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Oxford University Press Warehouse 
Amen Corner, E.C. 

€hxtn^an Jgr^ss ^nu% 






J.^ Y.^^SARGENT, M.A. 





[^// rights reserved 1 




The title, 'Models and Materials for Greek Iambic 
Verse,' will indicate to those engaged in teaching or 
learning Greek, the nature and plan of the present book, 
which aims at filling an unoccupied place between the 
Introductory Manual on the one hand, and the bare 
Collection of English Passages on the other. At the 
same time it will be found suitable as a Delectus, or 
reading-book for any one who would enjoy ready gathered 
a bouquet of choice flowers of Greek poetry ; 

OS Spfvaiv fiiv 
Kopv(pns aptrav atro -naaav 
ayXai^irai /xovfftKfji fv dwTcu. 

The special feature of the book is the method which it 
suggests of teaching Greek Iambic Composition, viz. by 
reference to parallel passages in Greek Poets. 

The learner, having mastered the rules of Syntax and 
Prosody, and being already practised in the mechanical 
construction of the Iambic Verse, is now invited to use 
his own faculties in copying the antique pattern. Instead 
of forming his style on ' fair copies,' he is provided with 
original models for study and imitation. 


In spite of the many excellent assortments of hints 
cautions, and clever devices for saving labour and 
smoothing the road to knowledge, only a small pro- 
portion nowadays of the boys who begin to learn Greek 
Verse Composition succeed in acquiring either love for the 
subject, or a moderate proficiency in the art. To those 
who have profited by such discipline, and are at length 
arrived at the stage when they can take an interest in the 
sentiments of the poetry they wish to translate into Greek, 
and can also appreciate the terseness and beauty of the 
language in which similar thoughts have been expressed 
by the great poets of Athens, — to such the comparison of 
the modern with the ancient will be a pleasant exercise in 
itself. But the chief advantage will be in the improve- 
ment of the style of the learner. Without an authoritative 
standard before him he is in danger of going on merely 
putting English words into Greek, regardless of the images 
they call up, of their suitableness to the context, and even 
of their order, except so far as to make them scan. He 
gains facility, it may be, in arranging the puzzle, but rarely 
rises above a certain level of mechanical composition, and 
remains satisfied with acquiring a style partly his own, 
and partly his teacher's. And so the result too frequently 
is either misapplication of the good points of an inferior 
model, or, as more ambitious poems have been described, 
* a chaos of words which present no image ; of images that 
have no archetype ; they are without form and void : and 
darkness is on the face of them.' 

The plan here followed has been to collect in the First 


Part passages from the Greek Tragedians dealing with 

such commonplaces as are found in the poetry of all 

nations — sentiments regarding Life, Death, Fate, Duty, 

Happiness, Misery, — strivings to read the riddle of the 

painful earth — aphorisms in which the wit of one has 

crystallised the experience of many — in fact those lessons 


'The lofty grave Tragedians taught 
III Chorus or lambick, teachers best 
Of Moral Prudence, with delight receiv'd, 
In brief sententious precepts, while they treat 
Of Fate, and Chance, and Change in human life, 
High Actions, and high Passions best describing.' 

These extracts from the Greek are arranged alpha- 
betically under their respective heads, e. g. Ambition, 
Conscience, Death, Fate, God, Friendship, Love, Honour, 
Patriotism, Retribution. 

The Second Part contains a selection of passages, also 
arranged alphabetically according to subject matter, from 
English Authors dealing with the same or similar themes, 
looked at from a modern point of view. Their mode of 
contemplating these essential ideas is of course modified 
by the influence of a later civilization, and a different 
system of ethics and belief. 

A careful comparison of the English utterances with 
the Greek, while it brings out the contrast between the 
syntax and language in which the sentiment finds ex- 
pression, will enable the student to detect the identity of 
thought that animates either speaker, and give him hints 
how he can best render the English passage into Greek, 

viii PREFACE. 

or clothe his own fancy in fit sound, if he aspires to the 
composition of original Greek Iambics. 

By the time the learner has worked through the first 
two sections, he will have gained sufficient familiarity with 
the commonplaces of Greek thought, and the language of 
the ethics of Tragedy, to venture on the translation of 
longer passages, not so obviously dwelling on one thought, 
but varying in details, and developing in different direc- 

Such Miscellaneous passages are supplied in Part 11 of 

We cannot expect to find long parallel passages in the 
two languages. The same thought may occur in the 
midst of an infinite variety of circumstances, and we shall 
now have to be content with a more general resemblance. 
A passage will be useful as a model which is pitched in 
the same key, which describes high action and high 
passion, even though the incidents and details bear but 
slight resemblance to each other. The passion will be 
the same in both, the action may vary. We cannot at 
all events expect to find the same succession of ideas in 
two original passages, one Greek, one English, and shall 
therefore sometimes have to seek our models of expression 
from different sources, and be satisfied with referring to 
isolated passages in which only a single phrase or senti- 
ment or metaphor occurs to suggest a way of rendering 
the English. 

Under these limitations the references appended to each 
of the Miscellaneous passages will be found sufficiently to 


the point to guide the student who has taken the trouble 
to work through the preceding parts. He will recognise 
a similarity of motive even when veiled in different forms 
of expression. 

If the parallel between the English text and the Greek 
passages referred to is not sufficiently obvious at first 
sight, the discipline of a careful reading and perpending 
of the Greek will not be without benefit to the conscien- 
tious learner. He will be gaining indirectly a deeper 
insight into the meaning, and a closer acquaintance with 
the language of the Greek poet, than if he had without 
effort seen the likeness he was searching for. 

To facilitate the method of working by models, an 
Index of general references to the Greek Tragedians has 
been added. This, although far from complete, will be 
sufficiently full to save time, and to put the student on the 
right track by suggesting places where such subjects and 
trains of thought occur as may be useful for the purpose 
on hand. 

I have to thank IMr. J. H. Sargent, B.A., of Exeter 
College, Oxford, for criticisms and corrections and much 
valuable help. 



Models. — Passages from Greek Tragic Poets, alphabetically 

arranged according to subject matter .... i 

Materials. — 

1. Passages from English Poets, alphabetically arranged 

according to subject matter 151; 

2. Miscellaneous Passages from English Poets . . . 240 

General iNDEX.-^References to Greek Tragic Poets, alpha- 
betically arranged according to subject matter . . 303 




^o(f)(s)T(pot, yap (TviJL(f)opas ras twv TreAa? 

"AiravTes ecr/xei; e? to vovOeTelv cro^ot, 
aiiTOt 8' oTav a(f)ak(aiJ.ev, ov yiyvcaaKOixev. 

Easier to give than to follow. 
^Vaov irapaivilv rj -naOovra Kaprepelv. 

'Fi\a(f)pbv ocTTts 7Tr]fjidT0)v e£a) TToba 
e^et, TTapaiv^'iv vovOtT^lv re tov KaKcas 


^ Tovs 8' av //eyio-rous kol crot^corarous (f)psvl 
TOLOvcro LooLS av, 0L09 eoTt i'vi' ooe, 
KaAw? KaKws Trpda-a-ovTt (TvpLTTapaLve(TaL, 
'drav 8e baLjxoiv dvbpos evrvx^ovs to irplv 
^1 B 


TrXdoTtyy' e/jetV?/ tov jSlov iraXivrpoTTOV 
ra TToWa (ppovba kol KaXQs dprjixeva. 

A. Olb"' aWa KcJjuiTrreti' rw xpo^<P Xviras xpi(i>v. 

B. \pri' TOVTo 5' dirdv paov ij (j)epeiv Ka/ca. 


A rustic pleader. 

*0? eiTr' 'Ope'oTJjy KOt cr' a-noKTeivai TrirpoLs 
fidkkovTai' vTTo 8' ereive TvvbdpeoiS koyovs 
T<5 (r<^a) KaraKTeivovTi tolovtovs XiyeLv. 
dXXos 8' dz^aoras e'Aeye rwS' IvavTia, 
p.op<p?] pikv ovK evcoTTos, dvbp^'ios 8 dvrjp, 
oAtyaKt? doTi; Kayopas \paiv(i>v kvkXov, 
avTovp-yos, otirep kol pLOvoi awCovcn yyjif, 
^Derbs 8e yj^p^lv opioo-e toIs koyois Oekcov 
aKepaLOS dveiriX-qTrTOv ?/crK7]Ka)S /3toy 
09 etTi' ^Opia-Trjv -Tralba tov ^ Ayap.ip.vovos 
a-Te(})avovv, os rjOekrjcre rcp^capelv Trarpt, 
KaK'i]V yvvaiKa KaOeov KaraKTavun', 
rj Kclv d(f)i']peL, pLrjd" oirXi^ea-dai X^P^ 
p,riT€ (TTpaT^veiv kKkntovra bfap-aTa^ 
et TCLvbov olKovpr]p.a6^ ol'ot 
(f)6eipov(TLv, dvbpStv evvcbas \(i>(3(op.€voL. 


Age gives experience. 

'X2 rkKvov, ovx airavTa rw yy]pa KaKa, 
'EreoKXee?, TrpoaecrTiv, dXA.' r] 'juTretpia 
e^et TL Ki^aL Tcav vi(av a-offxarepov. 


Age fitted for counsel, youth for action. 
Wakaio^ alvos' '4pya ^ikv vecorepcov, 
l^ovXal 8' €)(ovcn tu>v y^paiT^poiv Kparos. 

Q, Ttai, vicav tl hpciv jxev €Vtovol x^P^^> 
yvSiiiai 8' afxeCvovs ettri rcav yepatTepcov' 
6 yap xpo'^oy btbayjxa iroiKiXcaTepov. 


Restst the tempttngs of the fiend ambition. 
Tl TYjs KaKiCTT-qs bacixovcov i(f)[€(Tai 
(f)LXoTtiJLLas, Txdx ; jut) (tv y' abiKOs rj 6(6s' 
TToXkovs 6' is oiKovs Kol TToAets evhaipovas 
(iaijXOe Ka^ijXO^ ctt' oXiOpu) tu>v \p(i)p.iv(iiv. 


We infer the tmseen from the seen. 

TiKp.aip6ixiada rots irapovai rcKpavij. 

AOavarov 6pyr]v fJ-i] (^vKacrcre 6vi]t6s otv. 

Hcnrep be OvrjTov Koi to crco/x' rjixCov e0i», 

OVTO) TTpO(Tl]K€L /XT^Sf T1]V 6pyi]V ^X^'^ 

aOavarov, oans (ruxppovelv eTTiorarat. 

ndAA' eoTiy opyrjs ti]s airaibevTov KaKa. 

'Opyai yap av6p(aTT0L(TL crvixc^opas vtto 
beivai, ttXclvos re Ko.pbCa 'npoaicrTaTai, 


He is the wiser who keeps his temper. 
Auoii; XiyovTOiv, darepov 6vixov}xivov, 

6 \ll] 'vTLTeLV(t)V Tols Ao'yOlS aO(f)(i!>T€p09. 

'Opyf) 8e (fyavkr^ tto'AA' tVfor' ao-XTJfXOi^a, 
e^o) yap opyrjS ttcls avi]p (TO(f)a>Tepos. 

Soft words assuage anger. 

'Opyrjs C^ovcrrjs elalv larpol Xoyot. 
eay Tis iv Kaip<2 ye ixakOacrarj Keap, 
■cal jut) (TipvbwvTa la^vaivrj jBia. 

y Anticipation. 

'H TTOV TO /xe'AAoy eK(/)o/3er Ka6' rjnepav 
b)S Tov ye irda-x^eLV Tov-niov p^d^ov kukov. 

An Appeal. 

Iphigenia beseeches her father to spare her life. 

Et [ikv TOV 'Op^eco? dxpv, S Trarep, Ao'yoi;, 
ireiOeiv e-rrdbova, axrO' op-apTelv p.oi Trhpas, 
KTjAety re rots Aoyotony, ovs k^ovX6p.-qv, 
€VTav6' av rjkOov. vvv 8e Tcni ep-ov crocfid, 
baKpva irape^co- raSra yap bwaCp-eO' dv. 
LKiT-qpiav 8e yovaa-iv e^dirTO) crtOev 
TO cr(ap.a Tovp.6v, o-nep eViKrey rihe croi, 
p.r\ pi' aTToAe'o-Tj? dutpoV rjbv yap to c^ws 
Aevo-o-eiy* to. 8' iiTro yrjy /x?; pC Ibelv dvayKdaijs. 


•npdiTri <j eKu^eaa Trarepa, koL (tv TraiS' e/xe" 
irpioTrj be, yovacn croitri crSijxa hov(T ifxav, 

Aoyos o /xei^ aos rjv 00 apa a , co t^kvov, 

evbatp-ov' avbpos kv boixoicnv oxj/oixai, 

{uxrdv re koI 6dk\ovaav d^loos ipiov ; 

ovp.ds 8' 08' rjv av, irepl crbv k^apTU)p.ivr]^ - 

yiveiov, ov vvv dvTL\a^op.aL xepi' 

tL 8' ap lyta ere ', TTpea-jSw ap eo"8e£o/xai 

ep-wv (pikaia-LV v7Tobo)(^ais bopiccv, irdrep, 

TTovcctv Tt6r]V0VS aTTobLbovcra crot Tpo<pds ; 

ToijTOiv eyo) p.ev t&v koyoiv p.vr\p.i]v e'x^to, 

(TV 8' eTnXiXrjcraL kuC p! aTTOKTelvai, dikets. 

TL p.01€(TTL tS>v ^ Akc^dvbpov yupiwv 

'Ek^vrjs re, irodev rjkd^ kii okiOpco rw/xw, Trarep ; 

(iki-^ov TTpos ?//xa9, opip-a bos (pikrip.d re, 

tV dkkd TovTo KarOavova e'xw cridev 

IJivrip-elov, et ju,?j rots e/xoi? TTeiOei Ao'yois. 

dbekcf)^, p.LKpds p-^v crv y cTTLKovpos ^lAots, 

Ojwcos 8e (TVvbdKpv(Tov, iK^Tevaov irarpos 

T-qv (Tr]v dbekcfiijv p.r] davelv atad-)]p.d tl 

Kav vrjTrioLS ye tS)V KaKwv kyyiyvtTai,. 

Ibov (TLcoTiiov kia-iXiTaL (t 6b^, Co irarep. 

aXA' aXbecrat /xe koL KaTo'iKTeipov jSCov. . 

vat, TTpos yeveiov a dwopLecrOa bvo (pikoi' 

6 p,\v veoa-aros icmv, 7) 8' rjii^rj/xe'i^?j. 

ey crvvrepiovaa irdvTa vtKi](rco koyov' 

TO (/)ws ro8' dv6p(s)TT0icnv rjbio-Tov jSktireiV, 

TO. vipde 8' ovbiv p-alv^Tai 8' os ^vyeTai 

Oaveiv. KaKw? Cv^ Kpelaaov 17 davelv Kakds. 


Not a safe test of character. 
"Whr] yap elbop avbpa yevvaCov Trarpos 
TO ixrjbev ovra, y^prja-Ta t e/c KaKdv T^Kva, 
Xip.6v T €v avbpbs ttXovctiov (PpovrjixaTi., 
yv(ii>ixTf]v re ixeydkrjv kv TrevqTL arcaixaTi. 

Value of a good presence. 
"ISot/xi h avT&v ^Kyov' apasv^ apcrivcav, 
irp&Tov ixev elbos a^iovs rvpavvibos' 
TrAeioTTj yap aperr] rovd' inrapxov iv /Siw, 
Tr]v a^Lcoaiv tS>v KaXcav to (TG>pJ l)(eti/. 

Bearing, a sign of nobility. 
TiVVaiOTr]^ (TOI, KuI TpOTTOOV TiKixr]piov 

TO o"x?/iu.' e'xets T6b\ tJtls et ttot', S yvvai. 
yvoir] 8' ap «? to. TroXAa y avOpcaTTOv Tiept 
TO crxrjix lb(av tls ei 7re<^UKey €vy€V'qi. 


Greek estimate of athletes. 
KaK(av yap ovroov p-vpicav KaO' 'EWdba, 
ovbev KCLKLov ecTTiv ddXrjT&v yevovs' 
0% TfptaTa fxev Cw ovt€ p.av6avovcnv cS 
ovT av bvvaivTO' ttws yap, ooris eW avi]p 
yvaOov re bovXos vrjbvos 6^ rjo-a-rjixevos, 
KTrjcraiT av okj3ov ds virepjBoKyp Trarpo? ; 
ovb' av TTevecrOai Kal ^vpiip^Telv T^y^ais 
oloL T' €07] yap OVK kOicrOivT^s Kakd, 
(rK\r]pm p.^Takka(T(T0V(nv eh Td[xi]x^0Lva. 



XaiMTTpol 8' iv 7]l3ri Kol TToAecd? aydXjxaTa 
(^otrwcr'' orav 8e Trpoa-Trecrrj yrjpas iriKpov, 
TpLl3o)V€s ^KJSaXovTes olxovrai KpoKas. 
kp.e}X^ap.y]v 8e koX tov 'EXkrivoiv vopov, 
dX TMvh'' eKaTL (TvKXoyov iroLovixevoi 
Ti\xS)(r a^pdovs 7]hovas batros xapiv. 
TLS yap TTokaia-as ev, Tt? ^kvtiovs avi]p, 
Tj hi(TKov apas, rj yvddov TratVas KaXas, 
TToAei TTarpwa arecpavov rjpK^aiv Xa^cov 
TTOTcpa p.a\ovvTai TTokefXiOLo-LV kv -y^polv 
bio-KOVs €X^ovT€S, i) Si'x' d(nTiba)v TToal 
6€LV0VT€9 €Kl3a\ovaL TToXepiLOVS TTCLTpaS ', 
ovb^ls cnbripov ravra p-Mpaivei Tre'Aas 
ords. avbpas ovv ^XPV^ aocfiovs re KciyaOov'i 
(j)vX\oL^ aTi(j)e(Tdai, x<»JO'^ts 7/yeirat iroXei, 
KaXXiO-Ta, (T(i>(f)pa}v Kal 8iKatos ojv dvqp, 
oo-ris ye p.vdois €py' aTraXXdacreL KaKa, 
p-dxc^ T dcfyaipcov koL ardcreLS' TOtavTa yap 
TTo'Aet re Trao-rj iraai 6' "EXXiqcrLV KaXd. 


* Pure the air, and light the soil, 
Athens the eye of Greece.^ 

'^Ht -npOiTa p.\v Aews ovk eTraKros dXXodev, 
avToxdov^s 8' ((pvp-ev al 8' aAAat TTo'Aets 
TT€(T(rG)V 6p.oi(i)S btacpopriOe'ia-aL ^oAats, 
aAAat Trap' aXXo)v €l(rlv eiVaywyi/xoi. 
ei 8' ov irdpepyov XPV ^' KOjuTrao-at, yvi'at, 
ovpavbv virep y?}? ix^piev eS K€Kpap.€Vov, 
tv ovT dyav TTvp, ovt€ x^t/^a (TVfxiTCTveL' 


h. 8' 'EAAa? 'Acrta re Tpecfyei KdAAtcrra, y?/? 
Se'Aeap cxovres rijcrbe, (rvv6i]pivoix€V. 


fPtXdpyvpov p-ev ttclv to j3dpl3apov yivos. 

Bapj3apo)V 'EAA?/i'as dp^^jEiv elKos, dAA' ov jiap- 

jUT/rep, *EAA?/i'a)i;" to p-ev yap bovkov ol 8' iXcv- 


Taunts on barbarian birth and language. 
BclBaplSdpcxxrai \p6vios u>v iv (3apl3dpoLS. 

Ov p.a6o)v OS et (fyvariv 
dkkov Tiv a£ei? dvbpa bevp' kkevdepov, 
ooTTis TTpos 7/ civtI (tov Ae^et to, era ; 
crod yap X^yovros ovkgt av p^dOoip! eyw" 
rr]v ^dp(3apov yap yXSxrcrav oi/K eTraico. 


A battle scene. 
Ettci b k(Jrip.'i]V opOiov TvpcrriviKr} 
(Tok'niyyi, Ka\ (jvvi]\\rav aAAr/Aots pid-yjiv, 
Ttocrov TLv avx^els irdrayov dcn:ib(i>v ^pepmv 
TTOcrov TLva aTevayp-bv olpi.(oyi]v 6' 6p.ov ; 
Ta TTpSiTa jxev vvv TrtruAo? 'Apyetou 8opos 
€ppy]^a6' yjpas' ar' ^y^(lipr)crav ndXiv. 
TO bevTepov be ttovs €TTaXka\6els ttoSi, 
dvi]p b' kii dvbpl (rrds, eKapTepet M'^X^' 

TToAAot b' €TTtTTTOV, ^V §€ bvO KekiVCTpiaTa, 

U) Tas ^A6i]va9, S) tov 'Apyeicoy yvr]v 
aTTiipovTes, ovk dpi]^(T ala-yyvrjv Troka ; 


fxaXis he TTCLvra bpcavres ovk arep ttovoov 
irpexl/ajxea-O "" Apyelov et? (j)vy7]v bopv. 

The onset : encounter of Eteocles and Polynices. 
'Ettci 8' a(p(L6ri TTvpaos w? TvpcrrjVLKfjs 
craXTTiyyos ?/X^) (^^jp-a (f)oivLov jua^Tjs, 
'^$av bpoixTjpia beivbv aAAv/Aots €1tl' 
KCLTTpoL 8' OTTO)? 6-^yovTe9 aypCav yivvv 
^vvi]\l/av, a(pp(2 86a/3po)(ot yeveidbas' 
7](r(rov b€ Ao'y)(ais' aAA' vtpL^avov kvkXols, 
OTTOiS (Tibripos i^oXicrOdi'OL jxarriv. 
et 8' opLfx vTrepa^bv imoj arepos pidOoL, 
Xoyyjiv kv(i)p.a aTopiaTL, TrpofpOijvab OiXcov. 
aAA ei TTpoui]yov d(nTLb(ov K€y\p(ji)p.acnv 
oipdaXpLoVf dpybv wore yiyveaOai bopv, 
irkeitiiv be rois opGiCTiv eo-rdXaa-a Ibpoos 
Tj ToiaL bp(a(TL bia (pikcav oppodbiav. 
'FiTeoKkerjs be TTobl pLeraxf/aipcav irerpov 

tXVOVS VTTohpOp.OV, KCokoV l/CTO? dcTTTiboS 

TL6r](rL' YlokweiKris 8' dTrrjvTrjcrep bopi, 
Trkr}yi]v crt8r/pa) TTapabodelcrav el(nb(av, 
Kvi]p.riv re bieirepacrev ^ Apyeiov bopv' 
(TTpaTos 8' dvrjkdka^e Aava'ibav aTras. 
KOLV T(38e pLox^Oip yvp.vov SjpLOv elaibiav 
6 7:p6(rde rpcoOels a-repva YIokvvetKovs /3ta 
btrJKe k6y\y]v, KairebcoKev ?/8om? 
KdbpLOV TTokCrais, dird 8' eOpava uKpov bopv. 
es 8' aiTOfjov iJKCov bopos eirl crKekos Tidkiv 
)(Uipel, Aa/Scby 8' dcfyrfKe p.dpp.apov Ttirpov, 
\xe(TOV T CLKovT eOpavcTev e^ tcrov 8' "Aprjs 
■^v, KajxaKos dp.(polv xelp d'ne(XTepr]p.evoiv. 



Magnetism of beauty. 
Totals' ty ox/^et XvjKa drjpaTrjpiav 
^pcoTos, aa-rpa-nriv riv dpLfxaTOiV ^x€i- 
ivQaXTTerai \xkv avTos, e^oTrra 8' cjue, 
l(TOv p,eTpS>v 6(f)daXix6v, uxrre t^ktovos 
Trapa (TTadp.r]v Iovtos opdovrai Kav(ov. 

Not enough by itself to retain love. 
*PC\Tpov 8e Kol Tob^' oil to kclWos, S yvvai., 
aXk' ap€Tal r^pirovcn tovs ^vi'€VviTas. 

Beauty without wit. 
Now XPV OedaacrOaL' tl Tr\s €vp.op^ias 
o(f)e\os, orav tls /x?) (ppivas KaAas Ixi? 5 

Et vovs iviCTTiv' ei 8e |u.?7, ri 8et KaX^s 
yvvaiKO^, el jjlt] tols (f>pivas xprja-ras ^x^ot ; 

Av(Tfxop(f)Os 6??]y ju.aA.Xoi> r) KaAos kukos. 

' Dimidium facti qut bene coepit habet? 

"Epyoy 8e iravros i]V t6s &pxt]Tai, Kakds 
KOi TCLS reAeuras eiKo's eo"^' oiVcos e^fiv* 


Good conscience, health, and competence. 
KdAAtoToV eo-ri TovvhiKov irecfiVKevaf 
AwoTOi' 8e TO 0/y avoaov rjbLcrTov 8 oro) 
irdpea-TL Xrj'^ts SiV kpa kuO' rjixipav. 


Blessings invoked upon Attica. 

XO. Tt ovV ju, avdiyas Trjb^ ecfyvixvrjcraL )(6ovi ', 

A0. OTTOta yiKTjs /xrj /caK^? cTrtcrKOTra, 

Ktti raCra yTJOev €k re ■:roi;rta? dpoo-ou, 
e^ ovpavov re, Kav^jxaiv ar\iJ.aTa, 
€vr]XLO)s '7TV€0VT kTTKTTei^eiv yOova' 
Kapitov re yaias maX (3oT(iov k-nippvTov, 
aarolaiv (vOevovvra p-r] Kap-veLV xpovca, 
Kal T&v ^poT^ioiv cnrepixaToov aoyTripLav. 


Teirestas led by his daughter. 
"Hyou irdpoiOe, Ovyarep' ws TV(f)\^ TTobl 
6(}) ei av, vavTikoicnv acTTpov ws' 
8eCp' es to Xevpov 'nihov lyyo's TideicT ijxbv 
Ttpo^aive, p.r] (r(f)a\G>iJLev' dcr^ei^r/s 7rarr;p. 

Ul. li;9Ao9 Ta r cora roy re vow Ta r op,p,ar ei. 
TE. (TV 8' a^Aios ye raSr' oveihi^^v, a crol 

ovbeli OS ov)(l Tuvb^ oveibiel rd^a. 
01. pitas Tpi(f)€i. TTpbs vvKTos, cjcTTe p,i]T ejuie', 

IxrjT akXov, ocrrts (^w? Spa, jSXd^ai. tiot' dv. 

A Bore. 

Ai/Tjp yap ocrrts ijbiTaL keyoiv dei, 
XikriOev avrbv rots ^vvovariv cov ^apvs. 


TVze iozf a coward's weapon. 
1 0)1^0 ap ovv€Ka 
Toi/s 'HpaKA.etous 7rat8as ou 6vr](TKeiv xp€(av ; 
OS ecr;(e bo^av ovb^v obv €V\l/v)(^ias, 


0)]pu)V ev alxH^fh TaAAa 8' ovbev aAKt/xo?, 
OS ovTTOT^ acTTrtS' eo"Xf nrpos AaiS xepi, 
ovS' 7/A^e ^oyxvs iyyvs, aXXa t6^' t'xooz;, 
KUKia-Tov ottXov, rf] (jivyf] Trpo'xeipos ■^v. 
avbpbs 8' ekeyxos ovxl To'f evv/zuxtas, 
dAA' OS fxevociv /3A€7rei re KavTibtpKeraL 
bopos Tax^elav akoKa rd^LV iixj3€J3u>s. 

The boiv a better weapon than the spear. 
To Trdv(ro(})OV 8' €vpy]p.a, To^i'jprj crayrjv, 
\xip.(l>(.i' k\v(ii)v vvv tcltt^ ipLOV (ro(pos y€Vov. 
dvi]p OTTXiTrjs SoOAo's ecrt t5>v ottXmv, 
Kol Toicri (TVVTayQf.'icrLV oven fXTj yaOols 
avTos Te6vriK€ 8eiAta rfj tG)V irekas, 
dpavaas re X6yyr]v ovk e'xet rw o-w/iart 
^ai^aroy dpJvvai, p.iav €\(jiv aXKrjv ixovov' 
oaot, 8e ro'^ots X^V exoucrti' evaroxov, 
€V jmey to Aojcrroy, jxvpLOVS otrrroi/s d(/)ets 
dAAots TO aS)p.a pveraL jxi] KarOav^iv, 
(KCLS 8' d^eoTws TToAe/xious d/xwerai, 
TV(f)\ol^ opSivras ovrda-as TO^evpiaai, 
TO o-Qp-d T ov biboiCTi, rots kvavrioLs, 
(V evcjivkdiiTM 8' eoTt' ToOro 8' ev /^^^X?? 
cro(pov judAtora, bpMvra TroAe/xtovs KaKws 
(Tco^eiy TO aQp-a, p,i] 'k tvxtis o)pp.La-p.ivovs. 


Brain more potent than brawn and sinew. 
Ov yap ol TrAareis 
ow8' (vpvvojToC (^wres dcrcf)aX€o-TaTOL, 


dAA.' ot (f)povovvT€s €v KpaTovcri. TTavTa)(^ov. 
fjiiyas 8e irXevpa l3ovs vtto o-juiKpas ojucos 
jwacrrtyos opdo^ els obbv Tiope'verai. 


Brevity is the soul of wit. 
Bpa)(er Xoyfa) yap TtoKKa TTpoo-Ketrai. (ro(f)d. 

Yialbcs, (TO(f)Ov Trpos avbpos, ocms ev (3pa\€Z 
TTokXovs Xoyovs olos re <tvvt4ixv€iv KaX<as. 

Brute Strength. 

'Vis consili expers mole ruit sua.' 
'Pcojxr] 8e y ap.aOi]s ttoWukis TLKTec fikdl3r]v. 


'Efxol yap eh] TTTcoxps, el be (3ov\eTat, 
7TT0})(0V KaKLOiv, ooTts (tiv evvovs ejjiol 
(f)6j3ov TtapeXdotiv Tdirb KopStas epel. 


Defies Heaven, and is dashed from the battlements by a thunderbolt. 
KaTTayevs 8e ttw? eliroip! av w? efxatvero ; 
[xaKpavx^vos yap KkipiaKos Ttpocraii^dcreis 
excov ex<apet, /cat roa-ovb^ eKoinracre, 
lir]t) av TO (Teixvov irvp vtv elpyaOelv Ato? 
TO fxr] ov KaT aKpcav irepyajjiiov ekelv irokiv. 
Kai Tavd ajx rjyopeve Kal TreTpovjjLevos 
dvelp<p , v'n avTi]v ao-TrtS' elki^as hejxas, 
KkiixaKos ajuet/Stoy ^ecrr' evrikdroov ^ddpa. 
i]br] 8 virepjiaivovTa yelcra Teiyjoiv 


jSaWei K(pavv<2 Zevs viV eKTVirrja-e he 
X^coz', wore hela-at iravTas' eK 8c KAi/xaKcoz; 
((Kpa'bovcLTO X'^P'^ a\Xt]\o)V ixekrj, 
KOfxaL /xei' eh "OXvixirov, al/xa 8' es x^'''^"' 
Xeipes 8e Kal kwA.' to? kvkAco/x 'Ifioi'os 
clAio-crer'* es y^v 8' efXTTvpos iTLTTTei veKpos. 

Carpet Knights. 

OiiK Iv yvvai^X tovs veavias xpeijiv 

a\X' er o-t8r/p&) Kar ottAois Ttjaas cf)epeiv. 


Philoctetes marooned on the isle oj Lemnos. 
2i/ 877, T€Kvov, iroiav /x' avaaTaaiv boKels 
avTwv ^e^iOTOdv e^ vVi^ou o-Trjvat Tore ; 
TTOi' iKbaKpva-ai, Trot aTTOi/iw^ai KaKa ; 
opojvTa [xev vavs as ex^^ ivavcrTokovv 
TTCLO-as j3ej3u>(ras, avbpa 8' ovhev hroirov, 
ov\ ocTTi's apueaeuv, ot38' oorts vocrov 
KO-ixvovTi avWajSoLTO, iravra 8e crKOTrwi; 
y]vpi(TKov ovhev 77X1)1; aviacrdaL irapov, 
TOVTOV 8e 'noXXi]V evp-apeiav, S t^kvov. 
6 ixev xpo'^o? 8t; 8ta xpo'^^ou TrpovjSaLvi p-oi, 
Kubei Tt /3aia 7178' wtto oreyrj jnoVoy 
86aKOi;er(r0ai. yaarpl p.ev to. (rvix(f)opa 
To^ov ro'8' e^rjvpiaKe, ras vTroTrripovs 
pdKXov ireAetas" irpos 8e toC^', o jtxoi ^dAot 
vevpo(nrabr]S arpaKTOS, avrbs av rdAas 
dXvoixrjv bvaTTjvov e^eA/ccoy 7rd8a 
TTpos Toi;r' dy ei t' c6et ri Kat ttotov Xaj3dv. 


Kai TTOV irdyov \v6ivTos, ola x^tV'*'^') 
SvKov TL Opavaat, ravT av e^epTTOiv rdXas 
eiJirix^ai'(i>ij.riv' elra irvp av ov irapijv, 
dAA.' iv TreVpotcrt Trirpov ^KTpCjBcov, jxokts 
icfi-qv iKpavTov ^ws, o koI crcofet /x' dei. 


Vicissitude, a law of Nature. 
"Avacrcra, iroWois (cttlv dvOputrrois Ka/cd, 
rots 8' apTi \i]yei toIs 8e Ktvbvvos p-oX^lv. 
KVKkbs yap avrbs KapTripuOis re yjjs (pvTols 
OvrjTotv re yevea' rot? juey av^erai. jStos 
rwy be <f)9lvei re Kal Oepi^erat irdXiv. 

All tilings change, nothing perishes. 
Xojpei 8 OTTtcra) rd p.ez^ e/< yaias 
cf)vvT e? yalav, to. 8 dTT aldepiov 
j3kd(TTovTa yovTjs els ovpdviov 
TToXov rjkOe itdXiv' 6vr\(TKei 8' ovh\v 
t5>v yLyvofxevcov, hiaKpiv6p.evov 8' 
dkko Trpbs dWov 
jjLop(f)r]v Ihiav dirihei^e. 


A friend to the good, a foe to the bad. 
ToT? y.\v hiKaioLS evbiKOS, rots 8' av KaKols 
irdvTUiv jJLeyca-Tos 7roA.e/xtos Kara yOova. 

Severely impartial. 
' O? ovTe rouTTtetKe? ovre ti]v \api,v 
fjbrj, fjLovrjv 8' i(TTepye Tr]V aTrAwy biKrjv. 


A gentle mistress. 
ndrres 8' iKXaiov olKerai Kara oreyas 
h^<nroivav oUreCpovTer ?/ 8e be^tav 


hv ov TTpocreiTre koL Trpoa€ppi]6r] irakiv. 

A simple, brave, and loyal gentleman. 
Kairavevs 08' eortV w /3io? p.\v i]v ttoXvs, 
iJKKTTa 8' oA/3a) yaupos 7]2^" (fipov-qp-a 8e 
oi}8ey Tt /xei^oy etx^^ V T^^viqs avqp, 
(f)evy(>iv Tpaire^ais octtl^ e^oyKolr ayav 
TapKovvT aTiCoov' ov yap iv yacrrpos ^opq 
TO \pr](TTov etvat, p^irpia 8' e^apKelv ^(fyr], 
^lAots T a\r]di}9 ^v (f)ikos Trapovcri re 
KOI ju.7; TTapova-Lv' S>v dpLdfios ov irokvs. 
a\//^eu8es rjOo^, evTrpoariyopov (TTop-a, 
OLKpavTov ovbkv ovT is oiKeVa? e^coy 
ovT es TToAiras. 

A man of action and of few words. 
"Ecrrty 8e koli rwS^, ov Aeyeis rov 'Apnaba, 
dvrip UKop-TTOs, X^'-P ^' ^P^ ''^ hpd(Tip.ov, 
"Aktcop dheX^os tov irdpos AeAey/xeVou* 
OS ovK ea(re6 yXwcraav epyixdrcov drep 
€<T(ii) TivKSiv p4ovcrav dkbaCvetv KaKa. 

Hcradcs in the disguise of a slave. 
"HKtora (f)av\os, dXXd ndv TovvavTiov, 
'7Tp6(r)(j1p.a (7€p.v6s, Kov Taireivos, ovb ayav 
evoyKOS b)S av SouAo?, aAAd Kai crToXi]v 
ibovTL Aap,7rpo'?, kol ^vkio 6paoT7^pios. 


avTOV irpiaa-Oat ^ovk^rai' tre 8' ^Icropfov 
lias Tis biboLK^v. 6ii\xa yap -nvpos yip.^i.s, 
ravpos KtovTos wj /3Ae7rooy Trpo? kp.^oXr]v. 

2o{5 Kar^iyopSi 
(TLyoivTOS, (OS eaj? ay oi';( t^777/koo?, 
TaacT^LV 8e \xa\Kov r] 'TXiTaa-creo-OaL OiKois- 


Cannot be safely inferred frorn probabilities. 
OvK 'icTT aKpL(3es ovbev eh evavhpiav. 
e)(^ov(rL yap Tapayp-ov al ^vcreis (iporGiV. 
■ijbrj yap elbov avbpa yevvatov irarpos 
TO pii]b€v oi'Ta, \pi-](TTa t eK KaKav T€Kva, 
Ai/xoV T kv avbpbs TrXovcriov (ppov)]p.aTi, 
yv(i>p.rjv re iJ.€ydXi]v ev TrevrjTi (TWjxaTi. 
TTW? ovv Tis avra btaka^oov dp9u>s Kpivel ; 
irXo'UTca ; 7T0vr]p<^ rapa y^pri<T(.Tai KpiTji' 
7] rots eyovai p.r\biv ; aAA' e^et voaov 
TTevCa, 8i8a(r/cet 8' avbpa rfj xp^(-a- KaKov. 
aAA.' ei? ottA' ekOo) ; rts 8e Trpo? X6y\7]v (BkeTtoiv 
fxaprvs yivoiT av oaris iarlv ayados ; 
KpaxLCTTOv etKT/ TavT kav a(j)et[jieva. 
ovTos yap avrjp ovt kv 'Apyetots p-eyas 
OVT av boK7](r€i bcopLarcov 0)yKa)p.4vos, 
ev Tols re it AAois wv, apicTTOs evpedr], 

OV pLT] '(})pOV7](T€6', ol K€VWV bo^aCTpATUIV 

7rA?ypeis TrXavaade, rfj b' dpaXia (BpoTovs 
Kpivelre koI toIs ijOea-iv tovs evyevels ; 




'A/ixouo-i'a roi /xjjS' k-n oUrpolcnv baKpv 
ardC^iV KaKov 8e XPW^"^^^ ovtmv akis 
iP^ibol TTOvrjpq iJ.r]hiv ev TTOieiy (3poT(av. 

'EadXov yap avbpbs tovs irovovvras (ri(/)eAetz'. 

Ill-gotten gains are soon lost. 
Ta yap 8o'A&) 
7(0 pA] 5uai<ri KTr]p.aT ov)(\ acaC^rai. 


Happy, careless, unconscious of evil. 
To yap v^a^ov ev TOLo'tcrbe ftoaK^raL 
yjapoiaiv avTov, KaC viv ov OdXiros deov, 
ovb' op.j3poi, ovbe TTvevp-aToov ovbev K\oveX, 
dAA' ijbovals dp-oyOov k^aipei ^iov 
es Tovd'' ecos rts avrX irapOivov yvvr] 
KkrjOri, Xd^ji T h vvktI ^povTibcuv p.ipos. 

'AAA' otbe Tralbcs Ik Tpox^yv TTeTravfxivoL 
crreixoucrt, p.rjTpbs ovbcv h'voovjxevoL 
KaKwv, via yap (ppovrls ovk aky^lv (^tk^l. 


The pillars of a house. 
SrCAot yap olk(X)V eto-t TratSe? apa-evis. 

Compared to anchors. 
'AAA' eio-t //rjrpl 7raT8es dyKVpai jSCov. 


Compared to floats that buoy a net. 
riaTSes yap avbpl KAr/SoVe? (rcorrjptot 
OavovTf (fiiWol §' &)s ayovcrt, hiKTVov, 
Tov eK (3vdov K\(a(TTrjpa a-ca^ovTes Kivov. 

Children should help their parents. 
"H rl TrXiov elvai nolhas avdpcoTTOLs, Trare'p, 
ft [XI] 7tI Tot9 beivolatv oi)(f)e}^ri(ro[x(v ; 

Eyo) vopii^oi irarpl (piXraTov t^kvov, 
TTaicriv re tovs reKovras, ovbe (JV}xp.ayovs 
aXkov yivicrOai ^?j/x' av ivbtKcarepovs. 

Mother's love. 
AeLval yvvai^lv al bi wStVcoy yoval 
Koi (piXoTeKvov TTuis irav to yvvaLKelov yivos. 

Love of offspring universal. 
Ets yap Tis kcTTi Koivbs avdpcoTTOis vopios 
Kat deolcn TOVTo bo^av w? aaipws Xiyoi 
Oripcriv re Tratrt, TCKva tiktovctiv cpiXdv' 
TO, b aWa ^(copi? )(pco)ue^' a\\i]ko)v vop.oL's. 

Children a joy to the house. 
Vvvaif <\)ikov \xkv (fy^yyos rjXiov ro'Se, 
KaXbv 8e ttovtov kvjx Ibelv evrjvep.ov, 
yrj r' rjpLvov ddWovcra ttXovctlov 6' vboyp, 
TToXXuiv T (TTau'ov eoTt jjiot, Xi^at KaXm', 
aXX ovb\v ovTO) XajXTTpov ovr Ibdv KaXov 
o)S Tois airaicn. Ka\ 'jT6d<a 8e8j;y/J.eVoty 
iraiboyv veoyvav iv boixoLs Ib^iv ^dos. 

C a 


Children, a blessing. 

Kai KTrj[xa 8', co reKOvaa, Ka\Xt(rTov robe, 
■nkovTov 8e Kpela-o-ov, tov /xey WKcia irripv^, 
TToibes be xpTjorot kuv davuxn biafxacnv 
KaXbv TO OrjcravpKTiia, rots Te/coCcrt re 
avadi][j.a j3l6tov, KOviroT cKAetTret boixovs. 

Is it belter to have children or not ? 

'A^ri)(avu> 8' eyu>y€ kovk. ex'^ [J.aOe'iV 
cIt ovv ajX€iv6v icTTL yiyveaOai TGKva 
6vrjT0L(nv, etr' airatba KapTTOvaOaL (3lov. 
6pu> yap ots pikv ovk e<pv(rav a6\(.ovs, 
ocroiCTi 8' elcrlv ovbev evTVX^(^Tepovs, 
Koi yap KaKol yeycores k\6i(TTri vocros, 
K&v av yivdovrat, auxppoves KaKov \xtya, 
AuTTOucri TOV (f)V(ravTa p.!] TrdOMcrL rt. 

"Ejuotye vvv re Ka\ TraAat boKel' 
TTaXbas (})VT€veiv ovttot avOpiairovs ^XPV^ 
TTovovs opQvras els ocrovs (pvTevopev. 

"EiTCLTa iralbas crvv ■niKpals aXyrjbocn 

TiKTUt' TeKOvaa b\ rjv p.ev cKppovas rcKco, 

arevco juaratco? elcropSxra /xey KaKOVs, 

)(j()7jo-rovs 8' anoKicrafT' rjv be Kal (recraxjixepovs 

TrjKU) rdXaivav Kapbiav oppoibia' 

ri TovTO br] TO xp-^crTov ; ovk apKel fxtav 

yfrvx^jv aiToK.vei.v Kairl rovb e^eiv t:6vovs ; 


' Yet will we say for children — would they grew 
Like wild flowers everywhere^ 

12 ZeC, tI bi] KijSbrjXov avdp(a7T0is kukov 

yvvaiKas e? <p(as i]kiov Kart^Kiaas ; 

et yap /3poretoy ijOeXes (nrelpai yevos, 

ovK (K yvvacKQv \pr\v Tiapacr^icrOai Tohe, 

aX)C avTidivTas (Toicnv iv vaols jSporovs 

7/ yj}V(Tov rj (ribrjpov rj )(^a\KOV (Bdpos 

TTaibcov TTpiaa-Qai, o-Tiep/xa, tov TtiJLi][j.aTos 

TTJs aria's iKaa-Tov' kv 8e ba)[Maai. 

vaUiv iXevOepoLCTL driXeiQv arep. 


Eledra describes her degraded condition. 
'Ettci 8e KtreT? p-vdov, iKerevco, $€i'€, 
ayyeAA. 'Opicrrr] Tap.a KCLKeivov KaKO., 
TTpSiTov ix€v oiot? (V TTeirKoLs avXi^, 
TTLV(o 6 oaco /3e^pt^', vtto crTiyaiai 7€ 
otaicn vatco ^acnXiKcov Ik bcajxaroiv, 
avTT] jxiv iKiJ.o\6ov(ra K^pKLcnv TriirX-ovs, 
T} yviivov 1^0) aS>jj.a koc cmprjcTOfxai, 
avTi] b\ TTrjyas TTorap-iovs (fiopovpLivr], 
aveopTOs Ipwv kol x^op&v Tr]T0L)iJi.4vr}, 
avaivop.aL yvvaiKas, ovcra Trap94poSf 
avaivopLat be Kdorop', w, irplv es Oeovs 
ikdelv, ep. ip.vr]crTevov, ovcrav iyyeifj. 
lx'i]Trip 8' ipLT} ^pvyioicriv kv (TKv\€vp.acn 
dp6v(^ KddrjTat, TTpbs 8' ebpas 'AcrtaTtbes 
bpLOial orari^oucr', as eirepcr ip-os irar/jp, 
Ibala (paprj xpucreat? e^euy/xez-at 



Toi9 TTpdyixaaLV yap o^x.' Ovjxovcrdai xpewi'' 
/xeXei yap avroh ovbev' aAA' ovvrvyxavcov 
TO, TTpdypLaT 6p9S)S rjv rtOf], Trpao-o-et KaXws. 


Invention of the arts, and progress of mankind. 
AlvO) 8' OS rjixlv jBlOTOV €K TTe(})VplX€VOV 

nal di-jpLwbovs 6eS>v oteo-ra^/x?j(raro, 
TTpu>Tov p.^v evdeh crvveo-iv, elra 8' ayyeXov 
yXSxTaav koycov bovs, wore ytyvuxTKetv orra, 
Tpo(f)i]v re KapTTOv, rf] Tpo(f}fi t air ovpavov 
(TTayovas vbprjXds, a>? rd t €k yaia^ Tp^4>V 
dpbrj re vrjbvv irpos 8e roio-8e x^i^/^ci^oj 
itpo^Xrip-aT, atdov t k^ap-vvaaQai Oeov, 
TTovTov re vav(TToXr\\xad\ ws 8iaAXaya? 
€XOijX€v dXXrjXoLcnv &v tt€volto yrj. 

The Common Lot. 

YliTTOvdev, ola Kal (re Kal irdwas jj-evei. 

Ov Bavp! e'Ae^as OvrjTov ovra bva-Tvxeiv. 

QvrjTos yap iov Kal 6vr]Ta TreicrecrdaL 8oKet* 
Oeov ^Lov Cv^ d^tols dvOpoiiros &v ; 

OvK ia-TLv evpeiv j3lov dXvnov ovbevi. 

BifBatov ovbiv kcmv kv 6vr\TS>v yeVet, 
/Sioi yap ovbels ov Trpoaipelrat Tpoiroi'. 


TeOvacTL TTalbes ovk ([jloI ixovrj j3poT(av, 
ovb' avhpos e(TTepi]iJie6' ' aX\a ixvpiai 
Tov avTov ^^rjvTXrjcrav, w? fyw, (iiov. 

"Ecfiv fxev oiioets oaTts ov -novel (ipoTS)v, 
OaTTTii re TeKva, x^'^^P "^ Krarat vea, 
avTos re OvrjcrKei, koL Tob' aydovTai jSpoTol 
ds yriv (f)^povTes yrjv avayKaCcos 8' e^ei 
i3iov OepiCeLi' ojore Ko.p'nip.ov aTa-)(vv, 
Kttt TOV fxkv eirat tov be jxi]' tI Tavra bel 
(TTeveiV, airep bel KaTci (pva-i.v bieKTiepav ; 
beivov yap ovbev twv avayKaioov /SporoTv. 

' Look round, 
And seeing others worse off than thyself, 
Cease to repine.'' 

AoKet5 TOV " kibT]v autv tl (^povTi^eiv yocov 
Kol 7rai8' av'i](Teiv tov aov, el OeXois crTevetv ; 
Tiava-ai' ^keiiovara 8' els to. tQ>v -neXas KaKa, 
pdcop yevoi av, el XoyiC^errOai OeXois, 
o(TOi Te bea-ixols eKixepLoxdijvTai. (BpoTcov, 
0(701 re yiipd(TK0vcnv opcfyavol TeKvoov, 
Tovs T eK jxeyio-Trjs oX^ias Tvpavvibos 
TO [JLiibev ovTas' TavTa ae (TKOTrelv xpecov. 

f^Oeipovo'LV i]6r] \pri(r9' ojixtAiat KUKai. 

"Oo-rt9 8' 6p.LXu>v 7j8erai kukoIs dvi]p 
TotovTos ea-Tiv ola-nep ijbeTat EvvfLv. 


6 yap ^vv(ov, KaKO'i fxev y)v tvxJ] y^ym, 
Totovabe tovs ^vvovras iKTraibeverai, 
y^p-qarovs 8' o \pr\(TT6s' aXXa ras o/xtAtas 
eardXas biuxeiv, w viot, (nrovbdCeTe. 


Advice from a dying father to his son. 
'OpdGis jM iTTi]pov, (3ovXo[jiat 8e croi, t€kvov,- 
(fipovels yap yjbrj KaTTOcrcoaai av irarpos 
yv(i)\xas (f)pd(ravTOS, r/y Odvco, — irapaLv^aai 
Kei/xr/Ai' (crdXa kol vioiai ■)(^pi]cnp.a, 
^payjd 8e [xvOi^ iroXXd avXXajSoiV ep5. 
TTpS>Tov (})pevas p-^v rjTTLOvs e\fiz^ xpedv. 
TM ttXov(tl(o re pi] bibovs pelCov jUiepos 
tcrov cr^avTov evcrejBe'iv irdcnv bibov. 
bvolv TiapovToiv 'npayp.aToiv Trpos Oarepov 
yvu>p.7]v TTpoacLTTTcov Tr]v ivavTiav (rrvyei,. 
dbiKcos 8e p.r] ktu> KTrip-ar, rjv jBovXri ttoXvi; 
Xpovov p.tXd6pois €pip€V€Lv' Ttt yap KUKois 

OLKOVS €(T€X66vT OVK e'x^et (T(OTr]pLaP. 

^X^LV 8e iretpo)' tovto yap to t evy^ves 
KOL TOVS ydpiovs bibuxTL tovs TrpcoTovs e'xeti', 
iv rco 7T4v€(rdai b' eartz; ij r dbo^ta, 
Kav 17 ao<j)6s Tbs, i] r' drt/xta jSiov. 
(f)iXovs 8e TOVS p.\v pi] xc'-^^^'''(^s €v Xoyois 
K^KTrjo-o, TOVS be irpos X'^P'-^ ^^^ ribovfj 
TTJ crrj TTOvqpovs KXeWpov clpytToo (TTeyqs. 
opiXias be Tas yepauepas (pCXet, 
cLKoXaaTa 8' ?/^rj, Xap-Ttpa avyyeXav p.6vov, 
pi(xei' ^paxeia rep\/^ts i]bovr\s KaKris. 


l^ovcria 8e fir/7ror' \vTvyJiv, T€kvov, 
al(r)(^povs epooTas bi]ixoT(av biooKadeLV, 
b Kol (Tibripov ay\6vas T i(f)eXK€Tai, 
\prj(TT(tiv 7r€vi]T(ov ijv tls alayyvrj r^Kva' 
KoX TOVS TTOVripOVS ^TjlTOT av^€iv kv TToXei. 
KaKOL yap iixTrXija-QevTe? rj vojjiLcrixaTos, 
yj TTokeos iiJ.TT€(r6vT€s els ap)(i]v nva, 
(TKipTbiCTLV^ aboKTjT (.VTvy^y](Tavrciiv boixcav. 
aXX.', 0) tIkvov, [xoi bos X^V' ^^ ^'V?? ttclttip, 
Kot X'^^P ' ^'^' o-'-bovs b' ov kiav a(nTd(op.aL. 
yvvaiKocfipMv yap Ovp-os avbpos ov (TO(f)Ov. 

Practise useful arts rather than or>iaiiie)ital. 

'AAA. ejuot 
TTiOov' KexprjcT OTiXoLCTL KOL plxj/ov Xvpav, 
TTavcraL b aoiboov, TToXep-Lcov b ^v\xovcriav 
acrKtC TOiavT aetbe, Kal bo^eis (Ppovelv, 
(TKa-UTOdv, apG>v yi]V, iroipvioiv ^ino-TaTcav, 
aAAots TO, Kop.'^a ravr' acfxls (T0(f)icrjxaTa, 
€^ S>v Kevola-Lv eyKarotK?/(reis b6p.ois. 

Siibinii to those in authority. 
Mtj v€iK0s, o) yepaie, KOipavois ridov, 
a^lS^LV 8e tovs Kparovvras apxalos vofxos. 


A guilty conscience never sleeps. 
' Prima est haec ultio quod se 
Judice nemo nocens absolvitur.'' 

To T06 KaKov TTobutKes epx^To.1. (SpoTo'is 
Kal TaixTTX.dKrjiJ.a rw TTcp&vTt. tijv Oeyuiv. 


opas biKrjv avavhov ov\ opcofxevrjv 
evbovTi Kol (TTeiyovTi koX Kadrjixevtd, 
e^rjs b dirrjbel boyjxiov, aXKoO^ vcTTepov, 
ovb iyKakvTTTei vv^ kukuh dpyaa-fxeva, 
oTi b hv TTOLrjs v6p.i^' opav Oeoiv Tiva, 

A guilty conscience is apt to betray itself. 

*l>iAer 8' 6 Ovixbs Trpocrdev TjprjaOai k\ott€vs 
T&v ixr]bev opOcos hv (tk6t(^ T€)(^vu)[xiv(ov. 


Comfoiiable words. 
Ez/ecrrt yap tls koL Xoyoicnv rjbovr], 
XrjOrjv orav 'noiGicn tS)v ovtcov kuk&v. 

Friendly words better than the wine-cup. 
QvK kcTTL XvTTTjs aAA.0 cfxipp-aKov (SpoTols 
(OS avbpos ecrOKov Kal cf)iXov irapaiv^cns. 

bcTTLS be TWUTT] TY] VOCTdd ^VVbiV ttVrjp 

IxeOj} Tapd(r(r€i Kal yaXrjVi^et (ppeva, 
napavTiy^ r](r6els vcrrepov arivei biirXa. 


H TToXka ixo^Odv TToAX' i^oiv kv bioiiaaiv 
^ovXcL ; tL 8' eVrt to iiXiov ; ovopJ i\eL fxovov' 
€7ret TO. y apKovvd' iKava vols ye (r(a(ppo(nv. 

Happiness of a retired life. 
EtTTOts av b)s 6 xpvo'os' eKViKO. Tobe, 
irXovTeiv re repirvov' ov (f)iXS> -^oyovs Kkveiv 


kv x^^pcrX (r(a^o)v ok^ov ovb^ ^'x^'^ ttovov^. 

a evoao ei)(^ov ayav aKOvcrov fxov, Ttarcp 
TTjv <\)iXTaTr]v [xev TrpoJTOV avOpcoirots crx^oA?/;' 
ox'^or re p-irpiov' ovhe pJ e^e'jrX?/^ obov 
TTOvripbs ovb^is, Kelvo 8' ovk avacryjETov 
et/cety ohov \akSiVTa rots KaKioa-LV. 
de&v 8' ey €v-)(^ais rj X6yoL(nv 17 fipoT(av, 
v7rr]p€Twv \aipov(Tiv, ov yoo)p.4voLs. 
Koc Tovs p.\v e^eirefnTov, ol 8' rJKOv $evoL, 
axrd' ribvs ael Kaivos ow Kaivolcriv ^]i'. 


hiKaiov elvai p! 6 v6p,os 1] <pvcri.s 0^ ap.a 
Ttapelx.^ ru) ^ew. ravra crvvvoovpi€VOS 
KpeCcrcroi vop,tC(o ravOdb^ rj roKei, Trarep. 
(a 8' ip.avT^ ^i]u /x'* tcrij yap i] x'^P'^j 
jueyaAoicri yaip^iv ap.LKpa 6 r\btU)S exetr. 


Tecmessa over the body of Ajax self -slain. 
OvToi dearos' aWd vlv Tr^pmrvyel 
(pdpet Kakv^oi T(2be 7TaiJ.TTi]br]v, iirel 
oii8eis av, octtls koL ^lAo?, rXaii] jiXiire^iv 
(})V(TMVT avoo Trpo? pivas, e/c re (poivias 
irX-qyfj^ p-ekavOkv atpC d-n' oiK^ias crcpayjjs. 
OLp.01, TL bpdcroi ; tls (re ^aaTaaeL (pikcDV ; 
TTOV TewKpo? ; ws aK/jiaios, el ^att], /xoAoi, 
TTeTrrolr' db€X(f)bv Tovbe a-vyKaOappLOcrai. 
Zi bvcrpLop' Ata?, olos cov oi'co? e'xeis, 
ws Kol Tiap i)(^9pols d^Los Oprjvoiv Tvyjav. 



'OoTts 8e To'Aju?; ■Trpo? ro betvbv epx^TUL 
6p6r] fi^v 7j yXG)(T(T kcrrXv a(r<paX.r]S b 6 roOs. 

Courage gains immortality, cowardice oblivion. 
'ApeTTJ 8e, kclv 6dvr] rt?, ovk diroAAurat, 

^7/ 8' OVKtT OVTOS (T(x)p.aTOS' KaKOlCTl 8e 

airavTa (l)povba crvvOavovO' vtto ydovos. 

Courage more excellent than mere strength. 

At 8e (rdpKes al Keval (ppevSiV 
dyaXiiar dyopas elcnv. ovbe yap bopv 
p.aXkov ppayjiiov adevapos dadevovs [xtveC 
kv rfi (j)vcr€L 8e tovto kclv ev'^vyj.a. 

IVit without courage or courage without wit. 
rToVepa yevea-Qai brjra -xfirjcnixutTepov 
avv^Tov droXpov, rj dpacrvv re ndpiaOrj ; 
TO pikv yap dcrrStv crKawv, dXX! dp^vveraL, 
TO 8' i]crvyoA.ov dpyov' iv b' dp.(f)olv voaos- 


"Hbrj TTOT (Ibov dvbp' eyw yXu>(T(rr} Opaavv 
vavTas ((popp-^a-avTa xet/xwros to TrXelv, 
(p 0^eyju,' av ovk dv rjvpa, i]vtK kv KaK^ 
■)(€LpG)VOS €l)(JiT\ dXX' v<p' eip.aTos KpV(f)€h 

TiaTuv 7!"apet}(e rw diXovTi vavTiXcov. 



The resource of a coward. 
A6koL be Kol (TKOTeLvh ixrj)(^avri[xaTa 
Xpetay av6.vhpov (fiapjiaK evprjTai /3porots. 


KovK qxbs 6 [xvOos, dAA' e//?)? ixrjTpos irdpa' 
&)s ovpavos T€ yaid t' riv \xop^-r] {xia' 
€TTel 8' k^(Mpi(T9r\aav aXXi]X(i>v biya, 
TLKTOvcri, Trdvra KCtvibMKav ets (pdos 
bivbprj, TTeTecvd, dfjpas, ovs 6 aXpi-r] Tpi(f)ei., 
yivos re 6vi]TSiv. 


Credit depends on character. 
OvK avbpos opKOi TTtcrrts dAA' opKcav h.vr\p. 


Oedipus cttrses his sons. 

2i) 8' epp' diTOTrTva-Tos re KaTrdrcop ipov, 
KaKuiv KdKtcTTC, rdabe (ruXXajSuiv dpds, 
as croL KaXovfiat, /x?/re yrjs (p.(f)vXCov 
bopei KpaTTJaai iJ.r]Te voaTTJaai Trore 
TO kolXov "Apyos, aXXa avyyevel x^P' 
davelv KTaveiv 6' vcj)' ovirep e^eXrjXaa-at. 
rotaSr' dpS>p.aL, Kca koXS) to TapTdpod 
(TTvyvbv 7TaTp<2ov epe/3o?, cos a dTrotKtcr?;, 
KaXS> be rdcr§e baipiovas, KaX(a 8' "Aprj 
Tov (r(f)(ov TO beLvov pLicros e/x/Se.SATjKora. 



Polyphemus at home. 

'Ettci TtiTpaiav rjyi'5' ecr?/A^o/xei' o-reyr]!', 
aviKUvac }j.\v irvp npcarov, v\j/r}\ris bpvos 
Kopfxovs TTXareCas ecr)(apas' ySaAwy e'-TTt, 
Tpicrauiv aixa^G)V ws aycoytpiov jSdpos. 
(TTCiTa (l)v\\(i>v kXaTivojv yjuxam^Tri 
evqaev evvi]V TrXrjaLov TTvpos (pXoyi. 
KpaTTjpa 8' k^iirX-qcrev w? b€Kd[Ji(f)opov, 
fxoa^ovs a/xe'A^as, kevKov ea-}(e'a? ydXa. 
crKV(j)os re Ktaaov TiapiO^r ets eSpos Tpi5>v 
TTTD^iOiv, j3ddo9 be rea-crdpoiv €(f)atv€To. 
Kol xdkK€ov Ae^j;r' eireC^crev Ttvpi, 
o^eKovs T uKpovs juei/ kyKeKavixivovs irvpt, 
^€(rTovs be bpe7rdv(o y', aAAa TraXiovpov Kkdbu), 
AlTvald re acpayela TT€\eK€u>v yvddois. 

Dangerous People. 

Tvvi] yap d^vdvixos cos 8' avrcos dvi]p 
pa(i)V (PvkdacreLV r] o-icotttjAos (T0(f)6s. 


The dead are as nought : care for the living. 
Tovs ^(avTas eS bpav' KarOavoiv be iras dvrjp 
yrj Kol cTKia" to ixrjbev eis ovbev piiiei. 

Pain and insult cannot reach the dead. 
QdvaTos yap dvdpa>TTOicn veiKecov re'Aos 
e\ei,' tC yap rovb' ea-rl jmet^by ev jSporols ; 
TLs yap TTerpalov a-KoireXov ovrd^iov bopl 


6hvvai(Ti dcocret ; rt? 8 dri/xa^coy veKVv, 
et [xr]bev alcrQavoiVTO tG>v Tra^rj/xdrcoy ; 

Kat roi)s Oavovras el diXets evepyerew — - 
TO yovv KaKovpye'iv d/x(/)t8e^ta)S e)(ei, 
Kttt />i?jTe xaipeiv ju,7/re Ai)7ret(rl9at Trdpa — 
^Hxwy ye ^livToi NefxecrCs karB' vircpT^pa 
KoL Tov davovTos T] bUr} Tipaa-crei kotov. 


Death the real blessing, birth the evil to be mourned. 

'Fi\priv yap rjixas (rvWoyov 7TOLOvp.ivovs 
TOV (pvvTa 6pr]V€lv, et? oa-' €p\^Tai KaKo., 
TOV 8' av davovTa Kal irovoiv imravpi.ivov 
XaipovTas ev(f)ripovvTa9 eK'Tre/xTreiy bofjLoov. 

'Q.S ov StKatoj? 6dvaTov 'iyOova-iv jdpoToi, 
ocnrep {x^yLcrTOv pvp.a t&v ttoAAcSz^ KaKOJV. 

Death the only certain aire for misery. 
'12 ddvaT€ Ylaidv, p-r] jx drt/xdo-?;? poX.€lv 
fxovos yap et cru rwf dvifKia-Tcav KaK&v 
laTpos, dAyos b' ovbev aTrrerat veKpov. 

Tots TTacTLv dvOpcaTroKTi KaTOavelv juerei. 
KOivbv 8' €-x^ovT€s ovTo KOtvo, TTacryop^v 
TtAvT^s' TO yap ■)(^peo}v p.elCov i] to p.r] xp^cov. 

Tij 6' ecrri bovXos tov dav^lv a(f)povTis m' ; 


Not to be bribed or propitiated. 
INIoVos 6(.Giv yap Qavaros ov Swpwy epa, 
oiiT av TL 6v(x)V ovt' iTTicnrivboiv avois, 

ov jScO/XOS €(TTIV Ovbi TTaLuOVtC^Tai,. 

jxovov 8e ITet^ci) batfjiovcov airoaTaTil. 

Death better than an evil life. 
OvKOVv TO /XT) Cv^ Kpetcra-ov ear' rj Ci]V KaKWS. 

Zcoijs TTOVT^pas ddvaros eviropuiTepos. 
TO p.1] yeviaOai 8' ecrrty ?) 7re(/)UKeVat 
Kpelcrcrov KaKois -uaa-yovTi. 

Death and Life. 

Tis dlhev et to C,rjV p.iv iaTL KarOavdv, 
TO KaTOavelv be (tjv ko-to) vopiCCeTai ; 

' Were it not better not to be.^ 
Tts b' olbev, d (v^ tov9\ o KeKXr]TaL Oavdv, 
TO (rjv be 6vi]<tkhv eart" ■7tA?/i' ojxois fipoT&v 
voaovcriv ol (BkeTTOVTes, ol 8' oAwAo'res 
ovbev vocrova-LV, ovbe KiKTrjvTai KUKa. 

Death and Burial. 

Earth to eatih from whence it came. 
'Eacrar' i]br] yf] K(xXv(p6i]vaL v€Kpovs. 
oOev 8' eKacTTOv es to <f)&s a(f)iK€TO, 
iVTavd' a7TT]kde, TTV€V[xa [jikv Trpos aldepa, 
TO <TG>ixa 8' h yfjv ovTe yap K€KT-^p,e6a 
i]^iT€pov avTO, ttXtjv ^poLKrjcrat (iiov, 
KaireiTa ti]V 6pi\f/a(Tav avTo 8et Aa/Seiy. 



Falsetiood hateful. 

Oi/xot, KaKOvpyov^ avbpa<i w? ael oTuyo), 
01 (TvvTiOh'Tes TobiK etra ixrix^avais 
Koa-jj-ovcTL. (f)avXov ^prjo-Tov av \af3elv (piXov 
dikoifxi. ixaXkov rj Kaadv cro<p(i)T€pov. 

A Defiance. 

Op OS ravT trca p.'kv irvp, iroj be (paayavov, 
TTifjiTTpri, KCLTaide (TCLpKas, e[X7:Xi]adr}TL fxov 
TiivoiV KeXatvov alp-a' irpoa-de yap /cciro) 
yfjs etcTLV acrrpa, yi] 8' Hvskt et? aWipa, 
TTplv e^ ep-ov aoi Ocorr' airavTrjaai Xoyov. 

^ Aydp.ep.vov, ovbi' el irekeKW ev xepolv e\(iiv 
pLeXXoL US els Tp6.\r]\ov ep-jBakelv ep.6v, 
aiyr], hiKaid y avTemeiv e\(s>v. 

Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. 

EP. Toioicrhe p.evTOL koI irplv avOabicrp.acTiv 
es rdcrbe aavrbv Tnqpovas KaOcappiaas. 

nP. TTJs (Ti]S XaTpeCas rrjy ep.r]v bvcnrpa^iav, 
aacpMS eTTiCTTaar', ovk hv dWd^aip, eyo). 
Kpelacrov yap olp-ai Tijbe karpeveiv Trerpa 
Tj Trarpt (j)vvai. Zrjvl tikttov dyyeXov. 
ovrcDs v(3pi(eLv tovs v(3piCovTas xpediv. 




The mob fuust be httntoured. 
"Orav yap 7//3a hr^ios, iU opyijv Trecrcoi', 
ofxoLov uxTT^ TTvp KaTa(T^€(rai, Xa^pov' 
«i b' rjaijx^an tis avrbs evreivovTi jx^v 
XaXStv vTieLKOi, Kaipov €vX.alBovp.€VOS, 
10-0)5 &y €KiTV€Vcr€L' oTuv b' ainj 7ri'0(i9, 
TV\OLS hv avTOv pqhicos ocrov O^Xeis. 
ivi(TTL 8' diKTos, €VL 8e Kol 6vp.d<i fxiyas, 
napaboKOVvTi KTfjp,a TLixLatraTOv. 


Teiresias foretells the doom of Creon. 

TE. "Opcrets /ue raKLvriTa 6ia (f)pev(av (ppacrai. 

KP. KLveL, pLOvov 8e ju,^ 'ttI K^pbecnv Xiyoiv. 

TE. QVTUt yap ribr] Kal boKO) to aov p.ipos ; 

KP. 0)? p-r] ' p.-noXr\a(iiv ladi ti]V kp.r]V (fypiva. 

TE. akk' €V yi rot KaxKrOi pLj] TTokkovs hi 
Tp6)(^ovs ap.Lkkr]Tripas tjkiov Tck&v, 
kv oXcTt t5)V awv avrbs e/c a-T:kdy)(V(tiv kva 
v4kvv v€KpS>v apLOL^bv avTibovs e(rei, 
avd' Q)V e^eis p-^v tS>v avca (Sakoiv Karoi, 
\j/vx/li> t' aTip.009 (V Ta(f)(o KarcDKLcras, 
ex^ets 8e T(av KarojOev evdab' av Oe.Ci>v 
ap.oipov, aKT^picTTOv, avomov v^kvv. 
Siv ovT€ crol p.eT€aTiv ovTi rots avm 
Oeola-tv, akk^ €k aov j3idCovTaL rdbe. 
TOVTcov ae koolBrjTrjpes v(TTepo(})96poi 
ko-x^S)cnv "Aibov Kal dtQ)V 'Eptwe?, 
kv Toicriv avTois rotcrSe krjcpOfjvaL /caKOts. 



Laconia, a rough hilly region. 
YloWrjV \xkv apoTov iKirov^lv 8' ovpahiav. 
KoiXrj yap, opeat TTep[bpo[xos, Tpa^eld re 
bvcreicrjSokos re TroAe/xiots-. 

Messene, well watered, good for pasture, temperate in climate. 
KaTdppvTov re p.vpCoLcn vdp.a(n 
Kai ^ovcrl Kal TToipivaicnv evjSoTooTCLTrjv 
ovT Iv TTVoaiaL x^^IJ-<^tos bvcr-x^^ipiepov, 
ovT av reOptTTTTois rjktov 6epp.i]v &yav. 


n^TTOvOas atKe? TTijpi'' diroacfiakels (ppevcHv 
Trkava, kukos b iarpos to? rts es voaov 
TTeaoiv dOvp-eis Kai (reavrdv ovk e'x^^^ 
evpelif oTTOiots (pap[j.dKoi.s tacrt^os. 


Creon chides the guard, who excuses himself. 

4>T. EtTTeti' rt Swcrets, r} crTpa(j)€ls ovroos tco ; 

KP. ovK olada koI vvv w? dvcapws kcyeis ; 

4>T. ip TolcTLv d)(rlv rj 'm rrj \}/vxrj buKvet ; 

KP. rt be pv9p.L(eti ttjv kp.7]v Xvtttjv ottov ; 

4>T. 6 bpS)v (T dvta TCLs ^pivas, to. 8' Sr' eyw. 

KP. ot//, (d? dkr]p.a brjkov eKTre^uKo? et. 

4>T. oi;/coui; ro y' epyoi' rowro TTotTjcras irore'. 

KP. Kal TavT iir' dpyvpco ye T7]v ^Ifvxvv Trpobovs. 

7] beivov w boKel ye Kal \}/€vbr] boK€iv. 

D 2 


Polynices and locasta, on the hardsJiips of exile. 

no. Tas rdv Kparovvnov ajxaOias (pep^LV \peiiiv. 
10. Koa TovTo kvnpov, ^vva<TO(j)(lv rot? fi?/ cro^ots. 
no. dXA' €s TO Kepbos irapa cfivaLi' bovkevreov. 
10. at 6' lATTtSe? (Soo-kovctl cf)vydba^, ws Aoyos. 
no. KaXots /3Ae7roucrt y' op.ixa(nv, piikkovcn 8e. 
10. oti8 6 XP*^^^^ avTas dtecrac^rjcr' owcras Kems ; 
no. e.\ovcnv 'A<ppobiTrjv tlv rjbelav KaKcov. 
10. TTodev 8' ijioa-KOV, -nplv yajuots evpelv jSiov ; 
no. ■TTore juei' Itt' 7)ju,ap a,y^ov, elr ovk et)(oi' av. 
10. (f)[Xoi be TTarpbs koI ^ivoi a ovk o)(f)ikovv ; 
no. eS TTpacrae' to, <pik(x>v 8' ovbiv, i']v rts Suorvx^. 

Oedipus denounces Creon. Threats and remonstrances. 

KP. Ti brjTa \priC,€is ; ri /jte yrj? e^co ^akelv ; 

01. rJKLCTTa' 6vi](rK€Lv, ov (pvyelv ere 

KP. oray TTpobei^rjs olov eart to (j)dovelv. 

01. 0)9 ovx. vireC^cav ovbe jncrTevcrooi; Aeyet? ; 

KP. ov yap (fypovovvrd cr €V (Bkeiro). 01. to yovv epiov. 

KP. dAX' e^ to-ou Set Kap.6v. 01. dAA' e(/)i;? Ka/cos. 

KP. ei 8e ^vvLr]s iir\biv ; Ol. apKriov y 6p,(t)s. 

KP. ovrot KOKois y' a.p)(^ovTos. 01. co Tro'At? ttoAis. 

KP. Ka/Aol TToAeo)? piiTea-TLV, ov)(l crol /loVw. 


'Aet yap eS ttltttovo-lv ol Atos KV^ot. 

Be)8A?7K' 'A)(tAAevs 8^0 ki;/3co Kat rerra/ja. 


Ta becnroTQv yap ev irearovTa Oiqaoiiat 
Tpls e£ fia\ovcrr]s rrjcrbi jjlOL (ppvKTcopias. 

'ErepyeLV 8e TaKTrecrovra kol OidOai TrpiireL 
(TO(pbv KVJS^VTijv, a\X.a /xr) crriveLV Tv\r]v. 

A Dirge. 

Electra laments her brother s death. 

'12 (jiikTaTOV pLvqpLelov avOpiaircov ipLol 
yj/vxrjs 'Opia-Tov X.on:6v, co? cr ai: iXTiCboiiv 
ov)(^ (Syirep e^eTre/xTToy ^la-ibe^aixrjv. 
vvv pikv yap ovh\v ovra ^acTTa^oi ^<epoiv, 
oop.U)V oe cr , 0) Trat, AapLirpov e^cTrejay eyw. 
d)s b)(f)€Xov TtapoiOev e/cAiTreii' /3toy, 
Trpty es ^^vriv ere yalav kK-nip.y\/ai \€poiv 
Kkixj/acra Talvbe KavaarcocraaOaL (f)6vov, 
oTTcos davcav iKetcro rfj t66^ rjp.epq, 
njpi(3ov Trarpwou koivov ciAt/x^? p.ipos. 
vvv 8' e/cros oikoov kolttI yrjs aWrjs (f)vya.s 
KaKa>s aTT(i)\ov, arjs KacnyvijTrjs St^^a" 
KOVT iv (jf)tAaio-6 x^palv i] rdkaiv eyo) 
Aourpot? cr' iKoa-pLrja-' ovt€ TTapi(j)\€KTov irvpos 
av€ik6p.r]v, 0)5 etKos, a6\iov (iapo^. 
aAA' ey ^ivaicTL x^P""' KT^Seu^et? raAas 

iTjJLLKpOS 7TpO(rr]KeiS OyKOS iv ap.LKp<a KVT€l. 

otpLOi, TaXaiva r?/s e/x?}? iraAat rpocprjs 
d.VM(p€ki]TOV, rr/y eyo) ^ayix' a/x^i croi 
TTWw •yAufcei 7Tdpea-)(^ov' ovt^ yap Trore 
fxrjTpbs (TV y 7](sQa [xakkov r/ ndpLOV (^lAos, 


ov6 ol KaT oXkov rjaav, aAA.' eya> rpocfyo^, 
eyo) 8 abe\(j)i] ctol TTpo(ri]vbu)jj.riv aei. 
vvv 8' (KXiXoLTte TavT iv '>]fJ^^pa jutS 
OavovTi (Tvv o"ot' Traz'ra yap crvi'ap~d(ras 
dvekX.' OTTO)? iiejBrjKas. oi)(erat ■uaTi]p' 
Te9vy]K. eyco crot" (ppovbos avTos et 6av(av' 
yeAcSo-t 8' kyOpoi juatrerat 8' t;^' rjbovrjs 
in]Tr]p ap.i]T(i)p, rjs ejuot o-t; ttoWolkls 
(pi]ixas XaOpa TTpovirepiTTes ojs (pavovp-evo^ 
Tip-ajpos avTOS. aWa Tav9' 6 bvaTV)(r}S 
baip.()iv 6 o-o'j re Kapos i^acpeiK^TO, 
OS cr (38e /uot 'npov'ii^p.\\rev avrX (pikrar-qs 
pop<pr}s (TTTobov re Kat (XKiav avaxpeXrj. 


If is impossible to please every one. 

Ov yap rts av bvvaiTO Trputpdrijs crrparov 
ToZs Tiacri bel^au kuI TrpocrapKicrai xdpiv 
eTTet ovb 6 KpeL(T(r(iiv Zevs ipov Tvpavvibi 
ovT (^eTTopjdpoiv ovT k-av\pri(Tas (pcXos 
IBpoTols av iXdoiv es Aoyoy biKrjv 6(f)XoL' 
TTw? biJT eyu) OvqTos t' av eK dvqrrjs re (fivs 
Atos yevoiprjv eS (ppovelv crocpdiT^pos ; 


There are two sides to every question. 

E/c 'navTos av tls irpdyparos bicrdSiv X6yu>v 
ayOiva Q€\.t av, ei Xeyeiv ^trj aocpos. 



'7»5 distance lends enchantment to the view. 

Ov TovTov eioo? (f>aii€Tat. tQv Trpayiiaroiv 
7ip6(T(j}6€V ovTcov €y/v6ev 6' 6p(jniiv(av. 


'X2s 8' eoTt ixvdoov tu>v Ai^vcttikGiv \6yo<5 

TtXriyivT arpaKTip To^tK(2 tov aierbv 

eiirelv Ibovra p.r])(av'r]v 7rT(p(0[j.aTos, 

Tab' ov)( vtt' aWiov, aXka rots r}\iQ>v irTepol^ 


The ntother and the grave of all. 
"A-navra tiktu ydutv irdXiv re XaiJ.j3dv€i.. 

Kal yaiav avT-qv, fj to. iravTa riKxerai, 
6pi\}/aa-d t av6i^ Toivhe Kvp.a kap-^dvei.. 


Bad lessons soon learnt. 

'Koopajxev TJbt], TToibes, es to. t(ov crocpSjv 
8t8a(TKaAeTa, [xovaiKijs TTaLbevp.aTa. 
Tipocrkap.^dviiv b\ Sei xa^' i)p.^pav det, 
((OS av e$[i \xav6dv(.Lv jBeXriova. 
Tials 6' onv KaKOV jbter bpdv tl TrpoiK iTTLcrraTaL 
avTos 'nap' avrGiv ixavOdvoiv avev ttovoV 
TO. ^prjard b' ovb^ rjv tov bibacKoXov XajBrf 
epLvrjp.6v€va-€v, dWa K^KT^Tai p.6kLS. 


TavT ovv (()vXa^(afX€(T6a, koi iioyOnriov, 

boKCdjxev elvau Kaitob-qiJiovvTos Ttarpos. 


4>e{5 TTJs /Sporeias, Trot TTpojS-qcreTai, (fyp^vos ; 
TL repixa ro'Ajurjs kol dpaaovs yevrjo-^Tat; 

Tlokkoi ye 6vr]TQ)V rw dpaa-et ras crvp.(popas 
^r)TOV(r afiavpovv KaTTOKpvTtTecrOaL KaKCL. 

Mi(7(5 be KOt ras (rcacfypovas fikv ev \6yois, 
XaOpa he ro'Ajuas ov Ka\as KCKTrjixevas. 
at TT&s TTOT , S) bea-TTOiva iroTvia Kvirpt, 
^XeTTOVCTLv es TrpocrcoTTa tS>v ^vvevveroiv, 
ovhe (TKOTOV (f)pL(T(Tov(TC Tov (TvvepyaTr]v 
TepepLva. t oiKOiv pir) irore (f>6oyy')]v acfirj ; 


Aavveros oa-rts kv 0o/3a) p.\v aa-Oevrjs, 
Xa^(i)v be puKpbv tjjs tvxtis (ppoveZ fxeya. 


Rank and character make eloquence persuasive. 

To 8' a^ioopia, Kav Ka/ccS? Xeyijs, to aov 
Tieiaei' Xoyos yap eK t abo^ovvTcav lo)v 
KCLK T(ov boKOVVT(ov uvTos OV TuvTov (xOevei. 


Should not be used to distort facts. 

^Aya.[X€iJiVov, avOpdiroLdiv ova €)(^priv ttot€ 
T<av TTpayfJ-aTOiv Tr]v yXSxra-av Icr^v^LV irXiov. 
aXk' etre XP^^^' ebpaae, Xpr}<^T l§et Xiyetv, 
eiT av TTovripa, tovs Xoyovs dvat cradpovs, 
Koi fXT} bvvaa-Oai Tabtii eS Xiyav -norL 

Glozing Eloquence. 

Oh, that facts could speak! 
4>et} {/)eC" TO p.1] TO. TTpdyp-aT avOpumois ^X^tv 
(fyoyvriv, tv rjcrav p.r]h\v 01 beivol Aeyety" 
vvv 8' €vp6oL(ri, (TTop-aaL TaXrjO^a-TaTa 
KKiTTTOva-Lv, djore jix?) boKdv a XPV boK^lv. 


Fit audience and few. 
'Eyoj 8' aKQiJi^os ds oxXov bovvai koyov, 
ds rjXiKas 8e KO)Xiyovs rroc^wrepos, 
ex^i 8e \xoipav koI rob^' ol yap h 0-0(1)019 
(pavXoL Trap'' oxA.w p.ov(nK(i>Tepoi. kiyetv. 
op-ois 8' avdyKT] ^vpL(})opds dcfiLyp-iihis 
yXGxradv ju, CKpdvai. 


My duty to my enemy. 
'Ex6pov KaKcos bpav dvbpbs i) [xepos. 

Nojuos Tov exOpov bpav, oirov XdjSrjs, KaKias. 



Life worthless when one cannot enjoy it. 

Kat vvv d^etrat Trdira" koX yap Tjbovas 
orav TTpobwariv avbpes, ov TtOrifx eyw 
Crjv TovTov dAA.' ([xxj/vxav rj-yovpiai vcKpdv. 
irXovTel re yap Kar oTkov, et /3ovAei, fxiya, 
Kal Cv Tvpavvov or^^V 'iyjov kav 8' airy 
TovTuiv TO \aLpeLV, raAA' eyw Kairvov o-kiSs 
ovK ay TrpiaijUTji; dv8pl Trpos rr)y rjbovqv. 


' TV// M«^ where is Envy bred 
Or in the heart or in the head? ' 

Ti5 apa jirjTrjp rj TraTrjp KaKov p.iya 
^poTois e(^U(re rov hv(T(avvp.ov (f)96vov ; 
TTOv Kai TTOT o^Kct a(6p.aTos Xa)(^b)v p.^pos ; 
Iv yjepcTiv, 7] (yKkay^voKJiV rj Trap' 6p.p.aTa 
kcrO^ r]pA,v ; ws riv p.6)(6os iarpols jxiyas'i acpatpelv rj ttotois r] (^app-aKOis 
TTaa&v jxeyi(TTr]v tu)V ev avOpcairois vocro^v. 

^Bovovcriv avToX y^eipoves Tre^UKoVes" 
(is TaT:i(Tr]p.a 8' 6 (pdovos Trr^bdv <^tAet. 

Common even among friends. 

Ha^pots yap avbpwv ecrrl avyyeves robe, 
(jiiXov Tov evTvx^ovvT avev cf)d6vov (t^^^lv. 
bvcr(f)p(ov yap los KapbCa irpocrrip^vos 
axdos biirXoL^^L rw Treira/xeyo) vocrov, 


Tols avTos avTov TTrifxaa-iv fiapvv€Tai 
Kai TOP Ovpalov 6\^ov kia-opdv (tt€1'€l. 


Me)t camtot be all equal. 

Oi/K k(TTLv ovbev tG>v ev avdpcairoLs Icrov' 
ocTTLS Kar la-yyv Trpwro? wwjua^ero, 
7] To^a ttclWcov 7) p-ay^T] hopos (rOivcav 
rovTOv Tvpavveiv tG>v KaKLovcov e\py/y. 

Some must rule, some must obey. 

"Apx^a-dat xpecby 
KaK0V9 VTt ecrOXwv Kat k\v€lv rStv Kp€i.(T(r6v(ov. 


' Aequam tnemento rebus iit arduis 
Servare mentem, tion secus in bonis 
Ab msolenti temperatam 

MtjS' eiTV)(r}p.a pLrjbev (38' eorco pi^ya 
6 (T i^airapel /^xei^oy t/ xpeoiv (f}pov€lv' 
pLTjb' rjv Ti (rvp.(3f] bva^cpes, bovXov itaXiv, 
akk avTos auL, rrjv (ravrov (pvaiv 
(Tca^oov (BejBaLcos, wore xP^o'o? ^^ irvpL 

M^r' evTV\ovaa Trdcrav rjviav \a.ka, 
KOKcos" re TTpdcraova- ekTTibos Kebvrjs e>(ou. 



Be cottteni with thy own ; encroach not, covet not. 

Keiyo KokXiov, reKvov, 
laoTTjTa rtjuaz', ?; (pCkovs ael (pikoLS 
TTokeis re TroAeo-t a-vixjxayovi re avjxiJidxois 
^vvbei' TO yap Xcrov vojjliijlov avdptiiTtoL's €(pv, 
r<3 ttX4ovl b' ael iroXip.iov KaOicrTaTai 
TovKa(T(TOv, k\6pas 6' r]p.ipas Karap\(.Tai. 
Ktti yap [J-^Tp avOpunroLnri Kal p-ipi] (TTadp.Siv 
laoTTjs iTa^e KapiOixbv Sicopio-e, 
VVKTOS T cKpeyy^s j3k4(papov rjkiov re ^ws 
Xcrov ^abi^ei top kvia'vcriov kvkXov, 
KovbeT€pov avTolv (pdovov e)(et VLK(s)p.evov, 
ei0' rjktos fx^v vv^ re SouAevei jipoTols, 
(TV b ovK ave^et bcoixdrutv €\oiv tcrov, 
Kal ra)8' aTTOveixe'is ; Kara ttov "ariv 7} bUr} ; 
tL ti]v Tvpavvib\ dbiKtav evbaipiova, 
Tijxas VTT^pcpev, Kal pLey ijyrjcrat. Tobe, 
■Trepi^Ae'Treo-^at Tipaov ; Kevov fAey ovv. 


Evil cannot be mended by evil. 

^FiVTavOa p.ivTOL iravra TavOpdoircov vocrei, 
KUKols orav dikcocnv iacrdai. KaKa. 


Prosperous crime corrupts by example. 
Orav KaKos tls kv Tro'Aet Trpdaaj] KaXws, 


vocjiXv TiOrjcn tu)V bpooixivcav (jypiva^, 
-napa.he.iyix 'iyovra^ tG>v Kanoiv k^ovaiav. 

Bad example in high places. 

"Orav yap alcrxpa Tolcnv kcrOXoia-LV boK^, 
77 Kapra 8o^et rot? KaKoXs elvai Ka\a. 

Force of example. 
'AXX^ Tj yap eK crov hva-p-iveta Kal to. (to. 
(py i^avayKaC^i jxe ravra bpav /3t'a, 
aiVxpotj yap alaxpa irpayp.aT eK§t8a^erai. 


Orestes shunned as blood-guilty. 
'EA^oW kK^cre irpSiTa p-ev p! ovbeh $4v(ov 
€K(ov e8e£a^', w? deoh crTvyovp.€vov' 
0% 8' €(Xxov albQ, ^ivia ixovoTpdireCa p.0L 
-napia-yov, o'Uoiv ovres kv ravTM o-reyei, 
(Tiyf) 8' ireKTrivavT aTT6(f)9€yKT6v [x, ottojs 
batTos yevoCp.r]v TTco/xaro? t avrSiv bixc-, 
h 8' ayyos Ibiov luov airacn ^aKx^ov 
p.iTpr]p.a TTXr]p(a(ravT€s ^l^ov '))bovTi]v. 
Kayb) '^eXey^at pikv $ivovs ovk rji^ovv, 
Tjkyovv 8e cnyfj Kabonovv ova dbivai. 


We live and learn. 
'Aei TL Kaivov ?;/xepa TratSevcrai. 


To yiipos. 1 - ' :'€rw 

qKS&pia Tz - - 

Xfifia Ciba<rK€i.. xar ^paivs Tts ^, oti^ar. 

'Aa yap ^^ roc? y4pmjvir e« ^aB^is. 

7Iv la^ of fads mmm pamaftd Amu Hu logic of mordi. 

*Os 6' evyA«0vic 
rwi, tro^o^ iiar. aXXa yap ra 7/xzy)iara 

fair Fame. 

' Fmme s dir ^«r Okmi ike dtmr ^irit JoA 
JO scant dUI^4fe omJ Sae 

0»c i<mr Sans ^iems Ofr«v /3(ocv 
ewrAaoy eure&i ijotn , dAAa j^pii soveur. 

'Seariax /ior opSpa •)^pi^ TokfLop aeu 
€mi&s yap «v pmBmos evcA.e^s ary. 



(ha <f sigid out afi 

^mOlviov op rjv Oaro^oxp aaxftaXcls ifeiXoi, 
Kjar ofioOev Ztcn' to yap €\€ir -zkeov uparel 
7^5 cvcre^eui?" if o kv oKJtOaXfiois xopi^ 
a-zoXuiX^ orar ris Ik oofiMP x^pji naric. 

fUHng star. 

'O 6' apri OaXXaiV crapua, curzer^s orstK 

axTTTip areV3Tj, xrerfi' ad>€L9 ei? aWepa. 



Fate cmmMot be mnided. 

'AAA' cnrre "ZoXka rpavpxrr er ariprois XaSiatT 
6rq(rK€i rij, €i ^lr] rip^ui ovrrpeyoi 3Uw. 
ovT hr oTcyij tls rjfieros "zap e<rr£c 
^evyei n /iaAAor ror 'Z€~p<iipATor poz-or. 

avK 4<m drrjrois (rvpKpopas axoAAayTj. 

Gntss _fiaeders gross 
Ila\€ia yatrr^ Aexror ov rucrei voor. 


Favourite pursuit. 

* Quatn quisque norit arton in hac se exerceal.' 

'Ev Tovrw ye roi 
kanTTpos TLs ecTTt, Kairl tovt eTTeiyeraL, 
vefj-Ciiv €KdaTi]s ?/ju,epas' irX^laTov juepos, 
If' avTos avTov Tvyxo-Vic /3eA.rtcrro9 wv. 


Calamity makes ftten full of dread and mistrust. 

<I>tA.ot, KUKcov ixev oo-rts ^iximpos Kvpel, 
^TTicrTaTat ^poTolcnv ws, orav KXvbcav 
KaKwv iTTeXdrj, iiavra h^ip.aiveiv (juXel' 
orav 8' 6 haip^cav (vpofj, ireTioiOe^vai 
Tov avTov del haip.ov ovpieiv Tvxr]s. 
e/AOt yap 7/8r] Trdrra /xey (po^ov TrAea 
ey opijjLacrLV ravToia (paCveraL ^ewy, 
j8oa 8' ly (ocTi KeXahos ov TratdvLOs' 
Toia KaKcov e/<7rA7j£ts iK^o^d (ppivas. 


C/iz'/J gathering flowers. 

Ets Toy Xeip-Siva KaOiaas 
ibp€TTev €T€pov e^' ere'po) alpojxevos 
aypev\x avOecov i]hop.iva '^vxa, 
TO vriTTiov aTiXTqcTTOv kx^^v. 

Flower wreath. 

2oi Tovbe ttX^ktov ari^avov e£ aKrjpaTov 


\€tfX(avo9, CO SecTTTOtya, Koa-jjLrjcra^ 4'^P<^; 
ivd^ oijTe TTOLix-tp a^Lol (pspjSeLV (Soto. 
OVT riKOi ltd) (TLby]pos, dA.A' aKriparov 
//e'Ato-cra ketjxwv' rjpLvov bUpy^erai, 
Albias 8e TiOTap.iaLcn KYjinveL bpocroLs, 
oaois bibaKTov ixrjbev, aX.\' iv rrj (Pv(r€L 
TO (r(o(f)pove'iv etkrj^^^ev is to. ttolvO' o/xcos, 
TovTOLS bpima-dac toIs KaKoiai b' ov 0e//ts. 



(TKaiov eivai Trpwr' a/moucrtas ex^'- 

TV V^ ^»? f if 

Q _. 

2Kato6o-t TToAAois ets <ro(Pos Sto'AAurat. 

AAA 01 KUKUis TTpacraovTes ov K(0(f)ol p.6vov, 
aXK ovb opoovTes elcropwa-t Tap.^avri — 
0)5 bvcnroKaifTTOP €(ttlv ap.aOLa KaKov. 


H 8e [xoiipLa 
piaXicrT ab(X({)7] rrjs TTOvrjpCas e^u. 

Et jxoi TO NeoTopetoi' evyXoya-aov jueAo? 
' AvTi]vop6s re tov ^pvyos 80177 Oeos, 
ovK av bvvaip.r]v pii] a-Tiyovra ittp.-n'kavai, 
cro(f)ovs iiravTkMv avbpX fxi] (T0(f)<2 koyovs. 

Forbidden fruit. 

Precious fruit not easy to guard. 
' Vinas y ninas son malas a guardar.^ 

Tep€i.v OTTcopa 8' ev())vkaKTOs ovbapicas. 
6rjp€S 8e KrjpaLVOvcTL Kal (BpoToC tl jxiv 



Ktti Kv^hoXa TTTCpovvra koI TTeboaTL^rj. 
KoL Tiapdii'MV xXibalcTLv evjjiopffyoLs eiTi. 
170.9 Tty opLjJiaTos 6ekKTr\pLov 

TQ^tVp! i7T€pL\l/eV, VLKOOfXiVOS. 

Fickle Fortune. 

Ov \pri TTOT opQai'i kv Tv\ais ^e^rjKura 
e'^ety Tov avTov batixov etcraet boKelv 
6 yap Oeos irciis, el Oeov crcpe \pr) Kakeiv, 
KCLfjivec ^vvb)v TO, TToXAa rots avTois aei. 
6vr]TQiv 8e OvrjTos o\l3os' ol b vTrepcppoves 
Kol T(2 irapovTt tovttlov Tncrrovixevoi 
eXeyyov ekajBov r-qv TV)(r]v ev rw TvaOelv. 

BefSata 8' ovbeh OvrjTos evTvyjd yeycos. 

YleTTOvdai ola yjirepoi TTokkol ^poTdv' 
Tas yap irapova-as ovxl crw^oyres TV)(^as 
wkovT €p(avT€s pi€tCovcov ajBovkio.. 

Ov rots aOvpLots i] tvxt) a-vkkap-^avei. 

Changeable like the moon. 

'Aky ovpids ael iroTpios ev irvKvi^ Oeov 
rpo)(Ci) KVKkelrat. Kal ixerakkaacreL (pva-LV, 
wa-rrep (T€kr\vr]s 8' o-^is evcfipovas bvo 
(TTTJvaL bvvaiT av ovttot iv p-opcprj jxiq, 
aXA.' e^ abTi]kov -npSiTov epx^raL via 
■npoaonTia Kakkvvovcra Kal T;ki]povvivr], 


Xwrai'Trep avrr\s evyevea-TaTrj (pavfi, 
■ndXiv btappel, kclttI ixrjbkv epx^rai. 

Sudden reverses. 
'0/jas Tvpdvvovs bta p.aKpG>v rjv^ri[xevovs 
o)? fxiKpa TO. (TipdXXovTa, koL p.C r] pie pa 
Tov p.\v KaOelkev v^lroOev, tov b rip dvu). 
vTTOTTTepos 8' 6 ttXovtos' ot? yoLp rjv TTori, 

(^ ^kTTibaiV TTLTTTOVTa'i VTTTiOVS 6p6i. 

Child of Fortune. 

'Eyw 8' kp.avTov Tralba Trjs Tvxrjs vepLcov 
TTJs eS bibov(rr]s ovk dTLpLa(r9riaop.aL. 
TTJs yap TTecpvKa [xrjTpos' ol be avyyevel^ 
prjvis jue p.iKpov Kal p.iyav biutpia-av. 
TOLoabe o eK(pvs ovk av e^eKooijx tri 
■7707' aAAos, (Sore pJi] \p.a6elv Tovp.ov yivos. 


To 6pe\j/ai b' kv fipoTolcTi iroXXaKis 
■nXeiui iropi^ei cf)iXTpa tov (fivaat reKva. 

Et <jS>ixa bovXov dXX'' 6 vovs eXevOepos. 

AovXov 7o8' eiTTtt? /xr) Xeyeiv a tls (fypoveX. 

No man ts entirely free. 

OvK ecrrt Ovtjt&v ootis eW eXevOepos' 
rj \pr]p.dT(av yap bovXos ecmv i] ti^x.^?, 

E 2 


?; TrXijOos avrbv TroAeo? ?) vofxoyv ypa^jjal 
eXpyovcTi y^prjo-Qai. jxi] Kara yvu);x7]V rpoiTOLS. 

Free 'Will. 

'12 ZeC, tL hrjTa tovs raXanrcapovs (BpoTovs 
(^povdlv XiyovfTL ; crov yap i^i]pTi]p.€da 
bpuipiiv re TOLavd' av ah Tvy\avrjs Oikcov. 

Civil freedom. 

KaKois 8 oKoivTo Trayres ol rvpavvihi 
yaipovaiv oXiyr] t iv ttoAci ixovap\iq. 
TovK^vd^pov yap 6vo\xa iravrbs a^iov, 
Kuv (Tp.i.Kp k)(ri ns ixeyd)C '^x^iv voixiC^Tai. 


A friend in need is a friend indeed. 

Ev Tols KaKols Set tovs cfyikovs evepyerelv' 
orav yap rj TV)(r] SiSw, rt x.P^ (pikov ; 

Friends are better than, riches or strength. 

'Ocrrts 8e nkovTov rj adevos p.akkov (fiikoyv 
ayad&v TrmacrOai jBovkeTac, /caKO)? (f)pov€l. 

Kpelcrcrov 8e nkovTOV Kal (3a6\!(nT6pov )(^9ovbs 
avbpS>v hiKaioiv Kaya6G>v opaktai. 

Friends flee in adversity. 
Ev TTpaaae' to. (f)Lku>v b ovb€v i]v ris hvaTvyJ]. 

'Avbpbs KaKU>s Trpd^avros €KT:obo)v (pikoL. 


<t>tAa)y Xajielv yap irelpav ov (T\xiKpbv KaKov. 

Deliver me front my friends. 

'i>i\(av TOLOVTMV ol jxev eaTeprjix^voi 
XaCpovcnv, ol 5' exovres evx^oyrat (Pvyelv. 


OvK av 7rpobou]v /caiVep a-^v\ov <pL\ov. 

'AAA' i]b€ IX e^eVcocrei', ijbc [jlol Tpo(f)6s, 
piriTrip, abeX(f)ri, bpiOiis, ayKvpa, a-Teyr]. 

Friendship and enmity must be limited by prudence. 

'Eyoj b\ k'ni(TTa\iai yap dpricos on 
o T kyOpos i]pXv e? Tocrovb' €\dapTeos, 
b)9 Kal (j)Lkr}(r(i)v avOis, es re tov (f)ikov 
Toaavd^ vTTOvpycav (Ixfiekelv jiovXricro [xai, 
0)5 aVkv ov jx^vovvTa. rots TToWolcn yap 
j3poT&v ^.TncTTOs €cr6^ eratpetas XLixrjv. 


Expense wasted on funerals. 

'AvOpcaiToov be ixaivovTai (jjpeves, 
baiidvas oTav Oavovai TreixiroLxnv Kevds. 

Future Life. 

^v b' dvbpa 6vi]t6v, et KarecpOiTO, crreyets, 
elbcos TO jue'AAoi' ovbev ei Kepdos (pepa. 


The soul survives. 

'O vov'i 
Tm' KaT9av6iT(oi> Cjl M^^ ov, yrco/xTjr 8' e)(ei 
addvarov ets dOdvarov aldip' (jXTrecrMv. 

The future life everlasting. 

^Lkrj fjL€T avTOv Kiiaojxai, <^ikov ixira, 
o(Tia TTavovpyrjo-acr'' eTrel TiK^ioov xpovos 
ov Set fx' dpi(TK€LV Tois Karu) twv evOdb^. 
iK(i yap act K€i( 


KaKOtS TO K€pb0S TIJS 8lKrj9 VTT€pT€pOV. 

Dishonest gams bnng ill-luck. 

OvK. c^ airavTO'i ha. to Kephaiveiv (piKelv, 
e/c T(av yap al(r)(pu)v \iipLp.dTcov tovs TrAeio^a? 
aToypi^vovs 18019 av rj aeacocrpL^vovs. 


As a gardener roots out weeds so let the wicked be rooted out. 

T5)v bv(r(rel3ovvT<x)V b' kK^opoiTipa Tre'Aot?. 
aTepyoi yap, dvbpbs ^LTVTTOip.ivos biKr]v, 
TO t5>v bLKaicov Toivh' dirivdrfTOv yevos. 
ToiavTa (TOixTTL. tQ>v dpet(f)dTO)v 8' eyw 
TTpeiTTOiv dyojz/cor OVK dvi^ to /xt/ ov 
Trivti da-TVVLKOv kv fipoTols TLpi,dl> TTokw. 



The gifts of an enemy bring mischief. 
'E)(^dp(iov abojpa bQpa kovk 6v7]aL[xa. 

KaKOV yap avbpos 8wp ovrjtrtv ovk €X^'- 


Hercules cries like a weak girl. 

"I^', u> T^KVOv, ToXp-riaov' ocKTeLpov T€ /xe 
TTokXolcnv olKTpov, ooTts a>aT€ TTapOevos 
^i^pvyjn KXaicav, koI ro8' ovd' &v els Ttore 
Tovb^ avbpa (f)airi irpoad^ IbeXv bebpaKora, 
aAA.' aarivaKTOs alev eliroixi^v kukoIs. 
vvv 8' CK TOiovTov dijXvs cvprjpiaL TaXa^. 


Glory is the guerdon of toil. 

To) TTovovvTi 8' e/c ^ewy 
oc^eiAerat TeKvoofxa tov ttovov kAcos. 

Ivv Toicn beivois av^erai kK4os (Sporols. 

Fame founded on falsehood. 

"^12 bo^a bo^a, p.vpioicn br] jiporOtv 
ovbev yeySxTL j3lotov wyKcocra? pi.4yav. 
evKAeia 8' otj jxiv icTT aX-qOeias vtxo 
evbatpLOViCoo' tovs 8' vrrb y\revb(av ex^"' 
OVK a^L(aa-(a Tikr]V Tvyrj (ppovelv boKelv. 



Existence of gods affirmed. 
AAA kcTTLv, ecTTL Kci Tt? cyyeAtt Aoyo) 
Zei)? Kttt ^eot /Sporeia XevcrcrovTes Tiadr]. 

What is God? 

A. &€ov 5e TToiov, eliri jxol, vorjreov ; 

B. Toy iravO' opGtVTa kuvtov ov')^^ opcofxevov. 

God is everywhere. 

'Opas Tov v^lfov Tovb' aitupov aW^pa, 
Kot yfjv TTepi^ exovO' vypal^ kv ayKakats, 
TovTov yo'jui^e Zi]va' Tovb' 7]yov 6e6v. 

Zevs k(TTiv al6r]p, Zei^s 8e yy], Zevs 6' ovpavoi' 
Zevs rot TO. TiavTa x^oTt rGivh' VTriprepov. 

God can do nothing base. 

No'croi 8e dvrjTcav al [xiv eia' avdaiperoi, 
at 8' e/c 6iG)v Trapeicnv, aXka rw v6p.(a 
Icoixed' avrds' aAAd crot Ae£at OiXo), 
el OeoL Ti bpSxTLv aiarxpov, ova ela-lv 6eoL 

With God all things are possible. 
&€ov OeXovTos Kav €ttI pLTTos TrAcots. 

God helps those zvho help themselves. 
T(3 yap TiovovvTi \^ debs (rvWajxIBdvei. 


No luck without the blessing of God. 

OvK eoTTLV ocTTLS evTV)(jjs €(})v l3poT<av 
(ri fxri TO delov ets to. ttoWcl avvdikrj. 

Qeov yap ovb^ls X'^P^? (vtvx^^ ^porGiv, 
ovb' et? TO ixclov ^kOe' ras dvrjToiv b' eyw 
\aip^iv KeAeivco Oecav aTep TrpoOvp.ia'i. 

Duty to the gods. 
©eots apidKoV irav yap Ik d^Qv t4\os. 

The gods punish sin. 

'ApeTCLS bLO)K€. /cat yap octtls av ^pOT&v 
KaKOS 7T€(f)VKJ], ^r^/xtoOcTti' ol Oeoi. 

' Immnnis aram si tetigit manus 
Non sutnptuosa blandior hostia 
Moljivit aversos Penates 
Farre pio et saliente mica.' 

Ev lad^ , OTav ris evcre^o^v dvrj deolis, 
KOLV pLiKpa dvi], Tvyxavei (rcoTiipLas. 

The gods tempt men to sin, and then punish them. 

YloWalai jxopifials ol d^ol arocfaa-ixaToov 
o-^aAAouo-ty ?//xas KpeCacroves irecfiVKores. 

'12, Trai, debs ixkv aiTiav </)vet ^poTol^ 
OTav KaKGxrai bS>p.a 7Ta[xiTi]brjv OeXrj. 


K. rioAA', o) T^Kvov, acfyaWovcTLV avOpdirovs Oeoi. 
A. TO paarov eiTras, aiTLacraaOai 6<ovs. 

' Quern deus vult perdere prius dementa/.' 
"Orav yap opyi] baLjiovoiv ^XaTrrjj rivd, 
TOVT avTo TTp&TOV, (^acfyacpdrat (ppevoiv 
Tuv vovv Tov ecrdXov, €is 8e r-qv X^^P^ rpcTret 
yvcajxrjv, Xv elhr\ p.rjbev &v afj-aprdvet. 

How can we believe m Divine Justice ? 
n&is ovv ra6' dcropcavres rj 6eG>v yivos 
elvaL X4yu)p,f.v, rj vopLOLcn )(j}dipii6a ; 

The recording Angel. 
AoKelre Ttrjbav rdbLKripaT els Oeovs 

TTTepolcTL, KCfneLT €V AtO? beXtOV 7TTV\aiS 

ypd(f)etv TLv avrd, Zrjva b' elcropuivTa viv 
dvqro'is biKa^eLv ; ovb' 6 iras av ovpavos 
Aio? ypd(f)OVTOS Tas ^poTUiV ap-aprias 
(^apKicretev, ovb' eKelvos h.v (tkottu>v 
TTep-TTeiv kKaa-Tio ^rjp.iav' dXX tj Aiktj 
(vravdd ttov 'anv eyyvs, el ^ovkecrd' bpav. 

The gods suffer the wicked to live and prosper. 
"E/^teAA.'* lireX ovbiv tto} kukov y aTTcoAero, 
dAA' eS TTepLcrTekXovcnv avrd baipiopes, 
Kai iroos ra p.ev travovpya koX irdkivrpi^r] 
Xatpova dvacrTp€<povT€s e£ 'At8ou, to. be 
biKaia KOI TO. xpricrr aTTOcrTeXXovcr dei. 
TTOV xpr] TideaOat ravra, ttov b' alvelv, orav 
TO, del' eTTaLvS>v tovs 6eovs evpu> kukovs ; 


Divine justice. 
' Raro antecedentem scelestum 
Desernit pede poena claudo.^ 

"OcTTLs 8e 6vi-jtS)V o'Urai Kad^ rjixipav 
KaKov TL TTpda-a-oiV tovs d^ovs XeXrjd&aL 
boKel TTovrjpa koL boa&v aXCa-Kerat, 
orav o\o\-qv ayovcra TVyx<^vr] Alkt], 
TLixoopiav encrev Siv rjp^^v KaK&v. 

' The fool hath said in his heart there is no God,' but, 

' There is a day of vengeance still. 

Linger it may, but come it wilV 

^evSeo-^', ocrot vop-L^eT ovk eirai O^ov, 
€crTiv yap €(ttlv el bi tls irptirrei Kancos 
KttKOS TT€<pVK(OS, TOP XP^'^^^ KepbaLveTu), 
Xpovoi yap ovTos vcrrepov Swcrei bLKrjv. 

fools to suppose that God will wink at crime. 

"SivyyvcaiMOvds rot tovs Oeovs etvat So/ceis. 
orav Tts opKU) ddvarov eKcfjvyelv OeXrj, 
rj bea-jjLov i] jBtata TroXe/xtwi; KaKa, 
Tj Tiatcrlv avOivTatcTL KOtvoivri b6p.u)V, 
rj Tapa dvrjTwv elcrlv daw er (are pot, 
et raTTtetK?} TrpoaOev ip/ovvraL biKrjS' 

Divine injustice. 

^■i](TLV TLS etvat brJT kv ovpavM deovs ; 
OVK. eicriv, ovk etcr'. et tls dvOpcoiroiV Aeyet, 
{XT] TM TraAaio) /xcopos ojv \pr](T6uy koyia. 
crKexlfaa-de 8' avrd, /u?) 'ttl toIs e/uois Aoyois 
yvMixrjv €xovT€S' (^rip.' eyo) rvpavvCba 


KTetvfiv T€ TrAetWou? KTy]}xaTOiv t airoa-Tepelv, 
opKovs re TrapajSatvovras kKiropOelv 77oAets. 
Koi TavTa bpcavres jxaWov ettr' evbaijJLOves 
T&v ev(Tej3ovvT(tiv ija-vxrj Kad' yix^pav 
TTo'Aeis re [xcKpas olba Tip-dxras deovs, 
at fx^iCopoov kXvov(tl hva-afieaTipoiv, 
k6yxi]s apiOfjiSi tt\(Covos KpaTovp.evaL. 
oi/xai 8' av {'[xas, et rt? apyos oov Oeols 
eijxoLTO Koi /xt) X^'P^ (ruAAe'yoi /3toi;. 


The greatest of blessings. 

XpDcrov [laKifTTa {BovkopLai hopoLs ^X^'-^ 
Kat 80SA0S u>v yap Ttpnos ttXovtQv avqp, 
eXivOepos bi, xpelos wv, ovbev crOivet. 
Xpvaov vop-L^e cravrov ovv^k €vtv)(J.Iv. 

The most valued possession. 

'12 Xpvcri, be^Lcopia KaAAicrror ^poTols, 
b)s ovre pit]Tr}p rjbovas TOidab' e)(et, 
ov TToibes avOpcLirobn-iv, ov (f)[kos irarrjp, 
otas (TV x.ot o"f bu)p.a(nv K€KTr]p.evoL, 
(i 8' 57 KvTTpts TOLovTov ocfiOakp-ols opa 
ov davp,', epcoras p-vptovs avrrjv Tpi(p^iv. 


Maxims of good government. 

Atj/xo) re /xjjre irav avapTrjcrris Kparos, 
pLr]T av KaKcacrris, TtkovTov evTLp,ov tl6(ls' 


ixrjb^ avhpa hr]\xia tticttov c/c/3aA7}s TTore, 
ju,rj8' av^e Katpov fxelCov' ov yap aacpakes, 
fxri (TOi Tvpavvos kap^irpos ef avrov 4>'^vfj, 
KcoA.De b' avhpa irapa hiKrjv TLpLwpLevov' 
TTo'Aei yap evTV\ovvTes ol KaKol vocros. 

One head not cnoitgh. 

Now TOi p." ayKvp ovbap-cos o-w^etr (pikel 
w? rpei? a(f)evTi, irpocrTaTTqs b airkovs TroAet 
(r(pak€p6^, VTToov be kolWos ov KaKov Tro'Aet. 

Paternal govermnent. 

'Ey roto-t p-oopoh TovT iyo) Kpivo) (Bporcav, 
ocrrts TTaTi]p ojv Traicrl jurj (ppovovcnv ev 
T] Kal TToAtrats Trapabibcaa i^ovcrCav. 

Public morality. 

Ov yap TTOT av yivoir av acr(pa\i]s ttoAis 
€v rj ra fxev biKaia Koi to. auxppova 
Xdybrjv Trareirai, kcotlXos 8' avrjp Aa/Swy 
iravovpya X^P^'' i^^vrpa Krjbevei iroktv. 

A Republic and a Monarchy contrasted. 
YlpGiTov [x\v "jp^oi Tov koyov "^evbcas, $€ve, 
QqTGiv Tvpavvov iv6db\ ov yap apx^rai 
kvbs irpos dvbpos, aAA' ekevOipa ttoAcs. 
87/ju.os 8' dvdcr(r€L 8ta8o)(aTcrty €V p^epet 
kviavcriaLcnv, ovyX rw TrkovTdi btbovs 
TO TTkewv, dkka x^ Trivrjs ^x^^ tcrov. 



*Ei; \ikv Toh' rjiJiLV, uxTTTep iv Treo-crois, biboos 
Kpela-crov rroXis yap 7]s eyw 7rapet/x' airo 
€Vos 77po? avbpos, ovK o-)(X(a, Kparvveraf 
ovb^ t(TTiv avT-qv octtls iK-x^avi'wv Ao'yots 
Trpos Kipbo9 ibiov aXXos aXXocrc <TTpi(f)(L. 
6 8' avTi^^ 7;8i)? Kai bibovs TToWr]v X'^P"' 
€l(Tav9iS ^^Ka\\r , elra 8ia/3o\ai? veais 
Kk^xjras TO, TTpoaOe acfyaXfxaT' e^ebv bUrjs. 
aWcos re ttws av jxr} biopOevcav Xoyovs 
opdcos bvvaLT av S^juos (.vdvvetv ttoKlv ; 
6 yap )(^p6vos ixddrjcriv avrl Tov Td)(^ovs 
Kpeicra-o) blbuxTL. yairovos §' dvrjp iT^vqs, 
el Kal yevoLTO /xa/jta^?;?, epyoov vt:o 
OVK hv bvvaiTO Trpo? ra kolv cnro^KiTreiv. 
Tf bi] vocrdbes TovTo rots dp.eiVocni', 
orav TTOvrjpbs d^icojx dvrjp exjl, 
yXiixTCTt] KaTaa-yj^v brjixov ovbev cov to Trpw. 

Evils of a Tyranny. 

Kai jar/y oirov y 6 brjp.os ev9vvTr]S xBovos, 
virovcrt.v ckttoIs ijberai veaviats' 
dvr]p be ISaa-iXevs ey^pov T^yetrat robe, 
Kal Tovs dpia-TOVS, ov9 av rjyrJTai (ppovelv, 
KTeivei, beboiKws rrjs rvpavvibos irepi. 
TTcSs ovv er av yivoiT av tcrxvpa TTokis, 
orav TLS b)S Xetp-avos rjpLvov (ttclxw 
ToXpias dcpaipfj KairoXoiTLCjl veovs ; 
KTaa-OaL be ttXovtov Kal [itov tl bel t€kvols 
o)? rw Tvpdvvca irXeiov' eKjuo^^^ fi^ov ; 


1] —apdeveveiv Tralbas h' So'/xots Ka\u>s. 
repTTvas rvpavvoLS i)bovds, orav OiXrj, 
boLKpva be toIs yovevcn ; //?) C^rjv en, 
el rajxa TeKva Trpos fiiav MJ/x^evo-erai. 


Often foUoived by joy. 

M7J wv Oeke 
AuTreiv (reavTov, tovto y e^ecbcas, oti 
TToXXols TO XvTTovv voTepov xapoLV ayei. 


Not to be cleaftsed. 

Ot/nat yap ovt av "laTpov ovre ^aaw av 
vi\lfaL KadappL(2 Ti]rbe t'i]v crreyriv, oaa 
KCvOeL' TO, 6' avTiK ks to <p^i (pavel KaKO. 
eKovTa KOVK cLKOVTa. Tcav be 'i:r]p.ov(jiv 
/loAioTa Kvnov(T al (^avSxr avdaipeTOL. 

Rape of the Lock. 

KofjLrjs be TtevOos Xayyjivoi liiaXov bUrjv 
rJTLS (TwapnacrOelcra ^ovKokcav viro 
jxai'bpaLS ev iirzeiaLcnv aypia xepl 
6epo£ depLcrdfj ^avdbv avyevoiv 6.~o, 
(nracrde'La-a b ev keLp.(oi'L TTora/xicor TTOTav 
Xb'p (TKias eiboiXov avyaaOelcr v~o 
KOvpoLs drtjucos 8tare7tA/xer?js (f)6^r}s. 
(f)ev' Kav aroiKTLpp.(i)v tls oiKTeipeie viv 


TTTi'i(T(rov(Tav alcTxyvatcTLV ola fxaLverai 
TT€v9ovcra kol KKaiovcra ri]v irdpos <p6l3iii'. 


Ketros o A./3 1 wrar OS 
orti) Kar rnxap Tvy^avci iir]h\v kukov. 

Tov oA/3oy ovbev ovbajjiov KpLV(t> ^porois, 
6v y e^aXetc^et paov ?) ypdcfyet 6e6s. 

riacrti' yap dvdpa>TTOicnv ovx rjplv ixovov, 

7] KoX TTapaVTLK TJ XP^^^ ballXOJV ^LOV 

€(r(prjk€, Kovbcl? bta reAows evbaipLOvel. 

' Nihil est ab ontni 
Parte bcahuH^ 

OvK €crTLv ocTTLS TTCLVT cLvi^p evbaifiovei. 
rj yap TrecpvKOis icrOkos ovk e'x^et ^Cov 
7/ bvcryevT)^ o)V uXovcriav ctpol irXaKa. 
TTokXovs be ttAowto) Kal yevet yavpovixivovs 
yvvi] KaTri(r)(yv ev boixoLai vrjina. 

Call no man happy before he is dead. 

Aoyo9 [xev ecrr' dpxcuos dvOpuiTTcov (pavels 
ws OVK av alSiv eKp.ddots (SpoTOiv Ttplv av 
Odvrj Tis, ovT d xprjcrTos ovt et ro) kukos. 

Xprj 8' ovTTOT elirelv ovbiv ok^tov (Bporcov 
TtpXv av OavovTos ttjv Tekevraiav Xbrjs 
077(0? TTepdcras rjixepav rj^et /cdro). 


Try 6e vvv rvyj\ 
^poTol<i cLTiaai kainrpa Krjpva-uei ixadelv, 
TOP €VTVX€'iv boKOVVTa fjLj] ^jXovv irplv av 
davovT tbr] tls' ws €(f)i]ix(poL Tvxai. 

Ov XPV '^'^'''^ ^^ npaa-aovTos 6A/3icrat TV)(a's 
avbpos, TTplv avTif TrayreAw? yjbr] /3to? 
buKTTcpavOfj, Koi TeXiVTrjcrr} ^iov. 
iv yap fipayeZ KaQdke KcoXiyco XP^^'? 
TTOLfXTTkovTov ok(3ov baipiovos KaKOV 8ocri9, 
orav jueraoTrJ, Kal Oeols boKfi rdbe. 


Driven out to sea, when close to port. 

'li t4kv\ €OLyp.€V vavTikoia-LV, oiriz;es 
Xeijuwi^o? (K(})vy6vT€S aypiov fxtvos 

'nvoaicriv rikaOiiaav es ttovtov -nakiv. 
ovTOJ be XW^^^ Ti](rb' aircaOovpiecrda yrjs, 
7/8); Trpos anTois ovres ws (T€(ru)iTp.ivoL. 


No use to gneve over hardships past. 
Xei/xwya 8' et kiyoi tls oImvoktovov, 
olov irapelx «0fp^oi' 'Ibaia x"^^? 
7) OoXtios, eSre ttovtos kv joiecr?j/x/3pii^aTs' 
KoCrats aKvp.oiv vqvepiOLS evboi T:€(ro)V' 
tL Tavra irevOelv Set; irapoLx^raL ttovos' 
irapoix^Tai, §e, toXctl jxev T^OviiKoaLv 


TO jx-qTroT avdcs /xtjS' avacrrrivaL fxiXeiv. 
TL Tovs avaXoiOivTas €v ■v/'7/0(o Xiy^Lv, 
Tov C&vTa 8' aXy^lv XPV t^x^^s TraAiy/coVou ; 
Kol TTokka \aip^iv ^ujuc^opais Kara^tM. 

IJIxlv 8e To'is koLTTolcTLV ' Apy(iU)V (TTpaTOV 

VLKO, TO K€pbos, TTrjpia 6^ ovK. avTippi-mi. 
ws Kop-TTaaai T(S8' etKos rjXiov (^ciet, 
vTTep dakdaaris Koi ^Oovus TTOTuipivots, 
Tpoiav kkovTes Stjttot' 'Apyetcoy cttoXos 
Oeol'i \dcf)vpa TavTa toIs xad' 'EXXdba 
8op,ots eTTa(TcrdXev(rav dpxaiov ydvos. 


No Wealth without Health. 

Tt yap p.€ ttXovtos ox^eAet yoo-owrci ye' 
ap^Up av OiXoip-i KoX Kad' rjpepav excov 
dXvnov oIk€iv ^lotov, rj irXovTcav voaelv. 

No Health without Wealth. 

EtVl 8' o'lTives 
alvovcriv avoaov dvhp\ kpo\ 8' ovhits hoKtl 
€ivai TTivrjs oov avocros dXX' del vocrelv. 

Hereditary qualities. 

'Fortes creantur /ortibus.' 
Ov yap TLS ovTU) iralbas eKTiaihevcreTai 
coot' eK TTovrjpoiv pr] ov KaKOVs TrecpVKivaL. 

'li Ttal KpiovTos, 0)5 dXrjOh rjV dpa, 


kcrOkSiV ati avbpcav kaOka yiyvecrOai tskvu, 
KaKWV b' ofxoLa rfj (fivaet Tjj tov Trarpos. 

To jioipov avT^ TOV irarpos voarjp.' evL' 
(jiLkel yap ovtcos €k KaKcav elvat KaKoijs. 

OvK av yivoiTO Tpavp.aT, e? rty eyl^eVrj 
ddpLvois eAeiois, ovb av eK p.r}Tpos KaKrjs 
eadkol yevoivTo Traibes eh aXKi]v bopos. 

4>ev, (f)€v' TTaXatos alvos w? /caA.(Ss e)(et, 
OVK av yivoiro xpjyoro? €k KaKov Ttarpos. 

• Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam.' 
To 8' av X'lav ayyeXdeZa-a \xol 
yevvalo^' ovkovv becvov el yrj piev KaKi] 
TV)(^ovcra Kaipov OeoOev ev ara-xyv (fiepeL, 
XP^oTTJ 8' apLapTovcr' <Sy \peu)v avTi]v Tv\eh' 
KttKov bib(a(n Kapirov, avOpoinoL b ael 
6 jxev TTovrjpbs ovbev aWo t:Xi]v KaKO'i, 
6 8' ea-Qkos ea-Okos, ovbe (rvp.cj)opa9 vtto 
(f)va-iv bLe(p9eip akka ^prjcrros ear aei. 
ap ol TeKOVTes hia^epovcriv, ?) Tpo(f)ai ; 
e^et ye p.evTOL koI to 6pe(f)0ijvai Kak&s 
biba^LV ecrOkov' tovto 8' ijv rt? ev p-dOrj, 
olbev TO y ox(Tyjp6v, kovovi tov Kakov pLa6a>v. 


Honour to be prefaced to life. 
Alcr\pbv yap avbpa tov p,aKpov \pri^eiv Qiov, 
KaKolcriv ocTTi's p.r\bev e^akkdaaeTai. 

F 2 


Ti yap Trap' r\p.ap rjixepa Tep7^et^• e^^' 
iTpo(T9el(ra Kavadelcra tov ye Kardavelv ; 
ovK av TTpLaiixrjv ovbevos \6yov jSpoTov 
oa-Tts K€vai(nv iXTTicnv Oepp-aiveTai. 
aXK 7/ KaX5>s CW) V ^aAws Te6vy]K€vaL 
TOV evyevrj XPV- ttclvt aiii]Koas Koyov. 

"AekiTTOv ovbev, iravTa b' kX-ni^nv )(p€(ov. 

Al' lATTtSo? ^7/ Kol bi cAtTiSoS Tp€(})OV. 

'EAttI? yap 7/ ji6(TK0V(Ta tovs iTokkovs (ipoTdv 

YlTT]vas bicoKeLS, o) reKvov, ras eXiribas, 

ovx^ 7; Tvx^r] ere' Ti]s TV)(r]S 8' ov)(^ ets rpoitos. 

XO. TapjBelv jxev epya §eiV avayKaCcas e^et, 

Ti]v b eATTtS' ov xprj r^? tvx.1^ Kp'iveiv irdpos. 

AH. OVK loTty ev rots joiTJ KoAot? (BovXevpiacnv 
ovb iXTTLS, rJTis Kal Opdcros n irpo^eveL. 


' There's a silver lining to every clottd.' 
TtvoiTo Tciv, S OvyaTep, ovpios bpofxos 

€/C T&V TTapOVTOiV T(Ovb' kpuoX Kttt (ToX KaK&V, 

eXdoi T er av Trais ovpios, evvi]TU)p be cros. 
dAA rj(TV)(^aCe Kal baKpvppoovs t4kv(ov 
Trrjyas d(f)aip€L Kal 7rapei)K7/Aet Ao'yots, 
KkeiTTOvcra {jlvOols ddkiovs kAotj-os opiu>s. 
KapLvova-L yap tol Kal jBpoToiv al (TvpL(f)opai, 


Kat 7TV€V[j.aT avejJLMV ovk ael pcofx-qv €\€L, 


k^ia-Tarai yap ttolvt air' a\Xi]k(x)V bi\a. 
ovTOS 8' ai'r]p apLCTTOS oort? eXTticn 
TTeTToLOev aei' to 8' aitopeiv avhpos KaKOV. 


The discipline of sorrow compared to the breaking of a horse. 
Et \xkv ToV rjjxap TTp^rov i]V Kaaovp-^ixo, 
Koi jxi] [xaKpav brj bia iiovoov ivavarokovv, 
(Ikos (T(j)abdC€iv riv av, o)? v^o^vya 
TrGiXov xaXivov aprtcos bebeyp^ivov' 
vvv 6' ap-^Xys dp.i koX KarriprvK^s ttoviov. 

War horse. 
Boa Trap' oyOat's TioTajxiais, iJ-axV^ IpGiv, 
LTTTTos x^^''^^^ ^^ KaTacrOp-aivcov p-^vei, 
ocTTLS fioi]v crdkinyyos 6pp,aCv€i KkvMv. 

^H (piXTar dvbpG>v iipocnToKuiv, cos p.01 aaijyrj 
o-?]juieta cj)aLvm iadXos ets rjixas yeym. 
SiaiTip yap l-wnos ivyivr\s, kclv 17 yipoav 
€v Tol(n beivols 6vp.ov ovk cnrcakecrev, 
dXX' opOov ovs XcrTT](TLV, wcrai/rct)? 8e crv 
i^p.a<s T oTpvveLS KavTos iv irpaTOLs kitH. 

House- wife. 

A prudent manager makes a little go a long way. 

IToAAa TOL yvvrj 
Xpr/^ouo-' av evpoL 8airl TrpoacpopTjixaTa. 


ea-TLV be bi] ToaavTa rav So'juot? In, 
uxrd ev y iir' rjfxap Toixrbe Tk-qpQaat (iopa.'i. 
iv Tots roLovrots 8' ))vlk av yvcoixri irea-rj, 
(tkottS) to. xPW<^d' o)s cx^' H-h^ (rOivos, 
^evoLs re bovvai, a&p.d t e? voaov irea-dv 
ba-navaiai (rSxraC rrjs 8' e^' ijix^pav jiopas 
h- a-fxiKpov TJKeL- ttcls yap ejiiTrATjo-^ets av7]p 
6 TTkova-Los T€ x^ 7Tevi]s taov (f)spet. 

Human fortunes. 

Analogy between Nature and Human fortunes. 
Es TavTov rJK€Lv (l)i]pi Tas /SpoTwv Tvyas 
TOP 8' ov Kakovaiv aWep, (L ra8' eWt 8r;. 
ovTos Bipovs T€ \ap.7rpbv eKAcijoiTret o-e'Aas, 
X^i-IJ-^vd T av^€L (TvvTtOels irvKvov vicpos, 
6d\\€i.v re /cat p.!], (ijv re koI tpOCveiv iroLel. 
ovTo) 8e OvrjTMv aireppa, tG)v pkv evrvx^l 
Xap.-npa ya\i:]vrj, rGiv 8e avvvecfieL -ndkiv, 
CuxTLv re (Tvv KaKoX(nv, ol 8' oX/3oi; /xeVa 
<^divov(T eretots Trpoacpepds p-eraWayais. 

Human life. 

Life is but vanity, and nothing sure but death. 
X2 -nokvp.oxOos /3tora dvrjro'i^- 
W9 eTTt TTavTt (TcpaXepa Keicrat, 

Kal TO IX€V aV^€lS, to b' dlTO(f)9LVv6€Lr 

KOVK e<xTiv opos KCLpevos ovbels 
et9 ovTLva XPV reAecrat 6vr]To'is 
TTkrjv OTav €k6r] Kpvepa Aiodev 
OavaTov TT€p(j)6el(ra TeXevT'q. 


It were better not to have been born. 
To /iat) y^vkerQai Kpelcraov r) (pvvat [BpoTOVS. 

Misery inseparable from hitman life. 
'O bvcrTvx^S>v (f)v^ koI Ka/cw? TreTrpayevaf 

avdpOiTTOS eyivOV KOL to hv(TTV)(€S /3tou 

(k^Wgv eAa/3e?, oOev aiiacnv rip^aTO 
Tp4(f)eiv 08' aldrjp hbibovs Ovu^Toh nvoas' 
p.1] vvv TO. OvrjTa OvrjTos cov ayv(ap.6vei. 

The pious do not always prosper. 

4>e{;, Tdiv PpoTeioov ws aixofxaXot tvx^cll' 
ol fxkv yap eS irpdaa-ovcn, rots 6e (rvix(f)opal 
(TKXrjpal TTapeLcnv evcre^ovcnv els Oeovs, 
Kal TTCLVT dKpt/3a)9 Kairl (^povTihoiv ^Lov 
ovTOi biKaioiS (Sxnv ala-xvvrjs aTep. 

Human lot. 

Three conditions. Rank, ivealth, poverty. 

'Eyw TO p.\v hi] TraVToyjov 6pvXovp.evoi' 
KpaTLCTTOv elvai <f>r}ixt, fxr} (f)vvai (3poT(^- 
rpL(r(rS)v be fxoipcav ev Kpicrei. vlkclv fxiav, 
ttKovtov re X^'''^ cnrepfxa yevvalov irpocrfi 
TTevias T' apiOpMV yap Toaovbe TrpovOep-rji'. 
6 ixev (dirkovTos, els yevos 8' ovk evTvxn^, 
akyel p.ev dXyei, TTaymXcas 8' ajipvveTai, 
ok^ov btoiyoov 6dXa}J.ov ijbicrTov X^P^- 
e£co be jiaivoiv Tovbe tov Trdpos XP^v^^ 
TiXovTOiV v-n aTr]s C^vyp! av aa-^aAXoi Trecrtav. 
oa-TLs be yavpov (nrepixa yevvalov t ex^cor 


j3lov a-naviC^i, tS> yei'et, juey ewux^ei, 
TTevta 8 kkaaaoiv eoTtV, ey 8' aXyvverat, 
(f)pevu>v 8' i/7r' atooSs epy' airoo^etrat xepolv. 
6 8' ovbev ovbeCs, hca re'Aous 8e Si'crTDxcof, 
roo-(j)8e I'tKU" ToO yap eu TriTu>p.€VOs 
oiiK olbev, ael bv(TTV)(^u)V KaK&s t e^cav. 
ovTOds ajx^LVov pLTj TTeTT^ipacrOaL Ka\u>v. 
^Kelvo yap pLeixvijpeO'. olos rjv Trore 
Kciyu), ju,er' avbpcov i]viK €vtv)(_ovv itot€. 

Human wants. 

' Man wants but little here below^ 

Evrei rt 8et (SpoTolaL tt\i]v bvolv p.6vov, 
ArjixrjTpos aKT7]s TTCo/xaro's r' {ibprj^oov, 
&iTep irapeaTL Kal TT^<pv)(^ rjjjLas Tpi(f)eLv ; 

Human wishes. 

Birth, riches, eloquence, gain, good name. 

"Epcores r]iuv etcrt TravroloL /3tof. 

6 ju,ey yap evyevetav ijuietpet Xaj3elv' 

T<2 8' ovxl TOVTOV (ppovTLS, aXXo, y^priixaraiv 

TToXXSiv KeKXrjadat (iovk^Tai iTaT-t]p 6ojUOts' 

aAA.(i) 8' apecTKei ixrjbev vyies ck (pp^vGiv 

XiyovTi TTeiOeLV tov9 ireXas roA/xr/ KaKrj' 

ol 8' alcrxpct Kepbrj irpoaOe rod KaXov ^porSiv 

^rjTOvcnv' ovtu> (Siotos aydpcairoov TrXdvr}. 

eyoi be tovtcov ovbevos XPllC^ Tv^elv, 

bo^av 8e ^ovXoiinqv av evKkiias ex^iv. 


Human woes. 

Ta TrAeicrra dvrjTols rSiv KaKdv avOaipera. 

AvTTai yap av6p(a7TOL(Tt, tlktovctlv voaovs. 

"OoTis 8e Kviras (prjcrl 7Trip.aCvetv ^porovs, 
h^lv 6' ay^ovGiV re koX irerpoiv ^CiTTeLv airo, 
ovK iv (TOcf)o'i(nv iarriv, eiV)(i(T9oi 8' o/xco? 
ttTretpo? eu'at ri/s vocrov TavTrjs aeL 

Husband and Wife. 

A wife should sympathise with her husband. 

*H8i» 8' r^v KUKOV TL TTpd^rj crva-KvdpaiTTdCeLV TToaei 
a\o)(^ov kv KOLVM T€ kv-rnqs ■r]bovrjs r €\£iv fxepos. 

2ot 8' €y(ay€ kuI voctovvtl (tvvvo(tov(t ave^ 
KoX KaKQ)V tS)V (tu)v crvvoiaoi. Kovbev kcrri p.01 


A wife should humour her husband. 

EvAoyeTi; 8' otov ti Ae^Tj xpr] boKctv kclv jxt] kiyrj, 
KaKTTovelv av Tw ^vvovTL 7Tpo9 xapiv p.iX.Xr\ Aeyety. 

' When pain and anguish ivring the brow 
A ministering angel thou.' 

YvvT] yap kv KaKolcn Kal I'ocrocs ttoo-^l 
■qhicTTOV kcTTt, bcapLar' rjv oIkti KaXats, 
opyrjv re Trpavvovaa Kal bvadvp-ias 
\lfV)(i]v jxeO iCTTaa' ' fjbv KaTTctrat (f)Lk(x>v. 


AtKat' eAe^e* yjn] yap evvaicD TroVet 
yvvaiKa KOivff ras TV)(^as (pepeiv aei. 

rvvaiKL 8' oA/3os ?)y ttoctiv a-repyovT e)(?/. 

OiKO<p66pov yap avbpa KOjXvet yvvrj 
icrdXrj TTapa^evx^Se'icra Kal (rco^et hoixovs- 

Goodness has a more lasting charm than beauty. 

Ovb€[xiav S)vj[](Te Ka\kos eis iroaiv ^vvdopov 
ap€Tr] 8' ot)vr]ae TToAAds' Tracra yap ayaOr] yvvrj 
rJTLS avbpl avvTiTi]K€, (Tuxfipovelv eTriorarat. 


Clytemnestra welcomes her husband with exaggerated praises. 
'^vv, Tama navra rXacr', airevOijTco <^pev\ 
kiyoiix av avbpa Tovbe rwy araOpi-cov Kvva, 
(TOiTrjpa vads irpoTOVOV, vxIfqXijs (TTeyqs 
(TTvXov TTobrjpr], fxovoyeves tIkvov Trarpt, 
Kal yrjv (f)avel(rav vavTLkoLS Trap ikiriba, 
KaXkiCTTov rjixap elcrtbelv Ik ^'eifxaTO^, 
uboL7r6p(a bL\lf&vTi, TTiiyalov peos. 
T^p-nvov be TavayKalov eKtpvyelv airav. 
TOLoicrbe TOi VLv a^iSi Trpocrcpdeyixacnv. 
(pdovos 8' aTti(TT()i' Tiokka yap to. TtpXv KaKo. 
riveLX0iJ.€(r6a. vvv 8e /iaoi, (pikov Kapa, 
€K^aiv aTTi]vr]s Tijcrbe, jut/ x^M^' TtOels 
Tov (Tov TTob'y o)va^, 'lAiou TTOpdrjTopa. 
bjjiOiial, Tb ixekkeO', als kixia-TakTai rekos 
iribov KekevOov a-Topvvvai Treracr/xacrti; ; 


ivOv'i yevicrdu) T:op(f)vp6aTp(DTos iropos 
es Swju.' a^k-nTOV o)? av i]yr\Tai AiK-q. 
TO. 8' aWa (f)povTh oux. virvia vLKCoixivq 
dr}(TH hiKaims crvv O^ols ( 


TiKrei yap ovh'kv ecrOkov elKaia G-)(^o\r]' 
^eo? Se rots apyolcnv ov TiapiaraTai. 


' Where ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be wise.' 

4>poi;a) 8' a 7ra(T)(&) kox toV ov crpuKpov KaKov, 
TO p.7] dhivai yap rjbovrjv e^et tlvo. 
vocrovvTa' K^pbos €v KaKOts ayvaxria. 

Kairoi (re Kal vvv tovto ye C^^Xovv ex^Oj 
odovveti ovbev rcavb' l-naLcrOav^L KaKSiv. 
kv rw (ppovilv yap pii]bev rjbicrTos j3los. 


Terrors are magnified by night. 

Qapaet yvvai' to, TroAAa tu)v b^ivoiv, ovap 
TTvevaavra vvktos, r]p,ipas p-akaa-cr^Tai. 


OvTOL Opacros rob^ kcrrXv ovb' €VTokixCa., 
(pikovs KaKcas bpdcravT kvavriov jBk^iTdv, 
aAA' ?/ p.€yL(TTri tG)v kv avOpcoiroLS voactiv 
■naa-Qv avaihei. eS 8' iT^oirjcras p-okiav. 



Neayias yap octtis oiyv "Api] oruyet, 
KOfxri jxavov koI (XfipKes, epya 8' ovbaixov. 
OjoSs' Tov evrpdireCov, ws i]bvs /3ios, 
8 T dKj3os i^oiOiv Tis ecrrt TTpaypLCiTiav. 
aXX.' ovK evea-TL (rT€(})avos ovb' evavbpCa, 
€1 fJLTi Tt Kat ToXp.S)(n KLvbvvov jxera. 
ol yap Ttovoi tlktovctl r7)y evavbpiav, 
7j b' ev\d(3eLa ctkotov e'xet Kad' 'EX.kdba, 
TO biaj^LcovaL p,6vov del Orjpoopiivr]. 


Mt) TTavT epevva, TToWd yap XaOeiv koKov, 


Instability of Huinan greatness. 

Kptyet rts avTov ttcottot dvOpcaTTCov p.iyav, 
ov e^aXeicpet, Trpo'^acrt? ?/ Tv^ova 6\ov ; 

All things human change, fade, and decay. 

'12 (piXraT Atyeco? Trat, p.6voLS ov ylyveTat 
deola-i yrjpas, ovb^ Kardavelv irore, 
TV. 8' aAA.a avyx^l irdvd' 6 irayKpar-qs XP^^^^- 
(jidiveL jxev la-)(ys yijs, (pOivei be o-(ii)}xaTo<s, 
6vr}(TK€i be TriVrts, fiXa(TTavei 8' aTrtcrrta, 
Kat TTvevpa Tavrov ovttot' ovt ev dvbpdaiv 
(pLXoi9 PejBrjKev ovTe irpos ttoXlv iroXeL. 
rots piev yap ijbr] rot? 8 ev v(JTepu> )(^p6vio 
to, TepTTvd TTtKpa yiyveTat. Kavdis <[)(,Xa. 



The invention of letters and writing. 

Ta r^s ye \'i]Qr\<i (papixaK opOftxras fxovos 
a(f)Oiva Kol (poovovvra, crvXXajBd^ re Oels 
i^evpov avdputTTOLCTi ypap.fxaT elbevat, 
wot' ov TTapovra Tiovrias vir^p ttAoko? 
TaK^l KO.T o'[kov9 TTavT kitiCTTacrOaL Kakcas, 
irata-iv t aTTod]J7](TKOVTa y^prip-aTUiV p-irpov 
ypdxj/avTas elirelv, top Xa^ovTa 8' elbevat. 
a 8' els epty ttLtttovo'iv dvOpufnois KaKa, 
Se'Aros hiaipel, kovk ea \j/€vby] Xiyeiv. 

Of weights, measures, arit/iniefic, astronomy. 

OvTos 8' ecfyevpe rer)(o? 'Apyetwy crrparci), 
(TTa6p.Giv dpi6p.S>v Kal pLerpcav evpi]p.aTa. 
KCLKelv' ereufe Trpcoros e^ eros beKa, 
KCLK tS>v SeV avdis evpe TT^vTTqKovTahas 
eh X'^' * Q^'^os els crTpaTM (fipvKTcopiav, 
VTTVOV (pvka^eLS' 

e(f)evpe 8' aarpcov piirpa Ka\ irepidTpo^as, 
rd^eis re ravras, ovpavid re crr\p.aTa, 
vaciv re Ttoip^avTripcriv ev6akacr(TiO)v 
ApKTov (TTpo<pas re koI Kuyos \lfv\pdv hvaiv. 

Of games and pastimes. 
Kai ovTos rcovb^ aircoae, ^vv 6e(2 
elirelv, \p6vov re hiarpi^ds (xoipaiTdTas 
e(pevpe, <pkoL(rj3ov p.eTa Kcoirip KaOrjpievois 
TTecrcrovs, KVJBovs re, Tep-nvbv dpyias ukos. 



Spiteful jesting condemned. 

^ AvhpGtv 8e TToAAot tov ye'Awro? ovveKa 
acTKOVcTL ^(^apLTas Keproixovs. eyw be ttcos 
/xicro) yeXoiovs, otrtye? /iey eTrt (TO(j)(t)v 
d)(aAiv €\ov(TL (TTOfxara' Kets avbpiav ixev ov 
TeXovaLv apiOpiov, kv yeAwrt 8' einrpeTrel^. 


^ good man's duty to punish the wicked. 

Eo-^AoG yap avbpos Tjj 8tK?/ ^' VTtrjperelv 
Kal Tov^ KaKOvs bpav iravTayov KaKU)^ cui. 


To (Tvyyevis rot becvbv ij 6^ ajxiXia. 

"A^o) (T ail o'lKOiv KoX irarpos bcoaoi x^P'j 
TO (Tvyyeves yap beivov, €v re rots /caKot? 
ovK ecTTLV ovbev Kpeicrcrov oiKeiov c^iXov. 

'AAA eiT abeX(f)ris etO' op^aiixovecrTepa 
TOV iravTos r^plv Z.r\vbs kpKeiov Kvpei, 
avTTf] re \y] (rvvatixo^ ovk aKv^eTov 
fxopov KaKia-Tov. 


Ingratitude of tyrants. . 

I oiao €Q ep.ov 
6 tS>v 6eu>v Tvpavvos (jt)(pe\r]iJ,€vos 


KaKoXcri TTOLvals Tatabe jx' avTrajLet-KJ/aro. 
€ve(TTi, yap ttcos tovto ttj Tvpavviht 
v6(rr]iJLa, Tols (pikota-L jxr] TreTTOidcfat, 

Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. 

Tvpavvihos 8e ttjs fxaT-qv alvov\x^vr]s 
TO [ikv TTpoacoTtov if/Sv, Tav h6p.OI.(Tl 8e 
XvTrr]pd° tls yap fxaKapios, tls evTvxrjs, 
ooTt? SeSotKO)? Kal TrapajSkiTroiv j3tav 
aloova reivet ; brnxorris av evTVxrjS 
^rjv av Oikoipi paXKov rj rvpavvos (ov 
w Tovs TTOvrjpovs rjbovT} (f)ikovs ^'x^'^5 
€(t6\ovs 8e /xtcrei Kardave'iv (f>oj3ovpevos. 


Man must work. 

'Apyos yap ovbels Ocovs ex^coy ava oro/xa 
I3lov bvvaLT av (TvXKiyeiv avev ttovov. 


Even the gods obey law. 

'AA.A' ol deol crdivova-L, )(a) kuvuiv KparSiv 
v6p.os' vopM yap tovs Oeovs rjyovp^da. 

Law the safeguard of liberty. 
Ovh\v Tvpdvvov bva-pL^viarepov irokei, 

OTTOV TO pkv TTpdiTLCrTOV OVK elcrlv VOpOt 

KOLVOL, KpaT^l 8' ets Tov vopov K(KTrjp.eVOS 
avTos Trap' avT<2, Kal Tob^ ovuiT ea-T Icrov. 
y€ypapp.€V(t)V be tG)v vop-oiv 6 t dcrOevrjs 


6 7rXov(7tos re t^v bLKrfv io-i]v e)(et, 
icTTLV b' ivLo-TTeiv TolaLV acr9(ve<TT€pois 
Tov ^VTvxovvra Tavd\ orav kXvt] KaKois, 
VLKo. 8' 6 \xeioiv TOV ixiyav btKai' e-x^cav. 

The highest law, the unwritten ordinances. 

Ov yap aOevetv rocrovrov <Jd6jxr]v to. era 
KTipvyixaO U)(TT aypaiTTa Ka(T(f)akri 6eo)v 
vofxtjia bvvaadai OvrjTov ovd viTcpbpaix^iv. 
ov yap TL vvv ye Ka)(6\'i tiAA' aei iroTe 
^ TavTa Kovbels olbev i^ otov ^(fyavrj. 


"OoTts v4os obv Movcrcov ajxeXel 
TOV re irapeXdovT aTro'AwAe \p6vov 
KoX TOV fxeWovTa TedvrjK^, 


An uneducated man describes the forms of the letters in the 
name 0HSET2. 

'Eycb TTetpVKa ypapLfxaTcov fxlv ovk Ibpis, 
fxopepa'S 8e Ae'^co Ka\ (ra(prj TiK\xi]pia. 

KVkXoS TiS 0)9 TOpVOKTlV €Kp.€TpOVpLeVOS' 

ovTos b' e)(e6 arjixelov kv jueVw aacpis. 
H TO biVTepov be, irp&Ta pkv ypapp-al bvo, 

TavTas Steipyet 8' iv /xe'crats aAAij pXa. 
2 TpiTOV 8e ^ocTTpvxos rts w? elkiyp^ivos. 

TO 8' av TeTapTov t]v p.\v et? opdbv p,La, 
E Aofat 8' Itt' avTTJs Tpeis KaT^(JTripiyp.ivai 

eiaiv' to irip.TTTOv 8' ovk iv evp.ap€L (j)pd(raL' 


T ypaix^al yap dcriv Ik SteoTcorcof hvo, 

avTat 8e awTpi^ovcriv els p-Cau ^dcrtv. 
2 TO XoicrOiov he rw rptrw irpocrep-c^epes. 


A pleasing falsehood or a painful truth. 

riorepa 6eXeis ctol p,aX9aKa -^evbrj Xeyco 
rj (TuXrip aXr]6rj ; (ppd^e, cr?) yap i] Kpiais. 

'Arap (TKHTxav to. ye btKat ov )(p?j irore. 

Lies are short-lived. 
'AA/V ovh\v epirei \}/evbos els yrjpas \p6vov. 

Lies are futile. 
OvK e^dy overt Kapirbv ol -^^evbels Xoyot. 

Lies excusable under certain conditions. 

KaXbv p.ev ovv ovk ecm ra xj/evhi] Xeyeiv. 
OTU) b oXedpov be LVOV aXrideC dyei 
(TvyyvuxTTov elTrelv lort kuI to jxtj koXov. 


Life, sweet under any circumstances. 
Kay bovXos ii TLS rjbeTaL to c^ws 6pG>v. 

Z^rjv ribv p.aXXov tov Oavelv toZs aca^pocriv 

Ev (rvvTep-ovcra ixdvTa viK-qaoi Xoyov' 
TO (^ws ro8' dvdpcaiTOLcnv T/Stcrroy (BXeireiv, 



TO. vepOe 8 ovbiv' jxaiveTat 8' 6? evx^eraL 
davetv. Ka/cw? (^rjv Kpelo-crov ?) Oavexv Kak&s. 

Love of life increases with age. 
Tov (fjv fxev ovbels ws 6 yrjpdo-KMv epS. 

Marr/y ap' ol yipovns ivyovrai Oav^lv 
yripas xj/eyovres koL p.aKpov xpovov (iiov, 
Tfv 8' eyyvs eA^r/ ddvaros ovbels (SovXerai 
OvrjaKeiv, to yrjpas 8' ovk^t ^ctt avTols jiapv. 

£l (J}l\6^(OOL IBpOTOL, 

oi rrjv eTTKTTetxovcrav r^iipav Iheiv 
TTodeiT e^ovTes p.vplu)v ayOo'i kuk&v, 
ovT(os epo)? j3poTol(riv eyKelrai /3iou, 
TO (rjv yap tcrpLCV' tov davelv 8' d-neipia 
TTci? ris (^o^etrat 0&)s AtTrety ro8' rjkiov. 

Ltfe a struggle. 

Y\aKai(Tpi.a6 i]p,G>v 6 /3[o9, evTvxovaL be 

01 /ixei' ra)( , ol o ecravUis, ol o 7}or} ppoTcav. 

Tpv(f)a 8' 6 Saijucoy Trpo? re yap tov bv(TTvxovs, 

&>s evTvxj^crr] TLp.Los yepalperaL, 

o T oA/3tos fiy TTvevpia beLjxaivoav AtTrety 

v\l/r]\6v alp^L. yvovTas ovv ^peoiv rd8e 

dbLKOvixevovs re /jie'rpta /xr; ^Dp.(ri (fiepeLv, 

dbiKelv re rotaS^' oia ju,r) ^Ka^aL ttoKiv. 

Life is uncertain, let us enjoy ourselves while we may. 

TotoV8e 6vriT(t)v tG>v TaXaLiidopoiv jSCos' 
ovb' e{rri))(et to -ndp.Trav ovbe bvaTvx^el, 


(vbaiiJLOve'i 8e KavOis ovk evhaifxovd. 
TL bi]T €V o\j3(a /xr) cra^et (^((SrjKOTe^ 
ov ((a[X(v 0)? ijbicTTa /xr) Kviroiifxevoi ; 

Eat, drmk, and be merry. 
Ta OvrjTa irpdyixaT olbas ijv ex^et (f)vcnv ; 
oifjiai fxkv ov' TToOev yap ; aW' aKovi jxov. 
fipoTols aTracrt KarOavelv o^etAerat, 
KovK e(TTL 6vi']T(3iv odTis k^mi(rTaTai 
T7]v avpiov [xikkovcrav ei ^ma^Tai' 
TO TTJs Tvxrjs yap acpaves ol irpo^rja-eTai, 

KaCTT ov bibaKTOV, OVS' akL(TK€Tat Ti^VT]. 

Tavr' ovv UKOVcras Kal p^adoov ifxov irdpa, 
eixfypaive a-avTov, TTt^e, tov Ka6^ rjixepav 
fiiov koyi^ov aov, to. 8' akka r^s TV)(^r]s. 


Like will to like. 

Avrjp be )(p7](rro9 \pr\(TTbv ov /xtcrei irore, 
KaK<2 KaKOS T€ crvvTeTrjKev ?}8oj;at9' 
0iAet be 6oviJ.6(f)vkov dvOpcoTTOvs dyeiv. 


Virtuous love. 
O b els TO a(a(f)pov ctt' dpeTi]v t dycav epois 
(■qkcoTos avdpcaiTOLa-LV, S>i> el-qv eyco. 

Love the teacher. 

Moucri/crji' opa 
epuiS btbdaKei Kav afiovcros fj to irpiv. 

G 2 


Love gives courage, wit, and ingenuity. 

"E^o) lik ToXixrjs Koi Opdcrovs oibda-KaXov 
kv roTs dixri\avoicnv eviropuiTaTov 
"EpooTa, TTOLVTOdv hv(T\xayji)Tarov Oeuiv. 

' Sine Cercre et Bacclio frigct Venus.' 
Ey TTX.i]criioviJ rot Kvirpis, h> ireivcovTi 8' ov. 

Love a mighty power. 

"Epwra 8' oart? p.i] Oebv Kpivei fxiyav, 
KoL t5>v airdvTcav hanxovu^v VTrepraTov, 
T) cTKatos kcTTiv, 7] Ka\S>v aTreipo? ooy 
ovK oTbe Tov }xiyi(TTOv dvOp(idi:oL9 6e6v. 

Not to be resisted. 

"EpMTi, p.iv vvv ocrns dvTaviaTaTai 
■nvKTTj'i OTXMS e? x^lpa^, ov KaXm (ppovel. 
ovTos yap dpxcL koI 6eS)v oircos ^eAei, 
K.d{xovy€' TTw? 8' ov ■)(^dTepas otas y ipiov ; 

Impatient of advice or opposition. 

KvTtpiS yap ovbe vovO^Tovixh'i] x^^l^^ 
rjv T av ftid^i, piaWov evTeiveiv (j)iXei, 
KaireLTa t'ikt^l iroX^p-ov' et? o dvaaracnv 
bopLcov Trepatret irokXaKLS to. rotaSe. 

Prayer to love. 

2v 8', 0) Tvpavve Oe&v re Kavdp(OTTCdv, Eptos, 
rj [XT] StSacTKe ra Kaka (paiveaOat Kaka, 


y\ Tois epojcnv, ^v crv brjixiovpyos et 
p.6xdov(n jLoydovs evTvx^^ (rvveKirov^i. 

Love is universal. 
"Epco? yap ai'bpas ov fxovovs e7rep)(erai, 
ovb^ av yvvatKa^, a\ka kol O^Gtv avu) 
\l/vxas X'^P^o'f^ft) Ko.7rl ttovtov epx^Tai. 
Kal Tovb^ airetpyeLv ovb' 6 TrayKpaTrjs a-Qivti 
Zens, dAA vireLKei Kal Oikoav eyKkiveTau 

Love pervades all Creation. 
Ejoa [)kv ayvos ovpavb? rpOxrai yOova 
epco? he yalav Aa/x/3ai'et ydpLov TV^eiv. 
ojxfipos 8 ttTr' evvdevTos ovpavov Trecroiv 
eKvae yaiav' tj be TiKTeTai iSpoToXs 
fxi]\(av re (SocTKas Kal /3iov ArjuriTpLOv, 
bev^paiTLs copa 8' ck votC^ovto^ yap.ov 
Tekeios ecTTi, rSiv 8' eyu) TtapaiTios. 

Love pervades the Universe. 
Ty]v 'A(ppobLTr]v ovx opqs oar] Oeos ; 
rjv ovb' av eiirois, ovbe p-eTp-qa-eias av 
oa-rj TTe(f)VKe Kacf)' ocrov hiepxeTai. 
avTr] Tpec^ei ere Kajxe kol iravras l3poTovs. 
TeKiX7]piov be fxr] Ao'yM p.6vov ixadfjs, 
epyio be beC^oi to aQevos to ttjs deov. 
epq [xev opfipov yai , OTav ^i]pov -nebov 
aKapTTov av^ixi^ voTibos evbeois exT 
epq 8 6 aep.vo'i ovpavbs TrXrjpovjMvos 
op-jipov -neaelv es yalav 'A(f)pobLTr]s vtto' 
5Tav be (rvp,p.Lxd7]Tov es Tavrbv 8vo, 


(f)Vov(TLv ijixLv irdi'Ta /cat Tpi(f)ovcr' &fia, 
bC S)V (SpoTftov Cv ''"f '^ci' ddkXd, yivos. 

Love is universal. 
12 TToibes, i] roi Kvirpci ov Kvirpt^ [xovov, 
aXk eoTt TToKX^v 6vop.aTU)i> iiriavvixos, 
((Tuv p-ev "Aihris, loTt 8' d(f)9LT09 ^Ca, 
icTTLv 8e kvcrara paivds, eort 8' ipepos 
cLKparos, ea-T olpooypos, kv Ke'ivr] to ttolv, 
crTTovbaiov, ijauxalov, is jSiav ayov. 
h'Ti]K€TaL yap TTi;evp.6v(x>v oaois €Vt 
"^vxTj. TLs ov)(l Trjabe ttjs 6eov ^opd ; 
el(T€p)(j.TaL p.€i' l)(^9v(t)v ttAcotw yivii, 
ereaTL 8 ev x^P^^ov rerpaa-KeXel yoi'fj, 
voopa 8' €v oloivolcrt TovKeLvrjs TTTep6i>, 
€v Or^paiv, iv (BpoToXcnv, kv ^eot? dvoi. 
Tiv ov TTaXaiovcr' is rpls eK^dXAei OeStv ; 
et pot OepAs, Oepts be TdXrjOfj Xiyeiv, 
Albs Tvpai'vel irvevpovoiv' dpev bopos, 
avev crtSr/pov vavra toi avvTepveTat 
KvTTpis TO. dvi]Ta)v Koi  deu>v ^ovXevp.aTa. 

Platonic love. 
^lKos yap ■qv p-oC Kai /x' epcos ekoi Trore 

OVK els TO p.S>pOV, Ovbi jU.' €1? KvTTpLV TpeTTO)l'. 

dAA' ecrrt 8?/ tls akXos ev jSporols epcos, 
x/zu^T/s bi-Kaias crcocPpovos re KdyaOrjs. 
Kal Xpr]V be rot? (BpoToXai rovb^ elvai vopov, 
T&v ev(Te^ovvTcov otrives ye cruKJipoves 
epav, KvTTpLv be ti]V Ato? X'^'-P^^^ ^^^- 


Love for mothers. 

OvK ^(TTLv ovbev jjL-qTpos rjbtov t4kvois' 
epare ixrjTpbs ■TraTSes, ws ovk ((tt eptos 
ToiovTos aAAos. 

Compared to an icicle. 

^6(jr\p. epoiTos TOVT ((pLjxepov KaKoV 
eXOtp, av avTo [xrj KaKciis aTi^inaaaL, 
oTav Tiayov (})ai'4vros aWpCov y^^poiv 
KpvcTTaWov apixacroiari iiaih^s acrTayrj, 
TO, Trpwr' €)(^ov(riv r]bovas iroTaivLovs, 
Tekos b 6 \yp^ds ovO' 077009 acpfj deXei 
ovt' ev yjspoiv to KTrip.a crvpc^opov fxevew. 
ovTca ye tovs epc^vras avTos 'ip-epos 
bpav Kol TO fXTj bpav iroXkaKis Trpoterat. 

' Love tn idleness.^ 

"Epoos yap apyov, Kain roTs apyols e0u, 
(pikel KaTOTTTpa kol Koprjs ^avOicrp-aTa, 
(f)evyeL be poy^Oovs, ev be croi TeKp.r\piov' 
ovbeh TTpoaaLTu>v j^ioTov ripacrdi] j3poTU)v, 
ev Toh 8' exovaiv rjjSrjTrjs 7;e</)ux.' ^^^• 


Ovk ecTTL roT? /xrj bpCxn crvpp.axos Tvyj]. 

Good luck attends good management. 
'O Trpwros etTTcby ovk ayvp-vaa-Tc^ (ppevL 
eppi^ev, ocTTis Tovb^ eKaivicrev koyov, 
ws Toicriv ev (ppovovcri avppaxel TV)(ri. 



Courage and endurance the virtues of a man. 

Neai^ia? yap ocrrts o)v "Aprj crruyet 

KOfjLr] [xovov KoL aapK^s, epya 8' ovbap.ov. 

opqs TOP (VTpaTTe^ov ws 7/811? (3ios 

o T oA/3o? e^oiO^v TLS ecTTt Tipayp-aTdiv. 

aX)C ovK evecTTL (rT^(pavos ovb' evavbpia, 

ei p.!^ Ti Kol ToXpuxTi Kivhvvov pira. 

oi yap TTOVOL tLktovcti T7]v evavbpLav, 

r] 8' evXajSeia ctkotov e'x^et Ka9 *EAAa8a, 

TO hta^mvai povov aet 6)]p(i>p.tvr]. 


Sometimes happy, sometimes unhappy. 

Ov Traire? ovTe hv(JTV)(OV(Tiv kv yap,ois 
ovT evTVXOvat' a-vp(f)opa 8' os av Tvyrj 
KaKrjs yvvaiKos, etruxei 8' icrdXrjs Tv\(>iv. 

Tvyj] yvvaiKwv es yap.ovs' ra p\v yap ev 
TO, 8' ov KaX.(os TTLTTTOvTa hipKopai (3pOTUlV. 

Do not tnarry for the sake of money. 

'EXeijO^pos 8' oi)v bovXos Icttl tov Xiyovs, 
TTeirpapiivov to aSipa tj]s <pepi>rjs e'x^toy. 

"OaroL yapovcnv rj yivei Kpeia-aovs yapovs 
r\ TToKXa y^pr\paT , ovk eTrtcTTavTaL yapelv, 
TO. TTJs yvvaiKos yap KpaTovvT kv bcopiaa-iv 
bovXol TOV avbpa, kovk^t eor' ekdjOepos. 


7rXoi;ro? 8' eTraKros Ik yvvaiKeiuiv ydixcav 
AvovrjTO^' al yap btaXva-eL? ov pabcat,. 

Many according to your station. 
K^8os KaO^ avTov rbv (ro(f)6v KTaaOat ^pecoy. 

"OoTts 8e ttXovtov tj evyeveiav elaLbcov 
yajxel TTOvrjpdv, jUcSpo? ecrTf jxcKpa [xev 
fxeyaXoyv dp-CLvu) crco^poi'' €v So'/xots Aex??. 

Early marriage recommended. 

Kat vvv TTapaivS) Trdcn tols vecoTepois 
fx-t] TTpos TO yrjpas tovs ydjxovs TTOLovpLevon 
(T)(okri TeKvovaOai Tralbas' ov yap rjbovri, 
yvvaiKi T e^dpov XPW^ irpecr^VTris dvrjp, 
dXh! 0)5 ToyjicrTa, Kal yap CKTpo^al Kakai, 
Kat (Tvvved^uov "ijbv Trat? ^•e(^) Trarpi. 

Let the. husband be older than the wife. 

KaKOV yvvalKa irpos viav C^v^ai veov' 
jjiaapd yap lcr)(ys jxaWov dpaevutv /xeVet, 
drjkeia 8' ijl^r] Oacrcrov e/cAet7rei bep-as. 

Argument in favour of polygatny. 

'^op.oL yvvatKcov ov KaXS>s K^wrai Trepr 
Xpr\v yap tov evTvyovvO' on TrXeicrTas ^X'^iv 
yvvalKas, ^trrep bi] rpocpr] b6p.0LS Traprjv, 
o)S Tr]V KaKYiv ixkv efe/3aAAe bdip-druiv, 
T-qv ovcrav eaUAi-jV 7;oecos ecrcoC^ero. 
vvv 8' els p-iav ^Xiirovfri, KLvbvvov p.iyav 


piTTTOVT^S' OX) yap tQ>v TpoTTcov ireipcopicvoi 
iwpicfias es oXkovs epjxaTi^ovTai, jSpoTot. 


St'ts by the throne of God. 

AAA. eoTt yh.p koI Z,r\v\ crvvOaKOS 6p6vo>v 
Ai8ci)S fTr' epyoi? -nacri, koX irpos crot, iraTtp, 
'JTapa(rTa6r]T(ti, tG>v yap rjixapniix^voiv 
CLKT] fxev ecTTL, TTpoaffiopa 8' ovk ear^ en. 


Might often triitmplis over right. 
Ov yap KaT eva-e^etav al Oi'rjTwv rv)(ai, 
ToXprip.a(Tiv 8e koI x^P^^ tiTrep/SoAais 
aXia-KeTaC re iravra Kal OrjpeveTaL. 


A miser would rob a church. 

"OaTis bofjiovs i^kv rjberat irXi^povixevovs, 
yaarpbs 8' acfiaLpQv arcapa bvarrivov KaKol, 
TovTov vopi^oi Ka\ OeGiv avXav iBperrj 
Tois ^lArarois re iroXepLov Tie^uKe'rat. 


BpoTols TO. pti^(i> T&v p.ecra)V tlkt€l i'octovs' 
diSiv h\ OvrfTovs KocrpLOV ov npinei (fiepeiv. 

Ov (T(o(Ppov[C^v epaOov, alhelcrdaL be XPV^ 
yvvai, TO Xiav, koI cf)vXd(r(r€<TdaL (f)96vov. 



A power for evil. 

Ovh\v yap av9p(aTT0L(nv olov apyvpos 
KaKov vojuaiji' e/3Aao-re, tovto koI ■TToAeis 
TTop^ei, Tob' avbpas e^avia-Trjcriv So/^coi;* 
Tob^ eKbibd(rK€L koL napakXacraei <ppevas 
•^prjo-TCLS Trpo? al(T\pa irpayiiad^ laraa-Qai ^poTwv' 
Ttavovpytas 8' eSei^ey avOpianois fX^^^ 
Ka\ TTai'Tos epyov bv(T(rej3eiav dbevai. 


Me'ATret be bivbpecrc Xenrav 
ar^bcov appLOVtav 
opOpevopieva yoots 
"Itvv "Itvv TToXvOprivov, 
(Tvpiyyas b ovpijiaTai 
KtvovcTLV TToip-vas kXarai. 
eypovTai 6' eis (Soravav 
^avOav Tictikoov crvvCvyiai. 
i]br] 8' els epya Kvvayol 
aTeL\ov(TU' Orjpotpovoi, 
TTiiyais 8' ctt' 'Xl/cearou 
/jieA.t/3oas KijKvos a^el 
aKUTOL 8' avdyovrai vtt' elpecrias 
dvep,(t)v T evaeaiv poOiois. 


All IS vanity. 
'i2 OvrjTov dvbpSiv koX Takaiiroipov yevos' 


0)9 ovhkv earfxev, ttXi]v o-Ktaif eoiKores, 
^apo^ TTepLoraov yrjs ava(rTpoo(l)(oiJievoL. 


"EcTTLv be p.iqTi]p (piXoreKvos }xaXXov irarpos, 
7} fiev yap avrrj^ olbev 6v6\ 6 8' oterat. 

Andromache laments the cruel death of her child. 

QecrO ajKpLTopvov aa-nih^ "EKTopos Treboi, 

XvTTpov deajxa kov (JjlXov Xevcr<Teiv ipioi. 

CO fXiiCov oyKov bopos ex^ovns rj ^pevS)v, 

TL Tovb , A)(atot, TToiba beLo-avres cfyovov 

KttLvbv bietpyaa-aarQe ; ju,?/ Tpoiav Trore 

Ttecrovcrav opdcaaecev ; ovbev f/r' apa, 

00 EiKTopos ju,ez; evTv^ovuTos e? bopv 

bi(t)XXvpie(r9a p^vpias t aXXrjs X^P^'^j 

TToXews b aXovarjs koL ^pvycov e(f)dappiiv(tiv 

l3p€(f)os Toaovb' eSetVar'. ovk aiva> (po^ov, 

o(TTLS (^o/Seirai p-i] bu^eXOoov Ao'yo). 

o) (piXTad\ u)S (TOL OdvaTos -^XOe bv(TTVx'>U- 

el pL^v yap eOaves TTpo TToAeco?, ijjSrjs TVX(i)v 

yap,U)v re Kal Ti]s IcroOeov Tvpavvibos, 

fxttKapios ^](Td' av, et rt TS>vbe p-aKapiov. 

vvv avT lbu}v p.€v yvovs re o-fj "^vxf], t€kvov, 

OVK OLcrd , i)(^p7](T(o 6' ovbev ev bop^ois iyjav. 

bvar-qve, Kparbs a)S cr' eKeipev adXiOis 

Teixr] TTarpioa, Ao^iov TTvpyoopiaTa, 

ov TToXX' eKi]TTev(r' ?/ reKoOcra ^orrrpvyjov 

(f)LX7]p,a(rLv T eboiKsv, 'ivdev eKyeXq 

ocTTioiv payevTMv (povos, tv ala-y^pa pJr] Xiyu). 



NeK/309 TapLxos elaopav AlyvirTLos. 

Native land. 

Dear is one^s native land. 
Ti yap Trarpwa? avhpX ^ikrepov \6ov6s ; 

10. *H irarpis, w? €01k€, (jyiXrarov ^poTols. 
no. ovb' ovopidcraL hvvat av w? ka-Tiv (ptXov. 

OvK av (f)Lkov TTOT dvbpa bv(rpievT] -)(9ov6s 
Oiipriv epavT(2, tovto yiyvuxiKOiV otl 
TjS' karXv rj (rooCovcra Kal rai/r?js eVt 
Trkeovres opdrjs tovs (piKovs 'Uoiovp.eOa. 

Si) 8' S TTarpcoa -x^Owv kpcjov yevvrjTopcov 
Xatp'' avbpl yap tol kclv virepjidXkr] KaKois 

OVK 'i(TTl TOV dpixj/aVTOS TjhLOV TT^hov. 

' Ubi bene ibi patria.' 

"Anas p.\v drip aleT<2 'nepafrip.o's, 
airacra 8e xP^^ dvbpl yevvaico narpis. 

Exhortation to patriotism. 

'Tpxis h\ xpr] vvv TidvTas, cocrre cru/xTrpeTres, 
TTo' T dpi]yeiv kol Beoiv ky^oipioiv 
^copLolcn, Tipds ju,ij ' ^akei(})dijvaL TTore' 
reKvoLS re, yfj re p.t]Tpi, (jjLkrdTj] rpoffx^' 
Tj yap veovs epirovras evpi€vel TreSw, 


6.TTavTa TravhoKOVcra iraibeCa^ otXov, 
(6pi\}raT olKL(rTrjpas aa7nhr](f)6povs 
TTtcTTOv? 0770)9 yivoLade TTpbs XP^^^ Tobf. 


Natural affection. 

olKeXov ovbe'S Kaipos aWoTpiov iroiel. 

Necessity. • 
2i» 6' eiK avayKij, koI Oeolcn /u,?) \xa)(ov. 

OcTTt? 8' avayKj} avyKex^aprjKev fiporSiv, 
(Tocpos Trap rjpXv Kai to. deV eTTiorarai, 

Ot TTpocTKVvovvTes TTjv 'Abpd(TTeLav crocpoi. 


' Nobih'tas sola est et unica virtus^ 

'O 8i) voQo'S Tols yvrjo-'iOLS Icrov crOevei, 
airav to xprjcrTov yviicriav e^^ei (pvcnv. 

Noblesse oblige. 
'AAA' €v (jyepetv XPV <^vpi(popas tov evyevrj. 

True nobility is not of birth merely. 
'Eyo) llkv OVV OVK 61V OTTOdS (TKOTTilV Xp^OiV 

T-qv evy4v€Lav' tovs yap aubpeCovs (pvcrtv 


KoX Tovs hiKaCovs TMV K€vS)V bo^aa-jjidTcov, 
Kav uxTL bovXcav, evyeL>e(rTepovs Aeyo). 

A possession that cannot be taken away. 

Et rots ^v otKO) ^prjixaaiv AeXeiju/xe^a 
7) 8' evyiveia koL to yevvalov jx^vei,. 

' Stemmata quid faciunt ? ' 

Eis 8' evyiveiav oKty e;(a) ^paaai KaKa. 
6 fxev yap eaOXos evyevrjs e/xoty' avrip, 
6 8' ov biKULOS, Kav ap.eivovos TTarpbs 
Zr]vo9 7T^(f)VK€, bv(Tyem]9 elvai boK^Z. 

T^v 8' evyiveiav, irpos 6e&v, fxrj jxol Aeye" 
€V \pr]\xacn.v ro8' eort, p.i] yavpov, irarep' 
KVKA(o yap epiret, rw n^v eery , ovk e)(et. 
Koivolai 8 o.vTols xpco/xe^'" w 8' ay ez/ Sojuot? 
yj)6vov (TWOLKi) TrXelaTov, ovtos (vy^vrjS. 

4>e{5 0fC, TO cj)vi'at irarpos evyevovs cltto 
6(rrjv e)(et (ppovrjaiv a^LOipia re. 
Kai; yap Trevqs cov Tvyyavr] xprjoros yeyws, 
TLp.rjv e)(ei rtv , arap-erpovixevos be ■ttcos 
ro ToS iraTpds yevvalov w^eAet rpoTTO). 

"OpKos yap ovbels avbpl (l)i]X/]Tr^ ^apvs. 

"OpKOVS eyw yvvaiKos etj {/'Scop ypac^co. 


OpKov 8e TTpo(TTediVTos einiJiekea-Tepa 
\lrvx}] Kar^a-Trj, bia-cra yap ^vkacra-^rai 
(^ikijiv re p.ip.^iv, Kels Oeovs aixaprdveiv. 


Aeycov eoiKa ttoXXo. koI jxaT-qv kpeiv' 
rkyyi.1 yap ovbev ovbe pLaXdacrcret Keap 
XiTals' baKo)v be crro'/xtoy &)s veoCvyrfs 
TTcSAos ^id^ei Kal irpos ijVLas juaxfi- 
drap (T(pobpvi'€L y' dadevel aro<p[(TpiaTt. 
avOabla yap rw (f)povovvTi /x?) /caAw? 
avTrj KaO^ avTijv ovbevo'i p.elov adevei. 

' Frangiiur prinsquam Jleditur^ 

Opqs irapd peiOpoLcri ■y^eip.dppois ocra 
bevbpMV VTTeLKet, Kkoovas ws e/ccrw^eraf 
TCL b dvTiTeivovT avToirpepiv diroWvTai. 
ovTcas be vabs o(ttls eyKparrj iroba 
TeLvas VTTeLKei pLrjbev, vtttlols ndroi 
(rTpe\j/as to Xolttov (reXjxacnv vavTiXXerai. 

Old age. 

Evils of old age. 
"^£1 yrjpas olov rots e)(ov(Jiv el KaKov. 

^ev (pev' TO yrjpas w? e^et TToXXas vocrovs' 
yepovTL 8' ovx^ olov re p.rjKvveLV y^povov. 

^ev (})ev. TTaXaibs alvos o)S KaXa>s e'xei* 
yepovTes ecrixev ovbev dXXo TrXrjv o)(Xoi 


KoX ct^t/m', oveCpoiv 8' €p7T0[j.ei> [xtfJujixaTa. 
vovs 8' ovk4t ecTTLv, oloiJiecrOa 8' €V (ppoveli: 

'OcTTis 8e 6vr]TMv jSovXcTaL bv(T(avv[xov 
ei? yfjpas iXdelv, ov Xoyi^eraL KaXds, 
[xuKpos yap alojv [xvpiovs tikt^i ttovovs. 

Wished for, and ivhen gained repented of. 
'12 yvpo.^} otav eATTtS' i]bovf]s exet?, 
Koi TTUs TLs ds (r€ jiovkeT avdpCOTTOiV [xoXuv 
ka^cov be Trdpav pLerap-ekeiav Aaju/3ai;et, 
cos ovbev ea-TL yjeipov iv OvriTio yivei. 

Wisdom attends upon old age. 
KaiTTep yepoiv &v' aXka rw yrjpa </)tAet 
X&) vovs bixaprdv, kol to (SovXevetv a XPV- 


IToAAot yeyuiTes avbpes ovk e^ovar^ ottco? 
bei^coa-Lv avTovs, twv KaKUiv i^ova-ia. 


Order is heavens first laiv. 

Toiyap TO XoiiTov el(j6p.e(jda toIs 6eol9 
(LKetv, ixadrjaojieada b' 'ArpetSa? cri^eiv. 
apx^ovTis elcTLV uxrd^ vtt€lkt€0v. tl iir\ ; 
KOL yap TO. beiva Kal to, KapTepcaTaTa 

TtlXals VTT€LKeL' TOVTO [Xev Vl(f)0aTl,fte'i'i 

X^et/xcoz/es (Kx^copovcnv evKapiro) depet' 



e^icTTaTab 8e vvktos alavrjs kvkKos 
Tj] Aei)K07r(oA.<j) 0eyyos i]\xipa cfykeyetv' 
hiivdv T arjjxa ttvcvixcitcov eKoi/xtcre 
(rrivovTa ttovtov' kv 8' 6 TrayKpari^s VTtvo? 
kv€i TTebrjaas, ov8' ael \a(3o)v e'xf- 


Respect due to parents. 

P^tris ^payjela, rois (Ppovovcn (T(a(j)pova 
TTpbs Tovs TeKOVTas Kol (pvTevcravTas TrpeTrei. 

Eyo) 8 6 piev p.iyLCTTOv ap^op^ai Xiyeiv 
4k Tovbe irp&Tov' irarpl TTeidecrdai XP^^^ 
TTalbas vop.i^€Lv t avTo tovt' etvat hiK-qv. 

Honour thy father and thy mother. 
Aei Toi? T^KOva-iv a^iav TipA]v vipieiv. 

OcTTLS be T0V9 TeKovTas kv /3i&) cre/3ei 

06 eoTt KoX (oiv Koi 6avu)v deols (pCkos. 

OCTTLS 8e Tovs (pvcravras p-r] npav Oekr] 

pLi] p-OL yivoiTO pL'qTC (Tvv9vTr]S deois, 

p.r]T kv Oakdcra-rj koivotiKovv cTTiXkoi crKacpos. 

Akk LCTT, ip,ol juez; ovtos ovk lorat vop-os, 
TO p.r] ov ae, pifJTep, irpocrcfiikr] vepLeiv ael 
KUL Tov bLKatov Kal TOKOiv TU)V (tS)v \apiv. 
(TTipyu) 8e TOV (jivcravTa twv iravToov jipoTOiv 
p.akicrB'' 6p[((a TOVTO, koI ah p.7] (pOoveC 


Ketvov yap k^^jiXaaTov, ovb' av et? avrjp 
yvvaLKos avbrjo-euv, aXXa rod Tiarpos. 

Parents and children. 

Fathers should ttot have flinty hearts. 

*Hy ot re/cwre? tovto ytyrwo-Koxr', on 
veoL 770T ■^crav, 7/7rta)s rrjv twv riKvoov 
oicrovcri Kvirptv, ovt€9 ov (TKatol (pvcrcv. 

"Ocrris Ttarrip irpos TToibas eK/3aiVet TTtKp&s 
TO yrjpas ovtos TepixaTiC^rai j3apv. 

*Iis Tjbv irarepa iraLcrlv ■tj'mov Kvpelv 
Kol iralbas eivat irarpl pir) crrvyovixivovi. 

Past trouble is not heeded. 
^oyOov yap ovbels rod rrapekdovTos Xoyos. 


"E^ct pikv a\yeiv\ oTba, TTeipaaOai 8e \pi] 
o)? paara ravayKala tov (Slov ^epeiy. 

Mo-x^Oelv avayKT]' ras 8e haiiiovoiv Tvyja'i 
oaTis 0epei koAAiot', avr]p ovtos crocfios. 


EiKo? 8e iravrl Kal \6yco Kal pLr]-)(avf\ 
Trarpibos ipoovras eKTTOvelv crcoT-qpiav. 

H 2 


Reasons for sacrificing all that is dearest for ones country . 

Ttis xapiras octtls evyev^s x«P'C'f''«') 
ijhiov kv ^poTolaiv' oi he bpSxn ixiv, 
Xpoi'(t) 8e bpcacri, bva-yevecTTepoi'. 
eyoj be Swcroo ti}V ep-ijv Tvaiba KTavelv' 
KoyiC, be ixoKka, Trpdra p.ev TToktv 
ovK av TLv' akkr]v rrja-be /3eXrta) Xa[3elv, 
•>/ TtpStra jj-ev Xews ovk eiraKTos akkoOei', 
avTox^doves 8' ecpvp^ev' al b akXai TroAei?, 
TTecrcrutv ojuoto)? Sta^opai? eKTicrp^evai, 
akXai Trap" akXcov eicrlv eio-aywyt/xot. 
ooTis 8' oltt' akXr]s tto'A.€os oiKiCet irokiv, 
apixos TToyjypos cocmep ev iv\u> irayets, 
Ao'yw TToAirrj? eori, roTs 8' epyoia-iv ov. 
e-neiTa reKva ro{58' eKan riKTOfxev, 
. 0)? Oe&v re ^ap-ovs irarpiba re pvu>pie6a. 
TToAecoj 8' cnracrris Tovvop,^ ev, ttoXKol be viv 
vaiovai' TovTovs ttcos bLacfiOelpaC p.e XPV^ 
e^bv TTpoTTCLVTcov piav virep bovvai Oaveiv ; 
elirep yap apiQpov olba koI rovXaa-crovo^ 
TO p-elCov, ovpios OLKOs ov TtXelov crOevei 
TTTaiaas aTrdenqs TToXeos ovb' taov (pepeL. 
el 8' rjv ev oixots avrl Oi-jXeoiv ardxvs 
ap(ri]v, ttoXlv be iroXep-ta Karetxe ^Ao'f, 
OVK av viv i^eTTepiTov eh p-d^W bopbs 
Odvarov iipoTap^oxxJ ; dXX' ep.oi y eti] reKva, 
h Kol p,dxoiTO Kcu p-er dvbpda-iv Trpeiroi, 
fxri cxxvp-o-t' dXXcos ev iroXet TtecpVKOTa. 
TO. pLrjTepMi' be baKpv orav TTepiri] reKva, 
TToXKov^ edijXvv els p^dxrii' 6ppo)pevovs. 


/jtKT&i yvvaxKa'i, atrtres Trpo tov koXov 
e'lXovTO TToibas Kai Traptjvecrav KaKa. 
Kol fXTiV davovres y ey I'-a.X'l ttoWwv fxera 
TViJ.(3ov re kolvov ^Xa^ov evKkeidv r i(t)]v. 
TTjiJifi be TTaibl o-Te<f)avos et? {Jua fxovr] 
TTo'Aecos Oavovari rijcrb^ VTrep boOrjcreTai, 
Kal Tijv T€KOV(rav Kal ae bvo 6^ oixocnTopa} 
acaaeL' tl tovtuiv ov)(^l bi^acrOat koKov ; 
Tyjv ovK €jxi]V ovv ttAtj^ (pvaei bcaa-co Kop^v 
Ovcrai, 77/30 yacas. el yap alpedr](reTat 
TToAt?, TL Traibcov tGiv ejxcai' jxeTea-TL p.0L ; 
ovKOvv airai'Ta yovv ejxol crco^r^creraf 
ap^ovdLV aAAot, t?;i^8' eyw (rajcrco ttoKiv. 
eKelvo b\ ov to TrAeicrrov ev kolv(^ [xepos, 
OVK ead^ eKOV(Tr\s Trjs epif]^ V'^^X'')^ aTep 
TTpoyovcov Tiakaia decrpLL oo-tls eK/SaXel. 
ovb' avT ekdas XP^^^'ct? t^ Fopyovos 
Tpiaivav 6p6i]v a-Tdcrav ev TroAecos (3a.6poLs 
Ev/xoA7709 ovbe 0pa£ dva(TTe\}/eL Aeco? 
(rTe(f)dvoi(n, YlaXXas b' ovbap-ov Tip.y]<TeTai. 
\pri(T&' , 2» TToAtrca, roi? ejxols ko^evpiaa-iv, 
aoo^ecrde, vlkclt' dvTi yap \I/V)(^tj^ p-uis 
OVK ead' OTTO)? ov Ti]vb eyu) (rwcrco ttoXlv. 
o) Trarpi?, eWe irdi-Tes o't vaiovcri ere 
ovTdi (pikolev b)9 eyca' Kal pabiois 
oiKolp.ev dv ae, Kovbev av Ttacr^ots KaKov. 


Tlie blessings of Peace. 
WdvTe^ yap "lerp^ev .... 
oeTisi re nokep-ov Kpela-crov elpi]i-q ySporoif* 


rj TTp&ra fxev iiovaai(Ti 'npo(T<^L\€(TTaTr], 
yooKTi 8' kyOpa, TipireTaL 8' evTraiSta, 
Xaipet re ttXovtco. ravT a(f)evT€S ol KaKol 
TToXepLOVS avaipovpL€(r6a, kol tov ija-aova 
6ovAoi;juie0' avbp€9 avbpa Kal ttoAis iroXiv. 


To (TVV€)(\s 'ipyov iravros evpicrKa riXos. 


The temple of Persuasion in the tongue. 
OvK €(TTL Tl^idovs Ipov uXXo TrX.7]V Xoyos, 
Kttt jBcopLos avT7]s eor' ev avOpcairoiv (^va-et. 

Why is the art of persuasion not more cultivated? 

Ti hrjTa OvqTol raXka fx^v p.adr\p.aTa 
p-oxOovpiev ws XPV '^cLvra kol p.a(TT€Vop,ev, 
■neido) be Tr]v Tvpavvov av9p(oTT0is p^ov-qv 
ovbev 7t p.aXXov is reXos (nTOvbd(opiev 
p-Ladovs bibovTes p.av6dv€i.v, tv rjV ttot€ 
-ndOeiv a tls ^ovXoito, Tvyxdveiv d' ap.a ; 


Riches without an appreciation of beauty. 
El 8' €VTVXS>V TLS KOL ^LoV KeKTr]p.ivOS 

p.r]b\v bopLOiCTL tS>v KaXoiv ireipaaeTai, 
eyw p.\v avTov ovttot oX(3iov KaXu), 
(f)vXaKa 8e p.aXXov xp-qpdrinv evbaip-ova. 



Physician, heal thyself. 
" kXkfiiV larpbs avrbs €Xk€(tlv ISpvcav. 

Time the best healer. 
Mikkodv T larpos, tj) v6cr(o bcbovs \p6vov, 
lacraT ijbri fxaXkov rj Tep.(av xpoa. 

The remedy should suit the case. 

Ylpos Tr]v voaov rot koL tov larpbv XP^^^' 
IbovT lao-Oai, iXT] ^iriTaKTa (^yapp-aKa 
hihovT, kav p.T] Tama rf] voaco TrpcTrr/. 


Steering the ship of the state. 

2v 8' coore vao<i nebvos olaKO(TTp6(t)Oi 
(f)dp^ai, -nokicTpi.a, irplv KaTaiyitrai irvoas 
"ApectiS* jSoa yap Kvp.a x^P^^c-^ov a-Tparov. 

Kabpiov TToXxTai, XPV ^eyetr ra Kaipia 
oaTLS (f)vkda-(T€t irpayos ey irpvp-vrj TroAeojs 
otaKa v(t)p.S)V, (3Xi(papa p.r} Koip.Siv vitviii. 


* Mollissima corda 
Humano genert dare se Natura fatefur, 
Quae lacrimas dedit: haec nostri pars optima sensus.' 

Kat yap 77e0u/<e tovt iv dvOpcaTioyv (pvaeL- 


r]v Koi biKT] 6vr}(TKij tis, ou^' riacrov TTodd 
TTas ris haKpveiv tovs Trpoa/jKovTas (ptkovs. 

Olixoi, tls aXyelv ovk l-nicrTaTai KaKols ; 
TLS av kX.v(dv 7fe)j;6' ovk av iKJSdkoL baKpv ; 

Women more compasstotmte than men. 
To 6i]\v yap TTcos p.a\kov oiKTpov apcrivcav. 

Pity takes the side of the weaker. 
Tots i]crcro(TLV yap iras rt? ^vvoia'S (pepei. 

Dejanira expresses her pity for the captives. 
Ilws 8 OVK eyw \a(.poipJ av, avbpbs evrvxrj 
KXvovaa itpa^iv Trjvh^, iravhUio (f)pevi ; 
TToXXi] (TT avayKT] Tf]be tovto (TVVTpi)(jeiv. 
bjxcds 8 kveoTTi Tolacv eS ctkottovixsvols 
Tap^eiv Tov ev irpacra-ovTa, [jli] a-(f)aXr'] irore. 
€p.ol yap oIktos beivbs ela-e/Sr], cf)LXat, 
Tavras 6p(acrr] bvcnroTixovs, cttI ^ev-qs 
Xwpas aoLKOvs a-naropas r dAco/xeWs, 
a'6 Trplv jxev ^crav k^ kXevOepccv tcrco? 
avhpSiv, Tavvv he hovXov Icrxovcnv ^lov. 
o) ZeC Tpo-nau, /x?; ttot eio-tSoi/xt ere 
Trpos Tovpov ovTco cniipp.a yu)pri(TavTa Trot, 
JUTES', et Tt hpaaeis, TTJcrbe ye ^wo-jj? ert. 
ovTOis eyw bebotKa, rdcrb^ opapLevrj. 
6) bvaraXawa, tls ttot et veaviboiv ; 
avai'bpos, rj TeKvova-aa ; irpbs pikv yap (f)V(nv, 


TiavT(i)V aireipos TO)vbe, yevvaia he rts. 
At)(a, TLvos TTOT (o-tIv t] ^ivrj (ipoToiV ; 
Tis 1] T€KOV(Ta ; Tis 0' 6 cpLTiJcras 7:aTr]p ; 
e^eiTT ' €7T€i vLv Twi'Se TrAeicrroi; c^KTicra 
ySAeTTOUo" , oai^Tiep koX (ppoveiv olhev fj-ovr]. 


To plead /or one's life disconcerts a man. 

'O (f)6l3os, oTav Tis (Tcap.aTos /xe'AAr/ irepi 
Xiyeiv KaracrTas els ayS>v kvavriov, 
TO re crro'/x' els eK-nXi]^iv avOpcairaiv ayei, 
Tov vovv T ciTTetpyei jxi] Xiyeiv a ^ovXerac. 


Pursuit 0/ pleasure demoralising. 

Avrjp yap octtls ev (3[ov KeKTrjixevos, 
Tct ixkv Kar oLKOvs aixeXia Trapels ea, 
IxoXiroicn 8' ■tjadels tovt ael drjpeverai, 
apybs p-ev oIkols koL ttoXcl yan]creTai, 
(fiLXoLCL b ovbeLS' rj (f)V(rLS yap o'L)(^€Tat 
OTav yXvKeias ijbovrjs ija-a-odv tls fj. 

The poisoned robe. 

Dcjanira' s misgivings on seeing the effect of the Centaur s gift. 

To yap KaTayp.a Tvy^avcii piyj/acrd ttw? 
TTJs olos, w irpovy^piov, e? p.ecrrjv (pXoya, 
UKTiv es i]XL(t)TLv ws o eoaXiTeTO, 
pel TTCLv abi]Xov Kal KaTe\l/r]KTai yOovi, 
p.op(f)f} ixaXL(TT elKacTTov ojcrre irpiovos 


iKfipwixar av I3\4'^eias iv TOfxfi ^vkov. 
Totovbe Ketrat TrpoTrere?. e/< be yrjs, o9ev 
TTpovKetT, d^•a^eouo•l ^po/Li/3co8ets' a(ppoL, 
ykavKTJs oTTcapas uxrTe ttlovos ttotov 
■XydevTos es yj/y BaKx^tas a-n' apureXov. 
&(TT ovK exw ToXaiva irol yvwp.rf'i TreVco' 
opSt hi jx' epyov beivbv e^eipyacrjjiivqv. 
TToOev yap av ttot civtI tov 6vi]crKU>v 6 9i]p 
fjxol TTapicr^ evvotav, T]s edvrja^' virep ; 


Poor men unjustly despised. 
^iXovcTL yap tol t5>v piev oX^lcov jiporoi 
<TO(f)Ovs TiOea-Oai tovs Aoyous, orav be tls 
X.eTTTu>v air' o'lkcov ev Xeyr\ irevqs avrjp, 
yeXav. eyo) 8e iroWaKts aocfxoTepovs 
irevriTas avbpa<s el(TopQ> twv TrXovcriOiiv, 
Kal deoicn fiLKpa X^'P^ dvovras rek-q 
T&v (BovOvTovvTOiv ovTas evcre^earepovs. 

Friends shun the poor man. 
Ylevr\Ta (f)evyei ttcls tls eKirobcav (piXos. 


"T^piv yap 01) (TT€pyovcnv ovbe baipLoves. 

Pride of intellect, 
'AXX' 1] (ppovrjo-is TOV 6eov p.e'iC'^v (rOeveiv 
^rjrei, to yavpov 8' ev (ppecrlv KeKTr]p,evoi 
boKOvpiev etvai baip.6v(i>v (JO(p(3)Tepoi. 


Pride goeth before a fall. 

' Numerosa parabat 
Excelsae turris tabulata unde alitor essef 
Casus, et inipulsae praeceps imtnane ruinae.' 

"Orav 8' t8r/s irpos v^ffos ripixevov riva, 
XafJiTTpQ re ttAovtw Kal yev€i yavpovixevov, 
6(ppvv re pieiC^ Tfjs TV)(r]^ iirripKOTa, 
TOVTov Ta)(^(lav vepecnv evdvs Trpoabona' 
€TtaLpeTai yap p-elCov tva /xet^oy iria-r]. 

rioAAov? 8' 6 dvp-os 6 piiyas wAeorey ^poriav 
rj T a^vvecria, hvo Ka/co) rw xp(x>p.€V(o. 

"Ottov 8' vjBpCC^tv bpav 6' a (BovXerat Trapfj, 
TavT-qv vopLtC^ Tr]v irdkiv xpovia Tiore 
e^ ovpCctiv bpapovcrav es ^vOov Trecrelv. 


Steady principles stronger than law. 

TpoTTOs eoTt xpi](rTbi acrcpakeo-Tepos vopov. 
Tov jjikv yap ovbels av biaa-Tpf^aL ttot€ 
pr\T(iip hvvaiTo, TOV 8' aro) re /cat Kara) 
Aoyois Tapda-Q-odv iroWaKis Kvp-aiveraL. 


Practise what you profess. 

"Oa-Tis Ae'yet p.\v eS ra 8' ipy' e0' oXs Ae'yet 
at(r)(p' ecrrty avrou, tovtov ovk alvS) Trore. 



01 Tieipav ov hebooKores 
jxaXXov boKovvTes tj 7re(/)UKo'res (TO(pOL. 


The best prophet is he ivho guesses best. 


I recognise the hand of Providence ivhtn I see the wicked 
brought low. 

'Eycb \x\v evr' av rov% kukovs opS) (ipoTMv 
TTLTTTovras, elvaC (f)r][xt. baipiovoov yivos. 

Chance rules all. 
Tt §' av (poj3o'iT avOpoiiTOS w ra tj/s tv-)(j-js 
Kparel, irpovoia 8' ecrrty ovbevos (Ta(pi]s ; 
elKrj KpaTLarov Cv^ oVcos bvvaLTO ris. 


' ' Tis sweet to hear the beating of the rain 
TVheit safely housed.' 

^ev ^ew* rt roijTov ■)(^dpixa p.el^ov av Xa[3oLS 

Tov yrjs kiTi^avcravTa Kqd vtto o-Teyrj 

7iVKvr]9 aKOVcraL \j/aKdbos evbovcrrj (pperi ; 


Ignorance supplies fuel for rashness. 
To //T/ dbivai ere p.y\b\v o)V ajj-aprdveis 
tKKaviia ToKjxrjs tKavov icrTt, Kal Opdaovs. 


Rash haste leads to trouble. 

To 8' COKV TOVTO KOX TO Aai'v/zjjpoi' (j)pei'0)l' 

ets avjjLcfiopav IcrTrjcn, ttoKXcl bi] ftpoTovs- 

Aoyos ixtv kcrOXos (pappiaKOv (l)6l3ov /Sporots". 

Similia sitnilibtts curantttr. 
ritKpfa) TTtKpaV Kkv^OVCTL 0ap/xdK(j) )(0X{]V. 

For different ailments different remedies. 

"AAA' ctt' dAA?/ c{)dppLaKov KiiTai vocrio' 
\vTTOvp.ev(^ p.\v pivdos eviJ.einjs (pikoiv, 
ayav oe p-oapaivovTi vovOerijixara. 

'Ocrri? yap iv KaKolai OvjxooO^ls (BpoTwv 
/xei^oi' TTpoa-aTTTei, tt/s voaov to (fidpiJLaKov, 
laTpos eaTtv ovk kTTi(JTr]p.oiv KaKGtv. 


TavT kcTTLv dXyicTT , i]v Tiapov QicrOai KoAcoy 
avTO'i Tt? aiTw Ti]v [3\d(3riv TipoaOfi (pepow. 


' Levins fit patientia, 
Oitidquid corrigere est nefiis.' 

^Avbpcov T08' eaTiv evbCKcav re Koi (rocpQv, 
Kav Tolm bcivo'is p.^1 T^OvpSxrOai 6eoli. 


Ta TTpoa-TT^a-ovTa 8' oort? ev ^e'pet (Bporcav 
apiCTTOS elvai cruxppove'iv re jxol boKel. 

'AXyetya, YlpoKvr], brjXoV dXA.' o/xo)? XP^^^ 
Tci 0eta ^i-jjrovs oyras evTrerws (f)ip€iv. 

"OcTTis 8e 7rp6? to ttItttov evXcyw? 0epet 
roy baip-ov, ovtos rjcrcrov eor' dyoA/3ios. 

©votfx' ay avru [xaXKov rj 6vp.ovp.evos 
TTpbs KevTpa XaKxi^oipi Ovtjtos obv ^ew. 

^ duty, more easy to preach than to practise. 
"Ey ecrri T^avTCtiV 'npu>Tov elbevai robe, 

(j^epeiV TCL (TVpLTTiTTTOVTa pT] TtaXiyKOTOiS, 

^ovTos y avrjp apiaros, aX re (Tvp.(popal 
rj(T(T0v bcLKVova-LV' dAAd ravra yap Xeyetv 
eina-TdpLea-Oa, bpav 8' ap.r]xavoos exet. 


Even a brief forgetfulness of woe is pleasant. 

'lis rot? KaK(£s irpdcrcrova-iv rjbv koL ^pa-)(vv 
Xpdvov XaOicrOat rGtv irapea-TcoTcov KaKiUv. 


Noblesse oblige. 

Ov yap biKaiov avbpa yevvalov (f)p4vas 
Tepireiv, OTTov /x?) kuI b'lKaia repTrerat. 



Ai^Trr] juey arr] TTepLTrecrelv al(r)(j)a tlvl. 
ei 8' ovv yivoiTO, \pr] irepicrTe'ikaL Ka\<Ss 
KpvTTTOVTa, Kol ju,7j TTacTL Krjpva-cr€LV rdbe. 

Some words are better left unsaid. 
Ylpo tS)V TOLOVTcav ^(^pr} Xoyoiv buKvetv aTOjxa. 

Farnily troubles best discussed at home. 

'AAA' &)? Ta\i.(TT es oXkov eaKop.L^iT€' 
rots kv yiv^i yap rayyevrj p-aKicrO opav 
IxovoLS T CLKOveiv ev(T€[3(as e'xei KaKa. 

2o0ot be (TvyKpvTTTOva-LV ouetas jBkdjBas. 

' Sm brings suffering. ' 
ApdcravTi. yap tol Kal iradelv o^eiKeraL. 

Et 8eiV ebpacras, beiva Kal Tradelv ere Set. 

Ti]v TOL AiK-qv Aeyoucrt 7rat8' eti'Ot Ato?, 
iyyvs re vaUiv Ti]s jSporSiv apLaprias. 

God sees, and will requite. 

AoKets Ta t&v 6eG>v ^vvera viK-qatLV ttot€, 
Kal T't]v AiKrjv p.aKpav aTTiaKicrOat (BpoT&v, 
rj 8' iyyvs ecrnv' ov^ opco/xe'i'rj 8' opq, 
ov xpi] Ko\d(€tv T olbev dAA' ovk olada av, 
OTTOTav a(})V(i> pi.o\ovaa 8toAe'crr; KaKOVs. 


Divine Justice slow and sure. 
' L'{ sit magna tatnen certe lenta tra deonim est.' 

OvTOi TTpoa-eXdova-' i] Alkj] ere — fii} Tp€cnjs — 
TraiVei irpos i]~ap, ovhe T(av aAAcor ^poT(i)v 
Tov abiKO}', aXka (rlya koX jSpabeZ ~obl 
aT€iyov(ra iJ.ap\j/€L tovs KaKOVs, orav Tvyr\. 

' Ut setneniem feceiis ita metes.' 

Bta ii'v eAfcer , o) kokoi. rijuaj, f3poroC, 
Kat KTacrde ttXovtoi', irarrodev O-qpcafxevoL 
(ri:\j.p.LK-a, pi] OLKaia kol 8tKai' opov' 
|— eir ap.acrd^ rwrSe hv(m]vov Oepoi. 

hnpiety punished sooner or later. 

0601 yap ev jueV. di//^e 8' clcropQa' orav 
TO, 6el atpeCs tls e? to patveadai rpaTrfj. 

Zeus Toi KoXaarrjs Tcav v—epKo—uiv ayav 
(f)povr]pa~(DV i—€(TTLr. evdvvos ^apvs. 
■»p6s Tavr ^Keivov craxppoi-elv K€Xpr]p.h'ov 
irwva-KeT eiXoyoicri vov6eTi]pa(Ti, 
X^^ai 6eo^Xaj3ovi'6' v—epKo-i^ Opdcrei.. 

Punishment surely overtakes presumptuous sin. 

Toiyap KaKas hpaa-avres ovk eXacrcrova 
•::a(T\ov(TL. to. 6e peXXovcn, Kovbe-nca KaKutv 
Kpr]—ls vrreoTiv, aXk' er eK-ibverat. 
Tocro? yap ecrraL -Tre'Xai'OS' aiparoarayi^s 
Trpo? yfi UXaraLoiv Autpicos Xoy^-qs viro' 


0Tre? veKpoiv be xai TpLT0(T~6pa yovfj 
a(f)(oia a-qfjLavovcnv OfXjxaa-LV i3poTa>v 
bis ov\ vTT^pcpev 6vr\Tov ovTa \pr] (ppovelv. 
V/3pi? yap i^avdovcr' iKapirccxre otol^vv 
arr^s, o9ev r^aynXavTOv i^ap-a depos. 


Reverse of fortune hardest to bear. 

K€KX.iip.€i'<a be (fxorl fxaKapiia Trore 

at /xera/SoAat \v~Tjp6v w d' ael kckS? 

ecrr'. ovbev dAyei, air/yevuis bva-rqvos &v. 


' Opes trtiiamenta malontrii.^ 
rioAAcoi' TO. 'xj)i]p.aT oitl ai'dp(o~ois KaKU)v. 

A less affliction than poverty. 

'H ttAoC^', o(j^ \iev pacTTOv el iBapos (pepeiv, 
TTovoL be KOLV (TOL Kol (f)dopal TToXXal f3iov 
eveid ' 6 yap ttcls acrOevijs alojv iSpoTois. 

All sorts of fttat pursue riches. 
'AAA.' IcrOi, TTai'Te^ ol re p.ov(nKi]s (pCkoL 
ocroL Te yo^pXs C"^crt. \prip.aT(j)v virep 
piO)(^6ov(TLV' OS b' av "Aeto-r' e^Jj crocpioTaTos. 

Mri nkovTov e'LTTrjs' ovx), 6avp.a^(a deov, 
ov X.W KaKicTTOs pabCdiS eKTi](raTO. 


Birth must bow to riches. 
'AAA^ ovh\v 7]vyev€La Trpos to. xPVH-^^'''^' 
Tov yap KCLKLo-Tov tt\ovtos eis TTpcorovs ayei. 

— /cator TO TikovTelv KaXko ixi]bev eiSeVat. 

Innocence better than riches. 
KpeLcr(T(i)v 8e /3at6s okjSos d/3A.a^?;s /3porot? 
1] bS)p.a ttXovtio 6ucrcre/3<Ss wyKoopivov. 

Riches only a loan to men from the gods. 
' Vitaque mancipio ntdli datiir, omnibus usu.' 

OvTOi TO. \pr\paT Xhia KeKTrjVTai ^poToi, 
TO, T(tiv 6e(ov 8' i^ovres ei:ipeXovp.€da' 
orav 8e \p7}^(0(T, avT a^aipovvrai ndkiv. 
6 8' oKjSos ov j3€(3aios, aA.A' e^Tjjuepos. 

Power of riches. 
Ta x.p7/ju,ar' avdpcoTTOLcnv €vpL(TKeL (f)[Xovs. 

'Tis money makes the mare to go. 

'Ap' oTo-^' odovve\ ol p.\v ^vy evil's l3poT(av 

TTevrjTes ovres ovbev ep<paivova ert, 

oi S' ovhiv Tjcrav irpoa-Qev, oA/3tot be vvv, 

bo^av (pipovrai tov vopi.crp.aTos yapiv, 

(cat crvp-TiXeKovTes cr-eppa Kal yap.ovs TeiiVMV ; 

bovvai be p.akkov TrAoucrto) Tias tls /caKw 

irpoOvpos ecTTiv, rj TrevqTi Kaya6<^, 

KaKos 8' 6 p.1] 'xctiv, ol 8' e^ovTes oXjSlol. 


' Auruni per medtos ire satellites 
Et perrumpere amat saxa^ 

Aeti'o? yap epTTstv ttXovtos Is re rajSara 
Kal TTjoos j3^[3i]Xa, ^w-oOev Trmjs aviip 
fxrjb' kvTvxwv hvvaiT av S>v €pa Tvy^elv' 
Kal yap bva-eibes crcojua kol bvcrfovvpov, 
yk(D(r(Tr] ao(f)ov Tidr\(TLv €vp.op(f)6v r Ibelv. 
povio 8e \a(,piLv Kai voaelv k^ovaia 
TrdpecTTLV avT(^ KaTTLKpv\lfa(rdat KaKo.. 


Alight goes with Right. 

Ets roi bUaLOs p-vpioiv ovk ivbUctiv 
Kparel. to Oelov ti]v biKrjv re crvWajBc^v. 

Tots yap bcKaiOis avr^xeiv ov pabiov. 

Might joined with right is irresistible. 

"Ottou yap la-yij'i (rvfyyovcri Kal biKi] 
TTOta ^vv(opts T&vbe KapT^ponipa ; 

War to be Hiidertaken only in a righteous cause. 
'I2s cTvv Oeolcrt, tovs (TO(povs Kivtiv bopv 
(TTpaTr]KaTas XPV^ "^^^ 6eS)v bk pi] ^ia. 

Oi/8ets uTpaTiiKTa's abiKa crGis TJkOev nakir 

I have no fear, for right is on my side. 

Ylpbs ravO^ 6 tl ^P^/ ^^'- 7^o.Xo.p.d(rdo), 
Kol Ttav k-u ipiol T€KTaLv4ad(a' 

I 2 


TO yap eS /xer ejuoC, (cat to hUaiov 

^vfxfxa)(^ov ((TTai., 

Koi) [XI] TTod' ctAw Kam irpda-a-onv. 


Old traditions and observances to be respected. 

KA. Ov KaTa(f)povoj 'yw rw// 6eS>v, OvrjTos yeyc^s. 

TE, ovbev o-ocpiCoixea-Oa Tolai hmpLocn. 

TTUTptovs TTapaboxds, as 6' opu^kiKas XPoVw 
K€KTr]p.(6\ ovhds avTCL KaTajBakel Ao'yoy, 
0118 et bi' cLKpoov TO (Tocpov €vpr]Tat (f)p€V(av. 
ep€l rt? ws TO yijpas ovk al(, 
/xeAAwy x^P^^^f-v, KpaTa Kta-a-cocras kp.6v. 
ov yap biriprjx 6 6ebs etre tov viov 
^XPV^ Xopeveiv 6tVe tov yepaLTepov, 
aAA e^ aTrdvToov jBovkeTat Tipias ^X^lv 
KOLvds, bi apidixQv b' ovbev av^eadai OiXn. 


'li Ttaa-iv di>dpa>7T0Lcn,v exOccrTOL (3poT&v, 
^TTapT-qs eVotKOt, bokia (BovXevT-qpia, 
\}/evb(av dvaKTes, p.-)]XO-voppd<{)Ob KaK(ov, 
ekiKTa Kovbev vytis, dkkd nav ir^pt^ 
(f)povovvTes, dbUcis evTVxelT dv'' 'Ekkdba. 


' Fama malum quo non aliud velocius ullum.' 
Icrro) 8e ji-qbels TavO^ a (riydcrdaL xpf^y* 
IxiKpov yap e/c kaixTTTijpos 'Jbalov kiiras 


TrprjiTetev av tis, kuI irpos avbp' etTTwy eva 
TTvdoLVT av acTTol TTCLVTes a KpvTTTeiv xpewy. 


The dootned host of Persian invaders. 

Wavpoi ye TroAXwy, et rt Trtorctio-at ^ecSy 

\py\ 6e<T(f)aT0i(rLV, es ra vvv imrpayixeva 

^Ki^avTa' avixjiaiv^i yap ov ra fxe'i', ra 8 ov. 

Ke'iirep rdb' icrri, ttAt/^o? eKKptrov o-rpaTov 

AetTTft Kcvatcriv ^X-Tricnv TTeireicrixevos. 

IJ.Cjjivova-i b' ev9a Ttebiov 'Actcottos poai^ 

apbet, (fyikov iriacrp.a Botcorwy ydovi' 

ov (r(f)iv KaKcHv vxlrLar eTrapLixevei TraOelv, 

vfipecos aiTotva Kadeu>v (ppovrifjidTOiv' 

OL yfjv jJLokovTe^ *EAAa8' ov 6€mv jBp^Ti] 

rjbovvTO (TvXav ovbe TTLfXTTpavat vecas' 

^cdfxol 8' aidToi,, baLfjLOVcov 6^ lbpv}xaTa 

TTpoppL^a <pvpbr]V i^amcrrpaTTTaL (Badpoov. 

Toiydp KaKo^s bpacravres ovk kXaaaova 

Ttdayjavcri, ra 8e fxeWovcri, Kovbeirdi KaKoov 

KprjTils VTT€<rTLv, (xAA eV iKTnbveraL. 

t6(T09 yap '4(TTai 'niXavoi alp.aTO(rTayrjs 

TTpbs yfj YlKaraLMV AcoptSo? Aoyx?]? vtto' 

Olves V€KpSiv be Ka\ rpiroo-TTopw yovfi 

acficova (nqiJi.avov(nv 6p.p.a(nv jSpoT&v 

o)? ov)(^ vTTep(pev 6i'r]Tbv ovra xpr] (ppovelv. 

v(3pLs yap k^avOovcr eKapTruxre ord^ui' 

aTTjs, 66ev TTaynkavTov i^ap.a depos. 



'Pant vohiptas optiini fasfidiitm.' 
Ko'pos 8e iravTutv. Ka\ yap ex KaWiovoiv 

daiTos be 7rA?7pa)0et!f rt? a(rp.evos irdkiv 
<^avXi] biaLTi] TTpocrlSaXibv rj(Td->i CTTOfxa. 


Perils and liardsJiips of seafaring. 

Oi TTOvTovavTat Twv TaXatTTU)pu)v fiporGiv. 
oTs ovTe baljxoov ovre rts decov vepLOiv 
ttXovtov ttot av t'eijuetey a^iav y^apiv, 
XeTTTOLs €7:1 poTialcnv eixiroXas ixaKpas 
ael TTapappiTTTovres ol -noXxK^dopoi 
7/ 'aoicrav, ?; Kepbavav, ?) bMkecrav. 


A messenger describes the battle of Salantis to the mother of 


Vip^ev fj.ei<. S) bicnrotva, tov iravrbs KaKov 
(j)av€is aXacTTOjp ?/ KaKOS hai]iiov nodev. 
avi]p yap "EAA?]v ef 'AOrjvaicov a-Tparov 
ikdcav eAe£e 7rai8t cr<2 Bep^rj rdbe, 
ws, et ixeXaivrjs vvktos iferat KV€(})as, 

KkXrjves oil pievolev, dXka a-eXjxaa-L 
vaG>v €TTev6op6vT€S aXXos akkoae 
bpa(Tp.(2 Kpv(pai(^ ^ioTOv iKcroiio-OLaTO. 
6 8' ivOvs ws T]KOV(rev, ov ^vvels boKov 
"EkXrjvos dvbpos ovbe tov Oedv (^dovov. 


•nacriv 7Tpo(})0)V€l rovbe vavap)(^0Ls Xoyov 
e.vT av <pkeyu)v aKTicnv ijXios \66va 
X?/£ry, Kve(pas be Tejxevos aWepos ^'^l^Jh 
Ta^ai ve&v jx\v aT'Lcpos €V a-Toi\ois rpLcriv, 
eKTrXovs (fivXacrcreLv koI iropovs a\tpp6dovs, 
ak\as be kvkXco vijaov Atai'Tos TTept^, 
0)9, el [JLopoi' cl)ev^ol,a&' "EA.Ar]i>e? kukov, 
vavalv Kpv(paL(i)S bpaapibv evpovres tlvol, 
TtacTL (TTepeadat Kparbs 7\v TrpoKeip-evov. 
TocravT e\e^e Kapd' vtt eKdvp-ov (fypevos' 
ov yap TO ixeXXov e/c 6e&v TjiriaTaTo. 
ol 8' ovK aKoa-fjiios, akXa Trei6dp)(^io (ppevl 
beliTvov r' e-nopcrvvovTO, vav^aTrjs r avi]p 
TpoTTovTo KutTTrjv (TKaA/jtoy ap-cf) evTjpeTixov. 
eireX be (peyyos tjKlov KaTe(p9LT0 
Kol I'ii^ einjeL, ttcls avi]p kcottiis ava^ 
es vavv eyjLpei, nas 6' oirkajv eiTLaTaTrjS. 

The battle of Salamis. 

Kat p.i]V -nap i]p.<hv Ylepa-'tbos ykuxra-qs p66os 
vTrrjvTiaCe, KOVKer rfv p.eKXeiv aKixi]. 
evdv9 be vavs ev vrji xaAKT/pjj crTokov 
eiraLcrev' rjp^e 8' eixjSoXrjs 'EAAvji-'t/cT) 
vavs, KOLTTodpavei, iravTa ^oLVicrcrrjs vea)S 
K6pvp.0', eir' aXkrjv 8' ciAAos Wvvev bopv. 
TO, TTpGiTa fxev br] pevp,a UepcrLKOV (rrparov 
avrelxev' ws be TiXrjOos ev trrei'a) rewy 
7j6poL(TT, apu>yr] 8' ovtls aAAT^Aois Trapriv, 
avToi 6^ v(f) avT(ov ep-jSokals ^akKoaropiOLS 
TiaiovT, edpavov Travra K(OTn]pri arokov, 


'EWrjvLKai re ryes ovk a(f)pacriJi6vo>s 
kvkAw Tre'pt^ edewov, vtttlovto 8e 
(TKacpr] veiav, Odkacrcra 8' ovkcV rjv IbeZv, 
vavaytcov 7rXi]6ov(ra koI (f)6vov fipoTu>v' 
cLKTol be veKpMV x.otpa8e9 r eTrkridvov' 
(jivyrj 8' OKOcr/xa) Tracra vavs ripea-aeTO, 
ocraLTTep 7]aav ^ap^dpov crTpaTevpiaTos' 
Tol 8' wore 6vvvovs rj tiv l)(^dv(t>v j36kov 
dyaiaL kcottwi' Opava-p-acriv t epeiTTiav 
eiraLov, eppd)(^b(ov, oijuicoyT) 8' op-ov 
KOi)Kvp.a(nv Karet}(e TreXayCav dXa, 
ecos KeXaivrjs vvktos op.p! a(^etAero. 

Second thoughts. 

At bevrepai ttcos (ppovribes aocfyutrepai. 

"Ava^, [3poToi(nv ovbev eor' dirwixoTov 
^f/evbei yap r] \ivoia Tr\v yvcapi^qv. 


Styay (j)povovvTa KpelcrcTov els 6p.iXiav 
irecrovTa' tovt(o 8' dvbpl p.7]T elr]v (fyikos 
p.i]Te ^vveirjv, oaris avrdpKi] 4>pove'iv 
-ne-noLde, bovkovs tovs (f)Lkovs i]yovp.evos. 


'Eyo) 8' efxavTov koL Kkveiv 
dpxeiv 6^ dpLOioJS rdpeTfi (TTaBp.(!>p.evos 

TO. TidvTa. 



Ta \Kkv bibaKTa fxavdavoi, to. 8' evpera 
^TjrcS, TCI 8' ei^Kra Trapa 6eu>v yjTrjcrajjirjv. 


God helps those who help themselves. 

AvTos TL vvv bpa, )^ovTOi haip.ova's KaXet. 
TO) yap TTOvovi'Tt )((t) 6eds (TuA.A.a/x/3ayet. 


' Ego sitiii mihi proxmiits.' 
TP. 'Arap KaKO'i y ujv is ^t'Aous aXia-Kerai. 
riA. rts 8' ovxl dvr]TSiv ; apTi yiyvaxTKeiS robe, 


Self-preservatton the strongest of motives. 

To \ikv yap avrbv €k KaKcov 7Te(f)evy€vai 
rjbicrTov, es KaKov Se tovs (piXovs ayeLv 
akyeivov. a\ka iravTa ravd' ijacroi Aa^eiy 
e/xot TT€(f)VK.e Trjs e/i.?}? crooTrjpCas. 


At8a)s yap dpyrjs irXelov oxjbeAet jSpoTovs. 


The greedy ambitiotts man intolerable. 

"OoTts yap 6776 TO TrAe'oy e'xfti^ ni^vK avi]p 
ovbkv (ppovel biKaiov, ovbe ^ovk^rai, 
(pikoLs 8' apLKTos ecTTi Kttl Trao-rj iro'Aet. 



Phtloctctes reproved for stubbornness. 
Hadriv TTarepa tov a\xov evkoyovvrd ae 
avTov re /x'" iav bi aov Tvx^lv e(/n'e/xai 
aKOvaov. avdpcoiroicn ras [xkv ck O^Stv 
Tvxas bo6€L(ras ea-r' avayKoiov (f)ep€tv' 
ocroL 8' kKOV<Tioi(TLv eyKetvTai (3\dl3aLs, 
uxTirep (TV, TOVTOLS ovTe avyyvwjjirjv e'x^etv 

hUaiOV ioTTLV OVT ^TrOLKT€Lp€Ll> TLvd. 

(TV 8 riypuo(TaL, Kovre (tvix^ovXov hiyei, 
kdv T€ vovOeTTJ Tts evi'OLa Kiycav, 
(TTvyeXs, TTo\efj.Lov bvapievfj 6' ijyovfjievos. 
ojxois be Ae^o)- Zijva 8' opKiov KaXS>' 
Kat ravT eTrioro), Kal ypd(pov (f)p€vu)v ecro). 
(TV yap voa-els rob' dXyos €k ddas tv^'^is, 
'Kpva'qs TreAao-^ets (f)vkaKos, os tov aKakvcj)?] 
a-TjKov (pvXda-aeL Kpv(j)Los olKovpGiv 6(f)LS' 
Kai iravkav laOi. Trjcrbe p.i] ttot evrvxetv 
voaov (Bapeias, ws av avTos rjkios 
TavTji pxv atp-t], Tf]be 8' av hvvrj irdkiv, 
Trplv av TO. Tpoias irehC kKO)v avrbs pidki]^, 
KOL TU)v Trap' 7]fuv kvTv^ibv 'Aa-KkriTnb&v 
vocrov jxakaxOfis rjyo-8e, Kal to. TTepyap-a 
<rvv Tolabe to^ols ^vv t ejxol rtepaas (pavrjs. 


Aovkov yap kv bea-polcn bpairiTrj^ dvi]p 
K&kov TTobta-dels Tldv 77/309 7]bov-)]v ksycL. 


'Aei 0' apecTKeLV roi? Kparovcri' ravra yap 
bovkoLS apLCTTa' Ka(p^ oro) TiTayp-ivos 
eirj Tis, avhavovra 8e(77roVats ttouIv. 


Mattes life but a shadow. 

'OpS) yap r] ovbev ovras aXXo ttKtjv 
eiSojA' ocrOLirep ((ap-ev 1) KOVfprjv aKidv. 


^Q. TTOTVL AtSws, et^e rot? TTarrtv (BpoTols 
Svvovaa TavaicryjvvTOv k^i]pov (ppev&v. 

Two kinds of shame. 

Etcrl 8' 7]bopal TTokkal j3iov, 
p-aKpai re Aeo-)(at Kal crxoki], Tep-nvov KaKOV, 
aibcas re' bicrcral 8' elcrCv' 1) pilv ov KaK-q, 
7] 8' a^dos oIkoov' d 8' 6 Katpos tjv cracpi]?, 
OVK av hv TjCTTriv ravT i.\ovT€ ypap-p-ara. 


Shall the captain quit his post m time 0/ danger ? 

Tt ovv ; 6 va{iTr\s apa ]u?j s -np^pav (pvym']d€V evpe prjxo.i>'i]v acoTrjpias, 
veoos Kap.ova"r]s ttovtlc^ irpos Kvp^ari ; 

Ship ready to start and make its escape. 

Kavravd^ 6pG>p.ev 'EAAa8os i^ews (TKd(f)os 
Tapcr<^ KarripeL TTtrvkov iirTepcop-ivov, 


vavTas re 7rei'r?;/coz'r' k-nX crKaK\iQiv TrAdras 
tyovra<s, Ik becrixwv be tovs veavLas 
e\(v6ipovi TTpvixi'rjdiv eoTwras vecas. 
KOVTois 8e TTpiopav el^ov, ol 8' iircoTibcov 
ayKvpav e^avijiTTov, ol be KAi/xaKa? 
(TTrevbovTes ^yov bio. ^epcov TTpvixvi^cna 
TTOvTio be bovres Toiv ^ivoiv KaOUcrav. 

AvTT] jxev ovTTU) vaos elailiriv crKarpos, 
-ypa(f)f] b ibov(Ta kol KKvova eTrtora/xat. 
vavrais yap fjv [lev ixerpios 77 x.ei/xa}i; (f)€pet.v 

TTpodvp-LaV €\OV(Tl (TOoOrjVaL TTOVCOV, 

6 [xev Trap' oia^', 6 8' iirl kaL<p€crLV /3e/3(u?, 
6 b clvtXov elpydiv vaos' r]p b' VTTep(3dXr] 
"TToXvs Tapaxdels ttovtos, evborres tv\i] 
Tiapeta-av avrovs Kvp-aTcav bpop.r]p.a(nv. 
ovTcii be Kciyd), tto'AA.' e\ov(ra ixrip.aTa, 
a^doyyos elp-t koX irapelcr eG> (TTo^ia, 
viKa yap ovk de&v p.e bvcrrrjvos Kkvbodi'. 

Orestes carries off' to sea /it's sister and the sacred image. 

]s.av rwSe, 8eti'6s yap KXvboiv coKetXe vavv 
TTpos yrjv, cf)6l3os b' ■qv &(JTe [xi] rey^at 7ro8a, 
Aa/3wy ^Opea-Trjs o^iov els apiarrepov, 
j3as es 6a\a(Tcro.v koltu, Kkip.aKos Oopatv, 
eOrjK abeX<pj]v evTos eva-eXfjiov vecos, 
TO T ovpavov 7Te(Triij.a T7]s Ato? Koprjs 
ayaXp.a. vr]6s 8 ck p-ia-qs ecpOey^aro 
fioi] TLs, 0) Trjs 'EWdbos vavrai veiLs, 
Xd^ecrde K(a7Ti]s poOtd re kevKaivere' 


ixo[X€v yap wvirep ovveK Ev^eyoy iropov 
^vp.7:kriydb(i)V ea-utOev elcreirX^va-aixev. 
ol be aT€ ijbvv €K[3pvxu>iJLevoL 
iiraicrav aXixTqv. vavs h\ eca? pikv evTos ^v 
Xifxevos, e)(&;pet, crro/xia biaiTepwcra 8e 
Xdf3p(o KXvbu)VL avp-TTea-ovcr' rj-neiyeTo. 


Ot 8e ©eoTtou 
KopoL TO XaLov i)(i'os avdp^vXov Ttobos, 
Tov b' iv TTebiXoLs, w? iXd(f)ptCov yovv 
e)(ouv, OS 8t) TTaatv AirojAois vopo'i. 


News of Troy's capture conveyed to Argos by beacon Jires. 

^dos be TriXeTTopLTTOV ovk rjvaiveTo 
(j)povpd T!pocrai6pi^ovcra Tiop.Ttip.ov (f)h6ya' 
Xi[xvriv 8' virep Topyooinv e(rKr]\j/ev (paos' 
opos T Itt' AlyLTtXayKTOV e^LKVov}xevov 
wTpvve Oecrpov pi] ^aTL^ecrOai irvpos. 
Trep-TTovcn 8' avbaCovTes d<})96v(o p.evei 
(jyXoybs p.eyav TTcayutva, Koi ^apcoviKOV 


(f)Xeyov<rav eXr ecrKi]-\l/ev, es t cKpUeTO 
^ Apayvaiov olttos, dcnvyeiTova'S crKoi:ds' 
KOLTieiT ^kTpeibOiV is robe crKriiTTei crriyos 
<f)dos T08' OVK. aTTaTTTTOv 'IbaCov irvpos. 
Toioibe Toi ixoL XapLTrabrjtpopoiv vdpoi, 
aXXos Trap aXXov biaboyjods TiXr]povp.eioi' 


VLKO. 8' 6 irpMTO'i Koi TeXevToios bpafxdov. 
TeKfxap TOiovTo ^vp.ftoK6v re aol Aeyco 
avbpbs irapayyeLkavTos e/c Tpota? e/xot. 


My mouth is sealed. 
'AAA' ecrrt Kapol kA?}? eirl ykuxrcrrj (pvka^. 

Silence is golden. 
^D. irai, (Ticaira, ttoAA' e)(ei (riyr) KaAa. 

'H Aeye rt o-tyT/s Kpelcra-ov 7/ (ny7/i; e^f- 

There 's a time to speak and a time to be silent. 
Aey', eS yap eTiras' ecrrt 8' ov (riy?; Ao'you 
Kpei(Ta-(ov yivoir av, errri 8' oS (rty?/? Ao'yo?. 

Silence gives consent. 
^r](T\v (ncoTTMV, apK€a(o 8' eyo) Aeycor. 

Sometimes bodes ill. 
VK oio . ejuot 8 oi»r ?/ r ayav (nyi] papv 
hoKel TTpocr^lvat, xrj \xaTy\v iroWi] ^o?/. 


Sin brings sorroiv. 
'AAA' eoraro) juot koX hios rt Kaipiov, 
fcai jut; boK&ixev bpoovres av i]b(oixe6a 
ovK ai'TiTicreiv avOis hv XvircopeOa. 
f'pTrei TrapaAAo^ raura. 



"Ara^, 8ia/3oAat oeivov a.v6pa>-oi'i KaKov' 
aykuxTcria 8e ttoAAu/cis kijcpOeU]p 
bUata At^as ^(T(tov ivy\(a(T(TOV (fitpei.. 

JVotrtett prone to gossif) and slander. 

<l>iAo\|/oyoj' oe XPW'^ OijXeiwv c^u, 
(T/jitKpus 6' iKpopiias i]V \d(3(ocn. rdv \6yujv, 
■nXeiovs iTTerrcjitpovcriv' ijbovi) Ot ri9 
yvj'aifi pLijbiV vyi.k'i aAAj/Aas Atyciz;. 


* Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.' 

AoKu> fxiv, ovOfis' oAA' opa fxif Kpelaa-ov ij 
Kol hvcr(T(l3ovL'Ta rwr h'avrioiv Kparelv 
7/ SoC'Aoz^ ai/Tov urra T(av TrtAay KXveu'. 

A slave must think as a slave. 

Ov yjpn] TTOT avbpa bovKov ovt eAev^e'pas 
yvi^p.a'i bi.(^K€i.v, ovb^ €v apyiav /iAfTrew. 

The zvorst of slavety is in the name. 

'^Ei' yap TL rots' bovKouTW ala^^^vi'ijr (/k'/jci, 
Tovi'op.a' TO. 8' oAAa ttuvtu riav i\(vdipu)v 
ovbils KUKLUiv bov\os, ooTij iadXos ■p. 

'AxdAaora 7rarr?j yiyv^Tai. bovXcov reKva. 


Should not know too ntucli. 

AovAou (^povovvTos jxaWov ?/ (ppovelv XP^^'' 
OVK (CTTLv a^dos p-elCov, oitbe 8&)/xacrt 
KTijcTis KaKLujv ov8' av(a(pek((TT€pa, 

IVlto love their masters are hated by their felloivs. 

Aov\(i)V ocrot (ptkovaL hecnroTOiv yivos, 
TTpbs Twv opioicov TtoXefjiOV alpovvTUL jxiyav. 

Not to be trusted. 
'noKXi]v Trap rjixlv juwpiai^ 6(f)Xi(rK.dvei,. 

Sympathise with their master's troubles. 

'Kprjo'To'ia-L oovAois ^vpi(f)Opa to. becnroTOiV 
KaKMS TTLTvovTa KOL (fypevSiv avOaiTTeTaL. 


Society must contain both rich and poor. 
Aok^'lt av oIk^Iv yoxav, ei Trerrj? airas 
Xabs TToXtrevoLTO ttXovctlcov arep ; 
ovK hv yivoLTo yjiitpls iaOXa kol ko.kol, 
cOOC ean tls (TvyKpaaLS, war ^x^'^ koAws. 
a jj-r] yap kcrTi rw TrevrjO', 6 ttAowios 
bCbcacr' a 8' ol 7tX.ovtovvt€s ov K€KTi]ixe6a, 
TOicriv 'nevrjCTLV XP^P-^^'^'- Ttjuwjue^a. 

Made up of three classes. 

Tpeli yap ttoXitGw /xeptSes* ol ixkv oX^lol 
dz^co(/)eAets re irX^tovcav r epcotr' aei' 


01 8' OVK €XOVT€S KOi CTTTavi^OVTeS /3tOD, 

heivoi, vejxovTes t(d cfydovco irkelov ixipos, 
es Tovs €\ovTas Kevrp acfiiaa-iv Ka*ca, 
yXwcrcrat? Trovr]pu)V Trpoa-Taruiv (f)rj\ovpi€VOi' 
TpiSiv be p-oipCdv Tj V /jieVo) crw^et iroAets, 
Kocrjxov (f)v\d(raov(r ovtlv av rd^r] irokLS. 


Real and nominal. 

^Kexj/ai be TOVTO irpGiTov et tlv av So/ceis 
dp\ei.v ekecrdai (tvv (f)6(3oL(n [xdkXov r) 
arpearov evoovT , et ra y avo e^et Kparr]. 
eyo) juey ovv ovt avTos i/zeipcoy e(pvv 
Tvpavvos elvai, fxaWov rj rvpavva bpdv, 
OVT dWos ocTTLs (ru)(f)pove'iv kTiiaraTai. 

' Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. ^ 

Tt TT]v Tvpavvib\ dbiKiav evbaLfxova, 
Tifxas VTTip(pev, Kal \xiy ijyqaaL ro8e, 

1T€pl.(3keTT€(j6at TijXLOV ,' K€vbv IX€V OVV. 

ri TTokkd p.o\deiv TTokk^ eyjMV kv b^jxaaiv 
ISovkcL ; tL 8' eoTi to itkiov ; ovop! exei ixovov' 
(Tiel TO. y h.pKovv& LKava Tols ye (Tu>({)po(nv. 


Andromeda chained to the rock compared to a statue. 

La Tiv oyvov tovo opw TrepippvTov 
d(Pp(Z dakdcrcrrjs, irapOevov r etKco Tiva 



€^ avTO[x6p(f)oiv Xaivdiv Tei^ia-jjidTOiv 
(Tocfiris ayakixa \^ip6s. 

Polyxcna, about to be sacrificed. 

Xajiovcra iriirXovs e$ UKpas eTrco/xtSos 
eppri^e kayovos e? fxecrov Trap' ojxipakov, 
jxacTTOVs T eSetfe a-ripva 6\ w? aydA/xaros, 
KaAAiora' koI KaOelaa Trpos yalav yovv 
eAefe iravTcov rXripiovio-TaTov koyov. 


Cruel to her step- children. 

Wk^VKt yap TToos Trairrt TToAejutos yvvr} 
Tols TTpocrOev r) ^vyeXaa Seirepo) TTOO'et. 

'E)(0pa yap rj 'iTiOvo-a fxi]Tpvia t^kvols 
Tols Trp6(r6\ €)(^Lbvris ovbev rjincaTipa. 

Storm at sea. 

E,vv(apLocrav yap, ovres 'i)(6La-T0i, to irplv, 
TTvp Kal Odkacrcra, Kal to. iricrT khei^ciTi^v, 
(pdeipovTe TOP bvcTTTjvov 'Apyeicov arparov. 
ev vvktI bva-KViJLavTa 8 (apdopet naKa' 
vavs yap irpos dAA7/Aatcrt QprjKLai irvoal 
ijp^LKov' at be KepoTVTTOvjxevaL (Sia 

\eip.G>Vl TV(pU> ^VV C^krj T 6[Xl3p0KTVir(O, 

<i\ovT acpavTOL, noLixevos KaKOV crrpo^io. 



A wise head better than a strong arm. 

To 8' aadev^s jxov kol to dfjA-V crcoixaTos 
KaK(as ejx^ixcjidrjs' Kol yap, et <ppoveiv e'x^co, 
Kpelaaov Tob^ iarl Kaprepov ^payJ.ovos. 

Tvoofxr] yap avbpos ev pikv olnovvrat irokeis, 
ev 8' otKOS, its T av irokep-ov l(T)(6iL p.iya' 
(Tocpov yap (v jBovXevpia to? ttoXXcis x^P^^ 
viKa' avv o)(\oi b' apaOia irKeicrTov KaKOV. 

'Ael yap avhpa (TKaibv lcr)(ypbv (pva-a 
Tjaaov btboiKa Taadevovs re /cat (rofPov. 


Tots iv reXet /3e/3(3o-t TretVo/xai, to yap 
TtepLaaa 'npaaanv ovk e)(et vovv ovbiva. 

'AAyw 'tti rots irapovacv' uxtt av et crOivos 
kdj3oLp.i bi)K(i>(Taiix av oV avTols (ppovS>, 
vvv 8' kv KaKols pot irkelv v(f)€tp.ivr} 8oKet. 

One must stoop to conquer. 

'AAA' es TO Kipbos Trapa (l)vaLv SovAeure'oi;. 

Success depends on tod and daring. 

Ta yap piytcrTa iravT epya^erat jSpoTOis 

K 2 


Tok\i (ocrre viKav' ovre yap Tvpavvibes 
Xcopls Ttovov yivoLVT av, ovt oIkos jxiyas. 

M.oy6uv avayKT] tovs deXovras €VTV)(^e'iv- 

Successful crime can laugh at criticism. 

'ilj (jxipyros ixiv ttclo-lv avOpcairoLS kclkt]' 
ocrris be ttXcIo-tov fxi,crdbv eis xeTpa? Xa0(i)v 
KaKOi yivqTai, rutbe avyyvooixr] ixev ov, 
TrAeto) 8e pLLcrdbv jxeCCovos ToA/>ir/j €\(x)V 
Tov tS>v XeyovTcov pqov ap (p^poi xj/oyov. 


^v<T(T(i)(f)pov€lv yap ov)(l a-vvvocreiv €(f)vv. 


Zeal must be guided by discretion. 
Kai vavs yap ivraOelo-a 77/309 ^Cav TTobl 
efSaxj/ev, ea-rr] 8' avOis, r\v xaXa Tioba. 
jXKTel yap 6 debs ras ayav TTpoOvjjiias, 
/xicroScrt b' acrToi 8ei 8e ju,', ovk aWoys Ae'yo), 
(TCd^eii' ere cro(pCq, ixr] (3iq. t&v Kpeicnjovoiv, 


Joy and sorrow alike cause tears. 

X.(apos yap ovtos eoTty avOpcairov (f)p€v&v, 
OTTOV TO TepiTvbv Kal TO TTrjixalvov (Pvec' 
baKpvppoii yovv Kal to, Kal to. Tvyxavutv. 

Tears give relief in sorrow. 

'AAA' eVrt yap 8r) kolv KaKolcrtv fjbovrj 
OvrjTois, obvpnol baKpvu)V t iirLppoaC, 


Koi Kapbias eAvo-e rovs ayav ttovovs. 

A relief to the miserable. 
'Qls r]hv baKpva rots KaKMs TreTrpayoVt 
dprjvoiv T dbvpjjLol fxovcrd 6 r] XvTras f'x^'- 

Idle (ears. 
riaAata Kaivots baKpvoLS ov ^p^ (rriveiv. 

Tears cannot bring back the dead. 

'AAA.' et \xkv i]V KXaiovcriv laaSat KaKo., 

Kal Tov Oavovra baKpvots avLcrravai, 

6 xpvcrbs rja-aov KTrjjjia tov KkaUtv av '^v. 

vvv b\ 0) yepaU, ravT avrjvvTuts €\€i,, 

TOV \ikv Td(p(a Kpv<p9ivTa irpos to cf)Ois ayeiv. 

Clytemnestra has wept till she can weep no more. 

"E/xotye ju.ei; 8^ KXav}xaTu>v eTTtVcrurot 
TfqyaX KaTea-jSriKaaLV, ovb^ eve aTaycav. 
iv 6\f/LKoCTOLs b' 6p.p.a(Tiv i3\dj3as ex"" 
TCLS dfKpC croL KAaiovcra Xap-UTripovxCas 
dTr]ix€Xi]TOVS aliv. 


' Video meliora proboque, 
Deteriora sequor.' 

Ta xP^^t' (Tna-Tapieo-Oa koI yiyvciXTKOixev, 

OVK kKTlOVOVlXiV 8' 01 ^xkv dpyCus VTTO, 


01 8' ybovrjv Trpodevres avrl rod KaXov 
aWrji' Ttr'' eicrt 8' ijbovai ttoWol fiiov, 
{xaKpai T€ Xe'crxai kol cr\o\i], Tep~vov KaKor, 
alb(o9 re' Sio-o-ai 8' ela-iv' rj /xer ov KaK-q, 
1] 8' a^Oos oiKcov' et 8 6 Kaipds rjv aa(pr]9. 
OVK av bv Tja-Trii' ravT €\ovt€ ypap.\xaTO.. 

Yi'(i)p.r\v ie\ovTa [i t] (\>vcns /3id^erai. 

Atat. ro8' 7/8?] 6{iov ar6p(l)—ois KaKov 
oral' Tis dbv rayaOov, ^priTai 8e p-i]. 

Through ill advice. 

Ov yap TL TolcTLv wcrl Tepirva 8et Aeyea- 
d\A' e^ oroi> ris e^r/cAe^s yer77<rerat. 

/o's tewptafton. 

"Aei yap 6\lr€LS ^vvv\oi ■zoKo'vp.ivai 
es TTop^erwra? tovs kp.ovs irapriyopovv 


' God fakes the good, too good on earth to stay, 
And leaves the bad, too bad to take azvay.' 

<I>I. Ov rovTov €l~ov, a\ka Qepairris ns rp-, 
09 OVK av elker ^la-d-a^ etTreiy, ottov 
pLrjbels ii^rj' tovtov dla-Q^ et C^v Kvpei ; 


NE. OVK elhov avTov, "^aOoix-qv b tr ovra viv. 

^1. l/iieAA'" e77el ovbiv ttco kukov y a-diKtTo, 
oXh! ev 7T€picrT€X.X.ov(rLV avra baifj.oves. 
Kai 77 cos ra jxev iravovpya kol TTokivrpL^ri 
^aipovcr' avaa-TpecpovTes ef "Aibov, to. 8e 
biKaia Kol TO. \pri(TT aTtOarekkovcr aei. 

oAe/jtos ovo€v avop eK(ov 
aip€i TTOvrjpov, aXXa tov9 xPV^'^'^^^ "^'• 


^LxlfcavTL yap tol Travra 7:po(Tcf)epu)V (TO(pa 
OVK av Ttkeov repx/^eias i] -uu' btbovs. 

To TTpbs fiiav TTteiz' 
Icrov KaKov 7T^(f)VK€ rw bi\lfai' (Bia. 

"Hbio-Tov SoKet 
oboLTToput biyj/oivTi, 7Tr]yaiov p4os- 


Gain honestly, save wisely. 

K^KTrjcro b' opdws av ^XV^ avev \l/6yov, 
Kal p.LKpa (Tco^ou Tji biKij ^vvcsiv ad' 
fxrib^ COS KaKos I'avKkrjpos ev Trpa^as 77ore 
^jjTwy TO, Tik^Lov elra iravT aTiuik^arjs. 



Sin boldly when the prize of sinning is a throne. 
EiTrep yap abiKelv XP^, TvpavvCbos Trept 
KaWia-Tov abi.K€Lv, raWa 6' evcre^^lv XP^^^- 


Tiyyie the revealer. 
Time brings the truth to light. 

XpOVOS bUpiTOOV TTCLVT a\t]d€V€LV 0tAet. 

Upos TavTa KpvTTTc p.r)b4v, a>s 6 -navd' 6pS>v 

I i 1 / 

KaL TtavT ttKOvuiv, iravT avaTTTvcr(r€L \p6vos. 

OvK eoTi TTpaTTovTCLS TL p.oy6r]pov XaOelv, 
6^ /3Ae-et yap 6 xP^^vos os to, TtdvO' opa. 

Time the healer. 
Xpovos /uoAd^et, vvv 8' er' T)i3d(TK€L KaKov. 

AAA o vop.os avTo. rw XP^^'V '^wt<Txvavel. 

Time the test of character. 

Xpovos hiKaiov dvbpa h^UvvaLv p.6vos, 
KaKov be kuv kv rip-ipa yvoir]s p.ta. 

KaKOVs be Qv-qrlav 4^e(f)r]v, orav TvxVi 
TTpoOeh KCLTOTTTpov U)(7T€ TTap6evo> via 
Xpdvor Tiap olai p.-q-noT ocpdeiriv kyu>. 


Time works change in all things. 

X-navd^ 6 fxaKpos KavapiOfx-qTos xpo'^o? 
(pv€L T abrjXa koI (pavevra KpvTTTeTaf 
KOVK ecTT aek-TTTOD ovbiv, a\k' akCa-KeTai 
Xw b€Lvbs opKos x*^' TTepicTKeAeTs (f)pives. 
Kayoj yap, os to. b^lv^ eKaprepovv t6t€, 
^a(f)rj (ribrjpos w? iOrjXvvOrjV aTOfxa 
Trpos TTJcrbe rrjs yvvatKOS' ot/creipco be viv 
XVP<^^ Trap' ixdpols Tralbd t dp(f)avbv Xmelv. 


Honour and glory are won by toil. 

Keaviav yap avbpa xph To\\j.av aeC' 
ovbels yap u>v paOvjios ev/cAe?]? avrjp, 
dXA' 01 TTovoi TLKTOvcn TTjv ivbo^Cav. 

OvK. €crTLV, ocTTLS r]b4(os CTjToJr (3lovv 
€VK\€Lav etcre/cT^crar', dAAa ^p?) ttovcIv. 

U r]ovs aL(i}v tj kuki] t avavbpia 
ovT oIkov ovTe yalav opOaxreuv av. 

'^vv fJLvpiOLa-L TO. KaAa yiyveraL ttovols. 

Sot 8' CLTTOv, S) Trai, ras Tv\as fx T(av TTovuiv 
OrjpaV opqs yap crov Ttaripa Ttjuco/xeyoy. 

Ylovos yap, fc)9 keyovcriv, (VKXeCas Tiar-qp. 

IToAts TTOvovcra ttoWo. tto'AA evbaiixoveZ 


No good comes except by labour. 
'Ek tG>v ttovwv Tot Taydd^ av^erai (Bporol^, 
o ?/Ovs aiwv 1] KaKi] t arokixia 
ovr' oIkov ovre (Blotov ovb^v &)f/)eAei. 


Nobody knows what a day may bring forth. 
oiavTo, Tavvao eanv (um et rts owo 
7) /cat rt TrAetov? rjfiepas Xoyi^eraL, 
fxcLTatos icTTLV ov yap iaO' ij y avpiov 
TTplv ev irdOr] rt? Tr]v Trapovcrav y]p.ipav. 


Virtue the result of early training and education. 
To yap Tpacfirjvai. jut) KaKws aiSw (f)4p€L' 
aia")(vveTaL be TayaS' daKijcros dvi]p 
KaKos K€KXr](rdai iras rts' ?/ 8' evavbpia 
hibaKTov, etirep Kal /3pe</)o? bibdcTKeTUL 
\4yeiv aKoveiv 0" o)V ixdOrjatv ovk e'xft- 
h 8' hv p-dOj] TLS, Tavra (Tca^ecrdai. 0iAet 
TTpbs yijpas' ovtco iralbas ev TTatbevere. 


A man's character is shown in little things. 
'K'7T7]V€(r' XcrOi b\ a><T7T€p 1] TTapoipLia, 
(K Kdpra l^aicov yvoiTos av yevou' dvr\p. 


Is ever strong. 
Kal yap biKaia yKGxrcr e'xet Kpciro? p.iya. 


Ta\r}6ks ail -nKdrrrov iTxyet Ao'you. 

'AttAovs 6 fxv6o^ Tr]<i aKr]6das e(pv, 
Kov -noiKiKoiV id T^vlix (fJiJ.r)vevixdTMV. 

Fact sometimes overpowered by fiction. 
To roi vonKTBtv Tri9 aXr)6eia<i Kparei. 

Trttth not always expedient. 
OvK aliTXpov Tjyel Irjra to \}/ev?jfi Xiyfiv ; 
ovK CI TO (TOiOrivai ye to y\rivhos (pepei. 

Truth stranger than fiction. 
'AAA' €i7r€p ^fTT\v (V ,3poTols yi/€vorjyopelv 
TTLdavov, vop.i(eiv XPV 7^ 'f'" TovvavTiov. 
aTTitrT a^TjOri tioXXk <TV///3aii/eiy fipoToU. 


'AAA' T] Tvpavv'ii -noKAa roAA' fvhaifiovd 
KCL^fcmv avrfi opav kiydv & a /JovAerai. 

'II yap Tvpavvli "navroOfv ro^fverai 

hdVols tpO)tTlV 7/9 (pvKaKTfOV TTtpl. 

Afi Tol(Ti TToAAoi? Tov Tvpavvov avoavftv. 

Oirr' eiKos upyiLV, oin i\f^fiv fkevOipoov 


Tvpavvov (IvaC jXMpCa 8^ Koi diXciv, 
OS tS>v ofxoioiv jiovkeTai Kparelv \x6vos. 

EiTrep yap ahiKiiv Xpr}, Tvpavvlhos iiipi 
Kakkia-Tov ahiK^iv rakXa 8' evcre^elv yjpetiiv. 


A stalwart rogue will sooner steal than work. 

^AvTjp yap ocTTLS xprnx&To^v }xev ^vba]S, 
bpaaai. 8e x^'P^ bwarbs ova ave^erat, 
TO. tQ>v kyovTo^v \prip,aT apira^eLv (pikcl. 

The unexpected. 

'Ek tQv aekTTTOiv rj x"P'^ jxeiCoiv (Bporols 
(Pavela-a, jxakkov rj to TrpocrboKcaixevov. 

Unfairness of fortune. 

Sometimes the wicked prosper, the righteous go in rags. 

Aetvov ye tovs /xey bva-cre^els KaKwv r a-no 

jSkacTTovTas, (Tra Tovabe piev Trpdcra-etv Kakuts, 

TOVS b' ovTas kcrOkovs Ik re y^vvaicav ap^a 

y€y(i)Tas, etra bvcrTV\€is TTec^VKevai. 

ov xprjv Tab' ovtco baip.ova's dvrjTOiv Tiipi 

TTpd(Tcrei,v' fXPV^ V^P '''^^^ P-^^ evcre/Sets jBpoTwv 

'^X^iv Tt Kepbos ip.<paves 6eS)V Trapa, 

TOVS 8' ovTas dbiKovs Tola-be Tr}v kvavTiav 

biKTjv KaKUiV TipiMpbv ep.(^avi] Tiv^iv, 

KovbiXs hv ovTU)S 7]VTVx€i KttKos yeyfiiS, 



All is vanity. 

To yap jBpoTeLOv (nrepix ecprjixepa (jipovel, 
Koi TncTTov ovbev pdXXov ?) Kairvov (TKid. 

'loi iBpoTcta TTpdyp-aT' cvTv^ovvTa p-ev 
(TKid TVS av Tp4y}/€UV' CI be bvcTTV^o'L, 
^okaXs vyp(a(ra(i)v (nroyyos oiXecrev ypa(f)i]v. 

Man is but a shadow, beware then of presumptuous sin. 

OA. 'Op(3 pkv Tjpas ovbev ovras aWo irXr^v 
etbcok' 6(T0iTi€p ^G)p.ev, 7] KOiKprfv (rKidv. 

A0. Toiavra roivvv eicropGiv vTripKOirov 

fxrjbiv ttot' etTTTj? avTos es deovs eiros, 
ju,Tj8' oyKov dpi] pr\biv (.1 vivos irXiov 
77 x^'P' l^pideis, ri paKpov Ttkovrov ^adei, 
ws rjpepa Kkivet re navdyet irdXiv 
diravTa TavOpcaTreia' tovs be o-(i(f)povas 
6eol (jytkovcri, kol &Tvyov(ri tovs KaKOVs- 


OvK ecTTLV dpeTrjs KTrjpa TipiiaTepov. 

Grows with use. 

^Aperr} b' 6(T(0Trep pdWov av xprjcrQai Oekrjs 
roo-(i)8e pakkov av^erai rekovp-evr]. 

The three highest virtues. 
Fear God. Honour parents. Obey the laws. 

Tpels ela\v aperai, ras \pe(av (t da-Kelv, reKvov, 


diovs Te TLfxar, tovs re ({)'V(ravTas yovels, 
voiJLOVs re kolvovs 'EAAdSo?' koI ravra bpCov 
KaXXicTTov e^ets arecfyavov ev/cAetas dei. 


Carries off the best and bravest. 

Toy's €vyei'els yap KayaOovs, co Trat, (piXel 
"Aprjs kvaip^iv' ol 8e rf] yX(d(rari Opaaels, 
(peijyovTes aras Ikto's etcrt tu)V KUKaiv, 
"Aprjs yap ovbev tmv KaKS)V A7;t^erai. 

Td(^A6s yap, S) yvvalKes, ovh' 6p5>v Api-js 

(Tvbs TrpOO-WTTM TTCLVTa TVpjSd^ei KaKOL. 

War a curse at the best. 

'12 Tiai, (f)tXel tol TTo'Aejuos ov Ttavr (vtvx^Iv, 
eadXSiv he yaipei TirMp-acriv veaviS>v, 
KaKovs be pnael' rfi Tro'Aet p-ev ovv voaos 
Tob' eaTL, Tols be KardavovaLV evKXees. 

The generaVs duty. 
To be (TTpaTTjye'tv tovt eyw Kpivoo, KaXS>s 
yvSivai Tov e)(dp6v, fj p,dXia-6' aXuxnpiOS. 

"Ap^ets ap ovTOi' XPV ^^ ^^y (TTpaTr]XdTi]v 
6p.S>s binaiov ovra iroip-aiveiv arparov. 


'12? al(T)(^p6v ea-TL Kal KaXuiv air op,ixaTO)v 
KttXov TipoaodTiov Kul baupvppoovv bpav. 



' Thy shadoiv still would glide front room to room.' 
'Eyo) 8', ov ov xpriv Cr]v, irapels to fxopa-Lfxov, 
Xvirpbv Stafcu (Siotov' aprt ixavOavca. 
t:S>s yap hop-oiv roovb' ela-obovs ai'4^opiat ; 
Tiv civ TTpocreLTTCov, Tov be TTpoaprjOels viro 
TepTTvrjs Tv\oLix av elcrobov ; ttoI Tpe\f/ofxaL ; 
T] \j.\v yap €vbov efeAa ju.' kpi]\xLa, 
yvvaiKos evva9 eSr' av eicrtSo) Kevas 
Opovovs T €v ol(TLV l(e, Kal Kara (rreyas 
av\p.ripov ovhas, reKva b' a/x^i yovvaai 
TiLTTTovTa KKaCr} ixriTip\ 01 be becmoTiv 
(rTiv(i)(TLV otav e/c bojXdiv aTTcoXecrav. 


Good wives. 
Xpr) b' kv bofjLOKTLV avbpa tov (ro(f)bv Tpi(f)eLV 
yvvalKa XPV^'^h^ KayaOrjv, ?) /xtj Tpi(f)eLV. 

Duty of a good wife. 
Aei hi] ]ue KUKeXevaTov, ets oaov crdevoo, 
\x6ydov 'TTtKOV(f)L(ov(Tav, 0)5 pqov (f^epi]^, 
(TweKKOixiCeiv (TOL TTovovs. aXts b' e'xets 
Ta^u)0ev epya* Tav bopLOiS b' r/ju,as XP^^^ 
e^eurpeTTt^eir. elacovTi b' ipyaTri 
dvpadev rjbv Tavbov evpia-Keiv KaXG>s. 

Bad wives. 
rioAAoii? 8e tiXovti^ Kal yivei yavpovpitvovs 
yvvrj KaTi](Txyv kv bopLOKri vrjirCa. 


OvTin yvvaiKos ovbev hv fxel^ov kukov 
naKrjs av')]p KTi](rat,T av, ovbe au)(j)povos 
Kptiaaov' TTa6oi>v 8' eKaaros (av tvxJ] Aeyet. 

'O 8' av Aa/3a)i; ar-qpov eh boixovs KaKov 
yeyqOe Koapiov TTpocmdcls ayaXfJiaTi 
KaXbv KaKiCTTio kol Tii' (KTrovel, 
bvcTTTjvo^, 6X.j3ov hcoixoLTbiv VTre^eXuiv. 

That wife means no good who beautifies herself when her 
husband is from home. 

Neov 8' air' otKOiV avbpbs i^copix-qixevov, 
^avOov KaroTTTpcd irkoKapLOV i^rjo-Keis Ko/xrjs. 
yvvT] 8' aiTovTOs avbpbs rjris (k b6p.u>v 
e? kolKXos acTKet, budypaff)' ws ovaav KaK7\v. 
ovbev yap avTi]v bel dvpaaiv evirpeTies 
(j)aCveLV TTp6(ro)TTOv rjv tl /xt/ Cv'fi xaKov. 

Clytemnestra welcomes her husband home, and boasts of her 

own fidelity. 

Kal vvv ra ixda-ao) piev tl bel a ep.oi \eyeiv ; 
dvaKTos aiiTov Travra TrevaopiaL Xoyov. 
OTTCos 8' dpL(TTa Tov ep.ov alboiov ttoo-lv 
aTTevcru) TrdXiv p.oX6vTa be^aaOai, ri yap 
yvvaiKi TOVTov (f)eyyos rjbiov bpaKeiv, 
d-no (TTpaTeias avbpa crd^cravTos 6eov 
TTvkas dvol^ai ; ravr dirdyyecXov Tioaei, 
i]Keiv 077605 Td)(^i(rT epdapLiov iroKei' 
yvvalKa TTioTT/y 8' ev b6p.0is evpoL /u,oAa>r 
o'iavnep ovv eXenre, b(ap.dTu>v Kvva 


i(rd\i]v e/ceiVcf), TToAe/xiay rois hvcr^poaiv, 
KoX Tak)C 6}j.oiav iravra, (Tr)ij.avTi]ptov 
ovb€v hiaipOeipacrav kv ju,?;Ket x.P^^'^'^- 
ov6' olha Tep\j/iv ov8' eiTL^oyov (jidriv 
ak\ov TTpbs avbpb'i jxakXov ?/ \akKOV jSatfias. 


'/« vino Veritas.^ 
Is.a.TO'nTpov €t8ous x.aAKos kcrr olvos be vov. 

' When wine is in ivit is oui.' 

Tt TavT iiraLvels ; Tras yap olvcodels aviip 
ijcraojv fxev opyij^ eari, tov 8e vov Kevos. 
(^lAet 8e tioWtjv ykSxrcrav eK^eas judrrji^, 

The cup that cheers and cotnforts. 
ToC vvv crKvOpoiTTOV Kal ^vveaToaTos (pperHv 

jXeOoppLul (7e TTLTvkos (jXTTecrQiV aKV(j)OV. 


Trite ivisdom. 

"OcTTL's v^jxei KakkiOTa Trjv avTov (f)vcnv, 
ovTO'i aoipbs 7Ticf)VKev ets to <TV[ji(pipoi'. 

Honesty is truest ivisdom. 

' Be ye wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.' 

'■^vyji] yap evvovs kol (ppovovcra TOVvhiKOv, 
KpeCa-croiV ao(j)LcrTov iravTO'i ianv evpeVts'. 


Evil tvtsdom. 

'H TToAAa TToAAoTs eijai bLd(f)Opos (SpoTciv, 
€ju,oi yap ocTTLS abiKos (ov o-oc^o? Aeyetr 
TT€(f)VK€, TrAetcrrrjv ^■qp.iav ocpXicrKaveL. 
ykuxra")] yap av^iav rahiK e5 TrepiamX^iv 
ToXpia iravovpy^lv kcm 8' ov/c ayay (ro(})6*i. 

Why do not men apply tlicir hearts to vjisdoni ? 

'12 TToXX.^ apiapTavovTes avdpooiroL p.aTr]v, 

Tb bri T4)(^vas pikv pivpias StSdo-Kere 

Kol TrdvTa ixriyavdcrde Ka^evpiorKeTe 

€V 8' OVK errtcTTaad' ov8' e^7yp?j(racr^e ttw 

(f)pov€U' bibda-Ketv olatv ovk 'iv^ari vovs ; 


One man worth more than many zvomen. 
Ets y dvr\p Kpeicra-oiV yvvaiKdv p.vpLU)V opav cj)dos. 

Woman — all that is bad. 

'12 TTayKaKLo-Trj Kal yvvi']' tl yap Xeyeiv 
jueT^oy ere Tovb^ oveibos efetTrot tls dv ; 

Nature's worst product. 

AeLvrj jxcv dkKr] Kvp-drcav daXacrcrCoiv, 
beival be Trora/xoS Kal irvpos depp^ov TTVoai, 
bcLvov be irevia beLvd 8' aAAa p-vpia' 
dAA' ovbev ovt(o beivov, ws yvvi], KaKov, 
ovb' dv yevoLTO ypdp.pia tolovt ev ypa(f)fj, 
ovb^ av Ao'yos beC^eceV el be tov 6eu)V 


ro8' kcTTi -nXda-jxa, brjixiovpybs lov KaK&v 
^xiyiaTos tcTTOi Kal ftporoldL bv(TiJ.evt]S. 

A contradiction : both brave and cowardly. 

TwaLKes ia-jx^v' ra ixkv okvio VLKOoixeOa, 

TO. 8' ovK av 7]jx(av Opdao'i vmpiidKoLTo rt?. 

IVotnen differ widely at worst and best. 

T?/s ix€v KaKTis KCLKLov ovbev yLyi'(.Tai 
yvvaiKos, €cr6X.i]s b' ovbev ets v'!Tepl3oXi]v 
■ni(^VK ajxeivov, biaipepovcrt 8' al (^vcretSo 

Some are good, sonic bad. 

"OcTTts be TTOLO-as crvvTideh yj/eyei Xoyco 
yvvoLKas e^v^, crKaios eort kov aocpos. 
TtoWQv yap ovcr&v ti]v fxev ei'p?/creis KaKi]v, 
TTjv 8', uxrirep avrrj, Xrux ex^ovcrav evyeves. 

The bad bring disgrace on the whole sex. 

" AXyia-Tov ecTTL 6fiXv ixLo-qOev yevos, 
al yap (Tcpakela-aL ralcnv ovk eo-^aA/xeWts 
ala-x^os yvvaL^t, Kal KeKOLVoovTai \l/6yov 
Tals ov KaKalcTLv al KaKai to. 8' els ya-ixovs 
ovbev boKovaiv vytes dvhpacriv <f)povelv. 

A bad woman ivould fain degrade others. 

AAA ovnoT ovttot , ov yap eiaaTra^ epw, 
^'8' djuTrAaKoCcra avvvoaelv avrfj dekei. 

L 2 


The bad must be punished to stamp out the plague of bad 


Ttcracr^e Ti]vhi' koX yap evTivdev vocrel 
TO. tG)V yvvaLKCov' ol fxev 1] -naihoiv ire/Jt 
7] (Tvyyeveias ovvck ovk. aTTutk^frav 
KaKi]v ka/Sovres' eira 8' ovtm rahLKOv 
TToWaLS vTTeppvi]K€ KOI x^P^^ TrpoVo), 
M(TT e^trrjAos apeTi] KaOiaTaTat. 

Women should be kept in subjection. 
Ov yap TTOT avbpa tov cro(f)bv yvvaiKc XPV 
bovvai )(aA-ii'0U9, 01/8' a(f)ivT €av Kpanlv, 
TTiaTov yap ovbev k(TTtv' et 8e ny KVptl 
yvvacKos €(rd\r]s, evTVx^'i kolhov Aa/Swz'. 

Not to be trusted. 
Ko/xt'Cer' eto-oo Ti]vbe, irLo-Tevetv be XPV 
yvvaiKL p.r\hiv, oari'i eS (j)povel jBpoToiv. 

Harder to guard than riches are. 
Ovk ecTTLv ovt€ reixos ovre )(p77/xara 
ovT a\ko bvcr<pv\aKTOv ovbiv &)S yvvi]. 

MoxOovp-ev aAAcos drikv (ppovpovvres ye'ros 

ijTLS yap aiiTi] fxi] -ni^vK^v evbiKos, 

TL Sei (j)vkda<r€LV Ka^ap.apTamv i^ktov ; 

To be modest. 
YvvaLKi yap (riyr, re Ka\ to auxppovetv 
Kakkia-Tov, eto-co 6' rjavxov p.ivei.v b6p.(ai\ 


To be silent. 
Vvvai, yvvai^l K6cr\xov i] a-iyi] (f)epei. 

"AAXco? re kol Koprj re Kapyeia yevos, 
alt Koaixos ?/ crty?/ re koI to. Travp eirr]. 

To be discreet. 

'^vyyvoiTe Kavaa-^ecO^ aiy(o(Tat. to yap 
yvvat^lv al(T\pov iv yvvai^l 8et crre'yetz;. 

Women stand tip for each other. 
Ywy] yvvaiKi (TV\}.p.ayo<i Tre'tjbvKe' thus- 

Woman^s ivit. 
Aeti'at yap at yvvalKes evpCcTKeiv rex^as. 

Craft not force a woman's weapon. 

'Hk yap Ti9 atvos, ws yvvat^l p.\u T^xvai 
/xeAoDcrt, ^oyxjl avbpes evcrrox^coTepoi. 
et yap boXoLcriv rjv to viKrjTijpiov, 
j/jLieis av avhpSiv €"iy(^op.w Tvpavvlba. 

Woman s inconsistency. 

"OpKOKTi yap rot Kot yvvi] (pevyet iriKpav 
whlva TTaiboiV, aX)C kirav )^ri^r] KaKOV 
(V TOicTiv avTols 'bcKTVOLS aKi(rK(.Tai 
Trpos Tov TTapopTos ip-epov viKoopiivr]. 

Woman^s lot, a cruel one. 
N{'^• 8' ovbev etjut ;)(a)pts, aWa TToWaKts 


e(3\€\j/a TavTij Ty]V yvvaiKiiav <pvcnv, 

w'i ovbev kcTfxev, al vkai [ikv iv Trarpo? 

ijbiaTov, oi/xat, {iu/xey aifOpoHircov ftiov' 

T€pT:vu>s yap ael Trdvras avoia rpe(^et. 

oral' 8 es i7/3rjy f^txcojue^' ev(f)pov€S, 

wdoVjJLeO^ €^U) Kol bi€iJLTTokcoij.e6a 

6e(ov Trarpw'wy t&v re (f)V(rdvTU)V diro, 

al ixev ^evovs irpos avbpas, al be (3ap(3dpov9, 

at eis ar)6'77 o(it)[xaT at o e-mppooa. 

Kal TavT , eTTetSay ev<pp6vi'i C^v^rj fxia, 

Xpe(it)v knaivelv koI boKelv /caAw? 'i\Hv. 

Women should stay in doors, 
"^vbov fxevovcrav T7]v yvvaiK elvai xpecoi' 
((rdXrjv, OvpacTL 8' d^iav rod ixrjbevos. 

The spear for men, the distaff for ivomen. 
Et KepKibcov U€V dvbpdatv fxiXoi, ttovo's, 
yvvai^l 8' ottAcoz-' (jxtt^o-ouv i]bovai ; 
eK TTJs kTn<TT7]\xr]s yap eKTreTrrtu/coVes 
KelvoL T av ovbev elev, ovS' rjixels €tl. 

A ministering angel. 
Tvv'i] yap iv KaKoicn Ka\ vocrois TroVet 
rfbKTTov eoTt, b( ifv oIk?] Ka\G>s, 
opyrjv re -npavvovcra Kal bva-Ov}xias 
ylrvyj]v jue^tcrrao-'. 


A poor substitute for deeds. 
'^POeipov TO yap bpdv ovk e)((oy, \6yovs e)(et?. 


Words pay for words and deeds for deeds. 
Aoyov hUaiov ixiadov av koyov Repots, 
epyoiv b' e/cetyo? epy airep irapiax^TO. 

Fair words must not excuse ford deeds. 
"Oo-rt? A.eyei \Ce.v eS, ra V lpy\ l<\> oh Xey^i, 
at(Txp ifrrlv avrov, tovtov ovk. alvca irore. 

Words more efficacious than deeds. 

'Eo-^Aoi; irarpos TToi, kuvtos (ov veos TTork 
ykuxra-av p-ev apyov, X'dpa b' eix^v kpyartv' 
vvv 8' els ekeyxov ^^loov opot fSporo'is 
Tr]v yXo)(T(rav, ovx} rapya, irdvO'' yyovp.evr}v. 

^Q, fx-q '(TTi bpcovTL Tap^os ovb' eiro^ (po^el. 

Words are cheap and cost nothing. 
A re free to all to use at will. 

Et 8' y\csav avQpdmoLcriv u>vr\To\ Xo'yot 
oi^Oets av avTov ev keycLV ejBovXiTO' 
vvv b\ eK ^adeias yap Trap^aTLv aWepot 
Xa^elv apLLo-dC, ttSs tls r;8erat Xeycov 
TO. T ovra Kal jxi]' Cr}p.iav yap ovk. e'xet. 


WoHh is current coin. 

OvToi v6p.i<rp.a kevKOi apyvpos p-ovov 
Kal xP'^(^os ia-TiV aXka Kaperij jBpoToli 
vopLia-pLa Keirat Tracnv, fj xpriaQaL xpewi;. 



Ai^f more just tliait youth. 
Yijpa^ yap iji^ris ((ttIv €vbiK(aT(pov. 

YoHii^ ill tiody, old in ruiiid. 
YipovTa Tov voiT rrapKa 8' i}^S)aav (ptpei. 

O that zi'f could be young a second time. 

Ot/xof TL 8?; ftpoTolariv ovk ((ttlv robe, 
i'(ovs 8ts eu'ai kol yipovra^ av iraXiv ; 




'Tis not enough your counsel shall be true, 
Blunt truths more mischief than nice falsehoods do ; 
INIen must be taught as if you taught them not, 
And things unknown proposed as things forgot. 
Without good-breeding truth is disapproved, 
That only makes superior sense be loved. 

Give me no counsel; 
Nor let no comforter delight mine ear, 
But such a one whose wrongs do suit with mine. 

For, brother, men 
Can comfort and speak counsel to that grief 
Which they themselves not feel; but, tasting it, 
Their counsel turns to passion, which before 
Would give preceptial medicine to rage. 

No, no : 'tis all men's office to speak patience 
To those that wring under the load of sorrow ; 
But no man's virtue, nor sufficiency, 
To be so moral, when he shall endure 
The like himself: therefore, give me no counsel 
My griefs cry louder than advertisement. 
Aeschylus, Pr. V. 263, 309, 330. 



The seas are quiet when the winds give o'er; 
So calm are we when passions are no more. 
For then we know how vain it was to boast 
Of fleeting things, too certain to be lost : 
Clouds of affection from our younger eyes 
Conceal that emptiness which age descries. 

The soul's dark cottage, battered and decayed, 
T.ets in new light through chinks that Time hath 

made ; 
Stronger by weakness, wiser men become 
As they draw near to their eternal home. 
Leaving the old, both worlds at once they view, 
That stand upon the threshold of the new. 


Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambition : 

By that sin fell the angels; how can man then, 

The image of his Maker, hope to win by it? 

Love thyself last ; cherish those hearts that hate thee; 

Corruption wins not more than honesty. 

Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace 

To silence envious tongues. Be just and fear not. 

Euripides, Phoen. 528, 559. 

O execrable son ! so to aspire 
Above his brethren, to himself assuming 
Authority usurp'd ; from God not given : 
He gave us only over beast, fish, fowl. 


Dominion absolute; that right we hold 
By his donation; but man over men 
He made not lord, such title to himself 
Reserving, human left from human free. 
Euripides, Phoen. 531. 

But quiet to quick bosoms is a hell, 
And there hath been thy bane ; there is a fire 
And motion of the soul which will not dwell 
In its own narrow being, but aspire 
Beyond the fitting medium of desire ; 
And but once kindled, quenchless evermore, 
Preys upon high adventure, nor can tire 
Of aught but rest : a fever at the core, 
Fatal to him who bears, to all who ever bore. 

This makes the madmen who have made men mad 
By their contagion, conquerors and kings, 
Founders of sects and systems, to whom add 
Sophists, bards, statesmen, all unquiet things 
Which stir too strongly the soul's secret springs, 
And are themselves the fools to those they fool ; 
En\-ied, yet how unenviable ! what stings 
Are theirs ! One breast laid open were a school 
Which would unteach mankind the lust to shine or rule. 

Euripides, Phoen. 528-567 ; Ion, 585-647. 


Peace, brother, be not over-exquisite 
To cast the fashion of uncertain evils ; 


For grant they be so, while they rest unknown, 
What need a man forestall his date of grief, 
And run to meet what he would most avoid ? 
Aeschylus, Ag. 251 ; Pcvs. 598. 


The world is still deceived with ornament. 

In law, what plea so tainted and corrupt, 

But being seasoned with a gracious voice 

Obscures the show of evil? 

There is no vice so simple but assumes 

Some mark of virtue on its outward parts. 

How many cowards, whose hearts are all as false 

As stairs of sand, yet wear upon their chins 

The beards of Hercules and frowning ]\Iars. 

Look on beauty, 
And you shall see 'tis purchased by the weight, 
Which therein works a miracle in nature, 
Making them lightest that wear most of it. 
Euripides, Med. 516; Hipp. 925; El. 367. 


He gave man speech, and speech created thought, 
Which is the measure of the universe ; 
And music lifted up the Hstening spirit 
Until it walked, exempt from mortal care 
Godlike, o'er the clear billows of sweet sound. 
And human hands first mimicked and then mocked, 
With moulded limbs more lovely than its own, 


The human form, till marble grew divine. 

He told the hidden power of herbs and springs, 

And Disease drank and slept. Death grew like sleep. 

He taught the implicated orbits woven 

Of the wide-wandering stars : and how the sun 

Changes his lair, and by what secret spell 

The pale moon is transformed, when her broad eye 

Gazes not on the interlunar sea : 

He taught to rule, as life directs the limbs, 

The tempest-winged chariots of the Ocean, 

And the Celt knew the Indian. Cities then 

Were built, and through their snow-white columns 

The warm winds, and the azure ether shone, 
And the blue sea, and shadowy hills were seen. 
Such the alleviations of his state 
Prometheus gave to man, for which he hangs 
Withering in destined pain. 

Aeschylus, Pr. V. 436-506: Euripides. Siipp. 201-215 > 
Bacch. 278-283. 


Call to amis. 

Arm, warriors, arm for fight, the foe at hand, 
Whom fled we thought, will save us long pursuit 
This day, fear not his flight: so thick a cloud 
He comes, and settled in his face I see 
Sad resolution and secure : let each 
His adamantine coat gird well, and each 
Fit well his helm, gripe fast his orbed shield, 
Borne ev'n or high : for this day will pour down. 


If I conjecture right, no drizzling show'r, 
But rattling storm of arrows barb'd with fire. 

Euripides, Baccli. 780 : Aeschylus, Tlieb. i ; Jg. 665. 

Eve of Battle. 

From camp to camp through the foul womb of night, 

The hum of either army stilly sounds, 

That the fixed sentinels almost receive 

The secret whispers of each other's watch : 

Fire answers fire ; and through the paly flames 

Each battle sees the other's umbered face ; 

Steed threatens steed, in high and boastful neighs 

Piercing the night's dull ear ; and from the tents, 

The armourers, accomplishing the knights. 

With busy hammers closing rivets up. 

Give dreadful note of preparation. 

The country cocks do crow, the clocks do toll, 

And the third hour of drowsy morning name. 

Euripides, Supp. 650 sqq., 686 ; Here. Fur. 830 : 
Aeschylus, Tlieb. 59, 78 ; Pers. 399. 

The Morning of the Battle. 

And now went forth the morn, 
Such as in highest heaven, array'd in gold 
Empyreal: from before her vanish'd night. 
Shot through with orient beams; when all the plain 
Cover'd with thick embattled squadrons bright. 
Chariots and flaming arms, and fiery steeds, 
Reflecting blaze on blaze, first met his view : 
War he perceived, war in procinct, and found 
Already known what he for news had thought 


To have reported: gladly then he mix'd 
Among those friendly powers, who him received 
With joy and acclamations loud, that one, 
That of so many myriads fallen, yet one 
Return'd not 1 st : On to the sacred hill 
They led him high applauded, and present 
Before the seat supreme ; from whence a voice 
From midst a golden cloud thus mild was heard. 

The onset described. 
They close, in clouds of smoke and dust 
With sword-sway, and with lance's thrust ; 

And such a yell was there. 
Of sudden and portentous birth, 
As if men fought upon the earth, 

And fiends in upper air; 
O life and death were in the shout 
Recoil and rally, charge and rout. 

And triumph and despair. 
Long looked the anxious squires; their eye 
Could in the darkness nought descry. 
At length the freshening western blast 
Aside the shroud of battle cast; 
And first the ridge of mingled spears 
Above the brightening cloud appears : 
And in the smoke the pennons flew. 
As in the storm the white sea-mew. 
Then marked they, dashing broad and far 
The broken billows of the war, 
And plumed crests of chieftains brave 
Floating like foam upon the wave. 
Euripides, Supp. 650 ; Heme. 830 : Aeschylus, Theb. 59. 




Beauty is but a vain and doubtful good, 
A shining gloss that fadeth suddenly; 

A flower that dies when first it 'gins to bud, 
A brittle glass that's broken presently; 

A doubtful good, a gloss, a glass, a flower, 

Lost, faded, broken, dead within an hour. 

For Beauty is like summer fruit, soon ripe, 
Not lasting long, and easily corrupted. 
Too oft it makes Youth dissolute, and brings. 
To Age repentance : but if happily placed 
Beauty makes Virtues shine, and Vices blush. 

Chor. Yet beauty, though injurious, hath strange power, 
After offence returning, to regain 
Love once possessed, nor can be easily 
Repulsed, without much inward passion felt 
And secret sting of amorous remorse. 

Sam. Love quarrels oft in pleasing concord end ; 
Not wedlock treachery endang'ring life. 
Euripides, Andr. 207 : Sophocles, TV. 25. 

A native grace 
Sat fair-proportioned on her polished limbs, 
Veiled in a simple robe, their best attire 
Beyond the pomp of dress; for loveliness 
Needs not the foreign aid of ornament. 
But is, when unadorned, adorned the most. 

To deck the female cheek He only knows. 
Who paints less fair the lily and the rose. 



Homo qui erranti comiter monstrat \'iam 
Quasi lumen de suo lumine accendat, facit 
Nihilominus ipsi luceat, cum illi accenderit. 
Aeschylus, Ag. 312. 


Lo ! my miseries are 
So many, and so huge, that each apart 
Would ask a life to wail ; but chief of all, 
O loss of sight, of thee I most complain ! 
Blind among enemies, O worse than chains, 
Dungeon, or beggary, or decrepit age ! 
Light, the prime work of God, to me's extinct, 
And all her various objects of delight 
Annull'd, that might in part my grief have eas'd ; 
Inferior to the vilest now become 
Of man or worm, the vilest here excel me; 
They creep, yet see ; I dark in light exposed 
To daily fraud, contempt, abuse, and wrong. 
Within doors, or without, still as a fool 
In power of others, never in my own: 
Scarce half I seem to live, dead more than half. 
Sophocles, Oed. Rex, 1268, 1369 ; Oed. Col. i, 1547 : 
Euripides, Phoen. 1595. 

Bodily strength. 

O impotence of mind in body strong! 
But what is strength without a double share 
Of wisdom? vast, unwieldy, burthensome, 

M 2 


Proudly secure, yet liable to fall 
By weakest subtleties, not made to rule, 
But to subserve where wisdom bears command. 
Sophocles, Aj. 758, 1250. 


The current that with gentle murmur glides. 

Thou know'st, being stopped, impatiently doth rage, 

But, when his fair course is not hindered. 

He makes sweet musick with the enamel'd stones. 

Giving a gentle kiss to every sedge 

He overtaketh in his pilgrimage; 

And so by many winding nooks he strays, 

With willing sport, to the wild ocean. 


He was a man of an unbounded stomach ; 
His own opinion was his law: i' the presence 
He would say untruths, and be ever double, 
Both in his words and meaning: he was never 
But where he meant to ruin, pitiful: 
His promises were, as he then was, mighty ; 
But his performance, as he is now, nothing. 

Euripides, Hec. 786, 251 ; Or. 889 : 

Sophocles, Phil. 1047, 416, 438. 

The truly great and free. 
That man is great, and he alone, 
Who serves a greatness not his own, 

For neither praise nor pelf : 
Content to know and be unknown; 

Whole in himself. 


Strong is that man, he only strong, 
To whose well-ordered will belong, 

For service and delight, 
All powers that in the face of Wrong 

Establish Right. 

And free is he, and only he, 
Who, from his tyrant passions free, 

By fortune undismayed, 
Hath power upon himself to be 

By himself obeyed. 
If such a man there be, where'er 
Beneath the sun and moon he fare, 

He cannot fare amiss. 
Great Nature hath him in her care; 

Her cause is his. 
And though he live aloof from men, 
The world's unwitnessed denizen, 

The love within him stirs 
Abroad, and with the hearts of men 

His own confers. 


Low was her voice, but won mysterious way 
Thro' the sealed ear to which a louder one 
Was all but silence ; free of alms her hand. 
That often toiled to clothe your little ones, 
That often placed upon the sick man's brow 
Cooled it, or laid his feverous pillow smooth. 
Had you one sorrow and she shared it not.? 
One burthen and she would not lighten it? 
Euripides, Ale. 80, 150, 990. 



So dear to heav'n is saintly chastity, 
That when a soul is found sincerely so, 
A thousand liveried angels lacky her, 
Drawing far off each thing of sin and guilt. 
Euripides, Hipp. Frag. 447 (Dindorf). 


Yet will we say for children, would they grew 
Like wild flowers everywhere — we like them well. 
But children die; and let me tell you, girl, 
Howe'er you babble, great deeds cannot die, 
They with the sun and moon renew their light 
For ever, blessing those that look on them. 
Children — that men may pluck them from our hearts, 
Kill us with pity, break us with ourselves. 
O children — there is nothing upon earth 
More miserable than she that has a son 
And sees him err. 

Euripides, 71fi?«/. 1090; Ion, 468; Supp. 1120; Hipp.6iT, 
Oen. Frag. 573 (Dindorf). 

The Coranion Lot. 

Hadst only thou of all mankind been born 
To walk in paths untroubled with a thorn, 
From the first hour that gave thee vital air, 
Consign'd to pleasure and exempt from care; 
Heedless to wile away the day and night 
In one unbroken banquet of delight; 
If partial heav'n had ever sworn to give 
This happy right as thy prerogative. 


Then blame the gods, and call thy life the worst, 
Thyself of all mankind the most accurst I 
But if on thee an equal portion fall 
Of life's afflicting weight imposed on all, 
Take courage from necessity, and try 
Boldly to meet the foe thou canst not fly. 
Euripides, Ale. 416; Didys. Frag. 334 (Dindorf). 


Beware ill company, for often men 

Are like to those with whom they do converse. 


Precepts for Conduct. 

The best, said he, that I can you advise. 

Is to avoid the occasion of the ill : 

For when the cause whence evil doth arise 

Removed is, the effect surceaseth still. 

Abstain from pleasure and restrain your will, 

Subdue desire and bridle loose delight, 

Use scanted diet, and forbear your fill, 

Shun secrecy, and walk in open sight; 

So shall you soon repair your present evil plight. 

Love all, trust a few. 
Do wrong to none : be able for thine enemy 
Rather in power than use : and keep thy friend 
Under thy own life's key : be check'd for silence 
But never taxed for speech. 


Advice respecting Conduct. 

There, — my blessing with you : 
And these few precepts in thy memory 
See thou character. Give thy thoughts no tongue, 
Nor any unproportioned thought his act. 
Be thou familiar, but by no means \ailgar : 
The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried. 
Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel ; 
But do not dull thy palm with entertainment 
Of each new-hatch'd, unfledg'd comrade. Beware 
Of entrance to a quarrel : but, being in, 
Bear't that the opposer may beware of thee. 
Give every man thine ear, but fe\v thy voice ; 
Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgment. 
Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy. 
But not expressed in fancy : rich not gaudy : 
For the apparel oft proclaims the man. 
Neither a borrower nor a lender be : 
For loan oft loses both itself and friend, 
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. 
This above all, — to thine own self be true ; 
And it must follow, as the night the day. 
Thou canst not then be false to any man. 
Farewell, — my blessing season this in thee! 

Euripides, Erec. Frag. 372 (Dindorf). 


Then we live indeed. 
When we can go to rest without alarm, 
Given every minute to a guilt-sick conscience. 
To keep us waking, and rise in the morning 


Secure in being innocent : But when, 
In the remembrance of our worser actions, 
We ever bear about us whips and furies, 
To make the day a night of sorrow to us, 
Even life's a burden. 

Euripides, Or. 395. 


Chorus. Many are the sayings of the wise, 
In ancient and in modern books enroU'd, 
Extolling patience as the truest fortitude ; 
And to the bearing well of all calamities, 
All chances incident to man's frail life, 
Consolatories writ 
With studied argument; 

But with th' afHicted in his pangs their sound 
Little prevails, or rather seems a tune 
Harsh and of dissonant mood from his complaint. 


Cowards die many times before their deaths, 
The valiant never taste of death but once. 

A Curse. 

Let it be so — thy truth then be thy dower; 
For by the sacred radiance of the sun. 
The mysteries of Hecate and the night; 
By all the operations of the orbs 
From whom we do exist and cease to be, 


Here I disclaim all my paternal care, 

Propinquity, and property of blood, 

And as a stranger to my heart and me 

Hold thee from this for ever. The barbarous 

Or he that makes his generation messes 
To gorge his appetite, shall to my bosom 
Be as well neighboured, pitied, and relieved, 
As thou my sometime daughter. 

Sophocles, Oed. Col. 1375-1396. 


Custom does oft the reason over-rule, 
And only serves for reason to the fool. 
Euripides, Peir. Frag. 598 (Dindorf). 

Dangerous people. 

Let me have men about me that are fat ; 
Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o' nights ; 
Yond' Cassius has a lean and hungry look ; 
He thinks too much, such men are dangerous. 


My son, the world is dark with griefs and graves, 
So dark that men cry out against the Heavens. 
Who knows but that the darkness is in man.? 
The doors of Night may be the gates of Light. 
Euripides, Hipp. 194. 


The Dead. 

Ashes to ashes. 

So peaceful rests without a stone, a name ; 
What once had beauty, titles, wealth, and fame. 
How loved, how honoured once, avails thee not. 
To whom related or by whom begot; 
A heap of dust alone remains of thee, 
'Tis all thou art and all the proud shall be ! 
Sophocles, El. 1140-1159. 

Distrust and darkness of a future state 
Make poor mankind so fearful of their fate. 
Death, in itself, is nothing ; but we fear 
To be we know not what, we know not where. 

The weariest and most loathed worldly life, 
That age, ache, penury, and imprisonment 
Can lay on nature, is a paradise 
To what we fear of death. 

For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey. 
This pleasing, anxious being e'er resigned, 
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day, 
Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind .'' 

Death is the crown of life : 

Were death denied, poor man would live in vain ; 
Were death denied, to live would not be life ; 
Were death denied, e'en fools would wish to die ; 
Death wounds to cure ; we fall, we rise, we reign ! 


'Tis but because the living death ne'er knew 
They fear to prove it as a thing that's new. 

Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, 

It seems to me most strange that men should fear, 

Seeing that death, a necessary end, 

Will come when it will come. 

The sense of death is most in apprehension ; 
And the poor beetle that we tread upon, 
In corporal sufferance finds a pang as great 
As when a giant dies. 

Who would fardels bear, 
To grunt and sweat under a weary life ; 
But that the dread of something after death, — 
The undiscovered country from whose bourn 
No traveller returns, — puzzles the will, 
And makes us rather bear those ills we have 
Than fly to others that we know not of? 
Euripides, Hipp. iB^. 

A Still small voice spake unto me : 

' Thou art so steeped in misery, 

Were it not better not to be ? 

Thine anguish will not let thee sleep 

Nor any train of reason keep ; 

Thou canst not think, but thou wilt weep.' 

Death to be welcomed, birth to be mourned. 
Nos decebat 
Lugere ubi esset aliquis in lucem editus. 


Humanae vitae varia reputantes mala; 
At qui labores morte finisset graves, 
Omnes amicos laude et laetitia exsequi. 

The problem of life and death. 

To be, or not to be ! — that is the question : 
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer 
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, 
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, 
And by opposing end them. To die, to sleep : 
No more : and by a sleep to say we end 
The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks 
That flesh is heir to: 'tis a consummation 
Devoutly to be wished. 

To die, to sleep ! — 
To sleep, perchance to dream ! Aye, there's the rub, 
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come 
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, 
Must give us pause — There's the respect 
That makes calamity of so long life ; 
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, 
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's con- 
The pangs of despised love, the law's delay. 
The insolence of office, and the spurns 
That patient merit of the unworthy takes. 
When he himself might his quietus make 
With a bare bodkin? 

Euripides, Hipp. 194. 


He there does now enjoy eternal! rest 
And happy ease, which thou doest want and crave, 
And further from it daily wanderest : 
What if some little payne the passage have, 
That makes frayle flesh to feare the bitter wave ; 
Is not short payne well borne, that bringes long ease, 
And layes the soul to sleepe in quiet grave ? 
Sleepe after toyle, port after stormie seas. 
Ease after warre, death after life, does greatlie please. 

The terme of life is limited, 
Ne may a man prolong nor shorten it; 
The souldier may not move from watchfuU sted. 
Nor leave his stand until his captaine bed. 


Who life did limit by Almightie doome, 
O king, knowes best the termes established; 
And he that points the centonell his roome, 
Doth license him depart at sound of morning droome. 

All men think all men mortal but themselves ; 
Themselves, when some alarming shock of fate 
Strikes through their wounded hearts the sudden 

But their hearts wounded, like the wounded air, 
Soon close ; where, past the shaft, no trace is found. 
As from the wing no scar the sky retains, 
The parted wave no furrow from the keel, 
So dies in human hearts the thought of death. 


The crown of life, the release from evils. 

Death is dark death when slurred with terrors vain : 
Whether blest isles or fields Elysian wait, 

Or all is silent o'er the circling main, 

We know not ever; but we conquer Fate, 

Assail the mansions of the gods, and claim 

The crown of valour, in a deathless name. 

"Tis well to live for glory, home, and land; 

And, when these fail us, it is well to die. 
The latest freedom never fails our hand. 

From scornful Earth, on wings of scorn, to fly ; 
When Life grows heavy, Death remains, the door 
To dreamless rest beside the Stygian shore. 

The portals open to our meteor way : 

A red dawn breaks the shadows of the hour. 

We leave the bitter cup of alien sway 

To hinds that crouch beneath the heels of power. 

Ours the triumphal path, the hero's right ; 

And Death hangs o'er us like a starry night ! 


The sun, the moon, the stars 
Send no such light upon the ways of men 
As one great deed. 

Sophocles, Oed. Col. 1143. 


Who ever turned upon his heel to hear 
My warning, that the tyranny of one 
Was prelude to the tyranny of all? 


INIy counsel that the tyranny of all 
Led backward to the tyranny of one ? 

For give once sway unto the people's lusts, 
To rush forth on, and stay them not in time, 
And as the stream that rolleth down the hill 
So will they headlong run with raging thoughts 
From blood to blood, from mischief unto more, 
To ruin of the realm, themselves and all ; 
So giddy are the common people's minds 
So glad of change, more wavering than the sea. 
Euripides, Or. 696 ; Iph. in Aul. 337. 


Nor am I in the list of them that hope ; 
Helpless are all my evils, all remediless ; 
This one prayer yet remains, might I be heard, 
No long petition, speedy death 
The close of all my miseries, and the balm. 
Sophocles, El. 809, 1163. 


This is no theatre where hope abides. 
The dull thick noise of war alone stirs here. 
There's a dark spirit walking in our house, 
And swiftly will the Destiny close on us. 
It drove me hither from my calm asylum, 
It mocks my soul with charming witchery. 
It lures me forward in a seraph's shape. 
I see it near, I see it nearer floating. 


It draws, it pulls me with a godlike power ; 
And lo ! the abyss . . . and thither am I moving. 
I have no power within me not to move. 
Sophocles, Oed. Col. 1547. 


K. Edw. Now tell me, madam, do you love your 
children ? 

Lady Grey. Ay, full as dearly as I love myself. 

K. Edw. And would you not do much to do them good .? 

L. Grey. To do them good I would sustain some harm. 

K. Edw. Then get your husband's lands to do them 

L. Grey. Therefore I came unto your Majesty. 

K. Edw. I'll tell you how these lands are to be got. 

L. Grey. So shall you bind me to your Highness' service. 

K. Edtv. What service wilt thou do me, if I give them ? 

L. Grey. What you command that rests in me to do. 

K. Edw. But you will take exceptions to my boon? 

L. Grey. No, gracious Lord, except I cannot do it. 

K. Edw. Ay, but thou canst do what I mean to ask. 

L. Grey. Why, then I will do what your grace com- 

Glo. He plies her hard, and much rains wears the 

Ayig. Alas! Signer, 

He who is only just is cruel; who 

Upon the earth would live were all judged justly? 
Ben. His punishment is safety to the state. 



Ang. He was a subject, and hath served the state; 
He was your general, and hath saved the state; 
He is vour sovereign, and hath ruled the state. 

Counc. He is a traitor, and betrayed the state. 

Ang. And, but for him, there now had been no state 
To save or to destroy; and you. who sit 
There to pronounce the death of your deliverer, 
Had now been groaning at a ^Moslem oar, 
Or diofSfincr in the Hunnish mines in fetters ! 

Counc. No. lady, there are others who would die 
Rather than breathe in slavery ! 

Ang. If there are so 

Within these walls, thou art not of the number; 
The truly brave are generous to the fallen! 


What can atone, oh, ever-injured shade I 
Thy fate unpitied, and thy rites unpaid? 
No friend's complaint, no kind domestic tear 
Pleased thy pale ghost, or graced thy mournful bier: 
By foreign hands thy dying eyes were closed. 
By foreign hands thy decent limbs composed, 
By foreign hands thy humble grave adorned, 
By strangers honoured and by strangers mourned ! 
What though no friends in sable weeds appear. 
Grieve for an hour, perhaps, then mourn a year, 
What thousfh no sacred earth allow thee room, 
Nor hallowed dirge be muttered o'er thy tomb? 
Yet shall thy grave with rising flowers be drest, 
And the green turf lie lightly on thy breast. 
Sophocles, £/. 1 126. 




But when she saw her maidens wondering stand 
She ceased her song and stayed her busy hand, 
And said, ' Girls, if ye see me glad to-day, 
Be nought amazed ; for all things pass away : 
The good days die, but also die the bad. 
See now, in sleep last night a dream I had 
That in his claws an eagle lifted me 
And bore me to a land across the sea ; 
Wherefore I think that here I shall not die, 
But live to feel dew falling from the sky, 
And set my feet deep in the meadow grass 
And underneath the scented pine-trees pass, 
Or in the garden feel the western breeze 
The herald of the rain, sweep through the trees.' 
Euripides. Rhe. 779 : Aeschylus, Pers. 176 : 
Sophocles, El. 417. 

Omnia quae sensu vohointur vota diurno, 

Pectore sopito reddit arnica quies. 
Venator defessa toro cum membra reponit. 

Mens tamen ad silvas et sua lustra redit : 
ludicibus lites, aurigis somnia currus, 

Vanaque noctumis meta cavetur equis. 
IMe quoque Musarum studium sub nocte silenti 

Artibus assuetis sollicitare solet. 

Let be thy wail and help thy fellow-men, 
And make thy gold thy vassal, not thy king, 

N 2 


And fling free alms into the beggar's bowl, 
And send the day into the darkened heart ; 
Nor list for guerdon in the voice of men. 


Belial speaks. 

To suffer, as to do, 
Our strength is equal, nor the law unjust 
That so ordains : this was at first resolved. 
If we were wise, against so great a foe 
Contending, and so doubtful what might fall. 
I laugh, when those, who at the spear are bold 
And venturous, if that fail them, shrink and fear 
What yet they know must follow, to endure 
Exile, or ignominy, or bonds, or pain. 
The sentence of their conqueror ; this is now 
Our doom ; which if we can sustain and bear, 
Our supreme foe in time may much remit 
His anger, and perhaps thus far removed 
Not mind us not offending, satisfy'd 
With what is punished. 

Aeschylus, Pr. V. loi. 


The wise and prudent conquer difficulties 
By daring to attempt them. Sloth and folly 
Shiver and shrink at sight of toil and danger, 
And make the impossibility they fear. 



For those are hated that excel the rest, 
Although, when dead, they are beloved the best. 


Princes that would their people should do well 
Must at themselves begin, as at the head : 
For men by their example pattern out 
Their imitations, and regard of laws; 
A virtuous court a world to virtue draws. 

Nothing is so contagious as example ; and we never 
do any great good or great evil which does not pro- 
duce its like. 

We imitate good actions from emulation, and bad ones 
from the depravity of our nature, which shame would 
keep prisoner and example sets at liberty. 

Euripides, Hipp. 410 : Sophocles, El. 621. 


Thou cam'st erew-hile into this Senate. Who ^ 
Of such a frequency, so many friends 
And kindred thou hast here, saluted thee? 
Were not the seats made bare upon thy entrance ? 
Rose not the consular men and left their places, 
So soon as thou sat'st down? and fled thy side 
Like to a plague or ruin? knowing how oft 
They had by thee been marked out for the shambles ? 
Euripides, Iph. in Taur. 947 : Sophocles, Oed. Rex, 1486. 



O, sir, to wilful men, 
The injuries that they themselves procure, 
Must be their schoolmasters. 

Aeschylus, Ag. 170. 


O trustless, state of miserable men, 

That build your bliss on hope of earthly thing, 

And vainly think yourselves half happy then, 
When painted faces with smooth flattering 
Do fawn on youj and your wide praises sing : 

And when the courting masker louteth low. 

Him true in heart and trusty to you trow! 

All is but feigned, and with ochre dyed, • 
That every shower will wash and wipe away; 

All things do change that under heaven abide, 
And after death all friendship doth decay. 
Therefore, whatever man hast worldly sway, 

Living, on God and on thyself rely ; 

For when thou diest, all shall with thee die. 
Sophocles, Oed. Col. 607. 


Fame if not double-fac'd, is double-mouth'd, 
And with contrary blast proclaims most deeds; 
On both his wings, one black, the other white, 
Bears greatest names in his wild aery flight. 
My name, perhaps, among thy countrymen, 


To all posterity may stand defam'd, 
With malediction mentioned and the blot 
Of falsehood most unconjugal traduced. 
But in my country, where I most desire, 
In Ecron, Gaza, Asdod, and in Gath, 
I shall be named among the famousest 
Of women, sung at solemn festivals 
Living or dead recorded, who to save 
Her country from a fierce destroyer chose 
Above the. faith of wedlock bands. 
Euripides, Andr. 319 ; Iplt. in Taur. 676 ; Troad. 638. 


Vice is a monster of so frightful mien, 
As, to be hated, needs but to be seen. 
Yet, seen too oft, familiar with her face. 
We first endure, then pity, then embrace. 


What can be avoided 
Whose end is purposed by the mighty gods? 

For we are all, like swimmers in the sea, 
Poised on the top of a huge wave of Fate, 
Which hangs uncertain to which side to fall. 
And whether it will heave us up to land, 
Or whether it will roll us out to sea. 
Back out to sea, to the deep waves of death, 
We know not, and no search will make us know ; 
Only the event will teach us in its hour. 
Euripides, Ale. 962. 


Is't not God's deed, whatever thing is done 
In heaven and earth ? doth not He all create 
To die againe ? all ends that was begonne : 
Their times in His eternall booke of Fate 
Are written sure, and have their certein date. 
Who then can strive with strong Necessitie, 
That holds the world in his still-changing state ; 
Or shunne the death ordained by Destinie? 
When houre of Death is come, let none aske whenne, 
nor why. 


For that man has no claim to sense, 
Whose blood boils at impertinence ; 
Were I to scourge each fool I meet, 
I ne'er must go into the street. 
Euripides, Hipp. 916. 


See, what a ready tongue suspicion hath ! 
He, that but fears the thing he would not know, 
Hath by instinct knowledge from others' eyes, 
That what he feared is chanced. 

Aeschylus, Pers. 603 : Euripides, Andr. 1070. 


All men sufficient fortitude possess 

To bear with patience other men's distress. 


Philosophy can triumph still 
With ease o'er past or future ill, 
But present ills how oft we see 
Triumphant o'er philosophy. 


Who now persists in calling Fortune false? 
To me she has proved faithful, with fond love 
Took me from out the common ranks of men. 
And like a mother goddess, with strong arm 
Carried me swiftly up the steps of life. 
Nothing is common in my destiny. 
True, in this present moment I appear 
Fall'n low indeed; but I shall rise again. 
Sophocles, Oed. Rex, 1080 : Euripides, Ion, 28. 

Foster Mother. 

Countess. 'Tis often seen, 

Adoption strives with nature; and choice breeds 
A native slip to us from foreign seeds; 
You ne'er oppressed me with a mother's groan, 
Yet I express to you a mother's care. 

Euripides, Ion, 1310, 1532; Iph. in Aid. 917. 


Diffngiunt cadis 
Cum faece siccatis amici 

Fcrre jugunt pariter dolosi. 

Samson. Your coming, friends, revives me, for I learn 
Now of my own experience, not by talk, 


How counterfeit a coin they are, who friends 
Bear in their superscription ; of the most, 
I would be understood: in prosperous days 
They swarm, but in adverse withdraw their head, 
Not to be found, though sought. 

Aeschylus, Ag. 832 : Euripides, Or. 455. 

Every one that flatters thee. 
Is no friend in misery. 
Words are easy Hke the wind; 
Faithful friends are hard to find. 
Every man will be thy friend 
Whilst thou hast wherewith to spend 
But if store of crowns be scant. 
No man will supply thy want. 
If that one be prodigal, 
Bountiful they will him call ; 
And with such like flattering, 
'Pity but he were a king,' 

Spiteful and witty to be avoided. 

He that shall rail against his absent friends, 
Or hears them scandalized and not defends; 
Sports with their fame, and speaks whate'er he can. 
And only to be thought a witty man; 
Tells tales, and brings his friends in disesteem ; 
That man's a knave ; — be sure beware of him. 
Euripides, Hipp. 1000. 


Let us go find the body where it lies 

Soak'd in his enemies' blood, and from the stream 


With lavers pure and cleansing lierbs wash oflf 

The clotted gore. I with what speed the while, 

Gaza is not in plight to say us nay, 

Will send for all my kindred, all my friends, 

To fetch him hence, and solemnly attend 

With silent obsequy and funeral train 

Home to his father's house : there will I build him 

A monument, and plant it round with shade 

Of laurel ever green, and branching palm. 

Sophocles, ^y. 1402; Ant. 1199: Euripides, Hec. 609. 

Future Life. 

Unknown, but surely happy for the good. 

Through what variety of untried being, 
Through what new scenes and changes must we pass ? 
The wide, the unbounded prospect lies before me, 
But shadows, clouds, and darkness rest upon it. 
Here will I hold. If there's a power above us, 
(And that there is all nature cries aloud, 
Through all her works,) he must delight in virtue : 
And that which he delights in must be happy. 
Euripides, Hel. 1014 ; Troad. 629 : Sophocles, Ant. 73. 

' The gods themselves cannot recall their gifts.^ 
Were it a draft for Juno when she banquets, 
I would not taste thy treasonous offer; none 
But such as are good men can give good things, 
And that which is not good, is not delicious 
To a well-govern'd and wise appetite. 



For what is glory but the blaze of fame, 

The people's praise, if always praise unmixed ? 

And what the people but a herd confus'd, 

A miscellaneous rabble, who extol 

Things vulgar, and, well-weigh'd, scarce worth the praise? 

They praise and they admire they know not what, 

And know not whom, but as one leads the other; 

And what delight to be by such extolled. 

To live upon their tongues and be their talk, 

Of whom to be dispraised were no small praise ? 

Euripides, Andr. 319; Supp. 409; Or. 695. 


Where'er thou art, He is; the eternal mind 
Acts through all places, is to none confined; 
Fills ocean, earth, and air, and all above, 
And through the universal mass does move. 


My son, the gods despite of human prayer 
Are slower to forgive than human kings. 

In vain doe men 
The heavens of their fortune's fault accuse, 
Sith they know best what is the best for them; 
For they to each such fortune do diffuse. 
As they do know each can most aptly use. 

Seems it so light a thing then, austere Powers, 
To spurn man's common lure, life's pleasant things ? 


Seems there no joy in dances crowned with flowers, 
Love, free to range, and regal banquettings ? 
Bend ye on these, indeed, an unmoved eye, 
Not gods but ghosts in frozen apathy? 
Euripides, Ion, 439. 

Or is it that some Power, too wise, too strong, 
Even for yourselves to conquer or beguile. 
Whirls earth, and heaven, and men, and gods along, 
Like the broad rushing of the insurged Nile ? 
And the great powers we serve, themselves may be 
Slaves of a tyrannous Necessity? 

Aeschylus, Pr. V. 515. 

Natura deorum 
Ipsa suts pollens opibus, nil indiga nostri 
Nee bene promeritis capitur, nee tangitur ira. 

Oh, wherefore cheat our youth, if thus it be, 
Of one short joy, one lust, one pleasant dream? 
Stringing vain words of powers we cannot see, 
Blind divinations of a will supreme; 
Lost labour: when the circumambient gloom 
But hides, if gods, gods careless of our doom? 


But, scarce observed, the knowing and the bold. 
Fall in the general massacre of gold: 
Wide-wasting pest! that rages unconfined, 
And crowds with crimes the records of mankind; 
For gold his sword the hireling ruffian draws, 
For gold the hireling judge distorts the laws; 


Wealth heaped on wealth nor truth nor safety buys, 
her as the treasun 
Sophocles, Aui. 295. 

The dangers gather as the treasures rise, 


In every government, though terrors reign, 
Though tyrant kings, or tyrant laws restrain, 
How small of all that human hearts endure, 
That part which laws or kings can cause or cure. 

Precepts of good government. 
But thou, my son, study to make prevail 
One colour in thy Hfe, the hue of truth : 
That Justice, that sage Order, not alone 
Natural Vengeance, may maintain thine act. 
And make it stand indeed the will of Heaven. 
Thy father's passion was this people's ease, 
This people's anarchy, thy foe's pretence ; 
As the chiefs rule, indeed, the people are: 
Unhappy people, where the chiefs themselves 
Are like the mob, vicious and ignorant ! 
So rule, that even thine enemies may fail 
To find in thee a fault whereon to found 
Of tyrannous harshness, or remissness weak : 
So rule, that as thy father thou be loved ; 
So rule, that as thy foe thou be obeyed — 
Take these, my son, over thine enemy's corpse 
Thy mother's prayers : and this prayer last of all. 
That even in thy victory thou show, 
Mortal, the moderation of a man, 

Euripides, Plioen. 560 : Sophocles, Ant. 639, 672. 



' Qiiisque sitos pattninr Manes.' 

Hell lies near 
Around us, as does Heaven, and in the World, 
Which is our Hades, still the chequered souls 
Compact of good and ill — not all accurst 
Nor altogether blest — a few brief years 
Travel the little journey of their lives, 
They know not to what end. 


All who joy would win 
Must share it — Happiness was born a twin. 

Guilt is the source of sorrow; 'tis the fiend 
That follows us behind with whips and stings. 
The good are happy; knowing not remorse, 
They rest in everlasting peace of mind. 
Euripides, lott, 440. 

It is the mind that maketh good or ill, 
That maketh wretch or happie, rich or poor; 
For some that hath abundance at his will, 
Hath not enough, but wants in greatest store, 
And other that hath little asks no more, 
But in that little is both rich and wise; 
For wisdome is most riches ; fooles therefore 
They are which fortune do by vowes devise, 
Sith each unto himself his life may fortunize. 



The surest road to health, say what they will, 
Is never to suppose we shall be ill. 
Most of those evils we poor mortals know. 
From doctQrs and imagination flow. 

Health is the first good lent to men; 
A gentle disposition then; 
Next to be rich by no bye-ways; 
Lastly with friends to enjoy our days. 

Hereditary Qualities. 

O this mortal house 

Which we are born into, is haunted by 

The ghosts of the dead passions of dead men ; 

And these take flesh again with our own flesh. 

And bring us to confusion. He was only 

A poor philosopher who called the mind 

Of children a blank page, a tabula rasa. 

There there is written in invisible inks 

'Lust, Prodigality, Covetousness, Craft, 

Cowardice, Murder' — and the heat and fire 

Of life will bring them out, and black enough. 

So the child grow to manhood: better death 

With our first wail than life. 

Aeschylus, Ag. 750-771, 1186-1193, 1475-1504; 
Eum. 531-548. 

High Estate. 

Fortune displays our virtues and our vices 
As light doth make all objects visible. 


Wearing the white flower of a blameless life, 
Before a thousand peering littlenesses, 
In that fierce light which beats upon a throne, 
And blackens every blot. 


Hope springs eternal in the human breast ; 
Man never is, but always to be blest. 

Euripides, Phoen. 396. 

Strange cozenage ! None would live past years again, 
Yet all hope pleasure in what yet remain : 
And from the dregs of life think to receive. 
What the first sprightly running could not give. 


Alike he thwarts the hospitable end. 
Who drives the free, or stays the hasty friend: 
True friendship's laws are by this rule exprest, 
Welcome the coming, speed the parting guest. 
Euripides, El. 357 : Aeschylus, Ag. 1035. 

Human Error. 

O purblind race of miserable men. 
How many among us at this very hour 
Do forge a life-long trouble for ourselves, 
By taking true for false, or false for true ; 
Here, through the feeble twilight of this world 
Groping, how many, until we pass and reach 
That other, where we see as we are seen ! 
Aeschylus, Pr. V. 545 : Euripides, Phoen. Frag. 808 (Dindorf). 




The common lot. 

I have not lived 
After the rate to fear another world. 
We come from nothing into life, a time 
We measure with a short breath, and that often 
^lade tedious too with our own cares that fill it, 
Which like so many atoms in a sunbeam 
But crowd and jostle one another. All, 
From the adored purple to the hair-cloth, 
IVIust centre in a shade ; and they that have 
Their virtues to wait on them, bravely mock 
The rugged storms, which so much fright them here, 
When their soul's launched by death into a sea 
That's ever calm. 

Sophocles, AJ. 121. 

Human Lot. 

Why are we weighed upon with heaviness. 

And utterly consumed with sharp distress. 

While all things else have rest from weariness.? 

All things have rest ; why should we toil alone, 

We only toil, who are the first of things. 

And make perpetual moan, 

Still from one sorrow to another thrown ; 

Nor ever fold our wings. 

And cease from wanderings. 

Nor steep our brows in slumber's holy balm ; 

Nor hearken what the inner spirit sings, 


' There is no joy but calm ! ' 

Why should we only toil, the roof and crown of 

things ? 
Sophocles, Oed. Col. 1211 ; Ocd. Rex, 1186; Tr. T12. 

Human Sacrifice. 

The king returned from out the wild, 

He bore but little game in hand; 
The mother said, ' They have taken the child 

To spill his blood and heal the land : 
The land is sick, the people diseased, 

And blight and famine on all the lea ; 
The holy gods, they must be appeased, 
So I pray you tell the truth to me. 
They have taken our son, 
They will have his life. 
1?, he your dearesH 
Or I your wife?' 

The king bent low, with hand on brow, 

He stay'd his arms upon his knee : 
' O wife, what use to answer now ? 

For now the Priest has judged for me.' 
The king was shaken with holy fear ; 

' The gods,' he said, ' would have chosen well ; 
Yet both are near and both are dear. 
And which the dearest I cannot tell ! ' 
But the Priest was happy, 
His victim won : 
'We have his dearest, 
His only son ! ' 
o 2 


The rites prepared, the victim bared. 

The knife uprising toward the blow, 
To the altar stone she sprang alone, 

' Me, not my darling, no ! ' 
He caught her away with a sudden cry ; 

Suddenly from him brake his wife, 
And shrieking * I am his dearest, I — 
I am his dearest ! ' rushed on the knife. 
And the Priest was happy. 
'O father Odin, 
We give you a life. 
Which was his nearest ? 
Who was his dearest ? 
The gods have answered ; 
We give them the Wife.' 

Husband and Wife. 

Yet in the long years liker they must grow; 

The man be more of woman, she of man ; 

He gain in sweetness and in moral height. 

Nor lose the wrestling thews that throw the world 

She mental breadth, nor fail in childward care. 

Nor lose the childlike in the larger mind; 

Till at the last she set herself to man, 

Like perfect music unto noble w'ords. 

On the relative position and duties of husband and wife. 

Euripides, El 71, 930, 948, 1035, 1069; Or. 602; 
Troad. 629; Iph. in Aid. 749; Med. 233: 
Aeschylus, Ag. 601, 896, 966. 



An evil soul producing holy witness, 
Is like a villain with a smiling cheek ; 
A goodly apple rotten at the heart; 
O what a goodly outside falsehood hath ! 

Euripides, Or. 889; Hipp. 413, 948. 


A longing for immortality innate in the human soul. 

It must be so — -Plato, thou reasonest well — 

Else whence this pleasing hope, this fond desire, 

This longing after immortality ; 

Or whence this secret dread and inward horror 

Of falling into nought ? Why shrinks the soul 

Back on herself, and startles at destruction? 

'Tis the Divinity that stirs within us; 

'Tis Heaven itself that points out an hereafter. 

And intimates Eternity to man. 


In great affairs, and doubtful, it behoves 
Men that are asked their sentence, to be free 
From either hate or love, anger or pity: 
For where the least of these do hinder, there 
The mind not easily discerns the truth. 


For bold knaves thrive without a grain of sense, 
But good men starve for want of impudence. 



Great wits are sure to madness near allied, 
And thin partitions do their bounds divide ; 
Else why should one with wealth and honour blest, 
Refuse his age the needful hours of rest ? 
Punish a body which he cannot please ; 
Bankrupt of life, yet prodigal of ease? 


For what is it on earth, 
Nay under heaven, continues at a stay ? 
Ebbs not the sea when it hath overflown? 
Follows not darkness when the day is gone ? 
And see we not sometimes the eye of heav'n 
Dimm'd with o'er-flying clouds ? there's not that 

Of careful nature or of cunning art, 
How strong, how beauteous, or how rich it be, 
But falls in tune to ruin. 

Sophocles, Aj. 127, 669; Oed. Col. 607. 


What, if with like aversion I reject 

Riches and realms ? yet not, for that a crown, 

Golden in show, is but a wreath of thorns. 

Brings dangers, troubles, cares, and sleepless nights 

To him who wears the regal diadem, 

When on his shoulders each man's burden lies ; 

For therein stands the merit of a king. 


That for the pubhc all this weight he bears. 
Yet he who reigns within himself, and rules 
Passions, desires, and fears, is more a king; 
Which every wise and virtuous man attains : 
And who attains not ill aspires to rule 
Cities of men and headstrong multitudes, 
Subject himself to anarchy within. 
Or lawless passions in him which he serves. 
Aeschylus, Theb. i : Euripides, Ion, 621. 

I bow and give 
My crown, pray take it; and with it give me leave 
To tell you what it brings the hapless wearer 
Beside the outside glory ; for I am 
Read in the miserable fate of kings. 
You think it glorious to command, but are 
More subject than the poorest pays you duty ; 
And must obey your fears, your want of sleeps, 
Rebellion from your vassals, wounds even from 
Their very tongues whose quietness you sweat for; 
For whose dear health you waste and fright your 

To paleness, and your blood into a frost. 
Sophocles, Oed. Rex, 58, 380, 584. 


Uphold the law ; laws aim and not in vain 
The poor to safeguard, and the rich restrain. 

Law aids the upright, checks the evil doer, 
Restrains the rich man, and protects the poor. 
Euripides, Hec. 799 ; Snpp. 433. 



A little learning is a dangerous thing; 
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring ; 
There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, 
And drinking largely sobers us again. 
Euripides, Iph. in Aid. 919. 


Dare to be true. Nothing can need a lie : 
A fault, which needs it most, grows two thereby. 
Aeschylus, Ag. 6co. 


Could we live always, life were worth the cost, 
But now we keep with care what must be lost. 

He lives who lives to virtue; men who cast 
Their ends for pleasure, do not live but last. 

Euripides, Frag. 875 (Dindorf). 

Grieve not for her ; perhaps the early grave 
Which men weep over, may be sent to save. 

Why is life forced on man, who, might he chuse, 
Would not accept what he with pain must lose ? 
Unknowing, he receives it ; and, when known, 
He thinks it his, and values it, — 'tis gone. 

Did we solicit heaven to mould our clay } 
From darkness to produce us to the day.? 


Did we concur to life, or chuse to be ? 
Was it our will which formed, or was it He ? 
Since 'twas His choice not ours, which placed us here. 
The laws we did not chuse, why should we bear ? 

Love of life. 

The tree of deepest root is found 
Least willing still to quit the ground ; 
'Twas therefore said by ancient sages. 

That love of life increased with years 
So much, that in our latter stages, 
When pains grow sharp, and sickness rages. 

The greatest love of life appears. 
Euripides, Ale. 669. 

Life and death. 

Death is the end of life ; ah, why 
Should life all labour be ? 
Let us alone. Time driveth onward fast, 
And in a little while our lips are dumb. 
Let us alone. What is it that will last .? 
All things are taken from us, and become 
Portions and parcels of the dreadful Past. 
Let us alone. What pleasure can we have 
To war with evil } Is there any peace 
In ever climbing up the climbing wave ? 
All things have rest, and ripen toward the grave 
In silence ; ripen, fall, and cease ; 
Give us long rest, or death, dark death, or dream- 
ful ease, 
Sophocles, Tr. 112; Oed. Col. 121 1 ; Ocd Rex, 1186. 


Hunian life. 

To me most happy therefore he appears 

Who having once, unmoved by hopes or fears, 

Surveyed this sun, earth, ocean, clouds and flame, 

Well satisfied returns from whence he came. 

Be life an hundred years or e'er so few, 

'Tis repetition all and nothing new: 

A fair, where thousands meet, but none can stay; 

An inn, where travellers bait then post away; 

A sea, where man perpetually is tost, 

Now plunged in business, now in trifles lost : 

Who leave it first, the peaceful port first gain : 

Hold then ! nor farther launch into the main ; 

Contract your sails ; hfe nothing can bestow 

By long continuance, but continued woe : 

The wretched privilege daily to deplore 

The funerals of our friends who go before : 

Diseases, pains, anxieties and cares, 

And age surrounded with a thousand snares. 

Menander, Hyp. Frag. II (Tovtov evrvxeffTarov \iyw) : 
Sophocles, Ocd. Col. 1211-1250. 


She never told her love, 
But let concealment, like a worm i' the bud, 
Feed on her damask cheek; she pined in thought; 
And, with a green and yellow melancholy. 
She sat like patience on a monument. 
Smiling at grief. Was not this love indeed ? 
We men may say more, swear more; but, indeed, 


Our shows are more than will ; for still we prove 
Much in our vows, but little in our love. 
Euripides, Hipp. 239, 267, 439. 

Heart searchings. Medea soliloquizes. 

F. ustra, Medea, repugnas, 
Nescio quis deus obstat, ait; mirumque nisi hoc est, 
Aut aliquid certe simile huic, quod amare vocatur. 
Nam cur jussa patris nimium mihi dura videntur? 
Sunt quoque dura nimis. Cur, quem modo denique 

Ne pereat, timeo ? Quae tanti causa timoris ? 
Excute virgineo conceptas pectore flammas, 
Si potes, infelix. Si possem, sanior essem ; 
Sed trahit invitam nova vis : aliudque cupido, 
Mens aliud suadet. Video meliora proboque, 
Deteriora sequor. Quid in hospite, regia virgo, 
Ureris, et thalamos alieni concipis orbis"? 
Haec quoque terra potest, quod ames, dare. Vivat, 

an ille 
Occidat, in dis est: vivat tamen, idque precari 
Vel sine amore licet. Quid enim commisit lason.? 
Quem, nisi crudelem, non tangat lasonis aetas, 
Et genus, et virtus? Quem non, ut cetera desint, 
Forma movere potest.? Certe mea pectora movit. 
Euripides, Hipp. 380 sqq. 

They sin who tell us love can die. 

With life all other passions fly, 

All others are but vanity, 


In Heav'n ambition cannot dwell, 
Nor avarice in the vaults of Hell ; 
Earthly these passions of the Earth, 
They perish where they have their birth ; 
But Love is indestructible. 
Its holy flame for ever burneth. 
From Heaven it came, to Heaven returneth ; 
Too oft on Earth a troubled guest, 
At times deceived, at times opprest, 
It here is tried and purified, 
Then hath in Heaven its perfect rest ; 

It soweth here with toil and care, 
But the harvest time of love is there. 
Oh, when a Mother meets on high 
The Babe she lost in infancy. 
Hath she not then for pains and fears 
The day of woe, the watchful night, 
For all her sorrow, all her tears 
An over-payment of delight I 


Like men, like manners : like breeds like, they say : 
Kind nature is the best ; those manners next 
That fit us like a nature second-hand ; 
Which are indeed the manners of the great. 
Euripides, Iph. in Aul. 561 ; Hec. 600. 


Good heaven no doubt the nuptial state approves. 
Since it chastises still what best it loves. 


For what is wedlock forced but a hell, 
An age of discord and continual strife ? 
Whereas the contrary it bringeth bliss 
And is a pattern of celestial peace. 

What mischief lies concealed 
In this design I know not ; but I know 
Who thinks of marrying hath already taken 
One step upon the road to penitence. 

Euripides, Or. 602; Med. 630, 1290. 

Let still the woman take 
An elder than herself; so wears she to him, 
So sways she level in her husband's heart. 
For, boy, however we do praise ourselves, 
Our fancies are more giddy and unfirm, 
More longing, wavering, sooner lost and worn, 
Than women's are. 


The fatal day is come, the pile is raised, 

As eager for its victim fierce it blazed. 

They led her forth, her brow and neck were bare 

Save for the silken veil of unbound hair 

So beautiful; few were there who could brook 

To cast on her sweet face a second look. 

There stood she, even as a statue stands. 

With head drooped downward and with clasped hands. 

Such small white hands that matched her ivory feet; 

How may they bear that scorching fire to meet. 


On her pale cheek there lay a tear, but one 
Cold as the icicle of carved stone ; 
Despair weeps not. Her lips moved as in prayer 
Unconsciously, as if prayers had been there, 
And they moved now from custom. 

Euripides, Herac. 406; Hcc. 521-570; Iph. in Aid. 
1543-1583; Pliocii. 930 : Aeschylus, Ag. 224. 


The quality of mercy is not strained ; 

It droppeth as the gentle rain from heav'n 

Upon the place beneath : it is twice bless'd ; ' 

It blesseth him that gives and him that takes : 

'Tis mightiest in the mightiest : it becomes 

The throned monarch better than his crown ; 

His sceptre shows the force of temporal power, 

The attribute to awe and majesty, 

Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings ; 

But mercy is above this sceptred sway, 

It is enthroned in the hearts of kings. 

It is an attribute to God himself; 

And earthly power doth then show likest God's, 

When mercy seasons justice. 

Sophocles, Oed. Col. 1267. 


' But sometimes Virtue starves, while Vice is fed. 
What then ? Is the reward of Virtue bread ? 
Thai, Vice may merit, 'tis the price of toil: 
The knave deserves it when he tills the soil. 
Euripides, Siipp. 865. 



I hate the black negation of the bier, 

And wish the dead, as happier than ourselves 

And higher, having climbed one step beyond 

Our village miseries, might be borne in white 

To burial or to burning, hymned from hence 

With songs in praise of death, and crowned with flowers. 

Euripides, Iph. in Aid. 1439; Troad. 628; Crespli. Frag. 454. 

Native Land. 

I travelled among unknown men 

In lands beyond the sea; 
Nor, England, did I know till then 

What love I bore to thee. 

Land of my sires ! what mortal hand 

Can e'er untie the filial band 

That knits me to thy .rugged strand ! 

Still as I view each well-known scene, 

Think what is now, and what hath been, 

Seems as to me, of all bereft, 

Sole friends thy woods and streams are left ; 

And thus I love them better still 

E'en in extremity of ill. 

Aeschylus, Ag. 503. 

Nature's Law. 

Exchange not robbery. 

I'll example you with thievery ; 
The sun's a thief, and with his great attraction 


Robs the vast sea : the moon's an arrant thief, 
And her pale fire she snatches from the sun : 
The sea's a thief, whose hquid surge resolves 
The moon into salt tears : the earth's a thief. 
That feeds and breeds by a composture stolen 
From general excrement : each thing's a thief. 

Euripides, Chrys. (Frag. 833) ; Frag. Incert. 839 : 
Sophocles, Aj. 666. 


If he be slain, say so : 
The tongue offends not that reports his death, 
And he doth sin that doth belie the dead, 
Not he which says the dead is not alive. 
Yet the first bringer of unwelcome news 
Hath but a losing office. 
Euripides, Supp. 457 ; Hcc. 661 : Aeschylus, Ag. 636 ; Thch. 369. 


Thus born alike, from virtue first began 
The difference that distinguished man from man; 
He claimed no tide from descent of blood. 
But that ennobled him which made him good. 
Euripides, Frag. Incert. 868 (Dindorf). 

This law, though custom now diverts the course, 
As nature's institute, is yet in force, 
Uncancelled, though disused; that he, whose mind 
Is virtuous, is alone of noble kind; 


Though poor in fortune, of celestial race ; 
And he commits the crime, who calls him base. 
Euripides, El. 380 ; Dictys. Frag. 341. 


There is a tide in the affairs of men, 

Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; 

Omitted, all the voyage of their life 

Is bound in shallows and in miseries. 

On such a full sea are we now afloat; 

And we must take the current when it serves, 

Or lose our ventures. 

Euripides, Or. 696 ; Tern. Frag. 279 (Dindorf) : 
Sophocles, Phil. 1450. 


Order is Heav'n's first law, and this confest 
Some are, and must be greater than the rest. 
More rich, more wise : but who infers from hence 
That such are happier, shocks all common sense. 
Euripides, Supp. 238 ; Phoen. 535 : Sophocles, Aj. 666. 


We oft by lightning read in darkest nights; 
And by your passions I read all your natures, 
Though you at other times can keep them dark, 
Sophocles, Anf. 493. 



My son, 
No sound is breathed so potent to coerce, 
And to conciliate, as their names who dare 
For that sweet motherland which gave them birth 
Nobly to do, nobly to die. 

Sophocles, -(4 «/. 183: Aeschylus, Thcb. 16: 
Euripides, Iph. in Aid. 1269, 1375 ; P/wcu. 995. 


And Phaethon they found, or what seem'd he, 
Low lying in the reeds, a charr'd black mass, 
Furrow'd with trenchant fire from head to foot. 
Whom yet with reverent hands they lifted up 
And bare him to the bank, and wash'd the limbs 
In vain; and, for the burnt shreds clinging to 

Robed the cold form in raiment shining white. 
Then on the river-marge they scoop'd a grave 
And laid him in the dank earth far apart. 
Near to none else; for so the dead are laid 
Whom Zeus, the Thunderer, hath cut off by fire. 
And on the tomb they poured forth wine and oil. 
Nor fail'd they to record in distich due 
How from a kingly venture kingly fall 
Resulted, and a higher than human fame. 


How charming is divine philosophy! 

Not harsh and crabbed, as dull fools suppose, 


But musical as is Apollo's lute, 

And a perpetual feast of nectar'd sweets, 

Where no crude surfeit reigns. 

Euripides, Med. 825 ; Frag. Incert. 984 (Dindorf) ; 
Frag. Incert. 965. 


Farewell ! farewell ! but this I tell 

To thee, thou wedding guest, 
He prayeth well who loveth well 

Both man, and bird, and beast. 
. He prayeth best who loveth best 

All things both great and small; 
For the dear God who loveth us, 

He made and loveth all. 


Each petty hand 
Can steer a ship becalmed : but he that will 
Govern and carry her to her ends, must know 
His tides, his currents; how to shift the sails: 
What she will bear in foul what in fair weather. 
What sands, what shelves, what rocks do threaten 

The forces and the natures of the winds. 
Gusts, storms, and tempests, when her keel ploughs 

And deck knocks heaven, then to manage her, 
Becomes the name and office of a pilot. 
Euripides, Troad. 681. 

P 2 


Great lords, wise men ne'er sit and wail their loss, 
But cheerly seek how to redress their harms. 
What though the mast be now blown overboard, 
The cable broke, the holding anchor lost. 
And half our sailors swallowed in the flood, 
Yet lives our pilot still : is 't meet that he 
Should leave the helm, and, Hke a fearful lad. 
With tearful eyes add water to the sea. 
And give more strength to that which hath too 

much ; 
Whiles, in her moan, the ship splits on the rock. 
Which industry and courage might have saved ? 
Ah, what a shame ! Ah what a fault were this ! 

Aeschylus, Theb. 62, 208 ; Ag. 661 : 
Euripides, Troad. 77 ; Herac. 427. 


In sacred Athens, near the fane 
Of Wisdom, Pity's altar stood; 

Serve not the unknown God in vain, 

But pay that broken shrine again 
Love for hate and tears for blood ! 

Euripides, Phryx, Frag. 826 ; Frag. Incert. 967, 


Sighing, she rose, when now the sun was high. 
And, going to her wallet wearily, 
Took forth a phial thence, which she unstopped 
And a small driblet therefrom slowly dropped 
Upon a shred of linen, which straightway 


In the sun's gleaming pathway did she lay ; 
But when across it the first sunbeam came, 
Therefrom there burst a colourless bright flame, 
Which still burnt on when every shred was gone 
Of that which seemed to feed the flame alone ; 
Nor burnt it less for water, that she threw 
Across it and across. Thereon she drew 
A linen tunic from a brazen chest, 
Wherein lay hid the fairest and the best 
Of all her raiment ; this she held, and said :— 
' lason, thy love is fair, by likelihead, 
Pity it were to hide her overmuch, 
And when this garment her fair limbs shall touch, 
So will it hide them as the waters green 
Hid Citheraea when she first was seen.' 
Sophocles, T>: 672-704 : Euripides, Med. 784-789 ; 946-975. 

Now I change my mind, 
And partly credit thing's that do presage. 
Coming from Sardis, on our former ensign 
Two mighty eagles fell; and there they perch'd, 
Gorging and feeding from our soldiers' hands ; 
Who to Philippi here consorted us : 
This morning are they fled away and gone ; 
And in their steads, do ravens, crows, and kites, 
Fly o'er our heads, and downward look on us. 
As we were sickly prey : their shadows seem 
A canopy most fatal, under which 
Our army lies, ready to give up the ghost. 
Euripides, Frag. 631 : Sophocles, Antig. 998 : 
Aeschylus, Pers. 205 ; Ag. 216. 


Calp. O Caesar, these things are beyond all use 

And I do fear them. 
Caesar. Nay, but these predictions 

Are to the world in general as to Caesar. 
Calp. When beggars die there are no comets seen ; 

The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of 


This mournful truth is everywhere confess'd, 
Slow rises worth, by Poverty distrest. 

Haud facile emergunt quorum virtutibus obstat 
Res ano-usta domi. 

Nil habet infelix paupertas durius in se, 

Quam quod ridiculos homines facit. 

Euripides, Med. 560 ; El. 372, 376, 404 ; 
Tern. Frag. 728 (Dindorf). 


For what are men better than sheep or goats 
That nourish a blind life within the brain, 
If knowing God they lift not hands of prayer 
Both for themselves and those who call them friend } 
For so the whole round earth is every way 
Bound by gold chains about the feet of God. 
Euripides, Ion, 131, 638 : Aeschylus, Theb. 264. 


He who ascends to mountain tops, shall find 
The loftiest peaks most wrapt in clouds and snow ; 


He who surpasses or subdues mankind, 
Must look down on the hate of those below. 
Though high above the sun of glory glow, 
And far beneath the earth and ocean spread, 
Round him are icy rocks, and loudly blow 
Contending tempests on his naked head, 
And thus reward the toil that to those summits led. 
Euripides, Frag. Incert. 859 (Dindorf). 


When clouds are seen, wise men put on their cloaks, 
When great leaves fall, then winter is at hand; 
When the sun sets, who doth not look for night? 
Untimely storms make men expect a dearth ; 
All may be well; but, if God sort it so, 
'Tis more than we deserve, or I expect. 


Defer not till to-morrow to be wise ; 
To-morrow's sun on thee may never rise. 
Euripides, Ale. 782; Iph. in Tattr. 475. 

Prospect and Retrospect. 

The eye whose sun is setting deems mankind 
Hath run its course of wisdom ; while the boy, 
Since just out of his cradle, never doubts 
That History backward is as dark as night, 
And that the sunshine of the waking world 
Is all to come. 


Prosperous Vice. 

When men of infamy to grandeur soar, 

They light a torch to show their shame the more. 

Count all the advantage prosperous vice obtains, 
'Tis but what virtue flies from and disdains. 
Aeschylus, Ag. 385, 461. 


Yet cease the ways of Providence to blame, 
And human faults with human grief confess, 
'Tis thou art changed, while Heaven is still the same. 
From thy ill counsels date thy ill-success. 

Perverse mankind ! whose wills created free, 
Charge all their woes on absolute decree ; 
All to the dooming gods their guilt translate, 
And follies are miscalled the crimes of fate. 

See reff. under ' Gods.' 

Cease then, nor order imperfection name ; 

Our proper bliss depends on what we blame. 

All nature is but art unknown to thee ; 

All chance direction which thou canst not see 

All discord harmony, not understood ; 

All partial evil, universal good : 

And spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, 

One truth is clear, whatever is is right. 

Euripides, Here. Fur. 1240; Hec. 488 : 
Sophocles, Aj. 666. 



For it falls out, 
That what we have we prize not to the worth 
Whiles we enjoy it ; but being lack'd and lost, 
Why, then we rack the value : then we find 
The virtue that possession would not show us 
Whiles it was ours. 

Euripides, Hipp. 185. 

This truth came borne with bier and pall, 
I felt it when I sorrowed most, 
'Tis better to have loved and lost, 

Than never to have loved at all. 

But not to understand a treasure's worth. 
Till time has stolen away the slighted good. 
Is cause of half the poverty we feel, 
And makes the world the wilderness it is. 
Sophocles, Aj. 964. 

Remembrance of past joys. 

Let fate do her worst, there are relics of joy, 
Bright dreams of the past which she cannot destroy. 
Which come in the night-time of sorrow and care. 
And bring back the features which joy used to wear. 
Aeschylus, Ag. 420. 

Remembrance of past evils. 

Review the series of our lives, and taste 
The melancholy joy of evils past : 


For he who much hath sufTcrod, much will know, 

And pleased remembrance builds delight on woe. 

Aeschylus, Ag. 567. 


Chor. O worthy Queen, rashness doth overthrow 

The author of his resolution. 
loc. Where hope of help is lost, what booteth fear? 
Chor. Fear will avoid the sting of infamy. 
loc. May good or bad reports delight the dead? 
Chor. If of the living yet the dead have care. 
loc. An easy grief by counsel may be cured. 
Chor. But headstrong mischief princes should avoid. 
Euripides, Frag. Incert, 843, 844 (Dindorf). 


In maxima fortuna minima licentia. 

Poor petty states may alter upon humour, 
Where, if they offend with anger, few do know it, 
Because they are obscure : their fame and fortune 
Is equal and the same : but they that are 
Head of the world, and live in that seen height, 
All mankind knows their actions. So we see 
The greater fortune hath the lesser Hcence. 
Euripides, Ale. Frag. 80 ; Med. 120 ; Hec. 864 ; Ion, 597 : 
Sophocles, Aj. 154. 


Blood asketh blood, and death must death requite : 
Jove by his just and everlasting doom 


Justly hath ever so requited it. 
This time before record and times to come 
Shall find it true, and so doth present proof 
Present before our eyes for our behoof. 

Aeschylus, Choeph. 64, 309, 400: Euripides, Phryx, Frag. 825. 

Deeds are done on earth 
Which have their punishment ere the earth closes 
Upon their perpetrators ; be it the working 
Of the remorse-stirred fancy, or the vision, 
Distinct and real, of unearthly being, 
All ages witness that beside the couch 
Of the fell homicide oft stalks the ghost 
Of him he slew, and shows the shadowy wound. 
Euripides, Or. 392 : Aeschylus, Choeph. 1048. 


Revenge and Wrong bring forth their kind, 
The foul cubs like the parents are, 

Their den is in the guilty mind. 

And Conscience feeds them with Despair. 
Aeschylus, Ag. 750-764. 


Well, whiles I am a beggar, I will rail, 
And say, there is no sin but to be rich; 
And, being rich, my virtue then shall be, 
To say — there is no vice but beggary. 

For money is the only power 
That all mankind fall down before; 


Money, that like the sword of kings, 
Is the last reason of all things. 
Sophocles, Ant. 295. 

Extol not riches, then, the toil of fools. 
The wise man's cumbrance, if not snare ; more apt 
To slacken virtue and abate her edge, 
Than prompt her to do aught may merit praise. 
Euripides, Bell Frag. 285 (Dindorf) ; Archel. Frag. 248. 


What stronger breast-plate than a heart untainted.? 
Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just; 
And he but naked, though locked up in steel, 
Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted. 
Euripides, Pal. Frag. 588 (Dindorf). 


There is a lust in man no charm can tame, 
Of loudly publishing his neighbour's shame ; 
On eagle's wings immortal scandals fly, 
While virtuous actions are but born and die. 

Euripides, El. 904 ; Phoen. 206. 

Sea Fight. 

My presence bore 
A part in that day's shame. The Grecian fleet 
Bore down at day-break from the North, and hung 
As multitudinous on the ocean line 
As cranes upon the cloudless Thracian wind. 


Our squadron convoying ten thousand men, 

Was stretching towards Nauplia, when the battle 

Was kindled. 

First through the hail of our artillery 

The agile Hydriote barks with press of sail 

Dashed : ship to ship, cannon to cannon, man 

To man, were grappled in the embrace of war. 

Inextricable but by death or victory. 

The tempest of the raging fight convulsed 

To its crystalline depths that stainless sea. 

And shook heaven's roof of golden morning-clouds 

Poised on an hundred azure mountain-isles. 

In the brief trances of the artillery, 

One cry from the destroyed and the destroyer 

Rose, and a cloud of desolation wrapt 

The unforeseen event, till the north-wind 

Sprung from the sea, lifting the heavy veil 

Of battle-smoke — then victory — victory! 

For, as we thought, three frigates from Algiers 

Bore down from Naxos to our aid, but soon 

The abhorred cross glimmered behind, before, 

Among, around us : and that fatal sign 

Dried with its beams the strength of Moslem hearts. 

As the sun drinks the dew. 

Aeschylus, Pers. 386 ; Ag. 634-670. 

What more .? we fled ! 
Our noonday path over the sanguine foam 
Was beaconed, and the glare struck the sun pale 
By our consuming transports: the fierce light 
Made all the shadows of our sails blood-red. 
And every countenance blank. Some ships lay feeding 


The ravening fire even to the water's level: 

Some were blown up; some setth'ng heavily 

Sunk: and the shrieks of our companions died 

Upon the wind, that bore us fast and far, 

Even after they were dead. Nine thousand perished ! 

We met the vultures legioned in the air, 

Stemming the torrent of the tainted wind : 

They, screaming from their cloudy mountain-peaks, 

Stooped through the sulphurous battle-smoke, and 

Each on the weltering carcase that we loved, 
Like its ill-angel or its damned soul. 
We saw the dog-fish hastening to their feast. 
Joy waked the voiceless people of the sea, 
And ravening Famine left his ocean-cave 
To dwell with war, with us, and with despair. 

Aeschylus, Pcrs. 272-279; 412 sqq. ; 576; Ag. 653 sqq. ; 


Self knowledge. 

Trust not yourself; but your defects to know. 
Make use of every friend, and every foe. 

Know then thyself, presume not God to scan, 
The proper study of Mankind is Man. 
Euripides, Hipp. 465, 744. 


Revere thyself: — and yet thyself despise; 
His nature no man can o'er-rate, and none 
Can under-rate his merit. 


In spite of dulness, and in spite of wit, 
If to thyself thou canst thyself acquit ; 
Rather stand up, assured with conscious pride. 
Alone, than err with millions at thy side. 

Euripides, Iph. in Aid. 560. 


No might nor greatness in mortality 
Can censure 'scape : back-wounding calumny 
The whitest virtue strikes. What king so strong 
Can tie the gall up in the slanderous tongue? 

To hear an open slander is a curse; 
But not to find an answer is a worse. 
Sophocles, Aj. 157 : Euripides, P/iocit. 198. 

Nine tithes of times 
Face-flatterer and back-biter are the same. 
And they, sweet soul, that most impute a crime 
Are pronest to it, and impute themselves 
Wanting the mental range ; or low desire 
Not to feel lowest, makes them level all ; 
Yea, they would pare the mountain to the plain, 
To leave an equal baseness. 


Nox erat et mentes per terras somnus habebat. 

Behold the world 
Rests, and her tired inhabitants have paused 
From trouble and turmoil. The widow now 


Has ceased to weep, and her twin orphans lie 
Locked in each arm, partakers of her rest. 
The man of sorrow has forgot his woes; 
The outcast that his head is shelterless, 
His griefs unshared. — The mother tends no more 
Her daughter's dying slumbers, but surprised 
With heaviness, and sunk upon her couch, 
Dreams of her bridals. 

Silence and deep repose 
Reign o'er the nations ; and the warning voice 
Of nature utters audibly within 
The general moral : — tells us that repose, 
Deathlike as this, but of far longer span. 
Is coming on us. 

Euripides, Or. 174. 

King Hen. How many thousand of my poorest subjects 
Are at this hour asleep! — Sleep, gentle sleep, 
Nature's soft nurse, how have I frighted thee, 
That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down, 
And steep my senses in forgetfulness ? 
Why rather, sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs, 
Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee, 
And hushed with buzzing night-flies to thy slumber ; 
Than in the perfumed chambers of the great, 
Under the canopies of costly state. 
And lull'd with sounds of sweetest melody? 

Sophocles, Phil. 766, 827 : Aeschylus, Ag. 12, 889 : 
Euripides, Or. 174, 211. 



It was not by vile loitering in ease, 
That Greece obtained the brighter pahn of art ; 
It was not thus majestic Rome arose, 
And o'er the nations shook her conquering dart : 
For sluggard's brow the laurel never grows ; 
Renown is not the child of indolent repose. 
Euripides, El. 80. 

I am plain, fathers. Here you look about 

One at another, doubting what to do. 

With faces, as you trusted to the gods; 

But 'tis not wishing or base womanish prayers 

Can draw their help, but vigilance, counsel, .action. 

'Tis sloth they hate and cowardice. 

Euripides, Rhesus, 395, 423 ; Hel. 762. 


Chorus. Fathers are wont .to lay up for their sons, 
Thou for thy son art bent to lay out all : 
Sons wont to nurse their parents in old age, 
Thou in old age car'st how to nurse thy son, 
INIade older than thy age through eyesight lost. 

Sophocles, Aj. 570; Ocd. Rex, 1459; Oed. Col. 339: 
Euripides, Ion, 1409; IpJi. in Aitl. 1288. 


Through the vain webs which puzzle sophists' skill, 
Plain sense and honest meaning work their w'ay ; 
So sink the varying clouds upon the hill, 
When the clear dawning brightens into day. 
Euripides, Baccli. 489 ; Phoen. 469. 




The higher life. 

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear 

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, 

To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, 

To honour his own word as if his God's, 

To lead sweet lives of purest chastity, 

To love one maiden only, cleave to her, 

And worship her by years of noble deeds, 

Until they won her ; for indeed I know 

Of no more subtle master under heaven 

Than is the maiden passion for a maid, 

Not only to keep down the base in man, 

But teach high thought, and amiable words 

And courtliness, and the desire of fame. 

And love of truth, and all that makes a man. 

Euripides, Hipp. 990. 


Chaldean shepherds, ranging trackless fields, 
Beneath the concave of unclouded skies 
Spread like a sea, in boundless solitude, 
Looked on the polar star, as on a guide 
And guardian of their course, that never closed 
His steadfast eye. The planetary Five 
With a submissive reverence they beheld ; 
Watched, from the centre of their sleeping flocks, 
Those radiant Mercuries, that seemed to move 
Carrying through ether, in perpetual round. 
Decrees and resolutions of the Gods; 


And, by their aspect, signifying works 
Of dim futurity, to Man revealed. 

Euripides, Frag. 593 (Plrifhoiis), and 594 : 
Sophocles, Tr. 130 : Aeschylus, Ag. 4. 


Oh ! impotent of mind, in body strong ! 

But what is strength without a double share 

Of wisdom.? vast, unwieldy, burdensome, 

Proudly secure, yet liable to fall 

By weakest subtleties, not made to rule, 

But to subserve where wisdom bears command. 

Euripides, Tent. Frag. 735 (Dindorf). 


Let them call it mischief: 
When it is past, and prosper'd, 'twill be virtue. 
'Tis petty crimes are punished, great rewarded. 


Justified by Philosophy as the entrance of eternal happiness. 

If there's a power above us 
(And that there is all nature cries aloud 
Through all her works), he must delight in virtue ; 
And that which he delights in must be happy. 
Thus am I doubly armed : my death and life. 
My bane and antidote are both before me. 
This in a moment brings me to an end. 
But this informs me I shall never die. 

Q 2 


The soul, secured in her existence, smiles 
At the drawn dagger and defies its point. 

See ' Death.' 

But if that carelesse hevens, quoth she, despise 
The doome of iust revenge, and take delight 
To see sad pageaunts of mens miseries, 
As bownd by them to live in lives' despight ; 
Yet can they not warne Death from wretched wight. 
Come, then ; come soone ; come, sweetest Death to me, 
And take away this long-lent loathed light: 
Sharpe be thy wounds, but sweet the medicines be. 
That long captived soules from weary thraldome free. 

But thou, sweete Babe, whom frowning froward fale 
Hath made sad witnesse of thy fathers fall, 
Sith heven thee deignes to hold in living state, 
Long maist thou live, and better thrive withall 
Than to thy lucklesse parents did befall ! 
Live thou! and to thy mother dead attest, 
That cleare she dide from blemish criminall. 
Sophocles, A]. 550, 815, 854. 


Glo. Suspicion always haunts the guilty mind; 

The thief doth fear each bush an officer. 
K. Hen. The bird, that hath been limed in a bush, 

With trembling wings misdoubteth every bush; 

And I, the hapless male to one sweet bird, 

Have now the fatal object in my eye, 

Where my poor young was limed, was caught, and kill'd. 
Aeschylus, Ag. 1289. 


Q. Marg. Then you, belike, suspect these noblemen 
As guilty of Duke Humphrey's timeless death. 

Waj-ivich. Who finds the heifer dead, and bleeding fresh, 
And sees fast by a butcher with an axe, 
But will suspect, "twas be that made the slaughter? 
Who finds the partridge in the puttock's nest, 
But may imagine how the bird was dead, 
Althou2:h the kite soar with unbloodied beak? 
Even so suspicious is this tragedy. 


Chorus. He speaks, let us draw nigh. Matchless in might 
The glory late of Israel, now the grief. 
We come, thy friends and neighbours not unknown, 
To visit, or bewail thee, or, if better, 
Counsel or consolation we may bring, 
Salve to thy sores : apt words have power to swage 
The tumours of a troubled mind, 
And are as balm to festered wounds. 

Sophocles, Oed, Rex, 1422 : Aeschylus, Pr. V. 377. 


But 'tis strange : 
And, oftentimes, to win us to our harm, 
The instruments of darkness tell us truths; 
Win us with honest trifles, to betray us 
In deepest consequence. 

See under ' Gods.' 



77?^ course of time and rivers is the same. 

Assiduo labuntur tempora motu, 
Non secus ac flumen. Neque enim consistere flumen 
Nee levis hora potest : sed ut unda impellitur unda, 
Urgeturque prior venienti, urgetque priorem, 
Tempora sic fugiunt pariter pariterque sequuntur; 
Et nova sunt semper. Nam quod fuit ante relictum est; 
Fitque quod baud fuerat; momentaque cuncta no- 


Cursed be the gold and silver, which persuade 
Weak men to follow far-fatiguing trade. 
The lily, peace, outshines the silver store, 
And life is dearer than the golden ore. 
Yet money tempts us o'er the desert brown. 
To every distant mart and wealthy town. 

Truth and Seeming. 

The world that never sets esteem 

On what things are, but what they seem ; 

And, if they be not strange and new, 
Likes them not more for being true. 
Euripides, Phoen. 499. 


The glories of our birth and state 
Are shadows, not substantial things ; 



There is no armour against fate ; 
Death lays his icy hand on kings : 

Sceptre and crown 

IMust tumble down, 
And in the dust be equal made 
With the poor crooked scythe and spade. 

I know that all beneath the moon decays, 
And what by mortals in this world is wrought 
In Time's great periods shall return to nought : 
The fairest states have fatal nights and days, 
I know that all the Muses' heavenly lays 
With toil of sprite which are so dearly bought, 
As idle sounds, of few or none are sought : 
That there is nothing lighter than vain praise. 
I know frail Beauty's like the purple flower 
To which one morn oft birth and death affords ; 
That Love a jarring is of minds' accords 
Where sense and will bring under reason's power ; 
Know what I list, this all cannot me move 
But that, alas, I must both write and love. 

Sophocles, Oed. Col. 607 ; Aj. 669. 

Vanity of Human Wishes. 

O ever-failing trust 
In mortal strength ! and, oh ! what not in man 
Deceivable and vain? nay, what thing good, 
Pray'd for, but often proves our woe, our bane? 
I pray'd for children, lo ! I gain'd a son. 
And such a son as all men call'd me happy ; 
Who now would be a father in my stead ? 
Euripides, Ion, 378 : Sophocles, Aj. 125. 



77/c mvnvd of jnrtnc not in r.vtrrnal goods. 

\Miat notliing earthly gives, or can destroy, 
The soul's calm sunshine, and the heart-fell joy. 
Is virtue's prize. 

Know then this truth (enough for ]\Ian to know), 
' \'irtue alone is Happiness below.' 
Euripides, lo)i, 440. 

Vuitic invincible. 

Against the threats 
Of malice, or of sorcery, or that power 
Which erring men call Chance, this I hold firm, 
Virtue may be assail'd, but never hurt, 
Surpriz'd by unjust force, but not inthrall'd : 
Yea even that which mischief meant most harm, 
Shall in the happy trial prove most glory: 
But evil on itself shall back recoil. 
Euripides, Aiidr. 775. 

How vain is virtue, which directs our ways 
Through certain danger to uncertain praise ! 
Barren, and airy name ! thee fortune flies, 
With thy lean train, the pious and the wise. 
Heaven takes thee at thy word, without regard. 
And lets thee poorly be thy ov.'n reward. 
The world is made for the bold impious man, 
Who stoops at nothing, seizes all he can. 
Justice to merit does weak aid afford; 
She trusts her balance and neglects her sword. 


Virtue is nice to take what's not her own ; 
And while she long consults, the prize is gone. 

Euripides. Supp. 594. 


Want is a bitter and a hateful good, 

Because its virtues are not understood. 

Prudence at once and fortitude it gives, 

And, if in patience taken, mends our lives : 

For even that indigence which brings us low, 

Makes me myself and Him above to know; 

A good which none would challenge, few would 

A fair possession which mankind refuse. 
If we from wealth to poverty descend 
Want gives to know the flatterer from the friend. 
Euripides, Hec. 1226. 


1 hate those potent madmen who keep all 
Mankind awake, while they, by their great deeds. 
Are drumming hard upon this hollow world, 
Only to make a sound to last for ages. 


My husband and disposer, what thou bidst 
Unargued I obey ; so God ordains, 
God is thy law, thou mine ; to know no more 
Is woman's happiest knowledge and her praise. 


I hold that man the worst of public foes 
Who either for his own or children's sake, 
To save his blood from scandal, lets the wife 
Whom he knows false, abide, and rule the house 
For being through his cowardice allowed 
Her st.ition, taken everywhere for pure, 
She like a new disease, unknown to men, 
Creeps, no precaution used, among the crowd, 
]\Iakes wicked lightnings of her eyes, and saps 
The fealty of our friends, and stirs the i)ulse 
Widi devil's leaps, and poisons half the young. 

Euripides, Hipp. 630. 

I take it, God made the woman for the man, 
And for the good and increase of the world. 
A pretty face is well, and this is well. 
To have a dame indoors, that trims us up, 
And keeps us tight; but these unreal ways 
Seem but the theme of writers, and indeed 
Worn threadbare. Man is made of solid stuff. 

Euripides, EL 71, 930 ; Ttoad. 629 ; Iph. in Aid. 749 : 
Sophocles, Ant. 650: Aeschylus, Ag. 601. 

Nay, dart not scornful glances from those eyes 
To wound thy lord, thy king, thy governor; 
It blots thy beauty, as frosts bite the meads. 
And in no sense is meet or amiable. 
A woman moved is like a fountain troubled. 
And while it is so, none so dry or thirsty 
Will deign to sip or touch a drop of it ; 
Thy husband is thy lord, thy life, thy keeper, 
Thy head, thy sovereign, one that cares for thee; 



And for thy maintenance commits his body 

To painful labour, both by sea and land, 

While thou liest warm at home secure and safe, 

And craves no other tribute at thy hands 

But love, fair looks, and true obedience. I 

Euripides, Ale. 773: Aeschylus, Emu. 664. . 


O ! why did God 
Creator wise! that peopled highest heaven 
With spirits masculine, create at last 
This novelty on earth, this fair defect 
Of nature, and not fill the world at once 
With men, as angels, without feminine? 
Or find some other way to generate 
INIankind ? this mischief had not then befall'n. 

Euripides, Hipp. 616, 635, and see ' Models.' 

O woman ! in our hours of ease 
Uncertain, coy, and hard to please, 
And variable as the shade 
By the light quivering aspen made, 
When pain and anguish wring the brow, 
A ministering angel thou ! 

Therefore God's universal law 
Gave to the man despotic power 
Over his female in due awe, 
Nor from that right to part an hour. 


Smile she or lour; 

So shall he least confusion draw 

On his whole life, not swayed 

By female usurpation, or dismayed. 

He muttered to himself, ' What did she say ? 
" Not mount so high " — we scarce can sink as low ; 
For men at most differ as heaven and earth, 
But women, worst and best, as heaven and hell.' 

Chorus. Tax not divine disposal ; wisest men 

Have err'd, and by bad women been deceiv'd ; 
And shall again, pretend they ne'er so wise. 
Deject not then so overmuch thyself, ^ 
Who hast of sorrow thy full load besides. 

These are great maxims, sir, it is confessed ; 
Too stately for a woman's narrow breast. 
Poor love is lost in men's capacious minds; 
In ours it fills up all the room it finds. 

Euripides, Audi: 213. 

When the man wants weight the woman takes it up. 
And topples down the scales; but this is fixed 
As are the roots of earth and base of all : 
Man for the field and woman for the hearth: 
Man for the sword and for the needle she: 
Man with the head and woman with the heart : 
Man to command and woman to obey: 
All else confusion. Look you ! the gray mare 
Is ill to live with, when her whinny shrills 


From tile to scullery, and her small goodman 
Shrinks in his arm-chair while the fires of Hell 
Mix with his hearth : but you — she 's yet a colt — 
Take break her: strongly groom'd and straitly 

She mio-ht not rank with those detestable 
That let the bantling scold at home, and brawl 
Their rights and wrongs like pot-herbs in the 


Euripides, El. 71-76, 930-956; Hipp, 6i6-6~,o ; Troad. 640- 
651 ; Med. 230, 524 ; Cyd. 14 ; Andr. 93, 153. 943 ; Phoen. 
198 ; Or. 605, 684 : 

Sophocles, Tyr. Frag. 587 (Dindorf) ; Aj. 293 : Aeschylus, 
Sept. 189, 200. 

And yet believe me, good as well as ill, 
Woman's at best a Contradiction still. 
Heaven when it strives .to polish all it can 
Its last best work, but forms a softer Man: 
Picks from each sex to make the Favourite blest, 
Your love of Pleasure, Our desire of Rest ; 
Blends, in exception to all general rules. 
Your Taste of Follies with our scorn of Fools; 
Reserve with Frankness, Art and Truth allied, 
Courage with Softness, IModesty with Pride; 
Fixed Principles, with Fancy ever new; 
Shakes all together and produces — You. 

Euripides, Atidr. 181,269; Hipp. 616,625, 638; Med. 2^0, 
263, 406; Here. Fur. 536; Hec. 1178; Herac. 476; 
Or. 1204. 



O ! many a shaft at random sent, 
Finds mark the archer little meant ! 
And many a word at random spoken, 
]\Iay soothe or wound a heart that 's broken 1 
Euripides, Hoc. Fur. 195 : Aeschylus, Ag. 267. 

Fair Words. 

AUis, how fair a c:olour can his tongue 
Who self exculpates lend to foulest deeds. 

Throughout the world, if it were sought, 
Fair words enough a man shall find, 

They be good cheap, they cost right nought, 
Their substance is but only wind : 

But well to say and so to mean, 

That sweet accord is seldom seen. 


Ah ! world unknown ! how charming is thy view, 
Thy pleasures many, and each pleasure new : 
Ah ! world experienced ! what of thee is told ? 
How few thy pleasures, and those few, how old! 
Euripides, Ion, 641 ; Cyclop. 249. 


' Nullus argento color est avaris 
Abdito terrt's.' 

Full many a gem of purest ray serene 
The dark unfathomed caves of Ocean bear; 
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air. 



Heedless of the future. 

Alas ! regardless of their doom, 

The little victims play ; 
No sense have they of ills to come, 

No care beyond to-day. 
— Yet, ah ! why should they know their fate, 
Since sorrow never comes too late, 

And happiness too swiftly flies? 
Thought would destroy their paradise. 
No more; — where ignorance is bliss, 

'Tis folly to be wise. 

Sophocles, Aj. 555. 



An cxho}tatioii to lovalfv. 

Bp.of Si. And. Since we have spoke and counsel is not 
I for my part, — let others as lliey hst, — 
Will leave the court, and leave him to his will, 
Lest with a ruthful eye I should behold 
His overthrow, which, sore I fear, is nigh. 

Q. Dor. Ah father, are you so estranged from love, 
From due allegiance to your prince and land. 
To leave your king when most he needs your help ? 
The thrifty husbandmen are never wont, 
That see their lands unfruitful, to forsake them ; 
But when the mould is barren and unapt. 
They toil, they plough, and make the fallow fat : 
The pilot in the dangerous seas is known ; 
In calmer waves the silly sailor strives. 
Are you not members, lords, of commonweal, 
And can your head, your dear anointed king, 
Default, ye lords, except yourselves do fail ? 
O stay your steps, return, and counsel him. 

Sophocles, Oed. Rex, 14, 444: Aeschylus, Theb. 62. 

Thyestes recalled from banishment is filled with fear 
and foreboding. 

Thyest. O wondrous pleasure to a banished man, 
I feel my loved long-Iooked-for native soil ! 


And oh ! my weary eyes that all the day 

Had from some mountain travelled toward this 

Now rest themselves upon the royal towers 
Of that great palace where I had my birth. 
And now a thousand objects more ride fast 
On morning beams, and meet my eyes in throngs. 
And see, all Argos meets me with loud shouts. 
Philisth. O joyful sound ! 
Thyest. But with them Atreus too — 
Phil. What ails my father that he stops and shakes, 

And now retires } 
Thyest. Return with me, my son, 
And old friend Peneus, to the honest beasts, 
And faithful desert haunts — no villainy 
Lies in the prospect of a humble cave. 
Peneus. Talk you of villainy and foes and fraud.? 
Thyest. I talk of Atreus. 
Pen. What are these to him ? 
Thyest. Nearer than I am, for they are himself 
Pen. Gods drive these impious thoughts out of your 

Thyest. The gods for all our safety put them there. 

Return, return with me. 
Pen. Against our oaths 

I cannot stem the vengeance of the gods. 
Thyest. There are no gods ; they've left this dire abode. 
Pen. True race of Tantalus! who parent-like 
Are doomed in midst of plenty to be starved. 
His hell and yours differ alone in this : 
When he would catch at joys, they fly from him ; 
When glories catch at you, you fly from them. 



Thyest. A fit companion ; our joys and his 
Are lying shadows, which to trust is hell. 

Dalila after repulse renounces Samson. 
I see thou art implacable, more deaf 
To prayers than winds and seas, yet winds to seas 
Are reconciled at length, and sea to shore: 
Thy anger unappeasable still rages, 
Eternal tempest never to be calmed. 
Why do I humble thus mvself, and suina: 
For peace, reap nothing but repulse and hate? 
Bid go with evil omen and the brand 
Of infamy upon my name denounced ! 
To mix with thy concernments I desist 
Henceforth, nor too much disapprove my own. 

A Dialogue. 

Q. Eliz. If something thou wilt swear to be believed, 
Swear then by something that thou hast not wrong'd. 

K. Rich. Now by the world — 

Q' Eliz. 'Tis full of thy foul wrongs. 

K. Rich. My father's death— 

Q- Eliz. Thy life hath that dishonour'd. 

K. Rich. Then, by myself — 

Q. Eliz. Thyself thyself misusest. 

K. Rich. Why then, by God— 

Q. Eliz. God's wrong is most of all. 

If thou hadst fear'd to break an oath by Him, 
The unity the king thy brother made 
Had not been broken, nor my brother slain: 
If thou hadst fear'd to break an oath by Him, 


The imperial metal, circling now thy brow, 
Had graced the tender temples of my child, 
And both the princes had been breathing here, 
Which now, two tender playfellows for dust, 
Thy broken faith hath made a prey for worms. 
What canst thou swear by now ? 

K. Rich. The time to come. 

Q. EUz. That thou hast wronged in the time o'erpast ; 
For I myself have many tears to wash 
Hereafter time, for time past wrong'd by thee. 

A Dialogue. 

Aepytus. And to what friends should I for aid apply? 

Merope. The royal race of Temenos in Argos — 

Aepytus. That house, like ours, intestine murder maims. 

Merope. Thy Spartan cousins, Procles and his brother — 

Aepytus. Love a won cause, but not a cause to win. 

Merope. My father then and- his Arcadian chiefs — 

Aepytus. Mean still to keep aloof from Dorian broil. 

Merope. Wait then until sufficient help appears. 

Aepytus. Orestes in Mycenae had no more. 

Merope. He to fulfil an order raised his hand. 

Aepytus. What order more precise had he than \} 

Merope. Apollo pealed it from his Delphian cave. 

Aepytus. A mother's murder needed hest divine. 

Merope. He had a hest, at least, and thou hast none. 

Aepytus. The gods command not where the heart speaks 


Merope. Thou wilt destroy, I see, thyself and us. 

Sophocles, El. 385 sqq. ; 1017-1054 : 

Euripides, Hec. 876-897. 

R 2 


King John repudiates the action of Hubert. 

K. John. Why seek'st thou to possess me ^sith these 
fears ? 
W*hy urgest thou so oft young Arthur's death ? 
Thy hand hath murder'd him : I had might}- cause 
To wish him dead, but thou hadst none to kill him. 

Hub. Had none, my lord I why, did you not pro- 
voke me? 

K.John. It is the curse of kings, to be attended 
By slaves, that take their humours for a warrant 
To break within the bloody house of life; 
And on the winking of authority, 
To understand a law ; to know the meaning 
Of dangerous majesty, when, perchance, it froA^^ns 
More upon himiour than advis'd respect. 

Hub. Here is your hand and seal for what I did. 
Aeschylus, Pr. V. 224. 

A Confession extorted. 

Countess. Now I see 

The mystery of your loneHness, and find 
Your salt tears' head. Now to all sense 'tis gross 
You love my son. Nay. Helen, but thy cheeks 
Confess it, one to the other; and thine eyes 
After their kind do speak it. Say, is 't not so? 
If it be so you've wound a goodly clue ; 
If it be not forswear't : howe'er, I charge thee, 
To tell me truly. 

Hel. Good madam, pardon me I 

Countess. Do you love my son ? 

Hel. Your pardon,, noble mistress ! 


Countess. Love you my son? 

Hel. Do not you love him, madam? 

Countess. Go not about; my love hath in't a bond, 
Whereof the world takes note : come, come, disclose 
The state of your affection ; for your passions 
Have to the full appeached. 

Hel. Then, I confess 

Here on my knee, before high heaven and you. 
That before you, and next unto high heaven, 
I love your son. 

Euripides, Hipp. 267, 347. 
A pitiless creditor. 

Bass. This is no answer, thou unfeeling man, 
To excuse the current of thy cruelty. 

.S"^'. I am not bound to please thee with my answer. 

Bass. Do all men kill the things they do not love? 

Shy-. Hates any man the thing he would not kill? 

Bass. Every offence is not a hate at first. 

Shy. What, wouldst thou have a serpent sting thee twice r 

Ant. I pray you, think you question with the Jew : 
You may as well go stand upon the beach. 
And bid the main flood bate his usual height ; 
You may as well use question with the wolf, 
Why he hath made the ewe bleat for the lamb ; 
You may as well forbid the mountain pines 
To wag their high tops, and to make no noise, 
When they are fretted with the gusts of heaven; 
You may as well do anything most hard. 
As seek to soften that (than which what's harder?) 
His Jewish heart — therefore I do beseech you 
Make no more offers. 


Warriors, gallant and gay, described. 

Vernon. And further, I have learn'd — 

The king himself in person is set forth, 
Or hitherwards intended speedily, 
With strong and mighty preparation. 

Hols. He shall be welcome too. Where is his son, 
The nimble-footed mad-cap prince of Wales, 
And his comrades, that dafF'd the world aside. 
And bid it pass ? 

Vernon. All furnish'd, all in arms, 

All plumed like estridges, that wing the wind : 
Bated like eagles having lately bath'd; 
Glittering in golden coats like images: 
As full of spirit as the month of IMay, 
And gorgeous as the sun at midsummer. 
Wanton as youthful goats, wild as young bulls. 
I saw young Harr)', — with his beaver on, 
His cuisses on his thighs, — gallantly aj-m'd — 
Rise from the ground like feather'd Tvlercury, 
And vaulted with such ease into his seat, 
As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds 
To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus, 
And witch the world with noble horsemanship. 
Euripides, Rhe. 296. 

Enter, a haughty braggart. 
Chor. But had we best retire? I see a storm. 
Sams. Fair days have oft contracted wind and rain. 
Chor. But this another kind of tempest brings. 
Sa?ns. Be less abstruse, my riddling days are past. 
Chor. Look now for no enchanting voice, nor fear 
The bait of honied words : a rougher tongue 


Draws hitherward ; I know him by his stride, 
The giant Harapha of Gath, his look 
Haughty as is his pile high built and proud. 
Comes he in peace ? What wind hath blown him 

hither ? 
I less conjecture than when first I saw 
The sumptuous Dalila floating this way: 
His habit carries peace, his brow defiance. 

Sams. Or peace, or not, alike to me he comes. 

Chor. His fraught we soon shall know, he now arrives. 

Har. I come not, Samson, to condole thy chance 
As these perhaps, yet wish it had not been, 
Though for no friendly intent. 

Aeschylus, Pr. V. 941. 
One life counts for Utile in public calamity. 

Artevelde. I know, Sir, no man better, where my talk 
Is serviceable singly, where it needs 
To be by acts enforced. I say, beware, 
And brave not mine authority too far. 

Van den Bosch. Hast thou authority to take my life? 
What is it else to let yon herald in 
To bargain for our blood .' 

Artevelde. Thy life again ! 

Whv, what a verv slave of life art thou ! 
Look round about on this once populous town ; 
Not one of these innumerous house-tops 
But hides some spectral form of misery, 
Some peevish pining child and moaning mother, 
Some aged man that in his dotage scolds, 
Not knowing why he hungers, some cold corse 


That lies unstraightened where the spirit left it. 
Look round and answer what thy life can be 
To tell for more than dust upon the balance. 
Aeschylus, Agatii. 638: Sophocles, Oed. Rex, 622. 

Teiresias suggests that Moioeccits should devote himself for 
his country. 

From within 
The city comes a murmur void of joy, 
Lest she be taken captive — maidens, wives, 
Falling about their shrines before their gods, 
And wailing ' Save us.' 

And they wail to thee! 
These eyeless eyes, that cannot see thine own, 
See this, that only in thy virtue lies 
The saving of our Thebes ; for, yesternight, 
To me the great God Ares, whose one bliss 
Is war and human sacrifice — himself 
Blood-red from battle, spear and helmet tipt 
With stormy light as on a mast at sea. 
Stood out before a darkness, crying ' Thebes, 
Thy Thebes shall fall and perish, for I loathe 
The seed of Cadmus — yet if one of these 
By his own hand — if one of these — ' 

My son, 
No sound is breathed so potent to coerce, 
And to conciliate, as their names who dare 
For that sweet mother-land which gave them birth 
Nobly to do, nobly to die. 

Euripides, Phoen. 986 1018. 


Prometheus defiant. 

Prom. If by submission I might dwell in joy 
Among those upstart gods, I would not quit 
This bleak ravine, these unrepentant pains. 

Merc. Alas ! I wonder at yet pity thee. 

Prom. Pity the self-despising slaves of Heaven 
Not me, within whose mind sits peace serene. 
Call up the Fiends ! 

2Ierc. I must obey Jove's words and thine. Alas! 
■Most heavily remorse hangs at my heart. 

Fury. Prometheus ! Titan ! Champion of mankind I 

Prom. He whom some dreadful voice invokes is here, 
Prometheus, the chained Titan. Horrible forms, 
What and who are ye .'' Never yet there came 
Phantasms so foul from monster-teeming Hell ! 

Fury. We are the ministers of pain, and fear, 
And disappointment, and mistrust, and hate, 
And cHnging crime, and as lean dogs pursue 
Through wood and lake some struck and sobbing fawn 
We track all things that weep and bleed and live 
When the great king betrays them to our will. 

Prom. O many fearful natures in one name ! 
I know ye, and these lakes and echoes knoAv 
The darkness and the clangour of your wings. 
But why more hideous than your loathed selves 
Gather ye up in legions from the deep ? 

Aeschylus, Pr. V. looi : Choeph. 1048. 
•' Ins sunni cuique.^ 

Duke. How shalt though hope for mercy, rend'ring 


Shy. What judgment shall I dread, doing no wrong? 
You have among you many a purchased slave, 
Which, like your asses, and your dogs, and mules, 
You use in abject and in slavish parts, 
Because you bought them. — Shall I say to you. 
Let them be free, marry them to your heirs ? 
Why sweat they under burdens? let their beds 
Be made as soft as yours, and let their palates 
Be seasoned with such viands ? You will answer, 
The slaves are ours : so do I answer you. 
The pound of flesh which I demand of him, 
Is dearly bought, is mine, and 1 will have it. 

The ghost of Protcsilaus speaks. 
Great Jove, Laodamia, doth not leave 
His gifts imperfect. Spectre though I be, ^ 
I am not sent to scare thee, or deceive ; 
But in reward of thy fidelity. 
And something also did my worth obtain ; 
For fearless virtue bringeth boundless gain. 
Thou knowest the Delphic oracle foretold 
That the first Greek who touched the Trojan strand 
Should die : but me the threat could not withhold : 
A generous cause a victim did demand ; 
And forth I leapt upon the sandy plain : 
A self-devoted chief — by Hector slain. 

Love may recall the dead to life. 

Protesilaus. Be taught, O faithful consort, to control, 
Rebellious passion ; for the gods approve 
The depth, and not the tumult, of the soul ; 
A fervent, not ungovernable love. 


Thy transports moderate ; and meekly mourn 
When I depart, for brief is my sojourn. 
lAiodamia. Ah, wherefore? Did not Hercules by force 
Wrest from the guardian monster of the tomb 
Alcestis, a reanimated corse, 
Given back to dwell on earth in vernal bloom ? 
Medea's spells dispersed the weight of years, 
And Aeson stood a youth 'mid youthful peers. 
The gods to us are merciful, and they 
Yet further may relent ; for mightier far 
Than strength of nerve or sinew, or the sway 
Of magic potent over sun and star, 
Is love, though oft to agony distrest, 
And though his favourite seat be feeble woman's breast. 

Iphigenia suspected of aiding Orestes to escape. 

Arkas. I am perplexed, O King, 

And know not whom I justly should accuse. 
Whether the priestess aids the youths in flight, 
Or they themselves clandestinely contrive it. 
'Tis rumoured that the ship which brought them both 
Is lurking somewhere in the neighbourhood. 
This stranger's madness, these new lustral rites. 
This specious pretext for delay, excite 
Mistrust and call aloud for vigilance. 

Thoas. Summon the priestess to attend me here ! 
Then go with speed and strictly search the glens 
Along the shore and close by Dian's shrine. 
Forbear to violate the sacred grove, 
But set a watchful ambush, where you may. 

Euripides, Iph. in Taur. 131 1 sqq. 


JphigcmcCs reason for sparing Orestes. 

Iph. A. messenger is coming from the king 

Willi hasty steps. Alas ! how throbs my heart 
With anxious fear, now that I see the man 
Whom with a word untrue I must encounter ! 

Arkas. Priestess ! with speed conclude the sacrifice ! 
Impatiently the king and peoi)le wait. 

Iph. I had perform'd my duty and thy will, 
Had not an unforeseen impediment 
The execution of my purpose thwarted. 

Arkas. What is it that obstructs the king's commands? 

Iph. Chance, which from mortals will not brook control. 

Arkas. Possess me with the reason, that with speed 
I may inform the king, who hath decreed 
The death of both. 

Jph. The gods have not decreed it. 

The elder of these men doth bear the guilt 
Of kindred-murder : on his steps attend 
The dread Eumenides. 

Euripides, Iph. in Taiir. 1152, 1033. 
Submission to the sentence of ruthless judges. 

Aug. Then die, Faliero ! since it must be so. 
Thou hast been guilty of a great offence. 
Half-cancelled by the harshness of these men. 
I would have sued to them — have prayed to them — 
Have begged as famished mendicants for bread — 
Have wept as they will cry unto their God 
For mercy, and be answered as they answer — 
Had it been fitting for thy name or mine. 
And if the cruelty in their cold eyes 
Had not announced the heartless wrath within. 


Doge. I have lived too long not to know how to die ! 
Thy suing to these men were but the bleating 
Of the lamb to the butcher, or the cry 
Of seamen to the surge. I would not take 
A life eternal, granted at the hands 
Of wretches, from whose monstrous villanies 
I sought to free the groaning nations ! 

Rcp)oacIi and invective. 

She-wolf of France, but worse than wolves of France, 
Whose tongue more poisons than the adder's tooth ! 
How ill-beseeming is it in thy sex, 
To triumph like an Amazonian trull. 
Upon their woes, whom fortune captivates? 
But thatthy face is, visor-like, unchanging. 
Made impudent with use of evil deeds, 
I would assay, proud queen, to make thee blush: 
To tell thee whence thou cam'st, of whom derived. 
Were shame enough to shame thee, wert thou 

not shameless. 
Thy father bears the type of king of Naples, 
Of both the Sicils, and Jerusalem ; 
Yet not so wealthy as an English yeoman. 
Hath that poor monarch taught thee to insult.? 
It needs not, nor it boots thee not, proud queen ; 
Unless the adage must be verified, — 
That beggars, mounted, run their horse to death. 
'Tis beauty, that doth oft make women proud; 
But, God he knows, thy share thereof is small ; 
'Tis virtue, that doth make them most admir'd ; 
The contrary doth make thee wonder' d at : 
'Tis government that makes them seem divine ; 


The wan I thereof makes thee abominable : 
Thou art as opposite to every good, 
As the Antipodes are unto us, 
Or as the South to the Septentrion. 
Sophocles, Aj. 1226- 1266. 

Right will prevail in the end. 

(\ What hope, if this one hope of war be lost ? 

J/. This first, that in the cause wherein we fight 
Fight also Justice, and all-conquering Time. 
And though full long we wrestle up and down 
Fruitlessly, and defeat make dark our day, 
Yet be assured, who strives to crush our cause, 
Strives not with us but with a power unseen, 
Whereto shall witness not one age alone. 
Aye rather far, I ween, shall one prevail 
To change the ancient courses of the stars. 
Or from his steep course turn the lofty sun; 
Only this power he shall not win with gifts. 
Nor find a spell to stay his sovereignty. . 
Yet toil we now as patient pioneers. 
In trustful strength abiding steadfastly. 
Content that we should die, and age on age 
Roll on till God's high purpose be revealed; 
Till this thick night (wherein we look and long 
Wistfully watching where faint streaks half-seen 
Glimmer and fitfully foretell the dawn) 
Shall flee far off, and men's expectant eyes 
Look up at last to the free firmament, 
Glad in the golden marvel of the morn. 

Aeschylus, Pr. V. 255-267, 507-525. 


Death the worst of evils. 

Claud. Death is a fearful thing. 

Isah. And shamed life a hateful. 

Claud. Aye, but to die, and go we known not where : 

To lie in cold obstruction and to rot ; 

This sensible warm motion to become 

A kneaded clod ; and the delighted spirit 

To bathe in fiery floods, or to reside 

In thrilling region of thick-ribbed ice ; 

To be imprisoned in the viewless winds, 

And blown with restless violence about 

The pendent world ; or to be worse than worst 

Of those that lawless and micertain thoughts 

Imagine howling! — 'Tis too horrible. 

The weariest and most loathed worldly life, 

That age, ache, penury, and imprisonment 

Can lay on nature is a paradise 

To what we fear of death. 
Isab. Alas ! Alas ! 
Claud. Sweet sister, let me live. 

What sin you do to save a brother's life, 

Nature dispenses with the deed so far 

That it becomes a virtue. 

Aeschylus, Pt: V. 992-1053; Pr. Sol. Frag. 181 (Dindorf ) ; 
Eitm. 185-197 : Aristophanes, Rnnac, 473 : Euripides, Iph. hi 
Aul. 1211-1252; Phoenix. Frag. 808 (Dindorf). 

Clyieninestra' s ghost relates how her child was sacrificed. 

Thus the slow years rolled onward, till at last 
There came a dreadful rumour — ' She is dead, 
Thy daughter, years ago — the cruel priests 


Clamoured for blood ; the stern cold kings stood round 
Without a tear, and he, her sire, with them 
To see a virgin bleed. They cut with knives 
The taper girlish throat; they watched the blood 
Drip slowly on the sand, and the young life 
Meek as a lamb come to the sacrifice 
To appease the angry gods.' And he, the king. 
Her father, stood by too, and saw them do it, 
The wickedness, breathing no word of wrath. 
Till all was done ! The cowards 1 the dull cowards ! 
1 would some black storm, bursting suddenly. 
Had whelmed them and their fleets, ere yet they dared 
To waste an innocent life. 

Euripides, Iph. in AuL 873, 1543 ; Elcc. loii : Sophocles. El. 531 : 
Aeschylus, Ag. 224 ; Clioeph. 691. 

Clytemnestra curses the Gods and Fate. 

But I praise not 
The selfish, careless gods who wrecked our lives. 
Making the King the murderer of his girl. 
And me his murderess : making my son 
The murderer of his mother and her love — 
A mystery of blood ! — I curse them all. 
The careless forces, sitting far withdrawn 
Upon the heights of Space, taking men's lives 
For playthings, and deriding, as in sport, 
Our happiness and woe. We have a right 
To joy as they have. Let them stand confessed. 
The puppets that they are — too weak to give 
The good they feign to love, since Fate, their master, 


Sits and derides them too. I curse Fate too, 
The deaf bUnd Fury, taking human souls 
And crushing them, as a dull fretful child 
Crushes its toys, and knows not with what skill 
Those feeble forms are fashioned. 

Forgiveness of a dead rival. 
The gods are wise who lead us — now to smite. 
And now to spare; we dwell but in their sight 
And work but what their will is. What hath been, 
Is past. But these, that once were King and Queen, 
The sun, that feeds on death, shall not consume 
Naked. Not I would sunder tomb from tomb 
Of these twain foes of mine, in death made one. 
I, that when darkness hides me from the sun 
Shall sleep alone, with none to rest by me. 
But thou — this one time more I look on thee — 
Fair face, brave hand, weak heart that wast not mine, 
Sleep sound, and God be good to thee, Locrine. 
I was not. She was fair as heaven in spring 
Whom thou didst love, indeed. Sleep, queen and 

Forgiven ; and if — God knows — being dead, ye live, 
And keep remembrance yet of me — forgive. 
Aeschylus, Chocph. 973: Sophocles, Aj. 992. 

Reverse of fortune. 
Who sues, and kneels, and says — God save the 

queen ! 
Where be the bending peers that flatter'd thee.'' 
Where be the thronging troops that follow'd thee .? 
Decline all this, and see what thou now art. 



For happy wife, a most distressed widow; 
For one that scorn'd at me, now scorn'd of mc : 
For one being fear'd of all, now fearing one ; 
For one commanding all, obey'd of none. 
Thus hath the course of justice wheel'd about, 
And left thee -but a very prey to time ; 
Having no more but thought of what thou wert, 
To torture thee the more, being what thou art. 
Thou didst usurp my place, and dost thou not 
Usurp the just proportion of my sorrow ? 
Euripides, Hcc. 349; Ayidr. 163, 384. 

Comits, wizard and enchanter. 

Spirii. Aye me unhappy! then my fears are true. 

I Brother. What fears good Thirsis? Prythee briefly 

Spirit, ril tell ye : 'tis not vain or fabulous. 
Though so esteemed by shallow ignorance, 
What the sage poets, taught by th' heavenly Muse, 
Storied of old in high immortal verse. 
Of dire chimseras and enchanted isles, 
And rifted rocks whose entrance leads to Hell ; 
For such there be, but unbelief is blind. 

Within the navel of this hideous wood, 
Immured in cypress shades a sorcerer dwells. 
Of Bacchus and of Circe born, great Comus, 
Deep skihed in all his mother's witcheries, 
And here to every thirsty wanderer 
By sly enticement gives his baneful cup. 
With many murmurs mixed, whose pleasing poison 
The visage quite transforms of him that drinks, 



And the inglorious likeness of a beast 
Fixes instead, unmoulding reason's mintage 
Charactered in the face. 

Euripides, Bacch. Prolog, i. 

Appeal to a king to stay the plague and save his people. 

Yes : 'lis the eternal law that where guilt is, 

Sorrow shall answer it : and thou hast not 

A poor man's privilege to bear alone, 

Or in the narrow circle of his kinsmen, 

The penalties of evil, for in thine 

A nation's fate lies circled — King Adrastus I 

Mailed as thy heart is with the usages 

Of pomp and power, a few short summers since 

Thou wert a child, and canst not be relentless. 

O, if maternal love embraced thee then. 

Think of the mothers who with eyes unwet 

Glare o'er their perishing children : hast thou shared 

The glow of a first friendship, which is born 

Midst the rude sports of boyhood, think of youth 

Smitten amidst its playthings— let the spirit 

Of thy own innocent childhood whisper pity ! 

Sophocles, Oed. Rex, 14, 380, 408 ; Ant. 710 : 
Euripides, Iph. in Taut: 342 ; Dictys. Frag. 334 (Dindorf) ; 
Phrix. Frag. 825. 

Vengeance, a ditty not to be uegkcted. 
And even now, my son, ah me ! my son, 
Fain would I fade away, as I have liv'd, 
Without a cry, a struggle, or a blow. 
All vengeance unattempted, and descend 
To the invisible plains, to roam with thee, 


Fit donizi'ii, the lampless under-world — 

But with what eyes should I encounter there 

My husband, wandering with his stern compeers, 

Or how reply to thee, my child, last-born, 

Last-murder'd, who reproachfully wilt say — 

' Mother, T well believ'd thou lived'st on 

In the detested palace of thy foe. 

With patience on thy face, death in thy heart, 

Counting, till I grew up, the laggard years, 

That our joint hands might then together pa\' 

To one unhappy house the debt we owe. 

My death makes my debt void, and doubless thine — 

But down thou (leest here, and leav'st our scourge 

Triumphant, and condemnest all our race 

To he in gloom for ever unappeas'd.' 

Sophocles, Oed. Rex, 1369; Aj. 1003 ; El. 822, 951. 
The powers of Evil invoked to inspire daring. 

No, something must be dared, and great as erst 
Our dastard patience be our daring now 1 
Come, ye swift Furies, who to him ye haunt 
Permit no peace till your behests are done : 
Come, Hermes, who dost watch the unjustly killed, 
And canst teach simple ones to plot and feign ; 
Come, lightning Passion, that with foot of fire 
Advancest to the middle of a deed 
Almost before 'tis planned : come, glowing Hate ; 
Come, baneful Mischief, from thy murky den 
Under the dripping black Tartarean cliff 
Which Styx's awful waters trickle down — 
Inspire this coward heart, this flagging arm. 


And ye, keep faithful silence friends and mark 
What one weak woman can achieve alone. 

Sophocles, Aj. 815, 865, 1003 ; Oed. Col. 1389; El. 808, 951, 
1376 ; Oed. Re.x, 1369. Aeschylus, Choeph. 722, 812. 

Satan accepts his place of banishment. 

Is this the seat 
That we must change for heaven, this mournful gloom 
For that celestial light? be it so, since he. 
Who now is Sovereign, can dispose and bid 
What shall be right: farthest from him is best. 
Whom reason has equalled, force hath made supreme 
Above his equals. Farewell, happy fields, 
Where joy for ever dwells : hail, horrors ; hail, 
Infernal world : and thou, profoundest hell, 
Receive thy new possessor; one who brings 
A mind not to be changed by place or time. 
The mind is its own place, and in itself 
Can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven. 
What matter where if I be still the same, 
And what I should be, all but less than he 
Whom thunder hath made greater ? here at least 
We shall be free : the Almighty hath not built 
Here for his envy, will not drive us hence : 
Here we may reign secure, and in my choice 
To reign is worth ambition, though in hell : 
Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven. 

Aeschylus, Pr. V. 88, 937. 
A cry of despair : ' Come, death, to give release.' 

O be ye merciful, and strike me dead ! 
How many a one cries unto you to live, 


Which gift ye find no Utile thing to give. 
O give it now to such and unto me 
That other gift from ^vhich all people flee. 

was it not enough to take away 

The flowery meadows and the light of day ? 
Or not enough to take away from me 
The once loved faces that I used to see? 
To take away sweet sounds and melodies, 
The song of birds, the rustle of the trees? 
To make the prattle of the children cease, 
And wrap my soul in shadowy hollow peace 
Devoid of longing ? Ah no, not for me ! 
For those who die your friends, the rest shall be 
For me no rest from shame and sore distress 
For me no moment of forgetfulness. 

Euripides, Da)i. Frag. 327 ; Ale. 280. 
Conflict of passions : Love must triiiuiph over Anger. 

What shall I say ? invent, contrive, advise, 
Somewhat to blind the king and save his life 
In whom I live ; spite of my rage and pride, 

1 am a woman and a lover still ; 

O ! 'tis more grief but to suppose his death 

Than still to meet the rigour of his scorn. 

From my despair my anger had its source ; 

When he is dead I must despair for ever. 

For ever ! That's despair — it was distrust 

Before — distrust will ever be in love, 

And anger in distrust : both short-lived pains — 

But in despair and ever-during death. 

No term, no bound, but infinite of woe. 

O torment but to speak ! what then to bear ? 


Not to be born — devise the means to shun it, 
Quick, or by heavens this dagger drinks your blood. 

Challenge and defiance of a rival in love. 

Now, by the gods who govern heaven above, 
Wert thou not weak with hunger, mad with love, 
That word had been thy last, or in this grove 
This hand should force thee to renounce thy love. 
The surety which I gave thee, I defy: 
Fool, not to know that love endures no tie. 
And Jove but laughs at lovers' perjury. 
Know I will serve the fair in thy despite ; 
But since thou art my kinsman, and a knight, 
Here, have my faith, to-morrow in this grove 
Our arms shall plead the titles of our love : 
And heaven so help my right, as I alone 
Will come, and keep the cause and quarrel both 

unknown ; 
With arms of proof both for thyself and thee, 
Choose thou the best, and leave the worst for me. 

A man of peace suddenly transformed into a man of action. 

Thou hast beheld me living heretofore 

As one retired in staid tranquiUity : 

The dweller in the mountains, on whose ear 

The accustomed cataract thunders unobserved: 

The seaman who sleeps sound upon the deck 

Nor hears the loud lamenting of the blast 

Nor heeds the weltering of the plangent wave, — 

These have not lived more undisturbed than I : 

But build not upon this : the swollen stream 

May shake the cottage of the mountaineer 


And drive him fortli : the seaman roused at lenglli 
Leaps from his slumber on the wave-washed deck, 
And now the time comes fast when here in Ghent 
He who would live exempt from injuries 
Of armed men, must be himself in arms. 
'This time is near for all: nearer for me: 
I will not wait upon necessity 
And leave myself no chance of vantage ground, 
But rather meet the times where best I may, 
And mould and f^ishion them as best I can. 
Euripides, Phoen. 499-525. 

The ancient Gods renounce Mankind and their worship. 

Wherefore, whatsoe'er 
Henceforth men worship, whether foul or fair. 
We at the least resign man's earth, and man, 
To fates no more by us controlled. Nor can 
Man's worship mock our altars any more. 
Not unto us henceforth your priests shall pour 
The victim's blood. Not ours henceforth the names 
Invoked on earth to sanction earth's worst shames. 
Not simulating service in our cause 
Shall Fraud forge Heaven's approval of the laws 
Devised by wicked Force to sanction Wrong. 
Not ours the worshippers whose zeal shall throng 
Dungeons with dying, charnels with the dead. 
Nor yet to us shall praise be sung, prayer said, 
Whenever men henceforth have injured men. 
Why should we bide on earth and be again 
Dishonoured in the deeds whereby mankind 
Profess to honour Heaven ? 

Aeschylus, Enm. 490. 


Cypns, still parent, qiteett and preserver of the universe. 

' Shall I complain 
Men kneel to me no longer, taking to them 
Some graver, sterner worship ? ' Nay, I shall reign 
Within the hearts of men, while Time shall last 
And Life renews itself. All Life that is. 
From the weak things of earth or sea or air, 
Which creep or float for an hour, to godlike man — 
All know me and are mine. I am the source 
And mother of all, both gods and men. The world 
Were dead without my rays, who am the light 
Which vivifies the world. Nay, but for me 
The universal order which attracts 
Sphere unto sphere, and keeps them in their paths 
For ever, were no more. All things are bound 
Within my golden chain, whose name is Love. 

See examples under ' Love.' 

An old blind man to his daughter. 

Child ! is the sun abroad ? I feel my hair 
Borne up and wafted by the gentle wind; 
I feel the odours that perfume the air, 
And hear the rustling of the leaves behind. 
Within my heart I picture them, and then 
I almost can forget that I am blind, 
And old, and hated by my fellow-men. 
Yet would I fain once more behold the grace 
Of nature ere I die, and gaze again 
Upon her living and rejoicing face — 
Fain would I see thy countenance, my child, 


My comforter! I feci thy dear embrace — 
I hear thy voice so musical ami mild, 
The patient sole interpreter, by whom 
So many years of sadness are beguiled ; 
For it h.uli made my small and scanty room 
Peopled with glowing visions of the past. 
But I will calmly bend me to my doom, 
And wait the hour which is approaching fast, 
When triple light shall stream upon mine eyes. 
And heaven itself be opened up at last 
To him who dared foretell its mysteries. 

Yet I, who ever felt another's woe 
INIore keenly than my own untold distress; 
I, who have battled with the common foe, 
And broke for years the bread of bitterness ; 
Who never yet abandoned or betrayed 
The trust vouchsafed me, nor have ceased to bless, 
Am left alone to wither in the shade, 
A weak old man, deserted by his kind — 
Whom none will comfort in his age, nor aid! 

Oh, let me not repine! A quiet mind, 
Conscious and upright, needs no other stay; 
Nor can I grieve for what I leave behind, 
In the rich promise of eternal day. 
Henceforth to me the world is dead and gone, 
Its thorns unfelt, its roses cast away : 
And the old pilgrim, weary and alone, 
Bowed down with travel, at his Master's gate 
Now sits, his task of life-long labour done, 
Thankful for rest, although it comes so late, 
After sore journey through this world of sin, 


In hope, and prayer, and wistfulness to wait, 

Until the door shall ope, and let him in. 

Sophocles, Ocd. Col. 1-13, 84-110, 258-291, 337-360. 
421-449, 1540 -1555. 

Mankind still need the services of Hercules. 

' I toil no more 
On earth, nor wield again the mighty strength 
Which Zeus once gave me for the cure of ill. 
1 have run my race ; I have done my work ; I rest 
For ever from the toilsome days I gave 
To the suffering race of men. And yet, indeed, 
Methinks they suffer still. Tyrannous growths 
And monstrous vex them still. Pestilence lurks 
And sweeps them down. Treacheries come, and wars, 
And slay them still. Vaulting ambition leaps 
And falls in bloodshed still.' 

Sophocles, Tr. 1045 : Aeschylus, Pr. V. 442, 476. 
A cry for vengeance. 

A woman, O my friends, has one desire — 
To see secure, to live with those she loves. 
Can vengeance give me back the murdered.'' No. 
Can it bring home my child ? Ah, if it can, 
I pray the Furies' ever restless band, 
And pray the Gods, and pray the all-seeing Sun, 
' Sun, who careerest through the heights of heaven, 
When o'er the Arcadian forests thou art come, 
And see'st my stripling hunter there afield, 
Put tightness in thy gold-embossed rein 
And check thy fiery steeds, and leaning back 
Throw him a peaHng word of summons down 


To come a late avenger to the aid 

Of this poor soul who bore him and his sire.' 

If this will bring him back, be this my prayer. 

Sophocles, Aj. 835-865. 
Samson reproaches himself for his folly and ivcakncss. 

Ye see, O friends, 
How many evils have enclosed me round ; 
Yet that which was the worst now least afflicts me, 
Blindness; for had I sight, confus'd with shame, 
How could I once look up, or heave the head, 
Who, like a foolish pilot, have shipwrecked 
My vessel trusted to me from above. 
Gloriously rigged; and for a word, a tear, 
Fool, have divulged the secret gift of God 
To a deceitful woman .? tell me, friends. 
Am I not sung and proverb'd for a fool 
In every street? do they not say, how well 
Are come upon him his deserts ? yet why } 
Immeasurable strength they might behold 
In me, of wisdom nothing more than mean ; 
This with the other should at least have pair'd. 
These two, proportion'd ill drove me transverse. 

Arthur reproaches Guinevere. 

Liest thou here so low, the child of one 
I honour'd, happy, dead before thy shame } 
Well is it that no child is born of thee. 
The children born of thee are sword and fire, 
Red ruin, and the breaking up of laws. 
The craft of kindred and the godless hosts 


Of heathen swarming o'er the Northern Sea. 
Whom I, while yet Sir Lancelot, my right arm, 
The mightiest of my knights, abode with me, 
Have everywhere about this land of Christ 
In twelve great battles ruining overthrown. 
And knowest thou now from whence I come — from 

From waging bitter war with him : and he. 
That did not shun to smite me in worse way, 
Had yet that grace of courtesy in him left, 
He spared to lift his hand against the king 
Who made him knight ; but many a knight was 

slain ; 
And many more, and all his kith and kin 
Clave to him, and abode in his own land. 

Independence, spite of age and poverty. 

Place me once more, my daughter, where the sun 

May shine upon my old and time-worn head. 

For the last time, perchance. My race is run ; 

And soon among the ever-silent dead 

I must repose, it may be, half forgot. 

Yes! I have broke the hard and bitter bread 

For many a year, with those who troubled not 

To buckle on the armour for the fight, 

And set themselves against the tyrant's lot ; 

And I have never bowed me to his might, 

Nor knelt before him — for I bear within 

My heart the sternest consciousness of right, 

And that perpetual hate of gilded sin 

Which made me what I am ; and tho' the stain 

Of poverty be on me, yet I win 


More honour l)y it than the Winded train 
Who hug their willing servitude, and bow 
Unto the weakest and the most profane. 
Sophocles, Ocd. Col. 1-23, 84-93, 258-293, 421-449. 

None so stupid btif can sec zvliat is pleasing to God. 

mother, I am not fain to strive in speech 
Nor set my mouth against thee, who art wise 
Even as they say and full of sacred words. 

But one thing I know surely, and cleave to this ; 
That though I be not subtle of wit as thou 
Nor womanlike to weave sweet words, and melt 
Mutable minds of wise men as with fire, 

1 too, doing justly and reverencing the gods, 
Shall not want wit to see what things be right. 
For whom they love and whom reject, being gods. 
There is no man but seeth, and in good time 
Submits himself, refraining all his heart. 

And I too as thou sayest have seen great things ; 

Seen otherwhere, but chiefly when the sail 

First caught between stretched ropes the roaring 

And all our oars smote eastward. 

Sophocles, Ant. 683 : Euripides, Baccb. 266 ; Med. 523. 
adder's remorse for slaying Balder. 

Mother, a child of bale thou barest in me. 
For first thou barest me with blinded eyes, 
Sightless and helpless, wandering weak in heaven; 
And after that of ignorant witless mind 
Thou barest me, and unforeseeing soul : 


That I alone must take the branch from Lok, 
The foe, the accuser, whom though gods we hate, 
And cast it at the dear-loved Balder's breast, 
At whom the gods in sport their weapons threw ; 
Gainst that alone had Balder's life no charm. 
Now therefore what attempt, or whither fly? 
For who will bear my hateful sight in heaven ? 
Can I, O mother, bring them Balder back ? 
Or (for thou know'st the Fates, and things allowed) 
Can I with Hela's power a compact strike, 
And make exchange and give my life for his ? 

Medea to her Children. 

But when in some dim land we meet again, 
Will ye remember all the loss and pain? 
Will ye the form of children keep for aye 
With thoughts of men ? and, ' Mother,' will ye say, 
Why didst thou slay us ere we came to know 
That men die ? hadst thou waited until now 
An easy thing it had been then to die. 
For in the thought of immortality 
Do children play about the flowery meads 
And win their heaven with a crown of weeds. 
O children, that I would have died to save, 
How fair a life of pleasure might ye have 
But for your mother : nay, for thee, for thee, 
For thee, who might'st have lived so happily. 
For thee, O traitor, who didst bring them here, 
Into this cruel world, this lovely bier 
Of youth, and love, and joy, and happiness, 
That unforeseeing, happy fools still bless. 
Euripides, Med. ioig-1080 : Sophocles, Tr. 143. 


Mcdcas remorse for the murder of her children. 

But ye — shall I behold you when leaves fall 
In some sad evening of the autumn tide? 
Or think 1 have you sitting liy my side 
Amidst the feast, so that folk stare, and say, 
' Sure tlie grey wolf has seen the queen to-day ' ? 
What, ^\•hcn I kneel in temples of the gods, 
Must I bethink me of the upturned sods, 
And hear a voice say, ' Mother, wilt thou come 
And see us resting in our new-made home, 
Since thou wert used to make us lie full soft, 
Smoothing our pillows many a time and oft? 
O mother, now no dainty food we need. 
Whereof thou once wert wont to have such heed. 
O mother, now we need no gown of gold, 
Nor in the winter time do we grow cold : 
Thine hands would bathe us when we were thine 

Now doth the rain wash every shining bone ; 
No pedagogue we need, for surely heaven 
Lies spread above us with the planets seven 
To teach us all its lore.' 

A mothers appeal to her daughter. 

My dearest daughter, at your feet I fall, 
Hear, oh ! yet hear your wretched mother's call ; 
Think at your birth, ah ! think what pains I bore, 
And can your eyes behold me suffer more? 
You were the child which from your infancy 
I still loved best, and then you best loved me. 
About my neck your little arms you spread, 
Nor could you sleep without me in the bed, 


But sought my bosom when you went to rest, 
And all night long would lie across my breast. 
Nor without cause did you that fondness show. 
You may remember when our Nile did flow, 
While on the bank you innocently stood 
And with a wand made circles in the flood 
That rose and just was hurrying you to death, 
When I from far, all pale and out of breath, 
Ran and rushed in, 

And from the waves my floating pledge did bear, 
So much my love was stronger than my fear. 

Euripides, Troad. 735 ; Med. 708-715-, 894-905, 1021-1052. 
A mother s passionate cry when deprived of her child. 

Ah me ! my babe, my blossom, ah ! my child. 

My one sweet child, whom I shall see no more I 

For now will cruel Ida keep her back ; 

And either she will die for want of care, 

Or sicken with ill-usage, when they say 

The child is hers — for every little fault, 

The child is hers; and they will beat my girl 

Remembering her mother : O my flower ! 

Or they will take her, they will make her hard, 

And she will pass me by in after-life 

With some cold reverence worse than she were dead. 

Ill mother that I was to leave her there, 

To lag behind, scared by the cry they made. 

The horror of the shame among them all : 

But I will go and sit beside the doors, 

And make a wild petition night and day, 

Until they hate to hear me like a wind 



Wailing for ever, till they open to me. 
And lay my little blossom at my feet, 
Mv babe, mv sweet Asrlaia, mv one child: 
And I will take her up and go my way 
And satisfy my soul with kissing her. 
Sophocles, El. IQ3, 1126-1170: Euripides, ited. 1021-1080. 

Umdmess of Atalanta. 

But if toward any of you I am overbold 
That take thus much upon me, let him ihink 
How I for all my forest hoUness, 
Fame, and this armed and iron maidenhood, 
Pay thus much also; I shall have no man's love 
For e^-er, and no face of children bom, 
Or feeding Hps upon me, or fastening eyes, 
For ever; nor being dead shall kings my sons 
Mourn me and bury, and tears on daughters' cheeks 
Bum: but a cold and sacred life, but stransre. 
But far from dances and the back-blowing torch, 
Far off from flowers or any bed of man. 
Shall my life be for ever: me the snows 
That face the first o' the morning, and cold hills 
Full of the land-wind, and sea-travelling storms. 
And many a wandering ^\"ing of noisy nights. 
That know the thunder and hear the thickening 

wolves — 
Me the utmost pine and footless frost of woods 
That talk with many winds and gods, the hoiu-s 
Re-risen, and white divisions of the dawn. 
Springs thousand-tongued with the intermitting reed, 
And streams that murmur of the mother snow. 


Me these allure, and know me : but no man 
Knows, and mv goddess only. 

Medusas siory. Innocence an easy prey. 

I was a priestess once 
Of stem Athene, doing dav bv day 
Due worship at her shrine. They held me eold 
\Mio were my friends in childhood. 

Lite a god 
He btirst upon those pallid lifeless days 
And wrecked my life. How should a Airgin know 
Deceit, who never at the joyous shrine 
Of Cypris knelt, but ever lived apart 
And so grew guilty.' For if I had spent 
^ly days among the throng, either my iault 
Were blameless or undone. For innocence 
The tempter spreads his net. For innocence 
The gods keep aU their terrors. Innocence 
It is that bears the burden, which for guilt 
Is lightened, and the spoiler goes his way 
Uncaring, joyotis, lea%ing her alone 
The \ictiin and unfriended, 

Madtiess a retnedy agmnsi grief. 

I am not mad ; — I would to heaven I were I 
For then, 'tis like I should forget myself : 
O, if I could, what grief should I forget I — 
Preach some philosophy to make me mad. 
And thou shalt be canoniz'd, cardinal ; 
For, being not mad, but sensible of grief, 
My reasonable part produces reason 

T 2 


How I may be delivered of these woes, 
Ami teaclies me to kill or hang myself; 
If I were mad, I should forget my son. 
Sophocles, AJ. 257, 899. 

Cnniilla ciitombcd alive is rcscmil by ho- lover. 

'It wMs my wish,' he said, 'to pass, to sleej). 

To rest, to be with her — till the great day 

Pealed on us with that music which rights all, 

And raised us hand in hand.' And kneeling there 

Down in the dreadful dust that once was man, 

He softly put his arm about her neck, 

And kissed her more than once, till helpless death 

And silence made him bold — nay, but 1 wrong him. 

He reverenced his dear lady even in death; 

But placing his true hand upon her heart, 

' O, you warm heart,' he moaned, ' not even death 

Can chill you all at once : ' then starting, thought 

His dreams had come again, ' Do I wake or sleep ? 

Or am I made immortal, or my love 

INIortal once more? It beat, the heart, it beat; 

Faint — but it beat:' at which his own be^an 

To pulse with vehemence. Then, all doubt removed, 

He raised her softly from the sepulchre. 

And wiapping her all over with the cloak 

He came in, and now striding fast, and now 

Sitting awhile to rest, but evermore 

Holding his golden burthen in his arms. 

He bore her through the solitary land 

Back to the mother's house where she was born. 

Sophocles, Ant. 1196. 


Parcnis left desolate through their oivn selfishness and enielty. 

O rather pray for those and pity them, 

Who, through their own desire accomphshed, bring 

Their own gray hairs with sorrow to the grave 1 

Who broke the bond which they desired to break, 

Which else had hnked their race with times to come, 

Ignorant, devising their own daughter's death ! 

]May not that earthly chastisement suffice? 

Have not our love and reverence left them bare ? 

Will not another take their heritage? 

Will there be children's laughter in their hall 

For ever and for ever, or one stone 

Left on another, or is it a light thing 

That I, their guest, their host, their ancient friend, 

I, made by these the last of all my race, 

jNIust cry to these, the last of theirs, ' Behold, 

Your house is left unto you desolate ? ' 

Euripides, Ale. 629. 
Character. A gentle gracious woman. 

Fairer than Rachel by the palmy well. 
Fairer than Ruth among the fields of corn. 
Fair as the angel that said ' Hail ! ' she seemed, 
Who entering filled the house with sudden light. 
For so mine own was brightened : where indeed 
The roof so lowly but that beam of Heaven 
Dawned sometime through the doorway? whose the 

Too ragged to be fondled in her lap, 
Warmed at her bosom ? The poor child of shame. 
The common care whom no one cared for, leapt 


To greet her, wastinj; his forp:otten heart, 
As with the mother he had never known, 
In gambols ; for her fresh and innocent eyes 
Had such a star of morning in their blue, 
That all neglected places of the field 
Broke into nature's music when they saw her. 
Euripides, Ah. 80, 150, 990. 

A scene. Pride and obstinacy crushed. 

But she brooked no more : 
Long since her heart had beat remorselessly. 
Full nigh to bursting ; then she crept and neared 
Her husband inch by inch, but when she laid, 
Wifelike, her hand in one of his, he veiled 
His face with the other, and at once, as falls 
A creeper when the proj) is broken, fell 
The woman shrieking at his feet, and swooned. 
Then her own people bore along the nave 
Her pendent hands, and paUid death-cold face. 
And her the lord, her husband, followed out 
Tall and erect, but in the middle aisle 
Reeled, as a footsore ox in crowded ways 
Stumbling across the market to his death, 
Unpitied ; for he groped as blind, and seemed 
Alw^ays about to fall, grasping the pews 
And oaken finials till he reached the door. 

Sophocles, Oed. Rex 1241. 
A castaway on a desert island. 

All these he saw, but what he fain had seen 
He could not see, the kindly human face. 


Nor ever hear a kindly voice, but heard 

The myriad shriek of wheeHng ocean-fowl, 

The league-long roller thundering on the reef, 

The moving whisper of huge trees that branched 

And blossomed in the zenith, or the sweep 

Of some precipitous rivulet to the wave. 

As down the shore he ranged, or all day long 

Sat often in the seaward-gazing gorge, 

A shipwrecked sailor waiting for a sail : 

No sail from day to day, but every day 

The sunrise broken into scarlet shafts 

Among the palms and ferns and precipices : 

The blaze upon the waters to the east; 

The blaze upon his island overhead ; 

The blaze upon the waters to the west ; 

Then the great stars that globed themselves in 

The hollower bellowing ocean, and again 
The scarlet shafts of sunrise, but no sail. 

Sophocles, Pliil. 162-190, 276-316, 676-729, 1081 sqq. 
T452-to end. 

Iphigenia doomed to be sacrificed by her father. 

He turned away, not far, but silent still ; 
She now first shuddered ; for in him so nigh 
So long a silence seemed the approach of death 
And like it. Once again she raised her voice : 
' O father, if the ships are now detained. 
And all your vows move not the gods above. 
When the knife strikes me, there will be one prayer 
The less to them ; and purer can there be 


Any or more fervent than the daughter's prayer 
For her dear father's safety and success?' 

A groan that shook him shook not his resolve. 
An aged man now entered, and without 
One word stepped slowly on, and took the wrist 
Of the pale maiden. She looked up, and saw 
The fillet of the priest and calm cold eyes; — 
Then turned she where her father stood, and cried, 
'O father, grieve no more, — the ships can sail!' 
Euripides, //>//. in An!. 1543 ; Hcc. 534. 

Medea puts to sea with Jason : alarm and pursuil. 

But turning townward did i\Iedea call: — 

' O noble Jason, and ye heroes strong. 

To sea, to sea. nor, pray ye, loiter long : 

•My father wakes.' 

But as she spoke, rattling the cable slipped 

From out the hawse-hole, and the long oars dipped, 

As from the quay the heroes pushed away. 

And in the loosened sail the wind gan play : 

But e'en as they unto the stroke leaned back. 

And Nauplius catching at the main-sheet slack 

Had drawn it taut, out flared the beacon Mide, 

Lighting the waves, and they heard folk who cried : 

' Awake ! awake ! awake ! O Colchian folk ! ' 

And all about the blare of horns outbroke, 

As watch-tower answered watch-tower down the 

Where far below they saw the bale-fires gleam : 
And galloping of horses now they heard, 
And clang of arms, and cries of men afeard. 


For now the merchant-mariners who lay 
About the town, thought surelv an ill dav 
Had dawned upon them while they slept at ease. 
And half-awake pushed madly from the quays 
With crash of breaking oars and meeting ships, 
And cries and curses from outlandish lips. 

Euripides, Iph. in Tattr. 1379-1434. 
Daiiae cast ashore on Scn'plios is kindly welcomed by Diciys. 

Then said he, 'Lady, fear not any more, 
For you are come unto no savage shore, 
But here shall be a queen as erst at home : 
And if thou askest whereto thou art come, 
This is the isle Seriphos ; and for me, 
I\Iy name is Dictys, and right royally 
My brother lives, the king of all the isle. 
Him shalt thou see within a little while, 
And doubtless he will give thee everything 
That 'longs unto the daughter of a king. 

]Meanwhile I bid thee in my house to rest. 
And there thy wearied body shall be dressed 
In seemly raiment by my women slaves, 
And thou shalt wash thee from the bitter waves, 
And eat, and drink, and sleep full easily, 
And on the morrow shalt thou come with me 
And take King Polydectes by the hand. 
Who in good peace rules o'er this quiet land.' 

Aeschylus, Choeph. 669. 
Elaine resigns herself to die for love of Lancelot. 

Then spake the lily maid of Astolat : 

' Sweet father, all too sick and faint am I 


For anger : these are slanders : never yet 
Was noble man but made ignoble talk. 
He makes no friend who never made a foe. 
But now it is my glory to have loved 
One peerless, without stain : so let me pass. 
My father, howsoe'er I seem to you, 
Not all unhappy having loved Gods best 
And greatest, tho" my love had no return. 
Vet seeing you desire your child to live. 
Thanks, but vou work asrainst vour own desire. 
For if I could believe the things you say, 
I should but die the sooner, wherefore cease, 
Sweet father, and bid call the ghostly man 
Hither, and let him shrive me clean and die. 
Euripides, Hec. 369-381. 

Phoebus reluctantly consents to let Pliaetlwn drive tJie cJiariot 

of the Sun. 

He ended ; but the brows of Phoebus lowered : 

And, stung with the anguish of a god, he spake : 

' Child, thou has asked a hard and perilous thing, 

A thing to be denied even to Zeus. 

Woe worth the moment when I swore by Sty.\ 

To this most dire completion of a will 

So wayward ! Thou hast asked a boonless boon, 

Not knowing that thou dost aspire to die, 

Scared with a ruinous elemental roar 

Too late, and sepulchred in floods of fire. 

For who of mortal or immortal brood 

jNIay wield at will the horses of the Sun, 

Not lightly tamed even by me their lord? 

O glean a little wisdom while thou mavest ! 


Is there not somewhere something to be found, 
Sufficient to surpass this fatal boon ? ' 

So Phoebus ; but the child of Clymene 
Stood firm, appealing to the swerveless oath ; 
And all night long Apollo, with knit brows, 
Heavy of soul and sore disquieted, 
Through his wide palace wandered up and down ; 
And, like the erring phantasm of a man 
Slain traitorously and cast into the deep, 
Who, for the dread want of a little earth. 
Cannot find rest, so rest was none for him. 

Jason's aivakening, to find his bride and children murdered 

by Medea. 

He heard her words. 
But as the far-off murmur of the birds 
The townsman hears ere yet the morn is late. 
While streets are void and shut is every gate ; 
But still they soothed him, and he fell asleep. — 

But what a waking unto him shall be ! 
And what a load of shameful misery 
His life shall bear ! His old love cast away. 
His new love dead upon that fearful day. 
Childless, dishonoured, must his days go by. 
For in another chamber did there lie 
Two little helpless bodies side by side, 
Smiling as though in sweet sleep they had died, 
And feared no ill. And she who thus had slain 
Those fruits of love, the folk saw not again, 
Nor knew where she was gone. 

Sophocles, El. 17 ; Phil. 276. 


A U'omaii nssrr/s and justifies Iter loi>e. 

Fixed on this thought, she, not as women use. 

Her fault by common fiailly Mould excuse ; 

But boldly justified her innocence, 

And, while the. fact was owned, denied the offence. 

'I'hen with dry eyes, and with an open look, 

She met his glance midway, and thus undaunted 

' Tancred, I neither am disposed to make 
Request for life, nor offered life to take; 
Much less deny the deeil ; but least of all 
Beneath pretended justice weakly fall. 
i\Iy words to sacred truth shall be confined. 
My deeds shall show the greatness of my mind. 
That I have loved, I own ; that still I love, 
1 call to witness all the powers above : 
Yet more I own : to Guiscard's love, I give 
'I'he small remaining time I have to live; 
But if beyond this life desires can be, 
Not fate itself shall set my passion free. 
Euripides, Heme. 500 ; Plioeii. 997. 

A death-bed scene. 

Artemidora ! Gods invisible 
While thou art lying faint along the couch 
Have tied the sandal to thy slender feet. 
And stand beside thee ready to convey 
Thy weary steps where other rivers flow. 
Refreshing shades will waft th}- weariness 
Away, and voices like thy own come near 
And nearer, and solicit an embrace ! 


Artemidora sighed and would have prest 
The hand now pressing hers, but was too weak. 
Iris stood over her dark hair unseen 
While thus Elpenor spake. He looked into 
Eyes that had given light and life erewhile 
To those above them, but now dim with tears 
And wakefulness. Again he spake of joy 
Eternal. At that word, that sad word, joy, 
Faithful and fond her bosom heaved once more, 
Her head fell back: and now a loud deep sob 
Swelled through the darkened chamber — 'twas not 
Euripides, Ale. 185-207, 245-284, 340-390. 

The remorse of Guinevere. 

Henceforward too, the Powers that tend the soul, 

To help it from the death that cannot die, 

And save it even in extremes, began 

To vex and plague her. Many a time for hours 

Beside the placid breathings of the King, 

In the dead night, grim faces came and went 

Before her, or a vague spiritual fear — 

Like to some doubtful noise of creaking doors 

Heard by the watcher in a haunted house 

That keeps the rust of murder on the walls — 

Held her awake: or if she slept, she dream'd 

An awful dream ; for then she seemed to stand 

On some vast plain before a setting sun, 

And from the sun there swiftly made at her 

A ghastly something, and its shadow flew 

Before it, till it touched her, and she turn'd — 


When lo ! her own, that broadening from her feet, 
And bhickening, swallowed all the land, and in it, 
Far cities burnt, and with a cry she woke. 

Aeschylus, Ag. 367, 12 ; Chocph. 1022, 283 ; Eimi. 64. 

Discovery of a iiiuniord tiian. 

Mfssettgtr. And him beside there lay upon the gras 
A dreary corse, whose life away did pas. 
All wallow'd in his own yet luke-warme blood, 
Thai from his wound yet welled fresh, alas ! 
In which a rusty knife fast fixed stood, 
And made an open passage for the gushing flood. 
Which piteous spectacle approving true 
The wofuU tale that Trevisan had told, 
Whenas the gentle. Red-crosse knight did vew. 
With firie zeale he burnt in courage bold 
Him lo avenge, before his blood were cold ; 
And to the villein sayd : ' Thou damned wight, 
The aulhour of this fact we here behold, 
What justice can but judge against thee right. 
With thine own blood to price his blood, here shed 
in sight ? ' 

Sophocles, Aj. 898. 

Suicide justified and recommended. 

' What franticke fitt,' quoth he, ' hath thus distraught 
Thee, foolish man, so rash a doome to give ? 
What justice ever other judgment taught, 
But he should die, who merites not to live? 
None els to death this man despayring drive 
But his ow-ne guiliie mind, deserving death. 


Is then unjust to each his dew to give ? 
Or let him dye, that loatheth living breath ? 
Or let him die at ease that liveth here uneath ? 
Who travailes by the wearie wandring way, 
To come unto his wished home in haste, 
And meetes a flood that doth his passage stay; 
Is not great grace to help him over past, 
Or free his feet that in the niyre sticke fast ? 
Most envious man, that grieves at neighbour's good ; 
And fond, that joyest in the woe thou hast; 
Why wilt not let him passe, that long hath stood, 
Upon the bancke, yet wilt thyselfe not pas the 

' tiTjvai KeiOiv o9(v irep tjku 
iroXv SevTtpov ws raxiOTo..^ 

The longer life, I wote, the greater sin ; 
The greater sin, the greater punishment; 
All those great battels which thou boasts to win 
Through strife, and blood-shed, and avengement, 
Now praysed, hereafter deare thou shalt repent; 
For Hfe must life, and blood must blood, repay. 
Is not enough thy evill life forespent? 
For he that once hath missed the right way. 
The further he doth goe, the further he doth stray. 
Then doe no further goe, no further stray ; 
But here ly downe and to thy rest betake ; 
Th' ill to prevent, that life ensewen may. 
For what hath life that may it loved make, 
And gives not rather cause it to forsake? 
Feare, sickness, age, losse, labour, sorrow, strife, 
Payne, hunger, cold that makes the heart to quake ; 


And ever fickle Fortune ragetli rife : 
All wliicl), and thousands mo, do make a loallisomc 

Andromeda addresses Perseus who has eoiiic to her rescue. 

But she 'mid fear beheld his kind grey eyes, 
And then as hope came glimmering through her 

In a weak voice he scarce could hear, she said : 
' O Death, if thou hast risen from the sea, 
Sent by the gods to end this misery ; 
I thank them that thou comest in this form. 
Who rather thought to see a hideous worm 
Come trailing up the sands from out the deep, 
Or suddenly swing over from the steep 
To lap me in his folds, and bone by bone 
Crush all my body : come then, widi no moan 
Will I make ready now to leave the light; 
But yet thy face is wonderful and bright, 
Art thou a god ? Ah, then, be kind to me ; 
Is there no valley far off from the sea 
Where I may live alone afar from strife, 
Nor anger any god with my poor life? 
Or do the gods delight in misery, 
And art thou come to mock me ere I die ? ' 

Euripides, Aiidr. Frag. 125. 
Hippolytns overwhelmed by the uiroad of the sea. 

And then he turned his chariot, a bright speck 

Now seen, now hidden, emerging like a star 

From the white clouds of foam. And, as I watched 


Speaking no word, and breathing scarce a breath, 
' I saw his form firm set, with reins held high 
And the proud head bent forward, as more near 
The swift team rushed, until, vain hope, it seemed 
My love might yet elude the sea god's wrath. 

But on the verge 
Lo, as I looked, a vast and purple wall 
Swelled swiftly towards the land : the lesser waves 
Sank as it came, and from the strand drawn back. 
Left dry the yellow shore. Onw'ard it came 
Rearing its foaming crest. The chariot sped 
Nearer and nearer. I could see my love 
With the light of victory in his eyes, so near 
He came to where the palace-wall confined 
The narrow strip of beach. 

Then like a bull 
Lashing himself to rage, the furious wave 
Poising itself a moment, tossing high 
Its wind-vexed crest, dashed downward on the strand, 
With stamp, and rush, and roar. 

And when I looked 
The shore, the fields, the plain were one white sea 
Of churning, seething foam — chariot and steeds 
Gone, and my darling on the wave's white crest 
Tossed high, whirled down, beaten and bruised, and flung 
Dying upon the marble. 

Euripides, Hipp. 1198, 
A sister pleading for a brother s life. 

Lucio. Give't not o'er so : to him again, intreat him ; 
Kneel down before him, hang upon his gown ; 
You are too cold : if you should need a pin, 



Vou could not with more tame a tongue desire it. 
To him, I say. 

IsaMla. I\Iust he needs die? 

Angela. !Maiden. no remedy. 

Isabella. Yes; I do think that you might pardon him, 
And neither heaven nor man grieve at the mercy. 

Angela. I will not dot. 

Isabella. But can you, if you would .'' 

Angela. Look ; what I will not, that I cannot do. 

Isabella. But might you do't, and do the world no wrong, 
If so your heart were touched with that remorse 
As mine is to him? 

Angela. He's sentenced : 'tis too late. 

Lucio. Thou are too cold. 

Isabella. Too late ? Why, no ; I, that do speak a word, 
May call it back again : Well believe this, 
No ceremony that to great ones 'longs, 
Not the king's crown nor the deputed sword, 
The marshal's tnmcheon, nor the judge's robe. 
Become them with one-half so good a grace 
As mercy does. If he had been as you. 
And you as he, you would have slipt like him; 
But he, like you, would not have been so stern. 

Euripides, Iph. in Aul. 1241 ; Hec. 296, 334: 
Sophocles, Oed. Col. 1275. 

Loroe and loyalty: a friendly contention. 

Talbot. O yoimg John Talbot ! I did send for thee, 
To tutor thee in stratagems of war. 
That Talbot's name might be in thee re\-iv'd, 
WTien sapless age, and weak unable limbs, 
Should bring thy father to his drooping chair. 


But, — O, malignant and ill-boding stars 1 — 
Now thou art come unto a feast of death, 
A terrible and vmavoided danger : 
Therefore, dear bo)-, mount on my svriftest horse, 
And rU direct thee how thou shalt escape 
By sudden flight. Come, dally not; begone. 
John. Is my name Talbot? And am I your son? 
And shall I fly ? O ! if you love my mother. 
Dishonour not her honourable name, 
To make a bastard and a slave of me : 
The world will say he is not Talbot's blood. 
That basely fled, when noble Talbot stood. 

Euripides, Or. 759, 1018 ; Iph. in Taur. 674 ; Phoen. 1679. 
A son's resolve to face death unih his father. 

Talbot. Fly to revenge my death, if I be slain. 

John. He that flies so will ne'er return again. 

Talbot. If we both stay, we both are sure to die. 

John. Then let me stay; and father, do you fly: 
Your loss is great, so yoiu: regard should be ; 
;Mv worth unknown, no loss is known in me. 
Upon my death the French can little boast, 
In yours they will, in you all hopes are lost. 
Fhght cannot stain the honour vou have won, 
But mine it will, that no exploit have done: 
You fled for vantage everv one will swear, 
But if I flv, thev'll sav it was for fear. 
There is no hope that ever I will stay, 
If the first hour I shrink and run away. 
Here, on my knee, I beg mortalit}', 
Rather than life preser\-'d ^^^th infamy. 
Euripides, Iph. in Taur. 674. 
U 2 


A friendly altercation. 

Talbot. Shall all thy mother's hopes lie in one tomb? 
John. Ay, rather than I'll shame my mother's womb. 
Talbot. Upon my blessing I command thee go. 
John. 'To fight I will, but net to fly the foe. 
Talbot. Part of thy father may be sav'd in thee. 
fohn. No part of him but will be shamed in me. 
Talbot. Thou never hadst renown, nor canst not lose it. 
John. Yes, your renowned name: shall flight abuse it? 
Talbot. Thy father's charge shall clear thee from that 

John. You cannot %ntness for me, being slain. 

If death be so apparent, • then both fly. 
Talbot. And leave my followers here, to fight, and die } 

My age was never tainted with such shame. 
John. And shall my youth be guilty of such blame ? 
Xo more can I be sever'd from your side. 
Than can yourself yourself in twain di\-ide : 
Stay, go, do what you will, the like do I; 
For live I will not if my father die. 
Talbot. Then here I take my leave of thee, fair son, 
Born to eclipse thy life this afternoon. 
Come, side by side together live and die. 
And soul with soul from France to heaven flv. 
Euripides, Phoen. 1679. 

A mothers grief for her lost child. 

Constance. And, father cardinal, I have heard you say, 
That we shall see and know our friends in heaven : 
If that be true, I shall see my boy again; 
For since the birth of Cain, the first male child, 


To him that did but yesterday suspire, 
There was not such a gracious creature born. 
But now will canker sorrow eat my bud, 
And chase the native beauty from his cheek. 
And he will look as hollow as a ghost, 
As dim and meagre as an ague's fit, 
And so he'll die ; and, rising so again. 
When I shall meet him in the court of heaven 
I shall not know him : therefore never, never 
I\Iust I behold my pretty Arthur more. 

PanduJph. You hold too heinous a respect of grief. 

Constan<:e. He talks to me, that never had a son. 
Euripides, Troad. 735. 

Grief a consolation. ' TeTapwu/jLeaOa yooio.' 

K. Philip. Tou are as fond of grief as of your child. 

Co7islance. Grief fills the room up of my absent child. 
Lies in his bed, walks up and down with me, 
Puts on his pretty looks, repeats his words. 
Remembers me of all his gracious parts. 
Stuffs out his vacant garments with his form : 
Then, have I reason to be fond of grief. 
Fare you well : had you such a loss as I, 
I could give better comfort than you do. — 
I will not keep this form upon my head. 
When there is such disorder in my wit. 
O lord ! my boy, my Arthur, my fair son ! 
i\Iy life, my joy, my food, my all the world, 
]\Iy widow comfort, and my sorrow's cure ! 

K. Philip. I fear some outrage, and I'll follow her. 
Euripides, Troad. 735 : 
Sophocles, Oed. R. 1073 > ^^^<^- 121. 


Counsel to the despairing. 

Lnvis. There's nothing in this world can make me jo)- : 

Life is as tedious as a twice-told tale, 

Vexing the dull ear of a drowsy man ; 

And bitter shame hath spoil'd the sweet world's 

That it yields nought but shame and bitterness. 
Pandulph. Before the curing of a strong disease 

Even in the instant of repair and health, 

The fit is strongest : evils that take leave, 

On their departure most of all show evil. 

What have you lost by losing of this day? 
Lavis. All days of glory, joy, and happiness. 
Pandulph. If you had won it, certainl}-, }0u had. 

No, no ; when fortune means to men most good, 

She looks upon them with a threat'ning eye. 

'Tis strange to think how much King John hath lost 

In this which he accounts so clearly won. 

Are you not griev'd that Arthur is his prisoner.? 
Leztns. As heartily as he is glad he hath him. 

A mother pleads with her son to spare his country. 

Vol. Should we be silent and not speak, our raiment 
And state of bodies would bewray what life 
We have led since thy exile. Think with thyself. 
How more unfortunate than all living women 
Are we come hither ; since that thy sight, which 

Make our eyes flow with joy, hearts dance with 



Constrains them weep, and shake with fear and 

sorrow ; 
iMaking the mother, wife and child to see 
The son, the husband and the father tearing 
His country's bowels out. And to poor we 
Thine enmity's most capital : thou barr'st us 
Our prayers to t'.ie gods, which is a comfort 
That all but we enjoy; for how can we, 
Alas ! how can we for our country pray, 
Whereto we are bound, together with thy victory, 
Whereto we are bound ? Alack ! or we must lose 
The country, our dear nurse; or else thy person, 
Our comfort in the country. 

Euripides, Hec. 836 ; Phoen. 528 : 
Aeschylus, Agani. 37. 

Vol. We must find 

An evident calamity, though we had 
Our wish, which side should win ; for either thou 
IMust, as a foreign recreant, be led 
With manacles through our streets, or else 
Triumphantly tread on thy country's ruin, 
And bear the palm for having bravely shed 
Thy wife and children's blood. For myself, son, 
I purpose not to wait on fortune till 
These wars determine ; if I cannot persuade thee 
Rather to show a noble grace to both parts. 
Than seek the end of one, thou shalt no sooner 
March to assault thy country than to tread 
(Trust to't, thou shalt not) on thy mother's womb, 
That brought thee to this world. 


Vir. Ay, and mine, 

That brought you forth this boy, to keep your name 

Living to time. 
Boy. He shall not tread on me: 

I'll run away till I am bigger, but then I'll fight. 
Cor. Not of a woman's tenderness to be, 

Requires nor chiUl nor woman's face to see. 

I have sat too long. 

Euripides, Phocn. 559. 

Vol. Nay, go not from us thus. 

If it were so, that our request did tend 
To save the Romans, thereby to destroy 
The Volsces whom you serve, you might eon- 

demn us, 
As poisonous of your honour : no ; our suit 
Is, that you reconcile them : while the Volsces 
May say, ' This mercy we have show'd ' ; the Romans, 
' This we receiv'd ' ; and each in either side 
Give the all-hail to thee, and cry, ' Be bless'd 
For making up this peace ! ' Thou know'st, great 

The end of war's uncertain ; but this certain, 
That, if thou conquer Rome, the benefit 
Which thou shalt reap thereby is such a name, 
Whose repetition will be dogg'd with curses, 
Whose chronicle thus writ, — ' The man was noble. 
But with his last attempt he wip'd it out, 
Destroy'd his country, and his name remains 
To each ensuing age abhorr'd.' 

Euripides, Phocn. 559. 


Vol. Speak to me, son! 

Thou hast affected the fine strains of honour, 
To imitate the graces of the gods; 
To tear with thunder the wide cheeks o' the air, 
And yet to charge thy sulphur with a bolt 
That should but rive an oak. Why dost not speak? 
Think'st thou it honourable for a noble man 
Still to remember wrongs? — Daughter, speak you; 
He cares not for your weeping.^Speak thou, boy : 
Perhaps, thy childishness will move him more 
Than can our reasons. There is no man in the world 
More bound to's mother; yet here he lets me prate 
Like one i' the stocks. — Thou hast never in thy life 
Show'd thy dear mother any courtesy ; 
When she, (poor hen !) fond of no second brood, 
Has cluck'd thee to the wars, and safely home, 
Loaden with honour. Say, my request's unjust, 
And spurn me back ; but, if it be not so. 
Thou art not honest, and the gods will plague thee. 
That thou restrain'st from me the duty which 
To a mother's part belongs. 

Euripides, Phoen. 570 ; Hipp. 297 ; Sitpp. 297 ; Iph. in 

Aid. 465, 1241 : 
Sophocles. Phil. 468. 

Vol. He turns away : 

Down, ladies; let us shame him with our knees. 
To his surname, Coriolanus, 'longs more pride, 
Than pity to our prayers. Down ; an end ; 
This is the last; — so we will home to Rome, 
And die among our neighbours, — Nay, behold us: 
This boy, that cannot tell what he would have, 


But kneels, and holds up hands for fellowship. 
Does reason our petition with more strength 
Than thou hast to deny't. — Come, let us go. 
This fellow had a Volscian to his mother ; 
His wife is in Corioli, and his child 
Like him by chance. — Yet give us our despatch : 
I am hush'd until our city be afire, 
And then I'll speak a little. 
Cor. O mother, mother ! 

What have you done ? Behold ! the heavens do ope, 
The gods look down, and this unnatural scene 
They laugh at. O my mother ! mother ! O ! 
You have won a happy victory to Rome ; 
But, for your son, — believe it, O ! believe it, — 
ISIost dangerously you have with him prevail'd, 
If not most mortal to him. But let it come. 

Euripides, Iph. in Aid 465, 1241 ; 
Sophocles, Oed. Col. 1275. 

Satan justifies his presence in Eden. 
To whom thus Satan with contemptuous brow. 
' Gabriel, thou hadst in heaven the esteem of wise, 
And such I held thee ; but this question asked 
Puts me in doubt. Lives there who loves his pain ? 
Who would not, finding way, break loose from hell. 
Though thither doomed? thou wouldst thyself, no 

And boldly venture to whatever place 
Farthest from pain, where thou might'st hope to 

Torment with ease, and soonest recompense 
Dole with delight, which in this place I sought : 


To thee no reason, who know'st only good, 

But evil hast not tried, and wilt object 

His will who bound us ? Let him surer bar 

His iron gates, if he intends our stay 

In that dark durance. Thus much what was asked. 

The rest is true: they found me where they say; 

But that implies not violence or harm.' 

Sophocles, Ant. 443. 
Gabriel rebukes the hypocrisy of Satan, who defies him. 

To say and straight unsay, pretending first 

Wise to fly pain, professing next the spy, 

Argues no leader, but a liar traced. 

Yea, thou sly hypocrite, who now wouldst seem 

Patron of liberty, who more than thou 

Once fawned, and cringed and servilely adored 

Heaven's awful Monarch .' wherefore, but in hope 

To dispossess him, and thyself to reign .^ 

But mark what I arreed thee now, avaunt : 

Fly thither whence thou fledst : if from this hour 

Within these hallowed limits thou appear, 

Back to th' infernal pit I drag thee chained. 

And seal thee so, as henceforth not to scorn 

The facil gates of hell too slightly barred. 

So threaten'd he : but Satan to no threats 
Gave heed, but waxing more in rage reply'd. 

Then when I am thy captive talk of chains, 
Proud limitary Cherub : but ere then 
Far heavier load thyself expect to feel 
From my prevailing arm : though Heaven's King 
Ride on thy wings, and thou with thy compeers. 


Used to the yoke, drawVt his triumiihant wheels 
In progix'ss through the road of heav'n star-pavM. 
Aeschylus, Prom, r, 937, 953. 

Ennobling love. An ideal wontan. 
Alone, I said, from earlier than I know, 
Immersed in rich foreshadowings of the world 
I loved the woman : he that doth not, lives 
A drowning life, besotted in sweet self, 
Or pines in sad experience, worse than death. 
Or keeps his winged affections dipt with crime : 
Yet there was one thro' whom I loved her, one 
Not learned save in gracious household ways, 
Not perfect, nay, but full of tender wants, 
No angel, but a dearer being, all dipt 
In angel instincts, breathing Paradise. 
Interpreter between the Gods and men, 
Who looked all native to her place, and yet 
On tiptoe seemed to touch upon a sphere 
Too gross to tread, and all male minds perforce 
Swayed to her from their orbits as they moved, 
And girdled her with music. Happy he 
With such a mother! faith in womankind 
Beats with l^is blood, and trust in all things high, 
Comes easy to him, and tho' he trip and fall 
He shall not blind his soul with clay. 

Euripides, Ale. 150. 

Mutual duties of man and woman. 
' Blame not thyself too much,' I said, ' nor blame 
Too much the sons of men and barbarous laws : 
These were the rough ways of the world till now. 


Henceforth thou hast a helper, me, that know 

The woman's cause is man's : they rise or sinlc 

Together, dwarf d or god-like, bond or free : 

For she that out of Lethe scales with man 

The shining steps of Nature, shares with man 

His nights, his days, moves with him to one goal — 

If she be small, slight-natured, miserable. 

How shall men grow ? — But work no more alone : 

Our place is much : as far as in us Hes 

We too will serve them both in aiding her — 

Will clear away the parasitic forms 

That seem to keep her up but drag her down. 

For woman is not undevelopt man 

But diverse : could we make her as the man. 

Sweet love were slain : his dearest bond is this 

Not like to like, but like in difference. 

See examples under ' Woman,' * Wife,' ' Marriage.' 



A wife lamenting her ImsbaneTs 
absence. Children longing for 
their father's return. Eur. 
Here. Fur. 70 : Soph. Trach. 
27: Aesch. Ag. 861. 

Soph. Oed. Rex, 246 ; Oed. Col. 

Theseus curses Hippolytus. Eur. 

Hipp. 887. 
May land and sea refuse to re- 
ceive him. Eur. Here. Fur. 

Soph. Phil. 500. 

Worse for those who have seen 

better days. Eur. Hel. 417. 
The surest test of friendship. 

Eur. Here. Fur. 59. 
Requires patience and hope. Eur. 

Here. Fur. loi. 

Easy to give. Aesch. Pr. V. 

Advice to Prometheus to submit. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 309. 

Eur. Supp. 1 108; Ale. 669: 

Soph. Oed. Col. 1235 : Aeseh. 

Ag. 72. 
E.xperience contes with age. Eur. 

Phoen. 528. 
Regret for the lost vigour of 
youth. Eur. Here. Fur. 



Aias a name of woe. Soph. 

Aj. 430. 

Her death and character. Eur. 

Ale. 153. 

Hecuba and Polymestor. Eur. 

Hee. 1252. 
Oedipus and Creon. Soph. Oed. 

Rex, 532 ; Oed. Col. 800. 
Oedipus and Teiresias. Oed. 

Rex, 345. 
Creon and Teiresias. Oed. Col. 

Medea and Jason. Eur. Med. 


Aesch. Pr. V. 723 ; Supp. 286. 

Eur. Phoen. 528, 559. 

Soph. Ant. 672 : Aesch. Eum. 

Aesch. Choeph. 660. 

Aesch. Supp. 766. 

The Recording Angel. Aesch. 
Eum. 275 ; Supp. 228. 

Thai ends only with death. 

Soph. Oed. Col. 954. 
Appeased by soft words. Aesch . 
Pr. V. 377. 




Eur. Iph. in Aiil. 1531; Andr. 

879: Sopli. Oed. Col. 1579: 

Acsch. Ag, 503. 

Acsch. Pr. V. 452. 

Soph. Phil. 468. 

Sisters, do you try to move him. 

Soph. Ocd. Col. 1275. 
IVotild that I had a tongue tn 

every limb To voice mv 

woes and advocate thy pity ! 

Eur. Hec. 836. 
From a child to her father not 

to kill her. Eur. Iph. in Aul. 

i2to. 1241 ; in Taur. 361. 
Acthra to Theseus to befriend the 

unfortunate and dare to right 

them. Eur. Supp. 301, 163. 
Medea to Aegcus to save her from 

being banished. Eur. Med. 

Hecuba to Ulysses. Eur. Hec. 

299- 335- 

There is no sure index of mens 
qualities before proof. Eur. 
El. 367 ; Med. 219, 516. 

Signs of evil near. Eur. Phoen. 

Reason better than force. Eur. 
Supp. 734. 

Blame and praise of archery. 
Eur. Here. Fur. 160, 190 : 
Soph. Aj. 1 120. 

Aesch. Eum. 685 : Eur. Iph. in 
Taur. 961. 

The ship that first passed the 
Symplegades. Eur. Andr. 794, 
864; Med. I. 

Soph. El. I. 


Acsch. Pr. V. 459. 

A call to arms. Eur. Bacch. 778 : 
Aesch. Thcb. 30. 

Soph. Phil. 219: El. 661: Eur. 
Cycl. 275 ; Hel. 435 ; Iph. in 
Taur. 246. 

Soph. Phil. 654, 1123; Ant. 
io8o: Acsch. Eum. 181. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 442, 476 : 
Eur. Pal. Frag. 581 ; Supp. 

Of Neoptolemus at Delphi. Eur. 
Andr. mr. 

Assault of a toivn. Eur. Phoen. 
488. 1000 : Aesch. Theb. 28 : 
Soph. Ant. no. 

Eur. Hcrac. 261. 
IVdd beasts and slaves have 
their places of refuge. Eur. 
Supp. 267. 
Acgeus pronn'ses an asylum to 

Medea. Eur. Med. 723. 
Orestes at the altar at Delphi. 
Aesch. Eum. 34. 

Aesch. Pers. 231. 
Praise of Colonus a defne of 
Attica. Soph. Oed. Col". 
Praise of Athens. Eur. Med. 

Eur. Phoen. 954 ; Iph. in Aul. 

Common sense the best augur. 

Eur. Hel. 763. 
Augurs mostly false-prophets. 
Eur. Iph. in Aul. 956. 

Eur. Supp. 429. 




Baby language. Eur. Iph. in 
Aul. 465. 

Aesch. Ag. 1606: Soph. Aj. 

Babes have a glinimentig of in- 
telligence. Eur. Iph. in Aul. 


Eur. Bacch. 233, 451. 

Aesch. Theb. 3S7, 397, 432, 
465. 49ij 539> 642. 

Eur. Andr. 173, 243, 261 ; Hel. 
276: Aesch. Ag. 918: Soph. 
Aj. 1262. 

A battle scene. Eur. Herac. 

830 ; Supp. 650, 686. 
Muster for battle. Aesch. Theb. 
59. 78 ; Pars. 399. 

Fire signals. Aesch. Ag. 8, 22, 
281, 489. 

A sign of nobility. Eur. Ion, 


Eur. Supp. 266. 

Soph. Tr. 25: Eur. Or. 126; 

Hel. 304. 
Power of beauty. Eur. Troad. 892. 
Not enough by itself to secure 

love. Eur. Andr. 207. 
Helen's beauty. Eur. Hec. 443. 

Grateful to the ailing. Eur. Or. 

Eur. Here. Fur. 487 ; Hipp. 73 : 
Aesch. Pers. 612 : Soph. 
Frag. 464 (^Dindorf;. 

Destitute starving. Soph. Oed. 
Col. 1254 


Aesch. Supp. 952. 

Aesch. Theb. 385. 

Bird robbed of its young. Soph. 
Ant. 423 ; El. 107 : Aesch. 
Ag. 49- 1316. 

Onwnsfroni birds. Soph. Ant. 

Morning song of birds. Soph. 

El. 16. 

Aesch. Eum. 903, 858; Supp. 
625, 980. 

Aesch. Eum. 780, 800, 938. 

Soph. Oed. Rex, 1268, 1369, 

370 ; Oed. Col. 1549. 
Blind niaji led by his daughter 
Teiresias. Eur. Phoen. 834. 

Oedipus. Soph. Oed. Col. i ; 

Ant. 988. 

Aesch. Eum. 443. 

Soph. Ant. 1350. 
Bodily strength. 

Useless ivithout wit. Soph. Aj. 
758, 1250. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 732. 

The brave ought to be honoured. 
Eur. Hec. 306 ; Here. Fur. 


Soph. Ant. 295, 1035. 

Bridal veil. Aesch. Ag. 1178. 

A brotlier slossirreparable. Soph. 
Ant. 905 : Aesch. Theb. 1026. 
Brother and sister. Eur. Or. 
1045, 1018. 




mat ^iwgittS. 


AescJL Af . 5^ 
^ jaiAjM fnatd Mwinwf «; 
oa^ ^r^v- ^s^QTML Exir. Or. 

Cklh — -- 

E 7: : : 

I^. Sic9tp.86i. 

.-I — L'li iMiw. Eaar. Or. 902. 
FJkmifs. Ear. Se^ifiL 871. 

Hiffnmmdum Ehc Sopfa. 881. 
Tjnrfnts. Ear. Stupp. goo. 

Aesck. Tbdk. 571. 

AesdL Tbeb. 400. 

£m Siqiik.888 : AradullKik. 

iWnaitzs. m tmrjtmdr AesdL 



- - : - 


1 |_  tU hmd ttm wommg 



farsL Ae=cii. Tbeb. 


^ 153- 

> — - - 

i^at* mmd bSyd. 



: OL xigo. 



- T-k-ELfiBi. 724 : 



_ : - . V. a6= : Pers. 



SapiL Oec -- i-- 

iwi f 1I lir 

Sopb. Oed. Rei, x .35. 

Aesck. A5. 1311- 




Hippolyttcs addresses Artams. 
Eur. Hipp. 70. 995. 

Lantent for the loss cf a cUd. 

Ear. Soj^ 1080. 
Ajax I0 tds thOd. Sopli. .Aju 

Andtxtmathe to her bcrt. Ecr. 

Troad. 735. 
Ear. Med. 46 : Sopfa. Tr. 144 ; 

Aj. 554- 
Ghfldren. _ 

Eur. Ion. 472, 485. 507 ; ±J_ 

369 ; Or. 541 : RLe. 080 ; 

Med. 1008: HeL 947 : Strpr. 

iiao ; Ipii. in Aci. 91c. 

Woidd ikai di^ grex miAami 

&e mid fjf sxnmeM. Eur. 

Med. 573. 1071. Z081 ; H^pt 

Ijose ftfcfspHmg. Eur. Iph. in 

AnL 917. 
FemaU tkSdrtn dearth ia m 

foAer. Enr. Snpp. 1098. 
Undui^ duldrtM. Sagb. .Ani. 

Tke sakaHom^m Aomsc Aesck. 

Cboeph. 31^ 
A bUssimg. Enr. lou- 472. 
A lugittted dmrngiier. Est. EL 
304 : Sopib. EL a6i. 354. 

E::r. Sapp. aoi : Aesdi. Pr. V. 

A^ to jntur 
mud disUbt. 



Aesdi. Ag. 615. 


Aesch. Peis. 495; -\g. 5^5. 

Enc Med. 


Sngjr c omb mt cf Eteodes 
Pofymiaes. Enr. Fhoen. 1356L 


Enr. HqipL 83- ; AJc 416 
Wards t^ nm i fmt to Megmrm im 
die aisaia of her kushamd 
Herades. Enr. Here Far. 95. 

G^s tU Ae credit far m ■aiaorj. 
Enr. Aadr. 697. 

Ear. Andr. 127X. 

Enr. EL 290. 

A earii. Ag. 533. 

Phmedra fates wiA secrti lax 
for Hifpeijtus. Enr. Hi^ip. 
38 : Sopii. Tr. 596. 

Yiddimg to a rwfmtsL Sc^iii. 
Oed. Col. xaokf. 

Dmmr -tit aamrard « grtai Uess- 
img. Enr. Med. 14. 

EcF. Hq^ 420 ; Or. 396. 
A git^r amsdaicr itsrars dse^ 
Sopb. Ant. 403. 

for tie dmfi of m angv. T.- 
AJc 4x6, 996. 
Imf. el 1072. 

Onantf! iitJWM  rtt. 

JfcrfiiWTwr si^ist. Jizir. Med. 
319 Anapaesis ; Fboeii. 


Aesda. Cbo^ih. 500. 

So|^ Aj. 915 : Z_r. 5-rri. 
944: Hec a&. 

Therz is mo mmri to dssamg^icssk 



falsffrom true in men. Eur. 
Med. 516. 

Soph. Aj. 1142: Eur. Hel. 851. 

More efficient than iiolence. Eur. 
Or. 7n: Soph. PhiL 96. 
Soph. Oed Col. 1383; Aj. 
1389; Oed. Rex, 233, 246. 
269: Eur. Iph. inTaur. 947: 
Here. Fur. 1295 : Hipp. 887 : 
Aesch. Theb. 695 ; Choeph. 

Drsrnbes his mode of living. 

Eur. Cj-cl. 316. 
His treatmev.t of Ulysses and 
htsmmpaniotis. Eur. C3-cl.382. 

Dan aides. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 8cjr. 

Eur. Bacch. 20c. 
Dangerous people. 

Eur. Med. 319. 
Soph. Aj. 394. 

Produces aive and mystery. Eur. 
Bacch. 486. 

Eur. Iph. in Aul. 156. Lvric. 

Eur. Phoen. 1657. 1330 : 
Supp. 21 ; Ala 990. 726 ; 
Here Fur. 297. 

Eur. Or. 1033. 782: Hipp. 
599^ 1047; Hel. 303; Ale 
419? 785- 935- 24 : Iph. in 
AuL 1416 ; Bacch. loco ; 
Herac 595 : Tread. 632 ; Iph. 
in Taur. 484 : Soph. Tr. 721 ; 
Aj. 473- 
Death is a gain to the miserable. 

Soph. Ant. 463. 
Death a release frotn toil. Soph. 
Tr. 1173 : Eur. Troad. 631. 

Can the dead feel care. Eur. 

Herac. 591. 
Death better than disgrace. Eur. 

El. 375- 
Earth to earth, we are onlv 

tenants of this mortal bodv. 

Eur. Supp. 532. 
Invocation to Death. Soph. Phil. 

797: Aj. 854. 
Death scene. 

Death ofAlcestis. Eur. Ale 153 

Of Creon and Glauco. Eur. 

Med. 1 136. 
Death by hanging. Soph. Ant. 

By stabbing. Soph. Ant. 1231. 

Soph. Phil. 77: Eur. Ion. 


-Aesch. Pers. 420. 

Preparations for the defence oj 

Thebes. Aesch. Theb. 30. 

Eur. Phoen. 521 : Soph. Aj. 

1 107: Aesch. Pr. V. 935. 

953- 992. 971- 1043- 

Shocking, not of looks but of 
deeds. Eur. Or. 387. 

Aesch. Eum. i : Eur. Ion, 410. 

Eur. Ale. 1123. 

Eur. Hec. 254 ; Or. 903. 

Athens, a constitutional govern- 
ment. Eur. Supp. 303. 

Of ill luck. Aesch. Pers. 515 : 
Ag:. 1481. 

Eur. Or. 696. 

Soph. Aj. 79. 




Of the beauty of Bacchus. Eur. 
Bacch. 451. 
Desert Island. 

Soph. Phil. I, 301, 936, 952, 


Soph. El. 809 : Eur. Supp. 

Medea, deserted, itncornforted. 
Eur. Med. 24. 

Cannot be altered or evaded. 
Eur. Here. Fur. 309 ; Andr. 
1269; Hipp. 1256: Here. 
608 sqq. ; Ion, 1388. 

Antigone vows to bear death or 
exile with her father. Eur. 
Phoen. 1679. 
Menoccits offers to die for his 

country. Eur. Phoen. 997. 
Electro vows not to survive her 

brother. Eur. El. 686. 
Hecuba offers to die for her 

child. Eur. Hec. 391. 
Pylades vows not to su)-'ivc 
Orestes. Eur. Ipb. in Taur. 

Aesch. Ag. 560. i39r. 

Scii'ant dissuades lolaus, now 
an old man. front going forth 
to battle. Eur. Herac. 680. 

Aesch. Ag. 31. 

Eur. Or. 960 ; Ale. 435. 

Man proposes, God disposes. 
Eur. Med. 1416. 

Eur. Hipp. 1025. 

Death better than dishonour. 
Eur.Troad. 384 ; Herac. 201 : 
Soph. Aj. 473. 


Soph. Phil. 129. 

Tilings at a distance look different 
from things near. Eur. Ion, 


Aesch. Supp. 407. 

Eur. Iph. in AuL 956 ; Hel. 

744. 757; Supp. 211: Aesch. 

Pr. V. 484: Soph. Ant. 1005, 

1055 ; Oed. Rex. 723, 857. 

Soph. Oed. Rex. 390 : Aesch. 

Theb. 24 : Eur. Iph. in Aul. 

520 ; Phoen. 954 ; HeL 763. 

Watch-dog. Aesch. Ag. 2. 896. 
Sleuth-hound. Soph. Aj. 5 : 

Aesch. Ag. 1 185. 1228. 
Deer-hound. Aesch. Eum. 246, 

Blood-hound. Aesch. Eum. 246. 

Doubls-dealin g. 
Eur. Hipp. 925. 

Eur. Andr. 1140: Aesch. Pr. V. 
856 ; Theb. 298. 

Eur. Hec. 66. 

Of a house falling. Eur. Iph. 

in Taur. 44. 
Of a staff sprouting and grow- 
ing. Soph. El. 417. 
Of two ivotncn yoked to a car. 

Aesch. Pers. 176. 
Of htinting. Aesch. Eum. 131. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur 569 : Ale. 
354 : Aesch. Pr. V. 645 ; Ag. 
420 ; Choeph. 523. 

Eur. Ion. 1000. 

Eur. Cycl. 164. 530. 

Soph. El. 380; Ant. 891. 




Aesch.Ag. 239,602, 958; Pers. 

317 ; Chocpli. loii. 

Dying innn. Eur. Phoen. 1437 ; 

Hipp. 1446 Dialogue. 
Dying iconian. Eur. Ale. 103, 



Aesch. Pr. V. 1021 ; Pers. 205; 
Ag. 115; Choeph. 247 : Soph. 
Ant. 113. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 431 ; Pers. 390. 

Uiialtcrahlc dccisioti. Aesch. 
Supp. 944. 

Eur. Iph. in Anl. 559; Hec. 
600; Supp. 911. 

To confront those yon have in- 
jured is not true courage. 
Eur. Med. 469. 

Lanient of Elect ra over Orestes. 
Soph. El. 1 136. 

Eur. Hec. 293, 814, 836. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 814 : Aesch. 
Choeph. 231. 

Silent enduratice manly. Soph. 
Aj. 319. 

Ditty toivards oieniies. Eur. Ion, 


Life is shoti, enjoy yottrselves 
while you may. Eur. Here. 
Fur. 502. 

Aesch.Ag. 832: Eur. Ion. 595. 

Eur. Phoen. 538. 

An Escape. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 1327. 

A sra channel with tides and 
eddies. Eur. Iph. in Taur. 6. 

Evil example in high places. 

Eur. Hipp. 410. 
Force of example. Soph. El. 62 1 . 

Soph. Ocd. Rex, 233: Aesch. 
Choeph. ,291 : Eur. Iph. in 
Taur. 947. 

Nurse to Phaedra, to cheer up 
and disclose ho sorrow. Eur. 
Hipp. 288. 310 Dialogue. 
To Admeius to bear up in his 

sorroiv. Eur. Ale. 416. 
To impoiiune Theseus for help. 
Eur. Supp. 265. 

Eur. Phoen. 390, 409; Med. 
462 ; Here. Fur. 303 ; El. 236. 

/;/ the twinkling of an eye. Eur. 

Bacch. 746. 
Glance of the eye. Aesch. Ag. 

240, 743 ; Supp. 1004. 
Eyes that flash baleful light- 
nings. Eur. Or. 479. 

False news. 

Soph. Tr. 346 : Aesch. Ag. 620. 

Family likeness. Eur. El. 520. 

Medea bids farewell to her 

children. Eur. Med. 1071. 
Poly.xena bids farewell to her 

mother. Eur. Hec. 409. 
Eur. Ale. 163. 371 ; Troad. 735 ; 
Herac. 574 ; Iph. in Taur. 
709 : Soph. Aj. 859 ; Phil. 

Resignation to destiny. Eur. 
Phoen. 1758 ; Ale. 960 Choral 



Ode ; Troad. 884 ; Soph. Ant. 
1337 : Aesch. Pr. V. 511, 514. 

Oedipus commends his children 
to the care of Creon. Soph. 
Oed. Rex, 1458. 
Fatlier and daughter. Eur. 

Supp. 1095. 
Father a)ul son. Soph. Ant. 636. 

Aesch. Pers. 598. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 1365. 
On shipboard. Eur. Hel. 1590. 
One against many. Eur. Andr. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 109. 252; Ag. 281. 
Plot to burn a house. Eur. Or. 
1 152. 

Aesch. Pers. 357. 

Aesch. Choeph. 506. 

Eur. Hipp. 73 ; Iph. in Aul. 1294 : 
Aesch. Pers. 618; Ag. 743. 

Eur. Hipp. 921. 

Aesch. Choeph. looi. 

Aesch. Choeph. 205 : Eur. El. 
520 : Soph. Aj. I. 

Eur. Andr. 1072 : Soph. Ant. 
1244, 1250 ; Tr. 296 ; Aj. 
583 : Aesch. Pers. 598. 

Foreign language. Aesch. Ag. 

1050, 1060. 
Foreigners. Aesch. Supp. 234, 
280, 913. 
Eur. Or. 213. 

Hippolytus forgives his father. 
Eur. Hipp. 1446. 


Eur. Or. 1022; Iph. in Aul. 

E.vample of Poly.xcna. Eur. 

Hec. 546. 

Eur. Ion. 1502 ; Hec. 282, 956 : 

Troad. 102; Here. Eur. 1314. 
Reverses of fortune. Eur. Hec. 

622 ; Ion, 1502. 
Good foiiime that comes late 

lasts longest. Eur. El. 403. 
Good fortune should be shared. 

Eur. El. 70, 606. 

Soph. Oed. Rex, 1080 : Eur. 

Ion, 29 sqq., 1369. 

Eur. Iph. in Aul. 1294. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 1365. 

No one but is restrained by ctr- 

cumstanccs. Eur. Hec. 864. 
Free speech. 

Soph. Oed. Rex, 408. 
Free will. 

Eur. Supp. 734. 

Soph. Ant. 543 : Eur. Iph. in 

Aul. 345; Or. 450, 455, 665. 

800, 1156; Hipp. 956; Hec. 

1226 ; Supp. 868 ; Ale. 356 ; 

Here. Fur. 1234, 1339, 1425 ; 

Andr. 376. 
Heal friends are proved in ad- 
versity. Eur. Or. 455 ; Hec. 

Old friends deserted for neiv. 

Eur. Med. 76. 
Bring happiness alike in pros- 
perity and in adversity. Eur. 

Ion, 730. 
Better than riches or poiver. 

Eur. Or. 1155; Here. Fur. 

Slow and sure friends the best. 

Eur. Ion, 834. 



The qitnnrls of friends the 

bittiirstofall. Kur. Med. 521. 
The property of friends connnon. 

Eur. Or. 735 ; Andr. 376. 
'Zf'5 sweet to die tvith those we 

love. Eur. Supp. 1006. 
Should sympathise in 'weal and i 

ivoe. Eur. Iph. in Aul. 407. 
More to be relied on than kins- 
men. Eur. Or. 804. 
Fair-iveat her friends. Eur. Here. 

Fur. 1223. 
Absent friends. Eur. Andr. 1051. 
A friend's face always welcome. 

Eur. Ale. 355. 
E.vample of Orestes and Pylades. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 605, 709. 

Soph. Oed. Col. 1620: Aeseh. 

Pers. 598 ; Eum. 33. 

Forbidden fruit. Aeseh. Supp. 


Eur. Iph. in Taur. 285 : Soph. 

Aj. 835. 1035: Aeseh. Ag. 

1186; Choeph. 1048; Eum. 

46, 68. 
Future life. 

Soph. Ant. 73 : Eur. Hel. 1013. 
The future unknoivable. Eur. 

Iph. in Taur. 475 ; Ale. 783. 


Aeseh. Pr. V. 566 ; Supp. 307. 

Soph. Ant. 1326. 

Aeseh. Ag. 161 7. 

Aeseh. Eum. 910. 

Eur. Hec. i, 28, 47 : Aeseh. 
Pers. 681 ; Ag. 1217. 

Potent to persuade. Eur. Med. 

Soph. Aj. 661, 1029 : Eur. Med. 


Gloomy looks. Yaw. Ale. 773. 

Eur. Andr. 319. 

Acsch. Ag. 891. 

Call no man ivinncr until he has 

reached the goal. Eur. El. 954. 

Impious complaint against the 

gods. Eur. Here. Fur. 1240. 
Gods delight in the homage of 

niankiiul. Eur. Hipp. 7. 
Gods jealous of neglect. Eur. 

Hipp. 91 Dialogue. 
Must be regarded ivith aive. 

Soph. Aj. 126. 
Punish men for faults such as 

they themselves commit. Eur. 

Ion, 440. 
No allegiance due to foreign gods. 

Aeseh. Supp. 893, 921. 
Prayer to the unknoivn God. 

Eur. Frag. Ineert. 967 ; Troad. 

God helps the right. Eur. Supp. 

More cr2icl than men. Eur. Iph. 

in Taur. 380. 
False notions about gods. Eur. 

Iph. in Taur. 386. 
Who and ivhat is God? Eur. 

Troad. 884. 

Aeseh. Pr. V. 798. 

Eur. Andr. 930. 

Eur. Phoen. 107. 

Eur. Supp. 403, 409, 420, 429. 
Duties of a king. Soph. Ant. 

Obedience in a household. Soph. 
Ant. 659, 666. 



Monarchy and RcpitbUc. Eur. 
Supp. 399. 

Needs not many words. Eur. 
Troad. 87 : Soph. Aj. 520, 

Grasping ambition overreaches 
itself. Eur. Supp. 728 ; 
Herac. 3. 

Father and child iiieeiing and 
greeting. Eur. Iph. in Aul. 
635 Dialogue : Aesch. Ag. 34, 

503, 905- 

Guilt surely punished. Eur. Hec. 


Soph. Aj. 1 1 79; El. 449, 900: 
Aesch. Choeph. 167. 

Eur. Iph. in Aul. 161 ; Troad. 
510 ; Hipp. 981 ; Iph. in 
Aul. 17; Ion, 623; Herac. 
745, 865 ; Bacch. 910 ; Andr. 
100 ; Phoen. 558 ; Med. 1224: 
Aesch. Ag. 928 : Soph. Ant. 
1 165. 
Children happy in their ignor- 
ance. Soph. Aj. 552. 
Call no man happy before he is 
dead. Soph. Tr. i ; Oed. 
Rex, 1528. 
Should be shared to be enjoyed. 
Eur. El. 606. 

Aesch. Ag. 115. 

Haste and deliberation. Eur. 
Phoen. 452. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 566; Ag. 412. 

Of refuge. Eur. Andr. 891. 
Landing-place. Aesch. Supp. 


Eur. Andr. 1140: Aesch. Pr.V. 
856 ; Pers. 205. 

Aesch. Ag. 294. 

A Icesiis, a saint in Heaven. Eur. 
Ale. 995. 

2he experience of her life. Eur. 
Hel. 255. 

Aesch. Ag. 493, 515 ; Supp. 
930 : Eur. Supp. 668. 

Meeting after death. .Soph. 

Ant. 891. 
Judgment after death. Aesch. 

Supp. 228. 
The life to come is long. Eur. 
Ale. 691. 
Hereditary qualities. 
Eur. Hec. 379, 591. 

Indecision and perplexity. Soph. 
Ant. 223. 

A woman^s duties lie at home. 
Eur. El. 74 ; Or. 108. 

Soph. Oed. Col. 345. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 1089. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 634 ; Aesch. 
Pers. 612. 

Soph. Tr. 723 : Aesch. Ag. 


Aesch. Eum. 33. 

Flight of runaivay horses. Eur. 

Hipp. 1200 : Soph. El. 25, 
Unbroken colt. Aesch. Pr. V. 

War horse. Aesch. Theb. 




Trojan horse. Aesch. Ag. 824, 

Hiituan life. 

U'c can call iiolliiiig in this life 

our own. 
' VHaqnc niancipio niilli dainr, 

omnibus nsii.' Eur. Pliocn. 


Misery, darkness and death. 
Eur. Hipp. 190. 

JLife is shoti, happiness uncer- 
tain, be tnerry ichileyon inav. 
Eur. Here. Fur. 503 ; Ale. 

Brief: like a troubled dream. 
Aesch. Pr. V. 545. 
Human lot. 

Instability and reverses. Eur. 
Hcc. 956. 
Human sacrifice. 

Eur. Iph. in Aul. 90, 873, 1531 ; 
Iph. in Taur. 38 ; Hec. 258, 
518, 547: Phoen. 930; 
Herac. 406, 488, 500: Aesch. 
Ag. 206. 

Soph. Oed. Rex, i486. 

Aesch. Ag. 896, 966: Eur. 
Andr. 943, 639 ; Supp. 40. 

A manly husband preferable to 
a pretty one. Eur. El. 948. 

Taltliybiiis, a double-faced vil- 
lain. Eur. Or. 890. 

Eur. Hipp. 412 : Hipp. 998. 

Ill tidings. 

Soph. Ant. 276 : Aesch. Pers. 

Eur. Or. 11 74. 

Aesch. Eum. 186. 

Soph. Aj. 766. 




Impiety punished. Aesch. Pers. 

Eur. Med. 469. 

Aesch. Pers. 686 ; 
139; Eum. 306. 

Soph. Tr. 438. 

Eur. Ale. 756. 

hitcrlopers vieived tvitli dislike. 

Eur. Ion, 607. 
Outsiders have not the same 
privileges as natives. 
Ion, 673. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 442, 476. 

Offered in sacrifice. Eur. 
j in Aul. 1375 : Aesch. 

I 224. 

I Irrevocable. 
Soph. Tr. 742. 

Of bloodshed. Aesch. Choeph. 
520; Eum. 645. 


Eur. Andr. 181, 227; Phoen. 

539' 545- 
The unfortunate are jealous of 

the fortunate. Eur. Iph. in 

Taur. 351, 

After death. Aesch. Supp. 191. 

Eur. El. 483 ; Hec. 800. 
Personified. Aesch. Theb. 644, 



Eur. Andr. 985. 

Kinsmen ought to be helped. 

Eur. Or. 684. 
Quarrels betiveen kinsmen most 

bitter. Eur. Phoen. 377. 




Kings get all the glory, their 
subjects suffer all the toil. Eu r. 
Andr. 694. 
' Uiieasv lies the head that wears 

a croivii.' Eur. Ion, 621. 
Dut\i and responsibility. Aesch. 
fheb. I. 

Eur.Danae. Frag. 325, Dindorf. 

Knoivledge briugs misery. Soph. 
Aj. 265 ; Dialogue 277. 


Eur. Iph. in Taur. 115; Hipp. 
261 ; El. 80. 

Eur. Andr. 445, 595. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 941, 766. 

For a daughter dead. Eur. 

Med. 1207. 

Of Hecuba at the proposal to 

kill her child. Eur. Hec. 251. 

Of Oedipus over his own mis- 

fotiunes. Eur. Phoen. 1045. 


Tlie univrittcu law of God su- 
preme. Soph. Ant. 450. 
Corruption of Laiv. Aesch. 

Eum. 693. 
The safeguard of the poor. Eur. 

Supp. 433. 
The patent of gods. Eur. Hec. 

Aesch. Choeph. 280. 

Eur. Hipp. 857: Iph. in Taur. 
584, 727 ; Iph. in Aul. 34, 
97 : Soph. Tr. 156. 

Soph. Tr. 346. 

A struggle. Eur. Supp. 550. 

Ills of life. Soph. Oed. Col. 

Love of life. Eur. Ale. 669. 

Where may rest be found ? Eu i". 

Frag. Incert. 967. 

Soph. Oed. Col. 1549. 
Light of life. Soph. Aj. 856. 

Lions tvhelp. Aesch. Ag. 717. 

1 124, 12^8 ; Eum. 193 : Sopli. 

Aj. 985-^ 

Board and bed. Aesch. Choeph. 

668, 710. 

Casting of lots. Soph. Aj. 1283. 

What is it ? Eur. Hipp. 347. 
Love irresistible. Eur. Hipp. 

439- 525 : Soph. Ant. 781 : 

Tr. 441. 
Phaedra s struggle against her 

passion. Eur. Hipp. 391. 
Love in e.vcess brings mischief. 

Eur. Med. 330, 627 ; Troad. 

891: Hipp, i; Iph. in Aul. 


Aesch. Ag. 609. 


A madman s fit. Eur. Here. 
Fur. 830. 

Recovery from madness. Eur. 
Here. Fur. 1090. 

Madness. Or. 255, 395 : Iph. in 
Taur. 281 : Soph. Aj. 447 : 
Aesch. Choeph. 1025, 1048. 

The most wonderful of animals. 
Soph. Ant. 334 Chorus : 
Aesch. Choeph. 585. 

Man a vain shadow. Soph. Aj. 

Man and woman. Their mu- 
tual occupations reversed in 



Acgyf^t. Soph. Oed. Col. 


The relative /'osifioii a>id diifies 
of husband and wife. Eur. 
El. 930. 948, 1035, 1069 ; Or. 
602; Hipp. 407; Hec. 831; 
Ale. 238 ; Med. 630, 1291 : 
Iph. in Aul. 688. 
Choice of a wife. Aesch. Pr. V. 
887 : Eur. Andr. 1279. 

Aesch. Choeph. 894. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 478 ; Ag. 847. 

The safest condition. Eur. Med. 
127; Hipp. 1019, iiij. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 461, 7S9. 

Eur. Tfoad. 424. 

Soph. Oed. Col. 1267. 

Relations and descriptions by 
messenger. Eur. Or. 866 ; 
Med. 1 1 19; Hipp. 776: Ion, 
180 ; Supp. 459 : Soph. Tr. 
616: Aesch. Theb. 39. 

Aesch. Pers. 611. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 500. 

Substitution of a fawn for If>hi- 
genia. Eur. Iph. in Aul. 
Two meteors settle on a chariot. 

Eur. Herac. 855. 
IVinc and ivatcr gush from the 
eaiih struck by the Thyrsus. 
Eur. Bacch. 704. 

A lady at her toilette. Eur. Med. 

1 1 56. 
Aesch. Ag. 838. 
Eur. Hipp. 430. 


Eur. Phoen. 1639. 

Eur. Andr. 851: Ion, 381. 

i\Iisfo)ittncs harde>i the heart. 
Eur. Iph. in Taur. 351. 

Never come singly. Eur. Or. 

Ought to be borne with patience. 
Eur. Med. 1018. 

A kind mistress. Eur. Ale. 678. 

Eur. Or. 773, 903. 

Eur. Med. 636; Hipp. 252,261. 
Aloderatiun in victory. Eur. 
Supp. 726. 

Eur. Bacch. 314; Hec. 975. 

Eur. Andr. 474 ; Supp. 409. 

River-god. Soph. Trach. 11. 
Phorcides and Gorgons. Aesch. 

Pr. V. 793. 
Typhon. Aesch. Pr. V. 351 ; 
Theb. 491 ; Ag. 1232 ; Eum. 
Moral blindness. 

' Quern detts vidt perdere prius 
demcntat.' Soph. Ant. 620. 

Soph. El. 16 : Eur. Ion, 82. 

Mother s relation to her child. 

Aesch. Eum. 212, 605, 658. 
Andromache offers her life to 
save her son. Eur. Andr. 
406 ; Tread. 735. 
A mother's appeal, expecting the 
instant death of herself and 
her children. Eur. Here. Fur. 

For the life of her child. Eur. 

Hec. 271. 279. 
Parting of Hecuba and Polyxena. 

Eur. Hec. 402. 



Mothers love. Eur. Iph. in 
Aul 917. 

Baud of mourners. Aesch. 

Choeph. 10. 
Against wearing black. Eur. 
Iph. in Aul. 1439. 

Eur. Here. Fur. 1244. 

Aesch. Ag. 1379. 
Alurder of Neoptolenius. Eur. 
Andr. 1128 sqq. 

Aesch. Eum. 443. 

Soothing pozver of music. Eur. 
Med. 191. 

Of horse and foot. Eur. Bacch. 

Soph. Ant. 289. 
A nniliny on board ship. Eur. 
Hal. 1590. 

Native land. 

Love of conntrv a strong sen- 
timent. Eur. Phoen. 406. 
Duty to. Aesch. Theb. 16. 

Aesch. Pers. 357. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 514 : Eur. Troad. 
612; Here. Fur. 282; Ale. 
965; Hel. 521. 

A^cts and snares. Eur. Or. 1315 : 
Aesch. Ag. 1047, 1375. 1382 ; 
Eum. 112; Choeph. 984. 

Eur. Herac. 109. 

■'Tis best to be off with the 
old love, before you are on 
with the new^ Eur. Med. 


Evil news. Peleus shocked at 
the tidings of the death of 
Neoptolemus. Eur. Andr. 

Aesch. Theb. 400 ; Choeph. 
660 ; Supp. 769 : Eur. Phoen. 
734; Or. 174; Iph. in Taur. 
Proposal for a night-attack. 
Dialogue. Eur. Phoen. 724 

Soph. Oed. Col. 18, 671 : Eur. 
Hel. 1 107: Aesch. Ag. 1140. 

Aesch. Choeph. 287. 

Eur. Hel. i : Aesch. Pr. V. 
810, 847 ; Supp. 281, 497, 
561, 880. 

Eur. Hec. 379, 591 : Herac. 
297 ; Ion, 237 ; El. 385 ; 
Diet. Frag. 341 ; Phoen. 442. 

Aeseh. Pr. V. 707; Supp. 284. 

Aesch. Ag. 565. 

Aesch. Choeph. 894. 


An oath prescribed. Eur. Med. 
746 ; Iph. in Taur. 747 : 
Soph. Tr. 1 181 : Aesch. Theb. 
42; Ag. 1431. 

Soph. Aj. 1071, 1246: Aesch. 
Theb. 224. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 1007, 1034: 
Soph. Ant. 474, 710: Eur. 
Med. 445. 

Drink offering of milk and honey. 
Aesch. Pers. 611. 




Kiir. Hipp. 692. 

Love of offspring universal. 
Eur. Here. Fur. 634. 

Acsch. Ag. 322. 
Old age. 

Eur. Supp. 1 108. 
Regret for the loss of yotithful 
strength. Eur. Herac. 703 ; 
Here. Fur. 230: Acsch. Ag. 

Aesch. Pers. 800 ; Eum. 30 : 
Soph. Oed. Rex, 857. 

A simple straightforward 
speaker. Eur. Or. 917. 

Soph. Ant. 265. 

Oedipus forebodes a forlorn life 
for his daughters. Soph. 
Oed. Rex, 1480; Aj. 510. 

Eur. Ipli. in Aul. 121 1. 

Soph. Oed. Col. 1254. 

Aesch. Ag. 1297. 


Slop-pail. Aesch. Choeph. 99. 

Illustration front art. Eur. 
Hec. 807. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 87. 
Aesch. Eum. 212, 605, 658 : 
Eur. Hel. 940. 

Judgment of Paris. Eur. Andr. 
274 ; Troad. 924 ; Iph. in 
Aul. 1300. 

Of a brother and sister. Soph. 

Oed. Col. 1435: Eur. Iph. in 
Aul. 650. 

Regret eannot alter the past. 
Eur. Supp. 1084. 

Duty to one's country. Soph. 
Ant. 183: Aesch. Theb. 16: 
Eur. Phocn. 406, 1000 ; 
Troad. 386. 
For Greece, to keep her free, 1 
make this sacrifice. Eur. Iph. 
in Aul. 1269, 1375. 
A motlier's reasons for sacri- 
ficing her daughter for her 
country s sake. Eur. Erec. 
Frag. 353. 

Eur. Ion, 1133. 

Eur. Supp. 479, 489, 949. 

Hecuba urges Poly.vena to plead 
for life. Eur. Hec. 334,814, 

Soph. Oed. Rex, 22, 171. 

Aesch. Ag. 412, 1217. 

Soph. Tr. 572. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 473. 

Aesch. Ag. 1327. 

Aesch. Theb. 62, 208 ; Ag. 
Pious and Impious. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 267. 

Soph. Phil. 965 : Aesch. Supp. 
486 : Eur. Iph. in Taur. 

Soph. Oed. Col. 806. 

Eur. Antiope, Frag:. 196 ;Dind.). 




Plotting and counterplotting. 
Soph. Oed. Rex, 6i8. 

Poisoned robe. Eur. Med. 787, 
1 156, 1 167 ; Ion, 1000, 1 180 : 
Soph. Tr. 600, 674, 749, 
1053: Aesch. Ag. 1260. 

Her noble fortitude and death. 
Eur. Hec. 342, 402, 521, 568. 

An eagle tearing a liazvk. Aesch. 
Pers. 205 ; Ag. 116. 

Eur. Med. 560; El. 372,376,404. 

Eur. Andr. 683. 

Eur. Andr. 234. 

Soph. El. 637 : Aesch. Theb. 
69; Choeph. 123, 139, 246, 

Aesch. .Supp. 795. 

Prestiniption on bodily strength. 
Soph. Aj. 758, 1077, 1081 : 
Eur. Supp. 214. 

Eur. Phoen. 1631 : Aesch. Theb. 
1005, 1031 ; Supp. 609, 944: 
Soph. Ant. 203. 

His sentence and punishment. 
Aesch. Pr. V. 12-35, 268, 
His benefits to mankind. Aesch. 
Pr. V. 442, 476. 

Must prophesy smooth things or 
incur hatred. Eur. Phoen. 954. 

In prosperity forget not God. 
Eur. Ion, 1045. 

Eur. Troad. 884. 

God's dealings inscrutable to 

men. Eur. Iph. in Aul. 1610. 
IVhy does God permit so untch 

unmerited misery ? Eur. Hec. 


Eur. Iph. in Taur. 1422: Soph. 

Oed. Col. 897. 

E.xainple of faithful friendship. 

Eur. Or. 734. 

Funeral pyre of Hercules. Soph. 

Tr. 1195: Eur. Supp. 1012. 



Soph. Ant. 259: Aesch. Pr. V. 

/ die a queen. Eur. Hec. 550. 

Dialogue betiueen Hercules and 
Admctus. Eur. Ale. 509. 


Aesch. Ag. 1391. 

Eur. Phoen. 598. 
Bad in a leader. Eur. Supp. 508. 

Soph. Aj. 786. 

Torch-race. Aesch. Ag. 312. 
Chariot-race. Soph. El. 680. 
Foot-race. Eur. El. 883, 954. 
Race-course. Aesch. Ag. 343 ; 
Choeph. 1022. 

Settles disputes better than ivar 
can. Eur. Phoen. 518. 

Soph. El. 1354 : Eur. El. 558, 

Mother andson. Eur. Ion, 1439: 
Aesch. Choeph. 224. 

locasta tries to reconcile her sons. 
Eur. Phoen. 85, 455, 531. 




Eur. Supp. 266. 

Soph. Phil. 1222. 
Alenelaits rcf>etits of urging on 
the sacrifice 0/ Ipliigcnia, and 
gives way to pity. Eur. Iph. 
in Aul. 477. 

False reputation. Eur. Andr. 

319. 330- 

Chttinnestra reproaches Aga- 
tneninon. Eur. Iph. in Aul. 
1 146. 
Medea reproaches Jason. Eur. 
Med. 465. 

Eur. Med. 1018. 

Rest and labour. Eur. Ion, 


Eur. Hipp. 184 Anapaests. 

Flight of the Persian arrny. 
Aesch. Pars. 480. 
• Retribution. 

Soph. Aj. 1028 : Aesch. Supp. 


Revenge is surct. Eur. Here. 
Fur. 731 ; Hec. 1258. 

Soph. Phil. 927. 1005 ; El. 287, 

622: Aesch. Pr. V. 971. 
Jason reproaches Medea. Eur. 

Med. 1323. 
Reviling on the score of low birth. 
Soph. Aj. 724, 1226, 1300. 

Rich and poor. Eur. Supp. 238. 

Eur. Phoen. 439. 558 ; Or. 340 ; 
EL 940; Hel. 911. 

Dislike each other. Eur. Ion, 


Fertilisi'ig streams. Aescii. 
Supp. 1025 ; Pers. 487, 805. 
River god. 

Soph. Tr. 10. 

Aesch. Eum. 12. 

Causing zuater a)id wine to flow. 
Eur. Bacch. 704. 

Aesch. Pers. 480. 

Aesch. Ag. 161 7. 
Ruling passion. 

Eur. Or. 126. 

Aesch. Ag. 863. 


Horrors of a sack. Aesch. 
Theb. 321 sqq. ; Ag. 320. 

Details of a sacrifice. Eur. El. 

Aesch. Pers. 800. 

Soph. Aj. 348. 356. 1 142: Phil. 
I 541 : Eur. Troad.68i ; Herac. 


Aesch. Ag. 920. 

Soph. Tr. 698. 

Aesch. Theb. 792. 

A battle scene. Eur. Phoen. 

Death ofHippolytus. Eur. Hipp. 
1 1 90. 

Soph. EI. 516. 

The steppes of Tartary. Aesch. 
Pr. V. 707. 





The all-cleansiiig. Eur. Iph. in 

Taiir. 1 193. 
A sea of troubles. Eur. Hipp. 
822 : Aesch. Supp. 468 ; 
Theb. 758 ; Pr. V. 746 : Soph. 
Tr. 112. 

Aesch. Pers. 353, 387. 
Sea shore. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 260; Hipp. 

Siortn lashed, breaker beaten. 
Soph. Oed.Col. 1240; Tr.112. 

Aesch. Ag. 609. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 454. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 1056. 

Tyrants become uncontrollable 
in their passions. Eur. Med. 

Macaria offers to die to save the 
rest. Eur. Herac. 500. 

Soph. Ant. 437. 

Eur. Here. Fur. aor. 

Soph. Ant. 705 ; Phil. 1316. 

Eur. Med. 86. 

Faithful servant. Soph. El. 
23 : Eur. Hel. 726. 

A stepping- stone to tyranny. 
Eur. Iph. in Aul. 337. 

Aesch. Theb. 489. 
Ship at anchor. Eur. Iph. in 

Taur. 1043. 
Ship ready to start. Eur. Iph. 
in Taur. 1345. 

Beating up against a head-wind. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 1390. 
Invention of ships. Aesch. Pr. 

V. 467. 
Ship of the state. Soph. Ant. 
189, 715; Phil. 639 : Aesch. 
Theb. 62. 208 ; Supp. 440, 
714, 764; Pers. 373: Eur. 
Or. 706. 

Eur. Tread. 77; Hel. 405: 
Aesch. Ag. 634 ; Choeph. 
202 ; Eum. 556. 

'Tis confusion where the gray 
mare is the better horse. Eur. 
El. 930. 

Eur. Or 211 ; Hipp. 205. 
Easier to contract than to cure. 

Eur. Hipp. 186. 
Sick people hard to please. Eur. 
Or. 232. 
Sick nurse. 

Eur. Or. 217. 

Eur. Cj'cl. 624 : Aesch. Ag. 36. 
Boding ill. Soph. Ant. 1251. 
Refusal to speak. Soph. Tr. 

Gives consent. Soph. Tr. 813. 
E.vhoyiation to be silent. Eur. 
Or. 136. 

Soph. Aj. 149: Eur. Phoen. 

Eur. Med. 54; Ion, 854: Soph. 
Tr. 61. 
Eur. Hec. 332, 357 : Soph. Aj. 
485 : Aesch. Ag. 1040. 

Soph. PhU. 766, 821, 827: 
Eur. Or. 211 : Aesch. Ag. 12, 
Aesch. EunL 94. 



An'ohcnittg from sleep. Acsch. 
Eiim. ii8: Soph. Phil. 276. 

HttiiKDi pleasure unsubstantial 
as stiioke. Soph. Ant. 1168: 
Acsch. Supp. 779. 

Acsch. Ag. 1233 ; Chocph. 247, 
544, 995 ; 1'hcb. 495 ; Supp. 


Three classes. Eur. Supp. 238. 

Soph. Aj. 715. 
A son vows to avenge hts father. 

Eur. Supp. 1 146. 
Filial duty. Soph. Ant. 639, 

Iphigenia soothes her father. Eur. 
Iph. in Aul. 647. 

Retains consciousness after death. 
Eur. Hel. 1015. 

Subject to envy front others. 

Soph. Oed. Rex, 380. 
Real and nominal. Soph. Oed. 
Rex, 584. 

Soph. Tr. 31. 

Soph. Tr. 24. 
Aesch. Pr. V. 566; Ag. 412; 
Choeph. 523. 

Eur. Hipp. 486; Or. 637, 640; 

Hec. 294. 
Medea makes up her mind to 
kill her children. Eur. Med. 
Phaedra recounts hoiv she had 
struggled against her passion. 
Eur. Hipp. 377. 
Electra on hearing of the death 
of Orestes. Soph. El. 814,999. 

Orestes over the dead bodies of 

Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. 

Acsch. Chocph. 972. 
Of Etcoclcs. ' / care not for 

justice; my goal is sove- 
reignty.' Eur. Phocn. 499. 
Of Jocasta against ambition. 

Eur. Phoen. 528. 
Menoecus offers to die for his 

country. Eur. Phocn. 997. 
Antigone offers to bear c.vile or 

death zvi/h her father. Eur. 

Phocn. 1679. 
Medea to her children. Eur. 

IVIed. 1021. 
Alcestis prays for her children. 

Eur. Ale. 162. 
Hecuba over Astyanax. Eur. 

Troad. 1157. 
Medea pleads for her childroi. 

Eur. Med. 340. 
Polyxena to Ulysses, scorning 

to beg for life. Eur. Hec. 


Aesch. Theb. 539. 

Aesch. Ag. 1327. 

Soph. El. 568 : Aesch. Eum. 
Ill, 246. 

Aesch. Ag. 4. 

Aesch. Ag. 416. 

Eur. Ale. 304 ; Ion, 1025. 

Soph.Aj. 728: Aesch. Ag.1615: 
Eur. Andr. 1127. 

Sandstorm. Simoom. Soph. 

Ant. 415 : Aj. 1142. 
Storm-beaten life. Soph. Ant. 

382 ; Oed. Col. 1245. 
Storm at sea. Eur. Troad. 77 ; 
Herac. 427 ; Hel. 405: Aesch. 
Ag. 634, 650 ; Choeph. 202. 




Soph. Phil. 473, 480. 

Soph. Phil. 86. 

Soph. El. 36 : Aesch. Pers. 


Aesch. Supp. 955. 

Soph. Ant. 471, 712, 1023; 
Phil. 1316. 

Soph. El. 335 : Aesch. Pr. V. 


Of Jocasta desa-ibcd. Oed. Rex, 

Of Dijaiicira. Soph. Tr. 923. 
OfAjax. Soph. Aj. 815. 
Electra vows that she will not 
survive Oirsfrs. Eur. El. 
686; Hipp. 776: Aesch. Pr. 
V. 747. 

Soph. Aj. 845. 

Soph. Phil. 1350: Aesch. Ag. 
1 180. 

Aesch. Supp. 191. 

Evadne resolves to die on the 
fimeral pyre of ho- husband, 
Capannts. Eur. Supp. 1012- 
1030 Choric metre; 1045, 
1072 DialogHJe. 
Aesch. Ag. 1444. 


Eur. Here. Fur. 1355 : Aesch. 
Ag. 270, 887 ; Choeph. 185. 
Eur. Hipp. 377. 
' Fabidac pcccare docentes.' Eur. 
Hipp. 450. 

Evil advice. Eur. Hipp. 486 : 
Aesch. Pr. V. 645. 

Eur. Iph. in Aul. 549 Chorus. 

Soph. Phil. 530 : Aesch, Supp. 

Eur. Iph. in Aul. 979. 
' Thou art the man.' 

Soph. Aj. 1 156. 

Empty threats. Eur. Andr. 

A threat. Aesch, Supp. 925. 

Soph. Oed. Col. 1477, 1500 
Chorus: Aesch, Eum. 827. 

Capa)iens struck down. Eur. 
Phoen. 1173: Soph. Ant. 131. 
Aesch. Pr. V. 358, 667, 915, 
992, 1016, 1043, 1080. 

Bad tidings. Eur. Hec. 657 
Dialogue : Aesch. Theb. 369 ; 
Ag. 636. 
Good tidings. Aesch, Ag, 

Soph. Oed, Rex, 614. 
Reveals secrets. Eur. Hipp. 
Eur. Or. 895. 

Living tomb. Soph. Ant. 773, 
885, 1205 : Eur. Hel. 851. 

Eur. Ale. 783. 

Eur. Or. 10 ; Andr. 644 ; Hipp. 
395 ; Iph. in Taur. 1064 ; 
Med. 466. 

Soph. Ant. 712, 
Eur, Supp. 910. 

y 2 




Aesch. Pr. V. 673. 

Clytntuiestra and licr family. 
Eur. Ipli. in Aul. 608. 
Traveller's rest. 

Eur. Iph. in Aul. 420: Aesch. 
Choeph. 560. 660, 668, 674. 

Eur. Iph. in Taur. 961 : Aesch. 
Eum. 566. 

Eur. Phoen. 469 : Soph. Ant. 
1194; Tr. 373, 454: Aesch. 
Pr. V. 1030. 

Aesch. Pers. 424. 

Aesch. Theb. 377. 

Soph. Ant. 506, 734 : Aesch. 
Eum. 696. 


Soph. Aj. 828. 1062 : Aesch. 
Theb. 1013 ; Supp. 800. 

Soph. Phil. 1047. 

Aesch. Choeph. 686 : Soph. El. 
54, 1 126. 


Soph. El. 783. 

All is vanity. Soph. Oed. Rex, 
1186 Lj'ric; Aj. 125: Aesch. 
Ag. 1327. 

Should not be given before both 
sides are heard. Eur. Herac. 

Soph. Ant. 1 158. 

Aesch. Ag. 322. 


Soph. Ant. 531 : Eur. Andr. 

Eur. Supp. 596; Andr. 777. 

Aesch. Ag. 36. 

Soph. Phil. 986 : Aesch. Pr. V. 

Aesch. Ag. 815; Eum. 748; 
Supp. 605, 942. 

To live and die together. Eur. 
Or. 305 sqq. , 1069; El. 686; 
Hel. 980; Iph. in Taur. 20: 
Aesch. Theb. 42. 


Eur. Hel. 400. 

Eur. Supp. 479. 
Alarm of war. Aesch. Theb. 
245 Dialogue. 

Their ariiioio and devices de- 
scribed. Eur. Phoen. 1104; 
Rhaes. 301 : Aesch. Theb. 
375. etc. 

Aesch. Ag. 2, 12. 

Pnlling tip weeds. Aesch. Eum. 

Eur. Ale. 941. 

A wife should be a help-mate. 
Eur. El. 71. 930 ; Troad. 
629 sqq.; Iph. in Aul. 749. 
A bad wife. Eur. Hipp. 630 : 
Soph. Ant. 650 : Aesch. Ag. 

Soph. Ant. 396. 

That cheers, and brings forget- 



fnliicss of woe. Eur. Bacch. 

278. 772; Cycl. 149, 674. 
Care drozviicd in ihe cup. Eur. 

Bacch. 380. 

Honesty is the truest wisdom. 

Eur." Med. 580. 
Men ivill not learn ivisdoni. 

Eur. Hipp. 916. 
Soph. Ant. 1349: Eur. Rhaes. 

205, 296. 

Eur. Med. i. 

Aesch. Ag. 1258; Supp. 350, 


Woman s nature compassionate. 

Eur. Here. Fur. 536 ; Hec. 

1 178. 
Woman'' s lot and man's cott- 

trasted. Eur. Med. 230. 
Woman's nature brave in one 

regard. Eur. Med. 263. 
Woman the cnrse of mankmd. 

Eur. Hipp. 616, 625. 
Characters of n'omcn. The doll. 

Eur. Hipp. 638. The clever 

woman. Eur. Hipp. 640. 
A jealous creature. Eur. Andr. 

181, 269. 
JVomen scolded for cowardice. 

Aesch. Theb. 182. 

Women\s faults more harshly 
judged than men^s. Eur. El. 

Woman's ivit. Eur. Or. 1204; 

Med. 406. 
Woman^s place and duty. Eur. 

Herac. 476. 
Eur. Tread. 640 ; El. 343 ; 

Andr. 270; Med. 231, 425, 

928 ; Ion, 398, 902 ; Hec. 

1 184; Hipp. 628; Andr. 

943; Or. 1 163. 

Eur. Supp. 547 ; Here. Fur. 

Words and deeds. Soph. Oed. 

Col. 1 143; Phil. 96: Aesch. 

Theb. 553. 

Eur. Hipp. 73. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 920. 

Invention of, by Prometheus. 

Aesch. Pr. V. 460. 


Apt to be insolent. Eur. Andr. 

Happy tn its ignorance. Soph. 

Tr. 144: Eur. Hipp. 118; 

Supp. 250 ; Here. Fur. 638. 






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