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Full text of "Modern dairying"

. 



RIC, DEPT, 



DEPARTMENT OF' AGRICULTURE, VICTORIA. 



AGRICULT 
LIBRARY, 

"UNIVERSITY 

-OF 

CALIFORNIA 



MODERN DAIRYING, 



BY 



MESSES. D, WILSON AND E, CROWE, 



DAIRY EXPERTS. 



ROBT. S. EP,\1X, (JOVERNMKNT PRINTER, MELBOURNE, 



18 9 H. 

3063 



DEPAKTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, ; VICTORIA, 



MODERN DAIRYING, 



BY 



MESSRS. D. WILSON AND B, CROWE, 



DAIRY EXPERTS. 



ISg Sutfjoritg: 

ROBT. S, BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE. 



189B. 
3063 



Main T.'ib. 
A -ric. 



. ; 


* 



PREFACE. 

In no other industry has there been more rapid changes in 
recent years than in that of Dairying. 

The machinery and utensils invented a few years ago are 
being greatly improved, and many are now quite out of date. 
Inventive minds are constantly at work to improve existing 
methods. 

Chemists, bacteriologists, and others skilled in science have 
given earnest attention to investigating and improving the pro- 
perties of dairy products. 

The necessity has therefore arisen for the publication of an 
up-to-date manual for the information of those engaged in Victoria 
in the Dairying Industry. The production of such a work, while 
being of special interest to the advanced butter and cheese maker, 
will also, it is hoped, prove of service to all milk suppliers and 
dairy produce manufacturers. 

The two dairy experts Messrs. D. Wilson and R. Crowe 
attached to this Department have devoted themselves to the task 
of producing a work which, I trust, will be found to give all the 
information which correspondents with the Department are fre- 
quently asking for. 

The advice tendered, it is hoped, will have the effect of 
causing improvement on the part of some suppliers and manufac- 
turers, for no matter how advanced a country may be in its 
methods of producing, there are always some laggards who bring 
reproach on those whose desires are to advance and not retard. 
We live in a progressive age. Times change, and we must change 
with them if we are to prosper. 

The marvellous progress which has taken place in the Dairying 
Industry in Victoria is almost a matter of history, and came as a 
surprise to other countries ; and, aided as we are by science, the 
extent of its further development and expansion is almost incom- 
prehensible. It therefore behoves us to exercise the greatest care 
in keeping up and increasing the high standard we have reached. 
It is the ambition of the Department to keep in the front of all 
the British possessions as regards the industry to which this 
brochure has reference, and it is sincerely hoped that the object 
desired may be accomplished somewhat by the information herein 
contained. 

D. MARTIN, 
Secretary for Agriculture. 

Department of Agriculture, 
Melbourne, April, 1898. 



274433 



MODERN DAIRYING, 



FACTORY BUTTER-MAKING. 

Rules for butter-making could easily be drawn up if the 
conditions under which each butter-maker laboured were alike. 
If the milk were in the same order, the climatic conditions 
identical, and like appliances used, it could readily be disposed of. 
The conditions in different localities and places vary. The cir- 
cumstances are also constantly changing in each place. It would 
be of little advantage, therefore, to frame rules without pointing 
out a method of applying them. More good will be derived from 
a general discussion of the subject. The subject will be shown 
from different stand-points, and it is hoped that in such form it 
will prove of the best service. 

The quality of butter largely depends on the treatment of the 
milk before it reaches the factory or creamery, and the condition 
of the milk when it reaches the butter-maker's hands. 

THE CARE OF MILK. 

Milk should be drawn from the cows in as cleanly a manner 
as possible. The surroundings should also receive due attention. 

It is a pleasure to notice the recent rapid increase of modern 
well-drained and paved milking-yards ; together with well- 
arranged and ventilated milking-sheds. 

Examples can be met with in every district that serve as 
models for the neighbours to copy. When yards are convenient 
in their arrangement and paved it is easy and pleasant to work in 
and keep them clean. 

Milk is a great absorbent of bad odours, and a good medium 
for the development of bacteria. If the surroundings be evil- 
smelling the milk will soon become tainted. The value of butter, 
therefore, becomes lessened as the contamination is permitted to 
increase in the milk. 

If a cow's udder is dirty it should be carefully washed, and if 
clean it should at least be wiped. Such simple precautions pre- 
vent filth and dust from falling into the bucket when milking. 
Milking with dry hands is preferable, and is fast coming into 
favour. It is a much cleaner and better plan than the old way. 

Milk should be kept in a clean place shaded from the rays of 
the sun, and away from dust and smells. 

The milk vessels and everything that the milk conies in 
contact with should be absolutely clean. The temperature of the 
milk should be reduced as rapidly as possible after it comes from 
the cow. (See Rules for Milk and Cream Supply, page 32.) 



When the milk is strong in odour and flavour from such food 
as fresh green rape, lucerne, trefoil, turnips, &c., aeration greatly 
improves it. 

The aeration of milk has long been advocated ; but because it 
was imperfectly understood, or entailed a certain amount of 
trouble, but few dairymen practise it. Milk that is quite 
nauseous to the tasle, and gives off a strong undesirable odour 
from the above causes, can be made quite agreeable and palatable 
by aerating. The fact that the odour rises from the milk is proof 
that the element causing it is volatile. If pure air is passed 
through the milk, or if milk is spread out thinly and exposed to 
such air, the undesirable element evaporates and is carried away. 
A simple experiment may be more convincing than any lengthy 
explanation. When the milk is affected take a cupful and pour 
it a few times from one cup into another. In doing so let the 
milk fall some distance through the air. After this is done a great 
improvement will be noticed. The same thing may be done by 
means of dippers or buckets ; but when large quantities are 
handled special appliances have been designed and are in the 
market for effecting the object. The process is greatly assisted 
if carried out when the milk is at a high temperature immediately 
after coming from the cow. 

Recent experiments have been made to find out if it were 
possible to eliminate this injurious element at the creamery in- 
stead of the farm. Considerable success was met with, and tne 
matter is dealt with elsewhere under the head of " Pasteurizing." 

Farmers reason in the following manner : " My milk is 
considered good enough to be taken at the creamery without my 
going to any bother with it, and anything that is considered good 
enough to receive there is quite good enough to send." 

Again : " If I put my milk in the best condition, and make 
it most suitable for manufacturing a tip-top quality of butter, and 
my neighbour does not, my good work is negatived by his care- 
lessness as soon as our milk is mixed at the creamery. He gets 
as much for his product as I do who supply a superior article." 

This contention applies to all milk inferior in condition, as well 
as from the neglect of proper aeration when necessary. This is 
really the weakest point in our otherwise excellent co-operative 
system of dairying. 

It has often been suggested that the remedy rests with 
the companies ; that they should extend the system of pay- 
ment by results, and pay for the milk according to the condition 
as well as according to the butter contained. 

Many difficulties present themselves in the carrying out of 
such a proposal. The chief obstacle is the want of a definite 
measure of the suitability of milk for butter-making at the time of 
its delivery at the factory. The determination of respective values 



would have to be placed entirely in the hands of the manager, 
and applied at his discretion. 

As his employers are generally suppliers and are often offenders, 
undesirable friction would sometimes be caused if the manager did 
his duty. Of course the same argument was put forward when the 
system of payment according to butter contents was initiated, but 
the cases differ considerably. In the one instance there is great 
definiteness in the result, which can be checked if a doubt arises. 
In the other no such precision exists. It was at one time sug- 
gested as practicable, in cases of dispute, to have the question 
settled by a board of reference from the suppliers present at the 
moment. Such a course would in many cases if not all 1 take 
the responsibility off the manager's shoulders, but could not give 
ultimate satisfaction. The sole power of exercising judgment 
should be vested in the manager's hands. 

Authority is given at present in nearly all places for the 
manager to refuse to take delivery of milk unfit for the making 
of good butter, but the line in 90 per cent, of our factories is 
drawn too low. 

If milk will pass through the separator it is generally con- 
sidered good enough to take, and sourness, or the degree of 
sourness, is the only point taken into account in some places in 
determining the suitability of the milk. 

Very often milk which is too sour for separating is belter 
suited for making a good butter than another class of milk which 
has been tainted through having been kept in unclean surround- 
ings, or in dirty vessels. This is the class of milk that causes 
most damage in the factory. It often arrives sweet to the taste, 
but having a bad odour. 

Such milk is responsible for far more trouble and deterioration 
in the finished product than milk that has naturally soured through 
being kept at too high a temperature. It is that class of milk 
that presents the greatest difficulties in determining its value. 

There is another phase of the subject, and one that presents 
as practical a solution of the difficulty as is likely to be found. 
In our best managed factories the milk is generally all good. 
The reason is that the manager exercises a wise influence over 
the producers. 

If milk is brought that is not up to the mark, the fault 
is pointed out, and advice given how to remedy it. Should 
the cause be of such a nature as to render it easily overcome, 
no excuse is taken after the first warning, and the delivery 
of such milk is promptly refused. If the remedy is difficult to 
apply, more latitude is given, advice and help are tendered, and the 
same firmness is displayed in dealing with the supplier. It is in 
such firm supervision of the milk supply where most of our fac- 
tories score and succeed. It is in the want of such safeguard, 



8 

and, necessarily, sure foundation, that so many fail to make good 
butter. A good builder makes a secure foundation before he 
erects a structure that he wishes to last long and reflect credit on 
him. So a good manager or butter-maker has to take similar pre- 
cautions. Managers should have full control in all matters 
pertaining to the quality of the butter. The exercise of such 
authority always demands the greatest tact. It would be 
an easy matter to make one's methods of dealing objectionable, 
and drive the suppliers away. Great changes for the better 
should be brought about gradually in a factory. 

Suppliers should recognise that their factory manager has to 
daily act as an arbitrator in matters relating to their welfare. 
First of all there is the relationship between the shareholders of 
the company and the milk suppliers to be borne in mind. Then 
there is fair play to be meted out between one supplier and 
another. And the manager has to protect his reputation by 
turning out a good article. It is a delicate position to fill well. 
In a few instances where full control is given the necessary 
backbone is wanting, proper authority is not exercised, and the 
energies of the manager are sometimes misdirected, undue 
attention being paid to certain branches of his work. 

The manager, in some cases, is always to be found behind the 
butter-worker, concentrating his main efforts to the make, the 
build, the texture, and finish of his butter. Such points are all 
necessary, and should receive their due share of attention. But 
what is the good of a butter perfectly made and got up if it is 
wanting in bouquet and flavour ? 

Flavour is the great essential in good butter. All the other 
points texture, salting, packing, colour, &c. embrace the condi- 
tion of the butter, and can be easily controlled and regulated* 
The great desideratum is flavour. It is the fineness of flavour 
that makes butter sell at a shilling a pound, and it is the want of 
it that causes an equally good butter in other respects to bring 
only eightpence in the same market. Any manager, therefore, who 
does not make the flavour his chief study and object is not working 
in the best direction. 

The greatest success attends those who make the condition in 
which the raw material, the milk or cream, reaches their hands 
their first care. It does not follow that they must always be present 
when the milk is being received. Instructions to those who take 
the milk should be definite and pointed, and in large places an 
occasional visit to see that it is done properly is generally suffi- 
cient. Suppliers should not think that any hardships are pro- 
posed to be laid upon them. The proportion of careless suppliers 
that really require looking after is small, and it is not fair that 
for the faults of those few the quality of the produce belonging to 
the great majority should be lowered. 



We have attained uniformity in individual factories, but in 
many the standard is too low, owing principally to want of strict- 
ness in looking after the milk supply. Without a standard of 
excellence in his mind the butter-maker cannot tell what he is 
aiming for. Each has an idea of what a perfect butter should be, 
the same as every one has a different standard for cleanliness. 
What one considers perfect another often thinks far from perfect. 

A butter-maker who aims at making the kind of butter that 
the customers like the best, and are prepared to pay most money 
for, cannot go far wrong. Never mind catering for individual 
fancy, not even your own. If your butter is to be consumed in 
Melbourne, make it to suit Melbourne customers. If for West 
Australia or Cape Colony, make and prepare it in the manner and 
shape preferred there ; and if for London, try and study the best 
means of manufacture that will cause it to give best satisfaction 
there. The hard matter in connexion with this is to secure 
reliable reports as to how the butter suits the consumers. 

The account sales serve as the best indicator ; but very often 
a 112s. report accompanies a 105s. price. It is considered busi- 
ness to take steps to secure the continuance of butter through 
one's hands, 110 matter what the quality of it is. The opinion of 
the consumer, if not flattering, must therefore be withheld, or 
trimmed into such shape so as not to run the risk of losing that 
brand another season. Producers are often naturally suspicious 
that a report drawing attention to faults is framed to justify low 
prices. 

This is a delicate and important point, that may eventually 
call for a more satisfactory method of dealing with that would be 
more agreeable and satisfactory to all parties. 

Too many of our butter-makers miss this great point altogether. 
They strive to make an article that pleases themselves an article 
which, at the time of manufacture, is good and nice. 

They do not follow it up, and try to find out how it stood the 
journey to the consumer, and what effect the variations in tem- 
perature had on it. Rarely do they closely inquire as to how it 
stood the tests of the buyers, and suited the consumers. 

From this it will be seen what an important part the care of 
the milk takes in making good butter. It is little use to expect 
to make choicest butter from milk any proportion of which is not 
good. However, the question has to be faced as it is, not as it 
ought to be. In many localities it is more than a man's position 
is worth to refuse milk and cream not first class. 

The following extract from a factory manager's letter will serve 
to illustrate how matters stand : 

I am not at all surprised to hear you complain about our output being 
bad in flavour. I am far from satisfied with the general quality of our 
export make ; but I can assure you that I have done my level best with the 
material I am obliged to handle. 



10 

Eighty per cent, of our business is hand or turbine separator trade, and 
during the summer months I find it is impossible to make anything like a 
first-class article. 

Some of the suppliers are far from being clean, whilst others keep the 
cream too long on hand, and give it no attention. A few of my suppliers 
are very careful people, whose cream always reaches me in the best of con-, 
dition, but the majority are hard to do business with. 

The small separators are rapidly increasing, and are accountable for so 
much bad cream. They have come to stay in some districts, so I think it 
is time something was done to protect the export trade. I cannot remedy 
the evil at the factory, neither do I think any man can do so. The cream 
is gone too far for that ere it reaches us. I have been amongst my suppliers, 
giving them any useful hints I knew of. 

The results were an improvement for a few days, but they soon fell back 
to their old groove again. If I reject their cream some one else will take it, 
so I have to try and hold all kinds, good, bad, and indifferent. I think the 
Government should take some steps, and enforce stringent measures to 
rectify the matter. 

I regret to say that most of the suppliers are indifferent, and do not care 
what harm they do, as long as they can get rid of the cream. 

Eventually (if not protected) I am afraid the whole industry will suffer 
through this means. It is no use in waiting for any one else to make a 
move, and I don't think any other person's protest will carry so much 
weight as yours. I stand on delicate ground, and dare not take up the 
cudgels against my own suppliers, and so I am in hopes you will take some 
measures to cope with this evil before our next export season commences. 

We are sorry to say that the above letter presents an exact state- 
ment of the position of affairs in a few cases. It is not general 
as yet, but is growing, and has a strong tendency to spread. To 
put it plainly, much harm has already been done to our export 
trade through the breaking down of the original co-operative 
system in some localities. A little further on and it will mean 
the forfeiture of our position in the world's markets, and not un- 
likely the wrecking of our export trade. To those not in the 
business a short explanation may not be out of place. The 
origina. splendid co-operative system was started on the follow- 
ing sound lines: Factories and creameries were established where 
the milk was delivered by the farmers. The lots of cream were 
large enough then to warrant proper attention and prompt 
delivery to the factory, and the making of a uniform quality of 
butter of a high standard. 

With our high-class butter of uniform quality we got a footing 
on the London market, and year by year gradually improved our 
position. Of recent years there has been a growing disposition 
on the part of dairymen to purchase small plants and separate 
their own milk ; the individual supply of cream is, consequently, 
so small that it is not worth special attention, and as the 
cream is only sent to the factory when convenient three times 
a week, and often only once a week it can be imagined that in 
our hot climate it frequently reaches the factory in an unsatis- 
factory condition. The foundation of our past success unifor- 
mity is thus being destroyed. The average quality is lowered 



11 

ill standard, and the cost of production and marketing increased. 
It is difficult to understand why dairymen are doing this with 
their eyes open. The danger is pointed out to them on every 
possible occasion. Of course, there is no alternative open to 
those who are not within reach of a creamery or factory, and 
they cannot be blamed. If the factory were to send round 
collectors daily it would add to the cost of production consider- 
ably, and it would also be undesirable to have inspectors who would 
insist on all cream being properly handled and cared for. Neither 
would it do, when butter from such cream is not best quality, to 
refuse its shipment, so the simplest way out of the difficulty 
would be to discard the system and dispose of the small machines 
to our opponents in other countries. 

It is to be hoped that sufficient has been said to impress upon 
dairy farmers and dairy students the important part that the dairy- 
man takes in the production of good butter. Having recognised 
that point we can now proceed to discuss the part allotted to the 
butter-maker. 

SKIMMING. 

A temperature of 80 d^g. Fahr. is laid down as the most suit- 
able temperature for skimming. At that temperature the cream 
is taken off cleaner and more readily than at a lower one. Good 
work can be done at a much lower temperature than 80 deg., but 
to do so the milk must be passed through the machine more 
slowly. There is a danger of the cream clogging when 
skimming at a low temperature. It is often necessary to skim at 
as low as 65 deg. in the summer months where there is insufficient 
refrigerating power available. It has been maintained that, if the 
temperature of the cream is over 80 deg. when skimming, the 
butter would be greasy. The texture of the butter is not, 
however, affected if the skimming be done at 160deg. The 
higher the temperature of the milk the more perfect the skimming, 
and the greater the quantity that may be passed through the 
separator with as good results. 

The same thing holds good in regard to the speed of separa- 
tors. The higher the rate of speed the better the separation, and 
more can be passed through with good results. The lower the 
speed the more imperfect the skimming, or to a certain point as 
good, but less work can be done. Separators should on no account 
be run much beyond their stated speed. 

The essential points in good skimming are even temperature, 
even speed, and even feed. 

Separators should be checked daily in their work. If samples 
be taken in a factory where a number of machines are working 
all of the same make and estimated capacity, all being fed through 
the one pipe with milk of the same temperature, all driven by the 



12 

same shaft, and going at the same rate of speed and tested, it 
will be found that the results vary. In the skim-milk from No. 1 
we will probably find 0'2 per cent, of butter fat ; in that from 
No. 2, 0-025 ; from No. 3, O'l ; No. 4. 0-14 ; No. 5, 0'05, and so 
on. 

This will not be found in a factory where the result is con- 
stantly tested and the machines properly adjusted. Machines are 
liable to go out of best form from time to time. In early separat- 
ing days an average loss of under O'lo per cent, of fat in the skim- 
milk was considered good, whilst at the present time any average 
loss of over O'Oo is considered bad skimming. Thus 0' 1 per cent, 
of loss in a company's average turnover of 2,000 gallons a day, 
means in twelve months about 8,322 Ibs. of butter not recovered. 
It will thus be seen that it pays to keep a sharp watch over 
the separators. 

TREATMENT OP CREAM. 

After the cream comes from the separator it should be cooled. 
The exact degree of cooling depends on the ripeness of the 
milk when skimming, the state of the weather, and when it is in- 
tended to be churned. When the milk has been separated in good 
condition, 65 deg. would be cool enough temperature for the cream, 
as the cream will ripen more rapidly than at a lower temperature. 
If the milk was ripe at the time of separating, the cream should 
be cooled to 60 deg., or according to the degree of ripeness. 
Should the weather be warm and close the lower the cream will 
have to be reduced in temperature to retard ripening, and if the 
day is cold the higher the cream may be left in temperature to 
hasten the ripening. When the churning is to be done on the 
day following separating, the more rapid must the ripening 
be made, and slower when the cream is left till two days old. 
The cream can be hastened in ripening by the addition of a starter, 
such as good buttermilk, or a culture prepared in skim or new 
milk. (Cultures are dealt with elsewhere under the head of 
" Pasteurizing.") Churning has to be done as soon as practicable 
after separating, but not before a certain degree of lactic acidity 
has been developed. 

In many factories it is practicable to churn on the day following 
sepaiating, whilst in many others it is not convenient to do so till 
two days afterwards. In all well-regulated places there is a time- 
table arranged and followed as closely as possible. 

The cream is prepared so as to be right for churning when 
churning hour arrives. Authorities differ widely as to how cream 
should be treated from 'the time of separating till the time of 
churning. Managers have been met with who, after separating, 
cooled the cream down to 64 deg., and gradually to 58 deg., and 
churned it on the following morning. By this treatment butter 



13 

was made that brought highest prices for each consignment 
right through the season in England. Again, another factory- 
manager cooled the cream to 67 deg. or 68 deg., left it at that 
temperature for 24 hours, then cooling to 54 deg., and after 
another 24 hours, churning and making a butter that brought 
equally high prices. Both systems had been adopted as the 
result of many years' close practical study of the business. The 
goal is secured in different places by sometimes widely differing 
routes, and it would be invidious to say that either way was 
wrong. 

At many places sufficient refrigerating power is not available 
to enable the manager to control the temperature as he would wish. 
It is when placed in such a position that the resourceful man 
conies out on top. A great deal can be done in some places with- 
out a refrigerator. 

If plenty of cold water is at hand the cans of cream may be 
put into the water. After a time the water becomes warm with 
the heat abstracted from the cream and should then be replaced. 
Mistakes are often made by leaving the cans in the water when 
the atmosphere is colder. 

Placing wet bags round the cans when neither cold air or 
water is procurable is a good plan. 

At any place where much butter is made the aid of a 
refrigerator is imperative in the summer months. A man's 
surroundings or environments will always suggest methods of 
treatment for the cream. 

TESTING ACIDITY OF CREAM. 

During the last two seasons many systems have been adopted 
at our factories for recording the acidity of cream before churning. 
It is unfortunate that one standard system was not carried out. 
At many places alkaline tablets are used. Some use acidimetric 
tablets. Others use phenolphthalein as an indicator, and an alkali 
either lime water, caustic soda, or potash solution to deter- 
mine the percentage of lactic acid. Again, a difference is found 
in the method of applying the various tests. One adds the 
solution to pure cream, another to a 50 per cent, cream solution, 
and the next to a 33^- per cent, solution. 

The data recorded is of the greatest value to the butter- 
makers themselves, but difficulties are met with when an attempt 
is made to compare experiences. Working from so many stand- 
points is prejudicial to mutual improvement the policy of the 
Australasian Butter and Cheese Factories Managers* Association. 
It would assist the progress of the industry if that body were to 
discuss this matter and agree to the adoption of a uniform system 
as a standard. Doubtless a comparison could be made by finding 
the percentage of lactic acid per the respective systems. Hitherto 



14 

this was impracticable, as the rules available failed to give corre- 
sponding results, either the tablets or the tables being incorrect. 
About 0-6 per cent, of lactic acid is the quantity required to be 
developed in cream before churning. The percentage should 
range from O55 to 0-65 per cent, of acid. 

The system that gives best satisfaction is known as the 
Titration method. This test is based on the fact that if an 
alkaline solution is added to an acid solution a point is reached 
where the mixture is neither acid nor alkaline. Then, if an 
alkali of known strength is used, all that remains necessary is an 
indicator by which to tell when the point of neutrality is 
reached. 

The apparatus required for the test is a 20 c.c. burette for 
measuring the cream, a 50 c.c. glass-stoppered burette for lime 
water, a cup, a glass stirring rod, and a medicine dropper, a 
bottle of full-strength lime water, and a bottle of phenolphthalein. 
The method of operating is to measure with the burette 20 c.c. 
of the cream to be tested into the cup, then rinse the burette with 
an equal quantity of rain water into the cup. Into this mixture 
put four drops of phenolphthalein indicator with the medicine 
dropper. Fill the 50 c.c. burette up to the top of the gradua- 
tions with lime water. Let the lime water go into the cup slowly 
until the pink colour no longer disappears on stirring. The 
quantity of lime water taken to produce this permanent pink 
colour determines the amount of lactic acid present. 

TEMPERATURE FOR CHURNING. 

Generally 60 deg. may be quoted as the churning temperature 
If the temperature be too high an undue loss takes place in 
the buttermilk ; the butter will be soft, and cannot be readily 
handled, and the quality may be injured. If the temperature 
be too low, time is wasted in churning. It is always better 
to be a little low than high in temperature for churning. When 
fresh or sweet cream is churned the temperature needs to be 
lower in order to recover as much of the butter as possible. 
Equally good results are obtained at one place at 60 deg. as 
in another at 54 deg. at the same time of year. The pro- 
per temperature also varies slightly in the same places at 
different seasons the range being about from 54 to 62 deg. 
Owing to the rise that takes place in temperature when 
churning, the cream needs to be lower in the summer as com- 
pared with the winter time. This variation is accounted for by 
the relationship or proportion that the liquid and solid fats in the 
butter bear to one another. The melting point of butter varies 
according to the pasture, the period of lactation of the cows, 
and the season of the year. 



15 

The buttermilk should be daily tested in all factories. In 
some apparently well-conducted places at the present day the 
loss sometimes amounts to 0*5, and even 1 per cent, of butter fat. 
Through carelessness, want of refrigerating power, or lack of 
opportunity to attend to this branch of the business, buttermilk 
is at times run away from the churns as rich in butter fat as 
new milk. On one occasion the buttermilk was kept from one 
churning of 1,200 Ibs. of cream. The cream was unripe, and at 
too high a temperature. This buttermilk was properly ripened 
and cooled, then put back in the churn and churned again, when 
it yielded 108 Ibs. of first-class butter ; and as there were four 
churnings a day at the factory the annual loss at this rate would 
be serious. 

Once in a life-time is sufficient to meet with such an ex- 
perience, and be impressed with the importance of keeping a 
check on the results of the churn. 

Assurance has been given by factory managers on more than 
one occasion that if the value of the waste in skim-milk and butter- 
milk could be estimated since their companies started business, 
it would amount to more than was invested in buildings and 
plant ; in many cases to some thousands of pounds. 

This state of affairs is almost at an end now, and directors of 
companies are every day recognising what their managers mean 
when they agitate for more refrigerating power. They are also 
becoming better acquainted with what constitutes the proper 
qualifications and duties of a manager. Unfortunately, there are 
still a few who think that a manager is engaged and paid more 
for his manual labour than for his brains and experience. 

If a man works hard with his hands from daylight till 
dark, it is most unreasonable to expect him to study and look 
after those vital points upon which so much of their success 
depends. 

CHURNING. 

The churning should begin slowly, and if the churn has a 
tight lid the gas should be allowed to escape till its generation 
stops. Care should be taken that the speed of the churn is not 
so great as to carry round the cream without causing concussion. 
With ordinary box-churns 40 revolutions per minute are deemed 
fast enough. The churn should never be filled too full with cream ; 
two-thirds full is sufficient. 

If the speed is too slow the process is needlessly prolonged. 
Practice will soon determine the proper speed to drive the churns 
at. Should the butter not come in half-an-hour, or thereabouts, 
the cream is not ripe enough, or it is too low in temperature, or 
there is too much of it in the churn, or the speed of the churn is 
too slow. When the cream is breaking cold water should be 



16 

added, and all the corners rinsed down. The churning has to be 
continued till the butter is about between the size of sago and 
rice. As soon as the churn is stopped the buttermilk should be 
run off. If unnecessary delay takes place the milk coagulates 
and becomes difficult to get rid of. 

When the buttermilk is run off more cold water should be 
added, and a few turns given to the churn, and then run off. 
Another rinsing ought to be sufficient. The main point to be 
studied in washing, or rather rinsing the butter in the churn, is to 
get the buttermilk away thoroughly and readily with the least 
possible quantity of water. The butter is then taken to be 
worked. 

WORKING THE BUTTER. 

A certain quantity not more than the capacity of the 
machine should be weighed and placed on the worker. After 
working the moisture out, J ounce to the lb., or 3 per cent, 
of best dairy salt should be added. Many prefer to add 4 per 
cent, of salt. If the butter is intended to be kept for a consider- 
able time a preservative may be added with the salt, but never 
more than one-half per cent, or ^ lb. in 100 Ibs. of butter. 

Recent decisions in England indicate that it is injudicious on 
our part to have anything to do with preservatives, and where they 
are required the above proportion should not be exceeded. Some 
of our most successful factories have never used more than that 
quantity. The quantity of salt is arrived at by the taste of the 
consumers. If the market demands more or less salt, by all means 
supply that demand as long as the quality and prices are not 
jeopardized. The percentage of salt should always be arrived at 
by weighing both butter and salt so as to secure uniformity. 

The working of the butter should distribute the salt evenly, 
and bring it in contact with all the particles in the first operation. 
That point is best determined by the number of revolutions of the 
worker, or by time. To arrive at the proper time, a number of 
samples may be taken off at intervals, then placed aside for 24 
hours and examined. The samples showing streaks or uneven- 
ness in colour indicate that they have not been worked long 
enough. 

The one that does not showim evenness in colour, and that has 
been on the worker for the shortest time, points out the time neces- 
sary. This time varies according to the style and speed of the 
worker in use, and slightly on the consistency of the butter. It 
must always be remembered that the salting should be thoroughly 
done in the first working, and the less working that will bring 
that about the better for the butter. 

The butter should then be placed in a cool room till the next 
morning, and then put through the worker for the second time to 



17 

remove surplus moisture before packing. Between the two 
workings it is not desirable to set the butter hard as it then 
receives a grinding on the worker that injures the texture. In 
packing, the tare of each box should always be taken for local 
trade 56^ Ibs. should be placed in the box, and 57 Ibs. for export 
trade. The extra weight is to provide for a loss that takes place, 
and it insures the turning out of 56 Ibs. when it reaches the 
retailer. 

The butter should be firmly packed so that no air-holes are 
left in the butter, nor spaces in the corners or up the sides of the 
box. A good plan is to strip and examine a box of butter 
occasionally. 

It is false economy to use inferior parchment paper for 
lining the butter-boxes. The boxes should be placed in the 
cool room, and the temperature reduced before sending away to 
market. 

It is a comparatively easy matter to make a fair quality of 
butter under favorable conditions. It is a science to be able to 
make a choice butter possessing good keeping qualities under 
varying circumstances. The art of butter-making is yet in its 
progressive state. Our best specialists in the business are still 
learning something, and they all recognise that much remains to 
be learned, and as a strictly definite rule cannot be followed in 
butter-making each must adapt himself so as to secure best 
results under existing local conditions. 



BUTTER-MAKING FOR FARMERS. 

Much of the butter produced in the colony is made by farmers 
and dairymen who find it inconvenient or impossible to dispose of 
their milk to a creamery or factory. The proper handling of the 
milk, the treatment of the cream, and manufacture of butter demand 
consideration separate from that of the factory. As the average 
run of dairy butter on the market is of much lower quality than 
that from the factories, there would appear to exist a greater scope 
for improvement. But owing to many reasons the dairy butter 
can never hope to get on equal terms with factory output. 

The chief obstacle in the way in our climate is the want of refri- 
geration. It will not pay small dairymen to bestow as much 
attention, or to provide as perfect appliances for manufacturing 
butter, as it does when treating it in a large way. In exceptional 
instances as good, and occasionally a better, article is made on 
the farm; but being small in quantity, it is confined purely to the 
local market. 

When a surplus of dairy butter finds its way on the local 
market, it has to be disposed of at low figures, to allow fo r 

3063. R 



18 

mixing up and making into large quantities of uniform quality 
that will warrant exporting. In some places this handicap can 
be overcome by the people combining and adopting the factory 
system. 

Attention is specially directed to the regulations on another 
page regarding the care of milk and cream. Many hints are also 
given under the heading '-'Factory Butter-making." 

The milk when set in dishes in hot weather often thickens 
before half the cream rises, and even under ordinary circumstances 
a greater percentage of the butter-fat is lost in the skim-milk by 
the gravity system than by the modern separator. Cleanliness and 
temperature are the great essential points to be studied for success- 
ful butter-making. The dairy should be so erected as to permit 
of its being easily kept clean and sweet, and the temperature 
regulated. 

Every dairy should have a fire-place, or stove, to keep the place 
dry as well as to regulate the temperature during the winter. 
Small cheap refrigerators within the reach, and suitable for a 
small dairy, is a convenience not yet catered for. In the meantime 
the temperature of the dairy in the summer must be kept as low 
as possible. A temperature of 60 deg. is the average required, 
about 65 deg. is the best in winter, and 54 deg. in summer, 
but it is seldom practicable to get the dairy so low in hot 
weather. 

Speaking of temperature, in how many dairies is a thermometer 
to be found ? A thermometer in a dairy is as great an essential 
as a compass on a ship. 

A ship can be steered on her course without the aid of a com- 
pass, so can batter be made without a thermometer, but how much 
safer, and what a lot of energy, time, and trouble are saved by 
their use. 

Every dairyman should possess a thermometer and use it. 
A proper one for the dairy costs Is. or Is. 6d. Those without 
any frame are best, as they can easily be kept clean. If it is set 
in a wooden frame, it ought to be removed before placing in the 
milk or cream. If the frame is put in the milk, it soon becomes 
foul. 

The dairy is unfortunately too often considered a handy depot 
in which to place all sorts of things. Sometimes a hare or rabbit 
is left hanging up. Often it is made to serve as a general cool 
room for fruit, vegetables, and meat. 

Even in careful hands those things bring about flies and evil 
odours sometimes. Milk, cream, and butter are great absorbents 
of odours, and great damage is caused by exposing them to any 
objectionable smells. 



19 

It is not generally known that delicately scented pomades are 
made by exposing pure fat in thin layers to the scent of flowers. 
The fat absorbs and retains the beautiful odours. 

The natural delicacy, aroma, and flavour of nice butter properly 
made should be preserved. 

If those characteristics are spoiled in any way the value of the 
butter is reduced. The surroundings of the dairy should, there- 
fore, be always kept clean and sweet. 

The cream should be mixed always after each skimming is 
added, and churning should not take place sooner than twelve 
hours after the last lot has been mixed. 

If the churning is done immediately after mixing, the older or 
riper cream comes into butter first, and the newer or more unripe 
cream is liable, and often does, run away with the buttermilk. 
As the matter of temperature is easily disposed of on paper, but 
often difficult to carry out in practice, it is perhaps better to dwell 
on it a little longer. To raise the temperature of the cream for 
churning the vessel containing it may be placed in a larger one 
which contains warm water. ' Stir the cream, and take it out when 
it reaches the desired heat. Never pour hot water into the cream 
to raise the temperature. 

A well or stream of cool water is a great help on a farm. 
With cold water a great deal can be done. The cream can be 
reduced in the same way as pointed out above for raising the 
temperature by putting cold water in the outer vessel instead of 
hot. In most places it is the exception rather than the rule to 
have a supply of cold water. When ordinary means are not at 
hand, cream can be cooled by putting a wet bag or cloth round 
the vessel and placing it on a shallow pan of water in a draught of 
air over night. 

Water can be reduced in the same manner for washing the 
butter. This plan was practised all through the past severe 
summer with good results. When a sultry close night was 
encountered a little salt was added to check the souring, and the 
cream was left over till the following night to be cooled. If there 
is no air in motion this plan of cooling is not effective. It is the 
rapid evaporation that causes the reduction in temperature. 
Water may also be cooled by dissolving a little salt and saltpetre 
in it quickly. A reduction of up to 10 deg. can be obtained 
by this means. 

In some localities the only water to be had at times of the 
year is discoloured and muddy. A good easy plan for clearing 
such water will be found in Mr. Pearson's paper, read at the last 
meeting of the Factory Managers' Association, and referred to 
on another page. 

B 2 



20 

For the churning, working, salting, packing, and other treat- 
ment of butter, the dairyman can be guided by the suggestions for 
factory butter-making. His attention is also directed to the 
chapter on the care of dairy utensils. 

MILK TESTING. 

SHORT INSTRUCTIONS. 

There are three vital points in milk testing that must be recog- 
nised in order to insure reliable results. The first is to .secure a 
proper representative sample of the milk to be tested. The second 
is to get a true sample from the composite test bottle into the test 
flask. And the third point includes careful attention to all the 
remaining details of working. 

PREPARING THE SAMPLE BOTTLES. 

Composite samples give reliable results, and save the trouble 
of daily testing. Special graduated bottles are in the market, and 
may be obtained very cheaply. Rubber corks should be used, as 
they are easily kept clean and sweet. Pure formalin is the most 
satisfactory preservative for keeping the samples. Four drops of 
formalin added with a medicine-dropper is sufficient to put in the 
composite bottle. The bottles should be thoroughly cleansed after 
each testing is done. For use on the farm, the names or numbers 
of the cows can be attached to the neck of the bottles, and at the 
creamery or factory the name or number of the supplier can be 
attached. 

SECURING THE SAMPLES. 

After a cow is milked, and the milk weighed, pour it from 
one bucket into another and then back before taking the sample. 
Immediately afterwards take some with a cup or measure, and 
put some into the composite bottle. The same quantity should be 
added each time, and at the end of each week the bottle will 
contain a representative sample of the milk for that period. In 
a factory or creamery the drip system is the most reliable. 

MEASURING THE TEST SAMPLE. 

The contents of the composite bottles should be thoroughly 
mixed. If the cream has set or is hard to mix, the bottles should 
be placed in warm water at a temperature of 120 deg. for a 
few minutes. The cream is then more easily dissolved and mixed 
with the milk. A bottle-extender greatly facilitates the mixing 
when the bottles are too full to shake. The sample is measured 
with a 17*6 c.c. capacity pipette, and put in the test flask. To 
prevent spilling, the flask should be held at an angle to allow 
the air to escape. 



THE SULPHURIC ACID. 

For milk-testing, sulphuric acid of 1'827 specific gravity is 
used. Special hydrometers for ascertaining the strength of the 
acid cost 3s. 6d. each, and a glass jar for holding the acid 
Is. 6d. When using the hydrometer the temperature of the acid 
should be 60 deg. Fahr. Never put a metal or wooden frame 
thermometer in the acid, only glass or porcelain vessels should be 
used. The acid bottle should be kept corked when not in use, 
as it absorbs moisture from the air if exposed and becomes weak. 
The acid and milk ought to be about 70 deg. in temperature 
before mixing. It is neglect of temperature and strength of acid 
that causes a white curdy matter, or a black charred substance, to 
appear in the fat column. This temperature may be secured by 
placing the test bottles in a water bath of the desired heat after 
measuring. The acid may be cooled or heated in the same 
manner, but before measuring. Altering the strength or quantity 
of the acid is not recommended. All bottles containing sulphuric 
acid should have glass ground stoppers. The bottles should 
always be labelled "Poison, 1 ' and kept out of the reach of children, 
when not in use. 

MEASURING THE ACID. 

The acid is measured with a 17*5 c.c. glass measure, and 
poured down the inside of the neck of the test flask without 
disturbing the milk. The test flask should be held at an angle to 
allow the air to come out as the acid goes in, to prevent spilling. 
The test samples may be shaken separately by hand or together 
in a cradle. It is possible to dissolve the milk in less than the 
quantity of acid added, and sometimes a clear layer of acid remains 
at the bottom. This can be overcome by giving the bottles a good 
shaking with a reverse motion before finishing. 

WHIRLING THE BOTTLES. 

The speed at which the machine has to be turned depends on 
the gearing, and the diameter of the testers. If the bottle- 
wheel of the machine is 12 inches in diameter, that wheel should 
be made to turn 980 times per minute. If 18 inches in diameter, 
800 revolutions per minute, and if 24 inches in diameter, 693 
revolutions per minute. If the bottle-wheel is 18 inches in 
diameter, and geared to revolve ten times for one turn of the 
handle, the operator should turn the handle 80 times per minute to 
attain the necessary speed. If the bottle-wheel be geared by 
friction, care should be taken that no slipping takes place. For 
factory or creamery use the steam-turbine machines are far 
preferable to the others. 



22 

ADDING THE WATER. 

After turning the tester for six minutes, hot water, 180 deg., is 
added up to the neck of the flasks. Rain or soft water should 
be used for this purpose. After adding the water the machine is 
turned for three minutes, then more water is added to bring the 
liquid up in the neck of the flask to between the 7 and 10 mark. 
Another minute's turning and the operation is complete. If only 
a few samples are to be tested, the water may be added with the 
milk pipette ; but where a large number have to be done a can 
with a rubber tube and pinch-cock is handiest. 



READING THE TESTS. 

A pair of fine-pointed dividers is of great assistance in taking 
the measurement of the fat column. The fat is measured from 
the lower line between it and the water to the top of the column. 
Having taken that span with the dividers, one point is placed at 
0, and the other will show the percentage of fat on the scale on 
the neck of the bottle. Each large division represents 1 per cent., 
and each small space two-tenths or 0-2 of 1 per cent. In very 
cold weather the fat column often partly solidifies before a reading 
can take place. This may be prevented by keeping up the 
temperature of the samples. Hot water may be put in the pan 
of the machine, and the test flasks placed in warm water after 
whirling is finished, until the readings are recorded. This 
precaution is not necessary for the greater part of the year. 



COMPUTING THE BUTTER CONTENTS. 

In order to arrive at the commercial butter contents in milk 
per the respective butter-fat percentages, it is necessary to deduct 
a small loss that takes place in skimming, plus another loss that 
occurs in churning, and then add a percentage to make up for the 
usual quantity of water, curd, and salt contained in commercial 
butter. As the net addition is different with each test it is im- 
practicable, as well as a waste of time, to work out each result by 
such a roundabout method. The following table of test values 
agrees with the Babcock table adopted by most of our factories. 
All milk should be reduced to butter, per its test, before 
quoting its money value. This system is more precise and 
equitable than differential rates per gallon, and is not liable to 
many misleading and complicated interpretations. Many useful 
hints, together with detailed instructions, are generally issued by 
the makers of each machine. Beginners should take a few 
lessons in the use of the Babcock tester from some one who has 
had experience. 



23 



VALUE OF TESTS. BABCOCK TESTER. 



Tests. 


Lbs. of Milk required to make 1 Ib. Butter. 


Correctly in Decimals. 


Approximately in 
Fractions. 


r;< 3-0 


30-58 


301 


g 3-1 


29-58 


291 


3-2 


28-51 


281 


3-3 


27-62 


27i 


3-4 


26-73 


26} 


3-5 


25-90 


26 


3-6 


25-15 


25 


3-7 


24-45 


241 


3-8 


23-74 


23} 


3-9 


23-12 


23 


4-0 
4-1 


^2-52 
21-94 


221 
22 


4-2 


21-35 


2l 


4-3 


20-81 


20} 


4-4 


20-29 


20^ 


4-5 


19-80 


19 1 


4-6 


19-34 


191 


4-7 


18-89 


18} 


4-8 


18-46 


181 


4-9 


18-06 


18 


5-0 


17-67 


17} 



To compute the number of pounds weight of butter contained 
in milk, ncu^/ 

Divide the pounds and decimals of a pound, of milk agreeing 
with the test result, into the total number of pounds of milk. 
Example 1,000 Ibs. of milk tests 4*0 per cent, butter fat. 
It will be seen above that it takes 22-52 Ibs. of milk testing 
4*0 to make one pound of butter. 
Therefore : 22-52) 1000-00(44-4 
9008 
~9920 
9008 
9120 
9008 
112 

44-4 Ibs. of butter are computed to be contained in 1,000 Ibs. 
of milk with a 4-0 test. 



MONTHLY CHART. 

FOP the guidance oF Dairymen in recording each Cow's Milk. 


T 


NAMtS OF COWS. 


















































DATE 


LES. 


2 

k?s 


3 

LBS 


4 

iis_ 


5 

.LBS. 


6 

ujy. 


7 

LBS. 


8 

.BS 


9 

TH 


10 


II 


12 


13 


K 


15 


Ib 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 

'STuT 


23 

MTuT 


24 


1 
2 


^lil 


M0_ 


Ml " 








^M1U_ 




































3 
4 


















































5 
g 


















































7 


















































8 


















































3 


















































10 


































































































II 


















































12 


















































15 


















































14 


















































15 


































































































Ifi 


















































17 


































































































18 


































































































19 


































































































20 


































































































21 


































































































22 


































































































23 






























; 




















74 


















































25 


















































26 


















































77 


















































28 


































































































29 


































































































30 


















































31 


































































































OTAL 


















































| 


i'KUK 




































































































47" 
































































































A.vmrt 






_.. j 









,.. 


._- 


. 

































SCALE : ONE-THIRD OF PRACTICAL SIZE. 



25 



Cow LEDGER FOR RECORDING EACH Cow's MILK FOR 
THE YEAR. 



BEAUTY. 

(Calved 26.7.97.) 



Month. 


Milk. 


Test. 


Butter. 


Price. 


Value. 


1897. 


gals. 








s. <J. 


July ... 












August 


146 


3-4 


54-6 


8d. 


1 16 4 


September 


152 


3-4 


56-8 


>5 


1 17 10 


October 


142 


3-5 


54-8 


5? 


1 16 6 


November 


128 


3-5 


49-4 


)J 


1 12 11 


December 


116 


3-6 


46-1 


7d. 


1 6 10 


1898. 

January 


97 


3-7 


39-6 


55 


1 3 '1 


February 


52 


4-0 


23 


8d. 


15 4 


March 


34 


4-1 


15-9 


Is. 


15 10 


April 


12 


4-3 


5*7 





05 8 


May 












June... 












TOTAL ... 


879 


... 


345-9 


... 


11 10 4 



26 



THE UTILITY OF TESTING COWS. 

The accompanying table of the actual return of a small dairy 
herd of Victorian cows has been compiled with a view of im- 
pressing on dairymen the great advantage to be derived from 
recording the results from each and every cow. 

It is all very well to judge a cow by appearances, but practical 
men are well aware that many a fine-looking cow is unprofitable 
for the dairy. At the present time it is fully recognised that 
there is no way so reliable to tell a good cow from a bad one as a 
scales and Babcock tester. The average Victorian cow has the 
reputation of giving a very small return as compared with the 
cows of many other countries. Whether this is so or not is open 
to question, and would be a difficult query to settle definitely. 

From previous records it would appear that Victoria possesses 
some cows almost as good as are to be found in any part of the 
world. No doubt the greater number are anything but profitable 
for dairying. 

If bad cows were known for certain and weeded out, and the 
remaining cows received better attention, our prospects would be 
bright indeed in the dairying line. 

DESCRIPTION OF HERD. 

The herd of cows under review is a cross-bred one. There is 
more shorthorn blood in them than anything else. About three- 
quarters shorthorn and the rest a .mixture, but no Channel Island 
blood whatever. 

(METHOD OF TREATMENT. 

They did not receive any special attention. Each cow was 
treated alike, and they were all pastured together. With the 
exception of a limited supply of small potatoes for a few weeks, 
the cows had nothing but straw in addition to pasture. In 
common with the herds in many parts of the colony last season, 
this one was reduced to skin and bone for some months. 

As a consequence the cows did not, at their best, give more 
than three-fourths of the yield of a normal season. They were 
kept in the Koroit district, and the dairy formed an auxiliary to 
other branches of farming. 

Cows going out of milk at the beginning of the year and dis- 
posed of are not included. Neither are heifers coming in before 
the close of the year. All cows are quoted that could be said 
were on the farm the year round. Some of those milked for six 
months and others up to eleven months. 



A VICTORIAN HERD. 

SUMMARY OF RETURNS FOR YEAR ENDED 31 ST DECEMBER, 1897. 
(Compiled by R. Crowe.) 



No. 


Name. 


Milk. 


Test. 


Butter. 


Price. 


Value. 






gallons. 




Ibs. 


d. 


s. d. 


1 


Caroline ... 


697 


4-2 


326-41 


8 


10 17 7 


2 


Star 


641 


4-2 


300-18 


8 


10 1 


3 


Spot 


630 


4-2 


295-03 


8 


9 16 8 


4 


Lottie ... ... 683 


3-6 


271-55 


8 


9 1 


5 


Bess 


531 


4-5 


268-04 


8 


8 18 8 


6 


Kitty 


563 


4-2 


263-65 


8 


8 15 9 


7 


Lily ... ... : 509 


4-6 


263-15 


8 


8 15 5 


8 


Stumpy ... 


732 


3-2 


256-63 


8 


8 11 1 


9 


Fanny ... ... 575 


4-0 


255-24 


8 


8 10 1 


10 


Flo 697 


3-3 


252-31 


8 


882 


11 


Bawley ... 


619 


3-6 


246-12 


8 


840 


12 


Mary Ann 


662 


3-3 


239-64 


8 


7 19 9 


13 


Jenny 


670 


3-2 


234-89 


8 


7 16 7 


14 


Blossom ... 


666 


3-2 


233-49 


8 


7 15 7 


15 
16 


Polly 
Snaily 


587 
521 


3-6 
4-0 


233-38 
231-27 


8 
8 


7 15 7 
7 14 2 


17 


Judy 


502 


3-8 


211-44 


8 


7 11 


18 


Rosy 


594 


3-2 


208-24 


8 


6 18 9 


19 


Lady ... 


435 


3'9 


188-13 


8 


655 


20 


Bonny ... 


430 


3-9 


185-97 


8 


6 3 11 


21 


Dolly ... 


421 


3'8 


177-32 


8 


5 18 2 


22 


Molly ... 


392 


4-0 


174-01 


8 


5 16 


23 


Matilda ... 


492 


3'2 


172-48 


8 


5 14 11 


24 


Liz 


399 


3-8 


168-05 


8 


5 12 


25 


Princess ... 


409 


3-7 


167-28 


8 


5 11 6 


26 


Betty ... 


385 


3-9 


166-56 


8 


5 11 


27 


Cherry ... 


375 


4-0 


166-46 


8 


5 10 11 


28 


Nelly 


471 


32 


165-12 


8 


5 10 


29 


Violet ... 


359 


3-8 


151-20 


8 


509 


30 


Gloss 


347 


3-8 


146-15 


8 


4 17 5 


31 


Redmond 


365 


3-6 


145-11 


8 


4 16 8 


32 


Pansy 


299 


3-7 


122-29 


8 


4 1 6 






16,658 


... 


6,886-79 


... 


229 10 



ANALYSIS OF SUMMARY. 

The average number of pounds of milk required to make a 
pound of butter was 24' 19. 

The average return in milk per head was 520 gallons, of 
butter 215-21 Ibs., and in money 7 3s. od. 

The return in milk from the best cow was 697 gallons, from 
the ten best an average of 625 gallons, from the ten worst an 
average of 390 gallons, and from the worst cow 299 gallons. 



28 

The return in butter from the best cow was 326*41 Ibs., from 
the ten best an average of 275*21 Ibs., from the ten worst an 
average of 157*07 Ibs., and from the worst cow 122*29 Ibs. 

The return in money from the best cow is 10 17s. 7d., from 
the ten best an average of 9 3s. od., from the ten worst an 
average of 5 4s. 8d., and from the worst cow 4 Is. 6d. 

STRIKING DEDUCTIONS. 

In order to make the lesson more instructive, it is assumed 
that the cost of each cow's keep for a year amounts to 2 1 Os., 
and the cost of attention to 1 10s. This 4 is estimated to 
sufficiently provide for rent or interest on the investment for each 
cow's keep, and the labour involved. Anything returned over 
that sum may be looked upon as profit. 

Therefore the best cow gives a profit of 6 17s. 7d., the ten 
best average 5 3s. 5d., the ten worst average 1 4s. 8d., and 
the worst cow a profit of Is. 6d. The best cow gives over 
91 times as much profit as the worst one, arid the profit from the 
ten best cows amounts to nearly the gross return from the ten 
worst cows. 

AN INTERESTING COMPARISON. 

X Many dairymen believe in cows that give a large quantity of 
milk ; others believe only in cows that give a good test. Both 
are right to a certain degree, and to be safe, the quantity as well 
as the quality must be taken into account. 

Attention is directed to the two cows, Nos. 7 and 8. The 
latter gives 223 gallons more milk than the former and yet brings 
in less money. Both are almost equally profitable cows, although 
one gives a 4*6 test and the other only 3*2. The goal can really 
be secured by widely-differing routes. 

ANOTHER COMPARISON. 

In looking over the monthly charts containing the records of 
those cows, it is found that "Lady," No. 19, gives the largest 
quantity for that period. The following monthly comparison is 
interesting : 

Galls. 
No. Milk. Test. Butter. Price. Value. 

19 ... 140 ... 3*7 ... 57*26 ... 8d. ... 1 18 2 
2 ... 89 ... 3*7 ... 36*40 ... 8d. ... 143 

The best return for a month by cow No. 2 is quoted, and in 
the monthly comparison No. 19 cow would get credit for being 
by far the more profitable animal. However, in looking at the year's 
record it is found that she was only a sprinter. For the month No. 
19 gives 13s. lid. more than No. 2, but for the year No. 2 gives 



29 

3 14s. 8d. more than No. 19. The one cow gave a big yield 
for a short period. The other did not give a big flow, but was a 
consistent milker, and came out best. 

CHEAPENING COST OF PRODUCTION. 

If it costs 4 to produce 326 Ibs. of butter with the best cow 
and the same amount to produce 122 Ibs. of butter with the worst 
cow, then it has cost less than 3d. per Ib. to produce butter from 
the good cow and almost 8d. per Ib. with the bad one. 

A PROBLEM. 

A herd that would give an average return of 7 3s. 5d. under 
such conditions, and in a jear described by the oldest residents as 
the worst experienced for 30 years past, would be designated a 
picked herd. Therefore, this may be termed a picked herd, and 
if the individual members of a picked herd vary so much in the 
returns given by them, it would be most interesting to know to 
what extent the results of an average herd would differ when 
recorded in the same way. 

GREAT POSSIBILITIES. 

If such returns can be obtained under such adverse circum- 
stances by an ordinary or mixed herd of cows in Victoria, what 
is it possible to secure from a herd, say, like the ten best cows in 
a favorable year ? Jt is said that the average return from 
Victorian cows is 290 gallons not equal to that of the worst cow 
here quoted. The ten best cows gave two and a quarter times 
that of the worst cow, so it can easily be seen what scope for 
improvement lies in this direction. 

If it has been worth our while building up an industry of the 
magnitude local and export of 2,500,000 with the indifferent 
cows we are credited with, it will not be a hard matter to more 
than hold our own against all countries in the world if we pay 
more attention to the breeding, feeding, and management of our 
cattle. To say that we are not making headway in this direction 
would not be true. In every district there are to be found a few 
up-to-date dairymen, who serve as splendid examples to the 
remainder, and who are ever ready to adopt improved methods. 
This system of recording the quantity of each cow's milk, together 
with the quality, is strongly recommended. The beginning is 
the hardest part of it. Give the plan a trial, and you will find the 
trouble or delay not nearly so much as it appears. In a short 
time it will become part of the routine of milking, and the infor- 
mation continually gained will far outweigh the little extra 
attention. What better technical education can be afforded the 
young people who usually do the milking ; and what a splendid 
thing it is to know definitely which cows are worth keeping and 
breeding from. 



30 

CARE OF DAIRY UTENSILS. 

All cans and vessels of tin in which milk has been used should 
be rinsed out with cold water first, then washed with hot water, 
and afterwards scalded with boiling water or steam. If scalding 
water is used first, the albumen in the remaining milk sticks fast 
to the tin and renders the operation of cleansing most difficult. 

Wooden vessels should receive almost the same treatment. 
Churns and butter-workers should have all the small particles of 
butter washed down with cold water after use, and then scrubbed 
and scalded. Should hot water be used first, the little waste 
atoms melt on the wood, and are sometimes liable to soak in. 

If the wood is once allowed to become greasy in this manner 
it is almost impossible to' again get it back into good working 
order. The frequent use of lime-water cannot be too strongly 
recommended for all milk and butter appliances, churns in par- 
ticular. Many instances are known where contaminated vessels 
have caused hundreds of pounds worth of loss to the producers, 
therefore, proper attention should be bestowed on cleanliness to 
insure best results. 

PURIFYING WATER. 

In the northern districts of the colony it is the exception, 
rather than the rule, to have a supply of clean pure water suit- 
able for washing butter. Mr. Pearson, Government Agricultural 
Chemist, explained a simple process of treatment for muddy or 
discoloured water, at the Conference of the Australasian Butter 
and Cheese Factories Managers' Association, May, 1897. Two 
tanks are used, one above the other. The upper one is used for 
the clarification of the water, and the lower one is for the recep- 
tion of the clarified water. The top tank is fitted with a tap at 
the lowest point of the bottom. Let us suppose that 500 gallons 
of clear water are required for use each day ; then it will be 
necessary to have those two tanks of 500 gallons capacity each. 
Two vessels of any convenient size are necessary to contain a 
supply of soda and alum solutions ; also a watering-can for 
measuring the liquid. Fifty gallons is a handy size for the 
former vessels. The alum solution is of such a strength that one 
measureful of it wiW convey to the 500-gallon tank 12 grains 
of alum per gallon, or 6,000 grains altogether. As there are 
7,000 grains to the 1 Ib. avoirdupois, that would be six-sevenths 
of a pound. If the measuring-can holds 1 gallon, then the 
amount of alum to be put into the 50-gallon vessel would be 43 
Ibs. That would be sufficient to last for 50 days. The amount 
of soda should be about 9 grains per gallon ; that is to say, 
the strength of the soda solution should be three-quarters that of 
the alum solution. Thus, if 43 Ibs. of alum were put into 50 



31 

gallons, about 33 Ibs. of soda should be dissolved in the other 50- 
gallon vessel. The process is simple. Fill the top tank with 
water in the afternoon. The measureful of alum solution is then 
evenly distributed over the surface of the water by means of the 
rose of the watering-can. The alum solution is then stirred into 
the water with a stirrer, this being done gently and carefully, so 
as not to get any air bubbles into the water. About ten minutes 
afterwards the measureful of soda solution is distributed through 
the water in the same way, stirring carefully as before. In the 
morning it will be found that the alumina has been entirely pre- 
cipitated, and has settled on the bottom of the tank, carrying with 
it the solid impurities, including bacteria, from the water, and 
leaving the water in the tank absolutely clear and limpid. A 
siphon should then be carefully introduced, so as not to stir up the 
mud at the bottom, and the clear water should be removed into the 
lower tank, where, if required, it could be cooled for use when 
necessary. 

Under the orifice of the siphon is a tin plate attached to the 
siphon pipe about 10 in. or 12 in. in diameter, which prevents 
the water from taking up with it as it passes into the siphon any 
sediment from the bottom of the tank. 

When empty the top tank is sluiced out through the tap, and 
the whole operation is gone through as before. 

Mr. Pearson states that this is an old-fashioned process, but 
recent investigations have shown that it is as efficient as any 
known process of purifying water. Alum used to the extent of 
from 12 to 20 grains per gallon has been found to result in com- 
plete sterilization of water that is to say, in the perfect removal 
of bacteria. Some who have seen this process at work have 
greatly admired the appearance of the water, but have expressed 
a fear that by using alum they would be introducing an injurious 
substance into the butter, in the manufacture of which the water 
was used. This fear is groundless, because, as already explained, 
the whole of the alumina is separated in the form of precipitate. 
It is, in fact, by virtue of this precipitation of the alum, and the 
conveyance in the precipitate of all the impurities, that the clari- 
fication takes place. But even supposing that a little of the 
alum were to be left in the water, a very simple calculation will 
show that the amount thereby introduced into' the butter would be 
infinitesimal. The amount of water in butter is about 10 per 
cent., so that 1 cwt. of butter would contain about 11 Ibs. (a little 
over 1 gallon) of water, As 1 gallon of water receives only 
12 grains of alum, even if all the alum that was put in were to 
remain in the water, the amount conveyed to the butter would be 
not more than 13 grains to the cwt. As a matter of fact, even if 
only partial precipitation of the alum were to take place, there 
could be only 2 or 3 grains of alum left in a gallon of water, so 



32 

that there would never be any fear of more than 2 or 3 grains of 
alum to the cwt. of butter. It will be seen that those 2 or 3 
grains of possible addition of alum are too insignificant to be con- 
sidered. 

When once the process is seen in operation it will be found so 
very simple and so very easy of applicatiou that is unlikely that 
any one troubled with impure water would hesitate to adopt it. 



RULES FOR MILK AND CREAM SUPPLY. 

The quality of the butter made in this colony largely depends 
on the care bestowed on the production and treatment of the. 
milk and cream before being manufactured. In the interests 
of the dairying industry it is necessary for the producers to 
exercise every precaution to insure the production of a first-class 
quality of butter. This fact is recognised by most dairymen, 
but there are some who do not give due attention to these 
matters. 

It is to be regretted that it is not possible to deliver all the milk 
produced to the creameries and factories, and it is deplorable to 
find many who are within easy reach of a creamery or factory 
trying to separate the milk from their own cows and manufacture 
their butter in small lots. 

Perhaps the worst results are obtained from cream separated 
on the farms and kept until too old before being delivered to the 
place of manufacture. The cause for complaint is not due to 
the use of small separators, but to the want of proper con- 
veniences and accommodation, and, the lots being small, the 
necessary care is not given to the cream. 

In our warm climate it is absolutely essential to have the aid 
of refrigeration at times of the year in order to make best 
butter. 

In the absence of refrigeration the quality of the output is 
irregular, so, in order to attain and keep up uniformity, the milk 
should be delivered to where it can be treated in large quantities 
And manipulated to best advantage. 

With a view to encouraging an improvement on the existing 
conditions, the following rules have been suggested by the dairy 
experts connected with this Department as a] guide to dairy- 
men : 

RULES. 
Care of Milk. 

1st. The pastures, yards, and surroundings should be kept clean 
and free from carrion, and all decaying matter which may cause 
noxious smells. 



33 

2nd. Milk should be used and supplied only from healthy cows, 
which are fed on wholesome food, and have access to plenty of 
pure water. 

3rd. In districts where sufficient salt is not naturally available 
a moderate allowance should be provided, as it adds to the health 
of the cattle and to the quality of the milk. 

4th. Provide shelter for the cows against excessive heat and 
cold, and the flow and quality of the milk will be better. 

5th. Be sure and make provision against the dry season by 
providing green crops, in order to prolong the period of milking 
and maintain the health and condition of your cattle. 

6th. Treat the cows kindly ; milk them thoroughly and with 
regularity, that they may cultivate a milching habit. 

7th. Milk should be drawn from the cows in a cleanly manner, 
the udders should be brushed or washed ; milking with dry hands 
is preferable to the practice of dipping the fingers into the milk 
to moisten them. 

8th. Immediately after the milk has been drawn from the cow 
it should be strained through a wire or cloth strainer. 

9th. All buckets, cans, and other utensils with which the milk 
is brought into contact should be of tin ; rusty vessels should be 
discarded. 

10th. The milk vessels should be kept clean and sweet and 
washed with cold or tepid water first, then scalded with boiling 
water, and finished with a rinsing of limewater ; they should 
afterwards be drained out, sunned, and aired. Milk cans should 
not be left bottom upwards. 

llth. The milk should be aerated, by dipping, pouring, or 
stirring, or by use of an aerator. After the milk has been aired 
it should be cooled quickly to as low a temperature as possible ; 
and this should be done in a clean place where there is no dust 
or smell. 

12th. The milk should be kept in a place where the atmosphere 
is free from foul or injurious smells. Milk that is left without 
the shelter of some roof should be protected from sun and rain 
by placing the lid on the can upside down, or by some other 
-efficacious means. 

13th. Every dairyman should have a thermometer, and know 
the difference between the temperature of the atmosphere and 
-water ; the cans of milk should be kept in the coolest 
place. 

14th. The night and mornings' supplies of milk should be kept 
in separate vessels, and may be mixed, when cooled to the same 
temperature, at the creamery or factory. 

loth. " Biestings," or milk from newly-calved cows, should 
<not be sent to the factory or creamery, nor separated till after the 

3063. c 



34 

eighth milking. The milk of some such cows is not fit for butter- 
making for a much longer period, and should not be sent until it 
is in fit condition. 

(Suppliers infringing this rule should incur a heavy penalty.) 

16th. Each supplier should furnish pure sweet milk to which 
nothing has been added and from which no part has been removed. 

17th. The factory or creamery manager should reject any milk 
which he considers unfit for use in the manufacture of the finest 
quality of butter, and his directors should assist in carrying out 
this recommendation. 

Care of Cream. 

18th. The cream should be cooled to as low a temperature as 
possible immediately after separating, and well stirred at least 
three times a day. 

19th. The morning and night's cream should not be mixed till 
after each has reached the same temperature. 

20th. The cream should be delivered to the factory daily in 
warm weather, in the coolest part of the day if possible, and at 
no time should it be kept at the dairy longer than two days. 

21st. A little salt may be used in hot weather to assist in 
keeping cream in good condition. 

22nd. Tke cream cans should be covered from the sun in tran- 
sit, and sliplids used to prevent churning. 

23rd. Use a " Babcock " milk-tester, and know exactly what 
each cow in your herd gives you per year; turn off the unprofit- 
able cows and replace them with good ones. 

If the foregoing rules are adhered to, the value of our products 
will be enhanced and the profits of the milk producer increased. 

Testing Milk for Factories, Creameries, and Milk Suppliers. 

In case of disputes arising between milk suppliers and 
managers of butter factories and creameries regarding the per- 
centage of butter fat contained in any supplier's milk the expert 
attached to the dairy section of the Department will test samples 
of milk free of cost by either visiting the factories or creameries, 
or receiving a sample of milk that has been collected by the 
"drip" system by the manager and testing it in the Department's 
laboratory, Melbourne. 

Dairy farmers desirous of receiving instructions in the process 
of testing milk by the "Babcock" tester, by applying to the 
Secretary for Agriculture will be taught in Melbourne the proper 
method of using the appliances necessary for that purpose by the 
Department's experts. 



35 

LIST OF SHIPPING CHARGES FOR PRODUCE 
SHIPPED THROUGH THE DEPARTMENT OF 
AGRICULTURE. 

Butter ... ... ... per box, 2d. 

Chickens ... ... ... per pair, 5d. 

Ducks ... ... ... 5d. 

Eggs ... ... ... per dozen, Id. 

Geese ... ... ... per pair, 9d. 

Hares ... ... ... 3d. 

Mutton ... ... ... per carcass, 8d. 

Pork ... ... ... 8d. 

Rabbits ... ... ... per pair, 2d. 

Turkeys ... ... ... 9d. 

The above charges to be paid by the shipper or his agent, 

together with freight, &c., before obtaining delivery of bills of 
lading. 

PASTEURIZING. 

In order to understand the pasteurizing system of treating milk 
or cream for butter-making purposes, it is necessary to have a 
knowledge of the composition of milk and its relation to bacteria. 
Milk is a complex food, and is composed principally of water, fat, 
caseine, sugar, and ash, in the following average proportions : 
Water ... ... w 86 '80 

Fat ... ... ... 3-70 

Caseine and albumen ... ... 3*75 

Sugar ... ... ... 5-00 

Ash ... ... ... 0-75 

Two great objects are sought in the pasteurizing of milk or 
cream. The first is to drive off the obnoxious gases that are 
present in milk produced from certain fodders, such as rape, 
lucerne, &c. Such milk has a strong undesirable odour, usually 
termed as " cowy." It has been found that by proper aeration 
this fault is easily got rid of, but for some reason or other the 
farmer has not taken to aeration. 

In order to be effective, the aeration of milk must be carried 
out at a high rate of temperature after coming from the cow and 
before the undesirable element becomes fixed in the milk. Since 
the milk producer has not undertaken this easy precaution in 
regard to the welfare of his milk supply for butter-making, it is 
therefore compulsory to effect the desired object at a later period 
that is, when it reaches the creamery or factory. As the milk 
generally arrives comparatively cold at the creameries, it is not 
possible to get the objectionable volatile elements liberated with- 
out raising the temperature. It is found that the pasteurizing 
of the milk and the later exposure of it on the cooler to the 
atmosphere effected the object sought for by aeration. 

c* 



36 

As a matter of fact, it appears that greater good has been 
achieved from this poinit of view than from a bacterial stand- 
point. All tbe experiments so far conducted prove that the 
greatest success in improvement of quality is noticeable only in 
districts that produce milk' off of rich ^artificial grass pastures. It 
is still doubtful whether pasteurization will effect any improve- 
ment in butter made under good conditions from milk produced 
on clean hard pastures. 

The second object looked for is to kill all the active micro- 
organisms that develop in the milk after it leaves the cow. 
Hitherto this has been the only consideration dwelt upon by 
scientists. It is well known that the milk in the udder .of a 
healthy cow contains no "bacteria. Many experiments have 
proved conclusively that such is a fact, and that all the changes 
that subsequently take place in the milk are due to the growth of 
bacteria. In ordinary dairying it is'impossible to take milk from 
the cow without bringing a certain amount of bacteria with it into 
the bucket. Their presence is universal. They are in the air, in 
dust, in the soil, and in the water. Their chief function is to 
break up substances or bodies for the use of living animals or 
plants. Under favorable conditions bacteria multiply at an 
enormous rate. Milk is an excellent medium for their propagation. 

Usually a certain class of bacteria acts upon the milk-sugar and 
converts it into lactic acid; this acid- .gives the sour taste and 
thickens the milk. This is looked upon by the milk producer as 
prejudicial, and yet the butter-maker, in order to bring about the 
changes necessary in the cream before making good butter, has to 
make overtures to and encourage the same class of bacteria by 
supplying the requisite conditions for their development. The 
results in the past were very uncertain owing to the want of 
knowledge that existed in regard to this then unknown power. 
As well as the friendly bacteria getting into the milk and cream, 
very often unfriendly characters find their way in also. The 
number of unfriendly germs are sometimes present to such an 
extent that an evil result must ensue. The surroundings are 
always responsible for this state of affairs. If the milking yards 
are dirty and dusty, or the cows and milk vessels not properly 
cleaned, the result cannot be otherwise than bad. It is to kill the 
undesirable organisms that pasteurization is intended. 

PASTEURIZING MILK OR CREAM FOR BUTTER- 
MAKING. 

Pasteurizing milk or cream to obtain a superior butter is the 
latest development of dairying. Still we cannot by any means 
call it a new discovery, for there is nothing new in heating milk 
to 155 deg. to get rid of bad odours caused mostly by artificial 



37 

feeding of various sorts and qualities. A similar system was prac- 
tised by the dairy people of Devonshire and Cornwall 500 or 600 
years ago, for who has not heard of Devonshire scalded cream ? 
In two important points, however, their system and ours differ, viz., 
in those old times, after the milk was heated to a high tempera- 
ture it was allowed to cool in the pans without artificial means, 
while in ours it is cooled by refrigerating machinery at once to 
60 deg. or lower, by this means solidifying the fatty globules in 
the milk, and thus when the cream is churned insuring a good 
grained as well as a sound keeping butter. 

Another important change from the old system is that whereas 
the milk was allowed to stand till the cream gathered and ripened, 
which did not take place for three or four days, sometimes longer, 
now by putting in a quantity of " ferment " or " ripener " in the 
cream it is ready for churning in 24 hours, or before any dele- 
terious bacteria gets back again in the cream. 

The following is a description of the process practised at 
present in our factories. Taking for granted you have got the 
milk into your dairy or factory in a sweet and sound condition, 
and that you have a pasteurizing plant fitted up to date, you then 
run the milk through the separator, making the cream a little 
thinner than usual. From the separator the cream runs into the 
heater ; watch that the temperature of the cream does not rise 
higher than 155 deg. From the heater the cream passes on to 
the cooler, which, with the aid of the refrigerator or ice, will bring 
it back to 60 deg., or lower if required. The ferment, or starter, 
is now added. The quantity required of this starter is from 5 to 
10 per cent., according to the amount of acidity in it and the 
time at which it is intended to churn. 

HOW TO OBTAIN THE FERMENT OR KlPENER. 

The European system is, take 1 gallon of sweet skim-milk and 
heat it to 155 deg. Fahr., and then cool the milk quickly to 90 deg. ; 
then add to it a bottle of the cultivated ferment which is now im- 
ported from America, Denmark, and Sweden. This done, place 
the milk in a water bath at 90 deg. and leave it for eighteen 
hours. This milk must be covered with a thin butter-cloth only. 
After this the milk will be thick. It then has to be cooled down 
to 60 deg. in cool water and left alone without stirring. Only 
the top of it has to be skimmed off before use. The ferment 
is then ready for ripening the cream, which is now kept at a tem- 
perature of about 60 deg. If everything be right the cream 
should be churned in 24 hours, and the butter afterwards treated 
in the usual way. 

The 1 gallon mentioned previously will be sufficient for ripen- 
ing 20 gallons of cream. Of this ferment you must take 1 quart 
for making the " acidifier " for the following day, which is done 



38 

in the following manner : Take 1 gallon of fresh skim-milk 
and heat it up to 155 deg. Fahr. ; then cool to 90 deg. ; add the 
quart of sour milk, and leave it for six or seven hours. Then the 
1 gallon and the 1 quart of milk is ready for ripening the cream 
next day. If the result of this ferment turns out good butter 
you may continue this ripener for some time before fresh lactic 
ferment is required. 

VICTORIAN SYSTEM. 

Perhaps it may be advisable to give experiences here of ob- 
taining this ripener or ferment, because it is very often found that a 
successful dairy system in a cool climate is often the opposite in a 
hot one. For instance, experience has taught us that very little 
of the imported "ferment" is sound on its arrival here, as it will 
not stand age and long carriage. It has therefore been found neces- 
sary to make our own ripener just in a similar way to what has been 
already described, but with this slight difference, that whereas 
some of the European dairymen start with a scientifically culti- 
vated "ferment" we start with a sound new milk instead of 
skim-milk, which in our climate often becomes deteriorated before 
arriving at that stage. However, much attention has of late been 
given to the preparation and use of cultivated ferments, and 
doubtless in the near future we will be able to send out for use 
pure cultures that can be relied upon to give satisfaction. 

When a manager wants to change his starter his easiest and 
best plan is to obtain a litle buttermilk from an adjoining factory 
making a first-class butter. Then the churning and the usual 
process of manufacturing butter for market may be adopted. Be- 
fore finishing this subject, it may be added that Messrs. A. N. Pear- 
son and the dairy experts have for the last four years been experi- 
menting in several of our factories, advising and demonstrating to 
the managers this system of butter-making, proving the merits of 
the method when the butter goes off flavour, and have succeeded 
in curing the faulty cream coming from a large number of 
creameries; but from some reason yet to be found out, the factory 
and creamery managers do not always keep the quality of the 
cream, after being pasteurized, up to the required standard. 

We have also frequently exported a portion of the butter made 
at four of our best factories, but, with the exception of one, it cannot 
be said that the prices obtained have been as yet much above 
the average price obtained for butter made in the usual way. 
Probably our hot seasons and dried-up pastures, also long distance 
of carriage of milk from farm to factory, may militate against the 
complete success of this system being adopted in Victoria. Still 
it is recommended, where consumers' complaints about the quality 
of butter are numerous and there are few factories where such 
are not rare to make butter by this plan, in order to overcome 



39 

the difficulty. There is no doubt that, as the system of pas- 
teurizing becomes better understood by managers, superior results 
will be achieved ; and now that the method has been given an 
impetus it is expected most of the factories in the colony will be 
pasteurizing their outputs within another season or so. Parti- 
culars as to cost, &c., of pasteurizing plants may be obtained from 
any of the leading suppliers of dairy appliances in Melbourne. 



CHEESE. 
CANADIAN-CHEDDAR CHEESE. 

The unsatisfactory prices that have been obtained in England 
for cheese during the past two seasons have resulted in our dairy 
farmers losing sight, to a very large extent, of the importance of 
always being ready, in the event of a sudden fall in autumn in 
the value of butter, to convert the greater part of the milk into 
cheese. 

So long as prices for butter in London continue remunerative, 
cheese-making for export will be a neglected industry in Victoria, 
but prices are not always going to remain as profitable for butter 
as they have been during the past two years. We have had three 
dry seasons in succession in Victoria, and owing to the scarcity of 
butter, the usual fall in value at the end of each of the past shipping 
seasons did not take place. But we are not always going to have 
dry seasons. Already there are indications that the season 1898-9 
is going to be the best experienced since 1894-5, and should the 
present favorable prospects continue, there will be a large supply 
of milk next autumn. 

Do the proprietors of butter factories realize what a heavy 
autumn supply of milk means? We are inclined to think that they 
seldom give much thought to the matter. Having passed through 
three dry seasons, it is quite probable that there may now be a run 
of good seasons. If so, the annual production of milk will be 
enormous. Additional land is being devoted to dairying every 
year, and new factories and creameries are being erected to deal 
with the increased supply of milk that will certainly be available. 

A warning is necessary at the present juncture, and it is con- 
sidered essential to point out to milk-growers not only the rock 
that looms in the distance, but also the means whereby that rock 
may be avoided. 

The probable export season for butter terminates about the 
end of April in each year. Butter exported in May would arrive 
in England right in the middle of their flush season for milk, and 
the prices obtainable at that time of year for best Victorian 
factory butter would not be sufficiently high to enable our factories 
to pay more than, say, 2d.per gallon for milk, perhaps not so much. 



40 

Given, then, that we have a moist spring and a favorable 
summer, the supply of milk during February, March, April, and 
May will produce more butter several times over than will be 
required for Australian consumption. This will mean that prices 
here will probably fall below 6d. per Ib. for prime quality. All 
below prime quality will have to be sold at an unprofitable figure. 
Prices for milk will be so low that dairy farmers might become 
disgusted with their occupation, and suddenly abandon dairying,, 
and sway round to some other occupation that just at the time 
might be offering better prospects. Such a state of affairs 
would be calamitous both to the individual and to this country 
generally ; but how is it to be avoided ? Simply by combining 
cheese-making with butter-making at all our leading factories. 
This is the only way out of the difficulty, and if neglected the result 
will be serious for the dairying industry. 

In England there is, as a rule, a fairly good market for good 
Cheddar cheese during the months of February, March, April, 
and May. The price, of course, will not leave as good a margin 
of profit as we have been getting for butter during the past three 
seasons, but the price which good cheese will realize, if shipped 
at the right time, will pay dairy farmers very much better than 
glutting the Melbourne and English markets with butter during 
the summer and autumn. It is, therefore, advisable for factories 
to be in a position to convert milk either into butter or cheese as 
the requirements of the world's markets may demand. By thus 
being able to manufacture cheese when butter is low, and vice 
versa, gluts will, as far as possible, be minimized, and sudden 
fluctuations in the value of milk avoided. 

Having so strongly recommended cheese-making during the 
summer months as the best possible means of avoiding a glutted 
butter market in the autumn, milk-growers will naturally expect 
some plain practical instruction regarding the latest and most 
approved methods of making cheese by this Cauadian-Chedder 
system. 

PURE CLEAN MILK NECESSARY. 

Before a factory makes arrangements to commence cheese- 
making there should be some guarantee that none but the very 
purest and cleanest milk shall be supplied. Purity and cleanli- 
ness in milk is far more necessary for cheese-making than for 
butter-making, although for both it should always be clean and 
pure. Begin by prevailing upon the milk suppliers to have clean 
cowsheds, to clean the cows' udders before milking, and to always 
keep their hands clean. A beginning must be made at the foun- 
tain head, because unless the strictest cleanliness be observed at 
every stage, from the time the milk is drawn from the cow until 
it is delivered to the cheese-maker, it is impossible for a good 



41 

quality of cheese to be manufactured. There is altogether too 
much indifference amongst our milk-producers regarding this 
question of cleanliness. If anything like a correct estimate could 
be obtained of the depreciation in the value of our butter during 
one year owing to impurities in the milk and the want of cleanli- 
ness in handling it, the figures would have a startling effect on the 
community. Seeing that cheese requires purer milk and cleaner 
milk than butter, how very important, therefore, is it that all milk- 
suppliers, by supplying only the purest and cleanest of milk, should 
co-operate with the cheese-maker in producing a really prime 
article for the English market. 

RECEIVING THE MILK. 

Every can of milk that is intended for cheese should, before 
being accepted, be very closely scrutinized. Firmness on the part 
of the cheese-maker at this stage is of the utmost importance. 
Should there be the slightest shadow of suspicion as to either its 
sweetness, purity, or cleanliness, reject it at once. One can of 
unsuitable milk will destroy the whole of the milk received that 
morning. Why, then, should the milk of, say, nineteen careful 
milk suppliers be ruined just to accommodate one neglectful 
supplier who is too obstinate to acquire habits of cleanliness ? 
Assuming the milk to be up to the required standard, it is received 
from the suppliers and strained into the large receiving vat, and 
gradually heated up to 86 deg. Fahr. The vat and the method 
of heating are so sufficiently well known that a description is 
unnecessary. 

ADDING THE RENNET. 

When to add the rennet is a stage in cheese-making that re- 
quires very careful attention. When the milk in the receiving 
vat has been brought to a temperature of 86 deg. Fahr., put about 
5 ounces of it into a tea-cup. For this purpose have a graduated 
measuring glass, which only costs two shillings. 

To the 5 ounces of milk add one teaspoonful of any good 
brand of artificial rennet. Stir the milk and the rennet together 
for five seconds and then watch for it to thicken. Should it 
thicken in from fourteen to seventeen seconds the milk in the 
vat will be ripe enough to " set," that, is, to receive the rennet. 

Sometimes, however, the milk does not thicken in from four- 
teen to seventeen seconds, and this happens in cold weather. The 
lowness. of the surrounding temperature even when the milk is at 
86 deg. Fahr. has been known to cause the milk to take 25 
and in some cases 30 and 35 seconds to thicken. When this 
happens the temperature of the milk in the vat must be con- 
tinued for a little while longer at 86 deg., or even increased a 
little, but on no account must it go over 90 deg. By waiting a 
few minutes, keeping the milk in the vat a little over 86 deg., 



42 

it will ripen, despite the cold weather, when the fourteen to seven- 
teen seconds test in the tea-cup will then come out all right. 

The rennet must not be added until proof of the proper 
ripeness of the milk has been decided by the tea-cup test. 

There is a very simple plan for telling the very moment when 
the milk in the cup has thickened, and beginners ought to make 
use of it. When the 5 ounces of milk are put in the cup, 
before adding the rennet put a small chip, say half-an-inch of a 
wooden match, or small piece of cork, into the milk, and then 
stir rapidly when adding the rennet. The little chip will whirl 
round with the milk, but the moment the milk thickens the chip 
will suddenly stop. By keeping a close eye on your watch the 
exact number of seconds from the adding of the rennet to the 

stoppiag of the chip is easily counted. 

i 

QUANTITY OF RENNET. 

If good rennet is purchased the proper quantity to use is at 
the rate of 2 ounces for every 50 gallons of milk. This is the 
correct proportion. After thoroughly mixing the annatto with 
the milk then add the rennet. None but the best brands of 
rennet should be purchased. Stir the milk well for five minutes 
after adding the rennet, and then let it settle. 

TESTING RENNET. 

As rennet varies in quality its strength should be tested regu- 
larly. In factories every new supply ought to be tested. On 
farms where only a small quantity is used every bottle as it is 
opened should be tested before using. If the proportions stated in 
the standard referred to (a teaspoonful of rennet to 5 ounces of 
milk) does not thicken the milk in the cup in seventeen seconds in 
favorable weather, providing, of course, the milk is at the right 
temperature, then the rennet is weak in quality, and the propor- 
tion per 50 gallons of milk in the vat, as already explained, will 
have to be increased. Experience and observation soon enable even 
a beginner to determine the exact quantity of rennet to use even 
should the quantity vary a little in strength. The use of too 
much rennet must be guarded against. Too much rennet is one 
of the causes of l ' streaky" and of " bitter " cheese. 

ANNATTO. 

One ounce of annatto to every 50 gallons of milk will be 
sufficient. For cheese intended for export not more than half- 
an-ounce of annatto per 50 gallons of milk should be used, for the 
reason that the English consumer prefers a straw or lightly- 
coloured cheese. Add the annatto as soon as the test shows you 
the milk is ripe enough, and then stir well for five minutes so as to 
mix it evenly and thoroughly with the milk. 



43 

CUTTING THE CURD. 

In about twelve minutes after the rennet has been added, the 
milk in the vat will have thickened or curded. A close watch 
must be kept so as to note the actual time the milk takes to curd. 
Having ascertained the actual number of minutes the milk took to 
curd, the time for cutting the curd will be two and a half times 
the number of minutes that elapsed from when the rennet was put 
in until the milk curded. Suppose, for instance, the milk takes 
twelve minutes to curd, in 30 minutes afterwards (i.e., twice and a 
half times twelve) the curd is ready to cut. When everything 
goes on all right the " cutting " should commence from 40 to 42 
minutes from the time when the rennet was added. 

Here is an illustration showing how the whole operation 
actually works out. 

Assume that the milk is ripe at a quarter to nine. 

Add annatto at a quarter to nine, and stir the milk well until 
nine o'clock. 

At nine o'clock add the rennet. 

Stir the milk thoroughly until five minutes past nine. 

At twelve minutes past nine the milk will be curds. 

Thirty minutes afterwards (two and a half times twelve), z'.tf., 
forty-two minutes past nine, the curd will be ready to cut. 

By following this rule no mistake will be made as to the proper 
time for cutting the curd. Dipping the finger into the curd, a 
test adopted by many people, should be avoided. 

How TO CUT THE CURD. 

Extreme caution is required in cutting the curd, and care must 
be taken to avoid breaking or bruising it in any way, and the cut- 
ting must be cleanly done, leaving no bruised surface. The knives 
must cut well. There should no dragging, nor should there be 
any ragged surface on the curd when cut. First use the horizontal 
steel knife lengthwise, going from end to end of the vat, then 
use the vertical knife, going also from end to end. After this 
has been done then run the vertical knife through the curd 
across the vat, i.e., from side to side. The curd should now be 
all in the size of about half -inch cubes. 

DEVELOPING ACIDITY. 

Having cut the curd, the next operation is for the development 
of acidity. Boiling water will now have to be used in order to 
raise the temperature of the whey up to 100 deg. Fahr. Before 
surrounding the vat with hot water it is always advisable to 
pass the hand gently round the sides and bottom of the vat so as 
to remove any curds that might bo sticking there. It will take 
about 40 minutes to raise the temperature of the whey up to 



44 

100 deg. The curd meanwhile must be kept slowly stirred with 
a rake, with the teeth set wide apart so as not to cause any bruis- 
ing. As the curd gets firmer stir faster, until 100 deg. has been 
gradually reached in the 40 minutes. When 100 deg. has been 
reached draw the hot water from the vat at once, and allow the 
curd to settle down for about an hour and a half, the vat mean- 
while being covered in order to maintain an even temperature. 
At the expiration of the hour and a half sufficient acidity ought 
to be developed in the curd to permit of the whey being drawn 
off. 

TESTING THE CURD FOR ACIDITY. 

The only sure test for showing when the acidity is coming is 
the hot-iron one. Get a piece of half-inch iron and make it nearly, 
but not quite, red-hot. Take a handful of the curd, squeeze the 
whey out by compressing it gently, and then apply the hot iron to 
it. If when lifting the iron up from the curd it draws out fine 
hairy threads about one-eighth of an inch long it is time to draw 
the whey off and remove the curd to the cooler. If, however, the 
fine threads are not seen to be drawn up by the iron the curd must 
remain a little longer in the whey in order to reach the proper 
stage of acidity. 

IN THE COOLER. 

When the Avhey has been run off, remove the curd to the 
cooler. Let it remain without being disturbed for about ten 
minutes in order to give it time to " mat." After " matting " it 
is cut into squares for convenient handling, and also to permit of 
further drainage of any whey. Turn the curd every quarter of 
an hour for about an hour to an hour and a half. When the 
curd is placed in the cooler it is most important that the cooler, 
except when handling the curd, be covered with a sheet or piece 
of strong "duck," in order to maintain an even temperature and 
further develop the acidity. 

After being from an hour to an hour and a half in the cooler, 
again apply the hot-iron test for acidity, when if the fine threads 
this time draw out fully three-quarters of an inch long, it will be 
time to put the curd through the curd cutter. If the fine threads 
do not come as described, turn the curd again, keep the cooler 
covered and wait a little longer. Developing the proper acidity 
and allowing the gases to escape are the secrets of success. If 
everything goes on alright the curd should not require to be in 
the cooler for more than from an hour and a quarter to an hour 
and a half, but at the very outside not more than an hour and 
40 minutes. 

THE CURD CUTTER. 

The old curd mills that were used fifteen and twenty years 
ago are out of date. They used to bruise, tear, and grind the 



45 

curd down too fine, thereby allowing the richness to escape, 
which reduces the quality of the cheese. The new style of curd 
cutter cuts the curd as clean as you would cut chaff, instead of 
bruising it down as the old-fashioned curd mills did. The curd 
is only put through the cutter once, and it comes out in clean 
cut strips, each about 3 inches long by about half-an-inch in 
diameter. 

SALTING. 

After putting the curd through the cutting machine it must be 
kept stirred and turned over now and again to prevent " matting," 
which operation also circulates the air through it, and cools it 
down to about 72 deg., at which temperature it is ready for 
salting. Add 1 Ib. of salt for every 50 gallons milk that were 
in the vat. After mixing the salt thoroughly with the curd, 
give the curd another ten to fifteen minutes to allow the salt 
to properly dissolve before putting the curd into the " hoops '* 
and pressing. 

CHEESE PRESSES. 

Where large quantities of cheese are made, such as in factories 
and on large dairy farms, the " gang " press should be used, but 
for small dairymen making only one or two cheeses a day, the 
ordinary screw press will do, as it saves the outlay for a "gang." 

The " hoops " being made of galvanized iron and in four 
pieces, are one of the greatest improvements in modern cheese- 
making, as they entirely dispense with all the bother that used to 
be attached to the proper adjusting of lids and trimming the edges 
of the cheese. 

Be careful not to press the curd hard the first half-hour, or the 
richness of the cheese will be lost. A sudden heavy pressure at 
first will also form a skin on the cheese which will prevent a free 
escape of whey and result in a "streaky" or a "mottled" cheese. 
Increase the pressure gradually after the lapse of half-an-hour. 
From fifteen to twenty hours, according to the size of the cheese, 
will be long enough for it to remain in the press. Then remove 
from the "hoops" and transfer direct to the shelves in the curing- 
room. 

IN THE CURING-ROOM. 

After cheese has been six weeks in the curing-room it will be 
ready for export to London. During the six weeks while the 
cheese is in the curing-room it will require to be " turned " once 
a day. Cheese intended for the Australian market need only be 
" turned " every second day until it is three months old, when it is 
fit for consumption. Uniformity of temperature is a very essential 
point in the curing-room. The temperature should, as far as 
possible, be maintained at about 66 deg. 



46 

CHEESE BANDAGES. 

The imported seamless bandages are the best to use. Exporters 
of cheese to London should use no other. If, however, the ordi- 
nary cheese-cloth be used, sew it to suit the size of the " hoops " 
used, cut into required lengths, and then turn it inside out so that 
the seam will not show on the bandage on the outside. Always 
adjust the bandage on the hoop before filling with curd. 

THE CHEESE PRESS. 

All cheese factories and on farms where a large amount of 
cheese is made, the American gang press will be used. Small 
dairy farmers, who perhaps may not be making more than one or 
two cheeses daily, will find the old screw press answer the 
purpose just as well. The economy of the gang press is that 
it will press a number of cheeses at a time, hence its advantage 
to factories and large cheese-makers. 

THE " HOOPS." 

What old cheese-makers of twenty years ago called the 
" cheese- vat " we now call the "hoops.-" The cheese is pressed 
on the " hoops " and the " hoops " are greatly superior to the old 
style of vat. Where farmers, however, have got the old wooden 
vats these will do right enough for making cheese for home 
consumption. 

SHIPPING SEASON FOR CHEESE. 

The manufacture of cheese for export to England will require 
to begin every year about the middle of November, or early in 
December, according to the conditions of the season, prices for 
butter, &c. January and February are the months when the out- 
put of cheese will be at its highest. As Cheddar cheese can be 
shipped when it is a month old the shipping season will thus com- 
mence from about the middle of December to first week in Janu- 
ary, and continue until about the middle of April. This will 
land our first manufacture of the season in London about from 
the middle to the end of January, and the last shipment for the 
season should reach London on about from the first to the middle 
of May. 

SILOS AND ENSILAGE. 

On this subject we have taken numerous extracts from a 
pamphlet on silos, by J. L. Thompson, late Principal of Dookie 
College. 

The silo system cannot be said to be of recent origin, for we 
read of the ancient Romans preserving fruits, grains, and forage 
in a green state in large subterranean vaults. The Mexicans also 
have practised the same process for centuries, and still preserve a 
large bulk of their fodder in this way. 



47 

The attention of the English-speaking world was first drawn 
to this subject by the translation by a Mr. Brown (an American) 
of a work written by a Mr. Augustus Goffart, a distinguished 
member of the Central Agricultural Society of France. This work 
was published in New York in 1879, when the subject was quickly 
taken up by the American people, who have since done much to 
popularize the system, and there are now in that country thousands 
of silos. 

In 1882 a conference was held at New York of several hun- 
dred farmers, who met to compare their various experiences, and 
the answers to some of the questions considered are very remark- 
able. Regarding the profitableness of ensilage 

Farmer No. 6 said : " It will double the stock-carrying 
capacity of our farm ; its advantages to dairymen are incalcul- 
able." 

No. 7 said : " It gives a vigour and healthy appearance not 
seen in hay-fed cattle. We can double the stock, and thus 
increase the fertility and value of farms." 

No. 8 : "It enables one with a little land to keep a large 
amount of stock." 

No. 9 : " We believe stock can be kept for one-half the cost 
of other food, and will fatten as much as during the best grass 
season." 

No. 10 : " Anything of vegetable nature that animals will 
eat will make useful ensilage." 

No. 11: " 40 or 50 tons of fodder can be ensilaged off one 
acre, which is worth more than 20 tons of hay." 

No. 19 : " The cost of feeding on ensilage as against hay and 
roots is one to three." 

No. 20 : "I think cattle can be kept for one-fourth the ex- 
pense of any other method." 

No. 28 : " One acre of ensilage will keep eight head of 
cattle 100 days." 

No. 30 : "I am keeping four times the number of stock with 
my silos that I have been able to do hitherto. A silo filled with 
green fodder in time of protracted drought is invaluable." 

No. 37 : " The profits are very large. I consider my two 
silos worth 2,000, and would rather pay interest on that amount 
than give them up." 

No. 38 : " Ensilage I believe to be the dairyman's anchor on 
the expensive land of the East. I would as soon think of doing 
without my house as without a silo. I farm for profits, not for 
pleasure, and have found the silo the best investment I ever 
made." 

It is needless to multiply these extracts. They are from 
practical men, whose opinions can be relied upon, and if ensilage 
is so valuable in America it must be doubly so in these colonies, 



48 

subject as they are to long periods of drought. It is really 
astounding that so little has been done to popularize the silos in 
Victoria. Some years ago the subject was taken up by the Royal 
Commission on Vegetable Products, and much valuable infor- 
mation was distributed. 

Before giving some details concerning the introduction of the 
silo into these colonies, it may be mentioned that there are now a 
very great many in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and hundreds 
of new ones are being built every year. The Messrs. Trepplin, 
near Kenil worth, Warwickshire, preserve over 5,000 tons every 
year, and at the Smithfield Club Cattle Show, Islington, 1884, 
there were 254 exhibits entered for competition, comprising 
almost every description of plant that could be placed in a silo. 

AUSTRALIAN SILOS. 

To Mr. Charles Rake, of Olive Farm, Enfield, South Australia, 
Is the credit of introducing the silo into these colonies. Mr. Rake 
has for a long time been in the habit of taking in all the best 
agricultural papers in the world, and, observing the apparent 
success of the silo in America, was not slow to imitate the example. 
As early as 1880 Mr. Rake built his first silo, and the whole 
neighbourhood thought he was doomed to disappointment when 
they saw him putting in tons of succulent green fodder into a pit. 
Mr. Rake invited his neighbours to come and see the opening of 
the silo six months afterwards, and, to the surprise of all, found 
the fodder coming out in excellent condition. Mr. Rake the 
following year increased his silo capacity to six in number. By 
this means he was able to produce first-class cream and butter all 
the year round. 

Mr. J. L. Thompson, who was managing " Beefacres," the 
Adjoining estate, at that time, on seeing the success of Mr. Rake's 
silos, was induced to imitate his example, and in 1884 he built a 
silo of concrete, which for strength, durability, and convenience, 
will compare favorably with any silo in the world. This silo 
consists of four compartments, each 20 feet long, 12 feet wide, 
and 15 feet deep, having a total capacity of 14,000 cubic feet, and 
capable of holding 300 tons of green fodder. The cost was about 
300, and the structure will last 60 years, bar accident. A 
.sample of ensilage from the first filling of this silo obtained a 
prize of 10 10s., presented by the proprietors of the Australasian, 
at the National Show, Melbourne, 1885. 

When carrying on dairying at the well-known Spring Bank 
dairy farm near Egerton, Mr. Wilson used to incur heavy losses 
every summer, owing to the sudden shrinkage in the quantity of 
milk when the grass dried up. Ensilage being recommended as a 
summer fodder, he had a silo constructed and filled with chaffed 
green oats, peas, and maize. The oats and peas were cut and put 



49 

into the silo in the month of November, and from the same land 
a crop of maize was ready for the silo by the following April or 
May. Thus two crops a year were had from the same land, 
giving an average yield, in the green state, of about 20 tons per 
acre. The ensilage always turned out well, and lessened the 
dread of dry summers, scarcity of summer feed, and shortage of 
milk. 

Further practical proof of the value of ensilage for milk- 
producing purposes, when other feed was scarce, was given at the 
grounds attached to Government House, Melbourne. Shortly 
after the arrival in Victoria of Lord Hopetoun, Mr. Wilson, by 
desire, superintended the cultivation of 3^ acres of poor land at 
Government House for the growth of two crops a year on it for 
conversion into ensilage for feed for the Governor's cows during 
the summer months. This also was a great success, for by apply- 
ing 30 loads of stable manure per acre to the land a crop of 
twelve tons per acre of oats and vetches was obtained, followed 
in the autumn by a twelve-ton crop of maize. This fodder, 
grown on 3^ acres of land, kept twelve cows in splendid condition 
right through the whole of the dry weather each summer. The 
milk and cream produced by the cows fed on the ensilage were 
pronounced by Lord Hopetoun to be equally as good as when the 
cows were fed on the spring pastures. These facts have been 
repeated to farmers in almost every part of Victoria, yet, strange 
to say, not one in a thousand has yet adopted the system. 

CONSTRUCTION OP A SILO. 

Local circumstances must determine what material can be 
most economically used for the construction of a silo. Where 
plenty of gravel and sharp river sand can be procured nothing 
in our opinion can equal concrete walls. The division walls should 
be 2 feet thick, but 18 inches will be sufficient for the outside 
walls, as these will be built against the excavated bank. One- 
third of the silo should be above ground and two-thirds below. 
Doorways as far down as the natural surface should be provided, 
so as to facilitate the filling of the silo and also the getting out of 
the ensilage. These openings can be closed up with planks as 
the silo is being filled, and removed as the ensilage is being taken 
out. The walls of the silo should be as smooth and plumb as 
possible, so as to allow the ensilage and covering planks to go 
down easily as the mass subsides. The walls and bottom of a 
silo should be air and water-tight. It was thought and recom- 
mended at one time to provide drainage at the bottom of the 
silo, but this is a fallacy, as no moisture should escape from the 
silo ; and a drain that would carry off water would also allow air 
to get in, which would do a great amount of damage to the 
ensilage. It has been said that it makes no difference whether a 
3063. D 



50 

silo cost 20 or 500, one will preserve ensilage as well as the 
other, the only thing required is continuous pressure. But you 
cannot make small silos as effective as large ones, nor can you 
pack the fodder so well against rough surfaces as against walls 
that are smooth, consequently there is more waste of fodder with 
small pits and rough surfaces than with large silos and smooth 
walls. 

Cheap earthen silos (holes simply dug in the ground) are more 
likely to popularize the system of ensilage among the farming 
community than expensive masonry, and where the earth is sound 
this plan may be adopted with perfect success. 

FILLING THE SILOS. 

Before saying anything on this head, it will be as well to 
state that there|[are now two recognised varieties of ensilage, 
viz., sweet and sour ensilage. By the term " sour " it must 
not be understood that the ensilage is in any way offensive ; 
it has a pale greenish yellow colour, and a slightly vinous 
odour. Sweet ensilage, on the other hand, is of a brown 
colour, and of a sweet luscious odour. Sour ensilage has been 
found to be most suitable for animals producing milk, and sweet 
ensilage for fattening stock. When it is desired to produce sour 
ensilage, the crop may be cut when full grown (but before any of 
the moisture has escaped), and carted to the silo immediately it is 
cut, and pressed tightly down. The sooner the silo is filled and 
the weights applied, the better for sour ensilage. If the crops are 
of a rough nature, such as barley, vetches, maize, &c., they should 
be pressed through the chaff-cutter, but the finer English grass 
does not require chaffing. When filled rapidly and immediately 
weighted, the temperature will seldom exceed 80 deg. Fahr., 
and little or no fermentation will take place. 

SWEET ENSILAGE. 

When it is intended to produce sweet ensilage the crop may 
also be cut when full grown ; but it must lie a day or two in the 
field, so that, at the time of being put away in the silo, it contains 
less than 70 per cent, of moisture. The process of filling should 
go on slowly, so that the temperature may rise from between 125 
and 150 deg. Fahr .5 Should the temperature not be sufficient 
either the fodder has been too wet, or the filling and consequent 
compression has been going on rapidly. When a sufficiently high 
temperature has been obtained, it should immediately be cooled 
down to below 90 deg. by applying ]the pressure, or the ensilage 
will rapidly spoil. The testing the temperature of the silo is a 
very simple matter. Procure a 12 J feet length^ of common inch 
gas pipe, to this weld a steel point, drive this into the ensilage 
mass about the centre, and by means of a small glass thermometer 



51 

and a piece of string you can test the temperature at various 
depths. I should mention that it is well to put a little wool in 
the bottom of the pipe to save the glass thermometer in its 
descent. 

COVERING AND CLOSING THE SILO. 

The filling of the silo should be carried out in such a manner 
that -the layer of fodder should always be horizontal. The fill- 
ing having been completed, the covering up takes place. The 
planks should be put across the short way of the silo, and 9x2 
redgum is found to be a convenient size. At one time it was thought 
to be necessary to have the covering as close and air-tight as 
possible, but this has proved to be a fallacy. Sawdust, bran, felt, 
boards tongued and grooved, have all been tried in older to pre- 
vent the air from escaping ; but the object now is to facilitate 
the air to escape by compression, and for this purpose it is better 
to put the planks about a quarter of an inch apart, and half-an- 
inch shorter at each end than the silo, so that there will be no 
fear of them sticking against the walls. 

WEIGHTING THE SILO. 

Mr. Wilson's first experience in weighting the silo was with 
bags of sand 2 feet deep ; but this was not a success, as the bags soon 
rotted. He then got the local blacksmith at Egerton, Mr. Simpson, 
to make a screw and chain press. The screw is worked by one 
man, and the total leverage of the appliance is as 450 is to 1, 
due allowance being made for friction. This appliance is a great 
saving of labour, especially when a silo is being refilled, as the 
whole covering can be removed in fifteen minutes. In the ab- 
sence of any mechanical pressure, the weighting can be accom- 
plished by the material easiest procurable on the ground, and that 
will give sufficient pressure, viz., 100 to 150 Ibs. to the square 
foot. Ensilage can be made in a silo without pressure; but, 
taking into account the waste of space and loss of ensilage by 
decay at the top and sides, this system has no advantage to 
recommend it. As good ensilage has been preserved in this 
way as in the most expensive silo, and a small farmer need 
not hesitate to sink a hole in any good ground, put in his 
green fodder, and cover it up with 2 feet of earth, and it 
will come out green and sweet six or nine months afterwards. 
Wooden portable silos are now much used in England. They 
are in shape like a huge barrel, and answer the purpose very well 
in that country; but I doubt very much whether they would be 
successful in these colonies owing to the excessive heat of our 
summers. A great deal has been done in England in the way of 
converting old barns and other buildings into silos. 

3063. E 



52 

OPENING THE SILO. 

Only a sufficient number of planks should be removed as to 
give convenient room for the operation of cutting to be performed. 

It is best to cut ensilage in vertical sections as is done in a hay- 
stack, as much being taken out each day as is required for the day.'s 
consumption, although it will keep fairly well for a week or so after 
being removed from the silo. The weights should not be removed 
from the uncut portions until absolutely required, as it is necessary 
to continue the pressure as long as possible. When the first cut 
gets below the surface use a large coal-basket capable of holding 
100 Ibs. This is raised by means of block and tackle sufficiently 
high for the man in the dray to catch and empty it. When the 
silo is small and deep and the consumption rapid, the whole of 
the weights and coverings may be removed at once, and the 
ensilage removed from the entire surface as required. In a broad 
and shallow silo, however, it would be unwise to attempt this 
method. Ensilage has been taken from a silo of this kind every day 
except Sunday for three months, and the last was as good as the 
first. 

CROPS FOR THE SJLO. 

Any vegetation that stock will eat in its natural state will 
make good ensilage, and it will be much improved by the opera- 
tion, especially if fed to cattle. It is said that cattle assimilate 
ensilage better than they do any other food, and the reason for 
this is the change effected in the silo is nearly or quite that which 
is brought about in the first stomach of the ruminant animal. 
Barley and tares sown immediately after the first rains are very 
suitable and profitable for a first filling. These will be ready to 
put away in the silo, say about the 1st of October, and the land 
can be at once ploughed and sown with maize, which will be fit 
for pitting about the end of February. As much as 30 tons per acre 
of fodder has been obtained in this way without irrigation, i.e., 
from the two crops. This is sufficient per acre to keep a milch 
cow for twelve months. Indeed, it has often been proved that by 
thoroughly cultivating and manuring the land ample food can be 
grown on an acre for a cow by adopting the ensilage system. 
Cockspurs variegated, and Scotch thistles, if put away in succu- 
lent condition, can be taken out six months later in prime con- 
dition, and stock will devour them ravenously. In short, the silo 
has been styled " the farmer's all"; nothing can come amiss to it. 
Mangold or turnip tops, cabbage leaves, surplus fodder of any 
kind can be siloed and kept till periods ol want. 

We have heard of stock-holders in the interior losing in times 
of drought all their valuable stud bulls, rams, &c., for want of 
food. There is really no excuse for this state of affairs. Every 
few years we have seasons of plenty, when thousands of acres of 



53 

the natural grasses can be mown and siloed for use in the years 
of famine. Mr. Walter Lamb, of Rooty Hill and Merilong, 
Liverpool Plains, New South Wales, has proved to his fellow 
pastoralists what can be done by means of the silo in storing up 
fodder in good seasons to save his stock from starvation in periods 
of drought. Mr. Lamb has siloed over 10,000 tons of the native 
grasses on his estate at Merilong, and is able to keep a full-grown 
bullock for twelve months in good condition at a cost of 8s. 9d., 
and a sheep for Is. 9d. No man has done so much as Mr. Lamb 
to demonstrate the great boon that may accrue to the pastoralist 
in these colonies from the use of the silo. His silos were inex- 
pensive, but answer the purpose well. The weighting is done 
entirely with earth, and he uses no top covering between the ensi- 
lage and the earth. 

THE CHEMISTRY OF THE vSiLO. 

It is not intended to touch on the scientific aspect of the 
silo, but this paper would be incomplete without mentioning 
that eminent scientists have, as a rule all through, thrown cold 
water on the subject of ensilage. Professor Custunce, of the 
Roseworthy Agricultural College, South Australia, compared the 
putting of green fodder in a silo to burying a dead dog. Sir John 
Lawes and Dr. Volcker have often given the English farmers 
gentle warnings that ensilage was not worthy of their attention. 
Lately, however, Sir John has conducted a number of valuable 
experiments as to the feeding value of ensilage, and has proved 
that 50 Ibs. of ensilage was equal to 84 Ibs. of good mangolds. 

Mr. A. N. Pearson, our Government Agricultural Chemist, 
published the result of an analysis of some ensilage submitted to 
him, and states that 2 Ibs. of it are equal to 3 Ibs. of good hay. 
This shows ensilage to be of very great value indeed, and scien- 
tific men are now forced to admit there is something in ensilage 
after all, and certainly progressive farmers of the present day 
cannot ignore it. 

STACK ENSILAGE. 

Ensilage has been preserved in good condition in England by 
simply stacking it green without any silo at all. Mr. H. B. 
Hughes, of Booyoolic Station, South Australia, stacked a large 
paddock of lucerne right from his mowing machine. Some time 
after his stack was built, when his lucerne was 6 inches high, 
Mr. Hughes put a number of bullocks on to the lucerne, but 
getting a taste of the stack ensilage they preferred it to the prime 
succulent green feed. This shows that there is something in the 
system that improves the fodder, as the tastes of cattle are the 
best tests of its quality. Mr. Hughes now provides large 

E 2 



54 

quantities of ensilage to top up his Queensland bullocks before 
putting them on the market. 

The only objection to stack ensilage is that our penetrating 
hot winds and sun have the effect of spoiling a considerable 
portion of the fodder around the edges of the stack, and, although 
the ensilage can be made well in a stack, the loss is sometimes 
so great that it will repay the farmer to make a silo. 

PRACTICAL RESULTS FROM THE USE OF ENSILAGE. 

Wonderful results have been reported as to the value of 
ensilage on dairy and other stock, but as some of these may be 
looked upon as " American tall talk," the actual experiences may 
be given of Mr. J. L. Thompson, formerly Principal of the 
Dookie Agriculture College. Mr. Thompson writes as follows : 

"When I opened the silos at Beefacres in 1884, about the 
end of January, our dairy cows were not averaging two gallons 
of milk a day, and it was almost a matter of imposssibility to 
make any good butter, although we had a very good dairy. A 
week after we commenced .using ensilage the milk increased to 
two and three quarter gallons daily, and the butter made from 
this milk had that peculiar yellow tint so well known as char- 
acteristic of good butter. Considering the time of year it was 
also remarkably firm, and the churning was accomplished in 
half the usual time. In March of that year we had a clearing 
sale of 127 Clydesdales and 110 shorthorn cattle. They were 
fed almost exclusively on ensilage for three months before the 
sale, and it was remarked by all good judges that they never 
saw stock looking better or healthier. I can further assert that 
during the whole of the time this large and valuable number of 
stock were fed on ensilage there was not one single case of sick- 
ness the whole time." 

Great excitement was caused in South Australia some years 
ago when nine horses out of 30 being fed on ensilage died sud- 
denly. Of course, every one said it was the ensilage ; and so it 
was, but it was largely composed of several very poisonous plants 
which, if eaten in any condition, would have caused death, and, 
being chopped up, the stock could not avoid eating them, although 
in the pasture they could be passed by. No evil results from 
the use of good fodder made into ensilage has ever come under 
our notice, but, on the contrary, all stock fed on it have shown 
a most robust and healthy appearance. 

"Ensilage in a nutshell/' is simply this : Every farmer in the 
spring of the year has abundance of green succulent food for all 
stock. Then is the period of the year when stock will put on 
condition, and when any quantity of prime butter can be made. 
By the use of the silo this abundance of succulent food can be 



55 

carried right through the year. In the parched month of March, 
when not a green blade of vegetation can be seen in our fields, 
you can open your silo full of fresh green fodder, and feed it to 
your cows, which will give milk that will produce butter quite as 
good as any you are making at the present time, on what is known 
as the flower of the grass. This proves, beyond a doubt, that it 
is not so much the heat of our summers that causes the production 
of that white frothy-looking butter, so often seen during summer, 
as the unsuitable nature of the food that cows under ordinary 
circumstances have to eat. 

In England the use of silos and ensilage has passed the 
experimental stage. Two very important reports bearing on 
ensilage have been issued, a few extracts from which are taken. 
These are the reports of the Ensilage Commission, and the 
Judges of the Royal Agricultural Society's Competition. They 
are dated May, 1886. Be it noted, the evidence is not that 
of enthusiastic advocates, but the calm deliberations of judicial 
bodies appointed to consider and determine as to the value or 
otherwise of the system. Both bodies emphatically declare 
ensilage a decided success, and both reports are capable of afford- 
ing encouragement to British farmers. The Ensilage Commission 
classify the advantages claimed for ensilage under the following 
heads : 

1. In rendering the farmer independent of the weather in 
saving his crops. 

2. In increasing the productive capabilities of farms. 

3. In greater weight of forage saved. 

4. In greater available variety and rotation of crops. 

5. In increased facility for storing crops. It is suitable for 
all kinds of stock dairy stock, breeding stock, store stock, fatten- 
ing stock, and farm horses. 

The Commissioners, in conclusion, state that they have 
endeavoured to discount all exaggerated estimates, as well as to 
make allowance for a considerable amount of prejudice and 
incredulity which they met with, and they add : " After sum- 
ming up the mass of evidence which has reached us we can 
without hesitation affirm that it has been abundantly and con- 
clusively proved to our satisfaction that the system of preserving 
green fodder crops promises great advantages to the practical 
farmer, and, if carried out with a reasonable amount of care and 
efficiency, should not only provide him with the means of insuring 
himself to a great extent against unfavorable seasons, and of 
materially improving the quantity and quality of his dairy pro- 
duce, but should also enable him to increase appreciably the num- 
ber of live stock that can be profitably kept upon any given acreage, 



56 

whether of pasture or arable land, and proportionately the amount 
of manure available to fertilize it." 

The report of the Royal Society's Judges is also very interest- 
ing and instructive, and is equally favorable to the system under 
investigation. 

The following concise summary of the experience of the 
judges of the northern division is worthy of production : 

" We are of opinion that the great question of satisfactorily 
ensiling green crops has received ample confirmation. It has 
been proved to us incontestably that its success has been mani- 
fested in every district. We have seen silos of brick, of stone, 
and of wood; we have seen old barns and other buildings con- 
verted into silos; we have seen them containing 20 tons, and we 
have inspected others capable of holding 700 tons; we have found 
silos constructed at a little over 20, and others at 400 ; we 
have found them filled with all sorts of green crops, and we have 
found some sour and some sweet, the latter in by far the greater 
proportion ; we have seen them weighted with bricks, with stones, 
with slates, with sand, with earth, and also with ingenious 
mechanical contrivances; we have inspected some chaffed, and in 
others the fodder spread out and put in whole; in all cases the 
practice was successful, and in every instance cattle of all 
descriptions did well on the silage, and in many instances the 
opinion was conclusive that decidedly more stock could be carried 
per acre with silage than with hay. In conclusion, we would 
say that we consider the system of ensiling will probably affect 
the future of agriculture on strong land, as in most instances, 
especially in such where it is necessary to obtain winter foods 
for the stock, a crop of winter-grown tares or trifolium, or other 
strong-growing green crops, may be sown in the autumn at little 
expense, and mown and put in the receptacle by the first week 
in June, and thus do away with the immense expense and great 
uncertainty of the cultivation and consumption of roots on such 
land. The report winds up with the following verdict : The chief 
advantage of silage-making against haymaking is its comparative 
independence of the weather, that the fodder is handled while 
green without any risk of the tender and nutritious leaves being 
lost on the ground as in haymaking, that the resulting silage is 
succulent and palatable, and that on purely grazing farms it is 
now possible to obtain a portion of the grass crop for winter in 
such a state as to equal the effect of summer-fed grass for the 
purposes of the dairy." 

In conclusion, it may be added that we cannot continue to 
keep farms. in a high state of fertility without stock, and we can- 
not keep dairy cattle profitably unless we provide feed for them 
during periods of drought and consequent famine, and the silo 
greatly assist us in this direction. 



57 



LIST OF BUTTER FACTORIES IN COLONY OF VIC- 
TORIA, WITH CREAMERIES ATTACHED TO 
SAME. 



Name 
of 
Factory. 


Address. 


Secretary 
or 
Proprietor. 


Creameries 
Attached. 


.Ararat 


Ararat 


J 

! 


Buangor 
Moyston 
Great Western 






I 


Crowlands 






f 


Elmhurst 


Avoca 


Avoca 


R. Poy nter 4 


Natte Yallock 






1 


Bung Bong 


Aringa 


Port Fairy 


J. C. Ritchie 




.Alberton 


Alberton ... 


coMelb.Ch. Br. 








Co. , Melbourne 










Acheson 








Alexandra-road 


Alexandra 


Alexandra-road 




Crystal Creek 
Fawcett 








Thornton 








Upper Thornton 








Goomalibee 


Benalla 


Benalla ... 


T. S. Moore 


Upotipotpon 
White Gate 
Tatong 
Mollyullah 
Glenrowan 






/ 


Grenville 








Clarendon 








Yendon 








Napoleons 


.Buninyong 


Buninyong 


Jno. Porter 


Cargarie 
Coghill's Creek 








Learmonth 








Wan bra 








Lexton 








Evansford 


Buln Buln 


Buln Buln 


Melb. C. B. Coy. 




.Bear's Creek 


... 


Melb. C. B. Coy. 




Bena ... 


Bena 






Baddaginnie 
Balmattum 


Baddaginnie 
Balmattum 


A. Shaw 
A. Wakenshaw 


Boho 


Benn, F. * 


Mirboo, Gippsland... 


F. Benn 




Burnt Creek* . 


Locksley ... 


G. Akers 




Benambra 


Benambra 


Keogh & Browne 




Broad, Mrs. * . 


Elphinstone 







* Private factories. 



58 



Name 
of 
Factory. 


| 
Address. 


Secretary 

or 
Proprietor. 


Creameries 
Attached. 






( 


Sugarloaf 


Broadford 


High-street, Broad- 

fnrrl 


J. T. Brown 


Glenrona 
Northwood 




lorci 


I 


Bailiestown 


Beaufort 


Beaufort ... 


J. W. Brown - 


Middle Creek 
Stockyard Hill 






j 


Nillahcootie 


Bonnie Doon .... 


Bonnie Doon 


S. D. Morrissey < 


Howe's Creek 






1 


Heyfield 


Bolding, Geo.*... 


Morwell ... 


G. Bolding 




Buckrabanyule 


c/o Holdensen and 








Neilson, Melbourne 






Cowarr 


Cowarr 













Cororooke 








Beeac 


Colac... 


Murray-street, Colac 


C. A. Tulloh 


Ondit 
Warrion 








Nelangil 








Alvie 






i 


Dixie 


Cobden 


Cobden ... 


W. Durbridge 


Scott's Creek 








Port Campbell 


Crossover 


Gormandale 


G. Hare 




dunes 


Climes 


T.H. Reynolds! 


Talbot 
Craigie 


Cobrico Cheese 


Cobrico ... 


McKinnon \ 


Factory 








Clifford's Cheese 


Yerang ... 


Clifford 




Factory 








Clyde 


Clyde 


Ballantyne 




Caniambo and 


Caniambo 


E Phillips 




Gowangardie 








Charlmont Water 


via Darnum 


R. P. Worth 




Carrajung 


Carrajung 


J. Tanner 




Coleraine 


Coleraine... 


H. G. Hill 


Quinbury 
Nareen 


Caramut 


near Mortlake 






Cox, George* ... 


Taminick 






Clifton Park ... 


Bairnsdale 


J. D. & W. Hope 








( 


Colac Colac 


Cudgewa 


Cudgewa ... 


J. S. Ferriss I 


Thougla 
Cudgewa North; 


Camperdown ... 
Calignee 


Camperdown 
Calignee ... 


J. Miller 
J. Holcroft 


Pomborneit 


Caniambo and 


Tamleugh, North 


R. W. Thomas 




Tamleugh 


Lome Bay 






Crimeen, B. * ... 


Elphinstone 






Coola... 


Gleiioweith, Euroa 






Clonburn 


Katamatite 






Devonshire 


Heales ville 


J. Batchelor 




Drik Drik 


Drik Drik 


R. A. Lightbody 





Private factories. 



59 



Name 
of 
Factory. 


Address. 


Secretary 
or 
Proprietor. 


Creameries 
Attached. 


Delatite 


near Mansfield 


H. Ricketson 








f 


Guildford 


Daylesford 


Daylesford 


W. T. EdwardsJ 


Glenlyon 
Franklingford 






1 


Eastern Hill 


Diaper's Creek... 
Doubleday, D.* 


Bethanga-road 


M. C. B. Coy. 




Dumbalk 


Meeniyan 


Findlay 


Mardan 


Devenish 


Devenish... 


J. Smallwood 




Dole, J.* 


Elphinstone 






Doomburrim . . . 


Fish Creek 













Gooram Gong 








Miepoll South 


Euroa 


Euroa 


S. Howell 


Molka 
Creighton Crk 








Ragg's Creek 








Shean's Creek 


Elvezia 


Yandoit ... 


J. Righetti 




Eskdale 


Eskdale ... 


J. A. Hailes ... 


Tallandoon 


Emu ... 


Winton ... 


Chas. Milgaard 




Erin vale* 


Maindample 


A. F. Crockett 




Ensay 


Ensay 


J.T. Greenwood/ 


Orbost 
Inges 


Fletcher, G. H,* 


Shepparton 


G. H. Fletcher 




Farnham 


Warrnambool 


A. H. Rennick 


Mailer's Flat 


Framlingham 
and Ellerslie 


Framlingham, near 
Warrnambool 


| L. Durant 


Panmure 
Purnim 
Ballangeich 


Fresh Food Co. 


Bourke-street, Mel- 


D. Taylor 


t 




bourne 







t Creameries : 

Newry Drumanure Nanneella 

Mysia Towaninny Timmering 

Borung Pompapiel Valencia Creek 

Wahring Teddywaddy Benjeroop 

Muskerry Campbell's Forest Byrneside 

Briagolong Yarroweyah Murchison 

Salisbury West Koo-wee-rup Lake Elizabeth 

Bridge-water Nth. Beazley's Bridge Moe 

Narracan Budgerum Quambatook 

Glenmaggie Moorilim Elmore 

Yando Fernihurst Bridgewater 

Barnedown Murphy's Lake Lake Marmal 

Sale Langwornor Corack East 

Redesdale Nagambie Yarragon 

Tabilk Mangalore Powlett Plains 

Warrion Sutton Grange Girgarre East 

Korong Vale The Heart Narrewillock 

Garvoc Wunghnu Coonooer Bridge 

Fish Point Emu Flat Mystic Park 



Private factories. 



60 



Name 
of 
Factory. 


Address. 


Secretary 
or 
Proprietor. 


Creameries 
Attached. 


Fresh Food Co. 


.Bourke-street, Mel- 
bourne 


D. Taylor 


t 



t Creameries continued. 





Lake Charm Katunga Glenloth 




Gilgilia Swan Hill Wycheproof 




Morwell Gower East Koyuga 




Glen Hope Yeungroon Kyneton-road 




Tatura Longwood Boort 




Terang Nulla Nulla Willow Grove 




Richmond Plains 




1 


Ceres 








Inverleigh 








Moorabool 


Geelong 


Moorabool-street, 
Geelong 


G. Forbes 


North Morice 
Lara 
Dean's Marsh 








Murroon 








Birregurra 


Glen Elgin ... 


near Barnawatha 






Goulburn Valley 


Flinders-lane, Mel- 


Ballantyne 






bourne 






Garvoc 


Panmure ... 


J. R. Vickers... 


Cudgee 


Glenelg and 


Casterton 


F. D'Amaral 




Wannon 








Grasmere 


Warrnambool 


I. Williams I 


Wangoom 
Cooramook 


Glengarry 


Glengarry 


J. Bermingham 




Goorambat 


Goorambat 


W. Johnston 


Stewarton 
Minuwah 


Glenormiston . . . 


Glenormiston 


J. Benson 




Goodwin's* 


Toongabbie 


S. Goodwin 










Greta West 


Hansen 


Greta 


M. Byrne 


Greta South 








Moyhu 








Byaduk 








Croxton 


Hamilton 


Hamilton... 


C. H. Smith - 


Condah 








Penshurst 








Victoria Valley 






( 


Bungalally 








Polkemmett 






1 


Evin's Vale 








Kalkee 








Fine View, 


Horsham 


Horsham... 


C. E. Lagh <J 


Jung Jung 








Vectis East 








Norton Creek 








Green Lake 








Murtoa 






I 


Black Heath 



* Private factory. 



61 



Name 
of 
Factory. 


Address. 


Secretary 
or 
Proprietor. 


Creameries 
Attached. 


Heyfield 


Heyfield ... 


E. Pallardyce... 


Tinambra 


Harvie, A.* ... 


Warragul 


A. Harvie 




Harriss, A. W.* 


Warragul 


A. W. Harriss 








r 


Irrewillipe 
Bunbartha 








Drouin 








Congupna 


'Holdensen and 


Flinders-street, Mel- 


\ 


Rochester 


Neilson 


bourne 


J ... 


Yabba 








Labertouch 








Millow 








Gowangardie 
Spring Vale 


Hazelwood 


Traralgon 






Jancourt 


Camperdown 


D. Mitchell 




Jeeraling 


Traralgon 






Jilpanger* 


Gorcke ... 


Forrests 




Jackson* 


Euroa 


Jackson 




Kerang 


Kerang ... 


M. C. B. Coy. 




Kialla 


Kialla 


M. C. B. Coy. 








f 


High Camp 








Plain 


Kilmore 


Kilmore ... 


C. J. Osborne \ 


Wallan 








Moranding 






( 


Tallarook 


Koroit 


Koroit 


R. Laffan 


Woolsthorpe 
Southern Cross 


Koonda 


Gowangardie East... 


J. W. Wilkins 




Kiewa 


Kiewa Valley, Huon 


Rt. Reid 


3 creameries 




Lane 












Barfold 








Carlsruhe 








Drummond 








Malmsbury 








Metcalfe 


Kyneton 


Kyneton ... 


W. Rogers 


Newham 
Tylden 








Campbelltown 








Glendonald 








Smeaton 








Kooroochang 






'' 


Ullima 


Kilfeera* 


Benalla 


H. Kennedy 




Kongwak 


near Jumbunna 






Lindenow Cheese 


Lindenow 


M. C. B. Coy. 




Factory 




( 


Rochford 








Springfield 


Lancefield 


Lancefield 


J. Cameron < 


High Camp 
Plain 






( 


Baynton 



Private factories. 



62 



Name 




Secretary 




of 


Address. 


or 


Creameries 


Factory. 




Proprietor. 


Attached. 


Lang Lang 


Lang Lang 






Lillimur 


Lillimur ... 


S. Stanilaiul 




Leongatha 
Lake Purrum- 


Leongatha 
Weerite ... 


J. J. Quinlan 




bete 








Melbourne 


Flinders-lane, Mel- 




t 


Chilled Butter 


bourne 









t Creameries: 




Ardmona Invergordon Kaarimba 




Cosgrove Johnsonville Kiiowsley 
Hillside Katunga East Muckatah 




Marunga Naringaningalook Seven Creeks 
Stratford Undera Wangaratta 




Wanalta Woodlands Wy-Yung 




Yarroweyah Fish Creek Toongabbie 




Lower Tarwin Nicholson Toora 


Merrimu 


Bacchus Marsh 


Anderson & Co. 


Ballan 


Merrigum 


Merrigum 


Colbert 




Mirboo North ... 


Mirboo North 


J. W. Nutley 




Mortlake 


Mortlake 


J. McMeekin . . . 


Kalora 


Macarthur 


Macarthur 


J. E Cowling 




Mincha 


Mincha ... 


J. McKay 








( 


Hazelwood 


Morwell 


Morwell ... 


Jones 


Driffield 
Maryvale 






( 


Eel Hole Creek 


Mansfield 


Mansfield 


G. Fitzmaurice 


Barwite 
Borrtite 


Maintongoon . . . 
Miepoll 


Maintongoon 
Tamleugh 


Jas Forsyth 
E. Gallagher 


.. ' 


Merton 


Merton 


J. J. Hoare 




Major Creek* ... 


Major Creek, Bur- 


W. Dimlop ... 


Yundool 




wood 













Bobinawarrah 








Tarrawingee 


Milawa 


Milawa ... 


E. Stuart 


Everton 
Sth. Wangaratta. 








Laceby 








Whorouly 


Mt. Richmond* 


Portland ... 


S. Jennings 




Mornington 


Moorooduc, near 


J. E. Jones 


Boneo 




Mornington 






Minyip 


Minyip ... 


J. P. MeCubbeiJ 


Laen 
Dunmunkle 






I 


Kewell East 


Moyhu 


Wangaratta 






Moyarra 


Jumbunna 


A. W. Elms 




Marshall, Wm.* 


Morwell ... 


W. Marshall 




Mintaro ... ' 


Lancefield Junction 


W. Moore 




Mokoan 


Glenrowan 







* Private factories. 



63 



Name 
of 
Factory. 


Address. 


Secretary 
or 
Proprietor. 


Creameries 
Attached. 


TVtyrniong 
Masfield, Mr.*.., 


Myrniong 
Upper Flynn's Creek 


Mr. Masfield 




Maher, T.* ... 


Shepparton 


T. Maher 




Macorna 


c/o Melbourne Chilled 








Butter, Melbourne 






Mirboo North... 


Mirboo North 










( 


Haycroft 


Nhill ... 


Nhill 


J.C. McDonnell^ 


Boyeo 
Woorak 






I 


Woorak West 


Natimuk 


Natimuk 






North wood 


Seymour 






Neerim South ... 


Neerim South 


F. Beamish 




Oxley 


Oxley 


J. C. Shanks 




Orbost 


Orbost ... 


.1. F. Blacklock 




Omeo ... 


Lake Omeo 






Pine Lodge 


Pine Lodge 






Pine Grove 


Pine Lodge 






Princetown 


Princetown 




Cheese Fctry. 






Poowong ... Poowong... ... E. Dixon 




Portland 


Portland ... ... S. P. Hawkins 




Pimpinio 


Pimpinio 


A. J. Athorn 




Pyramid Hill ... 


Pyramid Hill 


A. J. Barnett 




Powlett River... 


Stony Point 






Pines... 


Glenrowan 






Ruby... 


Ruby 


Country Cream- 








ery Coy. 




Romsey 


Romsey ... 


W. H. Snow and 








Co. 




Rosebrook 


Port Fairy 


J. C. McCalluml 


Crossley 
Kirkstall 


River View ... 


Wahring ... 


G. Wicking 




Rose dale 


Rosedale ... 


Wallen 




Rialto Dairy ... 


Flinders-lane, Mel- 


S. V. Meadows 






bourne 






. Swanpool and 


Moorngag 


T. Harrison 




Moorngag 








Sale 


Sale 


E. S. Gutteridge 




8th. Pnrrumbete 


South Purrumbete 


R. Cole 




South Ecklin ... 


South Ecklin 


W. Vickers 










Boorhaman 








Boorhaman N. 


Springhurst 


Springhurst, Ovens 
and Murray 




Gooramadda 
Noorong 








Wangaratta N. 


Strathbogie 


Strathbogie, near 


E. C. Marsh 






Euroa 






Strathbogie Nth. 


Strathbogie, near 








Euroa 







* Private factories. 



64 



Name 




Secretary 


Creameries 


of 


Address. 


or 




Factory. 




Proprietor. 




Sth. Wangaratta 


Wangaratta 


D. Colson 










Lubeck 








Rupanyup 


Stawell 


Stawell ... 




Baiiyena 








Callawadda 








Navarre 








Cobram 








N. Mooroopna 








Numurkah 


Shepparton 


Shepparton 


T. McNaughteii -, 


Dunbulbalane 
Tallygaroopna 
Congupna Hill 








Pine Lodge 


Salathiel, M.* ... 


Elphinstone 


M. Salathiel 


Kialla West 


Sutton Grange... 


Sutton Grange 


Jos. Young 




Terang 


Terang 


Geo. McKenzie 




Thorpdale South 


Thorpdale South ... 


T. H. Reynolds 




Tower Hill 


Illowa 


A. Kell 




Tallangatta 


Tallangatta 


W.H.Dorrington 


Tallangatta Vly. 


Trafalgar 


Trafalgar 


S. Giblett | 


Sunny South 
Narracan 


Traralgon 


Traralgon 


T. H. Row ... 


Traralgon Sth. 


Taggerty 
Tamleugh and 


Taggerty 
Tamleugh 


J. B. Coombs 
E. Gallagher 




Karramomus 








Thoona 


Thoona ... 


T. Mitchell ... 


Boweya 


Tarwin 


Tarwin Lower 






Toora 


Toora 






TeripTerip ... 
Taminick 


Yarck 
Glenrowan 


Dawson Bros. 




Tyers* 


Traralgon 


D. Gallbraith 




Thornton 


Thornton 


R. Wightman 




Tungamah 


Tungamah 




'! '.' i 


Tatong* 


Tatong, via Benalla 


D. H. Coghill 




Violet Town* ... 


Violet Town 


J. Wallace ... 


Earlston 


Victoria Creamy. 


South Melbourne ... 


J. Noble 


t 




f Creameries : 




Avenel Muckleford Keilor 




Baringhup West Myrtleford Boort East 




Bet Bet Neerim South Wild Duck 




Corop Newstead Jindivick 




Runnymede Sandon Woodstock 




Darbonee St. James Belinda 




Gre Gre Tarago Sunbury 




Kotupna Ulupna Whittlesea 




Leaghur Waaia 






1 


:Dunnstown 


Wallace and 
Milbrook 


Wallace 


G. F. Holden \ 
1 


Millbrook 
Bolwarrah 

"!> j. I 








Pootila 



Private factories. 



65 



Name 
of 
Factory. 


Address. 


Secretary 
or 
Proprietor. 


Creameries 
Attached. 


Werribee Park 


Werribee Park 


G. T. Chirnside 




Warrenbayne ... 


Warrenbayne 


A. Shaw 




Winton 


Winton ... 


W. Irving 


North Winton 






| 


Nirranda 


Warrnambool ... 


Allan sford 


T. Beattie 
1 


Mepunga East 
Lake Gillier 


Willung 


Willung, via Rose- 


E. McRae 






dale 






Waggarandall * 


Waggarandall 


M. Lalor 




Warragamba* ... 


Elmore ... 


Fiedler and 


Pine Grove 


Wright, A. F. S.* 
Wattle Creek * 


Warragul 
Winton ... 


Appleby 
A. F. S. Wright 
T. McEwan 


East 








Boomahnoo- 








moonah 


Wilby 


Wilby 


F. H. Lovelock 


Boweya 








Peechelba 








Lake Rowan 








Ailsa 








Areegra 


Warracknabeal 


Warracknabeal 


J. Kelsall 


A libra 






i 


Bangerang 






f 


Kellalac 


Woodstock ... 


on Loddon 


J. T. H. Cocks 




Woodleigh 


via Lock 






Warragul 


Warragul 


W. H. Snow and 








Co. 




Wodonga 


Wodonga 


A. E. Gibson 




Woodstock ... 


Traralgon 






Winchelsea 


Winchelsea 


W. Caldom 




Wangaratta 


Wangaratta 


Boase 




Wangaratta Sth. 


W angaratta 


Colson 




Wycheproof 
White, W. G.* 


Wycheproof 
Flinders-lane, Mel- 


W. G. White 






bourne 













Homewood 








Flowerdale 








Strath Creek 


Yea 


High-street, Yea ... 


R. A. Wall - 


Molesworth 








Glenburn 








Murrindindi 








Terip Terip 






f 


Wonwron 


Yarram 


Yarram ... 


T. W. Wyatt 1 


Devon 
Cabrossie 


Yarrawonga ... 
Yarra Glen ... 


Yarrawonga 
Yarra Glen 


Wood & Co. 
Wood & Co. 





* Private factories. 



66 







1 


Name 
of 

Factory. 


Address. 


Secretary 
or 
Preprietor. 


Creameries 
Attached. 






, 


Buelgeree 








Boolarra 


Yinnar 


Yinnar 


F. McCoull 


East Mirboo 
Fairlie 








Mid Creek 








Driffield 


Yambuk 

rww 

Yannatlian 


Port Fairy 
Caldermeade 


A. Kell | 
Westring 


Orford 
Corbrington 


Yarck 


near Mansfield 




' 



Sundry Creameries: 



Morrison's Bass 
Mt. Wallace Telford 
Toolem Burramine 
Boosey Oven's Bridge 
Youanmite Bundalong 
Bullengarook Irrewillipe 
Oaklands Rochester 
Boorhamin Millow 
North Boorhamin Bunbartha 


Yabba 
Gowangardie 
Drouin 
Labertouche 
Spring Vale 
Congupna 
Gheringhap 
Seymour 
Sefton's 



By Authority : ROBT. S. BRAIN, Government Printer, Melbourne. 




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