Skip to main content

Full text of "Modern etchings, mezzotints and dry-points"

See other formats


-~-v 



MODERN 

ETCHINGS 

MEZZOTINTS 

AND DRY-POINTS 




iu\ -x^ 



EDITED BY CHARLES HOLME 



MCMXIII 
THE STUDIO" LTD. 
LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK 



55 



o' 



o 






PREFATORY NOTE 

The Editor desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to the various 
artists who have kindly lent proofs of their plates for reproduction in 
this volume. Also to the following publishers who have courteously 
allowed their copyright subjects to appear amongst the illustrations : 
Messrs. Colnaghi & Obach ; Messrs. Jas. Connell & Sons ; Messrs. 
Dowdeswell & Dowdeswells, Ltd.; Mr. Robert Dunthorne ; The 
Pine Art Society, Ltd. ; The Gesellschaft fiir Vervielfaltigende 
Kunst, Vienna ; Mr. R. Gutekunst ; Mr. W. H. Meeson ; M. Ed. 
Sagot ; and Messrs. E. J. van Wisselingh & Co. 



A 2 111 



327956 



ARTICLES 



Great Britain. By Malcolm C. Salaman 

America. By E. A. Taylor 

France. By E. A. Taylor 

Holland. By Ph. Zilcken 

Austria. By A. S. Levetus 

Germany. By L. Deubner 

Sweden. By Thorsten Laurin 



PAGES 

3 
107 

159 

193 
219 

245 
263 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



GREAT BRITAIN 



Brangwyn, Frank, A.R.A., R.E. 
Bush, Reginald, E. J., A.R.E. 
Cameron, D.Y., A.R.A., A.R.S.A 
Dawson, Nelson, A.R.E. 
East, Sir Alfred, A.R.A., P.R.B.A 
Fisher, A. Hugh, A.R.E. 
Fitton, Hedley, R.E. . 
Frood, Hester 

Gaskell, Percival, R.E., R.B.A. 
Giles, William 
Haigh, Axel H., R.E. 
Hankey, W. Lee, R.E. 
Hardie, Martin, A.R.E. 
Hartley, Alfred, R.E. . 
Hole, William, R.S.A., R.E 
Holroyd, Sir Charles, R.E. 
Howarth, Albany E., A.R.E 
James, Hon. Walter J., R.E 
Lancaster, Percy, A.R.E. 
Lee, Sydney, A.R.E. . 
Mackenzie, J. Hamilton, A.R.E. 
McBey, James 
Marriott, F., A.R.E. . 



R. 



13, 14, 15, 16, 17 
19, 20 
21, 23 
25, 26 
27, 28, 29 

31. 32 

33' 34 
41, 42 

35. 37' 38 

• 39 
43' 45' 46 

47' 48 
52, 53 
49' 51 

• 54 
55^ 57 

58, 59' 61 
63, 64 
. 65 
. 66 
69, 70 
. 67 

• 71 



\ 













LIST OF ARTISTS 


PAGES 


Monk, William, R.E. 72, 73 


Ness, John A., A. R.E. 






IS 


Osborne, Malcolm, R.E. 






. 76 


Pott, Constance M., R.E. . 






/ 


Robertson, Percy, R.E, 






. 82 


Robinson, Sir J. C, C.B., R.E., F.S.A. 






79, 81 


Roussel, Theodore 






83, 84 


Short, Sir Frank, R.A., P.R.E. . 




'.85, 


87, 88, 89, 91, 92 


Spence, Robert, R.E. . 






. . . 96 


Strang, William, A.R.A. 






93. 95 


Taylor, Luke, R.E. . 






• 97 


Turrell, Arthur, J. 






. 98 


Walker, William 






99, lOI 


Waterson, David, R.E. 






102, 103 


Watson, Chas. J., R.E. 






104 


AMERICA 


Armington, Caroline H. . . . . . . .114 


Armington, Frank M. 










.113 


Coover, Nell 










. 115 


Covey, Arthur 










. 116 


Dahlgreen, Chas. W. . 






/ 




. 117 


Gleeson, C. K. . 










. 119 


Hornby, Lester G. 










120, 121, 122 


Hyde, Helen 










• 123 


Jaques, Bertha E. 










125, 126 


King, Charles B. 










. 127 


Koopman, Augustus 










. 128 


MacLaughlan, D. Shaw 










. 129, 131 


Marin, John 










132, 133' 134 


Nordfeldt, B. J. . 










• 135 


Partridge, G. Roy 










. 136, 137 


Pennell, Joseph . 










138, 139. 141 


Pitts, Lendall 










142, 143, 145 


Plowman, George T. . 










• 147 



VI 



LIST OF ARTISTS 













PAGES 


Raymond, F. W. 


• . 


. 148 


Reed, Earl H. . 








. 149 


Rosenfield, Lester 








150 


Sawyer, Phil 








. 151 


Schneider, Otto J. 








. 152, 153 


Webster, Herman A. . 








. 155, 156 




FRANCE 


1 


Achener, M. 


• • • 


. 161 


Beaufrere, A. 


, 




• 


162 


Bejot, Eug., R.E. 








163, 164 


Beurdeley, Jacques 








. 165, 167 


Bracquemond, Felix 








168 


Chahine, Edgar . 








169 


Dauchez, Andre 










170 


De Latcnay, G. 










. 171, 173 


Feau, A. 










. . . .174 


Gobo, G. . 










. 175, 176 


Heyman, Ch. 










. 177' 178 


Leheutre, G. 










. 179 


Lepere, A. . 










180, 181, 183 


Roux, Marcel 










. 184 


Steinlen, T. A. . 










. 186, 187, 189 


Villon, Jacques . 










..... 185 




HOLLAN] 


D 


Bauer, M. A. J. . 


. . • 


195, 196, 197, 199 


Derkzen van Angeren, 


Anton 




201, 202, 203 


Houten, Barbara van 


. 




. 204 


Storm van 's Gravesanc 


ic, Ch. 




205, 207, 208 


Witsen, W. 


• • 




209, 21 1, 212 


Zilcken, Ph. 


. 




. 213,215,216 








A 


^ 


vii 



LIST OF ARTISTS 





AUSTRIA 


PAGES 


Horovitz, Armin 




. 221 


Jettmar, Rudolf . 




. 223, 224 


Kasimir, Luigi . 




225, 226 


Lusy, Marino M. 




227, 228, 229 


Michalek, Ludwig 




. . 230,231 


PoUak, Max 




. 232, 233, 234 


Schmutzer, Ferdinand 




• 237, 239 


Simon, T. F. 




• 235 


Svabinsky, Max . 


GERMANY 


. 240, 241 


Geiger, Willi 




. 247 


Halm, Prof. Peter 




. 248 


Jahn, Georg 




. 249,250 


Kolb, Prof. Alois 




• 251,253 


Meyer-Basel, C. Th. . 




• 254 


Uhl, Joseph 




• 255,256 


Vogeler, Heinrich 


SWEDEN 


. 257, 259 


Boberg, Ferdinand 




265, 266 


Burmeister, Gabriel 




. 269 


Eugen, Prince 




. 267 


Larsson, Carl 




. 270 


Norlind, Ernst 




271, 272 


Sparre, Count Louis 




. 273, 274 


Zorn, Anders L. 




275» 277, 278, 279 



vm 



GREAT BRITAIN 



GREAT BRITAIN. By Malcolm C. 

Salaman. 

WHEN, long ago, James McNeill Whistler argued it 
" no reproach to the most finished scholar or greatest 
gentleman in the land that in his heart he prefer the 
popular print to the scratch of Rembrandt's needle " — 
if he will " have but the wit to say so" — the etcher's art 
was still somewhat " caviare to the general." But its extraordinary 
efflorescence in recent years, due, beyond question, primarily to the 
influence of Whistler's own sovereign example, has widened the 
public appreciation and encouragement of original etching to an 
extent never previously known. For one artist using this vivacious 
form of pictorial expression in the years when the master was 
astonishing the art-world with the fresh outlook and artistic 
originality of his exquisite Venice etchings there are perhaps fifty 
scratching their visions upon the copper-plate to-day. 

Pondering this fact recently I chanced to find, in a drawer I was 
clearing of old letters, a telegram, dated May 1886. It was from 
Whistler himself. " Come to The Vale to-day, important." What 
the important matter was I forget entirely. To Whistler everything 
was of importance that bore any relation to his life's work ; and his 
messages were always urgent to any of the few who, wielding the 
pen in those days, were enthusiastically in sympathy with his art, 
and, in defiance of popular prejudice and the ridicule and contempt 
of academic criticism — almost incredible to-day — were proclaiming 
him the supreme artist among his contemporaries — a master sure of 
immortality. But this particular message had for me an accidental 
import that I can never forget. It led to my seeing Whistler, the 
greatest etcher since Rembrandt, and consequently one of the two 
greatest of all time, actually handling his etching-needle upon a 
copper-plate. Unable, I remember, to answer his summons on the 
instant, when at length I reached his house in The Vale, Chelsea — 
a countrified old house, decorated within partly in " tender tones of 
orpiment " and partly in two shades of green ; all vanished now, 
with no sign remaining but a portion of the delightful wilderness of 
an old garden — I learned that he had left word for me to follow him 
to a certain butcher's shop at the far end of the King's Road. There 
I found him sitting at the window of a front room over the shop, 
holding his copper-plate, resting on his knee, and drawing delicately 
with his needle's point on the wax ground the fruit and vegetable shop 
across the road. Whether it was the plate known as T. A. NasJis 
Fruit S/iop, or the one with the two women in the doorway, I can not 
now remember — I did not see the plate after it was bitten, and 

3 



GREAT BRITAIN 

on the only occasion when I was privileged to sec Whistler print, 
and even turn the handle of his press for him, the fruit-shop was not 
one of the plates — but the picture of the great artist sitting there, in 
that little room, his long, thin, sensitive hand scratching those magic 
lines of his upon the plate, is impressed upon my brain as indelibly 
as if Whistler himself had etched it there. And behind this vivid 
memory — of more than twenty-six years ago — is the thought that 
what I was then witnessing was the actual expression of that master- 
ful genius which, having given new life to the etcher's art, was still 
with exquisite and ever alert vision enriching its traditions with fresh 
refinements of suggestion and selection, while preserving in its purity 
the true etcher's inalienable heritage of Rembrandt's line. 

To the extraordinary activity and diversity of present-day 
British etchers influences other than Whistler's have, of course, 
conduced ; a wider knowledge of Meryon, the delightful art and 
masterful leadership of Seymour Haden, the austere classic beauty 
of Alphonse Legros' graphic expression, the more extended study or 
Rembrandt, the example of Mr. D. Y. Cameron's well-earned yet 
remarkable success, the writings of P. G. Hamerton and Sir Frederick 
Wedmore, and, in no small measure, the constant teaching of the 
purest principles of the etcher's craft by the most masterly living 
exponent of the whole science and art of engraving, Sir Frank Short. 

It is with the living that we are now concerned, the purpose 
of the present volume being to offer a comprehensive survey of 
contemporary expression upon the metal-plate, whether through 
the medium of the etched, or acid-bitten, line ; or the etched tone, 
which is aquatint ; or dry-point, which is the furry line scratched direct 
upon the metal ; or mezzotint, which is the scraping of the entirely 
roughened plate to evolve out of darkness, through the subtleties 
of light and tone, form. Each of these mediums the distinguished 
President of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers 
uses with full command of its artistic capacity, recognising surely 
the appeal of his subject for the appropriate method, and expressing 
its pictorial essentials in terms of that method and no other. Happily 
we are able to demonstrate this with reproductions of six repre- 
sentative plates of Sir Frank Short's, from which it will be seen that 
none better than he appreciates the truth of Walter Pater's dictum : 
" Each art, having its own peculiar and untranslatable sensuous 
charm, has its own special mode of reaching the imagination, its 
own special responsibilities to its material." Here, for instance, is an 
etching. Strand Gate, Winchelsea, in which the pictorial interest of 
that wide expanse of flat country, with the river that " winds 
somewhere safe to sea," stretching away from the massive gateway 

4 



GREAT BRITAIN 

in the foreground, all bathed in the sunny atmosphere of a hot 
summer afternoon, is completely suggested with a rich economy of 
selected lines and expressive spaces and harmoniously balanced tones, 
producing a result as masterly as the famous Qo id-weigher s Field of 
Rembrandt. Here is the etcher of those charmingly individual 
plates, how 'Tide and tiie Evening Star, Sleeping till the Flood, The 
Street — Whitstable, in the same distinctive mood of spacious vision 
and eloquent reticence, giving to each line its full value of suggestion, 
and revelling in delicate gradations of bitten lines. When, howrever, 
he looks across the Thames at Sion House, and sees in the vibrant 
sunlight that noble clump of trees casting deep shadow^s upon the 
flowing waters, he feels doubtless that the black velvety tones which 
they present to his pictorial imagination call for the rich burred 
quality of line which only the dry-point gives. 

Again, when his subject offers poetic contrasts of light and 
shadow that would seem to be more adequately interpreted by 
gradations of full tone. Sir Frank resorts with certain mastery to 
either aquatint or mezzotint, as the most subtle distinctions of light 
shall determine. Both of these mediums owe to him their modern 
revival, and a development of their resources for the most sensitive 
interpretation of all the poetry of landscape under every passing 
influence of light and atmosphere, beyond the practice of even the 
engravers that Turner directed. See how incomparably he uses pure 
aquatint. Here, for instance, in Dawn, is a masterpiece of atmo- 
spheric treatment such as the old English aquatinters, with their 
charmingly picturesque views of landscape, could never have achieved, 
though even a Daniell came to judgment. Sir Frank shows us, with 
a magic command of tones, all the beauty and mystery of that hour 
when the " breaths of kissing night and day are mingled in the 
eastern heaven." A simple piece of Kentish common-land is here 
transfigured by the artist's imaginative vision, " When dusk shrunk 
cold, and light trod shy, and dawn's grey eyes were troubled grey." 
Sir Frank has produced these beautiful tone gradations by working 
his acid through a dust-ground, as he did in his lovely plates Silver 
Tide and Sunrise o'er Whitby Scaur, and the splendid Span of Old 
'Battersea "Bridge. But so extraordinarily sensitive is Sir Frank in his 
craftmanship that, when his subject demands a special luminosity, as 
does the sunny Thames at Twickenham, he uses the spirit-ground with 
a richness that Paul Sandby, its inventor, can hardly have dreamed 
of, and, what is particularly remarkable, he does not accentuate these 
tree-forms with a single etched line. 

His revival and mastery of mezzotint, however, is the chief 
jewel in Sir Frank Short's artistic crown, and one may trust that the 

5 



GREAT BRITAIN 
two examples given here of his original expression in that beautiful 
medium will suggest to collectors that they should be content with 
his numerous matchless interpretative plates, notably after Turner, 
Constable, De Windt, and Crome, and call for more of his own 
conceptions. His pictorial imagination has been nobly stirred in 
The Sun went down in his Wrath, in which, as in The Lifting Cloud, 
he has shown " how the clouds arise, spumed of the wild sea- 
snortings." This is pure mezzotint — here it is shown in a trial 
proof after the second scraping — and the drawing of these wave- 
forms without the definition of the etched line is a remarkable 
technical achievement. In the beautiful Solway Fishers, however, it 
will be seen that, although the light clouds floating in their pale 
expanse of summer sky, and the multitudinous tones, in light and 
shadow, of the spacious foreshore and distant hills across the Forth, 
are evolved with the scraper alone, a certain accent of structural 
outline is due to preliminary etching, a legitimate aid to mezzotint 
used by Turner in the "Liber Studiorum " plates, and by all the 
famous mezzotinters of the eighteenth century. 

While Sir Frank Short, in his practice and teaching, is the 
champion of the pure technique and great traditions of the etcher's 
art, Mr. Frank Brangwyn, in striking contrast, is a law unto himself, 
and, in defiance of all the traditions handed on by the masters, he 
pursues his own robustly independent decorative and pictorial way upon 
the metal, answerable only to his own masterful genius. For others 
the special charm of etching, the tone-suggestion of line, the balanced 
strength and delicacy of " biting," the intimacy of the print itself ; for 
Mr. Brangwyn, first and foremost, the vitality of the great decorative 
design, the splendid, forcible contrasts of fierce glowing lights and 
darkest shadows, the expressive significance of the thing he imagines. 
For his material he may choose the zinc plate, and it shall be of 
inordinate size if his large decorative design would seem to demand 
it, so that his print shall hang upon the wall a majestic work of art. 
No responsibility to the etcher's medium appears to influence 
Mr. Brangwyn, the responsibility he feels is to his own artistic 
conception, and its need of spacious, vigorous, and impressive 
expression. So the " true etched line " of Rembrandt does not bind 
him, the " finest possible point " of Whistler pricks not his artistic 
conscience ; but his point, his line, shall be related in breadth and 
strength to the extraordinary surface he chooses to work upon> 
while, for the tones he wants, he will actually paint his plate with ink, 
so that he produces his desired pictorial effect. Is he not a Painter- 
Etcher ? If one may feel that these wonderful conceptions of 
Mr. Brangwyn's, always so splendid and masterly in design, might 
6 



GREAT BRITAIN 

have found, perhaps, even more vital and spontaneous utterance 
upon the stone, vs^ith the gloriously rich blacks possible to litho- 
graphy, it may be answered that, since the artist has chosen to 
employ the etcher's method instead of the lithographer's, he justifies 
his independent manner of using it by the decorative and dramatic 
impressiveness of his prints. The five examples reproduced here 
are, I think, fairly representative. I^reaking-up of the '''■Duncan" is 
a subject after Mr. Brangwyn's own heart. How weirdly tragic the 
effect of those mighty cranes, engines, as it were, of a destroying 
fate, reaching over the pathetic old hulk to aid and urge the ghouls 
of labour in their work of demolition ! And of what infinite value 
they are to the design ! Dramatic human interest is vital in this, as in 
aA Gate of Naples^, with its bustling crowds beside its great solemn 
towering stones, and ay^ Mosque — Constantinople, nobly beautiful in the 
design evolved from the architectural disposition of lines and curves 
seen in vivid chiaroscuro, with its hurrying groups of people excited by 
the terror of the fire. Design again, elaborate and of wonderful origin- 
ality, in The Crucifixion helpfully controls the dramatic vitality of this 
new picturing of a scene that Rembrandt himself has rendered perhaps 
not more humanly, though for solemn grandeur of impression The 
Three Crosses, done in 1653, is still unsurpassed among the great 
etchings of the world. Lastly, in The Bridge of ^Alcantara — Sicily, 
we have Mr. Brangwyn in a landscape mood of romantic solemnity, 
yet the unity of impression achieved in this large simplicity of 
design is no more than that we find in the most elaborate of his 
great compositions. And the " informing expression of passing 
light " here suggests one of those dreary regions in which there is 
no quiet nor silence, such as Poe would have revelled in. The lover 
of etching for its own delightful sake may hate Mr. Brangwyn's 
vast prints, but they grip one's imagination with their splendid 
pictorial qualities. And this must be so, whatever the medium this 
great artist elects to adapt to the needs of his own energy of 
expression. 

Of a masterful independence is also Sir Alfred East's way as an 
etcher, unable he, seemingly, to forget that he is painter first and 
etcher afterwards. And as a painter of landscape his way has been 
always his own, his temperament romantic, his vision absolutely in- 
dividual, and ever on the side of the poets. So, when he uses the 
metal plate and the acid to interpret his conceptions, he obtains his 
painter's effects with a bold and forcible technique that bears little 
relation to the accepted conventions of the etcher. But he gets the 
effects he wants, and his prints appeal by reason of their vigorous 
pictorial expressiveness and decorative qualities. In Evening Glow, 

7 



GREAT BRITAIN 
with those very living trees silhouetted in engaging pattern against 
that glowing sky, one feels the beautiful romantic spirit of the hour ; 
but if Whistler could come back from the shades to hold the print in 
his hands and examine the manner of its doing, he would surely ex- 
claim " Amazing ! " for I doubt if etcher ever before wrought his 
black tones in such rough wise. The White Mill is, in another way, a 
painter's handling of tone, while The Avenue^ a charmingly decorative 
composition characteristically poetic in feeling, has for me a greater 
artistic significance, and I earnestly hope Sir Alfred will not carry it 
beyond its " First State." 

Now let us turn to some of the essential etchers, that is to say, 
those graphic artists who, conceiving their subjects within the just 
limitations of the etcher's art, seek to express their pictorial visions 
in the true terms of their chosen medium, content with its special 
quality of beauty. First, then, to that fine artist, Mr. D. Y. Cameron, 
one of the greatest living masters of etching, whose best plates, 
veritable masterpieces some of them, have now become prizes most 
eagerly sought by the connoisseurs of two continents. Of his imagina- 
tive rendering of building or of landscape one may say, as Pater said 
with happy intuition of a Legros landscape etching, that it is "in- 
formed by an indwelling solemnity of expression, seen upon it or 
half seen, within the limits of an exceptional moment, or caught 
from his own mood perhaps, but which he maintains as the very 
essence of the thing throughout his work." Just as a Keats will call 
up haunting mental pictures with the natural magic of words, 
Mr. Cameron's unfailing eye for the pictorially harmonious contrast 
of mellow light and brooding shadow can imbue with romantic 
mystery that haunts one's imagination the old street or storied building, 
as well as the hills and waters of his native Scotland. But he is 
not represented in the present volume by such classics of the etcher's 
art as his solemnly beautiful vision of The Five Sisters, that stained- 
glass glory of York Minster, or his noble St. Laumer — Blois, or the 
enchanting Ca d'Oro, or the impressive Sienna, Loches, or Chinon, or 
that later bit of sombrely lovely Highland landscape, Ben Ledi, 
rendered, with all its poetic spirit, richly in dry-point. Here, in 
The Chimera of aAmiens, Mr. Cameron is seen in one of his latest 
moods, picturing with a great etcher's true economy of line and 
balance of tone, the line delicately bitten, the tone strengthened with 
dry-point, that grim and fearsome gargoyle looking hungrily from 
a parapet of Amiens Cathedral over the city's houses and the distant 
plains. Extraordinarily fascinating in design, this is a plate that grows 
upon one. Here, in its oval, it is in what Mr. Cameron calls its second 
state, though Mr. Frank Kinder, cataloguing more recently than 

8 



GREAT BRITAIN 

Sir Frederick Wedmore, calls it, I think, the fourth ; the first was 
square and showed more of the building. The head of Rameses II. 
in etched line touched with dry-point, done from an alabaster frag- 
ment in Cairo, illustrates also a recent etching-mood of Mr. Cameron's 
— a feeling for severe design. 

A regrettable absentee from this volume is Mr. Cameron's 
distinguished countryman, Mr. Muirhead Bone, now recognised the 
world over as a master of the copper-plate, whose zAyr Prison^ 'Suilding^ 
The Great Qantry^ 'The Shot Tower, Liberty's Clock, are surely among 
the greatest things of dry-point. That other eminent Scotch etcher, 
however, Mr. William Strang, now among the veterans of the craft, 
and one of the most expert, prolific, and versatile, is here represented, 
though not, perhaps, at his high-water mark. This is reached when, 
with etching-needle or dry-point, he probes the living personality, and 
interprets, with extraordinary truth of insight and vitality of expres- 
sion, the very inwardness of his subject, especially when there is 
interesting character to observe. His etched portraits reveal his 
true genius, and some of them are among the masterpieces of their 
kind. But Mr. Strang has a pictorial imagination of amazing energy 
and inventiveness, stimulated by a wide range of subject, in which 
human interest happily plays a part more than usual in the etching- 
subject of to-day. And if in The Fisherman he seems to have gone for 
a decorative beauty of composition which allows little scope for the 
expression of his own individuality, in Comfort, a more characteristic 
dry-point, we find implicit that same simple virile human sympathy 
which, years ago, Mr. Strang revealed in those expressive etchings 
illustrating Burns, that are among the best things he ever did. 

Scotland would seem to be, in very truth, the Magnetic North, 
for the needle points to it in no uncertain fashion, so many of our 
prominent etchers being Scotsmen. We have just named three of the 
most eminent, and here is yet another, a new-comer, worthy to be of 
their company. This is Mr. James McBey, that entirely self-taught 
young artist, who, while he was a bank-clerk in Aberdeen, found out 
for himself the craft of etching, practised it with an expediency of 
his own, made himself a printing-press out of an old mangle, and 
came, absolutely unknown, to London a little more than a year ago, 
bringing with him no introductions but his copper-plates and a set of 
prints. When he showed these at Goupil's, his recognition by the 
connoisseurs was immediate, and now collectors are greedy for his 
etchings. That his way is the happiest etcher's way, seeing his sketch 
vital in essentials and expressing it with the most interesting economy 
of means, may be seen in his engaging impression of the bridge 
of San ^Martin — Toledo, Note the sketchy freedom and the fineness of 

9 



GREAT BRITAIN 
the bitten lines, with the felicitous touches of dry-point. Having 
once drawn his subject on the spot, Mr. McBey is able to carry every 
line of it in his memory, and, using his needle actually in the acid 
from the first, that is, with the Dutch mordant steadily covering the 
plate, for he never uses the customary acid bath, he can exactly 
reproduce his original sketch, with all its freedom and spontaneity, 
while the etching is simultaneously proceeding. Mr. McBey has 
etched with individual outlook in Spain, in Holland, and in Scotland. 
Architecture makes little or no appeal to him, his interest being in 
landscape — the plains, but never the hills — and the sea and rivers, 
under all aspects of light and atmosphere, and human beings in 
moments of characteristic action. Among the etchers of to-day 
there is no more interesting personality, and there are plates of his 
that justify one in predicting that, sooner or later, Mr. McBey will 
win a place among the masters. 

Not the least promising of the younger school of etchers is 
Mr. Martin Hardie, and no plates that he has yet produced show 
more remarkably than Hey ! ho I the Wind and the Rain^ with its 
wonderfully vivid impression of stormy weather over a typical 
English landscape, and A Bit of Old Portsmouth, his fine vital sense 
of the pictorial, his feeling for design, and his full understanding of 
the etcher's medium. Three other clever young Scotch etchers 
may be named here. Miss Hester Frood, a pupil of Mr. Cameron, 
shows in her beautiful, tenderly envisaged Sussex Farm, and Les Stes 
Maries de la Mer, that she also realises the " indwelling solemnity 
of expression." Mr. William Walker is more interesting in his 
spacious conception of those Dutch sand-dunes, with the nestling 
seacoast village, than in his vivacious, if perhaps less individual, 
dry-point rendering of *S. Sulpice — Paris. Mr. J. Hamilton Mackenzie 
gives us well-designed and well-etched views of the Cathedral of 
St. Francis — Assisi and The Cathedral Tower — Bruges. 

Mr. Luke Taylor is an artist of large pictorial vision, and he 
etches with the authority of an admirable craftsman. The Sheepfold 
is an excellent example. He knows trees, and feels their scenic in- 
fluence. So, too, does the Hon. Walter James. His trees, one feels, 
are actually rooted in the ground, and the very spirit of their growth 
animates their picturing at the hands of this sincere artist. The 
Ilex is a remarkable piece of intimate etching. No less characteristic 
of Mr. James's art is the happy Summer Afternoon on the Moors, a 
Northumbrian subject after his own heart. That Mr. Reginald 
E. J. Bush also looks at trees with a loving pictorial eye and a true 
appreciation of the way they grow is obvious in New Forest Beeches, 
but still more so in the charming intricate unity oi Boulder Wood — New 

lo 



GREAT BRITAIN 

Forest. One can hardly look at Mr. Ness's boldly conceived Fringe 
of the Wood without thinking of Mr. Oliver Hall, and wishing 
that that masterly etcher of wide tree-dominated landscapes would 
return for expression to the copper-plate. 

Mr. Albany E. Howarth, an etcher whose considerable promise 
is rapidly fulfilling itself, makes, perhaps, his greatest popular appeal 
in such accomplished plates as The West Doorway — "Rochester and its 
companion. The Prior s Door — Ely ; but I find more charm of indivi- 
dual vision, more evidence of his artistic development, in his broadly 
conceived dry-point Simonside — Northumberland. Mezzotint he 
handles boldly, if not with any special subtlety, in Corfe Castle. 

For truly sensitive expression in mezzotint we may turn to the 
work of that earnest and well-equipped artist, Mr. Percival Gaskell, 
whose very beautiful plate Where Forlorn Sunsets Flare and Fade on 
Desolate Sea and Lonely Sand shows poetic appreciation of the subtleties 
of the medium. Its capacity for vivid dramatic effect he has ex- 
ploited in The Mad King's Castle. Mr. Gaskell is especially expressive 
in tone, his aquatints are exquisite ; but as an etcher we see him 
true to the best traditions of the art in a delightful plate The Mouth 
of the Wye. This one may say also of Mr. C. J. Watson's Saint 
Ouen — Pont Audemer^ a characteristic example of a distinguished and 
most accomplished etcher ; of Mr. Percy Robertson's charmingly 
dainty vision of The Long Water — Hampton Court ; and of Mr. Robert 
Spence's Corner Boy — Rye, a most original view of that Mecca of the 
contemporary British etcher, taken from the church tower, on 
which this gilt " corner boy " is one of the clock's supporters. The 
composition here is of that masterly quality one might expect from 
the artist who has given us the superbly dramatic series of etchings 
illustrating George Fox's " Journal," an achievement unique in the 
whole range of the art, and one that collectors should prize. 

The classic style and masterly impressiveness of Sir Charles 
Holroyd are finely exemplified in Stockley Bridge., a plate of much 
artistic dignity. The Acropolis^ for all the classic glamour of its 
subject, is scarcely so distinguished. An artist of high distinction 
and exquisite daintiness of vision, Mr. Theodore Roussel, the accom- 
plished President of the Society of Graver-Printers in Colour, is 
here represented by two fascinating dry-points, Baby and The Terrace 
at fSMonte Carlo. Dry-point too, but more robustly used, is the 
medium of a very fine piece of vital characterisation, 'Portrait of my 
Mother, by Mr. Malcolm Osborne, a young etcher from whom great 
things may be expected. A piece of delicate and artistic etching and 
vivacious presentment is the Old " Morning Post'' Office in the Strand, 
by Miss Constance Pott, a genuine artist, with a remarkably versatile 

1 1 



GREAT BRITAIN 
command of mediums. In aquatint she has done lovely things, but 
here she proves, in this charmingly sympathetic Portrait of my 
Mother, that mezzotint for original portraiture can be handled by a 
living engraver with an artistry and vitality that would have done 
credit to any of the famous reproductive mezzotinters of the 
eighteenth century. Mr. David Waterson is also one of Sir Frank 
Short's most accomplished followers in the use of this medium. 

In Turning to Windward — off the Yorkshire Coast, Mr. Nelson 
Dawson is at his happiest as an etcher of free and vivacious line, 
while Halle aux Poissons shows his bold pictorial handling of aquatint. 
Happy, too, is Mr. William Lee Hankey in his admirable etching 
1>utch r5Market and his characteristically bold dry-point Prayer ; while 
Mr. Sydney Lee, who expresses his artistic versatility through paint, 
colour-print, wood-block, and lithograph, is here seen in The Tower 
as a vigorous and impressive etcher. 

Mr. Hugh Fisher's characteristically -designed and daintily 
wrought plate The British Bridge — Canton calls to mind that brilliant 
and much-travelled young etcher Mr. Ernest Lumsden, some or 
whose plates, done in China and British Columbia, are full of an 
exceptionally engaging vitality and inherent etching interest. This 
can also be said of two vividly picturesque prints by the distinguished 
veteran Sir J. C. Robinson, showing aspects of landscape under heavy 
rain-storms, A Swollen Burn and October Rainfall in Spain. 

San Marco — Venezia is pictorially the most interesting of the three 
of Mr. Axel Haig's' large, elaborate, and popular plates. Of even 
greater popular appeal at the moment, perhaps, are Mr. Hedley 
Fitton's prints of primarily architectural interest ; while characteristic 
buildings have also inspired Mr. Arthur J. Turrell, Mr. William 
Monk, and Mr. Frederick Marriott. 

Let me conclude on a note of colour, for the original colour-print 
has undoubtedly come to stay. That sympathetic artist, Mr. Alfred 
Hartley, shows us here, together with a fine black-and-white aquatint, 
oAt the Boat-'Builders\ a charming vision, in tender tones, of Silvery 
5^(ight. This was printed presumably from aquatint plates. But 
Mr. William Giles has adapted the principles of the wood-block to 
the metal plate, and evolved a process of colour-printing from a series 
of cameo, instead of intaglio, plates. This process, permitting the 
printing of pure colours, would seem to offer great pictorial and 
decorative possibilities. tA ^Midsummers 3^Qght — Traelde ^N^es — 
'Denmark, a lovely, poetic thing, is the pioneer print of this new 
method of Mr. Giles's, done from four zinc cameo plates and one 
intaglio, though Mrs. Giles has since produced an exquisite little 
print, perfectly pure in colour, from five cameo plates only. 

12 



GREAT BRITAIN 




(By permission of the 
Fine Art Society Ltd.) 



A GATE OF NAPLES." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY FRANK BRANQWYN, A.R.A.. R.E. 



13 



GREAT BRITAIN 




"a mosque, CONSTANTINOPLE.' ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY FRANK BRANGWYN, A.R.A., R.E. 



(^By permission of the 
Fine Art Society Ltd.) 



14 



GREAT BRITAIN 




{By permission of the 
Fine Art Society Ltd.) 



'the crucifixion." original etching 
by frank brangwyn, a.r.a., r.e. 



15 



- Ill 

O °=- 




I h 



i6 




17 



GREAT BRITAIN 



t ''ii^rr" 




NEW FOREST BEECHES." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY REGINALD E. J. BUSH, A.R.E. 



19 



5 -J 




o I- 



20 



"^« 



GREAT BRITAIN 




RAMESES II." ORIGINAL ETCHING WITH DRY-POINT 
BY D. Y. CAMERON. A.R.A . /'.R.S.A, 



GREAT BRITAIN 




THE CHIMERA OF AMIENS." ORIGINAL ETCHING WITH 
DRY-POINT BY D. Y. CAMERON. A.R.A., A.R.S.A. 



23 



GREAT BRITAIN 



f 




'TURNING TO WINDWARD— OFF THE YORKSHIRE COAST,' 
ORIGINAL ETCHING BY NELSON DAWSON, A.R.E. 



25 



GREAT BRITAIN 




HALLE AUX POISSONS. ' ORIGINAL 
AQUATINT BY NELSON DAWSON, A.R.E. 



26 



GREAT BRITAIN 




'evening glow.' original aquatint by 
sir alfred east, a.r.a., p.r.b.a., r.e. 



27 



GREAT BRITAIN 




THE AVENUE." ORIGINAL ETCHING BY 
SIR ALFRED EAST, A.R.A.. P.R.B.A., R.E. 



28 



GREAT BRITAIN 




'the white mill." original etching by 
sir alfred east. a.r.a., p.r.b.a., r.e. 



29 



d at 

4 

< u. 




UJ O 

o z 



xm 



52 



31 



GREAT BRITAIN 



r ^rssir^^^msspmi-::- - ^^'mry'<iisrfK)mB!^s^'^^iW''.'l^^Wi^mi 




'ST. ETIENNE DU MONT, PARIS." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY A. HUGH FISHER, A.R.E. 



32 



GREAT BRITAIN 




(By permission of Mr. Robert Dunthorne) 



'LA TOUR DE LHORLOGE. TOURS.' 
ETCHING QY HEOLEY FITTON. R.E. 



33 



GREAT BRITAIN 





ST. HILAIRE, POICTIERS." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY HEDLEY FITTON, R.E. 



(By permission oj Mr. Robert Dunthome) 



34 




Ill 


-1 


Q 


-1 


< 


lU 


It. 


^ 




(0 


o 


< 


z 


o 


< 


-1 


Ui 


< 


K 


> 


< 


o 


-1 

u. 


111 


CO 


a. 


»- 

111 

(0 


>■ 
m 


z 


1- 


D 


z 


CO 






1- 


z 


o 


DC 


N 


o 


N 


_l 


111 


e 


z 


o 




u. 


_l 




< 


Ill 


Z 


oe 




UI 


o 



5 o 



35 



'■ ».' i y i ^ j gy ! *jj^ 




37 



GREAT BRITAIN 




THE MAD KING'S CASTLE. ORIGINAL MEZZOTINT 
BY PERCIVAL GASKELL, RE., R.B.A. 



38 



GREAT BRITAIN 




"A MIDSUMMERS NIGHT.' ORIGINAL ETCHING 
IN COLOURS BY WILLIAM GILES. 




41 



GREAT BRITAIN 




' UES STES MARIES DE LA MER.' ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY HESTER FROOD 



42 



GREAT BRITAIN 




(Published hy Mr. Robert Dunthorfie) 



'aSSISI — OCTOBER EVENING. 
ETCHING BY AXEL H. HAIQ. 



' ORIGINAL 
R.E. 



43 



GREAT BRITAIN 




(Published by Mr, Robert Dunthorne) 



'geierstein." original etching 
by axel h. haig. r.e. 



45 



GREAT BRITAIN 




"SAN MARCO, VENEZIA." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY AXEL H. HAIG. R.E. 



iFuhlishcd by Mr. Robert Diinthorne) 



46 



GREAT BRITAIN 




THE PRAYER. • ORIGINAL DRY-POINT 
BY W. LEE HANKEY. R.E. 



47 



GREAT BRITAIN 




A DUTCH MARKET." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY W LEE HANKEY, R.E. 



48 



GREAT BRITAIN 



. 




"SILVERY NIGHT. • ORIGINAL ETCHING 
IN COLOURS BY ALFRED HARTLEY, R.E. 



GREAT BRITAIN 




" AT THE BOAT-BUILDERS'." ORIGINAL 
AQUATINT BY ALFRED HARTLEY,' R.E. 



51 



GREAT BRITAIN 




A BIT OF OLD PORTSMOUTH. " ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY MARTIN HAROIE. A.R.E. 



52 




I- . 






H 2 



53 



GREAT BRITAIN 




AN EASTERN WATER-WHEEL." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY WILLIAM HOLE. R.S.A.. RX. 



54 




55 




57 



GREATSBRITAIN 





.,-%4iL^. a** -4 



SIMONSIDE, NORTHUMBERLAND." ORIGINAL 
DRY-POINT BY ALBANY E HOWARTH. ARE. 



(^Hy permission of Messrs. Colna^hi and Oback 
and Messrs. Dowdesvuells) 



58 



GREAT BRITAIN 






IQii^K^Wnl* -. . 







'^'..-^ ^«^.,ji- 



(By periiiisiion of Messrs. Colnaghi and Ohach 
and Messrs. Do^udeswells) 



WEST DOORWAY. ROCHESTER." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY ALBANY E. HOWARTH, A.R.E. 

59 



GREAT BRITAIN 




{By permission of Messrs. Colnaghi and Obach and 
Messrs. Dou'deswclls) 



CORFE CASTLE." ORIGINAL MEZZOTINT 
BY ALBANY E. HOWARTH, A.R.E. 

6i 



GREAT BRITAIN 




\^.^:y^ - 



THE ILEX." ORIGINAL ETCHING BY 
THE HON. WALTER J. JAMES, R.E. 



63 




z 5 



Z liJ 

ir I 
i^ 

£E O 

lU Z 

2 J 

2 o 

3 H 
CO Ul 



64 



'«r-'*i\ ', 



GREAT BRITAIN 




/^'^^X^^*^^^^ 



THE POKE-BONNET." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY PERCY LANCASTER, A. R.E. 



65 



GREAT BRITAIN 




# 





'THE TOWER.' ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY SYDNEY LEE. A.R.E. 



66 




67 



GREAT BRITAIN 




'CATHEDRAL OF ST. FRANCIS, ASSISI." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY J. HAMILTON MACKENZIE. A. R.E. 



69 



GREAT BRITAIN 




0.n-~j.^^ l.w,.^ <>^ 



CATHEDRAL TOWER, BRUGES." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY J. HAMILTON MACKENZIE, A.R.E. 



70 



GREAT BRITAIN 




'chateau LAUDAN, FRANCE." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY F. MARRIOTT, A.R.E. 



71 




z 5 



I I- 



72 




73 



GREAT BRITAIN 




'the fringe of the wood.' original 
etching by john a. ness, a.r.e. 



75 



GREAT BRITAIN 




PORTRAIT OF MY MOTHER." ORIGINAL DRY-POINT 
BY MALCOLM OSBORNE, R.E. 



76 



GREAT BRITAIN 




'THE OLD 'MORNING POST' OFFICE IN THE STRAND.' 
ORIGINAL ETCHING BY CONSTANCE M. POTT, R.E. 



77 



GREAT BRITAIN 




PORTRAIT OF MY MOTHER." ORIGINAL MEZZOTINT 
BY CONSTANCE M. POTT. R.E. 



78 




79 



» 




8i 




ft; 



82 




O O 



ui o 

if 



uj O 



83 



GREAT BRITAIN 




THE BABY." ORIGINAL DRY-POINT 
BY THEODORE ROUSSEL 



84 




85 




87 




88 




89 




91 



F 




92 



GREAT BRITAIN 




THE FISHERMAN." ORIQINAU DRY-POINT 
BY WILLIAM STRANG, A.R.A. 



93 




95 



GREAT BRITAIN 




THE CORNER BOY. RYE." ORIGINAL ETCHING BY ROBERT SPENCE, R.E. 



96 



GREAT BRITAIN 




,9<iii/ixr7^^^r^-' 



'the SHEEPFOLD." original etching by LUKE TAYLOR, R.E. 

97 



GREAT BRITAIN 




'interior of the LORENZER KIRCHE, NURNBERG. 
ORIGINAL ETCHING BY ARTHUR J. TURRELL 



{By pertitUsion of Messrs. Coinaghi and ObacK) 



98 



GREAT BRITAIN 




{By permission 0/ Messrs. J as. Conn ell and Sons) 



"S. SULPICE, PARIS." ORIGINAL DRY-POINT 
BY WILLIAM WALKER 



99 



GREAT BRITAIN 






ROCKY LANDSCAPE." ORIGINAL MEZZOTINT 
BY DAVID WATERSON, RE. 



I02 



GREAT BRITAIN 




"OLD COULL." ORIGINAL MEZZOTINT 
BY DAVID WATERSON, R.E. 



103 



GREAT BRITAIN 




^~^-r 



SAINT OUEN, PONT ANDEMER." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY CHARLES J. WATSON, R.E. 



104 



AMERICA 



AMERICA. By E. A. Taylor. 

THE first attractive qualities in the work of American artists 
have always been supreme technical ability and a noticeable, 
close following of English tradition. It is only within recent 
years, and under the influence and strong personality of 
Whistler, and his masterly achievements as an artist and a 
painter, that a sleeping spirit has awakened to the realisation that 
technical ability is not the all of art and personal progress stagnates 
by imitation. 

Various mediums of expression have been utilised with marked 
individuality and skill, and the further possibilities of etching have 
not been amongst the least to be explored, in spite of timid teachers 
and their love of tradition, which was accountable for a prevalent 
belief that oil paint was the only medium through which great things 
could be accomplished. 

It is also due to the latter-day practice of etching that the com- 
parative value and relation between it and pen-and-ink drawing have 
been universally understood, and that in comparison personal, original, 
and creative precedence belong to the pen-and-ink drawing, qualities 
only equivalently connected with the etched plate and not with the 
prints made from it by other than the artist. One may dismiss this 
as a minor difference, but it ,is just that little which eliminates the 
prefix " commercial " from art and gives the personal note which is 
never quite achieved by a recognised printer, no matter how sympa- 
thetic he may be with the artist's intentions. 

There are, however, characteristics personal to the medium of 
etching which give to the print a substance and attraction which most 
pen-and-ink work lacks. With that inherent quality of its own, its 
apparent ease of attainment, and not too strictly limited means of 
production, it makes a popular appeal to the younger enthusiasts who 
have found in painting a life-long road of exploit with many 
travellers. But no matter what road to success in art appears most 
gentle to tread, a seemingly simple medium's assistance only delays 
the sad awakening. Thus we have in our midst to-day hundreds of 
incompetent artists whose mediocre work stifles the channels through 
which sincerity was wont to flow. 

In spite of the abstract nature of etching as a medium of 
expression and the most excellent examples containing that quality, 
the increasing number of its adherents seems content to reproduce 
mournful reiterations of nature, valuable only as documental facts, 
and a one-sided manifestation of technical ability. 

It is with the same mannerisms and neglect that colour-etching 
has lately publicly displayed itself as a poor substitute for tinted water- 
colour drawing. This, however, does not necessitate a belief that 

107 



AMERICA 

Others cannot find in it special features and abstract results which 
will give a more infinite satisfaction. 

The glorious right of an artist, as of any other good workman, 
is his freedom, and it is only by courageous insistence and unflinching 
persistence in it that any special development has been attained. To 
maintain it, it is not necessary to imply a hasty annihilation of tradi- 
tion, only a steady reformation of it in the spirit of the times in 
which we live. For not until belief overcomes doubt and courage 
dethrones fear will we be quite able to ignore it. 

Each year the majority of exhibited works continues to demon- 
strate the fallacy that the ideal of art is the over-worship of nature, 
by expressing nothing beyond craftsmanship and the exaltation of the 
superficial. Only by a universal realisation of the fact that art is the 
ideal of nature, not nature the ideal of art, can we hope for a fuller 
expression and find in it the man greater than the artist. 

Amongst the most prominent American etchers whose future 
still holds the promise of greater things, Joseph Pennell stands out as 
an untiring spirit, from whose vast experience, apart from his well- 
known work in lithography and etching amongst other mediums, 
artists the wide world over have benefited ; while his authorised publi- 
cation of the " Life of Whistler " by his wife and himself has been of 
inestimable value. In his Cafe Oriental — Venice he awakens certain 
kindred associations with Whistler, and in his Old and New Rome and 
San Juan de los Reyes — Toledo his etching-sympathy with his subject 
is most feelingly expressed. Amongst the younger etchers, Donald 
Shaw MacLaughlan holds an enviable position ; there is a distinct 
personality about his prints. In them no trace is found of imitative 
weakness of other masters' work over which he may have lingered, 
and only what was inherently common to himself he has retained 
with a greater assurance. As a man of exceptional talent and a 
gifted artist, John Marin is quite unique. There is little which 
leaves his studio with his own approval but what has been through 
the mill of his concentrated emotion and self-criticism. His desire 
that his etchings should be little letters of places is fulfilled in his Par 
lafenetre — Venezia, ^ai des Orfevres, and St. Gervais, which are little 
letters of an artist. 

For more than superficial advancement the later work of Lester 
G. Hornby is remarkable. In his Notre Dame de Paris and La 
Colline he has quite outstepped my appreciation of his work in a 
recent number of The Studio. In all his plates executed this year 
the same distinctive energy and quality of vitaHty, never absent from 
any good work, are distinguished and personally sustained. 

That the majority of the etchers represented here are young is 
io8 



AMERICA 

undoubted proof of the popularity of the medium as a means ot 
expression. It is only a few years ago since Herman A. Webster was 
fascinated by the wonderful possibilities of etching, and with untiring 
energy stepped rapidly into the honoured list of American etchers. 
Living in Paris he finds amongst her old streets and buildings innu- 
merable inspirations for his etching-needle, Vieilles ^Maisons, rue 
Hautefeutlle being very characteristic of the subjects he finds most 
attractive, and Sur la ^ai ^Montebello is reproduced from one of his 
finest prints. 

Frank Milton Armington and his wife, Caroline H. Armington, 
though of Canadian birth, are closely associated with American 
etching, and like many other prominent members of their profession 
they have practically made Paris their home. In the various exhibi- 
tions, including those throughout England and America, their work 
always occupies a foremost place. Frank Armington's Henkersteg — 
Nurnberg is perhaps a little more full and less strikingly spontaneous 
than the majority of his other plates, but nevertheless it exhibits his 
power over his medium, which in his more recent work he controls 
and restrains. laes Thermes, Cluny — Paris ^ by his similarly talented 
wife, though a little thin in the reproduction, is very characteristic of 
her technique and personal vision. 

As a portrait and figure etcher Otto J. Schneider holds a leading 
position. Any artist who has become publicly famous for his expres- 
sion of certain singular subjects finds it difficult to be as universally 
appreciated in others less associated with his name. // Penseroso and 
The Old Letter are typical examples of his work in which the figure 
is dominant, though in his landscapes he exhibits, with greater 
freedom, a no less remarkable ability and versatility. 

Augustus Koopman, whose name is more associated with his 
monotypes and work in paint, finds in etching a medium of equal 
response. In his 'Pushing off the Boat the relative values of line and 
black, though sensitively interfering with the recessional quality 
critically looked for in similarly representative subjects, exhibit by 
their omission the impulsive, restless desire of the artist to quickly 
portray, while of dominating interest, that which captivates him. In 
the numerous exhibitions which include his work, it is always in 
the plates dealing with the transitory effects of nature that his 
individuality is most clearly revealed. 

Amongst the younger men who have something of their own to 
say the work of G. Roy Partridge is particularly interesting. In his 
Dancing Water ^ apart from its attractive composition, the sensation of 
movement is fascinatingly portrayed. Being one of the new arrivals 
his output has not been remarkably extensive, but the plates he 

109 



AMERICA 

has so far exhibited have been quickly acquired by collectors, who 
have recognised in his w^ork an etcher of whom America will yet be 
justly proud. His Slender bridge is a new rendering of one of his 
early etchings, the first result not giving him desired satisfaction. The 
original plate has now been destroyed, and a more vigorous interpreta- 
tion made of a similar composition. In the same hey-day of life 
Lester Rosenfield works silently, and his Old Gateway fully expresses 
his own feeling towards etching. The evidence of colour, so often 
lacking in black and white, is delicately perceived. Like other men 
who find themselves quickly, set rules have never impeded his 
progress. 

The Cathedral Spire ^ by C. K. Gleeson, is also distinctly in harmony 
with his attitude towards the possibilities contained in old archi- 
tectural surroundings. Having resided in Paris for some four years 
his associations and outlook have been greatly widened, and a more 
complete mastery of his medium has given to him that touch of 
assurance necessary to all artists who wish to convey with spontaneity 
the inward impression received. He is at present making his first 
return to America to hold an exhibition of his work, which has 
always been welcomed in the various English and Continental 
galleries. 

In colour, American etchers, with but few exceptions, have 
not shown any notable examples, the .most distinctly personal and 
interesting results yet attained being those by Lendall Pitts, who exhi- 
bited some remarkable results of his experimental achievements in the 
St. Louis Museum of Fine Arts in 1908. In his studio in Paris he 
works heedless of recognised methods and public appreciation, 
producing many little masterpieces with delightful simplicity. Sunset 
on the Lake, Castle of Sigiienza — Spain and The Cascade are unique 
illustrations of his colour-etching and aquatint. 

There are inherent in etching certain characteristics that one 
closely associates with the work of a woman, and it is not surprising 
that women artists, who have added it to their other accomplish- 
ments, have produced work as distinguished as that which, through 
some traditional primitive barrier, is so often only ascribed to the 
capabilities of man. In the coloured plate oA Spring Poem, by 
Helen Hyde, there is a personal daintiness and quiet charm that 
is rare, if not entirely missed, in similar subjects of a dominant, 
subtle delicacy executed by men. With the same distinguished 
equality The Tangle — Chioggia and A Sunny Corner — Villejranche, by 
Bertha E. Jaques, are most notable, and like all her work — born of 
much self-tuition — are strikingly personal. Intensely appreciative 
qualities are also evincible in the figure-work by Miss Nell Coover, 

no 



AMERICA 

who catches not only childish simplicities in her etchings, but also 
obtains in her drawing their often unobserved and neglected 
characteristics. 

Several etchings reproduced here are by members of the 
Chicago Society of Etchers, organised in 19 lo under the presidency 
of Earl H. Reed and the secretaryship of Bertha E. Jaques. The 
society already numbers some 67 active and 212 associate members ; 
and though of short existence, it has been the means of doing in 
America work of a similar importance to that of the Royal Society of 
Painter-Etchers in England. To the illustrations of the works of its 
prominent members, justifying more than a restrained mention, it is 
impossible to more than appreciatively refer, and allow the repro- 
ductions to accomplish the justification of their inclusion here : the 
simply executed Heralds of the Storm^ by Earl H. Reed ; the Steel- 
Workers, vigorously conceived by Arthur S. Covey ; e^ Country '^ad, 
by Charles W. Dahlgreen ; Santa i^aria della Salute — Venice^ by 
Charles B. King ; Gas Tank Town — Chicago, by B. J. Nordfeldt ; Cloth 
Fair — Smithfield^ by George T. Plowman ; State and Lake Streets — 
Chicago, by F. W. Raymond ; and The "L" 'Bridge, Chicago T(ivery 
by Phil Sawyer. 

In conclusion, if I have appeared to some individually un- 
gracious it is unintentional ; I, too, realise the road to the mountain-top 
is not all smoothly paved, and what is bad is always easy to find. 
aA'd astra per aspera says the old proverb — To the stars through 
difficulties. 



1 1 1 




HENKERSTEG, NURNBERQ." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY FRANK M. ARMINGTON 



113 



AMERICA 



-S. V 







.UES THERMES, CLUNY. PARIS." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY CAROLINE H. ARMINQTON 

114 



» 'hi 




•^ -.1 



"5 




ii6 



AMERICA 




<^^^ -^ .il-^jC.^*«*-r^ 



"a country road." original etching 
by chas. w. dahlgreen 



117 




119 



V 




121 




122 



AMERICA 




'A SPRING POEM.' ORIGINAL ETCHING 
'IN COLOURS BY HELEN HYDE. 




/^mU^c:;:^^/'^^ 



'the tangle, chioggia." original 
etching by bertha e. jaques 



125 




126 




127 




128 




(By permission of Mr. R. Gutckunst) 



THE GHETTO." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY D. SHAW MACLAUGHLAN 



129 




(By permission of Mr. R. Gutckunst) 



THE CYPRESS GROVE.' ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY D. SHAW MACLAUGHLAN 



131 




QUAI DES ORFEVRES.' ORIGINAL ETCHING BY JOHN MARIN 
132 



'>x 




'ST. GERVAIS. PARIS." ORIGINAL ETCHING BY JOHN MARIN 

iS3 



AMERICA 




"i^c^ 41/MiU 



PAR LA FENETRE. VENEZIA." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY JOHN MARIN 



J )• > » > 




135 



AMERICA 




'the slender bridge.' original 
etching by g. roy partridge 



136 




' DANCING WATER." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY G. ROY PARTRIDGE 



137 



AMERICA 




SAN'.JUAN DE LOS REYES. TOLEDO" ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY JOSEPH PENNELL 



138 




OLD AND NEW ROME." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY JOSEPH PENNELL 



139 







:.^^ 

w 










141 




J^f^ c^Ui^ 'pi'rU. //^/ 



THE CASCADE.' ORIGINAL ETCHING 
WITH AQUATINT BY LENDALL PITTS 

142 



it: 




< H 




/f^tXV^VA^ 



'^- tr-^Jlv~V VVVtlt-W 



CLOTH FAIR, SMITHFIELD. " ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY GEORGE T. PLOWMAN 



147 




'^^^'^gi-r^vi-v^vwJl. 



STATE AND LAKE STREETS, CHICAGO." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY F. W. RAYMOND 



148 




:^ 



aW, 0f«^« St„,„, 



r" 



"heralds of the storm. " ORIGINAL ETCHING 
WITH DRY-POINT BY EARL H. REED 



149 




--^^^IZ!^ 



AN OLD GATEWAY. ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY LESTER ROSENFIELD 



150 




(KJtjl,- 



'THE 'l' bridge, CHICAGO RIVER. 
ETCHING BY PHIL SAWYER 



151 




THE OLD LETTER. " ORIGINAL DRY-POINT 
BY OTTO J. SCHNEIDER 



AMERICA 




'IL PENSEROSO." ORIGINAL DRY-POINT^ 
BY OTTO J. SCHNEIDER 



153 



AMERICA 




'VIEILLES MAISONS, RUE HAUTEFEUILLE." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY HERMAN A. WEBSTER 



155 




- A«»«VtfviKv 



SUR LA QUAI MONTEBELLO." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY HERMAN A. WEBSTER 



156 



FRANCE 



FRANCE. By E. A. Taylor 

IN any development or new movement in art France has always 
taken a leading part. Paris was quick to encourage the revival 
of etching, which met with so little encouragement in England, 
. and with its still greater recognition, uses, and progress the de- 
mand to-day for etchings has been the means of limiting the 
burin engraver to his original small field of exploit. It has not been 
uncommon for me to meet artists whose original means of livelihood 
had been the engraver's burin, to find later that they had thrown it over 
for the freedom of expression that etching offers. Despite the vast 
increasing roll of modern French etchers the honour of pre-eminence 
in the present, as in the past, must still be given to Auguste Leperc. 
The energy and vitality of youth are never absent from his matured 
knowledge of line. In retaining those remarkable qualities throughout 
life lies the secret of the individual creative spirit observable in all 
great and lasting achievements ; to retain them is no easy task and to 
attain them there is no royal road. It is just that vigorous, ever- 
young, observant, and creative spirit, rhythmically sustained in 
medium, subject, and technique, which makes the work of T. A. 
Steinlen always distinctive. Though there are many brilliant 
draughtsmen who possess similar technical characteristics, there are 
few whose art contains a similar gentle greatness. Recognised 
instruments and rules of procedure occupy no dominant thought in 
his methods of interpretation. In his Gamines sortant de r'Ecole and 
Les Errants, a darning-needle and aquatint obtained his desired result ; 
and in his colour etching Retour du Lavoir there is no attempt to go 
beyond his medium's power of simple expression. 

Amongst the work by other French etchers whose talent each 
year evinces no stationary contentment, Im Pluie and Pluie et Soleil 
are excellent examples by G. de Latenany. With a more measured 
expression the recent compositions of Le Pont des ^Arts and Le Pont 
Royal, by Eugene Bejot, are distinctly characteristic of his delicate 
handling. In the combination of etching and aquatint, Andre 
Dauchez gets a more natural quality and less of the abstract to which 
pure line-etching is singularly limited. In his La Dune de St. Oua/, 
realism, movement, and colour are charmingly suggested. Amongst 
/those not of French birth, but who have made Paris their home, 
Edgar Chahine holds a leading position as an etcher of masterly 
talent. His dry-point La belle Rita is typical of his figure-work, by 
which he is better known, though his etchings of other more varied 
subjects exhibit a no less dexterous versatility. It is the various 
temperaments that etching reveals which make it singularly attractive. 
There is perhaps no other branch of art in which mannerisms, 
affectations, and influences can be so easily detected, and it is only 

159 



FRANCE 

since its revival, which enlisted the painter, that the aesthetic, 
romantic, and dramatic elements obtainable have been relatively 
explored. In the beginning of that revival one finds the work and 
name of Felix Bracquemond prominently figuring. His little dry- 
point La Seine, vue de Passy, contains many elements worthy of 
careful study. Of a later period, Gustave Leheutre is enrolled 
amongst the important French etchers, whose working interest 
chiefly lies in the portrayal of old city thoroughfares. 

Maurice Achener, A. Beaufrere, J. Beurdeley, Amedee Feau, G. 
Gobo, Charles Heyman, and Jacques Villon are still in the spring- 
time of their success. In the illustrations it is noticeable how the work 
of each artist stands out distinct from other assimilations of vision 
marring their own individuality, though temperamental affinity 
to Leheutre is subtly noticeable in J. Beurdeley's etching and 
dry-point Les Enfants dans le Port de Concarneau, and a Corotesque 
affinity in his Matinee d'Automne. It is in the same love of the gentler 
approach to the subject one finds Maurice Achener employing his 
knowledge of the needle's limitations in his Ponte St. Apostolic Venezia ; 
and A. Beaufrere, with a keen observance and sure command of pure 
line, expressing with thoughtful simplicity the trees, undulations, 
and roadway in his Chemin avec les Saules. Like all good work, 
Im Place du Conquet, Finistere, by Amedee Feau, is delightful in 
balanced composition and colour suggestion, and an excellent sense 
of movement and dramatic vigour is revealed in La Grande Brasserie, 
Bruges, and Dechargement a Anvers by G. Gobo. The less impulsive 
landscape and architectural etchings by Charles Heyman leave little 
to be exactingly desired ; his refined technique and personality, 
expressed in Un Coin de Bagnolet and Dans le Hagdigue, make a 
concentrated and intimate appeal. In imaginative and symbolistic 
expression Marcel Roux excels ; his Biblical subjects are strikingly 
impressive, and those of the more ignored sides of life arrest by his 
power of having achieved what he set out to attain. His Demon 
guettant is reproduced from one of his earlier prints. It is in the 
simply employed use of aquatint and colour that the etchings of 
Jacques Villon are most pleasing. His spontaneous ability and restraint 
are vigorously portrayed in his Marc hands des ^uatre Saisons. 

That etching, as a branch of art apart from its fascinating 
accidents and means of expression, is also a process of reproduction 
which interests many of the present-day dealers, artists, and students, 
cannot be denied. And it is from that summit of growing popularity 
it is most likely to fall. It is only by a greater public appreciation 
and learned interest in what is good that the knowledge so attained 
of what is bad will save it from such deadly contempt. 

1 60 




i6i 




^^. «#«'•, 



CHEMIN AVEC LES SAULES." ORIGINAL 
DRY-POINT BY A. BEAUFRERE 



(By permission n/M. Ed. Sagot) 



162 



^^%ip*(*wptf»a«apPBa''-'«--'*«^ ■''^'^■ 




V. 



163 




LE PONT DES ARTS." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY EUG. BEJOT, R.E. 



{By permission of Messrs. Jos. Connell b' Sons) 



164 




I05 




i67 



•^ 




'-^^^000^- 



'la seine— vue de passy." original 
dry-point by felix bracquemond 



{By permission of M. Ed. Sagot) 



1 68 




'^ 



169 




IJO 




IJA U<AA»*«N 



(By pet mission of M. Ed. Sagot) 



"PLUIE ET SOLEIL. " ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY G. DE LATENAY 

171 




{By permission of M. Ed. Sagot) 



LA PLUIE." ORIGINAL ETCHING BY Q. DE9LATENAY 




174 




DECHARGEMENT A ANVERS." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY G. GOBO 



175 




LA GRANDE BRASSERIE, BRUGES. " ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY G. GOBO 



176 



.* • • 



■e'SSS^ff^*i*«S?S'5T^?5a!8it'' ' 




By permission o/M. Ed. Sagot) 



UN COIN DE BAGNOLET." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY CH. HEYMAN 



177 




y.'. '.^ fct^jzju—- 



DANS LE HAGDIGUE." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY CH. HEYMAN 



(By permission of M. Ed. Sagot 



178 



'/• '." ': •■^":-?;:s^ 







179 




i8o 




(By pertnission of M. Ed. Sagot) 



"la petite mare.' original etching by a. LEPERE 

i8i 



•••^ 




■83 




^ 



184 




V 



i8S 




i86 



FRANCE 




~^ljff9^ 



( By per^nission of M: Hd. Sas:t>tJ 



"RETOUR DU LAVOIR." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
IN COLOURS BY T. A. STEINLEN. 




i89 



HOLLAND 



HOLLAND. By Ph. Zilcken 

WHEN I was asked to write a short notice of the work ot 
the leading Dutch etchers of to-day the task seemed 
rather a delicate one, because, as an etcher, it is difficult 
for me to speak of the work of my fellow-artists without 
certain restraint. However, with the exception of my 
friend Charles Storm van 's Gravesande, who spent many years abroad 
and has only lately settled again in his native country, I am in 
Holland the oldest witness of the development of the art in that 
country, and I think I am, therefore, qualified to deal with the subject. 

Storm van 's Gravesande, who was boi:n at Breda in 1 841 , was our 
first etcher to meet with success both at home and abroad, and he 
did so long before any other Dutch etcher attained any reputation. 
Though he is over seventy years of age he is as active as ever. Nulla 
dies sine linea seems to be his motto, for he is always trying, with 
restless enthusiasm, to render the brilliancy, light and subtleties of 
colour harmonies in oils, water-colour, or pastel, after having spent 
most of his life in interpreting with splendid success the effects of 
light, tone, and motion in the deeper harmonies of black-and-white. 
With a charming and almost " Hokusai-like " irony Storm van *s 
Gravesande said to me recently "In ten years I shall start again to 
etch," knowing very well that if he never produced another plate 
his fame as an etcher is established. 

After Storm van 's Gravesande comes a generation of etchers, 
who first achieved prominence after 1880. We find these artists 
mentioned as exhibitors at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1889. 
They include Miss Barbara van Houten, William Witsen, and 
myself. Miss van Houten commenced her career mostly with re- 
productive work. She interpreted freely the masterpieces of Millet, 
Daubigny, Jules Dupre, and others. At the same time she often 
etched plates of still-life and figure-subjects, all direct from nature, 
treating them in a very individual and robust style. She succeeded 
in expressing extreme delicacy of touch and texture with lines 
strongly bitten. 

Born at Amsterdam in i860, William Witsen began by etching 
rustic figure-subjects, but a series of plates of London and the 
Thames soon attracted attention. Later he made a special study or 
the old Dutch towns, working in oil and black-and-white, and his 
views of Dordrecht and Amsterdam are in every way admirable, 
giving a typical if somewhat gloomy impression of these towns. 
Plates like his Amsterdam Grachen are faithful visions of the dreary 
capital on the banks of the Amstel and Y. Of late years he has 
executed many aquatints and sulphur-tints, and has done very little 
in pure line-etching. 

193 



HOLLAND 

At the 1889 exhibition in Paris Miss van Houten showed, besides 
reproductions after the French masters, a frame of original etchings ; 
■while Storm van 's Gravesande and Witsen exhibited some rustic 
scenes and views of London and Holland. I myself was represented 
by some large plates after Jacob and Matthew Maris and Alfred 
Stevens, though at the International Exhibition at Amsterdam in 
1883 I had some original etchings. The Musee du Luxembourg, the 
Cabinet des Estampes at Paris, and the New York Public Library all 
possess representative collections of my work. Like my fellow- 
artists mentioned here I practice both etching and painting. 

In 1889 Marius A. J. Bauer (born at The Hague in 1867) pro- 
duced his first etching. The Dutch Etchers Club had been formed 
and a print by Bauer was required for the portfolio. Having pre- 
pared a plate for him we bit and printed it in my studio. I soon 
realised that he had at once "found himself" in this medium. I have 
closely followed his development and I fully appreciate the special 
place he holds in our art. 

While most of our painters are bound to realistic subjects, which 
by perfect treatment and intense feeling they have raised to pure 
poems, Bauer is a visionnaire, gifted with much decorative fancy and 
knowledge of composition. He once wrote to me : "To enjoy rightly 
Constantinople one must have some imagination and think what this 
place was like two centuries ago." So he sees Turkey, Egypt, India, 
and Tunis, making each subject a reconstruction of former glory. 
According to the celebrated opinion of Vosmaer, as an etcher Bauer is 
a ^tvitct Jidneur on the copper, where he lets his imagination roam, 
without much thought of technique or of that fascinating labour 
of biting, which is so delightful to most etchers. Since the Paris 
Exhibition of 1900 Bauer has seen his works gain the highest awards 
at most of the International Exhibitions. 

Anton Derkzen van Angeren, who was born in 1878, is one of 
the most accomplished etchers we have. In his youth he had a hard 
struggle, and for a long time he occupied himself painting on china 
at the Delft factory, just as some of the Barbizon men did at Sevres. 
I knew him well in his early days as an etcher, and I remember 
how deeply I was impressed by his work. Some of his plates are 
extremely delicate and the linework most expressive ; some arc 
elaborated like complete paintings, as, for instance, his Winter ; while 
others, like his series of " skulls," are exceedingly clever and of real 
pictorial interest. He has devoted himself more especially to Dutch 
river scenery, and since he has settled at Rotterdam he has depicted 
many typical groups of sailing-boats and steamers anchored on the 
Maas. In his works one may always observe a rare brilliancy of light. 

194 




(,By permission of Messrs. 
E. J. van Wisselingh <Sr* Co. 



ILLUSTRATION TO P. VILLIERS DE LISLE- 
ADAM'S " AKEDYSSERIL.  ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY M. A. J. BAUER 



195 



UJ o 
z 1- 




H O 






V 



196 




197 




(^By permission of Messrs. E.J. van W isselingh&f Co.) 



A FESTIVAL DAY AT CAIRO." ORIGINAL 
DRY-POINT BY M. A. J. BAUER 



199 



X,' 



j^^frf^i. 





■ranii ^SST -^. 



203 




SUNFLOWERS." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY BARBARA VAN HOUTEN 



204 




205 




l1f>AjW[ \f*J^ '/ [jAXkl/^dJn^ 



'^W . 



■■':3tf:,-M-!fWf- 



TITLE-PAGE FOR A PORTFOLIO. ORIGINAL DRY-POINT 
BY CH. STORM VAN 'S GRAVESANDE 

207 



i$m 



t^ts^.-.f ■>-*.=■. .-^ -^ - ■- 



IT 


m 

i 


i^ 




1 


!W  



' Mi 



(■ I 





f: ' 



11 i I 



1 



208 




m«^,.,iWMmmmm 



IX^f f/r a»i^:iSfS^ :. 



% 



209 




(By permission of Messrs, 
E. J . van Wisselin^h &' Co. ) 



TWILIGHT ON THE HEATH." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
WITH AQUATINT BY W. WITSEN 




AN OLD CORNER IN AMSTERDAM. 
ETCHING BY W. WITSEN 



(By permission of Messrs. 
E. J. van Wisselingh 6r Co.) 



/ fy 




b \ 



213 




215 




< Ht*^- 



LA MADONNINA DEL CAMPO PISANO, GENOA. 
ORIGINAL ETCHING BY PH. ZILCKEN 



2l6 



AUSTRIA 



AUSTRIA. By A. S. Levetus 

THE art of etching was first practised in Austria about the 
middle of last century, when the Gesellschaft der Kunst- 
freunde encouraged the graphic arts by presenting an annual 
album to its members containing lithographs, engravings, and 
etchings. These, however, were chiefly reproductive efforts, 
for it does not seem that copper-plate and needle were resorted to as a 
means of expressing original artistic conceptions. It was not till 
Wilhelm Unger was called from Hanover to Vienna, to become a 
Professor at the Imperial Academy, that fresh impetus was given to 
the study of etching. But, great as were his powers, both as a 
master of technique and as a teacher, his work lies beyond the scope 
of the present article. He has, however, trained many distinguished 
artists, men who have given forth excellent original work, and who, 
moreover, are masters of the technique of etching. On his retirement 
in 1908, Ferdinand Schmutzer, a Viennese by birth, was unanimously 
chosen as his successor. He has shown his capability as a teacher 
as he had already proved it as a painter and an etcher. Schmutzer, 
though not in the strictest sense of the word a pupil of Professor 
Unger, had learnt his technique from him. As an etcher he soon came 
into prominence by the masterly manner in which he manipulated 
large plates, and by the excellence of his work as a portrait-etcher. 
In this branch of the art he was the pioneer in Austria. A keen 
student of the Old Masters, he has yet remained uninfluenced by 
them ; his contrasting of light and shade, his masterly manner of 
achieving artistic effects by purely artistic means, are essentially his 
own. His work, and more particularly his etched portraits, are 
soft in tone, while the expression of the lineaments of his sitters is 
masterly. Of late Schmutzer has done some excellent coloured work 
— floral, architectural, and other subjects, and also coloured portraits ; 
but it is as an artist of the highest rank in black-and-white that he 
will go down to posterity. 

Rudolf Jettmar, who is also a Professor at the Imperial Academy 
of Art, is a German-Bohemian, endowed with a dreamy, imaginative 
temperament. He is a great lover of music, and this is traceable 
in his compositions, at times as solemn as a great orchestra, sometimes 
in a lighter vein, but always revealing a deep feeling underlying the 
gayer tones. His medium is always black-and-white, but by these 
simple means he achieves rich effects of colour. His work always 
appeals by its unquestionably high qualities, its suggestiveness, its 
rare refinement and intellectuality. 

Ludwig Michalek, though a Hungarian by birth, has passed 
the greater part of his life in Vienna, where he is now a Professor at 
the Imperial Graphische Lehr-und-Versuchsanstalt. He has executed 

219 



AUSTRIA 
some very notable etched portraits and landscapes, but of late he has 
devoted himself to w^ork of a different nature, the etching of moun- 
tain bridges in different stages of building and tunnels in process of 
construction. In this direction Michalek has shown himself equal 
to the stupendous task placed before him. He is a sincere artist, 
who avoids everything pertaining to conventionality, and who is 
always seeking fresh means for expressing his art. 

Max Svabinsky is a Czech, a native of Prague, where he is a 
Professor at the Imperial Academy of Art. He is a brilliant draughts- 
man, an artist of great originality, possessing a temperament with a 
leaning towards fantasy. His work is always effective in treatment, 
impressionable and illuminative. Others of the older Austrian etchers 
are Max Suppantschitsch, Emil Orlik, Alfred Cossmann, Fritz Hegen- 
barth, Professor Bromse, M. Jakimowicz, F. Kupka, and Jules Pascin. 

To a younger group of etchers, all pupils of Professor Unger, 
belong the landscapist Richard Lux, Ferdinand Gold, the etcher of 
animal subjects, who has done excellent work in this direction, chiefly 
in dry-point, and Luigi Kasimir, whose bent chiefly lies in depicting 
architecture and street scenes, an artist of many parts. His work 
has great artistic merit, and he always handles his needle with skill 
and taste. Armin Horovitz is an artist of distinct individuality, who, 
though he has but recently entered on his career as an etcher, is well 
known as a painter. He works in various combinations of needle, 
vernis-mou, aquatint, and colour, chiefly on large plates. 

Marino Lusy, a native of Trieste, studied in Paris. His work is 
subtle, atmospheric, and delicate, more suggestive than real, poetic 
and indefinable. T. F. Simon, a native of Prague, lives chiefly in 
Paris. His plates in colour show great freshness and purity, and are 
notable for their refined atmospheric effects and delicacy of manipu- 
lation. Ferdinand Michel, a colourist, and Oskar Laske have both 
done capable etchings. 

The youngest etchers are pupils of Professor Schmutzer. Quite 
in the van of this group is Max Pollak, a native of Prague, aged 
twenty-six. The works here reproduced show him to be possessed 
of true artistic feeling combined with a mastery of technique. He 
is forcible but modest, and in every way an etcher of great promise, 
whose career it will be interesting to follow. 

Lastly, mention must be made of a group of lady etchers, all 
pupils of Professor Michalek. Anna Mik, M. von Lerch, Emma 
Hrnczyrz, and Tanna Kasimir-Hoernes are all recognised as etchers of 
merit, each in her own particular line. Their work testifies to sound- 
ness of manipulation coupled with artistic truth. 

220 



AUSTRIA 




'THE MUSICIAN." ORIGINAL AQUATINT 
WITH ETCHING BY ARMIN HOROVITZ 




mMfhfni 



"youth and age." [original 
etching by rudolf jettmar 



223 




DIE FELSENSCHLUCHT." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY RUDOLF JETTMAR 



(^By permission of the Gesellscha/t /Ur 
Vervieljaltigende Kunst, Vienna) 



224 




'die karlskirche." original etching 

WITH AQUATINT BY LUIGI KASIMIR, 



225 




226 




227 




Lu^L. 



'temps PLUVIEUX a BRUGES," ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY MARINO M. LUSY 



228 




LA CHAUMIERE." ORIGINAL AQUATINT 
BY MARINO M. LUSY 



229 



AUSTRIA 




^''— >^— ^/^K^^*\-•JJ^M^ 



DIE QUELLE KASTALIA, DELPHI." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
WITH AQUATINT BY LUDWIG MICHALEK 



230 




o 9 



CO o 



231 




STUDY OF A HEAD." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
WITH DRY-POINT BY MAX POLLAK 



232 




233 




FRANCISKANER PLATZ, VIENNA." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
WITH AQUATINT BY MAX POLLAK 



234 




■^■OTWiWJSSf-vy^s^*!. - 



'THE ALSTADTER-RING. PRAGUE." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING IN COLOURS BY T. F. SIMON. 




n 




l^s^-v.. ^r^^"-^'' N 



CARL GOLOMARK. " ORIGINAL ETCHINQ 
BY FERDINAND SCHMUTZER 



237 




"prof. THEODOR LESCHETITZKY." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY FERDINAND SCHMUTZER 



239 



AUSTRIA'] 




ALTE FRAU.' ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY MAX SVABINSKY 



{^By permission of the Gesellschafl Jib 
Verviel/altigcnde Kunst, Vientta) 



240 




241 



GERMANY 



GERMANY. By L. Deubner 

IT is impossible within the limits of a brief essay such as this to 
describe fully the progress of etching in Germany during the 
past decade. I must refrain from enumerating all those artists, 
among them some of rare talent, who are doing good work 
in this field, nor must I dilate upon the causes which have 
furthered this progress. Our attention must be restricted to those 
who devote their energies either wholly or mostly to etching. In their 
works one may see demonstrated the original and diversified lines on 
which the German school of etching has developed, and how it has 
maintained a character of its own uninfluenced by foreign prototypes ; 
and they also show that it has no need to fear comparison with the 
work of other countries, from whose great masters they have learned 
no less than from the German masters like Diirer, Schwind, or 
Richter. 

Prominent among the German etchers of to-day is Peter Halm, 
whose plates, by their perfect technique and the deep feeling with 
which they are imbued, count among the best now produced in 
Germany. As professor at the Munich Academy he has proved an 
excellent instructor to many who to-day are striving towards the 
same goal ; not only has he given them a thorough insight into the 
manipulation of the instruments of their craft, but he has been to 
them an exemplar of honest, conscientious craftsmanship, instilling 
into them a horror of banal effects and slipshod methods, and an 
unflagging devotion to the pursuit of perfection. In that way his 
influence has been much greater than he in his modesty will admit, 
and has extended far beyond the circle of connoisseurs who have 
learnt to appreciate the fine qualities of his prints. 

Amongst Professor Halm's pupils the nearest to him in point or 
view and choice of motif is Carl Theodor Meyer-Basel, who, a 
Swiss by birth, has for many years made his home in Munich, and 
therefore counts as a German artist. He is a landscapist who ap- 
proaches nature with a feeling akin to reverence. He has a keen eye 
for the "soul" of a landscape — for that which gives to it individuality 
and charm. In landscape, as portrayed in his plates, a profound calm 
reigns, undisturbed by human or animal life. The valleys and 
lakes of the Bavarian table-land, out-of-the-way villages and nooks 
of little mediaeval towns are the motifs he prefers. 

Another pupil of Professor Halm, Alois Kolb, who has taught 
at the Royal Academy, Leipzig, for some years past, regards the 
portrayal of the human figure alone, or in relation to landscape, as the 
great problem of art. In the nude figures which are rarely absent 
from his prints it is impossible to discover the slightest suggestion 
of sensuality ; they are quite passionless, and, especially in his large 

245 



GERMANY 
plates, which are often a yard square, are characterised by a certain 
monumentality and immundane grandeur like the landscape back- 
ground with which they so completely accord. Kolb has illustrated 
several important books, such as the great edition of Ibsen's "Pre- 
tender" and Kleist's "Michael Kohlhaas," and is not above doing 
addresses and diplomas, menu covers and business announcements. 

An artist of quite another kind is Willi Geiger, who likewise 
owes his technical training to Professor Halm, but who with bold 
impetuosity quickly freed himself from dogmas and conventions of 
every kind and embarked on a line of his own. The feverish 
eroticism of his earlier plates is in marked contrast to the chaste purity 
of Kolb. These fantastic prints, full of bitter ferocity or grotesque 
pathos, reveal Geiger at the climax of his art and as a perfect master 
of his technique. In his series of plates illustrative of Spanish bull- 
fights, the fruit of a prolonged stay in Spain, he abandons this 
technique in order to essay other and quite different modes of 
expression. In a free sketchy manner, akin to that of the portrait 
of Siegfried Wagner, he portrays with unfailing assurance the rapid 
movements of beasts and men, quivering with eagerness for the fray. 
In this series the artist has brilliantly overcome the difficulties of 
the task he set himself. 

Joseph Uhl, who has his abode amidst the solitude of the 
mountains near Traunstein and whose mature craftsmanship may 
be seen in the portrait of his little daughter, has also enjoyed the 
benefit of Professor Halm's guidance. He is, perhaps, the most 
promising among the younger Munich draughtsmen. The little head 
reproduced here shows with what loving care and scrupulous exacti- 
tude he works, and in the series of larger prints forming the cycle 
called " Love's Mystery," he again proves himself a master of form 
and an artist with a discriminating eye for essentials. 

Heinrich Vogeler, of Worpswede near Bremen, might be called 
the lyric poet among German etchers, for he is a romanticist of 
tender feeling and overflowing fantasy. In his prints the spirit of the 
fairy-tale, the mood of spring-time dwell. The technique is as subtle 
and minute as the venation of a butterfly's wings, but intricate as his 
prints may seem at first sight, they are always wonderfully clear, full 
of poetic charm and engaging beauty. 

Georg Jahn is an adapt in rendering the gracefulness and charm 
ot youthful female figures. In his mezzotint Das Waldbad^ the flesh 
of these healthy young bodies is modelled with so much delicacy that it 
seems to stand out soft and pliant against the velvety black of the 
shaded parts. The other example of his work reproduced was 
executed during a lengthy sojourn by the Zuyder Zee. 

246 



GERMANY 



:f5t:#*3B*'fi(CUW:j5.'!t^. f: 




SIEGFRIED WAGNER." ORIGINAL 
DRY-POINT BY WILLI GEIGER 



247 




253 




254 



GERMANY 




/^^^^ 



"STUDY OF A BOY." ORIGINAL 
DRY-POINT BY JOSEPH UHL 




THE ARTISTS DAUGHTER." ORIGINAL 
DRY-POINT BY JOSEPH UHL 



256 




V 



"the LARK" (SELF-PORTRAIT). ORIGINAL " 
ETCHING BY HEINRICH VOQELER 



257 




"THE8FROQS BRIDE." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY HEINRICH VOQELER 



259 



SWEDEN 



SWEDEN. By Thorsten Laurin 

ALTHOUGH one of the most universally known and most 
appreciated of living etchers, Zorn, is a Swede, one could 
hardly speak of a Swedish School of Etching as existing 
previous to the last five years. There have been a few 
painters and architects, each of whom has produced 
perhaps a dozen etchings, such as our great portrait-painter Count 
Georg von Rosen, whose plates Death and the Artist and The 
Baptism are known and admired by a few art-lovers ; or Reinhold 
Norstedt, the poetic interpreter of the Swedish summer landscape, a 
pupil of Corot and Daubigny, who in his small plates succeeded 
in expressing the charm of the summer night in Sormland, our lake 
district. But the etchings of these artists were seldom exhibited, 
and consequently never collected. Hence a School has never been* 
created. 

The only famous Swedish etcher of the old generation, Axel 
Herman Haig (in Swedish Hagg), has lived for more that thirty 
years in England, where he is one of the best-known etchers of 
architectural subjects, and his work is represented in the portfolios of 
many English and American collectors rather than in Stockholm or 
Gothenburg. Three of his etchings are reproduced in this volume. 

One of Haig's pupils was Anders L. Zorn, the glory of Swedish 
graphic art, who, when he was practising water-colour painting in 
London in 1882, took some lessons from Haig, whose portrait was 
Zorn's first effort in a medium in which later on he was destined to 
achieve such fame. Since 1898 so much has been written in The 
Studio in praise of Zorn's etchings, of which numerous reproductions 
have also been given, that I need not do more here than refer to 
his latest plates — the charming nude 'Rdo ; Mona^ the sympathetic 
portrait of the artist's mother ; and Djos-Mats^ the old clock-maker. 
These three plates appear amongst our illustrations, and are in every 
way worthy of the master's high reputation. 

Zorn's great friend and rival in contemporary Swedish art is 
Carl Larsson, who is perhaps the cleverest and most original draughts- 
man we have ever had. His etchings are often more like drawings 
on a copper-plate than etchings in the accepted meaning of the 
word ; nevertheless they are fine productions, and I cannot recall any 
other living etcher who possesses so varied a style. The ceuvre grave 
of Carl Larsson comprises about one hundred plates, many of which 
are already so rare that it is almost impossible to procure them. 

Another Swedish etcher, well known to the readers of The 
Studio, is Count Louis Sparre, who finds his subjects in many different 
parts of the world, in London or Cornwall, as in The Return of the 
Ftshmg-boats ; or in Finland, as in the very effective Winter Night. 

263 



SWEDEN 
Of late Stockholm and Wisby, the mediaeval and picturesque capital 
of the island of Gothland, in the Baltic, have taken his fancy. 

That Sweden can at last boast of a good school of etching is to a 
great extent due to Axel Tallberg, who ishimself a very clever crafts- 
man. All our leading present-day etchers, including Zorn and 
Larsson, have studied under Tallberg, if only for a short time ; as also 
has Prince Eugen, the brother of King Gustav of Sweden. The Prince 
is not merely a noble dilettante, but a serious and able artist who 
devotes all his time to art ; and he is at present one of our leading 
landscape painters. The limited number of etchings which he has 
executed, including some in colours, show the same qualities as may 
be seen in his painting — a mystical feeling for nature, expressed in a 
most individual manner. 

The energetic and original architect, Ferdinand Boberg, is still 
a young man, though it is some years since he etched his last plates, 
of which those reproduced here are typical. The handling is free, 
and the sentiment picturesque. An architect-etcher of a very 
different type is Hjalmar Molin, who is more or less the Haig of the 
younger generation. His motifs are always architectural, but rendered 
with considerable freedom. His Burgos Cathedral and Porta della 
Carta are among his best plates. 

Skane, the richest and most populated province of Sweden, has 
so far played a very unimportant role in contemporary Swedish art, 
and only one of its living artists has given us anything really 
important. I refer to Ernst Norlind, the painter of birds, quiet 
farm-yards, and quaint old country churches surrounded by grave- 
yards. In his etchings the same motifs are found, treated in a simple 
but decorative manner. 

Among the younger generation of artists, Gabriel Burmeister 
takes the leading place, chiefly as the founder and president of the 
Graphic Society, a union of young etchers, lithographers, and 
wood-engravers formed only two years ago. It has already held 
•successful exhibitions at Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmo, and has 
aroused more public interest in the native graphic arts than any other 
movement which has taken place in Sweden for many years. Another 
member of this society who should be mentioned is Arne Hallen. 
A talented etcher, who used dry-point more than any other Swedish 
artist, was Knut Ander, who died a few years ago. Strange to say 
he is the only Swedish artist who has come strongly under the 
influence of Zorn, 



264 




^.^vMi 



jy^:^^^>f 



 IN HARBOUR." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BY FERDINAND BOBERQ 



265 




THE EXPRESS." ORIGINAL ETCHING 
BYCFERDINAND BOBERG 



266 




NIGHT-CLOUDS." ORIGINAL MEZZOTINT 
BY PRINCE EUQEN 



267 




269 




(S:' 



LISBETH AND THE CALF." ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY CARL LARSSON 



270 




"k . c4yr€4:„*^ 



'the storks nest.' original 
etching by ernst norlind 



271 



SWEDEN 




'A SWEDISH VILLAGE.- ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY ERNST NORLIND 



272 




27.^ 




WINTER NIGHT/' ORIGINAL AQUATINT 
BY COUNT LOUIS SPARRE 



274 



SWEDEN 




EDO." ORIGINAL ETCHING BY ANDERS L. ZORN 




KING OSCAR II OF SWEDEN. ' ORIGINAL 
ETCHING BY ANDERS L. ZORN 



277 



jriQisS 




'mONA.  ORIGINAL ETCHING BY ANDERS L. ZORN 
278 




'DJOS mats. " ORIGINAL ETCHING BY ANDERS L. ZORN 

279 




THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



AN INITIAL FINE OF 25 CENTS 

WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN 
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY 
WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH 
DAY AND TO $1.00 ON THE SEVENTH DAY 
OVERDUE. 



FEB 9 lies 



^EC 16 '^^ 



O 



MftR T t93b 



JAW 29 1934 

27Jur50H] 

JAN 1 6 1981 



FEB 30 1985 



REBClROEC19t994 



LD 21-2n?-l,'33 (52fii) 






YE 2Q968 



GWW»>- 



UBRW^"*^ «""''' 




•^' 







UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 



:m 



''X. 



'llh 



". . I'r