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Part I: 


Submitted to the Board of University Studies 
of the 
Johns Hoplcins University 
in conformity with the 



Baltimore, 19] 6. 

n*^, 41^ 


Chapter I. Relation between modern Indian fol>:lore and literature. 
Sec. 1 . Synopsis of history of Indian folklore. 
Sec. 2 . Genuineness and falsity of folklore character of 

stories published. 
Sec. 5 . Parts of India "best reported. 
Sec. 4 . Value of folk stories. 
Sec. , 5 . Borrowing by folklore from literature. 
Sec. 6 . Examples of folk stories borrowed from literature 

(1) The Llagic Lamp. 

(2) The Camel's Neck. 

(3) The Son and the Mother. 

Sec. 7 . Extent of borrowing from various ixtxtx literatures. 
Chapter II. Pancatantra stories represented in Indian folklore. 

Sec. 8 . Extent of folklore literature surveyed in this work. 
Sec. 9 . Examples of Pancatantra stories borrowed bj the 

folklore from literature. 
Sec. 10 . Suifimary of results of this paper. 
Sec. 11 . Note on the method used in studying the stories. 
Sec. 12 . List of the folk stories treated in this paper, and 
the status of each story. 
Chapter III. Discussi^ion of folk stories under their literary titles 
Sec. 15 . Order of stories adopted in this paper. 
Sec. I4 . The Lion and the Bull (Frame story of Sar. I, etc.). 
Sec. 15 . Unchaste Weaver's Wife (Sar.^'Sc, etc.). 
Sec. 16 . Crows and Snake (Sar. '4, etc.). 
Sec, la . Heron and Crab (Sar. I, 5, etc.). 
Sec. 18. Lion and Hare (Sar. I, 6, etc.). 

Sec. 19 . Grateful Animals and Ungrateful Man (Purnabhadra I, 9) 

Sec. 20 . Louse and Jlea (Sar. I, 7, etc.). 

Sec. 21 . Blue Jackal (Sar. I, 8, etc.). 

Sec. 22 . Strandbird and Sea (Sar. I, 10, etc. ). 

S ec. 25 . Hamsas And Tortoise (Sar. I, 11, etc.). 

Sec. 24 . Three ffish (Bar. I, 12, etc.). 

Sec. 25 . Sparrow and Elephant (Textus Simplicior I, 15). 

Sec. 26 . Ape and Officious Bird (Textus Simplicior I, 18 and 

IV, 11). 
Sec. 27 . Dustabuddhi and Ahuddhi (Sar. I, 15, etc.). 
Sec. 28 . Cranes and Mongoose (Sar. I, 16, etc.). 
Sec. 29 . Iron-sating Mice (Sar. I, 17, etc.). 
Sec. 30 . Crow, Rat, Tortoise, and Deer (Frane stiey of Sar. II, 

Sec. 51 . Too greedy Jackal (Sar. II, 5, etc.). 

Sec. 52 . War of Croww and Owls (Frame story of Sar. Ill, etc.). 
Sec. 55 . Ass in Lion's Skin (Sar. Ill, 1, etc.). 
Sec. 54 . Elephants and Hares (Sar. Ill, 5, etc.). 
Sec . 55. Brahman, Goat, and Rogues (Sar. Ill, 5, etc.). 
Sec. 56 . Pious Doves (Purnabhadra III, 8). 
Sec. 57 . King 9ivi (Sar. Ill, 7, etc.). 

Sec. 58 . Prince with Snake in his Body (Purnabhadra III, 11). 
Sec. 59 . Mouse-maiden will wed Mouse (Sar. Ill, 9, etc.). 
Sec. 40 . Speaking Hole (Sar.c^ III, 11, etc.). 
Sec. 41 . Butter-blindei Brahman (Purnabhadra III, 17). 
Sec. 42 . Wise Hamsa and Birdcatcher (Sar.s III, 15). 
Sec. 45 . Ape and Crocodile (Frame story of Sar. IV, etc.). 
Sec. 44 . Ass without Heart and Ears (Sar. IV, 2, etc.). 

Sec. 45. Woman and Jackal (Textus Simplicior IV, 10). 

Sec. 46. Wily Jackal (Textus Simplicior IV, 12, 13, or 15). 

SeCjt__47. Brahman and i^ongoose (Frame story of Sar. V; Textus 
Simplicior V, l) . 

Sec. 48. Father of Somacarman (Sar. V, 1, etc.). 

Sec. 49. Four Treasure-seekers (Textus Simplicior V, 2). 
Sec.j_^^ Hundred-wit, Thousand-wit, and Single-wit (Textus 

Simplicior V, 4) . 
Sec. 51. Ass as Singer (Textus Simplicior V, 5). 
Sec. 52. Crab as Lifesaver (Textus Simplicior V, 15). 
Sec. 55. Deer, Jackal, and Crow (Hitopade^a I, 2). 
Sec. 54. Ass, Dog, and Master (Hitopadeya II, 2). 
Sec. 55. Lion, Mouse, and Cat (Hitopadeya II, 5). 
Sec^;.^. Harnsa, Traveller, and Crow (Hitopaiepa III, 4a). 
Sec. 57. Rajput and King (Hitopadefa III, 7). 

In 1868 Lies i'rerslo "Oli Deccan Days" appeared. This was the 
first collection of stories orally current amonp; the people of 
In-iia ever presented to t> e West. T rree years later Mr. Thomas 
Steele i^cludel in the appendix to his translation of the "Kusa 
Jatakaya" fourteen short household tales from Ceylon. Tae same year 
kr, G. H. Dainant bean to publish his stories from Benf>;al in t>ie 
India n Antiquary. These continued to appear until 1880. At ti e same other people reportei stories in this periodical. The next 
book 00 be presented levoted exclusively to Indian folV storie? 
was Liss CtoVee's "Indian i^'airy Tales',' 1880. Aft^r tViat came Lir. 
L. B. Day's "i'olV- Tales of Benp-al" in 1883, ani the same year 
Caf»tain (now Lieutenant-Co] onel) Temple issuei the first nui;.ber of 
his "Legends of the Panjab." The next year he and Lrs. F. A. Steel 
together sent out "V/ide-awake Stories", nost of the tales in which 
1-iad previously appeared in t>ie Indian Antiquary . This boo'^ ^ass^nsijr 
epoch j B aJfe4^4f in the history of the study of Iniian foiviore, for 
in aidition to a nixtnber of cood stories it wtainei a classified 
list of most of the incidents in all but one of the previously 
published collections of oral tales. Since that time the pulication 
of Indian folk stories has gone on fairly regularly, and a little 
less than two years ago there appeared the last volume of Mr. H. 
■Pilarker's three volume collection of "Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon", 
tVie most important work jtet published in this field. 

V/c have now in printei form accessible to Occidental readers, 
in round numbers, 2000 stories f^om India and the adjacent EasntxzA 
countries of Ceylon, Tibet, Burma, ani the L^alay Peninsula. These 
run the gamut of folklore types. They include place ani >iero 
leeendB, myths of local divinities, fables, drolls, inarchen of all 
sorts, cmjiulative -s^tow, and ballads. Although the folk story ^ 

material is not yet half reportci, the number of tales that we 
have is sufficient to afford us a firm worVinr "basis for studying 
the field of Indian folHore. The representation we have is aver- 
age and typical, if not complete. 
Ss-c.iof these t 2000 stories not all are to be accredited as genuine. 
By aloose interpretation of the word, Indian "foll^lore" has been 
made to include a nuirxber of stories translated directly from liter- 
ary texts. TVie worst offenders in this respect nre natives of the 
country. Pandit S. M. Katesa Sastri, for example, has forty-five 

stories in his collection. One of these, v/hich appears as Jlo. 13 

masquerading as fol>flore, 
in "Tales of the Sun",, is a translation of the Alakesa Katha, a 

sixteenth century Tamil romance, 3tx« published by him in t-wo other 


places as a piece of literature. Others of his collections also 

which are issued as oral tales are not such at all, for instance 

Just how niany of his stories are of this character I^-^^T, 
No. 3, "The Soothsayer's Son.'V^kr. G. R, Subramiah Pantalu is acHstk* 3'** 

another who has committed this offense. As story i$ 41 of his collec 

" Folklore of the Tele gus" , 
tion.he has printed a translation of tlie entire second book of the 

Hitopadepa in some Telegu version, while others of his txles are 

also taken over bodily from the literature. The only European to 

do this sort of thing is ur, A. //ood. He publishes as tVie second 

part of his "I n and Out of Chanda " five stories which are called 

"ol valuable contribution to our knowledge of Indian folklore." 

if'our of these are probably translations af from tVie Hindi "Tota 

Kahani;" they are at least good paraphrases of stories in the 

Persian "Tutinameh." The ot>ier is a translation of the story of 

fankacuda and JimutavaViana as it occurs in the "Vetalaj^ncavimpati," 

taken in all likelihood from some Hindi version. Nearly all of the 

rest of these 2000 tales, axx though, are authentic as folklore. 

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't^ As is natural, some sections oT the country have been "better re- 
ported than others. Among these Ceylon and the oantal Parcanas 
stand out, while tVie Panjab is close behind them. I.r. Parker's 
work alone would be sufficient to place Ceylon at the head in 
point of niixnber if stories reported; but besides its 263 tales 
many others have been published, so that ve Viave all told about 
310 specimens from there. The Santalis come next v/ith about 230, 
of which 185 are contains i in l.r, C. H. Bompas's "F olklore of the , 
Saoial_£argaiia£ . " The Panjab is represented by approximately 260. 
s ' -i These stories are of interest both intrinsically and on account 
of the relation they bear to the rt'■r^ L u'f Indian fiction. As thej' 
stand they are good reading and are well worth being printed liiere- 
ly for the amusement they afford their readers. They have, however, 
a deeper interest than entertainment. To the anthropologist they 
offer a wealth of niaterial bearing upon the customs, beliefs, and 
superstitions of the people, or peoples, of India, There are ex- 
emplified in them many popular practises and habits which would 
otherwise be inaccessible to us. The idea of the "life index," or 
separable soul, for instance, of which Professor Eloomfield has 
made a paper, is extremely scarce ir t>ie literature of India, ap- 
pearing t>iere, s4 far as we at Jolms Hopkins can find, only once 
and then in none too clear a form; but in the folklore it occurs 
indefinitely. Other such illustrations might be adduced in great 
number to show the value of these collections to students of folk 

Sa^. ^, It is the philological aspect of there tales, thougVi, that is 

of the most compelling interest. Ui—uM -Jrr s¥S L. As a collection of fic- 
tion they provide an enormous field for investigation, and are en- 
titled to attention purely for themselves. But it is when they 
studied in connection with the vast amount of literary fiction of 

Hindustan fliat they asaurcie fheir most significant character. There 
is a fealing apparently awong folklorists that the oral fiction of 
a people has its existence separate from their literary fiction; 
or, if the t^fo \o have any connection, that the literature "borrows 
froa the folklore, except in a fe-^ isolated cases. Now, -/vhatever 
may "be the true condition of affairs among the European peoples 
or any other peoples whose folklore has received a large amount of 
attention from students, this prejudice does not hold good in re- 
spect to the literary, although perhaps illiterate, people of 
India. It is prohahly true that .nost stories have their ultimate 
origin in the remote past among the folk; hut in the later history 
of the Hindus, who l-iave what is in some respects the most >tighly 
developed fiction literature in the world, the reverse becoraes the 
rule. Modern Indian folklore is more t>ian half composed of stories 
which in their present oral form have their source in literary 
protoytpes, not in an uninterrupted oral tradition. Thia statement 
is not a mere impression, hut is one tViat has been reached through 
careful investigation. A few examples will serve to prove it. 
qiu..60i -py^g first tale in L.r. Alexander Caxaphell's "Sarvta l ?olk Tales " 
is called "The liagic Lamp."* Briefly it is as follows: In the capi- 
tal of a certain iaja livel a poor widow v/ith an o«ly son. One day 
a merchant caijie from a far country, claimin?s to be the widow's 
brother-in-law. After staying with her sonie da^s, he went away 
with the son to look for golden flowers. They travelled a long, 
weary journey. <Vh.en they arrived at a certam^ isiatea hill, the mer- 
chant heape] up a large quantity of firewi>od, -'.nd commanded the 
boy to blow on it. Although he had no fire, by continued blowing 
the boy ignited the wood. */hen the fire was burnt out, a trap- 
door appeared underneat>i the ashes. This the hoy was compelled by 
Viis uncle to lift up, althou^fh only //ith a violent effott. Under 
it a lamp v/as burning, anl beside the lamp was a great number of 

gol-ien flowers. The merchant took the flov/erK and went a^-vay, but 

left the boy in the vault. When about to periah with hunrer, the 

boy absent uSnde'My ruLbei tjje laB^p with his ring. Imirieiiately 

a fairy appeared, who released him xS from his prison. On arriving 

home he found no food in the house. He started to polish the lamp 

to sell it so that he jiight get money with //Viich to purchase rice, 

when suddenly the fairy appeared again, and at his request brought 

him food. Having now learned the secret of the lamp, he obtained 

through it horses, inuch nealtVi, and finally the'Haja's dau{;iiter as 

his wife, supplyin; for her a liiacnificent palace. One day while 

the prince, as he hae become, v/as hunting, the merchant "piiiOTirtd 

at the palace with new lamps to exchange for old. The princess 


give* Viim the taa^ic lacip for a new one. The merchant rubbed the 

lamp, the fairy appeared, and the merchant coxjimande^ t)jat the 
palace and the princess be L.oved tb his o?m country. -Vhen this 
loss was discovered, the king becauie very anfry, and demanded that 
his son-in-law restore the princess by ihe fourteenth day or suf- 
fer the punishment ofl death. On the thirteenth day the younc man 
had found no trace of his v/ife. In despair "Me lay down to sleep, 
resi^rninf^ himself to his fate. Accidentally he rubbed his finger 
ring. A fairy appeared, and at >iis request transported him to his h^r^ 
palace. Assuming; the form of a dog, he entered it and -/as recog- 
nized by his wife, and the t7;o laid plans to recover the lamp, 
which the merchant wore suspended around his neck. At supper the 
princess killed him by giving him poisoned rice to eat. The two of 
them then took the lamp, rubbed it, and had themselves and the 

palace carried back to the city of tVie princess's father. When the 

morning of the fourteenth day dawned, the raja sees t>ie palace in 

found was 

its original place, £inie his dau;: liter again, 4« delighted .and di- 
vided the Vinr dom with his son-in-law. 

I need scarcely point out U i ut pulriL ou t that this is the story 
of "A]ladin and the 7/on'lerrul Lamp", given almost exactly in the 
fOTm familiar to all oT us from childhood, with tl-ie exception of 
the omission of a few incidents and eoiae changes in minor details. 
There can be no doubt, either, that this is a genuine folk story, 
genuine, that is, in the sense that it was taken directly from 
the lips of an untutored Santali, for llr. Cainpbell assures us by 
definite statement that it vvas. On the other Viand we know t>iat 
this story is not current elsewhere in Indian folklore, that tVie 
story itself is not Indie , that even Biany of the incidents in it, 
such as the coming of the fairy when the lamp is rubbed, are not 
Indie. The occurrence of it cannot possibly be due to original ex- 
istence among the Santalis. It iS the familiar tale t41d to sou.e 
of those people by a foreigner, probably a European, and retold 
by them with modifications due t)fiM to the habits and rnental para- 
phernalia of the Santalis, until it caiue to Lr, Campbell with 
similar in outward appearance to the rest of the stories tltat he 

L^) How the folklore borrows from ±iiK literature in sViown more 
clearly perhips by this illastration than by any other we have, 
not because the borrowing is more certain, hut because the non- 
Indic character of the literary story makes its borrowing more 
conspicuous and easier to see. Just as cur^ alt>iou(h a little 
less evident- because tVie story is Hindu, is a fable found on 
pages 33 and 200 of Rouse's " Talking Thrush^ " a retelling of fables 
collected by W. Crooke in the United Provinces of Agra and Gudh. 
The story was told by a brasef ounier. It is entitled "The Camel's 
^icck." A camel practises austerities, Bhagwan is pleased and shows 
himself to him". "Who are you?" asks the camel. "I ara the Lord of 
the Three Rerions," answers the ;od, "Show me your proper form," 
says the camel. Then Bhagwan appears in ''iis fourhanded form ( Catur- 

bhujj ^) , an-i the csrnf!! '^^/orships him. Bhag^n tells hira to ae\r a boon 

"Let my neck "be a yojan long, "the camel requests, With such a neck 

f* e lazy "beast can now ;-raze '.7ithout moving his body. One -i-xs it 

W >^ • 
raine. He puts his head and neck in a cave t* get out of ^wwst, 

A pair of jackals also enter the cave, see ttie attractive flesh fit 

t>ie vQ.1an ''lon/-.: necjf, and begin to eat it. The camel curls Tiio head 
around to see what is going on, but before he can i-et it back to ili 
the jackals, they have eaten enough to kill him. At first sight, 
t>;is fable miKht appear to be a pure creation of the folk raind. 
As a Flatter of ^act it is nothing if thi sort. In the Kaha"b>iarata, 
Parva 12 (l), cxii (Roy's translation, p. 365), this story is -jiven 
just as in "The Talking Thrush" 7/ith only a fe-.v niinor variations: 
In the Krita age there lived a camel who had recollection of all JkTs 
the acts 0? his former life. By observing vows and practising pen- 
ances he obtained favor 'vith tl»e puissant Erahrnan, so that the ROd 
detcrmine'-l to g'l'an't him a boon, "Let ray neck become long, "asked 
the camel, "so that I may seize food even at the distance of a 
Vmndred yojans .** "Let it be," w? said the god. The foolish animal 
became lazy, and from that day on never went out cTB.zine. One day 
while his neck was extended a Viundred yojans . a r.reat storm arose. 
The camel placei his head and a portion of his neck inride a cave 
to escape the storm. A pair of jackals also dragged themselves to 
tViat very cave, and entered it for shelter. The jackals began to x4 
eat the neck. The camel, when he perceived tViat his neck was being 
e-ten, strove to shorten it; but as he moved it up and down the 
jackals, -.vithout losing their Viold upon it, continued to eat a-ay, 
Vj'ithin a short ticie the camel die4. Then '^ays tVie text: -(itojElg 

tun i im l - t i rn _ TJh -i TO n n r r r, i i i l ii l i Jj ii n L"» ' n^i J 1 T 1 "Thus did 

that foolish camel meet vjith his death, Beholi, -vhat a -reat evil 
fo]lc've'l in the train of idleness." Coivipare with this t>ie verse of 
the Hindustani oral tale: 

Alas dokh liiahan iekhyo phal Vaisa bViayS ; 
Yaten nnt a.15n ma ra n lagyo nl^1 karm se . 
Idleness is a treat fault: beholi, what its fruit was; 
By it the foolish cariiel met v/ith death, owing t6 >iis own -ieeds. 
The close agreeiuent of tliese two versions, even down to the ver- 
nacular verse, which is evidently a paraphrase of the Sanskrit, 
show? u-niaistakeably tViat the oral fable in nothing more than the at 
old story i ) the Jiiahabharata retold hy the folk. 

'-^ ' Every literature of India serves as a source from which the fttrxxx 
folklore may borrow, — San^rit, Prakrit, Pali, and vernacular, -- 
and also the literatures of neighboring countries, such as Persia. 
I give here an illustration from the Pali. In Parker ♦s Village Polk- 
Tales of Ceylon . Ill, p. 223, there occurs a story called "Tlie Son 
and the iuother," belonging to the familiar "Biter Bit" group. It is 
in suiimiary as follows: A widow marries Vier son to the dauf^^hter of 
another widow; and all four live in the same house. The wife culti- 
vates an extreuie dislike fot her mother-in-law, and proposes to her 
husband that they kill her. After long urging, she finally persuades 
him, ani tViey plan to throw the old lady into the rivcf, Now the two 
mothers sleep in the same room. At night, there fore, v/hen they iiave 
retired to bed, the wife ties a string to t>ie prospective victim's 
bed so that she and her husband may be sure to get the right old 
woman. The husband, however, secretly changes the string to tVie 
other bed. Of course, tlien, they throw the wife's mother into .tVie 
river to tne croco-iiles. The next morning the wife 'liscovers the mis- 
take, but persists in her detennination to destirdy her mo therjein-law. 
T>iis time the plan is to burn her a? a corpse. '.Vhen night comes, they 
carry her to a pile of firewood they have collected by the side of 
an open grave. They have forgotten, though, to bring fire; and, 
since each ie afraid to return home for it in fne dark alone, t>iey 
both go. About this time the widow awakes and sees the plot that 
has been laid for her. She quickly rets up, puts a real carpse on the 

pyre, and hides. When the couple returns, they burn up the real corpse^ 
and leave, satisfied now that the mother will never trouble them 
again. She, on the other hand, wanders about naked until she comes to 
a robbers' cave. These take her for a Yaksani (ogress), and ask 
a Yakadura (devil-doctor) to drive her from their cave. When the 
Yakadura comes, she assures him that she is a human being, and offers 
to prive the truth of her ststement by rubbing tongues with him (Yak- 
sanis have no tongues, so the story says). He extends his tongue, 
but she bites it off; and he, convinced that she is too powerful 
a Yaksani for him to contebd wi^h, runs away. Then the widow takes 
a large part of the robbers' goods, and goes back to her son's home. 
To the surprised inquiries of the young people as to how she could 
return after being burnt, she replies that people burnt to death 
always receive goods in the next world, and that she had returned to 
share hers with them. The daughter-in-law now becomes greedy for 
Heavenly wealth, too, and asks to be burnt. Her request is granted, 
but she Hi of course, never comes back. The mother and son live 
in ease on the goods taken from the robbers' cave, and at a later 
time the son raarriew another wife. This stiry is nothing more than 
a verbal paraphrase of a story in Jataka 432 (Cambridge translation 
iii, p. 303). Every incident as related above occurs in the Pali 
story too; and the order of incidents i[4 the same in both. The 
points in which the two differ are so slight that they would not 
appear in a summary. There is no need to relate the Jataka tale, 
for it would agree exactly with the oral tale. It is evident, of 
course, that this longish and neat folk story is taken ^^^ gectly 
from Pali literature, ^^..iU^^dU^^^ ^^-JU^^o^ X^^^^^iJL.^ . 

other instances are availalDle ir profusion illuotratin?' this 

saiiiC phenomenon, but tnese two will suffice. Jxjst what the ineans 

are by whicli the literature is retol'l in the popular oral fiction 

is , after ^11, not our B concefn nere. i^number of obvious ways 

suggest themselves. It is a ^ell-knov/n fact, for instance, that 

the epics are recited to the people by professional reciters. 

further, learned men delight to tell the stories they read to less 

cultured hearers. It is enough, thouch, for us to say t^it this is 
^situation in India: the folVlore borro'J7S fro;/, the 1 iteratnre. Our 

problem then becomes to determine the extent of this borro'-ving. 

This is the task on which I have been engasinn myself for the past 

two years under the direction of Professor Bloorafieldj and I am 

prepared to say t>iat at Deast a half of the genuine oral stories I 

are not of independent existence, init are popular retellings of 

literary fiction and have demonstrable ancestors t'ere. A -lart of 

this work ^-^ "'1 rpn,'iy f;NiT^T'°d ^n d — ^^-^-^H-^ y ' <^ >'- r^'H ^ ^""^'1 1'n."^ ^ ^- /a'' ft^xr-^t 

or a discussion of tViose stories froiJi the older versions of the 

Pa^catantra which represented in the folVlore. In the case of 

nearly all the popular fables treated lere, I show that they come 

from literary texts 4tes4- I have had access *6^, or that they bear 

marks wliich prove them to he descended from ether texts, in most 

cases probably vernacular, which have been inaccerrible to me. 

Other portions of work alonr this same line will be published by,- ^-t - 

n, TolVlore 

TVic pertinent qu^' now arises, ".VUat sort oT^ fiction is inie- 

pendent of ikK literature?lKxi±Bx«xxE±BHeBX3CK This is a question 
t>.at can te ansv/ered only provisionally. Just at present it seeraa 
that no story can "be said categorically to "be independent of liter- 
ature. The wider our reading of the literature hecomes, the raore 

sources dc we find for oral tale3 . or incidents. Any/^etory and any 

type of folk story siay appear t'nere, even those which at first 
sijiht seexfl iiiost unlike the rwore ordinary literary types. All we 
can say is this: Cui.iulative stories, ;Lany Irolls, a large nu..Vter 
of niarchen, and iuost of the place, hut not Viero, legends and raythve 
are original aaiong the foil:, Fables are nearly all cecondiry. Ajckhk 
A complete perusal of the field of Hindu literature, though, v/ould 
perViaps iiiake ue ...odify even tnis cautious etatemetot. 

^ /' It is interesting to notice what literatures are represented in 
the folklore. Sanskrit has the largest representation, "because it is 
itself the source for most of the stories that appear in other sskx. 
ivB±±SKtsx literatures. In many cases it probably acts through later 
literatures. Jainistic Sanskrit is especially well represented in 
the collections from Western, Central, and Northern India. In 
Southern India the vast Tamil literature dominates the fol!<:lore. 
Palt has considerable influence in Ceylon where it acts directly 
upon the folklore, and a noticeable influence in Southern India 
where it acts indirectly through Tamil. Over all Northwestern and 
Northern India the Persian i literature exerts a strong force, and 
this force is felt east as far as Bengal and south as far as the 
Telegu country, although, of course, with ever decreasing strength 
the farther we go from Persia. In the Malay peninsula there is 
Arabic as well as native Indian influence. Our meager callections 

from Tibet, strangely enough, owe very little to the sacre'i hooks 
of Mahayana Buddhism, but seem to depend mostly on Indian and Per- 
sian literature. The stories we have from Tibet are few in number, 
though, and come mostly from the country on the trade route between 
India and Lhasa; and we aa»« therefore not justified in making such 
an' assertion about Tibet in gBHjExiJf general. Vernacular literatures 
are, of course, everywhere sources far folk stories, but to what 
extent I cannot yet Kay, for I have had access to only a small part 
offetfaes e ] llgiiJ ljirgg-. 


1-- In dealing with vernacular^ stories that are related to foik 

stories great care must be taken to determine which of the two 
is the parent. A good instance of borrowing by a late literary 
text of a story from the folklore is found in the Tamil-Malay 
Pandja Tandaram I, 5 (see Kertel, Das Pancatantr a. pj?. 295 and 
299) . This story is taken from a Malay folk version of the 
story which is itself descended from the version of the story 
as given in the Hikayat Kali la dan Damina (see Sec. ii ). 

C H/^PT£ f\ U 

Jyii-1t;^'(T TruTklm e-r^ j t im.ri ri aivW i.ltw LIih. '. Iji. t'.li, i. jm i. JL.. rTrh-r«. 
-&E nM--P4-r.-hT mi 1 i ' 'i vm ; r mm 4' ■' ■ -h'.IA -^nmr r.lri, ^ T "iini.,i,- 

tter-iJl i;!. : T ¥ ii"''I ;wiv nQ ■bi]ja x'Mirs'd'uUilirs .. . K-iis dissertation 
i-s i.i"L"i.i •::^'MH'M,sad Iru'j Liitmrtsw' In i.1i ., I tliiiLk:^ are discussed 
all the follzlore exsinples of fables appearing in Sarada, 
Somadeva^s and Ksemendra versions, Soutliern Pancatantra, Tex- 
tus Simplicior and Omatior, and tiie Kitopadeca. Hiere are 
a fev; collections of foUclore v.iiicli I have never seen, and 
I have, of course, been unable to include them in my search 
for tales. These are: Aracci, Kathalankai*aya; Devi, The 
Orient Pearls ; Hahn, Blieke in die G-eistos\?elt der heidnisehen 
Kols ; Knowles, JJictionary of ICaslmiiri Zroverbs and Sayings ; 
Lewin, Progressive Syercises in the Lushai Grsjamai" ; Senanajra- 
ka, i. Collection of Sinlialese Proverbs,. Mascims, Fables, etc» , 
found in the Atlta-Ya Kya- Blpaniya ; Thomhill, Indian Fa iry 
Tales ; Thornton, Bannu ; O rientalist, vols. Ill and lY ; and 
Horth Indian liotes and Jiraeries * The only serious omissions 
are the works of Devi, liaha, iaiowles.^i'hornhill, and the two 
periodicale rnenticned- 'fhese probably contain all told about 


150 stories. She amotint of folklore fiction that I iiave read 
is sufficiently large to justify the offering" of this paper. 
3«^/9 If any further testimony is needed to prove my conten- 
tion tliat the modern foUdore of India boi-rovvs froSa the lit- 
erature rather than the literature fr-om the folklore, the ma- 
terial found in the treatment of the folk fables in this pa- 
per should prove it. Talcs » for example, the sto2::jr of Yirt-ivara, 
treated in S -'^<- SI , Tals stoiy has two distinct f oims 

in literature : In all the Indian versions of it the hero kills 
his son, his ?;ife, and himself, and the king for ivhose sake 
all this slaughter has been made is about to kill himself, 
when the goddess appears, declares herself satisfied, and re- 
stores the dead to life; in the [Putinameh versions, on the 
other hand, the rS'oddess appears to the hero just as he is 
about to kill his son, an& does not suffer him to shed any 
blood at all. How, in Miss Dracott^s Simla Village Tales , 
the story occurs in the Persian form, agxeeing in most of the 
details with the !Ihitinaraeh tale, a'nd even goes so far as to 
call the king "the king of Tabaristan", the exact title of 


the kirjg in the Persian. If this folfcstorjr were a parent 
to the literary versions re,ther than a child, it wsnild occur 
in Indian folklore in the form which exists in the Indian 
literature. It is obvious thou^'h, that it is a direct des- 
cendant of the Persian tale, v/hieh 1ms been brought to India 
by tlie Moslems. 

Or take again the story of the "Ape and Officious Bird" 

treated in Sec- d^. In a Soutlx India Taad.1 literaiy version 
it is told i7itli a notable addation st the end of it: After 
her nest iis.3 been destroyed, the b^d appeals to the Icing 
for redress. The kir»g at first is inclined to favor her, 
but v/hen tlie laonlcey shows him the bribe he lias brought, he 
dismisses the chrrge against the monkey sjid rebiLkes the bird. 
The Sinhalese oral stors^" shows the same addLition, v/ith only 
slight changes in tlie v/ay of oraissions. Kiere is onl;^ one 
logical inference to be drawn from this fact; tlie insular 
story is taken from Tamil literature. 

- h4-r^H7-?nte¥:M;i^ ir ijhnncy iT^""" - '^'^■^^^ f'^'^^l< rnif.-i I nn '{• , 1irl'. (^LlliluLh 

nan. Ji..£jC-i= ^^ . ..-^yiy^^j^ ''" r^^ft'', r "Hj g n r — hl nn rrr limr r 

iTciF 1 1 ' I •• t i i 1 1 1 1 1 i-n r'" n -^ 1t -'n "f irrlnrrririr -gt nri -rrr m n"" 

^TV nv,n.nVi , u_. uT [.1 U - f Th.^Ih H j T ^54 i H LIU-. I. I,^^^l1 ; j -fill aJ 

-fclig CT- '?-'"^"- -'' - ^ ^^hmwn •fcf) 'nroivu'i from literary tti^j^Lb lo v J liluh, I— harre 
aogoup", or Lo -'bfeax'^' . .y vrhieh t^vot,? t.ii«^'7i 1ir Iv, Tl;-isuHPi fcsar 

S'2-^-/o The status of ever^j- fable treated in this paper can be 

seen from the follovmig table. There are altogether 108 stories 
that arc representative of stories found in the older Pancatan- 
tra boolcs.v Of these 53 are traced to their literary antece- 
dents; S4 have literary antecedents which, though, are contained 


in literary collections that I have not yet seen; and 31 can 
not be sliovisa to "be derived fron literature. [Dhe last class is 
composed mostly'- of stories that contain the motifs foimd in 
"The Iron-eating Mice", "The Speaking Hole", and "She Father of 
Soma^arman" , ntimbering in eJ-l S3 fables otit of the total 31. 
Many of the folk illustrations of these motifs hardly iiave the 
right to be treated with the Paneatantra stories; but since they 
have no literary sources and further must be treated at some 
time, for the ssxe of convenience, they have been included with 
other stories th£.t illustrate the same motifs • 

This table reveals a number of points of interest. One of 
the most interesting f these is the extent to v/hich V/estern 
{i.e., Persian and Arabic) stories have fixed themselves in In- 
dian folklore. There are i3 tliot have their sources in 
Persian literature. Liany of those are from the Tutinameh, prob- 
ably through the Hindi Tota ICs.han'v, which latter, of course, 
may after all be considered Indian literature, although it is 
a translation from the Persian. Stories that probably had 
their origin in India h^ve lived a history- in other countries, 
and have come bacic to rebirth in their ancestral home, v/ith 
the changes tliat triey have suffered diiring tlieir intenaediate 
S «-«-• W. A perusal of the discussion of the individual stories will 
show that in no case have I drav/n a conclusion as to the status 
of folk story without a most careful examination into the en- 
tire construction both of the oral tale and the literary tale, 
which I liave finally selected as its parent. After this 

' / 

examination I have, of coiirse, checked injr resalts "by raaMn^ 
sure that the literaiy version has a geographical range that 
msJces it accessible to the folk from v^hom tiie folkstory is 
reported. This statenient is not made in each specific case 
in the treatment of the tales, "out tMs method has heen used 
eveiy time. 


Folic Story 

Pancat antra storjr 
to whicli foUc story 
is related. 

SoTiree of Tale 

Bompas , 
lore of 
Santal . 


p. 49 

Iron-eating lace (motif 

p. 140 

Father of Soms.^armsJi 
(motif only) 

p. 168 

Kousemaiden Will v-ed 

p. 274 

C3rab as Life Saver 

p. 29S 

arate-fUl /oiimals, Un- 

p. 304 
p. 462 

grateful Man 

Unchaste '.7eavor's Wife 
3atter-l)linded Braiiman 


in this 

JTo literary source 

Ho literary source 

Anjr literary version 
Cextus Simplicior Y,1S 

Some story re Is. ted 
to the literary ver- 
sion in I;a.os. 

Hltopadeca II, 5 b« 

Prohahly ft-oia Paii- 


iieys In India 


Lion and Hare 

From a descendant of 
fextus Simplicior 
or Pumalihadra. 

Behar Trove rbs 

p. 62 

Ass Without Heart and 

1^0 literary- source 

Folk Story 

Pancatantra story 
to v/liicli folk story 
is related. 

Source of Tale 

in tMs 

Damant , Bengali 

Ind. Ant. Ill, p. 10 SpeaJcing Hole (motif 

Ho literary source 

Dames, Balochi 

p. 517 

-don and Hare 

Textus Simplicior 
or rumabliadra 

lore of GJiitr8.1 

p. 250 

As 3 in Lion's Skin 

D'Peniia, Folk- 
lore of Sal - 

p. 136 

Iron-eating Ilioe 
(motif only) 

Ho literary source 

Draco tt. 

, Simla 

p. 2 

Ape and Officious 

p. 68 

p. 107 


Father of Somacaisan 
(motif only J 

Lion,^ dat.aaiiU«^g» 

p. ISO 

Prince v/ith. SnsJce 
in Body 

Jjiy literary yersion 

lo literal'^'- source 
Ihitinameh Z7, 1 

;''^.rn?'bi'?.n,rr? through 
some collection of 
adventures of vikrama 

■^ o 

Folk Story 

jrancatantra story 
to which folk: storjr 
is related. 

Source of Tale 


in this 


Bracott, Simla 
Village Tales 

p. 194 

Rajput and YAng 

!i?utinaEieh II 


p. 198 

Blue Jackal 


- \ 

Fleeson, Ls-os 
Folklore "o? 
Farthei- India 

p. 55 

p. 83 
p. 95 

DustalDiidcL'ii «^--4 

Father of Somaeairaan 
{motif onliO ' 

Grate fal animals, Un- 
grateful Iv!an 

Kks a literary 
source v;hich I 
have not yet 

So literary source 
Is itself literary 

I 1 

Frere, Old Dec - 
can Say s {2nd' ed . ) 

p. 104 

p. 117 

p. 155 

p. E8E 

Wise Hamsa and Bird- 

Prince v-ltli Snake in 

iiion aad Eare 

Speaking Hole {motif 

Pahcakliyarxavart t ika 
or related story 

Purnabhadra through 
some collection of 
adventure, of 
Yikrama . 

From a descendant of 
Textus Simplicior or 

Eo literal^ cource 



golk Story 

Pancatantra story 
to v^ich fol3c stoiy 
is x«lated 

Source of Tale Sections 

in this 

Sinlial e ge J'ojj^ ' 

Orientalist, II, 
p. 47 

Speaking Hole tmotif 

Ho literal^ source ^ ^ 

Gordon, Indian 
-Idlk gales 

Speaking Hole (motif 

L 6 

lo litex-ary source 

Eaugiiton, S;port 
and Folklore in 

tlie Jrlimal ayas 

Button, Folk 
gales of _tlie 

I-Jig^x gagas 
of /-ssaS 

Iron-eatins Mice (motif .. a 

only) I»o literary source '- ' 

Folk-Lore XKVI^ 
•c. 494 

Mouse-Maiden "vTill '.;ed 
Mouse Any literary varsion 3 1 

Jetiiabhai, G. 
Indian Folk- Lore 

T3. 30 

Iron-eatin£- Mice 

Mplif ication of Cuka- 
saptati Simplicior S9. 

ICnoxvles, Folk - 
Tales of E^ashmi r 

p. SIO 

(treated under .Blue 
Jackal, but is another 

Foil; Stoiy 

Paneat antra story 
to which folk stoiy 
is related. 

Soarce of Tale Sections 
in this 

liBJiwaring, I lar a- 
thi Proverbs 

p. 41 

itrandbird and Sea 

Some ilarathi 
tale descended 

from ?u.mal)hadra 
I, 15. ' 

5- "i- 

i&ucv/ell. In Llalay 

TD. 75 

56 aiid Crocodile 

Sumsumara Jatalsa 
(JataJca SC8) 

Mclair and Barlow, 
Folk- Tales fr om 

the Indus Valley 

p. 403 

Grateful /inimals, Un. 
grate fal Han 

Some i-2ahaBmedan 

McCulloch, Bengal: 
Household Tales 

p. 148 

Katesa, Folklore 
in ' Sc-athem India 

The \"ily Jackal 

Blend of : :?2:i tlia- 
rata o^ Vjwo^lX/^ 

I. p. ? 

Uratefal Animals, Un- 
grateful Kan 

Is itself literary 

In Alkesa I<£.tlia 
( Tales o f the Snan. ) 
p. 162 Braiiman and Ilongoose 

Is itself literary 

O'Connor- Follc-Tale s 
from TiheT* 

p. Z'6 
p. 31 

Iron-eating Mice 

ifather of Somacannan 
{motif only) 

Probably some Buddhist i 1 

Ho literary source 

Pol3c btory 

O'Connor, i^'ql k- 
5?ales from ^iSet 

laneatantra story 
to which fol!< stoiy 
is related. 

Source of I'ale 



Ass as Singer 

Ape aM Crocodile 

Speaking Hole (motif 

in this 

Ho demonstrable 


lo literary source 
-rantralchjrana ( ? ) 

Mo literary source 

lore of 



p. 15 

p. £7 

p. S4 

p. 48 

p. 61 

p. 69 

p. 72 

p. 74 

p. 77 

p. 80 

p. 84 

Lion and- 
Dustahuddhi and .^-bxiddhi 
Iss, Dog^and I^^ster 

Father of Somacaiman 
Brahman, Goat^and Rogues 
Four treasure Seekers 

Heron and Crab 
Elephants and Hares 

Ri^put and ICing 
Jhree Fish 

King CiTi 

KandD {some re r si on) 


Hs,s literary source 
which I have not 

Sopae Semitic story 

Anvir-i Suiiaili 

0>atinaineh, XL7II, 1, 
through an interme- 

Dub oi s ' s Ve macular 

Ho demonstrable liter- 
are source; perhaps 
it is itself literary. 

ITatinimeh II 

ks:^ version except 
fextus Simplieior 
or Ifiiahabharata 

iiah§,bhsrata. Parva, 
III, 197 

Foils: Story 

Pantalu, jTolk '- 
lore of tSe 

p. 105 

Parlcer, Village 
gol]s>TeJLes Of 

I, p. 2S4 

I, p. 228 
I, p. 2S4 

I, p. 24-7 

I, p. 304 

i p. 542 
(2 versions) 

I, p. 259 

I, p. 380 

II, p. 146 
II, p. 385 
II, p. 425 

II, p. 443 

Pancatantra story 
to iviiicii folic stoiy 
is related. 

Soiirce of Tale 

in this 

Entire Book II of SP 
or Hitopadeca 

Wise Hamsas and Bird- 

Iron-eating liice (motif 

Hamsas and Tortoise 

Ape and Officious Bird 

Father of Somacannan 
(motif only) ^ 

Heron and Crah 

Ass v/ithout Pleart and 

Ears Hole (motif 

v/oman and Jackal 

Lion and Hare 

Houseciaiden v/ill V.ed 

\^'ar of Crows and 0\vls 

O?ranslation of a 
Telega text. 

Blend of -urnabhadra 
I, 19, and SP& I, 
38 and 44. ^ 

Ho literarj!- source 

Tamil tale related 
to tha,t of Dubois. 

Tamil story 

No literary- source 

Jataka 38 

Dubois *s vernacular 
version with changes 

ITo literary source 
Jataka 374 
Ho literary source 

E'robably no literary 

Probably Tamil Tale 
in Eathamanjari or 
iCatliac intamani 

Parker, Tillage 
Folk gales of 

II, p. 445 
(S Tersions) Sparrow and Elephant 

III, p. 5 (1) 


III, p. EE 

III, p. 27 
III, p. 30 

Deer, 'GCrow^iand ' Jackal j 
Pantat antra II, fraae 


Deer, Crov/ and. Jacical 
Lion and Ball 

Bralimsji and L'oasoose 
Louse and Flea 

Version (1) - Jataka 
357 snd a Tamil Tale 

version (2) - Jatal^. 

Blend of Iiitopadeca I, 
2 and Jataka 206. 
(Kiinrngamiga Jats-ka) 

Blend of Kitopadeca I, 
frojnestoiy and Plito- 
jca I, 2. 

Hitopadeca I, 2 

Literary prototype simi- 
lar to Jataka 347 

Eemotely from T-extus 
Simplicior and Porna* 

A descendant of Tortus 

Ill, p. 200 Brs^lrar.n, Soat,and 

Ill, p. 212 Biittor-lDlinded Braliaan 

Pieris, Sinlialese 

Orientalist, p. 134 Hamsas and Tortoise 

" p. 213 Brahman and ilongoose 

Eo literary soiiree 

Tamil tale related 
to vernacular of 
Dubois's Pantcha - 

Rerp;Otely from Textus 
Simplicior or Pur- 

Eaju, Indian 

p. 45 
p. 78 
p. 82 

Rouse, galking 

pp. El and 199 
pp. 63 and 203 
pp. 85 and 206 

pp. 130 & 212 

pp. 166 and 215 
pp. 170 sjid 215 

Iron-eating Mice (motif 

Crows and Snake 
Lion and Hare 
Heron and Crab 

Iron-eating Ilioe 
(motif only) 

Hamsa, Travelei^ and 

Spealdlng Hole (motif 
only) belongs in 
this stoiy but is not 

Lion and Hare 

Deer , (Crow^lSid. ■ Jackalj 
Ape and OfficiGTis Bird 

ITo literary source 

A text which I liave not 
yet seen 

ITextus Simplicior or 

Any one of following: 
Sar., SantraMiyana , 
5}extus Simpliciir, 
Textus Ornaticr, or 

So literary source 

•Textus Simplicior 
or lurnabhad-ra, 

Hotopadeca I, 2 

Hitopadeca III, 1 

Telegu Folklore 

Ind.Ant.XXT,p.31 Pious Doves 

Is itself lite: 

She at. Fables and 
Folk-1'ales from 
an iiiG^tem Fcrest 

p. 18 ' Heron and Crab 

Jataka 38 

x>. 28 Lion Pir)(\ Hare 

Hikayat Kali la 
dan Pamina 

SKeat, gables and 
g p Ik-Tales froiaT " 
an -Eastern Forest 

p. 30 

Lion and Ball 

I'&ioli changed form 
of KandD 


Steele and Temple, 
ganjab Stories 

Ind.Ant.XII,73.177 Lion and Hare 

Version 1 - KandD 
Version E - !Dextus 

Smplicior or Pur^ 


Wide-Awake Stories 

p. 246 

Speaking Hole (motif 

Ho literary source 

Steele, Kiisa 

p. S50 

Iron-eatin^S iiice 

Probably some Buddhist 

p. £50 

Brahman f>n(\ Mongoose 

Remotely fran Testus 
Simplicior or Por- 

p. 251 

Eeron and Crab 

Jataka 38 

p. 253 

/ Jfhousand-v/it , Hundrecl- 
!, wit^ end Single-v/it 

Remotely from Textus 
Simplicior V, 6, etc. 

p. 254 

Woman and JackaT 

Jataka, 274 

p. 255 

Cranes and aong-oose 

An-y South Indian 

Stokes, Indian 

Fair-y Tales' 

p. 31 

Father of Somacarman 
(motif only) 

Ho literary source 

Sv/ynne rt on , Roman - 
tic gales from 
-fclie Ian gab vii€h. 
Indian yiglffs^ 

p. 73 

p. 77 

p. 144 

■Too QTQe^r Jaolsal 

Iron-eating llice (motif 

Butter-blinded Braliman 

p. 154 

Lion and Hare 

p. 182 

Father of Somaearman 
(motif only) 

p. E83 

Brabman, Goat^and 

p. 311 

Iron-eating ivlice 
(motif only) 

p. 404 

Ass xvlthout Heart and 

Taylor , Indian 
Folk- Tales 

p. 403 


Father of Soznacairaan 
(motif only) ' 

p. 88 


A-pe and Officious Bird 

Wood, In and 
Out of CHanda 

Ho literary source 

Ho literary source 

Probably from Panca- 
Miyanavart t ika 

Anvar-i Suliaili 
Ho literary soui-ce 
lo literary source 
Ho literary source 

Jainistic Yersions 
of Pancatsntra. 

Ko literary source 

Textus Simplicior 
or Pornabhadra 

p. 53 

Four Treasure -seekers 

;ale is itself 

CHAP > t. *^ "TOT. 

^ ^^-fo-'ljk, /2l>J>-^>ol^ />^>-J.ji^ tiJjiJNji^^ T~Ajtfji^ 

^- i^ Tlie order In wliich the stories are treated is tiie order 
of the fables in the older 3astem versions of tlie Paneatan- 
tra as given by Hertel in Das Pancatantra , p. 12 ff . The 
Hitopadepa stories which are not contained in that list are 
given in the usaal order of Harayana's Hitopadeca. 


:i o 

THE Lion AlJD T}:ii BULL. The story oT t>ie friendly ^ion and bull set at 
variance by t>c jackals is t>ie frame story of all versions of Panca- 
tantra, EooV- 1. In the folklore it occBirs in Parker's Village golk» 
Tales of Ceylon, iii» p. 22; an-i Skeat's Fables and Folk. Tales from an 
Eastern Fo rest, p. 30, 

Parker unifprmly translates his Sinhalese literally, with the re- 
sult t^iat his tranfrlation is frequently unintelligible. This story, 
unfortunately, suffers thus.^/ As far as I can make it out, it seems 
to be as follows: A jackal, seeing a lion and a bull friends, wishes 
to become a friend of them. also, and anke the bull how he ma;^ accom- 
plish his desire. The bull repels him. Actuated by the motive of re- 
venge, he determines to brinr about a quarrel between the two friends . 
He tells the lion that the bull claims superiority to him, and the 
bull that the lion intelStds to kil] hiim by roaring at him. T>ie bull at- 
tacks tvie lion, and they fight. The bull gores the lion to death/, but 
tbe lion's roar kills the bull. TVie jackal eats from the mouths o'' the 
two dead aniii;als, suriimoning others of his tribe to share the f^re\8t with 
him. This story is very differant from the Pancatantra tale in which 
^ two jackalsr, the ministere of t>»e lion, first welcome ti-e bull, -^.nd 
later, on account of jealousy, set the two fighting, with the result 
that tVie lion destroys t^e bull. It comes much nearer t>ie Buddhist 
story of Jataka 347, and Schiefner's T_ibetan_TaljftS (Ralston), p. 325. 
TVie Jataka, of course, is the only one of these that can be the parent 

or the Sinhalese folk-tale. In soi.^e respects it differs frorfi t e oral 

tale. It goes thus: A cow and a lioness form a friendship. Their o'^f- 

spring wander about together. A forester reports t>ds unusual occur- 
rence to king Brahflfiadatta, who says t' at the friendship ^ill continue t)-%'v3^ 
until a third animal appe rs. A jackal beconies tVie ^rdnister of these 
t7?o, and determines to eat their flesh, lie reports slander of one 

against the other. The forester hastens to tell the king oF the jackalA 
presence. The V-ing cojues on the scene just in time to fini the delight- 
ed jackal eatinc the fles)i of tVie two animals, who Viad destroyed each/0^ 
other. He utters gathSs relative to the evil of liatenin- to slander. 
It is, of course, possible that this is the progenitor of the folk- 
tale, hut there are so many differences between the two that I prefer 
to leave the question open, trusting tiiat Borrie other version much 
nearer the oral tale will appear either in the Buddhist or Tamil lit- 

The i^lay tale of Skeat is a queer jumble. The moueedeer sets the 
V/ill Bull of the Clearing and the Bull of the Young Bush to fighting 
by alleging that each has slandered the other. The B<«11 of the Clear- 
ing slays his rival. The moueedeer has /atclied the battle from a seat 
on ^/i/ a white-ant hill, and the ants have burrowed into him so that -^ 
cannot rise. The victorious bull scatters tVie ant-hill, and releases 
him. The mousedeer cuts the dead bull's throat, according to iviuhaniraad- 
an rites, and cormaences to flay the carcase. A tiger approaches, and 
asks for some of the meat (evidently thinking that the moueedeer has 
filain the bull). He obtains his request on Condition that he assist in 
the flaying. Rain falls, and the mousedeer sends t> e tiger to cut 
boughs with which to irmke a shelter. The tiger tries to clajnber upon 
a raft in a river; but tVie bank is eg sli pery and hie shoulders so 
l^X ^et wit>i blood that he does not succeed, l.oticing the mousedeer 
quivering, he S'5,ys, "What makes you shiiver so?" The iiiousedeer replies 
ferociously, "I am quivering with anticipation". The tiger, fearing 
tViat the mousedeer means with anticipation of eating him, runs away. 
Since other Lalay tales are descended from Semitic sources', and since 
this etory itself cV^'tVi'n;?^ sjky^ja'/f^ ^foVl'e^ tXjif shows v.oslem infuences, 
such at^ the throat*cutting netted -above, we if.ay safely assume that it 

gets into tVie folklore tViroufh the ualayan Hikayat Xalila dan Darnina. 
The lion ani t>.e bu] 1 have become in the TolV treatment two hulls, by 
a proces? of assiiailation. The account of their friendship has bRen 
omitted. The incident of the mousedeer getting stuck to tl- e ant-hill 
is a toucVi of local humor. TVie rest of t>ie story, the fripVitenint" of 
the strong tiger by the weak mousedeer, seeins to be a reflection of 
Vyaghrairiari motif, which is found in unmistak*able form in Skeat's 
collection, p. 45 ff. 

"^ ^ukasaptati, T. Siiiipl.,42, T. Orn . 52; Kechschibi * s Tuti-Kameh, 
XXX, 1; Turkish Tutih-l^araeh (Rosen) ii, p. 136; Pancahyanavarttika 2 
(Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 139, q. v/ for other references); Dubois's 
P antcha-Tantra . p.99;Julien'B Les Avad anas,!^/ ii, p. 146; Busk, Sagas 
from the Far East, pp. 204, 380; Frere, Old Deccan Days (2nd Ed.), 
p. 274; Stol^es, Indian Faify Tales , p. 35; Day, Foiv-Talep oT Ben; al _, 
p. 257; Caxrspbell; Santal Folk- Tales, pp. 41;, 49; -^Parker, Village Folk- 
Tales of^eylon, i, p. 213; Phillips, Ori^entali^tj__i^, p. 2(1; D. A. 
Jayawardana, 0|>ient list, ir, p. 79; S. J. Goonetilleke, Orian talis t 
iv, p. 121; Steel and Temple, Wide-awake Stories, p. 152; Kingscote, 
Tales of the Sun, p. 98; Bompas, F olklore oljr the Santal Pargan as, 
p/ 539; O'Connor, Folk-Tales from Tibet, p. 76; ^xCulloch, B engali 
Household Tales, p.. 305; Wood, I n and Out of CVianda, p. 59; Gordon, 
Indian Folk-Tales, p. 58; R. S. i*-ukharji, Indian FolV--Lore, p. 100; 

Smeaton, Loyal Karens of Bur.Mah, p. ITS; Cole, Ind. Ant, iv, p. 257. 

uKCHASTE WJiAViiR'S V/IFK . This story occur* in all t>ie olier versions 

of the Pancatantra as 1, 3c or 4c, except in roiia-ieva or Ilsenienira, In 

t>ie Hitopa'is9a it is II, 5t. It is t> e story of the \7eaver's wife iis? 

covered ty her husband goir.f: to her lover, an'i tiei to a post. .Vhiie 

t)ie weaver is asleep, the harher's wife, who acts as a procure e, re- 

leaeeB her ani tal<"es Vier place. The husbani awaVe^ an*! adrepsee so^ie 

woria to his wife, as he supposes the barber's wife /// to be, but she 

does not reply. In anger he cuts o^t her nose. The real wi^e soon re- 

turns --pA exchan; es places wi^i; her substitute. In the morninr; she 

makes a trick asseveration of trutVi by her cViaetity, call in upon tVie 

powers of Heaven to restore her nose to her if she be truly chaete. 

The man Bees hie wife with her noseyhich >ie thinks has been restored 

by virtue of her chastity, is convinced that he has n.isjudged her, and 

bef':;8 her pardon . At t>is point the Ilitopadepn, story ends, but the 

other versions t.ell how the barber's wife i.-ianages to fix the blame 

for trie loss of her nose upon her husband/. 

In t>ie foD'-lore this story occurs in Bompas'sPolvior e of t'le^ an^ 

tal Parganas, j^/ p. 304. It is a part of a longer tal v/hich is made up, 
"" 1 

like many other folk stories, of several small tales. A fithlers 

wife is found by her husband to be >iaving illicit rel'itions vith a 

Juj:i, Ke beats her. The Jugi hears the woman cry, and rends an old 

woman to suranon her to him. The old woman takes the place of the 

wife, veefiinf^. ani wailing in hor stead, -'hile fne v?ife goes to the 

Juf^i. The hu-^band, enraged at K/' his wife's noise, rushes out of trie 

house, and cute off her nose, VA^ien the wife returns to her place, she 

^ T>ie first part o^ the story is "n account of the husband's discov- 
ery of Viis wife's infidelity. He locks her out of the house. SVie throws 
a large stone into a pool of water. Ke Vieare the splaeh, t>anks she is 
drownin herself, ajnd rushes out to save her. She quickly slips into t^ 
the house and looks out her husband. The next day he punishes her as J^fi 
told above. 


complains of the false charge Vier liustani has 'btoufcht against her. She 
t>"ien calls him to coiiie ani see t>ie iwiracle t at hac taVen place. lie 
fin'ie her with y-er Tace wViole, repents oT >iie con^iuct, ani h-ts full 
faitVi in her virtue. From the fact that the folic- tale enis Viere , I 
conclu-le that it is ierivei from the Hitopa'ieya. Any Sanskrit or ver- 
nacular version current in Bengal niay serve as itd parent. 

CROwS ALU bl\Ai.ii. The Story oT tVie crows and the snaVe who ieitours 
their young is found in all the older versions of the lancatantra *x- 
that of Somadeva. It is oar, I, 4 etc. '-^Vie folVlce "tia?. it in Rama- 
swami Raju'B Indian Fahles, p. 78. A serpent eats tne younj; of a raven. 
The raven offers the serpent a po tion of lier daily food to secure 
immunity for her offspring, hut t>ie snake rejects the bargain, disdain- 
ing the carrion on which the raven feedB. The raven steals a "bracelet 
of the queen's from the palace, and drops it in the serpent's hole. 
As the servants dig for the bracelet, the snaVe attacks t>'era, and they 

In a 1 literary versions except SP and Kitopadeja the lual e crow con- 
sults his wise frien^,t>ie jackal, who sugeests to hirn the stratagem by 
which tVie snake is de troyed. Since the jackal is not |centioned in the 
folk-tale, we c-^m limit our possible sources to the two versions noteii 
Both of tViese, though, differ from the oral fable in one point: in SP 
the crow steals tVie jewelry froia a merchant's house, and in the Hito- 
pade^a from among a prince's clothes on the bank of a river, while in 
the folk- tale it steals a queen's bracelet from a palnce. In this re- 
spect the folk version agree? with Tantrakhyayika . In no literary 
example of this tale have I found the crow endeavoring to make a bar- 
gain with the snake. This folk story either is descended from some 
literary form with which I am not familiar, or has been deliberately 
jjiodified by Ramaswami Raju in the retell inr- so as to make a better 

yumoa muj crab. tV^V. ;^;tWy'/Vr/'lbVj'fr :?K^/ir//JK'0'^/^y/j^?^x'/^^^ 

This story ip Sar. I, 5, etc. The heron reports to ^^ the fish that 
'destruction threatens theui. In response to their alnrmei inquiries 
as to how they may "be saved, he offers to carry them to another pool. 
They agree, ani he ta^res them away one at a time, but not to another 
poni. Instead he aoes to a tree with them and eats them. Kot c6n- 
tent wit>i the fish he trita the same trick on a crab. The latter, 
t>iough, sees throu,'?h his deceit, and cuts the heron's throat witVi his 
claws. This fable occurs in the folVlore in Raaiaswami Flaju's In lian 
i'ables, p. 88; i-antalu's Folklore of the Telegus .p. 72 (accordin to 
hertel, Da e Pancatantra , p. 68-), Ini. Ant. xxvi, p. 168; i^tsele's Kusa 
Jatakaya.p. 251; Parker's V illage Folk. Tales of Ceylon, i , p. 342; 
Skeat's Fables and Folk- Tales from an Eastern Forest, p. 18. 

^he literary versions a-ay be divided into tv/o classes: (l) those 
in wliich all the fish in the pond are not eaten by the heron, but 
live to hear the crab tell the good nev/s of the villain's destruction; 
and (2) those in whic>i no mention is made of any fish surviving or of 
the crab returning to them. The first class includes oar., Tantrakhyaa 
Textus Siiiipl., Textus Orn., K and D; the second includes Somadeva, 
Ksemendra, SP, Kitopadepa. Two other versions that ^i^tW ipi't'o come into 
consideration >iere are distinguished by other characteristics :^Jataka 
38 and Dubois's P an t cha- Tan tr a , p. 7t the heron -prophecies a drouth 
an-l thus persuades the fish to leave their home; in the other versions 
the heron claims to have overheard fishermen planning to fish out the 

Ramaswami Raju's agrees with those in class (l) noted above. It is 
an abbreviatjon of sorie one oT them,, just what one cannot be deteru.ined 
because ^^r. "Ra ju Iv unscientific enough not to give any indication 
as to what part of India his stories come from. 


Pantalu's Teleru story "belongs ith Dubois's tale, liientionei above, 
t%/¥-^i44i /'i^^W- They agree even so Far as to specify t^e sanie length of 
time for the duration of the drouth prophesied, twelve Jears . The crab, 
though, is not spoken of in Panta^lu's story. It ends with tVie wicked 
crane enjoying Vis unholy feast. The folV-tale is a descendent of the 
one translated by Dubois, in which, thougVi, the point of th« story, the 
punis>'flient of the rascally crane, has been forootten. 

There are four Sinhalese folk versions of this tale, one in Steele's 
work and three in Parker's (see references above). For the sake of con- 
veniece I refer to Parker's three variants as (l), (2), and (3). All of 
these go back to the Jataka Story. In Steele, and Parker (1) and (2) 
it is stated that tVie pond in which the fish live is drying up , just 
as in the Pali tale. In Parker (1) the pra»# offers as an excuse;t/p to 
the fish for chan{!.ing their home the small size of the hole in which 
they live. This is a folk substitution for the original which has been 
forgotten. Parker (l) is the only one of the four versions that re- 
tains the heron's claim that he is living an ascetic life. Parker (2) 
and (3) describe the sending of a scout by the fish to examine the 
new home. This incident is peculiar in the literary texts to the Jata- 
ka, wV^ich describes t>ie scout as large and one-eyed. This description 
is lacking/ in the oral tales. Parker (3) varies this point by having 
the heron devour the scout, instead of brin^inf; hiia back to report. 
To excxise the failure of the scout to return, the heron says t>iat the / 
first fish is so happy in his new quarters that he refuses to leave 


the m. The correct conclusion of the tale, fn^ killing of the heron by 

tVve crab is found inly in Steele and Parker{l). In Parker (3) both 
aniiuals perish, and in Parker (2) the ^jif^f^i^ heron kills th crab. This 
latter case shews how unintellifsently the folk can treat a story. The 
moral has been entirely lost siRht of. A composite of these four Sinhai 
lese folk tales would give the Jataka story nearly as in the Pali. 

There can be no doubt, tlien tl-iat it is thei» source/. 

The i.alayan tale of Skeat is anot>ier chili of tVit Jatalca, In it the 
-pelican aspures t>>e fish that their pond is goinfi to dry up; the fish 
send a scout to inspect the nev; pool, it /lt^^/lt^U/~HMUM^MM/Mi 

TliE LlOi; A1<I> THE HAKE, This Ptory is Sir. I, 6, etc. The lion ter- 
rorizes the ither animals of the forest by the indisCTiiuinate slau; hter 
he makee among tViern. They persuade him to cease on condition t'^at the^ 
supply him with one o^' tVieir numhet- every day for his food, vhen it 
comes the Viare's turn to "be the lion's dinner, he plans to destroy the 
tyrant. He doee not arrive /;tf in tlie lion's presence until very latp; 


excusing limself by saying that an^ither lion had ietained him on the 
way. The first lion is very angry, and demands to be shown his rival. 
The hare tells hi to look down a well. He does bo, and mistaVes his 
own reflection for the second lion, leaps at it, an-i is destroyed, 
Tliis fable occurs in the folklore in Rous?|l,'8 Talking Thrush, p. 130; 
Jrere'e Old Deccan Days,^p. 156; Pantalu's Folklore of the Telegus, 
p, 15, Ini . Ant. xxvi, p, 27; Butterworth's Zigzag Journeys in India, 

p» 16; Swynnerton's Romantic Tales from the Pan jab with Indian Kights' 
Entertaininent, p, 154; Ramaswami Raju's Indian Fables, p, 82; O'Connor's 
Folk-Tales from Tibet, p. 51; Parker's Village Folk- Tales of Ceylon, ii, 
p. 385; £keat's Fables ani Folk- Tales from an Eastern Forest, p. 28; 
Steel and Temple's Panjabi Tales, Ind. Ant. xil, p. 177{2 versions); 
Dames's Ealochi Tales, /i^'jj^Jfyrl'fei^)^?!' Folk-Lore iii, p. 517. 

Thfl. literary versions of this story naturally livide themselves 
into tj.o claBses: (l) tViose in 'sViich the hare says that he himself 
was appointed Toy the rest of the animals to be the lion's prey 
these include all Indian Pancatantra books except those noted in the 
next class; (2) those in which the hare says he was sent with a second 
ani fatter Viare which was meant to he the lion's dinner but, has been 
seized by the other lion -- t>ie8e include KandD (all ver^^ions), Panca- 
khyanavarttika 30, Pandja Tandaraiu (see Hertel, D as Pancatantra , pp. 
67 and 299), To class (2) belongs properly the story as told in 
the Jainistic iangatantra books, Textus Siiriplicior I, 8 ani Furna- 
bhadra I, 7. In these the hare says that he was sent in compan;;^ with 
five other hares, evidently all to be eaten "i y the lion. The five 
are kept by tVie rival lion as Viostages, 

The folk storiee ^re iif f erentiatei siiJlarly. To clasB (l) belong 
these in Rouse's Talking Thrush , Frere's Old D«ccan Days, Eutterworth' 8 
Zirzat! Journeys in India, Raju's Indian Pablea, O'Connor's Folk- Tales 

from Tibet, ir'arker's Villape Folk- Tales of Ceylon, Steel ani Temple's 
Panjabi Stories, Damee's Baloc>>i Tales. To class Xl^fi (2) belong those 
in Jr-antalu's i'olklore of the Telecus, Swynnerton's Roxcantic Tales 
from the Panjab with Indian Ki^^hts' iSntertainment, and Skeat's Fables 

and Folk- Tales from an Kastern Forest, ^teel and Temple's P anjabi Tales O ^' 

EBrttaiFiei*; ±R?:B±aBxxil:^xxJ'r»lBxkiyx!fBDB»xyKrwa0HiarxK±tfflji2±ep3j:xsuKhxa;s 
jklHBxiaiHiiMStaBixHBtaixfeyrBexgaByy tsBB>^KBrt3?2:^x3sKxFaHe3c±XHtTa;rx|)yx&S^ 

Rouse's and Raju's stories are to all intenjts and purposes the same. 
The tyrant anin^al in Raju's tale is the tiper, which is intcrchanceable 
wiyli tVie lion in folklore, if for no other reason t>.ar that Sanskrit 
Yyaghra (Hindustani b agh ) ji ay uiean either animal. Except for the fact 
that the Folk- tales, inake ro luentior of any other Vares th-ir the one 
clever hare, this tale would represent the version of Textus Simplicior 
or Purnabhadra in an abbreviated form. It carrot be from the Kitopa- 
de^a or any jt>ier version included in clasr: (1), because it contains 
tvv'o details found in tt-e Jairistic texts mentioned v/hich do not appe->,r 
in th^ Ujr fcu . pt i f-le tf ufe ; the >>are says that the rival lion claims to te the 
real lord of the forest; and after the lion has been killei the other 
animals unite in sin(/;ini^ the praises of ^heir deliverer, tVie hare. 
These .folk versions are either a -/orkin;^ over of t> a Jainistic rtory 
by the folk in which the mention of tV'e ot)ier hares has been omitted, 
of triey are a they are popular for.-ns of soiae literary ykxbxbh descend- 
ant of the Jainistic tale tha,t omits this detail. 

Dajnee'8 story has the sai/se origin as the two just tre ted. It aerees 

very well with liaju'e story except in theee 4we points: the clever 

animal is a j tVte^Ul , not a hare; the j^cJcaJ. does not say that the other 

tiger claims to "be >:ing, but merely remarks that another tiger has 

come into the country an'5 is even now sitting at home after enjoying 

a jackal; after the JAcis%-l has -lestroyed the tiger, he is called to 

account "by the other animals who >J3r sent him, at which time he tells 

how he killed the tiger. 

Steel and Temple's second version also agrees well with Raju's tale 

except that the clever aninial is a ^aekxi^, and that the vixen tells 

the tiger that a similar agrremebt has been made by the animals with 
the tiger's brother. The tiger demands that the vixen show him his 
brother, and, of course, is sho.?n his reflection in a well. 

The Tibetan tale o :^ O'Connor differs widely from all the other ver- 
sions of tkBxt with which I aii familiar, A Viare is caught by a lion. 
He advisee the lion to eat another an 1 very large animnl, lar^-er evon 
t'nan the lion liimself, and very dangerous, which lives in a water-tank. 
The lion compels the Viare to lead him to this tank. On arriving there, 
goaded to fury by the cautions of the hare not to attack the ferocious 
beast in tVie tank, the lion leaps in an-l is dtov/ned. The next day the 
Viare tells the lionnesB tViat he has destroyed her mate. She chaees him, 
and he leads her to a hole in the wall of an old castle, into which, 
she rushes with so much momentu«i that sticks there unable to get out, 
and eventually dies of starvation/. Tl\is is the literary story very 
much chanf^ed by foj-k treatment. Only tVie original motif is present. 

•'Tliis manner of l^illin^ the lionness is found in Eompas's Folklore of 

the_ fcantal i ^vr^anas/, appendix, (^Folklore of the KolHan)^ p. 456, where 
a~jackal accomplishes the ruin of a tiger in exactly the same way. It 
seems probable tliat", this incident in the Tibetan tale is an addition 
taken by the folk story-teller from the incident-collection of his 
own .ind. 

Frere's an-? Lutterworth's stories are identic-U, corresponding at 
tiiiBB even in wording. They may "be treated ac one. The hero is a jackal* 
There ±s in no mention of an agreement between the lion and the rest 
of t'ne. animals. The story opens with ^ reign of terror in whicVi the iA/»v\ 
Blays all the wild heaete of the forest except XW two jackals. These /A 
elude hiui for eome time, tut are finally compelled to corne to him. From 
then on the story is tVie same as that of Rouse f(f(^ or of Raju until the 
conclusion. XlP Here thd Frere-Euttcrworth tale tells how the jackals 
stored the lien after he fell into the well. This folV-tale is a 
grandchild of tVie Jainistic texts, "but through some version which I do 
not know. The stoning of the lion is found in the literature in Bubois's 
I-a ntcha-Tantva , p. 89 where all the animals ro41 lar^e stones upon the 
lion. This latter version cf the story is too far reinovei from the 
oral tale in other respects to lie its source. 


Parker's story is another far.iliar tale to which is appended the 

motif of t'ne "lion and the hcire". ^^ hear finis a woman in the forest, 

and takes her to his cave. Her two brothers find her hy following the 


sound if the crowin of a cock which she is rai^^ing. They take her 
away and the two children she ^as had "by the bear. The bear follows 
tliem and asks the v/oman why she has left. She replies that a cleverer 
bear has callel her. He wishes to see the cleverer bear, and she shows 
him >iis reflection in a well. He leaps at the reflaction and is drown- 

ed. This is the story of the woman who marries a wild animal, and is 
afterwards rescucJ from him. The narrator, though, has employed a nei 
lueans of extricating the woman from the animal* clutches. 

J. Cf, Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon ^ il, p. 288; Bompas, Folk^ 

lore^ f the bantal Parganaa, , p. 154, appendix (Folklore of the Kolhan) 
p. 454; --ing8cote>,Tales of the Sun, p. 119, 


Wenow turn to ttose '-'lories wliic>' co:.« urrier clai-E J^S (2). Cv/yn- 
nei'.ton'o t-ile confonae very closely to that oT th« KandD, and is prolD- 
aljly flescenly* froia t>ie Anvar-i Cui.aili/ I, 14. Tee differences bet\;een 
t>ie two are slicht ani only in tuattftrs of detail, for example, the 
villain is '\ tiger, not a lion, a 'lifference, ae I Tiave shown ahnve, 
that is no differencf? at all. 

Pantalw's tale ie aleo from the KandD, ■hcinp a much alhr'sviatei. 
fonn. It cannot have any relationship v;ith ±ka PancaWiyanavarttilfa 50, 
■bccaur.r: in the latter no xnention is nale of the lion liclding t>!e 
in hij? arcis as he 1oo1<-b at the reflection in the water. In the Telegu 
fable tVi& clever is a fox. This version of t>:e Btory has prot- 
Jihly come into the TalOiiU cotUitry free the liortv^west. jt 

The ctory reported by Steel and Temple (l) ic frorii the i'jandD, too; 
but itB parentage is a little disgiiiEed. A tiger catcher a jackal. The 
jackal S3.^B^ "You had better kill that tiger yonder before you eat me, 
?.est >.e hunt your forest Y/hile you sleep." 'Itlr^ev he sho^^s the tiger hie 
reflection in the water, the tiger hesitates to attack. The jackal 
Bays, "Ke has caught a fine, fat jackal, though." The tiger le- ps in jtfe 
the well ani is drowned. The laFt remark of the jackal shov/e that 
this story once knew t>'e incident of t> e second jack-1 (or hare). This, 
tho^h, has been lost, and all we have left of it ie the jackal's point- 
ing out another of >'^is ©wn kind in the well. The folk story is much 
shortene-' in other respects, too, for example, by the omission of an ac- 
count of an af'.reement between the tiger and t>ie other anixals. 

'ibie story frora kalay in Skeat'o work ie also frois. the KandD through 
the Hilcayat Kalila dan Damina. The mousedeer, which is the clever ani- 
mal in i-alay stories, har not come hircself to be eaten by the tie^er, cut 
apolOf'izes to V iu! with these -^orde, "I could not bring you any of the 
other beasts because the 'JTHy was blocked by a fat old tiger Tsrith a fly- 
ing squirrel sitting astride its rau^izle." V/hen the tiger goes to loo'i" in 
the watsr/, / the flying sqirrel, wha has come v/ith the mousedeer, sits 

upon his ciuKzla, ani the mousedeer uvo:n his hini quarters?, or course the 
tiger sees their reflection too in the water, an-i thinks he sees oth'^re/ 
This incidant is a reminiecece of the aeconi hare jn ''aniD. This oral 
story is a poor illustration of a popular form current in ilalay which 
is represent ei in the Tamil-l«alayan Panija Tanlaram (see Hertel, Das 
Pancatantra, pp. 67, 295, an-i 299). Thercit is told ahout n lion and 
a mousedeer, in a form vrhicVi jiiore nearly repemhles that of the KandT). 
The story of the Hikayat Kalila dan Damina has iDsen modified hy the 
folk, and in its modified form has been included in the Pandja Tandaram 
by Abdullah Bin Abdelkader. 

CiiATJill^'UL AKIkALS, UKGRATiOJ'UL iJlK. The •arliest appearance of thie 
story in the Pancatantra cycle is Purnathadra 1,9. A poor Brahman is 
driven fro.ii jfiXp home by his wife to secure means of sustenance for his 
family, he wanders into a wood, and while lookinf'^ for water finds in 
a well a ti^jer, an ape, a snake, and a man. All t>iese he rescues from 
tt.e well, although the animals warn him against the perfidy if mankind 
in general and tne danger of saving the goldsmith. On his way hooie the 
BraVuiian #ecoiues hungry, thinks of the ape, and is provided -with fruit 
by hiiii. The tiger presents him with sonie jewels K//K^/ taVen from a 
prince he nas killed. The Brahnian takes his gift to the goldsmith for 
appraisal. The goldsmith recognizes the jevelry a;^- his own h-andiwork, 
and for the sake of a reward betrays the Brahman to tV;e kinf- as the /i^j6^ 
Diurderer of the prince. ^Thile bound and waiting, for death, the Brahman 
t^^dnki; of tne snake. The grateful animal copies at once, and plans to 
save his former benefactor, lie bites the king's chief '.7ife, and she 
can be cured only when the Brahinan strokes her with his hand. Tyi© truth 
then comes to light, tVie goldsmith is punished, and the Eraliman is re- 
leased and elevated t* the position of minister. 

This story continues with variations in later versions of the Fanca- 
tantra wViich are dependent on Purrabhadra (see L'ertel, Das Pancatantra , 
pp. 114, 135, 269, 305, 308, 322, and 343) . It occur? in KandD (see 
Hertel, op. cit. pp. 371 and 424). It is also found in the Buddhist 
literature -- Jataka 73; Rasavahini 4; Chavannes, Cin q Cente Pontes et 
Apologues Chinois, I, p. 87; Schiefner, Tibetan TalcB (Ralst*n), p. 309; 
■iariiiapataka (see Benfey, Pantechatantra^I, pp. 195 and 208); and as 
a Buddhist story in Kathasaritsagara (Tawney's translation) II, p. 103. 

In the folklore it occurs Tour times: v'lieson's L aos goll-'l ore of Far- 
t>ter In^lia, p. 95; IJatesa SastrT's folklore in Souti'isrn Iniia 1, p. 9 

(also putlishe'i in In'l. Ant. xiii, p. 256, and in KingscJite'a Tales of 
the r^un, p. 11); Bo^ipas's i'olklore of the Santal Parganae, p. 292; and 
^T^^^^&rid(i.clHa.iv), F olk. Tal es from the Indus Valley, Ini. Ant. xxix» 
p. 405 (also pulijlipViel in book form-- see liibliopraphy) . Of these^two 
are not folklore Lut are translations of literature: Fleeson's ani 
Ijatesa'e stories, i-das Fleeson in a footnote says./K^'t "This only of 


the Folk Tales has been writteil before. It is taken froia an ancient 
temple book ani is well-known in al] the Laos country/." It need not, 
therefore , be iiscussed >iere. 

I:;atesa is not 8o frank about his story. It is called "The Sooth- 
8-i,yer's Son", an-, ^oes as follows: A soothsayor, en dying, recites the 
following Sanskrit verse as t'ie fortune of his son Cangadhara: 

Janiiiaprabhnti laridryam daga varsani b andhana m 

•safuudratire :naranam kincidbhogam bhavisyati. 

Tikis would aeem to mean "From birth poverty, ten ye-^rs of imprison- 
aioit, death on the sea-ahore, and theh there will be some happiness." 
The son ixiakea a pilgrimage to Benares. On his way he rescues from a Tell 
a tiger, a snake, ani a rat, and in spite of the varnings of th se 
axiiiiials a golds:;iith. Ten years later on hip w^.y ho./itt from Benares, he 
cooes to the same well. He tvdnks of the tiger, irrho conies to him with 
a crown taken from a king: he has killed. The snake and rat also make 
him pi^esents. He takes tie crown to the joldsraith, y/ho reco.'inizee it 
and has him accused of the king"» j&iurder. He is thrown into prison fot 
ten years^, his only nourisTuvient beinf:, what t>ie rats brinp him. kean- 
wliile the snakes and tigers play havoc with tVie lives of the subjects / 
of the unjust king, wVio 'nas thrown the Brahman into prison without a/p'/o 
proper investip-ition. WTiile the people ^.re dyinf' in such number?, the 
pris4ner continually declares that if j^iven the c>iance he can stop the 
ravages of the ti{::ers and snakes. At last Vie is heard. He if released. 

-I > 

revives tlie ieai.has his innocence recognizei, an-l is promisel the >!and 

of the princess. The goldsmith in seized, hut is f-eneroualy pardoned hy 

Gangadhara. lie then starts to^ Viome. TJn'vittin^ly he takes a road that 

goes hy t'le side of the sea, }le unexpeotelly meets biK hrot'nor, who has 

corae to loor Sor -.iiB. KxcesKive joy kills him. T>ie hrothor sntrust-'-' the 

corpse to o>ie care oT Gaiissa. Tl-je Ganas, unahle to resist t>ie tempting 

delicacy^, ievour the corpse, v/hen Ganesa is called \ipon "by the hrother 

for the/;6^//// body, iH/H/ii/^i^-d^^ he cannot produc:; it. In response 

to thz hrotVier's taunts, hoTrevcr, he inakea aixiends hy restoring :-iore 

[ than was p:iven to Vvim, ani rrstores Ganfradhara to life. All ]ive hap- 

pilv ever afterwards. The correct interpretation of the sootheayer's 

prophecy now appears . %%xii%^ Kincii in the second ]ir.e should he con- 

etrue'1 ^ith r iiaranam not hViopam , and the Moanine o^ ^-^-^ wV.ole verse is: 

"From birth poverty, ten years of imprisonment, hy tv.e seashore death 

fo\-- n little v?hile, then there will be enjoynent . " This r + cry is 

clearly not folklore, but ir a T'iece of Tamil litcratirre, just as arfi 

ofnerc of y>^j^^fifl[ Katesa*s stories . The SansVrit, not vernacular, 

verse, -hich is the thread tl-at unites the various parts o*" the story, 
is surricient to sho^ jt^K^V the truth of thir. statement, /^'len 7?e consider 
a3so the ingenious tricV of the second, an-l unexpected, intc;rpretation 
of the verse, the literary character of t>ie tale hecocies still mere 
evident. There is still the furtVier testimony of the cVilful way in 
■BThich the story-teller has woven with the Pancatantra etftry the addition- 
al story of the Ganas and the corpse, Tl'is latter has ret cor'e to my 

i-c'f/ r.o. 13 in " Tales of the Sun ". wViich is a translation of the six- 
teentVi century Tanil Alajf esa PCatha , f^j^^/f^vf Vyf^'^ovi for ^ffor-l identical /ocr^ 
T he Jiinp: and his four i>;in~isters , an eld Inijan roL-anee , .v ith notes by 
j^j^>rii rr:A-r~Clous tQr:. uadras. 1386. It is also found in Clousten's 
A _ Group of E-istern Rojuances., translatei from the _J_£rslarLt Taiiiil^ •j.jli 
Urdu. ClaFt':ov;, Hodges ani Co. 1889. Cee introduction, p. xxix, of last- 
mentioned work for: ^/^X^gL^0sp^i!i^/f^p'/X¥f! an account of the literary char- 
acter of the AlaVdsa Katha, , ^ 

notice anywhere else. The '.'/>iole story ae ^'.iven by Katesa will, of course, 
be Touni in the Taciil literature wV.en it is ii ere Tully exploited. 

.Ve no'.v co.i.e to the iiscuss ion of the stories that are reully folV-lore 
The first of these is t' at of Boi.ipas w)iere it i? part of a tale which 
is a ehcrt but confused union //-with anothj'^er stoiy inci'lent. Cur part 
of the tale comiencec on pa^ e ^^^^/ 2?3, A ferryi.iar 7/al>s in - forbi-lden 
direction (Soutli). He rescues succes'sively a cow fron a pit, a buf- 
falo fron; a bog, an 1 a wan from a well. The latter, t^oufih, ungratefully 
pushes (lis reeusr down t>ie very well from v7>iio>i he has ju?t baen lifted. 
y. The ferryman's wife eventually {-sts hln out of the well, scolds him, 
ari-i t>ie couple 3 eave the country. This vrrrEion, v/i tVi i\,e sue r.essive, /^i<p^ 
rather t>ian simultaneous, retcuinr of thise In trouble//, copies closer 

to t'l^e Buddhist tale from Laos, reported b$ lirti "leeson, than to any 

otVier form I inave encountered. It is a poor and abbreviated anecdct^ }^ 

here, severely mutialated, ar i witVi po rn^^ny charrcterlsticF of the 

orii.';inal orcitted as to m^Ve it unintcrestirr except to sho''.' to what 

depths a eood story can iercen'l v/Tien it nets into the fclVlore. 11 is 

probably Eud]>ist in origin, 'lut it is so muc>' change-^ ap ;tV not to be 


The story given by Barlow an-l ^^^t)i ci.air i"? one of a series of 

anecdotes about t:akhi, the pious kussalinan. SaVhi rescuer, •- an, a 

jacJca] , an-i! a snaVe froa. a well, although the two anina^s c-.tition him 

ae=^'inst the ingratitude of t>.e i;:^;n. The sr^ke revrards EaV^ii by spitting 

up a lump of gold for hjira, ani pointinf out to >'im herbs o'^ '-'onderful 

medicinal value. The rescued roan, w>ic is a prince, o- arrival at a city 

^ 1/ 

'inis story and that in bPt'^appea.r to be cousins. In l.ateaa's tale 
the goldsii.ith ie ^ called ey-. rnat asVara (gol d- thief ) ; in SP^ he is 
called svarnapaharina (gold^^Thief) . The'se are the only places 7,'here I 
Viave founrTTiTe'ioTdsI^-ith called "pold-thief " . SPt i? influenced by Taridl 
litej^ature (see Hertel, Da s i a n c a tan tra . p . 304). 

"^It i?" v/orthy ,cf remark here that Tnany other Santal tales show 
a close resemblanc^e to Buddhist stories. 

demanis t'ne r-Oli as hie own, irri lias Sakhi hrou'>it before the ^wifie . 
The latter oriers hirn to be sewn up }<' in a raw calP'syin ani exposei to 
the sun/ as a fnisf. Th- Vin of the country 'becoines afflicte-1 T^ith a 
terrible disease. Sakhi cures hirn by means of the herbs ^j?hich th"^ 
Enal<-e gave hire, lie then recievefi the lisual half of the Vin^'-iom ani the 
hand of the princess. IJothing :iiore is snail o^ the ungrateful man. The afterwards shows his frratita^e to SaVhi j( by /?:ivinn hin a beau- 
tiful flower from the place where the Panj Pir have teen praying. 
This, too, is a much niutialatei Torix', of the gtory. ."..a'-iy ijr,portant de- 
tails are oiaitted. As striking; as any oS the omissions is the failur* 
of the story to say tVtat the disease of the king which. Sakhi curss is 
brought upon hiiu by the unjuet treatment that has been administered to 
Sakhi. Of course a form of the story so poor as this is -i/^-ii. the re- 
sult or popular mishandling. It has no good literary parallel. Prom 
the fact t'lat it is so thoroughly ?^4ihoLjnimedan in Y.^^^ -Ttany of its de- 
tails, we may safely assume that it comee from y{C a Mahommedan source 
such as KandD. 

Ilibi LOUSE AHD '2EE PISA. T'liis stor;/ ooq^mtb from earliest 
times in the PaScatantra,— Sar.- I, V^ etc. A loiLse inliabits 
the l3ed of a King. A flea comes there siid insists on remain- 
ir^' in spite of the remonstrmices of the louse. The flea nips 
-the King so hard that he feels the bite- The bed is searched, 
the flea escapes, but the loiise is fouiid and killed. In the 
folklore, this storj' appears in Parker's Yillag^e Folk - Tales 
of Ceylon , III, p. SO, with a bug (bed-bug, cimex lect-clarius? ) 
playing the part of the flea. Tae folk version is the des- 
eendent of Textus Simplicior. Purnabhadra ' s storj- is too ful- 
some to be considered as bji ancestor of the oral tale, for it 
says that the louse dwelt in the king*s bed with all her des- 
cendents and gives other details of v;hich no trace is found in 
the stor:/ from Ceylon. The Kathasaritsa^ara, Brhatkathamanjari, 
and Southern Sancatantra versions are not full enough: for they 
dc not contain the flea's argument that he has tasted the blood 
of all sorts -f people, but nevey of a king, and lie is deter- 
inincd to try it, no inatter wliat its flavor. Textus Simplicior, 
I, 9, is neither too fixll nor too brief. Some Southern Indian 
rescsnsion, v;hich lias its parent in Textus Simplicior, must be 
the source of our folktale, say perhaps Dharmapandita's Sans- 
krit Pancatantra (see Eertel, Das Paris at antra, p. 508.) 

BLUE JACILAL. This story is Sir. I, 8, etc. , liitopadefa III, 6. I] 
the folklore it is fouiri in Dracott's Simla /illaKe Tales . p. 

198, and iCnowles's '''oik- Tales oT KasT-unir . p. 260. 

kiss Dracott's story is as follov^s: A jacVal ba8 Vie 'natit of f^o- 
to a vi]la;e every evenini:. One evening Vie puts his head in a vessel 
of indifeo. On returning/: to the jungle l-is handsome appearance so 
charms the other animals that they make him their king. At rirst 
the kinf; keeps ftea* the jackals, ani his howling; at night is unnot- 
iced. One dxy, though, he becomes angry at some young jackals, and 
turns them all out. That night, wVien Vie howls, his true jackal na- 
ture is recGfj-nized, an? tie otVier animals 4«» drive him out. This 

( ^-^TfririU ■U.v/<.o-^ t4^ |,^UvJJi TJ^ ^a>u->.»v 

is a popular version of IJechschilji's Tutinameh x>'>Tii,l, differing 


from it only in slight details. One or these is that the Persian 
8^» ii^akes the jackal king of his own species herore he becomes kinfe 
of tie rest of t'ne animals. The oral tale does not tell us this, but 
tViere seems to be a reminiscene of it in tiie statement that he kept 
the jackals near him. The Persian says that the king disanissei the 
jackals from his presence because he was ashamed of them; the oral 
tale says he dismissed them because he was angry with so..:e young jacelc 
jack Is. 

Although Knowlee's tale has soraethin; in coiimion with the story of 
the Blue Jackal, it is properly another fable, of '-srhich a better 
illustratiin is given in Swynncrton's Roi/.antic Tales f rom the Pan^ 
jab with Indian I. i jg h ts * E ntertainment , .p. 313. In the latter story 
soii.e find a bundle of papers, 7/)iich su?;gest to them the elec- 
tion of a lambardar . The fortunate (?) candidate is proviiei with the 
papers as evilence o'' his autViority, and a basket is tied to Viis 
tail in lieu of a crown. Suddenly dogs attack the jackals. They 
all fiee tp their >!Oles, but the lambariar* s decoration prevents 
him from enterinr >iis, and the dogs catch and kill hiqi. The point of 
the story is to s>iow the perils that are attachei to honor, an-i this 

s^uiie point id made in tne Kashjniri tale of Knowles. The latter is 
rather different from tne former ani not so good. It is in Yrief as 
follows: All V-e animals ha/^ their respective Vings. TV.e jacVale 
also elect^one, choosin,; an oli jackal, who ""by way of distinction 
allowed nis fur to "be dyed blue, and an old broVen winnowing fan to 
be fastened around his neck.*' One day a tiger came upon the ^'ing and 
many of >ii8 subjects. All escapei but ki His Majesty, w'-o war sav^kt 
unable to get through the narrov entrance to >ii8 cave on account or 
the 'winnowing around his neck. The tiger tied him by a rope in Viis 
cave. Eventually the jackal escaped, but when his former subjects 
wanted him to assuiae his former positio^n, he declined to encounter 
for the second time the risks attendant upon the honor, Knowles' 8 
tale is clearly a poorly told version oT the story given by Swyn- 
nerton. It shows how a storyteller who remembers only the theme 
an'l some of the incidents of a story supplies the missing details 
from >iis imagination or his general stock of folk- tale incidents. 
The narrator Vias added to the stoty of the jackal as lambardar the 
incident of the jackal dyed blue, usin;- it, though, in a very see- 
on iary and superficial way. 

THIS STE/JiDBIRP A5© THE SEA# HYie story of tlie Sti^andbird 
and the i5ea appears in all tiae .uancatantra collections, Sar.I, 
10, etc. In ,tlie folklore it is found onljr once, I!anv/aring»s 
liaratlii Proverbs , proverb £97, p. 41. 3iie follctale is as 
follows : 

The eggs of a ti tve (Skt. tittibha ) are washed away by 
the sea. V'hen the sea vd.ll not return them, the bird attempts 
to empty it h'j flinging aside the v;ater with her beak. Her 
mate lielps her. Sarad, the god of quarrels, becomes acquaint- 
ed wiiii the sitoation, and instigates the eagle (Cxaruda?) to 
help the titrest ^he eagle v/ith his army of birds unites with 
the straiidbirds. The fish fear that the sea V7ill be dried up, 
and aDpeal to Yisnu. He adjusts matters. 

lo Isancatantra version to which i have access agrees in 
all important points with this tale, although I-umabhadra * s 
story comes closest to it. These d.ifferences, however, are 
to be found in his tale: (1) The tittibhas enlist the aid of 
all the birds a^TsAnst the sea; (£) they endeavor to fill the 
sea, not to empty it; (S) a v/ise hamsa, not Rarada, advises 
them to appeal to Garuda; (4) Garuda induces Visnu to coerce 
the sea, and tlie fish do not beg him to settle matters. The 
first difference could verjr well be an omission in the tradi- 
tion of the tale, but the other points of disagreement betoken 
either a very v/ide divergence in the oral transmission of the 
story from the form it had into its parent literar^r state, or 
descent fr6m some later version of the Pancatantra tale. 

Hirmala Patiiaka^s Old llarathi rescension can not claim the 
fatherliood of tlie folktale, for in its stoiy no mention is 
made of Visnu (Hertel, Das gancatant ra, p. S77.) Other ver- 
sions from the Earathi section of India are not accessible 
to me, and I am, therefore, miable to decide the immediate 
ancestr:,'- of this tale. 

■ THE HAMSAS AED THE TORTOISE, Both of the tv/o occurrences 
in the foUfclore of the story of the Haiisas and the Tortoise 
are from Ceylon: H. A. Ileris in The Orientalist, I, p. 124, 
and Parker, Village Folktales of Ceylon. I, p. 234. Tlie story 
is found in the ?ancatant3?a from tlie earliest times, Sar. I, 
11, etc., hut only the Soutliern version of inibois*s Panteha- 
Tantm, p. 109, need he considered here, since both of the 
stories mentioned are allied to it. Tlie characteristic fe9.tu3?e 
of this version of the literai^r tale and the two folictales is 
that a fox (or jackal), not people, makes tlie remark tlmt in- 
duces the tortoise to speak and therefore to fall, and immediate- 
ly pounces upon tlie poor creature to eat him. The hard shell 
of the tortoise, though, baffles him; and at his victim's own 
suggestion he carries him to the water, to soften him, keeping 
a pav; upon his back Miile submerged so that he may not escape. 
After soaking a while, the tortoise says that he is all soft 
except the spot on v/hich the jackal's foot is resting. The 
jackal lifts his foot, and tiie tortoise slips away to safety. 
There are a nximber of ooints of difference between the various 

versions. Dubois calls tiie birds eagles, v/hile the folktales 
call them cranes and storks. The former give no reason for 
the desire of the b^i^lds to 1 ave their original home; but the 

1 - iarker, Yilla^^i-e Folkt ale s of Ceylon^ I, p. 240, calls 
attentionT'to the fact timt the animals named by Pieris 
"fox" sgid "crane" are not found in Ceylon. Ihether or 
not xieris has mistranslated his snimals' names can not 
be told; but if his designations are correct, they 
show this story to be nearer some mainland version tlian 
Parker's. The two stories, though, are the ss,me. 

folktales both state that the cause for luaking the eiiaii^-e 
of residence is a drought v/iiich has dried up the v/ater in 
the pond where the tortoise lives; and in a variant of 
Parker *s the drought is said to have lasted seven years. 
Itehois's tej^o claims a friendship of long standing between 
the three animals, rarlcer's only prosiaity of residence, 
and Pieris's no more than a chance meeting at the time 
of trouble. 5?he speeches of the jackal also vary in the 
tliree versions. These matters of difference are sufficient 
to show tliat Dubois's tale can not be re-mrded as the 
parent of the folktales. -All three evidently point to a 
form of the story native to Southern India as such, which 
is yet to appee^r in the vernacular literature. 

In Pieris*s tale the fox in an effort to recover 

the esca'oed tortoise seizes a Kekatiya yam that v/as float- 


ing on tlie v/ater. In barker's story the jackal takes hold 

of tlie turtle's leg, but is tricked into letting it go and 
seizing instead of it a Ketala { - Kekatiya?) root. At 
this point Pieris's stoiy ends; but Parker's continues 
with a lons' account of the efforts of all the jackals to 

1 - The Buddliist stories - Jataka, lo. 215; C-iavannes, 
500 Contes, vol.1, p. 404 anO. vol. II, p. 340 ajid 
p. 430; Julien, Les Avadsaias, vol. i, p. 71 - are 
not similar to this version, and exclude the possi- 
bility tlmt this forn is peculiarly Buddliist. 


to get reyenge on all the turtles, and their final discom- 
fiture. The Ketala root triclc of Parlcer is probably the 
original of the incident in the other tales, for the same 
trick occurs frequently in the folktales (Frere% Old Dee can 
Bays, p. 279; Gordon, In dian Follctales, p« 67; Steel and 

Temple, Wideawake Stories, p. 245; Parker, V illage FolktgJ- es 
p - 

of Ceylon, I, p. 381.) Is barker justly remarks, his story 
should end here. !I?he rest of the tale is another trick show- 
ing the superior cleTerness of the turtle. 

THE THREE FISH. This story occ^oxs In Mahabarata, XII, 
137 (Roy's Translation 12, p. 43E); Hitopa|(eca, IV, £; Sar. I 
12; etc. In the folklore it is found in Pantaliol^ Folklore 
of t he Telegu.s_ So. 37, p. 80 (according to Hertel, Das Paiica - 
tantra, p. 68), tut as Ko. 38 in Ind. Mt» XXVI, p. 224. 

The folktale is as follows: Three fish live in a lake. 
One of these notices tliat tlie water is drying up, and advises 
his companions to leave lest they all be caught "by fishermen, 
but the3- refuse to go. He himself leaves. Later fishermen 
catch the two other fish. One "plays possum" and jumps back 
into tile ws.ter as soon as the fishers turn their backs, but 
the other makes a great commotion and is killed. 

In all the literary versions -yaa i^jiagr oavidliatr hears 
fishermen planning to drav/ the lake and advises flight. This 
incident 3vidently has been forgotten in the popular telling 
where i*-agatavidhatr predicts a-ariger, vriLthout being directly 
confronted bj'- it. With the exception of this point, the 
oral tale agrees closely enough with anyone of the literary 
versions to be derived from it, except from Textus Simplicior, 
v/here both imagatavidhatr and Pi^tympannamati leave before 
the fisherr^en commence their labors, and the ISahabharata 
where the second fish bites the string on v;hich the dead fish 
ax-e slung as though he were himself dead and had been Mnged 
there too. 

lim SPAilROW A1;D TIIE ELEPKAKT. TItIb story is , TextuB 

SiBiplicior I, 15, Purnabhadra I, 18. It is founi in tVie folklore in 

Parker's Village Folk- Tales of Ceylon II. p. 445/, with a variant on 

p. 447. Accordin g to the literary types of the story, an elephant 

destroys the nest and eggs of a sparrow. The latter summons to her 

aid a lird with a sharp bill who plucks out the elephant's eyes, a 

fly that lays eggs in its eyesoc^-'ets (or a bee tiiat hums in its 

ears), and a frog that lures the thirsty elephant to n ditch into 

wtiich it falls, eventually to die. The oral story is a poor and BawfH 

confused representation of the literary tales. As given by Parker 

it goes thus: A lark lays her e; gs on a path (cf. Dubois, Fantcha- 

Tantra . p. 85). An elephant steps on the e(*;gs and breaks them to pim 

pieces. She c.ets proiiiises 4f assistance from a frog, a cro^v, and 

a bee. T>)e froe jumps into a steep ditcl'i and croaks. The elephant 

goes there to drink, falls into the ditch, and cannot escape. The 

crow pecks out its eyes, The bee beats its head, and it dies. As 

can be easily seen, the order of incidents in the oral story is 

illogical. The logical order is that of the literary originals — 

t>ie crow first blinds the elephant , then the gadfly (instead of the 

bee) buzzes at its ear, and finally the frof: deceives it injured gjj ^^ 

and rrrnddened by the gadfly. 

The popular tale aeei/is to be a corruo- 

^In Jataka 357 there is an introductory incident, A king ele« 
pJiant, t'-.e Bodhisat, protects a quail and her offspring from 80,00D 
elephants. A rogue elephant, following the herd, destroys the quail's 
family, ani is itself later destroyed by the sparro-.? and her allies. 

In Parker's variant the nest -with two young ones fqlls on the 
path. This variatioOi seexfis to be purely local; for I have not seen 
it elsewViere. 

The ditch is found in all the older Pancatantra stories. In 

Dubois it is a well into 7;hic>! the elephant falls. According to the 

Jataka the frop lures it to step over the edge of a precipice. 

tion of JataVa 357 anl some Taiiiil st^ry .vhicb is a close relative 
of tViat translated by Dubois. 

The variant mentioned by ParVer agrees, as far as can be juif;ed fr 
from tV'C reiTiarVs he iiakee about it, with Jataka 3':)7, t)ie orier of 
attacV by the bir ^ i g apparently bein, correct. 

APifi Ai.D OiTIClOUS BIRD. TViis etory iP Textiis Siroplicior I, 18 
and IV, 12; ij^urnathadra IV, 9; !iitopa'ie9a III, 1. It if? not to be 

confused with Textus Siruplicior I, 17; Purnabha-ira » I, 25. The 

latter is si:»xixx the stiry "Un',yelcoirie Aivice." It is similar to 

the former in some respects, hut is "by no means ny the sajne as it, 

as Lertel ivii(;ht lead the un-wary to think in his Das Pancatantra . 

pp. 41, 322. IXy.XHIIE The story of X "The Ape an-i the orficious 

] ir'i" goes thus: During a rain storm a bird sits unwet in her 

nest watching a monVey shiver. She twits him about his inability 

to buili himself a house, althcuwli equippci with hanis liVe those 

of a man, while she >'as ii^aie iierself a corafortable home witVi her 

ibill. ^'or tliese ill-advisni rernarlcs the mankey tears her nest to 


This fable occ\jra in the folklore in Dracott's Simla Villape 

Tales , p. 2; House's Tallin,? Thrush , pp. 170 and a 215; ParVer's 

itiiiagaxfslJt^ Villagce l>^olk- Tales o f Cgylonl . p. 247; and Taylor's 

Itidian gplk-Tales . ?o lV»Lore vii , p. 88. 

I-iss Dracott's tale luay be descended froir any one of the 

literary versions, for it has bjhoi omitted all t e details t^at 

distinfTuish^one version from the rest. 

Rouse's story iteelfAo he iescended rrom t'-e liitopadepa. It 
^ ' semal 

eeys that the bird's r;:::rt -.vac built in a fH^wift.^.4 (silVcotton) 

tree, the vary tree ( yali^^all ) that is mentionei in the in I^ara- 

yana's Hitopade^a. All the other Pancatantra versions that loay penetrated to this part of India either do not designate 

the Vind of tree or call it ■-». & fa-nl tr?e. The Fitop'idefa does 

not specify the kind of biri, but Rouse ' s.fetory .aakes it a crow. 

If t> e story were descended from Textus Simplicior or Purna- 

biadra, it could not ca" 1 the bird a crow, for in those texts the 

bird is named Sudmukha (lieedle-iaouth) , and iz; said to have 

a Yt^r.^int neet. This iescription v.-ould n.?.turally soaie sort 
of bird like an oriole, or v/eaveTbird, or tottle bird. 

&is8 Taylor's t?-le smoa'S clearly that its source ir the ver- 
sion of Te>tu8 Simplicior or Purnabhaira, for it apscirically i^^en- 
tions ti'ie bird as a bottle bird 

Toe Sinhalese story follo'^s t'^e story oV Textua Simplicior up 
to the point whers the bird's nest is destroyed. T>ien the bird 
(a 'jveaverbird, plocens baya ) institviteo proceedings at-^ainot the 
wonkey, appealing to the king -- lionVey-Vinf, 1-arVer guesses. The 
xiiOn>rey is about to bo sentence! to pun i slimen t , •ffVien Vie directs the 
i«aharaja's attention to -i. JaVr fruitjwhich he has brout-Vit as a bribe. 
he ie dismissed, and the bird is rebuVed. TTie or^nal of this Sin- 
halese taje is a Tamil story translated by E, J, Robinson in his 
Tal eg and Poeras of South Iniia . p. 309, culled rroiix what literary 
source is not stated, bi.:t probably frou the liathaaianjari or Katha- 
cintamani. The bird is the "han^iing-nest biri"(weaveTbird) . After 
her nest ie destroyed she goes tc the jude,e o f t'-e countr;^ -- we 
see now that Parker's guess of monkey -kinp is wrong. At first, as i 
in the Sinhalese oral tale, he is favorably disposed to the bird; 
but when the monkey sa^s, "Ly Lord, you should look before and be- 
hind wl-en speaking" (i-arker, "Then the konkey said, 'The action is 
cor/iini to an enl. will the La>iaraja be pleasei to look behind r(ie?')f 
the judge sees a Jak fruit, and decides in favor of tVie inonkey, ad- 
uiinisterin^ to the bird a lonr- rebuke, shortened in larker. 

The v;eaverbird or some bird that liiakes a similar nest ie prob- 
ably the bird about 'ff>'ich thir. story is properly told. In the Siam- 
ese (Lastian in Cr . und Occ. iii, p. 468), an-i in fne Laotian 
iLrengues in JA 1908, Kv p. 384), the bird is a weaverbird,probab- 
6U, gested by Tex-tus Siruplicior, etc. In tbe Pali texts it is called 
sln,t-ila (oataka 221, ard Dluji. Coii.Ui., lorman's edition, ii, p. 22 i . 
This Konow (JITS, 19C9, lexicon of .ali vords beginning with "S") 
translates e|l|^j»ologically "a kini of hornei bird." Whatever tv,e ex- 
value of sin( ila ii.ay be linguistically, the bird itself, aftr 
after lookinf-, at these ots^ier texts, to be a v/eaverbird, a bottle 
bird, or some other bird that 7/eaves or sewe itf; nest. 

DUSTABUDDHI AED ABITODHI. The story of the two men, 

one holiest and tlie otiier dishonest, who bury their money -un- 
der a tree, is found in all the older versions of the Panca- 
tantra, Sar. I, 15, etc. The dislionest man steals the money, 
accuses the honest (generally simpleminded ) man of tlie crime, 
and calls upon the tree as a vYitness, having previously con- 
cealed his father there to play the part of the genius of the 
tree, and give testimony for him. The father is "smoked out" 
and Dustahuddhi ' s triclsery is disclosed. In the folklore it 
occurs in Pantalia^ Folklore of the Pan talus . Ho. XI, p. E7 
(according to Hertel, Das Pan eat antra, p. 68,) and Ind. Ant. 
2XV"I, p. 55; and in Fleeson's Lg.os Folklore of Farther India , 
p. 108. 

The literary versions of this stoiy may he divided into 
four classes: 

(1) Judge smokes out tlie villain's father. Father 
dies. (Sonadeva, Old Syriac, later Syriac) 

(E) Judge smokes out the villain's father. Father 
does not die. (Anvar-i Suhaili; H|: ayun-nameh. ) 

(3) Honest rasji smokes out villain's father. Father 
dies. (SP, Sar., Ksemendra, Textus Simplicior.) 

(4) Ilonest man smokes out villain's father. Father 
does not die. (Jataka 98, Pumabhadrs- , Cukasaptati . ) 

Pajitalus' story has the characteristics of the first 
class. The Syriac versions say that the tv/o men found the 
money; the Kathasaritsagara tliat they obtained it by trading. 
The Telega tale agrees in this point v/ith the ICathasarit- 

sagara.. In tlie Syriae the honest man is a simpleton, corres- 
ponding to Abuddlii of Tantrakhajika, oto; Somadeva calls him 
Dha2?mabudd]ii . Psntaluls/^narQes for tlie two men are Darbuddhi 
and Subuddhi, v/hicli represent Somedevals names better than do 
the Semitic names. The Kathaseritsagara is the only version 
in which tiie i'a trier does not propose aii^- objection to his son's 
rascally plans. Pantalu^s story agrees in this point. The 
Telegu tale, therefore, must be descended £rom that in the 
Kathasai'it sagara, probably through some other literary collec- 
tion tl?at has talcen the story iiito the Telegu country'-. 

Tlie Laos tale collected by ITiss Flee son hrs the character- 
istics of the third class; but is very different frcm any lit- 
erary version I know. A widow has taught her son and nephew 
the art of roguery. The two boys divide their gains ecLually; 
but the 7;cman is dissatisfied v;ith this arrangement. She tells 
.the boys to malce an offering to a spirit in a hollow tree be- 
fore maklr^g the division, and conceals herself there to play 
the part of the spirit. She instruct them to make the divis- 
ion thus: To the widow's son two parts; to the nephew one 
part. The nephew is enraged, and sets fire to the tree. Al- 
though he recog-nizes his aunt's voice calling for mercy, he 
will not ovm it, ajid she is burnt up with the tree. I 
seen no literary version in which the mother of one of the 
dismtants hides in the tree, or in which the parent is the one 
who plans to get more ths.n the just of the money for the 
son. The oral tale is a version somewhat man^jled in its hand- 
ling by the folic. Its antecedent is probably contained in the 
literature of Laos or the adjacent country. 

THE CEAKES AID THE LIOKaOCSE; This story is almost uni- 
Tersal in tlae Paneatantra collection, Sar. I, 16, etc. It is 
found in the folklore in Ceylon: T. Steele's Kusa Jatakaya , 
p. E55. A family of cranes live in a tree. A cobra living 
in an ant-hill at the foot of the tree ests some of their eggs. 
The cranes attract a mongoose there to kill the cobra, "b-if strew- 
ing fish from his home to the ant-hill. The mongoose kills 

the snake, but also eats the young cranes. In all the liter- 

ary versions in i-hich the mongoose eats the young of the cranes, 

he is advised by a crab whs,t stratagem to employ, v;ith the ex- 
ception of tlie Hitopadeca, v/here another crane gives the ad- 
vice. Althoiigh the folktale gives us to understand that the 
cranes v.ere the authors of the scheme they used, the fact that 
no literarjr version of the Hitopadeca s found in either Tamil 
or J^lalayslam count rjr, esuses me to discard it as the source 
of this oral tale. I do not icnovt/ the story in Pall literature, 
and I am therefore forced to coriclude that ;'t is a child of 
some version of the Paneatantra. It does not occvr in Dubois's 
Pantclia-Tantra . but it is found in S?, J-. 15-, S?3 I, 53', Craul's 
Tamil version, Dharmapandita I, 24. Some one of these is prob- 
ably the parent of the folk story. Aside from the failure to 
make the crab the originator of the plan to kill the snsike, the 
folktale has only one other striking difference: no mention is 

In Somadeva's version and the Old Syriac, tiie mongoose 
eats only the snake and its brood. 

made of the mongoose's killing- the snake. This omission, 
though, is purely careless, due evidently to the story-teller's 
haste to arrive at the unexpected ouiteome of the crane's re- 
venge, tiiat is, the destruction of his own offspring whom he 
v;as endeavoring to preserve. 

3 ^.^n 

IKOK-EATIliG .^ICE. This story is nearly universal in tlie lanca- 
tantra cycle, 'o^v. I, 17, etc. It occurs also in JataVa 218; ^uVa- 
saptati Sij.,pl icier 39; i:at>iaij,anjari (among tales about I. ariyatVny- 
Raiuan), as given in E. J. Rotinson's Tales and PoeiiiS of South India , 
p. 281. The stiry is constant in all these citations, the differ- 
ences between t>>e various versions bein^: slight. A uercViant goes on 
a journey, entrusting ">■!& iron balances to a friend, When he returns, 
the friend tells him t>iat mice have eaten up his balances. The 
wronged laerchant pretends to believe this statement. He goes for a 
bath, and asV-s >iis friend to send his son to him wit>i the tathing 
appurtenances. <Tien the boy comes, he hides him, and tells the father 
that a hawk has carried him av/ay. The dishonest man sees that he 
has been beaten at his own gauie, restores the weicbts, and gets back 
his son. 

The motif of this story occurs frequently in tlic folVlore, al- 
though the story itself is rare, T>ie story is found in Caneshji Jeth- 
abhai's Indian golVlore . p. 20; a very near approach to t>"e story 

is the tale ^iven by O'Connor in his ?olk-Taleg from Tibet , p. 23; 


and by S^feele in his Kusa JataVaya . p. 250,;. The ot^er occurrences 

of this i/iotif of one dis^-oest absudity rebuVe-l by another ar.e: 
Rouse, TalVinR Thrush , pp. 21, 199; Swynnerton, Ron:antic Tales from 
the Pan.iab with Indian i:i/ hts< ::ntertain. ent . pp. 77, 311; ParVer, 
Ylllap:e Folk- Tales of Ceylon . I, p. 228; Rau^aswami Raju, Indian 
Jables . p. 45; Bouipas, Folklore o£ the Bantal Parganas . p. 49; 
D'Penha, Folklore of the Salaette. Ini. Ant. y/ xxiii, p. 136; 
Haughton, Sport and Folklore in the Himalayas , p. 294. 

JetViabhai' 8 story is as follows: A bania -'leav^es kankodi . soap, 
and iron with a merchant to sell. When he returns for his woney, 
the liierohant says that worms \\ave carriel ofT the kankodi . the soap 

hae rottei, ani .iice nave eaten t'le iron. The bania '.'iinapa the 
i^ercliant's -laughter as soon as he f-ets a chance, ari'l tells >iim that 
a Vite has carriei her av/ay. TVie inerchant coraplain? to the Kazi, 
The banla tv^en states his case, ani as soon ae he has obtained xnitm 
redress he restores th.e airl to her father. This version of the 
story, v/riich ..lay itself "be literary, i? an amrllf ication of the tale 
as given in ^"'"^"Saptatl Simplicior, for that is the only Jainistic 
version in -.vhicli tVic offeriel p^rty carries off t"r,e c'-iild -rithout 
having it bring him Tjathinj': appurtenances. The iron of t>ie original 
fable ha.R been increased by the addition of kan>:Q'ii ani soap; ani 
instead 6f a boy it id a f;:irl that is kidnappel. Vo version of* the, 
KandD can be the parent of this tale because in none of them is 
there an appeal to the Ks.zi. 

Aiiiong tlic rest of tlie occurrences of t)ds i.otif, the noarest 
approach to the literary stories is is t"' e Tibetan tile of O'Connor. 
A inan leaves a bag of t:old-iust in the care of s friend. The friend 
chanf:es it for sand, and says that it has turned to this. The dis- 
honest man himself soon coes or; a journey, and entrusts his son to 
the other man. The latter at once pete a monl^ey, and teaches it to „ ,; 
say, "Worthy father, I am turne-1 into this." An adjustment is therTSEil (,^^3 
arranged. In the Sinhalese story of Ctrele it is a gold pumplrin A^r*\_^ 

ri. Crooke says that Jethabhai'S work is a translation o" 
a Gujerati school book (ij \)lk-Lore xv. p. 368). 


In Nechschibi'a Tutina^neh, story 3, a similar tricV is used by 
a carpenter v;ho hap been cheated by a poldsniith. The carpenter trains 
X two bear cubs to get their fooi from the sleeve e of a long coat 
on a wooden iiiaf^e he has - ade H'^iioh exactly reseroblee t>)e poMsrr.ith. 
At the proper tixne V>e takes away tVie goldsmith's boys and substitutes 
the bears. This saii/C story is found in V/ood's Ini '^rd Out o£ Chanda .y i^% 
where it is either a translation or paraphrase' of the Tutinameh '' 

story, probably as ^iven in Tota Kahani . 

which is alleged to have turne'l ti "brasa. The tricl<- with the monkey- 
is used, hut t)ie monVey is not taught to say anythinr^. These are the 
only two illustrations of t'ds variation cf the story of the "Iron- 
eating" They are widely separated geographically, hut it is 
significant tliat t)iey "both occur in Buddhist countries. The source 
of tv e story is probably to be found in the Buidhist literatures. 
The ot>ier occurrences of this :;otif are not tracealole in the 
literature. They are analyzed in the fo]lov\-ing table. 



Clairri of iishonest ian 

Absurd counter-claim 
that shcvs fals5ity of lis 
honest jian ' s claim. 


idll has /aven birth 
to a horse. 


Jac^'-al says he is sleepy 
from staying awake all 
night. The water was on 
fire, and he was engaged 
in putting out the blaze 
with f'rass etc. 

p. 311 







Tree has eaten horse ''^itto. [For. in place 

of jackal). 

p. 77. 

Crow claims swan's T^itto. 
mate as his.. 


Bullock has had ca]f.^ 



When two sparrows quar- 
rel, kinf- says that chicks 
shall go with cock. Later 
wlien thete is a -liepute as 
to the ownersViip of ^. foal 
Vie says it shall go with 
the dam (because thus it 
becomes his property) . He- 
bOked by girl. Tie orders 
her to bring bullock's j.ilk 

Girl claims that 
clothes she is washing 
iv^ere uoei 'by Vier father 
in giving birth to 
a child i 


Bi\Bbal is askei by Akbar 
to brin-^ hixu bullock's milk 

T^itto. (Cirl is Pir- 
.bal '8 daughter) . 

(Footnote to preceding pare) 

These tv;o incidents are paralleaed in the I-ahoaadha Jataka iis±^ 
(Jataka 546), test 13 (Carfibriige translation vi, p. 167). The 
royal bull wa?^ fed until his helly swelled up. Then people were 
ordered to deliver him of his calf or pa,y a fine, iahosadha senis 
a ii.ari to tV.e Vinr aekinf him for Vielp in delivering his son, who 
has been in labor for seven days. 

is re^larly tlTe frames tory of Paneatantra, Book II, and 
Hitopadeca, Book I. In the folklore it occuxs in Pantalu's 
Folklore of the Telegas . Ho. 41, p. 105 ( according to HertAl, 
Das Paneatantra, p. 67,) but as llo. 42 in Ind. Ant. XX7III,p.l55; 
and in Parker's Villape Folk-Tales of Ceylon . Ill, p. 5. 

Pantalu^s story is the entire second book of the Hitopa- 
deca, with the substitutions of SP frame storj'' for Plitopadeca 
framestory, SP II, S (Unlmsked Seassme for Husked Seasame) for 
Hitopadeca I, 5 ("ife. Lover and Old loisband,) and SP II, 4 
(Citranga's storjr) for I^=t. I, 7 and 8 (Rajput, 2£erchant 'a Wife 
and Merchant; and Elephant and Jackal.) This, of course, can 
not possibly be an oral folktale. It must be an English trans- 
lation of a Telegu version of the first book of the Hitopadeca. 
The story is considerably abbreviated; the Sanslcrit names ap- 
pear to be "Telecraized"; in some cases the characters are mis- 
named, such as the story of the Peer, tlie Crov/, and the Jackal, 
in which the jackal, ;7ho in the yejiskrit versions is called 
Ksudrabuddhi is given the ?! row's name, Subuddhi; and there are 
places v/here either the Teleg/ text mistranslateijl. the Sanskrit, 
or ?a?r£alji.jaidS translates the Telegu. 

Parker gives v;hat he considers to be tliree popular ver- 
sions of the sanie stoiy. Version (1) is really a composite of 
Hitopadeca I, 2j[ tlie Peer, the Crow, and the Jackal^, and Jataka, 
206( the Kurungamiga Jatakal Version (£) is Hitopadeca I, 2; 
and version (3) is made up of Hitopadeca I, frame story, and 

Hitopadeca I, E. Version (2) will not t>f^ discussed here, "but 
v/ill be treated in its proper place as Hitopadeca I, 2. See 

That the other versions are deseendents of 
the Hitopadeca, rather than the Pancatantra, is proved hy the 
face that tlie f^toi^r of the Deer, the Crow, and the Jackal, 
which is firciljr bound up with the fraiaestoiy of Pancatantra, 
Book II and Hitopadeca Book I, in the two folk versions, does 
not occur in the Psiicatentra. 

Version (S) should be treated first. It is as follows: 
A rat is keeping the precepts (of Buddha.) He is joined by a 
turtle, they by a deer, next by a crow, and finally by a jack- 
al, the last tv;o havinp; been received with susDicion. All of 

them keep the precepts. The deer eats corn in a Gamaraifea ' s 

field. The jackal betrays hira. The Gamaraf;a sets a noose 

and catc es the deer, i'he rat snaws him loose. The deer lies 

down as thou.^'^h dead, with the crow r-erched on his back. When 

the C-ainarailJa approaches the deer, he lea-os up and flees. The 

Oamarai^a strikes the jackal with his axe and kills him. This 

stoi^ must be Hitopadeca I, franestoiy from the point where 
the crow, the mouse, the deer, and the turtle are represented 
as fi-ier^s. It is then suddenly associatecL with the fable of 
the Deer, the Crow, and the Jackal, (Hito^ I, 2,) v/hich lat- 
ter ultimately completely crowds out tlie first part of the 
story, and when it is ended tliere is no return to the first 
part. This union of the two stories into one has not been 
for the besi; interests of either story. As in the Hitopadeca. 

frames tory it is the mouse that does the gnawing, although in 
tho literary te^ct he ^-^aws tlie "bov/string wi fch which the turtle 
is bound, not tlie doer. The mouse ie obviously the one to do 
the outtin,^!. Ko aention is made of an appeal to tlie jackal; 
this incident has been forgotten in popular transmission. Jifter 
the deer has once been freed, instead of fleeing as he natur- 
ally should, the story, now completely turned to Hitopadeca, I, 
S, makes him "play possum", although the motiTe for doing so 
is no longer present. The jactal is killed intentionally by 
the G-amara^a, instead of accidentally as in tl?.c; Hito-cadeca. 
The strong Buddhist expression oflceeping the precepts" is 
cruite in place in this stoiy, \vhich is essentially Buddhist in 
tone. VThen it is told b:; a Biiddhist it is only natural that 
it should say th8,t these faithful animals, which in the allied 
lOirungaaiaiga Jataka are good Buddhists, o" '-cr-e rhe religious 
laws . 

Version 1 is as follows: In 9 time of drought a deer had 
a drinking place. He shows this saccessively to a crow, a 
woodpecker, a turtle, and a jackal, -•aliing friends of them all. 
A Vaedda hunter sets a deerhide noose to catch the deer. The 
deer is caught. The other animals ask the jackal to gnaw the 
thong, but he refuses, making the lame excuse that his teeth 
shake. He lies down contemplating a meal of the deer's stomach, 
when the hunter shall kill him. The turtle bites tiie leather, 
bufc his progress is slov;. It dav/n tho Vaedda starts o;:t to 
see the deer, but is twice delayed by the woodpecker who makes 
evil omens. The hunter hangs his packet of rice on a tree and 

approaches the deer witli his axe. The crow tears the rice 
packet every tLme the Vaedda goes toward the deer. At last he 
throws his axe at the crow. The crow dodges the missile which 
hits the jackal and kills it. The deer breaks (the part of) 
the thong (not yet gnawed through by the turtle,) and escapes. 
The hunter leaves disappointed. This is Ilitopadeca I, 2, the 
Deer, the Crow and the Jackal, combined with the Kuruiigamiga 
Jataka, (Jataka, 206) in which the amimals are a deer, a turtle, 
and a woodpecker. The ICuininganiiga Jataka is the only form of 
this story in which the turtle gnaws the deer loose, and the' 
woodpecker goes to mal:e bad omens for the hunter. In the 
Jataka also the deer breaks the remaining uncut portion of his 
bond and escapes. The duty of the crow is subverted £rom aid- 
ing in the deception of the deer's death to delaying the hunter 
from approaching tiie deer. Hitopadega I, £, now obtains con- 
trol of the story, the jackal is killed, and the capture and 
reseue of the turtle as in tlie Jataka 3?s omitted. 

TOO C-K'iEDY C^ACi3iOB. This faLle is Sar. II, '6, etc. In the rollc|i- 
loreJLt occurs in U^vynnerton ' s Ro.;iantlc T-ale3 from the Pan jab with 
Inlian I^iM"*it3 * iiintertainiuent . p. 73. 

In the literary texts, niVn the exception of'i 
Textus ^i.-jiplicior an'J PurnabTiadra/, JVie story is "briefly as follo'^e 
A hunter Vills a ieer. As he ie carrying, it off, he iceets a wild 
boar. He Villa it , hut it Villa him too. A ^ 4 B,4^x^ in'f j-ff^^ all 
three toiiGr. lying together, ani rejoices in the abundance of food. 
i'irat, t>'3upM, he ^vill est tho 'bow-string, '.Vlien he hites this 
throu{:;h, the bow unbends, strides hir,! in the, ripfc him up, 
ani Vi'iis hira. In th.e Mitopadepa, t'Ms boa^' falls on a snaVe ae he 
is dying and kills it. In the two Jainistic vorSionc ]i,entioned 
t>(e deer is not present. 

Cwynnerton's tale goes tVius: A Viunter (J;^;lrshiV-ari ) Vills a 
buck. As be leans over witVi >iis Vnife in his ruoiith to \iipv iiis 
>^anls on tv^e grass, a sna>e bites him. Tlie Vnife irops from his 
Tj'outh, and cute the snaVe in two. Ke himsej.f eoon dies froru the 
poison. The doe nov; appears. She sees Vier ins,jte dead/, ani throws 
herself upon his horns, ripping up hex* belly, and 'iestroyinp two 
unborn Vide with r^erself . A jackal couies up, rees the arr^.y of 
dead bodies, and thanks Heaven for tlie feast. lie thdnVs Ivlrshl- 
ksri onHy aclsep, thcur^h, and plans to vjAs.] away his bo'.'/-«tring 
so that tVic hunter may not shoot him when he av/akes . The string is 
too touith to be chewed, fir it :.b made of wire, hut he finally suc- 
ceeds in elippinr it froci tVie boi.v. T>ie rebound o** i:he bow kills 
h iui . 

This fo]k-8tory ir> ar extension of the «3'a*»«4«« literary tales, 
but cannot be connected wit>) any with 'vhich I -isn f-ajriiliar^ -the 3* 
points of disaiC^reeraent are too laany and too great. 

WAR OF fHE CROWS MD THE O^ILS, The r/ar of tiie Grows and 
tlie Owls forms the fraaestory of Book III of the Pane at antra. 
It occurs in the folklore in Parker's 7illa^"e Folk-Tales of 
Ce^rlon , II, p. 442. The crows and the awls live together in 
a cave. The ov/ls have the baiit of eating the crows at ni;2;ht. 
The crows go aivay, therefore, but leave behind one of their 
nimber whom they have plucked. He makes friends with the 
ov/ls, offering to shcm them v^iere the crows have gone, when 
his feathers sMll grow again. In the evening he complains 
of cold, and asks for firewood. The owls bring quantities of 
it which they pile on both sides of the door-way. The crow 
ignites this, and burns the owls to death. He then joins his 

This version does not agree with eny other I know. It 
is widely different from Pubois's story, in which the motive 
actuating the crows to destroy the owls is the plan of the owl 
king to become king of all tlie birds - a reflex action on that 
version of the old story of the birds selecting a king (see 
Bar. Ill, 2, etc; Jataka £70.) The story in the Kathasarit- 
sagara (Taurney's trensls^tion) vol. II, p. 64,. comes nearer to 
the folktale than any other I know. There are ttiese points of 
difference]^, though. Only the owls live in the cave; the crov;s 
have their home in a banyan tree. (The literary prototype of 
the folktale probably shows this difference also.) The crow 
has the firewood brought to tlie cave of the oivls act to keep 
him v/arm, "but to serve as a fortification against the eroivs. 

He is assisted by tlie rest of the crov/s in destroying the owls. 

I tiiink it sca.reely lilcel3'- that the lfe,thasaritsagara is 
the source of this tale. I'amil literatiire should contain its 
parent, say in the Kathainan^ari or Es,thacintama;?i , with the 
contents of which two worlcs I am a.lmost totally "ana.eq,uainted. 


5 2^. "^^ 

ASS IK LIOI»S SKIH. This story in Sar. Ill, 1; ?extus 
Simplicior lY, 5; Parndbjiadra lY, 7; Hitopadeca III, 2; but 
is not found in the ZandD. In the folklore it occurs in a 
story from Chitral, given by J, Davidson, Ind. int. XXIX, p. S50. 

The folktale goes thus: A washerman used to turn his ass 
loose In people ^s gardens to giTaze. These would beat it and 
chase it away. One day he chanced upon a tiger's skin. He 
clothed the ass in it and sent it in a garden v/ith instructions 
to keep quiet. It is tafen for a tiger. One evening the 
ow-ner of the field sees it, tliinlcs it a tiger, and climbs a 
tree. Soon another ass brays. The first ass brays also, is 
recognissed and beaten- 

This oral tale is descended from the Persian Tutinameh, 

1 2 

XXXII, 2, That is the only version in which it is not 

lust for a she^-ass that indiices tlie ass to braj;^, and in v/hich 
the 0T!mer of the -garden climbs a tree to escape the supposed 
tiger. The Turkish differs from this story in making the 
or^er of the ass a ruined merchant, while the folktale calls 
him washerman. Probably in the Persian he is a washerman, as 
in the original of the Persian, Textus Simplicior and i^amabJaadra « 

1 - Unfortunately, I have no account of the story there, but am 

compelled to trust that the T-urkish translation of the Persian 
(Rosen, TTitih-Hameh II, p. 149) represents the Persian. 

2 - Excepting Jataica 189, V7hieh is too remote geographically to 

have anything to do with tliis folk version, and also differs 
from it in other respects. 

3 ~ Lion in^ Rosen's Tuti-Ilameh, lion and tiger are interchange- 

able in folklore. 


■!PHE ELEPHANTS AKD THE HARES. This stoiy is Sar.III, 3, 
etc., liitopadeca. III, S. In tlu folklore it is found in 
Pantalu's FoUclore of tlie Telegas, Ho. 35, p. 74, (according 
to Her-tel, Das lane ataiit ra , p. 68) as Ho. 36 in Ind. i^nt.XUI, 
p. 108. file Tel®g:a tale differs frcm all the literal^?- vTsrsions 
in this respect: The hare tells the elephants timt the Iclce 
from which thej haye been drinking- is used hy the Koon-god 
as a place in which to sport with his r/ives. He is angry at 
the annoyance the elephants have caused him by using the pond. 
In all the other versions except the Semitic, the Moon-god 
is BXi^rj the elephants for killing the hares who are under 
his especial protection. In the Semitic versions, the offense 
is that the elephants trusting in tlieir ovm mi^at, have wanton- 
ly desecrated the lake. The Telegu tale can not, therefore, 
be descended from the familiar literarjr versions. It is pos- 
sible that it itself like others of PantalU's, is in reality 
a piece of literati^re end is not folklore. The Sanskrit neJae 
of the lake, CandrapusSkarani, which is different from any 
other name given to the lake, is a strong piece of evidence 
in support of this theo2?y. 

BRAilMAN, ..u T, A1;D ROGUES. This story is Sar. Ill, 5, etC; 
^ four -■-<. r^^\,w-5U .;C.j-v^;>, , ''^- 

The literary tales are of ttap«e typee: (l)^the EraVunan^is met by one 

rogue who tells hifn tliat liis t^ojiit is a fiog, then by two rofv;ueB who 

/ _ 
repeat this assertion, and then by three -- Sar., Sowadeva, and 

Ksemenira; (2)^the Brahman ie met by *ne rogue who tells him that 
Viis goat is a dog, then by a second, and finally 1y a thir'l-- 8P, 
Kitopade9a; (3) a number of rogues accost the Brahxuan one after 
another while he is in the same place, each one liiaVing a remark 
that presupposes the goat to be a dog: (4) the Brahman is met by 
a rogue who speaks of his goat as a dog, by a second who speaVs of 
it as a calf, and by a tvard who speaks of it/ as an ass. lie thinks 
it a Raksasa assuming these various fonns, and throws it away — 
Textus Simplicior et Ornatior. 

In the folklore it is found in Parker's Village yolk.Tales of 
Ce ylon. Ill , p. 200; Pantalu's yplklore ot the Telepus . story 29, 
k p. 61 (accordin^'• to Hertel, Das Paacatantra . p. C8), but as story 
30 in Ind. Ant. xxvi, p. 138; and Swynnerton's Romantic Tales 
from ^the Pan^jab with Indian Kighta* Entertainment , p . 283 . 

Parker's story io as follows: A poor man wishes t» sell a calf. 
Three rogues ask hia to give (sell) th'^in the goat. .Ke sats that the 
animal is a bull; but when they pretend anger at him for endeavoring 
to iiiake them believe that a t,oat is a calf he becor; es convinced tViat 
he is cdBtaken, and parts with the calf for a goat's price. This dif- 
fers from ar^y version I have seen in the literature, the ifiost not- 
iceable difference bein{, that tVie victim sells the animal. He does 

not throv/ it away. Other differences are minor: the deceived man is 

not a religious person; the anixiial is a gea4 alleged to be a goat, 

not a goat alleged to be a dof:; tVie three men approach t>ieir vic- 
tim together not one at a time. This story probably "ri-s no basis in 
the literature. It is purely a popular presentation of the motif. 

T>ie story in Swynnerton' s collaction comes closer to the Sin- 
halese oral tale than to any literary version tVi-^t I have, b«canse 
the t'nouf-ht of a holy uian "being iefilel "by contact '-/ith a -tof;' is 
absent from it . It is one of h {!;roup of aneciotes about Alphu and 
his foolSreh briither Sharphu. Alphu asVe Sharphu, "Wliere is the bul- 
locV I sent you for?" "I looV-ei for a bullock all over the country." 
answero Sharphu, "ani as I could not find one, I boupht a buffalo 
instead. As I passed through a certain villape, sorre felloT^p cried 
out, 'Eif~8ir, where did you bring that fighting raia from?' As the 
wViole of them averred tioat it was a fighting ram, I left it with 
theiii, for I thought to myself, '«:y brother was angry with me before 
and now, if I take hiai t>ii8 buffalo, ani it turns out to 

be a fi/ihting ram. Vie will be still ii.ore anpry.' " This et*ry can- 
not be identified with any that is founi in the literature. 

Pantalu's tale runs thus: A Bra'nman bu^s four or five coats for 
a encrifice. Pour Su'iraa v;ish to get them. One of them approaches 
him ani says, "V/Viy are you carryinj^ a number of uiad dofs?" The Brah- 
man pays no attention to him. A ^^econd approaches and repeats the 
question, warning him not to let the mad docs hite him. The Brahman 
bsfeins to doubt his own sense?. A third now comes up, an-^ scolds him 
for lettife loose a number of mad does upon the highway. The Brahman, 
convinced that his goats really are mad doRS, is about to unloose 
them, '»;hen the fourth Suira steps up to him, ani persuades him to 
tie them to a tree lest they bite pe^ople. This is an exten^^ion of 
the version of cl; es (5) which «« is found in KandD. The Anvar-i 
Suhaili probably is the starting point of Pantalu's tale/, for it i8 
r.ore 1 iVely to have penetrated into Southern India than any. other 
KardD text, Ir it the religious man is deceivei b^ four rogues as in 
the Telepu. They a]l approach hir^ successively, ard by their remarks 
cauee him to believe that >iie sheep (or ",'Oat" ae Eastwick says tVie 
Persian may mean) is a dog. He lets it ro, and runs after the man 
who sold it to him to obtain redreee . Pantalu's tale has varied the 
Persian, but is undoubtedly frou, it- indirectly . 


THE PIOUS DOVES. This story is found in Purnabiiadra III, 
8. It is taken £coia the Lfahabharata Parva XII (Canti Parva)- 

143 (Protap Chandra Roy's translation, XXII (1), p. 481.) 
T . SivasanJ^arani gives a translation of it from the ?ele^, 
calling it "Tolei^ Follclore", Ind. /^nt. JOQLT, p. Zl, It is 
not folklore, though, l^he diction of the story, and its close 
correspondence vAth the prototypes of it mentioned above, in- 
cluding as it does tloe moralizings of tiie original, v/hich are 
too long for preser-vation in the popular mind, shmi tiiat the 
Telegu sto2?y is either an excerpt from some Telegp. version 
of the Ps£eatantra (see Hertel, Pas Pancatantra , p. 29£, for 
references to such,) or is a Telegu literary translation of 
the liahahharata tale. 


,KIKG ^IVI. This story is found in Sar.p.1.111, 8; 

I>abois, Panteha.'i'antr a , p. 173; Ka-thasaAt samara (Tavmey) I, 
p. 45; I/Ialial3harata, III, ISO f. and 197 (Roy's translation, 
pp. 393 and 596,); and in laany Biiddliist texts. In the folk- 
lore it ooovCTB in ?8iitalu*s Follclore of the Telegas , Ho. 39, 
p. 84, (according to Eertel, Das Pancstantra, p. 68,) Mt as 
Ko. 40 in Ind. Ant. ZZVI, p. 304. 

Pantalu's t8,|^e is as follov/s: King Sibi was the best 
of tlie kings of lishada. 2o test his virtue, revendra, in 
the form of a hawk, pursues Agni, who has changed himself in- 
to a dove. 'The dove ecmes to Sibi askings protection. The 
hawk demands the dove as his lav.ful sustenance. The king 
offers an equal portion of his ovm flesh in place of the a.ove. 
!Ehe king puts the dove in one pan of the scales, and cuts off 
flesh to eoual the weight of tlie bird, but the more he puts 
into the pan, the heavier the dove weighs dox-m the other, un- 
til at last Sibi offers his v/hole bocly. Delighted with his 
virtue, the hawk and dove reveal tr.emselves, confer boons 
upon him, and return to their home. 3his is a descendant, 
probably through some intermediary, of the Liahabharata story, 
which is the only one in which tlie two gods are Indra and 
Agni, specifically from the second occurrence (i.e., ¥jshs^- 
-firharata III, 197) where the hero is Civi, con of Ucinara, where- 
as in liahabharata III, 130, the hero is Ucinax-a. 

1 - In Sar. and Kaths.saritsagara the gods are Indra and Dhaaiaa, 
in I>ubois, Indra assumes the form of a falcon and pursues 
a real dove- 

PRINCE WISH SMZE IH HIS TIIROAf. TMs stoiy occurs only 
in the Jainistio tanoatantra literature. lumabhadra. III, 11; 
Pancaldayaiiavarttilca, 3, (Hertel, Pas PaSeatan tra, p. 125); 
linaala Patliaka III, 4 (Ibid., p. £78};" Ivleghavi^aya, III, IS. 
A king's son xvastcs awaj on account of the presence of a snake 
in his body. He ivandei'S av/ay to a strange city where he dwells 
as a beggar in a temple. In that citjr is a king v/hose tv/o 
daughters greet him, one with the words, "Be Victorious king- 
by your own might", the other vjith the words, "Rejoice in 
v/hat fate gives you''. The King in anger at the second girl 

has her married to the beggar in tiie temple. Taej ;journey 
to a strange land. iThe vvife goes to the bazaar to buy provis- 
ion:., wliile her husband sleeps. When she returns, she finds 
the snaice out of her husband's throat conversing with another 
snake on an anthill, who guards treasures. The second one 
says that the first can be Icilled by a certain food composed 
of several ingredients; tlie first saj^g that the second can be 
killed by hot oil and water. I'he wife uses the meajis against 
the snakes tliat their have themselves suggested, and frees her 
husband from his trouble, \7hile at the same time she obtains 
the treasures in tlie anthill, in PancaMiyavarttika it is the 
king's minister v;ho relieves the king, and in Hirmala Pathaka 

Related to this story, but another take, is thsit of the 
cjueen with a snake in her belly that kills tag successive -^^-^a. 
husbands in the first night of marriage. The snake is 
finally destroyed by the hero. Cf.>,Day's Folk-1'ales of 
Bengal; p. 100; :.nowles, .biolk-Tale s^ Ks- shmir {2nd edTT^o.dO; 
Tav/-b-ein Ko, Ind. /jit. X7IIl7~oT~2yirf ::. II. adia, Ind. 
/oit. XVIII, p. 24. 


tlie king:'s chief wife. In neither of tlisse t^vo stories does 
the incident occur of the king and his two de-uS'li'bers. 

In the folklore this story is found tv/iee, in "both 
in stories that are of Jainistic descent, and are of Raja 
Vikram. These ai^ Dr/Scott's Simla Village fales , p. 120, sjid 
Pre re's Old Dec can Says, {2nd ed.) p. 117. Iliss Dr<>cott»s 
tale is nee.rer the original than Miss Prere's. A king drives 
out his da-ughter who says her good luclc is due to her own 
destiny, and marries her to the poorest v/reteh in his king- 
dom. This happens to be Vikrama in dis-su-ise. From then on 
the story is as in rurnahhadra , until the end, v/here the wife' 
return home and the justification of her, arc dealt wit)i at 
greater length than in the Pancatantra. This is more like 
Hegliav^aya's version tiian sjiy other. 

She storir in Old Deccan Says is one of a group woven 
around the narce of Vikrama, including a paralcayaprave ca 
(entiy into another person's body) storj'-, the ±arrot's Re- 
venge. X'icraraa and his minister Butti are wandering around 
the countiy. 'tVhile Vicrama ii asleep one day a cobra crawls 
dov/n his tliroat. In the course of his travels as a poor inan, 
Vicrama is chosen by the rrinoess Buccoulee at her svayamtara. 

1 - A familiar turn of tlie idea of karma , cf . ICincaid's 
Seccan Eurser y TajLes , p. 69. 

The couple are driven away by the father of tiie princess. 
Eie conveisation between the teo snakes soon follovifs, but the 
means of killing both is by smoking them out. 

It is significant th8,t these stories are both about 
Yilcrama, the liero par excellence of Jainistic literature, al- 
thoti^-h in the I-'8Jicatantra cycle they are not told about iiim. 
3itlier they a,re descendents of some literary collection of 
the adven tuxes of Vikrama, or they are popuJLar eKtensions 
of the adventures of Vikrama in vvhich the ffelk have attached 
to the name of their liero stories "isfnich were familiar to them 
from other sources. 

MOUSjamiDSH will wed mouse ^ TM3 storj; is vei^ old, being 
Sar.(i, III, 9, etc. A Brahman catches a mouse dropped by a 
falcon. He changes it into a girl, and adopts her as his dati^h- 
ter. (.lion the time comes to marry her, he wishes to give her 
to the mightiest being. He offers her to the sun, who says the 
cloud is mightier th;n he; the cloud sends him to the wind; 
the wind to tlie mountain J and the mountain to tlie mice v/ho bur- 
row in it. The girl is restored to her original mouse condi- 
tion, therefore, and married to one of her own kind. The story 
occircs in Parlrer^s Tillage Fo He- Tale s of Ceylon, II, p. 4S5. 
Bompas's Follclore of the Santal Pargana^ , p. 168; and Eut ton's 
Folk^Tales of the Angami Hagas of As sam, Folk-lore XXVi, p. 494. 

Pe,rlcer's tale, taken all in all, is far rem ved in the mat- 
ter of details fl?om any other -version with which I am fajniliar. 
A Brahaan reared a Icitten. He offered it (not metamorphosed) 
successively to the sun, the rain-cloud, the v/ind cloud, the 
ground ant-hill, the biill, the leopard, and finally to the cat. 
By the law of tlie substitution of an opposite we can understand 
how a kitten has become the object of the Brahman's care, in- 
stead of a mouse. It is not hard, either, to imagine that tlie 
metamorphosis of the animal into a girl should be forgotten 
in the oral tradition. The addition of the ground amt-hill, 
the bull and the leopard is to be imderstood as the fruit of 
a fertile imagination on tlie part of a story-teller. The kitten, 
of course, must be married to a cat. The leopard is the crea- 
ture which would naturally recognize the cat as a superior, be- 
cause, to tlie popular mind, tlie cat was the le;.pard's preceptor 

(see, Parker' s tale, also Ms notes.) The clmnges from the 
Isjicatantra can all be imderstood; but the literarjr archetype 
of this folic version has not come to my hands, and I can not 
pretend to identify it. It is probably descended froci scaae 
5?ainil tale, but I hardly think it lilts ly tiiat any litera.ry storjr 
agreeing Ter:;r closel3r with it v/ill be found. 

With the Santal story, though, raatters are different. 
There are very few changes from the literarjr original. The tale 
opens with the proud parents of a liusaliar (a very lov/ caste) 
girl desirous of marryin^g her. Although the sto2?y does not 
contain the preliminary incident of the metamorphosis of a 
mouse into the girl, and in fact no indication is given tiiat 
she was once a mouse, it is significant that the real motise char- 
acter of the girl should leave an undeniable trace in the caste 
to v/hich she is said to belong; !.5isahars live by digging out 

^Tlie parents trj- the Sun God, the cloud, the v/ind, the 
mountain and the ground rat, vrho refers them to the Fiusahars. 
■They finally marry their daughter to one of their oiivn caste. 
Except for the difference noted, this folktale agrees with all 
the older Indian and Semitic versions of the tale. The liter- 
ary stories are all so similar that no one can be selected as 
the parent of our folktale. 

The Assamese tale shovs its secondary quality very clear- 
ly. It hag suffered from the omission of a number of incidents 
th^t iniiere in all the literarj- versions of the story. The 
whole fable is directed to shov;ing how a greedy man r;as dis- 

appointed. A man catches a rat and puts it in a "box. When he 
gets home he finds the rat has turned into a girl. He v.-ishes 
to marry lier to the ricliest man of the world, so that he too 
may be rich. He goes to tlie chief. '2he chief says that the 
water is superior to him, because it ca,rrie3 him away in its 
flood. Kie v/ater sends him to the wind, v/hich blows it into 
ws.Tes. The wind sends him to the moimtain which resists it; 
and the mountain sends him to the rat which burrows in it. 
«Tien he gets home discouraged, he finds tlie girl has been 
changed again to a rat. This is a descendent of any literary 
version you may choose, provided of course that version has 
had any means of getting into Assam. The chief taies the 
place occupied by the Suii in the literary original. i?his is 
the only form I know in which the water is one of the parties 
applied to by the man v;ho wants to marr: off the girl. Gen- 
era,lly, the cloud, the GJ-'iva ^ of v;ater, is the next thing 
after the srm to which the girl is offered. Although the 
folktale says the man wishes to marry the g-irl to the rich- 
est man in tlxe world, not the strongest as in the literature 
it reverts to its literary prototjrpe by having each charac- 
ter appealed to name the next one as the strongest, not the 

SPEAKIBG HOLS. n?liis stoijr occurs in [Dextus Simplicior, 

III, 4 (or 5), Pania'blia(i3?a III, 15. A relatod stoit,r is Sar. a 

]$ III, 11. 1 jaclcal sees a lion's footprints leading to his 

cave. He calls out to the cave, and bluffs the lion who is 

concealed there, ivaiting to seize him, into answering for the 

cave. He rmis av/a;^r. In the foUdore this motif occurs in 

Frere's Old Tecca n Sasrs, {2nd ed.), P» 282; O'Connor's Folic - 

Tales from. Tiltet , p. 145, a story published by G. H. Daioant, 

Ind. -'mt. Ill, p. 10; Steele and Temple's V: ide -Awake S t orie s , 

p. 246. It belongs also in Rouse's Talkin g ?hzush , pp^Si©*, 

biit has oddly enough been omitted there. 

This motif is a genuine piece of folic .roperty, and does 
not need the literature to act as its source, l^lien told oral- 
ly, it is found in connection v/ith the stories of the enmity 
between the montey and jackal on one side, and. the crocodile 
or tortoise on the oth^er. Since none of the folk stories can 
be traced bade to literary prototypes, I do not discuss them here 

In tills occurrence of the motif, tlie j8.ckal sees the tor- 
toise's footprints leading to his den. He piles dry leaves 
at the mouth of his cave, ignites them, end so kills the 
tortoise. In Old Deeean Pays the same incident occurs be- 
tween the jackal and the alligator, but in that instsaice 
the jackal makes the alligator call to him as though speak- 
ing for the cave before he burns him up. In the Talking 
Thrush story this last incident has been omitted "q-^ some 
chance . In another telling of that tale, it would probably 

Closely relatoa to tiiis motif is tlie taiek practised by 
tlae jaclcal upon tke alligator or crocodile or tortoise, wlio 
pretends to be dead- Kie jackal says, "Dead crocodiles always 
wag tlielr tails". Then the crocodile wags his tail and the 
jackal runs away. This motif is found in two Sinhalese stories; 
^Orientalist, II, p. 47 and Parker's Villa£:e F olk»Tales of Cey - 
lon , I, p. S80; and steel and Temple's 'v-ide-Awake Stories , p. £46. 
An interesting variant is found in Gordon's Indian I''olk-'i?eles, 
p. 67. 2he god I&,hadeo taJces the place of the alligator in 
the W5,r with the jackal, always getting worsted as does tiie al- 
ligator. l!ahi,deo pretends to be dea.d» Tae jackal says that a 
corpse recently dead passes flatus, and this corpse iiad passed 
none. Mahadeo allows gas to escape, and the jackal runs off 
saying, "OhI you are no corpse, and you will not deceive me". 
none of these incidents also is found in the literature, 's^k 
Tfxiey are all of purely independent folk existence. 

BU!PTER-BLIHDED BRABI/IAIJ, This stoi^- occurs first in 
ParnalDhadra III, 17; Pancakhyanavarttilca 28; (Hertel, Das 
Pancatantra, p. 134) lirmala Patlaaka III, 11; Iviegliavjaya 
III, 16; Cuicasaptati Ona. 12. An adulterous wife daily 
mai:es offerings to a goddess tliat lier husbaiod m^ become 
blind. One day iier husba^ conceals Iiimself beliind the im- 
age of the goddess, hears his v/ife's unholy prayer, ejad an- 
swers, as though he were the goddess speaking, saying that 
her v/ish may be accanplished by feeding her husband delica- 
cies. She does so, and the man pretends to be blind. Hie 
woman^s lover comes frequently to visit her, until one day 
the husband seizes hiin and kills him, then cuts off his \'7ife*s 
nose and drives her away. 

This tale is found in the folklore in Parker *s Village 
Pollc-Tales of Ceylon , III, p. 212; Sv/yunerton » s Romantic 
!I?ales from the Pan jab ? Indian Mti tit /s Entertainment , p. 145; 
Bompas*s Folklore of the Santal Parganas , Appendix, Follclore 
of the Kolhsja, p. 482. All these oral stories differ in de- 
tails from the literary antecedents, containing generally ad- 
ditions to the literaiy story, ilhey come nearer, though, 
to the rancsJfchyanavarttika story (and, I suppose, therefore, 
to that of Culcasaptati :.matior, which I have never seen) 
tlian to any other. This version ends v/ith the husband throw- 
ing the corpse of his wife's paramour in the street. In 
Swynnerton»s tale the husband carries off the lover in a 
mat and ultimately shows him to another msn. v?hose wife also 
was adulterous, ■illie -fe/c parsiaours are spsx-ed, and the husbands 


lilcen, their condition to that of Raja Rasalu, who is also 
ciiclcold. The Sinlialese and Santal tales both continue the 
story beyond the point v;here tlie husband kills the lover. 
Various people get the corpse in turn, and in turn pass it 
on to someone else,eac:^ person endeavoring to get rid of tiie 
body and tlie blame for killing the man, which is naturally 
attached to tlie possession of the body. 

It is probable that these stories are all descended from 
the :?aficakhyanavarttilca and C-ukasaptati Ornatior (?); but 
this supposition canjiot be supported by the evidence of 
literary occurrences in forms corresponding to tloe folk ver- 

1 - For this motif eompe^re the story of the Hmiehback in 
1001 Iflghts. 

fRs THE WISJi HAllaA Al-D TH? BIRDCATCHBR. This story Sar. Ill, 

11 ana 13; Kseuienira III, ]1; Purna'bhaira I, 19; .. erViavijaya 1,21; 

JiiiiTinala 1-athg.ka IJI, 7 (see iiertel, Bas Paficjatantra , p. 279); 

Pancakhyanavarttika 9 (see lertel, Itid.); ^"'-''asaptati ce ■ . -\ re- 


lateri story is Sp? 1 , 38 ani 44; and Paksi Pakaranani 7 ^aee Iler- 
tel. Das Pane ». tan tra . pp . 349 ani 354). Tge folVlore >ias it twice: 
yrere'a 01 ri Deccan Days , p. 104; ani ParVer's Village ffolV- Tales 
of Ceylon . _I, p. 224. FotVi of tliese oral tales are composites of th 
the two literary tales nientione-i above. 

Purnathaira' 3 story is as follows: A Via;'.sa fandly live in a fig 
tree. There is a liana c3 ixubinr up the tree trunk. An oli >iamsa 
urges the rest of the birds to cut off the climber, lept it T^ork 
then ham, but they pay no attention to hini. A hunter climbs the 
tree by means o€ the liana, ani sets snares fvsxrfitwn in the birds' 
nests. They are cauHj^t. Their release is obtained through the ad- 
vice of the old harasa. All pretend to be dead. The hunter 'hrows 
them on the ground , and v;hen the la^t of them has been thrown 
down, they all fly up and escape. In thfi Pancakhyanavarttika the 
birds are 500 Bharandas and the cliirihinf^ plant is a bamboo, ^a 
the hunter ia about to throw down the last bird, he drops his axe. 
The birds think that the sound of the axe as it hits the ground 
is the sound of the body of the last of their nui^.ber a? it strikes 
the earth, and they all fly away, leaving the last bird in the 
liunter's possession. Pie is about to kill him when he is restrained 
by the bird itself, at whose advice he sells it to the king's 
physician. The bird cures the kind's illners by applications of 
its ordure. It later escapes. This is the form of the story that 
pxu acts as a source for Kechschibi's Tutinai^eh V,l, and through 
it to the Turkisli Tutih-hameh (Rosen I, p. 128), an1 to !he Hindi 
Tota Kahani,, In the Tutinaraeh books the birJ| parrots. Kir- 

iiiala Patnaka's story is ne'arly the saf;.e as that in th« Panca- 
khyanavarttika, except that tbe Vini of blr'i is not specifie'i, and 
the escape of the hir'l is toll more fully anl vith nev/ inciiente. 

The story in SP5 I, 44 in chort. On a mountain i'vel;^ a riocJr of A crow aska^ for refuge one night. At first he i?, refused, 
"but later he is allowed to Ftay, In his excrement is a Jf nyapvodha 
(banyan) seed. This crov;s to a tree, from which a root drops to the 
ground. A hunter clirj^hs up this root, and kills the hamsas, 

Frere's tale is a part cf ^ long account of the 7/anderinf;8 of 
Vikrama. He lias learnt tVie art of parakayapraveca (Birtxyx enter- 
ing into another person's body), and in the 1 ody of a parrot 
becomes kinr of lOCO otVier parrots, wVio a] 3 roost in a larf^e ban- 
yan tree. A hunter »eei-t-e^**ry to catch theec birds, but the 
trunk of the tree is so 3ar(-e and)!^ slippery that hs cannot climb it 
One rainy dat the parrots return to their tree to find lOOC crows 
there. Vikrairia advises his followers to drive away the intruders 
lest t>ie seeds in t>ieir bills drop to e-irth and spring up into 
climbers around the trunk of the tree by v.-hich the hunter may 
ascend to t>ie parrots' reetE, J'is flock pay ro het-d to hini. Vik- 
raiua's prophecy is fulfilled, ani t^e birds are cau hi by snares. 
The story t'nen proceeds as in the Pancakhyanavarttika, all of the 
parrots escaping except t'ne last which is Vikrajoa, TVie hunter is 
(foing to kill hifi, but ie stopped by Vikrama and persuaded to sell 
him in the bazaar for ICOO ,'-;old mohurs. Ske At t>.ie point the oral 
tale ceases to rese/nble this lancakhyanavarttika story and turns 
into the story of the parrot's Revenge, .pancakhyanavarttika 43 
(see Hertel, :Ov.,s Pancatantra. p. 151, and note at end 0^ story for 
referenced to other occurrences of it) . It can be easily seen that 
Prere's tale combines Paj^cakhyanavarttika 9 and Sp SP5 I, 44, al- 
though probably using some other version of tVie latter. Thf; whole 
oral tale in which this story occurs is a popular version of the 

adventures of Vikrama, anl perhaps has a literary antece'ient W',ich 

gives the various anecdotes as given there, T>ie nearest approach t» 

it that I know is a sui.jiiary by Anaryan (ps. for i\ P, Arhuthnot) 

on p. 131 ff. of his Early I^eas of an English translation "by Rage- 

ba Loraba, of Boiiibay, of A a Prakrit poem by llurriias (liariias? )c''"^^'"-l^ 

of the a'iventuree of Vikraina. 

i^arker's story is similar to that of irere's, although it makes 

no riicntion of one of t>ie bir^ls being sc a li-an in disguise. It is 

only one crow that couiee to V-.e roosting-place of the parrots. 

The birds are caught in a net, not by snares. All of them escape. 

Here the story ends. This rorci is a blend of Sp^l, 38 and 44, and 

1-urnabhadra I, 19 (not lancakhyanavarttika 9), It perhaps has xx a 

literary antecedenji which is the source of Fancakhyanavarttika 9, 

Iviruiala Pathaka III, 7, and i'rere's story. 

I can find out notliinf'^ more about these works. 


TEFi APE ■'■IB THE CEODODILS. TMs story is the frsiae 
stoiy of -ancs.taiitra, Ek. IV. A moriicey and a crocodile are 
friends. The crocodile's wife, moved by jealousy, persug.des 
her husband to attempt to get the monkey's heart. He persuades 
the monkey to visit Ms home, and 7dien he gets him in the mid- 
dle of the stream, aimounces his purpose. 2he guick-v/lt ted 
monlcey escapes hy telling the crocodile that his heart is on 
shore, and persuading him to 2?etm?n for it. In the folklore 
it is found in 0' Connor *s Folk- Tales from Tihet , p. 141; 
Maxwell*s In I!ialay Forests , p« 75 

In all the literary versions, including the Jataka book 
and the Gukasaptati, the villain is a crocodile, dolphin^ or 
makara, except in the Semitic versions; Ohavanne s , 500 . Conte s 
et Apologues C hinois, I, p. lEO; and 2antraklij-ana, where it is 
a tortoise. This latter animal is the one mentioned in the 
Tibetati tale. Since tiie stoi^r in Gliavannes^s collection says 
that the tortoise wanted the monkey's liver, v/e can eliminate 
it from our possible sources of the folktale. Either of the 
other two^ though may be considered in that capacity. The 
Tantrakiiyana, coming as it does from Hepal, on account of its 
geographical proximity to tlie home of the oral tale, seems to 
be the, or at least nearest relative, of it. Unfortu- 
nately, I have net the text of this literary story to see how 
nearly it actually does approach the folk-tale. This latter 
has undoubtedly suffered a good deal in papular handling, too. 
The most striking bit of mistreatment is the change of the 
monkey *s excuse for being returned to land. He does not de- 
lude the tortoise into thinking thct he has left his heart 

tieliind in tlij tree; but he tells the tortoise to set him 
ashore so that he may ask other monkeys also to constibute 
their hearts for the eairing of i!rs. Tortoise. 

She I;!alay tale, on the otiier hand, belongs to the first 
of these stories. A crocodile's vjlte is sick, and gsjd. be 
cured only by eating a monkej-'s heart. The crocodile leaves 
the sea, ascends a river, said meets a monkey, who claims to be 
the wisest doctor on earth, and agrees to visit the crocodile's 
. wife to cure lier. Ee moimts on the back of the crocodile, v/ho 
sv/ims dovm to the sea with him. lElien the crocodile annc-unces 
his fell purpose to the monkey. The monkey does not appear 
alarmed, but assures the crocodile that he has left his heart 
behind on a tree, and persuades the crocodile to return for it. 
Once again on shore, he abuses the crocodile. This version seems 
to be descended from Jatslca 208 (Sutti samara Jataka), v/itii some 
changes. There the female crocodile has a pregTiancy-longing 
( dohalam ) for the heart of the raonl-ey. The mrXe crocodile 
entices him to ride on his back by promising to put him ashore 
on the other side of the G-anges where thei'e is much fine fruit. 
The l?ialayan variation here of the monkey's skill as a doctor 
seems to be a purely local touch. The Jataka mentions the kind 
of tree on which the monkey's heart is hung as a fig-tree, whose 
clusters of fruit may well represent a heart in appearance. 
The folktale has omitted this detail. 

1 - In the folklore tliere is 8 large number of tales devoted to 
the enmities of the monlcey or jackal and the crocodile or 
tortoise. These stories include the "speaking hole" motif, 
the "you have caught a root not my leg" motif, and the storj- 
of the jackal as matchjnaker for his duped enemy. The "spealc- 
ing hole" anecdotes are included in this paper (S^-Hq ). 
The other incidents will be treated by me in later papers. 


THE ASS VillHOUT HSARI AHD EARS. Clie stoiy of tlie ass 
without ears and heart occurs in tlie Pancatantra collections 
from the earliest times, Sar.o^. IV, 1, etc In the follclore 
it is found in S'^i/ynnerton's Romsntic gales from the Panjab 
with Indian Kights' Entertainment , p. 404; Parker's Village 
gol3c~1!ales of Ceylon I, p. 359 (2 versions), Christianas 
Behar Proverbs , p. 52. 

A lion sends his follower, a jackal, to entice an ass 
to him, so that he mB^J eat its heart and ears. The jackal 
brings the ass, the lion leaps at him, but fails to kill him, 
and the ass escapes. The jackal beguiles tlie ass into coming 
again. This time the lion kills him. He goes away to batiie, 
leaving the jackal to guard the corpse. The jackal eats the 
ears and heart of tiie ass. V;Taen the lion misses these, the 
jaclcs.l says that the ass had neither ears nor heart; for if 
he had possessed, them he would never have returned to danger 
after once escaping it. 

This story has tv>ro markedly separate versions. In the 
Tantrakhyayika, Southern Paiicatantra, Ksemendra's Kathaman jari , 
and the Semitic versions, the lion is stated to be suffering 
from a disease (generally said to be scabs) to care which 
he need.s the ears and heart of an ass. in Textus Simplicior 
and lurnabhadra, he is said to have been injured in a fight 
with an elephsjit. This differentiation fixes the status of 
Swynnerton's tale at once; for in it a tiger (who, as fre- 
q.uently. is' substituted for the lion) is suffering from the 
injury of a broken leg, v/hich he received in combat with an 

/--'/ 1 

elepliant. I'he rest of tlie folk;^ale is not as a'ood as its 
antecsdent. The Pancatantra story saj's that the ass is en- 
ticed to new grounds oy tlie jackal not by the attraction 
of good grazing alone, but more particularly by the appeal 
the jackal makes to his proverbial JU.cherou52iess. He is 
assured tliat female asses are awaiting there; and, when the 
jackal urges him to return after his escape from the lion*s 
attack, he does it 'by assuring him that tlie blow the lion 
gave him v.-rs in reality an exliibition of affection on the 
part of "a}.!.' ! nf a she ass who wa,s anxious to embrace him. 
This part of the stor^r has evidently been forgotten in the 
popular tra^dition, and the storyteller has been compelled 
to resort to a makeshift, i'he jackal tells tlie ass that 
he saw only the appeai^nce of a tiger, not a real one, and 
backs his statement hj saying timt a fat creature like him- 
self could not live with so dangerous a beast. I'he rest of 
the folk story, although briefer than the literary version, 
is essentially the same- as it. Prom just whe.t version of the 
Horthwest Indian rescensions tlie fanjabi folktale is descend- 
ed, I can not determine. 

iarl-aer's second version of the storjr clearlj- belongs 
to the type in v/hich the lion is ill, not v;ounded. In the 
Sinlialese tale, though, the lion only pretends to be sick. 
The victim is here a goat, not an ass. >".-ith these exceptions 
the story agrees more closely with the vernacular version 
preserved \>j Dubois in his Pantcha-Tsjatra , p. 198, than v/itli 
any other. It is proba,ble tliat this oral tale is descended 

from 1X11)0X3*3, but is also affected by aany outside influ- 
ences which liave destroyed its resemblance to its original. 
One of these, tlie goat as victim, is foun«L in tlie Bihar story, 
In tliis there are tvvo farther differences: The lion suffers 
from the Infirmities of old age and tlie goat*s liver, not 
brains, are desired for remedj^. Kiis tale I gsjci not identi- 
fy at all; it is too remote from any literai-jr version I Imoi'?. 
Parker*s ether account is still more different from literary 
stories, and of course still less susceptible of identifica- 
tion by me. Ilie victim is a boar. The ^lackal entices him to 
the lion^s cave "by offering him the sovereignitjr of the ani- 
mals in xlace of the lion v/ho lias become old. 

5 5^' H^ 

KL WOMAA/ :D THE JACKAL: This story is l^eirfcus 
Simplicior, lY, 10; -urnabiiadra IV, 8; it occurs in the folk- 
lore only in Ceylon: Parker, Village t'ollctale of Qeylon , II, 
p. 146; and isteele, Kusa Jatakaya . p. E54. I'iie Panoatantra 
story goes tlias: A peasant *s v.^ife is tricked by a clever 
thief to elope with him, taking all her jev/els. They come 
to a river. The thief carries his i;aramour's jewels and 
clothes across tlie stream, promising to return for her; but 
once on the other side he deserts her. As she is bemoaning 
her bad luck, she sees a female jackal carrying a piece of 
flesh in her mouth. The jackal drops the flesh to catch a 
fish. The fish escapes; a vulture seises the meat; and the 
jackal is left in disappointment. The woman laughs, but the 
jackcl rebulces her, saying th8.t her loss exceeds its. 

Parker's apologue is a popular vvorking over of Jataka 
lo. 374. This P-ali version is fuller than that of the 
Pancatantra, and different in many points. It is as ^'.llovre: 
A young Brahman becomes so skilled in archery that his 
teacher r-ev.-ards him for his proficiency with tlie hand of his 
daughter. On his way home to Benares from 'I'akkasiia he kills 
a rogue elephant. In a forest he meets a band of fifty rob- 
bers, and auarrels v/ith them because they give him raw meat, 
instead of cooked meat, when he asks for it. Ke kills forty- 
nine robbers vrlth the forty -nine arrows left in his quiver, 
arid laioeks dowTi ^he last of the bsind, the chief. He asks 
his wife for his sword, bhe suddenly falls in love with the 
brigand, and gives him the sword, and to her husband only 
the scabbard. The robber kills tlie Bralmian and carries 

A /^v^pW 

/*' the woman, to triclc lier later s^s related above. Saldsa 
(Indra) retukes lier witli tlie livxng parable of the ^aclcal, 
tlie fish, and the bird, himself taking the form of tlie jackal, 
IvEatali that of the fish, and PancasikXa that of the bird. 
She is brought to repentance by Sakka's remarks. The folk 
version is strikingly similar to the Pali tale. It is a 
prince, though, as in nearly all the Ceylonese tales, who 
wins his master^ s daugliter as bride. The incident of slay- 
ins ttie rogue elephant is onitted. So mention is made of 
the quarrel over the meat v/ith the Vaeddas (as tlie robbers 
are frequently called by the folk in Parker's ta]as); but 
the cause of the altercation is merely that the prince at- 
tempts to pass through the robber king's country, without 
peimission. The prince kills or drives away, by his deadly 
arche2?y, all of the ?aedda army, except the king. These two 
decide to determine the issue 'bj a v/restling match, the win- 
ner to decapitate his opponent. Ho mention is made of the 
failure of the prince's aaimunition. This omission of the 
Jataka incident is the result of forgetfalness in oral tradi- 
tion, and the amplification of the hand to iiand conflict of 
the two rivals into a wrestling match is popular addition to 
the Jataka 's statement that the prince knocked do\ra. the rob- 
ber and sat on him. The killing of the prince is the same 
in both stories. In tlie Jataka the archer's wife tells the 
robber lier history. This point is omitted in tiie follctale. 
The apologue of the Jackal, the fish and the Kit a, corres- 
ponds to the Jataka version, except that the divine identity 
of these animals is not established. The folk}:ale says that 

Gakra came afterr/aids in a jackal "s guise, and tore tlie prin- 
cess to pieces because of lier wickedness. This reminiscence 
is all tl'iC-t is left in the populs^r tale of the Heavenly in- 
spiration of the parable. Tae killing of the woman, contrary 
to the Jataka, is a ccnclusion eculiar to this specific oz^>j^- 
rtjt/w".**. of the tale, for in a variant it is stated that she 
continued to live, ekeing out a v/retched existence by begging 
in the company of a poor man. 

Steele's version shov/s many changes from the Pali and 
the foU^ale of Parker, all of v;hich are for the v/orse. Vuiile 
in the other tv?o tales, the woms.n abandons her husband for 
a perfect stranger, in Steele's fable her new lover ^ is an 
old acquaintance. The moralizing of the new lord upon the 
queen's unfaithfulness is omitted, as is also tlie discription 
of tlie trick by which he secures possession of her jewels. 
The folktale says "...Tlie king, finding the ifueen's society 
tiresome, stripped lier of all her jewels and deserted her". 
Further, in the Jataka and Parker, as in the Panca.tantra, 
the jaclaal loses both meat and fish; but in Steele's tale he 
loses onl^r tlie meat, getting in return a dead fish. The 
queen twits him on his poor bargain, and he then shows her 
how much greater has been her own folly. Ho mention whs,tever 
is made of Sakka. This tsjte is apparently an-cKg -' aglb) &£ fe e 
rough treatment a good stoiy often receives by the folk. 

Tim WILY JACKA.L: This story is found in the Jainistic 
versions of the Pancatantra.': I'extus Simplicior lY, 15, (or 
13 or 12); Piirnabhadrs, I?, 10; Meghavyaya IV, IS; iiirmala 
Pathalca TV, 13. A jaclc8,l finds the body of a dead Elephant, 
but is "onable to tear its thick s3cin so as to get at the 
flesh. A lion happens along, and the ^aclva.1 invites him to 
eat the elephant; but the lion refuses on the grounds that 
lie eats nothing he has not killed himself, i? tiger next 
comes, and the Qacfel gets rid of him by tellin^T him that 
the lion has a grudge against him, and tlis.t he had better 
flee before the lion returns frora bathing to devoiir the ele- 
phant's body, i'he panther is the third to arrive. The jackal 
invites him t4) eat until the lion slosll return. As soon as 
the psjither has broken the skin of the elephant, the jackal 
annoraiees the return of tlie lion, and the panther flees. The 
jackal is now left to enjojr the meat alone, being able to 
eat it since the panther has torn tlie skin. 

This story occurs in a rather different fo32;i in tlie 
Ifeihabharata I, v. 5667 ff. (Peuche's trans, vol. I, p. 5.) 
It is as follows: 

A jackal has four friends, mongoose, wolf, rat, and tiger. 
In the forest is a gazelle v.-hich the tiger can not catch. At 
the jackal's suggestion, the rat ^gnav/s its hoofs so that 
the tiger at last catches and kills it. The jackal then- 
sends all four animals to bathe before eating the dead ga- 
zelle. The tiger returns first, and finds the jackal in a 
contemplative mood. In reply to a question, the jacks.l 

sajrsthst tile rat claims to have killed the gazelle, aiid to 
"be more po^Yer^ul than the tiger. The latter goes off sesrdh.- 
ing for the rat. The next to arrive is the rat. She jackal 
frightens liim awsy by telling him that the mongoose (his 
natural enemy) has determined to eat him (the irat), not the 
gazelle. When the wolf comes, the ^acks.l tells him the 
tiger is angry v/ith him, and the wolf flees. Finally the 
mongoose arrives. The jackal claims to have conquered the 
other animals, and the mongoose, believing him, is un?/il- 
ling to fight with him for the gazelle and runs off. The 
jackal is left in iHidisputed possession ox the corpse. 

In the folklore this story occurs in lii'Culloch's Ben ~ 
gali Household Tales , p. 148. 

The story goes thus: ^lion, a tiger, a mongoose, a 
mouse, and a jackal live together as frieMs. They plan to 
kill an elephant. The jai3kal instructs ths mouse to burrow 
a tunnel to the spot where tlie elephant is stsxiding, so that 
its foot may fall into the hole, and to g-naw the tendon of 
his foot. The plsji sixcceeds and the elephant soon dies. 
The jackal remains on guard at the carcasA, while the other 
animals go to bathe. IVhen tl:iB lion retarns, the jackal teilLs 
him that the mouse claims to have killed the elephant and 
is reproaching the lion for getting his food from a retainer. 
The lion, therefore, refuses to eat the elephant, because 
he himself has not killed it. \^lien the tiger comes, the 
jackal scares him aivay by telling him ths.t the lion is of- 
fended witli him. The jackal frightens the mongoose by assuring 

him that the tiger v/ants to kill him. The rat is driTen 
av/ay by a similar ruse, his enemj,' to the jackl, 
being the mon^'oose. 

'The story is a hji-brid. of the Teiicataiitra aad ilahabhara- 
ta fables. Kie animals are the ^aelcal, tiger, mongoose^ and 
mouse of the Ifehabl^rata, with tl'ie addition of the lion of 
the Jainistic Tersions, and. m thje victim (elephant)^ that 
of the PaEcatantra. The folkstory is not so clever as eitlier 
of its parents. 2!he Jackal does not vary his trick to drive 
av*ay the lireaker animals. Some incidents of the oral tale are 
not found in either of the literar^r ones. Tliis Ben^ll tale 
is either a composite by the folk of the ti7o liter ar^r tales, 
or a retelling by the folk of a literary composite of these 
t\70 tales. I am inclined to think that it is of the latter 
character; and I expect tlie^t some day a literai-y form will 
appear which v/ill shmv itself to be the direct progenitor 
of the oral te^Ie. 

1 - If this supposition is true, it must be supposed that 
the stoTY has deteriorated in popular handling. 

^-- -1/ J^' 

THj-. B.AiLiJVK AKi) THJi LOKGOOSE. This fatle is th -|f Trarae story 
of Book V of ^ar., etc.; ani lextus Si.aplicioT ani Purna'bha'ira, 
V, 1; liitopa-lefa IV, 12. 

In the fciviore it occufs in Ceylon: H. A. Pieris in Th e OrienV 
alist, i, p. 213; Steele, .JMtfta Jatakaya . p. 250; ParVer, Vlllape 
Folk- Tales ar Ceylon , iii, p. 27. It appears also in Kin(?8cot?, 
Tale? ;3f the 3j|n, p. 140. In this latter cas» it is not a r^iece 
of foiVlore it all, tut is one of the f:;rnup of stories that make ip 
the Alakesa ll^atjm,* a Tairdl romance, translatei by Pan'iit S. l. 
Katesa Sastri. The Alakesa Katha Vias teen putllshel twice before: 
i'aB444-fe>a4eea The King a ni his four Ja.inisters . An oli Iniian 
Romance tr^anslatei into Sne:lish ty Pandit Natesa Sastri, v/ith 
note£ an? introduction ty U , A. Clouston. i.a-lras, 1888. It is also 
found on p. 193ff. ^^^tje-f afeie-©fi-j>-, (fatle of Brahman^ ani iv.on- 
gooBe on p. 211) of 7/. A, CHovston's A Group of Eastern Romances 
translated from the Persian, Tr^, ani Uriu. Glasgow. Hodges and 
Co., 1889. Clcuj?ton eivec the Alakesa Katha the conjectural date 
of the sixteenth century (A Group o f E strrn Bongnces . introduction 
p. xxxii) . 

As Clouston notes, the A lake eg Ka thii is protatly connected 
v;i$(i the "iitrike tut liefer" stories in Day's Folk»Tale? _o_r Bengal , 
p. 147, and witTi the tale of "The four Princes" nn Knowles's 
j'"olk- Tales o£ Kashinir . p. 415. Anotlier parallel collfiction is 
SP, J^, Conclusion. 


In giving the talc i; hi^ collection, larl^er says, "I Tave not c 
■net with this tale as a true vll laf;e f ol 1^-sto^y, Ivt it was related 
as one of tV.e episodes a* in tVie series oT tales inclu'lci un*er 
the title of 'Tha Four Paniitayas' , in which various stories were 
told to iniuce a King not to execute fSa younf^est Pan'Jitaya for 
wiping off the Q,ueen'8 body a -irop of blood which fell on her at 
nightwhen he cut in two a cora that was about to bite the King. 
The whole story is an Indian one." This story of "The I'^our Tan- 
. dituyas" is the Alakeea Lat'/ia . Althov.{::>i Parker's story i? found 
in the Sinhalese verrion of Lhe Alakeea Katlii . it is not the 
story that is properly there. Instead it ie the corirnon verSlon 
of the fable as current in Ceylon that has been substituted for the 
version of the Alekes a J^atha, It agrees witVi the other occurrences 
reported by i^ieris and Eteele. In all of these folk e,torier. n, ijvidow 
has a child and a inongooee (Steele Bays "a poor woman", hut as no a 
Biention is made of a Viusband it may be safely assumed that she is 
a widow). She leaves the child in the care of the ^iiongoose. A snake 
approaches the child. The :7iongoose kills it. Vhen the widow returns 
home sh"^ sees the laongooee all bloody, hastily .jiuaps to the con- 
clusion tr;at it has slain the chili, and kills it. Too late she 
finds out her mistake. In tv/o versions the v/idow herself dies; In 
PierisJ by beating her iiead against a rock; and in Parker's, merely 
by the force o^ her p:rief . In the Alakesg Katha . the father of the 

child kills the mon^ooBe; similarly in Dubois's Fantcha-T ntra . p. 

206, and in all the literary texts except Textus Bimlicior and 


Purnabhadra. In these latter the wo;ia.n slays tne animal. It is 
from some of t>ie descendants of these Jainistic texts, then, that 
the Sinhalese oral tale comes. 

S A^- H IS 

THJ<: i?ATH.':;:H OF SOKAgARKiAIJ. The story of the Brahman v/ho 
"builia aircastleo is founi in all jthe oiler versions of the Panca- 
tantra e-Kcept Somaieva' s . It is Sar. V, 1, etc. In foe TolVrlore 
it occurs in O'Connor's Folk^Tales from TiB^t . p. 31; Swynnerton's 
Roir.iintic Tales from the Pan .jab uith Iniian Kit^hts' :^ntertaimiient. 
p. 182; btoV-es's Iniian Fairy Tales , p. 31; Dracott's Simla Village 
Tal e s, p. 68; Bompas's .PolVlore of the Santal Parr-.anae . p. 140; 
Parker's Villa(< e Folk» Tales o f Ceylon . I, p. 304; rantalu'B Folk. 
love of the Tele^rus, p story Si 21, p. 48 (accoriin,^ to Mertel, Da,8 
I'ancatantra . p. C84, "but as story 22 in Ini. Ant. xxvi , p. 112; 
i'lseson's Laos j'^olklo re of Farther Indi a, p. 83; Taylor's Iniian 
Folk* Tales . ii'ollc-Lore vi, p. 403. 

Tne folk versions o" this story are in most c;;ses far reinovei 
froffl tl-iose of the literature. TViere follows here a table of the 
inciiente in the iifferent vf:rsiona, "both literary ani oral. 
Fantalu's story agrees fairly well v/ith that of Sir. or SP up to 


the point where the Brahioan fe»«ak«-kie maVes the false ir./.vernent. 
At this place it conforms ;riore to that of the 1001 Kights about 
Alnaschar, the birber's fifth brither. Pantalu's tale is probably 
a iesceniant of soa.e Seu.itic story which has been influenced by 
t'lat of tVi-_ 1001 Kif^hts. The other oral stories are too far re- 
inove-i from any versions in the literature to be identified there. 
They must be largely, if not wholly, independent of the litera- 
ture in existence. 



ive investments of 

wealth 1 









How he de- 
stroys cap- 






rtrike? -^dfe 
for neglect- 
ing child. 


i-ot of 
[ rice 


















Strives son 
{'or iisobedi- 
ence , 


ou. 1 






^akes gestures 
v/ith staff. 


>i on ey 



Strikes son 
for disoheii- 

ence . 







(;ur4oi7.s dish 

Pots arii. pane -- cloth 

Strives quar- 
relling wives. 

I Ki. 



s and sells classware; sets up 


KicVs too af- 

— H 


— - 

' — 

1 1 


uccessive investments of. 



Kero'6 Chick- 
Capital hens 

Goats Sheep 

CowB Buf- 



Ho'ff he de- 
!? troys cap- 








KicVs too af- 
fectionate wife 





rZic^cs wife whio 
wil 1 not worV. 


for car- 
rying oi; 


• ■ 





Bends head to 
pat his child- 
ren's heads. 






Shakes head 
"11 0" when his 
c>dldren urge 
him to have 









Shades head 
"Ko" ^h.5n his 
children tell 
nim to hurry 
for dinner. 





f.taaps foot at 










ivxapB aside to 
ivoid vick of 


Lit to 


" fClephant 

i^ha^es head 
">'o" to child- 
ren HSklnK for 





,. 1 


Throws up head 
vhilo rehuking 
wife whft is 
v.;rr3'in&: hin to 

1] — : 


i 1 

"1 :" ' 


■ ■ 


TEE FOUE IPRSASirRE- SEEKERS . The story of the Four Treas- 
ure-See^rs occurs in Textus Simclicior, T, E; i^urnabliad.ra,V, 
S. The folklore iias it twice: Wood^s In and. Out of Chsjida . 
p. 53; and G. R, Subramiali Pantalu*s Follclore of the gelegus 
storjr, gg, p. 69, (according to Hertel, Das Pancatan tra , p » 68 ) , 
but story 54- in Ind. i-nt. XX7I, p. 16V. 

wood^s story is not follclore at all. It is a descendant 
of Necliseiiibis 0?utinaiReh XLYII, Ij and is probably a transla- 
tion of the story as given in the Hindi I'ota EaMni, for it 
is a very good paraplirase of the Persian, which is the origi- 
nal of the Hindi. The only differences are in proper names. 
Wood^s storjr is as follows; 

Four noblemen of Shaha^ajipur fell into poverty. They 
went to^Jyotishi (magician or astrologer,) who gave them four 
balls, instructing tliem to put these balls on their heads and 
wherever one fjill to the ground, there to dig. The first 
man's ball fell over a copper niine, tiie second over a silver- 
mine, and the tliird over a gold mine. The third said to the 
fourth, "There is nothing better than gold; if it be thy will, 
let us both remain lie re". 'I'he other, though, in hopes of 
finding a mine of jewels, v/ent on. Wlien his ball fell, how- 
ever, he found only iron. In disappointment he returned to 
look for his friend of the gold mine, but he fcould not find 
either him or his mine. He went back to his ovm mine, but it 
too could not be found. He then went to search Ss=r the 
Jeyotishi, but he had gone to a far Isjid; and he w^s left to 
mourn till his dying aay the folly of his greed. This story 

II ^ 

differs ?/idely from that of the Paneatantra. In trie latter 
the fourth man fiiids another man with a sliarp wheel turning 
on his head and Tslood on his "body. When he asks this man 
for water the wheel suddenly leaps over to his own head. ^Ehe 
relieved man assure::, him tiiat he is doomed to suffer this 
torment for many years and leaves him. ^e man the gold 
mine comes to look for his friend, finds him in his sad plight, 
converses witLi him, exchanges stories with him, and at last 
leaves h1 .m to his sorrowful fate. 

Pantalu^s story is from the same source as Wood^s, al- 
though, perhaps, tiirough some intermediate text. It sgrees 
with Vifood^s tale except thft the four friends prajr to Kali, 
who gives them talismans^ not to a magician. 



( ^OUS&IED^V/l j), (Himi>R?.D-Wl|),^ SIITGIB>-WI[P . This story is 
found in Sextus Simplicior k, 6; Pamabhadra V, 4; MeghaTi 
V, 4; and Kirmala Patliaica V, 4. It is related to the story of 
the Hiree Fishes, Sar. I, 12, etc., but is not a variant of it 
as Benfay considers it ( pgjit Aschat ant ra I, p. £41.) 2he motifs 
of the tvvo stories are different. Kmt of Sar. I, 12, etc., is 
•'Fatalism fatal", ivhile tlmt of Turn*;,?, 4^ is "Braggarts fail". 
In the folklore tliis stoiy occurs in Steele *s Kiusa Jatakaya , 
Appendix, p. 253* 

The Pancat antra story goes thus: Two fish called Sahasra- 
buddi^i (O?houssiid-ivit) sjid Satabuddhi lKundrea.-v;it ) live in a 
lake cvith a frog called Ekabuddhi (Single -wit.) They hear 
fishers threatening to draw the lake. Skabuddhi coxmsels 
flight; tut the two fish boastfully assert that thisy know all 
the tricks of the vratcr, and refuse to flee. The next day the 
ifhsermen c?.tch end Icill everything in the Iske, One carries 
off Satabudldhi rpon his head, and an-other taies away Sahasra- 
buddhi hai^eing by a cord. 3kabuddhi, whose single wit led him 
to run away, moralizes upon the futility of laiowledge without 
prudence . 

The Sinhalese folktale is built around the ssme motif, 
but is not a child of the Pgiicat antra stoiy. A pravm with 
tvventy accomplisliments for escaping danger, an eel with ten, a 
tortoise with five, and a frog with only one,— all live together 
in a swamp. A fisherman catches all four. He breaks the prav/n's 
neck, spits the eel, and turns the tortoise on his back; but, 
when he grabs for the frog, the latter uses his single accom- 


plisiiment aiid ^tanps away to safety. There is pi-obably a 
literary "basis for this tale either in Pali or the enoimous 
Tamil literature, a large part of v-'hich lias as yet been inac- 
cessilsle to me. 

ASS AS SIIGSS The stoiy of tlie ass that fills his belly 
in a garden, and Toices his contentment with what he ^apposes 
is song, only to be caught and punished for his thieving, oc- 
curs in !i!extus Simplicior, ?, 5; Pu.i-nabhs.dra ¥, 5; and the de- 

scendoknts of these Jainistie works; Dubois's Pantcha-Tantra , 

p. 166; Tantrakli^'-ana &5; and in lleJis^-sna Buddliist literetm'e, 
Sehiefner^s Sibetan !I?ales (Ralston) , p. 223, and ChaTannes's 
Cing[ Cents Pontes et Ipologlfes Chinois II , p. 374. In -the folk- 
lore only the motif of this story, "untimely singing", appears: 
Parker, Village Folk-I'ales of Ceylon , III, p. 54; O'Connor, 
Folk-Tales from Tibet , p. 64. The popular stories do not seem 
to have any direct connection with those of the literature. 
In all of the literary versions it is an aas tliat sings after 
he has had his meal, except in Dubois*s j?ant oha- Tant ra , p. 166, 
and Hirmala ?atha3ca*s Lferathi version V", 13 (Kertel, Sa g Panca- 
tantra, p. S87) where tlie singer is a cow. In Parker's story 
s. jackal howls against the advica of a cat, and in O'Connor's 
tale a designing a wolf's destruction, persxiades it to 

In the Sinhalese story a ;iackal and a cat together rob a 
house* v.lien evening comes, the jackal hears the rest of his 
tribe howl, s.nd is unable to restrain himself. The genrs-la 

1 ■ =- -:: ^ £ic2.c. -^ at>ckc'g - Cld Iv'arr.tltl, i.L, - ±bjM _C^ HZ; D ^ xis Miy SKii ' * - 

ouvJ[ T'ot-^ou^Ji^iY^o^^vA^-*^^^ , • T 


awsl;es, sees the jackal, and kills him. Tliis stor;^' is clear- 
ly a reflection of tlie stoxy of the Blue Jackal, ?/ho "becomes 
King of the forest, but whose real nature was betraj-ed bj his 
er^ring when he lieard his brethren call. {See S -»-<,. "^ ^ j 

This f oUc^ale lias no basis in tiie literature as far as I knov/; 
and the chances are tliat one will not appear. 

She same statement is trae about the Tibetan tale* A hare, 
a fox, and a vrolf steal the edibles from a v/edding-feast, the 
hare talcing some cheese, the fox a fov;l, and the wolf a ^ar of 
?;ine which he carries hv- putting his head through its handle. 
The hare suggests a song, and. the wolf' is persuaded to rendisr 
a selection. The T>eople hear- it, and rash to attack the v/olf . 
The lisre and tlie fox escape; but the wolf is so eneuinbered by 
the ^ar of vstne that he can not leap through the window, and 

Both of these foU^ales are original, Altho-ugh soiae of the 
incidents -^^ in tliem coirie from the literi\-bure, the stories 
themselTes have no literary parents. The asseabli2ig of the 
various eleixients is papular; and they illustrate very well 
Temple's theoiy of the mobility of plot and incidents in folk- 
stories (see IVideawalce Stories, p. 386.) 


. CRAB A3 . LIFS-SAITSE . Tiiis story is foiimd in Textus 3im- 
plicior Y, 13, and HegiiaYi^aya V, 12. 1 Braiiaan osxries a 
G2?al)»a-t; liis mother's adYioe, as a traveling companion. "vTliile 
lie sleeps -oncler a tree, a black snake somes out of a hole to 
"bite him. The sue 11 of camphor in the Brahman's bag, though, 
attracts tiie snalce^v/ho eats it and also the crab. ?he latter, 
though, slits his throa,t and kills him, thereby saving the 
Brahman's life." ?h€ folklore h£:,s the storj'- in Bompas's £2i£- 
lore of the Santal ^^rganas , p. E74. 

A lazy young nan named Kora, is turned out into the world. 
Unable to a*et £in.y one to accofepaay him on his travels, he takes 
a crab v/ith him. He comes to a country devastated by a Iiakhas. 
!Dhe natives caution him not to sleep outdoors, but he rejects 
their ^/i'aming, merely releasi2ig the crab, before he goes to 
sleep. 'The Raldias comes to devour him, but tlie crab climbs a 
tree, and slits tiie vdndpipe of the Eakhas. xhe noise awakens 
Kora, 'cvho seizes a stone and beats out the Raldias's brains. At 
this point the tale tui*ns into the familis-r type of stoiy of 
the rogue v/ho claims to have Killed the monster, and endeavors 
to v/in the revrard Earned by tlie hero. Of course, tlie hero 
ultimately secures tlie honor snd the prise of the hand of the 

1 - In Tantralchyana S3; SPs I, 9; I>abois, p. 36; and Jataka 
ITo. 389, a crov/ urges the snake to kill the Brahman, so 
that he (crow) may get the Brahman's eyes. 


princess. A fev/ nights after tlie prince is married, tv/o 
snakes issue from the nostrils of the princess to kill the 
sleeping prince, but the wakeful crab destroys themf Kiis 
folk|:ale is, of course, a patchv;ork of tlie Pancatantra story 
and the tv/o other motifs mentioned. The Pancatantra story has 
naturally been changed to fit in with its context, is it 
exists here, it is a descendent of fextus Simplicior, not of 
ar^ other version. 

Jf. Wi^.a awak8 Stories , p. 143; Da^r's Pol^alesof 
" Be^al, p. 78, etc. ' 

ijiother familiar motif , cf.. Day's ?olI^a,le s o f Bengal , 
p. 100; iiiowles's Folk- Tales from Kashmir, p. S2 ff. 

/ ^ 

THE DEER, (^S CROVy), AMD (^m JAGK^» Tills story is Hito- 
padeea I, E- A deer and a crotv are friends. A jackal desir- 
ing to feed on tlie deer's flesh, malces friends with him, -al- 
though the cro^i'' adriees the deer to the contrary. The jaclcal 
secretly leads the deer to a field to a feed on the corn. I'he 
ov/ner of the field catches him in a snare. He aslcs -Hie jaclcal 
to gnav/ hiin f2?ee; "but the latter refuses on the groimd that 
the thcngs are leather and the day is Sijndajj. The crow finds 
the deer in his sad plight, and advises him to "play posstmi". 
The aian, thinlcing the deer dead, removes the snare, the crow 
caws, and at tlie signal the deer leaps up and inins off. The 
man throvsB his staff at him, misses him, but hits the jaclcal, 
and kills it. In the folldore this stors" occurs in Bouse *s 
Telkine' Thras h, p. 166 and p. E15; and Parker »s Village Folk - 
Tales of Ceylo n III, p. 8. 

Rouse *s (or rather Grooke's] story is the sane as the 
Ilitopadeca bale \Tith these omissions and trifling variations: 
The 5ac!fes.l pers^aades the deer to give up the crow as a friend 
for hijnsQlf: the jackal leads the deer to huntsmen^s snares, 
not to a field \vhose o\"ner sets snares for the trespasser^ the 
jackal is not mentioned as bein^ killed. 

Tarker^s stoiy differs from the Kitopadeca in having only 
one minute addition: The ;.ackal says he ?/ill eat crabs while 
the deer eats the paddy which he has shown him. This story 
of larker^s is printed bjr him as a variant to the stories ap- 
pearing in;his work, vol. Ill, pp. 5 and 9. It is really noth- 
ing of a sort, for those stories are Psncatejntra II, frames t cry, 

Kurungamiga Jataka IK0.SO6) and this hitopadepa story - 
all combined. See 5 -q^. 3 6. Both House's and 
Parker's tales liave their origin in tlie Hitopadeca. 

3^ - *i 

■ ASS, DOa,.AKD imSIDER: TMs story is Ilitopadeoa II, 2. 
It is also founa in E. J. Robinson's Tales and Poems of 
South India > p. S66, \7liere it is translated from either the 
Kathacintimani or Kathamaiijari. In the follclore it oeciirs 
in Pantalu's Folklore of the gelegas . Ho, 14, p. S4 (accord- 
ing to Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 68), Ind. Mt. XX?I, p. 110. 
The Hitopadeea. storjr is as follov/s: A washerman comes iaome 
from the pleasant company of a yoxmg w-oman, and falls into a 
sound sleep. A thief brealss into his house. In the court 
are an ass and a dog. The ass urges the dog to harls: to warn 
the master; but the dog, mindful of his master's illtreatment , Tiie ass then talces it upon himself to bray and ?/ak- 
ens the ^vasheaaoan. The latter much annoj'-ed at the tinwonted 
noise of the ass, beats him severely, and goes back to bed. 
The Tamil story is an expanded foim of tliat of tlie Hitopadeea: 
Sis burglars brealc in. The dog refuses to berk, because, 
v;hile his previoTis warnings always sca,red a,way the rob- 
bers, his master has never recognized the benefit he has re- 
ceived, and has not rewarded the dog. i\fter the donkey has 
been beaten and the ma-stor lias returned to sleep, the robbers 
come back and remove all of the washerman's valuables. The 
dog moralizes to the donkey on the faiility of trying to 
attend to someone's else business. 

The Telegu folktale differs from both of the foregoing 
stories in>tiiese respects: V/hea the robbers come, the dog 
is absent. Tiie ass brays a.nd is beaten. By the time the 


rob'bers make their second attempt, the dog has returned. 
He barks, the master suspects robbers, but he is too late. 
He has lost everything. This version is too different from 
the literary tales to be identified witli either of them.. 
It probably has its origin in some vernacular literaiy ver- 
sion of Soutiiem India v/ith which I am not familiar. 


LIO]?,KoWSE AND CAlt This stoiy is found in IIarajana»s 
Hitopadeca II, 3; Ilecii^cliilji^s Tutinameh XF, 1; and Rosen's 
Tutih-nameh, I» p. £68. In the follrlore it is found in 
Draco tt»s Sim la Tillage Tales , p. 107. 

'The Ilitopadeca and Tutinameh differ markedly in their 
treatment of this fable. lii the Hitopadepa a mouse gnaws the 
lion*s beax'd; in tiie O^utinameh, mice pick the shreds of meat 
out of iis teeth v/hile he sleeps. In the Hitopadeea the cat 
itself imprudently kills the mouse ; but in tiie 0?utinaiaeh the 
kitten kills tiie mice, not having been i?amed by the mother 
to let them live, -he folktale follov;s the Persian story, 
and tlie Ilitopadeca tale does not need to be discussed. 

She Tutinameh storj- is as follows: A decrepit old lion 
is annoyed by mice which pick shreds of meat from his teeth 
while he sleeps. On the advice of a fox, he appoints a cat 
to keep off the mice. The ca.t recognizes tlxat her position 
is secure only as long s£. there are mice to frighten away, 
and therefore never kills any. Heeding a holiday one day, 
she leaves her kitten in her place. Tiie foolish kitten kills 
all the mice. Too late tiie cat points out tlie mistake. In 
a few days tlie lion dismisses her. 

In I£iss Dracott's tale the lion's place is ta.ken hi^ a 
tiger, a regular substitute for tlie lion. The rats used to 

1 - In Hindustani as in SaJiskrit^ bagli (Skt. vyaghra) may 
mean either lion or tiger. 

n t: ^ 



eat tiie lion's food oefore he could get it. They are not 
said to liave devoured the shreds of meat remaining in his 
teeth. Otherwise the stoiy agrees with the Persian, which is 
undoubtedly its source, either in its ori£yinal form or in 
its Hindi translation, the Tota Eahani. 


HAMSA, (^R^aS^^^^^, This story is found in Eito|^oJ^^-f^ 
III, 4a and PancaJdoyanavarttilca, SO, (see Hertel, Das Paiica- 
tantra, p. 143.) In Ilirto , the story is as follov/s: A crov; 
and a haiisa dv/ell in a pipal tree. A traveler stops imder 
the tree, aad goes to sleep. The hamsa shades him from the 
sun v/ith his ivings, but the cro^v drops excrement in his 
mouth, and then flies av/a^r. The man sees only tlie hamsa, and 
shoots it. In Pancakhyanavarttika the story is different: 
A oroi7 and a swan, roost in a tree under v/hich a kin.3: rests. 
The crov; drops excrement on the lcin£j's oaclc and flies off. 
The king shoots the swan, and asks him why lie, sudi a noble 
creature, should do so despicable an act. Tlie svieji answers 
that he has been undone through his association with the crow. 
In the folklore the story occurs in Rouse's Talking Thrush , 
p. 53, EOS. A swan and a crow are friends. On their vray to 
!lansarowar they perch on a pipal tree. A raja is worshipping 
underneath tlie tree. The crow drops filth on the raja's head, 
and flies av/a^r. The Raja shoots the swan. 

The oral version agrees better with the Pancakhyanavartti- 

lea story tlian with that of the HJbtre . ^ In both eases it is a king 

not a traveler, v;ho kills the swan. In both of them the sv/an 

utters verses; but in aii:o- . he says nothing. These verses are 

very similar. The Sanskrit of the lancakbyanavarttika is as 


ITahTr?f kako maliarajan ho'm.jjohPTrk. vimale jale 

KiGasThg8.prasaTn"Gna Twrtyureva na sa^cayah. 

The vema,cular says: 


Kale naiiiTn ham liailis Imim man Icarat harn bas 
Dlirist kag ke mel som bliayo liaiaaro nas 

I am not a crow, l)ut a swan, dv/elling in Manasarovvar. 
Kirougli mjr association vixth an insolent eroxv, I am destroyed. 

The folktale is probably descended from the PancaMiyana- 
varttika. (Dho question of the king lias been omitted in the 
oral transmission of the story. 

S -a^ 


. RAJPUT iSD THE laiJG. This storir is found in ilarg"\jay)?.*s 
Hitopad^ca III, 7; Vetalapaiicavineati, Ci-vadasas^4, etc. (see * 
Benfey, Pantacliat sjit ra I, p. 414); and in the initih Harneh; 
Keclischilji II, Kosen I, p. 42. In the follclore it is found 
in Draeott^s aimla Village Tales , p. 194; and Pantalu's Folk - 
lore of the Telegas, Bo. 36, p. 77 (according to Eertel, Das 
Pancat antra , p. 68), but as ilo. S7 in Ind. Ant. XX?I, p. 223. 
The literary versions are very clearly divided into tvvo 
classes. In tlie Hitopadeea and VetalapancaTrincati the hero 
is a soldier, sMlled in the use of arms, but neither mentions 
any great ability at archery, which in the Tutinameh is liis 
great accomplishment. The most striking difference, tho, be- 
tv;een tlie two types is this: In Hitopadeea and Vetalapanca- 
vineati, the hero, kills his son. His wife (and daughter) 
die of grief, the here kills himself, and the king, who has 
secretely observed all this, is about to slay himself too, 
wlien the goddess declares herself appeased, grants the king 
his life and revivifies the faithful servitors. In the Tuti- 
nameh, the goddess stops the hero ^ust as he is about to 
sacrifice his son, and no blood is shed. The oral tales both 
follow this latter version, and therefore the first tjrpe ¥/ill 
receive no farther consideration. 

The Tutinameh stoi^r of Hechschibi is as follov/s: /it a 
feast of the king of i'eberistan a stranger appears. In answer 
to inquiries he says he is a soldier, particularly skilled in 
archery, v/ho has auitted his position with the Amir IQiojend to 
take service with tloe king of Teberistan. He is engaged and 

I - 

stands on one leg as sentinel erez^r night. One night the 
Icing sees him and incLiiires who he is. He then commands him 
to find out tlie meaning of the words "I am going" uttered by 
a voice every evening. The king secretljr follOT;s and observes 
tlie sentinel, ^he voice proves to be iiiat of a, woman who is 
the emblem of the 3ci23g»s life, and the \7ora.s mean ths-t she 
is about to QQ-gs.vt because the term of tlie»s life has 
come to an end. Tiie only way to save the king's life is for 
the sentinel to sacrifice his son. He is about to do this 
when the phantom stops him, telling him that C-od has yranted 
an extension of sis:ty years to the king's existence. The king, 
who Ms observed all this, Imstily goes back to await the senti- 
nel. \7hen he asks the soldier the occasion of the noise, the 
modest hero replies that the sounds came from a woman who was 
quarrelling with her husband, but he had 'mcified her and she 
had agreed never to leave her husband's home for sisty jeexB* 
The king reveals his knowledge of the true state of affairs, 
sjid rewards his faithful servitor. 

Although considerably abbreviated, iiiss Draco tt^s story 
exactly agrees with the Persian, even to tloe point of calling 
the king the king of Tabaristan, except for the following points: 
Ti\e sentinel paces up 8Ik3. down instead of standing on one leg; 
the woman calls herself Time not "the emblem of tlie king's life"; 
the king's period of existence is lengthened only seven years, 
not sixty;, the king resigns his throne to tlie hero instead of 
merely revTarding him. There can be no doubt tliat it is a popu- 
lar vei-sion of tlie Persian e a r Ihs; story ol' foimd-rni Lhfe^ HXiidi 


■Tota KaKani, wliicli is a translation of the Persian. This 
latter is probaoly tlie actual parent, and very likely on 
examination v/ould be found to agree with the foll^ale in 
some, if not all, of the points in vfaldh. the Persian differs. 

Pantalu's tale is also related to the 'rutinaraeh or 
■Toti. I-Cahani, rather than the Hitopadeca. It Is shorter than 
Miss Dracott^s. The king is called ICimthihho^a. The wail- 
ing is of tlie tutelary goddess of tiie kingdom, fhe one iltH 
"be appeased is Durga. These, of course, are changes from 
the J^iammedan story to suit the demands of Hinduism. These 
changes may be entirely popular, but it is more likely ths.t 
they are found in some other literary tale modeled on the 
Tota Kahani or Tutinameh, v;hich "l^tor tpliw ser-ves as the 
source of the Telegu fable . 

S> '^y^-^J^^^^^f^U, /r; V/wXJ-.^^ T>^-W;^^ 


Alwis. C. ninhalooe Folklore. Orientalist I, p. 62. 

Araooi. /„ K, Kathalankaraya 

Thiy l)ook iu referred to by p. ;7. de £ilv& in the 
Orientalist and he prints four speoiraens from its 50 
tales. Orientalist II, p. 181. 

^.^>T^ I § :i T - H ^ 



Barlow. See McKjxir and Barloi 

Barnes. A. ;4. The Ked larick. Contains £han Folklore ftories, 

"oollecced "by Z, C. Origgo, PhilBdelpbia, Aiaericar. Baptist 
?a"blic)&tion roGiety, 1903. 

The latter half of this volurae is ra&de up of 9 £han 
stories, MOBtl^^ fairy tales. xhc3 colleotion is of inter- 
est, in Bpit»3 of ita raeagGx-nesfi, for representations of 
folktixles in a oourit;ry, waolo popular lore is as yet "but 
little exploited. 

Bennett, ;7. C. / Legend of Balraiapur, lud. /.nt. I, p. 145. 

Boaaing , 0. fjGO Borapaa, G. H. 

Bompas, C. II. Folklore of the Sontal parganas. Collected by Rev. 
0. Bedding and translated by C. H. Bonpas, London, D. 
IJutt, 1909. 

The work contains 185 Cantnl storien arid in an appen- 
dix 22 stories frora the TColhen fables, faii-y tales, 
oosiaological Icfrends. It is one of the most valuable 
of the Indian collections. 

Burgess, J. A Legend of Snakeworahip frora Bhcunagar in ^:athi£v^d, 
Ind. ;nt. I, p. 6. 

(A Legend of Kelur, Ind. /nt. IX, p. GO.) 


Campbell. ;. Santal Folk Talon. Pokiiuria. Bengal, rantal uisaion 
Preaa, 1691. 

She 23 tales in this book are partly duplicated by 
the larger collection of SantfU tales by ^ir. C. R. Bompas 
The iitoried ir. it are all of interert. 

Chilli. ^:hiaikQh « ?olk-Talefi of Hindustan. End ?.d. Allahabad 
pr-Tjini Office, Bfihadur Ganj, 1913, (1st Kd. 1308). 

'^en stories appeared in Modem Review (zee M, L. 
BaraGs in Folklore XI, p. £48). 

Shere are 11 tales in this voluiae. 

Chltt&Jiah. Vi, I.'. Irolktalen of yontral Provinces, ind. Ant. XX2.Y 
p. 21/;. Only 1 Btory. * 

Version of the Legend of the Clever Builder. Ind. Ant. 
XT., p. 152. 

Cole, y. ?. Sant/ili Fo3.klore. Ind. y.nt. IV, t,x>, lo, 257, t stories. 

Corea, A. E. H . Sinhalese Folklore, Orientalist II, p. 102. 

Crooke. W. Kolktalen of Hindustan, Ind. /nt. XXX, pp. 1C5, 277 
~ 541; XXII, pp. 21, 75, 289, 321; XXIII, p. 78; 2XIY, * 
p. 272. 

lir. Crooke tias given in these citations 11 good 

An Indian Ghost Ctory, Folklore XIII, p. £80 

/ Version of the Gugii Legend, Ind. /nt. XXIV, p. 49 

Folktalett of Uorthern India, Ind. Ant, XXX7, pp. 142-179. 

Here are found 25 stories of the high standard that 
is to be expected in Mr, Brooke's Work. 

Seo also I^oiiair and Barlow ; ^ 

See also Rouse, W. H, I;, 

-=■ -) » S ? (^2. » 

i o<-i Hi |i", I'^'T, /Jc^ /^ /'- 


I-aaant, G. H. 3ongali Folklore, Ind, i.rit. I, pp. 115, 170, 218, 

SH5. 344; II. ^v £V1, 557; III, pp. 9, 3^0, 342; 

IV, pp. 54, 260; ITI. p. 219; IX, p. 1. 

iJr. De^isant colleotod and published altogether 22 
very good fables and fairy talee. 

Day, L. B. ?olk-T&lC3 of Bengal, London, 14aOi;Iillsn and Co., 1913. 

— flat r.d. 1883). 

?his iK oar-, of the older colloctioriS. Its 22 stories 
are fr.iry talctt, with the exoeption of one fable, oiae 
Btory of thieves, and one group of stories about the 
fi-uitc of rashnePG. 

Davids om Folkloro of Chitral, Ind. int. XJax, pp. 214, 246. 

ll«re are 10 fables vdta the text, interlinearly trens- 

Folklore of r.alsette, Ind. Int, XYI. p. 327; XVII 

pp7 15. r>0. 104; Xi::, p. 314; XX, pp. 29. 80, 111, 142, 
183. 332, 192; XXI, pp. 23. 45, 312. S74; XXII. pp. 53. 

O Aatt-, 

243, ?^76, 306; XXIII, p. 17A; XTiVI, p. 337, XXTTII. pp, 
54. 82, 304. 

Here are to be found 21 stories taken froia the native 
Christian coMsunity in the £;alsettG. Thej Ere a queer 
hodge-podge, but plentifully Bupplied \vith interesting 

Draoott. J. K. Siiala Village Tnlea. or Folk ^aies frc» the Himalayas, 

London. John Murray. 1906, 

liiys jjracott's '57 anecdotes, fables, and fairy tales 
coise mostly frow tho KiaalayaB. the others xros ''down 
country". Specific inforiaetion as to tho habitat of 
individual stories is lacking. The collection is valu- 


Klliott. Coe Elliott niid Kor.e. 

Elliott « ;>.G, eiid Koso. a. A. Jhe Chuhi*s or Eat Childi'eii of Peujtb 


ysnaha'am, H. C, i^ollii. Fast awl preaent, London, John ifurrty, 1902. 

Aooording to tir. W. Croolce (Folklore ZIV, p. r>17) 
tliin volijae oontiiina sovei-nl iiiterosting ntories. 

Floes OK, T. i;. LaoB Foik-loro of I'arther India, ilev; York, PleEsing 
H7~li0voll Co.. in09, 

}.li«s Fleonoii iuiH tisaemblecl heiro 4y storioB, some of 
vfhioh iiardiy deserve tixat ueaigxiation, The booK is 
chiefly Wcliuible &s iDoing our onl^ roprenontfttivo frora 


FrdjfQ. Li* Old nocoui- i)ayfi, or, Hiiadoo Fairy Legends, ourrent in 
routherii Indii:, 2n«l. Ed. London, Johii :4urrsy, 1870, 
(Int lAl. 1866). 

If this volxime had no other clftim \iiion our attention 
than ita hiotorioal value as the first oolleotion of folk- 
talos from India, it v;ould be of vital iaport^.rica. ixj.r- 
ther reports, however, of liidiwn ttlen have shovfli that 
it i» thoroughly repreoontacive of popular lore; and it 
is G'iill to bo re^jardod ao intlispen.sablo to the folklore 
otudent. Its? 1:4 Btorioc are first rate illustratioKS of 
both fables and fairy tales. 


Goonotilleko. J. A. Cinlifileno rolkloro, Ortienttlist I, pp.. 117,230, 
2 atorioB are givei. in tliese pltioes. 

Goonetilleko. g> J » i'liUuilesc jolkioro, oriontjilist; I, piu 59, 156; 
II, p. ir>o, 

ThGi'O &re 3 stories here. 

Gooaetillejce, "^ ra. niJiiiKleue Folklore, Orientaliet I, pp. 35, 56, 86, 
ltX7"T3l, lao, 190; II, p. 41. 

Tr. uoor.G^illeico gives all told 8 good stories. 

Tamil folklore, Orieutfelist II, p. £r-. 

Sor dOBy E» I!. Indian Folk S&lesj, bciiifc:; »ide-lightr. ora village life 
In Bllaopore, Central Provinces, liOndon, E. i^tock, 1908. 

Thin book iu aisiotiraed. In its 104 pages Bre found 
only 7 Bhort atorion '■£>. 16, p. 57 f f ) , all, however, 
repre«oritiitive of their typos. 

Grl er8on« G» A, ?wo voroioiis of tiio of Copi Chcnd, J.y..C,3, 
— -TFT, p, 35. 




HahB. y. Blioko in di.e^,Geisteswelt der heidivischer. F.oIp; raiamlimg 
von Cegori, „IterciiQn mid TAadeni der Oraon in Caottx- 
Ilnppur. Gutorsloh, C. BerteltnaBnii, 1906. 

Haughton. H. L» Sport aM Folklore in the Himalcyee, London, E. 
i^rndld, 19i;^. 

HawkeB. E. P » An Inditai Ii«gend, Iv[Edras Journal of Lltorfctiire and 
Toienoe, Xi, p. £74. 

Houghton, £. Folktales; Ind. Ant. 2X11 Lushai, p. 78; Arakcn, p. 

Uc;; ^arcn. j,, iia4, and ZZIII, p. £6. 

Ilhere are ten atories included in these references, 

oight of fcheta Ijeint: frou the Karens. 

Button, J. H . Folktales of tiie AngSini Hagas of ABSfifa. Pollclore 
yJCV. p. 476. 

Here are 21 stories, the sum of our folk-tales froiE 


Jtttfoba. J, Indian P&iry Tales, London, D. llutt, 1692. 

In this? book are P.9 stories, selected by the euthor 
frora various Indian folk-tele aolloctions, x>^^lisf'*ed 
by 1091^, the Jntakti, Ptiiioaton^ra and Hatha Tarit r>£igare, 
Ke has ad.lod Horae good notes. 

Jtiiaea, X. SiniKtlose story in J r> i. S, Ceylon Branch, Montionod by 
J. ?. Lewis, Orientalint, I, p. lyo. 

Jethabhai. Ganenhj i> Indian Polk-loro, Linbdi, Jasw&tBinhji Press, 


Shis Tolutae, which Mr. "'. (Jrooke cfcye is a transla- 
tion of ft GujHi-ati school book f} ollclOi*e XV, p. CG8) , 
contains 34 storios, fables and anecdotes - many of then 
Tory intei'eating. The collection, though, is of little 
iiaportar ce . 


C,l, Deccan iiiU'sery T&lco, or Fairy ?&les frora the Touth, 
jjondon, MeoMillaii end Co., 1904. 

These 20 tales arc periaetited with religious fervor, 
and & nuaber of thea, as in z, li, lifeogi's oollection, 
are told to defend the worship of certain divinities. 

:<lng3oote. Mrs. H. and Pandit i i atosa Sa atri. Tales of the Fun, 
Loiidcn, W. E. i'llen," lOSO. 

This book ooniprisGH a part of Pejadit rmteaa Tastri's 
Large collection («i,v. ]. Of the 26 storief? here one 
iJo. 13) ia the Alakesa Jiatha, or story of the Eing and 
his foux- liinieters, foimd in translation in Clou3ton's 
(Jroiip of Basteri; Borasnees fj.G ^ uories p. 19S (GlfxSgow, 
liodgea and Oo. , 1689), and jmblisaed separately in 
Hadrao, 1H8S, as ''The r^ing and his io\ir Ministers." ill 
but two (lloB, r;I2 and £2; are fouiid in the Ind. /nt. 
Vols. XIII, XIY, XVI, XVII, and aIC, under the name of 
Pandit liateaa Hastri. 

IQiowleB , J. EJLnton . Folk-'j?ftles of Kashrair, 2nd Kd. , London, 
Trubncr'B Oriental Tcriea, 1832, (1st Ed., 1887). 

nine of these taleB appearec) in the Ind. Ant. XIV. 
po. 26, 239; XV, pp. 74, 96, 157, 299, 328; XVI, pp. 66. 
185, 219. 

Ihis collection of 64 anecdote!.^, fables, and fairy- 
tales is oxtreisely valuable. Uhe stories are represen- 
tative, and generally good. t;nd lasny parallels are given. 

I2P.ahiair r.torieo. Orientalist I, pp. 260-284. 

Dictionary of Kaslaair Pro verba and raying^, Bombay, 

Education Society's Press, Loi.don, Trubner and Co. 


Lake Legend of the Central Provinces, Ind. Ant. I, p, 190 

Leitner, G« 7. Dardu Leg-ends, Ind. Ant. I, p. 84. 

Lewi'n, T. U. Progressive Exercisoa in the Lushai Grj^iaaar, C&loutta, 

One tale froia thia work is given by B. Houghton in 
Ind. Ant. XZII, p. 78. Prom hx. Jacob's remark in his 
Indian Fairy Tales, p. ?.?>?. ^ however, I presiuae that 
others are rouiid there. 

LewlB. J. P. Bee Knight, J. 

Cinhalese Btories, Orientalist, II, p. 149. 


Mat! waring. /. ItoratUi Proverbs. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1899. 

?hore aro found ?6 good little r.tories in thlB volume 

pp. IS, 16, 17. ZO, 33. :37. 4J . V;i. G6, 102, IOh, li::9, 

1S6, ISB, 161, 171, 179, 106, 194. 209. £10, £11. 217. 
252, .'^39, 247. 

Maoauliffe, >;. Legend of lili-a BCi, the Ha^ljut Poetess, Ind. Ant. 
'jy.lll, p. 329. 

MB-XV>ell. G. In ISar-ey Foroats, London, Bliickwood, 1907. 

Aoooi-i\:lr.£; to W. W. Skeat (Folklore ZVIII, p. 247) 
this book eonlains 1£ stories. 

SlbHalr, J. /.. /.. smd IBarlo*. i'. L. Oral tradition from the Indus. 
iirighton. Idoft. 

i'his ooijection first published under editorship of 

?. Crooko in Ir.d. Ant. XXIX, pp. 356, 390, 399; and was 
Istor published luidor fcitli) Folk- '1:^00 fxow Indut: Valley, 
odltod by iV. Grooke, Bombay. 19or;. 

In this essoafelage are 18 r.hort tales of consider- 
able int'.*j.'6Ht. 

MeCulloofa. W. Bongali lioaselaold Tales. Lcncusn h-ui iiev; Yorx. dodder, 
5Vfo\ishton and Co., 1911. 

Ill Mr. MoCullocli's book are JiB tales of £.11 kinds. 
Tlieae are all of value intrinsically, but the author has 
made tliem of still laoro v«orth by giving many parallels 
to other Tasterii colloctions, both oral and literary. 
Tie cs{i3to;3 iio px'etencv^, though, to cjcnapletonecs in this 

Mukharji. R. T-. Indian ^olk-Lore, Calcutta, Bharat ITihir Press, 
^^Fltoy, Bagan r,t., 1904. 

In this voluae fiLre found SI stories, including 
fables and fairy tales. Many of these are good, and 
Miike the collootion of lauoh interest. 



MaraaiiMiyen^ar^^^V. i;. The Legend of RlBhya rriHga. IM. Ar.t. Ii. 

This is tlie familiar story of lllah^ Crlfiga told 'oy 
tne prieate to er.hanco the n^ncity of a ahrine. ^ 

^Legend relating to Grey Pumpkins, Ind. Ant. in 
p» Co, * 

Jateaa Haatri, S.^l Polklore in Southori. India, ind. i.nt. Ull 
pp. 1«5. 226. 256. 262. 286; XIV. pp. 77. ICB. IM * 

t^2* ^^' ^^^» P^* l'-^. ^7^. 511; r-:. pp. 78 221 315. 
:LaiI. pp. 339. 585; 2^17. io, 298 366 -xi?' rr ?1 * 
312; rai. pp. '18. 80; XXVIlfp. lesT ' ^^* ^^'' ^^' 

«^ r^-^,?^^* °f ^^ above mentioned tales was publlDhed 
as folklore iai Touther.. India, conipiled and t?analatld 

I'-^'rS v!!Hi''''%°^-;^'''"^^- ^?*®^^^ i.astri. 4 parts, ^onbay. 
1884-1893. In .-Cingsoote'a I'aleB of the Sun. n. v.) 
are to be found 24 of thfici. ^ * 

Psndiv iiatet:^ Ca&tri hnc oorapiled 45 tales, trana- 
iatod laoBtly fton Tarail. being f&blea ard fairy teles 
TliiS 18 a large and important collection. Their 
aathonticity os oral tales, though, is not unquestioned 
?s«f ? ^««c,nnt of their mipericr stylo and the fact ' 
^S-^miL^S^^' ''f }^'' Oun Pandit JIatesa Saotri has not 
scrupled to include ap story iJo. 13 the /.lakese Katha 
a talQ taat is uiulonbt'iaiy literary; fsoo Clouston / 
croup 01 ..asten? Po;.-y.moer., introdnction. p. XXIX *ff. ). 

Keogi, D. Ii jaloa, sacred and secular, oaloutta. P. Mukhop«dhyay 
and r.ons. 46 Bechu Chatter ji St. 1912. P«uayay 

Tho latter half of this book contains about 12 
atoriosi of which a nuaber are devoted to preaching the 
value 01 the worship of certain divinities. 


O'Connor. W. F. ?, Polk-[^ales froni ^ibet. London, Hurst and 
Blaokett, 1907. 

This good GOlleotion of 22 fables and ftiry tnles 
is our sole represertative of Tibetan folklore. 


Pajaabokke^ T, B. Sinluilese Folklore, orientalist II, p. 174. 
2 atoi'le? . 

P&nt&lu, C, 1'.. Subrtral^h . iiot-es on the Folklore of the Toleguo, 
Infl. int. :aVl, pp. .55. 109, 137, 167. 2^3. 252, 504; 
X}:VIII. p. 155; XJJIII, p. 274. 

3!ho3« stories are publighod in book forrs under the 
title of .I'olklorP of tho Teli^gua , Madrt-s G, A. iiatefian 
tij.d Co., iSDplfcnade. 

ThiR yollectior. of 43 ntorlef5 conteins « vory high 
peroei'tage of ffcbles, soes of tiieia ao near literary 
prototypeB as to cause suspioion of their genuineness. 

i'Olkioi-e o-.r %\je :?eleguf3, Ind. Ant. JXil?, pp. 87, 12^. 

!l'-v5o stories ere found under these references. 

gB-rkor, H. Village «'olic-talet? ol Ceylon, 3 vols., London, Luzac 
and Co., 1910-1914. 

Kr. Parker's laontuaonuai vvork is tuicloubtedly -Jhe best 
tiilnir done i;et in the oolleuting of Xiidian folktales. 
1 13 itoo ntories, wjiny of theia with variants, put Ceylon 
far {ibove any other section of India in ooaapleteness of 
nuiabar of reported tales. The aathox* has taken pains 
to glTo parallols for hia taleo, drawing them xroia other 
Indi&ri folktale connBotions, of v.h.loh uo is faiailiar 
Witt siiny, tat; Kutha aarit ragara and liitopadoca, and 
the Buddhist books. Tho thoroughriosu with rshich he has 
looked for sniiloguos is especially noticeable in respect 
to the Jatoka storioa, and Chavannea's Cinq Cents Contes 
et Apolo^es Ghinoin. Each volume has a good index. 

Einhalene Folklore, Orientalist II, pp. 26, 53. 
Pedlow, M. R. JFolklore of Contra]. Provinces, Ind. i'nfc. JwCVII, p. 

per era, A. /■. Tjlnghalese Folk-tales and Legends, Ind. Ant, XKXIII, 
p7 23f:. 

2 stories. 

Phillip s, J. I*, folklore of the Santals, Orientalist I. p. 261; 
II, p. 24. 

a stories. 


Pierls> H. i'., Sinhalese Folklore, Orieritt;.list I, pp. 1J54, 2i: 
2 stories. 

-^X^^^J^**^ ^ ^- "T-^^ 1^-^o(>-<i. t^^^^vUjct-- ^ ■O.'W-^^ t'^ 1 


\ I ^ - • 4 

Raaabsl . f Under^initlals K.L.M. ) Ind. /.nt. ZVI, pp. 154 261 
288, 291. * * 

4 religious legends. 

Raraaswami, T.&ja^ £ , 7^ Indian J^ables, Srd Ed., London, £. Donnen- 
schein andCo. , 1901, (1st Ed. 1887; End Ed. 1901). 

Here are found lo6 ftibles. If tne author h&gr onDy 
toi.0 ufi the hahitat cf his various stories, the irat»ort- 
anc« of the work would be doubled. As it is the book 
is of lauch service. 

Rosairo, A. d e. -JJaHil Folklore, Orientalist II, p. 183. 

Rose, H. A. Legends of Moiian Hari, Ind. /nt. XXXVIl, p. 110. 

Mooiye ki Har, or Bar. Ind. Ant. X2XYII, p. 299; 
:<:XC7TII, po. 40. 69. .It 

Legend of aohan Bari, Ind. Ant. ZXX7II, p. lie. 

Ballad of the Ilaklas of Gujrat in the Pan jab Ind. Ant. 
XUVlj. , p. 209. J , i . 

Legend of Khan Kbwas and 3her Shah, the Cfaf<ngalla 
O^ghal) at Lei hi. Ind. Ant. XilXVIII, p. 113? 

These are long-winded poeaa. 

See also Elliott ai.d Kose. 

Rose. H. A. and Teia ple , R. C. r,ee Temple, Legends of the Pan jab. 

Roy, 3. G. '.lUie Ijmdas ar;d tiioir Comitri^. Culoutta, Cit^ }3ook 
Sooioty, 1912. (ffcy be obtained from [^hacker, •'^■ojnk 
and Co. ) 

In tho back of this arolune are -cwo eosraogonioal and 
hiv^torioal legends ox the Ljundas. 

Rouse. ?. H. i; The Talking ^hx^ush, arid other tales from India, 
colTeGted_ by W. Crooke and retold by M. H. L. Rouse,' 
2nd ISd. , oiOndon, J. M. Lent and Co.. 1902, (1st Ed.*1899). 

The 43 beast fables in this voluae are excellent 
speoiniens of their class. 


4 Jr-e^->t^^ 

.W*'-^^#W S ervt-'y^sJi^ 

t^ret^^4<^^'4 . Yn^ ' ^. 

iJrsi-^K. . ^w^.^ T^iJiei^^^: /^ y^^^^^ ^^^ 3^y 

/' -^ 

SenHimyaigi, A. 11, iiotoB ori Boiae_CinhalGse proverbR end stories 
found in the "/.tlte-"j:ipf.niyii" reviewed by E. 'nhite in 
tiao Orientalist I, p. 236. 

2hia its the only reference I have found to this work. 

Sinhalese Folklore. T'&o anonyraous stories uMer this title from 
^tp. Literary »Suppleraent to the Examiner. Orientalist 
II. p. 147. 

Slvaaanfeu'^-u, T. Telegu Folklore, Ind, Ant. XiJCV, p. 31. 
The ctory of the Uujitor tmd the Doves. 

Skeat, ;7. Pableo and Folk-:i?ales frora an Eastern lorent, Ctrabridge 

Jr.iver.sity PreBa, 1901. 

The 26 ytoriey, nearly nil of theza fablesi, in this 
little book of La*. Skeat' s are, with only a vex-y few 
e^toeptiony, of high quality. The book is further to be 
appreoiated as our representative from Malay. 

Siaeaton, B. M. The Loyal Earenr. of Burraah, London, Kegan Paul, 
!J?ronoh and Co., 1806. 

Dr. Jacobs (Indian Fairy Tales p. 232) reiaarks that 
this book containn severt-1 atoiiea. Outside of his 
statement I have no inforraetion about it, 

Srlkant a liyar , X, jfolk-tale Bbout the JToimttis, liid. /nt. 2X1, 


St«ol, F. -t-. and Teap le, K. C. 

PSDJEb stories (21] Ir^ . /r.t. a, pp. 205, 280. 382; 

X, pp. 40, 80. 147, 226, 531. 347; II. pp. 32, 73, 163. 

226; ZII. pp. 289, 302. 21 stories. 

IQiahiJiir stories, Ind, Int. XI, pp. 9 stories. 

"iifiaeawake rtories Borabay, Education Sooi^ty's Press, 
London, Trubner and Co., 1884. 

This book is still especially valuable, being excel- 
led only by Parker' c Villatje Folk-talofi of Oeylon. It 
contains 43 stories, taken froLi the two collections noted 
above ai^d [Teraple'a Legenda of the P&njab, with a few new 
stories. These include fables, cunuaketive rimes, and 

fairy tales. The peculiar value of tho book, howevor, 
lies in the Survey of Incidents in ths beck of the book, 
wiiich covers fairly well iVideawake Ctories, M. Stokoa's 
Inditn Fairy Teles, M. Frore's Old Deocjin Lays, L. B. 
ray's Folk- Tales of iiongal, li, c. I'emple'n Legends of 
the pan jab, and G. ii. Daiaant's Bengal Tales? in the Ind. 
iinc. (a.v. >. 

FolictaloH of t;he' Punjab, Boraljay, 1908. Shis is a new 
edition of Wideawake Stories. 

SSeele, .:. Kuaa Jatakaya, a x-.iddhis tic Legend, London, IZrubnor 
and Co. , 1871. 

In the back of this volurae are 14 Sinhalese folk- 

talea, raor-.t of thi)V. .frooi, lv.O .?om<- of thois not rom^esent- 
ed in Parker ^s work. 

Ijtokec. ::. Inciiiui Fairy [Taleo, London, Ellis ard vvhite, 1860. 3^ 

JIi88 r,tckes*c volmac coiit.'.vlr.R r>0 gcod ft.blen and 
fairy tales. It is a representative and valuable col- 

Swynnerton, C. KoraEmtio Tele^j froa the Panji-b with Indian iiight's 
Entortainiaent, London, ;., 1908. 

This is an ouition in one volume of Swynnerton's F:o- 
raantic 'I-alos fi'oia tho Pan jab, London, Constable, 1905; 
and his Indian lUght's Entertainsent, London, K. Ctock. 
1898. ' . t » 

There are 37 anecdoten, fables, fairy tales and 
heroic legends in this voltuae. Of the collections with- 
• out notes and parallels it has the best selection of 
stories yet published. 2he versioi of the Kasalu 
legends is ecj^eoially iLlne. 

./ fev" 6f these stoiie? apooiU'od ix: J i. SB, vol. LII, 
p. 81. 

; 6> 

Talej&rken. P« /.. Legend of Vellor, Ind. Ant. II, p. 172. 

Taw Seln Ko. Buriaese Folklore, Iml. int. 2.YIII, p. 275; 2IX, p. 
^7; x:aX, p. 159. 

Tiiree jitoriaf! are found in t'caao plfices. 

Teiaple, R. C. Legendr. of the Panjf^-b, " vols. Borabny, Kdxzcttion 
Hooiety's Press, London, Tru"bner's, 1864-1866. 

In tlie early days of tlie study of Indian folklore, 
Capt&in (noH Sir) Rioliard C. Teiaple collected urA pub- 
lirLed thrne 5ii kerolo aj.'l feli£,lous lef^endc-, translet- 
ing thorn froa the Panjabi verso. Some of thera have 
bnan incluOod in r,"ide-£v/ake HtorioB. The colleotion is 
of Much ii?3port*tnce. 

Teaple, R. C . end Bose, H. A. Legends from Panj'fb, Ind. Ant. 2XXV, 

p7~S0(Ti~2XXVII, p. 149; ZXXVIII. pp. 81. 211; XiXIX, p. 1. 

4 i-'anjubi legends. 

See S! Ceel and Teisple. 

Thorn hill. M. Indisn Fairy T&les, London, Ha to herds, ia89. 
Beyond the title X know nothing of this book. 

Thorntoii, Bti-imu 

^Hhis book is refcrrod to in Lr, Jacob's Indit-n Fairy 
tales fp, Esr) as containing i^ few stories, I can not 

find it in ti-.c; iSritiyh ctitaiogua of uooks. 

Yenkatti 8w&ral . U. K. Folktales of Central Provinces, Ind. Ant, 

XXXV, p. 244; :LXV, pp. 40, 109; XXVI. pp. 54, 104, 133. 
1S6. 165. 19i3, 280; jaVIII. p. 195; XXX, pp. SI, 110, 
200; 7w.r(I, p. 447; XXrill, p. 97. 

This collection of 23 atoriea is in general good, it 
compriBea fables unci fairy talee. 

Follclore from Dakshina l^esa ZXXIV, p. SIC. 

Puli r.aja, or the Tiger prince fe Couth Indiaai Etory) 
FojJklor'S ZIII, p. 79. 

7eriketav;a.7il. 3ee TiJafcBt&sv/anii , M. li. 

Tlguvariath&glll^-l. '!-l. Ttuail Polkloro, Drionteliat II, p. 145. 

^ »1 

Wafldell, L. A. Folklore in Tibet, Ind. Int. XXV, p. 105. 

Wedls. g. T. K. Folklore in Western India. Ind. /nt, XIV, p. 311; 

XvTpp. 2, 46, 171. 2£1, S6I); XVI, pp. fiS , 18G» £10, 

322; XVII, pp. 75. 128; SVIII. pp. 21, 146; XIX, p. 152; 
ZX, p. 107; x:a. p. IGO; 7J:II, pp. 213. 315; XXIII, p. 

bouc of tiiese 2C* etorieo are good. The rest are fall 
of fuiTllitir inoidentii bjit todlouB. 

Watson. J. \Y. Story of Rani Plngld. Ind. II, p. 215. 

Legend of tho Rani Tunk, Ind. Ant. IX, p. 3S9. 

Wo od. / . In and Oiit of Chend?. Tdln'burg'h, Foreign ffisBion Board, 

/t tiio eiid of tfiiB siaell vol\;aAe are 5 eswellent 


William Norman Brown, only son of George William and Virginia 

A. (Clark) Brown, was torn in Baltimore, Llaryland, June 24, 1892, 

He receivei his early education in Princeton, Missouri, and in 

India, where he lived from Octoher, 1900^ to Llay, 1905, attending 

schools there at Landour, -lussoorie, United Provinces oT Agra and 

Oudh, and at Harda, Central Provinces, and at Jabalpur, Central 

Provinces, He prepared for college at Hiram College Preparatory 

School, Hirsun, Ohio, and entered ^Johns Hopkins University in 

October, 1908, graduating in 1912 with the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts. In October, 1912, he entered the graduate school of the 
Johns Hopkins University, which he has attended continuously up to 
the present time as a student of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, 
Arabic, and Oriental History. He held the university fellowship in 
Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in the years 1913-14 and 1914-15, 
and a fellowship by courtesy in the year 1915-16. He has been ap- 
pointed to a Harrison Research Fellowship in Indo-European Phil- 
ology at the University of Pennsylvania for the year 1916-17, 


° Panoatantra in Modern Indian 

2, iilB