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Full text of "Brooklyn Botanic Garden record."

JAN 25 1927 



BROOKLYN 
BOTANIC GARDEN 

RECORD 



C. STUART GAGER 




CONTENTS 

Delectus Seminum, Brooklyn, 1926 (List of Seeds Offered in Exchange) . 



BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 

Scientific, Educational, and Administrative Officers 
SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL 



C. STUART GAGER, Ph.D., ScD., Pd.D., Director 

MONTAGUE FREE, Horticulturist 

ARTHUR HARMOUNT GRAVES, Ph.D., Curator of Public Instruction 

ALFRED GUNDERSEN, Docteur de l'Universite (Paris), Curator of Plants 

ELSIE TWEMLOW HAMMOND, MA., Assistant Curator of 

Elementary Instruction 



GEORGE M. REED, Ph.D., Curator of Plant Pathology 
r T ™ T ^r^r SHAW, B.S., Curator of Elem 
RAY SIMPSON, i 



ELLEN EDDY SHAW, B.S., Curator of Elementary Instructic 



NORMAN TAYLOR, Curator of Plants 
ORLAND E. WHITE, ScD., Curator of Plant Breeding and Economic Plants 



MARY AVERILL, Honorary Curator of Japanese Gardening 
Floral Art 
HAROLD A CAPARN, Consulting Landscape Architect 



RALPH CURTISS BENEDICT, Ph.D., Resident Investigator 



KATHRYN CLARK, A.B., Instructor 
^Af£L ELLEN PECK > A - B " ^search Assistant 
MAR JORIE R. SWABEY, A. B., Research Assistant 

ETHEL V. WOODWARD, Instructor 



EDITH R. DALY, Library Assistant 
HELEN SMITH HILL, Curatorial Assistant 
HESTER M. RUSK, A.B., Curatorial Assistant 

MARGERY H. UDELL, Curatorial Assistant 



ADMINISTRATIVE 

DA S??L C D0WN S, Secretary and Accountant 

MAUDE E. VORIS, Assistant Secretary 

MARION GIBBS GREEN, Business Office Assistant 



JEANNETTE M MacCOLL, A.B., Secretary to the Directo 

FRANK STOLL, Registrar and Custodian 

WILLIAM H. DURKIN, Membership Secretary 

RUTH BLANKLEY, Stenograph, 
ALVHILD LINNEA WIMAN, Steno, 



LOUIS BUHLE, Photographer 
i arranged alphabetically. 



BROOKLYN 
BOTANIC GARDEN 

RECORD 



DELECTUS SEMI NUM. BROOKLYN 1926 
List of Seeds Offered in Exchange 

These seeds, collected (luring U)2 <), are offered to botanic 
ardens and to other regular correspondents; also, in limited 
uautities, to members of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

do simplify and improve our work we offer this year seeds 






Osmundaceae 

Osmunda 
regalis 



nly. 
PTERIDOPHYTA 

Asplenium 
nidus 
platyneuroi 

Blechnum 

occidentale 



Doodia 

ble.chnoide 



Al icrolepia 

Nephrolepis 

cordifblia 

Olcandra 

articulata 
Pellaea 



phyllitidis 
Selaginella. 



DICOTYLEDONES 

anthaceae 266 C'closia 



Mr 



,;..!,: 



iinli.n 



pomeridianum 
pyropeum 
Mollugo 

Tctra^nnia 



ristata (dwarf) 
ristata (yellow) 
lumosa " 
lumosa (yellow) 
Apocynaceae 24; 



Amaranta 
Alternanthera 



:,.,■■,;:■. 



rrlr<>lU'\us 



Asclepias 

phytolaccc 

Woodii (t 



persicifolia 

[HTsici folia (white) 



pallida 
Roylei 
scabrida 
Basellace, 



Borraginaceae 252 



Scheuchzeri 
Platycodon 

grandiflorum 

Mariesii 



Lithospermum 
distichum 
Myosotis 



nphytum 



Capparidaceae 107 



spino 
spino 









Chenopodium 

Bonus-Henricu 

capitatum 
Hablitzia 



libaih .tic;i 


Kochia 


perfoliata 




repens 


hyssopifolia 


repens var. monsii 


>sa Polycnenum 


Lvchnis 
alba 






Cistaceae 193 


i-haliTcli mica 

Coronaria 

dioica 


Helianthemum 


globulariaofolium 


Nos-nieuli 


Compositae 280 


Githag-o 


Achillea 


Viscaria var. splendens abrotanoides 


Sagina 


r.lpina 






Saponaria 


Clavenae 




liliprndulina 


utiU-inalis 


Ptarmica 


Vaccaria 




Silene 


Ammobium 


acaulis 


alatum 


alprslri^ 


Antennaria 


Arnu'ria 






Anthemis 


Friwaldskyana 


anstriaca 



Purshiana 

vulgaris 




Gaillardia 
Helianthus 


C alpinus 

alpinus var. 

cordifolius 
Bellium 

bellidioides 
Buphthalmum 


speciosus 


Helichrysum 
bracteatum 

helianthoide 


speciosum 




Inula 



Ch: 


macrocephala 
Scabiosa 
rysanthemum 
cinerariaefolr 




Parthenium 


Coj 


grandiflora 
lanceolata 

palmata 


Cryptostemma 


Dii 


norphotheca 



Eriophylh 



Leontopodiui 
alpinum 

Leptosyne 

Stillman: 
Matricaria 

Onopordon 



macrophyllus 
Petasitis 
Silphium 

Silybum 

Marianum 
Solidago 

Cutleri (S. Vii 



>onchus 

'ra-opoo-on 
porrifolius 




oriental!! 
1 )raba 


Convolvulacea 


e 249 


aizoidcs 
KolSL-hy: 


purpurea 




rig-ida 



Crassulao 

J-ryophyllum 



album 

ii\ iin'ilun 



Melo 

Cucurbita 

Hcballmm ' 
Elaterii 

Datis 
Datisca 



raeca 




Guttiferae 1 


ciniatus 




Hypericum 






ellipticum 


noena 




perforatum 








mcasica 




Richeri 






virg-inicum 


terocephala 




Hydrophylk 


E horbiacea< 


2 147 


Hydrolea 


>rbia 


spinosa 


nygdaloides 




Hyd c"anaaensc 



Illecebraceae 

rigiola 
littoralis 

glabra 



Gentian 

1 Bigelovii 



pseudodict; 
Dracocephalum 

Moldavica 



Bradbi 
mollis 
Nepeta 



Origanum 


Leguminosae 


Pcrilla &C 


—Papilionatae 




Arachis 


Phlomis 


hypogaea 


alpina 


Astragalus 




alopccuroick'S 


I'livsosteg-ia 


Cicer 


virginiana 


Baptisia 


Prunella 


austral is 


vulgaris 




Salvia 


Coronilla 


acetabulosa 




azurea var. grandinora Galena 




MllH'MKll.S 




orientalis 


Horminum 


Glycine 


Soja (brown set 


gartenn 


Soja (yellow set 




Lathyrus 


^aiid'l-n-ia 1 


- Alary Lovett ' 


alpina 


Lespedeza 






peregrina 


Lupinus 


Sideritis 


polyphyllus 


scordioides 


polyphyllus var. 


Stachys 


Medicago 


-nmdillora 


falcata 






MfTu-iiialis 


scutellata 




Melilotus 


sylvatica 


alba 


Thymus 


Ononis 


" Serpyllum 





Lythr 



Alths 



Salicaria 

Salicaria var. roseum 
virgatum 

virgatum "Rose Que 
Malvaceae 175 

"officinalis 
Callirhoe 
Hibiscus 

Moscheutos (white, 

Sabdariffa 

Kitaibelia 
vitifolia 

Malope 
trifida 

Malva 



pumila 

Oxalidaceae 130 



microcarpa 
Eschscholtzia 



Nyctaginaceae 80 
Mirabilis 

Jalapa (pink form) 
Jalapa (yellow form) 
jalapa (white form) 
Oxybaphus 

Onagraceae 224 
Clarkia 

pulchella 
Epilobium 

angustif'-'Iium 



— Fumar'wiih'ac 
Corydalis 



Oiha flagellicaulis 

achilleaefolia floribunda 

Phlox veris var. suaveolen 

Drummondii Steironema 

Polemonium ciliatum 

reptans Trientalis 
Polygonaceae 77 

Kriogonum 



I'nlygO 



Pyrol 

Cbimapbila 

Pyrola 




Ranunc 


laceae 


'alba 





Portulacaceae 


85 


alba 

rubra 

Anemone 


Anacampseros 








Telephiastrum 




Pulsatilla 
Cimicifuga 


Calandrinia 




grandiflora 












re. 1. viva 






Portulaca 




integrifolia 


grandiflora 




Coptis 


niar-ina1a 






oleracea 




Delphinium 


Talinum 






patens 




Nigella 


Primulaceae 237 


damascena 


Anagallis _ 




Ranunculus 
Cymbalari 


Iinifolia 


uea 


ThaHdrum° SUS 


Androsace 




angustifoli 








septentrionalis 




minus 



Resedaceae 

Astrocarpus 



alba 




Dasycephala. 


lutea 




Galium 


Luteola 




purpureum 


odor at a 




Spermacoce 


odorata 


:( Goliath - 


tenuior 


Phytc-um 


a 


Rutaceae 137 



Rosaceae 126 



Alchemilla 


graveoiens 




alpina 


Saxifragaceae 1 


17 


splendens 






vulgaris 
Duchesnea 

indica 


appendiculata 

Saxifraga 
Aizoon 




Fragaria 


Cotyledon 












Hostii 






Macnabiana 




macrophyllum 






pallidum 


Scrophulariacea 


e 257 


Gillenia 


Antirrhinum 




trifoliata 


Asarina 




Potentilla 


ma jus 




alchemilloides 






argentea var. Calabra 


Calceolaria 




chrysantha 


scabiosaefolia 






Chaenostoma 




JTopwoodiana 


foetidum 




nepalensis 


Digitalis 




Nuttallii 






rupestris 


Erinus 





barbatlls 

barbatus va: 

glaber 

grandiflorus 

laevi.qatus \ 
unilateralis 

marilandica 

sambueifolia 



Solanaceae 256 


planum 


Atropa 


Heracleum 


Belladonna 




Belladonna (yellow fruit) 


Bevisticum 




officinale 




Oenanthe 


Datura 


pimpinelloid 


meteloides 




Stramonium 


Clayton i 


Lycopersicum 


Pirn pin el la 


cerasiforme 


Anisum 



fficinalis tricolor 

Verbenaceae 253 Zygophyllace 



MONOCOTYLEDONES 

aryllidaceae 340 Grami 



fatua 

sativa " Early Champk 



Bromeliaceae 332 stngosa 

Dyckia Coix 

brevifolia Lachryma-Jobi 

Tillandsia Dactylis 

Balbisiana glomerata 

fasciculata Festuca 



Commelinaceae 333 



Palisota 
Barteri 

Rhoeo 

divnlsa 

punctata 
Cyperus 

alternifoliiii 
Kyllinga 



Sorghum ' 


'Black 


hull 


Kafir " 






Sorghum " 


Sumac 


• Sorgo 




" Feterita " 


Sorghum 


" Whit 


c Alilo 








distichum 


(bearc 


led) 


vulgare 






scanthus 






saeclinrifei 






sinensis va 


tr. grac 


illimus 



Phleum 


var. picta 


botryoides 


pratense 

cereale 
Setaria 
italica 




Polygonatum 
biflorum 

Ruscus 

aculeatns 


Iridaceae 


344 


Smii raCem ° Sa 


illVllntotlKl 




herbacea 


gram in ca 




Si re] ) 1 1 !|ni> 


ori en talis ' 






teitorum" 




Trillium 






undulatum 


tectorum v; 


r. alba 


Tulipa 


Liliaceae 338 


I'.alalinii 
(lusiana 


Allium 




Eichleri 


tislulosum 




Kaufmannian 


Artianthium 




polyohroma 




urn 


primulma 


Asparagus 

officinalis 
Sprcngeri 




Orchidaceae 




( ypripedium 


.\splli»(U-lilH' 






lutea 




Habenaria 


Chlorophytum 




Hooked 


Orchidastru 




lacera 


Clintonia 






borealis 




Taccaceae ; 


( laltonin 




Schizocapsa 



agmc 



Hemerocallis 

iMaiantluMiium 



itegrih.li; 
furslieMi 



Applications for seeds should be received not later th 
March i, 1927. 

Address all requests to 

DR. ALFRED GUNDERSEN, 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 
moo Washington \vc. 
Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. 



The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 



Third Vice-President 
WILLIAM A. PUTNAM 



Botanic Garden Governing Committee 
MISS HILDA LOINES, Chairman 
FRANK L. BABBOTT, Ex officio JOHN W. FROTHINGHAM 

MRS. WILLIAM H. GARY RALPH JONAS 

WALTER H. CRITTENDEN EDWIN P. MAYNARD 

GATES D. FAHNESTOCK WILLIAM A. PUTNAM 

MRS. LEWIS W. FRANCIS ALEXANDER M. WHITE 

Ex Officio Members op the Board 
THE MAYOR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 
THE COMMISSIONER OF PARKS, BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

Membership.— All persons who are interested in the objects and r 
of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden are eligible to membership. Members enjoy 
special privileges. Annual Membership, $10 yearly; Sustaining Membership, $25 
yearly; Life Membership, $500. Full information concerning membership may 
be had by addressing The Director, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, N. V. 
Telephone, 6173 Prospect. 

The Botanic Garden is open free to the public daily from 8 a.m. until' dark; 
on Sundays and Holidays open at 10 a.m. 

Entrances.— On Flatbush Avenue, near Empire Boulevard (Malbone Street), 
and near Mt. Prospect Reservoir ; on Washington Avenue, south of Eastern Park- 
way and near Empire Boulevard; on Eastern Parkway, west of the Museum 



The street entrance 


to the Laboratory Building is at 100c 


) Washir 


lgton Avenue, 


opposite 


Montgomery Street. 






To - 


A.SSIST Membei 


rs and others in studying the collections the 






lay be obtained. 






>f the Botanic 


Garden; 




1 is a charge of 50 cents per person. 


Arrangements must 


be made 


by application 


to the Curator of Public Instruction 


i at least 


one week in 



To Reach the Garden take Broadway (B.M.T.) Subway to Prospect Park 
Station; Interborough Subway to Eastern Parkway-Brooklyn Museum Station; 
Flatbush Avenue trolley to Empire Boulevard; Franklin Avenue, Lorimer Street, 
and Tompkins Avenue trolleys to Washington Avenue; St. John's Place trolley to 
Sterling Place and Washington Avenue; Union Street and Vanderbilt Avenue 
trolleys to Prospect Park Plaza and Union Street. 




PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 

RECORD Established, January, 1912. An administrative periodical issued 
quarterly. Contains, among other things, the Annual Report of the director and 
heads of departments, special reports, announcements of courses of instruction, 
seed list miscellaneous papers, and notes concerning Garden progress and events. 
Free to members of the Garden. To others one dollar a year; 25 cents a copy. 

MEMOIRS. Established, July, 1918. Published irregularly. 

Volume I, Dedication Papers: comprising scientific papers presented at the 
dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. P"ce 
$3.50, plus postage. 

Volume II. The 
Montauk: A study of grassland and 

CONTRIBUTIONS. Established, Apri 
in periodicals, reissued as "separates," with 
consecutively. This series includes occasional pape 
the results of research done at the Garden, or by r 
Twenty-five numbers constitute one volume. Price 25 cents each, $500 a volume. 

38. Physiologic races of oat smuts. 10 pages, 3 plates. 1924. 

39. Relative susceptibility of selections from a Fulghum-Swedish select cross 
to the smuts of oats. 17 pages, 4 plates. 1925. 

40. Physiological specialization of Ustilago hordei. 21 pages, I figure. 1924. 

41. Factors influencing the infection of wheat by Tilletia Tritici and Tilletia 
laevis. 24 pages, 4 plates. 1924. 

42. Variation among the sporelings of a fertile sport of the Boston fern. 27 

43. Inheritance studies in Pisum. V. The inheritance of scimitar pod. 14 
pages, 10 figures. 1925. 

44. Modes of infection of sorghums by loose kernel smut. 17 pages, 3 plates. 
1925- 

45. The inheritance of resistance of oat hybrids to loose smut. 19 pages. 

46. Geographical distribution and the cold-resisting character of certain herbaceous 
pzrmnial and woody plant groups. 10 pages. 1926. 

47. The cause of the persistent development of basal shoots from blighted chestnut 
trees. 7 pages, 1 figure. 1926. 

"LEAFLETS. Established, April 10, 1913- Published weekly or biweekly 
during April, May, June, September, and October. The purpose of the Leaflets 
" \ flowering and other plant a 



and others. Free to members of the 
Garden. To others, fifty cents a. series. Single numbers 5 cents each. 

GUIDES to the collections, buildings, and grounds. Price based upon cost 
of publication. 

SEED LIST. Established, December, 1914. Since 1925 issued each year in 
the January number of the Record. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY. Established, January, 1914. Pub- 
lished, in cooperation with the Botanical Society of America, monthly, except 
during August and September. Subscription, $7.00 a year. 



GENETICS. Established, January, 1916. 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 
1926 



" The study of wisdom may always increase 
in this life, because nothing is perfect in 
human discoveries. It is most wretched 
always to be using what has been attained 
and never reach further for one's self." 

— ROGER BACON. 

" If practical teaching is the foundation of 
scientific education, I am sure that original 
work is its soul and spirit." 

— SIR FRANCIS DARWIN. 



BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN RECORD 



BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 

Scientific, Educational, and Administrative Officers 

Scientific and Educational 

The Staff* 
C. STUART GAGER, Ph.D., Sc.D., Pd.D., Director 
MONTAGUE FREE 

ARTHUR HARMOUNT GRAVES, Ph.D., Curator of Public Instruction 

ALFRED GUN I ' - , < , 

ELSIE TWJ I I, MA., Assistan Curator of 

Elementary Instruction 

GEORGE M. urator of Plant Pathology 

;. '> ■;■■!• W , ^ . , .,: • ' , t /,.,,,„; 

RAY SIMPSON, Librarian 

NORMAN TAYLOR, Curator of Plants 

ORLAND E. WHITE, Sc.D., Curator of Plant Breeding and Economic Plants 



MARY AVERILL, Honorary Curator of Japanese Gardeni 
Floral Art 
HAROLD A. CAPARN, Consulting Landscape Architti 



RALPH CURTISS BENEDICT, Ph.D., Resident 

KATHRYN CLARK, A.B., Instructor 
MARY ELLEN PECK, A.B., Research Assu 
MARJORIE R. SWABEY, A. B., Research Ass 

• ' i " . i 



EDITH R. DALY, Librae . ;,-, 
ALEXANDRA IX) HO, <V,' ;/:, .! 
■ >■■■ -VITH HILL, Curatorial / 



Administrative 

DANIEL C. DOWNS, Secretary and Accountant 

l .iAii. '-' " V : : , .-;:' , .., - . .,-, 

MARION GIBBS GREEN, Business Office Assisia, 

JEANNETTE M. MacCOLL, A.B., Secretary to the Di 

- ! ■: > ■ -'i • , , , . 

WILLIAM H. DURKIN. 

RUTH BLANKLEY, Stenographer 
ALVHILD LINNEA WIMAN, Stenographer 

LOUIS BUHLE, Photographer 
* The names are arranged alphabetically. 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC 
GARDEN 

1926 




FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF BOTANY 
AND THE SERVICE OF THE CITY 



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



SUMMARY FOR 1926 

1. Total attendance for the year, over 514,000. 

2. Educational contact with over 400,000 children and adults. 

3. Over 34,000 living plants placed in classrooms of city 
schools. 

4. Over 550,000 packets of seeds distributed to children in 
Brooklyn and other boroughs for planting in school and home 
gardens. 

5. Over 1800 packets of seeds of trees and shrubs sent in ex- 
change to foreign botanic gardens. 

6. Conservation of Native Wild Flowers promoted in various 
ways in cooperation with other organizations. 

7. Botanical research continued in plant pathology, genetics, 
plant breeding, forest pathology, ecology, and plant geography. 

8. Over 1800 pages of research have been published during the 
year in four journals that have a world-wide circulation. 

9. Bureau of Information has been made use of by the public 
to our capacity to respond. 

10. Current issues of 847 periodicals on plant life have been 
received in the library. 

11. Of a total budget of over $148,000 the Botanic Garden pro- 
vided over $66,000 or over 43 per cent. 

12. Members enjoy special privileges. See pages iv and v for 
information concerning membership. 



A world-famous biologist (Pasteur) once said of Scotland 
that she was one of the first among nations to understand that 
intellect leads the world, and that for centuries she had " united 
her destinies with those of the human mind." 

A similar reputation amonq cities is enjoyed by the Athens of 
ancient Greece, but most modern cities are generally regarded as 
having united iheir destinies chiefly with, those of commerce. As 
a necessary consequence of her geographical location, this has 
been true of New York from the beginning. 

But to her great honor, and as a necessary consequence of the 
character of her people, be it said Hint: she lias also united her 
destinies with those of literature, of art, and of education. 

The existence of her municipal colleges, her numerous and 
justly famous museums, zoological park, aquarium, and two 
botanic gardens, all supported in whole or in part by appropria- 
tions in the annual lax budget of the city, bears eloquent testi- 
mony to the fact that New York City has also united her destinies 
with tho.se of science, the youngest child of civilization and human 

She also is coming to understand that, not commerce, not 
wealth, not bigness, but intellect leads the world, and that the 
general level of intelligence of her citi/eus and her own contri- 
buti to hu J ^isss in the higher realm of intelligence is 

the true measure of a city's greatness. Such is the high goal 
toward which the Greater New York of today is progressing. 



ITEMS FOR WHICH ADDITIONAL ENDOWMENT IS 
NOW NEEDED 

For Annual Expenditures ('Income from Endowment) : 
Personal Service 

1. Salary increases $ 10,000 

2. Retiring allowances 10,000 

3. New Positions 20,000 

4. Special Research Projects 10,000 



5. Library (Looks and Funding) $ 

6. Herbarium 

7. Publishing and Printing 

8. Laboratory apparatus and equipment. . 
Q. Botanical exploration and field work.. 



Total additional annual income needed $ 60,000 

For Publishing Iris Memoir (with colored plates) . . .$ 20,000 
For Permanent Improvements: 

10. Nursery, Experimental plot, and 

Greenhouses $500,000 

1 1. Rose Garden 10,000 

Total, Permanent Improvements $510,000 

For a Summary of the Botanic Garden's activities for the year 
10,26, see page i. 



INKOKM \T!<)\ (. < i\(i:kXl^, M l-:\l IllvkSJ 1 1 



The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences is organ 
three main departments: i. The Department of Educati 
The Museums. 3. The Botanic Garden. 

Any of the following seven classes of memhership may h 
out through the Botanic Garden : 


11 1 iiin.io member 


"5 6 Patron 






4. Permanent member.... 2.500 

Sustaining memhers are annual memhers with full privil 
Departments one to three. Memhership in classes two tc 



carries full privileges m Departments one to three. 

In addition to opportunities a horded to memhers of the Botanic 
<..iidentoipii.il. ;erviei llnou»ii otiperal iug in its development, 
and helping to further its aims to advance and diffuse a knowledge 
and love of plants, to help preserve our native wild flowers, and to 
afford additional and much needed educational advantages in 
Brooklyn and Greater Xew York, memhers may also enjoy the 
privileges indicated on the following page. 

burther information concerning membership may be had by ad- 
dressing The Director, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., or by personal conference b] appointment. Telephone, 
6173 Prospect. 

Date 

To The Secretary, 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 

1000 Washington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



An Annual Member $10 A Donor $10,000 

A Sustaining Member 25 A Patron 25,000 

A Life Member 500 A Benefactor 100,000 

A Permanent Member 25,000 

Please find enclosed my check payable to Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden, and present my name to the Board of the Trustees for 
election. Yours truly, 



PR[\ ILPGi S ' )] Ml MRPPSHIP 



Free admission to the buildings and grounds at all times. 
Cards of admission for self and friends to all exhibitions and 
openings preceding the admission of the general public, and 

Services of docent (by appointmenl ), for self and party, when 
visiting the Garden. 

Admission of member and his 01 hei immediate family to all 
lectures, classes, field trips, and other scientific meetings 
under Garden auspices, at the Garden or elsewhere. 

Special lectures and classes for the children of members. 

Copies of Garden publications, as follows : 





a. Record 




b. Guides 




c. Leaflets 




d. Contributions 


Privileges of 


the Library and Herbarium. 


Expert advice 


on the choice and care of plants, indoors and 


out, on pla 


nting the home grounds, the care of lawns, and 


the treatm 


ent of plants affected by insect and fungous 


pests. 




Identification 


of botanical specimens. 


.Participation 


n the periodical distribution of duplicate plant 


material ai 


d seeds, in accordance with special announce- 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN' AXI) THE CITY 



The Brooklyn Botanic Gakdkn. established in iqio, is a De- 
partment of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. It is 
supported in part by municipal appropriations, and in part by 
private funds, including income from endowment, membership 
dues, and special contributions. Its articulation with the City is 
through the Department of Parks. 

The City owns the land devoted to Garden purposes, builds, 
lights, and heats the buildings, and keeps them in repair, and in- 
cludes in its annual tax budget an appropriation for other items of 
maintenance. One third of the cost of the present buildings 
(about $300,000) was met from private funds. 

Appointments to all positions are made by the director of the 
Garden, with the approval of the Botanic Garden Governing Com- 
mittee, and all authorized expenditures for maintenance are made 
in the name of the private organization, from funds advanced by 
the Institute, which, in turn, is reimbursed from time to time by 
the City, within the limits, and according to the terms, of the an- 
nual appropriation. 

All plants have been purchased with private funds since the 
Garden was established. In addition to this, it has been the prac- 
tice of the Garden to purchase all books for the library, all speci- 
mens for the herbarium, all lantern slides, and numerous other 
items, and to pay certain salaries, with private funds. 

The urgent needs of the Garden for private funds for all pur- 
poses are greatly in excess of the present income from endow- 
ment, in cm hers/up dues, and special contributions. The director 
of the Garden will be glad to give full information as to possible 
uses of such funds to any who may be interested.* 

*A written Agreement, dated August 17, 1014, between the City of New 
York and the Institute, touching- the Botanic ( ianlen, published in full in 
the Brooklyn Botanic Garden Record, for April, 191 5, amends the agree- 
ment of September 0. iOi->. which amends the original agreement ol Septem- 
ber 28, 1909, published in the Record for January, 1912. 



Form of Bequest for General Purposes 

I hereby give, devise, and bequeath to The Brooklyn Institute of Arts 
and Sciences, Brooklyn, N. Y., the sum of Dollars, the in- 
come from which said sum to be u . d mi the educational and scientific work 
of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

Form of Bequest for a Curatorship 

I hereby give, devise, and bequeath to The Brooklyn Institute ot Arts 

and Sciences, Brooklyn, N. Y, the sum of Dollars, as an 

endowment for a curatorship in the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the income 

from which sum to be used each year towards the payment of the salary 
of a curator in said Botanic Garden, \<< be known as the (here may be in- 
serted the name of the donor or other person) curatorship. 

Form of Bequest for a Fellowship 



I hereby give 


;, devise, and bequeath to The 


Brooklyn Instit 


ute of Arts 


and Sciences, Brooklyn, N. Y 














tent of a fellowship fm ad- 


vanced botanica 


1 investigation 


in the Brooklyn i 


Botanic Garden, 


to be know:: 












Form of Bequest for other particular 


purposes designated by 






the testator 






I hereby give, 


devise, and bequeath to The Brooklyn Institute 


of Arts and 


Sciences, Brooklvn K Y ih 










from which tc 


> be used) for th( 


: Brooklyn Bota 


nic Garden* 


* The followi 


n additional 


purposes are suggested for which 


endowment 












I. Botanical 1 










2. Publishing 










3. Popular b( 


Dtanical public; 


ition. 






4. The endow 

5. Botanical i 


-ment of a lect 

llusti ation for 


publications and 


!ectu C res. Se ' 




6. The purch 


a ncl oil < 


ting of plants. 






7. The beauti 


Tying of the ; 








8. The purch 




:ions for the libn 






9. Extending 




our work of pub 






10. The constr 


uction and ma 


intenance of a Rose Garden. 






Fig. i. Ecological Garden. Oi 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 

1926' 

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 
To the Botanic Garden Governing Committee: 

It is my pleasure to present h 1 u if 1 1 Liu i\( emli nniiwi re ■ 
port <if the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, covering the Year 1926. 

Addition to Endowment 

In my preceding report I recorded the generous offer of Mr. 
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., to contribute the sum of $250,000 to 
the permanent funds of the Garden, provided the same amount 
was secured from other sources before the close of the year 1926. 

The initiation of plans for meeting- the conditions of Mr. 
Rockefeller's pi- lv w. ; muouiiced at the meeting of the Gov- 
erning Committee on January 22. At the meeting of the Com- 
mittee on March 19, Mr. A. M. White was appointed chairman 
of an Endowment Fund Committee, and announced that Mr. 
Ralph Jonas had consented to act as vice-chairman. 

Under date of April 15, this Committee sent invitations to a 
number of other representative citizens to become members of a 
Citizens Committee. The response to this invitation was very 
gratifying, and indicated a genuine and widespread interest in 
the Botanic Garden. The full membership and organization of 
the Endowment Fund Committee and of the i itizens Committee 
are given on pages 90-94 of this report. 

On April 27 the Endowment Fund Committee gave a luncheon 
at the Hamilton < 'm1» witl repn entatives of the Brooklyn new- 
papers and others as guests. At this luncheon the history of the 
Botanic Garden was briefly reviewed as indicating the real need of 

1 Brooklyn Botanic Garmix Record. Vol. XVI, No. 2. April, 1927. 



such an institution in Brooklyn, and shown 
as well as educational and scientific work of the Garden. The 
need for additional funds was also set forth. Here, again, the 
sympathetic response of the representatives of the local press was 
most encouraging. 

The Citizens Committee opened a special office at 1 6 Clinton 
Street, and the canvass for subscriptions was directed from this 
office with a special office force. So generous was the response 
that the quarter of a million dollars required to be suhscrihed and 
paid on or before December 31, 1926, was over-subscribed by 
July S, and Mr. Rockefeller was so notified. 

The letters exchanged between the treasurer of the committee 
and Mr. Rockefeller's office are here given, and in order to make 
the account complete, the letter containing Mr. Rockefeller's 
original pledge is repeated from my preceding annual report. 

May 25, 1925. 
Ih'tir Mr. Liagcr: 

Mr. John I). Rockefeller, Jr.. for wh 
me to pledge on his behalf I 

-nmklvi] lloiamc Garden the sum of $250,000 on condition that 
an equal sum is obtained in cash from other sources before Dec. 
31, 1926, both sums to be applied toward endowment, unrestricted 

While Mr. Rockefeller asks that the money which he thus con- 
tributes be added to the endowment funds, he realizes the un- 
wisdom of seeking- to forecast the requirements of the distant 
future, and is fully conscious of the danger attendant upon the 
establishment of any endowment fund in perpetuity. It will, 
therefore, be entirely agreeable to him to have the whole or any 
portion of the principal of this gift used, at any time after the 
expiration of twenty-five years from date, for any of the cor- 
porate purposes of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, provided that 
such use is duly authorized by a four-fifths vote of its trustees. 
Yours truly, 

(Signed) Raymond B. Fosdick 
Mr. C. Stuart Gager, 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 



July 8, 1926. 
M v dear Mr. Rockefeller: 

I have before me a copy of a letter written by Mr. Raymond 
B. Fosdick under date of May 2^, m>2^, addressed to Mr. C. 
Stuart Gager, in which Mr. Fosdick states that you are prepared 
to contribute to the Endowment Fund of the Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden the sum of $250,000 on condition that an equal sum is 
raised from other sources prior to December 31, 1926. 

As you are perhaps aware, a group of Brooklyn Citizens have 
been engaged in raising the sum of $250,000 to meet your pledge. 
The writer is the Treasurer of this informal Committee. 

This letter is written to certify to you that this Committee has 
now raised and the writer now has in his possession and on de- 
posit in the Nassau National Bank of Brooklyn the sum of 
$250,739. 

I trust this certification may prove sufficient and that we may 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) G. Foster Smith, 

Brooklyn llohnio Cordon Cili .'//■ Committee 
Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., 

New York. 

July 12, 1926. 
My dear Mr. Smith: 

In accordance with Air. Rockefeller, Jr.'s pledge of May 25, 
: 9 2 5» signed by Mr. Raymond B. Fosdick and in accordance with 
the assurances contained in your letter of July 8, 1926, that $250,- 
739 has been actually obtained in cash from other sources to date 
for the Endowment Fund, I am, on behalf of Mr. Rockefeller, Jr., 
enclosing his check in the sum of $250,000 payable to the Brook- 
lyn Botanic Garden. This completes the obligation under Mr. 
Rockefeller's pledge of May 25, 1925. 

May I repeat our congratulations, already given to Mr. C. 
smart Gas>er in our conversation this morning concerning Mr. 



Rockefeller's pledge, on the splendid achievement o\ the Citizens 
Committee. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Thomas B. Appleget. 
Mr. G. Foster Smith, Treasurer, 
Brooklyn Botanic U'irdcn Citizens Committee, 
The Nassau National Bank of Brooklyn, 
Brooklyn, New York. 

July 13, 1926. 
My dear Mr. Appleoct: 

I beg to acknowledge your letter of the 12th enclosing Mr. 
Rockefeller, Jr.'s check in the stun of $250,000 payable to the 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

I also appreciate ihe kind expressions contained in your letter 
and wish to again thank you ,,n behalf of the Brooklvn Boiam. 
Garden for the very genenm> contribution winch Mr. Rockefeller 
hi- made to US. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) G. Foster Smith, 

Treasurer, 
Brooklyn Bohuue Canlen Citizens Committee 



New York. 

The Director and Staff of the Botanic Garden wish to express 
here to Mr. Rockefeller, to all individuals and organizations that 
subscribed to this fund, and to the Citizens Kndowment Fund 
Committee, sincere, appreciation of their generous contribution- 
and labors, and in particular of the confidence in our work, of 
which these contributions and efforts are such substantial evidence 

ddiis response of our citizens, making it possible for the Botanic 
Garden to supplement more generously the annual appropriations 
in the Tax Budget of the City, is a forceful illustration of what 
the Hon. Elihu Root has recently referred to as " the true Ameri- 
can way, the true way in every self-governing people, to accom- 
plish results which are desired, and which are not already pro- 



vided for by the government, a way which follows the line of 
not lying down U|> >n sm Tin i m i m i implementing govern- 
ment by indep ruler; i, indn idual cut< ])rise and the activity and 
thought and devotion and self sacrifice of citizenship.'' 

Special mention should be made of the contributions from the 
Department of Botany of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences, from the Biology Departments of the Girls Technical 
and the Erasmus Hall and other High Schools, the Public Ele- 
mentary Schools and m parti ulai mos! generous contributions 
from the Garden Teachers Association of the Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden (graduates from our course for the preparation of teach- 
ers of children's gardening), from our own Boys and Girls Club, 
from Acjricola, the " official publication " of that Club, and from 
former members of the Club, who organized for the express pur- 
pose of raising a substantial contribution to the fund. The con- 
tribution from the staff of Auricula was the first to be received, 
with that from the Boys and Girls Club a close second. 

A list of the contributors may be found on pages 94-103 of this 
report. The new funds will be administered under two accounts, 
namely John 1). A'ockcfcllcr. Jr., .Fund, and Citizens Endozvment 



Significance of the New Endowment 

I be significance of this addition to our permanent funds is 
threefold. 

In the first place, Mr. Rockefeller's personal pledge of support 
> tbe Inchest possible endorsement of the accomplishments, fu- 
ture plans, and conduct of tbe Botanic Garden. It is well known 
that neil her Mr. Rockefeller himself, nor tbe Rockefeller founda- 
tions contribute to ibe work of any institution without the most 
thorough examination of its organization, its activities, its aims, 
and the conduct of its affairs, financially and otherwise. This 
t-xai mi. iion musi < -1, bli h mire confidence and also reveal the 
existence of a real need. No institution could have had a more 
thorough examination of its affairs (including its financial status 
and methods) than was given the Botanic Garden by Mr. Rocke- 
feller's examiners, ddie resulting endorsement of our work is, 
and will alwavs remain, one ot tbe strongest assets of the Garden. 



We shrill realize that the result could not have been otherwise if 
we recall that the organization and development of the Garden 
has been carried out with faithful adherence to plans that had met 
the unreserved approval of the founder of the Garden, the late 
Mr. Alfred T. White. 

In the second place, the generous response of the citizens who 
contributed to the fund is an asset hardly second to that of Mr. 
Rockefeller's own endorsement. Their response not only means 
public approval of the Garden's work, but is also the most con- 
vincing evidence that the Garden tills a real need in the com- 
munity, and has won public approbation and confidence. 

A Crisis Passed 

The third significance of the new fund has reference to the fu- 
ture, and to the type of institution which is now assured. In 
connection with the death of the president of one of our great 
public museums the corporation entered on its records a minute 
which contained the following words: "When he came to the 
Presidency, the Museum had passed through (lie period of early 
Struggles and local significance, and; ihe point had been reached 
when the question was to be determined whether the original im- 
pulse was to spend itself, satisfied with a local and provincial suc- 
cess, or whether, on the other hand, the institution was to be de- 
veloped into one of the great museums and educational influences 
of the world." 

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden was facing precisely this situa- 
tion when our needs were first presented to Mr. Rockefeller by 
the director. Was the original impulse, given by Mr. Alfred T. 
White and the two so closely connected with him in the establish- 
ment of the Garden, to spend itself, satisfied with a local, pro- 
vincial, and otherwise limited success; or was the local value of 
the Garden to be multiplied many fold by its becoming one of the 
great botanic gardens of world-wide influence and service to 
botanical science and education? Mr. Rockefeller's pledge and 
the public response to our canvass have decided that question. No 
ideal short of this has. from the becjinuuuj, made any appeal to the 
director ami staff, nor did it to Mr. White and those who were 
assoeiated with him in laying the foundations. 



the Garden could not have 
on which was relieved by se- 
curing the new funds. An institution, like an army, can mark 
time for only a limited period; it must then either advance or 

The income from the new funds will save a retreat, but they 
will only make it possible to prepare to advance. Certain ac- 
tivities which depended upon the precarious support of contribu- 
tions that had to be annually solicited, or which had been aban- 
doned or curtailed, are now assured of permanent financial sup- 
port, but there remain some of the most essential aspects of our 
work still dependent on annual contributions, and quite inade- 
quately financed. 

The Botanic Garden is still in its infancy and, like all infants, 
its appetite seems out of proportion to its size, because it must 
grow, and to grow it. must be nourished. 

Specific Needs 

Research Projects 

In several preceding annual reports, mention has been made 
of our project for research in the broad subject of disease re- 
sistance in plants. The initiation of this work was made pos- 
sible by the pledge of Mr. Alfred T. White to contribute the sum 
of $50,000 to be expended for this purpose over a term of years. 
In his letter of gift, Mr. White expressed the hope, and even the 
expectation that, by the close of the period he had provided for, 
some one of the existing foundations would place the work on a 
permanent footing. This has not yet been done, but the con- 
tinuation of the work until the close of 1928 has been provided 
for by the generosity of those who have been convinced (after 
thorough investigation) of the importance of this work to science 
and to the Botanic Garden, and who are interested to have per- 
manently established here this work in which Mr. White was so 
deeply interested. 

To secure adequate endowment for this and other research 
projects should be made one of our chief concerns (as it is one 



of our most vital needs') during the next eighteen months. Not 
less than $250,000 is required to insure an adequate annual income 
for the work. 

Other Needs 

Our present endowment, and the fund whose need has just been 
indicated, will only make possible t hi continuation of our present 
activities with the present staff. New curatorships should be 
created and filled, and the expenses incidental thereto must be 
provided for. The salaries, of course, are properly chargeable to 
the Tax Budget appropriation, but this has not, for some years, 
been adequate to meet the salaries. The relation between the 
annual Tax Budget appropriations and the private funds budget, 
and matters related thereto, are noted on page 23. 

Funds for such purposes as the library, the collections of living 
plants, the herbaria, publication, and other items are still inade- 
quate to our needs; and the development of such special collec- 
tions as, for example, the rose garden and other horticultural 
features is yet to be provided for. A fuller statement of our 
needs was given on pages 36-37 of my Fourteenth Annual Re- 
port (for 1924). 

The Garden and the Public 

.. Ifteudan, , 
Over 514.000 persons visited the Garden during 1926, an in- 
crease of more than 10,000 over 1925. The attendance figures 
have bad to be estimated, in part, on account of delays in getting 
the recording turnstiles in working order after their re-setting in 
connection with the erection of the new fence. We feel that the 
above figure is, in all probability, an understatement. 

Bureau of Information 
The answering of inquiries from the public involves practically 

number and importance of the questions asked, especially from 
business organizations. A commercial laboratory dealing in phy- 
sicians' supplies asks for information concerning Sphagnum moss, 
valuable in surgical dressings. A large firm of undertakers asks 



10 

nanuscript of a booklet to be pub- 
: in connection with funerals. An- 
other firm asks for information as to the necessary procedure 
with the State: bureau of 1'lant Industry in connection with the 
mipoi (atiou of living plant- from California to New York. The 
New York office of a concern in Liberia asks for information as 
to obtaining and growing Soya Beans and Kudzu Beans, and 
sugar cane in that country. A bond house in New York asks for 
tlic botanical name t .f a plant they wish to import, known to them 
only by a local English name. Inquiries are constantly received 
concerning such matters as the care of lawns and house plants, 
plant diseases, the naming of plants, and the names and addresses 
of nurserymen, seedsmen, and reliable companies to care for 
ornamental and shade trees. The list might be prolonged almost 
indefinitely. The inquiries come not only from New York City, 
but also from other cities and states, and from other countries. 

News Releases 
Over 500 clippings of newspaper notices concerning the Garden 
have been received during the year. As the curator of public 
m.siniciinn noints out in bis report, these notices appeared in the 
papers of twenty cities, distributed in eleven different states and 
Canada. While these notices imply a certain amount of publicity 
for the Garden, their chief value, perhaps, is in rendering our 
educational work more effective by making it available to a vastly 
greater number of people than can visit the Botanic Garden. 

Broadcasting 
"New York's Ih'ggest blower Garden'' was the subject of a 
talk broadcasted by the director on the evening of May i, from 
the Municipal Station, WNYC. 

Public Exhibits 

The botanic Garden does not maintain a museum, except its 
collections of living plants in the conservatories and plantations. 

'['he enure garden is. in reality, an out of- door- museum of living 
specimens. From time to time, however, temporary exhibits: arc 



11 

Exhibit at Washington, D. C— The American Horticultural 
Society held its Grand Spring- Exhibition in the Hall of Nations, 
Washington Hotel, on June 8 and 9. By invitation the Garden 

hil 1 d it framed colored vi \< d th< Ro irden which it is 

liO])ed to have realized before long at the 1'otanie Garden. 

At the Exposition of W omen's Work at the Hotel Astor, Oc- 
tober 4-9, that part of our educational work under the supervision 
of Mis> Shaw, curator of elementary instruction, was featured in 
a special booth, and the Garden is greatly indebted to members 
of the Woman's Auxiliary for assisting as attendants in charge 
of the booth. 

The exhibit of Cut Flowers and I Yr ie tables, raised in our Chil- 
dren's Garden, was held again this year (as last) on October 22 at 
the Eagle Building and was largely attended by members of the 
Junior Eagle Club (Brooklyn Daily Eagle) and their friends. 

The Exhibit c ' hn tmas (>'> en: Jiich b gan several years 
ago under the auspices of the Department of Elementary Instruc- 
tion, was taken over in 1926 (December 12-19) by a special com- 
mittee of the Woman's Auxiliary under the chairmanship of Mrs. 
William H. Cary. It was installed in the rotunda of the Labora- 
tory Building, and was greatly enriched by new materials and by 
new features, such as table decorations, living Christmas tree-. 
and other features. 

It is hoped by this exhibit to direct attention to the excessive 
use of such greens as Mountain Laurel, Ground Pine, and Holly 
collected wild; to encourage the growing of these greens as crop 
plants, in nurseries and otherwise; and to suggest other plants 
which may be found satisfactory as substitutes or supplements 

was distributed in connection with the exhibit. 



Meetings ■ 1 < hitsidi. > ' < am of ion 
The Garden is becoming increasingly popular as a meeting 
place of local organi ati n> garden clubs, civic organizations, 
mothers clubs of the schools, women's clubs, ct cetera. Usually 
these meetings include in their program a talk by some member 
of the Garden staff on the work of the Garden, and an inspection 



12 

of our buildings and grounds under guidance. The number of 
Mich organization-, merlin- at the Garden in 1920 was 40, averag- 
ing nearly one a week. Twenty-one of the meetings were in May. 
Many of these organizations, and their members, made sub- 
stantial contributions to our endowment fund, or other Garden 
funds. 

The Garden and the Schools 

Supply of Study Material 

The extent to which the city schools make use of the Garden 
facilities steadily increases. During 1026 study material (chiefly 
living plants and plant parts) was supplied to 2450 teachers dis- 
tributed in 196 schools, as against the 1925 figures of 2279 teach- 
ers in 81 schools. Forty-three High Schools and 104 Public 
Schools were served in this way as against 23 High Schools and 
42 Public Schools a year ago. Colleges, training schools, and 
parochial and other private schools were also supplied. 

Over 14,700 living plants were placed in 55(1 classroom--. ioi 
for study but as objects of beauty. Last year the number ot 
classrooms thus supplied was 112. 

Seeds for Children 



( )ver 550,000 penny packets of seeds 
ildren— an increase of more than 
^ures become much more signiiica 


were distributed to school 
21,500 over 1925. These 
it when one recalls the 


nited opportunities for gardening ii 

er 2,000,000 population. 

Addition statistics of our cooperat 


a city like Brooklyn of 
on with the city schools 



Conferences 



,i L-.uIw 



13 

Study Material Supplied 

Number of schools and annexes 
High 

In Brooklyn (Total i i il I gh 15) 15 

Outside of Brooklyn 28 

Junior High Schools (Total \z 

Colleges, Universities, Museums (s 

Training schools for teachers 2 

Elementary schools 

In Brooklyn (Total number 220) 104 

In Manhattan 5 

In Queens 6 

Private and Parochial Schools 18 

Number of pupils instructed 91,300 

Exhibits Provided 

Number of exhibits 7 

Viewed by (nuniboi ol th-i •< -n- ; 4.000 

Living Plants placed in school-rooms 

Xnrnln-i of school rooms 55O 

Number of plants 14./'^ 

Aaar [sterilized) for class use 

Petri dishes 1 ,669 

Seed Packets for Children 

Schools 178 

Teachers 5,575 



Newspaper n 



Model Lessons it, \„li,rr Study 



The curator ol elcmenian in-micnon. .Mi's.-, Shaw, calls at- 
tention in her report, appended hereto (p. 70), to a new method 
of cooperation with the public schools, by the giving of model 
'lessons m naittre study in the auditorium of a public school (P.S. 
48, Brooklyn). Nine lesson uereojveii 1 rum 1 )do her to Decem- 
ber, inclusive. The work will be continued in 1927. The les- 
sons were given to five classes at a time, in the presence of their 
teachers, the plant material being supplied by the Botanic Garden. 



Wild Flower Conservation 

Causer-ration C 'ouference 

On May 26 a joint meeting on Wild Flower Conservation was 
held at the Laboratory Building. The cooperating societies were 
the Torrev Rotanical Club. Wild Flower Preservation Society, 
American Fern Society, New York Bird and Tree Club, and the 
Federated Garden Clubs of New York State. 

Addresses were given by Mr. Raymond H. Torrev, of the New 
York Evening Post; Mr. J. Otis Swift, of the New York World, 
Dr. R. C. Benedict, of the Botanic Garden ; and Mr. Henry Hicks, 
life member of the Garden and member of the Bono- Bland Bark 

57 r ?2V Conservation Laws 

As a result: of the cooperation oi the above mentioned societies. 
including the Botanic Garden, the Conservation Baw of New 

or! -iiu ha l> ii furth 1 amended o as to make it unlawful 
wilfully to destroy Trailing Arbutus (Jipigaea repens), Flower- 
ing Dogwood {(Cornus // nda). Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latl- 
folia), »i bin! I ah - lippei (( vprip diitiu aeaule) "growing 
on the lands of the people of the state, or in any street, highway. 
public place or park belonging to or under the control of any 
county, city, town or village.'' Any person doing this " shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor."' This act: passed both houses 
of the New York State Legislature, and received the signature of 
Governor Smith, April 13, 1926, the act taking effect immediately. 

Distribution of Wart's Tongue Fern 
In our preceding report mention was made of our propagation 
(under the supervision of Dr. Benedict, resident investigator) of 
he liar! I'on 1 1 1 ( 5'< ol, h, ndf ii in vul u > > "in po e 

obtained at Green Lake, near Syracuse, N. Y." Dr. Benedict re- 
ports as follows on the continuation of this work during 1926: 

" The program for the conservation of native plants endangered 
l.\ indusl : 1 d and pa 1 k c <p in u 11 --U ha- iepir,i ,1 moid a ibl. 
amount of attention in correspondence during the year. Spore 
cultures of Hart's Tongue Fern, started during 1925, were 



brought along hi potting Mze by early summer of 1926 and, ac- 
cording- to plans earlier announced, distribution was made of 
these young plants for the purpose of naturalization. Plants 
were sent to sixteen different people distributed in eight different 
states, with a distinct understanding that the ferns were to be 
set out under conditions as nearly like their natural habitat as 
possible, and those to whom the plants were sent were asked to 
keep close watch of them, so as to report the success of this broad 
demonstration experiment. A considerable number of the plants, 
which were too small during the summer of 1926, still remain and 
will be offered for distribution again in 1927, under the same con- 
ditions as last year. 

" In connection with the Hart's Tongue, an effort was made to 
secure a good series of photographs of the so-called blast Green 
Lake, near Jamesville, New York, at which some of the best 
groups of native Hart's Tongue Ferns are located. Activity by 
the Solvay Process Company lias already destroyed the halniat- 
of several colonies of this fern, and the quarrying operations have 
disfigured what was formerly a very beautiful spot. I was 
fortunately able to secure from Mr. Parle Wilson, of Syracuse, 
and Air. H. P.. Pansier, of Manlius, New York, a series of pic- 
tures showing conditions before and since the industrial opera- 
tions were begun. Copies of these photographs and lantern slides 
from some of them have been added to the Garden collections." 

Botanical and Horticultural Congresses 

International Conarrss on /7<>'av,- and fruit Sicrilitv 
The conference was held August 12-14. under the auspices and 
with the financial support of the Horticultural Society of New 
York. The first day's sessions were held at Columbia University 
(in the morning ) and at the New York Botanical Garden (in the 
afternoon) ; the second at the Boyce Thompson Institute for 
Plant Research; and the third at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 
At the latter session eleven scientific papers were presented in the 
morning and fifteen in the afternoon. Over one hundred dele- 
gates were present from about 38 institutions and organizations, 
and representing about 12 foreign countries. The delegates were 



the quests of the Brooklyn Botanic ( iarden on the third day. and 
of the New York Botanical Garden no 1 i Ik P.oyce Thompson In 
stitute on the other two days. At the close of the sessions for 
the reading of papers the delegates were conducted on a tour of 
inspection of the conservatories, buildings, and grounds. 

International Cnihires.s o( Plant Sciences 
This was (in reality, though not officially) the Fourth Inter- 
national Hot. n 1- d Congre>s ih< third ha\iug hce-i held in Brus- 
sels in 19 1 o. The date of the Fourth (. ongress was delayed and 
the place changed on account of the World War. All of the ses- 
sions were held at Cornell University, Ithaca. The director and 
three curators (Dr. Graves, Dr. White, and Mr. Taylor) attended 
as delegates from our Garden. 

The program included _'2<} papers, embodying the results of re- 
search, besides various popular lectures and addresses and round 
table discussions. Over 000 botanists were present from about 
25 countries. Every delegate spoke English, and, with rare ex- 
ceptions, all the papers were presented in English. The Brooklyn 
Garden was one of several institutional patrons of the Congress. 
Many of the delegates visited our Garden before returning to 
their native lands. 

Research During 1926 
The investigations carried on during the year were in con- 
tinuation of projects on which reports of progress have previous!)- 
been made — plant disease resistance plain bidding and genetics, 
geographical distribution, the vegetation of Cong island, plan* 
physiology (especially the effects of radium rays on germ cells), 
and the classification and nomenclature of plants. In connection 
with the latter subject the curator of plants, Dr. Gundersen, spent 
the last four months of the year in Great Britain and Europe, 
visiting botanical centers, and conferring with those actively en- 
gaged 111 systematic work. He was still in Europe at the close of 

The Station for Experimental Evolution (of the Carnegie In- 
stitution ot Wasbiiigto.ru at. Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, 
supplied the pedigreed plants (of Jimson Weed— Datura) which 



were absolutely essential for reliable work on the possibility of 
modifying inheritance by experimental treatment of germ cells. 

Iris Project 

The Garden has had the helpful cooperation of the American 
Iris Society, and of various individual members of it, in con- 
tinued work on the Iris Project. As previously stated, this 
project is confined to the beardless irises, and includes a com- 
parative study of varieties, nomenclature, methods of cultivation, 
breeding, and iris diseases. A large number of accurate and 
very beautiful colored illustrations by AI iss Aland H. Purely are 
accumulating, and it is hoped that funds may become available 
during the coming year to make it possible to include reproduc- 
tions of these in a monograph on this group of Iris. A fuller 
report of the work is given on pages 32-33, by Dr. George M. 
Reed, who has the project in charge. 

Xon-technical summaries of the year's investigations are given 
on pages 25-50, following. 

Plantations and Grounds 

The New Fence 
Work on the erection of the new " wrought iron " fence sur- 
rounding the Botanic Garden property was completed during the 
year. The new fence not only serves the purpose for which it 
was intended, but also serves to emphasize the need for proper 
entrance structures at the various gates. 

Gardening Operations 

In addition to the regular maintenance operations, considerable 
replanting and regrouping lias been necessary, particularly in the 
group of the apples and their relatives. The details of this work 
are more fully recorded in the appended report of the Horti- 
culturist, Mr. Free. 

Work on the plantations did not begin until April 5, over two 
weeks later than usual. The delay was occasioned chiefly by 
inadequate appropriations for labor. Fortunalelv the Spring was 
an unusually late one. 



I'ndiVcJoped Area 
The entire North Addition, between Aft, 1'rospect Reservoir 
and the Brooklyn Museum, still remains under the plow on ac- 
count of insufficient labor to grade it and put it into lawn, pre- 
paratory to planting. It is now twelve years since this area was 
brought to its present rough grade. Its frontage on Eastern 
Parkway, the completion of new apartment houses along the 
entire block opposite the < .arden. and the great increase in the 
use of the entrance at Eastern Parkway, make it very urgent that 
the area be top-graded and planted, and also that a suitable en- 
trance be constructed at this point. 

Rose Garden 

Figure 4 (p. 20) is reproduced from a colored sketch of 
the proposed Rose Garden, planned by our consulting landscape 
architect, Mr. Harold A. Caparn. This, when realized, would 
be one of the most beautiful and instructive rose gardens in 
America. The site chosen for it is the area of approximately 
one acre, just west of the Esplanade. It is estimated that the 
total cost of grading, soil improvement, construction of arbors, 
planting, etc., would approximate $10,000. The director will be 
glad to show the colored sketch, and explain the details of the 
plan to anyone who may be interested. This garden would un- 
questionably be one of the most popular features of the Botanic 

Herbarium 

The accessions to the rhancrngamu. i lerl>."inum have been 678 
specimens and to the Cryptogamic Herbarium 407— a total ot 
1085, as compared to 646, 205, and 851 respectively for 1925. 

The Cryptogamic Herbarium has now grown to the full ca- 
pacity of its present quarters. Further expansion, which is in- 
evitable, will make it necessary to find a more commodious room. 

Library accessions totaled 7505 as compared with 7364 a year 




sketch prepared by the landscape i 



The number of periodical publications d which current issues 
were received during the year was 847, the largest number since 
the Botanic Garden was established. 

Seed Exchange 

The annual Delectus Seniimrm ! hist of Seeds Offered in Ex- 
change) was published in the Botanic Garden Record for January, 
1926. This year, for the first time, we restricted the list of seeds 
to woody plants. Seeds were offered of 184 species of trees and 
shrubs, and 1893 packets of seed were sent to 71 botanic gardens 
in foreign countries. In exchange we received 963 packets. 





Membership 


Members are <t 


vailing themselves of special membership privi- 


leges more and 1 


nore each year, including free enrollment in 


courses of instruc 


tion (for which tuition is charged to non-mem- 


hers"), participatio 


u in our periodical distribution of surplus plant 


material, utilizath 


:>n of our Bureau of Information, and other- 



The total number of members of all classes (as of April 12, 
1927) is 1220. The list of members may be found on pages 126- 
141. The Botanic Garden will extend membership courtesies dur- 
ing 1927 to those who contributed to the Citizens Endowment 
Fund. 

Canvass for new members by telephone (the method employed 
for about three years) still continues to yield larger returns than 
any other plan. 

Gifts 

A list of those who have contributed plants, seeds, books, and 
miscellaneous items may be found on pages 32 and 103-109; 
contributors to the annual Collections bund on page 000, and con- 
tributors to the Citizens Endowment Fund on pages 94-103. 
The amounts given by the various contributors to this fund are 
omitted, for small amounts often mean quite as much interest 
and generositv as do larger amounts. 

All of these gifts have been officially acknowledged with cordial 
thanks; it is a pleasure to make public recognition of them here. 



Twelfth Annual Spring Inspection 

This event, held each year on the second Tuesday in May, has 
come to be recognized as one of the delightful social events of 
Brooklyn. In fact it is the only " garden party " of the year hi 
this Borough. It is preeminently a function of the Woman's 
Auxiliary, now under the Chairmanship of Mrs. Glentworth R. 
Butler. The inspection was in immediate charge of a special 
vhich Mrs. fames M. Hills is a most efficient chair- 



The attendance in I (>_:(> \va> about i 200, an increase of 



•e at a Spring Inspection, 
appreciation of the large 



Appointments and Resignations 

The following new appointments and resignations have oc- 
curred during the year : 

Miss Hilda Loines, as chairman of the Botanic Garden Gov- 
erning Committee, in place of Mr. Frank Bailey, who resigned on 
February 19. 

Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler, as chairman of the Woman's Aux- 
iliary, in place of Miss Hilda Loines, resigned. 

Miss Marjorie R. Swabcy, A.B.. research assistant. February 
16, in place of Miss Laura Alma Kolk, M.A., who resigned De- 
cember 31, 1925. 

Miss Margaret R. Ellis, curatorial assistant, resigned August 
31 on account of the anticipated absence for several mouths in 
Europe of the curator of plants. The position remained unfilled 
at the close of the year. 

Miss Hester M. Rusk, A.B., curatorial assistant, September 1, 
in place of Miss Charlotte S. Young. A.B., who resigned as ot 
April 1. 

Miss Katharyn P. Clark. A.B., instructor, September 15, in 
place of Mrs. Maude Hickok Free, who resigned September 15. 



Miss Jeannette M. MacColl. A. P.., secretary to the director, Sep- 
tember 15, in place of Miss Ann C. Ohlander. who resigned July 



Financial 

Tax Budget Accounts 

The original Tax Budget appropriation for the Garden was 

$84,616.00, as against $85,245.00 in 1925, a decrease of $629.00. 

The amount requested was Si 16.582.co, an increase of $29,993.00 

The original approprialion ])roved quite inadequate to meet 
absolutely essential needs and was increased by two supple- 
mentary appropriations, as follows: 

July 17, $1,973.00, for l\ep;nr> and Replacements. This was 
derived by transfer of funds from " Miscellaneous, Kings County, 
Code 3510, Kings County Fund for Salary and Wage Accruals.'" 

December 2, 8900.00, for additional supplies, materials, and 
telephone service. This was derived by transfer of funds from 
"Code 3039, ( it) Fund foi Salar) and Wage Accruals." 

This made the total appropriation for the year $87,489.00, or 
$2,244.00 more than for 1925. 

Private Funds Accounts 

The total Private Funds Budget for 1926 was $66,178.60, an in- 
crease of $3,149-12 over 1925. 

Of the total Botanic Garden Budget for 1926 < 8148.359.91) 57 
per cent, was provided by Tax Budget appropriation, and 43 pet- 
cent, from Private Funds. A year ago 42 per cent, of the total 
budget was met from private funds. 

The Endowment Increment Principal was increased during the 
year by $5,307 h*;. derived from accrued interest and from addi- 
tions from the contributing funds. At the close of 1926 the prin- 
cipal amounted to $32,972.94. 



Retiring Allowances 

The need of making early provision for Retiring- Allowances is 
urgent. Each year's delay (with the advancing ages of pros- 
pective heneficiaries ) means a higher ultimate cost to the Botanic 
Garden. The experience of the Carnegie Foundation for the Ad- 
vancement of Teaching and other insurance organizations has 
shown that the continuing success of a pension system can he 
secured only hy the cooperation of the employee and employer. 

It is hoped that, in the not distant future, funds may become 
available for initiating a plan involving contributions from those 
o participate in the benefits. 

Need of Additional Propagating Houses 

I wish to call special attention to the urgent need o! additional 
greenhouses for propagating, for experimental work, and for rais- 
ing and caring for the living plant material which we are called 
upon to supply to the city .schools m increasing amount each year. 
Work now organized is great lv hampered, and the cnnclmieni 
of our collections, our school service, and our investigations will 
remain quite impossible until additional propagating houses be- 
come available. 

Accompanying Papers 

Administrative reports of members oi staff, reports on botanical 
research conducted at the Garden during 1926. the financial state- 
ment. Appendices 1-8 (including a list of the names of contribu- 
tors to the Citizens Endowment bund), and a list of the officers 
and members of the botanic Garden are appended as a part of this 

Respectfully submitted. 



REPORTS OX RESEARCH FOR 1926 
Genetics and Plant Breeding 



By C. Stuart Gager 

In cooperation with 

A. F. Blakeslee, 

Department of Genetics, Carnegie Institution of Washington 

The Jimson Weed (Datura Stramonium) has shown itself es- 
pecially adapted to experimentation regarding the laws of in- 
heritance and evolution. Hereditary variation can be brought 
about either by mutative changes in the number of the hereditary 
bodies (chromosomes) or by mutations in the factors which 
these chromosomes contain. The discovery of any stimulus 
which will accelerate thex processes of mutation, which are ex- 
tremely rare, would be of much scientific interest and might have 
considerable economic importance. 

In continuation of the senior author's earlier investigations on 
the effects of radium on plant tissues, he made a preliminary 
study of the effects of radium treatment upon the hereditary 
units in flowers of Jimson Weeds. From one of the three 
treated flowers there were obtained in the offspring: (a) 17.7 per 
cent oi chromosomal mutations, a much higher percentage 
than ever obtained from untreated capsules, the average for over 
15,000 offspring being 0.47 per cent., (b) a new compound chro- 
mosomal type, called Nubbin (from the character of the fruit- 
pod), in which some of the chromosomes appear to have been 
broken in two and joined to « h< , m tin in nev\ < ombinations, (c) 
two new factor mutations out of 18 of the offspring tested. It 
is 1.x Ik \e 1 th i! i!i in. K,i « ot el r< mo omal mul iti >n e t [, 
to the radium treatment and that the radium may also have been 
responsible for the production of the compound chromosomal 
type Nubbin and for the two new factor mutations. Further 
experiments, however, will be necessary to determine whether in 



26 

fact radium has the power to induce new factor mutations and to 
break up chromosomes into parts which may be rearranged to 
form such compound types as Nubbin. It is planned to con- 
tinue the radium experiments in the near future. 

For the radium preparations used in these experiments, the 
authors are indebted to the Memorial Hospital. New York City, 
and the personal cooperation of Dr. Halsey J. Bagg, of the Hos- 
pital Staff. 

The Genetic Analysis of Garden and Field Peas (Pmim) 



Investigations on inheritance and variation in field and garden 
peas have been continued in 1926, along the lines mentioned in 
previous reports. Our original experimental stocks consisted of 
several hundred varieties and wild species collected through the 
assistance of main institutions and people from all over the pea- 
growing world. In addition to the importance of such a collec- 
tion for our own experimental work, we have been enabled to 
help others interested along similar lines 1>\ sending them seed 
of or information concerning the various types. Thus this col- 
lection has served to bring about interchange of ideas, and un- 
official cooperation between workers along this line in Sweden, 
Holland, England, Germany, Austria. Finland, Japan, Egypt, and 
various institutions in the United States. And this in turn has 
helped to prevent unnecessary duplication. 

Manv of these varieties and species have peculiar and little 
known' characters. Through crossing these different types, and 
studying the inheritance of the characters by which they differ 
and the relations of these characters to each other and to various 
environments, a better understanding of the laws underlying in- 
heritance and variation and of the importance of inheritance and 
environment 111 the organism's make up is obtained. Year by 
vear new facts concerning the inheritance relations of pea char- 
acters are discovered, and these, when incorporated with those 
alreadv known, serve not only to increase our understanding ol 
how to make more desirable pea plants, hut also more desirable 
plants and animals in general. 



At the present time, through the combined work of all those 
interested in the hereditary make-up of peas, there is extant a 
considerable body of knowledge concerning the mode of inherit- 
ance of over 120 characters of peas. The effect which the pres- 
ence of many of these characters in the same plant has on each 
other is also known, as for example when the hereditary deter- 
miner for yellow pod is present in the same plant with one that 
we call purple-pod, the plant has beautiful rich red pods, pro- 
vided also the B determiner for flower color is present. If the 
determiner for green pod color is substituted for that of yellow, 
the pods on such a plant are dark, deep, but rather dull purple. 
In the presence of colored flowers a seed may have a rich brown 
network pattern, called Maple, but if the flowers are white, the 
pattern shows so dimly that we refer to it as Ghost-maple. 

We also have a fair understanding of the hereditary elements 
'.hat primarily determine whether a plant shall bloom in fifty 
days from planting or very much later. We know that white- 
flowered plants in general are earlier blooming than those with 
colored flowers, irrespective of whether they are dwarfs or tails. 
The earliest bloomer of the several hundred varieties we have 
tested is in all cases Velocity, a variety with white flowers, and 
10-15 long internodes (portions of stem between the leaves). 
From the internode standpoint, it belongs to the tails, although the 
trade refers varieties of this type to a class called half-dwarf. 
Many of the canner's peas belong to this general class. Our latest 
flowering varieties are Spate Gold (a white-flowered, very tall 
type from Germany) and " Ruby," a tall colored-flower type with 
peas that are red when immature instead of the ordinary green. 
Colored flowers and late flowering on the one hand, and white 
flowers and early flowering on the other hand, are pairs of char- 
acters that, much of the time at least, are inherited together, 
though not always. This illustrates what we mean by speaking 
of the relations of characters to each other in inheritance. We 
are able to tell by the color of the seed whether the plant will 
produce pink, red-purple, or white flower-, because there is prac- 
tically an absolute association in inheritance between certain seed- 
oat o ilors and certain tiowci • nlm - 
Understanding of the manner of inheritance of pea characters 



28 

lers together in a verv definite fashion. In mapping the heredi- 
tary make-up of peas, we have been combining the characters of 
various varieties into one variety, so as to make it unnecessary to 
deal with so many kinds. We now have varieties that differ from 
each other in as many as thirteen clear-cut characters, the in- 
heritance of each of which is comparatively simple. Of course, 
they differ in many more characters, but these others are com- 
plex in their hereditary make-up; just as in the inheritance of 
pod size, of yield, and of time of flowering-, many hereditary de- 
terminers, as well as many environmental conditions, govern the 
coming into being of the last mentioned type of characters. For 
this reason, for some problems, they are not so desirable to work 
with. Some characters are very sensitive to apparently slight 
differences in environment ; others are not. For example, flower- 
color, various seed-coat colors, flowers in bouquets or umbels at 
the top of the plant or distributed almig the steins as in ordinary 
peas, seeds stuck together in the pod (chenilles) or free as in 
ordinary varieties, scimitar-shaped pods, or straight pods, and 
many others are comparatively insensible to ordinary changes in 

During 1926, studies on the inheritance of a new striping pat- 
tern of the seed-coat have, for the most part, been completed. 
This pattern, in the original form in which we obtained it, con- 
sisted of broad purplish stripes on a reddish gray seed-coat. The 
seed came from A. D. Darbishire (in England), who secured it 
from crossing a Chinese native pea with a form of " Plsitm um- 
bcllatum;' a pink-tlowered fasciated pea. He sent it to us as a 
true-breeding segregate for certain characters. So far as we 
know he never described it. We later obtained the same pattern 
from crossing a white-flowered Chinese pea that we obtained in 
Chinatown, New York City, with several colored-flowered va- 
rieties that we had produced ourselves. The Darbishire variety 
in our cultures is known as P 5. the white-flowered Chinese type 
from Chinatown is P 50. P 5, when crossed with a variety 
having pink flowers and non-striped seeds, gives all striped 
seed plants in the first hybrid or b\ generation and a ratio ap- 
proximately of 3 plants with striped seeds to one without in the 



second hybrid or F 2 generation. These results indicate that the 
two varieties in respect to striped seed-coat differ by one hereditary 
factor, which we refer to by the symbol St. When the white- 
flowered P 50 variety is crossed with a number of colored-flowered 
varieties with non-striped seed-coats., a more complex situation 
obtains in respect to the inheritance of the striped pattern. The 
first hybrid or F x generation from such a cross has colored flowers 
and striped seed-coats, but the second hybrid generation or F„ 
produces progeny that fall into two classes in respect to the in- 
heritance of the striping pattern. Approximately nine out of 



theoretical expectation, provided the two kinds of characters are 
inherited independently of each other, would be 9 colored-flowered, 
striped seed-coat; 3 colored-flowered, non-striped; 4 white-flow- 
ered, non-striped out of every sixteen second hybrid or F 2 genera- 
tion plants. The results obtained approximate the theoretical ex- 
pectations in general, though there is some question as to whether 
they indicate complete independence in inheritance of the two sets 
of characters. The relation of stripe to many other characters in 
peas has been studied. 

Additional studies to those already reported on the inheritance 
of height in peas show that height is a very complex character and 
that tails crossed with dwarfs in some cases produce first genera- 
tion hybrids that are not as tall as the tall parent. From such 
crosses, several type- of dwarfs and tails are produced. Some of 
the dwarfs with colored flowers have proved to be about the 
latest flowering type- we have found. 



sry sixteen h 


ave striped seed-coal 


:s, while the rem; 


lining seven 


ints have no .« 


stripe on the seed-cOc 


its. O 


ne such F„ 


familv, out 


227 plants 


observed, had 131 v 


nth stt 


-iped seed- 


coats 'to 96 


mts with nor 


i-striped seed-coats, 


the theoretical expectation in 


s case being 


127. 4- striped to 99. 


. + nor 


i-striped. 


The striped 


ttern appears 


only on plants with 


1 colore 


■d flowers 


and colored 


:d-coats, but 


not all these, even ii 


1 such 


a hybrid f 


amilv, have 


iped seed-coa 


ts. Taking into considerate 


:m both the 


Mill, III HIS 


flower color 


and striping in the 


cross 


mentioned above, the 



and M \kv ITi.kx Pr- 



Studies on the inheritance of flower cole 
oilier eharaeters in this popular garden plant 1 
during 1926. A collection of the various tyj 



By Orland E. Whi: 



My primary interest in this problem arose in connection with 
the idea that if mutations in plants take place in all directions 
and thus affect each kind of structure and function, there is no 
reason, a priori, to suppose that strictly tropical species may not 
produce mutants that would live in regions with much lower tem- 
peratures. In the January. 1926 number of the Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden Ri-xokd. I published a Amui preliminary paper on this 
subject, outlining the problem and setting forth some facts and 
generalizations having to do with it. Since then I have been 
gathering data of a more specific nature. Such a problem is 
difficult to investigate, since it is only by the merest accident that 
one might discover such mutants by growing seed of tropical 
species under lower temperature conditions. Then, too, present 
methods of collecting seed of tropical woody or herbaceous peren- 
nial plants are unfavorable to bringing to light such mutants, be- 
cause most seed collectors secure their seed of a given specie- 
from a very few individuals. 

By searching through horticultural, gardening, forestry, and 
economic plant literature, and in other ways, data on this sub- 
ject are being accumulated. Several cases of Mai/nolia iirain^- 
flora, hardy far north of its natural range, have been found. J. 
A. Neilson (Report Northern Nut Growers' Assoc. 1925, p. 63) 
states that there is a pecan tree growing on the grounds of 
Richard Martin, Hamilton, Ontario, which grew from a nut ob- 
tained from a tree in San Antonio. Texas, in 1914- The tree is 
now 18 feet high. 4 inches in diameter, and .appears to be per- 



fectly hardy. Tree- of 1 his same species over 50 years old, ob- 
tained from planting nuts from southern Indiana, are described 
by the same writer as hardy near Richmond Hill, Ontario, al- 
though they do not hear nuts except in the most favorable sea- 
sons. Z. H. Ellis, in the same volume, describe:, his experiments 
with pecans at Fair Haven, Vt. Most of his many attempts re- 
sulted in the seedlings winlci killing lie hirst winter, but he has 
one tree, over 30 feet tall and a foot in diameter, that grew from 
seed obtained in \ ■rnioni M urn 1 hat it is the only pecan tree 
in his state. Recently, a 25-year-old Para rubber tree (Hcvca 

hrazilicfist ) ha been di o, u < ,| ip, otected Hi Uioi near 

Palm Beach, Florida (Official Record, U. S. Dept. Agric. 5:39, 
1926). During tins growth period, (he account states, it must 
have withstood temperatures below freezing, perhaps as low :is 
24 F. to 28 F., and yet farther south, at Miami, there are 
records of trial plantings of this same species that apparent!) 
died from too low temperatures. Many less striking cases 111 
other plants might be described, but these are reserved for a 
more extended and detailed account on tin's whole problem. 

Here, I wish to bring out two more points which have to do 
with this problem. In searching for data. I thought the floras 
of various rivers migh help particular!) those i hat flowed from 
a 1 rust free or subtropical region into a much colder one. But 
apparently there are no such rivers. They all Mow from a cold 
region into a warm region, as most of the tropical rivers do, 01 
from a relatively cold into a much colder region, as in the case 
of those flowing into the Arctic Ocean. In no case were rivers 
found flowing- through enough ranges in temperature to make 
their floras significant for this problem. 

The second point has to do with the ability of woody or her- 
baceous perennial plants to acquire immunity to cold without 
changing their hereditary constitution. M. J. Horsey and J. W. 
Bushnell (The hardiness problem, Minn. Agric. Kxper. Sta. 
Jour. Sen Papers 2.42. p. ()) discuss this question in connection 
with the experiments ot |. C. Whitten. \\ bitten obtained buds 
of Elberta and Old Mixon Free peach varieties from trees at 
different points between Michigan and Texas, and grew them at 
Columbia, Mo. In all cases, the trees grown from buds of the 



32 

ariety (hence having, generally speaking, the same heredi- 
onstitution) reacted in a similar way as regards winter 
ess, no matter what their source. In other words, there 
s to lie no indication that a woody or perennial herbaceous 
:an change its degree of hardiness, without changing its 
■ makeup. 

Iris Project 
By George M. Reed 
tatement regarding the P-eardles-, Iris project established 



- |'u!'h>h 



During 



the plans inaugurated. The season proved unusually favorable 

was possible to obtain good material for use in making varietal 
descriptions. A considerable number of new varieties were 
added to the collection during the year. The sources of these 
were as follows. The asterisk (*) indicates a purchase; all 
other items were received by gift. 

* Barr & Sons, England 53 varieties 

Elliott Nursery Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 12 

Henry A. Dreer, Philadelphia, Pa 12 

Julius Roehrs Co., Rutherford, N. J 10 

* Vilmorin, Andrieux & lie, France 29 

W. Atlee Burpee Co., Philadelphia, Pa 5 

ddie Siberian and other beardless types also grew quite satis- 
factorily during the season, and abundant bloom was secured. 
Consequently, it was possible to check up on the proper identifi- 
cation of many varieties and species. During the year a num- 
ber of additions were made. Plants of /. longipctala were 
donated by Mr. John 11. Wallace, Jr., New Haven, Conn., and 
Mr. Robert Wayman, Baysicle, Long Island, and also plants of 
/. dichotoma bv Mr. II. S. Jackson, Lafayette, Ind. /. laevigata 
was purchased' from Mr. J. A. Kemp, Little Silver, N. J. Si- 



Komi, \\\ (amphell, iK-trnii. Mich 5 varieties 

Mrs. W. G. DuMont. Des Moines, la 2 

Robert Wayman, Bayside, L. I i 

Mrs. J. Branin, San Lorenzo. Calif., sent seven varieties, mostly 
the Spurian type and of her own origination. Mrs. L. W. 
itchcock, New Rochelle, N. Y., sent four seedlings of /. versi- 

Miss Maud H. Purdy painted a number of illustrations of dif- 

rent varieties of Japanese and Siberian (rises. These illus- 
itions su])])lement those which were prepared during the pre- 
)lts vear. Thev are of the same high order of excellence and 



Studies of the variation of the Boston Fern (Nephroliths) 
By Ralph C. Benedict 

Kxperimenta] work on Nephrolepis forms has been continued 
along the lines of previous years ; namely, the maintenance of 
the numerous bud variations for further observation, and the 
experimental culture and study of various forms derived from 
the spore-fertile strain. In both these groups are many forms 
of special interest, either because they are new, or undescribed, 
or insufficiently studied. The whole collection of the Ncphrolepis 

study. 1 want here to offer some observations on the present 
status of the work, and on certain potentialities of further study 
of this group. 

It is just about thirteen years since I first became interested in 
these ferns in connection with the preparation of a description of 
the cultivated ferns for the Cyclopaedia of Horticulture. It is 
just over twelve years that the hospitalit} of the Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden and the facilities of greenhouse space were first made 
available. During the succeeding years my study of these ferns 
has involved the assembling of hundreds of different types for 
experimental culture and study at the Garden. In this work I 
have visited practically all the commercial florists who have in- 



troduced new types in the United States, and by purchase and 
cxchaii»c, liave obtained most of the named types listed by bul- 
lish and French growers which were different from local kinds. 
Taking stock of what has been done, and considering other 
possibilities, let me offer an analysis of the present status of this 
Xephrolcpis invalidation, and some definite recommendations. 

(1) Maintenance of the Botanic Garden Collection. I think it 
is entirely safe to say that nowhere else has there been gathered 
so large and complete a collection of Boston Fern variants. Con- 
sidering the fact of the evolution of this group of hundreds oi 

and considering the fact that many of these types are no longer 
obtainable from the florists who originally introduced them, it 

varieties as possible is a most desirable aim. This is particular!;. 
true in view of the fact that the study and descriptions of these 
forms have so far been necessarily brief and superficial. Her- 

distinctive features, even of many leaf characters. 

(2) Description of Named Types. As noted above, most of 
the varieties have so far been described only sufficiently to show 
their relation to the lines of variation among the hundreds of 
types. From the hortienli nral viewpoint, a mum graphic descrip- 
tion of the named forms, with special consideration for their cul- 
tural characters, would seem worth while. From the scientific 
point of view, careful study of gross structure, of tissue- and 
cell differeiiees. would contribute greatly to our understanding 
of the basic differences between varieties. 

(3) Comparative Anatomy and M nrpholoi/y of feral and 
Horticultural Types. Coincident with the assembling of the 
horticultural forms, attention has been paid to getting together 
as many wild forms as possible, and a number of types have been 
obtained directly from the American tropics, as well as other wild 
types obtained through florists. Parallel studies of the varia- 
tion among the wild types as well as among the cultivated forms 
offer some very interesting possibilities. In this connection the 
basis for a much needed taxonomic monograph of the genus 
would be afforded. 



(4) Cytology of Sports. Are there nuclear differences cor- 
responding to the wide external differences among these muta- 
tions? The serial nature of much of this Boston Fern mutation, 
the repetition of definite new types, the parallel variation — all 
these facts arouse interest in the possibility of correlated cytologi- 

< 5 ) Cooperation vv/7// Florists. " What Boston Fern is best? " 
was used as the title of my series of articles in the Florists' Ex- 
change and in other periodicals. In that connection sample sets 

florists and to agricultural college-, and experiment stations. A 
continuation of this cooperation would also afford the oppor- 
tunity, if properly organized, for the thorough testing, horti- 
cultural!}', of a large number of old and new varieties, for which 
the greenhouse space at the Botanic Garden is necessarily in- 
sufficient, as well as contributing to the advancement of horticul- 
tural knowledge. 

( 6) Further Studies in the I aviation of Boston Fern and Other 
Fern Types. The potentialities of the production of new types in 
the Boston Fern series are far from exhausted. In the spore- 
fertile group, it would be possible to raise new distinct types by 
the score within the next year. At present there is a considerable 
number of such forms, raised at the Garden, both of the fcrtilis 
strain, and among the bud-sports, which only wait for the time 
needed to prepare descriptions and discussion for publication. 

Regarding my own connection with the lines of study thus 
analyzed, I am hopeful thai opportunity may offer which will 
allow me to take leave of school work for a term or two and 
thus to give more concentrated attention to the problems sug- 
gested. At the same time, there would be involved considerations 
of greater expenditure by the Botanic Garden for publication, 
illustration, greenhouse space, gardeners' time. For my own 
time, I cannot speak definitely, except that it would be necessary 
for me to make up any difference between my regular school 
salary and that wind) i might receive on the basis now allowed by 
the Sabbatical leave arrangement of the city Board of Fducation 
1 h t\ li. p IP n in urn i" in, »u i iii di < lin< might be pos- 
sible with the Botanic Garden. 



Plant Pathology 
5y George M. Ree] 



c) and covered 



i rsiih,, 



1 i^'ical characters, pathologieal M-mptimis mi tin- host, mode of 
distribution of the spores and. to some extent, the time of in- 
fection of the host. The spores of the two smuts are very simi- 
lar in size and shape, but they can he distinguished I'mni each 
other by the fact that the spores of the loose smut are roughened 
or spiny while those of the covered smut are smooth. The loose 
smut causes a more or less complete destruction of the head or 
panicle of the infected plant, practically all of the parts being 
destroyed and converted into a dusty mass of spores. These 
spores are usualh distributed in the field during- the flowering 
period of the oats. As a result, they are largely scattered by 
the wind before the grain is ripe and ready for the harvest. Re- 
cent investigators in Kurope have studied the possibility- of some 
type of flower infection in the loose smut. Since the spores are 
distributed in the field during the blossoming period of the plant, 
it has been suggested that they are carried to the young develop- 
ing flowers. There is considerable evidence that they may be 
thus carried, and find lodgment within the glumes, where they 
germinate and develop into a mycelium. When the seed is 
planted in the soil and germinates, the young seedling is pene- 

however, been clearly demonstrated that infection by the loose 
smut may also take place in the seedling singe b\ means of spores 
adhering to the grain. In our studies, the regular method of 
inoculation has been the application of spores collected during 
the previous season to the dry oat seed. The fact that very com- 
monly we have secured ioo per cent, infection is conclusive evi- 
dence as to the infection of the seedlings by spores present on the 
exterior of the grain. 

The covered smut causes a less complete destruction of the 



38 

and enclose the spores, thus giving the common name to the smut. 
These spores remain enclosed until the harvesting and the thresh- 
ing operations, at which time they are more or less broken apart 
and scattered upon the sound grain. When the contaminated 
seed is planted, infection takes place in the young seedling by 
means of these spores adhering to the grain. 

For several years extensive studies on the resistance of oat 
varieties to these two smuts have been carried on. A very com- 
plete collection of oat varieties from all over the world, belong- 
ing to all the main groups of cultivated oats, has been used in 
these experiments. It has been found that most of the varieties 
of the common, or Sativa, type are susceptible to both species. 
As a rule, if a variety is susceptible to one species it is also sus- 
ceptible to the other, and if it is resistant to one it is resistant to 
the other. Several varieties of oats, however, have been found 
which appear to be more susceptible to the loose smut than to 
the covered, and a very few varieties have proved to be more sus- 
ceptible to the covered smut than to the loose. During the pa,i 
year the behavior of these has been further studied, and additional 
data on their resistance or susceptibility to the two smuts have 
been obtained. The varieties Hlack Diamond. Black Norway. 
Danish, Danish Island. Early. Gothland, Green Russian. Irish 
Victor. Japan. Monarch Selection, Scottish Chief, Trisperma and 
White Queen have proved to be highly susceptible to the loose 
smut, usually giving 100 per cent, infection, but they have given 
either negative results or low percentages of infection with the 
covered smut. On the other hand, Monarch has proved to be 
very susceptible to the covered smut, while showing a high degree 
of resistance to the loose. The cultivated oats derived from 
Avcna sterilis have shown a high degree of resistance to both 
smuts. Some cultivated varieties of A. slrigosa are equally sus- 
ceptible to both, while other strains possess a high degree of re- 
sistance. A. brcvis is highly resistant to the loose smut, but has 
given some infected plants with the covered, and A. barbata and 
//. fat na have proved to be very susceptible to both smuts. 



39 

r/ixsiolix/it Races of Oat Smuts 
The results described in the above paragraph were obtained 
by using- collections of loose and covered smut originally made in 
Missouri. One of the most important discoveries in our study 
has been the fact of host specialization of both species of smut, 
and further investigations along these lines have been continued. 
Collections of spores from various regions have been secured and 
have been tested out on a number of different varieties ol oat-. 
It has been clearh demonstrated that there are many distinct 
races of both loose and covered smut, characterized by their 
different behavior on certain oat varieties, and they can be sharply 
distinguished from each oilier !>\ differences in their capacity for 
infection. 

While a number of new races have been more or less delimited, 
during the past year, the new races of loose smut on bulghum 
and Red Rustproof oats are probably most interesting. These 
varieties are derived from the species A. stcrilis, being grown 

ticularly adapted to the winter oat section, some strains of these 
varieties are proving well suited to the more southern spring oat 
section. They are quite distinct from the A. sativa type, which 
includes most of the varieties grown in the main oat belt in the 
United States and Canada. Outside of the southern oat sec- 
tion these varieties have a reputation for being remarkably free 
from smut. In our previous studies, the races of smuts used 
have failed to produce any marked infection of either Fulghum 
or Red Rustproof. Three collect ion, of smut, however, were 
obtained from the south, one each from Tennessee, Texas and 
Oklahoma, which have shown a marked capacity for infecting 
Fulghum. In our experiment i bit i nt train ot bulghum 
were grown, and the percentage of infection varied from 53.6 
per cent, to 07. K per cent. The Fulghum race of smut is further 
characterized by its ability to infect Hulless, Black Diamond. 
Canadian, Early Champion, and, to some extent, Early Gothland 
and Monarch. It did not, however, pass over onto Red Rust- 

A single collect ion oi sinul was obtained from Texas on Red 
Rustproof. This collection proved capable of infecting live dif- 



ferent strains of Red Rustproof, the percentage varying from 
25.9 per cent, to 70.8 per cent. While an occasional plant of 
some other variety was infected, the evidence is that the Red 
Rustproof race is largely confined to strains of this variety. 
The extensive specialization of both loose and covered smut 

rendering more complex the study d\ inheritance of smut resist- 
ance in hybrids. Certain varieties seem to be susceptible to a 
very large number of races, such as Canadian, Early Champion 
and Victor. The variety Monarch has proved quite resistant to 
the Missouri race of loose smut, but shows some susceptibility to 
the newly described Kulghmn race. It is particularly interesting 
that so far Black M'esdag has proved entirely resistant to all the 
races studied. 

Inheritance of Smut Resistance in Oats 
Studies on the progeny of a cross between the very resistant 
Black Mesdag and the susceptible llulless varieties have already 
been published, ddie second and later generations of this cross 
were studied with reference to their behavior towards the Mis- 
souri race of loose smut. Additional crosses between these two 
varieties have been made, and during the past year the data on 
the second generation have been obtained, the results confirming 
those previously published. In the four families studied, the 
percentage of infection varied from 19.1 per cent, to 25.$ per 
cent., 107 plants out of a total of 465, or 23 per cent., being in- 
fected. Additional second generation plants of these same 
crosses were also tested with the covered smut, and the per- 
centage of infection varied from 12.2 per cent, to 26.5 per cent., 
40 plants out of a total of [96 inoculated in all the crosses, or 
20.4 per cent., being infected. 

The second generation of crosses between varieties, both of 
which were susceptible to loose and covered smut, have also been 
studied. One of these crosses was between Victor and Canadian, 
and the other between Hulless and Silvermine. All the plants 
inoculated in each experiment proved to be susceptible, roo per 

susceptible to both smuts, and Early (iothland, which is sus- 



resistant to covered, was also studied 
All the plants inoculated with loose 
of the plants inoculated with covered 
smutted. 



Kor a number oi years studies on the bunt of wheal cause* ■ 
by Tilletia tritici and T. laevis, with particular reference to 
varietal resistance, have been carried on. Dr. James A. Faris, 
formerly Resident Investigator at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 
published his studies on these two species, his experiments being 
concerned primarily with determining the influence of certain en- 
viroiial factors on infection, such as temperature, moisture, soil re- 
action, etc. In the course of his studies, however, he found some 
evidence of a host specialization of these smuts. These clues 
have been followed up and a large amount of additional data has 
been obtained. The evidence is now clear that both species of 
bunt of wheat contain hudik specialized races which are dis- 
tinguished by their capacity for infecting certain varieties ot 
wheat. The variety Martin, which has shown a high degree of 
resistance to the usual collections of bunt, lias proved to he quite 
susceptible to some collections of .spores Additional experiments 
are in progress to determine more completely the limits of some 
of these races. 

lixperiuietits with the Covered Kernel Smut of Son/lmm 
The main studies during the past: year have been concerned 
with a continuation of the investigations on the inheritance of 
resistance of certain crosses between sorghum varieties to the 
covered kernel smut. A large amount of additional data has 
been secured on the second, third and fourth generations. A 
cross between the very resistant Feterita and the susceptible 
Sumac Sorgo seems to indicate that susceptibility is dominant and 
resistance recessive, since a large proportion of the second gen- 

69.6 per cent, and in another 67.1 per cent, of the plants were 
smutted, as compared with <S6. 1 per cent, of the plants of the 



42 

susceptible parent. Sumac Sorgo, and no infection of the resistant 
Feterita. The third generation families have shown great varia- 
tion in the amount of smut, some being entirely resistant, while 
others are very susceptible, and the morphological characters of 
the two parents are variously combined with the quality of smut 
resistance or susceptibility. 

The cross between White Milo and lUackhull Kafir seems to 
indicate that resistance is dominant and suscrpiilniin is ivrr- 
sive. During the past season 17.1 per cent, of the second genera- 
tion plants were infected, as compared with 47.7 per cent, ot 
Blackhull Kafir and no infection of the White Milo. The in- 
fection of the Blackhull Kafir varied greatly in the different ex- 
periments, the highest obtained being 66 per cent. In the third 
and fourth generations we find various combinations of charac- 
ters, several greatly resembling Hlacldiull Kafir, but showing a 

A very serious difficulty in the study of this problem has been 
that of securing infection of the maximum number of suscep- 
tible plants. We have not been able to devise methods for use 
on a large scale which are successful in securing the infection ot 
ail susceptible individuals. During the past year. Sumac Sorgo 
has given a higher infection than usual, while, on the other hand. 
the results with the Blackhull Kafir have been below those of 

Additional crosses between various sorghums have been made, 
and the first generation was grown during the past season. The 
second generation will be available for study during the coming 

Head Smut of Sorghum and Corn 

This fungus is particularly interesting because of its occurrence 
on both sorghum and corn. The studies reported upon last year 
have been continued. Various methods have been employed to 
secure infection, which have involved for the most part varia- 
tions in the age of seedlings and in the culture of spores in the 
soil. Various combinations of spore-soil cultures and seedlings 
of different ages have been carried out. Unusually severe in- 
fections of corn with spores from corn occurred throughout a 



43 

wide range of conditions. The highest infection secured was 

91.6 per cent , ihh m< h m 1 ,11 To\< So pei cent, were fairly 
common. Similar]) . line Red Amber Sorgo proved In be very 
susceptible to spores from snr»'o, the highest infection obtained 
being 84.6 per cent. In 11)25, there was no infection of sorghum 
with spores from corn, nor infection of corn with spores from 
sorghum. During the past season, however, some evidence was 
obtained to indicate that the smut from corn could pass over 
onto sorghum, since in a feu experiments the sorgo inoculated 
with spores from corn were infected, the highest percentage being 
20 per cent. Similarly, a few corn plants inoculated with spores 
from sorghum were also infected, the highest percentage being 

10.7 per cent, in one experiment. These results indicate that to 



The (lis 


ease of Iris, which is c 


haracter 


ized by the destructic 


>n of 


the fibrou: 


3 roots, proved to be v 


ery seve 


re during the past season. 


a large m 


.unber of the hem de<i 


[ varied, 


es being severely inj 


ured 


and prevented from blooming. 


The di 


sease is characterized by 


the decay 


of the fibrous roots. 


which 


prevents the plant 1 


from 



getting water and essentia! nutrients trom the soil. As a ride 
the rhizome remains fairly healthy. Miss Marjorie Swabey, 
Research Assistant, carried out a large number of experiments 
with a view to finding a remedy for the disease. Several of 
them proved effective. They were, however, all radical, as they 
involved the lifting of the rhizome. 11 s tieatment and subsequent 
replanting. While the variety may be preserved by this process, 
yet the operation is destructive to bloom during a particular sea- 
son. It was found that if the rhizomes were hided, cleaned and 
exposed to the sun for a few days, and then replanted in a new 
soil they generally put out roots and leaves and fully recovered, 
from the trouble. 

Cryptogenic Herbarium 

Only a few additions were- made to the Crvpiog.miic Herbarium 




]•'[!, 6. Red m| 



added by purchase. We also secured seve 
i ' 'stiUifiiiiroi f-i<r<>pus, issued i. v II Xilhg. Nine specimens were 
received from the Museum of the University of Cluj, Rumania, 
on exchange. Dr. Herman I'oeverlein of Speyer, Germany, sent 

us one hundred and twenty-eight specimens of rust on exchange. 

Forest Pathology 

By A R TH UR II A RMOU N T ( i K AVES 

Chestnut Hark Disease Investigations 
In the work of 1925, the results of which have been published 
elsewhere ( Srirncc 63 : 1^4-1^5. m;jO; and I'liytopafholot/y 16: 
615-621. 1926), it was definitely established, through the data 
resulting from inoculation work, that the roots of the chestnut 
are more resistant to the blight fungus than the trunk, branches, 
or basal shoots. Idle can s< of this great 1 n istanci 1 1 In roots 
was referred hypotheiically in the known greater (juantitv of 
tannin in the root tissues, the published statement being as fol- 
lows : In view of previous work indicating an inhibitory eftec* 
of tannin on the growth of fungi, it is suggested that the greater 
resistance of the root tissues may be due, at least in part, to their 
greater content of tannin compounds or of substances associated 
with tannin.' 7 (Phytopatli. 16: 620.) 

However it is possible that the comparative lack of air, as well 
as oilu 1 , a 11 il 1 1 tut ,-, hi- b in m it* id' dill 1 11 in dn 
ground and in the atmosphere, may produce a retarding effect on 
the growth of the fungus in the tissues of the host below the 
surface of the soil. 

During the past summer, in order to test the effect of these 
external factors, three series of inoculations were made, in each 
case iiu an equal number of roots, and trunks or shoots of the 
same tree. In each series, after inoculation, the roots were 
treated in a different way, as follows: 

Series I. Left exposed to the air. 

Series II. Covered with soil. 

Series III. Covered with dead leaves. 



It is proposed to let the>e inoculations run for a year before the 
growth measurements of the fundus are taken, in order to make 
them comparable with the previous experiments. 

Reports still continue to come in of nuts borne on coppice or 
basal shoots of blighted trees which, as before stated (Brooklyn 
Rot. Gard. Record 15: 5<)). is an encouraging indication that the 
chestnut has yet a long lease of life. As long as it is able to re- 
produce by sexual methods, the probabilities of its becoming 



This is the most serious disease of the Black or Sweet [iirch 
(Ih'htla Iciitu)- -certainly in Greater Xevv York and vicinity and 
northward, and probably throughout the whole range of the Black 
Birch. During the last six years we have seen several large 
birches die out from this cause in Prospect Park (Brooklyn). 
The most apparent symptoms are rough areas on the bark of the 
trunk or branches. On the trunk these areas are sunken and 
often covered bv old bark. Where this outer covering has broken 
off, the canker, if of typical form, appears ;in a deep nil, lined w ith 
successively receding concentric rings or ellipses of wood some- 
what like the tiers of seats encircling an amphitheatre, these an- 
nual recessions representing apparently the periods of advance 
of the fungus in the healthy tissues of the tree. The deep central 
point of the canker represents the place of original infection by 
the fungus, and although in an old canker it may be deep in the 
trunk, nevertheless, at the time of infection, years ago, it was 
probably at or near the surface. As is evident, the disease pro 
gresses slowly, and the affected tree may live for a long time. 
A large tree near Whitestone, L. L, with a trunk of about 2]/ 2 
feet in diameter breast high, had a canker about \ }/ 2 feet in 



\Crconcctria cocanca (Pers.) Seaverj, which causes the trouble, 
appear during September or October, scattered singly or in twos 
or threes in crevices in the rough bark bordering the canker. 
They are very tiny, but can be distinguished by the naked eye 
(being a little less than O mm. in diameter), appearing as small. 



bright crimson dots. In reality they are ovoic 
readily be seen with a good hand lens. Durin 
can usually be found at the margins of the cant 
mer season T have found 
on the surface of the dis 
cankei iffed m<j also ih». 
Kxpcrimcnta! studies < 1 



ind anotl 


ler ty] 


)e of spore 


(conidia 


) borne 


diseased 


tissue. 


I have fo- 


and the Nectria 


le Paper 


P. itch 


and Yellow 


Birch in 


Maine. 


(Brookly 


n Bot. 


, Card. Rec. 


15: 59- 


1926) 


•line fun» 


■us is 


the malefact 


or here. 


There 


it the gra 


y hire 


h is also susceptible. 






A-ticab 


le as far as 


cankers 


on the 


mless oik 


t wish 


es to subjec 


t the tre< 


2 to the 


;s of cutti 


11- out 


hi the diseased area. 


Even 


never he 


certaii 


a of removing all of the dis- 




an tin: 


sightly cavit] 


,' would 


be left. 



(We do not subscribe to the practice now in vogue of filling cavi 
ties with cement, etc.) However, in case small twigs are affected, 
they should be removed as soon as possible, making the cut some 
distance below the affected area, i.e., toward the trunk of the tree. 
The diseased parts should be burned, in order to destroy the 
spores, and the cut ends of the twigs on the tree should be 
promptly painted over with ordinarv lead paint to prevent fresh 
infections. 

For owners of woodlands the only practicable measure is to 
remove these diseased trees at the earliest convenient opportimi; \ 
— either during improvement thinnings or during any other cut- 
ting. Thus the fungous spores will be prevented from infecting 
the sound trees, young and old. that otherwise are almost certain, 
sooner or later, to contract the disease. The diseased portions, 
and particularly the bark surrounding them, should be burned. 

To determine the rate of growth of the fungus in the tree and 
also its effect on the timber, as well as other data, inoculations on 
healthy sweet birches on land of the writer in Hamden, Conn., 
were made in 1918. These cankers have grown slowly ever 
since, but beyond inspection of them each year, no further work 

In October, Dr. Perley Spaulding, of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, informed the writer that he had observed what was 
apparently the same disease causing much damage to Yellow 



Birch {Bctula Intra) near Holton, Vermont. On a s ll e [ ic t 
trip to Prooklyn and examination ,,f Sweet lurches affected with 
the canker in Prospect I 'ark, as well as some of the dried speci- 
mens belonging to the writer. Dr. Spaulding said that he lielieved 
the Yellow Birches were affected with the same trouble. 

Systematic Botany 

Frankcniaceae. By Alfred Gundersen 
During io,2(> 1 have continued studies of the structure of flow- 
ers as related to the general classification of dicotyledons. I 
have given special attention to the Brankeniaccae. a small familv 
of widely distributed subtropical plants of both hemisphere- 
'I'he striking resemblance of the pinks {Dianthus) to the Fran- 
kenias was recognized by the earlier botanists: Linnaeus, jussieu, 
DeGandolle, Hentham and Hooker. In the Bugler system, how- 
e\er. ibe 1 'ink Bamilv was moved near the (ioosefoot Bamily, 

separated from the Frankeniaceae. A recognition of the natural 
relationship of Pinks and Vranhenia would involve important 
changes in the grouping of dicotyledons. It would necessitate 
the moving of the families of Goosefoot Amaranth, Purslane, 
Pink and others to a position more advanced than the Fran- 
keniaceae; and a rearrangement of Bugler's sequence of these 
families would be required. Preliminary results were presented 
before the Torrey Botanical Club in Bebruarv. On my Buropean 

Ecology and Plant Geography 

Vegetation of Long Island 
While field work had to be restricted because of lack of funds, 
active work on this project was continued at the Garden. Studies 
of soil fertility, humus accumulation, and hydrogen-ion concen- 
tration carried on during the year indicate that there is a definite 
relation between the stage ( 



49 

accumulation of available nitrogen in the soil, and that some time- 
scale for such a process can be worked out. 

Work was also continued on the climatic factors that affect 
the distribution of vegetation on Lout.- island, and the accumu- 
lated material and notes written up in a paper on " Climate of 
Long Island: Its relation to forests, crops and man." which was 
ureptecj foi publication as a Hitllctin of the New York Agricul- 
tural bxpenment Station at Ithaca.. 

In an island as short as Long Island, it is surprising that there 
is enough diversity in the climate to affect the distribution of 
plants, of crops, and of man. )>ut Mich is emphatically the case. 
The extreme eastern end is cooler by 8° to io° in summer and 
has a shortei frost period in winter than the western end, and re- 
sembles more nearly a true maritime climate. Its isolated position, 
surrounded by cool sea water, makes it relatively free from the 
sudden cold snaps, that, originating on the continent, strike west- 
ern Long Island with -aunt violence. 

Studies on the temperature of the sea waier show that at Mon- 
tauk it is from 4 to 10 ' cooler than (he • -a w ib 1 near Xew York, 
and the effect of persistent southwest winds over this cool water 
makes summer tempera In res so attractive that the resort value of 
the region from the Hamptons eastward is based upon this fact. 
One marked effect of this sea water on eastern Long Island is its 
relation lo potato planting in the spring, and brussels sprouts 
harvesting in the fall. During March. April, and May, the cocl 
water makes conditions on land admirable for early potato plain- 
ing and young growth. So marked is this coolness that the lilac 
and other plants habitually flower from 8 to 12 daws later there 
than in Brooklyn. In the late autumn the accumulation of sum- 
mer heat m tin < 11 1 in>! ihi in 1 i illin nost at Montauk 
and Orient come 10 to 20 daws later than on western Long Island 
— an obvious In vesting 1 < 1 

It is, also, only at this relatively cooler end of the island that we 
hn 1 a ln\ -Aid pants of far northern affinities. Whether relicts 
of glacial times, or dropped by migratory birds, the persistence 
of plants like the crovvberry. the red spruce, die sea lovage, and a 
few others, is undoubtedly due to the fact that temperature con- 
ditions at the eastern end are vastly different from those at the 
western end of Long Island. 



50 



Flora of Long Island 
Almost no field work was done during the year, but herbarium 
studies were continued. Collections from Mr. William C. Fer- 
guson, Mr. Roy Latham, and Mr. E, S. Miller were mounted 

and added to the hong Island herbarium, as well as <-nn>iderable 
material of oidei collections, wlncli has heen identified. All these 
records have been posted on the distribution maps of the manu- 
script " Flora of Long Island." 




REPORT OF THE CLRATOR OF PLANT BREEDING 
AND ECONOMIC PLANTS FOR 1926 

Dr. C. Stuart Gagrr, Director. 

Sir: I beg; to submit herewith my report for the year ending 
December 31, 1926. 

In addition to the investigational work on field and garden peas, 
and hulls hocks, and on hardiness in woody and herbaceous peren- 
nial plants, mentioned in the Reports on Research for njjh (p. 
00), I have continued in charge of the " Ecological Section"— 
with its vario U 1 o 1 Lhn md demonstrations design <l to 
show how plants are fitted to meet the problems of existence. 
Many of the most cm ions plants in the Garden collections are to 
be seen growing here. The section comprises several types of en- 
vironment and ultimately more are to be added, in the form of 
Old and New World desert plots with some of the plants that 
typical!) characters them \t jikm hi tin diih rent typt ol 
plant surroundings ir< represent d h\ a mall hog, a swamp, a 
section of a brook, and beds with ordinary and other types of 
soils. The bog contains sundews and pitcher plants and needs to 
he extended and improved and made much more naturalistic. The 
swamp contains a mult itude ot 1 \ pa 'I wan ip and bored ine plants. 
the whole area, being dominated in naturalistic effect by the 
Luropi n wild «'!l)-'. I ag, thi Moating waici fern! holla ), ar- 
rowheads (Sagitlaria), and the tropical Water Hyacinth (Hi- 
chornia) that is such a problem to river navigation in some of the 
warmer parts of the world. A fine clump of Orontium aquaticum 
or (doldenclub is one of the newer features of this area. The 
small island has been planted to English ivy, and during the next 
summer it is planned to infest it with a luxmiant growth of 
Dodder (Cuscuta). During the last two years a species of this 
orange colored parasite has been found to grow well on this ivy. 
ddie contrast between the colors of the two plants gives a very 
striking effect, and thus intrigues the casual visitor into a desire 
for more intimate details ol whai he 1 ir she : ces 

Among the more interesting and curious plants in the beds west 
of the swamp are the ant-feeding Bulks-horn Thorn (Acacia) of 



Central America, whose place in the scheme of things in tha' 
world is so graphically described by Thomas Belt in " The Natu- 
ralist in Nicaragua." These plants in their natural home and the 
ants form a mutual aid society, according to licit — the ants pro- 
tecting the plan! and the yhnt- hirnidiing i 1 and housing. The 

food consists of honey and of little yellow fruit-like bodies that arc 
said to be highly nitrogenous, and grow at the tip of each tiny 
leaflet. 

The Edible-stemmed (I rape (1'ilis tjiuuiraiiiiularis) is another 
bizarre tenant of this section. It comes originally from northern 
Africa and the warmer parts of Asia, and its stems are used for 
food in India, instead of its fruit. Its stem is very succulent and 
this, together with its small insignificant leaves, often leads even 
plant sptu di its to mistake it for a cactus or euphorbia. Part of 
a bed is devoted to the common tropical Sensitive Plant (Mimosa) ; 
and in other beds there are specimen- of the Castor Bean plant 
( h'icinus) , with its exploding -ced capsules; the Squirting Cucum- 
ber ( lichaUium) , that shoots its seeds from a ripe fruit with con- 
siderable force to a distance of ten feet or more; the Spanish 
Bayonet (Yucca) with its indispensable, black eyed, silver gray 
little moths; and Kentucky Hemp, with a blue-flower parasite 
( Orohanchc ) that lives on its roots and takes its toll of hemp plant 

During the last year two new demonstration beds have been 
added, hot 1 :: dealing with inheritance problems. < )ne of these [dots 
consists of two exhibits, the plants used being Indian corn or 
maize. The first exhibit shows two inbred strains of maize and 
the much more vigorous and prolific progeny that result from 
crossing them (Fig. /). The other exhibit involves two very 
dwarf (less than a foot high), but distinct varieties of yellow dent 
maize called " Nana" and " Dwarf." These, when crossed, give 
first generation progeny over seven feet high (Fig. H). Both 
these exhibits attracted special interest, ddie seed from which 
they were grown was received through the kindness of the De- 
partment of Plant Breeding, Connecticut Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, and Dr. D. F. Jones. 

The other new demonstration feature of genetic interest was a 
bed of Four-o'clocks -bowing the results of crossing a yellow- 



53 

[lowered variety with a pink- flowered variety, and illustrating 
.Mendel's law of segregation. The two parents and, between 
them, the first hybrid generation plants were shown in the first 
row. The other two rows contained plants of the second hybrid 
generation, in the kinds and proportions of each theoretically ex- 
pected when two pairs of Mendelian factors are involved. Thus 
in this cross, the two parents are yellow (YYrr) and rose pink 
(yyR p R 1J ). The first hybrid generation plants have rose red 
flowers. The plants of the second hybrid generation are repre- 
sented in the bed in the ratio in which they occur, by i deep crim- 
son : 2 rhodamine purple: 2 scarlet red: 4 rose red: 1 yellow (like 



the parent 


flower color) : 


2 light y 


ellow: 1 rose pink (like the 


course, ret 


it flower color) : 
:er to the flower 


2 light p 


ink : 1 white. The colors, of 


Four-o\ 


-locks are especially fine r 


naterial for illustrating Men- 


delian law: 


s 0! herediu for 


a nunik-1 


r of reasons. They are corn- 


paratively 


free from disea 


se, easily 


grown, attractive in appear- 


a nee. conti 


inuous bloomers, 


and they already have interesting as- 


sociations 


for the general 


public, s: 


ince they are flowers of the 


old-fashioi 


ted flower gard< 


ms and « 


;ince their flowers open and 


close according to certain < 


environmental conditions. 


Further! 


nore, the tube re 


ius roots 


live over winter easily when 


placed in a 


. little sand in a 


dry, cool 


cellar, and farther south they 


live over 


ut-of -doors. There are r 


ecords of the roots living for 


over twenty-five years. The dome 


r mound-like habit of growth 



of the plants lends itself to orderly arrangement without district- 
ing supports. Hence, the exhibit plot, appropriately labeled, cm 
be arranged almost diagratnmatically— the parents, Ix (first filial), 
Jx (second filial) generations, etc In some regions such an 
exhibit bed could h. en los d , ith low • I « >t dwarf box or 
of other suitable materials. The plants are crossed easily. The 
flower colors are distinct and striking, and the heterozygotes 
(hybrid plants that do not breed true) of every genetic tvpe 
are distinguishable by the beginner and the layman. Last of all, 
the great range of flower colors has a simple genetic basis — five 
factors in all. excluding the striping pattern -these being Y, R, 
R p , y, and r. Our exhibit proved quite effective; though it should 
have had more sun. The plants for this exhibit came from Mix 



Francis P. Kiernan. one of our own employees, who has been 
interested in the genetics of Four-o'clocks for many years. A 
paper embodying the results of some of his studies recently ap- 
peared in The Journal of Heredity for October, 1926. 

Another new feature of the " Ecological Section " is a bridge 
over the brook, just below the brook's exit fromthe swamp. This 
opens up a new and beautiful vista through the trees to those in- 
terested (Plate 00). 

The section is situated in one of the most beautiful parts of the 
Garden, and as I have stated in previous reports, it falls far short 
of what it might be, because of a lack of expert gardening as- 

For over three years, I have been interested in an aquarium 
culture apparently involving largely the alga, Chlorcla vuhjaris 
( ?). This is a very minute green plant which is used frequently 
in pbvsiological research. It multiplies enormously in an ordinary 
round glass battery jar under the usual light and temperature con- 
ditions of a dwelling or office. Generally my cultures have been 
kept in a north window, although for some months they did 
equally well or better in a west window. The culture under our 
conditions is practically non-odorous, and when kept in the proper 
dilution gives the appearance of a beautiful translucent rich green 
solution. During this period, four medium-sized gold fish have 
been domiciled in this culture jar, which is 12 inches high and 7G 
inches in diameter, and of about two gallons capacity. The water 
has been changed otil\ in replacing I bat which evaporated, and once 
in six months or a year, the culture has been thinned, and the bot- 
tom and sides of the jar cleaned. During this period four ten 
cent cans of "Rainbow" or similar fish food have been used. 
The fish have remained apparently in perfect health. This note 
is presented at this time in the belief that these observations might 
be of practical value to those interested in household and other 
aquariums. It seems to me that an aquarium prepared in this 
manner would be more ornamental and of far less trouble than 
those in common use. The golden red fish against a velvety, 
rich emerald green is very striking, and the plant culture, when 
kept properly diluted, only serves to conceal the fish for part of 
the time. Professor Tracy Elliot Hazen, of Barnard College, 
determined the alga for me. 



About 


one hum 


ired new lant< 


ivn s 


bdes, 


many 


of them colored, 


ave been 


i added f 


:o the collectic 


mof 


subj< 


2cts fo: 


r illustrating- lec- 


ires and talks 01 


, economic ph 










As for 


several 


years past, I 


have 


been 


editor 


of the Genetics 


ection o 


f Botan, 


ical Abstracts : 


. wh 


ich in 


ivolves 


the editing, ab- 


racting 


and securing of abstr; 


acts 


of se 


veral h 


itndred scientific 




offspring 



papers and books annually. Tn the new abstract journal, Hio 
Lxiual f/> tint h ( \ lii« li il|)' I • d .' maun all! a< Is ) I h. \ 
charge of the Plant Genetics section. In April. T was re-elected 
one of the officers nui i member of the board oi directors of the 
John RurrouGi \| -mo, i.d V- -o ( , -o<>-, 



56 

Numerous inquiries regarding- economic plants. hercdit\, plant 
breeding, and South America have been answered, and I have 
given at various times and places public lectures on these sub- 
jects, as listed in Appendix 4. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Ok land E. White, 
Curator of Plant Breeding 

and Economic Plants 



REPORT OF : 
)r. C. Stuart Gj 



Collections 

Among plants of special inlerest added to the collections of 
living plants last year may be mentioned the California Tree 
Poppy (Pcndroiuccou ri</iditm). the Chilean P.eech ( \'ollh>la<n<s 
betuloides), and Ternstroemia japonica. 

An inventory of conservatory monocotyledons, taken in Jan- 
uary, showed the number of these, other than orchids, to be: 
genera, 162; species, 344; of orchids: genera, 2~j ; species, 66. 

The Iris Plantings have been in the special care of Dr. Ceorge 
M. Reed who reports as follows : 

"The beds in the systematic section designed to show the dif- 
ferent species of the genus Iris were completely overhauled 
Many of the plants in these beds had been grown from seed and 
proved untrue to name. It was therefore necessary to completely 
rearrange the plantings. Additional species were added, and the 
beds now contain a fair representation of species which grow sat- 
isfactorily in this region. A number of Bearded Iris were also 
added to the collection during the year, all gifts. Mr. Robert 
Wayman, Bayside. L. I., sent us 51 varieties, Mrs. J. Branin, San 
Lorenzo. Calif.. 1, Mrs. L. \Y. Hitchcock. New Rochelle, N. Y, 
1, and \Y. Atlee Burpee Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 12 

Labels and signs were made by Mr. John McCallum as follows: 



Labels and Signs 



Lead labels for u <>ody p!; 
Lead labels for conservat. 
Large wooden labels 

Wooden signs 



Also numerous other miscellaneous numbers and signs. 
An International List of Cultivated Plants 

in correspondence winch In pi p ed lm ibout three years, 
a number of botanic gardens have expressed themselves as fa- 
vorable toward the formation of an International List of Genera 
oj Cultivated /'hints. < >i n C omuiKuicalioii AY. /. published in 
May, included letters from live gardens, and from Mr. J. Horace 
\h I n lai d. - in inn m of the \merican Joint Committee on Horti- 
cultural Nomenclature. He proposes that "Standardized /'hint 
Names," which follows in the main Railev's Cyclopedia of Horti- 
culture, and contain:, specific as well as generic names, should be 
adopted for some years, with such reservations as the various 
gardens may require. The Coinuninicatimi AY. , af-o contained 
a list of about J500 generic names, following lines indicated a- 
most generally acceptable, and a brief list of names frequently 
emploved. as to which usage differs. 

Immediately following the Ithaca International l'.otanical Con- 
gress, which I attended, I left for Europe. After some weeks in 
the mountains of Norway. I visited horani< ga d< 1 in ->< indinavia 
dermanv. Switzerland, brance, and England, a most interesting 
and instructive journey about which I will later report. The 
mam object of my trip was to discuss with European botanists 
the possibility of the formation of an international list of plants. 
Plant lists are used by nearly every botanic garden if similar 
lists could be used, the building up and maintenance of the most 
interesting collections would be greatly simplified. Various prac- 
tical difficulties, climatic, historical, and financial, exist in the way 
of more effective international cooperation. Yet M is e\ ident 



that mam l»olaui< ;ardcu \ mid h< disp< >srd to mak< certain con- 
cessions in the direction of greater uniformity, at least in the mat- 
ter of plant families and the most frequently used genera. In 
general, the smaller gardens appear to he disposed to follow the 
lead of the more important institutions in this matter. 

Phanerogamic Herbarium 

Among the collections acquired last year were 345 specimens 
from Mr. E. S. Miller, 121 Rumanian specimens from the Cluj 
liotanic ( iarden, 5^ specimens from Kodiak Island, Alaska, from 
Mrs. B. Underwood, and 14S Idorida specimens from Dr. H. J. 
Banker. 

Lectures and Class Work 

I hiring March 1 gave three lectures on " Evolution in Idower- 
ing I'lants." I Hiring May and June 1 conducted outdoor lessons 
on " Spring Flowers and Perns.*' eight in the garden and eight at 
various points in the vicinity of New York. 

Personal Activities 

I hiring the year 1 continued as chairman ot the field committee 
of the Torrey Botanical Club. 

Statistics 

i.niiiL' plants received (luring ]i)2h: Seeds received: 

Plants Species By exchange 882 

37 By purchase 23 

4 (l By gift 41 



1 ' '"' 


ge 4&3 1 


erivedli 


»- : j« _ 


ng plant 


s distributed : 











By exchange . . . 

Herbarium specin 

By exchange . . . 

By gift 

Total 

tfully submitted, 



REPORT OF THE CURATOR OF PLANTS 
AND PLANTATIONS FOR 1926 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, Director. 

Sir: I take pleasure in submitting my fifteenth and last annual 
report as curator of plants and plantations. 

The work of the department during i<)2t) was largely of a main- 
tenance nature, hut some new work was accomplished: 
t. Erection of new liotanie ( iarden signs at all the gates. 
2. Two sets of wooden steps Unit at lower end of the esplanade 
^. Experimental enclosure between greenhouses and Washington 
Avenue prepared and fenced. 

4. Two simple bridges built across the brook, one of stone near 

the ecological section, and one of concrete near the chil- 
dren's garden. 

5. Orading south of the manure pit to increase size of the service 

The labor conditions, pointed out: in my last report, remain the 
same, if anything, a little worse. Diversion of men, who should 
spend all their time in pureU maintenance work, to the gardening 
force, or to the experimental enclosure, leaves the foreman under- 
manned for general work. 

Personal Activities 

During the autumn 1 visited Lew, the British Museum, and the 
Jardin des Plantes, at Paris. 1 have continued my association 
with the Long island Historical Society. 

Respectfully submitted. 



REPORT OF THE IIORTTCCLTCRTST AND HEAD 
GARDENER FOR 1926 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, Director. 

S'/>; I beg ' Si submit herewith my report for the year ending 
December 31, 1926. 

In addition to routine maintenance, .^irdcning work was as 
follows : 

General Systematic Section 

In continuation of the police of clcailv defining the limits of 
the Orders and families of plants in this Sedion limiting hedges 
of the following plants were set out in the spring: I'noius tomcn- 
ioso, P. triloba, Spiraea " Anthony Waterer," Ruhus odoratus, 
//V.r crcnala and /, nhthra. The.se, in addition to fulfilling the pin - 
pose outlined above, will serve to show their value as unusual 
hedge plants. 

The crowded condition of the trees and shrubs in the area 
allotted to the Apples and their relatives ( I'omaceae) clearly called 
tor drastic treatment so that individual specimens could have op- 
portunity for proper development. As a result of a re-study of 
the adjacent areas by yourself, the Consulting Landscape Archi- 
tect, and the writer, it was found possible to re-align the borders 
of the Magnoliaceae so as to provide more room for the Pomaceae. 
The work of thinning out the crowded trees and transplanting 
them to the new area was carried out in the fall. 

Ornamental Planting 

A large number of appropriate plants were set out in the rock 
garden, in the vacant spaces Irfl by the removal of "filler" plants 
mentioned in my 1925 report. Some of this new material was 
derived from seed received in exchange from other botanic 
gardens, and a great deal as .seeds or plants from the rich alpine 
collection of .Mr. Clarence Lown of I'oughkeepsie. who has al- 
ways been most generous in his exchanges with the Botanic 

During the summer thirteen new beds were made along the 
N.W. side of the avenue of Japanese flowering Cherries to ac- 



62 

commodate bearded Irises an overflow from the main plantation 
nfiiiLi the brook. 

The planting that lias been carried out in previous years is now 
paying" dividends in the form n\ beauty- as witness the wonderful 
display of spring llnwerin^ bulb:, naturalized in the lawns; the 
\ annus (lowering trees and shrubs, such as Apples and Cherries. 
Snowballs and Golden Hells; the Waterlilies, and the Hindu Lotus 
in the lake. The latter is now so vigorous that it became neces- 
sary during the summer to mow with a scythe the outskirts of the 
planting, lest it fill the whole lake. Some of the more quickly 
maturing shrubs are now assuming the proportions of "speci- 
mens," for example, the Harlequin Clurybower, (Icrodcnrfroii 
tr'nhotomum, illustrated on p. 14. Attention was directed to this 
particular specimen in a letter to " The Florists' Fxehange " by 
Dr. Carl A. Schwarze, who described it as " a wonderful shrub 
. . . that looked like a huge bouquet." 



International Seed Excha 



ailable for exchange in the 
harden and elsewhere. The 
irabs only) in the spring of 



Austria 

lubium 



France . 
Germany 
Holland 



issia 


d 


,,,., 


America .... 






Tnl,l 


■land 

States 




Shakespeare Garden, July 23, 
ee who can recognize and name 
Mr. Henry C. Folger. (5956.) 



Educational Work 

In addition to several outside lectures, I conducted two courses 
for the general public at the Botanic Garden; namely. Gardening 
in the Fall, and Plants in the Home. In response to requests by 
various members of the Botanic Garden, I visited their gardens to 
give advice on garden problems, and many questions relating to 
planl culture have been answered at the Garden. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Montague Free, 
Horticulturist and Head Hardener. 



REPORT OF Till-; CURATOR OF PUBLIC 
INSTRUCTION FOR 1926 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, Director. 

Sir: I take pleasure in submitting herewith my report for the 
year ending December 3T, 1926: 

Classes, Courses, and Attendance 

The total number of adults electing courses at the Garden dur- 
ing 1926 was 350. Of these, 234 were new. It has become in- 
creasingly desirable to learn the sources from which newcomers 
have derived their information about our courses. In order to 
get definite data, we issued to each registrant this year a card on 
which, among other things, was a questionnaire on this point. 
Of the 234 new students, 80 neglected to answer the question- 
naire. The answers of the 154 others were distributed as fol- 

Through friends, former students S- 2 

From circulars sent out by the Garden (Including Brooklyn 

Teachers' Association circulars ) 40 

from Brooklyn Botanic ( .arden Prospectus 12 

From Garden Bulletin Boards 9 



Jl .seems reasonable to assume that the answers of the 80 reg- 
istrants who failed to reply to the questionnaire would have been 
distributed more or less in the same proportion among the dif- 
ferent sources. Il i indeed • latil'ymg to eon thai the most pro- 
ductive advertising we have is through the recommendation of 
people who have alreadx taken our courses. It is also of interest 
that as many as nine metropolitan newspapers were named as 

Among our courses, the following were new developments in 
i',oo i h « n.^A -i ,en gave an outdoor course on the spring flow- 
ers and ferns of the New York region, in which the parks and 
woodlands of Greater Xew York were visited by the class in much 
the same way as in my own classes on the woody plants. Dr. 
Gundersen's course was given on Saturday afternoons and proved 
popular. 



Miss Shaw formed another division of 


her class in Greenhouse 


Work, which is really an advanced cour 


se for those who have 


already taken her Principles of Agriculti 


ire and Horticulture. 


On account of the building of the new 


iron fence around the 


Garden and the replacement of the old tr 


trnstiles with new ones, 


definite figures of registration oi \i itoi 


could not be obtained 


for the entire year. It was felt, howeve 


r, that an arbitrary in- 


crease of 2 per cent.* over last year's figure 


■s would be a reasonably 


modest addition, in view of various iridic; 


ations that considerably 



larger numbers were visiting {be Garden than in T925. One of 
the indications was the nun-eased attendance at the Conservatories 
near!}- /gnno greater than last year, and larger than in any pre- 
vious year. Now that the registering- turnstiles are again in 
working order, the figures of the first months of 1927 amply 
justify this increase. In January. \<)2J, for example, the regis- 
tration was 28,212— more than twice that of 1925, and larger than 
111 any previous January in the history of the Garden. The fol- 
lowing table gives the attendance at classes, lectures and conserva- 
tories, as well as registration at the entrance gates, by months, 
in 1926. 

* This 2 per cent, increase was added beginning with May. The pre- 






Demand for Study Material 

The requests for plant material of various sorts for enriching 
the work in botany, biology, nature study, and geography in the 
various educational institutions combine to increase. A very 
urgent need is an additional greenhouse when' material of this 
sort could be kept and grown. Because of the lack of it, many 
recjuests must be either refused entirelv or else onlv partly sup- 
plied. 

Because of continued poor health. Miss Charlotte Young, 
curatorial assistant, who had had especial charge of this part of 
our work from September, 0^3, and under whose care and en- 
thusiasm it bad grown remarkably, was forced to resign as of 
April 1, and it became necessary for me to carry this work for 
a time without assistance, except for a few hours a week from 
high school pupils. Later, we were most fortunate 111 .securing the 
services of Miss Blester M. Rusk, formerly of the New York 
Botanical Garden. Miss Rusk commenced her new duties on 
September i and is splendidly fitted both l<\ training and experi- 
ence for the work of this department. 



Personal Class Work 

The popular course on the Life of .Hants, Lectin in 1925, has 
been continued, and while our equipment in the way of micro- 
scopes and accessories has heen very meaner, this condition, at the 
present writing, has heen partly remedied. The popular outdoor 
classes on the Trees and Shrubs of (neater New York were given 
as usual, in the spring and fall <"n people registering for the spring 
course and 41 for tin fall eours< v lh< concluding exercise of 
the fall course, a practical test in the identification of woody plants 
in their winter condition was held in the natural woodland at the 
north end of Central Lark, Manhattan In February and March, 
I gave a short course on the common native and cultivated trees 
on Saturdays to a group of 15 boys from the Boys' High School. 
I have conducted tests, as usual, from time to time, for Boy Scouts 
desiring to obtain merit badges in Forestry and Conservation. 

Honey Bee Demonstrations 

During the summer and early autumn, Mr. Frank Stoll, Reg- 
istrar and Custodian, using the hives which are installed in the 
space between the two northern wings of the Conservatories, gave 
demonstrations of the life and work of the honey bee, opening up 
the hives and explaining the interior, as well as the functions of 
the workers, drones and queens. These demonstrations were 
made to groups from the Jnkowa Club, the Department of Edu- 
cation of the Brooklyn Institute, to three classes from the Girls' 
Commercial High School, and to others. 

Newspaper Publicity 

Tins has been continued as n-aial on ihe same general plan of 
weekly releases of items of interest about the Garden, including 
the progress of scientific research, classes, work with children, 
plants in flower, additions to the collections, etc. In all, I wrote 
72 articles on these subjects and sent them to the Metropolitan 
papers. In this work, Mrs. Warner, of the Brooklyn Publicity 
Bureau, has cooperated effect ivelv during a 'part of the past year, 
especially during the campaign for the endowment fund. 



from New York papers, but from 


various parts of the country. 


Besides 18 papers and periodicals 


in Greater New York, these 


clippings have come from the following: 


New York State: 


District of Columbia : 


Chronicle, Rochester 


Nature Magazine, Washington 


Syracuse Post Standard 


Washington Star 




Washington Evening Star 


Boston Herald 


Ohio: 


Christian Science Monitor, Boston 


Cleveland Times 


Sprint/field Republican 


Courier 


Connecticut : 


Illinois : 


Guide to Nature, Stamford 


Herald Examiner, Chicago 


Hartford C our ant 


Louisiana : 


New Haven Union 


Times Picayune, New Orleans 


New Jersey : 


California: 




Los Angeles Times 


Pennsylvania: 


British Columbia: 



Edit 



rial Work, 



During the year I was appointed Editor of the ( ieneral Biology 
section of the new Biological Abstracts, the periodical which re- 
places Botanical . Ihslracts on which 1 served, with yourself, as As- 
sistant Editor of the Botanical Education section. I have con- 
tinued to serve on the editorial hoard of the American Journal of 
Botany. I have also edited the h)_'(> series of Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden Leaflets, consisting of ionumhers. In August I attended 
the International Congress of Plant Sciences at Ithaca, N. Y ., act- 
ing as the official delegate from the Torrev Botanical Club. In 
December I attended the annual meeting of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement oi "-. o ■■: u < ai ClnCdolpliu ■v. \eu 
uarv I was re-elected secretary of the Torrev Botanical Club. 
Respectfully submitted. 



Ma 



Gra 



AC/A /// 



Dr. C. Stuart Gager, Director. 

Sir: I hereby present to you the fourteenth annual report from 
the Department of Klemeuiarv Instruction. 

During the year 1926 this Department came into educational 
contact, through its various activities, with over 400,000 children; 
held 1,145 sessions of classes and lecture periods; placed 34.- 
712 living plants 111 the schools; distr.hnted 550, S40 packets of 
seeds to school children ; and supplied more nature material to the 
schools than in previous years. These are the high spots statisti- 
cally in our work with the schools. 

A number of requests have come to us this year for assistance 
in starting children's garden work in other places. In May, les- 
sons in our methods were given !o a :vpresenlative of Madame 
Vitelli's Industrial School in Torre del Greco, Italy. The Brook- 
lyn Botanic Garden donated American seeds for this little garden. 

The Department helped start a garden lor children at the Brook- 
lyn Home for Consumptives under the patronage of the Brooklyn 
Branch of the National riant. Flower and Fruit Guild. This 
work was continued throughout part of the summer. Our plans 
for children's gardening were sent by request to the Practice 
School in Sydney, Australia; School of Horticulture, Ambler, 
Pennsylvania; Board of Public Recreation, Stamford, Connecticut. 

Some of the Curator's time during the spring and fall was used 
for lecture work in connection with our endowment: campaign to 
bring it before the Mothers' Clubs and schools of our borough. 
It might be of interest to state here that the children of our own 
garden made the first contribution to this fund, and that the largest 
contribution from anv one organization was made by the Garden 
Teachers' Association. Former students of the children's depart- 
ment met at the laboratory building in November and formed a 
temporary organization to facilitate the raising of their contribu- 
tion to the fund. 

The children's outdoor garden progressed along its regular 
lines. A list of plants in the Shakespeare Garden was published 





lbs. 

hunches 
2 lbs. 












8 7 


Radishes 

Spinach 

Tomatoes 


....13,719 

59 T A 




443^ 









prior ti) the annual Spring Inspection for distribution at that time. 
Sixty different schools were represented in the 1926 outdoor 
garden with a registration of 244. The planted area of the 
garden is approximately one third of an acre. Xn crop report has 
been printed for some years so it seems pertinent to present the 
1926 crop report as follows : 



Chard 
Kohlrabi 

October 22 a harvest exhibit of our children's garden produce 
was set up at the Eagle Building in their children's room. 

Sponsored by the Women's Auxiliary, this Department set up 
an exhibit at the annual Exposition of Women's Work held in the 
Hotel Astor, October 4-9. It received wide publicity, and many 
requests for information came to us even from as far south as 
New Orleans. This was one of the most successful events of the 

The Assistant Curator gave tests to 358 Girl Scouts who rep- 
resented 50 Brooklyn troops; instruction was given to 146 scouts. 

Saturday classes for children have been conducted as usual; 
the scope of this work, in some of its special aspects, has never 
been presented in any annual report. A series of special study 
topics follows : 



A trip around the 1 

The Shakespeare Garden 

The American Indian Garden: 

.Indians and their gardens 
Planting the garden 
Care of the garden 
The crop 

A visit to the -Museum of the Aim 
Evergreens 



The range of interests represented in these topics gives some 
idea of what is being done with our older hoys and girls. On the 
Saturday when these particular topics were given by the children, 
we were visited by students from the National Recreational 
School, New York City. This group was studying methods of 
instruction in Saturday leisure-time work with children. 

Public School 48, Brooklyn (Mr. Paul Kennedy. Principal, 
Miss Katharine Redden. Mead of Department ). solicited our help 
with an educational problem as follows: 250 fifth year children 
representing live classes and five teachers assembled for fifty 
minutes in the school auditorium to receive instruction in nature 
study ( Fig. 000). The Curator, or an assistant, went each week 
from October to December— nine times in all. The real value of 
the work was demonstrated ihnmeji the fad that this group was 
welded into a solid unit of interest, that the children themselves 
became an active, contributing part and not a passive, receiving 
body. It should be stated that the school authorities and the 
teachers were a background of enthusiastic support. 

Miss Kathryu R. Clark. A.B. (Vassar College), was appointed 
instructor beginning September 15. \i>2(\, in place of Mrs. Maude 
Hickok Free resigning at that time. 

Personal Activities 

I continue to act as National Secretary of the National Plant, 
Flower and Fruit (mild. I was appointed in December to the 
Council of the llrooklyn Girl Scouts. 

Respectfully submitted. 



REPORT OF TIT l> LIBRARIAN FOR 1926 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, Director. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith my report as librarian 
for the year ending December 31, 1926. 

The past year has shown definite progress. I lie tot;il number 
of titles in the current serial and periodical file is now 847, an in- 
crease of 103 titles added during the year. 890 volumes and 
pamphlets have been added, making the total of volumes and 
pamphlets in the library t 9,347. 

Accessions 

The 273 volumes received during the war through exchange. 
gift or purchase represent, in the main, individual titles rather 
than volumes belonging to sets of serials or periodicals. Among 
the more important booh titles secured are, I 'aider's Kesearches 011 
Fungi; Correns' Gesammelte Abhandlungen . . . 1899-1924; 
Crisp's Mediaeval Gardens; Dallimore & Jackson's Handbook of 
Coniferae; Johannsen's Flemente der Fxaktcn Prblichkeitslehre ; 
Kostytschew's Lehrbuch der P)lan/enph\ siologie ; Morgan's 
■: uii< tn:. (..!' Hiosopbila ; several volumes of the new edition of the 
Natmdichen Ptianzenf amilien ; Pearson's Life, Letters and La- 
bours of Francis Galton ; the Catalogue of Printed Rooks on Agri- 
culture, 1471-1840, published bv the Rothamsted Fxperhncutal 
Station; Shel ford's The Naturalist's Guide to the Americas. 

Through the generosity of Miss Harriet IT. White the library 
has received the two volumes that have been published of Mary 
Vaux Walcott's American Wild blowers and will receive, as pub- 
lished, later volumes. The library has also been presented, by the 
Hon. Richard Young, of Brooklyn, wilh the Park Commission- 
er's report for 1902, which includes historical data relating to the 
Garden. 

The Pre-Linuean collection has been considerably augmented 
with titles from the 16th. 17th. and 181 h centun presses. These 
were purchased with the aid of the Gager Fund, specially set 
aside for the purchase of rare books. Among the titles thus 
acquired are, the < )rtus Sanitatis. oder Gart der Gesuntheit . . . 



75 

printed at Strassburg in 1520; 1 hoscorides" De Medicinali Materia 
Libri Sex . . . Lyons, 1550; De Historia Slirpmm Cnmmenlani 
. . . by Fuchs, 1551 ; Les Observations de Plusieurs Singularitez 
... by Belon Du Mans, 1535; Matthinli's Sencnsis Medici Com- 
mentarii . . . Venice, 1565; Dodoens' Frumentorum Leguminum 
Palustrium et Aquatilium ITerbarum . . . 1566; De Lobel's Plan- 
tarum Seu Stirpium Historia ... 1576; Stirpinm Historiae Pemp- 
tades Sex ... by Remberti Dodoens, 1583; John Gerarde's The 
Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes . . . 1st edition, 1597. 

Tobias Aldinus' Exactissima Descriptio Rariorum Ouarundam 
Plantarum . . . 1625; The ( )rtus Medicinae . . . by Van Helmont, 
1655; Robert Boyle's Some Considerations Touching the Useflll- 
ncsM ot f' pen'mcntal Xaturall I 'hilosophy, 1st edition, 1663; 
John Evelyn's A Philosophical Discourse of the Earth, 1st edition, 
1676; Robert Morison's Hortus Regius Blesensis . . . 1669; Mat- 
thiolis' Opera Omnia . . . 1674. 

Leeuwenhoek's Regiae, Ouae London Est. Societatis Collegae 
Epistolae Physiologicae . . . 1719; Francesco Redi's Opere . . . 
published in Venice, 1742-60; Linne's Flora /eylauica . . . 00 
edition, 1747, his I Tortus Upsaliensis . . . 1st edition, 1748, and 
Species Plantarum . . . 1 797-1805; Parmenticr's Traite Sur la 
Culture et les Usages des Pommes de Terre, 1st edition, 1789. 

Three titles were added to the Boys' and Girls' Club Room 
Collection which now numbers )0j volumes. 

There are approximately 1.502 volumes in the Overflow Col- 
lection, shelved in the lower stackroom. 

Periodicals, Serials, Documents 

The more important titles added to the current file of serials 
and periodicals are, the Journal of the Royal Society of Western 
Australia; various titles issued by die Ihologische Reichsanstalt 
fur Land- und Eorstwirtseha ft, I'erlin Dahlem Biologia Gen- 
eralis; Botanikai Kozlemenvek; Bothalia ; Papers from the Botany 
School of Cambridge ; Empire Cotton Growing Review; Schriften, 
Tartu (Dorpat ) Cniversit\. Esthonia ; Folio Cryptogamiea ; Acta 
of the Horti Botanici of the Latviensis Universitatis ; The Mu- 
seum, Newark, N. J., NoTth Western Naturalist; Plant Physi- 
ology; Polish Society of Naturalists " Kupernik "; ( hiarterly Re- 



view of Biology; (lie Annies of the Sociedad Cientilica Argentina; 
Aeta Botanica bennica, and Meddelanden, of the Societas Pro 
Fauna et Flora bennica ; Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of 
South Africa; Stain Technology; Studies, Tokugawa institute 
for Biological Research ; Bulletin and Scientific Contributions 
from the Tropical Riant Research Foundation, and Bulletin and 
Transactions from the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Binding 

Over two hundred volumes have been forwarded for binding, 
mainly completed volumes of periodicals and serials. We hope 
to forward titles from the hook collection, as well as periodical 

Inter-Library Loans 

Twenty-six volumes were borrowed for the staff from the 
Brooklyn Museum Library, Brooklyn Public Library, Cornell 
Lniversity Medical Library. Kings County Medical Library, New 
York Municipal Reference Library, New York Public Library, 
and the Library of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Thirty-seven publications were loaned during the year to the 
Biological Station, Cold Spring Harbor; Brooklyn Museum Li- 
brary; Carnegie Institution of Washington. Department of Ge- 
netics, Cold Slicing Harbor; Columbia Lniversity; Connecticut 
(Storrs) Agricultural Experiment Station; New York Municipal 
Reference Library; Rockefeller Institute, New York; Toronto 
University; and Union College of Schenectady, New York. 

Reference Work 

Our work in the library is thought of as primarily concerned 
with the staff, or with students, and yet we can trace a direct 
bearing of the Garden library on the economic life of our com- 
mercial community. As it happens, the firms asking for help this 
year were all located in Manhattan, with the exception of one pub- 
lishing house of Yonkers, N. V. Requests for assistance were 
received from a number of advertising firms, a life insurance com- 
pany, several publishing houses, book shops, a chemical corpora- 



Among individuals who received our assistance, we might men- 
tion specifically a physician who spent whole flaws in the library 
collecting data on plants that produce pollen effective in the cure 
of hay fever; a horticulturist who intends inlroduciug the man- 
gosteen into Florida; a high school teacher preparing tor his ex- 
amination as head of a department of biology. Special lists of 
books and journals were forwarded, in reply to requests, to liorti- 

but to societies and persons of other cities. 

The checking of the "Union List of Serials in the libraries of 
the United States and Canada." in order to include our holdings 
of serial and periodical titles, has been one of the important tasks 
of the year for the librarian. The list will he an invaluable tool 
when completed, for bibliographical information, for locating a 
volume one wishes to borrow, m completing broken sets, and for 
exchange purposes. While it has taken time, we feel it was 
time well spent in a co-operative library undertaking, which will 
result in knowing definitely where serial and periodical titles are 
to be located, and, in some cases, do awav with unnecessary dupli- 
cation of sets in the same locality. 

Miscellaneous 

The library was represented at the New York Library Associa- 
tion, at Lake Placid, where the librarian read a paper on Books 
and World Power; at the Pastern College Librarians' Meeting; 
the Special Library Association, and the New York Regional 
Catalogue Group. The librarian was made Chairman of the Com- 
mittee for Special Libraries, of the Xew York Catalogue Group. 

On September 23 and September 27. students from the J 'arson's 
School of Art. oi Manhattan, under the direction of their teacher, 
worked in the library drawing from a collection of colored illus- 
tration^ ol Mowers md making original d< igm v- it h the flowers 

The Library School of the Xew York Public Library made its 
annual visit on May 21. 

An exhibit of books was arranged in the library for the Con- 
temporary Club for its meeting and tea of April 1 6th. 

For list of donors and ;ifi ■ \ppendix I. 

The statistical report follows : 



STATISTICAL REPORT OX THE LIHRARY 



Purchase 
Bindery 

Total 

Total nu 



Total number of volumes in library, December 31, 1926 11,052 

Total numb 1 ol pamphlet 1 library, December 31, 1925 7,678 

Number of pamphlets added dunm; (926 6 1 7 

l"ot j I umbel 01 p.unphlt t- in bin m I '< u mh< 1 31, 1926 8,295 

Total number of volumes and pamphlets in library, December 31, 

1925 18,457 

Number of volumes and pamphlets added dm inn. 1020 . ,. Soo 

'iol;!.! number oi volumis and pamphlet- in library. December 31, 

1926 19,347 

Serials, Periodicals, and Documents 



Cataloguing 

I'.m.Is. Pamphlets, .nu) Serials catalogued 1,51; 

Total catalogue cards typewritten and filed 2,485 

Torrey Botanical Club index raids on file, December 31, 1025 34,670 

l-'iled duiniir 1926 910 

Total number of Torre}' Botanical Club index cards 011 file. December 

31. !926 3S,58o 

Index Alearum I'niversalis rank December 31, 1925 19,519 

Received during 1926 3,000 

Total, December 31, 1926 22,519 

Miscellaneous 

Attendance in library 7,145 

Books loaned to members of staff 1,301 

T.ooks loaned to otbei institutions 37 



Rcspectfullv submitted, 

Ray Si: 




Line 16 Express and Deliveries : 

Appropriation $ 300.0 

Expended $ 297.81 

Transferred to Code 1361, Line 14, Tele- 



Summary of Tax Budget Accounts : 

Appropriated $84,616.00 

Transferred, June 17, 1926, from Miscel- 
laneous, Kings County. Code 35*0, 
Kings Couni\ Fund mi Salary and 
Wage Accruals i,973-00 

Transferred, December 2, 1926, from 
Miscellaneous, New Y..rl, City, Code 
3039, City Fund for Salary and Wage 
Accruals 900.00 $87,489.00 

Expended 87,489.00 

II. Private Funds Accounts 

; Endow incut Fund C$50,500.00) Kestriclcd in Part: 
Income Account: 

Transferred to Endowment Increment Fund.. $ 555-50 
Transferred to Special Contributions 2,221.98 2,777.48 



Life Membership Fund ($5,500.00) Restricted : 
Income Account : 

Balance, January 1, 1926 $ 100.67 

Income 1926 302.48 

$ 403-15 
Expended $ 106.00 

Transferred to Endow mm: Increment I-timl.. 1,0.50 

Transferred to Annual Membership Account. 236.65 403-15 



3. George C. Brackett Library Fund ($500.00) Restricted: 

Income Account : 

Income 1026 27.48 

$ 29.38 

Expended $ 22.74 

Transferred to F.nduumrni liim-muit Fund.. 5.40 jX.jj 

Balance, December 31, 1926 $ 1.15 

4. Benjamin Stuart Gager Memorial Fund ($13,417.20) Restricted: 

Income Account : 

Income 1926 737-9-' 



Expended 



Balance, December 31, 1926 $ 657.72 

. Martha Woodward Stutzer Memorial Fund ($10,000.00) Restricted: 
Income Account : 

Balance, January 1, 1926 $ 220.00 

Income 1926 275.00 

$ 495-00 

Expended $ 403.37 

Transferred to Endowment Increment Fund.. 55.00 458.37 

Balance, December 31, 1926 $ 36.63 

, Mary Bates Spalding Fund ($2,697.00) Restricted: 

Balance, January 1, 1926 S 126.98 

Income 1926 93.32 






W. ($243,149-27) Rest 



$13,623.17 

Expended $ 235.25 

Fianst'crred to Fnd< '\\ niciii Increment Fund.. 2,564.63 
Transferred to Special 1 ontrihutions 10.423.29 13.223.17 

Balance, December 31, 1926 $ 400.00 

A. Augustus Healy Bequest (SajoS^i) Restricted: 

Balance, January 1, 1926 $ .11 

$ 538.99 
Transferred to Fndoumcni Increment Fund.. $ 107.78 
Transferred to Special Contributions 43I-2I 538-99 

$ 0.00 

Robert B. Woodward BequeM 1 .S25.000.00j Restricted: 
Income Account : 

Income 1926 $ 1,375.00 

Transferred to Kndowrncni Increment Fund.. $ 275. 00 
Transferred to Special Contributions 1,100.00 1, 375.00 

$ 0.00 

A. T. White Memorial Tablet Fund < .^.NKo.^O Restricted: 



i Endowment Increment Fund. 



inferred to Fndouiucn: Increment Fund.. $ 330.0 

isferred to Special < out nkit ion^ 1.320.O1 



xy. Botanic Garden Collections Fund, 1926. 


Rest 


icted : 








Received from Contributors 

Transferred from Special Purposes 

Expended 

Transferred to Special Contributions 




.... $ 


4.674 


$ 


6.720.36 






balance, December "H. jw.?0, . . . 




.. $ 





Balance, December 31, 1926 $ 1.86 

Special Purposes. Restricted hy terms of gifts: 

Balance, January 1, 1926 $ 1,656.97 

a. Anonymous for Japanese Garden $ 500.00 

b. Various for Test Garden for Japanese 

Iris • 305.98 

c. Anonymous Special Gift for Children's 

Work 165.00 

d. Anonymous (through Mrs. Glentworth R. 

Butler) 25.00 

e. Mrs. John R. Delafield for Lantern 

Slides 25.00 

f. Mrs. E. Root for contribution to Con- 

servation of Beauty Leaflet 1.00 

.7 Mrs. 14. !•'. Lean i<>r \- v rv ! ) 1 -, 1 r 1 i uU i ■ m ; ., m.oo [,031.98 



Transferred to Collections Fund (with consent 

Balance, December 31, 1926 $ 853.68 

. Plant Pathology Research Fund. Restricted: 

Income 1926 7,500.00 

$10,923.54 

Balance, December 31, 11)26 $ 2,591.93 

. Special Contributions (for 1926 only) : 

Transferred from Fudowment bund Income Account 2,221.98 

Transferred from Special Account W. Income Account... 10,423.29 
Transferred from A. Augustus Mealy Bequest Income 

Transferred from R. B. Woodward Bequest Income 
Account 1,100.00 

Transferred from A. T. White Memorial Tablet Fund 
Income Account 229.37 

Transferred from Brooklyn Institute Centennial Fund 
Income Account 1,320.00 

Transferred from J. D. Rockefeller, Jr. Fund Income 

Transferred from Citizens Fndnwment Fund Income 

Transferred from Collections Fund 2,051.46 

Transferred from Special bund (Inst, (ieneral bndow.) . . 2,200.00 
Transferred from Special Purposes 250.00 

Deficit, January 1, 1926 $ 2,245.21 

Expended 20.064.74 22. 300. 05 

Balance, December 31, 1026 $ 425.55 

Fudowment Increment Fund ( $32,072.04) Restricted: 

Transferred from other accounts 1926 $5.30769 

Interest 1926 1.502.83 

Transferred to Principal 6,810.52 



■ of Private Funds Accounts: 

lances. January I, 1926 $ 6,909.05 



$66,178.60 

Expended $50,229.23 

Transferred to Endowment Increment Fund 

Principal 5,307-69 55,536-92 

Balances, December 31, 1926 $10,641.68 

III. Summary of Total Maintenance Budget for 1926 

.x Budget Appropriation (57%) $87,481;. no 

ivate Funds Budget (43%) 66,178.60 

Total $153,667.60 

'sfcrrcd to Endowment Increment Fund I'rmcipal 5J"7- ; "- 



Tax Budget $70,761. 

Private Funds 22,309. 



Other than Personal Service 

Tax Budget $16,728.0 

Private Funds 27.919.2 

Total 



Balance. December 31. 1926 $ 10.641.6 

Respectfully submitted. 

Daniel C. Downs, 

Secretary and . I< cmuittiui 

Note: — The above "Financial Statement" is a transcript o 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden accounts in the books of the Treasure 

of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. The Treasurer' 

accounts are audited annually bv a Public Accountant, and 



90 

separate audit <<i tins " Financial Statement " is not made in order 
to save unnecessary expense. G. Foster Smith, 

Treasurer 

IV. For Permanent Improvements 

Appropriation oi Revenue Bunds <>t the I ity oi New York for Permanent 

R. D. P. 216-B, for Furnishing and Erecting Wrought Iron Picket Fence 

around Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

Appropriated $40,000.00 

Expended 

Independent Wire Works. Amount 01 Contract $34,440.00 

Independent Wire Works, ]' a id in excess of Con- 
tract : 1,057.67 

Independent Wire Works. Turnstiles 810.00 

Independent Wire Works, date Guards 400.00 

Paul J. Hand, Resetting Steps 750.00 

Engineer's Payroll (Department of Parks) 1.199.41 

E. G. Sollmann ( Specifications and Prints) 25.50 38,682.58 

Balance, December 31, 1926 $ 1,317.42 

Time limit for expenditure of Horn! expired December 31, 1926. 
Balance automatically rescinded In ihe Comptroller. 
Approved as correct, 

Edward S. Ryan, Chief Clerk, 

Department of I'arks, Horonvh 0} Brooklyn 



APPENDIX 1 

ENDOWMENT FUND CAMPAIGN, 192c" 

Organizing Committee 

Frank L. Babbott Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 

Frank Bailey Mrs. William H. Good 

Rev. John L. Belford Herbert F. Gunnison 

Edward C. Blum Ralph Jonas 

Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler Mrs. Elsie Calder Lee 

Rev. S. Parkes Cadman Miss Hilda Loines 

Mrs. William H. Cary Rabbi Alexander Lyons 

Judge Frederick E. Crane Edwin P. Maynard 

Mrs. Henry J. Davenport Rev. J. Howard Melish 

Mrs. William P. Earle Mrs. James L. Morgan 



Frederick B. Pratt 
William A. Putnan 
, Frederick W. Rowe 



w S. Sloan 
S. Soraers 

\ Underwood 

\"an Sinderen 
,der M. White 



Citizens' Committee for the Endowment Fund 

Alexander M. White, Chairman 
Villiam H. Cary, Secy G. Foster Smith, 



Frederick E. Crane 
Mrs. William H. Good 
Ralph Jonas 
Airs. Flsie Calder Lee 



Joseph II. Adams 
Airs. Horatio M. Adams 
Mrs. Francis O. Affeld, Jr. 
Mrs. Evelyn W. Allan 
Joseph Dana Allen 



Miss In a Clayton Atwood 
Frank L. Babbott 
Mrs. Edwin Gates Babcock 
Frank Bailey 




Irs. Glentworih R. Kutlei 
liss Mary Ellen Butteri 



Miss Caroline D. Camp 


William L. Felter 


Miss Mary Campbell 


Albert Firmin 


Harold A. Caparu 


Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 


Mrs. James Oliver Carpenter 


John W. Fraser 


Frank L. Cheek 


John W. Frothingham 


William Hamlin Childs 


Mrs. Theodore Frothingham 


Mrs. William Hamlin Childs 




Guy W. Chipman 


Miss M. Elizabeth Gair 


Miss Delia A. Clayton 


Francis D. Gallatin 


Mrs. I. Sherwood Coffin 


Miss Anna Billings Gallup 


Bird S. Coler 


Edwin L. Garvin 


William (i. Cooper 


Alexander H. Geismar 


Miss Auguste J. Cordier 


Thornton Gerrish 


William C. Courtney 


George Welling Giddings 


Mrs. Frederick L. Crantord 


Miss Anna Marie Gissel 


James J. Crawford 


Charles Goell 


Harris M. Crist 


Mrs. Otto Goetze 


Walter H. Crittenden 


William M. Good 


Fdward P. Crowell 


Charles A. Gorman 


Russell V. Cruikshank 


Richard W. Goslin 






F. P. Dalmasse 


Eugene J. Grant 


James E. Danu 


Miss Temperance Gray 


Charles R. Davenport 


William M. Greve 


Mrs. Henry B. Davenport 


Joseph A. Guider 


Mrs. Henry J. Davenport 


Herbert F. Gunnison 


H. Becckman Delatour 




John H. Denbigh 


Walter Hammitt 


Jacob G. Dettmer 


Mrs. Theodore Martin Hardy 




John X. Harman 


Mrs. H. Edward Dreier 


C. L. Harold 


George Dressier 


Reginald G. Harris 


James A. Dunne 


Miss Mary K. Hawxhurst 


Guy DuVal 


George L. Hentz 


Jackson A. Dykman 


St. Clair Hestcr 




George Hewlett 


Mrs. William P. Earle, Jr. 


Henry Hicks 


Mrs. William F. Eastman 


Mrs. Charles M. Fliggins 


Harry M. Edwards 


Tracy Higgins 


Miss Fmma Filers 


William B. Hill 


Mrs. E. Irving Eldrcdge, Jr. 


Mrs. James M. Hills 




Mrs. John Hills 




George S. Horton 


Frank K. Fairchild 


Arthur M. Howe 



Airs. Clarence R. Hyde 
Mrs. Charles W. Ide 
Raymond V. Ingersoll 
Miss Grace lngraham 
Mrs. Henry A. lngraham 
W.lliam S. Irish 
Walter II. Jaycox 
Alfred W. Jenkins 
Frank D. Jennings 
Mrs. Emma L. Johnston 
Nathan S. Jonas 
Air- Martin joost 

H. V. Kaltenborn 

Miss Martha A. Kane 

Mrs. Kathleen M. Kennedy 

William Kennedy, Jr. 

Mrs. Humphrey J. Kiely 

Mrs. Edward V. Killeen 

Albert King 

Miss Beatrice Presswood King 

Mrs. Francis King 

W.lliam B. Klein 

Walter Kraslow 

Ferdinand W. Lafrentz 
Mrs. John H. Lathrop 
A I met Reed 1 .at son 
Mrs. John E. Leech 
Julius Lehrcnkrauss 
A. Lyle Lever ich 
X'athaniel H. Levi 
M. T. Lewis 
Mrs. Nelson P. Lewis 
Mrs. L. Seton Lindsay 
I hvight R. Little 
Jacob A. Livingston 
William H. Lohman 
Benjamin R. C. Low 
J. Flerbert Low 
Frank Lyman 
Alexander Lyons 
Edward Lyons 



Airs. St. Clair McKeluay 
Scott McLanahan 
A. G. Ale Laugh 1 in 
Henry MacKay 
Alexander Mackintosh 
Mrs. Delmer Martin 
Albert L. Mason 
Edwin P. Maynard 
Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard 
Richard S. Maynard 
D. Irving Mead 
Samuel M. Meeker 
J. Howard Melish 



Henry C. Needham 
Benjamin H. Namm 
Carroll Leja Nichols 
\li- Lucille Nicol 
Mrs. Charles D. Norton 
Airs. Henry F. Noyes 

William G. O'Brien 

Clifford E. Paige 
Airs. John W. Paris 

Charle> Partridge 

Bayard L. Peck 

Fremont C. Peck 

Airs. Wheeler H. Peckhan 

Frederick S. Pendleton 

Aliss Elizabeth H. Perry 

Airs. W. Sterling Peters 

Nathan Peyser 

Miss Anna J. Pierrepont 

Miss Julia J. Pierrepont 



H. Rolff 



William A. Pothier 


Linford S. Stiles 


Charles E. Potts 


Miss Bertha Stockwell 


Lewis H. Pounds 


Miss Elizabeth C. Stoughton 


(Jorge T. Powell 


Hugh Grant Straus 


II. Starr Prince 


Herman Stutzer 


Michael I. Pupin 


M II Stutze 


i larrington Putnam 


Andrew T. Sullivan 


Airs. William A. Putnam 


Mrs. h.ugene L. Swan 


Miss Frances M. Quinlan 


Franklin Taylor 




Mrs. John Van Bium Thayer 


\\ illiam M. Eainey 


Charles Tisch 


Miss L. E. Rector 


Alexander B. Trowbridge 


William C. Redfield 


Walter Truslow 


T. Schenck Remsen 


Mrs. Walter Truslow 


Thomas J. Riley 


Mrs. Stanley S. Tumbridge 




Henry Chandlee Turner 


Im.mI, ■nek W. Rowe 


Winthrop M. Tuttle 


Mrs. Frederick W. Rowe 




Mrs. Isaac Franklin Russell 


John T. Underwood 




Mrs. John T. Underwood 


Einan Schatvet 




1 lenry W. Schloss 


Jeremiah R. Van Brunt 


( .11 1 J. Schumann 


Adrian VanSindereu 


Robert All red Shaw 


Arthur E. Wakeman 


Charles S. Shepard 




Mrs. Edgar S. Shumway 


Mrs. Edwin C. Ward 


Mrs. V. G. Simkhovitch 


Edwin G. Warner 


Edward A. Simmons 


Harry W. Wastie 


Gov. Alfred E. Smith 


Mrs. Alexander M. White 


George William Smith 


Miss Harriet H. White 


Mrs. Hugh M. Smith 


W. Wirt Wickes 


James A. Smith 


Timothy S. Williams 


Frank L. Sniffen 


John D. Wilson 



Edward H. Squibb 

Meier Stembrink 
Mrs. Seth Thayer Stew 



Contributors to the Citizens Endowment Fund 



Aalholm, Miss Mati! 
Ackerman, Mrs. Ann 
Adams. Henry Slier 



Adams, Mrs. Horatio M. 
Afield. Mrs. F. O. 
Agricnla Editorial Board 



Vhearn, Mrs. Katherine 


Blake, M 


Utgeld, Laura 


Blanke, I 


Utmuller, Miss Helen K. 


Blankley, 


Anderson, Mr. and Mrs. John 


Blodgett, 






Andrews', William A. 




Anderson, Miss Emily V. 


Bobo, M 


\i -11 Ylb [dr. A! 


Boody, E 


Citbonv, Miss Julia B. 


Bossert, '. 



Austin, Mr. and Mrs. Dwight Ed- 
wards 

Babbott, Frank L. 

Babbott, Dr. and Mrs. Frank Lusk, 

Jr. 
Backus, Raymond B. 
Bailey, Mrs. Albert W. 
Baker, Miss Lillian K. 



Bartlett, Miss Millie H. 

Bartley, Dr. S. Potter 

Barton. Capt. and Mrs. LeRoy 

Bassett, F. T. 

Bayside (Long Island) Study Club 

Ri ;n dslev. t . K 

Becker, Miss Johanna 

Bears, E. LeGrand 

Rehr, Edward A. 

Behr, Mr. and Mrs. Edward A. 

Behr. Mrs. Emma J. 

Behnsch Mi and Mrs. Gabriel 1 

Bellman, J. J. 

Benedict. Walter St. J. 

Benson, Philip A. 

Berg, Rev. J. Frederick 

Betts, Dorothy L. 

Birdsall, Mrs. Lucille Dens 
Black, Mrs. Loring M., Jr. 

Blackmail, Mr. and Mrs. Edward. 



H n.I (,ul- ( Inb Rn„,kl,p I'., 

tanic Garden 
Boys and Girls Club, Brooklyn Bo 

tanic Garden, Former Members 
Bostwick, Miss Helen M. 
Bradley, Miss Rose 
Bradshavv, Edward D. 
Braman. Miss Irene M. 
Braman, Miss Mary L. 
lit id !■«. Miss Anna 
Bright, Mr. and Mrs. Arthus Davi: 
Brmsn.ade. Miss Alice 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 

Sciences, Department of Roiany 
Brooklyn Woman's Club 



Srowr 


i. Mr; 


i, George Stewat 




i. Mis 






i, Mr. 


and Mrs. Rosco 




. Mrs. 


. Armin E. 


I rush, 


Miss 


G. L. 




:, Mis 


,s Helen W. 




r, \Ji. 


5. Paul 


urlii '.ham. 


Miss Gertrude 



( [Id,.-,,, M ,ud \I, , 
Camp, Miss Car, dine I: 
Campbell, Mrs. Marie '. 
Campbell, Miss Mary 



Caparn, Harold . 



Carpenter, Mrs. James 0. 


Lillian 


Gary, Isaac H. 


Davenport, Mrs. Henry J. 


Gary, Mrs. Win. H. 


Davenport, Mrs. William B. 


Casamajor, Mrs. Louise J. 


Davis. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas 


Chapman, Mrs. John W. 


Davis. William T. 


Chapman Miss Mary W. 


Davison, Mr. and Mrs. 


Chase, A. B. 


Millard 


Cheek' Frank L. 


Davol, Mrs, Frank H. 


Chodes, Dr. Maxwell P. 


DavoL Miss Harriet 


Christianson, Miss Edith 11. 


Dean, Miss Florence M. 


Chubb, Percy 


DeForest, Robert W. 


Civitas Club of Brooklyn 


de Goyler, A. G. 


t 'lark, Mr. and M rs. Frederick Am 


I)e Land, Miss Evaline 


brose 


Delaneld, Mrs. John R. 


Clark, Mrs. John Biddle 


Denbigh, Miss Helen 


Clarke, Teresa A. 


Denbigh. John H. 


Clayton, Delia A. 


Despard, Miss M. II. 


Cochran, Alfred 


Dettmer, Jacob G. 


Coffin, Mrs. I. Sherwood 




Collins, Mr. and Mrs. D. M. 


De Zouche, Mrs. W. A. 


Collins, Miss Sarah E. 


Dickerson, Miss 1 lelen M. 


Colycr, Mrs. Joseph, Jr. 


Dickey, Miss Annie Louise 


( oniptnn, Miss 1 )oroth\ 


Dietrich, Miss Bertha K. 


Conard, Miss Edith N. 




Cooke, Mrs. John T. 


Ditmas, C. A. 




Dodenhoff, June Naomi 


Courtney, Wm. C. 


Doody, Miss Bessie 


Doman, Mrs. Samuel II. 


( outts. Mrs. George 1 1. 


Domain, Wm. E. 


Crane, Mr. and Mrs. Alden Seabury 


Doran, Charles S. 


Doscher, Miss Ida L. 


Dow, Mrs. Frank L. 
Dreier, Mr. and Mrs. H. 1 


Crary, Mr. and Mrs. James Howell 


Dugan Bros., Inc. 
DuVal, Guv 



Godil 



Flore 



Fr.-elbanlt. Mr. George P. 

Ericson, Charles 

Fricson. Mrs. II. Wilhemin 



Paris, Estate of William ]). 
Farley, R. H. 
Fawcett, Judge Lewis L. 
Fellows, Miss Sarah K. 
Felter, Dr. William L. 
Ferrel, Ralph W. 
Field, Mrs. W. D. C. 
Firmin, Albert 

Foulk, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. P 
Francis, Mrs. Lewis W. 
Frank. Mrs. George S. 
Fransioli, Miss Josephine 
Fraser, Arthur C. 
Frederickson, Mrs. Alice S. 
Freeberg, Miss Sigrid 
French. Dr. Thos. R. 
Friedman, Miss Edith 
Frost, John W. 
Frothingham, Miss E. W. 
Frothingham, Mrs. J. S. 
Frothingham, John W. 
Frothingham, Mrs. Theodore 
Fuhs. Dr. Jacob 



Goell, Jacob 
Goetze, Miss E. H. 
(ioetze, Mrs. Otto 
Goldborg, Mrs. Gcrli ml. 
G.mmHl. Miss Helen C. 



Good, Mrs. Willi; 
Goodman, Joseph 
Gould, Edwin 
Graeber, Geneviev' 



Gravenhorst, C. F. 

Graves, Robert N. 
Greenberg, Charles 



Haddock. Charles H. 



H. 



Hah 



. E. C. 



Hall. James L. 
Halpin. Miss Ella T. 
Halstead, Mrs. J. Mori 
i larruucr-sley. Mr-*, 
Hammitt Walter 



1 Fin 



Ai.iU! 



Hardy, Ruth G. 

i larman, Mrs. ( ieorge 1 I. 

Harris, Dr. Ishara G. 

Harrison, Miss Katharine 

Hart, Miss Adelaide P. 

Hart, Miss Ellen M. 

Hart, Roy M. 

Hatheway, Dean 

1 latheway. Mr. and Mrs. 1 

Hayes, Frank S. 

Mealy. Mrs. A. Augustus 

Hegeman, M. Stewart 

Heissenbuttel, Miss Minna 



Hellii 



Willi,, 



Hewitt, Miss Judith 
Heyson, Mrs. Harry C. 
"I liggins, Cliarlch M. 



Higgins, Mrs. Charles M. 


Johnson. Mrs. C. 


Higgins, Tracy 


Jonas, Nathan S. 


Jlildcbrant, Miss E. 


Jonas, Ralph 


Hill, Miss Julia 


Joost, Mrs. Martin 


Hills, Mrs. John 


Jourdan, James H. 


Hills, Mr. and Mrs. James M. 


Judd, Orrin R. 


Himmelman, Miss Mary B. 




Hodgdon, Miss Katherine I. 


Kay, Miss Lillian S. 


Hogg, Miss Elizabeth 


Kennedy, William, Jr. 


Holmns, Miss May E. 


Kenney, Miss Marie P.. 


Holtzoff, Mr. L. S. 


Kcnworth, Theodore H. 


Hooker, Dr. and Mrs. Samuel 


King, F. T. 


Hottinger, Mr. and Mrs. Henry 


Kirschner, Joseph 


Howell, Miss Grace C. 


Kn.. lilie, Miss Katharine 


Hubbard, Miss H. F. 


Knox. Mrs. John Masoi 


Hubbard, Dr. and Mrs. Wm. S. 


Koehler, Miss Elizabeth 


Hughes, Miss Mary F. 


Kraslow, Walter 


Huncke Chemical Co., The Max 


Kunreuthcr. Mrs. Hattie 



Hustcd, Miss Harriet F. 


Lane, Miss Ella M. 


Hyde, Mrs. Clarence R. 


Lanman, David H. 




Latimer, Miss Julia W 


i ' \l'" i 1 


Latimer, Miss Mary 


Tngersoll, Mrs. Raymond V. 


Latson, Mr. and Mrs. 


Ingraham, Edward A. 
Ingraham, Mrs. H. C. M. 


Lawson, James S. 


Lebowitz, Morris 
LeBrun, Mrs. Pierre L 


Lee, Dr. Marguerite T 
. Lee, Miss Mary 


Leech, Mrs. John E. 


Irish. William S. 


Lehrenkrauss, Julius 


Levi, Nathaniel H. 


James, Wm. L. 


Levin, Misses 


Jameson, Mrs. P. C. 


Lewis, Mrs. LeRoy T. 


Janeway, Mrs. Edward G. 


Lewis. Mrs. Nelson P. 


Jansen, Miss Dora 


Garden Teachers Assoc 


Jaycox, Walter H. 


Brooklyn Botanic Gc 


Jenkins, Alfred W. 


Lignante, Eugene E. 


Jenks, Mr. Frank 




Jennings, Miss Bessie 




Jennings, Dr. Frank D. 


Loines! Miss Hilda 


Jessup. Mrs. Benj. A. 


Loines, Mrs. Stephen 


Jewett, Wm. A.M.D. 


Loomis, Miss Label 



Low, Mrs. Chann 



Lowell, Sidney V. 



Lyman, Frank 

MeCooey, Miss Margaret 
McCormick, John 
McCormick, John, Jr. 
McCrory, Miss Elizabeth 
McDonald, Mr. & Mrs. Willi 
Mr Kinney. John J. 
McLaughlin, Judge A. G. 
McCulloch. Frank H. 
MacKay, Mrs. Frederick D. 
Mackay, Henry 
Mackintosh, Alexander 
Macrum, Edward'K. 
Mahoney, Edmund 
Mahoney, Miss Elizabeth 
Maisel, Miss Lydia 
Marks. Mrs. Alexander I). 
Marshall, Mrs. Wm. W. 
Marsland, Mrs. Grace E. 



Maxwell. Earl C. 
Maynard, E. P. 
Maynard, Mrs. W. E. 
Mead. Miss Alice 
Mead. Miss E. L. 
Mead, D. Irving 
Mead Miss Hannah 



\1«.t1 



Edw. E. 

Dr. and Mrs. W. 
[, Mrs. Nicholas K 
rg, Miss Evelyn A. 



Moriarty, Mrs. A. B. 

Morrow, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas 

Morse. Miss Alice L. 

Mc>r>e, Dorace J. 

Moss, Louis J. 

Mount, Mr. and Mrs. Chas. K. 

Muller, Adolf 

Muller, Miss Josephine 

Munekwitz, Miss Winifred 

Munson, Miss Louise M. 

Murick. Miss Helen D. 

Xeedham. Henry C. 

Nesmith, Miss Charlotte 

Norcom, Dr. and Mrs. C. M. 

Norton, Mrs. Charles D. 



Noyes, Mrs. Henry F. 

Oakes, Miss Fannie 
O'Brien, William G. 
Oleott, Miss Martha W. 

i Jlilenliuttel, Chas. 
Orlingcr, Miss Esther 
Osborne, Mr. and Mrs. 1 
Palmer. Mr. and Mrs. El 
Pardons. Mrs. Frank H. 



Mrs. 



W. 



Parker, Mrs. Clinton B. 
Pashley. Mrs. Chas. L. 
Pashley, Mrs. I. P. 
Patterson. Miss M. L. 
Peck, Bayard L. 
Peck. Fremont C. 
Perkhain. Mrs. WheeVr 



P. in 



:s, Mrs. W. Sterl 
ips, A. M. 
Miss May L. 



i'lump, Miss Julia H. 
Polivnick, Isidor 
Poncake, Mr. and Mrs. C. O. 
Pond, Miss P. F. 
Popper, Mrs. William C. 
Post, Mr. and Mrs. James H. 
Potter, Miss Marianna S. 
I '..Iter. Mrs. R. B. 
Potts, Charles E. 

Abram J. 

Mrs. Chas. H. 

Mr. Charles M. 

Mrs. Frederic B. 



H. Starr 
r, Ella W. 
r, Mrs. R. W. 
t, Miss Eva 

Purdy, Miss M. 

Putnam, Wm. A. 

Putnam, Mrs. Willia 



RafUTv, Miss Clara Scheuck, Willanl I'. 

Raiman. Mr. Insall SchilT. MmhImut I 



Bertha M. 



Schools and School Organizations i 
Brooklyn City 1 raining School I< 
Brooklyn Teachers' Association 
Erasmus Hall High School, 

Department of Biology, Teach< 
Girls' Commercial High School, 
Girls' High School, Loyal League 



Public School No. 



P. S. 173 

P. S. 177 
2, Teachers 

8. Principal and Teaehe 
-) 1 i nil ipal ,iik| ! ( achei 
i. Principal, Teachers a, 



83, Teacher. 
85, Teachers ; 
99, Pupils 



Taylor, Wm. M. 

Taylor, Miss Vctietia 
Thayer, Mrs. J. Van Burei 
Thirkield, Gilbert H. 
Thninmen, Dr. August A. 
Thorn, Miss Mathilda K. 
Tisch, Charles 






Siii.ih. 


Miss M. 


Helet 


Smith! 


Miss Ol.v 


e K. 


Smythe, Benjamii 


n E. 




,. Mrs. Da 


niel M 




s, Harold 




Son field, Chas. 




Southv 


veil, Miss 





ridge, Mrs. Stank 

Winthrop M. 
lell, Herbert K. 



, John T. 



Walter, Miss Cora : 



T. W. 



Ward, Mrs. Edwin C. 
Warfield, Harry E. 
Warner, Mr. and Mrs. 
Warner, Miss Ethel J. 
Warner, Walter E. 
Warren, Miss Eliza H 



Weber, Robert 
Week, Mrs. Edward 
Weekes. Miss Ethel A. 
Wells, Mrs. Walter F. 
Westbrook, Dr. & Mrs. Richard ^ 
White, Alexander M. 
Whin-. Harold T. 






Whit 



Wil 



w. o. 



Wing, Beulah A. 
Winkler, Harry 
Winter, Thos. W., 
Wintringham, Will 
Woodward, Miss IV 
Worthington, Miss 

Young, Miss A. 



M. 



Zundel, Robert W. 



APPENDIX 2 

GIFTS RECEIVED DURING 1926 
Colic 



[rs. 


John R. 


Dela 


ifield 


Irs. 




Spaldinu 


Irs. 


J. H. P 

k Bailey 








C. Julie 


1 Hi 




IJSS 


Harriet 


H. 


W'hi 



Fund 



hrank L. Babbott 
Girl Scouts through Mrs. 
Tomes for Memorial Tre 



Am 


crican Rose Society 


, 2 Roses. 


Mr- 


;. E. G. Birdsall, 10 


Sarracenia purp; 


Mr! 


;. J. Bramin, i Iris. 






cau of Plant Indus 


try, 25 Amarylli 


W. 


Atlcc Burpee Co., ] 


2 varieties of Ir 




s Kdna Carpenter, i 


Tilhiiidsia usriu 


Prof. W. P. Cottany, 


[ /holla carolinh 


Mr: 


5 . J. R. Delafield, 1 


Acacia alt a. 




. Henry A. Drecr, 1 






H. Durand, 1 Fen 




Eastern Nurseries, He, 


hvingia japonica, 




plants. 





104 

Mr. Edwin Gould, i Cycas revoluta. 

Mr. Theo. J. ( iraebner, i 1'olypodium, i /'Ini/opteris. 
Prof. H. M. Hall, i Frankenia (/randifolia, 
Mrs. George H. llarman, 6 Rattlesnake Plantain. 
Mr. L. W. Hitchcock, i Iris. 
Mr. C. W. Johnson, 2 Polygala. 

Mr. G. E. Nichols, 6 Clumps Iris lacitstris, u Anemone muUifun 
Mrs. E. A. S. Peckham, i Bearded Iris, Princess Beatrice. 
Mr. Edward M. Powers, i Aloe, i Scdum. 
.Miss Grace Sturtevant, i Iris. 

Miss Venetia Taylor, i Linaria canadensis, 3 Arisaewa tripJiyllu. 
Miss Maude E. Voris, i Lilimn elegans. 

Mr. Robert Wayman. 25; plants of ioo varieties ( ,f tall bearded i 
and 1926). 

Seeds 
Dr. W. W. Ashe (i) Mrs. F. L. Dow (5) 

Mrs. George S. Brown (30) Mr. Robert B. Job (1) 

Airs, G. R. Butler (1) Airs. C. S. Lewis (3) 

Mr. P. Cantor (9) Mr. A. L. Poessel (2) 

Mr. Willard N. Clute (1) Mr. R. Williams (7) 

Phanerogamic Herbarium 

Dr. Ploward J. Banker, 

Children's Museum, Brooklyn, 
-Miss Prances C. Fisbeck, 

Mr. Frank H. Henry, 

1 Redwood burr. 
Mr. E. S. Miller, 

345 specimens from Wading River, N. Y. 
Miss B. Underwood, 

53 pressed flowers, moss, and seaweed from Alaska 
Miss Ethel V. Woodward, 

.} specimens imni Lo> Angeles. California. 



Cryptogamic Herbar 



Iris Project 

Special Fund 



(Exclusive of U. S. Govemmen 

( arnegie Institution m \\ i ImiikI.hi Wa hin U>i 
Mis John Ross I elaficld, i I ;<)th Street, \\m 

Fairchild Sons, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y 

Mrs. Maude Hickok Free. Brooklyn, N. Y 

Mr. Montague Free, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, Brooklyn, N. Y.... 

Dr. A. H. Graves, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Dr. Fortunato L. Herrera, Cuzco, Peru.. 

Dr. S. Nawashin, Kiev, Russia 

Miss Maud E. Purdy, Brooklyn, N. Y.... 
Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Miss Ray Simpson. Brooklyn. X. Y 

Mr. Norman Taylor, Brooklyn, N. Y.... 

Miss Caroline E. Ward. 41 5 Beacon Street, Boston. M; 

Miss Harriet H. White. Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Mr. Robert W. As 
Dr. Harry S. Bern 
Dr. J. W. Bews, / 



it. Ikist Molesey, Surrey, Engk 
. Georgetown University, Washi 

istrong College. Newcastle -upon 



106 

Prof. N. Borodin, Brooklyn .Museum. Brooklyn, X. Y 

Prof. F. O. Bower, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland 

Brooklyn Museum Library. Brooklyn, N. Y 

Carnegie Institution of Washington. Department of Genetics, Cold 

Spring Harbor, Long Island 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C 

Prof. Henry H. Dixon, School of Botany, Trinity College. Dublin, 

Dr. O. A. Farwell, Detroit. Michigan 

Mr. Charles Frankenbergcr, 1J13 Bedford Avenue. Brooklyn, N. V 

M r. Montague Free. Brooklyn, X. Y 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, Brooklyn, X. Y 

Dr. A. Gundersen, Brooklyn. X. Y 

Dr. R. T. Gunther, Oxford, England 

[b.ri, cultural Society of New York, 598 Madison Avenue. N. Y. C 

Dr. Charles Janet, Paris, France 

Dr. Aniela Kozlowska, Krakow, Poland 

Dr. Beatrice Lee, Botany Department, University of Leeds, Deeds, 

England 

McGill University. Department of Botany, Montreal, Canada 

Dr. Koki Masui. College of Science, Kyoto Imperial University, Kyoto, 

Japan 

Moscow Societe des Amis des Sciences Naturelles. dAnthi opologie 
et d'Ethnographie 

National Research Council, Washington, D. C 

Dr. M. Nawashin, Kiev, Russia 

Dr. S. Nawashin, Kiev, Russia 

Dr. Alvar Palmgren, Andregatau, 10, I lelsingi'ors. Finland 

Dr. J. H. Priestley. Botany Department, University of Leeds, Leeds, 
England 

Dr. Francis Kamalay. Boulder, Colorado 

Dr. Lucien Reychler. Sainl-Xicholas ( Waes ) . Belgium 

Dr. E. Rhodes, Botany Department, University of Leeds, Leeds, Eng- 

Mr. Lars-Gunnar Romell, Braliegatan 51, Stockholm, Sweden 

Mis-. I\a\ Simpson. Brooklyn, N. Y 

Mr. Henry M. Steece, Department of Agricultui c. Washington, D. C. . . 

Dr. Dezydery Szymkiewicz, Warsaw, Poland 

Mr. Norman Taylor, Brooklyn, X. Y 

Wild Flower Preservation Society, Washington, D. C 

Total o 



Bl-OMkly 



Canadian Arctic Expedition, ( Utawa. Canada 

Carnegie Institution of Washington. Washington. D. C 

City Gardens Club. New York 

Colorado State Medical Society, Denver, Colorado 

Mr. Montague Free, Brooklyn, N. Y '. 

Di - .in Gager, In ,< klyn " ^ 

Garden Club of America, New York City 

Dr. Arthur H. Graves, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Mrs. Helen Smith Hill, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Horticultural Society oi "Vow York 

Mrs. Clarence R. Hyde, 242 Henry Street, Brooklyn. N. Y 

National Plant, Flower and Fruit Guild, New York 

New York Academy of Sciences, New York 

New York Association of Biology Teachers. New York 

New York City Department of Health 

New York Public Library, Slavonic Division, New York 

Miss Ann Ohlander, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Dr. W. A. Orton, 'Conical Plant Research Foundation, Washingt( 

D. C 

Pratt Institute Free Library. Brooklyn, N. Y 

Dr. C. S. Sargent, Jamaica Plain, Boston, Massachusetts 

School Garden Association of New York. 

Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Mrs. Annie Morrill Smith, Bronxville, N. Y 

Dr. 0. E. White," Brooklyn, N. Y 

Wild Flower Preservation Society. ( incinnati. Ohio 

Woman's National .Farm Y Garden .■Vv-.i.ciarion, You York 

Total 

Dr. C. Stuart Gager, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Dr A. C. Seward. Downing Clk-ge. ( 'aiiihridge. I'm gland 



Total 



For the Department of Elementary Instruction 

Mrs. Glentworth R., One prize cup to be competed for by tl 
f the 1926 outdoor garden. 
d, Mrs. John R., $25 for the children's work, 
r. Jacob, 80 specimens of mollis and hutterilies. 
Miss Alice, Flower books as prizes for excellent work in i. 



108 

Flatbush Garden League (through Mrs. E. L. Carson), Prize books on 
.Hardening to be competed tor in the outdoor garden. 

Garden Teachers' Association, One prize cup to he competed for by the 
boys of the outdoor garden. 

Gunnison, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert F., $15 in memory of Dr. Glentworth R. 
Butler, for the children's library. 

Hyde. Mrs. Clarence E.. Cacao pods; twigs and leaves of tropical plants. 

Hyde, Mrs. Clarence R„ Subscription to the Nature Magazine for the chil- 
dren's library. 

Kline, Miss Isabell, A picture of Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler taken in the 
Holy Land. 

be Conte, Miss Caroline. Bulbs of Jonquils for the children's garden. 

Oppenheim, Mrs. E. C, $10 for the children's library. 

Post, Mrs. James H., $150 for the children's garden house. 

Pratt, Mr. Abram. $5 for the children's room. 

Curdy, Miss Maud 11., One book for the children's library. 

Shaw, Miss Ellen Eddy. Cue book for the children's library- 
Shaw, Miss Ellen Eddy. Two gold honor pins for honorable service in 
the 1926 outdoor garden. 

Simpson, Miss Ray, One book for the children's library. 

White, Miss Harriet H„ $25 for slides. 

Woodward, Miss Ethel V., $5 for the children's room. 

Spring Inspection 

(Gifts from the Woman's Auxiliary and from individual 

members) 

Mrs. John E. Leech, 1 Samovar. 

Miss Frances E. White, 1 Samovar, 1 Samovar tray, and 1,000 Sandwiches. 

Anom minis ( several donors) : 

I Samovar tray, ,? Old Russian basins, 2 Aluminum pitchers, 6 Large 
dinner trays, (i Lemon forks, 24 do/en teaspoon^, o Rapier mache 

Total value of above gifts $165.84 

The Woman's Auxiliary (For expenses of the Inspection) 121.80 

Miscellaneous 



Mr. William T. Davis. 

Japanese Praying Manti 

specimens (male and 

Mrs. William Sterling Petei 



APPENDIX 



PUBLICATIONS OF MEMBERS OF STAFF 
DURING J926 
Benedict, Ralph C. 

— New plant conservation laws. . lincricau fern Journal 16: 

59. April-June. 

■■-— Savins"' the Hart's Tongue. American fern Journal 16: 
33"44- April-June. 

Free, Montague 

• Clcrodcudron triehohnmiin— -Is It Hardy? florists Ex- 
change 63: 917. 020. November. 

- - Fifteenth \nnnal Report of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

Report of the Horticulturist. Brooklyn Dot. Gard. Rec. 
15:88-91. April. 
House Plants. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Leaflets XIV 1 . 

" Naturalized " Bulbs. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Leaflets 

XIV 2 . April 21. 
Gager, C. Stuart 

- - Fifteenth Animal Report of the Brooklyn I'.otanic Garden, 
1925. Report of the Director. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. 
Rec. 15: 23-55. April. 

■ ■ A laboratory guide for general botany. Third edition. 

Pp. x + 205. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 
July. 
- General bnlanv: with special reference to its economic as- 
pects. Pp. xvi -f 1056. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co. September. 



Graves, Arthur Harmount 

■ The present continued development of basal shoots from 

blighted chestnut trees. Science N.S. 63: 164-165. 
February 5. 

■ An unusual insect gall on scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea 

Muench). Torrcya 26 : 1-2. February. 

Report of work in forest pathology for 1205. Brooklyn 

Bot. Card. Rcc. 15: 58-60. April. 

Report of the Curator of Public Instruction for 1925. 

Brooklyn Bot. Card. Rcc. 15: 67-70. April. 

The cause of the persistent development of basal shoots 

from blighted chestnut trees. Phytopath. 16: 615-621. 
September. 

Forms and functions of leaves. Brooklyn Bot. Card. 

Leaflets 14 s1 - 10 : 1-8. November. 

■ 72 newspaper articles relating to the Brooklyn Botanic 

Garden. 
— 3 abstracts of botanical books and papers in Botanical Ab- 
stracts, Vol. 14, and in Biological Abstracts, Vol. r. 

Gundersen, Alfred 

Seed List. Brooklyn Botanic Garden Rcc. 15: January 

(with M. Free). 

International Seed Kxchange. Communication Xo. 7, Mav 

(with C. S. Gager). 

The Classification of Dicotyledons. (Book Review.) 

Torrcya 26: 70-75. (July-August.) 

The Need of an Enlarged List of Botanical Nomina C011- 

servanda. Science 64: 182-183. August. 
Kiernan, Francis P., and Orland E. White 

Color inheritance in four o'clocks. Jour. Heredity 17: 

383-386. October. 

Peck, Mary Ellen 

Twenty seven abstracts of scientific papers relating to plant- 
breeding, heredity, and evolution. Botanical Abstracts 
(Genetics Section). Vol. XV. 



Shaw, Ellen Eddy 

New Year's greetings. Natl. Plant, flower and Fruit 

Guild Mag. 15: I. January. 

All year round program for (mild workers. Natl. Plant, 

Plowrr and Fruii Guild Ma,/. 15: 1. |;mu;irv. 
• A school of nuts — How coco;muts arc gilhered. Junior 

Home Mag. 7:1. January. 
Some requisites necessary for success in business life. 

Woman's Page, FnxdJyn Daily liagle. January. 

The soil. Natl. Plant. Flower and Frail Guild Mag. 15: 

2. March. 

Report of the Curator <-i elementary Instruction. Brook- 

lyn Hot. Card. Rec. 15: 70-75. April. 

The school garden in child life, Muierieau Childhood 

11:8. April. 

Garden clubs. Natl. Plant. Flower and Fruit Guild Mag. 

15: 5- May. 

- ■- - Al\ skipping n>pe--The story of sisal and Mauiki liber. 

Junior Home Mag. 7:5. May. 
The chocolate tree's nurse — The story of the banana. 

Junior I ionic Mag. 7: 7. July. 
Simpson, Ray 
Report of the Librarian for tn.25. Brooklyn Bot. Card. 

Fee. 15: 76-80. April. 
Taylor, Norman 

Plant life on East Anglian heaths. Ecology 7: in. 

Crier's Notes on the flora of Pong Island. Fhodora 27: 

2 1 3-2 [5. February. 

The sun, the wind, and the gardener. Garden Magazine 

42 : 426. February. 

Mrs. Walcott's " North American Wild Flowers." Satur- 

day Review of Literature. April. 

Report of the Curator of Plants and Plantations for 1925. 

Brooklyn Bot. Card. Rec. 15: 81-83. April. 

Notes on' the plant life of the DuVal Trail from Brandon, 

Vermont, to the Long Trad on the Green Mountains. 
1-8. Green Mountain Club. June. 



Life. P. F. Collie 

White, Orland E. 

— Geographical distribution and the cold-resisting character 

of certain herbaceous p< •ichukiI rind woody plant groups. 
Brooklyn h'ol. Card. Rcc. 15: T-10. January. 
— ■ The Amazon valley. Pp. 674-681. In "The Naturalist's 
Guide to the Americas," published under the auspices of 
The Ecological Society of America by Williams & 
AYilkins Co., Paltimore. February. 

— Report of the Curator of Plant Breeding and Economic 

Plants for i(j2> Brooklyn Hot. Card. Rcc. 15: 87. 
April. 

— Environment, variation, and the laws of heredity. Brook- 

lyn Hot. Card. Leaflets XIV''. May. 

The forests of the Rio P.eni Basin of Bolivia. Cornell 

Forester 6: 16-20. May. 

■ • Peas and people. Brooklyn Hot. Card. Rcc. 15: 141-148. 

July. 
II credit) and variation 111 plants. Three chapter^, pp. 0,^5 
iooo, in "General Botany" by C. Stuart Gager. P. 
Blakiston's Son & Co., Philadelphia. September. 

— The ways of plants. Brooklyn Hot. Card. Leaflets XIV 7 \ 

October. 

The origin In mutation of different 

the same plant species. (Abstract. ) Anato 
34: 176. December. 

— Twelve abstracts of scientific papers and books 

plant breeding, heredity, and evolution. But 
straets (Genetics Section). Vol. XV. 



Orland E. and Dorothy I. Neff 






fhe genetic analysis of peas (PisumJ. 


Genetics 


and Plant 


Breeding. Reports on Research fe 


■r 1925. 


Brooklyn 



APPENDIX 4 

TALKS, PUBLIC LECTURES. ADDRESSES. AND 
PAPERS GIVEN BY MEMBERS OF STAFF 
DURING 1926 
By the Director of the Garden : 

April 15. .Iddrcss of Welcome, to The Contemporary Club 
and Brooklyn Art League. I Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

April 23. The Conservation of Wild Flowers. Assembly of 
Bay Ridge High School. Brooklyn. 

April 27. Brooklyn and the Brooklyn Botanic Harden. News- 
paper Men's Luncheon. I hunilton Club. 

May t. The Importance of Trees. Brooklyn Children's Mu- 
seum. Fxercises at the planting of two copper beeches in 
memory of Miss Margaret Wilson Carmichael and Miss 
Marguerite Mayer. 

Mav i- Xcw Vork's Biggest Flower Harden. (The Brooklyn 
' Botanic Garden.) Broadcast Talk. Station WNYC. 

May 3. Evolution Nozv and Then, (The Recent Evolution 
Controversy: an Historical Comparison.) Winter's Night 
( Tib. Brookh 11 Botanic Garden. 

June 4. What is a botanic garden/ Noting People's League, 
Protestant Dutch Reformed Church, Flatbush. 

November 13. Conservation work of the Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden, New York Bird and Tree Club, Hotel Roosevelt, 
New York City. 
By the Curator of Elementary Instruction: 

January 7. Children's Work at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 
St. Bartholomew's Community House. 

April 26. Little gardens. P. S. No. 40, Queens. 

May 4. lvalue of nature study. 'Balk to entering class, Max- 
well Training School for Teachers. 

May 18. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Moth- 
ers' Club, P. S. No. 89. 

May 20. Spring and little gardens. Birch W'athen School, 
' New York. ^ 



114 

Garden, Brooklvn Kinder: 
Garden. 

May 24. The plant world. Eastern District High School. 

May 25. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Moth- 
ers' Club. P. S. No. 139. At 'the Garden. 

May 25. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Moth- 
ers' Club, P. S. No. 217. At the Garden. 

May 25. What the plant world (fives to us. P. S. No. 183. 

June 1. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Lewis 
Avenue Church Auxiliary Meeting. At the Garden. 

June 2. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Mothers 
Club, P. S. No. [08. At the Garden. 

June 4. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Kinder- 
garten Mothers' Club, P. S. No. 141. At the Garden. 

June 12. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Moth- 
ers' Club, P. S. No. 57. At the Garden. 

October 13. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 
Mothers' Club, P. S. No. 130. At the Garden. 

October 13. The -work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 
Columbia Dames. At the Garden. 

October 18. Bulb culture. P. S. No. 48. 

October 2=,. Fall coloration. P. S. No. 48. 

November 1. Seed dispersal. P. S. No. 48. 

November 3. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 
Marcy Avenue Baptist Church Auxiliary Meeting. At the 

November 3. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

Mothers' Club. P. S. No. 113. At the Garden. 
November 8. The meaning of a flower. P. S. No. 48. 
November 12. Collections. Birch W'athen School, New York. 
November 13. Children's educational -work at the Brooklyn 

Botanic Garden. The National Recreational School. At 

the Garden. 
November 15. Fall fruits. P. S. No. 48. 
November 16. The -work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

Mothers' Club, P. S. No. 35. At the Garden. 



November 1 ( ">. The children's work at the Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden. Woman's Auxiliary oi the Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden. 

November 18. Thankstjivnu,. P. S. Xo. 139. 

November 22. Thanksu'ivimj. I' S. Xo. 4,8, 

November 24. Thanksi/iviini. Ihrch YVmhen School, New 
York. 

November 29. Fr»/te //; G7y markets. P. S. No. 48. 

December 6. Economic plants. P. S. No. 48. 

December 24. Christinas ,jreens. P. S. No. 36. 
By the Curator of Public Instruction: 

January 19. The life of plants. Headquarters of School 
Nature League, P. S. 62, Annex. Manhattan. 

Tannarv 27. The present status of the American chestnut. 
Torrey Bot. Club, N. Y. Hot. Gard., Museum Building. 

January 27. Trees and shnths of ornamental value for the 
home grounds. Madison Garden Club, Madison, N. J. 

January 27. Gnu/ nation address. P. S. 47, Brooklyn. 

March 1. Diseases of trees. Natural Sei. Club of Hunter 
College. 

March 5. Common trees. Scout Troop 66. Emmanuel Bap- 
tist Church, llrooklvn 

March 26. The conservation of our native wild flowers. 
Troop 2, Central Y. M. C. A., Brooklyn. 

March 29. Conservation of wild flowers. P. S. 66, Brooklyn. 

April 6. The zvork of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. St. 
Mark's Church, Ladies' Aid Society, Brooklyn. 

April 12. Conservation. Manual Training High School An- 
nex. Brooklyn. 

April 15. Forestry in the United States. Contemporary Club, 
at the Brooklyn Bot. Gard. 

April 20. The structure of seeds. Headquarters of School 
Nature League, P. S. 62, Annex. Manhattan. 

April 21. Arhor Day. Waverly Annex of Hoys' High School, 
Brooklyn. 

April 22. Conservation. Manual Training High School An- 
nex, Brooklyn. 



116 

April 26. Economic plants in the f/reeidsouses of the Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden. < hrls" Commercial Midi School, nt the 
Brooklyn Bot. Gard. 

May 3. Forestry. Girls' Commercial Ili^h School, at the 
Brooklyn Bot. Gard. 

May 2r. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. X. Y. 
Public Library School, at the Brooklyn Bot. Gard. 

Tune 3. The Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Thomas Jefferson 
High School Annex (P. S. 7 o). 

June 18. How the plant lives and ,,rows. Ave. A. Gardens of 
the National Plant, Mower and bruit Guild, Manhattan. 

July I. Forestry. Lecture to candidates for X. V. G. biology 
teachers' license. Y. M. C. A. West 57th St.. Manhattan. 

October 6. Our native trees. Morristown Garden Club. Mor- 
ris Plains, X. J. 

October 18. The life of the tree. Boy Scouts and Scout- 
masters, Children's Museum, Brooklyn. 

December 17. What forestry is. Natural Science Club. 
Hunter College, Manhattan. 

By the Assistant Curator of Elementary Instruction : 

tains. At the Garden. 
November i(>. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

Mothers' Club, P. S. No. 57. Queens. 
December 13. Christmas nn-cus and ( hristmos myths I' > 

No. 48/ 

By Instructors: 

May 4. Nature study for children. Mothers' Club, P. S. Xo. 
47. Miss Woodward. 

May 27. The work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Moth- 
ers' Club, P. S. No. 120. Mrs. Free. At the Garden. 

October u. The nduc of children's ,/ardcus. Garden Club, 
Wilton, Conn. Mrs. Free. 

- ivork of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 



117 

By the Horticulturist : 

January 28,. Rock gardens. Garden Club of Ithaca, Tthaca, 
N. Y. 

March 1. Rock gardens. Rutgers University, Xew Bruns- 
wick, N. J. 

March 10. Seed catalogues, cold frames, sprint/ planting. 
Maplewood Garden Cluh. Miplcwood. X, J 

April 13. English t/ar/lciis. Torrev Botanical Club, New 
York. 

April 14. Spring planting. Station WNYC, New York. 

April 19. Budding and grafting. Nature Study Class, Hunter 
College, Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 

April 20. J > adding and grafting. Xature Study Class, 1 lunter 
College, Brooklyn B.otanic Garden. 

May 27. Rock gardens. Millbrook Garden Club, Millbrook, 
' N. Y. 

August 28. EnqlisJi t/ardens. X. Y. Botanical Garden, New 
York. 

September 28. Shrubs and plants. 1 )itmas 1 'ark Association, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

October 19. House plants. N. Y. C. Gardens Club, Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden. 

October 19. English gardens. Department of I.otany, 1 Brook- 
lyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn Botanic 

October 27. House plants. Plamiield Garden Club, Plainneld, 
N. j. 

By the Curator of Plant Breeding and Economic Plants : 

April n. Bolivian trails. Briarcliff Community Club, Briar- 
cliff, N. Y. 

May 14. Heredity and variation in plants. I'iology classes, 
Manual I Yah in uj h-h Giool At the Garden. 

June 8. Economic plants of South America. Geography 
t I isse; , Maxwell [Yainint: .cimol l« n I . .1 In 1 Brooklyn 
At the Garden. 

July 24. The Japanese Cardan. Reconciliation Trips. At the 
Garden. 



September n. Tolivian trails. Public lecture. New York- 
Botanical (harden. 

October l. Heredity and variation in plants, Biologv clas.se>. 
Manual Training Nigh School. At the Garden. 

November 16. Economic plants and the geography of South 
America. Advanced Geography Glasses. Maxwell Train- 
ing School for Teachers. Brooklyn. At the School. 

December 7. Bolivian plants and peoples. General Assembly. 
James Madison High School, Brooklyn. 

December 17. The nature, causes, distribution, and prevalence 
of fasciation with reference to the problems of genetics. 
Biological Seminar. Princeton Gniversitv. 

December 28. The origin by mutation of differences in cold- 
resistance in the same plant species. (Read by title.) 
Genetics Section, l'otanical Society of America, Phila- 
delphia. 



Armory, Brooklyn. 

May T. Use and beauty of our American trees. Brooklyn Tn 
stitute, Academy of Music, Brooklyn. 

May 26. Flowers, wild and cultivated. Franklin K. Lane 
H. S., Brooklyn. 

June 21 . Wild flowers and ferns and their conservation. Chil- 
dren's Museum, Brooklyn. 

June 25. Presentation of medal. Troop 24, B. S. A., St. 
Mark's M. E. Church, Brooklyn. 
By the Librarian : 

May 21. Brooklyn Botanic Garden library, its organization and 
work. Library School of the New York Public Library. 
At the Garden. 

June 25. Books and world power. New York Library As- 
sociation, Lake Placid, N. Y. 
By the Curator of Plants and Plantations : 

September 23. American Woodland Plants. Millbrook 



of Plant Pathology : 



By the Curator of Plants : 

February 24. Obscrzvtions on the structure of the Fran- 
keniaccae. Torrey Botanical Club, New York Botanical 
Garden. 
By the Resident Investigator: 

January 17. 1'ioioaicai aspects of the race profit cm. blatbu.d; 

Congregational Chinch, ISrooidvn, \. 'V . 
February t<S. Scicutifii oieocpoiul of the auti -en dilation . jnti- 

crofiition iu/itatioii. Men's ( 'lub, ITooklyn Kthical Culture 

S » let} . 1 ivn )] lyti V 

May 10. Ferns. New Rochelle Garden Club, New Rochelle, 

' N. Y. 
May 26. Sainmi the Hart's Tom/uc. Brooklvn Botanic 



APPENDIX 5 



American Journal of Botany 
Published in cooperation with the I'.otanical Society of America. 
Volume XIII (1926) comprised ten issues, as usual, monthly 
(omitting \ugusl and September), with 47 papers and 783 pages, 
an increase of 116 pages over \<)2^. There were 46 plates and 
70 text figures. The increase in the number of pages indicates 
an increase in the amount of botanical research material being- 
offered for publication, and was made possible by the plan pro- 
viding for the prompt publication of papers when the entire cost 
of publication is met by the author or the institution with which 
he is connected. Sixteen papeis were published on this plan. 
Prof. C. E. Allen, University of Wisconsin, continued as editor- 
in-chief, and Dr. Arthur Harmount Graves as member of the 
editoi 1 d board n pi esenting the U100I l\ 11 hoi. on « ,ai !< si 



120 

Ecology 

Published in cooperation with the Ideological Society of Amer- 
ica. The four issues of Volume \TI ( 1 <)_>(>) comi>rise(l 38 papers 
and 523 pages (an increase of 50 passes over 1925), 7 plates, and 
63 text figures. Major Barrington Moore continued as Editor- 
in-chief, and Mr. Norman Taylor as representative of the Brook- 
lyn Botanic Garden mi the editorial hoard. 

Genetics 

cooperation with the Editorial Board 
s were issued during the year, namely, 
those for the months of September and November (1925), and 
January. March and May. \(>2() (issued in October). Delays in 
the publication of the succeeding issues have been due to causes 
beyond the control of the editors and management. The numbers 
issued in 1926 comprised 27 papers occupying 504 pages. 

Brooklyn I'otanic Garden Record 
Volume XV of the quarterly Rkcord (192ft) comprises, as 
usual, the annual Delectus Seniinum. or list of seeds offered in ex- 
change with other Gardens, the Annual Report, the educational 
Prospectus, and miscellaneous articles and notes concerning the 
Botanic Garden. Volume XV comprised 180 pages. It is be- 
coming desirable that the Record shall appear at bi-monthly in- 
tervals, and we hope that this may be brought about by not- later 
than 1928. 

Leaflets 
Ten numbers of Series XIV of this popular publication have 
been issued. Their popularity increases yearly, as well as the 
geographical extent of their circulation. Various numbers have 
been in demand for class instruction in both high schools and 
colleges in cities located in several different states. The demand 
for certain numbers has been so great as to necessitate reprinting 

Contributions 

Numbers 4(1 and 47 appeared during the year, and numbers 48 
and 4<] had been accepted for publication and will appear earlv in 



The total mi tiber ni i . n< It p i ( i ( of members of the staff 
and others) published during <;2(> w - 114 occupying i ,820 passes, 
as against [,824 pages of research published in 1925 and 1,683 in 
1924. 

Subsidies Received 

Contributions of research papers are received by the editors of 
our three research journals faster than we are able to publish 
them. Enough manuscripi is usually on hand to fill an entire vol- 
ume, so that a paper cannot gel published in less than ten or twelve 
months after it has been accepted. 

This situation 1 pi .111 I 11 I he v itional Research Council 
and the Council voted a subsidy of S500 fas also in 1925) to 
American Journal of Botany and a like subsidy to licolot/y (in 
1926 only) for the purpose ot enabling the journals to publish 
more pages and thus, in a measure, relieve the congestion. 

The "author-payment" plan, referred to above under Amer- 
ican journal of Botany, has served to relieve the congestion in the 
editorial office of that journal. 

APPENDIX 6 



January 8. Girl Scouts. 

January 16. Girl Scout Captains. 

January 16. League of Neighbors. 

January 23. Woodcraft League. 

April 8. New York Bird and Tree Club. 

April 15. Contemporary Club. 

May 4. Mothers' Club, P. S. 47. 

May 4. Winter's Night Club. 

May 8. League of Neighbors. 

May 8. International House Group. 

May 12. Heads of Departmei 

May 15. Torrey Botanical Ch 

May 17. Bavside Garden Club 



122 

May 18. Mothers' Club, P. S. 89 

May 19. American Association of Museums. 

May 20. Brooklyn K mdrr-artcn Association. 

May 21. New York Library School. 

May 25. Mothers' Club, P. S. 139. 

May 25. Mothers' Club, P. S. 199. 

May 25. Mothers" Club, P. S. 217. 

May 2$. Mothers' Club, P. S. 183. 

May 26. American Kern Society. 

May 26. Federated Garden Club of N. Y. State. 

May 26. New York Bird and Tree Club. 

May 26. Torrey Botanical Club. 

May 26. Wild Flower Preservation Society. 

May 27. Mothers' Club, P. S. 129. 

June 1. Lewis Avenue Church Auxiliary. 

June 2. Mothers' Club, P. S. 108. 

June 4. Mothers' Club, P. S. 141. 

June 12. Mothers' Club, P. S. 57. 

June 13. Inkowa Club. 

June 13. Mothers' Club, P. S. 130. 

July 24. Reconciliation Trips. 

August 2. School Garden Teachers' Conference. 

August 14. International Conference on Flower 

Sterility. 
September 25. CnnTlyn histHute. 1 Vpartment of '/. 
October 13. Columbia Dames. 
October 13. Mothers' Club, P. S. 130. 
October ig. City Gardens Club. 
October 19. Department of Botany. Brooklyn Instit 

and Sciences. 
Xovember 3. Women's Benevolent Society of Ma 

Baptist Church. 
November 3. Mothers' Club. P. S. 113. 
November 13. National Recreational School Mot 

P. S. 35- 
November 19. Garden Teachers' Association. 
Total, 46 organizations. 





APPENDIX 7 




FIELD TRIPS ■ 


COXDU 


CTED 


y the Director : 








May 8. Official 

Garden. 
May 8. Reconcil 


group from 


Internal 
Botani 


tional He 



By the Curator of Public Instruction: 

March 28. Torrcy Botanical Club. Palisades Interstate Park. 

August 1. Torrcy Botanical Club. Kisscna I 'ark, Flushing. 

September 25. Botanical I )ei>artmeiil. Department of Educa- 
tion, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Kissena 
Park, Flushing. 

By the Curator of Plant Breeding and Economic Plants : 

May 8 and July 24. Reconciliation Trips. Japanese Garden, 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 



mb. Point Lookout. ! .ong Island. 
By the Registrar and Custodian : 

January 23. Woodcraft League. Brooklyn Botanic Garden 

and Prospect Park. 
June 13. Inkowa Club. Brooklyn l'.otanic Garden and bee- 
hive demonstration. 
June [<;. Wachung Council l!n\ >cout> of America, Duke's 

Park, Someryille, X. J. 
Tune 19-20. Bound Brook Boy Scouts in camp. Millstone. 

N. J. 
August 21-22. Camp L'enape. B,. S. A., Oakland, N. J. 
Uigust jt). Torrc\ Botanical (Tib. \ "an Cortlandt Park and 

Woodlawn i emetevy. 
Se])teml)er 25. Brooklyn Institute. Brooklyn Botanic Garden 

and beehive demonstration, 
October 2. Brooklyn Institute, Department of Botany. 

Duke's Bark, Somerville, N. J. 



APPENDIX 

REPORT OX PHOTOORAPl 






Total motives on lile Deccn 
i slides on file December 31, i< 



Tola! lantern sink's ( ,n lile I leeeml.ei . 



Used or distributed 1 ,040 

Filed 330 

Total prints on file December 31, U)2<) 2,^6 

Enlargements made 16 

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



FRANK L. B ABBOTT 

First Vice-President Second Vice-President 

WALTER H. CRITTENDEN EDWARD C. BRUM 

Third Vice-President 
WILLIAM A. RUT NAM 

G. FOSTFR SMITH JOHN H. DENBIGH 

BOTANIC GARDEN GOVERNING COMMITTEE 
MISS HILDA LOINES, Chairman 
FRANK L. BABBOTT, Ex officio EDWIN GOULD 
MRS. WILLIAM H. CARY RALPH JONAS 

WALTER H. CRITTENDEN EDWIN P. MAYNARD 

GATES I). FAHNESTOCK WILLIAM A. PUTNAM 

MRS. LEWIS W. FRANCES ALEXANDER M. WHIT]-. 

JOHN W. FROTHINGHAM 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE BOARD 

THE MAYOR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 

THE COMMISSIONER ()!• PARKS, BOROUGH OF BROOKIA. 



MEMBERS OF 


THE BOARD 


(Trustees are Elected fror, 


■i the Lift 


? M 


' ember ship of the Broo. 




of Arts a 


nd 


Sciences) 


Albertson, Rev. Charles 


Carroll, 




Healy, Henry W. 








Hunter, William T. 


Habbntt. Frank L. 






Jenkins. Alfred W. 


Bailey, Frank 






Jonas, Ralph 


Beers. E. LeGrand 






* Kennedy, Hon. Elija 


Benedict. Henry Harper 






Lewisohn, Adolph 


Blum. Fdward C. 






Lockwood, Luke Vi: 


Poody. Hon. David A. 














Matheson, William J 


Brush, Dr. George \V. 






Maynard, Edwin P. 


Cadman, Rev. S. Parkes, 


D.D. 




Morgan, John Hill 


Gary. Mrs. William H. 






Morse, Horace J. 


Courtney, William C. 






Post, James H. 


( rane. ludge Frederick F. 






Pratt, Mrs. Frederic 


Crittenden. Walter H. 






Pratt, George D. 


Denbigh. Dr. John H. 






Putnam, William A. 


Dettmer, Hon. Jacob G. 






Sloan, Francis H. 


Fahnestock. Gates D. 








Karrcll, James A. 






Stutzer, Herman 


Francis, Mrs. Lewis W. 






Underwood, John T. 


Frazier, Kenneth 






Van Sinderen, Adri 


Frothingham, John W. 






Warner, Dr. Edwin 


'mud, Mrs. William 11. 






White, Alexander U 



MRS. Cl.FXTWORTH R. BCTLKR, Ciiaikma 



Bre 


wster, Mrs. 


Waller Shaw 




ismade, Mis 


s Alice 




wn, Mrs. G. Stewart 


Cabot, Mrs. In 


nng L. 


Car 


penter, Mrs 




Car 


y. Mrs. Wi 


lliam H. 


Chi 


Ids. Mrs. W 


illiam H. 


Cot; 




ranees H. 


Cra 


nford, Mrs. 


Frederick L. 


Das 


•enport. Mrs 


. Henry J. 



ham, Mrs. Wheeler H. 
-s, Mrs. Wm. Sterling 

Mi.v-, Irvsi, W. 



Hills. Mrs. James M. Putnam, Mrs. William A. 

Hills, Mrs. John Roberts, Mrs. Dudley 

Hooker, Mrs. Samuel C. Rushmore, Mrs. Stuart A. 

Hunter, Mrs. William T. Sargent, Mrs. W. I). 

Hyde, Mrs. Clarence R. Smith, Mrs. Annie Morrill 

Jameson, Mrs. P. C. Smith. Mrs. Herbert 



or by gifts of equivalent 
♦Mrs. Caroline H. Polhcn 

William A. Putnam 
*■ Charles A. Schieren 

John T. Underwood 
* Alfred T. White 

Miss Frances E White 

Miss Harriet H. White 



Frank L. Babbott 



mis of , 






' llenrv Batterman 


= Jame 




'Miss 


Mary Benson 


• Mrs. 


Eugene G. Blackfo 


' Willi 


am Calverly 


= Willi 


am H. Cary 


Mrs. 


William H. Childs 


Walt 


er H. Crittenden 


< Edw£ 


ird L. Graef 


1 George A. Hearn 


: Joseph C. Hoagland 


1 Samv 


ie-1 N. Hoyt 



All ml W. Jenkins 

Mrs. Mary Babbott Ladd 

Mrs. Joseph H. Lester 

* Frederick Loeser 
Mrs. Ian MacDonald 

* Henry P. Martin 
*Miss Matilda McLean 

* Joseph T. Perkins 

* Mrs. Caroline H. Polhcmus 



J), i'ra: 



William 



I'uln; 



Babbott Stokes 



John T. Underwood 



• by gifts of equivalent vain, 



' Blackford. Mrs. Fugene G. 



Barclay, Mrs. Reginald 


Boocock. Murray 


Barnes, Mrs. Richard S. 


Boody, Hon. David 


Barr, Mrs. Thos. T. 


Brackett, Miss Man 


Beers, E. LeGrand 


Brown, Mrs. Lilla 


Beers, Mrs. Mary L. 


Campbell Miss Mar; 


Beers, Miss M. Elizabeth 


Coffin, Mrs. Stui-is 


Beers. Dr. Nathan T. 




Benedict, Henry Flarper 


Day, Mrs. Emily L. 




* Deceased 



Dutcher, Mrs. Helvetia B. 
English, Mrs. J. Radford 
Evans, Miss Mabel Louise 
Lahys. George E. 

* Fahys, Joseph 

Freifeld, Mrs. George 
Godfrey, Mrs. Edwin D. 
Good, Airs. John 

* < ioti.sluM-iiy, Francis 
*Graef, Edward L. 

* Mealy, A. Augustus 

* Healy, Frank 

* I learn, Mrs. George A. 
I hii mian. Miss Helen 



Hen 



Hen 



Higgins, Charles M. 
Hoagland, Mrs. Jos. 
" Hoagland, Joseph C. 
Hoagland, Raymond 
Hoagland, Miss S. 1 
Hodenpyl, Eugene, J 



Low, Mrs. A. A, 
McMahon, Jos. 
Mac Donald, Mr: 



IVabody, George Fostci 
K Pell. Rev. Alfred Duai 
Pell, Mrs. Cornelia L. 



* Schieren, Charles A. 

Seamans. Miss Dorothy 
{ Sheldon. Mrs. Henry Iv. 



How. Miss Susan B. 


Smith, Howard 




Stutzer, Hermar 


James, John S. 


Underwood, Johi 


Jones, Frank S. 


Vander Weyde, 


Jones, Mary L. 


Walsh, Mrs. An 


Jones. Townsend 


Webster, Mrs. 1 


Joost, Martin 


White, Alexandc 




* White, Alfred 1 


Lawrence! Lysandcr W. 


White, Miss Fra 


Lawrence. Richard H. 


White, Miss Hai 


l.oeser, Frederick 


* Woodward, Mrs. 


Lord, Mrs. John Bradley 


* Woodward. Col. 



Babbott, Frank L. 



anic Garden 
Frothingham, Johi 



Smith, Mrs. Annie Morrill 
Suuthuk'k, Dr. E. B. 
* Spalding, Mrs. Mary Bates 
nents of the Institute 

Cadman, Rev. S. Parkes, D.D. 
Campbell, Mrs. Win. Mitchell 
Gary, Miss Alice B. 



Allan, 


Mrs. Mansfield 




Miss Mary W. 




3n, Mrs. John 




s, William A. 


Applet. 


n, R. Ross 


Arm. Id 


Miss Mary 


Avers, 


Dr. Messenger 


Babbott, Dr. Frank L., Jr. 




y, James J. 




er, Miss Eleanor C. 




an, Charles H. 


ISatten 


an, Henry L. 




an, Miss Minnie P. 




F. W. 


Bay lis, 


A. B. 


Bavlis. 


Wm., Jr. 


Bigelo^ 


, Edward F. 


IMumenthal. Maurice 


Klvdenburgh, Frank J. 






Hood}'. 


Alvin 








Richard R. 


Bramm 


Miss Elizabeth 




, Philip 




, Reginald R 


[;,<„[ u 


ay, Miss Emma A. 




Miss A. W. 




John W. 


Brush. 


Dr. George W. 


Hackle 


, Charles R. 


Buckle* 


, John D. 


thick. Mrs. Cecilia 


Kurnham. Dr. Clark- 



Chapman, Miss Leila II. 
( 'hapman, M rs. Leila T. 
Chauncey, Rev. E. F. 



Crane, Judge Frederick E. 
Crittenden, Walter H. 
Crowell, Mrs. Jeremiah 
Cullen, Miss Margaret M. 
Cunningham, Mrs. F. W. 
Curtis, Henry S. 
Dalln. Archibald B. 



D;iv ( 



Hon. 



Davenport, Mrs. Will 
Davis, William T. 
De Motte, G. J. 
Denbigh, Dr. John H 
Dennis, Dr. Frederick 
Dennis, Mrs. Fredericl 
Dettmer, Lion. Jacob 



l>H,k 



Eastman, Mrs. William P. 
Fger, Mrs. Theodore G. 
Elmhirst, Mrs. Dorothy P. Wh 

Luglish, George I.. 
Lalmcstoek. Gates D. 
Fara Forni, Mme. A. F. 

harrier, Albert Moses 
Farrier, Frederick B. 
Ferricr, Miss Elizabeth A. 
Field, Miss M. Fl./.abeth 
Pish, Mrs. Ivy Chapel 
Llagg. Mrs. 'J'. Benson 
Llinsch. Rudolph P.. R. 
Loote, Alfred Sherman 
Francis. Mrs. Lewis W. 
Prank, Mrs. George S. 
branken Sicrstorpff, Countess v 

Lrothingham. Miss Flizahcth \\ 

Lrothingham, Miss Helen IP 

Frothingham, John W. 

Gibb, William T. 

Gifford, Ira L. 

Gilbert. Miss A. Louise M. 

(iilberl, William T. 

Good. Mrs. John 

Pood, Mrs. William PI. 



Grace Pburch (Lrouklvr 

* Guild, Miss Mary A. 
Hall, Charles IP 
Halsey, William B. 
Ham. Miss Dorothy B. 
Harriman, Mrs. P. H. 

* Hathawav. Charles 
Healy, Mrs. A. Augustus 
Healy, Henry W. 
Heckscher, August 

I letter, Mrs. Ada Gibb 
Hicks, Henry 
Hill, William B. 



Hooker, H. D. 

Hooper, Mrs. Franklin W. 

Hornaday, William T. 

ITorsman, Edward I. 

Howell. Hampton 

Hubbell, Rev. William S. 

Huber, Joseph 

Hudson. Mrs. Laura K. 



Ingraham, George S. 
James, Dr. Walter B. 
Jeffrey, Dr. Stewart 1 
Jenkins, Alfred W. 



* Kern. m. Whitman W. 
Lemon. Whitman W., Jr. 
King, Francis T. 
Kunz, Dr. George F. 
Ladd, Mrs. Mary Rabbott 
Lamb, Col. Albert E. 
Lang, Mrs. Robert 
Latimer, Miss Julia W. 

Lewisohn, Adolph 

Lincoln. Mrs. Dorothy Cha 
Litchfield. E. Hubert 
Litchfield. Edward IP 
Litchfield, Pdward H„ Jr. 



I.ockwood, Luke Vincent 


Pierrepont, Seth Low 


Loeser, Charles 


Polhemus, Miss R. A. 




Potts, Maj. Charles E. 


Love, Airs. Henry D. 


Pratt, Mrs. Frederic B. 


Low, Ethelbert Ide 


Pratt, Frederic B. 


Low, Josiah 0. 


Pratt, Harold I. 


: Lowber, Miss Ida E. 


Prentice, James Howard 


Ludlum, Clinton W. 


Prentiss. Russell E. 


Lyman, Frank 


Prosser, Thomas 


Lynde, Mrs. Martha R. 


Prosser, Thomas Harold 


McAneny. Hon. George 


Prosser, Walter R. 


McConncll, Rev. S. D. 


Putnam, Harrington 


McDonald, Rev. Robert 


Putnam, Mrs. William A. 


McKay, Mrs. John S. 


Ramsay, Dick S. 


Macbeth. Robert W. 


Ramsdell, Mrs. F. Van N. 


Marshall, William W. 


Robinson, George C. 


Mason, William P. 


Robinson, Dr. Nathaniel 


Matheson, William J. 


Ruger, Mrs. Adolph 


Mathews, Mrs. Albert H. 


Ruland, Irving A. 


Maxwell, Henry L. 


Ruscoe, Miss Rose 


Mavnard. Edwin P. 


Russell, Rev. James T. 


Mead, W. S. M. 


Russell, James T., Jr. 


Melish, Rev. John H. 


Russell, Mrs. Talcott H. 


Mercer, Rev. Arthur 


Sackett, Charles A. 


Moffat, David 


Sanbern, Mrs. Frank H. 


Moffat, William L., Jr. 


Sanger, Miss Lillian 


Mollenhauer, J. Adolph 


Schenck, Miss Eunice M. 


Moore, Mrs. W. H. 


Schieren, Harrie Victor 


Morgan, Tames L. 


Sheldon, Mrs. Anna B. 


Mor-an, John Hill 


Sheldon, Henry 


Morse, Miss Alice L. 




Morse. Charles L. 


Slack, Mrs. Julia G. 


Munclhcnk, Herman 


Sloan, Francis H. 


Nichols, William H. 


Smith, G. Foster 


Nostrand, P. Elbert 


Smith, Mrs. Katherine L. 


O'Connor. Mrs. W. B. 


Smith, Theo. E. 


Ogilvic. Donald Manson 




Olcott, Miss Martha W. 


* Spalding, Mrs. Mary Bates 


Orr, Miss Mary Moore 


Squier, Frank 


: Otis. Miss Lillian L. 


* Steele, Sanford H. 


Packard, Miss Mary S. 


Stevens, Mrs. Roy G. 


rainier. Henry L. 


Stevens, Shepherd 




Stewart, Dr. Douglas MacC. 


Parker, Gordon 


Stokes. Mrs. S. Emlen 


Peet. Mrs. Louise H. 


Sullivan, Andrew T. 



Mrs. ] ferman C. 



Tucker, Mrs. George S., Jr. 


* Webster, R. P. S. 


Turner, Mrs. Bertha C. 


White. Harold T. 


Tulhill, Miss Isabel H. 


White, S. V., Jr. 




White, William Augustus 


Van Anden, Miss Susan M. 


Whitney, Sumner B. 


Van Nostrand. Mrs. John B. 


* Williams. Col. Timothy S. 


Van Sinderen, Mrs. Adrian 


Wisner, Mrs. Horatio S. 




Woodward, Miss Mary B. 


Van Wyck. Richard 


York, Rt. Rev. Monsr. John C. 


Wagner, Miss Marie 


Young, Hon. Richard 


Walbridge, Robert R. 


Zabriskic. Mrs. Cornelius 


Warbasse, Mrs. James P. 


Ziegler, Airs. William 



son, John (G) 
tt, Dr. Frank L 
Joseph J. (M) 






Case. Miss Marian Roby (G) 
Crampton, Mrs. Edwin H. (G) 
Doscher, Mrs. Alice B. (M) 
Edwards, Mrs. Wm. Seymour (]\ 
Emerson, Mrs. William (G) 
KiK-(|uisl, John (G) 
Faber, Mrs. Helen H. (M) 
Faber, Lee W. (M) 
Ford. James B. (G) 
Foster. Charles L. (M) 
Froeb. Charles (M) 
Frothingham, John W. (M) 
Frothingham, Mrs. John S. (M) 
Good, Mrs. William H. (M) 



Botanic Garden 



Hammond. C. S. (M) 
Havemeyer, T. A. (G) 
Hicks, Henry (E) 
Hottingcr, Henry (G) 
Hubbell, Mrs. Luella I. (M) 
Ingraham, Edward A. (G) 
Ingraham, Mrs. Henry C. M. (G) 
Jenkins, Mrs. John Sloane (M) 
Jones, Harry L. (M) 
Joost. Mrs. Martin (G) 
Kirkman, Mrs. A. S. (M) 
Lambert, Frank (M) 
Latimer, Miss Mary (G) 
Lawrence, L. W. (G) 
Leech, Mrs. John E. (G) 



Wil 



(M) 
J. (E) 



.oomis, Guy (M) 
,ouria, Dr. Henry W. (M) 
-ow, Mrs. Chauncey E. (M) 
-ow, William G. (M) 
.uther, Mrs. George Martin (G 
I'M'). Museum; (E), Educatic 



MacLean, Mrs. Peter A. (G) 


Rothschild, Simon F. (G) 


Morgan, Mrs. James L. (M) 


Rouss, Peter W. (E) 


Morrow, Mrs. Thomas I. (G) 


Scott, Dr. Peter (E) 


Munson, Frank C. (M) 


See, Alonzo B. (G) 


Xotman, George (G) 


Somers, Harold (M) 


Perkins, Mrs. Grace (E) 


Squibb, Dr. Edward H. (E an< 


Pierrepont, Miss Julia J. (M) 


Sutphin, Mrs. Joseph H. (M] 


Pinkerton, Mrs. Robert A. (E) 


Uhrbrock, Mrs. E. F. (G) 


Redfield, Hon. William C. (M) 


White, Alexander M. (G) 


Reimer, Miss Margareth B. (M) 


Wood, Miss Emily S. (E) 


Righter, Miss Jessie H. (M) 


Zabriskie, Mrs. Cornelius (C 


Rossin, Mrs. Alfred S. (M) 





Brooklyn Rotaxic Gak 



Abraham, Meyer 


Bernstein, Moses 


Adams, Henry S. 


Betts, Miss Dorothy L. 


'■ Adams, Mrs. Horatio M. 


Betts, Morris 


Ahearn, Mrs. Katherine L. 


Betsch, William G. L. 


Almirall, Mrs. Juan A. 


Bixby, Willard G. 


Anderson, Mrs. John 


Blackmail, Mrs. Edwin L. 


Augur, W. A. 


Blackman, Dr. William W. 


Avery, Walter 


Blankley, Miss Grace 


Bailey, Mrs. A. W. 


Bliss, Miss Alice A. 


Bailey, Mrs. Frank 


Blum, Mrs. Edward C. 


Bangs, C. Roy 


Boardman, Mrs. George M. 


i '.anker, John F. 


Bohm, Albert 


Karad. Dr. S. N. 


Bonoff, Charles A. 


Baron, Olive H. G. 


Bornmann, Dr. Alfred 


Barton, Miss Elsie H. 


Bossert, John 


Bauman, Ben 


Bossert, Mrs. L. 


B catty, Dr. George Wesley 


Bowne, Miss Julia M. 


Becker, Frederick W. 


Brackett, Miss Mary A. 


Ik-its. John Frank 


Braman, Miss Irene M. 


Behman, Miss Marguerite 


Brinsmade, Miss Alice 


Behr, Edw. A. 


Brinton, Mrs. Willard Cope 


Behrisch, Mrs. Gabriel I. 


Britton, Dr. N. L. 


Bclden, H. C. 


Brooke, James J. 


Bennett, Miss Josephine M. 


Brown, Rufus H. 


Bennett, R. Walter 


Browning, Dr. William 


Benson, Mrs. Philip A. 


Bruce, Mrs. Frederick J. 



D'Alboro, Dr. John 
Dalzell, Edward T. 
Dangler, Mrs. Georg 
Daniel, Mrs. Walter 



Prof. O. P. M. 



Davenport, Mrs. J lenry J. 



Caspe, Sylvia 
Chaffee, Mrs. D. Dwight 
Chanin. Irwin S. 
Chapal, Robert I. 
Chardavoyne, Henry S. 
Chauucey, Mrs. George W. 
Cisney, Thomas E. 
Clark, Dr. Frank 11. 



iM-orest. Robert W. 

IVininger, Mrs. Grace 
Delafield, Mrs. John R. 
Delatour, Dr. H. Beeckn 
Deppe, William F. 
De Silver, Mr.. Aiberi 



Diller. Mrs. 


Frank J. Y\ 


Doane, 




rt C. 


Dobson, 


Har 


vey 0. 


Donovar 


i, Mi 




Dm! man. A\ 


. Boris 


Dreier, 




TT. Edwai 


Dres.slor 


, Ge 


orge 










Pen 




lml'...is. 






Duncan, 


Mrs 


Cameron 


(hi Pont 




s. T. Colen 


DuVal, 


Guy 




DuVal, 


M.s. 


Guy 




Dr. 


11. Shirley 


Earle. Mrs. 


Win. I'.. J, 


KImiilut, 


Waller 1). 


l-'eloh'in 


, Ha 




Eldert, ( 




dius 



Emanuel, Miss May Eunice 


Gorman, Mrs. Charles A. 


Kmmerich, Rudolph 


Gough, Dr. F. A. 


En gel, Dr. David 




Fnglander, Benj. B. 


Graf, Joseph A. 




Graham, James S. 


Ericsson, Miss H. Wilhelmina 


Graves, Mrs. A. H. 


I^pcnscheid, Nicholas 


Green, Mrs. Irma 


Fairbanks, Maria B. 


Greenberg, Charles 


Fairchild, B. T. 


Greenberg, Samuel 


Feaster, Dr. Henry J. 


Greenberg, Dr. Sarah K. 


Feldstein, Dr. Samuel 


Greve, William M. 


Feller, Henry 


Grilim. Frank E. 


Felzmann, Ernest F. 


Gruhn, Otto 


Ferguson, William C. 


Gunnison, Mrs. Herbert T. 


Ferruggia, Dominick 


Gunnison, Herbert F. 


Field, Mrs. William D. C. 


Gunnison, Mrs. Raymond M 


Figge. Alexander H. 


Guyer, Louis G., Sr. 


Fisher, Miss Edna M. 


Haack, Karl F. O. 


Fox, Dr. Harold R. 


Hadden, Crowd] 


Fulle, John H. 


Hagstrom, Dr. Henry T. 


Funk, Dr. Merton L. 


Hahn, Mrs. R. C. 


Gabbe, Mrs. Herman 


Hall, Miss Elizabeth C. 


Gair, Mrs. Robert 


Hallock, Mrs. John H. 


Galvani, Mrs. Elsie F. 


Halstead, Mrs. J. Morton 


Gans, Marion S. 


Halsted, Mrs. Henry M. 


Garbnr, Benjamin 


Hamm, Fred. I. 


Garrett, Mrs. Harriet 


Hanan, Mrs. H. W. 


Gesoalde, Nicholas S. 


Handt, Bernhardt 


Gibbons, Mrs. Mary Flint 


Hanks. Lenda T. 


Gibbs, Wm. J. 


II a. -beck, Charles T. 


Gibson, Mrs. Henry S. 


Hargitt, Dr. Chas. A. 


Gilvarry, James H. 


Harman, Mrs. George H. 


Giovanna, Joseph Di 


Harris, Mrs. D. Stanley 


Girls' High School 


Harris, Dr. Isham 




Harrison. Miss Katharine 


Gladding, Walter M. 


Harrisson, Mrs. Stephen \ 


Gleason, Marshall W. 


Hartelius, Joshua G. 


Glicr, William 


Flartman, Karl 


Goddard, Mrs. Eleanor 


Hasenflug, August 


Goell, Mrs. Charles 


Haskell, Paul C. 


Goell, Jacob 


Haughton, Richard 


Guet/.r, All.. Otto 


Hawes, Dr. Edward S. 


Goldsmith, Isaac M. 


Healy. Henry 


Gonnoud, A. J. 


Heindl, Mrs. Thomas 


Gooderson, Mrs. Mary M. 


Heller, Dr. Jacob 


Goodman, Joseph 


Hence, Mrs. Sarah Kyle 



1 leudclman, Dr. Solomon 
Hengerer, Julius 
Herriman, Mrs. Rudolph F. 
I less, Mrs. Sarah 
Hetkin, Henry 
Hewitt, Mrs. Judith D. 
Higgins, Dr. Alice K. 
Higgins, Charles M. 
Higgins, Tracy 
Hill, Lester W. 
Hills, Mrs. James M. 
Hills, Mrs. John 
Hirsch. Dr. John 

I lirschbcrg, Benjamin 
Hoffman, Dr. Morton 
Hogg, Miss Elizabeth 
Holcombe, W. P. 

I I ol lander, Frederick 
Hollenhack. Miss Amelia B. 
Ilollwcgs, Miss Kalherine 
Holmes. Mrs. Edith 
Holmes, Miss R. Bricked 

1 1 oog land. John W. 
Hooker, Mrs. Samuel C. 
Hooker, Dr. Samuel C. 
Hopkins, Jesse L. 
Horn, Anthony 
Horowitz. Joseph 
Morton, George S. 
Howard. Mrs. Wm. F. 
Howe. Mrs. Arthur M. 
Howell, William R. 
Hubbard. Miss Harriet 
Hubbard, Dr. Wm. S. 
Huber, Joseph 
Hughes. Mrs. Mary 
Hulander. Henry N. 
Hull. Mrs. Charles A. 
Hume. Mrs. Henry M. 
Huncke. Mrs. Helen F. 



Wil 



Idell, Mrs. Frank E. 
lffla, Miss Florence E. 
Ingersoll, Mrs. R. V. 
Ingraham, Miss Grace 
Ingraham, Henry A. 
liisM aliain. Miss Mai \ \ 
Ingraham, Dr. Ruth 
Irish, William S. 
Irons, Walter R. 
Jackson, Edward 
J.ieobson, Mrs. Allien 
Jacobscn, Henry 
Jaffc, A. L. 



laneway, Mrs. Edward 
Janicke, Miss Lucia 
Jant/cr, George E. 

Jennings, Bessie C. 
Jennings, Dr. Frank D. 
Jennings, Dr. John E. 

Jewell. Mrs. Florence II. 
Jewell. John V. 
Jcwett, Dr. William A. 
Joachim. Dr. Henry 
Joerisson, Frederick 
Johnson, Mrs. J. V. 
Jones, Miss Helen Swift 
Jones, Mrs. Wallace Thaxk 
Jordan, Francis 
Jourdan, James H. 



Kaplan, Abraham 
Kay, Miss Lillian S. 
Kel'lv, William J. 
Kelsey, Wm. H. 
; - Kennedy, Hon. Elijah R. 
Kennedy, Mrs. Sinclair 
Kes.sler, Joseph G. 
Ketcham, Herbert T. 



Keye, 



F. T. 



kuiM'.N, Henry R. 
1\ Emptier, Mrs. h];i 
Kin 'IT. Mi's.. ; \ E. 
Knowlton. Airs. Gayle 
Koeppel, Harry 
Krey. Mr,. [Jessie M. 
Kuebler, William H. 
Kuehnle, Charles H. 
Kuffler, Mrs. A. 



Lain 



F. W. 



Lancaster. Miss Bertha 
Lane, Miss Ella M. 
Lang, Frank T. 
Lungdon. Palmer H. 
Lange. Dr. Hugo 
Larson, Miss Esther 
Lathroi), Mrs. John 11. 



Laws, Dr. Carl H. 



Lee, Mrs. Lena M. 
Lee, Dr. Marguerite 
Lehrenkrauss, Julius 
Lehrman, Jacob 
Leibowitz, Dr. Philip 
Leichtman, Jacob 
Lenges, Philip 
Leonard. Mrs. Belle I 
Lloyd, Mrs. T. Mortii 
L'Episcopo, Dr. Josep 
Lerner, Dr. Henry 
Leverich, A. Lylc 
Levin, Philip 
Levine, Max 



Lewis, Dr. M. T. 



Liu-hheld, Miss Cornelia 
Little, Dr. Dwight R. 

Littlejohn. .Mrs. Thomas 
Loderer, Mrs. Rosa 
J. nines, Mrs. Stephen 
Louria, Dr. Henr\ \V. 






Love, John H. 

Low, Miss Emma C. 

Low, Josiah O. 

Low, Samuel W. 

Low, Mrs. Seth 

Low, Mrs. Walter Carroll 

Luber, Mrs. Harry I. 

Luca, Mrs. Elizabeth E. 

i ,ni/., Frederick A. 

Lyons, Edward 
Lyons, Dr. John J. 
Lyons. Nathaniel 
Maxwell, Earl C. 
McCarthy, Edward Joseph 
McCormick, John, Jr. 
McCreery, Hon. William C. 
McCurrach, Mrs. Mabel C. 
McDcrmott, Mrs. Arthur V. 
McDonald. Dr. Milo F. 
McDonough, Francis J. 
McKay, Miss Lucy S. 
McKelway, Mrs. St. Clair 
McLanahan, Mrs. Scott 
McLaren, James R. 
McLean. Mrs. F. B. 
McNeill, Edward 
McNeill, Miss Sadie E. 
Mackey, Miss Mary R. 
Madfes, Samuel 
Maier, Frank 
M alone. Winifred 
Manes, Nathan 
Manlcy, Dr. Mark 
1= Marino, Dr. Francesco 
Mark, Jacob 



Meister, Albert 



Meruk, William 

Mcyenborg. Mi>s Evelyn 
Meyer, Frederick J. 
Meyer, Max C. 



Moffat, Mrs. F. D. 
Montague, M. A. 
Mooney, James A. 
Morgan, Miss Charlott 
Moore, Miss Mary A 
Morse, Miss Alice' L. 
Morton, Dr. L. J. 
Moult, Mrs. John F. 
Mulford, Miss Esther 



Pari in. Mrs. Charles 
Parrish, Dr. John W. 
Parsons, Frank H. 



.m, Mrs. Wheele 
n, Dr. H. J. 

George II . 

Dr. Herbert H. 



Mulvaney, Mrs. Marion G. 
Munkenbeck, Earl T. 
Munson, Miss Kathcrine F. 
'Munson, Mrs. W. D. 
Murchic, Wilfred E. 
Murphy, Mrs. Henry 
Murray, Mrs. Mary A. T. 
N'aidish. Abraham 



Nesmith, Miss Charlo 
Neuburgcr, Mrs. Juli; 
Nevin, Harris 
Newell, A. Curtis 
' Newman, Miss Gra.ee 
Newman, Miss Louise 
Newman, Max H. 



Pien 



Pierson, Mrs. William 1 
Pines, Mrs. Joseph 
Pinkcrton, Airs. Robert 
Piatt, Mrs. Willanl 11. 
Poggeiilnii-ff. Robt. II. 
Poncake, C. O. 
Pond, Miss Pearl F. 
Pond. William H. 
Popper. Mrs. William C. 
Post, Mrs. James H. 
Post, Miss Jessie 
Potter, Mrs. R. Burnside 
Pratt, Abraham J. 



Pratt, Hai 


old I. 










J 'rest, Mr 


. Charle 


s. 


Price, Abr 






Prince, J. 


Lloyd 




Principe, Louis 




krosser, X 


iss Klla. 


w. 


Purely, Mi 


ss Maud 


H. 


Randall. A 


rs. H. S 




Rasch, G. 


William 





Redneld, Hon. William 
Reed, Mrs. George M. 
Reibstein, Dr. Harry B 
Reimer, Mrs. Rudolph 



Ripin, Seymour H. 
Ris. Mrs. Bernard 
* Rollins, Miss Serena 
Roberts, Miss Marion L 
"Robertson, Xorman A. 
Robinson, Dr. Morris 
Rodman, William A. 
Rogers. Mrs. John R. 



ienheim, Adolph M. 



Schneider. Fmil L. 
Schneider, Mrs. Louisa 
St liulinan I )a\ id 
Schumacher, Henry 
Schumann, Carl T. 
Scotto, Raphael 
Seaman, Miss Mary T. 
Seaver. Benj. F. 

Seely, Miss Sarah A. 
Seitz, Louis F. 
Shabshelowitz, Herman 
Shaw, Mrs. Aubrey N. 
Shaw, Mrs. Frank S. 

Sherwood, Mrs. John Lyman 

Shreeve, Mrs. Herbert E. 

Sluillz, Miss Selma 

Simpson, Miss Etta 

Slepian, Morris 

Skerry, Dr. H. W. 

Slee, John B. 

Sloan, Mrs. Matthew S. 

Sloan, Mrs. Russell R. 

Smiley, Daniel 

Smith, Mrs. Annie Morrill 

Smith, G. Foster 

Smith, George W. 



Ross, Leonard H. 
Rolh. Benjamin II. 

Rubel. Mrs. Samuel 
Rushmore. Dr. Jacques 
Ryder. Miss Harriet L 
Rynd, Dr. C. E. 
Sala. Rev. Father The 

Sat1rr!e( Mrs Herbert 



rR-le, 



Sayi 



\\ il 



Somer,' Dr.* James" A." 

Soniield, Charles 
Southard, Miss Edith Brett 
Staab, Philip 
Stabcr, Maud J. 
Stanley, A. W. 
Stedman, Miss Josephine 
Steinbrink, Meier 
Steliwagen, Fred. L. 
Stewart. Mrs. Seth Thayer 
Stone, Miss Grace A. 
Stoughton. Miss E. C. 



Vidand. Mrs. Robert P. 
Voletsky, Harry 
Von Campe, Mrs. Edward 
Von Glahn, Mrs. J. Henry 



Suthergill, Alfred George 


Waldeck, Ernest C. 


Swahn, Mrs. Fanny D. 


Walsh, James A. 


Swan, Frank C. 


Walton, Mrs. John J. 


Sweedler, Nathan 


Wardell, Mrs. Tylee W. 


Sweeney, G. Frank 


Wark, Charles F. 


Takami, Dr. T. Campbell. 


Warlow. Miss Dorothy 


Talmage, Mrs. John F. 


Watson, Andrew 


Taylor, Ronald 


Watson, Thomas G. 


Taylor, Miss Venetia C. 


Wayman, Robert 


Thayer, Mrs. John Van Buren 


Weber, Louis 


Thommen, Dr. August A. 


Week, Mrs. Edward 


Thompson, William Boycc 


Weekes, Francis 


Thurber, Ernest E. 


Weeth. Dr. Charles R. 


Tibbits. Charles A. 


Weinberg, Henry 


Tiebout, Cornelius IL, Jr. 


Weinsier, Mrs. Michael 


Tisch, Charles 


Weinstock. Miss Carrie J. 


Tomlin, Mrs. John R. 


Weller, H. R. 


Tommaso, Francis A. 


Wenzel, Fred. 


Traktman, Philip 


Werolin, Mrs. E. S. 


Traynor, John J. 


White. William Augustus 


Trenchard. Henry 


Whitlock-Stokes, Mrs. Hortcnsi 


Trismen, Frederick 




Trommcr, Geo. F. 


Wikstrom, Frank G. 


Trostler, Mrs. Emil 


Williams, R. L. 


Tuch, Michael 


Willard George N. 


Tumbridge. Mrs. S. S. 


Wilson, Mrs. Christopher W. 


Tuyeilorl, Miss Nellie 


Wing, Miss Beulah A. 



, Harry C. 

•ntine. Stephen 

Brunt, Jeremiah R. 
Buren, De Witt 

derbilt, Mrs. R. T. 
Norden, Mrs. Mar> 
Sinderen, Mrs. Adr: 



\\ In. i 

Woodwai 



ng, Mrs. Charles T. 



^I'MMAi-n < >i- .\n-:.\n ; U'RSTf.ii : 



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Total 



The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 



FRANK L. B ABBOTT 



MISS HILDA LOINES, Chairman 
FRANK L. BABBOTT, Ex officio EDWIN GOULD 

MRS. WILLIAM H. CARY WILLIAM T. HUNTER 

WALTER H. CRITTENDEN RALPH JONAS 

GATES D. FAHNESTOCK EDWIN P. MAYNARD 

MRS. LEWIS W. FRANCIS WILLIAM A. PUTNAM 

JOHN W. FROTHINGHAM ALEXANDER M. WHITE 

E;x Officio Members of the Board 
THE MAYOR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 
THE COMMISSIONER OF PARKS, BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden are eligible to membership. Members enjoy 
special privileges. Annual Membership, $10 yearly; Suramin-; \1 "u.b, t >hip, $2^ 
yearly; Life Membership, $500. Full inf , n mbei hip maj 

be had by add re- : n> Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Telephone, 6173 Prospect. 

The Botanic Garden is open free to the public daily from 8 a.m. until dark; 
on Sundays and Holidays open at 10 a.m. 

Entrances.— On Flatbush Avenue, near Empire Boulevard (Malbone Street) 
and near Mt. Prospect Reservoir; on Washii 

way and near Empire Boulevard; on !■ . ,1 ..<■ t of the Museum 

Building. 

The street entrance to the Laboratory Building is at 1000 Washington Avenue 
opposite Montgomery Street. 

To Assist Members and others in studying the collections the services of a 
docent may be obtained. This service is free of charge to members of the Botanic 
Garden; to others there is a charge of 50 cents per person. Arrangements must 
be made by application to the Curator of Public Instruction at least one week in 
advance. No parties of less than six adults will be conducted. 

To Reach the Garden take Broadway (B.M.T.) Subway to Prospect Park 
Station; Interboiough Subway to Ea-tLir , „,, M .to<i 

Flatbush Avenue trolley to Empire Boulevai - Fi nl I 1 true, Lorimer Street" 

1 l ' ' M " ' ' ■ ' rohn Place trolley to 

Sterling Place and Washington Avenue; Union Street and Vanderbilt Avenue 
trolleys to Prospect Park Plaza and Union Street. 



PUBLICATIONS 
BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 

RECORD. Established, January, 1912. An administrative periodical issued 
quarterly. Contains, among other things, ibe Annual Report of the director and 

lisccllaneous papers, and notes concerning Garden progress and events, 
one dollar a year; 25 cents a copy. 
Published irregularly. 

Volume I, Dedication I'aj'os: comprising .^ scientific papers presented at 
the dedication of tin- "al>ot " > \ lmildmc and pi mi hoiw>, April IQ-2I, 1917. 
521 pages. Price $3.50, plus postage. 

Volume II. The vegetation of Long Island. 

Montauk: A study of grassland a: 

Volume III. Vegetation of Mount Desert Island. Maine, and its environ- 
ment. By Barrinutoii Mnmv and Noiman 'I ,iylor. 151 pages. In press. 

CONTRIBUTIONS. Established, April 1,1911. Papers originally published 
in periodicals, reissued as " separates," without change of paging, and numbered 
consecutively. This series includes occasional papers, as well as those embodying 
the results of research done at the Garden, or by members of us staff or students. 
Twenty-five numbers constitute one volume. Price 25 cents each, $5.00 a volume. 

41. Factors infix ■» nfcrtion of ivheat by Tilletia Tritici and Tilletia 
Uteris. 24 pages, 4 plates. 1924. 

42. Variation among the sporelings of a fertile sport of the Boston fern. 27 
pages, 15 figures. 1924. 

43. Inheritance studies in Pisum. V. The inheritance of scimitar pod. 14 
pages, 10 figures. 1925. 

44. Modes of infection of sorghums by loose kernel smut. 17 pages, 3 plates. 
1925- 

45. The inheritance of resistance of oat hybrids to loose smut. 19 pages. 

ptrennial and woody plant groups. 10 pages. 1926. 

47. The cause of the persistent development af basal shoots from blighted chestnut 
trees. 7 pages, 1 figure. 1926. 

h s ologic races of oat smuts. 8 pages. 1927. 

49. Chromos. >, ■ , ., . - •• 
n,ys. 5 pages. 1927. 

50. The climate of / ong Island ; Its relation to forests, crops, and man. 20 
pages, 2 plates. 1927. 

LEAFLETS. Established, April 10, 1913. Published weekly or biweekly 
during April, May, June, September, and October. The purpose of the Leaflets 



■ flowering and 
date of ■ 
nformation about plant life for teachers 



Garden near the date of issue, and to give pop 



• numbers 5 c 

m , '.' i ■■■■■;!! ids Price based upon cost 

SEED LIST. Established, December, 1914. Since 1925 issued each year in 

January number of the Record. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY. Established, January, 1914. Pub- 

led, in cooperation with the Botanical Society of America, monthly, except 
"ing August and Scpt<aul>er. Subscription, $7.00 a year. 

ECOLOGY. Established, January, 1020. Published quarterly in cooperation 
:h the Ecologicai Society of America. Subscription, $4.00 a" year. 

GENETICS. Established, January, 1916. Bi-monthly Subscription, $6.00 a 



BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN RECORD 

n JULY, 1927 



Research 

AT THE 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden 

1910-1927 



' I am especially interested in the 
enlargement and improvement of 
botanic gardens for I believe that 
these institutions offer oppor- 
tunities for a thorough investiga- 
tion of many important long-time 
problems which are difficult, if 
not impossible, for any other in- 
stitution to satisfactorily provide. " 
—W. M. JARDINE, 



BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 

Scientific, Educational, and Administrative Officers 



Scientific and Educational 

The Staff* 

C. STUART GAGER, Ph.D., ScD., Pd.D., Director 

MONTAGUE FREE, Horticulturist 

ARTHUR HARMOUNT GRAVES. Ph.D., < urai - of Public 

ALFRED GUNDERSEN, Docteur de l'Universite (Paris), Curator of Plants 

ELSIE TWEMLOW HAMMOND, MA, Assistant Curator of 

Elementary Instruction 

GEORGE M. REED, Ph.D., Curator of Plant Pathology 

ELLEN EDDY SHAW, B.S, Curator of Elementary Instruction 

RAY SIMPSON, Librarian 

NORMAN TAYLOR, Curator of Plants 

ORLAND E. WHITE, ScD., Curator of Plant Breeding and Economic Plants 



Other Offlcera 
MARY AVERILL, Honorary Curator of Japanese Gardening 
Floral Art 
HAROLD A. CAPARN, Consulting Landscape Architect 



RALPH CURTISS BENEDICT, Ph.D., Resident Investigator 



KATHRYN CLARK, A.B., Instructor 
MARY ELLEN PECK, A.B., Research Assistant 

•'Akl'.K'J! k -.-.', \m v, A. I\ ,v .■,,,/; .I,.,\/.;,: 
ETHEL V. WOODWARD, Instructor 



EDITH R. DALY, Library Assistant 

■\l I' \ \ l \<\< \ DUI ■>}. Cimii.tnnl !*o v.h'l 

n . i > ^'!th rn r . i •,„„„;; t, - n - 
m \un ii. i-i niiv, ( „,„/..,■/„/ i v/ „,,.„ 

HESTER M. RUSK, A.B., " , < • . A <-.". nt 
MARGERY H. UDELL, : umlorkil ', sistanl 



Administrative 

DANIEL C. DOWNS, Secretary and . 
MAUDE E. VORIS,/. :• ,„ : - 



JEANNETTE M. MacCOLL, A.B., Secretary to the D\ 
I- Ft AN' X STOLL. AV;,^ > .». ■' , :, :, / K 
WILLIAM H. DURKIN, Membership Secretary 



LOUIS BUHLE, Photographer 
arranged alphabetically. 



BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 1 
PRELIMINARY STATEMENT 



of New York, jSq~, Chapter 178.) 

The following- pages are offered as a brief survey and report 
of the botanical research carried on at the Brooklyn Botanic 
Harden from its establishment in 7910 to date. 

In the Act of the New York State Legislature, authorizing the 
City of New York to enter into agreement with the Trustees of 
the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences for the establishment 
of a Botanic Garden in Brooklyn, it is specified, as quoted above, 
that the Garden shall include in its activities the advancement, as 
well as the diffusion, of knowledge. 

In the Agreement of December 28. 1909. between the City of 
New York (through its Board of Estimate and Apportionment) 
and the Trustees of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 
concerning the establishment of the Garden it is provided, in 
paragraph sixteen, that the director (there called the " Chief bot- 
anist ") and other members of staff "shall make botanic re- 
searches . . . and that they sJtall labor to the best of their ability 
for the advancement of botanical science." 

Thus, from (he beginning, botanical research has been an es- 
sential and, in fact, an obligators' J unci ion of the Garden, correl- 
ative with botanical education. 

Even before the site of the Garden had been turned over to our 

Trustees for administration, and while the three or four persons 

that constituted the Garden Staff were occupying temporary quar- 

1 Brooklyn Botanic Garden Rfxoub, Vol. X\ I. No. 3. July, 1927. 

143 



144 

ters in the .Brooklyn Museum building, investigations were well 
under way on the Local Flora, Plant Physiology, and Plant Pa- 
thology, and by the year 1921: there bad been published twenty-five 
numbers of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden Contributions embody- 
ing some of the results of these studies, and also Volume I of 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden Memoirs, 500 pages, comprising thirty- 
three research papers presented by members of the Garden Staff 
and visiting botanists at the dedication of tbe Laboratory Build- 
ing in 1917. 

Botanical research was, therefore, the first work initiated by 
the Garden, practically contemporaneous with the preliminary ad- 

Frotn the beginning, it was planned to empbasi/.e the experi- 
mental aspects of botany, with due attention also to studies of the 
vegetation within a radius of 100 miles of Brooklyn (the Local 
Flora area as defined some, years previously by the Torrey Bo- 
tanical Club.) 

This decision was made not only because generous provision 
already existed in a sister institution for the advancement of Sys- 
tematic Botany, but also because of the great theoretical and prac- 
tical importance of the problems of experimental botany. More- 
over, although the institutions and individuals then engaged in ex- 
perimental studies were producing results of a high order of 
merit, the provision for this \vnrk was meagre, out of all propor- 
tion to its great importance. 

The United Stales Department of .Agriculture, through its 
Bureau of Plant Industry and other Bureaus, and the State Agri- 
cultural Experiment Stations were then, as now, attacking with 
vigor and ability the innumerable problems of applied botany, 
with special reference to agriculture; but the effectiveness of such 
research is always governed by the state of our knowledge of 
fundamental principles and facts that may be applied in practice. 
It is, of course, a truism that we can have no applied science un- 
less we first have something to apply. For this we are dependent 
upon research in so-called " pure " science. It was for the pur- 
pose of helping to meet this need that the research program of the 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden was organized. 

Largely, though not. exclusively, confined to pure science, this 



145 

program aimed to include studies thai would yield results of more 
than mere academic interest results that were fundamental to 
the solution of problems in applied botany. 

Certainly no line of work could be more logical for an urban 
institution. The City has square miles of area in parks and water- 
sheds planted with trees and shrubs and laid out as lawns or grass- 
land. For all of its food the City is dependent upon agriculture 
and should (in its own interest, il through no higher motive) 
contribute whatever it can to make agriculture and horticulture 
more efficient. The breeding of a new food plant, or the dis- 
covery of how to control a plant disease destructive of crops, oper- 
ates in a very direct manner to reduce die cost of food to the con- 
sumer in the city — not to speak of the high value of advancing 
knowledge for its own sake. 

The Seventh Annual Report of the Botanic Garden (for 1917) 
contained the following statement : 

" Fundamental to all else is research. The greatest need of 
botany, the greatest need of the people from botany, is a deeper 
and wider knowledge of the principles of plant: life and their 
practical application in agriculture, horticulture, floriculture, for- 
estry, plant pathology, and other applied sciences. The judicial 
expenditure of very large sums for botanical research can be justi- 
fied, not only from the scientific, but also from the financial point 
of view. ... No error could be more disastrous than an attempt 
to build here a superstructure of public education concerning 
plants, without a suitable foundation in botanical research." 

In our Eighth Annual Report the matter was again emphasized 
with the statement that, 

" Nothing is now more important for us than to bend every 
effort to realize our plans, which include the increase as well as 
the diffusion of a knowledge of plant life. ... I feel that the 
Brooklyn Botanic < iarden is now at a critical stage of its develop- 
ment with refereiin i< this particulai work. Steps should be 
taken as soon as possible for the establishment of several research 
curatorships, with the necessary assistants and equipment, and 
provisions for publishing the results of research." 

Again, in the Ninth Annual Report (for 1910), the subject was 
stressed, with special reference to the need of pure science re- 



146 

search in Plant Pathology, and the favorable location of the Gar- 
den to become a center of such work. 

In response to these statements, the late Mr. Alfred T. White. 
" Father of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden," held several confer- 
ences with the director, and expressed his lively interest in the 
development of research at the Garden, and his belief that it 
should be placed upon a firm financial foundation. The matter 
was also discussed several times by the Botanic Garden Govern- 
ing Committee. Under date of November 15, 1920, Mr. White, 
then Chairman, addressed to the Committee a letter, offering, on 
behalf of himself and two oilier friends of the Garden, "to pro- 
vide in the next four years; that is, 1921, T922, T923, and 1924, 
a total sum of fifty thousand dollars (850,000), available for this 
new Department (i.e.. Plant Pathology), payable, if needed, to 
the amount of $20,000 the first year, $15,000 the second, $i 0,000 
the third, and $5,000 the fourth. The object in naming the larger 
sums the first two years is to cover the costs of providing neces- 
sary equipment for this Department, which will be needed as soon 
as it is set up. . . . Some time before the close of the four years 
it is reasonable to hope that the City may enlarge its annual ap- 
propriation for the support of the Garden sufficiently to provide 
for this Department: in later years." 

In the same letter Mr. White also expressed the hope that the re 
suits of the work would " so commend themselves as to enable us 
to secure from some of the Foundations a permanent endowment 
for this important Department. " I believe." be added, "that the 
establishment of this Department will add both to the reputation 
and usefulness of the Garden." 

This wise and generous gift made possible the creation of a re- 
search curatorship, and the appointment of the first incumbent, 
Dr. George M. Reed, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, as 
Curator of Plant Pathology. 

The stimulus of this gift, and the new work made possible bv 
it, was felt in all departments of (he Garden, for nothing encour- 
ages a body of scientific workers more than the .assurance that 
they have the understanding svmpnthv and support of a body of 

Mr. White's gift also strengthened the Garden in numerous 



147 

ways correlative with the stimulus to research — such as the ex- 
tension of the herbarium, the library, and the collections of living; 
plants, the more efficient care of the latter in the matter of disease 
detection and control, (he strengthening of oir bureau of public in- 
formation, the improvement of our service to the public schools, 
and the enrichment of our popular and technical publications. 

To the great sorrow and regret of us all Mr. White was not 
privileged to see the gratifving results of the work he had made 
possible, for the (iarden was deprived of his wise counsel and sup- 
port by his untmieh and accidental death on January 29, 1921. 

By the terms of Mr. While's gift it was provided that the prin- 
cipal sum was to be expended over a period of three years, but 
by wise economics the amount available was made to cover a four 

Mr. White's expressed hope that, by the end of the three-year 
period, some of the existing foundations would provide for the 
continuation of the work was not realized; but three friends of 
Mr. White and of the Garden, after conference with the Chair- 
man of the Division of Biology and Agriculture, of the National 
Research Conned, made the generous offer to underwrite the work 
for $7,500 a year for another three-year period. No gift to the 
Garden ever met a more urgent need or put more heart into the 
administration— not alone for the financial support thus assured, 
but for the confidence in the work and In undei .landing of the 
real character and purpose of the Garden of which it gave such 
substantial evidence. This pledge will carry the work to the close 
of the year 1928. Between now and then it is hoped that provi- 
sion may be found for placing our Plant Pathology and also our 
other research projects on a permanent financial basis. 

The following more detailed accounts of the past, present, and 
future of our research work have been prepared by those having 

This entire statement is offered as a report of progress, to give 
detailed information primarily to those who have administrative 
and financial responsibility for this work, and frankly in the hope 
that this statement may help to win sufficient confidence and dis- 
close so urgent a need as to secure additional financial support 
more nearly commensurate with the importance < 



the work. 



148 

The impression that obtains in sonic quarters that botanical re- 
search is alreach amply provided for in the existing governmental 
bureaus and stations and the botanical departments of our various 
universities led the writer to seek statements on this subject from 
a number of men whose opinion on such a matter should hav J 
weight. These statements are included on pages 182-188 fol- 

The director of the Garden would be glad to correspond or 
confer with anyone who might be interested to learn more of this 
work and to inspect it at first hand with a view to becoming better 
acquainted with its nature and needs. 

C. Stuart Gager. 



IlKARDLKSS IRIS I'ROJKCT 

The study of I'.eardless Irises is carried out in cooperation with . 
the American Iris Society. The main studies are concerned with 
the Japanese varieties, which are commonly referred to as Iris 
kaempfcri. The project includes: 

1. The identification of varieties and the nomenclature. 

2. Accurate description and illustration of varieties. 

3. Classification based upon color and other features. 

4. Problems in the culture of the Iris, including soil conditions. 

fertilizing, diseases, etc. 

Status: 

The project has invoked getting together as complete a collec- 
tion of varieties as possible. During the past years special efforts 



have been made to secure varieties 


; from all ; 


available sou 


axes. At 


present we have a fairly complet 


e collector 


1 upon whic 


h to base 


the studies. 








Accurate descriptions and w? 


itercolor 1. 


[lustrations 


of many 


varieties have been made, and son 


ic definite 


information 


regarding 


their culture is now available. 








Plans: 








In order to complete the study 


of these I 


rises it will 


be neces- 



to the trade every year it will he necessary to uhtrun these from 
the introducer. Further experiments on culture, etc., are very 
essential. 
Personnel: 

GmoRGE M. Reed, Curator of Plant PalhoUnjy {1921- ). 

See Personnel tinder " Pathology." p. 167. 

Moxtac.ue Free. Horticulturist (1924- ). Gardener, Uni- 

versity Botanic Garden, Cambridge. England, and student of 
botany, Cambridge Technical School ( 1 89c) -1906 ) ; Propagator, 
Warley Place Gardens, Essex. England (1906-^908); Student 
gardener and Sub-foreman (Alpine department). Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew (1908-19T2). Certificates from Kew and from 
Royal Horticultural Society (Public Parks examination). Assist- 
ant: gardener, N. Y. State College of Agriculture. Cornell Uni- 
versity (1912-1913); Instructor in Fori lcultiire and Superintend- 
ent of Greenhouses, School of Horticulture for Women, Ambler, 
Pa. (1913); Engaged in landscape gardening and commercial 
work (1913-T914); Plead ( iardener, firooklyu Potanic Garden 
(1914-1920) ; Horticulturist and Head Gardener (1920-1924). 

Marjorie R. Swai:ev, Kcsean h /Issistaii! {1026- ). See 

Personnel under " Pathology," p. 167. 



'LASS [FT CATION OF PLANTS 



Status and Plans: 

The Frankeniaceae. classified by the older hot? 
Bentham and Hooker ) near the Caryophyllact 
ler near the Tamaricaceae. show striking 
both these groups. The definite recognition < 
relationship would give the Frankeniaceae an 



tion in the general classification of the Dicotyledons. In 
this connection a better understanding of their internal rela- 
tionships would he desirable. The distribution of the family 
in widely scattered regions, such as Western North America, 
Southern South America, the Mediterranean Region. South 
Africa, and Australia, makes this question of special interest. 
Material and data have heen accumulated, and work will be 
continued along the lines indicated. 

Project 2. The Classification of Dicotyledons 
Scope: 

A study of the floral structures supposedly primitive in various 
families, and the geographical distribution of the supposedly 
primitive genera compared with that of the families. 

In such groups as the algae, ferns, and gynmosperms modern 
views of classification have gradually replaced the old pre- 
evolutionary systems. For the great group, the Dicotyledons, 
it is generally admitted that the old divisions, such as Apeta- 
lae, Polypetalae, Sympetalae. have no real natural basis. Yet 
at the same time other proposed arrangenienis have not be- 
come established upon sullicienth convincing liases to gain 
any very wide acceptance. Studies alread) made have re- 
lated largely to the comparative anatomy of (lower structures 
and of flower buds, especially of plaeentation and seeds; notes 
and drawings have accumulated along these lines. Papers 
have heen presented at various times before the Torrey Bo- 
tanical Club and the Systematic Section of the Botanical So- 
ciety of America, and abstracts of these papers have been 
published in Torrcya. My European trip in 1926 afforded 
opportunity for conferences on this subject with various sys- 

herbaria. 
Plans: 

To continue the investigation along the lines above indicated. 

Project 3. Nomenclature 

Correspondence during the past four years ( 0)23-26) with 

botanic gardens and other botanic centers in this country and 



abroad, has been publisher] from lime to lime in a series of seven 
" International Seed Exchange Communications." The object of 
this correspondence is to establish, if possible, an " International 
List of Genera of Plants in Cultivation." Communication No. 7 
appeared in May, 1926. 

Personnel for Projects 1, 2, and J.- 
Alfred Gunderskx, Curator of Plants {1924- ). A.B., 
Stanford University (189;); A.M.. Harvard (1907); Docteur 
de TUniversite de Paris (1910). Student, University of Min- 
nesota (1897-1900); Graduate Student, Harvard (1907); Grad- 
ute Student, Universities of Lille and Paris (1907-1910). 
Teacher of Botany, High School, Sauk Center, Minn. (1901) ; 
Teacher of Biology, High. School, Greeley, Colo. (1901-1903) ; 
Assistant in Physics. Weslevau I'niversity, Middletown, Conn. 
(1904-1905) ; Assistant, Arnold Arboretum, chiefly in connection 
with nomenclature in the PradJcy niblio<iraphy (1910-1913), 
Herbarium Assistant, Brooklyn Botanic Harden (1914-1915); 
Assistant Curator of the Herbarium (.1916-1919); Assistant 
Curator of Plants (1920); Associate Curator of Plants (1921- 

Publicatioas: 

A sketch of plant classification from Theophrastus to the pres- 
ent. Torreya 18: 212-219, 231-239. 1918. 

Plant families, a plea for an international sequence. New 
Phytologist 19: 264-27,1. 1920. 

lAolution in flowering plants. Leaflets XI, Xo. 9. 1923. 

International seed exchange. " < 'omnmnications," Xos. 1-7, on 
the subject of the possibility of securing the adoption of an 
International List of Plant Families and of the Genera of 
Plants in Cultivation. 1923-1926. 

Is an international list of genera of cultivated plants possible? 
Science 62 : 589. 1924. 

Some questions relating to the classification of flowering plants. 
Leaflets XIII, 10. 1925. 

The need of an enlarged list of botanical nomina conservanda. 
Science 64: 182-183. 1926. 



ECOLOGY AND PLANT GEOGRAPHY 

AND 

FLORA OF LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK 

Project i. Vegetation of Long Island, New York 

A study of the vegetation types of the island and the factors of 
their environment. 
Status: 

Muntauk and other grasslands reported upon or ready for pub- 

Forests: Not yet completed. 
Salt marshes : Not yet completed. 
Plans: 

To complete field work and laboratory studies on 
(7. Forests of Long Island. 

1. Description of types, and successional trends. 

2. Completion of study of soil potentialities of the island 

as related to production of forest and agricultural 

3. Securing data on relation of stages of succession as 

correlated with soil fertility, humus accumulation, 
and hydrogen-ion concentration; the time relation of 
these; the effects of vegetation types on the site. 

4. Continuing study of climatic factors involved, es- 

pecially evaporation and wind movement and their 
effect upon plant transpiration and plant distribu- 

b. Salt marshes of Long Island. 

1. Continuing work mi distribution of vegetation on the 
drained and undrained salt marshes, particularly 
with reference to availability of salt marsh mucks 
for agricultural purposes, ddie relation of salt- 
tolerant species to varying degrees of salinity in 
tidal creeks and marshes. 



Project 2. Flora of Long Island, New York 
Scope: 

A complete flora, with keys id the species, their frequency, dis- 
tribution, times of dowering, an<l evolutionary history of the 

Status: 

Over twenty thousand specimens and practically all printed 
records of the flora have been tabulated on species maps. On 
these outline maps, one for each species, has been plotted all 
available information to date. 
Plans: 

To complete field work and herbarium studies in order that the 
flora may, within the next two or three years, be published as 
a Memoir of the Garden. This involves collection of several 
thousand additional specimens and considerable walking over 
little known parts of the island. 
Proje 

Scope: 

A survey of this State Park, for the preparation of a report on 
the vegetation, suitable for distribution to the general public, 
but primarily lor the accumulation of accurate data on its 
forests and other vegetation types. 

To be completed during summer of 1927. 
Plans: 

To complete the field work during the summer of 1927, and to 
prepare a report for publication by the New York State Mu- 
seum at Albany, under whose auspices, with the cooperation 
of the Garden, the work is planned. To be published also as 
one of the Contributions of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 
Project 4. Vegetation of Mount Desert Island, Maine, and 

Scope: 

A study of the 
the different ft 
the factors of 



154 

Status: 

Field work and laboratory tests of soils completed during sea- 
sons of 1920-1923. Project completed with publication of 
results as Volume III of the Memoirs of the Brooklyn Bo- 
tanic Garden, issued June IO, 1927. 
Personnel: 

Norman Taylor, Curator of Plants (ip2 7- ). Cornell 
University (1900-1901). Museum Aid, New York Botanical 
Garden (1904-1907); Custodian of the Plantations (1908); As- 
sistant Curator (1909-1911). Curator of Plants, Brooklyn Bo- 
tanic Garden (1911-1920); Curator of Plants and Plantations 
(1921-1926). Editor, Torreya (1911-1922); Editor, Journal 
International Garden Club (1917 1920); Associate editor, Ecol- 
ogy (1920- ). 
Barrinoton Mookk, Editor of Ecology. ( For Project 4, only.) 

Publications 1911-1927 

Local llora notes. Torrcya 11: 170-174, 18(1-189. 1911. 
Some modern trends in ecology. Torreya 12: IIO-I17. 1912. 
On the origin and present distribution of the pine-barrens of 

New Jersey. Torreya 12: 2 jo -242. 1912. 
Plants collected on the South Georgia Expedition. Brooklyn 

Mus. Sci. Bull. 2: 60-63. 1914. 
Flora of the vicinity of New York ; a contribution to plant 
geography. N. Y. Bot. Gard. Memoirs 5: 1-683. 1915. 
of the vicinity of New York. 
I9I5- 
icinity of New York. 'Torreya 

A white cedar swamp at Merrick, Long Island, and its sig- 
nificance. N. Y. Bot. Gard. Memoirs 6: 79-88. 1916. 

Quantitative study of Raunkiaer's growth-forms as illustrated 
by the 400 commonest species on Long Island, New 
York. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Memoirs 1: 486-491. 1918. 

Plants and animals of Mount Marcy, New York. Ecology 1 : 
71-94, 204-233, 274-288. 1920. (With others.) 

Endemism in the Bahama flora. Ann. Bot. 35: 523-532. 



The 


growth- fori 


11s of the flor 




Am. 


Jour. 


Bot. 2:23-31 


Endemism 


in thi 


c flora of the 




16: 


18-28. 


1916. 



Plant composition and soil acidity of a Maine bog. Ecology 
2:258-262. 1921. (With B. Moore.) 

Vegetation of Montank; a study of grassland and forest. 
Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Memoirs 2 : 1-107. 1923. 

Age and area. Ecology 8: 283-284. 1927. 

The climate of Long Island. New York (Cornell) Agr. Exp. 
Sta. Bull. 458: 1-20. 1927. 

Vegetation of Mount Desert Island, Maine, and its environ- 
ment. Brooklyn Hot. Card. Memoirs 3: I-151. June 10, 
1927. (With Barrington Moore.) 



GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING 

Project 1 : Inheritance in plants 
Scope: 

1. The determination of the manner of inheritance of char- 
acters in certain plants, especially m the -enus Pisuin. 

2. The determination of the interrelations of the hereditary 
character-determining influences or elements (factors or genes). 

3. The influence of environmental differences on the expression 
of these hereditary units. 

4. The relation between the hereditary units or factors and the 



In the prosecution of these studies, it is planned to employ the 
best available material. So far, peas have been largely used, be- 
cause they have many peculiar adxanta^es over other plants. To 
some extent, castor beans, maize, and Nicoluuia have been em- 
ployed. 
Status: 

Studies on the inheritance of fasciation and other striking ab- 
normalities in Nicotiana, Chcnopudium, Celosia, Erujcron, maize, 
and other plants have been carried out and reported on in pub- 
lished form. Some types of fasciation (ribbon-like stems, in- 
crease in tissue, and often distorted flowers) have been found to 
be primarily the result of inheritance. Other types are mainly 
due to special kinds of environment. 



Studies of inheritance in castor beans have shown that the most 
extreme types of this very variable species will cross with each 
other, giving- fertile hybrids, which in some cases are much more 
vigorous and give greater yields of beans. Some forms are de- 
terminate in growth (annuals), while other forms will live for 
many years. The inheritance of the " non-exploding" and "ex- 
ploding" characters of the fruits have been investigated, as well 
as various pattern and color characters of the seeds and stems. 

Studies on peas have resulted in bringing together practically 
all the species, peculiar forms and sub-species, and many of the 
common commercial held and garden varieties of various coun- 
tries. These latter represent types from Abyssinia, Egypt, China, 
Japan, Chile, Persia, and the various European nations. The 
manner of inheritance of a large number of the characters and 
their interrelations with each other have been investigated. The 
relations between the factors so far studied indicate either ex- 
tremely "loose" or very "close" linkage conditions in peas. 
Certain forms when crossed with each other produce semi-sterile 
hybrids, and these in turn produce progeny (E,) that resemble 
one cr the other of the grandparents and are more fertile than 
the 1\ parent or are absolutely sterile. Other forms when 
crossed together produce much more vigorous first generation 
progeny and give larger yields. Still other forms when crossed 
produce yields but slightly, if any, above the average of the 
parents. 

Project 2 : Geographical distribution and inheritance of cold- 
resistance 

Studies on the' temperature relations of plants in reference to 
inheritance and geographical distribution have been started. 
Some sjK-cies appear to produce variants able to cope with lower 
temperatures than the majority of their individuals. 
Plans: 

It is planned to continue the studies along the lines indicated 
above (Projects i and 2). 
Personnel for Projects i and 2: 

Dr Orland E. White, Curator of Plant Breeding and Eco- 
nomic Plants {1924-1927). B.S., South Dakota State College 



157 

of Agric. & Mech. Arts, 1909; M.S. 1911; M.S., Harvard, 1912; 
Sc.D. 1913. Instructor and rt ,< mli ism tani in liutany, S. D. S. 
C, 1909-1911; assislant: in botany and genetics, Radcliffe, 1912- 
1913. Assistant curator of plant breeding, Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden, 1913-1915; Curator of plant breeding (1915-1924). 
Collaborator, Offices of Forage Crop and Horticultural Investiga- 
tions, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1915—1918; 1919-1923. 
Field specialist, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, July-Dec. 1918; Aug.- 
Nov. 1919. Botanisl. representing Ihissey Institution of Harvard 
and Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Mulford Exploration of the 
Amazon Basin Expedition, 1921-1922. Secretary, Round Table 
Conference on Agriculture and Population Increase, Institute of 
Politics, Williamstown, Mass., 1925. Editorial Board, Amer 
Jour. Bot., 1920-192 1 ; Editor, Genetics Section, Bot. Abstracts. 
1922-1926; Editor, Plant: Genetics Section, Biol. Abstracts, 1926- 
Mary Ellen Peck, Scientific Assistant {1925-1927). A.B., 
Vassar (1925); M.A., Columbia University (1927). Thesis 
(based on studies carried on at Brooklyn Botanic Garden) : " The 
inheritance of striped seed coat pattern in Pisum." 

Graduate Students: 

Stella G. Streeter (1915-1916). A.B., Smith College. 

Dorothy I. Neff (1923-1925). A.B., Vassar (1922) ; M.A., 
Columbia (1925). Scientific assistant, Brooklyn Botanic Gar- 
den (1923-1925). Thesis (based on studies made at the Brook- 
lyn Botanic Garden) : " The inheritance of green and yellow 
foliage colour and green and vellow pod rolour in 1'isnin." 

Mary Ellen Peck (1925-1927). For data, see above. 





Public; 




, (FOR PROJE( 


;ts I AND 


2, 


[913-1927 


The 


'thenn, 


of t- 
:s of 


.•ralulogical developmei 
heredity. Amer. Nat. 


47 


^ 


Forn 


il- 
lation ol 


: spurred flowers in 


hybrid G 


dc 


eolarias. J 


36: 54 

Study of cert 
ing on 


. 1912. 

ain floral abnormal 
theories of domim 


ities in Ni< 
nice. Am. 


- 


iaua and it 
Jour. Bot. 




36. 4 


fig- 


1914. 









Swingle on variation in F, Citrus hybrids and the theory of 
zygotaxis. Amer. Nat. 48: 185-192. 1914. 

A new etiological staining method. Seience 39: 394-396. 
1914. 

Inheritance studies in Pisum. I. Inheritance of cotyledon 
color. Amer. Nat. 50: 530-547. 1916. 

Studies of teratological phenomena in their relation to evolu- 
tion and the problems of heredity. II. The nature, 
causes, distribution, and inheritance of fasciation with 
special reference to its occurrence in Nicotiana. Zeit- 
schr. f. Abstamm.- u. Vererbungslehre 16: 49-185. 29 
fig. 1916. 

Inheritance of endosperm color in maize. Amer. Jour. Bot. 
4: 396-406. 1917. 

Inheritance studies in Pisum. II. The present state of knowl- 
edge of heredity and variation in peas. Proceed. Amer. 
Philosoph. Soc. 56: 487-588. 1917. 

Inheritance studies in Pisum. IV. Interrelation of the ge- 
netic factors of Pisum. Jour. Agric. Research 11: 167- 
190. 1917- 



Breeding new castor 


beans. Jc 


iur. Heredity 


9: 195-200. 5 


fig. 1918- 










Tnhcritaucc studies or 


1 castor bea 


ns. Brooklyj 


1 Botanic Card. 


Mem. 1: 513-5. 


21. 6 plate 


s (2 col. 


)■ 1 


918. 


Inheritance studies in 


Pisum. III. The i: 


aheri 


tance of height 


in peas. Mem 


. Torrey Bot. Club 


17: 


316-322. 1 fig. 




in Bolivia. 


Brooklyn 


. Bot 


anic Gard. Rec. 


11:93-105. 15 










Die Castorbohne ode 


r Rizinus. 


Handbu 


ch d 


er landwirtsch. 


Pflanzenziichtung. 2d ed., 


Vol. V., 


pp. 


197-199- I9 2 3- 




Pisum. V 


. The inl 




ince of scimitar 


pod. Genetics 


10: 197-21C 


). 1925. 






A leaf color seedling 


variation i 


n Duguc 




Jour. Heredity 


16:381-382. 1 


fig. 1925. 








Geographical distribution and th 


e cold-re 


sistii 


lg character of 


certain herbace 


ous perenn 


ial and v 




Y plant groups. 


Brooklyn Botaj 


lie Gard. R 


ec. 15: 1- 


-10. 


1926. 



159 

The Amazon valley. In "Naturalist's Guide to the Ameri- 
cas" (Published under auspices of Ecol. Soc. of Amer.), 
pp. 674-681. 1926. 

Color inheritance in four o'clocks. (By Francis P. Kiernan 
and Orland E. White.) Jour. Heredity 17: 383-386. 

The genetic analysis of peas (Pisum). (With Dorothy I. 
Neff.) Brooklyn Botanic Card. Rec. 15: 60-64. 1926. 

Heredity and variation in plants. Three chapters, pp. 935— 
IOOO, in "General I'.otany " by C. Stuart Gagcr, pub- 
lished by Blakiston. 1926. 

The genetic analysis of garden and field peas (Pisum). (With 
Dorothy l". Neff and Mary Ellen Peck.) Brooklyn Bot. 
Garden Rec. 16: 26-29. 1927. 

" Hardiness," mutation, and the geographical distribution of 
plants. Brooklyn Botanic Garden Rec. 16: 30-32. 1927. 



Project 3. Descriptive Study of Variation in Nephrolepis 

1. Bud variation in the Boston Fern {Nephrolepis cxaltata 
hostoiiiensis) and other types. 

2. Variation in the spore-fertile variety (Nephrolepis exaltata 
bostnui, usis mi /. rtilis). These studies involve the maintenance 
of as large a collection of distinct varieties as possible in the ex- 
hibition and experimental houses devoted to these ferns, the ob- 
taining and experimental study of any new varieties introduced 
by florists, and the propagation of new varieties in the Garden 
collections. In this connection the possibilities are only limited by 
space and time available. 

Status: 

During the last thirteen years extensive studies along these 
lines have been carried out. Collections of bud sports have been 
accessioned to over three hundred numbers from French and 
English, as well as from American sources, and numerous trips 
have been made to florists" establishments from Massachusetts to 
Ohio. About one hundred distinct varieties have been raised in 
the Botanic Garden greenhouses, mainly in the spore-fertile series. 



160 

In this connection practical studies of the horticultural qualities 
of whole series of the Boston Fern sports and the others have 
been made, both as a measure of cooperation with florists and for 
the very considerable increase in technical information gained 
thereby. In this cooperation sets of cultivated varieties have been 
quite widely distributed to florists and experiment stations to be 
tried out for their horticultural value. The results have been 
published in scientific and horticultural periodicals. 

Project 4. Comparative Morphology and Phylogeny of 
Nephrolephis Types 

Scope: 

1. The investigation of the relative degrees of differences be- 
tween feral types, bud sports, and sporeling varieties. In this 
problem there is involved the possible determination of the sys- 
tematic value of various anatomical differences among the differ- 
ent forms. The Garden collections comprise a considerable series 
of wild species, as well as the two types of variations indicated. 
Status: 

The progress in this project has been made through the experi- 
mental cultivation under similar conditions of the three types of 
forms, and in the gradual accumulation of representative photo- 
graphs and herbarium specimen-;. The project requires that the 
anatomical and morphological differences be intensively studied 
by histological means, and the Garden offers exceptional material 
for this purpose 

At the Grand Exhibition of Tropical herns and Orchids, held 
by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in Boston, September 
22-25, I 9 2I » th e Botanic Garden was awarded a special Gold 
Medal for its exhibit of ferns, which included 66 varieties of the 
Boston Fern and other forms o\ A\ ■/>/// -a It' pis (several of which 
originated at the Botanic ( iardeu), and 42 different kinds of ferns 
not in Neplirolrpis, chosen to give an idea of the diversity in the 
fern families. Twenty-hve genera comprising nine families were 



161 

Project 5. Cytology of Sports of Nephrolepis 
Scope: 

1. Nuclear differences corresponding to the wide external dif- 
ferences among these mutations. The determination of possible 
chromosome differences existing among the species and the two 
groups of variation, 1 prohl m <>l en great interest. 
Status: 

Work has not yet been initiated, but plans are being matured. 

Project 6. Conservation of Native Plants 
Scope: 

1. The consideration and trial of practical and experimental 
methods in conservation of rare native plants. 

The problem oi eonsen it ion of native plants comprises two 
quite different phases: first, the study of (he situation and of what 
plants require conservation; second, (he matter of practical meth- 
ods of preventing the extinction of rare plants. This latter prob- 
lem is extensively carried on by campaigns for education and the 
enacting of " game laws " for plants. The problem calls for con- 
sideration of experimental propagation and distribution of rare 
forms, and this phase touches upon matters of plant distribution. 

Status: 

In the popular phases of plant conservation a considerable num- 
ber of articles analyzing the problem have been written and given 
wide distribution. Reprinting various state laws, helping in 
the preparation of the law for New York State (enacted April 
13, 1926), lectures from the scientific standpoint, propagation and 
distribution of the I fart's Tongue fern (Scolopendrium vidgare) 
for naturalization purposes have been undertaken as an experi- 
mental demonstration of one fundamental method of conservation. 

Plans: 

To continue this and other work along similar lines. 
I'ersouuel for Projects 3, 4, 5, and 6: 

Ralph Curtiss Benedict, Resident Investigator (iyi6- ). 
Ph.B., Syracuse (1906); Ph.D., Columbia (1911) ; Aid, N. Y. 
Botanical Garden (1906- 1908) ; Instructor in botany, Fordham 
University (1910-1911); High School of Commerce, N. Y. City 



162 

(1912-1916); Chairman, Dept. Biology, Bushwick High School, 
N. Y. City (1916-1919) ; First Assistant, Department of Biology, 
Stuyvesant High School ( 1010 ); Instructor in botany, N. 

Y. University (Summer, 1910). 

Publications (for .Projects 3-6, 1916-1927) 

Some horticultural tern variations. Am. Fern Jour. 6: 8-15, pi. 
1-3. March, [916. 

The origin of new varieties of Nephrolepis hy orthogenetic salta- 
tion: I. Progressive variations. Bull. Torrey Club 43: 
207-234, pi. 10-15. June, 1916. 

An Adirondack fern-list. Am. Fern Jour. 6: 81-85. Septem- 
ber, 1916. 

The Nephrolepis collection at the Brooklyn liotanic Garden. 
Brooklyn Bot. Card. Record 5: 143-148. October, 1916. 
(Also published in several horticultural weeklies, Horticul- 
ture, Florists' JLvchange. and in modified form in Bailey's 
Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. Vol. IV. 

Nephrolepis nutrition. Amor. Fern Jour, n: 41-43. October, 

Is Hotrychium dissectum a sterile mutant? Amer. Fern Jour. 

11: 27-29. March, 

1921. 
Tropical ferns. Pp. 1-8. September. (Specially printed in 

connection with the Fern Exhibition of the Massachusetts 

Horticultural Society. September 22-25.) 
The Nephrolepis chart. Card. Chron. of America 26: 2. Feb- 

urary, 1922. Printed also under various titles as follows: 
The genealogy of Nephrolepis. 77/r Card en 86: 96. February 

25, 1922. 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden fern chart. Flower Grower 10: 53. 

March, 1922. 
Family tree of Boston fern. Horticulture 35: 197. April 25, 

1922. 
The Boston fern and its sports, by G. Thommen | Review]. 

Florists' Fxchangc 53: 1071. April 29, 1922. 



163 

The origin of new varieties of Nephrolepis by orthogenetic salta- 
tion. Amer. Jour. Bot. g: 140-157. March, 1922. Re- 
printed as Brooklyn Hot. Card. Contr. No. 27, March. 

Game laws for ferns and wild flowers. Amer. Fern four. 12 : 33- 
45. April-June, 1922. ( Reprinted with special cover and 
subtitles.) 

Recent fern literature. Amer. Fern Jour. 12 : 58-60. April- 
June, 1922. 

Polypodium vulgare as an epiphyte, .liner. Fern Jour. 12: 63- 
64. April- June, 1922. 

Evolution as illustrated by ferns. Brooklyn Bot. Card. Leaflets 
X 3 . May 3, 1922. 

Ferns as house plants. Amer. Fern Jour. 12: 77-92. July-Sep- 
tember, 1922. (Reprinted as Brooklyn Bot. Card. leaf- 
lets X 9 - 10 . October 18.) 

Variations in ferns. Amer. Fern Jour. 12: 93-96. July-Sep- 
tember, 1922. 

Ferns in the news — what ferns should be protected in your state? 
Amer. Fern Jour. 12: 98-99. July-September, 1922. 

A campaign for wild plant conservation. Amer. Fern Jour. 12: 
1 31-133. October-December, 1922. 

What we know about Boston ferns: What Boston ferns is best? 
Nine weekly articles in the /Jurists' h'.xchantje. October 
28-December 30, with the exception of December 23, 1922. 

What we know about Boston Irnis : What Boston fern is best? 
Articles in Florists' F.-vehamje. January 6. February 10, 
1923. 

Progress of the Fern Society's program for wild plant protection. 
Amer. Fern Jour. 13: 18-22. January- March, 1923. 

Which Boston fern is best? Prospectus of an experiment to 
answer this question. Jour, of Heredity 13: 255-263. 
(June, 1922.) Issued February 15, (023. 

The mosquito fern. Amer. Fern Jour. 13: 48-52. April-June, 
1923. 

Wild plant conservation in Connecticut, a suburban state. Amer. 
Fern Jour. 13: 56-59. April-June, 1923. (Reprinted as 
Brooklyn Bot. Card. Leaflets XI 5 . May 30.) 

Notes on the program for wild plant protection. Amer. Fern 
Jour. 13: 59-60. April-June, 1923. 



\Mi\ MH<i\ t'riii-; Xalure Study Ret: 19: 1S5-186. May, 1923. 
Will florists aid to preserve the wild (lowers? Card. Chron. of 

America 27: 155. June, 1923. 
New bud sports in Nepln nlepis iUiuddyn Bot. Card. Contr. 

No. 32. June. (Reprinted from Genetics 8: 75-95. 

January, 1923.) 
Artificial varieties under natural conditions. Can the bud sports 

of the Boston fern thrive under conditions of natural selec- 
tion? Jour, of Heredity 14: 115-116. June, 1923. 
Game laws for the conservation of wild plants. Science 58: 39- 

41. July 20, 1923. 
More fern material used by florists. Amcr. Fern Jour. 13: 96- 

97. July-September, 1923. 
The moss-leaved fern. Jour, of Hered. 15: 19-24. January, 

1924. 
The conservation of beauty. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Leaflets XIP. 

April 10, 1924. 
Problems in the study of the spinulose ferns. Amcr. Fern Jour. 

14: 69-74. July-September, 1924. 
Variation among sporelings of a fertile sport of Boston fern. 

Jour, of Hered. 15: 379-394. September, 1924; 15: 421- 

431. October, 1924. {Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Contrib. No. 

42.) 
The conservation of beautiy. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Leaflets 

XIIP- 6 . June 10, 1925. 
New plant conservation laws. American Fern Journal 16: 59. 

April-June, 1926. 
Saving the hart's tongue. American Fern Journal 16: 33-44. 

April-June, 1926. 

Project 7. Experimental Evolution 
Scope: 

To study the possible effect of radium rays in modifying the 
egg-cells and sperm-cells of plants in such a way as to alter in- 
heritance. In order to study the effect of any agent in modify- 
ing inheritance it is necessary to use only pedigreed plants whose 
behavior as to variation and inheritance has been studied during 
.: -.rue:- ;>i ■ ; :m le ra i i< ;i is . Such t \ pern i iet it;d material is available 



as a result of the genetical studies of Jimson Weed {Datura 
.' tramonium) that have been carried on during the past several 
years by Dr. A. F. Blakeslee, at the Station for Experimental 
Evolution (Carnegie Institution of Washington) at Cold Spring 
Harbor, L. I. The work, for the present, will be confined to ex- 
posing egg- and sperm-cells of pedigreed plants of this species to 
radium rays. The project is in continuation of experiments made 
in 1906 in which pollen-grains and egg-cells of the Evening-Prim- 
rose (Oenothera biennis) were exposed to radium rays. The ef- 
fects of those experiments appeared to be confined to the somatic 
characters of the offspring, without affecting their genetic con- 
stitution. 
Status: 

Using plants that had been inbred by selling for nine genera- 
tions, ovules in flower-buds of different ages were exposed to the 
gamma rays given off from radium emanation contained in ;: 
sealed capillary glass tube. Seeds from a single capsule, so 
treated, yielded plants as follows: (a) 17.7 per cent, chromosomal 
mutants (chiefly non-disjunctional forms) — a much higher per- 
centage than has ever been obtained from untreated capsules, the 
average for over 15,000 offspring being 0.47 per cent.; (b) A 
new compound chromosomal type, called "Nubbin"; (c) Two 
new gene mutants out of 18 individuals tested. It is believed that 
the radium rays may be considered as the chief factor in produc- 
ing most, if not all, of these three types of results. 
Plans: 

To continue and extend this work, and to make cytological 
studies of egg- and sperm-cells exposed to the radium rays. 
Personnel for Project 7: 

C. Stuart Gager, Director (rpio- ). A.B., Syracuse 
(1895), Sc.D. (1920); Pd.M., New York State Normal College 
(1897); Pd.D. (1901); Ph.D., Cornell (1902). Professor, bi- 
ological sciences, New York State Normal College (1897-1905); 
Director of laboratories, N. Y. Botanical Garden ( 1 906-1 908 ) ; 
Professor of botany, University of .Missouri ( 1908-1910). 

(This project is being carried on in collaboration with A. F. 
Blakeslee, Member of Staff. Station for hxperimental Evolu- 
tion, Cold Spring Harbor, L. I.) 



Publications (1916, 1927) 

Present status of the problem of the effect of radium rays on 
plant life. Mem. New York Bot. Card. 6: 153-160. 31 
August, 1916. (Brooklyn Bot. Card. Contributions, No. 
150 

Chromosome and gene mutations in Datura following exposure 
to radium rays. Proe. Nat. Acad. Sci. 13: 75-79. Feb- 
ruary. 1927. (Brooklyn Bot. Card. Contributions, No. 
49-) (With A. F. Blakeslee.) 



Project 1. Disease Resistance in : 
Scope: 

f. I'lie determination of the presence or absence of 1 
particular hosts lo certain parasites. 

2. The influence of external conditions upon resistance and sus- 
ceptibility of hosts to particular parasites. 

> The possible | >h\ sioloo-u ,peeiali/.a I ion ot parasite- 

5. The inheritance of the disease-resistant quality,, 

In these studies it is planned to use whatever suitable material 
is available. During the past few years the investigations have 
been carried out with the cereals and the cereal smuts, since these 
offer special advantages in the prosecution of the general problem. 
Status: 

Extensive studies on the varietal resistance of various cereals 
to their specific smuts have been carried out. The more extensive 
experiments have been with oats and sorghum. As a result of 
these studies a few varieties have been found to be resistant. 
Some knowledge of the influence of external conditions, such as 
temperature, moisture and soil reaction, has been obtained and 
served as a basis for the prosecution of other pluses of the studies. 

Evidence of extensive host specialization of some of the smuts 
has been obtained. The existence of these races naturally com- 
plicates the problem of securing disease-resistant varieties. The 
progeny of various crosses between susceptible and resistant 



Plans: 

Many unsolved problems in connection with the general project 
remain for solution. It is proposed to continue studies along the 
most promising lines. At present, studies on the inheritance of 
disea ' 'sistance in hybrids md tin dise< i\ ei \ ot specialized races 
of parasites are being prosecuted. 
Personnel for Project i: 

George M. Reed, Curator of Plant Pathology (1921- ). 
A.B., Geneva, 1900; A.M., Wisconsin, 1904; Ph.D., 1907. Pro- 
fessor Natural Science, Amity (i<)<>o io'V,) ; Assistant in Botany, 
Wisconsin (1904-1907); Instructor (1907); Assistant Professor 
of Botany, University of Missouri, 1907-1912; Instructor in 
Botany, New York University, summer 1912; Professor of Bot- 
any, University of Missouri, 1912-1918; Resident Investigator, 
Brooklyn Fotanic Pardon, summers iou> in]y ; pathologist, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, 19 19-1920. 

Marjorie R. Swaisey, Pcscarcli Assistant (1926- ) ; A.B.. 
Stanford University (1923); M.A., Columbia (1926); Grad- 
uate Student, Stanford ( ] o-M ) ; Columbia (1024- ). 
Graduate Students: 

James A. Faris, Research Fellow (1921-1924) ; National Re- 
search Fellow (1924). B.S.A., Missouri (1916) ; M.A., Ne- 
braska (1920). Professor of Untune, junior College, St. Joseph, 
Mo. (1917-1918); Pathologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture 
(1918-1920) ; Pathologist, Kstacion Agroimmiea, College of Agri- 
culture, Santo Domingo (1920-1921). Senior Pathologist, Tropi- 
cal Research Pound alio si (<<,>'/- ). 

Dorothy P. Tuthill, Student in Mycology and Plant Pa- 
thology (1921-1922). A.B., Adelphi College (Brooklyn) ; M.A., 
New York University (1922). Thesis based on studies carried 
out at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden on Diseases of Ornamental 
Plants. Graduate student, New York University (1921-1922); 
Teacher of Biology, Adelphi College, Brooklyn (1915-1916). 
Laboratorv Assistant. Ibologv, DeWitt Clinton High School 
(I9I7- )• 



Laura Alma Koi.k, Scientific Assistant ( /02./-7025). A.B., 
Wellcsley (1913) ; M.A., Columbia (1923). Student. Summer 
Session, Cornell (1915). Assistant to New York State Botanist 
(1917-1918). Instructor in Biology, Woman's College, Univer- 
sity of Delaware (1926- ). 

Publications, i^Z~^V 
(a) By Dr. Reed and Collaborators: 

Varietal resistance and susceptibility of Sorghums to S phacclo- 
tlicca sort/hi (Link) Clinton and Sphacelo/heca cruenki 
(Kuhn) Potter. Mycologia 15: 132-143. May 1923. 

The smuts of cereals: Their nature, economic importance, and the 
significance of recent discoveries. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. 
Rec. 13: 103-124. July 1924. 

Physiologic races of oat smuts, .liner. J num. Bot. 11: 483-492. 
July 1924. 

Varietal susceptibility of wheat to Tilletia laevis Kuhn. Phy- 
topathology 14: 437-450. Oct. 1924. 

The inheritance of resistance of oat hybrids to loose smut. My- 
cologia 17: 163-181. July-Aug. 1925. 

Further evidence of physiologic races of oat smuts. Mycologia 
19: 21-28. Jan.-Feb. 1927. 

Influence of cnvironal factors on the infection of sorghums and 
oats by smuts. L experiments with covered and loose 
kernel smuts of sorghum. (With James A. Faris.) 
Amer. Jour, hoi any 11: 502-512. Oct. 1924. 

Influence of environal factors on the infection of sorghums and 
oats by smuts. IT. Experiments with covered smut of 
oats and general considerations. (With James A. Faris.) 
Amer. Jour. Botany 11: 579-5^9. Nov. 1924. 

Varietal susceptibility of oats to loose and covered smuts. (With 
Marion A. Griffiths and Fred N. Briggs.) U. S. D. A. 
Bull. 1275: 40 pages. April 1925. 

Sorghum smuts and varietal resistance in sorghums. (With L. 
E. Melchers.) U. S. D. A. Bull. 1284: 56 pages. 10 pi. 
Aug. 1925. 

Relative susceptibility of selections from a bulghum-Swedish Se- 
lect cross to the smuts of oats. (With T. R. Stanton.) 
Journ. Agr. Res. 30: 375-39 1 - 4 pi. Feb. 1925. 



Experimental .studies on head smut of corn and sorghum. (With 
Marjorie Swabc\ and Fnura A. Folk.) Torrcy Hot. Club 
54:295-310. 5 pi. April 1927. 

(a) By Dr. lliris and Collaborator: 

Anthracnose of the Boston fern. Mycohxjia 15 : 89-95. March 
1923. 

Factors influencing infection of / / ordcum sativum by Ustilago 
hordci, Amcr. Jouni. Bot. 11: 189-214. March 1924. 

Factors influencing the infection of wheat by Tilletia tritici and 
T. lacvis. Mycolof/la 16: 2- ) i)-2Hj. Nov. 1924. 

Physiological specialization of I'stilaqo hordci. Phytopathology 
i4:537-557- Dec. 1924. 

Modes of infection of sorghums by loose kernel smut. (With 
George M. Reed.) Mycologia 17: 51-67. 3 pi. Mar- 
Apr. 1925. 



Project 2. Diseases of Trees 

Problem i. Diskask Bknistaxck i:\ rur. American Ctimstnut 
Scope: 

To develop a strain of the American Chestnut (Castanea den- 
tata) which will resist the attacks of the chestnut blight fungus 
( EndotJi ia parasitica) . 

This problem has been studied since 1918 in cooperation with 
the Office of Investigations in Forest Pathology. Bureau of Plant 
Industry, FT. S. Dept. of Agriculture. A survey of the native 
chestnut in the New York region was made in 19 18 with the pur- 
pose of locating resistant trees. Since the blight has probably 
been present in this region longer than in any other part of the 
country, it was Udievcd 1 li.it immune or partly resistant individ- 
uals could be most easily located here. Partly resistant trees were 
found at Inwood, Manhattan, at Hollis, L. I., and at Valley 
Stream, L. I. Several series of trial inoculations on these trees 
proved their suspected resistance to be a fact. Since that time all 
of the trees at Inwood and Mollis have died. Several good in- 
dividuals still remain at Valley Stream. 



170 

It has been nuind that basal shoots develop from trees killed 
to the base by the blight. bxperimcntal work has proved beyond 
a doubt that the roots and root collar are more resistant to the 
fungus than the trunk. 

It has been found that many basal .shoots live long enough to 
bear nuts and thus will reproduce the species. 
Plans: 

1. To continue the search for resistant stock. 

2. By cross breeding the more resistant stock already found 
with resistant Japanese or Chinese species to develop a strain to 
replace the American chestnut. (The Japanese and Chinese chest- 
nuts are not good timber trees. It should be possible to combine 
the greater resistance of the Chinese and Japanese species with the 
timber qualities of the American chestnut.) 

3. To grow young trees of American chestnut, and to determine 
whether environmental eonditioiis affect (he quality of resistance. 

4. To determine experimentally the cause of resistance. 

Problem 2. The Nectria Canker oe the Birch 
Scope: 

To work out in detail the lifediistor\ of the fungus causing the 
Nectria Canker of the Birch (Be tula), to determine the amount 
of damage it causes in the Birch and develop methods for its 
control. 
Status: 

By inoculations made in Connecticut and Maine in 1918 and 
1924, respectively, the parasitic nature of the fungus has been 
proved, and the belief that it is the immediate cause of the canker 
has been confirmed. It has been found further that the growth 
of the parasite is slow, and there is abundant evidence at hand to 
prove that it grows in the wood as well as in the living bark. 
Plans: 

1. By laboratory studies to work out the morphology of the 

2. To determine the way in which the disease is carried to 
healthy individuals. 

3. To determine the rate of growth ol the fungus in the host. 



4. To study the method of reproduction of the parasite. 

5. To devise means of control of the disease. 
Personnel for Project 2: 

Dr. Arthur Harmouxt Cranes, Curator of Public Instruc- 
tion (1921- ). A.B., Yale, 1900; Ph.D., Yale, 1907; Univ. 
of London, 19 14-15. Asst. in botany, Sheffield Scientific School, 
and Forest School, Yale, i<;02 04; Instructor in forest botany, 
Forest School, 1904-06; Instructor in botany, Yale, 1906-09; 
Assistant Professor, 1909-14; Associate Professor of biology, 
Connecticut College for Women, 1916-17; Pathologist and collab- 
orator, Office of Investigations in Forest Pathology, U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, i<)i8-2i ; collaborator, 1921- 

Hester M. Rusk, Curatorial Assistant (1926- ). A.B., 
Columbia (1912) ; A.M. (1917). Instructor in Agricultural Bot- 
any, Agricultural High School, Cniversity of Nebraska (1913- 
1915) ; Assistant: in Botany, Barnard College (1915-1918); In- 
structor (1918-1920); Technical Assistant, X. Y. Botanical Gar- 
den (1920- 1 926). 

Disease resistance in the American chestnut. Rept. 10th Ann. 

Meeting of Northern Nut Growers Ass'n 1919: 60-67. 

1921. 
The Yelanconis disease of the butternut (Juglaus cincrea L.). 

Phytopathology 13: 411-435. 5 fi g-> 2 P ] - l 9^Z- 
A preliminary list of native and naturalized \vood\ plants oi 

Greater New York. Brooklyn Hot. Card. L.eajlcts 13: 7-9, 

1-12. 1925. 
The present continued development ^\ basal shoots from blighted 

chestnut trees. Science, N. S. 63 : 164-165. 1926. 
An unusual insect gall on scarlet oak (Quercus coccinca, Muench) 

Torreya 26: 1-2. 1 text fig. 1926. 
The cause of the persistent development of basal shoots from 

blighted chestnut trees. Phytopathology 16: 615-621. 1 

text figure. 1926. 



HERBARIUM 
The nucleus of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden Herbarium was 
about 300 specimens collected within the borders of the Garden 
during 191 2. This collection was augmented the same year by the 
gift of Dr. E. W. Olive, then curator of public instruction, of his 
private herbarium of 1,000 specimens of flowering plants, and also 
by the purchase of 2,900 specimens of parasitic fungi. At the 
close of 1912 the total number of specimens was about 4,200. In 
accordance with a resolution of the Executive Committee of the 
Board of Trustees adopted on October 14, 1913, on recommenda- 
tion of Mr. Alfred T. White, providing for the transfer of bo- 
tanical activities of the Brooklyn Museum, with the exception of 
the Botanical Museum, to the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the entire 
Museum Herbarium, formerly in charge of Mr. E. L. Morris, 
curator of natural science, was transferred to the Garden in 
November, 191 3. At the time of this transfer, the herbarium 
comprised the collections of William Calverley, Rev. Charles H. 
Hall, Rev. George D. Hulst, Rev. J. L. Zabriskie, Edward B. 
Sturges, E. S. Miller, and others, including approximately 30,000 
specimens of vascular plants, 5,000 bryophytes, 400 lichens and 
1,800 algae. From time to time, the Herbarium lias been increased 
by gift, exchange, collecting, or purchase. Among this material 
may be mentioned the following: 

1. Vascular Plants 
a. General Herbarium 

North Eastern U. S. New York State: Mrs. O. P. Phelps, 
800; N. Taylor, 500; John McCallum, 1,700; E. B. Southwick 
1,000. Eastern U. S. : E. L. Morris. 0,000 (rich in Plantago) 
W. M. Van Sickle, 4,000 ; R. M. Harper, 653 ; H. M. Denslow 
214 orchids. Indiana and S. Dakota : E. W. Olive, 1,000. Michi 
gan: F. C. Gates, 744. Missouri: II. Eggert, 294. New Jersey 
L. II. Lighthipe, 7,000. New jersey and New York: Henry 
Dautun, 3,000 (not inclinim- .luplica! •• \ 

Southern U. S. Arizona': J. A. Harris, 223. New Mexico : H. 
D. House, 1,607. Texas, etc.: L. PI. Lighthipe, 150; G. W. Let- 
terman, 150. 



Western U. S. Calif, and Western States: A. A. Heller, 
10,000. Montana : J. E. Kirkwod, 104. Oklahoma : W. H. 
■ iv -, „ ton - "■.!. Xeller, 350. 

Alaska: R. A. Pope, 285. 

West Indies. Jamaica : J. A. Harris, 175. Porto Rico : A. Fred- 
holm, 5,100. San Domingo, etc. : N. Taylor, 500. Trinidad : W. 
E. Broadway, 115. 

South America. Amazon Region : Mulf ord Biol. Expedition, 
471. Argentine: Walter Fischer, 284. Bolivia: Mulford Biol. 
Exploration, 642. 

Europe: Mrs. C. Strieff, 250. Austria: Dr. Henry Zerny, 
710. Greece: N. Ballalas, 216. North Wales: A. H. Graves, 
131. Roumania : Botanic Garden, Cluj, 652. 

Asia India: L. A. Kenoyer, 729. Philippine Islands: C. A. 
Wenzel, 870. Punjab and Kashmir: R. R. Stewart, 522. South 
China: Canton Christian College, 1,549. 

South Sea Islands: Whitney South Sea Expedition, 579. 

b. Long Island Herbarium 
Long Island Historical Society, 10,000; W. C. Ferguson, 1.380; 
Etta Powers, 539; A. E. Hamilton, 706; Everett P. Martin, 100; 
E. S. Miller, 345; J. A. Harris, 240; Fanny A. Mulford, 4,000. 

c. Cultivated Plants 

6,000 specimens from the Arnold Arboretum collected by Dr. 
Camillo Schneider. About 10,000 specimens collected in Brook- 
lyn Botanic Garden. 

2. Fungi 

The Mycological Herbarium includes the following exsiccati: 
Bartholomew, E., North American Uredinales ; Brenckle, J. F. ; 
Fungi Dakotenses ; Ellis, J. B., North American Fungi ; Ellis, J. 
B., & Everhart, B. M., North American Fungi; Fungi Colum- 
biani ; Griffiths, D., West American Fungi ; Kabat & Bubak, Fungi 
imperfecti exsiccati ; Kellerman, W. A., Ohio Fungi ; Krieger, W., 
Schaedliche Pilze; Migula, \\ . ( ryptog; mm < ienuaniae, Austriae 
and Helvetiae; Raciborski, M., Mycotheca Polonica; Seymour, A. 
B., & Earle, F. S., Economic Fungi; Sydow, P., Fungi exotici, 



Phycomycetcn and Protomyceten. rredineeu, Cstilagineen, My 
cothcca Germanica; Tranzschel. V., & Serebrianikow, J., My- 
cotheca rossica ; Zillig, IT., Ustilagineen Europas. 

The Garden has the very valuable mycological collection of Dr. 
Franz Bubak, formerly Professor of Botany and Plant Pathology 
in the Royal Agricultural Academy, and Director of the Botanical 
Garden, Tabor, Bohemia. This collection consists of over 33,000 
specimens. Many of these served as the basis for Dr. Bubak's 
numerous contributions to mycology and plant pathology. He 
described more than 500 new species of fungi and his original or 
type specimens are represented in the collection. 

In 1918, the Garden received from Mr. Harold Wingate his 
collection of Myxomycetes of 130 species, including numerous 
type species, mostly from near Philadelphia, from the region where 
Dr. Rex, well known collector of Myxomycetes, gathered most of 
his material. 

In 19 1 3, the Botanic Garden received from Annie Morrill 
Smith (Mrs. Hugh M. Smith) her entire collection of mosses 
(10,124) and hepatics (T40). together with her invaluable lilirarv 
covering the same groups. 1 This is the largest single gift of her- 
barium and librarx material c\ei received b\ the I'otanic Garden, 
and has provided an admirable foundation upon which to build 
along the lines represented by the collections. 



The collection includes about _\o<x) sheets from the Museum, 
the Collin-1 loldtn Seiche! Phvtniheca 1'oreali \mericana, C. F. 
Durant's Algae and Corallines of the Bay and Harbor of New 
York (1850), Mr. D. I. Banks' Long Island Algae, and others. 
Also, Index .■lit/arum I ' uirersalis, of Josephine F. Tilden. 

In the development of scientific work at the (harden, emphasis 
has been placed on the experimental aspects of botany, and there 
has been no effort to make the Brooklyn Botanic Garden pri- 



being developed rather 



175 

the living collections and to investigations in progress, with a view 
to including plants from all parts of the world of some special 
interest, whether horticultural, economic, or scientific. From the 
last point of view it is sought to have representatives of all the 
families of the higher plants, and particularly of those genera in 
the various families which appeal to suggest the primitive condi- 
tion of the family. 



LIBRARY 

The Botanic Garden library comprises at present over 11,000 
volumes and more than S,^n<> pamphlets. .During 1926, there 
were received current numbers of 847 periodical and serial pub- 
lications and government documents, devoted exclusively, or in 
part, to botany and various aspects of plant life and gardening. 
These include practically all of the more important botanical 
journals published. The card catalogue contains more than 35,- 
500 Torrey Botanical Club index cards and over 19,500 Index 
Alganim Universalis cards. Among special collections may be 
mentioned the following: 

1. The Library of Annie Morrill Smith (Mrs. Hugh M. 
Smith), from 1902 to 1905 co-editor, and from 1906 to 191 1 
editor of the Bryologist. This collection comprises chiefly works 
on mosses, hepatics, and lichens, and includes many rare and im- 
portant items. 

2. A growing collection (127 volumes as of January 1, 1927) 
of pre-Linnacan works, including a number of botanical incunab- 
ula. These foundational works, including numerous rare items, 
and most of the important herbab, are being built up with the in- 
come from the Benjamin Stuart ( iager Memorial Fund, presented 
to the Garden in 19 18 by two anonymous donors. The principal 
of this fund was originally $10,000, and has since been increased, 
by reinvestment, .to $13,417.20. The annual income is used to 
purchase rare or expensive works that the library might not other- 
wise be able to afford. 

3. The pamphlet collection has been built up by purchase and 
exchange and by correspondence with investigators and in- 
stitutions throughout die botanical world, and is neb in authors' 



176 

separata and publications issued originally as pamphlets. Each 
pamphlet is bound and readily accessible on the open shelves. 

In addition to a portion of the I'.otanic Garden Collections Fund 
(contributions to which are solicited annually), and a portion of 
the income from other sources, the entire income from the fol- 
lowing permanent funds is devoted to library purposes in the 
amounts indicated: 

i. George C. Brackett Library Fund ($500) $ 27.48 

2. Benjamin Stuart ('.a R er Memorial Fund ($U4l7-2o) 737-92 

3. Martha Woodward Stutzcr Memorial Fund ($10.000) 375-00 

Total $1,040.40 

The income from other soun 
\y)2J, for the purchase o! publu 
of about $4,400. 

The library is administered strictly as a reference library, and 
is open free to the public daily (except Sundays and Holidays) 
from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m.. Saturdays from 9 a.m. until noon. By 
special arrangement investigators may have access to the library 
outside of official days and hours. 



PLANT HOUSES 
The plant houses comprise the following: 

a. Conservatories, of 9 houses, containing a collection of tend 

and tropical plants. 
/>. Instructional ( ii eenhonses, •; 111 number, lor adult and childrei 

c. Propagating House. 

d. Experimental ( Ireenhouses. 4 in number; two each are assign 

to the departments of plant pathology and of genetics. 



EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN 
The experimental garden, adjacent to the plant houses, com- 
prises about one acre of land, and is utilized at present in con- 
nection with investigations in genetics, plant pathology, forest 
pathology, and the Beardless Iris project. 



UNIVERSITY AFFILIATION AND COOPERATION 
By terms of an Agreement, entered into in IQ17, between New 
York University and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, courses of 
graduate rank offered by the Botanic Garden, when approved by 
the Faculty of the Graduate School of New York University, are 
listed as course-; in the Graduate Selinul, and are given the same 
credit as other graduate courses. Properly qualified students who 
take these courses may present them in satisfaction of the require- 
ments for advanced degrees given by the University. 

By special arrangement credit has a ho been granted by Colum- 
bia University for investigations carried on at the Botanic Garden 
in partial fulfillment of the University requirements for the mas- 
ter's and doctor's degrees. 



PUBLICATIONS 

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden has been interested not merely 
in the development of research within its own walls, but in 
its encouragement in a larger way throughout the botanical world 
In harmony with this broad policy, it has made possible the es- 
tablishment of two new and much needed journals, has afforded 
favorable conditions for the continuation of a third, and is co 
operating in the business management of a fourth. 

American journal of Hoiany. — The offer of the Garden to as 
sume certain financial obligations and a local habitation for th< 
American J Dune;! of Botany (in cooperation with the Botanica 
-1 < - t\ <>l \ni< lira 1 w.'i oik > I the lap? h< un thai 1 iad< j o- a 
ble the establishment of that journal in 1914. Previous to that 
time research papers were being produced at a rate so much faster 
than they could be published by all existing periodicals that fully 
a year must elapse between the acceptance of a manuscript and 
its publication. The establishment of the American Journal of 
Botany under the aegis of the Brooklyn Hotanic Garden offered 
temporary relief. So greatly has botanical research increased in 
amount since the establishment of that journal that the situation 
with reference to tardy publication is almost as bad now as in 1914. 

Ecoloc/x. — A similar service was rendered by the Garden in 



178 

i<)20 by cooperating with the Krological Society of America in 
the establishment ot the quarterly journal, Ecology. 

Genetics. — In 1922 the Garden became the publisher of the bi- 
monthly journal, Genetics, in cooperation with the Editorial Board 
of that journal. 

These three periodicals all have a circulation throughout the 
scientihe world, in all countries, the circulation of the American 
Journal of Botany being, so far as we can ascertain, the largest 
of any technical botanical journal. 

The publication of these serials, together with the Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden Contributions and the Memoirs of the Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden, has made the ( iarden one of die active centers of 
botanical publication. The location of this work at the Garden 
has also strengthened our other work and greatly extended our 

On January 15, 1927, the (iarden entered into an agreement 
with the Amkrican Pkrx Socjkty for cooperation in the busi- 
ness management of the American l ; eru Journal, the quarterly. 
official publication of that Society. This was in connection with 
the project of genetical studies of the P.oston hern ( Xe/Jirolefis ) , 
which have been carried on at the Garden since 0)15 by Dr. Ralph 
C. Benedict, Editor of the Journal and Resident Investigator at 
the Garden since April 1916. (See p. 161.) 



RESEARCH COURSES 

The following research courses, open to those properly qualified 
for independent investigation, are announced in the educational 
Prospectus for 1926-7. Eor each of these courses, there is a 
charge covering all expenses, including laboratory fee, of $30 for 
each full course of 100 credit hours, and $jo for each half course 
of 50 credit hours. 

E6. Research in Mycology and Plant Pathology. — Independ- 
ent investigation of problems relating to fungi and fungous dis- 
eases of plants. Dr. Reed. 

E7. Research in Plant: Genetics. — Independent investigation 
of problems of variation and heredity, including the phase of 



vtologv having a direct bearing on the siil>jeet matter of genetics. 
Dr. White. 
E8. Research in Forest Pathology.- — I ndependent investiga- 
ion of the diseases of woody plants. Dr. Graves. 

E9. Research in Systematic Botany of the Flowering Plants. 
I )r, Gunderscn. 



SCHOLARSHIPS AND FELLOWSHIPS 

There is, strictly speaking, nn provision for scholarships nor 
fellowships at the Garden, although at present two Research As- 
sistantships afford advantages similar to fellowships. 

The endowment of several Fellowships with permanent funds 
sufficient to yield incomes of $1,800-82,500 each is greatly needed. 
Here is an attractive opportunity for the promotion of scientific 
research. 



FINANCIAL 

The activities of members of the Botanic Garden Staff fall 
under one or more of three heads— Administration, Education, 
Research. In some positions the duties are fairly evenly distrib- 
uted, in others they may come chiefly under one or another of 
these three heads, as the case may he. It is not always easy to 
draw the line, as, for example, between educational and adminis- 
trative work. In endeavoring to analyze the total Botanic Garden 
Budget for 1027. an attempt has been made to distribute the vari- 
ous salaries among the above three headings, on the basis of the 
approximate relative time the employee gives to these various 

Salaries of persons whose work is wholly, or in large part, 
devoted to man Hi 11 ok <■ ol buildings and gromxb and to business 
administration are classed under " Administration and Mainte- 
nance." It is, however, a fair question whether die salaries of 
gardeners (for example) should come under maintenance 01 
under education or parth under each, for the plantations are main- 
tamed primarily for educational purposes. In the following an- 



1 Si I 



lassecl under " Adn 

■e on the basis of the budget 



alysis, however, these salarie: 
and Maintenance." The figi 
for 1927. 

The Library, which serves all phases of the Botanic Garden': 
activities, is here treated as a major subdivision of the Garden 
and its budget is accordingly reported as a separate item. 



Tab] 






1927 



«~ 


For 


For 

Kducation 


For the 


Main- 




540.00 


500.00 






2. Tax Budget, Other than J Vis. 

Serv 

3. Research Fund (Special Con- 


™ 






.. Publishing Research 

b. Publishing Research 

c. Miscellaneous 


500.00 


Totals 


537.7oo.oo 


559,-8.00 


$1 0, 224 ,0 


508.13S.00 



From these figures it appears 
lately $175,000, the expenditu 



The time has passed when it is necessary to demonstrate the 
value of scientific research, whether from the theoretical or prac- 
tical point of view. Those who have only superficial information 
on the subject know, for example, that the annual profits from 



181 

"radio" (which is only applied physio) represent a truly fabu- 
lous interest on the total amount invested in electrical research 
since the discovery of electricity. The same is true of the annual 
saving in crop-production resulting from the practical application 
of the results of research in plant breeding and in plant physiology 
and pathology. Examples from botanical science could be mul- 
tiplied. 

It is, perhaps, not an extreme statement to sav that no invest- 
lenl t funds vei yielded Im<>m material r< urns than invest- 
ment in scientific research. To these material results there must 
be added the intellectual and cultural benefits of such work, the 
value of which to mankind can hardly be overestimated. The re- 
sults of botanical research omipare favorably with those in any 
other department of knowledge. 

The research program of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden has, 
from the beginning, laid emphasis on those aspects of botany 
which have an applied as well as a cultural value— plant breeding, 
plant pathology, the relation of plants to their surroundings, plant 
physiology. In the current budget nearly 40 per cent, is for ad- 
ministration and only a little more than 20 per cent, for research. 
This relationship should be reversed. To increase our research 
program to twice its present extent would not require any addi- 
tional buildings or grounds, but only a larger income to provide 
for salaries, equipment, publication, and miscellaneous incidentals. 

The present income of the special Research Fund for Plant 
Pathology is $7,500. underwritten by friends of the Garden for 
a period of three years, terminating with the end of 1928. This 
annual income is equivalent to (he interest at 5 T /> per cent, (the 
present average yield on all Koranic Garden permanent funds ) 
on approximately $140,000. To provide for this work on a scale 
more nearly commensurate with its importance and needs, and to 
extend and enrich our entire program of research to the extent of 
making the fullest use of our present housing and administrative 
facilities would require not les- than ill* income u ', p<n cent 
on $500,000, or $27,500. 

It is hoped that an endowment of not less than this amount 
may be secured before the close of 1928. The Director of the 
Garden will be glad to confer with anyone who may be interested 



these plans, and to supply further detailed information 

e activities contemplated and their importance. 



It has been seriously urged in certain quarters during recent 
years that botanical research is already sufficiently provided for 
by the various agricultural colleges, agricultural experiment sta- 
tions, the scientific bureaus of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, and the departments of botany (and the various sub- 
divisions of that science) in our universities. In order to secure 
a consensus of opinion on this question, letters were recentlv sent 
from the Brooklyn I'otanic Garden to representative investigators. 
scientific administrators, and laymen, whose opinions should have 
weight in such matters, asking whether, in their judgment, the 
present provisions for botanical research are adequate to the need, 
considering the extent of the field and the economic as well as 
scientific and educational importance of a knowledge of plant life. 
A number of the letters received are reproduced in the following 
pages. As will be seen, the writers are unanimous in their opinion 
that botanical research is still quite inadequately provided for. 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Office of the Secretary 
WASHINGTON 
My dear Dr. Gagcr: 

I have received your letter of March 23d. 

I do not hesitate 1 to express my opinion thai the work which the 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden is now doing and projecting in the line 
of research in plant pathology is of high usefulness from the 
standpoint of both pure and applied science, and that while such 
excellent work is already being done in this field by various gov- 
ernmental, university, and experimental station agencies, this 
work is still far from adequate to meet the existing need. The 
enormous importance to our national strength of an adequate 
scientific knowledge of the diseases and pathology in general of 
plants, especially 0111 cultivated plants, is unquestionable; and I 



sincerely hope that the Brooklyn Botanic Garden may find sub- 
stantial financial assistance in its attempt to help meet this need. 
Faithfully yours, 

(Signed) Herbert Hoover 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
WASHINGTON 
Dear Sir: 

Your letter of December iG, asking for a statement regarding 
the possible duplication of work on the part of this Department 
and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, lias been received. 

It is my conviction that investigations in plant breeding and 
plant pathology, to which von especially refer, at the present time 
are not carried on on an adequate scale to keep abreast of the 
many new and important problems that are becoming apparent. 
The biological sciences are as yet in their infancy and even taking 
all of the universities, state expcriineril stations, botanic gardens, 
and other special scientific institutions in connection with the Fed- 
eral departments there is very little if any actual duplication of 
effort in the investigation of these problems; and it is unlikely that 

I would like to add that I am especially interested in the enlarge- 
ment and improvement of botanic gardens for I believe that these 
institutions offer opportunities for a thorough investigation of 
many important long-time problems which are difficult, if not im- 
possible, for any other institution to satisfactorily provide. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) W. M. Jardine, 

Secretary 
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Dear Doctor Gager: 

I am glad to learn that the Brooklyn Botanic Garden is en- 
deavoring to increase its endowment in order that it may extend 
its research activities. There is crying need for fundamental re- 
search along the lines of plant bree I and pi t diseases lines 
of much scientific importance and of great practical utility. De- 



184 

spite the attention paid to research in these subjects in Govern- 
ment agricultural bureaus, state experimental stations, and special 
research institutes, much more should be done. 

The increase in the last quarter century of our general knowl- 
edge of heredity presents a basis for rapid advance along the lines 
of many specific biological problems involving matters of inherit- 
ance. The tremendous practical importance of an intensive 
knowledge of plant breeding and plant protection to this country 
of rapidly increasing population, with a consequent growing im- 
portance of the food problem, is obvious to any thoughtful person, 
Too much scientific work cannot be done along this line; nor too 
much money made available for this work. 



Ithaca, New York 
Dear Dr. Gager: 

The fear that work in science may be duplicated, when a new 
agency enters the field, is an unconscious expression of the feel- 
ing that there exists in nature a definite sum of knowledge to be 
uncovered and that when one fact is subtracted there remains that- 
much less 1o investigate. But there is no such limit. The un- 
covering of one fact or phenomenon only discloses another. 
There are no remainders. The field is limitless. If ten times 
the present researches in plant breeding, diseases, and other lines 
were now to be instituted, we should still be touching only the 
borders of the unknown. Plant breeding is not one subject, but 
a congeries of a thousand and one problems. No two persons are 
likely to attack the same identical problem or in the same way. 
This' may be said of any other field to which we happen to have 
given a name. We need many minds under different environ- 
ments trained on all the problems of science. There need be no 
fear of duplication in research in any field. We shall never have 
enough of it. 

I hope you will be able to assemble your endowment and to 



Yours with best wishes, 

L. H. Bailey, President 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Dear Doctor Gager: 

Through your recent letter I am pleased to learn of your plans 
for continuance of your research work along the lines of plant 
breeding and plant diseases. Such investigations are highly com- 
mendable as they cannot fail to result in information of the highest 
scientific value, much, of which will he applied in a practical way 
by great agricultural interests of this country. The field to be 
covered in such investigations is broad, and there is little danger 
of conflict of interest with other organizations interested in similar 
researches. In fact, it is my opinion that where such research 
work is properly coordinated, it is far better to have several or- 
ganizations attacking the problem, as this will inevitably lead to 
greater advance in knowledge. 



has proved , i 


so highly : 


important in 


the 


past that 1 


neet with sue 


•cess in yoi 


it efforts to c 




inue it along 


i the future. 










Si 


ncerely yo 


urs, 








(Signed) 


Charles D. 


W 


Secretary 


NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 






WASHINGTON 


, D. C. 







Dear Dr. Gager: 

I am, of course, very much interested in the plans for securing 
the more permanent endowment of experimental botanical re- 
search in the Brooklyn 1'otanic Garden. The record of accom- 
plishment in this line by the Hrooklyn Garden is already a most 
creditable one and it would be little short of disastrous to have the 
work interrupted. 

I have always felt that such institutions as the Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden are especially well adapted to serve as centers for funda- 



186 

mental research on all problems connected with the experimental 
study of plant growth and crop production. They are free to 
choose problems from the standpoint of their fundamental signifi- 
cance for future agriculture rather than merely their bearing on 
local and sometimes temporary needs. We shall always need to 
supplement the work of the agricultural colleges and experiment 
stations by providing institutions, which from their organization 
and traditions are free to devote their energies to the investiga- 
tion of the more fundamental aspects of our knowledge of plant 
life. It seems to me also that your choice of plant pathology and 
genetics as the lines of research in which you are specializing is 
very well considered. It is generally agreed that the problems of 
food production for the future are to be worked out along the 
lines of improved methods of crop protection based on a better 
understanding of die fundamental nature of plant diseases and the 
improvement of our crop plants by rational methods of breeding 
new tvpes with mkvki! adaptation-,, both tor disease resistance and 



Very truly yours, 

(Signed) R. A. Harper, 
Professor of liotany, Columbia University, 
Formerly Chairman. Uirision of liiolot/y and Atjrieidture 



165 BROADWAY 
NEW YORK 






It seems to me there is a definite need lor research in botanical 
science which shall be in the field of pure science, detached wholly 
from any direct purpose of economic development. The Federal 
research of which you speak all looks more or less definitely to- 
ward rather quick economic results and is necessarily guided by 
this in a very large measure. 

Furthermore, in a field so large it is certain that some of it 
will be left uncovered and the work of the Brooklyn Botanic Gar- 
den can readily be so directed as to supplement rather than dupli- 
cate that which is proceeding elsewhere. I am strongly of the 
opinion that it will never be possible to do too much of this work 



187 

for it touches the held of industry at many points in addition to 
its purely agricultural side. 

I am writing, as you will note, from the general rather than 
the particular point of view, hut 1 think there can he no doubt of 
the facts from whatever point of view they arc regarded. 
Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) William C. Redfield 
(Secretary of Commerce in f 'resident Wilson's Cabinet) 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

My dear Doctor Gagcr: 

I am very glad that there seems to he some prospect for an en- 
larged program at the I'rooklyn koianic Garden because of in- 
creased endowment. I am very enthusiastic about the matter 
because such research as is going on at the Garden is so impor- 
tant, yet because of its fundamental nature: it is difficult to prove 
this adequately to those who are not trained biologists. 

(Signed) E. M. East, 

Professor of Experimental J'lant Morphology 

BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE FOR 

PLANT RESEARCH, INC. 

YONKERS, N. Y. 

Dear Dr. Gagcr: 

I have your letter ot' December id asking my opinion on whether 
it was desirable for private institutions to expand their research 
along the line of genetics and plant diseases, or whether all of 
this research can be adequately cared lor by state and government 

The state and government institutions are very busy in taking 
care of immediate, pressing problems. Tins gives them little 
time for working out the fundamental problems. Our advance 
depends very largely on working out fundamentals. This can be 
best done by private endowed institutions because they do not 
need to answer legislatures or Congress as to the immediate ap- 
plication of the work they are doing. 



I feel that in the botanical held our bluest present need is 
a greater amount of fundamental research. I hope very n 
that your Garden, as well as many other private botanical ins; 

tious in America, may expand in this direction. 

(Signed) William Crocker, 



FORM OF GIFT < >R BEQUEST 



I INK >()KLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 

c (devise or bequeath) to The Hrooklvn Institute of Arts 
Brooklyn. N. Y„ the sum of Dollars, the in- 

ich said sum is to lie used for the educational and scientific 



The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Scienoes 



FRANK L. BABBOTT 



G. FOSTER SMITH JOHN H. DENBIGH 

Botanic Garden Governing Committee 
MISS HILDA LOINES, Chairman 
FRANK L. BABBOTT, Ex officio EDWIN GOULD 

MRS. WILLIAM H. CARY WILLIAM T. HUNTER, Jr. 

WALTER H. CRITTENDEN RALPH JONAS 

GATES D. FAHNESTOCK EDWIN P. MAYNARD 

MRS. LEWIS W. FRANCIS WILLIAM A PUTNAM 

JOHN W. FROTHINGHAM ALEXANDER M. WHITE 

THE MAYOR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 

THE COMMISSIONER OF PARKS, BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

Membership.— All persons who are interested in the objects and i 
of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden are eligible to membership. Members enjoy 
special privileges. Annual Membership, $10 yearly; Sustaining Membership, $25 
yearly; Life Membership, $500. Full information concerning membership may 
be had by addressing The Director, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Telephone, 6173 Prospect. 

The Botanic Garden is open free to the public daily from 8 a.m. until dark ; 
on Sundays and Holidays open at 10 a.m. 

Entrances.— On Flatbush Avenue, near Empire Boulevard (Malbone Street), 
and near Mt. Prospect Reservoir; on Washington Avenue, south of Eastern Park- 
way and near Empire Boulevard; on Eastern Parkway, west of the Museum 

The street entrance to the Laboratory Building is at 1000 Washington Avenue, 
opposite Montgomery Street. 

To Assist Members and others in studying the collections the services of a 
docent may be obtained. This service is free of charge to members of the Botanic 
Garden; to others there is a charge of 50 cents per person. Arrangements must 
be made by application to the Curator of Public Instruction at least one week in 



To Reach the Garden take Broadway (B.M.T.) Subway to Prospect Park 
Station; Interborough Subway to Eastern Parkway-Brooklyn Museum Station; 
Flatbush Avenue trolley to Empire Boulevard; Franklin Avenue, Lorimer Street 
and Tompkins Avenue trolleys to Washington Avenue; St. John's Place trolley to 
"'"""' r *" """' '*" ' " ' " Union Street and Vanderbilt Avenue 



PUBLICATIONS 
BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 

''the A«ft! 



Report of the c 
of courses of 



heads of departments, special rep 

seed list, miscellaneous papers, and notes concerning Garden progress ana events. 

Free to members of the Garden. To others one dollar a year; 25 cents a copy. 

MEMOIRS. Established, July, 1918. Published irregularly. 
,,,Ih,m, 1 ,. ,, in 1 ■ , ■ 1 . .." papers presented at 

the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. 
521 pages. Price $3.50, plus postage. 

Volume II. The vegetation of Long Island. Part I, The vegetation of 
Montauk: A study of grassland and forest. By Norman Taylor, June II, 1923- 
108 pages. Price $1.00, plus postage. 

Volume III. Vegetation of Mount Desert Island, Maine, and its environ- 
ment. By Barrington Moore and Norman Taylor. 151 pages. In press. 

CONTRIBUTIONS. Established, April 1, 1911. Papers originally published 
in periodicals, reissued as " separates," without change of paging, and numbered 
consirtilivdy. This scries include occasional papers, as well as those embodying 
the results of research done at the Garden, or by members of its staff or students. 
Twenty-five numbers constitute one volume. Price 25 cents each, $5.00 a volume. 

4J. Variation among the sporclinys of a fertile sport of the Boston fern. 27 
pages, 15 figures. 1924. 

43. Inheritance studies in Pisum. V. The inheritance of scimitar pod. 14 
pages, 10 figures. 1925. 

44. Modes of infection of sorghums by loose kernel smut. 17 pages, 3 plates. 
1925- 

45. The inheritance of resistance of oat hybrids to loose smut. 19 pages. 
1925. 

,, , , ,/>',; ,// ,i , 'hi t,o,i and ,h ■ ioh > s uui hi ,., /, , / '1 

baceous perennial and woody plant groups. 10 pages. 1926. 

47. The cause of the persistent development of basal shoots from blighted 
chestnut trees. 7 pages, I figure. 1926. 

48. Further evidence of physiologic races of oat smuts. 8 pages. 1927- 

49. Chromosome and gene mutations in Datura following exposure to radium 
rays. 5 pages. 1927. 

50. The climate of Long Island; Its relation to forests, crops, and man. 20 
pages, 2 plates. 1927. 

5/. llxperimental similes on head smut of corn and sorghum. 16 pages, 5 
plates. 1927. 

LEAFLETS. Established, April 10, 1913. Published weekly or biweekly 
during April, May. June, September, and October. The purpose of the Leaflets 

to be seen in the Garden near the date of issue, and to give popular, elementary 
information about plant life for teachers and others. Free to members of the 
Garden. To others, fifty cents a series. Single numbers 5 cents each. 

GUIDES to the collections, buildings, and grounds. Price based upon cost 

SEED LIST. Established, December, 1914. Since 1925 issued each year in 
the January number of the Record. 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY. Established, January, 1914. Pub- 
hslied in ooner.-ii on with the Botanical Society of America, monthly, except 
during August and September. Subscription, $7.00 a year. 

ECOLOGY. Established, January, 1920. Published quarterly in cooperation 



BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN RECORD 

'I OCTOBER, 1927 



PROSPECTUS 



OF COURSES, LECTURES, AND OTHER EDUCATIONAL 

ADVANTAGES OFFERED TO MEMBERS AND TO 

THE GENERAL PUBLIC 



1927-8 



BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 

Scientific, Educational, and Administrative Officers 

SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL 

The Staff* 

C STUART GAGER, Ph.D., ScD., Pd.D., Director 

MONTAGUE FREE, Horticulturist 

ARTHUR HARMOUNT GRAVES, Ph.D., Curator of Public Instruction 

ALFRKD GUNDERSEN, Doctcur de l'Universite (Paris), Curator of Plants 

ELSIE TWEMLOW HAMMOND, M.A., Assistant Curator of 

Elementary Instruction 

GEORGE M. REED, Ph.D., Curator of Plant Pathology 

ELLEN EDDY SHAW, B.S., Curator of Elementary Instruction 

RAY SIMPSON, Librarian 

NORMAN TAYLOR, Curator of Plants 

OK'l W'l) J WUITF ScD.. Curato, of Plant Breeding and! onom'u I'lants 



Other Officers 
MARY AVERILL, Honorary Curator of Japanese Gardening 
Floral Art 
HAROLD A. CAPARN, Consulting Landscape Architect 



RALPH CURTISS BENEDICT, Ph.D., Resident Investigator 



KATHRYN CLARK, A.B., Instructor 

RY ELLEN PECK, A.B., Research Ass; 
ZELDA J. SARGENT, Instructor 



t EDITH R. DALY, Library Assistant 

ALEXANDRA DODD, Curatorial Assistant 

HELEN SMITH HILL, Curatorial Assistant 

MAUD H. PURDY, Curatorial Assistant 

I1KSTFRM RUSK, A.M., Curatorial Issislam 

MARGERY H. UDELL, Curatorial Assistant 



Administrative 



♦JEANNETTE M. MacCOLL, A.B., Secretary to the L 
FRANK STOLL, Registrar and Custodian 
WILLIAM H. DURKIN, Membership Secretary 



LOUIS BUHLE, Photographer 
rranged alphabetically. 



The Brooklyn Botanic Garden, established in 1910, is a De- 
partment of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. It is 
supported in part by municipal appropriations, and in part by 
private funds, including income from endowment, membership 
dues, and special contributions. Its articulation with the City is 
through the Department of Parks. 

By an agreement with the City of New York, the functions of 
the Garden have been denned as two- fold, and may be summarized 
as follows: first, the advancement of botanical science through 
original research; and, second, the dissemination of a knowledge 
of plants. 

The first of these activities is carried on by curators, resident 
investigators, fellows, and others, who devote all or a part of their 
time to independent investigation. 

The second, the dissemination of botanical knowledge, is ac- 
complished in the following ways : 
I. By the teaching of classes — 

a. of children who come voluntarily outside of school 

b. of children who come with their teachers from pub- 

lic and private schools for special lessons on plant 
life and closely related subjects ; 

c. of adults who are interested in some phase of pure 

or applied botany. 
II. By lectures at schools and elsewhere by the various staff 
members. 

III. By loan sets of lantern slides accompanied by lecture text, 

for use in the schools. 

IV. By the distribution to schools of study material for classes 

in botany, biology, and nature study. 
V. By public lectures and educational motion pictures at the 
Botanic Garden. 



VI. By maintaining labelled collections of living plants, ar- 
ranged systematically and otherwise on the grounds and 
in the Conservatories of the Garden. 
VII. By the herbarium, containing specimens of preserved 

plants from all parts of the world. 
VIII. By maintaining a reference library on plant life and related 
subjects, open free to the public daily (except Sundays 
and holidays). 
IX. By the following periodicals, published by the Botanic 

1. American Journal of Botany. 

2. Ecology. 

3. Genetics. 

4. Brooklyn Botanic Garden Record. 

5. Leaflets. 

6. Contributions. 

7. Memoirs. 

X. By the maintenance of a Bureau of Public Information on 

all phases of plant life. 

XL By providing docents to accompany members and others 

who wish to view the collections under guidance. 

XII. By cooperating with City Departments and other agencies 

in the dissemination of botanical knowledge. 

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden is also taking an active part in 
the State-wide movement for legislation for the - 
our native American plants. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

I. Cooperation with Local Schools I 

II. Docentry 4 

III. Courses of Instruction 4 

A. Children's Gardens : Nature Study 4 

1. Courses for Children 5 

2. Courses for Teachers 7 

B. Courses for Teachers of Children's Gardening and 

Nature Study 8 

C. Courses for the General Public 

1. Full Year Course 

2. Fall Courses 

3. Spring Courses 

D. Course for Student Nurses 

E. Consultation and Independent Investigation 

IV. Other Educational Features 

Plantations, Conservatories, Herbarium, Library, Lab- 
oratory Building, Instructional Greenhouses, Chil- 
dren's Room, Children's Garden Building, Children's 
Gardens, Rose Garden. 



PROSPECTUS: 1927-28 ' 
I. COOPERATION WITH LOCAL SCHOOLS 

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden aims to cooperate in every practi- 
cable way with the public and private schools of Greater New 
York in all matters relating to the study of plants and closely re- 
lated subjects. The purpose of the Garden in this connection is to 
supplement and enrich the school work in the way of instruction, 
demonstration, study material, etc., which otherwise would not 
be available. 

Geography classes, as well as classes in nature study and botany, 
are finding the collection of useful plants in the economic plant 
house, and also our Japanese Garden, valuable adjuncts to their 
class work. Arrangements may be made by teachers of geography 
to have their classes study these collections under the guidance of 
a docent. Illustrated lectures for geography classes may also be 
arranged for at the Garden. 

The systematic collection in the main part of the Garden, where 
the living plants are arranged by orders and families, is proving 
of great value for demonstration to visiting high school classes in 

A. Talks at Schools. — The principals of public or private 
schools may arrange to have lantern talks given at the schools on 
various topics related to nature study, such as garden work with 
children, tree planting, and Arbor Day. If an illustrated lecture is 
desired, the lantern and operator must be provided by the school, 
but slides will be furnished by the Botanic Garden. Address the 
Curator of Elementary Instruction for a list of talks and for 
appointments. 

B. School Classes at the Garden.— (a) Schools not provided 
i Brooklyn Botanic Garden Record, Vol. XVI, No. 4, October, 1927. 



with a stereopticon, and other schools, may arrange for classes, ac- 
companied by their teachers, to come to the Botanic Garden for 
lectures either by the teacher or by a member of the Garden Staff. 

(b) Notice of such a visit should be sent at least one week 
previous to the date on which a talk is desired. Blank forms are 
provided by the Garden for this purpose. These talks will be 
illustrated by lantern slides, and by the conservatory collection of 
useful plants from the tropics and subtropics. Spring and fall 
announcements of topics will be issued during 1927-8. 

(c) The Garden equipment, including greenhouses, plant mate- 
rial, lecture rooms, lantern and slides, is at the disposal of teachers 
who desire to instruct their own classes at the Garden. Arrange- 
ments must be made in advance so that such work will not conflict 
with other classes and lectures. For High School classes address 
the Curator of Public Instruction. For Junior High and Elemen- 
tary School classes address the Curator of Elementary Instruction. 

(d) The principal of any elementary or high school in Brooklyn 
may arrange also for a series of six lessons on plant culture to be 
given during the fall or spring to a class. These lessons will be 
worked out for the most part in the greenhouse. Such a course 
must be arranged for in advance, and the class must be accom- 
panied by its teacher. This is adapted for pupils above the third 
grade. 

C. Seeds for School and Home Planting. — Penny packets of 
seeds are put up by the Botanic Garden for children's use. In 
the early spring, lists of these seeds and other information may be 
secured on application to the Curator of h'.lcmcnlary Instruction. 

D. Conferences. — Conferences may be arranged by teachers 
and principals for the discussion of problems in connection with 
gardening and nature study. Appointments must be made in 
advance. Address Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw. 

E. Study and Loan Material. — To the extent of its facilities, 
the Garden will provide, on request, various algae and protozoa, 
as well as living plants, leaves and twigs, or other plant parts for 
study. Where containers are necessary, as in the case of the 
algae and protozoa, they must be furnished by the school. Petri 
dishes will,' on request, be filled with sterilized nutrient agar ready 
for use in the study of bacteria and molds. They should be 



delivered to the Garden, clean, and in general one week before 
the agar is desired. In all cases arrangements must be made by 
the teachers for calling for such material. 

Material usually available 

Protozoa: Paramoecium, Vorticella, and others. 

Pleurococcus. 

Spirogyra. 

Vaucheria. 

Blue-green algae. 

Moss plants : gametophyte and sporophyte, with capsules. 

Fern prothallia. For these, a Petri dish with a cover is the 

best container to bring, since the prothallia dry out quickly. 
Fern sporophylls (with sori). 
Coleus and Tradescantia — variegated green and white, loaned 

for photosynthesis experiment. 
Cacti, Pitcher plant, Sundew (Drosera), and Venus's Flytrap 

(Dionaea)— loaned for demonstration. 
Elodea — to show movement of protoplasm. 
Various collections loaned for exhibit: e.g., lichens, fungi, 

plant diseases, fruits, modified leaves, demonstrations of 

Mendel's law. 

Teachers may also arrange to have various physiological experi- 
ments or demonstrations conducted at the Garden for the benefit 
of their classes. Communications in regard to these matters 
should be addressed to the Curator of Public Instruction. 

F. Loan Sets of Lantern Slides. — Sets of lantern slides have 
been prepared for loan to the schools. Each set is accompanied 
by a short syllabus of explanatory nature. In all cases these sets 
must be called for by a special messenger and returned promptly 
in good condition. The subjects now available are as follows- 
Other sets are in preparation. 

i. Plant Life 

2. Spring Wild Flowers 

3. Common Trees 

4. Fall Wild Flowers 

5. Forestry (2 sets) 



II. DOCENTRY 
To assist members and others in studying the collections the 
services of a docent may be obtained. Arrangements must be 
made by application to the Curator of Public Instruction at least 
one week in advance. No parties of less than six adults will be 
conducted. This service is free of charge to members ; to others 
there is a charge of 50 cents per person. For information con- 
cerning membership in the Botanic Garden see page 3 of the 

III. COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

A. Children's Gardens: Nature Study 

For the work in Children's Gardening and Nature Study the 
following equipment is available: 

1. The Children's Gardens, on a piece of land about three- 
quarters of an acre in extent, in the south-east part of the Botanic 
Garden, divided into about 150 plots which are used throughout 
tlu' season fur practical individual instruction in gardening. 

2. The Children's Building, at the north end of this plot, con- 
taining rooms for consultation and for the storage of tools, seeds, 
notebooks, special collections, etc. 

3. The Instructional Greenhouses, three in number, for the use 
of juvenile as well as adult classes for instruction in plant propa- 
gation and related subjects. 

4. Two Classrooms (in addition to the Boys' and Girls' Club 
Room in the Laboratory Building), equipped with stereoscopes 
and views, a stereopticon, plant collections, economic exhibits, 
models, and other apparatus and materials for instruction. 

5- Two Laboratory Rooms, with the usual equipment for plant 

6. The Auditorium, on the ground floor, capable of seating 570 
persons, and equipped with a motion-picture lantern and stere- 

In addition to these accommodations, the dried plant specimens 
in the herbarium and the living plants in the conservatories and 
plantations are readily accessible, while the main library and chil- 



dren's library, which contain a comprehensive collection of books 
on every phase of gardening and plant life, may be consulted freely 

i. Courses for Children 

The following courses are open to all boys and girls. Enroll- 
ment in these courses entitles the boy or girl to membership in the 
Boys' and Girls' Club of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. This club, 
having an active membership of about 1,000, meets four times a 
year for discussion of subjects related to plant life. Papers, by 
members, on various botanical and horticultural subjects, are read 
at these meetings, and the speakers are then entitled to a silver pin, 
providing they have satisfactorily completed courses of study at 
the Garden extending over at least six months. For announce- 
ment concerning Children's Ivoom see page Ij. 

Ai. Fall Greenhouse Work. — The following courses are self- 
€ 1 1 n t ry arid are for both beginners and advanced students: 

Class A. — Open to boys and girls who have never taken any 
greenhouse work before. Bulbs used : narcissus, oxalis, primrose ; 
also geranium cuttings. Saturday mornings at 9:15. Fee, fifteen 
cents. October 22 to December 17. 

Miss Hammond and Miss Clark. 

Class B.- — Open to boys and girls over thirteen years of age. 
Subjects studied: hyacinth, Easter lily, calla lily, the botany of 
common cultivated plants, etc. Fee, twenty- five cents. Saturday 
mornings at 9: 15, October :>j to December 17. Miss Woodward. 

Class C. — Open to boys and girls who have been in at least two 
fall bulb classes before this. This class is for advanced work. 
The bulbs used will be hyacinth, tulip, narcissus, oxalis. Geranium 
cuttings and primroses will also be used. Time of class, 10:30, 
Saturday mornings. Fee, fifteen cents. October 22 to Decem- 
ber ij. Miss Hammond and Miss Clark. 

Class D. — Open to any boy or girl. Subject: the making of 
garden Christmas presents. There will be a choice of gifts. 
Some of the articles made will be the following: a flower basket, 
seed packet, flower book-mark, painted pot and plant to go in it, 
flower calendar, wooden box with flower design, etc. Saturday 
mornings at 10:30. Fee, cost of materials. October 22 to De- 
cember 17. Miss Hammond. 



Class E. — Silver Pin work as applied to greenhouse and garden 
work. The members of this class will be selected from students 
eligible for this work. Fee, twenty-five cents. Miss Hammond. 

A2. Junior Gardeners' Course. — This is a course for boys 
14-17 years of age. Lessons are tl 1 care of border and 

other flower beds, in the weeding and care of small vegetable 
gardens, in mowing and watering lawns, repotting plants, etc. 
This is planned to fit boys for summer work and to enable them 
to obtain positions. Hours to be arranged. Fee, fifty cents. 

Miss Shaw. 

A3. Preparation for the Outdoor Garden. — The following 
classes are open to boys and girls during the spring of each year. 
The courses are planned for a better understanding of plant life 
and so that the outdoor garden may become a more intelligent 
piece of work. On account of limited space in the Children's 
Greenhouse, classes are limited to twenty. The fee for each 
course is fifteen cents to cover the cost of material. 

Boys' Spring Course.— (a) Saturday mornings, 9-10: 15, Feb- 
ruary 11 to April 14. (b) Saturday mornings, 10:30-11:30, 
February 11 to April 14. Miss Hammond and Miss Clark. 

Girls' Spring Course.— (a) Saturday mornings, 9-10: 15, Feb- 
ruary 11 to April 14. (b) Saturday mornings, 10:30-11:30, 
February 11 to April 14. Miss Woodward. 

A4. Advanced Work for Older Boys and Girls. — How to 
raise plants, mix soils, transplant, start seedlings for outdoor gar- 
dens, etc. Boys and girls who have taken spring courses under 
A5 are eligible for advanced work. The fee for the course is 
twenty-five cents. Each student may take home his plants and 
seedlings. This course is open to both boys and girls over twelve 
years of age. Saturday mornings at 9 : 30, January 7 to February 
!i- Miss Hammond. 

A5. The Beginners' Garden.— Open annually to 50 boys and 
girls who have never had instruction in gardening at the Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden. This course takes up the subject of the small 
garden, what to plant, how to plant it, care, replanting, etc. Ap- 
plication for plots should ho made in person or in zwiting before 
March 1. Size of plots 8 ft. by 10 ft. All crops belong to the 
individual. Fee, twenty-five cents. Saturday mornings, 9-12, 
April 28 to October 13. Miss Hammond and Miss Clark. 



A6. Second Year Gardens. — Open to 50 boys and girls who 
have had one or more seasons at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden — a 
continuation of Course A5. Registration should be made before 
September 1 of each year for the following year. Fee, twenty- 
five cents, Saturday mornings, 9-12, April 28 to October JJ. 

Miss Sargent. 

A7. Junior Garden Assistants. — Open to older boys and 
girls, or to those who have mastered Courses A2 and A4. Size of 
plot 10 ft. by 20 ft. These gardens are for the raising of vege- 
tables. The work is in the nature of a project, " How much can 
one raise on a plot 10 ft. by 20 ft.?" Hours to be arranged. 
The student must put in at least two periods a week during the 
summer vacation, and, if possible, three. Registration date: 
April 7. Fee, fifty cents. Miss Hammond. 

A8. Advanced Nature Work.— A course designed for those 
older boys and girls who have taken Courses A1-A5. Herbarium 
specimens will be prepared and the simpler principles of plant 
classification studied. Projects will be assigned to individuals. 
Open only to pupil assistants of the Garden. Hours to be ar- 
ranged. No fee. Miss' Shaw. 

Ag. Nature Study for Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Camp Fire 
Girls, Scout Leaders, and Others. — Short courses of at least 
four periods each, with talks, demonstrations, and field trips in the 
grounds of the Botanic Garden and Prospect Park to study trees, 
shrubs, etc. The instruction and schedule dates will be adapted 
to meet the needs of the various groups that apply. Open only to 
groups of at least ten persons. Hours to be arranged. No fee. 
Dr. Graves, Miss Hammond, and assistants. 

Aio. Special Work for High School Pupils.— A course in 

gardening or greenhouse work adapted for high school pupils. 

Classes to be arranged for by the high school teacher. No fee. 

Miss Shaw, Miss Hammond. 

2. Courses for Teachers 
The following brief courses are designed primarily for teachers 
who wish to extend their knowledge of nature study and garden- 
ing for use in their school work, without taking the longer courses 
described under B, page 8. It should be noted that only the 



latter courses are accepted by the Board of Education for teach- 
ers' credits. 

A21. Greenhouse Work for Teachers. — Not given in 1928. 

A22. The School Garden.— See B5, p. 10. 

A23. Spring Nature Study for the Classroom. — Not given in 
1928. 

A24. Fall Garden Work. — Three lessons on home plants; 
window boxes; indoor planting of bulbs; the outdoor bulb bed. 
No fee. Mondays, ./ p.m., October 3-17. Miss Shaw. 

A25. Fall Nature Study.— This course is a complement to 
the spring nature study work, and the material used will be the 
common material one would use 111 classroom work, showing seed 
dispersal, evergreens, deciduous trees, etc. Such subjects as Na- 
ture's preparation for winter will be considered. Three lessons. 
No fee. Mondays, ./ p.m., October 17-31. Miss Hammond. 

A26. Greenhouse Work. — A course planned for those who 
have taken " B3, Principles of Agriculture and Horticulture." 
Fifteen weeks of practical work in the greenhouse. Limited to 20 
members. Fee, eight dollars. Tuesdays, 4 p.m., beginning Octo- 
ber 4. Miss Shaw. 

A27. Greenhouse Work. — Starting of seedlings for the out- 
door garden. Fifteen weeks. Limited to 20 members. Fee, 
eight dollars. Mondays, / p.m., February 6-May 14. 

Miss Shaw. 

B. Courses for Teachers of Children's Gardening and Nature 
Study 

The courses for teachers in children's gardening are planned not 
only to prepare for garden work, but for the teaching of nature 
study as well. The courses are so arranged that they emphasize 
not only the theory of each subject, but its actual practice, either 
in classroom, greenhouse, garden, or field. At the same time the 
work is correlated to meet the needs of each grade of the ele- 
mentary school. There is an increasing demand for good nature 
study work in our schools, and we make a special point of giving 
simple, definite, helpful work, grading it so that it applies directly 
to the immediate needs of our own city schools. Practice with 
Classes of children of different ages is given in all this work. 



The requirements for entrance are a certificate from a city train- 
ing or a normal school, a college diploma, or several years of 
certified successful teaching. These courses may be completed 
during one year, or may be extended over a period of two or more 
years. The fee for the entire course is thirty-five dollars, payable 
in full at the time of registration, or course by course in advance. 
No money will be refunded if the student drops the work, and no 
monetary allowances will be made for courses taken at other 
institutions, although time allowances will be made. 

Special stress is put upon the outdoor garden practice. This 
practice is of two kinds: (i) Practice with children. There are 
one hundred and fifty children in our outdoor garden, and every 
opportunity is given for practice in working with children and for 
the solving of problems connected with this phase of the work. 
(2) Practice in the teacher's garden. Each member of the class 
has a garden of her own and works it herself, thus performing all 
gardening operations to be taught later to children. 

To those who satisfactorily complete this course a certificate 
will be given. The five courses offered in children's gardening 
constitute one unit. Open only to teachers. 

These courses have been accepted by the Board of Education 
of the City of New York for teachers' credits as follows : 

1. Any of the courses will be accepted toward meeting clause 
"b" of the conditions of eligibility for a high-school license in 
biology. 

2. The course in Pedagogy of Botany and Educational Prin- 
ciples of Children's Gardening (B4) will be accepted as a satis- 
factory 15-hour course in Pedagogy toward meeting the require- 
ment of 60 hours' work in Pedagogy in lieu of the written test in 
Principles and Methods of Teaching for Promotion License. 

3. This course will be accepted as a pedagogical course, and any 
of the other four courses will be accepted as an academic course 
toward meeting the conditions of exemption from the academic 
paper in the examination for license as assistant to principal. 
Such exemption is granted to those who offer 120 hours of satis- 
factory work, 60 of which must be in the Science of Education and 
60 in some branch of literature, science, or art, such 120 hours' 
work not being accomplished wholly within one academic year. 



10 

These courses have also been accepted by the Brooklyn Teach- 
ers' Association and appear in its syllabus of courses. 

The individual student may apply at any college for credits on 
these courses, which will be granted according to individual merit. 

Bi. General Botany.— Thirty sessions. A course designed 
to make clear the fundamental principles of morphological and 
physiological botany. Although, with a view to correlation with 
the other courses described below, particular emphasis is laid upon 
the higher plants, all of the main groups of plants are considered, 
by means of informal lectures, discussions, demonstrations, and 
visits to the living material in the conservatories and the outdoor 
plantations. Fee, $5. Thursdays, 4 p.m., beginning October 6. 
Dr. Graves. 

Ba. Nature Study.— Thirty sessions. This course covers the 
plant material used in teaching nature study, and includes the 
identification of the common trees, shrubs, plants, wild flowers, 
and weeds. Mounts, charts, ;uid diagrams arc made. The stu- 
dent becomes familiar with the actual material. The course is 
entirely practical, work bring done in both field and laboratory. 
Two hours of class work are credited as one hour. Fee, $5. 
Tuesdays, 4 p.m., beginning September 20. Miss Hammond. 

B3. Principles of Agriculture and Horticulture.— Thirty ses- 
sions. This course will be especially helpful to teachers. The 
principles of horticulture are considered and applied in a practical 
way through greenhouse, laboratory, and lecture work. The 
greenhouse work includes the following subjects: plant propaga- 
tion by means of bulbs, rhizomes, roots, seeds, etc. ; the care of the 
greenhouse ; house plants ; window-box materials ; fertilizers. In- 
sect and fungous pests, grafting and pruning are also included 
from both a practical and a theoretical point of view. Fee, $7. 
Wednesdays, 4 p.m., beginning September 28. 

Miss Shaw and Mr. Free. 

B4. Pedagogy of Botany and Educational Principles of Chil- 
dren's Gardening and Nature Study.— Not given in 1927-28. 

B5. Garden Practice.— Fifteen sessions. This course is en- 
tirely practical and includes all the outdoor work of the student in 
his own garden, applying the principles of agriculture and garden- 
ing, work with children in the garden, basketry and woodwork. 



Fee, $5: for summer practice, fee $8 additional. Thursdays, 4 
p.m., February 2 to May 17. Miss Shaw and Miss Hammond. 

C. Courses for the General Public 

The following courses are open to any one who has a general 
interest in plants. Teachers are welcome. They are free to mem- 
bers of the Botanic Garden; * for others a small fee is required, 
as specified. Registration should be made with the instructor in 
person or by mail at least one week before the course opens, in 
order that adequate material, etc., may be provided. No course 
will be given when less than six apply. 

1. Full Year Course 

Cio. The Life of Plants.— Thirty exercises, extending 
through the school year, consisting of informal lectures, demonstra- 
tions, and short trips to the conservatories and outdoor plantations. 
No previous knowledge of botany is necessary. The main purpose 
of the course is to enable any who are interested to become ac- 
quainted with the different main groups of plants — their life 
histories, habits, economic uses, etc. Bacteria, algae, fungi, 
lichens, mosses, ferns, cycads, and flowering plants are considered. 
The various functions manifested by plant life in general, such as 
growth, reproduction, sensitiveness, movement, respiration, and 
metabolism, are also discussed. Fee, $5. Thursdays, 4 p.m., be- 
ginning October 6. Dr. Graves. 
2. Fall Courses 

C4. Gardening in the Fall. — Six lessons, with practical work 
in the greenhouse, on the methods of making cuttings, the various 
kinds of bulbs for fall planting, their treatment and care, the 
proper management of house plants, and a discussion of the kinds 
suitable for cultivation. On account of restricted space in the 
greenhouse, this class must I , limii if U }o. Registration accord- 
ing to the order of application. Fee, $3.00. Thursdays, 4 p.m., 
September 29 to November 3. Mr. Free. 



12 

C5- Trees and Shrubs in their Winter Condition.— Eight 
outdoor lessons in the Botanic Garden and elsewhere in Greater 
New York on the characteristics of our common trees and shrubs, 
both native and cultivated, emphasizing their distinguishing fea- 
tures in the winter condition. Fee, $4.00. Saturdays, 2 : 30 p.m., 
October 1 to November 19. Dr. Graves. 

C13. Fall Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds. — Four outdoor lessons 
in the Botanic Garden. The common native and cultivated plants 
which flower in the fall, and the fruits and seeds commonly seen 
at this time of the year are pointed out and their characteristics 
studied. In case of rain, exercises are postponed one week. Fee, 
$2. Mondays, 4-5:15 p.m., October 10-31. Dr. Gundersen. 

3. Spring Courses 

Ci. Plants in the Home. — How to grow them. Six talks 
with demonstrations. Practice in potting, mixing soils, making 
cuttings, etc. This course deals with the principles to be followed 
in raising plants. The members of the class have the privilege of 
keeping the plants they have raised. Fee, $3.00. Thursdays, 
4 p.m., February 16 to March 22. Mr. Free. 

C3. The Flower Garden. — Making the most of it. Five les- 
sons. How to improve soils and get results from planting; old- 
fashioned flowers; annuals; summer bedding; vines for screening 
unsightly objects; rose culture; growing of ornamental shrubs; 
pruning; how to make a lawn and maintain it. (Not offered in 

C7. The Story of the Flowering Plants. — Three illustrated 
lectures on the evolution of the group of the flowering plants, 
discussing the interrelationships of the various families, and com- 
paring the forms of the more general and specialized lines of 
development. Fee, $1. Fridays, .\ p.m., March 2-16. 

Dr. Gundersen. 

C8. Plant Families. — Eight outdoor lessons in the botanic 
garden, taking up ilie structure of flowers and the characteristics 
of the more important plant families. Class limited to 25. Fee, 
$4.00. Fridays, 4-5: 15 p.m., April 2/ to June 15. 

Dr. Gundersen. 



13 

Cg. Trees and Shrubs of Greater New York. — Ten outdoor 
lessons at the Garden and elsewhere in Greater New York, the 
principal object being to gain a ready acquaintance with the com- 
mon trees and shrubs of the eastern United States, which are well 
represented in this region. The species are considered in sys- 
tematic order, and the features pointed out by which they may be 
most easily recognized ; also their habits, rate of growth, economic 
value and use, methods of planting and propagation ; importance in 
forestry, horticulture, and landscape art. Limited to 50 members 
enrolled in the order of application. Fee, $5.00. Saturdays, 2 : 30 
p.m., April 7 to June p. Dr. Graves. 

Cn. Spring Flowers and Ferns of the New York Region. — 
This is a field course of eight exercises given in the parks and 
woodlands of Greater New York. The common native and 
naturalized wild flowers are visited as they come into flower, and 
their characteristics and distinguishing features studied. Class 
limited to 30, taken in the order of application. Fee, $4.00. Sat- 
urday afternoons; April 28 to June 16. Dr. Gundersen. 

C12. The History of Botany.— (Not offered in 1928.) 

D. Course for Student Nurses 
Di. General Botany with Special Reference to Medicinal 
Plants. — A course of conferences, demonstrations, and field 
trips for student nurses. The general principles governing the 
life of plants, as well as the use and care of flowers in the sick 
room will be considered. Special attention will be paid to the 
identification of officinal plants in the field. Hours to be ar- 
ranged. No fee. Dr. Graves. 

E. Consultation and Independent Investigation 

1. Consultation 

Consultation and advice, and the facilities of the laboratories, 

library, and herbarium are freely at the service of members of the 

Botanic Garden and others with special problems relating to plants 

or plant products, especially in the following subjects : 

1. Plant diseases (phytopathology) and classification of 
fungi (mycology). Dr. Reed. 



14 

2. Plant breeding and allied subjects (genetics and experi- 
mental evolution). 

3. Plant geography (phytogeography) and ecology. 

Mr. Taylor. 

4. Classification and identification of flowering plants (sys- 
tematic botany). Dr. Gundersen. 

5. The growing of cultivated plants and their arrangement; 
also their adaptation to soils, climate, and other factors (horticul- 
ture and gardening). Mr. Free. 

2. Investigation * 

For the following research courses, open to those properly quali- 
fied for independent investigation, there is a charge covering all 
expenses, including laboratory fee, of $30 for each full course of 
100 credit hours, and $20 for each half course of 50 credit hours. 

E6. Research in Mycology and Plant Pathology. — Inde- 
pendent investigation of problems relating to fungi and fungous 
diseases of plants. Dr. Reed. 

E7. Research in Plant Genetics.— Independent investigation 
of problems of variation and heredity, including that phase of 
cytology having a direct bearing on the subject matter of genetics. 
(Not offered in 1928.) 

E8. Research in Forest Pathology. — Independent investiga- 
tion of the diseases of woody plants. Dr. Graves. 

Eg. Research in Systematic Botany of the Flowering Plants. 
Dr. Gundersen. 

* Courses of graduate rank offered by the Botanic Garden, when approved 
by the Faculty of the Graduate School of New York Uni 
as courses in the Graduate School, and are given the < 
graduate courses. Properly qualified students who t 
present them in satisfaction of 
by the University. Graduate credit has 
such advanced work done at the Garden. 



IV. OTHER EDUCATIONAL FEATURES 



The plantations comprise several sections, as follows: 

i. General Systematic Section (trees, shrubs, and herbaceous 
plants arranged according to orders and families). 

2. The Local Flora (native wild flower garden). 

3. Ecological Garden. 

4. Rock Garden. 

5. Children's Garden. 

6. Japanese Garden, etc. 

7. Rose Garden. 

As noted under Docentry, arrangements may be made for view- 
ing the plantations under guidance. They are open free to the 
public daily from 8 a.m. until dark ; on Sundays and holidays from 
10 a.m. until dark. 

Conservatories 

The Garden conservatories contain a collection of tender and 
tropical plants. Of special interest for teachers of nature study 
and geography are the following useful plants from the tropics 
and subtropics : banana, orange, lemon, lime, kumquat, tamarind, 
West Indian cedar (the source of the wood used for cigar boxes), 
eucalyptus, Manila hemp, sisal, pandanus (source of the fiber used 
for making certain kinds of fiber hats), fig, grape vines from 
north and south Africa, date palm, coconut palm, chocolate tree, 
coffee, tea, ginger, bamboo, mahogany, balsa, cocaine plant, black 
pepper, cardamom, olive, pomegranate, logwood, durian, mango, 
sugar cane, avocado (so-called "alligator pear"), West Indian 
and other rubber plants, banyan, religious fig of India, and nu- 

The Conservatories are open April 1 to October 31, 10 a.m.- 
4:30 p.m. (Sundays, 2-4:30) ; November 1 to March 31, 10 a.m- 
4 p.m. (Sundays, 2-4). 

Herbarium 

The Garden herbarium consists at present of over 186,500 speci- 
mens, including phanerogams, ferns, mosses, liverworts, lichens, 



parasitic and other fungi, algae, and myxomyu'lcs. This collec- 
tion may be consulted from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. by those interested, 
and specimens submitted will be gladly identified. 

Library 
The rapidly growing library of the Garden comprises at present 
over 11,000 volumes and over 8,300 pamphlets. This is not a cir- 
culating library, but is open free for consultation to all persons 
daily (except Sundays and holidays) from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. 
(Saturdays, 9 to 12). Over 800 periodicals and serial publica- 
tions devoted to botany and closely related subjects are regularly 
received. These include the transactions of scientific societies 
from all quarters of the globe, the bulletins, monographs, reports 
and other publications of various departments of the United States 
Government, as well as those of foreign governments ; of all state 
agricultural experiment stations and agricultural colleges ; the pub- 
lications of research laboratories, universities, botanic gardens and 
other scientific institutions of the world, as well as the files of inde- 
pendent journals devoted to the various phases of plant life. The 
library is especially rich in publications of foreign countries. 

Laboratory Building 

The Laboratory Building contains (besides offices of administra- 
tion and the Library and Herbarium mentioned above) four lab- 
oratory rooms, a culture room, two classrooms with stereopticon 
and other equipment for instruction, a room for the installation of 
temporary exhibits, six private research rooms, and an auditorium 
seating about 570 and equipped with motion picture machine, 
stereopticon and lecture table supplied with water, gas, and elec- 
tric current for lectures involving experimental work. 

Instructional Greenhouses 
A range of three greenho 
vided for the practical instn 
propagation and other subjec 



Children's Room 

A gift of $1,500 in 1921 from the late Mrs. George D. Pratt, 
supplemented in 1923 by a further gift of $500 from Mr. George 
D. Pratt, has made it possible to provide a beautifully decorated 
room for the use of the Boys' and Girls' Club. Any boy or girl 
who is enrolled, or has been enrolled, in any of the children's 
classes at the Garden is eligible tor membership in this club, which 
now numbers about 1,000 active members. The room contains 
shelves for a nature-study library, of which a nucleus has already 
been secured, and is equipped with stereoscopic views, photographs, 
and preserved and living specimens of plant life, for the instruction 
and entertainment of boys and girls. The room is open free to all 
children. Contributions of specimens and of books on nature 
study and closely related subjects will be most welcome. 

Children's Garden Building 

This is located in the northern part of the Children's Garden 
plot and contains a conference room, and rooms for the storage of 
garden tools and implements. The children's conference room 
was refitted last year with furnitur 
The furniture was a gift from Mrs. Ja 
lections of plants, seeds, and insects of economic importance in the 
Garden are accessible here fur consultation by she children. North 
of the Children's Building is a plot planted to ornamental shrubs 
and herbaceous perennials for the instruction of the children. 

Children's Gardens 
A plot of about three quarters of an acre in the southeast part 
of the Botanic Garden has been set aside for the theoretical and 
practical instruction of children in gardening. The larger part of 
this area is laid out in garden plots which will accommodate about 
150 children. In 1925 there was added to the southern part of 
this plot a Shakespeare Garden, the gift of Mr. Henry S. Folger. 



Rose Garden 

In June, 1927, a gift of $10,000 from Mr. and Mrs. Walter V. 

Cranford, of Greenwich, Connecticut, made possible the immedi- 
ate realization of the project for a Rose Garden, proposed in the 
last Annual Report. As this Prospectus goes to press, work on 
the new garden, which will occupy about an acre of land near the 
north end of the llotanic Garden and just west of the esplanade, 
is well under way. The plan provides not only for the display of 
the so-called beddim; or garden roses thai will grow out-of-doors, 
and for demonstration of the varied possibilities of climbing roses, 
post roses and standards, but also for as complete collections as 
can be obtained of wild or natural species, showing their foliage 
and massing qualities. Old-fashioned and historical roses will 
also be featured. It is probable that many of the plants will be 



The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 



FRANK L. BABBOTT 



G. FOSTER SMITH 

Botanic Garden Governing Committee 
MISS HILDA LOINES, Chairman 
FRANK L. BABBOTT, Ex officio EDWIN GOULD 

MRS. WILLIAM H. CARY WILLIAM T. HUNTER, Jr. 

WALTER H. CRITTENDEN RALPH JONAS 

GATES D. FAHNESTOCK EDWIN P. MAYNARD 

MRS. LEWIS W. FRANCIS WILLIAM A. PUTNAM 

JOHN W. FROTHINGHAM ALEXANDER M. WHITE 

THE MAYOR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 

THE COMMISSIONER OF PARKS, BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

Membership.— All persons who are interested in the objects and maintenance 
of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden are eligible to membership. Members enjoy 
special privileges. Annual Membership, $10 yearly; Sustaining Membership, $25 
yearly; Life Membership, $500. Full information concerning membership may 
be had by addressing The Director, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Telephone, 6173 Prospect. 

The Botanic Garden is open free to the public daily from 8 a.m. until dark ; 
on Sundays and Holidays open at 10 a.m. 

Entrances. — On Flatbush Avenue, near Empire Boulevard (Malbone Street), 
and near Mt. Prospect Reservoir; on Washington Avenue, south of Eastern Park- 
way and near Empire Boulevard; on Eastern Parkway, west of the Museum 
Building. 

The street entrance to the Laboratory Building is at 1000 Washington Avenue, 
opposite Montgomery Street. 

To Assist Members and others in studying the collections the services of a 
docent may be obtained. This service is free of charge to members of the Botanic 
Garden; to others there is a charge of 50 cents per person. Arrangements must 
be made by application to the Curator of Public Instruction at least one week in 
advance. No parties of less than six adults will be conducted. 

To Reach the Garden take Broadway (B.M.T.) Subway to Prospect Park 
Station; Interborough Subway to Eastern Parkway-Brooklyn Museum Station; 
Flatbush Avenue trolley to Empire Boulevard; Franklin Avenue, Lorimer Street, 
and Tompkins Avenue trolleys to Washington Avenue; St. John's Place trolley to 
Sterling Place and Washington Avenue; Union Street and Vanderbilt Avenue 
trolleys to Prospect Park Plaza and Union Street. 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN 



departments, special reports, am 
: the Garden. To othei 



Report of the director and 

rning Garden progress and events. 
i dollar a year ; 25 cents a copy. 

MEMOIRS. Established, July, 1918. Published irregularly. 

Volume I. Dedication Papers: comprising 33 scientific papers presented at 
: dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. 
: pages. Price $3.50, plus postage. 

Volume II. The vegetation of Long Island. Part I, The vegetation of 
mtauk: A study of grassland and forest. By Norman Taylor, June 11, 1923. 
> pages. Price $1.00, plus postage. 

Volume III. Vegetation of Mount Desert Island, Maine, and its environ- 
nt. By Barrington Moore and Norman Taylor, June 10, 1927. 151 pages. 



CONTRIBUTIONS, 
in periodicals, reissued as 

consecutively. This serie 



911. Papers originally published 
:hange of paging, and numbered 
jers, as well as those embodying 



Established, April 
'separates," witho 

at the Garden, or by'meml 

42. Variation among the sporelings of a fertile sport of the Boston fern. 
pages, 15 figures. 1924. 

43. Inheritance studies in Pisutn. V. The inheritance of scimitar pod. 

44. Modes of infection of sorghums by loose kernel smut. 17 pages, 3 pi; 
1925- 

45. The inheritance of resistance of oat hybrids to loose smut. 19 pz 



The > 



I woody plant groups. 



of the 
chestnut trees. 7 pages, I 

48. Further evidence of physiologic 

49. Chromosome and gene mutatiom 
rays. 5 pages. 1927. 

50. The climate of Long Island; iti 
pages, 2 plates. 1927. 

51. Experimental studies on head s 
plates. 1927. 

LEAFLETS. 



basal shoots from blighted 



t development 

is of oat smuts. 8 pages. 1927. 
Datura following exposure to radi 

ation to forests, crops, and man. 

of corn and sorghum. 16 pages 



. April 10, 1913. Published weekly or biweekly 
during April, May, June, September, and October. The purpose of the Leaflets 
is primarily to give announcements concerning flowering and other plant activities 
to be seen in the Garden near the date of issue, and to give popular, elementary 
information about plant life for teachers and others. Free to members of the 
Garden. To others, fifty cents a series. Single numbers 5 cents each. 

GUIDES to the collections, buildings, and grounds. Price based upon cost 

SEED LIST. Established, December, 1914. Since 1925 issued each year in 



fished. 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY. Established, January, 



« 



ECOLOGY, 
with the Ecological Society 
GENETICS. Established, J; 



the Botanical Society < 
September. Subscription, $7.00 3 

1920. Published quarterly in cooperation 



1 quarterly in cc 
1, $4.00 a year, 
ily. Subscription, $6.00 a