no. 550 1 have noted no more than 
two (Nos. 592, "Lake near San Miguel, 6 May" and 043. 'Rio ( uvianus Tuxpan") that 
are in the hand of Jones. There may be others, o\' course, among the specimens that 
have not been recovered. 

Among the higher numbers various unrelated specimens from a single locality 
are mostly grouped in short or long series, e.g., nos. 550 567 are apparently all from 
Ojo Caliente, Zac. where Jones collected on the 9th of May, and nos. 601-638 are 
apparently all from the Sierra Mojada, Coahuila, 19-21 April. The labels on these 
are mostly in the hand of P. A. Munz, evidently copied from original notes by Jones, 
and the locality is variousl\ written (as Jones may well have labelled his bundles) as 
"Sierra Mojada Mis.," "Sierra Mojada, Mex„" "Mojada, Mex." or merely "Mojada." 
Nos. 685-700 (as far as these have been recovered) are dated either 13 or 14 July, with 
locality written as 'Volcano of ( olima " "Nevado de Colima," or "Volcan, Mex.," and 
the data again are in the hand of Dr. Munz. Similarly, nos. 735-753 (as far as known) 
are dated 7, 8, or 9 June, all in the hand of Munz, all from La Palma, Jalisco. The sup- 
position is that when the Jones herbarium came to Pomona College, Dr. Munz took 
upon himself the work of fin h i label is hat Jones had left unfinished at his 

untimely death. 


Jones was 74 years of age when in 1 926 he began a series of four major collecting 
trips that resulted in many hundreds of Mexican specimens and a large number of 
new taxa based on his own collections. His itineraries in 1926. 1927, 1928, and 1930 
were summarized in tabular form by Morton ( 1 945, pp. 89-91, q. v. below). McVaugh 
(1972, pp. 252-253) published a brief narrative summary of Jones's work in Nayarit 
and Jalisco in 1927 and 1930. 1 lis work in Mexico in 1892 has mostly gone unnoticed, 
except for the publication of excerpts from his diary from May 22" to July 18, the 
period of his stay in Nueva (iahcia (McVaugh 1972, pp. 250-252). 

The great majority of the miscellaneoi m nairn published by Jones for Mexican 
plants first appeared in his Contribution no. IS ( D33). and earlier in smaller numbers 
in Contributions no. 12 (1908), and no. 15 (1929). His work on the Mexican flora was 

1111 ' < i' !l i 'i, »l iOst; nf ml papeis published in 1945 hv two well-regarded 

authors (Morton, C. V. Mexican phanerogams described by M. E.Jones, Contr. U.S. Natl. 
Herb. 29: 87-1 16; Blake, S. F. Asleraceae described from Mexico and the southwestern 
United States by M. E. Jones, 1908 1935, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 117-137). Both 
Morton and Blake were primarily concerned with the Jonesian type-specimens, and 


the identities of new names proposed by Jones and based on his own material. Both 
authors dealt in detail with Jones's Mexican collections from 1926 to 1930. Neither 
Blake nor Morton, unfortunately, nor Jones himself, studied in detail the first large 
collection that Jones made on the mainland of western Mexico in 1892. Relatively 
few types have been found among the 1892 collections. 

The papers by Blake and Morton include many critical notes, and Blake's con- 
tribution is noteworthy for its long discussions on geographical and nomenclatural 
points. Both authors felt free to point out the shortcomings of Jones's work. Blake 
(op. cit. 121) was inclined to blame "Jones' inability to identify his own material from 
a region with which he was not familiar, [so that] every one of the 25 allegedly new 
species of Asteraceae he described from his 1930 collection in Jalisco is a synonym 
of an older species, as is also the single species from his 1892 collection, and.. .12 of 
the 26 were described by him under wrong genera, in two cases in wrong tribes, in 6 
others in wrong subtribes." 

Morton's comments (1945, p. 87), severe to the point of harshness, are relevant 
here: "Jones' herbarium and library facilities were not wholly adequate for work 
on the Mexican flora, and his previous experience had scarcely qualified him for 
critical research on tropical or subtropical plants. It seems likely, moreover, that his 
eyesight was not very good at the time, for there is little evidence in his descriptions 
that careful dissections were made for any of his new species. Consequently, it is no 
surprise to find that his work on the Mexican flora is poor..." [Editorial comment by 
McVaugh, 2004: It may well have been true that Jones had some diminished vision as 
he neared 80 years of age, from 1926 to 1930, but no such a deficiency is evident in his 
earlier papers. His name Calamovilfa poaeformis, for example (Contr. West. Bot. 14: 
9. 1912, based on Jones 478a (POM 115352), was ostensibly a new combination based 
on Cinnastrum poaeformis Fourn. (PI. Mex. 2: 90, ex descr. 1886), but Jones made 
clear that although he had taken up the epithet from Fournier's," description... my 
species shall rest on my characters given below"; to this he added a very detailed 
16-line description]. 

As I read this, looking back from almost 60 years after Morton and Blake (1945) 
enumerated the very large numbers of errors made by Jones, and having the insight 
on Jones's character that was provided by Lenz, it is not unreasonable to suppose 
that when Jones went over his own collections in some haste, and found something 
unfamiliar to him, he decided it must be new. Exactly the same story has gone the 
rounds with reference to E. D. Merrill and P. C. Standley, with the difference that each 
of them was already a recognized world-expert on the flora he was studying. 


Apium depressum M. E. Jones, Extr. from Contr. West. Bot. 18: 63. 1933. Lake near 
San Miguel, Zac, 6 May, M. E. Jones s.n. (POM 82793, holotype). - Apium 
leptophyllum (Pers.) F. Mueller ex Benth. & F. MuelL, fide Mathias & Con- 
stance, N. Amer. Flora 28B: 129. 1944. 

Arracacia tapalpae M. E. Jones, Extr. from Contr. West. Bot. 18: 62. 1933. Ferreria de 
Tula,Tapalpa Mts., Jal., 28 May, M. E. Jones s. n. (POM 82990, holotype). - 
Tauschia nudu auli , Schltdl, fide Mathias & Constance, N. Amer. Flora 28B: 
83. 1944. 


Asdepias senecionifolia M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. 12: 49. 1908. Santa Cruz, near 
Tapalpa, Jal., 14 June, M. E. Jones s. n. = Asdepias rosea H. B. K., fide Wood- 
son, Ann. Missouri Bot.Gard.41: 150 1954. 

Asdepias constricta ["contstricta"] M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. 12: 49. 1908. Vol- 
cano of Colima, Jal.. 13 July, and at Tapalpa. Jal.. June 10, M. E. Jones 318 
(type, MO, fide Woodson, 1954). - Asdepias pn/idei (Oreenm. ) Woodson, 
fide Woodson, Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 41 : 111. 1954. 

Asdepias exilis M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. 12: 48. 1908. Pastorilla, Zac, 2 May, M. 
E. Jones s. n. [no. 568], (type. MO. fide Woodson, 1 ( )54: POM 76066). -, Asde- 
1 "I iin \ i nri liot (iard. 41:94. 1954. 

Asdepias jaliscana M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. 12: 49. 1908 (non Asdepias jalis- 
eana B. L. Rob. 1894). Chiquilistlan, Jal., 28 May, Jones s. n. (type, MO, fide 
Woodson, 1954; POM). - Asdepias tmgusti fblui Schwciggcr, fide Woodson, 

Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 41: 62. 1954. 

Asdepias tapalpana M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. 14: 35. 1912. Asdepias jaliscana 
Jones ( 1 908), non Asdepias jaliscana B. L. Rob ( 1 894) 

Astragalus diphaeus var. peonis M. E. Jones. Contr. West. Bot. 10: 65. 1902. Zacatecas, 
16 May, M./ /ones (Pi ' I l acus S. Watson 

[probably], fide Barneby, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Card. 13: 1124. 1964. 

Vsln^alus i-accitiosii.s brevisetus M I lones Proc ( ilif \cad. Sci. II. 5: 662. 

1895. Ramos, Zac., [=S. L. P.] 5 May, M. E. Jones s. n. (POM, hololype). = 

Isi ■■ 'ins racemosus var. racemosus. fide Barnebv, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 

Bursera jonesii Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 3: 314. 1895. Near the city of Colima, 
Col., 2 July, Af. E.Jones 7* (US. holoHpe). Bitiseio s< l,i •■anntrhi \ n <l, 
fide McVaugh & R/edowski. Kew Bull. 18: 361. 1965. 

Calamovilfa poaeformis M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. 14: 9. 1912. Volcano of Colima, 
Jal., among pines on the slopes. 13 July, M. E. Jones 478a (POM 115352, 
holotype).— The name was ostensibly based on Cinnastrum poaeformis 
Fourn., PI. Mex. 2: 90, ex deser. 188o, but Jones slated,"... from the descrip- 
tion, but my species shall rest on my characters given below," i.e.. a very 
I' iil< 16 fin T cri|>li I'his creates an unusual noiuenelatura m i i 
in which an authoi des i l I i k w species but gives it a name 

that he thinks may or may not apply to it. 

Cercocarpus mojadeiisis C. K. Schneid., 111. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 530. 1905. Sierra 
Mojada, Coah., 19 April, M. E. Jones 134 (MO. holotvpc). According to 
James Henrickson (in litt. 2003), this col loci ion appears to be a desert deriva- 
live I'roi i en ocarpus Jot/iergillonles 1 1. B. K. with many specimens showing 
intermediate vestiture. 

Cleome chapalaensis litis, Bol. Inst. Bot. Univ. Guadalajara Epoca III. 5: 428. 1998. N 
of Zamora, Mich., road to La Barea. 29 July I960, //. //. litis el al 490 (WIS, 
holotype).— According to litis ( 1998. p. 421, the first specimen of this species 


ever collected (but unfortunately unrecognized in herbario for a century), 
wasfrom"Sa oal • Zac »alco de Torres, Jal.], collected 16 July 1892 by M. 
E.Jones (no. 576, POM 93793). 

Dioscorea mitis Morton, Publ. Carnegie Ins!. Washington 461: 247. 1936. Pihuamo, 
"Mich." [=Jal.] 16 June (1 S 7 5 lotyp I.— This is a little- 

known but apparently distinct species, recognizable either from staminate or 
pistillate material (fide McVaugh, Flora Novo-Gal. 15: 374. 1989, a decision 
in which the late Bernice Schubert concurred). 

Ficus jonesii Standi., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 20: 31. 1917. La Palma, Jal., 7 June, M. 
E. Jones 33 (US 237888, holotype). = Ficus glycicarpa (Miquel) Miquel, 
fide Quintana & Carvajal, Bol. Soc. Inst. Bot. Univ. Guadalajara 8: 16. 2001 
(without citation of type). 

Fraxinus nummularis M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. 12: 59. 1908. Sierra Mojada, 
Coah., 19 April, M. E. Jones s. «.; Lenz (1986, p. 439) says "Type 
POM."— Standley (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 23, part 4: 1135. 1924) accepted 
this as a valid species, but said "It seems probable that this is a form of F. 
greggi having [in the type specimen at US] all the leaves simple and oval. ,, 

Hymenocallis jaliscensis M. E. Jones, Extr. from Contr. West. Bot. 18: 33. 1933. Sal- 
cillo, Jal., ' li m M. i J mes 458 (POM 119358, lectotype chosen by Traub 
& Vickery, Plant Life 12: 43-44. 1956).— With advice from the monographer 
of the genus, James A. Bauml, McVaugh accepted this as a valid species with 
restricted range in Nayarit and Jalisco (Flora Novo-Gal. 15: 214. 1989). 

Ionoxalis macrocarpa Small, N. Amer. Flora 25: 41 . 1907. La Palma, Jal, 9 June, M. E. 
Jones 117 (US, holotype). - Oxalis macrocarpa (Small) Knuth, fide Denton, 
Publ. Mus. Michigan State Univ. Biol. Ser. 4: 575. 1973. 

Ionoxalis tenuiloba Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 10: 115. 1906. Colima, Col., 2 July, M. 
E. Jones 118 (US, holotype).— Rose commented in the protologue (p. 115), 
"This species has very remarkable leaflets." The leaflets are, as he described 
them, "deeply 2-lobed," and the lobes "strongly divergent, linear, 2.5 to 5 cm 
long, acute." Denton (Publ. Mus. Michigan State Univ. Biol. Ser. 4: 566. 1973.), 
without comment, reduced /. tenuiloba to the synonymy of Oxalis latifolia 
H. B. K., though she said (p. 567) of the latter, "leaflets obcordate, lobed up 
to one-half their length." 

Lupinus reflexus Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 8: 309. 1905. Nevado de Colima, Jal., 
13 July, M. E. Jones 204 ( US, holotype).— This is apparently a distinct high- 
montane species (cf. Flora Novo-Gal. 5: 591. 1987). 

Malpighia cordata Small, N. Amer. Flora 25: 154. 1910. Sacoalco, Jal., 16 July, M. E. 
Jones 27 (US 236896, holotype).— W. R. Anderson (in litt. 2003) informs me 
that this is probably a form of the variable Malpighia mexicana Adr. Juss. 
but conceivably distinct. 

Phaca zacatecana Rydb., N. Amer. Flora 24: 352. 1929 [non Astragalus zacatecanus 
(Rydb.) Barneby, 1964]. Casualidad, Zac, 26 Apr, M. E. Jones s. n. [no. 146] 
(NY, holotype). = Astragalus wootonii var. candollianus (H. B. K.) Barneby, 
fide Barneby, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 13: 870. 1964. 


I'iKrooriuiHn lartare;i r. (allax 'omin.Ycsl kral. Ccske Spolecn. Nauk.Tf Mat.- 
Pnr. 1941(15): 8. 1942. San Marcos, [Jal.]. 21 June, M. E. Jones 513a (POM 
121273, isolvpe, so annotated by C. V. Morton, 1969; the holotype was lost 
in WWII). 

Quercus crenatifolia Tic lease, Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20: 57,/;/. 52. 1924. Chiquilistlan, 
Jal.. 28 Vhiy, M. /•;. Jones 440 (MO, hololype). - Quercus ohtusata Humb. & 
BonpL, fide McVaugh, Flora Novo ( ial., Contr. Univ. Michigan I Icrb. 1 2, pari 
I. no. 3:60. 1974; (ion/ale/ Villarreal. Gencro Quercus en lalisco h i ;. 
Univ. Guadalajara Coll. Flora de Jal. 1: 145. 1987. 

Quercus jonesii Trelease, Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20: 136,/?/. 257. 1924. Chiquilistlan, 
Jal., 28 May, M. E Jones 44(> ( I JS. holotype). = Quercus coccolobijolia 'IVel.. 
fide McVaugh, Mora Novo-GaU Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 12 part 1 no 
3: 25. 1974: (ion/ale/ Villarreal, Gcncro Quercus en Jalisco, Inst. Rot. Univ. 
Guadalajara Coll. Flora de Jal. 1: 52. 1987. 

Quercus serrulata Trelease, Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20: 179,/;/. 36E 1924. Chiquilistlan, 
Jal., 28 May, M. E. Jones 445 (US. holotype). = Quercus castanea Nee, fide 
1 ' i. i Iota \o\o-Gal.. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 12, part 1, no. 3: 

21. 1974: Gonzalez Villarreal, Gencro Quercus en Jalisco, Inst. Hot. Univ. 
Guadalajara Coll. Flora de Jal. 1: 40. 1987. 

Raimannia colimae Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 8: 330. nom. illegit. 1905; Rose ex 
Sprague & Riley Kew Bull. 1921 200 1921 ( The gene, ic name >:, , , 
was not validly published until 1913). Volcano [of] Colima. Jal., 14 July, M. 
E.Jones 232 (US, holotype). \, Oenothera puhesceiis Wilkl. ex Spreim.. Svst. 
Veg. 2: 229. 1825, or Oe. laciniata var. pubescens (Spreng.) Munz, fide Munz, 
Amer. J. Bot. 22: 656. 1935].— In many recent treatments the montane Oe. 
pubescens, which grows at elevations from 1500 to 3900 m in western North 
and South America, has been considered a subspecies of Oe. laciniata. which 
is known primarily at lower elevations in the eastern United States, though 
widely naturalized elsewhere. Crossing experiments have shown, however, 
that hybrids between Oe. pubescens and Oe. laciniata are sterile, and that 
chromosome pairing at meiosis is irregulai Dietrich & \\ UWaui 
Bot. Monogr. 88: 73-77. 1988) treat Oe. pubescens as a widespread and wry 
variable species and include Raimannia colimae as a synonym. 

Salix jaliscana M. E. Jones, Contr. West. Bot. 12 77. 1908. Ferreria (de Tula], Jal., 28 
May.M E. Jones s. n. [437] (POM 107135, type).— Standlev (Contr. I S. Nab. 
Herb. 23, part 1: 160. 19" ■ ,...,. ,, ai. i> tl \. lid distinguished 
from S. bonphuuliana 1 1. B. K. by Us dense tomenlum, shorter petioles, and 
shorter staminate aments. E. Carranza ( ion/ale/ (Acta Bot. Mex. 32: 33 -38. 
1995), in a paper on the willows of the Baji'o and adjacent areas, accepted 
11 ■ ' ■ .- (ieoigt \rg us. a specialist in 

\nu ik m willuws h, Htd S fuhuunu as a s\non\m oi S /?,.///»/ 
without comment (Syst. Bot. Monogr. 52: 52. 1997). 

Tradescantia orchidophylla Rose & Hcmsl., Hooker's Icon. PI. 26: pi. 2522. 1897. 
In dark wet woods below Colima, Col., 5 July, M. E. Jones 467 (US, 


holotype).— This is apparently a distinct species limited to western Mexico, 
fide D. R Hunt in Flora Novo-Gal. 13: 186, fig. 46. 1993. 

im M. E. Jones, Extr. from Contr. West. Bot. 18: 69. 1933. Chiquilistlan, 
Jal., 30 May, M. E. Jones 288. = Vernonia deppeana Less., fide Blake, Contr. 
U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 124. 1945. Blake states that "This specimen [presumably 
the one at US] was correctly identified by Dr. B. L. Robinson, who is quoted 
by Jones, but Jones nevertheless proceeded to describe it as a new species." 

The accounts published by Blake (1945) and Morton (1945) imply an excess of 
irresponsible "discoveries" of many new taxa" by Jones over a period of many years, 
and emphasize his sometimes gross misidentifications of plants from Mexico and 
elsewhere. The above list of novelties from the collection of 1892 does not suggest 
that Jones was a "splitter" basing his names on single or trivial characteristics, but that 
his decisions were sometimes made without adequate study of the literature and of 
existing herbarium material. In his earlier papers Jones described various new taxa 
from different parts of Mexico. These do not all show Jones as a poor systematist, 
rather as a perceptive but idiosyncratic and hasty one. Argus (Syst. Bot. Monog. 52: 
52. 1997) treated S . ,■■ r i. i - >landiana H. B. K.,but in the 

forested arroyos in Jalisco where I have seen it, it does not look like the ordinary 
drooping willows of stream banks. Standley (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 23: 1135. 1924) 
accepted Fraxinus nummularis as distinct but thought it was probably a depauper- 
ate dry-land form of the more widespread F. greggii A. Gray. Woodson (in annota- 
tions, 1952), relegated four Jonesian species of Asclepias, respectively to A. pringlei 
(Greenm.) Woodson, A. scaposa Vail, A. angustifolia Schweigger, and A. rosea H. B. 
K. The plants described by Jones were not merely individual variants— they were 
recognized species that already had names. In the 1890s it would have been extremely 
difficult for Jones (or Rose) to identify four milkweeds correctly. 

Of the four species that Jones described in his Contribution no. 18 (1933), viz., 
Hymenocallis jaliscensis , Apium depressum,Arr acacia tapalpae, and Vernonia viarum, 
Hymenocallis jaliscensis was accepted by Bauml (in McVaugh, Fl. Novo-Gal. 15: 214. 
1989). The two umbelliferous species were misidentified, one as to species, the other 
as to genus. Blake noted (1945, p. 124), that Jones was aware that B. L. Robinson 
had already named his Vernonia specimen no. 288 as V. deppeana, but nevertheless 
proceeded to describe it as a new species. 

Lenz pointed out more than once that Jones was not by nature a "splitter," and 
this is nowhere shown better than by his work on the genus Astragalus, which was 
his major effort. 

Jones's monographic work on Astragalus, beginning about 1893 and culminat- 
( | ,_■ . Oier \ S ! (gains (288 pages + 

index, synonymy and plates. Salt Lake City, privately printed), shows that his attitude 
toward new taxa was not always casual. Rupert Barneby, the most prestigious student 
of American legume-taxonomy in the 20th century, thought well of it (Mem. N. Y. 
Bot. Gard. 13: 6. 1964) when he wrote: 

"Jones's Revision initiated a new era in the systematics of Astragalus, an 
era in which the search for natural evolutionary relationships between species 
and between groups of species began to replace emphasis on simila] ie: a 
small, arbitrarily chosen set of morphological characters. The book is full of 
invaluable information, but is nevertheless an exasperating work. To the novice 
in Astragalus the book is impenetrable [because of the polychotomous keys], 


but to the advanced student it is richly rewarding... In his day Jones knew 
more about Astragalus than any man alive, but a volatile impatience with 
details of presenlation tends lo obscure that fact.... His opinions on (species 
of! Astragalus, us formulated in the Revision, have almost all been vindicated 
by subsequent scrutiny" [emphasis by McVaugh, 2004]. 

On the other hand, Jones's later Holistic papers on a Mexican flora that was 
unfamiliar to him (Jones 1929, 1935; I Hake 1945; Morton 1943). deal with a plethora 
of what he took to be new taxa. Morton and Blake between them, lor example, cited 
and evaluated 60 (!) new laxa published by Jones (in Extr. from Contr. West. Bot. 
18, 1933), the names almost all typified bv specimens collected in a period of about 
two weeks, November 13-28. 1930, in the barrancas near Guadalajara (a few from 
the vicinity of the nearby RR Station at Orendain). As 1 slated (1972, p. 253), the 
specimens had been taken from "one of the best-studied localities in Mexico." The 
barrancas near Guadalajara had been visited by many competent collectors (e.g.. 
Sesse & Mocino in 1791; Galeotti, 1835 1837; Gregg, 1849; Palmer, 1886; Pringle 
many times from 1888 to 1908; Rose & Painter. 1903). In 1930 1933, it would have 
been naive, or rash, or supremely self-confident, to suggest that 60 taxa (representing 
about one-eighth of all the collections from that locality) might be new to Science. 

Jones's collections of 1892 were never enumerated by him as a unit. As far as I 
can determine, he proposed about 13 new taxa (including two new varieties) based 
on those collections, proposals spread out over 40 years. As noted above, it seems that 
he was too busy with his other preferred research, from 1893 through the nineties 
and well into the 20th century, to go back and study the details of his 752 Mexican 
collections (his estimate of the number). 

After the the field season (March to October) of 1894 was spent in Utah, where 
Jones was employed as a "Special Field Agent" oi the U.S. Department of Agriculture 
(Lenz 1986, pp. 253 390), his two-year-old Mexican collections must have been low 
on his list of priorities, and subsequently remained there, with few exceptions. 


Jones left Salt Lake for Mexico on April 1 1 , stopped over in Denver and again at 
San Marcial, Socorro Co., New Mexico Territory, where he bought a map and a Span- 
ish dictionary. He was in Rincon, Dona Ana Co., New Mexico on April 15, at least 
long enough to collect one specimen (Zoe 3: 291 . Jan 1 893). He continued toward the 
Sierra Mojada, Coah., by a branch railroad from Hscalon in the southeastern corner 
of Chihuahua. 

He left Escalon at 6 a.m. on the 18th and reached the mines at Sierra Mojada 
at 10 a.m. He found it very dry there. He walked two miles up lo the upper town, 
"botanized all day" and part of the next, and returned to the junction at Escalon on 
the 20th, presumably having completed his survey of the mines on the 19th. 

Jones's knowledge of Spanish was spotty. He seems to have managed in the 
Mexican countryside most of the lime, but his spelling of place-names and other 
names was often not one san ioned I i h ionarv. See his Beriazillos or Berrozil- 
los for Berriosabal. Bota for Ed Bote, maw for mra.'Pastorilla for Pastorfa, Sacoalco 
and Sapotlan for Zacoalco and Zapotlan, Salcillo for Saucillo and, as recently sug- 
gested by Thomas I. Daniel. Linora for La Nona de los Angeles. 

During a part of his 1892 trip he had a helper whom he identified only as "Dil- 
lon." Lenz (1986, p. 92) says that Dillon was hired as an interpreter. Jones mentioned 
him in the diary on June 28, when he paid him one dollar. On July 4th it was $2. On 


June 30th, and again on July 2nd and July 8th he was paid $5 ("He has become very 
tiresome"). On the 5th he received $10, on the 7th $32, and on the 9th $50. At this 
point "Dillon decided to leave me here and return to Mexico, finding at last that he 
was of no service to me, a fact that I learned a month ago: 1 It would be interesting to 
know the nature of the original financial arrangement between Jones and Dillon. 

According to Lenz (1986, p. 397) Jones reached the city of Zacatecas on April 21, 
traveling on the main line of the railroad toward the city of Mexico. Figure 1 shows 
Jones's principal collecting localities in Zacatecas and southward. On the 22nd he 
visited "the great hacienda or mill below Zacatecas." He collected nos. 578-583 at 
Zacatecas on April 23 (Lenz 1986, p. 397), but only two of these have been recovered. 
On the 26th he set out for Casualidad, about 30 km E of Zacatecas near the border 
between the States of Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi. A railroad line to Casualidad 
had been proposed but not built, so Jones travelled in a mule-drawn wagon. He 
arrived in the evening of April 26. He said "It was a region of rolling hills and no 
vegetation but yuccas and cactus and thorny Leguminosae." He reported visiting the 
mines on the 27th and in the afternoon "Visited the lead mines (3) of the Potosi Mts. 
Collected some plants." Cerro Potosi (not to be confused with the very much greater 
peak of the same name in Nuevo Leon) is on or very close to the Zacatecas-San Luis 
Potosi boundary, almost directly east of Zacatecas. 

There are few available data pertaining to Jones's next weeks around the city of 
Zacatecas, a place already long-known for the enormous quantities of silver taken 
from its mines. Presumably Gen. Palmer was interested rather in new sources of valu- 
able minerals, not excluding silver. Lenz (1986, p. 91) says of Jones, "From [ April 2 ! ] 
until May 18, he examined mines and botanized in the general vicinity of the city [of 
Zacatecas]... He reached Mexico City by train on May 29." We know from Jones's 
specimens and his diaries, and from an account of his travels that he dictated many 
years later, that he took a side-trip of about two weeks, beginning from Ojo Caliente 
(ca. 40 km SE of Zacatecas), into the arid high plains farther east, camping as he said 
"among the yuccas." In another place he wrote that Ojo Caliente, Pastorilla, Linora, 
and Ramos are all in the same region southeast of the city of Zacatecas. 

In 1892 Ojo Caliente was the last station on a railroad line to the southeast of 
the city of Zacatecas and a logical place from which to set off for the mining areas 
further east and southeast, where the States of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, and San 
Luis Potosi adjoin. Including Ojo Caliente (Zac), the localities most often named in 
Jones's diaries and other papers are Pastorfa ("Pastorilla" of Jones), Zac. (about 20 
km SE of Ojo Caliente); Ramos, S. L. P.; and "Linora" (I take this to be Jones's ver- 
sion of [La] Noria de Angeles, Zac, which is about 10 km S of El Carro, Zac. El Carro 
in turn lies about 15 km ["8 miles" according to Jones] E of Pastorfa). 

As Lenz tells (1986, p. 347), on April 28th Jones was at the "Corkhills mine" and 
"later all the folks went with us to Las Animas and left us. Then drove to Covison." 
On the 29th (Jones diary). "Mr. Foreman took me over to La Paz and young Portus 
[?Portis] showed me through the Covison mine. p.m. drove to Ojo Caliente by 3 
p.m." He was in Ojo Caliente, April 29, 30; [presumably on May 1, he], "Rode from 
Ojo Caliente 15 m. to Pastorilla [Pastorfa] by noon where we found much lead... 
p.m. rode to Linora 15 m." May 2 [he collected] no. 228, no. 568; May 3, rode [from 
Linora] to Ramos, S. L. P. [the settlement and the mine of the same name], 18 mi from 
Pastorilla; May 4 rode to Salinas, S. L. P. (SE of Ramos), collected nos. 572-574; he 
was in Ramos May 5, left Ramos at 7 a.m. on May 6, rode to El Carro, (Zac), visited 
the San Miguel quicksilver deposits at San Miguel and at a "lake near San Miguel" 
collected at least nos. 157 and 585-592, May 6-7; on May 7 left for Pastorilla ca. "8 

- II - i i ! I ) i! IK III , H I I - ■ ,| I ,i ' 

1. Zacatecas, Zacatecas 

2. Ojo Caliente, Zacatecas 

3. Ramos, San Luis Potest 

4. Pastorfa ('■Pastorilla"), Zacatecas 

5. El Carro. Zacatecas 
>. ( luadalaiaia 

v Zacoalco (de Torres) ("Sacoalco" 

). Chiquilistlan 

). Ferreria (dc Tula) 


' lapalpa 

-5. 24-2r.) 

14. Santa Cm/ 

!\ Zapollan del Rc\ ("Sapotlai 

Iri.Tamazula (dt d n <» 

I S." Volcano of Colima" 

17. Santa Cruz #2 

19. San Marcos 

20.Tuxpan ("Tuzpan") 

'.'.La llisMicraC-RanchoCucn 


mi W of El Carro," and on May 9 he was back in Ojo Caliente to collect nos. 151 and 
no. 158. It would be interesting to know how much time he spent in prospecting for 
minerals, aside from lead on May 1 and quicksilver on May 6. 

On May 9, Jones went to Berriozabal ("Bereazillos"), a station on the main line 
of the railroad ca. 10-12 km SW of Ojo Caliente [which was not on the main line but 
the end of track on a parallel line from Zacatecas], "botanized all day" and reached 
Zacatecas by train at 6 p.m. 

Lenz (1986, p. 303) reports that on May 14 Jones was at "Bota" (El Bote, a sta- 
tion on the main line of the railroad), ca. 5 km NW of Zacatecas. On the 15th Jones 
collected no. 614 (Nama hispidum, at POM) at "Santa Rosalia, Mex.," presumably 
near Zacatecas. Collections from around Zacatecas include no. 585, May 16, and no. 
123, June 23. His travels after leaving Zacatecas have been described by McVaugh 
(1972, pp. 250-252) and by Lenz (1986, pp. 91-93). 

Jones travelled by rail from Zacatecas to Mexico, D. E, on May 19. He contin- 
ued by rail to Irapuato, Gto., where he spent Sunday (May 22) before continuing to 
Guadalajara, Jal, on the 23rd and Sayula on the 25th. There he stayed for two days, 
assembling what he needed for an overland pack trip beyond the railroad, "over the 
Tapalpa Mountains to Chiquilistlan." 

Evidently his instructions from General Palmer had indicated some mineral 
deposits of special importance in the vicinity of Chiquilistlan, which is a small well- 
established town, 20-25 km north and a little west of Tapalpa and separated from it 
by high steep forested ridges. In Sayula Jones hired a "moso" [mozo; a muleteer; an 
arriero] and 4 mules and set out for Tapalpa at 6 a.m. on the 27th. As he said, "the 
ascent to 9000° on the mts. is steep" [but his estimate of the altitude was high— the 
road-summits are closer to 7000 feet (2100-2200 m)]. Sayula lies below, at the level 
of a series of shallow and seasonally dry lake-beds, and even now the improved road 
to the forested mountains around Tapalpa is very steep and tortuous. Evidently Jones 
reached Tapalpa by midday. He went to the nearby rancho of Ferreria [de Tula] 
[some 12-15 km northeast of Tapalpa] "in p.m. Saw the good iron works at Ferreria. 
Slept there. The manager was very kind." 

On the following day (May 28) Jones left Ferreria for Chiquilistlan, "and reached 
there in p.m. with guide." I infer that his guide took him by some direct route north- 
westerly, not via Tapalpa as the modern highways go. [Lenz (1986, p. 312) says that 
Jones was in Chiquilistlan on May 13th, but other records show that he was in or 

FIG. 1 continued 

Contour lines jil tppto mini. I .1 iOO 1000, and 1500 m above 1 1 1. \ * I and up to 3000 m on the 
Nevado de Colima. [he r ei in the 1 allej that extends northward from the ocean (where it forms the 
boundary between ( o! ,,,. im " li < 1 in 1 ' « iimk.. i- . I 1 Hi 10 i.iIiii..\..ii 1 ' mm 
or (as Jones knew it) Rio C1.1 mc Locality wh < >lanl •■ « collected in April and up to mid-May, 
in New Mexico, Coahm a. San 1 in- I'omsi md extreme Z 1 u I Indiedlessa iduously and 
did not map all of them. 

Localities marked by dots arc those from which Jones obtained a significant quantity of plant speci- 
n , 1 -u II J ,i , hi ii mi ii ) 1 iu a.L m oulheni / u«u e on m , m Luis Potosi, the others 
in Jalisco or Colima U U pioductn localiti. ire hown. b< it h. re dilficuft to locate on 
published maps. Guadalajara, Jal.. is shown because it could be reached bv railroad and was the center 
whence Jones set out for the south. 

Most of the localities discussed and mapped here are to be found on the Map of Hispanic America 
[at] 1:1, 000, 000. published bv tin merican « iraphical Society md in th. 1! 1 that map (Tubl 
no. 5. Vol. 2. Geographical Names in Mexico. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1944). A few additional localities 
are discussed in the present text. 


near Zacatecas on that day.] He spent the next few days in and near Chiquilistlan, 
looking at mines with the cooperation o! the (icrciiic. ;i Mr, Vasques [?Vazquez) (see 
McVaugh 1972, p. 250). May 30 and 31 he visited "3 or 4 of the mines of Vasques and 
slept at the Santa Maria, line scenery and deep canons.'" On the 31st he returned 
from the Santa Maria mine and visited the Vasques hacienda. 

On June 1 Jones interrupted his stay at Chiquilistlan in order to visit iron and 
mercury mines at a place he called Salcillo (or Salsillo). where he spent the night 
at a ranch. On the 2nd he "went over from Salsillo and saw the rest of the mercury 
mines and the 'Colorado' iron. Then returned to Chiquilistlan and went over near 
the Santoninia and saw another iron mine, on the opposite (n.) side of the river." 
The location of Jones's -Salsillo" is not entirely clear, as 1 find nothing in his notes 
about distance or direction from Chiquilistlan. Lenz (1986, p. 374) equated it with El 
Saucillo, [Jalisco], which he located in the State of Zacatecas, "about 18 miles north- 
west of Zacoalco [de rones]." This is apparently die same II Saucillo that is about 
10 km north of Chiquilistlan, in the same river valley (McVaugh 1972, p. 350). It 
may well have been Jones's locality, as McVaugh ( 197?) agreed, lor another possible 
locality, see under "Saucillo" in the list of localities below. 

Back in Chiquilistlan on June 3rd, Jones left rather belatedly for Santa Cruz. 
Lenz (1986, p. 378) says Unit Santa Cruz was about 12 miles south-southeast of 
Ameca.The settlement at that point is Santa Cruz de las Flores, but it seems doubt- 
ful that the Santa Cm/ of Jones is the same. In his journal he described his trip from 
Chiquilistlan: "traveled all day [apparently south wcstwardly|.& slopped at a ranch 
6 m. east. Country very rugged & breaks down to the west." He reached Santa Cruz 
at 10 a.m. on the 4th, "Visited 3 mines in p.m. No good. Alt. 2650" [ca. 900 m]." June 
5th being Sunday, Jones spent the day quietly. •■Went down to the river to bathe." The 
information that he gives does not seem to apply to Santa Cruz de las Flores, which is 
nearly north of Chiquilistlan, across the mountains in the basin of the Rio de Ameca 
where the drainage is toward the north, at an elevation of about 1500 m. I suggest 
that his Santa Cruz may have been the place shown on the AGS map at 1/1, 000, 000, 
sheet NF 13, ca. 30 km (airline) SW of Tapalpa in the valley of one of the upper tribu- 
taries of the Rio de Armenia, at an elevation ol less than 1000 m, where the country 
"is rugged and breaks down to the west" (the elevation at Santa Cruz thus agrees 
well enough with Jones's estimate). Hie matter might he settled by reference to some 
authoritative work on Mexican mines o( the period, as Jones visited three mines there 
on June 4, and on June 6 he ileci I >a Doming line, and spent some time 
developing photographic "views." He also names mines that he visited at La Palma. 
Of the trip (June 7th) from Santa Cruz to La Palma. Jones (in his diary) said, "Left 
for La Palma in a.m. Reached there late in eve. The worst road of all. Ascended 3000° 
and down 1500 . Found main plants on the way." 

On June 8th Jones "visited die San Rafael mine (evidently from his base at La 
Palma] and stayed there all night." The next day he "returned from the San Rafael 
and saw the Mexicana and stayed all night at La Palma. Botanized a good deal." On 
the 10th "Left La Palma early with 2 pack animals and reached Tapalpa by noon... 
Reached Sayula at 9 o'c at 9 p.m." 

Additional bits of information may be gleaned from Jones' specimens and his 
notes on them. In describing Hymenocallis juliscaisis (Fxlr. from Contr. West. Bot. 
18:33. 1933), he cited "Saucillo ['Salcillo']. Jal., June l.also at La Palma near by," and 
one of his specimens (no. 17) is labelled as from "Santa Cruz near La Palma." 

This marked the end of his travels to the vicinity of Chiquilistlan and Tapalpa. 
From Sayula he took off for Zapotlan el Grande and the borderlands of Jalisco and 


Colima, more or less southward along the line of the present railroad, and east of 
the massif of the Nevado de Colima and the associated highlands northward toward 

Jones left Sayula for Zapotlan on June 11, a trip of about 25 km to the southeast 
that occupied about 3 hours. Lenz (1986, p. 307) quoted him as saying, "Returning 
to Sayula I took the stage for Sapotlan which was the terminus of coach travel... 
Here I outfitted with burros and mules for Colima." On June 13th he set off at 10 
a.m., southward toward Santa Cruz [not the Santa Cruz where he was from June 
3rd to 10th]. "Went to Santa Cruz by night" (Jones diary). On the 14th, "Went to 
the ironworks and to Tamazula." Formerly (McVaugh 1972, p. 349) I equated this 
Santa Cruz of Jones with the Sta. Cruz of Mariano Barcena (Ensayo Estadistico 
del Est. de Jalisco. Anal. Min. Fom. Rep. Mex. 9: 342, 349, 460. Mexico, 1891 ), which 
was associated with the Rio Covianes (the upper reaches of the Rio Tuxpan). I have 
not located Santa Cruz on any map, but I now suspect that Jones went to Tamazula 
[de Gordiano] by turning east and northeast through Zapotiltic before reaching 
Tuxpan, and that the "ironworks" and Santa Cruz were both on the way, perhaps 
near Zapotiltic, and near the Rio Tuxpan (which Jones called Rio Cuvianes). Lenz 
(1986, p. 370), under Rio Cuvianes, quotes, "Rio Cuvianes, June 13,nos.641-653J." A 
pecin ■ US {no. 423) bears the inscription, "Rio Cuvianes 

near Santa Cruz." 

On June 15th Jones "Spent half a day at Tamazula and went [back down the Rio 
Covianes or Tuxpan] to Tuzpan," then on the 16th turned south for ca. 15 km to La 
Higuera [also called Rancho Higuerro or Rancho Guerro, or as by Lenz (1986, p. 
369) Rancho Guerrero], where he visited the Muerto mine. The next day (17th) he 
left "in a.m." and drove southeasterly for ca. 18 km to Pihuamo, where he arrived at 
11:30 a.m. He must have visited the Purissima mine that afternoon, for on the 18th 
he "returned from the Purissima mine and looked at the placeres [placer mines] in 
p.m. Botanized, very hot. Poured down in p.m." On the 19th (Sunday, on which day 
Jones never worked), he spent the day "doctoring the sick politico" who had a bullet 
wound in his hip. On the 20th he "left Pihuamo at 7 o'c and reached Tonila at 3 p.m. 
Good road" (it is northwest, 18-20 km, airline, so he must have averaged about 3 
km per hour). He spent the next day, June 21 , going some 12 km to San Marcos and 
returning to Tonila. "Botanized." 

Thus in a week Jones worked his way down the valley of Rio Tuxpan a distance 
of 75 km or so, botanizing as he went while making professional visits to various 
working mines and potential mineral sites. On June 22 he turned away from the river 
valley, southwesterly some 30 km to the city of Colima, then the next day by train 
to the Pacific coast at Manzanillo, a 4-hour trip. "Took some photos and botanized 
a little." 

For the next three days, June 24-26, Jones's diary is uninformative. For each 
day there is an entry "Went over to Stadden's ranch." On two of the days it was 
"Stadden's ranch and the sea." On one day Jones wrote, "Got many facts." I find no 
reference to the name Stadden in Lenz (1986), but in the same work (p. 352) there 
are two bare references to Jones's visits to "the Stodden ranch" (or Stodden's ranch) 
on the 24th and 25th. 1 have no further information about Stadden/Stodden.The city 
of Manzanillo is built on a wide place at the western end of the coastal sandbar, south 
of the famous bay of the same name. To "go over" to the sea and the ranch, Jones 
may have gone 3 to 5 km southward, across the closed end of the coastal lagoon. 

On June 27th and 28th, Jones made a quick trip inland by rail from Manzanillo to 
Armeria. He spent the 27th at the ranch of General Maltina [?Martinez], having gone 


up on a "special" [presumably laid on by the General] to the ranch of 81,000 acres. 
Jones was much impressed by the varielx ol crops produced at the ranch, but his 
diary says nothing about mines or mining. The next day he "returned to Manzanillo 
from Armeria, and then returned to Colima." There he spent the next 8 days, begin- 
ning on June 29, doing (as he said) "very little," developing photographic plates, and 
doing some "botanizing" (noted on June 30. July 1 and 2). He made local excursions 
to Jayamita to see a saltpeter mine (July 1 ), to an unspecified locality to see "a coal, 
mica and gypsum mine, only gypsum there" (July 2), to Rancho Magdalena to look 
at a marble mine" (July 4 5). According to Pen/ ( I98C p. 351 ). Rancho Magdalena 
was about 8 miles SW of the city of ( 'olima. At about thai distance from the city the 
20th-century highway to Armeria and Manzanillo passes through an extensive area 
of rugged hills that support a rich flora oi calciphiles and gypsophiles. It may be that 
Jones visited this area on July I and returned on July 2nd, 4th and 5th. 

It was at this time that he parted with his helper. "Dillon;" as described above. 
On July 7th, Jones left Colima in the morning and reached Tonila, Jal., at 2 p.m. 
At the time of his visit the state boundaries where Colima. Jalisco, and Michoacan 
come together were not fully agreed upon, and some of Jones's specimens from San 
Marcos and Tonila were labelled as from (olima, and some from Pihuamo as from 

The next morning (July Nth) he left at 7:30 a.m. and came to Pihuamo at 5 p.m. 
On the 9th he "visited the Purissima mine & took samples." and at 1 p.m. started back 
for Tonila, found the river too high to cross but managed to reach Tuxpan at night. 
On the 10th (Sunday) he "crossed the river early and reached Tonila at 9 a.m." The 
"ferriage" was $0.56. 

He spent the night of July 10-1 1 in Tonila. On the 1 1th, according to his diary, 
"Tried to get outfit to start for the Volcano today but could not. Botanized. Rained 
hard yesterday and in the night, "The cost oi his hotel room was $1 .87. He must finally 
have obtained his "outfit," for on the 12th he "Left Tonila at 4 o'c a.m. for the Vol- 
cano. Traveled till 12 o'c and then was about 1 m[ile] from base of volcano but above 
it. 9250° alt ± Deep barranca between. Guide & I went over to Volcano & back in 4 
hours." Presumably they camped upon their return. 

At the time of his visit, the volcano proper (the Volcan de Fuego) was erupting 
actively every two weeks (according to Jones; see I .enz, 1 986, p. 92, who quotes a long 
paragraph from a newspaper interview that Jones gave about two weeks after his 
visit to the volcano). The altitudes that he mentioned appear to be on the low side. 
His figures were 12,000 feet (3,600 m) for the volcano proper (the Volcan de Fuego) 
and 13,000 feet (3.900 m) lor the northern peak, the Volcan de Nieve.The accepted 
figures today an m.i i ■ HO m respectively. 

On July 13. as recorded in Jones's diary, they left alter a very cold night at an 
elevation of perhaps 10,000 feet (estimated from his own figure of 9,250 ft). They 
broke camp at 7:30 a.m. and ascended to 10,500 feet [perhaps actually 11,000 or 
more], "at [the] pass on north side of Nevada de Colima and descended nearly to 
base of Mt. by 5 p.m. Rained for 2 hours. Everything wet on the ground. Camped 
under a madrona [sic] tree on the grass. Rain eased "at 6 p.m. Not~cold." Jones did 
not go into more detail about their route from their first camp, but it was evidently 
along the eastern Hank of the Nevado.The airline distance was hardly more than 15 
km, but the many barrancas radiating down from the peak meant that they had to 
travel a much longer and more difficult road if Jones wanted U^ collect at elevations 
even as much as 3000 m. 

Jones and his guide left their highland camp at 7 a.m. on July 14, rode down to 
Zapotlan in 4 hours, paid oil the extra mules he had lured in Colima, and set off at 
2 p.m. "with old Juan and 4 animals for Guadalajara. Reached Sayula at 7 :30 p.m. " 

2005 MCWIC..: '. i ION! > M \KOKS92 145 

After breakfast on the 15th, he "Left Sayula at 5 a.m. Rode all day to Sacoalco. Col- 
lected some. Warm in p.m. Reached Sacoalco at 4 p.m." The diary for July 16 records 
nothing more than some expenses for Jones himself, "& moso & boy overnight." The 
same day, however, he must have continued on to Guadalajara, though his diary does 
not confirm this until July 18, when he "Left Guadalajara at 9 a.m. & went to Irapuato 
and Celaya." By that time he was on his way home; on July 17th he had received a 
telegram telling him that "father is very sick." 




Some of the following data are repeated from the account in the text (pages 
23-33), where the emphasis is on itineraries, not on collections. Unless otherwise 
specified, notes on localities are based on information from Jones's specimens, from 
Lenz (1986), or from manuscript material at RSA. 

Animas, Las, Zac. — Presumed to have been the Estancia de Animas, as on Carta 
Geog. Zacatecas 1/500,000 (1943) and other maps, at long. 102°, ca. 20 km 
WSW of El Carro, Zac, and 20 km E by N of Pastoria; visited by Jones, 28 
April. See Linora and Ojo Caliente. 

Armerfa, Col. — 12 collections seen, all dated 28 June. Typical plants of coastal low- 
lands, including Acrostichum. Called by Jones "General Martina's ranch," 
said to include 81,000 acres. Jones spent the day of 27 June there, then 
returned to Manzanillo and to Colima. 

Berriozabal ("Beriazillos"), Zac. — No specimens seen. Lenz (1986, p. 300) says, "On 
railroad 35 miles south of Zacatecas, at 6800 ft." It is ca. 10-12 km SW of Ojo 
Caliente [which was not on the main railroad line but at the end of track on a 
parallel line from Zacatecas]. Jones was there on 9 May, "botanized all day" 
and reached Zacatecas by train at 6 p.m. 

Bota (El Bote), Zac. — A railroad station near Zacatecas, 14 May. 

Carro, El, Zac— Also known for a time as Villa Glz. Ortega. Ca. 20 km N of [La] 
Noria de Angeles, 25 km SW of Salinas, S. L. P., and according to Jones, "8 
miles E of Pastorilla." See the text above for his travels on May 5 and 6 
from Ramos to El Carro, to San Miguel and a nearby brackish lake, and his 
eventual return to Pastorilla. 

Casualidad, Zac— 9 collections seen, dated 26 or 28 April. Plants of arid shrubland 
(matorral). On the 26th Jones set out for Casualidad, about 30 km E of 
Zacatecas near the border between the States of Zacatecas and San Luis 
Potosi. A railroad line to Casualidad had been proposed but not built, so 
Jones travelled in a mule-drawn wagon. He arrived in the evening of April 
26. He said "It was a region of rolling hills and no vegetation but yuccas and 
cactus and thorny Leguminosae." He reported visiting the mines on the 27th, 
and in the afternoon "Visited the lead mines (3) of the Potosi Mts. Collected 


Chiquilistlan, Jal.— About 50 collodions seen, daled 28 May to 2 June, except nos. 
207 (Mimosa) kS.S ( licniuuui nia) and 170 ( Kunviii k'u dated respectively 
13, 15, and 19 May, at which times Jones was in or neai Zacatecas. Pla 
oak forest, dry deciduous forest oi ■ nuitomtt. During his stay at Chiquilistlan 
Jones visited the nearby Vasques (?\ a/quc/) mines ("3 or 4 oi 'them"), slept 
at tin S mta \1 ma on M) M. \ md return* d l< h qu hn and • lsiied I 
'•■ ; .qu s ha< iend i on the 31st. Left for Saucillo on 1 June, returned the next 
I i i Santoninia ines and also another iron mine on 

the other side of the river." Left for Santa Cruz early on 3 June. 

Coahuayana, Rio, Col. /Mich. —The river, in the valley that extends northward from 
the ocean (where U forms the boundary between Colima and Michoacan), is 
known successively as the Rio Coahuayana, Rio Tuxpan or (as Jones knew 
it above Tuxpan, Jal.), Rio Cuvianes. See Fig. 1. 

Colima, Col.— About 40 collections seen, dated 30 June to 5 July. Jones worked in 
and near Colima from 29 June to July, and passed through earlier on bis 
way to Man anillo mil rmcru; Plant of relatively humid forests of coastal 
foothills, including \arious caleiphilcs. From a base in Colima Jones "bota- 
i . H , i |, ,)it '»() miii Ink l he > enl < < ,, ihp i -, u im (ami b i i 

nized) at Jayamita, q.vgon the 2nd he went to see a "coal ma i md gypsum 
nun. only gypsum there" (he botam . 1 i he went to see "marble 

at Rancho Magdalena" and on the 5lh he returned to Colima. 

Corkhills mine, see Ojo Caliente. 

Covison (mine), S. L. P.— One collection, identified as Irrocacttis latispinus by G. 
Lindsay (POM 83294), includes a long, typed description. On 29 April 
Jones was escorted to the "Covison mine" at or near La Paz, after which he 

i I lo Oj ' ilu nn ', ( \ pp rentlv ( ovis< ■ m rn utiom < I > 

Jones as a settlement, but only as this mine in the vicinity of La Paz. 

Cuvianes (Cavianes, Covianes, Cuvianus), Rio), Jal.— About 25 collections seen, all 
dated 13 June. Jones travelled on 13 June from Zapotlan toward Tamazula, 

I ill i s i, I II I II h \- llll .1 i \J lit i 

the wa\ up the river. Plants ii |< in i . ', ds See ( oa 

huayana, Rio. 

Escalon, Chih.— Jones changed trains here. He continued toward Sierra Mojada, 
Coah., by a branch railroad from Fscalon in the southeastern corner of 
Chihuahua. He left Escalon at 6 a.m. on 18 April, and reached the mines at 
Sierra Mojada at 10 a.m. He found it very dry there. I le walked two miles up 
to the upper town, "botanized all day" and part of the next, and returned to 
the junction at Escalon on the 20th i . Ihissui 

of the mines on the 19th. 

Ferreria, (de Tula), Jal.— About 25 collections seen, dated 28 May (one 27 May). 
Plants are those oi moderately dry montane forests. It appears that on 27 
May Jones passed through Tapalpa on the way to Ferreria, which he reached 


in the afternoon. He went to the nearby rancho of Ferrerfa [de Tula] [some 
12-15 km northeast of Tapalpa] "in p.m. Saw the good iron works at Ferreria. 
Slept there. The manager was very kind." The next day (28th) he found a 
guide to take him to Chiquilistlan. 

Guadalajara, Jal. — Jones arrived by rail from Irapuato, Gto., 23 May at 4:45 p.m., and 
continued (presumably by rail) to Sayula on the 25th. There he stayed for 
two days, assembling what he needed for an overland pack trip beyond the 
railroad, "over the Tapalpa Mountains to Chiquilistlan." 

Guerro (or Guerrero or Querro), Rancho, Jal. 15 June. See La Higuera. 

Higuera, La, Jal.— Five collections seen, all dated 15 June. From Jones's account it 
appears that he did not reach La Higuera until 16 June, arriving from Tux- 
pan. See Muerto (mine). The next day (17th) he drove to Pihuamo. Plants 
are typical shrubs of foothill deciduous forest. 

Irapuato, Gto. — Jones passed through this city both coming and going, from Zacatecas 
toward Guadalajara, Jal., 22 May, and northward toward home on 18 July. 

Jayamita, Col.— Four collections seen, all dated 1 July. A duplicate sheet of no. 83, 
"Euonymus" {Acalypha coryloides) 1 Jul POM 84508, is labelled "Jayamita, 
Jalisco." Plants are shrubs from the relatively humid deciduous forests of the 
coastal foothills. Jayamita is not mapped in Fig. 1, as I have not been able 
to find it on any other map. Jones was in Colima City early in July He made 
local excursions, to Jayamita to see a saltpeter mine (1 July), to an unspeci- 
fied locality to see "a coal, mica and gypsum mine, only gypsum there" (2 
July ), to Rancho Magdalena to look at a marble mine" (4-5 July). It seems 
likely that all these excursions were toward the rocky calcareous areas to 
the southwest of Colima. 

Linora, (Zac, according to Lenz, 1986, p. 349).— Also for a time called Villa Obregon, 
as on Carta Geog. Zacatecas 1/500,000, 1943; Jones, on 1 May, "Rode from 
Ojo Caliente 15 m. to Pastorilla [Pastoria] by noon where we found much 
lead. . . p.m. rode to Linora 15 m." He visited at Linora and stayed over night, 
2-3 May [he collected] no. 228, no. 568; on 3 May he rode [from Linora] to 
Ramos, S. L. P. [the settlement and the mine of the same name], 18 mi from 
Pastorilla. Jones's "Linora" seems to have been [La] Noria de Angeles, ca. 
30 km SW of Salinas, S. L. P., and 20 km S of El Carro, Zac. 

Magdalena, Rancho, Col. — On the 4th of July Jones went from Colima to see "some 
marble at Rancho Magdalena" and on the 5th he returned "from seeing 
marble mine," apparently having been forced to stay over by a very hard 

ranch, see Arn 


Manzanillo ("Manzanilla"), Col.— About 25 collections seen, dated 25 June (one on 
20 June). Note on 23 June, "Botanized a little." Plants are those typical of the 
coastal hills, and maritime rocks, sands, and lagoons. On 24, 25, and 26 June 
the entries read "Went over to StaddeMs ranch and to the sea." evidently 
[ i bas< i an ill i ttn Mated end of the coastal sandbar on 
which the city stands. 

Mexicana, mine, see Palma, La. 

Mexico City (Mexico), D.I .Jones reached Mexico (My by train on 19 May, en route 
n rin . , , , ca ito, < to . id ruadalajara ral. Lenz ( 1986, p. 353) 

i on in n if ill- ' Ih i. i pi nil ilonj the lakes below Mexico 

City," but I find no record of any such plants. Jones left for Irapuato on 21 

Milagros ("Milieu m vlilli i i > ) Los. /.ac I wo collections of cacti seen, a few 

others probably collected, chile of 4 May Jones was making a side trip from 
/.acalecas C 'ity and ( )jo ( 'ahente to a series of ore prospects in arid eastern 
/acalecas and adjacent San Luis Lntosi. He recorded that he went (about 
20kmSE) from Ojo Caliente to Pastoria ("Pastorilla"), presumably on the 
t of May. Milagros is about 1 2 km W of Pastoria, thus not on a direct line 
from Ojo Oulienle. but his route may have taken him that way. On the 4th of 
May, Jones was traveling from Ramos, S. L. P., to Salinas, S. L P., so perhaps 
his pi mts from li i i M i Ih I before that 

Mojada, Mojada Mts., see Sierra Mojada. 

Muerto, (mine), l,i in II n illigi i «i n Kelu 

Noria de Angeles, La, Zac. Thought to have been the place called "Linora" by 
Jones. See under Ojo Caliente. 

Ojo Caliente, Zac— About 30 collections seen, mostly dated ') May, most of the 
plants typical of arid shrubland. "Acacia coiistriciu" ( ? Mimosa), no. 587. is 
dated 30 April (POM 28438). 
According to Lenz (p. 347, under La Paz), on Apr 28th Jones was at the "Cork- 
hills mine" and "later all the folks went with us to Las Animas and left us. 
Thendrovelo o [son On thi 'tl {)< dial i. "Mr. Foreman took me 
ovei to 1 a Pa/ md • • , - i i i I ■■■ , il ( iw miii 

mine. p.m. drove to Ojo Caliente by 3 p.m." He was in Ojo Caliente, Apr. 29, 
30, [presumably on May 1, he], "Rode from Ojo Caliente 15 m. to Pastorilla 
by noon where we found much lead... p.m. rode to Linora 15 m." May 2 [he 
collected] no. 228, no. 568; May 3, rode [from Linora, which see] to Ramos. S. 
L. P. [the settlement and the mine of the same name], 18 mi from Pastoiillm 
May 4 rode to Salinas, S. L. P. (SE of Ramos), collected nos. 572-574. he was 
in Ramos May 5. left Ramos at 7 a.m. on May 6, rode to El Cairo. (Zac). 
visited the San Miguel quicksilver deposits at San Miguel and at a 'lake near 
San Miguel" collected at least nos. 157 and 585-592, May 6-7; on May 7 left 
for Pastorilla ca. "8 mi W of El Carro," and on May 9 he was back in Ojo 
Caliente to collect nos. 151 and no. 158. It would be interesting to know how 
much time he spent in prospecting for minerals, aside from lead on May 1 
and quicksilver on May 6. 


Palma, La, Jal.— About 65 collections seen, all dated 7, 8, or 9 June. Plants indicate a 
semi-humid tropical deciduous forest with many ferns, orchids, Piper, Ficus, 
Jarilla, Dorstenia, Pinguicula, and also some elements from more temperate 
floral zones, as Corian R ; '■ , ,. From La Palma 

Jones visited the San Rafael mine and stayed all night there. On 9 June he 
returned from the San Rafael, saw the Mexicana mine and stayed the night 
at La Palma. "Botanized a good deal." On June 10th he went on to Tapalpa 
by noon. 

Pastorfa ("Pastorilla"), Zac.— Seven collections seen, dated 2 May (No. 316, 7 May, 
Asclepias longicornu POM 75835). Jones was in Pastorfa more than once 
between 1 May and 8 May, also visiting Linora, Ramos, Salinas, and San 
Miguel. See these in the text above and see also Ojo Caliente, Zac. 

Paz, La, S. L. P.— Said by Lenz (1986, p. 347) to be SE of Zacatecas City. On 29 April 
(Jones diary), "Mr. Foreman took me over to La Paz and young Portus [?Por- 
tis] showed me through the Covison mine. p.m. drove to Ojo Caliente by 3 
p.m." This is assumed to have been the place called San Antonio de la Paz, 
shown on the Mapa de Mexico at 1/250, 000 and on some modern highway 
maps, e.g., Est. Zacatecas 1/800,000 (Gufa Roji, undated), where it is located 
just S of Hwy. 49, ca. 20 km S of Ramos, 12 km W of Salinas, and 25 km NE 
of [Las] Animas, Zac. See Ojo Caliente. 

Pihuamo, Jal. ("Michoacan" of some of Jones's labels). — About 25 collections seen, 
four dated 20 June, the others 16 June. Jones is said to have arrived at 
Pihuamo from La Higuera on 17 June, 11:30 a.m. He must have visited the 
Purissima mine that afternoon, for on the 18th he "returned from the Puris- 
sima mine and looked at the placeres" [placer mines] in p.m. Botanized, very 
hot. Poured down in p.m." On the 19th (Sunday, on which day Jones never 
worked), he spent the day "doctoring the sick politico" who had a bullet 
wound in his hip. On the 20th he "left Pihuamo at 7 o'c and reached Tonila 
at 3 p.m." If his collections are correctly dated, it seems they must have been 
taken between La Higuera and Pihuamo on the 16th and between Pihuamo 
and Tonila on the 20th. On 8 July he returned to Pihuamo from Tonila, on 
the 9th he revisited the Purissima mine and "took samples." 

Placeres (placer mines), see Pihuamo. 

Potosi Mts., Zac— No specimens seen, though Jones reported in his diary for 27 
April, "Visited the lead mines (3) of the Potosi Mts. Collected some plants)." 
See Casualidad, Zac. Cerro Potosi is the high point in an isolated range; it is 
about 50 km E of Zacatecas and 20 km NE of Ojo Caliente, nearly on the 
line between Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi. 

Purissima (mine), see Pihuamo. 

Ramos, S. L. P. — Four specimens (and four duplicates) seen, dated 3-5 May. Jones 
took a side-trip of about two weeks, beginning from Ojo Caliente (ca. 40 
km SE of Zacatecas), camping in the arid high plains farther to the east. He 
wrote that Ojo Caliente, Pastorilla, Linora, and Ramos are all in the same 
region of rolling hills with no vegetation but yuccas and cactus and thorny 
Leguminosae. See also Salinas. 

II! I ' I ..!'•!> v 

•on; maG I. Me k>m ipe< hen n ^ ill route to Mexico 

on the railroad, at least long enough lo collect one specimen (Zoe 3: 291. 
Jan 1893). 

Salinas, S. L. P.— Three specimens seen, all dated 4 May, one (no. 573, Opuntia sp., 
POM 83285) with additional note "Camp Silvio"). According to Lenz (1986, 
p. 374) nos. 572-574 were collected at Salinas. The locality (elev. ca. 2100 in) 
is ca. 30 km SE of Ramos, q.v., and 25 km NE of El Carro, Zac. Jones rode 
from Ramos to Salinas on 4 May and returned the same day or the next. 

San Marcos, Jal. ("Colima").— About 20 collections seen, all dated 21 June. About 
l\\ ■o-lhirdsuf them are ferns or tern allies. Lc-n (! 1 >N(, j, ) i inal n 
spent the day of June 21st going from Tonila to San Marcos and returning. 
to which Jones's diary added "Botanized." San Marcos lie: n (hi olhitl 
n . 1000 id h ii< i ne; th< u « inning of the steeper ascent into the 
■ s I early July when Jones started northward along the flank 

of the volcanoes, he beg; n from 1 1 i bin climbed somewhat to the west 

of San Marcos. 

San Miguel, Zac. — Apparently very close lo Id Cairo, q.v. Twelve collections seen 
(incl.2 duplicates), dated b Mav excenl tu Ian II b May. Seven are labelled 
"Lake" or "Borders of a lake" near San Miguel, one copied label reads 
"Lake Ness San Miguel" and one 'near San Miguel. Margin of brackish 
lake.' 1 Plants are those ot di\ huh n i >i. ten lt . <!> i 

typical of depressions in grassland. Jones left Ramos, S. L. P., at 7 a.m. on 
May 6, rode to 12 t 'arm. /ac. visited the San Miguel quicksilver deposits al 

m ■ i i" md i "lake near San i i I mII I al I 157 n 


•in 1 dacl. mine, see Palma, La. 

Santa Cruz, Jal. (ca. 25 km a little S of W of Tapalpa).— About 45 collections seen, 
dated 3-7 June except for three collections dated 14 June, q.v. under Sam;) 
Cruz #2. Jones left Chiquilistlan on 3 June, reached Santa Cruz at 10 a.m. 
on the 4th. See also Santo Domingo (mine), visited 6 June. Plants collected 
al Sanla Cruz are (hose of somewhai mmn upland decidi ais forest. On 
7 June Jones (in his di uv) i i « tn i i < rorn in, ( ru/ to La Palma, 
"Left for La Palma in a.m. Reached there late in eve. The worst road of all. 
Ascended 3000° and down 1500°. Found many plants on the way." 

Santa Cruz No. 2, Jal., on the Rio Tuxpan ("Cuvianes") below Tamazula.— On June 

lath Jones sel oil' from Savula al 10 a.m., southward toward Santa Cruz [not 
I he Sanla Cruz where he was from June 3rd lo 1 0th |. "Went to Sanla Cruz by 
nig it" [Jones diary]. On the 14th, "Went to the ironworks and to Tamazula." 
bom i - - I i- i: <■ -I d ■ I In ■ • ■ I ,L I > la < in/ near 

Tapalpa" and one "Santa Cm/ No. 2. near La Palma." 


Santa Rosalia, [Zac.]— "Nama hispidum" (spathulatum); only the one specimen s 
the locality presumably near Zacatecas, Zac, where Jones was based du 
early May. No. 614, 15 May (POM 73490). 

Sapotlan, see Zapotlan. 

Saucillo, Jal. ("Sale il o" oi 'Salsillo"). — About 22 collections seen, dated 1 June (one 
dated 2 June). The plants are mostly those of the semi-arid upland tropical 
deciduous forest. The late Howard Gentry (an agave specialist) and I went 
to Chiquilistlan on 30-31 Jan 1975, in search of an agave that Jones had 
collected at "Salsillo." We inquired in town (83 years after Jones's visit) and 
were promptly given precise directions to El Saucillo, a long-unused mercury 
mine about 5 km south and some 2 km west of Chiquilistlan. The locality 
shown on the map (Fig. 1, no. 7) is another Saucillo, the one accepted by 
Lenz (1986, p. 374) and by McVaugh (1972, p. 350) as that visited by Jones. 

Sayula, Jal. — Five specimens seen, dated 26 or 27 May, except one dated 10 June. 
Jones came from Guadalajara (presumably by rail) to Sayula on the 25th. 
He was in Sayula from 25-27 May, assembling an outfit for overland travel 
to Tapalpa and Chiquilistlan. He stopped briefly in Sayula again, on his way 
south, 10-11 June, left Sayula for Zapotlan on June 11, a trip of about 25 
km to the southeast that occupied about 3 hours. Lenz (1986p. 307) quoted 
him as saying, "Returning to Sayula I took the stage for Sapotlan which was 
the terminus of coach travel. Here I outfitted with burros and mules for 

Sierra Mojada Mts., Coah. (often "Sierra Mojada" or "Mojada" only). — About 75 
specimens seen, all dated 19 or 20 April except no. 348, "Giliastrumr "flow- 
ers open at 9 o'c, a.m. and close at about 4 o'c. p.m. Sierra Mojada, Mexico, 
April 18, 1892," and no. 623, "Greggia" "Mojada, Mex. 21 April" (POM 
95929). Apparently a rich spring flora in a brush-covered desert mountain 
range with some small trees. Jones seems to have spent most of his time 
botanizing, having arrrived on 18 April and left on the 20th. See Escalon. 

Stadden's ranch, Col., see Manzanillo. 

Tamazula (de Gordiano), Jal. — No plant collections seen. Jones reached Santa Cruz 
No. 2 "by night;" L3 June, from Zapotlan. He recorded later, "14 Tues. Went 
to the iron works and to Tamazula. 15 Wed. Spent half a day at Tamazula 
and went to Tuzpan. " 

Tapalpa, Jal.— About 25 collections seen, mostly dated either 27 May or 10 June. 
Jones hired a muleteer and four mules and set out from Sayula for Tapalpa at 6 
a.m. on 27 May. Sayula lies at the level of a series of shallow and seasonally dry 


lake-beds, and the improved road to die forested mountains around Tapalpa 
is still very steep and tortuous a century later. Evidently Jones reached 
Tapalpa by midday. Specimens dated 27 May are presumably from those 
mountains. The supposed date of No 133, "Xn s51 Ma\ 

perhaps an error for 27 May, as the specimen at MSC is labelled "Tapalpa 
Mts. 8000 ft among pines." Jones went "in p.m." of the 27th to the nearby 
rancho of Ferrerfa [de Tula] [some 12-15 km northeast of Tapalpa] "Saw the 
good iron works at Ferrerfa. Slept there." On 10 June Jones 1 o ft Fa Palma. 
1 pilp. h it« n mil Savula at 9 p.m. On 1 1 June he left Sayula for 
i| nil i) I hat route tines not ascend into the "Tapalpa Mts." so perhaps the 
date of 11 June on no. 50S ("Arctostaphylos") is erroneous. 

Tonila, Jal. ("Colima").— About 15 collections seen, dated 8 July except no. 281 (1 
July) and a specimen unnumbered (11 July, POM 29489). On the 1 1th the 

i ii i S.mi mi r i ! n il i'i i oil. < pens uue leius ol the hu nid I'o i 
in! 1 u, .dlands. On 1 July Jones was in or near Colima: he spent the nights of 
7-8 July and 10-1 1 July in Tonila. 

Tuxpan ("Tuzpan"), Jal.— About 12 collections seen, all dated 15 June. Plants of the 
mii ,i I odkiii. lli< i Mini On Juik 15lh Jones "Spent half a day at 

Tamazula and went [back down the Rio Covianes or Tuxpan] to Tuxpan," 
iher on the 16th turned south for ca. 15 km to "Rain 1 lb ici o jl i 
Higuera], where he visited the Muerto mine. On 12 July, making for the 
eastern slopes of the active volcano from Tonila, lie must have climbed more 
nearly north, thus to the west of Tuxpan. 

Vasques (?Va/.quc/) mines, and 1 Iacienda. See Chiquilistlan. 

Volcano of Colima, Jal. ("Volcan, Mex.": "Volcan"). About 85 collections seen, all 
dated either 13 July or 14 July. This was the most intere tin > I.oiih hi • .1 i 
Fmes did during this summer. 1 le was the lust lo make a significant collec- 
tion there (C. G. Pringle. the renowned collect. >i e,f Mexican plants, spent 
i ■' days on the volcanoes in May, 1893). Jones spent the nigh! ol July 
10-11 in Tonila. On the 11th, according to his diary, "Tried to get outfit to 
ii I i i Ht could not. Botanized. Rained hard yesterday 

and m the night." On the 12th he "Felt Tonila at 4 o*c a.m. for the Volcano. 
Traveled till 12 o'c and then was about 1 mfile] from base ol' volcano but 
above it. 9250° alt ± Deep barranca between. Guide & I went over to Vol- 
cano & back in 4 hours ii n y I upon l .ii . urn) lones seems never 
to have distinguish \ active volcano (the "Volcan de Fuego") 
and the much higher peak to the north (the "Volcan de Nieve"), from the 
side of which the other seems to arise. 
On July 13 the diary records, they left after a very cold night at an elevation 
of perhaps 10,00!) feet [an editorial estimate based on Jones's own figure 
of 9,250]. They broke camp at 7:30 a.m. and ascended to 10, 500 feet [per- 
haps actually 1 1,000 or more)] "at [the] pass on north side of Nevada |siej 
de Colima and descended nearly to base of Mt. [toward Zapotlan] by 5 
p.m. Rained for 2 hours. F\er\ thing wet on the ground. Camped under a 
madrona [sic] tree on the grass. Ram eased at 6 p.m. Not cold." Jones did not 
go into more detail about then route from their first camp, but it was evi- 
dently along the eastern flank of the Nevado, an airline distance hardly more 


than 15 km, the traveling difficult because of the many barrancas radiating 

down from the peak. Clearly Jones did not seek an easy way. His r 

on specimens include such comments as "middle elevations," "alpii 

"10,000 ft." and there are many plants from the high bunchgrass z 

with alders, and the sparsely populated slopes above and near timberline. 

Zacatecas, Zac. —About 13 collections seen, 5 dated 23 April (soon after Jones's 
arrival from the north by railroad), one dated 4 May, two dated 16 May, 
and 8 dated 23 June. On the latter date Jones was on his way from Colima 
to Manzanillo; the plants so dated are in general those of the dry interior 
uplands (e.g., Adolph-e infest • Reseda luteola) and perhaps mistakenly 
dated 23 June instead of 23 April. Jones worked out of Zacatecas for about 
a month after 23 April, with a short trip to Casualidad and Cerro Potosi, and 
a longer excursion to Ramos, S. L. P., q.v. and El Carro, Zac, q.v. 

Zacoalco (de Torres) ("Sacoalco"), Jal. — Three specimens seen, dated 16 July. Lenz 
(1986, p. 307) quoted the diary as of "15 June," "Left Sayula at 5 a.m. Rode 
all day to Sacoalco. Collected some... Reached Sacoalco at 4 p.m. " 

Zapotlan el Rey ("Sapotlan"), Jal. — No specimens seen among those recovered. 
Jones stopped here over the weekend of 11-13 June, "bargained for an 
outfit for Colima. Wrote about 12 letters." He continued to Santa Cruz, q.v., 
on the 13th. He returned a month later, after collecting on the volcanoes, 
and spent three hours in Zapotlan on 14 July before leaving for Sayula and 


The primary framework, from which is it possible to derive so many details of the life and work of 
Marcus Jones, is the exemplary biographj by Lee W Lenz (Lenz 1986). My well-thumbed copy of this 
volume, a gift from the author, has been indispensable in the preparation of the present paper, and 1 thank 
him for permission to quote from it. The late Lyman Benson helped me many years ago to select perti- 
nent data from Jones's diary and to secure permission to publisl h m (I : uj b 1972). George Russell 

of the United States National Herbarium furnish « i i list «>! di< p. mm t he 1S92 collection that 

had been accessioned at US. To Susan Whitfield I am grateful n „ ! , i ( >, . i , , , , ! elegant additions to my 
i> mi > j In i.. iii i l hi ,< i '1 iii M jiu ii n nn it ., nr„ icnclature, and Mexican 

geography, from many friends, especially from rami i nricl on md William R. Anderson, and many 
favors in editorial matters from Christiane Anderson. A tip of the hat to Tom Daniel for information on 
little-known localities in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi. My notes on Marcus Jones could not have been 
published without the aid o Slew Boyd and the In illiunilv i v. uted scarche i (inducted in the Pomona 
herbarium by Lisa M. Rojas. 


Blake, S. F. 1945. Asu r . e descrih ; i mm Mexico and the southwestern United States bv M. E. Jones, 
1908-1935. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 1 17-137. 

Gray, Asa. 1852. Planta. W i»htiana< I , million onti Knowl. 3, Art. 5: 117-262./;/. 1-10. 

.1853.PIantaeWrightiana ! mith on ( ontr.Knowl.5,Art 6 263-381, pi. 1-4. 

Jones, Marcus E. 1893-1935. Contributions in Wc tern Uotaii} t. Zoe 3: 283-308. Jan 1893. 4. Zoe 4: 
22-53. Apr 1 893. 5. Zoe 4: 254 282. ( )et 1 893. 6. Zoe 4: 366-368. Mar 1 894. 7. Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci. II. 5: [611] 612-733. [i-] ii— vi. Nov 1S95. 8. Privately pub!.. [ I -j 2-43 |i-ii,|. I eh 1N9N. 9. Zoe 5: 
( i ii 19()i 10. I'm iel pull [1-J2-J | I I K run 1902; [83-1 84-90. Sep 1902. 11- Pri- 

vately publ [l-]2 22 \pi 1903 12. nn d ,V mil i tones. [1 J 2 100 Mar 1908 13. Printed 
& publ. by Jones, 1-87. Jan 1910. 14 Print* d ■ i ued '.. I- n< s [I-] 2 ^2 Jun 1912. 15. Printed 


& publ. by Jones, 1-163. Clarcmont, Calif. Jim 1924. 16. Printed & publ. by Jones. 1-53. Claremonl, 

Calif. Feb 1930. 17. Printed & publ. by Jones. 1-31. Claremonl, Calif. Sep 1930. 18. Prinled (exe. 

pp. 132-157) by Jones, issued posthumously. iMiacls pp.25 S.5. Claremonl. Calif Aug 1933; [1-] 24, 

86-131. Apr 1935. 
Lee W. Lenz. 1986. Marcus /:'. Jones Western (icoloxist, Mining i-Ji^neer e* Botanist, [i-xv], 486 pp. 

McVaugh, Rogers. 1972. Botanical exploration in Nueva Calieia, Mexico from 1790 to the present time. 

Contr. Univ. Michigan I lcrb. 9; 21)5 357.2 maps. 
, |)| K v . in | n n uu i > it «m. II Ioiks ( onti I S Natl. Herb. 29: 87-1 16. 

Shaw, Elizabeth A. 1987. ( lutrles Wnvjil on the liniuul.nv. IS4V-IS52 or I'lantae Writfitianae Revisited. 

[i-vi], vii-viii, 1-44,3 field-lists on microfiche. Mecklei Publ. ,v ( liadwyck-Healey Ltd. 

POM = Herbarium of Pomona College, now a part of RS A (Herbarium of Ran- 
cho Santa Ana Botanic Garden); MSC = Herbarium of Michigan State University; 
NY = Herbarium of New York Botanical Garden; US = U.S. National Herbarium 
(Smithsonian Institution). The serial numbers on the specimens at POM were not 
routinely recorded before 2003. Labels are hand-written or typed; the writer is named 
if known to me. Jones's own rather dist im i • cripl l] pears on relatively few labels. 
Determinations and quoted passages are taken directly from the labels unless other- 
wise stated. Botanical names on the labels seem to vary from mere guesses to the 
results of careful study, but most of them are unverified. 

Armeria, Colima 

s.n. Cyperus ochraceus [dot. O'Neill], 28 June, POM 1 17761 

60. Cissus verticillaiiL 2.S June 

71. Karwinskia humboldtianu, 28 June, POM 8501 1 1 

| - ) III! 

173. Cassia emarglnata {Senna) , 28 June 
229. Samolus valenmdi, 28 June. POM 75862 

.> > . ['.HOoolH; \ ,-,!!{! flf ,K - JuilC 

i.V7; Clulo/i.sis lit/curt 

474. Dicliroinena colorata, 28 June 

475. Fimbristylis spadicea, 28 June, POM 

502 U n st , Inn Iron i pinn i b n li 

664. Cyperus odoratus, 28 June, POM 

Casualidad, Zacatecas 

s.n. Dalea argyraea, 26 Apr, POM 28927 

s.n. Iresine, 26 Apr, POM 102564 

16. "Petalonyx" [Mortonia palmeri or sp] ["low heath like scrub on rocky places"], 26 

Apr, POM-2 sheets, US, fide J. Henrickson 
120. -Rhus" [spiny shi ub|. 20 Apr, POM 86044 
146. Plutca zacatecana, 26 Apr, NY, holotype 
196. Mimosa biuncifera [typed I ow n \ risiidK ' i inched sin uh"]. 29 Apr, POM 

26684, POM 28440 
248. Cvlindropiuuia [typed: "6 inches high in tufts among the rocks. Looks like white 

balls at a distance 7000 feet alt"]. 28 Apr, POM 83297 


Casualidad, Zacatecas (cont.) 

398. Lobelia laxiflora var. angustifolia, 26 Apr, POM 67869 

541. Notholaena ferruginea, 28 Apr 

Chiquilistlan, Jal. 

s.n. Vernonia viarum ["type" scrips. Jones], 30 May, POM A1774 (?); det. V. deppeana 

by B. L. Rob. & Blake 
s.n. Quercus polymorphs 28 May, POM 106185 
s I 'sidium guajava ["Lead Mine"], 28 May, POM 1 17688 
s.n. Calliandra, 28 May, POM 28244 
s.n. Lysiloma acapulcense, 28 May, POM 28622 
s.n. Comarostaphylis glaucescens, 28 May, POM 77302 
s.n. Crotalaria, 28 May, POM 29583 

s.n. Albizialeb! ' | lead n e, near C"], 30 May, POM 28586 
s.n. Acacia famesiana, 31 May, POM 29478 
s.n. Acacia, 28 May, POM 28436 
s.n. Agave, 1 June, POM 109141 
s.n. Polypodiim - . . \S May, POM 120081 

s.n. Baccharis {Archib.,.1), 28 May, POM 37322 
s.n. Asclepias jaliscana, 28 May 
36. Loranthus ca!\ ■.,/'" i\ •> '1 lie (;!) kcl hinh. 'filled Tacamo, 2 feet diameter"], 

2 June, POM 105967 

39. Bnrscra ["at lead mine"], 30 May, POM 86495 

40. Pistacia mexicana ["medium sized shrub"], 30 May, POM 86498 
64. Annona [?84; label illegible], POM 70301 

70. Karwinskia rzedowskii, 19 May, POM 86213; presumed duplicate, POM 85400 
74. "lErythroxylon: 28 May, POM 86507 
80. Guazuma ulmifolia 

180. Erythrina leptorhiza [det. Krukoff 1969], 28 May, POM 29007 

181. Lysiloma acapulcense. 28 May; serins. Jones exc. name, POM 29008; same, typed 
label, POM 28444 

187. Pithecellobium tomentosum ["at lead mine"], 30 May, POM 28215; scrips Jones 
exc. name, POM 29012 

207. Mimosa albida, 13 May, POM 28585, POM 26592 

208. Acacia peiuu <uia ':■ M; . sci ps Ion s POM 27060 
288. Vernonia viarum ["type"], 30 May] 

301 . Vaccinium stenophyllum, 28 May, POM 77175 

302. Comostaphyllis glaucescens [scrips. Jones], 28 May, POM 77454 

303. Arctostaphylos pungens, 28 May, POM 77300 

317. Asclepias mexicana, 28 May; scrips. Jones, POM 75501; also A. jaliscana, scrips. 

Munz, POM 76070 
335. Stemmadenia tomentosa, 15 May; typed, POM 76969; scrips. Jones, POM 75444 
350. Plumeria, 30 May, POM 76811, POM 75443 
378. Dyschorish . ■ , type" (paratype)], 28 May, POM 69546 

386. Hyptis albida, 30 May, POM 701 24 

42! ». , f igosa ex V. W. Steinmann] 28 May, POM 85475 

436. Quercus [stam. fls.], 28 May, POM 106180 

440. Quercus en fo Q.p< lorpha ex C.H.Muller], 28 May, POM 106179 

441 . Quercus magnoliaefolia, 28 May, POM 106209 

442. Quercus magnoliaefolia ["Lead mine"], 30 May, POM 106182 


ChiquilistlAn, Jal. (cont.) 

443. (Junius 

AAA. Quercus magnoliaefolhh 28 May, POM 106208 

445. Quercus semtlata [type], 28 May, POM 106181 

446. Quercus jonesii [type; long typed description], 28 May, POM 106272 

447. Yucca valida Brandg. [Y. ctschottii], 1 June, POM 109484 
449. Agave tpedunculifera, 3 1 May 

489. Pinus, 28 May 

492. Piuus {'Uuinhohzii), 28 \l;i\ 

502. Acrostichum aureum,3\ May 

508. Poly podium [long entire Ives], 28 May 

517. Gymnogramme, 28 May 

709. Tillandsia fasciculata [det. L. B. Smith], 30 May 

710. Cereus, 30 May, POM 83283 
712. (?Verbenac), 28 May 

Comma, Comma 

s.n. Ludwigia octovalvis, 30 June, POM 46276 

s.n. "Euonymus" (Acalvpha eoryloides), 2 July, POM 84506 

11. Mascagnia mueropiera, 2 July; ["( hen v-Iike shrub, open branched, branches small 

and long 11 ] POM 84245; [" Malpighia"] MSC 
23. Phylhmthus mocinianus, 5 July 
23. Phylhmthus | typed: "Delicate and very graceful shrub or small tree 10-12 feet 

high, grows on (3 words illegible) Valleys"], 5 July, POM 85602 

23. Phyllanthus orhiculatus Much, [typed, except binomial], 5 July, POM 86554 (same 

sp. as POM 85602, larger specimen): "Delicate and very graceful shrub or small 
tree 10-12 feet high, grows on rocky debris in valleys" 

24. Sapranthus violaeeus [del. Schat/j. 2 July, POM 1 17207 

72. Samyda mexicana.2 My 

73. "Bursera rejlexa Rose & Jones" ["type" of B. jonesii], 2 July, POM 86504 
79. "Celtis" (Croton), 2 July, POM 106097 

84. -Celtis" (Croton), 5 July, POM 106095; [typed:] "Weak shrub, 10-20 feet high, 

branches slender' 1 
103. Podopterus cordifolius, 25 June 
118. Oxalis latifolia, 2 July 

118. Oxalis ["deeply cul halves ol Ills"). 2 July. POM 86753 

127. Manihot miehaelis [label typed], 2 July, POM 85423:"Hklei-[ike shrub or small tree" 
154. Phyllanhus mocinianus, 2 July 

154. Phylhmthus \2 sheets; "same as 23"]. 2 Julv. POM 86557, POM 85604 
166. Tamarindus indica, 30 June, MSC; POM 29680; "same as 165?" 
168. Caesalpinia coriaria, 2 July, MSC; POM 2865 1 [see same description under Jay- 

174. Caesalpinia platyloha, 2 July, MSC 

174. Caesalpinia [scrips. Jones), [typed] 2 July. POM 28332; "Small tree with open 
branches. Flowers smell like carrion" 

175. Cassia emarginata "Senna" 2 July 

177. Diphysa [typed], 2 July, POM 28996; "Small tree like the locust" 

177. Oenothera rosea [scrips. Jones exe. name], 2 July, POM 37766 

178. Cassia pringlei C Senna wiz.") [typed], 2 July. POM 27296; "Very slender vine- 
like shrub with pendent branches, 4-30 feet high" 



Hobh i Hum ■ July, POM 29013; scrips. Jones exc. name 

185. "Calliandra"{"Zapoteca" ), 5 July, POM 28218; typed: "Very graceful small tree" 

186. ICalliandra tetraphylla, 2 July, POM 28219 

196. Calliandra [scrips. ?P. A. Munz], 2 July, POM 26683 

327. Toumefortia [scrips. Jones], 2 July, POM 71465 

327. same Toumefortia [scrips. ?Munz], 2 July, POM 72282; "open and almost pendent 

branched shrub with short branches" 
351 . Plumeria, 2 July, POM 76813 
375. Malachra capitata, 30 June, POM 83706G 
467. Tradescantia orchidophylla, 5 July; "below Colima" 
471. Commelina erecta, 30 June 
668. Passiflora colimensis , 30 June, POM 84401 
672. Lonchocarpus lanceolatus [det. Mario Sousa], 2 July, POM 28990 
674. Rhus {IBursera), 2 July 

Covison (mine), San Luis Potosi 

246. Ferocactus latispinus [det. G. Lindsay], 30 Apr, POM 83294 (long typed descrip- 
tion); Covison was the name of a mine in the vicinity of La Paz, q.v.; see also Ojo 

Cuvianes, Jalisco (Cavianes, Covianes, Cuvianus), Rio 

s.n. Mecardon 13 June, POM 4598 

s.n. Oenothera kunthiana, 13 June, POM 38611 

s.n. Dysodia, 13 June, POM 67158 

s.n.Chamucs\f '■• ■ ■'■■ ■, 13 June, POM 85515 

s.n. Heliotr opium indicum, 13 June, POM 72279 

s.n. (or 357). E, <a, 13 June, POM 116121 

142. [legume; label typed], 13 June, POM 26796; "Flowers yellow and beak very 

155. Cassia occidental^ (Senna) [scrips. Jones exc. name], 13 June, POM 26674; scrips. 

?Munz, POM 28643; typed label, POM 28642, 
170. Cassia torn (S u ■■.■.■.' 3 June, POM 26680 (older specimen POM 29585) 
200. Rhynchosia [all typed], 13 June, POM 29290 

209. Cologania [narrow lvd], 13 June 

210. Rhynchospo minima : lime; see 200 
272. "Dysodia," 13 June, POM 67154 

315. Asclepias curassavica, 13 June, POM 76033 

329. Heliotropium, 13 June, POM 72278 

423. Chamaesyce hirta, US; "Rio Cuvianes near SantaCruz" 

. , -p. Jones], 13 June, POM 85603 

423. Chamaesyce hirta [det. Burch], 13 June, POM 86211 
443. Bidens odorata ["Rio Cuvianes Tuxpan," scrips. Jones], 13 June 
546. Apium leptophyllum, 13 June 
641. Conyza sophiaefolia [det. S. F. Blake], 13 June 

645. Asclepias glaucescens, 13 June 

646. Merremia quinquefolia, 13 June, POM 71010 
648. Cuphea ["Rio Cuvianus"], 13 June, POM 70320 
652. Eragrostis mex. (tephrosanthes), 13 June 


Firrlria, [de Tula], Jalisco 

s.n. Mecardonia vandelloides, 28 May, POM 45099 

s.n. Oxalis drununondii. 28 May, POM 86765 

s.n. Arracia tapalpae ["F. de Tula"], 28 May; "Tapalpa Mountain" 

s.n. Symphoricarpos rnii /. '' / SM;i i,( > >7 'U 

s.n. /1/-&h/h.v (hairy), 28 May, POM 77221 

• . amis huh ronala 
1 12. Phacelia madrense, 28 May, POM 73727 
200. Comarostuphyllis discolor, 27 May, POM 77174 
230. Comus exceka | scrips Jones], 28 May, POM 77743; tvped labels, POM 77933, 

POM 77934 
238. Arracacia tapalpae Jones j -type,'" scrips. Jones], 28 May, POM 82990 
303. Arctosiuphxlos pungens. 28 Mav. POM 77247 
401. Cupheallavea 
401./ko//rt,28May,POM 119141 
409. Polygonum punctatimulS May, POM 103387 
437. Salix jaliscana type-no. (=S. laevigata Bebb ex C. R. Ball & Argus)], 28 May, 

POM 107135 
439a. lAlmts pringlei,2S May 
455. IZephyranthes foster'u 28 May, US 
468a. Smilax, 28 May 
IN! i -' . >ogon i ,i, I hi , 
497a. Adiantwn thalictroides, 28 May, POM 
540. Bommeria pedata, 28 May, POM 
704. Arbutus (hairy), 28 May, POM 77166 
706. Ranunculus petiolaris, \N May, POM 100542 

Guhrro (or QciRRo),-Colima," 15 June; see Higuera, Jal. 

Higuera, [La], Jalisco.— Almost due east of San Marcos, and about equidistant from 

the Rio Covianes and San Marcos. 
8. Conostegia xalapensis ["Rancho Guerro"], 15 June, POM 77167; "Open branched 

shrub 15 to 20 feet tall" 
306. "Arbutus" Brysonuna ["Rancho Guerro"], 15 June, POM 77218; dupl. scrips. 

?Munz, POM 77217 
309. ^Arbutus" Byrsonima crassifolia, 15 June, POM 77219 
423. Cladocolea oiiiuuniiii \ Kancho Guerro j US 
443. "E/uphorbia/ peganoidesr 15 June. POM 85784; script unknown, "Ranono 

Querro"; probably intended for •Rancho Guerro/' which is [La] Higuera 


83. Acalypha filipes, 1 July 

83. "Euonytnus" (Acalypha cory/oides), 1 July, POM 84508; "Jayamita, Jalisco" 

164. Cacsalpinia sclerocarpa, 1 July, (2nd sheet, POM 28652) 

168. Caesalpinia coriaria [label typed], 1 July, POM 26670; also two fragments on 
POM 26670. The sheet with 2nd label hand-written, not by Jones: Locality 
"Colima, Mex.," 2 July; "Called "Gall tree" \)od used to Ian hides. Locust-like tree 
- 10-30' high" 


La Palma, Jalisco 

s.n. Dyschoriste mcvaughii ["paratype"; scrips. Munz], 7 June 

s.n. "Waltheria americana," 7 June, POM 84125 

s.n. "Heterophils lauri folia" ["Shrub 6-20 ft, half climbing, along streams"], 9 June, 
POM 77542 

s.n. Hymenocallis jaliscen h u( s, 9 June, POM 119360 

3.1 Ma\ ina diffusa, 7 June, POM 27674 

s.n. "Crotalaria" 7 June, POM 27424 

s.n. "Arenaria," 9 June, POM 101142 

s.n. Dry opter is patens, 7 June, POM 121220 

s.n. Polypodium incanum, 8 June, POM 120084 

s.n. Polypodium (Blechnum), 8 June, POM 121074 

s.n. Aspleniumfragrans, 9 June, POM 120860 

s.n. Gymnogramme (Pityro-), 8 June, POM 121281 

s.n. Adiantum, 9 June, POM 120312 

s.n. Bommeria (Gymnogramme). 9 June, POM 121274 

2. Ardisia revoluta [scrips. Jones exc. name; det. Thorne], 7 June, POM 77453; dupli- 
cate with typed label, POM 89333 

7. Piper leucophyllum [scrips. Jones exc. name; det. Thorne], 7 June, POM 86793; 
duplicate with typed label, "Shrub 10 feet high,"POM 86773 

19. Heteropterys floribunda [typed: "Small shrub, 6 to 20 feet or more high, half climb- 
ing. Stems 1-3 in. diam."], 9 June, POM 84733 

33. Ficus jonesii [isotype (= /. glaucescens)], 7 June; scrips. Jones exc. name, POM 
86291; typed label: POM 86883; "A very large tree, with the general appearance 
and habit of the mahogany (caoba) or Gleditschia triacanthos many ash trees" 

43. Bursera [typed], 9 June, POM 86502; "Shrub, 3-10 feet high, like Corylus rostrata 
in habit" 

48. Jarilla heterophylla, 9 June 

56. Iresine [typed description], 8 June, POM 102563; "also at Chiquilistlan" 

59. Dorstenia Drakaena [typed], 7 June, POM 86475; "Root 1-2 in long, with light-red 
rootlets from its entire length but the strongest are from the end. rootstock erect. 
Grows in the shade" 

66. Rauwolfia heterophylla, 7 June. POM 75820 

85. Thalictrum, 9 June, POM 100098; [typed] "Root leaves (?round red) almost entire, 

87. Pinguicula oblongiloba, 9 June, POM 85804 
110. Sida rhombifolia, 9 June, POM 84029 

116. Oxalis, 9 June, POM 86748 

117. Ionoxalis macrocarpa ["type"], 9 June, US 

117. Oxalis [all typed], 9 June, POM 86751; "Pods linear, acute inch long, Seeds 

chestnut colored, a line long, oval, acute at each end, longitudinally grooved and 

deeply cross-pitted" 
131.(?731) A/</r/ aphonia h poleuea, 7 June 

153. Coriaria thymifolia "ruscifolia," 8 June, POM 28641, POM 28640 
183. Inga spuria [typed], 9 June, POM 28216; scrips, in unknown hand: "Large tree 

like Juglans nigra, but spreads very widely like the apple, 30-40 feet high, bark 

like the black oak but soft" 
211. Cologania procumbens, 9 June 


La Palma, Jalisco (cont.) 
237. Valeriana densiflora 

380. Salvia pahnae ]"type"e\ F.pling (nol located at US)], 9 June. POM 76691 
, / r. ' j i » | " In i 

416. Acalypha, 9 June, POM 87101 

417. same Acalypha (?) ["narrow leaves"], 9 June, POM 86792 
417. Acalypha multispicata 

433. Euphorbia hypcricifolia [2 copies], 9 June, POM 86288 

433. Chamaesxce nutans, US (not seen) 

434. Chamaesxce hirta [cf var. nocens ex V. W. SteinmannJ, 9 June, POM 8(^253 
457. Bessera elegans, 9 June 

460. Polianthes, 9 June 

'< •' " < ,u, )>> !,,-,, It ,.> \ < )\\ 

464. Encyclia aenicta, 9 June 

465. Spirauthes lanceolata, 9 June, POM 

466. Pitcairnia Ipalmeri, 1 June 
467b. Adiantum capillus-veneris 
All. Sisyrinchium, 9 June 

473. /'igridia or Nemastylis, 9 June 
477. Fimbristylis pentastachya, 9 June 
1 i s n\.9 lune 

\,!iuau, ,),'<i ■,/ Mi in i 
497b. Adiantum thalictroides, 7 June, POM 
509. Poly podium angustum, 8 June, POM 
533. Noiholaena galeottii, 7 June 
735. Smc7?>\y coccinea, 8 June, POM 80030 
739. "Desmanthus" "Zapotecar 8 June, POM 29494 
741. Cyperus brevifolius, 9 June 
741 . Hc.xudcsmia '.'crucigera, 9 June 
743. Pleurothallis ciliaris, 9 June 
1 ,'.'///•, / ,' ." '.':/,', - //;/ ; '» um 

746. Cwp/zea, 9 June. POM 69540 

751. Ranculus petiolaris, 9 June, POM 99304 

Man/anili.o, Colima 

s.n. Mimosa pigra, 25 June, POM 28628; typed: "Shrub. (> 20 teet high, intricately and 

open I V branched" 
s.n. Agave colimana Gentry [det. McV 1977], June, POM 109143 
5. Coccoloba sessiliifloru [-Small tree" typed], 25 June, POM 28998 
9. Capparis, 25 June, MSC 
13. Steguosperma halimifoliu/n, 25 June, MSC 
15. Laguncularia racemosa, 25 June 

32. "Malpighiaceae" (but lvs alternate) [typed, "Fig"], 25 June, POM 84025 
100. (typed, inked over to 200) - Acacia" "Prosopis" "Called niesquit." 25 June, POM 

105. I'odopicrus amlifoliu Rose A: Standi. |isotvpe |, 25 June, POM 86552 
141. Indigofera sufjhtiicosa [typed label], 25 June. POM 280 19: "Push 6 feet high, very 

open branches long, erect" 
141. " Indigofera aniF [scrips. Jones exc. name], 26 June, POM 26676 
167. Caesalpinia eriostachvs [name scrips. Jones, label otherwise typed], 25 June, 

POM 28333 


Manzanillo, Colima (cont.) 

179. Crataeva tapia [< t. Ill is | . 25 June, POM 84247 

189. Acacia hindsii, 25 June, scrips. Jones exc. name, POM 29014; typed label, POM 
28623; "These spines are the product of a most pugnacious and venomous little 
ant, each spine being an ant colony. Normally the spines are 12 lines long and a 
line wide and little inflated," 

193. Mimosa laxiflora var. zygoph., 25 June 

201. Mimosa pigra, 25 June 

201. Mimosa rosei [det. Barneby], 25 June, POM 28629 

231. Ludwigia leptocarpa ["Prostrate. Fls yellow"], 30 June, POM 

271. "Dysodia" (Weeds), 25 June; POM 67061 

I >?. Cl ainaesyce thy mi folia 

438. Combretum laxum ["mexicanum"], 25 June, POM 83660 

452. ? Agave geminiflora ["on rocks touched by sea spray"], June 

543. Caesalpinia crista, 25 June 

Milagros, Zacatecas (Milleagres, Milleagros) 
249. Opuntia, 4 May, POM 83298 
252. Opuntia, no date, POM 83214 

Mojada, Mojada Mts., see Sierra Mojada. 

Ojo Caliente, Zacatecas 

s.n. Argemone ochroleuca [det. Ownbey], 9 May, POM 97756; probable duplicate of 

POM 97754, Jones 86 
s.n. Oenothera kunthiana, 9 May, POM 38610 
s.n. Teucrium cubense [det. McClintock], 9 May, POM 69566 
s.n. Tragi a ramosa, 9 May, POM 86342 
s.n. Chenopodium glaucum, 9 May, POM 103294 
s.n. [Astragalus] > vp, . ■ 9 May, POM 45804 
s.n. Baccharis pterin ioides, 9 May, POM 41767 
86. Argemone o May, POM 97754,97755 

1 13. Oxalis albicans, 9 May, POM 86782 
151. Lotus puberulus, 9 May, POM 27893 
1 58. Dalea bicolor. 9 May, POM 26675, POM 28928 
264. Aphanostephus humilis [det. Blake], 9 May, POM 34082 
312. Asclepias br achy Stephana, 9 May, POM 75830 
382. Loeselia coerulea, 9 May, POM 74891 

* ,, I- i\ ■, ■- I lowers yellow" 
406. Chenopodium inamoenum [det. Wahl], 9 May, POM 103297 
413. Croton, 9 May, POM 86734 

415. Acalyphami ; ' ' ty, POM 86730; see also no. 415 under Tuzpanjal. 

428. Euphorbia stictospora, 9 May, POM 86134 
550. Atriplex muricata, 9 May, POM 102886 

552. Nama undulatum, 9 May, POM 73691 

553. Plantago, 9 May 

557. Aphanostephus humilis, 9 May 

558. "mixture of Bahia etc," 9 May 

559. Aphanostephus humilis, 9 May 

562. Gaura coccinea [det. Raven], 9 May, POM 46360 
565. Sida abutifolia [det. P. Fryxell], 9 May, POM 85186 


Ojo Caliente, Zacatecas (cont.) 

566. Drymaria. 9 May, POM 117068 

567. Lepidium oblongum, 9 May, POM 94074 

587. "Acacia constricta" { = ">. Mimosa), 30 Apr, POM 28438 

Pastorilla (Pastoria), Zacatecas 

s.n. [Astragalus] hypo/cucus. 3 May, POM 45799 

228. Ludwigia tepicana ["type"], 2 May 

228. Heimia salicifolia: label typed, POM 38095; smaller duplicate, scrips. Jones exc. 

316. Asclepias longicornu, 7 May, POM 75835 
385.Buddleia sessiliflora [del. Norman], 2 May, POM 76626 
425. Vatropha, 2 May, POM 85644 

568. Asclepias exilis [type ex Munzj, 2 May, POM 76066 


s.n. Castillea nervata Eastw., 16 June, POM 69367 

s.n. Bacopa vandellioides. 16 June, POM 45100 

s.n. Bouvardia, 16 June, POM 67585 

s.ti. Ludwigia octovalvis. 16 June, POM 46277 

s.n. Drymonia (A, B, D & indet.), 16 June. POM Ml)2l) 

s.n. Tillandsia. 16 June, POM 109082 

s.n. IThevetia, 16 June, POM 77392 

6. Dioscorca mitis. 16 June 

IcS. Calxpirumlu , pullais 

51. Dioscorea, 20 June; "vine like the grape and very tall, going to the top of tall 

61. Cissus verticillata, 16 June 

68. "Cordia" 20 June, POM, US 

68. "Rauwolfia hetcwphyllur 20 June, POM 86471 

163. Pithecellobiwn duke, 16 June 

\63. "Cassia" | \,a ,; .v."/// ■■■;'\'adorcusc ex Rudd 1973], 16 June, POM 29587 

171. Cologania. 16 June 

171. Mixed "Cassia" Croialai «, J i lost-nut 1 6 June, POM 29582 

214. Brongniartia inconstans, 20 June 

307. Ardisia compressa, 16 June, POM 76404 

435. Euphorbia hypcricifolia. 16 June, POM 86285 

461. l-'.pidi'iidnun ciliair. 16. lime, POM 

498. Adiantum thalictroides, 16 June, POM 

501 . Adiantum trapeziforme 

504. "Blechnum" 16 June 

511. Polypodium incanum, Id June 

514. Pity ro gramma calomelanos, 16 June 

527. Asplenium, 16 June 

icciin i occ'n tiah 1 6 June 
680. lieliotr opium. 16 June, POM 72288 

eaatro j let H. Kennedy], 16 June 


Ramos, Zacatecas 

s.n. "Teucrium," 5 May, POM 60044 

s.n. Baccharis pteronoides, 5 May, POM 37528 

s.n. Astragalus i ■ w brev, 5 May 

n."Lycium"( i ■ des, 6 May, POM 114062, POM 84571 

150. Astragalus raceiuosus var. [scrips. Jones], 5 May, POM 45764 

373a. Teucrium laciniatum [scrips. Jones exc. name], 5 May, POM 70294 

373a. Teucrium cubense [det. McClintock], 5 May, POM 69548 

451. "Yucca," 5 May, fragm., POM, 2 specimens 

Sacoalco, Jalisco (Zacoalco de Torres) 

27. Malpighia cordata Small, 16 July, POM 86503; "Isotype"; original label typed, 

number clearly 27, as recorded by F. K. Meyer (JE) 
37. Malpighia cordata Small, 16 July, POM 84576; evidently a duplicate of POM 

86503, original number clearly typed 37, but interpreted by F. K. Meyer (JE) as 27 
58. Iresine, 16 July, POM 102565 
199. Mimosa monancistra, 16 July, POM 28442 
213. Pachyrrhizus [scrips. Jones exc. name], 16 July, POM 27059; duplicate label typed, 

POM 28553; "Leaves entire to 5-toothed or 5-lobed on the same plant" 
217. Gronovia scandens [typed], 16 July, POM 68269; "Plant is an annual" 
319. Philibertia pavonii, 16 July, POM 76073; "woody vine 4 feet high" 
352. Thevetia [scrips. Jones], 17 July, POM 75412 
519. Sarcostemma pannosum, 16 July; all scripsit Jones; not 319 as reported 

575. Enslenia, 16 July 

576. Cleome chapalensis ["1st coll."], 16 July, POM 93793 

577. Ruellia, 16 July 

Salcillo, Jalisco (Salsillo) 

s.n. Oxalis drummondii, 1 June, POM 86750 

s.n. Allionia, 1 June, POM 117271 

s.n. Pellaea, 2 June, POM 120738 

s. n. ?family, 1 June, POM 100423 

s.n. Tauschia nudicaulis [det. L. Constancel981], 1 June 

s.n. Calliandra, 1 June, POM 28242 

s.n. Euphorbia eriantha ?, 1 June , POM 85474 

20. Galphimia glauca [typed: "Shrub 8 feet high, like the lilac in habit"], 1 June, POM 

25. Aralia ["like elder, a bush"], 1 June, POM 77826 
41. Bursera [typed: "Very much branched, apple-tree-like shrub 10 feet high. Grows 

on rocks"], 1 June, POM 86499 
41. Bursera [scrips. Jones exc. name], 1 June, POM 117126; same species as POM 

106. Vitis tiliifolia ["Salc[illo], along the creek"], 1 June 
182. Calliandra {in II ) t i mal June, POM 28241; POM 29009; typed: "Broom-like 

shrub stems not branched, 4-8 feet high. Flowers purple, a very handsome plant" 
257. Opuntia icterica [det. Scheinvar], 1 June, POM 83415 
399. Cuphea llavea, 1 June, POM 69219; "Also San Marcos, Santa Cruz" 


Salcillo, Jalisco (Salsillo) (conl.) 

419. Colubrina eh /, > n ■ >n rocks on hillsides" 

448. Agave (fls.), 1 June 

451. "Yucca," I June, POM 

456. Weldema Candida, 1 June; "open places near streams" 

458. Hymenocallis jaliscensis, 1 June; "type," POM 119358; s.n. "9 June," POM 

1 19369 
497 b. Adiamum thalictroides, 1 June, POM 
517. Pityrogramme ("Gymnogramme"), 1 June 
756. indet. fragm, 1 June, POM 86491 

Salinas, Zacatecas 

247. Opuntia, 4 May, POM 83296 

286. Compositae ( no name ), 4 May POM 66854 

573. Opuntia ["Camp Silvio"], 4 May POM 83285 

S\n M \R(os. J \i isco ( ( \)lima."sensu Jones) 

s.n. Richardia, 21 June, POM 69258 

s.n. Castilleja nervata Eastw., 21 June, POM 69309 

s.n. "Cuphea Uavea," 21 June, POM 69220 

s.n. Pitcairnia,2\ June, POM 109081 

s.n. Polypodium thysanolepis, 21 June, POM 120082 

s.n. Polypodium (Blechnum),2\ June, POM 121073 

s.n. Pteris, 21 June, POM 120248 

215. Crotalaria, 21 June, POM 27425, POM 27426 

48(i. Sclagiuclfa "dcin atissima" '21 June 

497a. Adiantum thalictroides, 21 June 

4 l )9. Adiamum coucinnum,2] June 

5{)}.Aspidiuni irijoli(ituni,2\ June 

5 1 ?.. I'teris longifolia, 21 June, POM 120249 

512. Polypodium, 21 June, POM 12107 

513a. Pityrogramma turtarca var. fallax Domin flectotype ex Morton 1969], 21 June, 
POM 121273 

513. Pityrogramma tartarea, 21 June 
515. Pityrogramma dealbata, 21 June 
- I ■» 

529. Thelypteris puberula,2\ June 
666. Cyperus odoratus, 21 June 

San Miglll, Zacati cas 

s.n. "Petunia" ["Lake near San Miguel"], 6 May, POM 69341 

s.n. Oenothera rosea, 6 May, POM 38420 

s.n.y4s/ragfl/</.v trifiorus [Lake, near San Miguel], h May, POM 25896 

s.n. Oenothera rosea ["Lake Ness ('.'near) San Miguel"]. 6 May POM 38421 

s.n. Aster [Lake near San Miguel]. 6 May POM 39500 

s.n. Apium depressant [ "ly|v/" scrips. Jones], 6 May, POM 82793 

147. A\stragalus\ nuiialliunus. 6 May, ["not sent"] POM 45900 

157. Marsilia mimtta ( ir.s7/7</). 6 May, POM 67721 ; "near San Miguel. Margin of brack- 
ish lake, in small mats in the ground" 

234. Oenothera rosea [typed; no date], POM 38419; "Borders of a lake near San 
Miguel. This is a perennial, blooming the first year" 


373. Teucrium cubense, 6 May, POM 69549; "Lake near San Miguel" 

588. "Coldenia" Nama undulatum, 16 May [sic], POM 69355; "Lake near San 

592. [Astragalus] hypoleucus, 6 May, POM 45797; "Lake near San Miguel" 

Santa Cruz, Jalisco 

s.n. "Colubrina" or "Ziziphus," 6 June, POM 86568 

s.n. IGuazuma, 3 June, POM 86469 

s.n. "probably Mecardonia" 6 June, POM 43626 

s.n. "Cassia" Pithecellobium dulce" 4 June, POM 29584 

s.n. Quercus polymorpha [det. C. H. Muller], 3 June, POM 106184 

s.n. Cuphea llavea, 3 June, POM 69221 

s.n. Notholaena Candida, 4 June, POM 120436 

s.n. Encyclia lancifolia, 4 June, POM 114044 

s.n. llresine, 4 June, POM 102566 

s.n. Brongniartia {"Cassia"), 4 June, POM 29590 

s.n. Enterolobium {"Acacia"), 6 June, POM 28632; fruit 

s.n. Enterolobium r L< m ■'■' >, 6 June, POM 28632; leafy branch 

s.n. "Cassia" (not that), 6 June, POM 29580 

s.n. Asclepias curassavica [det. R. E. Woodson], 3 June, POM 75838 

728. u Evolvulus" {ITurnera), 14 June 

s.n. Asclepias senecionifolia, 14 June 

s.n. Asclepias senecionifolia [scrips. Munz], 14 June, POM 76072 

s.n. Asclepias senecionifolia, 14 June 

Li - :a zelayensis 

28. Psidium [typed; "Called Guayava. Small tree"], 3 June, POM 117310 

45. Bursera [typed], 4 June, POM 86497; "Called copal. Tree 40 feet high with bark of 

paper birch red open branches a very graceful tree, with much varnish like gum" 
-.. (. ! mi ■ ol 49?"], 4 June, POM 100402 

67. Agonandra racemosa {"Primus"), 1 June, POM 89339 
82. Ziziphus amole, 6 June 
115. Oxalis drummondii [typed; "Same as 114?"; 114 is from the Volcano of Colima], 

7 June, POM 86766 
132. Casearia {"Primus"), 3 June, POM 89335; "Apple like tree, very open, called 

"Cerhuela" or plum. Fruit delicious" 
144. Brongniartia vicioides ?, 4 June, POM 27280; "Low and suffrutescent" 
162. Cassia emarginata {Senna), 4 June 
165. Tamarindus indica [typed], 7 June, POM 29681; "Tamarind, 50 feet high, very 

widely spreading, bark like the locust" 
184. Pithecellobium acatlense [typed], 4 June, POM 28217; duplicate no., scrips. Jones 

exc. name, POM 29010; "Shrub 10 ft. high" 
190. Pithecelh'- • ■• ■ ■-./.■■ •,.'•,;,«. Ju l 
192. Pithecellobium tomentosum, 4 June, US 
] ■ I : in macilenta, 4 June 
202. Enterolobium cyclocarpum, 6 June 
206. Mimosa albida [106 typed, inked 206], 4 June, POM 83717; mixture of Legumi- 

nosae, Malpighiaceae, Rubiaceae 
212. Cologania, 7 June 
226. {'IStruthanthus). 6 June, POM 67579 
377. Salvia sessei [det. Epling], 3 June, POM 70187 
377. Buddleja Iftoccosa, 3 June 


Santa Cruz, Jalisco (cont.) 
37'). Wahheria indica, 7 June 
412. Croton ciliatogland., 3 June, POM 87132 

422a. Chamaesyce hirta, 6 June, POM 86240; "Sta Cruz SW of Chiquilistlan" 
43 v ( 'hamacsycc lurid. I S 

'*' >> i ' lu< J -.' h>\!SS!,l!U, 7 llllie 

475. Ftmbristylis spadicea, ?4 June 

724. (?Verbenaceae), 6 June 

726. "Iresine," 4 June 

728. " Evolvulus" ('ITurnera), 14 June 

Santa Cruz No 2, Jalisco 

s.n. Castilleja, 14 June, POM 69365 

s.n. Cuphea Haven, 14 June, POM 69218 

2. "Cassia" (=Aeschynomene), 14 June, POM 29488 

47. Ludwigia peploides [typed]. 14 June, POM 38135; "Spreads by rooting, in wet 

346. cf. Evolvulus, 10 June, POM 71 166 

San i a Rosai i.\. / \< vi i i \s 

614. Nama hispii < in ( ./■ nhulan m), 15 Ma\, POM 73490 

Sayula, Jalisco 

s.n 7 /'//(/i (7/ 'i > 1 i\ 

291. Baccharis heterophylla [scrips. Jones exc. name], 27 May, POM 40306 

291. Baccharii 11 May, POM 37323 

354. Passiflora foetida, 26 May, POM 84176 

570. riioradi-ii,!),'!, , ,■■ -. <<<.'/ 't, V r. 

Sierra Mojaoa Mountains. Coaiiuila (often Sierrn Mojada oi 'Mojada" only) 

s.n. Ptelea [scrip. Munz], 19 Apr, POM 86898, POM 86959 

s.n. Polygala longa Blake [del. Wendt], 20 Apr. POM 86385 (?dupl of POM 86381, 

Jones 97) 
s.n. Giliastrum purpnsii |scnps. Jones exc. name], 20 Apr. POM 74988; see also no. 

L;n. | 
s.n. Senna lindlwimeiiuiiti. V) Apr, POM 28407 
s.n. A triplex greggii, ? 1 9 Apr, POM 1 03087 
s.n. Croton, 20 Apr, POM 87330 
s.n. "Calliandrar 20 Apr, POM 28220 
s.n. Pellea wrightiana, 19 Apr, POM 120803 
s.n. Nofliolaena asclicnhornhma, 19 Apr, POM 120714 
s.n. Notholaena pringleil , 19 Apr, POM 120456 
42. Aristolochia 
52. Aristolochia wrightii [det. PfeiferJ, 19 Apr, POM 15941; "Flowers almost black. 

Woody at base. Along dry stream beds" 
52. Aristolochia i , ,■ n| •, feres, no descriptive note], 19 Apr, POM 117675 

"> ,"''"• i. ■< \ I I v\. nui|. 20 Apr, POM 86381 

98. Polygala rohinsonii [del. Wendt], 19 Apr, POM 86380 

99. Polygala scoparioides [del. Wendt], 19 Apr. POM 86382; apparent duplicate POM 



100. Polygala scoparioides [det. Wendt], 19 Apr, POM 86510; better duplicate is POM 

101. Polygala alba Nutt. [det. Wendt], 19 Apr, [scrips. Jones exc. name] POM 86508; 
typed label, POM 86386 

102. Polygala watsonii Chodat [det. Wendt], 20 Apr, POM 86513, POM 86384 
107. Linum rigidum, 19 Apr, POM 87198 

125. Ceanothus greggii, 19 Apr, POM 85238 

134. Cercocarpus mojadensis [isotype], 19 Apr, [long typed description] POM 89493; 
POM 90138 

159. "Daleaformosa" ["not sent"], 19 Apr, POM 28918 

160. Dalea, 19 Apr, POM 29114 

161. Dalea wrightii, 19 Apr, POM 29109 

169. "Cassia" [Soj ora re, i flora det. Rudd], 19 Apr, POM 29586; "Bush about 

10 feet high" 
194. Acacia roemeriana, 19 Apr, POM 28439; POM 26685 
L95.A. a< ia filii ina, 20 Apr, POM 26686 

197. Mimosa (A a, a . .. 19 Apr, POM 28441, POM 26682 

198. Mimosa sp. [ex Barneby 1985], 19 Apr, POM 28442, POM 26681 , POM 28441 p.p. 
233. Calylophus hartwegii, 20 Apr, POM 38418 

284. Bahia, 20 Apr, POM 66654 

293. Chrysactinia mexicana, 19 Apr, POM 30120 

298. Chaptalia [scrips. Jones], 19 Apr, POM 35632 

299. Acourtia nana [det. Villasenor 1990], 19 Apr, POM 38961 
310. Comarop! •■'.:■ 19 April, POM 76733 

314. Asclepias capricornu, 19 Apr, POM 76022 
323. Heliotropium torreyi, 19 Apr, POM 262344 
328. "Lithospermum? 19 Apr, POM 262350 

330. Fraxinus nummularis [isotype], 19 Apr, POM 76617 

331. Ruellia [det. T. F. Daniel], 1984, 19 Apr; POM 70325 

348. "Gilia rigidula" [ex ?Munz] [Giliastrum purplish], 19 Apr, POM 74721; "Also at 
Pastorilla," and in annot. pasted & typed, "Blue Gilia. Flowers open at 9 o'c a.m. 
and close at about 4 o'c p.m. Sierra Mojada Mexico April 18 1892" 

353. Loeselia greggii, 19 Apr, POM 74933 

356. Hibiscus coulteri, 19 Apr, POM 85054 

366. Buddleia marrubiifolia [det. Norman], 19 Apr, POM 69547 

368. same Buddleia, 19 Apr, POM 70326 

383. Salvia roemeriana, 19 Apr, POM 70186 

405. [Amaranth], 20 Apr 

411. Tragia ramosa [det. Urtecho], 20 Apr, POM 86343 

414. Acalypha hederacea, 20 Apr, POM 87098 

420. Calylophus hartwegii, 20 Apr, POM 39929 

424. Jatropha "dioica" [scrips. Jones], 19 Apr, POM 85571 

424. same Jatropha, 19 Apr., POM 86409 

430. Euphorbia villifera, 19 Apr, POM 87468 

431. Euphorl a r, n 19 Apr, POM 86132 

443. Quercus intrit .. Orel. [det. C H. Muller], 20 Apr, [scrips. Jones exc. name] POM 

106183; typed label, POM 106274 
450. cf. Hechtia , 19 Apr; "on rocks in dry places" 
476. Carex (too young), 20 Apr 
482. Melica laxiflora, 19 Apr 


Si! RR.\ Mo.IAl.XA MolM AI\S. CoAHHII.A (cOIlt.) 

483. Selaginella leptophylla, 19 Apr 
491 . Jmi i perns monlicola, 19 Apr 

518. Pellaea micro/ >hy da, 1 9 Apr ( 1 8 Apr on one sheet), POM 

519. Notholaena greggii, 19 Apr 

520. Cheilanthes {Notho.) pulmeri, 19 Apr, POM 

521. Cheilanthes microphxlla, 19 Apr, POM 

531 . Notholaena aschenbomiana, 19 Apr, POM 

532. Cheilanthes villosa, 19 Apr 
542. Notholaena sinuata, 19 Apr 
601. Notholaena standlexi. 19 Apr 
604. Bouteloua, 19 Apr 

609. Carlowrightia, 19 Apr 

622. Lesquerellq purpurea, 19 Apr, POM 95989 

623. Greggia, 21 Apr, POM 95929 

624. Sisymbrium vasevH, 20 Apr, POM 94639 

632. Nama undulalum, 30 Apr. POM 73759 

633. "Oxybaphus I'mearifoliusr 20 Apr, POM 102492 
635. Sa/vw gregg// |det. Hplmg |, 20 Apr, POM 70203 

637. Aristida purpurea, 20 Apr 

638. Cheilanthes eatonii, 20 Apr 

Tapalpa, Jalisco 

s.n. Crataegus, 27 May, POM 91729 
s.n. P/m/.v, 27 May, POM 120050 
s.n. P/Vwa-, 10 June, POM 120648 
s.n. Pellaea, 10 June, POM 120798 

■ an • .<////< tonata 
1 03. /.<//;m//.v /r/fc.n/.v [del. C. P. Smith], 27 May, POM 24586 
?121. ?Verbenaccae [opp. lvs.| "Tournefortia" [label illegible], POM 71325 
121. " Viburnum r 10 June, POM 86247 
133. Ximenia parviflora, 31 May, POM 89274; all typed: "8000 ft among pines." "A 

low barberry like shrub with all the lower branches prostrate, and very slender" 
191. Mimosa adenantheroides (del. Barnebv], 10 June, [ivped] POM 28626; [scrips 

Jones] POM 29017 
191. duplicate istra, 10 June 

203. Lupinus ehrenbergii, 27 May 

308. Arbutus tesselata, 1 1 June, POM 77220; [scrips. Jones] POM 77248 
3 1 8. Asclepias constricta, 10 June 
320. Asclepias constricta, 10 June, POM 76060; [scrips. MunzJ POM 7606b [scrips 

Jones] POM 75824 
381. Prunella vulgaris [-'Not sent."], 10 June. POM 70092 
422. Euphorbia radians. 27 Mav. POM 85513; US 

469. Hypoxis jibrata, 10 June 

470. Commelina scabra, 10 June, POM 

761. Poly gala, 10 June, POM 86390 

762. "Polygala (Krameria ?), 10 June, POM 86989 
767. Anemia, 10 June 



s.n. Cisampelos, 8 July, POM 100405 

s.n. "Cassia" ( • '. 11 July, POM 29489 

s.n. Polypodium thysanolepis, 8 July, POM 120083 

220. Guettarda elliptica, 8 July, MSC 

281. Calea palmeri [scrips. Jones, exc. name], 1 July, POM 40305 

418. Acalypha [scrips. Jones, exc. name], 8 July, POM 86826 

41 8. ?same Acalypha [typed label; "Shrub"], 8 July, POM 86899 

500. Adiantum patens, 8 July, NY, POM 

506. Polypodium thyssanolepis, 8 July, POM 

509a. Polypodium angustum, 8 July, POM 

510. Polypodium lineare, 8 July 

530. Pellaea aspera, 8 July 

534. Cheilanthes kaulfussii, 8 July 

537. Anemia hirsuta, 8 July, US 

539. Aspleniium fragrans, 8 July 

540. Bommeria pedata, 8 July, POM 
640. Notholaena "incana" 8 July 

Tuxpan, Jalisco ("Tuzpan") 

s.n. Bursera, 15 June, POM 86501 

1. Clethra [scrip. Jones], 15 June, POM 77541 

1. Clethra, ?same [typed], 15 June, POM 85631 

49. Cissampelos pareira [scrips. Jones exc. name], 15 June, POM 100401 

172. Eriosema grandijlorunu 15 June, POM 29581 

176. Diphysa suberosa [scrip. Jones], 15 June, POM 28995; typed: "Shrub 2-10 feet 

high like the ordinary Acacias" 
i : ■ ■ modium plu atum, . 5 June. POM 29182 
415. Acalypha [illeg. typed label], 15 June, POM 86789 
415. same Acalypha [scrip. Jones], 15 June, POM 86856 
415a. Acalypha grisea, 15 June 

593. Tillandsia recurvata [det. L. B. Smith], 15 June 

594. Tillandsia tenuifolia L. [?det. L. B. Smith], 15 June 

595. Agave c p iculifi ',15 June 

■ . I 5 June, POM 29246 

Volcano of Coltma (Volcan) 

s.n. Salix [unknown to Ball, and Argus], 13 July, POM 106706 

s ■,„.....-..,. .v ...■ m • ale, 13 July, POM 69820 

s.n.Alchemilla, 13 July, POM 9011- 

s.n. [Valeriana < - mti ,c£i 1 1, 1 3 July, POM 84592 

s.n. Ranunculus petiolaris [det. Benson], 14 July, POM 100539 

s.n. [Lupinus] montanus [scrips. Jones], 13 July, [fruit]POM 24591 

s.n. [Lupinus] montanus [scrips. Jones], 13 July, [flowers]POM 24589 

s.n. Calliandra, 14 July, POM 28243 

s.n. Cerastium, 13 July, POM 101591 

s.n. Polypodia adrens< I 1 July, POM 120086 

4. Valeriana clematitis [det. F. Meyer] ["middle elevations"], 13 July, POM 84592 


Volcano of Colima (Volcan) (cont.) 

10. Struthanthus condensatus, 14 July, [typed: "middle elevations"] POM 83676; 

[scrips. Jones] POM 1 17676 
«•<• ' "m <; .,. '"// ;,/, | alpinc"| 
88. Drabajorullensis, 13 July, POM 94315 

92. Arenana oresbia ["alpine"], 13 July, POM 101531, POM 1 17060 

93. Arenaria brvoides ["alpine"!, 13 July, POM 101541, POM 117063 
04. ••Drymuria" (Arenana), 13 July, POM 1 17079 

95. Arenaria 'tsaxosa ["alpine"], 13 July 

95. Arenaria, 13 July, POM 117061 

96. "Drymaria" (Armaria), 13 July, POM 1 17080 
96. Stellaria ovata, 13 July 

1 14. Oxalis [scrips. Jones], 13 July, POM 85806 

1 14. "Oxalis drummondiiir 13 July, POM 86767 

122. Rhus schmedelioides, 13 July 

122. Rhus, 13 July, POM 86045 

122. Serjania ? [scrips. Jones], 13 July, POM 86057 

126. Ceanothius coeruleus, 13 July, POM 85241 

137 '. Alchemilla vulcanica, 14 July 

I 10. Ribes eiluitum [all typed], 3 July, POM 92269 

156. Trifolium amabile, 14 July, POM 27941 

156a. Trifolium amabile, 14 July 

204. Lupinus reflexus [type, s.n., Jones scrips.]. 13 JulvPOM 24587. POM 24975, POM 

216. Desmodium sp.\ too small to determine], 14 July. (2 species) POM 20 IN I 

223. Symphoricarpos microphyllus, 13 July, [scrips. Jones] POM 67494; [typed] POM 

224. Fuchsia colimae ["type"], 13 July, POM 83714 

225. Fuchsia microphylla, 13 July, POM 83707 

232. Raimannia colimae Rose ["isotype"], 14 July, POM 38417 

236. Eryngium alternaium |det. Malhias & Constance 1977], 13 July. POM 82995" 

" 10,000 feet alt. 4-8 feet high" 
3\K. Asclcpius pringlci I > luly. P< >M 00 ,1 
318. Asclepias constricta, 13 July 

324. Onosmodium, 14 July, POM 71326 

325. l.ithosperuutm ? (scrips. Jones]. 13 July, POM 71467 

325. same Litlwspcnnum ) typed label]. 13 July, POM 262353 

326. Macromena ("Onosmodium"). 13 July, POM 72251 
347. Cuscuta on Lupinus, 13 July, POM 71 171 

388. Castilleja glandulosa, 13 July 

> ' // kui i hi i \S lij|\ 
422b. ( liamaesYce hula, 13 July, POM 86242 
426. Euphorbia canwestris [scrips. Jones], 13 July, POM 85605 

426. Euphorbia campeslns [typed label). 1 3 July, POM 85645 

427. Euphorbia campeslns, 13 July, POM 85646 
439. Abuts joruliensis, 13 July 

447. Yucca schotti , 14 July 

448. "Agave," 13 July, POM; US (1 Jun) 


Volcano of Colima (Volcan) (cont.) 

449. Agave colimana, 13 July, POM; US (A. pedunculifera) 

450. Dasyllrion, 14 July 

451. Yucca , 14 July, POM 109485 
456. "Llllaceae" 13 July 

461. Epidendrum ciliare, 13 July, POM; US 

462. Encyclia pterocarpum, 13 July, POM; US 
466. Pitcairnia, 13 July 

468b. Smilax, 14 July 

478. Muhlenbergia quadridentata, 14 July 
478a. Calamagrostis, 13 July 

479. Piptochaetium virescens, 14 July 
487. Arceuthobium vaginatum 

490. A to, 13 July 
505. Aspidium trifoliatum, 13 July 
507. Polypodia., (entire le if), 13 July 
522. Cheilanthes angustifolia, 13 July 
524. Asplenium monanthum, 13 July 
526. Asplenium castaneum, 13 July 

535. Plecosorus specioslssimus 13 July 

536. Cheilanthes, 13 July 

595. Agave pedunculifera, 13 July, POM 

683. Pterldlum aquilinum, 13 July 

685. Cystopterlsfragilis, 14 July 

689. Triumfetta brevipes, 14 July 

, / ,,, .', ,./>/«/ d. //■<//<. ,„„/„, 13 July, POM 86464 

699. Oenothera kunthlana [det. P. Raven], 13 July, POM 39328 

700. Geranium, 13 July, POM 88925 

Zacatecas, Zacatecas 

s.n ;• agalus diphacus war. peonis ["type" ex Jones], 16 May, POM 45369 

s.n. Oxalis albicans, 23 June, POM 86787 

- , , ..4 May, POM 45893 

s.n. "Arenaria," 23 June, POM 101141 
s.n. "Poly gala' I m ■■:■. 23 June, POM 86389 
s.n. Dalea argyrea, 23 Apr, POM 28926 
89. Reseda luteola ! : lime [si< ]. POM 85028 
91. Drymarta, 23 June [sic], POM 117066 

123. Adolphla infesta, 23 June, MSC; POM 85242; same data and typed: "Low and 
densely branched shrub"; possibly POM 85401 is the same, but label is illegible. 
188. Callland, \ ^ ill | 23 Apr, POM 28221 
251. Opuntla, no date, POM 83215 
313. Asclepias linaria [scrips. Jones], 23 June, POM 75821 
421. Euphorbia radians, 23 Apr, POM 85476 
480. Muhlenbergia tenulfolla, 23 Apr, POM 
579. Erodium cicutarium, 23 Apr, POM 88766 
585. Opuntla [with long typed description], 16 May, POM 83284 
623. Lemna, 23 June 

/. Michigan Herb. 24: 173 1X7. 2005. 


Victor W. Steinmann 


Centro Regional del Bajio, A.P. 386 

61600 Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico 

Recent estimates of the number of species of Euphorbiaceae in Mexico vary 
from 782 (Steinmann 2002) to 826 (Martinez et al. 2002), and the state of Michoacan 
possesses a rich diversity of these. Rodriguez and Espinosa (1996) reported the 
presence of 127 species and 19 genera for the state, whereas Martinez et al. (2002) 
reported 164 species and 20 genera. I estimate that the actual number of taxa is closer 
to the latter value and even slightly higher with about 185 species and 21 genera pres- 
ent. Here six new species are described from Michoacan. 

Croton atrostellatus V. W. Steinmann, sp. nov. — Type: Mexico. Michoacan: Mpio. 
Angamacutiro, along the road from Panindicuaro to Villachuato, 18 km NE 
of the Guadalajara-Mexico Autopista and 4.5 km NE of Pueblo Nuevo, 
20°06'35"N, 101°4E05"W, ca. 1800 m, 19 Jun 2001, V. W. Steinmann 1681 
(holotype: IEB!;isotypes: ARIZ! DAV! MICH! WIS!). Fig. 1. 

Frutex 2-5 m altus, monoecius, trichomatibus atris clispcrsis vest it us; folia alterna, 
stipulae subulatae, 2.6-6.5 mm longae, petioli 1-3 cm longi, stellato-tomentosi, lami- 
nae plerumque ovatae, 2.5-9 cm longae, 1.8-6 cm latae, bicolores, apice acutae vel 
acuminatae, basi rotundatae vel leviter cordatae, supra stellato-puberulae, subtus stel- 
lato-tomentosae, margine serrulato-denticulato; infiorescentiae terminales, floribus 
pistillatis (4-) 6-9, staminatis usque ad ca. 60, bracteae subulatae vel lineares, 1.2-3.1 
mm longae, stellato-tomentulosae; florum staminatorum calyx lobis 5, 2.2-2.8 mm 
longis, 1.3-1.9 mm latis, petala albida, anguste elliptica, 3.1-3.6 mm longa, stamina 
15 vel 16, filamenta filiformia 3.0-3.6 mm longa, villosa, antherae ellipticae, 1.0-1.2 
mm longae; florum pistillatorum calyx lobis 5 (6), aequalibus, ovatis vel oblongis, 
3.9-5.2 mm longis, 2.8-3.6 mm latis, ovarium trilobatum, stellato-tomentosum, styli 
3, bis bipartati, 3.2-3.9 mm longi, filiformes; capsula depresso-subglobosa, ca. 6.5 mm 
longa et 8 mm lata; semina oblonga, 5.2-5.7 mm longa, 3.8^1.2 mm lata, complanata, 
nitida, caruncula 0.8-1.0 mm longa, 1.6-2.1 mm lata. 

Shrubs, sometimes aborescent, 2-5 m tall, highly branched, drought-deciduous, 
monoecious; stems stellate-tomentose when young, often with a dingy-yellow cast, 
with scattered black hairs throughout the whole plant, bark reddish brown. Leaves 
alternate, well-spaced on the stem; stipules 2.6-6.5 mm long, subulate, pilose to 
tomentulose; petioles 1-3 cm long, stellate-tomentose, lacking glands; blades 2.5-9 cm 
long, 1.8-6 cm wide, membranaceous, unlobed, pinnately veined, usually ovate, rarely 
elliptic or oblong, apex acute to acuminate, base rounded to slightly cordate, distinctly 
bicolored, adaxially stellate-puberulent, green, abaxially stellate-tomentose, white to 
dingy yellow, margin serrulate-denticulate, sometimes irregularly so and appearing 
erose. Inflorescence a terminal racemelike thyrse to 11 cm long with (4-) 6-9 pistil- 
late flowers towards the base and up to ca. 60 staminate flowers along the proximal 
portion, pistillate flowers sometimes abortive and the inflorescence then appearing 
unisexual, bracts 1.2-3.1 mm long, subulate to linear, stellate-tomentulose, bracteoles 

ivi usm or Miciiii, w mirharii / 

. I . Pishllah- flow 

0.4-1.1 mm long, filiform, pilose. Stami ... i slender, stellate-i 

pedicels 2.2-3. 1 mm long; calyx 5-partite. lohes 2.2 2.8 mm long, 1 .3-1.9 mm wide, tri- 
angular-ovate to broadly ellip tii [ua re< to nearly the base, apex bluntly pointed, 
stellate-tomentose on the outside, glabrous within: petals 5. 3. 1-3.6 mm long, 0.7-0.9 
mm wide, narrowly elliptic, whitish, free to the base, apex rounded, glabrous on the 
outside, villosc within and along the margin; stamens IS or 16. filaments 3.0-3.6 mm 
long, filiform and flexuous, villous especially towards the base, anthers 1.0-1.2 mm 
■ ,( I nun '■ n owl IIipiK I i n! ii il ■ i on stout pedicels 1 mm long 

or less; calyx valvate-reduplieai (U . wilh adjacent pairs ol \ a Kate sepals forming a 


projection at the base), sepals 5 (6) united ca. 1/4 to 1/3 their length, the lobes ovate 
to oblong, somewhat accrescent in fruit and enlarging to 3.9-5.2 mm long, 2.8-3.6 
mm wide, apex rounded, stellate-tomentose on the outside and along the inner edges, 
inner surface otherwise glabrous; petals sometimes present, to 4.3 mm long, strap- 
like; ovary 3-lobed, stellate-tomentose, styles 3, filiform, 3.2-3.9 mm long, twice bifid, 
rusty-brown, with numerous stellate trichomes. Capsule ca. 6.5 mm long, ca. 8 mm in 
diameter (estimates only; fruits had already begun to dehisce), depressed-globose; 
columella 5-5.5 mm long. Seeds 5.2-5.7 mm long, 3.8^.2 mm wide, oblong in dorsal 
view, dorsal-ventrally flattened, rounded at the base, rounded and with a minute 
nipplelike projection at the apex, microscopically rugulose, shiny; caruncle 0.8-1.0 
mm long, 1.6-2.1 mm wide, tan and thin. 

The epithet atr, ■ s to the black stellate trichomes that are scattered 

throughout the plant. I am unaware of this feature in any other Mexican species of 
Croton, and its occurrence serves to separate this taxon from all others in western 
Mexico. Some areas of the plant actually appear to the naked eye to be infested by 
a rust, but it is in fact a proliferation of these black trichomes that causes this illu- 
sion. According to the infrageneric circumscription of Webster (1993), the presence 
of valvate-reduplicate pistillate sepals, eglandular stipules and sepals, and a stellate 
pubescence warrants the placement of Croton atrostellatus in section Lasiogyne 
(Klotzsch) Baill. No other members of this section are known from western tropical 
Mexico (Webster 2001), and the only representative given for Mexico by Webster in 
his 1993 conspectus is C. tabascensis Lundell. Apart from lacking the characteristic 
black trichomes, C. tabascensis differs in having hispid young stems, leaves that are 
not bicolored and only moderately stellate-pubescent beneath, and sepals that are 
uniformly pubescent on the inner surface. Also, although supposedly not charac- 
teristic of the section Lasiogyne, in C. tabascensis the sepals of the pistillate flowers 
possess small, sessile glands. ( < i latus is known from only two collections 

in the subtropical scrub of the Bajio region in northwestern Michoacan at elevations 
from 1800 to 1900 m. At the type locality it grows sympatrically with C. adspersus 
Benth. and C. sphaerocarpus H. B. K. It was collected with flowers in June and with 
fruits in October. 

Euphorbia calderoniae V. W. Steinmann, sp. nov. — Type: Mexico. Michoacan: Mpio. 
Cuanajo, Cerro del Burro, pastizal, ladera de cerro, potrero, 2500 m, 3 Dec 
1985,/. M. Escobedo 756 (holotype: IEB!;isotype: MICH!). 

Herba annua, prostrata; caules usque ad 20 cm longi, supra pilosi vel puberuli, 
infra glabri, teretes; folia opposita, petioli 0.3-0.5 mm longi, laminae obovatae vel 
oblongae, 0.3-0.6 cm longae, 0.2-0.4 cm latae, basi asymmetricae, rotundatae vel 
hemicordatae, apice obtusae, margo integer vel serrulatus; cyathia solitaria, pedun- 
culi 0.3-1.2 mm longi, glabri; involucra infundibularia vel fere cylindrica, 0.7-0.9 mm 
longa, 0.6-0.7 mm lata, interne pubescentia, glandulae 4, circulares vel ovales, ca. 
0.1 mm longae et latae, appendices ut videtur absentes vel angustae, 0.1 mm longae, 
0.2 mm latae, Mores staminati 5-8; ovarium trilobatum, subglobosum vel ovoideum, 
glabrum, styli 3, liberi, 0.3-0.4 mm longi, bipartiti; capsula trilobata, subglobosa vel 
ovoidea, 1 .3-1 .4 mm longa, 1 .5-1 .6 mm lata; semina triangula, ovoidea, 0.8-0.9 mm 
longa, 0.6-0.7 mm lata. 


Prostrate annual from a slender, brown, vertical laprool; stems lew to many aris- 
ing from near the base, to 20 em long, generally mat forming and extending radially, 
diffuse to compact, moderate!) to highly branched, mternodes 0.5-2 cm long, terete, 
pilose to strigulost o puberi enl pubescent only on the exposed surfaces, glabrous 

on the portions fad j the i lund hail crisped t< i \ ed or rarely almost straight, 

0.1-0.4 mm long, while to purple-tinged. Leaves opposite: stipules of all parts of the 
stems similar, 0.2-0.5 mm long, divide n i i divisions or represented by a 

small, triangular laciniately margined scale: petioles 0.3-0.5 mm long, glabrous or 
sparsely pilose with spreading white hairs to 0.7 mm long; blades 0.3-0.6 cm long, 
0.2-0.4 cm wide, obovate to oblong, with a prominent mitlvein but the lateral veins 
inconspicuous, glabrous to sparsely pilose, base asymmetrical, rounded to slightly 
hemicordate, apex rounded al maturity although frequently acute when young, 
margin serrulate at least towards the tip but usually entire along the distal 1/2-1/3. 
Cyathia solitary in the distal nodes, peduncles 0.3-1.2 mm long, glabrous. Involucre 
0.7-0.9 mm long, 0.6 0.7 mm wide below the glands, mlundibuliform to nearly cylin- 
drical, outer surface glabrous, inner surface pilose below the rim; lobes subulate, 
0.1-0.3 mm long, sometimes divided, sinus shallow a i • us; glands 4, ca. 0.1 

mm long and wide, circular to oval, appendages absent or represented by a narrow 
rim ca. 0.1 mm long and 0.2 mm wide, glabrous, entire to wavy or bilobed, white to 
reddish Slaminak flowers , l.racii ,U U v> >h m.Ci n >| I glabrous, exserted 
0.9-1.7 mm, ovary 3 lobed. subglobose to ovoid, glabrous, styles 3, free, 0.3-0.4 mm 
long, biparted to nearly the base, divisions filiform. Capsule 1.3-1.4 mm long, 1.5-1.6 
mm in diameter, strongk 3-lo ■■ d u >s ! h< e to broadly ovoid, columella 0.9-1.0 mm 
long. Seeds 0.8-0.9 mm long, 0.6 0.7 mm wide, tnangulai in cross section, the ventral 
faces collectively forming a single face, ovoid in dorsal view, blackish to blackish gray, 
micropapilliate, apex bluntly pointed, base rounded, dorsal keel prominent, blunt, 
uninterrupted, dorsal faces mostly plane. 0.6 mm all. smooth; caruncle absent. 

i i i i i i - si, j,-, hi I], i, - , i i / , 

(IEB); Mpio.Zinapoouaio.5 km al SSI 1 do .lorahuam. R~nl ( mski /6/-/.MII U ): Mpio. Uruapan,5 km al S 
do Angahuan. on ol I Jano ( 'hoi niro. Soto Niinez /.W,S'2 (MEXU). 

The specific epii! i i in ( baeiela Calderdn de Rzedowski, 

a researcher at the Institute de Ecologia-Centro Regional del Bajfo and specialist 
of Mexican plants. She is coeditor of the f-'lora del Bajfo y de Regiones Adyacentes, 
and all but one of the known, nlkr! ni, i >q ><<,,> .tL-leromae occur within the 
boundaries of this Floi<i It , ubg Chamaesyce, 

and like so many other speei -i !,■ ul en us, I he seeds ser\e to distinguish it. In 
habit it resembles a prostrate and diminutive form of l-jtpliorhia nutans Lag. and 
apparently is related to this species: however, from this and close allies it is separated 
by the possession of seeds with plane and smooth dorsal faces. In related species the 
dorsal faces are convex and variously sculptured. In addition, the ventral two faces 
of E. calderoniae form a single flat surface, whereas in related species the ventral 
two faces usually form a convex surface. The leaves of E. ea/deroniae are reminiscent 
of those of E. serpyllifolia Pers. in both shape and m being mostly entire along the 
proximal margin and only serrulate towards the apex; in addition to seed characters, 
the pubescent stems readily serve to distinguish E. calderoniae from this species. The 
four known localities of E. calderoniae aio m h< i i > >n < n< tli i 

Michoacan, where it is found in grasslands, humid canyons in pine-oak forest, and 
scrub vegetation at elevations from 2300 to 2500 m. I lowering and fruiting overlap 
broadly, and lerlile material has been collected in August and December. 


Euphorbia infernidialis V. W. Steinmann, sp. nov. — Type: Mexico. Michoacan: 
Mpio. La Huacana, along MEX 37, ca. 1 km N of Los Ranchos, 18°44'N, 
101 o 00'45" W, ± 200 m, 9 May 2002, V. W. Steinmann, G. Puime & B. Vrskovy 
2458 (holotype:IEB!). Fig. 2. 

Herba perennis, prostrata vel ascendens; caules usque ad 25 cm longi, pilosi, 
teretes; folia opposita, petioli 0.3-0.8 mm longi, laminae variabiles, plerumque oblon- 
gae, 0.3-0.5 cm longae, 0.25-0.35 cm latae, basi asymmetricae et hemicordatae, apice 
obtusae, margo integer vel leviter serrulatus; cyathia solitaria, pedunculi 1.8-3.3 mm 
longi; involucra campanulata, 1 .2-1 .7 mm longa, 1.1-1.6 mm lata, pilosa, glandulae 4, 
ovales, 0.2-0.4 mm longae (radialiter), 0.4-0.7 mm latae (tangentialiter), appendices 
semicirculares vel flabellatae, 0.4-0.7 mm longae, 0.7-1.1 mm latae; flores staminati ca. 
25-35; ovarium trilobatum, ovoideum, versus basim et secus carinas pilosum, styli 3, 
liberi, 0.3-0.4 mm longi, bipartiti; capsula trilobata, ovoidea, 1.5-1.9 mm longa, 1.4-1.8 
mm lata, versus basim et secus carinas pilosa; semina quadrangula, elliptico-ovoidea, 
1.1-1.6 mm longa, 0.6-0.8 mm lata. 

Prostrate to ascending perennial herb from a brown, thickened, and woody tap 
root; stems numerous arising from near the base, to 25 cm long, internodes to 1.5 
cm long, terete, uniformly pubescent around the entire circumference; stems, leaves, 
peduncles, and involucres shortly pilose with stiff to slightly curved white hairs 0.1-0.2 
(-0.3) mm long. Leaves opposite; stipules dimorphic, those of the exposed surfaces of 
the stem remarkably reduced, inconspicuous, narrowly triangular to subulate, 0.1-0.2 
mm long or apparently absent, those facing the ground mostly united into a broadly 
triangular scale 0.3-0.5 mm long with a laciniate-erose margin; petioles 0.3-0.8 mm 
long; blades 0.3-0.5 cm long, 0.25-0.35 cm wide, generally oblong but varying to ovate, 
obovate or orbicular, base asymmetrical and hemicordate, apex rounded, margin 
entire to faintly serrulate. Cyathia solitary at the distal nodes, peduncles 1.8-3.3 mm 
long. Involucre 1.2-1.7 mm long, 1.1-1.6 mm wide below the glands, campanulate, 
inner and outer surfaces pilose, lobes ca. 0.2 mm long, triangular, sinus shallowly U- 
shaped, extending ca. 1/5 the involucre, glands 0.2-0.4 mm long (radially), 0.4-0.7 mm 
wide (tangentially), oval, appendages 0.4-0.7 mm long, 0.7-1.1 mm wide, semicircular 
to flabellate, glabrous or puberulent on the back, entire to shallowly wavy, white 
fading pink. Staminate flowers ca. 25-35, bracteoles numerous, divided and pilose 
towards the tip. Gynophore glabrous, exserted 1.3-3.2 mm, ovary conspicuously 3- 
lobed, ovoid, stiffly pilose with hairs concentrated towards the base and along the 
keels; styles 3, free, 0.3-0.4 mm long, biparted from 2/3 their length to nearly the base, 
divisions clavate. Capsule 1.5-1.9 mm long, 1.4-1.8 mm in diameter, strongly 3-lobed, 
ovoid, broadest towards the base, stiffly pilose with straight, white, erect hairs 0.1-0.2 
mm long, these concentrated towards the base and along the keels. Seeds 1.1-1.6 mm 
long, 0.6-0.8 mm wide, quadrangular in cross section, n;.* row v ,11 ptic-ovoid in dorsal 
view, base obliquely truncate, apex pointed, reddish-brown, with a prominent dorsal 
keel, dorsal faces 0.5-0.7 mm tall, lightly rippled, sometime with a low but conspicu- 
ous longitudinal ridge, nearly plane to slightly convex, ecarunculate. 

The specific epithet refers to the Infiernillo region of southern Michoacan and 
Guerrero. This area is centered around the Presa Infiernillo, a man-made reservoir 
resulting from the damming of the Rio Balsas just downstream from its confluence with 

CONTl l\ I I • i r « [ II in., 111 m , itm <H\ Ml '! 

2 dissected, xtO.E. Seed, > 

the Rio Tepalcatepec. The only known collections were made just a few kilometers 
inland from this body of wah * i>> !• >, / in inj -> udiali belongs to subg. Chamaesyce. 
The presence of ovaries with hairs restricted to the base and along the keels suggests 
a relationship with E. U u< with < \ K l« i •.< h S < .art I , » Boiss. and E. mendezii Boiss., 
and both of these species occur in the vicinity. Yet, these species possess strongly dor- 
siventrally flattened stems with long spreading hairs along the margin, larger stipules, 
and cyathia in dense and congested lateral sh< »ot: oJ e primary stems. In contrast, 
/:. injerniriialis has terete stems without hi- spi. i«<m - h; n I. « iil\ i educed stipules, 


and cyathia borne solitary at the distal nodes of the primary stems. Oddly enough, 
the type collection was made from plants growing in the disturbed roadside directly 
adjacent to the highway and the only other known collection was made along the 
side of a dirt road. The adjacent vegetation in both of these areas is arid thorn forest. 
The only two collections were encountered in full flower during the height of the dry 
season (March to May), a time during which most members of subg. Chamaesyce are 
dormant. It has also been observed to flower during the summer rainy season. 

Euphorbia lottiae V. W. Steinmann, sp. nov. — Type: Mexico. Michoacan: Mpio. 
Arteaga, 30.5 km (by road) SSE of the junction with MEX 37 along the road 
to Infiernillo, 18°21'58"N, 101°54'09"W, ca. 300 m, 19 Oct 1996, V. W. Stein- 
mann & L. Varela E. 1104 (holotype: IEB!; isotypes: ARIZ! MEXU! MICH! 
NY!UCR!). Fig. 3. 

Herba annua ephemera, prostrata vel decumbens; Euphorbiae barnesii affinis, a 
qua foliis basi subpeltatis, ramulis junioribus canaliculars, pedunculis villosis, pedun- 
culis et stylis longioribus differt. 

Delicate, prostrate to decumbent ephemeral, almost turgescent and rather hydro - 
phytic in character, from a slender taproot; stems numerous, prolincally sprawling, 
to 45 cm long, glabrous, the young ones upon drying usually caniculate with several 
sharp, whitish to translucent longitudinal ridges. Leaves alternate, well spaced on the 
stem; stipules inconspicuous and represented by minute, glanduliform protuberances 
0.1 mm long; petioles 0.6-2.7 cm long, slender, usually longer than the blade, glabrous 
or sparsely villous with slender, wavy, white hairs 0.4-1.2 mm long; blade thin and 
membranaceous, that of the larger leaves 0.9-1.7 cm long, 0.8-1.8 cm wide, broadly 
ovate to sometimes orbicular, leaves near the branch tips with the blade smaller and 
generally ovate to elliptic, glabrate above, sparsely villous below with hairs like those 
of the petiole, rounded or bluntly pointed at the apex, continuous over the adaxial 
side of the petiole and thus appearing minutely subpeltate at the base, margin entire. 
Cyathia solitary at the nodes at the distal ends of the stems or on open and loose axil- 
lary branches; peduncle 2-9 mm long, slender to capillary, villous at least towards the 
base. Involucre 0.9-1.1 mm long, 0.7-1.1 mm wide below the glands, campanulate to 
infundibuliform, sparsely villous on the outer surface, shortly pilose towards the rim 
on the inner surface, lobes ca. 0.2 mm long, oblong to slightly obovate, fimbriate at the 
apex; glands 5, 0.1-0.15 mm long (radially), 0.3-0.4 mm wide (tangentially), narrowly 
oblong to reniform, light yellow becoming pinkish in age, appendages divided into 
4-6 filiform segments 0.3-0.6 mm long, green to whitish. Staminate flowers ca. 20-25, 
bracteoles few, plumose towards the tips. Gynophore slender to capillary, extending 
to 4 mm long, glabrous, ovary subglobose to oblong, 3-lobed, glabrous; styles 3, 0.5-0.7 
mm long, free, biparted to the base, divisions filiform. Capsule 3-lobed, 1.0-1.3 mm 
long, 1.2-1.4 mm in diameter, subglobose to ovoid or oblong, columella 1.0-1.2 mm 
long. Seeds 0.9-1.1 mm long, 0.6-0.7 mm in diameter, rounded in cross section, ovoid 
in dorsal view, light gray to tan, with numerous coarse tubercles interspersed with 
several mostly regular longitudinal rows of isodiametric depressions the bottoms of 
which contain a punctiform pit, ecarunculate. 

Additional Specimens Examined. Mexico. Ialisco ilong h» id I'roi i Sn , i i do los Corrales, Mpio. 

illan | Icaic, Iich can./ tcrl HW (IEB DC "'1 1). FnUlcma 2230A (MICH); Mpio. 

Tecalitlan, cerca de Gallardo, 10 km al NW de Tepalcatepcc. Michoacan. Rzcdowski 17497 (ENCB, 
M I CH).— Mm « )A( an: 11-13 km WSW of Apatzingan, along the road to Dos Aguas and Aguililla, Dieterle 

-.'.y;,--' i !'./;« II), f ;,,„» \Mlm«.i 'Hm.ilN.I. Inheiiiillo. A km al S dc la <. in Aik-am-Nii • i IUm I oil ei 

CONTR. UNIVERSITY ( >l- MK '! ! l< ,A\ f IKK I i,\l< II ' \i \<)Kl Ml- : 

FIG. 3. Euphorbia I 
duliform stipules (with 1< 
dissected, xlO.F. Seed, d( 

This species is dedicated id Emily J. Lott, Euphorbiaceae enthusiast and a 
leading authority on the pKii li ropical d i forest of western Mexico. 

She collected the species at the type locality in I9.S3. Euphorbia lottiae belongs to 
subg. Agaloma and is a member of the /:. ocymoulea L. complex. McVaugh (1993) 
provided a general overview ol this group, recognizing three varieties of Euphorbia 
ocymoideaw&x.hi ■ il , ) McVaugh, var. ocxmoidetL and var. subreniformis 

(S. Watson) McVaugh. I agree with McVaugh concerning the taxa recognized as well 


as the characters used to distinguish them; however, I differ with him in the belief 
that they are best treated as distinct species as opposed to infraspecific taxa. These, 
together with Euphorbia lottiae, probably form a monophyletic group and are indeed 
very similar, so their rank is somewhat arbitrary. I prefer to recognize them as species 
for various reasons. All are morphologically distinct from each other by more than a 
single character. There are ecological differences as well, with E. lottiae and E. ocy- 
moidea growing at low elevations in tropical vegetation, E. subreniformis S. Watson 
occurring at higher elevations in mostly pine-oak forest, and E. bamesii (Millsp.) 
Oudejans occurring in both such habitats. Furthermore, their ranges are independent, 
and they maintain their distinctiveness even when growing in the same general area. 
In McVaugh's 1993 key. Euphorbia lottiae would come out to E. bamesii, and some 
specimens were initially identified as such. Although these two share consistently 
5-glanded involucres, glabrous ovaries and capsules, slender to capillary gynophores, 
and eglandular branchlets, they differ in a number of features. The following couplet 
serves to distinguish them. 

1. Young stems drying terete; long spreading hairs restricted to the outer surface of the involucre; 
base of the leaf blade attached to the adaxial side of the petiole and not continuous over it; 
peduncles 0.5-1 (-! 5) long <J il nous; styles 0.3-0.4 mm long. E. bamesii 

1. Young stems, upon drying, umi< II I u villi s - il \^ t\> Jm hi Imnslu ni longitu 

ii.ii! ■ - i. | i ■ ding hairs sometimes present on the stems and leaves in addition to the 

involucres; base of the leaf blade continuous over the adaxial side of the petiole and thus appear- 
ing minutely subpeltate; peduncles 2-9 mm long, villous at least towards the base: styles 0.5-0.7 

Euphorbia lottiae also appears to differ from the other species of the complex 
by its habit. It is almost turgescent and rather hydrophytic in character, whereas its 
close relatives possess more wiry and fibrous stems. As far as I can tell, the branches 
of the others are mostly erect to ascending. In contrast, the branches of E. lottiae are 
weak, primarily prostrate to decumbent, and prolifically sprawling. This species is 
known from a small number of collections gathered at four localities in the valley of 
the Rio Tepalcatepec in southern Michoacan and adjacent Jalisco, where it occurs in 
thorn forest and tropical deciduous forest at elevations ranging from 300 to 500 m. It 
likely also grows in Guerrero; the type locality is only about 3 kilometers from the 
border and with vegetation similar to that of vast expanses in adjacent Guerrero. It 
thrives during the brief rainy season, but is one of the first plants to wilt and die as 
the rains diminish and the soil dries. All known collections were made from early 
September to late October. 

Jatropha jaimejimenezii V. W. Steinmann, sp. nov.— Type: Mexico. Michoacan: Mpio. 
Arteaga, along MEX 37, ca. 75 km (by road) N of Arteaga and 1 km S of 
El Descansadero, 18°38'41 "N, 101°58'10"W, ± 300 m, shallow ravine on the 
rocky hillside above the highway, open thorn forest with columnar cacti, 3 
Aug 2001, V. W. Steinmann E Carranza & E. Perez 1810 (holotype: IEB!; 
isotypes: ARIZ! MICH! DAV!). Fig. 4. 

Frutex usque ad 2 (-3) m altus, monoecius; folia alterna, stipulae in lacinias 
glanduligeras dissectae, 1-2.5 mm longae, petioli 0.3-1.2 (-1.5) cm longi, laminae 
variabiles, plerumque oblongae, (0.7-) 1.0-3.8 cm longae, (0.6-) 0.8-3.6 cm latae, 
apice obtusae, basi obtusae vel truncatae, margo glanduloso-denticulatus; inflores- 
centiae cymosae, dichasiales, 1.5-4.5 cm longae, bracteae ellipticae vel spathulatae, 
2-9 mm longae, 0.5-2.5 mm latae, pilosae, margo glanduloso-denticulatus; florum 


staminatorum pedicelli graciles, 3.2-5.5 mm longi, pilosi, calyx imbricatus, lobi 5, 
ovati, oblongi vel elliptici, liberi, 3.2-5.5 mm longi. 03) 13 mm lati, corolla imbricata, 
lobi 5, spathulati vel oblongi, basi connati, 5.4-6.2 mm longi, 1.7-2.2 mm lati, apice 
reflexi, stamina 5, in columnam connata 3.8-5.2 mm longa, antherae oblongae, 1.1-1.4 
mm longae; florum pistillatorum pedicelli 1.8 -3.5 mm longi, villoso-pilosi, calyx 
imbricatus, lobi 5, plerumque obovati vel spathulati, accrescentes, 6.5-11.8 mm longi, 
2.6-5.4 mm lati, corolla imbricata, lobi 5 (6), ovati, 5.3-6.0 mm longi, 2.0-2.5 mm lati, 
apice reflexi, ovarium triloculatum, oblongo-ovoideum, basi planum, glabrum, styli 3, 
filiformes, 3.1-4.3 mm longi; capsula oblongo-ovoidea, 0.9-1.2 cm longa, 0.7-0.8 cm 
lata, trilobata; semina oblonga, 6.5-7.3 mm longa, 3.9-4.4 mm lata, laevia, caruncula 
cucullilormis, 1.4 1.9 mm longa, 2.7-3.2 mm lata. 

Shrubs to 2 (-3) m tall, multibranched from near the base and highly branched 
above, drought-deciduous, with copious reddish latex, monoecious; stems villous, the 
hairs nearly straight, 1.1-2.2 mm long, multicellular, white and sometimes purplish 
at the base, lower layer of shorter appressed to recurved hairs also present, branches 
soft-wooded and II- bl< I ( < iH«»r.dhd I i> il i aliened and exfo- 

liating in thin slivers. Leaves alternate, mostly congested on short, arrested shoots; 
stipules represented by irregularly mul hi< i I mi, , im i tinctures 1-2.5 mm 

long; petiole 0.3-1.2 (-1.5) cm long, with pubescence like that of the stem; blade 
(0.7-) 1 .0-3.8 cm long, (0.6-) 0.8-3.6 cm wide, membranaceous, with basal attachment 
to the petiole, mostly oblong but varying fr< i > >■ tt< elliptic, rarely rotund or shal- 
lowly palmately 3-lobed, palmately 3-veined from the base with the midvein more 
prominent than the laterals, apex obtuse, base truncate to obtuse, hirsute to villous 
on both surfaces, margin in it uleb denl cul it ■ - ith U clh ending in stipitale glands 
0.1-0.2 mm long, in age the gland om tim( shed and the margin appearing entire. 
Inflorescences many-flowerei lie! i les 1 .5-4.5 cm long, entirely staminate or 

with pistillate flowers at the lower first and second nodes, pistillate flowers also some- 
times solitary on the short shoots, axis with pubescence as on the stem but the hairs 
tending to be shorter, peduncle 0.4-2 cm long, bracts 2-9 mm long, 0.5-2,5 mm wide, 
narrowly elliptic to spathulate, thinlv pilose, the margin as in the leaves. Staminate 
flowers on slendei pilose pedicels 5 I 5.5 mm loi : 

3.2-5.5 mm long, 0.9 2.3 m iwidi o il « ilon I | li I 4\ unequal, free to 

the base, apex mostly obtuse, rarely acute, pilose to puberulent on the outside, mostly 
glabrous within, rarely filiate with stipitate glands oroibi • ,v imbricate, lobes 

5,5.4-6.2 mm long, 1.7-2.2 mm wide, broadly spathulate to oblong, united 1/5 to 1/4 
their length, apex obtuse, glabrous to minutely puberulent, often puberulent-ciliate, 
red-pink, free portion strongly overlapping and appearing united towards the base 
but clearly separate above, tips rcflexcd at anlhesis: disk glands 5.0.6-1.1 mm long, 
separate, ± oblong, dark brown; stamens 5. united into a column 3.8 5.2 mm long, free 
for 0.3-0.8 mm, anthers 1 . 1-1 .4 mm long, narrowly oblong, sometimes with a filiform 
appendage 0.5-1.7 mm long, i m.» 1mm het\ n ill. mttius, outer whorl of stamens 
absent. Pistillate (lowers on relatively stout, villous-pilose pedicels 1.8-3.5 mm long; 
calyx imbricate, lobes 5. strongly unequal, generally obovate to spathulate, rarely 
oblong or ovate, accrescent in fruit and expanding to 6.5-1 1 .8 mm long, 2.6-5.4 mm 
wide, apex obtuse or acute, thinly pilose on both surfaces, stipilate-glandular along 
the margin; corolla strongly imbricate, lobes 5 (6), 5.3 6.0 mm long, 2.0-2.5 mm wide. 
ovate, united only at the extreme base, apex obtuse, thinly pilose on both surfaces, 
»il< i 'nl i ud i i iii il. pn i, . I i ni i i ■! ais ,md lalhng as a 

single unit, disk annular, undulate and shallowly lobed; ovary 3-locular. oblong-ovoid 
with a fiat base, inconspicuously 3-angled, glabrous, styles 3, 3. 1—1.3 mm long, filiform. 


FIG. l.Jtiirophci ji'imcjiuh //. 
detail of two stipules. ( . Leaf ma 
xl.3. G. Staminate flowers with p 
flowers with petals and two sepal 

■ing branch, x0.5. B. Node with leaves and stipules, > 1 , and 
■lobed leaf, x0.4. E. inflorescence, xl. F. Staminate flower, 

> sepals removed, 1 II. Pistillate lluuei. -15. I. Pistillate 
1.5. J.( apsuk withaccn cent sepal 1 ' L >eed d .rsal 

united into a slender column for 1/2-3/4 their lengl ti stig la bilid and slightly dilal 1 
Capsule 0.9-1.2 cm long, 0.7-0.8 cm in diameter, broadly oblong-ovoid, conspicuously 
3-lobed in cross section, with a sharp, pointed beak resulting from the persistent 
base of the stylar column, generally 3-seeded although sometimes 2-seeded by abor- 
tion. Seeds 6.5-7.3 mm long, 3.9-4.4 mm wide, oblong in dorsal view, apex and base 
rounded, mottled light to dark brown, smooth, caruncle 1.4-1 .9 mm long, 2.7-3.2 mm 
wide, hoodlike, mostly dark brown to nearly black. 

Additional Spk i mi F.\ \mi\i i>. Mexico Iicik > u an: Mpi I lluaean 1 scleras al O de El Lim- 

'.iiul.i .^ km alt L il. ,.m J dm I 4fVS ] |()] Ol'l \\ < t„nlli> I\ u: 1188 (IEB); Mpio. 

in n'i ilon h IF "•! <a ' km (b i d)I of Ail i i and I km S of I I I) eansadero, 18°38'4i"N, 

101 58 10 W Stcinminw ' .'.(II I) // * v nmw,„, l > > > \o„ I, /'_'■! 

CONN 1 i I ■)• MU'III I I 1 I Ili.M 

Mu i i i it ■ « i i ii liui. i urn hi i I c n id de Ciencias of 

the Universidad Nacional Autonoma d« I ian> contributions on Euphor- 

biaceae and in pa I i itro ha i ludin th< i criptions of various new species, 

have greatly enhanced our understand i' i i - in Mexico. The affinities of 

Jutropha jaitnejim < ii are not obviou i id e\ en its subgeneric placement is prob- 
lematic. Following the classifii tion o pi ised by Dehgan and Webster 
(1979), it belongs to subg. Jatropha. This is due to its monoecious sexuality, glandu- 
lar dissected stipules, and oblong seeds with a well-developed caruncle; however, I 
cannot further accommodate it within any of the sections. The most unusual feature 
of this species is the presence of only 5 monadelphi >us star i the second whorl 
of stamens completely absent. As far as I know this morphology is unique within the 
genus, and according to Dehgan and Webster (1979) all other species have 8 or 10 
stamens, except for J. podu^rica 1 look, in which the stamens vary from 6 to 14. The 
two known stations of./, jaimejimenczii are within 20 km of each other in the Infier- 
nillo region of southern Michoacan. The species occurs from 300 to 400 m elevation 
on rocky hillsides in relatively open thorn forest dominated by species of Bursera, 
Croton, Kramer in '•• ..-.■.■,■■ . > ml . ther with several 
columnar cacti and numerous legumi no u nil ind nail trees. Flowering and fruit- 
ing overlap and occur during the rainy season from June to September. 

ii V. W. Stcinmann, sp. nov.— Typk: Mi-xko. Michoacan: Mpio. 
Arteaga. along MEX 37, ca. 75 km (by road) N of Arteaga and 1 km S of 

Id Descansadero, IS 3S'41"N. 101 5Sd 0" W, + 300 m, shallow ravine on the 
rocky hillside il < ill in i iilmi i i ill eoluni iai c.Rti ' 

Aug 2001, V. W. Stcinmann, E. Currunza ct E. Perez I SI I (holoivpe: ll.B!; 
isotypes: ARIZ! MICH! DAV!). Fig. 5. 

Frutex usque ad 1.5 (-2.5) m altus. monoecius. glaber: folia alterna, decidua, 
stipulae glandulosae, 0.1 0.2 mm longae, petioli (0.5) 0.9-2.4 mm longi, laminae 
3-5-lobatac. 1.5-4.5 cm longae, 1.5-6.5 cm latae; llores solilarii vol binati; florum 
staminatorum pedicelli graciles. 0.7-2.4 cm longi, calyx campanulatus, 1-1.3 cm lon- 
gus, 0.8-1.2 cm latus, sepala 5,basi connata, lobi ovati. 5.. 1 7.0 mm longi, 2.4-3.2 mm 
lati, stamina 8, filamenta fililormia, 6.5-7.5 mm louga, aniherae anguste oblongae, 
2.4-2.9 mm longae, 0.4 0.6 mm latae; llorum pistillatorum pedicelli graciles, 0.5-1.1 
cm longi, sepala 5. libera, anguste ovata, 8-12 mm longa. 2.5 3.2 mm lata, ovarium 
ellipsoidcum, styli 3, 1.7-2.0 mm longi, capsula subglobosa, 0.9-1.0 cm diamctro; 
semina elliptico-oblonga, 6. 1 0.5 mm longa, 3.9-4.1 mm lata. complanata,caruncula 
2.1-2.4 mm longa, 2.8-3.2 mm lata. 

Dense, intricately branched shrubs to 1.5 (-2.>) in tall, glabrous throughout, 
drought-deciduous, with milky latex, monoecious: bark reddish brown, generally 
smooth and shiny. 1 .eaves alternate, mostly well spaced on the stem, sometimes con- 
gested, stipules represented by minute, glandlike protuberances 0.1-0.2 mm long; 
petioles (0.5-) 0.9-2.4 mm long, slender; blade 1.5-4.5 cm long, 1.5-6.5 cm wide, 
membranaceous, with basal attachment to the petiole, deeply palmately 3-5-lobed, 
leaf venation camptodromous. central and adjacent lobes mostly obovate when 
• in •■ bn h , . num. 1 paiuiurilorm with development. 1.0-4.2 cm long, 0.8-2.9 cm 
wide, apex acute, central lobe onl\ slightly larger than to nearly twice as long as the 


adjacent lobes, apex of the secondary lobes rounded, basal lobes 0.4-1.2 cm long, 
0.1-0.6 cm wide, spathulate to obovate or falcate, lacking on young leaves. Flowers 
solitary or in staminate-pistillate pairs (rarely in fasciculate groups of 3), borne near 
the branch tips. Staminate flowers on slender pedicels 0.7-2.4 cm long and with 3-9 
minute, triangular-subulate bracteoles 0.2-0.3 mm long; calyx 1-1.3 cm long, 0.8-1.2 
cm wide at the tip, campanulate, composed of 5 sepals united ca. 1/2 their length, the 
free lobes 5.2-7.0 mm long, 2.4-3.2 mm wide at the base, ovate, obtuse at the apex, 
yellow at maturity; disc 2.8-3.1 mm in diameter, flattened, conspicuously 8-lobed; 


stamens 8, arising from between l he lob < he ! < filaments h. 5-7. 5 mm long, fili- 
form, anthers 2.4-2.9 mm long, 0.4-0.6 mm wide, versatile, narrowly oblong, rounded 
at the ends, openinj h- l<uijmu in; ' sin , Iv tillate flowers on slender pedicels 0.5-1.1 
cm long, with 1 oi tn ul tri igul; ul ulate bracteoles 0.2-0.3 mm long; sepals 5, 
8-12 mm long, 2.5-3.2 mm wide, free to the base, narrowly ovate, obtuse to subacute 
at the apex, yellow -gi e\ n. soinetnm relieved at ma tin it> : disc thick and fleshy, entire, 
ovary ellipsoid, without ribs: styles 3. 1.7 2.0 mm long, united ca. 1/2 their length, 
dilated into highK lobeci papiih >■ ;ti na at i < lip « . I \ iih both septicidal 
and loculicidal dehiscence, on a stout stipe 1-2 mm long, globose, 0.9-1 .0 cm in diam- 
eter, without ribs, rounded al the apex, light green to yellow green, with 7 or 8 dark 
green longitudinal lines, minutely and irregularly papillose. Seeds 6.1-6.5 mm long, 
3.9-4.1 mm wide, elliptic-oblong in dorsal view, dorsiventrally flattened, rounded at 
the base, with a blunt point at the apex, smooth, gra lighl brown, mottled with 

irregular blackish nini, 1 i ; - u mele2.1 14 mm long. 2.8 3.2 mm wide, fleshy, light 
yellow, frequently notched at the apex. 

Annim i\ n Sri i nil \s ! \ wiim n. Mk-xico. Mkooai \\: Mpio. Arteaga. along MIX 37, ca. 75 km (by 
road) N of Arteaga and kin , <>i I I I > -anaiHio ! S II Inl |i icmnuimt &. Stcinintinn 

1651 (DAV, IEB, MICH), Steinmann A \ ,ur!a II.'.' ( II 15 ) Mpi... la I luacana. 4 km (by road) SE of San 
Pedro Barajas. along MIX A. base of cliffs on the hills W of 1:1 Limoncito. ca. IS 46'N. 102 o 01'30"W. 
Steinmann & Perez 2910 (IEB). 

It is a pleasure to name this species after Rogers McVaugh, renowned botanist 
and expert on the flora ol' western Mexico, lis initial discovery is in fact due to him, as 
ii i in i ■ in - nli • <l In « in e; eh [ i'.uph 'no an , U i lul a i I 

its type locality, a mi n lb I -hniiM i <i , << c^hii is noteworthy 

for its relatively small leaves and flowers, which are solitary or paired. In almost all 
other species of Manihot the flowers are arranged in well-differentiated racemes or 
panicles and the leaves are eonsiderabh laigci fli- nb other species to possess such 
traits is M. pauciftora Hrandegee of the Tehuacan Cuicatlan valley of Puebla and 
Oaxaca. Rogers and Appan (1973) assigned M. pauciftora to a monotypic segregate 
genus, Manihotoides Rogers & Appan. but it appears to represent an arid-adapted 
species oi Manihot, and most subsequent authors have treated the two names as 
synonyms (e.g., Webster 1994; Martinez et al. 2002). Manihot mcvaughii occurs in the 
most xeric region of the Balsas Depression; whether it is closely related to M. pauci- 
flora or shares wit! I icteristics beca ol similar selective pressures remains to 

be determined. Interestingly, the only known localities o\ M. mcvaughii are the same 
three at which Jati ■ >/■:/■; / lim /.',/ uczii occurs, and at all of these sites the two species 
grow side-by-side. The two s| . i .1 I \ imii leriod ol cptoduction, with 
flowering and fruiting during the rainy season from June to September. 


ii in 1 h i I in ! i i 1 1. I i il a i i i i iii i \k uins the iiianii- 

npi ' n I ii lance in pjepaiing th I .at in d notion tdca/ar ( a\i an/a Gonzalez 

Emmanuel Perez Calix.Perla Ivonne Steinmann. and Leonardo Varela l-'spinosa for assisting in the field; 
and i he heibana ol I A! H II IIAIIXI : , and MICH for providing access to their collections. Economic 
support was provided by a grant from the Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiver- 
sidad lo the lnslitulode bcologia. A ( '. (account numhei A) ' (A) 



Dehgan, B., and G. L. Webster. 1979. Morphology and infrageneric relationships of the genus Jatropha 

(Euphorbiaceac) I m ' alii rnia Publ. lio M 
Martinez Gordillo, M., J. Jimenez Ramirez, R. Cruz Duran, E. Juarez Arriaga, R. Garcia, A. Cervantes, and 

M. Mejfa Hernandez. 2002. Los generos de la familia Euphorbiaceae en Mexico. Anal. Inst. Biol., 

Univ. Nac. Aut. Mexico, ser. bot. 73: 155-281. 
McVaugh, R. 1993. Euphorbiae Novo-Galicianae Revisae. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 19: 207-239. 
Roiln uu ii i I ■» i I | in > < ) < I' '<> " ' <<> 'o a i i < ( , i i, it'ii> tl !- '( hi,, i 

section III (Angiospermae: C on.".:: . < <■« V , ; •<; ,-ac excepto Fabaceae, Gramineae, Krameriaceae y 

Leguminosae). Flora del Bajfo y de regiones adyacentes, fasc. complementario X. Patzcuaro, Micho- 

acan: Instituto di Ecologij « < entro Regional del Bajio. 
Rogers, D. J., and S. G. Appan. 1973. Manihot and Manihotoides (Euphorbiaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 

13: 1-272. 
Steinmann, V. W. 2002. Diversidad y endemismo de la familia Euphorbiaceae en Mexico. Acta Bot. Mexi- 

Webster. Ci I 1993 A provisional synopsi- ol the sections ol the genus < nuon ( Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 

199-1 ynopsisol'lh genera ml upi neric taxa of luiphorbiaceac nn. Missouri Bot. Gard. 
- -. 2001. Synopsis of Cmion and f'livllnnthii.s (Euphorbiaceae) in western tropical Mexico. Contr. 


Edward G. Voss 
University of Michigan Herbarium 

3600 Varsity Drive 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 

\iK\RM i Listed ilphabcii. i1l> wiih ntuni; u> H>nmenls arc over 500 Michigan localities from 

which herbarium specimens have hecn sei n ! 01 \ \n h ,u II ■ > 1 u ' '".i\ designations. Sites 

included usually (I) are not readily located in standard indexes to Michigan place names, (2) can be 
confused with othd loi ilitu beanm Hi urn naim md/ot (3) hav< mdergon 1 changi in nam 
Documentation ol'h 11 < il> > publi in d re fere no pei ifi< 1 oil t tors 01 dates. 


This listing presents some ambiguous, controversial, or obscure Michigan locali- 
ties, mostly from which actual herbarium specimens have been seen. It is intended 
largely to supplement (or in a few cases correct) entries in Romig's 1972 Michigan 
Place Names and the indexes prepared ca. 1917-1918 by Rand-McNally & Company 
for their indexed pocket map of Michigan and their much larger Commercial Atlas 
of America. (These two indexes are essentially identical.) My purpose is primarily 
to help users assign specimens to the correct county, since the county is widely used 
as the basic unit for filing records and mapping distributions. Often, however, more 
detailed information can be provided to enable a narrower designation of sites. 
Sometimes the same person collected at more than one site bearing identical names. 
Sometimes different collectors gathered specimens at sites with the same names. 
When I have been able to clarify such situations, clues appear here, in hopes that 
persons mapping distributions may avoid jumping to erroneous conclusions. 

For 50 years I have been gathering this information, as the necessity was pre- 
sented periodically to determine the localities (especially counties) where herbarium 
specimens — mostly older ones — with very scant data had been gathered. Others 
have often asked for help with fragmentary localities in (or thought to be in) Michi- 
gan, and it would appear useful to make this eclectic catalog more widely available 
despite the varying and inconsistent level of detail (and of citation) as items accumu- 
lated over the years without any intention of eventual publication. 

If your favorite obscure site is not included here, that may not be an oversight. 
Remember that this list consists primarily of places (1) where plant collectors actu- 
ally gathered specimens but generally failed to indicate the county; and/or (2) names 
that are repeated and often better known elsewhere in the state (sometimes even in 
the same county). Changes of place names and difficulty of locating sites on county 
maps are other criteria for listing. 


Sometimes a collector's occasional label has an indication of county when other 
labels do not. Sometimes a particular collector (with year or date) needs to be cited 
to clarify a locality or the collector(s) who visited it. Initials as listed below indicate 


the more frequently died of these persons (as well as authors). More information 
about those who flourished in the 19th century — and where their collections may 
be found — is in Voss (1978). Other indicalionsrarcly given in capitals after citation 
of specimens or other data are the internnlioiiallv recognized symbols for herbaria 
where specimens are found (more often given here for out-of-state institutions), e.g., 
MO = Missouri Botanical Garden; GH = Gray Herbarium of Harvard University; 
BLH = Cranbrook Institute of Science; MSC = Michigan State University. Names 
of species and dales of collecting al a sile are intended only as examples and are not 
necessarily exhaustive. The held notes, rough and crude though the\ are, of Oliver A. 
Farwell have sometimes been very helpful (they are now housed in the University 
of Michigan Herbarium). 

CWB - Clayton W. Ba/uin ( 1893-1 968) CRH = Clarence R. Hanes (1874-1956) 

WJB = William J. Beal (1833-1924) FJH - Frederick J. Hermann (1906-1987) 

EAB = Ernst A. Bessey (1877-1957) FJH = Ellsworth J. Hill (1833-1917) 

CB = Cecil Billington (1876-1950) CFW = Charles F. Wheeler (1842-1910) 
EJC = Emma J. Cole (1845-1910) 

DC = Dennis Cooley (1787-1860) LJMBS - University of Michigan Biological 
HTD - Henry T. Darlington ( 1875-1 %4) Station (meaning any of numerous col- 

CAD = Charles A. Davis (1861-1916) lectors who used local names for area 

CKD = Charles K. Dodge (1844-1918) sites, most of which are in Nelson 1956) 

CWF = Charles W. Fa I lass ( 1854-1942) First Survey = First Geological Survey of 
OAF = Oliver A. Farwell (1867-1944) Michigan (cf. McVaugh 1970) 


Published and unpublished sources for information about a site (its location and/ 
or history) are very incomplete in this list, but some are indicated as follows when 
they may be helpful in interpreting sites. Citing of illustrative specimen labels is espe- 
cially frequent for monocols. the first group to be written up for Michigan Flora, as 1 
usually did not bother to record additional supporting citations. Years of collections 
are generally preceded by "in"; years of publication or other sources of information 
are not. For obscure localities not included here, one should try consulting appropri- 
ate published works, such as those listed below and/or papers and published reports 
by the collector in question, for example. Cole (1901 ), Walpole (1924), Hanes (1947). 
The Haneses' EM , > a , « hides clues in text 

or introduction concerning then collecting sites, so onl> a lew troublesome ones are 
included here. Sometimes collectors provide a clue in their numbers, such as prefix- 
ing them with codes; e.g.. for collections from counties other than Kalamazoo, Mr. 
Hanes often preceded a collection-number with an indication o\ the county, such as 
V.B. for Van Buren Co. or S.J. for St. Joseph C o. [An assistant recording data for me 
many years ago. upon seeing a label reading "C. R. Hanes S.J. 171" declared "1 didn't 
know that Mr. Hanes was a Jesuit!" There is no end to the confusion that unusual or 
cryptic label styles can induce.] 

Beacon, The. 1 986-. Great Lakes Lighthouse Keepers Association. Vol. 12 + [contin- 
ues Great Lakes Review]. 

Ceasar, Ford Stevens. 1978. Forgotten Communities of Centra! Michigan. 3rd ed. 
Wellman Press. Lansing. 83 pp. | Clinton, Ingham, and Gratiot counties; thoroughly 


Chronicle. 1963-1993 [all published]. Historical Society of Michigan. Vol. 1-27. 

[NOTE: In 2002, the Society resurrected the name "Chronicle" but applied it to 

its previous "Newsletter" and continued the latter's numbering (as "Chronicle 

& Newsletter") with Vol. 24 No. 1, creating an overlap in numbering that can 

produce bibliographical confusion.] 
Cole, Emma J. 1 901 Grand Rapids Flora. Van Dort, Grand Rapids, xxii + 170 pp. + map. 
Crispin, Susan R. 1980. Nature Preserves in Michigan, 1920-1979. Michigan Bot. 19: 

99-242. [A well-indexed directory with ( ils on o IMIira ith explicitly 

protected mi- i I i . . .■ pu u, ■ | 
! in i Sil 1890. liisi < - ■" / >it aiul \] > /. ■ nmi) >>, f-'.arl\ Michigan ml 

ed. Silas Farmer & Co., Detroit, xlvi + 1028 pp. [Facsimile reprint, 1969, by Gale 

Research Co., Detroit.] 
Harwell, Oliver A. 1943. "Notes on the Michigan Flora X. Michigan species of Carex 

in my herbarium." [Unpublished 66-page typewritten manuscript, in which Far- 
■. , II .iv, ?',ii . < I ; II <>l mi . i ','■ ■ , c« Elections to county — a great help for old interurban 

stops and other obscure localities on his labels.] 
Foster, J. W., and J. D. Whitney. 1850. Report on the Geology and Topography of 

a Portion of the Lake Superior Land District in the State of Michigan: Part I. 

Copper Lands. 224 pp. + plates & maps. House Ex. Doc. No. 69, 31st Congress, 

1st Session. 
Foster, Theodore G. 1942. Place Names of Ingham County. Mich. History 26: 480-517. 
Hanes, Clarence R.,and Florence N. I lanes. 1947. Flora of ' Kalamt<,:o<> County, Michigan. 

[Authors], Schoolci a II Michigan, xii + 295 pp. 
Humphrys, C. R., et al. 1965. Michigan Lakes and Ponds. Michigan Agric. Exper. Sta., 

Dep. Resource Developm., Water Bull. 15 + 16 + 17 + Lake Inventory Bull. 1-83 

+ Water Bull. 12 + 13. [285] pp. [A tremendous catalog of over 35,000 lakes and 

ponds, giving exact location, size, and other information, indexed by name (if 

any), with summary tables and other statistics by county and statewide. This will 

tell you where over 300 Mud Lakes are located (as well as thousands of unnamed 

ones) — but not who collected there.] 
Mason, Philip P. I - i\ -Expedition to Lake Itasca. Michigan State Univ. 

Press, East Lansing, xxvi + 390 pp. 
McVaugh, Rogers, Stanley A. Cain, and Dale J. Hagenah. 1953. Farwelliana: An 

Account of the Life and Botanical Work of Oliver Atkins Farwell, 1867-1944. 

Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull. 34. 101 pp. 
McVaugh, Rogers. 1970. Botanical Results of the Michigan Geological Survey under 

the^ Direction of Douglass Houghton, 1837-1840. Michigan Bot. 9: 213-243. 

[Includes tables of dat< ind i i a gazetteer.] 

Michigan Botanist, The. 1962-. Michigan Botanical Club. Vol. 1 + 
Michigan History. 191 7-. Michigan Historical Commission (later, the Michigan His- 
torical Center ), Lansing. Vol. 1 + 
Michigan Manual. Official Directory and Legislative Manual ... 1887- [biennial]. 

Secretary of State, Lansing. [All volumes include lists of Post Offices and through 1 921 

they include stops (with mileages) on all railroads (including interurban lines).] 


Nelson, Theodora. 1956. The History of Ornithology at /he University of Michigan 
Biological Station 1909-1955. Burgess Publ. Co., Minneapolis, xvi +106 pp. + 2 
maps. [The Gazeteer [sic], pp. 91-97, lists many sites (sometimes with locally used 
names) visited I > i i i it i i h In i.i i -ical Station. An 

updated edition under the title -Ornithology at the I niveisilv of Michigan Bio- 
logical Station ..." hy Olin Sewall Pcttingilljr.. was issued in 1974 by the Kalama- 
zoo Nature Center as Spec. Publ. No. 1 . 1 18 pp. The Gazetteer, pp. 1 09-1 1 1 , includes 
a few additions but omits a great main of the sites in Nelson's original work.] 

Parratt, Smitty, and Doug Welker. 1999. The Place Names of Isle Royale. Isle Royale 
Natural History Association. Houghton, viii + 85 pp. + folded map. 

Romig, Walter. [1972]. Michigan Place Names. Walter Romig Publ., Grosse Pointe. 
673 pp. [Facsimile reprint, 1986, by Wayne State Univ. Press, Detroit.] 

Voss, Edward G. 1955. Charles W. Fallass (1854- 1942). a Pioneer Michigan Botanist. 
Asa Gray Bull. n.s. 3: 77-96. 

Voss, Edward G., and Garrett E. Crow. 1976. Across Michigan by Covered Wagon: A 
Botanical Expedition in 1888. Michigan Bot. 15:3-70. 

Voss, Edward G. 1978. Botanical Beachcombers and I Explorers: Pioneers of the 1 9th Cen- 
tury in the Upper Great Lakes. Contrib. Univ. Michigan Herb. 13. viii + 100 pp. 

Walpole, Branson A. 1 934. Flora of Washtenaw County Michigan. Mich. State Normal 
College, Ypsilanti. 80 pp. 

Section numbers interpreted in certain townships lor collections of Dennis 
Cooley are in brackets if they come from later printed plat maps rather than from 
some contemporaneous label of his. (Facsimile reprints of 1859 and 1875 Macomb 
Co. plats, with detailed indexes, were published in 1 9N3 tinder the sponsorship of the 
St. Clair Shores I listorical Commission.) 


Many place names (not only of lakes) are duplicated within the state and one 
should never assume that all collections by all collectors from a place bearing a name 
listed below are necessarily from the same site. It should also be noted that many 
19th century collectors used the name ol an organized township without specifying 
"township" and did not necessarily mean a community of the same name within that 
township or elsewhere, e.g., Washington or Shelby [townships] in Macomb County 
and Paris [township] in Kent County. Sometimes a collector's name can be confused 
with a locality. Douglass Houghton, Michigan's first State Geologist (appointed in 
1837), traveled over much more of M i i I . i 'iiiemporaries and 

furthermore was a good botanist (a former student ol' Amos baton). A collection sent 
out by him on exchange or for identification might have been labeled by the recipient 
merely (without date) "Houghton" and could now be misinterpreted as having come 
from the city or county of Houghton, later named for him. 

Another caution that cannot be repeated too often is to distinguish between a 
collecting locality and the collector's address. C. K. Dodge almost invariably accom- 
panied his name with "Port Huron, Michigan.' which is yvhere he lived, not neces- 
sarily where the specimen came from. In (act, a collection from "near Port Huron" 
might have come from the other side of the river, in ( anada, where he also collected 


extensively. Such "near" localities may often mislead, for "near" is a vague term and 
another county or even country could be involved. Furthermore, some 19th century 
collectors had their home town (e.g., "Ann Arbor") printed at the bottom of their 
blank labels no matter where the specimens were obtained. Many erroneous citations 
in the literature result from such deplorable labels. 

(County name in capitals and brackets) 

Adams tamarack [MACOMB]: Shelby [Tp.] (cf. DC labels for Malaxis monophylla, 
Carex bnumesceiis, C. cauescens, C. irisperma). 

Adams, G., tamarack swamp [MACOMB]: Shelby [Tp.] (cf. DC 1842 label for Carex 

Adams, Geo., meadow [MACOMB]: Shelby [Tp.] (cf. DC 1845-1846 labels for Carex 
alopecoidea and Poa pahtstris). 

Adams, John [MACOMB]: ca. 1 mi N of Disco, Shelby Tp. 

Agricultural College [INGHAM]: often abbreviated "Agrl. Coll." and in other ways, 
including "M. A. C." It was founded in 1855, became Michigan State College in 
1925, and Michigan State University in 1955; the name of the community offi- 
cially became East Lansing in 1907. Consider also College Woods, College Farm, 
etc.; and see also entries for Chandler's Marsh, Michigan State Col, andTowar's 
Swamp below. 

Alger's Camp [ALCONA]: a "short distance west from Mud Lake" (q.v.) [= Barton 
City] (CFW et al. in 1888; cf. Voss & Crow 1976, p. 30). 

Allen's Pinery [KENT]: = East St. Pinery in Grand Rapids (cf. EJC label for 
M( \otropa hypopithys). 

Alverno [CHEBOYGAN]: located on the Black River, not the Cheboygan R. as 
stated by Romig. 

Anderson's Pond [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 

Andrews Lake [presumably OAKLAND]: OAF collected on the same dates in 
Waterford Tp., Pontiac, and Bloomfield, all in Oakland Co.— but this lake is not 
on any map I have located; he cited the lake without county in Am. Midi. Nat. 

Andrews [MACOMB]: H.Andrews property in Shelby [Tp., sec. 4] (cf. DC label for 
Aster lanceolatus). 

Arethusa Bog [HOUGHTON]: 0.5 mile N of Laurium (cf. FJH label for Carex flava). 
[Note that S. H. Camp collected 1891-1893 at an Arethusa Swamp "near Clark's 
Lake" in Jackson Co.] 

sly cited on 

Ashery brook [MACOMB]: Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC label for A grostis gigantea). 

i ( • i ! ,\ , I- ' ! , mi mi- ID, , \ Hi.-R! \KIUM VOLUME 24 

.rdj. S. [MACOMBJ: Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Lithospermum curoli- 

Axford farm |OAKLAND]: Long John Axlord farm, Oakland [Tp.] (cf. DC I 
Ctircx lasiocarpa). 

iley Lake [KENT]: "4 miles east of Grand Rapids'" (cf. CWB 1940 label for Lysi- 
machia lerrestris; his locality is in accord with the map in Cole 1901 although 
this lake is unnamed on the 1914 topo map for Grand Rapid quad.: NW!4 sec. 
25, Grand Rapids Tp.; however, that lake is now shown as East Lake on maps.) 
[Other maps (both recent and 191S topo lor Lowell quad.) show Bailey Lake in 
sec. 1 9 of Vergennes Tp., mapped by EJC ( 1 90 1 ) as Long Lake. Since Miss Cole 
had attended high school in Vergennes and later taught there for four years, the 
discrepancy is especially odd; Bailey School was across the road from the lake, 
which suggests some authenticity to the name in that tp.] 

tiles E of Eagle Harbor (OAF 1943; probably 

he other half-dozen Bailey lakes in the state). 

[The 400-acrc Lake Railev Sanctuary of the Michigan Audubon Society is now 

in this area.] 

Baldwin's [OAKLAND]: Oakland [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Carexpseudocyperus). 

Bangham Rd. Woods [JACKSON |: sec. 3,T2S, R3W (E, A. Stowell in 1956-1960 el 

Bardings [MONTMORENCY]: SW corner sec. 8,T30N, R1E (Case in 1956 etc.). 
Barley Motors [KALAMAZOO]: sec. 4/5, Schoolcraft Tp. (CRH, cf. his labels for 

Mchunpvnini lincarc and Lysinuicluu lanceolata). 
Bassett's Island [GRAND TRAVERSE]: on NE side of Marion (Ford) Island (CFW 

in 1898). 
Bates farm [MACOMB]: John Bates farm, Washington [Tp.] (cf. Cooley label for 

Potamogeton gram incus ) . 
Bear Lake [MANISTEE]: EJH in 1880. 
Bear Lake [VAN BUREN]: EJH in 1872 (= '/Great Bear in Bloomingdale Tp. or 

Little Bear [= Lake 14] in Columbia Tp.; cf. Voss in Michigan Bot.6: 14. 1967). 
Beaver Island: Besides the well-known island in Lake Michigan [Charlevoix Co.], 
note that this is also the old name for Manitou Island in Lake Superior off the 
tip of the Keweenaw Peninsula [Keweenaw <.'o.} (cf. Lt. James Allen's journal 
for June 15, 1832 [Mason 1958. p. 175]). There are yet other Beaver Islands in 
Minnesota: in Lake Superior (Lake Co., a flora by Lakela in Bull.Torrey Bot. 
Club 75: 265-271. 1948) and in the Mississippi River at St. Cloud (cf. Minnesota 
Conservation Volunteer Sept. Oct. 1976, p. 16). 
Belle Isle [KEWEENAW]: this tiny island (with National Park campground) on the 
northwest side of Isle Royale was so-named in 1915 (Pan alt & Welker), and for- 
merly had a resort and post office. [ It should not be confused with the much bet- 
ter-known and thoroughly developed Belle Isle (named in 1845) in the Detroit 
River (Wayne Co.); cf. Mich. I listorv 87(d): 5-19, Nov. -Dec. 2003.] 


Benedict Marsh [OAKLAND]: Oakland [Tp.] (cf. DC labels for Carex buxbaumii 
and Hierochloe odorata). 

Bennett Brook [MACOMB]: SW 35, Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Callitriche 

Besser Natural Area [PRESQUE ISLE]: in sec. 13 and 14.T33N, R8E at Bolton Pt. 

Bessey Creek [CHEBOYGAN]: = Lancaster Creek of maps, flowing into the NW 
part of Douglas Lake (UMBS). 

Big Traverse Bay [HOUGHTON]: (OAF 1943; cf. also Traverse Bay, below). 

Birchwood [BERRIEN]: just SW of Warren Dunes (CKD collected here in 1917). 

Black Pool (Meadow) [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 

Black River [GOGEBIC]: this is the Black River of Henry Gillman in 1868, flow- 
ing into Lake Superior west of the Presque Isle River and Porcupine Mts. State 
Park (cf. Peters in Mich. Academician 18: 426. 1986). [There are several other 
Black Riveis n lichiga \ . ; i Muskegon (C. D. McLouth 

coll.), Ottawa (sec below). St. Clair (C. K. Dodge coll.), Sanilac, and Van Buren 
counties. The Black River in Cheboygan Co. Hows from Black Lake into the 
Cheboygan River near its mouth, but the name is also carelessly applied to the 
Upper Black River, which arises in Otsego Co. and flows through small portions 
of Montmorency and Presque Isle counties before finally entering Black Lake 
in Cheboygan Co.] 

Black River [OTTAWA]: The river and the Black Lake into which it flows were 
changed to M atawa Ri er and Macataw; Lai in 19 ] ind 1935, respectively. 

Blanchard Lake (or "Bog'-) [CHEBOYGAN]: = Mud Lake of maps in sees. 21 and 

Blockhouse [OSCODA]: on Blockhouse Creek, NE!4 sec. 12,T26N, R4E (CFW et al. 
in 1888; cf. Voss & Crow 1976, p. 34). 

Bloody Run [WAYNE]: Detroit, name changed from Parent's Creek after a bloody 
battle with Indians in 1 763; south ol' what later became Jefferson Ave. (cf. Farmer, 
pp. 9-10). 

Bodies Creek Meadow [KEWEENAW]: the creek flows into Eagle River at Phoenix 
(OAF 1943). 

Bohemia, Mt. [KEWEENAW]: sec. 29,T58N, R29W. 

Bois Blanc Island [MACKINAC]: CB collected here in 1914 and 1916 (cf. labels for 
Taxus canadensis, Salix amluta, etc.) as did others in other years, including S. H. 
Camp in the 1890s. CB also collected in 1914 at the island of the same name [also 
often corrupted to tt BobLo ,, — to which it is offii illy changed in 1949] in the 
Detroit River, on the Canadian side of the International border and hence in 
Essex Co., Ontario (cf. his label for Physalis longifolia and also Farmer, pp. 7-8). 

Bootjack [HOUGHTON]: sec. 20.T55N, R32W. 

Botanical Gardens [WASHTENAW]: The University of Michigan Botanical Gar- 
dens have been located at lliree quite different sites (other than plots as early 
as 1897 on the central campus and rented greenhouse space in town). Originally 

(1907-1916) they were (in both ge hy an. u tin ion) ocial I with 

the Nichols Arboretum on Geddes Ave. in the NI part of Ann Arbor. From 1916 


until 1960-1961 they were located south of Stadium Blvd. between Packard Rd. 

and South Indu 1 1 1 il ligh . hi in.u on i rot] i i , 1 1 1 j -. I 

tion of the move in 1961 the unii (now named the Matthaei Botanical Gardens) 
has been located on Dixboro Rl\. in the Nb pail o\' Ann Arbor Tp. and W part 
of Superior Tp.. south of Plymouth Rd. 
Bowery Park [LAKE]: on Big Star Lake (CWB in 1947 etc.). 

7-8, T2S, R4W (Sheridan Tp.), N of Winnipeg 

i St. Ferry, West [OTTAWA]: west of Grand Rapids, sec. 2(),Tallmadge Tp. (EJC). 
i Ott Preserve (q.v); on county maps as Blackley 

lort distance S of PattoiTs marsh (q.v.) (CRH, cf. 

own tamarack [MACOMB | hm ion [ l p ] (cl IX labels for Carex hysteneina 

and C. tenera). 

own's West Woods [KALAMAZOO]: E. L. Brown's, sec. 22, Prairie Ronde Tp. 

(CRH; E. L. Brown located in Schoolcraft, Hanes 1947, p. 224 under Datura). 
owiTs [MACOMB]: Saul Brown's, Shelby [Tp., sec. 3] (cf. DC label fox Aster lan- 


ownstown [WAYNE]: = Tp. (OAF in 1930). 

yant's Bog [CHEBOYGAN]: very near Douglas Lake in sec. 29, T37N, R3W 

drow's Marsh [KALAMAZOO]: sec. 4, Schoolcraft Tp. (CRH, cf. his 1934 label 

for Quercn.s coccinc(i:his Flora locates Budrow's [arm (p. 253) as "east of Sugar- 
loaf Lake" which could conceivably be near the oak site). 

/ Tp., GENESEE]: (D. Clarke 

C.&H. Stamp Mills [HOUGHTON]: on shore oflorch Lake at Lake Linden (OAF, 
many collections) (cl. Benedict. Red Metal: The Calumet & Heel a Story, pp. 1 16 
and 188. 1952. [The C. & H. company was long the leading copper producer on 

Lake Superior. Cl. also Clifton, below.] 

Cable Lake [CASS]: sec. 5,T5S, R16W [for no apparent reason the name has been 
dropped on some recent county maps]. 

Cady's Corner, etc. [WASHTENAW]: long a popular collecting area near the former 
general store at intersection oi Plait Rd. and Michigan Ave. (i.e., near the NW 
corner of sec. 26, Pittsfield Tp. (T3S. R6E). [See also Thomas Bog/woods below. 
I am aware of no collections from Lady (or Cady's Corners) in sec. 30, Clinton 
Tp., Macomb Co., where there was a Post ( )('lice I S64 1 906 (Romig).] 


Camp 5 [MENOMINEE]: (cf. CAD 1905 label for Physalis virginiana). 

Camp 6 [IRON]: 1.5 miles N of Mansfield (cf. Rep. Geol. Surv. Mich, for 1906, p. 30 

and CAD 1905 label for Cynoglossum boreale). 
Camp 7 [CHARLEVOIX]: 4.5 miles NW of Vanderbilt [which is in Otsego Co.] 

Camp 7 [MENOMINEE]: ca. 1 mile W of Faithorn, Menominee River (cf. Mich. Man. 

1905, p. 162, Menominee R ■ iti< n the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. 

Marie RR, and CAD 1905 labels for Agropyron smithii and Car ex granulans). 
Camp 8 [CHARLEVOIX]: NWW sec. 19,T33N, R4W (EAB in 1912; cf. his labels for 

Abies balsamea and Hackelia virginiana). 
Camp 9 [DICKINSON]: near Waucedah (CAD in 1905). 
Camp Blodgett [OTTAWA]: sec. 28, Grand Haven Tp. 

Camp meeting ground [MACOMB]: Bruce [Tp.] (cf. DC 1845 label for Carex tenera). 
Campau Woods [WAYNE]: (pencil note in J. M. Sutton's hand on his label for 

Asimina and cf. also CB label for Carya cordiformis). 
Camps [see Davis, Peter White, Roth, below] 
Canal [HOUGHTON]: (OAF 1943). 
Canfield's Farm [MANISTEE]: now within the southwestern ah hum of'Mani « 

I i , , i 1 long label 14 Aug. 1882, NY, "pool on 

Canfield's farm, near Manistee"). [The property was acquired by the Manistee 

Country Club in the late 1880s and the two pools were drained (letter of Sept. 

28, 1959, from C. N. Russell, president of Manistee County Historical Society, 

to EGV, quoted in Mich. Bot. 4: 13-14. 1965). Not the same as Canfield Lake, 3 

miles to the southeast.] 
Cannon's farm [MACOMB]: J. Cannon's, Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC 1850 label for 

Agrostis gigan(ea). 
Caribou Island [KEWEENAW (Isle Royale)]: East and West Caribou Islands are 

immediately SW of Mott Island in the Isle Royale archipelago (only known 

site — which of the two was not stated — for [ntennaria / ; u \\ Michig t) 

[Should not be confused with the larger and more remote Caribou Island in 

eastern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada.] 
Carlton [MONROE]: = Carleton (cf. CFW label for Uvularia sessilifolia). 
Carpenter's [MACOMB]: Simon Carpenter's meadow (cf. DC 1845 label for Ranun- 
culus acris [no tp. indicated]). 
Cascade Glen [WASHTENAW]: ravine S of Huron River near S edge sec. 17,T2S, 

R6E, north of Ann Arbor. 
Cedar Creek Valley [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 
Central House [BENZIE]: in Inland Tp. (CFW et al. in 1888; cf. Voss & Crow 1976, 

p. 64, note 89). 
Central Mine [KEWEENAW]: in SE 1 /* sec. 23,T58N, R31W (J. W. Robbins in 1861 

and 1863). 


Chamberlain Mill [OAKLAND]: DC in 1839, probably SW/4 sec. 1, Addison 
Tp. — but marsh 1 mile L : (cf. 1839 label for Carex laeusiris) would be in Sec. 6, 
Bruce Tp., Macomb Co.). 

Chamberlin Marsh [OAKLAND]: Addison [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Carex tetanica 
var. meadii). 

Chandler's Marsh [CLINTON]: over 3000 acres once owned by Zachariah Chandler, 
U.S. Senator from Michigan (bought by him from the Agricultural College, /We 
Ceasar 1978 p. 27-28): the marsh mostly in Clinton Co., inch all portions near 
the RR (cf. soils map), but the S part does extend into Ingham Co. (cf. 1933 soils 
map). Chandler Farm was "3 miles N of M.A.C." [Mich. Agric. College] (cf. CFW 
1901 label for Senecio panpercuhts; cf. also Mich. History 65(3): 10, Mav-June 
1 98 1 , and esp. 82(6): 52-53, Nov.-Dec. 1 998). 

Christianna Lake [CASS]: (J. A. Nieuwland in 1924 etc.). 

Clark Lake [JACKSON]: of the 15 Michigan lakes bearing this name, the one in 
Jackson Co. (Columbia Tp., P.O. as "Clarklake" 1896- ) is the type locality for 
Betula xpurpusii Schneider; however. Clark Lake in Livingston Co. = the "Mont 
Lake" (q.v.) of Mary Clark. 

Clark Mine | KEWEENAW]: EVi sec.4,T58N, R28W (OAF). 

Clay Point [WAYNE]: island near mouth of Detroit River (B. E. Quick in 1913; cf. his 
letter to EG V.March 1957). 

Clifton (or Cliff) [KEWEENAW]: village at the great Cliff Mine site, nearly 3 miles 
SW of Eagle River (with shafts in several sections, including sec. 36.T58N, R32W, 
and adjacent sec. 1,T57N). Oliver A. Farwell (father of the botanist) was agent 
in charge of the mine from 1871 (coming from the nearbv Phoenix Mine) until 
his death in 1881. OAF the botanist collected extensively in the Cliff area. [It 
is no coincidence that Hervev Parke, who handled the business records for the 
Cliff Mine 1852-1863, was founder of the Parke, Davis firm, which employed the 
botanist Farwell from 1892 until his retirement in 1933.] The Cliff lands were pur- 
chased by Calumet & Hecla (q.v., as "C. & EC") in 1909. (For much information, 
cf. Chaput, The Cliff: America's First Great Copper Mine, p. 55. 1971 .) 

Clifton Marsh [MACOMB j: Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC labels for Eleoehans rostellata, 
Poci languida, Carex huxbuumii, etc.). 

Clifton Mill Pond [MACOMB]: sec. 6, Washington Tp. 

Coalpit Hill [CHIPPEWA]: Sault Ste. Marie [Zina Pitcher collected Adenocaulon 
bicolor here June 24, 1826. but his label [MICH] does not indicate whether it 
was from the U.S. or the Canadian side. R. D. Williams in 1905, The Honorable 
Peter White, p. 95 in chapter on "Sault Ste. Marie before the Canal," describing 
an 1847 incident, implied the U.S. side and referred to "outside of the Sault on 
Coalpit hill" where a traveler from Mackinaw to the Sault waited en route to 
James Schoolcraft's store in the fort. Bernard Aibie (pets, comm., 1995) notes 
that a letter from John Johnston in 1879 refers to a homestead "about three miles 
from the Sault & a mile and a quarter from the river on Coal Pit Hill, command- 
ing the view of both channels .."; Dr. Arbic also notes that some old property 
deeds suggest that the site was south of the present campus of Lake Superior 
State University, on the east side of the Michigan Meridian.] 


College [see Agricultural College] 

Colon Junction [ST. JOSEPH]: = Fairfax, 2 miles W of Colon (CFW in 1890 and 

1893), cf. label for Carex bichwllii [an 1889 map shows MCRR line to Lansing 

crossed here]. 
Comins [OSCODA]: Comins' farm (CFW et al. in 1888), on N side of Au Sable River 

west of Comins Creek, in sec. 1 1,T26N, R3E (cf. Voss & Crow 1976, p. 36, note 

44); the later community of Comins is 10 miles to the north. 
Connor Creek [WAYNE]: mouth is due N of N end of Belle Isle. 
Conservation Park [GRATIOT]: S of Alma in sec. 4.T1 IN, R3W. 
Cordell [CHIPPEWA]: 1 mile W of Spur 459 (q.v). 
Cornell's [SCHOOLCRAFT]: W.T. S. Cornell's farm near Hiawatha (cf. CKD label 

for Polygonum persicaria). 
Cove, The [OAKLAND]: on Lakcville Lake (cf. CB in Pap. Mich. Acad. 11: 51-73. 

Cranberry Marsh [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 
Crisman's [MACOMB]: Jack Crisman's land, Washington [Tp., presumably sec. 22 or 

27] (cf. DC 1840 label for Aster lateriflorus). 
Crooked Pond [MACOMB]: Washington [Tp.] (probably = what now is Crooked 

Lake, in sec. 5 — a natural lake with a dam,/zde Humphrys; cf. DC 1843 label for 

Carex viridula). 

Davis, L. [probably MACOMB]: (IX in I-"- - : - abcl lor Ri ■ r is pus); later plats 
show property of many Daviscs in Macomb Co., including Washington Tp., but 
the earlier of them show no L. Davis. 

Davis, Camp [CHEBOYGAN]: on S shore of South Fishtail Bay, Douglas Lake 
[Univ. of Michigan engineering camp established in 1909 and named for J. B. 
Davis in 1916; in I ' ■ he engineers (surveyors) moved to Wyoming and the 
Biological Station, established in 1909 immediately east of Camp Davis, moved 
to the site of the latter.] 

t any of the 

Davis Woodlot [WASHTENAW]: Salem Tp., SE14 sec. 16, T1S, R7E (cf. label for 
( 'uulophylluni tlialictroides). 

Dead Lake [WASHTENAW]: less than 1 mile SW of Whitmorc Lake (OAF 1943). 

Deer Lick [IONIA]: "2 mi. n.w. of Hubbardston Ionia Co." (CFW, cf. labels for Scir- 
pus olne\ id J 

DeGroff meadow [MACOMB?]: (DC in lK^.//\, th >e< 

is on old plat maps in Ray Tp. and Hezekiah DeGroff built a sawmill 2 Vi miles 
E of Davis [= Brooklyn] in Ray Tp. (cf. Eldredge, Past & Present of Macomb 
County, 1905)— but DC label offers no clue as to tp. or even county. 


Detroit Island: [Door Co., Wisconsin, on the S side of Washington Island; not in 
Michigan, just as Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, have nothing to do with Detroit, 

Detroit Zoo [OAKLAND]: sec. 21, TIN, RUE (ca. 2 miles SW of Royal Oak); not in 
Wayne Co., as labels are often misinterpreted because of the word "Detroit" (J. 
M.Sutton in 1 91 6 (cf. his report in Rep. Mich. Acad. 19:263-271. 1918). 

. 25,T59N, R29W (ca. 2 miles W of Cop- 

Dewey's [OAKLAND]: Dewey's in Oakland [Tp.] (DC in 1847, Polygonum 

Douglas Farm [KENT]: Fallassburg (CWF in 1886, cf. label for Arab is lyrata). 

Douglass Houghton [see Houghton]. 

Draper School [JACKSON]: SW corner sec. 29, Rives Tp. (Camp in 1893; cf. 1926 
soils map). 

Duck Lake [MUSKEGON]: at Michillinda (H. C. Cowles in 1906, cf. label for Lemna 
minor). [A State Park is now on the north side of this lake, with frontage also on 
Lake Michigan. Th ere are about 30 other Duck Lakes in Michigan.] 

Due West [OAKLAND]: an interurban station "near Rochester" (cf. OAF in Am. 
Midi. Nat. 1 1: 49 [1928], under Carex richardsonii). 

Duns Scotus Coll. [OAKLAND]: Southfield. 

Duttoivs [CHEBOYGAN]: Topmabee (M. Freeman in 1888, cf. her label for 
Monotropa uniflora). 

Eagle Isle [CHARLEVOIX]: = Old Island in Round lake. Charlevoix harbor (cf. 
letter from William Ratigan to EGV, Nov. 8, 1968). (j. A. Drushcl et al. in 1914 
and 1915, MO). [N.B.: there is also an Eagle Island in Walloon Lake.] 

East Bluff [KEWEENAW]: in sec. LT58N, R28W and nearby (see also Vulcan, 

tern of Twin Lakes of maps, in sec. 7, T38N, 

East Point [CHEBOYGAN]: E side of Douglas Lake at beginning of North Fishtail 
Bay (UMBS). 

Economou farm [ISABELLA]: sec. 31.T13N, R5W (cf. labels at ALMA). 
Edgewater Park [ST CLAIR]: at Algonac (OAF) . 

Edgewood [GRAND TRAVERSE]: (CFW in 1898; just E of Traverse City). 
Edgewood [HOUGHTON]: apparently at Lake Linden (OAF 1943; he collected at 
Edgewood several times in 1941 and 1942). 

• Edwardsburgh (First Survey. Aug. 1838; cf. McVaugh 


8-mile Creek [GOGEBIC]: west side of Gogebic Lake (EAB in 1919); (cf. label i 

Juncus dudleyi). 
Entry [HOUGHTON]: = Portage Entry (from Lake Superior to Portage River a 

Lake), near Jacobsville. 
Esrey Park [KEWEENAW]: on Agate Harbor, ca. 5 miles E of Eagle Harbor. 
Eureka [HOUGHTON]: near Laurium (FJH in 1922-1926). 
Evergreen Cemetery [WAYNE]: in Detroit, on S edge of Woodlawn Cemetery (q.v 

Farwell, Mt. [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 

Feeding Ground Lake [MARQUETTE]: SEVa sec. 31,T45N, R25W [There are also 
Big and Little Feeding Ground lakes in Ogemaw Co. (Locke in 1941).] 

Felt-boot factory [KENT]: source of wool refuse used for fertilizer on the Phillips 
farm in sec. 19, Paris Tp., apparently introduci imb I species from the 

Southwest (cf. EJC 1901, p. 160 &. e.g., her labels for Erigeron ftagellaris, Verbe- 
sina encelioides, Chrysi <sts viilos md a I: VI tlo WO. 1996). 

i E side of St. Joseph River in sec. 

Fighting Island: [Essex Co. Ontario, Canada, in Detroit River.] 

rner Stadium Blvd. and Packard, 

Five Lakes [MUSKEGON]: a group of five drying ' I ■ holl I i ongly dependent 

on water tables, in southwest part of Eggleston Tp. (T10N, R15W); Carr Lake is 
the largest (and the only one with a name— that once reportedly encompassed 
all); cf. McLouth in ! s )00. Scirpus haifa, el al. Part of the area is now a sanctuary 
of the Michigan Nature Association. [I know of no plant collections from Five 
Lakes, formerly a settlement and P.O. in Lapeer Co.; cf. Romig.] 

Five Pts. [WAYNE]: Redford Tp. (OAF in 1932). [P.O. here only in 1918 fide Romig.] 

Five-mile Pt. [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 

Flanders meadow [OAKLAND]: Avon [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Carex tenera). 

Flint Steel River: [ONTONAGON] 

Floodwood [SCHOOLCRAFT]: sec. 14, T43N, R14W, on the Manistique River 
(CKD in 1915; cf. Mich. Geol. Biol. Surv. Publ. 31, p. 75. 1921). [Not to be con- 
fused with a Floodwood in NW Dickinson Co., from which no plant collections 
have been seen.] 

Flummerfelt's [OAKLAND]: Oakland [Tp.] (cf. DC 1848 label for Muhlenbergia 
glomerata). [The old 223-acre farmstead was cleared for development early in 

Forestry Farm [WASHTENAW]: = Saginaw Forest (q.v), Ann Arbor. 


Fork Township [MECOSTA]: (S. Lane Wilson in 1961-1978, MSC). 
Fraser's Grove [KALAMAZOO]: southeast of Vicksburg (cf. CRH 1947, p. 127). 
Frazer's (or Fraser's) [CRAWFORD]: SW'/ 4 NW/4 sec. 26, T27N, R1W. on North 

Branch of the Au Sable River (Voss & Crow 1976. p. 40); sometimes erroneously 

attributed to Oscoda Co. (CFW et al. in 1888). 

Fruit Belt [KALAMAZOO]: old RR line in NW part of Texas Tp. (cf. CRH label for 
Tephrosia virginiana). 

Garden City [KEWEENAW]: old mine site near Eagle River (OAF 1943; coll. 1886, 
1940, etc.). [Not the Garden City in Wayne Co., W of Dearborn.] 

Gates Bog [CHEBOYGAN]: sec. 22,T37N R3W (UMBS). 

Geddes [WASHTENAW]: N'/ 2 sec. 36, Ann Arbor Tp. 

Col. George's Estate [OAKLAND]: sec. 17, Bloomfield Tp. [Not to be confused 
with the E. S. ( .eorgc Reserve, given by Col. George in 1930 to the University of 
Michigan, in Livingston Co.] 

Gleason's Bog [CHEBOYGAN]: just E of Bryant's Bog (q.v.) (UMBS). 
Glenn Island [INGHAM]: in Grand River just S of Grand Trunk RR bridge in Lan- 
sing (el. Foster 1 942. p. 492). 

Glenn Pier [ALLEGAN]: W of Glenn, NW'/ 4 sec. 3 1 , Ganges Tp.(C. H. Kauffman in 
1910 and associated by him with South Haven; cf. Mich. Manual maps). 

Goff Plains [MACOMB]: Shelby [Tp.] (cf. DC labels for Carex muhlenbergii, Bromus 
kalmii, Pyrola rotundifolia). 

Goguac Lake [CALHOUN]: SW of Battle Creek (E. L. Greene in 1902, ND-G). 

t source of Carp Creek in sec. 33, R37N R3W 

Government Marsh [ST. JOSEPH]: 6 miles SW of Vicksburg (cf. F. W. Rapp label for 
Sor^/iaslntni nutans). 

Grand Marais [ALGER or KEWEENAW]: harbor (so known since 1660) and vil- 
lage in Alger Co.; a less well-known harbor E of Eagle Harbor, Keweenaw Co.). 
[There is also a third Grand Marais on Lake Superior, in Cook Co., northeast- 
ernmost Minnesota.] 

Grand River at Mill Rd. [WAYNE]: Mill Rd. = Southfield Rd. 
Grand Traverse Bay [cf. Traverse Bay and Little Traverse Bay entries below.] 
Grapevine Pt. [CHEBOYGAN]: W of South Fishtail Bav in Douglas Lake sec 28 
T37N, R3W (UMBS). 

i Range [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1 

Gratiot River [KEWEENAW]: (Lewis Foote in 1865). [A county park is now at the 

Graveraet River [HOUGHTON]: mouth on Lake Superior SW of Salmon Trout 
River (cf. also Peters in Mich. Hist. Rev. 27(1): 82-85. 1991). 

Great Lakes Engineerin Planl [ WAYN1 >, ds on the Detroit River at Ecorse 

(CB, Sept. 18, 1915; cf. label for Echinochloa waited). 

Green [ONTONAGON]: (Pammel & Fisk in 1926; but there are other Green(e)s in 

Green's [MACOMB]: Lazarus Green's (DC in 1839), sec. 28. Washington Tp. (cf. 
county history). 

Green Star Trail [CHEBOYGAN]: crosses sees. 34 and 35,T37N, R3W (UMBS). 

Greenwood Park [BERRIEN]: sec. 21, HagarTp. 

Gregoryville [HOUGHTON]: also Gregory Springs (OAF). Gregory was at the N 
end of Torch Lake, opposite Lake Linden (cf. old Calumet quad, topo map). 

Gull Prairie [KALAMAZOO]: near Richland (which formerly bore this name; First 
Survey in 1838; cf. McVaugh 1970 and Romig). 

Gull Rock [KEWEENAW]: off the west end of Manitou Island (cf. Beacon 20(2): 
8-10, Summer 2002 and 20(3): 21, Fall 2002). [Not to be confused with Gull 
Islands NE of Passage Island. Isle Royale Natl. Park.] 

Gun Lake [ALLEGAN/BARRY]: less than 3% of the area of this lake is in Allegan 
Co.; the rest is in Barry Co., including the large peninsula in the lake, where some 
collections have specifically been made. However, the Post Office of the same 
name (closed in 1905) is listed as in Allegan Co., presumably because the mail 
came via Shelbyville in that county. "Gun Lake' 1 collections almost certainly are 
from Barry Co.— where also Yankee Springs State Park now has frontage on 
the lake. 


Haddon [MACOMB]: sec. 23, Washington Tp. 

Hamilton at Belt Line [WAYNE]: (CB). 

Hammond Woods [WASHTENAW]: (OAF 1943; cf. also map in Walpole 1924). 

Harwoods 1 Woods [WASHTENAW]: NEW sec. 27, Pittsfield Tp. (Ruth B. [Alford] 

MacFarlane coll. and pers. com. 2002); cf. also Cady's above. Now included in the 

Pittsfield Preserve (of the township of the same name). 
Hayes Pt. [KEWEENAW]: at Copper Harbor (cf. map in Mich. History 61: 225. 

Hazel [HOUGHTON]: probably near Lake Linden (OAF Oct. 7, 1934; attributed to 

Houghton Co. by OAF in Am. Fern Jour. 27: 12. 1937). 
Hebard Park [KEWEENAW]: county park, sec. 26,T59N, R29W. 
Hemlock Island [CASS]: in Magician Lake (cf. H. S. Pepoon's labels). 


Henry's Woods [BAY]: in Bay City {fide annotation in unknown hand on 1894 G. M. 

Bradford specimen of Uvidaria grandifiora at MSC). 
Hermit's [CHEBOYGAN]: in Reese's Bog (q.v.), sec. 5,T36N, R3W (UMBS). 
Hersey's [OAKLAND]: James Hersey's mill pond, Oakland |Tp.] (cf. DC 1852 label 

for Carex richardsonii). [But Romig locates James 1 Jersey's sawmill, built in 1824, 

in Avon Tp. — which was not separated from Oakland Tp. until 1835, while other 

sources locate it, built in 1819, more precisely in S 1 /: sec. 10, Avon Tp.] 
Hickory Flats [WASHTENAW]: variously located (if at all) on labels ca. 1924-1925 

as 5 or 6 miles south of Aim Arbor; no more precise site seems known (cf. labels, 

e.g.. for Phuitiu" < umanum). 

Hidden Lake Gardens [LENAWEE]: in Franklin Tp., ca. 2 miles W of Tipton. 
Highland Park [KENT]: a municipal park of this name is in Grand Rapids, north of 

the Grand Trunk RR and east of the Grand River. 
Highland Park [OTTAWA]: a resort at Grand Haven (Mary B. Fallass in 1893-1896, 

etc.). [The elegant 19th century Highland Park Hotel was destroyed by lire in 

December of 1967.] 
Highland Park [WAYNE]: A towr 

Highland Park most often mc 
Hill's Creek [KEWEENAW]: mouth on Lake Superior ca. 1 mile SW of Gratiot 

River (cf. Lewis Foote 1865 label for Ranunculus reptans). [Sometimes corrupted 

to "Mill Creek" on maps.] 

Hill's pond [MACOMB]: (DC in 1845), N'/ 2 SW!4 sec. 27, Ray Tp. (cf. 1859 map). 

Hog Creek [ST. JOSEPH]: (First Survey in 1838; cf. McVaugh 1970, p. 242). 

Hog Island [WAYNE]: = Isle au Cochons, in 1845 renamed Belle Isle, in Detroit 
River; also one. nown as I ukc Islam (q.v. and cf. Beacon 18(4): 4, Winter 

2000-01). [Not to be con i ' I I . , ,. ,. , ■ oup. Chaile\oix 

Co. Furthermore, ca. 7 miles E of Nauhmwav (Mackinac Co.) are Hog Island 
Creek, Hog Island Pt., Little Hog Island (in Lake Michigan), and Hog Island 
Rd. leading to Rexton.] 

Hogback Rd. [CHEBOYGAN]: on the high ground above N end of Reese's Bog 
(q.v.) (UMBS). 

Holland [ALLEGAN/OTTAWA]: 32nd St. is the county line: higher numbers are in 

Allegan Co., lower numbers in Ottawa Co. 
Hoop Lake [CHEBOYGAN]: near center N edge sec. 2,T36N, Rl E; a bog near (but 

not connected with) the marl forming chain ol'Twin Lakes (UMBS). 
Hosner Marsh [MACOMB]: Washington [Tp.] (DC in 1843 etc.; but most Hosner 

properties were in Bruce Tp. fide plat maps). 
Houghton, Douglass. Creek [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 
Houghton, Douglass, Falls [HOUGHTON]: ca. 1 mile NW of Lake Linden. 
Houghton, Mt. [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 


Howell Junction [LIVINGSTON]: = Annpere, ca. 1 mile SE of Howell. 

Hubbardston [IONIA]: note that the village borders on Clinton Co. and specimens 
may be from that county. Erwin F. Smith's home was 3.5 miles E of Hubbardston 
and thus well into Clinton Co. [See also entry for Deer Lick.] 

Hunter's Point [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 


Incline [HOUGHTON]: (a frequi I lection site for OAF; The Lake Linden termi- 
nus of the railroad from which the rock cars were switched to the rope-controlled 
inclined-plane railway leading to the stamp mills and the docks."— C. Harry 
Benedict, Red Mchd: The Calumet & Hecla Story, p. 116. 1952). 

Indian Village [WAYNE]: in Detroit, between Jefferson Ave. and Mack Ave. (CB in 

Ingleside [CHEBOYGAN]: resort area on NW side of Douglas Lake, near Bessey 
Creek (q.v.) in sec. 17,T37N R3W (UMBS). 

Iron River [ONTONAGON]: just west of Silver City (H. Gillman in 1868); not the 
outlet of Lake ] | n in Marquette Co., nor the community in Iron Co. 

Little Iron River of Gillman is just a mile farther west. 

Irwin's Woods [WASHTENAW]: sec. 4, Sharon Tp. (T3S, R3E). 

Island Lake [LIVINGSTON]: (OAF July 16, 1905; CFW May 31, 1898) [there are ca. 
30 other Island Lakes in Michigan]. 

Isle aux Peches [Essex Co., Ontario, Canada] (CFW in 1892, etc.; cf. Peach I. 

Isle Royale Mine [HOUGHTON]: just south of Houghton [not on Isle Royale. 
although there was an u Tsle Royale and Ohio Mine" there]. 

Isle Royale Stamp Mill: moved in late 1880s from Houghton [Houghton Co.] to 
Republic [Marquette Co.] (cf. Mich. History 53: 115. 1969). 


Jam One [KALKASKA]: original name for Sharon (changed when a Post Office 
was established), where the North Branch of the Manistee River flows into the 
Manistee, near NW corner of T25N, R6W (CFW et al. in 1888; cf. Voss & Crow 
1976, pp. 54-55). 

Jenison Park [OTTAWA]: W end of Lake Macatawa (fide 1932 county map). 

Jennings [MISSAUKEE]: in Lake Tp., Missaukee Co., but in 1922 most of the town 
was moved 11 miles west to Cadillac in Wexford Co. (cf. Chronicle 22(2): 13, 
July-Aug. 1986). 

Junior [OAKLAND]: (OAF collected here and at Harris July 13, 1918) 

Kady's [WASHTENAW]: a misspelling on some labels = Cady's (q.v.). 
Kapp, G. W. [MACOMB]: wheal field, meadow, Washington [Tp.] (DC, cf. 1845 labels 
for Carex tenera and C formosa). 

Keeler Marsh [MACOMB]: Washington [Tp.] (DC in 1839 and 1849, cf. labels for 
Carex lanuginosa and C. sartwellii). 

Keweenaw Point [HOUGHTON/KEWEENAW]: [Most 19th century collectors did 
not restrict this "Poinf to the tip of the Keweenaw Peninsula, as modern maps 
show it, but included at least the northern portion of Houghton Co. (or even 
parts of Ontonagon and Baraga counties: cf. Voss. 1978. p. 77). Map in Foster and 
Whitney 1850 indicates the Point as far S as latitude of Houghton; and an 1832 
observation by Lt. Allen (in Mason 1958, p. 178) notes that the "Point" is "often 
applied to the whole peninsula."] 

Keweenaw Portage [HOUGHTON]: the Portage Lake Ship Canal, completed in 
1874, now accommodates small boats crossing the Keweenaw Peninsula via 
Portage Lake, where the early explorers had to portage their canoes to avoid 
the long (and dangerous) route around Keweenaw Point; David B. Douglass, 
Douglass Houghton, and others i\nu)d such bog species as orchids and pitcher- 
plants along the portage. The north end of the present canal is at the west end 
of McLain State Park. 

Killarney Point [GOGEBIC]: on Tenderfoot Lake, not in Wisconsin as labeled by P. 
E. Hebert (fide B. Hellenthal). 

Knapp swale [MACOMB]: Washington [Tp.] (DC,cf. label for Scirpus atrovirens). 
Kruzefs Bog [EMMET]: NW14 sec. 25, T35N, R5W (UMBS; now the Orchis Fci 
IV seiw ol 1 .ill] 1 iversc < nscrvam ) 

Lake Glazon [KEWEENAW]: sec. 28.T59N, R3W (OAF). 

Lake Louise [CHARLEVOIX]: = Thumb Lake, in Hudson Tp. 

Lamb's [MACOMB]: Lamb's meadow, Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC 1845 label for Carex 

LaSalle Island [MACKINAC]: in Les Cheneaux, north end of Lake Huron (J. R. 
Churchill in 1910. MO. and misleadiny,lv said on his labels to be "near Sault Ste 

Laughing [White] Fish River [ALGER]: (Gillman in 1867; similarly. Laughing Fish 



Lawrence Marsh [MACOMB]: Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Solidago panda 

Leach's [MACOMB]: Ike Leach's, Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Carex cris- 

Leadley Park [INGHAM]: amusement park on N side of Grand River, promoted 
about 1892 and later named Wa\eil\ Park (on I sid. of'Ws erly Rd.) (fith \\ 
unrelated Mr. Leadley of Lansing, phone Dec. 1961, and cf. Foster 1952, p. 498) 
(Kedziein 1893, MSC). 

LeFurge Woods [WASHTENAW]: sec. 27.T2S, R7E (Superior Tp.). A frequent col- 
lection site for OAF and others, now in the 325-acre LeFurge Woods Nature 
Preserve of the Southeast Michigan Land Conservancy. 

Lennox Ave, [WAYNE]: Detroit (OAF 1943). 

Limberlost [OAKLAND]: BloomfieldTp. 

Limestone Mt. [HOUGHTON]: T51N, R35W. [Not in Baraga Co., as stated by N C. 
Fassett.on July 2, 1938, labels.] 

Linden Park [WAYNE]: Detroit (was in Hamtramck [Tp.] (cf. Farmer, p. 4). 

Linwood [HOUGHTON]: at Lake Linden (OAF collected here Sept. 19, 1941 . [Not 
to be confused with the much better-known Linwood in Bay Co.] 

Little Lake [MARQUETTE]: ca. 3-5 miles E of Gwinn; this is presumably the "Little 
Lake" of Dachnowski in 1906, although not in the Marquette Quadrangle (nei- 
ther is the very much smaller Little Lake just W of Teal Lake); the town of the 
same name (but P.O. then called Forsyth) was on the Chicago & Northwestern 
RR 22 miles SE of Negaunee— suggesting that Dachnowski traveled through 
Little Lake and Sands (q.v.). 

Little Traverse Bay [HOUGHTON]: on west side of Keweenaw Bay, ca. 3-4 miles 
S of Keweenaw Co. (OAF July 28, 1939). [Not to be confused with the better 
known Little Traverse Bay in Emmet Co.] 

Livingston Bog [CHEBOYGAN]: in sec. 2,T36N, R3W (UMBS). 

Locke's [Corner]: [OAKLAND]: (OAF 1943; cf. CB labels for Quercus muehlenbergii 

"near Farmington" and . ' u 1 ni mington Jet."). 

Loda Lake [NEWAYGO]: 2 miles N of Diamond Lake. 
Long Lake [GENESEE]: = Lake Fenton (cf. Soil Survey publ. in 1914). 
Longyear Tract [MARQUETTE]: ca. 5 miles W of Marquette. 
Lookout, Mt. [KEWEENAW]: sec. 3.T58N, R3W.The Nature Conservancy now has 

Lothrop [WAYNE]: (OAF on Oct. 21, 1917; CB collected same day at Grosse Pte.). 

Lowell Mills [WASHTENAW]: on Huron River in Superior Tp.; in 1850s a sawmill 
here, near where Ypsilanti Paper Co. was later located (coll. by F. B. H. Brown 
in 1901 and N. A. Harvey later ; cf. Chapman, History of Washtenaw County, pp. 
1073, 1143, and 1204. 1881). [Sometimes on labels merely as "Lowell"— easily 
confused with the village and township of the same name in Kent Co.] 


Lumberjacks Park [GRATIOT]: W of Alma on Pine River, in SE14 sec. 18,T12N, R4W. 

Lyons [MACOMB): Elias Lyons, Rav [Tp.[ (cf. DC label for Carex plantaguwa. Mav 

30, 1852). 

Lyons [MACOMBJ: Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Aster dumosns, Sept. 11, 1837). 

: (OAF 1943: cl. also Rep. Mich. Acad. 20: 187. 

MacCurdy Ecological Tract [MONTCALM]: includes Vcslabuip Bog (q.v.- cf also 
Crispin 1980). 

Mackinaw City [CHEBOYGAN/EMMETJ: Although usually listed as being in 
Cheboygan Co. (where the Post Office and most of the business district are), by 
far the greater part of the area of the village has long been in Emmet Co. (the 
south end of the Mackinac Bridge now mark n I , <>int). [Note that 

this name has never applied to Mackinac Island (Mackinac Co.), although vague 
terms like "Mackinaw"" and ■"Michilimackmac" often referred in times past to the 
w hole general area.] 

Macon Creek (or River) [LENAWEE/MONROE]: (Folwell in 1832; cf. Mich. Bot. 
17: 180 footnote. 1978). 

Magician Beach [CASS/VAN BURENJ: Most H. S. Pepoon labels cite Van Buren 
Co., but a map in Ins unpublished flora o\' Magician Lake clearly shows Magician 
Beach in both counties. 

Malony (Malone) Lake [CHEBOYGAN]: sec. 1 1,T38N,R3W. 

Mama Juda Isl. [WAYNE]: in De 
p. 7, and Beacon 18(2): 8-1 1. 

Mamie Lake [?GOGEBIC]:T44N, R41W, on Wisconsin border. [HTD wrote (Rep. 
Mich. Acad. 22: 148. 1921) that his (and EAB's) Gogebic County headquarters 
in 1919 were "at Bent's camp on the south side of Mamie Lake and less than a 
mile from the Wisconsin line.'" 'The lake was said to cover "nearly a square mile." 
The location for their 1920 held work was likewise "in the vicinity of Bent's 
Camp in the southeastern part of the county." (Pap. Mich. Acad. 1: 74. 1923). Dr. 
Darlington confirmed in conversation with me that the camp was on the south 
side of Mamie Lake. Yet. Michigan maps show Mamie lake almost entirely in 
Wisconsin (and Wisconsin maps concur), wifh barely die northern tip extending 
into Michigan. Bent's Resort is shown at the S end of Mamie lake, in Wisconsin 
well south of the Michigan line (not north of the state line), in a map [71932] 
of Gogebic County, drawn by George W. Koronski, Gogebic County Engineer; 
however, on that map a narrow strait of Mamie Lake is shown north into Michi- 
gan. How far from "Bent's Camp" HTD and EAB collected would determine 
the county (Gogebic in Michigan or Vilas in Wisconsin) And ol course "Mamie 
Lake" may once have included what later maps separately identify as East Bay 


Lake (entirely in Michigan) and West Bay Lake (partly in Michigan), these three 

areas separated from each other by more or less narrow straits, with East Bay 

even included in West Bay Lake in a 1917 plat map.] 
Manhattan Mine [KEWEENAW]: immediately south of Cliff Mine (q.v.), but never 

achieved its production. 
Manitou Isl. (and adjacent Gull Rock) [KEWEENAW]: (cf. Beacon 20(2): 10-12, 

Summer 2002). [North Manitou and South Manitou islands in Lake Michigan 

are entirely different, in Leelanau Co.] 
Manly farms [MACOMB]: Macomb [Tp.] (cf. DC 1845 labels for Carex intumescens 

and C. retrorsa). "J. W. Mauley's farm" on 1845 Sparganuuu eurycarpum label is 

uncertain; 1875 plat shows it in sec. 3, Shelby Tp., but there is no such clue on 

1859 plat. 
Marl Bay [CHEBOYGAN]: northwest bay of Douglas Lake (UMBS). 
Mason [BRANCH]: an old name (also Masonville) for Coldwater (First Survey; cf. 

McVaugh 1970, pp. 242-243). [Do not confuse with city of Mason, county seat 

of Ingham Co.— nor with Mason Co. or any of the three or more other Masons 

in Michigan, all presumably named for the stales first governor, Stevens T. 

McCallurns Creek [HOUGHTON]: E of Torch Lake (OAF 1943). 
McCracken's marsh [MACOMB]: Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Aster laterifiorns). 
McCracken's [OAKLAND]: John McCracken's, Avon [Tp.] (cf. DC 1848 label for 

Carex churned). 
McGregor's [MACOMB]: Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC 1840 label for Aster lanceolatus). 
Meadow Mine [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 

Menominee River Station [MENOMINEE]: (See Camp 7 above, CAD in 1905). 
Merriweather [ONTONAGON]: on Lake Gogebic (L. H. Pammel in 1926). 
Mesnard, Mount [MARQUETTE]: sec. 34-35, T48N, R35W (Dachnowski in 1906 et 

al.; cf. Rep. Mich. Acad. 9: 89. 1908). 
Michigan Hollow: [This is a sedge fen ca. 16 km SW of Ithaca, New York, and is not 

in the state of Michigan at all.] 
Michigan State Col.: [Specimens so labeled by Asa Gray (GH) were sent to him by 

the First Survey and refer to a State Collection, not to the Michigan Agricultural 

College, which was not founded until 1855, with the name changed to Michigan 

State College in 1925. \ttrib til g these specimens to Ingham Co., as done in 

some monographs (cf. discussion of some Lysimachia taxa in Mich. Bot. 6: 20-21. 

1967), is a gross anachronism; the specimens in fact came from various sites 

around the state (cf. also McVaugh 1970).] 
Middle Beach [OAKLAND]: (OAF 1943, for specimen from M.T Bingham). 
Military Hill [ONTONAGON]: near Lake Mine (Greenland Tp.). 
Mill Rd. [OAKLAND/WAYNE]: = Southfield Rd. (OAF collections of June 23, 1920, 

are from Wayne Co. [OAF 1943]). 


Mill Rd. & Grand River [WAYNE], 

Mill Rd. woods [WAYNE]: Detroit (Redford) (cf. OAF labels for Polvgonatum pube- 

scens and also citations in Am. Midi. Nat. 1 1 : 76-77. 1928). 
Miller's [MACOMB]: Jo. Miller's, Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC labels for Agrostis gigan- 

irti \ 'ropvron tnnltxm . »//'//> ;>,n « , </, ,] 

Miller's [MACOMB]: Worcester Miller's, Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC 1848 label for 
Carex normalis). 

Milwaukee Jet. [WAYNE]: RR junction 4 miles N from Detroit station on the Grand 
Trunk system (cf. Mich. Man.). 

Mines. Locating old mine-sites can be a problem, but some early botanists did collect 
at such locations. {Some mining ojh iaiion ii ip< h -I physicians from New Eng- 
land, and some of these — as was common in that day— collected plants. James 
Watson Robbins is perhaps the most prolific of the physicians who collected 
in the "Copper Country" [see Voss 1978, p. 77].) A number of individual mines 
appear alphabetically in this Ga'U i . M n id nun locations are indicated to 
this day on county maps, sometimes as names of associated settlements (or ghost 
towns). In addition, the following list o\ early copper mines may prove helpful; 
the locations are from a "Tabular Statement of the Mines in the Lake Superior 
Land District" (in Foster & Whitney 1850. pp. 146-151 ); counties are added but 
not all sites are verified (e.g., the first one): 
Adventure [ONTONAGON]: SW14 see. 35, T58N, R38W [evident error for 

T51N (the indicated tp. does not exist)]. 
Albion [KEWEENAW]: sec. 1 LT57N, R32W 
Bohemian [KEWEENAW]: SE'/ 4 sec. 29,T58N. R29W. 
Cliff [KEWEENAW]: SW'4 sec. 36,T58N, R32W. 
Copper Falls [KEWEENAW]: SE!4 sec. 1 1,T58N, R31 W. 
Douglass Houghton [ONTONAGON]: NWV4 sec. 15,T51N, R37W. 
Forest [ONTONAGON]: SW!4 sec. 30,T50N, R39W. 
Forsyth [KEWEENAW]: SE!4 sec. 33.T57N, R32W. 
Lac La Belle [KEWEENAW]: NE14 sec. 32,T58N, R29W. 
Minesota [ONTONAGON]: NW14 sec. 15,T50N, R39W [due to an alleged 

clerical error, originally spelled this way and not -Minnesota" as intended 

(cf. also Romigaiul Mich. I listory 82(6): 2().Nov.-Dcc. 1998)]. 
North American [KEWEENAW]: NE!4 sec. 2.T57N, R32W. 
Northwest [KEWEENAW]: sec. 15.T58N, R30W. 
Northwestern [KEWEENAW]: sec. 24,T58N, R31 W. 
Ohio & Isle Royale [KEWEENAW (Isle Royale)]: SE!4 sec. 34 T66N 

Ohio Trap Rock [KEWEENAW (Isle Royale)]: SW!4 sec. 5,T49N, R40W. 
Phoenix (formerly Lake Superior) [KEWEENAW]: sees. 19 and 20. T58N. 

R31 W [but later maps have Old Phoenix Mine in sec. 30]. 
Pittsburg <fc Isle Royale [KEWEENAW (Isle Royale)]: NW14 sec. 12,T65N 

Siskawit [KEWEENAW (Isle Royale): SE'/ 4 sec. 34.T66N, R34W. 


Misery Bay [ONTONAGON]: at mouth of Misery River near Houghton County 

line, on Lake Superior (OAF 1943; Lewis Foote in Aug. 1865 — but there is also 

a Misery Bay in Alpena Co.). 
Monfore [MACOMB]: vie. of Disco, Shelby [Tp.] (cf. DC labels for Polygonum 

, ' . ,. and S ol'u (ago speciosa) 

Mont Lake [LIVINGSTON]: ca. 3.5 miles N of Brighton (now = Clark Lake) on line 

between sec. 7,T2N, R6E, and sec. 12,T2N, R5E (Mary Clark collected here ca. 

Montreal [HOUGHTON]: (OAF 1943). 
Montreal River [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 
Moon's marsh [MACOMB]: (?sec. 7, Washington Tp. [only Moon property in 1859 

Macomb Co. plat]; cf. DC label for Gcndanopsis procera). 
Morris' farm [MACOMB]: Benj. Morris', Ray [Tp.] (DC in 1845, cf. label for Lactuca 

Morrison's [MACOMB]: Shelby [Tp.]: (DC in 1841). 

Mount(ain): [see specific name]. 

Mud Lake [ALCONA]: renamed Barton City in 1912 (CFW et al. in 1888; cf. Voss 
& Crow 1976, p. 29). 

Mud Lake [CHEBOYGAN]: the most often cited (UMBS) Mud Lake in Cheboygan 
Co. is mostly in sec. 7, T37N, R2W (Inverness Tp.); much of the bog is now in 
the Wendy O'Neil Preserve of the Little Traverse Conservancy. Some other of 
the county's Mud Lakes have been "renamed" by UMBS people (cf. Blanchard 
Lake above). 

Mud Lake [probably DICKINSON]: Of over 300 "Mud Lakes" in Michigan, there 
appear to be none "25 miles southeast of Ishpeming" (F. P. Metcalf, Sept. 1922), 
which would be in .1 Co.:howevi re ai erai in no heastern Dickin- 

son Co., ± SSW of Ishpeming, and probably where the collector was (cf. his labels 
for Andromeda glaucophylla and Ledum groenlandicum,A). 

Mud Lake [WASHTENAW]: ca. 2 miles SW of Whitmore Lake in Webster Tp. and 
now a research property of the University of Michigan (Crispin 1980); but there 
are 6 other Mud Lakes in the county indexed by Humphrys, not including any in 
R2S, R7E (Superior Tp.), as apparently mapped by Walpole (1924). 

Natural Wall [HOUGHTON]: ravine near Old Colony Mine, which was in sec. 18, 
T56N, R32W (OAF Aug. 26, 1935). 

Neasmith Crossing [KALAMAZOO]: on Grand Trunk RR, Schoolcraft Tp. (CRH, 
cf. his Flora, p. 255, under Rudbeckia triloba). 

Neithercut Woodland [CLARE]: sec. 17,T17N, R5W (Surrey Tp.) (an outdoor educa- 
tion tract of Central Michigan University). 


Nelson Lake [CHEBOYGAN]: on line between sees. 15 and 22,T38N, R3W; a county 
road bisects the [drying or intermittent j lake, which shows on older county maps 
as Nolten Lake, as does a different lake (UMBS). 

New Baltimore [MACOMB/ST. CLAIR]: on the county line (OAF's nos. 8551-8569 
in 1929 arc attributed to the St. Clair Co. side of the line [cf. his field notes]; he 
attributes 6389 and 6390 in 1922 to Macomb Co. Some other collectors may not 
have been so precise). For A. J. Pieters" 1893 collections from Lake St. Clair near 
New Baltimore (cf. Bull. Mich. Fish Comm. 2. 1894), his map shows no county 
line — which would be just W of 8() ! 45'VV longitude as shown on his map; if a 
label mentions some specific site or station in the lake, it may be possible to 
assign a county. 

New England Mine [MARQUETTE]: sec. 16.T47N. R27VV (Man Clark in 1871 and 

Newburg Dam [CALHOUN]: on N Branch, Kalamazoo River, 0.5 miles W of Jack- 
son Co. line. 

Nichols" Bog [CHEBOYGAN]: a farm pond in sec. 2,T36N. R3VV (UMBS). 

Nigger Creek [CHEBOYGAN]: now renamed as the less offensive "Mullett Creek," 
flowing into Mullett Lake ca. 2 miles NE of Topinabee (UMBS). 

Nolten Lake [CHEBOYGAN |: on older maps = Nelson Lake (see above); both older 
and later maps (inch USGS Mullett Lake quad) show a lake of this name in sec. 
18.T38N R3W and this is also known as Nolten Fen (UMBS). 

Normal [MARQUETTE]: = Northern State Normal School (now Northern Michi- 
gan University), Marquette (A. Dachnowski in 1906). ["Normal" is also short- 
hand on labels (CMC) for the Centra! Stale Normal School (now Central Michi- 
gan University) in Ml. Pleasant. Similarly, expect the same cryptic abbreviation 
for the former Normal Schools in Kalamazoo (Western Michigan University) 
and Ypsilanti (Eastern Michigan University), so that context such as origin of 
herbarium specimens may he needed for interpretation.] 

North Cliff Pond [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 

North Park [KENT]: west of Softwater Lake. 

Norton Hills [OAKLAND]: Oakland [Pp.] (cf. DC 1839 label for Carex muhlvnbergii). 

Norton's [MACOMB]: Hugh Norton's meadow, Ray [Tp.J (cf. DC label for Carex 


Oak Grove [BAY]: presumably sec. 8,T14N. R6E (G. M. Bradford in 1893 and 1901). 

Oakwood [WAYNE]: site noted for halophytes, on River Rouge in sec. 28, Ecorse 
Tp. Originally named Navarre, renamed Oakwood in 1918, but annexed by 
Detroit in 1922 (Romig). (OAF CB, et al. Sept. 23 and 30, 1916; Sept. 15. 1918; 
cf. Rhodora 18: 343 -244 [ [9I6| and Am. Midi. Nat. 1 1: 46 [1928], under Cyperus 
eseitlentus; also Sept. 30, 1930; and cf. F. B. Ii. Brown in Rep. Mich. Acad 19" 219 


Ott Preserve [CALHOUN]: Harvey N. Ott Preserve, 315-acre natural area in sees. 
3, 4, 9, and 10,T2S, R7W (Emmelt Tp.). Established in 1926 as the Battle Creek 
College Biological Preserve; when that college closed, Albion College obtained 
the tract and dedicated it as the Ott Preserve; sold in 1977 by Albion to Calhoun 
County to be administered through the Parks Commission (Crispin 1980; pers. 
comm, W.J. Gilbert). 

Overlook Farm [CHARLEVOIX]: SWA sec. 22, Eveline Tp. (Eisendrath in 1959- 

Owen Woods [WAYNE]: Detroit (cf. 1900 W. Cook label for Aster laevis). 

Paige (Page) [EMMET]: on Little Traverse B;i\ (n 5 e« c 16,T35N, R5W) 

along the RR between Menonaqua Beach and Ramona Park. (cf. 1902 plat map); 
CWF often collected here 1899-1923. 

Palmer Park [WAYNE]: in Detroit (cf. Mich. History 65(2): 29-32, March-April 

Palmer's Farm [OSCODA]: Dr. Oscar Palmer's farm was in sec. 6.T26N, R1E (CFW 
et al. in 1888; cf. Voss & Crow 1976, pp. 39-40, footnote 49). 

Paradise [GRAND TRAVERSE]: community near the Kingsley RR station and 
later incorporated into the village of Kingsley, in Paradise Tp. (CFW et al. in 
1888; cf. Voss & Crow 1 976, p. 61). [Quite different from the village of Paradise 
on Whitefish Bay in Chippewa Co.] 

Paris [KENT]: collectors in the Grand Rapids area (e.g., H. M. Bailey in the 1890s) 
refer to Paris Tp., in Kent Co.— not to the Mecosta Co. community (originally 
named Parish for a founder, but the final h was inexplicably dropped; cf. Mich. 
History 71(2): 15, March-April 1987). 

Parkedale [OAKLAND]: near Rochester (S of the Van Hoosen farm). OAF collected 
extensively here, at the research property owned by his employer, Parke, Davis 
& Co., which acquired it in 1908. [Three photos of the "Parke-Davis Biologi- 
cal Farm" are between pp. 46 and 47 in Eula Pray. History of Avon Township 
1820-1940 (Ann Arbor, 1986), with relevant text on pp. 55-58. The facility was 
sold in 1998 by Warner-Lambert, which had absorbed Parke, Davis. For OAF's 
flora of Parkedale, including description and map, see Rep. Mich. Acad. 15: 
150-192. 1914.] 

Partridge Brook [MACOMB]: John Adams' land = ca. 1 mile N of Disco, Shelby Tp. 
(cf. DC label for Cuscuta gronovii). 

Partridge Island [MARQUETTE]: in Partridge Bay of Lake Superior, NW of Mar- 

Patton's Marsh [KALAMAZOO]: 1 mile SE of Harrison Lake, Prairie Ronde Tp. 
(CRH,cf. his Flora p. 159). 


Pawpaw Woods [WASHTENAW]: sec. 1, LodiTp. (cf. FJH labels for Popuius hetero- 
phylla and Epifagus virginiana). 

Peach [orig.Peche] Island: [Essex Co., Ontario, Canada — E (upstream) of Belle Isle, 
at source of Detroit River (cf. Farmer, p. 7)]. 

Pennnellwood [BERRIEN]: S of Berrien Springs. 

Penny Lake [CHEBOYGAN]: NEV4 sec. 15,T38N R3W (UMBS). 

Peter White's Camp |A1 GFR|: 800 acres on Whitelish 1 ake,ca.4 miles S of Deerton. 
CKD collected here in 1916; cf. R. D.Williams. 1905. The Honorable Peter White, 
pp. 201 and 203). [The property is now included in the 1700-acre Laughing White- 
fish Lake Preserve of Tin I i.i i nservai i > by relatives oi 
Peter White (an early founder of Marquette) and of ( ieorge Shiras III (White's 
son-in-law) (cf. Mich. Conservancy News. Spring 1993.] 

Pewabic Mine [HOUGHTON]: associated with the Quincy Mine (which purchased 
I ) on i i fori age I \U at Hancock. 

Phillips farm [KENT]: see Felt-boot factory, above. 

Philps [?] [7MACOMB]: (DC 1852 label for Glycerin septentrionalis has "Philps" 
but no tp.; 1875 Macon > plat rnai I v»« I.- Phelps i * I i ton i ' 

Bruce Tps.). 

Pickerel! Lake [MARQUETTE]: = Harlow Lake near Little Presque Isle, NW of 
Marquette (Dachnowski in 1906; el'. 1907 topo map). 

Pier Cove [ALLEGAN]: lumber port in sec. 5.T2N, R16W (cf. 1901 soils map; mail 
was supplied through the Ganges P.O. a mile to the SE). 

Pigeon or Pigeon Prairie [ST JOSEPH]: near White Pigeon (First Survey in August 
1837); cf. McVaugh 1970, p. 243). 

Pine Lake [CHARLEVOIX]: = Lake Charlevoix. 

Pine Lake [INGHAM]: name changed to Lake Lansing 1929-30. (There are about 
30 other Pine Lakes in Michigan. The P.O. at this one, established in 1879. was 
changed to Haslett in 1890; cf.^Ceasar p. 56.) 

Pine Pt. [CHEBOYGAN]: on Douglas Lake near middle of its east side (UMBS). 

Pingrec Woods [OAKLAND]: (OAF 1943). 

Point Detour [DELTA]: at tip of Garden Peninsula (Lewis Foote on Sept. 22, 1863, was 
at this place ["N.W.shoic I \ > ikansanu] — not 

Hi asten lip tin I >p< r 1 nin: ml i ma nland in Chip| » 

Porky Point [7GOGEBIC]: location unknown, but presumably not far from Thou- 
sand Island Lake (EAB, July 3, 1920; HTD could recall no location when I 
queried him). 

Portage Lake [CRAWFORD]: former name of 1300-acre Lake Margrethe west of 
Grayling (CFW et al. in 1888; cf. Voss & Crow 1976. pp. 45 47). [There are still 
about a dozen Portage Lakes altogether in Michigan.] 

Portage Lake [LIVINGSTON/WASHTENAW]: E. B. Mains' 1913 collections were 
made at Gaige's cottage at N end of tin lake (I. i in -ston Co.). he once told me. 


OAF on June 12, 1921, collected in Dexter Tp., Washtenaw Co. (cf. Pap. Mich. 

Acad. 2: 22 [1924] and Walpole 1924, p. 36: Scleranthus). 
Portage Park [MANISTEE]: sec. 21-22, OnekamaTp.,/^ 1926 county map (L. M. 

Porter's [OAKLAND]: John Porter's blacksmith shop, Oakland [Tp.] (DC, 1845- 

1850; cf. his labels for Agrostts hycm >h ui-1 Huh nai il ucopha < ) 
Pottawatomie Lake [BERRIEN]: in New Buffalo. 
Pottawatomie Park [BERRIEN]: sec. 21, HagarTp. (CKD in 1917). 
Pottawattomie Bayou [OTTAWA]: on the Grand River in Grand Haven Tp., SE of 

Grand Haven (CWB et al). 
Potts' Farm [ALCONA]: N ] / 2 NW14 sec. 2 and NE 1 ^ NE 1 ^ sec. 3,T26N, R5E (CFW et 

al. in 1888; cf. Voss & Crow 1976, p.27). 
Potts' Headquarters [OSCODA]: = McKinley, sec. 15,T26N, R4E (CFW et al. in 1888; 

cf. Voss & Crow 1976, p. 35). 
Powell Lake [OAKLAND]: near Oxford (OAF on Sept. 24, 1924). 
Powers, Dr. [MACOMB]: Shelby [Tp.] (cf. DC label for Mollugo verticillata). 
Pratt Lake [GLADWIN]: T19N, R2W. Of the four lakes bearing this name, in as 

many counties, the one visited by F. Comte in Aug. 1956 (specimens at MO) 

must have been the Gladwin Co. one, for the species collected would not have 

all occurred near any of the other Pratt Lakes.] 
Presque Isle [MARQUETTE]: on N side of city of Marquette (Dachnowski in 1906 

Presque Isle [PRESQUE ISLE]: Lewis Foote's collecting on June 15, 1863, must have 

been in Presque Isle Co. On June 17 he was collecting at Ephraim, Wisconsin, 

and he could hardly have gotten there via the Presque Isle in Marquette Co., on 

Lake Superior. 
Preston's Mill Pond [MACOMB]: NE of Disco in Shelby Tp. on Middle Branch of 

Clinton River (cf. M. A. Leeson, History of Macomb County and DC 1840 labels 

for Potamogeton i iplifolii ; ;i ! M\ > ■iy(l w i tcrophyllum). 
Price's Mill Pond [OAKLAND]: Avon [Tp.] (cf. 1872 Oakland Capiat map and DC 

1839 labels ioi Sugiilnria cimeatu im < ratophylhini Irnwrsum — or Oakland 

[Tp.] (cf. 1839 label for Elodea canadensis). [AvonTp. was separated from Oak- 
land in 1835.] 

i [BAY/TUSCOLA]: R. R. Dreisbach collected here (as "Quanticasse") 
May 22, 1927, and Sept. 6, 1931. He labeled all his specimens as from Bay Co.; 
however, in his field notes he corrected nos. 5491-5499 and 7598-7602 to Tuscola 
Co. He left 5500-5504 and 7603-7605 as Bay Co. This distinction is also borne out 
by his exchange records. So it seems clear that he became aware of the proximity 
of the county line to this Tuscola Co. community. (Nos. 6192-6208, Aug. 26, 1928, 
are all unchanged as recorded, for Tuscola Co.) 


Quincy Mine [HOUGHTON]: on NE side of Hancock. Quincy Hill here is the classic 
site for Junais inflexus in Michigan; ef. Rhodora 43: 633 (1941) and Pap. Mich. 
Acad. 30: 59 (1945). [Neither should be confused with the village of Quincy in 
Branch Co.. where 15. B. Kanouse collected.] 

Rabbit Bay [HOUGHTON]: (OAF 1943). 

Ramona Park [KENT]: on Reed's Lake. Grand Rapids, ca. 1900-1950 (cf. Chronicle 

24(2): 5-6, July-Aug. 1988). [Not to be confused with Ramona Park, a settlement 

and old RR stop in Link -Traverse Tp., Emmet Co.] 
Randall Swamp [WASHTENAW]: Ypsilanti (OAF 1943). 
Rattlesnake Island [WAYNE]: in Detroit River (cf. Beacon 18(4): 4, Winter 2000-01). 

[Now known as Belle Isle (cl. under I log Island, above) and not to be confused 

with Rattlesnake Island in western Lake Erie. Ottawa Co., Ohio.] 
Redberry Lake [MARQUETTE]: on Longyear Tract (q.v.). 

Reform School [INGHAM]: at Lansing, later called the Industrial School for Boys 
(cf. Wheeler in 1892, Carex htpuliformis). 

Reserve [MACOMB]: Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC labels for Glyceria striata, Carex 
•'.Inns, ( . grayi, etc.). 

Resolute [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 

Rice Lake [HOUGHTON]: near eastern border of Keweenaw Co. (OAF). 

,T32N, R9E (cf. letter in Mich. History 65(5): 4, Sept- 
Rogers Creek [VAN BUREN]: (Nieuwland in 1919; cf. one of his collections of Taxus 
canadensis, ND). 

Rosedale [EMMET]: E edge of Petoskey. at Bay View (cf. 1902 plat map — and cur- 
rent street sign). [Note thai there was also a Rosedale in Chippewa Co.. from 
which I have seen no collections.] 

Roth, Camp Filibert [IRON]: on W side of Golden Lake, sec. 26, T44N, R37W 
(Univ. of Michigan forestry camp, originally established in 1929 in Alger Co., W 
of M musing, but moved in June of 1935 to Golden Lake; property sold in the 

Ruby's [MACOMB]: Elisha Ruby's, Shelby [Tp.] (cf. 1851 DC label for Polygonum 
piinctatitni).\Noi the same as Ruby in Clyde Tp., St. Clair Co.] 

Tinaw Forest [WASHTENAW]: 80-acre tract in see. 26.T2S. R5L. planted (start- 
ing in 1904) w nil d i « I n lu-im !i i siei lake administered by 

the University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment 


(originally named "The Saginaw Forestry Farm" as requested by the donor of the 
land, Arthur Hill of Saginaw, but not situated in Saginaw. The name was changed 
in 1919 to "The Saginaw Forest."). 

Sailors Encampment [CHIPPEWA]: near the S end of Neebish Island, in the St. 
Mary's River (not the entire island as indicated by Romig). (E.T. & S. A. Harper 
collected here in 1897 and 1898.) 

St. Clair Flats [ST. CLAIR]: at mouth of St. Clair River, in Lake St. Clair; long 
dredged to accommodate navigation (old maps, history, etc., in Beacon 19(4), 
Winter 2001-02). 

St. Joseph [BERRIEN]: Caution! Note that this city in Berrien Co. is 35 and more 
miles from St. Joseph Co.— but some 1837 First Survey labels confuse the issue 
by omitting "Co." (cf. McVaugh 1970, p. 243). 

St. Martin Island [DELTA]: in Lake Michigan S of Garden Peninsula, just before the 
Wisconsin line. (For history of collecting, cf. Judziewicz, Mich. Bot. 40: 139-140. 
2002 ["2001"]). [Not to be confused with the St. Martin Island in St. Martin Bay 
north of Mackinac Island, in Mackinac Co.] 

Salmon Trout River [HOUGHTON]: mouth on Lake Superior near Redridge (Lewis 
Foote in 1 865; cf. also Lt. Allen's 1832 mention [Mason 1 958, p. 1 79]). 

Salmon Trout River [MARQUETTE]: this one flows into Lake Superior at Salmon 
Trout Bay west of Salmon Trout Pt., and is perhaps better known than the pre- 
ceding, which was early called "Little" Salmon Trout (cf. Peters in Mich. Acade- 
mician 18:412. 1986). 

Sand Bay [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943; "Great Sand Bay" is between Eagle River 
and Eagle Harbor). 

Sand Lake [7JACKSON or KALAMAZOO]: "8 or 10 miles from the village of Jack - 
sonburgh" [original name for Jackson] (J. Wright in 1838 on label for Eleocharis 
equisetoides, NY). [There are over 20 other Sand Lakes in Michigan — but 
Humphrys does not include this one.] On the other hand, McVaugh (1970, p. 243) 
notes a "Sand Lake" 8 or 10 miles from Kalamazoo mentioned in a letter from 
John Wright (botanist with the First Survey) to John Torrey; this would accord 
with "Sandy Lakes" on old maps in the Austin Lake area. 

Sands [MARQUETTE]: station on the Chicago & Northwestern RR 13 miles SE 
of Negaunee; presumably this is the "Sands" of A. Dachnowski in 1906 (and not 
the village of Sands ca. 3 miles to the north — neither, however, in the Marquette 
Quadrangle, which Dachnowski surveyed). [Named for Louis Sands, not for the 
dry sandy plains there, as described by Dachnowski in Rep. Mich. Acad. 9: 94. 1908.] 

Sawmill Creek [HOUGHTON]: flows into Torch Lake E of Lake Linden (OAF 
1943). [There is also a Sawmill Creek in Chippewa Co. just N of Paradise and 
doubtless are others.] 

School Girl's Glen [WASHTENAW]: (sometimes abbreviated on labels "S. G. G") 
ravine S of Huron River and N of Forest Hill Cemetery, Ann Arbor, now in W 
part of Nichols Arboretum; designation once more broadly applied to the whole 
Arboretum area (cf. A. D. Tinker, "The birds of School Girl's Glen, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan: A study in local ornithology," Mich. Geol. Biol. Surv. Publ. 1, Biol Ser. 
1 : 35-66 + 4 pi. + folded map. 1 91 0). 

(<i!i. i ksn i ii( 'i ii< i i i i i vi 

Schoolcraft [KALAMAZOO]: Caution! Note thai the village of this 
dre< " hi a fron ichoolci M unly in the Upper Peninsula. 

Scranton*s[MA( ( ' I. i !..■:■■ . (d. DC 1844 label 

(".///,.'// 'i i. , / / v mi lou M, 1 • L „,')!',, \ •,",' '/ odd in 1847 and 
Carex lacustris in 184 j u u ibly the same). 

i Lake just W of North Fishtail Bay 

Seneca Lake [KEWEENAW nil .1 i .1 Lwk (OAF I943;the only lake 

of that name in Mich »au j'uh lumphrys). 
Shaffer's farm [KALAMAZOO]: sec. 34, Schoolcraft Tp. (CRH, cf. his 1934 label for 

«,,•;/,-•<; ( ■// -ri'ii) 

Shaffer's woods and marsh [KALAMAZOO]: NE of Goose Lake, Schoolcraft Tp. 

(CRI 1, d'. li * I i . i J i i i ' i / >', i- , / / ( ion i i 

and Qitcrcits rllij souhdi •) 
Sharon Hollow [WASHTENAW]: mostly in sec. 29, Sharon Tp.; now the Nan Weston 

Preserve of The Nature Conservancy. 
Shaw [MACOMB]: Marvil Shaw, Washington Tp. (DC in 1841). 
Shelby [MACOMB]: the township (T3N, R12E) in Macomb Co. is immediately south 

* i "' i, , h i h i i .. i l\\i i\ .ii i). [It should not 

be confused will Ihi hell iher Si lb I p.) in Muskegon Co. 

on the opposite side of the state.] 

Shelbyville [ALLEGAN]: (OAF in 1920 and 1923; his notes and original labels say 
Kalamazoo Co. — 1 , <>•.. l^-in i d bm<> h ie he was imme- 
diately before — but his 1 () mam ip ays Allegan Co.) 

Sheldon Sawmill [MACOMB]: (DC, presumably sec. 16, Ray Tp., on Clinton 

Shelter Bay [ALGER]: west of Au Train Bay (Lewis Foote in 1867). 

Sherman [ST. JOSEPH]: = Sturgis (and Sturgis Prairie) (First Survey in 1837; cf. 
McVaugh 1970). [There a number of other "Sherman" sites in Michigan; cf. 

Shot Point [MARQUETTE]: on Lake Superior just W of Alger Co. line. 

Silver Creek (or River) Meadow [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943). 

Silver Mt. [HOUGHTON]: (OAF 1943). 

Sister Lakes [VAN BUREN]: in the SW corner of Van Buren Co. (with Crooked 
Lake barely into northern Cass Co.) (L. M. Umbach in 1915 et al.). [Not to be 
confused with First. Second, and Third Sister Lakes in and near Ann Arbor. 
Washtenaw Co.] 


Skelton's bog [HILLSDALE]: W side of Montgomery (fide F. W. Case i 

tion 1989). 
Sleeping River [ONTONAGON]: East and West Sleeping rivers empty into Sleeping 

Bay between Wolf Pt. and Fourteen Mile Pt. in eastern Ontonagon Co. (cf. Peters 

in Mich. Academician 18:417. 1986). 
Slocum's Island [WAYNE]: now incorporated in Trenton (Elizabeth Park) at the 

bridge to Grosse Isle in the Detroit River (cf. Romig and 1906 topo map for 

Wyandotte Quad.). 
Smelts Incline [HOUGHTON]: (OAF 1943). 
Smith huckleberry marsh [KALAMAZOO]: sec. 32, Portage Tp. (cf. CRH 1934 label 

for Gentiana alba). 

Star Trail in sec. 35, T37N, R3W 

Soldiers 1 Home [KENT]: built in L886 in sec. 6, Grand Rapids Tp., now incorpo- 
rated in the northern part of the city — formerly 3 miles from town; a frequent 
collecting site for late 19th century botanists incl. EJC; cf. Mich. History 82(4): 
100, July Aug. 1998, and, with view of the woods, 70(3): inside cover, May-June 

Spring Lake [OTTAWA]: J. A. Drushel collected here in 1919 (specimens, MO). [But in 
1931 he collected at a Spring Lake in New Jersey (cf. his label for Hypochaeris).] 

Springwells [WAYNE]: community (north of Ecorse and east of Dearborn) and 
later township now incorporated in Dearborn; in 1835 Bela Hubbard (Douglass 
Houghton's assistant in the First Survey 1837-1845 and a prominent citizen of 
Detroit) acquired a farm here from which First Survey plants labeled "Spring- 
wells" very probably came. 

Spur 447 [CHIPPEWA]: on Soo Line RR. ca. 2.5 miles W of Trout Lake. 

Spur 459 [CHIPPEWA]: on Soo Line RR ca. 9 miles E of Trout Lake. [According to 
"Tales & Trails of Tro-La-Oz-Ken" (a 1976 local history of the Trout Lake area), 
p. 85, Spur 459 was once a community of 100 persons, had a P.O. 1910-1915, and 
was "one mile south of Ozark" — that location apparently erroneous (it would 
better locate Kenneth).] 

Squaw Island [WAYNE — if not Ontario, Canada]: location unknown (McVaugh 
1970, pp. 237 and 243) but quite possibly = Mama Juda Island (q.v.) "named 
from an old squaw" (Fan «■ • i 7} (I ,t Surve i 183" •> -el on Lysimachia 
thyrsiftora).\ < >,\\v ■ he label inthc hand of Bela Hubbard, Houghton's assistant, 
says "Detroit River" presumably this was not the tiny Squaw Island shown on the 
old Maumee Bay topo quadrangle (surveyed in 1899) between the south ends 
of Indian Island and Guard Island on the north side of Maumee Bay, Monroe 
Co. Neither of these need be confused with the Squaw Island in northern Lake 
Michigan, in th. Beave group (Charlevoix Co.).] 


Squirrel Isl. [Lambton Co., Ontario, Canada, in mouth of St. Clair River.] 

Star [OAKLAND]: (OAF 1943). 

Star Island [ST. CLAIR]: in St. Clair Flats, Lake St. Clair (A. B. Lyons in 1877; cf. his 
label for Carex rostrum and Chronicle 27( 1-2): 2d. 1993). "Star Island Cut" was 
between two of the islands near end of S. Channel Dr., just NW of International 
border (cf. old maps of the Flats, e.g. as in Beacon 19(4): 13. Winter 2001-02). 

Stead's [MACOMB]: Shelby [Tp, sec. 33] (DC in 1850; cf. his label for Potamogeton 

Steele farm [MACOMB]: Ray [Tp.] (DC). 

Stevens [OAKLAND]: apparently near Farmington (OAF and CB collected here 
July 14. L918,and( B al -Stevens Corners" Sept. 14, 1916. [It was here (in a pri- 
vate woods) on Mav 19, 1917. [hat OAF collected the variable trilliums described 
in Rep. Mich. Acad. 20: 155-159. 1919. OAF, CB, and J. H. Ehlers were in the 
wood again t< iamii th trilliums and other plants May 8, 1927.] 

Stevens farm [MACOMB]: Shelby [Tp.] (cf. 1840 DC label for Aster dumosus). 

Stewart Lake [MUSKEGON]: (C. D. McLouth on June 26, 1900 [fide label on Pani- 
cum boreale. MSC |; CFW collected here Ihe same dale (Puniaim commonsia- 
num and P. implicatum; no such lake is indexed by Humphrys). 

Stones [MACOMB]: A. Stones, Washington [Tp., sec. 13] (DC in 1847, cf. label for 
< 'are* lanuginosa). 

Stoney Creek [MONROE]: the electric interurban station was 4 mi SW of Newport 
(Mich. Man. 1905, p. 269); the creek itself crosses much of the county. OAF 
walked from Monroe along the tracks to Stoney Creek June 9, 1921 (cf. his field 
notes and Am. Midi. Nat. 1 1: 46 etc. 1978): lie also collected at this Stoney Creek 
Aug. 17, 1927. [Of course there are Stoney/Stony Creeks in a number of other 
IV: iehignn counties.] 

Stony Creek [OAKLAND]: vicinity of Rochester, Avon Tp. OAF collected here (the 
i" ' i | ikh. Acad. 15: 150. 1914). DC 

also collected at Stony Creek marsh (E border in Avon [Tp.], cf. his 1843 label for 
Scirptis hudsonuuuts and also 1847 label for Salix eriocephala); however, DC 1848 
label for C. crawei on "bank of Stony Creek marsh" is attributed to Washington 
[Tp., Macomb Co.]. (On Stony Creek history, including Van tioosen farm, see 
Mich. History 62(3): 18-36, Sept-Oct. 1978 and 79(5): 53-55, Sept.-Oct. 1995.) 

Sugarloaf Lakes [KALAMAZOO]: area ca. 3 miles N of Schoolcraft (CRH). 

Sugarloaf Mt. [MARQUETTE]: sec. 32.T49N, R25W. [Do not confuse with the well 
known "Sugarloal rocl on Mackinac Island.] 

Sullivan's Woods [GRATIOT]: near Alma, W'/ 2 sec. 32,T12N R3W. 

Superior [WASHTENAW]: (OAF in 1927). 

Swamp [HOUGHTON]: "The Swamp," a Clumuwdaphne bog 0.5 mile N of Laurium 
(FJH coll here; cf. letter from him to EGV April 10, 1969). 

SweeneyYs woods [ISABELLA]: now a subdivision in sec. 6.T14N, R4W (fide G. 
Starks; some specimens in CMC erroneously locate this woods). 

Tacoma [MACOMB]: I have been unable to locate this site where OAF collected his 
nos. 4263-127. I i i ributing them to Macomb Co. in his field notes and 

in some published citations, but without further information. He collected at no 
other place that day, and the collections include both upland and fen species. 

Taylor's Hill [JACKSON]: Waterloo Tp. (cf. CFW 1898 label, GH, for Carex bicknellii). 

Third Sister Lake [WASHTENAW]: sec. 26,T2S, R5E, in the University of Michi- 
gan's Saginaw Forest (q.v.). 

Third Woods [WASHTENAW]: (J. Romein in 1915 et al.); sec. 9, Pittsfield Tp. (cf. FJH 
field notes loi In 833, 1 ■ ohti, July 1, 1935; at that time "3 mi. S. of" Ann 
Arbor; now within the city limits (and including present site of the University 

Thomas Bog/woods [WASHTENAW]: SE ] 4 sec. 22, Pittsfield Tp.; now included in 
the Pittsfield Preserve (of the township of the same name). (Ruth B. [Alford] 
MacFarlane coll. and pers. com. 2002; cf. also Cady's, above.) 

Thorps meadow [MACOMB]: Shelby [Tp.] (cf. DC labels for Carex debilis and C. 

Thurston [MACOMB]: D.Thurston's land, Washington [Tp.] (cf. DC 1837 label for 
Euthamia graminifolia). 

Towar Swamp [INGHAM]: "1.5 miles n. of Agr'l College" (CFW label for Carex 
tenuiflora; one for Habenaria ciliaris reads "near the Agr'l College"). Towar 
Gardens is shown on the 1933 soils map in SVi sec. 6, T4N R1W, just N of East 
Lansing and SE of Chandler Marsh (q.v. above). 

Tower [CHEBOYGAN]: village (est. 1899) and dam site on the Upper Black River 
in T34N, Rl E. [A town in St. Louis Co., Minnesota, bears the same name and is 
the site for an 1889 EJH collection of Caltha nutans, which has sometimes been 
erroneously (and anachronistically) attributed to Michigan because of misread- 
ing a handwritten label] 

Townsend Marsh [OAKLAND]: Oakland [Tp.] (DC 1837 label for Carex tetanica; 
however, on an 1840 label for Solidago patula he crossed out "Oakland" and 
wrote in "Washington" [Tp., Macomb Co.]; on some other 1840 and 1847 labels 
he has merel) "M a ngton" (1 he 1859 plat has no Townsend property in Wash- 
ington Tp.). On his label for an 1840 collection of Ziuuua uquatica, he wrote 
"Townsend pond on the line of Washington-Oakland," so he obviously was 
aware of the county line. 

Traine Island [ALGER] = Au Train I. (Gillman in 1867; similarly, "Traine 
Bay" — both on Lake Superior west of Munising and Grand Island). 

Trap Rock River [HOUGHTON]: flows into N end of Torch Lake (OAF 1943). 


Traverse Bay [ANTRIM/GRAND TRAVERSE]: Mary Clark was here in 1869 at 
Elk Rapids [Antrim Co.] on Grand Traverse Bay (cf. her label for Utricularia 
comma): she was also at Traverse City [Grand Traverse Co.] in 1869. CFW col- 
lected at the Bay in 1898, often with reference to Traverse City or the Peninsula 
in the Bay, so presumably his specimens are to be referred to Grand Traverse 
Co. and not to Leelanau or Antrim counties, which also border the Bay. [There 
iv || M1 ,i ( u n.| ., i C' a • \. < i ! I .ughton Co. line. 

Cf. also Little Traverse Bay, above.] 

Trowbridge [CHEBOYGAN]: (CFW July 13, 1890; cf. his label for Carex bebbii). 
[N.B.: on July 12 CFW collected near Bay View in Emmet Co.; but on July 1 1 he 
collected in Ingham Co. — where there was anot n i I row budge at the junction 
of the Pere Marquette and Grand Trunk railroads south of East Lansing (cf. 
Foster 1942, p. 5 13).] 

Twin Falls [DICKINSON]: on Menominee River, sec. 7. T40N, R30W and sec. 12, 
R31W (CAD in 1905; cf. p. 226 in his report on peat in Rep. Geol. Surv. Mich, 
for 1906). 

Twin Lakes [HOUGHTON]: (OAF on Aug. 15, 1934; cf. his label for Carex pauper- 
cula). [Of course, there are many other Twin Lakes in the state.] 

Tyrone [LIVINGSTON]: Tyrone Tp., NE corner of the county (OAF on June 10, 
1930) [but note that there is also a Tyrone Township in Kent Co., where others 
have collected]. 

Upham's clearing | i .' | < * o Blanc Island (M.T. Bingha: 

cf. her label loi \i a, sda i'i >i!'dosa) 

(Chatham) [AI.OER]: SL'.C sec. 28, T46N, 

Vaughnsville [KEWEENAW]: (OAF 1943;cf. also Romig 1972). 

Veit's woods [ISABELLA]: a property of Central Michigan University in sec. 21, 
TUN, R4W (fide G. Slarks: some specimens in CMC erroneously locate this 

VestaburgBog (Vestaburg Ecological Station) [MONTCALM]: sec. 34,T12N R5W 
(CAD et al., ALMA); now in the Mac( 'urdy Ecological Tract (q.v.). 

Vestal's Bog [CHEBOYGAN]: S of Livingston Bog in sec. 35,T37N. R3W (UMBS, 
cf. map in Nelson 1956). 

Vulcan [KEWEENAW]: triangulation station on East Bluff (near SE corner sec. 1, 
T5.XN. R28W). established by the U. S. Lake Survey in 1866 for primary triangula- 
tion of Lake Superior (cf. Voss 1978, p. 52). 



Walpole Island: [Lambton Co., Ontario, Canada, at mouth of St. Clair River.] 
Warners Sawmill [OAKLAND]: Troy [Tp.] (cf. DC 1850 label for Erigenia bulbosa). 
Warren's [MACOMB]: Elder Abel Warren's, Shelby [Tp.] (cf. DC 1840 label for 

VI i etib >ja .st hreberi and 1845 label for Lactuca biennis). 
Waterworks [OAKLAND]: Rochester, sometimes abbreviated by OAF on his labels 

as "R.W.W.", W/i sec. 4 (cf. map p. 2 and endpapers in Eula Pray, History of Avon 

Township, 1986). 
Waterworks [WAYNE]: on Detroit River opposite Belle Isle (OAF Sept. 24. 1900; cf. 

in label for 1681 Spot bolu wglcctu cited Am. Midi. Nat. 10: 24. 1926; again 

on Sept. 18. 1901, cf. his label for 1758a. Paspulum sctaceum, and cf. Farmer, pp. 

Waterford [WAYNE]: between Plymouth and Northville, in Northville Tp. (OAF 

on April 30, 1929, nos. 8297-8306). [Not to be confused with the better known 

Waterford (Tp.) in Oakland Co.] 
Watkins Station [JACKSON]: (A. B. Lyons in 1874; CFW in 1892, cf. his labels for 

Panicum flexili <u , t . » Romig) 

Wawatam Beach [EMMET]: erroneously assigned to Cheboygan Co. by Romig but 

is entirely west of the county line in the village of Mackinaw City (q.v.). 
Webb's Woods [WASHTENAW]: NWVi sec. 22, Pittsfield Tp. (Ruth B. [Alford] Mac- 

Farlane coll. and pers. com. 2002). 
Webster Farm [probably Washington Tp., MACOMB]: (DC in 1839, cf. label for 

Trisetum melicoides; Daniel Webster was first constable, then treasurer in 1827; 

another Webster has land in sec. 13 on the 1859 plat map). 
Wellman's Swamp [INGHAM]: at the Agricultural College (W. R. Kedzie in 1895; cf. 

his label for Poa paludigcna). 
West Bluff [KEWEENAW]: now identified (if at all) on maps as "Brockway ML," 

on Brockway Mountain Drive ca. 3 miles W of Copper Harbor. [The Michigan 

Audubon Society and the Michigan Nature Association have sanctuaries here; 

classical site for rare plants, including western disjunct species, since the days of 

O. A. Farwell and M. L. Fernald.] 
West Bridge St. Ferry [OTTAWA]: west of Grand Rapids, sec. 20, Tallmadge Tp. 

West Lake [EMMET]: = Dow Lake = western of the Twin Lakes, in sec. 12.T38N, 

R4W (Carp Lake Tp.— not Wawatam Tp. as indicated by Nelson) (UMBS). 
Wetmore Pond [MARQUETTE]: NE 1 ^ sec. 31.T49N, R25W. [Not at village of Wet- 
more in Alger Co.] 
Wheal Kate [HOUGHTON]: SE 1 /* sec. 18,T54N, R34W,ca. 1 mile S of South Range 

(cf. 1915 topo map for Houghton quad.). 
White, Peter: See Peter White's Camp, above. 


Whitefish Bay: Henry Gillman and Lewis Foote collected in 1866 at Whitefish Bay. 
Door Co., Wisconsin, on lake Michigan -not in Michigan at the well-known 
Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. [A Whitefish Pt. is also on the S side of White- 
fish Bay, Wisconsin.] 

Whitefish Lake [MACKINAC]: (Mrs. Calvin Goodrich in August, 1922, and presum- 
ably also B. E. Quick the same summer). [There are also several other Whitefish 
I akes in the state.] 

Whitefish Point: B I- \\h veil nown u u ik> -uperior (Chippewa Co.), note 
that there is another Whitefish Point on the W side of Prentiss Bay in Mackinac 
Co., just E of Les Cheneaux (Ehlers & Erlanson in 1924; Voss in 1983). There 
is also a Whitefish Point across Thunder Bay, E of Alpena, on Whitefish Bay 
(Alpena Co.). 

Whitehouse Nature Center [CALHOUN]: 125 acres on E Branch of the Kalamazoo 
River, ca. one quarter mile SI of the main campn i Ihion lime, which owns 
and administers it. 

Whitmore Lake [LIVINGSTON/WASHTENAW]: on the county line. (OAF on 
July 20, 1927, nos. 8006 8019, was apparently on the Washtenaw Co. side [cf. his 
label for Lilian . ',, , I il . i S^pt i I "23. nos. h 1 73-6176 [cf. his 

field notes); he was at the north end, in Livingston Co., on June 15, 1927, nos. 
7948-7967 [cf. his field notes]). 

Wiard [WASHTENAW]: station on the Michigan Central RR near SW corner of 
sec. LYpsilantiTp. (ci opo n oi mi ()i d.). OAF frequently 

collected here and doubtless explored some disl i l ii in ill- mtion. A pioneer 
family, the Wiards moved from New York to Michigan in 1830 and settled on 
Wiard Road, founding Wiard Orchards in 1853. [In 1943 the Wiards moved their 
business to Mcrritt Rd. having sold the original site for industrial and expressway 
(now Interstate 94) development (cf.]. 

Wilcox farm [MACOMB]: Ehas Wilcox, NE'/ 4 sec. 3,T3N, R12E [Shelby Tp.] {fide 
DC 1844 label foi , . > , ' t ? yen 

Willey's [MACOMB): "along the north branch of the Clinton" (cf. DC 1840 label for 
Moniiriln tluh. \\ mil e "' Ka\ In whei \\ifle\ land is shown on 

the North Branch on 1859 and 1875 plat maps). 

Windmill Pt. [WAYNE]: Grosse Pte., at source of Detroit River; lighthouse built here 
in 1838, subsequently rebuilt and replaced (cf. Beacon 18(4): 5-6. 2001-02). 

Wolf Lake [JACKSON]: at the junction of Grass Lake, Leoni, and Napoleon Tps.; 
this is the site for collections by S. H. & D. R. Camp in the 1890s (as well as by 
others); and for Besseya biilla'Ww Wolf Fake in Fake Co. (7 miles N of Baldwin) 
and the one in northeastern Delta Co. are both noted for plants of Coastal Plain 
affinity. There are more than 20 other Wolf Lakes in Michigan. 

Wolffs Bog [CHEBOYGAN]: sees. 14 and 15.T37N R3W (UMBS). 

Woodlawn Cemetery [WAYNE]: Det i on ju i ouihol ; hikland Co. line and Ferndale. 


Woodville [NEWAYGO]: (OAF on Aug. 4, 1921). 
Woodward at Lacy [OAKLAND]: (CB). 

Zug Island [WAYNE]: Detroit River at m« 
peninsula, later isolated by a ship cha 
History 87(6): 59, Nov.-Dec. 2003). 


1 am indebted to all those whose correspondence and other communications are acknowledged in 
the entries provided here as well is othei nol e- ilicilly mentioned, includin; i hose who clarified sites 
during visits to their herbaria; to the Cranbrook Institute of Science for ready availability of O. A. Harwell's 

notes; to the late Dalt ! II. i"' oiTr Iplnl ■•■.-<> "i >liical .i-l eeinlii. atli -I <>M'i. Ti lu> an 1 I'm,, 

Project and, even before that, for compiling a complete index to Harwell's collections by number (with 
references to published citations and presence [or no | in l ,u ranbron Mil nimi) and to my colleagues 
at the University of Michigan for urging me to gather together rn\ scattered notes in this form for more 
ready use by others. The talented personnel of the Map Room in the University of Michigan 1 ihraiy and 
of the Bentley Historical Library have been generously helpful over the years. 


Michael J. Wynne 

University of Michigan Herbarium 

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 

In his monographic treatment of Australian representatives of Scinaia, Huisman 
(1985) offered pei - i.i i . idence for tin nerger of th "i i /'ay ioscmaia and 
Pseudogloiophloca iti cinaia lie i nomi. [realm n n n I in i umbei 
o n insl n .• >. mi s nto r/ w/u On in I msl ITected is Scin tin trail 
(Setch.) Huisman, based on Pscudoscinaia australis Setch. (Setchell 1 914). This bino- 
mial has been accepl din eve ilfioristii , < counts, such as Millar (1990), Millar and 
Kraft (1993), and Womersley (1994). The species has also been reported as present in 
the Canary Islands (Reyes et al., 1993; Haroun et al. 2002). It is listed as an accepted 
taxon in the on-line AlgaeBase (Guiry & Nic Dhonncha 2003). Yet, Scinaia australis 
of Huisman is an illegitimate name, a later homonym of S. australis (Sond.) Trevis. 
(Trevisan 1848) rhereloi i ew name is proposed. 

Scinaia acuta M. J. Wynne, nom. nov. Pscudosciu .,>, ustralis ' > tch . Univ. Calif. Publ. 

Bot. 6: 121, fig. 62, 1914 Scinaia a alis (Setch.) Huisman, Phycologia 24: 
417. 1985, non Scinaia australis (Sond.) Trevis., 1848. 

The epithet acuta alludes to the acutely pointed apices of the branches in both 
young and mature specimens, a feature stated to be consistent and distinctive for this 
species (Huisman 1986). 

When discussing taxonomic relationships of his Scinaia australis, Huisman (1986) 
tated that among p< .sibh re! ted sp< cies onh S i ■ ie (Did inson) Huisman ap- 
proaches the thallus dimensii IS , tralis. " He distinguished this pair of species 
on the basis of bra in h diameters; 1 osi o! his S. australis rarely reach 2 mm, whereas 
those of S. verae reach 2.75 mm. Dickinson (1951) described her species from Pram- 
pram, Gold Coast [Ghana], and it appears to be endemic to thai area of tropical West 
Africa (Lawson & John 1987; Woelkerling et al. 1998). 

Scinaia australis (Sond.) Trevis. is currently treated as a taxonomic synonym 
n\ \. .■....■,.,-:.-. >:!->ir is ,,. . rhiovitti. (i. W. Saunders & Kraft in Chiovitti et al. 
(1995). Earlier, Silva (1950) had recognized Steiun i uim australis (Sond.) P. C. Silva, 
based on Ginannia australis Sond. (Sonder 1845). The merger of Stenocladia with 
Nizymenia proposei itti i >5) led to the proposal of N. conferta in 

their paper. 


viewers C. W. Schneider and M. D. Guiry for construct 



Chiovitti,A..G.T Kraft, G. W. Saundcis. M. I.. I.iao. and A. Banc. IWi. A revision of the systematica of 

the Ni/yniLin k I i imi It I i h i n | I i n i i ! i i i i i i n 1 1 1 1 

sequences. J. Phycol. 31:1 53-1 6ft. 
Dickinson, C. I. 1951. Marine algae of the Ciold Coast. III. kew Hull. 1 : 293-297. pi. 3. 4. 
Guiry, M. D., and E. Nic Dhonncha. 2(103. AlgacBasc. World wide Web electronic publication. [15.X.2003]. 
Haroun, R. J., M. C. Gil-Rodrigue/,.l. Dia/ de ( astro, and \\. I Pi nd liomrnc van Kerne. 2(102. A checklist 

of the marine plants from the Canary Islands (central eastern Atlantic Ocean). Bot. Marina 45: 

Huisman. J. M. 1985 I Ik S< untni i < im I i (i.Iimui >. < Plu >, opln ui I iu appiaisal. Phxcologia 

.198ft I he kil II in > i I i me h Niniiliilo mil \usliaha Plncologta 2S 

Lawson, G W.. and I). M. John PAS7. Hie marine algae ami coastal cm ironrncnl ol tropical west Africa. 

2d ed. Beih. Nova Hedwigia 93: 1^115. 
Millar, A. IK. 1990. Marine red algae ol the Colls Harbour region, northern New South Wales. Aust. Syst. 

Bot. 3: 293-593. 
Millar, A. J. K.,and G.T. Kraft. 1993. Catalogue of marine and freshwater red algae ( Rhodophyta) of New 

Noinh Wal.-. including I or. I llowe Island, south-wesiern 1-90. 
Reyes. J.. M. Sanson, and ,1. Afonso ( anllo. PW3 Notes on some interesting mai me algae from the Canary 

Islands. ( ryplogamic Bot. 4: 50-59. 
Setchcll, W. A. 1914. J he assemblage. I Iniv. Calif. Publ. Bot. ft: 79-152. 
Silva.P.C. 1950. (iencric names ol algae proposed lor consenalion. 1 1\ drohinlogia 2:252-280. 
Sonder.O.W. 1845. Nova algarum genm i i peeie ipia in ilmcre ad oras occidentalcs Novae Hollandiae. 

collegit L. Preiss, Ph. Dr. Bot. /.cat. 3: 49-57. 
Trevisan, V. B. A. 1848. Saggio di mm monogralia delle Alghe ( oeeolalle. 1 12 pp. Padua: Coi Tipi del 

Woelkerlmg W. .1.. ( .. \\ . i m. I. I I. I'm I I. John i I H i i Peine. 

Nat. Hist. Mus. Pond. (Bot.) 28: 1 15 150. 
Womersley, H. B. S. 1994. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia Pan IMA. Bangioplncnc and 

Hloiidcophvccac < Acrochaclial. . m ill il. Oelidiah I lildeuhraudial. mil Gigarl males smst 

I, tic) ( 'anbei ra: Australia Biological Resources Study. 508 pp. 





Michael J. Wynne 

University of Michigan Herbarium 

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 USA 

Abstract. Two new species of the green algal genus Bryopsis. B. minti. and B. rohusta. are described 
fromDhofar, Sultanah <>l Oman Bryopsis imiidh of relatively small stat- 
branching (to a single order, the branches only 0.5-1. mm long). Bryopsis 
irgesi/c (to 1 1 cm in hi i hi m I primal im to 1 mi i hi Ii urn ei ) ml 
s distichous nature ol il ■ brani he : (to three orders). The new species are known only from southern 
Oman, a region impacu.-d hv Hie snmmcriime monsoon of nulrient-rich. rclali\ely cold-water conditions. 
A census of the 47 other species cnu i in K u i >gni da belonging to the genus Bryopsis Full literatim 
citations are provided for all accepted names in Bi vopsi< • « II 1: all douUhil md excluded names. One 
in v, ..■oinlaiuiion, .'., vopsis cupn ssuitt vai adriuiii a is proposed. 


The genus Bryopsis Lamouroux (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) has a wide dis- 
tribution in tropical to cool temperate seas. Populations of Bryopsis hypnoides J. V. 
Lamour. occurring at Helgoland in the North Sea have been shown to tolerate water 
temperatures from 0° to 30° C (Liming 1984). Not only is a significant morphologi- 
cal diversity recognized in the genus, but a variety of life-history patterns has been 
demonstrated (Rietema 1970, 1971; van den Hoek et al. 1972; Bartlett & South 1973; 
Diaz-Piferrer & Burrows 1974; Tanner 1981; Bold & Wynne 1985). Some of these 
morphological and life-histoi Bfer« s have led to the recognition of segregate 
genera, such as Bryopsidella (Hustede 1964; Rietema 1972, 1975) and Pedobesia 
(MacRaild & Womersley 1974). 

■ i IV. Lamour. (Barratt et al. 1984), B. maxima Oka- 

mura ex Segawa (Wynne 1999b), B.plumosa (Huds.) C. Agardh (Wynne 2001b), B. 
hypnoides, and B. indie a A. Gepp & E. Gepp (Schils & Coppejans 2003) have been 
reported from the Sultanate of Oman. A recent treatment of the genus Bryopsis 
occurring in Pakistan, another part of the northern Arabian Sea, by Nizamuddin 
(1995) reported a somewhat surprising total of 16 species. That total included four 
newly described species and eight new records for Pakistan. Perhaps it is then not 
unexpected thai t ■ lecti Ld on of the northern Arabian 

Sea, namely, the southern ( Dhofar) coast of the Sultanate of Oman, has also revealed 
the occurrence of two undescribed species of Bryopsis. This up-to-now little explored 
coastline has provided a rich source of previously unknown taxa of benthic marine 

dga (Ni amuddincS « >b< ! 1 '95 Wynne 1998, 1999a, 1999b, 2001a, 2002a, 2002b, 

2003a, 2003b, 2003c, 2004; Wynne & de Jong 2002; Schils & Coppejans 2002: Schils 

,1 . ■ , I : i, omposition of this flora on the Dhofar coast has been 

attributed in part to the dominating summertime monsoon season with its upwelling 
associated with decreased water temperatures, raised nutrient levels, and high-energy 
wavecondtlh (V\ n < '000,2004). 





2 mm 

ni-:w SPECIES 

Bryopsis nana M. J. Wynne, sp. nov.— Tyit: Si man a it of Oman. Western side of Wadi 
Zeid ( = Hoon's Bay) (16.94497 N. 54.80402' F), east of Mirbat, Dhofar, 21 
Sep 2000, Tim Collins 21092000-14-02, epizoie (holotvpc: MICH!: isotvpes: 
BM!ON!). Figs. 1-5,9. 

, 5-8 mm alti, axes pnmarii 315 410 um in diametro maximo; : 
no ordinis; rami extreme) dislali axis prinuirio pro parte ma 
erales plerumque 500-780 (-940) urn longi el 150-200 (-260) \ 
i exuti cicatricihn- i > ' , . i n 10 indicati; cicai 

in diam.; chloroplastae diseoideae. 3-4 (-7) um lalae, omnis 

diam.: shed i 
circa 40-50 | 

The collection consisted ol main sin; 'I ilia li rem < I u >m ihe surface ol a gas- 
tropod shell. The thalli are in tight caespitose clumps (Fig. 1); individual erect thalli 
reach 5 to 8 mm (Figs. 2-5). Primary axes arc 315— HO um wide in their greatest diam- 
eter (above the base) and gradually decrease in diameter distally Thalli are branched 
only to a single order, the hileral branches radially arranged and largely confined to 
the distal ends of the parent axes (Figs. 2-5). The lateral branches arc usually 500-780 
(-940) um long and 150-200 (-260) um in diameter at their mid-point. Scars of shed 


laterals are evident along much of the length of the primary axes (Figs. 2-5). Scars 
measure about 40-50 urn in diameter. Chloroplasts (Fig. 9) are discoidal, 3-4 (-7) urn 
across, each with a single pyrenoid. 

The two most striking characteristics of B. nana are its very small size and the 
radial nature of the branching. The pre- »fthi I ■ laracter states facilitates 

our comparison of the new species mainly to those species of Bryopsis with similarly 
small stature and radial branching. Nizamuddin ( 1995) in his study of Bryopsis as 
occurring on the coast of Pakistan listed a total of 16 species, but only two of those 
species were said to have radial branching, B. hypnoides and B. corymbosa J. Agardh. 
Along with B. plumosa, the type of the genus, B. hypnoides is one of the most fre- 
quently reported species of the genus; it has I >ee tin pi n I ed from Kuwait (Al-Hasan & 
Jones 1989) and the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia ( De ( lerck & Coppejans 1 996).Thalli 
of B. hypnoides are typically described as 5-10 cm high (Nizamuddin 1995; Coppejans 
,i 1 .1, ". v .i elal. 1997a: Littler & Littler 2000). Also, branching 


in B. hypnoides is to more than a single order. These differences easily separate B. 
nana from B. hypnoides. 

The second species of Bry ops is with radial branching reported by Nizamuddin 
(1995) from Pakistan is B. corymbosa. Afonso-Carrillo and Sanson (1999) described 
thethalliof B. corymbosa as having irregular branching and the branchlets forming 
a terminal plume with a corymbiform aspect, which does resemble thalli of B. nana. 
Agardh (1842) described the fronds of B. corymhosa as "minutae, vix bipollicares 
[= scarcely two inches], caespitosae," and as growing epiphytically on a species of 
Codium. The height of thalli in B. corymbosa has been reported as 2-10 cm (Vino- 
gradova 1979), about 2 cm (B0rgesen 1925), and 1-2 cm (Feldmann 1937). Bryopsis 
pumila was described by Zanardmi ( 1847) from Venice as caespitose. only 8-10 mm 
tall, and with densely branched subcorymbose filaments. DeToni (1889) regarded B. 
pumila as scarcely different from />. corymbosa. and it was treated as conspeciflc with 
B. corymbosa by Cammerloher ( 1 915) and Pignatti ( 1 962). Tims, the lower size range 
of B. corymbosa [including /»'. pumila] approximates the height of thalli of B. nana. 
Thalli of B. corymbosa. however, have been depicted as having branching to three 
orders (Kiitzing 1856. pi. 73, fig. B. as B.fasti^iata. pi. 81, fig. II; Feldmann 1937). Both 
B0rgesen (1925) and Feldmann (1937) have emphasized the very irregular ramifica- 
tion in B. corymbosa. These differences are sufficient to distinguish B. corymbosa 
from B. nana. 

The characterization of B. cupressina J. V. Famour. by Afonso-Carrillo and 
Sanson (1999) as having radial branching, axes bearing simple branchlets only in the 
superior portion of the thalli, and having the lower branches not larger than the up- 
per branches shows similarity to B. nana. Yet. branching takes place to two or three 
orders in B. cupressina ( Kiitzing 1 856, pi. 79; Funk 1927. fig. 17D; Afonso-Carillo & 
Sanson 1999), which distinguishes it from B. nana. Fikewise, the habit of B.feld- 
mannii Gallardo & G. Furnari (Gallardo ct al. 1993) has radially arranged laterals 
borne in a terminal tuft (Kutzing 1856, as B. cupressoides), but that species has two 
orders of branching and has thalli 4-5 cm in height. 

Bryopsis nana bears some resemblance to B. cckloniae. described as an epiphyte 
on the kelp Eckhnia maxima (Osbeck) Papenf. (Stegenga et al. 1997). This South 
African species forms expanses several centimeters in diameter, with the primary 
axes only 5 mm high, and also shows radial branching. Yet. the primary axes in B. 
eckloniae are only to 200 urn in diameter (less than twice the diameter of that in B. 
nana), and branching occurs to two orders, with the branches not distally restricted, 

Bryopsis africana Aresch. is similar to B. nana in having densely caespitose thalli 
usually with polystichously arranged, unhranched pinnules. Also, primary axes are 
300-400 urn in diameter (Stegenga et al. 1997). Thalli in B. africana attain a height to 
5 cm, branching often in short secund series, and the older ramuli produce descending 
rhi/oids covering the pnmar\ axes, ali features not observed in B.nana. 

Kutzing's depiction ( 1856, as B.pcnnutuUi) of Bryopsis pennata wax. minor J. Agardh 
(1887) shows very small thalli with terminal lulls of laterals, similar to the habit of B.nana. 
Closer scrutiny of Kutzing's illustrations shows the primary axes to be branched and the 
laterals to be distichously arranged. Thus, this taxon does not agree with B. nana. 

Originally, Womersley (1955) described B. minor from southern Australia as 
having thalli only 2 cm high, bin later (Womersley 1984) he expanded the variation 
to include thalli to 15 cm high. Bryopsis minor, which has radial branching, is clearly 
separable from B. nana by its large, bushy habit, its several orders of branching, and 
the very slender pinnules. 


4 cm 

/. Holotype ( 

Bryopsis pusilla, a small-statured species described by Levring (1938) from South 
Africa, has branching restricted to a single order with a distichous arrangement. Fur- 
thermore, according to Seagrief (1984), B. pusilla may merely represent a juvenile 
stage of Codium. 

Bryopsis robusta M. J. Wynne sp. nov.— Type: Sultanate of Oman. Raaha (=Alto) 
Bay (16.95116 N 5 ! 81650 I ) I oi VI rbai Dhofar, 15 Sep 2001, M. Wynne 
15092001 -10-01; in drift (holotype: MICH!). Figs. 6-8. 

Thallus effusus, 11 cm alt us el 16 cm latus, ramis ordinis primi 8-9 cm in longit.; 
per aliquot rhizoideis basalibus affixus, omne 4-6 mm longum; axis primarius tres or- 
dinibus ramosus; axis ordinis primi et rami ordinis primi et secundi robusti, 1.5-2. 
mm in diametro; ramificatio dispositione disticha; rami sporadice orientes, non ad 
intervalla conferta regularia; rami in 1 mm distantia interdum orientes, fortasse in 
2')- ' ( cm ci mi:.! ii:' u:ii:n n\ nie i.u.u ui. urn , Mtn circa 1. mm in diametro, 
2.5 mm longi; chloroplastae relative grandes, elongatae, fusiformes, 10-16 urn x 6-10 
urn, plerumque uno pyrenoide, interdum duo pyrenoidibus. 

This new species is known from only a single specimen (Fig. 6), which is a spread- 
ing plant reaching 11 cm in height and 16 cm in width; the first-order branches are 
8-9 cm long. Attachment is by means of several anchoring basal rhizoids, each 4-6 
mm long. The primary axis is branched to three orders. The primary axis and first- 
and second-order branches are robust, 1. 5-2. mm in diameter. Branching shows a 
distichous arrangement (Figs. ft. 7). Branches arise sporadically, not at close, regular 
intervals. They may arise within a 1-mm distance, but they may also be spaced from 

l'ONIR.1 MYPKSITYOI M l( "J I [( i,A ,\ I II ■ U B,\ KI I M W)IIAN ; 2-I 

2 mm 

Figs. 7-9. B 

tinuity ofeyloplas 
rohustu (Fig. X) an 

•istci and #, //«/;«. Fig. 7. Portion of thallus ol />, v,),nr, .nhnsia, showing discon- 
:imal ends of the brain In-. Figs. N. s\ ( hlomplasts with pyrenoids of Brvopsis 
(Fig. l >).dra\\n to same sealc. ( All are eamcni-lucidii drawings.) 

2.0 to 3.0 cm apart. Third-order branches are about 1. mm in diameter and may 
be up to 2.5 cm long. Chloroplasts (Fig. 8) are relatively large and elongate, spindle- 
shaped, 10-16 urn by 6-10 urn. usually with a single pvrenoid. sometimes with two. 

In terms of its large size, R rohustu comes closest to R. maxima Okamura ex 
Segawa (1956), a species previously reported from Oman (Wynne 1999b). A high 
degree of shared Holistic elements between the marine algal floras of Japan and the 
northern Arabian Sea has been recognized (Borgesen 1934: Wynne, 2000). In order 
to have a good underst ml ■ , ph,> i. ., malion in B. maxima, the fol- 

lowing specimens of Japanese and ( )m leelion in MICH were examined: 

JAPAN. Honshu. Chiba Pref.. Choshi-shi: 15. v. 
Exsicc. 52). Chiba Pref., Inubozaki, Choshi: 23. v. 1970 
Shimoda: v. 1 95(,, leg. 1. Shihira. OMAN. Al Hallani 
of Tropical Marine Research Station. Univ. of York. 

, leg. T lanaka (Algae Marinae et Salsugineae 
«/ -< ' I I ii Im Shi/uoka Prel 

slands, southeast bay: 22. x. 1983. /ee. Personnel 


Japanese specimens of B. nun u rang* h :ight from 12 to 38 cm, whereas the 
Omani specimens previously identified : ■ are 1 S— 19 cm tall. So in terms 

of height, thalli of B. maxima are taller than the single specimen of B. robusta.The 
most obvious difference between thes^ I ] i lateral branches; in 

B. maxima they are numerous, closely set, usually only 3-6 (-7) mm in length, with a 
smaller diameter tl< i h i , i us m depictions of B. maxima 

in the literature (Segawa 1956; Chihara 1970, 1975). In B. robusta, there is very 
little reduction in diameter of the primary axis and the various orders of branches. 
Furthermore, the branches are not rei: .1 u ■ I ely arranged, but rather they 
are sporadically and irregularly placed, often with long intervals between adjacent 
branches. The habit of 5. w/j./ ta is I m~ ver\ different I o i thai o[ B. maxima. 

In most of the laterals in B. robusta there is a discontinuity in the cytoplasm 
between the base of the lateral and the bearing axis (Fig. 7). Christensen (1994) 
discussed this phenomenon occurring i i lei n of J e< es of Bryopsis and 

noted that a wall can be formed across the narrowing. A wall per se was not detect- 
able in the specimen of B. robusta, but there was an obvious void of cytoplasm at the 


The genus Bi ■ ribecl a rou ( l<S()9a) and lectotypified by 

Egerod (1952) with B.pennata IV Lamour. Prior to the description of these two new 
species from the Sultan; ■ O i the genus has been regarded as comprising 47 
species (see Appendix 1). A number ol n.i - < in ' • <; " ■ imiLI ■ mi- '1m 
are here excluded or treated as doubtful (see Appendix 2). These include names that 
are illegitimate, not validly published, or of "taxa inquirenda," as well as names that 
were transferred to other genera. 

As stated earlier, Nizamuddin (1995) reported the occurrence of 16 species of 
Bryopsis for the coast of Pakistan, including four newly described species (B. aishae, 
B.pakistanica, B. numorensis, and B. (jasimensis) and another eight species to repre- 
sent first reports for Pakistan: B. cespitosa Kutz., B. corticulans (?) Setch., B. duplex 
De Not., B.fastigiata Kutz., B. harveyana I Agardh B. indica A. Gepp & E. Gepp, 
B.penicillata Suhr, and B.pennata IV Lamour. The two new species of Bryopsis (B. 
nana and B. robusta) herein described from Oman do not match up with any of the 
species recognized by Nizamuddin for Pakistan. In Nizamuddin's key to species, only 
two species are said to have radially branched thalli, B. hypnoides and B. corymbosa. 
For the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman regions ol Iran Sun .ipor.i 1 >V«n 
(1999) reported three taxa of Bryopsis: B. pennata var. seamda, B.pennatula [=B. 
pennata var. minoi 1 i i B olumosa). These taxa are also distinct from the two new 
species from Oman. 

The dimensions of the chloroplasts 1 1 - ^enu d as a criterion in distinguishing 
species of Bryopsis ( Feldmann 1 937; Pignatti 1962; Medlin 1984). Drawn to the same 
scale with a camera-lucida, the small size of the chloroplasts of B. nana relative to 
the much larger size of those of B. robusta is striking (Figs. 8, 9). 

. | 1)L ,. -,p.:o i; I,. ,m i. .-• . .- i .in species of the genus Bryopsis 
from the northern Arabian Sea. Thus, seven species of the genus are now reported 
as occurring in Oman: B. hypnoides, B. indica, B. maxima, B. nana, B. pennata, B. 
plumosa, and B. robusta. 



I acknowledge support Irom the A1 ? >;jI Biodi\crsil_\ 1'rojcfl o!'()m;ni ( I 999. 2002), funded by the 
British Governmenls's Darwin Initiative grant lor the Survival of Species. Thai project was managed by 
HTS Development Ltd.. U.K.. working with tire Natural History Museum of Muscat, Oman: the Natural 
History Museum of London: and the UniversiU ol' Michigan Herbarium. The Darwin Initiative is part 
of the British Government's Deparlmenl of Environment Transport and the Regions (DETR). I thank 
the following individuals who participated in the two collections trips ( September. 2000, and September, 
2001): Mr. Glenn Richards, Mr. Tim Collins. Mis. Gianna Minion, and I )i. 1 lent v lord. Mr. David Bay of 
the Department of Ecology and I vohnionaiy Biology. 1 'ni\ersit> ol Michigan, assisted in the prepara- 
tion of the artwork, tor which 1 am very grateful. I thank Dr. G. Robin South arid Dr. II. B. S. Womersley 
for reviewing the maim up null), La ,b utdDi.lhdco -IT C, helpim: me retrieve obscure 


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tahuhs \\ propria ntiunt aert ttnis.w \ 50 pp. 1 5 pis. Bonn: A. Marcus. 
Silva,PC.,PW.Basson,andR.L.Moe. 1W (1 . Catalogue of the Ivntiur marine algae of the Indian Ocean. 

Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 79: 1-1259. 
Smith, G. M. 1944. Marine algae of the Monterey Peninsula California, ix + 622 pp, Stanford, California: 

1 I M ,11.1, ||' 1 1 ' 

Seaweeds of the South African west coast. Contr. 
d G. M. Lokhorst. 1997b. Checklist of the marine 
■ Biology of Seaweeds, ed. C. S. Lobban and M. J. 
>ecial reference to the Dry Tortugas. Pap. Tort ugas 
< Expedition to the Galapagos Islands. Allan Han- 


._..._ .. iw| h- i oil i I. d In in 1 i i l> ' Ih no md clnniil i \p< ililio i III 1 urn. ilga 

from Peru and Chile. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 3 1 : 57 -90. 14 pis. 

. 1962a. A note on Bryopsis in the We s1 Indies. Phycologia 2: 24-28. 

. 1962b. Observalions on Pscmlohrvopsi md Tricliosolcn ( ( hlorophyceae-Bryopsidaceae) in 

■ inoLM . ! , i I 1 97') ! I >.-t nation oi ih „ ol Hi, in. ca-lcn, sen i lli< I ' ,1 ' ic. n algai | 

"Nauka V. 1 17 pp. I . Komarov Boi. Insi cad. Sci. 1 R.. I.cni igi d [In Russian] 

WomersleyH B S P> > nanm < lilt. |.li\i i li mi i, n n I i l\n Sci 9 387-395. 

. 1956. A critical survey of the marine algae of southern Australia. Austral. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 7: 


.1984. The mai im bcnthu Mora ol -.huh rn uistralia Parti I landbook of the Flora and Fauna of 

South Australia v'9 pp nth Australia ovcrnment Printer. 
on i 1 \ 1 ' n I I' nl ^ l n I) mi. d oi lii »ol ,n on 1 i i i I i lulo h in S. i B "'-9 
Wynne, M. J. 1998. Chmupin ^i^muru and Loiiicnittrin stniinosa ( Rhodyincniales): two new red algae from 
the Sultanate ol < m m Bot V ir. 41 : 571 580 

>■ ;•,„,;, mi t h,'lui mm, u .i p ih „ ii. m in. ml u ot i hi. led algal family Deles- 
scriaceae fro . 1 c inh rial, oi Oin ui Bol ' la, J V/ 4.'' 

'i i , , i ol m. ndii, I. i ... in Hi uli m il < I »m in « ohm 1 m In h. > n 

Herb. 22: 189-208. 

, )0 ; ,, h ,„„ ij „ i iwccn Hi b diu mi, in i! • I llo i f tin northern Arabian Sea 

and Japan. Phycol. Res. 48: 2 1 1-220. 

i a gi n Lt s P nov. (Rhodymeniales, Rhodophyta) from the Sultanate of Oman. 

Bot. Mar. 44: 163-169. 

. 2001b. New records of hcnthic marine algae from the Sultanate of Oman, northern Arabian Sea. 

II. Nova Hcdwigia 72: 347-374. 

. 2002a. A description of Plocamium fimbriatum sp. nov. (Plocamiales, Rhodophyta) from the 

Sultanate of Om in «nli hhm lum ml nue,i n cnus. Nova Hedwigia 75: 


-00 i, I, ,/>, mimioho > i h »|»l u>) I' in Hi ul .i oi Oman, with a 

lM|ll ohiiii.nii i gni/.ci peci. in the genu Turhinana. Phycol 'es. 50: 283-293 

•'.in,, jolx.w liirrutd sp. nov. (Scytosiphonales, Phaeophyceae) from the Sultanate of Oman. 
Cryptog., Algol. 24: 51-61. 

. 2003b. Leveillea major sp. nov. (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) from the Sultanate of Oman. Bot. 

Mar. 46: 357-365. 

. 2003c. Ccntio' . >m ,c< uinli'm sp nov. (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) from the Sultanate of Oman. 

Nova Hedwigia 77: 125-137. 

. 2004. The benthic marine algal flora of the Sultanate of Oman and its biogeographical relation- 

,i| • | II i- I .'(Suppl ) i I I M» 

„„ , n M ,, Ion- (Ml 1 i^piauhuim n,uhu;i si. im ( • s\ aceae, Rhodophyta) 
from the Sultanate oi Oman Bo1 Mar. 45: 77-86. 

I mMI . i MM i\dnh,sn,si,,ipU ' u 'iii' ) < oml> no i liloi oph\ ta). a new name for 

,'!,,,,,! ,1 ,1,1 II III I p II II 111 ill 111 ll I « "l 1 ' l\| I I ol ' 11 

) , Hi i , 1 i .mi, « hlo,o| li i li in Hi< Pi ii-' ' o. il J , pul Ii oi Inn hi 

with a comparison to Caribbean Panama species. Nov a 1 1. d\ iL'i i F 0" '41 
Yamada. Y 1 934. The marine Chlorophyceae from Ryukyu, especially from the vicinity of Nawa. J. Fac. 
Sci. Hokkaido Imp. Univ.. scr. 5, Bot. 3: 33-88. 

, , M, 1 l"i H on il . in. to i, n II oi I ii' lol o) I 1 (P 

Yoshida,T.,Y.Naskajima,andY.Na] ta. 1' 0. Ch k-listofi rii Igae . fepan (revised in 1990). Jap. 

! I hvc< I |S .nn| ii ir.9-320 
Zanaidim.G. 1843 S«i- ,.- /, . /« ,/" i<>,,, ,„«,i. ,.l, <U lie !u . .,iop||pl hill 

- . 1847. Noti/.ie intorne alle cellulan marine dellc lagiuie e de" lilorali di Ycnc/.ia, Atti Reale Istituto 
Veneto Scienze, Lettere ed Arti 6: 185-262. 1 fold-out plate. 

. l,v,(.' j-IKc-,2 j.Smdla di Piece numv o pin on, del Mare Adriatico. Mem. Reale 1st. Veneto Sc. 11: 

271-306, pis. XI-XVIII. 

I , | i , i j , h ,d, o mi , ,piui ii. 1 Mm " hnli.o . I ! ,, oi i . i i t , .1 i 
Veneto Sc. 12: 375-410, pis. XIV-XXI. 

I ShS. Scella di Piee< nuov, o piu rare del Man Adnalico Vlem Real, Isi veneto Sc ll ISl-210 
pis. IV-XI. 
Zeller.G. 1876. Algae Brazilienses circa Rio dc Jan i a », , I n.u. horn pnhlici directore, collectae. 
In Symbolic tul (In, n Hmsili,u.m ttmli anpu>scaul,i»i ll.ed.I ' uming idensl Icddel 

Danske Naturhist. Foren. Kj0benhavn 1875, scr. 3, 7: 426-432. 


1. Bryopsis africana Aresch., Phyc. cap., p. 5. 1851. Syntype localities: False Bay 

and Saldanha Bay, Cape Prov., South Africa. Icon.: Scamicf (1988. fnv 5;7); 
Stegenga et al. ( 1 997a, pi. 29: 1 , color pi. 32). 
Bryopsis tenuis Levring, Acta Univ. Lund., N.F 34(9): 13,figs. HI; PI. Ill, fig. 7. 
197N. lype locality: Port Nolloth, (ape Prov., South Africa, lidc Stegenga 
el al. ( 1997a), who also list B. cespitosa Suhr ex Kiitz. (1849) as possibly an 
idd il synonym. 

2. Bryopsis aishae Nizam., Pakistan J. Bot. 27: 22, ligs. 12a-k; 19a. 1995. Type locality 

Br. Buleji, Pakistan. 

3. Bryopsis australis Sond., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 3: 49. 1845. Type locality: Western 

Australia, probably near Fremantle, fide Womerslcv (1 9,7 I). Icon.: Kiit/in» 
(1859, pi. 81, fig. I); Hylmo (1919, figs. 31, 32): Womerslcv (1984, ligs. 96D, 
I 97B) See Womerslcv and Bailey (1970) Womerslcv ( 1984). and Kraft 
(2000) for discussion of the relationship of this species to />'. indica: they iniiv 
be conspecific. 

4. Bryopsis cespitosa Suhr ex Kiitz., Sp. alg., p. 490. 1849. Type locality: on the shores 

of southern Africa. Icon.: Kiit/ing (1856, pi. 73, lig. I ). According to Stegenga 
et al. (1997a), this species may possibly be conspecific with II africana Are- 
schoug (1851). 

5. Bryopsis composita C. Agardh, Spec. alg. 1 : 45 1 . 1 824. Type locality: France. 

Bryopsis arbuscula sensu Lamouroux (1809b). 

6. Bryopsis corticulans Setch. in Collins, Holden & Setchell, Phycoth. Bor.-Amer. 

XIII: 626. 1899. I.cctotvpc locality: Pacific Grove, Monterev County, Califor- 
nia. I IS. A., lidc Smith ( I 944). Icon.: Sclchcll ,V: t Jardner ( I 970. pi. 15, ligs. 4, 
5; pi. 27); Smith (1944, pi. 9, fig. 3). 
Brvopsis pliunosa f. corticulans (Setch.) Yendo (1917). 

7. Bryopsis corymbosa J. Agardh, Alg. maris medit., p. 21 . 1 842. Type locality: Livorno, 

Italy. Icon.: Feklmann (1977. figs. 23: V, 28); Lee et al. ( 1991. figs. 2A-E;4B). 
Bryopsis fasti^iani Kill/... Vhyci)\.y,crm.. p. 751. 1845. Type locality: Spalato = Split. 

Adriatic Sea, lidc Ardissone (1886). Hamel (1931 ). and Funk (1955). 
Brvopsis implcxa De Not.. Prosp. Fl. ligust.. p. 77. 1846. Type locality: Genoa 

Italy, fide Hamel (1931). 
Bryopsis pumila Zanardini, Atti Reale 1st. Veneto Sc. 6: 245. 1847. Type locality: 

Venice, Italy, fide Cammerloher in Pignatti (1962). 
Bryopsis elegans Menegh. ex Zanardini, Mem. Reale Veneto Sc. 14: 215, pi. XI-B 

(LXXII-B). 1868. Type locality: Adriatic Sea, fide Ardissone (1886; with "?"). 

Bryopsis uupiexa var. chains ( Menegh. C \ Zanardini) Hauck (1885). 
Bryopsis altema Schousb. in Bornet, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 28: 213. 1892, 

Bryopsis ramosa Schousb. in Bornet, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 28: 213. 1892, 
nomen nudum, fide Nizamuddin (1995). 


8. Bryopsis cupressina J. V. Lamour. Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Pans, 1 : 333, 1 809. 
Type locality: Mediterranean coast of Africa. Icon.: Lamouroux (1809b, p. I, 
fig. 3a, b); Funk (1927, fig. 17d, as B. cupressoidcs). Bryopsis halbiskma [var.] 
cupressina (J. V. Lamour.) C. Agardh (1823). 

8a. Bryopsis cupressina var. cupressina. 

Bryopsis penicillata Suhr in Seubert, Fl. azor., p. 9, pi. 1 , fig. 1. 1844. Type local- 
ity: A/ores. Icon.- Ku ng L8f 78, fig. II], fide Gallardo et al. (1993) 

and Furnai i el al. i >' ! 3 ' ■;■ .<• ( \ I 'ids ) C. Agardh I penicillata 

(Suhr) Koster (1941). 
Bryopsis cupre soidei I Agardh (184 >),sup< rfluous name f or B. cupressina IV. 

Lamour. (1809a). 
5ryop5is./?flge«fltoKutz.,Tab.phycol.VI,p.28,pl.8()Jig. II. 1856. Type locality: 

Venice, Italy, fide Ardissone (1886). 
Bryopsis thuya Mei h..G n. IJ al. 1(2) 2.1 I ■ pe locality: Spalati 

= Split, Croatia, Adriatic Sea, fide Ardissone (1886). 
Bryopsis sicula Ardiss., Comment. Soc. Crittog. 1 : 409. 1 864. Type locality: Acire- 

ale, eastern Sicily, Italy, fide Ardissone (1886). 
Bryopsis pseu ' 'lumos - diss., Comment. Soc. Crittog. 1: 409. 1864. Syntype 

' localities: Catania and Messina Sicil Hah lidc Ardissone (1886). 
Bryopsis pinastroides Schousb. in Bornet, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 28: 214. 

1 892, nomen nudum. 

8b. Bryopsis cupressina var. adriatica (J. Agardh) M. J. Wynne, comb. nov. Basionym: 
Bryopsis cupressoidcs var. ? adriatica J. Agardh, Algae maris medit., p. 20. 
1842. Syntype localities: Island of Lido, near Venice, Adriatic Sea; and Ll ad 
Galloprovinciae littus" = shore of the French province. Bryopsis hypnoides 
f. adriatica I I Agaid . ■ I I " ■ . wf \.u adnata a 

(J. Agardh) Hauck (1885). Bryopsis adriatica (J. Agardh) Kiitz. (1845).— 
According to Furnari et al. (1999), Frauenfeld (1854) should be credited 
with first proposing the combination Bryopsis adriatica rather than Menegh. 
ex Kiitz. (1856), which is the authorship usually cited. Yet, Kiitzing (1845, p. 
252) published this combination still earlier. Bryopsis plumosa var. adriatica 
(J. Agardh) Hauck (1885) \ » var. adriatica (J. Agardh) J. 

\ ,,„ if, , i (> /, , I, ( ,ik- ( S8-»)t ite« li c, diem a as conspecific with B. 
cupressina, > t other aulhoi Fi nan et al., 2003) 

recognized it as distinct. Pignatti (1962) am .ppeja • 983) recognized 
/; cupressoidcs • as . ,-rIi iufica J. Agardh, but B. cupressoidcs J. Agardh is an 
illegitimate name. 

9. Bryopsis densa Pilg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 57: 1. 1920. Type locality: Annobon Island, 

Spanish Guinea, Gulf of Guinea, West Africa. 

10. Bryopsis derbesioides V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 481, fig. 143, pi. 45. 1956. 

Type locality: Motuarohia Bay, Bay of Islands, North Island, New Zealand. 
Bryopsis fusca V.. L Chapm. J. Linn. Soc. Bol.55: 16. fig V 11: pi. 46. 1956. Type 

locality: Matauri Bay, Nelson, New Zealand, fide Adams ( 1 994). 
Bi . op i < rth uUms Seteh van no) tc < Inn line V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 

55: 486. 1956. Type locality: Takapuna, Auckland district, New Zealand, fide 

Adams (1994). 


11. Bryopsis dichotoma De Not.,Giorn. Bot. Ital. 1(1): 321. 1844. Type locality: Genoa, 

Ligurian Sea, northwestern Italy. 
Bryopsis comoidcs De Not., Giorn. Bot. Ital. 1(1): 320. 1844. Type locality: Genoa, 
Ligurian Sea, northwestern Italy, fide Ardissone (1886). 

12. Bryopsis duplex De Not., Giorn. Bot. Ital. 1(1): 320. 1844. Type locality: Genoa, 

Ligurian Sea, northwestern Italy. 

Bryopsis balbisiana var. disticha J. Agardh, Alg. mar. med., p. 18. 1842. Syntype 
localities: Livorno and Genoa, Italy: Marseilles. France; and Adriatic Sea, 
fide Ardissone (1886) and Finnan el a!. (2003). Bryopsis disticha (J. Agardh) 
Kiitz. (1856). Bryopsis balbisiana [var. disticha] f. mida .1. Agardh, Alg. mar. 
med., p. 19. 1842: Bryopsis balbisiana \>av. siuipliuscidu (J. Agardh) Zanardini 
(1847), basion\m Bi\<>p\t\ oalbiMana [\ai , - , 

Alg. mar. med., p. 19. 1842; Bryopsis balbisiana var. prolifera (J. Agardh) 
/anardim ( 1847): basionvm: Bryopsis balbisiana [var. disticha] f. prolifera J. 
Agardh, Alg. mar. med., p. 19. 1842. 

Bryopsis intricata Menegh.. ( , 10 rn. Bot. Ital. 1(2): 247. 1845a. Syntype localities: 
( apocesto (Croatia) and Spalati = Split, Adriatic Sea. lide Ardissone ( FSNn) 
and DeToni (1889). 

Bryopsis caudata Kiitz., Tab. phycol. VI: 27, pi. 77, fig. II. 1856. Type locality: 
Lessina hi. i Km, ) \ K j,^ 


Bryopsis duplex var. derbcsioides Schiffn., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 84: 113. 1935. Type 
locality: Venice, Italy, Schiffner and Vatova (1938) lide Furnari et al 

13. Bryopsis eckloniae Stegenga. Bolton & R.J. Anderson. Contr. Bolus Herb. 18: 128, 

pi. 29: 2. 1997. Type locality: Mm/enberg, ( 'ape Pro v.. South Africa. 

14. Bryopsis feldmannii Gallardo & G. Furnari in Gallardo et al., Bot. Mar. 36: 409. 

1993, nomen novum for Bryopsis cuprcssoidcs Feldmann, Rev. Algol. 9: 

224. figs. 23: II. 25 A, 26A. 1 937, non Bryopsis cuprcssoidcs .!. Agardh (1 842 ). 
nomen superlluum. Type locality: Banyuls sur Mer. Pyrenees Orientales, 
France. Icon.: Kiilzing ( 1856. pi. 79. fig. I). 

15. Bryopsis foliosa Sond., Bot. Zeit. (Berlin) 3: 49. 1845. Type locality: western Aus- 

tralia, probably near Fremantle, fide Womersley (1984). Icon ■ Womersley 
(1984, figs. 94E,95A,B). 
Bryopsis gracilis Sond., Bot. Zeit. 3: 49. 1845, lide Womersley ( 1 956). Type local- 
ity: western Australia. 

16. Bryopsis gemellipara J. Agardh, Acta Univ. Lund. 23(2): 25. 1887. Type locality: 

Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia. Icon.: Womersley (1984, figs. 97C, 98A,B). 
Bryopsis tetrasticha V J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 483. fig. 145, pi. 45. 1956. 

Type locality: Akaroa. Banks Peninsula. New Zealand, lide Adams (1994). 
Bryopsis moorci V .1. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 480. fig. 140, pi. 43. 1956. Type 

locality: Ocean Beach, ( 'ape Kidnappers. New Zealand, lide Adams (1994). 

, Phycologia 2: 26, fig. 1 . 1962. Type locality: Key West, 


17ba. Bryopsis halliae var. halliae. 

17b. Bryopsis halliae var. filicina (Collins & Herv.) W. R. Taylor Phycologia 2: 27. 
1962. Brxop I'" & Herv., Alg. Bermuda, p. 

61. 1917. Type locality: near Flatts Bridge, Bermuda. 

18. Bryopsis hypnoides J. V. Lamour., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1: 333. 1809. 

Type locality: Mediterranean coast of France. Fide Lamouroux (1809b): 
u propeCV//< Sett dep H rault Franci Icon i imom u\ (1809b, pi. I, fig. 
2a, b); Harvey 1846-1851, pi. 119); KUtzing (1856, pi. 73, fig. I, as "Bryopsis 
secunda? fide Pignatl L962);Feldmann I >3 figs. 23: IV, 27C; Burr & West 
1970, figs. 1^3); Burrows ( 1991 . fig. 57B). Bryopsis plumosa var. hypnoides 
(XV. Lamour.) Kiitz. (1849) />, nsi . a ai arbuscula (C. Agardh) 

J. Agardh (1842); basionym: Bryopsis a) bus< ula C. Agardh (1823), non Bry- 
opsis arbuscula (DC.) J. V Lamour. (1809).— Rull Lluch (2002) summarized 
the debate on whether B. hypnoides and B. plumosa ; e conspecili bu I- 
pointed out that most recent workers continue to recognize this pair of spe- 
cies as distinct. 

Bryopsis monoica Berthold ex Funk, Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 7 (Suppl.): 332. 
1927. Type locality: Capo Posillipo, near Naples, Italy, fide Gallardo et al. 
(1993). Icon Fi i 9 e 23: VI, 29,30). 

Bryopsis hypnoides I. atltmiica J. Agardh, Ada Univ. Lund. 23(2): 28. 1887. Type 
locality: not stated. 

Bryopsis hypnoides f. prolongata J. Agardh, Acta Univ. Lund. 23(2): 28. 1887 
[based on Harvey (1846-1851), pi. 119, B. hypnoides}. Syntype localities: 
England and Ireland. 

19. Bryopsis indica A. Gepp & E. Gepp, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 7: 169, pi. 

22, figs. 10, 11. 1908,Syntype localities: Chagos Archipelago; Coetivy Reef; 
Mauritius; Sri Lanka. 

19a. Bryopsis indica var. var. indica. 

19b. Bryopsis indica var. triseriata E. Y. Dawson Pacific ituralist 4: 4. pi, 1. lig. 1 
pi. 3, fig. 5. 196 ; rype locality: Punta Suarez, Hood Island, Galapagos Archi- 
pelago, Ecuador. 

19c. Bryopsis indica forma unilateralis Cribb, Univ. Queensland Pap. Dept. Bot. 
3(3): 18, pi. 1, fig. 3. 1954. Type locality, Miami, southeast Queensland, Aus- 

20. Bryopsis lindaueri V J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 480, fig. 141, pi. 43. 1956. 

Type locality: Reef Point, North Auckland, North Island, New Zealand.— 
This species was not included in Adams's (1994) marine algal flora of New 

21. Bryopsis lyngbyei Hornem., Fl. dan., vol. 9, fasc. 27, pi. 1603. 1818. Type locality: 

Faeroes, North Atlantic. Icon.: Lyngbye (1819, pi. 1913). Bryopsis plumosa f. 
lyngbyei (Hornem.) J. Agardh (1887).— Although this taxon had earlier been 
treated [e.g., by Agardh (1823), Areschoug (1850), and Ardissone (1886)] as 


conspecific with B. plumosiu Kornmann and Sahling (1976) presented evi- 
dence that it is distinct from B. plitmosti. Subsequent authors (Asen 1980; 
Sle.m nga et al. 1997b; Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000) have accepted it as B 

22. Bryopsis matraildii Womcrsley. Mar. benthic II. S. Aust., Pt. 1: 276, figs. 93C-E, 94C, 

D. 1984. Type locality: King I lead, Rottnest Island, Western Australia. 

23. Bryopsis magellanica Hylmo, Wiss. Frgeb. Schwed. Sudpohir-Fxped. 1901-1903, 

4(6): 16, fig. 33. 1919. Type locality: Fuegia, South America. 

".4 Bryopsis manomisis . Pakistan J Hoi 2 !4, figs. 13a f, 21c. 1995. Type 

locality: Manora, Pakistan. 

25. Bryopsis maxima Okamura ex Segawa, (ienshoku Nihon Kaiso Zukan, p. 14, pi. 
7, fig. 63. 1956. Type locality: Japan.— In the protologue Okamura (1936) 
referred to his novelty as "sp. no v. prov." and thus the name was not validly 
published (Article 34; Greuter et al. 2000) Segawa (1956) validated the name 
with a brief description (;n Japanese) and a figure. 

lu r,m,|i isiiiiiioi ^.■ii i I." '■ i, Vi 9 3S/.|il> I. pJi\ hpe locality: American River 
Inlet, Kangaroo I.. S. Australia. Icon.: Womcrsle> ( 19S4.ligs.93 VH.94A.B). 

27. Bryopsis muscosa J. V. Lamour., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1 : 333. 1809. Type 

locality: French Mediterranean coast. Icon.: Famouroux (1809b, pi. l,fig.4a,b); 
Kiitzing (1856. pi. S2. fig. I); Funk (1927. fig. 17b); Hamel ( 1931. fig. 21: A). 
Bryopsis pinaslrouics Sehousb. in Hornet. Mem. Soc. Sci. Nal. ( Terbouro 28: 214. 
1892, nomen nudum. 

28. Bryopsis myosuroides Kutz./Pab. phycol. VI: 27, pi. 77, fig. I. 1856. Type locality: 

Port Natal = Durban, Natal Prov., South Africa. 
Bryopsis sclaccu Hering, Ann. Mag. Nat. Mist. 8: 91. 1841, non Bryopsis sctacca 

J. V. Lamour. ( IS22).Tvpe locality: Port Natal - Durban. Natal Prov., South 

Africa, fide Barton (1893). 
Bryopsis llanaganii Barton, J. Bot. 33: 162, pi. 349, llanagani". 1895. Type locality 

"British KaiTraria" [between Great Kei and Great Fish rivers. Cape Prov.]. 

South Africa, fide Silva et al. (1996). 

29. Bryopsis nana M. J.Wynne, Contr. Univ. Michigan f ferb. 24: 230. 2005. Type local- 

ity: Western side of Wadi Zeid (-Hoon's Bay) ( 16.94497 N. 54.80402' F). east 
of Mirbat, Dholar, Sultanate of Oman. 

30. Bryopsis pakistanica Nizam., Pakistan J. Bot. 27: 17. figs. 9a-f, 21b. 1995. Type 

locality: Buleji, Pakistan. 

31. Bryopsis palliolatis Kraft & A. Millar in Kraft. Austral. Svst. Hot. 13: 625, fig. 40, 

2000. Type locality: Old Gulch, north end of Lord Howe Island, Australia. 

32. Bryopsis penicillum Menegh., Giorn. Bot. Ital. 1(2): 387. 1845. Type locality: Dal- 

matia, Adriatic Sea. Icon.: Zanardini (1866, pi. 48, B); hunk (1927. fig. 17g). 


33. Bryopsis pennata J. V. Lamour., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1: 333. 1809. 

Type locality: Antilles, Caribbean Sea. Icon.: Lamouroux (1809b, pi. 3, fig. la, b); 
Egerod (1952, fig. 7).— Ballesteros (1990) treated B. pennata as conspecific 
with B. plumosa, but he treated 11 secunda \-B. pennant var. secunda] as a 
distinct species. 

33a. Bryopsis pennata var. pennata. Bryopsis pennata var. major J. Agardh (1887); 
Bryopsis plumosa vai pennata (J. V. Lamour.) B0rgesen (1911). 
Bryopsis galapagensis W. R. Taylor, Allan Hancock Pacific Exped. 12: 60, fig. 1; pi. 
6, fig. 1. 1945. Type locality: Isla Wenman, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, fide 

33b. Bryopsis pennata var. leprieurii (Kiitz.) Collins & Herv., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 53: 
62. 1917. Bryopsis leprieurii Kiitz., Sp. alg., p. 490. 1849. Type locality: Cayenne, 
French Guia i.Bryo ■■ r.lep i (Kiitz.) B0rgesen (1911). 

33c. Bryopsis pennata var. minor J. Agardh, Acta Univ. Lund. 23(2): 23. 1887. 
Bryopsis pennatula J. Agardh, Ofvers. Forh. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. 4: 6. 1847, homo- 
typic synonym (see Silva et al. 1996). Type locality: San Agustm, Oaxaca, 
Mexico.—/, i K ing (1849) is an orthographic variant 

of Bryopsis pennatula. 

33d. Bryopsis pennata var. secunda (Harv.) Collins & Herv., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 
53:62. 1917. Bryopsis plunu a • unduW . ni m 1, mum Contr.Knowl. 

10(2): 31, pi. XLV-A, figs. 13. 1858. Syntype localities: Key West and Sand 
Key, Florida, U.S.A. Icon.: Taylor ( ! 928, pi. 1 L figs. 11,12). 
Bryopsis harveyana J. Agardh, Acta Univ. Lund. 23(2): 22. 1887. Syntype locali- 
ties: Florida, U.S.A.; Tonga, South Pacific. Cf. Silva et al. (1996). 

34. Bryopsis plumosa (Huds.) C. Agardh, Spec. alg. 1: 448. 1823. Ulva plumosa Huds., 

Fl. angl., p. 571 , 1778. Type locality: Exmouth, Devon, England. Icon.: Smith & 

Sowerby ( TO); Ha < (1846 1 | III) V. nersley (1984, figs. 

96C, 97A); Burrows ( 1 991 . fig. 57A; pi. 8); Lee et al. (1991, figs. 1 A-E; 4A). 

34a. Bryopsis plumosa var. plumosa. 

Bryopsis arbuscula (DC.) J. V. Lamour., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1: 

333. 1809, nomen superfluum. Lamouroux based the combination on Fucus 

arbuscula DC. in Lamarck & de Candolle, Fl. franc, ed. 3, vol. 1: 35. 1805, 

but also cited in synonymy the earlier name Ulva plumosa Huds. (1778). 

Icon.: Lamouroux (1 809b, pi. 1, fig. 1 ). Bryopsis plumosa I arbuscula (DC.) J. 

Agardh (1887). Bryopsis In pno i . ■ -ila (DC.) Schiffner (1935). 

Conferva tenax Roth. Cat, Hot. 3: 182, 1806. nomen superfluum, non Conferva 

plumosa J. Ellis (1768); Roth should have based the combination on Fucus 

arbuscula DC. in Lamouroux & A. P. de Candolle, 1805, the next available 

Bryopsis abietina Kiitz., Phycol. germ., p. 257. 1 845. Type locality: Spalato = Split, 

Adriatic Sea, fide Ardissone (1886) and Pignatti (1962). Icon.: Kutzing (1856, 

pi. 80, fig. I). 
Bryopsis plumose subsn. condensate! Kjellm., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 

Handl. 23: 32. 1897. Type locality: Yenoshima, Japan, fide Yoshida et al. (1990). 


Bryopsis pinustroidcs var. urborcsccns Schoush. in Bornet, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. 

Cherbourg 28: 213. 1892, nomen nudum. 
Bryopsis plunwsa var. prolifcra SehilTner. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 84: 116. 1938, fide 

Furnarietal. (1999). 
Brxopsis plunwsa var. run, n s> Vlniinei Oesten. Bot. Z. 84: 116. 1938 fide 

Furnarietal. (1999). 
Bryopsis plumosu var. robustu SehilTner. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 84: 114. 1938. Type 

locality: Venice, Italy, fide Furnari et al. ( 1999).— Schilfner's B. plumosu var. 

robustu includes old reports of -Bryopsis rosuc" from the Mediterranean. 
Bryopsis canterbury crisis V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 481, fig. 142; pi. 44. 

1956. Type locality: Lvttleton. eastern South Island. New Zealand, lide 

Adams (1994). 
Bryopsis olivucea V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 482. fig. 144: pi. 45. 1956. Type 

locality: Akaroa. eastern South Island. New Zealand, fide Adams (1994). 
Bryopsis pseudopennutu V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 485, fig. 148, 1; pi. 46. 

1956. Type locality: Woiser Bav, Wellington, North Island. New Zealand, fide 

Adams (1994). 
Bryopsis pscudopiiunosu V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 484. fig. 148, II; pi. 45. 

1956. non Bryopsis pscudophunosa Ardissone ( 1864). Type locality: Taylor's 

Mistake, Banks Peninsula. Soulh Island. New Zealand, lide Adams (1994). 
Bryopsis plumosa [var. plumosu] f. elongata Roster. Blumea I: 234, fig. 2: 16. 1941. 

Type locality: Naples, Italy— This forma was not listed by Gallardo et al. 

(1993) in their check-list of Mediterranean ( nlorophyceae. 
Bryopsis phimosa jvar. plumosu] f. gracilis Rosier, Blumea 4: 244, fig. 2: 13-15. 

194 I. Type locality: Naples, Italy— This forma was not listed by Callardo et 

al. (1993) in their check list of Mediterranean Chlorophyceae. 

34b. Bryopsis plumosa var. densa Harv., Smithsonian Contr. Rnowl. 10(2): 31. 1858. 
Syntype localities: Key West and Sand Rev. Florida, USA. 

35. Bryopsis pottsii Setch.,Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 341: 175, pi. 20, fig. A. 1924. Type 

locality: Pago Pago harbor, Tutuila Island, Samoa, Soulh Pacific. 

36. Bryopsis qasimensis Nizam.. Pakistan J. Bot. 27: 29, ties. 17a, b, 22. 1995. Tvpe 

locality: Qasim, Pakistan. 

37. Bryopsis ramulosa Mont., Hist. fis. Cuba, Bot. (R. de la Sagra) 8: 16, pi. Ill, fig. 

2. 1842. Type locality: In portu Havanensi Insulae Cubae = Havana, Cuba. 

Kul ing(1856,pl.72 liu II ). Bryopsis plumosu vai rumulosu ( Mont. ) Har\ 
( 1 858). Icon.: Harvey ( 1 858, pi. 45 A, figs. 4-6). 

38. Bryopsis rhizoidea V J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 477. fig. 137; pi. 41 . 1956. Type 

locality: Scott's Point. 90 Mile Beach, New Zealand. This species was not 
included in Adams's I 19 l )4) marine algal flora of New Zealand. 

39. Bryopsis rhizophora M. Howe, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 15: 38, pi. 6, fig. a; pi. 7. 

1914. Type locality: Pescadores Islands, region of Aneon, Peru. Icon.: Icon.: 
Borascode Zaixso (7000. fig. ! 22): Wysor (2004, figs. 8-10). 
Bryopsis peruviana W. R.Taylor. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 31: 63, pi. II. fig. 1. 1947. 
Type locality: Paita, Peru, fide Dawson^et al. (1964). 


40. Bryopsis robusta M. J. Wynne, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 24: 233. 2005. Type 

locality: Raaha (=Alto) Bay (16.951 16°N, 54. 81650°E),E of Mirbat, Dhofar, 
Sultanate of Oman. 

41. Bryopsis rosae ['row'] C. Agardh, Spec. alg. p. 450. 1823. Type locality: Falkland Islands. 

Icon.: Bory (1826, pi. 24, fig. 1); Kutzing (1856, pi. 84, fig. II); Ducker (1979, fig. 
11). — Although Nizamuddin ( 1995) treated B. rosae as conspecific with B. plu- 
mosa, Ramirez and Santelices (1991 ) recognized this species as distinct. 

42. Bryopsis ryukyuensis Yamada, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Imp. Univ., Ser. 5, Bot., 3: 59, 

figs. 27-29. 1934. Type locality: Itoman, Ryukyus, Japan. 

43. Bryopsis salvadoreana E. Y. Dawson, Pacific Naturalist 2: 405, pi. 5, fig. 2; pi. 6. 

1961. Type locality: Secate reef, off Punta Chiriqufn, Golfo de Fonseca, El 
Salvador, Central America. Icon.: Wysor (2004, figs. 11-12). 

44. Bryopsis secunda J. Agardh, Linnaea 1 5: 454. 1841. Type locality: "In mari mediter- 

raneo ad MassiliarrT = Marseilles, France. This is heterotypic with Bryopsis 
pennata J. V. Lamour. var. secunda (Harv.) Collins & Herv. (1917). Cf. Silva et 
al. (1996).— Kutzing's (1856) pi. 73, fig. I "Bryopsis secunda" is B. hypnoides, 
fide Pignatti (1962). 

45. Bryopsis spinescens Zeller, Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kj0ben- 

havn 1875, ser. 3, 7: 429. 1876. Type locality: vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

46. Bryopsis stenoptera Pilg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 46: 295, figs. 1,2. 1912. Type locality: 

Elabi, Cameroun, West Africa. Icon.: Lawson & John (1982, pi. 8, figs. 6, 7). 

47. Bryopsis stolonifera W. J. Lee, S. M. Boo & I. K. Lee, Korean J. Phyc. 6: 26, figs. 

3A-F,4C-E. 1991. Type locality: Summok, Ullungdo Island, Korea. 

48. Bryopsis triploramosa Kobara & Chihara, J. Jap. Bot. 70: 1 82, figs. 1-21 . 1 995. Type 

locality: Kyan, Itoman-shi, Okinawa Pref., Okinawa Island, southern Japan. 

49. Bryopsis vestita J. Agardh, Acta Univ. Lund. 14(4): 3. 1877. Syntype localities: New 

Zealand and Chatham Islands. Lectotype locality: Warrington, Otago, New 
Zealand, fide Womersley (1984). Icon.: Womersley (1984, figs. 95C, 96A, B); 
Adams (1994, pi. 9).— Adams (1994) stated that Chapman's (1956) B. ota- 
gensis, B. scarfei, and B. pseudocorymbosa "may be atypical B. vestita from 
turbid pools or muddy shallows," and she thus did not recognize them as 
separate species. Chapman's (1956) Bryopsis vestita f. chathamensis was not 
recognized as distinct from the nominate forma by Nelson et al. (1991). 

Bryopsis vestita f. brevis V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 476. 1 956. Type locality: 
New Plymouth, Greymouth, Auckland Islands. 

Bryopsis vestita f. densa V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 476, fig. 134. 1 956. Type 
locality: Lyttelton, Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand. 

Bryopsis vestita f. laxa V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 476, pi. 39. 1956. Type 
locality: not stated. 

Bryopsis vestita f. virgata V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 476. 1956. Type local- 
ity: Lyttelton, Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand. 

( MM I! 1 Nl\ ICCI H Mi >.!!( NICC II! i I' \kll \1 \'MLC\li:24 

Buvoi'sis: Docivm ci and Exchm)i:d Nami-:s 

t, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 28: 213. 1892, 

• ' inn i « >] miiiil'h ) / , // > ihitrua (Okamura) 

Prud'homme & Lokhorst (1992). 

Bryopsis apiocarpa Meiu^h (iiotn H »i i < < , | . -calit> : Dalmatia. 

coast of Adriatic Sea.— According to Pignatii (1962) the name applies to a 
species of Derbcsia. 

Bryopsis arbuscula C. Agardh. Spec. alg. 1 : 45 1. I 825. min Bryopsis arbuscida {DC.) 
Lamouroux (1809); Agardh excluded the type of Fucus arbuscula DC. (and 
thus also the type oi L'ivu piumosa) (Art. 48. 1 ). Brvopsis plumosa var. arbus- 
cula (C. Agardh) J. Agardh (1842). 

Bryopsis arbuscula (DC.) J. V. Lamour., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1: 333. 

" H -in ii h.i iiiiiiui urn: Don ! , u h. ml i ii on on Fucus 

arbuscula DC. in Lamarck & de Candolle, Fl. bang, ed. 3, vol. 1 : 35. 1805, but 
also cited the earlier name Ulvu plumosa I bids. (1778). Icon.: Lamouroux 
( 1809b, pi. 1, fig. 1). 

Bryopsis baculifcra J. Agardh, Acta Univ. Lund. 23(2): ^ 1 . 1 887. Type locality: Port Phillip, 
Victoria. Australia. = Chlorodestuis baculifcra (J. Agardh) 1 Kicker (1966). 

Bryopsis ba/bisiui i < irdh. Spec. alg. 1: 449. 1823. Type locality: 

French Mediterranean. Icon.: Lamouroux (1813. pi. 13, fig. 2).— The applica- 
tion of this name is in doubt. Upon examining 1 amouroux's original material 
in PC, Hamel (1931) considered it to belong to Derbcsia and proposed D. 
' ii I'll, ii ii. Id in hi i i i ' • f howe\ei. came up with a 

i Ci i I ili i i i ed m Caen. 

It m i id di n i • i • i in I ■ ■ I ii nl i 

pari Derbcsia. and in pail id- itili >\ . Bi yopsis duplex. Ihe latter beai ing 
the name -Bryopsis balbisie/isis" in Lamouroux's handwriting, Feldmann 
attributed the latter specimen to Bryopsis; however, this specimen dd'leis 
from Lamouroux's illustration. bcldmann's concept has been attributed to 
. duplex. No authentic specimens ol / ■:■• urn exist, 

and so Lamouroux's illustration (1813, pi. 13. lig. 2) must be regarded as the 
type (iconotype). It cannot be resolved whether the drawing represents a 
species of Bryopsis or of Derbcsia. 

it < i • iii. il iii ( I ! v nomen nudum. 

Bryopsis balbisiana var. uiwrmptu Kiitz., Phycol. germ., p. 251. 1845. Type locality: 
Adriatic Sea. = Pedobesia simplex (Kiitz.) M. J.Wynne & Leliaert (2001). 

Bryopsis balbisiana var. lam •<; ,\ e<; I \ moIIi CL- mar. medit.. p. 18. 1842. Syn- 
type localities: Livorno, Italy, and Villefranche, France. = Pedobesia simplex 
(Kiitz.) M.. I. Wynne & Leliaert (2001 ). 


Bryopsis clavaeformis J. Agardh, Acta Univ. Lund. 23(2): 20. 1887. Type locality: West- 
ern Port, Victoria, Australia. = i'edohesia clavaeformis (J. Agardh) MacRaild 
& Womersley (1974). 

Bryopsis confervoith s 1 )ecnc Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 2: 126. 1841, nomen super- 
fluum; based on Conferva prolifcra Roth ( 1797). 

Bryopsis confervoides Zanardini, Sagg. classif. Ficee, p. 60. 1843, non Bryopsis con- 
fervoides Decne. (1841). 

Brvonsis constricta Zanardini, Mem. Reale 1st. Veneto Sc. 14: 213, pi. 72A. 1868. Type 
locality: Dalmatia coast. Adriatic Sea. Icon.: Zanardini (1868, pi. 72A). Zanar- 
dini cited the name in his publication of 1843 as a nomen nudum.— This 
name was regarded by De Toni (1889) to apply either to Derbesia lamour- 
ouxii (J. Agardh) Solier | =Pedobesi i rimple> (Kiitz.) M.J.Wynne & Leliaert] 
or Espera mediterranea [=Penicillus capitatu is (Decane.) P. 

Huve & H. Huve (1963)]. Ardissone (1886) included the name with a ques- 
tion mark in his synonymy of Derbesia lamorouxii. 

Bryopsis cupressoides J. Agardh, Alg. mar. medit., p. 20. 1842, a superfluous name for 
Bryopsis cupressina J. V Lamour. (1809). 

Bryopsis cupressoides Feldmann. Rev. algol. 9: 224. 1937, non Bryopsis cupressoides 
J. Agardh (1842). 

Bryopsis dattnutn., \ ii >. Phvcol. VI: 26. pi: fig . I • osis adriatica" 1856. 

Type locality: Adriatic Sea. Bryopsis duplex var. dalmatica (Kiitz.) Schiffner 

( 1 935) - Pedohesia simplex (Kiitz.) M. J.Wynne & Leliaert (2001). 

Bryopsis dasyphylla Zanardini, Atti 1st. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti 6: 244. 1847. Type local- 
ity: Gulf of Venice, Adriatic Sea. "Taxon inquirendum;' fide Gallado et al. 
(1993) and Furnari et al. (1999). 

Bryopsis duchassaingii J. Agardh, Ofvers. Forh. K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. 11: 107. 1854. = 
Trichosoleu ■ lu hat mingii (J. Agardh) W. R.Taylor (1962b). 

Bryopsis duplex !'. luxurians Schiffner & Vatova (1938), nomen nudum. 

Bryopsis duplex var. pseudo-derbesia Schiffner, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 84: 113. 1935. Type 
locality: Venice, Italy; listed as Bryopsis duplex var. pseudo derbesia Schiffner 
in Schiffner and Vatova {1938}. '[axon inquirendum," fide Furnari et al. 

Bryopsis flagellata Kiitz., Tab. Phycol. VI: 28, pi. 80, fig. II. 1856. Type locality: Venice. 
Italy. Bryopsis hypnoides var. flagellata (Kiitz.) Schiffner in Schiffner & 
Vatova (1938). "Taxon inquirendum," fide Furnari et al. (1999). 

Bryopsis furcellata Zanardini, Sagg. classif. Ficee, p. 60. L843.Type locality: Adriatic 

v. , I. i, in ilv . p "I f' II' / 'in. ii in i I v II" V). - 

Pseudochlorodesmis furcellata (Zanardini) B0rgesen (1925). 

252 CONTR. UM\ I RSI l\ ( )l \ll( I IK , \\ [ II RBARJUM VOLUME 24 

Bryopsis gaspaniiui Menegh. . ( Jiorn. Bol. Hal. 1(1): 303. 1844. I vpe locality: Palermo, 
Sicily, Italy. = Bryopsis itiyura. fide Ardissone ( I N89 ) - I'scudobryopsis myura 
(J. Agardh) Berthold. Pignatti (1962) Heated B. gttsparrinii as conspecific 
with B. muscosa. 

Bryopsis halymcniac Berthold ex Funk, Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 7 (Suppl.): 330, 
fig. 17f. 1927. Syntype localities: 7-12 m, depth at Sa. Lucia and Secca di San 
Giovanni, near Naples, Italy. Icon.: Funk (1955, PI. II, 1-3). = Bryopsidclla 
neghrtu (Berthold) Rietema ( 1 970). — Berthold ( 1 882) listed -Bryopsis halv- 
meniae" as a nomen nudum (De Toni 1889), as did Oltmanns (1904). 

Bryopsis hypnoides var. lagiuumim Schiffner in Schiffner & Vatova, La Laguna di 
Venezia. Monografia 3: 189. 1938. Type locality: Venice, Italy. "Taxon inqui- 
rendum," fide Furnari et al. (1999). 

Bryopsis hypnoides [vai La |] tbn i ter in Schiffner & Vatova, La 

Laguna di Venezia. Monografia 3: 190. 1938. Type locality: Adriatic shore of 
Italy. "Taxon inquirendum." fide Furnari et al. (1999). 

Bryopsis implexa De Not., Prosp. Fl. ligust.. p. 73. 1846. Type locality: Genoa, Ligurian 
Sea, Italy. "Taxon inquirendum." fide Pii>nalti ( 1962). Gallardo et al. (1993), 
and Furnari et al. (2003). 

Bryopsis incompta Menegh. ex Zanardini, Mem. Reale 1st. Veneto Sc. 12: 407, pi. 
XXI-A (XTVIILA). 1865. Syntype localities: Zara Zadar; Scbenico = Sibe- 
nik;Lesina = Hvaris, all in the Adriatic Sea. = Pcdobvsia simplex (kiitz.) M..I. 
Wynne & Leliaert, fide Wynne and Leliaert (2001 ) 

Bryopsis incurea Menegh. ex ITauenleld. Alg. dalmal. Kuste. p. 22. 1855. Type locality: 
Capocesto (Croatia).— This name first appeared in Fraucnfeld (1854) as a 
nomen nudum. "Taxon inquirendum." 

Bryopsis intricata Derbes & Solier, Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 1 
(Suppl.): 41, pi. XI, figs. 6-9. 1856, non Bryopsis intricata Menegh. (1845) 
[=B. duplexDe Not.]. Type locality: not stated Bryopsis duplex war. intricata 
Ardiss. (1886). 

Bryopsis ligustica Ardiss.. Comment. Soc. Cnttog. 1 : 407. 1864. Type locality: Portofino, 
Italy. = Pcdohcsia simplex, fide DeToni (1889). 

Bryopsis lubrica Cribb; cited in Algae-base (Guiry & Nic Dhinncha 2003) with a 
reference to Phillips (1997). nomen nudum. 

Bryopsis myura J. Agardh, Alg. mar. medit., p. 20. 1842. Syntype localities: Amalfi, 
Italy; Livorno. Italy: Nice. Fiance. Icon.: Kiitzing ( 1856. pi. 82, fig. II); Zanar- 
dini ( 1863, pi. XVIII B). Bscudobryopsis myura (I Agardh ) Berthold m 
Oltmanns ( 1 904),— Henne and Schnetler (1999) disagreed with Taylor's 
(1962b) earlier merger of Pseudobryopsis and Trichosolen, which placed 
Bryopsis myura in Trichosolen, as T. myura (J. Agardh) W. R.Taylor. Hemic 
and Schnetter (1999) offered evidence to maintain two separate genera. 


Bryopsis pachynema G Martens, Preuss. Exped. Ost.-As.,Tange, p. 24, pi. IV, fig. 2. 
1868. = Valoniopsis pachynema (G. Martens) B0rgesen (1934). 

Bryopsis panizzei De Not., Prosp. Fl. ligust., p. 73. 1846. Type locality: San Remo, 
Italy. = Bryopsis myura J. Agardh, fide Ardissone (1886) and DeToni (1889). 
= Pseudobryopsis myura (J. Agardh) Berthold in Oltmanns (1904). 

Bryopsis petteri Menegh., Giorn. Bot. Ital. 1(2): 246. 1845. Type locality: u ad rupes 
profunde submerses. Spalati" = Split, Croatia, Adriatic Sea. = Bryopsis myura, 
fide Zanardini (1863) and Ardissone (1886) = Pseudobryopsis myura (J. 
Agardh) Berthold. 

rg AS 


/->"/ ) opsi . pinastroides var. arborescens Schousb. in Bornet, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cher- 
bourg 28: 213. 1892, nomen nudum. 

.(London) 5: 76. 1890, 

Dimes in Batters, J. Bot. 40 (Suppl.): 21. 1902, nomen 

ula Zanardini, Atti 1st. Veneto Sci„ Lett. Arti 6: 244. 

i Batters, J. Bot. 40 (Suppl.): 

Bryopsis pseudoplumosa V. J. Chapm., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 55: 484, fig. 148 II; pi. 45. 1956, 
non Bryopsis pseudoplumosa Ardiss. (1864). Typo locality: Taylor's Mistake, 
Banks Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand. 

Bryopsis pulvinata Oltm. (1904), nomen nudum.— The taxon to which Oltmanns 
referred was later described as Bryopsis monoica Berthold in Funk (1927). 
= Bryopsis hypnoides J. V. Lamour, fide Gallardo et al. (1993). 

ryopsis pusilla Levring, Acta Univ. Lund., N. F, 34(9): 11, figs. 6A-D; pi. Ill, fig. 8. 
1938. Type locality: Port Elizabeth, Cape Prov., South Africa.— This name was 
listed by Silva et al. (1996); however, Seagrief (1984) reported that Papenfuss 
indicated in a personal communication dated 1970 that this entity is merely 
a juvenile form of Codium, and thus the name "should disappear from the 

, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 28: 213. 1892, 


Bryopsis saburralis De Not., Prosp. Fl. ligust., p. 73. 184(v I cctotype locality: Genoa, 
Italy; and "Nizza" = Nice, France. = Poropsis suburnilis (De Not.) Kiitz. 
(1856). See Nizamuddin et al. (1994). 

Bryopsis seminuda Menegh., 
Cesto, Croatia, Adria 

Bryopsis setacea J. V. Lamour., in Dumont DTJrville, Enum. pi. Ponti-Eux., p. 130. 

i; !■-].. !<•' !ii\ oii.i i'limopk' Istanbul, Turkey. "Taxon inquirendum." 
fide Silva et al. (1996). 

Bryopsis simplex Menegh. ex Kill/., Phycol. general., 306. 1843. Syntype localities: 
i ; i i e; lectotype locality: Geno; I • i 

& Leliaert (2001 ). = Pedobesia simplex (Menegh. ex Ktitz.) M. J. Wynne &. 
Feliaerl (2001). Pom varieties of B. simplex recognized In Meneghm 

• j in I I tin ill in ' , >< ■ > >j n > « v- inn 

and Feliaerl (3001 ):. B. simplex var. muhi Menegh.: B. simplex var. plunnitu 
i It t ) a 1*1 m\ li \impU \ n If < ' 

(Mont.) Menegh. Wynne and Feliaerl (2002) also did nol recognize within P. 
, pi « mi. I'ollowin anel •"" ;impl var. versatilis De Not. in De Nolaris 
and Baglietto (1869). 

Bryopsis lenmssu ■! M n ' Su hum ser. 2, 2 (CI. Sc. 

Fis. e mat.): 259, pi. VI, fig. III. 1839. Type locality: Cabrera, Balearic Islands, 
Spain. - Derhesiu lemassinni (Moris & De Not.) P. Crouan & H. Crouan 

Bryopsis llitnoide i I [ 'i <<»| \ I .-, i>| . I , - I i . . i , Hixopsis thuyoidi 

Menegh (1845) | B eitpres ■ nuoii hl\ Napoli, Italy- 

Pignatti (1962) treated />. tlmvoidcs Kiitz, as conspecilic with B.plumosa. 



1'tt'vjnis 242 

adriatica 243,251 

africana 242 

aishae 242 

alterna 242, 250 

ambigua 250 

apiocarpa 250 

tirhuscitlti C. Agardh 245, 250 

arbuscidn (DC.) .1. V. Lamonr. : 

australis 242 

baculifera 250 

cespitosa 242 

Lprolongata 245 

clavaeformis 251 


comoides 244 

var. e/egfl/z.v 242 

composita 242 

incompta 252 

confervoides T>ecnc.25\ 

incurvfl 252 


indica 242, 245 

constricta 251 

var. indica 245 

corticulans 242 

var. triseriata 245 

f. unilateralis 245 

var. novtwzelandiae 243 

intricata Dcrbes & Solier 252 

corymbosa 242 

intricate! Menegh. 244, 252 

cupressina 243, 25 1 , 254 

leprieurii 247 

var. adriatica 243 

ligustica 252 

\ar. cupressina 243 

lindaueri 245 

cupressoides J. Agardh 243, 244, 25 1 

lubrica 252 

var. 1 adriatica 243 

lyngbyei 245.246 

cupressoides Feldmann 244, 251 

rnaiTaildii 24h 

dalmatica 251 

magellanica 246 

dasyphylla 251 

densa 243 

derbesioides 243 

minor 246 

dichotoma 244 

moiwica 245. 253 

disticha 244 

moorei 244 

duchassamgii 251 

muscosa 246, 252 

duplex 244, 250, 252 
var. «»!«/«/« 244 

f.< ( /" dt-rb, ia2>\ 


pinastroides 243,246,253 




des 245 

i. Icpricurii 44 7 

ir.| /,«,/« 



' Pi" ' 


'. elongat; 

i 24S 

-. »r;ie-ilis 


amhw.u; "Ml 

\inipliusailn '.". i 
| \nh\iinplf\ .\S3 
jjwcw/a 247 

. «/<j w .'/<>w Ardiss. 243,2- 
p\ciitlnj>hnii<'\ii V. .!. ( 'liapm. 
pulvinata 253 
/;«/>;//« 242. 253 

M-<// ; /i-/24w 

secundfl 245, 24 

arbuscula 247,250 

davaelormis 250 
simplex 250, 251, 25: 


saburralis 254 
Pseudobryopsis 252 


lurccllala 7 A 
Iiichosolen 252 
duchassaiiiiiii 251 

( /A