DEPARTMENT OF' AGRICULTURE, VICTORIA.
MESSES. D, WILSON AND E, CROWE,
ROBT. S. EP,\1X, (JOVERNMKNT PRINTER, MELBOURNE,
18 9 H.
DEPAKTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, ; VICTORIA,
MESSRS. D. WILSON AND B, CROWE,
ROBT. S, BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE.
In no other industry has there been more rapid changes in
recent years than in that of Dairying.
The machinery and utensils invented a few years ago are
being greatly improved, and many are now quite out of date.
Inventive minds are constantly at work to improve existing
Chemists, bacteriologists, and others skilled in science have
given earnest attention to investigating and improving the pro-
perties of dairy products.
The necessity has therefore arisen for the publication of an
up-to-date manual for the information of those engaged in Victoria
in the Dairying Industry. The production of such a work, while
being of special interest to the advanced butter and cheese maker,
will also, it is hoped, prove of service to all milk suppliers and
dairy produce manufacturers.
The two dairy experts Messrs. D. Wilson and R. Crowe
attached to this Department have devoted themselves to the task
of producing a work which, I trust, will be found to give all the
information which correspondents with the Department are fre-
quently asking for.
The advice tendered, it is hoped, will have the effect of
causing improvement on the part of some suppliers and manufac-
turers, for no matter how advanced a country may be in its
methods of producing, there are always some laggards who bring
reproach on those whose desires are to advance and not retard.
We live in a progressive age. Times change, and we must change
with them if we are to prosper.
The marvellous progress which has taken place in the Dairying
Industry in Victoria is almost a matter of history, and came as a
surprise to other countries ; and, aided as we are by science, the
extent of its further development and expansion is almost incom-
prehensible. It therefore behoves us to exercise the greatest care
in keeping up and increasing the high standard we have reached.
It is the ambition of the Department to keep in the front of all
the British possessions as regards the industry to which this
brochure has reference, and it is sincerely hoped that the object
desired may be accomplished somewhat by the information herein
Secretary for Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Melbourne, April, 1898.
Rules for butter-making could easily be drawn up if the
conditions under which each butter-maker laboured were alike.
If the milk were in the same order, the climatic conditions
identical, and like appliances used, it could readily be disposed of.
The conditions in different localities and places vary. The cir-
cumstances are also constantly changing in each place. It would
be of little advantage, therefore, to frame rules without pointing
out a method of applying them. More good will be derived from
a general discussion of the subject. The subject will be shown
from different stand-points, and it is hoped that in such form it
will prove of the best service.
The quality of butter largely depends on the treatment of the
milk before it reaches the factory or creamery, and the condition
of the milk when it reaches the butter-maker's hands.
THE CARE OF MILK.
Milk should be drawn from the cows in as cleanly a manner
as possible. The surroundings should also receive due attention.
It is a pleasure to notice the recent rapid increase of modern
well-drained and paved milking-yards ; together with well-
arranged and ventilated milking-sheds.
Examples can be met with in every district that serve as
models for the neighbours to copy. When yards are convenient
in their arrangement and paved it is easy and pleasant to work in
and keep them clean.
Milk is a great absorbent of bad odours, and a good medium
for the development of bacteria. If the surroundings be evil-
smelling the milk will soon become tainted. The value of butter,
therefore, becomes lessened as the contamination is permitted to
increase in the milk.
If a cow's udder is dirty it should be carefully washed, and if
clean it should at least be wiped. Such simple precautions pre-
vent filth and dust from falling into the bucket when milking.
Milking with dry hands is preferable, and is fast coming into
favour. It is a much cleaner and better plan than the old way.
Milk should be kept in a clean place shaded from the rays of
the sun, and away from dust and smells.
The milk vessels and everything that the milk conies in
contact with should be absolutely clean. The temperature of the
milk should be reduced as rapidly as possible after it comes from
the cow. (See Rules for Milk and Cream Supply, page 32.)
When the milk is strong in odour and flavour from such food
as fresh green rape, lucerne, trefoil, turnips, &c., aeration greatly
The aeration of milk has long been advocated ; but because it
was imperfectly understood, or entailed a certain amount of
trouble, but few dairymen practise it. Milk that is quite
nauseous to the tasle, and gives off a strong undesirable odour
from the above causes, can be made quite agreeable and palatable
by aerating. The fact that the odour rises from the milk is proof
that the element causing it is volatile. If pure air is passed
through the milk, or if milk is spread out thinly and exposed to
such air, the undesirable element evaporates and is carried away.
A simple experiment may be more convincing than any lengthy
explanation. When the milk is affected take a cupful and pour
it a few times from one cup into another. In doing so let the
milk fall some distance through the air. After this is done a great
improvement will be noticed. The same thing may be done by
means of dippers or buckets ; but when large quantities are
handled special appliances have been designed and are in the
market for effecting the object. The process is greatly assisted
if carried out when the milk is at a high temperature immediately
after coming from the cow.
Recent experiments have been made to find out if it were
possible to eliminate this injurious element at the creamery in-
stead of the farm. Considerable success was met with, and tne
matter is dealt with elsewhere under the head of " Pasteurizing."
Farmers reason in the following manner : " My milk is
considered good enough to be taken at the creamery without my
going to any bother with it, and anything that is considered good
enough to receive there is quite good enough to send."
Again : " If I put my milk in the best condition, and make
it most suitable for manufacturing a tip-top quality of butter, and
my neighbour does not, my good work is negatived by his care-
lessness as soon as our milk is mixed at the creamery. He gets
as much for his product as I do who supply a superior article."
This contention applies to all milk inferior in condition, as well
as from the neglect of proper aeration when necessary. This is
really the weakest point in our otherwise excellent co-operative
system of dairying.
It has often been suggested that the remedy rests with
the companies ; that they should extend the system of pay-
ment by results, and pay for the milk according to the condition
as well as according to the butter contained.
Many difficulties present themselves in the carrying out of
such a proposal. The chief obstacle is the want of a definite
measure of the suitability of milk for butter-making at the time of
its delivery at the factory. The determination of respective values
would have to be placed entirely in the hands of the manager,
and applied at his discretion.
As his employers are generally suppliers and are often offenders,
undesirable friction would sometimes be caused if the manager did
his duty. Of course the same argument was put forward when the
system of payment according to butter contents was initiated, but
the cases differ considerably. In the one instance there is great
definiteness in the result, which can be checked if a doubt arises.
In the other no such precision exists. It was at one time sug-
gested as practicable, in cases of dispute, to have the question
settled by a board of reference from the suppliers present at the
moment. Such a course would in many cases if not all 1 take
the responsibility off the manager's shoulders, but could not give
ultimate satisfaction. The sole power of exercising judgment
should be vested in the manager's hands.
Authority is given at present in nearly all places for the
manager to refuse to take delivery of milk unfit for the making
of good butter, but the line in 90 per cent, of our factories is
drawn too low.
If milk will pass through the separator it is generally con-
sidered good enough to take, and sourness, or the degree of
sourness, is the only point taken into account in some places in
determining the suitability of the milk.
Very often milk which is too sour for separating is belter
suited for making a good butter than another class of milk which
has been tainted through having been kept in unclean surround-
ings, or in dirty vessels. This is the class of milk that causes
most damage in the factory. It often arrives sweet to the taste,
but having a bad odour.
Such milk is responsible for far more trouble and deterioration
in the finished product than milk that has naturally soured through
being kept at too high a temperature. It is that class of milk
that presents the greatest difficulties in determining its value.
There is another phase of the subject, and one that presents
as practical a solution of the difficulty as is likely to be found.
In our best managed factories the milk is generally all good.
The reason is that the manager exercises a wise influence over
If milk is brought that is not up to the mark, the fault
is pointed out, and advice given how to remedy it. Should
the cause be of such a nature as to render it easily overcome,
no excuse is taken after the first warning, and the delivery
of such milk is promptly refused. If the remedy is difficult to
apply, more latitude is given, advice and help are tendered, and the
same firmness is displayed in dealing with the supplier. It is in
such firm supervision of the milk supply where most of our fac-
tories score and succeed. It is in the want of such safeguard,
and, necessarily, sure foundation, that so many fail to make good
butter. A good builder makes a secure foundation before he
erects a structure that he wishes to last long and reflect credit on
him. So a good manager or butter-maker has to take similar pre-
cautions. Managers should have full control in all matters
pertaining to the quality of the butter. The exercise of such
authority always demands the greatest tact. It would be
an easy matter to make one's methods of dealing objectionable,
and drive the suppliers away. Great changes for the better
should be brought about gradually in a factory.
Suppliers should recognise that their factory manager has to
daily act as an arbitrator in matters relating to their welfare.
First of all there is the relationship between the shareholders of
the company and the milk suppliers to be borne in mind. Then
there is fair play to be meted out between one supplier and
another. And the manager has to protect his reputation by
turning out a good article. It is a delicate position to fill well.
In a few instances where full control is given the necessary
backbone is wanting, proper authority is not exercised, and the
energies of the manager are sometimes misdirected, undue
attention being paid to certain branches of his work.
The manager, in some cases, is always to be found behind the
butter-worker, concentrating his main efforts to the make, the
build, the texture, and finish of his butter. Such points are all
necessary, and should receive their due share of attention. But
what is the good of a butter perfectly made and got up if it is
wanting in bouquet and flavour ?
Flavour is the great essential in good butter. All the other
points texture, salting, packing, colour, &c. embrace the condi-
tion of the butter, and can be easily controlled and regulated*
The great desideratum is flavour. It is the fineness of flavour
that makes butter sell at a shilling a pound, and it is the want of
it that causes an equally good butter in other respects to bring
only eightpence in the same market. Any manager, therefore, who
does not make the flavour his chief study and object is not working
in the best direction.
The greatest success attends those who make the condition in
which the raw material, the milk or cream, reaches their hands
their first care. It does not follow that they must always be present
when the milk is being received. Instructions to those who take
the milk should be definite and pointed, and in large places an
occasional visit to see that it is done properly is generally suffi-
cient. Suppliers should not think that any hardships are pro-
posed to be laid upon them. The proportion of careless suppliers
that really require looking after is small, and it is not fair that
for the faults of those few the quality of the produce belonging to
the great majority should be lowered.
We have attained uniformity in individual factories, but in
many the standard is too low, owing principally to want of strict-
ness in looking after the milk supply. Without a standard of
excellence in his mind the butter-maker cannot tell what he is
aiming for. Each has an idea of what a perfect butter should be,
the same as every one has a different standard for cleanliness.
What one considers perfect another often thinks far from perfect.
A butter-maker who aims at making the kind of butter that
the customers like the best, and are prepared to pay most money
for, cannot go far wrong. Never mind catering for individual
fancy, not even your own. If your butter is to be consumed in
Melbourne, make it to suit Melbourne customers. If for West
Australia or Cape Colony, make and prepare it in the manner and
shape preferred there ; and if for London, try and study the best
means of manufacture that will cause it to give best satisfaction
there. The hard matter in connexion with this is to secure
reliable reports as to how the butter suits the consumers.
The account sales serve as the best indicator ; but very often
a 112s. report accompanies a 105s. price. It is considered busi-
ness to take steps to secure the continuance of butter through
one's hands, 110 matter what the quality of it is. The opinion of
the consumer, if not flattering, must therefore be withheld, or
trimmed into such shape so as not to run the risk of losing that
brand another season. Producers are often naturally suspicious
that a report drawing attention to faults is framed to justify low
This is a delicate and important point, that may eventually
call for a more satisfactory method of dealing with that would be
more agreeable and satisfactory to all parties.
Too many of our butter-makers miss this great point altogether.
They strive to make an article that pleases themselves an article
which, at the time of manufacture, is good and nice.
They do not follow it up, and try to find out how it stood the
journey to the consumer, and what effect the variations in tem-
perature had on it. Rarely do they closely inquire as to how it
stood the tests of the buyers, and suited the consumers.
From this it will be seen what an important part the care of
the milk takes in making good butter. It is little use to expect
to make choicest butter from milk any proportion of which is not
good. However, the question has to be faced as it is, not as it
ought to be. In many localities it is more than a man's position
is worth to refuse milk and cream not first class.
The following extract from a factory manager's letter will serve
to illustrate how matters stand :
I am not at all surprised to hear you complain about our output being
bad in flavour. I am far from satisfied with the general quality of our
export make ; but I can assure you that I have done my level best with the
material I am obliged to handle.
Eighty per cent, of our business is hand or turbine separator trade, and
during the summer months I find it is impossible to make anything like a
Some of the suppliers are far from being clean, whilst others keep the
cream too long on hand, and give it no attention. A few of my suppliers
are very careful people, whose cream always reaches me in the best of con-,
dition, but the majority are hard to do business with.
The small separators are rapidly increasing, and are accountable for so
much bad cream. They have come to stay in some districts, so I think it
is time something was done to protect the export trade. I cannot remedy
the evil at the factory, neither do I think any man can do so. The cream
is gone too far for that ere it reaches us. I have been amongst my suppliers,
giving them any useful hints I knew of.
The results were an improvement for a few days, but they soon fell back
to their old groove again. If I reject their cream some one else will take it,
so I have to try and hold all kinds, good, bad, and indifferent. I think the
Government should take some steps, and enforce stringent measures to
rectify the matter.
I regret to say that most of the suppliers are indifferent, and do not care
what harm they do, as long as they can get rid of the cream.
Eventually (if not protected) I am afraid the whole industry will suffer
through this means. It is no use in waiting for any one else to make a
move, and I don't think any other person's protest will carry so much
weight as yours. I stand on delicate ground, and dare not take up the
cudgels against my own suppliers, and so I am in hopes you will take some
measures to cope with this evil before our next export season commences.
We are sorry to say that the above letter presents an exact state-
ment of the position of affairs in a few cases. It is not general
as yet, but is growing, and has a strong tendency to spread. To
put it plainly, much harm has already been done to our export
trade through the breaking down of the original co-operative
system in some localities. A little further on and it will mean
the forfeiture of our position in the world's markets, and not un-
likely the wrecking of our export trade. To those not in the
business a short explanation may not be out of place. The
origina. splendid co-operative system was started on the follow-
ing sound lines: Factories and creameries were established where
the milk was delivered by the farmers. The lots of cream were
large enough then to warrant proper attention and prompt
delivery to the factory, and the making of a uniform quality of
butter of a high standard.
With our high-class butter of uniform quality we got a footing
on the London market, and year by year gradually improved our
position. Of recent years there has been a growing disposition
on the part of dairymen to purchase small plants and separate
their own milk ; the individual supply of cream is, consequently,
so small that it is not worth special attention, and as the
cream is only sent to the factory when convenient three times
a week, and often only once a week it can be imagined that in
our hot climate it frequently reaches the factory in an unsatis-
factory condition. The foundation of our past success unifor-
mity is thus being destroyed. The average quality is lowered
ill standard, and the cost of production and marketing increased.
It is difficult to understand why dairymen are doing this with
their eyes open. The danger is pointed out to them on every
possible occasion. Of course, there is no alternative open to
those who are not within reach of a creamery or factory, and
they cannot be blamed. If the factory were to send round
collectors daily it would add to the cost of production consider-
ably, and it would also be undesirable to have inspectors who would
insist on all cream being properly handled and cared for. Neither
would it do, when butter from such cream is not best quality, to
refuse its shipment, so the simplest way out of the difficulty
would be to discard the system and dispose of the small machines
to our opponents in other countries.
It is to be hoped that sufficient has been said to impress upon
dairy farmers and dairy students the important part that the dairy-
man takes in the production of good butter. Having recognised
that point we can now proceed to discuss the part allotted to the
A temperature of 80 d^g. Fahr. is laid down as the most suit-
able temperature for skimming. At that temperature the cream
is taken off cleaner and more readily than at a lower one. Good
work can be done at a much lower temperature than 80 deg., but
to do so the milk must be passed through the machine more
slowly. There is a danger of the cream clogging when
skimming at a low temperature. It is often necessary to skim at
as low as 65 deg. in the summer months where there is insufficient
refrigerating power available. It has been maintained that, if the
temperature of the cream is over 80 deg. when skimming, the
butter would be greasy. The texture of the butter is not,
however, affected if the skimming be done at 160deg. The
higher the temperature of the milk the more perfect the skimming,
and the greater the quantity that may be passed through the
separator with as good results.
The same thing holds good in regard to the speed of separa-
tors. The higher the rate of speed the better the separation, and
more can be passed through with good results. The lower the
speed the more imperfect the skimming, or to a certain point as
good, but less work can be done. Separators should on no account
be run much beyond their stated speed.
The essential points in good skimming are even temperature,
even speed, and even feed.
Separators should be checked daily in their work. If samples
be taken in a factory where a number of machines are working
all of the same make and estimated capacity, all being fed through
the one pipe with milk of the same temperature, all driven by the
same shaft, and going at the same rate of speed and tested, it
will be found that the results vary. In the skim-milk from No. 1
we will probably find 0'2 per cent, of butter fat ; in that from
No. 2, 0-025 ; from No. 3, O'l ; No. 4. 0-14 ; No. 5, 0'05, and so
This will not be found in a factory where the result is con-
stantly tested and the machines properly adjusted. Machines are
liable to go out of best form from time to time. In early separat-
ing days an average loss of under O'lo per cent, of fat in the skim-
milk was considered good, whilst at the present time any average
loss of over O'Oo is considered bad skimming. Thus 0' 1 per cent,
of loss in a company's average turnover of 2,000 gallons a day,
means in twelve months about 8,322 Ibs. of butter not recovered.
It will thus be seen that it pays to keep a sharp watch over
TREATMENT OP CREAM.
After the cream comes from the separator it should be cooled.
The exact degree of cooling depends on the ripeness of the
milk when skimming, the state of the weather, and when it is in-
tended to be churned. When the milk has been separated in good
condition, 65 deg. would be cool enough temperature for the cream,
as the cream will ripen more rapidly than at a lower temperature.
If the milk was ripe at the time of separating, the cream should
be cooled to 60 deg., or according to the degree of ripeness.
Should the weather be warm and close the lower the cream will
have to be reduced in temperature to retard ripening, and if the
day is cold the higher the cream may be left in temperature to
hasten the ripening. When the churning is to be done on the
day following separating, the more rapid must the ripening
be made, and slower when the cream is left till two days old.
The cream can be hastened in ripening by the addition of a starter,
such as good buttermilk, or a culture prepared in skim or new
milk. (Cultures are dealt with elsewhere under the head of
" Pasteurizing.") Churning has to be done as soon as practicable
after separating, but not before a certain degree of lactic acidity
has been developed.
In many factories it is practicable to churn on the day following
sepaiating, whilst in many others it is not convenient to do so till
two days afterwards. In all well-regulated places there is a time-
table arranged and followed as closely as possible.
The cream is prepared so as to be right for churning when
churning hour arrives. Authorities differ widely as to how cream
should be treated from 'the time of separating till the time of
churning. Managers have been met with who, after separating,
cooled the cream down to 64 deg., and gradually to 58 deg., and
churned it on the following morning. By this treatment butter
was made that brought highest prices for each consignment
right through the season in England. Again, another factory-
manager cooled the cream to 67 deg. or 68 deg., left it at that
temperature for 24 hours, then cooling to 54 deg., and after
another 24 hours, churning and making a butter that brought
equally high prices. Both systems had been adopted as the
result of many years' close practical study of the business. The
goal is secured in different places by sometimes widely differing
routes, and it would be invidious to say that either way was
At many places sufficient refrigerating power is not available
to enable the manager to control the temperature as he would wish.
It is when placed in such a position that the resourceful man
conies out on top. A great deal can be done in some places with-
out a refrigerator.
If plenty of cold water is at hand the cans of cream may be
put into the water. After a time the water becomes warm with
the heat abstracted from the cream and should then be replaced.
Mistakes are often made by leaving the cans in the water when
the atmosphere is colder.
Placing wet bags round the cans when neither cold air or
water is procurable is a good plan.
At any place where much butter is made the aid of a
refrigerator is imperative in the summer months. A man's
surroundings or environments will always suggest methods of
treatment for the cream.
TESTING ACIDITY OF CREAM.
During the last two seasons many systems have been adopted
at our factories for recording the acidity of cream before churning.
It is unfortunate that one standard system was not carried out.
At many places alkaline tablets are used. Some use acidimetric
tablets. Others use phenolphthalein as an indicator, and an alkali
either lime water, caustic soda, or potash solution to deter-
mine the percentage of lactic acid. Again, a difference is found
in the method of applying the various tests. One adds the
solution to pure cream, another to a 50 per cent, cream solution,
and the next to a 33^- per cent, solution.
The data recorded is of the greatest value to the butter-
makers themselves, but difficulties are met with when an attempt
is made to compare experiences. Working from so many stand-
points is prejudicial to mutual improvement the policy of the
Australasian Butter and Cheese Factories Managers* Association.
It would assist the progress of the industry if that body were to
discuss this matter and agree to the adoption of a uniform system
as a standard. Doubtless a comparison could be made by finding
the percentage of lactic acid per the respective systems. Hitherto
this was impracticable, as the rules available failed to give corre-
sponding results, either the tablets or the tables being incorrect.
About 0-6 per cent, of lactic acid is the quantity required to be
developed in cream before churning. The percentage should
range from O55 to 0-65 per cent, of acid.
The system that gives best satisfaction is known as the
Titration method. This test is based on the fact that if an
alkaline solution is added to an acid solution a point is reached
where the mixture is neither acid nor alkaline. Then, if an
alkali of known strength is used, all that remains necessary is an
indicator by which to tell when the point of neutrality is
The apparatus required for the test is a 20 c.c. burette for
measuring the cream, a 50 c.c. glass-stoppered burette for lime
water, a cup, a glass stirring rod, and a medicine dropper, a
bottle of full-strength lime water, and a bottle of phenolphthalein.
The method of operating is to measure with the burette 20 c.c.
of the cream to be tested into the cup, then rinse the burette with
an equal quantity of rain water into the cup. Into this mixture
put four drops of phenolphthalein indicator with the medicine
dropper. Fill the 50 c.c. burette up to the top of the gradua-
tions with lime water. Let the lime water go into the cup slowly
until the pink colour no longer disappears on stirring. The
quantity of lime water taken to produce this permanent pink
colour determines the amount of lactic acid present.
TEMPERATURE FOR CHURNING.
Generally 60 deg. may be quoted as the churning temperature
If the temperature be too high an undue loss takes place in
the buttermilk ; the butter will be soft, and cannot be readily
handled, and the quality may be injured. If the temperature
be too low, time is wasted in churning. It is always better
to be a little low than high in temperature for churning. When
fresh or sweet cream is churned the temperature needs to be
lower in order to recover as much of the butter as possible.
Equally good results are obtained at one place at 60 deg. as
in another at 54 deg. at the same time of year. The pro-
per temperature also varies slightly in the same places at
different seasons the range being about from 54 to 62 deg.
Owing to the rise that takes place in temperature when
churning, the cream needs to be lower in the summer as com-
pared with the winter time. This variation is accounted for by
the relationship or proportion that the liquid and solid fats in the
butter bear to one another. The melting point of butter varies
according to the pasture, the period of lactation of the cows,
and the season of the year.
The buttermilk should be daily tested in all factories. In
some apparently well-conducted places at the present day the
loss sometimes amounts to 0*5, and even 1 per cent, of butter fat.
Through carelessness, want of refrigerating power, or lack of
opportunity to attend to this branch of the business, buttermilk
is at times run away from the churns as rich in butter fat as
new milk. On one occasion the buttermilk was kept from one
churning of 1,200 Ibs. of cream. The cream was unripe, and at
too high a temperature. This buttermilk was properly ripened
and cooled, then put back in the churn and churned again, when
it yielded 108 Ibs. of first-class butter ; and as there were four
churnings a day at the factory the annual loss at this rate would
Once in a life-time is sufficient to meet with such an ex-
perience, and be impressed with the importance of keeping a
check on the results of the churn.
Assurance has been given by factory managers on more than
one occasion that if the value of the waste in skim-milk and butter-
milk could be estimated since their companies started business,
it would amount to more than was invested in buildings and
plant ; in many cases to some thousands of pounds.
This state of affairs is almost at an end now, and directors of
companies are every day recognising what their managers mean
when they agitate for more refrigerating power. They are also
becoming better acquainted with what constitutes the proper
qualifications and duties of a manager. Unfortunately, there are
still a few who think that a manager is engaged and paid more
for his manual labour than for his brains and experience.
If a man works hard with his hands from daylight till
dark, it is most unreasonable to expect him to study and look
after those vital points upon which so much of their success
The churning should begin slowly, and if the churn has a
tight lid the gas should be allowed to escape till its generation
stops. Care should be taken that the speed of the churn is not
so great as to carry round the cream without causing concussion.
With ordinary box-churns 40 revolutions per minute are deemed
fast enough. The churn should never be filled too full with cream ;
two-thirds full is sufficient.
If the speed is too slow the process is needlessly prolonged.
Practice will soon determine the proper speed to drive the churns
at. Should the butter not come in half-an-hour, or thereabouts,
the cream is not ripe enough, or it is too low in temperature, or
there is too much of it in the churn, or the speed of the churn is
too slow. When the cream is breaking cold water should be
added, and all the corners rinsed down. The churning has to be
continued till the butter is about between the size of sago and
rice. As soon as the churn is stopped the buttermilk should be
run off. If unnecessary delay takes place the milk coagulates
and becomes difficult to get rid of.
When the buttermilk is run off more cold water should be
added, and a few turns given to the churn, and then run off.
Another rinsing ought to be sufficient. The main point to be
studied in washing, or rather rinsing the butter in the churn, is to
get the buttermilk away thoroughly and readily with the least
possible quantity of water. The butter is then taken to be
WORKING THE BUTTER.
A certain quantity not more than the capacity of the
machine should be weighed and placed on the worker. After
working the moisture out, J ounce to the lb., or 3 per cent,
of best dairy salt should be added. Many prefer to add 4 per
cent, of salt. If the butter is intended to be kept for a consider-
able time a preservative may be added with the salt, but never
more than one-half per cent, or ^ lb. in 100 Ibs. of butter.
Recent decisions in England indicate that it is injudicious on
our part to have anything to do with preservatives, and where they
are required the above proportion should not be exceeded. Some
of our most successful factories have never used more than that
quantity. The quantity of salt is arrived at by the taste of the
consumers. If the market demands more or less salt, by all means
supply that demand as long as the quality and prices are not
jeopardized. The percentage of salt should always be arrived at
by weighing both butter and salt so as to secure uniformity.
The working of the butter should distribute the salt evenly,
and bring it in contact with all the particles in the first operation.
That point is best determined by the number of revolutions of the
worker, or by time. To arrive at the proper time, a number of
samples may be taken off at intervals, then placed aside for 24
hours and examined. The samples showing streaks or uneven-
ness in colour indicate that they have not been worked long
The one that does not showim evenness in colour, and that has
been on the worker for the shortest time, points out the time neces-
sary. This time varies according to the style and speed of the
worker in use, and slightly on the consistency of the butter. It
must always be remembered that the salting should be thoroughly
done in the first working, and the less working that will bring
that about the better for the butter.
The butter should then be placed in a cool room till the next
morning, and then put through the worker for the second time to
remove surplus moisture before packing. Between the two
workings it is not desirable to set the butter hard as it then
receives a grinding on the worker that injures the texture. In
packing, the tare of each box should always be taken for local
trade 56^ Ibs. should be placed in the box, and 57 Ibs. for export
trade. The extra weight is to provide for a loss that takes place,
and it insures the turning out of 56 Ibs. when it reaches the
The butter should be firmly packed so that no air-holes are
left in the butter, nor spaces in the corners or up the sides of the
box. A good plan is to strip and examine a box of butter
It is false economy to use inferior parchment paper for
lining the butter-boxes. The boxes should be placed in the
cool room, and the temperature reduced before sending away to
It is a comparatively easy matter to make a fair quality of
butter under favorable conditions. It is a science to be able to
make a choice butter possessing good keeping qualities under
varying circumstances. The art of butter-making is yet in its
progressive state. Our best specialists in the business are still
learning something, and they all recognise that much remains to
be learned, and as a strictly definite rule cannot be followed in
butter-making each must adapt himself so as to secure best
results under existing local conditions.
BUTTER-MAKING FOR FARMERS.
Much of the butter produced in the colony is made by farmers
and dairymen who find it inconvenient or impossible to dispose of
their milk to a creamery or factory. The proper handling of the
milk, the treatment of the cream, and manufacture of butter demand
consideration separate from that of the factory. As the average
run of dairy butter on the market is of much lower quality than
that from the factories, there would appear to exist a greater scope
for improvement. But owing to many reasons the dairy butter
can never hope to get on equal terms with factory output.
The chief obstacle in the way in our climate is the want of refri-
geration. It will not pay small dairymen to bestow as much
attention, or to provide as perfect appliances for manufacturing
butter, as it does when treating it in a large way. In exceptional
instances as good, and occasionally a better, article is made on
the farm; but being small in quantity, it is confined purely to the
When a surplus of dairy butter finds its way on the local
market, it has to be disposed of at low figures, to allow fo r
mixing up and making into large quantities of uniform quality
that will warrant exporting. In some places this handicap can
be overcome by the people combining and adopting the factory
Attention is specially directed to the regulations on another
page regarding the care of milk and cream. Many hints are also
given under the heading '-'Factory Butter-making."
The milk when set in dishes in hot weather often thickens
before half the cream rises, and even under ordinary circumstances
a greater percentage of the butter-fat is lost in the skim-milk by
the gravity system than by the modern separator. Cleanliness and
temperature are the great essential points to be studied for success-
ful butter-making. The dairy should be so erected as to permit
of its being easily kept clean and sweet, and the temperature
Every dairy should have a fire-place, or stove, to keep the place
dry as well as to regulate the temperature during the winter.
Small cheap refrigerators within the reach, and suitable for a
small dairy, is a convenience not yet catered for. In the meantime
the temperature of the dairy in the summer must be kept as low
as possible. A temperature of 60 deg. is the average required,
about 65 deg. is the best in winter, and 54 deg. in summer,
but it is seldom practicable to get the dairy so low in hot
Speaking of temperature, in how many dairies is a thermometer
to be found ? A thermometer in a dairy is as great an essential
as a compass on a ship.
A ship can be steered on her course without the aid of a com-
pass, so can batter be made without a thermometer, but how much
safer, and what a lot of energy, time, and trouble are saved by
Every dairyman should possess a thermometer and use it.
A proper one for the dairy costs Is. or Is. 6d. Those without
any frame are best, as they can easily be kept clean. If it is set
in a wooden frame, it ought to be removed before placing in the
milk or cream. If the frame is put in the milk, it soon becomes
The dairy is unfortunately too often considered a handy depot
in which to place all sorts of things. Sometimes a hare or rabbit
is left hanging up. Often it is made to serve as a general cool
room for fruit, vegetables, and meat.
Even in careful hands those things bring about flies and evil
odours sometimes. Milk, cream, and butter are great absorbents
of odours, and great damage is caused by exposing them to any
It is not generally known that delicately scented pomades are
made by exposing pure fat in thin layers to the scent of flowers.
The fat absorbs and retains the beautiful odours.
The natural delicacy, aroma, and flavour of nice butter properly
made should be preserved.
If those characteristics are spoiled in any way the value of the
butter is reduced. The surroundings of the dairy should, there-
fore, be always kept clean and sweet.
The cream should be mixed always after each skimming is
added, and churning should not take place sooner than twelve
hours after the last lot has been mixed.
If the churning is done immediately after mixing, the older or
riper cream comes into butter first, and the newer or more unripe
cream is liable, and often does, run away with the buttermilk.
As the matter of temperature is easily disposed of on paper, but
often difficult to carry out in practice, it is perhaps better to dwell
on it a little longer. To raise the temperature of the cream for
churning the vessel containing it may be placed in a larger one
which contains warm water. ' Stir the cream, and take it out when
it reaches the desired heat. Never pour hot water into the cream
to raise the temperature.
A well or stream of cool water is a great help on a farm.
With cold water a great deal can be done. The cream can be
reduced in the same way as pointed out above for raising the
temperature by putting cold water in the outer vessel instead of
hot. In most places it is the exception rather than the rule to
have a supply of cold water. When ordinary means are not at
hand, cream can be cooled by putting a wet bag or cloth round
the vessel and placing it on a shallow pan of water in a draught of
air over night.
Water can be reduced in the same manner for washing the
butter. This plan was practised all through the past severe
summer with good results. When a sultry close night was
encountered a little salt was added to check the souring, and the
cream was left over till the following night to be cooled. If there
is no air in motion this plan of cooling is not effective. It is the
rapid evaporation that causes the reduction in temperature.
Water may also be cooled by dissolving a little salt and saltpetre
in it quickly. A reduction of up to 10 deg. can be obtained
by this means.
In some localities the only water to be had at times of the
year is discoloured and muddy. A good easy plan for clearing
such water will be found in Mr. Pearson's paper, read at the last
meeting of the Factory Managers' Association, and referred to
on another page.
For the churning, working, salting, packing, and other treat-
ment of butter, the dairyman can be guided by the suggestions for
factory butter-making. His attention is also directed to the
chapter on the care of dairy utensils.
There are three vital points in milk testing that must be recog-
nised in order to insure reliable results. The first is to .secure a
proper representative sample of the milk to be tested. The second
is to get a true sample from the composite test bottle into the test
flask. And the third point includes careful attention to all the
remaining details of working.
PREPARING THE SAMPLE BOTTLES.
Composite samples give reliable results, and save the trouble
of daily testing. Special graduated bottles are in the market, and
may be obtained very cheaply. Rubber corks should be used, as
they are easily kept clean and sweet. Pure formalin is the most
satisfactory preservative for keeping the samples. Four drops of
formalin added with a medicine-dropper is sufficient to put in the
composite bottle. The bottles should be thoroughly cleansed after
each testing is done. For use on the farm, the names or numbers
of the cows can be attached to the neck of the bottles, and at the
creamery or factory the name or number of the supplier can be
SECURING THE SAMPLES.
After a cow is milked, and the milk weighed, pour it from
one bucket into another and then back before taking the sample.
Immediately afterwards take some with a cup or measure, and
put some into the composite bottle. The same quantity should be
added each time, and at the end of each week the bottle will
contain a representative sample of the milk for that period. In
a factory or creamery the drip system is the most reliable.
MEASURING THE TEST SAMPLE.
The contents of the composite bottles should be thoroughly
mixed. If the cream has set or is hard to mix, the bottles should
be placed in warm water at a temperature of 120 deg. for a
few minutes. The cream is then more easily dissolved and mixed
with the milk. A bottle-extender greatly facilitates the mixing
when the bottles are too full to shake. The sample is measured
with a 17*6 c.c. capacity pipette, and put in the test flask. To
prevent spilling, the flask should be held at an angle to allow
the air to escape.
THE SULPHURIC ACID.
For milk-testing, sulphuric acid of 1'827 specific gravity is
used. Special hydrometers for ascertaining the strength of the
acid cost 3s. 6d. each, and a glass jar for holding the acid
Is. 6d. When using the hydrometer the temperature of the acid
should be 60 deg. Fahr. Never put a metal or wooden frame
thermometer in the acid, only glass or porcelain vessels should be
used. The acid bottle should be kept corked when not in use,
as it absorbs moisture from the air if exposed and becomes weak.
The acid and milk ought to be about 70 deg. in temperature
before mixing. It is neglect of temperature and strength of acid
that causes a white curdy matter, or a black charred substance, to
appear in the fat column. This temperature may be secured by
placing the test bottles in a water bath of the desired heat after
measuring. The acid may be cooled or heated in the same
manner, but before measuring. Altering the strength or quantity
of the acid is not recommended. All bottles containing sulphuric
acid should have glass ground stoppers. The bottles should
always be labelled "Poison, 1 ' and kept out of the reach of children,
when not in use.
MEASURING THE ACID.
The acid is measured with a 17*5 c.c. glass measure, and
poured down the inside of the neck of the test flask without
disturbing the milk. The test flask should be held at an angle to
allow the air to come out as the acid goes in, to prevent spilling.
The test samples may be shaken separately by hand or together
in a cradle. It is possible to dissolve the milk in less than the
quantity of acid added, and sometimes a clear layer of acid remains
at the bottom. This can be overcome by giving the bottles a good
shaking with a reverse motion before finishing.
WHIRLING THE BOTTLES.
The speed at which the machine has to be turned depends on
the gearing, and the diameter of the testers. If the bottle-
wheel of the machine is 12 inches in diameter, that wheel should
be made to turn 980 times per minute. If 18 inches in diameter,
800 revolutions per minute, and if 24 inches in diameter, 693
revolutions per minute. If the bottle-wheel is 18 inches in
diameter, and geared to revolve ten times for one turn of the
handle, the operator should turn the handle 80 times per minute to
attain the necessary speed. If the bottle-wheel be geared by
friction, care should be taken that no slipping takes place. For
factory or creamery use the steam-turbine machines are far
preferable to the others.
ADDING THE WATER.
After turning the tester for six minutes, hot water, 180 deg., is
added up to the neck of the flasks. Rain or soft water should
be used for this purpose. After adding the water the machine is
turned for three minutes, then more water is added to bring the
liquid up in the neck of the flask to between the 7 and 10 mark.
Another minute's turning and the operation is complete. If only
a few samples are to be tested, the water may be added with the
milk pipette ; but where a large number have to be done a can
with a rubber tube and pinch-cock is handiest.
READING THE TESTS.
A pair of fine-pointed dividers is of great assistance in taking
the measurement of the fat column. The fat is measured from
the lower line between it and the water to the top of the column.
Having taken that span with the dividers, one point is placed at
0, and the other will show the percentage of fat on the scale on
the neck of the bottle. Each large division represents 1 per cent.,
and each small space two-tenths or 0-2 of 1 per cent. In very
cold weather the fat column often partly solidifies before a reading
can take place. This may be prevented by keeping up the
temperature of the samples. Hot water may be put in the pan
of the machine, and the test flasks placed in warm water after
whirling is finished, until the readings are recorded. This
precaution is not necessary for the greater part of the year.
COMPUTING THE BUTTER CONTENTS.
In order to arrive at the commercial butter contents in milk
per the respective butter-fat percentages, it is necessary to deduct
a small loss that takes place in skimming, plus another loss that
occurs in churning, and then add a percentage to make up for the
usual quantity of water, curd, and salt contained in commercial
butter. As the net addition is different with each test it is im-
practicable, as well as a waste of time, to work out each result by
such a roundabout method. The following table of test values
agrees with the Babcock table adopted by most of our factories.
All milk should be reduced to butter, per its test, before
quoting its money value. This system is more precise and
equitable than differential rates per gallon, and is not liable to
many misleading and complicated interpretations. Many useful
hints, together with detailed instructions, are generally issued by
the makers of each machine. Beginners should take a few
lessons in the use of the Babcock tester from some one who has
VALUE OF TESTS. BABCOCK TESTER.
Lbs. of Milk required to make 1 Ib. Butter.
Correctly in Decimals.
To compute the number of pounds weight of butter contained
in milk, ncu^/
Divide the pounds and decimals of a pound, of milk agreeing
with the test result, into the total number of pounds of milk.
Example 1,000 Ibs. of milk tests 4*0 per cent, butter fat.
It will be seen above that it takes 22-52 Ibs. of milk testing
4*0 to make one pound of butter.
Therefore : 22-52) 1000-00(44-4
44-4 Ibs. of butter are computed to be contained in 1,000 Ibs.
of milk with a 4-0 test.
FOP the guidance oF Dairymen in recording each Cow's Milk.
NAMtS OF COWS.
SCALE : ONE-THIRD OF PRACTICAL SIZE.
Cow LEDGER FOR RECORDING EACH Cow's MILK FOR
1 16 4
1 17 10
1 16 6
1 12 11
1 6 10
1 3 '1
11 10 4
THE UTILITY OF TESTING COWS.
The accompanying table of the actual return of a small dairy
herd of Victorian cows has been compiled with a view of im-
pressing on dairymen the great advantage to be derived from
recording the results from each and every cow.
It is all very well to judge a cow by appearances, but practical
men are well aware that many a fine-looking cow is unprofitable
for the dairy. At the present time it is fully recognised that
there is no way so reliable to tell a good cow from a bad one as a
scales and Babcock tester. The average Victorian cow has the
reputation of giving a very small return as compared with the
cows of many other countries. Whether this is so or not is open
to question, and would be a difficult query to settle definitely.
From previous records it would appear that Victoria possesses
some cows almost as good as are to be found in any part of the
world. No doubt the greater number are anything but profitable
If bad cows were known for certain and weeded out, and the
remaining cows received better attention, our prospects would be
bright indeed in the dairying line.
DESCRIPTION OF HERD.
The herd of cows under review is a cross-bred one. There is
more shorthorn blood in them than anything else. About three-
quarters shorthorn and the rest a .mixture, but no Channel Island
(METHOD OF TREATMENT.
They did not receive any special attention. Each cow was
treated alike, and they were all pastured together. With the
exception of a limited supply of small potatoes for a few weeks,
the cows had nothing but straw in addition to pasture. In
common with the herds in many parts of the colony last season,
this one was reduced to skin and bone for some months.
As a consequence the cows did not, at their best, give more
than three-fourths of the yield of a normal season. They were
kept in the Koroit district, and the dairy formed an auxiliary to
other branches of farming.
Cows going out of milk at the beginning of the year and dis-
posed of are not included. Neither are heifers coming in before
the close of the year. All cows are quoted that could be said
were on the farm the year round. Some of those milked for six
months and others up to eleven months.
A VICTORIAN HERD.
SUMMARY OF RETURNS FOR YEAR ENDED 31 ST DECEMBER, 1897.
(Compiled by R. Crowe.)
10 17 7
9 16 8
Lottie ... ... 683
8 18 8
8 15 9
Lily ... ... : 509
8 15 5
8 11 1
Fanny ... ... 575
8 10 1
7 19 9
7 16 7
7 15 7
7 15 7
7 14 2
6 18 9
6 3 11
5 18 2
5 14 11
5 11 6
5 10 11
4 17 5
4 16 8
4 1 6
ANALYSIS OF SUMMARY.
The average number of pounds of milk required to make a
pound of butter was 24' 19.
The average return in milk per head was 520 gallons, of
butter 215-21 Ibs., and in money 7 3s. od.
The return in milk from the best cow was 697 gallons, from
the ten best an average of 625 gallons, from the ten worst an
average of 390 gallons, and from the worst cow 299 gallons.
The return in butter from the best cow was 326*41 Ibs., from
the ten best an average of 275*21 Ibs., from the ten worst an
average of 157*07 Ibs., and from the worst cow 122*29 Ibs.
The return in money from the best cow is 10 17s. 7d., from
the ten best an average of 9 3s. od., from the ten worst an
average of 5 4s. 8d., and from the worst cow 4 Is. 6d.
In order to make the lesson more instructive, it is assumed
that the cost of each cow's keep for a year amounts to 2 1 Os.,
and the cost of attention to 1 10s. This 4 is estimated to
sufficiently provide for rent or interest on the investment for each
cow's keep, and the labour involved. Anything returned over
that sum may be looked upon as profit.
Therefore the best cow gives a profit of 6 17s. 7d., the ten
best average 5 3s. 5d., the ten worst average 1 4s. 8d., and
the worst cow a profit of Is. 6d. The best cow gives over
91 times as much profit as the worst one, arid the profit from the
ten best cows amounts to nearly the gross return from the ten
AN INTERESTING COMPARISON.
X Many dairymen believe in cows that give a large quantity of
milk ; others believe only in cows that give a good test. Both
are right to a certain degree, and to be safe, the quantity as well
as the quality must be taken into account.
Attention is directed to the two cows, Nos. 7 and 8. The
latter gives 223 gallons more milk than the former and yet brings
in less money. Both are almost equally profitable cows, although
one gives a 4*6 test and the other only 3*2. The goal can really
be secured by widely-differing routes.
In looking over the monthly charts containing the records of
those cows, it is found that "Lady," No. 19, gives the largest
quantity for that period. The following monthly comparison is
No. Milk. Test. Butter. Price. Value.
19 ... 140 ... 3*7 ... 57*26 ... 8d. ... 1 18 2
2 ... 89 ... 3*7 ... 36*40 ... 8d. ... 143
The best return for a month by cow No. 2 is quoted, and in
the monthly comparison No. 19 cow would get credit for being
by far the more profitable animal. However, in looking at the year's
record it is found that she was only a sprinter. For the month No.
19 gives 13s. lid. more than No. 2, but for the year No. 2 gives
3 14s. 8d. more than No. 19. The one cow gave a big yield
for a short period. The other did not give a big flow, but was a
consistent milker, and came out best.
CHEAPENING COST OF PRODUCTION.
If it costs 4 to produce 326 Ibs. of butter with the best cow
and the same amount to produce 122 Ibs. of butter with the worst
cow, then it has cost less than 3d. per Ib. to produce butter from
the good cow and almost 8d. per Ib. with the bad one.
A herd that would give an average return of 7 3s. 5d. under
such conditions, and in a jear described by the oldest residents as
the worst experienced for 30 years past, would be designated a
picked herd. Therefore, this may be termed a picked herd, and
if the individual members of a picked herd vary so much in the
returns given by them, it would be most interesting to know to
what extent the results of an average herd would differ when
recorded in the same way.
If such returns can be obtained under such adverse circum-
stances by an ordinary or mixed herd of cows in Victoria, what
is it possible to secure from a herd, say, like the ten best cows in
a favorable year ? Jt is said that the average return from
Victorian cows is 290 gallons not equal to that of the worst cow
here quoted. The ten best cows gave two and a quarter times
that of the worst cow, so it can easily be seen what scope for
improvement lies in this direction.
If it has been worth our while building up an industry of the
magnitude local and export of 2,500,000 with the indifferent
cows we are credited with, it will not be a hard matter to more
than hold our own against all countries in the world if we pay
more attention to the breeding, feeding, and management of our
cattle. To say that we are not making headway in this direction
would not be true. In every district there are to be found a few
up-to-date dairymen, who serve as splendid examples to the
remainder, and who are ever ready to adopt improved methods.
This system of recording the quantity of each cow's milk, together
with the quality, is strongly recommended. The beginning is
the hardest part of it. Give the plan a trial, and you will find the
trouble or delay not nearly so much as it appears. In a short
time it will become part of the routine of milking, and the infor-
mation continually gained will far outweigh the little extra
attention. What better technical education can be afforded the
young people who usually do the milking ; and what a splendid
thing it is to know definitely which cows are worth keeping and
CARE OF DAIRY UTENSILS.
All cans and vessels of tin in which milk has been used should
be rinsed out with cold water first, then washed with hot water,
and afterwards scalded with boiling water or steam. If scalding
water is used first, the albumen in the remaining milk sticks fast
to the tin and renders the operation of cleansing most difficult.
Wooden vessels should receive almost the same treatment.
Churns and butter-workers should have all the small particles of
butter washed down with cold water after use, and then scrubbed
and scalded. Should hot water be used first, the little waste
atoms melt on the wood, and are sometimes liable to soak in.
If the wood is once allowed to become greasy in this manner
it is almost impossible to' again get it back into good working
order. The frequent use of lime-water cannot be too strongly
recommended for all milk and butter appliances, churns in par-
ticular. Many instances are known where contaminated vessels
have caused hundreds of pounds worth of loss to the producers,
therefore, proper attention should be bestowed on cleanliness to
insure best results.
In the northern districts of the colony it is the exception,
rather than the rule, to have a supply of clean pure water suit-
able for washing butter. Mr. Pearson, Government Agricultural
Chemist, explained a simple process of treatment for muddy or
discoloured water, at the Conference of the Australasian Butter
and Cheese Factories Managers' Association, May, 1897. Two
tanks are used, one above the other. The upper one is used for
the clarification of the water, and the lower one is for the recep-
tion of the clarified water. The top tank is fitted with a tap at
the lowest point of the bottom. Let us suppose that 500 gallons
of clear water are required for use each day ; then it will be
necessary to have those two tanks of 500 gallons capacity each.
Two vessels of any convenient size are necessary to contain a
supply of soda and alum solutions ; also a watering-can for
measuring the liquid. Fifty gallons is a handy size for the
former vessels. The alum solution is of such a strength that one
measureful of it wiW convey to the 500-gallon tank 12 grains
of alum per gallon, or 6,000 grains altogether. As there are
7,000 grains to the 1 Ib. avoirdupois, that would be six-sevenths
of a pound. If the measuring-can holds 1 gallon, then the
amount of alum to be put into the 50-gallon vessel would be 43
Ibs. That would be sufficient to last for 50 days. The amount
of soda should be about 9 grains per gallon ; that is to say,
the strength of the soda solution should be three-quarters that of
the alum solution. Thus, if 43 Ibs. of alum were put into 50
gallons, about 33 Ibs. of soda should be dissolved in the other 50-
gallon vessel. The process is simple. Fill the top tank with
water in the afternoon. The measureful of alum solution is then
evenly distributed over the surface of the water by means of the
rose of the watering-can. The alum solution is then stirred into
the water with a stirrer, this being done gently and carefully, so
as not to get any air bubbles into the water. About ten minutes
afterwards the measureful of soda solution is distributed through
the water in the same way, stirring carefully as before. In the
morning it will be found that the alumina has been entirely pre-
cipitated, and has settled on the bottom of the tank, carrying with
it the solid impurities, including bacteria, from the water, and
leaving the water in the tank absolutely clear and limpid. A
siphon should then be carefully introduced, so as not to stir up the
mud at the bottom, and the clear water should be removed into the
lower tank, where, if required, it could be cooled for use when
Under the orifice of the siphon is a tin plate attached to the
siphon pipe about 10 in. or 12 in. in diameter, which prevents
the water from taking up with it as it passes into the siphon any
sediment from the bottom of the tank.
When empty the top tank is sluiced out through the tap, and
the whole operation is gone through as before.
Mr. Pearson states that this is an old-fashioned process, but
recent investigations have shown that it is as efficient as any
known process of purifying water. Alum used to the extent of
from 12 to 20 grains per gallon has been found to result in com-
plete sterilization of water that is to say, in the perfect removal
of bacteria. Some who have seen this process at work have
greatly admired the appearance of the water, but have expressed
a fear that by using alum they would be introducing an injurious
substance into the butter, in the manufacture of which the water
was used. This fear is groundless, because, as already explained,
the whole of the alumina is separated in the form of precipitate.
It is, in fact, by virtue of this precipitation of the alum, and the
conveyance in the precipitate of all the impurities, that the clari-
fication takes place. But even supposing that a little of the
alum were to be left in the water, a very simple calculation will
show that the amount thereby introduced into' the butter would be
infinitesimal. The amount of water in butter is about 10 per
cent., so that 1 cwt. of butter would contain about 11 Ibs. (a little
over 1 gallon) of water, As 1 gallon of water receives only
12 grains of alum, even if all the alum that was put in were to
remain in the water, the amount conveyed to the butter would be
not more than 13 grains to the cwt. As a matter of fact, even if
only partial precipitation of the alum were to take place, there
could be only 2 or 3 grains of alum left in a gallon of water, so
that there would never be any fear of more than 2 or 3 grains of
alum to the cwt. of butter. It will be seen that those 2 or 3
grains of possible addition of alum are too insignificant to be con-
When once the process is seen in operation it will be found so
very simple and so very easy of applicatiou that is unlikely that
any one troubled with impure water would hesitate to adopt it.
RULES FOR MILK AND CREAM SUPPLY.
The quality of the butter made in this colony largely depends
on the care bestowed on the production and treatment of the.
milk and cream before being manufactured. In the interests
of the dairying industry it is necessary for the producers to
exercise every precaution to insure the production of a first-class
quality of butter. This fact is recognised by most dairymen,
but there are some who do not give due attention to these
It is to be regretted that it is not possible to deliver all the milk
produced to the creameries and factories, and it is deplorable to
find many who are within easy reach of a creamery or factory
trying to separate the milk from their own cows and manufacture
their butter in small lots.
Perhaps the worst results are obtained from cream separated
on the farms and kept until too old before being delivered to the
place of manufacture. The cause for complaint is not due to
the use of small separators, but to the want of proper con-
veniences and accommodation, and, the lots being small, the
necessary care is not given to the cream.
In our warm climate it is absolutely essential to have the aid
of refrigeration at times of the year in order to make best
In the absence of refrigeration the quality of the output is
irregular, so, in order to attain and keep up uniformity, the milk
should be delivered to where it can be treated in large quantities
And manipulated to best advantage.
With a view to encouraging an improvement on the existing
conditions, the following rules have been suggested by the dairy
experts connected with this Department as a] guide to dairy-
Care of Milk.
1st. The pastures, yards, and surroundings should be kept clean
and free from carrion, and all decaying matter which may cause
2nd. Milk should be used and supplied only from healthy cows,
which are fed on wholesome food, and have access to plenty of
3rd. In districts where sufficient salt is not naturally available
a moderate allowance should be provided, as it adds to the health
of the cattle and to the quality of the milk.
4th. Provide shelter for the cows against excessive heat and
cold, and the flow and quality of the milk will be better.
5th. Be sure and make provision against the dry season by
providing green crops, in order to prolong the period of milking
and maintain the health and condition of your cattle.
6th. Treat the cows kindly ; milk them thoroughly and with
regularity, that they may cultivate a milching habit.
7th. Milk should be drawn from the cows in a cleanly manner,
the udders should be brushed or washed ; milking with dry hands
is preferable to the practice of dipping the fingers into the milk
to moisten them.
8th. Immediately after the milk has been drawn from the cow
it should be strained through a wire or cloth strainer.
9th. All buckets, cans, and other utensils with which the milk
is brought into contact should be of tin ; rusty vessels should be
10th. The milk vessels should be kept clean and sweet and
washed with cold or tepid water first, then scalded with boiling
water, and finished with a rinsing of limewater ; they should
afterwards be drained out, sunned, and aired. Milk cans should
not be left bottom upwards.
llth. The milk should be aerated, by dipping, pouring, or
stirring, or by use of an aerator. After the milk has been aired
it should be cooled quickly to as low a temperature as possible ;
and this should be done in a clean place where there is no dust
12th. The milk should be kept in a place where the atmosphere
is free from foul or injurious smells. Milk that is left without
the shelter of some roof should be protected from sun and rain
by placing the lid on the can upside down, or by some other
13th. Every dairyman should have a thermometer, and know
the difference between the temperature of the atmosphere and
-water ; the cans of milk should be kept in the coolest
14th. The night and mornings' supplies of milk should be kept
in separate vessels, and may be mixed, when cooled to the same
temperature, at the creamery or factory.
loth. " Biestings," or milk from newly-calved cows, should
<not be sent to the factory or creamery, nor separated till after the
eighth milking. The milk of some such cows is not fit for butter-
making for a much longer period, and should not be sent until it
is in fit condition.
(Suppliers infringing this rule should incur a heavy penalty.)
16th. Each supplier should furnish pure sweet milk to which
nothing has been added and from which no part has been removed.
17th. The factory or creamery manager should reject any milk
which he considers unfit for use in the manufacture of the finest
quality of butter, and his directors should assist in carrying out
Care of Cream.
18th. The cream should be cooled to as low a temperature as
possible immediately after separating, and well stirred at least
three times a day.
19th. The morning and night's cream should not be mixed till
after each has reached the same temperature.
20th. The cream should be delivered to the factory daily in
warm weather, in the coolest part of the day if possible, and at
no time should it be kept at the dairy longer than two days.
21st. A little salt may be used in hot weather to assist in
keeping cream in good condition.
22nd. Tke cream cans should be covered from the sun in tran-
sit, and sliplids used to prevent churning.
23rd. Use a " Babcock " milk-tester, and know exactly what
each cow in your herd gives you per year; turn off the unprofit-
able cows and replace them with good ones.
If the foregoing rules are adhered to, the value of our products
will be enhanced and the profits of the milk producer increased.
Testing Milk for Factories, Creameries, and Milk Suppliers.
In case of disputes arising between milk suppliers and
managers of butter factories and creameries regarding the per-
centage of butter fat contained in any supplier's milk the expert
attached to the dairy section of the Department will test samples
of milk free of cost by either visiting the factories or creameries,
or receiving a sample of milk that has been collected by the
"drip" system by the manager and testing it in the Department's
Dairy farmers desirous of receiving instructions in the process
of testing milk by the "Babcock" tester, by applying to the
Secretary for Agriculture will be taught in Melbourne the proper
method of using the appliances necessary for that purpose by the
LIST OF SHIPPING CHARGES FOR PRODUCE
SHIPPED THROUGH THE DEPARTMENT OF
Butter ... ... ... per box, 2d.
Chickens ... ... ... per pair, 5d.
Ducks ... ... ... 5d.
Eggs ... ... ... per dozen, Id.
Geese ... ... ... per pair, 9d.
Hares ... ... ... 3d.
Mutton ... ... ... per carcass, 8d.
Pork ... ... ... 8d.
Rabbits ... ... ... per pair, 2d.
Turkeys ... ... ... 9d.
The above charges to be paid by the shipper or his agent,
together with freight, &c., before obtaining delivery of bills of
In order to understand the pasteurizing system of treating milk
or cream for butter-making purposes, it is necessary to have a
knowledge of the composition of milk and its relation to bacteria.
Milk is a complex food, and is composed principally of water, fat,
caseine, sugar, and ash, in the following average proportions :
Water ... ... w 86 '80
Fat ... ... ... 3-70
Caseine and albumen ... ... 3*75
Sugar ... ... ... 5-00
Ash ... ... ... 0-75
Two great objects are sought in the pasteurizing of milk or
cream. The first is to drive off the obnoxious gases that are
present in milk produced from certain fodders, such as rape,
lucerne, &c. Such milk has a strong undesirable odour, usually
termed as " cowy." It has been found that by proper aeration
this fault is easily got rid of, but for some reason or other the
farmer has not taken to aeration.
In order to be effective, the aeration of milk must be carried
out at a high rate of temperature after coming from the cow and
before the undesirable element becomes fixed in the milk. Since
the milk producer has not undertaken this easy precaution in
regard to the welfare of his milk supply for butter-making, it is
therefore compulsory to effect the desired object at a later period
that is, when it reaches the creamery or factory. As the milk
generally arrives comparatively cold at the creameries, it is not
possible to get the objectionable volatile elements liberated with-
out raising the temperature. It is found that the pasteurizing
of the milk and the later exposure of it on the cooler to the
atmosphere effected the object sought for by aeration.
As a matter of fact, it appears that greater good has been
achieved from this poinit of view than from a bacterial stand-
point. All tbe experiments so far conducted prove that the
greatest success in improvement of quality is noticeable only in
districts that produce milk' off of rich ^artificial grass pastures. It
is still doubtful whether pasteurization will effect any improve-
ment in butter made under good conditions from milk produced
on clean hard pastures.
The second object looked for is to kill all the active micro-
organisms that develop in the milk after it leaves the cow.
Hitherto this has been the only consideration dwelt upon by
scientists. It is well known that the milk in the udder .of a
healthy cow contains no "bacteria. Many experiments have
proved conclusively that such is a fact, and that all the changes
that subsequently take place in the milk are due to the growth of
bacteria. In ordinary dairying it is'impossible to take milk from
the cow without bringing a certain amount of bacteria with it into
the bucket. Their presence is universal. They are in the air, in
dust, in the soil, and in the water. Their chief function is to
break up substances or bodies for the use of living animals or
plants. Under favorable conditions bacteria multiply at an
enormous rate. Milk is an excellent medium for their propagation.
Usually a certain class of bacteria acts upon the milk-sugar and
converts it into lactic acid; this acid- .gives the sour taste and
thickens the milk. This is looked upon by the milk producer as
prejudicial, and yet the butter-maker, in order to bring about the
changes necessary in the cream before making good butter, has to
make overtures to and encourage the same class of bacteria by
supplying the requisite conditions for their development. The
results in the past were very uncertain owing to the want of
knowledge that existed in regard to this then unknown power.
As well as the friendly bacteria getting into the milk and cream,
very often unfriendly characters find their way in also. The
number of unfriendly germs are sometimes present to such an
extent that an evil result must ensue. The surroundings are
always responsible for this state of affairs. If the milking yards
are dirty and dusty, or the cows and milk vessels not properly
cleaned, the result cannot be otherwise than bad. It is to kill the
undesirable organisms that pasteurization is intended.
PASTEURIZING MILK OR CREAM FOR BUTTER-
Pasteurizing milk or cream to obtain a superior butter is the
latest development of dairying. Still we cannot by any means
call it a new discovery, for there is nothing new in heating milk
to 155 deg. to get rid of bad odours caused mostly by artificial
feeding of various sorts and qualities. A similar system was prac-
tised by the dairy people of Devonshire and Cornwall 500 or 600
years ago, for who has not heard of Devonshire scalded cream ?
In two important points, however, their system and ours differ, viz.,
in those old times, after the milk was heated to a high tempera-
ture it was allowed to cool in the pans without artificial means,
while in ours it is cooled by refrigerating machinery at once to
60 deg. or lower, by this means solidifying the fatty globules in
the milk, and thus when the cream is churned insuring a good
grained as well as a sound keeping butter.
Another important change from the old system is that whereas
the milk was allowed to stand till the cream gathered and ripened,
which did not take place for three or four days, sometimes longer,
now by putting in a quantity of " ferment " or " ripener " in the
cream it is ready for churning in 24 hours, or before any dele-
terious bacteria gets back again in the cream.
The following is a description of the process practised at
present in our factories. Taking for granted you have got the
milk into your dairy or factory in a sweet and sound condition,
and that you have a pasteurizing plant fitted up to date, you then
run the milk through the separator, making the cream a little
thinner than usual. From the separator the cream runs into the
heater ; watch that the temperature of the cream does not rise
higher than 155 deg. From the heater the cream passes on to
the cooler, which, with the aid of the refrigerator or ice, will bring
it back to 60 deg., or lower if required. The ferment, or starter,
is now added. The quantity required of this starter is from 5 to
10 per cent., according to the amount of acidity in it and the
time at which it is intended to churn.
HOW TO OBTAIN THE FERMENT OR KlPENER.
The European system is, take 1 gallon of sweet skim-milk and
heat it to 155 deg. Fahr., and then cool the milk quickly to 90 deg. ;
then add to it a bottle of the cultivated ferment which is now im-
ported from America, Denmark, and Sweden. This done, place
the milk in a water bath at 90 deg. and leave it for eighteen
hours. This milk must be covered with a thin butter-cloth only.
After this the milk will be thick. It then has to be cooled down
to 60 deg. in cool water and left alone without stirring. Only
the top of it has to be skimmed off before use. The ferment
is then ready for ripening the cream, which is now kept at a tem-
perature of about 60 deg. If everything be right the cream
should be churned in 24 hours, and the butter afterwards treated
in the usual way.
The 1 gallon mentioned previously will be sufficient for ripen-
ing 20 gallons of cream. Of this ferment you must take 1 quart
for making the " acidifier " for the following day, which is done
in the following manner : Take 1 gallon of fresh skim-milk
and heat it up to 155 deg. Fahr. ; then cool to 90 deg. ; add the
quart of sour milk, and leave it for six or seven hours. Then the
1 gallon and the 1 quart of milk is ready for ripening the cream
next day. If the result of this ferment turns out good butter
you may continue this ripener for some time before fresh lactic
ferment is required.
Perhaps it may be advisable to give experiences here of ob-
taining this ripener or ferment, because it is very often found that a
successful dairy system in a cool climate is often the opposite in a
hot one. For instance, experience has taught us that very little
of the imported "ferment" is sound on its arrival here, as it will
not stand age and long carriage. It has therefore been found neces-
sary to make our own ripener just in a similar way to what has been
already described, but with this slight difference, that whereas
some of the European dairymen start with a scientifically culti-
vated "ferment" we start with a sound new milk instead of
skim-milk, which in our climate often becomes deteriorated before
arriving at that stage. However, much attention has of late been
given to the preparation and use of cultivated ferments, and
doubtless in the near future we will be able to send out for use
pure cultures that can be relied upon to give satisfaction.
When a manager wants to change his starter his easiest and
best plan is to obtain a litle buttermilk from an adjoining factory
making a first-class butter. Then the churning and the usual
process of manufacturing butter for market may be adopted. Be-
fore finishing this subject, it may be added that Messrs. A. N. Pear-
son and the dairy experts have for the last four years been experi-
menting in several of our factories, advising and demonstrating to
the managers this system of butter-making, proving the merits of
the method when the butter goes off flavour, and have succeeded
in curing the faulty cream coming from a large number of
creameries; but from some reason yet to be found out, the factory
and creamery managers do not always keep the quality of the
cream, after being pasteurized, up to the required standard.
We have also frequently exported a portion of the butter made
at four of our best factories, but, with the exception of one, it cannot
be said that the prices obtained have been as yet much above
the average price obtained for butter made in the usual way.
Probably our hot seasons and dried-up pastures, also long distance
of carriage of milk from farm to factory, may militate against the
complete success of this system being adopted in Victoria. Still
it is recommended, where consumers' complaints about the quality
of butter are numerous and there are few factories where such
are not rare to make butter by this plan, in order to overcome
the difficulty. There is no doubt that, as the system of pas-
teurizing becomes better understood by managers, superior results
will be achieved ; and now that the method has been given an
impetus it is expected most of the factories in the colony will be
pasteurizing their outputs within another season or so. Parti-
culars as to cost, &c., of pasteurizing plants may be obtained from
any of the leading suppliers of dairy appliances in Melbourne.
The unsatisfactory prices that have been obtained in England
for cheese during the past two seasons have resulted in our dairy
farmers losing sight, to a very large extent, of the importance of
always being ready, in the event of a sudden fall in autumn in
the value of butter, to convert the greater part of the milk into
So long as prices for butter in London continue remunerative,
cheese-making for export will be a neglected industry in Victoria,
but prices are not always going to remain as profitable for butter
as they have been during the past two years. We have had three
dry seasons in succession in Victoria, and owing to the scarcity of
butter, the usual fall in value at the end of each of the past shipping
seasons did not take place. But we are not always going to have
dry seasons. Already there are indications that the season 1898-9
is going to be the best experienced since 1894-5, and should the
present favorable prospects continue, there will be a large supply
of milk next autumn.
Do the proprietors of butter factories realize what a heavy
autumn supply of milk means? We are inclined to think that they
seldom give much thought to the matter. Having passed through
three dry seasons, it is quite probable that there may now be a run
of good seasons. If so, the annual production of milk will be
enormous. Additional land is being devoted to dairying every
year, and new factories and creameries are being erected to deal
with the increased supply of milk that will certainly be available.
A warning is necessary at the present juncture, and it is con-
sidered essential to point out to milk-growers not only the rock
that looms in the distance, but also the means whereby that rock
may be avoided.
The probable export season for butter terminates about the
end of April in each year. Butter exported in May would arrive
in England right in the middle of their flush season for milk, and
the prices obtainable at that time of year for best Victorian
factory butter would not be sufficiently high to enable our factories
to pay more than, say, 2d.per gallon for milk, perhaps not so much.
Given, then, that we have a moist spring and a favorable
summer, the supply of milk during February, March, April, and
May will produce more butter several times over than will be
required for Australian consumption. This will mean that prices
here will probably fall below 6d. per Ib. for prime quality. All
below prime quality will have to be sold at an unprofitable figure.
Prices for milk will be so low that dairy farmers might become
disgusted with their occupation, and suddenly abandon dairying,,
and sway round to some other occupation that just at the time
might be offering better prospects. Such a state of affairs
would be calamitous both to the individual and to this country
generally ; but how is it to be avoided ? Simply by combining
cheese-making with butter-making at all our leading factories.
This is the only way out of the difficulty, and if neglected the result
will be serious for the dairying industry.
In England there is, as a rule, a fairly good market for good
Cheddar cheese during the months of February, March, April,
and May. The price, of course, will not leave as good a margin
of profit as we have been getting for butter during the past three
seasons, but the price which good cheese will realize, if shipped
at the right time, will pay dairy farmers very much better than
glutting the Melbourne and English markets with butter during
the summer and autumn. It is, therefore, advisable for factories
to be in a position to convert milk either into butter or cheese as
the requirements of the world's markets may demand. By thus
being able to manufacture cheese when butter is low, and vice
versa, gluts will, as far as possible, be minimized, and sudden
fluctuations in the value of milk avoided.
Having so strongly recommended cheese-making during the
summer months as the best possible means of avoiding a glutted
butter market in the autumn, milk-growers will naturally expect
some plain practical instruction regarding the latest and most
approved methods of making cheese by this Cauadian-Chedder
PURE CLEAN MILK NECESSARY.
Before a factory makes arrangements to commence cheese-
making there should be some guarantee that none but the very
purest and cleanest milk shall be supplied. Purity and cleanli-
ness in milk is far more necessary for cheese-making than for
butter-making, although for both it should always be clean and
pure. Begin by prevailing upon the milk suppliers to have clean
cowsheds, to clean the cows' udders before milking, and to always
keep their hands clean. A beginning must be made at the foun-
tain head, because unless the strictest cleanliness be observed at
every stage, from the time the milk is drawn from the cow until
it is delivered to the cheese-maker, it is impossible for a good
quality of cheese to be manufactured. There is altogether too
much indifference amongst our milk-producers regarding this
question of cleanliness. If anything like a correct estimate could
be obtained of the depreciation in the value of our butter during
one year owing to impurities in the milk and the want of cleanli-
ness in handling it, the figures would have a startling effect on the
community. Seeing that cheese requires purer milk and cleaner
milk than butter, how very important, therefore, is it that all milk-
suppliers, by supplying only the purest and cleanest of milk, should
co-operate with the cheese-maker in producing a really prime
article for the English market.
RECEIVING THE MILK.
Every can of milk that is intended for cheese should, before
being accepted, be very closely scrutinized. Firmness on the part
of the cheese-maker at this stage is of the utmost importance.
Should there be the slightest shadow of suspicion as to either its
sweetness, purity, or cleanliness, reject it at once. One can of
unsuitable milk will destroy the whole of the milk received that
morning. Why, then, should the milk of, say, nineteen careful
milk suppliers be ruined just to accommodate one neglectful
supplier who is too obstinate to acquire habits of cleanliness ?
Assuming the milk to be up to the required standard, it is received
from the suppliers and strained into the large receiving vat, and
gradually heated up to 86 deg. Fahr. The vat and the method
of heating are so sufficiently well known that a description is
ADDING THE RENNET.
When to add the rennet is a stage in cheese-making that re-
quires very careful attention. When the milk in the receiving
vat has been brought to a temperature of 86 deg. Fahr., put about
5 ounces of it into a tea-cup. For this purpose have a graduated
measuring glass, which only costs two shillings.
To the 5 ounces of milk add one teaspoonful of any good
brand of artificial rennet. Stir the milk and the rennet together
for five seconds and then watch for it to thicken. Should it
thicken in from fourteen to seventeen seconds the milk in the
vat will be ripe enough to " set," that, is, to receive the rennet.
Sometimes, however, the milk does not thicken in from four-
teen to seventeen seconds, and this happens in cold weather. The
lowness. of the surrounding temperature even when the milk is at
86 deg. Fahr. has been known to cause the milk to take 25
and in some cases 30 and 35 seconds to thicken. When this
happens the temperature of the milk in the vat must be con-
tinued for a little while longer at 86 deg., or even increased a
little, but on no account must it go over 90 deg. By waiting a
few minutes, keeping the milk in the vat a little over 86 deg.,
it will ripen, despite the cold weather, when the fourteen to seven-
teen seconds test in the tea-cup will then come out all right.
The rennet must not be added until proof of the proper
ripeness of the milk has been decided by the tea-cup test.
There is a very simple plan for telling the very moment when
the milk in the cup has thickened, and beginners ought to make
use of it. When the 5 ounces of milk are put in the cup,
before adding the rennet put a small chip, say half-an-inch of a
wooden match, or small piece of cork, into the milk, and then
stir rapidly when adding the rennet. The little chip will whirl
round with the milk, but the moment the milk thickens the chip
will suddenly stop. By keeping a close eye on your watch the
exact number of seconds from the adding of the rennet to the
stoppiag of the chip is easily counted.
QUANTITY OF RENNET.
If good rennet is purchased the proper quantity to use is at
the rate of 2 ounces for every 50 gallons of milk. This is the
correct proportion. After thoroughly mixing the annatto with
the milk then add the rennet. None but the best brands of
rennet should be purchased. Stir the milk well for five minutes
after adding the rennet, and then let it settle.
As rennet varies in quality its strength should be tested regu-
larly. In factories every new supply ought to be tested. On
farms where only a small quantity is used every bottle as it is
opened should be tested before using. If the proportions stated in
the standard referred to (a teaspoonful of rennet to 5 ounces of
milk) does not thicken the milk in the cup in seventeen seconds in
favorable weather, providing, of course, the milk is at the right
temperature, then the rennet is weak in quality, and the propor-
tion per 50 gallons of milk in the vat, as already explained, will
have to be increased. Experience and observation soon enable even
a beginner to determine the exact quantity of rennet to use even
should the quantity vary a little in strength. The use of too
much rennet must be guarded against. Too much rennet is one
of the causes of l ' streaky" and of " bitter " cheese.
One ounce of annatto to every 50 gallons of milk will be
sufficient. For cheese intended for export not more than half-
an-ounce of annatto per 50 gallons of milk should be used, for the
reason that the English consumer prefers a straw or lightly-
coloured cheese. Add the annatto as soon as the test shows you
the milk is ripe enough, and then stir well for five minutes so as to
mix it evenly and thoroughly with the milk.
CUTTING THE CURD.
In about twelve minutes after the rennet has been added, the
milk in the vat will have thickened or curded. A close watch
must be kept so as to note the actual time the milk takes to curd.
Having ascertained the actual number of minutes the milk took to
curd, the time for cutting the curd will be two and a half times
the number of minutes that elapsed from when the rennet was put
in until the milk curded. Suppose, for instance, the milk takes
twelve minutes to curd, in 30 minutes afterwards (i.e., twice and a
half times twelve) the curd is ready to cut. When everything
goes on all right the " cutting " should commence from 40 to 42
minutes from the time when the rennet was added.
Here is an illustration showing how the whole operation
actually works out.
Assume that the milk is ripe at a quarter to nine.
Add annatto at a quarter to nine, and stir the milk well until
At nine o'clock add the rennet.
Stir the milk thoroughly until five minutes past nine.
At twelve minutes past nine the milk will be curds.
Thirty minutes afterwards (two and a half times twelve), z'.tf.,
forty-two minutes past nine, the curd will be ready to cut.
By following this rule no mistake will be made as to the proper
time for cutting the curd. Dipping the finger into the curd, a
test adopted by many people, should be avoided.
How TO CUT THE CURD.
Extreme caution is required in cutting the curd, and care must
be taken to avoid breaking or bruising it in any way, and the cut-
ting must be cleanly done, leaving no bruised surface. The knives
must cut well. There should no dragging, nor should there be
any ragged surface on the curd when cut. First use the horizontal
steel knife lengthwise, going from end to end of the vat, then
use the vertical knife, going also from end to end. After this
has been done then run the vertical knife through the curd
across the vat, i.e., from side to side. The curd should now be
all in the size of about half -inch cubes.
Having cut the curd, the next operation is for the development
of acidity. Boiling water will now have to be used in order to
raise the temperature of the whey up to 100 deg. Fahr. Before
surrounding the vat with hot water it is always advisable to
pass the hand gently round the sides and bottom of the vat so as
to remove any curds that might bo sticking there. It will take
about 40 minutes to raise the temperature of the whey up to
100 deg. The curd meanwhile must be kept slowly stirred with
a rake, with the teeth set wide apart so as not to cause any bruis-
ing. As the curd gets firmer stir faster, until 100 deg. has been
gradually reached in the 40 minutes. When 100 deg. has been
reached draw the hot water from the vat at once, and allow the
curd to settle down for about an hour and a half, the vat mean-
while being covered in order to maintain an even temperature.
At the expiration of the hour and a half sufficient acidity ought
to be developed in the curd to permit of the whey being drawn
TESTING THE CURD FOR ACIDITY.
The only sure test for showing when the acidity is coming is
the hot-iron one. Get a piece of half-inch iron and make it nearly,
but not quite, red-hot. Take a handful of the curd, squeeze the
whey out by compressing it gently, and then apply the hot iron to
it. If when lifting the iron up from the curd it draws out fine
hairy threads about one-eighth of an inch long it is time to draw
the whey off and remove the curd to the cooler. If, however, the
fine threads are not seen to be drawn up by the iron the curd must
remain a little longer in the whey in order to reach the proper
stage of acidity.
IN THE COOLER.
When the Avhey has been run off, remove the curd to the
cooler. Let it remain without being disturbed for about ten
minutes in order to give it time to " mat." After " matting " it
is cut into squares for convenient handling, and also to permit of
further drainage of any whey. Turn the curd every quarter of
an hour for about an hour to an hour and a half. When the
curd is placed in the cooler it is most important that the cooler,
except when handling the curd, be covered with a sheet or piece
of strong "duck," in order to maintain an even temperature and
further develop the acidity.
After being from an hour to an hour and a half in the cooler,
again apply the hot-iron test for acidity, when if the fine threads
this time draw out fully three-quarters of an inch long, it will be
time to put the curd through the curd cutter. If the fine threads
do not come as described, turn the curd again, keep the cooler
covered and wait a little longer. Developing the proper acidity
and allowing the gases to escape are the secrets of success. If
everything goes on alright the curd should not require to be in
the cooler for more than from an hour and a quarter to an hour
and a half, but at the very outside not more than an hour and
THE CURD CUTTER.
The old curd mills that were used fifteen and twenty years
ago are out of date. They used to bruise, tear, and grind the
curd down too fine, thereby allowing the richness to escape,
which reduces the quality of the cheese. The new style of curd
cutter cuts the curd as clean as you would cut chaff, instead of
bruising it down as the old-fashioned curd mills did. The curd
is only put through the cutter once, and it comes out in clean
cut strips, each about 3 inches long by about half-an-inch in
After putting the curd through the cutting machine it must be
kept stirred and turned over now and again to prevent " matting,"
which operation also circulates the air through it, and cools it
down to about 72 deg., at which temperature it is ready for
salting. Add 1 Ib. of salt for every 50 gallons milk that were
in the vat. After mixing the salt thoroughly with the curd,
give the curd another ten to fifteen minutes to allow the salt
to properly dissolve before putting the curd into the " hoops '*
Where large quantities of cheese are made, such as in factories
and on large dairy farms, the " gang " press should be used, but
for small dairymen making only one or two cheeses a day, the
ordinary screw press will do, as it saves the outlay for a "gang."
The " hoops " being made of galvanized iron and in four
pieces, are one of the greatest improvements in modern cheese-
making, as they entirely dispense with all the bother that used to
be attached to the proper adjusting of lids and trimming the edges
of the cheese.
Be careful not to press the curd hard the first half-hour, or the
richness of the cheese will be lost. A sudden heavy pressure at
first will also form a skin on the cheese which will prevent a free
escape of whey and result in a "streaky" or a "mottled" cheese.
Increase the pressure gradually after the lapse of half-an-hour.
From fifteen to twenty hours, according to the size of the cheese,
will be long enough for it to remain in the press. Then remove
from the "hoops" and transfer direct to the shelves in the curing-
IN THE CURING-ROOM.
After cheese has been six weeks in the curing-room it will be
ready for export to London. During the six weeks while the
cheese is in the curing-room it will require to be " turned " once
a day. Cheese intended for the Australian market need only be
" turned " every second day until it is three months old, when it is
fit for consumption. Uniformity of temperature is a very essential
point in the curing-room. The temperature should, as far as
possible, be maintained at about 66 deg.
The imported seamless bandages are the best to use. Exporters
of cheese to London should use no other. If, however, the ordi-
nary cheese-cloth be used, sew it to suit the size of the " hoops "
used, cut into required lengths, and then turn it inside out so that
the seam will not show on the bandage on the outside. Always
adjust the bandage on the hoop before filling with curd.
THE CHEESE PRESS.
All cheese factories and on farms where a large amount of
cheese is made, the American gang press will be used. Small
dairy farmers, who perhaps may not be making more than one or
two cheeses daily, will find the old screw press answer the
purpose just as well. The economy of the gang press is that
it will press a number of cheeses at a time, hence its advantage
to factories and large cheese-makers.
THE " HOOPS."
What old cheese-makers of twenty years ago called the
" cheese- vat " we now call the "hoops.-" The cheese is pressed
on the " hoops " and the " hoops " are greatly superior to the old
style of vat. Where farmers, however, have got the old wooden
vats these will do right enough for making cheese for home
SHIPPING SEASON FOR CHEESE.
The manufacture of cheese for export to England will require
to begin every year about the middle of November, or early in
December, according to the conditions of the season, prices for
butter, &c. January and February are the months when the out-
put of cheese will be at its highest. As Cheddar cheese can be
shipped when it is a month old the shipping season will thus com-
mence from about the middle of December to first week in Janu-
ary, and continue until about the middle of April. This will
land our first manufacture of the season in London about from
the middle to the end of January, and the last shipment for the
season should reach London on about from the first to the middle
SILOS AND ENSILAGE.
On this subject we have taken numerous extracts from a
pamphlet on silos, by J. L. Thompson, late Principal of Dookie
The silo system cannot be said to be of recent origin, for we
read of the ancient Romans preserving fruits, grains, and forage
in a green state in large subterranean vaults. The Mexicans also
have practised the same process for centuries, and still preserve a
large bulk of their fodder in this way.
The attention of the English-speaking world was first drawn
to this subject by the translation by a Mr. Brown (an American)
of a work written by a Mr. Augustus Goffart, a distinguished
member of the Central Agricultural Society of France. This work
was published in New York in 1879, when the subject was quickly
taken up by the American people, who have since done much to
popularize the system, and there are now in that country thousands
In 1882 a conference was held at New York of several hun-
dred farmers, who met to compare their various experiences, and
the answers to some of the questions considered are very remark-
able. Regarding the profitableness of ensilage
Farmer No. 6 said : " It will double the stock-carrying
capacity of our farm ; its advantages to dairymen are incalcul-
No. 7 said : " It gives a vigour and healthy appearance not
seen in hay-fed cattle. We can double the stock, and thus
increase the fertility and value of farms."
No. 8 : "It enables one with a little land to keep a large
amount of stock."
No. 9 : " We believe stock can be kept for one-half the cost
of other food, and will fatten as much as during the best grass
No. 10 : " Anything of vegetable nature that animals will
eat will make useful ensilage."
No. 11: " 40 or 50 tons of fodder can be ensilaged off one
acre, which is worth more than 20 tons of hay."
No. 19 : " The cost of feeding on ensilage as against hay and
roots is one to three."
No. 20 : "I think cattle can be kept for one-fourth the ex-
pense of any other method."
No. 28 : " One acre of ensilage will keep eight head of
cattle 100 days."
No. 30 : "I am keeping four times the number of stock with
my silos that I have been able to do hitherto. A silo filled with
green fodder in time of protracted drought is invaluable."
No. 37 : " The profits are very large. I consider my two
silos worth 2,000, and would rather pay interest on that amount
than give them up."
No. 38 : " Ensilage I believe to be the dairyman's anchor on
the expensive land of the East. I would as soon think of doing
without my house as without a silo. I farm for profits, not for
pleasure, and have found the silo the best investment I ever
It is needless to multiply these extracts. They are from
practical men, whose opinions can be relied upon, and if ensilage
is so valuable in America it must be doubly so in these colonies,
subject as they are to long periods of drought. It is really
astounding that so little has been done to popularize the silos in
Victoria. Some years ago the subject was taken up by the Royal
Commission on Vegetable Products, and much valuable infor-
mation was distributed.
Before giving some details concerning the introduction of the
silo into these colonies, it may be mentioned that there are now a
very great many in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and hundreds
of new ones are being built every year. The Messrs. Trepplin,
near Kenil worth, Warwickshire, preserve over 5,000 tons every
year, and at the Smithfield Club Cattle Show, Islington, 1884,
there were 254 exhibits entered for competition, comprising
almost every description of plant that could be placed in a silo.
To Mr. Charles Rake, of Olive Farm, Enfield, South Australia,
Is the credit of introducing the silo into these colonies. Mr. Rake
has for a long time been in the habit of taking in all the best
agricultural papers in the world, and, observing the apparent
success of the silo in America, was not slow to imitate the example.
As early as 1880 Mr. Rake built his first silo, and the whole
neighbourhood thought he was doomed to disappointment when
they saw him putting in tons of succulent green fodder into a pit.
Mr. Rake invited his neighbours to come and see the opening of
the silo six months afterwards, and, to the surprise of all, found
the fodder coming out in excellent condition. Mr. Rake the
following year increased his silo capacity to six in number. By
this means he was able to produce first-class cream and butter all
the year round.
Mr. J. L. Thompson, who was managing " Beefacres," the
Adjoining estate, at that time, on seeing the success of Mr. Rake's
silos, was induced to imitate his example, and in 1884 he built a
silo of concrete, which for strength, durability, and convenience,
will compare favorably with any silo in the world. This silo
consists of four compartments, each 20 feet long, 12 feet wide,
and 15 feet deep, having a total capacity of 14,000 cubic feet, and
capable of holding 300 tons of green fodder. The cost was about
300, and the structure will last 60 years, bar accident. A
.sample of ensilage from the first filling of this silo obtained a
prize of 10 10s., presented by the proprietors of the Australasian,
at the National Show, Melbourne, 1885.
When carrying on dairying at the well-known Spring Bank
dairy farm near Egerton, Mr. Wilson used to incur heavy losses
every summer, owing to the sudden shrinkage in the quantity of
milk when the grass dried up. Ensilage being recommended as a
summer fodder, he had a silo constructed and filled with chaffed
green oats, peas, and maize. The oats and peas were cut and put
into the silo in the month of November, and from the same land
a crop of maize was ready for the silo by the following April or
May. Thus two crops a year were had from the same land,
giving an average yield, in the green state, of about 20 tons per
acre. The ensilage always turned out well, and lessened the
dread of dry summers, scarcity of summer feed, and shortage of
Further practical proof of the value of ensilage for milk-
producing purposes, when other feed was scarce, was given at the
grounds attached to Government House, Melbourne. Shortly
after the arrival in Victoria of Lord Hopetoun, Mr. Wilson, by
desire, superintended the cultivation of 3^ acres of poor land at
Government House for the growth of two crops a year on it for
conversion into ensilage for feed for the Governor's cows during
the summer months. This also was a great success, for by apply-
ing 30 loads of stable manure per acre to the land a crop of
twelve tons per acre of oats and vetches was obtained, followed
in the autumn by a twelve-ton crop of maize. This fodder,
grown on 3^ acres of land, kept twelve cows in splendid condition
right through the whole of the dry weather each summer. The
milk and cream produced by the cows fed on the ensilage were
pronounced by Lord Hopetoun to be equally as good as when the
cows were fed on the spring pastures. These facts have been
repeated to farmers in almost every part of Victoria, yet, strange
to say, not one in a thousand has yet adopted the system.
CONSTRUCTION OP A SILO.
Local circumstances must determine what material can be
most economically used for the construction of a silo. Where
plenty of gravel and sharp river sand can be procured nothing
in our opinion can equal concrete walls. The division walls should
be 2 feet thick, but 18 inches will be sufficient for the outside
walls, as these will be built against the excavated bank. One-
third of the silo should be above ground and two-thirds below.
Doorways as far down as the natural surface should be provided,
so as to facilitate the filling of the silo and also the getting out of
the ensilage. These openings can be closed up with planks as
the silo is being filled, and removed as the ensilage is being taken
out. The walls of the silo should be as smooth and plumb as
possible, so as to allow the ensilage and covering planks to go
down easily as the mass subsides. The walls and bottom of a
silo should be air and water-tight. It was thought and recom-
mended at one time to provide drainage at the bottom of the
silo, but this is a fallacy, as no moisture should escape from the
silo ; and a drain that would carry off water would also allow air
to get in, which would do a great amount of damage to the
ensilage. It has been said that it makes no difference whether a
silo cost 20 or 500, one will preserve ensilage as well as the
other, the only thing required is continuous pressure. But you
cannot make small silos as effective as large ones, nor can you
pack the fodder so well against rough surfaces as against walls
that are smooth, consequently there is more waste of fodder with
small pits and rough surfaces than with large silos and smooth
Cheap earthen silos (holes simply dug in the ground) are more
likely to popularize the system of ensilage among the farming
community than expensive masonry, and where the earth is sound
this plan may be adopted with perfect success.
FILLING THE SILOS.
Before saying anything on this head, it will be as well to
state that there|[are now two recognised varieties of ensilage,
viz., sweet and sour ensilage. By the term " sour " it must
not be understood that the ensilage is in any way offensive ;
it has a pale greenish yellow colour, and a slightly vinous
odour. Sweet ensilage, on the other hand, is of a brown
colour, and of a sweet luscious odour. Sour ensilage has been
found to be most suitable for animals producing milk, and sweet
ensilage for fattening stock. When it is desired to produce sour
ensilage, the crop may be cut when full grown (but before any of
the moisture has escaped), and carted to the silo immediately it is
cut, and pressed tightly down. The sooner the silo is filled and
the weights applied, the better for sour ensilage. If the crops are
of a rough nature, such as barley, vetches, maize, &c., they should
be pressed through the chaff-cutter, but the finer English grass
does not require chaffing. When filled rapidly and immediately
weighted, the temperature will seldom exceed 80 deg. Fahr.,
and little or no fermentation will take place.
When it is intended to produce sweet ensilage the crop may
also be cut when full grown ; but it must lie a day or two in the
field, so that, at the time of being put away in the silo, it contains
less than 70 per cent, of moisture. The process of filling should
go on slowly, so that the temperature may rise from between 125
and 150 deg. Fahr .5 Should the temperature not be sufficient
either the fodder has been too wet, or the filling and consequent
compression has been going on rapidly. When a sufficiently high
temperature has been obtained, it should immediately be cooled
down to below 90 deg. by applying ]the pressure, or the ensilage
will rapidly spoil. The testing the temperature of the silo is a
very simple matter. Procure a 12 J feet length^ of common inch
gas pipe, to this weld a steel point, drive this into the ensilage
mass about the centre, and by means of a small glass thermometer
and a piece of string you can test the temperature at various
depths. I should mention that it is well to put a little wool in
the bottom of the pipe to save the glass thermometer in its
COVERING AND CLOSING THE SILO.
The filling of the silo should be carried out in such a manner
that -the layer of fodder should always be horizontal. The fill-
ing having been completed, the covering up takes place. The
planks should be put across the short way of the silo, and 9x2
redgum is found to be a convenient size. At one time it was thought
to be necessary to have the covering as close and air-tight as
possible, but this has proved to be a fallacy. Sawdust, bran, felt,
boards tongued and grooved, have all been tried in older to pre-
vent the air from escaping ; but the object now is to facilitate
the air to escape by compression, and for this purpose it is better
to put the planks about a quarter of an inch apart, and half-an-
inch shorter at each end than the silo, so that there will be no
fear of them sticking against the walls.
WEIGHTING THE SILO.
Mr. Wilson's first experience in weighting the silo was with
bags of sand 2 feet deep ; but this was not a success, as the bags soon
rotted. He then got the local blacksmith at Egerton, Mr. Simpson,
to make a screw and chain press. The screw is worked by one
man, and the total leverage of the appliance is as 450 is to 1,
due allowance being made for friction. This appliance is a great
saving of labour, especially when a silo is being refilled, as the
whole covering can be removed in fifteen minutes. In the ab-
sence of any mechanical pressure, the weighting can be accom-
plished by the material easiest procurable on the ground, and that
will give sufficient pressure, viz., 100 to 150 Ibs. to the square
foot. Ensilage can be made in a silo without pressure; but,
taking into account the waste of space and loss of ensilage by
decay at the top and sides, this system has no advantage to
recommend it. As good ensilage has been preserved in this
way as in the most expensive silo, and a small farmer need
not hesitate to sink a hole in any good ground, put in his
green fodder, and cover it up with 2 feet of earth, and it
will come out green and sweet six or nine months afterwards.
Wooden portable silos are now much used in England. They
are in shape like a huge barrel, and answer the purpose very well
in that country; but I doubt very much whether they would be
successful in these colonies owing to the excessive heat of our
summers. A great deal has been done in England in the way of
converting old barns and other buildings into silos.
OPENING THE SILO.
Only a sufficient number of planks should be removed as to
give convenient room for the operation of cutting to be performed.
It is best to cut ensilage in vertical sections as is done in a hay-
stack, as much being taken out each day as is required for the day.'s
consumption, although it will keep fairly well for a week or so after
being removed from the silo. The weights should not be removed
from the uncut portions until absolutely required, as it is necessary
to continue the pressure as long as possible. When the first cut
gets below the surface use a large coal-basket capable of holding
100 Ibs. This is raised by means of block and tackle sufficiently
high for the man in the dray to catch and empty it. When the
silo is small and deep and the consumption rapid, the whole of
the weights and coverings may be removed at once, and the
ensilage removed from the entire surface as required. In a broad
and shallow silo, however, it would be unwise to attempt this
method. Ensilage has been taken from a silo of this kind every day
except Sunday for three months, and the last was as good as the
CROPS FOR THE SJLO.
Any vegetation that stock will eat in its natural state will
make good ensilage, and it will be much improved by the opera-
tion, especially if fed to cattle. It is said that cattle assimilate
ensilage better than they do any other food, and the reason for
this is the change effected in the silo is nearly or quite that which
is brought about in the first stomach of the ruminant animal.
Barley and tares sown immediately after the first rains are very
suitable and profitable for a first filling. These will be ready to
put away in the silo, say about the 1st of October, and the land
can be at once ploughed and sown with maize, which will be fit
for pitting about the end of February. As much as 30 tons per acre
of fodder has been obtained in this way without irrigation, i.e.,
from the two crops. This is sufficient per acre to keep a milch
cow for twelve months. Indeed, it has often been proved that by
thoroughly cultivating and manuring the land ample food can be
grown on an acre for a cow by adopting the ensilage system.
Cockspurs variegated, and Scotch thistles, if put away in succu-
lent condition, can be taken out six months later in prime con-
dition, and stock will devour them ravenously. In short, the silo
has been styled " the farmer's all"; nothing can come amiss to it.
Mangold or turnip tops, cabbage leaves, surplus fodder of any
kind can be siloed and kept till periods ol want.
We have heard of stock-holders in the interior losing in times
of drought all their valuable stud bulls, rams, &c., for want of
food. There is really no excuse for this state of affairs. Every
few years we have seasons of plenty, when thousands of acres of
the natural grasses can be mown and siloed for use in the years
of famine. Mr. Walter Lamb, of Rooty Hill and Merilong,
Liverpool Plains, New South Wales, has proved to his fellow
pastoralists what can be done by means of the silo in storing up
fodder in good seasons to save his stock from starvation in periods
of drought. Mr. Lamb has siloed over 10,000 tons of the native
grasses on his estate at Merilong, and is able to keep a full-grown
bullock for twelve months in good condition at a cost of 8s. 9d.,
and a sheep for Is. 9d. No man has done so much as Mr. Lamb
to demonstrate the great boon that may accrue to the pastoralist
in these colonies from the use of the silo. His silos were inex-
pensive, but answer the purpose well. The weighting is done
entirely with earth, and he uses no top covering between the ensi-
lage and the earth.
THE CHEMISTRY OF THE vSiLO.
It is not intended to touch on the scientific aspect of the
silo, but this paper would be incomplete without mentioning
that eminent scientists have, as a rule all through, thrown cold
water on the subject of ensilage. Professor Custunce, of the
Roseworthy Agricultural College, South Australia, compared the
putting of green fodder in a silo to burying a dead dog. Sir John
Lawes and Dr. Volcker have often given the English farmers
gentle warnings that ensilage was not worthy of their attention.
Lately, however, Sir John has conducted a number of valuable
experiments as to the feeding value of ensilage, and has proved
that 50 Ibs. of ensilage was equal to 84 Ibs. of good mangolds.
Mr. A. N. Pearson, our Government Agricultural Chemist,
published the result of an analysis of some ensilage submitted to
him, and states that 2 Ibs. of it are equal to 3 Ibs. of good hay.
This shows ensilage to be of very great value indeed, and scien-
tific men are now forced to admit there is something in ensilage
after all, and certainly progressive farmers of the present day
cannot ignore it.
Ensilage has been preserved in good condition in England by
simply stacking it green without any silo at all. Mr. H. B.
Hughes, of Booyoolic Station, South Australia, stacked a large
paddock of lucerne right from his mowing machine. Some time
after his stack was built, when his lucerne was 6 inches high,
Mr. Hughes put a number of bullocks on to the lucerne, but
getting a taste of the stack ensilage they preferred it to the prime
succulent green feed. This shows that there is something in the
system that improves the fodder, as the tastes of cattle are the
best tests of its quality. Mr. Hughes now provides large
quantities of ensilage to top up his Queensland bullocks before
putting them on the market.
The only objection to stack ensilage is that our penetrating
hot winds and sun have the effect of spoiling a considerable
portion of the fodder around the edges of the stack, and, although
the ensilage can be made well in a stack, the loss is sometimes
so great that it will repay the farmer to make a silo.
PRACTICAL RESULTS FROM THE USE OF ENSILAGE.
Wonderful results have been reported as to the value of
ensilage on dairy and other stock, but as some of these may be
looked upon as " American tall talk," the actual experiences may
be given of Mr. J. L. Thompson, formerly Principal of the
Dookie Agriculture College. Mr. Thompson writes as follows :
"When I opened the silos at Beefacres in 1884, about the
end of January, our dairy cows were not averaging two gallons
of milk a day, and it was almost a matter of imposssibility to
make any good butter, although we had a very good dairy. A
week after we commenced .using ensilage the milk increased to
two and three quarter gallons daily, and the butter made from
this milk had that peculiar yellow tint so well known as char-
acteristic of good butter. Considering the time of year it was
also remarkably firm, and the churning was accomplished in
half the usual time. In March of that year we had a clearing
sale of 127 Clydesdales and 110 shorthorn cattle. They were
fed almost exclusively on ensilage for three months before the
sale, and it was remarked by all good judges that they never
saw stock looking better or healthier. I can further assert that
during the whole of the time this large and valuable number of
stock were fed on ensilage there was not one single case of sick-
ness the whole time."
Great excitement was caused in South Australia some years
ago when nine horses out of 30 being fed on ensilage died sud-
denly. Of course, every one said it was the ensilage ; and so it
was, but it was largely composed of several very poisonous plants
which, if eaten in any condition, would have caused death, and,
being chopped up, the stock could not avoid eating them, although
in the pasture they could be passed by. No evil results from
the use of good fodder made into ensilage has ever come under
our notice, but, on the contrary, all stock fed on it have shown
a most robust and healthy appearance.
"Ensilage in a nutshell/' is simply this : Every farmer in the
spring of the year has abundance of green succulent food for all
stock. Then is the period of the year when stock will put on
condition, and when any quantity of prime butter can be made.
By the use of the silo this abundance of succulent food can be
carried right through the year. In the parched month of March,
when not a green blade of vegetation can be seen in our fields,
you can open your silo full of fresh green fodder, and feed it to
your cows, which will give milk that will produce butter quite as
good as any you are making at the present time, on what is known
as the flower of the grass. This proves, beyond a doubt, that it
is not so much the heat of our summers that causes the production
of that white frothy-looking butter, so often seen during summer,
as the unsuitable nature of the food that cows under ordinary
circumstances have to eat.
In England the use of silos and ensilage has passed the
experimental stage. Two very important reports bearing on
ensilage have been issued, a few extracts from which are taken.
These are the reports of the Ensilage Commission, and the
Judges of the Royal Agricultural Society's Competition. They
are dated May, 1886. Be it noted, the evidence is not that
of enthusiastic advocates, but the calm deliberations of judicial
bodies appointed to consider and determine as to the value or
otherwise of the system. Both bodies emphatically declare
ensilage a decided success, and both reports are capable of afford-
ing encouragement to British farmers. The Ensilage Commission
classify the advantages claimed for ensilage under the following
1. In rendering the farmer independent of the weather in
saving his crops.
2. In increasing the productive capabilities of farms.
3. In greater weight of forage saved.
4. In greater available variety and rotation of crops.
5. In increased facility for storing crops. It is suitable for
all kinds of stock dairy stock, breeding stock, store stock, fatten-
ing stock, and farm horses.
The Commissioners, in conclusion, state that they have
endeavoured to discount all exaggerated estimates, as well as to
make allowance for a considerable amount of prejudice and
incredulity which they met with, and they add : " After sum-
ming up the mass of evidence which has reached us we can
without hesitation affirm that it has been abundantly and con-
clusively proved to our satisfaction that the system of preserving
green fodder crops promises great advantages to the practical
farmer, and, if carried out with a reasonable amount of care and
efficiency, should not only provide him with the means of insuring
himself to a great extent against unfavorable seasons, and of
materially improving the quantity and quality of his dairy pro-
duce, but should also enable him to increase appreciably the num-
ber of live stock that can be profitably kept upon any given acreage,
whether of pasture or arable land, and proportionately the amount
of manure available to fertilize it."
The report of the Royal Society's Judges is also very interest-
ing and instructive, and is equally favorable to the system under
The following concise summary of the experience of the
judges of the northern division is worthy of production :
" We are of opinion that the great question of satisfactorily
ensiling green crops has received ample confirmation. It has
been proved to us incontestably that its success has been mani-
fested in every district. We have seen silos of brick, of stone,
and of wood; we have seen old barns and other buildings con-
verted into silos; we have seen them containing 20 tons, and we
have inspected others capable of holding 700 tons; we have found
silos constructed at a little over 20, and others at 400 ; we
have found them filled with all sorts of green crops, and we have
found some sour and some sweet, the latter in by far the greater
proportion ; we have seen them weighted with bricks, with stones,
with slates, with sand, with earth, and also with ingenious
mechanical contrivances; we have inspected some chaffed, and in
others the fodder spread out and put in whole; in all cases the
practice was successful, and in every instance cattle of all
descriptions did well on the silage, and in many instances the
opinion was conclusive that decidedly more stock could be carried
per acre with silage than with hay. In conclusion, we would
say that we consider the system of ensiling will probably affect
the future of agriculture on strong land, as in most instances,
especially in such where it is necessary to obtain winter foods
for the stock, a crop of winter-grown tares or trifolium, or other
strong-growing green crops, may be sown in the autumn at little
expense, and mown and put in the receptacle by the first week
in June, and thus do away with the immense expense and great
uncertainty of the cultivation and consumption of roots on such
land. The report winds up with the following verdict : The chief
advantage of silage-making against haymaking is its comparative
independence of the weather, that the fodder is handled while
green without any risk of the tender and nutritious leaves being
lost on the ground as in haymaking, that the resulting silage is
succulent and palatable, and that on purely grazing farms it is
now possible to obtain a portion of the grass crop for winter in
such a state as to equal the effect of summer-fed grass for the
purposes of the dairy."
In conclusion, it may be added that we cannot continue to
keep farms. in a high state of fertility without stock, and we can-
not keep dairy cattle profitably unless we provide feed for them
during periods of drought and consequent famine, and the silo
greatly assist us in this direction.
LIST OF BUTTER FACTORIES IN COLONY OF VIC-
TORIA, WITH CREAMERIES ATTACHED TO
R. Poy nter 4
J. C. Ritchie
Co. , Melbourne
T. S. Moore
Melb. C. B. Coy.
Melb. C. B. Coy.
Benn, F. *
Burnt Creek* .
Keogh & Browne
Broad, Mrs. * .
* Private factories.
J. T. Brown
J. W. Brown -
Bonnie Doon ....
S. D. Morrissey <
c/o Holdensen and
C. A. Tulloh
R. P. Worth
H. G. Hill
Cox, George* ...
Clifton Park ...
J. D. & W. Hope
J. S. Ferriss I
R. W. Thomas
Crimeen, B. * ...
R. A. Lightbody
W. T. EdwardsJ
M. C. B. Coy.
Doomburrim . . .
J. A. Hailes ...
A. F. Crockett
Fletcher, G. H,*
G. H. Fletcher
A. H. Rennick
| L. Durant
Fresh Food Co.
t Creameries :
Newry Drumanure Nanneella
Mysia Towaninny Timmering
Borung Pompapiel Valencia Creek
Wahring Teddywaddy Benjeroop
Muskerry Campbell's Forest Byrneside
Briagolong Yarroweyah Murchison
Salisbury West Koo-wee-rup Lake Elizabeth
Bridge-water Nth. Beazley's Bridge Moe
Narracan Budgerum Quambatook
Glenmaggie Moorilim Elmore
Yando Fernihurst Bridgewater
Barnedown Murphy's Lake Lake Marmal
Sale Langwornor Corack East
Redesdale Nagambie Yarragon
Tabilk Mangalore Powlett Plains
Warrion Sutton Grange Girgarre East
Korong Vale The Heart Narrewillock
Garvoc Wunghnu Coonooer Bridge
Fish Point Emu Flat Mystic Park
Fresh Food Co.
t Creameries continued.
Lake Charm Katunga Glenloth
Gilgilia Swan Hill Wycheproof
Morwell Gower East Koyuga
Glen Hope Yeungroon Kyneton-road
Tatura Longwood Boort
Terang Nulla Nulla Willow Grove
Glen Elgin ...
J. R. Vickers...
I. Williams I
Glenormiston . . .
C. H. Smith -
C. E. Lagh <J
* Private factory.
Harvie, A.* ...
Harriss, A. W.*
A. W. Harriss
M. C. B. Coy.
M. C. B. Coy.
C. J. Osborne \
J. W. Wilkins
Kiewa Valley, Huon
M. C. B. Coy.
J. Cameron <
J. J. Quinlan
Ardmona Invergordon Kaarimba
Cosgrove Johnsonville Kiiowsley
Hillside Katunga East Muckatah
Marunga Naringaningalook Seven Creeks
Stratford Undera Wangaratta
Wanalta Woodlands Wy-Yung
Yarroweyah Fish Creek Toongabbie
Lower Tarwin Nicholson Toora
Anderson & Co.
Mirboo North ...
J. W. Nutley
J. McMeekin . . .
J. E Cowling
Eel Hole Creek
Maintongoon . . .
J. J. Hoare
Major Creek* ...
Major Creek, Bur-
W. Dimlop ...
J. E. Jones
J. P. MeCubbeiJ
A. W. Elms
Mintaro ... '
* Private factories.
Upper Flynn's Creek
Maher, T.* ...
c/o Melbourne Chilled
Neerim South ...
J. C. Shanks
.1. F. Blacklock
Poowong ... Poowong... ... E. Dixon
Portland ... ... S. P. Hawkins
A. J. Athorn
Pyramid Hill ...
A. J. Barnett
W. H. Snow and
J. C. McCalluml
River View ...
Rialto Dairy ...
S. V. Meadows
. Swanpool and
E. S. Gutteridge
South Ecklin ...
E. C. Marsh
* Private factories.
T. McNaughteii -,
Salathiel, M.* ...
Thorpdale South ...
T. H. Reynolds
S. Giblett |
T. H. Row ...
J. B. Coombs
T. Mitchell ...
'! '.' i
Tatong, via Benalla
D. H. Coghill
Violet Town* ...
J. Wallace ...
South Melbourne ...
f Creameries :
Avenel Muckleford Keilor
Baringhup West Myrtleford Boort East
Bet Bet Neerim South Wild Duck
Corop Newstead Jindivick
Runnymede Sandon Woodstock
Darbonee St. James Belinda
Gre Gre Tarago Sunbury
Kotupna Ulupna Whittlesea
G. F. Holden \
"!> j. I
G. T. Chirnside
Willung, via Rose-
Wright, A. F. S.*
Wattle Creek *
A. F. S. Wright
F. H. Lovelock
J. T. H. Cocks
W. H. Snow and
A. E. Gibson
White, W. G.*
W. G. White
High-street, Yea ...
R. A. Wall -
T. W. Wyatt 1
Yarra Glen ...
Wood & Co.
Wood & Co.
* Private factories.
A. Kell |
Mt. Wallace Telford
Boosey Oven's Bridge
North Boorhamin Bunbartha
By Authority : ROBT. S. BRAIN, Government Printer, Melbourne.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY