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By Nathan A. Gibbs 

A bank is an establishment having power to receive deposits, discount 
business paper, loan and remit money, pay checks, and make collections. It 
may also deal in notes, foreign and domestic bills of exchange, coin, bullion 
and credits. Originally, banks were used only as places for the safe keeping 
of money, bullion, plate, or the like, which was left unused and unproductive 
in the vaults of the bank until the depositors should call for it. 

Modern banking may be traced to the money lenders of Florence as 
lenders of money and receivers of deposits in the Fourteenth Century. The 
Jews of Lombardy, Italy, arc supposed to be the first to make a business of 
dealing in money. They had benches or tables upon which they exchanged 
money and bills. These benches were called "bancos." This word "banco" 
is supposed to be the original of the word bank. Some claim it came from 
"banco" when applied to a heap — "a heap of money." 

The Bank of Venice was established in 1171. The republic, wanting 
funds, compelled each citizen to contribute one per cent, of his possessions 
to the State at four or five per cent, interest, for which he received cer- 
tificates of stock which were bought and sold on the open market. The Bank 
of Amsterdam, founded in 1609, was the first bank organized for the pro- 
motion of commerce. 

The Bank of England was chartered in 1694. This bank has two sepa- 
rate departments, one for note issue and one for general business. Up to the 
time of the World War it governed commerce and credits over all the world. 
Since then the United States has taken perhaps the leading part in this world 

The Bank of North America was the first authorized bank in the United 
States, Robert Morris being a leader in its organization. It began in 1781, 
and aided greatly in establishing American independence. The first Bank 
of the United States was founded by Alexander Hamilton in 1791, with a 
fixed capital of $10,000,000, and expired at the termination of its charter in 
181 1. The second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816 with a 
capital of $35,000,000, w^hich expired in 1836, when Congress refused to renew 
its charter. 

"Wild Cat Banks" were old State banks organized under State charters 
by private individuals. Charters are now issued to State banks, savings 
banks, and trust companies, by the States, and to National banks by the 
Federal Government. Each have their own separate functions, but possess 
many features in common. The National banks come nearest the business 
life of the Nation, although State banks and trust companies are vital to its 
prosperity. Mutual savings banks touch the lives of more people than do 
the others, and their statements present the best barometer of the financial 
condition of the country. 


The National Bank S3'stem was begun by the passage of the National 
Bank Act in 1863, and banks organized under it are now the only banks 
issuing bank notes, outside of the Federal Reserve Banks. These National 
Banks are under the direct control of the Comptroller of the Currency. They 
are subject to not less than two examinations by his department, and two by 
its own directors, in each year. Not less than five reports of condition are 
required from them each year. 

The National Bank system was established to provide a market for gov- 
ernment bonds, and to give the country a unified currency system. The 
growth of the system has four periods: 1st. 1863 to 1882 — Formative Period. 
Throughout the earlier period of banking, the use of bank credit was in the 
form of note issue, and being subjected to no central supervisor, lacked sta- 
bility and constant value. The national banking period developed larger use 
of deposits than of note issue. Note issue as a privilege under federal super- 
vision resulted in stable values. This period ended by the passage in face 
of bitter opposition, of a bill permitting the extension of charters of existing 
banks for twenty years more. The second period, from 1883 to 1899, "^^^ 
one of natural development. While circulation was declining, the extending 
of credits through deposits was rapidly growing. The third period, from 
1900 to 1913, was that of development of smaller banks. This was aided by 
the reduction of the required National Bank capitalization from $50,000 to 
$23,000, by which many small places were enabled to enjoy banking privileges. 

The passage of the Federal Reserve Act in 1913 ushered in the present 
period. Under the National Bank system of note issue it was very inelastic, 
and no provision was made that enabled banks in time of distress to realize 
upon their commercial paper. This led to many banks carrying large lines 
of bonds, which they used as collateral for loans from the reserve banks in 
the larger cities. When these larger cities lacked funds, money was high and 
credit difficult to get. This led to violent fluctuations in interest rates. Under 
the reserve system, the use of commercial paper in these stringent periods 
was developed and the cause of these rapid changing rates was removed. In 
case of need, these Federal Reserve Banks can issue their own notes secured 
by government bonds or by other collateral. They are allowed to rediscount, 
for the member banks of the system, commercial paper under certain con- 
ditions, as follows : 

(a) It must be a note, draft, or bill of exchange which has been issued 
or drawn, or the proceeds of which have been used or are to be used in the 
first instance in producing, purchasing, carrying, or marketing goods in one 
or more steps of the process of production, manufacture, or distribution, or 
for the purpose of carrying or trading in bonds or notes of the United States. 

(c) It must not be a note, draft, or bill of exchange the proceeds of which 
have been used or are to be used for permanent or fixed investments of any 
kind, such as land, buildings, or machinery, or for any other capital purpose. 

(c) It must not be a note, draft, or bill of exchange the proceeds of which 
have been used or are to be used for investment of a purely speculative char- 
acter or for the purpose of lending to some other borrower. 

(d) It may be secured by the pledge of goods or collateral of any nature, 
including paper, which is ineligible for rediscount, provided it (the note, draft, 
or bill of exchange) is otherwise eligible. 

BANKS 425 

This system has developed a sound financial protection against panics, 
as shown in the two years following the close of the World War when our 
Nation passed through the greatest deflation period in financial history, in 
an orderly process, in great contrast with previous sudden financial disasters. 
By regulating credits through its members, thereby stopping inflation, unnum- 
bered failures were prevented. 

There are now twenty banks in New London county, all well estab- 
lished, with a long and honorable past to justify the confidence with which 
they approach the future. This statement, of course, does not apply to the 
four trust companies recently formed, they all being less than a year old, 
with their history yet to be made. There are eight National Banks : The 
Thames, Merchants', and Uncas, of Norwich ; the National Whaling, New 
London City, and National Bank of Commerce, of New London; the First 
National of Stonington, and the Mystic River National, of Mystic. There are 
two combined bank and trust companies— the Union, of New London, the 
oldest financial institution in the county, and the Pawcatuck, the youngest. 
There are three trust companies doing business — the Bankers', of Norwich; 
the Winthrop, of New London; and the Jewett City, of Jewett City. The 
seven savings banks are : The Savings Society, the Chelsea, and the Dime, 
of Norwich; the Groton, of Mystic; the Jewett City, of Jewett City; the 
Savings, and Mariners', of New London. These institutions, working under 
the recognized plans under which banks may lawfully operate, provide the 
county with excellent banking facilities, and in New London county, as else- 
where, they have met and resisted shocks, thus preventing appalling disaster 
to the business of the county, which would otherwise have followed. New 
London county has had bankers of high quality, men of brain, courage and 
vision, men of highest integrity, and its present prosperity is in a large meas- 
ure due to its proc;rcs5ivc, enlightened, public-spirited financiers, working in 
connection with their contemporaries under a wise banking law, the Federal 
Reserve Act of 1913. 

Union Trust and Bank Company — As has been previously stated in 
this chapter, the first bank chartered in the territory we now know as the 
United States of America was established at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, un- 
der an all-embracing title suitable for such an institution, The Bank of North 
America. That was in 1781, when the American Colonies were still battling 
for their freedom. Eleven years later, in January, 1792, there were but five 
banks in the United States: The Bank of North America, Philadelphia, 
instituted 1781 ; Massachusetts Bank, of Boston, 1784; the Bank of New 
York, 17S4; the Bank of Maryland, Baltimore, 1790; and the Providence 
Bank, Rhode Island, 1791. In "1792 three banks were chartered in Connecti- 
cut, one in May, the others in October. New London county had then wfthin 
its borders two towns that bid for the honor of being the first to establish 
a bank. New London and Norwich. The Legislature of the period would 
not consider authorizing two banks in the same county, and. not wishing to 
seem to advance one town bevond the other, the applicants were induced to 


merge their claims, New London to have the bank location, but the directors 
to be chosen from both towns in equal numbers, the institution to be known 
as the Union Bank of New London and Norwich. This was the best solution 
of the diflkulty, and the bank was chartered in May, 1792. The form of title 
was shortened, and as "The Union Bank" the institution had a prosperous 
life, both the name and the institution being perpetuated in The Union Bank 
and Trust Company of New London. 

The May session of the General Assembly of Connecticut, which in 1792 
granted the Union Bank its charter, granted also similar privileges to the 
Bank of New Haven and the Hartford Bank, but if, as claimed, the Union 
opened its doors at an earlier period, it may be called the oldest bank within 
the limits of the State, which gives the Union Bank and Trust Company the 
distinction of being the oldest bank in the State of Connecticut and the fifth 
oldest in the United States, and, of course, the oldest in New London. In 
fact, it is the oldest existing institution of any sort in the city today. 

The first recorded movement for obtaining a charter for the Union Bank 
was at a meeting held in New London on February loth, 1792, at which a 
committee of six was appointed to solicit subscriptions to the amount of 
$ioo,oco. At a subsequent meeting held at the tavern of Ephraim Minor on 
the fifth day of March, it appeared that the full amount of stock had been 
subscribed, divided among one hundred and seven persons, no one having 
taken more than thirty shares. At this session the following directors, about 
half of whom were residents of Norwich, were chosen : General Jedediah 
Huntington, Marvin Wait, Guy Richards, William Stewart, Edward Hallam, 
Joseph Perkins, Joshua Lathrop, Joseph Howland, Joseph Williams, Daniel 
L. Coit, Samuel Woodbridge, George Phillips, Samuel Wheat. 

The name of the new bank was The President, Directors and Company 
of the Union Bank in New London. The same day Jedediah Huntington was 
elected president, and John Hallam. cashier. The capital stock was fixed at 
$iOO,oco, with liberty to increase the same to half a million at any future 
time. i\n act of corporation was granted at a General Assembly of the State, 
held on the second Thursday of May, 1792, and thus the Union Bank sprang 
into existence. 

The first m.eeting of the directors, after the incorporation, was held June 
5, 1792, and arrangements were made for immediate business. The record 
of this meeting shows that the president was instructed to procure an office, 
desk, seals, scales and weights, and to send to Philadelphia for sixteen reams 
of paper. Notes to be discounted were required to have two witnesses to 
the signature of the maker, and no loan should be made for a longer period 
than sixty days. At an annual rental of thirty dollars, u banking room was 
secured in the brick building owned by Edward Hallam & Company, and 
was standing on the west side of Water, just below Hallam street, until 
about ten years ago. Here the bank was located until the removal to its 
old State street quarters. 

At a meeting of the board of directors, held November 9, 1798, it was 
voted "that fifteen dollars be allowed for Mr. John Prentis as a compensa- 
tion for the trouble in his house in consequence of the business of the bank 

BANKS 427 

being clone there about five weeks, during the prevalence of the epidemic 

At a meeting of the directors, held November 18, 1817, it was resolved 
that the president, Mr. Starr, and Mr. Law, be a committee for the purpose 
of contracting for the building of a stone bank on the ground bought of 
George Williams, on the north side of State street. The contract referred 
to was awarded to Colonel Potter, and the entire cost of the building and 
land was $6,225. The bank moved into its new building in 1818. The pres- 
ent building which the Union Bank and Trust Company occupies, was built 
in 1905. While it is a most compact and well laid out building, it long since 
was outgrown, and in the very near future it will be added to in a manner 
that will double its capacity. 

At a meeting of the stockholders, held March 28, 1865, it was voted to 
convert the bank into a national banking association under the general bank- 
ing laws of the United States. On January 10, 1882, it was deemed expedient 
to go into liquidation as a National Bank, and that the business be continued 
as a State bank by the resumption of its charter of 1792, which had been 
suspended since 1865. 

The only amendment to the bank charter since organization was in 1913, 
at which time trust company privileges were granted, and in addition to 
conducting a regular banking business the bank, through its trust depart- 
ment, transacts all business of a trust nature, such as trustee, executor, 
guardian, transfer agent, etc. 

There is no recorded action of the bank relating to the suspension of 
specie payments during the War of 1812; the only matter of record indicating 
a disturbed condition of the currcncj' at that period, is found in a vote of 
the directors, passed February, 1815, by which a dividend was declared paj-^- 
able m New York bills. The bank redeemed its own bills all through the 
War of 1812, but probably conducted most of its transactions, as did the 
country at large, in the depreciated currency of the times. 

At a m.eeting of the directors, held October 14, 1857, the period of the 
memorable financial panic, it was resolved that under existing circumstances 
and because of the suspension of specie payment by the banks of the city of 
New York, the payment of specie by this bank be necessarily suspended. 
This action was reconsidered at a m.eeting held December 15 and the above 
vote rescinded. 

The first dividend of this bank was two per cent., paid March, 1793, and 
the one paid in January, 1921, was the 261st. From its commencement it has 
never passed a dividend. During the centennial of its existence, 832-)4 per 
cent, had been paid to its stockholders, more than eight times its capital 
stock, 84J4 per cent, of which was in extra dividends. During the last forty- 
five vears the number of individual depositors has increased over three hun- 
dred per cent. 

During its long career of prosperity, one hundred and thirty years, the 
bank has had but ten presidents. Jedediah Huntington held the office for 
twenty-six years, 1792-1818; his successors in office being: George Hallam, 
1818-1825; William P. Cleveland, 1825-1834; Jonathan Starr, 1834-1852; Rob- 


ert Coit, 1852-1858; William H. Chapman, 1858-1893; Robert Coit, 1893-1904; 
George Tinker, 1904-15; William H. Coit, 1915-20; Charles H. Klinck, 
elected in 1920, being the present incumbent. 

The cashiers for the same period have been but eight: John Hallam, 
1792-1800; Robert Hallam, 1800-1827; Ebenezer C. Sistare, 1836-1851 ; Charles 
C. Sistare, 1851-1860; Leonard C. Lawrence, 1860-1885; J. Lawrence Chew, 
1885-1905; Carlos Barry, 1905, until the present, 1922. Mr. Barry came to 
the bank in 1874, just out of school, beginning as a clerk. Forty-eight years 
have since elapsed and the association then formed has never been broken, 
Mr. Barry being with one exception the oldest member of the banking fra- 
ternity of his city in point of years of service. 

Condensed statement of the condition of The Union Bank and Trust 
Company, New London, Connecticut, May 5, 1922 : 


Loans and Discounts $1,297,914.11 Capital Stock $300,000.00 

Overdrafts 800.56 Surplus and Undivided Prof- 
Stocks and Securities 319,276.79 its 272,896.07 

Banking House 95,000.00 Due to Banks 104,777.63 

Furniture and Fixtures 10,193.04 Dividends Unpaid 107.50 

Cash and Due from Banks.. 271,150.47 General Deposits 1,208,819.72 

Bills Payable 100,000.00 

Reserves 7,73405 

$i.994,334-07 $i,994,334-97 

Officers — Charles H. Klinck, president; Alfred Coit, vice-president; Car- 
los Barry, cashier; Edward Bull, Jr., assistant cashier; Joseph A. Stanners, 
assistant cashier. 

Directors — Charles H. Klinck, Carlos Barry, Alfred Coit, Lucius E. 
Whiton, Benjamin L. Armstrong, Charles E. White, James Bathgate, W. 
Kyle Sheffield, Laurence A. Chappell, Joseph A. Stanners. 

New London City National Bank — This is the same banking institu- 
tion that was granted a State charter by the General Assembly of Connecti- 
cut at the May session, 1807, under the name of "The President, Directors 
and Company of the New London Bank." It was known as "The New Lon- 
don Bank" until 1865, when by reason of conditions growing out of the 
Civil War it was reorganized under the laws of the United States, with a 
change of name, becoming "The New London City National Bank." From 
that time until the present it has been operated under the requirements and 
safeguards of the National Banking Act, and with the supervision and advice 
of the National Bank Examiners. The increase in its business and resources 
has kept pace through all these years with the growth and development of 
the city, and with the tremendous changes that have come about everywhere 
in banking ideas and methods. 

It is interesting to recall the fact that in 1807, New London, with a 
population then of little more than 3,000 people, was the only city in the 
State to have two banks. There were but five other banks in Connecticut, 
at Hartford, New Haven. Middletown, Norwich and Bridgeport, each being 

BANKS 429 

served by one only ; while in New London was the Union Bank, dating from 
1792, and the New London Bank, just established in 1807. The desire of 
New London for greater banking facilities than the Union Bank could afford, 
very probablj' arose from the need of financing the marine enterprises carried 
on here. Beside the West Indian trade, there was the whaling industry, then 
beginning to assume importance. Its future magnitude could be foreseen, 
although it did not come to its height until forty years later. The building 
and fitting out of whale ships required the use of large sums of money and, 
during the long voyages of one, two or three } ears, the banks had often to 
virtually carry some of the ship owners and some of the local merchants. It 
is not easy to overestimate the value of the assistance rendered by the banks 
of New London not only in the whaling ventures, but in manufacturing and 
other enterprises, that has tended to promote the steady, healthy growth 
which New London has enjoyed during the past one hundred and twenty- 
five years. 

The record of the New London Bank (or the City Bank, as it is called 
today), has been a most excellent one during its existence of more than a 
century. It has weathered the many financial storms that the country has 
encountered, through days of war and days of peace as well. Its manage, 
ment has been proved to be wise and capable to a marked degree ; and its 
support and help have ever been ready and generous when the Nation or the 
city were in need. A list of those who have been officers of this bank would 
include many of New London's most prominent and successful citizens. Henry 
P. Haven, president of the bank in 1876; J. N. Harris, its president from 
1876 to 1896; and Asa Otis, a director from 1834 to T859, are all widely 
known for the many public benefactions that have come from their large 
fortunes. A list of the directors of the bank who have been prominent in the 
business affairs of the city, would embrace many names familiar to one 
acquainted with the old New London families, but perhaps it would not be 
sufficiently of general interest to call for such mention. As the population 
of the city has been changing in its character through succeeding genera- 
tions, so the management and operation of the bank, which once was ex- 
clusivel)' in the hands of a few, is now fully representative of all elements 
and interests of our city, and serves all impartially and acceptably. 

The old stone building on Bank street, which was built for this institu- 
tion in 1820 and was occupied by it for eighty-five years, was in most respects 
sufficient for the need of former days, but in 1905 it seemed evident that the 
time had come for increased facilities, and the present structure was erected, 
covering the old site and also the land extending to the corner of Golden 
street. This is a modern building, with a well protected vault and such 
other equipment as the business of the bank has thus far required. That the 
days to come will call for greater facilities and more room, there can be no 
doubt ; and it is the purpose of the bank's officers to meet fully and adequately 
such legitimate demands as the future shall bring to us. 

The New London City National Bank was the second bank chartered 
in New London, its history dating from May, 1807, when the Connecticut 
Legislature gave it birth as The New London Bank. The first board of 


directors was composed of: Elisha Denison, Edward Chappell, William 
Williams, Edward Hallam, Elias Perkins, Isaac Thompson, Jacob B. Gurley, 
Gushing Eells, William Noyes. 

That board, at their first meeting, held July i8, 1807, elected Elias 
Perkins, president, and Anthony Thatcher, cashier. In July, 1808, Elias 
Perkins resigned the presidency, and Elisha Denison succeeded him, holding 
office until 1828. Jacob B. Gurley was the next president, and for nineteen 
years held the office, resigning in 1847, Ezra Chappell becoming the third 
president. Mr. Chappell held office until 1853, when he resigned and was 
succeeded by Elijah F. Dutton, formerly cashier. Mr. Dutton resigned in 
1856, Albert N. Ramsdell following him as president, an office he held until 
his death in 1873. It was in 1865, under President Ramsdell, that the bank 
was reorganized under the National Banking Act and became The New 
London City National Bank. President Ramsdcll's place as president was 
taken by Richard N. Belden, who resigned the office of cashier, which he had 
held for twenty years, to accept the honor. President Belden held the presi- 
dency three years, until January 11, 1876, when Henry P. Haven was elected 
his successor, Mr. Belden returning to the cashier's desk. President Haven 
died only three months after becoming president, the next to hold that office 
being Jonathan N. Harris, who was elected in May, 1876. He held the office 
until October, i8g6, when death ended his tenure of office. In October, 1896, 
William Belcher was elected to fill out the unexpired term, and in January 
following was elected for a full term, a formality that has now been complied 
with twenty-five times, Mr. Belcher being the present incumbent (1922). He 
has been a member of the New London county bar for fifty years, and is also 
president of The Savings Bank of New London. 

The first cashier of the bank, Anthony Thatcher, held the office twenty- 
six years, until 1833, when he resigned, Elijah F. Dutton succeeding him. 
Mr. Dutton after twenty years as cashier, 1833-1863, resigned to accept the 
office of president, which he held three years, 1853-1856. Mr. Dutton was 
succeeded as cashier by Richard N. Belden, who held the office for twenty 
years, 1853-1873. At the death of President Ramsdell in 1873, Cashier Bel- 
den became President Belden, he being succeeded as cashier by Edwin R. 
Belden. In 1876 Richard N. Belden returned to the cashier's desk, holding 
until January 27, 1877, when he gave way to William H. Rowe, whose term 
of office was longer than that of any other cashier of the bank — thirty years, 
1877-1907. Frank E. Barker was cashier, 1907-1910; John R. Latham, the 
present incumbent, succeeding him in the latter year. 

The present (1922) officers are: William Belcher, president; Herbert 
L. Crandall, vice-president; L. T. Sheffield, vice-president; J. R. Latham, 
cashier; Ira S. Avery, assistant cashier. 

Directors — William Belcher, L. Tracy Sheffield, Arthur Keefe, Frank V. 
Chappell, Charles A. Gallup, Herbert L. Crandall, Samuel A. Goldsmith, Wil- 
liam E. Withey, John R. Latham, William M. Darrow. 

Statement of the New London City National Bank at the close of busi- 
ne.«s, December 31, 1921 : 

BANKS 431 


Notes and Discounts ?i, 202,825.1; J Capital Stock .t-^ 

United States Bonds 490,247.21 Surplus 100,000.00 

Bonds for Investment 153,313.73 Undivided Profits 19,692.40 

Banking House 50,000.00 Kcscrveu for Taxes 2,500.00 

Cash due from Banks 287,439.99 Dividends Unpaid 6,699.00 

Redemption Fund 10,000.00 Circulation 200,000.00 

Deposits 742,590.34 

Savings Deposits 924,345.11 

$2,198,826.85 $2,198,826.85 

In 1920 a savings department was added to the bank, and authority ob- 
tained to administer trusts and settle estates. 

The Merchants National Bank of Norwich — Dating from the organ- 
zation of the Merchants Bank of Norwich, wliich was organized in July, 
1823, the Merchants is the oldest National Bank now doing business in Nor- 
wich, the Thames dating from 1825, the Uncas from 1852. The first board 
of directors consisted of: F. A. Perkins, Walter Lester, N. K. Fitch, Elisha 
Tracy, James L. Ripley, Samuel Kellogg, Epaphras Porter, William Williams, 
Jr., John Lathrop, Charles E. Lester, Stephen Fitch, Charles Coit, Sherwood 
Raymond, Lewis Hyde, Joseph H. Doane. 

The presidents of the bank have been, in turn, William Williams, Jr., 
Henry B. Tracy, John Brewster, J. Hunt Smith, and Costello Lippitt, the dean 
of Norwich bankers, who was chosen the fifth president of the bank, January 
19, 1909, and is the present head of the oldest of Norwich National Banks. 
Joseph Williams was chosen the first cashier, his successors having been 
Joel W. White, James M. Meech, and Charles H. Phelps, the present incum- 
bent, who was elected February i, 1886, having been acting cashier since 

In June, 1865, a National Bank charter was applied for and secured, the 
Merchants National Bank then beginning business. The paid in capital of 
the bank is $100,000. The ofificcrs of the bank are: Costello Lippitt, presi- 
dent; Frank L. Woodard, vice-president; Charles H. Phelps, cashier. These 
with Lucius Brown, James C. Henderson, Joseph Hall and L. Henry Saxton, 
comjirise the board of directors. Arthur E. Storey is assistant cashier. The 
bank building is located on Main street. 

Charter No. 1481. Reserve District No. i. Report of condition of the 
Merchants National Bank at Norv.ich, in the State of Connecticut, at the 
close of business on May 5th, 1922: 


1. Loans and Discounts $390,456.56 17. Capital stock paid in $100,000.00 

2. Overdrafts, unsecured ... 69.33 'S. Surplus fund 35,000.00 

4. U. S. Government securi- 19. Undivided prof- 
ties owned: ils $29,492.52 

Deposited to se- c Less current ex- 
cure circulation penses, interest 

(U. S. bonds, and taxes paid 2,914.34 

par value) $100,000.00 26,578.18 



All other United 
States Govern- 
ment securities 
(including pre- 


5. Other bonds, stocks, se- 
curities, etc 21,450.00 

6. Banking House 5,000.00 

S. Lawful reserve with Fed- 
eral Reserve Bank 28,845.58 

10. Cash in vaults and amount 

due from National Banks 103,408.34 

11. Amount due from banks, 
bankers and trust compa- 
nies in the United States 
(other than included in 

Items 8 and 10) 2,372.10 

13. Checks on other banks in 
the same city or town as 
reporting bank 5,516.57 

14. Miscellaneous cash itema 3,746.76 
items 3.746.76 

15. Redemption fund with U. 
S. Treasurer and due 

from U. S. Treasurer.... 5,000.00 

20. Circulating notes out- 
standing 100,000.00 

2J. -Amount due to State 
banks, bankers and trust 
companies in the United 
States 51,024.6^ 

24. Certified checks out- 
standing 896.96 

Total of Items 23 and 24, 

Demand deposits (other than 
bank deposits) subject to 
reserve (deposits payable 
within 30 days) : 

26. Individual deposits sub- 
ject to check 427,880.30 

30. Dividends unpaid 

Total of demand deposits 
(other than bank de- 
posits) subject to re- 
serve, Items 26 and 30, 


Total $740,965.13 

Total $740,965.13 

The Norwich Savings Society — This, the oldest financial institution 
in Norwich, and almost the oldest savings bank in the State of Connecticut, 
dates back to the administration of James Monroe, twenty-fourth President 
of the United States ; to the time when slavery was a "God-given" institu- 
tion ; when Queen Victoria was a girl ; when but two cities of the United 
States, New York and Philadelphia, had over 100,000 population ; when Chi- 
cago was a town of 4,000 people; when emigrants came in sailing vessels; 
when Calvin Goddard was mayor of Norwich, John Hyde was postmaster, 
and Lafayette street was the only thoroughfare through which to reach the 

The Society was incorporated in May, 1824, with the following members: 
Charles Rockwell, Charles P. Huntington, John Lathrop, Russell Hubbard, 
Amos H. Hubbard, John L. Buswell, P. Newcomb Kinney, Eber Backus, 
Joseph Williams, Jabez Huntington, Bela Peck, John Breed, Dwight Ripley, 
Nathaniel Shipman, Lyman Brewer, Isaac Story, Francis A. Perkins, George 
L. Perkins, William C. Gilman. 

At the first meeting other members were elected, making the original 
forty members. The first officials were: Charles Rockwell, president; Jabez 
Huntington, John L. Buswell, William C. Gilman, Russell Hubbard, vice- 
presidents; George L. Perkins, John Lathrop, Richard Adams, Joseph Wil- 
liams, Charles P. Huntington, Erastus Coit, Roger Huntington, John Breed, 
Lyman Brewer, directors and trustees ; Francis A. Perkins, treasurer ; Joseph 
Williams, secretary. 

BANKS 433 

Presidents from organization have been: Charles Rockwell, two years; 
Jabcz Huntington, until 1833; Charles \V. Rockwell, seven years, resigned; 
William Williams, five years, resigned; Henry Strong, 1847-1851 ; Lafayette 
S. Foster, 1851-1856; Joseph Williams, 1856-1866; Charles Johnson, 1866- 
1879; Francis Nichols, 1879-1891 ; Amos W. Prentice, 1891-1894, died; John 
Mitchell, 1894-1901, died; Charles Bard, 1901-1913. Arthur H. Brewer, the 
present head, was elected in 1913, succeeding Mr. Bard. 

Treasurers — Francis A. Perkins, 1824-1833; Jabez Huntington, 1833- 
1847; Francis A. Perkins, 1847-1863; Benjamin Huntington, 1863-1878; Cos- 
tello Lippitt, elected assistant treasurer and treasurer in 1878, and is yet 
(1922) treasurer and secretary, also a vice-president, having been in the bank- 
ing business fifty-eight years. 

Prior to 1847, deposits were received and general business transacted in 
the old Norwich Bank. But in 1847 a banking house was erected at a cost 
of $5,000 on Main street, next east of Trinity Church. That building was 
occupied until June 27, 1864, when a new building was occupied, the old 
building later becoming the home of the Dime Savings Bank. For thirty-one 
years the Norwich Savings Society occupied that second building, then 
moved to the newly completed building which is yet their home, opening 
for business January i, 1895. For thirty-five years the Society was the only 
savings bank in Norwich, but in 1858 the Chelsea Savings Bank was organ- 
ized, and the Dime Savings Bank in 1869. The Farmers and Merchants 
Savings Bank, organized in 1854, discontinued a few years later. 

The first deposit was made in the Norwich Savings Society, July 23, 1824, 
in the name of Dorcas Mansfield, of Norwich, the amount, $200. The second 
deposit, $30, was made July 26, 1824, in the name of William C. Oilman, of 
Norwich. A perusal of the accompanying statement shows the amount now 
deposited to be in excess of nineteen millions of dollars. At a meeting of 
the directors in 1870, General William Williams introduced a resolution that 
the bank receive no more deposits after that year, saying: "Why, gentle- 
men, our deposits now total five millions of dollars, and who will care for 
this enormous sum after we are gone?" The Society has passed through 
many financial crises, and today is stronger and safer than ever. In only one 
year, 1854, has a dividend been passed. It is one of the best known institu- 
tions of the county, and from its successful past a greater future is argued. 

Oflficers — Arthur H. Brewer, president; Lucius Brown, S. Alpheus Gil- 
bert, Costcllo Lippitt, Charles D. Noyes, vice-presidents; John Porteous, 
Charles R. Butts, Nelson J. Ayling, Ebenezer Learned, John T. Almy, Henry 
A. Tirrell, Charles Henry Osgood, Frank B. Ricketson, John P. Huntington, 
directors; Costello Lippitt, secretary and treasurer; Charles R. Butts, assist- 
ant treasurer; John P. Huntington, attorney. 

Trustees — Lucius Brown, Costello Lippitt, Adams P. Carroll, Arthur 
H. Brewer, George B. Prest, Charles S. Johnson, Nathan A. Gibbs, Frank 
W. Brewster. Reuben S. Bartlett, Charles R. Butts, Albert H. Chase, William 
H. Shields, John Porteous, Ebenezer Learned, Dwight L. Underwood, Angus 
Park, John T. Almy, Allyn L. Brown, James L. Hubbard, Lewis R. Church, 

X.L.— 1-28 


Chaiincey B. Woodworth, Frank E. Palmer, John P. Huntington, Henry A. 
Tirrell, Reuben B. S. Washburn, Traver Briscoe, S. Alpheus Gilbert, Charles 
D. Noyes, Charles Henry Osgood, John C. Rlorgan, James M. Young, Nelson 
J. Ayling, William A. Norton, Frank B. Ricketson, John F. Rogers, W. Rus- 
sell Baird, Charles D. White, Arthur F. Libbey, Guy B. Dolbeare, Edwin H. 
Baker, Jr. 

Statement, May 31st, 1922: 

ASSETS Cash in Brinks and Safe 550,308.40 

Loans $3,964,202.39 -_ 

United States Bonds 1,988,167.38 $20,909,017.37 

Foreign Government Bonds. 1,397,575. 80 

State Bonds 123,288.00 LIABILITIES 

Municipal Bonds 3,609,746.65 Deposits $19,609,636 05 

Railroad Bonds 8,335,953.50 Surpius 600,000.00 

Water Co. Bonds 14,156.25 Undivided Profits 699,381.32 

Telephone Bonds 346,393-75 — ■ 

Railroad Equipment Trust $20,909,017.37 

Notes 286,219.44 

Stocks, Bank, etc 170,342.59 Tlie par or maturity value of bonds 

Banking House ioo,coo.oo exceeds t>ook values as above by $1,398,- 

Safe Deposit Department... 22,463.22 453.56. 

The Thames National Bank, Norwich, Connecticut — There have been 
six National Banks organized and chartered in Norwich — The First 
National, successor of the Ouinnebaug Bank, incorporated in May, 1832, or- 
ganized as the First National Bank in June, 1865, capital $250,000; Lucius W. 
Carroll, president; Lewis A. Hyde, cashier. The Thames National Bank, 
successor to the Thames Bank, of further mention. The Merchants National, 
successor to the Merchants Bank, of further mention. The Second National 
Bank, organized in March, 1864; J. Hunt Adams, the first president; James 
D. Mowry, cashier. The Shetucket National, organized in April, 1853; Charles 
Osgood, president; David O. Strong, cashier; this bank was nationalized 
May 15, 1865; capital $100,000. The Uncas National, organized in 1852. Of 
these seven banks, three survive at this writing, June I, 1922 — The Thames, 
Merchants, and Uncas, the others having been closed or merged with exist- 
ing banks. The history of the three yet doing business will be given in this 

The Thames Bank was the second institution of the kind chartered in 
Norwich, with a capital of $200,000, in 1825. By its charter the bank was 
obliged to purchase the stock of the Norwich Channel Company, and "main- 
tain a depth of at least ten feet of v/ater in the channel of the Thames river 
at common and ordinar}^ tides." The charter also permitted the bank to 
collect toll from all vessels coming to Norwich. These provisions of the 
charter were complied with so long as the bank operated under its State 
charter. The bank was also obliged to receive deposits from the State school 
fund, ecclesiastical societies, colleges and schools, at par, and pay on such 
deposits such dividends as were paid to their stockholders. The first bank 
rooms were on Main street, where the John & George H. Bliss jewelry store 

BANKS 435 

is now located. The capital stock was increased to $300,000 in 1847, and 
again in 1854 to $500,000. 

The bank prospered, and was able in 1861 to vote "That to assist the 
State in meeiing the requisition of the President for troops for the mainte- 
nance of the general government, the Thames Bank offer a loan of $100,000." 
That amount was paid into the treasury of the State of Connecticut when 
the question was an open one whether there would be a government when it 
became due. Prosperity made it necessary to add to the facilities of the 
bank in order to properly meet the demands of increasing business, and in 
1862 the bank erected enlarged quarters on Shetucket street. In 1864 the 
Thames Bank was succeeded by the Thames National Bank, which was char- 
tered with an authorized capital of $2,000,000, of which $1,000,000 was paid 
in, and another career of prosperity was entered upon. Its National Bank 
charter was renewed in 18S4 and again in 1904, the home of the bank cen- 
tering in the same quarters on Shetucket street until 191 1, when the present 
building begun in 1910 was finished and occupied. 

On April 21, 1920, the Thames National Bank was granted the right to 
act, when not in contraventicni of State or local law, as trustee, executor, 
administrator, registrar of stocks and bonds, guardian of estates, assignee, 
receiver, committee of estates of lunatics, or in any other fiduciary capacity 
in which State banks, trust companies or other corporations which come into 
competition with National Banks, are permitted to act under the laws of the 
State of Connecticut, subject to regulations prescribed by the Federal Re- 
serve Board. 

The first president of the Thames Bank was William P. Greene, who 
served seventeen years, 1825-1842. He was a man of prominence, who left 
a deep imprint upon his city, notably in that part known as Greeneville. Ed- 
ward Whiting was president from 1842 until 1851, when he was succeeded 
by Franklin Nichols, who served until 1890. The fourth president was 
Edward N. Gibbs, who served from 1890 to 1897. The fifth president was 
Stephen B. Meech, he serving from 1897 to 1909. The sixth president was 
Willis A. Briscoe, who served from 1909 to 1913. The seventh president, 
Charles L. Hubbard, served from 1913 until 1918, when Arthur H. Brewer, 
the eighth president, was elected, and is yet in office. 

President Brewer is a grandson of Lyman Brewer, the first cashier of the 
bank, 1825-1857. Cashier Brewer was succeeded by Charles Bard, who served 
until 1871, when he gave way to Edward N. Gibbs, who served from clerk 
to president, and went from the Thames National Bank in 1892 to become 
treasurer of the New York Life Insurance Company. Edward N. Gibbs was 
succeeded as cashier in 1889 by Stephen B. Meech, who was in turn succeeded 
by Charles W. Gale in 1894. Mr. Gale was followed in 1918 by the present 
cashier, Nathan A. Gibbs. 

Among prominent men of Norwich who have served the bank in official 
capacity may be named Lafayette S. Foster (lawyer and statesman and act- 
ing Vice-President of the United States after the assassination of President 
Lincoln), who was a director; Charles W. Gale, who was clerk, officer and 



director for nearly fifty-six years; Ebenezer Learned, elected a director in 
1850; Alfred A. Young, in 1852; James L. Hubbard in 1855; James Lloyd 
Greene and Lorenzo Blackstone, in 1864; Walter M. Buckingham, Timothy 
P. Norton, Hugh H. Osgood, John Mitchell, Thomas D. Syles, each a director, 
and many others. Costello Lippitt, dean of the Norwich banking fraternity 
(1922), for fifty-eight years a banker, was connected with the Thames Bank 
for a time. 

The present officers are: Arthur H. Brewer, president and director; 
Oliver L. Johnson, vice-preaident and director; Nathan A. Gibbs, cashier 
and director; William T. Crandall, assistant cashier; Leonard P. Church, 
trust officer and assistant cashier; Walter M. Buckingham, assistant cashier; 
Henry L. Bennett, assistant cashier. The other directors not officers are: 
John Porteous, William Young, Grosvenor Ely, Arthur M. Brown, James L. 
Hubbard, Charles H. Osgood, Walter F. Lester, Hugh B. Campbell. 

The following statement shows the bank's condition at the close of busi- 
ness. May 5, 1922: 


Loans and Discounts $2488,805.74 

Customers' Liability, a/c Ac- 
ceptances Executed by this 
Bank 50,000.00 

U. S. Government Securities 940,886.48 

Bonds, Securities, etc. (other 
than U. S.) 844,930.75 

Banlcing House, Furniture, 
etc 138,137.50 

Reserve with Federal Re- 
serve B.nnk 162,715.73 

Cash and Cash Items 152,828.89 

Due from Banks and Bankers 493,696.86 

Due from U. S. Treasurer.. 20,000.00 

Interest earned, not collected 23,296.83 


Capital $1,000,000.00 

Surplus 550,000.00 

L'ndividcd Profits 116,282.65 

Reserved for Interest and 

Taxes 2,099.06 

Unearned Discount 15,820.97 

Circulation 396,4oaoo 


Certified Checks 
and Due to 

Banks $821,950.80 

Demand Deal- 
ers Accounts. 1,875,222.7s 
Time and Postal 

Savings 402,387.55 

United States . . 69,134.98 


Acceptances Executed by 

this Bank for Customers.. 

Letters of Credit 




The Savings Bank of New London — Soon now, the Savings Bank of 
New London will reach the century mark of life, ninety-five of those 
years having been passed, during which an exceptional record of success and 
prosperity has been compiled. In all those years the bank has never passed 
a dividend, and moneys deposited have always been available for immediate 
use. Being purely a mutual institution, it is conducted solely in the interest 
of its depositors and the community which it serves. The profits accrue for 
the benefit of its depositors, and its investments, carefully regulated by law, 
are restricted to those that experience has proven to be of unquestioned safety. 

Today the Savings Bank of New London has more than 22,000 depositors. 

BANKS 437 

and resources amounting to more than $i6,ocx),ooo. Its loans on real estate 
amount to more than $6,300,000, and have been the means of enabling thou- 
sands of persons to own their own homes. Its Christmas Club, starting in 
December in each year and running for fifty weeks, provides a method where- 
by thousands of its patrons establish funds for themselves to mature and be 
available at a time when extra money is especially needed. Its mail depart- 
ment, which is yearly gaining in popularity and size, is a means for safely 
and conveniently transacting banking without the necessity of a personal 
visit to the bank. By this method, business is being carried on with de- 
positors throughout the country and in foreign countries as well. During 
the last few years, many changes have been effected in the system of book- 
keeping in this institution and in the convenience of the banking rooms. To- 
day there are few banks more conveniently laid out for the workers, and 
none using better, simpler or more effective methods of accurately keeping 
its various accounts. 

The Savings Bank of New London was incorporated in May, 1827, being 
the fourth savings bank to do business in Connecticut. The first Connecticut 
Savings Bank to incorporate was The Society for Savings in Hartford, 1819; 
the Norwich Savings Society following in 1824; the Middletown Savings 
Bank, in 1825; the Savings Bank of New London, in 1827. The incorpo- 
rators of the lastnamed bank were: William P. Cleaveland, Robert Coit, Isaac 
Thompson, Archibald Mercer, Nathaniel I. Perkins, Ebenezer Learned, the 
first president; Edward Learned, Ephraim Cheeseborough, Jireh Isham, Na- 
thaniel Saltonstall, Peter Richards, Increase Wilson, Thomas West, Guy 
Turner, Ezra Chappell, William P. Cleaveland, Jr., Charles I. Stockman, 
Thomas Williams, Jacob B. Gurley. 

Business was begun July i, 1827, in the banking rooms of the Union 
Bank on State street, that institution the first bank in Connecticut, having 
organized in 1792. The first business of the savings bank was a deposit of 
ten dollars made by Robert Jones, a colored man, and the total deposits for 
the first month amounted to but one hundred and seventy dollars. The total 
resources of the bank for the end of the first year were $2,301. From such a 
humble beginning has the bank grown to its present proportions. There have 
been but six presidents at the head of this institution in its life of nearly a 
century, Ebenezer Learned being the first. He served for one year, and was 
succeeded by Ezra Chappell, whose term of office was from 1828 to 1832. 
Ebenezer Learned was reelected president in 1832, and served for twenty 
years. Robert Coit became president in 1852, his term expiring in 1866, when 
he was succeeded by William H. Chapman, who was president until his de- 
cease in 1912, more than forty-five years. Frank L. Palmer was president 
for four years, and he was succeeded by William Belcher, who is also presi- 
dent of the New London City National Bank. The treasurers have been : 
Robert Coit, 1827; Joseph Sistare, 1828-1852; Francis C. Learned, 1852-1871 ; 
Joshua C. Learned, 1871-1892; Walter Learned, 1892-1915; William Belcher, 
1915-1918; Charles E. White, the present treasurer. 

Officers, 1921 — William Belcher, president ; Alfred Coit, Horace C. 
Learned, Belton A. Copp, vice-presidents; Charles E. White, secretary and 


treasurer; George Whittlesey, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer. 
Directors — William Belcher, Alfred Coit, George B. Prest, Bolton A. Copp, 
Horace C. Learned, George Whittlesey, Graham S. Hislop, Charles E. White, 
Albert C. Woodruff. 

Statement made by the Savings Bank of New London, December ist, 
I92I : 

ASSETS Banking House 100,000.00 

Loans on Real Estate $6,462,755.00 Acceptances 56,000.00 

Loans on Collateral Security 483,395.00 Cash in Bank and Vaults.... 396,254.60 

Loans on Personal Security. 12,000.00 

Municipal Notes 212,366.67 $16,792,276.40 

tjnitcd States Securities.... 1,377,426.38 

State and Foreign Bonds... 823,500.00 LIABILITIES 

Municipal Bonds 1,550,000.00 Deposits $15,264,153.34 

Railroad Bonds 4,632,750.00 Surplus 1,221,374.07 

Public Utility Bonds 275,000.00 Undivided Profits 305,503.99 

Bank Stocks 331,675.00 Partial Payments on Liberty 

Railroad and Otlier Stocks . . 77,620.00 Bonds 1,245.00 

Real Estate, Insurance and 

Ta.xes 1,53575 $16,792,27640 

The National Whaling Bank — For fully eight^ynine years the Na- 
tional Whaling Bank as a State and National institution has been one of the 
helpful, trustworthy factors in the upbuilding of New London, the com- 
munity it still serves. Three generations have profited by the intelligent man- 
agement of the institution, and that it has been of service to thousands in a 
financial way as well as having done so at a profit to its stockholders, is the 
record of the National Whaling Bank, of New London. 

A commission composed of S. Ingham, Lyman Law, John Brandegee, 
J. Lawrence and Albert Latham met early in 1S33, and having been granted 
a charter for a bank in New London, organized the same on the first day of 
July, that year. The name, The Whaling Bank, was adopted for this new 
enterprise, as practically all the stockholders in this bank were connected 
with the whaling industry. It has always been in the same location. 

The following were the larger original stockholders, with number of 
shares taken by each : Peter C. Turner, 100; Wantan A. Weaver, 100; Abner 
Bassett, 100; C. Wilson, 100; Lyman Law, lOO; S. Ingham, 100; J. Lawrence, 
200; John Brandegee, 200; Noyes BilHngs, lOO; William W. Billings, lOO. 
Shares were valued at $25 each. 

On July 8, 1853, the first stockholders' meeting was held in the Prentis 
Hotel, where the following officers and directors were elected: Coddington 
Billings, president. Directors — Joseph Lawrence, Aborn Smith, Abner Bas- 
sett, John Brandegee, Peter C. Turner, Sabin Smith, Acors Barns, Daniel 
Hempstead. Peter C. Turner resigned from the directorate in August of the 
same year, the vacancy being filled by Wantan A. Weaver. 

Old records of this bank show a rather unusual circuinstance which arose 
one day in 1834, through which it was necessary to swear in a cashier pro tem. 
Mr. Turner found it impossible to be present this particular daj^ for one 
reason or other, and as a note had to be signed, the directors requested J. C. 

BANKS 439 

Douglas to take the oath of the cashier's office and to act in that capacity 
so that the note might be given. Ten years later, Mr. Douglas became the 
elected cashier of the institution. 

Bolton A. Copp, Sr., was elected a director of the National Whaling Bank 
in 1845. At that time Andrew C. Lippitt was its attorney, Augustus Brande- 
gee holding that position in 1861. Bolton A. Copp, Jr., was appointed cashier 
of the institution in January, 1880, and in 1909 was elected president, an office 
he is now holding. In that same year the present vice-president, Sidney 
H. Miner, was first elected to that office. N. H. .\vcry was chosen cashier in 
1909, serving until January, 1921, when he was succeeded by Harold G. Pond. 

The present officers of the bank arc: Bolton A. Copp, president; Sidney 
H. Miner, vice-president; Harold G. Pond, secretary and cashier; Raymond 
Stearns, teller. Directors — Bolton A. Copp, Harold G. Pond, Sidney H. 
Miner, W. B. Burrows, C. B. Whittlesey. 

State of condition at close of business, December 31, 1921 : 


Loans and Discounts $276,604.10 Capital Stock $150,000.00 

United States Bonds 37,500.00 Surplus and Profits 491,840.65 

Liberty Bonds 60,000.00 Circulating Notes 36,80000 

Bonds, Securities, etc 603,995.21 Certified and Cashier's Checks 19.18 

Banking House 4,000.00 Dividends, Unpaid 9.238.7S 

Due from Banks 51,404.66 Deposits 365,251.09 

Due from Treasurer of the 

U. S 1,87500 

Cash 17,770.70 

$1,053,14967 $1,053,14967 

The banking house is located at 40 Bank street, New London, and from 
organization that location has been the home of the National Whaling Bank. 

The Mystic River National Bank — This bank, now approaching its 

seventy-first birthday, is located in Mystic, where the building it now 
occupies was erected and occupied in 1851. The bank was organized August 
5, 1851, under its present title, minus the word "National," that being added 
at the time the bank reorganized under the National Banking Act. The build- 
ing which has housed the institution during its entire life of seventy-one years 
(1851-1922) is located on West Main street, in Mystic, no material alteration 
having been made since its erection. The bank's career has been one of 
usefulness and benefit to the community it serves, and under its present man- 
agement the same condition and spirit prevails. 

The Mystic River Bank operated as a State bank from August 5, 1851, 
until December 5, 1864, when it became the Mystic River National Bank, 
capital $100,000. The first president of the Bank was Charles Mallory; the 
first cashier, George W^. Noyes. It is an interesting fact that since its organi- 
zation in 1851, a Noyes has been cashier, but three men ever filling that office, 
the present incumbent succeeding his father. The presidents in turn have 
been as follows: Charles Mallory, Nathan G. Fish. William Clift, Francis 
M. Manning, Evan D. Evans, the present incumbent. The cashiers have 



been : George W. Noyes, Henry B. Noyes, and his son, Henry B. Noyes, 
who is the present cashier. The trustees at this time (1922) are: Evan D. 
Evans, Edwin B. Noyes, Benjamin L. Holmes, Louis P. Allyn, Frederick 
Denison, Sidney Siswick, Henry B. Noyes. 

The report of the bank to the Treasury Department made at the close 
of business on May 5, 1922, is appended : 

Loans and dis- 
counts, including 
rediscounts, ac- 
ceptances of oth- 
er banks, and 
foreign bills of 
exchange or 
drafts sold with 
indorsement of 
this bank (ex- 
cept those shown 

in b and c) $148,0335.31 

Acceptances o f 
other bands dis- 
counted 70399 

Total Loans $148,739.31 

Overdrafts unsecured 2.00 

U. S. Government securities 
Deposited to se- 
cure circula- 
tion (U. S. 
Bonds par val- 
ue $100,000.00 

All other U. S. 
securities (in- 
cluding premi- 
ums, if any).. 40,000.00 


Other bonds, stocks, securi- 
ties, etc 276,320.50 

Banking house, $1,000; furni- 
ture and fi.Ktures, $100.... 1,100.00 
Lawful reserve with Federal 

Reserve Bank 33,003.58 

Cash in vault and amount due 

from National Banks 96,679.65 

Amount due from State 
banks, bankers, and trust 
companies in the United 
States (other than included 
in Items 8, 9, or 10) 18,844.06 

Total of Items 9, 10, 11, 12, 

and 13, $115,523.71. 
Miscellaneous cash items.... 8,744.43 

Redemption fund with U. S. 

Treasurer and due from U. 

S. Treasurer 5,000.00 

Total $728,433.53 


Capital stock paid in $100,000.00 

Surplus fund 20,000.00 

Undivided profits. $186,407.33 
Less current ex- 
penses, interest 
and taxes paid.. 7,503.59 


Circulating notes outstanding 97,797-50 
Amount due to State banks, 

bankers and trust compa- 
nies in the United States 

and foreign countries (oth- 
er than included in Items 

21 or 22) 45,444.96 

Certified checks outstanding 12.00 

Total of Items 21, 22, 23, 24, 

and 25, $45,456.96. 
Demand deposits (ther than 

bank deposits) subject to 

reserve (deposits payable 

within 30 days): 

Individual deposits subject 

to check 279,010.23 

Certificates of deposit due 
in less than 30 days (oth- 
er than for money bor- 
rowed) 7,202.60 

Dividends unpaid 62.50 

Total of demand deposits 

(other than bank deposits) 

subject to reserve, Items 

26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31, 


Total $728,433.53 

The First National Bank of Stonington — This bank was chartered by 
the Connecticut Legislature in 185 1 as the Ocean Bank, with a capital 
of $100,000. A building was erected facing Cannon Ball Park, and business 


began the same year. The first board of directors consisted of: Charles P. 
Williams, president; W. J. H. Pollard, cashier; Gurdon Trumbull, Stiles 
Stanton, Latham Hull, Jr., William Hyde, Jr., A. S. Matthews, F. C. Walker. 

The Ocean Bank was chartered as the First National Bank of Stonington, 
February i, 1865. The board of directors was reduced to five: Stiles Stanton, 
Moses Pendleton, Oliver B. Grant, William E. Brewster, Andrew S. Mat- 

The first president was Stiles Stanton; William J. H. Pollard was the 
first cashier; and N. A. Pendleton, teller. The second president of the bank 
was William J. H. Pollard; Franklin B. Noyes, the third to hold that office, 
was succeeded by Charles P. Williams, son of the first president of the Ocean 
Bank, who still holds the office (1922). Moses Pendleton, a member of the 
first board of directors after nationalization, was later vice-president, and his 
son, the first teller, became cashier. Another son, Moses A. Pendleton, suc- 
ceeded A. S. Matthews as director in 1884, succeeded his father, Moses Pen- 
dleton, as vice-president in 1891, and yet holds that office (June, 1922). 
Grandsons of Moses Pendleton are connected with the bank as director, 
cashier, and assistant cashier, making the three generations of Pendletons 
associated with the bank in official capacity. 

The present officials and directors are: Charles P. Williams, president 
and director; Moses A. Pendleton, vice-president and director; Horace N. 
Pendleton, director; Everett N. Pendleton, director and cashier; George H. 
Robinson, director. 

The report of the bank made to the authorities. May 5, 1922, show total 
resources $329,809.61 ; with liabilities the same, the latter including $100,000 
capital stock paid in; $50,000 surplus fund; $120,824.42 subject to check; 
and $48,435 circulation outstanding. The bank management is conservative, 
and great care is exercised in all departments. 

The National Bank of Commerce of New London — This bank was 
originally chartered as a State institution in October, 1852, under the 
title. The Bank of Commerce. The proposed capital was $50,000, but so 
much confidence was shown in the enterprise and the gentlemen associated 
in the organization of the institution, that in four days the entire capital was 
subscribed. It was immediately decided to double the capital, and the addi- 
tional amount was subscribed within a few days. Three months later, Janu- 
ary, 1853, the capital was further increased to $150,000, and the following 
July it was increased to $200,000, so that the bank within a year had become 
an institution with a capital of $200,000. In 1872 the capital was again in- 
creased to $300,000, at which figure it has remained until the present time. 
This capital, with a substantial surplus of over $400,000, makes it one of the 
strongest commercial institutions in Eastern Connecticut. 

The bank continued as a State institution until December 5, 1864, when 
it became a national association under the Federal banking laws, which had 
at that time been enacted by the Federal Government. The bank performs 
all the functions of a National Bank and a trust department authorized by 
the United States Government to act as executor of wills, administrator of 



estates, trustee for trust funds, transfer agent and registrar for issue of stocks, 
bonds, etc. A savings department for savings accounts is also a feature of 
the bank's advantages. 

The first board of directors was chosen September 9, 1852, that board 
consisting of nine members: Acors Barns, Henry P. Haven, Daniel Latham, 
F. W. Holt, G. L. Ford, Lyman Allyn, Martin K. Cady, Benjamin F. Brown, 
Charles W. Strickland. The board organized by electing Acors Barns presi- 
dent, an office he held until his death, when he was succeeded by his brother, 
William H. Barns, who served until his death, the third president being 
Charles Barns, a brother of the two former presidents, he also dying in office. 
The bank has had but five presidents during its lifetime of seventy years, 
and three of these, the Barns brothers, died in office. 

Notable for their long periods of service in connection with the bank as 
directors, are Christopher C. Comstock, who was elected director in 1854 and 
continued to the date of his death, a period of about thirty-five years, and 
Charles D. Boss, Jr., who was elected director in January, 1873, and has 
served until the present time with the exception of a few years when he 
withdrew, but was subsequently reelected. George B. Prest, the present 
vice-president, came to the bank in 1873, '^^'^ has never severed his connection, 
he being dean of the banking fraternity of New London, his forty-nine years 
of unbroken service constituting a record. He is closely followed by Carlos 
Barry, of the Union Bank and Trust Company, who came to that bank in 
1874, both just from school when they entered the banking business. 

The first business transactions of the bank were in the office of Williams 
& Havens, whaling merchants, on October 14, 1852, when notes aggregating 
$11,000 were discounted — a fair day's business for an infant institution. Sub- 
sequently the bank obtained permanent quarters in the second story of the 
Union Bank building, at the present location of the Union Bank and Trust 
Company. When the Crocker house building was constructed, the National 
Bank of Commerce took a lease of its present location for fifty years from 
April I, 1872. 

The directors, desiring to furnish their patrons with the best conve- 
nience and comforts for transacting business, decided to erect a building 
which the bank would occupy at the expiration of its lease of the Crocker 
house quarters, or earlier if possible. To this end a lot was purchased on 
State street, next east to the First Baptist Church, extending around the 
church, with a frontage on Washington street as well as on State street, and 
the present fine home of the National Bank of Commerce is the result of its 
decision to own its own home. 

The following men have been associated with the bank as directors and 
officers: Directors — Acors Barns, Henry P. Haven, Daniel Latham, F. W. 
Holt, G. L. Ford, Christopher C. Comstock, Charles Miner, John Dennis, 
Charles D. Boss, Jr., F. H. Harris, Frank H. Chappcll, Frank L. Palmer, Ben- 
jamin A. Armstrong, Charles W. Barns, Alfred H. Chappell, Charles Royce 
Boss, William H. Reeves, Morton F. Plant, Simon L. Ewald, Lyman Allen, 
Martin K. Cady, Benjamin F. Brown, C W. Strickland, J. N. Harris, William 

BANKS 443 

Sterne, William H. Barns, Henry R. Bond, Charles Barns, Robert A. Morgan, 
C. Augustus Williams. Charles W. Butler, C. F. Spaulcling, James Hislop, 
George B. Prest, Billings P. Learned, George P. Fenner, Henry R. Bond, Jr., 
Ralph H. Melcer. 

There have been five presidents : Acors Barns, who acted from the or- 
ganization of the institution in October, 1852, to the date of his death, Novem- 
ber iS, 1862; William H. Barns succeeded his brother, Acors Barns, and 
continued as president until February 14, 1886, when he died ; Charles Barns 
succeeded his brother, William H. Barns, and continued president until bis 
death on the 20th of July, 1902; Henry R. Bond succeeded Charles Barns 
and continued president for two years, when ill health compelled him to 
resign, on the i8th of July, 1904; Benjamin A. Armstrong, who had been 
identified with the bank as a director since March i, 1886, succeeded Mr. 
Bond on July 25, 1904. Mr. Armstrong has now been president eighteen 
years, 1904-1922, and under his administration the bank has continued its 
most prosperous career. 

There have been five cashiers of the bank: Deacon Charles Butler acted 
as cashier from the organization of the bank until his death, March 18, 1878. 
Charles W. Barns succeeded Deacon Butler, and continued until ill health 
compelled him to resign, January 10, 1893, when he was succeeded by George 
B. Prest, who served until January, 1905, when he was elected vice-president. 
William H. Reeves was elected cashier in January, 1905, and continued until 
Jannuary, 1913, when he resigned, and George B. Prest again assumed the 
duties of cashier. Milton M. Baker, the present cashier, was elected January 
II, 1921. 

Officers — Benjamin A. Armstrong, president; William H. Reeves, vice- 
president; George B. Prest, vice-president ; M. M. Baker, cashier. Directors — 
B. A. Armstrong, J. P. T. Armstrong, Theodore Bodenwein, Henry R. Bond, 
Jr.. Simon L. Ewald, F. L. McGuire, Ralph H. Melcer, F. W. Mercer, G. B. 
Prest. W. H. Reeves. 

Statement of condition at close of business, May 5, 1922: 


Loans and Discounts 5'i446,497.29 Capital $300,000.00 

Overdrafts 1,209.69 Surplus 200,000.00 

TJ. S. Government Bonds. .. . 501,500.00 I'ndivided Profits 2.;.),87i.23 

Oilier Bonds, Stocks, Securi- Circulation 182,000.00 

ties, etc 477,094.50 Due to Banks 18,384.91 

Canking House, Furniture, Individual Deposits 1,466,522.40 

Fi.xturcs 244,294.90 Otlier Demand Deposits.... 658,381.54 

Lawful Reserve with Federal Dividend Unp.tirl 50.00 

Reserve Bank 134,866.36 

Cash in Vault and Due from 

Banlcs 253,647.34 

Due from L'. S. Treasurer. . . 9,100.00 

$3,068,210.08 $3,068,210.08 

The Uncas National Bank— Although organized in 1852, the Uncas 
Bank was not incorporated under the general act until 1855. The first board 



of directors consisted of nine members: James A. Hovey, J. L. Greene, W. 
A. Buckingham, H. B. Norton, J. S. Webb, Jesse S. Ely, Joseph Backus, J. M. 
Huntington, Gurdon Chapman. 

The first president of the bank, James A. Hovey, held the office twenty- 
one years, 1852-1873. He was succeeded by Jesse S. Ely, who served six 
years, 1873-1879. The third president was Lyman Gould, who was succeeded 
by Edwin S. Ely, his successor being Daniel B. Spaulding. The sixth presi- 
dent was John M. Johnson; the seventh, William N. Blackstone; the eighth, 
Wallace S. Allis; the ninth, Arthur D. Lathrop, who was succeeded by the 
present chief officer, William H. Allen, who was elected the tenth president, 
January 9, 1917. The first cashier of the bank, E. H. Learned, held the office 
twenty-seven years, 1852-1879. His successors have been Charles M. Tracy, 
Walter Fuller, James H. Welles, Willis Austin, Dwight H. Huff and H. L. 
Frisbie, the present cashier, who was elected February 5, 1917. 

In 1865 the bank rechartered as the Uncas National Bank, capital stock, 
$100,000. Officers: William H. Allen, president; Calvin H. Frisbie, vice- 
president; Henry L. Frisbie, cashier; Charles D. Greenman, assistant cashier. 
Directors — William H. Allen, Calvin H. Frisbie. C. Morgan Williams, Willis 
Austin, Frank E. Palmer, Rutherford C. Plant, Michael M. Donahoe, Herbert 
F. Dawley, Emanuel Kaplan, William G. Park. 

The following is a condensed statement of condition of bank at the close 
of business, May 5, 1922: 


Loans and Discounts 

U. S. Bonds to Secure Circu- 

U. S. Bonds 

Other Bonds and Securities. 

Banking House and Fixtures 

Exchanges and Cash Items.. 

Due from Federal Reserve 

Cash in Vault and Net 
Amount Due from National 

Due from U. S. Treasury... 

Interest Earned but not Col- 







Capital $100,000.00 

Surplus and Undivided Profits 52,877.45 

Circulation 60,000.00 

Deposits, Banks 33,215.79 

Deposits, Individual 526,198.63 

Certified Checks 220.OO 

Discount Collateral but not 

Earned 1,783. 51 

Cashier's Checks 1,700.00 

$775,995-38 $775,995-38 

The bank occupies a handsome structure on Shetucket street, erected 
in 1913. 

The Groton Savings Bank — The Groton Savings Bank of Mystic has 
for sixty-eight years conducted its business in the bank building on West 
Main street, Mystic, which it has for the same period of time occupied jointly 
with the Mystic River National Bank, organized three years earlier. Like 
that institution, under whose fostering care its youth was passed, the Groton 
Savings Bank has been an important factor in the upbuilding of the town. 

RANKS 445 

and its usefulness has found strength and prosperity. The bank has had but 
three presidents, Henry B. Noyes beinp: the present incumbent. Five treas- 
urers have served the bank, three of these by name, Noyes. The presidents 
have been Nathan G. Fish, William Clift, Henry B. Noyes. The treasurers 
have been George W. Noyes, ?Icnry B. Noyes, Abel H. Simmons, Ira C. 
Noyes, and Jesse B. Stinson, the last named being the present treasurer 
(1922). The trustees at the present time are: E. D. Evans, C. H. Latham, 
Charles W. Lamb, Frederick Denison, John W. Phillips, Jesse B. Stinson, 
H. B. Noyes. 

The prosperity the bank enjoys is best expressed by the following state- 
ment made to the banking department, June i, 1922: 

.ASSETS Industrial Bonds 20,500.00 

Loans on Real Estate $541,275.00 \'ictory Xotes 14,891.56 

Loans to Towns 55,000.00 Cash in Bank, viz 45,612.15 

Loans to School Districts... 7,000.00 

United States Bonds 76,620.13 Totals $1,948,828.50 

State Bonds 45,000.00 LL\BILITIES 

City Bonds 557.762.50 Deposits $1,752,932.75 

R.iilroad Bonds 523,350.00 Surplus 177,171.0.4 

Railroad Stocks 750.00 Profit and Loss 18,724.71 

Bank Stocks 60,750.00 

Expenses 3i7-i6 Totals $1,948,828.50 

The Chelsea Savings Bank — Under an Act of the General Assembly, 
May session, 1858, Section i, Erastus Williams, John Dunham, Henry B. 
Norton, L M. Buckingham, Lorenzo Blackstone, John T. Wait, David Smith, 
Elijah A. Bill, James M. Huntington, Gurdon Chapman, Augustus Brewster, 
Moses Pierce, John W. Stedman, Henry Bill, John S. Lester, Edward H. 
Learned, Learned Hebard, Henry H. Starkweather, Ralph Hurlbutt, William 
W. Backus, Comfort D. Fillmore, S. T. Holbrook, James A. Hovey, Samuel 
H. Grosvenor, Timothy P. Norton, O. J. Lamb, John P. Barstow, William P. 
Nash, Alfred A. Young, Dwight Bailej', William Smith, W. R. Wood, Henry 
Hallett, N. B. Williams, William E. Baker, Jeptha Geer, Thomas A. Clarl^ 
Dudley R. Wheeler, and Walter Peck, were incorporated by the name, style 
and title of "The Chelsea Savings Bank." 

At a meeting of the incorporators, held June 28, 185S, these officers were 
i:lected: Lorenzo Blackstone, president; David Smith, Learned Hebard, 
Henry Bill, vice-presidents; L M. Buckingham, Elijah A. Bill, Comfort D. 
Fillmore, John T. W'ait, Gurdon Chapman, S. T. Holbrook, Erastus Williams, 
directors; John Dunham, secretary-treasurer; James A. Hovey, attorney. 

For about a quarter of a century, Lorenzo Blackstone and Henry Bill 
continued as president and vice-president, Mr. Bill then succeeding to the 
presidency. The third president was General Edward Harland, his successor 
being John C. Averill, who in turn gave way to the present incumbent, Charles 
E. Chandler, who was elected in 1919. The original attorney for the corpora- 
tion, James A. Hovey, held that relation to the bank until his elevation to the 
bench of the Superior Court of Connecticut, his former '.aw partner, John M. 
Thayer, succeeding him as attorney. The first treasurer, John Dunham, only 


served until January 28, 1859, when Othniel Gager was elected to that office. 
He seems not to have served, and in September, 1859, vv^as succeeded by 
Charles M. Coit, then barely twenty-one, but so capable and so esteemed by 
the bank officials that when in September, 1861, he enlisted in the Union 
army, the trustees in highly complimentary resolutions declared that the 
position should be kept open for him. This was done, and Colonel Coit 
upon his return from the war was unanimously elected to his former position. 
He served with great acceptability until suddenly called hence by death, July 
3, 1878. 

The home of the bank was in the Merchants Hotel building until April, 
1864, when quarters were secured on Shetuckct street, which were occupied 
until 1909, when the bank building was so badly damaged by fire that the 
erection of a new modern building, large and imposing, was decided upon. 
The present building, most splendidly located and planned, was finished and 
occupied in November, 1911. The first deposit was made over the counter 
of the Chelsea Savings Bank on July i, 1858, in the name of Julia O. Bill, 
the amount being $100. On March i, 1922, deposits in the bank had reached 
the great total of $10,704,234.23, and the bank assets on that day touched 
$11,388,137.68, the surplus $500,000, with a profit and loss account of $183,- 
903.45. A study of the accompanying report is interesting : 

President, Charles E. Chandler; vice-presidents, Henry G. Peck, Oliver 
L. Johnson, Willis Austin. Directors — Archibald Mitchell, Grosvenor Ely, 
James C. Macpherson, Frederic W. Gary, Frank Hempstead, Frederick W. 
Lester. Andrew B. Davies, Arthur M. Brown, Howard L. Stanton. Secretary 
and treasurer, Frank Hempstead ; assistant secretary-treasurer, James Dana 
Coit ; attorney, Wallace S. Allis. Members of the Corporation — Henry H. 
Gallup, Samuel N. Morgan, Charles E. Chandler, Winslow T. Williams, 
Archibald Mitchell, Frank H. Allen, George H. Loring, Jeremiah J. Desmond, 
George E. Parsons, Frederick T. Sayles, Calvin FT. Frisbie, Witter K. Tingley, 
Edwm A. Tracy, Frederick W. Cary, Henry F. Parker, Julius W. Cadden, 
William H. Allen, John D. Hall, Leonard O. Smith, Joseph D. Aiken, Philip 
T. Welles, Martin E. Jensen, Joseph H. Hall, Frederick W. Lester, Henry G. 
Peck, George O. Stead, Willis Austin, Wallace S. Allis, Ernest H. Crozier, 
Howard L. Stanton, Charles E. Lamb, Oliver L. Johnson, Grosvenor Ely, 
James C. Macpherson, Frank Hempstead, Arthur M. Brown, James Dana 
Coit, Ralph PL Melcer, Percival W. Chapman, Andrew B. Davies, Jacob 
Munz, William L Allyn, Arthur C. Brown, William FL Collins, Herbert M. 
Lerou. William H. Oat, L. Henry Saxton. 

Statement. March i, 1922: 

ASSETS R.'iilroad Bonds 3,y5i,025.oo 

Loans — Rcs.l Estate 53,777,661.00 Eqiiipment Trust Obligations 63,000.00 

Loans— Cities and Towns. . . 35,000.00 Bank Stocks 103,480.00 

Loans — Per.sonal 4,125.00 Banking House 111,140.19 

Loans— Collateral 132,677.75 Insurance and Taxes 175.00 

United States Bond.s 717,650.00 Bank Acceptances 278,479.66 

State Bonds 95,000.00 Cash in Bank and on Hand . . 191,340.38 

i>onds of Foreign Coinitvies. 1,128,024.00 

Municipal Bonds 569,219.70 $11,388,137.68 

Public Utility Bonds 430,140.00 

BANKS 447 

LIABILITIES I'lofit and Loss 183,903.45 

Hepcsits $10,704,234 23 

SurpUis '. 500,000.00 $11,388,137.68 

Henry H. Gallup, who became a member of the corporation in 1875, is 
the oldest in point of 3ears of service of any one connected with the bank 
(1922). The oldest officer of the bank in point of years of service is Frank 
Hempstead, wJio entered the employ of the corporation in 1878, and is the 
present secretary-treasurer. 

The Mariners Savings Bank of New London — ^In 1917 the Mariners 
Savings Bank of Xew London, Connecticut, celebrated its fiftieth anniver- 
sary. From the souvenir booklet issued by the bank in that year the follow- 
ing facts concerning organization are taken : 

Fifty years ago, at the May session of the General Assembly, the Ma- 
riners Savings Bank of New London was incorporated. Thomas M. Waller, 
then a practicing attorney, was responsible for the movement which culmi- 
nated in the organization of the bank on July 29, 1867, the following being 
the incorporators: William H. Allen, Christopher Allyn, Erasmus D. Rogers, 
F. H. Chappell Co., T. M. Waller, C. S. Holt, John A. Tibbits, Theophilus 
Brown, Daniel Latham, Henry P. Haven, C. W. Strickland, Elias F. Morgan, 
Richard H. Chappell, Ebenezer Morgan, Henry R. Bond, George C. Benja- 
min, F. L. Allen, John M. Chapman, John Dennis, A. N. Ramsdell, William 
C. Gorton, Samuel Green, Charles D. Boss, Jr., Rial Chaney, Charles Miner, 
Benjamin Stark, C. C. Comstock, J. N. Harris, Robert A. Morgan, O. Wood- 
worth, Charles Howard, Samuel P. Smith, Edward Church, Henry Williams, 
James Griswold, J. T. Shepard, William H. Barnes, Leander Williams, Eras- 
mus D. Avery, Richard P. Huntley, William L. Peckham, Charles M. Daboll, 
J. C. Avery. Nearly every one of these men was in some way connected with 
the whaling business, which at that time was the chief industry of the town. 

The meeting was held at half-past two, in the parlors of the Metropolitan 
Hotel on Bank street, and was called to order by Thomas M. Waller. Henry 
P. Haven was chosen chairman, and Thomas M. Waller, secretary. The char- 
ter was formally accepted, and it was voted that "the seal of the bank shall 
consist of an anchor surrounded by the words Mariners Savings Bank of New 
London, Connecticut." 

By-laws were adopted, and the following officials were edected : Captain 
Daniel Latham, president; Henry P. Haven, James Griswold, W. H. Allen, A. 
N. Ramsdell, F. L. Allen, Ebenezer Morgan, L. T. Shepard, C. C. Comstock, 
Oliver Woodworth, vice-presidents; Henry R. Bond, W. H. Barnes, Benja- 
min Stark, Richard H. Chappell, Rial Chaney, directors; National Bank of 
Commerce, treasurer; Charles Butler, secretary; Thomas ^L Waller, attorney. 

Thomas M. Waller was attorney for the bank until 1885, when he be- 
came Consul-General of the United States at London. Previously he was 
mayor of New London from 1873 to 1879, and governor of the State from 
1883 to 1885. He was succeeded as attorney by Charles W. Butler, son of 
Charles Butler, the first secretary, who in turn was suceedcd in 1894 by Charles 


B. Waller, judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and son of ex-Governor 
Waller, the first attorney and organizer of the bank. 

The first office of the bank was with the National Bank of Commerce, 
which then occupied quarters on the second floor of the Union Bank build- 
ing. In 1872 the Bank of Commerce moved to its offices in the Croker 
House block, and the Mariners Savings Bank moved also and occupied the 
rear of the room, remaining with the Bank of Commerce until January i, 
1907, when the Mariners Savings Bank moved to its own new home next to 
the post office. The first depositors were two sailors — Manuel Roderique, 
who placed $194.03 to his credit ; and Louis De Pena, who deposited $167.03 — 
this constituting the first day's business. The deposits at the end of the 
first decade and each succeeding period of ten years until the fiftieth anni- 
versary show remarkable gains. The deposits of the bank on March i, 1877, 
were $1,054,411.51 ; March i, 1887, $1,576,480.91 ; March i, 1897, $2,092,844.71 ; 
March i, 1907, $3,432,326.99; March i, 1917, $4,788,462.99. 

The first dividend was declared on March i, 1868, at the rate of seven 
per cent., which rate was continued until September, 1871, when the divi- 
dend was reduced to six per cent., and continued at six per cent, until March 
I, 1877, when it was again reduced to five per cent., and to four per cent, 
on September i, 1880, at which rate it has continued until the present time, 
not a dividend period ever having been passed. 

The presidents of the bank have been eight : Daniel Latham held from 
organization in 1867 until May 15, 1870, when he resigned. He was suc- 
ceeded by Henry R. Bond, who declined a reelection after serving five years, 
1871-1876. William H. Barnes was the third president, his term covering 
the decade 1876-1886. Christopher C. Comstock, the fourth president, served 
but one year, and in 1887 was succeeded by Daniel D. Latham, who held 
until 189S. The sixth president, William H. Allen, guided the bank's des- 
tinies five years, 1898-1903, then gave way to George C. Strong, who was 
president six years, 1903-1909. James P. Johnston, the eighth president, was 
elected in 1909 and has served until the present date, June, 1922. 

John E. Darrow was secretary-treasurer of the bank thirty-four years, 
1869-1903. Two of the original board of trustees elected in 1867 were living 
at the time af the fiftieth anniversahy in 1917 — Charles D. Boss, whose service 
had been continuous, and Thomas M. Waller. One of the original incorpo- 
rators, William L. Peckham, was vice-president of the bank from January, 
1874, until his death in 191 1, at the age of ninety-three. Thomas A. Miner, 
of Groton, was a vice-president for twenty-one years preceding his death in 
1914, at the age of ninety-four; these two men were contemporary officials 
of the bank when both were past ninety. John E. Darrow, previously re- 
ferred to, was the first individual treasurer of the bank, the Bank of Com- 
merce having acted in that capacity during the first two years, 1867-1869. 
In 1903 P. Le Roy Harwood succeeded Mr. Darrow, and was holding the 
office of secretary-treasurer at the end of the fifty-year period in 1917, the 
bank having had but these two treasurers during the half century, Mr. Har- 
wood yet being in office as vice-president and treasurer. 

BANKS 449 

The following were the vice-presidents of the bank since organization : 
Henry P. Haven, 1868-1876; A. N. Ramsdell, 1867-1873; J. T. Shepard, 1867- 
1874; James Griswold, 1867-1892; F. L. Allen, 1867-1872; C. C. Comstock, 
1867-1886; W. H. Allen, 1867-1898, 1903-1907; Ebenezer Morgan, 1867-1883; 
Oliver Woodworth, 1867-1872; E. D. Avery, 1872-1893; Norman B. Church, 
1872-1874; Samuel Green, 1873-1889; William L. Peckham, 1874-1912; E. 
Clark Smith. 1876-1882; Robert A. Morgan, 1882-1885; D. D. Latham, 1883- 
1887; Hiram D. Harris. 1886-1896; C. W. Strickland. Jr., 1887-1903; F. S. 
Newcomb, 1887-1907; George C. Strong, 1887-1903; Eldridge P. Beckvvith, 
1889-1897; John Hopson, 1892-1911; Thomas A. Miner, 1893-1915; Richard 
C Morris. 1896-1904; James P. Johnston, 1897-1909; F. H. Parmelee, 1904- 
1921 ; A. R. Darrow, 1906-1917; Charles A. Klinck, 1920; P. Le Roy Harwood, 

The directors of the first fifty years ending July i, 1917, were: Henry 
R. Bond, Benjamin Stark, Rial Chaney, W. H. Barnes, Richard H. Chappell, 
Thomas A. Miner, W. R. Perry, Horace Landphere, Joseph Starr, Albert R. 
Darrow, Daniel Latham, J. N. Harris, Robert A. Morgan. James Fitch. Daniel 
D. I^atham, Eldridge P. Beckwith, Henry L. Dudley, Daniel P. Hempstead, 
F. S. Newcomb, George C. Strong, John W. Luce, C. W. Strickland, Jr., 
John S. Morgan, Charles Allyn, Thomas W. Gardner. Richard C. Morris, 
James P. Johnston. Isaac W. Thompson. F. H. Parmalee, George E. Starr, 
Elisha V. Daboll, Charles H. Klinck, P. Le Roy Harwood, Charles B. Waller, 
William T. May, Charles S. Starr, Christopher L. Avery, Sidney A. Brown. 

The board of trustees in service July 1, 1915. with year of election: 
Charles D. Ross. 1867; J. S. Nichols, 1887; W. Fitzmaurice, 1891; James P. 
Johnston. 1891 ; P. H. Parmalee, 1891; Charles H. Klinck, 1896; M. Wilson 
Dart, 1896; P. H. Shurts, 1896; R. A. Brubeck, 1896; William T. May, 1902; 
S. L. Ewald, 1902; J. D. Cronin, 1902; Edward T. Brown, 1903; Charles B. 
Walker, 1903; William H. Reeves, 1903; P. Le Roy Harwood, 1904; James 
R. May, 1906; S. H. Miner, 1906; C. L. Avery. 1910; Charles A. Gallup, 1910; 
Henrv- Holt Smith, 1910; Sidney A. Brown, 1914; G. Fred Brown, 1915. 

The officers of the bank are (1922): James P. Johnston, president; 
Charles H. Klinck. P. Le Roy Harwood, vice-presidents ; P. Le Roy Har- 
wood, treasurer; Henry Holt Smith, secretary and assistant treasurer; Charles 
B. Waller, attorney. Directors — William T. May, Charles A. Gallup, Charles 
H. Klinck, P. Le Roy Harwood, Sidney A. Brown, Percy C. Eggleston, James 
P. Johnston. 

The following statement is of April 25, 1917, showing the condition ot 
the Mariners Savings Bank as reported by certified public accountant W. P. 
Landon at the end of the first half century of existence: 

ASSETS C::sh on Hand and on Deposit 85,456.90 

Loans on Real Estate $2,165,570.00 

Loans on Collateral Security 217,997.83 $5,074,622.38 
Kotes of Towns, Counties, 

etc 108,200.00 LLABILITIES 

^^unicipal Bonds 559.525 00 Amount Due Depositors $4,837,791.30 

Railroad Bonds 1,750,720.00 Surplus Account 175,000.00 

N.L.— 1-29 



Corporation Bonds 29,625.00 Interest Account 15,028.35 

Dank Stocks 105,135.00 Profit and Loss Account 32,382.23 

Banking House 50.000.00 Safe Deposit Account (:n- 

Suspensc Account 210.00 come) 230.50 

Expense Account 2,143.21 Special Bond Account 14,190.00 

Advances on Mortgaged 

Property 3944 $5,074,622.38 

The following is a statement of condition of this bank as of March i, 

ASSETS Banking House 50,000.00 

V. S. Liberty Bonds and Foreclosed Real Estate 397-95 

Notes $92,344.27 .Vdvances for Ta.xes and In- 

Railroad Bonds 1,778,936.28 surance 779.93 

Municipal Bonds 308,350.00 Cash in Banks and in Vault . . 194,377.87 

Corporation Bonds 167,050.00 

Bonds of Foreign Countries. 372,002.00 $6,242,731.05 

Bank Stocks 98,800.00 LIABILITIES 

Town, County and School Deposits $5,905,40606 

District Notes 64,200.00 Surplus 200,000.00 

Personal Loans 3,627.50 Profit and Loss 137.324.99 

Mortgage Loans 2,762,565.00 

Collateral Loans 349,300.25 $6,242,731.05 

The bank was the pioneer in night banking in New London, and has 
always been among the leaders in promoting thrift movements. 

The Dime Savings Bank — The Dime Savings BanSk, of Norwich, 
was established in 1869, and in 1874 bought the building at No. 40 Main 
street, vacated by the Norwich Probate Court, occupied it the same year, and 
has since been located there. The bank is one of the solid institutions of 
the city, and in its more than half a century of life has filled a useful and 
important place in the financial world. 

The Dime Savings Bank was organized September 26, 1869. Assets — 
"Faith — Hope — Courage." Liabilities — "Sundry bills for blank books and 
stationery, amotmt unknown." The officers of the company on that Septem- 
ber 26, 1869, were : Trustees — E. R. Thompson, Amasa C. Hall, E. N. Gibbs, 
Francis J. Leavens, Gurdon A. Jones, Jr., N. T. Adams, A. S. Bolles, H. H. 
Osgood, Julius Webb, P. St. M. Andrews, Charles T. Palmer, Elijah Kinney, 
Willis R. Austin, Charles R. Richards, James Burnet, Curtis Jillson, Horace 
Whitaker, John E. Ward, William C. Osgood, E. B. Trumbull. 

President, E. R. Thompson ; vice-presidents — Amasa C. Hall, H. H. Os- 
good, W. R. Austin. Directors — Horace Whitaker, James Burnet, William 
C. Osgood, A. S. Bolles, G. A. Jones, Jr., C. T. Palmer, E. N. Gibbs, F. J. 
Leavens. Attorney, A. S. Bolles ; secretary and treasurer, George D. Coit. 

For twenty-nine years Edward R. Thompson guided the destinies of the 
Dime Savings Bank wisely and well. He was succeeded in 1898 by Hugh 
Henry Osgood, who held the office two years, giving way in 1900 to J. Hunt 
Smith, who was president of the bank nine years. The fourth president of 
the bank was Francis J. Leavens, who was president until September 25, 1921. 
The present head of the institution is Gardner Greene, the fifth man to hold 
that office. 

BANKS 451 

Under President Leavens the bank celebrated its golden anniversary 

with suitable ceremonies, including a banquet, a feature of which was a menu 
which was accompanied by a statement showing the growth in fifty years, as 
follows : 

Statement — September 26, 1869. Assets — "Faith, Hope and Courage." 
Liabilities — "Sundry Bills for Blank Books and Stationery, Amount Un- 

Statement, September 10, 1919, a half century later: 

.'\SSETS Bank Stock 64,17000 

As above, plus a satisfactory degree of Banking House and Real Es- 

public confidence, and tlie following tate 17,101.00 

items audited this day by the State Tax and Expense 8,108.30 

Bank Examiner: Cash 163,793.22 

Real Estate Loans $1,280,380.73 

Collateral and Personal Total .Xsscts $3,706,230.19 

Loans 106,737.65 LIABILITIES 

V. S. Bonds and Foreign Total Deposits $3,509,849.58 

Government Bonds and W. Interest, Surplus and Profit 

S. S 397.373.54 and Loss 189,435.14 

Municipal and State Bonds.. 478,769.00 Liberty Loan Subscribers... 6,945.47 

Railroad and Corporation 

Bonds 1,189,796.75 Total Liabilities $3,706,230.19 

The last statement made under date of May i, 1922, shows continued 
prosperity : 

ASSETS Banking House 14,000.00 

Real Estate Loans $1,321,659.79 Cash in Bank 200,856.45 

Collateral Loans 103,757.73 Cash on Hand 9,777.66 

Personal Loans 13.850.00 

United States Bonds 416,084.76 $4,021,479.87 

Foreign Government Bonds 388,607.73 

Municipal Bonds 337,55900 LI.VBILITIES 

Railroad Bonds 1,069,134.25 Deposits $3,860,224.05 

Railroad Stocks 3,00000 Surplus 120,000.00 

State Bonds 24,210.00 Profit and Loss 41,255.82 

Corporation Bonds 54,812.50 

Bank Stock 64,170.00 , $4,021,479.87 

The following constitutes the bank's president personnel : Corporators 
— Gardiner Greene, Frank L. Woodard, Reuben S. Bartlett, J. Frank Clark, 
Royal G. Holmes, .^rthv.r E. Story, Russell F. Smith, Gurdon L. Bidwell, 
Frank H. Pullen, Wallace S. Allis, Charles H. Phelps, William B. Young, 
B. P. Bishop, Albert S. Comstock, Walton C. Davenport, Maxton Holms, 
Shepard B. Palmer, John H. Perkins, Walter F. Lester. Otto E. Wulf, F"rank 
A. Bill, Arthur L. Peale, William B. Birge, Edmund W. Perkins, James C. 
Henderson, Lucius Briggs, James L. Crawford, Herbert B. Cary, F. B. Ricket- 
son, Arthur E. Sherman, Charles A. Saxton, Charles D. Greenman, Edwin 
H. Baker, Jr., Herbert W. Gallup, Arthur M. Thompson W. Tyler Olcott, 
Richard S. Gernon. Dickson H. Leavens. Morris L. Bergstresser, Samuel E. 
Holdridge, Carl W. Brown, E. LaRue Bliven, Hugh B. Campbell. 

President, Gardiner Greene; vice-presidents — Reuben S. Bartlett, Wil 
liam B. Young, B. P. Bishop. Directors — Frank L. Woodard, Shepard B. 



Palmer, Walter F. Lester, Charles H. Phelps, Edmund W. Perkins, James C. 
Henderson, Herbert B. Cary, Russell F. Smith, Frank H. Pullen. Treasurer, 
Frank L. Woodard ; secretary and assistant treasurer, John H. Perkins ; at- 
torney, Edmund W. Perkins. 

Treasurer Frank L. Woodard has been with the bank since 1878, and 
treasurer since 1888, being one of the oldest bankers of the city in point of 
years of service. John H. Perkins has been with the bank since 1888. 


The Jewett City Savings Bank — Now approaching the fiftieth an- 
niversary of its birth, the Jewett City Savings Bank reviews a career of use- 
fulness and prosperity in which many individuals have participated. The 
bank declared its first dividend three months after beginning business, at the 
rate of seven per cent, per annum, then reduced to six, to five, and finally to 
tlie regular savings bank rate, four per cent. 

The bank was chartered June 11, 1873, with the following corporators: 
Thomas L. Shipman, John W. Fanning, Thomas A. Clark, John R. Tracy, Ira 
G. Briggs, Jeremiah K. Adams, George Sanger, Erastus C. Kegwin, Phineas 
Boyle, William Soule, Joseph E. Leonard, Frederic P. Patridge, Alfred F. 
Brown, Levi J. Branch, Daniel S. Anthony, Asher P. Brown, Alfred A. Young, 
Welcome A. Browning, Andrew C. Burnham, Philetus Rathbun, James O. 
Sweet, Hezekiah L. Reade, Silas E. Sherman, Beriah H. Browning, Henry L. 
Johnson, John A. Rockwell, Israel Mathewson, Cornelius Murphy, Edwin 
Lathrop, Patrick Murtha. 

First Officers — Hezekiah L. Reade, president; Asher P. Brown, vice- 
president: Henry T. Crosby, secretary-treasurer. Trustees — Thomas A. 
Clark, John R. Tracy, Phineas Boyle, Welcome A. Browning, James O. Sweet, 
John A. Rockwell, Andrew C. Burnham, Alfred A. Young, Silas E. Sherman, 
Beriah H. Browning, William Soule, Cornelius Murphy. Attorney, Erastus 
C. Kegwin. 

The bank began business in the building formerly used as a banking 
house by the Jewett City Bank, but in 1889 erected the building which it has 
since occvipied. The first depositor was Miss Mary L. Brown, who placed 
$100 to her own credit, June 23, 1873. Miss Brown's account remained an 
active one on the bank's books until finally closed, June 10, 1921. 

Hezekiah L. Reade, the first president of the bank, served until July 11, 
1900; then, when the directors would have elected him for the twenty-eighth 
time, he declined the honor. The board then elected James O. Sweet presi- 
dent, he serving until his death, March 27, 1913. The board chose Edward 
M. Anthony to succeed Mr. Sweet, he serving until the next regular election, 
July 9, 1913, when he was chosen to the office, which he has since ably filled, 
being the third president to serve the bank during its nearly half a century 
of life. Henry T. Crosby, the first secretary-treasurer, was succeeded by 
Charles Edw. Prior, who served until February i, 1895, when he resigned. 
Frank E. Robinson was chosen to fill out Mr. Prior's unexpired term, then 
at the regular meeting of the corporators was regularly elected to the office 
of secretary-treasurer, as he has been annually during the years, twenty- 

BANKS 453 

seven, which have since intervened. The bank has had but three secretary- 
treasurers since organization, Mr. Robinson yet being in office. 

Present Officers (1922) — Edward M. Anthony, president; John C. 
Hawkins, vice-president; Daniel L. Phillips, vice-president; Frank E. Robin- 
son, secretary and treasurer. Directors — Frank E. Robinson, John Potter, 
Albertus C. Burdick, Adelbcrt R. Young, Arthur M. Brown, Archibald M. 
Clarke, John H. Tracy. 

Statement January i, 1922: 

RESOURCES Cash on Hand and in Banks 26,320.76 

Real Estate Loans $336,204.00 

Collateral Loans 50,280.00 $1,926,085.73 

Town, Borough, and School LL\BILITIES 

District Loans 169,475.00 Deposits $1,782,519.30 

Municipal Bonds 252,895.50 Surplus 50,eoo.oo 

United States Bonds 361,245.75 Profit and Loss 69,228.23 

Bonds of Foreign Countries 188,039.72 Interest, less Current Ex- 
Railroad Bonds 429,425.00 penses and Taxes Paid. .. . 24,211.45 

Public Utility Bonds 40,000.00 Rent 126.75 

Bank Stocks 65,200.00 

Banking House 7,000.00 $1,926,085.73 

When Mr. Robinson assumed the duties of his present office, February i, 
1895, the bank had seventeen hundred depositors, their deposits amounting to 
$737,000. At this date, June 8, 1922, the number of depositors has reached 
twenty-five hundred and fifty, and their deposits total something over $1,800,- 
000. The showing bears out the statement made in the beginning, that "the 
bank reviews a career of usefulness and prosperity," and, we may add, and 

The Jewett City Trust Company — The Jewett City Trust Com- 
pany, located in Jewett City, opened its doors for business October 3, 1921. 
The company has a capital of $25,000, and a paid in surplus of $6,250. At 
the end of the first si.x months deposits were $140,000. 

The officers are: L. M. Carpenter, president; Daniel F. Finn, Joseph C. 
Worth, vice-presidents ; H. M. Dunbar, treasurer ; Edward A. Faust, secretary. 
Directors — L. M Carpenter, Joseph C. Worth, Edward A. Faust, Andrew 
McNicol, James H. Shea, Daniel F. Finn, H. M. Dunbar, Alex. McNicol, 
George H. Jennings, W. C. Terry, A. D. Tripp. 

The Bankers Trust Company — Among the youngest of the financial 
institutions of New London county, the Bankers Trust Company began busi- 
ness on Franklin Square, Norwich, Connecticut, December 14, 1921. A state- 
ment of condition three months later, March 10, 1922, shows a remarkable 
growth during that short period : 

ASSETS demand) 22,908.36 

Bills Discounted $42,532.06 Mortgage Loans i,.-,oooo 

Demand Loans (without col- Town and City Notes 4,800.00 

lateral) 1,275.00 Funds Set .'\side for Savings 

Collateral Loans (time and Depositors 53339.62 



ASSETS— (Continued) 

Stocks and Securities 24,850.00 

Furniture and Fixtures 15,289.66 

Due from Banks and Bankers 271,225.09 
United States and National 

Bank Notes 50,418.00 

Gold Coin 1,187.50 

Silver Coin 4,099.89 

Checks, Casli Items and Ex- 
changes 1,649.52 

Other Assets, viz.: 

Revenue Stamps 3.38 

Prepaid Interest on Bonds 314.28 

Expense Account 5,047.80 


Capital Stock $100,000.00 

Surplus 25,000.00 

Due to Banks and Bankers. 2,943.43 

Savings Deposits 53,339-62 

General Deposits 299,146.01 

Certificates of Deposit, de 

mand 19,000.00 

Treasurer's Checks S4-90 

Certified Checks 50.25 

Christmas Savings or Thrift 

Funds 900.50 

Other Liabilities, viz.: Sus- 
pense Account 5.4s 



Officers — Angus Park, president; Timothy C. Murphy, Charles A. Sax- 
ton, Joseph C. Worth, vice-presidents ; George A. Finn, secretary and treas- 
urer. The directors are: David B. Disco, James J. Donahoe, Edwin W. 
Higgins, Angus Park, Herbert M. Lerou, Charles D. Foster, Louis J. Fon- 
taine, Timothy C. Murphy, Martin Rozychi, William H. Cruikshank, James 
Graham, Abner Schwartz, Joseph C. Worth, Charles A. Saxton, George A. 

With such an auspicious beginning, the future seems bright for this 
addition to the financial family of the county. 

The Pawcatuck Bank and Trust Company — This, the youngest of 
all New London county financial institutions, began business in Pawca- 
tuck, Connecticut, March 2, 1922, with a capital of $25,000. The officers are: 
Elias B. Hinckley, president; R. J. Randall, chairman of board; F. S. Opie, 
H. A. Stable, vice-presidents; F. M. Robertson, cashier; C. C. Gray, secre- 
tary. Directors — William H. Casey, Charles F. Champlin, F. L. Furness, 
Charles C. Gray, Elias B. Hincklc}-, George O. Murphey, Fred S. Opie, Lee 
Perley, R. J. Randall, H. A. Stable, George H. Stone, Frank N. Wilcox, 
William A. Wilcox, F. S. Nardone. 

One hundred thousand dollars on deposit, and has accumulated a surplus 
of $6,250. 

The Winthrop Trust Company — This company opened for business 
in temporary quarters in the Plant building, 310 State street. New London, 
Connecticut, on March i, 1922, being the two hundred and seventy-sixth year 
after the founding of New London by John Winthrop, the younger. 

Officers — P. LeRoy Harwood, president; Ernest E. Rogers, vice-presi- 
dent; Frank C. Cutler, secretary-treasurer. Directors — Ward T. Ailing, W. 
Ellery Allyn, Arthur P. Anderson, Rosemary O. Anderson, Charles Borland, 
Sidney A. Brown, Donald Chappell, Waldo E. Clarke, Cornelius C. Costello, 
Marion R. Davis, Percy C. Eggleston, Harry T. Griswold, James G. Ham- 
mond, Philip Z. Hankey, Frank J. Howell, Ludwig Mann, James R. May, 



Robert J. Sisk. Frank B. Walker, Charles B. Waller, E. O. Winship, Thomas 
A. Woodruff, Homer Brooke. 

Report of the condition of the Winthrop Trust Company, New London, 
Connecticut, at the close of business on May 5th, 1922: 


Demand Loans (without col- 

Collateral Loans (time and 

Motgagc Loans 

Otlicr Loans 

Ijonds to Secure Savings 

Funds Set Aside for Savings 

United States Bonds 

Stocks and Securities 

I'urniturc and Fixtures 

Due from Reserve Agents.. 

Due from Banks and Bank- 


United States and National 
Banks Notes 

Gold Coin 

Silver Coin 

Minor Coin 

Checks, Cash Items and Ex- 

Other .*\ssets, viz.: Bank Ac- 
















Accrued Interest on Stocks 

and Bonds Paid Our 508.33 

Expenses 5,037.60 

Total Assets ?305, 7.13.76 


Capital Stock 


Savings Deposits 

General Deposits 

Treasurer's Checks 

Certified Checks 

Exchange, Collection Charges 
on Drafts 

Interest Earned on Savings 

Other Liabilities, viz.: In- 
surance Commission 

Commission on Sales, Stocks 
and Bonds 

Interest Earned 

Discount (unearned interest 
on loans discounted) 












Total Liabilities $305,743.76 

!:hapter XVI 

By W'ai.tkr F. Lester 

A Primitive Necessity. — The spirit of mutual dependence so profoundly 
voiced by the franiers of the Mayflower Compact has never failed to pervade 
the colonies planted by them, nor the communities which later developed 
therefrom. Indeed, into the fabric woven by those who "solemnly and 
mutually'" covenanted and combined themselves together "into a civil bodj' 
politic for our better ordering and preservation," there entered as the basic 
element the relation of each to the other. Periods of dire distress at times 
sorely tried these relations, yet through the deep cultivation and refinement 
of common disaster they proved too well-rooted to suffer destruction, and 
endured. Through mutual understanding, therefore, as well as necessity, 
our forefathers came to be among the world's most noble exponents of the 
exhortation, "Bear ye one another's burdens." 

Built upon such a foundation and fostered by hereditary spirit in the 
succeeding generations, were it possible for our humane institutions of to-day 
to have achieved a lesser degree of development? Quite naturally these people 
who believed in personal equality ; who established and protected a like oppor- 
tunity for all in religion and education; whose men stood as sentinels about 
the church, guarding the worshipping congregation against the ravages of 
the hostile savage; — quite naturally these people had anxiety to protect 
themselves against the ravages of a fickle friend — usually one of their potent 
allies, but erstwhile thc-ir most vicious enemy. As a result we find written 
into the early records and later into the official statutes, rules and laws 
relating to the prevention of and protection from damage by fire. These 
regulations were primitive and the natural deduction from the circumstances, 
but a person of even average intelligence would declare them to be so self- 
evident as to be superfluous. Ordinarily this would be true, yet, ever since 
fire underwriting has been a factor in the economic world, those engaged in 
the business have been endeavoring to understand the psychologic phenom- 
enon of mankind's apathy to the great hazards of fire, and the most elementary 
warnings seem essential, though universally unheeded. Undoubtedly it was 
in recognition of this trait of human nature that our New England ancestors 
came to a realization that losses by fire were sure to occur and that precau- 
tionary measures to prevent fire would frequently fail, making it necessary 
to find some means through which the individual loser would not be obliged 
to suffer all the burden alone, but that the toll exacted might be distributed 
over the entire community. There appears therefore as early as 1640 frag- 
mentary references pointing to the fact that a mutual understanding, at least, 
was entered into among the people of some of the separate communities in 
southern New England looking toward a contributorship or assessment 
levied on the many to cover the misfortune of the few. This of course was 
quite natural, as in some sections the idea of all real property of whatever 


nature being- to the public weal was carried out to the letter, remaining so 
until such things as partitions, deeds and records became an official verity. 
In this manner the way was paved for a more definite and organized method 
by which the people might be reimbursed for and in some degree protected 
against loss by fire, and all early organizations of this nature were on a 
strictly mutual basis. 

The belief should not be ventured that the settlers in New England were 
by any means the pioneers in instituting a compensating plan with relation 
to loss by fire. The actual beginning of the practice is obscure, though it 
appears that nearly three thousand years ago in the East, particularly in 
Assyria, magistrates were appointed in each town and district to levy con- 
tributions from each member of the community to provide a fund against 
such calamities as drought and fire. 

It is quite certain, however, that in the early part of the last century, 
proportional to the amount of property involved, organized fire insurance 
protection was as rapidly developed in southern New England and Pennsyl- 
vania as in any part of the world at any period in history. There was very 
good reason for this. Clearance of the lands meant production of lumber, 
and it was quite natural that this should be absorbed in erection of buildings, 
accounting in a large measure for the prevailing wooden construction of our 
communities. The fire hazards through these conditions were naturally more 
menacing than in the older European communities where brick and tile and 
stone and cement could be used with greater facility and had for many year.s 
been employed in building construction. Moreover, business was expanding 
b;,- leaps and bounds ; mercantile houses were increasing in number to an 
amazing extent. In modern times, fire insurance has come to be recognized 
as an indispensable element in the business world as a guarantor of credit. 
This fact early in the nineteenth century was rapidly becoming recognized, 
and mercantile houses were clamoring for enlargement of such facilities. 
Thus from the demands created through the hazards of frame construction, 
as well as the insistent appeal of business for financial protection, from the 
small beginning of the neighborhood group who mutuallv covenanted to share 
each others' losses, were developed the highly organized fire insurance com- 
panies of New England, among which those of Connecticut and of New 
London county have gained a very enviable place. 

First American Companies. — It has been stated that Pennsylvania shared 
with New England in the earliest establishment of organized fire insurance 
Companies, and the first whose title appears on record was The Philadelphia 
Contributorship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire — a typical 
Philadelphia title. This honorable institution was organized on March 25, 
1752, Benjamin Franklin being a director, and is still doing business, its sole 
territory being the State of Pennsylvania. Manv other companies were organ- 
ized in the succeeding years, either to succumb shortly or to live a feeble 
existence which has left no record, with the exception of The Mutual Assur- 
ance Company for Insuring Houses from Loss by Fire, organized in 1786 
in Philadelphia, and still in existence. These were nearly all in Pennsylvania, 


however, and none in Connecticut until forty-two years later. 

In 1792 the Insurance Company of North America came into being in 
the same room in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, where the Declaration 
of Independence had been signed sixteen years bfore. This company to-day 
enjoys the highest regard of the insuring public in every State of the United 
States, as well as the provinces of Canada, and is one of our strongest and 
largest underwriting institutions. It may not be an unpardonable digression 
if here are quoted the words of a paragraph from a book recently published 
by this oldest American joint-stock insurance corporation, recountmg its 
distinguished history: "Its early history is closely interwoven with the history 
of the Government itself, and reflects at every step the early struggles of 
the fathers of a nation to make the Great Republic we have to-day. The 
North America has therefore veritably grown up out of and with the country 
itself. Its archives teem with entries and records concerning great historical 
names and transactions connected with places, property and events that occu- 
pied the thoughts and inspired the hopes of the makers of liberty and their 
successors, the makers of the country." 

The stage being thus set with sufficient background to make an impres- 
sion as to the antiquity of the event, we now come to a very important 
episode and one which relates intimately to our study of fire insurance in 
New London Count}' — indeed, is the very inception of enduring fire insurance 
organization in Connecticut, if not in New England. For, yielding only two 
years' priority to the Insurance Company of North America, in 1794 were 
born twins into the insurance held. One was the Insurance Company 
of the State of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and the other The Norwich 
Mutual Assurance Company, in Norwich, Connecticut : the full dignified name 
of the Insurance Company of the State of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, 
perhaps this abundant title is more in keeping with the characteristic 
Philadelphia copiousness of cognomen. We may dispose of the Insurance 
Company of the State of Pennsylvania with but a word. In fact, it to some 
extent disposed of itself, when in 191 3, after more than a century of honor- 
able record, its individuality was somewhat sacrified through merger with 
the American Fire Insurance Company of Philadelphia, a youngster ( !) 
organized in iSio. 

The Mutual Assurance Company of the City of Norwich. — In the Mutual 
Assurance Company of the City of Norwich, however, we have a great 
interest. Its unique distinction of being the first established enduring insur- 
ance organization in the Eastern United States of the period creates a heritage 
of which New London county may well be proud. 

A serious fire occurring in Norwich in 1794 so painfully illustrating the 
inefficiency of the fire engines and the total losses to which all property 
owners were liable, was the direct cause of the founding of the Mutual 
Assurance Company. At a meeting held in the court house in Norwich 
Town, Monday, December 29, 1794, Dr. Joshua Lathrop was chosen chair- 
man, and the following officers were elected: Secretary, Zachariah Hunting- 
ton ; Directors, General Ebenezer Huntington, Mr. Joseph Rowland, Mr. 


Daniel Coit, Mr. Thomas Fanning, Mr. Samuel DeWitt, Colonel Joshua 
Huntington, Mr. Levi Huntington and Colonel Christopher Leffingwell. 

On May i8, 1795, the members petitioned "The Honourable General 
Assembly now sitting in Hartford," for an act of incorporation "for the 
purpose of rendering any future loss which may happen to them by fire, as 
light as possible to individuals sustaining such loss," and for the purpose 
of mutually insuring each other. This request was granted the second 
Thursday of May, 1795. 

In this connection it is interesting to note that nine months prior to 
the first meeting of the local organizers, or in March, 1794, the firm of 
Sanford and Wadsworth of Hartford began business by issuing policies under 
the names of the Hartford Fire Insurance Company. The following year 
the same parties, with some additional members, continued business for a 
short time, using the title of Hartford and New Haven Fire Insurance Com- 
pany. As both of these ventures were partnerships which began and con- 
tinued without special legislative sanction, the Mutual Assurance Company 
of the City of Norwich became the earliest incorporated body of its kind in 
Connecticut. The Hartford Fire Insurance Company, which succeeded this 
informal enterprise, was not chartered until 1810. The Security Insurance 
Company of New Haven, probably also a successor, was organized in May, 

The company never had a president. Among those who succeeded Dr. 
Joshua Lathrop as chairman or moderator were Nathaniel Shipman, Captain 
John L. Buswell, Charles P. Huntington, Roger Huntington, General William- 
Williams, George Bliss, General Joseph Williams, Eleazer L. Lathrop, Apple- 
ton Meech, Abiel S. Sherman, Oliver P. Wattles, Gardner Thurston, Z. R. 
Robbins, Henry Bill, Samuel B. Case, Edmund B. Roath and General Edward 
■ Harland. 

This first policy issued February i6th, 1795, was as follows: 


No. I. 
THIS POLICY Witnesseth, That 

Christopher Leffingwell 
having become, and by these presents becoming a Member of the MUTUAL 
ASSURANCE COMPANY of the city of Norwich, pursuant to a Deed of 
Settlement, bearing date the fifteenth Day of December, One Thousand Seven 
Hundred and Ninety-Four. And for and in Consideration of the Sum of 
Five Dollars & Twenty-five Cents in hand paid by the said Christopher 
Leffingwell to the Treasurer of the said Assurance Company, being the 
Amount of Premium for insuring the Sum of One Thousand and fifty 
Dollars unto the said Christopher Leffingwell his Heirs, Executors, Admin- 
istrators and .\ssigns, upon the Dwelling House in which he now lives. Situ- 
ated on the west side of the main street in Norwich, two stories high, forty 
three feet front and Forty three feet Wide, Built of wood, the Chimney 
therein being also included, as recorded in the register book of the Treasurer 
of said Assurance Company, Letter A, Page ist. during the term of one year 
from the date hereof ; the said Policy commencing the l6th Day of February 
instant, and ending on the l6th Day of February next, commencing and end- 
ing at 12 o'clock at noon. 


This policy was dated the i6th of February, 1795, was signed by Zach. 
Huntington, secretary, and by Ebcnczer Huntington and Jacob DeWitt, 
directors, and insured three-fourths of the estimated fourteen hundred dollar 
valuation of the house, the premium being at the rate of one-half of one 
per cent. This insurance, which has never lapsed, still protects the old 
dwelling near Harland's corner, Norwich Town. 

Other insurance which was issued the same day and is still in force is 
as follows: Policy No. 4, insured the same Christopher LefTingwell in the 
sum of $600, "on his Dwelling house in which Mr. Belsher now lives, situated 
on the Cross Road so called from the meeting house to his said Leffingwells 
Trading Store and near the Potters Kiln," which residence was recently the 
property of the late Epaphras Porter; No. 9 was issued to Joshua Lathrop 
in the sum of $900, and covered "his Dwelling house in which he lives," "on 
the eastern side of the main Street," which property in later years became 
known as the Gardner Thurston place; No. 14 was issued in the sum of 
$750 to Daniel Lathrop on "his Dwelling house in which he now lives," "on 
the east side of the main Street," which homestead became in time the resi- 
dence of the late Deacon James Stedman. 

Other early insurance which is still existent is represented by Policy 
No. 36, which bore date February 23, 1795, and in the sum of $525, insured 
Thomas Ilarland on "his Dwelling house in which he lives, situated on the 
east of the main street in Norwich opposite Christopher Leffingwell's trading 
store." This fine old property has never been alienated, and was the home 
of the late Gen. Edward Harland at his death. Policy No. 53, issued to Daniel 
L. Coit, Feb. 24, 1795, in the sum of $1275 on "his dwelling house in which 
he now lives, situated on the east side of the main street, in Norwich." 
This residence, still known as "the Coit house," passed by inheritance to the 
Oilman family. 

Among other early policy holders were Gen. Ebenezer Huntington, 
Thomas Fanning, Levi Huntington, Col. Joshua Huntington, Thomas Hub- 
bard, Rev. Joseph Strong, Ebenezer Carew, Gardner Carpenter, James Hyde, 
Ebenezer Thomas, Joseph Carpenter, Mundator Tracy, Christopher Starr, 
Elisha L. Reynolds, on "his dwelling house in which his Honoured Mother, 
Mrs. Phebe Reynolds now lives," and many others. 

The company issued policies on property not only in Norwich Town and 
Landing, but in Bozrah, Windham, and other nearby places, and had accred- 
ited agents in New London, the first of whom, Major Simeon Smith, Capt. 
Nichol Fosdick and Mr. Isaac Treby, were appointed March 7, 1803. 

The company early "voted that on every principal building, in each policy 
insured, there shall be a badge, in a conspicuous place, in the front of the 
building with the words ("Mutual Assurance") ingraved, painted or plated 



No. 203 

thereon, together with the No. of the building agreeably to the number of 
the policy, by which the same is insured." 


For many years and until a comparatively recent time, these quaint tokens 
embellished many local habitations, particularly those at Norwich Town, but 
have now generally disappeared. One may yet be seen, however, over the 
front door of the home of the Ladies Oilman, in that section of the town. Its 
presence is something of a mystery, as its number (203) corresponds with 
that of a policy issued September 6, 1797, in the sum of $450, to John French 
on "his dwelling house improved by himself situated in New London, on the 
west side of the road leading from the church to Greens' brick house." 

For many years the amount set aside for the payment of losses and 
dividends was $6,666.67 '• the assets at the close of the year 1865 were $8,979.95 1 
they are now $18,346.84. 

Annual meetings are held in January and, the Company being purely 
mutual, the dividends then declared are devoted to the payment of premiums. 
While taking excellent care of old clients by continuing their policies at one- 
quarter of one per cent., the company has declined new business during the 
past twenty-five years. The present directors of the company are C. R. Butts, 
F. D. Sevin, H. L. Yerrington, Z. R. Robbins, and S. B. Palmer. Charles 
R. Butts is its present secretary, having held this position since 1904. 

Last of Eighteenth and First of Nineteenth Century. — Of some one hund- 
red and thirty American companies doing business in Connecticut in 1920, the 
so-called Norwich Mutual was the oldest, save one, the Insurance Company 
of North America previously referred to. The next oldest company reporting 
to the Connecticut Insurance Department is the Providence-Washington 
Insurance Company of Providence, Rhode Island, organized in 1799, and, as 
a matter of fact, the Insurance Company of North America, the Mutual As- 
surance Company of the City of Norwich and the Providence-Washington 
Insurance Company are the only American companies doing business in Con- 
necticut organized in the eighteenth century. Indeed, of all the fire insurance 
companies now entered in Connecticut of any nationality whatsoever — and 
practically all comprehensive companies of this and every other country in 
the world are so entered — the list of those organized in the eighteenth cen- 
tury embraces only nine. In addition to the three referred to previously are 
six English companies: The Sun Insurance Office, London, the oldest insur- 
ance company in the world, organized in 1710; the Union Assurance Society 
of London, organized in 1714; the London Assurance Company, and the 
Royal Exchange Assurance Company, both of London, and both organized 
in 1720; the Phoenix Assurance Company, London, organized in 1782; and 
the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society, of Norwich, England, organ- 
ized in 1797. None of this group of six, however, were in the field in the 
United States when the other group of three were organized. The Phoenix 
Assurance Company was the first foreign fire insurance company to enter 
the United States, in 1804. The State of Pennsylvania was alert to protect 
its young companies, and in view of what has been said of the Pennsylvania 
companies in the early days, it is interesting to note that the legislature of 
that State in 1810 passed an act prohibiting all insurance by foreign corpora- 


tions, and the Phoenix accordingly withdrew from Pennsylvania (and the 
United States) and did not return until 1879. The London Assurance Com- 
pany entered tlie country in 1872, the Norwich Union in 1877, the Sun in 
1882, the Royal Exchange in 1891, and the Union Assurance in 1907. The 
Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Company, organized in Liverpool, 
England, in 1S36, entered the United States in 1848 and therefore, with the 
exception of the temporary entrance of the Phoenix Assurance, has longest 
done an American business. Of late years companies of all countries are 
doing business here, China and Japan being strongly represented, though next 
to the English companies the French predominate. Previous to the earliest 
of these dates, hov.-ever, practically all of the companies of the United States, 
including those of Connecticut and New London county, to which we are 
about to refer, were organized. It will therefore be evident that these institu- 
tions found their inception in the necessity for the facilities which they 
afforded, rather than to meet competition of outside corporations; it is the 
source of great satisfaction to know that early American industry and busi- 
ness had the sagacity and courage to care for its own risks unaided. 

Reference was made in a previous paragraph to the rapid development 
and institution of fire insurance organizations in the early part of the last 
century in the Colonial United States. While other States, notably Pennsyl- 
vania as aforesaid, were productive to some degree in such organizations, 
their record did not begin to compare with that of Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut. Between 1800 and 1840 in Massachusetts no less than thirty fire 
insurance companies began operation. In Connecticut during that period, 
sixteen entered the business. Of these, two stock companies now survive, 
both being institutions which have taken the name of Connecticut into proud 
places and are the epitome of solidarity and integrity: The Hartford Fire 
Insurance Company of Hartford commenced business under charter in August, 
1810, and the .^tna Insurance Company of Hartford on August 19th, 1819. 

The Norwich Fire Insurance Company. — In 1803 there was chartered in 
Norwich the first stock fire insurance company in Connecticut. The original 
title was the Norwich Marine Insurance Company, but apparently the strictly 
marine business was not favorable, and in 1818 the name was changed by act 
of legislature to The Norwich Fire Insurance Company, the capital being 
increased from $50,000 to $100,000, with privilege for further increase to not 
more than $300,000, a large figure for the times, indicating ambitions for a 
leading place in the business of the period. The directors subsequently fixed 
the capital at $100,000, this being raised to $150,000 in 1849, j"st previous to 
the company being admitted to do business in the State of New York. The 
capital stock was increased to $200,000 in i860, and to the maximum of 
$300,000 in 1864. 

In the early years of the company, both a marine (insurance of ships and 
cargoes) and fire business was done. Risks were carefully selected, though 
in the absence of the present statutory restraint no reserves were erected 
against the liabilities of the company — or the amount at risk — and as soon as 
a dollar reached the treasury it was looked upon as earned. It was not until 


1837 that regulation of insurance was attempted by the State. An Act passed 
in Massachusetts in that year creating the so-called "reinsurance reserve fund" 
was the inception of the present comprehensive and wise State supervision 
existent country-wide. The conditions of to-day, therefore, are that a com- 
pany does not consider the premium paid by the assured as earned for itself 
until the expiration of the term of risk for which liability was assumed. 

With this company, therefore, there seems to have been successive periods 
of encouragement through smiling fortune, and of gloom subsequent to 
adverse caprices of fate, abundance and destitution appearing to alternate. 
Every loss, however, was met with punctilious zeal. In 1849 the premiums 
had reached $22,056.35, and interest $1,204.20. Losses and stock dividends 
amounted to $22,270.38. 

The presidents of the company were: Samuel Woodbridge, Simeon 
Thomas, 1807; Thomas Lathrop, 1810; Ebenezer Huntington, 1813; David 
Ripley, 1819; Charles P. Huntington, 1820; John Bushwell, 1825; George L. 
Perkins, 1830; William Williams, Jr., 1836; Lewis Hyde, 1845; Charles John- 
son, 1846; John G. Huntington (when elected also being president of the 
New London County Mutual Fire Insurance Company), 1849; Samuel Mor- 
gan, 1853; Augustus Brewster, 1854; and Ebenezer Learned, 1864. The 
secretaries were : Shubael Breed, Joseph Williams, 1814, serving an unusual 
term of forty years; Ebenezer Learned, 1854; John L. Dennison, 1864; and 
W. T. Steere, 1868. 

The great Chicago fire in October, 1871, caused losses so far in excess of 
resources that retirement was inevitable, and the company, which at that 
time had the tradition of being the oldest stock fire insurance company in 
Connecticut, was obliged to cease business. 

A New London Company. — It is of interest to record that in October, 
1818, the Thames Insurance Company was chartered in New London, being 
the only company of record organized in that city. The records of the Insur- 
ance Department in Hartford do not disclose any facts relative to the company 
and it is doubtful whether much if any business was done. 

Other Early Companies in Connecticut. — Of the Mutual Companies or- 
ganized in Connecticut during the period of 1800-1840, the principal ones were 
primarily instituted as county affairs; some of the smaller ones were township 
companies only. The oldest was organized in Brooklyn, and known as the 
\\ indham County Mutual Fire Insurance Company, commencing business in 
1826. The Tolland County Mutual Fire Insurance Company was organized 
in Tolland, in 1828. In 1906 both of these companies retired, disastrous expe- 
rience in the insuring of farm risks primarily leading to their cessation. The 
Hartford County Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Hartford was organized 
in 1832. The Litchfield Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Litchfield com- 
menced business in 1833. On June 13th, 1836, the Middlesex Mutual Assur- 
ance Company began business in Middletown. The New London County 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Norwich was organized in July, 1840. 
These companies are all in active operation, the Hartford County Mutual Fire 


Insurance Company, the Middlesex Mutual Assurance Company and the New 
London County Mutual Fire Insurance Company being the leading mutual 
companies in Connecticut, while the Litchfield Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany enjoys an equally high repute, though not conducting its business on 
quite as large a scope. 

The New London County Mutual Fire Insurance Company. — At the 
biennial session of the Connecticut legislature opening in January, 1840, there 
was passed a resolution incorporating the New London County Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, a copy of which is as follows: 

Resolved by this Assembly : 

Section I. That Joseph Backus, Henry B. Norton, William P. Eaton, Newcomb Kinney, 
and Frederick Prentice, with such other persons as may become members or associates with 
them as hereinafter provided, and their successors, are hereby constituted a corporation, by 
the name of the New London County Mutual Fire Insurance Company, for the purpose of 
insuring against loss liy fire, whether the same shall happen by accident, lightning or any other 
means, except by design or fraud of the assured, or by invasion of a public enemy, or by 
insurrection ; and that by that name shall have the power to hold, purchase, receive, possess 
and enjoy lands, rents, tenements, hereditaments, goods, chattels, and effects of every kind, 
and the same to sell and convey; to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and be 
defended in all courts; to have and use a common seal and the same to change at pleasure: 
to make and execute such by-laws and regulations, not inconsistent with this charter or the 
laws of this state or of the United States, as shall be deemed proper for tlie government of 
said Company. 

Authorized through the granting of this charter, in the Town Hall, Nor- 
wich, and on the first day of July, 1840, the members of the New London 
County Mutual Fire Insurance Company met and formally organized the 
company. The first directors were Joseph Backus, William P. Eaton, Fred- 
erick Prentice, William L'Homedieu, Elijah A. Bill, David Smith, Samuel 
Mowry, George Sherman, Sydney Miner, William C. Crump, Gurdon Trum- 
bull, Edward R. Warren, Joseph Tyler, Thomas P. Wattles and Learned 

One of the early by-laws was that all policies of insurance expire on the 
first Monday in January each year. This may have been in accord with the 
custom of the Mutual Assurance Company of the City of Norwich, which had 
then been in business for forty-six years. The Mutual Assurance Company 
still retains the custom to the present day. In February, 1842, the by-laws 
of the New London County !Mutual Fire Insurance Company were amended, 
allowing policies to be written for any term of not over three years; and at 
a later d.-ite, to conform with the customs of the business in general, to a 
maximum term of five years. 

In August, 18.40, it was voted by the directors that the office of the 
company should be at the office of John DeWitt (its first secretary) in 
Norwich. By common understanding its office has always remained in 
Norwich, the present home-office building at Nos. 59-61 Broadway having 
been purchased by it in 1913 and developed for handling its business in the 
most modern and efficient manner. 

The first policy contract issued, adopted on August 4th, 1840, was a model 
instrument, and as in the early days the State did not attempt to control the 


form of policy and each company doing business in Connecticut did so on its 
own contract, with minor amendments the original policy-contract of the 
company held for fifty-three years. In 1893 there was introduced into the 
General Statutes of Connecticut by act of legislature a specified standard form 
of policy to which all companies doing business in the State must conform. 
Though this prescribed form of fire insurance contract has now been extant 
in Connecticut for twenty-eight years, it is a peculiar fact that even to-day 
frequently an assured will take his company to task for clauses in the agree- 
ment which he infers may have been written into the instrument arbitrarily 
by his own individual company, and with malice aforethought to his disad- 
vantage. This is particularly true in some cases following loss. The com- 
panies are not responsible ; 'tis the law of the State, and even the size of type 
to be used in the printing is specified ( !). 

Since the first board of directors elected in 1840, in all there have been 
forty-six individuals directing the affairs of the company in that capacity. 
The present directors are F. H. Allen, H. H. Gallup, S. A. Gilbert, W. F. 
Lester, S. B. Palmer, W. H. Prothero, N. D. Sevin, and E. A. Tracy of Nor- 
wich ; J. K. Guy of Middletown ; C. R. Marvin of Deep River; F. A. Stevens 
of Meriden ; and O. E. Wulf of Putnam. 

Joseph Backus was the first president of the company, being elected at 
its first meeting, and serving until March 1st, 1844, when he was succeeded 
by Joel W. White, who was in turn succeeded by Jonathan G. Huntington 
in 1848. Mr. Huntington presided over the destinies of the Company for 
fifteen years, and was its presiding officer when he died, and his successor, 
Elijah A. Bill, was elected on April 21st, 1859. On January 13th, 1868, Eben- 
ezer F. Parker was elected president. Mr. Parker's long term extended to 
January 15th, 1895, when he was obliged to retire, Charles J. Winters being 
elected in his place. The office was held by Mr. Winters until February 3rd, 
1903, when the present president of the company, Hon. Henry H. Gallup, was 

The first secretary was John DeWitt, whose faithful service during its 
years of inception was invaluable to the company. He retained the office until 
on December loth, 1847, it was necessary to name Joshua H. DeWitt as 
secretary pro tern., being confirmed secretary in March, 1849. Mr. DeWitt 
resigned on July ist, 1853, the secretaryship being taken temporarily by 
Horace Whitaker until the election of John L. Devotion on December 30th, 
1853. For twenty-two years Mr. Devotion filled the office, and was secretary 
of the company at his death in February, 1875. During the remainder of 
1875 there was no secretary elected in the interim, Clarence J. Fillmore and 
P. St. M. Andrews acting pro tern. At the succeeding annual meeting held 
on January 24th, 1876, Clarence J. Fillmore was elected secretary, resigning 
on July 24th, 1878. He was immediately followed by William Roath, who 
was confirmed secretary of the company on January 23rd, 1879. Mr. Roath 
resigned on January 19th, 18S5. On January 23rd, 1885, Jerome F. Williams 
was elected secretary, retaining the office until his sudden death in the office 
of the company on April 28th, 1902. Bela P. Learned was elected June 19th, 
1902, being succeeded by Frank L. Lathrop on February 3rd, 1903. Mr. 


Lathrop resigned on January 19th, 1909, and was succeeded by Walter F. 
/-ester, present secretary. 

The first recorded loss registers a quaint note on the minutes: "Voted, 
That the Secretary cause the House of George Kelley to be painted at the end 
and the injury sustained by the late fire on Said House repaired." The growth 
of the company in the early years was that of any new organization of the 
nature, necessarily conservative. The first concrete tabulation of premium 
income and loss outgo appears in 1842, when the losses paid were $1,028.24 
(premiums $2,011.42). Ten years later the losses paid were $4,768.82 (pre- 
miums $4,468.66!). In 1920 nearly four hundred losses were paid, covering 
every township in Connecticut and amounting to $63,817.91 (premiums 

By-law 2 of the original rules stated the purpose for which the Company 
was organized: the insurance of dwelling houses primarily, though furniture, 
barns and out-buildings were also mentioned, as well as libraries and other 
public buildings. As a matter of fact, however, in common with all of the 
New England mutual companies, the main subjects of insurance were private 
dwelling houses and their contents. This soon took them by necessity into 
the rural districts, and at the present time this class of companies is the 
insurer of practically all farm property in New England, and to a very large 
measure in the entire country. Apparently the scope of operation was not 
sufficient, for in May, 1841, it was voted by the directors that "hereafter this 
office will extend their risques to stores and merchandise." It is doubtful if, 
without this added latitude, the company could have gained a broad business. 
The premiums soon began to increase, and in i860 the total for the year was 
$5,745.08. Growth was slow during the period influenced by the Civil War, 
and in 1886, about twenty years after the close of the war, showed only 
$7,072.71. Succeeding this, expansion was more rapid, and in 1900 premium 
income was $29,981.04. In the past twenty years the figures are as follows: 
1905. $51,882.97; 1910, $65,807.29; 1915, $112,348.00; while in 1920 the gross 
premium income was $190,468.58, and less reinsurance and return premium, 
a net of $162,674.17. Since its organization the combined premium income 
of the company has been nearh- two and one-half millions, and the entire loss 
payment about one and one-half millions. The recent rapid growth of the 
company is evidenced by the fact that more than one-half of the figures of 
premium just quoted have been received in the past twelve years; and in the 
past fifteen years about one-half of the total losses have been paid. The 
premium income of a week to-day is nearly equivalent to that for a year 
fifty years ago. 

The first agent appointed to represent the company outside of Norwich 
was A. C. Lippitt, in New London, on December 22nd, 1842; the second 
similar appointment was Samuel W. Wood, of Ledyard, to cover the territory 
in the towns of Ledyard, Stonington, North Stonington, Groton, Preston 
and Griswold. Other appointments were slowly made until fifteen years later, 
in 1855, ten agents were in the field. On April i6th, 1849, Timothy T. Merwin 
was appointed "for taking insurance in the City of Boston and Vicinity." 
The name of Enoch Hobart appears on the records for some years succeeding. 


though it is not possible to determine the amount of business transacted in 
Boston ; probably this was small. It is also impossible to establish the facts 
relative to the activity of the company in New York, and it would appear that 
little was done. 

Two living agents have represented the company for a period approaching 
fifty years. James K. Guy was appointed agent, first for the city of Meriden, 
in 1877; he is now agent in Middletown, having been located there for many 
years. Silas Chapman, Jr., agent for the city of Hartford and vicinity, first 
became connected with the company in 1879, and is still representing it in 
his field. The office of William C. Atwater & Sons in Derby has represented 
the company continuously for over fifty-one years. William C. Atwater was 
appointed agent in 1870, his business being immediately taken up by his sons 
at his decease on March 19th, 1909. 

The present personnel of agents numbers sixty-four, covering every city, 
town and hamlet in Connecticut. Thirty-five of these have represented the 
company twenty-five years or more. The company is entered only in Con- 
necticut, and does no business outside of its home State. In its own field, 
however, in 1919 it out-ranked one hundred and fifty-six of the one hundred 
and seventy-eight American and foreign companies doing business in Con- 
necticut in amount of premium received. Of the twenty-one companies doing 
a larger business, a large proportion were the great stock companies of Hart- 
ford. Indeed, outside of Connecticut companies, only nine American and 
five foreign companies exceeded its business in the State. 

A total of two hundred and twenty-eight thousand eight hundred and 
forty-nine (228,849) policies have been issued to this date (May 17th, 1921). 
In the year 1920 a total income of $210,406.78 was received, and the last 
annual statement on December 31st, 1920, shows gross assets of $490,027.33. 
All liabilities amounted to $222,798.36, this figure being made up of an item 
of $1,480.50 covering unpaid current losses in process of adjustment, and an 
unearned premium reserve of $221,317.86; this is the reserve held by State 
law to protect risks in force, as referred to in a previous paragraph. In the 
aggregate the company carries risks in Connecticut amounting to about thirty- 
five million dollars. 

The present ofificers are: Henry H. Gallup, president; Walter F. Lester, 
secretary; William H. Prothero, treasurer; Arthur L. Peale, assistant secre- 
tary. The last quinquennial examination of the company by Hon. Burton 
Mansfield, Insurance Commissioner of Connecticut, was completed in De- 
cember, 1920, and in the official report of the results made by Actuary Thomas 
F. Tarbell, committee for the examination, appears the following: "In general 
I find that the New London County Mutual Fire Insurance Company is in 
very good financial condition ; its loss settlements are made promptly and 
with fairness to the insured; its business is carried on efficiently; and its 
underwriting policy is conservative." 

In 1859 the fourth fire insurance company to be organized in Norwich 
was instituted by capitalists of that city under the name of the Thames Fire 
Insurance Company, beginning with a capital of $113,700, increasing to 
$200,000 in 1864. The president of the company was Amos W. Prentice, 


and its secretaries O. P. Rice, 1859; B. B. Whittemore, 1864. Having settled 
all claims., the company went out of business in 1866, the stockholders receiv- 
ing fifty per cent, of the face value of their shares. 

Fire Insurance Agents in the County. — Many a fling has been taken at 
the good old doctor whose supplementary occupation was that of soliciting 
life-insurance, as well as the merchant whose sign announced to the public 
his engagement in the dual business of undertaking and fire insurance. 

As a matter of fact, at its inception, insurance, particularly the branch of 
fire insurance, did not achieve recognition as the important element in the 
commercial world it enjoys now, and in the early days a sparse living would 
be that of the man depending alone on his emoluments as a fire insurance 
agent. Thus the grocer would frequently employ his proverbial back-room 
for another purpose than that for which back rooms were supposed to be 
used, and occasionally would flourish his pen in the execution of a fire 
insurance policy therein; the tinsmith would pause in his labors to issue 
contracts of protection to his neighbors ; and even the lowly barber between 
tonsorial efforts frequently sought auxiliary income through representation of 
a fire insurance company. Modern tendency in the smaller places is inclined 
still to link the fire insurance business with other lines of endeavor, a very 
common combination being that of real estate and insurance pursuits. 

One of the earliest appointments in New London county as agent for an 
outside company is that of Jonathan George Washington Trumbull, who was 
designated as such by the Hartford Fire Insurance Company for Nonvich and 
vicinity in the year that company was chartered, 1810. The Hartford Fire 
has been represented continuously in this vicinity by successive appointments 
as follows: Russell Hubbard, May, 1823; Samuel H. Starr, November, 1838; 
Charles B. Andrews, November, 1845; Ebenezer Learned, May, 1846; Perkins 
& Learned, April, 1866; Thomas H. Perkins, August, 1869; Perkins & Parker 
Bros., March, 1879; Parker Bros., August, 1880; and John F. Parker, January, 
1886, who still represents it. The present incumbent, however, began his 
connection with the insurance business on June 27th, 1865, on that date be- 
coming clerk for Thomas H. Perkins. Mr. Parker, while being connected 
by succession with probably the oldest continuous agency in the county, is 
also second in his term of identification with the fire insurance business, being 
superceded only by Alden A. Baker of Colchester. 

Alden A. Baker, agent in Colchester on original personal appointment for 
nearly fifty-eight years, is easily the dean of the business in New London 
county and possibly in the State. Mr. Baker was appointed on October ist, 
1864, as the first agent in Colchester for the City Fire Insurance Company 
of Hartford, this company having long since retired from business. He has 
since represented other companies by subsequent appointments, now repre- 
senting the ^tna Insurance Company and the Hartford County Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, both of Hartford. 

Among living agents the next in term of connection is Jerome S. Ander- 
son of Stonington, who is in his fiftieth year as agent. Mr. Anderson was 
appointed in January, 1872, and, like Mr. Baker in Colchester, organized his 


agency individually, and has also similarly continued in business without 
associates. He now represents ten of the leading companies. 

Others now in the business who have been identified with it in the county 
for thirty years or more are, in order: Frank L. Lathrop, of the firm of J. L. 
Lathrop & Sons, of Norwich ; Frank W. Batty, of the firm of T. E. Packer 
& Co., of Mystic ; Horace C. Learned, of the firm of J. C. Learned & Sons, 
of New London ; Harley B. Buell and Samuel P. Willard, of the firm of Buell 
& Willard, Colchester; Henry L. Bailey, agent at Groton; Walter F. Lester, 
secretary of the New London County Mutual Fire Insurance Company of 
Norwich ; George H. Robinson, agent at Stonington ; Royal G. Holmes, of 
the firm of N. Tarrant & Co., Norwich ; Frank L Royce, agent at Norwich ; 
and Miss Janie L. Edgar, agent at New London. Others who have had a 
substantial connection with the business are Isaac S. Jones, William F. Hill, 
Ebenezer Learned, and Miss Margaret Fuller, in Norwich; Sidney H. Miner, 
J. M. Graves, Wallace R. Johnson, William S. Chappell, Samuel Prince, James 
R. May, Fitch D. Crandall, P. Hall Shurts and Reginald W. Rowland, in 
New London ; Frederick S. Leonard, Jewett City ; William E. Manning, 
Yantic; Daniel B. Denison and Frank H. Hinckley, Mystic; Alvah B. Cone, 
Groton; William P. Adams, Colchester; Charles J. Manwaring, Niantic. 
Many other agencies exist in the county of more recent organization, a 
number of which have come to be leading elements in the business. 

In the past thirty-five years the number of agents has nearly quadrupled. 
The list published by the Connecticut Insurance Department in 1886 embraces 
twenty-nine names in New London county. In 1921 the list shows one 
hundred and eight. Of the twenty-nine shown in the list of 1886, only eleven 
appear identically the same in 1921. 

In the foregoing, reference is made only to living fire insurance agents 
in New London county, and it is impossible to record in full the agencies that 
have come and gone. Interesting facts, however, relate to the origin of the 
older existent agencies, some of which find their inception previous to the 
middle of the last century. Of these the three oldest (and all organized 
previous to 1850) are B. P. Learned & Company and James E. Fuller & Com- 
pany in Norwich, and J. C. Learned & Sons in New London. The first men- 
tioned was founded by Ebenezer Learned, in May, 1846. In October, 1870, 
it was taken over by his son, Bela P. Learned, and conducted in the name 
of the latter until May, 1903, when the firm of B. P. Learned & Company 
was established, Ebenezer Learned (son of Bela P.) and Walter F. Lester 
becoming partners. Mr. Lester withdrew from the firm in January, 1909, 
upon election to the secretaryship of the New London County Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, and on March loth, 1910, Bela P. Learned died. Since 
that date the agency has been continued in the name of B. P. Learned & 
Company by Ebenezer Learned, grandson of its founder. 

In 1847, J. C. Learned established the agency now known as J. C. Learned 
& Sons, in New London. In 1865 Walter Learned, a son, became a member 
of the firm under the name of J. C. Learned & Son, and in 1882 Horace C. 
Learned, another son, was admitted to partnership, the firm then becoming 


J. C. Learned & Sons, the senior member continuing his connection up to 
the time of his death in 1892. Walter Learned died in 1915, and the agency 
is now operated by Horace C. Learned under the last adopted title. 

Up to 1842, Ebenezer Fuller was engaged in Norwich in the dry goods 
business. Ceasing the dry goods business in that year, it is quite probable that 
he at once engaged in the business of fire insurance, even if he had not pre- 
viously combined the two pursuits. Through these facts it is quite possible 
that this agency antedates the two agencies just referred to, and may be the 
earliest instituted firm now conducted by a member of the family of the 
organizer. The first definite evidence, however, of Ebenezer Fuller's con- 
nection with the business is the record of his being agent in 1848 (how much 
earlier cannot be ascertained, though the connection began previously) of 
the Middlesex Mutual Assurance Company of Middletown, Connecticut, of 
which company he was a director from June, 1857, to June, 1866. James 
Ebenezer Fuller, son of Ebenezer Fuller, succeeded him and conducted the 
agency for a great many years. Upon his recent death, the business was 
continued by his daughter, Afargaret Fuller, who conducts it under the title 
of James E. Fuller & Company. 

Some time prior to 1856, Charles H. Denison started an agency in Mystic, 
but in that year associated wih himself Thomas E. Packer, the firm becoming 
Denison & Packer. In 1875 William H. Potter entered the firm under the 
title of Denison, Packer & Company, continuing until 1882, when Messrs. 
Denison and Potter withdrew. Mr. Packer then operating the agency alone, 
on May 7th, 1882, began the employment of his son-in-law, Frank W. Batty, 
as clerk, who in 1884 was admitted, the firm becoming T. E. Packer & Com- 
pany. This firm continued in business until the death of Mr. Packer in 
October, 1903, left Mr. Batty as the only member. The agency is still con- 
tinued under the same title by Mr. Batty, having associated with himself 
Mrs. Addie B. (Packer) Batty in April, 1920. 

The agency in New London now- operated by Janie L. Edgar was organ- 
ized by Miss Edgar's father, Thomas Edgar, in 1861. Through admission 
of his son, George P. Edgar, in 1877, the name became Thomas & George P. 
Edgar, being changed in 1886 to Thomas Edgar as originally. At the death 
of Thomas Edgar in 1909, the agency was taken by his daughter, who con- 
ducts it in her own name. 

Henry L. Bailey, agent in Groton, is direct successor to the agency organ- 
ized in that township in July, 1864, by Asa Perkins (2nd). Mr. Bailey pur- 
chased the business in July, 1890, and continues it individually. At one time 
Mr. Perkins was a popular school-master, and it is interesting to note that 
his agency evolved from that profession. 

Reference has already been made to the agency of Alden A. Baker, estab- 
lished in Colchester in 1864, and of Mr. Baker's unique distinction in con- 
tinuously and individually maintaining its operation to the present time. 

In Colchester, Salmon C. Gillette organized an agency some time prior 
to i86g, successors to whom are Messrs. Buell & Willard of that place. 

Between 1870 and 1900 the following existent agencies were established: 
Selden & Royce (now Frank I. Royce) Norwich, 1870; N. Tarrant & Com- 


pany, Norwich, 1871 ; Jerome S. Anderson, Stonington, 1872; J. L. Lathrop & 
Sons, Norwich, 1872; James H. Hill, New London, 1875; H. C. Weaver & 
Company, New London, 1876; J. E. Leonard & Son, Jewett City, 1882; 
E. V. Daboll & Company, New London, 1888; William P. Adams & Son, 
Colchester, 1888; George H. Robinson, Stonington, 1890; Sidney H. Miner, 
New London, 1894; Isaac S. Jones, Norwich, 1897; W. E. Manning, Yantic, 
1898; James E. May, New London, 1898; A. B. Cone, Groton, 1900; and D. B. 
Denison, Mystic, 1900. 

A number of important agencies have commenced business since 1900, 
and the following is a complete list of all agencies in New London county: 

Colchester— William P. Adams & Son, Alden A. Baker, Buell & Willard, 
George Cutler, and Walter B. Lombard. 

Franklin — R. W. Woodward. 

Groton — Frank W. Allen, Henry L. Bailey, Frank L. Brake, Raymond 
C. Bugbee, Alvah B. Cone, W. Irving Dowsett, and Lydia E. Morgan. 

Jewett City — Burdick & McNicol, John A. Hourigan, J. E. Leonard & 
Son and Herbert C. Webster. 

Lyme — J. F. Bugbee, Edgar R. Champion and George P. Ely. 

Montville — George H. Bradford, Charles R. Carlyle, John F. Casto. 

Mystic — D. B. Denison, James Foley, Frank H. Hinckley, Newton H. 
Maynard, T. E. Packer & Company, John W. Phillips. 

New London — D. M. Buckley, John J. Burns, A. C. Caracausa, W. S. 
Chappell, Jerome J. Collins, F. D. Crandall & Son, Elisha V. Daboll & Com- 
pany, Thomas F. Dorsey, Jr., Janie L. Edgar, Samuel Girven, F. L. Goss, 
George Goss, Marie M. Grove, James H. Hill, M. H. Hollandersky, Wallace 
R. Johnson, J. C. Learned & Sons, Louis B. Lincoln, Reuben Lord & Com- 
pany, Archibald S. MacFarland, James R. May, McGinley Bros., Inc., Sidney 
H. Miner. James Moran, Thomas R. Murray & Son, Charles C. Perkins, 
Samuel Prince, Allen C. Richards, Patrick A. Sheridan, P. Hall Shurts & Son, 
Anthony Silva, The Standard Realty Co., Augustus C. Stearns, John H. 
Walker, H. C. Weaver & Company, Thomas T. Wetmore, Jr. 

Niantic — Charles J. Manwaring, E. C. Russell, Henry J. Weldon. 

Noank — C. Hull Anderson, Gertrude B. Sawyer. 

Norwich — Joseph S. Adams, Frank L. Arnold, Thomas H. Beckley, 
Harold S. Burt, Carter's Insurance Agency, James L. Case, Archa W. Coit, 
Angello V. Covello, John F. Craney, Francis D. Donohue, Louis J. Fontaine, 
Charles D. Foster, James E. Fuller & Company, William F. Hill & Son, 
G. Curtis Hull, Isaac S. Jones, George A. Lathrop, J. L. Lathrop & Sons, 
B. P. Learned & Co., Herbert M. Lerou, Louis H. Maples, John A. Moran, 
John F. Parker, Edmund A. Prentice, Lee R. Robbins, Royce Insurance 
Agency, N. Tarrant & Company. 

Pawcatuck — Albert G. Martin, Charles A. Morgan. 

Stonington— Jerome S. Anderson, Harry H. Doty, Lewis E. Hammond, 
Matthew T. Leahy, Oscar F. Pendelton, George H. Robinson. 

Waterford— Alonzo M. Beebe, William C. Saunders. 

Yantic — William E. Manning. 

It would appear that New London county has acquitted itself well as 
relates to the matter of fire insurance. Its insurance companies have pro- 
tected many million dollars' worth of property ; its fire insurance agents have 
been among the very earliest in the field in representation of companies of 


every class and country, affording the broadest facilities in the insurance 

It would hardly be fair to refrain from a word as to the people of New 
London county generally in their bearing on the subject of fire insurance. 
Their attitude of the early days made possible the cradling of insurance insti- 
tutions in the community and created an atmosphere of receptivity. In 
addition to helpng to organize such functions, they stood loyally behind them 
and their actual support sustained them. They have ever been ready to 
cooperate with insuring companies in the betterment of the physical hazard 
and condition of property under their control. If any company has ever 
withdrawn from the county on account of its unfavorable underwriting ex- 
perience, such withdrawal is not evident. The attitude of business interests 
in general toward a given section may be quite clearly indicated by the bear- 
ing of the insurers toward the assured ; this with reference to the great fire 
insurance companies doing business the world over. And it may truthfully 
be said that such companies have a very cordial feeling for this section of 
Connecticut; New London county business has proven profitable to them 
through the attributes of its people. 

Doubtless among the illustrious industrial achievements of Connecticut 
during all periods of her wonderful progression, no accomplishment is more 
notable than that of the establishment of the splendid insurance institutions 
for which her name is now famous. By the same token, no page in the 
history of the mercantile life of the state will be more brilliant than that on 
which is written the outstanding record of the chartering of her first Fire 
Insurance Companies, both stock and mutual, in the county of New London. 




By Howard L, Stantom 
Chief of Fire Department 

That Norwich had certain rough-and-ready provision against fire from 
its earliest date one can readily surmise, for the first settlers were men of 
iudgment. Any provision made against fire prior to 1830 was mostly by 
buckets which every householder was required to keep ready and to respond 
in case of fire. 

For the last fifty years Old Torrent Engine No. i, built by John Bliss in 
1769, has been in the care of the Norwich Fire Department and at this time 
is stored at the Central Fire Station and kept as a relic. This old machine 
has neither suction connection nor outlets for hose (as neither was in existence 
in those days), but a copper pipe was screwed to the outlet, six feet long 
with a three-quarter inch hole at the end. This old pipe or nozzle is still with 
the engine. It is known that this old engine is the sixth oldest American-made 
in the country. There were five American-made engines built prior to the 
building of Old Torrent. They were built in Boston, Philadelphia, and New 
York. There is no doubt about this old machine antedating the Revolution, 
as a crude figure of a crown and the letters M. S. on the tire of one of the 
wheels are still plainly traceable. The last time the old machine was used 
at a fire was at the blacksmith shop of Mr. Williams, on West Town street, 
about 1870. At that fire the machine was stationed near the blazing building, 
with a few men to work the wheezy old brake, while water was passed in 
buckets along a double row of citizens from a neighboring brook and poured 
into the diminutive tank. The stream of water it threw was not very effec- 
tive. Old Torrent engine has traveled much since it went out of service. 
It was at the Cincinnati Exposition, the Centennial Exposition, at Boston, 
Hartford, Kansas City, and in many parades. This old engine was the only 
fire apparatus in the town until the early part of 1804, when a company was 
formed at the Landing, as the present center of the city was called. 

It is said that in 1773 Thomas Harland removed from England to this 
town and erected a shop in which he plied the watch and clock trade, and 
that he built in his shop a fire engine which was in service at Norwich Town. 
There is some uncertainty about the identity of this old Harland engine, and 
some infer that it was built prior to the Old Torrent. The subscription list 
showing the amount subscribed in pounds and shillings for the building of 
Old Torrent engine is in the possession of the Misses Bliss, descendants of 
John Bliss, who built the engine. 

The first fire station was built on what is now Church street, near the 
site of the present Trinity Episcopal Church. The company was known as 
the Red Jackets, and comprised the most influential residents down town, 
from twenty-five to forty members. Its distinctive uniform was a red shirt, 
from which the members took the name of "Red Jackets." For about ten 
years the company had the down-town field entirely to itself. Its engine 


was almost a duplicate of Torrent engine, without suction, and at fires citi- 
zens were pressed into service to carry water buckets back and forth from 
the rivers and Franklin street brook, then uncovered its entire length. 

About 1815 another engine company was organized and an engine house 
built for it on Church street, near the present site of the Central Baptist 
Church, and was known as Engine Company No. 2, and later known as 
Niagara Engine Company. In 1828 another engine was purchased by the 
city and located at the Falls section, in a building located on what is known 
as Yantic street, and which has since been altered into a tenement house and 
owned by the Falls Cotton Company. This company was known as No. 3, 
and later as Uncas Engine Co. No. 3. In addition to the protection afforded 
the residents and mill at the Falls, another engine was built and controlled 
by the Thames Company, now known as the Falls Cotton Company. This 
engine was known as No. 4. Both were suction engines. From 1828 until 
1846 the Norwich fire apparatus was not increased. During that period Nos. 
I and 2 engines down town and Nos. 3 and 4 at the Falls and the Old Torrent 
at Norwich Town, composed the entire fire equipment of Norwich. In 1846 
a hand engine was placed in service in the Greenville end of the town, and 
known as the Ouinnebaiig. 

November 26, 1793, fifteen buildings were destroyed by fire in Chelsea, 
as the down-town section of the town was then called. The Congregational 
meeting house, four dwellings, six stores and shops and four barns were 
destroyed. This fire started in a store on Water street, nearly in the range 
of the present Merchants' Bank, continuing to the junction of Main street 
and thence to the river. Most of the buildings were old and of very small 
value; a large portion of the goods were saved, but there was no insurance 
on any of the property. There was at this time a fire engine of small capacity 
in Norwich which was brought out for the occasion, but little could be done 
to arrest the flames. The loss was estimated at $8,000, a small sum compared 
with the extent of the flames. 

In 1834 there was a fire of some magnitude on Cliff street, in Elijah 
Curtis's blacksmith shop and the barn and carpenter's shop of J. Q. and 
G. H. Cox. Only adjoining property was saved. From now onward the 
history of the Fire Department becomes very much clearer. 

The next fire of consequence was the burning of the Hubbard paper 
mill at the Falls in the winter of 1836-37, at which the clumsy engines dem- 
onstrated their utter powerlessness to stay the fury of a conflagration. An- 
other fire at about the same date burned out Henry Allen's shop on Chestnut 
street, but the firemen succeeded in saving a portion of the building, which 
is now standing, and occupied by N. S. Gilbert & Sons as a repair and refinish- 
ing shop, in connection with their furniture business. In the winter of 
1841-42 another large fire occurred in which two carriage shops, a tannery 
and small buildings were destroyed. In the summer of 1842 the Shetucket 
cotton mill at Greenville was burned. The fire had made such progress before 
the engines reached the scene that the factory was beyond the power of the 
fire department to save it. 

Two disastrous conflagrations occurred in February, 1844. One swept 


everything clean on the south side of Franklin square from Rose Alley to 
Ferry street and to the site of the present Vaughn foundry. The other, one 
week later, cleaned up all the buildings, of wood, on the south side of Main 
street from Lee & Osgood's store to Shetucket street and thence to Little 
Water street. At this fire the department had a desperate struggle to save 
the business portion of the town from total destruction. 

The two destructive fires in the winter of 1844 aroused the city authorities 
to the necessit}- of providing more modern and effective fire-fightng appa- 
ratus. June 23rd, 1846, at a meeting of the Court of Common Council, the 
chief engineer reported the condition of the Fire Department and the neces- 
sity of procuring three new engines and building cisterns for water. The 
following resolution was presented and the same adopted: 

Resolved, That the Mayor and Chief Engineer be a committei with power 
to procure for the use of the city three new fire engines of the most approved 
construction, and that they be authorized and empowered to construct not 
exceeding eighteen cisterns for the supply of engines in times of fires, and to 
locate the same. 

Resolved, That the .sum of $3,000 be and the same is hereby appropriated 
to defray the expense of the above engines and cisterns. 

Resolved, That it recommend to the first city meeting that a tax of four 
cents on the dollar be laid upon the city list last perfected, to meet the 
appropriations for the fire department. 

At the meeting of the Court of Common Council on July 9, 1846, it was 
voted that the committee to whom was referred the subject of procuring three 
new engines for the Fire Department be and hereby arc instructed to procure 
three of Waterman's best engines. 

During the fall of 1846 a committee was appointed to purchase a lot, and 
contract for and build an engine house on the west side of the river, with 
full power to act in the premises. The lot was purchased of W. W. Coit, 
and the building erected on Thames street; cost of lot, $320. The two old 
engines Nos. i and 2 were disposed of in 1847 as per vote of the Court of 
Common Council, April 7, 1847. Neptune Engine Company No. 5 was organ- 
ized in 1846, and assigned the new station on Thames street, and given one 
of the so-called Waterman engines. The other two Waterman engines went 
to engine companies Nos. i and 2. 

About this time the building on Main street now occupied by Chemical 
Company No. i was erected. The upper part of the building was used by the 
Court of Common Council until the erection of the City Hall. This station 
was first used by Engine Company No. i, with the Waterman engine that first 
went into service in the old building on Church street. Later, in March, 
1861. the first steam fire engine was purchased and placed in service, and the 
name of the company changed to Wauregan Steam Fire Engine Company 
No. I. At the organization of Blackstone Hose Company No. I in 1868, they 
were assigned quarters in the same building with Wauregan Steam Fire 
Engine Company No. i. 

Common Council records show that $470 was appropriated in 1849 for a 
lot on Union Street, for the purpose of erecting a building to house Engine 


No. 2. This company was later known as Niagara Engine Company No. 2, 
and always held No. 2 as its number until the company was disbanded in 
IQ03 to make room for the part paid fire department then in its formative 
period. This No. 2 station was built in 1849 at a cost of $1,000, and at this 
date is a portion of the building owned by Mr. L. L. Chapman and enlarged 
into an office building at the junction of Broadway and Bath streets. Broad- 
way at this point was formerly Union street, and what is now Broadway was 
formerly Allen street. 

Common Council records also show that the residents of the so-called 
Falls district to the number of 67 petitioned the Court of Common Council, 
July 3, 1850, for a new engine and hose, and at the meeting of the Court of 
Common Council October 2, 1850, the committee recommended an appro- 
priation of $1,000 for a new engine and hose, and a suitable house at a further 
cost of $800, including lot. 

About this time Fire Engine Company No. 5 decided their station was 
not suitable, although it had only been built five years. Their petition was 
referred and a report was presented recommending that fifteen feet of land 
be purchased at the rear of this building on Thames street, and the building 
lengthened and the roof raised, with other improvements necessary to obviate 
the difficulties complained of. The expense of these improvements, including 
additional land, should be about $500. The petition of No. 3 from the Falls 
district for the new engine and house, and the petition from the West Side 
for changes to No. 5 station, were granted, and at a city meeting held in Octo- 
ber, 1850, $2,300 was appropriated to pay the cost of same. 

After the disastrous fire on Central Wharf in 1851, in which there was a 
loss of $200,000, the city of Norwich enjoyed a notable immunity from serious 
fires for upwards of ten years, and in that period, too, the history of the 
department was devoid of striking events and few improvements were made 
in its equipment. The apparatus which was procured in 1846-47 was as good 
as the resources of the times aiTorded, and was satisfactory to the city up to 
the era of steam fire engines in the latter part of the 1850-60 decade. 

At a meeting of the Court of Common Council, September 15, 1859, an 
appropriation of $1,300 was made for a lot and $1,400 for the erection of a 
station on Union street, adjoining Engine Company No. 2, for the use of 
Wauregan Hook and Ladder Company, recently organized, and who owned 
their own truck. The first ball of this company was given in Apollo Hall, 
February 22, 1859, and was considered the event of the season. 

In March, 1859, Neptune Engine Company No. 5 petitioned the Court 
of Common Council for a new station. April 11, 1859, the Council voted 
$350 for a lot on West Main street, and $1,200 for the building. This building 
is still used as a fire station, and at this date is housing Chemical Company 
No. 2. 

The first steam fire engine purchased by the city was an Amoskeag 
engine built at Manchester, New Hampshire, and was a wonder for those 
da3's. It was known as "the big steamer," or Wauregan Steam Fire Engine 
No. T. This engine weisjhed 9,600 pounds and had a capacity of about 700 
gallons per minute, although in those days measurements as to capacity 


were not considered as at the present time. This engine went into service 
in March. iS6i, and continued in service until 1905, when it was traded in 
at the time the new Metropolitan engine was purchased, three years after 
the part paid Fire Department organized. In 1866 two more steam fire engines 
were purchased. They were of small capacity, and at first were drawn by 
hand, but horses were provided later. One went to No. 3 at the Falls, and 
the other to No. 5 at the West Side. These two engines were built by William 
Jeffers, of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, and were single acting pumps of about 
300 gallons capacity per minute. In 1867 the Greenville end of the town 
before it was annexed to the city, through its Fire Association purchased a 
Jeffers engine, which made four steam fire engines in the town. At the 
annexation of Greenville to the city, this engine became No. 7. 

These steam fire engines displaced the hand apparatus entirely, and the 
one on the West Side, known as No. 5, was sold to Stonington, Connecticut. 
This was an end-stroke Hunneman machine, purchased in the early sixties, 
which superseded the Waterman engine purchased in 1846. The old Water- 
man was sold to Winslow W^illiams, at Yantic, to protect the mills at this 
end of the town, and is in existence in the station at Yantic at this date. No. 
3 hand engine was sold to Bristol, Connecticut, and No. i hand engine to 
the Eagle Armory, on the Greenville road, near the present plant of the silk 
mill of Brainerd & Armstrong Company. 

The next important improvement to the fire service was the building of 
the water works in the late sixties, the completion and celebration occurring 
in 1870. The completion of the water system with hydrants and water under 
pressure for fire service was perhaps the greatest stride ever made before or 
since for the quick control of fires. 

January 20, 1869, occurred the fire at the Falls in the so-called braid 
mill or worsted manufactory. The building was owned by Charles A. Con- 
verse, and the mill was occupied by one James Townsend. This fire, result- 
ing in considerable damage, was of incendiary origin as reported to the Court 
of Common Council by the Fire Marshal, February 22, 1869. Feb- 
ruary 14, 1869, at 12:30 A. ^I., occurred the so-called Apollo Hall fire. This 
building stood on the site of the present Boston Store building, now occupied 
by the Reid & Hughes Company. The fire did not start in the Hall building, 
but in a frame building near where the present annex to the Shannon building 
stands. This was the largest fire in many years, or since the burning of the 
old court house on the night of the day that news reached Norwich of the 
fall of Richmond in 1865. The old court house stood on the site of the present 
Allen apartments on Court street. 

After the completion of the water works, several hose companies were 
organized, among them being the Blackstone Hose Company No. i. Indepen- 
dence Hose Company No. 6, and later Norwich Hose Company No. 4. Black- 
stone Hose Company was quartered in Main street, in the building with 
Engine Company No. i, and a new station was erected in Thamesville for 
Independence Hose Company No. 6 in 1876. The station on Boswell avenue 
was erected in the late seventies to house Norwich Hose Company No. 4. 
As previously stated, the water system was constructed in the late sixties, 


and the first public test of the fire hydrants was made January 8th, 1869, under 
the direction of William M. Williams, chief of the Fire Department. The 
reservoir gate was closed for filling the reservoir October 23rd, 1868, and 
the water began to overflow at the waste-way January 16, 1870. The time 
passed between the closing of the gate and the commencement of the overflow 
was 450 days. 

From 1870 to 1900, or a period of about thirty years, the Fire Department 
was maintained as a first-class volunteer organization. Joseph B. Carrier was 
elected chief in 1869 and served two years, being succeeded by Daniel A. 
Delanoy, who served two years. Chief Carrier was again appointed in July, 
1873, and served until his death in September, 1890. Chief Carrier was a typical 
chief of a volunteer fire department. In 1876 he was made a permanent chief, 
and his duties were increased by being appointed fire marshal and superin- 
tendent of the fire alarm system whch had been installed early in 1876. 

During the time of Chief Carrier's connection with the department, the 
volunteer organization was at its height. In 1888 the Greenville Hook and 
Ladder Company was organized and given the old truck of Truck Company 
No. I, a new one having been purchased for No. i. Greenville Hook and 
Ladder Company No. 2 is still a volunteer company, but has a light city- 
size Seagrave truck. Under Chief Carrier, the best and finest fire parades 
took place annually, thousands flocking to the city to witness them. During 
the peak of volunteer days there were eleven volunteer organizations, includ- 
ing the fire police. 

November 9, 1872, the great Boston fire occurred and assistance was 
requested from Norwich. James Lloyd Greene was mayor, and Daniel A. 
Delanoy chief of the department. Request for aid was received Sunday, 
November 10, and at 3 P. M. one passenger car and two freight cars started 
for Boston with steamers i and 5 with their hose carrages, also the hose 
carriage of Truck Company No. i known as Ghost Hose, which this company 
maintained in addition to their truck. Accompanying the firemen, who num- 
bered upwards of one hundred men from the several companies, were Mayor 
Greene and several prominent citizens who looked out for the welfare of 
the firemen. The Norwich contingent arrived in Boston early in the evening 
and unloaded their apparatus, but did not go into service until after 10 P. M., 
as the fire was considered under control. About that hour an explosion 
occurred and the Norwich firemen were assigned to the district at Washing- 
ton and Summer streets, the engines taking water from a cistern in front of 
the Boston Theater. The loss at this fire was upwards of eighty million 
dollars. The department arrived back in Norwich on Monday, November 
nth, at midnight, completely tired out, but with the knowledge of their 
services being appreciated by the authorities of Boston. 

The services of the department have been requested from many of the 
towns about Norwich in the past fifty years, and have always been regarded. 
At some of the fires to which they have responded they have saved consid- 
erable property. While there were several large fires in Norwich between 
1870 and 1890, there were none of large proportions. In May, 1883, the 


Allen Spool and Printing Company building at the Falls was destroyed with 
a total loss. 

At the death of Chief Carrier in September, 1890, First Assistant Chief 
Engineer Louis W. Greenberg was elected to the vacant position, and served 
until July l, 1901, when he resigned. Chief Grcenberg's administration was 
along the lines of Chief Carrier. No improvements were made except the 
erection of the new double station at Greenville to replace the small wooden 
building destroyed by fire. This building was erected in 1895 at a cost of 
about $15,000, and is at this date in good condition, housing the only two 
volunteer companies left in Norwich — Engine Company No. 2, and Truck 
Company No. 2. 

The period from 1895 to 1901 was the beginning of the decline of the 
Volunteer Fire Department. Other cities of the State had already changed 
to a part paid department, and interest had commenced to decline among the 
members of the department. The annual fall fire parade of 1896 was the last 
of the old-time parades of any size. There have been parades of firemen with 
other organizations since that date, but of small proportions. During Chief 
Greenberg's administration there were several fair-sized fires, but the largest 
one occurred February 4th, 1900, at 6:05 A. M., in the Hopkins & Allen Arms 
Company on Franklin street, caused by an explosion. The Hopkins & Allen 
building was entirely destroyed, and considerable damage was done to 
surrounding property, the losses amounting, insured and uninsured, to up- 
wards of $175,000. This large fire demonstrated to the citizens that it was 
time to move for a part paid fire department and have horse-drawn apparatus, 
with a few men in stations at all times so as to respond at once. At a city 
meeting held in June. 1900, $8,oco was added to the regular appropriation 
for the purchase of modern fire apparatus. 

What has already been written about the Norwich Fire Department will 
prove that when the citizens of Norwich saw the necessity of changing from 
one type of fire apparatus to another in order to modernize and progress along 
lines of other cities and to conform to the best practice, they invariably voted 
the necessary appropriations to make the change. The two pieces of horse- 
drawn apparatus ordered in the summer of 1900 arrived in ^lay, 1901, and 
were placed in storage, as provision had not been made for their being put 
into service. One of the pieces was a 65-foot aerial ladder truck, and the 
other was a combination chemical and hose wagon, both up-to-date pieces of 

At a meeting of the Court of Common Councl, June 12, 1901, the resigna- 
tion of Louis W. Greenberg, Chief of the Fire Department, was presented 
and accepted to take effect July i, 1901, after serving as chief nearly eleven 
years, from September, 1890, to Tulv. iqoi. At the same meeting Howard L. 
Stanton was elected chief engineer, fire marshal and superintendent of the 
Fire Alarm Telegraph, and he is holding the same positions at this date. 
At the time of the election of Chief Stanton he was not a member of the 
Fire Department, having resigned July i, 1899, after a service of eighteen 
years as assistant chief, with a previous record in the department in the West 
Side Com.pany known as Neptune No. 5, and also as Delanoy No. 5, starting 

N.L.— 1-31. 


in Neptune Steam Fire Engine Company as a signal boy in 1870. 

The following volunteer companies, eleven in number, were in commis- 
sion July I, 1901 : Wauregan Steam Fire Engine Company No. i ; Wauregan 
Hook and Ladder Company No. i ; Blackstone Hose Company No. I ; Wil- 
liam M. Williams Hose Company No. 3 ; Shetucket Steam Fire Engine Com- 
pany No. 7; Greenville Hook and Ladder Company No. 2; Niagara Hose 
Company No. 2; Norwich Hose Company No. 4; Neptune Hose Company 
No. 5; Independence Hose Company No. 6; and the Norwich Fire Police. 

October 7, 1901, the Court of Common Council, on the recommendation 
of the fire commissioners, decided to disband the fire police in the interest 
of economy, as the regular city police attended all fires. The amount appro- 
priated for the Fire Department in 1901-02 was $11,000, and little could be 
done toward a part paid department on that amount. The inventory of the 
Fire Department at this time was $76,355, including buildings, apparatus and 
supplies. There were 65 alarms of fire during the year, with a loss of $14,- 
444. The appropriation was increased in 1902 and 1903 to $17,500, which 
enabled the department to get started toward a part paid department; also, 
an appropriation was made for the new Central Fire Station. 

Under an ordinance of the city regulating the Fire Department, adopted 
September 22, 1902, the fire commissioners approved the purchase of a pair 
of horses, and stalls were fitted in the West Side station. The volunteer 
company was disbanded and three permanent men hired, with call men to fill 
six beds every night. The names of the first permanent men were Alvin D. 
Lewis, captain; Edward F. Stinson, driver; and Patrick J. Caples, hoseman. 
The combination machine purchased in 1900 was finally placed in service on 
November i, 1902, and was known as Chemical Company No. i. There were 
79 alarms during the year, with a loss of $22,089. ^ "^w hose wagon arrived 
in April, 1903, and another pair of horses were purchased. This apparatus was 
placed in service temporarily in Niagara No. 2 station on Broadway, and was 
known as Hose Company No. 5. Niagara Hose Company No. 2 and BlacK- 
stone Hose Company No. i were disbanded July i, 1903, as volunteer organ- 
izations to form the second part paid company. The men from the two dis- 
banded companies who desired positions in the new companies were retained. 

During the year ending June 30, 1904, there were 102 alarms, with a loss 
of $23,989. The largest fire of the year was the so-called Potter fire, on 
Thames street, February 8, 1904, in zero weather, with a loss of $14,000. 

A new light Seagrave truck with a 45-foot extension ladder and the neces- 
sary equipment of shorter ladders amounting to upwards of 200 feet, was pur- 
chased and placed in commission with Greenville Hook and Ladder Company 
No. 2 during the year, and paid for from the regular appropriation, the old 
truck being taken by the makers in part payment. The appropriation for the 
year was $16,000. At this time there were six permanent men and eleven call 
men, with six substitutes, constituting the part paid force of the Fire De- 
partment, and five horses, including the chief's horse. 

There were 113 alarms of fire during the year ending June 30, 1905, with 
a loss of $22,548. The largest single loss was at the fire at the residence of 
Dr. Patrick Cassidy, May i, 1905. The wind was blowing a gale, and only 



Lower Iti^lit. White Slar Shows where People Were Taken Out. 


by efficient work of the dei)artmcnt was the house saved, with a loss of $10,000 
on buildings and contents. 

The Central Station was completed in November, 1904. With its com- 
pletion and the placing of the aerial truck in commission at the station after 
being housed in a barn for over three years, the department began to make 
more rapid strides. 

Waurcgan Hook and Ladder Company, organized in 1858, and Wauregan 
Steam Fire Engine Company, organized in 1861, were disbanded October i, 
1904, the disbandment leaving but one volunteer company in the center of 
the city. Three horses were purchased for the aerial truck, increasing the 
number of horses owned by the department to eight, with twelve permanent 
men and forty call men. Another hose wagon was added to the equipment 
and two exercise wagons, all built by Scott & Clark Company, this city. 

At the completion of the Central Station, the closed Broadway station 
was sold to L. L. Chapman for $11,000. The appropriation to cover expenses 
of the department for the year ending June 30, 1905, was $17,000, with a deficit 
of $4,690 caused by the purchasing of furnishings for the new station, etc. 
From July i, 1905, to June 30, 1906, the department responded to 127 alarms, 
with a fire loss of $13,650, with an insurance loss of $12,903. A storage battery 
and switch board were installed, with a new automatic repeater, and the 
Metropolitan steam fire engine was placed in service. There were fourteen 
permanent men and forty-three call men in the department, besides the volun- 
teers from five companies. Also there were ten horses in addition to those 
hired for the volunteer companies. The amount of the appropriation was 

During the year ending June 30. 1907, there were 125 alarms of fire, with 
an insurance loss of $9,910. Hose Companies No. 4 and No. 6 were disbanded, 
leaving three volunteer companies. The number of permanent men had in- 
creased to seventeen and the call force numbered forty-one. The name of 
Shetuckct Steam Fire Engine Company No. 7 was changed to Engine Com- 
pany No. 2, and a new Metropolitan engine was placed in service with No. 2. 
The Main street station had been changed over so as to house Chemical Com- 
pany No. I, and two more horses purchased, making twelve in service. Ap- 
propriation, $34,250. 

The report of the chief of the Fire Department for the year ending June 
30, 1908, shows the department responded to 145 alarms of fire, with a loss 
of $99,835. The largest fires of the year were that at the William H. Page 
Boiler Company, on Franklin street, and that at the Norwich Belt Manufac- 
turing Company in Water street. The number of permanent men in the 
department had been increased to twenty and the call men forty. The amount 
appropriated for the Fire Department was $27,000, and the amount expended 
was $27,665. 

There were 132 alarms of fire during the year ending June 30, lyoy. 
Three of the number were for fires out of the city limits — one being at Taft- 
ville, for a fire in the Sacred Heart Parochial School, and one at Baltic, among 
several buildings. The department responded and rendered efficient service. 
The largest fire in the city was the burning of the Shannon building, February 


9, 1909, at 2 :30 A. M. The fire was not discovered in time to send in an alarm 
soon enough to save the building, which was a total loss with most of the 
contents. In addition to the loss of the Shannon building, the adjoining 
property was damaged to a greater or less amount. The loss amounted to 
$293,000, with an insurance loss of $201,000. The insurance loss for the year 
was $216,392. 

In October, 1908, the hose wagon purchased in 1903 was equipped with 
a 25-gallon chemical tank and other equipment, and placed in service in 
Station No. 3 at the Falls, displacing the volunteer hose company, which was 
disbanded. This change necessitated the purchase of two more horses and 
the transfer of several men. Two new hose wagons were also added to the 
equipment and used for exercise wagons. The appropriation was $30,500, and 
$32,210 was expended owing to the changing of No. 3 Company to a perma- 
nent company. 

From July i, 1909, to June 30, 1910, the department responded to 154 
alarms, five of them over the city line. The largest loss was at the Max 
Gordon Company storehouse, Sunday, March 13, 1910. This building was 
stored with bales of cotton and woolen rags ready for shipment, and resulted 
in a loss of $8,000, mostly on stock. The loss for the year was $23,000. Old 
No. 4 Hose house on Boswell avenue was sold for $900, and the money turned 
over to the city treasurer. The amount appropriated for the department was 
$32,200, and an unexpended balance of $26 was returned. The inventory of 
the department property was $135,000. There were twenty-two permanent 
men and thirty-four call men, and fourteen horses to haul the apparatus, and 
four horses were hired from outside parties to respond to Truck 2 and 
Engine 2. 

The fire record for alarms from July i, 1910, to June 30, 191 1, was 165 
alarms, nine of them over the city line. The largest fire was May 19, 1911, 
at 2:45 A.M., at the Lucas Hall property, corner of Shetucket and Water 
streets. The fire started in a bowling alley, and was coming from the upper 
windows when discovered. The loss was $60,000. The loss for the year 
was $78,000. 

During the month of November of 1910 the water was very low in the 
reservoir. Pressure in the business district dropped from 90 to 35 pounds, 
and in some sections of the city there was no water in the hydrants. At this 
time a touring car was hired and equipped with small chemical extinguishers 
and other tools, which helped matters to some extent. The appropriation was 
$30,500, and was exceeded by $990 on account of low water. 

The Fire Department was inspected by engineers from the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters in January and February, 1911; many recom- 
mendations were made, and some were complied with, but many have never 
received the attention they deserve. 

In March, 1912, the first piece of motor-driven fire apparatus was pur- 
chased and placed in commission at headquarters station. It was the begin- 
ning of an entirely new era in fire fighting apparatus. It was built by the 
Pope Hartford Company of Hartford, Conn., and was still in service in 
1921. The fire loss was only $9,300, during the year, with 149 alarms, four of 


them over the city line. Two horses were displaced by the purchase of the 
automobile, leaving twelve. The appropriation was $31,000, and the amount 
expended was $35,474, on account of the purchase of the automobile. 

The fire loss for the year ending June 30, 1913, was $144,000, with 174 
alarms. The largest loss was at the Central Wharf fire, August 29, 1912, 
at 12:15 ^- ^I-> followed by a general alarm at 12:25 A. M. The fire was sup- 
posed to have been started by tramps who were known to have been sleeping 
in one of the sheds. The remains of two persons were taken from the ruins 
after the fire. The loss at the Central Wharf fire was $110,000. The next 
largest loss was at the fire in the Austin Block, January 24, 1913, at 5 :45 A. M., 
resulting in a loss of $14,000, mostly on contents. Eleven of the 174 alarms 
were for fires out of the city limits, one being at Lebanon, twelve miles away, 
the run being made in twenty-eight minutes. The force of the Department 
remained the same as the preceding year, as well as the apparatus. The 
appropriation was $31,000. Stony Brook reservoir had been completed and 
there was water in abundance the latter part of 1913. 

During the year ending June 30, 1914, 243 alarms were responded to, ten 
being out of the city limits. One of the most severe fires of the year was at 
the Swedish Church, Saturday, February 21, 1914, at 11:44 P.M., in zero 
weather. Also the fire in the Marguerite building, Thursday, February 12th, 
1914, at 12:15 ^- M., also in zero weather. January 13, 1914, was a very cold 
day to fight fires, and the department had five working fires through the day, 
two going at the same time. Several of the members were frost-bitten during 
the day while at work at the fires. The apparatus and personnel of the 
department remained as in the previous year, regardless of recommendations 
made for more motor apparatus. The appropriation was $32,000. 

During the year ending June 30, 1915, there were 212 alarms, eleven being 
out of the city limits. The greatest distance traveled to out-of-town fires 
was to Willimantic, January 9, 1915, the distance of eighteen miles being 
covered in thirty-four minutes with the Pope Hartford automobile chemical. 
The largest fire out of the city the department was called upon to render 
assistance at was at Taftville, May 30, 1915, when ten buildings were de- 
stroyed. At this fire Engine No. i was used, as well as the Pope automobile. 
The largest fire in the city during the year was at the so-called Bailey building, 
June 3rd, with a loss by exposure, etc., of $10,000. The appropriation was 
$36,000. There were thirteen horses connected with the department in addi- 
tion to those hired to draw the Greenville apparatus. The number of perma- 
nent men was twenty-four, and there were twenty-eight call men, in addition 
to the volunteer companies in Greenville. At a city meeting in June, 1915, 
an appropriation was made for the purchase of a triple combination chemical 
pump and hose car at an expense of $9,000. The new auto pumper arrived the 
latter part of December, 191 5, and has always proven a valuable piece of 
apparatus. The number of permanent men remained at twenty-four, with 
twenty-four call men and about twenty volunteers that could be depended on. 
The regular appropriation was $36,000, and with the $ for the auto 
pumper made $45,000. At this time there were 505 hydr.-nts in the cit;- and 


During the year ending June 30, 1916, there were 139 alarms, with four 
out of the city. The city was free from any large or serious fires, although the 
gasoline hazard furnished several working fires. The loss for the year was 

From July i, 1916, to June 30, 1917, 186 alarms of fire were responded to, 
with a fire loss of $11,700. The appropriation was $35,500. A Buick automo- 
bile was purchased for the deputy chief from the regular appropriation, mak- 
ing three pieces of motor apparatus in service. There were 26 permanent men 
and 20 call men in service. Hon. Allyn L. Brown was mayor and Guy B. 
Dolbeare was chairman of the Board of Fire Commissioners. 

During the year ending June 30, 1918, the department responded to 193 
alarms, fourteen for fires out of the city limits, one of them being at Baltic, 
Connecticut. The loss for the year was $15,000. The appropriation was 
$42,000. Salaries and pay rolls were $30,776. The department was improved 
by the addition of a Cadillac automobile rebuilt, with the old body and 
chemical tanks from the first piece of horse-drawn apparatus. This piece of 
apparatus was placed in service at Chemical Company No. 2, on the West 
Side, and has proven a good investment. A Reo car was purchased for the 
chief, and by the purchase of the two pieces of motor apparatus only five 
horses were left in the department. The number of permanent men remained 
at 26 and the call men at 16, in addition to the volunteers at Greenville. Hon. 
Jeremiah J. Desmond was mayor, and Joseph A. George chairman of the 
Board of Fire Commissioners. Like other cities, the Fire Department felt 
the effects of the World War, then at its height, by the draft and enlistments 
of the men. During the summer of IQ18 the United States Housing Corpora- 
tion endeavored to secure the services of the chief, the position of Federal 
Fire Marshal for the L'nited States Housing Corporation being tendered to 
him but declined. 

During the year ending June 30, 1919, the department responded to 175 
alarms. Nine were for fires out of the city limits. The largest fire attended 
out of the city limits was at the Glen Woolen Mills at Bean Hill, March 12, 
1919. Two companies were sent to this fire, and the assistance sent from the 
city department saved the mills. The greatest distance traveled to out-of- 
town fires was at the Fitchville fire. June 22, 1919, five and one-half miles, and 
the fire at the Eastern Connecticut Power Company plant at Montville, eight 
and one-quarter miles. There were several large fires in the city during the 
year, among them being the grain elevator of Charles Slosberg & Son, on 
Cove street, August i, 1918, with a loss of $11,000. The two fires of the Max 
Gordon & Son Company, which occurred at the same time, one on Falls 
avenue and the other on West Main street, resulted in a loss of $12,650. The 
fire in the Round House of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. Co., December 8, 1918, 
made a loss of $8,000. April 2, 1919, another fire in the Max Gordon Company 
storehouse on Falls avenue resulted in a loss of $13,500. Several other fires 
occurred with losses between $2,000 and $5,000, which made a total fire loss 
for the year ending June 30, 1919, of $69,000, and an insurance loss of $53,000. 
The amount appropriated for the Fire Department was $50,241, of which 


amount $39,747 went for salaries and pay rolls. The inventory of the depart- 
ment property, real estate, apjjaratus and equipment was $139,225. 

During the year ending June 30, 1920, the department responded to 134 
alarms, twelve being for fires out of the city limits. The fire at the residence 
of the Misses Butts, 272 Washington street, September 9, 1919, was caused 
by lightning, and proved to be the most disastrous of any over the city line, 
although only one end of the house was damaged. The department also 
responded to the fire at Bozrahvillc post office and store, December 2, 1919. 
The only fire that resulted in loss of life was also out of the city limits, in the 
so-called Adam's Tavern, Sunday, November 23, 1919, in which Mr. Alfred 
A. Adam lost his life. The fire was very small and was caused by a rubber 
hose attached to a gas heater burning or slipping off the connection while 
Mr. Adam was asleep or fainted in the bath room. The largest city loss of 
the year was at Andrews' Bakery, June 17, 1920, with a loss of $6,500. The 
second largest loss was in the so-called Hiscox building, in a garage operated 
by the Barrett, Hudson Company, with a loss of $4,500 on building and auto- 
mobiles. The fire loss was $19,148, and the insurance loss $18,642. The 
appropriation was $50,245, and the salaries and pay rolls account had grown 
to $43,442, owing to increase of salaries and pay rolls made necessary by the 
high cost of living and after-the-war conditions. There were 27 permanent 
men and 14 call men sleeping at the stations. A summary of the working 
force of the department June 30, 1920, was: permanent men, 27; call men, in 
all positions, 20; volunteers who could b,c partly depended on, 20; total, 67 
men. The number of horses remained at five, and the equipment remained 
as in the past three years. 

The Firemen's Pension Fund created bj' an act of the Legislature at the 
1919 session and not operative until January i, 1921, showed the amount on 
hand June 30, 1920, to be $6,234. The pension fund is supported by two per 
cent, of salaries from all permanent men of the department, and from dona- 
tions to the fund by citizens. 

At this date there were 526 fire hydrants, 14 fire cisterns connected to 
city mains for filling, and 68 fire alarm boxes, with 34 miles of wire. Hon. 
Herbert M. Lerou was mayor, and C. V. Pendleton, chairman of the board 
of fire commissioners. 


In tlie year 1805, New London was empowered by the legislature to 
establish tire companies consisting of eighteen men each, a privilege that had 
been previously granted to Hartford, Middletown and Norwich. This trans- 
ferred the fire department from the town to city authority, and three com- 
panies were soon formed, a fourth being added later. Two engines were 
bought in 1848, and in 1850 the Independent Nameaug Fire Company was 
formed and equipped with a fine engine paid for by popular subscription. 
In 1921 "The Day," in honor of its fortieth birthday, published a special 
number descriptive and historical, and in it had the following to say upon 
the subject which furnishes the caption for this review: 

New London has always felt very proud of its volunteer fire department. 
It had one in 1880 and long before that time, and has one at present. Forty 
years ago the engine company houses were about the only existing rendez- 
vous for young men outside of the saloons, and naturally fire companies were 
strong in membership. Everybody who w-as anyljody belonged to one com- 
pany or the other, although many did not do active service. 

A water service introduced in 1872 had put the old pumpers out of 
business, as the pressure at the hydrants was generally powerful enough 
to send a stream through the hose wherever it was needed. Hose companies 
ran with their hose carriages and reels to the scene of the fire, coupled the 
hose to a hydrant, and played the stream upon the fire. When the water 
pressure failed in localities or in the case of big fires where unusual number 
of streams were required, two engines owned by the department pumped 
through the pipes with greater pressure. 

The members of the hose company pulled their apparatus to the fire, 
and there was great rivalry among the various companies to see which could 
get a stream of water on first. The two engines had to be drawn by horses. 
Later, horses were provided to draw the hose carriages, and still later, motor- 
driven apparatus was provided by the city. The Niagara Engine Company 
at its own expense in the year 1902 purchased a steam propelled ajiparatus 
which was not only a novelty but a very valuable acquisition to the fire 
department. Now all the companies are equipped with motor-driven appar- 
atus owned by the city. In 1880 the chief engineer of the department was 
William B. Thomas, whose regular business was trucking. The assistant 
chief engineer was Peter McMullen, of the firm of McMullen & Osborn, who 
conducted a popular cafe on Bank street. 

The companies then in existence were Niagara Engine Companv No. i ; 
Nameaug Engine Company, No. 2; Relief No. 3, which had a hand engine 
and which was renamed the W. B. Thomas Hose Company ; and Konomoc 
Hose Company No. 4. For years an annual firemen's parade was held. It 
was the talked-of event of the year. Every uniform each company could 
obtain had to be filled on parade dav, and generally was, even if non-mem- 
bers had to be drafted for the purpose. Each member was supposed to turn 
out or provide a substitute. The honor of having the largest number of 
men in line lay between the Namcaugs and Niagaras. All the company 
carnages were tastefully decorated with flowers and flags, each company 
vymg with the other as far as its means permitted. Sometimes on the 
parade day there were contests in throwing streams of water and making 


quick hydrant connections, which created great interest. Visiting companies 
generally took part in the parade, and, with each company providing a band, 
the annual firemen's parade day was an occasion long remembered by the 
townspeople. William B. Thomas, Alonzo W. Sholes, Charles L. Ockford 
and John H. Brown were the popular chiefs of the departments at different 
periods during the past forty years, and headed the annual parades with 
their assistants, each carrying a silver trumpet under the left arm, the bell 
end filled with a huge bouquet of flowers. The present chief, John Stanners, 
has been head of the department about twenty-five years. 

For years the New London Volunteer Department had to be reckoned 
with in politics. Whoever could get the vote of the firemen could be assured 
of election. Nameaug Company was once very powerful, and later Konomoc 
Company succeeded it in political strength. Naturally their favor was much 
sought. But as the firemen themselves, through jealousy of each other, finally 
split up into rival camps, their political influence became less potent in time, 
although even up to recent years some of the fire companies exerted con- 
siderable influence in party nominations and elections. In the old days a 
popular member of the fire department generally was able to defeat at the 
polls once more able to serve the public with distinction. 

In recent years, the department, still on a volunteer basis and with the 
city providing social accompaniments, has taken on a more professional 
character, and each company has several paid members constantly on duty, 
ready to run out the apparatus upon call. Nor is the love of display as strong 
as in former times, so that the annual firemen's parade has long ceased to 
be a fixed custom. 

Since 1881 there have been six chiefs of the Department: William B. 
Thomas. Thomas Riley, Alonzo W. Sholes, John H. Brown, Charles L. 
Ockford, John Stanners. 

The present Department consists of one hook and ladder company, two 
engine companies and four hose companies. Personnel : 

F. L. Allen Hook and Ladder Company — House, 243 Bank street, Fore- 
man, Thomas Grogan; First Assistant, Daniel McQueen; Second Assistant, 
George Ryan ; Secretary, John Kane ; Treasurer, Jeremiah Lyons. 

Niagara Engine Company No. i — House, 288 Bank street; Foreman, 
Charles R. Brown ; First Assistant, Clarence W. Thompson ; Second Assist- 
ant, Arthur R. Thompson ; Secretary, Samuel M. Davidson ; Treasurer, 
George H. Powers; Engineer, Joseph Hyde, Jr.; Fireman. Samuel C. Harris. 

Nameaug Engine Company No. 2 — House, 26 Masonic street, near City 
Hall; Foreman, Elmer E. Allyn ; First Assistant, Charles C. Edwards; Second 
Assistant, Victor Farrar; Secretary, John C. Turner; Treasurer, Elmer Allen. 

W. B. Thomas Hose Company No. 3 — House, Rosemary, corner 
Cole street; Foreman, Manuel Martin; First Assistant, George Enos; Sec- 
ond Assistant, Richard Smith; Secretary, Charles A. Smith; Treasurer, 
Charles T. Chester. 

Konomoc Hose Company No. 4 — House, corner Union and State 
streets; Foreman, W. R. Pollock; First Assistant, James Nisson ; Second 
/vssistant. George West; Financial Secretary, Allen C. Richards; Recording 
Secretary, Daniel McCabe ; Treasurer, William C. Fish. 

C. C. Ockford Hose Companv No. 5 — House, 247 Shaw street; 
Foreman, Robert B. Burdick ; First Assistant, Frederick Rathbun; Second 
Assistant, Frank Sullivan; Secretary, Walter Peters; Treasurer, A. E. 



Peqiiot Hose Company No. 6. Incorporated in 1906 — House, 25 Lower 
Boulevard ; Foreman, E. T. Kirkland ; First Assistant, Donald Bain ; Second 
Assistant, Thomas Perkins; Third Assistant, John PenncU ; Financial Secre- 
tary, I'cnjamin N. Pennell ; Recording Secretary, W'illiam H. Corkey, Jr.; 
Treasurer, John A. Scott. 

Northwest Hose Company No. 7 — House on Brainrrd street; Foreman, 
Joseph H. Conpdon ; First Assistant, Ralph Baker; Second Assistant, L. J. 
Allen; Financial Secretary, W'illiam A. Slocum; Recording Secretary, Edwin 
B. Swadkins; Treasurer, Malcolm M. Scott. 

The officers of the Department for 1921 were: Chief Engineer, John 
Stanners; First Assistant, Charles H. Rose; Second Assistant, Joseph W. 

New London is well equipped with a fire alarm telegraph system having 
fifty-two fire boxes widely distributed throughout the city, through which 
alarms are sent in to the Central Station. The Department has been well 
tested on many occasions, and has successfully fought some large confla- 

Groton has a fire company, Pioneer Hose Company No. i, with house on 
Pleasant street. The officers are: Chief, Herbert White; Assistant Chief, 
A. F. Hodgdon; Foreman, James A. Stitt; First Assistant, William Harris; 
Second Assistant, William Lingner; Recording Secretary, James J. Doyle; 
Financial Secretary, Howard A. Edgecomb ; Treasurer. Milton M. Baker. 



Chief Business Enterprises — Brainerd & Armstrong Company — Thames Tow Boat 
Company — D. E. Whilon Machine Company — New London Ship and Engine 
Company — M. A. Kane Company — Botlinclli Monumental Company — W. R. Perry 
Ice Corporation — Cleary Plumbing and HeaUng Company — BabcocU Printing 
Press Company — J. B. Martin Company — PonemaJi Mills Company — Other 

Any true history of New London county must give some picture of the 
community activities. How do people get on with one another? Is there 
a spirit of mutual co-operation for the good of the whole civic body? What 
is the relation between labor and capital? The present chapter will deal 
with some of these questions. 

And first we submit certain sketches, drawn from authoritative sources, 
of the rise of the chief business enterprises of the county, supplementary to 
the statistics already printed. What is said of one company will hold for 
many others ; the story of success is a story of individual enterprise, fair 
business methods, a spirit of co-operation in the whole establishment. 

The enviable and well-earned reputation of the Brainerd & Armstrong 
Company covers a period of over half a century. In 1867 a partnership was 
formed by Benjamin A. .A.rmstrong and James P. Brainerd for the manufac- 
ture and sale of spool silks. These gentlemen had become experienced in the 
sale of spool silks, and their acquaintance with the trade, of New York State 
particularly, led them to believe that they could successfully manufacture 
and market their own brand of goods. 

The twelve years following were devoted to creating a demand for the 
goods in the large Eastern cities, by liberal advertising and active canvass 
of the trade. Sure though this process may have been, that it was slow is 
shown by the fact that in 1879 only seventeen hands and a superintendent 
were employed at the mill in New London, Connecticut, in the manufacture 
of the goods. The company owned no plant of its own, but in 1880 rented 
power and space from a wood turning shop along the New London wharf 

In these quarters, the business showed a growth to seventy hands by 
1881. That year the company started its own dyeing, with six or seven hands 
employed in that department. By 1883, some 125 hands were in the employ 
of the company, and plans were undertaken for the purchase of a building site 
in the heart of the city and the erection of a modern brick factory which it 
was estimated would meet all demands of growth for the next twenty years. 

On Good Friday. 1885, the company moved into the new plant, w'ith two 
hundred hands employed in the manufacture of spool, sewing, knitting and 
crochet silks and plain embroidery silk of the ordinary dye then in use. 


The growth and prosperity of the Brainerd & Armstrong Company is in 
a large measure due to the fact that it was the pioneer of the wash embroidery 
silk movement in this country. In 1886, the company made a number of re- 
markable discoveries by which it was able to dye silks so that they would 
stand washing in hot soap suds. A few .shades of the embroidery silk, pro- 
duced at that time, in the old fashioned manner, would stand a mild and 
careful rinsing in luke-warm water. The newly discovered method of the 
Brainerd & Armstrong Company, made it possible to produce their "Asiatic 
Dye" wash silks which would stand washing at 212 degrees without loss of 
color or injury to the most delicate fabrics. The introduction of those goods 
gave a new impetus to the art of embroidery throughout the entire country, 
and although at the present time a number of manufacturers produce em- 
broidery silks called "wash colors," still there is no brand of silk in this coun- 
try that can claim to have stood the test of so many years as that produced 
by the Brainerd & Armstrong Company. 

In 1894, the Brainerd & Armstrong Company originated and advertised 
another original invention which marked another advance in the use of em. 
broidery silks. The device was an ingenious way of putting up wash em- 
broidery silks in paper holders, in such a manner that embroiderers are saved 
the trouble of unwinding the skeins and rewinding them again on cardboard 
as was customarily done with the old-fashioned skeins, to prevent them from 
roughing and snarling. 

In 1888, the companj' become interested in weaving broad silks, and a 
few looms were started on the manufacture of silk art fabrics. In several 
more years, as the demand for this class of goods became less, these looms 
were superceded by looms for the manufacture of such staple goods as tailors' 
silk and satin linings. This end of the business has shown a wonderful and 
steady growth so that at the present time the company has over 600 looms 
devoted to the manufacture of a wide range of dress silks and silk and satin 
fabrics for tailors' use. 

The plant that in 1885 seemed likely to take care of the company's growth 
for many years, has time and again demonstrated itself as insufficient for the 
company's business, and additions and extensions have been frequently made. 
Besides these additions, the company years ago acquired the entire plant of 
the Orlo Atwood Silk Company, in an entirely different part of the city. This 
plant is now devoted wholly to throwing, i. e., to spinning and twisting the 
silk fibre into the finished thread. In more recent years there has been added 
a modern and convenient dye house of large capacity with its own private 
supply of absolutely pure water of chemical properties extraordinarily adapted 
to dyeing. A model weaving plant has also been established in the neigh- 
boring city of Norwich, Connecticut. \ 

During the term of the w-ar, over half the capacity of those mills was 
employed in the production of machine twist and sewing silk for the use of 
the armies and navies of the United States and of our allies. 

The mills of the company cover large area and in full operation furnish 
employment to 1,000 operatives. The product, consisting of silk threads and 

<.V)M.\irXITY ACm-lTIKS 495 

fabrics, is supplied to dealers and storekeepers throughout the United States 
through salesrooms located in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Chicago, St. Louis, Cincinnati, St. Paul and San Francisco. Nor is the selling 
field confined to this country, for the products of this company are largely 
sold in Mexico, Cuba, and the countries of Central and South America. 

In 1884 the comjiany was reorganized and. at that time, Mr. Brainerd's 
active connection with the concern came to an end. Benjamin A. Armstrong 
still remains the active head of the company. The concern is one that has 
long enjoyed the highest regard and esteem of the trade and of the public by 
reason of the superior qualities it has developed and maintained in its goods, 
as well as by the consistent practice of a policy of fair and honest dealing, 
all of which accords with the best traditions of Xew England where was 
bred our old-fashioned religion which in the final analysis is at the bottom 
of all permanent industrial success. 

The Thames Tow Boat Company was incorporated in Norwich, Decem- 
ber 29, 1865, by Mr. Edward Chappell and other? with a small capital stock 
and did river and harbor towing for a number of years with two or three small 
tug boats. The business was finally transferred to New London, February 
28, 1879, the controlling interest being acquired by Mr. Frank H. Chappell 
and others. The business was gradually enlarged and barges and larger tugs 
built and bought so as to operate a towing and transportation business on 
Long Island Sound and New York waters. The business could not stop 
here, so the field of operations went into ocean tawing and transportation, 
and the Thames Tow Boat Company were the pioneers in the tow boat busi- 
ness of transportation of coal from Norfolk, Virginia, to points east as far as 
Bangor, Maine, in its own barges and towed by its own tug boats. The 
business of increased tonnage as to barges and tugs needed more capital 
and it was increased from time to time and it reached $250,000. In 1900 the 
fleet of tugs and barges was of such size that it necessitated continued repairs, 
so it was considered expedient to have a shipyard of its own, and the site 
on the Thames River was selected for the plant and it was thought advisable 
to make the plant large enough to accommodate all of its own work and any 
outside work that came along so as to make the shipyard a paying proposition. 

A goodly number of the barges and tugs that the company owns were 
built on Winthrop Point, before it started the shipyard, but afterwards at its 
own yard the "John Forsyth," a large barge, and the tugs "Paul Jones" 
and "Bess," and two large steam lighters, were built for the Thames Tow Boat 
Company's fleet. The tug "Paul Jones" was sold to a firm of brokers in New 
York in December, igi6, and was afterwards sold by them to the French 
government. She was at that time the largest steam tug on the Atlantic 

On the first of the year 191 7. the business having been quite prosperous 
during the preceding years, the capital was increased to $i, 000,000. The com- 
pany has a large fleet of barges and tugs and a shipyard with two large marine 
railways and shops with a large inventory of merchandise on hand for the 
repairs of all classes of vessels, both steam and sail, wood or iron. The class 


of mechanics employed are of the best. During the World War a large num- 
ber of United States government vessels were repaired. 

Mr. F. H. Chappell, who was still president of the company, died in 
November, 1919. The oflficers at the present time are as follows: Laurence 
A. Chappell, president; Frank H. Chappell, Jr., vice president and treasurer; 
Lee S. Denison, secretary and assistant treasurer; Edward F. Clark, agent. 

The main office of the company is located at 258 Bank street, in the im- 
posing three-story stone building, formerly owned by the Brown family, which 
has been remodeled inside for an up-to-date office. 

The company is prepared to transport coal and other merchandise in 
barges of its own from 400 to 4,000 tons and to tow barges and vessels on 
river, sound and ocean on the Atlantic seatoard. The new set of marine 
railways that it is now building at its shipyard will enable them to take care 
of any rush work that may come along. 

The manufacturing plant of D. E. Whiton was originally established 
in West Stafford, Connecticut, in 1856. It was built for the purpose of man- 
ufacturing centering machines and lathe chucks. In 1881 Lucius E. Whiton, 
who had then finished preparatory school, engaged in the business with his 
father under the firm name of D. E. Whiton & Son. In 1882 the business 
having outgrown its West Stafford quarters, a location was secured in New 
London and a branch established. The first plant of the Whiton Machine 
Company in New London was located in the building with the Livesey Roller 
Bushing Company, which had been vacated by the Brown Cotton Gin Com- 
pany, and a part of what was afterward the Hopson & Chapin foundry in 
Howard street. In 1886 the concern was incorporated for $50,000 and the 
present fine plant on Howard street was erected especially for the industry 
and to it all of the works were moved. Though this doubled facility for pro- 
duction, additions to the plant have since been made and it is now particularly 
well adapted for the company's needs and is one of the best equipped in the 
country for the special lines manufactured. The foundry of the Whiton 
Machine Company was erected in 1904. Since then various other additions 
have been made and others are under way. The original plant started with 
twelve employes ; when it was moved to New London, fifty men were em- 
ployed; today, when the business is running at capacity, more than two hun- 
dred employes are on its pay roll. 

The D. E. Whiton Machine Company manufacturers several specialties 
in machinists' tools, including the original centering machines and lathe 
chucks, gear cutting machines and drills for special uses. These are all ideas 
developed by Messrs. D. E. and L. E. Whiton and are nearly all patented, 
most of the patents being owned by the company. The products of this con- 
cern are sold largely through machinery dealers, the company having long 
established connections with the most prominent firms in this trade in all the 
leading cities of this country and abroad. 

Upon the death of David E. Whiton in September, 1904, the management 
and full charge of the business fell upon the shoulders of the son, Lucius, who 


is still at the helm. Mr. Whiton has the honor and distinction of being the 
first councilman elected under the newly made council-manager plan charter. 

The New London Ship and Engine Company is located at Groton, Con- 
necticut, overlooking the beautiful Thames River and New London harbor. 
It is the pioneer builder of Diesel engines in America, and is today the largest 
manufacturer of strictly Diesel marine engines in the country. Nelseco is 
the abbreviated name and trademark of the New London Ship and Engine 
Company, a component company of the Submarine Boat Corporation. 
Early in 1908 the United States navy department decided that some means 
for propelling submarines must be found, other than gasoline engines. The 
reasons given were: The danger pertaining to the use of gasoline in a space 
as confined as that in a submarine, and the cost of fuel to operate engines 
in the large sizes necessary. 

This attitude of the department made it necessary for the Electric Boat 
Company, who were pioneers in submarine construction, to find a suitable 
heavy oil engine that would be satisfactory for this work. The only practical 
solution seemed to be in the Diesel engine. .\t that time marine Diesel 
engines had never been built or operated in the LTnited States. 

After careful consideration it was decided to send a representative of 
the Electric Boat Company abroad to study the engine situation, and to find, 
if possible, a design suitable for submarine work. This representative, after 
careful investigation of the European field, decided that the engine designed 
and built by the Maschinenfabrik Ausburg-Nurnberg A. G., commonly known 
as the M. A. N., was the best design for submarine work that had been de- 
veloped up to that time. The exclusive right for the construction of this 
engine in the United States was purchased of the M. A. N. Company. 

It was apparent, however, at this time that the Diesel engine would 
eventually be highly developed for commercial work, both marine and sta- 
tionary. In view of this, the New London Ship and Engine Company was 
incorporated in October, 1910, primarily for the purpose of promoting the 
manufacture of Diesel engines in the United States, and this company is 
today the largest concern in the United States devoted almost exclusively 
to tlie development and manufacture of these engines. 

The Nelseco engine has been developed from the engine built and de- 
signed in Germany by the M. A. N. Company, but the "Nelseco" has many 
exclusive features and improvements which have been added by the engineers 
of the company since its incorporation. The first Diesel-engined "fisherman" 
in America was the "Manhasset;" the first Diesel-engined yacht in America 
was the "Idealia," and the first Diesel-engined tug in America was the 
"Chickamauga," all of which were equipped with Nelseco engines. The first 
Diesel electric beam trawler in this country was the "Mariner," operating 
out of Gloucester, Massachusetts. It is driven by twin 240 B. H. P. engines, 
and has given her owners splendid service. 

The property on which the plant now stands was purchased of the New 
Vork, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, and in November, 1910, 

X.I..— 1-S2 


ground was broken for the construction of the original shop. By July, 1911, 
the original buildings were completed. Shop operations on engines were 
then commenced. The plant at this period consisted of an administrative 
building, machine shop, pattern shop and store room. Of these buildings, 
the machine shop held an important place, which at that time was 165x100 
feet, two stories in height and built of brick and steel. Since that date, this 
model shop has had a large number of extensions and additions made, and 
is now over 700 feet long. Not only has this shop been lengthened out, but 
it has also been made wider, to accommodate other complete units, such as 
coppersmith shop, screw and bolt shop, and power plant, etc. From the start, 
the business of the company increased with great rapidity, and it was found 
necessary even after being in operation for six months, to increase both office 
and shop facilities. 

An idea of the rapid development of this plant during the past ten 
years may be gained from the fact that today it covers a site of fifty-five 
acres, including besides its factory units, a model park, modern hotel, and 

The Diesel engine, like most new inventions, has had and is still having 
a hard road to travel. To convince the old steam engineer that this type of 
engine is better than the one he has been using all his life is more or less 
difficult, and no matter how much reliable data we can show him he is still 
skeptical, and it requires a vast amount of missionary work to overcome preju- 
dice, but if the old-fashioned engineer is to stay in business he must give way 
to modern practice. 

For marine purposes, the advantages of the heavy oil engine over the 
steam engine are even greater than for stationary purposes. For example, 
the question of weight is an important factor in marine work. Class for class, 
the oil engine is materially lighter than the combined weight of the steam 
engine and boiler, and when the weight of the fuel consumed is taken into 
consideration, the saving in weight is enormous. At the same time, there is 
a very material saving in space which comes about by the fact that the oil 
engine installation itself takes up much less room than the steam engine and 
boilers. In addition, the fuel per given voyage takes up much less space and, 
moreover, can be stored where coal could be stored, thus utilizing area 
otherwise wasted. Again, the room used for berthing the fireroom force is 

In this case, also, the engines have the great advantage of being able to 
start very quickly without involving any stand-by losses, and there would 
be material saving in time and labor in taking aboard fuel. In other words, 
as compared with a steam-driven ship of the same size and power, the oil 
engine ship not only costs considerably less to operate, but at the same time 
her gross earning capacity is materially increased on account of the additional 
weight and space made available for cargo. These combined advantages in- 
crease the net maximum earning capacity of a given ship very materially. 
Exact figures would vary with different ships and trades, but in all cases the 
possible increase in net earnings would be very 'irge. 


The very latest method of using Diesel engines for ship propulsion is 
the electric drive. This particular type of installation has many advantages 
over direct drive. The single screw motorship using only one engine has only 
one chance in case of a serious breakdown. In the case of the electric drive, 
several smaller engines would be used to make up the total power and the 
power of any one of these engines would be sufficient to bring the vessel home 
at a reduced speed. Another distinct advantage of the electric drive over an 
engine directly connected to propeller shaft is the question of control. The 
control of the propeller can be placed on the bridge or at any other point in 
the ship and is absolutely independent of the engine room, thereby eliminating 
delay and misunderstanding of signals from the bridge to engine room. Many 
of the submarines of the United States and foreign navies are equipped with 
Nelseco Diesels, especially designed for undersea service. Twenty British 
submarines, built in 1916 by the Electric Boat Company, are equipped with 
Nelseco Diesels, and the service and cruising radius of the vessels drew official 
recognition from the admiralty. Perilous voyages of more than 3,000 miles 
were made to the Dardanelles, the Baltic, and other salients during the war. 
The Nelseco Diesel is built in its entirety at the works at Groton. Every 
part is manufactured from the raw material to the finished product. To 
accomplish this it was necessar}- to build a grey iron and steel foundry, brass 
foundry, pattern shop, power house, forge shop, a large machine shop, elec- 
trical shop, as well as several storehouses, heating plant, and a large ad- 
ministration building. 

The bottling works of The M. A. Kane Company was established in 
1890 by the late William Kane, at its present location in Jefferson avenue. 
Mr. Kane managed the business for two years, and upon his demise control 
of it came to his daughter, Mrs. Charles U. Sauter, who, with her husband, 
managed the business until two years ago. Upon Mrs. Sauter's death, Mr. 
Sauter sold the business to Bagdan Brothers of New York, who have since 
made many improvements in the equipment and the buildings. 

The M. A. Kane Company bottle all kinds of soft drinks, from pure 
spring water, which is secured from a tested spring right inside its building. 

The Bottinelli Monumental Company, 19 Reed street, is the successor to 
Francis D'Avignon, who, for many years kept a monumental works in what 
is now Tyler Square. 

Mr. Bottinelli came to New London from Westerly two years ago last 
September, buying out the old stand and establishing himself in the D'Avig- 
non quarters. When the property in Bank street was bought by the city for 
the purpose of making a park, Mr. Bottinelli purchased the property where 
his present establishment is located and built a modern shop for the conduct 
of his business. Here will be found the choicest variety of stones for monu- 
ments and markers, both cut and uncut. Mr. Bottinelli's workmanship will 
be found superior to the average, due to his many years experience in the 
business before locating in New London. 


W. R. Perry, the founder of The \V. R. Perry Ice Corporation, com- 
menced the building of a 6,000-ton capacity ice house at Cohanzie Lakes in 
1888, and upon the completion of this in 1889, entered into the wholesale and 
retail ice business in this city. The business steadily grew, necessitating 
various new storage houses, one of which, for 4,000 tons, was erected near 
the first house at Cohanzie, another in 1896, for 6,000 tons, was erected at 
South VVillington, Connecticut. Again in 1901 an addition was made to the 
latter house, whereby its capacity was increased to 10,000 tons. 

Perry ice has ever been known as of first quality, and it has been the aim 
of this company to always render adequate service, besides giving full value. 
Especially in emergency cases, the Perry company's special delivery has 
been found invaluable. Numerous auto trucks and horse-drawn wagons are 
used to supply this company's demand. 

The business was incorporated in 1902. Upon the death of Mr. Perry 
in 1905, the management of the business devolved upon Courtland E. Colver, 
former superintendent of the Groton Water and Electric Departments, who 
has since ably managed the affairs of this successful company. During the 
past two years the Perry company has opened several small ice selling 
stations where persons may go and secure their ice needs at a price from which 
the cost of delivery has been deducted. These have proven exceptionally 
successful. The present officers of The W. R. Perry Ice Corporation are: 
Loren E. DaboU, president ; Mrs. Anna B. Perry, secretary, and Courtland E. 
Colver, treasurer. 

The T. P. Cleary Plumbing and Heating Company was first started in 
New London some thirty years ago, when the late Thomas P. Cleary was in 
partnership with Joseph V. Jordan, under the firm name of Jordan & Cleary. 
The store and shop of this concern was located at 139 Main street. After 
about five years Mr. Jordan withdrew from the firm and it was continued 
under the firm name by Mr. Cleary. In 1914, Mr. Cleary decided to move 
his business to his home, and established himself at 93 Ocean avenue, where 
he continued a successful plumbing, heating, tinning and ventilator business 
until his death. 

To the citizens of New London who are familiar with its industrial de- 
velopment the acquisition of the former Brown Cotton Gin plant by the Bab- 
cock Printing Press Manufacturing Company is a matter of interest. It is 
now a little more than thirty-nine years since the incorporation of the latter 
company under the laws of Connecticut. 

The original plan for building cylinder printing presses in New London 
was arranged with the Brown Cotton Gin Company by George P. Fenner, 
who had spent several years in the drafting room of Cottrell & Babcock and 
of the C. B. Cottrell & Sons. He formed a partnership for that purpose. At 
the request of his uncle, Nathan Babcock, the partnership was merged into a 
corporation under the name of The Babcock Printing Press Manufacturing 
Company, in June, 1882, and at once commenced business, building the presses 
entirely from drawings made by Mr. Fenner and under his direct supervision. 


The first press was completed in about six months and on January 3, 1883, 
was shipped to W. W. Ames of DeRuyter, New York. This machine has been 
in constant use for thirty-six years and is still doing good work and owned 
by the original purchaser. Since then over seven thousand presses have 
been sold and are in operation in practically all countries of the world. 

In 1899, the local shop, employing some two hundred and fifty men, was 
unable to handle all the business of press building, and arrangements wer«*i 
made with the Standard Machine Company of Mystic to build certain sizes of 
machines. Later this work was taken to the Narragansett Machine Company, 
of I'awtuckct, Rhode Island. Throughout the years of its manufacture, 
the Babcock Printing Press, of whatever style or design, has established a 
reputation for strength, reliability, economy, accuracy and speed that has 
placed it in the offices of the leading printers in every State in the Union, 
Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Canada, Mexico, South 
.America — many European countries. South Africa, India, Dutch East Indies 
and China. 

The unquestioned excellence of the Babcock Printing Press is due to the 
untiring industry and inventive genius of Mr. Fenner. Through all the years 
of the establishing of the business, a fourtcen-hour day was the ordinary day's 
work for him, and in fact there was never any limit to the time he was willing 
to give to the interests of the business. Between 1882 and 1915 he was granted 
about one hundred patents, upon valuable inventions for improving printing 
machinery, all of which are the property of the company. 

With the purchase of the shop in which the machines of the company 
have been built since its incorporation. The Babcock Printing Press Manu- 
facturing Company is re-established, and upon a manufacturing basis that 
cannot fail to bring increased success. The officers of the company express 
their appreciation of the fine spirit which has actuated every man connected 
with the press work during the years of their connection with the company 
and particularly to those who have so loyally and unselfishly served to the 
utmost during the three years when the company suffered the loss of invalu- 
able service in its management, and the disastrous World War made it the 
patriotic duty of all business manufacturing not for war purposes to be cur- 
tailed to the utmost limit. Throughout the trying period of the war the 
business was successfully maintained and is now efficiently organized for 
progressive development upon a constantly increasing scale. 

The present officers are: President and manager, James E. Bennet; 
treasurer, Mrs. George P. Fenner ; secretary and assistant treasurer, Wilfred 
D. Wells; chief engineer, Fred S. English; general superintendent, Howard 
L. Hetherington ; sales manager, Charles W. Britcher. 

James E. Bennet is very prominent in the printing trade, being secretary 
of the Printing Press Manufacturers' Association of the United States, and 
has been connected with the company for about twelve years. Wilfred D. 
Wells has been connected with the company for over thirty years, and F. S. 
English, Howard Hetherington and C. W. Britcher for nearly twenty years 
each. These men are thoroughly trained to carry on the business to a greater 


magnitude than it has ever before reached. When the plant is in full oper- 
ation, a force of about four hundred men is required. 

The property of The Babcock Printing Press Manufacturing Company 
covers about seven acres of land on which are buildings with floor space 
aggregating about 180,000 square feet. The foundry work turned out by 
this plant has been for years considered of exceptional quality. The Babcock 
Printing Press Company's plant ranks as one of the finest machine building 
plants in New England. 

The foregoing accounts give only a very partial view of the process by 
which New England thrift and perseverance and New England business 
methods have succeeded in developing the county. 

In Norwich, the J. B. Martin Company produces one million yards of 
velvet annually; the U. S. Finishing Company prints 85 million yards; the 
Totoket Mills have a capacity of 2,000,000 yards a year; The Falls Company, 
five and a half million yards; the Shetucket Company, six million yards; the 
Ponemah Mills twenty-two million yards a year. The Aspinook Company at 
Jewett City, the Ashland Cotton Company, the Slater Mills, the Palmer 
Brothers' Quilt Mills at New London, Montville and Fitchville, with a capacity 
of 14,000 quilts a day, and at Baltic the huge cotton mills, combined with 
many other mills throughout the country, furnish occupation for a consider- 
able part of the total county population. 

The casual visitor will see that these mills are more than manufacturing 
plants ; they are little worlds in themselves, with a community spirit, with 
recreations, civic organizations, social activities that promote the welfare of 
all members of the families of the villages. 

It is not the purpose of this article to make comparisons or to enter into 
disputed questions as to the relation of labor and capital, but for the sake of 
conveying to the reader a true picture of a New England manufacturing 
village, the following account of life in Taftville is presented. Inasmuch as 
the Ponemah Mills Company is by far the largest in the county and one of 
the largest in the country, it presents an interesting picture of the co-operative 
spirit on a large scale. 

The Ponemah Mills was chartered in 1866 under tht name of the Orray 
Taft Manufacturing Company, by Mr. E. P. Taft, and associated with him 
were Cyril Taft and James S. Atwood, who in company with Mr. Moses 
Pierce formed the Cecum Power Company. The charter, secured in 1866, 
with later amendments is broad in its character, including rights in four towns 
—Franklin, Sprague, Bozrah and Norwich, and is a proof of the broad vision 
of its founder. In 1867, after some financial difficulties, a reorganization took 
place, and John F. Slater, Edward Chappell and Lorenzo Blackstone became 
associated with the original members. 

The first mill, now called Mill No. i, had originally 80,000 spindles, all 
American made. The preparatory machinery was originally American, but 
replacements have been imported from England. The mill from the first made 
fine goods, such as had previously been imported into the United States from 


Manchester, England. Fine lawns, organdies, mechanical cloths and fancy 
goods for ladies' wear, men's shirtings, ginghams, mixed silk and cotton 
goods, and tire yarns for the highest grade cord tires are a few of the products 
of the company. The original 80,000 spindles have been increased to 161,000 
and the original 1500 looms to over 3800. 

The mills now include Mill No. i, a five-story structure 750 feet by 75 
feet, with an ell; Mill Xo. 2, built in 1880, 500 feet by lOO feet; Mill No. 3, 
200 feet by 120 feet; Mill No. 4, built in 1910, 600 feet by 200 feet, with 2300 
looms. For power, the mills have 2500 horsepower developed at full water 
by its water power, and the difference of 1500 horse power needed for oper- 
ation is developed by steam, which develops further any deficit in water power 
due to low water. 

During the war, the mill was busy making cloth for balloons and air- 
planes, etc., on government work. Today one may see in the office the first 
sample made to match the linen sample submitted by the government. This 
substitute for linen was made necessary by the loss of the vast linen supplies 
at Riga after the Germans had captured that port. This original sample was 
36 inches wide, 68 by 68 threads to the square inch, weight four yards to the 
pound, and made from three-ply 80 yarns for warp and filling. Its strength 
may be seen from the required test of over 70 pounds to the square inch before 
breakage. It was furthermore almost non-stretchable For a number of 
months before and during the war, the mills operated as many as 1,000 looms 
on aircraft cloth, balloon and airplanes. It was estimated that one loom pro- 
ducing about 150 }ards of airplane cloth a week would only provide for the 
wear and tear supply for one airplane. 

To a novice there is a fascination in tracing the steps bj' which the cotton 
passes on through the bale breaker and blender, the picking and carding 
machinery, the drawing and doubling process, the combers ever drawing and 
parallelizing the fibres, the fly frames consisting of slubbers, intermediates 
and jacks, the ring frames which draw and twist and thereby spin the thread, 
the spoolers, the warjjers, the slashers which starch or dress the yarn so 
that it may resist the friction and wear of the loom in the weaving process. 
To an untrained observer it seems incredible that a pound of cotton can be 
spun out to a length of nearly one hundred miles. On the whole, the most 
wonderful thing about the material part of the manufacturing process is the 
combination of strength and delicacy shown in the machiner3% the result of 
long experience, countless experiments, the long evolution of inventive genius 
combined with farsighted business sagacity. The evolution of the cotton 
industry is one of the most interesting chapters of human progress. Such a 
history must be written by the expert. But what these steps have meant to 
mankind in the way of cheaper and better clothing, in furnishing of pro- 
ductive labor for many thousands of people, in the indirect benefits conferred 
upon many other forms of business, even the casual obsers'er may perceive. 

The Poncmah Mills form the nucleus of a whole community life. In its 
mills, its homes, its farms, its reservoirs, its electric plant, its many community 
activities, it is a model village, interesting as a community no less than a 


manufacturing plant. The company owns five hundred tenements, with au 
estimated population of 3500. It owns four miles of streets, eight miles of 
sidewalks, covering nearly a square mile of land. It has its own water supply 
for fire protection — each hydrant has about 75 pounds of pressure — its own 
electric power. It sells some water and electricity to adjacent residents who 
seek this convenience. It has two reservoirs, one of 86,728,000, one of 24,445,- 
500 gallons. It has constructed a complete sewerage system of over eight 
miles in length ; every house has modern plumbing. The dairy farm contains 
an accredited herd of tested Holsteins and furnishes bottled milk at current 
rates. A co-operative boarding house furnishes adequate and inexpensive 
board for such residents as do not take houses. 

The financial offices are in Providence. The secretary and treasurer is 
Mr. J. A. Atwood, who is also treasurer and large owner in the mills at 
VVauregan and at Danielson. The payroll is $30,000 per week, about one- 
fifth the total payroll of all the industries in Norwich. The average wage 
of operatives, without including oversight, salaries, etc., is $20 per week for 
all workers. 

The annual product is approximately twenty million yards of cloth of a 
value of five and one-half million dollars, one-fifth of the whole manufactured 
product of Norwich. In the management of the mills, efficiency is revealed 
not only in the product of the mills but also in the no less important work 
of the community life as a whole. In general it is the policy of the manage- 
ment to do whatever is for the welfare of the village. If the village "pays 
for itself outside the mill fence," it is satisfied, and does not aim to make a 
profit from the various community enterprises enumerated above. For in- 
stance, it is estimated that many of the mill houses yield less than two per 
cent on the cost of construction. The rents charged are surprisingly low. 
A seven-room tenement rents for $1.66 a week, with running water and 
sanitary plumbing. If the tenants desire a bathtub, a charge of five cents a 
week is added. If the tenants desire to use steam heat, twenty cents a week 
extra is charged; for electric lighting, five cents per socket is charged for elec- 
tricity used from the middle of the afternoon to midnight ; no meters are in- 
stalled. Young couples or old, with one worker in the family, may secure a 
tenement in a four-family house for $1.18 per week. For a two tenement 
seven-room house (standard type), the rental, including light and water and 
bath room, is $2.50 per week. 

Statistics regarding wages are of interest: In 1899 the average weekly 
wage for one class of operative was $11.24 for 58 hours' work. In 1916 this 
had risen to $17.09. At the peak of war wages, the average wage of these 
operatives in 1920 was $38.15. Today the average wage is $29.49. The lengtn 
of the working week was lessened in 1913 to 55 hours, and as a war require- 
ment or condition in 1919 to 48 hours. 

The attitude of the company towards the help is in all things benevolent 
and co-operative; accommodations are furnished for all the many clubs that 
exist on the initiative of the workers. The management believes, and very 


wisely, it seems to the writer, that the most helpful enterprises are those 
started by the operatives themselves. 

Ponemah Mills provides two free beds at the William W. Backus Hos- 
pital for all its villagers. These beds arc of special help in maternity cases, 
and in the many other cases discovered by its trained nurses. Two trained 
nurses, with proper rooms for emergency use, exercise a most helpful super- 
vision of the villagers. Whenever an illness occurs in a home the case is at 
once reported to a nurse, who before noon visits the home, provides for first 
aid, advises a physician in case of need, and thus is a great help in the pre- 
vention as well as the cure of disease. A complete card index of all cases is 
filed, and a detailed report is made at stated intervals. The office keeps its 
hand in this way on the pulse of its village for the betterment of all its resi- 
dents. In the past year over eight thousand special cases for approximately 
4000 individuals were personally treated. 

The village has its ov.n Red Cross Chapter — this of itself is unusual. 
The Chapter by its annual roll call raises enough to support one free bed at 
the William W. Backus Hospital, to do a useful home service work, and in 
general to offer help to any one in the community who may be in distress. 

The company, as might be expected from its other activities, is a cheerful 
contributor to every enterprise that tends to uplift the villagers. As one visits 
the plant and realizes that the Ri]iley Farms was sixty years ago a rural, un- 
developed waste; that the original John Sullivan, who helped cut away the 
brush for the first survey, is still a resident of Taftville; as one views the 
orderly and systematic arrangement of the village, the well kept homes, the 
prosperous operatives, it becomes evident that the gap between capital and 
labor, if it is ever to be bridged, will be crossed by such organizations as 
Ponemah Mills. The care for the welfare of the operatives, with the freedom 
given them in initiating their own social life, the efficient business system 
by which community enterprises are managed, furnish an object lesson in 
good government that might be studied with great profit by many of the 
municipalities of our land. 

It is also true of many other industries in New London county that the 
welfare of the helpers is of first importance to the administrators. Only lack 
of space prevents us from describing in detail some of the other manufacturing 
concerns with which our county is so well supplied. As the children of 
these manufacturing villages enter our schools they come to have the true 
American spirit. And the hope of New England, composed today of a popu. 
lation which is largely of foreign parentage, consists in perpetuating New 
England ideals, even if the old New England families are declining relatively 
in numbers. 



Masonic— Odd Fellows — Other Orders. 

This chapter will deal principally with the Masonic and Odd Fellows 
orders, as perhaps they come closest to the lives of more people in New 
London county than any others. Moreover, the great age of the one and 
the many years which have accrued to the other, give them a dignity and a 
prestige that justifies their selection as representative organizations where 
space cannot be given to all. The record is brought down from the forming 
of the "Mother Lodge" of Masons in Colchester, to practically the present, 
and will long be useful as a work of reference as well as a source of pleasing 

There are fourteen lodges in New London county subordinate to the 
Grand Lodge of Connecticut Free and Accepted Masons. They are in 
numerical order as follows: 

Wooster No. lo, Colchester 157 members 

St. James No. 23, Norwich 308 members 

Union No. 31, New London 711 members 

Somerset No. 34, Norwich 542 members 

Pythagoras No. 45, Old Lyme 77 members 

Asylum No. 57, Stonington 141 members 

Charity and Relief No. 72, Mystic 363 members 

Mt. Vernon No. 75, Jewctt City 190 members 

Pawcatuck No. 90, Pawcatuck 195 members 

Brainard No. 102, New London 736 members 

Oxoboxo No. 116, Montville 173 members 

Bay \''iew No. 120, Niantic 108 members 

This comprises a total of 3,001 affiliated Master Masons reported to the 
Grand Lodge in 1922 from the twelve lodges of the county. 

Wooster Lodge, No. 10, the most ancient of all Masonic lodges in New 
London county as indicated by its number, was the tenth organized under 
authority of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, Free and Accepted Masons. 
This is the "Mother Lodge" of the county and is widely known in that role. 
The lodge is located in Colchester, and reported to the grand lodge in 1922, 
157 members. The regular communications of the lodge are held on the 
third Friday of each month. The principal officers of the lodge are: Elmer 
H. Foote, worshipful master; Edward H. Norton, senior warden; Charles 
F. Kramer, junior warden; Cyrus E. Pendleton, treasurer; William T. Curry, 

The first lodge of Free and Accepted Masons instituted in Norwich, 
Connecticut, was chartered by St. John's Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in 
the year 1767, as appears in the records of said grand lodge now in possession 
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. Columbia Lodge was chartered by 
Massachusetts Grand Lodge, Joseph Webb, grand master, on July 23, 1785, 
the petitioners being Philip Turner, Bela Turner, John Richards, Samuel 


Mott, Jeremiah Harris. These lodges have long been out of existence. 
The oldest Masonic lodge in Norwich now active is St. James, No. 23, 
which was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, May 18, 1793. 
Communications were held in the town of Preston until 1846, when the 
following entry appears in the records: "The Brethren deeming it inex- 
pedient to try to keep up the organization of the lodge any longer, sent 
information to the grand lodge and they sent a committee who took the 
charter, jewels and implements and placed them in the hands of the grand 
secretary of the grand lodge of Connecticut." 

The original charter of St. James, No. 23, was revived September 12, 
1872, under the authority of Luke A. Lockwood, grand master, and was 
regranted June 16, 1873, under the old name and number to the following 
petitioners: H. Hobart Roath, H. Clay Albro, S. Alpheus Gilbert, Allen 
Tenny. P. St. M. Andrews, A. D. Smith, C. H. DiUaby, Nathan S. Gilbert, 
James Kirker, L W. Carpenter, George W. Miller, Costello Lippitt, J. L. W. 
Huntington, Charles Webb, Hugh H. Osgood, W. H. Hovey, John Irish, 
Ansel A. Beckwith. The first worshipful master was Joseph J. Wait. 

The lodge has since rechartering been located in Norwich, and has a present 
membership of 308. Regular communications are held on the first and third 
Tuesdays of each month. The five principal officers are : William J. Honey- 
man, worshipful master; Frederick J. Prothero, senior warden; Alexander H. 
Abbott, junior warden; Albert S. Comstock, treasurer; Walter M. Bucking- 
ham, secretary. 

Concerning Union Lodge No. 31, of New London. There is a tradition 
that a Masonic lodge existed in New London, prior to the Revolution, 
and there is a record preserved in the history of St. John's Lodge at 
Boston, Massachusetts, under date of January 12, 1753, which recites that 
"the petition of several brethren residing at New London in the colony of 
Connecticut for dispensation to erect a lodge there was granted." There is 
no record of the forming or working of this lodge, nor is mention made in the 
proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut of there being a subordinate 
lodge in New London prior to the October session of the Grand Lodge in 
1795, when Elias Perkins is recorded as a member from Union Lodge of New 

The original charter of Union Lodge, No. 31, Free and Accepted Masons, 
bears date of May 20. 1795. being granted upon the application of Amasa 
Learned, Elijah Bingham, Elias Perkins. Lyman Law, Moses Warren, 
William Richards, Richard Law, Jr., Lemuel Lee. The first worshipful 
master was William Richards, 1795. The lodge has had a continuous ex- 
istence for 127 years, 1795-1922, and now numbers 542 members. Meeting 
nights are the first and third Wednesdays of each month. The principal 
officers: W. Everett Eagles, worshipful master; Robert Ferguson, senior 
warden; Walter M. Slocum, junior warden; Frederick C. Burrows, treasurer; 
Robert H. Byles, secretary. Union Lodge owns its own property, a large 
building on Union street, in which lodge meetings are held. 


Somerset Lodge, No. 34. Free and Accepted Masons, of Norwich, was 
chartered by the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, May 25, 1795, with the fol- 
lowing members: Elijah Clark, P. Ct)it, Stephen Culver, Cushing Eells, 
Jeremiah Harris, Giles L'Hommcdieu, Ebenezer Huntington, Samuel Hunt- 
ington, Daniel Lathrop, Gordon Lathrop, Simeon Lathrop, David Nevins, 
Robert Niles, John Richards, Benjamin Snow, Asa Spaulding, Elisha Rich- 
ards. Elisha Tracy. John Trumbull, John Turner, Philip Turner. 

The first master of Somerset Lodge was Asa Spaulding, a lawyer; Ebenezer 
Huntington, the first senior warden; Benjamin Snow, the first junior warden. 
The lodge charter was revoked by the Grand Lodge, May 9, 1838, but was re- 
stored May 14, 1845. The first stated communication of record was held 
June 8, 1795. Peter Lamman was the first candidate initiated. The lodge 
met in private rooms at first, the first lodge room being Captain Nathaniel 
Peabody's "brick store chamber," which was fitted up in due form and first 
used in 1801. On June 5, 1850, the lodge rented the Odd Fellows' lodge room, 
which was used until June 19, 1865, when Uncas Hall was dedicated to 
Masonic uses. 

The regular communications of Somerset Lodge are held on the first 
and third Wednesdayys of each month. The membership as reported to the 
Grand Lodge in 1922 is 542. The officers are: Alexander Pinlayson, wor- 
shipful master; Herman Stclzner, senior warden; William W. Tannar, junior 
warden; Herbert M. Lcrou, treasurer; Arthur M. Thompson, secretary. 

Pythagoras Lodge, No. 45, the next Masonic lodge to be chartered in 
New London county, is located in Old Lyme, and has a present member- 
ship of seventj'-sevcn. The lodge meets in regular communication the first 
and third Monday of each month. Officers : Edward Hopper, worshipful 
master ; Carleton L. Hopper, senior warden ; Alfred S. Howard, junior war- 
den ; George Griswold. treasurer; Edward C. Plimpton, secretary. 

Asylum Lodge, No. 57, Free and Accepted Masons, is located in Ston- 
ington, and numbers 141 members. Stated meetings are held on the second 
and fourth Tuesdays of each month. Officers : Ernest F. Williams, wor- 
shipful master; Albert P. Fort, senior warden ; Allan C. Slade, junior warden; 
Frank R. Trac}-, treasurer; Carl B. Seamon, secretary. 

Charity and Relief Lodge, No. 72, Free and Accepted Masons, is located 
in Mystic, meeting in regular communication the first and third Tuesdays 
of each month. The lodge reported to the Grand Lodge for 1922 a member- 
ship of 363. Officers: James Orkney, worshipful master; John A. Irving, 
senior warden ; Charles S. Sawyer, junior warden ; Edward H. Neubury, 
treasurer ; Charles C. Dodd, secretary. 

Mt. Vernon Lodge, No. 75, Free and Accepted Masons, is a Jewett City 
institution, meeting in regular communications the first and third Tuesdays 
in each month. The 1922 membership of the lodge is 190. Officers: Norman 
B. Parkhurst. worshipful master ; Frank D. Browning, senior warden ; George 
T. Bell, junior warden; Everett TT. Hisco.x, treasurer; George H. Prior, 

Pawcatuck Lodge, No. 90, Free and Accepted Masons, is located in Paw- 


catuck. and has a present membership of 195. The lodge meets in regular 
communication the second Thursday of each month. The principal officers 
are: Harry Sutclifi'e, worshipful master; Archie Knott, senior warden ; Frank 
L. Friend, junior warden ; Elbert W. Clarke, treasurer ; D. E. Hoxie, secretary. 

Brainard Lodge, No. 102, Free and Accepted Masons, has passed fifty- 
five years of prosperous life, having been chartered June i, 1867. The peti- 
tioners for the charter were: Edward B. Rowe, John H. Heath, George W. 
Bentley, Charles W. Wilcox, Christopher Culver, Samuel \V. Caulkins, 
Benjamin P. Watrous. 

The first worshipful master was Edward B. Rowe, who served from 
1867 until 1873. The lodge has a present membership of 736, and meets in 
stated conclave the second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. The home 
of the lodge is in the Masonic Temple, corner Starr and Greene streets, which 
became the home of the order in New London in 1896, the Brainard Cor- 
poration holding the property. Officers (1922) : Omar R. McCoy, worshipful 
master; John G. Austin, senior warden; Francis Allamach, junior warden; 
Malcolm M. Scott, treasurer; George A. Sturdy, secretary. 

O.xoboxo Lodge, No. 116, Free and Accepted Masons, is one of the strong 
fraternal bodies of Montville, having in 1922 a membership of 173, meeting 
in stated communication the first and third Fridays in each month. The 
officers are : Robert Paton, worshipful master ; W. Victor Washabaugh, 
senior warden ; Walter J. Auwood, junior warden ; Chester W. Comstock, 
treasurer; Harry W. Auwood, secretary. 

Bay View Lodge No. 120, Free and Accepted Masons, of Niantic, was 
the last Masonic lodge chartered in New London county. It has a present 
membership of 108, and meets in stated communications the first and third 
Saturday in each month. The five principal officers of the lodge are : George 
H. Clark, worshipful master; Clift'ord E. Chapman, senior warden; Elford 
P. Rogers, junior warden; John F. Luce, treasurer; William E. Smith, sec- 

The Grand Chapter of Connecticut Royal Arch Masons was organized 
in 1798, and now consists of fifty-two subordinate chapters, with a member- 
ship of 14,390 (1922 report). There are four chapters in New London county 
— Franklin, No. 4, of Norwich ; LTnion, No. 7, of New London ; Benevolence, 
No. 21, of Mystic, and Palmer, No. 28, of Pawcatuck, reporting a total of 
1,740 companions. 

Capitular Masonry had its beginning in New London county with the 
organization of Franklin Chapter, No. 4, Royal Arch Masons, in Norwich, 
in 1796, one year after the founding of Somerset Lodge in the same city. 
Franklin Chapter was constituted under a dispensation granted by "a Wash- 
ington Chapter of New York on March 15, 1796." The following are the 
petitioners for that charter: Joseph Huntington, Jacob Smith, Luther Spald- 
ing, Consider Sterrv, Elisha Tracy. John Warner. The first most excellent 
high priest of the chapter was Elisha Tracy. 

The officers of the chapter (1922) are: Peter S. Wilson, high priest; 


Herman Stclzer, king; Paul H. Zahn, scribe; Alb'^rt S. Comstock, treasurer; 
Walter M. Buckingham, secretary; Frank B. Lathrop, captain of the host; 
Robert Cochran, ])rincipal sojourner; Sidney P. Smith, royal arch captain; 

Harry M. Clark, third vail; William A. Buckley, second vail; , first 

vail ; James C. Fitzpatrick, tyler. 

While a charter was granted Unitjn Chapter, No. 7, Royal Arch Masons, 
September i, 1801, naming Elepham Buckley as most excellent high priest, 
lanus Baxter, scribe, and Allen King as king, there is no other record of 
the forming or working of the chapter until 1805, when Union Chapter, No. 
7, of New London, was represented at a convocation of the Grand Chapter 
Royal Arch Masons of Connecticut, held in Hartford, October 9, 1805. From 
the organization of the Grand Chapter of Connecticut until 1855, that body 
did not print its proceedings, the records being in manuscript. 

Union Chapter meets in stated convocation in the Masonic Temple, 
Greene and Starr streets. Officers, 1922: George Paton, high pritst ; Ellery 
N. Edwards, king; George S. Gadbois, scribe; Frederick A. Beebe, treasurer; 
George A. Sturdy, secretary: Frederick W. Edgerton, captain of the host; 
Henry E. Wagner, principal sojourner; Murray A. Patten, royal arch cap- 
tain; Frncst F. Gates, third vail; James C. Coldwell, second vail; Charles B. 
Hansen, first vail ; David Conner, tyler. Union Chapter has a membership 

of 565- 

Benevolence Chapter, No. 21, Royal Arch Masons, is located in Mystic 
and has a membership of 255. Stated convocations are held on the second 
Monday of each month. Officers (1922) : James Orkney, high priest; Hollis 
H. Price, king; Edward E. Bucklin, scribe; Charles H. Latham, treasurer; 
John H. Paton, secretary; Rowland S. Hewitt, captain of the host; George 
H. Griswold, principal sojourner; Henry J. Latham, royal arch captain; 
Frank H. Anderson, third vail; Edward L. Schofield, second vail; Oscar R. 
Cottrell, first vail ; George D. Johnson, tyler. 

Palmer Chapter, No. 28, Royal Arch Masons, is situated at Pawcatuck, 
and has a membership of 306. Officers (1922) : James McKenzie, high 
priest ; Bourdon A. Babcock, king ; Arthur E. Thompson, scribe ; Walter C. 
Hiscox, treasurer; Albert E. Barber, secretary; John A. Hogg, captain of 
the host; William M. Spencer, principal sojourner; John E. Young, royal 
arch captain; George Smith, third vail; Robinson H indie, second vail; Joseph 
W. Bryant, first vail ; William A. Stillwell, tyler. 

Cryptic Masonry dates in New London county from the forming of 
Franklin Council, No. 3, and the granting of a warrant of dispensation Feb- 
ruary 28, 1818. Jeremy L. Cross, who was invested with authority for the 
purpose, appointed James Cushman, grand master, and David Tracy, deputy 
grand master, who, with Elijah Ames, granted the dispensation under which 
Franklin Council No. 3 met and worked. 

A Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters for the State of Connecticut 
was organized May 18, 1819, Franklin Council being represented in that body 



by James Cushman, Samuel Bailey and Amos Williams, Companion Cush- 
man being elected the first grand principal conductor. 

Franklin Council worked "under dispensation" until May, 1821, when a 
charter was granted which remained in force until May 9, 1839, when it was 
revoked by tre Grand Council, the council having failed to make returns to 
the Grand Council as required by its by-laws, or to send representatives to 
it. That condition existed for seven years, when Franklin C. Burgess 
appeared before the Grand Council on May 14, 1846, and in behalf of 
the members of the late Franklin Council No. 3, petitioned that the charter 
be restored to the companions. The prayer was granted, and on May 
7, 1847, the council reorganized with Chauncey Burgess as thrice illustrious 
master, he serving in that oflRce two years 1847-49. The first master of the 
council was James Cushman, 1818-19. 

The officers of the council (1921) are: Harry B. Ford, T. I. master; 
Guy B. Dolbeare, R. I. deputy master; Claudius V. Pendleton, I. P. C. of work; 
Walter B. Crooks, captain of guard ; Albert S. Comstock, P. M. G. M., treas- 
urer; Walter M. Buckingham, recorder; Herman Stelzner. conductor; Alex- 
ander Finlayson, steward; E. Allen Bidwcll, P. M. P. G. M., chaplain; James 
C. Fitzpatrick, P. M., sentinel. Regular assemblies are held the second Thurs- 
day in each month. 

Gushing Council, No. 4, Royal and Select Masters of New London, named 
in honor of Thomas H. Gushing, who was worshipful master of Union Lodge 
No. 31, Free and Accepted Masons, was chartered May 10, 1855. The council 
meets in Masonic Temple, Greene and Starr streets. 

Knight Templarism in New London county dates from the instituting of 
Columbian Commandery, No. 4, in Norwich, November 9, 1853, when the 
following officers were installed: William FL Copp, eminent commander; 
Appleton Meech, generalissimo ; Isaac Williams, captain general ; William L. 
Brewer, prelate; John W. Steadman, senior warden; John H. Cutler, junior 
warden; Calvin G. Rawson, treasurer; John Backus, recorder; John H. Gale, 
sword bearer; William FL Flyde, standard bearer; Isaac H. Roath, warder. 

The present officers of the commandery are (1922) : Peter S. Wilson, 
eminent commander; Guy B. Dolbeare, generalissimo; Ernest J. Jones, 
captain-general ; Harry B. Ford, senior warden ; George E. Zimmerman, junior 
warden; E. Allen Bidwell, P. C, prelate; Alexander H. Abbott, associate 
prelate ; Costello Lippitt, P. G. C, prelate-emeritus ; Herbert R. Kind, P. C, 
treasurer; Frederick W. Lester, recorder; .\ubrey W. Jarvis, standard bearer; 
Herbert E. Lawrence, sword bearer; Paul H. Zahn, warder; Herman Stelzner, 
third guard; Robert Cochran, second guard; Clifford E. Wilson, first guard; 
.A.lexander Finlayson, assistant guard ; Otis B. Dorsey, assistant guard ; James 
C. Fitzpatrick, sentinel. 

The beginning of organized Scottish Rite Masonry may be traced to the 
year 1863, when the sublime and superior degrees and orders of Ineffable 
Masonry were conferred upon Charles U. Carter, of Norwich, and others, in 


Providence, Rhode Island. Early the following spring, several Sir Knights, 
members of Columbian Commandery No. 4, Norwich, arranged to receive 
the degrees of the rite up to and including the 32nd, and did receive them 
April 14, 1864, in Worcester, Massachusetts. The same day a petition was 
presented to the Massachusetts authorities for a dispensation to open and 
hold a Grand Lodge of Perfection in the city of Norwich under the title of 
King Solomon Grand Lodge of Perfection. This dispensation was granted, 
the officers to take rank in the order in which their names appeared on the 
dispensation. The charter was granted King Solomon Grand Lodge of Per- 
fection, April 14, 1864, the following being the first officers and charter 
members : Charles W. Carter, William W. Avery, Henry L. Parker, John G. 
Brady, John liackus, Hiram Cook, George A. Harris. 

The new body secured accommodations with Somerset Lodge, No. 34, 
Free and Accepted Masons, and was annexed to the Masonic district of Rhode 
Island. The first meeting for work was held May 26, 1864, high officials of 
the Rite being in attendance including K. H. Van Rensselaer, 33rd degree 
sovereign grand commander of the Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdiction, 
United States of America. At that meeting John W. Steadman, William H. 
Tingley and George H. Lovegrove received the degrees of the Lodge of 
Perfection, 4th to the 14th. 

The following day (May 27, 1864) application was made to the sovereign 
grand commander for the remaining bodies of the Rite, and dispensations were 
then granted under the following titles : Van Rensselaer Council of Princes 
of Jerusalem; Norwich Chapter of Rose Croix; Connecticut Sovereign Con- 
sistory of Sovereign Princes of the Royal Secret, 32nd degree. 

In the hands of the few brethren named began the existence of the bodies 
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in Norwich. The little band in 
order to succeed were compelled to contribute largely from their private 
resources and to employ every leisure moment m perfecting themselves in 
the ritual and other duties. At the annual session of the Supreme Council 
held in Boston in May, 1865, the Norwich bodies were fully represented in 
the sovereign grand consistory, and the progress they had made was com- 
plimented by advancing two of their members to honorary membership in the 
Supreme Council, and later an active member was created from the honorary 
list and made a deputy. On Monday, February, 25, 1865, ^^^ illustrious 
deputy delivered to King Solomon Lodge, Grand Lodge of Perfection, the 
Council of Princes, the Chapter of Rose Croix, and the Consistory their 
charters, and then proceeded to constitute the bodies and install their officers. 
The first State Council of Deliberation for the Masonic district of Con- 
necticut was held in Norwich, December 17, 1867. The following are the 
bodies of the Scottish Rite in Norwich with the officers elected in 1921 : 

King Solomon Lodge of Perfection — Charter dated Ijar 22, Anno Mundi 
5624. Ineffable grades, 4 to 14, inclusive. Communications fourth Monday 
of January, May and September. Officers: Guy B. Dolbeare, T. P. master; 
Archibald Mitchell, Jr., deputy master; Herbert R. Kind, senior warden; Otto 
C. Mush, junior warden; E. Allen Bidwell, 33°, orator; Frederick W. Lester, 
33°, treasurer; J. Frank Corey, secretary; George A. Keppler, master of cere- 
N.L.— 1-33 


monies; Charles H. Phelps, hospitaler; John A. Ferguson, guard; James C. 
Fitzpatrick, tyier. Trustees: Arthur H. Brewer, 33°, 1923; Costello Lippitt, 
33°, 1923; N. Douglas Sevin, 33°, 1924. Finance Committee: Charles H. 
Phelps; Albert S. Comstock, 33° ; E. Allen Bidwell, 33°. 

Van Rensselaer Council, Princes of Jerusalem — Charter dated Ijar 22, 
Anno Mundi 5624. Ancient, historical and traditional grades 15° and 16°. 
Officers: Archibald Mitchell, Jr., sovereign prince; Herbert R. Kind, high 
priest ; George R. Morris, senior warden ; Elbert L. Darbie, junior warden ; 
Frederick W. Lester, 33°, treasurer; J. Frank Corey, secretary; Arthur M. 
Brown, 33°, master of ceremonies; Charles H. Phelps, hospitaler; Louis H. 
Geer, master of entrances; James C. Fitzpatrick. tyler. Trustees: Charles 
H. Phelps, Albert S. Comstock, 33° ; E. Allen Bidwell, 33°. 

Norwich Chapter of Rose Croix De H. — Charter dated Ijar 22, Anno 
Mundi 5624. Philosophical and doctrinal grades, 17° and 18°. Assemblies 
fourth Monday in March. May and November. Officers: George A. Keppler, 
M. W. master; C. Hadlai Hull, senior warden; Guy B. Dolbeare, junior war- 
den; E. Allen Bidwell, 33°, orator; Frederick W. Lester, 33°, treasurer; J. 
Frank Corey, secretary ; Herbert E. Lawrence, master of ceremonies ; Charles 
H. Phelps, hospitaler; Walter B. Crooks, guard; James C. Fitzpatrick, tyler. 
Finance Committee — Charles H. Phelps, Albert S. Comstock, 33° ; E. Allen 
Bidwell, 33°. 

Connecticut Consistory, S. P. R. S. — Charter dated Ijar 22, Anno Mundi 
5624. Modern, historical and chivalric grades, 19 to 32, inclusive. Officers: 
James C. Macpherson, 33°, com. -in-chief ; E. Allen Bidwell, 33°. first lieut. 
com.; Thomas \V. Morgan, 33°, second lieut. com.; Archibald Mitchell, Jr., 
orator; Carey Congdon, 33°, chancellor; Frederick W. Lester, 33°, treasurer; 
J. Frank Corey, secretary ; George E. Parsons, master of ceremonies ; Charles 
H. Phelps, hospitaler: William A. Wells, eng. and sen.; George A. Sturdy, 
standard bearer; George A. Keppler, guard ; J. Frank Corey, musical director; 
Frederick W. Lester, 2^°, organist; James C. Fitzpatrick, sentinel. 

The Masonic Temple Corporation of Norwich was organized April 20, 
1892, and erected the Masonic Temple, the first building in the world erected 
by Masons exclusively for Masonry, in which all the York and Scottish Rite 
degrees are conferred, except the thirty-ehird and last degree of the Ancient 
Accepted Scottish Rite. 

Members of the Masonic Temple Corporation — "In all, but twenty-seven 
and no more :" Howard L. Stanton, Frederick W. Lester, George A. Keppler, 
Albert S. Comstock, George A. Kies, James L. Hubbard, George E. Parsons, 
Guy B. Dolbeare, Louis H. Geer, Arthur H. Brewer, Tyler Cruttenden, J. 
Oliver Armstrong, Reuben S. Bartlett, Costello Lippitt, Herbert R. Kind, 
Arthur M. Thompson, N. Douglas Sevin, S. Alpheus Gilbert, Nelson J. Ayling, 
Daniel F. McNeil, James C. Macpherson, Archibald Mitchell, Jr.. Charles B. 
Lee, Arthur M. Brown, Herbert M. Lerou, E. Allen Bidwell, Charles H. 

Directors — Arthur H. Brewer, Costello Lippitt, Charles B. Lee, Howard 
L. Stanton, N. Douglas Sevin, Albert S. Comstock, Frederick W. Lester, 
James C. MacPherson, E. Allen Bidwell. 

Officers — President, Arthur H. Brewer; Vice-President, Charles B. Lee; 
Treasurer, Costello Lippitt; Secretary, Frederick W. Lester; Bibliophilist, 
Albert S. Comstock; Auditor. Charles B. Lee; Trustee for bondholders. 
Nathan A Gibbs. Building: Committee— Charles B. Lee. Howard L. Stan- 
ton, Albert S. Comstock. Finance Committee — .Arthur H. Brewer. Charles 


B. Lee, Costello Lippitt. Superintendent, James C. Fitzpatrick. 

Masonic Calendar, 1921— Lodge, Anno Lucis, 5921 ; Chapter, Anno In- 
ventionis 2451; High I'ricsthood, A. B. 3832; Council, Anno Depositionis 
2921; Comniandery, Anno Ordinis 803; A. A. S. Rite, Anno Mundi 5681-82. 

The following are the grand bodies to which the lodges, chapters, coun- 
cils and ccjmmanderies of New London county are subordinate, with their 
meeting dates and meeting i)laces for the year 1922: 

The 134th Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons, was held at Hartford, February i and 2, 1922. Charles W. 
Cramer, Hartford, M. W. Grand Master; George A. Kies, Hartford, Grand 
Secretary; Henry R. Tisdale, New London, deputy for the Eighth Masonic 

Masonic Charity Foundation — Annual meeting held at Hartford, February 
I, 1922. Frederick A. Verplanck, South Manchester, president; George A. 
Kies, Hartford, secretary. 

Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, 124th Annual Convocation, held at 
Hartford, Tuesday, May 9, 1922. Edgar B. Ellis, Bridgeport, Grand High 
Priest ; George A. Kies, Hartford, Grand Secretary. 

Order of High Priesthood, Royal Arch Masons — Annual grand conven- 
tion held at Hartford, Tuesday, May 9, 1922. Walter N. Boynton, Bran- 
ford, president ; Frank W. Bcardslcy, Shclton, recorder. 

Grand Council,, Royal and Select Masters, 104th annual assembly held 
at Hartford, Wednesday, June 7, 1922. Edward B. Ailing, New Britain, M. 
P. Grand Master; George A. Sturdy, New London, Grand Recorder; Edward 
B. Ailing, New Britain, Grand Visitor. 

Grand Commandery, Knights Templar. 95th annual conclave held at 
Meriden, Tuesday, ^Liy 2, 1922. Frederick L. Huntington. Meriden, R. E. 
Grand Commander; Eli C. Birdsey, Meriden, Grand Recorder; Thomas W. 
Morgan, Hartford, Grand Inspector. 

Grand Encampment, Knights Templar, of the United States, 36th tri- 
ennial conclave held at New Orleans, Louisiana, Tuesday, April 25, 1922. 
Joseph Kyle Orr, Atlanta, Georgia, M. E. Grand Master; Frank H. Johnson, 
Louisville. Kentucky, R. E. Grand Recorder. 

Connecticut Past Grand Commanders — Annual meeting held at Meriden, 
Monday, May i, 1922. George H. N. Johnson, Bridgeport, president; Eli C. 
Birdsey, Meriden, secretary. 

Masonic Veteran Association of Connecticut —52nd annual reunion held 
at Bridgeport. Thursday, June 22, 1922. John O. Rowland, Wallingford, 
Venerable Master; William B. Hall, Meriden, Secretary; Harold B. Waldo, 
Glastonbury. Registrar. Masons over twenty-five years eligible to mem- 
bership. Fee $t.oo. No dues. 

Degrees Conferred in the Masonic Temple, Norwich, Connecticut: York 
Rite — In the Blue Lodges : Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason. 
In the Chapter: Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, Royal 
Arch Mason. In the Council : Royal Master, Select Master, Super Excellent 
Master. In the Commandery: Companion of the Red Cross. Knight Templar, 
Knight of Malta. 

Scottish Rite — In the Lodge: 4, Secret Master; 5, Perfect Master; 6. 
Intimate Secretary; 7, Provost and Judge: 8, Intendant of the building; 9, 
Master Elect of Nine ; 10. Master Elect of Fifteen ; 1 1 , Sublime Master Elected • 
12. Grand Master Architect; 13, Master of the Ninth Arch; 14, Grand Elect 

In the Council— 15, Knight of the East or Sword ; 16, Prince of Jerusalem. 

In the Chapter— 17. Knight of the East and West; 18. Knight of the 
Rose Croix de H. R. D. M. 


In the Consistory — 19, Grand PontifiF; 20, Master Ad Vitam; 21, Patri- 
arch Noachite ; 22, Prince of Libanus ; 23, Chief of the Tabernacle ; 24, Prince 
of the Tabernacle; 25, Knight of the Brazen Serpent; 26, Prince of Mercy; 
27, Commander of the Temple ; 28, Knight of the Sun ; 29, Knight of St. 
Andrew ; 30, Grand Elect Knight, K-D, or Knight of the White and Black 
Eagle; 31, Grand Inspector Inquisitor Commander; 32, Sublime Prince of 
the Royal Secret. 

The 33rd and last degree, that of Sovereign Grand Inspector General, 
is conferred triennially in Boston, Massachusetts, and on other years at such 
places in the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States of America 
as may be designated. 


This great fraternal brotherhood had in the State of Connecticut, report- 
ing to the Grand Lodge of 1921, one hundred and one lodges, the oldest, Quin- 
nipiac, No. i, of New Haven; the youngest, Fairview, No. loi, Groton, New 
London county. These lodges reported a total membership on June 30, 1920, 
of 28,511. Of these lodges, nine are in New London county — Uncas at Nor- 
wich, Niantic at Niantic, Stonington at Mystic, Shetucket at Norwich, Re- 
liance at Jewett City, Mohegan and Pequot at New London, Crystal at Lyme, 
and Fairview at Groton. These nine lodges reported to the Grand Lodge of 
1921 a total membership of 2,864. At the same time there were in the State 
sixty-two Rebekah lodges, seven of these being in New London county — 
Gates of Niantic, Osprey of New London, Hope of Norwich, Orient of New 
London, Ruthie of Jewett City, Home of Groton, and Mystic of Mystic. 
Tkere are seven Encampments of Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the 
State of Connecticut, three of these being in New London county — Palmyra 
at Norwich, Orion at New London and Mystic at Mystic. There are twenty 
Cantons of Patriarchs, Militant Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in the 
State, and in New London county three — Oneco of Norwich, Aram of Mystic, 
Unity of New London. 

The Odd Fellows Home of Connecticut is located at Fairview, in New 
London county. The home, incorporated January 13, 1893, was founded by 
and is supported by voluntary contributions from the lodges of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows in Connecticut, for the purpose of furnishing 
a home for the aged and indigent members of the order, their widows and 
orphans. The property consists of forty-seven acres lying about one mile 
north of the village of Groton, and there suitable buildings have been erected 
for the care and comfort of the inmates. 

The officers of the Odd Fellows Home of Connecticut, 1921-1922, are as 
follows: President, Grant U. Kierstead, P. G. M., Hartford; Vice-Presidents, 
Theodore Kassenbrook, 56 Deerfield avenue, Hartford ; Fred Williams, Wil- 
limantic ; Elof Lundblad, New Haven ; Secretary, Wallace R. Johnson, New 
London; Treasurer, Clarkson N. Fowler, Hartford: Chaplain, Rev. Chas. H. 
Smith, Granby, Mass. ; Board of Managers, W. S. Hutchinson, P. G. M., No. 
31, New Haven; Philip Pond, P. G. M., No. 5, New Haven; Harry Hirsch, 
P. G. M., No. II, New London; William F. Peters, No. 9, Cheshire; William 
F. Reardslcy, No. 7, Danbury; Charles R. Hathaway, No. 31, South Man- 
chester; Samuel Prince, P. G. P., No. 55, New London; Dorr R. Whitney, 
No. 99, Bridgeport ; George M. Chapman, P. G. M., No. 89, Waterbury ; M. L. 


Reynolds, P. G. P., No. 4, Bridgeport; R. B. Crocker, No. 72, New Britain; 
H. L. Scofield, No. 37, New Canaan; Herbert J. Phillips, G. M., ex-effieio 
member, Waterbury. 

Rebekah Auxiliary— William H. Marigold, P. G. M., No. 4, Bridgeport; 
Henry C. Stevenson, P. G. M., No. 4, Bridgeport; Marion R. Davis, No. 17, 
Niantic; Fred J. Boese, No. 78, New Haven; Lucius H. Fuller, P. G. M. No. 
33, Putnam. 

Officers of Veterans' Association, L O. O. F. of Connecticut, 1921-1922 — 
Chief Veteran, H. H. Squires, Union City; Vice-Veteran, Theodore Kassen- 
brook, Hartford; Secretary, William H. Hutchinson, P. G. M., New Haven; 
Treasurer, William H. Lowe, Waterbury. Directors, Karl L. Winter, P. G. 
P., Waterbury; Sidney W. Challenger, P. G. M., Middletown; Samuel Prince, 
P. G. P., New London ; Alfred L. Thompson, New Britain ; William Taft 
Hayden, Hartford. Meetings semi-annually. 

The following is the directory of subordinate lodges of L O. O. F. in 
New London county, 1921 : 

Uncas, No. 11, Norwich, reinstated February 17, 1864, membership 341. 
William H. Aldrich, noble grand ; John F. Amburn, recording secretary. 
Meets Monday in Odd Fellows' Hall, 324 Main street. 

Niantic, No. 17, Niantic, instituted February 27, 1878, membership 219. 
Bernard A. Ray, noble grand ; Maurice E. Howard, recording secretary. 
Meets Wednesdays. 

Stonington, No. 26, Mystic, instituted December 12, 1845, membership 
476. David E. Brown, noble grand ; Erastus Fish, recording secretary. 
Meets Wednesdays. 

Shetuckct, No. 27, Norwich, instituted December 14, 1880, membership 
283. W'illiam G. Frohmander, noble grand, Versailles; A. A. Guile, recording 
secretary, 6 Kinney avenue, Norwich. Meets Tuesdays in Odd Fellows' Hall. 

Reliance, No. 29, Jewett City, instituted September 22, 1890; membership 
lOi. Normand Parkhurst, noble grand; David A. Bothwell, recording sec- 
retary. Meets Mondays. 

Mohegan, No. 55, New London, instituted, April 14, 1886, membership 
406. Andrew Morris, noble grand, 113 Howard street. New London; Richard 
N. W^oodworth, recording secretary, 27 Lee avenue, New London. Meets 
Wednesda}S, at 205 Bank street. 

Pequot, No. 85, New London, instituted June 2, 1869, membership 522. 
Harry C. Wilson, noble grand, 18 Alger street. New London ; Ernest S. 
Decker, recording secretary, 100 Riverside avenue. New London. Meets 

Crystal, No. 88, Lyme, instituted September 2'j, 1871, membership 115. 
William C. Peck, noble grand, R. F. D.. Lyme; Robert H. Noble, recording 
secretary, Lyme. Meets Thursdays. 

Fairview, No. loi, Groton, instituted November 20, 1893, membership 
40r. Charles R. Brown, noble grand, 64 Mitchell street, Groton; Irving H. 
Poppe, recording secretary, Monument Street Extension. Meets Mondays. 

The following is the directory of Rebekah Lodges in New London 
county, 1921 : 

Gates. No. 19. Niantic, instituted March 14, 1921. Mrs. Lena A. Beck- 
with, noble grand, Niantic; Miss Ethel L Beckwith, recording secretary, 
Niantic. Meets second and fourth Mondays. 

Osprey, No. 20, New London, instituted March 18, 1884. Mrs. Ada Sparks, 
noble grand. 4 Coit street; Mrs. Emily Kingdon, 175 Lincoln avenue. Meets 
second and fourth Tuesdays. 



Hope No 21, Norwich, instituted June ii, 1884. Florence Douglass, 
noble grand, 19 Penotscot street; Mrs. Ada M. Revell, recording secretary, 
SS Baltic street. Meets first and third Wednesdays. 

Orient, No. 27, New London, instituted September 21, 1891. Jennie L. 
Barbour, noble grand, 148 Montauk avenue ; Mrs. Elizabeth Klein, recording 
jecretary, 51 West Coit street. Meets first and third Thursdays. 

Ruthie, No. 28, Jewett City, instituted April 3, 1908. Jennie Wilds, noble 
grand, R. F. D. No. 4, Norwich; George H. Thornton, recording secretary, 
79 Ashland street. Meets first and third Tuesdays. 

Home, No. 50, Groton, instituted November 25, 1904. Lulu Metcalf, noble 
grand, Poquonnock Bridge ; Mrs. Jennie Morgan, recording secretary, Groton. 
Meets second and fourth Thursdays. 

Mystic, No. 56, instituted May 15, 1914. Lillian Price, noble grand; Mrs. 
Ettabelle Griswold, recording secretary. Meets first and third Fridays. 

Directory of Encampments, Independent Order of Odd Fellows of New 

London county, 1921 : 

Palmyra, No. 3, Norwich, instituted June 15, 1843. C. Leslie Schlough, 
chief patriarch, 59 Dunham street, Norwich ; J. F. Amburn, recording scribe, 
P. O. Box 88, Norwich. Meets second and fourth Thursdays. 

Orion, No. 4, New London, instituted April 23, 1879. John F. Gallup, 
chief patriarch, 34 Stewart street. New London ; Andrew Morris, recording 
scribe, 113 1-2 Howard street. New London. Meets first and third Tuesdays. 

Mystic, No. 17, Mystic, instituted January 8, T891. William B. Ward, 
chief patriarch, 20 New London road. Mystic ; L. S. Doyle, recording scribe, 
Williams avenue. Mystic. Meets second and fourth Fridays. 

Cantons Patriarchs Militant, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of New 
London county, 1921 : 

Oneco, No. 3, Norwich. Herbert Willey, captain, 323 Main street, Nor- 
wich ; James H. Smith, clerk, Winchester street, Norwich. 

Aram, No. 10, Mystic. Charles G. Cox, captain, Noank ; Horace K. 
White, clerk, Noank. 

Unity. No. 19, New London. Charles L. Maxson, captain, Lee avenue. 
New London; Daniel E. Crouch, clerk, 140 Main street. New London. 

In the county are lodges and societies of many names and of many kinds, 
some of them large, prosperous and influential, owning property and club 
house and contributing richly to the social life of the community, and prac- 
ticing wide charity. Among these are the Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks; Knights of Pythias; the Improved Order of Red Men; Knights of 
Columbus ; Fraternal Order of Eagles ; Junior Order of United American 
Mechanics ; Knights of Maccabees ; Foresters of America ; Loyal Order of 
Moose; and the Order of Owls. Bodies pertaining to the different nation- 
alities, trades and labor organizations, societies patriotic, philanthropic, social, 
and religious, are well represented in all the towns, and each in its own way 
strives to accomplish something for the benefit of its members and the com- 

The women's fraternal orders — Order of the Eastern Star, Daughters of 
Rebekah, Daughters of Pocahontas, the Pythian Sisters, and others, are rep- 
resented through lodges in different towns ; also the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution, Daughters of America, and other patriotic societies. Being coast 
territory with many rivers, yacht and boat clubs abound, and there is an 
association devoted to the interest of master mates and pilots. The Boy 



Scouts flourish, and both Norwich and New London have Young Men's 
Christian Associations and Young Women's Christian Associations, with 
special buildings for their work. 

In Norwich the Elks occupy a beautiful mansion on Main street, next to 
the post office, and in New London their home is on Washington street, 
next to the Armory. 



This Order, which now has granges in every agricultural State of the 
Union, dates its existence from the year 1868, fifty-four years ago. The 
oldest grange in New London county was organized in Lebanon, March 21, 
1884, sixteen years after the founding of the order. There are now in the 
county. Pomona Grange No. 6, which has jurisdiction over Bozrah, Col- 
chester, Franklin, Griswold, Groton, Lebanon, Montville, New London, Nor- 
wich, North Stonington, Preston, Salem, Sprague, Stonington, Voluntown, 
and VVaterford (East Lyme, Lyme and South Lyme being under the juris- 
diction of Pomona Grange No. 8) ; and subordinate granges, sixteen in 
number, located in Lebanon, Waterford, Colchester, Griswold, Preston, North 
Stonington, Lyme, East Lyme, Bozrah, Old Lyme, Ledyard, Stonington, 
Mystic, Norwich, Groton and Franklin. There are no granges in New Lon- 
don, Lisbon, Montville, Sprague or Voluntown. Although the order in its 
half century of usefulness has become widely known, its origin is not a matter 
of general knowledge. This fact renders the following history timely and 

Frcdonia Grange, No. i. Patrons of Husbandry, was the first grange of 
the order ever organized, and to Chautauqua county. New York, belongs the 
honor not of giving birth to the grange idea, but of giving the idea form and 
being. The founder of the order was Oliver Hudson Kelley, known by 
grangers throughout the United States as "Father Kelley." He was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, January 7, 1826, receiving his education in the 
public schools of that city. He left Boston when he v,as twenty-one years 
old, and for a time was a reporter on the "Chicago Tribune." For some time 
thereafter he was a telegrapher, later going to Minnesota, where he traded 
with the Indians. While living on his farm there, he operated the first reaping 
machine ever used in that State. In 1864 he was appointed a clerk in the 
Department of Agriculture at Washington, and when the close of the War 
between the States created conditions little understood at Washington, Mr. 
Kelley was chosen by Isaac Newton, United States Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, in January, 1866, to travel through the Southern States and from 
actual contact with the people and through personal acquaintance with them 
gain a true knowledge of conditions and furnish the government with needed 
statistics. There was considerable danger attached to such a mission, but 
Mr. Kelley's personality, his high character and his fraternal affiliations, 
enabled him to gain a close view of the needs of the people. While on this 
mission, the "Grange" idea was born in his brain, that "idea" comprehending 
an organization of agriculturists, non-partisan, non-sectarian, an organization 
national in scope, "united by the strong and faithful tie of agriculture," a 
band of brethren among whom no dissension could arise. This idea con- 
ceived in 1866 was perfected after Mr. Kelley's return to Washington, and 
on December 4, 1867, the National Grange. Patrons of Husbandry, was 


organized as a temporary head. A school of instruction was also instituted 
in the District of Columbia. The personal enthusiasm of Mr. Kelley carried 
conviction, and six men became imbued with the faith and courage of the 
founder, each chosen for some particular trait, and all men of strong char- 
acter. These seven men are entitled to be considered the founders of the 
Order: Oliver H. Kelley, William M. Ireland, Rev. John Trimble, Rev. A. 
B. Grosh, F. M. McDowell, J. R. Thompson, William Saunders, all residents 
of Washington, D. C, and all except F. M. McDowell, who was a pomologist 
of Wayne county. New York, being in government employ. A constant co- 
worker with these men was Mr. Kelley's niece. Miss Caroline A. Hall, who 
advocated and finally secured the admission of women to the order upon 
terms of equality. In its early years, Miss Hall did an immense amount of 
clerical, publicity and detail work which contributed largely to its very 
existence. While Mr. Kelley must always be regarded as the founder of 
the Grange idea, Miss Hall's mothering in those early days enabled the infant 
to survive childhood. 

These founders of the order for nearly two years labored with great 
energy and with a faith and zeal amounting almost to inspiration, until, with 
the assistance of friends who became interested, they completed a well- 
devised scheme of organization, based upon a ritual of four degrees for men 
and four for women, which is unsurpassed in the English language for orig- 
inality of thought, purity of sentiment, and beauty of diction. Having formed 
a constitution to govern the order, these men met on December 4, 1867, and 
constituted themselves the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, 
with William Saunders as master; J. R. Thompson, lecturer; William M. 
Ireland, treasurer, and O. H. Kelley, secretary. The remaining offices for 
obvious reasons were left vacant. The first Subordinate Grange was organ- 
ized in Washington, D. C, January 8, 1868, as a school of instruction, with 
William M. Ireland as master. 

The little brown building in which the organization was effected was at 
that time the office of Mr. Saunders, and stood embowered with the trees in 
the gardens of the Agricultural Department on the corner of Four and One 
Half street and Missouri avenue. Later the late Colonel Aiken, of South 
Carolina, and other members of the order, made vigorous efforts to have the 
government preserve this historic building, but they were unsuccessful. 

In February, 1868, Mr. Bartlett, of Madison, Ohio, wrote: In the 
orgianizatiort of this Order we will be expected to initiate might}! re- 
forms, and the world will be disappointed if we do not. Here may be 
inaugurated the idea of equality between the se.xes by simply removing the 
disabilities," and in this, as all else, they were fully a quarter of a century 
ahead of their time. Early in 1868 Mr. Kelley decided to give up all other 
business and devote his entire time to the establishment of the Order, and 
April 3 he left Washington for Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for that purpose. 
This measure was strongly opposed by his more conservative associates, but 


with supreme faith in the ultimate success of his plan and little dreaming of 
the years of hard labor before him, he left Washington with only two dollars 
and a half of Grange funds and a ticket for Harrisburg. Failing in his eiTort 
to establish a grange there, but obtaining some financial aid, and granting a 
dispensation for a grange, he came on to Penn Yan, New York, where another 
effort was made which also failed. From there he went to Wayne, Steuben 
county, the home of F. M. ^TcDowcll, who was the representative of New- 
York among the founders, and ever a staunch supporter of the cause. Here 
he received a warm welcome and many cheering words which helped him to 
endure the dark hours of the struggle, for as he tersely expresses it, "the 
order of Patrons of Husbandry ought to endure, for it was founded upon the 
solid rock of poverty, than which there can be nothing harder." 

A. S. Moss, of Fredonia, had become greatly interested in the plan and 
succeeded in interesting many other Chautauqua people, so to him Mr. Kelley 
next appealed. He arrived in Fredonia on April 15, and the next day, April 
16, 1868. having at last found broad and liberal-minded men ready to back 
their faith with their money and their influence, he organized Fredonia 

The first State Grange, that of Minnesota, was organized February 22, 
1869, but the new order grew slowly until 1872, when it had an existence 
in twenty-two States. The years of 1873 and 1874 were years of wonderful 
growth, and in 1875 at the annual meeting held in Louisville, Kentucky, 
Secretary Kelley reported that the order had issued in the United States alone 
24,290 charters to subordinate bodies. Iowa led <;1I other States in 1873, with 
754 granges. New York is now the P>anner State with (January i, 1920) 915 
subordinate granges, and a total membership of 127,966, a net gain for the 
year 1919 of 6,377 members. In 1875 the order was stronger in the Southern 
States; later. New England was the leading section; but now it is strong 
everywhere in the Union, and the dream of the founder has come true, and 
granges with the "tie that binds" are scatteered from Maine to California and 
from W'ashington to Texas, teaching the value of organization and fraternity. 

Oliver H. Kelley, the founder, after serving the National Grange as sec- 
retary several years, about 1878 interested himself in building a town named 
Carabelle, in honor of his niece, on the gulf coast of Florida. He commenced 
there in a Sibley tent in the forest, eighteen miles from a neighbor. Fifteen 
years later there was a town of one thousand population, with churches, 
schools, saw mills, hotels, daily mail, in fact, most modern improvements. 
The tract contained several thousand acres of land, and not a dollar debt 
on it. Later he removed to Washington, D. C, Kalorama road, where he was 
called to "Cross the Bar," after eighty-seven years of tossing on life's changing 

Fredonia Grange No. i celebrated the twenty-fifth birthday of the order, 
one of the features of the occasion being the presence of Oliver Hudson 
Kelley, the founder, who had been brought to Fredonia as the guest of the 
grange from his Florida home. The golden anniversary was also celebrated 


in a fitting manner and the "Mother Grange" is now enjoying middle age 
prosperity, passing her fifty-second birthday with 735 members. The first 
master of the "Mother Grange" was V. E. Dodge, who until his death at the 
age of eighty-six years took an active part in grange affairs. 

There are ten Pomona Granges in the State of Connecticut, Pomona 
No. 6 being the New London county organization, having jurisdiction of all 
towns of the county except Lyme, East Lyme and South Lyme as stated. 
The following named are the officers of the various bodies: 

Connecticut State Grange — Allen B. Cook, master, Niantic; Minor Ives, 
overseer, South Meriden ; Charles A. Wheeler, lecturer, Storrs ; Louis G. 
Tolles, steward, Southington; Charles M. Adams, assistant steward, Groton ; 
Rev. L H. Hoyt, chaplain, New Canaan ; N. S. Piatt, treasurer. New Haven ; 
Ard Welton, secretary, Plymouth ; William F. Clark, gate keeper, Lyme ; 
Mrs. Ruth T. Randall, Ceres, Bridgewater; Mrs. Beatrice Peirpoint, Pomona, 
Waterbury ; Mrs. Walter S. Hine, Flora, Orange; Alice E. Corbett, lady 
steward, Glastonbury. 

New London County Pomona No. 8 — C. M. Adams, master, Groton ; J. 
P. Hollowell, overseer, Norwich; Rev. G. F. Goodenough, lecturer, Norwich, 
R. F. D. No. 6; M. F. Bartlett, steward, Jewett City; Charles Armstrong, 
assistant steward, Jewett City ; Cyrus Avery, chaplain, Groton ; E. J. Hemp- 
stead, treasurer. New London ; Alice A. Bishop, secretary, Norwich, R. F. 
D. No. 9; Edward Cook, gate keeper, Norwich; Mrs. F. Spaulding, Ceres, 
Norwich ; Mrs. E. M. Bishop, Pomona, Norwich ; Mrs. Eliza Barnes, Flora, 
Old Mystic; Flora Work, lady assistant. North Stonington ; Mrs. John O. 
Peckham, committee on home economics, Norwich. Meetings third Thurs- 
day in February, April, June, August, October and December. 

The Subordinate Granges are as follows, postofRce address same as name 
of grange unless otherwise indicated: 

No. 21, Lebanon, organized March 31, 1884.— E. N. Geer, master, Leon- 
ard's Bridge; Leslie Clark, overseer. Liberty Hill; Edward M. McCall, Jr., 
lecturer, Leonard's Bridge ; Mrs. Iva Burgess, steward, North Franklin ; 
Andrew Lathrop. assistant steward, Leonard's Bridge; Rev. Hollis Camp- 
bell, chaplain, Lebanon; N. C. Pultz, treasurer, Willimantic ; Armstead Bur- 
will, secretary, Lebanon; Herbert Nielson, gate keeper, Lebanon; Mrs. Clara 
Abell, Ceres, Lebanon ; Mrs. Elizabeth Troland, Pomona, Lebanon ; Mrs. 
Myrtle Geer, Flora, Leonard's Bridge ; Mrs. Edith Hewitt, lady assistant, 
Lebanon; Mrs. Katherine Sweet, committee on home economics, Lebanon; J. 
Thomas, insurance, Leonard's Bridge. Meetings second and fourth Thurs- 
days at Grange Hall. 

No. 41, Konomoc, at Waterford. organized March 25, 1886 — Ernest Bar- 
rett, master, Waterford ; Elmer Peabodv, overseer, Waterford ; Miss Marjorie 
Peabodv, lecturer, Waterford, R. F. D. No. 2; Guy F. Radway, steward, New 
London; William W. Wright, assistant steward, Waterford; Hugh Mac- 
Kenzie, chaplain, Waterford; George A. Forsvth, treasurer, Waterford; Fred 
Jacques, secretary, Waterford: John Miner.'gate keeper, Waterford; Miss 
Arlmc Peabodv, Ceres, Waterford; Miss Ella Phillips, Pomona, New Lon- 
don ; Miss Agnes Edwards, Flora. Waterford ; Miss Margaret Wright, lady 
assistant, Waterford ; Mrs. Carrie Carlough, committee on home economics, 
Waterford; George A. Forsythe. insurance, Waterford. 

T7 ^°'J^- ^".'Chester, organized February 14. 18S8— Myron A. Abell, master ; 
KM. Browning, overseer; Mrs. Hannah Miller, lecturer; Miss Belle L 
Strong, steward : Clayton G. Miller, assistant steward; Mrs. Emma Stebbins, 
chaplain: Mrs. Ella Brov.-ning, treasurer; Edwin R. Gillette, secretary ; Elmer 


H. Foote, gate keeper; Mrs. Clara Gillette, Ceres; Mrs. Etta Lombard, 
Pomona; Mrs. Carrie Abcll, Flora; Mrs. Nettie Meigs, lady assistant; Mrs. 
lilla Staples, committee home economics; Myron R. Abell, insurance, all o£ 
Colchester. Meetings second and fourth Tuesday evenings of each month 
at Grange Hall, Colchester. 

No. 90, I'achaug, at Jcwett City, reorganized March 19, 1909— Harold 
Geer, master, Jewett City, R. F. D. No. 1 ; Edwin Lewis, overseer, Norwich; 
Miss M. Brewster, lecturer, Jewett City, R. F. D. No. i ; C. Frank Morgan, 
steward, Griswold; George Palmer, assistant steward. Norwich; Rev. J. 
Richardson, chaplain, Norwich ; Mrs. Lena Chesbro, treasurer, Griswold ; 
Ernest Richmond, secretary, Norwich; Charles Campbell, gate keeper, Gris- 
wold; Miss Mary Wilkinson, Ceres, Jewett City; Miss Ellen Campbell, 
Pomona, Jewett City; Miss Winifred Briggs, Flora, Jewett City; Miss Lucy 
Grey, lady assistant, Voluntown; Mrs. Harrictta Kanahan, committee on 
home economics, Norwich; William A. Edmund, insurance, Jewett City. 
Meetings first and third Thursdays of every month at Town Hall, Griswold. 
No. no, Preston, at Preston City, organized December 2i, 1889 — Sidney G. 
Hall, master; Walter McClimon, overseer; Nathan H. Hall, lecturer; Mrs. 
Pearl Holden, steward; Charles Pendleton, assistant steward; Sterry Pierce, 
chaplain; Arthur E. Shedd, treasurer; Fred Benjamin, secretary; Howard 
Zabriskie, gate keeper; Miss Marcia Zabriskie, Ceros ; Miss Florence Kennedy, 
Pomona; ^Iiss Alice Krug, Flora; Miss Cynthia Crary, lady assistant; Miss 
Cynthia Crary, committee on home economics, all of Norwich. Meetings 
second and fourth Tuesdays at Preston City Congregational Church Vestry. 

No. 138, North Stonington, organized December 22, 1893 — Irving R. 
Maine, master, Westerly; Harry B. Lewis, overseer. Westerly; John B. 
Perry, lecturer, Clarkes Falls ; E. F"rank White, steward. North Stonington ; 
Dudley W. Stewart, assistant steward, Westerly ; O. D. Fisher, chaplain, 
North Stonington ; Charles C. Gray, treasurer. North Stonington ; Frank W. 
White, secretary. North Stonington; Clark Coon, gate keeper. North Ston- 
ington; Miss Emily P. Maine, Ceres, North Stonington; Miss Bertha M. 
Maine, Pomona, Westerly; Miss Sarah Gray, Flora, North Stonington; Miss 
L. G. Thompson, lady assistant. North Stonington. Meetings second and 
fourth Friday evenings of each month at Grange Hall. 

No. 147, Lyme, organized April 9, 1896 — Wilson Irvine, master, Lyme; 
J. W. Stark, overseer, Lyme; Mrs. Helen Daniels, lecturer, Lyme; Mrs. 
Florence Hall, steward, Hamburg; Lyman Harding, assistant steward, Lyme; 
Miss Josephine Daniels, chaplain, Lyme; William Marvin, treasurer, Lyme; 
Reginald Stark, secretary, Lyme ; Maurice Peck, gate keeper, Lyme ; Mis.' 
Charlotte Stark, Ceres, Lyme; Mrs. Hazel Lee, Pomona, Hamburg; Mrs. 
Helen Gage, Flora, Lyme; Mrs. Lydia Irvine, lady as!^istant, Lyme; Mrs. 
Hattie Reynolds, committee on home economics, Hamburg; Ray Harding, 
insurance, Lyme. Meetings first and third Thursday evenings of every 
month at Grange Hall. 

No. 157, East Lyme — Allan B. Cook, master, Niartic; Frank Harris, 
overseer, Niantic ; Mrs. Grace Hadlock, lecturer, Niantic ; Mrs. Rose Hislop, 
steward. East Lyme; Arthur Saunders, assistant steward, Niantic; Fred 
Beckwith, chaplain. Niantic; Wilfred Scott, treasurer, Niantic; Walter Scott, 
secretary, Niantic ; Arthur Winslow, gate keep-?r. East Lyme ; Miss Alice 
Cook, Ceres, Niantic; Miss Dorothy Bindloss, Pomona. East Lyme; Miss 
B. Maynard. Flora, East Lyme: Miss Leslie Beckwith, lady assistant, Niantic; 
Mrs. Rose Richmond, committee on home economics. Ni.-mtic; Julius Rogers, 
insurance, East Lyme. Meetings second and fourth Tuesday evenings at 
Comstock Hall. East Lyme. 

No. 161, Bozrah, organized June 2, 1904 — Charles E. Davis, master. Yan- 



tic; Oliver C. Gardner, overseer, Yantic ; Clarence Parker, lecturer, Yantic ; 
Mrs. Ethel M. Lathrop, steward, Norwich Town ; George Smith, assistant 
steward, Fitchville ; Rev. W. Hetherington, chaplain, Fitchville ; E. Leroy 
Lathrop, treasurer, Norwich Town; Edward Bishop, secretary, Norwich 
Town; Lawrence Avel, gate keeper, Yantic; Mrs. Hattie Smith, Ceres, Fitch- 
ville ; Miss Maude Eiler, Pomona, Norwich Town ; Miss Lucy Wilcox, Flora, 
Fitchville; Mrs. Lena Bishop, lady assistant, Norwich Town; Mrs. Robie 
Abel, committee on home economics, Yantic; Nelson Stark, insurance, Fitch- 
ville. Meetings first and third Wednesdays of each month at Bozrah Town 

No. 162, Old Lyme — Nathaniel M. Terry, Jr., master; William F. Clark, 
overseer; Bessie Connolly, lecturer; Mrs. Myra Morgan, steward; Eugene 
D. Caulkins, assistant steward; Mrs. Nellie Hughes, chaplain; Mrs. Lucy 
Caulkins, treasurer; Earle G. Morgan, secretary; Harrv P. Appleby, gate 
keeper; Louisa M. Terry, Ceres; Miss Frances Saunders, Pomona; Mrs. 
Minnie Sterling, Flora ; Miss Gladys Morgan, lady assistant, al of Lyme. 
Meetings second and fourth Fridays of each month at Grange Aid Society 

No. 167, Ledyard, organized April 19, 1907 — S. E. Holdridge, master, 
Norwich ; Fred Doolittle, overseer, Norwich ; Andrew Avery, lecturer. Nor- 
wich ; Ursula E. Avery, steward, Norwich ; Irving Maynard, assistant stew- 
ard, Norwich; Theodore D. Taylor, chaplain, Norwich; Mrs. Fanny Lamb, 
treasurer, Norwich ; Ray D. Holdridge, secretarv, Norwich ; John Barrett, 
gate keeper, Norwich : Miss Carrie Finnegan, Ceres, Mystic ; Miss Dorothy 
Doolittle, Pomona, Norwich; Miss B. Goodenongh, Flora, Norwich; Miss 
Sarah Corev, lady assistant, Norwich. ^Meetings first and third Fridays ot 
each month in Town Hall, Ledyard. 

No. 168. Stonington, organized July 5, 1907 — Ralph C. Wheeler, master. 
Stonington ; Harold Critcherson, overseer. Westerly ; Mrs. Carrie M. Wheeler, 
lecturer, Stonington ; Mrs. Gertrude C. Noyes, steward, Stonington ; Ralph 
C. Wheeler, Jr., assistant steward, Stonington; Mrs. Eliza P. Noyes, chaplain, 
Stonington ; Courtland B. York, treasurer. Westerly ; Joseph Noyes, secretary, 
Stonington; Sanford Billings, Jr., gate keeper, Stonington; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Harvey. Ceres, Stonington ; Mrs. Sarah A. Stewart, Pomona, Stonington ; 
Miss Hattie Wheeler, Flora, Stonington; Mrs. Lena York, lady assistant. 
Westerly : Mrs. Mary B. Wheeler, committee on home economics, Stonington ; 
Amos G. Hewitt, insurance. Mystic. Meetings second and fourth Wednes- 
days in month at Road Church parlors, Stonington. 

No. 171, Mystic, organized August 20, 1908 — The list of officers of this 
lodge not at hand. 

No. 172, Norwich, organized September 10, 1908— Mr. John E. Fanning, 
master; Mrs. Ivy O. Peckham, overseer; John M. Swahn, lecturer; Miss 
Ruth M. Breckenridge, steward ; William H. Rush, assistant steward ; Charles 
E. Ellis, chaplain; Edward Cook, treasurer; Willis J. V. Baker, secretary; 
Wallace Harbeck, gate keeper; Mrs. Marv N. Brown, Ceres; Miss Helen B. 
Moore, Pomona; Mrs. Lena Pukallus. Flora; Mrs. Nellie F. Rush, lady 
assistant; Mrs. Ivy O. Peckham, committee on home economics; William 
S. Case, insurance, all of Norwich. Meetings second and fourth Wednesdays 
of each month in Steiner's Hall, Norwich. 

N'o. 176, Groton, organized Mav 27. 1909 — Edw. J. Chapman, master; 
Richard J. Whitman, overseer; Mrs. Richard J. Whitman, lecturer; Miss 
Laura Perkins, steward: Charles M. Adams, assi-^tant steward; Dea. Cvrus 
Avery, chaplain ; W. S. Thomas, treasurer; Marcus L. Trail, secretarv Harry 
Hayes, gate keeper: Miss Hattie York, Ceres; Miss Marv Crouch, Pomona; 
Mrs. Jennie Hays, Flora: Mrs. Lucie Adams, ladv assistant, all of Groton; 


Mrs. Anna Mavnard, committee on home economics, New London. Meetings 
second and fourth Fridays of each month at Odd Fellows' Hall, Groton. 

No. 184, Franklin, organized May 17, 1913— Ray H. Beckwith, master, 
Yantic; Louis Starkweather, overseer, North Franklin; Miss Anita B. Holton, 
lecturer, North F-ranklin; Mrs. Anna H. Lathrop, steward, North Franklin; 
Harold A. Duerr. assistant steward, Yantic; Fred S. Armstrong, chaplain, 
Yantic; Milton P. Beckwith, treasurer, Yantic; Stan. E. Armstrong, secretary, 
Yantic; Arad Robinson, gate keeper. North Franklin; Miss Winifred Holton, 
Ceres, North Franklin; Miss Theresa M. Lamb, Pomona, North Franklin; 
Mrs. E. M. Armstrong, Flora, Yantic; Mrs. Anna M. Duerr, lady assistant, 
Yantic. Meetings second and fourth Saturday evenings of every month at 
Franklin Town Hall. 

New London County Subordinate Granges. (922 — 21, Lebanon, Lebanon; 
41, Konomoc, Waterford ; 78, Colchester, Colchester; 96, Jewett City, Gris- 
wold ; no, Preston City, Preston; 138, North Stonington, North Stonington ; 
147, Lyme, Lyme; 157, East Lyme, East Lyme; 161, Bozrah, Bozrah ; 162, 
Old Lyme, Old Lyme; 167, Ledyard, Ledyard ; 168, Stonington, Stonington; 
171, Mystic, Mystic; 172, Norwich, Norwich; 176, Groton, Groton; 184. Frank- 
lin, Franklin. 

The county organization is efficient, and through the subordinate lodges 
the aims and purposes of the order are being r.ealizcd to the benefit of the 
individual farmer, while as a whole the business of agriculture is benefitted. 
Mr. Cook, now master of the .State Grange, was formerly overseer, and is one 
of New London's progressive agriculturists, now superintendent of the State 
Detention Farm at Niantic. 

Other communities having demonstrated the value of a Patrons' Fire 
Relief Association, the Connecticut State Grange considered the expediency 
of organizing an association for the benefit of the members of the grangei 
The result was the forming of the Patrons' Mutual F'ire Insurance Company. 
Control is vested in a board of directors, the board electing its own officers. 
These for the year 1922 are: Frank E. Blakeman, president, Oronoque ; J. 
Arthur Sherwood, vice president, I-ong Hill ; \V. H. Carrier, treasurer, Glas- 
tonbury; H. C. Dunham, secretary, Middletown. The president, secretary 
and treasurer, with two others, constitute an executive committee. 

Although but little over fifty years of age, the order. Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, has become a solid national institution. It has met a want of rural 
communities and has amply justified the hopes of its founders. It has suc- 
cessfully demonstrated the abilitj' of the farmers to organize for mutual 
benefit, and has [)ro\ed otherwise a blessing, for the Grange spirit is one of 
love and helpfulness, and its value as :;n organized force for good cannot be 
overestimated. So long as it shall be true to its mission, the moral and edu- 
cational ui)lift of its members, and true to its spirit of fraternit}', friendship 
and faith, so long will it flourish and scatter blessings along the pathway 
of its members. Small in its beginning and of little force, now strong and 
influential, the order is becoming more and more the farmers' spokesman. 
In his address to the State Grange, in its forty-seventh annual session in 
Rochester. New York. February 3. 1920, Worthy Master Sherman J. Lowell 
in his peroration said: 


As my parting word let me picture the Grange. It is whatever you make 
it, nothing more. It is your belief in yourself, your dream of what a people 
may become. It lives a changing life, a life of words and passions, of heart 
breaks and tired muscles. Sometimes it is strong with pride, when men do 
honest work. Sometimes it is loud and garish and full of pride that blasts 
judgment. But always it is all you hope it to be or you have the courage to 
try for. It is your hopes and fears, struggle and panic. It is the day's work 
of the weakest and the dream of the most daring. It is the battle of yesterday 
and the mistake of tomorrow. It is the mystery of those who do without 
knowing why, the birth of ideas and the purpose of resolutions. It is no more 
than what you believe it to be and all you believe it to be it can be. It is what 
you make it, nothing more. 


We have touched upon the Red Cross Chapter of Taftville, and at this 
point give a brief resume of Red Cross work in the county-at-large. 

The Red Cross work of New London county has been highly commend- 
able, especially during the World War. The main chapters number four — 
Norwich, New London, Jewett City and Taftville, and have been greatly 
aided by auxiliaries in nearby towns. 

The Norwich Chapter, one of the oldest in Connecticut, was started in 
1907, took part in relief work at the time of the San Francisco disaster, and 
was efficiently managed for ten years under the presidency of Mr. Francis J. 
Leavens, who was succeeded in 1917 by Ivev. Joseph H. Selden. Any complete 
list of public-spirited citizens who aided in the work would be out of place 
ir this work. Among those who have filled responsible positions, either as 
officers or committee workers, may be mentioned Mrs. William Lauman, Mrs. 
Robert W. Perkins, Mrs. Frank Mitchell, Miss Edith M. Young, Mr. Ebenezer 
Learned, Mr. F. W. Lester, Dr. Hugh B. Campbell, Dr. John S. Blackmar, 
Miss Faith Leavens, Miss Audrey Gernon, Mrs. Walter Buckingham, Miss 
Matilda Butts, Mrs. John P. Huntington, Mr. Philip A. Johnson, Mrs. Mary 
G. Osgood, Mrs. Frances E. Tingley, Mr. Frank J-. Woodard, Mr. James C. 
Macpherson, Mrs. Charles H. Preston, and many others whose names are 
found in its records. 

With the entrance of the United States into the World War, came the 
"drives" that showed the great hearts of the American people. As a sample of 
the work of the Norwich Chapter we include a brief report of the annual 
meeting for 1919: Receipts for the year 1918-1919, $15,065.38; disbursements, 
$15,704.09; balance October i, $9,427.75. Second Roll Call members, 9629. 
Production in the year — surgical dressings, 3323 ; garments, 7862 ; knitted 
garments, 1919; linen pieces, 2343. School auxiliaries in 23 schools — 4500 
paper articles made by Junior Red Cross, 2770, with contributions of $1337.16. 
Families served, 1049: money given to them, $4521.25. Numerous question- 
naires were issued, classes were conducted, and much miscellaneous work 

From November i, 1919, to November i, 1920, the annual report shows 
the work of the Public Welfare Committee of the Norwich Chapter, Chair- 
man Mrs. Witter K. Trigley. The members of the committee were: Mrs. 
John D. Hall, Mrs. Zoe Meade, Mrs. Frank Mitchell, Miss Elizabeth Culver.. 
Mr. Edward J. Graham, Mr. Wallace S. Allis, Dr. Hugh B. Campbell, Dr. 
Edward J. Brophy, Dr. George Thompson. The chief activities of this com- 
mittee for the year are: (i) The organization of classes in home hygiene, care 
of the sick, and home dietetics; (2) preparation of emergency plans for 
epidemics or disasters; (3) development of public health nursing. 

Three instructors were appointed for classes in home nursing; thirty- 
N.L.— 1-34 


nine students were successfully taught, of whom the greater number received 
certificates. Plans were made in co-operation with the William W. Backus 
Hospital for meeting epidemics or disasters that might occur, available means 
being carefully organized. 

The chapter took an active and constructive part in organizing the health 
program of the community as a whole. Their plans and successful efforts 
were reported by the Atlantic Division of the Red Cross as a model program 
for similar chapters elsewhere. Such topics were well analyzed, as public 
health nurses, day camp for children, medical inspection of schools, a patho- 
logical laboratory at the W. W. Backus Hospital, the promoting of nursing 
as a profession, appointment of a visiting housekeeper for the community, a 
highly organized scheme in co-operation with the State Tuberculosis Hos- 
pital, a census of health conditions in schools and in general, a constructive 
leadership in the improvement of local health conditions, especially for chil- 
dren. In all this work the local chapter was concerned primarily with starting 
a desirable movement and then in turning its own efforts to other needed 
improvements such, for instance, as dental and aural hygiene. For this year 
the treasurer's report showed receipts of $7235.24, and disbursements of 
$9139.59, with a cash balance on hand of $1646.10. Since 1920 the Norwich 
Chapter has taken special interest in the Home Service work with the families 
of war veterans who have suffered from the effects of exposure, or are in 
financial difficulties. An efficient committee has helped thousands of individu- 
als in such a variety of matters, as insurance, travel pay. delayed allotments, 
lost discharges, compensation, vocational training, investigation of lost ad- 
dresses, helping in burial expenses and doing in many other days invaluable 
service to needy war victims. The work of the Junior Red Cross under the 
leadership of Miss Faith Leavens and later of Miss Aubrey Gernon was of the 
same general nature as in other communities, with especial emphasis on school 
contributions of money and of useful articles of dress, and of children's togs 

The work of the Norwich Chapter was greatly aided by auxiliaries in 
Lebanon, Fitchville, Preston City, Gales Ferry, Canterbury, Occum, Poque- 
tanuck, Salem and Leffingwell. 

On March i, 1922, the United Workers, a most capable organization of 
the various charitable activities of the community, took over from the Red 
Cross Chapter the work of the Home Service Department, and at present this 
v/ork is being carried on under the direction of the social workers of the 
United Workers. 

Of the work in New London the chapter chairman, Cora A. Marsh, writes 
as follows: 

_ This Chapter received its chapter charter in January, 1917, and began 
active work after the call by President Wilson for full organization in Feb- 
ruary. By armistice in 1918, we comprised besides New London, twelve 
branches, and our departments included military relief, home service with two 
paid workers, production which was carried on in a large house, railroad 
canteen, motor corps, enrollment of nurses for the government, nursing sur- 
vey, also classes in first aid, home nursing, dietetics and surgical dressings. 
We have been gradually deflating ever since the armistice, but have 


carried on each department until the need ended. Our production ends, I 
hope, with the shipment made this spring and our home service is almost at 
an end, although we still have a few cases and information which we still pay 
our former home service secretar;,- to handle. We gave up the canteen and 
motor corps, but we took up public health work and have been of assistance 
to the city Health Department and school clinic. We pay the salary of the 
supervising Red Cross public health nurse who heads up in the district 
nursing work of the Visiting Nurse Association. Another new line is our 
Life Saving Corps at the beach. The corps is made up of young men volun- 
teers who have passed the tests, and for two summers we have employed 
a public health nurse for two months. At present the corps is reorganizing 
and the nurse will go on duty when she recovers from her present illness. 
W'e now have several qualified instructors in home nursing, and classes are 
being taught. Through the influence of Red Cross, the teaching of physiology, 
anatomy and hygiene has been combined and made practical, and is taught 
in the grade schools by the school nurses, and in the grammar grades some 
first aid and home care of the sick is included. A small beginning has been 
made in Braille work under the direction of our recording secretary, Miss 
Tyler, in co-operation with a few women, and she reports that the women 
find Braille fascinating. 

I think most of our work is ended as our city is better organized in 
health lines than most places of its size, and our other work will not be 
needed. Our branches almost all now have public health nurses who work 
also with the schools. 

I think the Visiting Nurse Association would best provide its own 
nurses and by another year probably can do so ; also, the city Health De- 
partment will provide the nurse at the Red Cross Beach Hut by another 
summer, 1 expect. 




Revolutionary Worthies — Stage Coach and Tavern Days — Norwich Potteries — Silver- 
smiths of New London County — Pinehurst. 

By Mrs. Edna Miner Rogers, Regent of Faith Trumbull Chapter, D. A. R. 

During the period of the Revolutionary War, many notable men and 
officers visited Norwich. There were several reasons for this; one was the 
situation, at the head of navigation, as boats could come through Long Island 
Sound to New London and then to Norwich ; or passengers leaving the boats 
at New London would come by land to Norwich and then on to Providence 
and Boston. 

Another perhaps more potent reason, was that not many miles from 
Norwich lived the Governor of Connecticut, Jonathan Trumbull. The Trum- 
buUs were among the largest shipping merchants of those days, and their 
business interests reached far and wide. When the news of the Lexington 
alarm arrived, Jonathan Trumbull's store in Lebanon was the place where all 
the soldiers in his own vicinity who marched for the relief of Boston were 
supplied. In the little office of the store was transacted much of the business 
of the war, and here and in the Governor's house next door were entertained 
many of the most conspicuous characters of the Revolution. Among these 
may be mentioned Generals Washington, LaFaj'ette, Knox, Sullivan, Put- 
nam, Doctor Adams, John Jay, Jefferson, the Count Rochambeau, Ad- 
miral Tiernay, the Duke de Lauzun, the Marquis de Chastellux, and many 
others. It is said that the gay young French officers were very fond of 
company and cordially accepted hospitalities extended to them, and the bloom- 
ing belles of Windham, Lebanon and Norwich had the good fortune to par- 
ticipate in many brilliant entertainments, while the silver freely lavished by 
these young men found its way to many a farmer's pocket. 

Governor Trumbull's wife was Faith Robinson, and from her Faith 
Trumbull Chapter, D. A. R., received its name; their daughter. Faith Trum- 
bull, married General Jcdediah Huntington Cin 1766), who in May, 1777, was 
appointed a brigadier-general "at General Washington's request." With the 
Governor's son-in-law living in Norwich, where also lived Colonel Leffingwell, 
another ardent patriot and one of the Committee of Correspondence, it is 
readily seen how close the connection between Lebanon and Norwich must 
become. David Trumbull gave up his house in Lebanon to the Duke de 
Lauzun, and his wife came to Norwich. 

One of Washington's visits to Governor Trumbull was in April, 1776, 
when they met by appointment at General Jedediah Huntington's home in 
Norwich. Washington had written on March 21st that he should take his 
army from Boston to New York by the seacoast route, coming through 
Norwich, and on April 13 they dined with Huntington and conferred together 
till evening, when Washington proceeded to New London. 

Rochambeau had written to Trumbull in regard to the cantonment of 
the troop commanded by the Duke de Lauzun ; this was a celebrated legion 
of horse, six hundred strong. About two hundred and forty of these Hussars 
with about an equal number of horses were stationed on Lebanon Commons, 


still called "the Barracks" ; here they remained for seven months, and traces 
of their brick ovens still exist. Of the trips made by some of the officers to 
Norwich, we have already heard. 

On March 5th, 1781, Washington stopped at Lebanon, and, with great 
satisfaction alike to himself, the French, and the crowds of spectators, be- 
stowed upon Lauzun's imposing legion the compliment of a stately review. 

The War Office, as it was later called, was restored by the Sons of the 
American Revolution, and dedicated on June 15, 1891. The house has been 
occupied for many jears by Miss Mary E. Button, and now by two of her 
cousins. It is said that people were so crazy to have some souvenir from 
this house that the oaken boards of the attic floor were sold in pieces. 

Washington's death, on December 14, 1790, was commemorated in Nor- 
wich with solemn religious services. On the Sabbath following. Dr. Strong 
delivered a memorial sermon. At the Landing, the Episcopal and Congrega- 
tional churches were both shrouded in black, and the two congregations 
united in the commemorative services. They assembled at the Episcopal 
church, where prayers were read and a solemn dirge performed. A procession 
was then formed of both sexes, which moved with plaintive music and tolling 
bells to the Congregational church, where a discourse was delivered by Mr. 
King from the text, "How are the mighty fallen." Subsequently, on the 
day recommended by Congress for tre national observance, the societies 
again united ; the Rev. Mr. Tyler delivered an oration, and several original 
odes, hymns and lamentations were sung or chanted. The sermons of Messrs. 
Strong and King and the eulogy of Mr. Tyler were each separately published. 
(Caulkins' "Hist. Norwich, Conn.," page 525.) 

Colonel (afterwards General) Samuel Mott, at whose house General 
Washington is said to have called, lived at Preston City ; his house occupied 
the spot where now stands the Public Library of that town, the Library and 
the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument on the lawn having been given by some 
native sons of the place. This General Samuel Mott was a Revolutionary 
patriot who was a local magistrate, and a civil engineer of such note as to 
have made the preliminary plans and drawings of the military works at West 

One of the most interesting houses up-town is the one which was known 
far and wide for many years as the Leffingwell Inn. This is situated at the 
corner of Washington and East Town streets, and is known by all passers-by, 
as nearly everyone remarks on the way the house is set to the road. As early 
as 1701, the house began to be used as an inn, and in early days slaves are 
said to have been auctioned off at the north door. 

Miss Perkins says: "The house is large and rambling, and many parts 
of it bear the marks of great age. Some of the rooms are on a much lower 
level than others, and these may indicate where additions were made to the 
original Backus homestead, for this is one of the houses which claims to date 
from the settlement of the town. The windows still retain their wooden 
shutters, the door its bar-fastening, and the rooms are heavily wainscoted, 
and the large parlor panelled throughout." Deep window seats open like the 
lid of a chest. "The entrance door was formerly on the north side of the 


house and faced the old highway coming down over the hill. Either the 
course of this highway, or the desire to have the house stand due north and 
south, may perhaps account for its singular position at the present day." 

At the time of the Revolutionary War, Colonel Christopher Leffingwell 
owned and occupied the house, with his wife, Elizabeth Coit, daughter of 
Captain Jospeh Coit, of New London and Norv.ich. He was an ardent patriot, 
and was appointed on the committee of correspondence. The first announce- 
ment of the battles of Lexington and Concord was addressed to him, and at 
the Two Hundredth Anniversary of Norwich, in 1859, the original document 
was exhibited, from which not only the citizens of Norwich but Governor 
Trumbull himself first heard those alarming tidings. Colonel Jedediah 
Huntington writes to him from the camp at Roxbury, a little later, and 
Colonel Trumbull from the camp at Cambridge, asking for supplies. 

General Parsons, on his wa\- to Bunker Hill, June loth, 1775, writes that 
one of his companies will lodge at Norwich ; Captain Leffingwell must provide 
for them. Innumerable calls were made upon him, but amid them all he 
exercised a generous hospitality. In August, 1776, Colonel Wadsworth intro- 
duces to him an English loyalist who had been advised to leave New York, 
but who is worthy of respectful and considerate treatment in the rural dis- 
tricts. Titus Hcsmer introduces to him Mr. Timothy Dwight, who had been 
a tutor for several years in the college of which he was afterwards the dis- 
tinguished president, and who thinks of settling in Norwich to practice law. 
General Washington in one of his visits partakes of the hospitality of the 
Lefhng^vell home, and Governor Trumbull sends his respectful apology that 
he is unable to meet at Mr. Leflingweirs the commander-in-chief. 

It is said that of all the companies which marched at various times to 
New London, none equalled in order and equipment the light infantry under 
Captain Leffingwell. In his historical discourse in 1859, Dr. Gilman says: 
"As I mention his name, there arc many present who will recall his stately 
and venerable form, his head white with years, the dignified bearing which 
marked the gentleman of the old school, and the energetic manner which was 
equally characteristic of the successful man of business." 

After the close of the v.-ar, in 1784, Colonel Leffingwell was appointed by 
General Washington the first naval officer under the new government. The 
wife who shared those troubled times with him, died November 9, 1796; 
Colonel Leffingwell died November 7, 1810. 

Later on, the house came into the possession of a granddaughter, Mrs. 
Benjamin Huntington. The house itself, w-ith its well-kept grounds, always 
attracts the attention of strangers in the town, as well as those who have 
always been familiar with its appearance. An amusing little tradition may 
be whispered here: It is said that one Monday, General Washington came to 
the house unexpectedly. The family washing was under way, in the base- 
ment. Needless to add that the tubs were very hurriedly put away in the 

Not many miles from Norwich is another house which was visited by 
Generals Washington and LaPayette. In Plainfield, on the main road 
traversed by travelers, was situated the "LaPayette Inn." 


By 1710, public travel through Plainfield had increased so greatly that 
the governments of both Connecticut and Rhode Island were obliged to make 
provision for better accommodations. In 171 1 the General Assembly of 
Rhode Island ordered "That a highway should be laid out from Providence 
through Providence, Warwick, to Plainfield," and representations were made 
to the Connecticut Assembly that travelers from the westward to Boston and 
Providence met with great difficulty and were exposed to great danger for 
want of a suitable road through Plainfield, so the selectmen of Plainfield were 
ordered to lay out a suitable road. This road went through Plainfield village, 
and is now known as Plainfield street. The needful land was given by the 
owners "in consideration that it is convenient and necessary for travellers, 
being the nearest and best way to and from Providence, Rhode Island (mean- 
ing the island of Rhode Island), Narragansett, and many other places, and 
convenient for town and country." A tavern or inn was, of course, the logical 
sequence of the opening of this road. When LaFayette Inn was built is not 
known to the writer, but is said to have early stood there. General Gates and 
his division marched through Plainfield, Canterbury and Windham on their 
withdrawal from Newport. The following item concerning the old inn is 
taken from the "Norwich Record" of May 10, 191 1 : 

A large crowd attended the auction sale of furniture held by Mrs. H. B. 
Ball at L.aFayette Inn on Saturday. Mrs. Ball recently sold the inn prop- 
erty at public auction to H. A. Gallup. The LaFayette Inn, which was 
formerly the old Plainfield Hotel, has been a public tavern and hostelry for 
over a century, it being one of the relays for the old stage coach line between 
Providence and Hartford. There is a whole lot of history connected with 
this old inn. General Washington and Marquis de LaFayette stopping in it 
over night on their way to Philadelphia. LaFayette wrote a letter while 
sitting in a combination desk chair which has since bore the name of the 
"LaFayette chair." This chair, which is very well preserved for one that has 
done so much service, was bid off at the auction on Saturday for $26, but it 
is the public opinion that it was bid in, for it is reported that Mrs. Ball had 
a standing offer of $100 for it by some Colonial association in Philadelphia 
long before the auction sale. 

The house was divided and part of it was moved nearer the street, thus 
making two buildings. 


In these days of good roads, trolley cars, automobiles, fast expresses, fast 
steamships and flying machines, with their accompaniment of immense hotels 
where every luxury is obtainable and the watchword is not "anything in 
season," but "everything in any season," so quickly do people accept the 
innovations and become accustomed to conveniences that few pause to reflect 
on the fact that these things have come mainly within a period of seventy 
years, and the greatest of them within even twenty-five years. While appre- 
ciating the advantages of many of our modern ways, and perhaps to more 
recognize their value, let us look back briefly to a time when these things 
were not, and see how they came to be, and to a later time when, fully 


"Long ago at the end of the route, 
The stage pulled up and the folks stepped out." 

As the Indians, the aboriginals of this country, wandered here and there 
from one hunting ground to another, or from tribe to tribe as messengers or 
visitors, they made faint trails on the most used ways. Their moccasined 
feet passed lightly over the grassy plains and through the forests, for their 
instinct of direction was unerring. When the white men came to this country, 
they found these faint trails leading in various directions, as also trails made 
by wild watering places. The settlers utilized these trails, and soon deepened 
and enlarged them with their heavy shoes. At first everybody walked, even 
the governors; domestic cattle, called the best of pathmakers, were soon 
introduced, and aided in the work with their heavy, leisurely tread ; it was 
not long before the trails became "trodden paths," worn narrow lanes, scarcely 
two feet wide, in which it was necessary to walk Indian file. 

In 1635, horses were imported, small and poor, it is true, but soon replaced 
by better ones ; then little walking was done, and the narrow trodden paths 
became a scarcely wider bridle path for horses, while blazed trees served as 
guide posts. As new settlements were made and communication established 
with the older ones, paths slowly grew to rough, uncertain roads and cart- 
ways. Many of these roads followed, and still follow, the old trails, and 
some of our best and most used highways are simply an improvement and 
elaboration of some old Indian trail or early "trodden path" of the white 

The earliest path mentioned in the records is the old Plymouth or Coast 
path, connecting Plymouth and Boston, and passing through Braintree, now 
the regular thoroughfare. This path was established by order of the General 
Court of Massachusetts in 1635. The Old Connecticut path started at Cam- 
bridge and continued through Marlborough, Grafton, Oxford, on to Spring- 
field and Albany; the New Connecticut path, also starting at Cambridge, 
went through Grafton, Worcester and Brookfield to Albany. The Providence 
path led from Boston to Providence and the Narragansett Plantations. Per- 
haps the most familiar to us of this part of New England is the famous 
"Pequot path," later called the Post road, leading from Providence through 
Wickford, Charlcstown, and Westerly, Rhode Island, to New London, or 
"Pequit," Connecticut. This old path is frequently mentioned in land deeds 
and in the court records of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut; it 
is practically identical with the favorite automobile road of the present day, 
and is also closely followed by the Shore Line railroad. 

The longest and best-known path in Massachusetts was the Bay path, 
passing through the Province of Massachusetts Bay, as it was formerly called ; 
this path, starting at Cambridge, left the old Connecticut path at Wayland, 
then went through Marlborough, Worcester, Oxford, Charlton to Brookfield ; 
here the Hadley path branched ofT to Ware. Belchcrtown and Hadley, while 
the Bay path joined the old Connecticut path and so on to Springfield and 
Albany. This Bay path is made familiar to us by J. G. Holland's story of 
that name. 


As the number of settlements increased, travel increased in proportion; 
then came the demand made by travelers overtaken by storm or darkness for 
a place of shelter, food and lodging. Few homes of that period were prepared 
to entertain strangers at any and all hours, and as the dignitaries themselves 
had to travel frequently on business for the colonies, they immediately took 
action in the matter. 

In 1644, as shown by the Colonial Records of Connecticut, the General 
Court ordered "one sufficient inhabitant" in each town to keep an "ordinary," 
since "strangers were straitened for lack of entertainment." In 1656, the 
General Court of Massachusetts made the towns liable to a fine for not sus- 
taining an ordinary. 

These houses of public entertainment were at first called "ordinaries," 
probably ordinary, in the sense of common, and established by law. The 
ordinary was under the supervision of the General Court and later of the town 
officers, and was hedged about with so many regulations and restrictions that 
the landlord of the present day would give up in despair. The ordinary was 
usually a large house with g^eat fireplaces, and many rooms, and ample stable 
accommodations : 

"Across the road the bams display 
Their lines of stalls, their mows of hay." 

The better class had a parlor which was used as a sitting room for ladies, 
or was engaged by some dignitary for himself or family. The most interesting 
as well as the most used room of the house was the taproom ; its enormous 
fireplace, bare, sanded floor, and ample settles and chairs, with a constant flow 
of visitors, combined to make a cheerful spot. A tall, rudely made writing 
desk served as a place for the landlord to cast up his accounts, and for the 
accommodation of the few guests who desired to write. The bar itself was 
usually made with a sort of portcullis gate, which could be closed if desired. 
While the bars remained until very recently in some of these places, the old 
portcullis gate is rarely seen. At Howe's Tavern in Sudbury, Massachusetts, 
more familiar to us as the scene of Longfellow's "Tales of a Wayside Inn," 
this gate remained, as also at the Wadsworth Inn, built in 1828; this house 
stands on the Albany turnpike, about three miles from Hartford, Connecticut, 
and was one of the twenty-one inns within twenty miles on that road. 

By the end of the Seventeenth Century the designation "ordinary" had 
passed into disuse, and "tavern" was the name by which the ordinary was 
known. It was singular that the word "inn," used in England, was not 
common in America ; "inn" was a word of Anglo-Saxon origin, meaning 
house ; while tavern was in France taverne, in Spain and Italy, taverna, while 
the Latin form, taberna, was also used — all derived from the Latin root, tab, 
hence, tabula, a table. One v.onders what influenced the colonists at that 
early day to use this form rather than the customary English one. In later 
days, the word tavern has fallen into disrepute, but formerly it denoted a 
highly respectable place, kept by a most worthy landlord. 

As to the entertainment of these places, opinions differed. In 1637, Lord 
Ley declined Governor Winthrop's invitation to make his home at the 


Governor's house, on the plea that he was so comfortably situated at the 
ordinary. Hempstead, in his journey to Maryland in 1749, writes of being 
"handsomely entertained"; while Madam Sarah Knight, on her trip to New 
York, found the accommodations little to her liking, as she has fully in- 
formed us. 

Each tavern was known by name, and some of these names are most 
interesting — the Blue Anchor, the Great House, the King's Arms, the King's 
Head, the Thistle and Crown, Rose and Thistle, Duke of Cumberland, St. 
George and the Dragon, the Red Lion, the Green Dragon. Dog's Head in the 
Manger, the Fighting Cocks, the Black Horse, the Three Cranes, Bunch of 
Grapes, Plow and Harrow (one of the places where Hempstead stopped), are 
some of the names adopted. The corruption of some names gave amusing 
signs — the Bag o' Nails, from the "Bacchanalians"; this was a favorite name; 
the Cat and Wheel, from St. Catharine's Wheel ; the Goat and Compass, from 
"God Encompasseth Us"; Pig and Carrot, from the French pique et carreau; 
lan English one was the Bull and Mouth, from the Boulogne Mouth or 

Like the inns of Shakespeare's day, some of the large taverns had names 
for each room. The King's Arms in Boston, Mass., one of the earliest, stood 
at the head of Dock street, and in 1651 was sold for £600; an inventory of the 
goods and furnishings of the house showed that some of the chambers were 
the Star Chamber, the Court Room, the Nursery, etc. The Blue Anchor, 
another Boston ordinary, had among its rooms the Rose and Sun Low, the 
Cross Keys, the Anchor and Castle, the Green Dragon — which are more 
interesting than our Pink Room, Blue Room, Red Room, and the like. 

Before it became customary to name the streets and number the houses, 
at a time when comparatively few people were able to read or write, sign 
boards were a necessity, for the sign language is universal. Not only inn- 
keepers, but men of all trades and callings, made use of them. The signs 
were widclv varied; some were painted or carved boards; and images — some 
carved from stone; modeled in terracotta or plaster; painted on tiles; wrought 
of various metals; and even stuffed animals were utilized. Some of these old 
signs are still in existence; occasionall>' such a sign is noticed at some inn, 
whose landlord has recognized its value and drawing power in these days 
of antique hunting. Such, for example, is "Ye Golden Spur," on the East 
Lyme trolley line; and the signboard bearing the Lion and the Unicorn, at 
the Windham Inn, on Windham Green. More, however, are carefully pre- 
served among the treasures of the historical societies. 

In Salem, Massachusetts, in 1645, the law granted the landlord a license 
provided "there be sett up some inoffensive sign obvious for direction to 
strangers." The Rhode Island court in 1655 ordered that all persons appointed 
to keep an ordinary should "cause to be sett out a convenient Signe at ye 
most perspicuous place of ye said house, thereby to give notice to strangers 
yt it is a house of public entertainment, and this is to be done with all con- 
venient speed." The signs were attached to wooden or iron arms extending 
from the tavern, or from a post or a nearby tree, or from a frame supported 


by two poles. The Buck's Horn Tavern in New York City had a pair of 
buck's horns over the door. Of the "Wayside Inn" Longfellow wrote that 

"Half effaced by rain and shine. 
The Red Horse prances on the sign." 

In the library at Windham Green is preserved an image of Bacchus, 
carved from a piece of pine by British prisoners confined at Windham during 
the Revolutionary War, and bequeathed by them to Widow Cary, who kept 
a tavern on the Green. Miss Larned says : "The comical Bacchus, with his 
dimpled cheeks and luscious fruits, was straightway hoisted above the tavern 
for a sign and figure-head, to the intense admiration and delight of all be- 

In the custody of the Connecticut Historical Society at Hartford is a 
signboard showing on one side the British coat-of-arms, and on the other 
side a full-rigged ship under full sail, flying the Union Jack ; it has the 
letters "U A H," and the date 1766. This sign belonged to Uriah and Ann 
Hayden, who kept a tavern near the Connecticut river, in Essex, then the 
Pettapaug parish of Saybrook. 

Bissell's Tavern, at Bissell's Ferry in East Windsor, Connecticut, had 
an elaborate sign depicting thirteen interlacing rings, and in the center of 
each was a tree or plant peculiar to the State designated, the whole sur- 
rounding a portrait of Washington. It may be mentioned here that during 
and after the War of the Revolution scarcely a town but had its Washington 
tavern, with varied Washington signboards; all names or signs relating to 
the King or to the British Kingdom were discarded, and as the Golden Lion 
changed into the Yellow Cat, so the other names underwent a similar change. 

Not only are these old signs interesting in themselves, but they have a 
still greater value for the reason that many noted painters, even great artists, 
have frequently been compelled to make use of the signboard as a temporary 
means of livelihood. Hogarth, Richard Wilson, Gerome, Cox, Harlow, 
Millais, Holbein, Corregio and Watteau are among those thus accredited ; 
while Paul Potter's famous "Young Bull" is said to have been painted for a 
butcher's sign . Benjamin West is said to have painted many of the tavern 
signs in Philadelphia, and the "Bill of O. Cromwell's Head" was designed 
by Paul Revere. 

As has been said, the ordinaries were established by order of the General 
Courts at first, and later by the town authorities, who considered them as 
town offices, the appointment one of honor, and were therefore very particular 
to whom a license was granted. A landlord was one of the best-known men 
in town, influential, and possessed of considerable estate. The first house of 
entertainment in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was kept by a deacon of the 
church who was afterward made steward of Harvard College. The first 
license to sell strong drink in that town was granted to Nicholas Danforth, a 
selectman and representative to the General Court. 

In New London, Connecticut, on June 2, 1654, "Goodman Harries is 
chosen by the Towne ordinary keeper." The good man died the following 
November, and on the sixth of that month "John Elderkin was chosen Ordi- 


nary Keeper." "Widow Harris was granted by voat also to keep an ordinary 
if she will." On Foxen's Hill, at the other end of the town, Humphrey Clay 
and his wife Catharine kept an ordinary till 1664. In this same town, "At 
a General Town meeting September i, 1656, George Tongue is chosen to 
keep an ordinary in the town of Pcquot for the space of five years, who is to 
allow all inhabitants that live abroad the same privilege that strangers have, 
and all other inhabitants the like privilege except lodging. He is also to keep 
good order and sufficient accommodation according to Court Order being 
not to lay it down under six months warning, unto which I hereunto set my 
hand. (Signed) George Tonge." 

George Tongue bought a house and lot on the Bank, between the present 
Pearl and Tilley streets, and opened the house of entertainment which he 
kept during his lifetime and which, being continued by his family, was the 
most noted inn of the town, for sixty years. Plis daughter married Governor 
Winthrop, and after the Governor's death his widow went to live in this 
house on the Bank, which she inherited from her parents. 

In Norwich, on December 11, 1675, "Agreed and voted by ye town yt 
Sergent Thomas Waterman is desired to keepe the ordynary. And for his 
encouragement he is granted four ackers of paster land where he can con- 
veniently find it ny about the valley going from his house into the woods." 
He was succeeded in 1690 by Deacon Simon Huntington. Under date of 
December iS, 1694, "The towne makes choise of calib abell to keep ordinari 
or a house of entertaynement for this yeare or till another be chosen." In 
1700, Thomas Leffingwell received a license, and this is supposed to have 
been the commencement of the famous Leffingwell Tavern, situated at the 
east corner of the town plot, and continued for more than a hundred years. 
In 1706, Simon Huntington, Junr., and in 1709, Joseph Reynolds, were 
licensed. On December i, 1713, "Sergeant William Hide is chosen Taverner." 
Here is shown the change of name from "ordinary" to "tavern." 

Women sometimes kept the ordinary and tavern, as quoted in the case 
of Widow Harris and Widow Cary ; some of the taverns kept by them 
became quite noted. In 1714, Boston, with about ten thousand inhabitants, 
had thirty-four ordinaries, of which twelve were kept by women ; four com- 
mon victuallers, of whom one was a woman ; forty-one retailers of liquors, 
seventeen of these being women ; thus proving that women were accorded 
some rights and privileges in the early daj's. 

The taverns were not used entirely as a convenience to travelers ; the 
Puritans had no special reverence for a church except as a literal meeting 
house; often until a church edifice could be erected, services were held in 
barns, as in Deacon Park's barn in New London ; oftener, their meetings were 
held in the large room of a tavern. The Great House at Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, the official residence of Governor Winthrop, became a meeting 
house in 1633, and later a tavern. The "Three Cranes," kept by Robert Leary 
and his descendants for many years, had the same experience, the building 
being destroyed in June, 1775, in the burning of the town. 

In New London North Parish, Samuel Allen, from Massachusetts, built 
a large house on the Governor's road leading from New London through 



Colchester to Hartford ; he was licensed to keep a tavern, and was one of the 
seven men who organized the church in the North Parish ; before the meeting 
house was built, services were held in the great east chamber of his tavern, 
and here the Rev. James Hillhouse preached his first sermons and received 
his call to become their pastor. This house stood on or near the present site 
of the Montville town farm. 

The relations of the town and meeting house did not end here, but con- 
tinued on the most friendly terms. The church officials looked sharply after 
the conduct of these houses of sojourn. Usually ordinary and meeting house 
kept close companj', the license generally specifying that condition; in the 
intervals between serm.ons, the congregation frequently repaired to the tavern, 
which must, however, be cleared during the hours of worship. Besides serv- 
ing as a place to hold religious services, if needful, the tavern was an impor- 
tant factor in the social and political life of the early settlers. Here they met 
to exchange news and views, to discuss town afifairs, talk over the horrors 
of Indian warfare, and, incidentally, to sample the solacing liquors on tap. 

At Brookfield, then Ouambaug, Massachusetts, the only ordinary was 
kept by Captain Ayers, who was the captain of the trainband of the place, 
and this tavern was the garrison house of the settlement. Its interesting 
story has been often told. 

The taverns also served as recruiting stations for the French and Indian 
wars; the trainbands met and drilled there; here were held "Book Auctions," 
"Consorts" of music ; entertainments, dramatic and otherwise ; the agents for 
various lines of business made the tavern their headquarters; the first insur- 
ance agencies were there, so that the tavern may well be called the original 
business exchange; lodges of Freemasons organized and held their meetings, 
as did the medical societies. At the tavern was frequently to be found the 
only newspaper in the town. 

The story of the War of Independence cannot be dissociated from that 
of the old taverns, and those which still remain are counted among our most 
interesting relics, and pilgrimages are made to them. The meetings of those 
who were among the first to rebel against injustice were held at the taverns, 
and Paul Revere has left a record of the conferences of the band of which 
he was a member, their meetings being held at the Green Dragon in 1774 
and 1775. On that night when Revere stood "impatient to ride," watching 
for the signal, at the Wright Tavern in Concord was lodged Major Pitcairn, 
the British commander, and in the parlor of this tavern, on the morning 
before the battle of Concord, he stirred his glass of brandy with his bloody 
finger, saying that thus he would stir the rebels' blood before night. The 
Buckman Tavern at Lexington was the headquarters of Captain John Parker, 
on that night of April 18, 1775, and the rallying place of the minute-men ; the 
tavern contains many a bullet hole made by the shots of the British soldiers. 
Lord Percy made his headquarters at the Monroe Tavern at Lexington, on 
that April iQth. After the battle of Lexington, the American men reassem- 
bled at the Wavside Inn at Sudbury and the Black Horse Tavern at Win- 
chester. Cooper's Tavern and Russell Tavern, both at Arlington, were the 
scenes of great activity during this war. 


In the village of Bennington, Vermont, the most noted tavern was that 
built before 1770, by Captain Stephen Fay. The north and south road 
passed through the village and became the thoroughfare for much travel 
between Connecticut and western Massachusetts to the new lands to the 
northward. Many people went from eastern Connecticut to Bennington. 
Gradually the thoroughfare became a route from Boston to Albany. The 
tavern was a great resort for travelers and emigrants, and was widely known 
as the headquarters of the settlers in the contest over the lands claimed by 
New York. On the top of a high signpost before the front door was placed 
the stuffed skin of a catamount, "grinning defiance at the State of New York" ; 
hence Landlord Fay's house was more generally known as "Catamount 
Tavern." One of the rooms was used for meetings on town affairs, and in 
the marble mantel over one of the fireplaces was cut in deep letters the 
words "Council Room." Before the fireplace in this council chamber sat 
Ethan Allen the night before he sent forth his summons for the Green Moun- 
tain Boys to muster for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga, on !May 10, 1775; 
here sat the Vermont Council of Safety during that tr\-ing campaign of 1777: 
and here Stark and Warner planned their famous attack which won the 
victory at Bennington. August 16, 1777. Five sons of Captain Fay partici- 
pated in this battle, one of them being killed. In 177S, David Redding, a 
traitor and spy, was tried here and condemned. Afterv.-ards the tavern was 
used as a private dwelling house, and was burned to the ground, March 30, 
1871. The site of the old place is now marked by a finely modeled bronze 
catamount mounted on an immense block of black marble. 

The tavern at Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, was kept by Major John 
Farrer, who became an officer of the Revolution; there was great rejoicing 
at this house when Washington visited it in his triumplial journey through 
the country. This same place was later known as the Pease Tavern, and was 
kept by Levi Pease, who has been called the "Father of the Turnpike." 

At Wickford, Rhode Island, the Phillips farmhouse, still standing, was 
used as a tavern; the two immense chimneys are over twenty feet square and 
take up so much room that there is no central staircase, but little winding 
stairs ascend at three corners of the house; on each chimney piece are hooks 
to hang firearms, and at one side are set curious little drawers for pipes and 
tobacco. Landlord Phillips was a major in the Revolution. 

Time is lacking for mention of the many taverns, large and small, noted 
or obscure, of even our own State or section. Our valued historians in the 
"History of Norwich, Connecticut," and in the "Old Houses of the Antient 
Town of Norwich," have named some of them — the Leffing^vell Tavern, 
Peck's and Jesse Brown's taverns, all still standing; the latter became the 
home of Mr. Moses Pierce, and is now the Rock Nook Home; the Lathrop 
Tavern, destroyed by fire soon after 1821 ; on the site was erected by the Union 
Hotel Company the brick building now known as the Johnson Home, belong- 
ing to the King's Daughters of the city. 

At various times, at Bean Hill, Major Durkee Webster and Jacob Witter 
kept a public hou.'-.e ; Morgan at East Great Plain ; at the Landing, Ebenezer 
Fitch and Jeremiah Harris. Between Norwich and New London were at 


least three — Raymond's, Bradford's and Haughton's. Haughton's tavern was 
near Haughton's Cove in Montville, and during the war of 1812, v^'hen the 
warships were anchored in the river, the officers of the ships often visited this 
tavern for social recreation. Much of the business of the town was transacted 
there, and the trainband met for its annual drill. A large room was fitted 
up for dances, parties and entertainments. 

With the advent of stage and mail coaches, travel, and consequently the 
number of taverns, increased. The milestones themselves could tell a story 
of those days. Benjamin Franklin, the postmaster general, undertook the 
work of setting up milestones on the post roads. The Pequot path, later the 
King's highway and then the Post road, was one of those so marked, and it 
is said that one of these milestones still stands at New London and another 
at Stratford. One of the advertisements of tavern and stage coach lines 
stated that "This Elegant road is fully Set with well cut milestones." 

Judge Peleg Arnold, one of the most ardent patriots of the Revolution, 
kept a tavern in the northern part of Rhode Island, where is now Union Vil- 
lage (a suburb of Woonsocket), on the Great Road from Smithfield to Men- 
don, Massachusetts. In 1666 this road was a footpath, which by 1773 had 
grown into a cart-path. Judge Arnold was one of a committee appointed 
to re-lay the old road, and near the northern boundary of his farm he set 
up the milestone with the inscription, "14 miles to Providence; Peleg Arnold's 
stone, 1774." 

The first turnpike of the United States is claimed by Miss Caulkins to 
have been established in 1792, between Norwich and New London. Turn- 
pikes meant better roads and more travel, and tavern and stage coach reached 
the height of their popularity together. At Windham Green, for example, as 
late as 1840, four-horse stage coaches passed through daily, going north, 
south, ea?t and west, with smaller stage lines for mail service from Windham 
to Woodstock, Middletown and other points. Similar conditions prevailed 

Then came the railroad and steam coach and the doom of the stage coach 
was at hand. In 1840 there were four hundred and twenty-six miles of rail- 
road lines in New England in short, disconnected lines ; they increased rap- 
idly, and line after line of stage coaches was discontinued, and tavern after 
tavern fell into disuse, until before many years had gone by, stage coach 
and tavern were found only in isolated regions. Nothing has been said of 
the discomforts and inconveniences of those early days of travel, nor need 
we pity the travelers too much. As the old lady remarked, when asked how 
she managed to get along without certain conveniences, "You don't miss 
what you never had." Looking back over the changes the years have brought, 
the question inevitably arises whether the same number of years in the future 
will bring equally great many changes in means of travel and manner of 


Among the vanished industries of Norwich, though of great interest to 
the collector, are the potteries, fine specimens of whose work are still to be 




iiIJ) PI iTTEItY OF SII >Ni;v l:ISLi:v. IsUIOr'liOh A|:i ilT Is:;.', 


seen in the town. Coarse pottery was made to a certain extent soon after 
the settlement in New England ; our ancestors used pewter and wooden dishes. 
spoons and other utensils, many of these being retained in Norwich families. 
Pottery was not common in American houses until the middle of the eight- 
eenth century, and few persons of Revolutionary times had ever seen por- 
celain. Wooden trenchers, spoons, pewter dishes, mugs, water pitchers, and 
similar articles, appear in many old inventories. In 1822 there were only 
twelve potteries in Connecticut, the value of the earthen and stone ware being 

Pottery, in its broadest sense, includes everything made of clay, either 
wholly or in part, and then baked in a fire or furnace ; and all makers of 
wares consisting of clay, either pure or combined, and finished by baking, 
were potters. As it is now generally understood, objects made of clay and 
baked, which are opaque, are called pottery ; those which are translucent are 
called porcelain. Such ware is also distinguished as soft pottery and hard 
pottery ; soft pottery is made of any ordinary clay, like a common house brick 
or a flower pot, the color depending on the kind of clay used and the amount 
of firing, and the coloring matter. Hard pottery is made by mixing stone or 
sand with the clay, which, on baking, becomes hard, not easy to scratch, and 
will stand much usage and is made in various colors; hence we have the terms 
"Stone and Earthen Ware" in the old advertisements. 

The clay itself, in all its varieties, is characterized by its coherence, 
weight and compactness; it is hard when dry, but stiff, viscid and ductile 
when moist, hence a pottery has to have a good water supply. It is smooth 
to the touch, not readily diffusible in water, and when mixed, not subsiding 
readily in it. It contracts by heat, but is so tenacious that it is readily moulded 
into shape, "as the clay in the potter's hands." The glaze is secured by the 
introduction of salt into the kiln when the temperature is the highest, and 
this is known as "salt glaze." 

The tools were of the simplest; a potter's wheel is a revolving disk turned 
by the foot of the potter, by an assistant, or, later, by machinery. The clay 
is moistened witli water, then thrown on the potter's wheel, which is set in 
motion by the thrower, who with thumb and fingers, curved sticks and a few 
other simple tools, shapes the vessel. The potter's wheel is one of the earliest 
known implements of the trade, for Jeremiah writes, "Then I went down to 
the potter's house, and behold he wrought a work on the wheels." 

Some of the vessels were made in forms; large bottles or jugs with small 
necks were made in two sections, the lower one first, and next the neck, 
which was then fitted to the lower part and pressed with the slip until the 
jointure had entirely disappeared. Relief ornaments for the surface were 
either engraved in the mould, or moulded separately and fastened on with a 
slip of the paste ; handles, spouts, etc., were made separately and then fastened 
on. The colors were obtained from colored earths mixed with some vitrifiable 
substance, which must be earthy or metallic, as vegetable colors disappeared 
in the process. Blue was obtained from cobalt; green from copper, or cobalt 
and iron; browns from iron, antimony, nickel, iron and platinum; white from 
tin and arsenic, and rose-pink from gold, with silver and tin. So the potter, 
X.L.— 1--,.-. 


like the artist, must know how to mix his colors, to obtain the desired results. 
Blue seems to have been oftenest used here, in the decorations of the stone- 
ware, perhaps because that color showed to best advantage on the stone-gray 
color, or perhaps it was cheaper and more easily obtained. The cobalt mines 
at Chatham, east of the Connecticut river, may have been a factor in its use. 
With these points in mind, our Norwich potteries and their products may be 
readily understood. 

As has been previously stated, pottery was not manufactured in New 
England to any extent till after the middle of the eighteenth century; the 
earliest mention so far found by the writer of a pottery in Norwich is the 
one established by Colonel Christopher Leffingwell. Colonel Leffingwell 
was an ardent patriot, a descendant of Lieutenant Thomas Lefifingwell, one 
of the founders of Norwich, Connecticut, a friend of Uncas, Sachem of the 
Mohegans. The Lefifingwell family has always taken a prominent part in 
the development of the town, as told in Miss Caulkins' "History of Norwich, 
Connecticut," and Miss Perkins' "Old Houses of the Antient Town of Nor- 
wich, Connecticut." 

A few years before the beginning of the Revolutionary War, Colonel 
Leffingwell started a number of business enterprises in Norwich, perhaps 
partly on account of the financial side, but also perhaps from the far-sighted- 
ness with which he and other prominent men foresaw the inevitable struggle 
with the Mother Country. Among these enterprises were a grist mill, a 
paper mill, a chocolate mill and a pottery. Just when the pottery was first 
in operation is not known, but on April 9, 1774, Colonel Leffingwell sold to 
Thomas Williams "about fourteen rods of land lying a little southerly from 
my Stone ware Kiln in the First Society of Norwich . . . with the privilege 
of passing and repassing upon my land from the east end of said lot on twenty 
feet broad, thence in a direct line by my said Potters Kiln & Shop, between 
said Shop and my House that Judah Paddock Spooner Lives in, to the 

The following advertisements appeared in the "Norwich Packet & The 
Weekly Advertiser" in August, 1779: 

To be SOLD for Cafh or Country Produce, by the Maker, at his houfe 
near Doctor Lathrop's at Norwich; A NEW ASSORTMENT of home-made 
Earthen WARE; confifting of Milk pans. Chamber Pots, Mugs, &s. &c., &c. 

To be Sold at the Printing Office, (for Cafh or Country Produce) A 
FRESH ASSORTMENT of Home Made Earthen WARE; confifting of the 
following articles, viz. Milk Pans, Butter Pots, Pitchers, Jugs, Pudding-Pans, 
Bowls, Mugs, Platers, Plates, &c., &c. (In 1793 the business was carried on 
by Charles Lathrop, son-in-law of Colonel Leffingwell, and later still by 
Christopher Potts, whose advertisement appears in the Norwich, Connecticut. 
"Gazette" of September 15, 1796.) 

C. Potts & Son informs the Public that they have latelv established a 
Manufactory of Earthenware at the shop formerly improved by Mr. Charles 
Lathrop, where all kinds of said Ware is made and sold, either in large or 
small auantities and guaranteed good. (This Christopher Potts wa'^ prob- 
ably of the New London or Groton family, and a descendant nf William 
Potts, who came from New Castle, England, and married in 1678, in New 


London, Connecticut, Rebecca Avery, daughter of Captain James Avery. In 
1790, Christopher was livinf^: in Norwich, with Asahel Case and Gideon 
Birchard as neighbors.) 

In "Morse's Gazetteer" for 1797, stone and earthen ware is mentioned 
among the industries of Norwich. 

Thomas Williams, in whose deed from Colonel Leffingwell the first 
mention is made of a pottery, built a house upon his little piece of land, and 
in August, 1796, sold it to Rufus Sturdevant, and in this deed Leffingwell's 
stone-ware kiln is mentioned. In August, 1797, Sturdevant sold the place 
with the same privilege of crossing the land of Christopher Leffingwell, "in 
a direct line by the Pottery Kiln & Shop, between said Shop and the house 
owned by said Leffingwell, to the highway, to Asa Spalding, who died in 181 1, 
and in 1813 Luther Spalding sold the property to Joseph H. Strong, with the 
same privilege of crossing, the Potters' Kiln and Shop being again mentioned, 
and also the house of Epaphras Porter, who had purchased some adjoinmg 

Colonel Leffingwell died in 1810, and in his inventory were included: 
"One Shovel for a Potter's Kiln, three Turning Machines for a Potter, One 
Machine for grinding paint and forty-five pounds of yellow ochre." 

In "Morse's Geography" of 1805, Norwich is quoted as manufacturing 
paper of all kinds, stockings, clocks, watches, chaises, buttons, stone and 
earthen ware, wire, oil, chocolate, bells, anchors and all kinds of forge work. 
At what date the manufacture of pottery at this place was discontinued is 
not definitely known. In 181 1, Cary Throop had a shop there, but probably 
not used as a pottery, and before 1816 the pottery seems to have disappeared. 

The location of the first pottery has in years past been the source of 
much discussion, but the place is definitely fixed by the deeds mentioned, 
some of these being mentioned in Miss Perkins' "Old Houses of The Antient 
Town of Norwich, Connecticut, 1660-1800." (1895; pages 82, 83.) Mention 
of the pottery is found on page 83. Between pages 168 and i6q is a map of 
Norwich in 1795, showing location of houses still standing, and houses 
removed before and after 1795. Number 24 is listed as house of Thomas 
Williams, owner; No. 25 is the pottery kiln and shop, both down near the 
Yantic river, on the road leading from Harland's corner to Norwich Town 
Church, both removed since 1795. It may also be located by (a) the houses 
of "Tossit" and "E. Porter" on the colored map used as a frontispiece of 
that book, the map being entitled "Norwich, circa 1830; A Boyish Remem- 
brance, Don" G. Mitchell" (Ike Marvel.) 

Fine specimens of the wares made at this pottery are owned in Norwich ; 
a red plate with yellow scroll is an unusual piece. In the Morgan Memorial 
at Hartford, Connecticut, arc two pieces of pottery, a jug and a jar, which are 
labeled as having been made in Norwich, Connecticut, about 1810. They 
are of a deep red color, with black blotches made by admitting smoke into 
the kiln, and have a special lead glaze. Bowls, large and small, and jars tall 
and deep, or round and squat, of this ware, are seen, besides many examples 
of the stone ware utensils. 


The second pottery of which anything has been learned was located near 
the so-called Clinton Woolen Mills, in that part of Norwich commonly known 
as Bean Hill, now the Saxton Woolen Company on Clinton avenue. 

Andrew Tracy, son of Isaac and Elizabeth (Bushnell) Tracy, inherited 
some land from his father, and in 1781 sold to his brother, Isaac Tracy, some 
of the land, one parcel of which was described as lying at the west end of 
the Town street, and was formerly part of his honored father, Mr. Isaac 
Tracy's, home lot, excepting and reserving a free highway one and one-half 
rods wide on the easterly side to pass and repass to and from the Town street 
to the Corn Mill. In 1791, Isaac Tracy sold this land with a dwelling house 
and corn mill, known as Tracy's Mills, bordering on the river and mill pond, 
his right being one-third of said land, house, mill and lane, and including the 
"lane to the Town street," together with the dam across the river. No men- 
tion is made of a pottery. 

On December 24, 1798, Andrew Tracy mortgaged to a Boston firm three 
parcels of land in Norwich, the third of which is described as lying south of 
the highway on Bean Hill, so-called; bounded by the highway (Town street) 
on the north, and south on the river ; "Including the mill lot, mill house, the 
privilege and appurtenances Rents & Profits viz : my two thirds part thereof 
and all my interest in the Blacksmith Shop, forge trip hammer & tools. Pot- 
ter's works, &c." This is the first mention of a pottery on these premises. 
Andrew Tracy removed to Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, and in January, 
1800, appointed Elisha Hyde of Norwich, Connecticut, his attorney. On the 
following June, Tracy gave a quit-claim deed of the premises, including the 
potter's works, to Captain Joseph Hosmer, who had purchased the mortgage 
of the Boston firm. 

Captain Joseph Hosmer came from Salem, Massachusetts; he is thought 
to have been the son of Captain David and Mary (Cabot) Hosmer, who for 
a time resided in Norw^ich. He probably carried on the pottery business as 
a side issue, in connection with other enterprises. He died in July, 1803, 
and the inventory of his estate included hollow ware and stone and earthen 
ware. On June 3, 1805, the Widow Hannah Hosmer, with Captain James 
Hyde, as executors of the estate, sold part of the estate to William Cleveland ; 
the deed describes the land as beginning at the south-westerly corner of the 
potter's shop standing on the premises, and is bounded westerly on the river, 
touches the mill pond and mill ditch, and included a dwelling house, grist 
mill, blacksmith shop and stone potter's works standing thereon, with the 
privilege of an open way from the Town street to the premises as the mill 
lane then lay, and the flow of water for the convenience of all the works 
thereon standing. 

William Cleveland, also a descendant of a Norwich family, came from 
Salem, Massachusetts, as did his predecessor. Captain Joseph Hosmer. Pur- 
chasing the pottery in 1805, he continued the business till May 2, 1814, when 
he sold out to Peleg Armstrong and Erastus Wentworth, both of Norwich. 
The previous April, Cleveland had sold part of his land to Ebenezer and 
Erastus Fluntington, and the Huntingtons v.ere improving one of the build- 
ings as a spinning and w-eaving factory. The part sold to Armstrong and 


Wentworth included a stone pottery shop, wood shed, and a stone pottery 
kiln on the premises, and gave to the Huntingtons the privilege of passing 
to and from a door about the center of their factory building. 

The Huntington and Backus Company became the Norwich Manufactur- 
ing Company, which in 1829 purchased part of the land of Armstrong and 
Wentworth. In June, 1834, Armstrong sold out his share in the business to 
Wentworth, so that pottery marked Armstrong & Wentworth, or A & W, 
dates from 1814 to 1834. The manufacturing company evidently wanted more 
room, so the ne.xt .ear Wentworth sold land with "the buildings heretofore 
occupied by me as a Pottery." This company has been at various times the 
Huntington & Backus Company, the Norwich Manufacturing Company, 
Uncas Woolen Mill, Elting Woolen Mill, Clinton Woolen Mills, and now is 
the Saxton Woolen Company. 

The lane leading from the Town street to the mill is now Clinton avenue. 
About twents- years ago, while excavations were being made for repairs on 
the dam, many pieces of earthenware were dug up, consisting of broken scraps 
and imperfect specimens for the greater part. Some of the squat stoneware 
ink bottles in good condition were preserved as curiosities by the superin- 
tendent of the mill. 

Peleg Armstrong was born April 14, 1785, in Norwich, Connecticut, the 
son of Jabez and Anne (Roath) Armstrong; he married (first) Lucy Went- 
worth, sister of Erastus Wentworth, and on her decease he married her 
sister, Mary Wentworth. Erastus Wentworth was born November 8, 1788, 
in Norwich, the son of Lemuel and Elizabeth (Sangar) Wentworth, of Nor- 
wich ; he married, in Stonington, Connecticut, Esther States, daughter of 
Adam and Esther (Noyes) States of Stonington. This Adam States came 
from Holland and established a pottery at Stonington before 1800. Miss 
Wheeler tells of this States family and the pottery, and relates an amusing 
story of "L'ncle Wentworth" in her "The Homes of Our Ancestors in Ston- 
ington, Connecticut" (1903; pp. 212, 213). 

The next pottery was near the second one, and was located on the river, 
near Yantic bridge, and is still remembered by some who lived in the neigh- 
borhood or had occasion to pass over that road. 

Erastus Wentworth sold his land and shop on October 22, 1835, and on 
the 31st of the same month he purchased of Joseph H. Strong "the kiln lot 
so called," bounded northerly by the highway and westerly by the river 
Yantic. This was around the bend of the river from the other pottery, and 
had been perhaps used for extra work. Business did not seem to prosper, 
for in December, 1835, Wentworth assigned to Henry B. Tracy several parcels 
of land, one of them being the kiln lot, with a pottery and other buildings. 
Also two one-horse wagons, and one wagon harness, the pottery wheels in the 
pottery, wheelbarrow, pads and all of the tools and machinery in the pottery 
and the land on which the pottery stood. The following April, Henry B. 
Tracy, as trustee, sold to Lewis Hyde, the highest bidder, the land v.ith the 
pottery and other buildings. Mr. Wentworth moved to Stonington, where he 
carried on the business at the States place, and nothing further has been 
learned of the pottery at Bean Hill, though it is said tl^at for a time the busi- 


ness was carried on by Joseph Winship, who had worked with Mr. Went- 
worth, and a Mr. Spencer from Hartford, Connecticut, who soon returned to 
Hartford, while Mr. Winship went to work in the newly opened pottery of 
Sidney Risley, at the Landing. 

Of the size, shape or general appearance of these earlier potteries there 
seems to be no record or description, but particulars of the next one are 
obtained from an old resident of Norwich, who used to live in the vicinity. 

Sidney Risley came to Norwich, where he married, on April 28, 1841, 
Mary Dodge, of Norwich; he was then called of East Hartford, Connecticut; 
in 1845 ^^ owned land and a dwelling house on School street. He established 
a small pottery in Thamesville, on the bank of the river, almost directly back 
of the present residence of Mr. John E. Post, 76 West Thames street, prob- 
ably on leased ground. The buildings were small but some good work was 
done, examples being still extant. Before September, 1845, Risley had re- 
moved to Cove street, and in the first Norwich directory published in 1846 
was listed as "Sidney Risley, stoneware pottery. Cove street, W. C." (W. C, 
West Chelsea.) While the west bank of the Thames river was at that time 
the home of a number of sea captains and the site of shipyards, the section 
around Cove street, in what was then called West Chelsea, was almost unde- 
veloped. The large stone house of Captain William W. Coit, on the present 
Fairmount street, later occupied by Mr. John Porteous, was the only prom- 
inent dwelling house of the section. 

In the "Norwich Directory" of 1857 is the advertisement of "Sidney 
Risley, No. 4 Cove St., Manufacturer of Stone Ware in Every Variety. The 
Trade supplied with all kinds of Stone Ware, at the lowest market prices. 
N.B. All orders thankfully received and promptlv attended to." In this same 
directory appears the name of Joseph F. Winship, potter, living on Salem 
turnpike, employed by Risley ; in 1861 he was still working in the pottery. 
This Winship has been mentioned as formerly in the employ of Erastus Went- 
worth at Bean Hill. 

Additions were made to the original plant, so that in later years consid- 
erable space was occupied. The calendar for 1921 issued by the "Norwich 
Morning Bulletin," shows the old pottery, the picture being taken from an 
old print in possession of .A.ttorney V>'illiam H. Shields, of Norwich. The 
sheds, workroom, and old kiln, on the bank of the cove, are most interesting, 
and contrast sharply with the appearance of the spot at the present day. A 
small arm of the Yantic river ran up to the place where the pottery was 
situated, and from this the street obtained its name of Cove street. Wood 
for the kiln could be brought by boat or team. Everyone in that section of 
the town knew when the fires were going at the pottery, for the dense black 
smoke from the three-foot sticks filled the sky for a space of from 36 to 50 
hours, according to the particular kind of work being done. The clay used 
in the manufacture of the wares is said to have been brought from New 
Jersey and Long Island in schooners which anchored in the river nearby. 

The wares of the Risley pottery, like those of Armstrong & Wentworth, 
were loaded in wagons and peddled through all the eastern part of Connec- 
ticut. Wentworth, as has been said, had two one-horse wagons ; Alvin T. 

notai;le places and homes 551 

Davis was one of the old drivers for Risley, and his pottery wagon with a 
fine pair of Newfoundland dogs hitched on ahead of the horses is still re- 

Risley at first leased the property, but in 1856 purchased it and continued 
the business until his death on April 26, 1875, at the age of sixty-one years. 
His son, George L. Risley, then continued the works until his tragic death 
on the day before Christmas, 1881. He had gone to the pottery to light the 
fires under an upright boiler, which blew up, and, going through the roof of 
the building, landed in the cove about 120 feet away. It is said that the force 
of the explosion was so great that the 1500-pound boiler passed completely 
over a fifty-foot elm tree at the rear of the pottery. Mr. Risley was so badly 
injured that he died that evening. An account of the accident appeared in 
the "Scientific American" in January, 1822. 

B. C. Chace opened the pottery about a year later, under the name of the 
Norwich Pottery Works; in 1S85 he was succeeded by George B. Chamber- 
Iain, who continued it for about two years. Perhaps a little more ornamental 
work was attempted at this time, for a Norwich resident remembers seeing 
one of the Chamberlain girls make a vase, with flower ornament. The busi- 
ness was then continued by Otto N. Suderburg till 1895, when it was discon- 

All the buildings comprising the pottery have now disappeared and the 
locality is greatly altered in appearance. The cove was filled in when the 
New London, Willimantic & Palmer railroad was built, and its successor, the 
New London Northern railroad, became owners of part of the property. 
What was left of the buildings was torn down in 1900, the old brick was 
thrown into a hole in the lot, and a new building, used as a warehouse, was 
erected on the old pottery site by Mr. Charles Slosberg. The warehouse, 
with the Slosberg name, may be seen from the Central Vermont railroad 
station on the West Side. Thus, after a period of over one hundred and 
thirty years, vanished one of the industries of Norwich. 

In these days when glass in many forms — jars, bottles, tumblers, dishes 
of all kinds even to baking dishes — is in general use, it is hard to realize that 
our grandmothers had to put up all their preserves, mostly "pound for pound," 
and kept them in earthen or stone jars of various shapes and sizes. Home- 
made beer, cider, wine and other liquid refreshments were kept in stone bottles 
or jugs. The ink bottles, large and small, were of this stoneware; mugs, 
pitchers, milk-pans, butter pots, pudding pans, platters and plates, are men- 
tioned in the old advertisements. The soft soap, without which no household 
was kept properly clean, was stored in one of these jars, one in particular 
being in mind which in former days was considered only a little old red jar, 
but which in later years was recognized as an unusually fine specimen, of 
deep red color and graceful lines. Some crockery was imported from England, 
and after the China trade was opened, dishes became more plentiful, but it 
was many years before the use of such ware became general. 

Thus it is easily seen that a pottery was a necessary industry; wagon- 
loads of the red soft pottery and the stone and earthen ware were sent out 
over the roads in all directions, even as the tin-peddler's cart of a later day. 


The former has entirely disappeared, and the latter is now rarely seen. The 
early potters rarely stamped their work with any distinctive mark, in this 
section at least; but those who have been so fortunate as to examine the red, 
smoke-blotched ware or the red with yellow trimmings, would recognize the 
work again. Armstrong & Wentv.'orth used the mark, "A & W," or later, 
"Armstrong & Wentworth, Norwich." One of the jugs made by this firm 
has the owner's name written in the clay, because he did not want to have 
his jug mixed up with that of anyone else. Risley's mark was usually "S. 

This, in brief, is the story of the potteries of Norwich ; some who read 
mav be interested enough to look over the old jugs, jars and bottles in attics 
or cellars, which have been displaced by some more modern utensils, and may 
be rewarded by finding some token or mark which will indicate the approxi- 
mate time of their making. Not every town can boast of a pottery, and so 
if the piece of pottery or stoneware tells its own story of having been "made 
in Norwich," then indeed is the finder the fortunate possessor of a specimen 
of one of the vanished industries of Norwich. 


The craftsmen of a country' are one of the best indications of its growth 
and prosperity. When New England was first settled, only the barest neces- 
sities were obtainable, and for many years old inventories revealed very 
humble circumstances. But as time passed and the population increased 
and trade with the old country became easier, the home soon showed the 
effects of the increasing demands. Then, as now, people of means would 
obtain from New York or Boston articles of superior workmanship and 
material, but the people in general were content to patronize a workman near 
home. Many fine examples of the skill of New York or Boston silversmiths 
may be seen in New London county, but interest in the old families of the 
county, and much of the silver used by them, is enhanced by a knowledge of 
the old gold or silversmiths of the section. !Much interest was aroused by an 
exhibit of old silver held by the New London County Historical Society on 
February 8, 1912, in Slater Hall, Norwich. Many of those who attended the 
exhibition went home to examine their old silver, and found to their delight 
that they were now able to identify the maker. 

Old silver has a fascination pecnliarl'' its own — its sheen, its unmistak- 
able touch, its shape and design, the man'- forms in which it appeared and the 
unusual ways in which it was used — each has its charm, and the joy of pos- 
session grows deeper when something is known of the craftsman who made it, 
or when some incident in connection with its inception is told. New London 
county may well be proud of the number of gold and silversmiths who appear 
on its records and of their work which still remains. So in this sketch of the 
silversmiths are linked some old families, their homes, and their workmanlike 
beads upon a chain of their own making. 

Rene Grignon was the first goldsmith of whom anything is known in 
Norwich, Connecticut, and is said to have been the second in the colony ; he 
was here as early as 1708, when he presented to the First Church of the town 



a bell which -was "thankfully accepted." He was received as a regular 
inhabitant in 1710, and in 171 1 he purchased land in the southwestern part 
of the town; in December, 1711, he is called "Rene Grignon of Norwich, 
Goldsmith," and in other deeds is called "captain." He occupied a house 
owned by the Huntingtons. on the corner of the present North Washington 
and East Town streets, which has since been torn down. 

Miss Perkins, in her "Old Houses of Norwich, Connecticut," writes, 
"Capt. Rene Grignon was a French Huguenot who came to this country in 
the latter part of the seventeenth century and joined the French settlement 
at East Greenwich, Rhode Island. Driven from thence with the rest of the 
settlers by persecution, in 1691 he went to Oxford, Massachusetts, and when 
that French settlement was abandoned after the Indian massacre of 1696, he 
moved to Boston, where he was at one time 'Ancien,' or elder of the French 
church. In 1699 an attempt was made to re-establish the French settlement 
at Oxford and many of the former inhabitants returned. * * * In 1704 
occurred the Deerfield massacre, and the French at Oxford, thoroughly 
alarmed and disheartened, again abandoned the settlement, and it was prob- 
ably soon after this date that Captain Grignon came to Norwich." 

He died in 1715, his wife having passed away not long before. On March 
17, 1714-15, he appears on the land records of Norwich as "goldsmith," and 
made his wil! the twentieth of the same month. He gives to Capt. Richard 
Bushnell. one of his neighbors, his silver-hilted sword, double-barreled gun 
and pistols, and appoints him executor. To Daniel Deshon, a young French 
Huguenot in his employ, he wills "all my Gooldfmith Tools and Defire he may 
be bound out to fome suitable person in Boston till he arrive at the age of 
twenty-one years ; To learn the trade of a Goldfmith and I also give him 
Ten pounds to be paid v,-hen said Daniel cf age." He gives "To 
my man Barett the Time I have in him and direct my Executor to 
make him free as soon as I shall be Interred." He remembers Jane Jearson, 
alias Normandy, and bequeaths the remainder of the estate to "my dear and 
well-beloved friend, Mary Urennc." The inventory of the estate of "Rene 
Grignon, of Norwich. Gentleman," was taken March 28, 171 5, and shows that 
besides the goldsmith trade, he carried a large variety of other goods. Among 
the articles enumerated were "rare jewels of gold, 316 precious stones, pearls 
and precious stones, bags of bloodstones and others, gold, gold dust, plate and 
bullion, bullion, a box of chirurgeon's instruments, taylers sheers, locks, pew- 
ter, dozen verspective glasses, wigs, hair, cambric, cotton and tow cloth, need- 
les, thimbles, shoe buckles, leather gloves, girdles, hatbands, silk, jack knives, 
other kinds of knives, various kinds of spices, ivory combs, spirit vitrioll, drugs 
of many kinds, and numerous other articles." Also "Mrs. Grignon's apparel. 
£32." Besides the house and land in the w-estern part of the town, he owned 
"five lotts in Voluntown." That he had a large and widespread custom is 
evidenced by the fact that debts were due to the estate from persons in Wind- 
ham, Colchester, Lebanon, Plainfield, Ashford, Derby, New London and 
Groton. On the records of the New London county court are many actions 
for debt brought by the executor to recover the money due. His inventory 
recalls that of Samuel Gray of New London, and like that estate, when every- 



thing was settled, there was very little left. Two pieces of silver believed to 
have been his work are still extant; one of them, a cup, is shown in "Early 
Silver of Connecticut and Its Makers," by George M. Curtis (facing page 47). 
His mark was "R. G." crowned, a stag (?) passant below, in a crowned shield, 
and, judging from these pieces, he was an excellent workman. 

About the time Captain Rene Grignon was carrying on the goldsmith 
business in Norwich, Samuel Gray had a similar trade and store at New 

London. He was born in 1684, in oBston, Massachusetts, son of • 

and Susanna Gray of Boston. He married Lucy Palmes, daughter of Major 
Edward and Lucy (Winthrop) Palmes, and granddaughter of Governor 
Winthrop, but did not long survive his marriage. Hempstead records in his 
Dian.', under date of May 25, 1713, "Mr. Small Gray Died, had been Sick 
a Long time." He was buried in the "Ancient Buriall Place of New London," 
and the "most elaborately wrought stone in the place is erected to the mem- 
ory of Samuel Gray, who married Lucy, the daughter of Major Palmes. It 
is of purplish slate, small in size but thick, with a very skillfully carved 
border: "Here Lyes ye body of Mr. Samuel Gray, Aged 28 years and 7 months. 
Deed May ye 25th, 1713." As in the case of Capt. Grignon, what is known 
of his goldsmith business is learned from the inventory of the estate. For 
that early day, it was very valuable. Among the items were : 99 oz. of plate 
in 3 tankards, 3 cups, i spoon, 6 forks (this last an unusual item) ; more plate 
in buckles and buttons ; 76 oz. of plate ; 2^ oz. of gold "wanting 40 gr." ; 
silver plate, more gold plate, chafing dish ; "Gold Smith tooles and Implements 
with a parcel of enamel ; some Gold and Silver filings with other Small tooles, 
with a parcel of Charcoal." Listed under "Shop Goods" appeared "blue 
cotton, red cotton, buckram, linen, calico, kersey, crape, muslin, broadcloth, 
gloves, loco pins, lace, fans, knives, forks, scissors, buttons, needles, brass 
thimbles, chocolate grater, ribbon, silver lace, beads, spices, a barrel and one- 
half of molasses not good," silver sarvet. pewter, etc. The total amount was 
$539, but the debts amounted to $405. Samuel Gray had made his will before 
his marriage, leaving his estate to his mother, Susanna Gray, of Boston, 
widow; the widow Lucy Gray appealed from this will, and the mother ap- 
pointed her son "John Gray of Boston aforesaid, goldsmith," as her attorney. 
A settlement was reached by the mother (who seems to have received the 
goldsmith tools) and the widow, who later married, as second wife, Samuel 
Lyndes of Saybrook, Connecticut. She had no issue by either husband. 

John Gray came to New London in 1713 to settle his brother Samuel's 
estate; married there on October 21, 1714, Mary Christophers, daughter of 
Richard Christophers of New London, one of the most prominent men of the 
town. He continued the business of his brother, having a shop of assorted 
wares, and pursued his trade of goldsmith. He lived only a few years after 
coming to New London, dying in January, 1720, at the age of twcntv-eight 
years. He, too, was buried in the oldest cemetery in New London, where a 
stone still bears the inscription : "Here lies the body of Mr. John Gray, who 
died January ye 14th, 1720, aged twenty-eight years." The inventory of his 
estate included silver buttons, silver buckles, nine ounces of silver, etc. His 
estate was divided equally between his widow and his mother, Susanna Gray 


of Boston. Among the articles set off to his mother were "The gold smiths 
tooles, vi?. : bellows, anvil, Hammers, files and Implements of various sorts 
all belonging to the trade," and valued at six pounds. It is from these inven- 
tories that much is learned of the tools used by a goldsmith of early times. 
The widow married for a second husband, in 1721, Jonathan Prentis, of New 

The next goldsmith of whom anything is known in New London was 
Daniel Deshon, born about 1697. He was an apprentice of Captain Rene 
Grignon of Norwich, who in his will made the following provision for him: 
He gave "To Daniel Deshon all my Gooldfmith Tools and I Defire he may 
be bound out to fome suitable person in Boston till he arrive at the age of 
twenty one years, to learn the trade of Goldsmith. I also give him Pen 
pounds to be paid when said Daniel comes of age." He settled in New London, 
where he married Ruth, daughter of Christopher Christophers, Esq. He died 
in November, 1781 ; his wife died in 1775. Three of their sons were prominent 
in the War of the Revolution. Both are interred in the old burying ground 
in New London. The Deshon family were prominent in New London for 
many years, the wife, Ruth, being a descendant of Elder William Brewster, 
of the "Mayflower." 

Pygan Adams was born March 27, 1712, in New London, son of the Rev. 
Eliphalet and Lydia (Pygan) Adams of New London, and grandson of the 
Rev. William Adams of Dedham, Massachusetts, by his first wife, Mary 

Rev. Eliphalet Adams was for many years pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional Church in New London, and here his son Pygan was one of the dea- 
cons. Captain Pygan Adams held many prominent positions in his town, and 
represented the district in the General Assembly of the colony, most of the 
sessions between 1735 and 1765. He was at one time overseer of the Mohegan 
Indians, and one of the builders of the New London lighthouse. He is mostly 
mentioned as a merchant, but in a deed executed in 1736 his father called him 
a goldsmith, and as it is always interesting to learn something of a man from 
his cotemporaries, the following items are given from the "Diary of Joshua 
Hempstead" of New London, 1711-1758: 

1735, July 9 I pd Pygan Adams 37s for i pr of Gold Buttons & mending 
the Link of the other pr & he had the old link of them I lost. (Page 290.) 

1738, March 15, I went in to Town & bot 2 axes of Mr. Saltonstall & 
Some Plate Buttons of Pygan Adams. (Page 332.) 

1744, March 24 Got my Watch mended bv Pygan adams the main Spring 
being broke. (Page 423.) 

He was perhaps one of the best craftsmen of his kind in Connecticut; a 
fine porringer, with the mark "P. A.," a rat-tailed spoon and tankard, owned 
in Lyme, and several fine spoons owned on the eastern end of Long Island, 
are attributed to him, as no other silversmith with these initials is known. 
He died in July, 1776; the Rev. Robert Hallam, D.D., was one of his descend- 

Of the goldsmith, Theophilus Burrill or Burrell. nothing is known except 


what is learned from Hempstead's Diary above quoted. Under date of Jan- 
uar}^ I, 1738-39, he writes: "Mond fair & Exceeding Icy Slippery, the ground 
is al like Glass. I was at the Town meeting and ye Choice of Taverners & 
Theophilus Burrell a Goldsmith aged about ( ) Died with Convulsion fitts. 
he belonged to Boston but hath Sojourned in Town 2 or 3 years. January 3 
Burll buried." (Page 344.) Probably it was the same man who was so 
badly affected during that teriffic thunderstorm of August 31, 1735, of which 
Hempstead tells on page 293 of the Diary, when several people were killed 
by the lightning, and others were seriously injured "& one Burrell a Stranger 
in the Gallery by ye Stairs on ye East Side (of the church) were al Struck 
& by bleading & propper means they Recovered." 

For some years after the death of Capt. Rene Grignon in 1715, no record 
of a goldsmith in Norwich has been noted. In 1750, Capt. Charles Whiting 
leased some land from Daniel Tracy, "opposite Col. Jedediah Huntington's," 
and here had his shop. He was born in 1725, the son of Charles and Elizabeth 
(Bradford) Whiting, a descendant of Major William Whiting of Hartford, 
Connecticut, and of Governor William Bradford of Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts. In 1749 he married Honor, daughter of Hezekiah and Honor 
(Deming) Goodrich, of Wethersfield, and lived in Huntington lane. Captain 
Whiting died in 1765, as on August 6 of that year administration on his estate 
was granted to the widow. Honour Whiting. The inventory included "Spoon- 
punches, money scales, nest of weights, burnishers, draw plates, rings, silver 
seals, silver cost buttons, brass stamps, silver jewels, 17 pwt of gold," etc. 
His mark, or specimens of his work are not known. 

Of several of the gold and silversmiths of the time, only brief glimpses are 
vouchsafed. One of these is Samuel Post, born February 12, 1736, in Norwich, 
son of Samuel and Sarah (Griswold) Post. He is said to have practised his 
trade in New London, but went south after the Revolutionary War, and has 
not been further traced. Another was a Boston silversmith stopping in New 
London, of whom Hempstead notes, 1758: "Jan 27 Fryd a man belonging to 
Boston a Silversmith a Journeyman Died of a Consumption, his name was 
Richardson." "Saturd 28 fair and very cold. — Richardson buryed, a wife & 
I child at Boston." (Page 698.) 

W'illiam Adgate was born in Norwich in 1744, and died there in 1779; 
he married in 1767 his step-sister, Eunice Waterman, and lived on the Town 
street, now North Washington street, just above the Lowthorpe meadows, 
v.-here he had his goldsmith's shop. 

David Greenleaf was a goldsmith who lived in Norwich from 1761 to 
1769; he was born July 13, 1737, in Bolton, Massachusetts, son of Dr. Daniel 
and Silence (Marsh) Greenleaf. In 1763 he married Mary Johnston, of New 
London North Parish, now Montville, Connecticut, daughter of Samuel John- 
ston of Chesterfield Society, in New London. This Mary Johnston has been 
called daughter of Stephen and Mary (Kinne) Johnson, and also of Ebenezer 
and Deborah (Champion) Johnson, but a deed from David Greenleaf and 
wife Mary, then living in Windham, Connecticut, in 1778, shows that she was 
the daughter of Samuel Johnston of New London ; this family then spelled 
the name "Johnston," in distinction from the Johnsons. 


In October, 1761, David Greenleaf of Norwich, "Gooldsmith," purchased 
a piece of land on the Town street, "near Christopher Leffingwell's Shop." 
About 1769 he moved to Lancaster, Massachusetts, where he was living in 
March, 1772, but soon after went to Bolton, Massachusetts; in Windham and 
Coventry. Connecticut, in 1778. He died in Coventry, December 13, 1800. 
His wife Mary died in Hartford, at the home of her son, David Greenleaf, 
May I, 1814. His trade-mark was "D. Greenleaf," and articles made by him 
are owned in Norwich. 

Samuel Noyes was born November 3, 1747, in Groton, son of William 
and Sybil (Whiting) Noyes. His grandfather. Deacon John Noyes, had mar- 
ried as second wife Mrs. Elizabeth Whitin<j, so he probably learned the 
goldsmith's trade from his uncle, Captain Charles Whiting of Norwich. He 
married, in 1770, Abigail Harding, and set up his goldsmith's shop not at the 
Green at Norwich Town, where his uncle had located, but at "the Landing," 
as that portion of Norwich was called, and which by that time had begun 
to be settled as a business and residential section of the town. His advertise- 
ment appeared in the "Norwich Packet and the Weekly Advertiser," for 
September 22, 1779: "Wanted, as an Apprentice to the goldfmith and jew- 
eller's bufiness, an active BOY, of about 14 or 15 years of age — For furthe» 
particulars, enquire of SAMUEL NOYES in Norwich Landing. Auguft 

7,^- 1 779-" 

In 1777 he bought some land in the East Society of Norwich, "at a place 
called Pauquetannock Village, near the Head of the Cove Called by that 
name," and here he lived. This locality is always a puzzle to students of 
Norwich history ; at the time of Noyes' purchase, Poquetannock, as it is still 
called, was in the bounds of the town of Norwich, but in 1786 was set off 
to the town of Preston, and the dividing line between the town of Norwich 
and the part of Groton now included in Ledyard, went through the village. 
The Noyes family would naturally have attended the Congregational church 
at Long .Society (still so known) on the east side of the Shetucket river, but 
instead they were members of the Episcopal church, as told by the following 
item taken from Long Society Church records: "Norwich Jany 23: 1786. This 
is to Ccrtifie that Samuel Noyes Late of Norwich Deceased was at his Death 
and for Several Years before a professor of the Episcopal Church. Certified 
by John Tyler, Minister of the Episcopal Church in Norwich." This certifi- 
cate was given so that the widow would not have to pay a church rate to 
both churches. 

A gold or silversmith often worked at other trades, and it is stated that 
in 1775 Samuel Noyes made and repaired guns and bayonets for the light 
infantry. He was buried in Christ Church burying ground, and a stone bears 
the inscription : "In memory of Samuel Noyes, son of William Noyes, who 
died July 24th, 1781, in the 33d year of his age." 

Probably the most prominent silversmith of his day in Norwich was 
Thomas Harland, who was born in England in 1753, came to New England 
in 1773, and appeared in Norwich, Connecticut, that same }ear; he married 
Hannah Clark, daughter of EHsha and Hannah (LefTingAvell) Clark, the 
mother beirg of the old Lefifingwell family. The house built and occupied 


by him at Harland's corner is one of the picturesque old houses of the town. 
He was an experienced goldsmith, having served, according to the English 
custom, a long apprenticeship. At first he called himself a watch and clock 
maker from London ; he had his shop near the store of Christopher Lefifing- 
well, and seems to have immediately secured a large and constantly increasing 
trade. He advertised extensively and employed ten or twelve hands con- 
stantly. It is said that his annual output was two hundred watches and forty 
clocks. Clocks made by him are still in use ; one of them stands in the hall 
in the Harland homestead. His skill as a silversmith is well demonstrated 
by some beautiful old pieces in possession of the family — a heavy silver ladle ; 
a porringer, with a cover, which was unusual ; spoons, large and small, with 
a dainty shell design on the handle. His talent was also demonstrated in 
another direction; when the town of Norwich wanted a fire engine, he drew 
plans and assisted in carrying them out. 

He died in 1807, and the inventory of his estate is most interesting in 
the number and make of the watches, &c. ; also the large number of books 
in his library was an unusual collection for those da}S, and included a large 
number of French works. Among his apprentices were David Greenleaf, 
Nathaniel Shipman, William Cleveland, grandfather of President Grover 
Cleveland, perhaps Joseph Carpenter, and others. Eli Terry, of clock fame, 
and Daniel Burnap, the clock-maker and silversmith of East Windsor, Con- 
necticut, were also his apprentices. A descendant, Henry Harland, was a 
well known author, who wrote under the nom de plume of "Sidney Luska." 

Jonathan Trott was born in 1734, and was a jeweler and goldsmith in 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1772; in 1778 he was in business in Norwich, Con- 
necticut, where on April 12, his son, George Washington Trott, was bap- 
tized at the First Church of that town. He also kept the tavern on Norwich 
Town Green, later known as the Peck tavern ; he is said by the Hon. Charlesi 
Miner, a native of Norwich, but later of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, to have 
been an ardent patriot, and one of Mr. Miner's earliest recollections was the 
thunder of the cannon in front of the tavern when peace was proclaimed 
in 1784. 

In the "Connecticut Gazette" of December 18, 1783, Jonathan Trott, 
Innholder, of Norwich, has a notice to the eflFect that the meeting of the 
Medical Society of New London County would be postponed by adjournment 
till January, 1784. On the 22nd of same month he was one of the signers 
for a charter for the city of Norwich. Before 1790 he had removed to New 
London, where he died October 4, 1815, at the age of 81 years. His wife was 
Elizabeth Proctor, and one of his sons was named John Proctor Trott. Sev- 
eral pieces of his work remain to testify to his skill as a silversmith. Two 
of his sons, Jonathan Trott, Junior, and John Proctor Trott, followed their 
father's trade. Jonathan, Jr., died February 17, 1813, aged 42 years. There 
is said to be owned in Lyme a tea-set of the style popular about 1810, and 
bearing the mark, "I. T.," which was ascribed to this younger Jonathan. 

John Proctor Trott was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1769. learned 
his trade of his father, and removed with him to New London. In 1793 John 
P. Trott and William Cleveland bought a parcel of land in New London, on 


the street leading from the court house to the market, Cleveland selling his 
part in 1794 to Trott. This same year. Trott and Cleveland purchased another 
parcel of land. John P. Trott married. December 11, 1796, Lois Chapman, 
daughter of Capt. Joseph Chapman, of Norwich ; both are buried in Cedar 
Grove Cemetery in New London. Their home stood where the Mohican 
Hotel now stands; in the deeds the lot was referred to as Hill's or Erving's 
lot. Miss Caulkins, in her "History of New London, Connecticut," published 
in 1852, writes: "Where the Trott mansion now stands is supposed to have 
been the place where stood the house of Charles Hill, fortified in the time of 
the Indian War. The present house was built by Samuel Fosdick, at the head 
of Niantic river, but taken apart, brought into town, and erected in 1786. It 
has Deen occupied by J. P. Trott, its present owner, more than half a century " 
In the second edition of the "History of New London," under the heading of 
"New London in i860," she adds. "The Trott house, an ancient building on 
State street, antique and venerable in its appearance, but of post-Revolution- 
ary date, was taken down in 1854. It stood at the corner of Meridian street, 
a site occupied in the infancy of the town by the house of Mr. Charles Hill, 
which was one of the six fortified houses of King Philip's War in 1676." Next 
to the Mohican Hotel, on Meridian street, is an old house with an old garden, 
which its occupants say was built by John P. Trott; they also say that his 
shop was on State street, between where Perry & Stone have their jewelry 
store, and the corner of Bank street, long called Keeny's corner. A consid- 
erable number of articles of silver made by him bear his mark, "JPT," in cap- 
ital letters, or "JPT" in script. Trott & Cleveland advertised in 1792, and 
Trott eS: Brooks in 1798. 

Robert Douglas was born in New London, in 1740, and in 1766 he adver- 
tised that his silversmith's shop was next door to Capt. Titus Hurlbut's, and 
that he made shoe and knee buckles, cha])es and tongues, buttons, stones, 
crystal rings, sparks, and cyphered earrings. He died at Canterbury, Con- 
necticut, while on his way home from Boston to New London, in 1776, while 
serving his country in the War of the Revolution. 

John Gardiner was another goldsmith of New London ; he was born 
October 7, 1734, in New London, Connecticut, the son of Dr. Jonathan and 
Mary (Adams) Gardiner, and grandson of Rev. Eliphalet Adams, and a 
descendant of the Gardiner family of Gardiner's Island. He probably learned 
the trade of his uncle, Pygan Adams; he died in 1776, and his inventory filed 
in 1777 includes a long list of silversmith's tools, among which were two 
stamps used as his trade-mark, "J : Gardner" in a rectangle. The silver cup 
belonging to the Berkeley Divinity School is an example of his skillful 

John Champlin was born about 1745, and had a shop in New London, 
which was entered by burglars in 1779 and a number of articles stolen; among 
them were "12 strings of gold beads; 40 pairs of silver shoe buckles and a 
parcel of silver knee buckles ; 3 or 4 silver plated and pinchbeck knee buckles ; 
6 silver table spoons; 3 dozen tea spoons; 10 silver watches; a large quantity 
of watch chains, keys, main springs, stock buckles, stone rings, jewels, 
broaches, etc." When New London was burned September 6, 1781, his loss 


was estimated at £104-8-5, and on November 30, 1781, he notified his old cus- 
tomers and others that since tlie destruction of his shop by the enemy he had 
erected a new one by his dwelling in Main street. He died June 18, 1800, a 
record stating that he was a goldsmith and died of dropsy at the age of 55 
years. According to the land records of North Kingstown, R. I., in 1779, a 
Thomas Bissell, a native of the place, conveys some land, and in the deed 
cals himself a goldsmith, of New London, Connecticut. 

John Hallam, son of Nicholas and Elizabeth (Latimer) Hallam, was born 
October 7, 1752, in New London, and died there May 7, 1800. He married 
(first) Mary Harris, and (second) Elizabeth Prentice. In 1773 he advertised 
"At his shop near the signpost, makes and sells all kinds of goldsmiths and 
jewellers work as cheap as can be had in this Colony." He engraved the 
plates for the bills of credit issued by the Colony in 1775. When New Lon- 
don was burned in 1781, among those who suffered "by the ravages of the 
British army" was John Hallam. John Hallam lost £417-10-0; a John Hallam 
& Benjamin Harris lost £300, and Edward and John Hallam lost £310. No 
specific mention is made in the inventory of his estate of tools used for the 
goldsmith work, but did include a large quantity of silver; two tankards, a 
can, a cup, two porringers, milk-pot, pepper-pot, punch ladle, sugar bowl, 
table and tea spoons, a soup spoon, and "i French Fork." 

Ezra Dodge, born in 1766, was one of the silversmiths who combined 
several occupations ; in "A Short Account of the Yellow Fever as it appeared 
in New London in August, September and October, 1798," in the list of 
deaths is that of "Ezra Dodge, watch maker, clock maker, gold and silver 
smith, brass founder, gunsmith, locksmith, grocer, &c. &c. 32. An ingenious 
mechanic, good man and valuable citizen." A local record notes among the 
deaths, "August 29, 179S, Ezra Dodge, goldsmith, interred by the masons." 
Among the debts due to the estate were those of Widow Warner of Wind- 
ham, William Brian of New York, and Church & Havens of New York. 

John Greenleaf, born in 1778, was probably an apprentice; he also died 
in the yellow fever epidemic, and in the account mentioned above is "Jofeph 
Greenleaf, gold and filver fmith 20." 

Gurdon Tracy was born in Norwich, January 18, 1767, son of Isaac 
Tracy, Jr., and his wife, Elizabeth Rogers, of New London ; he advertised 
as conducting a silversmith business in Norwich in 1787, but was in New 
London before 1791, when he purchased a small lot of land "on which his 
Goldsmith's Shop now stands." He also combined this business with other 
trades, and the following letter in regard to the clock in the tower of the new 
church in New London is of interest in that connection ; the letter was dated 
at Norwich, December i, 1790, and written by Thomas Harland of Norwich 
to Marvin Wait: 

Sr. Being unwell I sent the Bearer to ?ee what was amiss in your clock 
from whence he has just now returned. Had the person who winds the clock 
known where to have apply'd a few drops of oyl the difficulty would have been 
prevented ; from whence you will see the proprietj' of having the clock wound 
up by a person who is acquainted with the business. Mr. Gurdon Tracy was 
at my house last week and says He would be glad to v.'ind up and take the 


whole care of it for a reasonable compensation. Should you see cause to give 
him the charge of it I have no doubt of his doing it to the satisfaction of all 
concerned. At the same time should any part of the work fail or give way I 
shall be every ready to wait u])on you at the shortest notice. 
Your most obliged humble Servant 

Thomas Harland. 

His suggestion was acted upon, for on January 9, 1792, the society com- 
mittee gave Tracy an order for forty shillings for keeping the clock in repair 
for one year to dale. Gurdon Tracy made his will on June 22, 1792, and died 
July 10 or II, 1792. He gives "or releases to my honored father, Isaac Tracy, 
whatever balance may be due to me from him," and the same to his brother 
Erastus Tracy, and the balance is given to his wife Lucy. He was buried in 
the "Anticnt Buriall Place of New London," where a stone bears the inscrip- 
tion, "In memory of Mr. Gurdon Tracy who died July 11, 1792, in the 26th 
year of his age." 

The inventory of his estate, taken July 18, 1792, shows that he had a full 
equipment for carrying on his trade, and is here given as an illustration of the 
kind and variety of tools and implements used just previous to 1800. In- 
cluded were an "anvil, i Tankard 58V2 oz, i Can. i Porringer, 2 bottom stakes, 
I soup spoon punch, a child spoon punch. Swage for porringer bottoms. Stake 
for punch ladle, a Milk pot anvill, 5 pitching hammers, i Raising hammer, 
I Booging hammer, 2 forging hammers, i small planishing hammer, i small 
round punch, i salt spoon punch, i pr Iron screws for casting, a large vice, 
a smaller one, smallest, a Lathe, a large Ingot Skillet, vice tongs, flasks, 
hollow stamping iron, Stake, 7 hammers, 15 punches, a teaspoon punch, Ladle 
ditto. Sheers and sundry small things, forging tongs, plating mill, 2 bullets, 
a Brace Kitt, Gun brasses, Watch Engine, Drawer of Buckle patterns, a clock 
engine. Drills, Engravers, Burnishers, a blow-pipe, plating nippers, plyers, 
springs, mandrill, square and magnet, watch-making tools, a variety of small 
watch tools, 4 cases stakes, 2 sett of beadtools, compasses, magnifying glass, 
Turkey oil stone, drawer of buckle tools, vice plates, ring measure, moulds, 
grindstones, also shoe, knee, stock and boot buckles all of silver, silver steeltop 
thimbles, English buckles, horse buckles, sleeve buttons, stone jewels, gold 
jewels, locket, chain, seals, pennants and bows, silver bars, chrystals, hatpins, 
and the goldsmith's shop and land." A silver tankard nine inches high, made 
by "G. Tracy" of Norwich, in 1790, is now owned in Minneapolis, Minn. 
Gurdon Tracy's mother belonged to a well-known and wealthy New London 
family, which may account for his having established himself in New London. 

Erastus Tracy, brother of Gurdon, was born December 31, 1768, in Nor- 
wich, where in 1790 he advertises as follows: 

The fubscriber has lately opened a SHOP oppofite Capt. Jabez Perkins 
Store at Norwich Landing; where he carries on the CLOCK and WATCH 
making GOLDSMITH and JEWELLER'S bufiness ; thofe who pleafe to 
favour him with their cuftom may depend on the ftricteft attention and dif- 
patch by their humble fervant. ERASTUS TRACY. Norwich Landing, 
Sept. 30, 1790. 

After the death of his brother Gurdon he appears to have removed to 
N.I-.— i-sn 


New London, perhaps taking his brother's shop, but did not live many years. 
His death occurred on August 17, 1796, and is noted as "Erastus Tracy 
formerly of Norwich, aged 26 years, of consumption." 

Another goldsmith of New London county was John Breed, who was 
born November 15, 1752, in Stonington, the son of John and Silence (Grant) 
Breed. His relative, Gershom Breed, had business dealings with people in 
Colchester, which may have influenced John Breed to remove to Colchester, 
where he married. May 19, 1773, Lucy Bulkley, who belonged to the old and 
influential Bulkley family. His house stood near the meeting house in 
Colchester, on the Town street, which in early days was called the "Gov- 
ernor's road," and was the main highway leading from Hartford to New 
London. The Rev. Salmon Cone, for thirty-eight years minister of the First 
Congregational Church, was his next door neighbor. In passing through 
Colchester, attention is attracted by the fine broad grass plots lying between 
the sidewalks and the street. The highway, or Governor's road, was laid out 
very wide, and in 1807 the inhabitants of Colchester voted to sell some of 
this land, not needed for the road. In 1808 the town sold to Lucy Breed 
some of the land in front of her house, "near Collins' hill, so called," the line 
beginning at a "Large Rock at the mouth of Mutton lane, so called." 

In the "Connecticut Gazette" of May 3, 1776, John Breed of Colchester 
advertised as a goldsmith. It is probable that in the latter years of his life 
he turned his attention to farming, for the inventory of his estate showed 
very little in the line of his trade, except his silversmith's anvil and a case 
of tools. He died May 2, 1803; by his will made November 11, 1798, he left 
all his estate to his wife Lucy Breed, including "a right in the Colchester 
Library, and 1500 acres of land in the tov.'n of Newton, Susquehannah." After 
her husband's death, Lucy lived in the house with her two handmaidens, 
Hannah Bunce and Nabby Hazard, whose faithful services she remembered 
in her will. Among other legacies she left to the town of Colchester $500 
"to be applied toward building a house for the poor of the Town." The 
inventory of her estate included the cherished "Case of Silversmith's tools" 
and the silversmith's anvil. This is undoubtedly the case which was sold in 
191 1 to a well-known collector of old silver. 

John and Lucy (Bulkley) Breed are buried in the old cemetery back of 
the Bacon Academy, near the Bulkley family. The inscriptions on their 
gravestones are as follows: "Sacred to the Memory of Mr. John Breed, who 
died May 2d. 1803, in the 51st year of his age." "Sacred to the memory of 
Mrs. Lucy Breed, wife of Mr. John Breed, who died Dec. 30, 1821, aged 72 

Joseph Carpenter was born in Norwich in 1747, the son of Joseph and 
Elizabeth (Lathrop) Carpenter; as early as 1769 he was established in busi- 
ness as a goldsmith, in a shop belonging to his step-father, for which he paid 
a yearly rent. In 1772 he purchased boards and stones for "stoning the 
seller," and for the underpinning of a shop; in 1773 he bought stepstones, 
shingle nails and eight scaffold poles, so it may be assumed that it was about, 
this date that he built the interesting building now used by Faith Trumbull 
Chapter, D. A. R., as a museum. In 1774 and for some years after, he paid 


rent to the Rev. Benjamin Lord, for the church society, for the land "my 
shop stands on." After the parsonage lands are ceded to the church he 
received a nine hundred and ninety-nine years lease of this land, then known 
as lot No. 4. It is said that he occupied one side of the shop, while his 
brother carried on a mercantile business in the other part. The building has 
been very little altered, and still retains its gambrel roof and old-fashioned 
shutters and all the features of a shop of the olden times. His stock in trade 
consisted of gold necklaces, and beads, rings and stone earrings, teaspoons, 
smelling bottles "specktacals" or '"specticls," stone nubs, bonnet pins, "torta- 
shell buttons," brass holberds, cristols, knee and stock buckles, watches and 
clocks. He also advertises in January, 1776, that he has for sale engravings 
of "four different views of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, ike, copied from 
origmal Paintings taken on the Spot. The price is six shillings per set for 
the plain engravmgs and eight shillings for the colored ones." 

He married, in 1775, Eunice Fitch, and built the house next to the shop, 
where Joseph Carpenter, the third of the name, lived, occupying the old store 
for the general merchandise business. After the latter's death, when the old 
store was looked over, an interesting copper plate which had belonged to the 
goldsmith was found. "Wm Robinson, Sculpt" was the engraver. At the 
top are the words, "Arts and Sciences," a tea set, a flying cherub, a tall clock, 
a globe, a ship in full sail, a knife box, are among the group, while the inscrip- 
tion is "Joseph Carpenter, Goldfmith and Jeweller." His trade-mark seems 
to have been "I C" in a square, and later on "J C" in a square. He died in 1804. 

His son, Charles Carpenter, who settled in Boston, Massachusetts, learned 
the trade from him ; perhaps also Henry and Rufus Farnham were his appren- 
tices. Henry Farnham was born in Norwich in 1773, son of Ephriam and 
Sarah (Hunn) Farnham or Farnum. In September, 1807, Charles Carpenter, 
of Boston, jeweler, sold to Rufus Farnham and Henry Farnham, both of 
same Boston, jewelers, his one-sixth part of the house, shop, store, and land 
lately occupied by his father, Joseph Carpenter, situated on the plain near 
the courthouse. Another apprentice ma}' have been George Dennis, who was 
baptized Sept. 3, 1749, at the First Church of Norwich, the son of George and 
Desire (Bliss) Dennis. He advertised in Norwich in 1778, as a gold and 
silversmith, but little is known of him. 

Another silversmith who learned his trade of Joseph Carpenter was 
Roswell Huntington, born in 1763, in Norwich, son of Ebenezer and Sarah 
(Edgerton) Huntington. A family record written by Fanny Lord Rogers 
about 1843, about some of her relatives, including the Edgertons, states that 
"Sarah Edgerton married for her first husband, Ebenezer Huntington, by him 
she had one son. Mr. Huntington declined of consumption, went to the south 
for his health and died there. The son learnt the silversmith trade of Mr. 
Joseph Carpenter & went to Hillsborough N. Carolina." In 1784 he adver- 
tised his place of goldsmith and jeweler as opposite the store of Gen. Jedediah 

There was a Philip Huntington born Sept. 26, 1770, son of Benjamin and 
Mary (Carew) (Brown) Huntington. He was chosen town clerk in 1801. 
immediately on the death cf his father, who held thr.t position. It is said 


that the town clerk's office was a small gambrel-roofed building painted red 
and standing close to the street. An ell was added on one side and this was 
used at times as a shop. A spoon with the mark "P H" has always been said 
to have been the work of this Philip Huntington, and he may have combined 
this business with that of town clerk. He died in 1825, his wife Phila Grist 
having died in 1806. 

William Cleveland, son of Aaron and Abiah (Hyde) Cleveland, was born 
December 20, 1770, in Norwich; he was one of the apprentices of Thomas 
Harland, from whom he learned the jeweler's trade and watch and clock 
making. For a time he was in New London associated with John Proctor 
Trott under the firm name of Trott & Cleveland. He went to New York for 
a time but returned to Norwich, where in 1830 he bought some property of 
the Lord heirs; next to the house he built a small shop where he carried on 
the silversmith and watch business. On page 296 of Barber's "Historical 
Collections of Connecticut" is a view of the Norwich Town Green, in which 
this shop is shown. An old lady long since dead remembered the shop because 
of its sign, an immense wooden watch hung above the door. Many spoons 
made by him are owned in Norwich ; his mark w^as an index hand in a square, 
the name "Cleveland" in a long rectangle, and an eagle, displayed, in a circle. 
He married Margaret Falley, and his son, Richard Falley Cleveland, was the 
father of Grover Cleveland, late President of the United States. Deacon 
William Cleveland later lived in Worthington and Salem, Massachusetts, and 
in Zanesville, Ohio, where he was associated with a Mr. Bliss. He died at 
Black Rock, New York, in 1837. 

A William Gurley, born in Mansfield in 1764, advertised in Norwich 
in 1804, but evidently did not long remain. 

Nathaniel Shipman was an apprentice of Thomas Harland ; he was born 
in Norwich, May 17, 1764, son of Nathaniel Shipman and his second wife, 
Elizabeth Leffingwell. He set up in business for himself, and his advertise- 
ment appeared in the Norwich "Packet" for October 8, 1790: 

CASH given for Old Gold & Silver, by NATHANIEL SHIPPMAN. who 
has for fale Clocks, Watches, & a general Assortment of Gold Smiths Work. 
Norwich, Sept. i, 1790. 

He became a man of considerable influence in the town, which he repre- 
sented many times in the legislature; he was judge of the county court and 
judge of probate. He died in Norwich, July 14, 1853. Besides his silversmith 
work, he also made clocks, some of which are still in use in Norwich homes. 
He was grandfather of the late Judge Nathaniel Shipman. 

Abel Brewster, born February 6, 1775, son of Benjamin and Elizabeth 
(Witter) Brewster, had a goldsmith shop on the meeting house green in 
Canterbury, Connecticut, where his brother, Walter Brewster, also lived. 
In the "Courier," published at Norwich, April 3, 1799, J. Huntington & Co. 
advertise among other things, "Table and Tea Spoons made to any pattern 
by Abel Brewster of Canterbury, may be had of Huntington & Co., also orders 
for any kind of Goldsmith and Jewellry Articles left with them will be 
executed by faid Brewster with neatness and dispatch. Norwich Port, March 
26, 1799." 



In November, 1804, he seems to have set up his shop in Norwich Land- 
ing, and advertises that he is now selling for the most reasonable prices in 
cash or approved notes, a variety of warranted middling and low prized 
watches, chains, seals, keys, warranted silver table, tea, salt and mustard 
spoons; su.aar tongs, silver thimbles, a variety of fashionable gold ear rings, 
knobs, lockets, bosom pins, and finger rings; warranted gold necklaces of 
superior quality; ladies' and gentlem.en's morocco pocket books; pen knives, 
most kinds of watch materials and a variety of other articles in his line. 
"N.B. All kinds of Watches repaired with the utmost punctuality and dis- 
patch. Cash and the highest price given for old gold and silver." On 
February 27, 1805, he advertises, "A SUCCESSOR WANTED— ABEL 
BREWSTER. Finding the care necessary in his business too great for the 
present state of his health, offers to dispose of his whole stock in Business, 
consisting of Watches, Furnishing Materials, Jewelry, Silver and Fancy 
Work, Tools, &c, &c. He thinks the call highly worth}- the attention of some 
Gentleman of the profession. Also for sale, the house, shop and garden 
formerly occupied by him and beautifully situated on Canterbury Green." 
In "The Courier" of April 3. 1803, he announces that "Having disposed of 
his business to Messrs Judah Hart and Alvin Wilcox, he requests all persons 
indebted to him (whose debts have become due) to make immediate payment 
without further notice." He died in 1807, and the inventory of his estate 
included a small house and lot "in Swallowall" (now Franklin Square) in 

The day of the old-time gold or silversmith had nearly passed ; much of 
the work was now done by machinery, and while spoons still continued to 
be occasionally made, • et seldom has a good specimen been found in this 
section of later-day work. 

Judah Hart was born in New Britain, in 1777; began business in Middle- 
town in 1800, and was in partnership with Charles Brewer, and in 1803 with 
Jonathan Bliss. In March or April, 1805, with Alvan Wilcox, he purchased 
the business of Abel Brewster, in Norwich, Connecticut; and on April 30, 
1805, they advertise for sale a number of second-hand clocks, watches, jewel- 
er's and silversmith's tools. Many spoons bearing the mark of "H & W," 
with an index hand, are in use in Norwich. In 1809 Wilcox sold his share 
to Hart, who then used the index hand, and the letters "J. Hart." "Hart & 
Wilcox" had also been used as the firm's trade-mark. In 1815, Judah Hart 
bought some land in Norwich, on Franklin Square, which in 1816 he sold to 
Thomas C. Coit and Elisha H. Mansfield. He then seems to have been for 
a time in Griswold, Connecticut, and later removed to Brownsville, Ohio. 

The Alvan Wilcox who was associated for a few years with Judah 
Hart in Norwich, was born in Berlin, Connecticut, in 1783. In 1824 he was 
living in New Haven, Connecticut, and his shop was on the southwest corner 
of Church and Chapel streets, where a number of early silversmiths were 
located before his day. The evolution of the business is shown by the fact 
that in 1841 he is called a silver worker; in 1850 a gold and silver thimble and 
spectacle maker, and in 1857 a silver-plater. He died in 1865. 


Eliphaz Hart, a younger brother of Judah Hart, born in 1789, in New 
Britain, Connecticut, learned the trade of his brother, Judah; spoons having 
the mark of E. Hart are in existence, but he probably did not continue in the 
business for long. He died in Norwich, in the suburb known as Greeneville, 
in 1866. 

The firm of Coit & Mansfield, which in 1816 bought out the business of 
Judah Hart, carried a much different stock of goods from the previous owner; 
in April of that year they advertise that they have just received and oflfer 
for sale, "a good assortment of Military Goods viz Elegant silver and gilt 
epauletts ; silver Lace ; gold and silver cord ; tinsel do ; elegant gold and gilt 
Hat Loops ; Sword Knots ; do Hangers ; horseman's brass mounted Swords ; 
artillery do; Pistols; Plumes; Feathers; Stocks; Cockades; Red Cord for 
trimming pantaloons etc. They expect in a few days an assortment of very 
nice military Guns Likewise for sale English and French watches (which 
will come low & warranted) ; elegant gilt Watch Chains; Seals & Keys; Silk 
Chains; Knives; Beads; Spoons; and Jewellry as usual." This stock was laid 
in evidently in response to the demand for such articles following the War 
of 1812. If one doubted as to whom or where such goods could be sold, the 
following might be the answer. At a town meeting held in Norwich Sep- 
tember 15, 1814, "Whereas from the great number of Merchant ships which 
are laid up in this Harbour, the Contiguity of three Publick Vessels of War, 
(one of which is peculiarly an Object of the enemy's wishes) the great 
number of Cotton, Woolen, Flour and other valuable Manufactories ; a public 
arsenal, and divers ship yards. Together with the peculiar local situation of 
this City, and its Adjacent Villages and districts at the head of Navigation 
on the River, the same are eminently in danger, assailable by the Enemy and 
Subject (unless personally defended) to his threatened waste and Destruction, 
And Whereas if an invasion were renewed at the Eastern end of the Sound, 
it would be doubtless so conducted as to leave no hope that a military force 
could be spared from the New London station for our defence And from 
the suden manner in which a descent of the Enemy may be made, the work 
of Outrage & Destruction may be completed before the militia of the Adja- 
cent territory can be brought to the defence of the State, while the encreasmg 
strength of New York (by rendering hopeless an attack there) and the ad- 
vanced season of the year, renders our situation daily more critical & alarm- 
ing disquieted as we arc with general terror & anxiety," the petitioners 
requested His Excellency the commander-in-chief and the ofificers of this 
military district to send two thousand of the military forces of the State to 
be stationed in or near this city. Some spoons owned in Norwich have the 
mark "C. M." with the index hand used by Hart & Wilcox. 

Thomas Chester Coit, one of the partners, belonged to the old Coit 
family of Norwich, where he was born in 1791 ; he was apprenticed at the age 
of fourteen years, and was in the silversmith business in Norwich for four- 
teen years; later he moved to Natchez, Miss., and died in New York. 

Elisha Hyde Mansfield, the other partner, was born in Norwich in 1795, 
died in Norwich, married Sally Davison, and named one of his sons Chester 
Coit Mansfield. He was a son of William and Hannah (Hyde) Mansfield, 


and the old house known as the Mansfield house stood on the original home 
lot of the Hydes. 

After iboo, the persons who worked at all at the old silversmith's trade 
made little but spoons, but had manufactured articles for sale. 

Roswell Walstein Roath was born in Norwich, in 1805, the son of Ros- 
well and Eunice (Tyler) Roath, and grandson of the Rev. John Tyler. In the 
"Courier" of October 25, 182b, he advertised that he had just returned from 
New York and had for sale "Watches, Jewellry & Fancy Hardware, fifes, 
clarionets, spectacles &.c." His store was on the corner of Main and Sheiucket 
streets, where later Kinney and then Parlin kept a similar store. Roswell W. 
Roath removed with two sons to Denver, Colorado, where they all died. 

Thomas Kinney had this location at a later date, and one elderly lady 
of the town remembered it as the place where she used to buy a thimble-fuU 
ot beads for a cent. Samples of his work as a silversmith are seen, with 
his mark of "T. K." S. R. Parlin occupied, it is said, this corner, before he 
moved to the opposite corner. His mark was "S. R. Parlin — Pure Coin." 

Elisha Tracy Huntington, born 1817, died 1859, married Malvina, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Thomas Goswell ; he is called "a jeweller." His brother married a 
daughter of Thomas Kinney. His store was on the corner now occupied by 
the Norwich Savings Society, and which was afterwards occupied by a Mr. 
Faulkner and still later by S. R. Parlin. This store is of interest as the inn 
where General Washington rested on the night of June 30, 1775. It has been 
taken down in recent years to make way for the new building erected by the 
Norwich Savings Society. 

This completes, so far as is known, the workers in gold and silver in 
Norwich and vicinity. Many fine examples of the work of the old gold and 
silversmiths are cherished in this part of Connecticut, and the beauty of 
hnish, delicacy of work and the graceful forms, make one sigh again for the 
vanished days when the craftsman loved his work and gave to it of his best. 

There were a few silversmiths who carried on that business m Preston 
and Stonington, Connecticut. 

John Avery, born December 6, 1732, died July 23, 1794, in Preston, was 
a son of John and Anna (Stanton) Avery, both from old families of New 
London and Stonington. He was a farmer and goldsmith, having taken up 
the latter trade at a comparatively late period in life, on account of a partial 
failure of his health. He possessed much mechanical ingenuity, as illustrated 
by the fact that he studied out and carried into effect the entire process of 
making a brass-wheeled clock without ever having learned the trade. In 
addition to his farming work, he carried on quite an extensive business in 
manufacturing clocks, silver shoe buckles, knee buckles, silver spoons and 
gold beads, employing, it is said, at times as man}- as seven journeymen and 
apprentices. Four of his sons, John, Jr., Samuel, William and Robert, learned 
of him the goldsmith's trade. Clocks made by him are still seen, also spoons, 
beads, etc. When the Revolutionary W'ar broke out, being in poor health 
and having a growing family, he could not go, but procured a substitute, and 
served on various committees at home. Two of his sons, John and Samuel, 
in company with many other young men from Preston and the neighboring 


towns, were on their way to the fort in Groton when it was captured by the 
British in September, 1781. 

Among the goldsmith's tools included in his inventory was one not here- 
tofore named, viz. "7 Love whirls and arbors." His trade mark was "L A." 
in a small square, and some spoons made by him have a little rose (?) orna- 
ment where the handle is joined to the bowl. An old account book belonging 
to him and beginning March 14, 1762, has an interesting list of articles made 
or repaired by him. The number of silver dollars brought to be made into 
spoons, and clocks to be mended, was rather surprising, for Avery lived some 
distance in the country on Avery (now called Preston) Plains. The house 
where he lived and had his shop is still standing. 

John Avery, son of the above, worked with his father at the trade of 
silversmith and clock maker, but little is known of his work; he was born in 
1755, and died in 1815. Samuel Avery, another son, also learned the trade of 
silversmith, but seems to have turned his attention more to other things, and 
was the inventor of a nail-cutting machine. He was born in 1760 and died 
in 1836. Of William Avery, another son, litle is known of him as a worker 
in gold and silver; probably all articles made in the father's shop bore the 
father's trade-mark, though perhaps made by one of the sons. Of Robert 
Stanton Avery, another son, born in 1771, died in 1846, more is known. He 
lived and died in the house in which he was born, situated on the east side of 
Avery's Plains, in Preston. Some examples of his handiwork in gold and 
silver are now in the possession of descendants. A story is told of six table- 
stones made by him ; one day "Granny Treat" Brewster, so-called because 
her maiden name was Treat, brought to the shop six Spanish silver dollars 
to be made into spoons for her granddaughters. She had the spoons marked 
"D. B." (Dorothy Brewster), and gave two spoons each to her three grand- 
daughters. Robert made the spoons under his father's directions, and when 
they were finished he placed them in his hatband, stem down, and rode off 
on horseback to deliver them. In the course of time, Robert married one of 
the granddaughters, and so two of the spoons came back ; then on her death, 
he married another of the grandaughters, and two more came back. At the 
old-fashioned supper of bread and milk or mush and milk, if any other spoon 
was handed to Robert, he would say, "Oh, I want one of my own spoons!" 
One of these particular spoons is in a Norwich home, while others are in 

After his father's death, Robert gave up the silversmith business and 
devoted himself to farming; he became a successful breeder of blooded 
stock, and his herd of deep-red cattle was one of the finest anywhere around. 
He also engaged in wool-growing and had a large flock of sheep. He was 
captain of the militia company and justice of the peace; is said to have been 
the first man in the town to use a cast iron plow and to own a wagon, and 
held many public offices. 

Daniel Billings was a goldsmith who was in business in Poquetannock 
Village in 1795, as learned from an old account book owned by Isaac Greer 
of that place. Little is known of him, but spoons with the mark "D. Billings" 
are in the possession of some whose grandparents lived in Poquetannock, on 





the line between the present town of Ledyard and the town of Preston. 

Another worker, Christopher Gallup, born June 22, 1764, in North Groton 
(now Ledyard), Connecticut, was the son of Col. Nathan Gallup, a brave 
soldier of the Revolution, and his wife, Sarah Giddings. He died July 30, 
1849. The house where he lived in Ledyard is still standing-, in good repair, 
and the room in which he used to work at his silversmith's trade is pointed 
out by his descendants. His mark was "C. G.," and from the quality of the 
work on these spoons it is more than probable that he made other articles, 
but so far none have been identified. 

In Stonington, Connecticut, a David Main, born 1752, died 1843, perhaps 
the son of Jeremiah and Thankful (Brown) Main, was called a gold or 
silversmith, but his work is not known. 

There were three of the Stanton name who lived in Stonington, and there 
pursued the calling of a silversmith. Enoch Stanton was born in 1745, and 
perished at the massacre of Fort Griswold, in September, 1781. He held the 
rank of lieutenant, and on April 8, 1783, his widow sent the following to 
Captain William Latham : "Sir, please to send me by the bearer hereof, Mr. 
Zebulon Stanton, the sum of Fifty pounds of my deceased husband (Lieut. 
Enoch Stanton's) wages for his service in Fort Griswold and his receipt shall 
discharge you from the same. (Signed) Wait Stanton." He left a widow 
and seven small children, the oldest about twelve years old. 

His brother, Zebulon Stanton, was born in 1753 and died in 1828; the 
house which he built about 1776 faces the Park, and the beautiful spreading 
elms before it testify to its age. The house is large, and the ell at the right, 
with its two large show windows full of small panes of glass, was formerly 
the shop where he worked at his trade. Spoons made by him, with his mark, 
"Z. S.," are owned by Stonington people. 

A Daniel Stanton was a silversmith in Stonington, but which Daniel is 
not definitely settled. His mark, "D. Stanton," would indicate a later date 
than the two above mentioned. Daniel, brother of Enoch and Zebulon Stan- 
ton, peri.shed at the massacre of Fort Griswold, but a Daniel, son of Daniel 
and Mary (Eldridge) Stanton, was also in the fort at that time, was wounded, 
but recovered, and died in later years. 


Two hundred and fifty years ago, when colonists were seek- 
ing homes in the land called by them New England in memory of the England 
which they had left, a company of men purchased a tract of land "nine miles 
square," "lying and being at Moheagan," in the Colony of Connecticut. 

Few as yet were the settlements in the colony. Hartford, Windsor and 
Wethersfield were established in the Connecticut Valley between 1633 and 
1636, and Saybrook, at the mouth of the river, in 1635; in the western section. 
New Haven was founded in 1638; while in the eastern part a grant had been 
made to Mr. Winthrop in 1644 for "a plantation at or near Pequod"; this 
plantation became in time the present town of New London. The nine miles 
square which the white men bought in 1659 of their red brothers, "Onkos, 
Owaneco, Attanwanhood, Sachems of Mohegan," was situated fourteen miles 


north of the Pequot plantation, in the midst of the Mohegan territory. It 
was a fertile, well watered region ; the Great river, called also Monheag or 
Pequot river (now the Thames); the Yantic, with its beautiful falls; the 
Shetucket and Quinebaug rivers — all flowed through the country. The 
waters teemed with an abundance of bass, shad, trout, and other varieties of 
fish. Shell-fish, such as clams, oysters and lobsters, were plenty; water- 
fowl made their homes in the ponds and marshes ; while wild turkeys, quail, 
partridge and other game birds were common. Dense forests gave protection 
to numerous wild animals; in the forests the underbrush was frequently 
cleared away by fires started for that purpose by the Indians, while faint 
paths, traversed in single file by wild man and wilder beast, led through them 
here and there to the Indian lands lying to the north and west, which in after 
years became the towns of Lebanon, Windham and Plainfield. At certain 
seasons of the year the Indians came to the Great river to fish, hunt, or 
gather the fruit of the wild plum. 

Such was the tract of land named by its owners Norwich, at the time of 
its purchase from the Indians. Some of the new proprietors came from New 
London, some from Saybrook, while a few were from still more distant settle- 
ments. There were no roads over which to convey their families and house- 
hold effects ; to try to make their way by the Indian trails would have been 
difficult and dangerous ; but transportation by water from Saybrook and New 
London was easily effected. Uncas, the Mohegan Sachem, had shown him- 
self very friendly to the whites who had befriended him in his difificulties with 
the Narragansetts. What more likely than that he himself should have 
directed their course up the Great river, past his fort at Shantok Point, where 
he had been relieved by one of the newcomers, up to the head of the river, 
on past the steep hills whose woods in many places crept down to the edge 
of the water, where now lies the fair city of Norwich, up the Yantic Cove to 
the Indians' landing place, below the falls. Not only would this be the 
easiest and most obvious way, but the numerous references in the early land 
deeds to the Indian Landing Place, and the old landing place, show it to have 
been the way commonly used. In the beginning, a house lot with pasture 
land adjoining or lying nearby was assigned to each settler. A road was 
cleared, and the lots were laid out on it from the Reynolds house (which 
is still in the possession of the Reynolds family) to Yantic bridge. 

All the rest of the "nine miles square" was held in common by the pro- 
prietors, and was known as common or undivided land. A mill for grinding 
corn was one of the first necessities of a new settlement; and the earliest 
town act of which any record has been found is dated December ii, 1660, 
and is the renewal of a contract said to have been made at Saybrook between 
the "Town of Moheagan" on the one hand and John Elderkin on the other, 
concerning the erection of a mill. Elderkin agreed to pay a forfeit if the mill at 
Norwich was not completed by November ist, 1661. He was a millwright 
and carpenter and is traced from Lynn, Massachusetts, down to Providence, 
Rhode Island, to New London, Connecticut, and finally to Norwich, where 
he ended his days. In each place he built mills, churches and houses, and 
many inducements were offered to persuade him to locate in new settlements. 



The mill at Norwich was first erected at No-man's Acre, above the Yantic 
Falls, but was soon removed to a site below the Falls. 

A home-lot had been assigned to Elderkm on the Town street with the 
other families, but this lot not being convenient to his business, he was 
granted a place by the mill. Today the spring still gushes forth the pure 
water which made it noteworthy in the olden time. Elderkin's Mill, "the 
valley near the mill in which tiie Spring is," "the deep valley that goeth 
down to Goodman Elderkin's house," and the "island before his house at the 
Mill Falls" are all mentioned in early deeds. 

For nearly a year the pioneers were employed in erecting shelters for 
their families, putting up walls and fences and preparing for planting; but 
by 1661 they were in better condition and needed more land for crops and 
pasturage, so in April of that year the division of some of the land held in 
common was made. This was long known as the "First Division Land." In 
this distribution was included the Little Plain, so called in distinction from 
the Great Plain in the southern part of the town. Among the allotments was 
one to Lieut. Thomas Tracy of a parcel of land in the "Little Plaine by the 
Indian Burieing Place." 

When the purchasers of Norwich came to their new home they found up 
on the hill near the landing-place, a "place of Indian Graves." There was no 
reservation of the spot included in the deed from the Indians, nor, so far as 
is known, was it ever secured to them in any legal way, yet some under- 
standing or tacit agreement must have existed, for their right of interment 
was not questioned, and when Lieutenant Tracy's allotment was found to 
encroach on this place, another parcel was substituted for part of it — "Eight 
acres of pasture land given by the town in way of exchange for land in the 
little plaine (viz) the Indian Burying place." The "Indians' Land," and the 
"Indians' Burying Place," are frequently mentioned in the old deeds. This 
spot is familiar at the present day as the small enclosure within which stands 
the Uncas Monument and a few graves ; but formerly the burying place cov- 
ered a much larger area. The land adjacent to the Falls and on the Little 
Plain was a favorite resort of the Indians, of whom traces were found for 
many years. Deposits of arrow-heads were found on the brow of the hill 
above the Yantic Cove; in 1859, Dr. Daniel Coit Gilman stated that "for 
many years he had received from Mr. Angel Stead what he terms 'a crop 
of arrow-heads' gathered annually in his gardening on the plain between the 
landing and up-town." Miss Caulkms says, in connection with the house 
built by Major Whiting and afterwards owned by Captain Dunham, that 
"the ground plot included the ancient Indian cemetery and sixteen acres 
of land running down to the neighborhood of Lathrop's Mills. In preparmg 
for the foundation of this house, a gigantic Indian skeleton was exhumed, 
and many rude stone tools and arrow-heads were thrown up." (This is now 
the site of the house of Mr. F. L. Osgood.) 

De Forest, in his "History of the Indians of Connecticut," writes that 
when an Indian was buried, implements of war and hunting were placed by 
his side in the grave, and dishes for food, for the use of the disembodied 
spirit. In digging for a sewer on Sachem street in recent years, human bones 


and a skull, supposed to be Indian, were thrown up by the workmen. Only 
the dead of the royal line were brought here for sepulture. In view of the 
earnest efiforts made not long ago by the descendants of the IMohegan In- 
dians to establish their claim to the land in the vicinity of the Indian Graves, 
these glimpses of the way in which the original proprietors regarded it is 
interesting. No interment has been made for many years. Barber, in his 
"Connecticut History Collections," writes that in 1826, when a descendant 
of Uncas was buried there, "Mrs. Calvin Goddard, in whose immediate 
vicinity the burial yard lies, invited the tribe, a score or two, to partake of 
a collation." 

Although Lieut. Thomas Tracy received eight acres of land in another 
place by way of exchange, yet he was allowed to retain part of the original 
allotment; among his lands recorded in the Book of Grants appears the fol- 
lowing: "Six &: one half acres of upland more or less, in the little plaine by 
the Indian Graves, abutting Indian land westerly sixty-four rods — abutting 
land of John Elderkin Southerly to the brow of the hill eighteen rods — 
abutting easterly on the highway sixty-three rods— abutting Northerly on 
Land of John Olmstead eighteen rods; part of his first Division Land. Laid 
out Aprill 1661." This piece was nearly rectangular, being eighteen rods 
in width, sixty-four rods on the western side and sixty-three on the eastern. 
To John Elderkin was granted forty acres on the southerly side of Little 
Plaine side-hills, abutting Lieutenant Tracy's land on the north; in 1665 he 
had another grant of twenty-six acres on the "southward side of Littfe 
Plaine." In this grant the Indians' right is also respected, and incidentally 
the former grant to Tracy is mentioned. Elderkin's twenty-six acres is de- 
scribed as bounded "Easterly on Land formerly belonging to Lieut. Thomas 
Tracy— seventy-six rods on the brow of the hill. The Indians to have liberty 
to pass & Repass from the Cove up the hollow to their Burying Place and 
also to have liberty to Cutt and make use of the wood halfe the waye down 
the hill all along the land formerly belonging to Lievt. Thomas Tracy And 
not to be molested." In the settlement of Lieutenant Tracy's estate, the six 
and one-half acres by the Indian Graves was given in 1692 to his son Samuel, 
but Samuel d\ing in 1693, without heirs, it fell to his brother, Daniel Tracy, 
then to Daniel Tracy, Junior, in whose possession it remained till his death 
in 1771 ; it was then placed in the inventory as "Six acres of land at the 
Indian Graves, at £18 an acre, amounting to £108." In the division of the 
estate this parcel of land was set out to the son, Samuel Tracy, and was listed 
at £192, which was quite an increase in value. Land was plenty in those 
early days, and many of the original home-lots and grants contained much 
more than the nominal measurement; in February, 1773, Samuel Tracy sold 
to his sister's children, Samuel and Hannah Huntington, "About Nine acres 
on Little Plain at or near the Indian Graves — abutting on Col. Simon Loth- 
rop's land," and still had a small piece left, as will be seen. Meanwhile, 
Col. Simon Lothrop had been acquiring the Elderkin holdings, including the 
mill, dwelling-house and island near it, and in 1736 the last piece of Elderkin 
property in this vicinity was purchased by him; in July, 1773, he conveyed 
to his son, Elijah Lothrop, the tract adjoining the Tracy lot. 


In the first years of the settlement of the town, the inhabitants were 
tillers of the soil, but with the passing of the years and a better knowledge 
of the country, the natural advantages of their situation were recognized and 
business was extended in various directions. For a long period the principal 
part of the settlement was in the neighborhood of Norwich Town Green, 
the Town Plot, as it was designated. The busiest part of the Norwich of 
the present day was long known as the East Sheep-walk, and consisted of 
nine hundred acres, belonging to the dwellers of the eastern section of the 
town and was used for pasturing cattle. The Indian Landing Place was the 
one in common use till 1684, when the town voted to lay out land for a public 
landing at the mouth of Yantic Cove, and have a suitable highway connect 
with it. Thereafter this was known as the Landing Place, or, in common 
parlance, the Landing, which term is still used by old residents. 

Mill-lane (now Lafayette street) was the regular road to the landing 
place and mill ; the side road leading down to the little plain being a pent, or 
closed way, with bars. In 1670 it was ordered that "if any person shall pass 
with horse or cattle over the general fence and so come through the Little 
Plain to or from the town, he shall pay a fine of 5 shillings." 

One of the old-time stories was that of the deaf old man who used to 
ask, "Is your father at home or gone to the Landing, hey?" The "Old 
Landing Place" was the term used to designate the one first used. As build- 
ing and traffic increased, a better road was needed ; in 1740 some of the 
inhabitants petitioned that a convenient highway might be opened to the 
Landing, in place of the two pent highways then in use. Although the peti- 
tion was refused at that time, yet a few years later the closed highways were 
opened and two roads were laid out, one on the east and the other on the west 
side of the central hill, variously called Waequaw's Hill, Fort Hill, Reeky, 
Savin, and now Jail Hill. This western road was given in the "District of 
Highways at Chelsea" in December, 1752, as "beginning at the water, south 
from } e westerly corner of Daniel Tracy Tr's house at the Landing place, 
thence a straight line to the southeast corner of Daniel Tracy's land where 
the highway goes Cross Wawecos Hill, thence by Daniel Tracy's land and 
land of John Bliss — thence a straight line to the Parting of the Paths on the 
Little Plaine at Oliver Arnold's corner." The West Road, as it was called 
for many years, practically coincided with the present Washington street. 
Up to 1780 there were many houses at the Town plot and at the Landing 
or Chelsea Society ; the first church built by the Episcopalians was erected 
on the site of the present Christ Church ; but northward on the West Road 
there were no houses to the head of the plain till Elijah Lothrop, Junior, built 
a house on the land "lying in Chelfea Society in said Norwich Northward 
from the Church on the Westerly side of the highway," which his father 
had given him in 1775. This house originally stood where the Lee house 
now stands, to the south of the Tracv land. About this time, Hannah Hunt- 
ington, who had married the Rev. Eliphalet Lyman, of Woodstock, laid out 
the land purchased of her uncle Samuel Tracy, and sold it in parcels suitable 
for building lots, which were described as "lying on the west side of the 


West Road leading from Norwich Town plat to the Landing place in said 


Major Ebenezer Whiting was the first purchaser of a lot, in April, 1780; 
said lot butted "westerly on Land Supposed to be the Indian Burying place ;" 
this would seem to indicate that the burying place was seldom visited, and 
that the location of graves was uncertain. Here Major Whiting built his 
house, which after his death was bought by Captain Daniel Dunham ; later 
on it was owned by Calvin Goddard, and is now owned by Mr. F. L. Osgood. 
The lot adjoining Major Whiting's was taken by Daniel Rodman, but he 
may not have built a dwelling house. In the same month (June, 1781), 
Samuel Woodbridge bought the lot south of Rodman's and here erected a 
house in what, as Miss Caulkins writes, "was then considered a wild and 
secluded spot, but exceedingly beautiful in situation ; a contemporary notice 
speaks of it 'as an excellent place for rural retirement.' " 

The same time that Rodman and Woodbridge bought their lots, Thomas 
Mumford purchased the one south and in 1787 the lot passed into the hands 
of Dan & EHz. Huntington of Woodbridge, but did not build a house. (He 
afterwards lived in the house on Broadway, now owned by Mrs. Priscilla 
Adams.) Thus till after 1799 the only houses above the church on the West 
road were those of Elijah Lothrop, Samuel Woodbridge and Major Whiting. 
They were fine houses for those days, situated in a beutiful locality and 
occupied by influential citizens. But a different element was introduced in 

For many years after the settlement of the town there were few needy 
persons ; only two or three required assistance during a year, and these were 
cared for by the selectmen. At a later date the poor were placed with those 
who would take them at the lowest terms. As the town grew, the number 
of poor people increased and more room was necessary. At a town meeting 
held December 26, 1798, it was voted that a committee should be appointed 
"to examine whether there is not some more suitable place for a Poor House 
than that now fixed upon & whether if such a place be found, it will be 
expedient to cause a poorhouse to be erected there providing it can be done 
without any further expense to the Town than what is contained in the 
Contract already made by the Committee for building the Poor House and 
to report at the next Meeting." At the meeting held April 11, 1799, it was 
voted that the selectmen should be authorized on behalf of the town "to 
make such agreements with Mr. Samuel Woodbridge and the contractor for 
building a poorhouse, as they shall think reasonable relative to removing the 
poorhouse to the lots owned by said Woodbridge and Ebenezer Erastus Hunt- 
ington southerly and adjoining the old church lot in Chelesa and relative to 
an exchange of the Land where the poorhouse now stands for the land proper 
to place the poorhouse on." But a different arrangement was effected. Sam- 
uel Tracy, of the fourth generation, at the time of his death in 1798 still 
owned a portion of the grant in the Little Plain which had been made to 
Lieut. Thomas Tracy in 1661 ; in the division of his estate, "The Land at 
Indian Graves where the Poorhouse is building" valued at £40 i8s 6d, was 
set off on April 17, 1799, to Ebenezer Tracy, the second son, and on May 9, 


1799, "Ebenezer Tracy of Middletovvn, Connecticut, Physician and Surgeon, 
sold to the inhabitants of the Town of Norwich for $137.50 a certain tract of 
Land lying in Chelsea Society in Norwich aforesaid, on the west road leading 
from the Court House to the Landing on the Littale Plain so called, Con- 
taining One acre and Sixty rods and is butted and bounded as follows viz: 
Beginning at the Southeasterly corner of a Lot of Land belonging to Daniel 
Huntington at the Public Highway; thence South West — to the brow of the 
hill next to the Cove; thence South East — to the Public Highway aforesaid; 
thence North East nine rods; Thence on the line of the highway as it now 
runs to the First corner, and is the same lot of land set out to me in the 
division of my Honored Father Samuel Tracy Esq. Deceased, Estate." So in 
1799 the last portion of the grant in the Little Plain by the Indian Graves 
passed out of the Tracy ownership. Here the poorhouse was builded, and 
in 1806, in coirii)liance with the law, a workhouse was erected near it. For 
twenty years these buildings stood here. During this period the neighbor- 
hood changed greatly. As has been said, the grist-mill was situated below 
the Falls ; the w-aterfall at this place was considered one of the most inter- 
esting natural curiosities of the region, and is described in Barber's "Historical 
Collections," published in 1836: "The bed of the river consists of a solid rock, 
having a perpendicular height of ten or twelve feet, over which the whoie 
body of water falls in an entire sheet upon a bed of rocks below. The river 
here is compressed into a very narrow channel, the banks consisting of solid 
rocks. For a distance of 15 or 20 rods, the channel or bed of the river has a 
gradual descent, is crooked and covered with pointed rocks. The rock form- 
ing the bed of the river at the bottom of the perpendicular falls, is curiously 
excavated, some of the cavities being five or six feet deep, from the constant 
pouring of the w^ater for a succession of ages. At the bottom of the falls there 
is the broad basin of the cove, where the enraged and agitated element resumes 
Its usual smoothness and placidity, and the whole scenery about these falls 
is uncommonly beautiful and picturesque." 

Since the diversion of the water for the mills, it is only in the time of the 
spring floods that glimpses of its former grandeur and beauty are seen. Col. 
Simon Lathrop carried on the business of the grist mill and was succeeded 
by his son Elijah, w^ho with his brother Simon added an oil mill in 1778. 
During the Revolutionary War, iron-wire and nails were also manufactured 
here, but for many years the Falls region had only two or three mills and 
the dwelling house of Elijah Lathrop, Sr. 

At last, however, the commercial value of the site was recognized, the 
old Lathrop house, the grist and oil mills, with the old distillery and tannery 
with the land adjoining were purchased by a company consisting of men 
from out of town. The West Road, being not far from the mill sites, was 
sought for residences. Calvin Goddard, one of the company, purchased the 
Dunham house ; William Williams bought the Teel house, now the residence 
of Dr. Howe ; about 1808, Theodore Barrell had built a house across the 
road from the Lathrop home; this became the property of William P. Greene, 
another of the company. The Elijah Lathrop house and lot of 25 acres had 
been purchased in 1809 by Mr. John Vernett, who had it removed farther 



down the street, where it still stands, the second house above Christ Church. 
Mr. \'ernett then erected a fine new house on the old site, and planned for 
many improvements, but financial losses compelled the sale of the place, 
which was bought by Benjamin Lee in iSii. This house remains nearly the 
same, with the exception of the veranda added in recent years. It is said 
that the double row of trees which at present serves as a driveway to the 
barn of the Tyler place was planted to screen the aristocratic mansion from 
the Almshouse. The Woodbridge property had been purchased in 1811 by 
Richard Adams, a gentleman from Essequobo, who had visited in Norwich 
when a lad ; Adams also bought the Huntington lot, which lay between him 
and the Almshouse and which had been sold to Bela Peck in the settlement 
of Huntington's estate. 

In the meantime the Almshouse had become inadequate to the demands 
made on it, and at a town meeting held April 30, 1819, it was voted that "a 
committee of five persons be appointed to sell the land on which the present 
Alms House stands with the buildings on the best terms which may oifer. 
And to purchase another tract of land about twenty acres for the purpose 
of erecting a New Almshouse thereon of sufficient size and dimentions to 
accommodate all the poor of said town." This was accordingly done and 
the same year a new almshouse was erected on the present site. On Novem- 
ber 23rd, 1819, Bela Peck, Charles P. Huntington, John L. Buswell, and 
Francis Asher Perkins, a committee of the town of Norwich, by virtue of 
a vote authorizing them "to sell the land on which the (then) present Alms- 
house & Workhouse stand, together with the buildings," for $860 conveyed 
to Charles Bowen, "in part of his Contract for building the new Almshouse, 
a certain piece of Land being in Chelsea Society in Norwich aforesaid on the 
west road leading from the Court House to the Landing, on the Little Plain 
(so called) Containing One acre & Fifty five rods — and is the same land con- 
veyed to the Town of Norwich by Dr. Ebenezer Tracy of Middletown, Conn., 
— it being our intention to convey all the land bought of said Tracy (Except- 
ing that part which has been laid out en the Main Street for a highway) 
together with the buildings and appurtenances thereon standing." The 
following April, Bowen sold to Richard Adams, who owned the adjoining 
property, this "tract of land Situated in Norwich on the west road leading 
from the Court House to the Landing. Containing One acre and fifty-five 
rods or thereabouts and is the same which was conveyed to said Bowen by 
the Town of Norwich," the consideration being $500. Among those whom 
the manufacturing facilities attracted to the Falls district was William C. 
Oilman, of Boston, who established here a naillery in 1813; later he became 
one of the members of the Thames Manufacturing Company. On his mar- 
riage with Eliza Coit, daughter of Daniel Lathrop Coit, he lived for a time 
in the Barrell house, w^th the Lees across the road for neighbors ; in Novem- 
ber, 1823, Mr. Oilman purchased from Richard Adams, for $600, "a parcel of 
land on the west road from the Town to Chelsea Landing, near the Mansion 
House of said .A.dams; — beginning at a post now erected at the corner of 
said Lot on the Highway — thence Southwest— thence Southeast — to the 
line of the west road ; the last courses abutting on land of the Thames M'f'g 


Company; tlicnce by the west road to the first bound, — containing about Two 
and one half acres and includes all the land conveyed to sd Adams by a 
deed from Charles Bowen and including about One acre of the land conveyed 
to sd Adams by Bela Peck, Esq., directly north of said Bowen Lot." 

Here Mr. Oilman built a house which stood near the street nearly oppo- 
site the house now occupied by General William A. Aiken. It is said that 
it was the first house built of new lumber on which the carpenters had worked 
for a long time; owing to the War of 1812, and the economies ensuing, old 
lumber had of necessity been used in building and repairing. Cherry trees 
were planted in front of the house, and a welt was in the corner by the street. 
As the ground sloped more sharply in the rear of the house, an open basement 
was made. The house had many conveniences unusual at that day, among 
them being a bathtub, which, however, had to be in the basement on account 
of the water supply. The water from a spring on an elevation across the road 
had a sufficient fall to furnish an ample supply for the large tank. Madam 
Oilman took great pleasure in her garden, which was enlarged in 1837 by 
the purchase from the Norwich and New York Manufacturing Company of 
a parcel of land adjoining the rear of the Oilman yard. This tract was 
described as "Beginning at a corner of the fence on Yantic Street so called, 
at the easterly side of the road and in the rear of land belonging to Richard 
Adams, Esq. thence up the Hill in the line of the picket fence to land of 
said Adams, thence following the line of said Adams to land conveyed by 
said Adams to William C. and Eliza Oilman, thence by said Oilman's line 
to the Road and thence by the Road in the line of the present fence or wall 
to the place of beginning; said lot being part of the land conveyed by the 
heirs of Elijah Lathrop to the Thames M'f'g Co. and by them to the present 
grantors." This land was part of one of John Elderkin's grants which had 
been purchased by Col. Simon Lathrop, and conveyed by him to his son 
Elijah, who in his will dated 1808 gave "To son Simon for the support of my 
negro woman Beulah, all my land from the south line of Thomas Fanning's 
Esq. tan house lot to the poorhouse; if he refuses or Beulah dies before it 
is all used — it is to go to the support of my son Lynde. then to Lynde's two 
children by present wife, Orover and Abbe." In the inventory is the "Land 
from the Poorhouse toward the mills, ii50." On November 7, 1823, "Orover 
L'Hommedicu Lathrop and Dan Platts 3rd and Abby Platts wife of Dan 
Platts, all of Saybrook, Conn., for $300 sold to the Thames Manufacturing 
Co., one certain lot of land in Norwich, containing six acres more or less and 
is bounded on the Thames Cove — on land of Benjamin Lee — on land of 
Richard Adams and on land of the Thames M'f'g Company, and is the same 
land that was given to the said Orover and Abby by the will of their Orand- 
father, Mr. Elijah Lathrop late of said Norwich deceased, with a right of way 
through it." (This right of way became Yantic street.) This addition nearly 
doubled the size of the Oilman premises, and here Mrs. Oilman had her Swiss 
gardener lay out winding and picturesque paths, some of which still remain. 
In his gardening, the man unearthed a deposit of Indian arrow-heads made of 
quartz, flint, and of some hard stones not indigenous to the region. Mr. 
Oilman was mayor of the city in 1839, and was the first president of the 

N.L.— l-.-iT 



Norwich & Worcester railroad. Here was born, in 183 1, Dr. Daniel Coit 
Oilman, the beloved president of Johns Hopkins University ; he delivered the 
historical address at the bi-centennial celebration of Norwich in 1859, and 
died in October preceding the 250th anniversary of the town. After living 
here for about twenty years, business interests took Mr. Gilman to New 
York, where he removed with his family in 1845. 

When the Gilman house was built it faced the West Road, while below 
it was the "Road that Turns out that Gows to the Mills"; "at a Court of the 
Common Council of the City of Norwich, Holden at the House of Mr. New- 
comb Kinney, January 17, 1833, at 6 P. M., Mayor Lanman, presiding, the 
committee appointed at a former meeting to take into consideration the 
petition of William L'Hommedieu, Thomas Robinson and others for naming 
the streets of the city made a report and thereupon each street was put 
separately and carried in the affirmative. The Street commencing at Mr. 
Wickham's Dwelling House by Lyman Brewer's and Calvin Goddard's to 
the Dwelling House of Walter Lester to be called Washington Street. From 
Washington Street near W. C. Gilman's by the falls and Peleg Hunt's and 
E. Corson's to the North line of the City to be called Clay Street." 

Clay street was altered to Yantic street, at a meeting held four days later. 
Mrs. Eleanor Kip, from New York, then came to live here, purchasing the 
property for $8,000; Mrs. Kipp, with her sister, Mrs. Whittredge, and her 
daughter Mrs. Austin and two grandchildren, lived here till October, 1850, 
when he sold the place to Joshua Newton Perkins and returned, it is said, 
to New York. Washington street had now become one of the most desirable 
residential streets of the city, and the price paid was $10,000; at this date and 
in all the later conveyances down to the last one in 1904, the premises are 
described as lying on the west side of Washington street by which it is 
bounded easterly; bounded southerly and westerly by Yantic street; the only 
change being the name of the owner on the north ; on that side, the land was 
owned by the Falls Company and by Richard Adams till his death, then by 
William P. Green. Mr. Perkins soon made many changes ; the grounds were 
filled in and graded, the Gilman house was moved up the street, and has 
long been occupied by Mr. Lewis A. Hyde. The front remains the same, but 
the veranda is a later addition. A New York architect, Mr. Gervase Wheeler, 
and his associate, William T. Hallett, erected the brick house where it now 
stands. The house was large and commodious, and its position aflForded a 
fine view of the valley and cove. It resembled the Italian villas on the shores 
of the lakes. A photograph taken in 1866 shows the simplicity and beauty of 
the plan ; the "Newton Perkins Place" was one of the show places of the city. 

Mr. Perkins was one of the prominent men of Norwich, active in the 
advancement of its educational and industrial interests. After a period of 
some twenty years, business affairs took him to New York, and the house 
passed into the possession of Robert Bayard of New York. The Bayards 
did not occupy the house, which was in charge of a caretaker till it was 
purchased by Mrs. Edward Gibbs, who made many alterations and additions, 
among them the wide verandas ; the "Newton Perkins Place" was merged into 
"Pinehurst," its present name. It was on these verandas that Paul Leicester 


Ford worked on his story, "The Honorable Peter Stirling," which he dedi- 
cated (1894) "To those dear to me at Stoney Wolde, Turners, New York; 
Pinehurst, Norwich, Conn. ; Brook Farm, Proctorsville, Vermont ; and Dune- 
side, East Hampton, New York, this book, written while among them, is 
dedicated." The little sylvan altar in the woods in the rear of the house still 
remains to recall the christening of George Gibbs Mansfield, the son of Richard 
Mansfield, the great actor. By an odd coincidence. New York again proved 
a magnet, and the Gibbs family went to that city to reside. The house again 
was uninhabited, till 1904. when Frank Allyn Roath, a descendant of Robert 
All}n, one of the original proprietors of Norwich, became the owner; Mr. 
Roath enjoved his beautiful home but a few short years. He left it to his 
wife, Gertrude Hakes Roath, who is much interested in horticulture, and a 
true lover of nature. Under her supervision the grounds show the effects of 
the renewed care, and many wild flowers are finding homes in congenial soil. 
Mrs. Roath (now Mrs. Charles W. Gale) is a descendant in the eighth gen- 
ertaion from John Elderkin, who built the first house and mill at the Falls, 
and who received as an original grant from the town of Norwich a portion 
of the land on which this many times great-grandchild now lives. 

The Barral House — Louis P^arral (Rariel, I'arrel), 1780, married Mary 
Beckwith, and had two children: Mary, born 1782; Louis, born 1784. In 
1785 he bought land on Mill Lane of Joseph Reynolds, and built the house 
at present occupied by Hunt, the florist, on Lafayette street. In the latter 
part of 1792, intending to leave Norwich, he ofTered his house and land for 
sale, and in 1795 lived in Northampton, Massachusetts. Philip Hyde bought 
the house in 1800, and in 1826 David Yeomans ; Daniel Tree bought it in 1846. 
LaFayette said to have called here on Louis Barrel, possibly in 1785, when 
the General was in America. 


New London County in the Civil War — In the Spanish American War — In the World 
War— Vv'orld War Honor Rolls. 

During the Civil War, there were three companies from New London 
county in the Second Regiment, Connecticut Infantry, under President Lin- 
coln's call for "three months' men." These were: Company A, Frank S. 
Chester, captain; Company B, Henry Peall, captain; and Company C, Edwin 
C. Chapman, captain. These were all mustered into the service of the United 
States on May 7, 1861. They were engaged in the battle of Bull Run, and 
were mustered out of service at the end of their term, August 7, 1861. 

The Third Regiment, Connecticut Infantry, had but one company from 
New London county when it marched away from Hartford on May 25, 1861, 
Company D, mustered into service May 11, 1861, Edward Harland, captain. 
The regiment was engaged at Bull Run, and was mustered out of service 
in August, 1861. 

Company H, composed of New London county men, most of whom had 
been out with the "three months' men," w^as organized in 1861, and was a 
part of the Seventh Regiment, Connecticut Infantry, a fighting regiment that 
saw service from Fort Pulaski, April 10, 1862, until Fort Fisher, January 
19, 1865. 

The Eighth Connecticut Regiment of Infantry contained two New Lon- 
don companies — D, John E. Ward, captain and G, Hiram Appleman, captain. 
This regiment saw hard service under command of Colonel Edward Harlan, 
of Norwich, who rose to the rank of brigadier-general, and Colonel John E. 
Ward, who succeeded him in command. Lieutenant Marvin Wait, son of 
John Turner Wait, of Company A of this regiment, was mortally wounded 
at the battle of Antietam. Another hero of this regiment was Colonel Charles 
M. Coit, of Norwich, who was badly wounded, but resumed his position in 
the Chelsea Savings Bank, and later was postmaster. 

The Ninth Connecticut Regiment contained but few New London men, 
but the Tenth Regiment had two companies — F, Joseph W. Branch, cap- 
tain ; and H, Robert Leggett, captain. The Tenth served until Appomattox, 
and was in many battles. 

The Twelfth Connecticut Regiment contained two companies recruited 
in New London county — D, Nathan Frankau, captain; and K, Edward K. 
Abbott, captain. 

The Thirteenth Connecticut Regiment, which enjoyed the distinction 
of the longest term of service of any Connecticut regiment, contained two 
companies that were partly recruited from New London county. The regi- 
ment was mustered into service April 25, 1866. 

In the First Connecticut Regiment Heavy Artillery was one company 
of New London men — D. Joseph C. Dunford, captain. Henry W. Birge, 
of Norwich, was major. The regiment made an excellent record. 

The First Connecticut Regiment of Cavalry had one company recruited 
from New London county — C, William S. Fish, captain. 


The Fourteenth Regimen of Infantry had two companies from New 
London county— E, William H. Tubbs, captain; and H, Samuel H. Davis, 


The Eighteenth Regiment of Infantry was recruited from New London 
and Windham counties, and left for the front August 22, 1862, under com- 
mand of Colonel William G. Ely, of Norwich. 

The Twenty-first Regiment of Infantry was recruited in Hartford, New 
London and Windham counties, Hiram B. Crosby, of Norwich, being major; 
John E. Wood, of Groton, captain of Company C; Charles T. Stanton, of 
Stonington, captain of Company E ; William Spittle, of New London, captain 
of Company F ; James E. Brown, of North Stonington, captain of Company 
G ; Ralph C. Foote, Jr., captain of Company H. 

The Twenty-sixth Regiment of Infantry was recruited almost exclusively 
from New London county, the staff officers, with one exception, being county 
men: Thomas G. Kingsley, of Franklin, colonel; Joseph Selden, of Nor- 
wich, lieutenant-colonel ; Henry Stoll, of New London, major. The captains 
were: A, Jesse C. Maynard, of Salem; B, Clark Hanenfon, of Norwich; 
C, Enoch Myers, of Old Lyme; D, Samuel T. Huntoon, of Norwich; E, 
Christian Goff, of New London ; F, Loren A. Gallup, of Norwich ; G, John L. 
Stanton, of Norwich; H, Daniel Champlin, of Stonington; I, William H. 
Bentley, of New London; K, Jedediah Randall, of Groton. 

The above were the companies and regiments which New London county 
men were in as organized bodies. Many soldiers from the county, however, 
served in other regiments, and New London county had no cause to apologize 
either for the quantity or the quality of her soldiery. 

The Order growing out of the Civil War, the Grand Army of the Re- 
public, has been well represented in New London county, though the repre- 
sentation necessarily grows smaller each year. There are now in the county 
five Grand Army Posts: Sedgwick No. i, Norwich, Orrin S. Price, com- 
mander; W. W. Perkins, No. 47, New London, Louis J. Baker, commander; 
Williams, No. 55, Mystic, Thaddeus Pecor, commander; J. F. Trumbull, 
No. 82, Stonington, E. H. Sheffild, commander; M. A. Taintor, No. 9, Col- 
chester, J. M. Huntley, commander. Each of these Posts has an auxiliary 
body — the Woman's Relief Corps, that has been of great benefit to the 
Order; the Sons of Veterans, composed of sons of Civil War soldiers; and the 
Daughters of Veterans, a com.panion organization — these have camps in the 
county. Ann Rogers Lyon Tent, No. i. Daughters of Veterans, is located 
in New London. 

There are twenty-one camps of United Spanish War Veterans in Con- 
necticut, of which two are in New London county : R. S. Griswold Camp, 
No. 6, E. W. Grant Baker, commander; George Cole Camp, No. 7, New 
London, Robert J. Shovlin, commander. In the anniversary number of 
"The Day," published in October, 1921, appeared the following interesting 


review of the military companies of New London for a period of forty years, 
188Q-1921 : 

New London was headquarters of the Third Re,s;iment, Connecticut 
National Guard, forty years ago, and at that time there were two companies 
of infantry in this city. Colonel William H. Tubbs, of this city, commanded 
the regiment, and his associate ofificers were Lieutenant-Colonel Edward S. 
King, Putnam ; Major Henry W. Johnson, Putnam ; Adjutant, Captain George 
Haven, New London; Quartermaster, Lieutenant George W. Phillips, Willi- 
mantic; Pa master. Lieutenant Joseph W. Gilbert, Norwich; Inspector of 
Target Practice, Captain Alonzo W. Sholes, New London; Chaplain, Edward 
W. Bacon, New London. 

The local companies and their officers were: Company D, Captain Wii. 
liam H. Bentley ; First Lieutenant Fred E. St. Clare; Second Lieutenant 
William M. Mason. Company I, Captain Abner N. Sterry ; First Lieutenant 
J. Emerson Harris; Second Lieutenant William M. Mercer. Afterwards 
Company A was added to the local battalion, and a machine gun battery and 
sections of the signal and hospital corps were also added. The armory was 
in the old Aborn hall building on Bank street, the site of the new theatre of 
the Walter T. Murphy Amusement Company. 

On June 28, 1898, Companies A, D, and I, Third Regiment, Connecticut 
Volunteers, left this city for the Spanish-American War. The three local 
companies left the State Armory at 10.45, and marched down State street to 
the Union Station, wheer they entrained for Camp Haven, Niantic. There 
the companies were federalized a few days later. Captain Henry S. Dorsey 
commanded Company A ; Captain Frank W. Rogers, Company D ; and Cap- 
tain Eugene T. Kirkwood, Company L 

In 1903 the Coast Artillery was organized in Connecticut, and the first 
two companies of the State were recruited in this city. At that time there 
were two infantry companies in the city — Company D, commanded by Cap- 
tain Frank V. Chappell ; and Company L commanded by Captain David 
Conner. The artillery companies were designated as the First and Second 
Companies. The First Company was recruited entirely of new blood, with 
Captain Hadlai A. Hull in command. The Second Company was recruited 
from Company D, Infantry, and Captain Chappell was retained in command. 
This gave New London two coast artillery companies and Company I. Later 
another coast artillery company was organized from Company I and was 
designated Tenth Company, with which the Second Company was merged, 
Captain Chappell resigning and Captain David Conner being in command. 

The First and Tenth Companies continued in existence untl 1917. when 
the World War broke out and they were federalized and merged with other 
regular army and national guard units, both seeing service in France. 

In March, 1917, when war with Germany became inevitable, the Home 
Guard was organized in Connecticut, and three infantry companies and one 
machine gun company were organized here. The three infantry companies 
were: Company E, Captain Jeremiah J. Murphy; Company H, Captain E. 
T. Kirkland ; and Company K, Captain J. N. Lapointe. The machine platoon 
was in command of First Lieutenant Ernest E. Rogers. Later, the Third 
Regiment was formed in this county, and Colonel E. T. Kirkland was placed 
in command. 

About a year later the Home Guard became the Connecticut State 
Guard, and the Third Regiment retained its designation, with Colonel Kirk- 
land in command, with headquarters in this city. A year ago the National 
Guard was reorganized in Connecticut, and gradually the units of the Third 
Regiment were demobilized. At the demobilization there were two infantry 



companies in this city— Company A and Company B, also Headquarters 
Company. The Tenth Company, Coast Artillery, now Battery A, was re- 
cruited principally from Company A, Captain Elwood T. Stanton, and Sec- 
ond Lieutenant Elmer E. Watson enlisting and being commissioned officers 
in the new Tenth Company, and First Lieutenant Alfred Ligourie being 
placed in the officers' reserve corps. Company B, Captain Edmund B. Reed, 
continued in existence until last winter, when Headquarters Company, Coast 
Artille^3^ was recruited, Captain Reed and First Lieutenant George King 
being commissioned officers in the National Guard, and Second Lieutenant 
George E. Fisher being discharged. With the depletion of the regiment on 
account of the National Guard, Colonel Kirkland and staff resigned, and the 
Headquarters Company was disbanded. 

At present. New London is the headquarters of the One Flundred and 
Ninety-second Artillery, Connecticut National Guard, with Colonel Morris 
B. Payne commanding. Two of the units are located here — Headquarters 
Company, commanded by First Lieutenant Edmund B. Reed ; and Battery A, 
in command of Captain Thomas E. Troland. 

The New London Armory was started in 1884. It is located on the site 
of the old Coit house, at the corner of Washington and Coit streets, and 
was ready for occupancy in 1885. Recently the building has been changed 
by the cutting of large doors on both streets for the purpose of accommodating 
the large gun which the United States Government has turned over to the 
State, and the tractors and autos that will be stored in the basement. 

The county was a seat of great activity during the World War, owing 
to the fact that the shipyards, forts and the submarine flotilla made it a 
military and naval base. The city of New London was taxed to the limit 
to provide accommodations, and every town in the county contributed liber- 
ally of men and means after the United States entered the conflict. The 
names of those who entered the service have been preserved in the town 
histories, and need not be recorded here. Like the Civil War veterans, these 
soldiers have banded themselves together for the purpose of preserving friend- 
ships that were formed, to guard their mutual interests, and to keep in close 
touch with each other for social and for patriotic purposes. The greatest of 
these orders, the American Legion, has ninety-five posts organized in the 
State of Connecticut, seven of these being in New London county : Robert 
O. Fletcher, No. 4, Norwich, John S. Blackmar, commander; John Coleman 
Prince, No. 9, New London, Thomas S. McGinley, commander; Lyme No. 
41. Old Lyme; Donald A. Bigelow, No. 54, Colchester, E. L. Keely, com- 
mander; Sergeant Richard William Morgan, No. 55, Mystic, John R. Wheeler, 
commander; James W. Harvey, No. 58, Stonington, Fred E. Hyde, com- 
mander; Joseph St. Germain, No. 85, Sprague, Odilla N. Arpin, commander. 

There are State societies of national organizations basing membership 
upon descent from veterans of the various wars in which the American 
Colonies and States have engaged. Connecticut has State chapters of the 
following: Society of the Cincinnati; Society of Colonial Wars; Sons of 
the Revolution; Sons of the American Revolution; Society of the War of 
1812 ; Daughters of the American Revolution (with five chapters in New 
London county, at New London, Mystic, Groton and Stonington, Norwich 
and Jewett City). A Commandery of the Military Order of Foreign Wars 
of the United States, and a State body of the Naval and Military Order of the 


Spanish-American War. A State Department of Connecticut Veterans of 
Foreign Wars of the United States and a State branch of the National Society 
of United States Daughters of 1812. 

New London is headquarters of the First Coast Artillery of the Con- 
necticut National Guard, Colonel I^Iorris B. Payne, of New London, com- 
mander. The armory is on Washington street. Other officers of the regi- 
ment from New London county are: Major Charles H. Hull, commander of 
First Battalion; Captain David Conner, regimental adjutant; Captain James 

D. Copp, intelligence officer; Captain Henry B. Selden, adjutant First Bat- 
talion; Lieutenant Otto H. Schroeter, plans and training officer, First Bat- 
talion; Lieutenant Robert W. Young, orienteur officer; Lieutenant Paul H. 
Bolles; Lieutenant Robert A. Keefe. 

The Headquarters Battery of the regiment is quartered in the Armory 
at New London; Edmund B. Rccd, captain; George L. King, first lieutenant. 

Battery A, of New London, One Hundred and Ninety-second Regiment 
of Artillery, Connecticut National Guard, is commanded by Captain Thomas 

E. Troland, First Lieutenant Ehvood L. Stanton, and Second Lieutenant 
Elmer E. Watson. Battery B of the same regiment is located in Norwich, 
the armory there also housing the headquarters battalion and combat train 
Battery B is commanded by Captain William B. Denison, First Lieutenant 
Ernest L. Bartolucci, Second Lieutenants David A. Tongen and Jonathan 
L. Johnson. Fleadquarters Battalion and Combat Train is commanded by 
Captain Herbert F. Burdick, First Lieutenant Harry W. House, Second 
Lieutenant Tracy R. Burdick. 

For many years patriotic New Londoners dreamed of some day having 
a great Naval Station lour miles up the river, but none could have foreseen 
what form this improvement would take. A Naval Station on the Thames 
river there had been from the early seventies, but its activities were short- 
lived and it gradually declined in importance until it became merely a navy 
yard in name. Only a few watchmen were maintained there, to prevent the 
junk from being stolen. 

Then through Congressional pressure the Navy Department determined 
to utilize the yard as a coaling station. Coal pockets were erected, and for 
a time there was a revival of activity, but there did not seem to be much 
need for a coaling station. Then it was proposed to make of it a training 
quarters for marines. Buildings were altered, new quarters added and a drill 
ground laid out, but before much more could be done the Spanish-American 
war came along and all the marines were called away, never to come back. 

With the development of the submarine and its utility for harbor de- 
fense, a new use was found for the Thames Naval Station. It was dis- 
covered to be a specially good place for the maintenance of undersea craft. 
However, not much progress was made in the way of needed improvements 
until the World War, and then the Submarine Base took on a pronounced 
boom. An appropriation of several millions was spent in developing it. 
Officers' quarters, barracks, wharves, storehouses, etc., w-ere erected, until it 



has grown to be a city by itself. At one time during the war, nearly ten 
thousand men were stationed or in training there. Since the close of the 
Great War, the force of men has been much diminished, but the work of 
developing is still going on. The government has fortified the harbor, and 
an adequate force of men provide protection against foe. 

Muster roll of the 3rd Regiment, Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, for 
Spanish-American war ser\-ice. Mustered into the United States Service at 
Niantic, July 2-6, 1898. Mustered out at Savannah, Georgia, March 20, 1899. 

Col. Augustus C. Tyler (resigned; discharged Jan. 31, 1899), New London. 
Lieut.-Col. Alexander Rodgers (promoted to colonel Jan. 31, 1899), Washington, D. C. 
Maj. Henry J. Thayer (resigned; mustered out Sept. 9), Putnam. 
Maj. Gilbert L. Fitch (resigned Sept. 19), Stamford. 

First Lieut, and Adjutant Roswell D. Trimble (promoted to major Oct. 31), New London. 
First Lieut, and Quartermaster Percy H. Morgan, Poquonnock. 
Maj. and Surgeon Julian La Pierre (resigned; mustered out Sept. 21), Norwich. 
First Lieut, and Assistant Surgeon Hiram B. Thomson (promoted to major and surgeon 

Sept. 23), New London. 
First Lieut, and Assistant Surgeon Harry M. Lee, New London. 
Assistant Surgeon John S. Blackmar (appointed Oct. 3), Norwich. 
Chaplain J. Spencer Voorhees, Hartford. 


Sergt.-Maj. Richard P. Freeman, Jr., New 
London. Discharged Sept. 8. 

Q. ^L-Sergt. lanics D. Copp, New Lon- 
don. Discharged Sept. 8. 

Chief Musician Chas. H. Phillips, New Lon- 
don. Reduced to ranks. 

Prin. Musician Aubrey J. Newburg, New 

Hosp. Steward Clarence D. Scvin, Norwich 

Hosp. Steward Harry F. Thompson, New 

Hosp. Steward Hubert F. Pierce, East Nor- 

Corp. Sidney E. Morton. Reduced to ranks. 

Corp. Edward Pendleton. Reduced to ranks. 
Promoted to corporal. 


Capt. Henry S. Dorsey. 

First Lieut. Edward T. Drea; resigned 
Nov. 28. 

Second Lieut. Edward H. Corcoran. 

First Sergt. Frank A. McDonald. 

Q. M.-Sergt. John A. Malona, Waterford. 

Sergt. Hubert W. Ryan; reduced to ranks. 

Sergt. John J. Lawless, Waterford; pro- 
moted to first sergeant, to second lieu- 
tenant, Co. D. 

Sergt. Walter W. Philbrick. 

Sergt. Edward A. Lawless, Waterford. 

Corp. Daniel A. Rankin. 

Corp. John T. Sweeney; reduced to ranks. 

Corp. Joseph D. Phillips, Waterford ; re- 
duced to ranks. 

Corp. Edward C. Smith ; reduced to ranks. 

Corp. Jeremiah T. Moriarty ; reduced to 
ranks ; promoted to corporal. 

Musician Frank Joseph. 


Brccn, Michael E. 

Berardinelli, Peter S., Waterford; dis- 
charged Jan. 24. 

Brtncll, Herbert, Noank. 

Caracausa, Joseph. 

Chapman, Edward K., Groton. 

Carney, Thomas. 

Carey, Patrick J., Stonington ; promoted to 

Chapman, Andrew G., Norwich. 

Cleveland, Robert I. 

Cotter, John F., New Britain. 

E'rudy, John D. ; promoted to corporal. 

Dunn, Daniel F. 

Dclap. George T. 

Dcfflcy, James E. 

Doyle, Joseph M. 

Foley, Michael. 



Greer. Benjamin 

Hynds, John J. 

Howard, Jo<;eph 

Jaeger, Robert H. ; promoted to corporal. 

Kay, Rcnjaniin F., Groton; promoted to 

Kopp, George 

McCarthy, Robert J. ; dishonorably dis- 

Mead, Harry A., Portchester, N. Y. ; trans- 
ferred to regimental band. 

Mealady, Daniel J. 

Morgan. Charles L., Montville. 

McLaughlin, James H. ; deserted Sept. i. 

McMoran, Eugene. 

O'Rourke, Edward J. 

O'Rourke, Thomas; dishonorably dis- 

Petty, George 

Perrin, Frederick A. ; promoted to corporal. 

Powers, \Vm. P., Hartford; dishonorably 

Ryan, John F. 

Rogers, Edward H., East Lyme. 

Sullivan, Dennis D. 

Sullivan, James ; dishonorably discharged. 

Sheridan, John J. 

Sheridan, W'm. J. 

Storey, W'm. J.; deserted Nov. 11. 

Saunders, Lyman R., Mystic. 

Shea, Daniel F. 

Skinner, John O. 

Sauter, John F., Norwich. 

Turk, Harry 

Tumelty, Thomas 

Tracey, W'm. D. ; promoted to corporal. 

Wilson, John 

Wil'^on, Wm. ; dishonorably discharged. 

Williard. .Xrthur L. ; appointed musician. 

Weinstein, Joseph 

Wright, Fred C. Pomfret; discharged Feb. 
6, 1899. 

W'atson, Wm. L., Hartford ; dishonorably 

W'oods, John E., New Britain. 

Waldron, James E., Wallingford ; dishonor- 
ably discharged. 

First Lieut. John F. Murphy, Pawcatuck; 

promoted to captain Co. L, Nov. 22. 
Second Lieut. Isaac F. Gavitt. 
First Sergt. James F. Spellman. 
Q. M.-Sergt. Esbon H. Gavitt. 
Sergt. James J. Murphy; promoted to sec- 

ond lieutenant Co. H, Jan. 22. 

Sergt. John J. Bentlcy. 

Sergt Patrick W. Shea. 

Sergt. Michael F. O'Conncll. 

Corp. Tliomas F. Lenihan ; discharged Feb. 
13, 1899. 

Corp. John T. Fitzgerald. 

Corp. John H. Shea. 

Corp Cornelius L. Shea. 

Corp. James P. McMahon. 

Corp. James D. Neville. 

Corp. Dennis F. Connell. 

Corp. John J. Donahue. 

Corp. James M. Lindsay. 

Musician John J. Cunningham. 

.Artificer Dennis C. Brown. 

Wagoner James J. McCort, Stonington ; re- 
duced to ranks. 


Alvcs, Charles, Stonington. 

Ahem, Henry P., Norwich. 

Buck, Henry IL ; deserted. 

Brightman, Frank, Stonington. 

Barry, Joseph, Norwich. 

Boles, John, Jr. 

Church, Walter, Stafford. 

Carson, Edward R., Stonington. 

Carey, John E. 

Casey, Daniel J., appointed wagoner. 

Casey, John F. 

Casey, John. 

Connor, James J., Norwich. 

Donahue, James F. 

Donahue, Michael E. 

Donahue, John F. 

Doran, Andrew E.. Manchester. 

Eaton, Ervin J. 

Ennis, John, Stonington. 

Farrcll, John E. 

Fenton, Edwin H. 

Fallon, John, Stonington. 

Fairfield, David ^L; transferred to band. 

Fogarty, William L., Norwich ; dishonor- 
ably discharged. 

Griffin, John, Boston, Mass.; dishonorably 

Gilmore, Dennis, Stonington. 

Gould, Ezra, Monson, Mass. ; promoted to 

Holland, Bert E., transferred to band. 

Knight, Wm. B. 

Keegan, John H. 

Knowles, George E., North Stonington. 

Luck, Gus?ie .\. 



Maxson. John \V., Stonington; discharged 

Nov. l8, disability. 
McDonald, John J. 
McDonald, Thomas J. 
McGrath, John D. 

McKay, Robert; transferred to Company I; 
promoted to corporal; transferred to N. 
N. C. S., Dec. 14, as sergeant-major. 
McQuard, James. 
O'Gara, James P. 

Palmer, Henry E. ; discharged Jan. 16, 1899. 
Preston, Roger A. 

Rushlow, Joseph T. 

Robinson, Henry, Stonington. 

Roche, Patrick D. ; promoted to corporal. 

Shea, Daniel C. 

Shea, Daniel, Stonington. 

Sutton, James, Stonington. 

Sullivan, Edward J. 

Smith, Joseph. 

Tedford, Robert, Stonington. 

Whalen, John J. 

Wilcox, Jerome A., Stonington ; deserted. 

Wright. Robert W., Derby. 

Witcnheimcr, Albert H., Derby; pro- 
moted to sergeant-major., promoted 
to second lieutenant, Dec. 8. 


Capt. Charles A. Hagberg. 

First Lieut. Harry E. Comstock. 

Second Lieut. Frank Q. Smith. 

First Sergt. Milo R. Waters. 

Q. M.-Sergt. John Gembel. 

Sergt. John A. Hagberg; promoted to first 
lieutenant Co. B, Nov. 22. 

Sergt. Charles A. Polsten; reduced to 

Sergt. Edward T. Waterman. 

Sergt. Charles E. Ramage, Montville ; dis- 
charged Feb. 2, 1S9C). 

Corp. Charles H. Thorpe, Uncasville ; pro- 
moted to sergeant. 

Corp. Wm. C. Zelze ; discharged Feb. 2, 


Corp. Alfred A. S. L'Heureux, Taf tville ; 
reduced to ranks. 

Corp. James N. Clark, Jr. ; reduced to ranks. 

Corp. John Hubbard ; discharged Oct. 10. 

Corp. Frederick W. Burton. 

Corp. George \V. Rathbun ; discharged Feb. 
2, 1899. 

Corp. Henry H. Morrill ; promoted to ser- 

Corp. Charles Sabrowski. 

Musician Leopold A. Grzywacz, transferred 
to band. 


Audctte, Elmer, Taftville. 

Audette, Alfred, Taftville. 

Aspinall, Henry. 

Ahern, Wm. H. 

Bauman, John. 

Benjamin, James H. 

Bliven, George L., Lebanon ; discharged 

Sept. 6. 
Barnes, Philo H., Preston. 
Brock, Eugene S. 
Chase, Walter ^L ; transferred to Co. D; 

appointed musician. 
Coffee, Walter C. ; promoted to corporal; 

promoted to sergeant. 
Casey, Daniel C. 
Corcoran, Murty, Taftville. 
Cox, Thomas J. 
Caruthers, Wm. 
Connell, Patrick F. 
Cahoon, David A. 
Carter, John. 
Callahan, Dennis. 

Callahan, John F. ; discharged Feb. 3, 1S99. 
Carroll, Wm. F., Preston. 
Comstock, James H. ; transferred to band. 
Dyrdal, Giordi. 

Duff, Daniel ; promoted to corporal. 
Dnrfey, Frank, Greenville. 
Donahue, Patrick H. ; appointed artificer. 

Fletcher, W;m. C. ; discharged Jan. 24, 1899. 

Fletcher, George H. ; promoted to corporal. 

Foren, John M., Jewett City. 

Fitzgerald, Frederick. 

Gambel, John, Taftville; died Sept. 19. 

Gaj', James M. 

Gadle, George H. ; appointed wagoner. 

Gibson, Herbert A. ; promoted to corporal. 

Grover, Anson E., Preston. 

Geary, Morris F., Montville. 

Haselden, John W. ; promoted to corporal. 

Hughes, Joseph. 

Hiscox, Judson L., Preston. 

Jack, James, Jr., Greeneville ; promoted to 

Jeffers, Walter B. S., Jewett City; pro- 
moted to corporal. 

Kellog, Walter J. 

King, Joseph W. 

L'Heureux, Nelson S., Taftville. 

Loffler, John T. 

Lynch, George H., Preston; discharged 
Nov. 27, 1898. 



Lumsdcn, George R. 

Lctcndre, George, Taftville. 

Maguire, Wtn. F. 

Malone, Wm. J., Taftville. 

McClure, Wm., Preston. 

McVcy, Peter. 

Merrill, Orville W., Springfield, Mass. 

Miner, Huburt, Greeneville. 

Moore, Michael M. ; promoted to corporal; 

reduced to ranks. 
Morgan, James, Jr. 
McGill, John H., Stamford; discharged Jan. 

3. 1899- 

McCormick, James, Maysville, Ky. 

Mausmann, Andrew H., Franklin. 

Olsson, Ivar, Greeneville. 

Osborne, John C. ; appointed musician. 

Oliver, Charles B. 

Perkins, Charles T. ; promoted to corporal. 

Pcckhani, Wm. W.; transferred to band. 

Pierce, Arthur W., Jewett City. 

Pickorski, Mike. 

Reeves, George P., Taftville. 

Robinson, Walter C. ; appointed musician. 

Rushlow, Peter. 

Rathbun, Charles I.; transferred to band. 

Raphael, Robert, Montville. 

Sabrowski, August ; discharged Jan. 24, 

Ecllick, Frederick W. 

Sikorski, Albert. 

Sikorski, John, Greeneville. 

Simpson, Louis F , Franklin. 

Sk'nner, Benjamin F. 

Sterry, Frank E. ; promoted to corporal. 

Sullivan. Patrick, Taftville. 

Thorp, .Mbert; promoted to corporal. 

Thorpe, William H., Montville; pro- 
moted to corporal. 

Tookcr, Frederick B. ; transferred to band. 

Turner, George A. 

Tyiendar, Antoni. 

Woodworth. Harvey L. 

Wclden, Albert C. 

Sergt. Carlos G. Champlin ; transferred to 

Co. H, 2d U. S. Vols., Engrs.. Dec. 6. 
Sergt. Wm. R Chipman ; promoted to first 

Corp. Joseph J. Carr; reduced to ranks; 

dishonorably discharged Feb. 18. 1899. 
Corp. Daniel B. Scoville ; reduced to ranks. 
Corp. Harry B. Prince ; reduced to ranks. 
Corp. John J. Butler. 
Corp. Frank J. Martin. 
Corp. Michael F. Hogan, North Plains; 

deserted Oct. 13. 
Corp. Michael C. Carey. 
Corp. John F. Conway. 
Corp. Byron W. Bemis, Shelton ; promoted 

to sergeant. 
Musician George E. Ryley; reduced to 

ranks ; promoted to corporal. 
Musician Charles Ormsby. 
Wagoner Cassius A. Harding. 


Albccker, Edward, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Allen, Henry, Norwich. 
Lee, James T., Norwich. 
Polskey. Joseph, Montville. 
NS'illey, Frank, Norwich. 


Contained one man from New London 

county — Jolly, James K., Norwich. 


Capt. Hadlai A. Hull; promoted to major 
Sept. 23rd; resigned Oct. 17th. 

First Lieut. Herbert D. Utley, New Lon- 
don; resigned Oct. nth. 

Second Lieut. Walter F. Fish, Mystic; re- 
signed Jan. ist. 

Corp. Oscar W. Palmer, Norwich ; pro- 
moted to first sergeant. 

Corp. Myron A. Maynard, Jewett City. 

Corp. Wilfred Prevost, Jewett City. 

Wagoner George Conrad, Norwich. 


Capt. David Conner, New London. 

First Lieut. Wm. H. Ryley, New London ; 
discharged Jan. 24, 1899. 

Second Lieut. Charles P. Kirkland ; pro- 
moted to captain Co. M, Sept. 11. 

First Sergt. George Hennes. 

Q M.-Sergt. Emmett L. Crowell. 

Sergt. Frank L. Beck^vith ; reduced to ranks. 

Abby, George, North Stonington. 
Bassett, Edwin B., Norwich. 
Brennan, Humphrey, Norwich. 
Carroll, John T., Norwich. 
Cavanaugh, Patrick, Stonington. 
Conrad, John, Preston. 
Coughlin, David, Norwich. 
Carrigg, Thomas, New London. 



Callahan, Christopher, New London. 
Carter, John F., Norwich ; discharged Aug. 

Daniels, Richard, Stonington. 
Dcvine, Michael, Jr., Norwich. 
Dupois, Joseph O., Occum. 
Galbraith, Arthur, Norwich; appointed 

Gay, Frederick A., Norwich. 
Gay, William T., Norwich. 
Hallesey, \Vm., Norwich. 
Hewlett, Charles, Lebanon. 
Healy, Daniel, New London. 
Kehr, \\ m., Norwich. 
Kelly, John N., Norwich. 
Lamb, Walter H., Norwich; promoted to 

Lukoski, Joseph, Norwich. 
Mell, Charles B. Norwich. 
Mullaney, John H., Groton. 
Pariseau, Nelson, Glasgow. 
Powers, Ralph F., Norwich; discharged 

Aug. 22nd. 
Rourke, John, Preston. 
Sullivan, Patrick, Norwich. 
Shannon, Jeremiah, Jewett City. 
Sparks, Ernest, Norwich. 
Shcehan, Daniel, Jewett City. 
Wallace, Wm. E., Griswold. 
Whipple, Frederick E., Jewett City. 
Winans, Frank J., Norwich. 

Capt. Eugene T. Kirkland ; promoted to 

major Sept. nth; to lieutenant-colonel 

Feb. 27, 1899. 
First Lieut. Albert P. Ware; promoted to 

captain Sept. nth. 
Second Lieut. Carey Congdon ; promoted to 

first lieutenant Sept. 15th; resigned Dec. 

Second Lieut. Daniel Tyler Moore. 
First Sergt. Harris Pendleton, Jr. ; pro- 
moted to Second Lieut. Co. M, July 23rd ; 

to first lieutenant Co. E, Oct. isth. 
Quartermaster Sergt. John T. Sherwin. 
Sergt. Richard B. Smith ; promoted to first 

Sergt. Louis H. Goddard. 

Corp. Thomas H. Jennings, promoted to 
sergeant; to second lieutenant. 

Corp. Clark S. Bishop ; promoted to ser- 

Corp. Jeremiah J. Murphy; promoted to 

Corp. John H. Broadwell. 

Corp. John L Stubbert ; promoted to ser- 

Corp. John E. Angus, Groton. 

Musician Harry A. Wiley. 

Musician Wni. M. Dunn. 

Allen, Wm. H. 
.^Ilen, Lucian O., Mystic. 
Blake, Frederick C. 
Blanchard, Frederick C, Norwich. 
Brobeck, Albert. 
Butterly, Peter. 

Callahan, Wm. F. ; promoted to corporal. 
Crump, Richard L. ; promoted to corporal. 
Farrell, Frank F., Norwich. 
Gernhard, Adam J., Norwich ; promoted to 

Gleason, Wm. J. 

Hunter, John A., Jr., Norwich. 
Hanrahan, John, Norwich. 
James, Frederick H. 
Kelly, James F. 
Latham, Albert, Groton. 
McCarron, John. 
McGregor, James J., Mystic ; promoted to 

Malona, Charles ; appointed artificer. 
Mills, John, Waterford. 
Mulligan, Frank. 
Newburg, Harry N., Groton. 
Noland, Wm. H. ; promoted to corporal. 
O'Neil, Owen, Norwich. 
Peppin, Frederick, Taftville. 
Rehly, Charles, Norwich. 
Smith, Jesse, Groton. 
Williams, Frank E., Groton. 
Willows, Henry L. ; promoted to corporal. 
Wolfe, David, Mystic. 

Private Turner, Theodore, Norwich. 




a — Jacob Abelman 

a — Arthur C. Adams 

n — Harold G. Adams 

n — Hunter D. Adams 

n — Lawrence J. Ahcarn 

a— Michael J. Aldi 

a — Saratin Aliano 

n — Christopher G. Allen 

n— Ellsworth Allen 

a— Frank P. Allen 

a — George M. Allen 

n — Horace H. Allen* 

a — Louis C. Allen 

a— Ward T. Ailing 

a — Harry W. Allyn 

a — J. Alvis 

a — George H. Aniburn 

n — George A. Anderson 

a — John J. Anderson 

a — Otto A. Anderson 

a — Frank Andree 

a — John M. Antoncopoulos 

n— Robert J. Appley 

a — Jacob Ariewitz 

a — Bcrton Armstrong 

a — Henry R. Armstrong 

a — Percy Armstrong 

a— Richard T. Arnold 

a — Andre Arsenault 

a — Reginald G. Ashbey 

a — Andrew Assault 

n — Thomas J. Aubrey 

n — Rolland L. Auclair 

a — Andrew M. Avery 

a— Welcome H. Babbitt 

a — Bertram B. Bailey 

a — Dominick Bailey 

a — Earl G. Bailquiti 

a — Frederick Baker 

a — L. Baldessarre 

a — Johnston B. Banfield 

a — G. Baraduce 

a — Burton E. Barber 

a — Dominick Barber* 

a — Peter A. Barber 

a — Allen Barbour 

a— Harold R. Barney 

a — Dennis J. Barry 

n — Eugene Barry 

a — Felix J. Barry 

n — Francis P. Barry 

a— J. A. Barry 

a — Michael Barry 

a — Thomas C. Barry 

a — Ernest L. l^artosiewicz a— 

n — John W. Barwcll a— 

a — Abraham Bass a— 

a — Philip Baunigartncr a— 

a — Adolf Bartosiewicz a— 

a — Armand Bazinet a— 

a — Lucien Bazinet a— 

a — Frank J. Beattie. Jr. a— 

a — Alfred Beausoliel a— 

a — Osias P. Beausoliel ii-- 

n — Frank E. Beckwith a— 

n — DcUoyd E. Beebe a— 

a — Joseph Belair a 

a — Elmer C. Beldcn a— 

a — George C. Bell a- 

1 — Michael J. Bellcfieur a- 

a — Oliver M. Bcllclleur n- 

1 — Dominick A. Belliveau* a- 

a — Philip Belliveau a- 

a — Natale Bclloni a- 

a — Charles Belloni n- 

a — Theodore Belvol a- 

a — Benjamin Bendctt a- 

a — Harold J. Bennetv a- 

1 — John S. Bennett a- 

1 — F. Benoit a- 

i — Harvie A. Benoit a- 

1— Alfred H. Benoit a- 

n — Raymond H. Benoit a- 

1— Frank G. Benson a- 

a — Charles N. Bcntley a- 

n — Harold Bentley a- 

n — Howard P. Benjamin a- 

a— Peter J. Bernal a- 

a — D. Bernaseoni a- 

a — Frank A. Bernier a- 

a — Hector Bernier a- 

a — Ernest J. Bernier a- 

1 — Henry J. Berry a- 

a — Charles Bertrand a- 

a — Arthur X. Bessette n- 

a — Francis C. Bidwcll n- 

a— Peter BioKky a- 

a — William C. Birge a- 

n — Lawrence W. Bjurstrom a- 

a — John S. Blackmar a- 

a — James Blair, Jr. i'.- 

a— John W. Blair a- 

a — Lionel Blair a- 

a — George Bliss a- 

a — Walter N. Block a- 

a — Ignatius BIynn a- 

a — Nathan Blumcnthal n- 

a — John W. Blumley a~ 

William C. Bode, Jr. 
■Ilcnry Bode 
■Irving E. Boguc' 
-Louis H. Bogue 
•Harold E. Bolando 
•Louis J. Bolton 
Hoaam Bondarcn 
•Anthony C. Benin* 
•Edward L. Bonin 
-George 1". Boon 
•William Booth 
-Earnest J. Bosscy* 
-F'cd Boscoe 
-V\ illiam Brault* 
-Carl Brend 
-William R. Brend 
-William Brennan 
-Robert Bricrly 
-Clarence L. Briggs 
-Benjamin Briscoe 
-Traver Briscoe 
-Frank Britton 
-Joseph J. C. Broadhurst 
-Ferdinand Brodeur 
-John Bromley 
-John Brongo 
-Joseph Brongo 
-Salvatore Brongo 
-Arthur D. Brooks 
-Fred J. Brophy 
-Amiel C. Brosofski 
-Edward Brosofski 
-James Brongus 
-Allen Brown 
-Edward L. Brown 
-•George P. Brown 
-Thomas G. Brown 
-Elmer B. Browne 
-John Browne 
-Wladystaw Brursynie 
-Leon S. Bruckner 
-Francis Buckley 
-Michael O. Bulka 
-Roger A. Bullard 
-Charles A. Burdick 
-Leland M. Burdick 
-William Burgess 
-Edwin Burgess 
-August Burke 
-Edward J. Burke 
-Frank D. Burke 
-George H. Burke 
-James J. Burke 
-James T. Burke 



I— Gustave Burke 
1— Raymond J. Burke 
■Edward J. Burns 
•Martin F. Burns 
• William J. Burns 
•Durlin D. Bushnell 
Cliarles E. Bushnell 
Herbert J. Bushnell 
•William C. Bushnell 
-Adam Butkiewicz 
•William E. Brosofski 
•Irving R. Bottomley 
■Joseph E. Bottomley 
-Joseph A. Boutote 
■Lucio Bove 
-Albert H. Bowe, Jr. 
-Daniel J. Bowen 
-Dennis J. Bowen 
-Joseph R. Bowen 
-Carlton S. Bowers 
-John R. Bowman, Jr. 
-William Boyd 
-John W. Boyle 
-Paul Bradlaw 
-Patrick J. Bradley 
-Earl W. Bramble 
-Nelson T. Branch 
-Henry Brayman 
-Jesse Brayman 
-Joseph F. Byington 
-Louis Byer 
-Harwood Byrnes 
-Matthew E. Byrnes 
-Stephen J. Bokowski 
-Joseph Boucek 
-.Alfred Cadarette 
-Ovila Cadarette 
-Louis J. Caisse 
-Emory E. Calkins 
-James E. Calkins 
William P. Callahan 
-John W. Callahan 
•Arthur F. Campbell, Jr. 
•David Y. Campbell 
■Harold D. Campbell 
■Lawrence Cantwell 
■Nicholas Capseledakis 
P. Caraslanis 
-James Carberry 
-William F. Carberry 
-John A. Carbray 
■Peter J. Carbray 
•Emery W. Card 
•Edward T. Cary 
■Ulderic J. Chenette 





a — 

a — 
a — 
a — 
n — 
a — 
a — 
a — 
a — 
a — 
n — 
a — 

a — Joseph M. Carey 
a— George VV. Carpenter 
a — Guy b\ Carpenter 
a— Paul C. Carpenter 
a — Wilham T. Carpenter 
a— John J. Carroll 
a — William Carson 
n— Henry J. Carter 
a — M. J. Carter 
a— William H. Caruthers 
a — James Carver* 
n — Frederick C. Case 
a — Raymond B. Case 
a — George H. Casey 
a — John L. Casey 
a — Joseph Casey 
n — George A. Cass 
a — Charles W. Cassidy 
n— Richard E. Cassidy 
a — Dennison R. Caswell 
a — Edward Caughcy 
a — David Cellucci 
a — Stanislaw Cieslak 
a — Wiersic Ciniafiey 
a — Ernest J. Champagne 
a — Merrill T. Champlin 
a— -Ovila Chancerelle 
a — Albert R. Chandler 
a — Chester A. Chapman 
a — Ralph W. Chapman 
a — Robert S. Chapman 
a — Percival JvL Chapman 
a — Frank L. Chappell 
a — William Charbino 
n — Charles Charbonneau 
n — Fred Charbonneau 
n — Alexis H. Charnetski 
a — John B. Charon 
a — Le Grand Chartier 
n— Otlio Chase 
n — A. Prentice Chase 
a — George K. Chase 
a — Thomas C. Chase 
n— Robert H. Church 
a — Antonio Ciccona 
a — Saralin Ciliano 
a-David M. Clark 
a -Leonard S. Clark 
a — William H. Clarkson 
a — Andrev/ J, Clcndennin 
a — Fred A. Clouticr 
II — Erwin A. Cohen* 
a — Meyer Cohen 
n — Jeffery V. Colt 
a — B. Colberg 

a — John J. Coleman 

a — Patrick Coleman 

a — Dennis Collins 

a — Howarth C. Collins 

n — Patrick J. Collins 

a — Thomas J. Collins 

n — Harry Comstock 

a — Walter F. Congdon 

a— Lawrence Connelli 

a — Daniel Connelly 

n — Thomas J. Connelly 

a — Gavin Connor 

a — William Connors 

a — Otis Conrad 

a — George F. Cook 

a — James J. Cook 

n — Phillips C. Cook 

a — Webster D. Copp 

a— Edward J. Corcoran 

a — Joseph Corcoran 

a — Mat Cordinon 

a — William E. Corey 

n— Charles J. Corkery 

a — Joseph Cormier 

a — Maxime A. Cormier 

a— Thomas J. Cosgrove 

a — Frank S. Coskey 

a — George E. Counihan 

a — James P. Counihan 

n — Horace Coyle 

a— James H. Craney 

a — Harold W. Cranska 

a — Wesley Cranska 

n — Frederick B. Craven 

n — Harold Crawford 

n — J. Lincoln Crawford 

a— Leonard F. Cromona 

n — W'illiam H. Croston 

a— Robert E. Cross 

a — Charles Crowe 

n — George A. Crowe 

a — Samuel Crowe 

a — Frederick S. Crowell 

n_Clayton E. Cruikshank 

n — William J. Cruikshank 

a — W'illiam L. Cummings 

n — John H. Cunningham 

n— John A. Cunningham 

a — John Curry 

a — Joseph Curto 

a — Antoni Czaplinski 

a — Joseph Czpruer 

a— Michael D. D'Atri 

a — James J. Daley 

a — Wactaw Dabrowski 



a— John W. Dale 
a — Stephen Langlowitz 
a — John Danglowitz 
a — Arthur Danglowitz 
a — Arthur K. Davignon 
a — ircrman Davignon 
n — Harold S. Darbie 
n — Frank J. Davis 
a — George H. Davis 
a— Komnas Davulclis 
n — Joseph Dayall 
a — Felix Dcbarros 
a — John DeBrunncr 
a — Raymond A. Decelles 
n — Harold Decelles 
n — Leon F. Decelles 
a — Leo Decrassar 
n — Patrick Delancy 
a — Thomas Dclaney 
n — James R. DeMars 
a — Rocco DeMattia 
a — William R. Dcnnison 
a — William G. A. Denker 
a — William Depena 
a — John C. Desantels 
a — Robert Deshelly 
a— Patrick J. Desmond 
a — Tliomas G. Desmond 
a — George Desrosiers 
a- — Daniel F. Devine 
n— Albert H. Dexter* 
n— Albert Dilhvorth 
n — Samuel R. Dilhvorth 
n— John R. Dilhvorth 
a — Deo J. Dion 
a — Joseph Disero 
a— Thomas Dixon 
a — Patrick J. Donahue 
a — Harwood B. Dolbeare 
a — William H. Donahue 
a — Patrick F. Donahue 
a — William F. Donahue 
a — Francis P. Donnelly 
n — John R. Donovan 
a — John C. Donovan 
n — Walter Donovan 
a — Otis B. Dorsey 
a — John F. D. Dougherty 
a — John \V. Dougherty 
a — William H. Douglas 
a — Frederick J. Dowdell 
n — John Downing 
a — Patrick F. Downing 
a — Jeremiah Downing 
a — George Draper 
N.I..— 1-38 

a— William J. Drake 


a — Charles F. Drew 


a — Joseph F. Drew 


a— D. A. Driscoll 


a— William T. Driscoll 


a — George Drohan 


a — Peter G. Drosser 


a— Thomas J. Duane 


a — William Dubois 


a-Fred D. Dubrill 


a — Arthur Dufour 


a — John T. Dunion 


a — Adolph Dugas 


n — John W. Durnan 


a — Paul B. Ducharme 


a — Timothy J. Dunne 


a — F'rank Durr 


a — Henry Durr 


a — W'illiam Durr* 


a — Christopher Dutkowski 


a — Joseph Dydo 


n— George H. Dyer 


a — William 0. Dyer 


a — Edward H. Duro 


a — Manley Eastwood 


n — John W. Eaton 


a — Nathan G. Eccleston 


a — Oscar C. Eccleston 


n — Arthur Edwards 


a — Frank C. Eldredge 


n — James E. Ellis 


n — James G. Emerson 


n — Martin J. Enright 


a — Thomas J. Enright 


a — Fred Ensling 


a — Clarence Epps 


n — Carl Ericson 


a — Helgo F. Ericson 


a — Elmer F. Ericson 


n — Albert Evans 


a— John T. Evans 


a — John Evans 


a — E. Raymond Ewing 


a — Albert J. Exley 


a— Gerrit Eyeberse 


a — Albert T. Fairbanks 


n— Otis T. Fairbanks 


a— Cornelius A. Falvey 


a — Paul Fanning 


a— Joseph J. Farrell 


a— Peter J. Farrell 


a— Imbert Fellows 


a— Robert Fcnsley 


n — George R. Ferguson 


n — Herbert Ferguson 


Albert E. Fielding 
Lemuel O. Fielding 
John F. F'ields 
— Leslie M. Fillmore 
— Kelsic M. Fillmore 
— R. Day Fillmore 
— Albert Fiore 
—Charles T. Fish 
—Ashley J. Fitzgerald 
— C. William Fitzgerald 
— Arthur H. Fitzgerald 
— John T. Fitzgerald 
-Frank Fitzmaurice 
-James F. Fleming 
-William A. Fleming 
-Robert O. Fletcher* 
-William L. Fletcher, Jr. 
-James J. F'lynn 
-John C. F"'lynn 
-Thomas M. Flynn 
-Patrick F. Foley 
-Percy Ford 
-William Ford 
-Donat B. Fournier 
-Picrro Fournier 
-Wilfred F'ournier 
-William Fournier 
-Ernest D. Fox 
-Dahir M. Francis 
-Donald Eraser* 
-Homer Fraser 
-Ernest Frechette 
-Horedare A. F'rcgeau 
-Henry A. Freeman 
-Louis Friedberg 
-Joseph Frincona 
-Charles W. Frink 
-Frederick A. Friswell 
-Andrew Frobaniandcr 
-W;n. G. Frohamandcr 
■David Frost 
-George Fulton 
-Paul Gadle 
-Francis Gadle 
-Clayton M. Gager 
•Leslie T. Gager 
■Arthur J. Gagnon 
-Ernest F. Gagnon 
-Andrew W. Gailey 
■Julian B. Gale 
Peter Gallan* 
Elmer K. Gallup 
Arthur Ganier 
Joseph Gates 
George D. Garvey 


a— George A. Garpie 
a_Thomas Gauthier 
a— Albert H. Gebrath 
a_Frcdtrick H. Geer 
a — Herman G. Gehr 
a— Lloyd G. Gelino 
n_Robert Gelino 
a— John H. Gembel 
a— George J. Genereux 
a — Jack Geno 
a— Charles H. Geners 
a— Vincenzo S. Germano 
a— Charles J. Gesinowski 
a_Raymoiid E. Gibson* 
n— Archibald R. Gilchrist 
a— Edward J. Gilchrist 
n— G. Harold Gildersleeve 
n_\Yilliam B. Gilles 
a_George H. Gilman 
a— Alfred Gladue 
a— L. P. Gladue 
a— John S. Gleason 
a— Frank H. Glcy 
n— Alfred A. Gobeille 
a — Louis J. Godaire 
a— Arthur Goderre 
a — Felix Gordz 
a — Louis Goldberg 
a — Benjamin Goldfarb 
n — Robert Goldstein 
a — Frank J. Golkowski 
n — William H. Gordon 
a — William C. Gorman 
a — William R. Gordon 
a — Samuel P. Gorton 
a — William H. Gorton 
a — Charles H. Govers 
a — Adelard Goyette 
a — John A. Graber 
a — John F. Grady 
a — Joseph T. Grady 
a — Thomas Grady 
a — Ralph D. Graham 
a — Charles A. Gray 
n — Alfred Grebe 
a — James E. Green 
a — Edmund Greenheigh 
a — P. A. Grenier 
n — Gustave Greenwood 
a — Richard P. Gregson 
n — John C. Griffith 
a — Guiscppe Grisafe 
a — John Guericcio 
a — S. R. Guibeault 
a — John B. Gunsalve 


n — William F. Gley 

a — Walter Haberski 

a— Fred A. Hagberg 

a— George A. Hagberg 

a— Alfred Harsh 

a — Fred C. Haglund 

a— David Hall 

a — Carl Hahn 

a— Ralph S. Hall 

n— W iiUam J. Flail 

a— Daniel C. Hallisey 

n — Edwin M. Hanks 

a— William C. Hansen 

a — Vasil Haralambon 

a— Thomas J. Harrington 

a — Henry J. Harrington 

a — Daniel L. Harris 

a — John Harris 

a — John Harris 

n — Alfred K. Hartley 

a — Bernard M. Hasler 

n — Fred B. Hasler* 

n — Carleton H. Havens 

a — Theodore Z. Haviland 

n — Joseph Hazard 

a — Walter R. Hazard 

n— J. Frank Healey, Jr. 

a — Albert C. Heber 

a — Augustus Heber 

a— Otto A. Heebner 

a — Toloke Heliniak 

a — John Helm 

a — Alfred Henault 

a — Henry Hendrickson 

a — Arthur E. Henshaw 

a — Simeon Herard 

a — Leonard E. Herard 

a — Harry Herd 

a — Earl C. Herrick 

a— Frank V. Hero 

a — Max Hertz 

a — Pfarold J. Hetrick 

a — Raymond T. J. Higgins 

a — Henry H'ildcriirand 

a— Edmund W. Hill 

a— Lcland S. Hill 

n— Rowland D. Hill, Jr. 

a — Norman E. Himes 

a — Manley Hitchon 

n- — John J. Hoar 

a — Cornelius R. Hoelck 

n— John F. Holland 

a^William Hollin 

a — James W. Hollingworth 

a — Simon J. Holmes 

n — Frank W. Holmes 

a — Jesse F. Holt 

a — Harold B. Hotchkiss 

n — Edward O. Hotchkiss 

n — Warren S. Hotchkiss 

n — B. J. Houlihan 

n — Dennis J. Houlihan 

a — James Hourigan 

a— James E. Hourigan 

a — Joseph W. Hourigan 

a — Richard E. Hourigan* 

a — Harry W. House 

a — Chauncey C. House 

a— George C. Houston 

a — Earl W. Howard 

a — Leslie A. Howard 

a — Harvey C. Howard 

n — James L. Hubbard 

a — John E. Hughes 

a— Harold P. Hull 

n — Joseph O. Hull 

a — Lewis Hull, Jr. 

a — Russell E. Hunt 

a — Channing P. Huntington 

a — Gurdon Huntington 

a — William L. Huntington 

a — Charles W. Huntley 

a — Frank C. Huntley 

a — C. G. Hyde 

a — Ruble A. Hyman 

a — Lawrence J. Hyde 

a — Luigi lacai 

a — James T. Isbister 

n — William Isbister 

a — Anthony F. Izbicki 

a — Wladystaw Jabiclski 

a — Arthur V. Jackson 

n — George T. Jackson 

a — Henry Jackson 

a — Myron R. Jackson 

a — Charles A. Jacobs 

n — Leo L. Jacques 

a — Allan T. Jahn 

a — Carl P. Jahn 

a — Emil Jahn 

a — Joachim Jajesnica 

a — Stanley Jacobowski 

a — Thomas K. James 

a — George L. Jarvis 

a — Michael Jaskiweicz 

a — Paul F. Jatkoqski 

a — Henry Jennes 

II — Sam Jennis 

n — Carl W. Jennison 

n — Edmund C. Jensen 



n — Roger Jensen 

n — Harold T. Jensen 

a — Edward \V. Jewett 

n — Laurens C. Jewett 

a — Carl G. Johnson 

a — Carl H. Johnson 

a — Charles Johnson 

a — Charles P. Johnson 

a — Jonathan L. Johnson 

a — Raymond B. Johnson 

a — Robert L. Johnson 

n — Frederick A, Johnson 

a— Clinton S. Jones 

n — Emerson B. Jones 

a — Harry Jones 

a — James E. Jones 

a — Philip A. Johnson 

a — John Jones 

a — Earl C. Judge 

a — James J. Kane 

a — Edward A. Karkutt 

a — Herman Karkutt 

n— William Karkutt 

a — Harold Kaseowitz 

a — Louis Katz 

a — William T. Kearney 

a— Samuel Kearns 

a— Francis H. Keeley 

a — John Keeley 

a — James M. Keene 

a— C. J. Kelleher 

a — Daniel Kelly 

a — Frederick J. Kelly 

a — Harry Kelly 

a— Thomas J. Kelly 

a — Edward Kendall 

a — John F. Kendall 

a— Clyde S. Ken field 

a — Israel Kenig 

a — John R. Kennedy 

a — Fred L. Kent 

a— Harry B. Kent 

a — John R. Keyton 

n — Edward J. Kilday 

n — James J. Kildenny 

a — Alexander J. Kilroy 

a— Ronald M. Kimball 

a — Arthur A. King 

n — John M. King 

n — Carl E. Kinney 

a — Frank J. Kelleher 

a — George W. Kirby 

a — Edward Kirby, Jr. 

a — Jamej A. Kirker 

a — Joseph Kimel 

n — Stanley J. Kohanski 
a — Paul Kolosky 
a — Karinucars Koprowski 
a — John Koulofoulas 
a — Joseph D. Kousquet 
a — Frank Kowinski 
a — John Kowinski 
a — Micholaj Kozak 
a — Paul Kozloski 
a — John J. Kozlowski 
a— Rawet Kozlowski 
a — George H. Kramer 
a — Joseph Krauczak 
a — Harry Kronier 
a — Anton Kronicski 
a — Martin Krousc, 2nd 
a — Antoni Kowolewski 
a — William Krzywicky 
a— Alfred H, I.aBarre 
a — Thomas Labbee 
a — Napoleon Labrea 
a — Lewis J. LaBounty 
a — Charles LaCavera 
n — Ralph A. LaFemina 
a — Henry J. LaFontaine 
a — Leroy Lacy 
a — James Lacy 
n — Joel R. Lacy 
a — Charles Ladd 
a — Edward D. Ladd 
a — Adelarde Laflesh 
a — Arthur Lafond 
a — Benjamin Lahn 
a — George Lake 
n — Victor J. LaMorey 
a — William J. LaMorey 
a — Eppolcon Lambert* 
a— Rodolph Lambert 
a — William J. Lambert 
n— Henry S. Landolt 
a — Frederic T. Lane 
a — Richard E. Lane 
n — Charles G. Langlais 
a — John J. Langue 
a— Edwin J. Larkin 
a — Howard E. Larkin 
a— Joseph R. LaRoche 
n — Arthur C. Larsen 
a — Lawrence N. Larsen 
a — Alexander Laskoski 
a — Peter Lasonde 
a — P.urril D. Lathrop 
n— Paul W. Latham 
a — Clifford Lathrop 
a — Herbert Lawrence 

a — John Lawson 

n — Joseph F. Lowry 

a — Onil Loutagne 

a — Eugene Lavalle 

n — George E. Leahy 

n — John P. Leahy 

n — Thomas Leahy 

a — Philip Leany 

a — Andrew LeBlanc 

n — Jeffrey LeBlanc 

a — Philip Leany 

n — Arthur Legare 

a — Manuel Lcion 

a — William Leion 

a — Peter P. Lemioux 

a — Ira C. Leonard 

a — Michael P. Leonard 

a— Leo M. LePage 

a — Francesco Lerante 

a — Ord Leseman 

a — W. O. Lessin 

a — Horace C. Lester 

a — Samuel L. Lester 

a — Francesco Levante 

a — Abraham Levine 

a — Harry Levine 

n — William Levitsky 

a— Otto Levitsky 

a — Frank Lewandowski 

n — John H. Lewis 

a — Napoleon B. Lewis 

a — Christian Liepold 

n — Spencer C. Lincoln 

a — Harold E. Linderson 

a — Philip F. Linderson 

a — F. L. Linehan 

a — Peter Linos 

n — T. Auston Linton 

a — Leoyotte Liskievvicz 

n— Charles R. Locke 

a — Frank M. A. Lohnman 

a — Tony Longo 

n — Robert Lonsdale 

a — Maurice B. Looby 

a — Franklyn T. Lord 

a — Joseph Lorettc 

a — Prosper M. Lorette 

a — Homer D. Loudon 

n — Arthur Lovell 

n — Joseph Lovell 

a — Fred F. Lovely 

a — John F. Ludwig 

a — Frank E. Lumis 

a — Joseph R. Lumis 

a — Walter S. Lumsdon 



a_\Valtcr Luiid 

a— Isaac Lurctte 

n— Charles H. Luther 

a — James E. Lynch 

a— John F. Lynch 

a— John P. Lynch 

n — Joseph Lynch 

n— George O. Lynch 

a— Carl E. Lyons 

a—David T. Lyons 

a— William J. Lyons 

n— James J. Madden 

a— Joseph Maddock 

a— John J. Magner 

a— Francis A. Magner 

a— Robert H. Mahoney 

a — George J. Malcolm 

a — Harold R. Malcolm 

a — Luigi Malcrba 

a — Edward E. Maloney 

a— John J. Mallett 

a— Ralph P. Malo 

a — William J. Maloney 

a — Leslie V. Manchester 

a — Harry Mandell 

a — Alfrec Mandcrville 

a — Victor Mankowski 

a — Eugene A. Manning 

a — John J. Manning 

a — Andrew J. Marchiel 

n — Gerado Mariano 

a — Antony F. Markey 

a — Harry Markoff 

a — Herman Marshak 

a — Frederick J. Marshall 

a — Henry F. Marshall 

a — William J, Marshall 

a— William B. Martin 

a — Eli J. Martin 

a— Horace J. Martin 

a — Charles F. MacNamara 

n — Francis E. Massad 

a — Habeeb E. Massad 

a — Henry J. Masse 

a — Charles R. Mason 

n — Michael J. Matri 

n — Everett J. Maurice 

a — Tony Mesiano 

a — Eugene Mercier 

a — John Mercik 

a — Abraham Meyer 

a — Charles Meyer 

a — Napoleon P. Miclette 

a — William Mikolasi 

a — Andrew H. Millea 

a — Gurdon E. Miller 

a — Everett A. Miller 

a — Peter G. Mitchell 

a — Fred J. Mitterer 

a — John J. MacDonald 

a — John H. MacDonald 

a — Patrick MacMalion 

a — Bruce S. MacMillan 

n — Robert McAllister 

a — Patrick McAtarvey 

a — Edmund J. McCarthy 

a — Michael J. McCarthy 

a- — James E. McCavvlcy 

a — William L. McClimon 

a — Leroy McCluskey 

a — Joseph F. McCormack 

a — Frank J. McCormick 

a — John J. McCormick 

a — James D. McCrohan 

a— William H. McKnight, J 

a— Walter H. McNeely 

a — James F. McGill 

a — James McGlone 

a — John McGrath 

a — John McGraw 

a — James B. McGrory 

a — John F. McGrory 

a — Lawrence McGrory 

n — Thomas A. McGrory 

a — John H. Mclntyre 

a — Charles J. McKay 

a — Edward G. McKay 

a— Matthew P. McKay 

a — Francis P. McKenna 

a — Charles A. Mclntyre 

a — Frank R. Mclntyre 

a — Harry McQuade 

a — James McLaughlin 

a — Frank B. McMahon 

a — Felix B. McMahon 

n — Joseph McMahon 

a — Arthur J. McNamara 

a — John McNeely 

n— Sheldon R. McNickle 

n — Daniel McShefFry 

a — Charles McSheffry 

a— John D. McWilliams 

a— Emil O. Moll 

a — Edward T. Monahan 

a — Peter W. Montey 

a — Cornelius C. Moore 

a — Harold E. Moran 

a — James R. Moran 

n — John A. Moran 

n — Richard C. Moran 

a- -Walter P. Moran 

a — C. Benjamin Morgan 

a — Frank L. Morgan 

a — ^Ripple G. Morgan 

a — IvTartin J. Morlcy 

n — Stephen Morras 

n — Leo R. Morris 

a — James T. Morrison 

a — George Morrow 

a — Arnold J. Mosier 

a — Edward H. Mott 

a— Frank W. Mott 

a — Philip Iifudderman 

a — Charles O. Murller 

a — Cuno N. Mueller 

a— James F. Mulholland 

a — 'Arthur J. Mullen 

n— George T. Mullen 

a— John W. Mullen 

a— Albert T. Murphy 

n — Dennis Murphy 

n — J. Desmond Murphy 

a — Edward Murphy 

a — James ^L Murphy 

a — John L. Murphy 

a — Michael Murphy 

a — Thomas P. Murphy 

n — Timothy J. Murphy 

n — William P. Murphy 

a — Edward F. Murray 

a^Leonard P. Murray 

n — Francis Murtha 

a — Henry H. Mussell 

a — Ronald P. Mussel! 

a — Ludwick W. ^Vyscinski 

a — Arthur Nadolny 

a — George R. Nadolny 

a — Isadore Nagdyman* 

a — Louis Nagdyman 

a — Ernest Nahas 

a — Hillary Naruserwick 

a — Frank Navis 

n — James V. Neary 

n — Rudolph Nelson 

n — 'James J. Nevins* 

a — Charles R. Nichols 

a — William Nichols 

a — Alexander Niewiemjaki 

a — George R. Nolan 

a — Lawrence E. Nolan 

a — A. W. Norman 

a — Arthur B. Norton 

a — John C. Noyes 

n — John B. Noyes 

a — R. Gale Noyes 

a— Clifford C. Oat 

n— G. Waldo Oat 

a — Lewis J. Oat 

a— George A. O'Brien 

a — William T. O'Brien 

a— William St. L. O'Brien 

a — William O'Brien 

a — John P. O'Connell 

a— J. F. O'Connell 

a — Charles T. Ogden 

a — Michael O'Hearn 

a — Zigmund J. Olaf 

a- — Alexander Olaff 

a— Frank W. Oloff 

a — Charles M. Olson 

a — John Olsen 

a — Dennis O'Neil 

a — Frank O'Ncil 

n— Peter T. O'Neil. Jr. 

n— William F. O'Neil 

a — Pasqi'.ale Orsinie 

a — William Ortmann 

n — W. Leroy Osborn 

a — Edward Ouellet 

a — Raymond Ouellet 

a — Victor Ovezschowski 

n— Alfred O. Palmer 

a — Antonio Paniocco 

a — Antonio Panto 

a — Peter Papas 

a— Harry Pappagallo* 

a— C. J. Papyis 

a— Peter J. Paquette 

a — Reginald Pardy 

a — Antonio Parrotta 

a — Arthur Parent 

a — Charles J. Patridge 

a — Maurice E. Patridge 

n— Alfred W. Watterson 

a — George Patterson 

a — Joseph Patti 

a — Joseph Paul 

a— Stanislaw Pavolalc 

a — Vincenty Pavolak 

a — James T. Payard 

a — James A. Pearson 

a — Charles J. Pechewlys 

a— Roland C. Peck 

n— Walter A. Peck 

a — Edmund J. Pcckham 

a — Howard L. Peckham 

a — August J. Poliquin 

a — S. Pene 

n — David H. Pendleton 

a — Domingo Penna 


a — Ulric A. Pepin 
a — Napoleon Peppin 
a — James H. Ptrrm* 
a— Lorcto Perruzzo 
a — William E. Perry* 
n— Knud W. Peters 
a — Andas Peterson 
a — Martin S. Peterson 
a — Nathaniel Peterson 
a — Anestes Petrus 
a — Thomas J. Pfeiffer 
a — Victor Phaneuf 
a — Albert Pierce 
a — Everett W. Pierce 
a — Luigi Pierette 
n— Robert Pilling 
a— Fred J. Plante 
a— Henry L. Plante 
a — Joseph L. Plante 
n — Everett Pinigree 
a — Bronislaw Podieski 
a — Philip Poirier 
a — Ernest Pollard 
a — Arthur F. Poole 
a — Clarence M. Poole 
a — George H. Popham 
n— Albert H. Portelance 
n— Earl H. Post 
a— John P. Post 
n— Howard N. Porter 
n — Clarence Potter 
a— Fred K. Potter 
a — Howard F. Potter 
n— J. Dyer Potter 
a— John W. Potts, Jr. 
a — Frederick B. Powers 
a — Vincent Powloicz 
a— Harold J. Powers 
a — Harold F. Powers 
a — George J. Poyerd 
a— Ovila J. Preavy 
a — Richard K. Prentice 
n— Harold R. Preston 
n — Robert E. Preston 
n— Douglas K. Proctor 
a— Joseph W. Prosser, Jr. 
a — Romeo Prse 
a — Henry Pukallus 
a— Benedict C. Pullen 
n^.^ndrcw F. Purdon 
n — Ernest L. Purvis 
a — Norman A. Pierce 
a — James F. Poyerd 
a — Edward P. Quinn 
a — Robert Quinn 


a — John Quericio 
a — Nathan Rabinovitch 
a — Berton I. Rainford 
n — Arthur Ramsie 
a — George L. Randall 
a— R. M. Raphael 
a — Joseph Ratcliffc 
a — Charles L. Rathbone 
a — George E. Raughtican 
a — Arthur A. Raymond 
a — Eugene F. Raymood 
a — Moses \V. Raymond 
a — Edward F. Rcardon 
a — John J. ReardoB 
a — John W. Reardon 
a — Michael J. Rcardon 
n — Edward W. Reavey 
a — Joseph Recavc 
a — James J. Redden 
a — Michael J. Redmond 
n — Michael J. Reed 
a — Henry A. Reek 
a — J. Rcnibroski 
a — Thomas F. Reynolds 
a — Frank Riccardi 
n — Charles I- Richards 
a — Calvin M. Richardson 
a — Harold Richardson 
n — Harry M. Richmond 
n— Carlos M. Ricker 
a— J. Bradford Rictetts 
a— Kirk Ricketts 
a— Jay B. Ricketts 
a— Paul S. Ricketts 
a — James E. Riding 
a— Steve Riel, Jr. 
a — Albert H. Riese 
a — Norris Riley 
a — Frank Rinella 
n — Herbert E. Ring 
n — Joseph T. Ring 
n — Henry Ringland 
n — Myron J. Ringland 
n— Charles J. Riordon 
a — H. Frank Riordon 
a — Howland P. Rivers 
a — Benjamin J. Robak 
a — .Mfred Roberts 
a— George W. Roberts 
a — Henry Roberts 
a — Joseph Roberts 
a — Fred M. Robinson 
a — Harold T. Robinson 
a — Winton A. Robinson 
a — George Robish 



a — Henry Robiter 

a— Charles E. Rogers 

a— Charles P. Rogers 

a— Bruce F. Rogers 

n— Frank F. Rogers 

a— Gilbert E. Rogers 

a— Henry Rogers 

a— S. J. Rokowski 

a— Paolo B. Rollo 

a— Joseph Rondeau 

a— Silvio Rondeau 

a — Innocenzio Rondina 

a — Fred Roscoe 

a — Manuel Rose 

a — Clifford Rouse 

a— Henry Rousseau 

a — John Royston 

a— John Rozanski 

a— George L. Russell 

a— Amos Ruley 

a— Francis B. Ryalls 

a— Charles Ryan 

n— David Ryan 

a— Gerald Ryan 

n — James Ryan 

n — William Ryan 

a— William J. Ryan 

n — Arthur Rymsza 

a — Stephen Rupka 

a — Eugene Savourin 

n — Harry Sabrowski 

a — Jack Sack 

a — Max Sadinsky 

H — John Sadinsky 

a — Jolin E. Sadinsky 

n — Michael A. Sandusky 

n — Edward F. Sage 

a — Fillmore B. Sage 

n — Frederic E. Sage 

a — Wilfred J. Sage 

a — Silas N. Sandberg 

a — Archie W. Sanders 

a — Yincenzo Sangermano 

a — Charles F. Sands 

a — William C. Santo 

a — Fclol.e Sarbicki 

a — Archie Saunders 

n — Frank A. Sautter 

a — Lewis J. Savage 

n — William M. Savage 

a — Thomas D. Sayles 

a— Arthur Schofield* 

a— John P. Schoff 

a — M;i>: E. Scliranrm, Jr. 

a — Harry Schulman 

a— Arthur P. Schulz* 

n — Paul A. Schwartz 

a — John Scofanfava 

n — Thomas P. Sears 

a — Herman I. Sezvey 

a — Max E. Schramm 

a — George Segal 

a — Murray M. Segal 

a — James Sellas 

a — Louis A. Senecal 

n — Clarence W. Sevin 

a — Albert V. Sevina 

a — William Shabecoff 

a — David E. Shahan 

n — Michael Shahan 

n — Raymond Shahan 

n — Thomas Shahan 

n — Bronislaw Shalkowski 

a — Joseph Shalkowski 

a — Walter J. Shanley 

a — J. Henry Shannon 

n — John J. Shannon 

a — William Sharvan 

a — George L Shaw 

a — Harold T. Shaw 

n — William G. Shaw 

n — Foster H. Shaw 

a — John Shea 

a — Michael Shea 

a — Patrick J. Shea 

n — William Shea 

a — George Shedlock 

a — David F. Sheehan 

a — Edward L. Sheehan 

a — Michael E. Sheehan 

a — Richard J. Sheehan 

n — Thomas A. Sheehan 

a — L. Shereshevsky 

a — Aleck Sherewifski 

a — Raymond B. Sherman 

n — Joseph J. Sherry 

a— William H. Shields, Jr. 

a— Nikito Shillo 

a — George Shore 

a — Jack Shugrue 

n — William J. Shugrue 

a — Sigmund Siegel 

a — K. Silinski 

a — Donas Simino 

a — John Simioski 

a — Arba W. Simons 

a — Harold S. Simpson 

a — Walter H. Simpson 

a — David H. Sirkin* 

a — Charles F. Sisson 

a — V.'arren O. Si=son 

a — Augustus C. Skelly 

a — George M. Skelly 

a— William M. Skelly 

a — Harold T. Slattery 

a — John J, Slattery 

a — Thomas F. Slattery 

a — William H. Slattery 

a — Joseph Slikowski 

n — Edward F. Smiegiel* 

a — Carlcton Small 

a — Warren Sharpies 

a — James B. Smith 

a — Alex Smith 

a — Edmund S. Smith 

a — Edward F. Smith 

a — Frank E. Smith 

a — F. Russell Smith 

n — George Q. Smith 

a — Harry W. Smith 

a— Herbert H. Smith 

n — Isaac B. Smith 

n — Lindsey G. Smith 

a — Ralph S. Smith 

a— Tracy Smith 

n — William L Smith 

a — William J. Smith 

a — Edward G. Snow 

a — Max Sogoran 

a — Norman E. Soules 

a — Frederick R. Sourbier 

a — Earl E. Sparks 

a — Nicholas J. Spellman 

a — H. E. Spencer 

a — Raymond G. Spencer 

a — Earl R. Spicer 

a — Earl W. Stamm 

a — Lawrence J. Stanley 

a — Tyler S. Stanton 

a — Lowell R. Stark 

a — F. Leroy Stearns 

a — William Stankiewicz* 

n — Rufus H. Stanton* 

a — Stanley Stefanick 

a — Daniel Steiiner 

a — E. R. E. Steffenson 

a— TV'illiam Stelzner 

a — Howard Sterry 

a — Robert W. Sterry 

n — Loue E. Stockwell 

a — Leon Stoller 

a — George A. Stone 

a — Theodore L. R. Story 

a— Ralph R. Stott 

a— Willism A. Stott 




— Edwin H. Street 



— licnjamiii F. Sullivan 



-Dennis J. Sullivan 



— Jozcf Stuisiak 



-Eugene \V. Sullivan 



—Francis P. Sullivan 



-Fred J. Sullivan 



—Guy A. Sullivan 



-James L. Sullivan 



-John J. Sullivan 



-John L. Sullivan 



-John Sullivan 



-Lester J. Sullivan 



-Michael J. Sullivan 



-Robert M. Sullivan 



-Woodruff T. Sullivan 



-William J. Supa 



-William A. Super 



-Alex Swaich 



-Leroy A. Swati* 



-Mertin L. Swan 



-William A. Swan 



-Robert Swanton 



-Sigurd V. Swanson 



-Gerald J. Sullivan 



—Louis ^L Swatzburg 



-Daniel M. J. Sweeney 



-Arthur J. Sylvia 



-Frank Sylvia 



-Frank Szachna 



-Wladislaw Szbalinski 



-Felix Szmanski 



-Alex Szulhansky 



-William A. Sweeney 



-George A. Tague 



-Waller Tarbo:. 



-William G. Tariv 



-Joseph Tarnoski. Jr. 



-Mecky Tarnowski 



-Richard L. Tarrant 



-Edward J. Taylor 



-Ellis Taylor 



-Emile Tellier 



-Lucio Tempesta 



-O. Tetrault 



-John J. Thomas 



-Pierre K. Theve 



-Daniel Thompson 



-James J. Thompson 



-Robert Thompson 



-Frank R. Thresher 



-Algard Thuotte 



-Percy H. Thurlow 



-Charles W. Tingley 



-Kenneth E. Tobin 


—Francis M. Toomcy 
-Leslie F. Tourtelotte 
-William K. Thomas 
-Fred A. Townc 
-Thomas Tracy, Jr. 
-Lewis F. Trcpasso 
-Roy Trcadway 
-Frank D. Treckman 
-William Treckman 
-.Mfrcd A. Trembly 
-Henry Tremblay 
-John Tsuros 
-Louis Tucoi 
-John B. Tumicki 
-Albert J. Turner 
-Frederic Turner 
-John Ulanovich* 
-Frank E. Ulmcr 
-John W. Ulmer 
-Guy Underwood 
-J. Ustack 

-Peter J. VanVyanick 
-Elmer C. Veddcr 
-Fotios Vassolardies 
-Whitney M. Vergason 
-.Mbert Xf. Vetter 
-Arthur H. Vetter 
-Louis B. Vincente 
-Peter J. Virona 
-Peter G. Vuono 
-Ernest IT. Watson 
-John Walaziniski 
-Thomas J. Waldron 
-James P. Walsh 
-John S. Walsh 
-Nicholas V. Walsh 
-Leslie F. Ward 
-Arnold T. Ware 
-Arthur G. Warwick 
-William O. Weinert 
-Benjamin Weinstein 
-Charles A. Weinstein 
-Samuel Weinstein 
-Edward Weisgrabler 
-Edgar C. Welden 
-George Weller 
-Russell Welles 
-.Augustus H. Weltin 
-George C. Weltin 
-William A. Weeden* 
-Howard J. Whalom 
-Herbert L. W'Tieeler 
-Sidney \\ hippie 
-Clarence W. WTiite 
-John J. White 

a— Ernest D. Whiteford 

a— LeRoy H. Uhitmarsh 

a -William H. Wicks 

n — Lorenzo E. Wicsc 

a — Thomas Wignall 

n — James F. Wilbcr 

a — Homer F. Wilbur 

a — Joseph A. Wilcot 

a— I'Vank A. Wilcox* 

a — Raymond Willet 

a — Daniel Williams 

a — Erastus W. Williams 

n — Julian L. Williams 

a — Ralph S. W illiams 

a — Ernest J. Williamson 

a— Percy J. Willis 

n— Charles W. Willey* 

a— Claude R. Wilson 

a — Clifford E. Wilson 

n — Frank S. Wilson 

a — George M. Wilson 

a — Robert Winchester 

a — Bronislaw Wineza 

a — Anthony Wisneski 

a — Joseph Wit 

a — Wladyslaw Witkowski 

a — Edward O. Witchoski 

a — Fred J. Wolfenberger 

a— Fred D. Wood 

a — John H. AVood 

a — Dewey H. Woodw-orth 

a — Walter J. Woodmansee* 

n — Clarence H. Woodworth 

n — Ernest C. Woodworth 

n — Everett C. Woodworth 

a — ^John G. Woronick 

a — ? Woselowski 

a— Otis H. Wright 

n— Oliver R. Wulf 

a — William E. Wright 

a — Anton Wunderlick 

a — John W'underlick 

a — Frank Yakubielski 

a — Vinkor Yinkowski 

a--John B. Yansalve 

a — Spragay Yantuz 

a— John Yates 

a— Edwin F. Yerrington 

n — Frank Yerrington 

11 — Joseph R. Yerrington 

a — Charles J. Yesionowski 

a— Cecil G. Young 

a— Charles R. Young 

n — Fred O. C. Young 

a— Harold H. Young 



n — James M. Voung, Jr. 
a— John B. Young 
n — Norman VV. Young 
a— Richard VV. Young 
a — Wilham A. Young 
a— Winifred C. Young 

Raynie P. Stebbins 
Annie Allen 

a— Fred W. Rocssler 

a — Frank Wyrod 

a — Stanislaw Zav.'islenski 

a — Anthony Zecchilli 

a — Charles Zdanccwicz* 

a — Michael R. Zeigler 

a — Peter Zenski 
a — Edward Zcralski 
a — Frank Zerahki 
a — Felix Zonoski 
a — Andzic Zysk 


Grace Greenwood 
ler J. Manwaring 

Mary J. McCloud 
Gladys V. Wilson 


Adams, Henry 
Agostino, Ross 
Ahearn, Arthur 
Alexander, James 
Alger, Harold J. 
Alizio, Constantini 
Allen, Carl D. 
Allen, Henry 
Ailing, Ward T. 
Ames, Tracy 
Anderson, Chas. L. 
Anderson, John Gustav 
Anderson, Theodore F. 
Andrews, Avery 
Appledorn, Herman H. 
Archer, Robert H. 
Archer, Harry J. 
Arieno, Philipo 
Arms, Frank T. 
Arms, Guy T. 
Armstrong, George E. 
Armstrong, Frank M. 
Arnold, Leslie P. 
Atkinson, Arthur 
Avena, Donate 
Avery, Herbert N. 
Babbidge, Eben G. 
Babcock, Leon 
Babcock, William T. 
Badeau, Frederick R. 
Baier, Ernest A. 
Baier, Henry 
Baily, Edmond J. 
Bajorski, Peter 
Baker, Ralph P. 
Baratz, Edward 
Barber, Alexander 
Barber, Ames 
Barker, Alexander 
Barker, Lionel J. 
Barnes, Arthur O. 

Barr, Eric L. 
Barrett, Rollin H. 
Barrosa, Frank 
Barrows, Ernest R. 
Barrows, Walter A. 
Barry, Carlos, Jr. 
Barry, Christopher F. 
Barry, Robert P. 
Barszcz, Theophilus 
Bartholucci, Etalo 
Barton, William L. 
Baruch, Marten 
Basilico, John 
Bastista, Antonio 
Bates, Earl K. 
Beally, Lawrence 
Beatty, Desmond A. 
Beckley, Chester A. 
Beckwith, Arthur M. 
Beckwith, Frank L. 
Beckwith, Frank M. 
Beckwith, Russell E. 
Beebe, Christopher B. 
Beebe, Fred A. 
Beebe, Fred E. 
Beebe, Leon G. 
Beebe, Stephen B. 
Beebe, William F. 
Beers, Ralph I. 
Belcher, Chas. F. 
Belcher, Duncan 
Belcher, Gregory 
Belcher, William A. 
Belcher, William W. 
Bell, Hugh M. 
Bengteson, Gustav 
Bengtston, Bror. G. 
Bennett, Lester S. 
Bcntlcy, A. Jackson 
Benton. Chas. 
Beran, James A. 

Berardi, Albert 
Bergenstein, Gustav 
Berling, Arthur S. 
Bernian, Phillip 
Bertz, Otto F. 
♦Bestick, Howard I. 
Bishop, Chas. E. 
Bishop, Giles 
Bishop, Joseph B. 
Bitonnis, George 
Black, Ross E. 
Blackadar, Frank L. 
Blair, Albert J. 
Blaisdell, Fillmore T. 
Bloomer, Edward H. 
Bloomfield, W. G. 
Bodeau, Frederick 
Bodenwein, Gordon 
Bogue, Albion R. 
Bogue, John Joseph 
Bolezak, Anthony 
Bolles, Paul H. 
Boiling, Phillip 
Bonitz, Albert 
Boramai, Carlo 
Boser, Alfred 
Bontin, Emil 
Bowers, Forrest C. 
Bowers, Sylvester 
Bowser, Campwell W. 
Boylan, Joseph B. 
Boyle, Edward F. 
Bracewell, Edwin R. 
Bradford, Frank A. 
Bradford, Herbert H. 
Bradham, David W. 
Bradshaw, Wesley B. 
Bradwell, Clinton L. 
Brady, William J. 
Bragan, Chester G. 
Branch, Earl C. 



Brannan, Adlai E. 

Brannan, Dwight 

Bray, Clyde E. 

Bray, Maynard L. 

Britton, Frank 

Broadwell. C. E. 

Brodie, Benjamin 

Brody, Samuel A. 

Bronslein, George H. 

Brooks. William F. 

Brooks. William H. 
•Brown. Archie, Jr. 

Brown. Bennett 

Brown. Brainard 

Brown, Qias. W. 

Brown, Earl 

Brown, Emmett W. 

Brown. Everett W. 

Brown, Frank DeWitt 

Brown, Frank W. 

Brown, George J. 

Brown, George T. 

Brown, Lloyd L. 

Brown, Robert L. 

Bruce. Arthur W. 

Bruckner, Herman \. 

Brutzman, Edward 

Brozozka, Alexander 
♦Ruck, Walter F. 

Buck, Willis L. 

Budzisjuoski, Anthony 

Budzisjuoski, S. 

Buell, John H., Jr. 

Burdick, George H. 

Burdick. Thomas E. 

Burr. Howard Tinker 

Burrows, Ray 

Burrows, Wilfred C. 

Burrows, W. E. 

Butler, John G. 

Butler, Joseph F. 

Byrne. W. F. 

Bystrzah. Anthony 

Bystrzah, Stanislaw 

Cabsal, Anthony M., Jr. 

Cabsal. Francis J. 

Cabsal. Joseph L. 

Cabsal. Manuel G. 

Cahey. Chas. R. 

Cahey, Richard 

Cahey, Thomas J. 

Calderah, Antonio 

Caldon. Harold A. 

Callahan. James A. 

Callahan, John B. 

Callahan, J. F. 
Campbell, Alexander 
Campbell, Warren E. 
Campo, Euplio 
Cantanzau. Louis 
Cantwell, William J. 
Caplett, Daniel L. 
Capwcll, George 
Capwcll, Walter F. 
Caracausa, Albert C. 
Carlin, Harry A. 
Carlson, Phillip C. 
Carlson, Verner A. 
Carlson, William S. 
Caron, Fred 
Caron, Victor L. 
Carino, Harrj- A. 
Carino, Michael 
Carr. Walter 
Carrolls, Stavadros 
Carver, Edward J. 
Carver. Edward M. 
Carver, George R. 
Carver, John D. 
Casey, Frank P. 
Casey, George 
Casey, jcc rge Francis 
Casey, Walter S. 
Casey, William T. C. 
Casden, Xelson 
Cassara, Thomas C. 
Cassidy, James H. 
Cauhey. Edward 
Cavanaugh. Dennis W. 
Chabcreck. Gideon 
Chaffee. Robert W. 
Chaney, Morgan R. 
Chaoinski, Joseph 
Chapel, Chas. 
Chapel, Walter 
Chapin, Frank L. 
Champion, Ernest D. 
Chapman. Edward N. 
Chappcll. Alfred H. 
Chappell, Daniel 
Chappell, Ira L. 
Chappell, Orris S. 
Charlop, Samuel D. 
Chcady, John 
Cheney. George P. 
Cherby, Frank 
Cherkasky, Samuel N. 
Chester, Daniel A. 
Childs, Gilbert 
Childs, Paul D. 

Christie, George B. 
Cirrito, Joseph 
Clairbornc, W. H . 
Clark, Harold B. 
Clark, J. W. 
Coates, Thomas C. 
Cobb, Stanley M. 
Coe, George R. 
Cogan, Hugh A. 
Colbert, James J. 
Cole, Alfred F. 
Cole, Alister H. 
Coleman, Daniel 
Coleman, John 
Coleman, Mathew J. 
Coleman, Nelson 
Coleman, Thomas J. 
Collins, Benjamin Xf. 
Collins, Christopher J., Jr. 
Collins, Edward T. 
Collins, Robert P. 
CoIIoski, Dominick 
Colsi, Frank 
Comeau, Harry A. 
Conistock, Raymond G. 
Conboy. Thomas P. 
Cone, Harold J. 
Congdon, Stephen G. 
Congdon, Thomas B. 
Connell, Thomas G. 
Connelli, Lawrence 
Conner, David 
Conti, Lawrence J. 
Coombs, Thomas A. 
Coomljs, Walter V. 
Copper, Aubrey 
Corcoran, Patrick 
Corcoran, William J. 
Corkey, William M. 
Cornell, William H. 
Cote, Napoleon 
Courtney, John J. 
Cox, John A. 
Coyle, Henry 
Craig, Chas. C. 
Craig. Walter L. 
Craig. William P. 
Crandall. George H., Jr. 
Crandall, Richard 
Cranker, Daniel F. 
Cranker, Joseph N. 
Crawford. Leroy 
Crocker, Thomas L. 
Cronesburj', Harold A. 
Crooks, Edward B. 



Croiiclier, William H. 
Crosby. Ralph 
Crowell, Clias. E. 
Crowell, John F. 
Cruise, Edwin 
Cruise, John H. 
Cruise, Robert 
Cullen, Brainard V. 
CuUen, Francis J. 
Cullen, Julius 
Culver, Christopher 
Cummings, Michael J. 
Curran, John 
Curley, John Edward 
Curtis, Chas. A. 
Czarnecki, Louis 
Czerniawski, Woiciech 
Dallas, Josiah 
Dalton, Joseph A. 
Daly, Bartholomew 
Daly, James P. 
Daly, John 
Daly, Joseph 
Daly, Thomas E. 
Damas, Joseph W. 
Daniels, Fremont 
Dardis, Martin N. 
Darling, George 
Darrow, Robert B. 
Darrow, William 
Dart, Benjamin F. 
Dart, Charles S. 
Dart, Edison 
David, Milton 
Davidson, Robert F. 
Davis, Adam J. 
Davis, Daniel S. 
Davis, Edison O. 
Davis, Edward W. 
Davis, Milton W. 
Davis, William H. 
Davison, Christopher H. 
Davison, Frank J. 
Davison, George 
Decarlo, Gesnelda 
Decker, Harold W. 
DeGauge, Francis 
Delap, Thomas L. 
Delmore, John M. 
DeLong, G. Emery 
DeMarco, Vinceiizo 
Dcmuth, Ronald 
Denisoii, Ernest R. 
Dcnnison, Lloyd W. 
DeRocher, Joseph A. 

Derry, Charles E. 

Devins, Lewis 

Dewey, Robert K. 

Diamond, Edward L 

Diamond, Harry 

Diamontis, A. K. 

Dibble, Sherwood M. 

Dickinson, Thomas S. 

Dickson, J. Courtland 

DiFranco, Camilo 

Dipolino, Carmelo 

Dolbeare, Kenneth C. 

Dolbeare, Walter G. 

Dolci, Santa 

Domenico, Dippolliana 

Donahue, George W. 

Donahue, John F. 

Donahue, Richard H. 

Donahue, Robert C. 
*Donahue, William A. 

Donald, Claude M. 

Dondero, Edward 

Donnelly, Dudley S. 

Donnelly, Henry T. 

Donovan, John J. 

Doran, James 

Doran, James J. 

Dorsey, Edward J. 

Dorsey, Henry S. 

Dorsey, John E. 

Dorsey, Michael F. 

Dorsey, Michael J. 

Dorsey, Peter B. 

Dorsey, Thomas F., Jr. 

Dougal, William W. 

Douglas, Lewis E. 

Douglas, William M. 

Douglass, Alex H. 

Douglass, Clifford L. 

Douglass, Walter L. 

Douglass, William 
*Dow, Edward C. 

Dow, F. Pierpont 

Downey, Edmond J. 

Doyle, Daniel J. 

Doyle, Thomas 

Doylittlc, Bassell 

Dray, John D. 

Driscoll, Alphonsus P. 

Dubois, Nelson J. 

DutTy, Robert L. 

Duggan, Mortimer C. 

Dunbar, Harris W. 

Dunham, William H. 

Dunn, James C. 

Dunster, Albert E. 
Durkee, \\ illiam S. 
Durkins, Michael 
Dymnicki, Joseph 
Dziangizlewski, Joseph 
Dziczek, Adam 
Eagles, William E. 
*Earle. Thomas 
Eastwood, George W. 
Ebersale, William J. 
Ecclcston, Luther A. 
Edgcomb, Harry J. 
Edmond, Walter M. 
Edmonds, William A. 
Edwards, Edward W. 
Edwards, Ellery N. 
Edwards, Robert J. 
Edwards, William F. 
Eglise, Charles N. 
Eisenberg, Isadore 
Eisenstein, Irving 
Elfenbein, David 
Elionsky, Henry 
Elionsky, John 
Elliot, Addison S. 
Elliot, Frank W. 
Elliott, Walter C. 
Enos, Anthony F. 
Enos, George H. 
Enos, Joseph V. 
Enos. Manuel 
Enright, Joseph T. 
Epolite, John D. 
Epps, Charles E. 
Eshenfelder, George A. 
Eslen, George W., Jr. 
Fahey, Gilbert 
Falvey, Thomas K. 
Fanjoy, Roy G. 
Fargo, Edward W., Jr. 
Farine, John 
Farley, Benjamin H. 
Farley, Joseph 
Farrar, Louis L. 
Farrar, Richard M. 
Farrcll, Roger L. 
Fecteau, Moses L. 
Feeley, Raymond F. 
Fcngar, Cyrus B. 
Fengar, Frederick E. 
Fengar, Henry Clay 
Fenwick, Edward A. 
Feraci, Tonay 
Ferino, Joseph 
Ficarra, Salvatore 



Ficlitliorn, Lcgr'd J. P. 
Filalus, Frank 
Finn, Edward 
Finn, Robert R. 
Finncgan, George E. 
Finncgan, James E., Jr. 
Fiorcntini. Guisseppe 
Fitzgerald, Daniel J. 
Fitzgerald, David J. 
•Fitzgerald, James 
Fitzgerald, John J. 
Fitzgerald, John P. 
Fitzgerald, Thomas J. 
Fitzpatrick, James T. 
Fitzsimmons, William C. 
Flaherty, Edward M. 
Flaherty, John 
Flaherty, Leonard M. 
Flynn, Edward 
Flynn, Edwin A. 
Flynn, Richard M. 
Foley, C. Barrett 
Follows, Arthur 
Ford, Leroy H. 
Ford, William J. 
Foster, Frederic J. 
Foster, John M. 
Fournicr, Xclson 
Francis, Frank J. 
Francis, Tyler E. 
Franklin, Victor 
Frascr, Daniel M. 
Eraser, Frank 
Fraser, Raymond S. 
Frascr, Simon C. 
Friars, Harold E. 
Frink, Joseph 1. 
Frishman, Harry 
Funk, Joseph J. 
Funkel, Charles C. 
Funora, James 
Furlong, Fred M. 
Furncllo, \icholas 
Gaetano, Napoli 
Gaffney. Joseph J. 
Gagan, Robert 
Galbo, John 
Gallup, John F. 
Ganey, Joseph M. 
Gangloff, William H. 
Gannon, Andrew 
Gardiner, John 
Gardner, Clarence P. 
Gardner, Robert S. 
Gardner, T. 

Gates, Curtis W. 

Gates, Emmette R. 

Gates, Ernest F. 

Gates, Harold P. 

Gatlcy, Edward A. 

Gauthier, Joseph A. 

Gawlawski, Joseph 
*Gcer, Ed^ar S. 

Gcer, Harold E. 

Geer, Roy P. 

Gentill, Peter 

George, Anthony J. 

George, Charles J. 

George, Nathaniel J. 

Gershowitz, Abraham J. 

Getchcll, Clyde B. 

Gianiotis, Kostas 
*Gicrsz, Peter 

Giflford, Webster G. 

Gilbert, George A. 

Gilmartin, John M. 

Gilmore, Charles W. 

Giordano, Rosario 

Gironard, Adelard 

Glenn, Frank A. 

Glossenger, Leroy F. 

Glynn, John C. 

Gniazdowski, Stanislaw 

Goddard, George R. 

GofT, Phillip H. 

Goff, Robert J. 

Goggin, Thomas 

Goldberg, Isadora 

Goldberg, Louis G. 

Goldberg, Nathan 

Goldie, George S. 

Goldie, William S. 

Goldsmith, Stanley A. 

Goldstein, Oscar I. 

Gomez, Leroy 

Gonsalves, Antonio 

Gontarzncuski, Stanislaw 

Gontarz, Boleslaw 

Good, Ralph E. 

Goodwin, James J. 
♦Gorchow, Harry B. 

Gordon, Joseph 

Gordon, Morris 

Gorman, Arthur 

Gorman, John J. 

Gorra, Nicholas J. 

Gorton, Joseph 

Goss, Albert W. 

Goss, Frederick 

Goss. George A., Jr. 

Gracewell, E. R. 

Graham, Clifford 

Grane, Arthur R. 

Grane, Charles H. 

Graves, Charles 

Graves, Harry S. 

Graves, Stephen 

Gray, Jose|)h D. 

Gray, \\ illard A. 

Gray, William A. 

Gray, William F. 

Green, James 

Green, Samuel S. 

Grccnbcrg, Albert 

Greenman, Frank P. 

Greenwood, .'\nios L. 

Griffin, John 

Griflin, Thomas A. 

Griffith, John C. 

Grillo, Rosario 

Grimes, Leslie 

Grimes, Paul J. 

Grimes, Richard A. 

Griswold, Horace H. 

Griswold, William H. 

Gross, Lawrence B, 

Grove, Phillip B. 

Grover, Raymond G. 

Gulloy, Wiliiani H. 
♦Gurney, George M. 

Guthrie, Russell S. 

Hague, Joseph F. 

Hale, Harold B. 

Hale, John S. 

Hale, Wells L. 

Hall, John S. 

Hall, Reginald 

Halyburton, W. J. 

Hamilton, Andrew 

Hamilton, Cyril A. 
♦Hamilton, F'rank W. 

Hamilton, Robert 

Hammond, Carl T. 

Hanney, Herbert A. 

Hanley, George F. 

Hanscom, Ridgley 

Hanson, Karl T. 

Harrington, John, Jr. 

Harrington, Joseph T. 

Harris, Frank 

Harris, Jocsph P. 

Harris, Louis 

Harris, Russell S. 

Harris. Samuel, 

Harrison, Bathas 



Harvey, Charles W. 

Harvey, Herbert J. 

Harvey, John A. 

Harvey, John N. 

Hatfield, Delbert K. 

Haven, Morgan B. 

Havens, Edward W. 
♦Havens, George E. 

Havens, Harold M. 

Hawkins, Patrick 

Hayden, Randolph L. 

Hayes, John J. 

Hedlund, Raymond F. 

Hefferman, John 

Hendel, Isadore 

Herbert, George J. 

Herdt, John \V. 

Herman, Eli 

Herman, Louis 

Hersant, John J. 

Hesney, Dennis A. 

Hester, John F. 

Hcfcr, Albert 

Hetherson, Richard J. 
Hewitt, Ralph H. 
Hcyman, Arthur J. 
Hick, Harry S. 
Hicks, George A. 
Higgins, John F. 
Higgins, Thomas W. 
Hill, Percy P. 
Hirsch, Morris 
Hislop, Gordan I. 
Hitchcock, Richard 
Hobron, George L. 
Hodges, George E. 
Holdredge, Fred I. 
Holmes, Carleton A. 
Holmes, Everett 
Holmes, Francis E. 
Holmes, Walter 
Holt. Robert W. 
Hooker, J. Henry 
Hopf, F. Emil 
Hopkins, Charles C. 
Hopkins, Edwin W. 
Horen, Morris O. 
Horton, Ellsworth J. 
Hoskins, Harry B. 
Howard, Fred H. 
Howard, Garfield 
*Howard, Henry 
Howard, William H. 
Howell, Kimbark J. 
Howell. William H. 

Howlett, Raymond 

Howland, Howard E. 

Hrabc, John H. 

Hull, C. Hadlai 

Hull, William H. 

Hullivan, David F. 

Hullivan, Fred T. 

Humphries, Charles 

Humphrey, William 

Hunt, D. J. 

Hunt, Richard E. 

Hunt, Robert F. 

Huntley, Edward J. 

Hutchings, C. C. 

Hyde, Loring 

Hyde, Robert H. 

Irlande, James 

Ivby, Linwood W. 

Jagcr, Robert H. 

Jamczewski, Albin 

James, John H. 

James, Joseph A. 

James, Leroy A. 

Janik, John 

Jasionwski, Boleslaw 

Jasper, Richard 

Jastrezembski, F. T. 

Jenkins, Wilbur W. 
Jennings, Thomas H. 
Jensen, Niels C. 
Jensen, Oscar 
Johnson, George 
Johnson, Harry E. 
Johnson, Rongwald O. 
Johnston, C. H. 
Jones, E. McKinley 
Jordan, Lawrence A. 
Jordan, R. Raymond 
Jordan, Samuel R. 
Jordan, Theodore F. 
Jordon, Joseph H. 
Joseph, Guy D. 
Joseph, Roland T. 
Judd, H. Norman 
Kahn, Henry H. 
Kahn, Reuben L. 
Kahn, Samuel 
Kaliszewski, Frank 
Kane. John S. 
Kane. William M. 
Kaplan, Leon 
Kaufman, Charles 
Kearney, William 
Keating, John J. 
Kecfe, Edward R. 

Keefe, Joseph C. 
Keefe, Robert A. 
Keefc, William 
KeiHicy, George N. 
Keeney, Robert M. 
Kelley, Cornelius E. 
Kelley, Michael E. 
Kenerson, Freman E. 
Kennedy, John J. 
Kenney, Hilcon C. 
Kenny, Robert M. 
Kenure, James R. 
Kenure, John 
Kenyon, Earl E. 
Kenyon, Herbert 
Kenyon, John G. 
Kenyon, John J. 
Keilhorn, Lloyd V. 
Kilburne, Geo. H., Jr. 
Kiley, Geo. J. 
Kiley, James P. 
Kiley, Richard P. 
Kiley, Thomas H. 
King, Frank H. 
King, John 
King, Warren E. 
Kiskoi, Alex. 
Kjellander, Carl S. 
Knowlton, Guy R. 
Knowlton, K. R. 
Koczkodan, /Mex. 
Kolodzieczuk, Martin 
Kosky, Elmer 
Kowalczyk, Constant'e 
Kowalczyk, Czeslow 
Kownlczyk, John 
Kozlin, Lewis 
Kroth, Henry J. 
Kupisz, Frank 
Kurpiewski, Czeslow 
Kurpiewski, Francis 
Labinsky, Alfred 
La Brie, Arthur J. 
Lake, William N. 
Landers, Lorenzo V. 
Lane, Edward W. 
Lane, John 
Lann, Frank 
La Pointe, Lionel 
Larkin, Irving C. 
Larscn, Harold 
Later, Charles W. 
Latham, Benjamin 
Latham, Stanton 
Lavoie, Oliver 



Lawless, Roderick D. 

Lawless, Sebasti'n K. 

Lawrence, Eugene, Jr. 

Lawrence, John V. 

Lawrence, Samuel 

Leahy, James C. 

Leary, A. M. 

Leary, Charles E. 

Leary, Edward T. 

Leary, William J. 

Leary, William P. 

Lee, Charles H. 

Lee, Harry M. 

Lee, Meredith 
*Lee, Schuyler 

Lee, Stephen M. 
♦Lettie, Amos 

Levine, Henry D. 

Levinson, Eli W. 

Lewis, Herbert E. 

Lewis, Roswell E. 

Leyshon, Richard 
*Librizzi, Carl 

Libbrizzi, Joseph 

Liljenstein, G. M. 

Liljenstein, Oscar 

Linicus, Geo. A. 

Linicus, Jacob M. 

Linnehan, Frank P. 

Linsley, R. Scott 

Lipinski, Alexander 

Little, Joseph E., Jr. 

Littlefield, Edwin C. 

Littlefield, John 

Lis, Frank 

Loftus, Peter P. 

Loomis, Percy H. 

Leper, William S. 

Lougle, Gilman E. 

Lougle, Louis L. 

Lubchansky, Louis 

Lubchansky, William 

Lucy, Norman 

Lundgren, Earl E. 

Lusk, Thomas J. 

Lyman, William J. 

Lynn, Clarence R. 

Lyons, Bernard L. 

Lyons, Henry D. 

Lyons, Jeremiah T. 

Lyons, John C. 

Lyons, John J. 

Lyons, Thomas J. 

Mace, Frank 

Magnusdal, Arnt O. 

Magnusdal, Henry M. 

Magnusdal, Otto T. 

Mahan, Alfred W. 

Maher, Edward J. 

Maher, Patrick F. 

Maimone, Marco 

Makarewicz, Andrew 

Makuch, Paul 

Maletsa, Polihrones *^. 

Malkowski, Anthony 

Mallen, Frank 

Mallen, Phillip 

Mallon, J. M., Jr. 

Manley, John 1. 

Manning, John B. 

Mansfield, John P. 
*Mansficld, Richard, 2nd 

Manstield, R. E. 

Marcotte, J. H. 

Marid, Frank 
*Mariani, Rocco 

Marsters, Foster M. 
*Marsters, R. C. 

Marsters, Silas M. 

Marston, Walter C. 

Martin, Arthur J. 

Martin, George A. 

Martin, Harry M. 

Martin, Raymond 

Martin, Tony 

Mascotte, J. H. 

Mastcrton, Alexander D. 

Mason, Robert 

Mather, Stanley H. 

Mattison, John 

May, Edward R. 

May, Walter D. 

May, William T., Jr. 

Maynard, A. E. 

Maynard, C. J. 

Maynard, George 

Maynard, Harry A. 

^faynard, Herbert 

Maynard, Leon D. 

Mayo, Harry P. 

Maxson, Charles D. 

Maxson, Charles L. 

Meade, Thomas T. 

Mercer, William A. 

Metzmacher, James 

Miller, Charles E. 

Miller, Daniel S. 

Miller, Ernest W. 

Miller, John Wares 

Miller, Louis G. 

Mills Robert D. 
Miner, Sidney B. 
Miner, Waldo L. 
Mires, George 
Mis, John 

Mitchell, Charles D. 
Mitchell, Dawson 
Mitchell, Donald, Jr. 
Mitchell, George W. 
Mix, Albert T. 
Mix, George 
Mlynek, Stanislaw 
Mochon, Harry H. 
Moffit, Thomas C. 
Momm. Charles H. 
Mono, Peter G. 
Moon, John W. 
Moon, Spencer W. 
Moore, Harry G. 
Moore, Harold R. 
Moore, John P. 
Xfoore, Walter R. 
Moran, Daniel D. 
Moran, Edwaid J. 
Moran, Walter 
Morelli, Guiseppe 
Morey, Frank 
Morey, John Timothy 
Morg.-.n, PhMlip C. 
Moi'arity, Charles G. 
Moriarity, George E. 
Moriarity, John F. 
Moriarity, Perley 
Moriarity, William A. 
Morris, Charles H. 
Morris. George R., Jr. 
^^orrison. Frank L. 
Morrison, George W. 
Morrison, William C. 
Morton, Howell F. 
Mosier, Arnold J. 
Mulcahey, David 
Mulcahcy, Mathcw R. 
Mulliiigs, Edward 
^furphy, Bernard L. 
^!urphy, Clyde F. 
Murphy, George R. 
Murphy, Harold A. 
^furphy, James 
*. Murphy, Mark J. 
Murphy, Oswald P. 
Murphy, Thomas P. 
Murphy, William G. 
Murray, Frederick G. 
Murray, James H. 



Murray, James P. 

Murray, Raymond N. 

Murray, William B. 

Muscovy, Gregory 

Myers, Charles A. 

-MacDonakl, Alexander 

MacDonald, G. C. 

MacDonald. H. D. A. 

MacDonald, John C. 

MacDonald, John J. 

MacDonald, M. R. 

MacGIaflin, Charles H. 

MacKay, William 

MacLachlan, D. 

MacMahon, George R. 

MacWhinney, Karl E. 

MacWhinney, William J. 

McCarthy, Arthur J. 

McCarthy, Edward T. 

McCarthy, James T. 

McCarthy, Percy D. 

McCarlhj-, Thomas J. 

McCastor, Joseph T. 

McClellan. J. Byron 
*McClure, Edward J. 

McCormick, John B. 

McCoskey, George I. 

McCurdy, Harley M. 

McDonald, Herbert D. 

McDonald, John J. 

McDonald, Joseph 

McEleaney, Chas. A. 

McEiianey, Arthur J. 

McEnaney. John D. 

McEwcn, Lawrence B. 

McGarrah, Floyd D. 

McGarry, John T. 

McGeary, Edward T. 

McGinley, Arthur B. 

McGinley, Lawrence J. 

McGinley, Stephen E. 

McGinley, Thomas S. 
McGinley, Winthrop E. 
*McGourty, John F. 

McGrath, John S. 

McGrath, Lawrence E. 

McKay, Angers S. 

McLain, Bernard 

McLaughlin, Chas. H. 

McLaughlin, Edward J. 
McLaughlin, John J. 

McLaughlin, Joseph 
McLaughlin, Leon 
McLaughlin, W. Harold 
McLaurin, Neal A. 

McMahon. Patrick F. 
McMullen, Edward J. 
McPortland, Hugh D. 
McQueen, Robert 
McShanc, Chas. P. 
NaDolmy, Arthur 
NaDolmy, John 
Nagle, Harold D. 
Napiorkowski, Roman 
NaPoIe, Geateno 
*Neale, Arthur W^ 
Keary, John D. 
Neff, Raymond A. 
Neilan, Raymond 
Nevins, John C. 
*Newbury, Carl S. 
Newbury, Herbert 
NewComb, Aubrey W. 
NewComb, Richard C. 
NewComb, Theodore 
Niedzwiedski, Felix 
Noble, Clarence S. 
N'oona, Thomas D. 
Noonan, John G. 
Noonan, W'illiam D. 
Noosek, Henry J. 
Nott, Harry T. 
Noven, Frank E. 
Noyes, Roscoe P. 
O'Brien, Charles L. 
O'Brien, Harry F. 
O'Brien, James J. 
O'Brien, Joseph T. 
O'Brien, Terrance 
O'Connell, John 
O'Connell, John C. 
O'Connell, John J. 
O'Connor, John G. 
O'Donnell, John J. 
O'Donnell, Maurice 
Oddo, Joseph A. 
Olbrys, Adam 
Olbrys, Wladislaw 
Oliver, Floyd H. 
Olsen, Trygve 
O'Neil, Daniel J. 
O'Neil, John Joseph 
O'Neill, Herbert W. 
O'Neill, James F. 
O'Neill, John Brooks 
O'Neill, John M. 
O'Neill, Owen Eugene 
Orazzi, Victor 
Ortmann, Ernest W. J. 
O'SuUivan, James F. 

O'Sullivan, Joseph M. 
Packer, Ralph M. 
Packer, Ray H. 
Palmer, Charles H. 
Palmer, Courtland L. 
Palethrope. Harold 
Parker, Gilbert L. 
Parkhurst, George C. 
Parlow, Ralph L. 
Parmelee, William E. 
Parris, Thomas E. 
Patterson, Stephen 
Payne, Morris B. 
Pendleton, Harold D. 
Pendleton, Harris, Jr. 
Penharlow, Clarence L. 
Peck, John E. 
Peck, Ray H. 
Peckham, Arthur H. 
Peckham, Fred H. 
Peckham, Walter H. 
Pelke}', Thomas 
Pelleteir, Amabel 
Perkins, Harold C. 
Perkins, W. E. 
Perronc, Crazio 
Perrone, Guiseppi S. 
Perrone, Joseph 
Perry, Frank E. 
Perry, John W. 
Perry, Joseph N. 
Perry, Manuel E. 
Pcrsie, Silvia 
Peters, Harold F. 
Peters, Vi'alter F. 
Peterson, Stavros F. 
Petrohelos. George 
Philips, Louis D. 
Phillips, W'inslow A. 
Philopena, Frank 
Photos, Gust Peter 
Piankos, Leon 
Piascik, Constanstin 
Piascik, Konstanty 
Piather, Carlos D. 
Pickett, Thomas C. 
Pimer, Arthur K. 
Pindclski, Eolcslaus 
Pine, Jacob 
Piney, Harold 
Piro, Nicola 
Piscatello, Guiseppi 
Plattus, Perry D. 
Pocoro, Antonio 
Podeszwa. Wladeslow 



Pol in ski, Edward 

Polinski, Samuel 

Polkcy, Ernest 

Porter, John T. 

Potter, William R. 

Powers, Harry T. 

Pratt, George O. 

Prentis, Chas., Jr. 
*Prince, J. Coleman 

Proctor, William B. 

Prusaczyk, Jerome 

Przbylowski, Stephen 

Pumcrantz. Benjamin 

Putiinm, Russell \. 

Pync, Albert George 


Quinn, George E. 
Quinn, John 
Rainey, Walter 
Raita, Albert 
Raleigh, Andrew 
Rammi, August 
•Ratcliffe, Albert E. 
Ratcliffe, Henry A. 
♦Rathburi;, Earl B. 
Ray, Alfred J. 
Raymond. Edward I. 
Reagan, Daniel L. 
Redden, Frank 
Redden, William C. 
Reed, Edmond B. 
Reed, William \. 
*Reeves. Frank G. 
Reeves, George H. 
Reeves, William K. 
Rehm. John C., Jr. 
Reichert, Victor 
Rcinacher, George L. 
Reinacher, George W. 
Rennie, Ferguson, Jr. 
Reynolds, Oliver L. 
Rhcaume, Ovelid I. 
Richard, Albert J. 
Richard. .A.uthur 
Richards, Howard S. 
Richman, Abraham 
Riddle, Alexander A. 
Riggs, Thomas L. 
Rinehart, George F. 
Robbins, James C. 
Roberts, Lemon C. 
Robillard. Paul M. 
Robinske, Boleslow 
Roche, Thomas F. 
Rockwell, \\'illiam A. 

Rodamanski, Jeremiah 

Rogalski, Conny 

Rogers, Charles F. 

Rogers, C. R. 

Rogers, Ernest W. 

Rogers, Harry W. 

Rogers, Osborn \V. 

Rogers, Ralph S. 

Rogers, Samuel 

Rogers, \\ illiam B. 

Rollo, Albert F. 

Rollo, Leonard 

Rollu, Michael H. 

Rondonianski, Prz'st'w 

Rondonianski, Vincent 

Rondonianski, Wm. S. 

Root, Charles S. 

Rose, Earl N. 

Rose, Frank 

Uosse, Agostino 

Round, Harold F. 

Rowland, Elsworth 

Rowley, Edward L. 

Rowley, Newton E. 

Row'lej', Raymond 

Rowley, Walter E. 

Ruddy, James H. 
Ruggies, Annello 

Ryan, Chas. F. 
Ryan, Geo. A. 
Ryan, Geo. D. 
Ryan, Geo. J. 
Ryan, Geo. W. 
Ryan, Herbert \V. 
Ryan, Hubert P. 
Ryan, James P. 
Ryan, John H. 
Ryan, John J., Jr. 
Ryan, Thomas F. 
Sabczyk, Joseph 
Sablowski, S. 
Sack, Fedor 
Saindon, Louis 
Sampsell, Paul L. 
Sanford, Oscar 
Sargent, Benjamin F. 
Sarvas, Sturos G. 
Satti, Andrew J. 
Saunders, Joseph M. 
Savage, Phillip J. 
Sawicki, Joseph 
Scarpa, Salvatore 
Schwartz, Joseph 
Schwartz, Joseph R. 
Scott, Jernada 

Scott, J. H. 

Scott, Thoma A . 

Scripture, Ward 

Seagrave, Walter A. 

Searle. Herbert A. 

Secteau, N. L. 

Sclcsnitzky, Carlos 

Seltzer, Paul 

Senay, Chas. 

Seratiti, Wm. T. 

Scvigny, Adlord J. 

Shea, Alfred J. 

Shea, Cornelius J. 

Shea, Cornelius, Jr. 

Shea, Daniel M. 

Shea, Dennis W'. 

Shea, Frank S. 

Shea, James H. 

Shea, John J. 

Shea, Michael F. 

Shea. Patrick J. 

Shea, Thomas 

Shea, Wm. B. 

Sheedy, James H. 

Sheedy, John W. 

Shcehan, Harold T. 

Shechan, John J. 

Shechan, Patrick 

Sheehan, Stephen M. 
Sheehan, William M. 
Shcflot, Richard F. 
Sheldon, Louis M. 
Shelley, Chester R. 
Shelley, Walter H. 
Shenski, Louis 
Sheridan, Jerome 
Sheridan, Phillip P. 
Sheridan, William J. 
Sherman, Alie 
Sherman, Lester T. 
Shipman, Thomas H. 
Shontell, Jesse 
Shreenan, James J. 
Shngruc, Chas. E. 
Silva, Chas. F. 
Silva. Chas. L. 
Silva, Frank 
Silva, Joseph 
Silvers, Har\'ey D. 
Semone, Tony H. 
Sisk, Chas. T. 
Sisk, Walter R. 
*Sisson. William B. 
Sistare, William M., Jr. 
Sitscr, James W. 



Skaling, Arthur B. 
Slavin, V. illiam H. 
Sloan, Bruce E. 
Snieraldi, Peter 
Smiddy, Chas. D. 
Smitkins, Erving M. 
Smith, Cecil 
Smith, Chas. A. 
Smith, Clarence S. 
Smith, Clifford E. 
Smith, C. Scott 
Smith, Frank 
Smith. George E. 
Smith, Harold F. 
Smith, John J. 
Smith, Leroy B. 
Smith, Lester 
Smith, Peter 
Smith, Raymond B. 
Smith, Reginald E. A. 
Smith, Walter 
Smith. William C. 
Smoleski, Alexander 
Sniarowski, Antoni J. 
Snitkin, Erving M. 
Solotoreff, Herman 
Soltz, Herman 
Soltz, Thomas 
Sonu, Jacob 
Sopczyk, Joseph 
Southworth, F. H. 
Southworth, H. S. 
Souzdral, Tony 
Spadaro, Patsy 
Sparrow, David 
Spellman. Mitchel L. 
Stahler, Chas. E. 
Stanhope, Burton 
Stauners, John J. 
Stahr, Fritz E. 
Starr, Geo. H. 
Starr, Howard 
Starr, Richard M. 
Starr, Rowland 
Stearns, William L. 
Stefanski, Anthony 
Stefanski, Antoni 
Stefanski, Roman 
Steinwacks, Franklin 
Stephens, Joseph H. 
Sterry, Allen W. H. 
Stebbins, Edward M. 
Stcbbins, Harold 
Stebljins, Joseph 
Steward, George C. 

Stewart, John C. 
Stewart, Thomas L. 
St. John, Frank B. 
Stoddard, Henry H. 
Stokes, Albert W. 
Stone, John 
Strceter, Bert A. 
Strickland, Wm. E. 
Sullivan, Daniel 
Sullivan, Daniel J. 
Sullivan, Edward J. 
Sullivan, Edward P. 
Sullivan, Eugene J. 
Sullivan, Frank 
Sullivan, Jeremiah J. 
Sullivan, John A. 
Sullivan, John E. 
Sullivan, John F. 
Sullivan, John T. 
Sullivan, Morris J. 
Sullivan, Mitchel J. 
Sullivan, Raymond F. 
Sullivan, Stephen 
Sullivan, Timothy John 
Sullivan, Timothy Joseph 
Sullivan, Wm. P. 
Sutton, Edward A. 
Swan, Edward A. 
Swan, Harwold 
Swan, Walter F. 
Swanson, Albert 
Swan son, Fred A. 
Swanson, Robert 
Sweeney, John J. 
Swiacky, Stanislew 
Sylvester, Salvatoir 
Symocli, Sawas 
Szczuberlek, Anthoni 
Szczuberlek, Stanislew 
Szczuberlek, Stephen 
Szczubeliski, Stanislaw 
Taber, W'illis Leroy, Jr. 
Taradajczyk, Salomon 
Taylor, John O. 
Temple, Francis C. 
Terry, Leon A. 
Tetu, Amos 
Tevlin, Roland J. 
Theroux, Henry O. 
Thomas, Chas. W. 
Thomas, Grady 
Thomas, Erving O. 
Thomas, John H. 
Thomas, William G. 
Thomas, William R. 

Thompson, Arthur R. 
Thompson, George H. M. 
Thompson, James F. 
Tilden, Walter C. 
Tinker, Francis M. 
Tinker, John S. 
Tinker, John W. 
Tisdale, Walter H. 
Towne, Marcus W. 
Towson, Arthur W. 
Tracy, Joseph F. 
Tracz, Peter 
Traphigen, James L. 
Travers, Geo. 
Troc, Peter 
Troland, Zabriel 
Troland, Gerard B. 
Troland, Thomas E. 
Troland, Thomas R. 
Tucker, Theodore 
Tudisco, Antonio 
Turello, Samuel 
Turner, Edward S. 
Turner, Harry E. 
Turner, James C. 
Tuttle, William 
Tyborowski, John 
Tyszko, Stanislaw 
Vacher, John 
Valentine, Carl 
Valentine, Luther T. 
Van Gilder, Earl G. 
Vaughan, Herbert 
Vealie, James W. 
Vera, Lawrence 
Vickory, Chas. W. 
Vickory, Elwood W. 
Vickory, Frank R. 
Viclory, Harry S. 
Villano, Anthony 
Vroezos, Foteos T. 
Wainwright, Walter 
Wainwright, William A. 
Waldo, George T. 
Wallis, Herbert 
Walsh, Chas. B. 
Walsh, Harold 
Walsh, John J. 
Walsh, Thomas J. 
Walsh, William E. 
Walsh, William H. 
Ware, Elmer 
Ware, Arnold T. 
Wargo, George P. 
Warren, Hill F. 



Waterman, Willis C. 
Watson. Elmer 
Wcatherby, Geo. G. 
Webster, James H. 
Weed, David A. 
Weed, Walter D. 
Weed, William H. 
Weeks, Erving W. 
Welch, John 
Wellington, H. W. 
Wells, Clarence H. 
Wessell, Francis H, 
Wesslowsky, Dominick 
Wetmore, Herbert V. 
Wetmore, T. T., Jr. 
Werjaut, Chas. J, 
Wheeler, Arthur W. 
Wheeler, Joseph H. 
Wheeler, Roy P. 
Whitcome, Henry A. 
White, John C. 
Whittlesey, Geo. C. 
Whittlesey, Gordon 

Whittlesey, Harry W. 
Wieczorek, Stanislaw 
Wilbur, Harry C. 
Wilbur, Roy G. 
Williams, Geo. I. 
Williams, John 
Williams, Mace 
Williams, Samuel 
Williams. Walter 
Wilkinson, Arthur H. 
Wilkinson, Aubrey 
Wilkinson, Ralph A. 
Wilson, Harry C. 
Winskill, Norman 
Winslow, Clarence 
Winslow, Harold M. 
Winslow. Henry D. 
Winthrop. Henry C, Jr. 
Wolf, Geo. 
Wood, Frederick J. 
Wood, William J. 
Woods, George 

Woods, George 
Woods, James E. 
Woodbury. Th'n W., Jr. 
Woodcock, Horace 
Woodruff, Percival C 
Woodruff, Thomas A. 
Woodstock. Waiter 
Wright, Elmer N. 
Wyman, Grey H. 
Wyman, Grey J. 
Wyman. Marchall F. 
Yaczunsky, Albert 
Yarvots, Paul 
Young, James L. 
Young, Leslie N. 
Young, Oliver H. P. 
Youngs, Geo. L. 
Zazlow. Abraham 
Zazlow. Barney 
Zerill. Angelo 
Zimmer, Max 
Zimmerman. Louis 


Ayers, Charles 
Anderson, Chas. B. 
Anderson, Herman 
Ashby, S. 
Anderson. Henry 
Allyn, Wilson T. 
Archer. Frederick J. 
Angeles. Juanito 
Avery, John D. 
Allen, Guy G. 
Anderson, Theodore A. 
Appecelli, Louis 
Alexander, William Douglas 
Armstrong, Clara W. 
Allen, Louis B. 
Anderson, Theodore F. 
Allyn, Irving Raymond 
Allen, Guy G. 
Bates, Harry 
Bradley, Carl 
Bradshaw, Austin 
Brown. Albertus 
Breed. Harold E. 
Burdick. Harlan 
Bray, Harry E. 
Beauchamp. Arthur 
Bendetto. John 
Beauchamp. Charles 
Babcock, Leon 
Bailey, Lewis P. 

Bailey, Brucius 
Boiselle, Joseph 
Bonacci, Edmond 
Bruno, Frank Paul 
Brown, Everett E. 
Burrows, Robert D. 
Bell, Holman 
Brogan. Edward E. 
Brewer, Paul 
Branigan, John W. 
Brown, Nelsoi* 
Baker, Elmer 
Banks. Albert 
Banks, John 
Burdick, Thomas E. 
Bracewell, Edward R, 
Bogue, John G. 
Banks, David W. 
Bogue, Oliver G. 
Babcock, Elijah B. 
Bcauvais, Charles A. 
Barnes, Datey 
Barnes, Arthur Orsenina 

(Not accepted) 
Brogan, Harry C. 
Bealey, Lawrence 
Bogue, Wilmot 
Bromley, I. H. 
Bennett. Lester G. 
Cole, Albert 

Crandall, Richard 
Crary, Dayton 
Cutler, Ralph 
Clift, Jack Y. 
Chapman. Harry Otis 
Craig, William P. 
Cook, Willard S. 
Cook, Edmund L. 
Chesebro, Everett 
Chesebro, Everett L. 
Candage. Herbert LeR. 
Craig, Charles 
Crandall, Chauncey G. 
Comeau, Antine 
Clemens, Arno W. 
Chagnon, Alfred 
Cook, George L. 
Christianson, Frank M, 
Christie, Willis 
Christie. George D. 
Church, Everett 
Collins, Henry 1. 
Coe, George Rodman 
Crandall. Paul 
Crandall. Caleb Rawn 
Cross, Raymond G. 
Conroy, Frank 
Carter, Carlos 
Copper. John 
Cox, Edward M. 



Campbell, G. E. 

Carney, Thomas 

Campbell, Annie E. 

Capwell. Walter 

Christensen, Walter 

Cushing, Edward 

Chapman, Bernard C. 

Croucher, William H. 

Ctidgma, Matthew 

Crouch, Zera C. W. 

Comi, Peter A. 

Cross, Walter F. 

Chapman, Chester R. 
Craig, Walter L. 
Cunningham, Niles F. 
Chapman, John Harry 
Donovan, James 
Deker, Harold W. 
Duer, John 
Dugan, James 
Dugan, Merton 
Daniels, Lee 
Dillon. John 
Doorubas, Carl 

Douglass, Edmund L. 
Douglass, Melvin L. 
Dean, Robert E. 
Davis. George W. 
DeLance, William F. 
Davy, James 
Davy, Carl 
Coucett, John J. 
Dewey, Lloyd A. 
Deveau, Archie 
Davis, Daniel S. 
Dickinson, Thomas Leon 
Edwards, Robert J. 
Edgcomb, Orrin B. 
Epps, Charles 
Foster, Alfred R. 
Fitch, Ralph 
Faulkner, Earl A. 
Ford, Bert W. 
Ford, Drion C. 
Fowler, Ear! 
Feld, Jacob 
Foley, Albert 
Fitzpatrick, J. 
Francke, Brono E. 
Fraser, Lloyd W. 
Fields, George J. 
Fowler, Clyde 
Farrow, William E. 
Feld, Peter J. 
Friars. Harold E. 

Gilbert, Earl 
Gianette, Albert 
Gremley, Lawrence 
Gilbert, John W. 
Gremley, Charles 
Gavin, Edward 
Graham, Clifford 
Green, Paul W. 
Grover, Royal E. 
Gillett, Lawrence 
Gillogly, James P., Jr. 
Gerhard, Harry L. 
Gillogly, William 
Gillogly, Clifford H. 
Girard, Alexander 
Gould. William 
Gilbert, Lawrence S. 
Goss. Fred C. 
Guiliani, Armando 
Holdredge, Morris 
Holdredge. Heman 
Hanks. Edwin M. 
Hruby, Jerry 
Hamilton, Frank W. 
Kale. Wells L. 
Harris, Charles 
Hazier. Walter E. 
Keinrich, Frank 
Heinrich. John P. 
Hewitt. Truman H. 
Hillyer, Newton F. 
HoUoway, Stuart 
Hulbert, Chauncey P. 
Hulbert, Winifred E. 
Heinrich, Fred 
Harrap. William J. 
Hunt, Stanley B. 
Hundunsky, James F. 
Hilton. William 
Holloway, Harry F. 
Hillyer. Walter S. 
Hulbert, Woodward D. 
Hills, Arthur C. 
Hill, Rowland 
Hill. Norbert 
Hadley, Charles H. 
Harvey, Charles W. 
Heffeman, Geary C. 
Hopwood, James 
Hillyer, William 
Hulbert, H, W., D.D. 
Hewes. Frank W., Jr. 
Inderelst, William 
Itiderelst. John 
Ii.derelst, Carl H. 

Johnson, Charles 
Johnston. Charles 
Jauncey. Louis W. 
Jones, William H. 
Jordan. William H. 
Kierstead. Earl 
Klippell, Henry 
Krause. Anthony 
Kripps, Philip D. 
Kjellander. Carl S. 
Latham, Henry 
Lyons, R. R. 
Lewis. William E. 
Lewis, George 
Lewis, Charles A. 
Liese, Fred W. 
Lucy, John F. 
Lamphere, Winfred 
Lamb, Orrin T. 
Lamb, Everett R. 
Latham. Nelson C. 
Lawton, Walter E. 
Leonard. Walter 
Lundgren. Elinor 
Leandri, Albert 
Lewis, Nick 
Lccascio, Joseph 
Larkin. Irving G. 
Langworthy. Henry 
Lunaas, Magua 
Lunaas, Peter 
Lake, William H. 
Miller, Alexander 
Murphy, Bernard 
Murphy, Mark 
Murphy. Clyde 
Miner, Harry A. 
Melvin, Stewart C. 
Mitchell, Harold R. 
Maxson, James R. 
Montgomery, George 
Mosher, Emdon N. 
Maxson. Charles P. 
Maxson. Donald T. 
Marnielli. Dominick 
Marquardt, Adrian C. 
Marquardt. Arthur P. 
Miller. William 
Minson, Clarence 
Moskovey, Gregory 
Morgan, Edward 
Morrison, John F. 
Morrison, Neil 
Miner. Charles Eugene 
Murphy. Bartholomew 



Maynarcl, George C. 
Maynard, Harry Allen 
Mclnnis, Charles 
McNamara, William J. 
McKonc, Edward O. 
MacNutt. Harry 
McMuIlen, William 
Norton, Harold H. 
Nelson, Walter 
Northam, Clarence 
Nichols, Luman C. 
Osborne, Alfred E. 
Oviatt, William D. 
Oliver, L. M. 
O'Mara, Lawrence P. 
Ober, Crawford S. 
Park, Archie 
Phillips. Fred A. 
Perkins, Leland 
Perry, Hoi f red T. 
Purdy, Marshall 
Payne, William 
Perkins, Hollis I. 
Phillips, James Fred 
Patterson, Clyde E. 
Perkins, Frank S. 
Plant, Henry B. 
Packer, Ray 
Perry, Walter O. 
Palmer, George C. 
Perkins, Charles A. 
Perlatti, Alfred 
Pendleton, Clyde 
Perkins, Roy C. 
Palmer, Walter 
Paterson, Albert B. 
Porter, Leslie 
Perkins. Harold C. 
Perkins, Arthur C. 
Ryley, Norris 
Reiners, Charles 
Richerman, Harold 
Roberts, Pearl E. 
Reed, Elbert A. 
Rehill, Ivan 
Richard, Florencio G. 
Roscoe, William 
Rowe, Thomas 

Raymond, Joseph 
Riddle, Alexander A. 
Rogers, John Thomas 
Rogers, Ernest W. 
Rcnnie, Ferguson 
Rcithal, Max 
Rogers, Osborne W. 
Richard, Albert J. 
Reed, Albert H., Jr. 
RadclifTe, Charles P. 
Rafuse, Frederick 
Rathbiin, Benjamin F. 
Sparks, Russell 
Schnellen. Carl 
Searles. Merton L. 
Sherman, Ralph C. 
Sheehan, William H. 
Stanton, William E. 
Smith, Howard 
Sylvia, Christopher 
Sherburne, Fred C. 
Schellans, Eugene 
Schellans, George 
Schellans, Richard 
Sistare, Lawrence A. 
Smith, Lester L. 
Smith, Lawrence G. 
Stooks, Walter F. 
Starr, Edward F. 
Skinner, Robert L. (Killed) 
Smith, Ira C. 
Slater, Earl A. 
Sherman, Emery E. 
Stone, Bradford 
Stockton, Albert C. 
Scuris, Peter 
Sylvester, Salvatori 
Smith, Charles 
Schellens, Christopher A. 
Shute. Isaac C. 
Spicer, Elihj 
Stark, Ira 
Stark, Ernest 
Turner, Robert F. 
Taylor, Edward W. 
Tuerr, John F. 
Turner, Edward S., Jr. 
Tansy, John 

Tabor, Leroy 
Trail, M. Henry 
Trcadway, Nelson W. 
Trent, James A. 
Tourtclot, Leslie 
Towne, Charles F. 
Tuthill, John 
Tomlinson, John H. 
Taber. Willis R. 
Tcbreault, Bartholomy 
Tucker, Lawrence E. 
Valette, Helen 

(Yeomancttc, N.L.) 
Wilson, Albert 
Whittle, John " 1 

Whittback, Henry F. 
Wall, Jack T. • 

Wolf, Walter 
Wall, Jeffrey E, 
Wainwright, Walter 
Wainwright, William A. 
Wilson, Fred A. 
W'ilson, Everett P. 
Wainright, W. H. 
Ware, Arnold 
Ware, Elmer L. 
Weaver, Arnold 
W'oodward, Harry 
Whittct, William 
Williams, Chelsea J. 
Williams, Henry Mills 
Whittlesey, Harry W. 
Walker, Fred 
Weismiller. William 
Weaver, Starry A. 
Weatherbce, George ' 

Witbraham, Hazel J. 

Wilbur. Clifford E. 
Weismiller, Joseph G. 
Weeks, Ralph Martin 
Ward, Charles 
Ward, Harrison 
Wilcox, Archibald 
Watly, Hedley 
Wargo, George P. 
Woodcock, Horace El. 


Billings T. Avery, Jr. 

Eugene N. Bragaw 
Frederick Baldwin 
Capt. William H. Burns 
Bapista Castagnoli 

Howard Clark 
Henry I. Collins 
Mrs. W. T Euster 

Geo. A. Garypie 

Charles A. Gray (and) 
Carrol S. Hullbut 
Maurice Hold ridge 
Harry Jones 
Raymond A. Kinmonth 
Sergt. Samuel E. Lester 



Carleton B. Lawson 
G. Alfred Montgomery 
Andrew P. K. Miller 
Aristide Musctti 
Frank L. Morgan 
Fala Massimiliano 
Horace H. Main 

Wilton L. Morgan 

Harland Newberry 

Orsi Orgenti 

Lieut. John Raymond Perkins 

Alfred C. Palmer 

Harry Rogers 

Sergt.-Maj. Lyman J. S. 

Richards (Killed) 
Gilbert Rogers 
Sergt. Edward B. Shelden 
Capt. Charles Satterlee 

George Watrous 
Q. M.-Sergt. Chas. VViederman 


John Kendall 
George Allen 
Carl Benjamine 
James Emerson 
William Emerson 
Walter Benjamine 
Walter Corbett 
William Burgess 
Harry Foot 
(jeorge Howard 
Martin Krauss 
Charles Meyer 

Harry Remmich 
Joseph Montague 
Sidney Melvin 
F.lisha Preston 
John Helm 
John Seidel 
Arthur Oddie 
Arthur Peltier 
Augustus Peloquin 
Jessie Peloquin 
Frederick Rosier 

Frank Silvia 
Emanuel Spinal 
Henry Smidth 
Clarence W hitaker 
Otis Wright 
William Clark 
George Herman 
George Weiland 
August Ernest 
Edward Heinrich 
Napoleon Theotte 


William Baborsky 
Arthur M. Beebe 
Reginald L. Lord 
Norman S. Syme 
Peter Damon 
Ogden Power 
Julian G. Ely 
Roland E. Gay 
Ansel Earl Clark 
Emest.S. Ely 

William Czikowsky 
Guy Wiggins 
Raphael Passarella 
Olive H. Stark 
Elmer H. Blackwell 
Leslie Cone 
Leon Rosseau 
William G. Stark 
Harold F. M. Clark 

Paul W. Reynolds 
Theodore Schnering 
Maurice H. Peck 
Niles F. Cunningham 
Sidney Melanson 
Norris E. Joseph 
Arumah C. Tooker 
William Butler 
Francis Rosseau 


Ellis K. Devitt 
Maurice S. Chapman 
Harry R. Appleby 
Joseph Appleby 
Nathaniel Appleby 
Thomas Appleby 

(Died in France) 
Waldo F. Ashley 
Willis C. Babcock 
Harold Bartlett 
William W. Bugbee 

(Died in France) 
Warren E. Campbell 
Clifford Champion 
Edgar W. Champion 
Joseph Champion 
Frank Chapman 
C. Wellington Crosby 
William P. Howard, Jr. 
Clifford Howard 
Charles E. Chapman 
Clarence Maynard 
Daniel Appleby 
Ronald Morgan 

(Killed in France) 
John Beckwith 

Fred R. Bretler 
Charles H. Maynard 
Allen B. Stanhope 
John L. Rice 
Myron A. Mitchell 
Will Howe Foote 
Ray O. Maynard 
J. Monforth Schley 
John H. Smith 
John J. Speirs 
Nathaniel M, Terry, Jr. 
Chas. H. Waterhouse 
Dudley A. Weaver 
Kenneth B Welles 
Clark W. Smith 
John Muller 
James Scalzo 
Philip P. Peck 
Harold A. Bump 
Lawrence A. Carter 
Walter P. Magee 
Raymond E DeWolf 
James Fratus 
Henry MuIlcr 
Alexander Fra.<er 


Charles Darling 
George A. McLeabe 
M. McLean Goldie 
Harry T. Griswold 
Joseph S. Huntington 
Richard L. Maynard 
Charles Milshell 
Daniel Moore 
Frank Peck 
Kenneth D. Plimpton 
Piatt Hubbard 
Thomas Ball 
Frank L. Maynard 
Carlton L. Hopper 
Grafton Wiggins 
Herman L. Babcock 
Guy Chadwick 
Elliot Rose 
Fred W. Shearer 
Earl Northrope 
Charles W. Anderson 
Henry Lewis 
Frank J. Appleby 
Jerome M. Rice 
David S. Beckwith 



Capt. William G. Tarbox 
Capt. Richard Blackmore 
Capt. Harold A. Richmond 
Lieut. Webster D. Copp 
Lieut. Calvin M. Richardson 
Sergt. Gilbert E. Rogers 
Lieut. William P. McClimon 
Serpt. Walter S. Tarbox 
Sergt. Edward H. Street 
Corp. William H. Wicks 
Strgt. Napoleon Labrea 
Laurence Ahem 
John Jones 
C. A. Bell 
Clarence H. Luther 
John P. Leahy 


Charles A. Burdick 
Everett D. Miller 
Peter Mitchell 
John Money 
William A. Swan 
W'auren Sisson 
R. H. Underwood 
Victor Susigan 
John C. Flynn 
Joseph Gray 
Frank Higgins 
Leander Hill 
Carl Jansen 
Homer Richard 
Coreny Weise 

Leiand Burdick 
John Dunn 
Oscar C. Ecclesfone 
Charles Fish 
Grant C. Swan 
Robert Thompson 
Fred Rosere 
Strvatur Maenaus 
William Matoney 
Niles Olesen 
Arthur M. Ogden 
Charles J. Partridge 
Maurice E. Partridge 
Peter Van ZjTick 
Edward E. Yerrington 


Harold Duerr 
Charles Duerr 
Henry Duerr 
Charles Rogers 
Ambrose Riven 
William Rivers 
Joseph Rivers 
John Kane 
John Beswick 
Clinton Thompson 
Warren Kelly 
Jeremiah Sweeney 
Henry Robinson 

\\'i!liam Leary 
Charles Rathbone 
Myron Wilcox 
John Lynch 
Patrick Kelley 
Francis Kelley 
William Murphy 
Harry Lathrop 
Harold Bentley 
Charles Bentley 
Joseph Johnson 
Julius Schatz 

Joseph Marra 
Pearl Ross 
George Mahoney 
Robert Chapman 
James De Mar 
Charles Congdon 
Isadore Aronofsky 
John Goss 
Michael Gory 
Michael Stockman 
Joseph Zamioth 
John Zanita 


Allen, George 
Ambum. Clarence R. 
Amburn, Fred V. 
Austin. Reuben S. 
Brouillard, Henry 
Brierly, George 
Burgman, Walter 
Bonville. Bennie 
Bugbee, Ernest E. 
Babcock, Newton 
Braingan, Thomas 
Babbitt, Carl 
Beckwith, Henry W. 
Blacker, Charles H. 
Blacker, Francis 
Berwick, Nathan 
Bullard, Roger 
Bouchard, Leon A. 
Bolger, John 
Craig, Frank 
Chapel, Charles F. 
Curtin, Lewis 
Curtin, Michael 
Casavant, Leo J. 
Cooke, Francis 

Chapman, Florence 
Cohan, Sam 
Coutrie, Paul 
Casto, Albert L. 
Cordima, Matt 
Charitonchrk, Kondrat 
Cohen, Samuel 
Curtin, Edward M. 
Dodd. Robert 
Dodd, John 
Driscoll, Con. 
Dr\den, William 
Edwards, Pierpent 
Fairbanks, Percy E. 
Foley, John 
Geary, Edward H. 
Gilchrist, Thomas W. 
Gilchrist, Edward J. 
Gley, August 
Grardonry, Joe C. 
Hagberg. George A. 
Haack, Walter C. 
Hirshman, Lewis 
Hantman, William 
Hickey, Joseph L. 

Holmes. Earl C. 
McArdle. James 
Kelsey, Howard 
Freiburg, Max 
Howe, John B. 
Hart. Rovston W. 
Hatfield, Harold 
Hotchkiss. Harold 
Johnson, Duffy 
Johnson, Fred A. 
Johnson, Ernest T. 
Johnson, George 
Killen, Edward 
Killen, John 
Kcnnerson, Robert A. 
Kellv, Edward 
Kelly, John 
Kent, Frederick .\. 
Kent, Harry 
Kutia, John 
Kaplan, Robert 
Kezie. Isadore 
Kcenan, Fred. W. 
Kcssler, Robert 
La Bounty, Lewis 



Lyman, William 
Lavsie, Henry 
Lambert, Napoleon 
Ordowskey, Rasner 
Quinn, Alice 
Ucoener, Jennie 
Lebedcine, Joseph 
Ludognr, Lon 
Lynik, Pemice 
Lobodowicki, Frank 
Merriman, Arthur T. 
Metcaff, James 
Mather, Richard 
Miner, Joseph 
Miller, Lathrop 
Muck, Emil 
Moloshya, Tony 

>rcFarlane, Get. 
Neff, Dawley 
Neggmann, Lizzie 
Pierce, Henry 
Phillip, James L. 
Phillip, Lewis J. 
Plouffe, Armond 
Perecca, Andrew 
Roseland, Andrew 
Rice, Fred 
Rogers, Herbert W. 
Rogers, Edward F. 
Yardusky, William 
Freeland, Jacob 
Frank, Max 
Frieburg, Max 
Rogers, Samuel R. 

Rhaume, Arthur Z. 
Rhaummc, Ovide 
Rosin, Phillipp 
Ramage, Charles E. 
Rozolognitz, Barney 
Rozolognitz, Jacon 
Richard, Frederick 
Sheehan, Edward G. 
Stockumers, Joe 
Smith, Lyman E. 
Spencer, Fred J. 
Sedronick, Chas. W. 
Sanberge, Silas 
Sheldon, Fred 
Teft, Robert A. 
Wreckane, Alex 


Gardner Arzamaiski 
Harold Bliven 
Raymond Brown 
Chester Burdick 
Walter Coon 
Arthur Gould 
Charles E. Gray 
Vincent Jones 
George G. Kinnear 
George Lihon 
John A. Morgan 

Otis Morgan 
S. Frank Palmer 
Benajmin L. Peabody 
Gordon M. Reed 
Calvin M. Richardson 
Frank W. Stolpe 
Maurice Swanson 
John Tillinghast 
George W. Tryon 
Frank Underwood 

Roy Underwood 
Herbert E. Walker 
Earl B. Wheeler 
Noyes D. Wheeler 
Allan W. York 
Fred P. York 

In Memoriam 
Thomas E. Callahan 
Floyd L. Main 
Harold W. Merrill 

Allard. Alcide 
Allard, Joseph 
Arpin, Odila 
Arsenault, Andre 
Almquist, Arthur 
Anderson, Arvid 
Anderson, Gustaf 
Bernier, Alfred 
Bessette, Joseph 
Bibeault, Wilfred 
Boucher, Francois 
Blais, Harold 
Blance, Clark 
Babbitt, Albert G. 
Bouchard, William 
Bell, Thomas 
Balkcom, Cecil 
Brown, John 
Cadorette, Ovilla 
Cardin, Wilfred 
Caron, Alfred 
Caron, Elzear 
Charon, John B. 
Charon, Thomas 
Charon, Charles 
Charon, John B., 2nd 
Chartier, Joseph 
Chartier, William 


Clocher, Alcidas 
Cooney, William 
Cote, Melville 
Couillard, Arthur 
Cronin, John L. 
Cullen, James 
Cullen, Albert 
Collins, Ernest 
Coombs, Harry 
Crofts, Peter 
Crofts, Alfred 
Crofts, Arthur 
Clarke, William 
Despathy, Wilfred 
Drescher, Lawrence 
Dumais, Napoleon 
Dumais, John 
Donohoe, John 
Erickson, Ernest 
Enos, Joseph* 
Egle, Raymond 
Foumier, Armand 
Fournier, Pierre 
Fournier, Joseph 
Fournier, Pierre, 2nd 
Fournier, Donat 
Foumier, William 
Flynn, John C. 

Gaucher, Henry 
Gauvin, Francois 
Greishammer, George 
Herard, Leo 
Herard. Simon 
Hines, Robert 
Hines, Warren 
Holmes, Simon 
Houle, Aldei 
Hope, Clayton 
Hauschild, Josef 
Hussey, James 
Jodoin, Roderick 
Jones, Arthur 
Jones, William 
Joubert, Philip 
Johnson, Carl 
Kelly, Edward 
Kusian, Edward 
Kusian, Ernest 
Lacroix, Henri 
Lacroix, Wilfred 
Lafleur, George 
Lambert, Rudolph 
Lambert, Leo 
Lasch, Frederick 
Leith, David 
Lemoine, Alfred 



Lemoine, Wilfred 
Ltmoine, Joseph 
Lynch, Rev. Thomas 

Love, Raymond 
Lanagan, Arthur 
Malzacker, Frederick 
Marshall, William 
McGuire. William 
Morin, Eloi 
Morisette, William 
Murphy, Thomas 
Neault, Octave 
Neault, J. A. 
Nolan, Louis E. 
Papineau, John 
Patenaude, Norbert 
Paul, Joseph 

Paul, Jean B. 
Peloquin, Alfred 
Pcloquiii, Arthur 
Pcloquin, August J. 
Quinn, Edward 
Raymond, Eugene 
Rial, Etienne 
Robitaille, Henri 
Rocheleau, George 
Rocheleau, Alexander 
Roy, George 
Ridgeway, Willis 
Rader, Lewis 
Sevigny, Alpherie 
Schutter, George 
Simoneau, Wilfred* 
Stevens, Clarence 
Stefon, William 

St. Germain, Joseph* 
Sullivan, George 
Swan son, Joel 
Swanson, Gustave 
Swanson, Sigurd 
Smith, Charles L. 
Silva. Frank 
Standish, Ralph 
laylor, Samuel 
Taylor, Albert 
Tessier, Arthur 
Tanner, Albert J. 
Trcckman, William 
Treckman, Frank 
Walker, Robert 
W^ood, Aime 
Wood, George 

Adams, Edward 
Adams, Irving 
Andrews, Robert 
Arnott, George 
Arnott, James 
Arnott, John 
Arnott, William 
Babcock, Bourden A. 
Barker, Fred II., Jr. 
Bell, James F. 
Bentley, John L 
Bcrafriac, John 
Billings, Edward E. 
Bliven, Carl 
Bliven, Percy E. 
Bliven, Walter G. 
Bogue, Raymond 
*Eourdeau, Joseph 
Brickcr, Henry M. 
Brindley, Herbert 
Bromley, Hollis 
Brophy, Charles A. 
Brophy, John M. 
Brown, Albert 
Brown, Alzero F. 
Brown, William E. 
Brown, William J. 
Browning, McKinley H. 
Browning, Vaughan 
Burdick, Charles W. 
Burdick, Clarence A. 
Burdick. Harold R. 
•Burdick, Harry E. 
Burdick, Lloyd 
Burdick, Stanton A. 
Burdick, Varian 
Byers, Elvin B. 
Card, Charles 
Castagna, Thomas A. 
Champlin, William McK. 
Chapman, George 


Chase, Edward 
Clachrie, William 
Clark, William A. 
Clark, Charles H. 
Clark, Frederick A. 
Clark, William H. 
Collins, Frank E. 
Collins, Fred 
Collins, William 
Congelosi. Rosario 
Connors, Francis J. 
Connors, Joseph 
Connors, Maurice 
Cooper, Thomas 
Counsel, Samuel 
Crandall, Louis E. 
Craven, Joseph, Jr. 
Crompton, William W. 
Cronin, Dennis 
Crosby, Edward A. 
Crosby, Henry H. 
Crowther, Effie R. 
Crumb, E. Merle 
Cusack, John J. 
Cronin, John L. 
Dawley, Roy L. 
Dawson, James 
Deady, Timothy C. 
Delaney, Frank 
Denehey, John R. 
Devancy, Charles 
Diedrich, Gustave 
Dion, Albert L 
Donahue, James A. 
Donahue, James F. 
Donahue, John J. 
Downic, Charles, J. 
Duggan, Walter J. 
Dunn, Philip 
Durfce, William 
Eaton, Fred J. 

Ellis, Charles R. 
Fallon, John H. 
Fishwick, William M. 
Fountaine, Albert 
Frank, Samuel 
Freestone. Roliert M. 
Galaher, David 
Gallagher, John 
Gallagher, William 
Gardiner, Charles 
Gardiner, Thomas 
Gordon, Sol 
Greene, Howard A. 
Greene, Lewis R. 
Grills, Jacob 
Grills, Joseph 
Haggcrty, George 
Hall, Duttee J. 
Harroca, Joseph 
Hartson, Byron A. 
Harvey, Charles H. 
Harvey, W'alter J. 
Hemphill. Russell 
Higginbotham, Charles 
Higginbotham, D. Lester 
Higgins, Edwin C. 
Higfiiiis, William R. 
Hillard, Paul N. 
Hoag, Clifford 
Hodge, Emery E. 
•Holdsworth, John W. 
Holmes, Margaret M. 
Holt, Edward 
If organ, John L. 
Howard, James D. 
Ibson. Thomas P 
Johnson, Oscar E. 
Johnson. John W. 
Johnson, William 
Jordan, Aloysius 
Jordan, Andrew R.. Jr. 



Jordan, Charles 
Keane, James 
Keefe, William J. 
Keegan, Allison 
Keegan, Charles L. 
Keegan, Michael A. 
Kelleher, James 
Kelleher, Michael 
Kennard, Harry P. 
Kenyon, Benjamin 
Kenyon, Harry 
Kenyon, M. Elwood 
Kenyon, Robert 
Kenyon, Spicer 
Kitchen, John E. 
Kitchen. William F. 
Knight, Chas. E. 
Knight, Chas. N. 
Knott, Archie 
Lahn, Abraham 
Lahn, David 
Lavimoniere, Chas. 
Lavimoniere, Wm. A. 
Law. John B. 
Lebrecque. Arthur L. 
Lebrecque, Homer 
Ledwith, Charles 
Lee, Joseph C. 
Leiper. Alexander 
Leiper, Thomas 
Lenihan, Wm. J. 

Leonard. Raymond 

Lewis, Byron F. 

Lewis, Merton B., Jr. 

Lihou, Geo. M. 

Linger, Harry H. 

Lorello, Nicholas 

Lugar, George 

Mahoney, Edward J. 

Mahoney, James H. 

Marr, E. George 

Martel, Henry 

Mawson, Alvin W. 

Maxwell, Clarence 

Mayne, Joseph W. 

McGowan, William L 

McGowan, Thomas J. 

McGrath, Arthur 

McGuinness, Howard 

McGuinness, J. Joseph 

McKenna, John E. 

McMahon, Jeremiah 

McShane, John F. 

McVeigh, William 

Mellow, David 

Mellow, Fred 

Mills, William 
Afiner, Elias 
Moore. James J. 

Moore, Raymond 
Moran, Joseph 
Morrocco, Joseph 
Murphy, Everett 
Moriarity, James 
Morey, William 
Murphy, Michael J. 
Murphy, William 
Nash, Arthur M. 
Nelder, Edward 
Nelder, Horace L. 
Newton, Charles B. 
O'Connell, John A. 
O'Connell, Leon 
O'Neil, Arthur E. 
O'Neil, Joseph J. 
O'Neil, Raymond 
Orlando, .\ntonio 
Orlando, Joseph 
Orlando, Rosario 
Ouilette, Anthony 

*Ozanne. Joseph A. 
Parker, Frank 
Parkinson. James 
Parkinson, Richard, Jr. 
Parkinson, Vincent 
Pasetti, Columbus 
Peabody, T. Edward 
Pendleton. Raymond 
Phillips. William A., Jr. 
Pill, William A. 
Purtill, Joseph J. 
Ray, Harold 
Ray, Charles W. 
Ripple, Clarence F. 

''Roberts. Clarence 

Roberts, Fred 

Rock, Alexander 

Rodgers, Albert E. 

Rook. Lawrence 

Roy, John W. 

Rushlaw, Joseph D. 

Ryan, James, Jr. 

Ryan, Thomas 

Salvatore, Frank 

Scialabba, Rosaio 

Schiller, John A. 

Senior, William B. 

Shaw, James 

Shea, Daniel R. 

Shea, D. Gerard 

Shea. Richard (ys. 

Shea. Harold F. 

Shea. James 

Shea. Jeremiah J 

Shea. Jeremiah S. 

Shea, John 

Shea, John R. 

Shea, Patrick J. 
Shea, Stephen A. 
Shea, Thomas 
Shortman, Howard B. 
Shortman, Simeon R. 
Shugrue, Roger 
Simons, Herman R. 
Sisson, Ralph L. 

Slaughter, Harold E. 

Smith, Clifford 

Smith, John E. 
*Snyder, Ira A. 

Stefanski, John 

Stillman, George A. 

Stillman, Karl G. 

Stockwell, Alfred 

Sullivan, Arthur 

Sullivan, Daniel 

Sullivan, James T. 

Sullivan, John, Jr. 

Sullivan, John J. 

Sullivan, John L. 

Sullivan, John S. 

Sullivan, Joseph 

Sullivan, M. Joseph 

Sullivan, Patrick J. 

Sullivan. Thomas 

Surber, William 
♦Sutcliffe, Harry H. 

Sutcliffe, John H. 

Tarbox, Emery 

Tarbox, Edward 

Tarbox, Orrin 

Tassell, Carl S. 

Terranova, Natale 

Tetlow, Aaron 
*Tetlow, Ernest 
Tetlow, James 
Thorp, Walter 
Trant, William 
Tuite, Frank 
Tuite, Thomas P. 
Twomey, Al. J. 
Verry, Harry C. 
Virountas, Nicholas 
Wallwork, John 
Wheeler, Edward 
Whelock, William 
Wheewell, George 
White, Ernest 
White, Joseph 
Whiting, Harold 
Whitlock, Oscar M. 
Willett, Anthony 
Willett, Eugene 
Williams, James 
Wright, John W. 
Wilcox, Byron E. 


Mary Lydia Bolles Branch died since the writing of the matter con- 
cerning her on the narrative pages of this work. She was born in New 
London, Connecticut, June 13, 1840, the daughter of John Rogers and Mary 
(Hempstead) Bolles. She was educated in New London schools and in the 
school of Lincoln F. Emerson, Boston, Massachusetts. In 1870 she married 
John L. Branch, a lawyer. Her early married life was spent in Painesville, 
Ohio, hut most of her married life was passed in New York and Brooklyn. 
Later she lived in New London, Connecticut, in the old Hempstead house, 
which had been the liome of Ikt mother's family for eight generations be- 
fore she herself went there to live. She was for a while assistant editor of 
"The Ladies' Friend," and she also was the author of many poems. One of 
these, "Petrified Fern," has a secure place in American Anthologies. She 
was best known, however, for her stories for children. Many of these ap- 
peared in "The Youth's Companion," "Wide Awake," and "St. Nicholas." 
"Kantcr Girls," which has been a popular book among children for many 
years, was published in 1895 by Scribner. This was followed by "Guld, the 
Cavern King," in 191 7. She wrote several pamphlets of value to local his- 
torians and lovers of earlj- American life. These were "The Old Hempstead 
House — the Home of Eight Generations," 1896; "A Visit to Newfoundland," 
1901 ; "The Manner of Life of Nancy Hempstead," 1902. Her last book, 
"Poems," was published in 1922. 

Mrs. Branch was active in club and philanthropic work. In Brooklyn 
she was a member of the Froebel Society, an organization of mothers who 
founded and watched over a school for their own children and others, called 
the Froebel Academy. She was also a valued member of the Women's 
Prison Association, and did pioneer work for the Women's Reformatory in 
New York. After much labor on the part of the Association this Reforma- 
tory was finally established at Bedford. After she came to New London 
she was active in the life of the D. A. R., and was one of the founders of 
the Connecticut Mayflower Society. 

Mrs. Branch's father, John Rogers Bolles, was the author of several 
books, among them two books of verse, "The Gates of Hell Ajar," and "The 
Edelweiss." He was the first to conceive of the idea of the Navy Yard at 
New London, Connecticut, and it was owing to his labors, against much 
opposition, that the Navy Yard was secured for that city. Mr. Bolles was 
a lawyer and a publisher, and was also something of a local historian, 
for he wrote "The Rogerenes- A Vindication," in which he explained and 
defended the vigorous but persecuted people who fought and won the battle 
for religious freedom in Connecticut. Mary Hempstead, the mother of Mary 
Lydia Bolles Branch, wrote and illustrated "The Casket of Toys," a book of 
stories and poems for children. It is probably the first children's book written 
in Connecticut, and was published by her husband, John R. Bolles. Mary 
P.oUes Branch died April 17. 1922. 


Benedict Arnold, page 35.— Since the printing of the paragraph ending 
with "there is nothing more to be said," it has occurred to the editors that 
the words just quoted may be misconstrued as an affront to Norwich. Such 
was not, of course, intended, and the writer, a native of that city, would be 
the last to pen such a reflection. The words were meant as a commentary 
on the later career of Benedict Arnold, than, had it been as glorious as 
bis deeds before his fall, Norwich would have no richer memory to treasure. 
On pages 63, 64, 71, 76, 106-109, and again on page 138 of this History, the 
reader may get a picture of both sides of Benedict Arnold's life. 

With regard to the Groton Massacre, pages 63-76, it is to be said that the 
editors have printed the narratives of Jonathan Rathbun, Rufus Avery and 
Stephen Hempstead, not because they give a true recital in all details of the 
Battle of Groton Heights, but rather because they are interesting source ma- 
terial for historical research, and have for years been out of print. On pages 
107-109 will be found Benedict Arnold's account of the expedition. On page 
75 is a comment on the death of Colonel Ledyard that leaves much doubt in 
the unprejudiced mind as to just how he was slain. It is, indeed, a purely 
academic question, for surely in American and in British hearts today there 
can hardly survive any bitterness on a matter so distant as the Revolutionary 
War, when, in the view of living historians in both countries, the Colonists 
were fighting not against fellow-Englishmen, but rather against the despotism 
of a foreign king and his sympathizers. Local anecdotes survive, but the truth 
persists that Englishmen even in that day believed that their fellow-English- 
men in the Colonies were fighting for the true principles of liberty as under- 
stood both in England and in America. The editors of this History admire Pitt 
and Edmund Burke as adherents of the same great ideals as those of Wash- 
ington and Franklin. 

Fire Insurance in New London County, page 459. — Reader will dis- 
regard entire paragraph beginning "The stage being thus set," and read 
as follows: 

The stage being thus set with sufificient background to make an im- 
pression as to the antiquity of the event, we now come to a very important 
episode and one which relates intimately to our study of fire insurance in 
New London County — indeed, is the very inception of enduring fire insurance 
organization in Connecticut if not in New England. For, yielding only two 
years' priority to the Insurance Company of North America, in 1794 were 
born twins into the fire insurance field. One was The Insurance Company 
of the State of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and the other The Norwich 
Mutual Assurance Company, in Norwich, Connecticut, the full dignified 
name of this company being The Mutual Assurance Company of the City 
of Norwich— perhaps this abundant title is more in keeping with the char- 
acteristic Philadelphia copiousness of the cognomen of its Pennsylvania twin. 
We may dispose of the Insurance Company of the State of Pennsylvania 
with but a word. In fact, it to some extent disposed of itself, when in 1913, 
after more than a century of honorable record, its individuality was somewhat 
sacrificed through merger with the American Fire Insurance Company of 
Philadelphia, a youngster ( !) organized in 1810. 


On page 467, disregard last paragraph, and in its stead read as follow*: 

The first agent appointed to represent the company outside of Norwich 
was A. C. Lippitt in New London, on December 22nd, 1842; the second 
similar appointment was Samuel W. Wood of Ledyard, to cover the territory 
in the towns of Ledyard, Stonington, North Stonington, Groton, Preston and 
Griswold. Other appointments were slowly made until fifteen years later, in 
1855, ten agents were in the field. On April i6th, 1849, Timothy T. Merwin 
was appointed agent for the City of New York, and on the same date Enoch 
Hobart was appointed "for taking insurance in the City of Boston and Vicin- 
ity." The name of Enoch Hobart appears on the records for some years 

Norwich Fire Department, page 487. — The following additional informa- 
tion has been given since the narrative referred to passed through the press : 

There were 167 alarms of fire during the year ending June 30, 1921, the 
largest fire being at the Kolb Carton Company at Thamcsvillc, at end of city 
limits, the loss being $115,000. At this date there were twenty-eight perma- 
nent men and fifteen call men, with three horses left to haul the aerial truck. 
The appropriation for the year was $64,850. 

The Department was improved during the year 1921-22 by the purchase 
of five pieces of motor apparatus and the displacing of all horses, thus ending 
the horse era in connection with fire apparatus. The pieces purchased were 
two Seagrave triple combination hose and pumps, one 75-foot American 
LaFrance truck, a Rco runabout for the deputy chief, and a Reo squad car 
for general work; $41,000 was appropriated to make the above change. Sev- 
enty-five fire alarm boxes are now in circuit. The station at Thamesville 
was overhauled, and a new company organized and known as Engine Com- 
pany No. 6, with one of the new pumpers placed therein. 

.Ml companies are now known as Engine Companies — i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; and 
Trucks Nos. i and 2. Old No. 3 Station at the Falls was sold for $2,600, 
and the proceeds used to place No. 6 Station in condition. There were 180 
alarms for fires during the year, the largest being at the pants factory fire, 
located on Thames street, March 21, 1922, with a loss of about $30,000. 
The appropriation was $65,550 in addition to the $41,000 for new apparatus 
and the $2,600 from sale of old No. 3 Station. Number of permanent men 
31, call men 15. 

The officiary is: Hon. Milo R. Waters, mayor; Anson R. Grover, chair- 
man of the Fire Committee ; Howard L. Stanton, Chief of Department ; Henry 
R. Taft, Deputy Chief. 


N.L.— :i.i 


BENJAMIN T. MARSHALL— In the presidency 
of Connecticut College for Women, New London, 
Connecticut, Rev. Benjamin T. Marshall, A.M., U.D., 
heads the work of the youngest College for Women 
in New England, an independent, endowed college 
of liberal arts and sciences, which already enrolls, 
in its eighth year, a total of 425 students, represent- 
ing twenty-five different Stares, and three foreign 
nations. In the seven years of active academic life 
it has demonstrated to discriminating educators and 
friends the need for its founding and the value and 
service of its purpose, ideal and program. 

Dr. Marshall is the second president of the Col- 
lege. Dr. Frederick H. Sykes served the College four 
years, two years in necessary preliminary work pre- 
ceding the opening of the College in September, 
1915, and continuing two years to June, 1917. Dr. 
Sykes laid foundations, and gave the College a vision, 
which his successor, and all the latter's colleagues, 
have gratefully accepted as legacy and stimulus. 

Dr. Marshall was born in Boston, Massachusetts, 
August 12, 1872, the son of Andrew and Emily Ann 
(Hentz) Marshall, his father a leather manufacturer 
in Boston. .After passing through the Dudley Gram- 
mar School, Boston (1885), and the Roxbury High 
School (1888), with graduation. Dr. Marshall entered 
St. Johnsbury Academy, St. Johnsbury, Vermont, 
graduated in 1893, then entered Dartmouth College 
and received the degree of B. A. with high honors 
in 1897. He attended the Union Theological Semi- 
nary in the city of New York, and was graduated 
with honor, with the degree B. D. in 1900. .Accom- 
panying his studies in the Seminary, he pursued post- 
graduate courses at Columbia University in history, 
economics and political science. He was ordained 
in his home church, the Eliot Congregational Church, 
Boston, Massachusetts, May 10, 1900, and was called, 
upon the completion of his theological studies, to be 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Scarborough, 
New York, where he had been assistant for two 
years, and where he served as pastor from 1900 to 
1906. In 1906 he was called to the pulpit of the 
First Presbyterian Church in New Rocbelle, New 
York, of old Huguenot founding, a parish established 
in 1698 by a French Huguenot Protestant congre- 
gation. From 1912 to 1917 he was Phillips Professor 
of Biblical History and Literature in his alma mater, 
Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. 

In 1917 he came to his present post as president 
of Connecticut College for Women, New London, 

He married, July 11, 1900, Laura Alice Hatch, of 
StraflFord. Vermont. There were four children : Andrew 
Marshall (2nd): Mary Hatch Marshall; Elizabeth 
Ripley Marshall; and Benjamin Tinkham Marshall, 
Jr. Their home is at the College, New London, 

Dr. Marshall was chaplain of the Third Regiment. 
Connecticut State Guard, for one year, previous to 
the dissolution of that organization and the new 
desxlopment of the National Guard within the State. 
He is a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, Phi 
Beta Kappa, of the Dartmouth Senior Society, 
Casque and Gauntlet, the Rotary Club of New Lon- 
don, the Chamber of Contmerce of New London, in 
which he is now serving a second term as director. 
He retains his connection as a Presbyterian clergy- 
man with the Presb>'tery of Westchester, New York. 
He and his family attend, in New London, the Second 
Congregational Church. F. Y. H. 

of the Wilcox family came to the town of Norwich, 
New London county, Connecticut, from Rhode Is- 
land, Major John Wilcox buying the farm to which 
his grandson, William Bissell Wilcox, came as a 
boy of twelve, later became owner of the farm, 
there passed away, and there his widow yet resides 
(1921). Major John Wilcox obtained his title in 
the militia service. William Bissell Wilcox served 
his county as State Senator, and gave to his coun- 
try a son, Frank A. Wilcox, who fell on a French 
battlefield with his face to the foe within fifty feet 
of the German lines in the Argonne. He was a 
good soldier and an honor to the Wilcox name. 

(I) Major John Wilcox was a farmer of Rhode 
Island, and a prominent member of the militia. 
Later he moved to a farm on Scotland road in the 
town of Norwich, New London county, Connecticut, 
and there resided from 1856 until his passing. He 
was a substantial farmer. He was long survived 
by his widow, Mary (Barber) Wilcox, who died 
at the farm, aged one hundred and one years and 
three months. 

(II) Abram Wilcox, son of Major John and 
Mary (Barber) Wilcox, was born in the town of 
Exeter, Rhode Island, but in youthful manhood 
moved to the town of Griswold, New London 
county, Connecticut, and bought a farm near Glas- 
gow, also operated a small woolen mill there until 
his death. He married Rebecca Sheldon, born in 
South Kingston, Rhode Island, died in Voluntown, 
Connecticut, having moved to that town after the 
death of her husband. 

(III) William Bissell Wilcox, son of Abram and 
Rebecca (Sheldon) Wilcox, was born in the town 
of Griswold, near Glasgow, New London county, 
Connecticut, August II, 1858. At the age of twelve 
he came to live with his grandfather. Major John 
Wilcox, at the farm on Scotland road in the town 
of Norwich, and there attended the public district 
school. Later he was his grandmother's farm as- 
sistant, but subsequently he established a livery 
business at West Kingston, Rhode Island, which 


he continued until 1885. In that year he returned 
to the Major Wilcox farm and there cultivated the 
acres with which he had become well acquainted 
when a boy. He was elected selectman of the town 
of Norwich, and in his official capacity had charge 
of all public town roads. He became well informed 
on road construction and repair while selectman, 
and after surrendering that office he established in 
business as a contractor of road building under the 
firm name, William B. Wilcox & Sons. He built 
many miles of State road in Eastern Connecticut, 
continuing the active head of the firm until 1914, 
when he retired from the management in favor 
of his sons. He became the owner of the Major 
Wilcox farm on Scotland road, and there died Oc- 
tober I, 1919, being at the time of his passing a 
State Senator. 

Senator Wilcox was a Democrat in politics, and 
a power in the party in Eastern Connecticut. In 
1896 he was elected assessor of taxes, and in 1887- 
88-89-1909, 11-13 second selectman. He was long 
a member of the Democratic town committee, and 
in 1918 was elected State Senator from New London 
county. He was a member of the Baptist church, 
and of Norwich Lodge, No. 430, Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks. He was highly esteemed 
in his township, and was one of the strong and 
valuable men of Norwich. 

Senator Wilcox married, January 21, 1884, in 
South Kingston. Mabel Kenyon, born in Richmond, 
Rhode Island, daughter of Senator Alfred Whitman 
and Susan Melissa (Hoxie) Kenyon. Five children 
were born to Senator and Mrs. Wilcox: i. Lowell 
John, born July 20, 1885; he is a road contractor, 
succeeding his father, with whom he was previously 
associated; he married Almeda Capron, and resides 
on a farm in the town of Lisbon, New London 
county, Connecticut. 2. Frank A., of further and 
extended mention. 3. Erroll Kenyon, born July 26, 
1891, in the town of Norwich, Connecticut; now 
principal of South Kingston, Rhode Island High 
School; he married Ethel P. Henderson, of Hop- 
kinton, Rhode Island, and they are the parents of 
three children: Erroll K. (2), William James and 
Philip De Haven Wilcox. 4. Emily Mabel, born in 
the town of Norwich, October 20, 1894; now a 
teacher in Norwich schools. 5. Susan Rebecca, born 
October 29, 1896; a teacher in the high school, 
Wallingford, Connecticut. Mrs. Wilcox, the mother 
of these children, survives her husband and con- 
tinues her residence at the old Wilcox homestead 
on Scotland road in the town of Norwich, first 
owned in the family by Major John Wilco.x. 

(IV) Frank A. Wilcox, second son of Senator 
William Bissell and Mabel (Kenyon) Wilcox, was 
born on the farm near Glasgow, in the town of 
Griswold, New London county, Connecticut, May 
20, 1887, and died in battle in the Argonne, France, 
October 13, 1918, and there was buried. While he 
was still a boy his parents moved to the Wilcox 
farm on Scotland road, town of Norwich, and there 
attended the district public school, finishing his 

education at Norwich Free Academy with the 
graduating class of 1909. He then became associated 
with his father and brother in the firm of William 
B. Wilco-x & Sons, road contractors. In 1914 the 
father retired, turning the business over to his sons, 
Lowell J. and Frank A. Wilcox, who thereafter con- 
ducted the business under the firm name of Wilcox 
Brothers. The brothers made the farm on Scot- 
land road the headquarters of their business, and 
executed contracts for road and bridge construction, 
doing a prosperous business. 

Frank A. Wilcox was within age limit for the 
selective draft, and in October, 1917, was called for 
duty in the United States army for service in the 
war against Germany. He reported to the authori- 
ties at Camp Devens, Massachusetts, and was re- 
jected for physical reasons due to a previous opera- 
tion for appendicitis. On February 2, 1918, he was 
again called to Camp Devens, passed the required 
physical tests, and on February 26, 1918, was ac- 
cepted and a few days later was sent to Camp Up- 
ton, Long Island. There he was assigned to Com- 
pany L, 307th Regiment of Infantry, 77th Division, 
United States Army, and after training was sent 
overseas with the 77th Division. The division landed 
in England, going thence to France, in a front line 
sector, Corporal Wilcox being engaged in all the 
battles in which the 77th Division took part. In 
the fierce fighting in the Argonne, October 13, 1918, 
he fell when within fifty feet of the German trenches 
they were charging. He was buried in a soldier's 
cemetery on the battlefield, but later the precious 
dust was returned to his native town, and on Sep- 
tember 17, 1921, he was laid in Maplewood Cemetery 
in the city of Norwich, with suitable honors. He 
was a young man of lovable disposition, a good son, 
a good citizen, a good soldier, typical of the best 
in young American manhood. 


Coming of a family identified with the early history 
of New London county, Connecticut, and himself 
deeply interested in the progress of the community, 
Judge Henry Archibald Rogers may well be called 
a representative man of Salem, Connecticut. 

Jonathan Rogers, Mr. Rogers' grandfather, was 
born in the city of New London, Connecticut, in 
Revolutionary times, and spent his lifetime in New 
London county. He married Sarah Rogers, daugh- 
ter of John (3) and Delight (Green) Rogers, the 
latter a daughter of Benjamin and Alma (Angel) 
Green. Benjamin Green was a brother of Major- 
General Nathanae! Greene, one of General Wash- 
ington's staff. (Judge Henry Archibald Rogers has 
a picture of General Washington bidding farewell 
to his officers on December 4, 1783, and General 
Greene is among them; this he prizes very highly). 
John Rogers (3) was a son of John Rogers, Jr.;. 
he was a son of John Rogers, Sr., son of James 
Rogers, who came here from England about 1620. 

Jonathan (2) Rogers was born in the city of New 
London, on August 10, 1800, and died at Salem, 

^^u^^-^ ^ /f^i>^^^-/^ 


Connecticut, on November 19, 1882. He received his 
education in the schools of New London, and was 
in Fort Griswold, at New London, when the British 
burned the city. He picked up one of the cannon 
balls that was fired ashore by the British, and kept 
it as a souvenir, and now it is in the possession of 
one of his grandsons. His first business activity 
was as a clerk in a store, but after the close of the 
War of 1812, he went to sea in a whaling vessel, 
making many trips to sea with Captain Joe Law- 
rence, a famous whaler of that time. Later, satis- 
fied with adventure, and tired of the hardships of 
the sea, he settled down in New London, and es- 
tablished a grocery store there, on Main street. He 
became a successful man of business, and prominent 
in the afTairs of the city. He filled several minor 
ofTices, then, on June 10, 1839, was elected alderman. 
His son now preserves, among relics of other days, 
one of the ballots used at that election. In 1854 
Jonathan (2) Rogers gave up his interest in the 
grocery business, and coming to Salem, took charge 
of the Elihu White farm, the home of his father-in- 
law, who was then becoming too old and decrepit 
to carry on the work of the place. This brought 
his wife back "co her girlhood home and when the 
old man died, she, of course, inherited the place. 
They spent their remaining days on the old home- 
stead. Jonathan (2) Rogers married Lucretia White, 
daughter of Elihu and Lucretia (Maynard) White, 
who was born in Salem, Connecticut, on January 
21, 181J, and died there on January 3, 1882. They 
had thirteen children, four s'till living. 

Judge Henry Archibald Rogers, son of Jonathan 
(2) and Lucretia (White) Rogers, was born in New 
London, Connecticut, on July 28, 1852. The family 
moving to Salem, Connecticut, when he was two 
years of age, his education was begun at the district 
school on Ramson Hill, which is now called the 
Pond District School. Later he attended the public 
schools of New Haven, and still later a private school 
conducted by Rev. Warren N. Waldcn, at Plainfield. 
With this e.xccUent preparation, the young man en- 
tered upon the profession of school teacher. He 
first taught the Tiffany District, now known as the 
Seventh District School, in the town of Salem, Con- 
necticut, then ne.Kt in the Tiffany District, later 
teaching in the Walnut Hill District School in the 
town of Lyme, Connecticut. 

During all these years Mr. Rogers was keenly 
alive to the public questions of the day, for in the 
stirring times of the Civil War and the following 
period of reconstruction, as vital a matter in the 
North as in the South, he was still too young to t.ike 
an active hand. With three of his older brothers 
fighting for the Union, he was close to the heart 
of the struggle. 

After seven years of teaching, Mr. Rogers turned 
to the out-door life, and located on a farm, which 
he rented, on Raymond Hill, in Montville. This 
was in 1876, the year of his marriage. The follow- 
ing year he returned to Salem, and working on a 
share basis, conducted his father-in-lav.''s farm for 

three years. Being a practical young man, well 
versed in farm lore as well at in the learning gained 

at school, he prospered in the agricultural line, and 
in 1880 purchased the TifTany farm in Salem, where 
he lived and conducted extensive farming operations 
until 1890. In that year he sold the Tilfany farm 
and bought the Chadwick farm, in the Central School 
District. This was even then a splendid farm of 150 
acres, and Mr. Rogers went into dairying, general 
farming and stock raising. He had large interests 
along these lines, but has of late done much less 
in the dairy line, turning his attention to the less 
exacting branches of farming. Mr. Rogers still re- 
sides here, and actively manages his still important 
interests, but has largely placed the heavy work in 
other hands. The place is now known as Echo Glen 

Mr. Rogers' prominent position as one of the 
leading farmers of Salem has brought him many 
public responsibilities. He has been elected to 
every office in the town except town clerk and 
treasurer. He has been judge of probate for the 
past four years, and still holds that office. The 
period of his service as sclcclnian covered the 
period of our connection with the World War, when 
the problems of the day reached into every rami- 
fication of government. Mr. Rogers lias always 
supported the principles and policies of the Re- 
publican party. In other activities Mr. Rogers is 
also prominent. He is an influential member of 
the New London County Farm Bureau, and always 
interested in forwarding the progress of that organi- 
zation, which is doing a most practical work in 
agricultural districts. 

Mr. Rogers has always identified himself with the 
work of the church, and his religious views are 
broadly liberal. He is a member of the North Lyme 
Baptist Church, and was a member of the Chester- 
field Baptist Church, of which he was clerk for 
many years. He was superintendent of the Sunday 
school of the North Lyme Church, having held that 
office for three years, and never misses a Sunday 
in attendance. For four months during the illness 
of the pastor, he served this church as minister. 
At one time, also, Mr. Rogers acted as superintend- 
ent of the Sunday school of the Saleni Congrega- 
tional Church. 

On March 15, 1876, in Salem, Connecticut, Mr. 
Rogers married Susie Bailey Tiffany, of Salem, Con- 
necticut. She is a native of this town, and is a 
daughter of Charles and Susan (Bailey) Tiffany, 
both the Tiffany and the Bailey families being very 
old families in this vicinity, reaching back into early 
Colonial times, and aUvays, in every generation, be- 
ing represented in the most progressive circles, in 
many branches of human endeavor. 

Still active in the public service, although at an age 
when many men lay down their responsibilities, 
Judge Henry Archibald Rogers is perhaps most 
widely known in the work that has always been 
nearest his heart. For fifty years he has been con- 
nected with educational work, having been on the 


school board in some capacity ever since he re- 
signed from his profession as a teacher. Few men 
can serve the people more broadly or more wisely 
than those in whose hands the education of the chil- 
dren is entrusted. 

partment of Mystic, being a member of the B. K. 
Hoxie Engine Company. Socially, he is a popular 
member of the Rotary Club of New London, of 
which organization he is now president. Mr. Cos- 
tello is a devout member of the Roman Catholic 

business world of New London, Connecticut, and in 
the social and political world of Mystic, where he 
resides, the name of Cornelius Connor Costello is 
familiarly known and held in the highest esteem. A 
prominent jeweler, and now (1921) State Senator 
from his district, Mr. Costello may truly be counted 
among the men of the day in New London county. 

Mr. Costello is a son of Michael Edward and Mary 
C. (Connor) Costello, both natives of Cork, Ireland. 
Michael E. Costello came to the United States when 
a child, his family locating in Norwich, Con- 
necticut. There he was educated in the public 
schools, then, entering business life, he became a 
machinist by trade, following along this life all his 
life, and is still active. He now resides in Mystic. 
His wife, who also came to the United States when 
a child, died in 1902. They were the parents of six 
children, of whom four are now living. 

Cornelius Connor Costello was born in Hope Val- 
ley, Rhode Island, on December 6, 1883. He received 
his early education in the public schools of Mystic, 
then attended the high school in the same town. 
In 1898 he went to New London, Connecticut, and 
there apprenticed himself to one of the leading 
jewelers of that city, Norman M. Ruddy. When he 
had completed his apprenticeship, Mr. Costello re- 
mined with Mr. Ruddy, his marked business ability 
making him a valuable acquisition to the working 
force. He is now manager of the store and part 
owner of the business. 

This position in the business world has placed Mr. 
Costello in the public eye, and for some time he has 
been active in political circles. It was not, however, 
until 1920 that he was induced to accept public of- 
fice. He was nominated then by the Republican 
party for State Senator from this district and was 
elected by a gratifying majority. This spectacular 
entrance into politics while still a comparatively 
young man is believed by his friends to be only the 
beginning of a brilliant career. He has served as 
chairman of the committee on Capitol Furniture and 
Grounds; chairman of Contingent Expense Com- 
mittee; Senate member of the Banks Committee, and 
was appointed judge by the governor for a two 
years' term, 1921-23, for the town of Groton. 

In fraternal circles Mr. Costello is widely known. 
He is a member of the Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks, New London Lodge, No. 360. He 
is a member of the Father Murphy Council, No. 1943, 
Knights of Columbus, of Mystic; of the Loyal Order 
of Moose, of New London; and of Pequot Camp, 
Modern Woodmen of America, of Mystic. 

Mr. Costello is a member of the New London 
Chamber of Commerce, of which body he is second 
vice-president. He is identified with the fire de- 

GILBERT COLLINS, tlie son of Daniel Prentice 
and Sarah R. Collins, was born on August 26, 1846, 
in Stonington borough, Connecticut, of English an- 
cestry, which emigrated from England to Massachu- 
setts and thence to Connecticut. The Collins coat- 
of-arms is as follows: Gules, on a bend or three 
martlets sable. 

Daniel Collins, great-great-grandfather of Gilbert 
Collins, was born in 1710, died July 16, 1797. He 
was a son or grandson of James Collins, who, with 
his brothers, John and Robert, came from Kent or 
Esse.x in England in 1669 and settled in Massachu- 
setts. Daniel Collins, in 1731, was of New London, 
Connecticut, and afterward moved to Stonington. 
He married (first) February 7, 1731, Alice Pell, of 
New London, (second) July 7, 1754, Rebecca Stan- 
ton, of Stonington, widow of Samuel Stanton. By 
his first wife he had one son, Daniel (2), of whom 

Daniel (2) Collins, son of Daniel (l) and Alice 
(Pell) Collins, was born in New London, Connecti- 
cut, March 10, 1732, and died in Stonington, April 
6, 1819. He was the progenitor of a very large 
family and a man of prominence. His farm was on 
the old Post Road, opposite the present meeting- 
house of the First Congregational Society of Ston- 
ington. He served in the Continental army from 
1775 as a first lieutenant in the First Regiment of 
the Connecticut Line. He married (first) December 
26, 1756, Dorothy Wells; (second) Anne Potter 
(Widow Hillard). Children by his first wife: I. 
William, born in March, 1759; married Polly Ross. 
2. Pell, died unmarried. 3. Hannah. 4. Daniel, died 
unmarried. 5. Lydia. 6. Polly. 7. Eley, died young. 
8. John Wills, born December 5, 1773, married Mercy 
Langworthy. Children bj' his second wife: 9. Rob- 
ert, born April 14, 1788; married Ruth Browning. 
10. Gilbert, of whom further. 11. Rebecca, married 
Henry Worden. 12. Maria, married Justin Denison. 
13. Betsy, died young. 14. Anne, married John D. 

Gilbert Collins, son of Daniel (2) and Anne (Pot- 
ter-Hillard) Collins, was born April 14, 1790, at 
Stonington, died there March 24, 1865. He was a 
farmer, a highly respected citizen, and for several 
terms represented the town in the State Legislature. 
He married (first) May 3, 1807, Prudence Frink, 
of Stonington; (second) April 28, 1916, Lucy Breed; 
(third) Susan Wells (Widow Dickens). Children 
by first wife: i. Benjamin Franklin, born September 
10, 1808. 2. Anne, married John Robbins. 3. Daniel 
Prentice, of whom further. Children by second 
wife: 4. Gilbert W., born February 19, 1817; died 
January 19, 1865. 5. Ethan Allen, born November 
24, 1818; died in 1896. 6. John Noyes, died young. 



7. Tliomas B., born Kcbruarj' 10, 1823. 8. Frances 
Marion, died young, g. John Pierce, born October 
i>I, 1827; died February 28, 1859. 

Daniel Prentice Collins, son of Gilbert and Pru- 
dence (Frink) Collins, was born August 21, 1813. 
He became a manufacturer and has an extensive 
business in the borougli of Stonington. He also 
had business interests in Jersey City. He died in 
1862, leaving but a slender estate, which led his 
son Gilbert to give up a course at Yale College, 
where he had matriculated. In 1863 the family 
moved to Jersey City. In 1870 Gilbert Collins mar- 
ried Harriet Kingsbury Bush, a daughter of John 
O. Bush. Six children were the fruit of this mar- 
riage: Walter, who died November 11, 1900, at the 
age of twenty-eight years, a lawyer of marked abil- 
ity and great promise, practicing in Jersey City; 
Blanche and Marjorie, who are still living; and 
three who died in infancy. Mrs. Collins died on 
May 15, 1917. Gilbert Collins died in Jersey City, 
January 29, 1920. 

These facts concerning Gilbert Collins' ancestry 
and family are of signal significance in any con- 
sideration of his life. His character was a compound 
of courage, patience, resourcefulness and fine intelli- 
gence. He seems to have been endowed with all 
the good qualities of his ancestry and to have turned 
them to maximum account by a tireless industry 
and application. 

On settling in Jersey City, Mr. Collins read law 
with Jonathan Dixon, then a rising lawyer there, 
and afterwards, until his death in 1906, a justice of 
the Supreme Court of the State of New Jersey. 
After Mr. Collins' admission to the bar, which took 
place in 1869, Mr. Dixon and Mr. Collins formed a 
partnership, which lasted until Mr. Dixon's appoint- 
ment to the bench in 1875. Thereafter, Mr. Collins 
formed a partnership with Charles L. Corbin, and 
later with William H. Corbin, under the firm name 
of Collins & Corbin. Charles L. Corbin was a man 
of the very highest attainments in the legal pro- 
fession, and William H. Corbin was a sound lawyer 
and splendid business man. This partnership was 
interrupted by the appointment of Mr. Collins as 
justice of the Supreme Court of the State of New 
Jersey, in 1897, but was re-established in 1903 upon 
his resignation therefrom, and continued, with 
changes in its membership, until the death of Mr. 
Collins, and still continues under that name. Mr. 
Collins lived a life of most varied richness. He 
touched a life at many points, and always fruit- 
fully. He brought to the performance of the duties 
of every task which he undertook a tireless energy 
and a resourceful and profound intelligence. He 
did not confine himself, as so many professional 
men do, to "treading the shadowy thoroughfares 
of thought," but mingled largely in the public af- 
fairs of his time. In 1884 he was nominated on 
the Republican and Citizens' Association tickets 
for mayor of Jersey City. The city had seldom 
elected a Republican mayor, but Mr. Collins car- 
ried the city by a pronounced majority and con- 

ducted a very satisfactory administration. He was 
a staunch champion of the city's rights in many 
controversies with large financial interests, and dis- 
played a wide knowledge of public matters and a 
fine facility in their administration. He was a dele- 
gate to the National Republican Convention that 
re-nominated President Harrison in 1892. He was 
a candidate on the Republican ticket for Presiden- 
tial Flector-at-Large in 1912, and ran on that ticket, 
in the overwhelmingly Democratic county of Hud- 
son, for Senator and Congressman, but was not 
elected to any of these offices. So conspicuous 
was his desirability and fitness for public office that 
he was frequently besought in later years to allow 
his name to be used in conventions as a candidate 
for governor, but he always declined. 

Many people seem to entertain the notion that it 
is unwise to appoint to judicial positions men who 
have loomed large in political life, but in the case 
of Mr. Collins it was not so much a politician who 
had been made a judge as it was a judge who had 
spent a little time in politics. As a participant in 
political affairs, Mr. Collins always displayed a fine 
dignity, a sterling honesty, and a high regard for 
the public interest. As a justice of the Supreme 
Court, Mr. Collins was peculiarly in his element. 
Before going on the bench be had had a large and 
varied practice which fitted him to be an ideal judge 
at Circuit, and such he was. His temperament was 
judicial, his mind was quick and alert, his legal 
learning was sound and accurate. He not only 
achieved a high judicial reputation, but won the love 
and respect of the people of the whole State, and 
when he retired from the bench to resume the prac- 
tice of the law, he was held in such high esteem 
by the bar that they gave a dinner in his honor, to 
which flocked all the leading members 01 the bar 
of his own State and many of the leaders of the 
bar from neighboring states. His judicial opinions 
arc models of clearness, brevity and precision. They 
all bear the peculiar stamp of his mind; they arc 
thorough without being prolix, exhaustive without 
being exhausting; they arc not essays on the law, 
but clear and concise applications of legal principles 
to the facts in dispute. 

At the bar Judge Collins was easily the best 
loved of its members. He was the idol of the young 
lawyers, and the admiration and despair of the old. 
The scope of his work was tremendous, yet his 
clear grasp of the facts in each case, and of the 
law applicable thereto, was as accurate as if he 
had only one case to try and infinite time for its 
preparation. Yet he never seemed too busy to place 
his knowledge and wisdom at the disposal of the 
young men who sought his counsel in ever-increas- 
ing numbers. His practice was enormous, and a 
catalogue of the cases in which he was engaged 
during his practice would read like an index to 
the law reports of the State. His dexterity as a 
trial lawyer and his soundness as counsel were pro- 
verbial, and the bar of the State lost its brightest 
ornament when he passed away. He took a very 


of his 

active part in the business and social life 
city He was a member of numerous clubs and a 
director in several corporations. Wherever he was, 
he was never a null figure. His nature was bright 
and pleasing in the extreme. In manner he was 
gentle and urbane, and his capacity for friendship 
and love was boundless. At the bar, on the bench, 
and in public life, he was a man of extraordinary 
capacity and personality; in society and m his home 
he was a constant spring of light and joy; and the 
record he leaves of a life of faithfulness and full- 
ness constitutes his enduring monument. 

"grand old man," former judge of probate, histor- 
ian, genealogist, legal adviser, writer, public speaker 
and in all ways an influential and useful citizen of 
Stonington, New London county, Connecticut, was 
born there January 29, 1817, and there died April 6, 
1904, a life of unusual activity, fruitfulness and in- 
spiration then closing. He was the only son of 
Richard and Mary (Hewitt) Wheeler, through both 
of whom he descended from a long line of distin- 
guished ancestors, including men of marked promi- 
nence in the making of American history,— soldiers, 
government officials, and public men of many 


Thomas Wheeler, born in England, came to Lynn, 
Massachusetts, in 1635, and was the founder of the 
Wheeler family in America. William Chesebrough, 
another early ancestor, came from Lincolnshire, 
England, with the Winthrop company in 1630, he 
being the first white resident of Stonington and a 
deputy to the general courts of both Massachusetts 
and Connecticut. Thomas Hewitt, an early maternal 
ancestor, was a mariner who commanded a vessel 
on the Mystic river, Connecticut, in 1656, and was 
an early landowner of Stonington. Jolin Gallup, 
another noteworthy progenitor of Judge Wheeler's, 
came from England to Massachusetts in 1630, and in 
1636 took part in the fight with the Pequot Indians 
off Block Island, known in history as the first naval 
battle fought on the Atlantic coast. His son, Cap- 
tain John Gallup, was killed in the great swamp 
fight with the Indians forty years later. Another 
distinguished ancestor was Thomas Stanton, inter- 
preter-general during the Indian hostilities, while 
another. Captain George Denison, a deputy to the 
general court of Connecticut for fifteen sessions, a 
captain of the Connecticut forces in King Phi'ip's 
War and a fighter in a number of other encounters 
with the Indians, was a soldier of unusual distinc- 

Soldierly blood ran in the veins of Judge 
Wheeler's ancestors, and his father although a far- 
mer was a captain of militia. From him the son in- 
herited traits of generosity, hospitality and gentle- 
ness as well as a keen instinct in military tactics. 
From his mother he inherited many Christian 
graces and the mental alertness that repeated itself 
in his keen legal and judicial ability, in his accuracy 
and aptness as a historian and in his humor and 

eloquence as a public speaker and conversationalist. 
He was reared on the farm tilled by his ancestors 
and as he was strong, robust and vigorous he had 
plenty of hard manual labor to perform. He loved 
to read as well as to play boy's games and he pe- 
rused history, poetry, law books, biographies, and 
the newspaper with great eagerness and apprecia- 
tion. His education was the limited one of the pub- 
lic schools of the time, supplemented by a three 
months' course at a private school in Old Mystic 
when he was seventeen. He was anxious for a col- 
lege education but felt it his filial duty to remain at 
home because of his father's ill health. At eighteen 
he was chosen sergeant of the Sixth Company, of 
the Eighth Regiment, Third Brigade, Connecticut 
Militia, and two years later he became captain of 
that company. He served with great credit for 
three years, at the end of which period he was hon- 
orably discharged. 

At the close of his military service Richard A. 
Wheeler settled down on the home farm where so 
many of his youthful years had been spent and 
where the foundations of his rugged health and in- 
dustrious habits had been laid. He remained a 
fnrmcr Tf the mnst solid and prosperous type the 
rest of his long life, but never to the exclusion of 
public service or mental activity. He was interester 
in religion, education, politics, and all social prob- 
lems and he was both an energetic leader and a 
faithful servant in public life. He was a member of 
the Stonington Board of Education for fifteen years, 
selectman and assessor for several terms each, rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly in 1851; judge 
of probate for twenty-three years; justice of the 
peace for forty years; notary public for fifty-five 
years, and high sheriff of New London county for 
twelve years. Though he never desired or obtained 
admission to the bar, he acquired a thorough legal 
knowledge and was considered an authority on all 
matters of probate law. He wrote over six hundred 
and fifty wills and settled scores of estates. At the 
time of his death he was president of the Stonington 
Savings Bank which office he had held for twelve 
years. In politics he was a steadfast and active 
supporter of the Republican party. In creed he was 
a Congregationalist, and was the oldest, in years 
and membership, of the First Congregational 
Church of Stonington. 

Judge Wheeler was clerk and a member of the 
standing committee of that church for sixty-six 
years and he made a conscientious study of the his- 
tory of the church and parish, resulting in a three 
hundred page volume, published in 1875, called 
"The History of the First Congregational Church of 
Stonington", and containing the records since 1674. 
He also wrote historical sketches of a number of 
other churches in New London county. Indeed, it 
is as a historian and genealogist that Judge 
Wheeler's name is most widely known and will be 
perpetuated long after those fortunate enough to 
have known him personally have passed away. In 
1900 he published his "History of the Town of 


Stonington" including careful genealogies of eighty- 
seven families. Many addresses which he made at 
public and patriotic gatherings have been published 
in pamphlet form and have become a part of the 
local history of his county. He was the author of 
a history of the Pequot Indians and of a most inter- 
esting paper called "Memories." written at Ihe re- 
quest of the New England Historical Society and 
published at the very time of his death. 

At one time Judge Wheeler was president of the 
Connecticut Historical Society and a member of 
similar societies in Buffalo, N. Y., in Tennessee, and 
the l^awtucket Valley. He was also a member of 
the New London County Historical Society and 
was tendered membership in the Royal Historical 
Society of London, England. His mind was a 
ttorehouse of historical and genealogical informa- 
tion, "the result of painstaking study and keen in- 

Judge Wheeler married (first), in 1843, Frances 
M. Avery. She died in 1855 and he married (sec- 
ond), Lucy A. Noycs, who died October 27, 1905. 
Three daughters, Mrs. Henry Tyler, Mrs. Seth N. 
Williams and Miss Grace D. Wheeler survived their 
father. Though Judge Wheeler had no sons he was 
the popular adviser and comrade of young men to 
whom he was a constant example of cheerfulness, 
courtesy, unselfishness, modesty, integrity and in- 
dustry, fittingly called the "grand old man of Ston- 
ington." The purity of his principles, the soundness 
of his mind, and the sweetness of his character are 
best realized in the advice which he himself fol- 
lowed so admirably. "Be a Christian, love your 
home and country, cultivate habits of industry and 
perseverance, study to strengthen and enrich your 
mind, take an interest in those about you to do 
them good, use your money in right and proper 
ways and enjoy each day of life." 

tation of Mr. Pitcher, who is a resident of Norwich, 
and his extended professional connections, cover- 
ing a period of more than a third of a century, ren- 
der superfluous any introduction other than the in- 
scription of his name at the head of this article. 
He has been active in the public life of his com- 
munity, filling for long terms the offices of city en- 
gineer and town surveyor. 

George W. Pitcher, father of George Elmer 
Pitcher, was born December 12, 1829, in Norvvich- 
town, called Peck's Corner, and at the age of nine 
years was bound out to a family named Huntington, 
in Franklin, Connecticut. At thirteen he ran away 
and returned to his native place, where he learned 
the blacksmith's trade at the Sterry Faucet Works. 
After serving an apprenticeship of five years, he 
entered the service of the firm of Breed & Wil- 
liams, who conducted a large blacksmith shop at 
Central Wharf, Norwich, and after he had been with 
them about two years, was chosen to take charge 
of all blacksmith work for the railroad which was 
then in process of building and known as the New 

London, Willimantic & Springfield, but now the 
Central Vermont railroad. Alter being associated 
with Mr. Breed about ten years in all, ill health 
forced him to resign and he then lived two years 
on a farm now known as the De Wolf Farm, at 
Trading Cove, Connecticut. His health being re- 
stored, he found employment for about a year in 
a gun shop conducted by Horace Walker, and then 
entered the service of Dr. Charles Osgood, of Nor- 
wich, doing the forging for five engines for steam- 
boats. About 1862 he went to Boston, Massachu- 
setts, where he was employed by Cheney Brothers, 
who constructed rifles for use in the Civil War. He 
enlisted, but so valuable were his services to the 
firm that President Lincoln refused to accept his 
enlistment. He remained with Cheney Brothers un- 
til the close of the war and then returned to Nor- 
wich, finding employment with the Mowcry Axe- 
handle Company, with whom he remained until the 
spring of 1868. He was then sent for by the 
Wheeler & Wilson Machine Company, of Bridge- 
port, Connecticut, and remained in their service 
until October, 1876, when he decided to retire from 
business and returned to Norwich. His retirement, 
however, was of short duration. In the spring of 
1877 his old employers, Cheney Brothers, sent for 
him and he went with them to South Manchester, 
Connecticut, remaining until May, 1897, when he 
again decided to retire. He was a Republican in 
politics, and an attendant of the Broadway Con- 
gregational Church of Norwich. Mr. Pitcher 
married Nancy Ann Thompson, who was born 
April 6, 1831, at East Haddam, Connecticut, and 
their children were: I. Leveret T., born May 10, 
1856, in Thamesville, Norwich, and now lives in 
that town; he married Lillian Harrington, of Green- 
ville, Connecticut, who died in 189J. 2. George 
Elmer, mentioned below. 3. Hattie R., who died at 
the age of four years. In October, 1897, five months 
after his second retirement from business, Mr. 
Pitcher passed away, and the death of his widow 
occurred in May, 1912, in Norwich. 

George Elmer Pitcher, son of George W. and 
Nancy Ann (Thompson) Pitcher, was born May 23, 
1865, at Norwich, and received his rudimentary edu- 
cation in schools of his birthplace, afterward attend- 
ing Norwich Free Academy for about two years. 
He was then obliged to relinquish his studies in con- 
sequence of illness, but having recovered, he began, 
in October, 1884, to study civil engineering and sur- 
veying under the preceptorship of C. E. Chandler, 
of Norwich. After about three years' application 
he entered, on May 23, 1887, his twenty-second 
birthday, into business for himself. His office was 
in the old Piatt building on Shetucket street, near 
the corner of Main, and there he remained until 
April, 1890, when he moved to Providence, Rhode 
Island, and engaged with the Union Street Railroad 
Company, which was then substituting electricity 
for horse-power. He remained with the company 
until August, 1894, and during this time with the 
railroad did a large amount of work for the State's 



Attorney in the criminal courts of Providence 

It iiad been Mr. Pitcher's intention to open an 
office in Providence, but he was eventually per- 
suaded to return to Norwich and there opened an 
office in the Chapman building, in Franklin Square. 
At the end of a year he moved to the Lucas build- 
ing, at Shetucket and Water streets, where, for sev- 
enteen years, he carried on a flourishing business. 
About 1912 the building was destroyed by fire and 
he then moved to his present quarters on Broadway. 
On May 20, 1920, he completed thirty-two years of 
State work for the criminal courts of New London 
county, and there is no official now connected with 
the courts who was holding office when he entered 
upon the discharge of his duties in 1888. During 
that time there have been three sheriffs, three dis- 
trict attorneys, and three coroners. 

In the sphere of politics Mr. Pitcher adheres to 
the principles of the Republican party, and in 1902 
was elected city engineer, an office which he re- 
tained continuously until 1910, receiving the tribute 
of a re-election in 1912 and serving until 1914. For 
twenty years he has been town surveyor for Mont- 
ville, Connecticut, and has also filled the same office 
in most of the surrounding towns. As surveyor he 
has been sent to several states to render service in 
connection with law suits and he does most of the 
surveying required by the Norwich attorneys in the 
prosecution of their work. He is a member of the 
United Congregational Church of Norwich and is 
enrolled in its Brotherhood. 

Mr. Pitcher married, December 25, 1888, Mariam 
S. Greene, born in Providence, Rhode Island, 
daughter of Ephraim G. and Abbie (Love) Greene, 
both of whom are now deceased. Mr. Greene was a 
native of Cape Cod, and his wife was born in War- 
wick, Rhode Island. Mr. and Mrs. Pitcher are the 
parents of the following children i. Eva. G., born 
November 29, 1889, in Norwich; married H. S. 
Bailey, and has one child, Howell P. 2. Lottie T., 
born December 6, 1891, in Cranston, Rhode Island; 
married Gerard L. Ranger, and has two children, 
George A. and Ilva C. 3. Elmer E., born Novem- 
ber 21, 1893, who since 1910 has been associated 
with his father as engineer and surveyor. 4. .Mar- 
iam S., born May 25, 1897, in Norwich, and is now 
engaged in a telephone office in that place. 5. 
Nancy A., born May 12, 1914, in Norwich. 

In the truest sense of the word Mr. Pitcher has 
been a successful man. He has built up a strong 
and prosperous business and in doing so has com- 
manded the high respect and friendly regard of his 
fellow-citizens of New London county. 

JOHN SANDS SPICER— Until his passing, John 

S. Spicer was a man of prominence in Norwich, 
Connecticut, and influential in public life in both 
Ledyard and Norwich; Ledyard was the family 
home until 1893, when Mr. Spicer disposed of the 
business he was then conducting and bought a well 

located farm on Laurel Hill, Norwich. But he was 
more the business man than the farmer and after 
a few years he entered business life, retaining the 
Laurel Hill estate where Mrs. Spicer dispensed a 
charming hospitality. Mrs. Spicer survives her 
husband and continues to make her home on the 
Laurel Hill farm where so many of the years of her 
married life were spent. Mrs. Spicer descends from 
John and Jane (Hubbard) Williams, through their 
son Peter Williams and his wife Michel Lambert; 
their son John Williams and his wife Susanna 
Latham; their son Peter Williams and his wife 
Mary Morgan; their son John Williams and his 
wife Phoebe Williams; their son Peter Williams and 
his wife Susan Barnes; their daughter Anna M. Wil- 
liams married John Sands Spicer, whom she sur- 

(I) The Spicer ancestry in New England begins 
with Peter Spicer, who settled in that part of New 
London county, Connecticut, now called Ledyard, in 
the year 1666, on twenty acres granted him by the 
township of New London, the land lying near the 
line of the town of Norwich. The tract is now en- 
tirely in the hands of strangers. Peter is believed 
to have come to Connecticut from Virginia and to 
have been a son of Edward Spicer who came from 
England to Virginia in 1635. He fought in King 
Philip's War and received one hundred and forty 
acres of the colony land at Voluntown, Connecticut. 
That grant was sold by his son Edward in 1719, 
Peter Spicer's estate being inventoried in 1695, 
which is the year of his death. He married in War- 
wick, Rhode Island, the record there stating the 
date as December 15, 1670, the bride "Mary Busecot 
of ye town of Warwick in ye town of Warwick." 
Nine children are named in the settlement of his es- 
tate, Edward presumably the eldest, as he inherited 
the greater part of his father's estate. 

(II) Edward Spicer, son of Peter and Mary 
(Busecot) Spicer, was born, it is believed, in Led- 
yard, Connecticut, his name being often mentioned 
here in town meeting records and in land records. 
He inherited the homestead farm which, in 1719, he 
deeded to his only son John Spicer, but ownership 
not to pass during the lifetime of Edward or his 
wife. About 1695 he married Catherine Stone, 
daughter of Hugh and Abigail (Busecot) Stone, and 
they were the parents of seven children, their 
births recorded in Groton, the second child a son, 

(III) John Spicer, eldest son of Edward and 
Catherine (Stone) Spicer, was born at Groton, 
Connecticut, January i, 1698, and there died Au- 
gust 28, 1753. He also married in Groton, in 1720, 
Mary Geer, daughter of Robert and Martha (Tyler) 
Geer, of that town, and on January 11, 1762, mar- 
ried Sarah Allyn. By his first marriage John Spicer 
had six children, his marriages and the births of 
his children being all recorded in Groton. 

(IV) Edward Spicer, eldest child of John and 
Mary (Geer) Spicer, was born in Groton, Connecti- 
cut, April 4, 1721, and there died in December, 1797. 
He married, October 17, 1743, Hannah Bill, daugh- 

^^_^,/V5C^ -tC-Tt^^Ct^^-CY 



tcr of Joshua and Hannah Bill, born September 30, 
1725, who died between December 15, 1759, the date 
of the birth of her youngest and seventh child, and 
October 18, 1762, the date of the marriage of Edward 
Spicer to Abigail Allyn, his second wife. Abigail 
of John and Johanna (Miner) /illyn. They we^e 
Allyn was born in Groton, June 25, 1737, daughter 
the parents of five children, the fourth a son John, 
bis father's eleventh child. 

(V) John Spicer, fourth child of Edward Spicer 
and his second wife, Abigail Allyn, was born in 
Groton, Connecticut, August 14, 1770, died in Lcd- 
yard, Connecticut, March 2, 1856. He lived and 
died on the homestead farm left by his father, and 
was a man of prosperity and prominence. He 
served the town of Groton as selectman from 1803 
to 1806, and represented the town in the Legislature 
at New Haven in 1806, and at Hartford in 1807. 
He was also instrumental in dividing 'the town of 
Groton in 1836, his farm being in the part set off 
as Ledyard. He married, at Groton, September 7, 
1794, Elizabeth Latham, and they were the parents 
of ten children, the eighth a son, Edmund Spicer. 

(VI) Captain Edmund Spicer, son of John and 
Elizabeth (Latham) Spicer, was born in North 
Groton, Connecticut (now Ledyard), January 11, 
1812, died at his home in Ledyard, May I, 1890. He 
was educated in the town schools and in his early 
manhood taught school for a number of terms in 
the district schools, with excellent results. He suc- 
ceeded his father in the ownership of the home- 
stead farm near the center of the town and there 
resided until the close of his life, holding a position 
in the community which commanded general re- 
spect. In addition to his farm he also managed a 
mercantile business and was frequently honored by 
his townsmen with public olTice. He was captain of 
a rifle company for several of his younger years of 
manhood, thus gaining the title which he bore 
through life. He was chosen selectman no less 
than seven times between the years 1836 and 1851; 
was town clerk and treasurer from 1853 until 1865; 
representative to the State Legislature in 1849; 
and probate judge for twelve consecutive years, 
1855 until 1867, when he was appointed postmaster, 
an office he held as long as he lived. In 1862 he was 
a candidate for State Senator, and for eighteen years 
prior to 1885 was secretary of the Bill Library 
Association of Ledyard, of which, from the date of 
its organization in 1867, until his passing in 1890, 
he was the treasurer and librarian. In a memorial 
resolution the Association placed on record the 
high appreciation in which Mr. Spicer was held by 
his associates and testified to his ability and fidelity 
in the discharge of the varied but highly important 
trusts committed to his care. In religious faith Mr. 
Spicer was a Congregationalist, uniting with the 
church in Ledyard in 1843, and served for a num- 
ber of years as a member of the church committee 
and as chairman of the standing committee of the 
Ecclesiastical Society for several years prior to his 

Captain Spicer married, November 16, 1836, 
Bethia W. Avery, who died March 7, 1886, daugh- 
ter of John Sands and Bethia (Williams) Avery, of 
Groton. They were the parents of eight children: 
I. Mary Abby, born September 23, 1837, married 
George Fanning. 2. John Sands, of further men- 
tion, to w^hom this review is dedicated. 3. Jo- 
seph Latham, born March 4, 1845, died in infancy. 
4. Sarah Elizabeth, born .Vugust 3, 1847, married 
Nathan Larrabee Lester. 5. Caroline Gallup, born 
May 28, 1850, married Amos Lester. 6. Cecelia 
Williams, born September 30, 1852, married Jona- 
than Fairbanks Lester. 7. Edward Eugene, born 
July 25, 1856, married Sarah Adelaide Griswold. 
8. George Walter, born December 31, 1858, mar- 
ried Fannie Elizabeth Griswold. 

(VII) John Sands Spicer, eldest son of Captain 
Edmund and Bethia W. Avery, was born in Led- 
yard, New London county, Connecticut, September 
20, 1842, and died at his home in Norwich, Connecti- 
cut, May 13, 1906. He grew to youthful manhood at 
his home farm in Ledyard, was educated in the dis- 
trict public schools and at Connecticut Literary In- 
stitute, at Suffield, Connecticut, and there for one 
winter taught the home district public school. He 
continued as his father's farm and store assistant 
until the death of the latter in 1890, then with his 
brother, George Spicer, bought the store from the 
estate, and for a time operated it as a partnership. 
Later Mr. Spicer bought his partner's interest, and 
continued the business alone until 1893, when he 
sold his mercantile business and bought the farm 
on Laurel Hill, Norwich, Connecticut. Here he en- 
gaged in farming, exclusively, until 1899, when he 
re-entered mercantile life, establishing a retail groc- 
ery store at No. 118 Water street, which he con- 
tinued to conduct until his retirement. He also 
operated a feed, grain and hay business on the same 
street and conducted botli departments very suc- 
cessfully. He was trustee of the Chelsea Savings 
Bank of Norwich, succeeding his father on the 
board, and a treasurer of the Bill Library Associa- 
tion at Ledyard, holding both these responsible po- 
sitions until the close of his life. He also followed 
his honored father as postmaster of Ledyard, an 
office he held until removing to Laurel Hill, Nor- 
wich, in 1893, when he, of course, resigned. He was 
an excellent business man, successful in his private 
enterprises and as careful in handling public or cor- 
porate business as though it were his own. He was 
very active in the Congregational church while a 
resident in Ledyard, but after movmg to Norwich 
joined the Broadway Church. In politics he was a 
Democrat, but from IQ06 until his death was iden- 
tified with the Republican party. 

Mr. Spicer married, in Ledyard, May 27, 1873, 
Anna M. Williams, daughter of Peter and Susan 
(Barnes) Williams. Peter Williams was born in 
Ledyard, Connecticut, December 12, 1810, died at 
the home of his daughter, Mrs. John S. Spicer in 
Norwich, Connecticut, October 2, 1899, son of John 
and Phoebe Williams, his father a farmer. Peter 


Williams grew up a farmer and after reaching man's 
estate settled on a farm near the Williams home- 
stead and there resided until the death of his fa- 
ther, November 28, 1864. He then returned to the 
homestead and there resided until the death of his 
wife, Ikfarch 10, 1888, when he went to the home of 
his daughter, Mrs. John S. Spicer, later removing 
with her to the new homestead at Laurel Hill, Nor- 
wich, Connecticut. He was a Democrat in politics, an 
attendant of the Congregational church and al- 
though he was approaching his eighty-ninth birth- 
day, was in full possession of his health and mental 
vigor, his death being hastened by a fall. He was 
a man highly esteemed for his manly, upright, in- 
dustrious life. He married in Preston, Connecticut, 
Susan Barnes, born in Ledyard, December 18, 1815, 
daughter of Amos and Mary (Williams) Barnes, 
the latter a daughter of Uriah and Johanna (Sted- 
man) Williams. Mrs. Susan (Barnes) Williams, a 
most lovable and estimable lady, died March 10, 
1888, leaving a daughter, Anna M., now the widow 
of John Sands Spicer, and an adopted daughter, 
Mary Ann, who was born ,\pril i, 1847, married 
Israel Allyn, and died in Lcdyara, leaving three 
children: Henry; William; and Susan, wife of Wil- 
liam E. Baldwin. To John Sands and Anna M. 
(Williams) Spicer four children were born: i. 
John Williams, born April 11, 1874, a graduate of 
Norwich Business College and of Norwich Free 
Academy, and now engaged in business as a mer- 
chant. He married, November 3, 1906, Florence 
Elizabeth Bradford, and they are the parents of 
seven children: Elizabeth Barnes, Dorn October 30, 
1907; Dorothy Williams, March 14, 1909; Beatrice 
Bradford, October 9, 1911; Marie Marsh, April 20, 
1913; Helen Avery, November 6, 1914; William 
Bradford, July 12, 1917; and John Williams, April 
13, 1920. 2. Joseph Edmund, born February 17, 
1878, a graduate of Norwich Business College, also 
a merchant. He married Frances M. Parkhurst, 
October 2, 1904, and they are the parents of three 
children: Anna Williams, born January 17, 1906; 
George Edmund, born May 20, 1908; and John 
Sands, born January 11, 1915. 3. Susan, born 
March 12, 1880, a graduate of Norwich Free Acad- 
emy, class of 1900, and a student at Simmonds Col- 
lege in 1912, married Walter B. Crooks, September 
17, 1912, and has two children: Margaret Anna, born 
June 13, 1913; and Walter B. Jr., born June 2, 1920. 
4. Frank, born August 23, 1883, a graduate of Nor- 
wich Free Academy, class of 1904, and now a mer- 
chant in Norwich; married, December 9, 1907, Mar- 
guerite MacNeil. 

Mrs. Anna M. Spicer continues her residence at 
the Laurel Hill farm, Norwich, to which she first 
came in 1893, having resided in Ledyard during the 
previous twenty years of her married life. She is 
a member of the Broadway Church, of Norwich, 
and a lady highly esteemed. 

Champion, the founder of the family in New Eng- 

land, sought permanent settlement, he came to that 
part of the town of Lyme now known as the "Meet- 
ing House Hill" and in that town Champions have 
ever resided, valiant in war and most useful in the 
gentler arts of peace. This review deals with the 
ancestry and career of a present day representative 
of the family, Edgar Ruthven Champion, Ph.G.^ 
pharmaceutical chemist, in Hartford, Connecticut, 
and New York City, now in the general insurance 
business in the old Lyme, New London county, 
Connecticut. Descent is traced in this line from 
Henry Champion,, the settler, through his son, 
Henry (2) and his wife, Susanna (De Wolf) Cham- 
pion; their son Captain Henry (3) and his wife, 
Sarah (Peterson) Champion; their son Captain 
Henry (4) and his wife, Sarah (Peck) Champion; 
their son Henry (5) and his wife, Eunice (Miller) 
Champion; their son Frederick and his wife, Mary 
(Rogers) Champion; their son, Calvin Ilurnham and 
his wife, Ann Rachel (Slate) Champion; their son, 
Wallace Ruthven, and his wife, Lillie Louise C. (But- 
ler) Champion; their son Edgar Ruthven and his 
wife, Edith Josephine (Valentine) Champion; their 
children: Edgar Wallace and ClifTord Valentine of 
the tenth generation of the family founded in Lyme 
by Henry Champion. 

(i) Henry Champion, the ancestor of the Ameri- 
can Champions, came from Old England to New 
England and settled at Saybrook, Connecticut, 
where he is found as early as 1647. The first known 
records of the town of Saybrook were begun about 
1660 and several tracts of lands are there recorded 
in his name. He was married twice and had six 
children. After having assisted in the development 
of Saybrook, he moved his family to the cast side 
of the Connecticut river, where most of his lands 
were situated, and settled in that part of Lyme^ 
now known as "Meeting House Hill," and became 
one of the first and most active founders of Lyme. 
He built his house near the old burying ground and 
occupied himself chiefly with agriculture. Of the 
wife of Henry Champion no particulars as to name 
or family have been gleaned from the early records; 
"she was probably the daughter of one of the early 
Saybrook Settlers," says F. B. Trowbridge, in his 
Champion Genealogy. "The exact date of her death 
and birth are likewise unknown, so that she has 
come on, been the mother of children, and passed 
off the stage and we know nothing more of her." 

"His second wife was a shrewd, scheming woman, 
for she induced this old man to make a very advan- 
tageous marriage settlement upon her, and finally in- 
volved him in a law suit with the widow of his eld- 
est son, w!io resisted the resumption of her father- 
in-law's gifts made to her husband, and maintained 
in a very spirited manner the rights of herself and 

(II) His son Henry, to whom he gave the land 
and who also received several tracts from the town 
by grant also lived at "Meeting House Hill," married 
Susanna DeWolf and they were the parents of nine 



(III) Captain Henry Champion, a grandson of 
the settler, married Sarah Peterson and they had 
four children born in Lyme. He was appointed en- 
sign of a company in Lyme, and was promoted cap- 
tain on May 9, 1734. 

(IV) Captain Henry Champion, a great-grand- 
son of the settler, was also born in Lyme, and mar- 
ried Sarah Peck. He was appointed lieutenant of 
the company of Lyme, and was promoted to the 
rank of captain on May 9, 1771. He lived in that 
part of Lyme, known as Flat Rock Hill and was a 
man of quite some means. He died at the age of 
sixty-three, leaving a wife and seven children. 

(V) Henry Champion, of the fifth generation, 
■was born in Lyme, in 1769, had served in the War of 
1812. He married Eunice Miller and had seven chil- 
dren. He was the largest landowner in the town 
of Lyme, besides owning what was known as the 
Goshen farm in New London on which the Pequot 
House stands. 

(VI) His son, Frederick, was born in South 
Lyme, 1795. He also served in the War of 1812. He 
married (first) in 1820, Mary Rogers (second), a 
Miss Tinker. Nine children were born by the first 
wife, and one by the second. 

(VII) Calvin Burnham Champion was born in 
Old Lyme, Connecticut, September 21, 1824, died at 
his farm "Between the Rivers" in Old Lyme, Au- 
gust 3, 1876. In early life he followed the sea but 
after his marriage he became a farmer, the acres 
he owned and tilled in Old Lyme yet being owned 
in the family. He was a Republican and a member 
of the Baptist church. He married Ann Rachel 
Slate, who died in Old Lyme, Connecticut, in her 
eighty-sixth year. They were the parents of fifteen 
children: I. Philena Augusta, born March 9, 1848, 
married G. W. DeWoIf. 2. Wallace Ruthven, born 
September 19, 1849. 3. Calvin Winslow, born April 
22, 1851, died June 23, 1874. 4. Christine, born Feb- 
ruary 19, 1853, married John Downer. 5. Frederick 
Lathroup, born September 25, 1854, died 1858. 6. 
Israel, born September 18, 1856, died 1859. 7. 
Imogene .'\bigail, born October 8, 1858, married J. 
Hopper. 8. Ann Mehetable, born June 14, i860, 
married H. Lay. 9. Mary Rogers, born May 28, 
1862, married Rev. J. C. Lamb. 10. Ida Jane, born 
June 10, 1864, married H. M. Caulkins. 11. Roger 
Burnham, born May 30, 1866, married A. Daniels. 
12. .Ansel .Anderson, born .Xpril 19, 1868, married 
Ella Ashley. 13. Edith Manwaring, born June 7, 
1870, died 1886. 14. Edward GrifTin, born February 
28, 1872. 15. Virgil, born January 28, 1874. 

(VIII) Wallace Ruthven Champion, eldest son of 
Calvin Burnham Champion, was born in Old Lyme, 
Connecticut, September 19, 1849, and there yet re- 
sides, a merchant, although previously in business 
elsewhere. He grew to manhood at the old farm in 
Lyme "Between the Rivers", and was educated in 
the public school. He elected mercantile life and 
was formerly in business in Meriden, Connecticut, 
then returned to Old Lyme where he is yet in busi- 
ness (1922). He is a Republican in politics, and has 

served his town as clerk. Both he and his wife are 
members of the Congregational church. He mar- 
ried Lillie Louise Cummings Butler, born in 
Wrcntham, Massachusetts, October 24, 1852, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Frederick Robins and Harriet Louise 
(Cummings) Butler, her father a physician of Rock 
Hills and Saybrook, Connecticut, but now deceased. 
Dr. and Mrs. Butler had other children: Arthur, 
of Lyme; Blanche, married Carl Morgan of New 
York; Bertha, married F'red Fo.x, of Center Brook, 
Connecticut. Wallace R. and Lillie Louise Cum- 
mings (Butler) Champion arc the parents of three 
children: i. Edgar Ruthven, of further mention; 
2. Florence Augusta, born October 20, 1875, at East 
River, Connecticut, died at Upper Montclair, New 
Jersey, in 1920, graduated from Morgan School and 
Smith College; married Reverend Rodney Roundy, 
a graduate of Amherst and Yale, and now secretary 
of Home Mission Council, New York City, and had 
three children: Paul Champion Roundy, Rodney 
Roundy, Jr., and Virginia Roundy. 3. Gertrude 
Louise Champion, born December 2, 1880, in Old 
Lyme, Connecticut, graduated from Morgan School 
and Smith College; married Reverend Grove Ekins, 
a graduate of .Amherst and Yale, now (1922) pastor 
of the Congregational church of Rocky Hill, Connec- 
ticut, and they arc the parents of four children: 
Robert Champion Ekins, Margaret Lass Ekins, 
Grove Frederick Ekins, and Sarah Louise Ekins. 

(IX) Edgar Ruthven Champion, of the ninth 
American generation of his family, son of Wallace 
R. and Lillie Louise Cummings (Bu'tler) Champion, 
was born in Old Lyme, Connecticut, April 16, 1872. 
He was educated in Old Lyme Academy, Morgan 
High School, and the College of Pharmacy, Columbia 
University, New York. His father was then clerk 
in the Roger DeWolf store, but later removed to 
East River, Connecticut, where he was a grocery 
clerk. A little later, Wallace R. Champion moved 
to Hartford and opened a wholesale fiour, feed and 
grain store on Main street where he remained for 
several years, afterward returning to Old Lyme 
where, for the firm of Morley and Champion, he 
conducted the grocery business at the "Corner 
Store." After graduation from Columbia Uni- 
versity, Edgar R. Champion entered the service of 
A. W. Sawtelle, Hartford, Connecticut, for about 
one year and it was while there he married, and ac- 
cepted a position with the Marwick Drug Company 
as pharmaceutical chemist. Later he resigned and 
returned to New York as manager of the Garretson 
Pharmacy, where he remained for several years. 
Upon the death of his uncle, Roger B. Champion, he 
returned to his birthplace and assisted his father at 
the "Corner Store." Here he continued for ten 
years when he entered the insurance field for the 
Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, and 
gradually built up a general insurance business. He 
moved from Hartford to Old Lyme, and there 
opened an office representing twelve of the largest 
insurance companies in America. In politics Mr. 
Champion is a Democrat and has for a number of 



years taken an active part in town public affairs. 
He has served as member of the school board, act- 
ing scliool visitor, financial agent, health officer. 
justice of the peace, and chairman of the board pf 
relief. He is a member of the Royal Arcanum, 
Flushing, New York; Pythagoras Lodge, Free and 
Accepted Masons of Old Lyme, Connecticut, past 
master; Burning Bush Chapter, Royal Arch 
Masons; and president of Past Masters' Association 
of the Seventh Masonic District, Essex, Connecti- 
cut; and of Old Lyme Grange, Patrons of Hus- 
bandry. He is a member of the Congregational 

Mr. Champion married, October li, 1893, Edith 
Josephine Valentine, born in New York City, June 
7, 1870, only daughter of Peter J. and Elizabeth 
(Clark) Valentine, her father (now deceased), born 
in New York City, where he was a wholesale 
dealer in meats; her mother born in Cleveland, 
Ohio, died in Hartford, Connecticut, aged fifty-six. 
Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Ruthven Champion are the par- 
ents of two sons: i. Edgar Wallace Champion, 
born April 30, 1894, in Hartford, Connecticut, mar- 
ried, October 4, 1919, Netta Madeline Strong, daugh- 
ter of Charles H. and Marie Bugbee Strong. He 
volunteered his services before the United States 
entered the World War, and joined Troop B, Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. This troup afterwards became 
the loist Machine Gun Battalion of the 26th Divi- 
sion. He served in si.x sectors in France and was 
honorably discharged upon his return to his native 
land after the armistice, and again assumed his du- 
ties as examiner in the Aetna Insurance Company, 
Hartford, Connecticut. 2. Clifford Valentine Cham- 
pion, born November 15, 1901, in Flushing, New 
York, now associated with his father in general in- 
surance at Old Lyme, Connecticut. 

JUDGE NELSON J. AYLING— The life histories 
of New England's prominent men run far back and 
are bound up with the history of this country and 
with the history of the countries of Europe. The 
Ayling family came to this country after the coast 
strip had been fairly well settled and when Penn- 
sylvania was beginning to receive the advance wave 
of the westward flow of population. 

From the County of Surrey, England, came John 
Ayling, grandfather of Nelson J. Ayling, bringing 
with him his wife, Jane (Trussler) Ayling, and his 
family. They settled in Columbus township, War- 
ren county, Pennsylvania, then a comparatively new 
section close to the frontier where the conditions 
of pioneer life must be met. They reared a family 
of thirteen children, each of whom lived to marry 
and have children of their own. One of the thirteen 
was Henry M. Ayling, father of Judge Ayling, who, 
born June 26, 1835, in the County of Surrey, Eng- 
land, came to this country with his father when he 
was a young lad and lived the strenuous life of the 
frontier, helping on the farm and adding to his 
substance by lumbering in the winter season. Later 
in life, he went into the lumbering business for him- 

silf, rafting the lumber down the Allegheny river 
and often down to Ohio river ports. Still later, 
Henry M. Ayling concentrated his attention upon 
farming, in which, as in the lumbering business, he 
was successful, and became one of the substantial 
men of his section, where he and his wife were very 
highly esteemed and numbered among the best 
citizens. He married Mary Carrier, daughter of 
Nelson and Thurza (Marble) Carrier, the paternal 
ancestry of whom goes back two hundred years of 
New England history to the time of the Salem 
witchcraft, when Martha (.'Mien) Carrier, wife of 
Thomas Carrier, was burned at the stake in 1692. 
Henry M. and Mary (Carrier) Ayling had two chil- 
dren: Nelson J., of whom further; and Lola M., 
whose husband, William R. Carr, holds a position 
of trust with the Erie Railroad Company. Henry 
M. Ayling was an active supporter of the Republi- 
can party, and served as commissioner of Warren 
county, Pennsylvania. 

Nelson J. Ayling was reared on his father's farm, 
where, except for the time he was away at school, 
he passed the first nineteen years of his life. He 
did his share of work on the farm and acquired a 
thorough knowledge of farm work, but his ambi- 
tions led in other directions, and when his high 
school course was finished, he went to Oswego, 
New York, and entered the business college there, 
after which he took a position as bookkeeper and 
stenographer with Sawyer, Manning & Company, 
yarn and knit goods manufacturers, of Boston, 
Massachusetts, remaining with them until 1891, 
when he accepted a similar position with Union 
Hardware Company, of Torrington, Connecticut. 
This last is one of the largest and best known con- 
cerns of Connecticut, and they recognized young 
Ayling's ability and faithfulness by increasing his 
responsibilities, making him purchasing agent and 
giving him full charge of the requisition department. 
But Mr. Ayling's connections with the manufactur- 
ing business served him only as a means to an end, 
and the tempting future opening before him in the 
business world was powerless to hold him when 
he saw his way clear to begin to realize his ultimate 
aim. In 1894 he began the study of law with Halsey 
& Briscoe, of Norwich, Connecticut, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar of New London county in De- 
cember, 1898. He began active practice at once, 
which he continued with unusual success until he 
was appointed judge of probate of the Norwich 
District, January I, 1905. 

The Norwich Probate District is the largest in 
the State of Connecticut, and includes seven towns: 
Norwich, Griswold, Preston, Lisbon, Franklin, 
Sprague, and Voluntown. To the responsibilities of 
this large district Mr. Ayling brought qualifications 
of a high order, not the least being his faithfulness 
and thoroughness. He has made a close study of 
the working of the probate courts and of probate 
law, and in the annual meetings of the Probate 
Judges Association of the State of Connecticut, has 
been an earnest and largely successful advocate of 



standardization of the application of the probate 
laws of the State, of ways and means management, 
and of probate court procedure. That the district 
he serves has appreciated the high quality of his 
work is evidenced by the fact that since his first 
election in 1905, he has been bi-annually re-elected 
without a single interim. In each of tlicse consecu- 
tive elections, with the e.KCcption of the last three, 
he has been the candidate of both the Republican 
and the Democratic parties, a case of fusion which 
has been true of no other candidate in the history of 
the district. Politically, Mr. Ayling supports the 
Republican party, but "that honest service has been 
appreciated by both parties is clearly shown in the 
elections of the last sixteen years. He works hard 
for the success of his party, however, and is con- 
sidered one of its strongest men in Norwich. In 
November 1902, he was elected to the Connecticut 
Senate from the Tenth District, where he served 
as chairman of three important committees: .Agri- 
culture, Rules (Joint), and Amendments (Joint), 
and rendered valuable service. 

Judge Ayling is a trustee of the Norwich Savings 
Society. With his numerous and exacting duties, 
he finds time for fraternal affiliations. He is a mem- 
ber of Somerset Lodge, No. 34, Free and Accepted 
Masons; of Franklin Chapter, No. 4, Royal Arch 
Masons; of Franklin Council, No. 3, Royal and Se- 
lect Masters; Columbian Commandery, No. 4, 
Knights Templar, Norwich; and of Sphinx Temple, 
Hartford, Ancient .Arabic Order Nobles of the Mys- 
tic Shrine. He is a past commander of Harmony 
Lodge, No. 27, Knights of Pythias, and a member 
of Harmony Division, Uniform Rank, Knights of 
Pythias, Torrington, Connecticut; now a member 
of Gardner Lodge, No. 16, Norwich; a member of 
Norwich Lodge, No. 430, Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks, of which he is a past exalted ruler, 
having been exalted ruler when the new home on 
Main street was built, and chairman of the building 
committee that erected the new lodge room addi- 
tion; a member of the Past Exalted Rulers' Associa- 
tion, and of the Arcanum Club, of Norwich. 

Judge Ayling is also president and director of 
the Richmond Lace Works, Richmond, Rhode Is- 
land; and a director of the Algonquin Company, of 
the Manhassett Land Company, and of the Nassau 
Development Company, all of Norwich, but having 
offices in New York City. He is also a trustee of 
the Norwich State Hospital, and a member of the 
New London County Bar Association and of the 
Connecticut State Bar Association. 

On June ", 1904. in Norwich, Connecticut, he 
married Mildred GifTord, daughter of G. Parker and 
Olive E. (Fisher) Gifford, of that city. They had 
two children: John Henry, born September 10, 1912, 
and died June 10, 1920; and Ruth Gifford, born De- 
cember I, 1915. Mrs. Ayling died March 9, 1916. 


eminent physician of New London, Connecticut, is a 
son of Dr. Chester Manuel Ferrin, born in Holland, 

Vermont, who in youthful manhood enlisted in the 
Hospital Corps attached to the Eighth Regiment, 
Vermont Volunteer Infantry, and served with thai 
organization all through the Civil War. In 1865 
he returned to his native Vermont and became a 
medical student, attending Harvard Medical School 
and the medical department of the University of 
Vermont, receiving his M.D. from the last-named 
institution. He began professional practice in East 
St. Johnsbury, Vermont, but later moved to Essex 
Junction, Vermont, where he practiced for more 
than forty years. This veteran of war and medical 
practice then retired and now (1921) resides in the 
city of Burlington, Vermont, not far from Essex 
Junction, the scene of so much of his professional 
activity. For many years he has been lecturer in 
Fanny Allen Hospital, Winooski, Vermont, a 
member of the visitors' staff of the Mary Fle'tcher 
Hospital, Burlington, and also attends some of his 
old patients who will not allow him to retire com- 
pletely from professional work. He continues a 
deep interest in his comrades of the Grand .Army 
of the Republic, serving as secretary of his regiment 
organization, and in 1918 was surgeon general of 
the National body. He is yet secretary of the 
Eighth Vermont Regimental Association, member 
of County, State, and National Medical societies, 
and a man beloved and esteemed wherever known. 

Dr. Chester M. F'errin married Marion Elizabeth 
Benedict, born in Hinesburg, Vermont, died in Bur- 
lington, Vermont, in 1917. 

Carlisle Franklin Ferrin, son of Dr. Chester M. 
and Marion E. (Benedict) Ferrin, was born in St. 
Johnsbury, Vermont, April 22, 1868, and in Essex 
Junction attended the public schools and the Classi- 
cal Institute. He entered the University of Ver- 
mont, whence he was graduated A.M., class of 1891, 
and in 1895 was graduated M.D. from the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 
New York. He began private practice in New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, the same year, and there con- 
tinues in medical and surgical practice (1921) — spe- 
cializing in diseases of children. Pediatrics is a 
branch of medicine which has always interested him, 
and for many years he advocated the medical exami- 
nation of school children, believing and preaching 
the doctrines that it is more important to teach 
the child health rules, hygiene and physical laws 
than to force mental development. He was medical 
inspector of the New London schools for two 
years, and inaugurated the system of health exami- 
nations now in vogue. His gospel is "teach the 
child the proper way to health, and satisfactory 
mental development will surely follow, for a healthy 
child is a better student." For two years Dr. Fer- 
rin performed the labor of school inspec*cor, and 
through his influence and example five other physi- 
cians of the city gave their services free for school 
health inspections, and finally it became a fixed part 
of New London's school work. He also served for 
three years as city physician. 

Dr. Ferrin is an ex-president of the New London 



City Medical Society, and of the New London 
County Medical Society. He is a member of the 
Connecticut State Medical Society and of the 
American Medical Association. For eight years he 
was school visitor for New London, was on the 
medical staff of the old Memorial Hospital, a pres- 
ent member of the medical staff of Lawrence and 
Memorial Associated Hospital, and chief general 
physician in pediatrics and chief of staff in Mitchell 
Isolation Ward. He is a member of Jared R. Avery 
Camp, No. 20, Sons of Veterans; Brainard Lodge, 
Free and Accepted Masons; and the Thames Club. 
He is a member of the Second Congregational 
Church, and in politics a Republican. 

Dr. F'errin married, in New London, June 2, 1896, 
Blanche Eggleston, bcrn in New London, Connec- 
ticut, daughter of Julius and Catherine (Percy) Eg- 
gleston, her parents both deceased. For more than 
a quarter of a century. Dr. Ferrin has given to his 
adopted city his services as physician and surgeon. 
No pliase of his work has been more important than 
the labor for the prevention of disease through care 
and instruction of school children. He is a man of 
learning, skill and experience, whose opinions carry 
weight both among his brethren of the profession 
and among laity. His offices are at No. 32 Hunt- 
ington stree'c. New London. He was city physician 
for three years. 

one of the strong supporters of the Republi- 
can party in New London county, Connecticut, and 
widely known as an active leader, an expert lobbyist, 
and a faithful official, filled a prominent place in the 
public life of his county and State. A man of 
energy, tact, and discernment, he was especially 
skillful in piloting his local party organizations 
through dilTicult places and in adjusting delicate 
situations. Interested in all phases of public life, 
and blessed with a goodly share of that rare quality 
known in some localities as "horse" sense, in others 
as "common" sense, but styled in New England 
just plain "gumption," he was a power to be 
reckoned with in whatever work he undertook, and 
has left his mark upon the life of his community, 
his county and his State. Born of several genera- 
tions of good New England stock, he possessed in 
full measure many of the characteristic traits of 
which this region is justly proud, and occupied a 
high place in the esteem and confidence of his 

The grandfather lived in Lyme, Connecticut, 
where he was a capable farmer, and was twice mar- 
ried, the children of the first marriage being: David, 
who was a farmer in Colchester; John M., of whom 
further; Christopher, who died in Lebanon; and 
Henry, a farmer, who died in Lyme, Connecticut. 

John M. Brown, father of Frederick J. Brown, 
was born in Lyme, Connecticut, in 1807. While a 
small boy, he for a time made his home with a Mr. 
Wright in Colchester, but later returned to Lyme, 

where he spent his early manhood as an enterpris- 
ing farmer. Several times he changed his place 
of residence, testing out farms in Bolton, Hebron, 
and Colchester, and finally, in the spring of 1866, 
removed to Lebanon, locating on a farm which he 
continued to operate throughout the remainder of 
his life, and which after his death, #.lay 5, 1879, was 
owned by his son, Frederick J. Energy and thrift 
brought their reward, and at the time of his death 
he was in comfortable circumstances and stood high 
in the esteem of his fellow-townsmen. 

Politically, he was one of those Whigs who, as 
the divergence of sectional interests throughout the 
country brought new issues to the front, took his 
stand for those principles which gave birth to the 
newly-organized Republican party and gave his sup- 
port to the candidates put forward by that party 
during the remainder of his life. He married Louisa 
Lombard who survived him until March 22, 1882, 
when she died at the age of seventy-six years. Their 
children were: I. Cornelia Louise, born September 
16, 1833, married George Daggett, and died at An- 
dover, Connecticut, leaving one son, Calvin. 2. 
Abby Jane, born March 4, 1835, died February 28, 
1883, married Edwin Alvard, a wealthy paper maker 
and prominent citizen, and has three children: Ella, 
married John Looniis, and died in Manchester; Ida 
Jane, married Mr. Bond, an attorney of St. Louis; 
and Edwin, a business man of Hartford. 3. Lucy 
O., born January 20, 1837, died February 23, 1838. 
4. Joseph L., born April 27, 1839, married Lucy 
Ann Alvard, and died in Vernon, Connecticut, 
leaving six children. 5. Frederick J., of further 
mention. 6. George O., born June 25, 1846, died 
May 23, 1869. 7. Frank M., born March 2, 1849, 
married Mattie Cowles, and has a son, Frank. 

Frederick John Brown was born in Lyme, 
Connecticut, March 27, 1844, but was taken to Leb- 
anon by his parents when he was three years old, 
and six years later again removed with his parents, 
this time to Colchester. He remained in the home 
at Colchester until he was twelve years of age and 
then went to live with his brother-in-law, Mr. Al- 
vard, with whom he made his home, at intervals, 
until he was twenty-one. School days over, he mar- 
ried early, and tried various lines of work, engaging 
in farming for two years, during which time he re- 
sided in Colchester. He then went to Hebron, 
where for a year he was employed by P. W. Tur- 
ner, of Turnerville, later returning to Colchester, 
where he worked for two years in the factory of 
the L^nion Wheel Company. When he left the em- 
ploy of the Union Wheel Company he returned to 
Lebanon and took over the management of the farm 
which he now owns, but which was then occupied 
by his father and owned by August Spafard. With 
characteristic energy and efficiency, Mr. Brown 
went to work, not only scientifically getting his 
land into shape and raising his crops, but applying 
systematic business methods to the important mat- 
ter of selling. After a time he bought the farm, 
and made extensive improvements, developing a 



modern scientific agricultural plant. When work- 
ing for others he had shown himself to be a swift, 
efficient worker, and now, engaged in the compli- 
cated business of farming for himself, he manifested 
equal ability and thoroughness. He carried on gen- 
eral farming and lumbering, and came to be gener- 
ally recognized as one of the leading agriculturists 
of the town. 

But business affairs did not absorb all of the 
abundant energy of this capable man. Always in- 
terested in public affairs, and willing to devote time, 
energy and means to the advancement of the gen- 
eral welfare, Mr. Brown early took an active part in 
local and county affairs, soon demonstrating his 
ability to see clearly and to act strongly. It was 
not long before his fellow-citizens began to look to 
him for certain qualities of leadership essential to 
the success of party measures, and more and more 
they found that Frederick J. Brown was likely to ac- 
complish what he set out to do. They elected him 
to fill several town offices, including those of se- 
lectman, assessor, and member of the Board of 
Relief. They made him a member of the Republi- 
can Town Commi'ttee for many years. His powers 
demonstrated in these local offices, they chose him 
for larger responsibilities and sent him to represent 
his district in the State Legislature in 1893, where he 
served on the important Committee on Railroads. 
Later they bestowed upon him a still higher mark 
of confidence and placed in his keeping a still larger 
field for service. They elected him to represent the 
Eleventh District in the State Senate, and here he 
served efficiently and with honor. He was made 
Senate chairman of the Committee on Temperance, 
and tliroughout his term was active in furthering 
the welfare of his constituents and in seeking to 
promote the general good. Known to the big busi- 
ness interests of Connecticut as a skillful lobbyist, 
his influence came to be feared or desired according 
to the character of the ends sought, and he was 
recognized not only as one of the leading Republi- 
cans in Lebanon, but as one of the party's strongest 
supporters in the entire county. He was elected by 
New London county to serve on the Central State 
Committee, and at the time of his death was county 

Fraternally, Mr. Brown was a member of Leb- 
anon Lodge, No. 23, .-Kncient Order of United 
Workmen; of Oliver Woodhouse Lodge, No. 51, 
Knights of Pythias, of Colchester; and a member 
of the American Order of Fraternal Helpers. Sena- 
tor Brown died at his home. Maple Glen Farm, in 
the town of Lebanon, April 24, 1918, sincerely 
mourned by a host of friends and acquaintances, 
leaving vacant a place hard to fill in the life of his 

On April 15, 1866, he married Nancy Lombard, 
born April 14, 1841, in Lebanon, daughter of 
Orienzo and Hannah (Bailey) Lombard, and three 
children were born to the marriage: I. Cornelia 
Louisa, born March .8, 1867, married, September 13, 
1892, E. H. McCall, who was born March 10, 
N.L.— 2-2 

1868, educated at Norwich Free Academy, and East- 
man Business College, at Poughkeepsic, New York, 
from which he graduated in 1889. He is a staunch 
Republican, and in 1899 represented Lebanon Dis- 
trict in the Legislature, serving on the Committee 
on Appropriations. Four children have been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. McCall: Royce Frederick, Calvin 
Hale, Edwin Hobart, and Dorothy. 2. Frederick 
Otis, a sketch of whom follows. 3. Ernest, born 
April 27, 1875, died June 9, 1879. 

FREDERICK OTIS BROWN, general manager 
of the Meech-Brown Grain Company, of Colchester, 
Connecticut, has shown himself to be not only a 
man of executive and administrative ability and an 
energetic business man, but a progressive citizen, 
an able political leader, and a faithful representative 
of the interests of his constitutcnts. He was born 
in Unionville, town of Colchester, New London 
county, July 27, 1871, son of Frederick J. and Nancy 
(Lombard) Brown (see preceding sketch). In 1872 
his parents moved to Lebanon, New London county, 
and in the district school of that town Frederick 
Otis Brown received the beginnings of his educa- 
tion. He later attended school at South Windham, 
and then entered Morse Business College, at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. Like most of the boys of his 
time, he assisted his father on the farm during va- 
cations and before and after school hours, and for 
a time after completing his course at business col- 
lege. He then engaged in the teaming and native 
lumber business for himself, working hard and sav- 
ing thriftily in order that he might buy a farm for 
himself. This hope was realized in 1893 when he 
bought the Deacon Benjamin Nye farm, near the 
Exeter church, in Lebanon. Here he carried on a 
general farming and lumbering business, succeeding 
in both lines, and later branching out into other 
lines which he carried on in addition to his first in- 
terests. In 1896 he engaged in the road contracting 
business and built one of the first modern roads in 
the town of Lebanon, twenty-seven miles long, in 
the Exeter society district. He also built other 
roads and repaired poor ones, greatly benefitting 
that section by thus improving its means of com- 
munication and transportation. A man of many in- 
terests, he has always been able to keep several pro- 
jects under way at the same time seemingly without 
loss of efficiency, and from 1916 to 1921 he engaged 
in cattle dealing on a large scale, using the home 
farm as headquarters. From 1898 to 1912 he acted 
as sales manager for the C. M. Shea Fertilizing 
Company, of Groton, Connecticut. Of a strongly 
scientific bent, the chemical properties of soils and 
the processes by which deficiencies for special crops 
might be overcome by the use of properly com- 
pounded fertilizers early appealed to him, and be- 
came a special field for study and experiment. Soil 
conditions are of such vital importance to success- 
ful farming in New England, where, in many sec- 
tions, thin and impoverished soils sap the energies 
of the farmer and yield him little or no return for 



his labor, that the enterprising mind of Mr. Brown 
saw in this line of endeavor an opportunity to 
serve his community and perhaps the entire New 
England section while at the same time conducting 
a profitable business for himself. In 1912, there- 
fore, he established a fertilizer business for himself 
in Lebanon. He had special fertilizers made to 
suit various soils and different crops which he sold 
under the trade name of Brown's Special Formulas. 
Prospective customers could state the crops they 
desired to raise, and have the fertilizer specially 
compounded to meet their needs. He was very suc- 
cessful in this work and was soon selling his spe- 
cial fertilizers all over New England, but in 1920 
he sold out to the Piedmont-Mount Airy Guano 
Company, of Baltimore, Maryland, and accepted the 
position of sales manager of the New England dis- 
trict for that company. In 1918 he had removed 
from Lebanon to Colchester, Connecticut, and be- 
came manager of the Meech-Brown Grain Company, 
formerly known as the Colchester Farm Products 
Company, Inc., which had gone into bankruptcy. 
As manager of the Meech-Brown Grain Company, 
Mr. Brown has exercised the same energy, ability, 
and skill which had already brought him success in 
his various lines of business, and has built up a 
large and increasingly prosperous concern, of which 
he is still (1922) manager. 

With all his various and successful business in- 
terests Mr. Brown has found time for public affairs, 
and has served his community faithfully and effi- 
ciently in various offices. He represented the Leb- 
anon district in the State Legislature, 1907-09, serv- 
ing on the Roads, Rivers and Bridges Committee, 
after having gained an earlier experience as door- 
keeper of the Senate in 1903-05. After the expira- 
tion of his term in the Legislature, he served, in 
1909, as assistant superintendent of the State Capi- 
tol, at Hartford. From 1916 to 1920 he was a mem- 
ber of the Board of Selectmen, of Lebanon, but hav- 
ing removed to Colchester in 1918, he resigned his 
place on the board in 1920. In Colchester, Mr. 
Brown and his family attend the Congregational 
church, while in Lebanon he was of material aid to 
the Exeter church, which during the critical years 
of its existence found in him a generous supporter. 
He is a member of Wooster Lodge, No. 10, Free 
and .^ccepted Masons, of Colchester, Connecticut; 
of Wooster Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star; and 
has been an active member of Colchester Grange, 
Patrons of Husbandry, for thirty years. Mr. 
Brown's life has been a most energetic and suc- 
cessful one. A man of large affairs and many inter- 
ests, he has handled each line in which he engaged 
with great skill and efficiency, winning success in 
each. In Colchester, as in Lebanon, he is known 
and respected as a public-spirited citizen, ably and 
willingly aiding in all projects undertaken for the 
good of his community. 

On October i, 1895, he married Grace Webster 
Hazen, born June 21, 1873, daughter of Marcus M. 
and Elizabeth (Webster) Hazen, and thev are the 

parents of four children, all born in Lebanon, 
Connecticut: Ruth Hazen, born September 21, 
1899; Harold Frederick, born February 22, 1901; 
Clarice Eva, born January 2, 1904; and Lloyd Web- 
ster, born December 8, 1904. 


Puritans came to New England, Gibbs was a com- 
mon name in England, William Gibbs of Lenham, in 
Yorkshire, being on record as having received from 
his King for signal service he had rendered, a tract 
four miles square lying in the center of the town. 
The younger sons of this William Gibbs came to 
New England and settled in Boston. One of these 
is believed to have been Matthew Gibbs who was 
living in Charlestown, Massachusetts, between the 
years 1650 and 1654. Thomas Gibbs who probably 
came from Kent, England, settled in Barnstable, 
Massachusetts. In New England the family in- 
creased, settling in every State of that section, and 
their descendants are now found in every part of 
the Union. The name graces the lists of eminent 
statcmen, professional men, business men, and those 
of high military and naval rank. This review deals 
with the career of Nathan Augustus Gibbs of the 
Barnstable (Massachusetts) branch, a banker of 
Norwich, Connecticut, son of Nathan Perry Gibbs, 
one of the famed masters of ships, who, in the years 
now unhappily gone, carried the American mer- 
chant marine flag and fame in honor in every sea 
and into every port. Captain Nathan Perry Gibbs 
was a descendant of Commodore Perry, and a love 
of the sea was inherent in the family. Captain 
Gibbs was born in Wareham, Massachusetts, in 
1830, and after a life of great activity died in 191 1. 
He married Hannah Swift Churbuck of Wareham, a 
descendant of Stephen Hopkins and Joseph Rogers 
of the "Mayflower," 1620, and she was the mother of 
four children, two of whom are living: Nathan Au- 
gustus, of further mention; and Edna Forest, wife 
of Charles F. Spooner, of New Bedford, Massachu- 

Mr. Gibbs was a young man of nineteen when he 
entered the banking field of business activity and he 
has never quitted it, but has gone from promotion 
to promotion until reaching his present position, 
that of cashier and director of the Thames National 
Bank, leading financial institution of the city of 
Norwich. His banking connection covers a period 
of forty-si.x years, and all but about five of these 
years have been spent with the Thames National 
Bank. He is a pleasing, effective speaker and a 
strong writer on financial subjects, the chapter on 
banks in the 1922 "History of New London County" 
being from his pen largely. 

Nathan A. Gibbs was born in East Wareham, 
Massachusetts, May 21, 1857. He is a graduate of 
Wareham High School and Comer's Commercial 
College of Boston, and at one period of his school 
life he attended Pierce Academy in Middleboro, 
Massachusetts, being a schoolmate of General Leon- 
ard Wood. On November 21, 1876, he entered the em- 




ploy of the Norwich Savings Society, Norwich, Con- 
necticut, an institution now approaching its centennial 
and there spent nearly five years as a clerk and book- 
keeper. On September l, 1881, he transferred his 
allegiance to tlie Thames National Bank of Nor- 
wich, and continued there in a clerical position and 
as assistant teller until 1892, when he was made 
teller. Ten years were spent at the teller's window, 
a period which expired on Octoebr i, 1902, when he 
was made assistant cashier, a position lie filled for 
si.xteen years. On November 30, 1918, he was ap- 
pointed cashier, a post of great responsibility in the 
Thames National, which he has most ably filled until 
the present (1922). Since August 15, 1914, he has 
been a member of the board of directors of the 
Thames National Bank and for thirty years he has 
been a member of the board of trustees of the Nor- 
wich Savings Society, the institution in which his 
banking life began in 1876. 

While Mr. Gibbs carries heavy responsibilities he 
has not given Iiimself slavishly to business but has 
developed the social side of his nature along with 
the business talent he possesses and is one of the 
most genial, companionable and approachable of 
men. The door to his private office stands open 
and no guardian of the portal demands a card or 
the nature of the caller's business. In the words 
of another successful business man he "wants to 
see everybody that wants to see him." His pleas- 
ing personality, his genial, friendly nature renders 
him personally very popular, and the friends these 
traits win him are retained by the force of his manly, 
upright character and his unswerving loyality to 
the interests committed to his care. 

During the war period 1917-18, Mr. Gibbs took an 
active part in the different campaigns and "drives," 
serving as secretary in two, and as chairman of the 
committee in charge of the Victory Loan Cam- 
paign. He was for a time a member of the Norwich 
Board of Education; a former vice-president of 
Norwich Chamber of Commerce, of which he is a 
present director; an organizer and has been treas- 
urer and a director of the Young Men's Christian 
Association; is a Republican in politics; was for 
twenty-five years treasurer of the Second Congrega- 
tional Sunday School, and from 1892 until 1919 was 
treasurer of the Second Congregational Church and 
Society; now custodian of the United Congrega- 
tional Church, Incorporated, since the last two 
named organizations were merged with it; president 
of the United Congregational Church Brotherhood. 
His fraternal affiliations are with the different Nor- 
wich bodies of the York and Scottish Rites of Free- 
masonry, he being a past master of St. James Lodge, 
has held offices in chapter, council and coinman- 
dery, is a thirty-second degree Mason of the Ancient 
Accepted Scottish Rite, and is now serving the Ma- 
sonic Temple Corporation of Norwich as member 
and trustee. He was a regent of the Royal Ar- 
canum and has been president, vice-president and 
treasurer of the Arcanum Club. He was one of the 
organizers of the Chelsea Boat Club and has long 

been officially connected with that organization. 

For ten years he has been active in Boy Scout 
work, and his appointment as a member of the Na- 
tional Council of the Boy Scouts of America was 
the first and, as yet, the only one made to that body 
from Norwich. 

Nathan A. Gibbs married, at Norwich, June I, 
1881, Emily Reynolds King, who passed away Feb- 
ruary 18, 1922, daughter of Charles Jackson and 
Charlotte (Ransom) King, the former having been 
a manufacturer and a grain merchant of Norwich, 
Connecticut. To Mr. and Mrs. Gibbs were born 
three children: l. Natalie King Gibbs, born May 
18, 1882, resides with her father in Norwich. 2. 
Nathan Jackson Gibbs, born December 26, 1883, was 
accidcntly killed at Tompkins Cove, Rockland 
county. New York, on December 27, 191 1. He was a 
graduate of Norwich Free Academy, a student at 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was for 
four years connected with the building of the Pa- 
nama Canal, being one of the youngest superinten- 
dents in the canal zone. He married, in July, 1911, 
Emma Grace Wright, of Auburn, New York. 3. 
Mary Riidd Gibbs, born May 10, 1892, married, June 
9, 1917, Carlton P. Browning, now general manager 
of the Howe Sound Copper Company, Brittania 
Bay, British Columbia, Canada. Mr. and Mrs. 
Browning are the parents of a daughter, Emily King 
Browning, born May 21, 1918. 


.\mong the professional men of New London 
county. Dr. Brooks, of New London, is widely 
known. With a handsome suite of offices in the 
Plant building he is counted as a leader in the den- 
tal profession, and is making his way to large suc- 
cess. A native of Middlesex county, but reared in 
New London county. Dr. Brooks is descended from 
early Connecticut ancestors, on both paternal and 
maternal sides. He is a son of George O. and Mary 
Eleanor (Beebe) Brooks. His father, who was born 
November 11, 1848, was for many years a carpenter 
and builder. For a time he worked as a stone- 
cutter, and was very successful, but with the organ- 
ization of the Stone-cutter's Union, he withdrew 
from this field, holding conscientious scruples 
against labor organizations. He is now (1922) liv- 
ing in Niantic, in this county. The mother was 
born November 13, i860, and died August 15, 1914. 
Dr. Brooks was born in Higganum, Connecticut, 
June 8, 1882. His early education was received in 
the public and high schools of Niantic, and having 
chosen his field of professional effort, he entered 
the Pliiladclphia Dental College, from which insti- 
tution he was graduated in the class of 1907. Be- 
fore the close of the same year Dr. Brooks began 
his professional career in New London as an assis- 
tant to Dr. Crosby, then a leading dentist of this 
city, with whom he continued for about three years, 
at the old offices in the Lyric Hall building, and in 
1911 bought out his veteran associate. He has 
been very successful since practicing independently. 


and in 1918 secured his present fine location in the 
Plant building. In fraternal and social circles Dr. 
Brooks is prominent. He was president of the Xi 
Psi Phi dental fraternity in the year of his gradua- 
tion froui the Philadelphia Dental College. He is 
a well known Mason, being past master of Bay View 
Lodge, No. 120, Free and Accepted Masons; past 
high priest of Union Chapter, No. 7, Royal Arch 
Masons; past thrice illustrious master of Cushing 
Council, No. 4, Royal and Select Masters; junior 
warden of Palestine Commandery, No. 6, Knights 
Templar, and Connecticut Consistory, Ancient Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite, having attained the thirty- 
second degree. He is a member of the Masonic 
Club of New London, and the Harbor Club, of 
which he is past president. Politically he supports 
the Republican party, although he has not, thus 
far, become interested in the political game. Bene- 
volent and welfare work holds a strong appeal for 
Dr. Brooks, and he has for years been active as a 
director of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
now serving as chairman of the physical department 
committee. He is a member of the Baptist church, 
with which denomination his parents also are af- 
filiated, in Niantic, and his wife is a member of the 
Congregational church. His chief recreative inter- 
ests are tennis and fishing, and he takes a fishing 
trip every fall. 

Dr. Brooks married, in Niantic, November 28, 
igii, Ethel L. Rogers, born December 28, 1887, 
daughter of Raymond Edward and Sarah (Collins) 
Rogers, both Mrs. Brooks' parents now being de- 

ent incumbent of the office of town clerk and treas- 
urer of Norwich, Connecticut, to which he was 
elected in 1900, and in which he is still serving in 
1922, is Charles S. Holbrook, a man of enterprise 
and public spirit, exemplifying in his career the 
characteristics of his ancestors, traits that go to 
the making of good citizens, they having been 
among the pioneers to whom we are indebted for 
so much of the comforts and pleasures of the pres- 
ent day. 

The naine Holbrook is both ancient and distin- 
guished. As early as the reign of Richard H one of 
the name was advanced to the order of knighthood 
and a coat-of-arms granted him. In books of her- 
aldry tliere are many coats-of-arms under the name. 
The pioneer ancestor of the line here under consid- 
eration was Thomas Holbrook, supposedly a native 
of England, from whence it is supposed he came to 
New England with the colony of settlers from Wey- 
mouth, Dorsetshire, in 1624. He was a resident of 
Weymouth, Massachusetts, in 1640, and his death 
occurred in 1674-76. His wife, Joanna Holbrook, 
bore him four children, the second of whom was 
Thomas, Jr., the next in line of succession. Thomas 
Holbrook, Jr., was a resident of Scituate, Wey- 
mouth and Braintree, Massachusetts, a man of stand- 
ing in those communities, who died in 1697. His 

wife Joanna Holbrook, bore him seven children, the 
fourth, Peter Holbrook, born 6th of 7th month, 
1655. was a man of wealth and importance, leaving 
to his sons land which subsequently was included in 
Bellinghani, Massuchusetts. He was married twice 
and was the father of ten children, among whom 
was Joseph Holbrook, born May 8, 1683, died in 
Bcllingham, April 25, 1750. He married Mary Cook 
and they were the parents of seven children. The 
oldest son, Joseph Holbrook, Jr., was born Nov- 
ember 24, 1714, died July 14, 1784. His wife, Grace 
Holbrook, bore him seven children, among whom 
was Seth Holbrook, born November 24, 1751, died 
November 13, 1839. He was a Revolutionary soldier, 
and later was a United States pensioner. He was 
a resident of Bellingham. He married Dinah Hol- 
brook, and they were the parents of ten children. 
The sixth was Sabin Holbrook, born October 19, 
1786, resided in Dorchester and Bellingham, and 
died in 1833. His wife, Mary Holbrook, bore him 
five children, among whom was Supply Twyng Hol- 
brook, of whom further, father of Charles S. Hol- 
brook, of this review. 

Supply Twyng Holbrook was born September 7, 
1822, in Ro.xbury, Massachusetts. He received a 
practical education in the schools in the neighbor- 
hood of his home, and also took a course of study 
in music, for which he possessed an unusual talent. 
In early manhood he became a resident of Hartford, 
Connecticut, from whence he removed to New Lon- 
don, same State, and about the year 1844 located at 
Norwich, Connecticut, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his days. In the latter named city he 
accepted the position of organist of the Second 
Congregational Church, in which capacity he served 
satisfactorily for many years, having previously 
taught vocal music, one of his students having been 
the late Charles W. Carter, of Norwich. His taste 
and inclination being along the line of law, he be- 
came a student in the oiTice of Hon. Jeremiah Hal- 
sey, of Norwich, and in due course of time, in 1856, 
was admitted to the bar of New London county, 
and in that same year was elected judge of probate, 
to which he was re-elected for twelve consecutive 
years. In 1879 he was again called to the same re- 
sponsible office, and held the same by re-election 
until 1892, when he reached the age limit, seventy 
years. While serving as probate judge he was sev- 
eral times elected president of the Connecticut Pro- 
bate Assembly. He was elected a member of the 
State Legislature in 1873 and again in 1876 and dur- 
ing both terms "took an active and prominent part in 
the business of the House. He was a member of the 
Second Congregational Church of Norwich. Judge 
Holbrook married (first) Sarah Shepard, of Nor- 
wich, and (second) Carrie Stark. His children 
were: Charles Shepard, of whom further; Frank 
W., Mrs. E. G. Tewksbury, Mrs. Rooert A. France, 
and Mrs. B. P. Sands. 

Charles Shepard Holbrook was born in the city 
of Norwich, Connecticut, October 28, 1856. He was 
a student in the public schools of Norwich and the 



Norwich Free Academy, acquiring a practical edu- 
cation which prepared him for his subsequent ca- 
reer. Deciding upon a mercantile career as his 
chosen life work, he became an employee of the 
firm of Lee & Osgood, druggists, of Norwich, with 
whom he learned the business thoroughly and with 
whom he spent a quarter of a century as a druggist, 
a commendable record and well worthy of emula- 
tion by the youth of this country. He was the 
choice of his fellow-citizens for the office of town 
clerk and treasurer, elected in 1900, and is still serv- 
ing after a period of twenty years, this fact amply 
testifying to his fitness for the positions and to the 
interest and zeal he has displayed in the discharge 
of his duties. He is progressive in his ideas, adopt- 
ing new measures when necessary, and is considered 
the right man in the right place. He attends the 
Congregational church, gives his allegiance to the 
Republican candidates, and holds membership in the 
Arcanum Club of Norwich. 

Mr. Holbrook married, in Norwich, June 15, 1892, 
Ella P. Plummer, daughter of Frank J. and Jo- 
sephine (Wyman) Plummer, of Norwich. They 
are the parents of one child, Josephine A., born 
May 9, 1902. 


Charles Foster Wells, one of the foremost execu- 
tives in the manufacturing world of Norwich, 
Connecticut, is a history of upward progress from 
the rank and file, each step placed on the solid 
foundation of worthy effort and hard-won achieve- 
ment. Descended from men who have borne a 
constructive part in the establishment and preserva- 
tion of the nation, Mr. Wells is giving of his time 
and energy to the welfare of the city as a civic 

Mr. Wells traces back to the Ashley family, of 
early Colonial times, when one, Samuel Ashley, 
married Sarah Kellogg. Daniel Ashley, their son, 
married Thankful Hawks. Samuel Ashley, the next 
in line, married Eunice Doolittlc. Susan Ashley, 
their daughter, married Porter Lummis. Their 
daughter. Alma Lummis, married Seth Hart. Back 
two generations from this point is found the mar- 
riage of Thomas Putnam and Rachael Wetherbee, 
linking this family with these other famous Colonial 
names. Susanna Putnam, daughter of Thomas and 
Rachael (Wetherbee) ) Putnam, married Josiah 
Hart. Their son, Seth Hart, married Alma Lummis, 
daughter of Porter and Susan (Ashley) Lummis. 
Sarah ^fcCready, daughter of Seth and Alma (Lum- 
mis) Hart, married Foster P. Wells. 

Charles Ashley Wells, father of Charles Foster 
Wells, was a son of Foster P. and Sarah McCready 
(Hart) Wells. He was born in Springville, Penn- 
sylvania, December 7, 1841. The outbreak of the 
Civil War found him a youth, not yet twenty years 
of age, but fired with the patriotic fevor which was 
his heritage from the generations of empire builders 
whose blood flowed in his veins. He enlisted in 
Company C, 27 Regiment, New York Volunteers, 

was commissioned second lieutenant, and rose 
steadily in rank, being promoted to first lieutenant, 
then to captain, both before his twentieth birthday. 
He was thereafter promoted to brevet major, then 
to major, and finally, at the close of the war, held 
the rank of lieutenant colonel of the First New 
York Veteran Cavalry. He saw service in many en- 
gagements. He was in the First Battle of Bull Run, 
in the battles of West Poin'c, Gaines Mil), Savage 
Station, Charles City Cross Road, White Oak 
Swamp, Malvern Hill, the Second Battle of Freder- 
icksburg, and the battles of Newmarket, Piedmont, 
and Monocacy Junction. After the close of the Civil 
War, Charles Ashley Wells was for many years con- 
nected with the real estate business, being a mem- 
ber of the firm of Phillips & Wells, with offices in 
the Tribune building. New York City. He was made 
inspector of customs for the port of New York 
City, on recommendation of James G. Blaine. He 
was a member of the Loyal Legion, and was a mem- 
ber of Abraham Lincoln Post, No. 13, Grand Army 
of the Republic, of which post he was commander 
for many years. This was the leading Grand Army 
Post of New York City. 

Charles Ashley Wells married Angclinc Fuller- 
ton, daughter of Judge Daniel Fullerton, and niece 
of Judge William Fullerton and Judge Stephen W. 
Fullerton, of New York City, now deceased, both 
the latter famous as the defenders of Henry Ward 
Beechtr in his trial with Theodore Tilton. 

Charles Foster Wells, son of Charles Ashley and 
Angclinc (Fullerton) Wells, was born in St. Louis, 
Missouri, May 9, 1867. He received his education 
in the public schools of Middlctown, New York,, 
where the family resided in his boyhood. So far as 
formal education is concerned this was the extent 
of his opportunities, but while yet a boy he realized 
the value of knowledge and lost no opportunity to 
store his mind with useful information, from what- 
ever source, or in whatever form it was available. 
Leaving school at the early age of eleven years, 
he entered the business world in the employ of the 
First National Bank, of Middlctown, New York. 
His duties in this connection included the sweeping 
and cleaning of the bank before the opening hour 
and the care of the stove. From nine o'clock 
until four he sorted bills and silver. For two years 
he fulfilled these responsibilities with the precision 
and thoroughness characteristic of all the business 
activities of the man in his later career. His next 
connection was with the North River Bank, of New 
York City, where he became clearing house clerk 
at the age of fifteen years. Leaving this institution 
at the age of sixteen years, he spent one year in as- 
sociation with his father in the firm of Phillips & 
Wells, in New York. But the real estate business did 
not appeal to the young man as a field of permanent 
effort, and he made other plans for the future. /Xt 
seventeen years of age he went to Florida, remain- 
ing for four years. Upon his return North he be- 
came connected with the Brooklyn Union Elevated 
Railroad which was subsequently taken over by the 


Brooklyn Rapid Transit Railroad Company. When 
this consolidation was effected, Mr. Wells remained 
with the new company until October, 1906. He 
was successively clerk in both auditor's and comp- 
troller's departments, with both companies. With 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company he became 
chief clerk to the superintendent of elevated trans- 
portation, later chief of time-keeping department, 
and when severing his connection with the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company had for some years 
been auditor of receipts. 

In October, 1906, Mr. Wells formed the associa- 
tion in which he is today prominent. He became a 
part of the ofTice force of the United Metal Manu- 
facturing Company, Incorporated, first as cost clerk, 
and now as general manager of the concern. Mr. 
Wells is a stockholder in the company, and holds 
the office of treasurer. Since the removal of the 
factory to Norwich, in 1914, the output has been in- 
creased, and the factory is now one of the leading 
manufacturing interests of the day in Norwich, and 
a force for progress in New London county. 

Mr. Wells has not been permitted to occupy his 
present prominent position, without being sought 
for the public service of the city of Norwich. He 
served as alderman from June, 1919, to June, 1920. 
He was elected president of the Norwich Chamber 
of Commerce in January, 1920, and was one of the 
active forces which brought about its increased eflfi- 
cicncy through the reorganization which was ac- 
complished on Oc'tober I, 1920. At that time he was 
le-elected president, and also director, of the Nor- 
wich Chamber of Commerce, Incorporated. 

Politically Mr. Wells is a supporter of the Repub- 
lican party, and his religious convictions place his 
membership with the Episcopal church. He is 
prominent fraternally, being a member of Somerset 
Lodge, No. 34, Free and Accepted Masons, of Nor- 
wich, raised, December 8, 1920; exalted in Franklin 
Chapter, No. 4, Royal Arch Masons, March 10, 
1921; greeted in Franklin Council, No. 3, Royal and 
Select Masters, March 30, 1921; knighted in Colum- 
bian Commandcry, No. 4, Knight Templars, April 22, 
1921; made a Noble of Sphinx Temple, Ancient 
Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, June 4, 1921. He is also a mem- 
ber of Norwich Lodge, No. 430, Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks, a member of Lafayette 
Camp, Sons of Veterans, of New York City, and a 
member of the Arcanum Club, and the Rotary Club, 
both of Norwich. 

FRANK H. PULLEN— In journalistic circles in 
Norwich, Frank H. Pullcn is a prominent figure as 
editor and owner of the evening daily of this city, 
the "Norwich Evening Record." Mr. Pullen has 
been a resident of Norwich nearly thirty-four years, 
and during this entire period has been active in the 
printing and publishing business. A son of Weston 
and Mary E. (Barnes) Pullen, Frank H. Pullen was 
born in Lowell, Massachusetts, October 4, 1858. 
His education was received in the public and high 

schools of his native city, and as a young man he 
entered the employe of the "Lowell Courier," with 
which paper he remained for about fifteen years, 
during a number of those years being active as man- 
ager of the business department. Coming to Nor- 
wich in 1888, Mr. Pullen, in association with a part- 
ner, bought out the old weekly newspaper known 
as "Cooley's Weekly," and the printing plant con- 
nected there with, which also h.=>ndled a job printing 
business. Under the firm name of Cleworth & 
Pullen this concern progressed for over seventeen 
years, or until the death of Mr. Cleworth in 1906, 
since which time Mr. Pullen has controlled the busi- 
ness, operating under the name of the Pullen Pub- 
lishing Company. Meanwhile, in 1890, the firm 
bought the "Evening Record," which Mr. Pullen 
still publishes. Mr. Pullen has long been actively 
identified with various phases of progress in Nor- 
wich. A member of the Chamber of Commerce, he 
is also a director of the Dime Savmgs Bank. He 
is a member of the Rotary Club, his religious affilia- 
tion is with the Park Congregational Church. 

Mr. Pullen married, in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 
1885, Annie L. Carpenter, of that city, daughter of 
Benedict O. Carpenter, and of their six cliildren, 
five are living, as follows: Elizabeth F.; Weston C; 
Benedict C; Marion L., wife of Clifford M. Story, 
of Hackensack, New Jersey; and Esther, wife of C. 
Werter Van Deusen, of Hudson, New York. Both 
of Mr. Pullen's sons are residents of Norwich and in- 
terested in the business life of the city. 


very old families of New England, few, if any, have 
so many branches, as has the Barnes family, promi- 
nent in the beginnings of various sections of the 
country, but especially in New England, and repre- 
senting among its various members every profession 
and trade. 

The branch of the family to which Everett Palmer 
Barnes belongs was already settled in Ledyard, 
Connecticut, in 1730, for in that year and in that 
place Ezra Barnes, great-grandfather of Everett 
Palmer Barnes, was born. He farmed at Ledyard 
all his life. He married Eunice Morgan, born at 
Ledyard, 1737, and died October, 1815. They be- 
came the parents of sixteen children, all born in 
Ledyard: Ezra, Asa, Eunice, Lucy, Nathan and 
Amos (twins). Prudence, Desire, Jedediah, Phoebe, 
Erastus, Hannah, Sally, Avery, and two who died 
in infancy. 

(II) Avery Barnes, youngest son of Ezra and 
Eunice (Morgan) Barnes, was born March 17, 1782, 
in Ledyard. He married Abigail Cooke, December 
27, 1804, and they had eleven children, all of whom 
lived to a very old age. Avery Barnes died Febru- 
ary 5, 1875, and Abigail Barnes, his wife, died De- 
cember 21, 1876. Avery Barnes was reared in Led- 
yard, but soon after his marriage, in 1804, he came 
to Preston, where he purchased from Nathan Cooke 
the ne.xt farm west of the present Everett P. Barnes 
place, in the northern part of Preston. Here he 



farmed until his death, and here all his children were 
born. They were: Nabby, Eunice, Avery VV., Sally, 
Amy, Lucy, Elmina, Prudence, Ruth Ann, Almeda, 
and Clicstcr Morgan. 

(III) Chester Morgan Barnes, son of Avery and 
Abigail (Cooke) Barnes, was born June 6, 1826. He 
was reared and educated in I'reston, and assisted his 
father on the farm until his marriage, August 6, 
1854, to Lucretia Lucinda Palmer, daughter of Tim- 
othy and Betsy (Herskell) Palmer, of Preston. He 
then bought the present E. P. Barnes farm, a tract 
of one hundred acres, adjoining his father's farm, 
then a part of the Nathan Cooke property. He de- 
molished the old buildings on the place and built 
the substantial modern farm housings which arc a 
part of the necessary equipment of the scientific 
agricultural plant. He farmed here throughout his 
life, and here he died, ."Xpril 24, iyi8. His wife, Lu- 
cretia L. Barnes, died here September 6, 1918. They 
were the parents of one child, Everett Palmer. 

(IV) Everett Palmer Barnes, son of Chester 
Morgan and Lucretia Lucinda (Palmer) Barnes, 
was born on the old homestead in Preston, Connec- 
ticut, March 2, 1852. He attended the local district 
schools of Preston and the Preston City Select 
School, after which he entered Woodstock Academy, 
completing his preparation in the Putnam High 
School, at Putnam, Connecticut. At the age of nine- 
teen, he began teaching, first at the Broad Brook 
School, in Preston, then at the Herskell School, in 
the same town, for two years, the former being the 
district school of the Long Society, or First School 
district, of Preston. He then taught school at Glas- 
gow in Griswold, after which he taught for three 
winters in the Evening School of Norwich, Connec- 
ticut. For twenty years he continued teaching, al- 
ways living on the home farm, working with his fa- 
ther during the summers, and assisting him between 
school hours. In 1897 he gave up the profession of 
teaching and devoted all his time to the home farm, 
relieving his father of the heavy work which was get- 
ting to be too much for his advancing years. Here 
he has remained and has become a most excellent 
farmer. In all the region round about there is not 
a farm kept in better condition than that of the ex- 
schoolman. In 1913 his father deeded the farm to 
him. He does general farming and dairying, and is 
an active, enthusiastic member of the Grange, hav- 
ing taken all the chairs in the local organization at 
Preston. By his pen as well as by personal partici- 
pation in its activities he has advanced the interest 
of both the local and the general organizations, and 
in him Preston City Grange, No. no, has an effec- 
tive, forceful member. A prolific writer on many 
subjects, he has taken special interest in the activi- 
ties of the Grange and in its history, making his pen 
serve both the organization of which he writes and 
those interests which the Grange represents and pro- 
motes, regardless of membership. He has been 
prominent in the life of the town, serving as select- 
man, as a member of the Board of Relief, and at the 
present time (1921) is serving in the capacity of 

heahli officer and fire warden. Politically he sup- 
ports the Republican party. He is an attendant of 
the Congregational church; is a member of Preston 
City Grange, No. no, of which he is a past master; 
of Pomona Lodge, New London county. Patrons of 
Husbandry, also past master; of the Connecticut 
State Grange; and of the National Grange. His 
wile, his son, and his son's wife are also members of 
all the above organizations. Mr. Barnes is also 
president of The Barnes l-amily .\ssociation, having 
served in that capacity I9n-I2, 1915-17, and 1919-22. 
A successful farmer, he not only has the love and 
respect of his community but has been of great 
service to the civic life of Preston. 

Everett Palmer Barnes married (first), at Preston, 
September i, 1880, Mary Barnes Zabriskie, daughter 
of Thomas and Mariah Louise (Cleveland) Za- 
briskie, who w-as born in New York City, December 
15, i860, and died November 19, 1887. Of this mar- 
riage was born one child, Erva Lyon, born May 12, 
1883. Mr. Barnes married (second), at Preston, Au- 
gust 2, 1892, Susie Belle Hyde, daughter of George 
M. and Ella (Wright) Hyde, who was born in Pres- 
ton, Connecticut, March 24, 1870. To this marriage 
also one child was born, Zylpha Eurctta, born at 
Preston, July 26, 1903. She is a graduate of the New 
London V'ocational Technical High School, at New 
London, Connecticut. 

(V) Erva Lyon Barnes, son of Everett P. and 
Mary Barnes (Zabriskic) Barnes, attended the 
Connecticut State Agricultural College for three 
years, and is now associated with his father in farm- 
ing the home place. He married, October 14, 1909, 
Evangeline Stedman, of North Stonington, Connecti- 
cut, and they have two children: Donald Lyon, 
born at White Rock, Rhode Island, December 8, 
1911; and Douglas Stedman, born August 3, 1915. 


twenty years of active and successful practice in his 
native city of Norwich have so firmly intrenched Dr. 
Harper in the confidence, respect and affection of his 
fellow-citizens as to render any further words of in- 
troduction more than superfluous. Dr. Harper has 
been active in the political life of his community, 
having filled with credit more than one local office 
of trust and responsibility. 

Richard Harper, father of Francis Joseph Harper, 
was born in Ireland, and as a young man came to the 
United States, settling in Greenville, Coinnecticut, 
on Greenville road. He soon found employment in 
the bleachery there and learned the trade of dyer 
and bleacher, which he followed until he was about 
forty years old. He was a Democrat and a member 
of the Roman Catholic church. Mr. Harper married 
Mary .'\nnc Williams, who, like himself, was a na- 
tive of Ireland, and their children were: Francis Jo- 
seph, mentioned below; Katherine, deceased; Sophia, 
deceased; Isabelle also deceased; and Mary Anne, 
married James H. Hankins, of Lakewood. New Jer- 
sey, and now lives in Norwich, whfc she and her 
brothers and sisters were born. Mr. Harper, while 



at his work in the blcachery, me't with an accident, 
from the elTects of which he died two days later. 
His wife passed away in Norwich about 1893. 

Francis J. Harper, son of Richard and Mary Anne 
(Williams) Harper, was born in Norwich, and re- 
ceived his preparatory education in the public schools 
of his native city, afterward spending one year at 
the Vermont University, and two years in the Medi- 
cal Department of the University of Georgia. He 
graduated from the latter in 1899, and supplemented 
this with a si.x months' course in the New York Post 
Graduate Medical School, University of the State of 
New York. In 1899 Dr. Harper began practicing as 
a physician and surgeon in Savannah, Georgia, but 
at the end of a year returned to his native city of 
Norwich, where he opened an office and where he 
has ever since been continuously engaged in the 
practice of his chosen profession, building up, at the 
same time, a lucrative connection and an enviable 
reputation. The assured professional position now 
held by Dr. Harper is entirely of his own making and 
rests on the sure foundation of innate ability, thor- 
ough and comprehensive equipment, and unswerving 
fidelity to every duty. 

The political allegiance of Dr. Harper is given 
to the principles upheld by the Democratic party, 
and for eight years he served as a member of the 
Norwich Water Board. For the last eighteen years 
he has held office as one of the three town physi- 
cians of the city. He affiliates with Norwich Lodge, 
No. 430, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 
of Norwich; Norwich Lodge, No. 950, Loyal Order 
of Moose; and the Ancient Order of Hiberians, of 
Norwich, Division 2. He is a member of St. Pa- 
trick's Roman Catholic Church. 

Dr. Harper married, in New London. Connecticut, 
November 25, 1903, Matilda F. Gustafson, born in 
Sweden, daughter of Gustaf and Charlotte (Sols- 
berg) Gus'tafson, natives of that country. Mr. Gus- 
tafson died in Sweden, and his widow, who came to 
the United States, passed away in New London. Dr. 
and Mrs. Harper have been the parents of one child, 
Francis Gustaf, born in Norwich, October 25, 19OS, 
died tliere December 17, 1914. 

New England's family trees, the roots of that of 
Gforrrp G'Tinville Grant run far back into the earliest 
history of the country. On the paternal side he is 
a uL'Suendant of Matthew Gran't, one of the original 
company who came, in 1630, to Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, in the "Mary and Jolm," with Maverick 
and Warham, and later was a prominent member of 
the company which settled Windsor, Connecticut. 
Matthew Grant married (first) Priscilla, whom he 
wedded November 16, 1621; and (second) Susanna 
(Chapin) Rockwell, May 29, 1645. The children, all 
born of the first marriage, were: Priscilla, Matthew, 
Tahan, and John, the first two being born in Eng- 
land, the next two at Dorchester, and the last at 
Windsor. Matthew Grant was the first town clerk 
of Windsor, which office he held for years. He was 

also town surveyor, and took a prominent part in 
the organization and transplanting of the Congre- 
gational church formed in Plymouth, England, and 
later removed to Dorchester, Massachusetts. 

Charles Henry Grant, grandfather of George 
Granville Grant, was born about 1814, in Stonington, 
Connecticut. As a young man he clerked in a coun- 
try store in Preston, and later went to Brooklyn, 
Connecticut, where he purchased a general store and 
carried on the business until his death in 1849. He 
married Elizabeth A. Prentice, daughter of Hezekiah 
and Elizabeth (Leonard) Prentice, and they became 
the parents of two children, Jane H., and Charles 
William, of whom further. 

Charles Vv'illiam Grant, father of George Gran- 
ville Grant, was one of the successful self-made men 
of his section. Born in Brooklyn, Connecticut, April 
12, 1845, his father died when he was a child of four 
and he was placed in the family of his maternal 
grandfather, Hezekiah Prentice, in Griswold, where 
he remained until he was fourteen years of age. He 
worked on the farm and attended the district school 
until he was sixteen, when he went to Norwich and 
entered the employ of William H. Bushnell, farmer 
and teamster, working for $6.50 a month for the 
first year and for $7.50 a month during the second 
year. He then entered the employ of Edward Hun- 
ter, a farmer living near what is now Taftville, re- 
maining three and a half years, after which he be- 
gan teaming on shares. The ne.xt year he bought a 
team of his own and did the first teaming done in 
the construction of the Taftville mills. Until March, 
1885, he continued at teaming and farming, then 
went into the livery business at Versailles until 
1889, when he closed out the Versailles establishment 
and bought the livery business at Taftville, then 
owned by Andrew Holdredge. This he conducted 
until April, 1902, when he disposed of it to his son, 
George Granville Grant, and engaged in general 
farming and teaming, living on his farm near Taft- 
ville, purchased by him in 1897 from the heirs of his 
father-in-law. He married, November 4, 1869, 
Isadora M. Staples, daughter of Elias W. and Abby 
(Standish) Staples, of Norwich, Connecticut, a direct 
descendant of Miles Standish, and four children were 
born of the marriage: George G., of whom further; 
Abbey S., wife of John Sharpies, a machinist of 
Taftville, they the parents of two children, War- 
ren and Clayton Douglas; Walter S., engaged in 
teaming in Taftville, married Ida May Wellerand, 
and has two children, Sarah Isadora and Charles 
Walter; and Bessie M. Charles William Grant died 
May 27, 1916. 

George Granville Grant was born in Norwich, 
Connecticut, January 5, 1871. He attended the 
schools of the district and then went to Snell's Busi- 
ness College at Norwich. He worked with his father 
until April I, 1902, gaining a thorough knowledge 
of the details of farming, teaming, and the livery 
business. The Taftville livery business and a por- 
tion of the teaming business he bought from his fa- 
ther, April I, 1902, and successfully continued the 







business until 1919, when he disposed of it. Mr. 
Grant conducts an undertaking establishment, hav- 
ing prepared himself for this work by attending the 
Massachusetts Embalming School at Boston, Mass- 
achusetts, under the direction of Professors Sullivan 
and Dodge, and then serving for a number of years 
in the establishment of H. B. Knowles, of Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island. That his tact and courtesy 
enable him to meet the requirements of this last 
business is evidenced by the fact that his clientele 
includes the best families of Taftville and vicinity. 
In addition to all these activities, the versatile tal- 
ents and the energy of Mr. Grant find expression in 
still another direction. He is the owner of a large 
farm of one hundred and thirty acres, in Montville, 
Connecticut, where he carries on general farming 
and dairying. He has made the farm thoroughly 
modern in all respects and has one of the best herds 
of thoroughbred Ayrshire, registered cattle in the 
State. Mr. Grant votes independently. Fraternally, 
he is a member of Taft Lodge, No. 25, Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, of which he was trustee 
for several years, and a charter member of Court 
Wequonoc, No. 88, Fores'ters of America. 

Mr. Grant married, July 23, 1895, May C. Gilbran- 
son, daughter of Frederick and Frances M. (Corliss) 
Gilbranson. One child was born of the marriage, 
Ruth May, who married Thomas Perkins Sears, of 
Norwich, Connecticut. Mr. Scars is aasociated with 
his father-in-law in business, the two families making 
their homes together. Thomas Perkins Sears, Jr., 
was born May 22, 1921. 


New England's old family names tliat of Colver 
ranks as one of the oldest. Amos Colver, the great- 
grandfather of Courtland Everett Colver, was born 
August 7, 1753. He was a soldier in the Revolution- 
ary War in 1779, enlisting from Groton, Connecticut. 
He married Esther Colver, and the two became the 
parents of six children, among whom was Moses 
Jones Colver, of whom further. 

Moses Jones Colver, son of .\mos and Esther 
Colver, was born December 25, 1783. He lived to 
be eighty years of age, residing in District No. 2, 
near the navy yard. He married Sarah Buddington, 
and reared a family of eleven children, among them 
Coddington and Jonathan Colver, of whom further. 
He and his wife were buried in the Starr burial place 
at Groton. 

Coddington Colver, son of Moses Jones and Sarah 
(Buddington) Colver, was born in District No. 2, 
Groton, Connecticut, and died at the age of sixty- 
four j'ears, at Center Groton, to which place he had 
gone in 1845. He worked at farming, also at the 
wood and timber business, and was actively inter- 
ested in the life of his community. He was promi- 
nent in business and church affairs, was road over- 
seer for some time, and, while living in Old Mystic, 
was a deacon in the Baptist church. He married 
Esther Buddington, daughter of Jonathan Budding- 
ton, and their children were eight, among them 

Moses Jones (2) Colver, of whom further mention. 

Moses Jones (2) Colver, son of Coddington and 
Esther (Buddington) Colver, was born in New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, and came to Center Groton when 
he was five years old, there attending school until he 
was fifteen years of age. He then went to sea, ship- 
ping on the coast vessel "Sylph," of New London, 
and later on the "Noank," a halibut fishing vessel en- 
gaged in business off Georges Bank. During the 
Civil War, he was on the "Elizabeth D. Hart," en- 
gaged in carrying supplies, and was later quarter- 
master on the transport "Cassandra." He was en- 
gaged on several vessels at different times, and while 
on 'the "Liberty," met with an accident which nearly 
cost him his life. On January 22, i860, he married 
Ursula B. Chapman, daughter of Solomon and Eliza 
(Hazen) Chapman. Moses Jones (2) Colver is a 
cousin of Courtland Everett Colver. 

Jonathan Colver, another son of Moses Jones (i) 
Colver and his wife, Sarah (Buddington) Colver, 
was born in Leyden, Massachusetts, in 1820. He at- 
tended school in Groton, and then tor twenty-eight 
years engaged in deep sea and whale fishing, sailing 
from New London, Mystic, and New Bedford, 
Connecticut, and whaling in the Southern Pacific 
Ocean, Okhotsk Sea, and the Arctic Ocean. For 
many years he had command of a coasting vessel on 
the Pacific, and in the course of his sea-faring life, 
made the difficult passage around Cape Horn 
five times. He married Sarah A. Chapman, daughter 
of Courtland Chapman, of Ledyard, Connecticut. 
During the latter years of his life, he worked at 
fanning, near the navy yard, in Groton. He was an 
active Republican, and a member of the school board 
in Groton. He and his wife became the parents of 
three children: Carlton and Kate B., twins, born 
in 1863, both deceased, Carlton having died at 
the age of fourteen months, and Kate B. died Feb- 
ruary 28, 1921; and Courtland E., of whom further. 

Courtland E. Colver, son of Jonathan and Sarah 
A. (Chapman) Colver, was born September 8, 1875. 
He attended the Groton schools and then went to 
tlie New London Business College, from which he 
graduated in 1S93. He then studied electrical engi- 
neering, and on June i, 1902, was appointed superin- 
tendent of the Groton Water and Electric Company, 
which position he filled with efficiency. But having 
once achieved success, Mr. Colver does not rest 
upon his laurels. He goes deeply and thoroughly 
into whatever enterprise he undertakes and is 
constantly adding to his efficiency. In 1903 he 
received the degree of Master of the Science of Ac- 
counts from the New London Business College. On 
.'\pril I, 1906, he became superintendent and manager 
of the Perry Ice Company, of New London, and at 
the present writing is manager and treasurer of the 

Politically, Mr. Colver is a Republican. He is a 
member of Union Lodge, No. 31, Free and .\cccpted 
Masons, of New London. He also is an active and 
valued member of the Methodist church at Gales 
Ferry, Ledyard Connecticut, of which he is a trustee 



and in which he has served as Sunday school super- 
intendent for nearly twenty-two years. Groton Con- 
clave, No. 382, Improved Order of Heptasophs, num- 
bers Mr. Colvcr among its members. 

Mr. Colver married (first), on November 12, 1902, 
Bertha E. Rodman, daughter of John B. Rodman. 
Mrs. Colver died March 22, 1903. On April 9, 1909, 
he married (second), Louisa Julia Egger, of New 
London, and the two became the parents of four 
children: Courtland E., Jr.; Helen Louise; Margaret 
Sarah; and Frederick Bowne, who died December 
8, 1919. All were born at Groton, Connecticut, with 
the e-xception of Frederick B., who was born in New 


that part of the township of Groton, New London 
county, Connecticut, comprised in Mystic, Dr. 
Purdy has practiced his profession since 1887, thirty- 
five years having elapsed. He is a native son of 
Connecticut, his parents, the Rev. Alva B. and 
Eliza (Marshall) Purdy, and his grandfather, John 
Purdy, of Round Hill, Connecticut. 

Rev. Alva B. Purdy, a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, married Eliza Marshall, daughter 
of Newcomb Marshall, of Stamford, Connecticut. 
They were the parents of two sons: Alexander 
Marshall, the principal character of this review; 
and CalvinTompkins, who married Clara Selleck. 

Alexander M. Purdy was born in the town of 
Greenwich, Stamford, Connecticut, September 20, 
1862. Under the law of the itinerancy governing 
Methodist ministers, changes of pastorate are fre- 
quen't, and thus the lad's schools were varied, but 
most of his early school years were passed at Tom- 
kins Cove, New York. Later he was a student at 
Literary and Commercial Institute, Bridgehampton, 
Long Island, and there graduated. He also attended 
Brooklyn public schools. He studied medicine under 
Dr. Davis, of Plainfield, Connecticut, and in 1882 
entered the medical department of the University of 
Vermont, graduating in 1884. Dr. Purdy began prac- 
ticing in Voluntown, Connecticut, but later located in 
Old Mystic, in the town of Stonington. In 1887 he 
settled in that part of Mystic contained within the 
town of Groton, and there has since continued, his 
practice large, his reputation of the highest. He is 
a member of the New London County and Connecti- 
cut Sta'te Medical societies: the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows; and the Masonic order, belonging 
to lodge and chapter. In 1901 he was appointed 
health officer of the town of Groton. 

Dr. Purdy married at Canterbury, Connecticut, 
Carrie Kingsley, daughter of John P. Kingsley, of 
Plainfield, Dr. and Mrs. Purdy are the parents of 
four children: Clifford, Marshall, Dorothy and Con- 


of the old and well known firm of Cranston & 
Company, is one of those stalwart business men, 
who have for many years maintained on solid foun- 

dation and at the same time greatly extended the 
commercial interests of Norwich. It is not, however, 
with these interests alone that Mr. Cranston is ac- 
tively identified; to everything essential for the 
progress and well-being of the community he has 
ever given the aid not of money alone, but of what 
counts for even more, the aid of personal influence 
and well-directed effort. 

Benjamin T. Cranston, Jr., father of the subject 
of this review, was born in Warren, Rhode Island, 
September I, 1832, and died in Norwich, Connecticut, 
March 19, 1900. He was brought by his father to 
Norwich when but a boy, his father, Benjamin, Sr., 
having built the first brick building on the west 
side, and it is still standing today. It is the second 
building south from Main and Thames streets. Here 
Benjamin, Sr., opened a grocery store and there con- 
tinued successfully for about thirty-five years. 

Benjamin T. Cranston, Jr., was educated in the 
public schools of Norwich, and entered upon his 
business career as clerk in the clothing store of 
Ebenezer Fuller, where he remained until 1853, when 
he moved to Providence, Rhode Island, and there 
accepted a position as cashier with the Adams Ex- 
press Company. Nine years later he removed to 
Norwich and entered into partnership with Morgan 
Safford, who had been in the stationery business 
since 1840. This partnership continued until 1887, 
when Mr. Cranston bought out the interests of Mr. 
Safford and took into the firm his two sons, William 
B. L. and Thomas, the firm name being the Cran- 
ston Company. Here Benjamin T. Cranston con- 
tinued until his death. He was always held in the 
highest esteem in the community, and when he 
passed away Norwich lost one of her finest types of 
citizens. He was a Republican in politics, and, in 
religion a devout member of the Central Baptist 
Church. He married Cornelia Anne (Safford), 
September 5, 1853, and to them were born three 
children: William B. L., of further mention; 
Thomas, born in Providence, Rhode Island, July 21, 
1856, and died in Norwich, May I, 1909; and Morgan 
Safford, born November 29, 1873, and died November 
5, 1874. 

William B. L. Cranston was born in Providence, 
Rhode Island, March 17, 1855, and was educated in 
the schools of Norwich, Connecticut, coming there 
at the age of ten years with his father. In 1873 he 
became clerk in his father's store, his brother 
Thomas entering the business at about the same 
time. After the father's death, William B. L. and 
Thomas carried on the business until the latter's 
death in May 1909, when William B. L. took C. 
Edward Smith into the business, which was incorpo- 
rated in 1914 under the name of the Cranston Com- 
pany. The business since 1916 has been located on 
Broadway, near the Wauregan Hotel, and the store 
is recognized as one of the oldest and best-equipped 
stationery stores in Connecticut. Mr. Cranston is 
a Republican in politics, but has never cared for of- 
fice. He affiliates with St. James Lodge, No. 23, 
Free and Accepted Masons; Franklin Council, No. 

CyU/iA^M, l)r<^(A4^^yv)Ac;iAyi^ 



3, Royal and Select Masters; Franklin Chapter, No. 

4, Royal Arch Masons; and the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association. He is one of the oldest Tuenibcrs 
of the Arcanum Club of Norwich, and was a charter 
iiicniber of the Chelsea Boat Club. In religion he 
is a Baptist, and was librarian of the Sunday school 
there for twenty-five years. 

Mr. Cranston married, .Xugust 25, 1917, Julia .^nn 
(Morgan) Chapman, daughter of Stephen and Ma- 
tilda Jane (Lewis) Morgan. Mrs. Cranston has one 
child, a son by her first marriage, Percy Morgan 

ELISHA WATERMAN— Bearing a name that 
earlier generations of his family carried in honorable 
participation in the stirring events of Colonial times 
and in the arduous labors of pioneer life, Elisha 
Waterman, of Lebanon, Connecticut, former Repre- 
sentative and State Senator, traces a long and distin- 
guished ancestry in New England. 

The first American ancestor was Robert Water- 
man, who married, December 9, 1638, Elizabeth 
Bourne, of Marshfield. Thomas Waterman, their 
second son, was born in 1644, and probably came to 
Norwich with his uncle, John Bradford. In Novem- 
ber, 1668, he married Miriam Tracy, only daughter 
of Thomas Tracy. Thomas Waterman died in 1708, 
leaving an estate inventoried at £835 us 4d. He had 
three sons and five daughters. 

Thomas (2) Waterman, son of Thomas (i) and 
Miriam (Tracy) Waterman, was born in 1670, and 
died in 1755. He married, when not quite twenty-one 
years of age, June 29, 1691, Elizabeth Allyn, daugh- 
ter of Robert .-Vllyn. Their union was prolonged to 
a term of sixty-four years, and their deaths oc- 
curred within a few months of each other, in 1755. 
They had seven sons and two daughters. 

Lieutenant Elisha Waterman, fifth son of Thomas 
(2) and Elizabeth (Allyn) Waterman, is said to have 
died in Havana, a victim of the fatal expedition 
undertaken against the Spanish in 1762. 

Captain .-\ndrew Waterman, son of Lieutenant 
Elisha Waterman, was born May 18, 1737, and died 
February 16, 1822. He settled in Lebanon, about the 
time of his marriage, 1759, and was a Revolutionary 
soldier, known as Captain Andrew Waterman. He 
married, September 11, 1759, Elizabeth Fitch, and 
they were the parents of Elizabeth, Ezra F., Lebbeus, 
Andrew (2), Betsy, Sarah, and Elisha (2), of whom 

Elisha (2) Waterman, son of Capta:n Andrew and 
Elizabeth (Fitch) Waterman, was born in Lebanon, 
Connecticut, October I, 1777. He attended the pub- 
lic schools and supplemented this training with a 
few terms in an academy at Lebanon, Connecticut, 
taught by Nathan Tisdale. In young manhood he 
became a school teacher and taught for several 
terms. He then became a farmer, cultivating more 
than three hundred acres. He was a Whig in poli- 
tics and then a Republican, and filled all of the town 
offices, several times representing his town in the 
State Legislature and his district in the Senate for 

one term. For many years he was judge of probate. 
He was a regular attendant of the Congregational 
church, a man of positive character, upright and re- 
spected. He married, September 20, 1812, Betsy 
Mason, daughter of James Fitch Mason. She was 
born October 10, 1790, died May 4, 1862, and with 
her husband is buried on Goshen Hill, Lebanon, 
Connecticut. Children: Andrew, died young- Eliza- 
beth F., James F. M., Elisha (3), Nancy .M , and 
Andrew (3), of whom further. 

Andrew (3) Waterman, son of Elisha (2) and 
Betsy (Mason) Waterman, was born on the Water- 
man homestead, in Goshen, town of Lebanon, 
Connecticut, June 13, 1833, and died there in March' 
1910. He was educated in the district schools and 
Norwich Academy, and spent his life on the home 
farm, which he inherited from his father. During his 
active life the property was greatly improved and 
the main part of the present house was built. He 
pursued general farming and cattle raising opera- 
tions and upon his retirement in his later years the 
management of the farm fell upon his son. He mar- 
ried, at Lebanon, February 5, 1873, Julia Emma 
Stark, born January 13, 1847, died in Lebanon, March 
2, 1898, daughter of Nelson and Sarah Ann (Geer) 
Stark, of Lebanon. Issue: i. Elisha (4), of whom 
further. 2. Clarence Mason, born May 17, 1879, re- 
mained on the home farm until he attained his ma- 
jority, when he went to Cleveland, Ohio, where he 
now resides. 3. Frank Edsall, born January 27, 
1881, was reared on the home farm, and attended 
Mount Hermon School for Boys. At the time of his 
death. May 9, 1908, he was associated with the 
Waterbury Brass Company, of Waterbury, Connec- 
ticut. 4. Bessie Mason, born March 30, 1886, mar- 
ried Frank R. Bartlett. 5. Mary Emma, born .April 
II, 1889, married Harry E. Prentice, of Norwich, 

Elisha (4) Waterman, son of Andrew (3) and Julia 
Emma (Stark) Waterman, was born on the home- 
stead in Goshen, town of Lebanon, Connecticut, 
September 10, 1875. -After attending the district 
schools he entered Bacon .Academy, and was later a 
student in Spencer's Business College, of Cleveland, 
Ohio, where he was graduated, September i, 1894. 
In young manhood he established a trucking business 
for the Bozrahville Cotton Company, also taking 
charge of the home farm when his father laid aside 
its responsibilities. Upon the death of the elder Mr. 
Waterman he came into possession of the homestead, 
where he has since made his home. To the original 
three hundred acres he has added one hundred and 
fifty acres by purchase, and with his agricultural 
operations has raised and dealt extensively in cattle. 
Holstein stock has had his attention to the exclusion 
of all other breeds, and he has long had one of the 
finest herds in the region. 

For many years Mr. Waterman has been chairman 
of the Republican Town Committee, and in 1909 he 
filled a seat in the State Legislature. In 1919 he 
served in the State Senate, and in both lower and 
upper houses ably and faithfully worked for the best 



interest of his district and the State. He is a member 
of the Congregational church, and atTihates with 
Wooster Lodge, No. lo. Ancient Free and Accepted 
Masons. Mr. Waterman is identified with all pro- 
gressive movements in the d'slrict, and has a wide 
circle of friends made in public and private life. 

Mr. Waterman married, at Norwich, Connecticut, 
October 25, 191 1. Ella Mercy Tucker, born in Le- 
banon, daughter of Orlando C. and Minnie Catherine 
(Bronson) Tucker, her father a native of Lebanon, 
her mother born in Mystic. Issue: Natalie Cather- 
ine, born September 15, 1912; and Evelyn Tucker, 
born November 26, 1914- 

of the Coggeshall family dates back to the days of 
the Norman occupation of England. Possessed of 
large estates in Essex and SufTolk, including the 
manor of Little Coggeshall and Codham Hall, 
Wethersficld, near Coggeshall-on-the-Blackwater, the 
oldest families of the name followed the Norman 
custom and wrote their names with the preposition 
as did Thomas de Coggeshall, owner of these vast 
estates in the reign of King Stephen of Blois, grand- 
son of William the Conqueror, who was the reigning 
King from 113S to 1 154- Five of the family, several 
of whom were knights, were sheriffs of Essex, and 
Coggeshall Abbey (the most famous ot the Cister- 
cian Order) was built by King Stephen, 1 142, and en- 
dowed by Matilda, of Boulogne and Eustace, son of 
the King, with their lands in France. The coat-of- 
arms of the Coggeshalls of Essex, from whom John 
Coggeshall, progenitor of the Coggeshalls in Amer- 
ica, is descended, indicates their connection with the 
crusades and is probably one of the oldest in English 

John Coggeshall, merchant, and emigrant New 
England settler, was born in 1599 in the county of 
Essex, England. He came to New England in 16.^2, 
arriving in Boston on the ship "Lion," with his wife 
Mary and three children, John, Joshua and Ann. 
Fie removed to Boston in 1634, and was one of the 
first board of selectmen of that city, c'losen in 1634. 
He was also deputy during that same year and 
served in that capacity several times. When Anne 
Hutchinson came under the displeasure of the author- 
ities of the Massachuserts colony, John Coggeshall 
was one of the seventy-five supporters who were dis- 
armed by the officials, and he was one of the six- 
teen persons who, in 1638, went to Providence and 
bought from the Narragansetts the island of Aquid- 
neck, later called Rhode Island. They were incorpo- 
rated in a body politic and began the settlement of 
Pocassett, later known as Portsmouth. John Cog- 
geshall was also one of the leading men of Ports- 
mouth who settled in Newport in 1639, and when, 
in 1640, Portsmouth and Newport were united, he 
was chosen one of the assistants. In 1644, when the 
union of several settlements into Providence Plan- 
tations was made effectual, John Coggeshall was 
elected president of Providence Plantations, and died 

in olTice about November 23, 1647. His widow died 
December \g, 1684. 

The children of John and Mary Coggeshall were: 
I. John, born in England about 1618, died at New- 
port, Rhode Island, October I, 1708; he held sev- 
eral offices, was acting-governor 1689-90, and was 
appointed major of the militia in 1684. He resided 
in Newport. 2. Joshua, born in England in 1623, 
died in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, May I, 1688. 3. 
Ann, born in England in 1626, died at Newport, 
March 6, 1687 or 1689. 4. Hanniel, baptised in Bos- 
ton, May 3, 1635. 5. Wait, baptised in Boston, Sep- 
tember II, 1636, died May 9, 1718. 6. Bedaiah, bap- 
tised in Boston, July 30, 1637. 

Able and enterprising, the descendants of John atid 
Mary Coggeshall have been much honored with pub- 
lic office in which capacities they have served their 
communities faithfully and well. Of the later gen- 
erations. Reverend Samuel Wilde Coggeshall, D.D., a 
scholarly man and an able preacher ot the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, Reverend Freeborn Cogges- 
hall, an Episcopalian clergyman, and Hon. Henry J. 
Coggeshall, lawyer and legislator, as well as public 
lecturer, have worthily borne the name, adding to 
the distinction already conferred by famous ances- 

John Adley Coggeshall, grandfather of Mason 
Fitch Coggeshall, was the first member of the family 
to locate in Montville. Born in Mansfield, Connec- 
ticut, he grew to manhood in that place and became 
a merchant, carrying on business, first in Mansfield, 
later in Norwich, and finally in Montville. Through- 
out his lifetime he was a consistent supporter of the 
Democratic party and was held in high esteem by the 
party in Montville, being elected first selectman of 
the town, in which capacity he served for two years 
and then was chosen town representative to the 
State Legislature at Hartford. He married Mary S. 
Cardwell, and they became the parents of four chil- 
dren: Effie M., now the wife of John S. Baker, of 
New London; William A., a resident of Portland, 
Oregon; Mason J., who resides in Montville; and 
Everett W., who resides in New York City. The 
mother died in Willimantic, Connecticut, at the age 
of eighty-four years. 

Mason Jennings Coggeshall, third child and sec- 
ond son of John Adley and Mary S. (Cardwell) Cog- 
geshall, was reared in Montville, and received his 
early education in the public schools of that town, 
later entering Bryant and Stratton Business College, 
at Providence, Rhode Island, where he made thor- 
ough and practical preparation for his career. As a 
traveling, salesman he has been very successful, and 
has resided both in Norwich and Montville. A 
staunch Democrat, he served for four years on the 
City Council of Norwich. He married Anna J., 
daughter of Elisha and Annie J. (Fitch) Palmer, of 
Montville. Elisha Palmer died in 1865 at the age 
of twenty-four years. Mason J. and Anna T. (Pal- 
mer) Coggeshall are the parents of three children: 
Agnes Madeline, now the wife of Peleg Horace 

I^atrich ^. C^arrinian, fl@. 2D. 



Bramley, a prominent farmer of Norwich, and 
mother of one child, Horace Dwight; John Adley, of 
Montvillc, also a farmer; and Mason Fitch. 

Mason Fitch Coggeshall was born in Norwich, 
Connecticut, October 27, 1894, and attended the 
Broadway grammar school of that city. With the 
removal of the family to Mon"tville while he was yet 
scarcely more than a boy, Mr. Coggeshall became 
interested in farm life and later took up farming 
seriously as a business. He carried on quite exten- 
sive operations in general farming, and is considered 
one of the most promising young men of the com- 

By political affiliation Mr. Coggcsliall is a Republi- 
can, and takes a deep interest in all public progress, 
but has thus far declined to take a leading part in 
political affairs. He is a member of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, being a member of Thames 
Lodge, No. 22, of Montvillc, Connecticut. He at- 
tends, and assists in the support of the Central Bap- 
tist Church. Mr. Coggeshall and his brother, John 
Adley, operate the farm of two hundred acres, at 
Trading Cove, known as the Fitch Hill Farm. 

On October 27, 1921, Mr. Coggeshall married Kath- 
erine Taylor, daughter of Jerome Taylor, formerly a 
farmer of Redfield, Connecticut, but now of Bozrah, 
Connecticut, and of Jennie (Fribie) Taylor. 

cessful farmers of this vicinity the name of John A. 
Coggeshall stands out most prominently. He was 
born at Norwich, Connecticut, December 6, 1892, the 
son of Mason Jennings and .Anna J. (Palmer) Cog- 
geshall, and attended the public schools of Norwich 
until he had completed the grammar course. He 
then turned his attention exclusively to farming, and 
has since devoted himself to that occupation. With 
his brother. Mason, he purchased, in the mother's 
name, the two hundred acre tract known at the Fitch 
Hill Farm. The land was naturally fertile and the 
two brothers have spared no labor in making it a 
thorouglily modern agricultural plant, equipped with 
the best labor-saving machinery, cultivated according 
to the most scientific methods, and operated with 
practical ability and far-seeing sagacity. 

While John A. Coggeshall has never taken any ac- 
tive part in the public affairs of the community, he 
has always aided to the utmost any project which he 
deemed wisely planned for the advancement of the 
community. Fraternally, he is a member of the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows, Thames Lodge, 
No. 22, of Montville, Connecticut. Politically he is 
a Republican. He attends and supports the Central 
Baptist Church, of Norwich, Connecticut. In 1917 
he was chosen to serve on the board of relief for the 
town of Montville, Connecticut, and has continued to 
serve in that capacity down to the present time. Mr. 
Coggeshall is unmarried. 

short half century of years were allotted Dr. Pat- 
rick H. Harriman on earth, but they were well im- 

proved, and in Norwich, Connecticut, where his pro- 
fessional life was spent, there arc records and monu- 
ments that show his love for his fcllowmen and tes- 
tify to his usefulness. 

James and Helen Elizabeth (Ryan) Harriman, his 
parents, were both born in Ireland, whence they 
came in youth to the United States. At the time of 
the birth of their son, Patrick Henry, they were liv- 
ing in Calais, Washington county, Maine. Later they 
moved to Winchendon, Massachusetts, where James 
Harriman was foreman of a furniture factory until 
his death. He was survived by his wife, who re- 
sided in Norwich, Connecticut, with her son. Dr. 
Harriman, until her death in August, 1901. 

Patrick Henry Harriman was born in Calais, 
Washington county, Maine, March 17, 1861, and died 
in the ci"ty of Norwich, Connecticut, February 16, 
1912. He was educated in Winchendon, Massachu- 
setts, in the public schools, grade and high, passing 
then to Holy Cross College, Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, where he was graduated with honors, A.B., 
class of 1881. Having decided upon medicine as his 
profession, he entered Dartmouth Medical School 
and continued medical study at the University of 
New York, where he was graduated M.D., class of 
March, 1884. In June, 1884, he was awarded the hon- 
orary degree of A.M. by his alma mater. He was for 
a few months after graduation assistant physician 
at Sanford Hall, Flushing, Long Island, and in 1885 
located in Norwich, Connecticut, where he began 
practice and continued until his death. He was a 
general practitioner, but specialized in obstetrics, and 
was recognized as the leading physician of his city, 
where he was universally esteemed. For a number 
of years he was a member of the visiting staff of 
Backus Hospital, and for a time was lecturer at the 
Nurses' Training School. He was a member and at 
one time president of the Norwich Medical Society; 
a member of the New London County Medical So- 
ciety, and the Connecticut State Medical Society. 

In politics, Dr. Harriman was an ardent Democrat 
and held a number of offices, the gift of the people of 
Norwich. He was not a party man, but one deeply 
intersted in party success and a leader. In 1898 he 
was elected to represent his ward on the Board of 
Aldermen and served two years, compiling an excel- 
lent record. For three terms he served on the Board 
of Water Commissioners, beginning m 1901 and re- 
tiring in 1907, with a record of efficient service as 
president of the board. In 1898 he was the Demo- 
cratic candidate for State Senator, and in a strong 
Republican district, he was defeated by but eight 
votes. During his aldcrmanic service he was chair- 
man of the Board of Fire Commissioners, and in 
1900 he took so deep an interest in the establishment 
of a paid fire department for Norwich that he was 
termed the "Father" of that department of the city 
government. Following the destruction of the Hop- 
kins and Allen plants, he induced Chief Grecnberp to 
send in a recommendation to the board for a partly- 
paid fire department, and through Dr. Harriman's 
efforts and influence a beginning was made and the 



present paid fire department is a monument to his 

In all civic matters he was greatly interested, and 
his influence was always exerted for every good 
cause. A man of rare judgement and unusual ability, 
he was deeply mourned by his townsmen, whose con- 
fidence he had earned and whose esteem he had 
gained. He was the friend of the poor, and no man, 
woman or child was ever turned away without the 
aid of the good doctor if within his power to bestow 
it. He gave liberally, generously to relieve suffering. 
He lived and worked among the common people, and 
he practiced to the fullest extent the "Golden Rule." 
He was a man of great deeds but few words, al- 
though when oratory was the order of the day, Dr. 
Harriman was one of the silver-tongued orators 
whose flights of eloquence marked many a public 
occasion. But his usual style was clear and con- 
cise, full of feeling and carrying the weight of con- 
viction. He was a consistent member of St. Patrick's 
Roman Catholic Church, and took an important part 
in the lay work of that parish. 

Dr. Harriman was a member of Hartford Lodge 
No. 19, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 
and he was the organizer of Norwich Lodge No. 430, 
of this order, which he organized in April, 1898. He 
was second vice-president of the Norwich Board of 
Trade, ex-prcsidcnt of the First Division, Ancient 
Order of Hibernians; member of White Cross Coun- 
cil, No. 13, Knights of Columbus, and of the Father 
Murray Assembly, Fourth degree of the Knights of 
Columbus; Court City of Norwich, No. 63, Foresters 
of America; New England Order or Protection; 
White Cross Council, Catholic Benevolent League; 
member and physician to Lafaye'tte Council, Societe 
of St. Jean Baptiste. 

On September 30, 1890, Dr. Harriman married 
(first) at Norwich, Bertha E. Condon, who died in 
Norwich, July 2, 1895. He married (second) Novem- 
ber 5, 1902, at Norwich, Mary Teresa McNamara, 
born in Limerick, Ireland, daughter of Patrick Wil- 
liam and Winifred (Bray) McNamara, her parents 
both born in Limerick. The family came to Norwich, 
Connecticut, in 1882, Patrick W. dying in 1915, his 
wife yet surviving him, a resident of Norwich. To 
Dr. and Mrs. Harriman a son was born, in Norwich, 
Connecticut, Henry Joseph, born April 27, 1904. Mrs. 
Harriman survives her husband, and continues her 
residence in Norwich, her home at No. 175 Broadway. 

Ever loyal in his friendships, Dr. Harriman was 
ready to do his part in behalf of another, and he 
thought carefully on both sides of all questions, thus 
eliminating narrowness, and right governed his de- 
cisions. Rare public spirit, with nicely balanced 
judgment, distinguished him, and the cardinal traits 
of his character were generosity, honor, integrity and 
upright living, and devotion to his home and to his 

is recognized as one of the foremost citizens of 
Lebanon township. Public-spirited and progressive, 
he loves his town, and no movement looking for bet- 
ter things for the community is without his gener- 
ous support. 

William Kneeland, father of Albert Greene Knee- 
land, was born at Marlboro, Connecticut, May 8, 
1817, and came to Lebanon in 1865, where he re- 
sided until his death, which occurred in 1899. He 
married (first) Lucy Amy Park, who died in Hek- 
ron. To them was born two children: William 
Henry and Edwin Park. Mr. Kneeland married 
(second) Bessie McCall, of Lebanon, and by this 
union there were four children, two of whom are 
living: Harriett Eliza (Mrs. William B. Loomis), of 
Missouri; and Albert Greene, of further mention; 
the second Mrs. William Kneeland passed away 
December 3, 1873. Mr. Kneeland married (third) 
Harriett Newall McCall, of Lebanon. 

Albert Greene Kneeland was born at Andover, 
Connecticut, April 11, 1852, and received his ele- 
mentary education in the schools of V^ernon, after 
which he entered Bacon Academy, where he re- 
mained two years and then came to Lebanon, where 
at intervals he has engaged in agricultural pursuits. 
During the winter months until 1916 he taught 
school in various towns throughout New London 
county, since which time however, he has been serv- 
ing as judge of the Probate Court. He has brought 
to the discharge of the duties of his office a fixed 
purpose, conducts his duties impartially and firmly, 
according to the law and the evidence as he under- 
stands it. The rare judgement which he displays in 
the performance of his judicial duties is dictated by 
a mind discerning and discriminating, a mind stored 
with a vast amount of knowledge outside of his 

In 1884 Judge Kneeland was elected representa- 
tive from this district, and has served as selectman 
for two years. He has also been grand juror for 
many years, and has served on the Board of As- 
sessors and the School Board of Lebanon. 

Un November 25, 1875, Judge Kneeland was. 
united in marriage with Harriett Johnson Manning, 
daughter of Warren F. and Ruby Anne (Johnson) 
Manning. Judge and Mrs. Kneeland are the par- 
ent of two children: i. William Albert, born Febru- 
ary 17, 1877, now located in Hartford, Connecticut, 
and is in the employment of the Hartford Gas Com- 
pany. 2. Warren Manning, born August 23, 1879, 
located in Hartford, in the employ of the Phoenix 
Insurance Company. Judge Kneeland and his wife 
are members of the Congregational church of Leb- 
anon, the former having been deacon and treasurer 
there for many years. 

until 1921, which office he has held for fourteen years, 

WELLS ROOT FOWLER— New England's ros- 
ter of names prominent as manufacturers, or- 
ganizers, and managers is a long one. Her honor 
list for patriotic service in all wars, including the 
World War, is also long, and upon both of these 

XdljUjL^ /r^L^^^-^^CLLf^iy^ , 



rolls may be found the name of Wells Root Fowler, 
secretary and treasurer of the Westerly Textile 

The Fowler family in New England is descended 
from a very old English family, the first American 
pioneer of that name being James Fowler, who was 
born in Exeter, England, January 5, 1668, and came 
to the United States some time before 1710. His 
son, Samuel Fowler, was born at Newport, Rhode 
Island, in April of the latter year, lived in New- 
port, married, reared a family, and became the fa- 
ther of the second Samuel Fowler, born in New- 
port, Rhode Island, May 31, 1737. This second 
Samuel Fowler had a son Benjamin, born in East 
Hartford, Connecticut, February 7, 1767, who in 
turn became the father of the second Benjamin 
Fowler, born in Hartford, Connecticut, December 7, 
1799. Benjamin Fowler, the second, was twice mar- 
ried. He first married Ann Weeks of Hartford, 
Connecticut. She died without children, and he 
then married Mary Coomes, of Longmeadow, 
Massachusetts, who became the mother of Charles 
Alfred Fowler, born at Hartford, Connecticut, July 
16, 1839, and died at Bayonnc, New Jersey, March 8, 
1914. Charles Alfred Fowler married Emily Black, 
of Lubec, Maine, and they became the parents of 
four children, the first of whom was Frederick 
Everett, the father of Wells Root Fowler. 

F"redcrick Everett Fowler was born in Brooklyn, 
New York, December 16, 1866, and died February 
23, 1920. His family moved to Hartford when he 
was three years old, and he received his education in 
the public schools of that town. At the age of 
twenty he became bookkeeper for Root & Childs, 
commission merchants of Hartford, Connecticut, 
and later, at about the age of twenty-three, he 
moved to Rocky Hill, Connecticut, still retaining 
his position with Root & Childs. In 1898 he took a 
position with the I. E. Palmer Company, in their 
cotton mill, working in all departments until he 
became an expert cotton manufacturer. In 1900 
he moved to Middletown, Connecticut. In April, 
1912, he resigned his position as business manager 
and agent of the above company, and removed his 
family to Westerly, Rhode Island. There he or- 
ganized the Westerly Textile Company, making it 
one of the big cotton concerns of Westerly, an I 
serving as president and treasurer until his death. 
He also organized the Ninigrct Mills Company, of 
Westerly, and filled the office of president. He mar- 
ried at Middletown, Connecticut, Gertrude Sher- 
wood, and they became the parents of four children: 
Gertrude Lillian, born at Rocky Hill, Connecticut, 
who died there at the age of three years; Charles 
Sherwood, born at Rocky Hill, July i, 1892, married 
Nora E. Gordon, and resides at Westerly, Rhode 
Island, and is president of the Westerly Textile 
Company; Wells Root, of whom further; and Aileen 
Mae, born at Middletown, Connecticut, May 31, 1903, 
living at the family home in Westerly. 

Wells Root Fowler was born in Rocky Hill, 
Connecticut, November i, 1895. He attended the 

grammar and high schools of Middletown, Connec- 
ticut, and in 1912 went to Westerly, Rhode Island, 
entering the service of the Westerly Textile Com- 
pany with his father. He worked in all departments 
in order that he might gain a thorough knowledge 
of the business, and spent his evenings taking a 
business course in the Westerly Business College. 
By energy and ability he has worked himself up 
to the position of secretary and treasurer of the 
company, which position he ably fills at the pres- 
ent time (1922). Politically, Mr. Fowler is a Repub- 
lican. He is a church member and also finds time 
for fraternal affiliation. He is a thirty-second de- 
gree Mason, being a member of Franklin Lodge, 
Free and Accepted Masons, of Westerly, Rhode Is- 
land; the Westerly Chapter, Royal Arch Masons; 
Westerly Council, Royal and Select Masters; Narra- 
gansett Commandery, No. 427. Knights Templar, 
of Westerly, and of Palestine Temple, Ancient Ara- 
bic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. 

During the World War Mr. Powler enlisted as a 
private in Company 10, of the Coast Artillery 
Corps, and after receiving his preliminary training 
at Fort Witherell, Newport, Rhode Island, was 
made a corporal in December, 1917; later he passed 
the examination for officer's training, which he re- 
ceived at Camp Johnson, Florida, and was made a 
second lieutenant in the Quartermaster's Corps, 
January 27, 1918. In February, 1918, he sailed for 
France with the 81 st Division, known as the "Wild- 
cat Division," and composed of Georgia troops. 
This division saw hard service in the Meuse-Ar- 
gonnc sector and in the Vosges sector. Mr. Fow- 
ler was made first lieutenant February 3, 1919, at 
Colombe, France, and sailed from St. Nazairc, 
France, June 15, 1919, arriving at Newport News, 
Virginia, June 2:, 1919, and receiving his discharge 
at Camp Lee, Virginia, June 24, 1919. 

Wells R. Fowler married Esther Ellen Bindloss, 
daugliter of William Park Bindloss, of Stonington, 
Connecticut, and they have one child, Esther Bickley 
Bindloss, born September 11, 1920. 


road to professional success has ever been discov- 
ered nor can the needed characteristics be accurately 
described, but the successful modern physician must 
be a man of wide learning, not alone professional; 
he must be courteous, dignified, sympathetic and a 
thoroughly manly man with all that the word im- 
plies. With learning must go the experience, and 
while this comes with the years a great deal is 
gained by hospital training in large cities where a 
year as interne equals in educational value perhaps 
ten years of private practice. Dr. Witter Kinney 
Tingley, of Norwich, Connecticut, chief surgeon of 
William W. Backus Hospital, has met with success 
in his profession, and his career may be considered 
in the light of an illustration. A graduate of Bclle- 
vue Hospital Medical College, he secured through 
his standing in class an interne's position in Belle- 
vue Hospital, and for two years he served as junior 



and senior assistant, tlien liouse physician in Hospi- 
tal Medical Division. This experience, gained 
under the most favorable circumstances, was of 
great importance. He has always been a student, 
and in home and foreign institutions has sought 
for deeper learning and a more perfect knowledge of 
the human body, its ills and their treatment. To 
his other acquirements he adds the gift of a ready 
pen and the ability to impart to others, through 
the medium of a printed page, the results of his 
search and experience. Thus he has enriched the 
literature of his profession with various papers and 
pamphlets given to his brethren through the "Pro- 
ceedings of the Connecticut Medical Society." As 
far back as 1891, he read before that society a paper 
on "Meningitis Tuberculosa," which is yet in print 
and widely quoted. Another of his well known pa- 
pers is a "Resume of Ectopic Pregnancy to Ma- 
turity." He has specialized in surgery in later 
years, and has won honorable rank among the 
leaders in that branch of his profession. His pro- 
fessional life has been largely spent in his native 
city, Norwich, Connecticut, and he springs from an- 
cient New England family. The Connecticut Ting- 
ley family came to South Windham from Rhode Is- 
land, where John Hartford Tingley was born and 
grew to youthful manhood. He settled »n South 
Windham, Windham county, Connecticut, there 
married, and resided until death. Among his chil- 
dren was a son, William Henry. 

William Henry Tingley was born in South Wind- 
ham, Connecticut, in 1834, and spent his youth there, 
coming to Norwich, Connecticut, a young man. In 
Norwich he engaged in the manufacture of small- 
arms during the Civil War period, 1861-65, but later 
was intcres'ted in a flax growing enterprise. He 
finally engaged in business in Norwich as a whole- 
sale grocer, and there died in 1872, at the early age 
of thirty-eight. He married Sarah Kinney, born in 
Norwich in 1832, who resided tlicre all her life, and 
died in 1908, aged seventy-six, surviving her hus- 
band thirty-six years. William H. and Sarah (Kin- 
ney) Tingley were the parents of three children: 
Witter Kinney, the eminent physician of Norwich, 
Connecticut, to whom this review is inscribed; Wil- 
liam Henry, a medical student, who was lost at 
sea, a young unmarried man; Harriet Clarke, mar- 
ried John Dixon Hall, a lawyer and former prosecu- 
ting attorney for the city of Norwich. 

Sarah (Kinney) Tingley, wife of William H. 
Tingley, was a daughter of Jacob Witter and Har- 
riet (Clarke) Kinney, her father born in Preston, 
New London county, Connecticut, son of Ncwcomb 
Kinney, who was long proprietor of the Merchant's 
Hotel, a famous Norwich hostelry of "Ye olden 
time," which stood on the present site of the Por- 
teous Mitchell Department Store. 

Witter Kinney Tingley, eldest of the children of 
William H. and Sarah (Kinney) Tingley, was born 
in Norwich, Connecticut, at the Kinney homestead, 
July 25, 1862. His graduations were from Broadway 
Grammar School in 1878, and Norwich Free Acad- 

emy, class of 1882. From boyhood he had a desire 
which ripened into a fixed ambition to become a 
physician. This ambition was encouraged by his 
uncle. Dr. Elijah Clarke Kinney, who was a physi- 
cian of Norwich, and after graduation from the 
academy, the young man was admitted to his uncle's 
offices. No. 28 Washington street, Norwich, as a 
medical student. He advanced there as far as possi- 
ble, then entered Bellevue Hospital Medical Col- 
lege, New York City, whence he was graduated 
M.D., March 26, 1886, one of the four honor men of 
that class. 

His high standing secured him appointment to the 
post of interne at Bellevue Hospital, together with 
thee others of the class who were marked for that 
distinction, it being Bellevue's custom to honor the 
four highest honor men of each class. It is an 
honor highly prized, and perhaps there is no dis- 
tinction which has come to Dr. Tingley through 
his professional life which he values above the ap- 
pointment as interne in Bellevue Hospital. For 
two years he remained with the hospital, gaining an 
experience equal to many years of private practice 
in the average community. With such experience 
reinforcing his theoretical attainments, he began 
private practice in 1888, associating himself with 
his uncle and former perceptor. Dr. Elijah C. Ken- 
ney, of Norwich. He occupied offices at No. 28 
Washington street with his uncle until the latter's 
death, October 19, 1892, then continued alone at 
the same location until 1900, when he caused his 
present office building to be erected on Main street, 
a building devoted to his own personal office use. 

Dr. Tingley, during the years 1889-94, was surgeon 
on the private yachts "Sagamore" and "Eleanor," 
owned by his friend, William A. Slater, a man of 
great wealth, residing in Norwich, and with Mr. 
Slater he cruised the world over. After his return 
from a voyage to Europe with Mr. Slater in 1894, 
he decided to make surgery his special line of prac- 
tice, and in that year he took advanced post-gradu- 
ate courses at the University of Vienna, the hospi- 
tals of Vienna, Dresden, Brussels, Paris and Lon- 
don. After completing his self-imposed course of 
study he returned to Norwich and resumed practice. 

In 1S92 Dr. Tingley became one of the incorpo- 
rators of the newly organized William W. Backus 
Hospital in Norwich, and from that year has been 
a member of the staff of that institution. His serv- 
ice to the hospital has been invaluable, his skill as 
a surgeon, coupled with the high reputation he 
bears, being a guarantee of the excellence of the 
institution he serves. From its organization in 1892 
until January i, 1920, he was surgeon and gynae- 
cologist to the hospital, and since the latter date 
surgeon in chief, the first man to hold that rank at 
the hospital. 

Dr. Tingley has a very large practice, and in the 
line of professional duty in the old days he fre- 
quently drove his team to patients twenty-five 
miles from Norwich, but with the modern motor 
car distance is not considered. He has won high 




reputation, and while the demands upon him are 
heavy he gives liimself freely to professional duty 
and meets every demand made upon him if hu- 
manely possible. He filled the post of city health 
officer for four years; served the city of Norwich as 
common councilman two years; is a member of 
Norwich Medical Society; New London County 
Medical Society; Connecticut State Medical Society; 
American Medical Association; Bcllevue Hospital 
Alumni Association; and shares with his uncle, Dr. 
Elijah C. Kinney, and the late Dr. Anthony Peck, 
the distinction of being the only three physicians in 
Norwich medical history to serve as internes at 
Bellevue Hospital. Dr. Tingley is a Republican in 
politics; a member of Christ Episcopal Church; 
Somerset Lodge, No. 34, Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons; Franklin Chapter, Royal Arch Masons; 
Franklin Council, Royal and Select Masters; Colum- 
bian Commandery, Knights Templar; and in the An- 
cient Accepted Scottish Rite holds the degrees of 
King Solomon Lodge of Perfection; Council of 
Princes of Jerusalem; Norwich Chapter of Rose 
Croix and Connecticut Consistory. He is also a 
Noble of the Mystic Shrine, and one of the original 
members of the Norwich Lodge of Elks. 

Dr. Tingley married, at Norwich, Connecticut, 
September 29, 1910, Ethel Frances Ryan, of Nova 
Scotia ancestry, a graduate of the William W. 
Backus Hospital Training School for nurses. Dr. 
and Mrs. Tingley are the parents of three children: 
John Kinney, born September 30, 191 1 ; Barbara 
Kinney, born June 2, 1913; Sarah Kinney, born Oc- 
tober 30, 1915. 

son," l)r. Kinney gave thirty-one years of his valua- 
ble life to the practice of medicine in Norwich, and 
there his useful life ended "in the harness," for he 
practiced until his last illnesss. He came to Nor- 
wich, not only a graduate of Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College, but with the experience of an in- 
terne, for as an honor man of his class he had 
earned appointment to an internship in Bellevue 
Hospital. This experience had been supplemented 
by some years of study abroad, so that when he 
began private practice in Norwich, in 1861, he was 
the physician of experience, and ordinary standards 
had been applied. During those thirty-one years 
of practice, Dr. Kinney developed a wonderfully 
strong character, and to use the words of a comtem- 
porary, "he was one of the finest men that ever 
lived, loved by all who knew him and a physician 
of the highest type." His professional strength 
was acknowledged and rejoiced in by his brethren 
of the profession in that State, and they expressed 
their satisfaction by elevating him to the highest 
office within their gift, the presidency of the Connec- 
ticut State Medical Association. Generous, sympa- 
thetic and helpful, his good will and his great in- 
terest in his native city was expressed in many ways, 
but no where was it more apparent than in his atti- 
N.L.— 2-J 

tude toward the William W. Backus Hospital, which 
he lived to see completed and in operation. 

Dr. Elijah Clarke Kinney, son of Jacob Wi'cter and 
Harriet (Clarke) Kinney, and grandson of New- 
comb Kinney, was born in the city of Norwich, 
Connecticut, July 25, 1829, there spent his life, and 
died October 19, 1892. After completing his classi- 
cal education, he began the study of medicine under 
the pcrceptorship of Dr. Fordyce Barker in Nor- 
wich, going thence to Bellevue Hospital Medical 
College, New York City, whence he was graduated 
M.D. with honors. His standing in the class 
brought him appointment as interne on the house 
staff of the Bellevue Hospital, and later he held the 
same relation to Nursery and Child's Hospitals, 
New York City. He then spent some years abroad 
in medical study, returning in 1861 and beginning 
practice in his native Norwich, Connecticut. 

His offices in Norwich were at No. 28 Washington 
street, and these he occupied during his entire pro- 
fessional career (thirty-one years), until his passing, 
October 19, 1892. Starting thoroughly equipped, 
Dr. Kenncy, during his thirty-one years of practice, 
kept well abreast of all advance in diagnosis or 
treatment, and never was so well satisfied wi^h him- 
self that he ceased to study and read. He stood at 
the head of the medical profession in Norwich as 
a physician (he made no pretension in surgery) 
and enjoyed not only a lucrative practice, but the 
love, confidence and respect of his community. 
Many families retained him as their physician for a 
quarter of a century or more, and he was the wel- 
come guest in their merrymakings as well as their 
refuge and support when trouble came to them in 
the form of sickness. 

Dr. Kinney was well known throughout the State. 
He was president of the Connecticut State Medical 
Society for one term and served his time; was presi- 
dent of New London County Medical and Norwich 
Medical societies. He served William W. Backus 
Hospital, of Norwich, as vice-president, and did a 
great deal toward the founding and completion of 
that institution. He was generous to the poor and 
gave freely of professional service even though no 
fee was to be charged or paid. His life was a useful 
one, and he gave to his day and generation faithful 
service, and to medical annals a page of honorable 
history. Dr. Kinney never married, but made his 
home with his sister, Sarah, who is the wife of the 
late William H. Tingley, and mother of Dr. Witter 
Kinney Tingley and Mrs. Harriet Clarke (Tingley) 


1894, Mr. Fellows has alternately been engaged in 
private business in the city of Norwich, and the in- 
cumbent of the office of street commissioner of 
the city and commissioner of New London county. 
A successful business man, he has faithfully served 
the public as an official and is one of the best known 
and highly regarded citizens of the Norwich district. 



George E. Fellows is a son of Joshua E. Fellows, 
who was born in Connecticut, a mason and builder 
of New London until 1858, when he disposed of his 
New London interest and moved with his family to 
Norwich, where he continued in business as a mason 
and builder until his death. He was a veteran of 
the Civil War, serving for one year in Company F, 
26th Regiment, Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, en- 
listing from Norwich. He was a Republican in poli- 
tics, and an official member of the JSlethodist Epis- 
copal church. Joshua E. Fellows married Eunice 
Hannah Hemstead, and they were the parents of five 
children, all born in New London, Connecticut: Ed- 
win H., born August 25, 1847, died March 28, 1855; 
George Edgar, born October 11, 1850, died Decem- 
ber 6, 1850; Anna Elizabeth, born October 20, 1851, 
married J. M. Currier, and now lives in Chelsea, 
Massachuse'cts; George Edgar (2), mentioned below; 
Lizzie Hannah, born January i, 1856, died in Nor- 
wich, October 3, 1917. Mr. Fellows died in Norwich, 
February 21, 1885, and his wife died July 31, 1913, 
having survived her husband twenty-eight years. 
Both were highly esteemed residents of the city 
which for so many years was their home and the 
birthplace of their children. 

George Edgar Fellows, fourth child of Joshua E. 
and Eunice Hannah (Hemstead) Fellows, was born 
in New London, Connecticut, August 9, 1853, but 
five years later, Norwich became the family home 
and there he spent the years which have since in- 
tervened. He was educated in Norwich public 
schools and East Greenwich Academy, then, school 
years being over, he began learning the mason's 
trade under his capable father. He became a skilled 
worker and continued his father's assistant in the 
building business until the latter's death in 1885. 
He then succeeded his father, and as head of the 
firm. Fellows & Rice, continued the business until 
September, 1893, when he became sole owner by 
purchasing his partner's interest. He continued 
alone as a contractor and builder for about one year, 
then accepted appointment as street commissioner 
for the city of Norwich. He served a full term of 
three years, then, in 1898, resumed his former busi- 
ness and gave it his entire attention until 1908, when 
he again accepted appointment as street commis- 
sioner. He served two years under that appointment, 
then resigned to become county commissioner, un- 
der appointment of the governor, to fill out an un- 
expired term. He was appointed in May, 1910, and 
at the close of his term was chosen for a full term 
of four years in the same office. At the expiration 
of his term as county commissioner, he returned 
to his private business, but in 1916 was again called 
to the office of street commissioner of Norwich, 
holding until July, 1918. From that date until 
July I, 1020, he was engaged in private business, 
but on the latter date again assumed the duties of 
the street commissioner's office, serving Norwich in 
that capacity until July i, 1921. At the present time 
(1922) he is holding the ofTice of County Commis- 
sioner. He is a Republican in politics; an attend- 

ant of the Methodist Episcopal church; and affiliated 
with St. James Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, 
of Norwich. 

Mr. Fellows married, in Norwich, Lila E. Harvey, 
born in Preston, Connecticut, daughter of Henry 
and Elvira (Friswell) Harvey, her parents both de- 
ceased. Mr. and Mrs. Fellows are the parents of 
four children, all born in Norwich: Elizabeth 
Amanda, born October 27, 1877, now employed in 
the Norwich Savings Bank; Lillie Louise, born 
April 20, 1880; Alice Helen, born November 2, 
1882, died November 13, 1896; George Robert, born 
October 13, 1897, now employed in the Thames Na- 
tional Bank, Norwich, married, March 31, 1916, 
Edith Lane, born in Norwich, and has two children. 

That he has been so often called to serve as 
street commissioner is the best proof that Mr. Fel- 
lows has satisfactorily discharged the duties which 
pertain to that office. He is highly esteemed as a 
citizen and as a neighbor, and the name of his 
friends is legion. 


Connecticut, the northernmost town of New Lon- 
don county, Connecticut, the name of Abell has 
stood for generations, and Charles Judson Abell, 
who for more than thirty years has filled the office 
of town clerk, is still active in the community. 

Silas Abell, Mr. Abell's grandfather, was born in 
Lebanon, and spent his entire lifetime there. He 
was a cooper by trade, and also had considerable 
farming interests. He died at the comparatively 
early age of forty-two years. He married Rhoda 
Webster, who was born in Cooperstown, New York, 
and died in Lebanon, Connecticut. 

James Madison Abell, son of Silas and Rhoda 
(Webster) .'\bcll, was born in Lebanon, on Novem- 
ber 14, 1810, in the first frame house ever built in 
Exeter Society, the village of Exeter being a small 
settlement in the western part of the town of Leb- 
anon. He received his education m the district 
schools of the neighborhood, but at the age of four- 
teen years was obliged to leave school and go to 
work on account of the death of his father. He fol- 
lowed farm labor by the month for several years, 
eventually renting a farm, and conducting it for 
himself. This first rented farm was in Lebanon, 
then, after his marriage, he rented a farm in Abing- 
ton, a part of the town of Pomfret, Windham 
county, where he continued for eight years, return- 
ing thereafter to Lebanon. Still interested in farm- 
ing operations, he rented land, and then purchased 
from his wife's paren'ts, the old James Congdon 
place, on Goshen Road. He continued to run this 
farm until his wife died, when he sold out his in- 
terests and made his home with his son, Charles J., 
during the rest of his lifetime, for fifteen years, his 
death occurring in March, 1896. He married Sarah 
Congdon, who also was born in Lebanon, and there 
passed away. They were the parents of four chil- 
dren, all but the youngest being born in Pomfret. 
They were as follows: I. Thomas Congdon, a car- 




I^tnter, and later farmer, who went West and con- 
ducted farming operations there, he dying in Blue 
Rapids, Kansas. 2. JaniLS Madison, Jr., carpenter, 
contractor and builder, of Middletown, Connecticut, 
who died in Lebanon. 3. John Webster, who was 
also a farmer, served for three years in the Civil 
War, from 1861 to 1864, in Company C of the i8th 
Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, then went West, 
conducting a farm in Linneus, Linn county, Missouri, 
where he was later engaged in the hardware busi- 
ness, and died there. 4. Charles Judson, of whom 

Charles Judson Abell was born in Lebanon, 
Connecticut, on September 25, 1848. He received 
his education in the district schools of the town, 
then assisted his father on the farm until he was 
twenty-three years of age. At that time he rented 
a farm in Lebanon, which he conducted for twelve 
years. Then, in 1884, he purchased the Huntington 
place, a fine farm of seventy-five acres, near Leb- 
anon Green, where he still resides (1922). This farm 
up to the time Mr. Abell bought it, had been con- 
tinuously owned in the Huntington family since its 
acquisition from the Indians. Mr. Abell has al- 
ways done general farming, and has been very suc- 
cessful, making many improvements about the 
place, and installing the most up-to-date equipment 
and conveniences. He has now, however, practically 
retired from active farm w-ork, but keeps an over- 
sight on all his affairs. 

Mr. Abell, many years ago, was called to serve 
the people in an official capacity. He is one of the 
leaders of the Republican party in the town of Leb- 
anon, and was made selectman and tax assessor at 
the same election. The former office he held for 
two terms, four years, being first selectman during 
one term. He was tax assessor for a period of fif- 
teen years, and later was tax collector for two years. 
In 'che year 1890, Mr. Abell was elected town clerk of 
Lebanon, and has been re-elected to the office con- 
tinuously until the present time. His work in con- 
nection with this office has always been most ac- 
ceptable to the town, and his keen mentality and 
comprehensive grasp of affairs make him particu- 
larly fitted for this office. He holds the cordial re- 
spect and good-will of all his associates in the affairs 
of the town. 

On April 4, 1872, Mr. Abell married Lucy Williams 
Robinson, who was born in Lebanon, and was a 
daughter of Harlow and Elizabeth (Loomis) Rob- 
inson. Her father was born in Chaplin, Connecticut, 
and her mother in Lebanon. Mrs. Abell died on 
October 18, 1918. Mr. and Mrs. Abell had seven 
children, of whom one is now deceased. They arc 
as follows: Willard Judson, deceased; Anna Eliza- 
beth, the wife of Edward C. Hall, a post office em- 
ployee, of Naugatuck, Connecticut; Sarah Louise, 
who resides at home; Frederick Madison, who mar- 
ried Gertrude E. Lillie, of Lebanon, and is a farmer 
in this town; Charles Harrison, who married Gwen- 
dolyn S. Clark, of Lebanon, and is now with Lan- 
ders, Frary & Clark, the world-famous manufac- 

turers, of New Britain, Connecticut; Clara Loomis, 
who is with the Michigan Copper and Brass Com- 
pany, of Detroit, Michigan, as office manager; and 
John Webster, who married Bertha Haetz, of 
Brooklyn, New York, and is purchasing agent for 
Landers, Frary & Clark, of New Britain. The fam- 
ily have always been leading members of the Con- 
gregational church, of Lebanon. 

ABEL PALMER TANNER— Now one of the 

oldest members of the New London county bar 
(admifced 1875), Mr. Tanner has won his way to 
honorable rank among the leaders of that bar. A 
man of strong convictions, he has made it a point of 
honor to preserve the highest traditions of the 
profession. The poor client has always his sympa- 
thy, and no fee is large enough to tempt him to 
lend his aid to a case which does not, to his honest 
mind, have the element of right in its favor. De- 
voted to a client's interest, the size of the fee does 
not affect the conscientious, faithful service he ren- 
ders. With clear convictions of duty, a good ci"ti- 
zcn, a lawyer of ability who loves his profession, an 
eloquent public speaker with a critical taste in litera- 
ture, no man more justly deserves the high esteem of 
his community nor is any member of the New Lon- 
don county bar held in higher esteem by his con- 
temporaries of that bar. 

.'\bel P. Tanner, son of Abel and Clarissa (Wat- 
rous) Tanner, was born near Old Mystic in the 
town of Groton, New London county, Connecticut, 
July 7, 1850, his father a stationary engineer of Mys- 
tic for many years, and one of the Abolition orators 
of New England, 1835-60. He attended the district 
public schools of Groton, 1855-65; the village public 
school of Old Mystic, 1866-68; Professor Palmer's 
Select School of Mystic, 1868; under Professor Hop- 
kins of Mystic, 1869-70; and in September, 1870, en- 
tered Brown University, whence he was graduated 
A.B., class of 1874. He studied law under the di- 
rection of Colonel Hiram Appleman, of Mystic, and 
was admitted to the New London county bar in 


Mr. Tanner began the practice of law in Mystic 
and there continued for seven years before moving 
to the city of Nev/ London in 1882. Forty-seven 
years have elapsed since he came first to the New 
London bar, and forty years since locating in the 
city of New London. He has during those years 
built up a reputation as a lawyer of ability, and 
has always commanded a good practice. He has 
been admitted to the State and Federal courts of the 
district, and appears in them all from time to time. 
He was a justice of the peace many years, 1884-1920, 
and occasionally acted as judge of the city Police 
Court. In 1912-13 he was corporation counsel for 
the city of New London, and was president of the 
New London Bar .Association, 1906-14. 

Always keenly interested in public affairs, Mr. 
Tanner has had close and intimate relations with 
the politics of city. County, and State, his earlier 
political views being contrary to the orthodox Re- 



publican or Democratic creeds. In 1882 he was the 
candidate for governor of Connecticut, on the green- 
back ticket and Anti-Monoply. Later he became 
a supporter of Democratic principles, and he has 
been one of the eloquent orators whose services 
have been freely given in support of party princi- 
ples in his and other states. He represented his dis- 
trict in the Connecticut General Assembly in 1913, 
serving on the Committee of Corporations. In 1876 
he ran for State Senator from the Seventh District 
of Connecticut, and received a majority vote, but was 
not declared elected because of a miscount. In i8g6 
he was Democratic nominee for presidential elector, 
and in 1894 was the Democratic nominee for Con- 
gress in the Third Connecticut District. During the 
period of Mr. Tanner's greatest political activity the 
Democratic party was out of power, consequently 
few political honors have fallen to him. 

At Brown University Mr. Tanner became a mem- 
ber of Wayland Literary Society, and during 1873-74 
was its president. He was a member of the Thames 
Club, 1908-10, is a member of the Jibboom Club of 
New London, and of the New London County His- 
torical Society. As a public speaker, Mr. Tanner 
is very effective. He is at his best m extended ora- 
tion, and with time and place and length to develop 
his subject, never fails to delight and charm. At 
the unveiling of the memorial tablet on the site of 
the old fort at Stonington, he was the chief speaker 
and delivered an address of historical value, eloquent 
and patriotic. In the chapter "Courts and Lawyers" 
in this work, most appropriate and eloquent tributes 
to fallen members of the New London bar will be 
found, some of them delivered by Mr. Tanner. 

Abel P. Tanner and Emma Bertha Whitford were 
married June 18, 1874, in the First Baptist Church, 
of Old Mystic, town of Groton, New London county, 
Connecticut. To them a daughter, Bertha Virginia, 
was born January 2, 1882, both daughter and mother 
now deceased, Mrs. Tanner passing away at the fam- 
ily home in New London. 

W. TYLER BROWNE, M.D.— As one of the fore- 
most specialists in Eastern Connecticut, Dr. Browne 
stands among the widely prominent professional 
men of Norwich. He has added to his record of 
personal achievement a measure of success in Roent- 
genology, which constitutes a distinct contribution 
to that science. Dr. Browne comes of a very old 
Connecticut family, and is a grandson of Tyler 
Browne, who for many years kept a general store in 
Lisbon, in this county, and was a man of prominence 
in the community. 

Daniel M. Browne, son of Tyler Browne, and the 
father of Dr. W. Tyler Browne, was born in Lisbon, 
Connecticut, and was a resident of that community 
throughout his lifetime. He became a leader in local 
political affairs, was elected town representative to 
the State Assembly, and various re-elections re- 
tained him at the capitol for a long period. He died 
in 1900, at the advanced age of eighty-two years. 
He married Phoebe Bidwell Burnham, who was born 

in Kinsman, Ohio, but whose people were originally 
from Lisbon, and she died in 1913. 

W. Tyler Browne, only child of the above parents, 
was born in Lisbon, Connecticut, December 26, 
1856. His early education was acquired at the dis- 
trict schools near his home and the Quaker School at 
Providence, Rhode Island. Then followed a four 
years' course at Phillips Academy, at Andover, 
Massachusetts, and a course at Sheffield Scientific 
School (Yale University), and he is a graduate of 
both Phillips-Andover and Sheffield. With this very 
comprehensive preparation the young man entered 
Harvard L'nivcrsity Medical School, from which in- 
stitution he was graduated in the class of 1882. Dur- 
ing the last year at Harvard, Dr. Browne was active 
in hospital training, and his hospital e.xperience in- a 
eluded a period of internship at the Boston City H 
Hospital, the House of the Good Samaritan, and 
the Children's Hospital, all of Boston. Dr. Browne 
began practice in Lisbon, his native place, where 
he was engaged for ten years. In 1890 he came to 
Norwich, located on Main street, and entered upon 
his activities in this city. For three decades he has 
handled a constantly increasing practice, and since 
7'>oo ln> been located ?t his present offices. No. 27S 
Broadway. For a number of years he was active as 
a general practitioner, but during that period was 
fitting himself by post-graduate work and research 
for those specialties in which he has since been so 
successful, especially in the line of therapeutic elec- 
tricity. With the discovery of the X-Ray he pur- 
chased the original experimental machine of the 
General Electric Company and for several years had 
the only X-Ray apparatus in the county. In 1903 
he traveled abroad, visiting "che private X-Ray labra- 
tories of specialists and those of the principal hospi- 
tals of Europe. For many years he has been obliged 
to decline all general practice, and has devoted his 
attention to these specialties, the eye, ear, nose and 
throat, also Roentgenology and its affiliated thera- 
peutic agents, electricity, the violet ray and vibration. 
He is now consulting Roentgenologist at the Backus 
Hospital, and is esteemed an autliority in his spe- 
cialties. He is a member of the .'American Medical 
Association, the Connecticut State Medical Society 
and the Norwich Medical Society, and is also a mem- 
ber of the American Roentgen Ray Society and the 
New York Electro-Therapeutic Society. Dr. Browne 
was a pioneer in the use of automobiles in this part 
of the State, for as early as 1898 he had what was 
then known as a horseless carriage, which was pro- 
pelled by a storage battery. Broadly interested in 
the civic advance of Norwich, he is a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce, and gives his endorsement 
to all civic progress. He is a member of the Park 
Congregational Church, of which for many years he 
has been deacon. 

Dr. Browne married, in Monson, Hampden county, 
Massachusetts, in 1889, Gertrude Bell, of that place. 

JOHN CLARKE— To merit the confidence and 
esteem of the fellow-citizens of the town in which 

^J«4^>^-^'^^£:^'''^ . c^^^ 



you rcsidf to such an extent as to be chosen by them 
to fill public otYiccs denotes that the man so honored 
must be a man of integrity, public spirit and enter- 
prise, and these atttributes of character are domi- 
nant in the person of John Clarke, tlic present as- 
sessor of Liberty Hill, Lebanon townsliip, Connecti- 
cut, who also served in various other public capa- 
cities, namely, representative, selectman and justice 
of the peace. 

Joseph Clarke, the earliest member ot the family 
of whom we have definite information, was a resi- 
dent and probably a native of Charlcstown, Rhode 
Island, where he pursued the occupations of farm- 
ing and fishing. His wife, (Nichols) Clarke, 

bore him seven children, the eldest ot whom was 
Joseph, through whom the line descends. 

Joseph (2) Clarke removed to Lebanon, Connecti- 
cut, from Carolina Mills, Rhode Island, and later 
removed to Columbia, Connecticut, purchasing a 
small farm and subsecjucntly a larger one, upon 
which he spent the remainder of his days, his death 
occurring July 2, l88l. He married Margaret Cran- 
dall, a native of Rhode Island, and ITiey were the 
parents of nine children; the eighth of whom was 
James M. Clarke, father of John Clarke, of this 

James M. Clarke as born in Columbia, Connecticut, 
March 22, 1831, and died at Liberty Hill, December 
5, 1919. His active years were devoted to agricul- 
tural pursuits in various towns of Connecticut, 
namely, Lebanon, Columbia, Franklin and Liberty 
Hill, in the latter named place conducting a general 
store in connection with farming for several years. 
He married, October 26, 1854, Mary Taylor, born in 
Lebanon, Connecticut, July 19, 1835, a daughter of 
John B. and Prudence (/Vvery) Taylor. Children: 
I. James Henry, married (first) Elizabeth Webster, 
(second) Sarah Strong. 2. John, of whom further. 
3. Minnie E., became the wife of Henry V. Ochlers. 
Mrs. Clarke died October 6, 1920. 

John Clarke was born in Franklin, Connecticut, 
June 26, 1861. He acquired his early education in the 
local common and select schools, and later taught 
school in Lebanon and Andover. Since four years of 
age he has resided at Liberty Hill on the pres- 
ent homestead, which he purchased in 1884, and his 
active years have been devoted to farming. He has 
greatly improved his original purchase, and has ac- 
quired other property until he has large holdings 
of real estate at Liberty Hill. He also acted as local 
agent for the firm of Long & Saunders, of Quincy, 
Massachusetts, dealers in monuments, and as pur- 
chasing agent for the Providence Dairy Company, 
establishing their milk routes, which proved of bene- 
fit to the farmers of Lebanon, Colchester, Columbia 
and Hebron. He has also been instrumental in the 
settlement of estates, acting recently for some of 
the largest estates in Lebanon, both in the capacity 
of executor and trustee. 

Mr. Clarke has aUvays taken a prominent part in 
the political, fraternal and social affairs of the town- 
ship, gaining and retaining the confidence and trust 

of all who have the honor of his acquaintance. He 
is a Republican in politics, and in 1887 was chosen 
to represent his town at the first bi-ennial session of 
the State Legislature, and served on the com- 
mittee on Woman Suffrage. He was the youngest 
man ever sent to represent the town, and next to 
the youngest member of the House. He also served 
as first selectman, justice of the peace, and for the 
past thirteen years and at the present time (1922) 
is a member of the Board of Assessors, proving of 
value to the board and to his constituents. He 
united with the Exeter Congregational Church, May 
3, 1891, and was elected as its deacon, September 3, 
1894, which oflFice he held for 18 years. He also 
served the church in various official capacities. In 
1912 he was instrumental in organizing the Liberty 
Hill Church, and was elected as deacon and trustee, 
which offices he still holds. He also assisted in the 
merging of the Exeter and Liberty Hill churches in 
1920, when the Liberty Hill church became the Exe- 
ter Liberty Hill Congregational Church, and he is 
also serving in the capacity of superintendent of the 
Sunday school connected therewith. He was a mem- 
ber of Lebanon Lodge, No. 23, Ancient Order of 
United Workmen, and of the American Order of 
Fraternal Helpers until their dissolution. 

Mr. Clarke married, June 7, 1882, Amelia Footc, 
born in Exeter, December 5, 1861, daughter of Hor- 
ace and Lucy Ann (Webster) Foote, who has been 
an inspiration and help in all his various enterprises. 

JAMES EVELEIGH LORD— The first Lord of 
this branch to settle in New London county, Connec- 
ticut, was James A. Lord, an Englishman, and the 
father of James Eveleigh Lord, prcwnoter of the 
summer settlement on Fishers Island Sound, 
known as Lord's Point, in the town of Stonington. 
James A. Lord, formerly a mariner, settled down to 
farming after his Civil War service, he having served 
one year in Company H, 26th Regiment, Connecticut 
Volunteer Infantry, nine months' men. When his 
son, James Eveleigh Lord, chose a permanent oc- 
cupation he, too, turned to the land, Lord's Point 
being first a part of his farm. 

James A. Lord was born in Oldham, a county 
parliamentary and municipal borough of Lancashire, 
England, one of the leading centers of cotton spin- 
ning in England. When a lad he left home secretly 
and went to sea as cabin boy on a packet ship com- 
manded by a Captain Eveleigh, who took a deep in- 
terest in "ihe boy, and caused him to supplement the 
education received in the public schools by a course 
of study under the captain's personal direction on 
board the ship. James A. Lord continued a mariner 
for several years, and rose to authority, being first 
officer on the ship "Star of Empire" at the age of 
twenty-two. After leaving the sea he settled in Led- 
yard, New London county, Connecticjt, where his 
father, John Lord, had been superintendent of the 
mill, until the spring of i860, when he moved with 
his father-in-law, Henry W. Hill, to the Stonington 
Town Farm, of which Mr. Hill was made superin- 



tendent. He then enlisted in the 26th Regiment, 
Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, and served until 
wounded in the attack and capture of Port Hudson, 
by General Banks, July 9, 1863. He rejoined his 
regiment after his recovery and con'cinued in the 
service until he returned to Connecticut, with an 
honorable discharge, settled in the town of Storiing- 
ton. New London county, and there tilled the soil he 
owned until his death in 1904. He married (first) 
Mary E. Hill, who died in 1888, daughter of Henry W. 
Hill, who was a grandson of Samuel Hill, a patriot 
of the Revolution, killed at the battle of Groton 
Heights in 1781. Henry W. Hill married Emeline 
Eliza Main, a direct descendant of Ezekiel Main and 
his wife Mary, whose names appear in the early 
history of the Road Church. James A. and Mary E. 
(Hill) Lord were the parents of five children: James 
E., of further mention; Mary G., wife of John V. Syl- 
via, of Stonington; Emmeline, widow of Augustus 
Pearson, who married (second) Orrin H. Babbitt, 
and resides in Derry, New Hampshire; John W., 
married May StanclifTc, and resides in Stonington, 
Connecticut; Henry A., married Irene S. Russell, and 
resides in Norwich, Connecticut. James A. Lord 
married (second) Mary E. Coffin, of Waterbury, 
Connecticut, and to them two children were born: 
Fannie A., wife of William D. Ferguson, of Boston, 
Massachusetts; and Helene, of Wellesley Hills, 

James Eveleigh Lord, eldest son of James A. and 
Mary E. (Hill) Lord, was born in the town of Led- 
yard, New London county, Connecticut, August 30, 
1859, but in i860 the family moved to Stonington, in 
the same county. There he attended the Road 
school, later Phillips Grammar School in Salem, 
Massachusetts, and in 1880 was a graduate of the 
Ipswich High School of that town. After complet- 
ing his studies he was engaged as a clerk in the 
Boston office of the auditor of the New England 
railroad, but on account of ill health he, after a 
brief experience, returned to New London county, 
where for the next decade he was employed with his 
grandfather, Henry W. Hill, at the Stonington Town 
Farm. In 1892 he bought the Samuel C. Langworthy 
farm of two hundred and twenty acres in the town 
of Stonington and has spent the intervening years 
in cultivating and developing that property, conduct- 
ing it as a general farming and dairy business. He 
was the first secretary and treasurer of the Tang- 
wank Creamery Company of North Stonington. 
His farm lying along the Sound, separating the 
Connecticut shore from Fishers Island, offered excel- 
lent summer resort advantages, and in August, 1898, 
a small cottage was built, which made the com- 
mencement of the summer community at Lord's 
Point. The Point has become very popular and is 
now one of the attractive, well known Sound resorts. 
Mr. Lord established at the Point a water system for 
the use of the residents, there now being eighty cot- 
tages, two hotels, stores, and a post office within the 
limits of the settlement, which is now in its twenty- 
third year. 

Mr. Lord, nov/ a Republican in politics, but for 
some years a Democrat, served his town as member 
of the Board of Relief in 1898, member of the Board 
of Assessors for five years, and for twenty years 
was clerk of the town Board of Selectman, and for 
two years he was a selectman. He is a member of 
Latham Post, Sons of Veterans, of Mystic; and the 
Royal Arcanum; treasurer of the Lord's Point Com- 
munity Society; member of the committee and treas- 
urer of the First Congregational Ecclesiastical So- 
ciety, and deacon of the First Congregational church, 
of Stonington, Connecticut. 

In his efforts to improve the quality ol stock and 
poultry, Mr. Lord has accomplished a great deal of 
good. As far back as 1892, in company with Charles 
P. Williams, of Stonington, sheep breedmg was car- 
ried on at the Lord farm, the partnership continuing 
until 1908. They specialized in registered Shropshire 
sheep, and through their efforts as breeders and ex- 
hibitors they placed a great deal of blooded stock 
throughout New England and other States. From 
boyhood Mr. Lord had the care of the turkey flock 
at the farm, and in 1905 he began exhibiting some of 
his fancy birds at important poultry shows, making 
a modest winning in the great show at Boston. In 
1906, and for twelve consecutive years following, 
assisted by Mrs. Daniel C. Amos, of Oakland, Ken- 
tucky, he exhibited the famous "Dan Amos" breed of 
mammoth bronze turkeys which they had developed 
through cross breeding. The winnings of these 
birds in competition were phenomenal, the owners 
exhibiting them in Boston, New York and Chicago 
poultry shows and in other cities. Choice birds of 
this breed were shipped as far as Australia, and to 
other foreign countries, and eggs were demanded 
from poultry fanciers all over England and Germany. 

Mr. Lord married, October 23, 1895, Fannie Noyes, 
daughter of Francis and Maria (Morgan) Noyes, of 
Stonington, and a direct descendant of Rev. James 
Noyes, born in 1608, in England, who came to New 
England in 1634. He was settled over the church at 
Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1633. and continued pas- 
tor of that congregation until his death, October 22, 
1656. Mrs. Lord also traces descent from Elder Wil- 
liam Brewster of the "Mayflower." She is a graduate 
of the State Normal School at Willimantic, and was 
a teacher in the public schools of Stonington. When 
the Lord's Point farm was purchased they were to- 
gether in the enterprise and together they have 
planned and executed the development. When Mr. 
Lord left the Stonington Town Farm, which had 
been his home for ten years, and came to his own 
farm, he brought with him his grandparents, Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry W. Hill, who had made a home for him, 
and at the Lord farm they were made very welcome 
and happy during the remainder of their lives. 


of medicine is one that requires the utmost skill, 
perseverance, energy and integrity, all of which at- 
tributes were markedly in evidence in tTie person of 
Dr. Edwin L. Danielson, late of Lebanon, who in 



addition to liis extensive private practice served in 
public office, the obligations of which he fulfilled in 
a manner that was satisfactory to all concerned. 

The family of which the late Dr. Daniclson was a 
worthy representative was one of the oldest and 
most substantial in Eastern Connecticut, and it fur- 
nished representatives in all the stirring movements 
of Colonial and National history. The first .\mcrican 
ancestor of whom we have authentic information 
was Sergeant James Danielson, born about 1648, died 
January 22, 1728, in what is now Killingly, Connecti- 
cut. He was of record as a freeholder of Block Is- 
land in 1696, was sergeant of the town in 1700, was a 
member of the Town Council in 1704-05, and was 
chosen a deputy to the General Assembly in August, 
1705. He married (first) -Abigail Rose, (second) 
Mary Ackers. Samuel Danielson, son of the second 
wife, was born in 1701, and died in 1786. He was 
a graduate of Yale College. He married Sarah 
Douglass, who bore him ten children, among whom 
was William Danielson, born August II, 1729, died 
August 19, 1798. He attained the rank of colonel in 
the war with England, serving with the Connecticut 
troops. He married Sarah Williams, and the Sarah 
Williams Danielson Chapter, Daughters of the 
.•\merican Revolution, at Danielson, was named in 
her honor. They were the parents of five children, 
among whom was James Danielson, born January 18, 
1761, died in Killingly, Connecticut. He married 
Sarah Lord, who bore him six children, among whom 
was Elisha Daniclson, born in Killingly, March 4, 
1796, died there in 1866. He served as captain in the 
local militia for many years. He married three 
times, his third wife, Sarah (Ely) Daniclson, died 
in 1871. They were the parents of seven children, 
namely: Katharine E., Charles E.; William H.; 
Sarah; Edwin Lord, of this review; George E., and 

Edwin Lord Danielson, son of Captain Elisha and 
Sarah (Ely) Danielson, was born in Daniclson, 
Connecticut, May 24, 1852. His early education was 
obtained in the schools of Killingly township, and 
his boyhood was spent on the homestead farm. 
Having chosen medicine as his life work, he matricu- 
lated in Columbia College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, from which he was graduated with the degree 
of Doctor of Medicine in 1882, having previously 
studied under the preception of Dr. Rienzi Robinson, 
of Danielson. He opened an office for the practice 
of his profession in Canaan, Connecticut, there prac- 
ticing for four years, the number of his patients in- 
creasing with each year, then spent a year in the 
State of Texas, and in 1887 returned to his native 
State and opened an office in Lebanon, building up 
an excellent practice, the direct result of his skill in 
the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Although 
the greater part of his time was taken up with his 
inside and outside calls, he yet was able to serve in 
a public capacity, filling the position of health officer 
for a number of years, and in 1892 was chosen medi- 
cal examiner for the town of Lebanon, for which 
position he as well qualified. He also served as a 

member of the School Board. Dr. Danielson was 
staunch in his advocacy of Republican principles, and 
he affiliated with Buckingham Lodge, No. 57, Ameri- 
can Order of Fraternal Helpers, for which he was 
medical examiner. 

Dr. Danielson married, November 29, 1893, Emma 
Prances Gay, of Lebanon, born March 7, 1857, 
daughter of the late William Read and Catherine 
(Wettmore) Gay. One child was born of this mar- 
riage, Sarah Catharine, born in Lebanon, November 
10, 1895, died August 2, 1919, at Hartford, Connecti- 
cut. Dr. and Mrs. Danielson were members of the 
Congregational church of Lebanon, which he served 
as clerk for a number of years. Dr. Danielson died 
at his home in Lebanon, January 18, 1918, and his 
remains were interred in Danielson Cemetery. 

THE CHURCH FAMILY dates from John at 
Church (that is, living near a certain church, whence 
his patronymic.) He lived at Great Parndon, Essex, 
1335-96. He married, in 1360, Catherine Winchester, 
daughter of Richard Winchester. Their son, Robert 
Church, died in 1420, leaving a daughter, Joan, who 
married Richard Maistor. John (2) Church, the 
second son of John at Church, was a resident of the 
city of Leicester, where he held much property. In 
1399 he was a member of Parliament, and also in 
1420, from Leicester; from 1402 to 1422 he was mayor 
of Leicester. He had sons, John (3) and Robert, 
(the latter a haberdasher in London, and father of 
Thomas Church, the sculptor), and a daughter, Ca- 
therine, who died before July 25, 1450. Of these, 
John (3) Church, a merchant, had two sons, John (4) 
and Reynold. Reynold Church, son of John (3) and 
.•\gnes Church married, in 1496, Margaret Green, 
daughter of Robert Green, of Chester. To Reynold 
Church was given a coat-of-arms. The arms of the 
Maiden, Essex, branch is almost identical with the 
Nantwick coat-of-arms. 

John (5) Church, son of Reynold and Margaret 
(Green) Church, was alderman and bailiff of Maiden, 
Essex. He married (first) Joan Henkyn; (second) 
Mary Tyrrell, daughter of Edmond Tvrrell, a des- 
cendant of Walter, who slew King William Rufus. 
This line is closely connected with the Greens of Es- 
sex, who also intermarried with the Wrights of 
Essex, in several instances. William Church, second 
son of Reynold and Margaret (Green) Church, had a 
son Richard, who built, in 157?. the half-timbered 
house still standing at Nantwick, styled "Church's 
Mansion." Richard Church married Margaret 
Wright, daughter of Roger Wright, and died in 1592. 
Robert Church, third son of Reynold and Margaret 
(Green) Church, born about 1505. in Castle Camps, 
Cambridgeshire, was a counscllor-at-law, and also 
steward of the Earl of Oxford (Harleian M. T. 1542). 
He had two sons, Bartholomew and Tohn (6). The 
first married .Mice Runner. John (6) Church, brother 
of Bartholomew Church, was of Sanford county, Es- 
sex, and married Catherine Swan, circa I>47: and 
their children were John and Thom?s. The latter 
married Thomasine (the feminine name of Thomas). 



He was warden of St. Clements, Ipswich, 1597. Jolin 
(7) Church, son of John (6) Church, of Sanford (or 
Samford), married Joan Titerall; he died before Nov- 
ember 4, 1593, leaving several children, of whom 
Richard Church, born May 9, 1570, married Alice, 
widow of his brother Henry, and was a merchant 
tailor. Richard Church, settled in Braintree, Essex, 
where he was thrown into contact with many subse- 
quent settlers of this country, the Greens, Marshes, 
Wards and Graves. His son, Richard (2) Church, 
was the immigrant, and evidently came over with 
his relatives, John and Nathaniel Marsh, and Isaac 
Graves, from Braintree, Essex, to Braintree, New 
England. The father, Richard (l) Church, had five 
children, who married into these families: Alice, born 
January 12, 1603, married. May 18, 1624, Thomas 
Green, of Witham, Essex; John, born May 7, 1607, 
died July 15, 1638, married Elizabeth Marsh, daughter 
of Robert Marsh, of Braintree; Henry, born in 1609, 
married a Browne, but died without issue; Richard 
(2), already named as the immigrant; and Arnold, 
born March 23, 161 1, married Margaret Ward, sister 
of Nathaniel Ward, later of Hartford and Hadley. 

(I) Richard (2) Church, the immigrant ancestor, 
born February 6, 1610, married, May 18, 1627, Anna 
Marsh, daughter of Edward Marsh, of Braintree. 
In 1636 he came with the Hookes to Hartford, and 
was one of the original proprietors, and resided on 
the east side of Burr street (originally known as the 
road from "Centinel Hill to the Cow Pasture," ac- 
cording to W. L. Porter). "Centinel Hill" is that 
part of Main street at the head of the present Mor- 
gan street, and was originally much higher than it 
now is. The "Cow Pasture" was in the vicinity of 
the present Kency Memorial tower, and it was di- 
rectly east of the "Cow Pas'ture" that Richard 
Church lived, his land probably extending down to 
the present Windsor street. He was a participant 
in the great controversy which divided the First 
Church in Hartford, and he sided with the party 
which opposed the Rev. Samuel Stone, as his signa- 
ture to a letter to Mr. Stone's remonstrance shows. 
This letter bears date of March 12, 1655, at which 
time Richard Church was in Hartford. Probably, in 
1659, he removed to Hadley, wi"ch the "withdrawers," 
and there died, December 16. 1667. He left five chil- 
dren: Edward, born February 26, 1628, died Septem- 
ber 10, 1704; Samuel, born March 3, 1629, died young; 
Mary, born November 2, 1632; John, of whom fur- 
Hartford, Connecticut, was born May 9, 1636, died 
April 3, 1684. 

(II) John Church, son of Richard (2) Church, of 
Hartford, Connecticut, was born May 9, 1636, died 
October 16, 1691. He married, October 27, 1657, 
Sarah Beckley, daughter of Richard Beckley, of New 
Haven ("Hartford town records"). John Church 
may have gone to Hadley with his father, as no 
births of his family are found at Hartford. Richard 
Beckley removed from New Haven (founding the 
well known family there) to Wcthersficld. If John 
Church did go to Hadley, he returned to Hartford 
and was admitted to the Second Church. February 

26, 1670. No mention of his wife is made at this time, 
but she was admitted to the church, June 23, 1678. 
'J"hc names of their children are known from his ad- 
ministration and will, and are as follows: Sarah, 
born in 1659, married George Knight, died in 1730; 
Richard, of whom further; Mary, died January 30, 
1705; John, born in 1670, married Abigail Cadwell, 
in 1699, died in 1735; Samuel, born in 1671, married 
Elizabeth Clark, in 1710, died in 1718; and Deliver- 
ance, born in 1679. 

(III) Richard (3) Church, son of John and Sarah 
(Beckley) Church, was born in 1663. He married, 
March 3, 1692, Elizabeth Noble, daughter of Thomas 
Noble, of Boston, born February 9, 1663. He set- 
tled in Westfield Massachusetts, where eight chil- 
dren were born to them. Af^er 1705 they removed 
to Colchester, Connecticut, where he died April I, 
1730, in his sixty-seventh year. His widow married 
Deacon Samuel Loomis, and died in Colchester, Au- 
gust 10, 1741, aged seventy-eight years, six months 
and one day. Their son, James Church, born at 
Westfield, Massachusetts, October 26, 1696, came to 
Hartford, and married, in 1722, Abigail Stanley, 
daughter of Caleb Stanley. He was ensign, and was 
admitted to the South Church, March 28, 1725. He 
died in 1751. His will, dated March 13, 1750-51, men- 
tioned wife Abigail, and gives to son Joseph the 
land in Colchester, "it being the lot my honored fa- 
tlicr lived on, with the buildings." To "my son 
James, one-half of my dwelling house in Hartford. 
.Son James, who is under age, to be maintained at 
college ; tlircc daughters, Abigail, Jcrusha and Mary." 
Joseph Church, a grandson, is given a hundred acres 
of land in Litchfield. Lands in the 'cown of Bed- 
ford are also mentioned. Children of Richard and 
Elizabeth (Noble) Church: Hannah, born October 5, 
1692; Rachel, born March I, 1694; John, born Janu- 
ary 12, 1695, died June 19, 1754; James, mentioned 
above; Joseph, born December 7, 1698; Jonathan, of 
whom further; Samuel, born November 28, 1702; and 
Elizabeth, born March 26, 1705. 

(IV) Jonathan Church, son of Richard (3) and 
Elizabeth (Noble) Church, was born December 7, 
1700, and died October 27, 1 761. He was an early set- 
tler of North Parish, New London, now Montville, 
where he came from Colchester. First notice of him 
is in his marriage, February 24, 1724, to Abigail Fair- 
banks, born in 1705, daughter of Samuel and Chris- 
tian (Chapel) Fairbanks, by Rev. James Hillhouse. 
Soon after this union he purchased a farm in the vi- 
cinity of Uncasville, at a place afterwards called 
"Pennytown." His wife was a woman of considera- 
ble ability and moral character. Her mother was a 
member of the Hillhouse church. These children 
have been recorded: I. Jonathan, Jr., born in 1726; 
married (first) Mary Angel!, February 13, 1762, 
daughter of William and Almy (Harding') .iXngell, of 
Warwick, Rhode Island, he served in the Revolution- 
ary War as private in Colonel Erastus Wolcott's 
regiment at New London, February 28, 1777; married 
(second) Mary .'\ngel Fairbanks: (third) Jemina An- 
gel; he died previous to 1800; his widow sold out his 





interest in the farm to Levi Lester in 1801 and re- 
moved to New York State. 2. Fairbanks, born in 
17J8. 3. John, born in 1734. 4. Amos, born in 1736. 
5. Pelcg, of whom further. 

(V) Peleg Church, son of Jonathan and Abi- 
gail (Fairbanks) Churtli, was born in 1738. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Congdon, daughter of Jeremiah and 
Ann (Chapel) Congdon. He was a blacksmhh, and 
first started a shop on the land bought of Joseph 
Church, in 1764, in Uncasville, then called "Penny- 
town." He afterwards removed to tlic Fort Hill 
farm at Mohcgan, where it is said he lived for over 
thirty years. He served in the Kcvolutlonary War as 
a private in Captain Calkins company, General Lati- 
mer's regiment, at Saratoga, in 1777. He died before 
1805. His children are: Elizabeth, Pelcg, Jr., of 
whom further; Sanford, born in 1768, married Sarah 
Monroe; John, born in 1770, married Sarah Leach, 
sister of Mary Leach, wife of Peleg Church, Jr. 

(VI) Peleg Church, Jr., son of Peleg and Eliza- 
beth (Congdon) Church, was born in 1766. He mar- 
ried Mary Leach, daughter of John and Mary (Gray) 
Leach, of Mohegan. His children arc: Erastus, of 
whom further; Peleg, born in 1793, married Jane 
Harrington; Henry, born in 1795, married Partlicma 
Bradford, in January, 1816, daughter of William 
Bradford; Nancy, born in 1796, married Ebenczer 
Story; Maria, born in 1798, married Joshua Rogers; 
James B., born in 1790, married Julia O'Brien; 
Lydia, married Joseph Fuller in 1830; Eliza, born 
April 2, 1800, married Samuel Atwell; William, mar- 
ried Harriet Lucas; and Abby, married George F. 

(VH) Erastus Church, son of Peleg, Jr. and 
Mary (Leach) Church, was born .\pril 6, 1792. He 
married (first) Nancy Ford, daughter of John 
Ford, and had children: i. Mary, born November 
2, 1812, married George Carpenter, and died January 
5, 1848. 2. Elisha R., mentioned below. 3. Alniira, 
born April 23, 1821, died September 24, 1822. 4. 
Emelinc, born September 20, 1822, married (first) 
George Cranston; (second) Dr. King, of Norwich. 
5. Eliza, born January 16, 1824, married Nathan 
Champlin Chappell. 6. Nancy, born December 20, 
1826, married Edward Burdettc, and died aged forty- 
one years. Erastus Church married (second) Mrs. 
Fitche (Comstock) Church, widow of George Whit- 
man Church, and daughter of Ebcnezer and Desire 
(Comstock) Comstock, born in Montville, in 1790. 
She had five children by her first marriage: I. 
Mary Ann, born December 21, 1815, married Mr. 
Carpenter, of Norwich, Connecticut. 2. Captain 
James Lcander, born January 19, 1819, and died Jan- 
uary 15, 1901; married Anstriss Wentworth Sweet, 
born in 1830, and died June 16, 1900, daughter of Na- 
thaniel and Betsey (Ellis) Sweet, of Providence, 
Rhode Island. 3. George W. 4- Electa, born August 
20, 1821, married (first) John Chapman, and (second) 
Levi Lester. 5. Dudley, died young. Children by 
Erastus Church's second marriage to Mrs. Fitche 
(Comstock) Church. I. Captain Erastus, born .April 
13, 1834, died March 5, 191 1; married Helen M. Saw- 

yer, born September 20, 1859, died September 6, 
1919. 2. Charles E., born February 14, 1837, died May 
23, 1902; married Isabelle Utky Becbe. 3. Nicholas 
W., born May 24, 1839; married (first) Ellen Cong- 
don, (second) February 2, 1880, Juliet Maynard, born 
October 14, 1839, died February 28, 1914. 

(VIH) Elisha R. Church, son of Erastus and 
Nancy (Ford) Church, was born April 2, 1816, in 

Mohcgan. He married (first) Augusta , 

March 4, 1844, the Jicv. Mr. Potter performing the 
ceremony. She was born .August 14, 1826. He mar- 
ried (second) Melissa S. Williams, daughter of John 
and Eliza (Brown) Williams, who was born in 
Montville, October 4, 1841. She died November 5, 
1918. He died in Preston, February 6, 1892. Chil- 
dren by first wife: Bishop S., Isabell A., and 
Charles B. Children by second wife: Theodore N.; 
Henry E.; Jane E.; Leonard P., of whom further; 
Elisha, twin brother of Leonard P., died young; 
Warren W.; Evelyn. 

(IX) Leonard P. Church, son of Elisha R. and 
Melissa S. (Williams) Church, was born April 2, 
1868, in Preston, Connecticut, where he spent his 
boyhood days and received his education. When 
eighteen years of age he entered the employ of 
Charles OfTenheiser, of Norwich, as bookkeeper, 
where he remained for one year, after which he was 
employed by Welcome A. Smith for two years in 
the same capacity. On December l, 1889, he en- 
tered the Thames National Bank, where he has 
served continuously since, having reached the posi- 
tion of assistant cashier, which position he now 

Mr. Church, in his religious faitif, is a Baptist, 
he and his family belonging to the Central Baptist 
Church. Politically, he is a Republican, and frater- 
nally, a member of the Arcanum Club since 1890, 
and a member of the Chelsea Boat Club, serving for 
many years as treasurer. 

On .April 5, 1893, Mr. Church married Harriet C. 
Briggs, born January 17, 1872, daughter of Horace 
A. and Esther (Green) Briggs, of Norwich. To 
this union has been born two children: Natalie N., 
who died at the age of ten years; and Kenneth 
Briggs, who graduated from Clark College in 1920, 
and then entered Clark University, and is now em- 
ployed as a chemist at the .Aspinook Company, 
Jewett City. 

ARTHUR H. BREWER— In May, 1922, Arthur H. 
Brewer, president of the Thames National Bank, 
of Norwich, celebrated the seventy-fourth anniver- 
sary of his natal day, and amid the scenes in which 
his most useful life began, — Norwich, Connecticut. 
No man ever lived in the city of Norwich whose 
life has been more persistently devoted to the busi- 
ness interests of the city, as merchant, manufacturer 
and banker. The mercantile, industrial and financial 
history of Norwich could not be written, and the 
career of .Arthur H. Brewer be omitted, neither 
could the history of several leading corporations 
of the city be chronicled, truly, without a great 



deal of space being given to the following: The 
Edward Chappell Company, coal and lumber, one of 
the largest and oldcs't businesses of its kind in East- 
ern Connecticut; the Hopkins and Allen Arms 
Company; the Shetucket Company; the Falls Com- 
pany; the Ashland Cotton Company (Jewett City); 
the Ponemah Mills; the Norwich Savings Society, 
the oldest of financial institutions in Norwich; the 
Thames National Bank, the largest of all New Lon- 
don county banks; and a dozen others. In which he 
has held or holds official position. So, too, there 
would be blank pages were his name and his deeds 
omitted from the records of the city's church, chari- 
table, philanthropic and fraternal institutions. While 
the years have taken their toll, Mr. Brewer is still 
"in the harness," and he can be found at his office 
in the Thames National Bank every business day. 

Mr. Brewer comes of ancient New England fam- 
ily, his grandfather, Lyman Brewer, coming to Lud- 
low, Massachusetts, then to Norwich, Connecticut, 
in early life. Lyman Brewer was of the si.xth gen- 
eration of the family founded in New England by 
Daniel Brewer, who came in the ship "Lion" in 
1632. This family history is traced from Daniel and 
Joanna Brewer, the American ancestors, to Arthur 
H. Brewer, of Norwich, through their son, Daniel 
(2) Brewer, and his wife, Hannah (Morril) Brewer, 
they of Ro.xbury, Massachusetts; their son. Rev. 
Daniel (3) Brewer, a graduate from Harvard Col- 
lege, 1687, an ordained minister of the Gospel, of 
Springfield, Massachusetts, and his wife, Catherine 
(Chauncey) Brewer; their son Isaac Brewer, of Wil- 
braham, Massachusetts, and his wife, Mary (Bliss) 
Brewer; their son. Lieutenant Isaac {2) Brewer, a 
large landowner of Ludlow, Massacliusetts, and his 
wife, Sybil (Miller) Brewer; their son, Lyman 
Brewer, of further mention, and his wife, Harriet 
(Tyler) Brewer; their son, Charles H. Brewer, of 
further mention, and his wife, Martha L. (Witter) 
Brewer; their son, Arthur H. Brewer, to v.'hom this 
review is inscribed. 

Along maternal lines, Mr. Brewer traces through 
his mother, Martha L. (Witter) Brewer, to Professor 
John Witter, of Yale University, son of Jacob Witter, 
of Brooklyn, Connecticut, son of Nathan Witter, of 
Brooklyn; son of Ebenezer Witter, of Preston, 
Connecticut; son of Deacon Ebenezer Witter, born 
in Scotland, in 1668, who came to New England, 
settling in Preston, where he died in 1712, aged 
forty-four years. Through his grandmother, Har- 
riet (Tyler) Brewer, descent is traced from Rev. 
John Tyler (Yale, 1765), first rector of Christ Epis- 
copal Church, Norwich, who served that church for 
fifty-four years. Through his great-grandmother, 
Hannah Tracy, Arthur H. Brewer finds an ancestor 
in Lieutenant Thomas Tracy, whose English line 
of descent was from Egbert, the first Saxon king of 
all England, who was sixth in direct line from Cedric 
the Saxon, of the sixth century. 

Lyman Brewer, of the sixth American generation, 
was born in 1786, settled in Norwich, Connecticut, 
where he died June 19, 1857. In early life he en- 

gaged as a merchant, but in 1825 aided in organiz- 
ing the now Thames National Bank, and became its 
cashier, continuing in that position until his death, 
thirty-two years later. He was also one of the 
founders of the Norwich Savings Society, of Nor- 
wich, in 1824, these being the first two banking in- 
stitutions in Norwich and both survive as leaders, 
one now a National, the other a savings bank. 
Lyman Brewer resided in the old Brewer house, at 
No. 92 Washington street, which is occupied by 
Miss Louisa J. Brewer, one of the eleven children 
of Lyman and Harriet (Tyler) Brewer. Mrs. Har- 
riet (Tyler) Brewer died in Norwich, November 3, 
1880, aged ninety years, eleven months. 

Charles H. Brewer, son of Lyman and Harriet 
(Tyler) Brewer, was born in Norwich, Connec'cicut, 
August 9, 1824, but spent little of his business life 
there, dying suddenly in San Francisco, California, 
January 10, 1891. For more than a decade of years 
he was a resident of San Mateo, California, asso- 
ciated with his brother. Rev. Alfred L. Brewer, D.D., 
head of a military school there. In 1890 he left his 
home in Norwich to look after some real estate in 
California, and there died. He is buried in Yantic 
Cemetery, Norwich. Charles H. Brewer married, 
in 1847, Martha L. Witter, born in 1828, died Decem- 
ber 9, 1873, daughter of Professor John and Eliza 
(Buckley) Witter. Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Brewer 
were the parents of four children: Arthur H., of 
further mention; Frank C, a banker; Annie Louise, 
married Walter L. Wellington, a merchant; Kate 
Tyler, married Robert DuBois, a merchant. 

Arthur H. Brewer, of the eighth American Brewer 
generation in New England, was born in Norwich, 
Connecticut, May 17, 1848, and there resides, an 
honored, "native son," (August, 1922). He was 
educated in Norwich and Boston schools, and at the 
age of twenty entered the employ of Edward Chap- 
pell, a coal dealer of Norwich. Ten years later, in 
1878, Mr. Chappell admitted Mr. Brewer to a one- 
third partnership interest, Enoch F. Chapman also 
having an equal interest. Mr. Cliappell died in 1891, 
Messrs. Brewer and Chapman continuing the busi- 
ness until the latter's death in January, 1898, when 
Mr. Brewer admitted his former most worthy em- 
ployees, Messrs. Washburn, Hatch, Chapman and 
Crary, reorganizing as a corporation, The Edward 
Chappell Company. The company waxed prosper- 
ous and great, its management claiming Mr. Brew- 
er's able interest until 1913, when he retired from 
the management, not to private life, but to an en- 
larged field of activity. The interest Mr. Brewer 
held in The Edward Chappell Company he disposed 
of among his sons-in-law, William A. Norton, Willis 
Austin and Lucius Briggs. 

It would require a volume to chronicle in full the 
ramifications of Mr. Brewer's numerous interests, 
so important have they been. He was for a num- 
ber of years president of the Hopkins & Allen 
Arms Company; president of the Falls Company; 
vice-president of the Ponemah Mills Company, act- 
ing president during President William A. Lester's 



absence abroad; president of the Ashland Cotton 
Company of Jcwett City; secretary-treasurer of the 
Uncas-Hall Company; director of the Norwich Gas 
and Electric Company; president of the Crescent 
Fire Arms Company; vice-president of the Norwich 
Water Power Company; director of the Uncas Paper 
Company; president of Bard Union Company; and 
numerous others. He has retired From executive 
place in many of these corporations, but holds di- 
rectorships in several. 

Mr. Brewer's banking interests are very importan: 
and have become his sole activity In the business 
life of his city. On June 21, 1913, he became presi- 
dent of The Norwich Savings Society, which institu- 
tion, in 1924, will celebrate its centenary. In 1918 
he was elected the eighth president of the Thames 
National Bank, and is yet holding tnat office with 
the institution that his grandfather, Lyman Brewer, 
aided in organizing and served as its first cashier, 
1825-1857. This in brief is an outline of the business 
career of a real captain of industry, but it is only an 
outline of half a century of useful effort, and a rec- 
ord not completed but still in the making. 

The Norwich institutions devoted to charity and 
philanthropy have always had a warm friend in Mr. 
Brewer, although he has acted in a quiet, unobtru- 
sive way, few knowing how deep his interest is and 
how broad his charity. He has long served as a di- 
rector of the Eliza Huntington Memorial Home; is 
an ex-president of the Norwich Chamber of Com- 
merce; member of the .Arcanum Club, and its presi- 
dent when the club revamped and occupied its pres- 
ent quarters on Webster HeiglTts, the acquirement 
of which was originally instigated by Mr. Brewer; 
trustee of Norwich Free .'\cademy; member of the 
Society of Colonial Wars, and is a Republican in 
politics, sitting as a delegate in the National con- 
vention in 1896 that first nominated William Mc- 
Kinley for president of the United States. Political 
office had no place in his scheme of life, and he never 
accepted one, cither appointive or elective, although 
opportunities have not been lacking. 

In the Masonic order his record covers all degrees 
of .Vmerican Masonry. He was "made a mason" in 
Somerset Lodge, No. 34, Free and .'\ccepted Masons, 
upon becoming of lawful age, December 27, 1869. 
He sat in the Senior Warden's chair in 1878, and in 
'9-0 ^•,•n!; elected worshipful master, in 1890 he was 
elected trustee of the lodge and has he'd that office 
until the present (1922). He is a companion of 
Franklin Chapter, No. 4, Royal Arch Masons, ex- 
alted September 30, 1873; master of the second vail, 
T874; king, 1875; high priest, 1876-77- He is a mem- 
ber of Franklin Council. No. 3. Royal and Select 
Masters, making his entrance into Cryptic Masonry, 
November 20, 1873; was captain of the Guard, 1874- 
77. principal conductor, 1878, captain of the guard, 
1879-81, deputy master, 1882, thrice illustrious mas- 
ter 1883-8-' He was knighted in Columbia Com- 
mandery, Knights Templar, May 9, 1879, and on 
January 9, 1880. entered King Solomon Lodge of 
Perfection, Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite. He was 

treasurer of all the Scottish Rite bodies 1891-95, and 
has been a trustee, 1895-1922. He became a member 
of Van Renssalaer Council, Princes of Jerusalem, of 
tlie same rite, June 18, 1880, and was treasurer of 
the Council, 1891-95. He acquired the degrees of the 
Norwich Chapter of Rose Croix, AncTcnt Accepted 
Scottish Rite, June 18, 1880, was master, 1884-1907. 
He became a member of Connecticut Consistory, 
.\ncicnt Accepted Sco'ttish Rite, June 25, 1880. On 
September 14, 1880, he was honored with the highest 
degree of the Order in the United States, the hon- 
orary thirty-third, of the Supreme Council of the 
.'\ncient Accepted Scottish Rite, a degree conferred 
by the Supreme Council for "distinguished service 
rendered the Order." Mr. Brewer was the leading 
spirit and chairman of the preliminary committee of 
the organization of the Masonic Temple Corporation, 
and was elected first president of the corporation, 
April 29, 1892, and has continued its executive head 
until the present (1922). 

On August 4, 1873, Mr. Brewer married Mary 
Phipps Young, born October 26, 1847, died Febru- 
ary 22, 1903, daughter of Caius C. and Mary G. 
(Phipps) Young. Three children were born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Brewer, as follows: Martha W., married 
William A. Norton; Annie Huntington, married 
Willis Austin; Mary Goffe, married Lucius Briggs. 
The family are members of 'the Episcopal church, 
Mr. Brewer having been a vestryman and treasurer 
of Christ Church for several years. Mrs. Brewer 
was a gracious lady, greatly beloved for her at- 
tractive personality and wide charity. The Brewer 
home was the scene of a generous hospitality, and 
its greatest attraction was the devoted wife and mo- 
ther. In the chancel of Christ Protestant Episcopal 
Church, of which she was a member, a memorial has 
been placed. 

GEORGE HENRY LORING— No list of the re- 
tired representatives of the agricultural interests of 
New London county would be complete without the 
name which stands at the head of this review. Mr. 
Loring has taken an active part in the political life 
of Norwich, his home town, and is closely identified 
with church work and with a number of other in- 
terests important to his community. He is a son 
of William Loring, and a descendant of Deacon 
Thomas Loring, who came from Axminster, Devon- 
shire, to Dorchester, in Suffolk county, Massachu- 

(I) Deacon Thomas Loring, the first of his name 
in New England, married, in England. Jane Newton, 
and on December 22, 1634, they left England, bring- 
ing their two sons, Thomas and John. The family 
lived in Dorchester, Hingham and Hull, Deacon 
Thomas Loring dying in the last named town, .-\pril 
I, 1661, his widow, August 25, 1672. He was one of 
the first deacons of the Hingham Church, and an 
honorable, upright man. From Deacon Thomas 
Loring the line is traced in this branch through his 
second son, John. 

(II) John Loring, son of Deacon Thomas Lor- 



ing, was born in England, December 22, 1630, and 
died at tlie home of his son, Captain Thomas Loring, 
in Hingham, Massachusetts, September 19, 1714. He 
was brought from England by his parents in 1634, 
and after removal to Hingham was ever a resident 
there. John Loring married (first) December 16, 
1656, Mary Baker, daughter of Nathaniel Baker. 
She died July 13, 1679, and he married (second) Sep- 
tember 22, 1679, Rachel Buckland. By his first wife 
there were ten children born and by his second wife 
four children. 

(HI) Isaac Loring, son of John Loring and his 
first wife, Mary (Baker) Loring, was born in Hull, 
Massachusetts, January 22, 1666, and died in Boston, 
Massachusetts, December 3, 1702. He married, Au- 
gust 5, 1691, Sarah Young, and they were the parents 
of seven children, two of whom died in infancy. 

(IV) William Loring, son of Isaac and Sarah 
(Young) Loring, was born December 23, 1700. He 
was a carpenter and joiner of Boston. He married, 
November 19, 1724, Ann Holland, who died in 1784. 
To them were born five children. 

(V) Isaac (2) Loring, son of William and Ann 
(Holland) Loring, was born in Boston, November 
30, 1729, and died prior to March 31, 1758, as an ad- 
ministrator was appointed on that date to settle his 
estate. He married Elizabeth Russell. 

(VI) Captain William (2) Loring, son of Isaac 
(2) and Elizabeth (Russell) Loring, was born in 
Boston, January 5, 1756. He was a master mariner, 
and the following from Mr. Caulkin's "History of 
New London" thus gives his fate: "In February, 
1788, the brig 'Clarissa' came from Port and Prince: 
her master. Captain William Loring, had died on the 
passage home just as they came upon the coast. 
The vessel touched at Elizabeth Island and they 
buried Captain Loring at Tarpaulin Cove that very 
cold Tuesday night, February 5, 1788." There is a 
tombstone at Naushon, Elizabeth Island, on which 
is the following inscription: "In memory of Captain 
William Loring of Norwich, Connecticut. He was 
born at Boston, January 5, 1756, and died at sea, 
February 2, 1788. 

"Loring in all the prime of life, 
Hath quit this brittle clay. 
And calmly steered his single bark 
To yonder world of day." 

Captain Loring married Zerviah Lord, May 7, 
1781, and they were the parents of four children. 
She married (second) Daniel Dunham. 

(VII) George Loring, son of Captain William 
(2) and Zerviah (Lord) Loring, was born April 23, 
1786, and died December 13, 1852. He married, 
March 23, 1809, Lucy Lester, born February 8, 1787, 
and died August 12, 1836, daughter ot Elijah and 
Daman (Lord) Lester. They were the parents of 
eight children. 

(VIII) William (3) Loring, son of Georpe and 
Lucy (Lester) Loring, was born in North Pieston, 
now known as Griswold, New London county, 
Connecticut, February 3, 1817, and died in Norwich, 

Connecticut, December 10, 1896. He was early ac- 
quamted with farm pursuits and all his life was a 
farmer, only retiring a few years beiore his passing. 
When stUi a young man, he was the owner 01 a larm 
of 125 acres, and tor many years alter was prominent 
among the farmers of his community. He also en- 
gaged, to some extent, in the breeding of cattle and 
sheep. He was a Republican, but never an oltice- 
holder, and belonged to no orders. He was a mem- 
ber of the Congregational church of Preston, in 
which he served as deacon for over thirty years.. 
Mr. Loring married, February 2, 1842, Harriet Kin- 
ney Morgan, daughter of Erastus and Polly (Meach) 
Morgan, and a native of Preston, Connecticut. Mr. 
and Mrs. Loring were the parents of three children: 
Lucy L., born at Preston, and died in Norwich^ 
Connecticut; Mary F., born at Preston, and now re- 
sides in Colorado; and George Henry, mentioned 
below. A few years before his death, VVilliam Lor- 
ing removed to Norwich, locating on Laurel Hill 
avenue, where he died in his eightieth year. Mrs. 
Loring, a good and noble woman, died January 20^ 

(IX) George Henry Loring, son of William (3) 
and Harriet Kinney (Morgan) Loring, as born Sep- 
tember I, 1851, at Preston, Connecticut. He re- 
ceived his early education in district schools of his 
native town, afterward entering Eastman Business 
College, whence he was graduated in 1871. Choos- 
ing to make agriculture his life work, Mr. Loring be- 
came assistant to Lyman Randall, a farmer in the 
neighborhood of Norwich, remaining with him about 
nine years, then continued to manage the farm for 
the widow. In the spring of 1885, he purchased a 
farm of eighty acres on Scotland road, Connecticut, 
the Alba F. Smith farm, and cultivated it success- 
fully for about twelve years. In 1898 he sold the 
property and bought his present home on Lincoln 
avenue and LTncas street, Norwich, where he has 
since led a life practically retired, though retaining^ 
and manifesting a lively interest in affairs, local, 
State and National. In town and county politics, 
Mr. Loring has been very active, always supporting 
the Republican party. In 1916 and 1917 he served 
as alderman in the City Council of Norwich. He 
belongs to the Royal Arcanum, of Norwich, and to 
the Park Congregational Church, of Norwich, taking 
an earnest and helpful interest in its welfare and 

Mr. Loring married, Oc'tober 24, 1884, Lillian 
Avery, born in Preston, July 30, 1859, daughter of 
LTlysses and Lucy A. (Williams) Avery, both of whom 
are now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Loring are the par- 
ents of the following children, all of whom were 
born in Norwich; Nellie A.; Sarah L., married Ray- 
mond B. Sherman, of Norwich; Lucy Williams, mar- 
ried Joseph O. Hull, of Norwich; and Ruth Lester. 
These children, with the exception of Mrs. Sherman 
and Mrs. Hull, reside with their parents. Mr. Lor- 
ing is a man respected, influential and well liked by 
his fellow-townsmen, his record, bo'th as farmer and 
citizen, one which he may review with satisfaction. 



D.D. — An ordained minister of the Gospel, college 
professor and investigator, Dr. Hulbert has accom- 
plished valuable work for the cause of church and 
education, following the example of an honored fa- 
ther. Rev. Calvin Butler Hulbert, D.D., clergyman 
and teacher. Dr. Hulbert has served the twin causes, 
religion and education, in his native land and in far 
away Syria, and since 1914 has been pastor of the 
First Church of Christ (Congregational), Groton, 
Connecticut. To his ministerial worKs he adds a 
great deal of literary and platform work, his con- 
tribution to the literature of his profession being ex- 
ceedingly valuable. 

Henry Woodward Hulbert, son of Rev. Calvin 
Butler and Mary Elizabeth (Woodward) Hulbert, 
was born in Sheldon, Vermont, January 26, 1858. 
He prepared for college at Burr and Burton Semi- 
nary at Manchester, Vermont, then entered Middle- 
bury College, whence he was graduated A.B., class 
of 1879. After graduation, in 1879-80, he was in Eng- 
land investigating English common schools under 
authority of the United States Government, to whom 
his report was made. Upon his return from Eng- 
land he spent the school year, 1880-81, as teacher in 
the Academy at Mechanicville, New York, then was 
for another year, 1881-82, tutor in English literature 
and history at his alma mater, there receiving his 
Master's degree in 1882. Three years were then 
spent in studies in divinity at Union Theological 
Seminary, New York City, whence he was grad- 
uated, class of 1885. The next two years, 1886-88, 
were spent abroad as instructor in church history 
at the Mission Theological Seminary at Beirut, 
Syria, then six years were passed at Marietta Col- 
lege, Marietta, Ohio, 1888-94, as professor of history 
and political science. In 1889 he was ordained a 
minister of the Presbyterian church, but continued 
his work as an educator until 1897. He remained 
at Marietta until 1894, then accepted the chair of 
church history at Lane Theological Seminary, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, where he remained until 1897. In 
that year he accepted a call from the First Presby- 
terian Church, of Cleveland, Ohio. 

His love for the teaching profession caused him to 
accept the chair of church history at Bangor Theo- 
logical Seminary, Bangor, Maine, filling that posi- 
tion, 1902-06. In 1907 he accepted a call from High 
Street Congregational Church, Portland, Maine, and 
was there located until 191 1. In 1914 he came to 
the First Church of Christ, Groton, Connecticut, and 
has there continued in most pleasant pastoral rela- 
tions until the present (September, 1922). During 
the interval between leaving Bangor in 1906, and 
taking the pulpit at Portland in 1907, Dr. Hulbert 
went abroad on an official mission to investigate 
religious conditions in Russia. He is the author of 
"The Church and Her Children." 1012. and is a fre- 
quent contributor to religious encyclopedias, diction- 
aries, and theological reviews. Durmg the World 
War period, 1917-18, he was actively engaged in war 
work as Young Men's Christian Association educa- 

tional secretary, his field being the six forts and 
bases in the New London district. He is the founder 
of the "The Children of the Covenant," a member 
for many years of the American Society of Church 
History, Delta Upsilon fraternity and the Ariston 
Club of New London. He received from Middlebury 
College the degree of D.D. in 1900, and the same 
year Marietta College conferred the same honor. 

Dr. Hulbert married (first), March 31, 1891, in 
Newark, New Jersey, Eliza Lyman Pinneo, who died 
June 9, 1905, daughter of Samuel Lyman and Mary 
(Wilcox) Pinneo. To them were born six children: 
Winifred Elizabeth, born at Marietta, Ohio. July 4, 
1892; Chauncey Pinneo, born at Marietta, Ohio, 
January 21, 1894; Woodward Dennis, born at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, July 18, 1896; Kathryn, born at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, June 1, 1898; Ralph Wheelock, born at 
Bangor, Maine, July 4, 1903, died there, July 24, 
1904; Hilda Lyman, born at Bangor, Maine, July 4, 
1903. Dr. Hulbert married (second) Annie Eliza 
McMaster, at Bangor, Maine, July 17, 1907. 

In coming to New London county the family was 
in reality coming back to the home of their ances- 
tors, being descendants of Christopher Huntington, 
who was the first boy born in the Norwich, Connec- 
ticut settlement (1660), and of Eleazar Wheelock, 
who established Moor's Charity School for Indian 
boys in connection with his church at North Leb- 
anon (now Columbia), and later removed to Han- 
over, New Hampshire, where he founded Dartmouth 
College. Dr Hulbert was active in the formation 
of the Federation of Churches of ICcw London and 
vicinity, of which he has been the secretary from 
the beginning. The family home is No. 34 Monu- 
ment street, Groton, Connecticut. 

Washington Wentworth ShefTield, of New London, 
Connecticut, was an eminent member, dates back to 
the time of the Norman Conquest of England. Then- 
one, Edmund ShefTield, accompanied William the 
Conqueror on his invasion of England. In process 
of time three brothers, who descended from Edmund 
Sheffield, came to America and one, Amos Shef- 
field, settled in Rhode Island. 

Amos Sheffield, the immigrant ancestor of the 
family in .America, was born in Sheffield, England, 
lune 7. 1602, and came to .\merica in 1630, presum- 
ably with the Winthrop Colony. The line follows 
down through his son, Isaiah Sheffield, who was 
born in Boston, Massachusetts, July 10, 1638; 
Amos (2) Sheffield, son of Isaiah Sheffield, born in 
Newport, Rhode Island, July 27, 1660; John Shef- 
field, son of Amos (2) Sheffield, born m Newport, 
May 3, 1710; and Amos (3) Sheffield, son of John 
Sheffield, born February 3, 1764. Amos (3) Shef- 
field married a cousin of the famous Sweet family 
of New Eneland. and they were the parents of six 
children: Rev. John, William. Amos (4). Betsey, 
Hannah and Mary. Af^er the death of Amos (3) 
Sheffield, his widow married William Merrin, and 
gave birth to two children: John and .■Xmanda. 



Rev. John Sheffield, eldest son of Amos (3) Shef- 
field, was born in Exeter, Rhode Island, November 
20, 1798. When still a young man he went to Ston- 
ington, Connecticut, and there engaged in business 
as a carriage maker, attaining an unusual degree of 
success, and becoming a prominent figure in the pub- 
lic life of the town as well as in business. One of 
the earliest to embrace the principles of the Republi- 
can party, he served as trial justice of the town, and 
as chairman of the Board of Education, and also 
represented the town in the Connecticut State Legis- 
lature of 1847. He was always a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, and was ordained a minister of 
this church by Bishop Janes, on July 7, 1844. He 
married on February 6 1S20, Eliza Lewis, and they 
were the parents of nine children, all born in North 
Stonington: Frances Eliza, born September 21, 1821; 
John Franklin, born June 8, 1823; an mfant son, 
who died December 27, 1825, at the age of seven 
weeks; Washington Wcntworth, of whom extended 
mention follows: Lucius Tracy, born February 20, 
1830; Andrew Jackson, born May 12, 1832; Ann 
Judson, born May 11, 1834; Julia Tracy, born July 
31, 1837; Mary Hannah, born July 19, 1839. 

Dr. Washington Wentworth Sheffield, fourth 
child and third son of Rev. John and Eliza (Lewis) 
Sheffield, was born in North Stonington, Connecti- 
cut, April 23, 1827. He received his early education 
in the schools of his native town. For his profes- 
sional studies he entered one of the leading dental 
colleges of the day, and after his graduation, supple- 
mented that -training by practical experience in the 
office of Dr. J. A. G. Comstock, of New London, a 
successful practitioner of that day. Later, for a con- 
siderable time, he was under the expert tuition of Dr. 
Potter, of New York City, and through this breadth 
of learning and e.xpericnce. Dr. Sheffield became one 
of the best authorities of his time on dental topics. 
He returned to New London in April, 1852, and con- 
tinued practice here for several years before his bril- 
liant career was ended by death. He was the inven- 
tor of tlic crown and bridge work, which is one of 
the triumphs of modern dentistry. For many years, 
in his private practice, he used a formula of dental 
cream, which he had composed. At length, its popu- 
larity and the universal demand for it led him to 
erect a laboratory for its production on a commer- 
cial scale. The business grew steadily, and gave 
Sheffield's Dentifrice national reputation. Dr. 
Sheffield's two grandsons, Washington Kyle and 
Lucius Tracy Sheffield, are today manufacturing on 
a large scale not only the original formula, but many 
others for the leading pharmaceutical concerns in 
the United States and foreign countries. The indus- 
try is still carried on under the name of the Shef- 
field Dentifrice Company. In 191 1 the New Eng- 
land Collapsible Tube Company was incorporated 
by the grandsons for the purpose of satisfying the 
popular demand for the tin tube containers used for 
pharmaceutical and toilet preparations. This com- 
pany is today the largest manufacturer of these 

popular containers, and is supplying the leading con- 
cerns using tin tubes. 

Dr. Sheffield married Harriett P. Browne, of 
Providence, Rhode Island, daughter of Richard and 
Julia Browne, and they were the parents of one son, 
Lucius Tracy Sheffield, who was born in New Lon- 
don, in 1854. He married Mary J. Kyle, and they 
were the parents of two sons, born in New York 
City, Lucius Tracy, Jr., and Washington Kyle Shef- 
field, who are carrying on the business founded by 
their grandfather, L. Tracy Sheffield being president 
and treasurer, and W. Kyle Sheffield being vice- 
president and secretary. 

Dr. Washington W. Sheffield died in New London, 
in 1897, and the following tribute, published in the 
columns of a local paper at the time, was one of the 
many expressions of regret among the people who 
had known and loved this eminent man: 

"The death of Dr. Washington W. Sheffield, 
which took place at his home on Broad street, re- 
moves from New London one of its most respected 
citizens. As a citizen and a professional man, he 
had for fifty years occupied a conspicuous place in 
the city. Of striking appearance, affable manners, 
and ready sympathy, he won the respect of all 

Mrs. Sheffield survived her husband until July 
26, 1903, when she passed away at her home. No. 
170 Broad street. New London, Connecticut. 


highest esteem by his contemporaries, and promi- 
nent in every good work of the town, the death, in 
1913, of Charles Allen Chapman, of Montville, 
Connecticut, was regarded as a great loss to the 

Politically, Mr. Chapman had been very active, 
holding at different times every office connected 
with public affairs. In the business life of Mont- 
ville he had for many years been a merchant, for the 
last forty years of his life conducting a successful 
grocery establishment. His death occurred when 
seventy-four j^ears of age, and he was buried in the 
local cemetery. 

Charles Allen Chapman married (first) Mary Ed- 
wards, by whom he had one child, Nellie Evelyn, 
who died in 1918, at the age of forty-eight years. 
Mr. Chapman married (second) Laura Comstock, 
of Montville, a daughter of Nathan and Caroline 
(Whipple) Comstock, the former named one of the 
original settlers of Montville. The family of his 
wife, the Whipples, had been closely identified with 
the life of New London county since public records 
have been kept. The Comstock family is one of the 
oldest in this part of the United States, their origi- 
nal ancestor coming to this country in 1620 when 
the "Mayflower" brought the English refugees from 
Holland. A sister of Mrs. Laura (Comstock) Chap- 
man is Carrie Comstock, a member of the exclu- 
sive organization, "The Daughters of the May- 



flower." Their brother was the late Judge Corn- 
stock, who during his lifetime was a very able law- 
yer, prominently known throughout the State. 

By his second marriage Charles Allen Chapman 
and his wife, Laura (Conistock) Chapman, had four 
children: i. Charles Everett, born in Montville, 
February 17, 1878; engaged in the grocery business. 
2. Mildred May, born May 29, 1886. 3. Florence 
Caroline, who during the World War was in the 
service of her country as an ambulance driver in 
France; she is now postmistress of Palmertown. 
4. Laura Conistock, born June 13, 1900; married 
Mark Furber, and resides in Montville. The widow 
of Charles Allen Chapman, Mrs. Laura (Comstock) 
Chapman, is still residing at her home in Montville, 
aged sixty-four years. She is a member of the Bap- 
tist church of Montville. 

WILLIAM H. OAT— In Norwich, Connecticut, 
the name of William H. Oat stands for one of the 
formative forces of the day, which is always en- 
listed on the side of sane and righteous civic and 
national progress, the "Xorwich Bulletin." Mr. Oat 
was born in New London, Connecticut, February 
2i, 1867, a son of Lewis .'\. and Jane M. (Colby) 
Oat, his father for many years a leading contractor 
of New London county, and a veteran of the Civil 

As a boy Mr. Oat attended the educational in- 
stitutions of New London and Norwich, and in 
April, 1884, he entered the employ of the "Norwich 
Bulletin," in the capacity of mailing clerk. From 
that subordinate position he has risen through the 
various departments of the plant, until at this time 
he is in the executive offices of the Norwich Bulle- 
tin Company, as secretary and manager of the cor- 
poration. The "Bulletin" is one of the oldest news- 
papers in the State of Connecticut, having been 
founded in the year 1796, and is one of the eight 
morning dailies published in the State at the present 
time (1922). Republican in its political allegiance, the 
editorial policy is one of fearless advocacy of Repu- 
lican principles, conservatively expressed. Mr. Oat's 
personal convictions aligne him with the same party, 
and his influence in local affairs is definite and al- 
ways for advance. Fraternally he holds the thirty- 
second degree in the Masonic order, and he is a 
member of the Rotary Club, and a life member of 
the Norwich Lodge, Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks. 

SILAS MAXSON, SR.— Back to the early days 
of New England, when the sea offered the great ad- 
venture and the great opportunity, beyond that, to 
England and Oliver Cromwell, when religion 
marched with the sword, and still further into the 
stirring days of the Norman Conquest, one must 
go if he would follow the fortunes of the Maxson 
family from the beginning. 

Richard Maxson was one of the early Colonists 
of New England. He was admitted to the church in 
Boston, October 2, 1634. In 1638 he and others 

were admitted as inhabitants of the Island of Aquid- 
neck (Rhode Island). On April 30, 1639, he and 
twenty-eight others signed a compact acknowledg- 
ing themselves subjects of his Majesty, King 
Charles, and banding themselves into a civic body 

According to family tradition and old church 
memorials, Richard Maxson was among the first 
who attempted a landing on the Connecticut shore, 
and was with the group which settled on Throg's 
Neck, or Maxson's Point, trading with the Indians 
until the time of the Pcquot War in 1637. An inci- 
dent of that war is told of this settlement. The 
Indians, pretending to desire to trade, asked that 
the dogs be confined. Their request was granted, 
whereupon they promptly attacked, some of the 
settlers being killed and others seeking refuge in 
an open shallop on the Sound. The survivors 
landed on the Island of Aquidneck, and there, in 
the spring of 1638, a son was born to Richard Max- 
son, the first white child to be born on this little 
island sacred to the principles of religious ITberty. 
In 1661 this son, John Maxson, then twenty-three 
years old, joined a company which was formed in 
Newport for the purchase and settlement of a por- 
tion of the Narragansett country called by the In- 
dians, Misquamicnt. The articles of agreement were 
signed March 22, 1661, and Mr. Maxson soon after 
removed to this new settlement. .'Vt the outbreak of 
King Philip's War nearly all the pioneer settlers 
were obliged to flee the region and take shelter in 
Newport, and for five years no deputies were sent 
to the General Assembly. King Philip fell at Mt. 
Hope on .Xugiist I, 1676, and soon families returned 
to build their homes in the wilderness. These early 
settlers not only had troubles with the Indians, but 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, pleading old claims 
from Indian conquests sought to annex the region 
to their jurisdiction. Robert Burdick and Tobias 
Saunders (maternal ancestors in the Maxson fam- 
ily) were forcibly seized and confined in the prison 
at Boston until they should pay a fine of £40, and 
give security for £100 for their future good con- 
duct. But the purchasers of Misquamicnt were sus- 
tained by the royal charter and by the deed of 

John Maxson married Mary Mosher, daughter of 
Hugh Mosher, who later was first pastor of the 
first church at Dartmouth, Rhode Island. John 
Maxson took an active interest in and joined the 
Sabbatanian church organized in Newport. In 1708 
a separate church was organized in Misquamicnt, or 
Westerly, and John Maxson, Sr., was ordained an 
elder to the congregation in and about Westerly by 
fasting and praying and laying on of hands. He 
died December 17, 1720, and was buried near the 
Pawtucket river in view of the place where he 
preached, and later his remains were removed to 
the minister's circle in the burial pround on the site 
of the old Hopkinson Meeting House. 

John (2) Maxson, son of John (i) and Mary 
(Mosher) Maxson, born in 1666, was appointed in 



Adams Pope Carroll, of further mention. 

Lucius \V. Carroll was born at Thompson, Connec- 
ticut. Tanuary 22, 1815. and died in Norwich, Connec- 
ticut, September 20, 1900. He entered busmess life 
and spent seven years with Wiswall & Stockwell, of 
Webster, Massachusetts, becoming a partner in the 
firm while yet a minor, having a one-fourth interest 
in three stores. He continued in business in Mass- 
achusetts until February i, 1843, when he opened 
the store on Water street, Norwich, previously re- 
ferred to, and there he spent fifty-seven years, until 
his death. He conducted business alone until 1865, 
then he admitted E. P. Jacobs and Loren A. Callup 
as partners, under the firm name L. W. Carroll & 
Company. In 1876 Mr. Carroll admitted his eld- 
est son Adams P., to a partnership, and as L. W. 
Carroll & Son the business has been continued ever 

Lucius W. Carroll was one of the promoters of 
the water power at Taftville and Cecum, and owned 
a conon mill at Griswold. He had large banking in- 
terests, was president of the Quinebaug Bank, which 
became the First National Bank of Norwich, of which 
he was also president from 1856 to 1866. He was a 
Baptist in religion, and for many years a member of 
Central Church, Norwich. In politics he was a Re- 
publican, but never sought public office, although 
keenly alive to every duty of citizenship, and was 
intensely public-spirited. He served a term in Nor- 
wich Common Council, took an active interest in 
furthering the Union cause during the Civil War, 
1861-65; and in his quiet way accomplished a great 
deal of good. He was one of the incorporators of 
Norwich Free Academy, and was not only a friend of 
that school, but of the cause of education generally. 
Although he lived to the age of eighty-six he re- 
tained his fine memory and was unusually active 
until the last. He was laid at rest in Yantic Ceme- 

Lucius W. Carroll married. May 17, 1843, in Mill- 
bury, Massachusetts, Charlotte Lathe Pope, born 
January 18, 1819, died December 29, 1897, daughter 
of Jonathan Adams and Olive (Lathe) Pope, of the 
seventh generation of the family founded in New 
England by Thomas Pope, born in 1608, who was 
an inhabitant of Pylmouth, Massachusetts, in 163I. 
The line of descent to Mrs. Lucius W. Carroll from 
Thomas Pope was through his son. Lieutenant Seth 
Pope, of Dartmouth, Massachusetts; Captain Lemuel 
Pope, of Dartmouth; Captain Louis Pope, of New 
Braintree, Massachusetts, an officer of the Revolu- 
tion, West Pope, of Providence, Rhode Island; 
Jonathan Adams Pope, of Oxford and Milbury, 
Massachusetts, and Norwich, Connecticut; Charlotte 
Lathe Pope (Mrs. Lucius W. Carroll). 

Lucius W. and Charlotte L. (Pope) Carroll were 
the paren'ts of five children: Charlotte Aueusta, 
died at the age of sixteen years; Charles Lucius, lost 
at sea in 1864, aged seventeen; .Adams Pope, of fur- 
ther mention; William Crosby, died in infancy; and 
GeoTrp Wvman, a sketch of whom follows. 
Adams Pope Carroll was born in Norwich, 

Connecticut, June 20, 1850, and there resides at the 
present time (1922). He attended Norwich public 
schools, then prepared for college at Norwich Free 
Academy, being graduated from the academy as 
valedictorian of his class, 1868. He then entered 
Brown University, whence he was graduated with the 
degree of Ph.B., class of 1871. After the death of 
E. P. Jacobs, and the retirement of Captain Loren A. 
Gallup, in 1876, Adams P. Carroll was taken into 
the business which then became L. W Carroll & 
Son, manufacturers' supplies, Nos. 17-21 Water 
street, Norwich, Connecticut. For nearly a quarter 
of a century father and son continued a prosperous 
business connection, the senior partner surrendering 
the greater part of the burden of management to 
the son during the later years, and in 1900 finally 
closed his long connection with the business he had 
founded fifty-seven years earlier. Since 1900, Adams 
P. Carroll has continued the business, with which he 
has now been connected for forty-six years, 1876- 

In politics Mr. Carroll is a Republican, and has 
long been an official member of the Central Baptist 
Church, serving as trustee and president of the 
board. As trustee of Otis Library and of Norwich 
Savings Society, he has rendered valued service, and 
he is a man thoroughly esteeme<I and respected. 

GEORGE WYMAN CARROLL, youngest son of 
Lucius W. and Charlotte L. (Pope) Carroll, was 
born in Norwich, May 4, 1859, and resides there 
still. He was educated in the public schools of Nor- 
wich and entered business life as an employe of 
L. W. Carroll & Son, a firm with which he was as- 
sociated for a number of years and from which he 
withdrew in 1902 to enter the bond, stock and real 
estate business in Norwich, in which he is at the 
present time engaged. In politics, Mr. Carroll is a 
Republican, and a member of Central Baptist Church. 

He married, October i, 1884, Emma Frances 
Briggs, born January 27, 1861. daughter of Ira 
Greene and Lydia (Andrews) Briggs, her father a 
wealthy textile manufacturer and a man of affairs, 
of Voluntown, Connecticut. Mr. and Mrs. Carroll 
are the parents of a son, George Wyman, Jr.. born 
May 9, i886, and educated in the public schools, Nor- 
wich Free Academy; Dr. Holbrook's Military 
School, at Ossining, New York; St. Paul's School, 
Garden City, New York; and Brown University, 
class of 1908. 

LEWIS J. SAXTON— A story of indomitable 
energy and dauntless ambition is told in the story 
of the life of Lewis J. Saxton, late of the Saxton 
Woolen Corporation, of Norwich. Connecticut. 

Lewis J. Saxton was born in Saltzweidel, Germany. 
He was educated in the National schools of that 
country, and learned the trade of the cabinet maker 
there. From boyhood his ambition was to become 
a manufacturer, and he studied and worked con- 
stantly to that end. While still a young man, he 
came to the conclusion that the LTnitcd States offered 



SM^ (^^^y^/^ 

-^PVCulIl^ (^ ^^C^u^^.-'^i^-j^*^ 



greater opportunities of success than any other 
country, and he left his native land and came to 

America. He located in New London county, 
Connecticut, and for several years worked at his 
trade. Early in the Civil War period he enlisted in 
the Twenty-sixth Connecticut regiment, which 
served in the Army of the Gulf, under General Ben- 
jamin F. Butler, and participated in the capture of 
New Orleans, Louisiana. With his regiment, Mr. 
Saxton subsequently served under General Nathaniel 
P. Banks in the siege of Port Hudson, Mississippi, 
which was in progress while General Grant was be- 
seiging Vicksburg. Vicksburg surrendered to Grant 
on July 4, 1863, and Port Hudson to Banks on the 
9th. These two great events were closely rela'ccd, 
and were the most important in the West of all that 
great war year. Mr. Saxton's service comprised a 
period of fifteen months of great activity. 

In 187s, Mr. Saxton became paymaster for the Clin- 
ton Mills Company, of Norwich, manufacturers of 
woolen fabrics. From the first he made the most of 
every opportunity to learn the business. His great 
eflficiency and tireless industry won him one promo- 
tion after another, until in 1906 he became agent for 
the company. All this time he had practiced the 
most rigid economy and saved a large proportion of 
his income. In 1910 he realized his life ambition by 
buying out the concern by whom he had been em- 
ployed for thirty-five years. As an example of 
tenacity of purpose and final achievement this record 
is rarely equaled. The business was now incorporated 
under the name of the Saxton Woolen Corporation, 
with Lewis J. Saxton as president. He lived but a 
comparatively short to enjoy the fruits of his 
success, but long enough to see his ambition fully 
realized, to see his sons filling responsible positions 
in the organization, and to read a future of continued 
success for the industry which he had made his own. 
His death occurred in Norwich on November 13, 

Lewis J. Sa.xton married Sarah Bingham, of New 
London county, who now resides in Norwich. They 
were the parents of six children, of whom five are 
living, and are as follows: Carroll, deceased; Alice 
D., who resides at home; Louis Henry, a sketch of 
whom follows; Eliza L., who is now the wife of 
Charles B. Bartlett, of Washington, D.C.; Charles 
A., (q. v.); and Mabel S., who is now the wife of 
Charles H. Standish, of Norwich. 

LOUIS HENRY SAXTON, son of Lewis J. and 

Sarah (Bingham) Saxton (see preceding sketch), was 
born in South Windham, Connecticut, on September 
5, 1873. He received his education in the public schools 
of the city of Norwich, and the Norwich Free Acad- 
emy. He made his start in life as a clerk in a groc- 
ery store, continuing, however, for only a short pe- 
riod. In 1906 he became assistant superintendent in 
the mill with his father. From that time on he was 
constantly associated with his father, and when the 
plant was taken over by the elder Mr. Saxton, he re- 
mained with the new corporation, becoming treas- 

urer and general manager, which oflicts he still 

Louis Henry Saxton fills a position of prominence 
and dignity in the community, lie is a director of 
the Merchants' National Bank of Norwich, and has 
been a director of the Chamber of Commerce for 
two years, also an incorporator in the Chelsea Sav- 
ings Banks. In political alTiliation he is a Kepublican. 
He is a member of the Somerset Lodge, No. 34, Free 
and Accepted Masons; of the Benevolent and Protec- 
tive Order of Elks, Lodge No. 430; also of the Nor- 
wich Golf Club, and the Arcanum Club, of which lat- 
ter he was a director for three years during the 
World War. Mr. Saxton married, on June 17, J 896, 
in South Windham, Maine, Minnie E. Hayman, of 
Webster, Massachusetts, and they have one ohild, 
Olive M. The family have always Decn members of 
the Congregational church. 


the Saxton Woolen Corporation, of Norwich, stands 
Charles Adams Saxton, a representative manufact- 
urer of New London county, Connecticut. 

Charles Adams Saxton, son of Lewis J. and Sarah 
(Bingham) Saxton, (q. v.), was born ?n Norwich, on 
November 5, 1879. He received his early education 
in the public schools of the city, then prepared for a 
business career in the Norwich Commercial School. 
He then entered the mill with his father, but instead 
of taking a desk position, went into the various de- 
partments, making himself acquainted with the 
routine of each, and its relation to the office and the 
outside market, in fact, making himself thoroughly 
familiar with woolen manufacture, down to the small- 
est detail. Next Mr. Saxton took up outside lines 
of business to become acquainted with general busi- 
ness principles and methods. He went to New York 
City in 1900, where he was employed for four years 
in the offices of the American Agricultural Chemical 
Company as clerk. Following that he became a 
salesman on the road for the Underwood Typewriter 
Company, winning from this experience a vast 
amount of valuable business knowledge, to say noth- 
ing of the intimate understanding he gained of the 
problems which, later on, his own salesmen would 
meet. Still further, Mr. Saxton went into the real 
estate business in New York City . This was in 1906, 
and he continued along this line until 1910, when 
Lewis J. Saxton bought the plant of the Clinton 
Mills Company, and the Saxton Woolen Corporation 
was formed. Mr. Saxton then returned to Norwich, 
to become secretary of the company, and upon his 
father's death in 1912, he became president. This 
splendid equipment, and long, definite training for 
such an executive position, have since told amazingly 
in the success of the company under Mr. Saxton's 

Mr. Saxton does not allow all of his time to be 
absorbed in business. He has accepted public re- 
sponsibility along various lines which need the bal- 
ance of business judgment and executive ability. He 
was a member of the Board of Education from I9'8 



to 1920, and also is a member of the Chamber of 
Commerce. He is a trustee of the William Buckus 
Hospital, of Norwich, and a trustee of the Norwich 
Dime Savings Bank. He has long been affiliated 
with the Republican party, and a sane, but enthusias- 
tic leader in its ranks. He has wide social and frater- 
nal connections; is a member of Crescent Lodge, No. 
402, Free and Accepted Masons, of New York City; 
a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks, No. 430, of Norwich; a member of the Ar- 
canum Club, and of the Golf Club. He also is chair- 
man of the house committee of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. He has not declined to be- 
come identified with Christian work, and is a member 
of the Washington Heights Methodist Episcopal 
Church of New York City. 

Mr. Saxton married, in New York City, on October 
19, 1905. Eleanor S. Bailey, daughter of James H. 
and May (Mulford) Bailey, of New York City. 

LL.D. — As an educator, preacher and lecturer. Cap- 
tain Bucklyn was well known in civil life, his mili- 
tary title being an added honor, gained through va- 
lorous service in the Civil War. He is best known as 
the founder and long time head of Mystic Valley In- 
stitute, an institution from which many young men 
passed out to lives of usefulness and honor. 

Captain John K. Bucklyn was born in Foster, 
Rhode Island, March 15, 1834, died in Mystic, Con- 
necticut, March 15, 1906. He attended the public 
schools and Smithville Seminary, then entered 
Brown University, whence he was graduated class 
of 1861. There he became a member of Phi Beta 
Kappa, and was highly rated as a student and young 
man of promise. On September I, 1861, he enlisted 
in Battery E, First Regiment, Rhode Island Light 
Artillery, and until the close of the war he was con- 
tinuously on field and staff duty, compiling an ex- 
cellent record of patriotic service. Among evidences 
of his record was the Congressional Medal of Honor 
conferred upon him under Act of August 23, 1899, for 
"conspicuous bravery." He was commissioned sec- 
ond lieutenant, March i, 1862; first lieutenant, Octo- 
ber 9, 1864, and was brevetted captain for gallant, 
meritorious and often distinguished services before 
Richmond, and in the Shenandoah Valley. In 1865 
he was commissioned a full captain and at the close 
of the war was honorably discharged. He was en- 
gaged in forty-five battles and severe skirmishes; 
was wounded at Frederickburg and also at Gettys- 
burg, where he commanded his battery. In 1864 
and 1865, he v/as on staff duty at headquarters of 
the Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, then under 
command of the distinguished General Sedgwick. 

After his return from the army in 1865, Captain 
Bucklyn began his career as an educator, serving as 
principal of Mystic public school until 1868, when 
he established at Mystic the institution of which he 
v.'as the honored head until his passing thirty-eight 
years later — the Mystic Valley Institute. The 

institute received a charter from the State of 
Connecticut in 1880, and that year Dr. Buck- 
lyn also toured Europe. He traveled extensively in 
the United States and was a well known figure upon 
the lecture platform. He gave himself wholly to 
professional work, and was one of the foremost edu- 
cators of his day. 

Captain Bucklyn was a member of the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States; 
member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and 
commander of Williams Post for years; member of 
the Society of Soldiers and Sailors; Rhode Island 
Historical Society; New London County Historical 
Society; was for thirty years superintendent of the 
Sunday school of the Union Baptist Church of Mys- 
tic, and an official member of that church. His pro- 
fessional standing was high, and as a citizen his rec- 
ord was above reproach. 

Captain Bucklyn married, January 9, 1864, in Cen- 
tral Baptist Church, Providence, Rhode Island, Rev. 
Dr. Swain officiating, Mary McKee Young, daughter 
of Edward R. Young. Captain and Mrs. Bucklyn 
were the parents of two sons: John Knight (2), a 
sketch of whom follows; and Frank Abbott, a grad- 
uate in medicine, but not a practitioner, who died 
December 27, 1918. He married Elizabeth Beckwith, 
of New York City, and left a son, Harold E., who 
resides with his uncle. Dr. John K. Bucklyn, in 

Thus a useful life was passed, spending and being 
spent in service. The results of such living cannot 
be estimated, but that great good for humanity was 
accomplished by the many young men who went 
out from under the teaching of Dr. Bucklyn cannot 
be doubted. 

JOHN KNIGHT BUCKLYN, M.D., eldest son of 
Captain John K. and ^.lary McKee (Young) Buck- 
lyn (see preceding sketch), was born in Mys- 
tic, town of Stonington, Connecticut, July 31, 
1865. He attended the public schools of Mys- 
tic until the opening of Mystic Valley Institute, 
of which his honored father was founder and 
head, and after graduation from that institution 
entered New York College of Homoeopathy, whence 
he was graduated M.D., class of 1887. In that year 
he located in Mystic, his native village, and there for 
three decades has practiced his profession, built up 
a large practice, and been very successful. Dr. Buck- 
lyn specializes in electrical treatments, the X-ray, 
Violet-ray, and other modern methods of treating 
disease, those methods having proved their value. 
He has won high reputation as a physician of skill 
and learning, and is held in the highest regard bv 
both the profession and laity. 

In politics. Dr. Bucklyn is a Republican, and in 
religious faith a Baptist. For years he served on the 
Mystic School Board, and is a member of Stoning- 
ton Lodge, No. 26, Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, of Mystic. His professional societies are the 
New London County, Connecticut State Medical, and 
the American Medical Association. 



^Am Kv Q^ui-itNO ,4'. (^ 



Dr. Bucklyn married, June 25, 1891, Mary Emma 
Hall, of Plainfield, Connecticut, daughter of Nathan 
S. and Permelia Hall, her parents born in Rhode 

TRAVER BRISCOE, a son and grandson of 
former eminent members of the Connecticut bar, 
prepared for the same profession, and is now en- 
gaged in practice, but his plans were swept aside by 
the World War of 1917-18, in which he bore a part, 
serving with the United States. Two years were 
thus passed and he is now building anew his inter- 
rupted practice in Norwich, Connecticut, the city of 
his birth, and the seat of his honored father's law 

The Briscoe family traces in New England to Na- 
thaniel Briscoe, son of Edward and Ann Briscoe of 
England, who was baptized in 1595, married Alice 
Taylor and came to New England in 1639, but re- 
turned to England in 1651. Savage gives him as a 
rich tanner and selectman of Watertown in 1648-50. 
The line of descent is traced from Nathaniel and 
Alice Taylor Briscoe, through their son Nathaniel 
(2) Briscoe, who was baptized in Little Messenden, 
England, May 18, 1629. Savage gives him at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, in 1639, and says he prob- 
ably moved to Milford, Connecticut, where he was 
an early settler without doubt prior to 1646. The 
line continues through his son Nathaniel (3) Briscoe 
and his wife Mary Camp; their son James Briscoe 
and his wife Elizabeth Adams; their son Lieutenant 
Nathaniel (4) Briscoe and his wife Eunice Kurd 
Johnson; their son Isaac Briscoe and his wife Anna 
Sherman; their son Charles Briscoe and his wife 
Mary Davidson; their son Charles Henry Briscoe 
and his wife Anna J. Traver; their son Willis Anson 
Briscoe and his wife Leila Rogers Smith; their son 
Traver Briscoe and his wife Margaret Clark Alt- 
house .A.tterbury. 

In all these generations, Milford, Newtown and 
Enfield, Connecticut, were places of family settle- 
ment, Willis Anson Briscoe of the ninth generation 
moving in 1882 to Norwich. All the heads of genera- 
tions were men of ability and thrift, highly regarded 
in the communities in which they resided. Particu- 
lar attention is paid in this review to Judge Charles 
Henry Briscoe of Enfield and Hartford, Connecticut. 
His son, Willis Anson Briscoe of Norwich, and his 
grandson, Traver Briscoe, all members of the Con- 
necticut bar, the first two, eminent in the profession, 
the last named just on the threshold of his career. 

Charles Henry Briscoe was born in Newtown, 
Connecticut, December 20, 1831, died in Hartford, 
Connecticut, January 21, 1918, having been for sixty- 
four years engaged in the practice of law as attorney 
and jurist. He was educated in Newtown schools, 
prepared for the practice of law under a local law- 
yer, Amos S. Treat, and in 1854 was admitted to the 
bar of Fairfield county, Connecticut. In the fall of 
that year, he began practice in Enfield, Connecticut, 
and there ever made his home. In 1868 he moved 
his law office to Hartford, there practicing alone 
until 1877, when he formed a partnership with T. M. 

Maltbic, that association terminating in October, 
1881. From January, 1882, until January, 1894, Mr. 
Briscoe was in law partnership with James P. An- 
drews. He then practiced alone until his passing, 
but of course during the last two decades of his 
years, eighty-seven, he surrendered all but the 
lighter burdens of legal practice. 

As a lawyer, he ranked high and his practice was 
large and important, he having been connected with 
some very celebrated cases. Full of energy, quick, 
wiry and alert, he moved, thought and acted quickly. 
As a judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Hart- 
ford county (the first judge of that court), he com- 
piled a wonderful record. During the six years he 
sat on that bench, 1869-75, but nineteen appeals were 
taken from his decisions and upon review by the 
higher court, fifteen were sustained and but four 

His public service was notable. He was a Repub- 
lican in politics and represented Enfield in the Con- 
necticut General Assembly in 1857, 1864, and 1878, 
being speaker of the House in this last term. In 
1861 he represented the district in the State Senate, 
and served as chairman of the committee on mili- 
tary affairs. In 1869 he was elected judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas for Hartford county, hold- 
ing until 1875, when he returned to private practice. 

Judge Briscoe married, November 14, 1855, Anna 
J. Traver, of Newark, New Jersey, who died in 
March, 1875, leaving children: Willis Anson, head of 
the ninth generation in this line and of further men- 
tion; Annie T. and Alice U. Judge Briscoe married 
(second) in June, 1878, Alice E. Bradley, daughter of 
George W. Bradley, of Newtown, Connecticut. 

Willis Anson Briscoe, only son of Judge Charles 
Henry and Anna J. (Traver) Briscoe, was born at 
Enfield, Connecticut, December 16, 1856, died sud- 
denly at his home in Norwich, New London county, 
Connecticut, April 28, 1913. ' He was educated in the 
public schools at Thompsonville, Connecticut, Hart- 
ford High School, class of 1873, anti Yale University, 
whence he was graduated with the degree of A.B. 
in 1877, being among the youngest members of his 
class. He began the study of law the same year 
under T. C. Coogan, and in May, 1879, was admitted 
to the Connecticut bar after passing a most credit- 
able oral examination. He began practice in Bristol, 
Connecticut, in partnership with James P. Andrews, 
reporter of the Supreme Court, and that year as- 
sisted ^fr. .'\ndrcws in preparing the first edition 
of the "Index Digest of (Connecticut Report," issued 
in Harford, in 1883. 

In September, 1881, the retirement of John C. 
Averill to become clerk of the Superior Court, left 
a vacancy in the offices of Jeremiah Halscy, an emi- 
nent lawyer of Norwich, Connecticut, a vacancy that 
was filled by Mr. Briscoe taking the place formerly 
filled by Mr. Averill. Jeremiah Halsey at that time 
was one of the leaders of the bar In Eastern Con- 
necticut, and the law firm Halscy & Briscoe con- 
tinued successful practice until Xfr. Halscy's death in 
1889. Mr. Briscoe continued the firm business, tak- 
ing over Mr. Halscy's private clients in addition to 



his own, and until his death in 1913 was the able 
head of a large and important legal business. In 
addition to his practice, he served as a director of 
the Thames National Bank from 1889, was elected 
vice-president in 1907, and president in 1919, servmg 
four years until his passing. He ranked high both as 
lawyer and financier, and was genuinely respected 

and admired. 

Mr. Briscoe married (first) October 3. 1882, Jessie 
E. Drew, who died July 22, 1885, daughter of George 
W. and Betsey Cornelia (Munson) Bradley. He mar- 
ried (second) September 5, 1888, Leila Rogers Smith, 
daughter of Henry and Ann E. Smith. Mrs. Briscoe 
died January 6, 1891, leaving a son Traver. 

Traver Briscoe, only son of Willis Anson Briscoe 
and his second wife, Leila Rogers (Smith) Briscoe, 
was born in Norwich, January i, 1891. He com- 
pleted courses of study at Norwich Academy with 
graduation class of 1908, Yale University A.B. class 
of 1912, Harvard Law School LL.B. class of 1915- 
He began practice in Norwich, Connecticut, after 
graduation, continuing study in New Haven law 
offices then was admitted to the Connecticut bar, 
practicing in Norwich until the entrance of the 
United States into the World War in 1917, when he 
entered the service. 

He enlisted May 8, 1917. in the United States 
Naval Reserves as a first class boatswain's mate, and 
on June 21, 1917, was called to active duty. He was 
stationed in Bridgeport, Connecticut, until Septem- 
ber 19, 1917, then with second officers reserve class 
was sent to the United States Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, and on February I, 1918, was graduated 
with the rank of ensign. He was assigned to the 
cruiser "Salem" and a few months later to the battle- 
ship "New Mexico" as junior watch and division of- 
ficer, and torpedo defence and battery officer. On 
August II, 1918, he was promoted a lieutenant of 
the junior grade, and in September following, was 
transferred to mine sweeper "Brant" assigned to 
duty in the submarine area off the Virginia and Caro- 
lina coasts. In October, 1918, he was transferred to 
a submarine chaser as executive officer, and sent on 
patrol duty off the Virginia capes. He continued in 
the service until the acceptance of his resignation 
December 31, 1918, when he was mustered out at the 
naval station at Bay Ridge, New York harbor. 

He then returned to Norwich and resumed the 
practice of law and there continues in general prac- 
tice. He is the owner of the Troy Steam Laundry, 
which he bought December ii, 1920, from Albert A. 
Fournicr, who established the business in 1880. He 
is Republican in politics, member of Somerset 
Lodge, No. 34, Free and Accepted Masons; Frank- 
lin Chapter, No. 4, Royal Arch Masons; Franklin 
Council, No. 3, Royal and Select Masters; Co- 
lumbian Commandery, No. 4, Knights Templar of 
the York Rite; King Solomon Lodge of Perfection; 
Van Rensselaer Council, Princes of Jerusalem; Nor- 
wich Chapter of Rose Croix; Connecticut Consistory, 
Soverign Princes of the Royal Secret of the An- 
cient Accepted Scottish Rite, all of Norwich; Sphinx 
Temple, Hartford, Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of 

the Mystic Shrine; Zeta Psi; Yale Club of New York 
City; American Legion, Robert O. Fletcher Post, No. 
4, of Norwich; Graduates' Club of New Haven; New 
Haven Yacht Club; United States Power Squadron; 
American Association of Yachtsmen; Norwich Golf 
Club; Chelsea Boat Club of Norwich; Military Order 
of World War Veterans; Military Order of Foreign 
War Veterans of the United States; Norwich Fish 
and Game Club; trustee Norwich Savings Society 
and a member of Christ Protestant Episcopal 

Traver Briscoe married, June 28, 1918, Margaret 
Clark (Althouse) Attcrbury, widow of Allen W. 
Atterbury, steel manufacturer of Detroit, Michigan. 

ber of the State Legislature, as the incumbent of 
several other offices of trust and responsibility in 
his native State, Connecticut, and as a progressive 
and successful agriculturist, Charles S. Briggs has 
fulfilled all the duties and obligations in a manner 
that has brought upon him the reputation of being 
a man of the strictest integrity of character, honora- 
ble and upright, a man who can be trusted in all 
matters. He is a descendant of an old New England 
family, one which is particularly numerous in the 
State of Rhode Island. Palmer Briggs, grandfather 
of Charles S. Briggs, was a resident of South Kings- 
ton, Rhode Island, where his death occurred. He 
was married twice, having children by both wives, 
but the line that we are here following is through 
the son of his first wife. Amy (Wilcox) Briggs, 
namely, Charles Wilcox. 

Charles Wilcox Briggs, the father of Charles S. 
Briggs, was born at South Kingston, Rhode Island, 
July 21, 1813, and died at Lebanon, December I, 
1898, his remains being interred in the West Yard 
at Lebanon. In April, 1830, he changed his place of 
residence to Lebanon, Connecticut, there working 
for various farmers in the neighborhood, and after 
his marriage he operated rented farms until he ac- 
quired sufficient capital to purchase a farm, formerly 
owned by a Mr. Manning, which he cultivated and 
improved in such a manner as to have it rank among 
the best in that neighborhood. He was a member 
of the Baptist church in Lebanon, and a Whig in poli- 
tics until the formation of the Republican party, 
when he joined its ranks, but was not bound to it, 
casting his vote for the man best qualified in his 
judgment, for office. He married Delia Frances 
Gager, born March 19, 1822, at Franklin, Connecti- 
cut, daughter of Gordon and Amelia (Robinson) 
Gager, and they lived to celebrate the fiftieth anni- 
versary of their marriage. Ten children were born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Briggs: Ellen Amelia, Henry Wil- 
liams, Frances Delia, Charles Sylvester, Leroy 
Stanton, Warren Palmer, Mary Melinda, Amy 
Adelaide, Jennie Roxanna, and Annie Louise. 

Charles Sylvester Briggs was born on the old 
homestead in Lebanon, Connecticut, March 29, 1851. 
He attended the select school in the town of his 
birth, completing his studies at the age of eighteen, 
and from then until he attained his majority as- 



sisted liis father with the work of the farm, thus 
gaining a practical knowledge of the work which he 
has since devoted his energies. He then rented a 
farm in his native town, which he operated until 
1900, in which year he purchased what was known 
as the Brown farm, consisting of 150 acres, which 
yields him a goodly return for labor expended, his 
methods and appliances being modern and up-to- 
date. Mr. Briggs is a staunch advocate of Republi- 
can principles, is prominent in the councils of his 
party, and in 1903 was elected to the State Legis- 
lature, in which body he served on the committee 
on claims. In 1911 he was appointed doorkeeper at 
the House of Representatives in Hartford, and for 
si.K years has served as a member of the board of 
assessors. His election to these offices amply testi- 
fies to the confidence and trust reposed in him by 
his fellow-citizens. He is a member of Lebanon 
Lodge, No. 23, Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
and is also a member of the Workmen's Benefit 
Association, an auxiliary of the former order. He 
was also for a considerable period one of the di- 
rectors of the Lebanon Creamery, his advice and 
counsel on those matters being of value. 

Mr. Briggs married, March 18, 1873, in Lebanon, 
Elizabeth P. Nye, a native of South Kingston, Rhode 
Island, coming to Lebanon, Connecticut, when 
young, with her parents, Benjamin and Elizabeth 
(Champlin) Nye, her father a member of the Con- 
necticut Legislature in 1889. The children of Mr. 
and Mrs. Briggs are: i. George Emmctt, born 
February 9, 1874, a graduate of Snell's Business Col- 
lege of Norwich, and of the State Normal School at 
Willimantic; serving as deputy sheriff of the town- 
ship; married Mary Manning. 2. Charles Henry, 
born July I, 1879; married Anna L. Bogue. 3. 
Delia Louise, born May 7, 1883. 4. Emily Elizabeth, 
born August 6, 1885. 5. Leroy Stanton, born May 
9. 1892. Mr. and Mrs. Briggs are members of the 
Baptist church of Lebanon, actively interested in the 
work thereof, Mr. Briggs having served as leader of 
the choir for a number of years. 

CHARLES H. PECKHAM— Regularly ordained 
a minister of the Congregational church, the late 
Charles H. Peckham followed his calling until his 
death, which occurred July 31, 1904, at Leffingwell, 
Connecticut. .As a minister he labored earnestly in 
behalf of the cause he loved. High-minded, cour- 
teous and sympathetic by nature, these qualities were 
the secret of his success as a pastor. 

Charles H. Peckham was born December 6, 1854, 
at Pcrryville, Rhode Island, the son of Edward H. 
and Margaret (Champlin) Peckham. Mr. Peckham, 
senior, was a farmer throughout his entire life, and 
for fourteen years resided in Goshen. To. Mr. and 
Mrs. Peckham were born five children, of which 
number there are but two living: Charles H., of 
further mention; and Kate, who married George 
Lyman, son of Ludlow and Harriet Lyman, of Leb- 
anon, Connecticut. After finishing his education 
Charles H. Peckham taught school for a few years 
at Yantic, Connecticut, but in the meantime, hav- 

ing decided upon the ministry for his life work, 
he prepared himself for his chosen career, and on 
July I, 1896, preached his first sermon at Scott Hill 
Church, subsequently, on February 7, 1897, ac- 
cepting a call as pastor of the Congregational 
church at Leffingwell, Connecticut, where he faith- 
fully served until his death. The same sterling qual- 
ities which characterized his latter years were promi- 
nent in him as a young man, and while a teacher he 
always took an active part in the welfare of the 
community, and served on the Yantic school board 
for several years. 

Charles H. Peckham married (first) Jennie Brcn- 
nan, a step-daughter of Abel Palmer of Goshen, and 
by this union became the father of a son, George. 
Mr. Peckham married (second) Grace G. Kingslcy, 
a native of Franklin, Connecticut, her birth having 
occurred there June 9, 1859. Mrs. Peckham was the 
daughter of Thomas and Harriet (Chapman) Kings 
ley. Thomas Kingsley served as colonel of the 
Twenty-sixth Connecticut Regiment during the Civil 
War. Mr. and Mrs. Peckham were the parents of 
one child, Ralph Kingsley, who died in infancy. Mrs. 
Peckham died in September, 1921; she was promi- 
nently identified for many years with the charitable 
work of the community. 

DR. GEORGE E. BITGOOD, for two decades, 

has been active in New London as a veterinary sur- 
geon, and in this broadly useful vocation he has 
won his own success and alleviated the lot of that 
group of creatures for whom too little thought is 
ordinarily taken. Dr. Bitgood is a son of Frank S. 
and Mary M. (Tabor) Bitgood. His father, who was 
born March 16, 1843, w-as a lumberman by occupa- 
tion, and served in the Civil War as a member of 
the 2ist Regiment, Connecticut Volunteer Infantry. 
The mother was born September 22, 1845, and both 
are now deceased. 

George E. Bitgood was born in Pawtucket, Rhode 
Island, July 8, 1876. His early education was ac- 
quired at the public schools of his native place, and 
he attended the North Stonington High School, from 
which he was graduated in due course. A great 
lover of animals from childhood, the young man 
early determined upon his choice ot a profession, 
and following his graduation from high school he 
entered the Ontario Veterinary College, Ontario, 
Canada, and was graduated from that institution in 
the class of 1901. Within the year. Dr. Bitgood re- 
turned to his native State and opened an ofTice for 
the practice of his profession at Arctic, Kent county, 
Rhode Island. The following year, however, he 
was persuaded to locate in New London, Connecti- 
cut, and has since remained here permanently. 
From the beginning he has been very successful, and 
has commanded the patronage of the leading stock- 
men over a wide district in the southern part of this 
county. He has always taken an interest in the 
movement of civic and fraternal affairs, in politics 
holds independent convictions, and has never sought 
the honors of ofTice. He has long been a member 
of Konomoc Hose Company, No. 4, and fraternally 



he holds membership in New London Lodge, No. 
360, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks.. 

Dr. Bitgood married, in September, 1903, in Mys- 
tic, Connecticut, Lucy y\nn Chapman, daughter of 
Martin \V. and Annie (Low) Chapman. Her father 
was born June 18, 1856, and her mother November i, 
1862. Dr. and Mrs. Bitgood have two children: 
George E., Jr., born December 26, 1904; Lucille M., 
born May 15, 1906. Dr. Bitgood's office and resi- 
dence are at No. 244 Willctts avenue, New London. 

STEPHEN H. REEVES— -A. responsible position 
in the public trust, that of city treasurer, is ably filled 
by Stephen H. Reeves, of Norwich, Connecticut. 
Mr. Reeves is a son of Peter and Hortense (Au- 
bertin) Reeves, both natives of Montreal, Province 
of Quebec. Peter Reeves came to the United States 
in the early fifties, being one of the earliest French 
Canadian pioneers to locate in Eastern Connecticut. 
He stayed for a short time in Putnam, Connecticut, 
then settled in Danielson for a short period, later 
in Baltic, Connecticut, where he was employed in 
the cotton mills the remainder of his active life. He 
died in Norwich, in 1892. His wife died in Baltic, 
Connecticut, in 1872. They were the parents of eleven 
children, of whom Stephen H. Reeves, of Norwich, 
is the ninth. 

Stephen H. Reeves was born in Brooklyn, Con- 
necticut, on February 25, 1857. He received his edu- 
cation in the public schools, and for a short period 
worked as an operative in the cotton mills in Baltic, 
Connecticut. After leaving Baltic, he went to Can- 
terbury, where he worked on a farm and received his 
education. In 1876 he went to Wauregan, where he 
worked as clerk for C. B. Wheatley, in the general 
store in that village, remaining in this connection 
until 1878. In that year he came to Norv/ich, and 
was employed as a clerk in the men's furnishing 
store of B. Bchrisch for eight years. In 1886 he es- 
tablished a store of his own along the same line of 
business, continuing for several years. In 1893 he 
became a commercial traveler for the George 
Spaulding Company, of Boston. In 1901 he became 
superintendent of the Norwich branch of the State 
Free Employment Bureau, ably filling that office for 
over ten years. From 1912 to 1919 he was district 
manager for the Sperry & Hutchinson Green Trad- 
ing Stamp Company in the city of Norwich. With 
this broad experience in executive work of a high 
order, Mr. Reeves accepted the responsible office of 
cily treasurer of Norwich, to v/hich he was elected 
in 1919. He has already abundantly well demon- 
strated his fitness for the position. 

Mr. Reeves is a firm believer in the principles of 
the Republican party, and an ardent worker in sup- 
port of its candidates. Although never before hav- 
ing accepted public office, he has long been a signifi- 
cant factor in the political situation, fearlessly 
throwing his influence toward public betterment. 
He is a member of Somerset Lodge , No. 34, Free 
and Accepted Masons; of Franklin Chapter, No. 3, 
Royal Arch Masons; Franklin Council, No. 4, Royal 

and Select Masters; the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, Shetucket Lodge, No. 27, of Norwich; of 
Gardner Lodge, Knights of Pythias; and the Im- 
proved Order of Red Men. Mr. Reeves attends 
and supports the Universalist church. 

Mr. Reeves married, in Norwich, November 5, 
1882, Rev. L. H. Chamberlain officiating, Ida L. 
Gile, daughter of Alfred and Mary Ann Gile, of 
Norwich, Connecticut. Mrs. Reeves died April 30, 


a most interesting story to tell concerning the 
founder of the Leffingwell family in Connecticut, 
Thomas Leffingwell, the ancestor of Forrest Curtis 
Leffingwell, of Montville, Connecticut. Thomas Lef- 
fingwell, born in Croxhall, England, was one of the 
earliest planters of Saybrook, Connecticut, and a 
friend of the Mohegan chief, Uncas, whom he met 
in connection with a land grant along the sound and 
the river Thames, on which was a famous spring, 
near which the village of Uncas was located. Later 
the Mohegans were attacked in overwhelming num- 
bers by Narragansett Indians from Rhode Island, 
and would have exterminated them but for the aid 
furnished by Thomas Leffingwell, who brouglit 
provisions and help through the Sound and up the 
Thames to his Indian friends in distress. In grati- 
tude for the timely aid which enabled him to defeat 
his enemies and slay their chieftain, Uncas deeded 
to his friend nine miles square of land in the present 
town of Norwich, but Thomas Leffingwell appar- 
ently placed little value upon the tract, for he never 
had the deed recorded. He was also given several 
hundred acres, the deed for which he did record, 
property which is now included in three towns of 
the county of New London — Montville, Norwich and 
Bozrah. Upon this property Thomas Leffingwell, 
known as Lieutenant Thomas, built five houses, 
one for each of his sons, these all within signaling 
distance of each other. Lieutenant Leffingwell was 
one of the original proprietors of the town of Nor- 
wich, and until his death there, about 1710, was ac- 
tive in the affairs of town and colony. Through 
his five sons and two daughters a numerous family 
has grown, and Leffingwell is a common name in 
New London county. The line of descent from Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Leffingwell is through his son, Sam- 
uel Leffingwell, and his wife, Ann Dickinson; their 
son, Samuel Leffingwell, and his wife, Hannah Gif- 
ford; their son, Andrew Leffingwell, the first deacon 
of the First Baptist Church in Bozrah, and his wife, 
Mercy Nobles; their son, Gurdon Leffingwell. and 
his wife, Polly Avery; their son, Marvin Leffingwell, 
and his first wife, Abby Ann Chapman; their son, 
Daniel Chapman Leffingwell, and his wife, Anna 
Edith Curtis; their son, Forrest Curtis Leffingwell, 
of the eighth American generation of the family 
founded in Connecticut by Lieutenant Thomas Lef- 

Daniel Chapman Leffing^vell was born in Mont- 
villle. New London county, Connecticut, June 20, 



1836, the family homestead one of the five houses 
built by Lieutenant Thomas Lcffinguell, and given 
by him to his fourth son, Nathaniel. This house de- 
scended from generation to generation of LctTing- 
wells until finally supplanted by a new house built 
by Marvin Leflfingwell. The farm surrounding the 
home contains about one hundred and fifty acres of 
the original tract deeded by Chief Uncas to Lieuten- 
ant Thomas Leflingwell, and on it is the famous 
spring by which the Indian chief and the white set- 
tler first met. For years a part of the income of 
Daniel C. LefFingwell was derived from the sale of 
this pure spring water to customers in Norwich. 
He married, March 18, 185S, -Anna Edith Curtis, 
daughter of Elijah \V. and Mary (Bushnell) Curtis, 
of Norwich. Mr. and Mrs. LcfTingwell were the par- 
ents of two sons, Forrest Curtis, of further mention; 
and Frederick Arthur, born May 20, 1865, at the 
homestead, where he died, unmarried, January 27, 

Forrest Curtis LefFingwell was born at the home- 
stead in Montville, New London county, Connecticut 
(that has never been out of the Leffingwcll name 
since first deeded by Chief Uncas), July 16, i860. 
The nearest school to his home was in the town of 
Bozrah, and there he obtained his education. His 
early years were spent in farming and teaming, but 
he wanted to see more of the world, and he went 
West, spending six years in the gold mines of Mon- 
tana and on Montana ranches near Butte as a cow- 
boy. He returned to Montville in 1897, and for ten 
years engaged in contract hauling of timber and gen- 
eral teaming. In 1907 he bought the old LefFingwell 
grist and saw mill, built one hundred and fifty years 
prior to his purchase by one of his ancestors, the mill 
being located in Montville on Trading Cove Brook. 
He has now operated the mill for thirteen years, and 
restored it to its old condition of usefulness as a 
neighborhood convenience, and a profitable business 
enterprise. For the past three years, 1917-20, Mr. 
LefFingwell has been a member of the Third Com- 
pany, Coast Artillery Corps, Connecticut National 
Guard, although past the age of military service, but 
discharged as sergeant in 1921. He is a Republican 
in politics. His wife is a member of the First Bap- 
tist Church of Bozrah. 

Mr. Leffingwcll married in Norwich, Connecticut, 
August 20, 1884, Addie Emma Lay, born in Salem, 
New London county, Connecticut, daughter of 
Carlos W. and Mary (Avery) Lay. Mr. and Mrs. 
LefFingwell are the parents of five children: l. 
Clarence Frost, born in Bozrah, Connecticut, Au- 
gust 10, 1888, now in the teaming business in Groton, 
Connecticut. He married (first) Mary Wheeler; sec- 
ond) Lila Treadway Egglcston. ^. Edith Anna, 
born in Bozrah, July 8, 1890, now assistant matron 
of Warner Memorial Home for Needy Boys, at Sax- 
ton's River, Vermont. 3. Irene Curtis, born at 
Basin, Montana, July 16, 1892, married George Shel- 
don, of Norwich, Connecticut. 4. Frederick Arthur, 
born in Bozrah, May 22, 1896, married .'Xnna Holmes, 
of Norwich. 5. Gladys Marian, born in Bozrah, 
June 15, 1897. These children are of the ninth 

Auierican generation of the family founded by Lieu- 
tenant Thomas LefFingwell, and the only direct de- 
scendants of their grandparents, Daniel Chapman 
and Anna Edith (Curtis) LefFingwell. The LcfTing- 
well farm is just ofF the Norwich Salem road in the 
town of Montville, on Route 2, Norwich Rural Free 

REV. JOHN FRANCIS X. QUINN, as pastor of 
St. John's Roman Catholic Church of Uncasville, 
Connecticut, is well known as a zealous, learned and 
eloquent divine, and a public-spirited, patriotic citi- 

John Quinn, father of Rev. John Francis X. Quinn, 
was born in New York City, July 23, 1854. A young 
man at the outbreak of the Civil War, heartily in 
sympathy with the cause of the Union, and fired 
with the patriotism which swept the North at the 
news of the firing upon Fort Sumter, he enlisted at 
Hartford, going almost immediately to the firing 
line. He served two years, and was wounded in ac- 
tion. Ater the war he went to Mechanicsville, Con- 
necticut, where for several years he was an overseer 
in a mill there. He now lives retired at Worcester, 
Massachusetts. He married Maria Black, a native 
of Ireland; she died December 30, 1896. Mr. and 
Mrs. Quinn were the parents of the following chil- 
dren: Henry; Mary; Francis, who died in infancy; 
John F. X., of further mention; William; Fred; Ed- 
ward; Leo; and Margaret, who died during the in- 
fluenza epidemic in 1918. 

Father Quinn was born in Mechanicsville, Connec- 
ticut, May 18, 1875. He received his early education 
at the schools of his native place and then spent one 
year at the Putnam High School. He then entered 
St. Lawrence College, going thence to the Grand 
Seminary at Montreal, where he was ordained a 
priest, December 21, 1901, at Hartford, Connecticut, 
by .'\rchbishop Bruschcsi, of Montreal. His first 
assignment was at Hartford, Connecticut, where he 
remained for thirteen years. In 1914 he was trans- 
ferred to St. John's Roman Catholic Church of Uncas- 
ville, where he has since remained. Father Quinn is 
a member of many organizations for the civic and 
social betterment of the community. During the re- 
cent period of war with Germany he was most ac- 
tive in his support of the cause of the allies, and 
intimately connected with the dilTerent movements 
having for their object the welfare of the men in the 
service.. A noble man, full of courage, zeal and 
abiding faith and devotion to his parishioners, this 
is the type of priest and the manner of friend Father 
Quinn is to all who know him. 

cau, father of Joseph George Comeau, was a lifelong 
resident of the city of Montreal, Canada, and died 
there in 1865, aged twenty-nine years. He married 
Virginia Frachette, and to them, were born two sons: 
Edmond, married Mary L. Duncan, and resides in 
Montreal; and Joseph George, of further mention. 
Mrs. Virginia Comeau married (second) John P. 
Richards, and they were the parents of four chil- 



dren: May, married Joseph Chenette, of Providence, 
Rhode Island; Joseph, deceased; Alfred, a dentist 
of Norwich, Connecticut, married May Buckley; 
Flora, married Adolph Delphins Limothe, a dentist 
of American Falls, Idaho. Mrs. Richards (formerly 
Mrs. Conieau) died in 1911, in Norwich, Connecticut. 

Joseph George Comeau, son of Anthony and Vir- 
ginia (Frachette) Comeau, was born in Montreal, 
Canada, September 12, 1865, died in Norwich, Con- 
necticut, September 29, 1920. He was a pupil in the 
parochial school of St. John's, in Montreal, and 
later entered Ottawa College, Ottawa, Canada. He 
then studied dentistry, and in 1894 became con- 
nected with the Albany Dental Association in Nor- 
wich. In 1896 he established private dental practice 
in Norwich, and so continued until his passing 
twenty-four years later. He was a Republican in 
politics; a member of Norwich Lodge, No. 430, 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks; and Court 
Sachem, Foresters of America. 

Dr. Comeau married, June 29, 1897, Laudia Eva 
Barthel, of Gardner, Massachusetts, and to them two 
children were born: Georgette Lillian, born in Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, August 13, 1898, an employe of 
Connecticut Agricultural College, Starrs, Connecti- 
cut; and Berthold Roderick, born in Norwich, Con- 
necticut, August 28, 1901. Mrs. Comeau survives her 
husband, a resident of Norwich. The family are 
members of the St. Patrick's Church. 

HENRY A. TIRRELL, A.M.— Since the year 1903, 
Professor Henry Archelaus Tirrell has been prin- 
cipal of Norwich Free Academy, an institution to 
which he came as a teacher in 1896. He has won 
secure position among the educators of New Eng- 
land during this quarter of century of service, and 
under him the academy has greatly prospered. He 
is a son of Rev. Eben and Julia A. (Harding) Tir- 
rell, his father a clergyman, serving the Methodist 
Episcopal church long and faithfully. Rev. Eben 
Tirrell served his country with equal zeal, and was 
enrolled among the volunteers in the Union service 
during the Civil War. 

Henry A. Tirrell was born at South Chatham, 
Massachusetts, August 7, 1873, and obtained his 
early education in the schools of the different towns 
in which his father was pastor, the itinerant law 
then governing Methodist ministers making fre- 
quent changes necessary. Later he entered the in- 
stitution over which he now presides, finishing with 
the graduating class of 1890. He arranged with his 
father the financing of a college course and entered 
Wcsleyan University, whence he was graduated 
A.B., 1894. The same year he secured appointment 
to the faculty of Pennington Seminary at Penning- 
ton, New Jersey, and there remained two years. In 
1896 he came to the faculty of Norwich Free Acad- 
emy, Norwich, Connecticut, there teaching until 
1899, when he spent a year in study at the University 
of Chicago. In 1903 he was elected principal of Nor- 
wich Free Academy, and has now been the honored 
head of that most excellent institution for twenty- 
two years. 

There were other sons in the Tirrell family of 
which Professor Tirrell was the eldest, and when he 
began teaching, the money advanced for his college 
course was repaid and another son started through 
college. Professor Tirrell has received many evi- 
dences of appreciation, and the honors of his pro- 
fession have been awarded him, but nothing has 
given him as much satisfaction as the payment of 
the amount expended on his education by his fa- 
ther, who bore the burden as gladly as the son re- 
lieved him. 

Professor Tirrell has entered heartily into the life 
of the city which so long has been his home, and is 
widely known throughout his State. He is a direc- 
tor of Norwich Savings Society, the oldest financial 
institution in Norwich; is a corporator and trustee 
of the Norwich Free Academy; was formerly a mem- 
ber of the Board of Park Commissioners; member 
of the State Public Library Commission for several 
years; present member of the State Board of Educa- 
tion; president of the board of managers of the Wil- 
liam W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut; 
secretary of the Otis Library, Norwich; member of 
the Park Congregational Church; and in politics is 
a Republican. In 1910 he received from Trinity Col- 
lege the degree of Master of Arts. 

In Chicago, Illinois, in 1899, Professor Tirrell 
married Agnes Helen Butler, daughter of Jeremiah 
P. and Mary L. (Twohcy) Butler. Mr. and Mrs. 
Tirrell are the parents of four children: Mary 
Agnes, Charles Henry, Helen Butler and William 
Harding Tirrell. 

among the executives of New London county manu- 
facturing interests is John Joseph Macready, presi- 
dent of the Shetucket Worsted Mills, of Baltic, 
Connecticut, and owner of the plant. 

Mr. Macready comes of a long line of sturdy 
Scotch ancestry, and is a son of Morris and Mary 
(Montgomery) Macready, both natives of Dundee, 
Scotland. Morris Macready was educated in the 
public schools of his native land, and came to the 
United States in 1888. He located in Schaghticoke, 
New York, where he was an overseer of flax spinn- 
ing. This was the line of endeavor which he fol- 
lowed all of his active life. He now lives in Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, but is retired from all parti- 
cipation in business affairs. Morris and Mary 
(Montgomery) Macready were the parents of five 
children, of whom John J. Macready, of Baltic, is the 

John Joseph Macready was born in Dundee, Scot- 
land, November 26, 1886. Coming to this country 
when only two years of age, with his parents, his 
education was received in the public schools of 
Schaghticoke, New York, up through the grammar 
grades. He then took a commercial course at Tem- 
ple University. He entered upon his business ca- 
reer in the field of woolen manufacture, working for 
a time among the mills of Philadelphia. During this 
period he took advantage of the famous textile 
schools of that city, studying designing at the night 



■courses. With this preparation for a higher class 
of work, the young man came to Yantic, Connecti- 
cut, in 1912, as assistant superintendent and designer 
for the Yantic Woolen Mills. Remaining there until 
1914, he then accepted the superintendcncy of the 
Shetucket Worsted Mills, of Baltic, remaining for 
one year in that capacity. Returning thereafter to 
Gcrmantown, Pennsylvania, as manager of the Shet- 
land Mills of that city, he continued there, rising to 
the office of president of the company. 

On January 1, 1920, still holding the office of 
president of the Shetland Mills, Mr. Macrcady came 
to Baltic, Connecticut, and bought out the Shetucket 
Worsted Mills. The business was incorporated, 
with Mr. Macready as president, under the name of 
the Shetucket Worsted Mills, Incorporated. Still 
a young man, and at the head of great industrial 
interests, through his own energy and ambition, Mr. 
Macrcady is a power in the field of woolen manufac- 
ture, and his career gives promise of a brilliant fu- 

Mr. Macready is interested in every phase of pub- 
lic progress, poltically affiliated with the Republican 
party, and by religious faith a Roman Catholic. He 
is a member of St. Lawrence Council, No. 841, 
Knights of Columbus, of Philadelphia. He is a 
fourth degree knight, and is past grand knight of 
this lodge. 


time when the record of the lives of the prominent 
and useful citizens of a generation past ceases to be 
an important and interesting part of the history of 
a district, and although a quarter of a century has 
nearly spent its length since William Sheffield 
Breed trod his accustomed paths, the present chron- 
icle has welcome place for a review of his life story. 

The family of which he was a member traces to 
Allen Breed, who was of record in Lynn, Massachu- 
setts, as early as 1630. He was born in England in 
1601, and his death occurred March 17, 1692. The 
name of his wife is unknown, but he became the fa- 
ther of five children. 

Allen (2) Breed, son of Allen (i) Breed, was born 
in 1626, and by his wife Mary became the father of 
six children. 

John Breed, son of Allen (2) Breed, was born 
January 18, 1663. He married (first) April 28, 
1686, Mary Kirtland, who bore him one child, Sarah, 
born July 15, 1687, died January 28, 168S. He married 
(second), June 8, 1690, Mercy Palmer, who died 
January 28, 1752. After the death of his first wife 
and daughter, John Breed moved from Lynn, Mass- 
achusetts, to Stonington, Connecticut, where he and 
his second wife were members of the First Con- 
gregational Church. Issue by second wife: .'\nna, 
born November 8, 1693; Mary, born lanuary 8, 1697; 
John, of whom further; Elizabeth, born January 28, 
1702; Sarah, born February i, 1704; Zerviah, born 
August 27, 1706; Joseph, born October 4, 1708; 
Bethia, born December 30, 1710; Allen, born August 
29, 1714; Gershom, born November 15, 1715. 

John (2) Breed, son of John (l) Breed, was born 
January 26, 1700, and married, October 14, 1725, 
Mary Prentice. Issue: Mercy, born August 3, 1727; 
John, of whom further; Nathan, born December 13, 
173'; Mary, born December 25, 1733; Sarah, born 
December 28, 1736; Eunice, born February 23, 1738; 
Grace, born June 2, 1740; Ann, born June 2, 1742; 
Amos, born December 23, 1744; Lucy born Decem- 
ber 18, 1746. 

John (3) Breed, son of John (2) Breed, was born 
September 5, 1729, and married, May 19, 1750, Si- 
lence Grant, born January 31, 1731. Issue: Mary, 
born February 9, 1751 ; John, born November 15, 
1752; Sarah, born December 16, 1754; Oliver, born 
February 6, 1757; Reuben, born September 23, 1758; 
Prentice, born January i, 1761; Eunice, born Feb- 
ruary 25, 1763; Samuel, of whom further; Marcy, 
born February 6, 1769. 

Samuel Breed, son of John (3) Breed, was born 
March 23, 1765, and became a well-to-do farmer in 
Stonington. He married (first) Eunice AUyn, and 
(second) Polly Sheffield, daughter of Isaac Shef- 
field. Issue by second wife: Eunice, born Novem- 
ber 26, 1799; Mary Ann, born February 21, 1802, 
married Benjamin F. Breed; Freelove, born May 7, 
1803, married Jesse B. Breed; Isaac Sheffield, of 
whom further; Harriet, born December 24, 1806; 
twins, who died at birth. 

Isaac Sheffield Breed, son of Samuel Breed, was 
born December 19, 1804, and died February 17, 1882. 
liy occupation he was a farmer, and followed that 
calling all his life in Stonington, his latter years be- 
ing spent on a farm in the north part of the town. 
He married Phebe P. Hewitt, born August 24, 1806, 
died July 6, 1893, daughter of Benjamin and Desire 
(Babcock) Hewitt. Issue: Isaac B., who died July 
7, 1829, at the age of eight months; William Sheffield, 
of whom further; Jane P., born November 15, 1831, 
married Erastus D. Miner, of Stonington; Henry E., 
married (first) Sarah Slocum, (second) Harriet 
Pendleton; Mary E.; Sarah, married Dr. Henry M. 
Rising, of South Glastonbury; Emily D., married 
James H. Cleveland, of Stonington; Annie M., born 
April 24, 1842, married Allison B. Ladd, and died 
June 18, 1901; Frances Louise, died August 22, 1846, 
aged nineteen months; Charlotte Ellen, died Septem- 
ber 6, 1850, aged thirteen months. 

William Sheffield Breed, son of Isaac Sheffield 
Breed, was born in North Stonington, Connecticut, 
.'\pril 17, 1830, and obtained his general education in 
the public schools. During his youth his practical 
training was in farming, and upon reaching man's 
estate he went to Stonington Point, where he be- 
came a clerk in the store of an uncle, John Breed. 
Until 1861, he cultivated rented land in Ston- 
ington and North Stonington, in that ye»r 
moving to Brooklyn, Connecticut, renting Allen 
Hill's farm for one year. In 1862 Mr. Breed 
purchased the property upon which the re- 
mainder of his life was spent, now known as Ash 
Lawn Farm, Baltic, Connecticut. From the time of 
its original transfer from the Indians this farm was 



successively in the ownership of the Perkins family, 
George Olin, and Mr. Breed, the fine old homestead 
having been erected in 1791 for the occupancy of a 
Perkins family. Its three hundred acres he de- 
voted to general farming and to the breedmg of 
Holstein-Friesian thoroughbred cattle, subsequently 
disposing of about twenty-five acres. His opera- 
tions, both agricultural and in stockraising, were at- 
tended by success, and in all of his farm work he was 
progressive, receptive to new ideas, and constantly 
seeking for improvement. He considered his work 
in the nature of a life calling, worthy of intensive 
study, and capable of generous rewards if followed 
with the svstematic diligence given other lines of 
endeavor. He read widely, principally along techni- 
cal lines related to his work, and one of his ac- 
quaintances, speaking, after Mr. Breed's death, of 
that gentleman's acute and well-stored mmd, said: "I 
always learned something when I talked to Mr. 

Mr. Breed was a Democrat in earlier years, but 
later espoused Republican principals. For a number 
of years he filled the ofifice of assessor, accepting the 
honor and responsibility this position carried as a 
part of his public duty rather than as an expression 
of personal appreciation. He was a man of splendid 
physique and temperate habits, never having used 
tobacco or liquor in any form. Through the dis- 
trict there was universal respect for his judgment 
and character, and when his friends called upon him 
for counsel and aid it was never in vain. All of his 
interests centered in his home, and here the best of 
a kind, generous and loving nature found e.xpres- 

Mr. Breed married (first), while a resident of 
Stonington Point, Lucy Ann SafTord, who died in 
Stonington, in 1859. They had one son, Charles 
William, born November 19, 1859, died in Windham, 
Connecticut, March 28, 1892, who married Lillian M. 
Porter. Mr. Breed married (second), June 12, i860, 
Sarah A. Williams, born April 21, 1832, in North 
Franklin, Connecticut, daughter of Lathrop and 
Abby (Prentice) Williams. Prior to her marriage, 
Mrs. Breed was a school teacher, and was a cap- 
able and devoted helpmate, staunchly supporting 
her husband in all of the emergencies of life. She 
was a member of the Hanover Congregational 
Church, which he also attended, although his 
church was the Baptist, and Mrs. Breed was 
a teacher in the Sunday school for a number 
of years. Their one daughter, Katherine Abby, 
born November 21, 1863, was graduated from the 
Norwich Free Academy in 1885, receiving the 
Newton Perkins prize in mathematics, and mar- 
ried, in 1899, Allison B. Ladd, Jr., son of Allison B. 
and Annie M. (Breed) Ladd. Mrs. Ladd is a mem- 
ber of the Hanover Congregational Church, and for 
many years has been a teacher and officer of the Sun- 
day school, in which her father was deeply inter- 
ested. Mr. and Mrs. Ladd are the parents of: Ger- 
trude Huntsman, born November 10, 1899, and 
Louise Breed, born January 28, 1902. 

William Sheffield Breed died June 27, 1899, and 
he is buried at Hanover. His name recalls to those 
of his family and acquaintance who survive him a 
man strong in virtue, upright in principle, whose 
every work was good. 

father of John F. Carroll, was born in Limerick, Ire- 
land, and there reared and educated in the national 
schools. He came to the United States in 1866, lo- 
cating in Norwich, Connecticut, where he secured 
employment with the United States Finishing Com- 
pany. He continued with that company in the dye- 
ing department until the present date, 1921. He mar- 
ried Ellen Martin, also born in Limerick, who died 
in Norwich, Connecticut, in 1901. They were the 
parents of seven children, the third a son, John 
Francis, of further mention. 

John Francis Carroll was born in Norwich, Con- 
necticut, February 7, 1878, and there was educated 
in St. Mary's Parochial School. In 1895, being then 
seventeen years of age, he began an apprenticeship 
at the trade of carpenter, in South Windsor, under 
H. L. Stark, and remained with him as a journey- 
man carpenter until 1907. In that year he returned 
to Norwich and entered the employ of C. M. Wil- 
liams, a contracting builder of Norwich, remaining 
in that employ until 1918. In the latter year Mr. 
Carroll, in partnership with James Fenton, of Nor- 
wich, began a general contracting and building busi- 
ness. Carroll & Fenton have been very successful 
during their three years of business, and at the 
present time, 1921, are building, under contract, St. 
Mary's Roman Catholic Church, a handsome and im- 
posing granite building, their most important con- 
tract to date. Mr. Carroll is a Democrat in politics, 
a member of White Cross Council, No. 13, Knights 
of Columbus, Court City of Norwich, Foresters of 
America, and St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church. 

Mr. Carroll married, at Taftville, Connecticut, 
Catherine Veronica West, daughter of William 
West, of Norwich. Mr. and Mrs. Carroll are the par- 
ents of two children: Helen JiLargaret, born in 
March, 1914; John Francis (2), born July 27, 1919; 
both born in Norwich, Connecticut. 

vancement in any of the learned professions is not 
so much the result of fortuitous circumstances nor 
of influence, as it is the result of individual merit, 
application and skill. When these are combined 
with ambition, and a fixed determination to achieve 
success, success surely follows: Dr. Robert J. 
Collins, of Norwich, Connecticut, has achieved this 
enviable reputation in the practice of dentistry, and 
has just reason to rejoice in the fact that through 
his skill good results have been attained. 

Captain John Collins, father of Dr. Collins, was 
born in Portland, Maine, and died in Bristol, Rhode 
Island, in 1898. He followed the sea from youth, 
was a master of ships at twenty-one, and during his 
long career commanded some of the largest ships 



then afloat, making several voyages around the 
world. A man of steady nerve and sound judgment, 
a skilled navigator and a man of great endurance, 
he was nuicli admired, and was held in high esteem 
by his many friends in Bristol. During the last 
years of his life he retired from the sea and was a 
government revenue collector until the time of his 
passing. Captain Collins married Abbie Gladding, 
of Bristol, and they were the parents of four chil- 
dren: Susan T., deceased; John J., a resident of 
Providence, Rhode Island; Robert J., of further 
mention; and Daisy, who died in infancy. 

Robert J. Collins obtained his elementary educa- 
tion in the public schools of his native place, where he 
was born October 27, 1879. He then took a course 
in Bryant & Stratton's Business College and then 
entered upon his business career, his first employ- 
ment being with the Brown & Sharpe Machine Com- 
pany of Providence, Rhode Island, where he ser\-ed 
his apprenticeship as a machinist and then traveled 
in the countries of South America and Europe for 
two years. After his return he matriculated at 
Baltimore Medical College, from which he was grad- 
uated in 1912, with the degree of D.D.S. He then 
went immediately to Bridgeport, Connecticut, where 
he was associated with Dr. Griffin for one year, after 
which he removed to Naugatuck, Connecticut, and a 
few months later, in 1913, came to Norwich, where 
he opened his present offices, at No. 148 Main street. 

Dr. Collins is affiliated with Morning Star Lodge, 
No. 13, Free and .■\ccepted Masons, of Woonsocket, 
Rhode Island, and with the Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks, Woonsocket Lodge, No. 850. 
He also is a member of the Norwich Chamber of 

Dr. Collins married, October 30, 1916, at Norwich, 
Connecticut, Margaret Loretta Flynn, a native of 
Norwich, daughter of Patrick and Margaret (Lyons) 

WALTER FITCH LESTER— In a business ca- 
reer devoted entirely to fire insurance, Mr. Lester 
has become prominent in a special field covered by 
the mutual companies, and for more than a decade of 
years has been the efficient secretary of the New 
London County Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 
with headquarters in Norwich. Mr. Lester is a 
native son of Norwich, his parents, Charles Davison 
and .'Xnna (Hubbard) Lester. Charles D. Lester, a 
bookkeeper, died September 23, 1893, his wife yet a 
resident of Norwich, (1922). 

Walter Fitch Lester was born in Norwich, Con- 
necticut, July 7, 1872, and there was educated in the 
grammar schools and Norwich Free Academy. 
After graduation from the academy in 1891, he- 
entered the employ of B. P. Learned, fire insurance, 
as clerk, having served Mr. Learned as temporary 
clerk during the available hours of his last year in 
school. He continued a clerk with Mr. Learned for 
a number of years, then was admitted to a partner- 
ship under the firm name of B. P. Learned & Com- 
pany, so continuing until January, 1909, when he 
became secretary of the New London County Mu- 

tual Fire Insurance Company, a position he yet 
most ably fills. He is also a director of the Thames 
National Bank, of Norwich, the Dime Savings Bank, 
of Norwich, State vice-president of the National 
.Association Mutual Insurance Companies, director 
of Norwich Building and Loan .Association, a di- 
rector and a former president of the Norwich Hous- 
ing Company. He is a man of energy and ability, 
an authority on fire insurance, and so recognized. 

Mr. Lester has twice served his city as a member 
of the Council, and is a member of the town 
school board of the town of Norwich. He is a 
deacon of the United Congregational Church, of 
Norwich, vice-president of the Brotherhood of that 
church, and for twenty-eight years (1892-1920) was 
baritone of the church choir. He has always been 
deeply interested in music, particularly vocal, and 
was well known on the concert stage and in opera 
as a member of quartettes and choral singing so- 
cieties. He resigned from the church choir in 1920, 
but his interest has never lessened. A quarter of 
a century ago, when the bicycle was king, he was 
very much interested in that sport, particularly in 
the racing feature, and was president of the Rose of 
New England Wheel Club, of Norwich, one of the 
leading New England wheel clubs of its period. He 
was also for many years a member, and active in 
the interests of the Chelsea Boat Club and the Ar- 
canum Club, Incorporated, both of Norwich. He is 
a member of Norwich Chamber of Commerce; Nor- 
wich Young Men's Christian Association; associate 
member of the Connecticut State Association of 
Local Fire Insurance -Agents; member of Somerset 
Lodge, No. 34, Free and Accepted Masons; member 
of Insurance Library Association of Boston; Na- 
tional Fire Protection Association; was president 
of Norwich City Beautiful Association, an organ- 
ization of usefulness, now out of existence, and is 
a member of Norwich Grange, No. 172, Patrons of 

On August 28, 1900, in Norwich, Mr. Lester 
married (first) Rose E. Kasche, who died Septem- 
ber 24, 1910, daughter of Edward Kasche, of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. Mr. aand Mrs. Lester were the 
parents of a daughter, Dorothy, born November 
17, 1903, and of a son, Everard Mason, born July 
31, 1906. Mr. Lester married (second), in Hartford, 
Connecticut, February 10, 1911, Mary A. Coutts, 
daughter of Rev. James A. Coutts. of Los Angeles, 

MEREDITH LEE — .Although but a young man 
of twenty-five, Mr. Lee has passed through the ex- 
perience of a lifetime in many things. He early 
responded to the call for volunteers in 1917. and 
until the spring of 1919 was overseas w-ith the 
.American Expeditionary Forces in the air service, 
a branch in which both the sons of Rev. James Bev- 
eridge Lee. pastor of the Second Congregational 
Church of New London, served. Lieutenant Lee re- 
turned in safety, but his brother made the supreme 
sacrifice, being killed in action. .A great sorrow came 
to Lieutenant Lee in the death of his young wife, and 



he tasted deeply of the cup of life for so young a 

Rev. James Beveridge Lee, born in Bovina Center, 
Delaware county, New York, in the western Catskill 
region, chose the holy profession, and after gradua- 
tion from Hamilton College, A. B., class of 1884, 
entered Union Theological Seminary, New York 
City, and in 1890 was graduated B. D. He was or- 
dained a minister of the Presbyterian church, and 
for several years was settled over the Presbyterian 
church at Bloomfield, New Jersey, and while there 
his son Meredith was born. Later he transferred 
his allegiance from the Presbyterian church to the 
Congregational church, and has long been the 
regularly settled pastor of the Second Congrega- 
tional Church in New London, Connecticut. He 
married Minna Greenman, and they are the parents 
of three children: Helen, married Charles B. Gil- 
bert, and resides in New London; Meredith, of fur- 
ther mention; Schuyler, born in Bloomfield, New 
Jersey, July 29, 1898, was a student at Andover 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, and 
with a Unit recruited from Andover entered the 
United States service as sergeant in the Ambulance 
Corps. Later, overseas, he secured a transfer to the 
French Army Flying Corps, becoming a member 
of the famous Lafayette Escadrille, ranking as ser- 
geant. After a glorious career he met his death in 
action, April 2, 1918, at Alontdidier, in the Sommc 
sector, about forty miles north of Paris, and 
twenty-one miles southeast of Amiens. He was in 
command of the machine, and in action in the air 
when shot down. 

Meredith Lee, eldest son of Rev. James B. and 
Minna (Greenman) Lee, was born in Bloomfield, 
New Jersey, April 9, 1897. He was educated in the 
public schools, in a preparatory school, Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, and at Yale University, receiv- 
ing his Bachelor's degree from Yale in 1919. He 
was a member of the class of 1918, but with the dec- 
laration of war against Germany in 1917, he left the 
university and on August 3, following, enlisted at 
Boston, Massachusetts, in the Aviation Corps of the 
United States Army. He was sent for training to 
Cadet Training School at Princeton, New Jersey, 
and on November 20, 1917, sailed overseas with the 
15th Foreign Detachment, Air Service Cadets, 
stationed at Mons, France, but was later trans- 
ferred to airplane radio service, and on June 4, 1918, 
was commissioned second lieutenant. He continued 
in overseas service until ordered home, March i, 
1919- He was mustered out of the service, and was 
located at Garden City until July, 1919, when he re- 
turned to the family home in New London, Connec- 
ticut, where he was variously employed until Septem- 
ber, 1921. On that date he came to Norwich, Con- 
necticut, and in association with C. H. Williams and 
Charles B. Gilbert he bought out the Baird Tire 
Company, of Norwich, which they reorganized as 
the Williams Tire and Supply Company, Meredith 
Lee, secretary and manager. Mr. Lee is an Inde- 
pendent in politics; a member of the Congrega- 
tional church, of New London, his home; and a 

member of the Chamber of Commerce, of Norwich,. 
his business headquarters. Mr. Lee has many 
friends who wish him well, and there seems a un- 
animity of sentiment concerning his extremely gen- 
ial, generous and manly character. 

Mr. Lee married, in New London, November 4, 
1917, Madlyn L. Burton, who died in Wilmington,. 
Delaware, October 15, 1918. 

JAMES BARTON GRAY— In the farming com- 
munity of Ledyard, New London county, Connecti- 
cut, the name of Gray has long been a prominent 
and honored one. James Barton Gray, now one of 
the leading members of this family, has thus far 
spent his life in agricultural pursuits. 

Thomas Baxter Gray, grandfather of James B. 
Gray, was born in Ledyard, and was a farmer here 
all his life. 

Amandan Gray, son of Thomas Baxter Gray, was 
born in Ledyard, in 1835. He was also a farmer 
throughout his lifetime, and was always prominent 
in the public affairs of the tovi^n and county, serving 
repeatedly in public office, and being aligned, po- 
litically, with the Democratic party. He married 
Francina Peckham, daughter of Elder Peckham, of 
Ledyard. Amandan Gray died in 1908, at the age 
of seventy-three years, and his wife died in 1899. 
They lie side by side in the Ledyard Cemetery. 

James Barton Gray, son of Amandan and Francina 
(Peckham) Gray, was born in Ledyard, just below 
his present home. May 23, i860. He received his 
education in the schools of his native town, and 
those in the vicinity of Mystic. From the time he 
completed his education he was active in the life 
of the farm. First helping his father on the old 
homestead, he later rented the Williams place, 
which he conducted for a period of twelve years. 
Thereafter he purchased his father's interests, and 
has since conducted the homestead farm, which 
has now been in the family for over half a century. 
For many years he has specialized in peaches, but 
recent abnormal conditions in the farm labor market 
hav< made it necessary to devote his energies to 
other crops more extensively for the past few years. 
Mr. Gray's success is that of the man long estab- 
lished upon a secure footing, and still looking for- 
ward. In the public life of the community, Mr. Gray 
has long been a prominent figure, having served on 
the Boird of Assessors, and also on the Board of 

Mr. Gray married (first) Helene Maria Littlefield, 
daughter of Captain George and Caroline (Tibbets) 
Littlcfield, of Washington county, Maine, a family 
long prominent in tlie vicinity of Wells. She died in 
1900, and is buried in Ledyard. They were the par- 
ents of seven children: Bessie, Bertha, Albe, Julia, 
Charles, Fred, Helene. Mr. Gray married (second) 
Marian Littlefield, sister of the first Mrs. Gray, and 
the children of this marriage are three sons: James. 
Calvin, George. 

GEORGE RAYMOND GRAY— In the memorial 

records of New London county, Connecticut, there 



are many honored names, names which mean much 
to the county in the growth and development which 
have made it a leading section of the State. Among 
these names there is none more worthy of com- 
memoration in a work of this nature than that of 
George Raymond Gray, long active in the business 
circles of the county, and always a progressive citi- 
zen of lofty principles and valiant spirit. 

Mr. Gray was a son of John Choppley Gray, a 
member of the Gray family, long prominent in the 
history of this county. John Choppley Gray mar- 
ried Delia Baldwin, of Mansfield, Connecticut, and 
their other sons are Harry, now a resident of Nor- 
wich, and John Benjamin. 

George Raymond Gray was born in Chaplin, Con- 
necticut, January 18, 1868, and died in November, 
191 1, in the prime of life, not yet having completed 
his forty-fourth year. He was buried in the Avery 
family lot, Groton. Receiving his early education 
in the public schools near his home, the young man 
was graduated from the Sheffield High School, of 
ShefTield, Massachusetts, where the family lived at 
the time. After his graduation he entered the busi- 
ness world in Wilton, Massachusetts, being em- 
ployed there for a time, and later came back to his 
native State and conducted a dry goods business in 
Willimantic. Although he was very successful along 
this line, he was persuaded to sell out this interest, 
and he then became associated with the Larrabee 
Grocery Company. Later he severed this connec- 
tion to take charge of the Mill store, at Turner- 
ville, Connecticut. With this experience, Mr. Gray 
finally came to New London, purchasing the busi- 
ness of his wife's father, at the time of the latter's 

This business he developed to an important in- 
terest, and became a leading merchant of the city of 
New London. He was a man of strict integrity, and 
while of progressive and ambitious spirit was never 
a man to profit by another's misfortune. In the 
passing of such a man a community suffers a loss 
that is not readily filled. A decade has gone by 
since George Raymond Gray was a familiar figure 
in the business world of New London, but his name 
is still spoken of as that of a man whose spirit is 
alive, and still working out good for the people. He 
will not soon be forgotten, and those who bear his 
name will long be held in high esteem for his sake. 

Mr. Gray married Josephine Lamb Avery, a mem- 
ber of one of the oldest of New London county 
families, and a daughter of Jerrod Reed and Joseph- 
ine Alice (Lamb) Avery, of Groton, where she was 
born. Her birth occurred November 2, 1867. This 
Avery family was among the pioneer settlers of 
New London county, and the first Jerrod Reed 
Avery, ^^rs. Gray's grandfather, was pastor of the 
old Groton church, a Congregational Society, for 
twenty-three years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gray were the parents of seven 
children: i. Willard Avery, born May 16, 1896, a 
student at Yale University, of the class of 1921. 2. 
Dorothy Baldwin, born November 23, 1897; was a 
member of the first graduating class of the Connec- 

ticut College for Women, in New London. 3. 
Eunice Cutler, born December 9, 1898; now the wife 
of Max Underbill, of New London, and has an in- 
fant daughter, Winifred Gray. 4. Jerrod Reed, 
born December 9, 1900. 5. John Choppley, born 
January 4, 1903. 6. Allan Baldwin, born July 27, 
■90S- 7- Josephine Avery, born October 25, 1907. 

native son, Isaac G. Larkin has resided in Lebanon, 
Connecticut, since 1864, and is a representative citi- 
zen of that flourishing community, widely known 
for his public spirit and his deep interest in every 
forward movement. 

Mr. Larkin traces his descent from Edward Larkin, 
who is of record in Newport, Rhode Island, in 
1655. The line is traced from Edward Larkin, the 
founder, through his son Roger, son Samuel, son 
Samuel (2), son William, son William (2), son 
Alfred .Mdrich, son Isaac Gardiner Larkin, of the 
eighth American generation. 

.•\lfred .Mdrich Larkin was born at Richmond, 
Rhode Island, February 29, 1828, and died at Leb- 
anon, Connecticut, July 3, 1894, at the age of sixty- 
six years. He was a farmer throughout his entire 
life. He married Mary Janet Gardiner, who was 
born in the State of Rhode Island, and who died at 
Lebanon, September i, 1908, at the age of eighty- 
one years. Mr. and Mrs. Larkin were the parents 
of three children: Isaac Gardiner, of whom further 
mention; Martha Anne, widow of James A. Pen- 
dleton, of Lebanon, Connecticut; Sarah, deceased, 
wife of Henry Edward Card, and the mother of 
four children: Lottie Janet, born April 2. 1881; 
.Mfred Edward, born September 23. 1883; Herbert 
Aldrich, born December 16, 1885; Florence .-Vnnie, 
born May 21, 1888. 

Isaac Gardiner Larkin, son of .Alfred Aldrich and 
Mary Janet (Gardiner) Larkin, was born November 
7, 1849, at South Kingston, Rhode Island, and there 
spent the first fourteen years of his life. He attended 
South Kingston public schools until the removal 
of the family to Lebanon, Connecticut, in 1864, 
and there he resumed public school study, continu- 
ing until reaching the age of seventeen. He then 
became identified with the agricultural and dairying 
interests of his section, and since 1906 has been a 
member of the board of directors of Lebanon 
Creamery. In politics, Mr. Larkin is a Republican, 
and has always taken an active part in town affairs. 
For thirty years he was a member of the Board 
of Relief, and in 1909 he represented the Lebanon 
district in the Lower House of the Connecticut 

Mr. Larkin married, January 4, 1870, Ellen Ame- 
lia Briggs, daughter of Charles Wilcox and Delia 
Frances (Gager) Briggs. Mr. and Mrs. Larkin are 
the parents of six children: i. Nellie Gardiner, 
born May 23, 1871, died March 7, 1872. 2. Clara 
Aldrich, born May S, 1873, married John Francis 
Sherman, Jr., died August 11, 1914. the mother of 
four children: Marjorie Ellen Shcrmaii, born May 
13, 1901; Lucy Eliza Sherman, born December 10, 



1902; John Francis (3) Sherman, born December 
II, 1904; Elinor Warren Sherman, born November 
24, 1909. 3. Warren Gardiner, born September 27, 
1877, died December 8, 1894. 4. Mary Frances, mar- 
ried Elmer E. Sharpc, of Lebanon, and has a son, 
Arthur Ellsworth Sharpe, born September I, 1909. 
5. Annie Charlotte, born April 25, 1S85, married 
Carroll L. Adams, of Lyme, Connecticut. 6. Helen 
Bronson, born August 6, 1887, now a teacher in 
Willimantic, Connecticut. 


the most prominent names in New London county 
is that of Wilcox, and the family reaches back to 
the early history of New England in Colonial times, 
various branches of the family having given to the 
professions and to the industries men who have 
been significant factors in the general progress. 
Within the memory of many present day citizens 
of this county, two brothers. Captain Elias Wilcox 
and Elnathan M. Wilcox, were prominent figures 
in the coast towns of the county and in the fishing 

Elnathan M. Wilcox was born in Stonington, and 
educated in the public schools of an earlier day. 
The call of the sea early came to him as an appeal 
of permanent force, and he became a fisherman, 
thus following the example of many of his forbears. 
But he was a man of broad mental capacity and 
more than ordinary originality of action, and found 
the nucleus of an industry of importance to the 
landsman in the products of the sea. He estab- 
lished a factory for the manufacture of commercial 
fish-oils and fertilizer, which is still conducted by 
his sons, and is one of the important industrial 
enterprises of the town of Mystic. The latter part 
of his life he spent in Quinebaug, in the town of 
Stonington, on his farm, retired from all active 
business, and there he died. May 29, 1886. He was 
twice married, the second wife being Julia A. Deni- 
son, who was born February 22, 1825, and was a 
daughter of Henry and Lucy (Smith) Dcnison. 
They were married May 9, 1S47, and were the 
parents of eight children: A son who was born and 
died February 18, 1848; Hettie ^L, who became Mrs. 
Palmer, born January i, 1849, now residing in 
Providence, Rhode Island, at the home of her son- 
in-law, Fred White, a cotton broker; Jesse H., born 
August 10, 1852, now superintendent of the Wilcox 
Fertilizer Works; Lucy E., born October 8, 1854, 
and twice married, first being Mrs. Strickland, now 
Mrs. Brown; Moses H., born August 15, 1858; Deni- 
son Elmer, born July 21, 1861; George W., whose 
name heads this review; and Jennie D., now Mrs. 
Clark, born March 31, 1867. All but the eldest of 
these children are still living, and all but Mrs. 
Palmer are residents of New London county. They 
are all married, and have children who are following 
the family traditions of usefulness, some having 

George Washington Wilcox was born on the 
family homestead farm in Quinebaug, in the town 
of Stonington, in this county, August 15, 1864. Edu- 

cated in the public schools of his native town, he 
also followed the sea from his youth as a fisherman, 
and has been very successful. Mystic, which was 
scarcely more than a fishing village in his 3'outh, 
has grown into a large and prosperous business and 
industrial community, and come out almost to the 
doors of the homestead, but he still resides in the 
community where he was born, and is still actively 
engaged in the industry which has been his life 

Mr. Wilcox has long been counted among the 
leading men of this section, and is highly esteemed, 
but though a staunch Republican in political affilia- 
tion, has never sought the responsibilities of leader- 
ship. He is a member of Stonington Lodge, No. 26, 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church. 

Mr. Wilco.x married, on June 27, 1887, Mina B. 
Roe, daughter of George O. and Nellie L. (War- 
field) Roe, of New York City, and they are the 
parents of three children: Walter Elwood, born 
September 30, 1888, who married Harriet M. Glover; 
Harold Anthony, married Ruth Rogers; and Gladys 
I. The older son, Walter E. Wilcox, is a graduate 
of Colgate University, Hamilton, New York (class 
of 1912), with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, also 
received his Master's degree from Columbia Univer- 
sity, of New York City, in 1917; is a member of the 
Phi Beta Kappa fraternity, and of the Masonic 
order. He is now principal of Woodward School, at 
No. 700 Bates street, St. Louis, Missouri. The 
younger son, Harold A. Wilcox, is a paper manu- 
facturer, at Oneco, Windham county, Connecticut, 
and the daughter is a teacher in New Jersey. 

HUGH FRANCIS LENA— When the World War 
called for men from the medical profession, Dr. 
Hugh F. Lena was one of those who "sponded, he 
being assigned to the naval hospii .1 in N w London. 
While on duty there he made many friends, and so 
insistent were they that he make New London his 
home after the war was over, that on April 14, 
1920, he did return and at No. 154 Broad street 
established a private hospital. The hospital has 
evidently met a public need, for its capacity has 
been taxed to its limit for some time, and Dr. Lena 
has there performed a great many major operations 
during the year the hospital has been in operation. 
One of the features of its equipment is an X-Ray 
department of the most modern type, and in each 
department all equipment, sanitation, ventilation, 
etc., is along modern lines of discovery and practice. 

Dr. Lena is a son of Patrick Henry and Elizabeth 
(Lennon) Lena, his parents both born in Belfast, 
Ireland. Patrick H. Lena came to the United States 
a young man, settled in Lawrence, Massachusetts, 
where he became an expert weaver and foreman 
of the cloth-room in one of the Lawrence mills. He 
died in Lawrence, in November, 1900. Mrs. Eliza- 
beth (Lennon) Lena died there in May, 1915. 

Hugh Francis Lena was born in Lawrence, 
Massachusetts, March 22, 1888. He completed high 
school courses. He was graduated A.B., Dartmouth 

>/— ^ 



College, 1912; Johns Hopkins University, M.D., 1916, 
both college courses pursued in full and with honor. 
After graduation he returned to Massachusetts and 
became an interne at the City Hospital, Boston, 
there continuing until March, 1918, when he was 
commissioned lieutenant of the junior grade, United 
States Navy Medical Corps, and assigned to duty 
at the Naval Hospital in Newport, Rhode Island. 
In April, 1918. he was promoted lieutenant of the 
senior grade, and on October i, 1919, was honorably 
discharged from the United States service. During 
the influenza epidemic the Naval Hospital in New 
London gave up all possible work to fight that 
dread disease. Dr. Lena obtained the use of the 
State Armory in New London and was in charge 
of the hospital established therein. 

After his release from the army, Dr. Lena re- 
turned to his Lawrence home for rest, and after a 
time took a special course in the Massachusetts Eye 
and Ear Hospital in Boston, his study covering 
diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat. .After 
concluding his course in the spring of 1920, he 
located in New London, as stated, and there has 
since conducted a private hospital with gratifying 
success. He is a member of the medical societies 
of Massachusetts, and is a surgeon of acknowledged 
skill and learning. Dr. Lena is a member of the 
New London County Medical Society, Connecticut 
State Medical Society, Medical Society of Essex 
County, Massachusetts; the Massachusetts State 
Medical Society, American Medical Association, 
New London Lodge, No. 364, Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Ell;s; fourth degree Knight of 
Columbus; American Legion; and is a communicant 
of St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church. 

Dr. Lena married, in Boston, Massachusetts, 
June 26, 1920, Helen Francis Gartland, born in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, daughter of Peter and 
Mary Gartland. 

was the birthplace and lifelong home of Frederick 
Morgan Smith, whose passing, .'\ugust 3, 19171 at 
the age of seventy, was so deeply regretted by his 
many friends. Mr. Smith was connected with his 
father, Nathan B. Smith, in the manufacture of 
melodeons, and latter engaged in business as a 
dealer in pianos and organs. He was highly es- 
teemed as a business man, and as a citizen his vir- 
tues were conspicuous. 

Mr. Smith traced descent from five Colonial gov- 
ernors: Governor William Coddington, Governor 
William Hutchinson, Governor John Winthrop, Gov- 
ernor John Sanford and Governor Pcleg Sanford. 
He also was a descendant of Revolutionary heroes, 
one of these. Colonel Oliver Smith, an aide to Gen- 
eral Washington and with him at Valley Forge. 
Later Colonel Smith commanded the Eighth Regi- 
ment of the Connecticut line. Another ancestor was 
Nathaniel Fanning, who was a midshipman under 
John Paul Jones, and later in life was commandant 
of the Charlcstown navy yard. The destroyer 
"Fanning" of the United States navy was so named 
N.L.— 2-5 

in his honor. The ancestor of this family was Rev. 
Nchemiah Smith. Descent is traced through eight 
American generations to Frederick Morgan Smith, 
of the ninth generation. The generations follow: 

(I) Rev. Nehemiah Smith, one of the original 
proprietors of Norwich, Connecticut, and progenitor 
of this branch of the family, came to America in 
1637. He was born in England in about 1605, and 
died in 1686. He married Sarah Ann Bourne, 
daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Bourne, of 
Marsfield, Massachusetts. 

(II) Nehemiah (2) Smith, son of Rev. Nehemiah 
(l) and Sarah .Ann (Bourne) Smith, was baptized 
October 24, 1646, and died .August 8, 1727. He mar- 
ried, October 24, 1664, Lydia Winchester, daughter of 
Alexander W^inchester, of Roxbury, Massachusetts. 

(III) Nehemiah (3) Smith, son of Nehemiah (2) 
and Lydia (Winchester) Smith, was born November 
14. 1673. and died November 21, 1724. He married, 
April 22, 1696, Dorothy Wheeler. 

(IV) Nathan Smith, son of Nehemiah (3) and 
Dorothy (Wheeler) Smith, was born November or 
September 16, 1702, and died December 4, 1784. He 
married Mary . 

(V) Oliver Smith, son of Nathan and Mary 
Smith, was born .Xpril 29, 1739, on the Smith home- 
stead at Poquonock, Connecticut. He married, April 
5. 1759. Mary Denison, daughter of John and Mary 
(Noyes) Denison. 

(VI) Denison Smith, son of Oliver and Mary 
(Denison) Smith, was born June 19, 1769, at Ston- 
ington, Connecticut. He married, March 6, 1788, 
Waity Smith, of Poquonock, only child of Jabez and 
Waity (Burrows) Smith. 

(VII) Nathan (2) Smith, son of Denison and 
Waity (Smith) Smith, was born at Groton, Con- 
necticut, March 31, 1793. He was a farmer at 
Poquonock, and died there April 4, 1851. He mar- 
ried, March 6, 1814, Fanning, daughter of 

Nathaniel and Elizabeth (Smith) Fanning. She was 
born September II, 1796, and died December 24, 


(VIII) Nathan D. Smith, son of Nathan (2) 
.Smith, was born at Poquonock, Connecticut, Septem- 
ber 14, 1815. He married, September 12. 1841, Mary 
Abby Morgan, born in 1828, daughter of Elisha and 
Caroline Morgan. Their children were: .Adriana, 
born June 27, 1844; Frederick Morgan, born August 
27, 1847; and .Aborn Fanning, born .April 19, 1849. 

(IX) Frederick Morgan Smith, son of Nathan 
D. and Mary .Abby (Morgan) Smith, was born in 
New London, Connecticut, in 1847, and died in the 
city of his birth, .August 3, 191 7. He was a graduate 
of Dr. Fitch's School, at Windham, and a student 
at New London and Poughkecpsie schools. After 
school years were over he became associated in 
business with his father, Nathan D. Smith, who was 
then a manufacturer of melodeons and organs, the 
Smith instruments being the acme of perfection in 
their day. The store operated by the company was 
located where the Bank Street New Theatre now 
stands, and a large business was there conducted. 
When Nathan D. Smith was called away he admitted 



his brother, Aborn F. Smith as a partner, and for 
many years the firm conducted a piano and organ 
store. The firm title at first, M. D. Smith & Sons, 
was changed to Smith Bros. Aborn F. Smith later 
retired from the company, and Frederick M. Smith 
carried on the business alone until the admission of 
his son, Richard B. Smith. Naturally quiet and 
retiring in nature, Mr. Smith took no active part in 
public affairs, althougli keenly alive to his duties 
as a citizen. During his many years in business in 
New London, he earned for himself an enviable 
reputation among his fellowmen. His circle of 
friends was unusually large, and because of his 
genial personality and sympathetic manner, he won 
the esteem of all with whom he came in contact. 
Frederick M. Smith married, April 15, 1873, Annie 
Holt, and they were the parents of five children: 
Nathan H., Frederick M., Jr., Richard B., Henry H., 
and Lucy Bishop, married Hugh T. Cuthbert, of 

JEAN BAPTISTE MARTIN— The largest manu- 
facturers in America of the finest quality silk vel- 
vets, yet only a branch of the parent factory in 
Lyons, France — this is the significance of the e.>:tcn- 
sive buildings which form the plant of the J. B. 
Martin Company, Incorporated, at Norwich, Con- 

Jean Baptiste Martin, grandfather of the present 
Mr. J. B. Martin, was the founder of this industry. 
He was born in Lyons, France, in the year 1799, and 
died there in 1863, having lived in that city all his 
life. He entered the silk manufacturing industry 
as a boy, in Lyons, the greatest silk producing cen- 
ter in the world. He went through all the depart- 
ments, learning the business from every angle, and 
also attended the Textile School, at Lyons. Even- 
tually he began the manufacture of silk velvets, 
building up a large and important interest along 
this line in his native city. At his death, in 1863, 
his widow continued the business until their son, 
Andre, was able to take over the management. 
The firm name has never been changed, except by 
the articles of incorporation. 

Andre Martin, son of Jean Baptiste Martin, the 
founder of this industry, was born in Lyons, France. 
He received the advantage of a broadly comprehen- 
sive technical education, including a course in civil 
cncrinr-ering, from which he was graduated with 
honors. Upon the completion of his studies he re- 
turned to Lyons, fully equipped to relieve his mother 
■' ■ --'fs of the business, and entered ♦'-■' velvet 
manufacturing world. Under his hand the business 
was developed to a remarkable extent, and after 
seriously considering the feasibility of such a project, 
decided upon the erection of a branch factory on 
this side of the Atlantic. Thus in 1896 he incor- 
porated the business in France, under the name of 
the J. B. Martin Company, the better to arrange 
the business for his absence, and came to the 
United States, accompanied by Mr. George Caband, 
and Mr. J. Sounery, of the firm, and sought a loca- 
tion for the proposed plant. 

In 1898 the present site of the J. B. Martin Com- 
pany, in Norwich, Connecticut, was purchased, and 
building operations begun, the most modern de- 
signs and materials of that day being used. The 
first section of the mill was completed in 1899, and 
from that time until the present, additions and 
improvements have been made, constantly increas- 
ing the extent and capacity of the plant. In 1919 j, 
the company purchased the Pequot Mill, of Nor- ■ 
wich, converting it into a mill for throwing silk, 
again increasing their facilities. In 1920 they bought 
the large modern plant of the Marlin-Rockwell Com- 
pany, in the center of Norwich, erected during the 
World War by that celebrated firearms company, 
for the manufacture of machine guns. In these 
various Norwich plants the J. B. Martin Company 
now employs eight hundred operatives, and they 
manufacture only the very finest and most e.xpensive 
velvet and deep pile plushes. The company is in- 
corporated in the State of Maine. Andre Martin, re- 
turning to France when the American plant of the 
company was well established, is still the active 
head of the French plant. He married Margaret 
Arbelot, and they reside in Lyons. 

Jean Baptiste Martin, the present head of the 
American plant of the J. B. Martin Company, In- 
corporated, and son of Andre and Margaret (Arbe- 
lot) Martin, was born in St. Germain en Laye, 
France, on May 29, 1890. He received his early 
education in the public schools of the city of Paris, 
continuing through the high school there. He 
graduated from the German Technical School, at 
Ronigliche Webeshule, at Crefeld, in Rhineland, 
Germany. Returning to his native land, he enlisted 
in the French army, as cavalryman, and completed 
the two years of service in 1912. Mr. Martin came 
to America in that year with his father, Andre 
Martin, and Julian Crozier, nephew of the manager 
of the American plant in Norwich. 

This history would be incomplete without at least 
passing mention of this young man, who later gave 
his life for his country. He remained at the plant 
of the company until the declaration of war in 
France. In August, 1914, he returned to France to 
enlist in the French army, and was killed in action 
in December of the same year. He was well known M 
in Norwich, in both social and business circles, and '■ 
his loss is mourned by many friends here, and the 
name of Julian Crozier will long be remembered 
in Norwich. 

Mr. Martin remained at the Norwich plant of the 
company, familiarizing himself with every detail, 
until May, 1914, when he returned to France. Enter- 
ing the French army in August, 1914, he was as- 
signed to service with the British army, as inter- 
preter, with the British Indian Army Corps, from 
Hindustan. He was with this corps as interpreter 
in English, German, French and Indian languages, 
continuing in this capacity through 1915 and 1916. 
During this time he was in the battles of the Somme, 
the first and second battles of Ypres, and many 
other engagements. In 1916 he was commissioned 
second-lieutenant of Dismounted Cavalry, of t';e 



French army, and continued in that office until the 
end of the war. He was in the battles of Chcniin 
Des Dames, in 1916 and 1917; in the battle of Nayon 
in 1918, beginning on March 23, and lasting for eight 
days; at the front in the battle of Plcsses-dc-Roye, 
in 1918; in the battle of tlie Argonne Forest, in 1918, 
and was with that branch of the army when the war 
was ended. He was discharged from active duty 
in March, 1919, and assigned to the reseive army 
of France. 

In October, 1919, Mr. Martin returned to his busi- 
ness interests in Norwich, after an absence, on ac- 
count of the war, of nearly six years. Here he re- 
sumed his position as general manager of the J. B. 
Martin Company, Incorporated, and is continuing 
and broadening the business policies by which his 
father gave the company its initial impulse in this 
country. His position as head of the largest manu- 
facturing establishment of its class in America, places 
Mr. Martin in the forefront of the manufacturing 
interests of this coimty and State. 

Mr. Martin married, in Paris, on June 24, 1914. 
Margaret May Aubert, who was born in Paris, 
France, and is a daughter of Albert Aubert. Mrs. 
Martin's father, who is now deceased, was a promi- 
nent architect in the city of Paris. Mr. iid Mrs. 
Martin have one daughter, Anne Moniquc. born in 
Paris, June 12, 1916. The family are members of the 
Roman Catholic church. 

HOWARD L. STANTON, chief of the Norwich 
Fire Department, was born at Norwich, Connecticut, 
July 17, 1854, the eldest son of George H. and Helen 
(Sparks) Stanton. He attended public schools until 
twelve years of age, when he was obliged to go to 
work. Nine years was the length of time of his 
service in the machine shop of C. B. Rogers & 
Co., builders of woodworking machinery. During 
a portion of the time he was apprenticed to the 
machinist trade. In 1875 he went to work for the 
Bacon Arms Company, builders of revolvers and 
pistols, in the capacity of tool maker, as at this time 
he was recognized as a first-class mechanic. In 
August, 1881, he went with Lester & Wasley, build- 
ers of automatic envelope machinery, where he re- 
mained until July, 1901. July i, 1901, he was 
elected chief of the Norwich Fire Department. His 
connection with the fire department dates from his 
early years in the machine shop, he having worked 
up through all grades to the position of assistant 
chief in 1881, holding the position until 1899, when 
he resigned to give his entire time to Messrs. Lester 
& Wasley. 

He is a director in the Chelsea Savings Bank and 
of the Masonic Temple Corporation; vice-president 
and director of the Lester & Wasley Company, a 
member of the Connecticut Society and Sons of 
the American Revolution. He has received all the 
Masonic degrees in the York and Scottish Rite, 
including the thirty-third, and the last degree of the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of the Northern 
Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States of Amer- 
ica, and has passed the chairs of most of the bodies. 

He is also a life member of Pyramid Temple, Nobles 
of the Mystic Shrine of Bridgeport, Connecticut; 
also a member of the International Association of 
Fire Engineers; of the International Association of 
Municipal Electricians; of the National Fire Protec- 
tion Association; of the New England Association of 
Fire Chiefs, a life member of the Connecticut State 
Firemen's Association and c.x-prcsidcnt of the same; 
also a member of the Connecticut Fire Chiefs' Club 
and ex-president of the same; member of the Nor- 
wich Chamber of Commerce and the Commonwealth 
Club of New York. 

October 22, 1874, Mr. Stanton was united in mar- 
riage with Frances Loosee Hotchkiss, of Norwich, 
Connecticut, who died December 19, 1899, daughter 
of Edwin O. and Eliza Hotchkiss, of Norwich. He 
married (second) Kathrine K. Kind, January 25, 
1905, daughter of Joseph and Henrietta Kind, of 
Norwich. Two children were born of the first union: 
.*\my Louise Stanton, and Gcorgie Coit Stanton, both 
residents of Norwich; Amy L. was born January 3, 
1878, and Gcorgie C. was born April 30, 1879. 


The following narrative of the life of Hon. William 
A. Buckingham was prepared by the late Noah 
Porter, D.D., LL.D., at the time preside»t of Yale, 
and appeared as a "Memoir of Senator Backingham" 
in the New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register of January, 1876, and without question it 
is the most complete character sketch of Mr. Buck- 
ingham in print. "The writer of this sketch knew 
Senator Buckingham from before the beginning of 
his public career to the end of his life, and had fre- 
quent opportunities to judge of him in almost every 
one of the relations which have been named. After 
abating all that might be required from the particu- 
lars of personal friendship, he can honestly give 
his testimony that a conscientious sincerity and a 
graceful symmetry gave the strength and beauty to 
a character which other generations may reasonably 
hold in the highest honor." 

William .-Mfrcd Buckingham was born in Lebanon, 
Connecticut, May 28, 1804. His father, Samuel, was 
born in Saybrook, and was a descendant in the 
direct line from the Rev. Thomas Buckingham, the 
minister of Saybrook (1665-1709), one of the ten 
founders of Yale College, and one of the moderators 
of the Synod which framed the Saybrook Platform. 
Thomas was the son of Thomas, one of the original 
members of the New Haven Colony, but soon re- 
moved to Milford, where he was one of the "seven 
pillars" of the church at its organization. His 
mother, Joanna Matson, was born in Lyme. Connec- 
ticut, January 25, 1777. died December 9, 1846. The 
parents began their married life in Saybrook. but 
soon removed to Lebanon, where they died and 
were buried. William was the second of six chil- 
dren, the others being: .\bigail, born March 26. 1801, 
died June 27, 1861; Lucy Ann, born October 25, 1806, 
died September 2, 1853; Samuel Matson, born July 
12, 1809, died November 26, 1810; Samuel Giles, 



born November i8, 1812; Israel Matson, born August 

5. 1816. 

Lebanon is a quiet, pleasant country town, scarcely 
a village, eleven miles from Norwich, on the high 
road to Hartford. Its broad and grassy street is 
bordered by a few farm houses, comfortable and 
neat rather than elegant, which are distributed at 
convenient distances for the uses of the more than 
usually comfortable farmers who own them. Near 
the meeting-house are a few dwellings a little more 
distinguished, as the former residences of the Gov- 
ernors Trumbull, and the "store," which, during 
and ever since the war of the Revolution, has been 
dignified by the name of the "Old War Office." 
Lebanon had been for nearly fifty-four years— from 
December. 1772, to February, 1826 — trained and 
honored by the ministry of Solomon Williams, D.D., 
brother of Elisha Williams, rector of Yale College, 
and himself a leader among the Connecticut divines. 
Here was born, in 1710, the first Jonathan Trum- 
bull, who graduated at Harvard College in 1727, and 
was chosen Governor of Connecticut annually from 
1769 to 1783— which office he resigned after fifty 
years of public service. His son Jonathan, born at 
Lebanon, graduated at Harvard College, 1759, was 
paymaster to the army, 1776-1778; secretary and aide 
to Washington, 1780-1783; in 1789, member of Con- 
gress; in 1791, speaker of the Lower House; in 1794, 
senator; and from 1798 to 1809, governor of Con- 
necticut. An academy also graced this village green, 
and had been sustained for many years with more 
or less regularity. 

Here were all the conditions for the training of a 
character like that of Senator Buckingham.