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HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
TORONTO PRESS 



MODERN 



LANGUAGE NOTES. 



A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT, 

MANAGING EDITOR. 

JAMES W. BRIGHT, JULIUS GOEBEL, 
HENRY ALFRED TODD, 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS. 




VOLUME III. 
1888. 



BALTIMORE : THE EDITORS. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ORIGINAL ARTICLES. 

To Our leaders 1 

Gerber, Adolph, Modern Languages In the 

University of Prance, 1 1-10 

Cook, A. 8., Notes on Old English Words 

[ Cumbol. Mittan, Milting] 11-13 

Wells, Benj. W., Strong Verbs in Aelfric's 

Judith 13-15 

Dodge, Daniel Kilham, On a Verse in the Old 

Norse "HOfudlausn" 16-18 

McElroy, Jno. G. 11., Matter and Manner in 

Literary Composition 57-06 

Gerber, Adolph, Modern Languages in the 

University of France, II 66-73 

Bright, James W., The Anglo-Saxon bdmlan 

and wrasen 73 

McCabe, T., Modern Languages at Cambridge 

University, England 74-75 

Schelling, Felix E., The Fifth Annual Con- 
vention of the Modern Language Asso- 
ciation of America 76-81 

Wightman, Jno. R., Convention of the Mod- 
ern Language Association of Ontario. . . 81-82- 

Bowen, B. L., Correction to Whitney's 
French Vocabularies 

Dodge, Daniel Kilham, The Study of Old 

Danish 113-115 

Todd, H. A., Apropos of Les Trois Mors et 

Trois Vis 115-118 

Carpenter, Wm. H., A Fragment of Old Ice- 
landic 117-123 

Wells, Benj. W., Sigf ried-Arminius 124-126 

Schmidt, H., Cl, Gl > Tl, Dl in English Pro- 
nunciation 126-130 

Egge, Albert E., Scandinavian Studies in the 

United States 131-135 

Bright, James W., Thraf-caik 138-139 

Karsten, Gustaf , The/ in French Soif, Bief, 

Moeuf, etc 169-178 

Wells, Benj. W., Strong Verbs in Aelfric's 

Saints, 1 178-185 

Garner, Samuel, The Gerundial Construction 

in the Romanic Languages, III 185-192 

Schmidt, H., Postscript to Cl, Gl > Tl, Dl in 

English Pronunciation 192 

Hart, J . M., Macaulay and Carlyle 225-237 

Karsten, Gustaf, Dantesca. Osservazioni su 

alcuni pafaggi del la Divina Commedia. 237-245 

Dodge, Daniel Kilham, The Personal Pro- 
noun in the Old Danish ' Tobiae Com- 
edie.'.. 245-247 

Schneegans, Heinrich, Die Romanhafte 



Itiuhtung dor Aluxlualegende In alt- 
fnmzoHlHchi-n und mlttHluM h.|<-utm-ln-n 

Gedichten, 1 247 284 

Dwells, Benj. W., Strong Verbs In Aclfrlc'i 
Saints, II 

Garner, Samuel, The Gerundial Coi>8truction 

in the Romanic Language r. ... 388-270 

McCabe, T., The Use of the Feminine In the 
Romance Languages to express on in- 
definite neuter 270-874 

White, Horatio 8., The Seminary System In 

Teaching Foreign Literature 287-307 

Schneegans, Heinrich, Die Komunhafte 
Richtung der Alexiuslegende in alt- 
franzosischen und mittelhochdeutech- 

... enGedichten.il 307-327 

/Elliott, A. Marshall, Origin of tin- minx- 

^^' Canada.' 327-3t5 

Schmidt, H., ' Sally fn our Alley' and a Ger- 
man Student Song 345-347 

Todd, H. A., A traditionally mistranslated 

passage in Don Quijote 347-848 

Otto, Richard, Zwei altcatalanische Rechta- 

formulare 349-350 

. Kent, Charles W., The Anglo-Saxon bvrh and 

byrig , 351353 

Spencer, Frederic, Corrections in Uartech's 
Glossary (La Lanyut et la Littfrature 
Fran$ahes : Paris, 1887) 253-254 

Sheldon Grandgent, Phonetic Compensa- 
tions : 354-874 

Cook, Albert S., Errata in the Sievers Cook 

Old English Grammar 374 

Karsten, Gustaf, The origin of the suffix -re 

in French ordre, coffre, pampre, etc.. . 374-378 

Warren, F. M., D6sir6 Nisard and the History 

of Literature 370-380 

. Cook, Albert 8., English Rimes 417-439 

Garner, Samuel, The Gerundial Construction 

in the Romanic Languages, V 436-487 

Bright, James W., The Verb toftU 437-438 

Dodge, Daniel Kilham, The pronouns in the 

Old Danish ' Tobiae Komedie.' 438-441 

Karsten, Gustaf, The Third Annual Neuphi- 

lologentag 481-488 

Spencer, Frederic, The Old French Manu- 
scripts of York Minster Library 488-496 

Schneegans, Heinrich, Das Verhtlltniss der 
Franzosischen von Herz hcrausgege- 
benen Alexiuslegcnde zu ibren lau-ini. 
schen Quellen 406-500 

Fruit, J. Phelps, The Evolution of Figures 

of Speech 501-506 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



REVIEWS. 

Colbeck, C., The Teaching of Modern Lan- 
guages in Theory and Practice. [Edw. 
S. Joynes] 

Cledat, L., La Chanson de Roland. [J. A. 
Fontaine) 

Schilling, Hugo, Noch Einmal Meissner- 
Joynes, I 

Rajna, Pio, Osservazioni Sull'alba bilingue "| 
del Cod. Regina,1462 [F. M. Warren}. I 

Rajna, Pio, Un'Iscrizione Nepesina, del | 
1131. IF. M. Warren] J 

Korting, Gustav, Neuphilologische Essays. 
[H. Scmidt] 

Chauveau, Pierre, Frederic Ozanam, Sa Vie 
et Ses Oeuvres. [Chas. H. Grandgent}. 

Schroer, M. M. Arnold, Wissenschaft und 
Schule in ihrem VerhBltnisse zur prakti- 
schen Spracherlernung. [A . Lodemari} . 

Schilling, Hugo, Noch Einmal Meissner- 
Joynes, II 

Joynes, Edw. S., Audi Alteram Partem 

Fortier, Alcee, Quatre grands poetes du 19e 
Siecle. [A. Du Four] 

Saintsbury, George, A History of Elizabethan 
Literature . [//. E. Shepherd] 

Wrede, Ferdinand, Ueber die Sprache der 
Wandalen . [ Julius Goebel] 

Lorentz, Alfred, Die erste Person Pluralis 
des Verbums im AltfranzBsischen. [H. 
Schmidt] 

Hoemer, Jean, The Origin of the English 
Language. [H. C. G. von Jagemann].. 

Becker Mora, Spanish Idioms with their 
English Equivalents, embracing nearly 
ten thousand Phrases. [H. It. Lang] . . . 

Seret, W. A., Grammar and Vocabularies"! 
of VolapUk I 

Sprague, Charles E., Hand-Book of Vola- |" 
ptik . [ Wm. Hand Browne] J 

Paris Ulrich, Merlin, roman en prose du 
XHIe Siecle. [F. M. Warren] 

Tobler, Adolf, Die Berliner Handschrift des 
Decameron. [P. E. Marcou] 

Woodward, F. M. English in the Schools. 
[Edward 8. Joynes] 

Becker Mora, Spanish Idioms with their 
English Equivalents, embracing nearly 
ten thousand Phrases, II. [H. B. Lang] . 

Balg, G. H., A Comparative Glossary of the 
Gothic Language. [Hans C. G. von 
Jagemann] 

Treis, Dr. Karl, Die Formalitaten des Ritter 
schlags . [J. A. Fontaine] 

Lange, Franz, Freytag's Die Journalisten, 
Lustpiel in vier Akten. [O. B. Super] 

Skeat, Rev. Walter M., The Gospel according 
to Saint Matthew in Anglo-Saxon, Nor- 
thumbrian, and Old Mercian Versions. 
[Albert S. Cook.] 

Ycld, Rev. Charles, Florian's Fables. [Ed- 
ward S. Joynes] 

Socin, A., Schriftsprache und Dialekte im 
Deutschen nach Zeugnissen alter und 
neuer Zeit. [H. C. G. Brandt.] 

Kluge, F., Von Luther bis Lessing. [H. U. 
G. .] 

v. Reinhardstoettner, C., Italian Literature 
in Bavaria. [F. M. Warren.} 



18-33 
23-34 
25-38 

29-32 



41-42 

84-88 
88-94 

94-96 

96-99 

99-102 

102-104 
139-143 

143-150 
150-153 

154-158 

159 

194-195 

196-203 

203-207 
207-209 
209-212 

274-277 
277-579 

279-281 
281-282 
282-384 



Wunderlich, Dr. Hermann, Untersuchung- 
en ueber den Satzbau Luthers. 

[Charles Bundy Wilson.] 284-285 

Dodge, Daniel Kilham, Correspondence.... 285-287 
Morley, Henry, English Writers. [James 

M. Garnett.] 380-387 

Karsten, Gustaf, The Study of Romance 

Philology 387-393 

Collar Eysenbach, Graded German Lessons. 

[ W. H. Uarruth.} 393-398 

Diez, Friedr., Etymologisches WOrterbuch 

der Romanischen Sprachen. [E. S. 

Sheldon.] -399 

Goedeke, Karl, Grundriss zur Geschichte der 

deutschen Dichturig aus den Quellen. 

[Julius Goebel.] 399-400 

Sawyer, Wesley C., Complete German Man- 
ual for High Schools and Colleges. [M, 

D. Learned.] 400-403 

Skeat, Walter W. , Correspondence 404 

Odin, A., Phonologic des patois du Canton de 

Vaud. [J. Sturzinger.] 441-446 

Joynes Meissner, German Grammar. [H. 

Schilling.] , 446-450 

Xanthippus, Was ddnkt euch urn Heine ? 

(Dr. E. Mahrenholtz.] 450-453 

Hunt, Th. W., Caedmon's Exodus and Daniel. 

[James W. Bright.} 453-456 

Horning, Adolf, Die ostf ranzoesischen Grenz- 

dialekte zwischen Metz und Belfort. 

[A. M. Elliott.] 457-464 

Sawyer's ' Complete German Manual ' again. 464-467 
Vietor, Dr. Wilhelm, EinfUhrung in das 

Studium der Englischen Philologie mit 

RUcksicht auf die Anforderungen der 

Praxis. [ W. E. Simonds.} . 505-508 

Michaelis, H., Novo Diccioiiario da lingua 

portugueza e allemS, enriquecido com 

os termos technicos do Commercio e da 

Industria, das Sciencias e das Artes, e 

da Linguagem Familiar. [Henry Ji. 

Lang.] 509-516 

Novati, F., Un Nuovo ed un Vecchio Fram- 

mento del Tristran di Tommaso. [F. 

M. Warren.] 517-521 

Preyer, W., Naturforschung und Schule. 

[A. Lodeman.} 521-523 

CORRESPONDENCE : 

Payne, William Morton 83-84 

Schele De Vere, M 135-136 

Davidson, Thomas 137 

-Corson, Hiram, A Passage of ' Beowulf ' 193-194 

Otto, Richard, Modern Language Professor- . 

ships in Germany 

Lang, H. R., Spanish Atestar 

B(rowne), W. H., Derides 

Monk, Should a Poet be a Philologist ? 

Ingraham, A., 'As She is Spoke ' 

BRIEF MENTION. 
42-53, 104-109, 159-ia5, 212-230, 287-293, 404-414, 470-475, 

523-532. 
PERSONAL. 

53-54, 166, 220-333, 393-394, 475-478, 533-534. 

OBITUARY. 

333, 294, 534. 

JOURNAL NOTICES. 

55-56, 110-112, 167-168, 223-224, 395-296, 415,-416, 479-480, 
535-536. 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 



Baltimore, January, 1888. 

TO OUR READERS. 

It is no less a privilege than a pleasure to 
talk to earnest, sympathizing friends about an 
enterprise for whose success they have practi- 
cally worked ; and the editors of MODERN 
LANGUAGE NOTES desire at the beginning of 
the third year to tender thanks to their col- 
laborators, and to all well-wishers who have 
so cheerfully aided them in passing the test- 
year of a journal's existence. So cordial and 
liberal has been the support of the undertak- 
ing, both on this and the other side of the 
Atlantic, that the editors feel encouraged to 
renew their pledge to the public for an ad- 
vance in the variety and quantity of material 
to be presented. Two years of experience in 
editorial matters have shown that the modern 
languages in America have a scholarly follow- 
ing and that their friends are able and, it is 
believed, willing to sustain a publication of 
more extended proportions than that which 
has hitherto been issued. To prepare the 
way for this, the price has been increased by 
one-third, and in the future the NOTES will 
be conducted on as liberal a scale as this 
change may warrant. The various publishers 
both here and in Europe have been prompt, 
as- a rule, in forwarding their recent publica- 
tions for notice in these columns. With their 
continued co-operation and that of individual 
contributors, it is hoped to make the NOTES 
more and more reflect the wishes, plans and 
doings of American scholars occupied with 
modern linguistics in whatever direction, and 
to bring to their notice all the chief home 
and foreign publications for the three depart- 
ments, those of the English, Germanic and 
Romance languages, especially represented 
here. 



MODERN LANGUAGES IN THI 

UNIVERSITY OF FRANCI.. 

I. 

University de France is the name of the vast 
organization which comprises all establish- 
ments of public instruction from the facnltes 
of the capital down to the ecole maternelle or 
infant class of the primary school in the re- 
motest village of the provinces. At the head 
of this body is the minister of public instruc- 
tion, who has the title of grand-master of the 
university. He is assisted by the conseil su- 
p'erieur de Finstruction publique, a council of 
sixty members, and about twenty inspecteiirs 
ghieraux. To facilitate the administration the 
country is divided into sixteen educational dis- 
tricts, called academies. At the head of each 
of these, with the exception of that of Paris, is 
a recteur, who in his turn is aided by an aca- 
demical council and inspecteurs d'academic. 
These authorities watch over all branches of 
education, and together with the prefects, ap- 
point or dismiss all teachers ; the superior 
council deliberates and prescribes the methods 
and the plans of study for all schools. 

By the side of the -university are the ecoles 
libres, and in consequence of the law of 1875 
now also a few facultes libres. The ecoles 
libres, especially those directed by the clergy, 
enjoy still the patronage of a great portion of 
the nation. The state has excluded all priests 
and members of religious orders from the pub- 
lic schools, but it cannot interfere with their 
teaching in their own establishments, as long 
as they do not violate the laws or the constitu- 
tion. It has, however, reserved to itself, that is, 
to the university, the exclusive right of examin- 
ation for all certificates valuable in public life, 
and that of conferring all academic degrees. 

An important aid for the study of the govern- 
ment schools is afforded by the publication 
through Delalain Freres of a great number of 
the plans of study and programs of the condi- 
tions of admission to schools and examinations. 
The publishers have made these particularly 
valuable by adding many official documents, 
such as the reports of committees of the 
Superior Council and regulations of the minis- 
ter of public instruction, which show both the 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



motives that have led the council to determine 
the plans and programs, and the spirit in which 
the minister would have them applied. 

From these documents we discover at once 
that the measures of the distinguished Council 
are dominated by a spirit of reform. They 
are making earnest efforts to have the educa- 
tion of France keep pace with that of other 
nations, and do not hesitate to adopt from the 
neighbouring countries, especially Germany, 
whatever is conformable to the national 
genius. Though they may not have avoided 
mistakes by their frequent, perhaps too fre- 
quent, changes of program, they certainly 
realize to the full the great value of the study 
of modern languages and give them an im- 
portant place in schools and examinations. 

The instruction is either primary (Enseig- 
nement primaire}, or secondary (Enseigne- 
ment secondaire), or of university rank (Enseig- 
nement superieur). 

We will consider the training schools for 
teachers along with that grade of schools for 
which they prepare. 

I. PRIMARY INSTRUCTION. 

There are two grades of primary schools ; 
the ecoles priinaires elementaires and the 
ecoles priinaires superieures; in case there is 
need for instruction beyond the lower grade, 
u ithout the erection of a full ecole primaire 
superieure being expedient, a cours com- 
plemcntaire may be connected with the ele- 
mentary school. A complementary course has 
usually one year and at most two; an ecole 
primaire superieure must have two years, and 
is called de plein exercice in case it comprises 
three or more. In the lower grade modern lan- 
guages are excluded from the complementary 
courses. They are desirable but can be dis- 
pensed with ; in the higher grade one language 
is compulsory, and four hours a week through- 
out the school are devoted to it. 

The course aims at the elements of a prac- 
tical knowledge of the language. Without 
neglecting grammar, parsing, oral and written 
composition, special stress is laid upon 
conversation on topics of every-day life, man- 
ual labor and travel, and on the writing of 
simple business letters. Candidates for the 
certificat deludes primaires superieures have 



to pass an oral examination in a modern lan- 
guage. 

I. ECOLES NORMALES PRIMAIRES. 

The primary normal schools are training 
schools instituted to supply the contingent of 
teachers necessary for, the primary schools. 
According to the law of 1879 every depart- 
ment must be provided with two normal 
schools, one for men and the other for women ; 
two departments may, however, unite in estab- 
lishing one or both of these schools. The 
course in these institutions comprises three 
years. At the close of the first year, the stu- 
dents must pass an examination for the brevet 
elementaire, which opens the way to a position 
in an e cole primaire elementaire ; at the end 
of the third year they can present themselves 
for the examinations of the brevet superieur, 
required of teachers of an ecole primaire 
superieure. 

The plans of study promulgated Aug. 3d, 
1881, assign for an optional study of modern 
languages two hours a week for three years in 
the normal schools for men, and two hours a 
week for two years in the normal schools for 
women. 

While a special intimation appended to a 
circular of Oct. 18, of the same year, represents 
this study as exceedingly desirable though not 
required for the brevet superieur, an edict of 
Dec. 30, 1884, renders some knowledge of a 
modern language compulsory. The candi- 
dates for this brevet have to be able to trans- 
late at sight twenty lines of an easy text which 
they may choose from English, German, Ital j 
ian, Spanish or Arabic. 

2. ECOLES NORMALES PRIMAIRES SUPERIEU- 
RES. 

There are two training schools for professors 
of primary normal schools ; one for men and 
another for women. That for men is estab- 
lished at Saint Cloud, the one for women 
at Fontenay-aux-Roses near Paris. The course 
in each of these two schools extends over 
two years and is divided into the two sections 
of letters and sciences. 

The candidates for a professorship of sciences 
are not examined in modern languages ; those 
for a professorship of letters, however, have to 
translate German or English texts at sight and 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 



answer grammatical questions; the list of 
authors from which the text may he taken is 
fixed every three years. After Jan. i, 1888, 
there wHl he added to the oral examination an 
English or German composition (thtme et 
version.} 

In concluding these few statements on the 
primary school system of France we may re- 
mark that the study of modern languages 
naturally could not have a very large place in 
the primary schools themselves, but that it is 
constantly progressing among the teachers. 

II. SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 
The secondary instruction of the boys is 
divided into the .Enseignement secondaire 
classique and the Ensignement secondaire 
special; to these has been added as a third 
division the Enseignement secondaire desjeu- 
nes.fi lies. All three branches of instruction 
are given in the lycees de r Etat and colleges 
connnunaux, but while the first and second are 
mostly united in the same establishment, they 
are always strictly separated from the third. 
According to the salaries of the professors the 
institutions may be arranged in five groups. 
The lyceums of Paris, Vanves and Versailles 
stand highest, then follow the first, second and 
third categories of lyceums in the depart- 
ments, and last the communal colleges. Being 
of the lowest grade, the colleges have many 
professors that, are only bacheliers, while the 
lyceums of the departments now require at 
least licencies, and those of Paris, Vanves and 
Versailles agreges. The lyceums for boys are 
directed by proviseurs and censeurs, the 
colleges for boys by principaux, the colleges 
and lyceums for girls by directrices. 

I. CLASSICAL INSTRUCTION. 

The classical course of the lyceums has ten 
classes de lettres and two (or three*) classes 
superieures des sciences. The candidate for 
the baccalaureat es lettres goes through all 
the literary classes, that for the baccalaureat "es 
sciences can leave the literary classes to the 
end of the flasse de troisitme and, after an ex- 
amination in the studies of that class, passes 
through the classes of mathematiques prepa- 
ratoires and mathematiques elemcntaires ; the 
third scientific class, called mathematiques spe- 
ciales, is not necessary for the baccalaureate. 



1 '.i -fon- ih. r.-furms of 1880 and 1884, the 
literary classes had eight years of Latin and 
six of Greek, and, therefore, might h. 
compared to the German Gymnasium with its 
nine years of Latin and seven years of Greek . 
Now the classical languages h.iv l n re- 
duced so much, in favor of a greater amount 
of French, sciences, history and modern lan- 
guages, that the literary classes stand betv 
the Gymnasium and the Realgymnasium, 
while the scientific course, but for its deficiency 
in modern languages and a plus in Greek, 
would resemble the Realgymnasium. The 
candidates for the baccalaureat h lettres are 
becoming so poor in Latin and Greek that the 
friends of classical culture ardently wish for a 
truly classical course. 

The study of one modern language for the 
classical students take up only one modern 
language commences at once in the division 
elementaire, where four hours a week are 
assigned to it. The pupils are supposed to be 
from eight to ten years old, and the method 
is made to suit the age. The work centres in 
easy reading and conversation and training in 
pronunciation, while a systematic study of the 
elements of grammar begins only in the third 
year. In English they read stories from Miss 
Edgeworthand Day's 'Sandford and Merton,' 
in German, Krummacher's ' Parabeln ' and C. 
v. Schmid's ' Erzahlungen.' 

In the division de grammaire the classical 
languages hold the first place and the modern 
language is reduced by two hours a week. The 
systematical study of grammatical forms and 
syntax is completed, and in English enlarged 
by some notions on word-formation. To 
this is added oral and written composition 
(theme oral et e"crit) and from the classe de 
cinquieme also written translation into French 
(version). In English are read among other 
works Walter Scott's ' Tales of a Grandfather,' 
B. Franklin's Autobiography, De Foe's 'Robin- 
son Crusoe,' Washington Irving's ' Voyages of 
Columbus ; ' in German, Herder and Liebes- 
kind, ' Palmbliitter ; ' Benedix, ' Der Proo 
and ' Eigensinn ; ' Niebuhr, ' Griechische He- 
roengeschichten ; ' Lessing, 'Minna von Barn- 
helm;' Musaeus, ' Volksmarchen,' Kotzebue 
and Hoffman. 

In the division superieurc the modern Ian- 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



guage keeps its two recitations except in Phi- 
losophic, where it has only one. The study of 
grammar is confined to reviews and a study of 
word-formation. Thtme oral et ecrit and 
version, as well as conversation, continue as 
heretofore. The English authors of this grade 
are Goldsmith, Lamb, Macaulay, Shakespeare 
(Julius Cesar), Walter Scott, Dickens, Irving, 
Byron, Tennyson, George Eliot, Pope, Stuart 
Mill and Adam Smith. In German we find: 
Goethe, ' Campagne in Frankreich ; ' Schiller, 
'Tell' and 'Maria Stuart,' Chamisso, 'Peter 
Schlemihl,' Auerbach's ' Dorfgeschichten ; ' 
Goethe, ' Hermann und Dorothea ; ' Schiller, 
' Wallenstein ' and extracts from historical 
works ; HaufT, ' Lichtenstein ;' Kleist, ' Michael 
Kohlhaas;' Lessing, 'Dramaturgic,' Schiller 
and Goethe, lyrical poems ; Schiller, ' Braut 
von Messina,' 'Jungfrau von Orleans;' Les- 
sing, ' Laokoon ; ' Goethe, 'Faust,' Part I, 
Correspondence between Schiller and Goethe. 
In connection with the reading some notions 
of literary history are given. 

In the two scientific classes the reading mat- 
ter is of a similar character but more restricted. 
Of the whole literary course 200 hours, if we 
count drawing in the lower division 58, or 
29$ are devoted to the classical languages, 44^ 
hours or 22$ to French, and 25 hours or 1-2% to 
a modern language. If we count only the two 
upper divisions, the classics have 44}^$, 
French 12% as above, German or English 9$. 
The scientific students get in these two divi- 
sions 35$, 10% and <) l / 2 %. 

The candidate for the B.iccalaureat ~es let- 
tres has to pass two examinations, one after the 
Rhitorique, the other after the Philosophic ; 
the modern language comes in the first. He 
has to write an English or German composition 
(theTne), for which he is allowed the use of a 
simple le.riqne autorise, and to translate a 
passage from one of six English or German 
texts chosen by himself among the authors 
read in the upper division. The modern lan- 
guage counts for one-fifth of the first exami- 
nation and ahout f) l / 2 % of the whole. 

The examination in the modern language 
for the bacalaiireat ts sciences is only oral. It 
consists of questions on the grammar, inter- 
pretation of a passage taken from one of the 
works prescribed by the program, and a con- 



versational exercise. The English works are 
in this case Pope's 'Essay on Criticism,' 
Shakespeare's ' Macbeth,' Milton's ' Paradise 
Lost,' cantos i., ii. The modern language 
counts for 9$ of the whole. 



DRAWING 


SUM TOTAL 


PHILOSOPHY 


SCIENCES 


a 

So 
H 

> 

d 
o 

rt 
C 



MODERN LANG 


FRENCH 


GREEK 


LATIN 


SUBJECTS. 

(Average ag 






H 







to 


u 


* 


| 






Prdparatoire. 







M 


i 




w 


CO 





; 






GHuitifeme. 


s 5- 




H 


-o 




OJ 


OJ 


* 


* 






3 Septi&me. 


r 


3 


" 


8 




., 


OJ 


n 


CO 







"^Sixieme. 


3 G 


M 

X 


10 







10 


OJ 


to 


OJ 


& 


1 


,2 Cinqui^me. 


3 rt n* 




H 


to 






to 


M 


to 


to 


* 


(Jl 


^Quatrifeme. 


3 = 


ECIT 


K 


8 




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Philosophic. 






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2. SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

The so-called special instruction was estab- 
lished by Duruy in 1865 .and has since been 
improved upon in 1881, 1882 and 1886. Its 
aim is to enable French manufacturers, mer- 
chants and farmers to compete successfully 
with their neighbours; yet " in order to give a 
useful preparation for the most elevated phases 
of industrial, commercial and agricultural 
pursuits, this instruction must pay a great deal 
of attention to purely intellectual culture, and 
borrow from classical instruction as far as 
possible its procedures and methods." Though 



January. MODKK' \ /..I .\'< , ' 'AGE NOTES, 1888. Afc. i. 



10 



two-fifths of all college studi-nts atti-nd tin- 
courses of special instruction, it lacks still, in 
most places, establishments of its own. Since 
it is injurious to a free and vigorous develop- 
ment of this instruction to 1>r considered as a 
m< re annex of a lower grade, (iol)let enconr- 
;i-es coininnnities whose colleges have only 
a feu classical students, to transform their 
co/lt'ges cltissiqnes into colleges speciai<.\ . 
To every establishment of special instruction 
there is attached a coinitc dc patronage, con- 
sisting of UK- mayor, the president of the 
school and five members chosen among the 
engineers and merchants, manufacturers and 
fanners of note; they are expected to recom- 
mend students and to find places for them. 

The cours normal of this instruction covers 
six years, corresponding somewhat to the mid- 
dle and upper division of the classical schools; 
it leads to the baccalaurat de /' cnxci^neinent 
secondaire, a degree which offers several of 
the advantages of the baccalaureates sciences. 
If a lyceum or college has only four years of 
the course, it is de denii exercice. 

In 1865 the curriculum was based on French 
history and sciences ; Latin and Greek were 
excluded, the modern languages only optional. 
At present the classics remain excluded, but 
modern languages have come to form one of 
the most essential studies. While the classical 
coarse requires no more than one modern 
language, the special makes the study of two 
compulsory. The first language, langue fon- 
damentale is studied for six years, the second 
langue contplemeittaire, for three. The fun- 
damental language must be either English or 
German, the complementary one German, 
Knglish, Spanish, Italian or Arabic. The 
minister of public instruction determines the 
two languages for every institution. 

The reading matter in English and German 
is essentially the same with that of the classi- 
cal curriculum, from the classe de septi^me to 
l\hetorique, except that historical, geographi- 
.cal and scientific works receive more conside- 
ration. The study of the second language, 
though it is allowed hardly half the time of 
the first, yet covers the same ground. The 
teacher has to condense his instruction and 
the students are expected to learn so much 
the faster for their more mature mind and the 
training gained from the first. For the rest, 
the method and aim of modern language teach- 
ing in this instruction differ considerably from 
that of the classical. 

There, the language was studied mainly 
from a philological and literary point of view, 
oral practice being not altogether neglected ; 
here, practical application stands foremost, 
grammar being considered only a valuable 
and necessary auxiliary. All directions given 
to the teacher are conceived in this spirit. 



The first year is devoted to drill in proi. 
tioii ;ind to the ;K (|iiisition of th- most : 
sary words and phrases. These ;ire first pro- 
nounced by the teacher, then repeated by 
the students, written on tin- black- 
copied and committed to memory. In the 
second year conversational ex--r< ises on ob- 
jects brought into class are added, and dic- 
tations extended. In the fourth and fifth year 
the students are accustomed to reproduce or to 
give accounts in the foreign language of pieces 
read in class or at home. In the last 
finally, the texts are explained in the foreign 
language. 

While in the classical curriculum only from 

12-9$ of all recitations were devoted to modern 
languages, here 22$ are given to them. If we 
wished to look for similar schools in other 
countries, the Lateinlose Kealschulen of Ger- 
many might be taken for comparison. 



PENMANSHIP.. 


DRAWING 


SUM TOTAL 


MORALS, BOOK- 


SCIENCES 


HISTORY AND 


MODERN LANG 


FRENCH 




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1 








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CiKRHKR. 



Earlham College. 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No.i. 



NOTES ON OLD ENGLISH WORDS. 



Grimm characterizes cumbol (Andreas und 
Elene, pp. 92-3) as one of the most difficult 
words of Teutonic antiquity. He attempts to 
establish a connection with camb, but this, he 
owns, is a mere conjecture, like the suggestion 
that the French cimier is derived from cumbol. 
Apparently there are three distinct senses of 
the word in Germanic : a) 'cairn,' b) 'wound,' 
'swelling,' 'tumor,' c) 'sign,' 'ensign.' Of 
these the first is found in Old Norse, the second 
in Old Norse and Old English, and the third in 
Old Norse, Old English, Old High German, 
and Old Saxon. Which of these is the primi- 
tive meaning? It has usually been assumed 
that the third underlies the others. The Cleas- 
by-Vigfusson Dictionary, after quoting the very 
few instances in which it is employed in the 
third sense, illustrates its passage to the first 
by a reference to the Greek 6ijua. The Bos- 
worth-Toller Dictionary supports the theoreti- 
cal evolution of the second meaning from the 
third by paraphrasing vulnus, of Gregory's 
Pastoral Care, as morbi signttm, thus introduc- 
ing the desired signum. My own opinion, as 
will be seen, is different, 

Here it should be noted that the word occurs 
only once in O. H. G., and is there somewhat 
doubtful ; only twice in O. E. prose, so far as 
is known, and each time in the second sense ; 
and that the third sense is found chiefly in 
poetry, namely, three times in the O. S. He- 
liand, three times in O. N. (but twice besides in 
the Sagas), and frequently in O. E. 

As to the form of the word, it occurs both 
with and without svarabhakti, O. S. cumbal 
and cumbl, O. E. cumbol*.\\<\ cumbl, O. H. G. 
cumpal, O. N. cunibl, and with and without b, 
O. E. prose cnmbl, P. C. 187, 7 (Cotton and Hat- 
ton texts), cuml, Otho text of P. C., and Saxon 
Leechdoms, Herb. 158,5(1 60), O. N. <:;/ and 
cuml (cub I). The fall dissyllabic form is better 
adapted to metrical purposes, and consequent- 
ly no other is found in O. E. poetry, except- 
where inflectional endings are attached ; the 
form with syllabic /, on the contrary, is the 
usual one in Old Norse, which has almost none 
but prose senses, and in O. E. prose. But 
which of these is earlier? And which is orig- 



inal, the form with or without b ? In later En- 
glish, a secondary, epenthetic b is quite fre- 
quently developed after ;;/, especially before r 
and /. But does this occur in the Old English 
period ? Decisive upon this point are the forms 
brlmelxnA brernbel, symle and symble (Goth. 
simlc), of which only the first are supported by 
the analogy of the cognate tongues. Another 
instance is O. E. scolimbos (Saxon Leechdoms, 
I 60) for Gr. tfxoAu/io?. Hence we may con- 
clude that cuml or cumol is the earlier form. 
But this corresponds, phonetically and in pur- 
port, to Lat. cumulus, if we take the Germanic 
word in the first meaning given above. Noth- 
ing forbids us to do this, except the difficulty 
of deriving the second and third senses from 
the first. But the second presents no difficulty; 
Sweet translates cumbl (cuml), by swelling (cf. 
O. N. kumla, to bruise) and Cockayne by 
' lump,' ' glandular swelling ' (Gr. (Ixippcajiia), 
which may readily be evolved from the signi- 
fication of the Latin word. Only the third 
sense, therefore, is troublesome. But \i6ijna, 
from meaning 'sign,' may come to mean 
'cairn, 'why may not cumbol from, meaning 
'cairn, 'the permanent sign of what is ever 
memorable, come to mean sign in general, and 
that by which the sign or signal is given ? If it 
is objected that this is a broadening, rather 
than a specialization, of the sense, the fact may 
be conceded without admitting that the pro- 
cess is inconceivable. Thus O. N. horgr(O. E. 
hear.?), fro n signifying 'consecrated place,' 
' temple,' arrives at the meaning of elevation,' 
'cliff,' ' peak,' through the intermediate sense 
of 'high place,' regularly associated with 
horgr, because of the customary situation of the 
Scandinavian temple. A still better illustra- 
tion might be Welsh awgrym, which Professor 
Rhys informs us (Academy, Oct. i, 1887, p. 223) 
means sign in the widest sense of that term, 
though originally confined to the sense of 
numerical sign, or system of signs (cf. Phil. 
Soc. Diet. s. v. Algorism). 

The double form is readily accounted for. 
Lat. cnmulum would yield Germ. *cumul, and 
under the historic tendency to strengthen the 
m in this position, would develop into *cumbul. 
On the other hand, *ciinil in inflected forms 
actually passed into cuml-, as for instance, in 
the cumlu (for cumu/ii) of the Leechdoms, the 



January. MOD/-RN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



I ; 



plural from the strengthened form taking no 
final vowel, i'mnhii/ (cuin/x>/):\\u\ cuinl would 
therefore be parallel forms; the ground of 
differentiation would be forgotten, and they 
would gradually be confounded as cinnbol, 
ciimb I, cum/, except as the full dissyllabic 
character of cumbol would recommend it for 
verse. In Middle Knglish, only cuinl survives 
(in Layamon), apparently in the sense of 
' booth,' that is a pile, but of branches, we may 
sii|)pose, rather than of stones. 

MITTAN, MITTING. 

Parallel with (ge)>netan gemeting(gemetting}, 
O. E. poetry frequently has (ge)mittan, (gdr)- 
mitting. Hosworth-Toller's Dictionary quotes 
gemittunghom Aelfred's Orosius, but the text 
of Sweet's edition shows no trace. If found 
at all in prose, it is extremely rare. I shall 
not attempt to give a phonological explana- 
tion of these variants, but will confine myself 
to pointing out the fact, which seems to have 
escaped notice, that they are clearly Anglian. 
In the Northumbrian Gospels are the following 
forms : ind. pres. ist sing. mitto(\); ind. pret. 
3d sing, initte (8), mittce (i); ind. pret. plur. 
mitton (i). Of eleven instances of this abnor- 
mal vowel in the poetry, it may be significant 
thac three are found in the Psalms, and four in 
Genesis A. 



University of California. 



ALBERT S. COOK. 



STRONG VERBS IN AELFRICS 
JUDITH. 

This rhythmical version of the story of Judith 
is contained in Anglia X, 87 ff., and is attri- 
buted by the editor to Aelfric. It seemed to 
me therefore that it might be of service, in con- 
nection with the study which Professor Cook 
promises us (Notes II., 117) of the verbs in 
Aelfric's ' Saints,' to gather together the strong 
forms in this piece. I have retained the ac- 
cents of the MS., though they are not used 
consistently and sometimes stand over vowels 
winch are certainly short. 

Class I. Preterit singulars: adraf 12, beldf 
109, astah 318. Participles : scinendan 245, 
gegripen 246. 

Class II. Presents, infinitives and parti- 



(iplcs: />nn an 270, abtigan 32, 181, 189 ain't 
gende 182, An Mean 360, leogaft 406, 436. I 
terit singulars: bead 51, behead 47, 232, 284, 
bcbtdd $$>, a/fat 247. Preterit plurals: bugon 
122, abugon 62, gebugon 253, flugon 37. 

Class 111. Infinitives and participles: gebiti- 
'/<"' '53. TA\,ftolitfndc 64, fintlirf 353, Wurman 
147, foruntrftan 252. I'ntcrit singulars: 
gebealh 37, \^(>,furcearf^\6,feaht 119, a&prang 
53> gfwan 65, bewand 306, wearO 77, 155, 158, 
J 76, 197, 246, 289, 293, 343, awearp 228, 427, 
towearp 11. Preterits and stibium lives y;/</cw 
90, affinde 364, gehulpe 212, gen'umion 118, 
wiirdon 116, 123, 222, 370, wtirdon 131, for:, 
don T2,forwArdon 61, wurde 328, \i\,forwurde 

154. Past participles: abolgen 141, gebunden 

155, gebundcnnt' 157, aftnden 158, gewordene 
124. 

Class IV. Infinitives and presents : bectunan 
258, becyml 187, nimal 434. Preterits: bter 
421, com 261, 287, cdin 86, 114, 316, 338, 386, 
becdni 73, 236, 327, ofercom 410, comon 315, 
cdmon 57, bccdmon 310, nam 307. Past parti- 
ciple :fornumene 58. 

Class V. Infinitives, presents and parti- 
ciples : biddan 82, ii^gebiddan 256, gf bidden m- 
276, bidde(ic} 137, 319, biddende 59, 72, cwfd- 
ende 162, 319, licgan 364, lift 368, forligft 432, 
forlicgon 430, forseon 164, geseoh (/>) 163, 
asittan 171, gewrecan 39. Preterit singulars : 
bfed 280, abcrd 274, to brccc 51, cwteft 42, 83, 
146, gec'wfeft 26,forgea/425, beseah i^geseah 
301, gesprcec 209, wees 4. 22, etc., ntrs 117, 420. 
Preterit plurals and subjunctives: btedon 169, 
gebcrdon 234, civfedon 59, 174, wiftcit'crdon 34, 
logon si^csd won T,^,/orsdu'on 40, 81, gesdwe 
388, sprtrce 44, wceron 2, 18, ware 33, 59, 80, 
210, 311, 325, tiff re 263. Past participles : 
ge ewe den 2, 25. 

Class VI. Infinitives, presents and partici- 
ples:/flrrtw 101 , //</# 408, aha/en 409. ofsleanne 
342, ofsleati 149, ofslagen 148, 197, o/slagene 
131, s tent 404, 440, u'itfstandan 57, u-iffsttindan 
78, witistandcnne 127, Preterits: ahdf 29, sl6h 
304, forsloh 305, ofsloh 11, ofsl6h 28, 52, 324, 
stod 288, astdd 104, witistddon 52, .^-wr 38. 

Class VII. Infinitives, presents and parti- 
ciples : tocn&wan \*p, flou'endttin 161. ,^aw 276, 
j^rf;/ 266, ttft 350, gehaten 22, 46, gehdten 9, 
194, 385, healdan 303, /<#/< (/>//) \tf,for/<ft 320, 
geweaxen 93. Preterits : feollon 161, het 19. 



'5 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



16 



153, 291, htt 155, 266, 268, 303, behet 418, 
262, 292, 323, 420, 7/^te 341, beheton 437, heoldon 
121, misheoldon 130, /W0 180, forleton 156, 
fortiton 100, 372, sp6w 362. 

In this connection it will not be inappropriate 
to call attention to some peculiar forms in the 
life of St. Chad, Anglia X, 141 fif. 

Class I. gezvitu 23, and also onginnu i, and 
bebeodu 146, of classes III. and II. retain the 
old ending. Elsewhere e is regular in the 
first person of the singular. 

Class II. brtsc 243, for breac from britcan. 

Classes III., V. gefalh 174, is the only case 
of a for a in the preterit singular. In class 
V geseh 213, for geseah 254, etc., occurs. In 
bregdon 175, preterit plural of bregdan the 
verb has gone over to class V where e for ^ 
is here the rule. The final consonant in gealt 
251, from gttldan deserves notice. The strong 
frignan has become fregnan 39 (fregn 140, 
fregnaden 178,) and is weak. 

Class IV. her 257 from beran, is the only 
case of accent in this form. Napier suggests 
that genemad 233 is an error of the scribe for 
geneomaft, no uncommon form in Anglia and to 
be traced, though not with certainty till a later 
date, in Kent also. May not the forms which 
Bright attributes to -umlaut (hneoton, scionon, 
riodun, griopun, geweotan, preterit plurals of 
I. .Notes II. 160) have a similar origin ? If they 
were due to w-umlaut would they not be more 
general and more frequent ? 

Class VI. The editor suggests that slenne 
193, is a blunder for sleane. Slcefi 194, is 
probably for sleft ; e is here the usual umlaut 
of ea. hlahendne 255, shows no trace of the 
-jan form. 

Reduplicating verbs show two peculiar 
forms, gehelde 57, for geheolde and onfongon 
136, for -feng-, cf. lines 23, 25, 55. The pre- 
terit of hdtan is heht 50, 150. The shortened 
form, het, does not occur. 



BENJ. W. WELLS. 



Jena, Germany. 



ON A VERSE IN THE OLD NORSE 
" HOFUDLA USN. " 

The Saga of Egil Skallagrimsson may with 
propriety be styled the skaldic Saga of Ice- 



land : for its pages are strewn with short verses 
to the number of over fifty, and it contains, 
besides these, three long poems, of which the 
Hofudlausn is the first. The extreme difficul- 
ty of Icelandic poetry is caused mainly by the 
excessive use of obscure figures, and the 
Hofudlausn is no exception to this rule. The 
verse here selected for comment is the sixth, 
or rather the first half of it. The Icelandic 
reads as follows : 

hue fir?! a fit 
vid fleina hnit. 

This passage has been variously explained 
by different commentators. J6n Thorkelsson, 
in the Reykjavik edition of the Saga, 1856, 
page 256, offers the following explanation : 

Fir'da (in Vigfusson's Die. spelled only 
fyrfta) from plural firftar, men, warriors 
[A. S.fyrda, troop]. 

fit, a connected row. According to this, 
fit must be derived from fitja, to knit, or tie 
together. This meaning is not given by Vig- 
fusson. 

Fir'da fit would then mean, a connected 
row of men, battle-array. Fleina hnit he 
renders spear-thrusts. 

In the Lexikon Poeticum, we find "fit.f., 
planta pedis, raped 1 -, TtoSoS." Our passage 
from the Hofudlausn is quoted and the first 
part is explained as follows: "succubuit vir- 
orum pes, i. e., explicante G. Magnes, viri, 
pedibus succisis, cecederunt, aut pedibus am- 
plius insistere non valentes prae lassitudine se 
dejecerunt." 

Per Sorensson* follows closely the rendering 
of the Lexikon Poeticum : firtie, as in the first : 
fit, foot, or knee ; fleina hnit is translated 
spear-thrusts. Hn6 is, of course, the pret., 3d, 
sing, of hniga, to bend or recede, and can be 
translated in no other way.. 

The passage, then, according to the first ex- 
planation, reads in English : 

The battle array receded before the spear- 
thrusts. 

According to the second : 

Men's feet (or knees) bent before the spear- 
thrusts. 

It may be noted in this connection that tniiga 

* " Egil Skallagrimssons Hiifudlausn, ofersatt och for- 
klarad," Lund, 1868. 



'7 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



may be applied equally to the sinking or bend- 
ing of aliiios! any object, from the sun to a 
dying warrior or a tree (see Vigfusson's Die., 
page. 276). Hence, neither rendering does 
violence to the- meaning of the verb. 

Unit is rendered, as we have already seen, 
by 'thrust.' Concerning this word, too, there 
is some difference of opinion. In Vigfusson 
we find Iniit rendered as "forging; poet., the 
clash of battle," with a reference to our poem. 
In this connection it would be more properly 
rendered simply by 'clash,' or perhaps better 
by ' din.' 

If din be accepted as the meaning of hnit, it 
would seem to follow almost as a necessity that 
firfia fit be translated as battle-array, since 
to associate the bending of men's feet with the 
din of spears would form a very bold figure, 
founded on a very slight resemblance. With 
a modern poet this argument would certainly 
hold true, but in criticising Old Norse poetry 
we must not be governed at all by modern 
canons of art, remembering always that what 
would now be considered a blemish might in 
the tenth century have received unqualified 
approval. Again, if spear-din be regarded as 
a simple paraphrase for battle, the appropri- 
ateness of the figure becomes very much more 
apparent. (Th&tJleifKl hnit may mean battle, 
cf. the following figures: " v igelds-prym-rog- 
;//;-," din of Swords or spears, battle. Kgil. 
chap. 58, i. ; " sverfi-dynr," sword-din, battle, 
Vigf.'s Die., p. 610). 

The Lexikon Poeticnin renders hnit very 
much as Vigfusson does, but without explain- 
ing clearly the force of the figure employed ; 
the result of the figure, not its working, is 
shown in the rendering : collisio, conflictio, 
Jh'ina hnit, spiculorum collisio, pugna. From 
this we also derive additional authority for 
rendering Jicina hnit battle. The Latin trans- 
lation, contained in the A. M. edition of the 
Saga, Copenhagen, 1809, gives practically the 
same result as the above, namely : 

Decidit virorum pes 

Ad hastarum collisionem. 

In the face of these three authorities I should 
have no hesitation in accepting the rendering of 
Jit by ' foot,' were it not for one circumstance. 
In stanza 4, the poet begins the description 
of Eirik's battles: he tells how "the din of 



swords waxed hot against tin- inns of tin- 
shields; the battle waxed about the king." 
"The sword's river (blood) ran ;" and in st.ui/a 
5, "the ship ran in blood; but the wound 
boiled." Stan/a 6 is very short, consisting of 
only four lines, and to my mind it ma\ 
regarded as a climax to what has gone be! 
It presents a picture of the battle as a whole : 
the result of the preceding statement-,. 
Therefore it would seem more appropriate for 
the poet to employ the general word battle- 
array than the specific words men's feet or 
knees. Again, fit is singular, the nominative 
plur. being fitjar; but this is perhaps of 
minor importance. What is to be specially 
dwelt upon is the poetical appropriateness of 
the first rendering. This rendering of Thor- 
kelsson's, further, does no violence to the 
derivation, since fit is frequently used meta- 
phorically for a plain or meadow, that which is 
stretched out (see Vigfusson, p. 155, and l.c.\i- 
kon Poeticum, page 173), and we often observe 
figures in Old Norse poetry formed by a com- 
parison between men and objects of nature, 
so that to apply the same word to a line <>i 
men and an extended meadow would be quke 
in accordance with the train of thought of the 
Icelandic skald (hr&s-lavar, 'haystacks of the 
slain,' 'heaps of,' Hofnd/ansn, II., a striking 
resemblance to meadow of men, battle-array ; 
a man is often called a tree, etc.). 

The arguments in favor of Thorkelsson's 
rendering of fir 3ar Jit therefore are ; first, the 
artistic appropriateness, and secondly, the 
analogy with other figures. The rendering of 
the verse would then be : 

" The battle-array receded at the spear-din (battle)." 

DANIKI. KII.IIAM DODC.K. 

Columbia College. 



The Teaching of Modern Languages in 
Theory and Practice. Two Lectures, de- 
livered in the I'niversity of Cambridge in 
the Lent term, 1887. By C. Colbeck, M. 
A., Assistant Master in Harrow School, 
late Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. From the I'niversity Press. 1887. 

The appearance of a course of lectures, how- 
ever brief, on the Teaching of Modern Lan- 
guages, delivered iii the University of Cam- 



January. MODERN LANG UA GE NO TES, 



No. i. 



bridge by a late Fellow of Trinity, now Assist- 
ant Master in one of the great Public Schools 
of England, is an encouraging sign of the 
"new era." The author says, in his modest 
preface, " There seems to be at last a disposi- 
tion to regard seriously the pretensions of 
Modern Languages to a larger place in edu- 
cation "; and these lectures are interesting to 
us chiefly as the outcome of this "disposition," 
and a vindication surely modest enough of 
these "pretensions." It is well known that 
thus far the progress of modern language 
study in higher education has in the mother 
country lagged behind what, almost within the 
last decade, has been achieved among our- 
selves. This is due, mainly doubtless, to the 
greater authority and persistence of the wooden 
traditions of an exclusive classicism, backed 
as they have been by every kind of prescrip- 
tive advantage ; but in part, doubtless, also to 
the greater proximity of the continent, and the 
larger demand, therefore, for such teaching 
only as should enable John Bull to inquire his 
way in Paris, or to browbeat the waiters along 
the Rhine. So the mulitudinous "methods" 
"natural" and unnatural, and largely in the 
hands of untrained tutors have had firmer 
hold there ; and the effort to place the modern 
languages upon a sound scientific, or at least 
pedagogical, basis has had to encounter, first, 
to a degree now happily unknown here, the 
blows inflicted in the house of its friends. And 
this not only in the lower ranks of the "native" 
teachers, who swarm in the. United Kingdom, 
but even within the sacred shadows of the 
University ; for we find Mr. Colbeck combat- 
ing manfully the views of the " Master of 
Baliol," who thinks (p.u) that " Modern Lan- 
guages can be [best] taught between the ages 
of six and ten, and not one language only but 
two, and even a third ! and that the linguistic 
faculty is strongest at ten, and extinct at twen- 
ty." This, too, in a speech of welcome to the 
"Professeurs -de Francais at Oxford" God 
save the mark ! But under all these discour- 
agements from below and above, these Lec- 
tures give ample evidence that the battle for 
the modern languages has begun in earnest, 
under earnest and able leaders ; and one can- 
not doubt that victory, however delayed, will 
at last be certain and complete. It is as an in- 



dication of the direction of this movement that 
this little book is specially interesting to us at 
home. We cannot follow its details; but shall 
only indicate its leading lines of argument. 

In answer to the question Why we teach 
Modern Languages ? the author replies at 
once : " Because they are so supremely use- 
ful." This consideration, now more justly 
understood, has raised, he says, the study of 
modern languages "from the status of an ac- 
compli Jiment, or of a commercial art, mi a 
level, let us say, with book-keeping, to rank 
as an integral portion of a liberal education" 
(p. 3) : and he proudly adds, in a spirit of pro- 
phetic if not of actual triumph, that "it is not 
one of the least of the honors of Cambridge 
that it has recognized that whatever study the 
world needs, a University should teach in all 
its breadth and fullness" while, however, he 
confesses, "there is still (even in Cambridge) 
some trace of the old mistrust, I fear I must say, 
of the old contempt." The Modern Language 
Tripes, he tells us, "was dubbed a Courier 
Tripos," and the living languages were said to 
be "too trivial to be scholarly, too easy to be 
learned, too useful to be dignified'." But it is 
encouraging to see that, even in Cambridge, 
our lecturer is not afraid to strike back, and 
knows how to hit hard. "How gladly and 
profitably would nine tenths of our middle 
classes exchange their little Latin and less 
Greek for a passable knowledge of even one 
modern language!" (p. 5). Of the boys to 
whom we so laboriously teach Greek, he says 
(p. 6), "we own that nine-tenths of them learn 
little, forget that little soon, and never touch 
a Greek book when once they leave school." 
To the claim that thereby we "train faculty," 
he replies that we should seek subjects of 
study " in which we may combine some actual 
knowledge with the bare' power to know;" 
and he concludes (p. 8): "Teach a boy Greek, 
if you can; but give him also, because you can, 
the power to read in the original " the master- 
j pieces of modern literature that are found in 
i the French and German languages. We have 
happily here passed that stage of the conflict; 
but it is well to know that our colleagues 
abroad are not deficient in the "noble art of 
self-defense," which means giving as well as 
taking blows. 



21 



January. MO/)/.'A'.\' LANGUA (, /. NOTES, iSHK. 



When he comes to enumerate the elements 
of the utility whirh he claims for the modern lan- 
guages, it is interesting to see that tlie lecturer 
places first the fact (p. 5) that "a knowledge i.t' 
I'Yench and German doubles and trebles the 
library whence knowledge may be drawn ; " 
and in his analysis of method (p.io): tf:e 
teaching of reading, he says, " I put that 
clearly first." He says (p. 26) "1 would always 
begin with a book" and claims (p. 13) "that 
for all, young or old, the eye is incomparably 
the swifter gate to knowledge", and "it is the 
only means of rapidly acquiring accuracy." 
He insists that elementary (oral) work on lan- 
guage should be confined to the mother tongue; 
and adds the important conclusion (p.i6), 
"that the power of conversing in a foreign lan- 
guage can be acquired at least as easily late as 
early ; that it is much less important than trans- 
lation, much less important than composition, 
and that in learning it, at whatever age, we 
waste power if we proceed by ear only." Yet 
he does not undervalue the office of the ear, 
and adds an interesting paragraph on Dictation 
and Audition that is, writing and listening 
from oral repetition; but all these he holds to 
be subordinate to the main purpose of reading, 
and to the linguistic training and literary cul- 
ture to be derived from the study of modern 
languages. Surely it is gratifying to see how 
closely the views which Mr. Colbeck repre- 
sents are in accord with those formally enun- 
ciated by the .Modern Language Association 
of America.* 

Along the same line of thought the lecturer 
discusses frankly, yet very modestly, the 
question of native (English) or foreign teachers 
a much more "burning" question in England, 
we may be sure, than (fortunately) it is now 

*Since these lines were written the views of Mr. Colbeck 
representing Cambridge have received confirmation from 
another source, of still higher authority representing Oxford. 
In a paper on Literature and Language^ in the Contem- 
porary Review reprinted in the Eclectic Magazine for De- 
cember, 1887, Prof. Edward A. Freeman, the historian, writes, 
with reference to the new Chair at Oxford : " We may fairly- 
lay down that it is the business of an (sic) University to teach 
men the scholarly knowledge of languages ; that it is not its 
business to teach men their practical mastery." And again : 
"The gift of talking this or that language is not one which 
comes within the scope of an University : it is no part of the 
scientific study of the language." We wish we could quote 
more largely: but this suffices to show the consensus of 
opinion, in the highest quarters, as to the true direction of 
modern language study for higher education in England. It 
is of course superfluous to recommend the reading of the 
whole of Prof. Freeman's paper. 



with us. He admits the obvious retort, "voiis 
<"tt s orfevre, M. Josse"; but yet with allow- 
ance for illustrious exceptions so numerous, 
let us thankfully add, in our own country he 
dot -s not hesitate to conclude: "I think that 
English teachers produce considerably the 
best results." In his careful and candid analy- 
sis of this question, he says (p. 30): "The Eng- 
lishman knows his boys' difficulties. He 
knows what not to teach, what to begin by 
teaching, and where to lay stress. He looks at 
the task from the same side as his pupils," etc. ; 
and as to the much vaunted use of the foreign 
tongue in the class room, he adds: "The round 
of remarks which it involves is very limited : 
Lisez, traduisez, asseyez-vous, continue/, rC- 
ptez, a-t-il raison? vous aveztort; Aufgepasst, 
sprechen sie deutlich, kein dummes Zeug, 
soon degenerate into jargon". Can this be a 
true picture? If not, it is heresy of the worst 
kind ! Perhaps it were better it should be 
true; for, surely, it seems to us that in the 
brief hours assigned to class-room work, of 
which every minute should be precious, that 
language should be used which speaks quick- 
est and clearest to the most immediate intelli- 
gence of the pupil. But if Mr. Colbeck tells 
us the worst, there is not so much harm done 
after all. 

In this notice, already too prolonged, we 
have confined our attention only to the 
leading points of the first lecture, of 31 pages. 
Besides what we have noted, there is much of 
interesting suggestion and criticism on ques- 
tions of method, with glances at some of the 
best-known systems. The second lecture, of 
54 pages, is devoted mainly to details of in- 
struction, and contains many striking and in- 
genious suggestions. These, it may be re- 
marked, may be usefully compared with a 
paper by Miss Bracket, in the last number of 
the (Syracuse) Academy. Mr. Colbeck 's style 
is bright and breezy. The entire little book is 
eminently readable, with temptations to quote 
throughout, as we have already done beyond 
our proper limits. Without endorsing all of 
its arguments as, for example, what is said 
of the Historical, or "Mediaeval," study of 
Modern Languages we commend the book 
heartily to all teachers of Modern Languages, 
and we wish Mr. Colbeck and his colleagues 
('od-speed in their good work. 

EDWARD S. JOYXKS. 

South Carolina College. 



II 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. \. 



La Chanson de Roland. Traduction archa- 
i'que et rythme'e, accompagne'e de notes 
explicatives par L. CLKDAT. Paris, 
Ernest Leroux. 1887. 

Mr. L. Cldat vient de publier une traduc- 
tion archaique et rythme de la Chanson de 
Roland. C'est une reproduction aussi fidele 
et aussi complete que possible de 1'original, 
accompagne'e d'excellentes et nombreuses 
notes. Nous ne saurions qu'approuver 1'id^e 
de conserver le rythme d'un poeme qu'on a 
1 'intention non pas de traduire mais bien 
plutot de rajeunir. En pareil cas le rythme a 
pour but cle conserver plus fidelement 1'esprit, 
le caractere, le style et 1'harmonie du poeme. 
.C'est deja un immense avantage dont il faut 
tenir grand compte a 1'auteur. Mais que le 
rythme rende la lecture du poeme lourde, 
difficile et en beaucoup d'endroits obscure, 
c'est ce qu'on ne saurait nier. Mr. Cle"dat 
aurait pu se dispenser d'une foule d'inversions 
plus on moins heureuses qui nuisent a la' 
clart^ de la narration et ne pas s'attacher a 
reproduire aussi scrupuleusement qu'il 1'a fait 
1'ordre des mots du Roland. La lecture en 
aurait e"te beaucoup plus courante et plus 
agre"able. D'un autre c6t^, si ce texte est 
destine 1 au public de notre temps, des vers tels 
que : 

Je t'en mourrai si grand deuil et contraire 311 

Que j 'en eclaire cette mienne grande ire 322 

Roland le conte ne 1'eut du se penser 355 

Ne 1'dis pour ce des votres n'aura perte 591 

Qui vint a Charles les galope et les sauts 731 

Celui n'y a ne pleure de pitie^ 822 

Sous son manteau en fuit la contenance 830 

Celle ne 1'voit vers lui ne s'esclaircisse 958 

Espanelis hors le va adextrant 2648 

et nombre d'autres sont a peine admissibles. 
11s sont par trop obscurs pour le public 
d'aujourd'hui. II est juste d'ajouter que des 
notes viennent au secours du lecteur, mais 
quand il s'agit d'offrir un poeme d'une lecture 
courante, il est preferable de lui pargner les 
notes, surtout si, par quelques modifications 
insignifiantes, on pent lui presenter un vers 
d'un sens et d'une clart satisfaisante. 

Pour ce qui est des mots anciens que Mr. 
Cle"dat a laisse's dans sa traduction, ils sont en 



trop grand nombre et ne"cessitent trop de 
notes, trop de " c'est-a-dire." Par mots 
anciens nous devons ici entendre et ceux qui 
ont disparu completement de la langue etceux 
dont un changement radical de signification 
6quivaut pour nous a une complete dispari- 
tion. Que cette ide"e conservatrice puisse con- 
tribuer a faire reparaitre et a imposer a la 
langue des mots depuis longtemps oublie's, 
c'est a souhaiter; mais c'est la une consideYa- 
tion secondaire pour le lecteur. Avant tout il 
lui faut comprendre ce qu'il lit. Ce que nous 
disons des mots peut s'appliquer a la syntaxe : 
Trop d'inversions et trop d'anciennes tour- 
nures. En suivant pareil systeme Mr. Cle"dat 
a re"ussi a conserver plus entier le caractere 
du poeme, et plus originale 1'expression de la 
pense"e, mais que le lecteur qui se sent incapa- 
ble d'aborder le texte primitifde notre vieille 
e'pope'e ne s'imagine pas avoir une tache facile 
et gre"able ayec la pre"sente traduction. 

Terminons par quelques retnarques qui sans 
6tre d'importance me semblent cependant 
ne'cessaires. L'unitd de traduction, du moins 
dans le cas qui nous occupe, demande qu'un 
mot soit ou remplace" partout on conserve" 
partout. 

Or, guerpir est tour a tour rendu par : .' guer- 
pir,' 'quitter,' ' abandonner,' 'laisser,' sans 
raison apparent, cf. vers 536; 1626; 2618; 2683; 
3041; adents par: 'adents,' 'surla face,' 'a 
terre,' cf. vers 1624; 2025; 2358; 3097 ; isnel 
par: ' rapide ' isnel,' 'le"ger,' cf. vers 13^7; 
1492 ; 2085 ; 3884 ; 3839 ; au vers 717 aserie est 
rendu par attardee, mais attar der n'a jamais 
voulu dire que 'retarder,' 'se mettre en re- 
tard'ou ' mettre quelqu'un en retard ' ; pour- 
quoi ne pas traduire aserie par 'assombrie,' 
com me au vers 3991 ? 

Passe le jour, la nuit est assombrie. 

Ces remarques ne tendent aucunement a 
diminuer ou a m^connaitre 1'habilet^ que Mr.. 
Cl^dat a montr^e dans sa traductiou de la 
Chanson de Roland, disons plutdt dans son 
rajeunissement, tout au contraire nous faisons 
un devoir de loner egalement et la fide'lite' de 
sa traduction et l'originalit de sa m^thode. 



J. A. FONTAINK. 



University of A*e/>msA<t. 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE No s. No. i. 



NOCII /:/ A .)/. //. Mt-.lSSMER-JOr.\l:SJ. 

Niirhdem Dr. Goebel in seiner Besprediung 
von Meissner-Joynes ( iranunatik (Decrmbt i 
nummer iSSji den Character der Kritik Pro- 
fessor I larrisons ge/eidmet niul das Yerh.'iltnis 
dt-r Ik-arbeitim?; von Prof. Joynes zu ihrem Ori- 
ginal iin Allgemeinen festgestellt hat, eriibrigt 
tins nur noch, das Werk in seiner amerika- 
nischen (ic-stalt an sich nnd fur sich einer ein- 
gehenden Untersuchung zu unterziehen. Wir 
warden dabci nurvoneinem Wunschegeleitet, 
denjeder Fachgenosse teilen muss, namlich, 
nacli Kraften dazu beizutragen, dass ein in 
hohem Grade praktisches Lehrbuch in der 
folgenden Aufiage der Vollkommenheit naher 
geriickt werde. 

An allgemeinen Bemerkungen sind die 
folgenden vorauszuschicken : 

Den Grundsatzen der heutigen Padagogik 
/i wider wird dem Schiller (vvie auch Dr. Goe- 
bel bemerkt hat) fast nie Gelegenheit zu selb- 
stiindigem Denken gegeben ; der Bearbeiter 
erkliirt die verschiedenen grammatischen Er- 
scheinungen mil iibermassiger Breite und for- 
dert das geisttotende mechanische Auswendig- 
lernen durch zahlreiche Abteilungen und Un- 
terabteilungen. So scheidet er z. B. in 96 
die Hauptworter der schwachen Declination 
in nicht weniger alssechs Gruppen, woesdoch 
wirklich nur derenzvveigiebt ; jeder denkende 
Schiiler wird unschwer unterscheiden konnen, 
wo das e der Flexionsendung en auszulassen 
ist und wo nicht. Anderswo ( 134) wird gar 
von dem Schiiler verlangt, dass er die Endung- 
en des Pronomens und des Adjectivs zusam- 
men " both horizontally and vertically " aus- 
wendig lerne ! Auch das beste Gedachtnis 
konnte soldi ein totes Schema nicht lange be- 
halten ; wenn dagegen der Schiiler das VVesen 
und die Ursache dieser Erscheinungen einmal 
verstanden hat, braucht er keirfe mechanische 
Formel mehr. Ahnliches gilt von den mne- 
monic words % 408, die sich in einer, wenn auch 
elementaren, Besprechung von Grimm's ver- 
schiebuugsgesetz ganz eigentiimlich ausneh- 
men. 

Die grammatischen Definitionen lassen ofters 
an Klarheit viel zu wiinschen iibrig. So wer- 
den ^244, 245, Indefinite Pronouns nnd Inde- 
finite Adjectives unterschieclen ; unter den 
ersteren finden wir keiner, ehcas und nichts- 



//Vuiid n'fuix \\<-rdtn /u den 
Adjt < tivrn ^cn-< hurt ! In 449 ist di<- nr- 
spriinglic IK- Kinu-ilimg nidit i-inmal i-ingi-lial- 
tt-n und di<- \'-rwirning wird no< h ar^- 
sind allc, eini^f, i-fliclif, keine und nnimh,- 
plot/li( li /'nnioiiiiintla (cf. }5 245) nnd mehrtre, 
verschiedcne, vielc, weuigc sind Indefinites! 
Von eiiu-r plainniissi^cn. l.^is- ht-n Unter- 
sclu-iilung kann da nicht die kedcs*-in. \\'.is 
ferner 481, 2 von der Bedeutung d. 
Perf. der intransitiven \\-rba gesagt wird, ist 
zum Mindesten schw-r verstandlirh ; wanmi 
nicht einfach die iibliche Angabe, dass di-,-s 
Part. Perf. active Bedeutung hat ? 

Ausserdem finden sich noch zahlreich< In 
genauigkeiten, sowie grammatische und philo- 
logische Fehler; unter den let/teren sind 
t-inige grobe Schnitzer, die uns urn so mehr 
befremden miissen, als sie durch Zuhulfe- 
nalime der elementarsten Nachschlagewerke, 
wie z. B. des Worterbuchs der ilauptsrhuie- 
rigkeiten, etc., von Sanders, oder dt 
Prof. Joynes selbst den Schiilent(f) empfohle- 
nen Etymologischen Worterbuchs von Kluge, 
leicht hatten vermieden werden konnen. \ < r 
altete Formen und Ausdriicke, \\: 
gegen das Idiom, etc., beweisen ferner, dass 
bei der Abfassung oder Bearbeitung i-iiu-r 
deutschen Grammatik durch t-iiu-n Auslander 
die Hinzuziehungeines mil dem besten Sprach- 
gebrauch vertrauten Eingebornen wenigstens 
zum Lesen der Correcturbogen unerlasslit h 
ist. 

Wir bringen nun die einzelnen Punkte, die 
der Verbesst-rung bediirfen, einfach in der 
Reihenfolge zur Besprechung, in welrher wir 
ihnen bei der Durchsicht des Buches begegnen. 

28 ist doch etwas zuapodiktisch. In fast 
ganz Mittel- und Oberdeutschland wird s im 
Anlaut und zwischen X'ocalen tonlos ges- 
prochen. SS. 17, 18. Die lu'er gegt-l)ene 
deutsche Schrift sieht aus, als <>b sie ziun 'IVil 
einer Fibel aus dem yorigen Jahrhuiukrt 
entnommen ware. Die Biichstabeii // 
haben eine ganzlich veraltete Form, a uiul o 
sind balb lateinisch, halb deutsrh, n ist gan/ 
lateinisch, C und >"sind \olleiuls falsch, uiul 
p. 18 unten sind fast keine zwei Buclistabeii 
von gleicher Lange. Die Schrittproben am 
Ende des Buches sind dagegen, einige kleiue 
Versehen abgererhiu-t, mustergiltig. 



' ^ 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No, i. 



28 



Was muss der Verfasser von den Geistesgaben 
der amerikanischen Jugend denken, wenn er 
fiir notig halt, derselben mitzuteilen, dass die 
Worter Jung-ling-, Heft, Pferd, Schiff, Zeug 
im Plural nicht umgelautet werden ! 86 sind 
hinzuzufiigen mancher und solcher. 88 
sollte nach 79 stehen ; ihr 'her' ist vergessen. 
lor gewohnlich des Schmerzes, dem Sch- 
merze. 105. Wo kbmmen jetzt noch die 
Plurale Bette und Hemder vor? Rohre ist 
sing. fern. 123. Der Augapfel ist the eye- 
ball. 132. Die Plurale Tiicher=^kerchiefs, 
cloths und Tuche=cloths=verschiedene Ar- 
ten von Tuch sollten streng auseinandergehal- 
ten werden. 175. Wozu iin Imperativ die 
Formen habe er, haben sie, anstatt er habe, sie 
haben ? 202 ist unrichtig ; man sagt ent- 
weder es sick order sich's 235 besagt das- 
selbe wie 234. 242. Fichtst, flichtst, nicht 
fichst, flichst. Lbschen als starkes Verb wird 
wol nie transitiv gebraucht, heisst also nicht 
to put out sondern nur to go out; die transitive 
(factitive) Form ist regelmassig schwach. 
Schraiibeu wircl nur sehr selten stark conju- 
girt. Neben schwor kommt ebenso haufig, 
wenn nicht haufiger, schwur vor, im Conjunc- 
tiv fast immer- schwiire. Melken ist im 
Praeteritum oft schwach, auch vereinzelt im 
Part. Perf. Ebenso werdenfttmmen, schallen, 
schnauben nicht selten schwach flectirt, we- 
niger oft auch gdren und saugen ^ 243. Man 
spricht stets und schreibt meistens du \sst, 
frisst, liest, misst, vergisst (ss fiir sz) anstatt 
der vollen aber etwas unbehiilflichen Formen 
du issest, liesest, etc. Dasselbe gilt 248 von 
bldsest, lassest, stossest, wdchsest, ivdschest, 
wofiir man gewohnlich findet blast, Idsst, 
stosst, wdchst, wdsclist, letzteres sogar wie 
wascht ausgesprochen. Hierzu gehoren noch 
232 birst(est) und 242 drisch(es)t, lisch(es)t, 
schmilz(es)t, 246. Keif en ist meist schwach. 
274. Es fragt sich heisst it is doubtful, 
nicht it is asked. 277. Zu betrilgen ist nicht 
eigentlich Infinitiv, sondern Supinum, oder 
" Infinitiv mit zu," wenn man will. 278, 
Der Ausfall des ge- ist nur so nebenbei, sollte 
aber 277 ausdriicklich betont werden. 313. 
Doch auch Jan'uar, Feb'ruar. 329, Note ist 
unrichtig ; auf nicht nur folgt stets das Wort 
zu welchem ' nnr logisch gehort, und das ist 
meist das Verbum, wahrend nach sondern 



auch die Wortstellung normal bleibt. 357 
Festhalten ist ein trennbares Compositum und 
gehort zu 379, da/<?.y/hier (wie los in loslas- 
sen) Adjectiv, nicht Adverb ist. 358. Ver- 
halten soil vv.ol lieissen aufhalten. 371. Ent- 
gegnen (entgegen) und entzweien (entzwei) 
sollen mit dem Praefix ent zusammengesetzt 
sein ! Dem Worte entzwei wenigstens sieht 
und hort doch jeder Laie sofort an, dass es 
mit dem englischen in two auch formell 
identisch ist. Die ahd. Formen sind in- 
gagan(i), in-zuvei, mhd. engegen, enzwei. 
374. Zergliedern heisst to dissect, to divide 
into (natural) parts. 375. Begehen haufiger 
=to commit, perpetrate ; ergehento come 
out, to be issued, impers. to fare. 383. Der 
Tropf=the dropping, der Tropfen=the drop. 
Das Band (Plur. Bander) the ribbon, (Plur. 
Bande) the tie, bond', der Bund^=the union. 
384. Der Bissen=-the morsel. Hier finden 
wir wieder eine neue Ableitung: Stopsel mit 
-sal zusammengetzt ! Das Wort gehort zu 
Abteilung 3 desselben Paragraphen. 386. 
Gottheit ist meist=G"0#. Das Christen turn 
heisst Christianity, nicht Christendom ; das 
Kcnigtum ist abstract=rcy///y, kingship; 
387. Die Gebnrt gehort in die Anmerkung zu 
Gebiet. 389. Meist Kurziveil, ohne e. 
390, Anmerkung. Was fiir Tiiel sind das 1 
395- Von welchen compound nouns sind denn 
breitsclmltrig und vierfussig abgeleitet ? Bis- 
herig ist of hitherto ; dortig : of that place ; 
hiesig: of this place (town, city). Die Bemerk- 
ung iiber lei ist dem Schiller dunkel -und ist 
auch sonst nicht am Platze. Schadlich und 
niitslich gehoren zu io a . 396. Misstrauisch 
gehort zd 395,8. 399. Ruckweise, nicht 
riickweise. Mai als Adverb ist doch wol im- 
mer bewusste Kiirzung von einmal('nmal, mat) 
und als solche nur in familiiirer Umgangs- 
sprache zulassig ; es ist daher hier die voile 
Form einmal zu setzen. Der ganze Paragraph 
macht in seiner Anbrdming wie auch im Inhalt 
und Styl den Eindruck sehr fliichtiger Arbeit. 
401. Hinzu ist nur ein zusanimengesetztes 
Verbalpraefix, kein selbstandiges Adverb. 



HUGO SCHILLING. 



Wittenberg College. 



2 9 



>;<!'/ 



Jami-iry. . 1/r >/'/: A'. V /..l.\'(,r.li, / .\V;//.S, ,sss \,> 



sit//' ti/htt hi /illicit,- (ft-/ ('<nt. 

.\(n. By I'lo UAINA. (De-print 
from til- Stii:ij (fi l-'il(>lu<jia Koinanza, 
Fuse. IV). 

I'n' Ixcrizionc AV/V.v/;/</ del 1131. By I'm 
KA.I.NA. (De-print from the Archivio 
Storifo Italiaiio, XIX., la). 

'1'lu- importance of the- Bilingual Alba of the 
Vatican ro<U-x Kcgina 1462, as the- earliest 
monument in which Provencal has been found, 
has led many Romance scholars to attempt a 
satisfactory interpretation of it.* Their efforts 
have hitherto met with but little decided 
result, owing in great part to the absence of 
MSS. which might be used for comparison, 
and also to the carelessness of the copyists; 
likewise, possibly, to the ignorance of the 
author himself. The latter was undoubtedly 
more versed in Latin than in the vernacular, 
and his imitations of the popular refrains he 
heard around him are vitiated by the Latin 
poetical mould into which he casts them. 
However, making the best of the single MS., 
Prof. Rajna proceeds boldly by means of text 
criticism to the desired end. Uniting the 
various lines of the Alba in which the refrain 
appears entire or in part, he gains as text 
for his point of departure: 

L'alba part (or par) umet mar atrasol 
Poypas (orPoy pas) abigil miraclar tenebras. 

As is seen, the MS. disregards the separa- 
tion of words, writing two now together, now 
apart. This leads the author to examine first 
the second line of the refrain to determine the 
meaning of pas abigit, which he resolves into 
pasa bigil and explains bigil as vigil, Latin r 
in South-west France sounding as b. The a is 
hence not a preposition, as Suchier and Stengel 
had interpreted, but apart of the verb. In the 
same way, atra sol is read by Prof. Rajna 
atras ol, the ol being an article and agreeing 
with ]\)\. Thus, from disregard of the MS. 
division of words, the author is led to ignore 
also the lines of the text, and construes the- 
re fra in : L'alba part ninct mar a Iras ol pny 
pasa bigil uiiraclar tciichras. 

*See articles by Schmidt and Suchier in Ziitschrift fuf 
dcutsche Philologie, XII., 33355.: by Stengel in Zeitsckri/t 
fiir romanitche Philologie, IX, 403 ss., etc. 



I'.nt here .1 difficulty arises whi< h seems to 
us more serious than the re< onstnn lion of tin- 
Prof. Kajna admits th.it <>/ mcurs in 
Provem.al only as a pronoun, < iting line K.I of 
Aigar f Mantni: Si <>/ t n.\ t -nf In / 
A/i-r<in\, where In is the form ol tin- artii le. 
He is, then-Ion-, obliged to suppos.- ili.r 
as article, existed in Provin , .,., n . \j,t, <| m 
certain Lombard dialects. an hy|- 
which, in the absence of supporting ! 
somewhat ha/ardous. Tin- division of tin- 
being thus suggested, the author claims 
pi>y to be the noun and not the adverb, and 
gives two decasyllabic lines by the addition 
of/toy to the first verse, when- it must have 
originally belonged, until the scribe, intent on 
the Latin, had forced it fn.m its place. Tin- 
text of the original refrain would thus be : 

I. 'alba part umet mar atras ol \x>y. 
I'asa bigil miraclar tenebrax ; 

which Prof. Rajna would translate in Italian: 
L'alba, di ladall'umido mare, dietro il poggio, 
passa vigile a spiar per entro alle tern-lire. 
The Epic verse is therefore furnished with still 
another proof of its antiquity, in a monument 
some hundred years earlier than Jioithitis. 

Proceeding from the refrain to the entire- 
poem, Prof. Kajna argues for a Latin original, 
composed by a ' poet who was perhaps an 
imitator of Vergil and < >vid. In his hands the 
vernacular\f. mutilated, though the Alba differs 
in no essential respect from the popular forms 
of the Albas of the XII. and XIII. centi: 

The second article of Prof. Rajna leaves the 
strictly defined field of Pro\-ncal poetry for the 
wider ground of C'arolingian legend. The 
treason of (ianelon at the gorge of Rom < s- 
valles had been sung as wide as the pi 
of Roland. The greater the glory of the hero, 
magnified by the grow ing tradition of succes- 
sive generations, the deeper the contempt for 
the traitor who had brought against him over 
powering forces. Judas alone was a fitting 
example to be placed by the side of (..melon, 
and thus the action of the epic on Scripture 
and of Scripture on the epic worked in the 
mind of the people until a race of traitors 
stood forth who, from father to s,.n and 
through the various lines of kindred 
opposed the valiant ami the loyal. Such a 
state of feeling is i-xpic ,srd by the Latin in- 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



scription in the wall of the vestibule of the 
cathedral at Nepi. In the year 1131, the 
soldiers of Nepi and the rulers made oath 
together that should any one break the al- 
liance he should be deprived of honor and 
dignity, and moreover should have his portion 
"cum Juda et Caypha atque Pilato," for they 
would put him to death " ut Galelonem qui 
suos tradidit socios." 

The historical import of the inscription is 
considered at length by Prof. Rajna, before 
turning to the relation it may have with the 
French epic. The treason of Ganelon, he 
affirms, must have been known solely 
through popular tradition. As proof of this, 
Sutri near Nepi is cited, the region of Italy 
most abounding in legendary traces of Roland. 
Now Sutri was a stopping place on the high- 
way to Rome, most frequented by pilgrims 
from the north-west. This highway is fre- 
quently called in the middle ages the Strata 
Francigena, and many towns in the vicinity 
bear in their names the marks of French in- 
fluence. Together with the pilgrims came 
the wandering minstrels, with their tales of 
wars against the infidels, and by them Italy 
was made acquainted with the story of the 
peers of Charlemagne. Italy in her turn 
reacted on the singers, who borrowed from her 
many scenes and who make especial reference 
to Sutri. (See ' Enfances ' and ' Chevalerie 
Ogier.') 

For the particular mention of Ganelon in 
other than the French form, Prof. Rajna sur- 
mises that the word Galelonem is identical 
with the Spanish Galalon, and that it is due to 
pilgrims who had visited the shrine of St. 
James at Campostello and who had made a 
halt at Roncesvalles. An interesting citation 
in support of this view is made from Pulci : 

E tutti i peregrin questa' novella 
Riportan di Galizia ancora espresso, 
D'aver veduto il sasso e'l corno fesso. 

Morgante, XXVII., 108. 

In connection with this early appearance 
of Ganelon in Italy, it is interesting to note 
that he was also celebrated in South France 
in 1170 (See Bartsch ' Chrest. Prov.' col. 85, 1. 
25), and that the Troubadours frequently 
coupled him, as is suggested by the inscrip- 



tion at Nepi, with the arch-traitor Judas. 
(Birch-Hirschfeld : ' Uber die den Troubadours 
bekannten epischen Stoffe,' p. 60). f 



F. M. WARREN. 



Johns Hopkins University. 



Neuphilolugische Essays by GUSTAV KOR- 
TING. Heilbronn, Gebr. Henninger, 184 
pp., 1887. 

The indefatigable author of the ' Ency- 
klopadie und Methodologie der Romanischen 
Philologie,' whose similar work on English 
philology has recently appeared, puts before 
the public a series of essays on modern 
philology. A simple enumeration of the titles 
will show that the book is not written for the 
specialist in modern philology, but that the 
author addresses himself to a wider circle of 
readers, to all those that take an interest in 
higher education. These essays, eight in 
number, treat of the following subjects: 1. 
Modern Philology, Romance Philology, Eng- 
lish Philology. II. The Study of Modern 
Philology at the German Universities. III. 
Suggestions as to the University Studies in 
Modern Philology. IV. " Staatsexamen " of 
Modern Philologists. V . The Examination 
of Modern Philologists for the Doctor's De- 
gree. VI. Scientific Criticism in Modern 
Philology. VII. Instruction in Modern Lan- 
guages at the "Gymnasium." VIII. In- 
struction in Modern Languages at the Female 
High Schools (Hohere Tochterschule) a 
variety of subjects that undoubtedly will not 
fail to awaken the interest of scholars and lay- 
men in Europe, and let us hope, in America 
also. 

In his first article, which he modestly calls 
aphorism, Prof. Korting' discusses the question 
whether the academic study of Romance 
languages and English has a right to the name 
of philology, and how far we are entitled to 
speak of modern philology. For his defini- 
tion of philology he refers to the article in the 

fFor the tradition of Ganelon in the French epic see 
Stengel's Ausg. und Abh., No. 50: Ganelon und sein Ge- 
schlecht im altfranziisischen Epos, by E. Sauerfeld. In Ro- 
mania XI., 410 traces are noted of contemporary legends in 
the d partement de la Somme, France. 



16 



January. .V< >/>/: A', \' LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888 No i 



' Kncyklopadie uud Methodologie der Roina- 
nis< hen Sprachen ' which dctinitioii lias since 
been criticised by Prof. Kl/e in liis 'Grundriss 
:i;Jischen Philologic.' \Ve arc glad 
that Prof. Korting did not enter into polemics 
with 1'rof. Kl/e, as liis work shows well t In- 
difference between theory and praxis. 

Philology considers only the " Cultur- 
sprachen," tlie languages that have produced 
a national literature, and it must consider 
them in their natural development. Lan- 
guages that are related to each other must be 
regarded as one group and cannot be separated 
in philology. Thus Latin and the Romance 
languages form a philological unity, and so long 
as the study of the derived tongues remains 
in close connection with their parent speech 
we can make use of the name of Romance 
philology. The case is different with Germanic 
philology, of which the study of Knglish is 
only a branch. Here the basis of scientific in- 
vestigation is the philology of prehistoric 
times comparative philology and since the 
Knglish scholar like the German scholar who 
makes the High German branch his special 
study must found his studies on Sanskrit, etc., 
to follow the development of the Germanic 
languages, his science can only be termed 
Germanic, not Knglish, philology. Romance 
and Germanic philology can be combined 
under the name of ' modern philology ' only for 
practical reasons. ' Modern philology,' like 
' Knglish philology ' is merely a name, no 
science. 

Prof. Korting devotes a whole article to this 
question, because it is the starting point for his 
ensuing deductions as to the academic study 
of modern languages. Some of the ideas in 
the following essays are old acquaintances 
that are familiar to us from his pamphlet 
' Gedanken und Bemerkungen iiber das 
Studium cler neueren Sprachen auf den deu- 
tschen Hochschulen ' and occasional remarks 
in the " Kncyklopadie." When our young 
science was in its infancy, it was quite natural 
that the student chose the two modern langua- 
ges that he could make use of in teaching, and 
this became so much the fashion that it gave 
rise to the name of ' modern philology ' and 
' modern philologists,' as distinguishing them 
from the scholars of classical philology. But 



since that time modern philology lias 
\eloped int.. a M i.-i,. - of Midi vast .-\tent that 
it is beyond any on-- student's ubilit) In 
embrace it, at l.-.ist during lli<, 
that he spends at a university. Korting calls 
for a separation of Krench and Knglish. . 
of which subjects is to be studied IP its nat- 
ural connection with Latin or German. 'I lu.s 
the Romance student would be compelled to 
follow courses in Latin and attend the Latin 
urinary, and would be better prepared for his 
work in Romance philology, while the Knglish 
student, who formerly contented himself with 
Anglo-Saxon and Gothic, wmild ha\e to make 
himself acquainted with the elements of com- 
parative philology, ( )ld Norse, and the < ierman- 
ic dialects. The Prussian government, evident- 
ly pressed by certain universities has in the new 
" Priifungsordnung." going into effect this 
year, somewhat remedied this deficiency by 
combining Krench and the " facultas docendi " 
in Latin for lower classes. The one chief 
difficulty in Prof. Korting 's combination of 
subjects, natural and commendable as it h 
that the authorities can not reasonably insist on 
it since the combination of subjects in the "Prii- 
fungsordnung " is to a large extent dictated Im- 
practical considerations, and Knglish is not 
taught in the Gymnasium ; and the student, 
who, whatever his enthusiasm tor his chosen 
science, has to keep in view what will become 
of him after the time of preparation, will natu- 
rally take those subjects that give him tin- 
best chance to find some position, if necessary, 
outside of the Gymnasium and Kealsc hule. 
that is to say, the Krench and the Knglish 
It is indeed gratifying to see that the scientific 
spirit among the young generation of modern 
philologists in Germany, in their struggle for 
existence, has not abated, for it displays almost 
the steadfastness of a martyr to write a disserta- 
tion or some scholarly work with the feeling 
that one is the seventieth in the number of 
well qualified candidates who will compete 
for some obscure position with .1 salary just 
above the starvation point. 

Kvery scholar knows that Germain is tin- 
seat of philology, classical .is well as modern. 
Since Grimm and Hie/ laid the foundation for 
the latter, their worthy su- .ided by 

hundreds of enthusiastic co-workers, have built 



35 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



up a science that can well compare with its 
more experienced and more consolidated 
parent philology. Yet there may, perhaps, be 
more Latin scholars than Prof. Korting sup- 
poses (though we are sure they are exceptions) 
who think it an intrusion that Romance philo- 
logy should go back to the classical age to dig 
out treasures that must otherwise be hidden. It 
is not so long since Prof. Sittl wrote his book : 
'Die localen Verschiedenheiten des Latein,' 
but we feel some satisfaction that his ' vivat 
sequens ' was addressed to a scholar who has 
a closer feeling and more sympathy with 
Romance philology. 

If these scholars are exceptions, the number 
is pretty large in Germany of educated people 
who feel that occupation with the language 
and literature of a foreign country is a lack of 
patriotism, and who wish to see the whole 
strength and ability of native scholars concen- 
trated on the study of their own language and 
history. To all these and others of the same 
opinion we recommend the reading of Prof. 
Korting's refutation, in his second essay ; the 
more intelligent would be convinced that 
occupation with foreign languages and litera- 
tures is one of the best, and often the only, 
means of understanding the national pro- 
ductions, and that, if other nations do not pay 
the same attention to German philology as 
German scholars do to theirs, "this is not the 
effect of a more highly developed national feel- 
ing but simply the oatcome of a deficient scien- 
tific insight." The following lines from the 
greatest philologist of France, which we read 
in the last volume of the Romania, would 
show them how much these studies are ap- 
preciated abroad: " Les Allemands s'em- 
parent de plus en plus du terrain des Etudes 
romanes et sp6cialement du domaine de 
1'ancien francais. C'est en vain que nous 
essayons de marcher au moins de conserve 
avec eux ; nous sommes vaincus par le nombre 
d'abord et nous sommes loin de posse"der 
un outillage aussi commun. Ce que nous 
avons de mieux a faire est de profiler des 
travaux qu'ils accumulent et de les remercier 
quand les travaux sont vraiment utiles." 

The fourth essay is full of suggestions as to 
the regulations of the "Staatsexamen." The 
author's experience as an examiner in the 



" Pfufungskommission " is a guaranty for the 
possibility of carrying through the modifica- 
tions he proposes. The "Staatsexamen" 
really consists of four examinations : the 
scientific, in which the candidate has to show 
his acquaintance with the development and 
the results of Romance, etc., philology; a 
practical examination, on which the new 
" Prufungsordnung " puts more stress now 
than before, to show how far the candidate is 
able to speak and write the languages he 
desires to teach ; the examination in pedagogy 
and last not least the ' 'allgemeine Bildung, ' ' 
which, though restricted to certain branches 
Philosophy, Latin, History and Religion is in 
examination as in common life an idea capable 
of wide extension. The last, with the ex- 
ception of philosophy, has been regarded by 
many professors as entirely superfluous, and 
we fully agree with Prof. Korting that it is 
even injurious. The reason is so obvious and 
the feeling against it has been so universal 
among students, teachers and professors that 
we are surprised to find the same old-fashioned 
regulation in the new "Prufungsordnung," 
and fear accordingly that Prof. Korting's 
propositions will hardly be taken into con- 
sideration. The rest of the examination the 
author wishes to have divided into two parts. 
The first, strictly scientific, ought to "be taken 
after finishing the university studies, the 
second, covering the practical knowledge of 
French and English in speaking and writing, 
should follow an interval of two years, spent 
mostly in France and England. Theoretical 
studies in pedagogy should be left entirely un- 
til after a practical foundation has been laid 
during the probationary year. Does it not 
disgust the commissioners to hear candidates 
speaking about things that they cannot reason- 
ably be expected to knovy ? We hope that the 
candidate will no longer be obliged as was 
the case in Alsace to appear in the class- 
room, after an absence of about five years, 
confronted by the rather embarrassing ne- 
cessity of combining Gothic Grammar and 
Muspilli's or Lachmann's Theory with the 
somewhat less scholarly explanation of " Ich 
hatt' einen Kameraden " ! 

There is no question whatever that by divid- 
ing the examination the candidates will be 



37 



January. MODERN I,Ab & No.i. 







better prepared, scientifically and practically, 
and tlu- authorities, who do not hesitate to 
make use of tin- large number of philologists 
by offering them salaries that only necessity 
can compel them to accept, should not be too 
timid to require a little further preparation. 
Besides, the first " Staatsexamen " and the 
" 1 )octorexanien " could easily be combined, 
if the candidate for the former we^e allowed 
to devote all his time to one thesis, equal to 
that now required for the Dr. Phil., instead 
of preparing several papers in his different 
lines of studies. Something must be done 
to help teachers who have passed their 
Staatsexamen without taking the Dr. Phil., 
and they are the majority to some title 
that they can use in society. We know a 
teacher in a "Gymnasium" who took his 
degree in his sixtieth year, in order, after retir- 
ing from his position, to have some title that 
might distinguish him from the ordinary public 
school teacher. For titles are no mere chimera 
in a monarchial government, and putting the 
teacher in that respect on the same level with 
other learned professions is an honor that Ger- 
many owes to the promoters of her intellectual 
power, and the ordinance of last year, raising 
teachers with academical education to the 
rank of lawyers, etc., has not fully made 
amends for this fault of omission. 

The article on criticism is mostly a plea for a 
more moderate and polite tone in criticising par- 
ticularly the works of beginners. Our readers 
are well acquainted with the often too harsh 
language seen especially in German journals, 
and, though this may find some explanation in 
the transient and even ephemeral character of 
a review, yet scholars on this side of the water 
cannot but hope that the time may never come 
when we shall find our learned periodicals filled 
with merely personal " Krwiderungen " and 
" Kntgegnuugen." 

The last two essays occupy themselves with 
the instruction in modern languages. The 
Gymmasium, Prof. Korting says, is a prepara- 
tory school for the university, and has in 
\iew, as its sole object, to fit boys best for 
subsequent scientific study there. \Ve may 
admit this, but how about the author's con- 
tested "Kinheitsschule," the combined Real- 
gymnasieii and (iymnasium? The number of 



students is decreasing in many departments, 
and we hope the "Kinheitsschule" uill not 
multiply their number. The remarkable im- 
personality of Prof. Korting, so a-ie. ably 
different from those outbursts of scorn I. ether 
uttered by the minority striving for <-\ist. 
or flung with self-sufli( iem \ to tli<- public from 
the stronghold of a secured position, would 
have assured a candid hearing to any explana- 
tion he might have had to offer as to the n 
of blending (iymnasium and Kealschule, and 
we much regret that this question has found 
no treatment among his essays. Certainly the 
Kinheitsschule cannot be a preparatory school 
for the university in the same sense as the 
(iymnasium ; it must embody the whole higher 
education. We join Prof. Korting in his wish 
that in the German Gymnasium, Knglish 
may find a place that has hitherto been 
denied to it, as well as in his hope that the 
Classics will always remain the foundation of 
higher education. Whether a thorough train- 
ing in Latin and Greek can be obtained in less 
than sixteen hours a week, during a course of 
at least nine years, is a question that we lea\e 
for German scholars. Our experience tea 
us that the secondary subjects are too much 
neglected, and that the pupils, especially in 
the lower and intermediate classes, mostly 
look upon the weekly Latin exercise as the 
only essential in their promotion to a higher 
class. 

The end of modern language teaching has 
been often discussed in this country by various 
scholars, and most of them, at least those who 
are free from one-sidedness, agree that the only 
purpose can be to enable the pupils to read a 
foreign language, to understand scientific 
books, and enjoy foreign literature. The abil- 
ity simply to speak a foreign tongue will 
hardly extend beyond the common-life phr. 
that without constant practice will soon be 
forgotten and this cannot be the aim of an in- 
struction that means something more than 
mere superficial knowledge of the subject. 
Prof. Korting emphasises the great difficulty 
of learning a foreign language, and denies even 
the possibility of acquiring in a limited number 
of hours, the ability to write compositions of 
any stylistic value, "for writing French ami 
Knglish is different from writing Latin." 



39 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



40 



Compared with other subjects the modern lan- 
guages have been until recently much neglect- 
ed in Germany. This is due to the fact, as the 
author remarks, that instruction was given 
partly by teachers who had no scientific train- 
ing and who therefore could not, in a body of 
men and in an institution of a higher character, 
take a position which entitled them to the 
necessary respect. Though much remains to be 
wished for, Germany is now beyond the stage 
of language masters, and no candidate, is ap- 
pointed who has not proved that he has suc- 
cessfully devoted several years to a scientific 
study of modern philology. Having these 
thoughts in mind the author, in his excellent 
article on instruction in modern languages at 
Girls' High Schools, could not be expected 
to give us more than a pleasant causerie upon 
the experiments of killing time by the study 
of languages from thoughtlessly compiled 
grammars and handbooks. We must thank 
the author for his consideration in not allow- 
ing the memory of Juvenal to betray him in 
this case into writing a biting satire. 

The book contains so many new ideas and 
suggestions that it is impossible to give our 
readers a detailed account of its contents here. 
We highly recommend it to all those who 
are interested in the study of modern philology 
and desire information as to its present status 
in Germany. The essays are, besides, written 
in so attractive a style and the subject is dealt 
with in such a masterly manner that the reader 
will be tempted to finish the book without 
delay. 



H. SCHMIDT. 



Cornell University. 



Frederic Ozanam, sa vie et ses ceuvres, a 
volume of 600 pages, published last year at 
Montreal, is the first important literary venture 
of M. Pierre Chauveau, son of the eminent 
Canadian author. It is an extended study of 
the labors of the enthusiastic scholar and de- 
vout and practical Christian who was chiefly 
instrumental in forming the Society of St. Vin- 
cent de Paul. The subject is, of course, treat- 
ed from a thoroughly Roman Catholic stand- 
point ; indeed, the avowed object of the book 



is to place before young Canadians who may 
be tempted to abandon or slight their religion 
and give way to the skeptical tendency of the 
age, a model of saintliness free from all the 
repulsive elements of narrow-mindedness and 
intolerance. 

Fr^deYic Ozanam was born in 1813, a time 
when the Roman Catholic religion had not 
yet recovered its forces after the Revolution. 
He inherited from his parents the best traits of 
a Christian character, and these traits were 
strengthened by his early training. As soon 
as he was old enough, he joined the ranks of 
the defenders of his faith. His powers as a 
controversialist were first shown in an attack 
on the doctrines of Saint-Simon, which he pub- 
lished while still a law student at Lyons. Con- 
tinuing his legal studies in Paris, Ozanam 
became a leader in the establishment of the 
conferences of St. Vincent de Paul, and some- 
what'later he helped found the conferences of 
Notre Dame. At this period of his life he 
wrote his second work, Les deux chanceliers 
d'Angleterre, which attracted some attention. 

Having obtained the degree of doctor in 
both law and letters, he was appointed pro- 
fessor of commercial law at Lyons. So suc- 
cessful was his career, that before he was thirty 
years old he had become professor of foreign 
literature at the Sorbonne, where he lectured 
until his early death in 1853. The twelve years 
of his professorship were spent in almost 
incessant labor on his life-task, the history of 
Christian civilization from its beginning down 
to the i4th century, a task which was destined 
never to be completed. Fortunately, however, 
he published the various sections of this great 
work soon after he finished them, so 'that we 
have (besides his letters and his unpublished 
notes) nine volumes of Ozanam's writings, of 
which the most important are Dante etlaphilo- 
sophie catholique, Etudes geria>iiqncs and La 
civilisation an ci nqui^tne siec le. This last pro- 
duction, which did not appear until after the 
author's death, was crowned by the French 
Academy. 

It is to an analysis of these historical and 
literary works that the greater part of M. Chau- 
veau's book is devoted. Yet Ozanam himself 
is never forgotten ; the homely, sickly, nervous 
little man, whose awkward manner could not 



January. 



LANGUAGE NOTES, 






long conceal his \ ast knowledge nor his splen- 
did talent, is constantly before our eyes ; while 
his lovable character and his life of patient 
sulfering and sell-denial an- shown to speak 
from every page he wrote. M. Chaiiveau's 
style is perfectly straightforward ; the large 
amount of information he has accumulated is 
presented tastefully and modestly, without any 
kind of pretence; much space is given to quo- 
tations from other critics and also from Fre'de'- 
ric Ozanam's own writings. 

The book is rendered still more valuable by 
an introduction from the pen of M. Chauveau, 
ptre, who speaks briefly of the struggles of the 
French clerical party during the present cen- 
tury. In these struggles Ozanam played his 
part : not that of a political leader, nor that of 
a violent and one-sided debater, but rather 
that of man who, without neglecting his re- 
gular duties, quietly and conscientiously strives 
to make every action of his life tend toward 
the desired end. " Toute sa vie fut nne triple 
predication, par la parole, par Fe'criture, par 
Faction. Tout ce qu'il a fait, il Fa entrepris 
dans un seul but, faire du bien a ses semblables, 
et par-dessus tout, leur procurer le plus ne"ces- 
saire de tons les biens, la foi." 



CHAS. H. GRANDGENT. 



Harvard College. 



Wissenschaft und Schule in ihrem Verhalt- 
nisse zur praktischen Spracherlernung. 
Von Dr. M. M. ARNOLD SCHROER, ao. 
Professor der Englischen Philologie an 
der Universitat Freiburg i. B. (Leipzig 
1887). 

This brochure has for its object the discus- 
sion of the following dilemma : On the one 
hand, the university belongs to science, and 
every science has ideal, not practical, ends in 
view ; hence, practice in speaking a language 
has no place in the University. On the other 
hand, a practical knowledge of the respective 
living language is absolutely indispensable 
(ein unumgangliches Erforderniss) to the 
philologian and, especially, to the future 
teacher; without it, work in the history of 
language cannot be carried on with success, 
nor can the teaching of a modern language 



me really l>.-nHi< ial if the instructor lacks 
the ability to speak it (praktisc he Spra< hf-rtij{- 

beit). 

There are three ways out of this difficulty: 
The student may be left to j^el a practical 
knowledge of the ' language oiitsidi- o| tin- 
university, from private teachers; or In- may 
neglect the practical study entirely during his 
university course, in order to devote himself 
to it afterwards, in the country where the 
language is spoken ; or, finally, he may be 
referred to lectors, specially appointed for 
this purpose by the university authori 1 
The advantages of, and objections to, each of 
these methods are well set forth by S< lu 
On the whole, the third method, which has 
been adopted by several universities, is the 
most feasible; but, after all, the author con- 
siders a sojourn in the foreign country indis- 
pensable, and a dozen pages of the pamphlet 
are devoted to the consideration of the ques- 
tion, how such a sojourn abroad may be 
brought within the reach of the student and 
turned to best advantage. 

It would seem that the author, while advo- 
cating the desirability of a practical acquisition 
of the language previous to admission to the. 
university, underrates the possibililits in this 
respect, as well as the importance of such 
early training to the student of philology. 

There is added to the discussion of the 
main question an excursus on the instruction 
in English in (ierman schools and an ap- 
pendix on the foundation of an institute for 
German philologians for the study of English 
in London. 

The little brochure of sixty pages is full of 
suggestions to the teacher. 



A. LODKMAN. 



Ypsilanti, Mich. 



In order to prevent any possible misappre- 
hension, the editors take occasion to remark 
that the foot-note appended to Dr. Karsten's 
review of Paul's Principicn in the last number 
of the NOTES was simply intended to remind 
our readers, impartially, of the existing oppo- 
sition to the views presented by Paul. 



43 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



44 



In a note on Louise von Francois's ' Phos- 
phorus Hollunder ' (Boston: D. C. Heath and 
Co., 1887) innocent young Americans are in- 
formed by the editor that ' Urania ' and ' Die 
bezauberte Rose' are 'mediaeval poems.' 
Poor Tiedge ! Poor Schulze ! Surely there 
could be no bitterer comment on the words of 
the original : " Den Zeitgenossen Hollunders 
brauchen wir kaum zu sagen, dass 'Urania' 
und ' Die bezauberte Rose ' seine Vorbilder 
und Lieblingsdichtungen waren ; das jiingere 
Geschlecht wird sich derselben aus der Lite- 
raturgeschichte erinnern. " 

An attractive title that must of late have 
more than once caught the eye of teachers of 
French who scan the lists of new publications 
is : Beispielsammlung zur Einfuhrung in das 
Stadium der Etymologie des Neufranzosi- 
schen, von Dr. Gustav Breddiu (Leipzig, Gus- 
tav Fock, 1886 ; 410, pp. 31). Unfortunately 
the collection is not only worthless, but calcu- 
lated to do positive harm in the hands of the 
unwary. The etymologically inclined com- 
piler, who signs himself Oberlehrer, is appar- 
ently unacquainted even with the difference 
between words of popular and of learned 
origin. In short, pretty much everything is 
grist that comes to his mill. The result can 
be more easily imagined than described. 

Geo. O. Curme, Professor of French in 
Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa, has in 
press an edition of Lamartine's 'Meditations.' 
Prof. Curme has taken special pains to throw 
as much light as possible on the sources of 
personal inspiration of each poem. The work 
will be preceded by an introductory study of 
the poet's life ; and the poems (those are 
selected that have the inspiration of "Elvire") 
are so grouped as to keep the student's inter- 
est centered on the interesting period from 
1816-1820. 

The publishers of the above work, (D. C. 
Heath & Co. Boston), also announce ' His- 
toriettes Modernes,' selected and annotated 
by C. Fontaine, Instructor in French in the 
Washington (D. C.) High School. 

Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. have brought 
out, under the title of 'Whitney's Practical 
French,' the entire first part of the author's 
French Grammar, supplemented by a con- 



siderable variety of conversational exercises, 
and by lists of phrases illustrating, in parallel 
columns, the idiomatic uses of a number of 
the commoner French and English verbs. 
This low-priced and handy edition of .the 
more practical part of the larger grammar will 
be welcome to many teachers, and will do 
much, it may be hoped, towards bringing a 
good book into successful competition with 
many less valuable rivals. 

The attention of students of Italian is called 
to an Italian semi-weekly newspaper, publish- 
ed in Chicago, and already in its third year : 
L' Italia giornale politico, artistico, dilette- 
vole. The value of general newspaper reading, 
for the purpose of becoming thoroughly imbued 
with the every-day spirit and vocabulary of a 
foreign language, is too well recognized to 
need emphasis. L* Italia is intended for the 
benefit of the better portion of the numerous 
Italian colonies scattered over the country, 
and is accordingly a genuine Italian newspaper 
in all its details. It is in folio form, printed on 
good paper, with clear type ; and is a high- 
class journal, treating with dignity the leading 
questions of American and foreign politics and 
affairs. The subscription price is $3 per an- 
num (six months, $1.75). O. Durante, Editore. 
404 S. Clark St., Chicago, 111. 

We have received from Dr. D. G. Brinton 
(115 S. 7th St., Philadelphia) his instructive 
address before the Anthropological Section of 
the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, entitled : " A Review of the 
Data for the Study of the Prehistoric Chro- 
nology of America." It is a deprint from the 
Proceedings of the Association, vol. xxxvi. 
Together with this, comes the announcement 
that vol. vii. ('Ancient Nahuatl Poetry') of 
his important Library of Aboriginal American 
j Literature is now ready." It contains a number 
| of songs in the Nahuatl language, most of 
; which were composed before the Spanish 
! conquest. They are accompanied by transla- 
I tions and notes. 

Mr. William R. Jenkins (Publisher, N. Y.) 
announces as the next number of his will 
known series ' Romans Choisis,' Ohnet's popu- 
lar romance, ' Le Maitre de Forges, ' which was 
to be ready in November. In Paris, this novel 



45 



January. MO/>/-:/{N LANGUAGE NOTI-IS, 1888. No. \. 



has reached its 249111 edition. The next No. 
of ' Contes Choisis ' will contain, among other 
things, Claretie's clever little story, ' Boum- 
Boum.' The new edition, in 1'rench, of Victor 
Hugo's 'Les Miserable*,' which Mr. Jenkins 
has been issuing volume by volume, has now 
reached its completion. It fulfills the pro- 
mises made by the publisher and is handsome 
in its appearance; the typography is clear 
and tasteful and the paper good, while the size 
is convenient both for reading and for the 
library shelf. Being the cheapest edition to 
be had in French, it is also the handiest, as 
the only Paris edition now published is in 
large octavo volumes, cumbersome and costly. 
These five volumes are the most important 
and extensive French work yet attempted in 
America and argue well for the -success of 
Mr. Jenkins' laudable enterprise. 5 vols., 
paper $4.50, cloth $6.50. 

Under the title : Die Urbilder zu Hermann 
und Dorothea, Albert Bielshowsky publishes 
an interesting article on Goethe's personal 
relations to the characters of his classical idyl. 
While the latter has hitherto been considered 
a pure work of art, almost entirely free from 
the personal element which appears so fre- 
quently in most of Goethe's productions, 
Bielshowsky in this essay brings conclusive 
arguments to the contrary. He points to the 
similarity between Dorothea and Lili Schone- 
mann, not only in regard to their character, but 
above all in respect tp the latter's fate during 
the French revolution, her flight across the 
Rhine and the courageous self-defence of her 
virtue on that occasion. By adding to this the 
evidence of various traits of resemblance 
between Hermann and Goethe, as well as 
between the clergyman of the poem and 
Pfarrer Ewald, our idyl is made to appear not 
only in the light of a reminiscence of Goethe's 
beautiful " Brautigamszeit " in Frankfurt, but 
also as a touching and harmonious expiation 
of his guilt toward Lili. 

The publisher, Andreas Deichert of Erlan- 
gen (Germany), announces the early publica- 
tion of a ' Ratoromanische Chrestomathie ' by 
Dr. C. Decurtins. The work is to be confined 
to the literature of the Canton des Griso.is, 
and will be divided into two volumes: vol. I. 



comprehending Ob- and Nidwald, Ob-r- and 
Unterlialbstdn ; vol. II. < overing IS.-rgiin, the 
Kngadine and Miinsterthal. The materials 
are to include the dim-rent p.-riods of the litera- 
ture, beginning with the s. \eut.-enth ( ntiiry, 
to which will be added an introduction, a 
glossary, biographical not.-s of the individual 
authors and a description of the NUs. from 
which the texts are drawn. 

1 Contes et Nouvel/es, suivis de conversa- 
tions ; d'exercices de grammaire ; de notes 
facilitant la traduction (8vo, pp. 3071, is 
another recent publication of the same house, 
edited by Mme L. Alliot, lately teacher of 
French at the Bryn Mawr School, Baltimore. 
The selections are racy specimens of the work 
of several of the best modern contettrs, and 
are all suited to the taste and comprehension 
of young pupils. One of the stories, 'La 
Princesse verte,' by Andre" Theuriet, is 
borrowed from the Revue des Deux Mondes, 
and another, ' Le Bachelierde Nimes,' is the 
translation of a prose sketch from the Proven- 
cal of the celebrated poet, Mistral. ' Mon 
Professeur,' from ' La Bibliotheque de mon 
Oncle' by Topffer, is the same narrative, 
abridged and retouched (presumably by the 
author), which appears in the Clarendon Press 
'French Classics,' vol. Y.. under the title 
1 Me"saventures d'un Ecolier,' and elsewhere 
as ' Le Hanneton.' The retouching reminds 
one of the later polishing bestowed by Rous- 
seau on his 'Confessions.' and has been so 
thorough-going that a systematic comparison 
of the two redactions would bean instructive 
exercise in style for an advanced class. In 
this edition, proof-reading and press-work 
have been carefully attended to; yet in the 
table of contents Victor Hugo's ' La bonne 
puce et le me"chant roi ' is called a Conte a ses 
petits enfants (petits-enfants) ; on p. 147 grand* - 
nitre is printed grantl-m^rc; and in t he- 
conversational exercise on p. 99, ' New 
England's Memorial ' from which quaint 
Colonial volume the pupil, by the way, is re- 
commended to commit to memory a liberal 
extract, done into French is attributed t<> 
Nathaniel Norton instead of Morton. 

The House of Hachette & Cie has under- 
taken a biographical series of leading French 



47 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. i. 



authors (' Les Grands Ecrivains Francais '), 
with the view of placing before the public 
"studies of their life, works and influence." 
The separate volumes are assigned to compe- 
tent critics, who discuss their subject in a 
direct and comprehensive way, dwelling little 
on details but emphasizing salient features. 
Victor Cousin is thus presented by M. Jules 
Simon; Mme de Sdvigne" by M. Gaston 
Boissier; Montesquieu by M. Albert Sorel ; 
and 'George Sand,' the most recent of the 
series, is the posthumous work of Caro. 
Among the volumes announced for the future, 
are ' Voltaire ' by M. Bruneti^re ; ' Villon ' by 
M. Gaston Paris; 'Rousseau' by M. Cherbu- 
liez; 'Balzac' by M. Paul Bourget; 'Musset' 
by M. Jules Lemaitre and ' Sainte-Beuve ' by 
M. Taine. The appearance of the volumes is 
most pleasing, both as to print and neatness. 
Those already published are of moderate size 
(from 170 to 180 pages), and are accompanied 
by a portrait of the author, as frontispiece. 

The patriotic school of Italian poets is 
the subject of a series of essays from a some- 
what unexpected quarter. (' Modern Italian 
Poets ' ; W. D. Howells. New York : Harper). 
In his introduction, Mr. Howells quite .apolo- 
gizes for giving to the world what is the 
product of his leisure moments ; he excuses 
himself on the ground that there is nothing in 
English which covers this particular field. It 
is the period that begins with Parini, enlarges 
with Alfieri and continues, through the various 
phases of the Romantic movement, down to 
the time when Italian unity became a fact and 
when the aspiration for it ceased to be an in- 
fluence in Italian literature. As patriotism is 
the link which connects the various authors of 
the period, so Mr. Howells is inclined, perhaps, 
to accentuate too strongly the patriotic to the 
detriment of the classic element. The studies 
on the individual authors vary in length accord- 
ing to their prominence, but the same clear 
style and system are maintained throughout : 
a short sketch of the poet, of his surroundings, 
is followed by criticisms and translations from 
his works. Alfieri, Manzoni, Niccolini, whose 
' Arnaldo da Brescia ' is analyzed minutely 
(pp. 211-242), Leopardi, Giusti and Aleardi are 
naturally most favored. The translations are 
good and spirited, with especial care to be as 



far as possible faithful to the original. Of 
especial excellence are ' II Cinque Maggio ' 
of Manzoni, and the chorus in his ' Conte di 
Carmagnola,' the ballads of Ongaro and a 
poem of Grossi. To the volume a short bibli- 
ography is appended. 

Though Mr. Howells in all places expressly 
disclaims that he speaks ex cathedra, his 
work throws the burden of proof on him by 
bearing the stamp of accurate scholarship. It 
is therefore, perhaps, not invidious to call 
attention to the few errors of fact that are not 
due to the discrepancies of biographical 
dictionaries : the Sacred Hymns of Manzoni 
appear to have been published in 1810 instead 
of 1815 (p. 137) ; and the date of ' Arnaldo da 
Brescia ' is generally fixed in 1835 rather than 
1843 (p. 203). The usual judgment of con- 
temporary critics on Leopardi (pp. 265 and 
272) is not shared by so competent an authority 
as Bartoli, who places him "perhaps next to 
Dante." The tasteful make-up of the book is 
not enhanced by the poor wood-cuts which 
accompany many of the sketches. 

Teachers of elementary classes in literature 
as well as private students, will be pleased with 
the new school-room edition of Scott's Mar- 
mion, published by Macmillan & Co. The 
editor, Prof. M. Macmillan (B. A., Oxon.) is a 
practical teacher at Elphinstone College, Bom- 
bay. In the Introduction will be found a brief, 
though well considered, characterization of 
Scott as a poet, and the Notes, covering many 
pages, supply an unusually full apparatus of 
historical allusions, parallels in literature, com- 
ments on popular customs and beliefs to which 
the poet makes reference, and of uses of words, 
constructions, and figures of speech to which 
the learner's attention is to be directed. The 
same press has also published for the same 
editor, as a companion volume to the Ufarniion, 
Books I and II of the Paradise Lost. This 
second volume, though not so much needed, 
is yet quite as efficiently prepared as the first. 

The method of studying English Literature, 
which, several years ago, was set forth by Prof. 
Isaac N. Demmon (Univ. of Michigan) in a 
syllabus entitled a "Course in English Master- 
pieces: references for the use of students," 
may be found worked out in greater detail, 



49 



January. .VO/'J-A'N LANGUAGE NOTKS, iHKS. .\u. i. 



and applied in a mop- systematic manner to a 
wider selection of " masteipiei es," ranging 
from Chaucer to Tennyson, in a new volume 
by Prof. Alfred H.Welsh (English Masterpiece 

Course, Chicago, John C. Buckbee & ('D.I. 
There art- many teachers of English literature 
that have become petrified in the deadening 
prartio- of blindly following the narrow treat- 
ment of some text-book. Other teachers do 
practically the same thing, but with certain 
misgivings ; they would do better. To this 
latter (-lass Prof. Welsh's hook will be helpful. 
It will suggest means for making the study of 
literature a rational and manly performance, 
an invaluable training not only in feeling and 
sentiment, but also in the power of estimating 
opinions, in correlating truths, and in testing 
theories ; in short it will enforce the idea that 
literature is to be studied by each individual 
for himself, more or less independently of 
others, and will at once show how to make the 
novel experiment. 

The publication is announced of the follow- 
ing work, important for scholars interested in 
Provencal literature : Origine et Etablisse- 
ment de I'Acade'mie des Jeux Floratix de Tou- 
Lnise ; Biographic des Troubadours; Sur la 
langue romane ou le provencal. Par C. 
Chabaneau, Professeur a la Facult^des Lettres 
de Montpellier. En i vol. in 410 de 246 pages. 
Price 27 frs. To be had of H. Welter, 59 Rue 
Bonaparte, Paris. 

A new series of French texts for the use of 
schools is that edited by Martin Hartmann 
(Leipzig, E. A. Seeman). The first number 
contains the comedy of Jules Sandeau, ' Mile. 
de la Seigliere.' Nothing but praise can be 
said of the care and the completeness of the 
text, the abundance of notes both grammatical 
and literary and the neatness of the volume 
both as to print and to shape. In a short ap- 
pendix are found a study on the relation of the 
comedy to the novel, and the two songs of 
Beranger alluded to in the text. So thorough 
lias been the work of the editor that little is 
left and we think it a fault in class-work to 
be developed by the instructor. 

An important contribution to the text of the 
Breton Cycle is the publication of the Portu- 
guese Ms. 2594 of Vienna. (A Historia dos 



Cavalleiros da M.-s.i Kedonda < da I ><-manda 
do Santo Graall ; K. von Reiiihardsloettner, 
Berlin iSSy-S, Krster Band;. The Ms. belongs 
t<> the XV. century and is therefore of t 
cond period of the prose novels. In looking 
for the original, Prof. K. finds that the Ms. 
bearsthe most resemblance to the third volume 
of ' Lancelot du Lac,' published at Paris in 
J 533- It gradually separates from the latter, 
in that the object of the Portuguese writer is 
to give a history of the Knights of the Round 
Table and of the quest of the Grail, while 
the French novel centers in the person of 
Lancelot and his deeds. Various points of 
comparison are made by the editor in an 
Introduction where clearness of style is not a 
characteristic quality and where there is an 
abuse of italic letters. The text printed in- 
cludes 70 out of 199 folios. 

At the annual public session of the French 
Academy, a prize of 1500 frances was awarded 
to M. E. Cosquin for his ' Conies populaires de 
la Lorraine ; ' one of 1200 frs. to M. Brunot 
for his ' Grammaire historique de la langue 
francaise.' A prize of 1500 frs. was divided 
between M. J. F. Blade, for his ' Contes popu- 
laires de la Gascogne,' and M. J. Fleury, for 
his ' Litterature orale de la Basse Normandie.' 

We have received the first number of the 
Zeitschrift fiir Vergleichende Litteraturge- 
schichte und Renaissance Litteratur, the pros- 
pectus of which was noticed in the November 
number of the NOTES. This journal is a com- 
bination of the Zeitschrift fiir I'crgl. Littcra- 
turgeschichte, edited by Professor Max Koch, 
and the Jahrcsschrift fiir Kultur etc. der 
Renaissance, edited by Professor Ludwig 
Geiger, the latter of which ceased last year to 
be issued in separate form. The new periodi- 
cal appears under the joint editorship of Koch 
and Geiger. The first number presents. <>n 
various subjects of German, English, Hun- 
garian and humanistic literature, a series ni 
essays which are all of peculiar interest and 
permanent value. The young science of the 
comparati\e history of literature, hitherto 
mainly in the hands of dilettanti, po-- 
in the new Zeitschrift an organ that will com- 
mand the respect of all scholars interested in 
this important subject. The names of the 



January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888 No. i. 



editors vouch for a strictly scientific and phil- 
ological treatment of the subjects presented, 
and we take pleasure in recommending the 
journal cordially to our readers. 

Renewed proof of the activity of the Goethe 
Gesellschaft is given us in the appearance of 
two volumes of the long expected definitive 
edition of the poet's works, the " Ausgabe der 
Grossherzogin Sophie von Sachsen," to whom 
Walther O. Goethe, the last surviving grand- 
child of the poet, bequeathed the family.archi- 
ves. Vol. I, containing a portion of the " Ge- 
dichte," and Vol. XIV, containing the first 
part of " Faust," form the society's present 
contribution, handsome octavos in clear type, 
a delightful contrast to the stubby little vol- 
umes of the Cotta and Hempel editions. The 
material to be published is classified under 
four heads, which will also serve to suggest 
the scope of the proposed edition/ Goethe's 
works (in the narrower sense), his scientific 
writings, diaries and letters. Confidence in 
the editorial work is inspired by the list of 
editors and their associates to the number of 
more than three-score published in the intro- 
duction to the first volume ; v. Loeper, Erich 
Schmidt, Herman Grimm, Seuffert and Su- 
phan as editors-in-chief, while among the as- 
sistants one notices v. Biedermann, Geiger of 
the "Jahrbuch," Fielitz, the editor of the 
" Briefe an Frau v. Stein," Minor, Schroer 
and others of like scholarship and repute. 

For its text and arrangement the present 
edition of Goethe's works holds closely to the 
last edition published by Cotta during Goethe's 
life, the so-called "Ausgabe letzter Hand," 
1827-30, with supplementary volumes publish- 
ed after Goethe's death. The text is accom- 
panied by a complete critical apparatus, redu- 
ced however to surprisingly compact form, for 
which the manuscript treasures of the archives 
afforded abundant new material. The " Faust" 
in particular, is enriched by additional parali- 
pomena and especiallv by the readings of the 
Gochhausen manuscript, a copy of the origi- 
nal as brought by Goethe to Weimar in 1775, 
which E. Schmidt was fortunate enough to 
discover in January of the present year among 
the papers of Frl. v. Gochhausen, now in pos- 
session of her grand-nephew (cf. Nation, No. 



1145, Jun. 9, 1887). This manuscript, it should 
be remarked, has also been published separate- 
ly by Schmidt, so that the new. material for 
Faust criticism is now accessible to every 
Goethe student. The present volumes of the 
new edition give promise that it will do its part 
to fulfill the prediction made by Grimm in his 
enthusiastic preface to the first volume ; " die 
neue Ausgabe vvird als das Merkmal eines 
geistigen Umschwunges gelten, von dem 
heute nur als etwas Zukunftigem die Rede 
sein kann, von dem die Zukunft aber als von 
Etwas Vollbrachtem sprechen wird." 

The' Life of Dante,' by Miss Ward, published 
by Roberts Brothers, is an unpretentious little 
book, which accomplishes satisfactorily what 
it attempts to do. In a perfectly simple way it 
tells what is known about the life of the great 
poet, and gives a short analysis of his works, 
both prose and poetry. There is no attempt 
to show wide reading nor philosophic depth 
in exposition, but the author is both widely- 
enough read and has grasp enough of the sub- 
ject to avoid the pitfalls iiito which the pre- 
sumptuous or unwary are sure to plunge, when 
writing on such a subject. There is probably 
no book before the American public which 
gives so agreeably and in so brief a compass 
as does this excellent little work with no 
valuable criticism, to be sure, but also with 
little or no vague speculation the facts con- 
cerning Dante's life and work. 

The same firm sends a reprint of Dante Ros- 
setti's ' Dante and His Circle,' a book which is 
almost indispensable to many students of 
Dante and his times, who have no access to the 
originals of nearly half of what is here trans- 
lated with a felicity of expression and- a depth 
of sympathy so rare as to excite admiration. 
The fact is that no man of letters in this 
century, if transported back to the Florence 
of Farinata or of Giotto, would have felt 
himself so little out of place as Dante Gabriel 
Rossetti. This is why his translations that 
of the 'Vita Nuova.'in particular are unsur- 
passed, and not likely soon to be surpassed, in 
general justness of tone; though Norton's or 
even Martin's Vita Nuova may be an improve- 
ment in single phrases or even passages. In 
spite of some misgivings on the subject of in- 



26 



53 



January. MOI>t'.k'.\ LANGUAGE NOTES, iS88. No. i. 



54 



ternationnl copyright, it must be said that 
Roberts Brothers liave done a real service, in 
putting within the. read) of all, at a moderate 
price, so good a work, the original editions of 
which are not easy to get and expensive be- 
sides. 1 1 is only to be regretted that they have 
not made it a handsomer book. 



PERSONAL. 

Prof. Fr. Kluge Qena, Germany) never flags 
in industry. He is at present seeing through 
the press a new edition of his Etymological 
Dictionary, also a new work on the influence 
of Luther on the German language, and an 
Anglo-Saxon Reader. 

Prof, ten Brink (Strassburg, Germany), we 
are told, has in the Press a work on the Bo- 
wulf. We are unable to give any further char- 
acterization. His proposed edition of the 
poem is, however, still far off. 

We are authorized to state that Prof. T. W. 
Hunt will publish the third edition of his Exo- 
dus and Daniel in March. The Glossary will 
be materially enlarged. 

Dr. Benj. W. Wells, formerly of the Friends' 
School, Providence, R. I., is pursuing his stu- 
dies in Old English at Jena, Germany. He is 
just now specially interested in the writings of 
Aelfric and Wulfstan, and the Church docu- 
ments generally, and will in time, doubtless, 
make known to us his results. 

Prof. A. S. Cook (University of California) is 
fapidly completing his treatise on the North- 
umbrian documents; Max Niemeyer, the well- 
know publisher of Halle has undertaken it. 
The most of the Glossary is now in the printer's 
hands, and the remaining parts will be ready 
in a few we'jks. The citations, except in the 
case of the commonest pronouns, articles, etc., 
will be practically exhaustive. The intention 
is to combine Grammar and Glossary in the 
same volume. 

Prof. Cook is also publishing, with Ginn & 
Co., an Anglo-Saxon Primer, which may be 
expected to appear soon. 



Dr. Francis H. Gnmmere's place at the Su.nn 
Free School (NYw Medford, Mass.) has Ixjen 
filled by the appointment of Andrew Ingra- 
ham, A. B., as Master of the School. It will 
be remembered that Dr. (iummere, who is at 
present pursuing his studies in English .it 
Berlin, was called to Haverford College |d. 
MOD. LANG. NOTES, Vol. II., p. iSz]. 

Dr. R. F. Weymouth, 33 Alfred Road, A< ton, 
London, W., has made a translation of Cyne- 
wulfs ' Elene,' which he desires to publish, 
and for which he will receive subscriptions at 
five shillings per copy. Dr. Weymouth is the 
editor of Grossetete's ' Castel of Love ' for the 
Philological Society, author of a work on 
Early English Pronunciation, and editor of 
the recently published ' Resultant Greek 
Testament.' 

Rodes Massie, for some years professor of 
German and French in the University of Ten- 
nessee (Knoxville), resigned his position at the 
beginning of the present academic year and 
has settled temporarily at Charlottesville 
(Univ. of Virginia) Va. His former Assistant, 
Wm. I. Thomas, Ph. D., now occupies the 
place vacated by this resignation. 

Professor L. A. Stager, for some time head of 
a School of languages in St. Louis and after- 
ward in Philada., has been called to the Col- 
legiate and Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, 
with the title, Adjunct Professor of the Ger- 
man Language. 

H. C. Penn has been appointed Assistant in 
English at the University of Missouri (Colum- 
bia). Mr. Penn was a graduate at Central 
College (Fayette, Mo.) in 1885, after which he 
taught in the Central Collegiate Institute of 
Altus (Ark.) until he entered upon his present 
position. He has contributed to the Missouri 
School Journal several articles, among uhich 
maybe noted: " When should Anglo-Saxon 
be begun in the average Western College"? 
and "Anglo-Saxon as a Substitute tor Latin 
and Greek." 

Professor A. C. Dawson was called at the 
beginning of the present academic year from 
Beloit College, Wis., to the Chair of French 

and German in Lake Forest I'niversity. Lake 
Forest, 111. 



27 



55 January. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888 No. i. 



JOURNAL NOTICES. 

ANQLIA. VOL. X. PART I |.-Kamann, P. Die quel- 
len der Yorkspiele. -Dieter, F. Die Walderefrag- 
mente und die ursprtingliche gestalt der Walthersage. 
Carl, It. Ueber Thomas Lodge's leben und werke. 
Soft'e, E. Eine nachricht tiber englische komo'dianten 
in Mahren. Ellmer, W. Ueber die quellen der reim- 
chronik Roberts von Gloucester. Horstmann, K. 
Orologlum Sapientiae or The Seven Poyntes of Trewe 
Wisdom. Nuck, B. Zu Trautmann's deutung des 
ersten und neun und achtzigsten rBtsels. 

BEITRAEGE (HRSG. v. PAUL UND BRAUNE) VOL. 

XIII., PART II. Helmburger, K. Grammatisehe dar- 
stellung der mundart des dorfes Ottenheim. Leltz- 
mini n- A. Zur Kritik und erklBrung des Winsbeken 
und der Winsbekin. Zimmermann, P. Heinrich 
GOding-a gedicht von Heinrich dem Lowen. Bugge, 
8. Etymologische studien tiber germanische lautver- 
schiebung. Grimme, F. Bin neues bruchstiick der 
niederrheinischen Tundalusdichtung. Falk, Hjalmar. 
Bemerkungen zu den lausavisur der Egilssage. Holt- 
hausen, F. Miscellen. Ueber uo = 5 im Heliand. 
(in I Ice, J. M. Graphische varianten im Heliand. 
Bremer, 0. Ahd. leo Ho leuuo. Lulck, K. Zur theorie 
der entstehung der schwell verse. Kauffmann, Fr. 
Geschlossenes e aus e vor i. 

LlTERARISCHES CENRALBLATT. NO. 44. Krel- 
ten, W. Molieres Leben und Werke. (H. K ng). 
Lange, 0. Die lateinischeii Osterfeiern. Bartsrh, K. 
Die altdeutschen Handschriften der Universitttts- 
Bibliothek in Heidelberg. Die Schweizer Minne- 
sftnger. Zarncke, Fr. Das Nibelungenlied. Martin, 
E. AusgewShlte Dichtungen von Wolfhart Spangen- 
berg. No. 45. Altdeutsche Textbibliothek.. Nos. 7, 
8. El/e, K. Grundriss der englischen Philologie. (R. 
W.). Beitrftge zur Landes-u. Volkeskunde von 
Elsass-Lothringen : I. This, C. Die deutsch-franzfisi- 
sche Sprachgrenze in Lothringen ; IT. Martin, E. Die 
Badent'ahrt von Thomas Murner.-Norton, (!h. E. 1 Cor- 
respondence between Goethe and Carlyle: 2. Carlyle, 
Thomas, Reminiscence, Garnett, B. Carlyle (Ew. Fl.) 
Gietmann, G. Parzival, Faust, Job u. einige ver- 
vvandte Dichtungen. Cludius, C. Ed. Der Plan von 
Goethe's Faust. No. 46. Devillard, Cr., Chresto- 
mathe de 1'aiicien f raneais. (H . K ng). Edda Snorra 
Sturlusonar. Tomi III. pars 2. Seemuller, Jos., Sei- 
fried Helbling. Boethe, Gust., Die GedichteReinmar's 
von Loreter (H. P.). Bleibtrcu, K. Geschichte der 
englishen Literaturim 19. Jahrhundert (R. W.). Vet- 
ter, Th. Chronik der Gesellsch. d. Mahler 1721-1722. 
No. 47. Bramer, K. NationalitHt u. Sprache im 
Kfinigreiche Belgien. Bolssler, Gaston, Mme. de 
Sevigne (H. K ng). Baechtold, Jak., Geschichte der 
deutschen Literaturin der Schweiz. Porkelsson, Jon: 
Breytingar & mynduui. Holland, W. L. Zu Ludwig 
Uhland's Gedftehtiiiss. Fischer, H., Ludwig Uhland. 
Belling, Ed., Die Metrik Lessing's (C.). 

DEUTSCHE LITTERATURZEITUNG, No. 44. stahr, 

A. G. E. Leasing, sein Leben und seine Werke (A. 
Sauer). Kremer, J. Estienne von Fougi^res' Livre 
des Mani'.'res [Aus. und Abh. No. 39, Fr. Bischoff]. 
NO. 45. Lemko, E. Volkstlimliches in Ostpreussen 



(G. Kossinna). Gaedertz, K. T. Goethes Minchen (E. 
Schmidt). Vallat, G. Etude sur la vie et les ceuvres 
de Thomas Moore (A. Brandl). No. 46. Mueller, W. 
Mythologie der deutschen Heldensage (Max Rddiger). 
Martlnetti, G. A. e Antona Traversl, 0. Ultime lettere 
di Jacopo Ortis. No. 47. Gletmann, G. Parzival, 
Faust, Job und einige verwandte Dichtungen (R. M. 
Werner). 

LA NCUVELLE REVUE, ler Novtmbre. Pejrot, M., 
Symbolistes et Decadents. 15 November HenntQuIn 
E., Charles Dickens, etude analytique. 

REVUE CRITIQUE, No. 43. Bitter, E. Recherches 
sur le poete Claude de Buttet et son Amalthee (T. de 
L.). Godetroy. La lettre N. du Diction nai re (A. 
Jacques). No. 46. Furnivall, F. J., Some 300 fresh 
allusions to Shakspere, from 1594 to 1694. M af ray, W. 
D., The Pilgrimage to Parnassus L1597-1601, J. J. Jus- 
serand]. Oharmasse, A. de, Francois Pen-in (A. Del- 
boulle). 

REVUE POLITIQUE ET LITTERAIRE, NO. 2 1. -Paris, 
G., La legende du mari aux deuxfemmes. No. 22.^ 
Larroumet, G. De Moliere a Marivaux. 

NUOVA ANTOLOGIA, FASC. XX. Dei Lungo, i. 

Dante e gli Estensi. Maz/onl, G. La vita di Moliere 
secondo gli ultimi studi (Fine). FASC. XXI. Fornl- 
onl, S. La Comedia del secolo XX. Borgognoni, A. 
Poeti e Poesia. 

REVUE DU MONDE LATIN, Nmembre. Horatlus, La 

Litterature espagnole contemporaine. 

NEUPHILOLOGISCHES CENTRALBLATT, No. 6 

(Dezember 1887) RUckblick. Zweiter allgemeiner 
deutscher Neuplilologentag zu Frankfurt a. M. 
(Schluss.) Die Uberbllrdungsfrage in Frankreich. 
Uber den Gebrauch der FremdwoYter im Deutschen. 
Besprechung der am 22. MHrz 1887 von Dr. Waag Jaut 
Jahresbericht der Realschule zu Freiburg i. Br. 
gehaltenen Festrede. Berichte aus den Vereinen : 
Berlin, Cassel, Frankfurt, Hannover ( Hornc maun . 
Der Franz. Unterricht in Gymnasialquiiita ohne 
Lesebuch und Grammatik). Kartellverband neu- 
philologischer Vereine deutscher Hochschulen (Sch- 
luss.). Litteratur: Besprechungen (Gelst, Lehrbuch 
der italienischen Sprache; Life of Adam Smith; L'Ami 
MacDonald; The Saracens; Thackeray's Letters.) 
Neue Erscheinungen. Inhaltsangabe von Zeitschrif- 
ten. Nachruf. Anzeigen. 

GlORNALE STORICO DELLA L.ETTERATURA ITAL- 
IANA, VOL. X. (FASC. 1-2). Macrl-Leone, Francesco, 

Ilribaldone Boccaccesco della Magliabechiana.-Kajna, 
Plo, Intorno al considdetto ' Dialogus Creaturarum ' 
ed al suo autore : II. L'autore, 2. Breve intermezzo. 
3. Maestro Bergamino. 4. Mayno de' Mayneri (con- 
tinuazione e fine). Solerti, Angelo, Torquato Tasso e 
Lucrezia Bendidio. Santinl, Pletro, Frammenti di un 
libro di banchieri florentini scritto in volgare iiel 1211 . 
Paodi, E. G. Illustrazioni linguistiuhe ai suddutti 
Frammenti. Percopo, Krasmo, Dragpnetto Bonifacio, 
marchese d' Oria, rimatore del sccolo XVI. Ferral, 
L. A., A. Medin, La resa di Treviso e la inorte di Can- 
grande I della Scala. Pellegrini, F. (\, P. Vjllari, La 
storia di Qirolamo Savonarola, nuova ediz., vol. I. 
Sciplonl, G. 8.. Gir. Mancini. Nuovi documenti e 
notizie sullu vita e sugli scritti di L. B. Alberti. 



28 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 



r.ali iiiinrr. I'Vbriiur.v, 1 8S8. 

MATTER AND MANNER IN LITER- 
AR Y COMPOSITION. 

It is not without retk-ction that 1 put the con- 
junction (inti between the two principal words 
of the title of this paper. That conjunction 
strikes the key-note of what the paper will try 
to say, namely, that, since every literary pro- 
duct necessarily has manner as well as matter, 
as necessarily no literary product is worthy of 
unreserved commendation, unless in it not only 
matter, but manner also, is adequately attend- 
ed to. In no other form would the title have 
said this. "Manner as opposed to matter" 
would have implied to a greater or less extent 
an incompatibility between the terms ; while 
any other expression that readily suggests it- 
self would have involved a notion of at least 
the inferiority of one or the other element of 
the composition. In fact, however, the terms 
are interpenetrating and mutually dependent ; 
it being a truism that matter can not exist with- 
out form nor form without matter. 

A discussion of style, then, that proceeds in 
forgetfulness of this mutual dependence of 
form and content, necessarily shoots wide of 
the mark. And yet it was exactly this depend- 
ence that a recent discussion seemed to me to 
forget. In the late Modern Language Conven- 
tion, a paper by President Shepherd, of 
Charleston College, on the English of Lord 
Macaulay, provoked a deal of caustic criticism, 
unfair, I believe, because one-sided. Never 
before, perhaps, was Macaulay assigned so 
hopelessly low a place on the roll of English 
prose authors. Professor Hart, of Cincinnati, 
who said that Macaulay always seemed to him 
to write as if some one were looking over his 
shoulder and saying, " Bravo ! Lord Macaulay; 
how well you have turned that sentence ; "" 
Professor Hunt, of Princeton, who declared 
that he had yet to receive from Macaulay the 
slightest intellectual stimulus ; both ignored, 
as it seems to me, this fundamental principle 
of the inseparability, except in thought, o 
matter and form in literary composition, both 

*Quoted from memory. 



spoke as if the only nirrit in composition u 
its expressing worthy thought. Professor Hi nt 
did, indeed, confess that about no other u riter 
had such widely different opinions been ex- 
pn-ssed, and that the nearly mil oumk-d popu- 
larity Macaulay had attained was certain!', 
sign of some power in him; but it was 
for another speaker to remind the Conven- 
tion of the indissoluble bond between 
form and content; while even he damned 
the illustrious Englishman with faint pra 
by saying (in effect) that his style was an 
excellent poison with which to innoculate 
beginners against the more dreadful forms 
of " fine writing." 

Now Macaulay's case is, of course, but one 
instance under the principle ; and the discus- 
sion intended here is of the principle, not of 
any concrete instance of it. Let us grant, 
then, freely the many defects of Macaulay 
both in thought and in style. President Shep- 
herd undoubtedly praised him over much ; 
his weaknesses are patent, and need not even 
be specified. They lie on the very face of his 
style ; his brilliancy itself making them glare 
at us the more rudely and insist the more 
strongly on being observed. But has Macau- 
lay, therefore, no points of excellence ? Is 
only the novice, never the practised critic, 
impressed by him ? Or, to put the question 
more broadly, is there no merit in a fine style ? 
Is such a style necessarily bad ? Are we to 
attend only to the thought of a composition ? 
Is it not, rather, manifestly unfair to single 
out a writer's defects, however glaring they 
are, and dwell on them, holding them so close 
to our eyes the meanwhile that we can not 
se.e his excellences at all ? can not see the 
woods for the trees, as the German proverb 
has it? Granted that we outgrow such a 
writer as Macaulay ; what is it that we out- 
grow ? Surely not his clearness, not his pow- 
er of calling for us spirits from the vasty deep, 
not his admirable choice of words, not any of 
the merits of his style. Why, then, should we 
not gratefully recognize these merits and con- 
fess them elements of a real and true success? 
On the other hand, we do tire of the inherent 
contradiction between these excellences of 



29 



59 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



60 



form and the writer's too evident failure to 
maintain his thought at a correspondingly high 
standard. Such brilliancy of style has a right 
to exist only as growing naturally out of a cor- 
respondingly briHiant body of thought ; and the 
critic is fairly entitled to say so. But he is 
manifestly unfair when he says this without 
conceding the other truth ; when he holds the 
writer up to ridicule as posing before a look- 
ing-glass and saying, "Ah, you handsome 
dog! " when , in fact, though the writer is a 
bit self-conscious, he really gives us something 
fine to look at. r 

Suppose, for example, that Macaulay had 
thought as Carlyle thought. Would the bril- 
liancy of his style in that case have offended 
us? Nay, would not his many charms of man- 
ner, unimpaired as they would then have been, 
only have added to his legitimate effect upon 
us ? We were told in the Convention that 
Carlyle first wrdte as Macaulay did, but after- 
wards deliberately changed his style. But 
Why ? Was it not because he believed that, 
by intentionally adopting the peculiarities 
that characterize his later work, he would the 
more certainly secure an audience ? Surely, 
there was never a more conceited, self-consci- 
ous great man than Carlyle. Vice versa, sup- 
pose that Carlyle's style had remained more 
finished. Woufd his influence have been less ? 
Nay, is it not despite his crudities, his " Baby- 
lonian dialect," as Alexander Everett called it, 
that he influences us at all ? despite thatbois- 
terousness and utter want of self-containment 
which have secured for him the epithet mega- 
losaurian ? Or, let us take some examples 
nearer home. Surely, thecharmof the Mosses 
from an Old Manse and the sustained interest 
of The House of the Seven Gables are no whit 
the less because of Hawthorne's almost match- 
less literary form? On the other hand, Mr. 
Marion Crawford is not at all a great novelist 
great as Thackeray or Dickens or even 
Bulwer is great. Yet Mr. Crawford's style 
makes many a^passage in his works easy 
that would otherwise be the roughest sailing : 
nay, more, it furnishes us throughout his writ- 
ings with one legitimate object of admiration, 
even where the body of thought is of a texture 
too light to be valued for itself. 

Not that I would champion mere manner. 



When a man has nothing to 'say, by all means 
let him say it as the familiar epigram warns 
us ; but when he has something to say, why 
shall he not say it as well as he can ? What 
do Professor McMaster's cross-section pictures 
of American life in 1789 lose by being painted 
in the brightest colors ? Or what does Carlyle 
gain by his eccentricities of style ? If a wri- 
ter's only true object is to influence his age or 
succeeding ages, if the man of letters should 
be (in Carlyle's own phrase) a prophet, what 
shall he gain by conciliating, as Carlyle has 
done, only a small audience ? Granted that 
Carlyle's audience is select, if small : he has 
offended multitudes whom he might have 
taught, and so has lost no small part of his 
proper influence. What a power his writings 
might have wielded, couched in a different 
style ! Or, to take another example, which ot 
the two famous passages in Milton's Areopa- 
gitica has exerted the greater force in human 
thinking, that in which a tradesman is describ- 
ed as committing his religion to his pastor 
for safe-keeping, while he himself is devoted 
to his trade, or that in which Truth is pictured 
as hewn, like Osiris, into a thousand pieces, 
while her sad friends, like Isis, make careful 
search for her members ? Both passages ex- 
press worthy thought, thought often dwelt up- 
on in our own times ; both rise above the plain 
style of ordinary prose ; each contains a figure 
of speech worked out to its utmost limits. 
But the style of the first passage is affected 
almost to awkwardness ; and the truth it con- 
tains is to-day re-expressed by our own writers 
in many different ways. The second passage, 
inimitable and almost unprose-like as it is, 
nevertheless impresses the most casual read- 
er, and is quoted daily from a score- of com- 
monplace-books. Its delicate style has kept 
it sweet through all the ages. 

Once more, why is it that Milton's prose or 
the prose of Sir Thomas Browne is so little 
read to-day? To say that Milton's poetry- 
overshadows his prose, or that the topics on 
which he wrote are no longer " living " topics 
of thought, is no reason why the Urn Burial 
or the Religio Medici should not be known. 
Sir Thomas Browne wrote no verse ; and a 
more profitable book even for our study than 
the Urn Burial might be looked for in vain. 



6i 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



Its inverted ;in<l otherwise un-modern style 
a'oiie seals it from all but a select lew readers. 

The truth, then, would seem to he as stated 
in my opening paragraph, that holh a good 
style and a wortliy body of thought art: in 
sary to the ideally perfect composition. This 
certainly was (leorge Saintsbury's opinion 
when, in February 1876, lie printed in the 
Fortnightly Review his paper Modern English 
Prose, a paper in which, lamenting the pre- 
vailing neglect and consequent decay of Eng- 
lish prose style, he declares this decay not "a 
mere isolated fact," but " a change which has 
affected English Literature to a degree and in 
a manner worthy of the most serious consider- 
ation." The fine old English style, he hints, 
has gone out with the fine old English gentle- 
man, till, in this ultra democratic age, a certain 
coarseness of manner is as noticeable in liter- 
ary composition as it is in the conduct of peo- 
ple who profess themselves of the beau monde. 
Mr. Saintsbury actually describes the symp- 
toms of this change, details its causes, and 
lays down the duty of the critic in view of it ; 
showing by his earnestness and the minute at- 
tention he gives the subject, how real and how 
serious he considers the phenomenon to be. 

The opposite opinion, however, has no little 
vogue. Buffon's doctrine that style is the man 
himself is interpreted by many teachers to 
mean that the individuality of a writer is ex- 
pressed only in his thought; that we are to 
know an author solely by the opinions he ex- 
presses. That the foot of Hercules, or 
rather his hand, shall also betray him, seems 
to these critics an incredible idea ; and 
their depreciation of form, of style in this its 
truest sense, grows in proportion. Less and 
less attention is paid to how an author writes, 
more and more to what he says. Worse than 
this, perhaps, the very springs of our literary 
supply are left unfilled ; until, in the mid-winter 
dearth that would seem to be threatening us, 
we shall have only to deplore our insensate 
folly in neglecting the precautions that might 
doubtless would have secured us springs 
filled to overflowing. The study of rhetoric 
and criticism is too much neglected by us. 
Language studies are too often only philo- 
logical ; or, at best, the student is left to 
acquire a good style by " absorption." Cer- 



tain worthy writers are put I.efore him; th-ir 
biography, the history of their times, th.- his- 
tory of literature in general, are taught him ; 
but the fundamental truths arrording to which 
the authors are good here and bad ther- 
mit taught him. Even questions of grammati- 
cal purity are treated as ol little value, ami. 
with the weightier matt, 
paragraph building, unity o| < ..nip.. jti,,n. 
ness, force, and other such topirs. are hiisth d 
out of court in quiet contempt. 

Even professed English scholars give us 
some extraordinary examples of this neglect 
of manner in their hot pursuit of excellent 
matter. Thus, from a recently published book 
on English prose literature I extract the follow- 
ing curious fagots of crooked sticks : 

"Then follows, The Chronicle, compiled, 
partly, by Alfred, and partly, by I'legimund 
and other less known annalists. This collec- 
tion, unimportant as it is in itself or in its liter- 
ary character, is invaluable in its historical 
and civil bearings. Beginning long before 
the Conquest, // runs nearly a century beyond 
it and thus serves to cherish the First-English 
spirit and language. As the earliest history of 
any Teutonic people in a Teutonic language, 
and with the Laws the earliest form of En- 
glish Prose, it has an interest and [a] value 
quite aside from its contents. Alfred did for it 
[what ? the Chronicle or " the earliest form of 
English Prose " the Chronicle embodies?] 
what Chaucer did for English Poetry. He 
made it [?] national, so that from his time to 
the death of Stephen it [?] was the people's 
authority. Above all, it [?] was English clear 
and clean and lies back of all later English as 
a basis and guide." 1 

Could anything be more inartistic, unless, 
indeed, it is the same author's constant prac- 
tice of referring to headings on his page by 
mere demonstratives, and of thus making 
these headings part of his text ? For example, 
treating of Dr. Johnson's style, he writes, 

" This * is one of the first features that im- 
press the reader as he studies this [?]3 prose 
structure and diction and it becomes more 
manifest as the perusal goes on." 

i The italics, I need hardly say, are mine. 

a " Its Anglo-Latin Element." 

3 The context does not make this pronoun clear. 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888 Ao. 2. 



64 



4 applies to subject matter as well as 
to method and external form." 

" This s is a failure common to periodical 
writing." [Can the absence of impassioned 
energy be a. failure?] 

All three examples are found within ten 
pages, and the whole volume is full of similar 
instances. Thus, among the merits of John- 
son's style is " (2) Literary Gravity," and we 
are informed about it that " the reference here 
is not to that excessive seriousness of manner 
which often ended in confirmed melancholy 
but to that sober habit of mind and expression 
which was based on his view of the writer's 
vocation." 

The same writer, (who, let it be said in jus- 
tice to him, can write and has written not a 
little unimpeachable English), is fond of long 
series of those excessively short sentences 
which Coleridge condemned as "purposely 
invented for persons troubled with the asthma 
to read, and for those to comprehend who la- 
bour under the more pitiable asthma of a short - 
witted intellect." Thus, "The limits of his 
[Johnson's] life were too narrow to admit of 
much diversity. His style was affected by 
these circumstances and especially in the line 
of[\] want of adaptiveness to all classes and 
phases. His method was rigid and mechani- 
cal and the same to all. He would talk to 
Goldsmith and Savage and the artisan in the 
same manner. Whatever the topic might be, 
the treatment of it was the same. The nar- 
rative, [the] descriptive, [the] didactic and [the] 
critical were all run in the same mold and 
branded with the common mark. They are 
all in the phrase of Macaulay, 'Johnsonese.' 
His prose style, as his body, was very much 
opposed to change. Starting in one direction 
and at a certain pace he maintained it to the 
end. In all this he was true to his nationality. 
In that he was lethargic, he was English. The 
phlegmatic element in him was native to the 
realm. The Gallic verve and sprightliness 
was [sic] as foreign to him as it was to his 
country. He was constitutionally and mental- 
ly heavy and could not face about at will. 
There are few scenes in literary history so 
amusing as when this ponderous man attempts 

4 " The Want of Flexibility and Adaptation." 

5 " Absence of Impassioned Energy." 



to be playful and unbend himself to passing 
changes. While he is unbending, the oppor- 
tunity passes. Here [!] as in the case of dic- 
tion, naturalness covers many sins. The very 
uniformity of his prose is natural. It is a fault 
and yet modified by the fact that it is purely 
individual and characteristic." 

One is reminded of the criticism by Theseus 
of Quince's famous speech " for the Prologue," 
" This fellow doth not stand upon points." 

So, Mr. Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, p. xlv., 
finds it in his conscience to write, " Adjectives 
have the three genders of nouns, and the same 
cases, with the addition of the instrumental, 
ending in e, which only occurs in the masc. 
and neut. in the sing. : in the fern. sing, and 
in the plur. its place is taken by the dat. 6 
They also have a strong and [a] weak inflec- 
tion, the latter employed after the definite ar- 
ticle and demonstratives generally." Can con- 
tempt for form go further? Or is this utter 
want of style merely an unconscious imitation 
(as the abbreviations are a conscious following) 
of the great German philologist Dr. Wittern- 
sieaus ? 

Even trained theologians and preachers are 
not free from such blunders. Thus, in a recent 
most important contribution to the history of 
Christianity, I find the following slips (with 
many more) in the work, the style of which is 
in general by no means bad : 

" The statesman or [the] ecclesiastical poli- 
tician whose object it was not to attain [=to 
attain not] martyrdom but triumph." 

" The Greek fathers could not escape [have 
escaped], even had they been inclined to do so, 
from the influence of a philosophy like the 
Stoic." 

" The truth of the incarnation as that which 
can alone \=alone can] meet the needs of spec- 
ulative enquiry." 

Surely, if such things are possible in the 
writings of authors of no little repute, it is 
time that some one raised -his voice in behalf 
of a more careful, more conscientious cultiva- 
tion of style. Nor is any author to be judged 
without mercy, who, no matter what his short- 
comings in thought, has set us so illustrious 
an example of the importance and the effec- 

6 The abbreviations are, of course, Sweet's. 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



66 



tiveness of attention to points of style as 
Macaulay has set. Granting all that can he 
said as to Macaulay's mannerisms, even con- 
ceding that he paid, perhaps, too much atten- 
tion to mere form, he remains a model of 
diligence, of "curious care" in expression, that 
we dare not despise, and in reading whom the 
young writer makes a very judicious start. 

Should a philosophic basis be demanded for 
the position taken in this paper, it is not far to 
seek. Composition is an art, and in every 
art-process three elements enter, matter, or 
content ; form, or style ; and purpose, or 
end in view. Granting that of these three the 
first is chief, does it follow that the others or 
either of them is of no account ? How is it in 
music, in painting, or even in the technical 
arts, such as engineering? Shall a painter, 
because he has a noble picture in his mind, 
daub it on his canvass, so that we must strug- 
gle to discover his thought or his purpose? 
Is Wagner or Beethoven the greater musician ? 
Browning or Tennyson the greater poet? 
Which has most clearly set out to less gifted 
mortals the God-inspired blessings of sound 
or thought with which his own soul was enrich- 
ed and exalted ? It can not be that with regard 
to art in general two opinions can prevail on 
this subject : why should we be able to enter- 
tain them with regard to the particular art of 
composition ? 

It is quite possible, then, to overstate the 
chief importance of having something worthy 
to say, to state it, indeed, as if it were the 
only important element of composition. The 
truth is that success in all particulars is desira- 
ble ; that Macaulay (for example), whose de- 
fects are mainly in matter, is culpable only in 
another way from that in which Carlyle is to 
blame, whose defects are in style, and in still 
another way from that in which De Quincy is 
wrong, whose defects though in style, are 
not the same defects of style as Carlyle's. 
Indeed, if a strict inquiry be made, the pur- 
pose of discourse, its moral character, would 
seem to over-shadow even the having some- 
thing worthy to say. Many a writer has made 
shipwreck solely because his work has seemed 
to lack unity or definiteness of aim, so that 
his readers, like lost children or Spenser's 
travellers wandering in Error's den, have 



i scarcely been able to find their way. OH the 
other hand, no writer is wholly useless ulio 
illustrates lor us one or another of the < I. in. nts 
of good composition. Nay, more; in our da\ . 
though a revival of the grand manner of the 
last century is not desirable, a protest is quite 
in place against the inditfen n to manner, 
the undisguised contempt for it, that ft 
to be a prevailing affectation among us. 

JNO. G. R. 

University of Pennsylvania. 



MODERN LANGUAGES /A THE 
UNIVERSITY OF FRANCE. 
II. 

3- L'ENSEIGNEMENT SECONDAIRE DES 
JEUNES FILLES. 

Colleges for women are a rather new feature 
I in the University of France; they were only 
| created by the law of Dec. 21, 1880. While the 
president must be a woman, the teachers may 
be of either sex. The regular course of 
studies extends over five years and is divided 
into the premiere pMode, including the first, 
second and third year, and the deuxitme pf- 
riode or cours suptrieur, comprising the fourth 
and fifth. Outside of this course there may 
be organized a preparatory department, which 
would cover the instruction of the lower and 
middle course of primary schools required for 
entrance to the college course. The instruction 
of the first period is given in classes proper; 
that of the second, in courses uniting students 
of the same standing ; the modern languages, 
however, hold an exceptional position, and are 
taught in courses throughout. The studies are 
either part of the instruction proper, or ac- 
cessory exercises, or optional. The instruc- 
tion proper bears a distinctively literary char- 
acter ; it is based on the French language and 
literature with the elements of ancient litera- 
tures, the modern languages, and universal 
and national history and geography, which 
have 52 recitations out of 71 throughout the 
course ; the other 19 recitations are devoted to 
mathematics, natural science, physics, chem- 
istry, morality, physiology, domestic economy, 
hygiene, law, and psychology. The accessory 



33 



67 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



68 



exercises are drawing, penmanship, vocal 
music, needle work and gymnastics. Optional 
in the last two years are : drawing, vocal music, 
the ancient literatures, the elements of Latin, 
mathematics, economical geography, and ani- 
mal and vegetable physiology. Few students 
take all these optional studies; most decide 
either for a literary or for a scientific line. 

One modern language is compulsory from 
first to last and gets 21$ of the recitations of 
the instruction proper ; students are moreover 
encouraged to take up two or more, but suc- 
cessively, not all at the same time. Italian and 
Spanish are to be taught, but German and 
English should be studied in the first place, in 
view of their incontestable superiority for 
mental drill (gymnastique intellectuelle). The 
reading matter in English and German equals 
in most respects that of the other colleges. Of 
works not given in the list of the classical col- 
leges I mention : J. Habberton, ' Helen's 
Babies,' Longfellow, ' Evangeline ' and other 
poems ; Tennyson, ' The Grandmother,' Ottilie 
Wildermuth, Ausgewahlte Novellen ; Goethe, 
' Iphigenie of Tauris,' and lyrics of the i8th 
and i gth centuries. On the other hand, 
several works studied in the classical and 
special colleges are entirely omitted, others 
like Shakespeare and Milton are read in family 
editions, Byron in extracts. Along with the 
harder works that are examined thoroughly, 
easier ones are read rapidly ; some poetry is 
committed to memory. The method and end 
of study resemble more that of the special col- 
leges than that of the classical. While not 
only the study of grammar but also transla- 
tion from French into the foreign language is 
limited to what is indispensable, conversation 
and original composition receive the greatest 
attention. Conversation proceeds from simple 
object-lessons to an interpretation of the for- 
eign authors in their own language ; composi- 
tion, from simple letters to essays on topics 
from the various studies of the class. The 
course is completed by an outline of literary 
history and some remarks on the origin and 
principal epochs of the language. 

The colleges for women deliver a certificat 
cT6tud.es secondaires after an examination at the 
close of the third year, and a dipldme de fin 
d' etudes after an examination at the end of the 



whole course. The students are examined by 
their own teachers under the presidency of a 
delegate of the rector. If women wish to pre- 
sent themselves for one of the baccalaureats in 
the examination held by the facultes, they are 
free to do so. 



SUM TOTAL.... 


B { SCIENCES.... 


(ELEMENTS 01 


, /ANCIENT LIT. 


VOCAL MUSIC 


III. OPTIONAL Si 
DRAWING 


C/) 

C 


II. ACCESSORY EXERCISE 


i 
CJ 

K 


MORALS, PHYSIOLOGY, 


SCIENCES 


= 

I 

d 
o 

I 


MODERN LANGUAGE.. 


I. INSTRUCTION PROPER. 
FRENCH LANG. AND LIT .. 


SUBJECTS. 
(Age minimum) 






' LATIN' 




1 

B 

Ul 






- 


s. (PENMANSHIP. VOCAL MUSIC, NEEDLE-WORK, ETC.) 




2 




1 












01 




U) 


* 


Ul 


w, 


<*> D. 


i. 

b 

r, 

i 

3 
fl 

1 
S 














to 

4- 

H 

4- 

to 

CO 












5 




U) 


- 


Ul 


01 






















M 
4- 

M 


Os 


H 


* 


Ul 


Ul 


4> 












Ul 


H 


Ul 






M 
U) 





- 


Ul 





* 


P 


CO 


Ul 


r 





H 


w 


H 




10 


U 


M 


- 


O\ 

3- 
~t 














8 

X 


Not organized in 
1882. 


Ul 






. 


KJ 


01 


- 


* 


- 


0, 


Ul 


Os 


i 

H U 
01 


Sum total of 
weekly recita- 
tions during the 
entire course. 



III. HIGHER INSTRUCTION. 

The Enseignement suptrieur is not concen- 
trated in universities, as in .England and Ger- 
many, but scattered in ti\tfacult&s des tettres, 
des sciences, de droit, de medecine and de the- 
ologie, in various normal and preparatory- 
schools, in the College de France and other 
institutions. We consider here only the facili- 
ties afforded for students aiming at professor- 
ships in secondary schools, and the require- 
ments made of them in modern languages. 
First we examine the normal schools, then the 
study in the faculties, and finally such degrees 



34 



69" 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



and certificates as cannot be obtained without 
a modern language. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

There are three principal normal schools : 
the renowned Ecole normale superieure at 
Paris, the Ecole normale speciale of Cluny, 
and the Ecole normale secondaire de Sevres. 
The first of these prepares professors for the 
classical colleges and the institutions of higher 
instruction; the second, professors for the spe- 
cial instruction ; the last, women professors for 
girls' colleges. The course of studies is three 
years in each, admission by a cone ours (compet- 
itive examination) ; board and tuition are free, 
in case the engagement of remaining for ten 
years in the service of the university is kept. 
Besides these three schools, there is establish- 
ed an Ecole normale secondaire at the lyceum 
of 'the chef-lieu of each academic \ it is formed 
by the reunion of the maitres repetiteurs aux- 
iliaires or ellves maitres boarding in the insti- 
tution. 

The Ecole normale superieure does not re- 
quire any composition in a modern languag;e 
for admission, but the candidates of the scien- 
tific section have to pass an oral examination 
on the authors read in Mathematiques specia- 
les, those of the literary section on the works 
prescribed for Rhetorique and Philosophic. 
The Ecole normale speciale admits students 
to both the sections of letters and sciences 
without a special examination on a modern 
language ; only those who expect to enter the 
section of modern languages must write a 
t/ieme and version. The Ecole normale secon- 
daire of Sevres requires a written theme and 
version and an oral examination in a modern 
language of all candidates. The ecoles nor- 
males secondaires make no special require- 
ments. 

THE FACULTIES. 

Before the great reform of the last ten years 
the professors of Ihefacultes acted principally 
as examiners for degrees and lecturers to the 
general public, and had scarcely any regular 
students at all . Now the state, the departments 
and the communes have offered so many in- 
ducements to aspirants, that it has become a 
very important part of the professors' work to 
prepare students for the licence and agrega- 



tion. The students are either resident or non- 
resident. The rt-sid. nts consist of boursiers, 
maitres auxiliaires, maitres d'etudes and 
auditeurs /tores, all of whom are bound to be 
regular in their attendance. The boursiers 
are either holders of a bourse de licence 
(scholarship) or of a bourse d'agrfgation (fi-l- 
lowship) ; the former are given after a con- 
coitrs, the latter according to the judgement 
of the professors of the faculty with whom the 
candidate has taken his licence; both bourses 
are awarded for one year, but can be prolong- 
ed for another, and require the ten years' 
engagement. The non-resident students are 
mostly teachers of the communal colleges of 
the academy who are working for a licence or 
agregation. At fixed intervals they send com- 
positions for correction to the professors or 
maitres de conferences, and on Thursday, 
the French weekly holiday, they themselves 
go to the seat of the faculty to attend certain 
courses, their travelling expenses being partly 
paid by the state. Not all faculties are pro- 
vided with a staff of professors numerous 
enough to prepare for all licences and agrega- 
tions. 

LA LICENCE. 

The licence is the next degree after the bac- 
calaureat and cannot be obtained till one year 
afterwards. There are three different licences 
scientifiques and four licences de lettres : the 
licence litteraire, the licence philosophique, 
the licence historique and the licence avec 
mention 'tongues vivantes.' In the examina- 
tions for the literary, philosophical and histori- 
cal degree the requirements in modern lan- 
guages are limited to the translation of an easy 
English or German work of literary , philosophi- 
cal or historical criticism ; for the last degree 
they are naturally of a more rigorous charac- 
ter. The candidate writes a thlme and version 
of four hours each, without a dictionary; inter- 
prets a text with questions on literature ; and 
translates at sight into the foreign language ; 
besides, he renders into French a passage from 
a prose author of a second foreign language. 
CERTIFICATS D'APTITUDE. 

While the examinations for the baccalaureat 
and the licence may be taken at any faculty, 
those for the certificat f aptitude for the secon- 



35 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888.- N*. 2. 



72 



dary instruction, and for the agregation, must 
be completed at Paris. Nobody can obtain a 
certificate without possessing one of the bac- 
calaureats or an equivalent. A modern lan- 
guage is required for the certificate of a pro- 
fessor of the elementary classes of classical col- 
leges, for that of a professor in the literary sec- 
tion of special instruction, for that of a woman 
professor in girls colleges, and finally, as a mat- 
ter of course, for the certificate of a professor 
of modern languages. For the classical pro- 
fessor, German has been compulsory since 
1884. A short and easy German text is dictated 
and translated into French, and vice versa a 
French text into German. Then a German 
piece is read and partly translated, and some 
elementary questions are asked and answered 
in German. The candidate for a literary pro- 
fessorship in the special instruction writes a 
theme, interprets an author and answers a 
few oral questions on the language and litera- 
ture. For the girls' colleges, a modern lan- 
guage did not become compulsory till 1886. 
The scientific section has some oral questions 
with a theme on the blackboard; the literary 
division, a four hours' theme and version, fol- 
lowed by some interrogations. 

The certificate for the instruction in modern 
languages enlists our special attention. The 
candidates take a preparatory and a definitive 
examination. The former consists of a thtme, 
version and a French composition without any 
aid ; the latter comprises' an oral thlme and 
version, a le$on grammatical, and a conversa- 
tion in the foreign language, and two questions, 
one on the foreign and the other on French 
literature. The list of authors varies from 
year to year. In 1886 we find in German : 
Goethe,' Gotz ; ' Wieland, 'Oberon; ' Gervinus, 
4 Litteraturgeschichte ; ' Hauff, ' Lichtenstein ;' 
Me'rime'e, ' Colomba ' and Racine, ' Phedre ' 
(Acts I. and V.); tin English: Miss Austen, 
' Pride and Prejudice ;' Shakespeare, ' Hamlet ' 
Montesquieu, ' Grandeur et decadence des 
Remains.' The pronunciation of the French 
and the foreign language forms an important 
factor in the estimate of the jury. 

L'AGREGATION. 

Every candidate for an agregation must be 
licencie; an agrege. gets, the .title of professor 



and receives a higher salary than a licencie in 
the same position ; the form of the examina- 
tion is the concours. Among the different 
agregations only that of modern languages, 
and that of instruction in girls' colleges de- 
serve our notice. The requirements for the 
agregation of girls' colleges closely resemble 
those for the, certificate of the same schools ; 
the examination for the agregation of modern 
languages is much harder than that for the 
corresponding certificate. '*" < 

The preparatory part contains a. theme, a 
version, a French composition and a com- 
position in the foreign language ; one of these 
compositions is on a question of literature and 
the other on a question of language. The first 1 
definitive examination is the interpretation of 
a passage drawn by lot among the German or 
English classics indicated by the Minister ; and 
an oral theme. The list of 1886 shows, for Ger- 
man, works of Lessing, Herder(Ideen), Goethe, 
Schiller (Balladen), A. W. v. Schlegel (Vorle- 
sungen iiber dramatische Kunst und Litteraitur) 
Platen, Simrqck (Das kleine Heldenbuch), La 
Fontaine, Moliere, Mv de Stael, Saint-Marc 
Girardin,; for English, among others, pieces 
from Chaucer, Sir Philip Sidney, Shakespeare, 
Milton, Pope, Gray, Sterne, Shelley, Ch. 
Bronte, Green, La Fontaine, Racine and J. j\ 
Rousseau. The second definitive examination 
comprises two one hour lemons, one in the 
foreign language and the other in French: 
The subject of the one is taken from one of 
the authors of the program, that of the other 
from literary history. The last examination is 
finally the translation of a prose author of the 
other modern language into French. 

IV.T BOURSES DE SKJOUR A L'ETRANGER. 

In conclusion I should like to mention- that 
the French Government sends each year a 
number of young men abroad to study English 
and German in the countries where those lan- 
guages are spoken. The official plan cT etudes 
of the ecoles primaires superieures contains 
the announcement of an annual concours 
among graduates and pupils of that grade of 
schools for bourses- de sejour a VHranger. 
Much less known is the fact that normal school 
teachers also and college graduates are sent 
abroad. According to the Kblnische Zeitung, 
there were last year eighteen of such young 



73 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 



2. 



74 



men in Austria, Suit/erland and Germany, 
and twelve in England. In Germany the 
college graduates take hoard in German 
families and attend the Untcr- and Oberprima 
of a Realgymnasium ; they stay eighteen 
months, but they must spend that time at two 
different schools. Before they return to France 
they send a detailed report of their experi- 
ences and observations to the minister of 
public instruction. Some of these reports 
which were communicated to Germans show 
that the young men generally maintain the 
most amicable relations both with their Ger- 
man fellow students and with the families in 
which they board. Their progress, further- 
more, in learning the German language and 
in school exercises is very satisfactory. 



MO/)/-A'.\ LANGUAGES AT CAM 



fcarlham College. 



ADOLPH GERBER. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON bdsnian 
and wr&sen. 

The Anglo-Saxon word bdsnian, ' to delay, 
tarry' etc., though rather odd in appearance, 
is not so obscure a formation as one might at 
first suppose. Whatever be the relation be- 
tween the suffixes of the feminine abstract 
nouns such as the Gothic sdkns (suffix -ni) and 
usbeisns (suffix -sni), it is sufficient for the pres- 
ent purpose to accept the suffix -sni (in all 
probability at first developed in association 
with dental bases) as an extension of the 
simple form -ni. In accordance with this view 
Kluge in his Nominale Stammbildungslehre 
147 has classed the Gothic usbeisns < *usbeid- 
sns, anabusns< *anabudsns etc., with sdkns, 
taikns, siuns etc. Kluge has also called atten- 
tion to the ablaut-variation which is exhibited, 
for example, in taikns and usbeisns. By the 
side, therefore, of *usbeidsni- we may also 
place, as formed from the same base-group of 
the verb bidan (A. S.), the stem *baidsni-. 
From this we should in Anglo-Saxon obtain 
*bdsn >*bdsen ' an abiding, a delay,' the nomi- 
nal base of the denominative verb bdsnian. 
In like manner do we find wrasen (inwit-wrd- 
sen, etc.) <*zvrai3sni- by the side of the verb 
wriftan. A verb *ivrdsnian could also have 
been formed. 

JAMES W. BRIGHT. 



LAM>. 

Readers of MODERN LAM.I *oi Nous \\ill 
be interested to hear of a meeting of great im- 
portance which has lately taken place at Cam- 
bridge University, England. The'. . 
the National Society of French Professors 
residing in England was invited by the authori- 
ties to a session in the university at which the 
vice-chancellor and all the masters of colleges 
were present. The occasion was one of im- 
portance in a variety of respects. It was 
under distinguished patronage, the chairman 
being M. Waddington, the French ambassador 
to England, while among those who expressed 
their strong sympathy with the work of the 
Congress we meet the names of Lord Lytton 
(Minister to France), Lord Tennyson, MM. 
Jules Simon, de Lesseps, Arsene Houssaye, 
and Jules Ferry. M. Waddington delivered 
the inaugural address. He referred with 
pleasure to the recognition of the Congress by 
the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and 
expressed the hope that modern languages 
would soon be placed upon an equal footing 
with classical and other subjects. Vice Chan- 
cellor Taylor emphasized the warm interest 
felt by the university in the study of French. 
The most important speech, however, was 
that made by Professor Seeley, the widely 
known occupant of the chair of modern history 
at Cambridge. Professor Seeley's long and 
varied experience and extensive knowledge 
make his remarks of special value. He 
believed that a crisis in education has arrived 
when it is necessary to accord to modern lan- 
guages their true and prominent place in 
modern culture. Recognizing most strongly 
the value of the classics, "himself a classicist 
of the classics," he still thought that the needs 
of modern life were peremptorily demanding 
very much more devotion to the study of 
modern languages than had ever yet been 
accorded them. So far from believing that 
Latin must be learned in order to teach 
French, "let us," he said, "teach French in 
order to learn Latin." He emphasized the 
immense value of French literature, "a litera- 
ture not less but more extensive and various 
than the Greek and Roman literatures them- 



37 



75 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



76 



selves." "It is absurd," he continued, "to 
claim the title of humanities exclusively for 
the classics, to consider that a youth cannot 
learn grace from Racine, austere purity from 
Pascal, eloquence from Rousseau, elevation 
and force from Victor Hugo, not to say from 
Dante and Goethe." Professor Seeley 
enumerated the various departments of activi- 
ty in which the modern languages are of para- 
mount importance, especially history ; and 
strongly objected to the statement that in all 
respects the classics are the preferable object 
of study. "The modern literatures cannot be 
introduced by the ancient, but the ancient 
literatures can be included in the modern by 
means of translation." The speaker continued 
in the same strain, and upon closing his ad- 
dress was greeted with enthusiastic applause 
not merely by members of the Congress but by 
some of the dons and by a large body of the 
students. A banquet at King's College and a 
conversazione at Trinity College supplied the 
social element of the occasion. A general 
feeling of unanimity seemed to reign, both as 
to the hopeful prospect in regard to the aca- 
demic study of modern languages, and as to 
the cessation of the all but monopoly which 
has so long obtained in favor of the classics, in 
the great English universities. 

The gentlemen entertained by the universi- 
ty were simply teachers of the French lan- 
guage and not, in any sense, a body of scholars 
engaged in the advanced study of modern 
linguistics, in either their scientific or literary 
aspect. It may fairly be presumed, then, that 
had the latter important phases of modern 
language study been duly represented in the 
Congress, its reception on this occasion would 
have been all the more enthusiastic and 
honorable. The scientific attention which the 
philology of modern languages is now so 
widely claiming would certainly have secured 
for a body representing original research as 
well as practical instruction the especially 
hearty endorsement of Cambridge University. 

It is gratifying to call attention to these 
signs of the times. The prospects are certain- 
ly hopeful when the men who stand guard 
over the strongholds of classicism are thus 
frankly outspoken in favor of reform. 

T. McCABE. 
Johns Hopkins University. 



THE FIFTH ANNUAL CONVENTION 

OF THE 

MODERN LANGUA GEASSOCIA TION 
OF AMERICA. 



The Fifth Annual Convention of the Modern 
Language Association of America, held at 
Philadelphia on the 28, 29 and 30 of Decem- 
ber, may be considered memorable in the 
annals of the Association for several reasons : 
the large number of members attending and 
the increase in membership ; the practical 
nature of the majority of the subjects treated, 
and the uniform excellence of the papers ; and 
last, though by no means the least important, 
the increasing interest which its discussions 
created in the minds of the more general pub- 
lic, as witnessed in the fulness of the re- 
ports of the daily papers. Representing, as 
such a society does, the progressive rather 
than the radical spirit of modern education, 
the extension of its audience to this more gene- 
ral public can not but be attended with the 
best results, in forming a public opinion which 
we trust may in some measure correct the 
utilitarian tendencies so widely prevalent in 
both our school and college curricula. 

Although the order of exercises did not 
begin, strictly speaking, until Wednesday 
evening, December 28, Dr. William Pepper, 
Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, 
received informally at his house, on Tuesday 
evening, such delegates as had already ar- 
rived. Quite a number availed themselves of 
Dr. and Mrs. Pepper's kind hospitality. 

During Wednesday, in accordance with the 
provisions already made by the Local Com- 
mittee, the delegates were enabled to visit 
such places of interest in and about Phila- 
delphia as proved most attractive. 

On Wednesday evening, the Association met 
at the University of Pennsylvania to listen to 
Provost Pepper's Address of Welcome, and to 
hear Professor James MacAlister in an address 
on "The Place of Modern Literature in the 
Education of Our Time." In the absence of 
James Russell Lowell, the president of the 
association, and of W. T. Hewett of Cornell 
University, the second Vice-president, Profes- 
sor James M. Garnett, of the University of Vir- 



77 



February. MODERN LAMGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 



j 



- 



ginia, presided. Provost Pepper, after stating 
that " the association's success was due to the 
strong personality of its membership as well 
as to the strong public interest in the subject 
they represented," went on to say that while 
the association must take the lead in an attack 
on classicism, such attack in its hands must be 
free from wanton and destructive measures ; 
for none could be more favorable advocates 
for the just claims of the Greek and Latin lan- 
guages than the members of the association. 
He held that the object of the association was 
to emphasize its belief " that the modern lan- 
guages have an equal claim with the classics," 
in modern education. Provost Pepper conclud- 
ed with appropriate words of welcome in be- 
half of the authorities of the University of 
Pennsylvania and of the local committee. 

It must be confessed that, in the address 
which followed, Professor MacAlister material- 
ly departed from the very moderate views 
just expressed by the Provost. He claimed 
that the present system, in which the classics 
still maintained an ascendency in education, 
could not last ; that " the final outcome must 
be a distinctive system based on the foremost 
human achievements of modern times. Dante, 
Cervantes and Goethe, may be taken as the 
types of modern culture. They can teach us 
more than all the ancient writers." At the 
close of the exercises the University gave a 
reception to the members of the Convention. 

The second session opened on Thursday 
morning with the reading of the annual report 
by Professor A. Marshall Elliott of Johns 
Hopkins University. This was followed by 
the appointment of various committees ; nota- 
bly one to consider the advisability of me- 
morializing Congress for an abolition of the 
tariff on imported books. The reading of pa- 
pers then began. Professor Albert H.Tolman 
of Ripon College, Wisconsin, read the first 
paper, which treated of the Style of Anglo- 
Saxon Poetry. After an intelligent consider- 
ation of the contending verse theories as now 
held by Heinzel, Rieger, ten Brink and others, 
the speaker devoted his attention to a minute 
consideration of style proper, laying particu- 
lar stress upon the vigor and strength of the 
metaphorical and disconnected style of the 
early Anglo-Saxon poets. In the discussion 



that followed, in which Professors Hart, 

Bright and Hunt took an active part, especial 
emphasis was laid upon the necessity of a com- 
plete renovation of the entire subje< t of Anglo- 
Saxon versification in the light of the later 
researches of Professor Sievers in this field. 

Professor Tolman was followed by Pr. 
H. S. White of Cornell University, on " Tin- 
Modern Language Seminary System." He 
spoke at length upon the needs of our colleges 
for intelligent work under the personal super- 
vision of competent instructors, and of the 
I equipment necessary to carry out these re- 
quirements. In closing, Professor White was 
particularly happy in calling attention to the 
words of James Russell Lowell in his address 
at Harvard last year, that " language should 
be made a ladder for literature, and not litera- 
ture a ladder for language." 

The morning session was brought to a close 
with an elaborate essay on the " Face in the 
Spanish Metaphor and Proverb," by Pro- 
fessor Henry R. Lang of New Bedford, Mass. 
After luncheon, which was served in the 
j University, the reading of papers was resum- 
j ed. Professor Sylvester Primer's paper on 
j "Charleston's Provincialisms" elicited enthus- 
j iastic approval, and led to lengthy discussion 
| and comparison of various provincialisms which 
are still lurking among us. Prof. Joynes, of 
South Carolina College, gave especial weight 
to climatic influences in their effect upon 
pronunciation. However, from the number 
of parallel cases mentioned by those taking 
part in the discussion, we may affirm that per- 
haps not the least difficult part of Professor 
Primer's task for the future will be found in 
the discovery of what are and what are not 
provincialisms peculiar to Charleston. 

Professor Henry Wood, of Johns Hopkins 
University, followed with a paper on "The 
Brief, or Pregnant, Metaphor in the Minor 
Elizabethan Dramatists." In the treatment of 
the brief metaphor he found the greatest origi- 
nality of the Elizabethan dramatic style, and 
showed that what we should now consider a 
mere " fancy " or conceit was to the dramatist 
of that age the appropriate expression of the 
highest imaginative thought. 

The last paper of the session was that of 
Professor Alce"e Fortier of Tulane University. 



39 



79 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



80 



La., upon "Bits of Louisiana Folk-lore." 
This proved one of the most entertaining papers 
of the session, and it was a matter of regret 
that the limited time prevented anything ex- 
cept the more popular presentation of the 
subject. 

In the evening the members of the associa- 
tion were tendered a reception by the Histori- 
cal Society at its rooms. The reception brought 
together a large and distinguished gathering, 
and conversation was general and animated. 
The last day's session was opened by Pro- 
fessor Charles F. Kroeh with a paper on the 
" Methods of Teaching Modern Languages," in 
which he advocated the "natural method." 
The Convention now proceeded to the 
more technical papers. The " Speech Unities 
and their R61e in Sound Change and Phonetic 
Laws " by Professor Gustaf Karsten and " Die 
Herkunft der sogenannten Schwachen Verba 
der germanischen Sprachen " by Professor 
Hermann Collitz were both delivered in Ger- 
man and led to considerable discussion. Pro- 
fessor E. S. Sheldon, of Harvard University, 
followed with an interesting paper on "Some 
Specimens of a Canadian French Dialect 
spoken in Maine," which elicited from Pro- 
fessor Elliott the identification of many of its 
peculiarities with those of the dialects of 
Northern France. The last paper of the morn- 
ing session, "On Paul's Principien der Sprach- 
geschichte," by Dr. Julius Goebel of Johns 
Hopkins University, dealt largely with meta- 
physical theories of the origin of language and 
brought out an extremely lively discussion 
between its author and Professor Karsten. 

After midday luncheon, before the reading 
of papers was resumed, the reports of com- 
mittees were in order. Among them was that 
of the committee appointed to memorialize 
' Congress for a removal of the tax upon foreign 
books. Resolutions also were received and 
approved embodying the thanks of the asso- 
ciation to the University of Pennsylvania and 
to the various organizations that had extended 
their courtesy to the members of the associa- 
tion. 

The next paper, "A Study of Lord Macaulay's 
English" by President Henry E. Shepherd of 
the College of Charleston, called out the ex- 
pression of so much opinion adverse to the 



reat English essayist, that it may well be 
doubted if anything short of Macaulay's own 
mpetuous eloquence could have stemmed the 
ide of disapproval. Professor Hart found no 
pleasure or profit in him; Professor Hunt had 
never received from him the least intellectual 
stimulus ; and finally another gentleman step- 
led in with the coup de grdce by stating that 

owed much to Macaulay as an author who 
lad taught him the want of something better 
n the way of mental pabulum. 

Professor Albert H. Smyth of Philadelphia 
then read an essay on "American Literature in 
the Class-room," putting in a strong plea for 
the more general recognition of our own au- 
thors in our school and college curricula. In 
reply to the position there taken, Professor 
Wood made an excellent point, by calling at- 
tention to the greater justice of the term ' En- 
glish Literature in America ' in comparison 
with the term 'American Literature.' 

In his paper on "The English Curriculum in 
the University," Dr. James W. Bright of Johns 
Hopkins dwelt upon the true distinction be- 
tween the university and the college, and ex- 
cited much favorable discussion. The exer- 
cises were brought to a close with a paper on 
"The Earliest Works'on Italian Grammar and 
Lexicography published in England," by Prof. 
A. Marshall Elliott of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. 

In the evening, the members of the Associa- 
tion met many of their newly-made friends 
at the Penn Club's Reception, which conclud- 
ed the list of hospitalities. 

The varied character of the papers read calls 
for some comment. The considerable number 
and excellence of the papers dealing more or 
less with pedagogics, can not but be regarded 
as the indication of an awakening upon a subject 
too long neglected among us ; while the liter- 
ary tendency of others indicates that we are 
not, at least not all of us, given over hopeless- 
ly to die neue Philologie. The philological 
depths were sounded in the purely technical 
papers, but the fact that philology is none the 
less concerned with living and growing organ- 
ism was recognized as perhaps it has never 
before been recognized here in America. In 
the excellent work of Professors Primer, Shel- 
don and Fortier, in their representation of the 



40 



8i 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



living speech phenomena around us as was 
justly said during the convention we must 
recognize what scorns to be tin- peculiar func- 
tion of this Association. It is to be hoped that 
such work may inspire renewed effort for the 
future in this interesting field of research. 

KKLIX E. SCHKI.UNG. 
University of Pennsylvania. 



CONVENTION OF THE 

MODERN LANG UA GEASSOCIA TION 

OF ONTARIO. 



The Second Annual Meeting of the Modern 
Language Association of Ontario, Canada, 
was held in the Canadian Institute, Toronto, 
on Wednesday and Thursday, December 28th 
and 2gth. 

The attendance of members was large and 
included the names of most of the best known 
and most successful teachers of French and 
German in the Province. Upon a survey of 
the topics treated, it will be seen that though 
the subjects had a wide range, they yet bore 
almost exclusively upon what the teacher 
might directly utilize in his work in the class- 
room. The seemingly practical bent thus 
given to the discussions of the Convention 
was due to the fact that its members were with 
few exceptions language teachers in Secondary 
Schools. We may remark that there are in 
Ontario over one hundred of these so-called 
High Schools ; that in each of them provision 
has to be made for the teaching not only of the 
classics but also of one at least of the modern 
languages ; and that in all the larger schools 
special masters are employed for this purpose. 
The opening address of the convention was 
given by its Hon. Prest., Dr. Daniel Wilson, 
the venerable President of Toronto University. 
The topic treated of was "The Influence of 
the French Revolution on English Literature." 
The great English poets who flourished in the 
brilliant literary epoch marked by the latter 
part of the reign of the Third George, were 
named and briefly characterized ; and it was 
shown what was the influence exerted by the 
political events in France on their lives and 
writings. 



In the afternoon session o(. \V< dncsday, pa- 
pers were n ;K! on " English M-tre," on "'I In- 
Natural Method of Teaching Language*," and 

on " Language and Thought." 

At the evening meeting, Mr. Yand<-rsmissi n. 
the President, opened with an address on 
" History and Literature," tin- speaker limit- 
ing himself to the field of Germany. A paper 
was then read on "The Study of English in 
Ontario." In the animated discussion which 
followed on this subject, the majority of tin- 
speakers held, with the writer of tin- arti 
that English is well taught in the < >ntario 
High Schools. Another subject treated of was 
that of Text-Books, of which it was pleaded 
that a periodical revision should be made, 
every five years, by a competent committee. 

On the following morning, after the election 
of officers and of new members, a resolution 
was passed asking the Modern Language Mas- 
ters of the Province to send in the names of 
works in French and German suitable for 
University Matriculation examination. 

The reading of papers was then resumed. 
The first subject discussed was that of "The 
Eye and the Ear in Modern Language Teach- 
ing." These two organs, it was held, should 
be cultivated simultaneously, as should also 
the ear and the voice. A plea was also ad- 
vanced for the application in teaching of the 
principles of phonetics. The Convention 
closed with a practical paper on "Translating 
French." 

We heartily congratulate our fellow teachers 
across the border-line on the success of their 
recent meeting, and trust that their efforts in 
the direction of improved teaching of Modern 
Languages, and of a more thorough study of 
the same, may meet with even greater success 
in the future. 



JOHN R. WIGHTMAN. 



Johns Hopkins University. 



CORRECTIONS TO WHITNEY'S 
FRENCH VOCABULARIES. 

A careful perusal of the vocabularies at the 
close of Whitney's ' Practical French Gram- 
mar,' suggests the following corrections : 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



84 



i. FRENCH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 

Aprts-midi is given as masc., better fern. ; 
auberge masc., should be fem. ; chanson, 
masc., should be fem. ; cdte, fem., should be 
masc. (As this mistake occurs also in the 
English-French vocabulary, and as the author 
derives the word from the form costa, ' rib,' it 
is probable that the error is not a typographi- 
cal one merely, but due perhaps to a confusion 
with cdte.} Faim, masc., should be fem. ; 
tortueux is marked as fem. (with no designa- 
tion as adj .). Under head of omission, we may 
note that the word cerise, used on page 97 
(sentence 19), is wanting in the vocabulary. 

2. ENGLISH-FRENCH VOCABULARY. 

Under the word 'afternoon,' aprts-midi, 
masc., better fem. ; under the words 
' many ' and ' too ' the author gives, as one 
meaning for 'too many," the expression trop 
beaucoup de (!) (This error is corrected in the 
abridged edition.) Under the word 'March,' 
the gender of the French mars should be 
given, (same remark for peuple, under the 
word ' people"). Under the word 'perhaps,' 
peutetre should be joined by a hyphen ; under 
the word ' side,' cdte, fem., should be masc. 

If the question of etymologies were to be 
touched upon, attention might be called to 
the inconsistency between examples like : 
laurier [fr. L. laurum\, orage [fr. L. aura, 
breeze], etc., on the one hand, and those more 
accurately given, such as : berger [LL. ber- 
bicarium, h.berbex, r&m\,fromage \formceti- 
cum, shaped], on the other. 



B. L. BOWEN. 



Johns Hopkins University. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

To the Editors of Modern Language Notes : 

I have had for some years an old dictionary 
which has afforded me considerable amuse- 
ment, and I think a few extracts from it may 
be of interest to your readers. The work is 
entitled :" A New and Complete American 
Dictionary of the English and German Lan- 
guages," By Wm. Odell Elwell (New York, 
1852). The significance of the word " Ameri- 
can " in this title will appear in what follows. 



Some time ago, in looking it over, I came 
upon the expression "catawamptiously chaw- 
ed up," which I found translated as "ganzlich 
zerstort, ganz und gar vernichtet." This dis- 
covery encouraged me to look further, and I 
append the result of my investigations in the 
following list of choice excerpts : 

ABSQUATULATE. Weglaufen. 

ARGUFY. Gewicht haben : beweisen. 

BLACKSTRAP. Branntwein und Zucker : Grog. 

BOGUS. Eine Art Grog. 

BUSTER. Etwas Grosses, Colossales, Ungeheures. 

CALIBOGUS, Ein Getrank von Rum und Bier. 

DIGGINGS. DerBezirk. 

DINGED. Sehr. 

DRATTED. Sehr : ausserordentlich. 

FARZINER (!). (Corrumpirt aus ' Far as I Know.'). 

So viel ich weiss. 
FLUMMUX. Verwirren. 
GAL-BOY. Ein wildes Madchen. 
KOOL-SLAA. Der Kohlsalat. 
LAM. Derb durchprligeln. 
PESKY. Gross: weit : ausserordentlich; in hohem 

Grade : sehr. 

RANTANKEROUS. Zankisch. 
SNOOZER. Der Dieb (in Gasthofen). 
SPOONEY. Der einf Itige Mensch. 

This list might be extended indefinitely. 
The German's conception of" English as She 
is Spoke " in America is quite as mirth-provok- 
ing as that of the Portuguese .grammarian 
whose little book gave him fame of a sort al- 
together unexpected. 

WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 
Chicago High School. 



NOCH EIN MA L MEISSNER-JOYNES, 
II. 

403 ff. Das Capitel iiber die Verwandt- 
schaft der englischen Sprache mil der deut- 
schen hatte auf der Grundlage von Grimm's 
Verschiebungsgesetz zu einem recht fruchtba- 
ren gemacht werden konnen ; aber leider ist die 
Behandlung dieses Gegenstandes gerade in 
den Hauptpunkten unklar und fehlerhaft. Es 
wird nirgends angegeben INWIEFERN ein 
grosser Teil der Unterschiede zwischen den 
beiden Sprachen durch Grimm's Gesetz zu 



February. MODERN LANG UA GE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



M 



erklaren ist ; imGegenteil, 405 & 414 niiisscii 
in jedeni Uneingeweihteii die verkehrte Yor- 
stellung erwecken, als ob jenes Gesetz nur fiir 
die Zeit VOR der Lostrennung des Angelsachs- 
ischen von dem Stammlande in Betracht kame; 
ein Vergleich der einander entsprechenden 
deutschen und englischen Laute mit dem 
Schema S. 221 notigt ferner zu dem Schlusse, 
dass die englischen Consonanten durchweg 
einer spateren Entwickelungsstufeangehoren, 
als die deutschen. Sieht man vollends, wie 
die englischen Formen den deutschen iiberall 
nachgestellt sind, und wie 41 1 von Auslassung- 
en, Einfiigungen und Umstellungen handelt, 
so ergiebt sich als scheinbar zweifellos, dass 
der engl. Consonantismus sic haus dem hoch- 
deutschen entwickelt habe. So wird der arg- 
lose Neuling von vornherein in die Irre ge- 
fiihrt. Fast mochte es scheinen, als ob der 
Bearbeiter selbst nicht ganz im Klaren gewe- 
sen ware ; denn in dem erwahnten Schema S. 
221 ist Grimm's Verschiebungsgesetz in ganz 
entstellter Form wiedergegeben. Die Reihen- 
folge sollte sein 

Soft Hard Aspirate (Soft), 
und S. 222 : 

English soft hard aspirate 
German hard aspirate soft. 
Es wu'rde sich empfehlen, wie hier, so iiber- 
all die englischen Formen den deutschen 
voranzustellen und den Grund dafiir die Pri- 
oritat der englischen consonantischen Laut- 
stufe im Vergleich mit der weiter verschobe- 
nen hochdeutschen ausdrucklich zu erklaren 
und hervorzuheben. j5 409, 410. Die Eintei- 
lung der lautlichen Abweichungen ist manch- 
mal sogar fiir ein Elementarbuch zu unwissen- 
schaftlich. 414. Overset ein primitive? 
417. Zu Stande kommen to be brought 
about, to be consummated. 422. Ehren- 
bezeigungen, nicht bezeichnungen. 423. Die 
Hose, das Beinkleid sind ganz gewohnlich 
als Singulare ; auch das Ostern, das (die) 
Pfingsten, das (die) Weihnachten oder die 
Weihnacht, die Alp kommen haufig vor. 
425. Die Bemerkung : but in the compound, 
die Fensterladen, onfyist unrichtig. 426. 
Der Chor=the chorus, the choir ; das Chor= 
the choir. 428. (or dem Herrn) ist zu strei- 
chen; die Frau Professor(in); meine Frau wird 
nie als Anrede gebraucht, man sagt Madam(e) 



(vrraltet)oder hoflichcr gnddige Frau, oder 
:il)-r Frau mit nachfolgcn<l< m Naim r. 
TitH <lrs ( ieinahls: Frau Miiller, Frau Doctor- 
(i'w)etc. g 430*. Selten difs(ts) mein Herz. 
432. Die tttichdruckerkunst wortli< h the 
art-of-the-printer-of -books. 434 C . Kiigehin- 
7U : sich t-nlsinnen, to remember. ^ 437.6. 
Sich anmassen, to arrogate; Note: d 
brauch des Artikels ware unhoflich, da - 
be vor Eigennamen oft Geringschatzung aus- 
driickt. 438. Ist favorable im Sinne des 
deutschen hold guter Sprachgebrauch ? Si li 
Ex. LI, Satz i. 450. Alter liebst ist kein 
absoluter, sondern ein relativer Superlativ 
(aller=von alien); aber es wird jetzt kaum 
mehr als Superlativ gefuhlt, das beweist seine 
praedicative Anwendungund derregelm:i-,sig<- 
Gebrauch des unbestimmten Artikels vor dem- 
selben. 452. In meinetwegen, seinetu'illen, 
euerthalben etc. haben wir nicht Genitive der 
Personalia, sondern Accusative resp. Dative 
der Possessiva, da wegen, willen, halben ur- 
spriinglich substantivische Casus sind. Also 
eigentlich (und friiher thatsachlich so ge- 
schrieben)rw/ meincn Wegen, umseinen Willfit, 
(von) eueren Halben imlnl. JiaJ6e=Se\te, Rich- 
tung). Wegen des / vergleiche man die For- 
men meinentwegen, derentwillen, allenthalben 
etc. Mit Ausnahme von halb(en), das schon 
ganz friih als blosse Praeposition auftritt, ist 
der gen. sing, der Personalia in Verbindung 
mit diesen Ausdriicken erst neuerdings, und 
nur in beschranktem Masse, gebrauchlich 
geworden. 457,3 sollte lauten : Regular- 
ly, as indefinite antecedent of a relative, he 
(who) is derjenige or der not er, etc. : he 
who is happy, derjenige welcher glilcklich ist, 
or wer gliicklich ist; but when the antecedent 
refers to a certain person before mentioned or 
understood, it must be translated by the person- 
al pronoun : auch er (sie, etc.), der (die, etc.) 
mir so viel verdankte, verliess mich in der 
Not. 459, Remark. Darin diirfte man mit 
dem Bearbeiter doch nicht ohne Weiteres 
iibereinstimmen. Dasselbegilt von der Bemer- 
kung 462,2. g 463, b. continuing up to and 
during the present time. 467. Mich bezah- 
len, nicht mir ; aber wenn das Ding, welches 
bezahlt wird, erwahnt ist, steht es im Accusa- 
tiv, die Person, der man etwas bezahlt, im 
Dativ. 468. Um dass ist veraltet. 472. 



43 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



88 



He might have forgotten it wiirde man zu- 
riickiibersetzen mit er hdtte es vergessen kon- 
nen, nicht er diirfte etc. Diirfen driickt eher 
eine Wahrscheinlichkeit, als eine blosse Mog- 
lichkeit aus ; dazu hat der Conj. Praet. diirfte 
fast immer Praesensbedeutung. Also das 
diirfte zu schwer sein : that is probably too 
hard; er ditrfte es vergessen haben : he has 
probably forgotten it, etc. 474,d. Nach 
Juhlen, hbren, sehen ist der active Infinitiv 
mindestens doppelsinnig ; man wird ihn stets 
eher activ als passiv auffassen. 477, Note. 
Den Fluss durchschwamm, nicht d. F. sch- 
wamm. c. Satze \vie der letzte (mit um dass) 
diirfen dem Schiiler nicht als Muster vorgelegt 
werden. 483. Erbittert heisst exasperated ; 
embittered=verbittert. 485. Ja, horen sie 
einmal kann je nach der Betonung auf ganz 
verschiedene Weise iibersetzt werden, aber 
keinesfalls mit just listen to what 1 say ; am 
nachsten kame wol, dem Sinne nach, ein Aus- 
druck wie : But, my dear Sir, etc. Ja als 
Ausrufungswort zu Anfang eines Satzes ent- 
spricht dem englischen Yes mitangehangtem 
that is (would be) all very well und driickt 
meist Ungeduld aus. Horen Sie (einmal) ! ist 
eine Anrufung wie das englische (/) say \ 
Kommt er noch nicht heisst is he not coming 
yet? Wohl bedeutet probably, nicht may-be, 
manchmal auch indeed: Das ist wol wahr, 
that is indeed true, oder that is true enough. 
486,10. Wenn der Hauptsatzmit sobeginnt, 
heisst das wenn im Nebensatz stets if; so ist 
es auch in den letzten zwei Beispielen zu iiber- 
setzen. 487, Examples i a . Nach versteckte 
etc. lies who was ... and who received and con- 
cealed etc. 

Die Uebungsstiicke zum Uebersetzen ver- 
lieren dadurch sehr an Wert, dass die allzu 
reichlichen Anmerkungen dem Schiiler oft gar 
keine Gelegenheit zur selbstandigen Anwen- 
dung gelernter Regeln iibrig lassen. Wozu 
sollen denn solche Uebersetzungen dienen, 
wenn z. B. iiberall angegeben wird, wann der 
Conjunctiv ge.braucht werden muss und wie 
das Verbalnomen auf ing wiederzugeben ist ? 
Andersvvo wird in ganz leichten Dingen nach- 
geholfen, wahrend idiomatische Eigentiimlich- 
keiten, die sich keiner Regel fiigen (wie S. 303 
a little way, S. 311 the snows of Lapland, etc.) 
unerklart bleiben. Auch sonst finden sich 



einige Versehen. p 303, Ex. IV. Wozu ist 
lying \\\ Klamrnern ? p 304, Ex. VII. Tore- 
strain ist hier : in Schranken (im Zaume) hal- 
ten. p 306, Ex. X. Anm. i ist fur den Schiiler 
zu unbestimmt. p. 310 Ex. VIII. To redeem, 
hier : siihnen ; to disdain : verse hinahen ; Anm. 
9 soil wol heissen anhdngen, aber auch dieses 
Wort passt hier nicht, vielmehr sollte die ganze, 
fur den Schiiler zu schwierige Stelle (he bis 
ignominy) in einer Anmerkung erklart sein. 
Ex. IX. Tend exceedingly : sind sehr dazu 
angethan ; gehen sehr weit ware hier un- 
deutsch. 311. To delight in : seine Freude 
(Lust) haben an. 

Zur Liste der starken Verba : Fechten und 
jlechten sollen auch schwach vorkommen? 
Von beklemmen ist nur das Part. Perf. beklom- 
men stark. Klingen ist immer stark. Das 
Part. Perf. von stecken wird stets schwach ge- 
bildet. 

Endlich sind die folgenden Drjckfehler zu 
verzeichnen : 134. ( 87) statt ( 86). 206. 
( 456,2.) st. ( 455,2.). 427. Matthei st. 
Matthdi. 434,c. gedst. get. 437, 5. forbade 
st. forebode. 462. advatage st. advantage. 
475, d. under (i) st. in 474. 485,10. Das 
ist wahr st. Das ist wohl wahr. 303, Ex. III. 
gone* si. gone. 308, Ex. \ .mouth 1 st. mouth. 
^ 317. 231 b (vor schinden} st. 2j/ a. 

Nach so vielen Ausstellungen gereicht es 
dem Referenten zur Freude, auch der unter- 
schiedlichen Vorziige zu gedenken, welchedie 
amerikanische Bearbeitung vorihrem englisch- 
en Originale auszeichnen und die dazu beitra- 
gen werden, dem Buche in einer verbesserten 
Auflage einen Platz unter den besten vorhan- 
denen Schulgrammatiken zu sichern. 



HUGO SCHILLING. 



Wittenberg College. 



A UDI AL TERAM PAR TEM. 

After two such reviews of the Joynes-Meiss- 
ner German Grammar as have appeared in 
the NOTES with more promised of like kind 
surely even a book as limited in its scope and 
as modest in its pretensions as this declares 
itself to be, must have some right of defense. 
That I fully share Mr. Schilling's wish that the 
book in a future edition mav be made as free 



44 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 



No. 



as possible from error, is proved by the fact 
that he had been specially asked to communi- 
cate to the editor his suggestions to that end 
and, also, that at my request the publishers 
have since addressed a like printed invitation 
to all teachers known. to be using the book. 
I accept this as the avowed object of his paper 
in spite of some, doubtless unconscious, 
features hardly consistent with this single pur- 
pose ; and I thank him for whatever correc- 
tions he may have made. Yet I cannot but 
regret, for his own sake as well as mine and 
the book's, that he did not subject his work to 
more careful revision. This not in depreca- 
tion of criticism, but in sheer justice I now 
propose to do. I shall follow his "points" 
one by one so far at least as may suffice for 
the present purpose; then 1 shall add a few 
words of conclusion. 

1. 96. It is an error to say that I divide 
nouns of the weak declension into not less 
than six groups. I appeal to the text and 
the context ( 93, 94) 

2. 134. The statement that the combined 
endings of the pronominal and of the 
adjective should be learned "both hori- 
zontally and vertically" occurs, in smaller 
type, in one of those suggestions to teach- 
ers, referred to in the preface, of which 
nothing more will now be said. That they 
should be so learned " auswendig " is a 
gratuitous addition. 

3. 408. The mnemonic words, referring to 
Grimm's Law, are taken, with slight 
change from the Historical English Gram- 
mar of Dr. R. Morris, by whom they are 
expressly attributed to his friend, the Rev. 
W. W. Skeat a surely sufficient authority. 
They are here expressly intended only as 
a help for beginners. 

4. 244, etc. The fact that the Indefinites 
are divided, in a first statement, into pro- 
nouns and adjectives ; that, later, some 
of the latter are included under the gener- 
al term pronominals (with reference to the 
declension of a following adjective) and 
that, finally (under syntax), the entire group 
is treated in detail as indefinites, is perfect- 
ly simple, consistent, and logical. The 
same might be said of the demonstratives, 
etc. 



5. g 481, 2. What i-, saiil of the perfect parti- 
ciples of intransitive verbs is a simple 
statement of the truth. It would not be 
true to say that such participles have here 
active meaning. Das gesunkene Schiff 
does not mean a ship that has sunk some- 
thing else. 

6. 28. Is the reverse of "apodiktisch." 
The reference to the "best author!:. 
clearly implies that there are other author- 
ities and other usage. That I have corn c t 
ly stated the best usage will, I presume, 
not be denied. 

7. Pp. 17-18. That the Schrift letters, here 
copied from Meissner, are not perfect, may 
be admitted ; but many teachers think a 
fair handwriting makes a better copy than 
a perfect copper-plate. The microscopic 
accuracy of the criticism is, however, only 
suggestive of frequent regret elsewhere. 

8. 85. It would be impossible to believe, 
without referring to the text, that it is 
nowhere stated that such words as Jung- 
ling, Heft, P/erd,etc. t are not umlauted 
in the plural ! They occur only in some 
groups of words given as exercises in the 
paradigms and there, without the least 
reflection on the " Geistesgaben der 
Amerikanischen Jugend ! " 

9. 86. Here might be added mancher and 
solcher; but they come in better else- 
where. 

10. 88. Might also stand after 79, but is 
in its proper place here. Ihr " her," here 
indeed "forgotten," isduly remembered, 
192. 

11. 101. The book gives both forms for 
Schmerz. 

12. 105 is a side remark, in smaller type, 
calling attention to the occasional occur- 
rence of unusual, or double forms. In so 
far, it is entirely correct and in place. 

13. 123. Does not Augapfel also mean the 
" pupil of the eye? " 

14. 132. It would not have been in place 
to distinguish here the plurals Tucher and 
Tuche. Such double forms are discussed 
later. 

r 5- J 75- The forms habe er, etc., instead 
of er habe, etc., are given (for imperatives) 
because they are the more usual forms as 



45 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



92 



is stated in the immediate context ( 177), 
and also, more fully and precisely, 346. 

16. $ 202, 3. Yes ; the statement is too gener- 
al. "Often" or "usually "should be 
inserted. Thanks. 

17. It is a mistake to say that 235 " besagt 
dasselbe wie 234." See the text. 

18. But by far the gravest of all is Mr. Schil- 
ling's criticism upon the verb-forms, 242, 
243, 232, 246, which for convenience may 
be grouped together. He here charges 
error, or defect, in not less than 28 of the 
Strong Verbs surely a serious charge 
and deserving, if true, of even severer 
remark but can it be possible that so 
grave a charge could be made if not true ? 
Let us see. 

Of these twenty-eight forms, \.wo,fichst, 
flichst (to* fichtst, flichtsf) occur in the last 
edition of Meissner, and are not included 
in the list of misprints kindly sent me by 
Dr. M. ; nor were they noted by any of my 
accomplished proof-readers. Still, they 
may be erroneous. 

For one, birst (for birstest) I do not find 
the requisite authority, though it may 
exist. 

And now, will it be believed that the other 
25 forms are given in the grammar with entire 
correctness, almost in the very terms demand- 
ed by Mr. Schilling ? And yet this astonish- 
ing statement is true ! I need only refer to the 
Alphabetical List, pp. 312-320 a list not in- 
cluded in Meissner's Grammar, but made by 
me as expressly supplementary to the classi- 
fied lists (intended for earliest exercise only) 
from which alone Mr. S. has quoted. This, 
too, from a critic who, in his very first sentence 
declares that the relation of my work to Dr. 
Meissner's has been " festgestellt " strange 
coincidence ! by another critic (Dr. Goebel) 
who, in an express list of "improvements," 
does not mention this most important addi- 
tion ! ! 

Can it be possible that Mr. Schilling had not 
seen this list, but deliberately set himself to 
review a book which he had not even read 
through ? Is this the deutsche Griindlichkeit 
of which we hear so much ? Is this what was 
due to the MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES? or to 
me? or to himself? 



Need I go further ? Need I pursue to the 
end this list of "Punkte," of which there is 
just one column more mostly, like the pre- 
ceding, either mistaken or trivial to show the 
essential (yet I would not say, intentional) 
injustice of this review ? That Mr. Schilling 
has contributed a few useful corrections, I 
thankfully acknowledge ; but 1 should be too 
vain if I imagined the book did not need more 
careful reading and more helpful criticism 
than his. These, with the aid of all willing 
friends, I promise to supply, for the next edi- 
tion. 

Now, having so far followed Mr. Schilling's 
order, I will venture, in a few concluding 
remarks, to move backwards. The Veraltete 
Formen, Verstosse gegen das Idiom, etc., to 
which he refers, I hope Mr. S. will not fail to 
communicate, either through the NOTES or 
personally. But it is only fair to add that, at 
different stages, the sheets of this book were 
read by scholars familiar with the best "Sprach- 
gebrauch " in both German and English. The 
errors which have escaped them all are, I trust, 
neither many nor serious. Still, they will be 
gratefully corrected. 

As to the opinion that the detailed exhibi- 
tion of the paradigms, in an elementary book, 
necessarily demands "das geistestotende Aus- 
wendiglernen " I have no reply to make. So 
far as the remark is meant to apply to the sup- 
posed methods of the editor of this book, it is 
an entire mistake. At the same time, I do 
deem it proper that the student, or the teacher, 
who needs to consult a paradigm, should 
know where to find it, in its most complete 
form. 

Still moving backwards, I read the first sen- 
tence, wherein, with sincere regret, I note the 
starting-point of this review, in an error so 
grave that it could hardly have failed to lead 
the writer astray. That Dr. Goebel, in his 
paper for December, had " im Allgemeinen 
festgestellt " the relation of my work to Dr. 
Meissner's original, is, unfortunately, not true. 
Mr. Schilling's opinion to that effect is, I fear, 
only an instance of misplaced confidence! 
Only my respect for Dr. Meissner and for his 
work has prevented and still prevents me from 
pursuing this question in detail ; but I leave 
its answer to everv candid reader who will 



93 



February. MODKK.V LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. a. 







compart- tin- two hooks. That I >r. Goehrl 
had " ge/eichnet " the character of I' ro|". 
HarriftOn'8 paper (for November) may he inn- 
hut tin- terms in which lie did so arc certain- 
ly to be regretted hy '-\cry " Fachgenosse." 

l'"inally and with most regret I observe 
that Mr. Schilling's indebtedness to Dr. Goe- 
bel begins even before the (irst sentence, with 
the title itself: " Nodi /'.hinni/ Mt issner- 
Joynes." The hook in question is named by 
its American proprietors, who have amply 
satisfied all other rights, \\\v Joy ties- Meiss tier 
German Grammar. This title was intended 
to represent the nature of the book, which is, 
moreover, fully and fairly stated on the title- 
page and in the preface Mr. Schilling, follow- 
ing Dr. Goebel, calls it Meissner-Joyties with 
what purpose, jocose or serious, 1 will not pre- 
tend to say. But, I submit, this is not even 
lawful ; still less is it courteous ; least of all is 
it worthy of a dignified review. Let me sup- 
pose a case : if Mr. Schilling had, for any 
reasons, subscribed his review with the signa- 
ture Schilling- Goebel would he have deemed 
it courteous or legitimate in me to quote it 
by the name Goebel-SehilKngl Yet just so 
only in a far graver matter have he and Dr. 
Goebel treated the title of the Joynes-Meissner 
German Grammar. 

EDWARD S. JOYNES. 

South Carolina College. 



P. S. The editors of the NOTES have been kind 
enough to send me the proofs of Mr. Schilling's" Noch 
Einmal Meissner-Joynes II," against which I have 
hardly anything to object, except as before the title, 
for which I hardly hold Mr. S. responsible. I note with 
pleasure the absence of that tone apparent but, I am 
sure, unconscious which was so much regretted in 
the first paper. I am thankful for many helpful criti- 
cisms, while as before some, on closer inspection, 
would appear to be mistaken and others quite un- 
important. I have even "heaped a little fire" on 
Mr. Schilling's head, by* correcting some false refer- 
ences and misprints that he had overlooked in his own 
paper. As to the errors in German, it would be amus- 
ing to see how far almost without exception they 
are taken without change from Meissner, an " Eingc- 
fiorener;" but this, of course, did not fall within the 
scope of Mr. Schilling's review, and would be, more- 
over, no excuse for actual error. I shall thankfully 
accept his help in a closer inspection of all such points 
for the next edition. 



The only point of Mr. Si hilling's second paper 
ic to iioiii-r, is his iritH i-m ujx,n the chapter 
on the Relation of ( ,ennan to Kngli-h, u ith r- 
to tin: brief statement of (or rather, allusion to i Grimrn'h 
Law. If he will read more carefully, he will ve 
that I speak only of correspondence between the two 
languages not of derivation, nor even chang< 
one to the other. Historical views are exprewly ex- 
cluded (lioth here and in the preface). Now, the 
reason for putting the German first was purely peda- 
gogical: that is, the German form is considered a-, the 
pupil's i/iifitni, to be correlated with its corresponding 
English. In certain cases as in the latter part of my 
reply to Mr. Schilling's lirt paper it maybe lawful 
to move backboards. At the same time, I am quite 
willing to admit as suggested to me by another very 
kind critic [Prof. BRANDT] that it might have been 
better for my (elementary) purpose to give simply a 
list of principal correspondences, without any refer- 
ence to Grimm's I^aw. At any rate, there i 
enough of this to hurt ; " and the limits of the view 
presented are very clearly stated in the book. 

In conclusion, let me again thank Mr. Schilling for 
the trouble he has taken, with the promise that not 
one of his suggestions shall be disregarded in the 
revision of a book of which with all its faults he is 
good enough to speak so kindly. 

K. S. J. 



Quatre grands po'etes du /o* siec/t, Conferen- 
ces, par ALCEE FOR TIER, professeur 5 
rUniversite" de Tulane, N. Orleans, 1887. 

Ce petit volume nous a interesse'; encore 
que publi^ en Louisiane, ou la langue francaise 
n'est pas morte, Dieu merci, il pourrait bien 
tre, sous son apparence modeste, un signe 
des temps. II faut bien qu'on se disc, en eflfet, 
que le couronnement des Etudes litteYaires est 
ncessairement polyglotte, et que, pour ache- 
ver une vue d'ensemble sur la pense"e d'un 
peuple, la langue qui lui servit a 1'exprimer 
est le seul instrument propre a en faire com- 
prencke la porte'e et les nuances avec fide'lite'. 
C'est assez dire que nous voudrions \\>ir 1 'usage 
des conferences franchises se multiplier dans 
les universits ameYicaines, non settlement 
pour exposer les sujets litteraires aux tu- 
diants des degrs superieurs, mais encore pour 
faconner leur oreille aux modulations de la 
langue et de la parole francai 

Rien ne vaut 1'anglais pourpark-rde Shake- 
speare, ralli-mand, pour analyser Goethe, et, 



47 



95 



February. MODERN LANG UA GE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



96 



pour disserter sur Mussel ou sur Lamartine, 
1'idiome sonore et precis qui fit vibrer leur 
lyre. 

Au point de vue de 1'histoire litteYaire, les 
conferences de M. Fortier sont completes, 
trop completes mme, a notregre", caril nous 
paralt impossible de trailer d'aussi vastes 
sujets dans un cadre aussi restreint, si Ton 
pretend tout dire. Le catalogue des ceuvres 
prend tant de place, qu'il n'en reste guere 
pour les appreciations originales. Or, comme 
M. P. Bourget le dit si justement, l'extrme 
civilisation tend & remplacer la faculte de cr6er 
par celle de comprendre, et nous vivons dans 
un siecle ou 1'enseignement litte'raire ne sau- 
rait aller sans analyse. On saisit bien que 
nous ne parlons pas ici de 1'analyse d'un 
roman ou d'un conte, M. Fortier, selon nous, 
use un peu trop de celle-la, mais de cette 
analyse esthetique et psychologique, qui, sous 
I'emotion donne"e, cherche sa raison d'etre. 
Nous croyons fermement que quelques mor- 
ceaux soigneusement choisis, etudies a la 
lumiere d'une critique personnelle, donnent 
d'un auteur tine idee plus feconde que l'e"nu- 
meration de ses ouvrages. 

Mais ce n'est la qu'un point de vue, et il est 
bien possible que 1'auteur des " Quatre con- 
ferences" ne le partage pas. Cette diver- 
gence d'opinion ne nous empche point de 
rendre hommage a rendition de M. Fortier, 
qui, dans ces consciencieuses etudes, a ouvert 
une voie ou nous voudrions voir d'autres 
s'engager aprs lui. 

Et puis, il faut le dire, dans 1'idee de 1'auteur, 
ses conferences etaient, peut-etre, plutdt des 
lecons qu'autre chose ; il parlait & ses etu- 
diants, plus encore qu'a un public deja lettre, 
partant, plus exigeant. Si c'etait le cas, et nous 
avons lieu de le croire, les reserves que nous 
avons faites perdraient beaucoup de leur force, 
et pourraient bien se transformer en eipges, 
car le volume clont nous parlons s'adapte ad- 
mirablement & cet enseignement, necessaire- 
ment plus dogmatique que critique, qui reste 
la base indispensable de 1'esthetique litteraire, 
logiquement posterieure en date. A ce point 
de vue, le livre de Mr. Fortier est un manuel 
predeux a consulter, dont la place nous parait 
marquee, d' avance, dans les bibliotheques 
" coliegiales " et universitaires. 



Un mot, toutefois : Mr. Fortier, en prenant 
(pages 38 et 39) la defense de Lamartine, 

qui n'avait m rit ', 

Ni cet exc! s d'honneur, ni cette indignit ', 

lui a-t-il fait sa veritable place ? A-t-il tenu 
suffisamment compte de cette justice tardive, 
mais eclatante, que la critique contemporaine 
rend a 1'auteur des Meditations? II n'est, 
peut-tre, pas hors de propos de rappeler ici 
que Mr. Brunetiere disait de lui (R. des D. M., 
Aout, 1886): "J'ai la confiance que 1'heure 
viendra, t6t ou tard, pour Lamartine, d'etre 

mis & son rang, et ce rang il se 

pourrait que ce fut le premier." 

Entendez-vous ? Le premier, et cela, dans 
le siecle qu'on appelle deja, un peu prematu- 
rement peut-e"tre, le siecle de V. Hugo! Et 
Mr. Brunetiere n'est pas le seul, puisque T. 
Lemaitre s'ecrie: "Et notez que Lamartine, 
c'est plus qu'un poete, c'est la poesie elle- 
mme." (V. Les Coiiteinporains, i e Serie, a 
propos de F. Coppee). 

Chose qui donne, assurement, a penser, que 
cet accord absolu sur le nom de Lamartine, 
entre deux critiques eminents, de methodes 
si diverses, 1'un, gardien jaloux des traditions 
classiques, 1'autre, si franchement epris de 
modernite 



A. Du FOUR. 



Washington, D. C. 



ENGLISH LITER A TURE. 

A History of Elizabethan Literature. By 
GEORGE SAINTSBURY. Macmillan & Co., 
London and New York, 1887. xiv, 471 
pp. 8vo. 

We have read this book with genuine 
pleasure and satisfaction. It grows in interest 
as it expands, and is laid. aside with a feeling 
of regret and grateful recollection. Mr. Saints- 
bury's previous training in our own literature, 
his wide and varied acquaintance with the 
literature of France, eminently qualify him 
to be the historian of the most fascinating and 
comprehensive era in the development of our 
language. Such the Elizabethan age is ; such 
it must always be. Its position in our literary 
evolution is similar to that of Rome in the 
evolution of European history it is the central 



48 



97 



Fcbwary. MODERN LA G UAG E NOTES, 1888 No. a. 



point; all previous literature converges to it, 
all subsequent literature diverges from it. 
The wonderful complexity of infiueiicfs that 
entered into its development has never been 
aih -quately investigated; the harvest for 
special research is still rich anil plenteous. 
We can in the course of an ordinary review 
note only the distinctive features of Mr. Saints- 
btiry's work. The preliminary portion is 
executed with the characteristic thoroughness 
of the author ; we are especially pleased with 
the lucid fashion in which he has explained 
the genesis of the Elizabethan drama, with its 
commingling of scholarly and popular, classi- 
cal and romantic elements. Ample justice is 
clone almost for the first time, if we except 
Professor Minto's sketch in his ' Characteristics 
of "English Poets,' to the strange and isolated 
genius of Sackville, the author of the ' Induc- 
tion to "The Mirror for Magistrates." We 
seem in this unique production to reap for the 
first time the ripe fruits of the Renaissance in 
England; with no disparagement of the earlier 
school of Surrey and Wyatt, nothing in the 
range of our literature had approached the 
'Induction' in sombre splendor and melancholy 
grace. The opening stanzas never fail to 
recall the introduction to Keats's ' Eve of St. 
Agnes,' the style of which must have been 
sensibly affected by its diligent study. We 
adhere to the opinion previously expressed, 
that Mr. Saintsbury in tracing the origin of our 
prose literature does not carry his investiga- 
tions to a sufficiently early period in the history 
of our speech, ignoring the first Biblical trans- 
lation in which the form and fashion of our 
sacred style was fixed for all time. The 
omission is the more conspicuous by reason of 
the superb tribute he pays to the King James 
or Authorized Version, itself the consummate 
flower of many preceding translations and 
much heroic devotion. Notably is this true of 
Tyndale, whose undefined English has kindled 
the enthusiastic admiration of the cold and 
cavilling Froude. 

We believe that no previous historian of 
this epoch has so thoroughly succeeded in 
portraying its complex and versatile richness 
of thought as well as form and color. An 
anthology of the minor and almost forgotten 
poets of the Elizabethan age, would form a 



most valuable contribution to our liter. itnn- 
In no era of the world's literature, perhaps, is 
there so much that is rare and worth 
survival which has so nearly faded from the 
memory of after times. Tin- spr id. iiitliiem < 
of the Renaissance in developing m our lit' 
ture a love of form and color, is discussed ly 
Mr. Saintsbury in his wonted stimulating and 
suggestive manner. It has sometimes been 
the fashion of literary historians to speak of 
the " highly colored style now regnant in our 
poetry." as if it were of modern origin, bein^ 
coincident with Keats and Shelley, and per- 
petuated by Tennyson in our own time. Such 
a view seems to be entirely at variance with 
the recognized facts of our literary develop- 
ment. The poetry of the Elizabethan age 
teems with richness of coloring and splendor of 
form ; not only the master-pieces of its su- 
preme artists, Spenser, Marlowe, Shakespeare. 
and Johnson, but the writings of many almost 
nameless bards abound in flashes of brilliancy 
and beauty aglow with the very genius of the 
Renaissance. However much this feature of 
Elizabethan times may have been repressed 
during the critical or reflective dispensation of 
Dryden and Pope, it beamed forth again under 
the more auspicious influences of our romantic 
revival during the closing decades of the 
eighteenth and the earlier decades of the 
nineteenth century. We regret that time 
and adherence to rational limits will not allow 
us to consider Mr. Saintsbury's view of the 
strange phenomenon known as Euphuism, 
and his admirable pages upon the great prose- 
poets, Taylor, Milton, and Sir Thomas 
Browne. 

If we were to venture a criticism upon Mr. 
Saintsbury's English, it would assume the 
form of a gentle protest against the super- 
abundant employment of "the enemy 'and 
which,'" to quote his own language in the 
introduction to his English Prose, p. xxxin. 
The phrase is a harsh and dissonant one even 
when " preceded by another which ; " for the 
most part its use can be dispensed with with 
pleasure to the reader, as well as with advan- 
tage to the grace and symmetry of the sen- 
tence. 

A brief review can convey no adequate im- 
pression of the value of Mr. Saintsbury's work. 



49 



99 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



While not acquisescing in all his views and 
deploring an occasional looseness of expres- 
sion, we cordially commend the book to the 
critical scrutiny of students of English Litera- 
ture in the United States. 



H. E. SHEPHERD. 



College of Charleston. 



Ueber die Sprache der Wandalen. Ein Bei- 
trag zur Germanischen Namen- und 
Dialectforschung von DR. FERDINAND 
WREDE. Strassburg, Karl J. Triibner, 
1886. 

Wer die Entwicklung der deutschen Philo- 
logie wahrend des letzten Jahrzehnts aufmerk- 
sam und unbefangen verfolgt hat, dem wird es 
wol nicht ohne Bedauern entgangen sein, wie 
diese Wissenschaft nach und nach zur einsei- 
tigen Lautforschung zusammengeschrumpft 
ist. Dass es bei der herrschenden Mode ein 
Leichtes sei, sich durch Aneignung beliebter 
Schlagworter, Schulausdriicke und Formeln 
einen wissenschaftlichen Narrfen zu erwerben, 
hat schon Scherer scharf geriigt. Von dem 
Geiste, der die grossen Begriinder der ger- 
manistischen Studien und ihre nachsten 
Schuler beseelte, schien sich nur wenig auf 
die Epigonen vererbt zu haben, die ihre 
Grosse gar oft damit zu beweisen suchen, dass 
sie iiber jene Manner hochmutig herfahren. 
Ein jeder Versuch die Mode zu durchbrechen 
und die einseitig atomistische Methode zu 
iiberwinden, indem er das Ganze der Wissen- 
schaft im Auge behalt, ist darum von vorn 
herein wolwollend zu begriissen. Doppelt ist 
solch ein Versuch aber willkommen zu heissen, 
wenn er von einem scharfsinnigen, methodolo- 
gisch und, auch im Sinne der Lautforschung, 
philolologisch geschulten Kopf ausgeht, wie 
er uns in der vorliegendeu Abhandlung begeg- 
net. 

Nur wenig ist bisher auf dem Gebiete ge- 
schehen, das sich der Verfasser erwahlt hat, so 
sehr auch gerade hier das Fragmentarische 
der Ueberlieferung Scharfsinn und Combina- 
tionsgabe des Philologen reizen mogen. Lei- 
der ist uns ja von der Sprache der vielen 
Germanenstamme, welche wahrend der V61- 
kernanderung auftreten, fast nichts als Per- 
sonennamen, und auch diese meist in 



verderbter Form iiberliefert. Hierzu kommt 
noch, dass wir von den lateinischen und 
griechischen Schriftstellern, denen wir ihre 
Erhaltung verdanken, nur einzelne text- 
kritische Ausgaben besitzen, dass somit die 
Arbeit des Forschers unendlich erschwert 
wird. K. Meyers Schrift iiber die Sprache 
der Langobarden muss in vielen Beziehungen 
fiir ungeniigend gelten, und es bleibt daher 
nur iibrig, was J. Grimm in der Geschichte 
der deutschen Sprache fiir die Losung dieser 
Fragen auf ostgermanischem Gebiete geleis- 
tet hat. 

Mit Recht betont Wrede in der Einleitung 
dass die Namenforschung, welche die Unter- 
suchung hier notwendig sein muss, vom Stand- 
punkte des Dialectes zu betreiben sei, um zu 
positiven Resultaten zu gelangen. So mangel- 
haft das wandalische Sprachmaterial auch ist, 
das sich auf ca. 53 Namen beschrankt, so 
scheint es uns doch als habe der Verfasser 
einige nicht unwesentliche Unterschiede vom 
gotischen Sprachbestand festgestellt. Denn 
da uns von dem letzteren ja das meiste 
Material iiberliefert ist, so hat man es bis jetzt 
kaum unternommen, auf strenge Scheidung 
der iibrigen wandilischen Dialecte zu dringen. 

In klarer, kritischer Weise behandelt unsere 
Schrift im ersten Teile die Quellen, welche die 
wandalischen Sprachreste bis zum Jahre 1000 
iiberliefern. Es ist nach unserer Meinung vollig 
berechtigt, wenn der Verfasser hierbei den La- 
teinern grossere Zuverlassigkeit zuschreibt als 
den Griechen, zumal die ersteren weit mehr in 
personliche Beriihrung mil den Wandalen ka- 
men als die letzteren und darum weit eher nach 
dem Gehor berichten konnten. Am deutlich- 
sten wird dies vielleicht bei der Ueberlieferung 
von Geisarix, dem Namen des beriihmten 
Wandalenkonigs. Wahrend sammtliche latei- 
nische Quellen bis zu Geisarix' Tod den ersten 
Bestandteil des Namens a'ls gets- (got. *gaiza, 
ahd. alts, ger, an. geirr) geben, berichten die, 
Griechen in bunter Mischung ri&pixo?, Fe&- 
pixot, Ftv&pixoS, etc. Die letztere Form hat 
schon J. Grimm (Gesch. d. d. Spr. 477) dazu 
verfiihrt den Namen aus got. gansanser zu 
erklaren. Da wir nun nicht wol annehmen 
konnen, dass sich der Wandalenkonig mit zwei 
Namen geschmiickt habe, wovon ausserdem 
der erster nur vollig gesichert ist, so glaube 



101 



February, MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. a. 



102 



ich, dass die Form rtv&ptxot eine griechische 
Ungenauigkeit ist, die sich auf spatere latei- 
nische Schriftsteller forterbte. Audi ohne 
romanischen EHnfluss anzunehmen mag <l;is 
v sehr vvohl aus nasalirter Aussprache des 
Diphtongen ei entstanden sein wie sie durch 
den Zischlaut begiinstigt wurde und heute 
noch in Dialecten vorkommt. 

I in xweiten Teile seiner Schrift behandelt 
der Verfasser die Namen, welche sicli ihm aus 
seiner Quellenuntersuchung ergeben haben. 
In der Herstellung wie in der Deutimg der 
einzelnen Namen ist der Verfasser gleich 
scharfsinnig und meist ebenso gliicklich ver- 
fahren. Einzelnes ist hier schon von Ehris- 
mann Ltbl. vin, 468 ff. berichtigt worden. 
So erinnert dieser zur Etymologic des Namens 
VVandalen mit Recht an luendese, wendehner, 
die schon Forstemann herbeizog, ebenso an 
Wendel als Namen des Teufels. In der Her- 
stellung der Namen Gamtith, Gabadus und 
Theudarju wird Wrede trotz Ehrismann wol 
Recht behalten. Bei Thrasamund, der son- 
derbarer Weise auch als Transamund, wie 
Genserich neben Geisartx erscheint, ware 
wol nicht bios an got. prasa-balpei, sondern 
auch noch an den westgotischen Thursimuud 
zu erinnern. Beide Formen konnten dann auf 
die gemeinsame Wurzel dhars 'mutig,' 'kiihn,' 
' dreist sein ' zuriickgeben, wozu altir. tren 
'heros,' ' vir fortis,' gr. Qpativt an. purs, ags. 
p>yrs ahd. gaturstmhd. turst, diirse zu verglei- 
chen waren (cf. Kremer Beitr. vin, 418; H. 
Zimmer K. Zeitschr. xxiv, 207; J. Grimm 
Gesch d. d. Spr. 195). Interessant ist es 
natiirlich in Hasdinge und Theudarix zwei 
Namen unserer Heldensage zu begegnen. 

Im letzten Teile der Abhandlung hat der 
Verfasser dem mangelhaften, vielfach un- 
sicheren Character seines Materiales gemass 
vorsichtig die grammatischen Resultate seiner 
Untersuchungen zu ziehen versucht. Da er 
sich selbst den " Mut des Fehlens " zuschreibt 
und sehr wol weiss, dass er meist nur Andeu- 
tungen gebenkann, so istes hochst iiberflilssig 
die Schulmeisternase zu riimpfen, wenn die 
positiven Resultate der aufgewanten Miihe 
nicht zu entsprechen scheinen.* Die Griinde, 
die Wrede dafiir beibringt, dass auslautendes 
j im Wandalischen nach Dentalen bereits zu 
schwinden angefangen hat, sind jedenfalls 



ernstlich zu priifen. Als absolut sicher er- 
scheinen mir dagegt-n <lt-s Verfassers Ausfuh- 
rungen uber den diphtoiiKisi li-n (liar, 
von wand, ei sowie die Schlussfolgerun; 
die er hieraus gegen Bremers Anffassung von 
got. at vor Vokalen (saiati. vaian Beitr. xi. 51 
ff.) zieht. 

Anziehend sind die allgemeinen Andeuttmg- 
en, uber germanische Namengebung am 
Schlusse des anregenden, fleissig und scharf- 
sinnig gearbeiteten Buches, in dem wir eim-n 
schonen Anfang wissenschaftlicher deutscher 
Namenforschung erblicken, weichem der V.-r- 
fasser hoffentlich recht bald das beabsichtigte 
gotische Namenbuch wird folgen lassen. 

JULIUS GOEBEL. 



Die erste Person Pluralis des Verbums im 
Altfranzosischen. Dissertation for the 
Doctor's degree at the University of Strass- 
burg, by ALFRED LORENTZ. 45 pp. 1886. 

It is known to every student of French that 
the various endings of the ist pers. plur. in 
Latin in the tenses that have survived, with 
the exception of the perfect, resulted in the 
French form -ons. The following forms appear 
in Old French : (i) -onsand its variants, as -otns, 
-onies,-ommes,-ums,e\.c.;(2) -tens, -t'ftn, etc.; 

(3) -tens, -iems, etc., in the Imperf. Ind. of all 
conjugations ; (4) -mes, in the three words 
faintes, dimes, and ermes. They correspond 
to the following Latin endings: (i) -tintus ; 
(2) -e(b)amus, -i(b)amus ; (3) -edmus, -Idtnus ; 

(4) -Itnus. The remaining forms, viz. -atnus, 
-emus, -tmus, and -ttbamus, have left no trace. 

Thurneysen, in his treatise ' Das Verbum 
etre und die frz. Konjugation,' Halle 1882, was 
the first to explain satisfactorily the influence 
of the -ons ending, originally belonging only to 
sunius, on the development of all other verbs. 

'"Die Art und Weise, wie sich die verschiedeneu " Schulen " 
unter einander belobhudeln oder gegenseitig zu vernichten 
suchen, ist ja allbekannt. Durch einzelne Wendungen wie z. 
\\.inpartibufinfidelium verfUhrt, glaubte ich auch ia Dr. 
Karstens Recension von Pauls Principien einen paneilichen 
Ton zu endecken (cf. Decembernummer der NOTES). Inzwi- 
schen habe ich jedoch vom Verfasser selbst erfahren, dass er 
denselben keineswegs beabsichtigte und ich freue mich daher 
meine Anffassung wie meinc Anmerkung zu jenern Artikel 
hiermit berichtigen zu kimnen. 



103 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



104 



The thesis of Mr. Lorentz adds no new mate- 
rial to this acknowledged theory, except the 
suggestion that habemus in its Old French form 
was first affected by sumus, as the Moralium 
in Job shows only avomes beside somes. The 
value of the thesis consists in the collecting 
and sifting of the different forms, and grouping 
them according to their geographical distribu- 
tion. As more than sixty texts have been 
carefully searched, the investigation may be 
called a thorough if not an exhaustive one. 
Realizing the difficulty of becoming acquain- 
ted with dissertations that are not published 
in journals and that therefore easily escape 
attention, we hope the communication of the 
results of the present thesis will be of some 
service to students in Romance dialectology. 

The difference in endings shows plainly the 
existence of two groups of dialects, one of 
which wholly rejects -iems and takes only -oms 
and its representatives, while the other adopts 
both. The former, moreover, never uses -omes, 
the latter never -om. These two groups are the 
West French (Poitou, Aunis, Saintonge, An- 
goumois, Touraine, Maine, Manche and Nor- 
mandy) and the Anglo-Norman on the one 
side, and the rest of the continental French 
dialect on the other. West French p is repre- 
sented in Anglo-Norman by u. The West 
French form -om changes to -d, later written 
-on ; -ons is used in the twelfth century only for 
the sake of the rhyme, and so with -uns in An- 
glo-Norman. Probably -um was also nasalized, 
though retaining its form. 

The second group (Champagne Namur, 
Cambrai, Belgium, Flanders, Brabant, Hai- 
nault, Artois, Picardy, Beauvoisis, Verman- 
dois, lie de France) has only in the pres. ind. 
-oms, -ons etc. , the other tenses have also -iems, 
-iens etc. 

We recognize three further divisions : (i) 
East French, the dialects of Wallonia and 
Hainault, showing -ons in the pres. ind., and 
-iens in the pres. subj. and impf. ind. andsubj. 
In the last two dialects and that of Champagne 
are to be found -omes and -iemes in the respec- 
tive tenses, at least since the thirteenth cen- 
tury. (2) -ons and -omes in the pres. ind. and 
subj., are to be found in the North French dis- 
trict ; the exclusive use of -iemes is met with 
only in Picardy and Artois. (3) In the Central 



French dialect -ons and -iens are used indiffer- 
ently, with the exception of the pres. ind., 
which knows only -ons or sometimes -omes ; 
-ons predominates in the North and -iens in the 
South ; the first form seems to be used exclu- 
sively in Beauvoisis. 

This thesis will prove a valuable help for the 
study of the Old French dialects. The micro- 
scopic inquiry has proved, for instance, that 
-omes does not necessarily characterize the dia- 
lect of Picardy, as was formerly supposed. 
Some of the most genuine documents of that 
region never employ it. The results acquired 
also tend to overthrow the hypothesis of Prof. 
Suchier(Grober's Zeitschriftl, 277) and of Jen- 
rich (Die Mundart des Miinchener Brut Halle, 
1881), who assign the Brut of Miinchen to the 
dialect of Namur. Besides the occurrence of 
the -uns forms, which points to a connection 
with the Anglo-Norman, there seem to be other 
reasons for the untenableness of Jenrich's 
opinion. These we propose to consider in a 
later article. 



H. SCHMIDT. 



Cornell University. 



BRIEF MENTION. 

One of the significant accessory features of 
the second convention of the Modern Lan- 
guage Association of Germany, held at 
Frankfurt in the last Easter Holidays, was the 
publication, under the general title of ' Frank- 
furter Neuphilologische Beitrage,' of a Fest- 
schrift der Neuphilologischen Sektion des 
Freien Deutschen Hochstifts in Frankfurt a. 
M. zur Begriissung des zzveiten allgemeinen 
deutschen Netiphilologentages (Frankfort, 1887, 
Svo., pp. xii, 136). It opens with an informal 
account of the origin and activity of the 
" Neuphilologischen Sektion" of Frankfurt, 
by Direktor Arthur Kortegarn. This is follow- 
ed by an extended study of " La Critique 
litteYaire de Sainte-Beuve," written by Armand 
Caumont, who quotes the remark of Edmond 
Scherer : II faut avoir connu Sainte-Beuve, 
pour savoir 1'importance qu'il attachait a 1'or- 
thographe d'un nom propre, a un renseigne- 
ment, a une date. II voulait tout voir de ses 
propres yeux, tout verifier. II avail vraiment 
la religion des lettres," Dr. Ludvvig Romer 



105 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, i$88. No.*. 



106 



contributes an article entitled "/wolf fran. 
ische Lieder aus dem 16. Jahrhuiulert." One 
of the literary diversions of Dr. Edmund Sten- 
'j,c\, the indefatigable Professor of Romance 
Languages at Marburg, is the collection and 
publication of the private correspondence of 
eminent philologians. He ofl'ers us here two 
letters from Ferdinand Wolf and Kmanuel 
Geibel, and extensive contributions from the 
correspondence of the Brothers Grimm with 
several of their Frankfurt friends. Dr. Fer- 
dinand Michel has a study entitled " Hand- 
schriftliches zu Les Tournois de Chauvenci 
von Jacques Bretel. ' ' One of the coincidences 
of similar work done at the same time at wide- 
ly distant points is marked by Oskar VVinne- 
berger's " Textprobe aus der altfrz. Uberlie- 
ferung des Guy de Warwick," considerable 
extracts from one of the unpublished MSS. of 
which (Bib. Nat. 1669) are given in the study 
of " Guillaume de Dole," appearing in the 
recent volume of 'Transactions of the Mod. 
Lang. Ass'n of America.' The last article is 
by Dr. Max Banner; it is entitled " Das Fran- 
zosische als Unterrichtsgegenstand an unsren 
Gymnasien." The predominance of critical 
studies in French in the above showing is 
noteworthy. 

In Science, for December 23, '87, is to be 
found a short notice of Saintsbury's ' A His- 
tory of Elizabethan Literature ; ' for January 
13, '88, an account of the recent Fifth Annual 
Convention of the Modern Language Associa- 
tion of America, held at the University of 
Penna. (Philadelphia). A review and charac- 
terization of the work of the same Convention, 
from the pen of Dr. Julius Goebel, appears in 
- the New York Belletristisches Journal 
for January 27th. The University Review 
(Organ of Garfield University) for December, 
1887, contains an Article on "Modern Lan- 
guages" by J. S. Griffin, Professor of Modern 
Languages in that University. The December 
Number (1887) of The Academy (Syracuse, 
George A. Bacon, Editor) has a characteristic 
and important article (pp. 385-397) on "Aims 
and Methods in Modern Language Teaching," 
by Samuel Thurber, Master in the Girls' 
High School, Boston. 

Following close upon the first appearance 
of Grandgent's Italian Grammar, recently 



noticed in these < olumns (II, 465), conies to us 
the third edition of a little work of similar 
form though different treatment, entitl- 
Manual of Italian Grammar, witli Compara- 
ti\- Tables and Historical Remarks. by\V. 
L. Montague, l'n>lessor ot' French, Italian and 
Spanish in Amherst College (New York: H-n- 
ry Holt & Co., 1887. i2mo, pp. 114). The 
method of this grammar is purely <l 
there being no exercises introduced, except 
one in pronunciation, which in addition to its 
special purpose " will be of service in the 
application of the various facts respecting the 
j parts of speech as they are consecutively- 
learned in the grammar." The grammatical 
statements, however, are illustrated by trans- 
lated examples. The preface to this book 
received the authors signature in 1874, nor 
have the subsequent years, so far as the reader 
is informed, suggested the propriety of any 
changes or additions. Yet the occasion of 
offering a new edition to the public might 
have been utilized to give another form to 
certain features and statements of the work. 
Thus, as throwing light upon the information 
that Dante's classification of the Italian dia- 
lects has been modified since his time, other 
authorities than that of the "35th vol. of the 
North American Review " might appropriate- 
ly have been mentioned. Care should have 
been taken to eliminate such misleading com- 
parisons (for the plural forms) as that given on 
p. 17 for the definite article : 

Sing. ILLE, ILLUM, ILLAM : //, lo, Id \ 

Plur. ILLI, ILLOS, 1 1. 1. AS: i, gli, le\ 
while a comparative table in which, for exam- 
ple, are confronted (p. 34), without any sugges- 
tion of a reconciliation, such forms as ILLAE 
(elleno), ILLARVM (di loro), ILLIS (alpro), ILLAS 
(loro, le), must be mystifying rather than sug- 
gestive to beginners. As to the 'historical 
remarks,' we find (p. 15) a note of some length 
accounting for the origin of the plural s in 
French, but of the Italian plural forms (includ- 
ing that in -a) no explanation is offered. The 
statement, however, is made that there are 
many " euphonic changes " in the formation of 
the plural : " i. Nouns ending in ca and ga 
take an // in the plural, in order to preserve 
the hard sound of the r and ," etc., etc. On 
p. 37 the etyma of questo, cotfsto, qtiflio are 



53 



107 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



108 



given as QUEM ISTUM, QUID ISTUM, QUEM 
ILLUM ; and on p. 42 Sp. quienquiera, cual- 
quiera are set down as the etymological 
equivalents of It. chiunque, qualunque, the 
corresponding Fr. quiconque being misprint- 
ed quinconque. On the same page we are told 
that " Si is used less frequently than on in 
French, to represent an indefinite subject; . . . 
but when the following accusative is plural the 
verb agrees with it. Ex. Si vedono molfe 
persone." Further on (p. 45), occurs the re- 
markable statement that "In the Provencal 
these forms [of the analytical future] were 
never combined, as in French, Italian and 
Spanish, to form a single word, and AD vos 
DICERE HABES is written vos-dir-ai, or dir-vos- 
ai." Again, on the same page, "The Spanish 
imperfect subjunctive in ara and era is formed 
from AREM, EREM of the same tense in Latin." 
P. 74, " Ci and vi as adverbs of place are 
contractions for quinci, here ; quivi, there. "- 
In the chapter on ' derivation,' no account is 
taken of vowel quality and position, or of tonic 
accent. With the exception of these, and 
some other corrigenda, the essential facts of 
the language are here conveniently grouped 
and plainly stated, 

1 Die Werke des Troubadours N' At de Mons, ' 
by W. Bernhardt, forms volume eleven of the 
Altfranzosische Bibliothek(Heilbronn : Gebr. 
Henninger, 1887 ; pp. XLIX, 169). This poet, 
who belongs to the decadent epoch of Proven- 
cal literature, is not mentioned in the old MS. 
biographies, a neglect which all his contempo- 
raries shared, save Guiraut Riquier. From a 
study of the historical allusions in his works, 
which are almost entirely didactic, the editor 
.arrives at the following conclusion : N'At de 
Mons came from Toulouse ; he wrote in the 
second half of the thirteenth century and was a 
contemporary of Alfonso X., of Castille, and 
Peter III., of Aragon. His death occurred 
about 1290. The poems, now edited for the first 
time, are five in number, contained in a single 
MS. ; to them the sirventes already published 
(Bartsch, Ghrest., col. 303) is added, which 
completes the sum total of what has been 
preserved. From passages and citations in 
the ' Leys d" Amors,' it is evident that many 
shorter poems were written by the same author 
and are now lost, the fate which overtook the 



greater part of the literature of South France. 
Unfortunately for the present popularity of 
N'At de Mons, the remnants of his literary 
baggage have little other than linguistic worth : 
his longest poem, in 2059 six syllable couplets, 
addressed to Alfonso X. , treats of the influence 
of the stars on human destiny ; the remaining 
five are on topics not more attractive. The 
editor has consequently devoted the greater 
part of the introduction to the language of the 
poet and of the MS., to comments on the flexion 
and versification. A short criticism, in which 
Dr. Foerster differs from certain yiews of the 
editor, is appended. Following the text are 
extended remarks and notes. It will be 
noticed that in this publication a departure from 
strictly French texts is made for ihe ' Altfran- 
zosische Bibliothek.' That the precedent is 
to be followed appears from the announce- 
ment of other volumes on Provencal. 

To the same field belongs the ' Vie tie Saint 
George, poeme provencal ' by C. Chabaneau, 
(Paris, 1877), a deprint from the Revue des lan- 
guesromanes. The text is unaccompanied by 
notes, and represents merely the Provencal 
version of the favorite legend, evidently imitat- 
ed from some French original. In the few re- 
marks that precede the text, the editor has 
evidently overlooked the fact that the episode 
of the widow (v. 380 ss.) is common to the 
French poems and their Latin original (See 
Zeitsch.fur roman. Philologie, v, 508). Also 
" le poeme de Wace sur le meme sujet " is, 
without doubt, not by Wace but by some 
anonymous poet, later by thirty years or more 
(See Zeitschrift fiir roman. Phi/ologie, v, 
504)- 

At the last meeting of the Modern Language 
Association of America, held at the University 
of Penna. (Philadelphia) during the Christmas 
holidays, 1887, a Phonetic Section of the So- 
ciety was formed for the purpose of encourag- 
ing and promoting the study of phonetics in 
this country. The desire is to place the prac- 
tical teaching of this subject upon a more 
scientific basis, especially in our colleges, and 
to develop, as far as circumstances will admit, 
a spirit for scientific research in it. As a prac- 
tical step toward the accomplishment of this 
object, it is proposed by the members specially 
interested, to urge that broader scope be given 



54 



109 



/ .i>ruary. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



no 



to this subject in public and private instruction, 
to establish courses of lectim-s suitable to 
promulgate correct views concerning it, to ar- 
range a system of exchanges in phonetic litera- 
ture, and to give, by correspondence, to in- 
quirers in phonetic matters such help as may 
be thought adapted to their various circum- 
stances and needs. To secure agreement as 
to the general mode of sound notation to be 
used, a committee will endeavor to formu- 
late a standard system which will be sub- 
mitted for suggestions and improvements 
to all those who take special interest in the 
subject, and it is hoped that the result of 
their united efforts will meet with general 
approval. Equipped with this standard 
alphabet, young scholars will be able to record 
intelligibly the various dialect shadings of 
American speech, of whatever origin, and 
thus prepare the way to examine critically the 
interesting phenomena of speech mixture in 
this country. Suggestions from any quarter 
touching a definite system of Sound notation 
will be welcomed by the Committee. The 
veteran phonetist, Alexander Melville Bell, 
has accepted the presidency of the newly 
formed section and Professor Gustaf Kar- 
sten of Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind., 
has been appointed Secretary; to the latter 
should be addressed all communications re- 
lating to the subject of phonetics. 

We take pleasure in announcing that the new 
American Folk-Lore Society, preparations for 
which have been for some time making, is at 
present definitely organized under the presi- 
dency of Prof. F. J. Child of Harvard. The 
Society will hold an annual meeting, but does 
not promise a yearly volume of Proceedings 
and Transactions. In lieu of this, a quarterly 
journal will be published, to be furnished to 
members of the Society in consideration of an 
annual membership fee of three dollars. It is 
hoped that the first number of the proposed 
journal will appear in April next. The Acting 
Secretary of the Society is Mr. W. W. Newell 
of Cambridge, Mass., to whom those interest- 
ed may address themselves. 



JOURNAL NO'I h . 

ZEIT8CHRIFT FUR NEUFRANZO6I8CHE S PR ACHE 
UNDLITTERATUR BANDIX.HFT. 6. KK/KN- 

KuertlBK, H. Victor Kourn. -,. 
J-'i.x-i Heller.H.J. K. . Pt-u-n.- 

Frankreleh. Hll.ler mid Nki/.w,i. Kraak. jMrf. 
Arthur Tillcy, The Literatim- .r the Kr.-n.-h H.-HHI- 
MUII ' AII Introductory KMMH) . Borakak. d. p HU | 
Kiihnt. (iediuikeiii, :.!>-ii/<-ii in JoOHIe'i inn] 

(iariiier'H TriiRftdien un<1 Sen.-ra 1 * KlnttiiiM 11 
selben. Mabrenbollz. K. (iuHtave IJUT.-UI. 
Com&lie ilc M.iliere. Kautem- et ]. milieu. Makrra- 
hollz, It. W. Kreiten. Molldre'i Leben und W 
Horning, H. H. Muhrcnholt/.. Jean- Francois Hommud 
Hartraann, K. A. Martin. Xeue Krm-helnuiiiren der 
HIIRO- Litteratur. Heller, H J. Jan ten Hrlnk. Lit 
terarische Scheteen en Krltleken: fiinlle Zola. 
Heller, H. J. Jan ten llrlnk. 1. ll.-i Nuturaliwne to 
Rood, etc. Sckefler. W. C. C. Kleurlot. Auawahl fran- 
zttsischer SprichwoYter mlt deutscher Cberaetzunir 
und Erklai-uiiR. Sarrazln, Jo*ek- Frankfurter Neu- 
phiiologrische .Beitrttge. Ranbeai, A. Lehr un-i 
DbuiiRsbUcher Kir den Schulgebrauch. Bercbvlter, 
W. Xavler de Malstre, Prascovle ou I^a Jeune SiU'n- 
ciinc. Sarrazln. Jo-.-ph. Schulausgaben. Lla, Th. I . 
SehulausKaben.MiszEi.bBN. Barrelrl, I'karlea. li 
J. Kacine, Die Gerichtsfexen. WesBjr, L. Aufrusto 
v i t it . Leg Mille et une Nuite de Th atre.- MahrtMktltz. 
R. J. Grand-Carteret, I^a France jutrte par TAIle- 
maKne. Heller, H. J. Victor Cberbullez, I.H i 
Heller, H. J. Catulle Mendds, Zo'har, roman 
porairi. Kambeau, A. Nachtrair zu Zschr. 
ff.; 8. 39 ff Schulze, 0. Zu Zschr. IV, 8. 188 ff. 
Supfle, Theodor. Demerkungen zu dom deuUcb* 
fnuiy.osischeii Teile des Enzyklopsdlschen WQrter- 
buchs von Sachs fgrrosse Ausgabe). HFT. 7. AB- 
HANDLUNOEN. Dammhul/, K. 8tudienUberdiefrao- 
zb'sischc Sprat- IK- zu AnfaiiR des XVII. Jhrhds. iin 
Anschluss an J. de Schelendre's Tyr et 8idon,Tnuri- 
comedie divisee en deux journ'es. MabreibalU, B. 
f.mile Zola's Selbstbekenntnisse im Roman exp^ri- 
mental. MISZELLEN. Klehler. Vondenloaen FlK-h- 
sen dleser Welt, nur eine ttberaetzung aus dem Fran- 
zOsischen des Jean Bouchet. Mabreiholtz, R. Doute* 
snr leg Opinions recues dans la Social*. Hea7, K. 
Sue, son exil en Savoie 1A12-1H5T. 



LlTERATURBLATT FUR QERMANI8CHE UND RO- 
MANI8CHE PHILOLOOIE. -Vor. Bebagbel, OMo. Brug- 
111:11 1 H. Grundriss der verKl- Grammatlk der Indoor- 
man. Sprachen I . Khrlomann, (i. W rede, Ueber die 
Sprache der Wandalen. Hyaoaft, B. Volo spo. Aui 
dem Altnord. Ubersetzt von A. Heugler. Mck, K. 
(Jt-riiiR, Glossar zu den Liedern der Edda. reacer. 
R. Keinhart Fuchs. Hrsgr. von Keissenbenrer. E*ck, 
Max. Schmidt, niarakt-ristik*-n. ProevhoHl. Lud 
wig. Markscheffel, Thomas Kyds TraKOdien. Krew- 
nt-r, Adolf. Saure, Auswahl eiiRl. Gedichte; Gropp 
und Hausknecht, Auswahl eiitrlischer GedK-htc. 
KhrNmann. 6. Voxels, Die ungedruckten latein. 
Versionen Mandeville'g. Morf, H. Ziesing. Braame 
ou SaliRnac V Etude sur la lett.re de Fran?. Rabelais. 
-Sllefel. A. L. Wenzel. Studieu Ober Antoiue de 



55 



Ill 



February. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



Montehretien. Mahrenholtz, R. Kreiten, Molieres 
Leben und Werke. Meyer, W. Horning, Die ostf ranz. 
Grenzdialekte zwischen Metz und Belfort. Goerlich, 
Ewald. Wendelborn, Rprachl. Untersuchung der 
Reime der Vcgece- Versification des Priorat v. Besan- 
^on. Belnhardstoettner, i\ Michaglis, Worterbuch 
der portugiesischen Sprache. Bibliographic. Literar- 
ische Mittheilungen, Personal nachrichten etc. Ly- 
on, Erklttrung. Kahle und Kauffmann, Erwiderung 
und Antwort. Kolmacevsky, Zu Ltbl. V. 104 ff. und 
VIII, 391 ff . 

ANDOVER REVIEW. December. Wood, C. J. Dante 
Gabriel Rossetti. 

NEW ENGLANDER. December. Whitney, E. Dr. 
Furness's " Othello." January. Brastow, L. 0. Ca- 
bot's Life of Emerson. 

SCRIBNER'S MAGAZINE. January. Holden, E. 8. 
A New Light on Balzac. -Brownell, W. 0, French 
Traits Intelligence . 

DEUTSCHE LITTERATURZEITUNG. No. 48. 

Boethe, 6. Die Gedichte Reinmars von Zweter (J. See- 
mttller). Micbaelis, H. Neues Worterbuch der portu- 
giesischen und deutschen Sprache (Wilh. Storck). 
NO. 49. Meyer, P. Alexandre le Grand (E. Schro- 
der). No. 50. de Nolhac, Pierre. La Bibliotheque 
de Fulvio Orsini (A. Pakscher). Ottmann, B. E. 
Grammatische Darstellung der Sprache des althoch- 
deutschen Glossars (G. Kossinna). Briinning, J. Le 
theatre en allemagne (1200-1760). 

LlTERARISCHES CENTRALBLATT. NO. 48. 
Grober, Grundriss, (Kn). Knust, H. Gualteri Burlaei 
liber de vita et moribus philosophorum. Ortner, M. 
Reinmar der Alte. DieNibelungen. No. 51. Adling- 
ton, W. The most p'easant and delectable table of the 
marriage of Cupid and Psyche (G. N.). No. 52. 
Golther, W. Das Rolandslied des Pfaffen Konrad 
(Kn). 

REVUE CRITIQUE. NO. 47. Levl, I. Le Roman 
d'Alexandre, texte hfibreu anonyme, etc. (R. Duval). 
NO. 48. Mu'ntz, E. et Fabre. P. La Bibliotheque 
du Vatican au XVe siecle (P. de Nolhac). No. 49. 
Meyer, P. Fragments d'une vie de saint Thomas de j 
Cantorbery (C. Bemont). No. 50. Combes, E. Pro- 
flls et types de la litterature allemande (A. Chuquet). 
NO. 51. 1. Scherer, W. Aufsatze fiber Goethe : 2. 
Schmidt, E. Charakteristiken : 3. Lessing, Geschichte 
seines Lebens und seiner Schriften: 4. Wolff, E., Karl 
Gotthelf Lessing : 5. Lachmann, K. Gotthold Ephraim 
Lessings sSmtliche Schriften (A. Chuquet). 

REVUE DES DEUX MONDES. lerDccembre. Itrune- 
tiere, F. Theophile Gautier. 

NUOVA ANTOLOGIA. fasc. XXIII. Nencioni, E. 
" Cose Viste," da Victor Hugo. 

NINETEENTH CENTURY. December. Gosse, E. 

The French Society of Authors. January. Arnold, 
M. Shelley. 

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW. January. Saintsbury, G. 
The Present state of the Novel, II. 

NEW PRINCETON REVIEW, November. Warner, C. D. 
Shelley Vincent, M. B. Dean Plumptre's Dante. Janu- 
ary, 1888. American Authors and British Pirates. 
Twain, Mark, 1. A Private Letter and a Public Post- 
script. Matthews, Brander, 2. An Open Letter to Close 



a Correspondence. Baylor, Frances Courtrnay, Hidal- 
go : the Washington of Mexico. Men of Letters at 
Bordeaux in the Sixteenth Century. 

REVUE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT DES LANGUES Vl- 
VANTES Novembre. Halbwachs, G. Les Morts du 
Baecalaureat. A. . . . Les Langues Vivantes au Bac- 
calaureat c's Lettres. I'n Orit ntallste. Notes sur la 
Langue Anglaise (suite). Vailat, G. Thomas Moore, 
imitateur de Catulle et de Tibulle. Kont, I. Mat ri- 
aux pour servir ft THistoire des Etudes Allemandes 
en France au XVIIIe si'cle. Varia. Concours de 
1887. Agregations et Certificats d'Aptitude. Traduc- 
tions. Licence des Langues Vivantes. Session de 
Juillet, 1887. Bibliographic. Decembre. Sarrnzin, 
Gabriel. Essai sur Wordsworth. Forschcr, Z. Emile 
Deschamps, traducteur de Poesies allemandes. Kltrln, 
L. Maitres d'Ecole et Professeurs au XIXe siecle en 
Allemagne. Malgrot, N. Les Langues Vivantes dans 
rEnseignement special. Concours de 1887. Agr Ca- 
tions et Certiflcats d'Aptitude (Allemand et Anglais). 
Traduction des Versions. Certificats d'Aptitude de 
rEnseignement primaire. Traduction. Revue des 
Cours et Conferences. Sujets et Devoirs. Concouvs 
de 1888. Auteurs du programme. Bibliographic. 
Errata. 

NEUPHILOLOGISCHES CENTRALBLATT. inhait ; 

Prof. Sachs. t^ber franzosische I^exikograpliie. 
Berichte aus den Vereinen : Hannover, Karlsruhe. 
Kartellverband neuphilologischer Vereine deutscher 
Hochschuleii (Statistisches, Dissertationen). PrU- 
fungsordnung ftir Lehrerinnen der franz. u. engl. 
Sprache. Litteratur : Besprechungen (Engt'l, Gesch. 
d. franz. Litt. ; Btgel, Thackeray's Lectures; Lion, 
Biblioteca-italiana; Horning, Ostfranzflsische Grenz- 
dialekte; v. Hamel, la chaire de franyais; v. Base, 
Buchgewerbe : Hatton, Gay World ; Hodgson, Unrest ; 
Halse, Weeping Ferry ; Tharp, Cradled in a storm ; 
Tangcr, Engl. Namen-Lexikon ; Morhy, History of 
English Literature; Braddon, Like and Unlike.) 
Neue Erscheinungen. Inhaltsangabe von Zeitschrif- 
ten. Miscellen : Konnte Shakespeare FranzOsisch ? 
Academic fraiifaise. Antworten. Bemerkungen. 
Anzeigen. 

FRANCO-GALLIA- December. Abhandlungen. Kress- 
ner, Entwurf eines Lchrplans t'lir den franzosischen 
Unterrichtan der hoheren BUrgerschule. Besprech- 
ungen und Anzeigen. I. Philologie. Wolter, Lehr- 
und Lesebuch der franzOsischen Sprache I. Pro- 
gramme zur Methodik des franzfisischen Unterrichts 
(Schbpke, Bin Wort zur Reform; Gunzel, Der franzOs- 
ische Unterricht in den lateinloseri hoheren Unter- 
richtsanstalten ; Jager, Der franzosische Anfangs- 
unterricht in Gymnasien; Seeger, Mitteilungen liber 
die Organisation des f ranzo'sischen Uuterrichts in den 
Mittelklassen). Marelle, Le petit Monde. 3e edition. 
Stange, Auswahl franzftsischer und englischer Ge- 
dichte. 2. Auflage. Honncher, Fahrten nach Mond 
und Sonne. Ten Brink, Emile Zola und seine Werke. 
Ubersetzt von Rahstede. Zeitschriftenschau. II. 
Belletristik. Jules Verne, Le Chemin de France. 
Oantacuzene-Altieri, Une Exaltee. Le Prince Napoleon, 
Napoleon et ses detracteurs. Revuenschau. Neue 
Publikationen. I. Philologie und Pada^ogik. II. 
Belletristik, Geschichte, Geographic, Philosophic. 



Baltimore, March, isss. 

THE STUDY OF OLD DANISH. 

By the establishment of the Danish Union 
of the University-Jubilee (liniversitets-Jubi- 
laeets danske Samfund), in 1881, the study of 
Old Danish received a great impulse, and the 
works published by this society since then 
have revealed in part the importance of this 
branch of the Scandinavian languages. 
Though at present few persons outside of 
Denmark have interested themselves in this 
direction, the time cannot be very far distant 
when this younger sister of Old Norse will 
find a place in every Scandinavian course. 
That some knowledge of Old Danish is 
necessary to a thorough study of the Scandi- 
navian languages, no one can deny, and now 
that this publishing society has applied itself 
with as much diligence and scholarly skill to 
the providing of material, no worker in this 
field can longer neglect this branch of his 
subject. For the phonologist the oportunities 
are especially good. Only the introductory 
work has been done, and no one yet knows 
the extent to which individual inquiries may 
be carried. The Scandinavian influence upon 
the English language, further, is but im- 
perfectly understood ; we learn much from the 
Old Norse, but I venture to prophesy that in 
the next decade more light will be thrown 
upon the subject from a study of Old Danish 
than can ever be gained from that of the Old 
Norse. The Old Danish inflectional forms 
show, even from a superficial examination, 
much closer resemblances to the correspond- 
ing forms in English than do those of Old 
Norse, and the same may be said of the vo- 
cabulary. The exact value of Old Danish as 
an aid to the study of English can of course 
be determined only after careful and thorough 
investigation, but everything points at the 
out-set to a brilliant future for this new 
" Fach." 

The study of Old Danish is to be advocated 
wholly from a linguistic point of view. Its 
literary value, outside of Denmark, will always 
be s!ight. In connection with the develop- 
ment of Danish literature, such study may be 
of great interest and importance, but not even 



tin- most patriotic Dane would compare these 
early remains with tin- imperishable monu- 
ments of Icelandic literatim.-. My English 
and American scholars, Old Danish will l*r 
studied chiefly for the light it may thr<>\\ ..n 
the English language ; but if our efforts in 
this direction meet with any su . ss. surely 
the labor will be well spent. 

Hitherto our Scandinavian studies have 
been altogether too one-sided and partial. 
In our study of Icelandic we have paid tr o 
little regard to the modern tongue (though 
Dr. W. H. Carpenter may be cited as a nota- 
ble exception); in our study of Danish we 
have altogether neglected the language in its 
earlier stages. Scandinavian researches have 
not been in the highest sense scientific, that 
is, comparative. In our study of Danish, 
again, we have paid little regard to dialectic 
differences, satisfying ourselves with a more 
or less thorough knowledge of the p: 
literary language. If the study of the Scandi- 
navian languages is to make any headway, it 
must embrace all sides of the question. Let 
the development of Danish be compared with 
that of Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish ; 
let the several dialects of each language be 
compared with one another ; and let these 
results be compared with our own language ; 
then, and not till then, will the Scandinavian 
languages be thoroughly understood and their 
influence on English clearly seen. \Ve are 
apt to forget that the Danes that invaded Eng- 
land at different times, could not all have 
spoken the same dialect, and even if we do 
realize this important fact, our in sufficient 
knowledge of these dialects often stands in 
the way. 

The work of the Danish society has been 
hitherto wholly local, confined to the study of 
Danish for itself and without regard to its 
connection with English. This, of course, is 
necessary at the beginning ; we must first 
collect our material before we can draw any 
sound conclusions ; a thorough knowledge of 
the language must precede any inquiry as to 
its outside influences. The time is not yet 
ripe for any startling disclosures, but in the 
meanwhile, let us at least watch with interest 
this new departure in the linguistic Held, and 



57 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



116 



let us give to these pioneers in Old Danish 
study our sympathy and encouragement. 

The publications issued during 1887 by the 
Danish Union comprise the following : 

1. O. Kalkar's " Ordbog til det aeldre 
danske Sprog (1300-1700)." This dictionary 
was begun in 1881, and is being issued in 
semi-annual parts. 

2. 'Tobiae komedie,' edited by S. Birket 
Smith. A Danish drama from about 1600. 

O 

3. ' Sprogarten pa Sejer,' by P. K. Thor- 
sen. 

4. ' Bidrag til en Ordbog over jyske 

Almussmal," by H. F. Feilberg. 

5. ' Blandinger,' consisting of short papers 
on etymological and phonetic subjects. 

DANIEL KILHAM DODGE. 

Columbia College. 



APROPOS OF LES TROIS MORS ET 
LES TROIS VIS. 

In a foot-note to his notice of my edition of 
the Panthtre d' Amours (cf. Bulletin de la 
Societe des anciens textes franfais, 1885, p. 96 
and Bibliothlque de /' Ecole des Charles 
XLVII, p. 186), M. Paul Meyer calls attention to 
three MSS. of the poem of Les trois mors et 
les trois vis, republished in the introduction to 
the Pant/tire, which were unknown to me at 
the time of preparing the edition mentioned. 
M. Meyer's note reads as follows : A propos 
du Dit de la Panth'ere,]^ ferai remarquer que 
le Dit des trois morts et des trois vifs com- 
mencant par Compains vois tu ce que je voi, 
dont M. TODD s'est occupe" p. xxx et xxxi de 
sa preface, se trouve encore dans deux ms. du 
Muse"e Britannique et dans un ms. qui na- 
gueres appartenait & M. Didot ; voyez le Bulle- 
tin de la Socie'te', 1882, pp. 46, 71-2, et 1884, p. 66. 

Concerning the last named of these MSS. I 
have no further information to offer, but hav- 
ing had an opportunity of consulting the two 
former in the library of the British Museum, I 
am in a position to indicate the few facts of 
interest disclosed by an examination of them. 

The MSS. in question are catalogued Arun- 
del 83, folio 127 (given as 128, Bull. d. 1. Soc. 
d. anciens textes, 1881, p. 71, according to a 
pagination since corrected) and Egerton 945, 
folio 12 (described Bull., 1881, p. 44). The 
latter of these MSS. offers a text almost pre- 
cisely identical, excepting slight differences of 
orthography, with that of the- fourth of the five 
versions of the poem, as given in Montaiglon's 
edition of the Alphabet de la Mort (Paris : 



Edwin Tross, 1856), according to the MS. of 
the Paris Bib. Nat. there cited fonds de la 
Mare, No. 69882-2 The distinctive feature of 
this version is that it omits an introduction of 
some length, which appears, from the abrupt- 
ness of the opening lines as well as from the 
internal evidence of the fuller versions, to 
have formed an integral part of the original 
poem. Owing to the limited time at my dis- 
posal, I was able to copy from this MS. only 
some forty lines of the poem, in all of which 
portion, however, I find but two occasions for 
emending (except as regards punctuation) the 
text of Montaiglon, viz., in 11. 8 and 9, fol. a 8, 
p. 7. Montaiglon here reads : 

Li tiers mors dist ya 1 // est sechie's : 
" Je sui de mon lignage chids," 

the manifestly correct reading of which is 
given in Egerton 945 as follows : 

Li tiers mors dist, qui e' sechiez : 
Je/*'de mon lignage chiez. 

The text of the other MS. (Arundel 83), 
which is closely related to that of Egerton 945, 
and begins at the same point, is in every 
respect except that of caligraphy far inferior 
to it. In fact, while the Egerton version 
numbers 144 verses, the poem has here been 
arbitrarily abridged in such a way as to occupy 
but the lower half of a single page, the upper 
portion of which is somewhat elaborately illu- 
minated with designs of the six personages 
introduced. In the left-hand column are 
ranged, in succession, the respective ' parts ' 
of the three morts (represented in the rubric 
and enluminure as three kings), and on the 
right-hand side, in the same order, the parts of 
the three vifs (as below), each part being limit- 
ed to the first six lines of the corresponding 
passages in the Egerton redaction. The text, 
as will be seen, is somewhat stupidly though 
by no means grievously corrupt, but its very 
mediocrity and blundering, together with its 
Anglo-Norman irregularity of versification, 
afford, in consideration of its brevity and yet 
factitious completeness, a motive for printing 
in full this version of the poem. The charac- 
ters * (/) and u (v) are reproduced as in the 
original, but the ordinary abbreviations, which 
are few and offer no embarrassment, are 
resolved, and the punctuation regulated . By 
comparison with Montaiglon's edition, it is 
easy to make the necessary textual emenda. 
tions. 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



118 



D<e uiuis regibus 

Primus rex vivus 
" Compay nouns, veez ceo ke ieo voy ? 
A poy ke ieo ne me devoy ; 
De grant pour le quoer me tremble. 
Ueez la treis mors ensemble, 
Cum il sunt hidous et divers, 
Purriz et mange/, des tiers." 

Secundus rex uiuus 
Le secunde dist : " Ieo ay enuie, 
Compaynoun, de amender ma vie; 
Trop ay fet de mes volentez, 
Et mini quoer est entalentez 
De fere tant ke m'alme acorde 
Al dieu rei de misericorde." 

Tertius rex uiuus 
Ly tierz uif, ki destreint ses meins, 
Dist: " Purqnei fut fet homme humeins, 
Pur ky deit receiuere tiele perte? 
Ceo fust folie trop aperte ; 
Ceste folie ne fist unkes dieux, 
Si courte ioye et si grantz deduitz." 



A FRAGMENT OF OLD ICELANDIC. 
When in Iceland, several years ago, a small 
piece of old parchment was given to the writer 
by J6n Arnason, the collector of the legends 
and folk-lore of Iceland.* Though not of 
great intrinsic worth, the gift was, in its way, 
one of no little rarity and value, intended, its 
recipient was happy to think, as a mark of 
especial esteem. Thanks to the indefatigabili- 
ty of early collectors, Arni Magntfsson at their 
head, Iceland has been as thoroughly stripped 
of her early vellums, and even of their paper 
transcripts, as though they had never existed ; 
and beyond those preserved in the archives in 
Reykjavik and the few fragments possibly in 
the hands of some private individuals who 
know their value, there are absolutely no 
parchments of any size, sort, or condition, left 
in the country. When, accordingly, the frag- 
ment here in question was proudly exhibited 
to friends in Reykjavik, no little wonder was 
expressed that it should have been given 
away to be taken out of the land, and the kind- 
hearted donor was, no doubt, taken to task 
for his indiscretion. 

The vellum is the leaf of a book, written on 
both sides, 3^x4^ inches in size; the top and 
bottom are straight ; on the front is a slight 
lent which does not extend through the mar- 
*Islenzkar Thj6fisogur og JEjintyri. Leip- 
zig, 1862. 2 vols. 



De mart nit regidui 

I'rimut rex tnartuui 
Ly premer mort dim : " I>amoyel, 
Ne ubliez pa* pur *cl oUel, 
Ne pur vo robe* a orfreii, 
Qc vous ne tiegnez bien le* ley* 
Qe Jheiu Crist ad on' 
De sa seinte volente 1 ." 

Secundus rex mortuui 
" Seignour*," dis le *ecund mort. 
" Uerite et ke la mort 
Nous ad fet lick cum noun *umu, 
E vous purirez cume noun sumux, 
Tut see/ ia si pur ne si fin ; 
Ore purueez vous devant la fin." 

Tertius mortuut 
Le tierz mort dit : " Sachez, 
Ieo fu de mon lynage chief, 
Princes, reys et conustables. 
Heals et riches, joyanz, me* tables ; 
Ore su si hidous et si nuz 
Ke noy ver ne deigne nul* . 

H. A. TODD. 

gin ; the back is ragged where it has been 
forcibly torn from the stitching, but the torn 
places do not affect the text. It is a palimp- 
sest manifestly cut down to its present size 
from a larger leaf; traces of the rubrics and of 
the original characters are plainly visible, but 
illegible; there is a small hole in the lo\\t-r 
half of the page, whether in the original MS., 
or cut when it was scraped, it is impossible 
now to determine. The parchment is much 
discolored, but cleaner than most Icelandic 
vellum, early or late. The ink is black and 
the hand round and clear ; the catch-words at 
the bottoms of the pages are cursive. The 
origin of the fragment is probably to be placed 
near the middle, or, possibly, in the first half 
of the isth century. 

From a literary point of view the contents 
of the leaf are of no value. It is simply a part 
of a homily on the Lord's prayer whether 
coincident or not with the one in the homily- 
book printed by Linger, Cod. A. M. 619,! the 
writer has no means of knowing, as that book 
is not at hand. Philological ly, turn ever, the 
text is not without value, and as this fragment 
is in all probability, the only scrap of Ice- 
landic vellum in America, it is, perhaps, 
worthy of reproduction here. Its peculiarities 
of diction are those common to almost all Ice- 
landic MSS. It is, accordingly, first printed 
as nearly as possible verbatim et literatim 
and then extended, without, of course, any 
attempt at a normalization of the orthography. 

tGammei norsk Homiliebog. Chrisliania, 1864. 



59 



H9 March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 120 

unu 7 ollu folki til gagnf 7 goda \ gf pu 

- r _ _ _ _ 

Drottin gud himnefk fad' \ ollu hRu kg 
u 7 hdfdingiu \ 7 ollu pm fm fuerdit haf 
a 7 er a hndi folgid \ fnd fampycki 7 sa 

o - - 

helldi | vpp a p ad vi mg uu konu 7 born 

- " -r d 
u I 7 aullu put fm pu hf off uar famlg 

i - u 

a gfid | mcettu Ufa g allri god tygt u \ CB 

" " r 

dygd | fidfemi 7 Gudhrceflu \ pth pu fialf 

- r c - 

hf fagt | leitid fyrft gudg Rykiff o hnf 

- - r 

Riettlcetis pa fk p allt anad yd t'legiaft \ 

- w 

Og fyr' gf pu off vor fkulld' \ Suo fm 

vi fyr* gfu voru fkulldunautu \ 

Ul 

Upp a p uortt hita m eigi hafa eina 

- " w 

Rietta huyld 7 fa uifkun gledi 7 

" r r , 

ey purfa ad otta ft e miftreyfta \ f 

- c 

foku mikileika fyndana \ gack ei g dom 

d v c r a 

mr off e riett \ O pu himnefki fad 1 he 

r r tu - 

lid fkyl og f lat off vor fynd" \ 7 reika 

off 

e ^ 

off ei nie t'leg peer off t' vonda \ put vi 

- w r- vu - d 

viliu ginan f gfa of hita mg pini u 

w 

arfaml'ri hlalp 7 tilkomu \ had sm 

-r r - 

off hf vid giortt a moti \ giorndi fuo 
pm gott sm off hfa giortt vont 7 tia 

- w . r 

pm af hita allu kicsrleika \ f put ad 

o o o 

pu uillt off var fynd' 7 of \ 7 mifgi 

r - ' 

ninga f gfa \ ^ forlata \ ef ad vi af 

w o - r ___- _ o 

hita f latu 7 / gfu pm fm off hfa git 
a moti | pra fkulld' 7 brot \ 

gn Leidd off ecki g freiftni 
Lat p alldri fkie Drottin Gud himne 

60 



i2i March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



/ fad' | f/ w /o// ttra fynd 

r e 

e toft I fi n P M frc>/titft | 7 r<i 

freiftni lydtt \ par ko pu 7 hialpa \ 

c - 

off I o *;'/ 0/7" kiaftddu 111% f>ynu hci 

I'ga anda \ fuo vi' mcettn ftryda 7 sta 

H 

nda mTa mj ]>ini hialp \ moti holldi 

og bio 



heimunum og ollum folki til gagns og goda. gef pu 
Drottinn, gud, himneskr fadir, ollum herrum, konung- 
um og hoffiingium, og ollum peitn scm stierdit haf- 
a og er a hendi folgift, frid, sampycki og sant- 
helldi ; vpp a pafi ad vir meS uorum kanum og born- 
urn og allu piii sent pti hefir oss nndarsamlig- 
a gefil mcettum Ufa i allri gotfri tygt, tun feverandu 
dygft, siftsemt og Gufthrceslu : pui aft pit sia/fr 
hefir sagt, leitift fyrst guJz rykiss oc hans 
riettlatiss pa skal pad allt annafi ytar tilleggiast. 
Og fyrirgef pu oss vorar skulldir, Suo sem 
vir fyrirgefum vorttm skulldunautum. 
Upp a pad uortt hiarta meigi hafa etna 
rietta hu$ld og samuiskunnar glefti, og 
ey put fa ad ottast edr mistreysta, fyrir 
soknm mikileika syndanna, gack ecki i dom 
meftr oss eda riett. O, pu himneski fadir, he- 
lldr skyl og fyrirlat oss vorar syndir, og reikna 

oss 

oss ecki nie tilleg peer oss til vonda : pui vir 

vilium giarnan fyrirgef a af hiarta, med pititii und- 

arsamligri hialp og tilkomu, huad sem 

oss hefir verid giortt a moti; giorandi suo 

peim gott sem oss hafa giortt vont, og tia 

peim af hiarta allum kiarleika ; fyrir pui ad 

pu uillt oss vorar syndir og brot, og misgior- 

ninga fyrirgef a og forlata, ef a5 vir af 

hiarta forlatum og fyrirgefum peim sem oss hafa giort 

a moti peira skulldir og brot. 

Inn Leidd oss ecki i freistni. 
Lat pad alldriskie, Drottinn, Cud, himne- 
skr fadir, ad vir folium i ttockra synd 
edr last. Enn po uir freistumst og nockra 
freistni lydum, par kom pu og hialpa 
oss, oc ueit oss hiastodu med pynum hei- 
laga anda; suo vir mcettum stryda og sta- 
tida maunliga, med pinni hialp, moti holldi 

og bio 

61 



I2 3 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 



No. 3. 



124 



NOTES. 

I. 8. The MS. has plainly pth, which has 
been rendered, perhaps wrongly, by pvi ad. 
I. 17. The transcriber evidently first wrote in 
several words incorrectly and then wrote them 
over, as best he could, leaving behind, how- 
ever, above the words, several letters that it 
was impossible to incorporate and not easy to 
erase. II. i. peer (Sic). II. 13, 14. Whether 
nockra or nockura is scarcely to be determined 
from the abbreviated form used ; ck is written 
on the analogy of ecki, which is given in full. 

Vowels. Vowel length is indicated, but not 
consistently, by the diaeresis or the second 
marks : rykiss, huyld, pynum, stryfta, lyfium, 
pu and pu ; but ey, Gufthrceslu, samuiskun- 
nar, purfa. In tillegiast\\\z diaeresis indicates 
consonantal gemination. 

Vowel interchange, y takes the place of i 
in : sky I. With the diaeresis or the seconds it 
stands for $ in : rykiss, huyld, pynum, strytia, 
lydum. y is once written ie in : nie for ny. u 
and v interchange : suerdit, suo, uorum, 
uortt; but vorar, vorum, uir and vir, 6%>and 
vpp. ei=e in: meigi for megi. v&r, prn. I. 
pers. nom. pi., occurs always as vir, uir. 

Umlaut, //-umlaut occurs with its proper 
sign in : hoftfingium, bornum, sokum, hia- 
stodu ; aullu also occurs ; but allum, ollum 
three times, folium. 

Consonants, j is always written i; it shows 
itself, as in the present language, graphically 
in: riettlcztiss, rietta, riett ; after palatal g-k 
in : giortt and giort, misgiorninga, skie. 

7"-final occurs only in : suerdit; it is already 
weakened to & in : folgid, gefift, leitid, ad, 
annaft, huad. I have, accordingly, also 
printed pad, which in this as in other MSS. is 
written p. 

D and ft are throughout both written d. 

Oc, ' and,' occurs twice, as does also og ; 
otherwise it is represented by the sign 7, 
which has been transcribed og. 

Consonantal gemination occurs incorrectly 
in the following places : tt in : uortt, giortt 
twice, but also giort. II in : samhelldi, skull- 
dir, helldr, uillt, alldri, skulldunautum, holl- 
di. dd (for fid) in : Leidd. .ys-final in : rykiss, 
riettl<ztis&. 

WM. H. CARPENTER. 
Columbia College. 



SIG FRIED ARMINIUS. 

It is of course no new idea that the hero of 
German history and the hero of the Norse and 
German saga are the same person. Arminius, 
the chief figure in their national life, would 
otherwise be unrepresented in their popular 
traditions, while we know from Tacitus that 
he was one of the chief subjects of the songs 
of that time. It is intrinsically improbable 
both that so great a man as Arminius should 
wholly vanish from the minds of those who 
owed to him their national existence, and that 
Sigfried should not have some such historic 
representation as we know existed for Dietrich, 
Etzel, and others. These considerations led 
German scholars as far back as Mone, half a 
century ago, to suggest their identity, though 
it must be confessed without sufficient proof. 
The first to bring the matter to a point where 
it could claim to be more than a fancy was 
Vigfusson, in his volume of Essays on Jacob 
Grimm's birthday. Much, however, that he 
suggested was not of a character to commend 
his thesis, and several points remained still 
untouched, so that it is not superfluous to 
examine the subject once more, and briefly to 
summarize the grounds on which their identi- 
ty is based. 

I am indebted for much of what follows to 
the kindness and generosity of Professor 
Kluge of Jena, without whose assistance I 
should have been unable to offer the greater 
part of what I believe to be new in this paper. 

THE NAMES What was Arminius' German 
name ? Whatever it was, it was not Hermann, 
which would have given in Latin *Cherman- 
nus. Arminius is the name of a Roman gens, 
otherwise not unknown to history, which, we 
may suppose, adopted Arminius during his 
stay in Italy in childhood. But we have a 
clue to his German name in that of his father, 
Sigemerus. His uncle also had a name of 
which the first part Sige- was the same, so 
that this Sige- is obviously a family name, and 
it is no great stretch of imagination to suppose 
that, like his father and his uncle, Arminius 
was named Sige. 

Arminius had a brother whom the Latins 
called Flavius. If we seek for a High Ger- 
man name of equivalent meaning we shall 
find it in the O. H. G. Fizzil, and this is of 



62 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



126 



course the O. E. Fitela of Beowulf 879 and 889, 
where, as might have been expected in an in- 
terpolated passage, Sigemund, the father of 
the Sigfried of the saga, is confused with his 
son. 

Arminius' wife is called by Strabo Thusnelda. 
This is no German name, but it seems to point 
to a name ending in -hilde ; Sigfried's wives 
were Brunhild and Crimhild. Arminius' 
father was Sigemerus ; Sigemerus's was Sige- 
mund. 

Of course it is not claimed that this partial 
correspondence is proof, but it may encourage 
us to consider the question of the places where 
the chief events of their lives took place. 

THE PLACES. Arminius, as we know, was 
a \Vestphalian, or at any rate from the right 
bank of the Rhine ; but where did Sigfried 
come from ? The answer comes from a rather 
unlikely looking source. A certain Norseman, 
Nicholas, wrote a guide book for pilgrims to 
the Holy Land , when I do not know, but he died 
in 1159. In this book, published in ' Symbolae 
ad Geographiam Medii -/Evi, Kopenhagen, 
1821,' he says "Thence," i. e. from Pader- 
born, "are four days' journey to Mayence ; 
between is a village called Horus. Another 
is called Kiliandr, and there is the Gnitaheath 
where Sigurd killed Fafnir." Horus is the old 
Horohus on the Diemel. Kiliandr is Kaldern 
on the Lahn, an old name for which is Calan- 
tra. Here then the Germans placed Sigfried. 
The Norse Edda calls him Hunskr, not, as one 
might suppose, the Hun, (for how could such a 
name be given him as an honorable epithet by 
the Germans?) but the Hun. This, however, 
was the name of a tribe that originally occu- 
pied this very region in the valleys of the 
Diemel and the Lahn, and has left traces of 
itself in many names of places, hills, and 
streams. There is the river Hauna, the town 
Hunfeld, the village Hiinhahn, two castles 
Hunburg and two Hiinenburg, two Hii- 
nischeburg, a Hiineburg, and several others 
(See Vilmar's Idiotikon von Kurhessen, Mar- 
burg und Leipzig, 1883, p. 178). The saga 
there is in complete accord with the history 
as to the place of their birth. Whether there 
is any possibility of identifying the slaying of 
Fafnir with the defeat of Yarns in the Teuto- 
burgerwald I will not examine at present. It 



will be better to consider the general course 
of their lives and see what points of accord 
can be found there. 

THEIR LIVES. While Arminius was still an 
infant 1m father died. Sigfried was in the 
<>l<U-r Saga a posthumous child, and in the 
later Saga his father plays no part. Arminius 
spent his boyhood in Italy ; Sigfried away 
from home with Mime, each learning the art 
that was to make them famous, and each 
giving little promise in boyhood of future 
greatness. After Arminius had defeated the 
Romans he married the person whom, for lack 
of a better name, we must call Thusnelda. 
He carried her away by force from her father 
Segestus, and when her father had afterward 
recovered her and guarded her in his castle, 
Arminius endeavored to take it by storm. 
Sigfried, after killing the dragon, took as it 
were by force Brunhild from the fiery " Shield - 
burg." 

Crimhild may stand for Arminius' second 
wife ; and as she was the innocent cause of 
domestic strife and Sigfried's treacherous 
murder, so Arminius was killed by his relations 
as the result of family quarrels and mutual 
jealousies. 

Each died young, in the flower of youthful 
promise. Arminius was but thirty-seven. 
We shall hardly reckon the Sigfried of the 
saga as so old. Each left one son. Arminius 
died in exile in Italy ; Sigfried in a foreign land, 
at Etzel's court. 

The serious difficulty remains. How can 
the chief event of Arminius' life, one might say 
of German history, be passed over in silence ? 
Why do we hear nothing of Yams? But 
while this question waits for an answer we 
may at least say that the connection between 
Arminius and Sigfried is as close as that 
between the Dietrich of the Saga and the 
historic Theodoric of Verona. 



BENJ. W. \Yi i.i.s. 



Jena, Germany. 



CL, GL>TL, DL IN ENGLISH PKO- 
NUNCIA TION. 

In XOTKS vol. II, No. 8 (pp. 222 O, Prof. 
Tolman calle'd attention to the pronunciation 
of initial cl and gl as // and dl in F.n-lish 



127 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



128 



words. This observation is by no means a 
new one. In his large Dictionary, edition 1828, 
Webster states that cl is to be pronounced //. 
As we do not have this edition at hand we 
quote the following passage from Marsh's 
Lectures on the English Language, 5th 
edition p. 350. "Ah extraordinary instance 
of this confusion (c and t) occurs in the re- 
marks on pronunciation prefixed to the 
edition of Webster's large Dictionary, printed 
in 1828. In that essay, the lexicographer 
whose most conspicuous defects were certain- 
ly not those of the ear, after having devoted a 
lifetime to the study of English orthoepy and 
etymology, informs the student that the 
letters cl answering to /are pronounced as if 
written tl ; clear, clean, are pronounced Hear, 
tlean. Gl is pronounced dl; glory is pro- 
nounced dtory." Webster certainly went 
too far in his statement and seems to have 
silently acknowledged it by the omission in 
the later edition. For the following physiolog- 
ical explanation, proving the possibility of a 
change from cl to //, we cannot claim any 
originality, but shall try to show of how 
frequent occurrence this phenomenon is in 
different languages. 

The different /sounds, from the interdental 
to the cerebral, have in common that the 
closure is formed through the tip of the 
tongue, while the k is produced at the root 
of the tongue. That the forward / closure 
is substituted for the velar, is constantly 
observed with children whose powers of 
articulation are imperfectly developed, even 
in words without consonantal combinations, 
and was already mentioned by Quintilian I, 
xi, 5. The language of the natives of the 
Sandwich Islands is said to lack a distinction 
between / and k. Protestant missionaries 
write regularly k, while the French put it 
down as t. Of what character this peculiar 
sound is, I have not been able to find out. 
Byrne (Principles of structure of language I, 
223) describes it as "a mere catch in the 
throat." We shall, I think, hardly be able to 
pronounce this sound where the / and k 
articulations have blended, without a parasitic 
j after it. 

If the t is immediately followed by sounds 
for the utterance of which the middle part of 



the tongue has to be raised towards the roof 
of the mouth, the closure is of course apt to 
be affected by it, and to come nearer the back 
part of the tongue, while in the case of the 
k, the velar closure advances in the same 
manner towards the hard palate. This is the 
case with palatal vowels, and with /, r, n ; they 
account for the change of t> c as well as of 
Of. In Swedish, k before palatal vowels is 
pronounced as tj, e. g. .kil (cuneus), kyss 
(osculum)=//2/, tjyss ; this corresponds exact- 
ly to Low German dialectic pronunciation, for 
instance in the province of Westpreussen, 
where kind sounds like//Y/, kien (taeda)=//z, 
kiste=tjist, etc. Rask teaches the pronuncia- 
tion tsh, tshil, etc., which would have an 
analogy in English chest, child, etc. Swedish 
books show different spelling ; kceder, kjezder 
tjteder (Cf. Grimm D. Gr. I, 2 535). Thus we 
shall have to explain Greek r representing an 
Indo-Europ. velar explosive=Lat. qu ; e. g. 
Ti'=quid. (Cf. Brugmann, Grundriss 427). 
Modern Greek (Tsaconian dialect) changes / 
before palatal vowels to k, e. g. KI/.IOV r?//'^ ; 
-nvi'r'i r//<;/ etc. (Cf. Foy, Lautsystem der 
Griech. Vulgarsprache, pp. 7 and 8). The low- 
er population of French Canada is said to 
pronounce metier, moitie as mekier, moikie ; 
the same peculiarity we find in France : 
amiquie amitie, quien tien (Paris), poiiqiie 
porter (Luneville). In Southern France the 
contrary is the case : intieter inquieter (Cf. 
Schuchardt, Vocalismus I, 159) In Mussaffia's 
Beitrage z. Kunde d. nordit. Mundarten im 
XV. Jahrh. p. 34, s. v. bissestro, I find the 
German schaltjahr as schalkjar. Vulgar 
Latin shows as early as the beginning of the 
second century A. D. the interchange of ci 
and //, though first mentioned by Servius ; 
their parallel development in the Romance 
languages has been the. object of several 
masterly essays. 

If an /follows a /the explosion is invariably 
lateral, the dental / in this combination can- 
not be pronounced without a svarabhaktic 
vowel. The contact is broken at the edges of 
the middle portion of the tongue, strictly 
speaking only on one side, thus coming very 
near the k closure. The anticipation of the 
/position of the tongue in uttering kl results 
in the coincidence of // and cl\ thus the vis 



64 



129 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



minima will cause clean to be pronounced as 
//<<;;/, rA/.v.s as (lass. Neither German nor 
English has any word beginning with tl, but 
there are word-combinations of frequent oc- 
currence and here a negligent pronunciation 
is most liable to take place that bring ft and 
/ into close connection ; thus it may be diffi- 
cult for Englishmen to distinguish between at 
least and ac least, (Cf. Victor, Elemente der 
Phon. 1884, p. 143). In German velar and dental 
articulation are so strongly kept apart that 
we shall hardly find any illustration of this 
change, yet it may occur in dialects. Sievers 
mentions that people in Saxony pronounce 
glauben as claum or clom with their ina- 
bility to distinguish between voiced and voice- 
less explosives, and very often tlom. (Grund- 
ziige der Phon. p. 160). I find the pronunciation 
of t=k attributed to the dialect of Cologne. 

In Latin these inconvenient combinations 
are apt to be simplified by loss of initial ^or c. 
latus tuli rAf/ro?, /amentum clamare, lib- 
urn H\ibavo$, with which we might compare 
French lapin if we can connect it with clapir. 
There is, however, in Latin a tendency to 
velar articulation ; the suffix -tlo changes to 
do, e. g. exanclo t^avrXoa ; Modern Greek 
shows the same change i^ayH\i'^oo, etc. 
Lucian writes rXf/ua for nXffua. Roman 
grammarians warn against the pronunciation 
of // as cl: "Stlataris sine c littera scriben- 
dum est," " vitulus non viclus," " capitulum 
non capiclum," " vetulus non veclus." The 
Roman public, however, cared little for such 
injunctions; all Romance languages developed 
words of this class from cl forms. Vetulus 
vetlus veclus, It. vecchio, veclo (Giacomo 
da Verona), vectre (Bescape), Sp. viejo, Prov. 
vielh, Roum. vecliu and vechiu, Fr. vieil ; It. 
schioppare (scloppus, stloppus) It. fischiare 
(fistulare) R. R. inclegier (intelligere) clavau 
(tabulatum) ; situla It. secchia, Sp. Prov. 
selha, Fr. seille, to which we can add mod. 
Greek 6i*\a; Prov. uscl.ir (ustulare), ascla 
(aatula) etc. (Cf. Diez Gram. d. r. Spr. 4th 
ed. I. 210 pp.) East Lad. forms a remarkable 
exception : tlaml clamare, dlaca glades. 
(Cf. Schuchardt, Voc. III. 83). Bavarian 
klnfe-tlufe, dluva (Greden), klauben-tlupt 
(Greden), kloster-tloster, etc. (Cf. Gartner, 
Raetor. Gram.) 
The phonetic affinity of // and cl and thc-ir 



corresponding voiced sounds is so strong that 
we may look for a language in whi< h tin- 
change tl>cl, <//>/ has become a law. This 
we find in Lithuanian and Lettic ; e. g. Lett. 
segli, Engl. saddle (Cf. Brugmann, ibid. 8377 
and 378). 

A following r ought to have a similar force, 
so much the more as rand /often interchange, 
e. g. arbor, arbre-albero. Theoretically the 
velar r will be apt to change t>c , the dental r, 
Ot. There are, however, very few illustra- 
tions, as Sp. Port, crema Fr. trema, vincere 
O. Fr. veintre. Tr=cr is a peculiarity of 
African Latin. But this is sufficient to prove 
that the etymon of craindretremere corre- 
sponds to the laws of sound. 

In modern English k before n is no more 
pronounced. Marsh dates this loss back to the 
time "soon after the Norman conquest;" 
(ibid. p. 351) it was, however, retained during 
the seventeenth century, g was lost earlier. 
Skeat (Principles of Engl. Et. p. 358) remarks : 
"The difficulty of sounding k and g before 
has led to their total suppression in mod. 
Engl." I am inclined to think that kn went 
through the stage of tn before being complete- 
ly dropped a weak explosion takes place 
through the nose as the position of the 
tongue closes the regular passage, as in rotten, 
pronounced rottn. 

That the English language has a tendency 
to dentalization, is beyond doubt. The pe- 
culiar nature of the English / brings it more in 
relation with tl than in any other tongue. 
I Sweet remarks : " English / not only in nature 
(before a palatal) but also generally (as in net) 
is often formed not only by the point, but also 
the flat of the tongue just behind the point, it 
| has therefore an approximately palatal charac- 
| ter." A few English words substitute / for k, 
mentioned by Skeat, Princ. E. Et. 329, where 
he also quotes the words : "I ast your par- 
don " from Martin Chuzzlewit ch. XXV. (* be- 
fore f)\ 

How far this pronunciation has spread here 

in America may be worth while recording. I 

' hope that the establishment of the phonetic 

! section in the Modern Language Association 

i will be a new stimulus to investigations of this 

kind. 

H. SCHMIDT. 
Cornell Unirtrsity. 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888 No. 3. 



132 



SCANDINAVIAN STUDIES IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 

In Science and Education for May 13, 1887, 
D. K. Dodge has written an article on " Scan- 
dinavian Studies in the United States," which 
contains welcome information for those in- 
terested in the subject. The writer gives 
what he believes to be a complete account of 
the origin and development of Scandinavian 
studies in this country up to the present day. 
In 1858, Rev. Paul C. Sinding was appointed 
professor of Scandinavian languages and 
literature in the University of New York City, 
which position he held till 1861, devoting him- 
self chiefly to Danish history and literature. 
At Luther College, Decorah, Iowa, founded 
in 1861, Norwegian has until recently been the 
chief medium of instruction. Between the 
years 1868 and 1883 instruction in Icelandic 
and Norwegian was offered to students at 
Cornell University by Willard Fiske and H. 
H. Boyesen. In 1870 a Swedish theological 
seminary was established at Galesburg, 111., 
which in 1882 was moved to Evanston, 111., 
and united with the Northwestern University. 
In 1885 a Norwegian and Danish theological 
school was founded at the same university. 
In each the language of the nationality repre- 
sented is studied throughout a course extend- 
ing over three years. In 1869 R. B. Anderson 
was appointed instructor and, six years later, 
professor of Scandinavian languages at the 
University of Wisconsin, holding his position 
till 1883, when he was succeeded by J. E. 
Olson. At Columbia, the only eastern college 
in which Scandinavian languages can be stud- 
ied at present, instruction in Danish was first 
given by C. S. Smith during the winter of 
1880-81, and in Swedish during the winter of 
1882-83. Since 1883 Dr. W. H. Carpenter, 
Prof. H. H. Boyesen, and Prof. Smith have 
had classes in Icelandic, Danish and Swedish, 
and have lectured on Norwegian, Swedish, 
and Danish literature. Since 1886 the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska offers courses in Swedish 
and Danish, Dr. A. H. Edgren being the in- 
structor. Courses of lectures on Scandinavian 
literature other than academic, have been 
deliverd by Prof. R. B. Anderson at the Pea- 
body Institute, Baltimore, and in other places ; 
by Dr. W. H. Carpenter at the Johns Hopkins 



University (1882), and by Prof. H. H. Boyesen 
before the Lowell Institute, Boston, and at 
Columbia College (1886). 

Such, in abstract, is the list prepared by Mr. 
Dodge. Though aiming to give a complete 
account of the origin and development of 
Scandinavian studies in the United States, he 
has made many omissions, and it is the object 
of this paper to point out the chief of these. 

In 1883 Prof. O. J. Breda, formerly of Luther 
College, Decorah, Iowa, was appointed pro- 
fessor of Scandinavian languages at the 
University of Minnesota. He entered upon 
his new duties in the fall of 1885 and has since 
been doing successful work. Last year, for 
instance, seventeen Americans received in- 
struction in Norwegian, and four Scandina- 
vians pursued more advanced studies in litera- 
ture and rhetoric. This year, besides the in- 
struction in Norwegian for Americans, courses 
are given in Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish 
Literature. At St. Olafs School, Northfield, 
Minn., founded in 1874, to which a college 
department was added in the fall of 1886, 
courses in Norwegian have been offered every 
year, though English is almost exclusively the 
medium of instruction and the language most- 
ly used in conversation. During the present 
term a class of fifteen is studying Old Norse. 
Norwegian is taught and largely used as the 
medium of instruction also at Luther Semi- 
nary, Madison, Wis. ; Red Wing Seminary, 
Red Wing, Minn. ; and Augsburg Seminary, 
Minneapolis, Minn. ; also to some extent, 
though English is the principal medium of in- 
struction, at Lutheran Seminary and Institute, 
Willmar, Minn. ; Augustana College and Nor- 
mal Institute, Canton, Dak. ; Lutheran Acade- 
my, Bode, Iowa ; and an English-Norwegian 
normal school at Wittenberg, Wis., the two 
latter founded within the last six months. 
Danish high-schools giving instruction in the 
Danish language and literature are located at 
Elk Horn, Iowa ; Ashland, Mich. ; and Nysted, 
Nebraska. Danish is also taught in the 
Scandinavian department of the Baptist Union 
Theological Seminary at Morgan Park, near 
Chicago. Among those who have been in- 
structors here may be mentioned Prof. Edward 
Olson, now president of the University of Ver- 
million, Dak. Of Swedish institutions may be 



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March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



134 



mentioned Augustana College and Theologi- 
cal Si-ininary, Rock Island, 111., founded in 
1860, and Gustavus Adolphus College, St. 
Peter, Minn., founded in 1876, both flourish- 
ing colleges of a high standing, in which the 
Swedish language and literature are studied 
throughout the entire course. Swedish is 
taught, though to a less extent, also at Beth- 
any College and Normal Institute, Lindsborg, 
Kansas, and at Luther Academy, Wahor, 
Nebraska. Since the fall of 1885, Dr. H. 
Wood has given an annual course in Old 
Norse at the Johns Hopkins University. The 
Indiana University, Rloomington, Ind., offers 
courses in Norwegian-Danish literature. 

The writer next discusses the question as to 
the profit accruing from the study of the 
Scandinavian languages. He thinks the study 
of Icelandic furnishes as good a mental dis- 
cipline as the study of Greek and Latin, and 
that the culture of the old Norsemen gives as 
profitable food for reflection as does the cul- 
ture of the Greeks and Romans, and that, 
therefore, Icelandic ought to have a place in 
every college course. He gives it as the 
opinion of many that the national significance 
of Icelandic to all who call themselves Anglo- 
Saxons is alone enough to offset any possble 
advantage that the older tongues may possess. 
Whatever may be thought of this statement by 
those who think that we should study Latin 
and Greek to the neglect of the language and 
traditions of our Teutonic ancestors, Mr. 
Dodge is no doubt right in holding that the 
study of the Scandinavian languages in this 
country has been unwarrantably neglected, 
and it is to be hoped that his enthusiasm for 
Icelandic may communicate itself to others. 
The modern Scandinavian literatures also will 
compare favorably with the literature of any 
country, and it seems that to students in Ger- 
manics, Scandinavian ought not to be of less 
importance than for instance Wallachian to 
Romance students. Here in the West, where 
the Scandinavians form so large a part of the 
population, the question has also a practical 
bearing. 

Towards the end of his article Mr. Dodge 
makes some remarks to which I beg leave to 
take exceptions. The statement that "the 
views of the Scandinavian religious bodies are 



directly opposed to everything distinctively 
American," that "instead of trying to Ameri- 
canize the Scandinavian youth of the west, 
these missionaries do all they can to keep 
their charges in their present condition," and 
that "they do not teach them even to use the 
English language," is inaccurate to say the 
least. So far from this being the case, there 
are thorough courses in English in all the 
high-schools and colleges mentioned above, 
and in many of them English is the principal 
language both in the class-room and outside 
of it. 

There is little danger that the Scandina- 
vians in this country are being Americanized 
too slowly. The danger is rather the opposite. 
A people should cherish the language and 
traditions of its ancestors for the same reason 
that a man should love his home and parents 
the best, however humble. As long as the 
Scandinavians of the United States became 
good American citizens, for which they re- 
ceive credit everywhere in the West (there 
were no Scandinavians in the Chicago Hay- 
Market riot), there is no reason why they 
should not be allowed to keep up their an- 
cestral language for domestic purposes as long 
as they choose to do so. It is a matter of 
their own to decide when they wish to break 
their connection with the past. 

It would be interesting to know where Mr. 
Dodge has got his information. If he had 
spent some time among the Scandinavians of 
the west, he could not have misrepresented 
them as in the remarks quoted. The most 
impartial authority ought to be the American 
press, which is unanimous in saying that the 
Scandinavians "seem to be more willing to 
take their part and place as good American 
citizens" than any immigrants that come to 
our shores. The " Northfield Independent" 
for Feb. gth, says : " It is estimated that there 
are 1,800,000 Scandinavians in the United 
States to-day. They are estimated to consti- 
tute one-third of the population of our state. 
60,000 are in Minneapolis, 30.000 are in St. 
Paul. Of all from over the sea now coming to 
us they Americanize most quickly. Their 
traditions and habits are those of free Protest- 
ant civilization and there is a very strong and 
aggressive temperance element among them, 



67 



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March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



136 



and they are taking their place in the moral 


WRITTEN. 


PRONOUNCED. 


warfare of our time in a way that inspires 


Devereux 


Devereu 


hope in all wellwishers for our common coun- 


Duchesne 


Ducane Dukarn 


try." 


Froude 


Frood 


ALBERT E. EGGE. 


Geoghegan 


Gaygan 


Northfield, Minn. 


Glamis 
Gloucester 


Glams 
Gloster 




Gower 


Gore 


CORRESPONDENCE. 


Hawarden 


Hardening Harden 


SIRS : 


Heathcote 


Hethcut 


I send you the following list of odd- 


Hereford 


Harford 


ly-pronounced, or perhaps better oddly-spell- 


Hertford 


Harford 


ed, proper names in the hope that it may lead 
to two results : the completion of the list, 
which as here given has been made up of 


Herri es 
Hobart 
Hough ton 
Hume 


Harris 
Hubbard 
Hoton 
Home 


jottings as personal intercourse or quotations 
in books etc., brought them to my knowledge; 


Johnston 


Johnson 


and besides this, I hope that some keener eye 
than mine may discover some law or laws 


Ker 
Knollys 


Carr 
Knowles 


governing the astounding violence done to 
some of these names. Such a discovery 
would be of the utmost interest and import- 


Leicester 
Leveson-Gower 
Lyndhurst 
Lyveden 


Lester 
Lewson-Gore 
Lynehurst 
Livden 


ance. 


Mackay 


Mackie 


WRITTEN. PRONOUNCED. 


Main waring 


Mannering 


Abergavenay Abergaven 


Marjoribanks 


Marchbanks 


Ayscough Askew 


Mahown 


Mahone 


Barfreestone Barston 


Menzies 


Minges 


Bartholomew Battlemore 


Milnes 


Mills 


Beaconsfield Beckonsfield 
Beauchamp Beecham 


Mohun 

Molyneux 


Moon 
Mulnix Molinooks 


Beauclerk Boclare 


Montgomery 


Mungumery 


Beauvoir Beever 


McLeod 


Macloud 


Berkeley Barclay 


Puleston 


Pilston 


Bethune Beaton 


Raleigh 


Rawiey 


Bicester Bister 


Reay 


Ray 


Blount Blunt 


Ruthven (scotice) 


Riven 


Blythe Ely 


Sandys 


Sands 


Boughton Bawton \ 


Strachan 


Strawn 


Brougham Broom 


St. Clair 


Sinclair Sinkler 


Buchan Buckan 


St. John 


Sinjon 


Burghersh Burgwash Burrish 


St. Leger 


Silliger 


Cavendish Caudish 


St. Maur 


Seymour 


Cholmondeley Chumley 


Theobald 


Tibbald 


Circencester Cicester 


Tollemache 


Talmadge Talmash 


Cockburn Coburn 


Trottersclifife 


Trosley 


(Joke Cook 






Colquhoun Cohoon 
Coutts Coots 


Vaughan & Strahan Vawn & Strawn 
Waldegrave Walgrave 


Dalziel Dee-al 


Wemyss 


Weems 


Davenport . Devenport 


Worcester 


Wbrster 


Derby Darby 




M. SCHELE DE VERB. 


D'Eresby D'Esrby 






Des Voeux De Vau 


University of Virginia. 





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March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



138 



SIRS : 

I i-;innot, I ft-.ir, explain all Mr. 
Browne'? Scotch puzzles ; but some of them I 

think I can. 

Myance is simply Fr. moyens=means. 
Netherit, better Nidderit, pinched or awry. 
Nok, better Nock, spindlehead. Snock is a 

common word for nose or bill now. 
Sewane, is, I take it, Savin or Sabine. 
Thraff-caik is yeast-cake. We still speak of 

TArtf-drinks. 
Enchaip, like Encheip, is plainly of French 

origin. The original word must be 

Enchapper. 

Figonale is a puzzle which I have tried to 
solve before now ; but in va*in. 

THOMAS DAVIDSON. 
Orange, N. J. 



I am greatly obliged to Mr. Davidson. At 
the time I made the qi'ery, I had not receiv- 
ed Donaldson's Supplement to Jamieson. 
Donaldson's explanations of tough words 
are too often inferential, but sometimes 
plausible, as when he deduces figonale from 
Fr. figue, and explains it as " fig-basket." 
"Netherit as a nok," he takes to mean 
" gnarled as an oak " not a good guess, for 
an owl's beak is not gnarled. Mr. Davidson 
is happier, if a spindlehead be bent or crook- 
ed. "Thraff-caik" as a light or leavened 
cake, is no doubt correct. 

I should be glad to be favored with Mr. 
Davidson's explanation of this line from Hol- 
land : 

"Thus wycit he the walentyne thraly and thrawin." 

I have my interpretation, but am by no 
means sure, of it. 



W. H. B. 



Johns Hopkins University. 



P. S. Apropos of Scottish etymologies, I have just seen a 
specimen page of Dr. Mackay's Dictionary of Lo-mlaml 
Scotch. In this one page he is inclined to derive "bang" 
from Gael, ban, a woman; actually derives "beacon" 
from Gael, beachan; defines "barmkin " and "barbican " 
as ''a watch-tower on a castle," and tells us that Shake- 
speare uses Tybert as the name of a cat. 

W. H. H. 



'J'liraf-caik. 

'l'li- above discussion of thraf-caik has 
not, as I think, led to the right conclusion. 
The whole mystery of the odd word Mm/ is 
at once dispelled when we remind ours- K. s 
of the Middle English therj of which thraf % is 
but a dialectal variant (< f. Scottish tharj thairf 
which will be mentioned below); and therf 
takes us back to the Anglo-Saxon peorf, 
which means primarily ' lacking in something ' 
(pearf, I need ; German diir/en), and corre- 
sponds to the German derb. The special 
uses of this adjective must at all times have 
been various, applied, for example, to milk it 
denoted ' skimmed ' (Cockayne, Leechdoms), 
but the application that is of importance here, 
is revealed in the uniformity with which Anglo- 
Saxon, Middle English, O. H. G. and M. H. 
G. Glosses define pearf (per/) and derb with 
azymus ; from Aelfric to Wiclif, moreover, the 
unleavened bread of the Passover is peorf 
hl&f and per/ breed. That peorf, perf as 
applied to bread and dough therefore to a late 
period of Middle English meant 'unleavened,' 
is shown by the entry in the Promptoriuin 
Parvulorum p. 490: "therf, wythe owte sowre 
dowe, azimus " (cf. also Reliquiae Antiquae I, 
p. 6; and Catholicon Anglicum p. 381, note 
2); and the M. H. G. derbe-brot, derpkuoche, 
derpteic, etc., supply an exact parallel. But 
the correspondence between the German and 
English uses of these words does not end 
here. There was an easy transition from 
azymus to panis densus, and thence to any 
heavy or coarse kind of bread ; derbes brot is 
to-day not an unleavened loaf, but any sort of 
coarse bread in distinction from the finer and 
white varieties. In English the same develop- 
ment of meanings seems to have taken place, 
an assumption that enables us to understand 
a passage in Piers the Plowman (A. pass. 
VII, 269) where perf-cake must mean a cheap 
and coarse product, better defined in the B 
and C texts by ' an hancr cake,' and ' a cake of 
otes' (cf. Mr. Skeat's note). It is highly prob- 
able then that the ' uplandis and the burges 
Mous' of Henryson regaled themselves on 
some coarse kind of bread, perhaps an oaten 
loaf, which by them would be esteemed quite 
dainty enough. 

It will now be preceived how derb in Modern 



69 



139 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. 



140 



German has developed along two lines of 
metaphorical meanings: 'firm, strong, hardy,' 
etc., and 'rude, uncouth,' etc. Here we may 
again compare the Scottish tharj, thairf, 
which Donaldson in his Supplement, after 
blundering with the etymology, defines with 
'cold, stiff, unsocial, reluctant.' The signifi- 
cance of noticing the existence of this adjec- 
tive fharfby the side of the metathesized form 
thraf \s of course apparent (see also tharf-bred 
in Wright-Wiilker's Vocal, p. 657, 30, and Mr. 
Wright's note). 

How, finally, are we to regard the relation 
between a thraf-cake and a thfaf -drink? My 
suggestion is that in the expression thraf- 
drink, the epithet thraf is used with the 
secondary signification of ' simple, inexpen- 
sive,' etc., so that a thraf -drink is practically 
a 'penny ale' or a 'small beer.' In this way 
' small beer,' etc., necessarily made with yeast 
comes to be designated with a word which 
would originally have implied the lack or 
absence of barm or yeast. Mr. Davidson is 
therefore right in implying that a thraf-drink 
is a yeast-drink, but in taking no account of 
the curious lucus a non lucendo which we 
have thus discovered, he leads us astray when 
he comes to speak of the thraf-cake. 

JAMES W. BRIGHT. 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

The Origins of the English People and of 
the English Language. Compiled from 
the best and latest authorities by JEAN 
ROEMER, LL. D., Professor of the French 
Language and Literature and Vice-Presi- 
dent of the College of the City of New 
York. New York, D. Appleton & Co., 
1888. xxiv, 658 pp. 8vo. 

The author of this work, so far known only 
as a writer of text-books for the study of 
French, has ventured out of his accustomed 
sphere to add another bulky volume to the 
numerous popular works on the English Lan- 
guage. Since most of the latter are sadly 
out of date, a well written manual embodying 
the results of recent investigations would be 
very desirable. Considering the vastness of 
the subject which, as the author of this book 



states, "involves, first of all, a critical inquiry 
into the origin, character and distribution of 
the various races of men Celts, Romans, 
Saxons, Danes, Normans who at various 
epochs have found their way into the British 
islands their idioms and forms of religion, 
their social and political differences, their 
relative progress in the arts of civilized life " 
we would cheerfully excuse the writer from the 
task of original investigation, and should be 
satisfied if, by judicious compilation from "the 
best and latest authorities " he had produced 
a work which, while giving in an interesting 
style a clear idea of the origins of the English 
language, would be faithful and accurate in 
every detail. We shall not venture to discuss 
the historical part at the author's work ; but as 
far as its philological side is concerned we feel 
compelled to give it as our opinion that Dr. 
Roemer has failed to fulfill the above stated 
requirements. His authorities are frequently 
not the " best and the latest ; " more frequent- 
ly still he speaks on his own authority and 
often not wisely ; in some fundamental points 
he gives the reader a wrong conception of the 
development of the language, owing to his 
predilection for the Norman-French element ; 
throughout the whole book a great deal of 
miscellaneous information is volunteered which 
blurs the clearness of the picture and leaves 
us in the end without a clear conception of 
what we have read. 

The list of authorities prefixed to the vol- 
ume is long, and it would be difficult for me to 
verify my assertion ; yet I venture to say that 
many of Dr. Roemer's ideas are original with 
him ; certainly they are not to be found in 
what are commonly regarded as the best 
authorities. And here is the mischief such 
books can do : the public is told that they are 
compiled from the "best and latest authori- 
ties;" but all through them are scattered the 
writers' own favorite ideas and original dis- 
coveries, which pass for the results of serious 
investigations and are soon copied in numer- 
ous text-books of a lower order, to the dis- 
credit of philological scholarship in general. 
Throughout the present volume the most 
startling propositions are advanced as though 
they were facts known to everybody who had 
ever looked into the matter. 



70 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



142 



Thus p. 67 we are told that the name of the 
Jutes is probably only a corruption of the 
word Tent or Dent, which, with its suffix ish, 
sch, ch t has produced the forms Deutsch and 
Dutch! In defence of his theory the writer 
cites the mispronunciation jew for dew and 
ajew for adieu ! This word Tent or Dent (why 
not add the correct form peod?) is then said to 
be " after all of remote Celtic origin ! " Here 
the author evidently confounded deutsch with 
German. This supposition seems reasonable 
in view of the fact that almost throughout the 
rest of the book the author uses the term 
Dutch instead of German, speaking in all 
seriousness of the Old High Dutch and the 
Old Low Dutch, terms which, like the author's 
" Gothic stock of languages," have an interest- 
ing archaic air about them. The trouble 
begins when Dutch is used in the same con- 
nection in its modern acceptation ; and there 
is frequent occasion for this, for the author 
believes with Prof. Skeat (Etym. Diet. p. xiv) 
that the influence of Dutch upon English has 
been greatly underrated ; but he probably 
goes much farther than his authority when he 
says, p. 68 : " That in the time of King Ethel- 
bert the people of Kent spoke Dutch is proved 
by tWe fact that Angustin, on his mission to 
England, took with him as interpreters men 
from the Salian Franks, who originally came 
from the Rhenish Netherlands, where the lan- 
guage was the ancient idiom of Holland ; " or 
when, p. 398, he gives a list of so-called Dutch 
words said to occur in the Ancren Riwle, 
among them such good old English words as 
biiiden, bitter, breken, buten, cwellen, delen, 
drinken, grim, etc., which is followed on p. 430 
by a similar list of Dutch words in Chaucer, 
among them sterven, nemen, stelen etc., words 
which resemble closely their modern Dutch 
cognates given in a parallel column. 

Frequently the author goes directly against 
his own -uithorities, and he does this in some 
cases with a total disregard for phonetic laws. 
On p. 310 smith is derived from smite although 
both the etymological dictionaries which the 
author quotes as his authorities (Skeat and 
Muller) consider this derivation impossible 
(Skeat: " we might as well connect kith with 
kite as far as phonetic laws are concerned "I ; 
p. 250, doomsday (in Doomsday-book) is deri- 



ved from dotnus del ; the author feels no hesita- 
tion about the etymology ^cockney, in regard 
to which his authorities confess their ignorance 
(P- 336) ; on P- 466 we are told that Lerti, a 
collective name for certain German tribes who 
settled in the North of Gaul, was " probably- 
only the Latin way of pronouncing the German 
word leute " ; p. 379 we learn that "the distinc- 
tion in our modern pronunciation between the 
initial sounds of thine and thin did probably 
not exist in the earliest times, the th always 
being voiced as in thine"; etc. There are 
many minor errors which might easily have 
been avoided, as when the author speaks of 
" Sigurd in the Song of the Nibelungs " (p. 26) 
or assigns the He Hand, " Heiland in Dutch," 
to the tenth century (p. 93) ; or when, p. 529, 
he derives '^besitzen, to possess, from the Old 
High German bisazj'an" etc. 

The author deserves credit for insisting, p. 
373, on the separation of the various classes of 
Latin and Romance words introduced into the 
English language at various times, but he fails 
to follow his own precept when. p. 344, he says : 
" thus from sol they made soil; from reculer, 
recoil; pauvre became poor" etc. If the 
author had given the Norman French and 
Anglo-Norman forms instead of the modern 
French, the origin of the English words as we 
have them would be clear. 

The weakest part of the book is that devo- 
ted to Anglo-Saxon, "an idiom from which 
English literature has derived but little if any 
value " (p. 454). Here it is evidently not fa- 
miliarity which breeds contempt. In the 
author's list of the "best and latest authori- 
ties " the names of all the men most promi- 
nently connected with the study of the Anglo- 
Saxon language and literature, Grein, March, 
Sweet, Sievers, Zupitza, ten Brink etc., are 
conspicuous for their absence. Indeed there 
is reason to believe that the writer is ignorant 
of the very elements of an idiom a thorough 
knowledge of which constitutes a prime re- 
quisite in the author of a work on the origins 
of the English language. We can hardly 
come to any other conclusion when we read, 
P- 354 : "The Anglo-Saxon prepositions were 
used as if possessed of the power of altering 
the cases of the nouns they governed, as oc- 
curs in Latin and Greek ; but so irregular and 



143 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



144 



capricious were the principles of this govern- 
ment, that in the same sentence the same 
preposition throws its connected substantives 
into four different cases." This startling pro- 
position is then illustrated by the phrase mid 
ealre thinre heortan and mid eallum mode! 
If all this means anything, it means that the 
endings -re, -an, -um, -e are signs of different 
cases ! No wonder the author remarks : "that 
amid this confusion of grammar the people 
could have always correctly understood each 
other, may be reasonably doubted." 

An appendix of nearly two hundred pages 
is devoted exclusively to the French sources 
of Modern English. It contains a chapter on 
the history of the French language from the 
earliest times to the present ; a chapter on 
French etymology introduced by observations 
on the general principles of linguistic science, 
the latter taken from August Schleicher; and 
a chapter containing specimens of Early 
French. This appendix contains much that 
is foreign to the author's subject, but this is 
true of the whole book. Thus on pp. 330 ff. 
we find an account of the rise of universities, 
with the question as to the priority of Oxford 
or Cambridge duly considered ; pp. 524 ff. we 
find a history of the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts, with remarks on the requirements of the 
mediaeval curriculum and the meaning of the 
word " commencement " ; p. 488 we learn that 
in the Middle Ages in a letter of importance 
the following order was always strictly obser- 
ved: viz., " Salutatio, Captatio, Benevolentia 
(sic !), Narratio, Petitio, Conclusio"; etc. If 
the author had devoted the time spent in the 
collection of one half of his material to the 
verification, correction and systematic arrange- 
ment of the remainder, he might have produ- 
ced a useful book. 

HANS C. G. VON JAGEMANN. 
Indiana University. 

SPANISH IDIOMS. I. 
Spanish Idioms with their English Equiva- 
lents, embracing nearly ten thousand 
Phrases, collected by SARAH GARY 
BECKER and FEDERICO MORA. Boston : 
Ginn & Co. 1887. i2mo. pp. 331. 
In the preface to this interesting book an 
idiom is defined as being "a phrase stamped 



by the usage of language with a signification 
other than its grammatical or logical one." 
Let us examine this definition in the light of a 
few idioms ! p. 144 : acabo de llegar, ' I have 
just arrived.' As venir in French, so acabar 
in Spanish (and Portuguese) is used as a sort of 
auxiliary verb with an infinitive, to express 
immediate past time; acabar de hacer, 'to 
have just done,' is a verbal construction 
peculiar to Spanish grammar, the signification 
of which is neither non-grammaticai nor non- 
logical. Again, the phrase hacer libro nuevo, 
' to turn over a new leaf (p. 128) is a Spanish idi- 
om, not because its meaning differs from the 
grammatical or the logical one, but because it 
is the peculiarly Spanish way of conveying, by 
an expression taken from a concrete case 
(here from a particular occupation of man), the 
abstract idea of ' reforming one's conduct of 
life.' Its accepted signification is not the 
literal one, to be sure, but does it for that 
reason cease to be grammatical and logical ? 
In short, the idioms of a language are pre- 
cisely those of its constructions and expressions 
which, so far from contravening grammar and 
logic, reflect most faithfully its syntactical and 
logical structure. Hardly more felicitous than 
the above definition of an idiom is the state- 
ment made further on in the preface: " Many 
of the idiomatic phrases are proverbs, but 
proverbs not containing idioms are excluded." 
But it is not so much with the collectors' 
definition of idioms and proverbs that we 
must find fault, as with their plan of arranging 
them. The idioms are divided into such as 
contain a verb, and such as have or appear to 
have no verb, as if the verb contained invari- 
ably the essentially idiomatic element of the 
phrase. Thus a heterogeneous number of 
idiomatic and proverbial phrases are indis- 
criminately arranged together under the verb 
or one of the verbs which they happen to con- , 
tain and under which, in most cases, they 
would never be looked for! Look for instance 
at the phrases grouped under abrir p. 5-6, 
andar p. 13-18, estar p. 90-102, haber p. 107- 
113, hacer p. 115-131, ser p. 205-223, tener p. 
227-239, and their inflected forms ! But even 
accepting this injudicious arrangement, one 
fails to understand why the phrase cnando 
el hierro estd encendido, entonces ha de ser 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888 No. 3. 



146 



batido (p. 95) should be mentioned under estd . 
rather than under the far more important verb 
encendido or batido. Was the rule probably 
to let the first verb determine the place of the 
expression ? If so, why is ni juega ni da 
barato under dar (p. 60), why acabo de llegar 
(p. 144) not under acabar, where it ought to be ; 
why again el se mete en lo que no le va ni le 
[not lo] viene (p. 251) under this last verb 
instead of under meter?, and so on. Not 
unfrequently, again, it occurs that the same 
idiom is gratuitously repeated, owing, probab- 
ly, to the slightly different version or order of 
words in which it happened to occur. Thus 
en casa del ahorcado no hay que mentor la 
soga under hay (p. 109) and ha (p. 152), de la 
mana & la boca desaparece la sopa (pp. 71 and 
170), quien del alacrdn estd picado, la sombra 
le espanta (p. 98 and 173), cuando la barba de 
tit vecino vieres pelar, echa la tuya d remojar 
(p. 76 and 254), callen larbas y hablen cartas 
(p. 34 and 114) ; and so on. The alphabetical 
order ought to have been more carefully 
observed : Tener occurs under temar (p. 227), 
tender under tener (p. 230), podar ' to prune ' 
under poder ' to be able ' (p. 173), senior under 
sentir (p. 205), etc. The arbitrary division of 
the idioms into those with and those without 
a verb having been once adopted, it should 
have been consistently carried out. This is 
not the case. A goto viejo raton tierno is 
given under the verb dar (p. 60), whereas, for 
instance, ablanda breva or ablanda higos (p. 
258), d rnata caballo (p. 266), muchos ajos en 
un mortero, mal los maja tin majadero (p. 
266), enganchar la gata en la ancla (p. 279), 
d tente bonete or hasta tente bonete (p. 266 ; cf. 
un tente tieso, Gald6s, Baile*n, p. 177), d 
gaznate tendido (p. 280, but also found under 
verbs, p. 230), huevos pasados por agua (p. 
285) are classed with idioms containing no 
verb ! 

Let us now pass on to a few remarks on the 
English rendering, and other matters which 
have suggested themselves during a rapid 
glance through the collection. On the whole 
the Spanish idioms are happily rendered ; but 
here as elsewhere in the work greater 
uniformity of plan and method should have 
been observed. Otro gallo me cantdra (not 
cantard, as the book has it) is rendered im- 



personally : ' one would fare better ' (p. 36), 
whereas estar hecho un hospital (p. 99) is trans- 
lated : ' he is very sickly ; ' and so in many 
other cases. 

P. 31. Buscar pan de trastrigo, 'To look 
for better bread than ever came of wheat.' 
This rendering is taken from Ormsby's transla- 
tion of Don Quijote IV, p. 386, from which 
the following foot-note is quoted : " Trastrigo 
is an obscure word, but the application is un- 
questionably to seeking things out of season, 
or out of reason." There are a few Spanish 
words in which tras has very much the same 
force as re in rebueno, reviejo (cf. Port, re- 
velho}, Latin per in pellucidus, French par in 
parfournir. Thus trasanejo, which the Span- 
ish lexicographers generally explain as mean- 
ing 'three years old,' signifies 'more than a 
year old' ' very old ' and is, like de antano, a 
favorite epithet of good wine. ' Dios te con- 
suele, hija, que asf me has consolado, sino que 
temo que [el vino] me ha de hacer mal, porque 
no me he desayunado; no hara, madre, re- 
spondi6 Monipodio, porque es trasanejo. 
Cervantes, Rinconete y Cortadillo (Brockh. 
ed., p. 103). To this may be added another 
passage quoted by Sbarbi (Ref. VI, p.' 285), 
whose explanation of trastrigo agrees with 
the one here given : 

Bebe de lo trataflejo : 

Por que con mas gusto comas.* 

Kaltasar de Alcazar, La Cena- 

A similar force of tras would seem to lie in 
trasudar as used by Cervantes in the following 
passage : El pobre gobernador (Sancho), el 
cual en aquella estrecheza recogido sudaba y 
trasudaba, y de todo corazon se encomendaba 
a Dios que de aquel peligro le sacase. DQ. 
II, 53. Now, another instance of this kind we 
have precisely in trastrigo, which means 
'superior to wheat.' To appreciate the force 
of such an expression, it must be borne in mind 
what high value was set on wheat as the best 
material of which the principal article of food, 
bread (la gracia de Dios), was made, and 
to what extent it figures as a valuable thing 
in proverbial language. 

Saberle d uno d trigo, ' to taste of wheat,' is 
a phrase which 1 have not found elsewhere, but 

*Cf. the Proverb : Pan de ayer, carne de oy, vino dt 
unta o, traen al h ombre sano. ^Sbarbi, Ref. III., p. 45) 



73 



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March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



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which in the passage here quoted evidently 
means 'to give satisfaction to one,' 'to turn 
out successfully : ' 

Levest pocca gananpia quando luchest comigo, 
Diote mal salespaqio Onorio mi amigo : 
Quando quemar me quisisti, non te s'po d trigo, 
Traeras mientre seas la manziella contigo. S. Mill. 268. 

The Virgin is addressed as the Mother of 
Wheat-bread. 

Reyna de los f ielos, Madre del pan de trigo, 

Por que fo confondido el mortal enemigo, 

Tu eres mi fianza, esso misme te digo . . . Milagros, 659. 

Proverb : Da Dios trigo en el ero sembrado. 
Cast. 6 Doc. p. 175. Such being the signifi- 
cance attached to trigo and pan de trigo, it 
appeared senseless to ask for something more 
or better than wheat-bread. Hence the 
phrase : buscar mas (inejor) de pan de trigo, 
' to seek something unreasonable : ' 

Probar todas las cosas el apostol lo manda : 

Fui a probar la sierra, tfis loca demanda : 

Luego perdi la mula, non fallaba vianda, 

Quien mas de pan de trigo busca, sin seso anda. 

JRoiz, 924. 

Assaz eras varon bien casado conmigo : 
lo mucho te queria commo a buen amigo ; 
Mas tu andas buscando weior de pan de trigo : 
Non valdr is mas por esso quanto vale un figo. 

Mil. 341 ; cf. 759. 

Trastrigo, then, which so far seems to be 
known only from two passages in the Don 
Quijote (I, 7 and II, 67), is the equivalent of 
mas or mejor de trigo, and buscar pan de 
trastrigo means, as Ormsby well says, ' to seek 
things out of reason.' In conclusion it may be 
remarked that, undoubtedly through the 
translations of Cervantes' popular work, the 
phrase ' to want better bread than is made of 
wheat ' has become naturalized in English. 

P. 38. Duena ciilpada mal castiga la [mis- 
printed castigada] mallada. The English 
idiom is also familiar to the Spaniard. Antes 
tiraba piedras d mi tejado, agora encoge las 
manos y las tiene quedas, viendo que es el suyo 
de vidrio. Guz. de Alf. p. 204. Quien tiene 
tejado de vidrio no tire piedras al de su vecino, 
DQ. I. Pr61. ; Sbarbi, Refranero Espanol, IV, 
p. 57 ; Alarcon, El Escandalo, p. 272. This is 
one of the numerous Spanish phrases not con- 
tained in the collection. 

P. 40. No cocersele a uno el pan (gratui- 
tously repeated immediately below). If, 



instead of 'to be anxious to know the truth,' 
the translation of this idiom read simply, ' to 
be anxious,' it would be far nearer to the 
truth. No cocersele d uno el pan is one of the 
many Spanish idioms expressing impatience, 
and means 'to be very impatient or restless.' 
Este nuestro enfermo no sabe qu6 pedir ; de 
sus manos no se confia ; no se le cuece el pan ; 
teme su negligencia ; maldice su avaricia y 
cortedad, porque te di6 tan poco dinero, La 
Celestina, p. 18 ; cf. Guz. de Alf. p. 228. No se 
le coda el pan a Don Quijote, como suele 
decirse, hasta ver y saber . . . DQ. II, 25; cf. 
ibid. 52, 65; Gald6s, Gloria I, p. 168. Other 
Spanish expressions for impatience, not to be 
found in the 'Spanish Idioms,' are: no ver la 
hora de haceralguna cosa (occurs first in Ber- 
ceo, S. Mill. 13) \faltarle d uno tiempo para 
haceruna cosa (Fern. Cab. Lagr. p. 182; Revista 
Cont. 1887, p. 3:); hacerse tarde d uno (Guz. 
de Alf. p. 232 ; DQ. II, 53); hacerse d uno el 
dia mas largo que tin ano (S. Mill. 12 ; JRoiz 
451) ; parecerle d uno cada hora cien mil siglos 
(Guerras civ. de Gran. p. 519 ; cf. Guz. de Alf. 
P- 353)- 

P- 50. Quien te cubre, te descubre, ' ex- 
cessive secrecy betrays.' This does not convey 
the idea of the proverb. The literal meaning 
is: 'he who covers thee, uncovers thee,' that 
is, he who knows your faults or secrets and 
covers them up, can also uncover, disclose 
them (he has you in his power). In this sense 
at least the proverb occurs in the following 
passage: <;Sabis por qu, rnarido? respondi6 
Teresa, por el refran que dice: quien ie cubre 
te descubre: por el pobre todos pasan los ojos 
como de corrida, y en el rico los detienen ; y 
si el tal rico fue un tiempo pobre, alii es el 
murmurar y el maldecir. DQ. II, 5.- This 
again is the import of the Portuguese : Quern 
te cobre, te descobre, according to the follow- 
ing explanation of a Portuguese friend of 
the reviewer : Aquelle em quern confiastes 
para te ajudar (no que pode ser uma falta), 
depois em inimizade comtigo te descubrira. 
See also the Dictionary of the Academy. 

P. 51. Dios da el frio conforme la ropa. 
Here belong the synonymous phrases : Da 
Dios almendras a quien no tiene muelas, 
Sbarbi, Ref. IX, p. 211 ; Da Dios habas & quien 
no tiene quijadas. Celestina, p. 14; Garay, 



74 



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March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



Cartas (in Sbarbi, Ref. VII, p. TOO) ; cf. Catalan : 
Deu dona favas a qui no t caxals, Sbarbi, 
Ref. IX, p. 200. 

P. 70. No dejar ni roso tit velloso, 'to 
leave no stone unturned to ensure success.' 
This rendering is not borne out by any of the 
passages in which we have found the phrase 
in question. ' Un juez testarudo .... Ilev6 
un vestido que para poderlo concertar y 
ponerselo, eran menester mas de mil cedulillas 
y albala de guia, 6 entrarle con una cuerda 
como en el laberinto, y con aquella hambre 
nunca se pens6 ver harto ; de donde diere, no 
dejd roso ni velloso ; en todo hallo pecado : en 
este, porque si, y en aquel, porque no. Guz. 
de Alf. p. 224. Now, in this passage the fact 
that the idiom is coupled with de donde diere, 
a phrase characterizing indiscriminate pro- 
ceeding, is sufficient proof against the mean- 
ing assigned to it. It is evidently a synonym 
of de donde diere and means here 'without 
sparing any one.' And this idea it conveys 
again in the following passage, where it is 
also joined witli a synonymous phrase : Esto 
fu6 el diablo, que empez6 & decirque no habia 
de dejar roso ni velloso, ni piante ni mamante, 
y que los habia de traer al retortero d todos, 
y saiga si es hombre. Quevedo y Villegas, 
Cuento de Cuentos (in: Sbarbi, Ref. VIII, 47). 
No dejar (quedar) piante ni mamante means : 
'not to leave (survive) bird or quadruped,' i. 
e., not to spare a living being. And so indeed 
the idiom in question is explicitly interpreted 
by the commentator on the above passage, 
F. de Paula Seijas (ibid.), and by Sbarbi him- 
self (ibid. p. 105-106), who further quotes a 
copla from the Mingo Revulgo which reads as 
follows : 

Yo soRe 1 esta trasnochada, 
De que estoy estremuloso, 
Que ni rasa ni velloso 
Quedard de esta vegada. 

The commentator suggests that the reading 
raso represents the original form of the phrase, 
raso having in the course of time become roso 
by the natural tendency to assonance, and 
that in this case the idiom would mean, as 
indeed it appears from the passage just 
quoted: 'to leave or spare neither young 
(smooth-faced) nor old (bearded),' ' not to spare 
a living soul." Here is one more instance for 



this signification : No tan perdido como algu- 
nos que yo conocia, que no dejaban roso ni 
velloso, y en viendo la suya, como buenos 
tiradores, mataban la caza al vuelo. Don. 
Hablador, p. 529.1 The Spanish equivalent 
of ' to leave no stone unturned ' is no dejar 
piedra por mover-. Mas ellos estuvieron siem- 
pre erre que erre, dale que le das, y aprieta 
Martin, de forma y manera que no dejaron 
piedra por mover Garay, Cartas (in Sbarbi, 
Ref. V, 82-3). 

H. R. LANG. 

New Bedford, Mass. 



VOLAPUK. 
Grammar with Vocabularies of Volapuk. 

By W. A. SERET, Glasgow : 1887. 
Hand-Book of Volapuk. By CHARLES E. 
SPRAGUE. New York : 1888. 

In the December number of this Journal, 
some account was given of the origin and 
design of Volapuk, the proposed international 
tongue; but the appearance on the editorial 
table of the books named in the rubric, offers 
an excuse for a few more specific details which 
may not be without interest for those who are 
as yet unacquainted with this novel and 
curious experiment in language. 

The foundation of Volapuk is a body of 
stems, mostly monosyllabic, chosen from the 
principal European languages, but especially 
from the English, as the tongue most widely 
diffused. These stems are unchangeable ; 
and the language is formed from them by 
affixes and combinations. The rules for this 
construction are simple, precise, and un- 
encumbered with exceptions; so that with a 
knowledge of the rules and a moderate vo- 
cabulary of stems, the learner can at once 
proceed to construct sentences, with confi- 
dence that his language will be correct and 
intelligible. 

Most, if not all, of these stems are nouns; 
and upon the noun, as the simplest concept, 
the whole language is founded. Every noun 
may give birth to other nouns of secondary 

iTo these set expressions for 'no one,' 'nobody,' may be 
compared the following: cuantos aran y cavan 'as many 
as plough and dig.' No me lo har n creer cuantos aran y 
cavan. Sbarbi, Ref, VIII, 22. For arar y cavar cf. also 
DQ. 11,53. 



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March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 



152 



significations, to a verb, an adjective and an 
adverb, as also, at times, to a preposition or 
conjunction. Thus the stem spid (speed, 
haste) gives spiddn, to hasten, spidel, an ac- 
celerator, spidik, speedy, spido, quickly, &c. 

The noun and pronoun are declined by in- 
flection, the vowels a, e, i being successively 
added to the stem to indicate the genitive, 
dative, and accusative cases ; while other 
cases are indicated by prepositions, as in 
English. Thus mot, mother, makes mota, 
mote, moti; but ko mot, with a mother, .in 
plad, in a place, me kik, by means of a key. 
This succession of vowels is preserved in the 
tenses of the verb and elsewhere, as a help to 
the memory. All plurals end in s. 

Adjectives are formed from the noun by 
adding -ik or -lib, as saun, health, saunik, 
healthy, saunlik, wholesome ; and these may 
be transformed into adverbs by the addition 
of -o. 

The verb is conjugated somewhat after the 
pattern of the Greek, the tenses (except the 
present) being indicated by prefixes, and 
moods and persons by suffixes, which in the 
latter case are the personal pronouns, 06, 1, ol, 
thou, &c., added to the stem. Thus the stem 
being giv, a gift ; and the verb givon, to give, 
"I give" is givob (giv-\-ob); "thou givest," 
givol, &c. The other tenses of the indicative 
are formed by prefixing successively the 
vowels a, e, i, o, u, to the present, as agivob, 
I gave; igivotn, he had given ; ugivoms, they 
will have given. The other moods are formed 
from the indicative by the addition of suffixes 
to the personal sign ; thus from igivom, he had 
given, is formed igivomov, he would have 
given. The passive voice is formed by pre- 
fixing the consonant p (for the present tense, 
pa) to the corresponding active form ; as alo- 
fom, he loved, palofom, he was loved. 

A simple sentence of Volapiik, with a 
translation, will give an idea of the look and 
construction of this artificial language. 

Du apolob da nekulivop vola at, akomob al 
top sembal ko asibinom ninovag, ed aseitobok 
in top et al slipon. 

"As I-wandered through wilderness of- 
world this, I-came to place certain where 
there-was cavern, and I-laid-myself in place 
that to sleep." 



While the inventor of Volapiik proposed to 
himself the invention simply of an extremely 
easy and convenient form of international 
communication, some enthusiasts have pre- 
dicted that in time it will supplant all other 
tongues, and be the world's one language. 
Such expectations are extravagant. Volapiik 
has no idioms of its own, no associations, noth- 
ing that gives color to its words and phrases. 
The utmost it can now do is to render color- 
less statements quite clearly, without ambigui- 
ty. Indeed it may not be the least of its 
recommendations that, should it become uni- 
versal, punning would become a lost art, like 
the manufacture of Tyrian purple, or an un- 
committable crime, like adultery in Sparta. 

On the other hand, it is amusing to see what 
animosity Volapiik has aroused in philological 
quarters, and among learned professors to 
whom years seem hardly to have brought the 
philosophic mind. Some flame up in wrath 
as if they had received personal outrage and 
bufferings ; while others stare aghast as if Herr 
Schleyer had turned loose a new bacillus to 
ravage mankind. One, with a pretty wit, has 
compared it to Wagner's homunculus in a 
bottle ; forgetting, apparently, the services 
that the homunculus afterward renders when 
Faust is travelling in strange regions. 

One of the objections raised against Volapiik 
is the uncouthness of its appearance. But 
even Greek in Roman letters looks uncouth 
enough. "Toisi para sphisi ginomenoisi 
krokodeiloisi toisi en tesi haimasiesi." What 
a guffaw would be raised if that were Volapiik, 
instead of being the words of him whose lan- 
guage was thought musical as the songs of the 
Muses themselves. 

Others shriek from the topmost battlements 
of a priori philology that the great goddess 
Sprachentwickelung has been blasphemed 
because Volapiik is a synthetic instead of an 
analytic language. "If," (pathetically laments , 
one who is not altogether a6n\ay x.v < ?) "he 
had only said^w ob instead of givob \ " The 
printer's space, like the * in homoiousios, parts 
the sheep from the goats. A politer answer 
than Mr. Burchell's historic monosyllable, is 
the reminder that Volapiik is not a natural 
development, but a manufacture a con- 
trivance. Does any one blame machinists for 



76 



153 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



not making locomotives on the plan of horses 
ami elephants? A palaeographer does 'not 
sneer at a st< -tm^rapher because he finds it 
convenient to make an f without the conse- 
craU-d Snail's horns. 

In certain points of detail, however, it 
seems, to one looking at it from the outside, 
to have some defects. 

First, the almost total omission of the letter 
r, (apparently as a concession to the Chinese) 
which gives rise to such Aztec-like words as 
dlenon, tie Ion. 

Secondly, the placing the accent invariably 
on the last syllable, so that the whole ac- 
centuation shifts with every additional suffix. 
Thus: 

VOLAPUK 
VOLAPUKA 
vbLAPUKA T'lD 
VOLAPUKA TIDAL. 

Surely it would have been better to attach the 
accentuation to the significant stems. 

The third defect is really important, and 
that is the lack of a definite article, without 
which precision of expression cannot be had. 
Thus, in the bit of translation given above, it 
is impossible to render Bunyan's phrase, " the 
wilderness of this world," in Volapiik. The 
words given mean " wilderness," which is 
altogether different. 

After all, the only important question is: 
does Volapiik sufficiently supply the requisites 
of an international medium of communication ? 
that is, is it adequate for the ordinary pur- 
poses of life ; and is it preeminently easy of 
acquisition, of use, and of understanding? 
On this the present writer expresses no 
opinion. Judicabit orbis terrarum : that is to 
say, the final verdict on the merits of pud- 
dings must rest on d posteriori grounds. 



WM. HAND BKOUNI . 



Johns Hopkins University. 



////. OLD FRENCH MERLIN. 

Merlin, roman en prose du XIII* siecle, pub- 
lu'avec la mise en prose du poerne de 
Merlin de Robert de Boron, d'apres le 
mamisrrit appurtenant a M. Alfred H. 
Huth, par GASTON PARIS et JACOB 
ULRICH : Paris, 1886, 2 vols. XCI-28o, 
308 pp. 8vo. (Publication of the Socie'te' 
des Anciens Textes 



By the publication of the Huth MS. the 
Early French Text Society turns its attention 
for the first time to the Arthurian legends. 
The version of ' Merlin ' which it here gives is 
found in but one MS., unfortunately incom- 
plete, belonging to the end of the XIII. or to 
the beginning of the XIV. century. Itcontains, 
as preserved, three works: ist, a prose ver- 
sion of ' Joseph of Arimathea ' by Robert de 
Boron, of which many MSS. exist and which 
has been published by Weidner; 2d, a prose 
version of ' Merlin,' by the same author, not 
published in modern times ; 3d, a unique and 
incomplete version of a continuation to ' Mrr- 
lin.' Owing to the edition of Weidner the 
'Joseph' has here been omitted. From the 
linguistic standpoint the MS. offers nothing 
remarkable : the writing is French, evidently 
by many successive scribes, but shows still 
marks of Picard or Wallon dialect. The few 
words of interest are gathered into a Vocabu- 
lary, which is followed by an analytical table 
of proper names and by an analysis of the 
work. From the literary point of view, how- 
ever, the Huth ' Merlin ' is of much importance 
in the history of the Breton cycle, and the 
Introduction by M. Paris is therefore devoted 
principally to the discussion of certain of these 
new features. As noted above, the editors 
have published that part of the Huth MS. 
which contains a prose version of the ' Merlin' 
of Robert de Boron, the poetical original 
exists only as a fragment of 504 v., published 
by Michel, and a ' Merlin ' which claims to 
be a sequel to it. The former stopped at the 
crowning of Arthur, as had been stated by 
Paulin Paris, and it was the second in a series 
of three poems by Robert on the ('.rail legend. 
This author, Robert de Boron, as M. Paris 
determines, must have written before 1201, 
and have revised his cycle after 1212, the 



77 



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March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



156 



date of the death of his collaborator, Gautier 
de Montbeliard. Possibly also a fourth poem 
should be reckoned among his works, the 
third in the series, on the deeds of Alain ; but 
all trace of it is lost. He himself was proba- 
bly a native of North-eastern France, from 
many vague indications in his poems, none of 
which however are conclusive. Of the three 
poems known to have been his, the third, 
' Perceval,' exists only in prose, in a much 
altered MS. of the XIV. century. 

Passing to the sources. of the works before 
us, M. Paris determines that the ' Merlin ' is 
made up from the ' Historia Britonum,' a 
translation of which Robert had read and 
partially remembered, or which had been 
orally transmitted to him. The story of 
Geoffrey he changes at will or enlarges from 
popular stories concerning Merlin (a subject 
which M. Paris promises to treat in the Ro- 
mania), with notions borrowed perhaps from 
the Gospel of Nicodemus. His entire ignor- 
ance of England is seen in the topography of 
his work : Carlion he does not mention ; but 
at Carduel, by the advice of Merlin, Uter 
founds the Round Table (Wace gives Arthur) 
after the model of those of the Saviour and 
Joseph, which has, like theirs, an empty seat 
that shall not be filled until in the next reign a 
knight shall come (evidently Percival) who 
shall have accomplished the search for the 
Grail. Another variation due to Robert, in 
order to increase the importance of Merlin, is 
the concealment for fifteen years of Arthur, 
who then alone of all is able to draw the sword 
of royal authority from the magic anvil. 1 
According to Robert, it was the mother of Kay 
who nursed the infant Arthur and who was 
consequently obliged to intrust her own son 
to a stranger of low birth. Thus the charac- 
ter of Kay was tainted by the milk of a menial 
(a common notion in the Middle Ages), and he 
became " fel et faus et vilains." We have 
here an ingenious explanation both for the 
evil traits of Kay in the poems from the time 



iThis idea M. Paris would trace to biblical legends: the rod 
of Joseph which buds, thus designing him to be the husband 
of Mary ; or to episodes in other poems of the cycle. A 
more striking parallel seems to me to be found in the German, 
epic, where Siegmund draws the sword from the oak, unless 
perhaps, indeed, the latter may have been the original of a 
popular story which had crept over the German border and 
which was utilized, by Robert. 



of Chretien de Troies and for the indulgence 
of Arthur towards him. 

The ' Merlin ' of Robert had a sequel by his 
own hand, the ' Perceval ' (perhaps also an 
intermediate poem on the adventures of 
Alain). The ' Perceval ' did not, however, 
meet with much favor ; it was soon crowded 
out of the series by the ' Lancelot,' which new 
arrangement of the story demanded a connect- 
ing link that should relate the end of Merlin's 
adventures and the history of Arthur up to the 
arrival of Lancelot. Several writers tried to 
fill the gap. The one of the Huth MS. evi- 
dently had the least success, as other versions 
were preferred to his. 

His work proceeds from the crowning of 
Arthur, and to be consistent he claims to be 
Robert de Boron. M. Paris shows by many 
discrepancies that he is not. A character 
for deceit being thus established in the anony- 
mous writer, another falsification which inter- 
ests literary history is easily pointed out. 
The continuator of the ' Merlin ' of the Huth 
MS. pretends that he is translating from a 
Latin book on the legend of the Grail and 
that to lighten his task he has asked his lord 
" Helye, qui a este 1 mes compains a armes," 
to translate a branch of the book which he 
calls " li contes del brait." Further on he 
shows Helie at work, and finally declares that 
the branch is finished. All this, with other 
allusions, proves that there existed a work, 
probably in prose, called ' li Contes del Brait,' 
from the last cry of Merlin, written by a cer- 
tain He'lie. This story is lost in French, but 
is partially preserved here and there in a 
Spanish translation of ' Merlin ' bearing the 
title of ' El Baladro del sabio Merlin.' The 
rubrics and the closing chapter of this transla- 
tion are appended by M. Paris to the Introduc- 
tion. From these references the story may 
be drawn, somewhat as follows : Baudemagus, 
angered at seeing Tor, his junior, given a 
seat before him at the Round Table, leaves the 
court of Arthur, undergoes many adventures, 
and finally arrives in the forest of Darnantes. 
In this same forest, four days before, Merlin 
had been shut up in the 'Tomb of the Lovers' 
by Ninienne, 2 to whom he had taught his arts. 

aThis appears to be the true form of the name : also Ni- 
niane, Nivienne, etc. Vivienne or Viviane seem to be wrong 
readings of the MSS. 



157 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



158 



On it she had replaced the sword, which ten 
men could scarcely lift, and had sealed it to 
the tomb by incantations. Attracted by the 
laments of Merlin, Baudemagus strives to raise 
the sword, but is told by the sage that no one 
save her who placed him there can free him. 
In terror Baudemagus falls to the ground, 
whereupon " un poco despues de hora nona " 
(the allusion is obvious and might suggest the 
origin of the notion) Merlin utters his last cry, 
which sounded through the. kingdom of 
Logres. Th candles in the hands of the 
thirteen kings went out and many marvels were 
accomplished, as Merlin himself had pre- 
dicted. 3 

The author of this story is without doubt a 
person called He'lie, a name not infrequent 
among writers of the Middle Ages. Who 
this particular He'lie may be is not yet de- 
termined, but the allusions to him in the Huth 
MS. have been curiously twisted. From a 
comrade in arms of the pretended Robert de 
Boron he becomes (in subsequent stories as in 
1 Guiron le Courtois ' and in an epilog to 
' Tristan ') a relative of Robert ; and finally 
blooms out into literary history as a writer on 
the Grail, He'lie de Boron all of which is 
exploded by the publication of the original. 
Seeking now the sources of the sequel to the 
' Merlin ' of the Huth MS. M. Paris finds that it 
is, in large part, a development of indications 
found in the ' Conte du Brait,' 'Lancelot,' 
' Mort Arthur ' and the prose ' Tristan,' all of 
which were unknown to Robert- de Boron. 
Other material was doubtless drawn from 
various episodes of Breton stories, and the 
whole supplemented by poor inventions of 
the author himself. As the readers of the 
Middle Ages preferred other sequels of the 
4 Merlin ' of Robert to this, its influence in 
France was not important. It offers, however, 
peculiar interest to English-speaking peoples, 
in that if was employed, much abridged, by 
Malory. It serves the latter as the original 
for his first four books, minus chapters v-xvi 
of Book I, which are taken from the common 

3"The end of Merlin is much more dramatic than that in the 
ordinary version and, so far as we can ascertain in the Huth 
MS., Vivien appears in a much more favorable light. Mer 
lin teaches her his art in order to win her over, and she 
while preserving her honor, hates him for his intentions and 
finally destroys him, thus strongly pointing a moral. 



version of ' Merlin.' The author of the Huth 
MS. wrote not far from 1225-30; was probably 
from North-east France ; like Robert de Boron 
he did not know England. 

Having thus analyzed the MS. as preserved, 
M. Paris passes to a conjecture of the nature 
of the part that is lost. He points out that 
the anonymous author has given an intimation 
of his plan in a passage on folio 125 of the MS. 
There he states that the narrative will be divi- 
ded into three equal parts of 125 folios each : 
the first corresponds to the ' Joseph ' and the 
' Merlin ' of Robert de Boron, plus 50 folios of 
the continuation ; the second reaches to the 
commencement of the Grail, and in the Huth 
MS. lacks about 20 folios; the third ends with 
the death of Lancelot and Mark, and is entirely 
wanting. This third part M. Paris concludes, 
from the allusions in 'Merlin' and in other 
works that refer to ' Merlin,' to be a Quest of 
the Grail. This 'Quest,' like the 'Merlin,' 
was attributed to Robert de Boron ; was 
known to the author of the prose ' Tristan ; ' 
and resembled greatly the ' Quest ' commonly 
assigned to Walter Map, in fact was probably 
the original of the latter, which was early in- 
corporated into the ' Lancelot.' 

This prediction was unexpectedly verified 
the same year it was made (M. Paris signs the 
Introduction July i4th, 1887), and in a manner 
most flattering to the penetration of M. Paris, 
by the publication of a Portuguese translation 
of the 'Quest (See NOTES III, col. 49) by Dr. 
von Reinhardstottner, which is in reality the 
missing part of the work of the pretended 
Robert de Boron (See Romania XVI, p. 582). 
The importance of this discovery on the his- 
tory of the cycle we may hope to see demon- 
strated soon by M. Paris himself.4 

F. M. WARRKN. 
Johns Hopkins University. 

480 far as determined, the work on the Grail legend in its 
early form may be thus arranged : Robert de Boron is the 
author of at least three poems which are preserved as follows 
' Joseph of Arimathea,' of which we possess the original 
complete and several MSS.ofthe prose versions; 'Merlin,' 
original 504 v., and several MSS. of the prose version; 
'Perceval,' one MS. of the prose version. The' Perceval,' 
being unpopular, gave way to another conclusion, which 
necessitated a connecting story. Thus, for ' Perceval ' in 
the plan of Robert we have a ' Sequel to Merlin ' and a 
'Quest,' which latter was finally united to the ' Lancelot.' 



79 



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March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



160 



Die Berliner Handschrift des Decameron, 
von A. TOBLER. [Sitzungsberichte der Ko- 
niglich Preussischen Academic der Wissen- 
schaften zu Berlin]. It is perhaps, after all, not 
surprising that a work so well known and so 
often printed as the Decameron should still 
have no critical edition which the future his- 
torian of the Italian language could use with 
any safety. And yet the Decameron is cer- 
tainly one of the most important monuments 
of early Italian prose. But then, the pretty 
stories and graceful style of Boccaccio have 
doubtless rather repelled than attracted the 
severe labors of the grammarian. At last, a 
good beginning has been made, and if those 
who follow Prof. Tobler perform their task 
with the same thoroughness and keenness, we 
shall ultimately have an edition of the De- 
cameron of great value to the grammarian 
and lexicographer. 

In this pamphlet we have : 

1. An accurate description of a MS. of the 
Decameron the writing of which is not later 
than the very beginning of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. This MS. is part of the Hamilton col- 
lection of the Berlin library ; 

2. A carefully compiled list of the corrupt 
passages which are common to the Berlin 
text and to the Mannelli text ; 

3. A list of passages in the Berlin text 
which offer a better reading than that of the 
Mannelli text ; many of these readings have 
already been introduced into editions of Boc- 
caccio from other MSS., or conjecturally ; 

4. Corrupt readings which are found in the 
Berlin MS. but not in the Mannelli text ; 

5. A list of divergent readings either of 
which may be adopted without changing the 
meaning of the text ; 

6. A list of divergent readings where the 
adoption of one or the other would change 
somewhat the meaning of the text. 

Prof. Tobler shows conclusively that the 
Berlin MS. is not a 'copy of the Mannelli, and 
makes it appear very probable that the reverse 
is the case. 

P. B. MARCOU. 
Cambridge, Mass. 



BRIEF MENTION 
Apropos of Dr. Schilling's recent review of 



the Joynes-Meissner German Grammar in 
these columns, the Editors desire to state that 
the entire review was furnished to the NOTES 
at one time, its subsequent division into two 
parts being simply incidental to editorial con- 
siderations ; so that the spirit and fairness of 
the article in question can be judged only 
with reference to its effect as an undivided 
whole. As for the title of the review, we are 
assured that it was already chosen before the 
appearance of the article on the same subject 
in our December number ; and the paper 
throughout was written quite independently 
of any suggestion from the author of that 
article. 

Professor F. Max Miiller has published a 
new volume, which comprises a collection of 
essays, notes, and letters relating to ety- 
mological, anthropological and antiquarian 
topics, and has named it ' Biographies of 
Words, and the Home of the Aryas' (Long- 
mans, Green & Co., New York). This volume 
belongs to that class of semi-popular scien- 
tific writings in which Max Miiller has few 
equals in the charm of captivating generaliza- 
tion and readableness, and it is sure to find 
its peculiar place on every shelf by the side 
of the household "Chips." General readers 
will here find some things to satisfy their 
craving for those inspired deductions that 
spurn the scientific scaffolding by which ordi- 
nary mortals raise themselves to the appre- 
hension of a truth ; here is the philologist, to 
their own liking, not painfully and weakly 
ever holding fast to the dead weight of the 
logic of facts lest, perchance, the wings of 
his spirit may waft him through the free air of 
direct perception towards the very s"un and 
center of absolute knowledge. But if Max 
Miiller knows how to give one a refreshing 
airing, and to disappoint one afterwards by 
not providing the healthful meal for which the 
appetite has been sharpened, this is but one 
side of his character. He is a great scholar, 
and always gives the scientific man something 
to think about. Whatever our tastes may be 
we are all obliged to read his books, whether 
for admonition of how subjects should, or 
should not be treated ; of how things are, or 
are not. In the present instance the ' biogra- 
phy ' of the word persona is alone enough to 



80 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



162 



save the whole volume. The author is at his 
best in sketching the life of this word that has 
played a marvclously significant role through 
many centuries. 

In the 'Johns Hopkins University Studies 
in Historical and Political Science,' Fifth 
Series, No. XI, is to be found a succinct and 
interesting treatment of " Seminary Libraries 
and University Extension," by Dr. H. B. 
Adams, Editor. This account is confined, of 
course, to history and allied subjects, but, as 
the system here noted is precisely the same 
for linguistic investigations, we would heart- 
ily recommend the article to all modern lan- 
guage professors seeking light on Seminary 
Methods. The same writer has published 
' The Study of History in American Colleges 
and Universities ' (Bureau of Education, Circu- 
lar of Information No. 2, 1887) which, we 
hope, will suggest to some of our earnest 
workers the propriety of a similar study for 
the modern languages, or a department of 
them, in the United States. A history of 
English, German or Romance studies in our 
colleges would reveal an extraordinary de- 
velopment in the past few years of an im- 
portant branch of education. No greater 
revolution has taken place in any department 
of our educational system than that which 
might be traced out just here. 

We have received a contribution that is 
likely to do important service for the science 
of dialectology : ' Grammatikalische und 
lexikalische Arbeiten iiber die lebenden 
Mundarten der langue d'Oc und der langue 
d'Oil,' by Dr. D. Behrens [Deprint from the 
IX. vol. of Zeitschrift f. Neufranzbs. Spr. u. 
Litteratur. Oppeln u. Leipzig ; Eugen 
Franck's Buchhandlung]. In this monograph 
the writer has presented in the space of 125 
octavo pages an historical survey of all the 
principal publications bearing on North and 
South French dialects, with here and there 
short characterizations of the work noted. 
Every one who has attempted to make such 
a list will be able to appreciate the difficulties 
and amount of labor attending it, and feel the 
more grateful to Dr. B. that he has compiled a 
bibliography so useful and so nearly complete 

as this is. For all those interested in dialect 

p 

matters it is an indispensable help ; to supple- 



ment it will be comparatively easy, now that 
the first steps in this direction have been 
taken. It remains to continue the good work 
by publishing bibliographies of original works 
in the individual patois. When these texts 
shall have been made accessible to foreign 
scholars, the materials necessary for dialect 
investigation, especially for the important 
categories of Syntax, Morphology and Sema- 
siology, will be at hand, and will doubtless 
attract a goodly number of zealous workers. 
Sievers* Anglo-Saxon Grammar holds an 
altogether unique place, being the only full 
treatment of the early forms of our language 
according to the most accurate scholarship. 
It is therefore a just matter of natural pride 
that an American translator has made this 
indispensable work accessible in English. A 
further element of gratification is the gener- 
ous acceptance, throughout our country, of 
Professor Cook's version that has encouraged 
him so soon after the author's own second 
edition to give us the corresponding edition 
of the translation (Ginn & Co., Boston). 
When Professor Cook first came to the pre- 
paration of his English version it will be re- 
membered that he could not escape the 
responsible duty of making many variations 
from the original, by incorporating a large 
body of additional matter which the author 
had collected and published separately subse- 
quent to his first edition. By carefully per- 
forming this editorial task, Professor Cook at 
once gave us the work in a form that properly 
stood mid-way between the first and second 
editions of the original. After the author 
had himself brought his work to embrace his 
recent modifications, it is clear that the Eng- 
lish version could be made to correspond 
more closely to the original than before. And 
this has been accomplished by Prof. Cook, 
whose second edition conforms in all es- 
sentials to the second edition of the author. 
Prof. Cook has however added a new feature 
which deserves to be mentioned. He has not 
only expanded and corrected the somewhat 
unsatisfactory ' index of words ' of the origi- 
nal, but has added five supplementary indices 
in which are collected the Gothic, the O. H. 
German, the Old Saxon, the Old Norse, the 
Latin and the Greek words that receive inci- 



81 



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March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



164 



dental consideration in the body of the work. 

Any criticism of this excellent grammar can 
only pertain to minor details, and these will 
not be entered upon at this time. Merely one 
observation shall be made, namely, that there 
are serious omissions in the chapter on the 
Numerals. The student will in vain turn to 
these pages for information on the method of 
counting by subtraction by means of Ids, 
wana or butan, as for example, Chron. 641, he 
rixode two, Ices xxx geara\ Chrori. 972 he 
woes pa ana wana xxx wintra, etc. So too we 
should be told how fractional parts were ex- 
pressed ; and healf in expressions of number 
is a very interesting and important phenome- 
non. Nor is the word twc&de recorded here, 
and yet it is not of rare occurrence, a single 
example may suffice : wylle-ponne on cetele 
o<5 p se wceta sie twcede on bewylled, Leech. 
II, 332. 

The work of translation has been so ad- 
mirably done that it were quite unfair to lay 
stress upon the few instances of slight inad- 
vertence. It is seldom that Professor Cook 
has, as in the case of the first period of 31, 
relaxed his hold upon his author, and it were 
useless to look for another instance of such a 
curious and rather mischievous mistranslation 
as that in 340 of <5e -bsic by "we whom," 
instead of ' us whom ; ' the ambiguity of nos 
quos must have tripped the unwary. 

In a recent circular issued by the American 
Dante Society, the Council of the Society 
" desire to call attention to the collection 
of works on Dante in the Library of Har- 
vard College, in Cambridge, a collection 
which the Society has made it one of its 
special objects to bring together, and to which 
it yearly adds as many works as it is able to 
procure. The collection now numbers over a 
thousand volumes, and may be freely consulted 
at the Library by every one, and under certain 
restrictions may" be used by members of the 
Society who live at a distance. A detailed 
Catalogue is in course of publication in the 
Harvard University Bulletin, and will be issued 
separately as soon as completed." All cor- 
respondence with reference to the collection 
should be addressed to Mr. William C. Lane, 
Asst. Librarian, Harvard College Library, 
In charge of the Dante Collection. 



It is with pleasure that we are able to an- 
nounce the establishment in New York City of 
an organisation entitled : "The Modern Lan- 
guages Publishing Company," whose object 
will be to publish from time to time works 
that may meet the demands, both in matter 
and method, of the recent development of 
modern language study in America. The ad- 
dress of the company is 150 Nassau Street. 

A useful help to students of Moliere has 
appeared in the second revised edition of F. 
Hermann Fritsche's ' Molirestudien : Ein 
Namenbuch zu Moliere's Werken, mit phi- 
lologischen und historischen Erlauterungen ' 
(Berlin ; Weidmannsche Buchhandlung). The 
first edition of this work was published in 
1868, since which time important and varied 
researches have been carried on in this branch 
of French literature both in and out of France. 
The text followed is that of Despois and 
Mesnard, and the object of the author is to 
give here the results of recent investigation 
as to the explanation of proper names and 
character-types used by the poet. To this 
end evidence is drawn from his contemporaries 
and predecessors, and the studies are laid 
under contribution which the author has pub- 
lished from time to time in Herrig's Archiv 
and in Schweitzer's Moliere- Museum ; The 
range of names has been extended and hence, 
naturally, a number of new articles added, 
while only a few of the old ones have remain- 
ed untouched ; the most of them have been 
entirely recast : " Was vor zwanzig Jahren gait 
gilt grossenteils heute nicht mehr." Working 
in this spirit, the author has given us virtually 
a new book, as will be recognised at a glance 
by those familiar with the older treatise. The 
onomastic interpretations here bear both 
upon general and special significations : gene- 
ral, as to their origin and primitive meaning ; 
special, as to their restricted use by Moliere 
and other comic poets before and after his 
time. Hence, in addition to etymological 
notes, the author often gives the poetic charac- 
ter of the names as represented in tradition, 
in the manners and customs of the time, etc., 
and the treatise thus becomes a valuable con- 
tribution to the general history of onomato- 
logy as well as specially to that of the great 
French poet. The Namenbuch covers about 



82 



165 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 3. 



166 



230 octavo pages, preceded by a preliminary 
study of thirty pages on proper geographi- 
cal and ethnographical names. 

Encouraged by the publication of ' Les 
Miserables ' in the original French, WILLIAM 
R.JKNKINS (New York) proposes to publish 
'Les Travailleurs de la Mer ' and 'Notre- 
Dame de Paris,' during the coming year. As 
the last number of his interesting series, 
'Romans Choisis,' the same publisher has 
given us 'La Neuvaine de Colette,' a bright 
and amusing romance recently published 
anonymously in the Revue des Deux Mondes. 
The perplexing question, Can the art of 
English Composition be taught? is admirably 
answered in one of the recent ' Monographs 
on Education ' (D. C. Heath & Co., Boston) 
entitled ' English in the Preparatory Schools,' 
by Ernest W. Huffcut, Instructor in English 
in Cornell University. Teachers in secondary 
schools should read this pamphlet if they 
would know the true doctrine of primary in- 
struction in English. It would be difficult to 
point to a more rational discussion of the 
practical matter of early laying the founda- 
tion of a clear and effective style in writings. 
This can be done, as the writer shows, in ac- 
cordance with the natural laws of the mind's 
operations and growth, and by the avoidance 
of the system, historically in bad repute, of 
requiring " the tale of the bricks" when no 
straw is provided. The ' essay writing ' bond- 
age that embitters so many experiences in 
early life can legitimately be converted into 
a willing and pleasurable service that will 
surely produce results of just the desired 
kind. 

The American reprint of Lamartine's charm- 
ing idyll, 'Graziella,' by W. R. Jenkins (850 
Sixth Ave., N. Y.) calls again attention tothe 
industry and enterprise of this house, which is 
rapidly supplying us with a choice of French 
standard works of the recent literature. The 
appearance of the volume, to correspond with 
its contents, is bright and attractive. Among 
the announcements for the near future we re- 
mark 'Cinq Mars,' by Alfred de Vigny, with 
English notes, and H. Tamil's ' Les Grands 
Ecrivains Francais.' The latter will be a 
most valuable addition to the means of pre- 
senting the chief points of French literature 
in the class-room. 



PERSONALS. 

Professor Joseph L. Armstrong has been ap- 
pointed to the chair of English and Modern 
Languages in Trinity College, N. Carolina. 
Mr. Armstrong attended Randolph Macon 
College (Va.) for some lime, but was compell- 
ed to leave before taking his degree. After 
quitting college (1878), he spent two years in 
teaching, then passed one year (1880-81) at the 
Johns Hopkins University, devoting himself 
especially to English ; after this he went to 
the University of Leipsic, where he spent one 
year studying with Wiilker, Brugmann and 
Techmer. Returning to America, he was en- 
gaged in teaching for the following two years, 
when he was appointed Professor of English 
and Modern Languages in Central College 
(Mo.), and he remained there during 1885-86. 
His health failing, he resigned and spent the 
following year in teaching an academic school 
in Va., whence he passed to the appointment 
noted above. 

Professor J. S. Griffin was appointed at the 
opening of the present Academic year to the 
chair of Modern Languages in Garfield Uni.- 
versity (Kansas). He was graduated at Abing- 
don (now Eureka) College (111.) in 1873, and 
received the Master's degree from the same 
institution three years later. After gradu- 
ation, he spent ten years as Principal and Su- 
perintendent of Graded Schools in Illinois, 
and three years as principal of a private 
school in Tennessee. He is now engaged on 
a translation of Droysen's ' Grundriss der His- 
torik' and Florian's 'Gonzalve de Cordoue.' 

Mr. F. V. Paget was appointed at the begin- 
ning of the present academic year, Instructor 
in French and Spanish in the University of 
California (Berkely). Mr. Paget is a native of 
France, where he received his early education ; 
in 1862, he obtained the diploma of Bachelier 
s lettres, at the Faculte" des lettres of Stras- 
burg, and in 1865, that of Bachelier es scien- 
ces, at Grenoble. In 1876, he came to Ameri- 
ca and has been teaching privately and in 
schools of San Francisco up to the date of his 
present appointment. He is an occasional 
contributor to the Overland l\fonihly t where 
he has published papers on Lamartine and 
Victor Hugo. 



i6 7 



March. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 2. 



168 



JOURNAL NOTICES. 

REVUE CRITIQUE. No. 52. Hiiffer, G., Der hei- 
lige Bernard von Clairvaux. Erster Band : Vorstu- 
dien (I. L.). Bobiquet, P., De Joannis Aurati poetae 
etc., (P. de Nolhac). Gazler, A., CEuvres poetiques de 
Boileau (A. Delboulle) 1888, NO- I. Kltchin, D. B., 
An^introduction to the study of prove^al (M. H.) 
Cherot, H., Etude sur la vie et les ceuvres du P. Le 
Moyne (1602-1671) (F. Hemon). No. 3. Paris, 6. et 
Ulrich, J., Merlin, roman en prose du Xllle siecle 
(//). Bevllllout, Ch., Antoine Gonebaud, chevalier de 
Mere", etc., (T. de L.). No. 4. La Chanson de Roland, 
traduction far L. Cledat (A. T.). Pakscher, A., Die 
Chronologic der Gedichte Petrarcas (P. de Nolhac). 
Scherer, E., Melchior Grimm (Ch. J.). 

REVUE BLEUE, 1888, No. I. LemaHre, J., M. Paul 
Verlaine et les poetes symbolistes et decadents. 
Barine, A., Le mariage de Thomas Carlyle. No. 2. 
Larroumet, 6., Les Comediens et les Moeurs, etude 
historique. NO. 3. Darmesteter. J., Poesie anglaise. 
Miss Mary Robinson. Larroumet, G. f Les Comediens 
et les Muoars, etude historique (suite et fin). No. 4. 
Bigot, Charles, Le roman psychologique comtem- 
porain. Mensonges de M. Paul Bourget. Alexandra, 
B., Les debuts litteraires d'Eugene Labiche. 

LA NOUVELLE REVUE. ler Janvier, Bod, E., Gia 
como Leopardi, d'apres des publications nouvelles. 

REV. DES DEUX MONDES. 15 Janvier. Brunetlere, 
F., La litterature personnelle. ler fevrier, Brune- 
tlere, F., Les metaphores de Victor Hugo. 

NUOVA ANTOLOGIA. 1888, FASC I Carducci,G., 

a proposito di una recente edizione delle odi di Gio- 
vanni Fantoni. 

ANDOVER REVIEW 1888, January, Williams, 8. C., 
William Wordsworth. February, Huff, L. J., The 
Christian character oi Goethe's ' Iphigenie auf Tau- 
ris.' 

ATLANTIC MONTHLY 1888, February, Lathrop, G. 
P., George Meredith, The Coleorton Papers. 

GOTTINGISCHE GELEHRTE ANZEIGEN, 1888. NO. 
(. Hiiffer, G., Der heilige Bernard von CJairvaux (v. 
Druffel). 

DEUTSCHE LITTERATURZEITUNG, IX, No. I. 

Ascoll, G. I., Sprachwissenschaftliche Briefe, tJber- 
setzung von Brauno Gtlterbock (F. Hartmann). 
Braune, W., Althochdeutsche Grammatik (R. Hen- 
ning). Koerting, H., Geschichte des franzosischen 
Romans im 17. Jahrhundert (M. von Waldberg). No. 
2. Snider, D. J., Goethe's Faust (E. Schmidt). 
Bernhard, W., Die Werke des Trobadors N'At de Mons 
(O. Schultz). No. 3. Brandes, G., Die Litteratur des 
neunzehnten Jahrhunderts etc., IT. Band. (Minor). 
Murray, J. A. H., A New English Dictionary on 
Historical Principles. Part III. (J. Zupitza). No. 4. 
Beurath, P., Vocalschwankungen bei Otfried (J. 
SeemUller). 

NATIONAL REVIEW, 1888, January. Egerton, H. E., 
Two views of the Novelist. February, Austin, A., 
Mr. Matthew Arnold on the loves of the poets. 



LlTERARISCHES CENTRALBLATT, 1888, NR. I. 
Dlez. Fr., Etymologisches Wftrterbuch der roma- 
nischen sprachen. 5 Ausg. Mit einem Anhang von 
Scheler, Aug., (H. K ng). Mlehaells, H., Neues 
WBrterbuch der portugiesischen u. deutschen 
Sprache. 1 Th. Portugiesisch-Deutsch (H. K ng). 
Gering, H., Glossar zu den Liedern der Edda (-gk). 
Hasscnsteln, G., Ludwig Uhland. NR. 2. Dante 
Allghlerl, Commedia and Canzoniere. Translated by 
Plumptre. E. H., Vol. II. (H. K-ng).-l'herot, H., 
Etude sur la vie et les oeuvres du P. Le Moyne (1602- 
71) (H. K ng). NR. 4. Kortlng, G., Grundriss der 
Geschichte der englishen Literatur (R. W.). Crlzc- 
nach, W., Der alteste Faustproiog. Itochholz, E. L., 
Wanderlegenden aus der oberdeutschen Pestzeit von 
1348 bis 1350 (Rho. K6).-NR. 5.-Blelbtrtu, K., Ge- 
schichte der englischen Literatur. 1. Bd. Die Renais- 
sance und Classicitat (R. W.) Pflster, H. von, Mun- 
dartliche und stammheitliche Nachtittge zu Vilmar's 
Idiotikon von Hessen (H. K.) 

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR DEN DEUTSCHEN UNTERRICHT 
II, I. Klee, G., Ausgeftihrter Lehrplan ftlr den 
deutschen Unt. an den Unter- und Mittelklassen 
eines sachs. Gymn. Huther, A., TJeber die realistisch- 
en Elemente von Goethes Hermann und Dorothea. 



FUR LlTTERATURGESCHICHTE. (HR8G. 

v. DR. FRANZ SCHNORR v. CAROLSFELD.) VOL. 
XV, PART IV. Funch, Hclnrlch, Ein Stuck aus 
Klopstocks Messias in ursprtinglicher Fassung. 
Jacoby, Daniel, Herder und J. W. Petersen. Freilurr 
v. Bledermann, Woldemar. Zweite Fortsetzung der 
Nachtrage zu " S. Hirzels Verzeichniss einer Goethe- 
Bibliothek, hrsg. v. L. Hirzel " und zu " Goetlies 
Brief en von F. Strehlke." E. Minor, Briefe von Fried- 
rich Schlegel. (With this number the Archiv ceases 
to be issued). 
ZEITSCHRIFT FUR DEUTSCHE PHILOLOGIE, VOL. 

XX, PART II. Kelle, Jon., Verbum und nonien in 
Notkers de syllogismis, de partibus logicae, de rheto- 
riea arte, de musica. Matthias, E., Ein pasquill aus 
der zeit des Schmalkaldischen Krieges. Giske, H., 
tJber aneinanderreihung der strophen in der mittel- 
hochdeutschen lyrik. Keltner, E., Zur Kritik des 
Nibelungenliedes. VIII. Die texte A und B. Erd- 
mann, 0., Particip des praeteriturns in passivischer 
bedeutung mit haben statt mit tein verbunden. 
And roscn, K. G., Der teufel in deutschen geschlechts- 
namen. Kettner, G., Zur domscene des Goethischen 
Faust. Holsteln, H., Der dramatiker Marcus Pfeffer. 

GERMANIA. VIERTES HEFT. Maroid, t 1 ., otfrids 

Beziehungen zu den biblischen Dichtungen des 
Juvencus, Sedulius, Arator. Grlmme, Fr., Beitrage 
zur Geschichte der Minnesttnger, II. Schnell, Ht-r- 
niiinn, Zu den MUnchener BruchstUcken von Marien- 
legenden. Wllslockl, H., Die Mausethurmsage in 
Siebenblirgen. Von den drei Frauen. Galle'e, J. H., 
Segensprtlche. Sprenger, B., Zu Gerhard von Minden. 
K' horn. K., Der heilige Kumernus oder die heilige 
Wil^efortis. Singer, 8., Verzeichniss der in der 
erzbischOflichen Di5cesanbibliothek in Erlau vor- 
handenen altdeutschen Codices. Bartsch, K., Bruch- 
stticke aus Strickers Karl. Singer, 8., Zum Willchalm 
Wojf rams von Eschenbach . 



84 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 



Itiiltiniorc, April, 18HS. 

THE F IN FRENCH SOIF, BIEF, 
MOEUF, ETC. 

The problem which I intend to discuss in 
the present article is this. A number of Old 
and Modern French words end in /, while 
their Latin or Germanic etyma have a dental 
instead: JOI/SITIM, />/BEDUM, inoeuf MOD- 
DM, blef BLADUM, nif NIDUM, pecchief PECCA- 
TI-M, maugref MALEGRATUM, fief FEODUM(?), 
aleu(f} AU.ODUM, pief(?) PEDEM, and buef 
from -Boooin such words as Albitef ADALBO- 
DO, Elbuef ELBODO, Gondebuef GUNDOBODO, 
Condclbuef GUNDILBODO, Maimbnef MAGIN- 
noix), Marbncf MARBODO, Rusteboeuf(?}, 
Tnrneboeuf(J}, Paimboeuf (?}, Quilleboeuf^}. 

The question is, whether this / is a regular 
phonetic development of the radical dental, 
or, if not, to what influence its origin must be 
ascribed. The various writers on the subject 
have answered this question in very different 
ways : YAKNHAGEN in his review of STORM'S 
J-'.nglische Philologie, Anz. f. d. A. ix, 179 
takt-s it for granted that the dental went 
through ft : f, and he undertakes to support 
this explanation by citing cases of a similar 
sound-change from all sorts of other languages. 
Resuming the subject in GROEBER'S Zs.f. r. 
Ph. x, 296, he repeats his theory, borrowing 
tliis time his accessory illustrations from the 
Middle English and recognizing in English 
faith a remnant of the old transitory stage th. 

( 'iKOEBER, to whom we owe the first thorough 
investigation of the point in question, Zs.f. r. 
J'/i. ii, 459 ff., says that the reading sot/, 
inoeuf, etc., occurred first in MSS. in which 
both final / and final / were already silent, 
that thus an orthographical confusion easily 
arose and under the influence of the resulting 
erroneous spelling the / became later an 
audible part of certain of the above words; 
SITIM, soi(t), soi(f], soif. In inoeuf, -buef, 
secondary reasons favored the persistence of 
/, inoeuf being affected by the/-forms of in OH - 
I'oir, and -buef being associated with boeiif 
HOVEM ;./?</, whose/must be older because of 
the derivative fieffer, is traced back not to 
feodum but to the simple feint . GROEHER 
expresses himself to the same effect in a 



" Beischrift" to VARNHAGEN'S abov--m. n- 
tioned article in the Zeitschrift. 

Other scholars have incidentally mentioned 
the phenomenon, some of them without indi- 
cating their own standpoint. SrcniER, Zs. ii, 
298, says simply: "tier Auslaut des neufrz. 
suif vi\r<\ wie in soif, inoeuf, blef zu erklaren 
sein." These words of SUCHIER'S are referred 
to by NEUMANN, Zs. viii, 399, without any 
further remark. FOERSTER, Lyoner Yzopet 
xxxvii, calls the forms without/" bekanntlich 
die regelmassigen afrz. Formen," and so does 
MACKEL, page 161, and, in accordance with 
Groeber, on page 29 of his work, Die germani- 
schen Elemente in derfranz. u. provenz. Spr. 

APFELSTEDT, Loth. Psalt. xlv, seems to be- 
lieve in a phonetic development: "in nif, 
ntuefw'ird es (f) wohl aus dem nachfolgenden 
u oder d entwickelt sein." The words "aus 
dem nachfolgenden " are to be under- 
stood, I think, with reference to the theory on 
va(d)o: vo(is), which has been recently sup- 
planted by NEUMANN'S explanation (Zs. viii, 
384 ff.). GASTON PARIS, Romania viii, 135, 
says: "je n'aijamais dit que je visse dans \'f 
une transformation du d fafeodtint." 

So we have, 'thus far, but two positive 
opinions to discuss, those of VARNHAGEN and of 
GROEBER. I trust that Romance scholars will 
excuse my passing over VARNHAGEN'S theory 
as rapidly as most of the authors just quoted 
have done; since GROEBER, in his excellent 
Beischrift, 1 has thoroughly treated the points 
in question. I even think that GROEBER, in 
his reply, goes rather too far in denying the 
probability that Continental French d, inter- 
vocalic and final, may have passed through 
the fricative before being dropped. The 
analogy of French b (g) as well as Spanish , 
/, perhaps Provencal *pafirc : paire, seems, to 
speak in favor of th in French also. But that, 
of course, would in no way save YARNHAGEN'S 

iGroeber says that the Anglicist should not suffer himself 
to admit a French sound-change which runs counter to the 
phonetic laws of that language, in order to avoid the difficul- 
ty of explaining the th in English faith. It seems to me 
that this difficulty is not so very great. Since we have to 
admit that the dental became th in Anglo-Norman, the word 
faith could very well preserve this th in spite of plenty, etc. 
Faith is the only monosyllabic word of all those quoted by 
VAKNHABN, and by BBHKBNS in b'ra*z. Stud, v, i, 175 ff. 
Moreover, forms like oath and especially truth and others in 
th Goth -iVAi may have induced or supported the th \nfaith. 



April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



172 



theory, as long as we do not believe in " Spo- 
radischen Lautwandel." 

GROEBER'S own exposition of the case is, of 
course, extremely scholarly and instructive, 
and we should willingly adopt his views, were 
it not for the unlikelihood that, at an epoch 
when writing played but a very insignificant 
part in public life, the pronunciation of a group 
of words should have been influenced by an 
occasionally occurring error in spelling. Does 
it not seem more natural that much the 
same reasons which, according to GROEBER, 
troubled the Old French copyists, should have 
brought more or less confusion into the pro- 
nunciation itself? The final labials did not 
disappear in Old French under all circum- 
stances. They fell only before words begin- 
ning with consonants and perhaps inpausa; 
before words beginning with vowels they have 
been preserved down to the present day. So 
there was in Old French a "linking" of 
labials, exactly as, gradually, all final conso- 
nants became liable to be either mute or 
linked. The forms coming from B6vEM BRE- 
VEM, N6vuM, etc. were pronounced either hue, 
brie, nue or buef(v), brief (v), nuef(v), according 
to the following word. The same with final 
dentals originally preceded by consonants (a 
at, o ot, etc.), and hence an uncertainty of 
the " Sprachgefiihl " and a tendency to pro- 
nounce a t or f even where there was no 
etymological warrant for doing so. Examples 
for such confusion in Modern French are the 
often quoted c'estpat a moi, c'estpoinz a vous, 
etc., and aime-t-il. In principle it makes not 
the slightest difference that the Latin etymon 
of aime-t-il happens to have a / at the corres- 
ponding place, the / of aime-t-il being in no 
causal nexus whatever with the / in AMAT 
ILLE. In this case the unetymological / 
became firm under the continued influence of 
estil, at il, peut il, etc. Our/" may better be 
compared with d in Oldest French ned, sed, 
or with r in Modern English idear, cf. MODERN 
LANGUAGE NOTES ii, 227. First it was pro- 
nounced and written only occasionally, and 
became usual only in words in which it was 
favored by some accessory reason (like the t 
in aime-t-il). Such secondary reasons GROE- 
BER himself adduces for all the words in 
question except soif, where he believes in the 



sole influence of spelling. Soif, however, very 
naturally followed the /-forms of boivre, as 
has been suggested by SCHUCHARDT, Litera- 
turblatt fur germ. u. rom. Phil., 1887, 22. 

Thus the explanation we have proposed 
might be perfectly satisfactory, if other con- 
siderations did not suggest or rather require 
quite an other manner of regarding the case : 

ASCOLI, in one of his Lettere glottologiche 
(Ascoli-Gi'tterbock, 206) treats of our French 
words in connection with similar phenomena 
in Ladinian, Provencal and Catalan, and says 
that forms like moeuf, nifmust not, as GROE- 
BER would have it, be looked upon as late 
graphical deviations, but that, similar forms 
extending over as large a territory as "von 
den Quellen des Rheins bis zur Miindung des 
Ebro," they must be the result of some pho- 
netic development, and that they require in 
their etyma not the group -du but -ud : niud, 
moud instead of nidu, modu. Now, such 
Latin etyma might very happily explain our 
Romance forms, but the difficulty is that the 
Latin words are in fact not niud, moud, but 
nidu, modu, and there is no phonetic law 
according to which -du should become -ud. 
ASCOLI calls the supposed transformation a 
" vocalattraction," and refers to such forms 
as settle, reule; but seule, reule are to be ex- 
plained in a different way, and cannot hold 
good against vieil, ueil, peril, espalle, etc. 
At all events, "vocalattraction" is a rather 
vague expression, and sounds very much 
like a circumlocution to express ' an un- 
explained fact. It is a pity that our venerated 
Italian Maestro, like his great Florentine 
countryman, sometimes uses a certain parlar 
coperto, or even keeps back entirely 'his last 
word on the subject he is treating. In our 
case, however, the dental in the supposed 
etymon *niud, etc., makes it evident that ASCO- 
LI either believes in some sort of metathesis, 
which in fact is not much better a term than 
"vocalattraction," or that he means a kind of 
u- or o- Umlaut (d labialized by a following u 
or o and developing a u before itself), similar 
perhaps to FOERSTER'S i- Umlaut (Zs. f. r. 
Ph. iii). This comparison, I think, suggests 
at once the definite solution of the problem. 
FOERSTER'S proposed law has been, as I take 
it, successfully modified by NEUMANN in his 



86 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888 No. 4. 



174 



admirable articles on Satzdonbletten (Zs. viii). 
May not Ascou's theory call for a similar 
modification ? Indeed, a type - 
tin : n would explain the Surselvian 
etc., as well as Provencal alloc and our French t 
forms, while the Catalan would remain about 
as difficult as they are with ASCOLI. NEU- 
MANN, in Zs. viii, has not neglected to take 
into consideration the development of conso- | 
nant-f in French, and he has even devoted \ 
a special essay to this subject in the Caix- 
Canello Miscellanea, 167-174. It is strange , 
that in treating of French alou it has escaped j 
his attention that nij is a form of the same 
character, and therefore he did not realize that 
all our French words with -f come under the 
same category. I think it was because of two j 
objections which might possibly be made that j 
NEUMANN declined to identify the two cases. ! 
The question is (i) whether would become/ ! 
and (2) whether consonant-}-" is compatible i 
with a diphthong in the preceding syllable j 
(-buef, bief, etc.). As to the first question, a ] 
" consonnification de Vu " is posited by BON- j 
WA.RDOT (Romania v, 326-7), but no explanation 
is given of the development. The naturally 
was a v, as soon as the following word began 
with a vowel, and this v, when generalized, 
became an/ in pausa. Words which clearly 
show this are: ANTIQUUM, antikvo, antiv(o) 
antif; here the z/-form was favored by the 
feminine antive, but not necessarily produced 
by it ; Iudaeum,Judeo+vovie\,judeu,ju(d)ev, 
juif (the i presents difficulty, but in any case 
has nothing to do with our theory) ; VIDUUM, 
vedito, veuo-\-vowel, veuu, veuv, veuf ; here, I 
think, the feminine was originally 'veue veve, 
and eu came from the masculine. We may 
very well suppose, then, that /-f vowel 
became nidu, niu, niv, nif ; and so the other 
forms. 

A much more difficult question is that which 
concerns the diphthongization of the root- 
vowel before consonant-)-;/. 

NEUMANN keeps strictly to the rule that 
consonant-f forms position, and indeed the 
words which he treats agree with such a view. 
But, in the first place, I do not see why the ie 
in bief, ue in buef, etc., cannot be understood 
just like the e in gueu (Zs. viii, 399). The 
cases are perfectly parallel. I do not insist 



however upon this possibility, because I am 
not at all convinced that consonant-f always* 
( 'instituted position; q could very well, under 
favorable accentuation, preserve enough of its 
vowel character to form something like a 
syllable of its own, and make the radical vowel 
"libre." (Hence, perhaps, the trisyllabic 
Provensal vfzova, Ital. vedova.) Cf. further 
the development of the parallel group conso- 
nant -\-t\n PODIUM pui, MODIUM mui, CORRIUM 
cuir, OLEUM huile, IMPERJUM empire, POST- 
lus puts and especially that of AQUA ewe (be- 
sides aiwe) EQUA ive, SEQUERE sivre. More- 
over, the question of "Romance position" is 
still very much open to doubt ; cf. es (APES), as- 
sez, tiede, Esfiefne, Jumilges, ierre, nies, Jien- 
me, vieil, oirre, tonoirre, doivle,foivle,juefne, 
ues, nueit, etc., as against at, asne, ntalade, 
anme,jofne, Estefre, settle, reule, dette, erre, 
tonerre, manege, etc. Although some of 
these differentiations may be due to some 
analogy, it would be difficult to show the 
probability of such or any other secondary 
influence for all the forms concerned. I feel 
sure that it depended entirely on the greater 
or less stress a word happened to have, in 
fluent speech. Cf. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES 
i, no ff. All these differences are indeed 
easily accounted for by an explanation which 
is of course but an hypothesis, but which has 
perhaps the advantage of greater likelihood 
as compared with otfrer ideas of a similar 
character. 

I do not hesitate then, to recognize the 
result of consonant+ in the/of all the French 
words mentioned above. Soif, faudestuef, 
and the doubtful pief (Tobler in the Caix- 
Canello Miscellanea, 72 ; Groeber in Zs. x, 
293) owe their / to analogy, and it has been 
explained above that wrong linking was much 
favored by the conditions of final / and / in 
Old French. Pecchief may have been in- 

aCf. G. PARIS, Romania. XIV, 157 ff., and again Nu- 
MANN, Literaturblatt VI, 305 ff. The mere &ct that of two 
such scholars as PARIS and NEUMANN, the first believes that 
cons. +u did not form position, while the latter is convinced 
of the contrary, seems to show that here, as often, the truth 
is between the two extremes. 

It is true, as NEUMANN says, that rivrt, rtv can no more 
than lit, etc., be quoted as not forming J^itin petition; but 
they show the prolonged effect of TEN BRINK'S law and are 
therefore of importance where Romance or Callo-Latin 
position is concerned. 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888 No. 4. 



176 



fluenced by mechief ; maugref by gr(i)ef; 
-buef by bovem, according to Groeber ; and 
the forms Beuves, Bouvin, Buovo may per- 
haps be quoted in favor of this analogy. As 
to fief-fieffer, it seems to me that we should 
rather expect the group fief-f(i)ever to be the 
regular correspondence ; cf. grief -gr(i)ever, 
chef-achever, etc. I understand the ff of 
fieffer in another way : the analogy of chauf- 
fer, calfar CALEFACERE seems to justify the 
assumption that the common formula feodum 
facere grew together to feoffacere, which, by 
contraction and change of conjugation, became 
feoffarie). This may then have favored the 
development and persistence of the labial in 
the noun. Soif, as we learned from SCHU- 
CHARDT, followed the /-forms of boivre : jo 
boiv car fai SOIF.* 

GUSTAF KARSTEN. 
Indiana University. 



Since the above was in type, I find that 
ASCOLI has published in Archivio Glottologico 
x, 2, pp. 260 fT., another essay connected with 
our subject, entitled " II tipo gallo-romano 
seuvSEBd etc." 

This essay is a reproduction of ASCOLI 's 
' Widmungsschreiben an Francesco d'Ovidio, 
Sprachw. Briefe, i-xvi,' "con qualche omis- 
sione e alcune aggiunte," repeating, and de- 
fending against the objections of W. MEYER 
and GROEBER (Zs. xi, 283-288), the Gallo- 
Roman "attrazione," which in a sarcastic 
note (cf. 'Sprachw. Briefe' x) he again ex- 
plains as anticipation of the final vowel, 
protesting against labialization of the inter- 
mediate consonant. He also thinks it neces- 
sary again to insist that he has "il piu pro- 
fondo rispetto per la scienza in generale e in 
especie per la fisiologia e anche per la psicolo- 
gia." 

This certainly nobody would ever venture 
to doubt, nor should we deny that a man like 
ASCOLI may claim the right to use such ex- 
pressions and to use them in such sense as he 
chooses. We only protest against vague ex- 
pressions, because others, del minorum 
gentium, might very soon hide under general 

*This article was intended for our March issue but a delay 
in the mails prevented it from reaching us in time and conse- 
quently it appears with postscript in the present number. 

Eds. 



terms a lack of clearness in their own ideas. 
This must be avoided, and therefore we 
should have been thankful to ASCOLI if he 
had vouchsafed to tell us, in simple language, 
whether his " attrazione " must be considered 
a merely psychological process, or whether it 
is due to physiological causes also. If the 
latter be the case, we must protest against the 
possibility that any sound can influence an- 
other element of speech, unless both are in 
immediate connection with each other, the 
line being unbroken by any intermediate ele- 
ment which remains intact. The modern 
Piemontese-Ligurian boinBONi cannot 
prove anything, becuase the n may very well 
have been palatalized when the /-sound was 
developing before it ; and the same with the 
other forms. So I continue to consider any 
such " attraction " as Umlaut in the above- 
mentioned sense of the word. The practical 
question now is, did this "attrazione" or 
Umlaut take place in French under all circum- 
stances, as ASCOLI says ? Theoretically there 
is no objection to such a law, and I am espe- 
cially glad that ASCOLI, in the course of his 
investigations, has had occasion to state once 
more the fact that all unaccented vowels in 
Latin did not fall at the same time, but that 
long vowels naturally had more tenacita than 
short ones. In fact it has always been one of 
my favorite ideas, that no mechanical law will 
ever be found covering the disappearance 
of unaccented syllables, their existence being 
entirely at the mercy of the momentary con- 
ditions of speech ; but that, generally speak- 
ing, long syllables offered the longest resist- 
ance ; and I have brought this into connection 
with similar features in TEN BRINK'S law (cf. 
MOD. LANG. NOTES i, 210-227). Moreover 
ASCOLI, by making his Gallo-Roman law 
appear to be the natural consequence of 
parallel processes in the language of the 
original Celtic race, opens to our eyes such a 
wide and dazzling perspective, that at first 
sight one feels inclined enthusiastically to 
accept the new discovery of our master ; and 
I confess that when I first read the 'Widmungs- 
schreiben' I came very near giving up all my 
previous notions as regards our case ; but 
there are reasons which prevent me from 
adopting ASCOLI'S law : 



88 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



i. According to ASCOLI we should have to 
admit a sound-change niud: nivd\ anting: 
antivg, etc. I, for one, think it simply im- 
possible that iu before consonants should be- 
come iv, the opposite change being the only 
probable one in French. It is not possible, 
either, to propose a series niud, niu, niv, 
because and this leads us to the 

ad objection final d does not disappear in 
prehistoric French, and we should expect 
therefore to find in Oldest French forms 
like niud etc., which, however, do not occur 
anywhere in the language. 

3. Even if the intermediate type *niud, 
*antiug may be supposed to have existed in the 
language without ever occurring in the pre- 
served documents, a fact which in itself is not 
at all impossible, is it not strange that pho- 
netic conditions like/a/0, which occurred so 
frequently in Latin, should have left so very 
few traces in the whole French language? 
The rare occurrence of a certain phonetic 
development is, of course, the more natural, 
the more its conditions are restricted, as is the 
case in our own theory : V/+vowel : nidu : 
nidv : niv : nif. 

One point in my theory I seem not to have 
treated thoroughly enough, because I really 
did not think that any difficulty could arise as 
to the question whether u could become v 
and/. This has been denied by W. MEYER 
and GROEBER (Zs. xi, 1. c). 

It is true that ASCOLI has already thrown 
the weight of his authority into the other 
balance, but, as we have seen under number 
i, we cannot avail ourselves of his assistance, 
since his own proposition seems to us al- 
together impossible. Accordingly, we must 
answer for ourselves. MEYER does not be- 
lieve that , being bilabial, would become 
dentilabial v. It might be difficult to hold 
to this objection in principle, when we think 
of Germanic bilabial uu becoming bilabial 
fricative w in South German, dentilabial w 
in North German, and occasionally/ in North 
German dialects ; e. g., Goth, weis, S. G. wir, 
N. G. wir, Soest. fui (cf. HOLTHAUSEN, 
'Soester Mundart.') Compare, further, 
Norwegian / which according to HOFFARY 
was bilabial in Old Norse. In Gallo-Roman 
itself Indo-Germ. g as well as g*,g% became 



dentilabial v (VASTS, VENIRE). In short, the 
transition of u to dentilabial v is an entirely 
common one, and the question can only be, 
does it agree with French sound-change? 
GROKBER admits that Cermauic u became v, 
as is necessary for his etymology fehu : fief. 
What the difference could have been between 
Germanic u and Latin n is hard to see ; but, 
of course, any statement based on personal 
convictions may be supported, as long as 
nothing militates against it. So we shall have 
to look out for instances among French words 
of Latin origin ; and I wonder how W. 
MEYER and GROEBER explain forms like 
Janvier, veuve, veuf* antif. 

G. K. 



STRONG VERBS IN AELFRICS 
SAINTS. I. 

Of the thirty-nine homilies mentioned in 
the table of contents prefixed to the MS. of the 
' Saints ' the first and second parts of SKEAT'S 
edition contain 1-23. The ' Interrogationes 
Sigewulfi ' ( I. S.) forming number thirty-seven 
is edited by McLEAN in Anglia vii, i. These 
texts form the basis of this study. 

The plan of the work is as follows. Adopt- 
ing the classification of SIEVER'S grammar, 
there is first given a list of all verbs that occur 
in each class in the forms which their infini- 
tives have, or would have according to the 
analogy of the forms that occur. If the verb 
is not used without a prefix it is preceded by 
a hyphen, and the prefixes with which it is 
used are placed in alphabetical order after 
each verb. 

The citations are arranged below in the 
order of the ablaut-vowels, so that all forms 
with like vowels appear together. Where all 
is regular according to West Saxon standards, 
I have not thought it necessary to cite every 
passage, but I have endeavored to give one 
citation for every form that occurs. Where 
there is any irregularity, or where two spellings 
are used for the same form, I have given the 
citations in full. The references are to the 
pages of SKEAT and to the lines of the ' In- 
terrogationes.' All marks of accentor quanti- 
ty are omitted except in so far as they occur 
in the MS. Here I have given all cases where 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



180 



an accent is used over a short ablaut-vowel, 
but have given only partial citations where it 
is used over long ones. I have used ft as 
medial and final and /> as initial, without regard 
to the MS. reading except in special cases. 

Some notes on the endings may best be 
placed here. 

The ad, 3d sing, of the present indicative is 
always in the short form, except widstanded, 
I. S., 229, and has regularly umlaut when 
possible. An h suppressed in the infinitive 
reappears regularly (flyhfi, pyhd, si/iff, fehft, 
etc.) A double consonant is simplified (wind, 
fyffi), and 3#, ft become / (ft), while dst=tst, 
or st (fint, bitt, finst, brytst, etc.). 

When final, h takes the place of g (stah, etc.), 
and double consonants are usually simplified 
(pngan, feol}, but there are many exceptions 
noted in full below. 

In endings a is occasionally used for e, e. 
g.forleosa, 108, but as these are usually noted 
in the text by a ' (sic) ' it is not necessary to 
notice them further here. Cheat confusion 
exists between en, an, and on, though the 
infinitive and past participle suffer less than 
other forms. The following examples will 
suffice. 
en for on,forleten 388, ongunnen 12, 32, begea- 

ten 92. 
en for an, gehealden 24, tosceaden 20, unbinden 

222. 
an for en, acoman 252, beswican 10, 72, tocneo- 

wan 48. 
an for on, ongunnan 12, becoman 28. coman 92, 

gewytan 96. 
on for en, beswicon 242, eton 290, wrecon 484, 

sprecon 530. 
on for an, tobrecon 130, beaton 98, winnon I. S. 

280. 

e sometimes takes the place of ad where the 
pronoun is suffixed, e. g. sprece we 286, sceole 
ge, 352, cwetie we 382, and of en, e. g. bruce ge 
522. In a similar way an is used in faran us \ 
(let us go) 500, Icetan hi gelangigan (let them 
be summoned). 

The construction of wesan with the present 
participle, which is so frequent in two of the 
Blickling Homilies and is occasionally found 
throughout that text, occurs here so far as I 
have observed only in was peonde 194, and in 
the ' Seven Sleepers ' (which as we shall see in 



what follows presents many peculiar forms) 
four times, wees sprecende 510, 522, wees onsit- 
tende 516, wees far end e 531. (') 

The lists which follow contain 163 strong 
verbs. Of these forty are used only without 
prefixes, sixty-one are used always with pre- 
fixes, and sixty-two are used both with and 
without, though in several cases the simple 
forms are very rare. These are noted as they 
occur. The division by classes appears in the 
following table : 

Always with L L L L L L - 
12 6 14 5 5 9 10 61 



Always with- 
out prefixes. 



With and with- -9 10 18 3 8 4 10 62 

out prefixes. 

TOTAL. 26 26 37 9 16 18 31 163 

CLASS i. 

Bidan a-, and-, ge-, -bitan a-, drifan ofer-, 
aweg-,up~, -dwinan for-, Jlitan, -glidan ofer-, 
gnidan, -gripan ge-, hnigan under-, -lifan be-, 
ridan, -risan a-, ge-, scinan, scripan ge, sigan 
on-, slitan to-, -smitan be-,umbe-, spiwan a-, 
stigan a-,ofer-, swican be,-ge-, -swidan ofer-, 
peon ge-, ofer-, -witan cet-, ge-, -wreon a-, on-, 
writan a-, -wriftan ge-. 

Swican occurs but once without a prefix, 
swicafi 352, which may be weak, for it is third 
person singular, but its meaning is that of the 
strong verb. Writan occurs but twice, 328, 
334 (ivritan, writenne) ; the formb with the 
prefixes are very common. 

The infinitive, imperative, present participle 
and present tense have the regular i or i. 
Examples are gebide 84 and bidati 358 ; drifan 
278, awegdrifan 166, oferdrifan 36, drifS 530 ; 
flitan 292, flitende 88 ; belifti 166 ; arisan 234, 
ar'isan 510, aris\ 158, gerisft 6; scinendan I. S. 
143, scind 468, scinaS 22, onsigendan 242, sli- 
tendan 206, oferstigan 12, stihft 12, astihft 12, 
beswican I. S. 268, beswicft I. S. 250, oferswi- 
dan 240, oferswift! 246, oferswide (i) I. S. 272 ; 

i I will take this opportunity to call attention 
also to the use of u for f once in byuigende 
206, (bifigende 212); of eo for e in feorde 154, 
and to tne constructions gange him (let him 
go) 444, hine gebiddan beo ("continue in 
prayer") 288, oferswidendum (not to be 
conquered) 310, for Icetan (to be rejected) 
336, to gebiddene (to be adored). 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



182 



pihti, geivitan 166 (twice), gewit! 170 (twice) 
476, gewit (3) I. S. 202; writan 334, writenne 
328, awrltan 510; gewriSan 202, etc. 

j* is used tor / in the following cases : scy- 
nende 420, scynft 258, 436 ; spywfi 272 ; geswycO 
272 ; gewytan 20, awrytene 82. 

^o occurs regularly in ]>eonde 194, 280, 322, 
440, gepeo (subj.) I. S. 491. The preterit and 
past participle of peon follow the second class. 

The preterit singular i, 3, is always a or d. 
Examples aregebdd 108, abdt 126, oferdrdf2j,2, 
fordwan 166, oferglad 220, hndh 122, under- 
hnah 340, beldf 138, 390 ; rdd 62, 162 ; ara^ 150, 
arj 52, sah 436, 502, j^fA 528, 538 ; spaw 264, 
aspdw 32 ; j/^A 12, aj/rtA no, a.y/<fA 144, <?/V'r- 
330; geswac I. S. 19, 22; geswdc 44; 0/>r- 
24, () 

The 2d sing, and plural and the subj. preterit 
have * in all cases. Abite{$\\\>).} 126, updrifon 
490, gegrifon 30, belifon 112, 138, 254, scinon 
254, /o sliton 492, gewite (subj.) 224, ouwrige 
(subj.) 166, owriton 6. So also the past parti- 
ciples ge serif ene 282, besmiiene 94, unbesmit- 
enum 94, beswicane 10, beswicen I. S. 32, 
eetwiten 524, awriten 5, 434 MS. U., I. S. 95, 
etc. 

^ for i occurs in the past participles besnty- 
tene 46, awrygennysse, awryten 20, 24, awry- 
tan 434, aivrytene 246. 

f for f in stigon 490; ^o for / ?', onwreogan 
(P-P-) 534- 

CLASS 2. 

Beodan a-, be-, /or-, ge-, brucan, bugan a-, 
for-, ge-, on-, ceosan ge-, ceowan, creopan, 
dreogan a-, fleogan, fleon <zt-,for-,freosan-, 
geotan a- be-, hleotan, -hreosan of, hreowan 
leogan for-, -leosan for-, -lutan a-, -lucan be-, 
reocan, sceofan a-, be-, (also scufari), sceotan 
a- be-, -sleopan to-, spreotan, sucan, supan, 
teon a-, be-, ford-, ge-, of-, ofer-, ut-, pur h, yd 
peon (in the preterit and past participle, see i.) 

The infinitive, imperative, present participle, 
the ist sing, and plural of the present indica- 
tive, and the present subjunctive, have eo or u 

* Else always weak, e. g. oferswitide 340, 344, 
oferswitidod 240, oferswytidon 216; ofer- 
swided 252, 374 ; oferswyoed 252, 358, 360 ; 
a/a/ 96, gewdt 32, 66; awrat 122, 232, 1. S. 
48, awrdt 58, wrat 232 MS. B., gewrad 252, 
etc. Scinan has sc fan 102, no, 178. 204, 250, 
322, scean 92, scedn 178. 



(6). Examples of eo are : bebeode (i) 22, 
gebeodon (subj.) 6; ceosan 32, geceosan 172, 
geceos\ 176, geceos 300 W., ceowaO 120; creo- 
pende 14, adeogan 160, fleogendum 400, cet- 
fleon 12, fleo \ 300, fleondan 416, fleo (subj.) 214 ; 
hleotan 370, hleotafi 370, hreowan 492 (twice) ; 
for lease 2i^,forleosa (2) (subj.) 108; reocendes 
170; sceofany.*, besceofan 182, asceofon (inf.) 
404, asceofan 404; of teon 202, ateoh\ 212, a/^o^ 
22, forftteofi 460, ateo (subj.) 444 (twice), q/teo 
(subj.) 216 ; ^d is used in oferteon I. S. 354. 

Examples of w are: brdce (subj.) 34, btigan 
68, abugan 20 I. S. 224, aubugan 368, gebugan 
I. S. 481, forbugan I. S. 91, A ! 272, 380, ?- 
*A ! 2$6,fordtige 20 (subj.) ; belucan 70, ^/wr ! 
212; bescufan 48 (twice), and 404 MS. Junius 
(twice). 

The 2d, 3d present indicative takes y in 
onbyhft I. S. 300, cywfi 112, flyhfi 18, 334, 372, 
forlyst 280, forlysfi 370, jr/ry/ 293 (twice), 
bescyt I. S. 260. 

jV becomes in */A^ 348, lihst 272, //A^ 268, 
//AJ 476. 

fleoft 250, which is translated as the 3d sing. 
of fleon, is, I think, the 3d sing. o( flowan.a.n& 
for flewd, (see 7, c). 

The ist, 3d pret. sing, is regularly ea. The 
examples are: bead 172, I. S. 389, abead 28, 
forbead 134, breac 172, 62, MS. V, 0^aA 140 
190, 322, 384, gebeah 40, geceas 6, ffva^ 448, 
rfrazA 2i6,fleah 54, 298, /^aA 278, forleah 276, 
forleas 20, beleac 74, #a/ 190, jr^a/ 54, MS. 
V, 404, MS. Jun., asceat 466, 396 MS. Jun., 
j^a/ 60, MS. V., teah 50, 518, utteah 164, purh- 
teah I. S. 59, />*-aA 24, 234, (see i). 



^ is used for <ra in brae 62, jr<?/ 54. 250, 

60. 

^ is used for ea in sett 404, ascet 396. 
^o is used for ^a before w in hreow 510, ofhreow 

300. 

The preterit 2d sing., plural, and subjunctive 
has always. Examples are : abude 28, bugon 
(subj.) I. S. 485, gebugon 188, gecure 198, 
gecuron 42, crupon 174, drugon 196, forfluge 
204, flugon 204, 492, /^-<r 274, forlugan (ind.) 
38, scufon 246, bescufon 410, Jf^ (zdind.) 202 ; 
<i for \nfl6gon 492. 

The participle has 0, twice <*. The examples 
are : beboden ^t,forboden I. S. 42, 195, gebog- 
en 188, gebdgenan 30, gecorenan 30,! . S. 393, 



April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



184 



500; begoten 182, begotene 324, agotene 98, 176; 
ofhrorene 298, (MS. Faustina ofhrdrene};for- 
loren 18, alotene 14, beloceu 78, 190, I. S. 326; 
gestoten (? for gescoten) I. S. 325, (other MSS. 
getogeri) ; toslopene 248, toslopenum 162, ^- 
/#<? 26, I. S. 325, betogen 458, ydtogenan 506 ; 
gepogene 280, oferpogen 62. 

CLASS 3. 

Belgan a-, ge-, beorgan ge-, berstan <zt-, to-, 
-bindange-, un-, -b finnan a-, una-, bredan a-, at-, 
for-, ge-, of a-, to-, byrnan for-, ceorfan for,- 
ofa-, drincan a-,feohtan,findana-,ge-,una-, 
-frinan be-, -gyldan a-, for-, ofer-, -ginnan a-, 
be-, on-, umbe, helpan ge-, -hweorfan be-, -lim- 
pan tzt-,be-,ge-, -me/fan a-, for-, sincan a-, be-, 
singan ge-, springan a-, slingan, spurnan, 
stincan ge-, -stingan of-, -swelgan for-, -swel- 
lan to-, sweltan, swimman, swincan be-, 
-swingan be-, -pindan to-, -pingan ge-, windan 
eet-, be-, ofer-, winnan ge-, ofer-, on, wurpan 
<*-> be-, ge-, of-, to-, wurdan for-, ge-, yrnan 
be-. 

i. The present stem, (a) Before nasals i 
is regularly used. Examples are: unbindan 
498, unbinden (inf.) 222, unablinnendlic 144, 
drincft 266, 354, adrincaft 134, gefindan 504, 
afindan 130, onginf 186, 246, 478, aginne (i) 
498, onginfi 488, gelimpd 18, belimpo' 20, 330 
(thrice) belimpaftl. S. 251, besincan 112, singe 
(i) 22 (twice), slingft I. S. 259, stincS I. S. 259, 
swimmao" 14, swincst 88, swincft 380, beswin- 
gan 238, winnon (inf.) I. S. 280, bewindan 122, 
oferwinnan 362, omvinnendum 190, win ! 284, 
win^ 286, 304, I. S. 262, gewind 364, oferwirift 
188, winne (subj.) 340. 

Before the endings st, S the d in findan, 
windan is dropped and S becomes /, e. g. 
gebint 476, finst 82, fint 202-. 

y is used for i in ablynti 470, belympti 416, 
gelympfi 20, gelympe (subj.) 22, wyriS 352. 

In befrinan 372, befrinenne 400, the * doubt- 
less long but is not accented. 

(b) Before ht, rg, rf, the regular vowel is 
eo. Cases of the 2, 3, indie, sing, do not occur. 
The examples are: gebeorgan I. S. 406, ge- 
beorge (subj.) 138, ceorfanne 202, ofaceorfan 
202,/eokffnd 282. Before rn, y is used: for- 
byrnan 178, byrnende 48, 140, 208, 490, byrnen- 
da 204, byrnendan 140, byrnendunt 106, I. S. 
453, byrnft 208; yrnan 462, yrnendum 148, 



yrna.8 330, 370. In berstan, where the r owes 
its place to metathesis, no breaking takes 
place. The umlaut in the third person is y. 
^Etberstan 246, 530, I. S. 480, cztbrytst 266. 
After w we find n, with umlaut in the third 
singular to y in two cases, while u is retained 
in two. The forms are : wurpan 404, gewur- 
pan 436, awurp ! 188, awurpad 118, awurpe 
(subj. plural) 120, (MS. C. y),forwurpan (subj.) 
358; gewurfian 514, gewurfiaft 12, wurft 120, 
132, wyrft 120 MS. C., 152. Isolated is geweor- 
dan 506, in the ' Seven Sleepers ' which contains 
several other phonetic and syntactic peculiari- 
ties, (see below). 

(c) Before /-{-consonant, e is used except 
after g, where y is found. The 3d sing, indica- 
tive has e in gehelpo~ 190, swelt 68, eg in sw&lt 
18, andjy \nformylt 316, swylt 256, 272, 276, as 
well as in f orgy It 382, compare agyldan 368, 
ofergyldaft 198. The 2d sing, does not occur. 
Examples of e are helpe (i) -]2,forswelgan 48, 
sweltan I. S. 88, 198. 

(d) Bregdan(^ drops the ^throughout (ex- 
cept in MS. U in the past participle abrogden 
222, abrdgden 226). The present forms are : 
cstbredan 116, (ttbrytst 82, abret I. S. 137, <zt- 
brede (subj.) 426. 

2. The preterit ist, 3d singular has a before 
nasals and rn, ea before I and r+consonant, 
though eo is regular in heolp, sweolt and ce in 
bcerst and breed. Before nasals tinb&nd 122, 
dranc 266, befran 174, 310, 454 I. S. 12, 17, be- 
frdn 72 (twice) 198, 200, 204, 214, 226, 310, 388 ; 
began 158, 160, 230, 242, 264, 296, 408, 414, 504 
538, ongan 34, 228, 330 (twice) 352, 426, 452, 
488, 520, begann, 36, 248, 502, 530, ongann 350, 
538, gelamp, I. S. 240, asanc 112, besanc 48, 
gesang 104, sprang 294, 524, asprang 138, 
.y/'awf no, swang 494, wand<$. 217, 398, bew&nd 
518, cetwand 182, 414, o/a 170, 246, 282. 340 
(twice), 372, onwan 408, onwann 480. Before 
r . ar 112 (twice), 2o8,forbarn 208 I. S. 462, 
ar 74, 88, 100, 136, 154, 180 (twice), etc., I. S. 
217, etc., beam 234. Spearn 174, 208, may be 
regarded as ed or as anomalous. Before h, /, 
r-f-consonant ea, in gebealh 64, 202, 394, bearh 
Si8,feaht 284, forgeald 62, 340, formealt 250, 
spearn 174, 208 (see above), swealt 428, MS. D., 

ifrignan is treated as a nasal stem, see (a), 
but the pret. was certainly long and the 
u though not accented was probably so. 



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No. 4. 



1 86 



awearp 50, ofwearp 382 (twice), towearp I. S. 
203, wearfl 14, etc., I. S. 297, etc., gewearO 5, 
fonvearti 30. For *a we find <s? in ward 20, 
b<?rstq/8, 316, tobcfrst 48, 112, 248, 298, 312, 372, 
404, 460, 466, (see * above), swcelt 16 (twice). 
For < we have <ea in waard 104, probably a 
blunder, and ^0 in geheolp 212 (with which 
compare the subjunctive geheoipe 462) sweolt 
396, 428. *Bregdan has ?Y?rf 252, eetbrced 
282, 424, tobrted 492, and, as if to indicate a 
lengthening in place of the g, gebr&d 34. 

3. The 2d preterit singular, the plural and 
subjunctive, are always with u except geheoipe 
462 (subj.) (see 2). The cases are : abulgon 280, 
gfburge 480, burston 422, atburste 528, gebun- 
don 190, brudon 528, abrudon 528, atbrudon 
424, (MS. U cetbriidon as complementary 
lengthening), of abrudon 178, forcurfon 28, 
druncon 164, drunce 330, fuhton 240, 406, ^- 
frunon 230, forgulde 136, ongunnan 12, hulpe 
452, 492 (cf. geheoipe 462, see 2 above), behwur- 
fon 236, cstlumpon 492, formulton 208, suncon 
598, 316 (twice), sungon 240, stuncon 102, ^- 
stnnce no, ofstunge 142, swulton 300, 326, ^- 
swunce 276, (ztwunde (subj.) 494, bewurpon 390, 
townrpon 46; wurdon 44, etc, I. S. 164, etc., 
wurde I. S. 403, 459, and once, with a neglect 
of the change from # to rf, gewurfte (subj.) 534, 
which like geweordan 506 is from the ' Seven 
Sleepers ; ' urnon 208, 324, 378, 402. 

The past participle has w before nasals and 
r, elsewhere 0. Before nasals : gebundene 36, 
unbunden 222, afundan 208, unafunden 78, 
tinbegunnen 12, gelumpen 524, 530, cethimpene 
504, topundenum 64, gepungen I. S. i, gepun- 
genra 58, gepungenran 362, I. S. 502. Before 
r; forburnen no, 318. Before mutes and 
liquids except r : gebolgen 38, geborgen 202, 
forbroden 470 (twice), abroden 222 (U. abrog- 
deri), 226 (U. abrdgden), corfene 204, amoltenan 
130, toswollen 78, aworpene 342, beworpene 390, 
geworden 422. 

BENJ. W. WELLS. 

Jena, Germany. 



THE GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTION 
IN THE ROMANIC LANGUAGES, 



We now come to the Syntax, which will be 
treated under two rubrics : ist, The Gerund 



without a preposition, and ad, The Gerund 

with a preposition. 

THE GERUND WITHOUT A PREPOSITION. 

The most striking peculiarity of the gerun- 
dial construction in the early languages, es- 
pecially those of France, is its infrequency as 
compared with modern usage. It is more 
common in verse than in prose, and this is ex- 
plained by the fact, that when a writer starts a 
"leash" (laisse) whose assonance or rime 
requires ant, ent, (ans, ens) terminations, he is 
often driven to seek the construction and the 
use of words which will give him his rime or 
assonance. Could we call up the shades of 
the old poets and question them on the 
subject of verse-making, many of them would 
have to make the same confession in this 
respect as Baltasar del Alcazar makes of the 
consonants : 

Porque si in verso reficro 
Mis cosas mas importantes, 
Me fuerzan los consonantes 
A decir lo que no quiero. 

The freer use of the infinitive during the first 
stages of the growth of these languages doubt- 
less exerted a great influence in preventing 
the rapid development of the gerundial con- 
struction, which at the present time has as- 
sumed such extensive proportions owing to 
the general discarding of the infinitive as a 
kind of verbal noun. 

The following French and Provencal ex- 
amples, selected as being the most note- 
worthy in this regard, will make plain the 
difference as compared with modern usage. 

Et Ie fist mult bien & 1'enz metre (modern : en 
les repoussant) si que grant pris 1'en dona 
Ton. 

Ville-Hardouin. 

Si unt le clerc truvd par querre e demander 
Prechant e batizant, ke f o fu sun mester. 

Math. Paris, Vie de S. Auban, 1291. 

Mais hardis doit estre en serrir. 

Jehan de Condi, B. 396,3. 
II faisait tel noise au venir (mod. en venant) 
que il sembloit que ce fust la foudre dou ciel. 
Joinville, Hist, de S. Louis, ch. XLIII. 
Et y mist 1'on au paiement faire lesamedi. 

Ditto, LXXV. 

Car il avail paour que il ne brisast le col au 
tourner. 

Ditto, CI. 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



1 88 



Je li demandai comment ce estait que il ne 
metoit consoil en li garantir ne par noer. 

Ditto, CXXIX. 
E la amava e deleitava se en parlar de lieis. 

Bib. der Troub. XXXV. 

L'un an els fundemens lur cura, 
Li autre en bastir la mura 
El altre en far lo mortier. 

Life of St. Enimia. 
Aisi se van ferir (might be : feren) cum cascus 

venc, 
No lor valo escut par un besenc. 

G. de Rossilho, 2180. 

Car ab cor franc tan m'afranc en amar. 

Anonym. Ballad. 

Contrast the two following examples, in 
which infinitive and gerund are equivalents : 

Per la vila s'en van cridan. 

Die Kindheit Jesu 
(B's Denknvler, XXXIX). 
E totz los juzieus van cridar. 

Ditto. 

That the language has lost much in force 
and ease of expression by abandoning this 
free use of the infinitives for other construc- 
tions cannot be questioned ; as the substitutes, 
which have been mostly supplied by the ger- 
, und, are not as flexible for purposes of 
thought. One can not but feel this to be one 
of the lost beauties of the language ; and the 
loss becomes more apparent, when we turn to 
the Italian, Spanish etc., in which thegerund- 
ial and infinitive constructions have grown 
side by side with each other and give to these 
languages a variety of expression unattainable 
in French. The Italian : lo scender questa 
roccia ; al passar questa valle ; gli costa caro 
questo diffamare altrui : Spanish : un secreto 
desearos ; el huir la ocasion ; el comunicar 
los males ; cair me" mal castigado en non 
temer a Dios : Prov.: al camp levar, etc., had 
their analogy in : au doner le don, au passer 
la porte, a un tertre monter, au prendre le 
conge", en eel tirer expressions which even 
Montaigne could imitate (il se penoient du 
tenir le chastel, and : le paistre 1'erbe est 
salutaire au jeune cheval), but which have 
now totally disappeared from the language. 

One of the earliest and very common con- 
structions of the gerund is effected by its con- 
junction with the verb aller. When so used, 
alter may perform the part of a simple aux- 
iliary or copula and either expresses progres- 



sive or iterative action, or these ideas may be 
altogether absent and the action of the princi- 
pal verb does not seem to be appreciably 
modified by the addition of aller. In other 
cases aller retains in part or wholly its 
motional signification and as so used may be 
replaced by almost any verb expressing 
motion. These two categories are not always 
clearly defined, certain cases being susceptible 
of either interpretation. As instances of aller 
as copula only and in which the fundamental 
meaning is completely subordinated to the 
principal verb, may be cited : 

1. E tei tuz jurs apele, " K'alez vusdemandant." 

Vie de Seint Auban, 818. 

2. As eschies e as tables se vunt esbaneiant. 

Voyage de Charlemagne, 270. 

3. Seignurs baruns, n'en alez mespensant, 
Pur Deu vus pri que ne seiez fuiant. 

Ch. de Roland, 1472. 

4. Kar chevalchiez. Pur qu'alez arestant ? 

Ditto, 1783. 

5. De grant dolour se va ly her pasmant. 

Roman d'Aquin, 1601. 

6. Pour 1'amour D nels alez espargnant. 

Ditto, 1633. 

7. Voire moult plus, ce trovon nous lesant 
Dedans 1'ystoire qui point ne va mentant. 

Ditto, 1666. 

8. Quant li rois 1'entendi, de coer va souspirant. 

Berte aus Grans Pie's, 2542. 

9. La paiz alout cherchant, les querre metre a fin. 

Roman de Rou, 1542. 

10. Se li reis li alout de nule rien falsant. 

Ditto, 2544. 

11. Fortment lo vant il acusand, 
La soa mort mult demandant. 

La Passion, B. 16, 6-7. 

12. Or pri a tous les vrais amans 
Ceste chanson voisent chantant. 

13. Ainz y mouron que salon recreant, 
Ne que de riens nous augeon fouyant. 

Roman d'Aquin, 1635. 

14. Li Tur vindrent assaillir a" sa gent qui tout 

de gr*5 s'aloient remanant. 

Trans, de Gull, de Tyr, Liv. VII, 

15. D'ores en autres va sa colpe rendant 
A sa main destrealoit son piz batant. 

Guil. d'Orange, B. 65, 38. 

16. (Ja et la espandu par le chemin et li plus 

d'eus aloient dormant. 

Tr. de Guil. de Tyr, Liv. XII. 

All of these examples either show plainly 
of themselves, or it may be gathered from 
the context, that the idea of actual motion in 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



190 



alter is totally wanting, as much so as it would 
be in "go," if we should translate example 10 
by the popular construction : if the king 
should go to deceiving him in any way. 

In Nos. i, 3, 4, 6, 10, the simple verbs : 
demandez, mespensez, arestez, espargnez, 
falsout, could be substituted without in any 
way modifying the thought. It is quite evi- 
dent that alez, in the first line of No. 3, is the 
exact functional equivalent of seiez in the 
second line. We learn from the context of 
No. 2 that Charlemagne found the knights 
seant\ hence "se vunt esbaneiant " means, 
they are in the act of enjoying themselves 
progressive or continuative action. In 5 and 
8 aller gives to the principal verb the notion 
of incipiency as well as progression ; while 
" point ne va mentant," in No. 8, may imply 
that history is not in the habit of lying. In n 
and 12 it is possibly repetitive. How com- 
pletely the idea of real motion could be over- 
looked may be learned from the last three 
examples (14, 15, 16). 

It is interesting to observe that old Johan 
Fischart uses the German gehen in a similar 
manner, in his translation of Rabelais, head- 
ing of chapter 4 : 

Wie Gurgelmiltsam, als sie mit dem kind- 
lein Gurgellantule schwanger gieng, ein 
grossen wust kutteln frass und davon genas. 
The famous boast of Juno, in Virgil, offers a 
like instance of the copulative use of a verb 
of motion : 

Ast ego, quac Divtim incedo, Jovisque 
Et soror et conjux. 

In English it is a common idiom to say : to go 
mad, blind, etc. ; and we in the Southern 
States are familiar with the negro lingo : done 
gone and kilt him=has killed him ; but I was 
hardly prepared, when some months ago I 
was speaking of the death of a favorite dog, 
to have put to me, by a Hoosier acquaintance, 
the query : when did he go dead? or to find a 
writer in The Nation of August 4, 1887, (p. 89) 
speaking of somebody's horse going dead 
lame. 

But returning to aller we see that, used as a 
simple copula, it may shade off into a number 
of fine distinctions, in which actual motion is 
not necessarily implied. At the present day 



many of these features of aller are supplied 
by other constructions. Remnants of some of 
its functions are seen in : 

L'entreprite suffit i prouver que I'ltude du 
fram,ais va toujoun prenant plu* d'im- 
portance en Allcrnagnc. 

Romania, IX. 166. 

Et des touches au loin t 'ouvrent avidement, 
A ccs atomei fous que la nuil va semant. 

Hugo, L'Ane. 

Vous n'allez frt'quantant que ipadasiins 
inftmes. 

Ditto, Ruy Bias, I. . 

expressions, in which the combination of the 
two verbs serves to indicate progression, 
continuance or habit, but only weakly or not 
at all that of motion. In translating the first 
sentence into English we should say : is daily 
becoming more important ; in rendering the 
second, to be exact, we should probably have 
to make va subordinate to semant sows as it 
goes ; while the third is : you habitually asso- 
ciate with, etc. 

A rather peculiar combination of venir and 
aller is found in the Roman d'Alexandre (B. 
177.5): 

Alexandres commande 1'ost amener avant, 
Quar el bos as puceles vint aler deduisant. 

In the formation of the compound tenses of 
aller \n the senses above illustrated, avoir is 
generally, though not always, employed : 

Et orent tant alt! sofrant que il virent la Rouse 
A mains de demie lieue. 

Ville-Hardouin, Ch. 94. 

Tant est alez Tiebalt son orguil demenant. 

Roman de Rou, 4089. 

E com lo reis Felips avia anat plaideian 
sobre la riba de laiga. 

Bil.derTroub. XXVI. 

When etre is used, the verb more common- 
ly retains its fundamental meaning of motion : 

One ne Tot tel Aiquin ly amirez, 
Qui par la mer fuyant s'en est alez. 

Roman d'Aquin, 9517. 

Par toutes terres est alez cunquerant. 

Ch. de Roland, 553. 

Desus un pin i est alez curant. 

Ditto, 9363. 

It is to be expected that constructions analo- 
gous to these of aller should be found with 
verbs of motion in the other languages. 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



192 



Chfe spero e vo sperando 
Che ancora deggio avere 
Allegro meo coraggio. 

Federigo II, Rei di Sicilia. 
Cuando dellos se despide, 
Lagrimas va derramando. 

Rom. del Cid, CIX. (Voegelin). 

Mirabanle las mozas y andaban con los ojos 
buscandole el rostro que la mala visera le 
encubria. 

Don Quij. Ch. II. pt. I. 
For las venas cuitadas 
La sangre su figura 
Iba desconociendo y su natura. 

Garcilaso de la Vega. 
N8o soffre muito a gente generosa 
Andar-lhe os cues os denies mostrando. 

Camoens, Os Lus. I. 88. 
E vereis ir cortando o salso argento 
Os vossos Argonautas. 

Ditto, I. 18. 

E non ai ges tel coratge 
Com li fals drut an, 
Que van galian. 

G Faidit, B. 142, 10. 

In most of the sister languages, other verbs 
of motion besides "go" are made to perform 
the office of copulas. In the Italian expres- 
sion : si venne accorgendo, venne is not only 
a copula but has also the force of an adverb of 
manner little by little he perceived. 

Mold esempj potrei venir contando. 

Vitt. Colonna. 

The Spanish and Portuguese use, perhaps/ 
a greater number of verbs of motion in this 
way than any of the others. In the former, 
andar, ir, venir are employed to express du- 
ration or gradual action, while caminar, con- 
tinuar, seguir are confined to continued 
action. So Portuguese grammarians dis- 
tinguish between andar and ir, the former 
being frequentative. Accordingly they say : 
ando estudando as linguas antigas, which 
means, I am making a continual and frequent 
study of the ancient languages ; while : vou 
convalescendo would mean continuation in a 
progressive sense I am getting better every 
day. The context of the two passages above 
quoted from the Lusiads seems to bear out 
this distinction. 

Many cases arise in which it is not easy to 
determine whether alter is a copula or 
whether its action is coordinate with that of 
the gerund. 



Li galte qui estoit sor le tor les vit venir et 
ol qu'i.l aloient de Nicolete parlant. 

Aucasin et Nicolete, B. 283, 36. 
Mais quant vois aucun mendiant, 
Qui de viellece va tranlant, 
II t'apele por sa viellece. 

Flore et Blanceflor, 762. 
Povertade va gridando 
A gran voce predicando. 

Giacopone da Todi. 

In the first of these it is said that the guard 
saw coining the men whom Count Garin had 
sent to look for Nicolete and heard that they 
were talking, of were talking as they went 
along, about Nicolete. The other examples 
are not clearer, even when studied in con- 
nexion with the passages in which they occur. 

SAMUEL GARNER. 

Annapolis, Md. 



POSTSCRIPT TO " CL, GL> TL, DL IN 
ENGLISH PRONUNCIA TJON." 

In writing the article on " Cl, gl>tl, dl in 
English Pronunciation " for the last number of 
MOD. LANG. NOTES I had at hand only the 
first edition of Victor's Elemente der Phonetik 
und Orthoepie. I have since been able to 
refer to the second edition of that work, and 
find that Victor has added some valuable 
material on the subject, found in older Ger- 
man-English grammars. My supposition that 
kn was pronounced as in before the first sound 
of the combination finally disappeared, is 
clearly proved there. According to Nicolai 
(1693) k before n in know, etc., sounds "fere 
ut /." Koenig (1706) states that it is pro- 
nounced like d, " doch muss das rfganz wenig 
gehort werden." The articulation of the 
dental before is of course very weak, and 
the following sonant makes it difficult to dis- 
tinguish between d and L Beuthner (1711) 
and Thiessen (1712) pronounce it as t; Konig 
(1715) as d; Arnold " wie ein gelindes weiches 
d." G before , finally and in the interior of 
words, is already silent when initially it is still 
spoken, as Podensteiner (1685) remarks. 
None of these grammarians mention the pro- 
nunciation of gn as dn. In a grammar of the 
year 1748 k and g before n are given as silent 
(p. 171). 



Cornell University. 



H. SCHMIDT. 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



194 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
A PASSAGE OF 'BkOWULF: 
To THE EDITORS OF MOD. LANG. NOTKS : 

SIRS : There is a passage in ' Be"owulf,' the 
force of one word of which has, it seems to me, 
been misunderstood by all the translators, 
English and German. The passage begins 
at line 2724 of GREIN'S edition : 

Biowitlf maftelode, hi ofer benne sprac, 
wunde walbleate (wisse he gearwe 
pat he daghwlla gedrogen hcefde 
eordan wynne ; pd wees call sccacen 
ddgorgerbnes, deaft ungemete neah}: 
" Nu ic suna minum syllan wolde 
guflgewadu," etc. 

THORPE, KEMBLE, GARNETT, ARNOLD, 
WACKERBARTH, GREIN, ETTMULLER, and 
HEYNE, all make Beowulf speak of his wound, 
and in the glossary to HARRISON and SHARP'S 
edition of ' Beowulf,' ofer, in the first line of the 
passage, is denned 'about, of, concerning:' 
he ofer benne sfirac, 2725. 

But does not the passage really mean that 
Beowulf did not speak of his wound? He 
knew that it was fatal, and that his end was 
near, and he had other things more important 
to speak about before he passed away. 

The force of ' ofer ' has, I think, been mis- 
understood by all the translators I've named. 
I would translate " he of er benne sprac," 'he 
beyond (of other things than) his wound, 
spake.' 

If this is the correct meaning, and I'm quite 
sure it is, it is far more forcible than the one 
given by all the translators cited. What inter- 
venes between " Biowulf mafte/ode," and "Nu 
ic suna minum," explains why he spake of 
other things than his wound. It was needless 
to speak of that fatal, as it would soon prove 
and his mind was intent on the 'war-weeds,' 
in which he had performed his great deeds. 
He regrets that he has no son to whom he can 
bequeath them ; or such regret is implied : 
" Nu ic suna minum syllan wolde guftgewadu, 
par me gifefie swd anig yrfeweard after 
wurde lice gelenge ! ' ' 

After alluding to his brave, and strong, and 
not unjust, rule of his people for fifty winters, 
he tells his beloved Wfglaf to go quickly, the 



hoard to view under the hoar stone, to be in 
haste that he (Iteowulf) may look upon the 
ancient wealth, the jewel-splendors, he has 
won, 

" pat ic py seft mage 
after mdfSOumwelan m\n d la tan 
Hf and leodscipe, pone ic longe htold!" 

His speaking not of his wound, suits better 
the character, too, of the great warrior. 

HIRAM CORSON. 

Cornell University. 



WOODWARD'S ' ENGLISH IN THE 
SCHOOLS: 

In their series of Monographs on Education, 
already more than once noticed in the NOTES, 
Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. have rendered a 
service which entitles them to the thanks of 
teachers, the more so as these little books are 
not likely to "pay " in the direct commercial 
sense. The last of this admirable series is 
4 English in the Schools,' by F. C. WOODWARD, 
A. M. Professor of English in Wofford College, 
S. C., which, standing between HUFFCUT'S 
' English in the Preparatory Schools ' (noticed 
in March) and GENUNG'S 'Study of Rhetoric,' 
completes an excellent trilogy of " English " 
monographs for school and college. These 
monographs attest in a gratifying way the 
increasing interest in English study, which 
they are sure also to stimulate and promote. 

We regret that space does not permit such 
notice of PROF. WOODWARD'S essay as its 
interest demands ; yet it is hard to notice 
briefly a book which, however short (only 23 
pages), tempts in almost every paragraph to 
the quotation of its incisive and striking, some- 
times brilliant, sentences. PROF. WOODWARD 
writes clearly and strongly because his ideas 
are clear, and his convictions strong, upon the 
theme he discusses. He makes no doubt that 
the time has come long since indeed for a 
sharper assertion of the claims of English lan- 
guage and English literature to a fuller and 
sounder study in 'schools of every grade; for 
"English is the sole literature of ninty-nine 
hundredths of our people and the best litera- 
ture of the other hundredth ; " and " by virtue 
of its mother-tongue quality it claims the right 
to coordinate and direct all other studies ; " 



97 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



196 



while, for the lower schools generally, "so far 
as linguistic training is concerned, it is English 
or nothing." Though himself a classical 
scholar (and formerly Professor of Latin) PROF. 
WOODWARD asserts that "English asks no 
odds of the classics, even on a comparison of 
respective disciplinary values;" and if he 
does not prove his proposition to the satisfac- 
tion of the classicists, he certainly makes his 
argument very interesting to read and very 
hard to answer very healthy reading, we 
should say at least, in connection with PROF. 
MORRIS' monograph, in the same series, on 
'The Study of Latin.' 

The chief topic of the book is an exposition 
of the logical character of English, and a plea 
for logical and analytical method in its study 
freed from the dead formalism of the old 
Latin-English grammatical traditions. No- 
where have we seen the excellence and useful- 
ness of logical analysis in language-study, or 
the fitness of English for logical discipline, so 
clearly enforced ; and the reader, even if not 
altogether convinced, cannot help feeling the 
contagion of PROF. WOODWARD'S enthusiasm 
when he writes: "Grammarians of the old 
school may weep over our loss of inflections 
.... but the philosophic scholar hails the un- 
making of the Old English as the making of a 
New English, which first began to teach the 
world to smile and weep when Chaucer turned 
.... into the fresh fields and pastures new 
that men have not yet found less fresh or new 
or sweet;" and .... "the pedagogue shall 
find in the new speech a stronger and more 
available training than in the traditional 
methods and matter of the ancient languages," 
besides the "overwhelming advantage in the 
use of the mother-tongue as the training study 
of English-speaking children." 

The Essay concludes with a suggestive 
chapter on the interest and disciplinary value 
of English word-analysis, the author contend- 
ing that English "etymology, as a training 
study, may be successfully conducted without 
the intervention of any foreign language- 
study." This notice does poor justice to this 
admirable Essay. We commend the reading 
of it to all teachers, believers or Philistines. 

EDWARD S. JOYNES. 
South Carolina College. 



SPANISH IDIOMS. II. 

Spanish Idioms with their English Equiva- 
lents, embracing nearly ten thousand 
Phrases, collected by SARAH GARY 
BECKER and FEDERICO MORA. Boston: 
Ginn & Co. 1887. lamo. pp. 331. 

P. 71. Dejar d uno la espina en el dedo has 
a far wider and more general sense than ' to 
leave a malady imperfectly cured.' It means 
' to leave a thorn in the flesh,' that is, to leave 
cause for anger, or a grudge behind in some 
one. Ya oigo al murmurador, diciendo la 
mala voz que huvo, rizarse, afeitarse y otras 
cosas que callo, dinero que bullian, presentes 
que cruzaban, mujeres que solicitaban, me 
dejan la espina en el dedo. Guz. de Alf. p. 
191. The Portuguese say in a kindred, though 
not in the same, sense : O diabo Ihe meta 
rachas de cana nas unhas. 

P. 74. Quien destaja, no baraja. That 
baraja in this proverb means ' to wrangle,' was 
made clear long ago by the Marquis de 
Santillana's explanation: "Las cosas con- 
certadas al principio quitan differencias del 
fin," and this signification still survives in a 
number of other phrases, as in the proverb : 
Cuando uno quiere, dos no barajan (Marquis 
de Santillana), i. e. 'when one party is willing 
(to yield) the two do not quarrel, 'or, as it reads 
more frequently : Cuando uno no quiere, dos 
no barajan, 'when one party is not willing (to 
quarrel), the two do not wrangle.' Sbarbi^ 
Ref. VII, p. 5 ; Don. Habl. p. 559. 

P. 96. El infierno estd lleno de buenas 
palabras. We wish the authors had given us 
chapter and verse for this reading, which can 
hardly be considered the current one. St. 
Francis de Sales writes to Mme. de Chantal 
(1605): "Do not be troubled by St Bernard's 
saying that hell is full of good intentions and 
wills "(see Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, p. 
317), and this is the version found in English as 
well as other languages. Deseaba sustentar 
este buen deseo, mas como de aquestos estdn 
los infiernos llenos. . . Guz. de Alf. p. 290. 
The Italian says: Di buone volonta pien 
1'inferno. Giusti, Prov. ; L'inferno & selciato 
di buone intenzioni. Tomm. ; the French : 
L'enfer est pave" de bonnes intentions, and the 
English : Hell is paved with good intentions, 



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198 



S. Johnson (ed. Roswell, 1776); Hell is full of 
good meanings and wishings. Herbert's Ja- 
cula Prudentium (Works, London 1854, p. 307.) 

P. 99. No estar muy catdlico. ' Not to be 
in good health ' is only one meaning of this 
phrase, which has a far more general appli- 
cation. It is said with regard to things as well 
as animate beings, and refers to quality, dispo- 
sition, character and health, the verb estar or 
ser being used as the case may demand. Ca- 
t6fico, in the mind of the devout Spaniard, came 
to mean ' right,' ' genuine,' ' sound ' in general. 
Estas visiones que por aquf andan, que no 
son del todo catdlicas. DQ. I, 47 ; En acaban- 
do de beber dej6 la cabeza a un lado, y dando 
un gran suspiro dijo ; \ O hideputa bellaco, y 
c6mo es cat6lico\ (el vino) DQ. II, 13; Vie"n- 
dose bueno, entero y cdtdlico de salud. ibid. 
55 ; Aporreado el rucio y no muy catdlico 
Rocinante. ib. 58. Cf. also : jurar como catdli- 
co cristiano. DQ. II, 27. A Portuguese may 
be heard to say in regard to another whose 
displeasure he has incurred : Nao estS muito 
catholico commigo. 

P. 107. Ann hay sol en las bardas, does not 
mean : ' There is little hope,' but on the con- 
trary: (i) 'there is still some hope (left),' literal- 
ly: 'the sun has not set yet.' It is the equivalent 
of the German : Es ist noch nicht aller tage 
abend, and the Italian: Non eancofaseraa 
Prato. Cf. Longfellow's " Behind the clouds is 
the sun still shining," Animo, animo (me 
respond!) : ^cuando te suelen a te* arrinconar 
casos como este, Guzman amigo ? Aun el sol 
estd en las bardas, el tiempo descubrira vere- 
das ; quien te sac6 anoche del corral, te sacard 
hoy del retrete. Guz. de Alf. p. 276; Aun 
hay sol en las bardas, dijo Don Quijote ; y 
mie"ntras mas fuere entrando en edad Sancho, 
con la experiencia que dan los afio estard mas 
id6neo y mas habil para ser gobernador, que 
no estd ahora. DQ. II, 3. Cf. also: aun hay 
sol en los tejados. Haller, Altsp. Sprichw. 
p. 444. A synonymous phrase is : aun hay sol 
en Feral. Me dijo que no dijese mal del dia 
hasta que fuese pasado, porque aun habia sol 
en Peral. Esteb. Gonz. p. 350. (2) Accord' 
ing to Haller, 1. c., this Spanish phrase, again 
resembling its German equivalent, conveys 
also some such a threat as this : ' We are not 



done with each other yet,' or 'this is not the 
end of the matter.' 

P. 109. Nc hay olla sin tocino. Compare : 
El tocino hace la olla, y el hombre la plaza, la 
mujer la casa. Guz. de Alf. p. 323; Ni olla 
sin tocino, ni boda sin tamborino. Sbarbi, 
Ref. I, 289. Mas dias hay que longanizas: 
'There is no haste.' This rendering, which 
corresponds with the explanation given by the 
Academy's Dictionary, does little justice to the 
full import of the saying. Its literal meaning 
of course is: 'there are more days than 
sausages,' and to this the Spaniard gives two 
applications : (i) There is still some hope left 
(cf. Haller, 1. c., p. 444). Con todo, espero en 
DSos, que tiempo tras tiempo, y agua tras 
viento ; y que por eso viene un dia tras otro ; 
que mds dias hay que longanizas. Garay, 
Cartas (in Sbarbi, Ref. VII, 61). (2) Time 
lasts longer than our provisions: 'we must 
make both ends meet.' En el gasto diario 
debes guardar tal econotnia, que las pro- 
visiones te duren todo el afio ; porque : hay 
mas dias que longanizas ; y : Agosto y ven- 
dimia no son cada dia. Sbarbi, Ref. V, 6; cf. 
VII, 20: Son mas los dias que las longanizas. 

P. 139. Jugar d cara 6 Us. Another version 
is : jugar d cara y cruz. Haciendo creer a 
Napoleon que una nacion donde principes y 
reyes jugaban la corona d cara y cruz sobre 
la capa rota del populacho, no podia ser in- 
expugnable. Gald6s, El 19 de Marzo, p. 127. 

P. 158. Mirar por el virote, 'to mind one's 
own affairs.' A more accurate rendering 
would probably be : 'to take care of one's self,' 
'to be on one's guard.' " y cada uno mire 
por el virote, aunque lo mas acertado seria 
dejar dormir su c61era & cada uno, que no 
sabe nadie el alma de nadie, y tal suele venir 
por lana que vuelvetrasquilado." DQ. II, 14. 
Cada uno mire por el virote (dijo el licencia- 
do), pues ha de ir a todo moler; y no echen 
de vicio, que podrfa heder el negocio mas 
ahfna que piensan. Quevedo y Villegas, 
Cuento de Cuentos (in Sbarbi, Ref. VIII, p. 
86. See ibid, the notes on this passage). 

P. 195. Quien las sabe, las tane ; ' One 
should speak only of what one understands.' 
This is the meaning of the idiom, DQ. II, 59; 
but it has also another application, namely: 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



' He who knows a trade, will follow it.' Ama. 
Bien se yo que tu sabras hazer una vellaqueria, 
y esta no es virtud. A. El saberla hazer no es 
malo, el usarla si. Ama. Siempre oy dezir, 
que quien las sabe, las tane. A. No, sino que 
quien ha las hechas, ha las sospechas. Luna, 
Dial. fam. (in Sbarbi, Ref. I, 212). Desta 
manera vadeare" mis males, como vieja escar- 
mentada que arremangada pasa el agua ; por- 
que el que las sabe, las tane, que ya duecha 
es la loba de la soga. Garay, Cartas (in 
Sbarbi, Ref. VII, p. 65); cf. also Celestina, p. 

15- 

P. 208. Aqui fut Troya, ' Fuit Troja 1 
(said of a place of which no vestige remains). 
As is sufficiently shown by the aqui of the 
Spanish idiom, it is not equivalent to Fuit 
Troja. Its idea is : ' Here is (was) an event 
as disastrous or fatal as the destruction of 
Troy,' as may be seen from the following 
passages : Si no fuera por los molineros, que 
se arrojaron al agua, y los sacaron como en 
peso & entrambos, alii habia sido Troya para 
los dos. DQ. II, 29 ; cf. 66. 

i Ay infelice de mf ! 
Fingida su ausencia fue : 
Mas ha sabido que yo. 
De parte de Dios (aqui es 
Troya del Diablo) nos di . . . . 

Calderon, Dama Duende, II, 19. 

Empieza &. miliciar, duda, recela, cuando 
mira al salir del patio & su antagonista, y 
i aqui fu Troya \ empez6 el dialogo arriba 
dicho que tuvimos dificultad en interrumpir. 
Mesonero Romanos, Escenas Matritenses I, 
177. 

P. 219. Son lobos de la misma camada. 
Compare : lobos de la misma manada. Gal- 
d6s, Dona Perfecta, p. 229. 

P. 247. Traer al retortero, ' to distress 
one by overwork.' This fails entirely to 
render the import of the idiom. Its literal 
sense is, 'to drag one round in a twirl, from 
one side to the other.' From this spring the 
following significations : (i) ' to keep one 
constantly moving, ' ' to give one no peace, ' ' to 
harass one.' Esto fud el diablo, que empez6 
& decir que no habia de dejar roso ni velloso, 
ni piante ni mamante, y que los habia de traer 
al retortero d todos, y saiga si es hombre. 
Quevedo y Villegas, Cuento de Cuentos (in 



Sbarbi, Ref. VIII, 47; see also note to the 
passage). (2) 'To lead one,' 'to control one 
completely.' 

Cardenas y el Cardenal, 
Y Chacon y fray Mortero 
Traen la corte al retortero. 

Sbarbi, Ref. VIII, p. 48. 

(3) to deceive one by false promises or flattery. 
Diet, of Acad. A synonym of this phrase is 
traer al estricote: Traele amor al estricote 
que es de muy mala ralea. DQ. I, 26 ; and 
andar al estricote : 

Amigo, segund creo, por mi habredes conorte, 
Por mi verna la duenna andar al estricote. 

JRoiz, 789, cf. DQ. 11,8; 

Sbarbi, Ref. VIII, p. 64. 

P. 250. Me viene de molde. The render- 
ing, 'it fits me like a glove,' would hardly 
hold good in every case. Venir (estar) de 
tnolde (como de ntolde) means 'to come just 
right,' 'to answer the purpose exactly,' and 
corresponds more to the English ' to suit one 
to a T ' than to 'to fit one like a glove.' ^No 
le dije yo? dijo oyendo esto Sancho: s6 que 
no estaba yo borracho ; mirad si tiene puesto 
ya en sal mi amo al gigante ; ciertos son los 
toros, mi condado estd de molde. DQ. I, 35. 
Suplico & vuesas mercedes que se me de" 
licencia para contar un cuento breve que 
sucedi6 en Sevilla, que por venir aqui como de 
tnolde me da gana de contarle. Ib., II, i ; cf. 
II, 27, 53, 73. 

P. 251. Viene como pedrada en djo de 
boticario, 'to come inopportunely,' 'to be 
unwelcome.' This phrase, which occurs as 
often with the verb pegar ' to fit,' corresponds 
exactly to the German : passen wie einefaust 
aufs auge, and means ' to be entirely out of 
place.' Para celebrar la boda de otra senora 
igual en edad a mi dona Irene se hizo la 
siguiente redondilla, que le pega como pedrada 
en ojo de boticario. Sotomayor, Coleccion de 
Seguid. (in Sbarbi, Ref. IV, p. 129). Synony- 
mous expressions are: (i) Cuadrar una cosa 
con otra como por los cerros de Ubeda. DQ. 
II, 43, and (2) pegar como un par de pistolas & 
un Santo Cristo, an expression very character- 
istic of Spanish phraseology. Es verdad que 
aqui puede decirse aquello de que pega como 
un par de pistolas d un Santo Cristo. Fern. 
Cab., La Gaviota, p. 33 (Brockh. ed.) 



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April. MODEKN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



22 



P- 255. Quicn vivet 'Who goes there?' 
The most important and interesting significa- 
tion of this phrase- in Spanish is omitted in the 
'Spanish Idioms.' It has the force of ' atten- 
tion,' 'scent,' and despertar un quien vive 
means: 'to get scent of something,' ' to open 
one's eyes to something." Ahora, ahora voy 
cayendo en ciertas cosas .... las entrevistas 
del Duque con el impresario, la constancia 
con que esa Norma en ciernes asistia a las 
representaciones . . . . ya se van despertando 
mis quien vives. Fern. Cab., La Gaviota, p. 
205 (See the explanation of this expression, 
ibid., p. 206). For eso he tardado este largo 
tiempo en darte como si dijeYamos el quien 
vive y exigirte que te casaras. E. Castelar, 
Santiaguillo, p. 163. 

P. 252. Al llamado del que le piensa viene 
el buey d la melena, ' It is easy to obey those 
who are kind to us.' This can hardly render 
the thought of the proverb, since venir d la 
melena does not mean 'to obey willingly,' but 
rather 'to be obliged to obey,' ' to submit to 
one.' 

Muchos pueblos estauan por las tierras al .ados, 
Que nunca de los griegos non serien ensayados ; 
Mas quando a los Cyros uioron tan domados, 
Venien a la melena todos cabez colgados. Alex. 1781. 

" No me hable con sonsonete,' dijo uno ; ' que, 
al cabo al cabo ha de venir d la melena.'" 
Quevedo y Villegas, Cuento de Cuentos (in 
Sbarbi, Ref. VIII, p. 51 ; see note to the 
passage). Compare to this the force of melena 
in other proverbial expressions: (i) asir (to- 
mar) la ocasion por la melena, ' to take oppor- 
tunity by the forelock' (DQ. II, 31) ; soltar la 
ocasion de la melena (Esp. Ger. p. 128) 
traer a uno a la melena, ' to drag one by the 
hair,' 'to force one to anything against one's 
will ' (Guz. de Alf., p. 229). The proverb in 
question, which, as may be remarked in pass- 
ing, is omitted in Mailer's collection, has very 
much the same import as the French : celui 
louer devons de qui le pain mangeons ; and 
the German : Wes brot ich schling, des lied 
ich sing. 

P. 254. A I reves me la vesti y dndese asi, 
' As I began this way, I may go on so.' This 
rendering is faithful neither to the letter nor 
to the spirit of the idiom. The pith of the 
saying lies in al reves 'the wrong way,' and 
its literal meaning is : ' I put it (the garment) 



on the wrong way, but that may pass.' This 
phrase, therefore, characterizes the inertia, 
the laisser-aller of many people, and corre- 
sponds to the German idiom : umgekehrt ist 
auch gefahren. No echar la soga tras el 
jarro, sino consolarse con que al reves me la 
vesti, y andese asi, que una herrada no es 
caldera, y la puerta pesada, en el quicio no 
pesa nada. Sotomayor, Coleccion de Seguid. 
(in Sbarbi, Ref. IV, 121). A fundarse en ver- 
dad la inculpation de desidia, que los ex- 
tranjeros nos hacen, el refran caracterfstico 
por excelencia entre todos los nuestros debfa 
ser e"ste : Al reves me la vesti, andese asi. 
Garcia Gutierrez (in Sbarbi, Ref. VIII, p. 227). 
P. 266. A brazo partido, 'With bare fists,' 
'unarmed.' This expresson, taken from the 
art of wrestling, means literally: 'With a 
divided, with a bent arm ; ' and figuratively, 
'with all one's strength.' Viendo lo cual, 
Sancho Panza se puso en pie* ' y arremetiendo 
a su amo se abrazd con el d brazo partido, y 
echandole una zancadilla di6 con 61 en el suelo 
boca arriba.' DQ. II, 60. 

Los dos faroles divinos 
A luz entera luchaban, 
Ya que no d brato partido. 
Calderon, La Vida es Suefio, I, 6; cf. Nttg. Prod. Ill, 491. 

Gilote, a quien, por lo que se colige, le habia 
salido a gloria la misteriosa entrevista, cuando 
d brazo partido Iuch6 con la desconocida 
dama para impedirle la fuga. Maria, Cantos 
pop. esp. I, p. 403. 

The purpose of collecting the idioms of a 
language may be either a scientific or a practi- 
cal one. A scientific treatment might present 
to us the phraseology of a language or group 
of kindred tongues, such as the Romance, in so 
far as it is illustrative of the civilization of one 
or more nations at a given point. Thus, it 
would prove both an interesting and instruc- 
tive study to trace the influence of the religious 
history of Spain and of the Roman Catholic 
Church on the phraseology of the Spanish 
language. Think of the use of cristiano in the 
phrase hablar cristiano, 'to speak Spanish,' 
(DQ. II, 37), or in the sense of ' man ' (e. g., 
S. Mill. 88; Alex. 1653; Rimado, 54); of 
cristianismo and cristianillo with the same 
signification (Guz. de Alf. p. 191 ; Proverb ; 
Puerco fresco, y vino nuevo, Cristianillo al 
cementerio); of caMKco meaning 'genuine,' 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



204 



'sound ' (DQ. I, 147 ; II, 13, 27, 55, 58). Again, 
the aim of a scientific study of idioms might 
be to illustrate the syntactical side of the lan- 
guage (e. g., the use of prepositions as in 
sonar con una cosa, ' to dream of anything'). 
A collection of idioms intended solely to serve 
practical purposes, such as is the case with the 
work before us, evidently has for its object 
to help us in finding the English equivalent 
for a given foreign idiom, and, what is equally 
important, in ascertaining the foreign idiomatic 
expression for a given English idea. What- 
ever be the object in view, there must be 
method and order in the work if it is to ac- 
complish its purpose. Now, it is the idea 
conveyed by an idiom or the syntactical usage 
contained in it that characterizes it as such ; 
and it is according to one or the other of these 
essential features that idioms must be ar- 
ranged, not by the word with which they be- 
gin or happen to begin in a certain passage or 
version ; nor yet by the one or the other more 
or less important verb which they may contain. 
Who, for instance, would ever think of looking 
for the biblical quotation el que ve la mo/a en 
el ojo ajeno, vea la viga en el suyo, under the 
impersonal expression es menester with which 
Cervantes happens to introduce it (DQ. II, 
43) ? Yet, under the verb es alone can it be 
found in the ' Spanish Idioms ' ! By arrang- 
ing their diligently collected material of 
" nearly ten thousand phrases " (which, it may 
be said in passing, are far from exhausting the 
wealth of Spanish phraseology) according to 
the ideas which they express, and providing 
the collection with a Spanish and an English 
index, the authors, it is believed, would have 
given their work incomparably more of the 
really practical value which they assuredly 
intended it to have, 

H. R. LANG. 
New Bedford, Mass. 



A GOTHIC GLOSSARY. 

A Comparative Glossary of the Gothic Lan- 
guage. With especial reference to En- 
glish and German. By G. H. BALG, PH. 
D. With a Preface by PROF. FRANCIS A. 
MARCH, LL. D. Mayville, Wisconsin: 
Published by the Author. 1887. Part I. 
64 pp., 8vo. Aai Dails. 



In this work the author has tried to combine 
a complete Gothic glossary with an etymolog- 
ical dictionary of the Germanic languages. 
As a Gothic glossary the book seems to be a 
careful compilation from the various older 
works on the subject, although some of the 
changes which the author has introduced are 
hardly improvements. Comp, e. g. are arwjd, 
where SCHULZE (and similarly STAMM-HEYNE) 
gives three meanings, each one followed by a 
reference ; while our author gives first the 
three meanings in a different order and then 
the three references to the text, omitting the 
references to GRIMM'S ' Grammatik ' and 
GRAFF'S ' Sprachschatz ' found in SCHULZE. 

In the etymological part of the work the 
author has not followed any existing model, 
and his way of finding occasion in a Gothic 
glossary to treat of words which have no 
cognates in Gothic is certainly original. A 
few examples must suffice. Under alls a 
whole column is given to a discussion of the 
second part of the N. H. G. allmahlich and 
its cognates and compounds ; under ara the 
O. H. G. *adal-aro is mentioned, followed by 
the cognates and compounds of*adal, includ- 
ing Adalheid and Adalberaht, etc. ; under 
auhns the Mod. E. stove and its genealogy 
finds a convenient place ; under bairhts we 
learn that in Bertram "-raw=Goth. *hrabns, 
O. E. hrcefn, m. Mdl. E. raven, Mdn. E. 
raven, N. H. G. rabe, m. raven ; " under 
daurd the Mdl. Lt. bordellum with its deriva- 
tives is given, and the author tells us that the 
E. bordel has become obsolete and has been 
superseded by brothel, the history of which 
he now proceeds to give at length ; under 
baurgs even burgomaster is brought in, and 
we are informed that "it is the 'Du.-burge- 
mester (mester=Mdn. E. master, Mdl. E. 
maister, from O. Fr. maisfer, from Vulg. L. 
majister (w. the accent oh the a) for Lt. ma- 
g-is ter, master, chief, whence alsoO.S. mestar, 
O. H. G. meistar, M. H. G. meister, a learned 
poet, ' master-singer,' burgomaster, town- 
master, N. H. G. meister, m. master)=M. H. 
G. burge-meister and burgermeister, N. H. 
G. burgermeister." All this in a comparative 
glossary of the Gothic language ! 

For what class of students can such a book 
be intended ? With all the recent increase of 



April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



ao6 



interest in Germanic studies it is not likely 
that the general public will ever buy Gothic 
glossaries, and as for professional students it 
can only be hoped that they will keep away 
from such a />ons asinortim if they ever desire 
to get beyond the stage of philological dilet- 
tanteism. At a time when a large number of 
American colleges desire to become universi- 
ties and offer, among others, advanced courses 
in Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, etc., it is of 
especial importance to bear in mind that a 
mere juxtaposition of more or less closely re- 
lated words is not comparative philology and 
that to tell a student, as our author does, that 
the Gothic baitrs is the English bitter without 
giving him the least inkling as to the excep- 
tional phonetic conditions, amounts to teaching 
the student the things which he should find 
out by himself and withholding from him 
just such information as he might expect to 
find in his book. Moreover, when the etymol- 
ogy of a word is unknown, or very doubtful, 
the author refers us to DIEFENBACH. Now, 
is it likely that a student who has access to 
DIEFENBACH will not have access also to 
KLUGE, SCHADE, SKEAT and other authorities 
which are at everybody's disposal and upon 
which the present glossary is so largely 
based ? 

While we are thus compelled to differ with 
the author as to the usefulness of such a book 
(a matter which after all concerns the publish- 
er more than any one else) it must be ac- 
knowledged that on the whole, the plan, such 
as it is, has been well carried out and the 
authorities have been carefully consulted. A 
few of the most apparent incongruities and 
inaccuracies might be mentioned. 

While the author pays hardly any attention 
to the phonetic constitution of Gothic words, 
unless they happen to be mentioned in 
BRAUNE'S ' Grammatik,' in which case he 
gives the references, he frequently refers to 
the most elementary phonetic laws in Anglo- 
Saxon (rarely also in German), with which 
every beginner is familiar : e. g., under aihva- 
tundi: O. E. eoh (eo for e by breaking) ; under 
arbi : O. E.yr/e (for ier/e, irfe, from earfe, by 
z-uml., from arfe, by breaking) ; under atvef>i: 
O. E. eowe, (for euwe, from ewe, the initial e 
being z-uml. of a), etc. Some of these phonet- 



ic " asides " are clothed in strangely obscure 
and misleading language. Thus under asneit 
we read: "O.K. earnian (r for j=Germanic 
z, by rotacism)." If, as we do not wish to 
doubt, the author had the right idea of the 
process, it seems very doubtful whether any 
beginner would correctly understand the 
words " r for J=Germanic z," if indeed they 
can be so understood by anybody ; and as to 
the expression " by rotacism," what else does 
it mean but that z becomes r because z be- 
comes r? In regard to the last point, how- 
ever, it would not be just to blame the author 
too severely for doing what hosts of philo- 
logians about him do. 

Under aftra : " In Eff. G. the / appears as 
ch after becoming achter whence &ter in &ter- 
gescherre, n., breeching (of a harness), dter- 
ovemgen, day after to-morrow." The change 
of /into ch, like other changes thus treatedby 
the author, is not confined to the dialect of 
EFFEREN (near COLOGNE) but is common 
throughout the Low German ; instead of " day 
after to-morrow," we should expect "the 
second day after to-morrow." 

Airzeis. " Cf. O. E. yrre, (for y, from pre- 
Germanic e)." Why not also Germanics? 
Ajukdups. The Gothic suffix-duf> does not 
correspond to the "Latin -tud in words like 
longitudo" but to the Lat. -tut- in senectut-, 
virtut-, etc. Comp. KLUGE, ' Nominate 
Stammbildungslehre,' 132. Ahana. Both 
ahana and ahs are here referred to an Idg. 
root ak ; but the Gr. a^yy and cixvpor which 
the author quotes from KLUGE must, as also 
stated by the latter, go back to an Idg. root 
agh. 

Considering how far the author often goes 
out of his way to instruct the reader as to the 
origin of certain German or English forms, 
the omission of many cognates and deriva- 
tives that might legitimately have been quoted, 
is all the more surprising. Thus under augjan 
we miss ereignis ; under atjan we find G. 
titzen, but not its E. derivative etc h ; speaking 
of the superlative suffix in aftuma, the author 
mentions the Lat. optimus, while postumus, 
extremus, and others with direct English de- 
rivatives are omitted ; under aftumists it would 
have been proper to mention foremost and 
the other double superlatives in English, etc. 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



208 



The author follows his excellent guide, 
KLUGE, so closely that he rarely commits a 
serious error. In several cases he has evident- 
ly misread his authority, e. g. when he says, 
under dag's : From stem dago- (kindred with 
stem of O. E. ddgor, m. n. O. N. ddegr' from 
ddgoz-, day) which is supposed to be allied to 
Skr. root dah (for Idg. dhag?), to burn. 
Comp. KLUGE: " Zur Erklarung des germ. 
dago- (daneben angls. ddgor, anord. rfo^raus 
ddgoz-) hat man an die skr. Wz. dah (fur idg. 
dhag h ?) " brennen " angekniipft," etc. The 
author (or translator?) should at least do 
KLUGE the justice of quoting his words or 
forms correctly. The worst example of such 
carelessness is to be found under balgs, "prop, 
skin of an animal for holding liquors," (comp. 
KLUGE : " eigtl. die zum Aulbewahren von 
Fliissigkeiten abgestreifte Tierhaut "), where 
we are told that " pre-Germanic bhelgh 
answers to Idg. barh from *bharh, to be large, 
be strong," an absurdity arising from the fact 
that the author interpreted KLUGE'S Ind. as 
Indogermanisch instead of Indisch: "Die 
vorgerman. Form der Stammsilbe ist den 
Gesetzen der Lautverschiebung gemass bhelgh 
und diesem entspricht im Ind. barh (mit auf- 
gegebener Aspiration im Anlaut) "gross, 
stark sein." It is to be hoped that the future 
installments of the GLOSSARY will at least be 
free from such serious mistakes. 

HANS C. G. VON JAGEMANN. 
Indiana University. 



Die Formalitdten des Ritterschlags in der 
altfranzosischen Epik von DR. KARL 
TREIS. Pp. 124. Leipzig, 1887. 

Les ce're'monies accompagnant la promotion 
au grade de Chevalier nous ont e'te' de"crites et 
conserve'es dans bon nombre de documents ; 
Du Cange et de Ste Palaye nous ont laisse", 
sur ce sujet, d'excellents me'moires et disserta- 
tions. M. Karl Treis s'est enforce" de nous 
presenter, dans 1'ouvrage qui nous occupe, un 
tableau aussi de'taille' et aussi fiddle que pos- 
sible de ces mmes ce're'monies, telles que les 
ont de"crites, diffe'rentes pe>iodes, les poetes 
de nos anciennes chansons de geste. Les 
nombreuses citations, toutes emprunte'es par 



1'auteur & nos plus importants poemes e'piques, 
tendent a e"tablir les faits suivants. 

La classe infe'rieure n'e'tait pas absolument 
exclue des rangs de la chevalerie. Une action 
heYoique, un grand service rendu au souverain, 
un brillant fait d'armes, e"taient autant de 
droits qui lui donnaient acces 1'honneur si 
envie". Nos poetes ne semblent pas avoir fait 
d'une obscure naissance un obstacle insur- 
montable. Tout au contraire, ils prennent les 
futurs chevaliers dans toutes les conditions de 
la vie ; et bucherons, bergers, portiers, cuisi- 
niers, voire me'me batards, recoivent tour a 
tour les e"perons d'or. Quant a 1'age du 
candidat, ils ne se sont pas montre's plus 
scrupuleux que pour sa naissance, et ils en 
font un chevalier dds 1'age de treize ans. 
Quant au droit de confe"rer la dignite 1 de cheva- 
lier, nous savons qu' il n'appartenait qu'& celui 
qui e"tait lui-mme rev6tu de cette dignite". 
Le pere ou le grand-pere du candidat e"taient 
tout naturellement de"signe"s pour remplir cette 
importante fonction. A leur deTaut, le candi- 
dat tait arme" chevalier, soit par le roi, soit 
par un autre guerrier illustre. Mais, vu I'im- 
portance du r61e joue" par la femme & cette 
e"poque, les poetes nous la repre'sentent sou- 
vent confe'rant le grade de chevalier, a celui 
qui lui avail voue" un culte special, ou 1'avait 
proclame'e la dame de ses pense"es. L'appari- 
tion de la femme ne s'observe pas dans nos 
chansons de geste de premiere date, et elle 
semble indiquer un commencement de de"- 
ge'ne'ration dans la chevalerie. 

Le nombre des candidats, rarement restreint 
chez nos poetes, pouvait s'e"lever jusqu'a cinq 
cents et plus. Le grade de chevalier se con- 
feYait e"galement en temps de paix et en temps 
de guerre, sur le champ de bataille et dans le 
palais des ance"tres. Une grande yictoire, une 
fe"te de famille, 1'anniversaire d'une naissance, 
fournissaient autant d 'occasions. On choisis- 
sait ge'ne'ralement 1'^poque du printemps, et 
quand 1'influence de I'^glise devint pre"ponde"- 
rante les c^rdmonies eurent lieu aux grandes 
fStes religieuses, telle que Paque, 1'Ascension, 
la Pentec6te, la Saint-Jean et parfois Noel. 

Le bain servait de prelude ne"cessaire aux 
autres c^r^monies. Le futur chevalier e"tait 
assist^, dans son bain, par des jeunes filles, 
ou par des dames de qualite" ; elles pre"sidaient 



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210 



aux diffe'rents details de sa toilette. Apres le 
bain, le candidat se reposait quelque temps, 
puis ses compagnons le conduisaient a l'glise 
on il devait passer la nuit en priere. Le jour 
suivant, des 1'aube, il se confessait, entemluit 
la messe, recevait la sainte communion et 
faisait une offrande a l'glise. Ensuite, le 
candidat e"tait revtu de ses habits de chevalier 
et de ses armes. Ici les poetes out donne 1 
libre cours a leur imagination et nous ont fait 
de pompeuses descriptions de la beaute 1 , de la 
richesse des habits et surtout des armes du 
nouvel e'lu. Apres avoir rappele" an candidat 
les devoirs que lui imposait la dignite 1 qu'il 
allait recevoir, le conse"crateur lui assenait de 
sa main droite un violent coup sur la nuque. 
La vraie accolade, qui consistait d'un coup 
le"ger du plat de I'e'pe'e, n'est, ce semble, pas 
mentionne'e dans les chansons de geste. 
Ainsi arme", le nouveau chevalier montait de 
suite sur son coursier et donnait des preuves 
de sa force, de son courage et de sa dexte'rite' 
a manier les armes. Le tout se terminait, 
quand 1'ennemi en laissait le temps, par d'a- 
bondants festins et de grandes rejouissances. 

En somme, la dissertation de Mr. Treis, sans 
nous apprendre rien d'essentiel concernant la 
chevalerie, nous offre un tableau consciencieux 
des ce're'monies que nous trouvons de"crites par 
nos anciens poetes, qui, a cet effet, s'inspi- 
raient e'galement de leur puissante imagination 
et des us et coutumes qui s'observaient encore 
de leur temps. 



J. A. FONTAINE. 



University of Nebraska. 



Die Journalisten, Lustspiel in Vier Akten. 
von GUSTAF FREYTAG. Edited with In- 
troduction and Notes by FRANZ LANGE, 
Ph. D., Professor, Royal Military Acade- 
my, Woolwich. New York, Henry Holt & 
Co., izmo, pp. 178. 

The editor of this book had a worthy pur- 
pose in view. Following the example of his 
countryman, Dr. Buchheim, who has done so 
much to elevate the standard of German 
scholarship in England and America, Dr. 
Lange has taken this sprightly comedy of 
Freytag's, one of the masterpieces of the 



modern German stage, and endeavored in his 
notes "to show the same level of scholarship 
as the standard school editions of the Classics, 
.... and to bring home to the student the 
practical result of such excellent books of 
reference as Skeat's ' Etymological Dictionary 
of the English Language,' Brachet's ' Diction- 
naire 6tymologique de la langue francaise,' 
and Kluge's ' Etymologisches Worterbuch 
der deutschen Sprache." " 

How nearly this ideal has been realized 
may appear from the following citations from 
the Notes. 

P. 25, 1. 25, "bet ruhiger Pritfung, bei is here 
used to express a possible ground on the 
realisation of which the reality of the effect is 
made dependent." This is surely taking a 
long run in order to jump over a straw. The 
student could not well have missed the mean- 
ing of the phrase, if there had been no note at 
all. 

P. 27, 1. 6, "gefurcht . . . notice that the 
termination ' ow ' in English words of Teutonic 
origin is in German words expressed by ' g ' 
or ' ch,' as borgen ' to borrow,' Sorge ' sorrow,' 
falbich(t) 'fallow,' mehlich(t) ' mellow." This 
is, in the first place, a piece of hasty generali- 
zation, whereby an occasional occurrence is 
made a rule ; but to compare the c h oifalbicht 
with the ow in fallow is a blunder, and to com- 
pare mehlicht with mellow is a worse one, for 
neither of which SKEAT or KLUGE can be held 
responsible. The German equivalent of mel- 
low is miirbe, while mehlicht is, of course, 
mealy. 

P- 34 ! 3- " MondenschicnSchein der 
Monden, the en is the old weak genitive (M. 
H. G. mdne was also used as fem.=English 
moon) cf. der Sonncnschein." Right, except 
that instead of DER Monden, he should have 
said DES Monden, the latter being the gen. of 
a weak masc. Opitz, Gellert and writers of 
their time declined der Mond, des Mondfn(s), 
etc. 

P. 38, 1. 31, " meinetwegen, observe the / for 
grammatical s of the genitive of these com- 
pounds." This mistake is so old that it be- 
gins to have "an ancient and fishlike smell." 
Meinet here stands for meinent, the / being 
parasitic; and this meinen is dative plur. 
agreeing with wegen ; cf. allenthalben. 



105 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, I'm. No. 4. 



P. 40, 1. 18. " Schatz from schdtzen;" p. 
54, 1. i, schdtzen from der Schatz. The 
Doctor's "Schatz" seems to be a sort of 
"boomerang" which comes back to its start- 
ing place. Even if the editor knows nothing 
of verb-derivation, a glance at KLUGE would 
have shown him that Schatz is the root-word. 

P. 42, 1. 26. " Ressourcenfest 'Conver- 
sazione at the Ressource ' (name of a Club)." 
This conveys the idea that the name of this 
particular club was "Ressource" whereas 
ressource simply means club. 

P. 56, 1. 7, " widerwdrtig from prep, wider 
and warfs (gen. of obsolete wart, related to 
wert, Eng. worth, from werden," etc. This 
wart never had any existence save in the 
imagination of Mr. LANGE, the oldest form 
being -wert, and even this is never found 
except as a suffix. Its connection with werden 
is, at least, doubtful. 

P. 59, 1. 28. " Backenstreich=Streich der 
Backe(n)." The same error as p. 34, 1. 3. 
Backenstreich is a compound of masc. Backen 
and Streich, as KLUGE distinctly says. Dr. L. f 
however, like the Emperor Sigismund, seems 
to be "super grammaticam " and has, there- 
fore, no need of reference to books. 

P. 63, 1. 2. " Auf meinen Namen 'to my 
credit.' " It should be ' at my expense.' 

P. 63, 1. 6. " nac h vorn" is not "coming 
forward," but "(speaking) towards the front 
(of the stage)." 

P. 64, 1. 14. " Ich hatfs satt; notice the 
idiomatic expression with the indefinite es." 
It would have been in place here to point out 
that this es is an archaic genitive. Thus, 
literally, ' I have enough of it.' 

P. 64, l,2i, "die Schuld tragen ' run the 
risk.' " Not so, but, ' bear the blame." 

P. 67, 1. 21. " Rechtcs, das ich an ihre 
Teilnahme habe, Recht haben governs auf 
(ace.), Teil haben an (ace.) and since the rela- 
tive agrees in gender with das Recht the pre- 
position auf governed by Recht should be ex- 
pected instead of an." Apart from the general 
mistiness of this note, it is unheard-of to say 
that a preposition is governed by a noun. 

P. 82, 1. 29, " es liegt euch an mir; . . . lit. 
'you are lying near (on) me," it is an impers. 
v." It is certainly a ridiculous literal transla- 
tion. Better ' there lies for you (something) 



in me,' i.e. 'there is something in me that 
interests you.' 

P. 87, 1. 15, " es schickt sich fiir 'it be- 
hoves.' Es schickt does not mean 'it be- 
hooves,' but 'is proper, becoming.' 

P, 101, 1. 12, " ich lobe mir 1 1 prize, I pre- 
fer ; ' the reflexive verb sich loben follows the 
rule of sich denken, sich einbilden, governing 
the dat. of the pers. pron." Dr. L. falls into 
the error of calling lobe, in ich lobe mir (das 
Land), a reflexive verb : mir is here ethical 
dative. 

P. 126, 1. 25, " das halbe Wesen hat nichts 
getaugt ' this half estrangement was no good.'" 
As a specimen of English, this sentence is 
certainly " no good." 

P' 135. 1- 9- " Ohnmachtohn\e\ Macht" 
This is a piece of Volksetymologie of 
which a Doctor of Philosophy ought not to be 
guilty. The old form of this word is a-maht, 
the not appearing before 1450. Luther has 
Ammacht as well as Onmacht. This d- has 
nothing to do with ohne. 

P. 137, 1. 30, " hebe Dich wegvon mir lit. 
'lift (heave) yourself away from me.'" The 
proper note here would have been merely a 
reference to Luke iv, 8, whence these words 
are taken verbatim. 

O. B. SUPER. 

Dickinson College. 



BRIEF MENTION. 

The Phonetic Section of the Modern Lan- 
guage Association of America being now 
occupied with the arrangement of a Standara 
System of Sound-notation, the following ques- 
tions are brought before the Committee and 
before all those interested in the subject : 
I a Should the standard system of sound- 
notation be a physiological one, the sign 
for each sound indicating as nearly as 
possible the position or movement of the 
organs of speech ? 

II a Or should at least a beginning be made in 
this direction by introducing some of the 
simplest and most suggestive physiologi- 
cal signs ? 

III Can we expect that authors, publishers 
and readers are prepared to adopt such a 
system at once ? 



106 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



214 



Ib Would you prefer a system on the basis of 
the conventional alphabets of European 
languages ? 

II b Should this system be founded on a com- 
bination of different alphabets or upon a 
single one with a liberal use of diacritic 
signs ? 

III b Should there be a common system for all 
languages, or a separate one for each of 
the principal groups ? 

IV. Do you favor the adoption of one of the 
existing systems? if so, which do you pre- 
fer? 

V. Would you adopt this system without 
change or, if not, with what modifications? 
VI. Or do you wish an entirely new system to 
be arranged ? 

Please send a statement of your opinion to 
the Secretary of the Phonetic Section, 

GUSTAF KARSTEN, 

Bloomington, Indiana . 

We would call the special attention of our 
readers to the set of questions noted above 
and solicit those who are interested in phonetic 
work, of whatever kind, to give the committee 
the benefit of their suggestions on sound- 
notation. In the mixing of prevailing modes 
of transcription there must necessarily result 
more or less embarrassment, if not confusion, 
which it is hoped in large measure to obviate 
by a uniform system that shall receive the 
approval of scholars generally. The want of 
such consensus for indicating even the more 
elementary sounds, is daily felt, and must 
naturally become more marked as studies of 
. this sort develop. It is believed that the ex- 
perience of scholars in the practical working 
of existing systems has been sufficient to 
enable the majority of those now making use 
of them to agree upon a complete and consist- 
ent set of characters that shall be best adapt- 
ed to actual linguistic needs. The present 
time would seem to be favorable for a careful 
consideration of the subject, and we would 
therefore recommend it to our readers with 
the hope that united effort in this direction 
may produce practical results beneficial to all 
classes of workers in phonetics. 

As bearing upon this particular subject, 



M, Paul Passy, Ncuilly (Seine), France, has 
sent to the Secretary of the Phonetic Section 
of the M. L. A. of A. a manuscript containing 
a " Plan ov organic alfabet," to be examined 
and taken into consideration by the Committee 
on Sound-notation. Paul 1'a^sy is known to 
the readers of the NOTES as the founder, 
organizer and for several years president of 
the Phonetic Teachers' Association ; he has 
published some excellent books and essays, 
among which may be mentioned as especially 
useful and in fact indispensable to every con- 
scientious teacher of French, Le Francais 
Parle" ' (Heilbronn, 1886), and a very able trea- 
tise on ' Modern French Phonetics ' in Vic- 
tor's Phonetische Studien I. Passy is also 
editor of The Phonetic Teacher, the organ of 
the Phonetic Teachers' Assoc. All this shows 
how well versed and deeply interested he is 
in Phonetics, and that the most careful 
consideration is due to the new alphabet 
which he offers. His plan is chiefly based 
on the same principles as Bell's Visible 
Speech and English Line Writing, and 
Sweet's Revised Romic. The most impor- 
tant difference is in the representation of 
"vowel-like" consonants (w, j), which are 
made like the corresponding high vowel, but 
with the voice-stem shortened. For practical 
reasons it is not possible to give here any 
specimens of the new alphabet. The manu- 
script will be sent to the different members of 
the Committee and, on application, to other 
members of the Mod. Lang. Association of 
America who may be interested in Phonetics. 
Further information may be obtained by 
writing to the Secretary of the Phonetic Sec- 
tion, Prof. Gustaf Karsten, Blooming- 
ton Indiana. 

A book likely to be widely welcomed, is 
' Fifty Years of English Lang. Selections from 
the Poets of The Reign of Victoria,' edited 
by Henry F. Randolph (A. D. F. Randolph & 
Co., New York). In four, not only beautifully 
but very carefully printed volumes, the editor 
has given a well-chosen anthology of English 
poetry from Southey and Wordsworth to 
Swinburne, O'Shaughnessy and Philip Bourke 
Marston. The work is particularly valuable 
as giving sufficient specimens of the less- 
known poets, whose scattered writings are 



107 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



216 



often very difficult to obtain. Students and 
teachers who have not access to exceptionally 
full libraries will find many very special wants 
supplied in these pages. 

Vol. IX, No. 8, of the Louisiana Journal of 
Education contains a lengthy and interesting 
article by Professor ALCE FORTIER (Tulane 
University, New Orleans) on "The Fifth 
Convention of the Modern Language Associa- 
tion." The Dial for March has an apprecia- 
tive review of SAINTSBURY'S ' Elizabethan 
Literature ' by Prof. MELVILLE B. ANDERSON 
(State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City). The Open 
Court, for March 15, offers us a scholarly 
article on "Goethe and the Development 
Hypothesis " by Prof. CALVIN THOMAS (Univ. 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor). The conclusion is 
to follow in the next number. The Academy 
(Syracuse) for March has a contribution on 
"The Worth of the English Tongue " by 
Principal WILLIAM K. WICKES of the Water- 
town High School. 

An interesting paper has reached us, entitled : 
' The Place and Function of the Normal 
School,' a paper read before the Michigan 
School-Master's Club, at Ann Arbor, October 
22, 1887, by Professor A. Lodeman, of the 
State Normal School at Ypsilanti. The writer 
presents here, in a forcible manner, a series 
of considerations showing "that there is no 
necessity of limiting Normal Schools in the 
exercise of their legitimate function of prepar- 
ing teachers for all the grades of the public 
schools," and then he goes forward to show, 
from the writings of educators in this country, 
the drift of opinion on secondary education, 
and to adduce serious objections to any limit- 
ations being placed on the Normal Schools. 

The attention of readers who wish to inform 
themselves concerning the living German 
authors is called to a biographical work en- 
titled : Das literarische Deutschland by Adolf 
Hinrichsen (Berlin and Rostock: C. Historffs 
Verlag). It is now appearing in a second 
edition, the first part of which, comprising the 
letters A E, we have before us. The intro- 
duction, by Prof. C. Beyer, is written in an 
enthusiastic tone and it appears to us that the 
author's estimation of the present state of 
German literature is somewhat too optimistic. 



There are in the body of the work, of course, 
many names of which nobody has ever heard ; 
but the sketches are brief and to the point, 
and the work will be found useful by those 
desiring special information of the kind here 
presented. 

Among the many periodicals more or less 
devoted to German literature there is none so 
important for our knowledge of contemporary 
German poetry as the bi-monthly Deutsche 
Dichtung, published by A. Bonz & Comp. in 
Stuttgart. Considering the ascendency over 
the younger generation of immature German 
poets recently gained by the French realistic 
school, it is refreshing and elevating to meet 
again with true poetry in the columns of this 
journal. Its able editor, Karl Emil Franzos, 
who is favorably known as one of the best 
living German novelists, has not only gathered 
about himself the poets of established fame 
but also encourages rising talents by bringing 
them before the cultivated public. In addition 
to the poetical contributions we also find here 
short literary essays and sprightly reviews of 
contemporary poetry by leading scholars and 
writers. One of the principal features of the 
latest numbers has been the publication of a 
number of beautiful and humorous letters of 
Scheffel's, written at the time he composed 
his 'Trompeter,' and very valuable for a 
deeper understanding of this charming poem. 
The portraits of contemporary German poets 
which are given in each number form an at- 
tractive contribution to the value of this really 
" vornehme Zeitschrift." 

Wie Georg Brandes deutsche Litteratur- 
geschichte schreibt, is the title of a highly inter- 
esting article in the last number of Herrig's 
Archiv, written by Dr. Puls of Flensburg. 
The Danish essayist and critic, who has hither- 
to in certain circles passed for a great scholar, 
and who on account of the supposed profun- 
dity of his knowledge was allowed to express 
radical opinions and offensive criticism, is 
now suddenly exposed as a literary plagiarist 
of the worst sort. He has recently published 
a second edition of Die Literatur des 19. 
Jahrhunderts in ihren Hauptstromungen, the 
second volume of which, Die romantische 
Schule in Deutschland, Dr. Puls subjects to a 



108 



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April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



918 



careful scrutiny. The result of the latter 
develops the fact that Brandes not only did 
not read the sources necessary for writing an 
original history of literature, such as he claims 
his to be, hut that he has copied, in many 
passages verbatim, from the works of German 
investigators like Haym, Goedeke, Hitzig, 
etc. Had Brandes concealed his fraud in the 
comparative obscurity of the Danish language 
he might perhaps never have been discovered. 
But he had his book translated into German, 
thus giving another illustration of the not un- 
frequent phenomenon that scientific ignorance 
and incapacity are coupled with the impudence 
and sangfroid belonging properly to criminals. 
.It may not be an agreeable occupation to ex- 
pose such frauds, but the interests of science 
and literary morality vigorously demand it. 
And how many unprinted frauds may there 
not be in lectures, ' scientific ' papers, and 
elsewhere, especially in countries where 
criticism is still developing and where a 
foreign language affords so excellent a 
hiding-place for the stolen wares ! The time 
however will come when there will be an a- 
wakening to a higher sense of literary honesty, 
of frankly distinguishing between the meum 
and the tuum; and not until frauds and im- 
positions are thoroughly exposed will a healthy 
development of science become possible. 
Indeed, the story of Brandes is sadly interest- 
ing and full of moral lessons. 

The teachers of German among our readers 
will be glad to have their attention called to a 
periodical devoted exclusively to instruction 
in German : the Zeitschriftfur den deutschen 
Unterricht by R. HILDEBRAND and OTTO 
LYON (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner). Everyone 
who is acquainted with the literature on this 
subject knows that there is at present no high- 
er authority in matters concerning the teach- 
ing of German than Professor Hildebrand. 
This famous continuator of Grimm's Worter- 
buch, and foremost living German philologian, 
was for many years a practical teacher before 
becoming professor in Leipzig ; and his little 
book, Vom deutschen Sprachunterricht, 
based upon his long experience and upon his 
deep insight into the nature of the German 
language, has in many respects revolutionized 
German instruction. It is sufficient to say 



that the present periodical is conducted in the 
spirit of the above important work by Pro- 
fessor Hildebrand himself and Dr. I. yon. one 
of his ablest pupils. Its contents are of 
a varied and many-sided character: pedagog- 
ical essays, plans for the laying out of Ger- 
man courses, interesting interpretations of 
classic authors, reviews of the current litera- 
ture on the same subject, and many valua- 
ble practical hints and suggestions. We are 
sure that it will become an indispensable com- 
panion not only for teachers of German but 
also for those engaged in other branches of 
modern linguistic instruction. 

A welcome text-book is BALZAC'S ' Eugenie 
Grandet ' with introduction and notes by G. 
PETILLEAU of the Charterhouse, Godalming 
(London, Paris : Hachette et Cie ; Boston : 
Schoenhof). Generally considered as the 
best product of the French novelist from the 
literary stand-point, it has the advantage, to 
English readers, of presenting an extensive 
and every-day vocabulary and of abounding 
in household phrases and idioms. A sketch 
of the author's life is prefixed, which might 
have been longer with profit to students. 
The abundant notes show careful editing. It 
is a book which can be recommended in all 
respects, not without regret perhaps that M. 
PETILLEAU " deemed it indispensable to alter 
certain provincialisms and to either modify or 
suppress sundry expressions," so that it is not 
an exact reprint of the original. 

The same house publishes ' Re"cits des 
Temps Me"rovingiens ' of A. THIERRY, edited 
by H. TESTARD of the Royal Naval College 
of Greenwich. It is characterized by the 
same high grade of excellence seen in ' Euge"- 
nie Grandet.' The first three ' Refits' make 
up the volume, illustrated by cuts of Merovin- 
gian antiquities and historical paintings. An 
appendix brings together longer explana- 
tions of Mediaeval laws and feudal customs 
than could conveniently find place in the 
Notes, which are none the less abundant in 
material. The usual genealogical table, map 
of the kingdom, and index biographical and 
geographical are not omitted. Instructors 
who have had reason to regret the lack of 
historical text-books will find here an impor- 
tant addition to that field in a most attractive 
and scholarly form. 



109 



April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



Uber Strophen- und Vers-Enjambement im 
Altfranzosischen, von Dr. Eduard Stram- 
witz (Leipzig : Gustav Fock, 1887), is a doctor's 
dissertation which contains a great deal of 
patient collecting and dividing. The run-on 
lines in Old French poetry are carefully col- 
lected according to the parts of the sentence 
which are allowed to run on into the next line. 
For some reason the author has overlooked 
the most violent cases of enjambement 
mentioned in Tobler's Versbau, p. 23, where 
a word is cut in two as in Canning's song : 

I think of those companions true 
Who studied with me at the U 
-niversity of Goettingen. 

It cannot be said that any very valuable 
results are brought out by this investigation. 

D. C. Heath & Co. will issue soon Schiller's 
Ballads, edited, with an Introduction and 
Notes, by Henry Johnson, Longfellow Pro- 
fessor of Modern Languages in Bowdoin 
College. The Introduction deals briefly with 
the relation of the ballads to Schiller's life 
and works. It contains also, by way of illus- 
tration, selections from the best German 
criticism of the poems. The text is based on 
that of Goedeke's critical (historischkritische) 
edition of Schiller's poems, Cotta, Stuttgart, 
1871. The notes include an English version 
of the words of Schiller's authorities, when- 
ever the poet is known to have been indebted 
to others for the incidents of a ballad, and 
give every variant (affecting the sense) ap- 
pearing in the texts published in Schiller's 
life-time. They have been written also with 
the constant purpose of assisting in the study 
of the poems, considered as literary master- 
pieces. 

'The Genesis of Literature,' is the subject 
of the Phi Beta Kappa oration delivered last 
June at Marietta college by Professor J. H. 
CHAMBERLIN. The beginnings of literary 
expression are set forth in a pleasant and com- 
pact way, the relations of poetry and music 
are discussed, and the influence of rhythmical 
motion, as in the dance or in the march, on 
rhythmical utterance is insisted on. Primitive 
poetry is particularly characterized by the 
repetition of some more than usually harmon- 
ious phrase. Its development resulted in the 



war-song, in which are contained the germs 
of both lyric and epic poetry. An agreeable 
feature of the oration is that ihe illustra- 
tions are drawn in great part from the songs 
of the American Indians ; ' Hiawatha ' is put 
under contribution, and we notice (p. 4) that 
no allusion is made to the Finnish poem; but 
rather we are led to infer that Longfellow 
drew his material from Dakota tradition. 

Any one interested and who is not? in 
the reconstruction of the college courses will 
find profit in reading a paper on ' The Evolu- 
tion of the College Curriculum ' from the pen 
of President D. S. Jordan of the University 
of Indiana, which is now made public in a 
collection of articles entitled ' Science Sketch- 
es ' (A. S. McClurg & Co., 1888). This essay 
is not unfittingly thus associated with the 
chapters of an eminent specialist in science ; 
for we may indulge the hope that the time is 
approaching when the utterances of men who, 
by undergoing exact training in some branch 
of knowledge have become the embodiment 
of their own argument, will with peculiar 
confidence be heard in matters pertaining to 
the theory of education in general. There is 
a certain temerity of judgment which is given 
to warn against special scholarship as being a 
more or less abnormal product from which 
the graces of broad culture are necessarily 
excluded ; how weak and short-sighted such 
a view is, will become more generally mani- 
fest when special scholarship has become 
among us less of a vision in prejudice and 
more of a reality. 



PERSONAL. 

In response to the wishes of a number of 
the lovers of German literature in Baltimore, 
DR. JULIUS GOEBEL gave during the months of 
February and March a course of public 
lectures on Goethe's 'Faust.' 

Professor Henry R. Lang, has taken up the 
study of the Portuguese dialects spoken in 
New Bedford (Mass.). He is preparing to 
spend the summer in the Azores, the original 
home of a large part of this Portuguese 
Colony, which bears the name " Fayal." 
Besides this, there is at New Bedford a second 



no 



221 



April. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



222 



group of inhabitants from the Cape Verde 
Islands, which is likely to prove of great 

interest for the linguistic student. 

Miss A. L. Morrow, a graduate of the Oswe- 
go State Normal School (N. Y.), has been 
appointed Instructor in Spanish at the Uni- 
versity of Kansas (Lawrence). Miss Morrow 
was principal, during the last three years, of 
the Government Normal School at Rosario, 
Province of Santa Fe" (Argentine Republic) 
and has been engaged for some time in com- 
piling text-books for the public schools of 
that country. 

Dr. W. L. Pearson has been appointed to 
the chair of Modern Languages in Perm Col- 
lege, at Oskaloosa (Iowa). Professor Pearson 
is a graduate (1875) of Earlham College (Indi- 
ana). In 1878 he entered the Princeton 
Theological Seminary, where he completed 
the course in 1881, meanwhile having taken 
the A. M. degree (1880) by doing post-gradu- 
ate work in the Academic department of the 
College. At the time of graduation (1881), 
he also received the Hebrew Fellowship, for 
which he submitted a thesis on ' The Proper 
Interpretation of Ezekiel, chaps. XL-XLVIII.' 
He then went to the University of Berlin, 
where his Biblical studies were continued ; and 
finally, in 1885, he took the Doctor's degree at 
the University of Leipsic. After graduating 
at Earlham College, Dr. Pearson taught for 
two years as Principal of Southland College, 
at Helena (Arkansas). He has written mono- 
graphs on 'The Prophecy of Joel : its Unity, 
its Aim, and the Age of its Composition ' and 
on 'The Genuineness of Genesis XLIX, 10.' 

In a local report of the twenty-first annual 
convention of the California State Teachers' 
Association recently held in San Francisco, 
we notice the election of Prof. A. S. Cook to 
the presidency of that body. This event is 
of significance as marking the first explicit 
recognition of the leadership of the University 
of California in the educational matters of 
that State ; in this view it is also a fitting event 
to precede the meeting of the National Edu- 
cational Association which is to be held in San 
Francisco next July. 

Professor Jesse T. Littleton has been ap- 



pointed Assistant Principal in the Danville 
College for Young I.adit-s, at Danville, Ya., 
where he has charge of the English, French 
and German courses. Mr. Littleton was grad- 
uated at Randolph Macon College, Ya., in 
1880, receiving the degree of Master of Arts. 
During the last three years of his college 
course, he was engaged in teaching Gi< 
the College. From 1880-1881, he was Princi- 
pal of the Kanawha Military Institute, at 
Charleston (W. Ya.) ; for the following two 
years he had charge of French and German 
in a Female College at Murfreesboro (N. C.); 
from 1883-1886 he occupied the chair of Greek 
and German in Wofford College (S. C.), and 
after one year's rest entered upon his present 
position. 



OBITUAR Y. 

FERDINAND LOTHEISSEN, Professor of the 
French Language and Literature in the Uni- 
versity of Vienna (Austria) died on the i9th of 
December last in the fifty-fifth year of his age. 
In 1870 he was called to one of the Ober-Real- 
sch'ulen of Vienna and shortly afterward, 
when the Seminary for French was established 
at the University, he was invited to occupy 
this position. His chief work, as is well 
known to our American readers, is his ' Ge- 
schichte der franzosischen Litteratur im xvii. 
}hd.' (4vols., 1877-1883), and among his minor 
contributions to a knowledge of French litera- 
ture may be noted : ' Litteratur und Gesell- 
schaft in Frankreich zur Zeit der Revolution ' 
(1872), ' Zur Kulturgeschichte des xviii. Jahr- 
hunderts,' ' Moliere ' (1880), ' Konigin Marga- 
rethe von Navarra, ein Kultur- und Littera- 
turbild aus der Zeit der franzosischen Re- 
formation ' (1885), ' Zur Sittengeschichte 
Frankreichs, Bilder und Historien ' (1885). 
He left behind an unfinished treatise on the 
' Kulturgeschichte Frankreichs im xvii. Jahr- 
hundert ' which he intended should make 
three volumes and of which the first is about 
ready for publication. He was a frequent 
contributor to the Zeitsc hriftfiir rom. Philo- 
logie, to the Zeitschriftfur nfrz. Sp*. u. Lift., 
besides to a number of other journals of 
Germany and Austria. 

We are informed of the death on the igth of 
February, of Dr. KARL BARTSCH, Geheim 
Rath, Professor of Romance and of Germanic 
Philology at the University of Heidelberg. 
We hope to give in an early number of MOD. 
LANG. NOTES an extended account of Prof. 
BARTSCH 's life and extraordinary literary 
activity, by one of his pupils. 



in 



223 



April. THE MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 4. 



224 



JOURNAL NOTICES. 
DEUTSCHE LITTERATURZEITUNG. No. 6.-Hoir. 

inanii, 0., Herders Briefwechsel mit Nicolai (C. 
SchUddekopf). Warnke, K. und Proescholdt, L., The 
Birth of Merlin (J. Zupitza). No. 6. Burghauser, 6., 
Indogermanische PrHsensbildung im Germanischen 
(Fr. Bugr). Gubernatls, A. de, II Paradise di Dante (F. 
Zschech). NO. 7. Schutze, P., BeitrHge zur Poetik 
Otfride (R. M. Meyer). Seifert, A., Glossar zu den 
Gedichten des Bonvesin da Riva. No. 8. Hettema, 
K.;i5uUfiirust , Bloemlezing uit Oud-, Middel- en Nieuw. 
friesche Geschriften, II (Franck). Biedcrmann, W. 
von, Goethes Briefwechsel mit Friedrich Rochlitz (R. 
M. Werner) . 

ARCHIV FUR DAS STUDIUM DER NEUEREN SPRA- 

CHEN : LXXX, HEFT, I, 2,-Puls, Wie Georg Brandes 
deutsche Litteraturgeschichte schreibt. Frankel, L., 
Ludwig TJhland als Romanist. Horstmann, C., Nach- 
trage zu den Legenden. Hellgrewe, W., Syntaktische 
Studien tiber Scarrons Le Roman Comique. Oreans, 
K., Die E-reime im Altprovengalischen. 

REVUE CRITIQUE.-NO. 6. Le Verdler, P., Mystere 
de 1'Incarnation et Nativite de Notre Sauveur (1474) 
(A. Delboulle). NO. 7. Kigal, E., Esquisse d'une 
histoire des theatres de Paris (1548-1635) (L. B). 

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR DEUTSCHES ALTERTHUM BD. 

XXXII. HEFT. I. Bolte, Kleine beitrHge zur geschi- 
chte des dramas. Brandes, Die litterarische tBtigkeit 
des verfassers des Reinke. Schenk zu Schweinsberg. 
Zur frage nach dem wohnsitze Friedrichs von Hau- 
sen. Wernleke, Die Pilgerreise dea letzten grafen 
von Katzenellenbogen. Kachmann, BruehstUcke 
eines frauengebetes. lingerie, Ein BruchstUek der 
Kaiserchronik. Knoll, Ein bruchstllck des Wigalois. 
Sclionach, Bruchstticke aus dem Alexander des Ulrich 
von Eschenbach. Heinemann, Aus zerschnittenen 
Wolfenbtittler hss. Bachmnnn, Bruchsttlcke eines 
mhd. Cliges. Birlinger, Beitrage zur kunde mittel- 
alterlicher personennamen aus mittelrheinischen 
urkunden. Schroder, Die erste Klirnbergerstrophe. 
V nun n IK Ein wassersegen. Kriiger, Einige besser- 
ungen zur Krone. 

REVUE CELTIQUE VOL. IX. No. \-Janvier 1888. 

Duvau, L., La Legende de la Conception de Cfichulainn. 
Stokes, Wh., The Voyage of Snedgus and Mac Riagla. 
Barthelemy, A. de, Legendes des Monnaies gauloises 
(1887). IVArbofs. II. de Jubainville, Recherches sur 
1'origine de la propri''t5 fonciere et des noms de lieu 
en France (troisieme article). Nettlau, M.. Notes on 
Welsh Consonants. (at: mil, R., Sur quelqnes inscrip- 
tions de Saintes contenant des noms gaulois. Warren, 
F. E., Un monument in'dit de la liturgie celtique. 
Bibllographie. Nettlau, M., BeitrKge /ur cj'mrischen 
Grammatik I Einleitung und Vocalismus). Toubin, ('., 
Dictionnairc I'tymologique et explicatif de la langue 
francaise.- Ernault, E., Du parfait en grec et en latin. 
Mulr, T. S., Ecclesiological Notes on some of the 
Islands of Scotland. Krnault, E., Le Mystere de Sainte 
Barbe. Atkinson, P.., The Passions and the Homilies 
from Leabhar IJreac, text, translation and glossary. 



Meyer, Kuno, Peredur ab Efrawc. Martin, Wood. 

History of Sligo. 



LE MOYEN ACE, NO. 2.-Fevrier im 
rendus. Langlols, Le regne de Philippe III le Hardi 
(M. Prou). Guastl, C., Santa Maria del Fiore II Per- 
gamo di Donatello pel Duomo di Prato (C. Frey). 
Pearson, Karl, Die Fronica (A. Marignan). Chronique 
blbllographlque. Periodiques. Autrlche, Histoire et 
Archeologie (W. Englmann). France, Droit et Econo- 
mic politique (G. Platon). 

GlORNALE STORICO DELLA LETTERATURA iTALh 
ANA, VOL. X, (FASC. 3). -Bladene, Leandro, I mano- 
scritti italiani della collezione Hamilton nel R. Museo 
e nella R. Biblioteca di Berlino (2. IX. '87). Frail, 
Ludorico, Notizie biograflche de rimatori italiani die 
secc. XIII-XIV. Ill, Onesto da Bologna (15. XI. '87). 
Niihliadini, Kcmiglo, Sugli studi volgari di Leonardo 
Giustiniani (3. II. '87). Lamma, Ernesto, Intorno ad 
alcune rime di Lionardo Giustiniani. Costa, Emlllo, 
Marco Antonio Flaminio e il cardinale Alessandro 
Farnese (4. XII. '87). Sforza, Giovanni, Una lettera 
dantesca di Gio. Jacopo Dionisi. Passe(/na Bibllogra- 
fica. Palmarlnl, I., (Vittorio Rossi) Idrammi pastorali 
di Antonio Marr-i detto 1'Epicuro Napolitano. I. La 
Mirzia(25. XI. '87). Ademollo, A., (Achille Neri) Goril- 
la Olimpica (5. XII. '87). Mazzatlntl. ft., (Rodolfo 
Renier) Manoscritti italiani delle biblioteche di Fran- 
cia, I e II (26. XI. '87) tioldmann, A., (Francesco 
Novati) Drei italienische Handschril'tenkataloge 
XIII-XIV (16. XII. '87). 

LE CANADA-FRANQAIS, VOLUME PREMIER, I ERE 

LlVRAISON. (Janvier, 1888). Prospectus Routlilrr, 
A. B., Le Canada-Franfais Son but et son programme. 

Vkthot, Mgr. M. E., Le Jubile de sa Saintete Le'on 
XIII.-Gosselin, L'abbe A. H., Role Politique de Mgr 
de Laval, Le Conseil Souverain et les Gouverneurs du 
Camilla. Marceau, Ernest, Reveil Hotnmage aux 
fondateurs du Canada Francis. de Fovlle, P., ROle 
de la Facult- des Arts dans I'CJniversite catholique. 

t'hapnls, Thomas, La Bataille de Carillon. Casgraln, 
L'abbe' II. K., Coup d'oeil sur 1'Acadie avant la disper- 
sion de la colonie fran^-ais. Laflnmrne, L'abbe .1. r. h.. 

Metallurgie Klectriijiie. Legendre, Nap. Le Realisme 
en Litterature. Routhler, A. B., Chronique de Paris. 

Chauveau, P. J. 0., Revue Eiiropeenne. La Canada- 
Francaiset l'autorit' j ecclesiastique.-i'ocwin/ Iiiiilitu 

T. M'moireau Due de Choiseul, an sujet de lapi\'ten- 
tion ou sont les Angloisque les Accadiens n'apparti- 
ennent plus a la France. TI. Tableau sommaire des 
missionnaires seculiers qui etaient dans les provinces 
maritimes vers 1761. III. Declaration de guerre des 
Micmacs au gouvernenr d'Halifax, en 1749. (Texte 
micmac et traduction franyaise.) I V. Lettres de M. 
1'abbe Le Loutre, missionnaire en Acadie, 1738-1748. 
V. Estat de 1' Acadie pour le gouvernernent ecclesias- 
tique, 1731. VI. Description de 1'Acadie, de la main de 
1'abbe Le Loutre, 1746. VII. Description de 1'Acadie, 
avec le nom des paroisses et le nonibre des habitants, 
1748. VIII. Memoire de 1'abbe de 1'Isle-Dieu a M. 
Stanley, 175.-,. 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 



Baltimore, May, I sss. 



MA CAUL AY AND CARLYLE. 

PROF. MCELROY'S paper on "Matter and 
Manner," in MOD. LANG. NOTES for February, 
is in need of rectification at several points. 

So far as the personal element may enter 
into the following remarks, the reader must 
suffer me to be as brief as will comport with 
clearness and explicitness. 

1. When PROF. MCELROY asserts, column 
57, that "both [PROF. HART and PROF. 
HUNT] ignored, as it seems to me, this funda- 
mental principal of the inseparability, except 
in thought, of matter and form in literary 
composition, both spoke as if the only merit in 
composition were its expressing worthy 
thought," he is in grievous error, so far at least 
as I am concerned. Neither at Philadelphia 
nor elsewhere, neither verbally nor in print, 
have I ever expressed or intimated any other 
belief than that style and thought are insepara- 
ble, that poor style proceeds from poor think- 
ing, that good style consists in the adequate 
adjustment of thought and expression. For 
others I do not undertake to speak. 

2. The quotation ascribed to me in the 
same place, viz. : " MACAULAY always seem- 
ed to write as if some one were looking over 
his shoulder and saying 'Bravo! LORD MAC- 
AULAY ; how well you have tiirned out that 
sentence," is trueasfaras given. But being 
given only in part, the truth, is only partial ; and 
sometimes, be the reader admonished, partial 
truth is partial error. PROF. MCELROY should 
have remembered the steps that led up to my 

. conclusion. But they will be given farther on ; 
provisionally let me note another passage 
from PROF. MCELROY, column 59: "But he 
[the critic] is manifestly unfair when he ... 
holds the writer up to ridicule as posing be- 
fore a looking-glass and saying: 'Ah, you 
handsome dog,' when in fact, though the 
writer is a bit self-conscious, he really 
gives us something fine to look at.'" Is 
writing " as if some one were looking over 
your shoulder "=" posing before a looking- 
glass"? Is catching applause from another, 



"Bravo, how well you have done that "= 
saying to oneself What a handsome dog am 
/"? The reader must decide whether he 
believes the present writer capable ofthus mis- 
taking MACAULAY for, let us say, BULWEK. 

3. PROF. MCELROY puts the broad ques- 
tion, column 58: " Is there no merit in a fine 
style ? Is such a style necessarily bad ? Are 
we to attend only to the thought of a composi- 
tion?" The sound critic will unhesitatingly 
reply : There is every merit in a fine style, 
only let us first determine what makes style 
truly fine. PROF. MCELROY has evidently 
failed to perceive what should be a patent 
fact, to wit, that while some would-be critics 
may sneer at MACAULAY for writing too finely, 
there are other critics who object to him 
because he does not write finely enough ! 
The present writer belongs to the latter class, 
and it will be the aim of the following remarks 
to justify his position. 

i. Wherein consists the essence of style? 
What gives a writer his individuality? PROF. 
MCELROY tduches forcibly, columns 61 and 62, 
upon one of the evils of our time, viz. : the 
gross neglect of rhetoric and criticism, the 
thrusting aside of literature in favor of phi- 
lology. It is only too true, as he intimates, 
that our college students are left to acquire a 
good style by " absorption;" that "questions 
of grammatical purity are treated as of little 
value, and, with the weightier matters of 
sentence and paragraph building, unity of 
composition, clearness, force, and other such 
topics, are hustled out of court in quiet con- 
tempt." This is all true, painfully true. Yet 
it does not go to the root of the evil, nor does 
the professor, it is to be feared, even see the 
root of the evil. Else he would not think 
and write of MACAULAY as he does. 

The secret of style lies in the infallible use 
of wor"ds. Whether a writer be great or only 
mediocre, will depend first and last upon his 
choice of words. Grammar, paragraphing, uni- 
ty of composition, even clearness and force, are 
things that can be taught. All, except per- 
haps force, should indeed be disposed of in 
the grammar school. But precision, proprie- 
ty, elegance, incisiveness, suggestiveness, in- 



227 



'.May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



228 



dividuality, how and when are they to be 
acquired ? How, indeed, if not through the 
closest study of the greatest writers in their 
happiest moods ? As regards MACAULAY, his 
genuine critics maintain that he is not one of 
the greatest writers of our language, and that 
he does not repay the closest study, because 
he is lacking in the curiosa felicitas which 
betokens consummate literary genius. 

Text-books of rhetoric, and with them in- 
struction in rhetoric, overlook the paramount 
importance of the word-element in style. 
They concentrate attention upon more formal 
matters, sentence-structure, paragraphing, 
' invention ' and the like. But words are the 
life-blood of speech. To disregard them is to 
misunderstand the very process of thought- 
communication. Words are not algebraic 
symbols, having exact and fixed values. We 
cannot set up our sentences as the mathema- 
tician sets up his equations. The same word 
does not always bear the same meaning. 
Every word has had its own organic growth, 
carries with it a variable set of associations, 
may appeal to one ear and fall dead upon 
another. How, then, are we to learn to use 
words correctly? As one artist learns from 
another the art of coloring, by observation 
and imitation. Imitation, of course, in the 
higher sense, not aping, which results in mere 
mannerism. More than a century ago LESSING 
said, with his usual sagacity, that we might 
imagine a Raphael without hands, but never a 
Raphael without eyes. What LESSING meant 
was that the artist's one essential quality 
is vision. The artist must see his object, its 
form, its color, its relations, and he must also 
see every line and shade that he is to use in 
its representation, must see them in his mind 
before attempting to convey them to the 
canvas. Is it any different in literary style? 
Must not the writer see his object in all its 
details, must he not select from the treasury 
of speech just the word that will reproduce 
his mental vision ? The worst mistake that he 
can make is to think that one word will answer 
as well as another. 

2. Here is the explanation of MACAULAY'S 
failure to achieve mastery in style. He is lack- 
ing in artistic vision. And where he is weak, 
CARLYLE is strong. When PROF. MCELROY 



speaks, column 58, of MACAULAY'S "power of 
calling spirits from the vasty deep, his admir- 
able choice of words," he speaks a language 
which to me at least is unintelligible. If 
MACAULAY ever called up spirits from the 
deep, assuredly they were like Glendower's, 
they refused to come when he did call them. 
But it is safer, perhaps more charitable, to 
believe that MACAULAY never tried to call 
them. Of all prominent English writers he is 
the least spiritual, the most given to gliding 
over the surface of life and character. There 
is not in his writings a single serious and 
sustained attempt to penetrate into the depth 
of being or of a being. And his choice of 
words is not admirable. The utmost that we 
can say of it is that it is correct within the 
limits of mediocre conventionalism. The 
writer who patterns himself after MACAULAY, 
will never make any serious blunder in diction, 
on the other hand he will never surprise from 
nature one of those winged words that flit 
from soul to soul. 

One example will suffice. In reviewing 
CROKER'S ' BOSWELL,' MACAULAY puts thus 
aphoristically his estimate of BOSWELL : " He 
has no second. He has distanced all his 
competitors so decidedly that it is not worth 
while to place them. Eclipse is first, and the 
rest nowhere." This is a phrase which may 
tickle the popular ear, 'Eclipse first and the 
rest nowhere,' but will it not grieve the ju- 
dicious? There are competitions in real life 
which resemble a horse-race, and MACAULAY 
knew them thoroughly. But is the writing of 
biography one of them ? Is a biographer a 
jockey lashing his Pegasus to the plaudits of a 
frantic throng ? If we wish for a true winged 
word, let us turn to CARLYLE'S judgment upon 
CROKER'S editorial labors: "tombstone-infor- 
mation." It is a brief phrase, but the coiner 
of it must have seen into CROKER, must also 
have seen into the depths of speech. 

3. Whether the reader agree or disagree 
with the above view of style, in either case he 
will now understand how I came to describe 
MACAULAY as writing to captivate some im- 
aginary bystander looking over his shoulder. 
Such a conclusion, isolated from what preced- 
ed it, is somewhat startling ; but it was pre- 
ceded by a series of propositions which em- 



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bodied the Motive. BrieHy stated, these 
propositions \v 

a. A say ing of EMERSON'S, that while there 
might In- many ways of doing a thing ill, there 
could be only one way of doing it well. 

b. A quotation from MATTHEW ARNOLD, 
explaining the secret of HOMER'S effectiveness, 
namely, Id-cause he always composed with his 
eye solely upon the object. 

c. An application to MACAULAY, stating 
that he composed, not with his eye on the 
object but rather with his eye upon the reader. 
Hence he composed not well in the Emerson- 
ian sense, and his choice of words could not 
be apt, or truly picturesque, in the Homeric 
sense. 

The reader may accept this sequence of 
thought in whole or in part, or may reject it 
altogether, as he shall see fit. But in any 
event he can scarcely reject it on the ground 
of incoherence. 

MACAULAY'S true position in literature is 
usually misunderstood. He is placed among 
the great writers ; whereas he belongs of right 
among the orators. His true field was not 
the printed page but the floor of the House of 
Commons. Here he was without his match. 
In that noble arena no Tory gladiator ever 
made him lower his sword's point for an 
instant. At a time when parliamentary elo- 
quence was at its height he always carried the 
House. How could it have been otherwise? 
He united in himself all the requisites of a 
successful debater: earnest conviction, im- 
mense knowledge, ready wit, and an instan- 
taneous perception of the weakness of his 
adversary. The last gift outweighs, in my 
judgment, all the others. I have said that in 
order to write well one must see clearly. In 
his rightful sphere, debate, MACAULAY did 
see clearly. He had the special gift of intu- 
ition. The promptness with which he detect- 
ed a sophism and branded it in apt words, the 
nimbleness with which he met an objection 
and turned it upon the objector, are to me 
marvellous. The Tories of those days there 
were some great men among them must 
have often gnashed their teeth in sheer de- 
spair. 

But it behooves us to remember that parlia- 
mentary oratory is not literature. It is dis- 



course ad hoc ; literature speaks to the endless 
future. As writer, MACAULAY debates, seeks 
to capture the reader by a majority vote. His 
History of England is a long harangue. His 

essays an- short harangues. Everywhere 
somebody, some canst-, is to be attacked or 
defended. Nowhere is his eye searching 
below the surface, detecting hidden analogies 
and discriminating between apparent 
semblances. We can generally learn from 
him how men acted outwardly, how things 
looked on the surface at a given juncture. 
But if we ask of him why men acted thus, if we 
call upon him to lay bare the complex motives, 
pride, greed, prejudice, ambition, that result- 
ed in an action or a policy, we shall ask in 
vain. MACAULAY has but the seven primary 
colors with which to paint character: his 
palette is without intermediate shades. Vanity 
is vanity with him, pride is pride, wisdom is 
wisdom. If this judgment appear too sweep- 
ing, I can only ask the reader to test it. MAC- 
AULAY has given his opinion upon many 
literary Englishmen, upon MILTON, BUNYAN, 
DRYDEN, SWIFT, GOLDSMITH, JOHNSON, 
BYRON. Selecting these seven as samples of 
complexity and diversity, I put the question : 
Into which of the seven has MACAULAY seen? 
MILTON is a learned saint, BUNYAN an inspired 
tinker, DRYDEN a renegade, SWIFT a ribald, 
GOLDSMITH a lively, chatty fool, JOHNSON a 
churl, BYRON a sentimental dandy. Some of 
us, truly, had been able to find out that much 
for ourselves. But we wish to know more, 
we wish to know precisely what it was in each 
one of the seven that made him great, made 
him a power. And this MACAULAY is unable 
to tell us, because he himself has not found it 
out. 

4. Passing from MACAULAY to CARLYLE, 
let us dwell only upon the more obvious 
features of contrast. And let us begin with a 
general admission. It is not at all needful to 
be a blind follower of the sage of Chelsea. It 
will lighten our hearts to confess, without urg- 
ing thereto, that CARLYLE'S views are often 
wrong, outrageously wrong, and when wrong 
are usually enforced with a brutality that 
shocks every fibre of one's conscience. One 
sample will suffice, his estimate of SCOTT, 
given in his review of LOCKHART'S ' Life.' 



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Seldom has literary immorality been more 
flagitious. We can account for it only as an 
overflow of personal dislike. CARLYLE is 
usually taken to be a liberal. At bottom he 
was only a Scotch Calvinist, the finer part of 
Calvinism rubbed off and replaced by a thin 
veneer of German Rationalism. For SCOTT, 
the genial Jacobite and Royalist, the despiser 
of 'metapheesical' hair-splitting, CARLYLE had 
no sympathy, scarcely even understanding. 

Yet we can easily afford to be just to CAR- 
LYLE. He was often, let us say, color-blind. 
He often saw his object unconsciously in a 
wrong light, and this defect of vision was 
organic and incurable. But when he saw his 
object aright, no man, Englishman or other- 
wise, ever described it more clearly, more 
vividly, with greater spiritual intuition. His 
failures are not due, like MACAULAY'S, to wil- 
fully diverting his gaze from the object to the 
reader. Hence it is that the most indignant 
reader of CARLYLE will sympathize with him, 
even though it be under protest. At his worst 
he can always teach us, if nothing else, the 
warning lesson that if the soul's eye be blind 
then is the whole body full of darkness. Can 
we learn a like lesson of humility from MAC- 
AULAY? We shall rather remember LORD 
MELBOURNE'S despairing ejaculation: "Would 
to God I could be as sure of anything as TOM 
MACAULAY is of everything." 

On the other hand, when CARLYLE is right, 
how very right he is, how wholesome, how 
exhilarating! How each subtle thought finds 
its organic expression ! To illustrate this, and 
at the same time point the comparison, let me 
place side by side two extracts from MAC- 
AULAY'S and CARLYLE'S reviews of CROKER'S 
' BOSWELL.' 

a. MACAULAY. "BOSWELL attained it 
[literary eminence] by reason of his weakness. 
If he had not been a great fool, he would 
never have been a great writer . . . Logic, 
eloquence, wit, taste, all those things which are 
generally considered as making a book valu- 
able, were utterly wanting to him. He had, 
indeed, a quick observation and a retentive 
memory. These qualities, if he had been a 
man of sense and virtue, would scarcely of 
themselves have sufficed to make him con- 
spicuous ; but because he was a dunce, a 



parasite, and a coxcomb, they have made him 
immortal." 

CARLYLE. "Nay, sometimes a strange 
enough hypothesis has been started of him 
(BOSWELL) ; as if it were in virtue even of those 
same bad qualities that he did his good work ; 
as if it were the very fact of his being among 
the worst men in this world that had enabled 
him to write one of the best books therein. 
Falser hypothesis, we may venture to say, 
never rose in human soul. Bad is by its 
nature negative, and can do nothing; whatso- 
ever enables us to do anything is by its very 
nature good. Alas, that there should be 
teachers in Israel, or even learners, to whom 
this world-ancient fact is still problematical, 
or even deniable. BOSWELL wrote a good 
book because he had a heart and an eye to 
discern wisdom, and an utterance to render it 
forth ; because of his free insight, his lively 
talent, above all, of his love and childlike 
open-mindedness. His sneaking sycophan- 
cies, his greediness and forwardness, whatever 
was bestial and earthy in him, are so many 
blemishes in his book, which still disturb us in 
its clearness ; wholly hindrances, not helps. 
Towards JOHNSON, however, this feeling was 
not sycophancy, which is the lowest, but rev- 
erence, which is the highest of human feelings. 
. . . For ourselves, let every one of us cling 
to this last article of faith and know it as the 
beginning of all knowledge worth the name : 
that neither JAMES BOSWELL'S good book, nor 
any other good thing, in any time or in any 
place, was, is, or can be performed by any 
man in virtue of his badness, but always and 
solely in spite thereof." 

b. MACAULAY. "The characteristic pecu- 
liarity of his (JOHNSON'S) intellect was the 
union of great powers with low prejudices. 
If we judged of him by the best parts of his 
mind, we should place him almost as high as 
he was placed by the idolatry of BOSWELL; if 
by the worst parts of his mind, we should 
place him even below BOSWELL himself. 
Where he was not under the influence of some 
strange scruple or some domineering passion, 
which prevented him from boldly and fairly 
investigating a subject, he was a wary and 
acute reasoner, a little too much inclined to 
scepticism, and a little too fond of paradox. 



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No man was less likely to be imposed upon 
by fallurii-s in argument or by exaggerated 
statements of fact. But if, while he was beat- 
ing down sophisms and exposing false testi- 
mony, some childish prejudices, such as would 
excite laughter in a well-managed nursery, 
came across him, he was smitten as if by en- 
chantment. His mind dwindled away under 
the spell from gigantic elevation to dwarfish 
littleness. Those who had lately been admir- 
ing its amplitude and its force were now as 
much astonished at its strange narrowness 
and feebleness as the fisherman in the Arabian 
tale, when he saw the Genie whose stature 
had overshadowed the whole sea-coast, and 
whose might seemed equal to a contest with 
armies, contract himself to the dimensions of 
his small prison, and lie there the helpless 
slave of the charm of Solomon." 

CARLYLE. "More legibly is this influence 
of the loving heart to be traced in his (JOHN- 
SON'S) intellectual character. What, indeed, 
is the beginning of intellect, the first induce- 
ment to the exercise thereof, but attraction 
towards somewhat, affection for it? Thus, 
too, who ever saw, or will see, any true talent, 
not to speak of genius, the foundation of which 
is not goodness, love? From JOHNSON'S 
strength of affection we deduce many of his 
intellectual peculiarities ; especially that 
threatening array of perversions, known under 
the name of 'Johnson's Prejudices.' Look- 
ing well into the root from which these sprang, 
we have long ceased to view them with hostili- 
ty, can pardon and reverently pity them. 
Consider with what force early-imbibed 
opinions must have clung to a soul of this 
affection. Those evil-famed prejudices of his, 
that Jacobitism, Church-of-Englandism, hatred 
of the Scotch, belief in witches, and suchlike, 
what were they but the ordinary beliefs of 
well-doing, well-meaning, provincial English- 
men in that day ? First gathered by his 
father's hearth ; round the kind ' Country- 
fires ' of native Staffordshire ; they grew with 
his growth and strengthened with his strength ; 
they were hallowed by fondest sacred recol- 
lections ; to part with them was to part with 
his heart's blood. If the man who has no 
strength of affection, strength of belief, have 



no strength of prejudice, let him thank heaven 
for it, but to himself take small thanks. 

" Melancholy it was, indeed, that the noble 
JOHNSON could not work himself loose from 
these adhesions ; that he could only purify 
them, and wear them with some nobleness. 
Yet let us understand how they grew out from 
the very centre of his being ; nay, moreover, 
how they came to cohere in him with what 
formed the business and worth of his life, the 
sum of his whole spiritual endeavour. For it is 
on the same ground that he became through- 
out an edifier and repairer, not, as the others 
of his make were, a puller-down ; that in an 
age of universal scepticism, England was still 
to produce its believer. Mark, too, his candor 
even here ; while a DR. ADAMS, with placid 
surprise, asks : ' Have we not evidence of the 
soul's immortality?' JOHNSON answers: 'I 
wish for more.' " 

The reader will have no difficulty in reading 
between the lines. As a sample of the heinous- 
ness of MACAULAY'S exaggeration, let the 
following phrase suffice: "He (BOSWELL) 
was ... an unsafe companion who never 
scrupled to repay the most liberal hospitality 
by the basest violation of confidence." Aside 
from the question of fact involved in the asser- 
tion, as a mere matter of style one may well 
ask : If BOSWELL. had treacherously stabbed a 
brother laird in a drunken brawl, or robbed a 
savings bank, or run off with his neighbor's 
wife, where would MACAULAY have found 
words adequate ? 

5. PROF. MCELROY, column 59. expresses 
himself thus: "Suppose, for example, that 
MACAULAY had thought as CARLYLE thought. 
Would the brilliancy of his style in that case 
have offended us? Nay, would not his many 
charms of manner, unimpaired as they would 
then have been, only have added to his legiti- 
mate effect upon us? We were told in the 
Convention that CARLYLE first wrote as MAC- 
AULAY did, but afterwards deliberately 
changed his style. Was it not because he 
believed that, by intentionally adopting the 
peculiarities that characterize his later work, he 
would the more certainly secure an audience? 
Surely there was never a more conceited, self- 
conscious great man than CARLYLE." 



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a. The supposition involves an impossibili- 
ty. MACAULAY could never have thought as 
CARLYLE thought, for the all-sufficient reason 
that it was not in him to do so. 

b. "Brilliancy" of style, the brilliancy which 
consists in heaping up superlatives, balancing 
phrases, juggling with the mere order of 
words, is offensive, whether in MACAULAY, or 
in CARLYLE, or in BURKE, or even in SHAKE- 
SPEARE or MILTON. The assertion that CAR- 
LYLE'S early style resembled MACAULAY'S 
in rhetoric is true. Here is the warrant for it : 

" SCHILLER seems to have the greater 
genius; ALFIERI the more commanding 
character. ALFIERI 's greatness rests on the 
stern concentration of fiery passion under the 
dominion of an adamantine will . . . SCHIL- 
LER'S moral force is commensurate with his 
intellectual gifts and nothing more. The 
mind of the one is like the ocean, beautiful in 
its strength, smiling in the radiance of Sum- 
mer, and washing luxuriant and romantic 
shores : that of the other is like some black 
unfathomable lake placed far amid the melan- 
choly mountains ; bleak, solitary, desolate ; 
but girdled with grim, sky-piercing cliffs, over- 
shadowed with storms, and illuminated only 
by the red glare of the lightning." 

This is written with an eye to the reader, 
and is correspondingly " brilliant." But who- 
ever tries to understand ALFIERI and SCHIL- 
LER by such red glare of lightning will get 
his labor for his pains. 

c. There is no warrant for the assumption 
that CARLYLE "deliberately" changed his 
style. Style is not a garment to be donned or 
doffed at will. The change in CARLYLE'S 
style came gradually and I suspect un- 
consciously. Doubtless it came from a pro- 
longed and searching study of GOETHE, the 
least rhetorical of writers. Doubtless it was a 
sense of the utter inadequacey of such SCHIL- 
LER-ALFIERI turgidity to render GOETHE'S 
serene, naive, Olympian straightforwardness, 
that gave to CARLYLE'S mind its new di- 
rection. It was GOETHE who taught CARLYLE 
the supreme value of words, the insignificance 
of phrase-structure. CARLYLE himself says 
of his later syntax : 

"Of his sentences perhaps not more than 
nine-tenths stand straight on their legs; the 



remainder are in quite angular attitudes, 
buttressed up by props (of parentheses and 
dashes), and ever with this or the other tag- 
rag hanging from them ; a few even sprawl 
but helplessly on all sides, quite broken-back- 
ed and dismembered." 

We are not to apply self-irony and mock 
self-depreciation too literally. 'In Memoriam' 
is the most carefully planned and best sustain- 
ed didactic poem in our language, yet the 
author condescendingly speaks of it as " little 
swallow flights of song." All that CARLYLE 
meant by his caricature of Teufelsdroeckh was 
that the reader should not expect of him stilted 
rhetoric a la Blair. 

b. Conceding that CARLYLE is conceited 
and self-conscious, the sole question that 
concerns us here is, how far his style may 
suffer therefrom. Only in so far as prejudice 
prevented him, as it prevented JOHNSON, from 
seeing the object aright. Where CARLYLE 
saw clearly, there he described unerringly, 
notwithstanding all his self-consciousness. As 
for his "crudities," his " Babylonian dialect," 
his " boisterousness and utter want of self- 
containment," they exist only for the reader 
who is unfamiliar with the word-wealth of our 
language. Above all other prose-writers CAR- 
LYLE has the infallible artist-touch in his use of 
words. Coming from him, each noun, adjec- 
tive, verb is instinct with life. He handles 
them as a florist handles his flowers, knowing- 
ly, caressingly, lovingly. He does not toss 
them at us, as the baker tosses his rolls over 
the counter, a roll for a penny. How can 
one be boisterous and lacking in self-contain- 
ment, whose every word pulses with its own 
organic life, grows into its place? 

We may reject as many of his opinions as we 
see fit, may shrug our shoulders at 'Shooting 
Niagara' and the reviler of poorCuffee. It is 
easy work. In no writer "perhaps is it easier 
to separate the wheat from the chaff". But 
which of us can truthfully assert that he has 
mastered CARLYLE'S style, that he knows 
enough of English literature and language to 
make the attempt? Although some of his 
best sayings have become almost as thread- 
bare as "To Be or Not To Be," the sympa- 
thetic reader can not glance furtively at them 
without renewing his old sense of humiliation 



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at his own ignorance. Where did the man 
get his words, from what slums of trash, what 
dust-heaps of neglected lore did he evoke 
such dainty Ariels, such elvish Pucks, such 
towering invective Lears, serene Prosperos, 
tenderly-brooding Hermiones ? They humble 
us, as SHAKESPEARE'S masterful touch humbles 
us. Yet this is the writer whom some would 
call Mcgalosaurian ! Rather let us call 
ALEXANDER EVERETT a megalosaurian, or 
even the great MACAULAV, in his triple brass 
of whiggism, conventionalism, omniscience. 



J. M. HART. 



University of Cincinnati, 



DAN TESCA.OSSER VAZIONl SU 

ALCUNI PASS AC G I DELL A 

DIVINA COMMEDIA. 

Prima di cominciare questo articoletto devo 
avvertire il lettore, che non ho potuto con- 
sultare i comentatori antichi, neppure tutti gli 
autori moderni che nelle loro vite di DANTE o 
nelle lore edizioni o version! della Divina 
Commedia potrebbero essersi valuti dell' 
occasione di parlare dei punti da me trattati. 
Doveva dunque chiedermi se non sarebbe 
statomeglio aspettare con questo piccolo sag- 
giuolo, finche non avessi comparata la lettera- 
tura suddetta ; ma veduto il monte di scritti 
danteschi, che si sono accumulati da tutte le 
parti, par essere cosa impossibile 1'accorgersi 
dell'apparatoscientifico complete a qualunque 
uomo lasciato, come mi trovo io, senza i van- 
taggi d'una biblioteca pubblica : era piuttosto 
necessario far scelta fra le ottime, ossia le 
ultime pubblicazioni, essendo permesso di 
supporre, che nelle ricerche pubblicate nel 
Dante-Jahrbuch e nelle opere dottissime dei 
BLANC, WITTE, WEGELE, PHILALETHES, 
HETTINGER ; GARY, CARLYLE, LONGFELLOW, 
PLUMPTRE possano trovarsi rappresentate e 
discusse quasi tutte le teorie degli antichi 
siccome dei contemporanei. Se dunque non 
trovava in quegli autori nessuna delle osser- 
vazioni, che vorrei far io, ci era luogo a cre- 
dere, che non le trovarono eglino stessi nelle 
loro fonti, ovvero che il solo silenzio lor 
pareva bastante per ribatterle. In ogni caso 
spero che non si vorranno giudicare inoppor- 
tune le annotazioni seguenti, sia che io co- 



minci qui un filo nuovo, o che riprenda il 
bandolo pcrduto dagli autori inglesi. 



Caccianli i Ciel per non esser men belli, 
N6 Io profondo inferno gli riceve, 
Ch alcuna gloria i rei avrebber d'elli. 

Inf. Ill, 40-43. 

L'ultimo verso di questo terzetto 6 state inter- 
pretato in tre o quattro varj modi secondo che 
ho trovato. 

Gli uni, spiegando alcuna gloria nel senso 
negative, dicono che non furono ammessi 
nell'inferno gli spiriti neutri, perch&, secondo 
DANTE, non furono degni neppure di questo 
luogo, essendo peggiori anche degli stessi rei. 

II Symonds (An introduction to the study of 
DANTE. London, 1882, p. 144) ha adottato ques- 
ta interpretazione e sentendo bene 1'ingiustizia 
della sentenza, ne fa rampogna al poeta. II 
HETTINGER all' incontro, il quale sembra am- 
mettere questa traduzione anch' egli, si prova 
di giustificarne 1'idea, riferendosi al versetto 
15-16 dell' apocalissi in. (HETTINGER, Die 
gottliche Komodie des DANTE Alighieri nach 
ihrem wesentlichen Inhalt und Character, p. 
147). 

Secondo altri, e ne prendo come esempio il 
LONGFELLOW, gli indifferenti non furono ac- 
cettati dai rei, perch non erano riconosciuti 
uguali dai peccatori attivi, quasiccome nella 
maestranza dei ladri i birboni inveterati e 
finiti guardano giu con disprezzo sui giovini 
novizzi, o mal destri nel loro mestiere. Prende 
dunque anche il LONGFELLOW alcuna come 
pronome negative. 

II maggior numero dei comentatori intende 
alcuna nel senso ordinario per a/quanta e 
crede, che gli indifferenti non potevano 
essere incorporati nell' inferno per non dare 
ai rei nessuna cagione di sentire soddisfazione 
o gioja maligna, vedendo che per non aver 
fatto alcun male, i neutri avessero da patire la 
medesima pena ch' eglino stessi. Tale alme- 
no e 1 'interpretazione data dai GARY e adottata 
dalP ultimo traduttore inglese, il PLUMPTRE. 

(Juan to agli autori tedeschi che ho potuto 
comparare, mi pare, che capiscano il nostro 
passaggio nella stessa maniera ; ma C- vero, 
che le traduzioni : " weil Sunder stolz auf sie 
doch blicken konnten," (Philal.) e "dass 



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240 



nicht mit ihnen die Verdammten prahlen " 
(STRECKFUSs,GoEBEL,SechsVorlesungenuber 
DANTE. Bielefeld, Leipzig, 1882), sono espres- 
sioni alquanto vaghe che potrebbero signifi- 
care anche, che i rei sarebbero contenti non 
gia dalla pena ma della compagnia dei neutri. 

Ma qualunque sia il senso voluto, credo che 
nessuna delle traduzioni citate fin qui corris- 
ponda compitamente al concetto altissimo che 
I'ALLIGHIERI aveva della giustizia divina. E 
ben vero che il poeta, carattere energico e 
passionate egli stesso, ha versato tutto il suo 
disprezzo su questi miseri pusillanimi ; ma per 
essere passionato non potrebbe essere ingius- 
to, n farebbe commettere atto d'ingiustizia 
al giudice supremo. Ecco ci6, che bisogna 
tenere ben distinto ! Che Vaccidia sia falta 
gravissima dal punto di vista dogmatico, pu6 
essere, ma checchS ne dicano il domma o la 
Chiesa, & sicuro, siccome 1'hanno provato il 
WEGELE, il WITTE, lo SCARTAZZINI ed altri, 
che DANTE non ha seguito esclusivamente il 
domma, ma che il suo sistema ha subito anche 
1'influsso di diversi altri momenti e in especie 
che dappertutto. risulta d'un senso naturale e 
correttissimo di giustizia umana ossia cristiana. 

II LONGFELLOW crede dovere la sua versione 
all' espressione : 116 lo profondo inferno gli 
riceve ; questo RICEVE pertanto certamente non 
vuol dire che i rei possano scegliere la loro 
compagnia e che non vogliano quella dei 
neutri, ma ci detto solamente che non gli 
riceve 1 'inferno, non lor I aperto, natural- 
mente per ordine di Dio. Siccome fa spesso 
nelle sue note eccellenti, il LONGFELLOW 
cerca illustrare la sua versione, citando passag- 
gi paralleli di altre poesie. Ma questa volta, 
credo, ha sbagliato. Due dei passaggi citati 
sono presi da poesie leggieri e frivole, che 
non possono servire a spiegare il poema 
dantesco, ed il terzo 6 il versetto biblico, lo 
stesso che il HETTINGER ha citato in favore 
dell' opinione, che abbiamo discussa di sopra. 
Ed affatto, se fosse permesso di tutto il citare 
questo versetto, dovrebbe essere inteso come 
1'ha fatto il HETTINGER, perch non vi e il 
Satanasso che giudica, come pel passaggio 
dantesco 1'ha voluto il LONGFELLOW, ma: 
" o 14/UT/r, 6 judprvS 6 m6To$ HO! a'A.^Szj'oS, ?/ 
dpxr) rr/S-Kr ideas? TOV Qeov." In ogni caso 
tutti quelli che traducono alcuna per nessuna, 



ammettono 1'idea stranissima, che gli indiffe- 
renti fossero lasciati fuori dell' inferno per 
fare piacere ai rei, come se fosse 1'intenzione 
divina 1'usar gentilezze ai suoi nemici. 

La terza versione colle varieta rappresen- 
tate dal PLUMPTRE e dagli autori tedeschi i 
quali ho citati, e grammaticalmente corretta 
ed a prima vista non sembra fare torto all' 
alto senso di giustizia che in tutto il suo poema 
mostra I'ALLIGHIERI, ma pure fasottintendere 
anche essa, che da diritto i neutri dovrebbero 
essere nell' inferno e che non si trovino la per 
una causa che non risulta gia del loro stato 
morale proprio, ma d'una considerazione prati- 
ca, esterna, voglio dire della necessita di non 
lasciare ai rei alcuno conforto. In primo luo- 
go, non vediamo in nessun altra parte dell' 
Inferno, che i rei trovino consolazione nell' 
idea d'essersi almeno dato buon tempo, com- 
mettendo i delitti, che devono pagare nell' 
inferno. E vero che 1'aver dei compagni 
nella pena lor un conforto (cf. GIULIANI, 
Dante-Jahrbuch III, 243), ma 6 sicuro anche, 
che per tal ragione, voglio dire per torlo via 
a loro, questo conforto, non deve mai uno 
spirito mancare al suo posto. Carlino sara 
il vicino del Camicion de' Pazzi, checch questi 
ed altri ne sentano. Infine, nessuna ragione 
pud avere alcun effetto sul giudice supremo, 
che non sia ispirata dalla sola ed unica gius- 
tizia. Non sono dunque nell' inferno i neutri, 
perch6 non Vhanno meritato, non sarebbe 
giusto. Tutte le pene dell' inferno, come si sa, 
non sono altro, se non la continuazione e con- 
seguenza diretta dello stato mentale dei pecca- 
tori innanzi alia morte. Era dunque data in 
avanzo e fissa pel loro carattere stesso la con- 
dizione dei neutri, devono venire esattamente 
la, dove appartengono, e 1'inferno non sareb- 
be luogo acconcio a loro. Ecco la ragione, 
nella costruzione, nel carattere e nello scopo 
dell' inferno, ragione parallela a quella, perch6 
non possono entrare nel cielo : 

Caccianli i del per non esser men belli, n6 
lo profondo* inferno li riceve, perch il regno 
dei rei avrebbe subito un cambio in meliorem 
partem per 1'addizione dei neutri. Quesli 

*Forse fe notabile \'a.<\A.pro/ondo. Pensando qui in especie 
agli angeli neutri, e solamente in secondo luogo agli spiriti 
accidiosi, il poeta sembra accennare alia settima bolgia. C. 
XIV. ss. 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



242 



spirit! pusillanimi possono ben essere, e certa- 
mente sono, sdegnevoli ed odiosi a Dio, eppure 
hanno una certa gloria, un sembiante di 
merito. La mancanza di peccato 6 natural- 
mente men degna di castigo che un peccato 
mortale : il niente 6 come un piu relative in 
confronto d'un debito itnmenso. Nell' inferno 
tutto deve essere terribile, colpito dall' ira 
eterna di Dio, contrasto perfetto dell' alta 
beatitudine del Paradise, e questo carattere 
orribilmente brutto non deve essere mitigato 
pell' addizione d'un elemento non meno 
sdegnevole, come pare a noi, ma meno a- 
troce. Dunque : 

N lo profondo inferno gli riceve 
Per non esser men orribile. 



Amor che a nullo amato amar perdona, 

Mi prese del costui piacer si forte 

Che, come vedi, ancor non m'abbandono. 

Inf. V, 103-105. 

Le parole del costui piacer si trovano spie- 
gate nel PLUMPTRE come espressione avver- 
biale, rafforzante in un modo generale la frase 
principale : amor mi prese : 

Love, which does none beloved from loving 

spare, 
Seized me for him with might that such joy 

bred, 
That, as thou seest, it leaves me not e'en 

here. 

E similmente le traducono altri ; e. g. il Phila- 
lethes : Hess mich an ihm so gross Gefallen 
finden e il traduttore greco, Dante-Jahrbuch 
1,388: 

*O epoot Se, oS ovitore ipdovrcci ditaXXarrei 
Totiovrov itoSov not avtov IvenvEvGE 6vv- 



Un' altra versione tutta differente, si legge nel 
GARY e, come seconda scelta in Nota, nel 
CARLVLE : caught me with pleasing him. 

Mi pare sicuro, che col GARY ed altri, dob- 
biamo riguardare del COSTUI piacer come 
genetivo oggettivo dipendente da amor, ap- 
punto come nel terzetto precedente della bella 
Persona : 

Amor, che al cor gentil ratto s'apprende, 
Prese costui della bella persona 



Dice dunque la Franceses: io fui presa d'a- 
more verso il costui piacer, e viene poi da 
chiedere : che cosa vuol dire il costui piacerl 
Secondo la versione with pleasing him, costui 
sarebbe il dativo dipendente da piacer, e ci 
sarebbe da sottintendere il pronome mio 
(piacer). Questa interpretazione non credo 
che sia giusta. Non parlando gia della diffi- 
colt& grammaticale, che sola mi par renderla 
molto dubbiosa, il pensiero riescerebbe al- 
quanto sgraziato : amor mi prese del mio 
piacere a lui. 

Costui deve essere il genetivo possessive, e 
piacer potrebbe stare per piacenza, carattere 
(o apparenza) piacevole, grazioso (cf. Par. 
XX, 144), corrispondente quasi al della bella 
persona (v. 101) auche nel senso. 

E poich6 piacevole, grazioso, amabile sono 
mezzi termini, significanti indistintamente una 
persona simpatica, o che meriti simpatia, o che 
la mostri ella stessa, avremo solamente a 
prendere piacenza nell' ultimo senso per 
ritrovarvi inchiusa 1'idea, che mette la frase 
principale in connessione logica colla frase 
relativa. 

Ma pu6 essere anche che piacere abbia ques- 
to senso attivo* senz' altro, significando 
semplicemente simpatia, affezione, amore : io 
fui presa d'amore verso la sua affezione: il 
suo amore ; mi ferz6 a riamarlo ; perchd amor 
a nullo amato amar perdona. 

E vero che nel terzetto precedente non si 
trova lo stesso sviluppo logico, o almeno non 
si trova indicate nella stessa maniera, ma 
sarebbe andar troppo lontano, sicuramente, 
il valersi di questo motive per combattere la 
nostra versione. 

II LONGFELLOW, come la nota aggiunta da 
lui al verso che stiamo considerando, sembra 
aver con un giusto senso poetico, indovinato 
nel nostro passaggio quasi la stessa idea, che 
ne abbiamo cavata per mezzo della grammati- 
ca ; ma sbagliandosi nel punto grammaticale, 
1'illustre traduttore americano non ha voluto 
seguire la sua ispirazione nel testo, ma ha 
tradotto : 

Love Seized me with pleasure of this man. 

In ogni caso U PLUMPTRE avrebbe fatto 
meglio citando, se non voleva adottarle, la 

Cf. fartrt con il farert, io soxo di Dartre. 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



244 



spiegazione del GARY e la nota del LONGFEL- 
LOW. 



Queste parole da lor ci fur porte, [Inf. V, 108], 
e la teoria del FEIST. 

In GROEBER'S Zs. f. r. Ph. XI, 131-133, A. 
FEIST ha proposto una teoria interamente 
nuova intorno al passaggio Inf. V, 88-107. 
Secondo il suo concetto le parole, che fin 
allora tutto il mondo aveva creduto che fossero 
parlate da Francesca sola, dovrebbero divi- 
dersi in cinque parti : la prima, 88-96, e 1'ultima, 
106-107, sarebbero pronunciate dai due amanti 
insieme ; la seconda, 97-99, e la quarta, 103- 
105, da Francesca sola ; e la parte del mezzo, la 
terza, da Paolo. 

Si vede, che la congettura delle piu im- 
portanti, cambiando interamente tutto il 
carattere del passaggio ed attribuendo quasi a 
ciascheduna frase un senso tutt" altro che non 
le fosse dato innanzi. E vero anche che alcu- 
ni momenti, benissimo esposti dal Feist, 
parlano fortemente in favore della sua idea, 
eppure non posso ancora appigliarmici perche 
ci si oppongono altri momenti non meno gravi, 
ai quali il FEIST non ha fatto attenzione nel 
suo trattato. 

Cominciando la sua dimostrazione col ver- 
so : Queste parole da lor ci fur porte, dice che 
da lor indichi chiaramente, che ambe e due gli 
spiriti devono aver parlato. Questo non mi 
par essere assolutamente necessario. In 
primo luogo arriva spesso ed & tutto naturale, 
che avendo inteso un uomo parlare come 
rappresentante d'un gruppo, diciamo dopo : 
dicevano invece di diceva. Si spiegano i due 
amanti inseparabili pella bocca di Francesca, 
come dell' altra parte DANTE solo gli ha chia- 
mati, a lui solo s' indirizzata la risposta, 
eppure alia fine troviamo : ci fur porte. Le 
due espressioni da lor e ci sono assolutamente 
parallele, non significando altro se non : del 
loro posto al nostro, di la ci. 

Inoltre porgere, benchd talvolta equivalga 
a parlare, non e pure precisamente lo stesso, 
ma significa offrire, dare (la risposta) ; e forse, 
che nel porte si possa vedere il participio di 
porgere e nell' istesso tempo quello $\portare. 
Porto per portato : portare sarebbe come 
desto : destare, privo : privare, etc. 



Sarebbe allora il senso : queste parole ci fur 
ofFerte, date a risposta, da loro (per la bocca 
di Francesca), ovvero ci furono tramesse (pell ' 
acre) dal loro posto, e non e dunque assoluta- 
mente necessaria la nuova interpretazione, 
come 1'ha creduto il suo autore. Vediamo 
adesso, se e probabile. 

Quanto al carattere generate del passaggio, 
che il FEIST pensa essere piu bello secondo la 
sua accezione, si pu6 essere di opinione difFe- 
rente, ed io, per uno, preferisco la semplicita 
del vecchio senso allo stile non dir6 gi 
lirico o drammatico ma declamatorio ed 
artificioso della nuova versione. Ma di ci6 
non dir& nulla, perch de rebus aestheticis 
come de gustibus, non disputandum. 

Ci sono pertanto altre obbiezioni piu parti- 
colari da fare : 

II parlare insieme dei due spiriti non mi 
pare dantesco, che .non si trova in nessuna 
parte un passaggio parallelo ; e poi, i primi 
terzetti, in especie, non essendo, altro se non 
una semplice introduzione, non sono punto 
addattati ad essere pronunciati dai due in- 
sieme. Pare cosa stranissima, davvero, 
I'imaginarsele recitate dai due amanti, queste 
parole quiete e quasi prosaiche. 

Delia difficolta grammatical, che offre il 
tradurre costui per questo (cuore) non bisogna 
parlare qui, perche il FEIST 1'ha mentovata 
egli stesso. Ma mentre vuole, che la donna 
non dovrebbe chiamare bella persona il suo 
corpo, che/r non ha piu, il FEIST non esita a 
fare dire all' uomo 

Amor, che al c or gentil ratto s'apprende 
Prese costui (v. d. il mio, secondo il FEIST). 

Senza gusto, quando le pronuncia Paolo, 
queste parole all' incontro sono bellissime 
nella bocca della donna che cerca spiegare 
con esse e giustificare la passione del suo 
amante. 

II verso e il modo ancor m'ojfende e estre- 
mamente insignificante nel senso che gli da il 
FEIST, ed il chemifu tolta non sarebbe possi- 
bile del tutto, se persona sta per donna, 
perche affatto non sono separati gli amanti. 
II loro amore e piu forte che 1'inferno stesso 
e non e la perdita dell' amore, che lamentano, 
ma la loro eterna dannazione. 

Avrei altre obbiezioni a fare, ma credo che 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



246 



basteni cid che ho detto e forse sono gia stato 
troppo lungo. 

Tocchiamo solamente in passando un' altra 
questione independente dalla teoria del FEIST, 
benche si trovi mentovata nel suo trattato. 



Al doloroso passo. Inf. V, 114. 
Quel giorno piu non vi leggemmo avante. 

Inf. V, 138. 

II FEIST ed altri dicono, che in questi versi si 
tratti della morte ; ma i versi : 

A che e come concedette amore 

Che conoscesti i dubbiosi desiri, 119, 120, 

e forse 

Che ricordarsi del tempo felice, 121, 
siccome 

la prima radice 

Del nostro amor , 124, 125, 

indicano che il doloroso passo, etc., non sia la 
morte ma il primo peccato degli amanti. 



Finalmente devo dar conto al lettore che mi 
ha seguito fin qui, perch6, essendo Tedesco io 
stesso, e vivendo nel " paese la, dove il yes 
suona," abbia osato scrivere il mio articoletto 
in Italiano. L'ho fatto, perche la lingua ita- 
liana e la sola, che debbano capire tutti quelli 
che al nostro poeta s'interessano : da questi 
spero che ho riuscito a farmi comprendere, 
e per altri ne per altra ragione non ho scritto. 



GUSTAF KARSTEN. 



Indiana University. 



THE PERSONAL PRONOUN IN THE 
OLD DANISH 1 TOBIAE CO MED IE: 

The text of the ' Tobiae Comedie ' upon 
which the present paper is based, was edited 
by S. BIRKET SMITH of Copenhagen, and 
published in 1887 by the University-Jubilee 
Danish Union. The editor informs us in the 
introduction that the original of the play is 
contained in MS. No. 794, folio, in the Royal 
Library at Copenhagen. Our comedy is the 
second of the collection. 

"The whole linguistic and dramatic form of 
the piece," says the editor, " makes it certain 



that it cannot be older than the end of the i6th 
century, and, on the other hand, it was certain- 
ly written some time before the sth of May, 
1607, the date of the production of ' De Mundo 
et Paupere,' contained in the same collection." 
For convenience' sake, we may fix its date at 
about 1700. Concerning the name of its 
author we have no positive information, but 
from two references in the text the editor 
infers that it was written in VIBORG. 

The language is very rich in grammatical 
forms, though we already perceive the con- 
fusion of the dative and the accusative. In 
respect to its syntax, we notice many resem- 
blances to Middle English, and, in fact, we 
might call the Danish of this time the Middle 
Danish period. The majority of the changes 
made in the language since that time are 
orthographic, by which the varying forms 
have become merged into one invariable form 
and the spelling has been normalized. 

The forms selected for comment in this 
paper are the personal pronouns, which may 
be first given in the following tabular order : 

du [4.10], [6.1] as vocat. 



Sg. N. ieg [9.10]. 

G. 

D 
A 



ig [38, 22], migh [46.11]. dig [47-"]. 
g [47-4]- dig [46.12]. 



PI. N. wi [6.3], vi [so,.i8] vj [72.10]. i [6.15], V [4S.o]. 

G. eders [17.9], ethers [19-4]. 

D. oss [5.6]. eder [72.21], ether [17.1]. 

A. oss [55.8]. eder [20.1], ether [17.12]. 

Sg. N. hand [6.r 4 ]. hun [8.1]. 

G. hans [7.15]. hendis [14.8]. 

D. ham [7.19], {ll [j hende [23.15]. 

A. ham [8.4], hannem [22.10]. hende [11.19], bender 

NOTE i. In the nom., dat. and ace. of the 
ist person, the original final k (O. N. ek and O. 
Norw. mik) has already changed to g. For 
the change of the voiceless explosives (k, t) 
after a vowel to the spirants (g and S), see 
Noreen's Altislandische Gram., p. 73. The 
same process may be noticed in the dat. and 
ace. of the 2d person. 

NOTE 2. The v of the ist person plural was 
sounded like English w \ the interchange of i 
and j is, of course, merely graphic, as is also 
that of i and.y, in the 2d person plur. 

NOTE 3. In the gen., dat. and ace. plur. of 
the 2d person we find d, in place of the 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, -it!,. No. 5. 



248 



Urnordisch ft ; that is, the voiced interdental 
spirant < voiced dental explosive. In O. N. 
we find this same change, but only after a 
long syllable ending in /, n, 6, If, Ig, ng, or, 
nt, or (after 1300) after a short syllable ending 
in / or . In each of the three cases occurring 
in our text the preceding syllable ends in a 
vowel. In pronunciation, however, the d 
between vowels in modern Danish retains its 
original sound as voiced interdental spirant. 

NOTE 4. The gen. sing, and plur. of the ist 
and the gen. sing, of the 2d person do not 
occur in the text ; and the dual is wholly lack- 
ing, as we should naturally expect at so late 
a period in the language. 

NOTE 5. As in O. N., the neuter and the 
plural of the 3d person are borrowed from the 
demonstrative. 

NOTE 6. The dat. and the ace. have every- 
where completely merged, the only instances 
in which a difference exists between them 
being the migh, the hanoin, and the hender, 
which are evidently quite accidental. 

NOTE 7. The almost total absence of as- 
similation in the O. Danish pronominal 
declension also deserves notice. We have 
hand, hendis, hende, corresponding to O. N. 
hann, hennar, henne; though here again we 
find a difference between the Danish of 1700 
and that of the present day. We have, 
however, hannem, hanom, corresponding to 
O. N. honom, and hdnum. 

NOTE 8. The forms migh, hender and 
hanom occur only once each ; all the other 
forms occur with greater or less frequency 
through the play. 



DANIEL KILHAM DODGE. 



Columbia College. 



DIEROMANHAFTERICHTUNG DER 

ALEXIUSLEGENDE 

in altfranzosischen und mittelhochdeutschen 

Gedichten. I. 

In seinen Briefen aus der Schweiz erzahlt 
GOTHE, welch' tiefen Eindruck auf ihn die 
Erzahlung einer Legende machte, welche 
ihm eine Bauerin des Rhonethals, als er nach 
einer seiner Fusswanderungen durch das 
Gebirge in ihrem Hause gastete, in schlichten, 



aber riihrenden Worten vortrug. Diese Er- 
zahlung betraf eine Legende, die dereinst im 
Mittelalter eine ungeheure Verbreitung gefun- 
den und sowohl im franzosischen als im 
deutschen, imenglischen als im italienischen, 
im spanischen als im russischen zahlreiche 
Bearbeitung erfahren hatte, die Legende des h. 
ALEXIUS. 

Das einzige Historische in der Geschichte 
dieses Mannes selbst der Name ALEXIUS ist 
erfunden erfahren wir aus einer syrischen 
Legende, die nach Augenzeugen das Leben 
eines Mannes erzahlt, welcher, obgleich 
reicher und vornehmer Herkunft, seine Familie 
in Constantinopel verliess, um sich zu den 
Armen Edessas zu gesellen und ein ascetisches 
Bettlerleben zu fiihren.* Wunderbares war 
also urspriinglich nichts vorhanden in dieser 
Erzahlung, denn solche Beispiele von Entsa- 
gung waren im Mittelalter an der Tagesord- 
nung. Aber im Laufeder Zeit wurde aus der 
einfachen Biographic ein wahrer Roman. Ein 
Grieche aus Constantinopel war es der die 
Heirath des ALEXIUS erfand, der ihn seine 
Frau gleich in der Hochzeitnacht verlassen 
Hess, der seine Riickkehr nach Constantinopel 
und Aufnahme im Elternhause, wo er lange 
Zeit unkenntlich und unbekannt von Almosen 
lebte, hinzudichtete, und schliesslich das 
Wunder hinzufugte, das ihn nach seinem 
Tode den Eltern als Heiligen offenbarte. 
Dieser Roman hatte im Orient riesigen Er- 
folg. Dem Occident blieb er aber unbekannt, 
bis Ende des loten Jahrhunderts ein aus 
Damaskus vertriebener Erzbischof SERGIUS 
ihn nach Rom brachte, wo der Heilige bald 
so heimisch wurde, dass statt Constantinopel, 
Rom zur Statte seiner Leiden gemacht, der 
Patriarch des griechischen Textes durch den 
Papst INNOCENS zur Zeit des HONORIUS und 
ARCADIUS ersetzt, und nach kurzer Zeit sogar 
das Haus der Eltern des ALEXIUS in Rom 
gezeigt wurde. Von Rom verbreitete sich 
dann die Legende nach alien Landern des 
Westens und Nordens. 

Es kann nicht in unserer Absicht liegen die 
Entwickelung der Legende durch alle diese 
Lander zu verfolgen ; wir werden uns im 
folgenden auf Frankreich und Deutschland 

*Cf. Romania VIII (1879), p. 163 ff., G. PARIS : " La vie de 
ST. A LEX i en vers octosyllabiques." 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



250 



beschranken, und dies aus besonderem 
Grunde. Im Mittelalter hat, wie bekannt, 
in litterarischer Beziehung, Frankreich auf 
Deutschland einen ungeheuren Einfiuss 
ausgeiibt. Wie viele bedeutende deutsche 
Dichtungen gehen doch auf franzosische 
Quellen zuriick ! Man denke nur an das ' Ruo- 
lantesliet ' des PFAFFEN CONRAD, das aus der 
Venez. Hs. der ' Chanson de Roland ' fusst, 
an das ' Alexanderlied ' des PFAFFEN LAM- 
PR KCHT, das auf ALBERICH DE BESANC;ON'S 
Alexanderdichtung beruht ! Und haben nicht 
selbst grossere Dichter wie HEINRICH VON 
VELDEKE seine 'Eneit' von BENO!T DE STE. 
MAURE, HARTMANN VON AUE seinen ' Erec ' 
und 'Iwein' aus CHRESTIEN DE TROVES 
entnommen ! Warum ware dies nicht auch 
der Fall fiir die uns vorliegenden Legenden ? 
Lasst uns darauf hin die franzosischen und 
deutschen Gedichte mit einander vergleichen. 
Die franzosischen sind : i. Der von GAS- 
TON PARIS in seiner ' Vie de St. Alexis ' 
kritisch hergestellte Text cles ST. ALEXIS 
nach den Hd. von Lambspringen,* von Ash- 
burnham Place und von Paris, aus dem n- 
ten Jahrhundert. Wir bezeichnen das Gedicht 
mit P (G. PARIS). 

2. Eine stark interpolirte und beinahe urn 
das Doppelte vermehrte Bearbeitung des 
Gedichtes P, in Assonanzen, von G. PARIS 
mit durch Cursivschrift hervorgehobenen 
interpolirten Stellen ed. ; aus dem i2ten Jhd. 
Wir nennen das Gedicht S (ancien Supple 1 - 
ment, 623). 

3. Eine von S abhangige Bearbeitung 
desselben Gedichtes in Reimen, von MARI- 
CHAL ed., M in 1279 v. 

4. Eine in 196 vierzeiligen Strophen mit 
cinem Reime (quatrains monorimes von M 
abhangige Bearbeitung, von PANNIER ed. Q 
(Quatrains). Alle diese vier Texte sind ab- 
gedruckt in G. PARIS : 'La vie de ST. ALEXIS ' 
P: p. 139-170; S: p. 222-260; M: p. 279-317; 
A : p. 346-388. 

*Wegen dieser in einem deutschen Kloster Lambspringen 
liegt bei Hildesheim aufbewahrten Hs. scheint die Annah- 
me einer Beeinflussung der deutschen Gedichte durch die 
fran?8sischen um so naher zu liegen. Dagegen spricht aber 
die Bemerkurg von G. PARIS p. a : " Cette abbaye, de 1'ordre 
deST. BENOJT, ^taitpeuple'e par des religieux anglais, venus 
l;\ & ce que nous apprend MR. HOFFMAN, apres 1643, et qui 
suivant tome apparence apport rent avec eux le manuscrit en 
question." 



5. Ein von G. PARIS in der Romania VIII 
(1879), p. 169-180 herausgegebenes Gedicht in 
964 achtsilbigen paarweisegereitnten Versen, 
die Hs. aus dem i3ten Jhd., das Gedicht 
selbst noch vom izten Jhd. Wir nennen es R 
(Romania). 

6. Ein von JOSEPH HERZ in dem 'Pro- 
gramm der Real- und Volksschule der isra- 
elitischen Gemeinde zu Frankfurt am Main 
1879' herausgegebenes Gedicht in 60 Laissen, 
von verschiedener LUnge, im Ganzen 1254 
Zwolfsilbnern, aus dem i3ten Jhd. Wir nen- 
nen es Hz. (HERZ). 

Die uns uberlieferten deutschen Gedichte 
sind alle von MASSMANN herausgegeben wor- 
den in seinem ' Sanct Alexius Leben in acht 
gereimten mittelhochdeutschen Behandlung- 
en.' Sie sind : 

A aus einer Gratzer und Prager Hs. mit 
1155 v. ; B aus Cod. Vindabon. mit 522 v. ; C 
(Miinchener, Neuburger und Heidelberger 
Hs.) mit 454 v. ; D von KONRAD VON WURZ- 
BURG, in einer Strassburger und Innsbrucker 
Hs. mit 1385 v., auch von HAUPT mit Ver- 
besserungen Zs. III. ed. ; E (Hamburger Hs.) 
mit 1046 v. ; F (Hs. der Herren MEYER und 
MOOYER) mit 1526 v.; Gvom Schweizer JORG 
ZOBEL (aus St. Gallen) ; H vom Augsburger 
JORG BREYNING, aus 1488, in des regenbogen 
langen d6n in 19 Strophen von je 23 versen. 

Diese vierzehn Gedichte lassen sich schon 
nach pberflachlicher Lecture in zwei Classen 
theilen. Die einen erzahlen die Legende 
schlicht und einfach, oft etwas trocken und 
diirr, meist nach dem Beispiele der lateinisch- 
en Prosabehandlung der Bollandisten, welche 
MASSMANN in seinem Buche ebenfalls abge- 
druckt hat. Nach ihnen lautet die Legende 
ungefahr folgendermassen: EUPHEMIAN und 
AGLAES, die Eltern des Heiligen, fuhren 
einen glanzenclen Hofstaat, aber zugleich ein 
recht frommes Leben. Ihr Gluck ist nur 
dadurch getriibt, dass ihre Ehe unfruchtbar 
bleibt. Erst nach langem Beten und vielen 
frommen Werken, erhalten sie einen Sohn, 
ALEXIUS, fiir dessen Geburt sie Gott geloben 
von nun an ihr ganzes Leben keusch bleiben 
zu wollen. Der Sohn wird in der Schule 
fromm erzogen, er lernt, dass nur durch 
Keuschheit das ewige Leben erlangt werden 
kann, und im Stillen seines Herzens gelobt er 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



252 



sich, ewig keusch zu bleiben. Aber sein 
Vater, der seinem einzigen Sohne sein bedeu- 
tendes Erbe sichern will, beschliesst ihn zu 
verheirathen, sucht ihm ein Madchen aus 
kaiserlichem Geschlechte aus, und obgleich 
ALEXIUS seine Grundsatze zu heirathen ver- 
bieten, thut er es doch, um eine andere Siinde, 
den Ungehorsam gegen die Eltern, zu ver- 
meiden. Sobald er aber Abends mit seiner 
Frau allein ist, theilt er ihr seinen Entschluss 
mit, ewig keusch zu bleiben, ermahnt sie 
dasselbe zu thun und nachdem er ihr seinen 
Ring zum Andenken gegeben, verlasst er sie, 
um im Morgenlande ein ascetischer Leben zu 
fiihren. Er gelangt zuerst nach Laodicea, 
dann nach Edessa, wo er seinen Wohnsitz auf 
den Stufen einer Kirche aufschlagt, in der ein 
beriihmtes Christusbild verehrt wird. Dort 
lebt er 17 Jahre lang in Armut unter den 
Bettlern und gibt sich sogar den Boten seines 
Vaters nicht zu erkennen, die ihn dort suchen. 
In Rom herrscht grosse Trauer. Seine Mutter 
beklagt ihn in Sack und Asche, und seine 
Braut gelobt sich ihm ewig treu zu bleiben, 
wie die Turteltaube, die ihren Genossen ver- 
liert. So verstreichen siebzehn Jahre. Da will 
Gott dem Volke von Edessa die Heiligkeit 
des Bettlers verkiinden. Ein Marienbild lasst 
ihn durch den Messner in die Kirche herein- 
rufen, und seine Heiligkeit wird bekannt. 
Aber ALEXIUS, der sich vor menschlichem 
Ruhme fiirchtet, flieht aus Edessa, besteigt 
ein Schiff, um sich nach Tarsus zu begeben, 
doch da verschlagt ihn ein Sturm in seine 
Heimat nach Rom. Da wendet er sich an 
seinen Vater, den er auf der Strasse antrifft 
und bittet ihn, um des Sohnes willen, den er 
verloren, um Aufnahme in seinem Hause. Ein 
Strohlager wird ihm unter der Treppe bereitet, 
und obgleich er nur ein Wort zu sagen hatte, 
um zum gefeierten Herren des Hauses zu 
werden, indem er von den Dienern verhohnt 
und misshandelt wird, bleibt er an seinem 
Entschluss fest und lebt in frommer Entsa- 
gung abermals sechzehn Jahre. Wie er fuhlt, 
dass der Tod ihm naht, schreibt er sein Leben 
auf, und den Brief in der Hand haltend ver- 
scheidet er kurz darauf. Zugleich erhebt sich 
eine Stimme in der Kirche, wo das Volk ver- 
sammelt ist, und zu drei verschiedenen Malen 
ermahnt sie die Romer den Heiligen zu su- 



chen, der im Hause des EUPHEMIAN liege. 
Der Papst und die beiden Kaiser HONORIUS 
und ARCADIUS, von EUPHEMIAN gefuhrt, der 
selber nicht weiss, wer der angekiindigte 
Heilige sein konnte, eilen in sein Haus, und 
von einem Diener auf den eben verstorbenen 
Pilger aufmerksam gemacht, der stets ein so 
frommes Leben gefuhrt habe, dass er wohl 
der gesuchte Heilige sein konnte, finden sie 
denselben todt unter der Treppe liegend. 
Und in der That sein Antlitz glanzt wie das 
eines Engels, und ein siisser Duft geht aus der 
Leiche hervor. Als EUPHEMIAN und nachher 
die beiden Kaiser ihm den Brief entnehmen 
wollen, den er in der Hand halt, weigert sich 
der Todte ihn herzugeben; nur dem Papste, 
dem Stellvertreter Gottes, gibt er ihn. Ein 
Priester liest den Brief, und nun erfahren 
Eltern und Braut das Ungliick, das sich in 
ihrem Hause ereignet hat. Ihr Jammer ist 
unbeschreiblich, und macht sich in furchtba- 
ren Kl.agereden Luft. Endlich lasst der Papst 
die Leiche wegtragen. Alle Kranken, die den 
heiligen Leib beriihren, werden wieder ge- 
sund, und um selbst geheiligt zu werden, 
tragen der Papst und die Kaiser selbst die 
Bahre. Aber das Gedrange des Volkes ist 
so gross, dass um Raum zu schaffen, die 
Herrscher Gold ausstreuen lassen, damit das 
Volk es auflese, und dadurch dem Leichen- 
zuge Platz mache. Doch die Menge zieht es 
vor dem Heiligen nachzulaufen. So gelangt 
man erst unter grosser Miihe zur Kirche des 
h. Bonifacius, wo der Heilige mit grossem 
Pomp beigesetzt wird. 

Wesentlich in dieser Fassung erzahlt die 
eine Gruppe der Bearbeitungen unsere Legen- 
de. Unter den deutschen sind esC, D, E, G ; 
unter den franzosischen, R und Hz. Natiirlich 
herrschen unter diesen Gedichten selbst 
gewisse Abweichungen. Wahrend C und G 
recht dUrftig, an einigen Stellen ungeniessbar 
trocken erzahlen, ergehen sich D und E in 
weitschweifige Schilderungen und Moral- 
reflexionen. Doch haben alle diese deutschen 
Bearbeitungen das Gemeinsame, dass sie kein 
poetisches Talent zeigen, und ohne sie zu 
beleben, oft sogar indem sie sie durch unver- 
standiges Kiirzen oder geschmackloses Erwei- 
tern entstellen, ihre Vorlage wiedergeben. 
Die franzosischen dagegen, R und Hz., zeigen, 



126 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



254 



was ein begabter Dichter auch aus diesem 
einfachen Stoflfe machcn konnte, wenn er ihn 
nur anziehend erziihlte. Hier werden die 
Scenen tnalerisch geschildert, die Handlung- 
en motivirt, die Gefiihle niiancirt. Aus der 
todten Legende wird eine lebhafte und riih- 
rende Erzahlung. Es wiirde uns zu weit 
fiihren an dieser Stelle den Vergleich der 
einzelnen Gedichte untereinander und die 
Untersuchung ihrer Quellen zu unternehmen. 
Es ist dies eine langwierige und spitzfindige 
Arbeit, die wir an anderer Stelle unternommen 
haben, und welche uns das Resultat ergab, 
dass wohl alle diese Gedichte in letzter In- 
stanz auf dieselbe Quelle zuriickgehen, aber 
doch nur durch verschiedene intermediate 
Bearbeitungen. Jedenfalls sind wir aber bei 
dieser Untersuchung zur Uberzeugung ge- 
kommen, dass die Gedichte der Franzosen 
und der Deutschen von einander vollig un- 
abhangig sind. 

Lohnender und litterarisch weit interessanter 
ist die kritische Untersuchung und Vergleich- 
ung der andern Gruppe der Legenden, welche 
die Erzahlung poetischer entwickelt haben, 
als die eben besprochene. In dieser Gruppe 
gehoren unter den franzosischen Gedichten, 
S, M, Q; unter den deutschen A, F, H. 
Ueber P werden wir uns naher unten zu er- 
klaren haben ; iiber B cfr. R, die Anmerkung.* 
Das Merkmal, welches uns dazu fiilirt alle die- 
se Gedichte unter einer Gruppe zusammenzu- 
fassen, ist dasjenige der Hervorhebung der 
Braut in denselben. Wahrend in den vorher 
besprochenen Gedichten die Braut nur eine 
ganz passive und wesentlich untergeordnete 
Rolle spielte, haben die Dichter dieser Gruppe 

*Es scheint als ob dieses Gcdicht B, welches sonst zu den 
Gedichten der andern Richtung gehBrt, den einen Zug, die 
Ubergabe des Briefes an die Braut, wie von Htirensagen in 
seine Bearbeitung aufgenommen habe. Dies ist um so eher 
anzunchmen, i. Weil der Zug vereinzelt ist ohne die ihn 
vorbereitenden sonstigen brSutlichen ZUge. 2. Weil die 
Bearbeituns B tiberhaupt auf mllndliche Quellen zuruckzu- 
gehen scheint; wegen einiger ganz speciellen ZQge ich kann 
hier auf NSheres nicht eingehen, wegen mehrerer Missver- 
stiiiiclnisse (7 Jahre statt 17 Jahre, der Kaiser statt die Kais- 
er) die leicht aus Verhoren entstanden sein kiinnen, wegen der 
KUrze der Bearbeitung, und des fast giin/lichen Fehlens von 
Namen, endlich wegen des ersten Verses des Gedichtes "in 
einem buoche man uns las," wttre es miiglich, dass das Ge- 
dicht Uberhaupt, nach mUndlichem Vortrag, den der Dichter 
gehKrt und nicht selbst gelesen, nachtritglich aufgeschrieben 
worden sei. 



viele Momente erfunden, wo sie in die Hand- 
lung eingreift : 

1. Die Brautnacht wird ausfuhrlich erzahlt 
und je nach den Bearbeitungen geschildert 
oder dramatisch belebt. 

2. Als ALKXIUS in das Haus seiner El tern 
als Bettler ziiriickkomnit tritt seine Braut in 
nahere Beziehung zu ihm. 

3. Als ALEXIUS stirbt gibt er nicht dem 
Papste, sondern seiner Braut den Brief, in 
welchem er sein Leben erzahlt. 

4. Als die Braut des ALEXIUS stirbt, wird 
sie mit ihm begraben, und der Todte riickt 
zurecht, um seiner Braut neben sich Platz zu 
machen. 

Nicht alle Gedichte dieser Gruppe, die wir 
nach MASSMANNS . Vorgange die brautliche 
nennen wollen, haben alle diese Ziige gemein- 
sam. Einige haben nur einen Theil derselben 
aufzuweisen. Wie ist dies zu erklaren ? Hat 
sich etwa die Ummodelung der Legende erst 
allmalig vollzogen, und auf welche Weise? 
Haben die einzelnen Gedichte der Gruppe auf 
einander geiibt, haben hauptsachlich die fran- 
zosischen mit den deutschen nahere Bezie- 
hungen, welche wechselseitige Benutzung 
annehmen liessen ? Diese Fragen zu losen, 
soil unsere Aufgabe auf den folgenden Seiten 
bilden. 

Vorausschicken miissen wir, dass uns eine 
lateinische Prosabearbeitung vorliegt, welche 
MASSMANN p. 157-166 abgedruckt hat wir 
nennen sie im Folgenden, L die gerade diese 
Momente der brautlichen Legende cm halt. 
Auf den ersten Blick scheint die Annahme 
einer Abhiingigkeit der deutschen oder fran- 
zosischen Gedichte von L sehr wahrschein- 
lich. Und in der That ist, nach den Unter- 
suchungen von MASSMANN, L die hauptsach- 
lichste Quelle von A. Gerade die brautlichen 
Ziige hat A aus L entnommen. Die Braut- 
nacht ist in beiden Bearbtitungi-n ebt-nso 
geschildert. An das brennende LiclU ankniip- 
fend, das zwischen den Brautleuten steht, 
erkliirt Ai.K.xirs seiner Braut, class es um die 
Welt wie um das Licht bestellt sei. Sie sei 
dem Verfalle anhtimgegeben, von Flammen 
der Begierde umgeben sterbe sie dahin, und 
bringe uns in ewige Verclammniss. Unsere 
Seelen miissten wir von den Flammen der 
Verderbniss bofreien und keusch bleiben. 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



256 



Auch der zweite brautliche Zug, der Besuch 
der Eltern und der Braut, als ALEXIUS unter 
der Treppe liegt, ist in L und A gleich ge- 
schildert. Die Braut erkundigt sich eingehend 
nach ihrem Brautigam. Der Pilger antwortet, 
er hatte den ALEXIUS wohl gesehen ; er be- 
schretbt ihn und erzahlt, was ihm ALEXIUS 
iiber seine Flucht aus Rom und die Griinde, 
die ihn dazu getrieben, gesagt hatte. Sich 
selber gibt er den Namen "got ergeben," 
eine wortliche Uebersetzung des lateinischen 
"Deo datus." 

Auch die zwei iibrigen brautlichen Ziige 
sind ebendieselben in A als in L. Aber nicht 
bloss auf die Gleichheit dieser Ziige sondern 
auch auf diejenige anderer beruht die Uber- 
einstimmung beider Bearbeitungen : 

1. Die Familienverhaltnisse des EUPHEMI- 
AN werden moglichst genau angegeben. Er 
stammt aus dem Geschlechte der Scipionen ; 
der damalige romische Kaiser THEODOSIUS 
hat ihn so lieb, dass er ihn und seinen Bruder 
ARSENIUS bei seinem Sohn HONORIUS zum 
Gott und Gevatter nahm. Seine Frau AGLAE 
ist die Tochter eines romischen Satrapen 
JOHANNES. 

2. Der Papst SIRICIUS tauft ALEXIUS. 

3. Wie ALEXIUS von der Schule abgeht, 
nimmt er beim Kaiser ritterliche Dienste an. 

4. Die Frau, die fur ALEXIUS ausgesucht 
wird, heisst ADRIATICA und ist die Tochter 
des GREGORIUS, welcher aus dem Geschlechte 
der Fabricii stammt, die gegen Pyrrhus 
gekampft haben. 

5. Die Bearbeitung sagt ausdriicklich, dass 
ein bestimmter Tag zur Hochzeit ausgesucht 
wird. 

6. Von L hat A auch die Pilgerfahrt des 
ALEXIUS nach Pisa, Lucca und Jerusalem 
entnommen. 

7. Bemerkenswerth ist, dass in A ebenso- 
wie in L, als ALEXIUS' Heiligkeit geoffenbart 
werden soil, die Glocken lauten, ein Zug, der 
sich in der andern Legendengruppe nicht 
findet. 

Aber wie eng A auch mit L zusammenhangt, 
so hat MASSMANN doch herausgefunden, dass 
A neben L noch die Bollandistenbearbeitung 
als Quelle benutzt hat. Dies erhellt daraus, 
dass A noch manche jener Legende eigen- 
thiimliche Ziige entnommen hat. So z. B. 



den Zug, dass 3000 in Seide gekleidete Diener 
an EUPHEMIANS Hofe aufwarten, dass taglich 
drei Tische fur Wittwen, Waisen und Pilger 
gedeckt werden, dass die Mutter, als ihr Sohn 
verloren gegangen, an ihrem Estrich auf einen 
Sack sich setzt, von dem sie nicht wieder 
aufstehen will, bis sie etwas von ihrem Sohne 
wisse. Ebenso den Vergleich der Braut mit 
der Turteltaube, die ewig trauert, wenn sie 
einmal ihren Genossen verloren hat. MASS- 
MANN hat p. 31 eine Vergleichungstabelle der 
einzelnen ubereinstimmenden Momente aufge- 
stellt, aus der zweifellos hervorgeht, dass A 
beide Quellen benutzte. Ein Umstand zeigt 
es ganz besonders klar und deutlich. Wenn, 
wie oben schon gesagt, L den ALEXIUS nach 
Pisa, Jerusalem und Lucca wandern lasst, die 
Bollandistenlegende dagegen nach Laodicea 
und Edessa, so verbindet A Beides und sagt, 
dass ALEXIUS zuerst nach Pisa, dann nach 
Laodicea und Edessa, endlich Jerusalem und 
Lucca zog. Der Verfasser von A hat mit 
wahrhaft dichterischem Takt aus beiden 
Quellen die hiibschen Ziige entnommen, 
dafiir aber die Uberbietungen und religiosen 
Betrachtungen von L fallen lassen. Fiir das 
Nahere verweise ich auf MASSMANN, p. 29-31. 

Von diesem so gliicklich behandelten Ge- 
dichte ist ein anderes deutsches abhangig, 
namlich das Gedicht von JORG BREYNING, 
aus dem Jahre 1488, H, aber, wie MASSMANN 
nachweist, erst durch die Vermittelung einer 
deutschen Prosalegende e MASSMANN druckt 
sie p. 180 ff. ab die sich, von geringen Ab- 
weichungen abgesehn, fast iiberwortlich an A 
anschliesst. Cf. MASSMANN, der auch hier 
wieder eine Tabelle gibt. 



HEINRICH SCHNEEGANS. 



Genoa, Italy, 



STRONG VERBS IN AELFRICS 

SAINTS. -II. 

CLASS 4. 

Beran a-, for-, ford-, ge-, un-(tstfcl- t cyne-), 
cuman a-, be-, ge-, of-, to-, cwelan,-dwelan ge-, 
-helan for-, niman a-, be-, for-, ge-, -sceran 
be-, -stelan be-, for-, ge-, -teran to-. 

The present stem has e with umlaut to y in 
3 singular, i in niman, u in cuman with umlaut 



128 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



to y. For e we find a once in forfibceran 162. 
The forms are : forberan 36, berenne 60, forO- 
berad I. S. 293, cwelende 264, forhelan 278, 
gestylfi 18 ; gecuman 220, tocuman 400, f ww / 
I. S. 391, becume (subj.) 12, cymst 50, becymst 
424, 462, rywfl 1 200, I. S. 362, 525, becymft 198, 
266, 388, 378, ofcyniti 16, 372, 510; niman I. S. 
493, beniman 188, # 376, 354, genimd 178, 
animad 182. 

The preterit singular i, 3, has <? (<2), a (<f), 
o (d). <2r 88, ?6<r 38, /*?/ 466, foAzr 38, 
nant 28, 64, <fw 28, com 16, 66, (twice), etc., I. 
S. 8 etc., tocom 518, c6m 180, 236, I. S. 273 
etc., acdm 170, becdm 96 etc. 

The 2 sing., the plural and subjunctive 
preterit have as (<) a, 6; totceron 158, namon 66, 
c6mon I. S. 344. Isolated is forhule (subj.) 
446, EARLE'S ' Gloucester Fragments ' have 
the normal forhc&le. 

The past participle o and u. Aboren 524, 
geboren 14, I. S. 427, unboremtm 512, feSelbor- 
en 44, cyneboren 44, gedwolena 10, forholen 
524, bescoren 162, Jorstolen 524 ; cumen 524, 
fornumen 164, fornumene I. S. 355, genumen 
16. 

CLASS 5. 

Biddan a-, ge-, -brecan to-, unto-, cwedan 
be-, ge-, on-, wiS-, etan ge-,fretan-, mod-, gifan 
a-, for-, -gitan be-, for-, on-, under-, licgan 
for-, ge-, under-, -metan wiS-, seon(*) be-, for-, 
ge-, of-, sittan be-, ge-, on-, sprecan for-, ge-, 
to-, un-, picgan, -wefan a-, wrecan a-, ge-, 
wesan. 

In the present stem, except in the 2, 3 
singular, the vowel is e (i in biddan, gifan, git- 
an, licgan, sittan, picgan ; eo in seon), but ee 
is also frequent. Forms with e are : tobrecan 
406 MS. Junius, gecweftan 448, cwetiende 444 
Gloucester Fragments, becwede 408, et! 394, 
etaS 260, eton (subj.) 290, sprecan I. S. 503, 
sprecande 78, gesprecan 222 MS. U, 406 MS. 
Junius, specan 222, B, sprece(i) I. S. 149, sprece 
we 286, sprecati 12, wrecan 296, wrecon(subj.) 
484. Forms with & are : tobr&can 286, 406 ; 
cwcedende 22, 96, 182, 444, cwceftaft 328, ^/Vzfl' 
358, sprcecan 18, 122, I. S. 503 M, gesprcecan 
108, 222, 226, 406, tosprtecende 532, sprcecaft 
26, 270, spr&ce (subj.) 390. Forms with *': 

*Seon occurs but once without a prefix, I. S. 
161, seivene. 



gebiddan 194, bide I 80, 400, gebidelfA, 202, 
(the only strong imperatives in e) bidde we 70, 
gebide (subj. 2) 470 ; forgifan 234, etc., agifl 
82, forgif! 212; begitan 196, forlicgan 36, 
licgende 32, /*V#wi (subj.) 506, onsittende 516, 
/nV^r (subj.) 358. For i we have > in gyfende 
12, ongytan 508, 530, undergytan \\, under- 
gyte (subj.) 18, forlycgan 36. .SVo has geseon 
526, geseon I. S. 74, forseon 32, beseoh! 78, 
312, geseoh.' 454, $>i,forseo (i) 176 (twice), 198. 
The 2, 3 singular of the present indicative is 
regularly t in all verbs, but ^ is common, and 
e t a; also occur. Forms with i are : *'/.*/ 180, 
210, bitt 370, W/ 426, gebit 484. cwiffst 270, 
forgif fi 260, etc.), forgit 12, /*'# 198, 398, 438, 
underlie" 20, gesihS 12, 202, 338, 372, 376, 1. S. 
300, forsiho" 94, 366 (twice), gesihst 108, 400, 
470, forsihst 94, 202 ; jiV 268 ; spricO 520. 
Forms with jv are : dy/j/ 80, cwyst 126, ryj/ 
200, cwydst 128 C., ce/y^ 372, 504, ;K/ 266, 354, 
ytt 272, I. S. 251, ytst I. S. 247 ; gesyhst 80, 
forsyhft 412, sprpcS 214; Forms with ^ are: 
cweftst 128 V, f/j/ 262, geetst I. S. 198, tosprecd 
I. S. 310, sprecd 64, 288. Forms with *r are: 
cwceftst 128, tosprcecd I. S. 310 Mb. 

The i, 3 preterit singular is <?, also written 
*#, and before h and after ^, ^a. The only 
exceptions are bed 112, gesetiii, breac 62 V., 
ne s (for <? /<?.y) 208. The forms are : gebdd 
48, tobrdc 60 tobr&csS, breec 62, cwcefi 30, etc., 
becwced 428, gecw&o" I. S. 164, <?/ 164, 392 
(twice), I. S. 54, /<z^ 146, 154, 156, 162, 180, 
lcgf&, gelag y$, sat 284, 314, sett 72, gesert 
77, 222 U ; sprezc 10, 160, I. S. 503, gespr&c 26, 
gewrcec 276, 300, gewrc 296 Faustina A., 
w^j 26, etc., zf<#J 28, 32, 44 (twice), 54, 56 
(twice), etc. ea occurs in forgeaf 318, I. S. 
ii, uudergeat I. S. 222, beseah I. S. 73, ofseah 
520, geseah 56, geseah 32, etc. 

The 2 sing., plural, and subj. preterit have 

a (ct) usually, a before w , ea after g, except 

! forgefon 134; but the plural of l<?g is logon, 

! though the subjunctive is usually l&ge. The 

1 forms are : bfedon 5, abeedon 118, gebttdon 496, 

! <?<fe (subj.) 464; oncwade (2) 176, oncw&don 

492, 494, ciufede (subj.) I. S. 169, etc., (fton 290, 

<?fc(subj.) 126, ge&teM 230; lage (subj.) 234, 

508, /^tf 512, l&gon (sbj.) 92; sefton 502, 

I onsctton 504; sprace (subj.) 390, I. S. 219; 

i awrtfce (subj.) 40, gewr&ce (subj .) 36. wekron 

26, etc., wfsron 28, etc., o/rr* I. S. 37, etc. a 



129 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



260 



occurs in lagon 102, 152, 210, 220, 252, 254, 288, 
494, 502, 506, etc. Idgon 494, 513 (thrice), lage 
(subj.) 234, 234 U (twice), gesawe (2) 122, gesa- 
won 58, etc. ea occurs \nforgeafon 134 C. V. 
undergeate I. S. 206. 

The past participle has regularly e, for which 
a is sometimes found, after g it has *, for 
which y is also used ; brecan has always o, 
following class 4. (tobrocene 294, untobrocen 
132). With e: gecweden 358, I. S. 162, etc., 
gecwedene I. S. 118, freten 404, nwdfretene 
514, widmeten 22, gesewen 92, 160, sewene I. S: 
161, beseten 190, gesprecen 498, gesprecan 534, 
forsprecenan 512, awe/en 172, gewrecen 404. 
With -^ : gecwceden 18, 24, 236, 360, gecw&dene 
18 (twice), ungescewenlie 20. With i \forgif en 
218, undergiten I. S. 172. With j/: begyten 
524, ongyten 520, 530, forgytene 510, all, as 
will he seen, in the ' Seven Sleepers ' ; see 
Class 3, i. b. 

CLASS 6. 

Dragan, faran for-, ford-, ge-, geond-, in-, 
mis-, -galan be-, -grafan a-, hcebban a-, hlyh- 
han, -sacan <zt-, for-, wit!-, -sceat!an a-, to-, 
-scyppan ge, slean a-, ge-, of-, purh-, -spanan 
a-, to-, standan a-, (zt-, be-, emb-, under-, wift-, 
steppan fore-, fort!-, swerian, pwean a-, -wacan 
a-, wescan, wexan. 

The present, except in 2, 3 sing, indicative, 
is regularly a. The forms are: dragetf 316, 
misfaran TJ&o,farande ^io,farende 410 Junius, 
infarendum 220, far/ 226,/arad 12, fare (subj.) 
y]G,fara (subj.) 138, forfare (subj,) 274, faran 
us 500, wiftsacan 72, wit! sac! 202, cztsace 528, 
aspanan 194, understanden 14, wittstandan 294, 
embstandenum 504, stand! 150. ce occurs in 
ahczbban 310, ahcebbe 246, forftstceppende 12. 
e occurs in ofsleh ! 224, forftsteppende 14, 
wexende 526. ea occurs in tosceaden (for- 
8en?) 20, slean 198, ofslea (i) 194, sleati 294. 
y in gescyppan 18, I. S. 168, etc., scyppend 12, 
etc. z occurs for jy in gescippene I. S. 155, 
scippend 20, I. S. 45, scippende I. S. 66. 

In 2, 3 pres. irid. sing, the vowel is usually 
<?. Cases are : fcsrst 346, 462, fcerft 268, 292, 
354) 35^ 364, I. S. 250, geondf&rtS 18, ah&fd 
446, tosccst 22, understcznt 22, forfist&pt! 498. 
^ is the regular vowel in tospend 72, stenst 532, 
stew/ 88, 190, 442, 450 (Gloucester MS.), 280, 
300, I. S. 102, etc., understent 20, 22, etc., 



stend 450, wexfi 16. Wholly isolated and 
without analogy in any class is witSstandet! I. 
S. 229. y is found in gescypt! 16, apyht! (from 
pwean) 272 ; for jy in gescipd I. S. 99, ofslihtf 
278. 

The preterit has o or 6. The forms are : 
drogon 326, ytfr 488 (twice), 498, gefdr 320 
(except in these three cases ferde takes the 
place of for throughout), begol 312, agrofon 
508, Ad/" 106, ahof 314, ^A<5/" 488, ahofen (ind.) 
207, ahofe 248 (and ahefde 284, thrice), AA5A 
i?&,fors6c 32, widsoc 174, witfsdc 64, witfsocon 
494, wiSsoce (subj.) 174, 5/oA 70, 190, 276 (four 
times), 284, aj/oA 384, ofslogon 190, .y/o^v? 318, 
j/trf 4, etc., cetstod 264, bestodon 50, astodon 
220, stopon 504, forestopon 114, JK/or 314, 
jwdr 36, apwoh 192, apwdh 124, pwogon 438, 
apwoge (subj.) 124, apwogon (subj.) 168, aze/ot: 
56, azf/<fc 448, 464, awdcon 516, woscean 438 U. 

<?e> is used for o in gesceop 6, 12, 14, 130, etc., 
I. S. 20, etc., gesceop 14, 16, 20, 86, gesceope 
206, I. S. 206, etc., tospeon 434, ?^e>;r 40, 434, 

476, 322, weoxon 124. 

The past participle has regularly a. The 
forms are: gefaran 156, 488, agrafen 528, 
agrafene 98, ahafen 56, 340, 384, 400, wiSsacen 
72, 194, ofslagen 114 (twice), 138, 218, 278, 302, 
318, 350, 408, 422, 426, 468, 482, I. S. 403, ofs- 
lagan 276, purhslagen 278, geslagen 528, 
understanden I. S. 173. ea occurs in asceadene 
496, gesceapen 14, 380 (twice), 438, etc., I. S. 
47, etc., gesceapen I. S. 182 (for gesceapen}. 
ce occurs in geslcegene 524, ofslcegen 138 C, 
ofsl&gczn 194. e occurs in ofslegen 66; o. in 
opwogen 256. 

CLASS 7a. 

Feallan a-, a?t-, be-, to-, fon be-,ge-, on-, 
under-, gan a-,6e-, fort!-, in-, of-, ut-, gangan 
of-, healdan be-,ge, -/ion a- upa-, spannan, 
-wealdan ge. Present stem, ea is used in 
fstfeallan 510, feald($) I. S. no (see below), 
(etfeallaS 266, ge healdan 66, behealde ge ! I. S. 

477, wealdend 502, geivealdend 502, ealweal- 
dend 426, weallendum 314. a is used in gan- 
gan 490, gangende 206, 302, 396, 408, gangande 
224, .g-a;/^-/ 158 (twice), 348, 398, 456, gange 
(subj.) 444, of gange 394, gangon (subj.) I. S. 
140, elsewhere vf is always used, 234, etc., 
I. S. 246, etc., fort!gdn 530, ingan 406, Atgan 
512, ofgan 524, ^a^ 14, I. S. 136, begat! 272, 



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etc., spannan 216. o is found in gefon 416, 
on/oh! 152, 324, under/oh! 472, /0# I. S. 145, 
under/6 (subj.) 62, underfo (subj.) 306, under- 
fohft (3) I. S. 537 (for the regular -fehtf, see 
below) ; ahon 48. 

The 2, 3 indie, sing, have umlaut of ea to y 
and of o to and A to <?. The cases are : 
fyttl 12, befylti 376 (twice), underfehti 72, 128, 
328, 510 ; gtest 248, 410, geeft 14, etc., I. S. 114, 
etc., begafi 272, 366, 382, agcefi 372; Ay// 272, 
446, A^Ay// 34 8 H^// 4 l6 > 47 8 gewytt 146, 374- 
Anomalous are : feald, underfohd, mentioned 
above, and underfoehS 16. 

The preterit has eo except in fon and hon 
where e is regular and a frequent, gangan 
and gdn have no preterit. The forms are: 
feol 76, 122, 148, 156, 180, 266, 312, 358, 392, 
tofeol ^,feoll-j2, 86, 88, 136, 190, 264 (twice), 
398, 420, 460, tofeoll 48, cetfeoll 276, 402, befeoll 
I. S. 63, befeolle (subj.) I. S. 62, A^o/rf 36, 
heolde (subj.) 92, geweold 68, 150, geweolden 
(ind.) 218, weollon 102, /<? 140, 390, 398, 400, 
412, 516, 534, fengon 524, onfeng 228, U. B., 
befeng 78, 172, 178, gefeng 220, underfeng 136, 
156, 172, 414, 416, I. S. 73, and 50, 62 V ', fengon 
70 V, underfengon 264, underfenge (subj.) 84, 
220 U,fentg- 500, 508, onfencg 228, befencgifo, 
underfencg 384, underfencge 220, onfencgon 
498, /<z-- 32, 44 (twice), 50, 70, underfang 14, 
underftenge 38, 236, underfencge 264. ( is 
regular up to page 70, and occurs only twice 
later); aA^- 256, 220 B. U, upahtng 58, 
ahencg 220, hencg 492, (the only case where 
Aow is used without a-). 

The past participle has ea before / and a 
before n. The forms are : afeallene 140, 
behealden 18, gehealden 242, I. S. 69 etc. ; be- 
fangen 20, underfangen 230, agdne 332, ^vz I. 
S. 463- 

CLASS 7b. 

-blawan to-, upa-, ut-, -cnazvan ge-,on-, to-, 
-drcedan on-, Icetan a-, for-, to-, -rccdan be-, 
sawan be., to-, slapan, prawan. 

Present and past participle. Before w, a 
changes to in 2, 3 sing. ind. ; otherwise ce is 
regular before mutes and a before w, though 
a and e occur anomalously for ff in ondret (3) 
12, and s/npan 456, sldpan 512. The other 
cases are : utblawaft 22, toblawene 178, gecna- 
wan 516, 526 (twice), 534, dcnaivon 526, oncna- 



wan I. S. 321, tocnawan 258 I. S. 195, gecnawe 
526, gecnawan (p.p.) 530, sawende 320, sawaS 
294, tosawon(p.p.) 510, prawan 202; oncneewst 
130, 478, sarwS I. S. 262, bes&wd 362, ondmt 
228, 266 (The past participle is always weak, 
of dreed w, ofdraddey*>, 514), /<z-/a I. S. 234, 
ate/aw 394, /<zr// 130, forlatst \T&,forleet (3) 
18, bercedan 428 (not in Bosworth as strong or 
with this meaning), slapende 502, (see above). 
The preterit has eo before w and e (with an 
occasional a?) before mutes. The forms are: 
upableow 208, gecneow 62, 530, oncneow 40, 
etc., gecneowe 516, 522, 526 (twice), I. S. 276, 
seow 350 ; ondred ^522, ondredon 504, #/ 70, /or- 
let I. S. 482, o#/0 502, /0/*te 504, j/*/ I. S. 
214, j/<r/o 502 (twice), 512, etc., sltyon 516, 
slepon (subj.) 506, and with a; for ^ ondr&d 
520, forte ton I. S. 145, 393. 

CLASS 7c. 

blowan- ge-, flowan, glowan, growan, ro- 
wan, spowan, -swogan ge-, wepan- *hrowan- 
see hreowan 2. 

In the present and past participle the follow- 
ing forms only occur: blowende 514, geblowen 
(p.p.)462,Jlou>an I. S. $44,flowendan ^,fieod 
(3) 250, (a) grewG \o4,,geswogen (p.p.) 264, 460, 
bewepen 108. 

The preterit has always eo. fleow 156, 398, 
492, gleow 184, hreowan (for rowon) 436, speow 
174, 216, speowe 196, ow/ 48, 74, 162, weapon 
478, 490. 

CLASS 7d. 

hatan be-, ge-, swapan. The forms are : 
heztst 496, behtetst 200, A<?/ 255, swtfpS 492, A^/ 
26, *^Af/ I. S. 396, behet 68, A^/o I. S. 122, 
gehaten 24, etc., I. S. 2, etc.. gehdten I. S. 6, 
gehatene 22. 

CLASS 76. 

beatan of-, -heawan a-, to-, hleapan. The 
only forms that occur are : beaton 98, beatan 
18, 244, ofbeatan 146, beoton 482, 486, tohcowe 
46, /^o/ 220 (U. hleop) \ aheawen (p.p.) 438. 

BENJ. W. WELLS. 
Jena, Germany. 

* The passage is " are bldd fleoti to urumfot- 
um adune." Skeat's translation has " our 
blood fleeth " etc. But the 3 sing, of fleon 
'^Jtyhft 18, 334, 372 and for the sense as well 
as the grammar it is better to take Jttod= 
flewS. 



May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



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THE GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTION 

IN THE ROMANIC LANGUAGES, 

IV. 

We next come to a third and very frequent 
use of aller with the gerund, in which motion 
is clearly defined. It belongs, in this sense, 
then, to the general category of verbs of 
motion, which may be accompanied by a ger- 
und whose action is subordinate to, or, at 
most, coordinate with, that of the verb of 
motion. 

Aller. 

Sans Pedre sols seguen lo vai, 
Quar sua fin veder voldrat. 

Passion du Christ, B. 9. 14. 
A foe, a flamma vai ardant 
Et a gladies persecutan. 

Vie de S. Leger, B. 16. 39. 

Venir. 
Done vint edrant dreitmant a la mer. 

ViedeS. Alexis, B. 21. 38. 
Afonter, descendre. 

Muntent et descendent chantant e esjol 

Li beus angeres du ciel 

Vie de Seint Auban, 1093. 

Passer. 

Passastes par Brettaine d'orient venant. 

Ditto, 1127. 
S'adresser. 

L'enfant ne quaisse ne ne blece, 
Fuiant vers un chemin s'adrece. 

Crestien de Troies, B. 145. 15. 
Reparier. 

Et li altre s'en reparierent fuiant arriere en 1'ost. 

Ville-Hardouin, ch. XXI. 
Tourner. 
Sun petit pas s'en turnet cancelant. 

Ch. de Roland, 2227. 
Quand paiens virent Gormund mort, 
Fuiant s'en tournent vers le port. 
Gormund and Isembard, 421 (Rom. St. III. 562). 
Entrer. 

Main a main entrent dedans lor chids saignant. 

Amis et Amiles, B. 62. n. 
Saillir. 

E cil de Roem saillent 1'uns 1'altre sumunant. 

Roman de Ron, 3236. 
Issir. 

Richart ist de la vile sur son cheval curant. 

Ditto, 3246. 
Accourir. 

Kar de Roem acurent burgeis e paisant, 
Macues e guisarmes e baches aportant. 

Ditto, 4093. 



E Normant lur estordent " Dieu aie" criant. 

Ditto, 3235. 
Enceilcer. 

Vers Saraguce les encalcent ferant, 
A colps pleniers les en vunt ociant. 

Ch. de Roland. 
Sourdre. 

Par la priere Auban est surse du pendant 
Funtainne freide e clere a grand missel curant. 
Vie de S. Auban, 1167. 
Apparaitrt. 

Angeres i aparurent a clerc voiz chantant. 

Ditto, 1182. 

It is useless to add more to this list ; for 
constructions of this kind are so often met, 
that I believe it would not be a rash state- 
ment to say that about four-fifths of all the 
examples of the gerund without en will be 
found to be accompanied with a verb of 
motion. To see how the proportion would 
stand, I have counted the examples in several 
characteristic works. It will be observed that 
some authors are much fonder of this mode 
of thought-expression than others. The 
figures indicate the number of times the con- 
struction occurs with the verbs they follow. 

Voyage de Charlemagne (860 lines). Tour- 
ner, 2; remeindre, i; trouver, 2; aller, 6; 
voir, i; tenir, i ; venir, i ; absolute(?) 2. 

Chanson de Roland (4002 lines). Aller, 28 ; 
venir, i ; absolute(?), i ; mourir, 2 ; tourner, i; 
encalcer, i. 

Roman d' Aqnin (3087 lines). Tourner, 2 ; 
aller, 30; voir, i ; gesir, J ; venir, i. 

Berte aits Grans Pies (3482 lines). Faire, i; 
aller, 2; trouver, i ; venir, i. 

Flor et Blanceflor (3342 lines). Aller, 8; 
venir, 2. 

H. de Valenciennes (Hist, de 1'Einpereur 
Henri). Envoyer, i; aller, 7 ; venir, i; che- 
vaucher, i ; absolute.^?). 

Guiot de Provins (La Bible). Aller, 4. 

Tradnction de Guil. de Tyr. Courir, i ; 
mener, i ; chevaucher, i ; prendre, i ; tre- 
bucher, i; venir, u; faire, 2; suivre, 3; 
absolute(?), 11; fnir, i; instrumental, 3; trou- 
ver, i ; retourner, 4; oir, i ; aller, 11 ; chasser, 
i ; mourir, i. 

Vie de Seint Auban (1845 lines). Venir, 2 ; 
aller, 21 ; gesir, i ; absolute(?), 3 ; remaiudre, 
i ; resplendir, i; oir, i ; trouver, 3 ; passer, i; 



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366 



laisser, i ; voir, i ; surdre, i ; aparaistre, i ; 
faillir, i. 

Ville-Hardouin (La Conqueste de Constan- 
tinoble). Reparier, i ; aller, 7 ; venir, 3 ; 
tourner, i ; envoyer, i ; absolute(?), 2. 

De Joinville (Hist, de Saint Louis). Venir, 
6 ; trouver, 2 ; aller, 2 ; faire, i ; as adverb, i ; 
sentir, i ; absolute(?), 2. 

Aiol et Mirabel (10,985 lines). Aller, 68; 
venir, 9 ; oir, i ; encaucher, i ; absolute(?), 2 ; 
tourner, 2 ; fuir, i ; par, i. 

It seems almost superfluous to cite examples 
from the other languages, as this French con- 
struction is universally current throughout the 
whole Romanic group. That, however, 
nothing may be taken on faith, I give a few 
from hundreds of examples noted, remarking 
that I have been struck with the more 
frequent occurrence of the construction in 
early French and Provencal, especially with 
aller and venir, than in any of the others. 

Provtitfal. 

Laisse loill.e per nuilla re 
No venga ves lui trop corren. 

Daude de Pradas, B. 177. 33. 
Car co es pessamentz confus 
One ven en cor aissi corren. 

Ditto, El Romanz, 1. 49 (Stickney's ed). 
Un bon juzieu que aquo auzi, 
Tantost corren d'aqui parti. 

B.'s DenkmSler, XXXIX. p. 274. 
E Peire Vidals s'en isset fugen. 

Bib. der Troub. XXII. 

Italian . 
Salian scherzando i pargoletti amori. 

Ariosto, sonetto. 
E quando a morte deseando corro. 

Petrarca. 
Ch'io mi parti'sbigottito fugendo. 

Guido Cavalcanti. 

Chiara fontana ancor surgea d'un monte 
Mormorando con aqua dolce e fresca. 

Tasso, Gerus. Conquist. XV. 44. 
E che accorrer potea un giorno 
Camminando alia bufera. 

Giorgi Bertola. 
Sfatiitk. 

Los males vienen corriendo 

Jorge Manrique. 
La olvidada infanta Urraca 
Vertiendo 1 grimas entra. 

Rom. del Cid. p. 96. iVoegelin). 
De zamora sale Dolfos 
Corriendo y apresurado. 

Ditto, p. 152. 



La pied, sacd miel. fu4* volando. 

LuU Martin. 
Portuftutt. 

e a terras viciosas 

De Africa e de Asia andavam derastando. 

Camocns, Os Lus. 1. 2. 
Pizando o crystalline clo formoto 

Vcm pela Via Latea 

Ditto. I. 90. 
Mai o animal atroce nesse instant* 

Bramando duro corre 

Ditto, I. 78. 
Wallachian. 

Cfl Jonanfi a venitu nice mftncftndu nicfibnd& 
Math. XI. 18. 

Vine alergind pe scena cu un mop de burnene ID 
mfluu. 

V. Alccsandri, Mama Angheluta. 
Halmana in costum de larna trece tinf-iid o valizi. 
Ditto. Halmana. 

With verbs of motion there may be, in 
general, two kinds of construction in conjunc- 
tion with other verbs: namely, that already 
illustrated, in which the gerund accompanies 
the finite verb; and a second, in which the 
infinitive is used with or without a preposition. 
The latter use of the infinitive is by far the 
more common. In either case, that is, whether 
the preposition be used or not, the verb of 
motion expresses the purpose to be ac- 
complished by the concomitant infinitive. The 
distinction in shade of meaning is usually 
this : when the idea of purpose is strongly 
implied, the preposition serves to give promi- 
nence to the purpose ; whereas the preposition 
is omitted when the purpose is not conspicu- 
ous. We may illustrate this by the sentences: 
Je vais au theatre m'amuser tous les soirs, and 
je vais au theatre tous les soirs non-seuiement 
pour m'amuser mais aussi pour observer et 
pour apprendre a distinction, which we 
should secure in English by : for the purpose 
of or by the simple infinitive with to, accord- 
ing as we did, or did not, desire to emphasize 
the purpose. 

La fame Amile a la clere fason 
Estoit alee por faire f 'orison. 

Amis et Amiles, B. 61. 37. 

Abtant se volgran acordar 
Qual duy pogran anar veser 
La donzela, e per saber 
Si sa beutatz era tan grans. 

Guillem de la Bara (Meyer, Recueil, p. 128.) 



133 



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This reference to the infinitive construction 
,with a verb of motion has been made, in order 
to lead up to the consideration of certain 
cases in which the infinitive and gerund 
touch each other so nearly, in point of use and 
signification, that they become virtual equiva- 
lents. 

t, II se relieve a grant paine 
Par grant air le va requerre. 

Roman de Renart, B. 213. 9. 

2. Quant il nous virent, il nous vindrent 
sus courre. 

Joinville, Hist, de S. Louis, ch. XLVI. 

3. Aisi se van ferir cum cascus venc 
No lor valo escut pur un besenc. 

G. de Rossilho, 2180. 

4. L'effant Jhesus i ameneron, 
Ad Arian lo prezenteron. 
Pueis van li dire e pregar, 
Que 1'eflant volgues essenhar. 

B.'s Denkmaler, xxxix. p. 273. 

5. Arian vat li demandar: 
Mon eflfant, ar digas aleph 
E en apres tu diras beph. 

Ditto, p. 273. 

6. Grans meravilhas se doneron, 
Per la vila s'en van cridan. 

Ditto, p. 274. 

7. E totz los juzieiis van cridar : 
Ailas caitiu ! e que ferem 

Ni qual cosselh penre porem? 

Ditto, p. 292. 

8. E en apres el manda diire als mainaders 

Ez als baros de Fransa ez als sieus logadiers. 
Chanson de la Croisade des Albigeois, 8,412. 

9. E mandet dire a nUgo de la signa que 
vengues a Usercha en un bore on estava en 
Gaucelm Faidit. 

Bib. der Troub. XL. 



10. Volga la vista desiosa e lieta 
Cercandomi 



Petrarca. 



11. Mand6 il cavaliero all'albergo della 
corona, sappiendo (=ad informarsi) se era suo 
famiglio. 

Franco Sachetti. 

12. E estandb de fora, enviarao a elle cha- 
mando-o. 

Marcos, III. 31. 

13. Os Portuguezes somos do Occidente, 
Imos buscando as terras do Oriente. 

Os Lus. I. 50. 

14. Que tempo concertado e ventos tinha 
Para ir buscando o Indo desejado. 

Ditto, I. 95. 



15. Si neaflandu-lti, s'ati Intorsti la Jerusa- 
limu cantandu-ln. 

Luca, II. 45. 

16. Porque viene mi nifia 
Cogiendo flores. 

Anonymous, isth cent. 

The first of the examples is not very decid- 
ed, for although, as the context shows, Dans 
Constanz, considering his position, does not 
have to "go" in order to strike Isengrin, va 
requerre may express future, rather than pro- 
gressive, action. Still there can be no doubt 
but that, in accordance with the freedom, I 
might almost say, looseness, of the gerundial 
construction at this time, the author, if push- 
ed for a rime, would not have scrupled to use, 
all the circumstances and situations remaining 
the same, the gerund as an equivalent for the 
infinitive, without feeling he was guilty of any 
grammatical negligence. A part of this re- 
mark might apply to the quotation from 
Girart de Rossilho ; but the passage shows 
rather that van ferir means that the knights 
continue the fight, "cum cascus venc;" i. e. 
van is subordinate to ferir, in other words, 
copulative; so that the same nuance of 
thought might have been rendered by van 
feren. 

In No. 2, it is plain that courant substituted 
for courre would not vary, in the slightest 
degree, the thought, which is : they came 
rushing upon us. The first two lines of No. 
4 inform us that the parents of Jesus were 
already in the presence of Arian. It can not, 
therefore, be said of them literally van, they 
go; nor can van dire etc., be explained here 
as future. Being already before Arian, they 
speak to him and request him to undertake 
the instruction of their son ; or they go on 
telling their story and requesting\\\m, etc. 

No. 5 contains a still more decided instance 
of the copulative use of anar ; as vai li deman- 
dar means // demands and nothing more. In 
modern French venir is sometimes used in 
very nearly the same way : Un sourire livide 
vient glacer ses traits. (Le Franqais, Boston, 
vol. i, p. 55). 

A comparison of 6 and 7, taken in connex- 
ion with the passages in which they occur, 
shows the same approximation in thought- 
shading, of s'en van cridan and van cridar', 



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270 



the difference, if any, is very slight. So 
manda diire and mandet dire, in the two 
following examples, are seen to be modes of 
expression analogous to : tnandet disen, pre- 
gan in : E tan tost com el fo vengutz el man- 
det disen al Dalfil et al comte Guion que ill 
li deguessen aiudar, Bib. der Troub. XIV. ; 
in: elli mandet pregan qu'el fezes si qu'el 
fezes mudar los edificis, ditto, B. 241, 15; to: 
mand6 sappiendo (No. n); and to the Portu- 
guese : enviarao chamando (No. 12). The 
Wallachian and Spanish would likewise use 
the gerund here after the verb to send. And 
so Henri de Valenciennes, in the work already 
quoted (ch. IV), uses envoyer: Et envoierent 
lor archiers huant et glatissant et faisant une 
noise. Cf. also Romania VIII, 90 : Je me 
levoyun matin aujort prenant, Entvoy m'en 
en un giardin la flor culhant. In modern 
French also the gerund after this same verb, 
as well as after other verbs of motion, is allow- 
able to express a purpose, although the in- 
finitive is more common, in accordance with a 
general preference which the Frenchman 
entertains for the infinitive construction, 
where no ambiguity arises by its use.* 

M. de Freycinet a appris qu'une note, e"ma- 
nant du ministere de 1'inte'rieur, avail die" en- 
voye" disant que M. de Freycinet avail 
capitule". 

Courrier des Etats Unis. 

J'eus peur d'avoir senti la peur une fois, el 
prenanl mon sabre, cache" sous mon bras, 
j'entrai le premier brusquemenl donnanl 
1'exemple & mes grenadiers. 

A. de Vigny. 

Ae"tius avail dej^ de'pe'che' ses courriersdans 
toute la Gaule el chez les peuples allie's, les 

invitant & s'unir & lui. 

Le Beau. 

C'esl le voyageur que nous avons vu toul ft 

1'heure errer cherchanl un glle. 

V. Hugo. 

Il is nol possible lo interpret these gerunds 
otherwise than as expressing a purpose ; for in 
some of them Ihe infinilive with pour could 
be subslituted ; and in Ihe olhers, while in 

II est dans le gdnie de la langue frana9ise de preTeVer 1'in- 
tinitif & tout autre mode, quand la < l.irto de la phrase n'en est 
pas alte're'e. BOKBL. 



their present shape this substitution could 
hardly be made, its exclusion would be more 
owing to Ihe cacophony lhal would thereby 
arise lhan lo any forbidding principle of gram- 
mar. In Ihe case of Ihe first and last sentence, 
a well-educated Frenchman, if asked why not 
use pour dire and pour chercher, would likely 
answer: C'est 1'harmonie de la phrase qui 
exige le ge"rondif (participe), as rharmonie is 
the universal relreal behind which French- 
men lake sheller, when brought face to face 
wilh a knolly poinl of grammar. 

The gerunds in 10, 15, 16 may as legitimate- 
ly be regarded as expressing a purpose as co- 
incidenl or progressive aclion, and Ihe thought 
would nol be malerially changed, if Ihey were 
convened inlo Ihe infinilive conslruclion. 
We see this well illustraled in Ihe Iwo remain- 
ing examples (13 and 14), which do not differ 
essentially in signification, since the purpose 
of Ihe going, in bolh cases, is to look for 
India. 

From the foregoing reasoning we gather 
lhat, after a verb of molion, Ihe infinilive or 
gerund may lake Ihe place of a final depend- 
ent clause. 

Here belong also certain verbs, which, 
while they are not verbs of molion, are ac- 
companied by verbals in -ant which serve to 
complele, in a manner, Ihe predicalion of Ihe 
principal verb. They may, in most cases, be 
resolved into adverbial phrases. 

Car mi fii sont ocis et mort saignan. . 

Amis et Amiles, B. (a. 37. 
A peine chaut remeint li quors en piz batant. 

Vie de S. Auban, 844. 
Je li lo bienqu'elle vos maint tandant. 

Jeu-parti, B. 341. 16. 
Murut subitement scant sus une sele. 

Kerte aus Grans Pies, 2072. 
Lo corns G. e ilh sen s'en van dolen, 
E Ihi baro de K. restan ploran. 

G. de Rossilho. 5340. 



Annapolis, Md. 



SAMUEL GARNER. 



THE USE OF THE FEMININE 

in the Romance Languages, to express an 
indefinite neuter. 

Among the many interesting linguistic phe- 
nomena with which the reading of Romance 



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272 



texts makes us familiar, may be mentioned 
the \ise of the feminine form of the pronoun 
or adjective to give succinct expression to 
some idea not otherwise clearly indicated. 
This construction is sometimes, and perhaps 
not unhappily, described as the "indefinite 
neuter." We find examples of it scattered 
through all the Romance languages in their 
older periods, and some have survived and 
appear to have become crystallized in modern 
speech. A satisfactory explanation of the 
usage has not yet been offered, most of, the 
authorities contenting themselves with a bare 
mention of the fact, if indeed they do not pass 
it over in silence. 

DIEZ, ' Grammatik der Romanischen Spra- 
chen,' vol. iii, p. 48, in calling attention to 
the fact, cites cases mostly drawn from 
Tobler (see below). 

BLANC, ' Italianische Grammatik,' p. 272, 
referring to Italian says, "es ist jetzt unend- 
lich gewohnlich, den Gegenstand wovon die 
Rede ist, oder das leicht zu supplirende Ob- 
ject des Satzes, durch ' la ' auszudrucken. 
Auf diese Weise sind nun eine grosse Menge 
Redensarten entstanden.'' He of course 
makes no suggestion explanatory of the 
usage. 

TOBLER, Jahrbuch, viii, 338, gives some 
interesting examples, and remarks simply that 
" eine solche Verwendung von 'la ' [the per- 
sonal pronoun] nicht gegen den Geist der 
(franzosischen) Sprache ist." 

BRUNOT, ' Grammaire Historique de la 
langue francaise,' p. 231, merely alludes to 
the frequency of the phenomenon in Old 
French and mentions cases of the survival of 
the usage in the modern language. Quoting 
the example " c'est la voire " and others 
similar, he adds : " II n'y a point de substan- 
tif fe"minin sous-entendu ; le fe"minin repre"- 
sente tout simplement une forme neutre qui 
manquait." 

An explanation frequently offered is that a 
feminine noun was formerly expressed but, fall- 
ing itself into desuetude, disappeared, leaving 
the impress of its gender upon the word which 
remains behind to represent it. This is, how- 
ever, far from being a satisfactory, or at least 
a sufficient explanation, inasmuch as the 
feminine frequently refers to a wholly indefi- 



nite antecedent or circumstance, or to an ante- 
cedent which embraces a whole set of circum- 
stances, as may be seen from the examples 
cited later. 

This construction is the more interesting as 
in the old stages of the languages the regular 
usage required, theoretically at least, as we 
should naturally have expected, the neuter, 
although practically the masculine was used. 
In the ' Donatz Proensals,' e. g., (v. E. Stengel, 
' Die beiden altesten provenzalischen Gram- 
matiken,' Marburg, 1878, p. 2) we read : " Neu- 
tris es aquel que no perte al un ni al autre [i. e. 
masculine or feminine], si cum "gauc. i. 
gaudium," e " bes. i. bonum." Mas aici no 
sec lo uulgars la gramatica els neutris sub- 
stantius, ans se dicen aici com se fossen 
masculi, si cum aici "grans es los bes que 
aquest ma fait," e "grans es lo mals que 
mes uengutz de lui." We are still able to 
trace cases of this neuter use (which of 
course became later regularly masculine) ; 
e. g. in the ' Chanson de Roland ' we have the 
line: " II est jugiet que nus les ocirum," in 
which the form "jugiet" is neuter. In view 
of this regular usage a special explanation 
would seem to be required for the use of the 
feminine. 

The following examples have been collect- 
ed, and it is believed that a continued ex- 
amination would show the phenomenon to 
be more common than is usually supposed. 

French. 

"Ne pot estre altre." (Alexis, 156). 

" Li a tele donne"e." (Renaus de Montauban, 
429. n.) 

"Ja altre n'en ferons." (Renaus de Montau- 
ban, 191. 21.) 

" Ceste m'a il bastie." (Renaus de Montau- 
ban, 365. 19.) 

" Enmi le piz li dona tel." (Chevalier au 
Lyon,4i92.) 

" Et il Ten ra une donee tel." (Chevalier au 
Lyon, 4208.) 

" Ceste arons nous tost prouve"." 

" Onques mais n'oi tel." 

" C'est la voire." (Brunot, 231.) 

" II lui en a une porte"e "=il lui a porte" un 
coup. (Brunot, 231.) 

" II 1'eut bonne." (Brunot, 231.) 



136 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



274 



" Vous me la baillez bonne." (Brunot, 231.) 
"Sire, voire : fait li quens." (' Aucassin et 

Nicolete, '1062.) 
" Ja ceste n'avenra." 
" Ja ceste n'est pense'e." 
" Sire, dist il, ne peut autre estre." 
" De moult grande s'est escapes." 
" Ceste vos iert molt chier vendue." 

Compare also, " l'chapper belle," "la 
donner belle," "la payer," etc. Further 
cases might without difficulty be added. 

In the Anmerkung to p. 95 " des Provenza- 
lischen Alexanderliedes" (Germania, 1857), 
Tobler has collected a number of examples, 
the majority of which, however, might be as 
well explained as feminines. 

Italian. 

The use of " nulla " is of course very com- 
mon in this sense, and was so already among 

the trecentisti; v. Petrarca, Canzoni 9,4; 7,48; 

10,75, etc *> etc - 

" Poi disse, bene ascolta chi la nota." (Dante, 
Inferno xv, 99.) 

" Cessar le sue opere biece Sotto la mazza 
d'Ercole, cheforse Gliene did cento, enon 
sent! le diece." (Dante, Inferno xxv, 33.) 

"Di sorta glien'hodata una." (Cesari, Nov. 
28.) 

" Ella (the matter) non andra cosi." (Boccac- 
cio, 9. 5.) 

' La, non andra cosl." 

" Non posso capirla." 

" lo per me non la intendo." 

" La capite o non capite ? " 

" Passarsela bene o male." 

" Farla ad uno." 

" Accoccarla ad uno." 

" Affibbiarla ad uno." 

" Menarla buona ad uno." 
" Pagarla cara, " "Scamparla," " Dirla 

schietta," " Romperla con qualcuno," etc., 

etc. 

Spanish regularly shows the use of the 
neuter pronoun ; " lo " being used to repre- 
sent a phrase or idea to which gender cannot 
be assigned, whereas we have seen the Italian 
is very liable to use the feminine " la." Cases 
of the use of the feminine however occur. 



" Ahora lo tendras hecho un almibar, pero 
luego sera ella." (Knapp, Spanish Read- 
ings 63.2) 

"Hum! ya la tenemos." (Knapp, Spanish 
Readings 61.8). 

Roumanian. Diez says that "auch der 
Dacoromane Feminina in neutralem Sinne 
anwendet;" besides which this language has 
the further peculiarity that it expresses the 
Latin neuter of the plural by means of the 
feminine of the same number. E. g., "toate 
sunt gata"="omnia sunt parata ; " "vorbi 
multe"="multa loqui;" whereas the other 
Romance languages can only do this with the 
assistance of an added substantive, as in 
Provencal : "tolas causas"=" omnia." 

A phenomenon similar in character to those 
mentioned is the use of certain feminine sub- 
stantive-pronouns, relating both to persons 
and things, as masculines. Diez refers to 
this. Examples, some of which are exceed- 
ingly common, are: "personne ne sera assez 
hardi ; " " rien n'est bon," " on m'a dit quel- 
qu6 chose qui est tres plaisant ; " Old Italian: 
" nulla cosa tanto gravoso "(see "I poeti 
del primosecolo" i, 82); Old Portuguese: 
Algun rem" (v. F. Sant. 545) ; Prov. "ren que 
bom sia'" (Raynouard, Choix III, 330); "re 
nascut " (v. GeYard de Roussillon, 4087). 



T. McCABE. 



Johns Hopkins University. 



The Gospel according to Saint Matthew in 
Anglo-Saxon, Northumbrian, and Old 
Mercian Versions. A new edition, edited 
for the Syndics of the University Press 
by REV. WALTER W. SKEAT. Cambridge, 
1887. 

PROFESSOR SKEAT, in his Preface, describes 
the difference between the self-imposed 
duties of an editor now and when KEMBLE 
and HARDWICK edited this Gospel for the 
University Press some thirty years ago. He 
says : " To put it in the most striking manner, 
we may say that an editor's duty at the present 
moment is supposed to consist in an endeavour 
to represent the peculiarities of the MSS. in 
the most exact and accurate manner ; he is 



J37 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



276 



expected to assume that the Scribes meant 
what they wrote, and he must not venture to 
make any correction without giving due notice. 
It might be thought that such a proceeding is 
simple and obvious ; but it is quite certain 
that such was not what was expected of an 
editor thirty or forty years ago. On the con- 
trary, he was then expected to edit his MS. ; 
and this meant, that he was to modernise the 
MS. in every conceivable way, by the use of 
every method which his ingenuity could 
suggest. He was not to reproduce the MS. as 
it stood, but only as it might be supposed to 
stand after being so altered as to make it 
acceptable to a modern reader. PROFESSOR 
SKEAT then goes on to note the arbitrariness 
of KEMBLE and HARDWICK'S procedure, i. in 
the use of capital letters ; 2. in punctuation ; 
3. in the use of v and j\ 4. in ignoring con- 
tractions ; 5. in the careless reproduction of 
MS. accents; 6. in the employment of p and #. 
In all these respects the new edition is in- 
deed a vast improvement upon the old. How 
numerous and important are the changes may 
be gathered from a collation of the first page 
of the new edition with the corresponding 
portion of the old. At the beginning of the 
new occurs this statement : [Leaf i of the 
Lindisfarne MS. is blank ; on the reverse of 
the leaf is a geometrical pattern] ; this is 
omitted in the old. Before Latin title : [Leaf 
. 2], new ; omitted in old. In Latin title: .X. 
new ; decem, old. In Northumbrian title : rim, 
old ; rim, new. Immediately under title : 
[Epistola beati Hieronymi ad Damasum Pa- 
pam, in quattuor Evangelistas.] [Beatissimo 
Papae Damaso, Hieronymus.] ; omitted in new. 
L, i : writta, old ; wuritta, new. L. 3 : sun- 
drude, old ; sundrade, new. L. 4 ; Latin 
text : prcesumtio, old ; prcesumptio, new. Ib. : 
cczteris, old ; ceteris, new. L. 6 : I twice, 
omitted in old. L. 7 ; gefulden, old ; gefalden 
new. L. 8 : Ivcgencz, old ; Ivgcna (altered 
from Ivcgnce) new. Ib. : I omitted in old. Ib. : 
me, old ; meh, new. L. 7 ; Latin text : saliva, 
old ; saliba, new. L. 9 : ? twice omitted in 
old. L. 10 : I omitted in old. L. n : setnessa 
old; setness, new. L. 12: Latin text: adhib- 
ita, old; adhibenda, new. L. 13: Remitted in 
old. Ib. Latin text : [enim] in old ; omitted in 
new. To these changes must be added all 



those included under the first, second and 
fourth heads above, and a number of foot- 
notes indicating expunctions, corrections, and 
marginal additions in the MS., words there 
written in red ink, and the point at which the 
front of leaf 2 is replaced by the back. This 
is a goodly array of corrections, though it 
does not include all that PROFESSOR SKEAT 
might have given, if I may trust my own col- 
lation, made in 1882. 

To exhibit the possible margin of error in 
the printed text, as compared with the MS., I 
append a list of the discrepancies between 
PROFESSOR SKEAT'S readings and my own, 
covering the various prefaces to the Gospel, 
pp. 1-23. 

I am far from assuming that all these repre- 
sent errors of PROFESSOR SKEAT'S. Even 
supposing that half of them do, there is still 
proof enough that the edition is tolerably 
correct. I designate his reading by S, and 
mine by C, and wherever possible give page 
and line according to the new edition. 

Title: regulra, S ; regolra, C. i 2 \betwih, 
S ; bitwih, C. i 5 : to onginnvm in red ink, C. 
i 9 : huelc, S ; hwelc, C. i" (margin) : hewere, 
S ; hewene, C. i'3: final e oitnonige added in 
red ink, C. 2 8 : nan, S ; nan, C. 2" : noma, S; 
noma, C. 2 1 ? : criecna, S ; creicna, C. 34 ; 
gedryhton, S ; gedryhton, C. 39 : giblonden, 
S : geblonden, C. 43 : csrest, S ; aerest, C. 5": 
gaast, S ; second a expuncted, C. 7 & : netra, 
S ; netna, C. 7 J 3 : gearwas, S ; gearrwas, C. 
8 3 : glaesen, S ; glaeren, C. 8 7 : wees, S ; wees , 
C. 9 2 :for, S ; fore, C. 9" : odder, S ; odTer, 
C. 9 l6 : huelcum,S; hwelcum, C. 14?: cnear- 
esu, S ;. cneuresu, C. Ib. : sice, S ; sie, C. 
I4M : enne, S ; eenne, C. :6 8 : faesfern, S ; 
faesfern, C. i6 I 4 ; cwodend, S ; cwoftend, C. 
173 : geornnisse, S ; geornisse, C. 17^ ; Seem 
S;ftaem, C. i7 l6 : god, S; gode, C. 17^ : 
ofer, S ; <?/er, C. 18" : h&lendes, S ; haelend- 
es, C. 19": betuih, S ; bituih, C. 2\ 3 :ge- 
wurpp, S ; gewarpp, C. 21* : I would read 
driu, corrected to drig. 21*5 : monigfullice, S ; 
monigfallice, C. 22 6 : s<zgde, S; saegde, C. 

Of these i", hewene; 2*7, creicna; 34, 
gefiryhton ; 7 8 , netna ; 8 3 glaeren ; 147 cneu- 
resu', I4 1 4, &nne ; 2i 3 , gewarpp; 21*5, monig- 
fallice, are of some importance. 

PROFESSOR SKEAT'S statements are now 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



278 



and then too sweeping. Thus, he remarks in 
the preface : " The scribe of the Lindisfarne 
MS. never employs the letters:/ or/." Be- 
sides seeming to settle off-hand the question 
whether a variety of hands were employed 
on the gloss, thus apparently contradicting 
his own opinion as expressed in the Preface 
to John's Gospel, p. viii, he ignores the fact, 
patent to all, that there is a v on the very 
first page of his editing, onginnvm, i 5 , and 
two more on the second, vurit, 2'5, and vritt, 

2 l8 . 

But it would be cavilling to dwell so long 
upon these matters as to obscure the fact that 
this is, in general, a good edition, if by that 
we are to understand the faithful transcript 
of a text or texts. Upon this, with whatever 
emendations may finally be necessary in detail, 
the investigations of scholars may safely be 
based. 

ALBERT S. COOK. 
University of California. 



Florian's Fables : selected and edited for the 
use of schools by the REV. CHARLES 
YELD, M. A., Head Master of University 
School, Nottingham, etc. : [In Macmil- 
lan's Illustrated Primary Series ; Edited 
by G. EUGENE-FASNACHT, etc.] 

This is a beautiful and thoroughly unique 
little book. " Infinite riches in a little room " 
is a not inapt description of it. Within the 
limits of loo open, clear, and beautifully printed 
i6mo pages, it contains twenty of FLORIAN'S 
best Fables, each with an appropriate intro- 
duction, and with full notes and vocabularies; 
a series of twenty well-constructed exercises 
for translation into French, paraphrasing each 
of the Fables ; twenty dialogues, based on 
the same ; a full alphabetical list of irregular 
verbs in their principal parts, and a complete 
index : to which are to be added a scholarly 
historical introduction, and ten very amusing 
pictures all for forty cents! So much that is 
good and pretty, for so little money, it would 
be hard to find in any other book. 

Yet when we come to define the little 
volume more closely we confess to some 
hesitation and uncertainty. The main title 
informs us that it is for the use of schools, by 
a Head Master, with philological and 



explanatory notes, etc: yet it belongs to 
the "Illustrated Primary Series." To 
satisfy both these views in so brief a space 
was perhaps impossible ; so there has been a 
division, with the advantage decidedly against 
the primary view. The pictures are indeed 
" primary," and will vastly entertain the little 
ones while they are good enough also to 
amuse bigger children too. But all the rest of 
the book except perhaps the text itself lies 
outside of what we should call primary work. 
The notes "philological and explanatory" 
are on a higher plane of scholarship, and are 
indeed excellent for even advanced schools. 
The vocabularies one for each fable are 
etymological throughout, and imply a fair 
knowledge of Latin. The exercises and dia- 
logues, and indeed the whole apparatus except 
the pictures, contradict the presumption that 
the book is intended by the editor for the use 
of children in the primary study of French. 
Hence the little book, small as it is, may have 
some difficulty in settling down into its proper 
place : indeed, this writer is quite inclined to 
give it a trial with a class of collegians who 
would be deeply insulted at being called 
"primary." Seriously, we fear that the pic- 
tures pretty as they are and the " Primary " 
title will cause this excellent little book to be 
misunderstood and underrated. We commend 
it, therefore, to the personal inspection of our 
colleagues, for schools and lower college 
classes. 

But with all its merits, the best thing in it is a 
passage from the otherwise scholarly intro- 
duction, on the Relation of French to Latin, 
which passage we cannot deny ourselves the 
pleasure of giving, entire, to those unsuspect- 
ing speakers and writers of " the American 
dialects " who read the MODERN LANGUAGE 
NOTES. Many strange things have appeared 
in the NOTES, but nothing stranger than this ! 

"One might hint at a parallel which seems 
to exist in the revolt of the American colonies 
from the sovereignty of Britain, and the effect 
of this revolt upon the American dialect : 
more startling in some respects than the 
change from classical Latin to Old French. 
Hundreds of words have been invented and 
have found a home in America, which are, to 
say the least, extraordinary. Every one 
knows the strong preterites in the stanza 



139 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NO TES, 1888. No. 5. 



280 



' As stealthily to steal he stole, 
His chink he softly chunk ; 
And many a leary smile he smole, 
And many a wink he wunk.' 

It is to be hoped they may never be used 
otherwise than by way of joke to show what 
Red Republicanism in letters will condescend 
to : but remembering by what subtle and un- 
perceived stages of attachment words worm 
themselves into the diction and grammar of a 
language, one cannot help wondering what 
the American dialects will grow to, under the 
liberty of invention and alteration which every 
American citizen claims as his heritage in 
literature as in all else. The " Queen's Eng- 
lish " may some day become almost as, un- 
intelligible to our American cousin as the 
Carlovingian Latin is to the modern Parisian." 



South Carolina College. 



EDWARD S. JOYNES. 



LANGUAGE AND DIALECT IN 
GERMAN. 

Schriftsprache und Dialekte im Deutschen 
nach Zeugnissen alter und neuer Zeit. 
Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen 
Sprache von A. SOCIN. 544 pages. 

This is a very large book, containing almost 
no new and original investigations. Two- 
thirds of it is made up of quotations from 
documental sources, from early grammarians 
and from many authors whose views are 
quoted or paraphrased on some of the most 
knotty and still unsettled questions in the 
history of the German language, and concern- 
ing the nature of language in general, of a 
literary language, and of a dialect. Where 
SOCIN adduces "Zeugnisse," often new ones 
found by himself, from original documents, 
rare tracts and books of the fifteenth, sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, his compilation is 
very valuable even to the specialist. But the 
book runs in a popular vein in part, and is 
even sensational, e. g. such words as "Spra- 
chenhass, Verzweiflungskampf " of dialects do 
not belong to the scientific vocabulary. The 
author apologizes frankly for any prejudice in 
favor of his native dialect, the Alemannic. 

One is tempted to say of SOCIN'S book what 
the London Academy said of SKEAT'S ' Princi- 
ples of English Etymology,' " It is hard to tell 
for whom the book is intended." Its possible 
value to the philologist is indicated above. 
Its chief end, I venture to say. is to furnish 



the teachers of German at the ' Gymnasium,' 
' Realschule ' and at foreign institutions from 
the High School to the University, with a 
history of the German language; but the book 
can hardly be called ' Contributions ' to such a 
history. Its main subject is the origin of the 
written language and its relation to the dia- 
lects in the different historical periods. It 
does for the teacher who has not all the 
' Hiilfsmittel ' at command in the history of 
the language and the dialects, what the new 
editions of HEYSE'S, BECKER'S and BLATZ'S 
large grammars are intended and able to do 
for him in the field of grammar. Only the 
last revisers of HEYSE and BECKER should 
have left the old rut enough to put the treat- 
ment of the sounds in a separate chapter 
called "phonology;" and BLATZ should re- 
cognize that a, i, u are not the only primitive 
vowels. SOCIN'S book and the grammars 
just mentioned, are essentially teachers' aids. 
I doubt that even an advanced student will 
come to the surface having once plunged into 
such a book. 

Very interesting reading are the last 200 
pages, which treat of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. The appendix has a 
special chapter on JACOB GRIMM and one on 
the grammatical theories of the author about 
the relation of written language to dialect 
(romantic point- of view) ; on those of HUM- 
BOLDT, HEYSE, BECKER (metaphysical point of 
view); on those of RAUMER and WACKER- 
NAGEL (pedagogical and provincial) ; on those 
of SCHLEICHER, who looks upon language as 
a living organism ; on those of RUCKERT and 
SCHERER (aesthetic and political point of 
view); finally, on those of the "Junggram- 
matiker," as SOCIN chooses to call a certain 
number of progressive and energetic investi- 
gators, who are supposed to be bigotted 
worshippers of Sound and of the principle of 
Analogy "the heavenly maid," as an old 
believer calls his idol, Parataxis. The re\sum 
of certain chapters of PAUL'S ' Principien der 
Sprachgeschichte ' given by SOCIN, and SIE- 
VERS' article in the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica ' 
under " Philology," will do much to scatter 
the pernicious germs of modern philology in 
Germany, England and America. 

On the theories as to the origin of written 



140 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



282 



languages in general, the nature of dialects, 
on the Prankish Court language during the 
Old High German period, on the one literary 
language of the Middle High German period, 
SOCIN quotes the various opinions directly 
from the authors, or presents them in his own 
words which is quite impartially done. His 
position is the comfortable one of MONTAIGNE 
" Que sais-je ? " A non-believer in the exist- 
ance of the one Middle High German written 
language, must be puzzled, yet pleased, by 
the heading of the second chapter of the 
first book : " Die mittelhochdeutsche Schrift- 
sprache," and of the third chapter of the 
same book : " Das Wiederaufleben der Schrift- 
clialekte im i4ten Jahrhundert." What a 
short-lived affair must have been that " allge- 
meine Hof- und Dichtersprache, die durch 
ihren Einfluss auf die Prosa zur mittelhoch- 
deutschen Schriftsprache sich erweitert und 
als solche in Niederdeutschland, theilweise 
auch in den Niederlanden, Geltung erlangt " 
(p. 112). In the thirteenth century it is a great 
institution, in the fourteenth occurs its com- 
plete disintegration. In the fifteenth century, 
the struggle of the dialects and that of the 
various " Kanzleisprachen " with one another 
and with the dialects were resumed, struggles 
that were to last three hundred years. 

SOCIN calls Middle High German a literary 
language, Middle German, a literary dialect 
(p. 116). Does M. H. G. here include ' Ober- 
deutsch ' (South German) and Middle German, 
as it generally does ? If so, it is a misstate- 
ment, not original with SOCIN. For a popular 
book, the author's style is very clumsy. 



H. C. G. BRANDT. 



Hamilton College. 



Von Luther bis Lessing von F. KLIV.K, 
Strassburg. Triibner. 1888. 

This taking title belongs to a collection of 
philological essays, disconnected, but all deal- 
ing with certain important points in the New 
High German period of the language. " Dies 
Hiichlein will keine cleutsche Sprachgeschi- 
chte sein ; zur Heruhigung facluvissenschaftli- 
cher Gemiiter sei es gesagt," says the author 
in the preface. But 1 venture to say, that if we 
are to have a history of the German language 



we would rather have it from the author of the 
Etymological Dictionary with its excellent 
historical introduction than from anybody 
else. 

The essays are written with a view to inter- 
est a larger public. In the unpretending book is 
a great deal of research that has yielded new 
points of view and new facts, hidden under a 
genial popular treatment. In the chapter on 
the South and Middle German word-stock, are 
some interesting and very valuable compara- 
tive word-lists chosen from various bible texts. 
They are in fact concordances of the early 
bible translations. No history of the language 
has ever so fully and correctly presented the 
relation of Latin to the literary language and 
to the dialects as is done in the chapters, 
"The Language of the church and of the 
People;" "Latin and Humanism." In the 
essay " Luther and the German Language," 
KLUGE cannot be blamed for a little hit at 
SCHERER'S periods of three hundred years in 
the history of German literature. The 
contents of the rest of the book are indicated 
by the chapter-headings : " MAXIMILIAN and 
his ' Kanzlei ; ' " "Authors and Printers;" 
" Literary Language and Dialects in Switzer- 
land ; " " Low German and High German ; " 
" South Germany and the Catholics." 

H. C. G.B. 



ITALIAN LITERATURE IN BAVA- 
RIA. 

The relations of Italian literature to the Ba- 
varian court are discussed by Dr. K. von 
Reinhardtstoettner in the first volume of the 
Jahrbuchfiir Munchener Geschichte. Materi- 
al for such a study is furnished abundantly 
by the accumulations of the Royal Library at 
Munich, in the shape of librettos, festival com- 
positions, plays, and eulogies of the reigning 
family written by official court poets, theatri- 
cal managers and masters of ceremonies ; 
with occasional sonnets from Italy, celebrating 
the liberality and enlightenment of the foreign 
ruk-r. 

Thus there is little of literary- value, nor are 
the poets themselves of wide reputation. The 
first writer known is Massimo Trojano, a 
Neapolitan, who describes, in 1568, the festi- 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5 



284 



vals which attended the marriage of William 
V. with Renata of Lorraine. This description, 
in the form of a dialog, shows that already 
Italian customs were in fashion as in France 
at the same epoch and that the court pa- 
geants were directed by foreigners. Under 
the rule of William V. and that of his success- 
ors, Italians occupied the positions of court 
orators and poets ; from Italy came art and 
music, and the favors shown their countrymen 
are reflected in the history of Cesare Campa- 
na, who devotes especial attention to Bavaria, 
and in the sonnet of Tasso to Maximilian I. 
while in Italy in 1593. The first half of the 
XVII. century offers but one document, a 
description of the Residenz by Baldossare 
Pistorini ; but with the marriage of Ferdinand 
to Adelaide of Savoy in 1652 begins a period 
of Italian supremacy. The young queen is 
accompanied to her northern home by all her 
southern attendants. The court of Munich 
becomes an Italian colony. In letters, Ade- 
laide herself set the example by composing 
madrigals, strambotti and short comedies. 
To her poets she furnished subjects, inserted 
in their works portions of her own, collected 
in Munich much of the Italian literature of 
the age, and fashioned the court festivals on 
Italian models. Among those patronized by 
her may be mentioned her secretary, Dome- 
nico Gisberti, a Venetian, writer of sonnets 
and allegorical plays without number. The 
rise of the musical drama produced under her 
care many compositions, among which are 
found some of Francesco Sbarra, court poet 
at Vienna, and those of Giovanni Battista 
Maccioni of Orvieto, who had come to Munich 
with Adelaide and who is her chosen poetical 
mouth-piece. Of higher birth is count Pietro 
Paulo Bissari of Vicenza, who had likewise 
an Italian reputation, best known at Munich 
in musical dramas and festival scenes. 
Another noble is the marquis Ranuccio Pal- 
lavicino, attracted from Parma by the fame of 
the Bavarian court and who in Munich cele- 
brates the architecture of the Residenz and 
the magnificence of Ferdinand. 

After the death of Adelaide, in 1676, Ven- 
tura Terzago, a poet of occasion, writer of 
musical dramas and festival plays, rivalled 
Gisberti in the number of his compositions. 
Later, the wars of Max Emmanuel form the 



theme of a poetical album of many authors. 
A noted librettist is Luigi d'Orlandi from 
Mantua. Others drew subjects for musical 
dramas from the works of Corneille and 
Racine. With the war of the Spanish Succes- 
sion the glory of the Bavarian court diminish- 
ed. During the first two decades of the XVIII. 
century little literary life is found at Munich, 
but beginning with 1723, whenDomenico Lalli 
(Bastian Biancardi) became court poet and 
composed at Munich many sonnets, librettos 
and festival plays, a short-lived revival of Ita- 
lian influence occurred. Villati and Perozzi, 
the latter a close imitator of Petrarch, resisted 
for a time the tide of French tendencies. The 
Arcadians also are patronized and imitated, 
while the operas of Zeno and Metastasio hold 
sway at the theatre. Yet the times were for 
national development. The rise of German 
poetry drove out the artificial Italian lyric, and 
after the middle of the century few traces of 
other poets than librettists remain. 

A bibliography of the period treated in this 
first article, down to the time of Napoleon, is 
appended, and is interesting from the number 
of Italian works published in Munich which 
it enumerates. 

F. M. WARREN. 
Johns Hopkins University. 



Untersuchungen fiber den Satzbau Luthers 
von DR. HERMANN WUNDERLICH. I 
Theil : Die Pronomina. Miinchen, 1887. 

Those who have written about LUTHER'S 
language have been concerned for the most 
part with etymology and with his service to 
New High German, and have had but little to 
do with syntax. WETZEL in ' Die Sprache 
Luthers ' (Stuttgart, 1859), and LEHMANN in 
' Luthers Sprache in seiner Ubersetzung des 
neuen Testaments ' (Ha-lle, 1873), treated of 
syntax, however, but not from a historical 
point of view and without tracing out the 
details. Moreover, almost all the investiga- 
tions have been confined to the translation of 
the Bible, while the free course of the develop- 
ment of LUTHER'S language is to be sought in 
his original writings. 

For these reasons DR. WUNDERLICH has 
opened a broader field for his labors, and, 
beginning with the address to the German 
nobility of 1520, which represents the first step 



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286 



in the development of the Reformations- 
schriften, he comprehends in his researches 
all the more important writings down to the 
year 1545. He follows, as in his ' He it rage 
zur Syntax Notkers ' (Herlin, 1883), the system 
of MIKLOSICH in considering syntax not a 
mass of dead rules but a vigorous organism. 

This first part is divided into four heads : 
The simple verbal form ; Pronoun under- 
stood from the context ; The personal pro- 
noun ; The demonstrative and relative pro- 
noun. The first three subjects are passed 
over rather hurriedly, though perhaps suffi- 
cient space is given to them, more than half 
of the entire book being devoted to the de- 
monstratives and relatives. In considering 
the peculiarities of a writer, the simple sentence 
is of much less importance than the more 
complex constructions. We are to look for 
the characteristics of a writer, in his long 
periods, where there is opportunity for greater 
variety of expression. Following this line of 
argument, our investigator has paid particular 
attention to the relative sentence and to the 
position and arrangement of subordinate sen- 
tences in general. No vague generalities are 
given. All statements are illustrated by 
copious examples, thus making the book a 
valuable store-house for convenient reference. 

A mild protest against the rather monoto- 
nous use of abbreviations would, perhaps, not 
be out of place. 

Of course, this book is not ' epoch-making,' 
but it aims to fill up a gap and, taken, as it 
does, the language at the period of transition 
from Middle High German to New High Ger- 
man will be welcomed by scholars who are 
interested in the study of historical German 
grammar. It is opportune, as taken in con- 
nection with DR. KLUGE'S new work on the 
influence of LUTHER on the German lan- 
guage. We hope the other parts will 
follow iu rapid succession. 

CHARLES HUNDY WILSON. 
Cornell University. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



SCANDINA VIAN STUDIES. 
To THE EDITORS OF MOD. LANG. NOTES : 
SIRS: Mr. Egge's article in the March num- 



ber of MOD. LANG. NOTES on this subject 
seems to call for some comment on my part ; 
and I shall try to answer his objections and criti- 
cisms as briefly as possible. In the first place, 
I would beg leave to call Mr. Egge's attention 
to a sentence in my original article that must 
bar out most of the omissions mentioned by 
him. The sentence reads as follows : "Only 
college instruction will be discussed, the pure- 
ly literary side of the question being necessari- 
ly omitted." Now while the University of 
Minn, must certainly be regarded as a college, 
one would scarcely include under this head 
Luther Seminary, Red Wing Sem. and Augs- 
burg Lutheran Seminary and Institute. The 
Danish High School at Elk Horn and the 
other schools of Mr. Egge's list may rank 
very high as schools, but they are not colleges 
in the Eastern sense of the word, at least. I 
had not heard, when the article was written, 
that a college course had been added to St. 
Olaf's School. Mr. Egge gives us much valua- 
ble and interesting information regarding 
Scandinavian studies in the Western schools, 
but this can only in part be considered as 
supplying the omissions of my list. 

Again, under the second head, Mr. Egge 
seems to have misunderstood me. I should 
not presume to announce that I think that " the 
study of Icelandic furnishes as good a mental 
discipline as the study of Greek and Latin," 
etc. Of course that may be my opinion, but I 
do not presume to publish it. A reference to 
my original article will show my statement 
to be more guarded and conditional ; the 
omission of the little word "if" makes the 
difference, 

Mr. Egge's last criticism may, perhaps, be 
a just one. My information was obtained 
almost entirely from the catalogues of the 
seminaries themselves, and if the impression 
derived from them be a false one, I should 
be only too glad to acknowledge my error 
and to offer my apologies to all offended 
Scandinavians. If my remarks could be con- 
strued as in any way reflecting on the charac- 
ter of our Scandinavian population, I offer 
here my sincerest apologies. No unprejudiced 
person can fail to recognize in them one of the 
mainstays of the republic, and their absence 
from the Chicago riot is only one proof out of 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



288 



many of their excellent character and sound 
common sense. I still claim, however, that it 
is highly desirable that our foreign population 
should in all cases become Americanized, 
though not necessarily at the expense of their 
native language and literature. A knowledge 
of English does not preclude a familiarity with 
Danish or Swedish, nor does an adoption of 
American ideas shut off all sympathy with 
home traditions and beliefs. 

No one can blame Mr. Egge for his criti- 
cisms, since they are evidently made with 
perfect sincerity. It is always interesting to 
get a partisan view of any subject. Mr. Egge's 
intimate acquaintance with the Scandinavian 
population of the West gives an authority to 
his statements, to which, of course, I cannot 
pretend. A residence in the West would with- 
out doubt greatly change my views on this 
subject, but in default of this, I have to rely 
upon second-hand information, which is apt 
to be untrustworthy. This letter is not 
intended at all in an unfriendly spirit, but 
merely as a justification of my original po- 
sitions. Mr. Egge's suggestions and his real 
corrections of my incomplete list are grateful- 
ly acknowledged. 

DANIEL KILHAM DODGE. 
Columbia College. 



BRIEF MENTION. 

It is gratifying to learn that the Legislature 
of S. Carolina has doubled the appropriation 
for South Carolina "College" (now "Uni- 
versity") and thereby greatly strengthened 
her teaching staff. This is one of the most 
welcome movements in the field of Southern 
education, where the modern languages at 
present begin to play so important a role. 
From Oberlin College (Ohio) comes also the 
cheering news that "the work in the modern 
language department has increased, necessi- 
tating another professor of German." 

At the banquet given on the occasion of the 
reception of the French Professors resident in 
England, by the University of Cambridge, of 
which an account was given in the February 
number of MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, Dr. 
Butler, the Master of Trinity College in that 
University, delivered an address of hearty 



welcome in which he warmly endorsed the 
objects of the society and their efforts to 
secure the highest competency in the teacher 
and the best results in the teaching. His 
speech, which was exceedingly witty and 
happy, contained several hints of real im- 
portance ; among others, the necessity of 
establishing between the foreign teacher and 
his pupils a warmer sympathy than usually 
exists. He humourously suggests that "the 
entente cordiale between boys and their 
foreign masters will never be quite complete 
till some French master has broken at least a 
collar-bone at foot-ball." 

An attempt to facilitate the study of Old 
French philology among "candidates to the 
L. L. A. title of St. Andrew's University " and 
"students working under the Cambridge Uni- 
versity scheme for a tripos in Modern Lan- 
guages " is made in 'An Introduction to Old 
French ' by F. F. Roget, Graduate of Geneva 
University, Tutor for comparative Philology, 
and for the Philology of French, St. George's 
Hall Classes, Edinburgh (London : Williams 
and Norgate, 1887; i2mo., pp. 387). Adverse 
criticism is perhaps scarcely warranted in the 
case of a work the preface of which begins 
with the frank avowal: " This book contains 
no independent research, and little scientific 
method;" and which proceeds to say, after 
acknowledging indebtedness to Bartsch's 
' Chrestomathie ' and Cle'dat's ' Grammaire 
e'le'mentaire:' "Those books should be resort- 
ed to by students who may have a taste for 
the high scholarship which we cannot offer 
them in this Introduction." Such a commen- 
dation as this, however, betrays a false concep- 
tion on the part of the present author, since 
the elementary works here cited, while un- 
doubtedly products, can scarcely be regarded 
as well-springs, of ' high scholarship; ' and in 
these days no instructor of university candi- 
dates should be willing to present his students 
with a text-book so invertebrate as not to be 
able even to hold up its head in the presence 
of such authorities. Indeed, the author 
strikes with accurate iteration the key-note of 
his work, in speaking yet again of " our fear 
that we may be found inaccurate by the learn- 
ed, and yet abstruse by the learners;" 
though it is reassuring to find him assuming a 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



290 



somewhat bolder front in view of the claims 
of the subject treated, by averring (p. 12) of 
the earliest monuments, that "they must not be 
overlooked ; true men of learning view them 
with respect, and even the amateur philologist 
[Heaven save the mark !] can ill afford to 
brush aside such an instructive page of the 
history of language." The book consists of 
three parts, of which the first discusses the 
.language of the earliest monuments ; the se- 
cond furnishes a compend of Old French 
grammar, in which, e. g. ( aimeris accounted a 
strong verb, and Old French is said to have 
hardly a syntax of its own ; and the third, 
and most useful, comprises a considerable 
chrestomathy of prose and verse, with glos- 
sary. Notwithstanding the evidences of more 
than the usual share of well-meaning pains 
bestowed in the preparation of this volume, 
its method of treatment is diffuse and many 
of its views and statements are erroneous. 
With the exception that the work can scarce- 
ly be considered " abstruse by the learners," 
the verdict of the " critical public, whose 
judgment a book on Old French studies can- 
not escape," must in this case be allowed to 
coincide with the modest professions and ap- 
prehensions of its author. 

A deprint from the Zeitschrift fitr roma- 
nische Philologie'\s thearticle "Vom Descort " 
by Carl Appel. Derived from the Latin se- 
quences of the Middle Ages, the Descort be- 
longs almost wholly to the flowering period of 
Provencal literature. Of the twenty-two ex- 
amples which Dr. Appel notes, the latest is by 
Guiraut Riquier, dated 1261, and the earliest, 
which he publishes for the first time, is assigned 
to Pons de Capduoill (f 1189-90) and therefore 
can be placed in the eighth decade of the 
twelfth century. The inventor of the Descort 
is not known with certainty ; the biography of 
Garin d'Apchier asserts that he wrote the first, 
and cites the opening verses ; but the poem it- 
self is lost and the date of the troubadour 
cannot be exactly determined. As to priority 
of time between the Descort of North France 
and that of South France, the advantage rests 
with the latter. The nine French poems 
found are later than the earliest dated Proven- 
cal, and differ fro:n the latter mainly in length 
of verse. They are also, fortunately, accom- 



panied by musical notation, which is lacking 
in the Provencal MSS. The Descort does not 
appear to have flourished outside of France. 
In Italy three poems of the Sicilian school are 
noted, more irregular in form than their origi- 
nal and differing from it in content. Certain 
of the North Italians likewise imitated their 
neighbors in single poems, the most success- 
ful of which is that ascribed to Dante : ' Ai 
fals ris.' In Spain and Portugal Dr. Appel 
finds that the Ensalada has little likeness with 
the Descort, but resembles rather the Frottola 
and the Fricassee in its mixture of languages 
and combinations of individual lines taken 
from different authors. No new definition of 
the Descort is attempted by the author. He 
cites the various remarks of the Provencal 
treatises on poetry, and concludes, with the 
'Leys d' Amors,' that the "essential thing in 
the Descort is the difference of metrical form 
in the various strophes." A discussion of the 
relation of the Descort to the lyric Lai of 
North France there are but three Lais in 
Provencal and these imitated from the French 
shows that the rimes of the latter change 
more readily and that the last strophe is like 
the first, while in the Descort this last strophe 
is generally represented by a tornada ; that, 
in general, the Descort is subject to ' more 
rigid rules than the Lai, a difference explained 
by the court origin of the former and by the 
popular origin of the latter ; and that the sub- 
ject of the Descort is love, while that of the 
earlier Lai is religion. We are led here to 
differ somewhat from the opinion of Dr. 
Appel, and to suggest that the origin of the 
Descort and of the lyric Lai are the same, 
which would account for the religions bearing 
of the latter and at the same time explain 
their essential similarity. 

THIERRY'S 'Re'cits des Temps MeVovingiens' 
appear to be in favor as a text-book and is 
found in the Pitt Press Series, edited by G. 
Masson and A. R. Ropes (Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press). The extracts are the same as 
those of the edition of H. Testard (NOTES III, 
Col. 218), but the value of the annotations is 
far below that of the latter. Not only has 
much less work been expended in prepa- 
ration the Appendix, Notes and Indices of 
the Cambridge edition numbering twenty-nine 



145 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



292 



pages against fifty-two for the Testard but 
also the difficulties of translation and the ex- 
planations of customs and laws are passed 
over superficially. The few attempts at ety- 
mologies are not all that could be desired : 
masure "from the L. maneo" (p. 116), nierci 
"from the L. merx, merces" (p. 124) give 
little idea as to how the French form was 
obtained, while the derivation of Marmontier 
from Ma jus Monasterium (p. 124) reveals a 
calm ignorance of phonetic changes. A com- 
parison of the two editions is most useful as 
illustrative of what editing too often has been, 
and what, in the hands of a conscientious 
worker like Testard, it can be made to be. 
But the same house and the same series offer 
to themselves a model in an edition of the 
'Ecole des Femmes ' by GEORGE SAINTSBURY. 
This play of Moliere, though one of his best, 
is rarely edited for class work owing no doubt 
to its occasional coarse allusions. The work 
of MR. SAINTSBURY is none the less complete 
and painstaking. Of unusual excellence from 
the literary standpoint are his Introductions 
on the life of Moliere and on the history of the 
play. The notes are abundant and designed 
to initiate into the spirit of the piece as much 
as to explain constructions. For typographi- 
cal execution and attractiveness of form and 
page it is far superior to anything produced as 
a text-book in France, where it seems to be a 
tradition that good printing should be ex- 
cluded from the class-room. The University 
Press could not do better than to maintain the 
high standard of editing set in this instance. 

The indefatigable " Librairie Hachette & 
Cie.," sends us a number of new books for the 
elementary, or at least the pedagogical, study 
of modern languages. Brief mention will be 
made of a few of these : 

1. Charlin's " First Step " is only a collec- 
tion of phrases, well made but within very 
narrow range, adapted to the illustration, 
colloquially, of certain forms and idioms in 
French. 

2. Blotiet's ." Primer of French Composi- 
tion " by Paul Bloue't, late of St. Pauls, is an 
excellent example of the care which our most 
scholarly colleagues in the " old country " are 
devoting to the preparation of the most ele- 
mentary class-books. The little book of 67 



pages gives 40 short stories, well provided 
with idiomatic notes and an excellent Vocabu- 
lary, for translation into French. One of 
these, with the figures iudicating the charac- 
ter of the notes, will suffice to give an idea of 
the plan and may be, moreover, not an in- 
appropriate extract for the MODERN LAN- 
GUAGE NOTES! "Two Good Friends. A 
journalist one day* wrote to David Roberts, 
the great painter : ' You have probably* seens 
the articles which I have written4 on the pic- 
tures which you have exhibited, but I hope 
that we shall remain friends.' The painter 
answered by return of post :s The first time 
that I meet 6 you, I will pull your? ears, but I 
hope that we shall remain friends." 

3. Of like distinguished authorship is 
" Common French Words, rationally grouped 
as a stepping stone to Conversation and Com- 
position," by Dr. Al. Beljame and Dr. A. 
Bossert, with an Introduction by Henri Sue", 
who tells us that "a book compiled by two 
such eminent professors can scarcely have a 
better introduction than the names of its 
authors." The book is after the fashion of 
our well-known "Roget's Thesaurus of Eng- 
lish Words." Beginning with simple topics, 
such as "L'homme," "La maison et la 
Famille," "L'Ecole," etc., and advancing by 
successive divisions to such as " La Vie Intel- 
lectuelle et morale," " L'Activite" Sociale " 
etc., the authors have grouped together the 
nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc., most appropri- 
ate for conversation or composition on such 
themes. So far as may be judged by a curso- 
ry examination, the work has been done with 
care and skill. As a book of reference, like 
Roget's Thesaurus, it will have interest and 
value, and may also serve for correction or 
increase of vocabulary. But if the committing 
of such lists to memory is relied upon as a 
"'stepping stone to conversation and compo- 
sition " it will prove, we" fear, like all such 
devices, to be only a broken reed ; and the 
prediction "that it will materially help those 
who use it in an intelligent manner to speak 
French with a certain degree of fluency in a 
comparatively short period " may be taken 
with a free interpretation of the words "ma- 
terially," " intelligent," " certain," and " com- 
paratively." The book is beautifully printed. 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



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4. An edition of Sedaine's " Le Philosophe sans le 
Savoir," by Victor Oger, Lecturer in University 
College and Victoria University, is interesting as 
being the first edition, for English readers, that gives 
the text of Sedaine's famous plays " as he wrote it and 
as it is now acted," and also because it gives, as paral- 
lel readings, the changes enforced by the " Censine," 
before it was allowed to be acted in 1765. In the In- 
troduction we have an account of this Censine, and of 
the subsequent history of the play until it was first 
acted " integrally " in 1875 after more than a hundred 
years of repression. To this is added a brief sketch of 
Sedaine's literary career, and of his contemporary and 
subsequent reputation, besides a good summary of the 
play the introductory matter being, on the whole, a 
model of what is good for a short edition. But here 
our commendation must end. To 58 pages, large 
type, of text, there are exactly 58 pages, small type, of 
Notes! The editor himself says he has "aimed at 
evolving from the text all the information in grammar, 
syntax, idiom, words, phrases, etc., which it suggest- 
ed." As the result, there is hardly a line that is free 
from this process of " evolution," and the changes are 
rung, with almost endless detail and repetition, upon 
the most elementary points of grammar and vocabula- 
ry. The best, then, that can be said for such notes is, 
they are harmless, for nobody will read them. It is 
due to the editor to add that he states, by way of ex- 
planation of this " excess," that his book is intended 
in view of certain examinations "to be read by 
school boys and girls knowing hardly anything at all 
of French . . . . , as well as by more advanced students 
(the Senior Candidates) and by independent readers." 
It was from the vain effort to produce a book suited 
at once to_ all these classes of readers, that the notes 
have grown into this cumbersome and heterogeneous 
mass ; yet it would be hard to say to which class such 
an edition is the least adapted. 



PERSONAL. 

Mr. Greenough White, Professor of Belles- 
Lettres in the University of the South, at 
Sewanee (Term.), has resigned his position on 
account of failing health. 

Dr. B. F. O'CONNOR (Columbia College, N. 
Y.) delivered two lectures last month on the 
"Cycle of Charlemagne," in the Law Build- 
ing, at Columbia College. PROF. ALCEE 
FORTIER (Tulane Univ., New Orleans) has 
just completed a very successful course of 
lectures on "Modern French Literature." The 
authors especially treated were: TH. GAU- 
TIER, MERIMKE and COPPEE. 

MR. C. H. OHLY, an American student who 
has for many years been pursuing his studies 
in philology at the Universities of Germany, 
is about to receive the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy at the University of Freiburg, 



having already gained acceptance for his dis- 
sertation : " Die wortstellung bei Otfrid ; ein 
beitrag zur deutschen wortstellungslehre." 
MR. OHLY has so long, under the guidance of 
the best European teachers, been a zealous 
student of Germanic philology, that we take 
pleasure in announcing his intention to return 
to America to join in our efforts here to estab- 
lish and maintain the interests of sound and 
progressive scholarship in ' Modern Language' 
studies. It is to be hoped that MR. OHLY 
may soon find a fitting field for work in one of 
our best colleges. 



OBITUAR Y. 

NlSARD (JEAN-MARIE-NAPOLEON) 

member of the French Academy, former 
director of the Iscole Normale and senator of 
France under the Empire, who died at San 
Remo on the 25th of March, had long passed 
away from active participation in literary 
affairs. He was born at Chatillon-sur-Seine 
i the 2oth of March 1806, studied at Ste-Barbe, 
I commenced his career in the Journal des 
\ Debats in 1826, but under the July monarchy, 
j went over to the National of Armand Carrel. 
I He early made himself known by opposing 
the Romantic school, publishing in 1834 Les 
Poltes latins de la Decadence, in which he 
drew a comparison between Lucan and Victor 
Hugo. Instructor at the Ecole Normale under 
Gtiizot and, at the same time, attached to the 
ministry of Public Instruction, first as chief 
secretary, later as head of the division of 
sciences and letters, he entered the field of 
politics and was deputy of the C6te-d'Or 1842- 
8. In 1843 he was made professor of Latin 
Eloquence at the College de France, in 1850 
elected to the Academy over Alfred de Mussel 
and gave his adhesion to the reign of Napo- 
leon III, who rapidly advanced him. As in- 
spector general of the higher education he 
took part in the reorganisation of the Ecole 
Normale, was appointed to succeed Villemain 
in the chair of French Eloquence at the 
Sorbonne, which occasioned a political de- 
monstration at his lectures and increased his 
reputation with the Empire. Commander of 
the Legion of Honor in 1856, director of the 
Ecole Normale from 1857, senator of France 
from 1868, the arrival of the Republic drove 
him into retirement, and of old age into lit- 
erary inactivity. His most important works, 
besides that mentioned above, are : Precis de 
li literature francaise (1840) ; Histoire de la 
litterctture franfaise (1849, in two volumes, 
1861 in four) ; collections of separate articles 
as Melanges (1838), Etudes snr la Renais- 
sance (1855), / 'hides de critique litteraire (1858) 
Nouvelles Etudes d'histoire et de litteratttre 
(1864). He also directed the publication of 
the Collection des classiques latins (1839 on, in 
27 volumes). 



147 



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May. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 5. 



296 



JOURNAL NOTICES. 

LlTERARISCHES CENTRALBLATT. NO. 
A., Phonologie des patois du canton de Vaud : Etude 
sur le verbe dans le patois de Blonay (-ier). No. 8. 
Froltzhelm, Job., Lenz, Goethe und Cleophe Fibich. 
Harnack, 0., Goethe in der Epoche seiner Vollendung 
(1805-1832). (C). 

REVUE DE8 DEUX MONDES, lerfevrier. Brunetl- 
ere, F., Les M6taphores de Victor Hugo. 

REVUE POLITIQUE ET LITTERAIRE. NO. 6.~ Dr- 
mesteter, J., Miss Robinson; the Plan of Campaign. 
No. 7. Larroumet, 6., Shakespeare et le theatre 
fran^ais. NO. 8. Berr, H., L'histoire des romans de 
M. Alphonse Daudet. 

REVUE DU MONDE LATIN. J^'wir. lefebvre- 
8t-0gan. La socie'te' italienne de la Renaissance. 

NUOVA ANTOLOGIA.-FASC. ll.-D'Ovidio, F., Sulla 

canzone " Chiare, fresche e dolci acque." FA8C. III. 
Martini, Ferd., Francillon. 

FORTNIGNTLY REVIEW.-^a^A. Dowden, E., The 
Study of English Literature. James, H., Guy de Mau- 
passant. 

ANDOVER REVIEW. March. Daves, A. L., F. w. H. 

Myers, poet and critic. 

WESTMINSTER REVIEW. March.-nn Sachs. 

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR DEN DEUTSCHEN UNTER- 
RICHT, II, 2. Schoenfeld, P., Accent und Quantitat 
Miililluiuscn, Aug., Vom Ubersetzen in der Schule. 
Maydorn, B., Zur Aussprache des Deutschen in der 
Schule. 

|L PROPUQNATORE Novembre-Dlcembre, 1887. Con- 
cato, Salvatore, II sonetto rinterzato " Quando il 
consiglio degli uccei si tenne " di Dante Alighieri. 
Pagano, Vlncenzo, Galeazzo di Tarsia, notizie 
storiche e letterarie del barone e poeta Galeazzo di 
Tarsia. Giovanni Ite dl Sassonia, (Filalete) Com- 
mento della Divina Commedia per la prima volta 
tradotto. Lamma, Ernesto, Di alcuni Petrarchisti del 
secolo XV. Bestorl, Antonio, Osservazioni sul metro, 
sulle asaonanze e sul testo del Poema del Cid (con- 
tinuazione e fine). Walter, Bibliografle. 

REVUE DES PATOIS, NO. 3. Juillet-OctobrelSffi. 
Cle'dat, L., Le patois de Coligny et de Saint-Amour. 
Grammaire et glossaire. Combler, Contes en patois de 
Germolles. Jean de la Jeanne. Le loup et le renard. 
Le couvent de Cluny. Peton et safemme. Les coups 
d'yeux. Pultspelu, Sur une derivation populaire du 
participe passe. Sebtllot, P., Contes de la Haute- 
Bretagne : La bonne f emme aux cent ecus. Peuyot. 
Devanne, Conte en patois de Prouvy. Laisse-li ma 
tete. Blanchet, Proverbes limousins. Possoz, Chan- 
son en patois de S'jez (Savoie). Les trois sortes de 
garyons. Depoulllement des p'riodiques franfais con- 
sacrfis aux traditions populaires. Notices biblio- 
graphiques. Chronlque. 

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NEUFRANZOSISCHE SPRACHE 

UND LlTTERATUR, BAND X., HEFT I. (Abhandhmg- 
<). Blcken, W., Die Gestaltung des franzosischen 
Unterrichts in Ubereinstimmung mit den revidierten 
Lehrplltnen. Bock, N., Moli^re's Amphitryon iin 



VerhHltnis zu seinen Vorgftngern. Miszellen. Banzer, 
1)., Die Frau Patelin und ihre Nachahmungen. (Sup- 
plementheft 4). Holzhausen, P., Die Lustspiele Vol- 
taires . 

ENQLISCHE STUDIEN. VOL. XI. PART 2. Ka- 
luza, M., Zum handschriftenverhaltniss und zur text- 
kritik des Cursor Mundi. Kllnghardt, H., Australisch- 
er volkscharacter. Reviews : Korting, G., Grundriss 
der geschichte der englischen literatur von ihren 
anfiingen bis zur gegenwart (E. Kolbing). homer, 
K., Einleitung in das studium des AngelsBchs. Erster 
theil, zweite aufl. bearbeitet von Adolf Socin (E. 
Nader). Sweet, H., Second Middle English Primer (J. 
Koch). Wright, W. Aldls, The Bible Word-Book (A. 
L. Mayhew). Garnett, Kl chard, Works on Carlyle: 
Oswald, Eugene, Life of Thomas Carlyle ; Flugcl, 
Ewald, Thomas Carlyle. Ein lebensbild und gold- 
kBrner aus seinen werken ; Fischer, Th. A., Erin- 
nerungen an Jane Welsh Carlyle (M. Krummacher). 
Mommscn, Tycho, Die Kunst des tlbersetzens fremd- 
sprachlicher dichtungen ins Deutsche (Max Koch). 
Bandisch, Julius, TJeber die charaktere im 'Bruce 1 
des altschottischen dichters John Barbour (E. K61- 
bing). Soffe, Erall, 1st Mucedorus ein schauspiel 
Shakespeares ? (L. PrUscholdt). Johann Baudlsch, 
Schulcommentar zu Milton's Paradise Lost (M. Krum- 
macher). A number of English 'Readers' for Ger- 
man Schools and several school-grammars, are 
noticed. Victor, W., Elemente der phonetik, etc., 
Zweite auiiage (A. Western). Sweet, H., Elementar- 
buch des gesprochenen English. Zweite Auflage(H. 
Klinghardt). Wagner, Ph., Die sprachlaute des Eng- 
lischen (Franz Beyer). Phonetlsche Studlen, Hrsg. v. 
W. Victor (H. Klinghardt). Several works on 
'Methods' of teaching Modern Languages are re- 
viewed. Wendt, G., Der gebrauch des bestimmten 
artikels im Englischen (E. Nader). Krummarher, M., 
Metrische Ubersetzungen (L. PrOscholdt). Miscellen : 
Elze, K., Falsche versabtheilung bei Shakespeare. 
Lentzner, K., Coco und cocoa ; Alexander Schmidt 
(necrology by Karl Lentzer). 

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ROMANISCHE PHILOLOGIE, XI, 
3. Teza, E., Trifoglio. Thunieysen, B., Der Weg vom 
dactylischen Hexameter zum epischen Zehnsilber der 
Franzosen. Osterhage, G., AnklHnge an die germa- 
nische Mythologie in der altfranzOsischen Karlssage. 
III. Andrcsen, H., Zu Benoit's Chronique des dues 
de Normandie. Grober, G., Zu den Liederbi'.chcrn 
von Cortona. Vermischtes Bcinhardstottner, >., La 
Vittoria di Christian! des Giovanni Bonasera. Hor- 
ning, A., Uber steigende und fallende Dipthonge im 
Ostfranzosischen. Dlas, Eplph. tfber die spanischeii 
Laute 9, z und j. I'lrleh, J., E1ymok>>risehe8. Be- 
ftprechungen.'lobler, A. : H." Miehelunt, Der Roman 
von Escanor von Gerard von Amiens. Tobli r, A., 
Romania, XVIe annfie, 1887. Janvier.-Stengtl, E., A. 
Tobler, Berichtigung. 

ARCHIVIO GLOTTOLOGICO ITALIANO, X, 2.- 

Kl. chia, ., Annotazioni si^te^laticlle alle Antiche 
rime genovesi ecc. I'ecl, L., Vocalismp del diatetto 
d'Alatri. Tobler, A., 11 Panfllo in antico veneziano, 
col latino a fronte, edito e illustrato. Ascoll. G. I., 
Di -tr-issa che prenda il posto di -tr-lce, i. II ti]>o 
gallo-romano w=sebO o i franc, orteil e glaive, dello 
ptesso. Gaster, M., II Pkyxiologus rumeno, edito e 
illustrato. 



148 



Italtimorc, ,Iuii>, 1HSS. 



/////. S /..]//. V. I A' Y SYSTEM IN TEACH- 
ING FOJtEIGX I.I I'l: A'. -ITUKK* 
It is my purpose to offer a few suggestions 
on the teaching of a foreign literature in 
connection with the so-called seminary 
system, to add a word regarding that system 
itself, and to inquire to what extent the 
methods and scope of the instruction at Ger- 
man universities are available for our own 
institutions. 

As the question has been limited to the 
teaching of a foreign literature in the seminary 
or association of advanced students, the 
consideration of the study of English litera- 
ture would then be only indirectly included, 
inasmuch as the methods would need to be 
somewhat modified in order to conform with the 
student's greater familiarity with the language. 
That subject moreover has already received 
much attention at the various sessions of this 
Association, and one of our members, PRO- 
FESSOR T. W. HUNT of Princeton, published 
in the Andover Review for November, 1885, 
an article on "Desirable Methods in English 
Literary Study," which forms a valuable 
contribution not only with respect to the 
special topic which lie treats, but also in 
regard to the general question of the study of 
literature. 

How, then, is a foreign literature best taught 
to advanced students? 

As the instruction given must be adapted to 
the qualifications of the student, much de- 
pends upon his proficiency in the special lan- 
guage under consideration. I will assume, as 
our average student, one who has enjoyed at 
the start at least two years of preliminary 
linguistic training, in the proportion of from 
three to five exercises a week, and who has 
also enjoved certain other advantages of study 
and reading sufficient to have developed in him 
a fair literary sense, ami to have furnished him 
with an adequate amount of general literary 
culture. 

*A paper read at the Fifth Annual Convention of the 
MriDHKN I.AN<;UAC;R Ass<>< IAI ION OK AMKKICA, held in 
I'hiluilclphi.i, December, 1887. 



It does not seem necessary here to go into 
any detail regarding this preliminary work of 
tlie first two years. We may suppose that the 
student has been thoroughly grounded in the 
grammar of the language, has been initiated 
into methods of word-formation and word- 
derivation, has examined the laws describing 
the relations between the various members of 
the Indo-European family of languages, has 
had some practice in rendering from English 
into the foreign language and in translation at 
sight, has read a variety of selections from 
different authors illustrating a wide range of 
style, and has become familiar with a few 
masterpieces in poetry and in prose. In other 
words our average student will be the average 
Junior, equipped, we trust, with a good 
knowledge of English and possessing some 
acquaintance with English literature, in 
addition to his special acquirements in foreign 
languages. 

That a knowledge of Greek and Latin also 
would be indispensable, no one perhaps would 
care to maintain; but it would be folly to 
assert that without a knowledge of the ancient 
classics a proper appreciation can be gained 
of the foundations, the drift, and the inspi- 
rations of modern literatures. 

The objection may be made that too much 
time is demanded for this preliminary study ; 
that our ordinary college courses do not admit 
the opportunity of carrying on the study of the 
modern languages for three or four con- 
secutive years. We may be reminded that in 
some institutions of great dignity and age the 
modern languages have been optional 
branches, or have been required for only a 
limited number of hours at an advanced stage 
in the curriculum. To these objections tin- 
answer might be made that a period of two 
years so employed would seem to be tin- mini- 
mum of time possible for producing the train- 
ing necessary, that institutions with an inade- 
quate provision of time or teaching-force may 
expect to attain results correspondingly inade- 
quate, and that the day is fortunately passing 
by in which the study of the modern laiigua: 
is made merely auxiliary to the curriculum 
and treated without proper consideration of 



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their natural and just requirements. The 
spread of the elective system is everywhere a 
powerful assistance toward this desirable con- 
summation. 

After two years of such preparatory work, 
then, the student is ready for the advanced 
or seminary work. This term seminary with 
us seems to be employed to indicate a variety 
of methods in teaching, while the word itself 
is used in German to describe both the place 
of meeting and the exercise which is generally 
held there. These exercises abroad appear 
to range in character from such as resemble 
quite nearly our ordinary recitation to those 
embodying the results of some independent 
investigation ; but the controlling principle is 
apparently the preparation of the work in con- 
nection with a special equipment under the 
leadership or guidance of the instructor in 
charge. The professor's own study may fre- 
quently be the scene of action, and the material 
furnished be largely from his own supplies. 
There is sometimes a disposition to confine 
the term seminary-work to the most advanced 
stages of investigation, whether literary or 
linguistic. There is no real objection to this 
limitation, although in the interests of con- 
venient nomenclature the larger field might 
be permitted to include the smaller. 

With respect to the equipment the student 
should have easy access to the following 
materials, and should be encouraged in their 
familiar and constant use. 

A collection of the best critical editions of 
the standard literary monuments of the lan- 
guage, beginning with the earliest records. 
As large a collection as possible of minor 
literary monuments, pamphlets, journals, cor- 
respondence, in short, of all original literary 
matter, however insignicant. A collection of 
general and special literary histories, including 
biographies, essays, monographs and miscel- 
laneous articles. Finally, the principal periodi- 
cals in the language, both learned and light. 
Few colleges are able to furnish such an 
apparatus and the private library of the pro- 
fessor must frequently assist in filling the gaps. 
In those institutions, however, in which the 
library appropriations are distributed among 
departments, a comparatively small annual 
amount, judiciously expended, will be sufficient 



to provide gradually a respectable outfit. 

Beginnings of this kind have already been 
made. The special-alcove system at Har- 
vard appears in a modified form at Baltimore, 
Ann Arbor, Cornell and elsewhere, and we 
trust that it will not be many years before 
quarters similar to the admirable language 
seminary-rooms at Strasburg, or the well- 
furnished historical department at Johns Hop- 
kins, may be deemed indispensable for teach- 
ing properly modern literatures. 

A few words may be added regarding the 
employment of this equipment. 

There should be careful study of the works 
of an author, and careful study of his life and 
times. The two lines of study are reciprocally 
illustrative, while the balance should decided- 
ly incline toward a direct acquaintance with 
the author's writings. Literary history, how- 
ever, has also its distinct function and value, 
affording a clear outline and background for 
the special study of the author himself. 

The work may be performed in two ways : 
by the ordinary form of class-room instruction 
with recitation, lecture and comment ; and by 
subdivision of the work among different mem- 
bers under the supervision of the instructor, 
either assigning to the members of such class- 
es different portions of the same general sub- 
ject, with references to the proper authorities 
or sources, or allowing individual members to 
pursue individual courses of reading or inde- 
pendent lines of investigation, with frequent 
reports of progress. 

In regard to the question whether a written 
lecture or an address from notes be preferable 
in the course of such academic instruction, it 
has been argued that anything read from a 
written page may as well be printed and cir- 
culated for more careful study, and that the 
dictated phrase is lifeless jn comparison with 
the spoken word. There is danger too that 
the lecture, once crystallized into a permanent 
shape, may not receive from year to year the 
revision which it needs. On the other hand, 
it is not always convenient or easy to publish 
at once the results of study and investigation, 
(although we have noticed that some Scotch 
students have recently attempted this for their 
professor, surreptitiously), while the beneficial 
and attractive element of stvle and form is 



June. MO HERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



302 



..it. n absent from the extemporary effort. 
l'rrli;i|.s the \\iser way would lit- to blend 
both forms of deliver \ . 

\Vitliout attempting hen- to lay down any 
detailed course of instruction, it may be said 
in general that the study of an author should 
not In- divorced from the study of his age, but 
that the two sides of the examination should 
be jointly conducted. In like manner the 
minute study of individual works in respect of 
style and thought may well be associated with 
general reviews of groups of works. The 
function moreover of comparison is important, 
the comparison, namely, between different 
works of the same writer composed at differ- 
ent periods in his career, or between different 
writers of the same school, or between differ- 
ent stages of development of the subject, as 
the drama, or between different stages of 
growth of a national literature, or between . 
the literatures of different nations and their 
reciprocal influence. 

Illustrations will readily occur from our 
common experiences in teaching. 

The old German ' Messiads,' the ' Heliand ' 
and OTKRID'S 'Krist,' when compared show 
many interesting points of contrast. One may- 
note the differing treatment of the Gospel 
narrative, and the difference in metrical 
structure, representing on one hand the strong 
and simple alliterative beat of heathen versifi- 
cation, and on the other the influence of the 
gathering force of the Latin strophe of the 
Christian hymn, concealing within itself the 
melodious possibilities of assonance and allit- 
eration with the more perfect melody of 
finished rime. Looking at the circumstances 
of the composition of the two poems, in one 
has been found an eloquent proof of the growth 
of Christianity among the unlettered peoples 
of the Saxon North ; in the other, an attempt 
to resist in the South the influence of a frivolous 
and pagan literature. The poems of WAI.THKR 
VON iKR \'<H;I:I.WKI !>!:, when studied in con- 
nection with his age, throw interesting side 
lights upon the social life of his time, and 
upon the contentions between Fmperor and 
1'ope. MaKTi.N LrniKK's writings are scarce- 
ly intelligible without an examination of 
Middle High German, and in turn assist to an 
accurate analysis of modern German syntax. 



To describe the origin of the French or Ger- 
man drama, one must review ecclesiastical 
literature, and be familiar with the theatre of 
thu ancients. The benefit is evident of such 
courses as I'KOFKSSOR CRANE'S lectures at 
Cornell on French society in the seventeenth 
century, based upon the voluminous memoirs, 
correspondence, and other literary memorials 
of that period; or the course of PKOKKSSOK 
ELLIOTT at Johns Hopkins, in which the 
work of the year may be concentrated upon a 
limited period in literary history, or upon the 
study of a small group of related dialects, or 
of a few important linguistic monuments. 
What useful material for a knowledge of the 
current impressions in Paris regarding Euro- 
pean art and politics is afforded by HMM.'S 
miscellaneous communications to the Augs- 
burg Gazette! What a field, too little 
cultivated, is afforded by the bulky corres- 
pondence of prominent literary characters! 
Again, not the least beneficial phase of the 
minute study of the second part of Faust is 
afforded by the social and philosophical 
problems suggested, and by the discussion of 
the relations between the Classic and Roman- 
tic movements as depicted in the " Helena." 
Not less attractive is the effort to fathom the 
secret of the .many erratic manifestations of 
genius of which every literature yields attrac- 
tive and baffling illustrations. 

A legitimate feature of such seminary work 
may be the examination by students of neu 
and relevant publications, whether edition or 
commentary or special treatise, and the pres- 
entation of critical notices of their contents. 
Others desire to discard all adventitious aids, 
and, leaving unconsidered whatever incrus- 
tations have clustered i.pon the shell, to 
penetrate to the heart, and to devote the 
energies of their students to the patient study 
of the bare unvarnished text, the naked 
thought of the author selected. Such diversi- 
ties of operations may yet lead to equally 
profitable results. 

As to the relation of the study of literature 
proper to the study of kindred subjects, one 
may say that although the teaching of litera- 
ture be not the teaching of history or of bi- 
ography, both are essential as a background; 
and that inasmuch as the province of what is 



"5' 



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called Culturgeschichte, a sort of litearyr 
biology, trenches upon literary history, it is 
also to be considered a necessary concomitant 
of literary studies. 

Another minor agency may be included, for 
its value in creating or stimulating the 
student's interest, namely, the utilization of 
illustrative material by means of the stereop- 
ticon an agency at present gradually coming 
into more general use. Such material would 
comprise photographs, engravings, paintings, 
or similar artistic reproductions of pers.ons, 
places, or events of literary significance, fac- 
similes of chirography, of manuscripts, of 
charters, and of everything connected with 
the science of diplomatics. Let me instance 
the reproductions of old French texts by 
GASTON PARIS ; the heliotype fac-similes of old 
manuscripts published at Rome ; PROFESSOR 
ZUPITZA'S recent edition of 'Beowulf,' with 
the text and transliteration side by side ; the 
phototypes, in another field, of classic 
manuscripts like the Laurentian Sophocles 
and the Ravenna Aristophanes ; the autotypes 
of the Chaucer manuscripts in the British 
Museum ; the splendid and elaborate publi- 
cations of the Socie'te' de 1'Ecole des Charles 
just appearing, which are to afford us in 
beautiful heliogravures reproductions of the 
most important documents relative to the 
national history and literature ; and even the 
matter of illustration in such works as 
STACKE'S 'Deutsche Geschichte,' or KON- 
NECKE'S 'Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der 
Deutschen Literatur.' Material of this kind, 
which is often too expensive to be obtained by 
the separate members of a class, can readily 
be converted into lantern views and be 
presented to a class collectively, with appropri- 
ate comments, in connection with lecture 
courses or seminary work ; and such an ex- 
pedient would obviate to a large degree the 
disadvantages which his remoteness from the 
great libraries and museums of the world 
causes the American student to feel. Now for 
the first time does there seem in this way to be 
some outlook for more general paleographical 
studies on this side of the Atlantic. 

My remarks have been limited principally 
to the consideration of foreign literatures, 
leaving untouched the question of the proper 
methods for dealing with those fascinating and 



exceedingly important adjuncts of language- 
training comprised under the rubrics of com- 
parative philology and phonetics, At a meet- 
ing of the American Philological Association 
a few years ago, PROFESSOR JEBK, of Glasgow, 
alluded to the current criticism that the work 
of American classical scholars concerned itself 
too much with grammatical and linguistic 
subjects, and was too often in statistical form. 
Certainly this is an honorable tendency, 
whether displayed with reference to ancient 
or to modern languages, and possibly the only 
caution needful might be the comment that 
the study of belles-lettres is equally arduous, 
equally exacting, demanding peradventure 
for finished culture in the teacher an even 
longer period of apprenticeship, and that it is 
equally fruitful in valuable results. 

From this standpoint the position of modern 
languages in German universities would 
perhaps not be entirely satisfactory, as the 
norm for corresponding American institutions, 
although a tendency appears manifest yonder 
which promises ultimately a well-rounded 
curriculum. In respect to German, at least, 
(and my impression is that the same observa- 
tion will in some measure hold good with 
regard to English and French also), an ex- 
amination of the courses offered will reveal 
that the literature since LUTHER has been 
subordinated to a somewhat absorbing study 
of the earlier dialects. The ordinary pro- 
fessorships have been almost invariably held 
by those whose chief interest lies in this earlier 
field, while the later period has been in the 
hands of instructors of a lower rank. At 
Berlin, PROFESSOR SCHERER, literary historian 
as well as philologist, exhibited a fine type of 
the many-sided and finished scholar. Yet a 
seminary room for Germanic languages was 
finally ready to be occupied only in the year 
of his death ; and the library of that seminary, 
although comprising the valuable private- 
collection of MiJLLENHOFF, contained, when 
first made public, almost no literature after 
the fourteenth or fifteenth century. SCHERER'S 
successor, ERICH SCHMIDT, enjoys the dis- 
tinction of holding perhaps the only ordinary 
professorship in Germany which is occupied by 
a scholar solely devoted to modern German 
literature. And even this chair was first 
offered to one or two men of the other type. 



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It is certainly no insignificant fact that this 
departure takes place at the largest and 
]>n.l>ahly the leading university of the land. 

At Leipsic the conditions are somewhat 
similar. Although the instruction under 
ZAKNCKEand HII.UKHKAND, BIEDERMANN and 
VON BAHDER and KOGEL, leaves little to be 
desired, and although some exercises are con- 
ducted there in connection with private libra- 
ries, the library of the German seminary is 
very nearly innocent of New High German 
monuments. Among the younger generation 
of scholars, too, in Germany we find that 
those who are devoted to the older dialects, 
as BEHAGHEL at Basel, BRAUNE at Giessen, 
(now at Heidelberg) KLUGE at Jena, PAUL at 
Freiburg, SIEVERS at Halle, STEINMEYER at 
Erlangen, are ordinary or full professors, while 
men like GEIGER at Berlin, HENNING at Stras- 
burg, MINOR at Vienna, SAUER at Prague, 
SEUFFERT at Graz, STRAUCH at Tubingen, and 
others whose interests lie in more recent fields, 
are of the secondary grade. The older pro- 
fessors occasionally pay some attention to the 
later literature, and historians like ONCKEN at 
Giessen or philosophers like KUNO FISCHER 
at Heidelberg or HAYM at Halle, divide their 
efforts at times between their special sphere 
and subjects in German literature. But it is 
fair to maintain that the preponderance of 
interest at German universities, and the field 
most favored for advancement to the docto- 
rate, may be found in the more strictly philo- 
logical studies of the earlier period. I will 
not presume to debate the wisdom of this 
tendency yonder, where the language courses 
in the gymnasiums are also to be reckoned in, 
nor to claim too much prominence for the 
counter-movement, which seems nevertheless 
to bring with it a widening of the outlook and 
a truer conception of proportion. . But, what- 
ever be the task of the German university, it 
cannot be precisely the same task as ours, nor 
are jts ways, while admirable, necessarily to 
be our ways. The German university is large- 
ly a nursery for specialists, an invaluable 
training-ground for teachers and investigators. 
Based upon the common schools, and affording 
the sole supply for the learned professions, it 
has an intimate and unshaken hold upon the 
nation. We, too, have an obligation to perform 



toward our nation also. The minor part of our 
own duty may be to train a limited number of 
bright minds in progressive and independent 
work ; the major portion of our labors must be 
consumed in helping large numbers of students 
to gain such a vantage ground of vision that 
their sympathies will be permanently enlarged, 
and their intellectual life possess a generous 
and catholic range whose influence will touch 
distant circles which we can never directly 
reach, but which ought to share whatever di- 
versities of gifts a university may have at its 
I command. Is there any better method of ad- 
vancing this aim than the careful and sympa- 
thetic study of the noblest expressions of 
modern literary thought ? 

It has been the great privilege of many here 
present to draw liberally from the fountains of 
learning which spring so freely from Teutonic 
sources ; and the severe and successful 
methods there in vogue are exerting a power- 
ful and not unfavorable influence upon our 
own higher education. But may we not retain 
our gratitude and acknowledge our manifold 
indebtedness without too general a surrender 
to foreign precedents? Perhaps I may be 
permitted, in closing, to strengthen and make 
clear the position which I am endeavoring to 
maintain, by quoting some words from a 
memorable oration delivered by the President 
of this Association upon a memorable occasion. 
At the Harvard Celebration last year, MR. 
LOWELL said : 

" It (i. e. the college earlier in the century), 
set more store by the marrow than by the 
bone that encased it. It made language as it 
should be, a ladder to literature, and not 
literature a ladder to language. 

" I think I see a tendency to train young 
men in the languages as if they were all to be 
editors (i. e. of manuscripts, texts, etc.) and 
not lovers of polite literature. Education, we 
are often told, is a drawing out of the faculties, 
may they not be drawn too thin ! I am not 
undervaluing philology or accuracy of scholar- 
ship. Both are excellent and admirable in 
their places. But philology is less beautiful to 
me than philosophy, as MILTON understood 
the word, and mere accuracy is to Truth as a 
plaster cast to the marble statue ; it gives the 
facts but not their meaning. If I must choose, 



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308 



I had rather a young man should be intimate 
with the genius of the Greek dramatic poets 
than with the metres of their choruses, though 
I should be glad to have him on easy terms 
with both. 

"I hope then," MR. LOWELL concludes, 
" that the day will come when a competent pro- 
fessor may lecture here also for three years on 
the first three vowels of the Romance Alpha- 
bet, and find fit audience though few. I hope 
the day may never come when the weightier 
matters of a language, namely, such parts of 
its literature as have overcome death by reason 
of their wisdom and of the beauty in which it 
is incarnated, such parts as are universal by 
reason of their civilizing properties, their 
power to elevate and fortify the mind, I hope 
the day may never come when these are not 
predominant in the teaching given here. Let 
the humanities be maintained undiminished in 
their ancient right. Leave in their traditional 
preeminence those arts that were rightly 
called liberal ; those studies that kindle the 
imagination, and through it irradiate the 
reason ; those studies that manumitted the 
modern mind ; those in which the brains of 
finest temper have found alike their stimulus 
and their repose, taught by them that the 
power of intellect is heightened in proportion 
as it is made gracious by measure and 
sympathy. Give us science, too, but give 
first of all and last of all the science that 
ennobles life and makes it generous." 



HORATIO S. WHITE. 



Cornell University. 



n*IE ROMANHAFTE RICHTUNG DER 

ALEXIUSLEGENDE 

in altfranzosischen und mittelhochdeutschen 
Gedichten. II. (Schluss). 

Vergleichen wir nun sowohl mit L als auch 
mit A, H lassen wir ausser Acht, da es viel 
jiingeren Ursprungs ist, das franzdsische Ge- 
dicht S und die von ihm abhangigen M und 
Q, so fallt uns sofort auf, dass abgesehn von 
den brautlichen Ziigeu S noch mehrere andere 
Ziige mit L und A gemein hat. So : 

i. Den Dienst des ALEXIUS beim Kaiser, 
als er die Schule verlassen hat, cf. S v. 75 fF., 
A v. 77 ff., 85 ff. 



2. Die Pilgerfahrt des ALEXIUS nach Jeru- 
salem, cf. S v. 347 ff., A v. 447 ff., M v. 341- 
360, Q str. 49-58. 

3. Als ALEXIUS' Heiligkeit geoffenbart 
werden soil, lauten auch die Glocken (A v. 
758-767, S v. 1004, M v. 1047, Q str. 157). 

Und zwar ist es auffallend, dass diese mit A 
und L iibereinstimmenden Ziige sammtlich 
auf Kosten des Interpolators von S zu setzen 
sincl, und nicht aus P, der Quelle von S, stam- 
men. So sieht es also aus, als ob entweder 
S gerade in diesen neuen Partien von L oder 
A beeinflusst sei oder vielleicht diese Ziige 
erfunden und dadurch A beeinflusst habe. 

Wir untersuchen zunachst die erste Moglich- 
keit. Es ware ja denkbar, dass der Interpo- 
lator von P nach Kenntniss der lateinischen 
Bearbeitung erst sich veranlasst gefiihlt hatte, 
seine Vorlage zu andern ; es ware auch mog- 
lich, wenn auch weniger wahrscheinlich, da 
es ja dem Gange der Litteraturgeschichte des 
Mittelalters nicht entsprache, dass der In- 
terpolator das deutsche Gedicht zur Vorlage 
hatte. Da L und A, wie oben erwiesen, zusam- 
menhangen, lasst sich eine eventuelle Be- 
einflussung von S durch sie zugleich unter- 
suchen fur beide Theile. 

Bei naherer Betrachtung fallt uns gleich 
auf, dass die iibereinstimmenden Ziige doch 
ziemlich verschieden erzahlt sind. So: 

1. Die Uebergabe des Briefes. 

In L und A heisst es ungefahrso: Nachdem 
EUPHEMIAN vergebens versucht hat, den 
Brief aus der Hand des Todten zu nehmen, 
clarauf die beiclen Kaiser und selbst der Papst 
nicht mehr Gliick gehabt haben, denkt die 
Braut, es mochte vielleicht in dem Briefe 
etwas von ihrem Brautigam stehen, das ihr 
allein zu wissen gebiihre. Sie tritt daruni 
naher zu ihm hin, und erhalt sofort den Brief. 
Ganz anders bei S (M, Q) : Papst und 
Kaiser bitten den Heiligen urn den Brief, und 
sobald der Papst die Hand ausstreckt, gibt 
ihm der Heilige seiiien Brief (S, 1083 ff.). Da 
geschieht aber ein Wunder; der Hand des 
Papstes entfliegt der Brief sofort zur Jungfrau : 

"A la pucele s'en ala a la place 
Ens en son sain, en son bliaut de paile." 

2. I m Gesprach der Eltern und der Braut 
mit ALEXIUS unter der Stiege, hat S nicht alle 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888 No. 6. 



hubschen Ziige von L und A ubernommen, 
vor alien Dingcn den nicht, dass die Braut 
selbst den Pilger nach ihrem " friedel " fragt. 

3. Endlich hat in der Erzahlung der Braut- 
nacht S den Zug des Lichtes, an welches sich 
das Gesprach ankniipft, nicht beibehalten. 

Warum hatte S seine Vorlage so sehr 
geandert, ohne Grund und oft geradezu zu 
seinem Nachtheil ? Schwerwiegender ist noch 
der Umstand, dass die Namen von S ganz 
verschieden sind : Die Frau des EUPHEMIAN 
heisst bei A, L: AGLAES, Tochter des JO- 
HANNES; bei S: BONE EURE, Tochter FLOU- 
RENS. Der Kaiser heisst in A, L: THEODOSI- 
us; bei S : OTEVIANS. Die Braut ist nicht wie 
bei A, L : ADRIATICA, Tochter des GREGORIUS, 
sondern LESIGNE, Tochter des SIGNOURES. 
Die Namen der Vorfahren, welche L und A 
sehr genau angeben, finden wir bei S nicht. 
Auch dass Papst SIRICIUS ALEXIUS tauft, wird 
nicht erwahnt. Endlich sind die Stadte, zu 
denen ALEXIUS seine Zuflucht nimmt, andere. 
VVeder Lucca noch Pisa kommen vor, sondern 
la Lice resp. Lalice (Laodicea) und Ausis (L) 
oder Alis (M) oder Alphis (Q) Edessa. Die 
Stadt Tarsus nennt S Troholt. Endlich 
erwahnt mit keinem Worte S, dass die Braut 
zu ALEXIUS ins Grab gelegt wird, und der 
Todte ihr neben sich Platz macht. Nach alien 
diesen Abweichungen ist eine Beeinflussung 
von S durch L oder A nicht anzunehmen. 
Gegen die lateinische Bearbeitung spricht 
noch speziell der Umstand, dass S Ziige hat, 
welche L fehlen, und die A aus seiner andern 
Quelle, der Bollandistenbearbeitung, entnom- 
men hat. So den Ziig der Turteltaube und 
vielleicht des Trauersacks. Ebenso die Ziige 
gegen Ende, das grosse Gedrange, welches 
Papst und Kaiser durch Geldausstreuen ver- 
geblich zu vermindern suchen und das Tragen 
der Bahre durch Kaiser und Papst selbst. 

Viel wahrscheinlicher ist die zweite Mog- 
lichkeit, die Beeinflussung des deutschen Ge- 
dichtes durch das franzosische (die lateinische 
Bearbeitung miissen wir vorlaufig ausser Acht 
lassen). Schon litterargeschichtlich ist sie 
amiehmbarer als die erste, da ja im Mittelalter 
Frankreich Deutschland so oft beeinflusst. 
Noch manches andere kommt hinzu : So vor 
alien Dingen der Umstand, dass gerade die 
Abweichungen von S und A, die wir oben 



erwahnt haben, auf diesem Wege leicht erklar- 
lich sind. 

Wir haben oben gesehn, dass S auf das 
alteste franzosische Gedicht P zuriickgeht, 
und dass es alle brautlichen Ziige neu einge- 
fiihrt hat. Betrachten wir gleich den wichtig- 
sten Zug, den der Uebergabe des Briefes. P 
hat die gewohnliche Fassung der Uebergabe 
an den Papst. S lasst dem Papst den Brief 
zuerst ubergeben und dann durch ein Wunder 
zur Braut iibergehen, A lasst den Brief direct 
zur Braut iibergehen. Scheint nicht darin 
eine gewisse Gradation zu liegen? Der Ver- 
fasser von S ist, wie wir unten des naheren 
noch werden beobachten konnen, ein sehr er- 
finderischer und dichterisch begabter Kopf. 
Es ware moglich, dass er, um die Braut mehr 
in den Vordergrund treten zu lassen, seine 
Vorlage geandert hatte. Doch hatte er nicht 
den Muth sofort mit der Tradition zu brechen. 
Es ware ihm einerseits frevelhaft vorgekom- 
men, einen so frommen Heiligen u'ber den 
Kopf des h. Vaters hinweg mit seiner Braut 
verkehren zu lassen, und doch hatte er an- 
dererseits so viel poetischen Sinn, um den 
anderen Zug fiir schoner zu halten. So ver- 
band er denn, "par le plaisir le glorious ce- 
leste," beide Fassungen mit einander. A 
hatte nicht mehr dieselben Bedenken, verstand 
vielleicht gar nicht mehr, weshalb der Papst 
den Brief zuerst bekommen sollte, wenn ihn 
doch sofort darauf die Braut erhalten sollte. 
und strich deshalb den Papst. Dadurch 
hatte A die Braut ungeheuer gehoben. Es 
war dies vielleicht auch fiir A die Veranlas- 
sung den Zug des Beilagers im Tode zu erfin- 
den. Auch dadurch war dem Verhaltniss der 
Braut zu ALEXIUS grossere Bedeutung ver- 
liehen. 

Dass A auf diese Weise die von S ange- 
deutete Richtung weiter verfolgte und dessen 
Motive ausbeutete, ist ja sehr natiirlich und 
leicht zu verstehen. Viel weniger natiirlich 
ware es aber, dass A von S ausgefuhrte Ziige 
fallen Hesse. Dies ist aber doch ofters der 
Fall, und so treten mis denn auch hier 
Schwierigkeiten entgegen. 

Beginnen wir mit den Hauptpunkten : 

Das Gesprach unter der Treppe zeigt schon 
bei beiden solche Unterschiede. Bei S ist es 
um so viel mehr ausgefiihrt, und die Braut 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



312 



wird dabei in so viel mehr riihretide Situatio- 
nen gesetzt, dass es hochst seltsam ware, wenn 
A diese Motive, obgleich es sie gekannt, nicht 
benutzt hatte. Man vergleiche : 

Ahnlich ist nur der Zug, dass ALEXIUS 
nach seinem Namen gefragt wird. In S fragt 
der Vater v. 805 ff. : 

Biaus crestiens, ne savons vostre non 
Faut vous connois de coi aids besoing? 
"Sire, dist il, CRESTIENS ai a non." 

Bei A fragt die Braut v. 621 ff. 

Si sprach : " So got berate mich, 
Tuo dinen namen mir bekannt " 
Er sprach : " das tuon ich zehant . 
Gote ergeben ich bin genant. 
Min name ist dir unerkant. 1 ' 

Nach dieser Scene fahrt aber S folgender- 
massen fort zu erzahlen : Die Mutter steigt mit 
der Jungfrau die Treppe hinunter, unter der 
ALEXIUS liegt. Jedesmal wenn Mutter und 
Braut an ihm vorbeigehen, schwebt ALEXIUS 
in grosser Angst, man mochte ihn erkennen, 
und zieht sich scheu zuriick. Die Mutter hat 
es schon gemerkt, glaubt aber, der Pilger, 
der schon so lange Jahre in ihrem Hause lebe, 
habe sie nie gesprochen, well er.sie hasse. 
Doch ist sie neugierig ; sie mochte gerne 
erfahren, woher er stamme, sie wolle ihn 
gleich diesmal fragen, sagt sie zu ihrer 
Schwiegertochter, sie kame ,ja sonst spater 
vielleicht nicht mehr so leicht dazu, er sahe 
so abgescbwacht aus, dass er wohl bald 
sterben wiirde. 

Die beiden Frauen nahern sich ihm. Der 
Mutter kommt es so vor, als ob er ihrem ver- 
lorenen Sohne gliche, und als sie ihn ansieht, 
muss sie weinen: Doch ermannt sie sich und 
fragt ihn nach seiner Heimat. Aber ALEXIUS 
weicht der Frage aus, er ware krank, dem 
Tode nahe, drum wolle er nicht liigen, "car 
par mencoigne pert on saint paradis." Sie 
wiirde es doch bald wissen, denn vor seinem 
Tode wiirde er sein ganzes Leben aufschrei- 
ben. Und er bittet seine Mutter noch naher an 
ihn heranzukommen, und wie sie vor ihm 
steht, kiisst er ihr die Fiisse und bittet sie um 
Verzeihung. 

"Sire " dist ele, " qttel pardon me querns t " 

Pour mon malaige quie jou estre encombrt's." 
"Sire " dist ele " tout vous soit pardonn^." 
" Vostre grant painne que eu en avds. 



Pour amour Diu, si le me pardonnds." 

Et la pucele les a bien esgardes 

Si li pardonne, ele fait autretel. 

Ele s'en tourne, cil est moult lids rente's. 

Hochpoetisch wirkt diese Scene, wo der 
strenge Ascete beim Anblick seiner Mutter 
ein menschliches Ru'hren fiihlt und sie um 
Verzeihung bittet. Im deutschen Gedichte 
lasst sich ALEXIUS nicht riihren. Wie wenn 
er Eltern und Braut geradezu foppen wollte, 
erzahlt er aus freien Stiicken (v. 615 ff.) von 
ALEXIUS, den er wohl gekannt habe ; er geht 
sogar soweit, eine Beschreibung von ihm zu 
geben, und stets herzlos, ohne Riihrung. Die 
Braut dagegen ist in der deutschen Legende 
recht menschlich geschildert. Wie in hasti- 
gem Fieber richtet sie ihre Fragen um den 
Brautigam an den Pilger : 

" Hat er iht gedaht widerkomen? 
Daz ban ich nie von im vernomen. 
Hat in gerouwen iht diu vart ? 
Des selben ich nie innen wart, 
Er jach, er wolde in dem leben 
Sime libe ein ende geben." 
So la dim, herre, enpfolhen sin 
Uf die grozen gnside din." 

Schon diese Scenen sind so verschieden ge- 
schildert, dass eine unmittelbare Beeinflus- 
sung kaum vorliegen diirfte. Noch deutlich- 
er wird es aber aus dem folgenden : Wenn 
der deutsche Dichter an die oben erwahnte 
Scene nur eine Moralreflexion iiber ALEXIUS' 
Standhaftigkeit und die Bemerkung hinzufiigt : 

" Des morgeno fruo si zus im kam 
Unt fragten von ir fridel mr," 

fiigt der Franzose noch eine ganze Episode 
hinzu, welche die Braut und ALEXIUS noch in 
nahere Beziehung zu einander bringt. 

Wahrend in der ganzen Stadt Rom der 
Heilige gesucht wird, von dem die geheim- 
nissvolle Stimme in der Kirche gesprochen 
hat, wahrend Papst und Kaiser im Hause des 
EUPHEMIAN sich dariiber beklagen, dass er 
nicht gefunden werde, und EUPHEMIAN selbst 
nicht ahntjwelchen Schatz er in seinem Hause 
birgt, liegt ALEXIUS unter der Treppe auf 
seinem Strohlager und ringt mit dem Tode. 
Da tritt die Jungfrau zu ihm : 

" Sire " dist ele " moult vous torble li vis ; " 
" Bele" dist il "car sui prts de ma fin." 

Er werde heute sterben, er fiihle es an der 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, \W>. No. 6. 



.\n-st, die ihi) bei a lie ; si.- nn.^c dm h an s< in- 
Bestattung in der Kirrhe des h. Bonifarius 
denken, aucli sit- werde vielleicht spater wun- 
schen dort l>egraben zu werden. Ach, wenn 
ilitn iiur fin Zeirhen voiu Mimmel karne, dass 
er sehe, ob er recht gelebt ! \Venn nur die 
Glocken fiir ihn liintcn u iirden ! Kaum hat 
er das Wort gesprochen. so wird sein Wunsch 
erfiillt. In der ganzen Stadt Rom lauten die 
Glocken und ALEXIUS kann nun ruliigsterben. 
Seine Stunde naht, und im letzten Augen- 
blicke fliistert er noch seiner Hraut zu, er ware 
nicht aus fernem Lande ; unter den Verwand- 
ten, die ihn begraben wiirden, waren auch 
Vater und Mutter, und seine Frau, die er ver- 
lassen habe. Da wird der Braut plotzlich 
Alles klar: 

" E Dins," dist ele, "jou quie c'est mes amis." 
" Sire," dist ele, " sont il bien lone de ci ? 
Mandas lors tu par mes qui lor desist ? " 

Aber ALEXIUS kann nicht mehr antworten. 
Er ist todt. Diese Episode, welche am 
schonsten das Verhaltniss des ALEXIUS zu 
seiner Braut darstellt, felilt vollstandig bei A. 
Sollte diesmoglich sein, wenn A, das ja sonst 
viel poetisches Verstandniss zeigt, S gekannt 
hatte. Doch wohl kaum. Und noch andere 
Griinde sprechen dagegen. 

Auch die Brautnacht ist in S und A ganz 
verschieden behandelt. Die Details gebe ich 
hier nicht an, da ich nochuntendarauf zuriick- 
kominen werde. Hier moge die Bemerkung 
geniigen, dass sie im fran/osischen Gedichte 
ganz realistisch-dramatisch bewegt ist, im 
deutschen einfach und riihrend sich abspielt. 

Doch auch andere sehr poetische Ziige von 
S hat A nicht aufxiuveisen. So hat folgender 
Zug von S bei A nicht den geringsten Anklang 
gefunden : Als ALEXIUS seine Braut verlassen 
hat, um ins Morgenland zu pilgern, steigt er 
auf einen Hiigel, um von dort aus vor seiner 
Abfalirt zum letzten Mai die Stadt seiner 
Ahneii zu sehn. Und indem er hiniiberblickt 
zu seiner Yaterstadt, richtet er ein heisses 
(it bet an den Herren, und bittet ihn, er moge 
doch die Jungfrau, die er verlusseii, ein solches 
Leben fiihren lassen, dass ihre Seele ins Him- 
melreich koninie. Eincn Angenblick iiber- 
inannt ihn die Riilirung, als er an seine Kltern 
zuriickclenkt, doch fasst er sich bald wieder, 
und befliigelten Schrittes eilt er /i;m Meere. 



\Virhtig sind auch die Verse 476-500, die 
wieder den Zweckhaben.die Scelenstarke des 
AI.KXIUS zu zeigen. Als die Boten, welche 
\'.\ THKMIAN nach seinem Sohne ausgeschickt 
hat, ihn in Ausis nicht erkannt haben, da er 
durch sein ascetisches Leben so abgeharmt ist, 
folgt ihnen ALEXIUS heimlich bis zu Hirer 
Herberge nach, und an der Thiire belauscht 
er ihr Gesprach. Kr hort, wie auf die Frage 
des Wirthes und der Wirthin, wen sie denn 
so eifrig suchten, die Boten ihnen das Ver- 
scliwinden des ALEXIUS aus Rom und die 
Klagen seiner Eltern erzahlen. Dieser Bericht 
riihrt den Heiligen bis zu Thranen, aber er 
bleibt fest und lasst die Boten abziehen, ohne 
sich zu erkennen zu geben. 

Auch die Ankunft des ALEXIUS in Rom ist 
von S mit mehr Farbe geschildert als von A : 
Als ALEXIUS das SchifF verlassen, setzt er 
sich nach langerer Wanderung durch die 
Strassen unter einen Dornstrauch, um sich 
auszuruhen. Er ist krank und schwach, und 
denkt sich, dass er wohl in fremder Herberge 
werde sterben mussen. Da liest er gerade in 
seinem Psalter, den er zum Lesen hervorge- 
holt, es sei die Pflicht jeder Mutter ihr Kind 
zu pflegen, so lange es klein sei, sieben Jahre 
lang, doch wenn es schwach und krank ware, 
sein ganzes iibriges Leben lang. Das halt er 
fiir ein Zeichen des Himmels und es bringt 
ihn dazu, bei seinen Eltern um Herberge zu 
Hehen. 

Auch die Begegnung des Sohnes mit seinen 
Eltern enthalt sehr viele Details, welche bei 
A absolut nicht wiedergegeben werden. 
Dieselben mitzutheilen gestattet mir l,eider 
der Rauni nicht. Doch meine ich, dass die 
mitgetheilten Abweichungen beider Gedichte 
schon zur Geniige zeigen, dass eine directe 
Beeinflussung nicht vorliegen kann. Man 
denke noch an die obenerwahnte Verschieden- 
heit der Namen, und man wird zugeben mus- 
sen, dass beide Gedichte in keinem unmittel- 
ban-n Yerhiiltniss zu einander stehen. 

\\'dlil ist aber mittelbare Uebereinstinimung 
vorhanden. S und A (resp. L) gehoren der 
" briiutlichen " Richtung an. Nach meiner 
Ansicht hat sich diese Richtung erst allmalich 
entuickelt. Der urspriinglichen Legende lag 
sie fern. In der Bollandistenbearbeitung und 
den von ihr abhiingigen Arbeiten ist die Braut 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



ganz Nebenfigur. Sie tritt selbst in der Braut- 
nacht kaum hervor, willfahrt dem ALEXIUS 
sofort, und trauert dann das ganze Gedicht 
hindurch, ohne in die Handlung einzugreifen. 
Die mittelmassigen Kopfe, welche sich an die 
Bearbeitung der Legende machten, gingen 
an ihr kalt voriiber. Nur die poetisch begab- 
ten merkten, dass aus der Rolle dieser armen 
Verlassenen etwas zu machen war, sobald man 
sie als menschlich fuhlende Seele auffasste, 
statt als stummes Opfer eines blinden Ascetis- 
mus. Und jeder Dichter fuhrte die Rolle in 
seiner Weise durch : der Deutsche einfach, 
innig, riihrend der Franzose realistisch, 
dramatisch. Aber nicht mit einem Schlage, 
sondern langsam erfolgte die Ummodelung 
der Legende. Ein Zug folgte dem andern, 
und erst mit der Zeit wurde diese Auffassung 
der Sage beliebter als die friihere. Darum 
hat MASSMANN nach meiner Ansicht Unrecht, 
wenn er p. 41 sagt : " Ueberraschend haftet 
in dem spatercn italienischen Gedichte der 
Hauptzug, dass der Todte nur der Braut den 
Brief anvertraut." Im Gegentheil ist es 
natiirlich, dass mit der Zeit das Romanhafte 
immermehr gefiel. Aber MASSMANN geht 
eben von einem Vorurtheile aus, das ihn 
durch die ganze Untersuchung nicht verlasst. 
Als die aesthetisch schonste Bearbeitung 
muss sie nach ihm zugleich auch die alteste 
sein. Aber dagegen lasst sich Wichtiges 
einwenden.* Wenn vvir der Sage auf den 
Grund gehen, so ist der Zug, dass ALEXIUS 
seiner Braut den Brief gibt, so lieblich er auch 
ist, fur die Auftassung der Legende doch 
schief.f Als frommer Heiliger muss ALEXIUS 
auch im Tode seinen Grundsatzen treu bleib- 
en und den Stellvertreter Gottes allem andern 
vorziehen. Wie kommt er dazu, die Braut 

*G. PARIS: Romania VIII (1879) P- l6 5> ' st auc ^ derselben 
Meinung. Leider gibt er aber keine Griinde an. Er sagt: 
"J'y aurais fait voir (in dem projectirten 2ten Hande der 
Alexiuslegende, der nicht herauskam), combien MASSMANN 
s'est trompd en regardant la version latine de notre le'gende 
oil ALEXIS remet sa fameuse charte A sa femme et non au 
pape, comme plus, ancienne que 1'autre : elle en est au con- 
traire un remaniement assez recent et sans doute spe'ciale- 
ment italien. Pise et Lucques sont substitutes a Laodice'e et 
a Edesse, etc." 

fCf. G. PARIS: 'Vic de St. Alexis/ p. 206, "II est certain 
cependant que cette insistance sur la situation d'une personne 
envers qui la conduite du saint homme parait trfes dure n'est 
pas de nature a scrvir 1'idec mere de la k'gende. 



ausztizeichnen, die er stets bei Seite geschoben 
hat ? Dieser Zug ist keineswegs nai'v, sondern 
entspringt im Gegentheil einer viel spateren 
romanhaften Verdrehung des Grundgedank- 
ens. Und zwar musste, ehe sich dieser Zug 
einstellen konnte, erst im ganzen iibrigen Ge- 
dichte die Braut mehr in den Vordergrund 
getreten sein. Dieser Zug, vvelcher am frap- 
pantesten die Braut bevorzugt, ist nach meiner 
Ansicht der letzte Auslaufer der brautlichen 
Richtung. Und aus diesem Grunde halte ich 
S, welches noch nicht ganz mit der alteren 
Richtung, die den Papst der Braut vorzieht, 
gebrochen hat, und auch das Beilager im Tode 
nicht erwahnt, fur um eine Stufe alter als L und 
A. In der gemeinsamen Quelle von L und S, 
die wir x nennen konnen, waren also noch 
nicht vorhanden gewesen die Uebergabe des 
Briefes an die Braut, und nicht das Beilager 
im Tode (doch dariiber cf. unten), sonst aber 
die Bevorzugung der Braut im Gesprach unter 
der Stiege und in der Brautnacht. Die 
speciellen Ziige dabei hatte S, dessen Verfasser 
poetisch sehr begabt war, erfunden. x hatte 
auch sonst noch die Wanderung des ALEXIUS 
nach Jerusalem gehabt, den Dienst des ALEXI- 
US u. s. w., alles Ziige, die S und A gemeinsam 
haben. Diese Quelle x cliirfte wohl lateinisch 
gewesen sein. So hatten wir denn vorlaufig 
folgendes Schema : 




Zur brautlichen Legende gehort aber, \vie 
wir schon oben erwahnt, noch eine andere 
deutsche Bearbeitung F. Sie hat zwar nicht 
clen Zug der Ubergabe des Briefes an die 



158 



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June, MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, \W&. No. 6. 



Braut, liat abt-r smist die Braut in der Hoch- 
/< itsnacht sowohl als im Gesprach uiul ini 
Beilager im Tode betont. Welche Stellung 
nimint diese Bearbeitung zu S cin? 

Die Brnutnncht hat in ihrer ganzen Durch- 
fiihrung mehr Ahnlichkeit mit S als mit A. 
Man vergleiche: 

\Vie in S, aber im Gegensatze zu A, wird die 
Braut ins Belt gelegt. Von dem Schmucke 
d<-s Brautgemachs, der in L beschrieben wird, 
hat aber V nichts. 1 )afiir cr/ahlt cs aber, class 
AI.KXIUS schon vorher sich eine Kutte hatte 
machen lassen, drin er sich 

" Versteln wolde dannen 
Von friunden, migen, mannen 
Von guote unt von eren 
Uur got inz ellende keren." 

In L \vird ansfiihrlich berichtet, wie Vnter 
und Mutter die Brautleute in das fein ge- 
schmiickte und weihrauchduftende Gemach 
begleiten. Erst, wie die Braut im Bette liegt, 
verlassen die Eltern das Zimmer. In F wird 
freilich auch er/iihlt, dass die Braut ins Bett 
gelegt wird ; von der Begleitung der Eltern ist 
aber keine Rede, dafiir lasst ALEXIUS das 
Gesinde aus dem Zimmer gehen : 

" Er hiez das vole gar an der st:it 
SISfen gar gemeine ..." 

In der franzosischen Bearbeitung warden 
die Reize der Braut noch naher beschrieben. 
I )ie spjitcren franzdsischen Gedichte thun 
dies mit besonderem VVohlgefallen, haupt- 
sachlich O, das an das Schliipfrige streift. 
Bei F ist keine Rede davon. In S aber, wie 
in F, betet ALEXIUS, bevor er zu seiner Braut 
tritt, noch inbriinstig zum Himmel, er m<")chte 
ihm Standhaftigkeit verleihen, dass er seinen 
Grundsiitzen treu bleibe. Darauf tritt er vor 
seine Braut liin, und ermahnt sie zur Keiisch- 
lu-it : Sie solle Jesus zum Brautigam nelinien, 
cf. F, v. 527-545; S, v. 144-153. Bei S nimmt 
er sofort darauf seinen Ring, durchschneidet 
ihn mit seinem Schwerte, und gibt ilir die eine 
Hiilfte davon, uahrend er die andere .fur sich 
beliah als Erkennungszeichen zwischen ihm 
und seiner Mutter, uenn er je zuriickkame. 
In I" gibt er ihr erst spater seinen Ring, den 
er aber nicht zerschneidet, und bloss zum 
Andenken, nicht zum Erkennungszeichen, cf. 
v. 404 ff. 



Als A i uier Rraut von seinem Vor- 

haben spricht, in die Fremde zu geht-n, 
straubt sie sich dagegen mit aller Kraft, 
nicht aber gegen den Gedanken keusch 
bleiben zu miissen. Sie will ihn nur nicht 
von sich in's Elend gehen lassen. Auch 
folgender Gedanke der Braut ist derselbe in 
beiden Gedichten. Sie fiirchtet, dass man 
sagen konnte, sie ware schuld daran, dass 
ALEXIUS zoge : In F: "darumbe miiess ich 
schame r6t vil dicke stan ....," und in S: 
was konnte sie dem Vater und der Mutter 
sagen, sie wiirden sie verstossen: 

"Tel honte arai jamais n'iere honner^e." 

Ebenso M und ahnlich Q. 

Aber in beiden Gedichten lasst sich ALEXIUS 
weder durch Bitten noch Umarmung ein- 
schiichtern. Wenn auch die Reihenfolge der 
Gedanken verschieden ist und der Wortlaut 
abweicht, und bei S mehr detaillirt wird, so 
sind die Grundgedanken doch dieselben. Er 
setzt ihr auseinander, wie verganglich das 
weltliche Leben sei und erklart ihr seinen 
fasten Entschluss, nur Gott von nun an zu 
leben. Aber die Braut macht verschiedene 
Versuche ihn zuriickztihalten. Realistisch und 
dramatisch ist die Darstellung bei S, dagegen 
bei F etwas unbeholfen. Man vergleiche die 
Verse 247 ff. bei S mit 610 ff. bei F. 

5 "Sire," dist ele, "com ert del repairier? 
Di me le terme, eel ferai metre en brief; 
Mout as dur cuer qui or me veus laiscier, 
Et pi-re et mtre qui par t'ont si tr{-s cier." 

F Si sprach : " o we wie lastu mich 
Ze grO^em jamer hinder dlr 
TrQt geselle sage mir, 
Wan daz iemer mlige geschehen 
Daz ich dich fn'ilich mlleze sehen T " 

Im franz. Gedicht ist ALEXIUS weniger hart 
als in der deutschen, wo er ihr antwortet : 
" uf erden niemmer mC." V.r liisst ihr noch 
einige Hollnung : "del terme ne sai nient." 
Man \\isse \\ohl, wann man gehe. dm h nicht, 
wann man zuriickkehre, was er auch thun 
wiirde, sie ni(")ge sich an Gott halten. Bei I- 
versucht die Braut nach ALKXIUS' so harten 
Worten aurh nichts mehr, sie kann nur \\ei- 
nen. In S dagegen macht sie noch einen 
let/ten X'erstich und fragt ihn weinend, ob sie 
ihn clenn nicht begleittn ditrfte als I'ilgerin, 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOISES, 1888. No. 6. 



320 



im harenen Gewande, mit abgeschnittenem 
Haar und eisenbeschlagenem Stabe, nur 
damit er nicht ganz verwahrlost sei ; sie ver- 
spricht ihm auch, ihm stets treu dabei zu 
bleiben, v. 313 ff. Aber auch dies gestattet 
der Heilige nicht und verlasst sie. 

So sehen wir derm, dass trotz einiger 
Abweichungen die Grundgedanken uberein- 
stimmen, ein Umstand, der beide> Gedichte 
sehr nahe an einander riickt. 

Der zweite "brautliche" Zug von F, das Ge- 
sprach unter der Stiege gleicht .mehr A als S. 
Wie in A, fragen auch in F; im Gegensatz zii S 
Verwandte (F) oder Braut. .(A) den Pilger 
direct nach ALEXIUS. Dagegen hat F nicht 
den S und A gemeinsamen Zug, dass ALEXIUS 
nach seinem Namen gefragt wird. Dafiir hat 
aber F andere spezielle Ziige. Der Pilger 
sagt der Braiit direct, dass ALEXIUS siebzehn 
Jahre in Edessa g.ewesen sei; die Knechte des 
EUPHEMIAN -ihn iiberall gesucht und nicht 
gefunden hatten. Darauf der Jammer der 
Eltern und die Ankniipfung von Reflexionen. 
Man sieht, dass F lange nicht so viel aus dem 
Gesprach unter der Stiege hat machen kon- 
nen, als A, geschweige denn S (M, Q). Auch 
sonst sieht man aus dem Gedichtej dass der 
Verfasser von F, dessen Hauptstarke in breit- 
getretenen religiosen Reflexionen zu liegen 
scheint, kein sehr poetisch begabter Mann ist. 

Den dritten " brautlichen " Zug, das Bei- 
lager im Tode, hat F mit A gemein. Hier 
treinnen sich also wiederum F und S. 

Mit, A und S hat F noch einen vierten Zug 
gemein, namlich das Glockenlauten beim 
To'de des ALEXIUS, freilich in etwas anderem 
Zusammenhange, und mit S allein gemein, 
das ,-Auftreten von Engeln, welche die Seele 
des Heiligen in den Himmel tragen. Cf. F. 
v. 1270. 

" Die heiligen engel kamen 
Sin reine sele namen 
Unt fuortens froliche 
Ins ewige riche." 

S. v. 1058 ff. . 

" Et des sains angles vit la pourcession 
Qui portent 1'ame cantant nostre signour.'' 

Die bisher betrachteten Ziige von F, die A 
und S gemeinsam sind, waren in x, ihrer 
Quelle, vorhanden. In dioser Quelle war 



aber auch, freilich noch nicht ganz durchge- 
fiihrt, sondern wie bei S, die Uebergabe des 
Briefes an die Braut. In F" haben wir dagegen 
noch die Uebergabe an den Papst, ein Um- 
stand, der auf eine altere Auffassung der Sage 
in Fhinweist, als dicing vorhandene. Nochi 
folgendes ist zu beachten. Gemeinsam hat F 
mit L das Fehlen der Turteltaube und des 
Trauersackes. A hat diesen Zug aus den 
Bollandisten entnommen und S aus P, sodass 
es moglich, sogar wahrscheinlich ist, dass die 
Quelle von A und S, x, den Zug nicht hatte, 
also x mit F hier iibereinstimmte. Mit x hat 
dafu'r F nicht gemein das Dienen des ALEXIUS 
am Kaiserlichen Hofe ; dieser Zug kann aber 
durch die grosse Ausdehnung, welche der 
Schulbesuch des ALEXIUS in F nimmt (v. 92- 
246 !) verwischt worden sein. 

Nach allem diesem ware es immer noch 
moglich, dass F ebenso wie L und S von x 
abhangig ware. Entnommen hatte es aus x, 
wie L und S : 

1. Die grossere Rolle der Braut in der 
Brautnacht. 

2. Das Gesprach unter der Stiege. 

3. Das Glockenlauten und die Engel. 

4. Das Fehlen des Vergleichs mit der 
Turteltaube, und des Trauersacks. 

5. Das Beilager .im Tode, das auch in x 
wenigstens angedeutet sein musste. Denn es 
findet sich in L, und wenn auch nicht in S 
selbst, so doch in Q, das von S stammt, ange- 
deutet. Nach dem Hendschriftenschema von 
G. PARIS sehen wir, dass S sich folgender- 
massen zu M mid Q verhalt : 



S* 



M* 



M 

Q 

Es kann also ganz gut in x ein Zug gestan- 
den haben der in M und Q iiberging, ohne in 
S zu iibergehen. Wenn nun in x der Umstand 
trocken berichtet war, dass die Braut mit 
ALEXIUS begraben wurde, kann dies in Q 
iitergegangen sein, ohne durch S zu gehen. 

* i ist die franz. Quelle von S und M ; S* und M* altere 
Hs. 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



322 



I lurch M winl i-s auch gegangen sein ; es lasst 
sicli freilich nicht mehr controliren, denn 
gerade an dieser Stelle ist die Hs. arg cor- 
rupt.* Gerade nach den Worten : 

Vail s'ent li pucles, ec li pi-re et li mfere 

Ct li puchiele onkes ne desevrirent 



bricht die Hs. ab ; erst x.u Sdiluss kommen 
noch Gebete; es ist aber anzunehmen, dass 
M dasselbe gehabt habe, als B, das ihm stets 
treu folgt, also: " Avecguez son segnieur fu 
la bele enterre"e." So batten wir denn den 
Zug durch x t M, Q bewahrt. S hatte ihn ver- 
wiscbt, nur L hatte ihn ausgebeutet, und 
wenn F von x abhangt, ebenfalls. Aber ein 
anderer Umstand lasst uns x nicht fur die 
Out-lie von F annehmen : 

1. Ware es wunderbar, dass F den Zug der 
Uebergabe des Briefes an die Braut ganz ver- 
wischt hatte. Freilich liesse sich denken, 
dass F als kirchlich sehr strenge Bearbeitung 
die Zuriicksetzung des Papstes als ungehorig 
empfand. 

2. Viel schwerwiegender ist aber, dass F, 
obgleich sie so kirchlich ist und Bibelsprllche, 
Citate und Gleichnisse Uberall anwendet, die 
Pilgerschaft des ALEXIUS nach Jerusalem, 
welche x und die von x abhangigen Bear- 
beitungen alle haben, nicht besitzt. Dieser 
Umstand stosst die Annahme einer Abhangig- 
keit F's von x geradezu urn. Denn es ist 

*Cf. G. PARIS in Anmerkung zu v. 1251 "A partir de ce 
vcrs le po6me est tronqui- de la fafon la plus violente." 



nicht denkbar, dass eine so kirchliche Bear- 
beitung dies Ubergangen hatte, wenn sie x 
gekannt hatte. 

Es ist vielmehr Folgendes anzunehmen : F 
gehcirt einer alteren Fassung der Brautlegende 
an, welche die Braut in der Brautnacht, im 
Gesprach und im gemeinsamen Begraben 
hervorhebt, aber noch nicht in der Uebergabe 
des Briefes, und zugleich weder die Erwah- 
nung Jerusalems, noch der Turteltaube und 
des Sackes enthalt. F ist aber wiederum nicht 
die directe Quelle von x, denn sonst mOsste 
x das von F ausgefuhrte Beilager im Grabe 
mil herilbergenommen haben. Quelle von x 
ist bloss die Quelle von F, die wir f nennen, 
welche nur die spater in x und Q sich wider 
findende Andeutung des gemeinsamen Be- 
grabens hatte. Diesen Zug hat dann F selb- 
standig weiter ausgefiihrt. Soviel Phantasie 
kann man F zutrauen. Es ist ganz in dersel- 
ber holzernen Art geschehn, wie F den 
Schulbesuch des ALEXIUS schildert. So 
hiltten wir denn folgendes Schema fur die 
brSutliche Legende. Es mag vorlaufig vor f 
noch eine andere die brautlichen ZUge im 
Keime enthaltende Bearbeitung o (Original) 
angenommen werden. Wegen der grossen 
sonstigen Verschiedenheiten von L und x 
ware es vielleicht gerathen eine Zwischen- 
bearbeitung y einzuschieben, die z. B. Pisa 
and Lucca eingefiihrt hatte. Zwischen x und 
S, M, Q muss i die franz-Quelle kommen ; x 
ist lateinisch. 




11 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 



No. 6. 



324 



So batten wir denn die Entwickelung der 
brautlichen Richtung bis zu einem gewissen 
Grade zu verfolgen vermocht. Sollte es uns 
nicht bei grilndlicher Priifung moglich werden, 
die Keime dieser Richtung noch zu entdecken ? 
Wir haben schon oben gesehn, dass S auf 
P zuriickgeht, d. h. z, die frz. Bearbeitung, 
welche S, M, Q zu Grunde liegt. Konnten 
nicht in P im Keime die Ziige sich vorfinden, 
welche spater mehr entwickelt worden ? Lasst 
uns diese Spur verfolgen. 

Wenn P auf den ersten Blick gerade so zu 
erzahlen scheint, wie die Bollandistenbear- 
beitung, und weder den Brief an die Braut 
Ubergehen lasst, noch das Beilager im Tode, 
noch die Pilgerfahrt nach Jerusalem berichtet, 
so fallt uns doch auf, dass im Vergleich zu 
den anderen Gedichten, welche von der 
Bollandistenbearbeitung abhangen, die Braut- 
nacht eingehender und zwar in demselben 
Gedankengange erzahlt wird, wie wir sie bei 
F finden : Auch hier kommt schon das Bett 
in Betracht. ALEXIUS betet zu Gott, er mochte 
ihn standhaft bleiben lassen. Als beide nun 
allein im Zimmer sind, schildert er seiner 
Braut die Nichtigkeit des menschlichen 
Lebens und fordert sie auf, Jesum Christum 
zum Briiutigam zu nehmen. Derauf gibt er 
ihr seinen Ring und Giirtel und verlasst sie. 
Die Braut spielt hier noch keine thatige 
Rolle, aber das Auftreten des ALEXIUS ist in 
seinen Grundziigen dasselbe wie in F. Das 
Gesprach unter der Treppe ist zwar noch 
nicht ausgefiihrt, aber, wahrend die Bollan- 
distenbearbeitung und die von ihr abhangigen 
Gedichte meist gar nicht die Moglichkeit 
eines derartigen Verkehrs zwischen ALEXIUS 
und Braut und Eltern vermuthen und an 
dieser Stelle schweigen, weist P, zwar noch 
negativ, aber doch ausdriicklich darauf bin, 
dass ein solcher Verkehr nicht stattfand. 
Man vergl. Str. 48, wo P erzahlt : " Oft sahen 
ihn Vater und Mutter, und seine Braut. Aber 
nie sprachen sie ihn je an, und er sagte ihnen 
nicht, und sie fragten ihn nicht, wer er ware 
und aus welchem Lande er stamme." Gerade 
die hier als nicht geschehen angefiihrten 
Momente, sind spater bearbeitet worden, und 
man kommt auf eine Vermuthung, die nicht 
allzu unwahrscheinlich sein diirfte. Der 
Dichter, der diese Zeilen las, musste sicli 



denken, dass eine Scene zwischen Eltern, 
Braut und Pilger viel packender auf seine 
Zuhorer wirken wlirde, als die blosse Erwiih- 
nung, dass eine solche nicht stattfand, und so 
wurde denn die negative Erwahnung von P 
die Quelle des Gesprachs zwischen Braut und 
Pilger. 

So haben wir denn in P die Keime zweier 
der wichtigsten Ziige der brautlichen Legende 
gefunden, die Hervorhebung der Brautnacht 
und der Hinweis auf ein Verhaltniss der 
Braut und des ALEXIUS, unter der Treppe 
des vaterlichen Hauses. Die Schilderung des 
gemeinsamen Begrabens hat P noch nicht. 
Ihn wird demnach die Quelle von F eingefiihrt 
haben. 

Noch andere als diese speziell "brautlichen" 
Ziige hat P mit der "brautlichen" Legende 
gemein. Wie in alien besprochenen Ge- 
dichten fehlt auch in P, im Gegensatze zur 
Bollandistenbearbeitung und den von ihr 
abhangigen Gedichten, die Erwahnung der 
3000 in Seide gekleideten Diener, die an 
EUPHEMIANS Hofe aufwarten, die Geistlichen, 
Wittwen und Waisen, die EUPHEMIAN beher- 
bergt, das Keuschheitsgeliibde der Eltern 
nach der Geburt des ALEXIUS, und mehrere 
andere nicht so wichtige Ziige. Vorhanden 
ist dagegen in der ganzen Reihe von P nach 
H der Dienst des ALEXIUS beim Kaiser (iiber 
F siehe oben). Auch hat P mit L, A, S, M, Q 
den Umstand gemein, dass ALEXIUS seinen 
Vater auf der Strasse antrifft, wie er gerade 
von der Kirche, und nicht vom Palaste (wie 
die anderen Gedichte sagen), zuruckkommt. 

Auch der einfache Satz, der bei P vorkommt, 
als die Heirath des ALEXIUS bestimmt wird : 

Noument le terme de lor asemblement, 

ist in L beinahe wortlich als " ponitur dies 
celebritati nuptiarum " wiedergegeben. Den 
Vergleich mit der Turteltaube und den 
Trauersack, den P hat, und S direct aus P 
entnommen hat, A direct aus der Bollandis- 
tenbearbeitung, wird die Quelle von F vcr- 
loren haben, denn es tritt nicht in F auf und 
ebensowtnig in L. 

Nach alle dem diirften wir die Quelle von P, 
die wir p nennen wollen, als iiber f stehencl 
annehmen, und erhalten alsostatt o im objgen 



162 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



S( -lii-iiia /*, mid davonabhiingig P. /' diirfte 
iiberhaupt eine der altesten Quellen der 
Sage sein, und -mil der Bollandistenhearbei- 



tung (b) ungefahr auf gleicher Stufe stehc-n. 
Uemnach hat unser Schema endgiiltig 
folgende Gestalt : 




Wir sehen also, dass von den altesten Zeiten 
an, vom uten Jahrhundert, wo P entstancl, 
bis zum Jahre 1488, wo H das Licht der Welt 
i-rblickte, die "brautliche" Tendenz in der 
Legende des h. ALEXIUS sich immer \veiter 
cntwickelte. Aus der urspriiii^lichen schlich- 
ten Legende suchte man im Laufe der Zeit 
durch die Hervorhebung der Rolle einer 
Frau und durch die Hineinflechtung eroti- 
scher Momente in den legendarischen Stoff 
einen packenden Roman zu machen. Es darf 
(lit s nicht Wunder nehmen, denn es ist dies 
eine Thatsache, die sich in der Geschichte 
der mittelalterlichen Litteratur tausendfach 
wiederliolt. Die iiltere Zc-it kennt nur strenge, 



schlichte Motive. In den Volksepen spielt 
die Liebe noch keine Rolle. In den Kunst- 
epen eines CHRESTIENS VON TROVES bestehen 
die Ritter zahllose galante Abenteuer. \Vie 
mit (k-n Kpcn, so ist cs auch mit unserer 
Legende geworden. Der ascetische Heilige, 
der urspriinglich nur der gottlichen Inspira- 
tion folgte, seine Braut nach kurzer und 
trockener Ermahnung verliess, nie wieder in 
Beziehung zu ihr trat und der einzigen Auto- 
ritat, die er anerkannte, der kirchlichen, sein 
letztes Vermjichtniss anvertraute, wurde in 
Folge der romanhaften Tendenz spaterer 
ZritL-n, schon in der Brautnacht in dramatische 
Situntionen gebracht, lernte wahrend seiner 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



328 



Dulderzeit im Hause seines Vaters die ganze 
Tiefe der Liebe seiner Braut kennen, und 
noch im Tode musste er als galanter Ritter 
seiner Dame den Brief iibergeben, in dem er 
sein gauzes Leben aufgeschrieben, und einige 
Zeit nachher im Grabe ihr den Platz an seiner 
Seite einraumen, den er ihr wahrend seines 
Lebens versagt hatte. 



HEINRICH SCHNEEGANS. 



Genoa, Italy. 



ORIGIN OF THE NAME ' CANADA.' 

In that " orgie enfume'e, ripaille bour- 
geoise," as SAINTE-BEUVE calls the ' Vie de 
Gargantua et de Pantagruel,' 1 every student 
of Middle French literature will remember a 
wonderful scene where RABELAIS mounts his 
hero upon an enormous mare, presented to 
Grandgousier by Prince Fayoles, fourth king 
of Numidia. On the journey through the thirty 
leagues of forest about Orleans, the poor 
beasts (donkeys, horses, etc.) in the caravan 
composed of GARGANTUA'S attendants were 
so harassed and tormented by gad-flies that 
his jument finally determines to avenge the 
company : elle desguaine sa queue, et, si bien 
s'escarmouchant, les esmoucha, qu'elle en 
abbatit tout le bois, a tords, a travers, de- ca, 
de la, par cy, par la, de long, de large, dessus, 
dessoubs abbatoit bois come ung fauscheur 
faict d'herbes Quoy voyant GAR- 
GANTUA, y print plaisir bien grand, sans 
aultrement s'en vanter, et dist a ses gens : Je 
trouve beau ce. Dont feut depuis appele" ce 
pays La Beauce. 2 

A hardly less fanciful origin, though not 
fraught with any such wholesale destruction of 
nature, has been assigned to the geographical 
name Canada, and, strangely enough, cosmo- 
graphers and geographers up to within a re- 
cent date have not been unwilling to give a 
certain credence both to the composite char- 
acter of the name and to the mode in which 
it arose. According to a recent lecturer on 
Geography at the College de France, it was 
FATHER HENNEPIN and LA POTHERIE that 

iSAiNTE-BBUVE, Tableau de la pot'sie franaifse au XVIe 
sitcle, Tome I, p. 339. 

zCKuvres de Rabelais, Edition variorum, par ESMANGART 
et JOHANNEAU. Paris, 1823. Tome premier, pp. 315-317 
(Livre I, Chap. 16). 



relate how the Spanish came to Canada about 
the time it was discovered by CABOT (1497), 
and finding there nothing but a desert and 
ice-bound mountains, instead of the gold fields 
for which they sought, they withdrew crying 
out meanwhile: Acd Nada! Here nothing! 
This expression (ce mot, as the writer naively 
puts it) altered, and repeated later to the 
French by the natives, was taken for the name 
of the country itself.3 The only variation of 
this popular etymology which I have been 
able to find is that given, "according to most 
writers," by JOHN BARROWS "When the 
Portuguese first ascended the river (St. Law- 
rence) under the idea that it was a strait, 
through which a passage to the Indies might 
be discovered on arriving at the point where 
they ascertained that it was not a strait, but a 
river, they, with all the emphasis of disap- 
pointed hopes, exclaimed repeatedly, Cd, 
nada !-(Here nothing!) which words caught 
the attention of the natives and were remem- 
bered and repeated by them on seeing other 
Europeans, tinder JACQUES CARTIER, arrive 
in 1534 but CARTIER mistakes the object of 
the Portuguese to have been gold mines .... 
and, if the Portuguese account be true, he 
also mistook the exclamation of Ca (sic) nada 
for the name of the country. 

It was evidently from this account that SAL- 
VERTE 5 takes his suggestion, attributing the 
origin of the word to the Portuguese, since 
none of the lexicographers of his time men- 
tion the Portuguese at all in this connection, 
but to the Spaniards do they assign the honor 
of having given the occasion for this whimsi- 
cal appellation. Thus, for example, NOEL et 
CARPENTIER (1833), 6 the Socie'te" de Savans in 
their Encyclopedic (1834),? BOUILLET in his 

3Choix de Lectures de Geographic par L. LANIEH. AmeYi- 
que. Paris, Belin et fils, 1883, p. 53. 

4A chronological history of Voyages into ihe Arctic Re- 
gions undertaken chiefly for the purpose of discovering a 
North-East, North-West or Polar Passage between the 
Atlantic and Pacific .... by JOHN BAKROW, F. R. S. 
London, 1818, p. 43. 

SEssai historique (1824), Vol. II, p. 295. 

6Nouveau dictionnaire des origines, inventions et de'cou- 
vertes. Par NOF.L et CAKPENTIER; secondc edition par 
PUISSANT fils. Tome I, p. 205. 

7Encyclope'die des gens du Monde. Repertoire tiniversel 
des sciences, des lettres et des arts. Paris, 1834. Tome 
quatrieme, p. 593. 



164 



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June. MOHEKN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



330 



1 >irtionnaire universe! (1^76), who unites tin- 
two vocables and writes wisely about ce mot 
ACANADA; 8 the Paris-Amsterdam Dictionary 
of a hundred years before (1776), 9 and Vivn:.\ 
DE SAINT-MARTIN (1879), who, however, 
calls the etymology plus que fantaisiste which 
assigns the origin of the name to so fortuitous 
a circumstance as this theory pre-supposes. 
Outside of this traditional source, with refer- 
ence to which both Spaniards and Portuguese 
have been quoted, there exist three distinct 
theories as to the origin of the word ; namely, 
i. The river Canada (meaning the St. Law- 
rence) gave the name to the country, 2. From 
the small province of Canada, the designation 
was extended to the whole valley of the St. 
Lawrence and 3. The term is of Indian origin, 
meaning in Iroquois "a village." The first 
evidence, so far as I am aware, of the St. Law- 
rence having been called "'Canada," is to be 
found in Lescarbot's history, of 1612:" " Et 
pour le regard du nom Canada tout celebre" 
en 1'Europe, c'est proprement 1'appellation de 
Tune et de 1'autre rive de cette grande riviere, 
a laquelle on a donne 1 le nom de Canada, 
comme au fleuve de 1'Inde le nom du peuple 
et de la province qu'il arrose," and this restric- 
tion of the term to designate the river, I ap- 
prehend, rests upon a simple misunderstand- 
ing. JACQUES CARTIER knows nothing of any 
such name in the ' Recit ' (1545) of his second 
voyage. 12 I have carefully noted every pas- 
sage in this work where the term is employed 
and it is evident that he had no idea of at- 

SDictionnaire universe! d'histoire et de geographic par M. 
N. BOITILLBT. Ouvrage revu et continue 1 par A. CHASSANG. 
Nouvelle Edition (vingt-cinquicme) ; Paris, 1876. p. 327. 

gNouveau Dictionnaire pour servir de supplement aux 
Dictionnaires des sciences, des arts et des metiers par M. 
. . . Paris, Amsterdam, 1776. Folio. Tome II, pp. 165-66. 

loNouveau Dictionnaire de Geographic universelle par M. 
VIVIEN B SAINT-MARTIN. Paris, 1879. Tome I, pp. 593- 
198. 

nHistoire de la Nouvelle France par MARC LBSCARBOT. 
Paris, iftr?. Truss-edition, vol. I, pp. 221-22. 

laThe full title runs : I'rief recit, & succinctc narration, de 
la Nauigation faicte cs yflcs c!e Canada, Hoclielaga & Sague- 
n.i y it autres, auec particuliers niuurs, langaiKc, & cerimonies 
ilcs haliitans d'icelles : fort delectable veoir. Avcc priuilegc 
( in li-s tiend a Paris au fecond pillicr en la grand falle du 
Palais, & en la rue neiifiic Nnstrcdame a I'enscigne de Icscu 
de frAce, par Ponce RorFet diet Faucher, it Anthoine le 
clcrc frcres, 1345. 



tributing this appellation to the body of 
water now known as the St. Lawrence or to 
any other stream. 

CARTIKR arrived off the island of An- 
on the loth of August date of the martyrdom 
of St. Latin-mills, and on which the Catholic 
church celebrates the fete of this saint, hence 
it seemed appropriate to the explorer to give 
this name, 'St. Lawrence," to the body of 
water which to-day bears the title : nous 
nommasmes la dicte baye fainct Laurens (fol. 
8 verso). His record of the I2th of August 
then follows : par le Su d'icelle lie, (Anticosti) 
estoit le chemin a aller de Hoguedo ou nous 
les (sauvages) auions pi-ins Ian precedent a 
Canada: Etque a deux iournees du diet cap 
& yfle comenceroit le royaulme de Saguenay 
a la terre deuers le Nort allant vers le diet 
Canada . . . . le chemin, & comencement du 
grat Silenne de Hochelaga & chemin de 
Canada : le quel alloit toujiours en estroiflent 
iufques a Canada (fol. 9 verso) .... Nous ap- 
pareillafmes du diet hable le premier iour de 
feptembre pour aller vers Canada . . . (fol. n) 
... la riuiere & chemin du royaulme & terre 
de Saguenay, ainsi que nous a este diet par 
noz deux fauvages du pais de Canada. . . . 
Le lendemain deuxiefme iour du diet feptem- 
bre, refortismes hors de la dicte riuiere pour 
faire le chemin vers Canada (fol. n verso) . . . 
le feptiesme iour dudict moys, iour noftre- 
dame, . . . , nous partifmes de la dicte yfle 
pour aller a mont le diet fleuve, ... & vinf- 
mes a quatorze yfles qui estoiet diftantes de 
ladicte yfle es Couldres de fept a huict lieues, 
qui eft le commencement de la terre & prou- 
ince de Canada (fol. 12 verso). The author 
then goes on (fol. 32)10 define more exactly 
where this province of Canada is situated : 
" laqlle (Saguenay) fort dentre haultes motaig- 
nes, entre dedas ledict Heuue au par auat q 
arriue a la puince de Canada, de la bade 
deuers le Nort .... Apres ladicte riuiere eft 
la prouince de Canada .... II y a auffi es 
emiiros atidict Canada dedas le diet lleuue 
plusietirs yfles tat grades q petites." 

DONNOCONA is called le ' feignetir de Cana- 
da '(fol. 13) and his '(Lmeurance 1 U>1. 14) is 
at Stadacona ((Jnebec) ; and again (fol. 28) the 
author speaks of making ready his gallymi, & 
barques pour retourner a la prouince lie 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



332 



Canada au port de faincte Croix (present St. 
Charles) ; still further (fol. 29), in response to 
an invitation of the Indian chief to visit his 
village (Quebec) : ledict cappitaine auec fes 
gentilz hommes accompaigne de cinquant 
compaignons . . . alleret veoir ledict DONNA- 
CONA & fon peuple qui eft diftat dou eftoient 
lesdictes nauires d'une lieue : & fe nom leur 
demourace Stadacone. 

There cannot be the slightest doubt after 
these divers statements, intended to represent 
so varied events, and widely separated, too, 
in point of time, that the only use to which 
the name was then applied, was simply to 
indicate a limited district of country lying 
along the north bank of the St. Lawrence 
between the Saguenay and Quebec. Had the 
river St. Lawrence been so called, there were 
many occasions in his narrative when the 
writer would naturally have used it to advan- 
tage instead of resorting to the clumsy peri- 
phrasis, le diet fleuve (fol. 32, fol. 12 verso). 
Not a single example exists in CARTIER'S 
account where he refers to the word Canada 
with any signification other than as a province. 
Among the Indian words given by him (a list 
of which follows at the end of his narrative), 
he has correctly put down Kanata "village," 
but. without the slightest suggestion that the 
word could be taken as the origin of the name 
of the province Canada to which he refers so 
often. The fact, then, I hold as incontestable 
that CARTIER found the name Canada already 
in existence as applied to a single province 
when he arrived at Stadacona (Quebec) in the 
month of September 1535. Here, then, the 
question must naturally arise : Was the name 
original with DONNACONA and his tribe or was 
it of foreign, that is European, origin ? The 
improbability of its being indigenous for pho- 
netical reasons will be shown later in this in- 
vestigation. But, setting aside the linguistic 
considerations that will be adduced further on 
for a European origin of the word, the ques- 
tion may be fairly asked : Is it a priori proba- 
ble that in a savage land such as JACQUES 
CARTIER found the banks of the St. Lawrence 
to be on his first (1534) and second (1535) 
visits, a European name could have taken 
such hold as to be commonly used by the 
natives in so short a time as we are justified 



in accepting for the name Canada? Ts it 
reasonable to suppose that this part of the 
country ever had any other designation ? If 
so, is it likely that all traces of the former 
native nomenclature should have disappear- 
ed? To judge by the analogy of other geo- 
graphical names found along the coast of 
Newfoundland and around the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence by the St. Malo navigator, we are 
obliged to answer the first question in the 
affirmative. The CABOTAS (JOHN and SEBAS- 
TIAN) discovered terram primum visam (Prima 
Vista) on June 24, 1497. Leaving out of ac- 
count former visits of the Norsemen to these 
parts, reaching back 500 years before this, we 
thus have over a generation (37 years) elapsing 
between CABOT'S discovery and the arrival of 
the French under CARTIER. Next after the 
English headed by CABOT, came the Portu- 
guese and these were followed by the Spanish 
so that when the French arrived on the eastern 
coast of America they found a great many 
places bearing Spanish or Portuguese names. 
Thus, Newfoundland was Terra Nova do 
Baccalhao (Codfish Island), Labrador was 
Terra de Labrador (The Laborer, or Slave 
Coast), to which may be added Cabo do Gado 
(Cattle Cape), Rio da Tormenta (Storm River) 
Bahia das Medas (Rick Bay), Monte de Trigo 
(Wheat Mountain), etc. J 3 

That the name (if the limited district, origin- 
ally called Canada, ever had a special one) 
should have disappeared entirely is not sur- 
prising ; this was the general fate of Indian 

i3Cf. A chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic 
Regions... By JOHN BARROW, F. K. s. London, 1818. 
p. 38 et seq. 

An interesting linguistic study might be made of many of 
these geographical names that have been subjected-, succes- 
sively, to Spanish, Portuguese, French and English influences, 
on the coast of Newfoundland. The products resulting from 
a mixing of so divergent phonetic, tendencies as are found 
here, are often difficult to trace to their original forms ; a 
few French vocables, for example, that have passed through , 
only one of these stages of transformation in their contact 
with English, will abundantly illustrate the distorted linguis- 
tic developments which one meets here at every turn : Tasse 
a l'arpent> TOSTLEJOHN, Beau Bois> BOBOY, Bait: tie Vieux 
> BAY-THE-VIEW, Lance au Diablc> NANCY JOBBLE, Bate le 
Diablo JABBOULS, Baie de Li vre> BAY DELIVER, Bate 
d' Espoir > BAY DESPAIR, Baie des Baules> BAY OF BULLS. 
For many more of these curious compounds, cf. Text-Book of 
Newfoundland History, by the REV. M. HARVEY. Boston, 
1885, p. 67. 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



334 



names of places for which European or non- 
native designations were substituted ; even 
much later ones of European fabrication have 
completely fallen out of the geographical 
nomenclature of this region : witness the 
ffaccalaos, or Codlands, by which title alone 
Newfoundland and the adjacent islands were 
long known. ROBERT THORNE, of Bristol, 
writing from Spain in 1527 (seven years before 
Carder's first voyage), knows Labrador only 
by the appellation Terre de Labrador '.'4 In 
the edition of Ptolemy, published at Basel in 
1540, little more than one generation (39 years) 
after Cortereal's expedition, the first map there 
published is called " TypusorbisUniversalis," 
on which we note in the extreme North of the 
new world Terra Nova Sive de Bacalhos.^ 
On the same map, Labrador is marked " Cor- 
terati " (name given by CORTEREAL to this part 
of the country), but even at that time it had 
been supplanted by the appellation that ex- 
pressed the adaptability of the natives for 
labor Laborador, the " Slave Coast of Ameri- 
ca." These examples serve to show how 
names that had for Europeans some personal 
or historic significance even, would vanish 
from use and all reminiscence of them disap- 
pear; the same tendency is well illustrated in 
the frequent change of topogrophical designa- 
tions for the newer parts of the United States 
in our early history. Again : in the earliest 
collection of voyages to the new world : 'Paesi 
novamente retrovati et Novb Mondo da Albe- 
rico Vespucio Florentine,' published at Vicen- 
za in 1507, no mention is made of native names 
of countries bordering the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence. 16 Nay, stranger still, only eleven days 
after Cortereal's arrival at Lisbon (8th October 
1501), the Venetian Ambassador at the Portu- 
guese Court wrote a letter to his brothers in 
Italy giving them a detailed account of the 
lands discovered by the navigator, of the in- 
habitants, some of whom were brought home 
as slaves, the conditions of life of the country, 
etc., etc., but he mentions no Indian names of 

i4Cf. A memoir of Sebastian Cabot with a Review of the 
History of Maritime Discovery. Second Edition. London, 
1832. p. 57. 

islbidem, p. 246. 

16 I depend for this statement on the ' Memoir of Sebastian 
Cabot ' referred to above, where all such cases would natural- 
ly be noted, did they exist. 



places: Adjr. VIII delpresente (October) arivo 
qui una de le doe Caravelle quale questo 
serenissimo Re lanno passato mando a disco- 
prire terra verso tramontana Capitaneo Caspar 
Corterat : et referissi havere trouato terra ii 
M. miglia lonzi da qui tra maestro & ponente 
qual mai per avanti fo cognita ad alcun ; . . . . 
credono che sia terra firma la qual continue in 
una altra terra che lano passato, fo discoperta 
sotto la tramontana. 1 ? It is not strange, after 
these examples, that the native name of Can- 
ada, originally so insignificant a province in 
the complex of the St. Lawrence Communi- 
ties, should have perished. There was no 
great staple commodity of commerce, as in 
Newfoundland even, to keep alive the reminis- 
cence of it. 

If we now turn to the lexicographers of the 
eighteenth century we find mention of Cana- 
da from the beginning of the century as a 
general term applied to a large part of New 
France. MICHEL-ANTOINE BAUDRAND (1705) 
calls " Le Canada, Canada, Nova Francia, 
pays fort tendu de 1'Ame'rique septentrionale 
.... On 1'appelle le plus souvent la Nouvelle 
France, parcequ'il a e^e" de"couvert par les 
Francois qui le possedent . . . . le Canada 
propre, Canada Propria, est un pays de 
1'Ame'rique septentrionale, assez ressere" dans 
la Nouvelle France, dont il fait partie, et a 
laquelle il avoit autrefois donne" le nom.' 8 

According to this testimony, the more 
usual name in use at that time for the whole 
country was New France, and it should be 
borne in mind that the time of writing is only 
about three generations from the date when 
this appellation was first given to the country. 
But further confirmatory evidence that the 
term Canada was originally applied to a small 
part only of the valley of the lower St. Law- 
rence, may be drawn from the geographical 
and historical treatise of M. CORNEILLE, mem- 
ber of the French Academy, who wrote only 
three years later (1708) than BAUDRAND : " ce 
pays porte le nom de Nouvelle France parce- 
que les Francois qui y sont aujourd'hui an 
nombre de pres de deux cens mille, en occu- 
pent la plus considerable partie, et on 1'ap- 

lyMemoir of Sebastian Cabot, p. 239. 

iSUicrionnaire gdographique et historique .... par MICH EL- 
ANTOINB BAUURANU. Paris, De Hats, 1705. Tome 1 Col. 353. 



I6 7 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



336 



pelle aussi Canada, a cause que la petite 
contre'e de Canada fut apparemment la pre- 
miere qu'ils de'couvrirent." 1 9 Here, however, 
the extension of the name to the whole coun- 
try proceeds also from the river, not alone 
from the limited territory that bore the ap- 
pellation in the beginning. In speaking of 
the St. Lawrence (which he calls also Canada) 
the author shpws that his ideas are not clear 
as to the chorographical relations of this 
French colony ; " Quartier qui la (riviere) de"- 
couvrit le premier, 1'appela Hochelaga (sic!). 
D'Autres la nommerent Saint Laurant ; et 
ceux du Pays luy donnent le nom de Cana- 
da." 20 Then in Tome II, p. 129, he adds: 
"On le (pays) nomme aussi Canada de la 
grande riviere de ce nom qui le traverse & 
on y comprend tout ce qui est aux deux c6tes 
de cette riviere, depuis les Isles qui sont au 
devant de son embouchure en la remontant, 
& depuis les Golfes et Detroits de Davis & de 
Hudson jusqu'a la Nouvelle Espagne." We 
have thus already in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century two distinct lines of tradi- 
tion crossing each other with reference to the 
origin of the generic term ' Canada ' as applied 
to New France. But still a generation later 
(1740), it is to the territory bordering the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence that tradition points as the 
birthplace of our modern geographical desig- 
nation. BRUNZEN DE LA MARTINIERE, geogra- 
pher of Philip V, of Spain, after giving a sur- 
vey of all the early expeditions to New France 
and after treating its customs, history, language 
products and Indian tribes much more ex- 
tensively and.i in certain respects, more ac- 
curately than any of his predecessors, adds : 
" On n'a d'abord donne" le nom de Canada 
qu'aux terres qui bordoient le golfe de St. 
Laurent et auix deux bords de ce fleuve, jus- 
ques vers Tadoussac ; & on croit assez com- 
munement que ce nom venoit de quelqu'une 
des nations Sauvages des environs. On 1'a 
depuis dtenddl pen a pen jusqu'au Mississipi 
qui le borne a Touest ; on y a me*me quelque- 

igDictionnaire universe! geographique et historique, etc., 
par M. COHNEILLE, de I'Acade'mic francoise .... Paris, 
Coignard, 1708. Folio. Tome I, p. 461. 

20 Ibidem, p. 495. It is a well-known fact that Hochelaga 
was the name of the Indian village situated on the site of the 
present Montreal, a part of which is. thus named to-daiy. 



fois compris la Nouvelle Angleterre & la 
Nouvelle Belgique, aujourd'hui la Nouvelle 
York. Mais depuis longtems on ne connoit 
sous le nom de Canada, que ce qui estpropre- 
ment la Nouvelle France. 21 

There are two points worthy of special note 
in this statement: the interesting fact that 
here for the first time do we find mention of 
the possible indigenous origin of the name 
Canada, and that the territory thus named 
had even then (1740) been long regarded as 
co-extensive simply with New France. In a 
work published about twenty years later 
( J 759) the learned compiler, Louis MORERI, 
plagiarizes in an audacious and shameless 
way the whole of this account by DE LA 
MARTINIERE." His effrontery in thus pur- 
loining verbatim from the Royal geographer 
serves us, however, a good purpose : it shows 
that the opinion recorded by MORERI'S prede- 
cessor still continued to be the current view 
on this subject held by scholars at the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 

The celebrated Dictionnaire de Trevoux, a 
little more than a decade later (1771), gives a 
re'sume' of the suggestions made up to that 
time concerning the origin and spread of the 
word under discussion : " Le mot Canada est 
apparemment un mot sauvage, mais dont on 
ne sait point la signification. On ignore aussi 
le raison qui le fait clonner a ce pays. Quel- 
ques-uns croient que ce fut, parceque les 
sauvages re"pe"toieHt souvent ce mot Canada 
quand les Francois y aborderent. D'autres, 
parceque c'e'toit le nom du fleuve de S. Lau- 
rent qui fut donne 1 a tout le pays ; & d'autres 
parceque le petit pays de Canada fut le pre- 
mier que Ton trouva. Canada est aussi le 
nom d'un pays particulier compris da'ns la 
grande contr^e dont nous venous de parler. 
C'est celui qui est a la droite du fleuve de S. 
Laurent, vers son embouchure. II a ce fleuve 
au nord, au levant le golfe du fleuve S. Lau- 
rent, la baie de Chaleurs au midi ; au couchant 
il louche au pays des Etechemins. Cette 

21 Le grand Dictionnaire ge"ographique, historique et criti- 
que par M. BRUNZKN DK LA MARTINIERE, Ge'ographe de Sa 
Majestd Catholique Philippe V. Roy des Espagnes & des 
Indes. Paris, Le Mercier, 1740. Folio. Tome II, p. 83. 

22Le grand Dictionnaire historique du MOKKKI ^Louis). 
Paris, 1759. Tome III, p. 118. 



1 68 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NO TES, 1888. No. 6. 



338 



presqu'Ile est le Canada propre, qui, a ce que 
1'uii pretend, a donne son nom a tout le pays 
(|iii est derriere, & an fleuve de S. Laurent. 
On d-min- encore ce nom a la grande riviere 
de Canada ; inais il est peu en usage aujourd- 
hui & 1'oit dit toujoura le fleuve de S. Lau- 
rent."3 

Three theories, then, were held during the 
eighteenth century as to the origin of the 
word Canada: two of them, the Indian and 
river theories seem not to have had general 
acceptance, while the third, the extension of 
the name from a limited district on the lower 
St. Lawrence to the whole country, was com- 
monly believed. If we now jump fifty years 
and come down to the end .of the first quarter 
of our century, we find, curiously enough, a 
meaning given to the word that savors of 
genuine folk-etymology though it is a con- 
scious product. EUSKBE SALVERTE in his ' Essai 
historique, etc.,' (1824) accepts the indigenous 
source : " Dans la langue canadienne, Canada 
signifiait ' ville, assemblage de maisons ; ' de 
ce mot, que les indigenes rEpEtaient aux na- 
vigateurs europe'ens, sans doute a 1 'aspect de 
chacun de leurs hameaux, nous avons fait le 
nom d'une vaste contre"e ;" 2 4 and the celebrat- 
ed historian of Canada, GARNEAU, follows 
(1845) with the categorical statement: " Le 
nom de Canada, donne" ici paries Indigenes a 
une partie du pays a la totalite" duquel il 
s'etend maintenant, ne permet point d'avoir 
de doutes [?] sur son Etymologic. L'on doit 
done rejeter les hypotheses de ceux qui veu- 
lent lui donner une origine europe'enne. L'on 
sait du reste que ce mot signifie, en dialecte 
indien, amas de Cabanes, village. " 2 S 

Linguistic coiMiderations alone are strong 
enough to justify us in assigning to the proper 
name Canada a directly southwest Romance 
origin, had we no confirmatory historic evi- 
dence to adduce in support of the proposition. 
The mere fact of the existence of a popular 
etymology (c nada, or aca nada), however, 

23Dictionnaire universe! Fram;ois-I.atin vulgairement 
appeli 1 Dictionnaire dc 'i'revoux. Paris, 1771. Folio. Tome 
II, p. 198. 

24Essai historique et philosophique ser les noms d'hommes 
de peuples et de lieux ]iar KrsuiiK SAI.VKKTK. Paris, 1824. 
80, 2 vols. Vol. II, p. 250. 

asHistoire du Canada par I.(>AKNRAI'. Qtu ! l-ec, Aubin, 
1845. Tome I, p. 64. 



points a priori to a suppn^-d connection be- 
tween the designation of this part of the new 
world and the early southwest European dis- 
coverers. But leaving out of account this 
arbitrary and fanciful composition as too triv- 
ial for serious notice, we have left two hypo- 
theses that merit a close examination : a, That 
the name is of Indian origin ; b, That it is a 
Spanish or Portuguese term, which, in its 
general signification, was originally applied to 
a part, and only a very small part, too, of the 
present Dominion of Canada, or even of La 
Nouvelle France. 

I have purposely stated the Indian theory 
first, because of the confidence with which the 
indigenous origin of the word has recently 
been maintained by scholars of high repute 
and because it is much easier on linguistic 
grounds to refute than to establish with cer- 
tainty to which of the two languages mention- 
ed above (Spanish or Portuguese) the name 
belongs ; for, while the phonetic constitution 
of the word in the former case is sufficient to 
condemn it, in the latter, the difference of 
form is so slightly marked that we shall have 
to appeal to historic evidence to support our 
position. 

The celebrated ARB Cuog in his 'Lexique 
de la Langue iroquoise' sub voce fcanata, 'ville,' 
' village,' adds with a conviction strengthened 
by more than a dozen years since he had first 
expressed the opinion : " De la le nom de 
Canada auquel on a voulu, tout re"cemment 
encore, mais toujours sans fondement solide, 
assigner une autre Etymologic." 26 He here 
calls attention in a foot-note to the same view 
expressed by him in a work written several 
years before against M. RENAN : 2 ? Cette 
opinion se trouve encore confirme" par le nom 
de Canadaquois que se donnaient a eux- 

me'mes les sauvages de Gaspe" et de la 

Baie des Chaleurs, r.on nioins que ceux des 
deux rives du fleuve Saint Laurent. II ne 
faut voir en efTet dan: le mot Canadaqnois 
qu'une simple alteration du locatif iroquois 
Kanatakon, 'an village,' 'dans le village," 

a6Lexique de la langue irnquoise avec notes et appendices 
par J. A. CUOQ, Pretre de Saint-Supplice. Montreal, 
Chaplcau & Fils, 1882. p. 10. 

27jugement errontf de M. ERNEST RHNAN sur les langues 
sauvages d'Anu ! rique. Montreal, Dawson Brothers, 1869, 
p. 103. 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



34" 



beaucoup plus frequemment employe" que son 
primitif canafa, 'village.' Ma pense"e est 
done que Canada vient de Kanata." 28 

At the end of the ' Lexique ' just mentioned 
is appended a bibliographical study by the 
ABB NANTEL, in which (p. 232) he adopts the 
derivation suggested and defended by Cuoq : 
"Kanata, ' amas de cabanes,' nous a donne" 
le nom de notre pays, Canada." 

The reverend PERE LACOMBE, under the 
general heading ' Etymology,' of his Cri Dic- 
tionary,^ observes : " Canada pour Konata, 
dont les montagnois de Labrador et tous les 
cris se servent pour dire : sans propos, sans 
raison, sans dessein, gratis. Note : II est 
assez probable que les premiers explorateurs 
du Canada ne pouvant se faire comprendre 
que par signes, aient pris pour le nom de la 
Contre"e, ce mot, qu'ils entendaient re'pe'ter 
si souvent aux sauvages qui s'en servent con- 
tinuellement ; " and he adds sub voce Cana- 
da " c'est le mot banale de la langue crise." 

The first thing that strikes us in glancing at 
the word, in the phonetic shape which it pre- 
sents, is its absolutely non-French character: 
the existence of the initial velar gutteral c, of 
the intervocalic d, of the a throughout, but on 
the other hand, of its entire conformity, pho- 
netically, to Spanish and Portuguese types ; 
as, for example, to the Portuguese Barbada 
(Barbadoes), to the Spanish Florida. These 
forms will be considered later ; let us first 
notice the Cri-Iroquois Kanata, with reference 
to which, if I mistake not, CUOQ'S theory will 
have to be rejected on his own ground. 

In the American Journal of Philology Vol. 
VIII, pp. 147-48, I have quoted CUOQ as show- 
ing conclusively that the Indian word for the 
Supreme Being is Manito, not Maneto or Mon- 
edo, as SCHOOLCRAFT has maintained, since 
it is not thus given in any of the native dia- 
lects. Now, on analogy with this form, pre- 
cisely the same objection may be raised against 
Kanata> Kanada (Canada); in fact, aborigi- 
nal words adopted by the French keep their 
full form, so that not only the voicing of inter- 

28This idea is taken directly from LBSBARBOT, Vol. i, pp. 
921-222 : . . . . toutefois les peuples de Gachepd et de la baye 
de Chaleur, . . se disent Canadocoa (ils prononcent ainsi), 
c'est u cRre Canadaquois, comme nous disons Souriquois, et 
Iriquois 

2gDictionnaire et grammaire de la langue des Cris par le 
RBV. PERK ALBERT LACOMIIE, Ptre., Montreal, 1874. p. 706. 



vocalic mutes would be anomalous, but also 
the change even of initial graphic sign K> C 
would be irregular, according to the learned 
CUOQ'S transcription. Though only a few 
vocables of the savage idioms have been per- 
manently naturalized in the Gallic speech of 
Canada, 3 yet we can fortunately cite some 
half a dozen which show beyond question 
what the usage was with reference to inter- 
vocalic /. In matachias^ (rassades) we have 
exactly the same phonetic conditions (a-\-t-\-a) 
as in the word under discussion, the difference 
of accent (if there was any) evidently not 
affecting the final result. Again, in mitasse 3 * 
(legging), sagamit (bouillie de mais),33 succo- 
tash (green corn and beans boiled together)34 
otoka (canneberge)35 we have the phonetic sur- 
roundings of this / varied by light and dark 
vowels (i-a, i-, o-a, o-o) and yet its quality is 
in no way influencedjby the changed relations 
and, so far as we are able to judge, there is 
not the slightest tendency in these varying 
'modal conditions to pass into the voiced 
state. According to mere form, then, irre- 
spective of the positive and forcible considera- 
tions that tend to fix a totally different etymon 
for the geographical term Canada, we may 
eliminate the present favorite Indian etymol- 
ogy from our discussion. We thus have left 
the probable southwest Romance source of the 
term, which it is now necessary to examine 
from a double point of view ; viz., that of the 
Spanish and that of the Portuguese. So far 
as I am aware, no other theory as to the 
origin of the term has been advanced outside 
of these two : the Indian and Spanish (or 
Portuguese), and while it is comparatively 
easy to refute the former (the Indian) and 
show the name to be without doubt of- south- 
west Romance origin, yet it becomes difficult 
to establish with certainty as to which of these 
two languages, Spanish or Portuguese, it 
must be assigned. We need only mention 
the fact that the word is employed as a com- 
mon noun in both Spanish and Portuguese 
and that it plays an important rf>le, when used 
alone'in the singular, in the plural, or when 
found in composita, for the designation of 

3oCf. Article referred to in Am. Journal of Philology, p. 
H7- 

31 Ibidem, p. 148. 32 Ibidem, p. 149. 33 Ibidem, p. 150. 
14 Ibidem, p. 338. 35 Ibidem, p. 338. 



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342 



topographical sites. This original use of tlu: 
term to denote :;<!ieial ideas which arc em- 
bodied in tin- root and which have been after- 
ward circunisi -rilicd within a limited circle to 
indicate special qualities, is noted in the Por- 
tuguese as contrasted with the Spanish. In 
the latter, the generic substantive Canada 
must, as a rule, be followed by some restric- 
ti\e term (Canada la Zarza, Canada Pajares, 
etc. (while in the former the differentiation of 
special (proper) and common substantival 
signification is produced without periphrasis 
by simple specialization of meaning. 

If we consider the termination -ada only 
we have no means of determining whether 
the word is Spanish or Portuguese, since the 
Latin -atnni ending gives us the same phonetic 
product -ado, for both of these languages. 
These creations were originally adjectives in 
participial form denoting possession, and de- 
veloped out of substantives. 36 The feminine 
nouns of like formation denote, as DIEZ ob- 
serves, "eine menge oder fulle," but I would 
prefer to consider Canada an adjective used 
as a noun, just as we have it in Florida (terra 
florida) and B.irbdda. (Ihla barbada). Dis- 
placement of accent is necessary to adapt the 
word to the laws of English pronunciation. 
The origin of the root can is, of course, the 
Latin canna (a reed), which gives regularly 
in Spanish Can-ada, the common term for 
"glade." In modern Portuguese, can-ada 
denotes i. a measure for liquids, of little more 
than a liter, 2. a path. Both of these are evi- 
d'-ntly transferred meanings representing 
simply the ixlea of fulness as predicated of 
the primitive canna, used in the same sense 
as we have just seen it in Latin. For the old 
language, we find a meaning assigned to it by 
BARBOSA DB PlNHO LEAL that suits our pre- 
sent purpose better than the modern significa- 
tion : " Canada, Portuguese antigo, passagem 
on caminho por entre paredes on logares 
ermos e. escusos, isto e", por onde costuma 
passar potica gente."37 
3 r )Cf. DIBZ C.rammatikS. p. 664. 

37 Portugal Antigo e moderno. Diccionario gcographico, 
cstiuistico, cronographico, heraldico, archcologico, historico, 
l>ioi;raphico e etymologico de todas as cidadcs, villas e fre- 
quenzias de Portugal por Ar<;rsr<> SHAKES n'AxHVitnn BAK- 
BOSA !>i? PLNHO I,KAI., Lisbon, Moreira & companhia, 1874. 
Tonic I . p. 162. 



Hut it is the application of the word to cer- 
tain peculiar and < -harac teristic features of 
landscape as found by I>K. Hi KMKISTER in the 
Argentine Republic that we would recognise 
the original meaning; of the term : " Knfm on 
appele Canadas tons les bas-fonds de grande 
et.-ndue dans lesquels sont disse'mine's 
groupes de roseaux. Us peuvent 6tre tra\ 
6s par un ruisseau, et constituent dans leur 
ensemble de bon pAtnrages trs-propres a 
l'e"leve du be'tail. Ces endroits humides dans 
la pampa ne forment qu'une trs-minime 
partie de sa surface et n'en modifient le 
caractere que d'une facon accessoire."38 It 
will be observed that the word here still be- 
longs to the wide circle of descriptive techni- 
cal expression and that it bears in its applica- 
tion a conscious reflex of its original meaning. 

Here furthermore is already a more limited 
use of the term than that which was found in 
the broad sense of canada , meaning a 
" glade " or " dell " in general, as seen above. 
But between these two words a discrepancy 
is noted in the graphic signs which we must 
clear up before going further. Latin gemina- 
ted (+) gives regularly in Spanish the 
palatalized n+y (n) : afio (annum) cana (can- 
nam), gafiir (gannire), pano(pannum), canamo 
(cannabis), etc., and the corresponding forms 
in Portuguese are : anno, ganir, panno, canna, 
canamo, that is, hjre the simple dental rep- 
resents.the Latin nn without a trace of mouil- 
lation : the geminated forms kept in the 
modern idiom are mere graphic variations, 
since the double does not affect the pronun- 
ciation. 39 

In form, then, canada follows the Portuguese 
rule ; in signification, the Spanish derivative 
from Latin canna. To which of these lan- 
guages, now, are we to assign the root can as 

38Description physique dc la Rdpublique Argentine par le 
I)K. H. RUKMKISTKK, traduitc dc 1 allemand par E. MAITAS. 
l';iris, Savy, Tome i.p.ioa. 

38Choix de Lectures de Geographic par L. LAXIKK. Amtfri- 
que. Paris, Belin et fils, 1883. p. 53. 

3gln a recent monograph entitled : ' liases da Ortograf.a 
Portugueza por A. R. CloN^ALVKs VIANNA e G. I>K VASCOK- 
CBLLOS ABRKU' (Lisl>oa, 1885), it is proposed to reform Portu- 
guese orthography by leaving out"os simbolos graficos sem 
valor. Silo eles as cnnsoantes dobradas ou grupes de con- 
soantes nrto profcridas e sem influcncia na modular 1o antccc- 
dente." 



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344 



it exists in our Can-ada ? I have no hesita- 
tion in pronouncing for the Spanish, though 
the phonetic constitution of the stem would 
point rather to a Portuguese source. Preser- 
vation of the medial intervocalic n is not a 
general rule in the latter language (cf. pessoa 
(persona), cadeia (catena), boa (bona)4 though 
it is natural that the double Latin n reduced to 
monophthong should stick just as in canamo 
andganir, cited above; on the other hand, 
so far as the pronunciation of the palatalized 
n (n) of the Spanish is concerned, the native 
dialect might have reproduced it according to 
CUOQ'S transcription : French crinitre : 
Krinier.4i But it is probable that we have 
here a simple non-palatalized product for 
Latin nn such as belonged to the older period 
of the Spanish language ; for example, delinar 
for delinar, cana as differentiated form 
(Scheideform) for cana, pena as differentiated 
form for pena, doniinar alongside of dowenar, 
ordinar alongside of ordenarA* Again : the 
extensive use in Spain, as opposed to Portugal, 
of the word Canada or Canada as a geographi- 
cal designation, would argue in favor of the 
probable origin of the name on Spanish soil ; 
and, furthermore, the continuation of the tra- 
ditional nomenclature in the Argentine Repub- 
lic, where it is used to mark riparian districts 
not essentially differing from certain parts of 
the valley of the St. Lawrence. Not less than 
fifty names of places, common and specially 
geographical, bear to-day in Spain this charac- 
teristically generic designation, either alone, or 
in combination with some attributive word, or 
words, that serve to modify its broader mean- 
ing and cause it to represent distinctive 
natural features, or to perpetuate some his- 
toric relation, of a given locality. Among the 
numerous periphrases of this kind may be 
cited such creations as the following : Canada 
de San Pedro, Canada y Pesquera, Canadilla 
(diminutive) de ortigo, Canada vellida, Can- 
ada-jungosa, Canada- Vedija, la Canada aldea, 
Canada Rincon, Canada Pastores, etc. The 

4oREiNHARDTSTOETTNKK, Grammatik der Portugiesischen 
Sprache. pp. 62-63. 

4ifitudes philologiques sur quelques langues sauvages. 
pp. 62-63. 

42Cf. Spanische Sprachlehrc von PAUL FOKSTKK, Berlin 
1880. p. 127. 



greatest number of these periphrastic denomi- 
nations is naturally found under the heading 
of Canada or Canada de-\- a word of limitation : 
La Canada de los Concyos (a village near 
Seville). But not alone in Spain do we find 
the word Canada widely used for marking 
topographical sites. On the map of France, 
we note seven places of this name scattered 
throughout as many different De'partements, 
in all of which the same general characteris- 
tics exist that we have seen in the Spanish 
names, save that on Gallic soil it is with one 
exception the simple word, without any ac- 
companying attribute, which is employed. In 
C6tes-du-Nord, Eure and La Manche we have 
LE Canada ; in Oise, Seine-et-Oise and Gironde 
simply Canada, while in Saone-et-Loire the 
striking and characteristic Bas-de- Canada is 
used. 43 Now, some of these places may 
possibly have received this appellation since 
the discovery of that section of the American 
Continent to which the name Canada was 
given and it would be a matter of great 
interest for historical geography to trace the 
origin of the present designation in order to 
establish whether or not it was applied to 
these places before the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. This side of the investigation 
I was not able to carry out for lack of time 
while in Paris, where alone all the necessary 
local departmental sources maybe consulted. 
Outside of the places already mentioned 
bearing the name Canada in France, it is given 
to the elevated plateau or promontory above 
Fecamp, in Northern Normandy (Seine- 
Infe'rieure), where the Camp de Cesar exists 
to this day, relic of an old Roman fortifica- 
tion. In glancing through the ordinary his- 
torians of this historic town, no definite clue 
can be had as to the date when the name 
Canada was adopted for this region. One 
writer44 naively suggests : "on (l')a nomme" le 
Canada, sans doute a cause du froid rigoreux 
qui s'y faitsentir en hiver;" another authons), 

43Dictionnaire des Postcs et des TdWgraphes, Paris, Dela- 
grave, 1885. p. 340. 

44Esquisses historicities sur Fecamp par CKSAK MAKETTB. 
Rouen 1839. 

45 Histoire de la ville et de 1'abbaye de Fdcamp par LEON 
FALLUK. Rouen, 1841. p. 24 



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34* 



in blissful ignorance of phonetic laws, would 
tain believe tin- name to be a curiosum ]-n> 
duced by melting together two Latin words : 
" ce camp curieux, nomine* Canada, peut-etre 
decastra Danorum, camp desDanois"; a third 
statement by writers already referred to (col. 
328)46 would settle the question at once, could 
we depend on it: " Audessus de Fe'camp la 
pointe de coteau est appele*e de temps im- 
nic'morittl Canada." No authority is cited in 
support of this extraordinary assertion : it may 
he the tradition, but it does not help us in 
settling the very important question as to 
whether the name Canada was actually known 
in France before the discovery of the St. Law- 
rence by the French. Should the local his- 
tory of any one of the many places now bear- 
ing this name show it to have existed in F ranee 
antecedent to this date, it will be conclusive 
evidence of its European origin, putside of 
the considerations presented above. Whether 
such proof can be adduced or not, I hope to 
be able to state on another occasion. 

A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT. 



SALLY IN OUR ALLEY AND A GER- 
MAN STUDENT-SONG. 

Some time ago (Moo. LANG. NOTES, vol. II, 
p. 103 f.) DR. GOKHKI. advanced a theory on 
the probable source of GOETHE'S ' Gold- 
schmiedsgesell,' which, though strong enough 
in itself to win approval, was soon continued 
by the further discovery of PROF. GKIC.ER (ib. 

P. 34). 

Upon reading DR. GOKIIKL'S article I at 
once suspected a resemblance between 
CARKY'S poem and a song that is sung by 
< ".' Tinan students, ' Lore am Thore ; ' but not 
having a COnWMfsbuch at hand, 1 was obliged 
to defer a comparison of the poems to lest the 
value of my new impression. I am now. after 
a close examination of the song, persuaded 
that it too must be referred to 'Sally in Our 
Alley' as its source. I shall give the text of 
the song, so that the three compositions may 
IK- easily compared. 

4<'iKiirlyrop die (Us L;OII^ c!u Monde, vol. V,p. 593. 



LORE AM THORE. 

Von alien den MMdchen to blink und *o blank 
Gcfi'llt mir am bestcn die Lore; 

.lien den Winkeln und GXitchen der Sttdt 

ill mir's im Winkel am Thore. 
Der Meister der ichmunzelt, aU hab* er Verdacht, 
AU hab' er Verdacht auf die Lore; 
Sie ist mein Gedanke bei Tg und be! Nacht 
Und wohnet im Winkel am Thore. 

Und kommt sic getrippelt da GKuchen hinab. 

So wird mir ganz schwlil vor den Augen; 

Und hor' ich von Weitem ihr leite* Klipp. Klapp. 

Kein Niet' oder Band will mehr taugen. 

Die Damen bei Hofe, so *ehr lie iich zier'n, 

Sie gleichen doch nicht meiner Lore ; 

Sie ist mein Gedanke bei Tag und bei Nacht 

Und wohnet im Winkel am Thore. 

Und kommet die liebe Weihnacht heran, 

Und strotzt mir das Geld in der Westen, 

Das Geld, das die Mutter zum Rock mir gesandt, 

Ich geb's ihr, bei ihr ist's am best en ; 

Und wiirden mir SchHtze vom Teufel gebracht 

Ich trUge sie alle zur Lore ; 

Sie ist mein Gedanke bei Tag und bei Nacht 

Und wohnet im Winkel am Thore. 

Und kommet nun endlich auch Pfingsten heran, 
Nach Handwerksgebrauch mtlsst' ich wandern ; 
Dann werd' ich jedoch f Ur mein eigenes Geld 
Hier BUrger und Meister trotz Andern. 
Dann werde ich Meister in dieser Stadt, 
Fran Meisterin wird ineine Lore; 
Dann geht es Juchheissa ! bei Tag urid bet Nacht, 
Doch nicht mehr im Winkel am Thore. 

The meter, form of the strophe, and the 
refrain are strictly preserved. Some passages 
are close translations ; in others there is 
considerable deviation from the original. 
The adaptation to a student-song has led to 
the omission of some verses that savor too 
much of the apprentice, and one verse was 
afterwards added to give to the ' Gesellenlied ' 
still more the tone of a ' Burschenlied.' I 
quote the beginning from memory: 

Und hab' ich's Examen bestanden mit Ehr, 
Darf frci dann wahlen und kUren, 
Dann neiine sie keiner Studentenbraut mrhr, 
Sonst soil er die.Klinge vcrspUren. 

I have not been able to discover anything 
relating to the age of the song or to its history 
at the German universities. I have only 
heard it sung at Jena, but should not like to 
lay too much stress on my observation, as it is 
well known how easily such songs, even those 
of only local interest, find their way to other 
universities. It is however no wild hypothesis 



173 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NO TES, 1888. No. 6. 



348 



to suppose that CAREY'S ballad was brought 
to Jena a University greatly favored by 
foreigners by English students or travellers, 
and that it there found an early translator. 



H. SCHMIDT. 



Cornell University. 



A TRADI TIO NA LLY MISTRANS- 

LA TED PASSAGE IN DON 

QUIJOTE. 

In the third chapter, Part I, of Don Quijote, 
the inn-keeper explains to his incredulous 
guest that "todas los cabelleros andantes (de 
que tantos libros estan llenos y atestados} 
llevaban bien herradas las bolsas," etc. In 
endeavoring to make clear to myself the im- 
port and etymology of the word atestados, as 
here employed and it should be remarked 
that the text of the original passage is well 
established and unvarying I find that all the 
translators on whose works I can lay my 
hand have either passed the word over in 
silence or else have rendered it as the past 
participle of atestar ' to attest,' used as a parti- 
cipial adjective with active force, in the sense 
of ' authentic," ' unimpeachable.' 

The translations which I have been able to 
consult are: Motteux's, of which the first 
edition appeared in 1712; Jarvis's, first edition 
1742; Florian's (in French), 1790; Duffield's 
1881 ; and Ormsby's, 1885. For the words in 
parenthesis, Motteux (London 1743, vol. i, p. 
20) gives: "of whom fo many Hiftories are 
full;" Jarvis (London 1801, vol. i, p. 22): "of 
whose actions there are such authentic 
histories ; " Florian omits the entire parenthe- 
sis ; Duffield (vol. i, p. 33) translates: "of 
whose deeds so many books were filled and 
bore witness;" and finally, Ormsby (vol. i, p. 
126): "about whom there were so many full 
and unimpeachable books." 

The two latest translators, who have worked 
in the spirit of modern accuracy and scholar- 
ship, are especially to be deferred to, and in a 
general way their rendering of the passage 
is doubtless grammatically not impossible 
(though conspicuously unwarranted is Orms- 
by's construing of llenos and atestados attribu- 
tively rather than predicatively) ; yet it is 



evident that atestados is here the passive 
participle of atestar 'to fill to the brim,' 'to 
cram ; ' so that to preserve Cervantes' favorite 
mode of using synonymous adjectives in pairs, 
without regard to their strict construction, the 
parenthesis should read: "of whom so many 
books are full and replete," or, in more idio- 
matic English, "full to overflowing." 

A more interesting inquiry is that concern- 
the origin of Sp. atestar, used in this sense. 
The only other Romance language in which 
the word seems to occur is the Portuguese, 
and to this closely related idiom we must 
have recourse for the explanation of it, since 
the noun testa (from Lat. TESTUM or TESTU 
' lid '), to which the verb is to be referred, has 
not survived in Spanish (though preserved in 
Fr. tet, It. testo). In Moraes' Portuguese 
Dictionary, under atestar, is given the defi- 
nition : "Encher ate" ao testo, at6 acima ; " 
and the word testo is defined (s. v.) as " tampa 
de barro da panella que vao ao lume." In 
Spanish, one of the special meanings, which 
may nevertheless be regarded as approaching 
the primary one, happily supports this ety- 
mology. It is thus given in Bouret's Spanish 
Dictionary (s. v.) : " Rellenar, rehenchir las 
cubas de vino, cuando despues de haber 
cocido y mermado, se les echa otra porcion 
competente para que este'n llenas." 

The occurrence of the term caballero andante 
in the passage above quoted makes this an 
appropriate occasion for calling attention to a 
commonplace of Romance etymology which 
has escaped the notice of PROFESSOR SKEAT. 
In his Etymological Dictionary, he connects 
the word errant, of the phrase knight errant, 
with the Lat. ERRARE ' to err, wander." The 
oldest form of the French verb from which 
comes errant in this combination, is edrer 
(later errer), and derives from Low Latin 
ITERARE (from ITER) 'to journey.' This word 
is connected with Old and Mod. Fr. erre (e. 
g., marcher sur les erres de quelqu'un), and 
with Eng. eyre 'circuit' (which, by the way, 
PROF. SKEAT derives correctly from Lat. ITER) 
and accordingly is not to be confounded 
with Fr. errer Lat. ERRARE. Sp. caballero 
andante falls into line with this explanation. 

H. A. TODD. 



J74 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



350 



/. M'EI AL TCA TALANISCHE RECHTS- 
FORMULARE. 

I )< r Codex Ottohonianus 3058 in Folio der 
v.iticanischen Bibliothek t-ntliiilt due Samm- 
lung fast ausschliesslich lateinischer Gesetze 
und Verordnungen, die sammtlich fiir Barce- 
lona giiltig waren. Die Hs. ist nicht von 
t-ifit-i Sclirt. iber, vielmehr bildet den altesten 
Theil die zweite und dritte Lage, die auch 
lu-sonderspaginirtist, und auf aoBlattern einen 
am McGinn des i4ten Jahrh. geschriebenen 
Text des ' Liber usaticorum barchinonensium 
enthalt. Die iibrigen 17 Lagen sind mit um- 
fangreichen Documenten mancherlei Art be 
schrieben. Auf dem letzten Blatte befinden 
sich die beiden Formulare, die ich hier ab- 
drucke. Sie sind von der Hand eines alten 
Bcsitzers der Handschrift, unzweifelhaft eines 
Juristen, wie u. A. eine Sammlung juristischer 
Maximen in ihr bezeugt, eingetragen, und 
zwar Hisst sich obendrein die ungefahre Zeit 
ilirer Niederschrift angeben. Es befindet sich 
namlich auf der ersten Lage der Hs. ein 
Kalender, der auf der dritten Seite (Marz) 
folgende Eintragung aufweist : 

" Depous ora de miganit a tres de marc del 
an MCCC *| xx tres foset gran terra tremol en 
la ciutat de barchinona e dura dues ores | e 
quaech lo cap del cluqer deles esqeles de 
santa niaria singla ou toqen les esqeles e quech 
nna gran pedra del arch dela esglea de sent 
just que es Denant laltar maior de sent just." 

Die Schrift dieser datirten Eintragung ist der 
der beiden unten folgenden Formulare so 
ahnlich, class wir ohne Schwierigkeit anneh- 
men konnen, beides sei von demselben Be- 
sitzer des Codex niedergeschrieben. Hier der 
Text : 

I. MANAMENT QUE MOSTREN COM HAN LO 
FEU. 

Al honrat naytal de mi naytal saints e 
honor | Com io per rao de novela senyoria 
de aytal loch o lochs vulla de vos aver feeltat 
per rao d>_l feu ou feus que per mi tenits en 
aytal loch Eu per amor de so a vos die e man 
que dins X dies apres dela presentatio dela 
present et contumadament (sic) segues (sic) 
comparegats denant mi e quern fessats fer per 
quel manera los dits fcus a vos pertaim-n 
aparalat de fer fealtat a mi laquel sots tenguts 
de fer per los clits feus | e de mi rebre investi- 
dura axi com nessots tenguts et duvets Escrita 



en avtall loch aytall dia daytall mes e daytall 

an." 

II. FORMA DE EMPAKA. 

Al honrat naytal de mi naytal senyor daytal 
Castell saluts e amor I con novelameut aia 
entes que en vos et estal alienat lo feu quels 
hereus den aytal o que naytal teni# en feu per 
mi | si e y posada la veritat del fet | e vos 
siats entrat en possecio de aquel feu sens fer- 
ma et concentiment meu. lo qual feu se tenia 
este sots senyoria mia alodiall e dreta | prego 
io ab la present letra partida per letres e 
sagellada ab mon segell. Contradient ala 
dita alienacio | vos empar lo dit feu manant 
vos quels fruyts rendes et esdevenimens meus 
del dit feu per vos ne per altre no prenats | 
Escrita en aytal loch aytal dia daytal mes 
daytal an. 

Diese beiden Stiicke bieten weit mehr In- 
teresse, als die sonst so zahlreich vorhandenen 
I altcatalanischen Urkunden. Wahrend der 
Romanist dem Texte von Urkunden gegen- 
iiber hinsichtlich der Syntax stets mit berech- 
tigter Skepsis verfahrt, da dem Verfasser 
| derselben stets das lateinische Formular, 
wenn nicht vorgelegen, so doch vorgeschwebt 
hat, wonach er seine Satze formte, so sieht 
man doch an diesen Formularen, dass man in 
Catalonien im I4ten Jahrhundert derartige 
Documente schon direct in der Vulgarsprache 
entwarf. 

Das Wort oder vielmehr die Worte naytal 
(n=en, ' Herr ; ' vgl. Nanfos=Don Alfonso bei 
Ramon Muntaner und sonst auch ; -aytal, das 
dem lat. talis fr. fel, un tel, it. un tale, etc., in 
diesen Fallen genau entspricht) stehen 
jedesmal fiir die im speciellen Falle einzu- 
fiihrenden Namen. 

Sachlich bieten die Texle kaum eine 
Schwierigkeit ; jedem Kenner des mittelalter- 
lichen Lehenswesens wird die Situatian sofort 
klar. 

Die Worte contumadament und segues in 
der ersten Formel entziehen sich meinem 
Verstiindniss. 

Bis auf das einmal in dem i. Text sich 
findende Eu, das sonst fast nur in der Sprache 
der provenzalisch schreiben wollenden Dichter 
vorkommt, lasst der Text sprachlich keine 
Ausstellungen zu. 



RICHARD OTTO. 



Koine, Italy. 



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THE ANGLO-SAXON burh and byrig. 

Is there a distinction in meaning between 
burh and by rig? In SOMNER (1659) we find: 
" beorg collis, acervus, cumulus, tumulus, a 
hillock or little hill, a heap of earth, a tombe, 
&c. Munimentum, agger, arx, a rampire, a 
place of defence and succour. 

byrig urbs, civitas, a Citty. Hinc tot a- 
pud nos Urbium nomina sic terminantia." 
LYE (1772) gives : 

" burg urbs, civitas, Mat. 10,23 ; J I > 2 > villa, 
Orosius 2,5 ; arx Cob. 10; castrum, municipium, 
oppidum curia, palatium, domus ; burga 
urbes, Luc. 9,6 ; after burgum Boet. pp. 155,- 
195; Caedmon 73,17 vide beorg, collis, Luc. 
23,20; mons, Orosius 1,1; acervus Ps. 64,13: 
refugium 58,19; czfter burgum Caedmon 65,- 
24; 67,16; munimentum, sepulchrum, Cod. Ex. 
p. 119. vide beorh agger, Aelf. gr. 9,18; 
collis, Luc. 3,5 ; tumulus, R. 97; acervus, Jos. 
7,26; mons, Orosius 1,1; beorh upeweard 
monticellus, R. 97, dione beorh Caed. 71,4. 
beorhgas, Guth." 

byrig urbs. Mat. X. 23; oppida, Beda 3,28: 
collis, tumulus quivis e terra congestus. 

KEMBLE in the 'Saxons in England' (Vol. 
II, appendix C) sums up the distinction in 
these words : 

"The strict meaning of burh, appears to be 
fortified place or stronghold. It can there- 
fore be applied to a single house or castle, as 
well as to a town. There is a softer form 
byrig, which in the sense of a town can hardly 
be distinguished from burh, but which, as far 
as I know, is never used to denote a single 
house or castle." 

In BOSWORTH -TOLLER'S Anglo-Saxon 
Dictionary we find the same history of burh 
as KEMBLE gives, and under byrig as follows : 
" byrig, e; f: ace. s. byrig, byrige, a city, 
urbs, civitas : Her Gtipa gefeaht wid Bry- 
twalas cst Biedcan forda, and genam Lygean 
byrig and sEgles byrig, in this year Cutha 
fought against the Brito-Welsh at Bedford 
and took Lenbury and Aylesbury, Chr. 571; 
Canhvara byrig forbarn tiy gedre, Canter- 
bury was burnt down in this year Chr. 754. v. 
burh." 

HARRISON and BASKERVILL following 
GROSCHOPP'S GREIN omit byrig altogether. 
Grammarians are at present in accord as to 



the appearance of byrig as the gen. and dat. 
sg., and nom. and ace. pi. of burh. 

Now the question resolves itself into these 
two: 

(1) Is there a feminine substantive byrig? 

(2) Are there any distinctions between 
byrig as representing the declined forms of 
burh, and the other forms of burh? 

(i) The references for byrig as cited above 
are Matthew X, 23; Beda III, XXVIII, 32; 
Chr. 571 ; chr. 754. If these examples be ex- 
amined, it will be found that Mat. X, 23 is tlie 
dative case, on pisse byrig (cf. Gospels, edited 
by SKEAT, 1887); Beda III, XXVIII, 32 is ace. 
pi. 7 byrig 7 land 7 ceastre 7 tunas 7 hus 
for godspellicre lare fturhferan (SMITH'S 
Beda, 1722), so that we have left the two cases 
in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Comparing 
THORPE'S edition of the Original Texts of the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, London 1861, where 
we have the seven manuscripts published in 
parallel columns we find for the first case (An. 
571, Th. 33,28). (A) CCCC. CXXXIII, Lygean- 
burg 7 sEgelsbirg, (B) Cott. Tib. A. VI. 
Liggeanburh 7 sEglesburh, (C) Cott. Tib. B. 
i, same as B. (E) Bodl. Land 636 Lygeanbyrig 
7 sEglesbyrig. 

For the second case (An. 754, Th. 81,36), 
(A) Cantivaraburg, (B) Canhvareburh, (C and 
D) Cantivaraburh, (E) Cantwarabyrig. 

In a word, as yet I have been able to dis- 
cover only three cases where byrig occurs, 
and all of these twice as ace. sg. (Th. 33,28) 
and once as nom. sg. (Th. 81,36) are in the 
Bodl. Land. MS. of the Chronicle. Of course 
upon this authority we must admit the ex- 
istence of this feminine substantive, but we 
should notice at the same time two things : 
first, that the word occurs in conjunction with 
a determinative substantive, and secondly, 
the peculiarities of this MS. E. 

It is the MS. which comes down to the latest 
date, 1131. WULKER says (Grundriss III, 513) : 
"Da eine Hand vom Anfange bis 1121 geht, 
so ist die Vermutting, die Handschrift sei 
geschrieben worden nachdem 1116 die Abtei 
zu Peterborough durch Feuer vollstandig 
zerstort worden war, sehr wahrscheinlich." 

Our only evidence then for byrig as a femin- 
ine substantive is in conjunction with other 
words after 1116. It would be worth the 



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354 



trouble ot srholais In null- any oilier < 
tliat may occur to tlu-tn. 

\\' licre byrig occurs as a form of burh, we 
are not justified in drawing any such distinction 
as that made by KEMHLE, following others; 
and in one instance investigated by me I am 
inclined to translate this form by 'castle,' 
although admitting that in most cases that 
h.ive fallen under my eye, the significance 
has been 'city.' In 'Teutonic Antiquities in 
Andreas and Elene ' p. 16, speaking of 
heaven I said, "In a narrower sense it is a 
city (byrig E. 822). The conception one forms 
of heaven from the description as a room, 
where the Judge sits on the throne, E. 746, or 
the King in the midst of his knights, A. 874, 
and as a Noble surrounded by his angels, A. 
873, would justify the translation 'castle' 
rather than 'city,' but the word byrig (in 
contradistinction to burh} dues not seem to 
possess this primary meaning." To which 
I added the foot-note, " It must be remarked 
that byrig is often nothing more than the 
dative of burh." This it unquestionably is in 
the case in hand, and hence the objection to 
the translation ' castle,' urged above, can not 
be maintained.* Until we find other examples 
of the fern. subs, byrig, it will be impossible 
to determine whether it could have the pri- 
mary significance 'fortified place.' 

CHARLES W. KENT. 
University of Virginia. 



CORRECTIONS IN BARTSCH' S 

GLOSSARY (La Langue et la Littera- 

ture Franfaises : Paris, 1887). 

This excellent and useful work is doubtless 
. in the hands of many of the readers of MODERN 
LANGUAGE NOTES. The following errors 
(evidently in great part misprints) have been 
noted by me while using the Glossary for 
purposes of reference and comparison : 
p. 682 read ALL- v. AL- 

719 COMANDKMENT for 125,5 read 123,5. 

720 CAMPAIGNIE for 50,39 read 50,30. 

730 CREATURE Omit 269,18. 

751 DRAGON for 426,23 read 426,28. 
773 read ESPIRITEL v. ESPERITAL. 
781 FENDRE for 161,3 read 161,5. 

*Cf. Note on burh in EAKI.B'S ' Two of the Saxon Chroni- 
cles,' 1865. 



792 GKiilK for 140,11 read 141,10. 
801 HONIK for 289,1 read 289,9. 
807 JKTKR for 203,23 read 203,31. 
826 MENTIR for 236,18 read 236,28. 
826 MERCIER omit 27,29. 
841 OIR for 30,36 read 30,26. 

893 SEUR for 56,24 read 56,25. 

894 SIECLE for 26,30 read 26,10. 
906 TORBE for 24,13 read 24,23. 



SUGGESTED EMENDATIONS. 
I. 

In ' Gormund et Isembard ' (BARTSCH p. 31. 
ss.), SCHELER'S Text reads (v. 29) 

Tres li cunsent tin Alcman, 

where HEILIGBRODT reads cuncen*/. Surely 
this should be cunsewt (consivre). So in line 
45 (SCHELER) we have cui consiut. 

II. 

In ' Garin le Loherain ' (BARTSCH in ss.), 
we hav^ (122,17) 

Li troi chael en la perent asseis : 

where the MS. A (Paris 1443) has la poicnt. 
The sense which the Editor would give to 
this line is not evident : but surely we should 
read laperent as one word. The added line 
in D (Paris 1582) puts this beyond all doubt. 
It reads 

Tant que il furent plain, et saol, et res. 
III. 

In Bertran de Born, ' Bern platy car trega 
ni fis ' (STIMMING, No. 8), there is difficulty in 
rendering satisfactorily 1. 35: 

E qu'en passes dos e dos. 

SKIMMING'S explanation is not convincing. 
It is with some diffidence that I suggest 

E qu'en passes dos sedos. 

i. e. 'two setons.' The use of the seton was 
not unknown in Bertran de Born's time. 1 
would note that the MSS. J, K read dos cedos. 
FREDERIC SPENCER. 

Cambridge, Eng. 



PHONETIC COMPENSA TIONS. 

Great as the progress of the scientific study 
of speech has been, there are still certain 



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points on which the different schools of pho- 
neticians are utterly at variance. Some of 
this disagreement might perhaps be avoided 
if all investigators would bear clearly in mind, 
as some have always done, the immense 
variety of resources which the speaking man 
has at his command. If the utterance of the 
vowel a is described in one way by B, and 
quite differently by C, need we conclude that 
either B or C is wrong ? May not each of them 
be correctly stating his own national or indi- 
vidual method of forming the vowel? Is it 
not likely that the human vocal organs, with 
their wonderful complexity and delicacy, have 
the means not only of bringing forth countless 
different sounds, but also, in some cases, of 
producing the same sound in several ways ? 
Suppose the vowel o may be obtained by a 
combination of factors w, x,y : there still re- 
mains the possibility that another combina- 
tion, say x, y, z, will give nearly or quite the 
same result, the addition of a new factor, z, 
compensating for the loss of w. Once admit- 
ting that the same sound may be produced 
(generally with some modifications too slight 
to affect its essential quality) by several dis- 
tinct processes, we should be forced to admit 
that, since different races or persons would 
naturally adopt different methods, a phonetic 
system broad enough to reconcile the existing 
schools, or accurate enough to describe in 
detail more than one dialect, must take the 
principle of compensation into account. A 
study of this principle would, moreover, in 
all probability prove to be just the sort of in- 
vestigation necessary to determine the hither- 
to unknown factors of that most important 
but seemingly intangible thing known as a 
"national" or "foreign accent." Let us, 
then, confining ourselves for the present to the 
pronunciation of the vowels, consider how 
far compensation is possible, and see whether 
any forms of it occur in actual speech. 1 

DEFINITIONS. 

While adopting in general as a basis for our 
investigations SWEET'S vowel system and 

i The name " compensation " is not a new one, it was used 
by SIEVEKS in his rhonetik 31! ed. p. 80, with reference to a 
possible increased tongue action making up for diminished 
lip action. Cf. his Phonetik. 2(1 ed. p. 71, 3d. ed. p. 83, 
and his Lautphysiologie, p. 45, 



nomenclature, we shall find it convenient to 
define some of his terms anew, without intend- 
ing to change the signification he attaches to 
them, unless such change is expressly noted. 

1. High, Mid, Low. High vowels are 
those pronounced with the articulating part of 
the tongue raised nearly to the palate. Low 
vowels are those which have least elevation of 
any part of the tongue. Mid vowels are half 
way between high and low. /and are high 
vowels, e and o are mid, ^ (as in man) and y 
(as in not) are low. 

2. Front, Mixed, Back. For front vowels 
the tongue is massed in the front of the mouth ; 
for back vowels it is massed in the back ; 
mixed vowels are those which are neither 
back nor front. 2 /, e, ^ are front vowels ; 
the Russian j'ery, the vowel in the last syllable 
of defter, and the vowel in sir are mixed ; u, o, 
o are back. 

3. Wide, Narrow. Any vowel may be 
wide or narrow : it is wide when the part of 
the tongue raised to pronounce it is as flat as 
possible; it is narrow when the elevated part 
of the tongue is surmounted by an additional 
local hump of small height, which somewhat 
narrows the voice-passage. This is the differ- 
ence between the vowel in English fin and 
that in French fine, between e in Eng. ten and 
e in Fr. the, between ce in Eng. fat and e in 
Fr. fete; between the vowel in Eng.///// and 
that in Vr.fotile, etc. 

VERTICAL MOVEMENTS OF TONGUE AND JAW. 

The following experiment, as well as all 
others mentioned in this article, should be 
performed before a glass and in a good light. 
It is taken for granted that the observer is by 
birth an English-speaking person. 

Pronounce successively, in a perfectly 
natural way, a wide / (as in pin), a wide e (as 
in pen), a wide a: (as in pan), it will be seen 
that in passing from z to e and from e to re 
there is a lowering of the front part of the 
tongue, but not of the very point, which 
remains about stationary behind the lower 
front teeth ; this lowering may be made more 
evident by throwing back the head and letting 
a strong light shine into the mouth. There 

2 This definition of mixed vowels is slightly different from 
SWKET'S and still more so from HELL'S. 



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may also be a slight sinking of the jaw. If 
tliis he the case, try pronouncing tin- same 
vowels with the jaw perfectly still : it can be 
iltnie without the least difficulty, with the jaw 
in any position, from that of i to one far below 
that of <t, or even with the jaws firmly closed, 
provided the lips be widely separated so as to 
let the sound out. That is, the tongue-move- 
ment alone is enough to distinguish these 
vowels. This tongue-movement can be well 
shown by going through the series with the 
jaw as low as possible. 

Now produce the same sounds, distinguish- 
ing them by lowering the jaw, without any 
independent movement of the tongue whatso- 
ever. This can, after a little practice, be done 
with ease ; but the jaw-movement, though not 
necessarily causing a difference of over six or 
si-ven millimeters between the i and the ce 
positions, will evidently be greater here than 
in the natural articulation of the vowels. The 
e and ce produced in this, way have a some- 
what more open sound than those formed by 
tongue-action alone. 

Similar experiments can be performed with 
the narrow front vowels (French /, <?, e), which, 
it will be noted, become closer in quality the 
nearer the jaws are brought together; also 
with the wide back vowels ( in full, o in 
German Sonne, y in not) and the narrow back 
vowels ( in German du, o in French sot, y in 
law). 

It is possible also to pronounce the whole 
vowel system with the jaws shut (if only the 
lips be kept well apart), the sound then having 
a closer quality than when uttered with the 
natural mouth-opening. 

The foregoing experiment leads us to the 
conclusion that high, mid, and low vowels 
may be distinguished in three different ways : 
ist, by lowering the tongue ; 2d, by sinking 
the jaw ; 3(1, by combining these two methods. 
In ordinary Kng'ish the tongue-lowering is 
probably accompanied by a slight dropping of 
the jaw. SWKKT says (' Handbook of Pho- 
netics,' i 77, p. 12): "The height of the 
tongue is partly due to the action of the 
muscles of the tongue itself, but also in a 
great degree to the movements of the jaw." 
But if we actually measure this jaw move- 
ment, we shall find it to be extremely small : 



tin- maximum difference, in English as usually 
spoken, between /and & is probably not over 
three millimeters. Is this the case in other 
languages ? MERKEL (' Physiologic der men- 
schlichen Sprache,' 1866, p. 103) makes the 
difference between i and/? seven millimeters3 
PASSV (' Kurze Darstellung des franzosischen 
Lautsystems," in Fhonctischc Sludien, I, i, p. 24) 
gives diagrams which point to about the same 
amount of jaw-lowering ; WESTERN ('Engilsche 
Lautlehre,' 1885, pp. 5 and 83) clearly implies 
that, although i, e, and <?can be distinguished 
by tongue-action, the only difference between 
them in point of fact lies in the position of the 
jaw. All this testimony goes to show that in 
German, French, and Norwegian the jaw- 
movement is the main feature. That this is 
true of at least some other European lan- 
guages a careful examination of foreigners will 
prove. 

We may sum up our results as follows : ist, 
the distinction between high, mixed, and low 
vowels depends on the distance of the highest 
part of the tongue from the palate; 2d, Eng- 
lish-speaking people obtain this characteristic 
difference mainly by tongue-movement ; 3d, 
Continental Europeans obtain it chiefly by 
moving the jaw; 4th, this difference of 
methods accounts for the "close" quality of 
English pronunciation as compared with 
Continental European accents. 

ROUNDING. 

Pronounce y (as in law), o (as in so), u (as in 
too), o (as in French fieu), ii (as in French /) : 
at first sight the most striking feature of these 
vowels seems to be the rounding or puckering 
of the lips. This rounding is naturally least 
for low and greatest for high vowels. It may 
take various shapes; SIEVERS says ('Grund- 
ziige der Phonetik,' 1885, p. 93): " Was . . . 

3 The various lip-positions are illustrated by TKCHMER 
(Internationale 7-titschrift, I, i, Tab. Ill) in a scries of 
drawings which would indicate a far greater degree of jaw. 
lowering than that noted by MEKKKI. ; these figures can, 
however, scarcely be supposed to represent the mouth-posi- 
tions occurring in ordinary speech. TKAVTMANN also I'Die 
Sprachlaute,' pp. 41-43) attaches the greatest importance to 
jaw-position. 

4 Italians commonly speak of the English accent as ttretto. 
C. H. c. 

A Frenchman in Merlin used the word //<-<' in speaking of 
my French pronunciation some fourteen years ago. B. s. s. 



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die Formunterschiede in der Rundung betrifft, 
so unterscheide man im Einzelnen, ob die 
Rundung bloss durch Verticalbewegung der 
Lippen gegeneinander erzeugt wird, . . . oder 
durch Einziehung der Mundwinkel, . . . oder 
durch beides zugleich . . . ; ferner ob die Lippen 
ihren natiirlichen Abstand von den Zahnen 
behalten oder an diese starker angepresst 
oder aber vorgestiilpt und dadurch von den 
Zahnen abgehoben werden." If we compare 
our pronunciation of o and u with that of a 
Frenchmen or a German, we shall see that 
our iip^roundlng is generally less energetic, 
being free from compression as well as from 
protrusion : this difference in production ac- 
counts for the difference in effect. If, more- 
over, we pronounce each of the rounded 
vowels with the lips in various positions, we 
shall find that, other things being equal, the 
round effect always becomes more intense as 
the size of the lip-aperture is reduced. 

Next let us try producing the rounded 
vowels with the jaws closed and with the 
corners of the mouth stretched out as far as 
possible toward the ears : they can all be 
pronounced perfectly in this way, provided 
the lips be separated enough to let the air 
escape between and around the teeth. When, 
however, the lips are brought closer together, 
the vowels become more rounded than in 
actual speech ; y, which has normally but 
little rounding, sounds particularly unnatural. 
If the lips be closed entirely, the rounded 
vowel culminates in the consonant b. 

Let us try one more experiment. While 
pronouncing any unrounded vowel, cover the 
mouth-aperture with the hand : the sound 
obtained has the effect of lip-rounding ; the 
closer the hand is pressed, the more intense 
the rounding becomes, and when no air is 
allowed to escape, the sound passes into a b. 

We infer, then, that the lip-rounded effect 
is produced by closure of the mouth-aperture. 
If the closure be complete, the result is b, 
which is the limit of all lip-rounded vowels ; 
the nearer the lip-position is to complete 
closure, the more intense is the lip-rounded 
quality. Our conclusion is borne out by the 
acoustic effect of lip-rounding. If we were to 
describe this effect, we should probably call it 
a " tight " or "shut-up" quality, and should 



doubtless compare it to the sound obtained 
by talking into a tumbler. 

Lip-rounding is, however, not the only sort 
of rounding, nor is it always the more im- 
portant kind. In English, as we have already 
seen, the lips are much less used than in some 
and perhaps in nearly all the languages of 
Continental Europe : Englishmen and Ameri- 
cans can, in fact, without much trouble pro- 
duce a good 3 or o and a fairly good u without 
any lip-contraction whatsoever. 5 The sounds 
thus obtained are, to be sure, slightly different 
from the ordinary rounded vowels, but still 
they are distinctly round. What gives them 
this quality? SWEET says ('H. of Ph., pp. 13, 
14) : " Rounding is a contraction of the mouth 
cavity by lateral compression of the cheek 
passage and narrowing of the lip aperture. . . 
... It will be observed that the action of 
rounding is always concentrated on that part 
of the mouth where the vowel is formed. In 
rounding front vowels, such as the high-front- 
round (y), as in the French lune, the cheek 
compression is concentrated chiefly on the 
corners of the mouth and that part of the 
cheeks immediately behind them, while in 
back vowels, such as the high-back-round (),- 
the chief compression is at the back of the 
cheeks. Lip-narrowing is, therefore, some- 
thing secondary in back-rounded vowels, as it 
is possible to form them entirely with cheek- 
rounding or 'inner-rounding.' " SIEVERS ('G. 
der Ph.,' 1885, p. 94) comments on this passage 
as follows : " Es ist richtig, dass bei cler Run- 
dung durch Anpressung der Lippen an die 
Zahne auch die Wangen z. Th. eine straffere 
Spannung annehmen, aber ich vermag niclit 
dieser eine derartig besondere Bedeutung 
beizulegen wie BELL und SWEET es 'thun, da 
doch die Wangen auch in schlaffem Zustande 
an den Zahnreihen anzuliegen pflegen, und 
also die Gestalt des Resonanzraumes auf diese 
Weise nicht wesentlich verandert werden 
kann." That there is no necessary contraction 
of the cheeks in pronouncing hack-rounded 
vowels, either with or without lip-rounding, 
anybody can convince himself by holding his 

5 The natural facility of English-speaking people in pro- 
nouncing rounded vowels without contracting the mouth- 
aperture gives them peculiar advantages for studying the 
tongue-movements accompanying these sounds. 



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362 



finger against his cheek while passing from 
the unrounded // in but to tin- rounded in 
note ; for front rounded vowels tin- "cheek 
compression" is evidently nothing hut tin- 
tension caused l.y puckering tin- li|>s. EVANS 
('Spelling Experimenter,' 1X82) dt-clares it is 
possible, without using the lips, to form one 
after another the vowels /, e, a, o, u by draw- 
ing back the tongue from the front of the 
mouth ; lip-rounding he regards merely as a 
substitute for tongue-retraction. Although 
there is some truth in this, it will be clear to 
any one who closely watches his tongue while 
trying to perform the experiment described, 
that other elements than mere retraction are 
necessary to distinguish the vowels of the 
series. Finally VIKTOR (' Elemente der 
Phonetik,' 1887, p. 17) remarks, after describ- 
ing the usual rounding by lip-contraction : 
"Ein ahnlicher Klangeffect kann durch ver- 
schiedenartige Zungenrundung, die sich auch 
leicht mit der Lippenrundung verbindet, . . . 
erzielt werden." 

Let us try by a few experiments to ascertain 
the true nature of this " inner " or, as VIKTOR 
calls it, "tongue-rounding." Pronounce the 
back rounded vowels (u, o, y) with the mouth 
as wide open as possible : y is pronounced 
easily and nearly perfectly, o undergoes a 
slight modification in quality, u is more mod- 
ified and is harder to produce. Practice the 
o for some time with the mouth wide open, 
until it sounds as nearly as possible like a 
natural o. Now pass rapidly, without moving 
the jaw or lips, from this o to the unrounded 
vowel in but (which we shall call v), and back 
again. In changing from v to o the tongue 
will be seen to draw back and up, and also to 
undergo a violent lateral contraction just in 
front of its highest point. This contraction 
may take either one of two forms : either the 
whole upper front part of the tongue will be 
so pinched as to become very thin laterally 
and correspondingly thick vertically, while a 
farrow is developed low down on each side; 
or the shape just described will be modified 
by a marked deepening of the permanent 
central groove that divides tin- tongue length- 
wise. The elfect of this lateral compression 
is double: it increases the height of the artic- 
ulating part of the tongue, and it enlarges the 



cavity in front of this highest point. In other 
words, compression supplements the retrac- 
tion and elevation of the tongue already 
noted. 

The participation of the tongue in the round- 
ing of the front vowels has been noted and 
described by VIKTOK (' K. der 1'h..' 1887^.85): 
" Dass bei meiner Aussprache des geschloss- 
enen b in Of en und des geschlossenen it in 
Ubel, welche ich fur die biihnengemasse halte, 
die Zungenstellung nicht ganz dieselbe ist, 
wie bei e in ew ig, bezw. * in Igel, davon habe 
ich mich durch den Augenschein und Ex- 
perimente iiberzeugt. Die Vorderzunge bil- 
det bei den gerundeten Vokalen eine ziemlich 
flache Langsrinne ; das Zungenblatt ist rings 
etwas gehoben. Ein nach dem Gaumen bin 
eingefiihrter Federhalter o. dgl. steht an der 
namlichen Stelle der e-, bezw. /- Artikulation 
im Wege, wo dies fur o, bezw. u nicht der Fall 
ist. Offne ich den Mund etwas weiter, als 
dies fur die Laute normal ist, so zeigt es sich, 
dass sich die flache Rinne nach oben rechts 
und links verzweigt und so eine nach drei 
Seiten hin eingebuchtete Vertiefung bildet." 

The essential point is that a hollow is formed 
i in front of the articulating part of the tongue. 
i After repeating VIKTOR'S experiments, we 
i may try producing these vowels with the 
| mouth wide open, that is, without lip-round- 
ing: under these circumstances the ii and the 
j o, though still recognizable, lose much of the 
quality they have in actual speech. In pass- 
ing (with open mouth) from / to or from e to 
o the tongue is slightly lowered and drawn 
back, it is, moreover, contracted, and may 
j take either one of two shapes: the one is an 
i exaggeration of that described by VIKTOR ; 
the other, in its extreme form, is nearly that 
of an egg seen from the small end. SIKVFKS 
is perhaps thinking of this second variety 
when he says (' G. der Ph.,' 1885, pp. 93 and 96, 
; 97) that German ii has the tongue-position of.r. 
Whichever position the tongue assumes, there 
is always a cavity in front of its articulating 
part. This cavity seems to be a necessary 
feature of inner rounding, /can be changed 
to // and c to o merely by the formation of an 
artificial cavity just outside the lips. 

The above facts lead us to the conclusion that 
the conformation necessary for inner round- 



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364 



ing is that of a narrow passage connecting two 
cavities. Narrowing the passage intensifies 
the rounding ; enlargement of the front cavity 
helps the rounding, and, if great enough, 
changes the nature of the vowel. The a- 
coustic effect of inner rounding is, as we have 
seen, analogous to that of lip-rounding, but not 
identical with it. 

Have we, however, discovered all the factors 
that combine to produce inner rounding ? 
The following experiment will show that we 
have not. Lower the jaw so that the two rows 
of teeth are about -a quarter of an inch apart, 
press the point of the tongue firmly against 
the front teeth of both jaws, distend the lips in 
all directions, and round e by lateral com- 
pression of the tongue : a tolerably good o will 
be the result ; but it is also possible, without 
any visible change in tongue or jaw, to pro- 
duce a perfectly clear a. What constitutes 
the difference between these two sounds? If, 
while uttering these vowels, we direct .our 
attention not to the mouth, but to the throat, 
we shall notice a vigorous motion just above 
the Adam's apple. As we pass from o to a 
(producing both sounds in the way just de- 
scribed) the throat sinks in, as we return to o 
it swells out. If we open the mouth wide 
while making this change, we shall notice also 
that the top of the tongue is nearly level for a, 
whereas for this o the back part is raised 
nearly to the palate. Next pass from o to v 
(as in but): the throat-movement, though less 
marked, is still plainly perceptible. BELL was 
probably referring to this throat-swelling 
when he said that "the mechanical cause of 
round quality commences in the superglottal 
passage " (quoted by SWEET, 'H. of Ph., 'p. 13). 
If we now try to localize still further this 
throat-expansion by applying the fingers to 
the throat while performing the a-'o experi- 
ment, we shall find that it consists in the 
protrusion of the hjyoid bone. 6 Grasping this 
bone as firmly as we can between the thumb 
and fore-finger, let us next try to discover 
what positions it occupies when we pronounce 
unrounded vowels. In ordinary breathing, 

6The hyoid bone is shaped like a horseshoe with the round 
end pointing outward ; it is situated at the base of the tongue, 
just above the larynx. Its position can be felt by passing 
from a to the consonant ti and holding, the latter as long as 
possible. |- i 



and also in producing all unrounded back 
(French & in pate, v in English but, the vowel 
in Scotch laogh?) and all unrounded low 
vowels (French d in pdte, and the low-mixed 
vowel, and English ^ in rat), the bone is 
retracted nearly as far as possible, and the 
muscles 8 connecting it with the jaw-bone are 
relaxed ; but when we pass from any of these 
sounds to e or to the Russian Jery,9 it comes 
forward, and for i it advances still further, 10 the 
genio-hyoid muscle becoming very tense and 
very prominent. There is probably a slight 
protrusion for the mid-mixed vowel also. 
Now, as the hyoid bone is attached to the 
base of the tongue, the protrusion of the bone 
drags the lower back part of the tongue for- 
ward, away from the epiglottis. We can feel 
this movement if we insert the finger so far 
into the mouth that the end of it is between 
the raised epiglottis and the back of the tongue. 
This displacement of bulk at the bottom of 
the tongue inevitably increases the height of 
some spot on the top ; and in point of fact we 
find that it is used in the formation of those 
vowels (high-mixed, high-front, mid-front) 
whose necessary elevation other means are 
inadequate to produce. Next let us note the 
position of the bone while we pass from the 
various unrounded vowels to their correspond- 
ing inner-rounded sounds: that is, while passing 
without lip-action from d \npdte to 3 in Eng- 
lish not, from v to o, from the vowel of lao^h 
to u, from ^ to 6 in French peur, from e to o 
in French pen, from /to u in French pn. In 
every case, except .that of the low-back, \ve 
shall see that the rounded vowel is accom- 
panied by a greater protrusion of the bone 
than the unrounded. The low-back vowels, 
both narrow and wide, can be produced with 
a slight protrusion, but they can also be (and 
perhaps generally are) pronounced without it. 
If we go through as many of the above 
changes as we can with the finger inserted in 
the mouth as far as the epiglottis, we can feel, 
as we pronounce the rounded vowels, a vio- 
lent up-lifting of the articulating part of the 
tongue ; for instance, as we pass from a mid- 
back a to an o, the finger is thrown up toward 
the soit palate. 

7 An unrounded vowel formed in the -position. 8 See 
TKCHMEK, /. /,., I, i, p. 136. 9 High-mixed. 10 See MEK- 
KKI., ' 1>. der m. S.,' pp. 37, 103. 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



All this goes to confirm our theory that the 
main feature of inner rounding is a narrow 
i \\> <!! |>;ilat<- and tongue. In the 
high-mixed position, where we always have a 
small passage with a cavity on each side, it is 
impossible- to pronounce a sound that does 
not strike the ear as rounded. It is also very 
hard to produce a high-back vowel entirely 
devoid of rounding. To round the high-front 
and perhaps the mid-front, where a narrow 
passage already exists, all that is required is 
the formation of a front cavity, but this neces- 
sitates a retraction of the tongue and causes 
tin- passage to recede ; in fact, if the cavity be 
formed by lateral compression of the tongue, 
the narrow passage is, for e, produced far 
back in the mouth, so that the rounded vowel 
is rather mixed than front. When we round 
the" mid-back vowel, we carry the back of the 
tongue upwards and backwards. The low- 
back can be rounded by carrying the tongue 
back toward the lower part of the soft pal- 
ate. For the low-front and the low-mixed 
inner rounding seems to be impossible : when 
we try to round them we lose their characteris- 
tic positions. The mid-mixed can be rounded 
only by a decided elevation of the middle or 
back of the tongue." 

The question now presents itself: does inner 
rounding exist only in the absence of lip-con- 
traction, or is it a regular element of all 
rounded vowels ? As far as the front vowels 
are concerned, this question is answered by 
VIKTOR in the passage quotod above. A cor- 
roboration of his statement is found in 
Romania, 1887, April-October, p. 630, where 
GASTON PARIS remarks, in reviewing a work 
by l\ri>oi,F LKNZ: " L' auteur dit quepour arti- 
culer 1' it la langue prend la meme position que 
pour articuler 1' /. Je ne puis etre de cetavis. 
Si on maintient la langue dans la position tie 
1' i, on ne pent arriver, avec la position voulue 
des levres, a e"mettre un it pur." As for the 
bark vowels, TKCHMKR gives us (/. Z., I, i, 
Tab. Ill, 4, 5) diagrams showing the difference 
in tongue-configuration between a and H : in a 

nl once thought that inner rounding might be produced by 
the cavity between the tongue and the epiglottis sinus glosto- 
rpiglotticus) itself; 1 convinced myself that this could not be 
so, by pressing the epiglottis close against the back of the 
tongue while pronouncing o. I have performed this experi- 
ment a number of times, and have always found the quality 
of the o unaltered by the closure of the sinus. c. H. G. 



the upper surface of the tongue as seen from 
the lips is convex, in u the central groove is 
strongly developed. If additional proof be 
It-sired, round the lips and try to pronounce 
the unrounded front vowels : unless the round- 
ing is abnormally great, a pure i and e can be 
produced. Similarly the unrounded back 
vowels v (as in but) and French & in Idche can 
be formed with the lips puckered. All this 
evidence shows pretty clearly that ordinary 
lip-rounding is not enough to give a round 
quality to sounds ; it follows, then, that a cer- 
tain amount of inner rounding must be a reg- 
ular feature of rounded vowels. A still more 
convincing proof is the fact that all the usual 
rounded vowels, except perhaps y, are accom- 
panied by protrusion of the hyoid bone. An 
absence of inner rounding may, however, be 
compensated for by abnormal protrusion and 
puckering of the lips. If, on the other hand, 
inner rounding be used alone, it is, of course, 
tremendously exaggerated to compensate for 
the loss of lip cooperation. 

HORIZONTAL MOVEMENTS OF TONGUE AND 

LIPS. 

We have already seen that retraction of the 
tongue is one of the regular elements of inner 
rounding. We have also referred to a state- 
ment of EVANS that the effect of rounding can 
be produced by tongue retraction alone. Let 
us try passing from front to mixed and from 
mixed to back, without rounding of any kind : 
we find that there is a constant increase in a 
quality which is akin to rounding, but is not 
the same thing. We may call it a "hollow" 
quality, as compared with the "clear " effect 
of the front vowels. /, e, and re produce the 
effect of being, as it were, uttered at the lips 
and transmitted directly to the ear; whereas 
the back vowels remind one of sounds re- 
echoing through a large and empty room. 
The acoustic effect gives us a clue to the char- 
acteristic difference between these two sets of 
vowels: hollow sounds are produced with a 
large cavity in front of the articulating part of 
the tongue, clear vowels are characterized by 
the absence of such a cavity. Front or clear 
vowels have, moreover, a space of considerable 
si/e behind the articulating part of the tongue ; 
this empty space, into which the finger (or even 
two or three fingers) can easily be inserted, 



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368 



may be of importance in determining the 
nature of clear sounds. 12 

The effect of the front cavity (the distinguish- 
ing mark of hollow vowels) can be shown in 
the following way. Place the hands together 
in the form of a cup, and while pronouncing 
& hold this cup close in front of the mouth : if 
the cup be a very shallow one, the result is a 
lip-rounded low-mixed ; if the cup be bigger 
we obtain a lip-rounded y. If, now, during 
the emission of the sounds, we open these 
cups, so as to let the air escape freely, without 
destroying the artificial cavity in front of the 
lips, the shallow one will give us approximate- 
ly an unrounded low-mixed, the deep one ap- 
proximal^ly a low-back a. Similar experi- 
ments can be performed with e and /: here, 
however, there is always a rounded effect, 
owing to elevation of the tongue. For the i 
position, moreover, mere protrusion of the lips 
gives the same result as the application of the 
cup : an i pronounced with the lips greatly 
advanced and puckered sounds like the high- 
mixed-rounded ; while the latter, produced 
with the same amount of protrusion, becomes 
u. These facts prove that for the ear the 
effect of front, mixed, and back (or of clear 
and hollow) depends on the position of the 
articulating part of the tongue with regard to 
the whole mouth-cavity. 

The acoustic effect of hollowing is, as we 
have seen, very like that of rounding ; and a 
certain amount of hollowing is a necessary ele- 
ment of all inner rounding. It may also be 
said that in most of the languages commonly 
studied, the extreme hollow quality is general- 
ly accompanied by rounding of some kind : 
that is, unrounded back vowels are tolerably 
scarce, except in English. The English 
language has at least two of them, a and v. 
In the English rounded vowels, too, we have 
seen that retraction and elevation of the 
tongue (that is, extra hollowing and extra in- 
ner rounding combined) take, to a certain ex- 
tent, the place of lip rounding. When, more- 
over, the Englishman tries to imitate a French 
or German o, he invariably substitutes hollow- 
ing for rounding : that is to say, he pronounces 
the low-mixed instead of the mid-front-round. 

12 See the Proceedings of the American Philological Socie- 
ty for 1884, pp. xxxviii-xl. 



If, now, we analyze the sound of the back 
rounded vowels, we find that in u the round 
quality is stronger than the hollow, that in 
English o the round effect and the hollow are 
about equal, while in y the hollowing is by far 
the more important element. We can, in fact, 
pronounce the low-back-wide without any 
rounding whatsoever,^ and yet the vowel 
sounds slightly round, as compared with a low- 
back a. Passing, with the mouth wide open, 
from low-back a to this unrounded y, we 
notice that there is a sinking of the whole front 
part of the tongue, and especially of the part 
just in front of the y position : in other words 
the unrounded low-back vowel which sounds 
rounded requires a larger front cavity than the 
low-back vowel that has an unrounded effect. 
This fact leads us to the conclusion that a 
maximum of hollowing is acoustically equiva- 
lent to a minimum of rounding : the low-back 
position is the one where rounding and hollow- 
ing meet. The clear quality (as represented 
by a:) is, on the other hand, the opposite of 
both hollowing and rounding. We might, 
therefore, if we chose, arrange the vowels in 
the form of a triangle, at the apex of which 
,we should place the vowel which is easiest to 
round without lip-action and capable of the 
most intense inner rounding (the high-mixed or 
the high-back), while ^ and unrounded y would 
occupy the two lower corners. It is, however, 
important to remember that in most cases the 
difference between clear, inner-rounded, and 
hollow is one of degree rather than of kind : 
for this reason any such triangular arrange- 
ment as the one just proposed would probably 
be unfit for practical use. It will suffice to 
note, in the case of every vowel, whether its 
degree of clearness, hollowing, and -inner 
rounding corresponds to the amount that is 
normal for its position in the Sweet system. 
For instance, all back vowels are regularly 
hollow ; but if the front cavity of an u be 
diminished by raising or carrying forward the 
front of the tongue, we should describe the 
as "clear;" and, on the other hand, if the 

13 In my own natural pronunciation the vowel of not has 
no trace of rounding of any kind, yet it is quite distinct in 
sound from any variety of a. I am not sure whether my 
natural narrow 3 is rounded or not; I can certainly pronounce 
this vowel without any lip or tongue movement that seems 
like rounding. c. u. (;. 



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370 



ft position be modified by flattening tlie front 
elevation of the tongue, we should call the- 
n-suit a "hollow" low-front vowel. Like- 
wise an / that is changed by tin- formation of a 
front cavity would be an "inner-rounded" 
high-front. Lip-rounding we should have to 

note separately. 

TllE </-SiU'NDS. 

One of tin- points on which there ismostdis- 
u-n ement among phoneticians is the position 
of the vowel a. MERKEL, writing in 1866 (P. 
der ni. S,' |>. 82), says that during the produc- 
tion of this vowel " die mittlere Partie des 

Zungenriickens bewegt sich . . . etvvas 

nach oben und hinten Die Spitze der 

Zunge steht etwa io //x vonden untern Schnei- 
de/almen ab." This statement, taken in con- 
nection with Fig. 17 of Taf. I, shows clearly 
that MERKEL'S a is a back vowel. BELL and 
SWEET define a as a mid-back-wide.M and 
SIEVERS accepts this definition. On the other 
hand VIETOR, TECHMER, and TRAUTMANN 
agree substantially with WESTERN, who 
describes (' E. L.', p. 4) the production of a as 
an articulation " bei welcher die Zunge ganz 
platt wie in der Ruhelage im Munde liegt, ohne 
dass sich irgend ein Teil derselben iiber das 
Niveau der Zahne erhebt ; auch beriihrt der 
Zungensaum rings umher leise die untern 
Zahne." The French distinguish two kinds of 
a, which seem to be according to PASSY (' K. 
D. des f. Ls.' in Phonetische Stud., I, i), 
respectively low-back (as in pdte] and low- 
mixed (as in patte). The possibility of forming 
a by various methods has been noted by several 
of the writers above-mentioned. BELL calls 
Italian long a a low-back vowel. WESTERN 
admits (' K. L.', p. 83) that a can be formed in 
the mid-back and low-back positions, and also 
that the mid-back a is the ordinary one in Eng- 
lish ; he maintains, however, that Italian and 
North German a are pronounced according to 
his description. SWEET says (' H. of Ph.,' p. 
25) : "This vowel is liable to considerable fluc- 
tuations. It may be lowered nearly to (:i),*s 
as in Italian and Spanish, where it is difficult 
to decide between (a) 10 and (a). It may also 
be advanced almost to the (<'h)'7 position, the 
point of the tongue being kept down, giving 

14 An unrounded vowel formed in the position of wide o. 

15 Low-l>ack-wide. 16 Mid-hack-wide. 17 Mid-mixcd-widc. 



a sound whirh is very like ((f), into whi< h 
it is easily converted by raising the 'inner* 
front of the tongue towards the palate. If the 
point of the tongue is raised, it passes into 
(^h)." In discussing SWEET'S vowel system 
STORM expresses the opinion ('Englische Phi- 
lologie, 1881, pp. 67-69) that the mid-back posi- 
tion is the usual one for English, North-Ger- 
man, and Italian a; French & in pdte he con- 
siders as a low-back vowel ; French a in 
madanie, Spanish a (as in nada], and the arti- 
ficially pronounced English a in pa st (half- way 
between ce and mid-back a) he calls "palatal," 
by which he apparently means mixed. He 
also quotes (p. 67, note 3) the following words 
from a letter written by SWEET : " Note that 
the different kinds of a are really perfectly 
distinct sounds (Danish a, for instance, being 
really more removed from Swedish long a than 
* from / or u from o, etc.) : their inclusion 
under one name is simply the result of defec- 
tive notation." It is assuredly true that the 
various a-sounds are widely different in their 
mode of utterance ; it is, however, equally 
certain that they all produce on the ear the 
effect of different varieties of one and the 
same vowel. The cause of this similarity in 
sound is what we must try to discover. 

Let us take up the nine vowel-positions es- 
tablished by SWEET, and determine in which 
of them a sound can be produced that strikes 
the ear as an a. 

Mid-Back. Unround a narrow o : the vowel 
obtained will be v (as in but). Next unround 
a wide o : the sound will be an ordinary Eng- 
lish a. 

High-Hack. If we try to unround a narrow 
n, we get a sound something like v. A wide 
unrounded gives a vowel that may be classed 
with the a-sounds. Neither of these vowels 
can, however, be entirely divested of rounding. 

Low-Back. We can pronounce a low-back- 
narrow a, which is slightly suggestive of v, 
and also a low-back-wide a, which strikes the 
ear as being the sound of French it in /ache. 
PASSY tells us, to be sure, that this French & 
is narrow ; but as he clearly shows in his de- 
scription of the tongue-position for & and for 
the mixed a (' Phonetische Studien,' I, 2, pp. 
171, 172) that he uses tlie term "narrow" in 
an entirely different sense from that given it 



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372 



by SWEET, and as his description of d exactly 
fits what we should call the low-back-vvide, we 
may safely assume that the French vowel is 
not narrow. 

Mid- Mixed. The mid-mixed position is that 
of the second vowel in better (pronounced, as 
it commonly is in southern England and the 
eastern United States, without the final r). 
This vowel is, however, produced by different 
persons in at least two different ways. Say 
" better," and on finishing it do not let the 
organs of speech move at all : if your pronun- 
ciation is like SWEET'S, you will find that the 
tongue lies loosely in the middle of the mouth, 
the central part slightly rounded up, the front 
edge lightly touching the upper rim of the 
lower front teeth ; the jaws are nearly closed,' 
and the lips are passive. Having obtained 
this position, let us see what changes are 
necessary to produce an a. A decided lower- 
ing of the jaw will give the desired result; so 
will a slight flattening or hollowing of the 
tongue's surface, or a little depression of the 
blade of the tongue, provided there be no ele- 
vation at the back. Persons who, on the other 
hand, pronounce the second vowel of better 
as an "inner " mid-mixed (that is to say, with 
the point of the tongue lowered and withdrawn 
from the teeth, and with a considerable eleva- 
tion of a part between the back and the mixed 
positions), can pass to a by means of a very 
great jaw-lowering or a decided hollowing of 
the front part of the tongue. 

High-Mixed. The high-mixed-wide vowel 
can be obtained by pronouncing wide i as far 
back as possible. The point of the tongue re- 
mains behind the lower front teeth, while the 
centre is lifted up so as almost to touch the 
middle of the palate. The sound is very like 
it. To convert this vowel into an a we must 
resort to a marked retraction of the hyoid 
bone, combined with a degree of tongue-flat- 
tening (not to be compensated for by mere 
lowering of the jaw) that brings it entirely out 
of the high-mixed position : the tongue rises 
steeply from the lower front teeth, its highest 
point being not quite so high as for a?, and 
then extends horizontally to the very back of 
the mouth. A more nearly high-mixed a can 
be obtained by lateral compression of the 
tongue : of this we shall speak later. 



Low-Mixed. The low-mixed-wide vowel 
will result from putting the tongue into mid- 
mixed position and then lowering it. It has a 
soiiu what hollower sound than the mid-mixed 
wide. The least lowering of the jaw or flat- 
tening of the tongue is enough to change this 
vowel into an a. The a described by WESTERN 
is doubtless a flattened low-mixed-wide. 18 
The low-mixed-narrow can be converted into 
a by a decided lowering of the middle of the 
tongue (so that the narrow quality is lost) or by 
* very great lowering of thejaw. 

Mid-Front. In passing from the mid-front, 
narrow or wide, to an a we find that the eleva- 
tion in the front of the tongue is so flattened 
that the ^-position is quite lost, while the cav- 
ity behind the tongue is filled up by drawing 
the back part of the tongue upwards and 
backwards. This latter change can be noted 
by holding the forefinger close to the back of 
the tongue while pronouncing the vowels. 
There is also, as we should expect, a notice- 
able retraction of the hyoid bone. 

High-Front. Neither wide nor narrow / 
can be changed to a except by lateral com- 
pression of the tongue (accompanied by a very 
marked retraction of the hyoid bone), of 
which we shall speak later. 

Low- Front. An ff, wide or narrow, passes 
into a if we bring the back of the tongue up 
nearly to the level of the middle, and either 
lower the jaw or flatten the front elevation. 
This a, which is perhaps the French a in/W/V, 
does not differ essentially from the one ob- 
tained by flattening the mid-mixed ; k is, in 
fact, rather a mixed than a front vowel. 

We may sum up the result of our observa- 
tions by saying that an a can be produced in 
any part of the mouth below a straight line 
drawn through the highest point reached by 
the back of the tongue in pronouncing wide it 
and a point somewhat below that reached by 
the front in pronouncing wide <z", provided : 
ist, that there be no protrusion of the hyoid 
bone \*9 ad, that there be no considerable 
cavity in the back of the mouth behind the 
tongue ; : 9 3d, that there be a large cavity in 
the centre and front of the mouth; 4th, that 
this cavity be not so great as to form an j. 

18 This is my ordinary it. c. H. c;. But not mine n. s. s. 

19 MEKKEL, 'P. der m. S.', p. 103. 



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Tlu- ./-sound dillers from tin- unrounded back 
\owels in tliat it does not require an elevation 
of tin- hack of the ton-ur ; it differs from the 
mixed and front unrounded vowels in that it 
demands a larger ca\ it y in the centre and front 
of tlu; mouth, and a stoppage of the cavity be- 
hind the tongue. 

It is also possihle to produce a in two more 
artificial ways by lateral compression of the 
tongue, and by protrusion of the tongue be- 
yond the lips. 

With the jaw at any height, and with the 
tongue in any unrounded position, narrow or 
wide, low, mid, or high, front or mixed (but 
not hack), we can form an a-sound by so com- 
pressing the tongue that it is thin from side to 
side and thick from top to bottom, provided 
the hyoid hone be retracted and the lip-aper- 
ture he such as to allow the sound to escape 
freely at the sides. Hy this method an ti can 
be produced which, as seen from the lips, has 
the appearance of being high-front or high- 
mixed ; examination will, however, show that 
this a is accompanied by no lowering of the i 
back of the tongue. All the back vowels can, 
moreover, be formed in this same way : they 
differ from one-another in the height of the ; 
back of the tongue ; from a they are dis- 
tinguished apparently by the fact that they re- 
quire an upward slope from front to back, 
whereas for a the top of the tongue is about 
level. 

If the mouth-aperture be tolerably large, 
and the tongue be kept flat and free from any 
local elevation, a can he pronounced with the 
tongue extended far beyond the lips. All the 
low vowels can be produced with this same 
tongue-protrusion : the low-back (as in saw) 
and the low-mixed (as in sir) require, however, 
an elevation respectively of the back and of 
the centre of the tongue ; a" demands a lifting 
in the front of the mouth and a sinking at the 
hack. E can also be produced in this way, 
but with less protrusion than tc\ i admits still 
less than c : for narrow i the tongue can 
scarcely project beyond the lower lip. 

Putting together all the evidence we have 
gathered, we conclude that a is an unrounded 
hollow vowel, hollower than the low mixed, 
and not so hollow as J. When it is pronounced 
in the mid-back or low-back position, its re- 



quisite front cavity is already there; but when 
it is carried forward, room has to be made for 
it by lowering the jaw or by flattening, hol- 
lowing, or compressing the tongue. 



Harvard University, 



C. H. GRANDGENT, 
E. S. SHELDON. 



EKRATA IN THE SIEVERS-COOK 
OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

May I request students of the 'Old English 
Grammar ' to make the following corrections 
in addition to those noted by DR. BRIGHT in 
the March number (p. 82) of this journal ? 

68. For silver read sliver. 

85. For ' an accented ' read 'a stressed.' 

207. For ' smooth guttural and the smooth 
palatal ' read 'surd guttural stop and the surd 
palatal stop.' 

214 (p. 114, second line). For &w&h (dweh) 
read awceh (aweK). 

214, Note 3. For frunon, gefruncn, bru- 
don, brode, strodcn read friinon, gefrftncn, 
brudon, brdden, strdden. 

214, Note 4. For merne read merne. 

% 227. For ' Germanic S3 ' read ' Germanic 
.' 

is 271. For cwift read avift. 

288, Note i. Supply the missing portion 
of the parenthesis after scef. 

382, Note i. For dcwinan read acwinan. 

407, (a). For rdccan read rttcean. 

Page 168 (middle). F9r ' 225.2 b ' read ' 225. 
2.' For ' 145. and note ' read ' 145.' 

Page 262. For ' oSde, conj. 277 ' read ' oSSe, 
conj. 200.' 

Page 263. For plHoic read pleolic. 

Page 264. Under sculan, for 243 read 423. 



of California. 



ALBERT S. COOK. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE SUFFIX -re in 
French ordre, coffre, pantpre, etc. 

InLENz's 'Der Handschuhsheimer Dialekt,* 
I. Teli : Worterverzeichnis.' Konstanz 1887, we 
read on page 23 : " Beilaufig will ich bemer- 

*LKNZ'S treatise on his native dialect is certainly a most 
valuable addition to our dialect investigations and it promises 
to be much more so after the publication of the second part. 



187 



375 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



376 



ken, dass ich furs afr. eine entwicklung von 
lateinischem nachtonigen, sonantisch gewor- 
denen n zu r annehme, also 6rdinem+conson.. 
anlaut : ordr (geschrieben ordre), ordinem+ 
vocal. anlaut : orne, s. Diez Wtbch4. 650. Cf. 
auch franz. dartre, Langres, Havre, diacre, 
Estevre, dombre." When a phonetic law is 
formulated with such restrictions as these, the 
lack of material will often make it very diffi- 
cult to prove either its entire impossibility or 
its absolute necessity. In favor of the case 
discussed here, we might be inclined to quote 
the analogy of a similar, although not an 
equivalent sound-change in Spanish ; and the 
persistence of the consonant before the r 
shows that we have indeed to deal with an 
original n and r sonans. Yet, when we ex- 
amine the question in connection with other 
facts, we may perhaps come to a different 
conclusion, and prefer an explanation which I 
wish here to submit to the consideration of 
Romance scholars. 

We will first add to LENZ'S list : Acre (Ac- 
CON) coffre (COPHINUM) painpre (PAMPINUM) ; 
some other words may have escaped our 
attention. The -re of these words, according 
to my opinion, is due not to any phonetic law 
but to an analogical change of suffix, caused 
by the many nouns in -re, which normally 
existed in the language : prestre, fenestre, 
maistre, arbre, etc., etc. It is true, that this 
-re never became a really " living suffix " in 
French, but we cannot help admitting its in- 
fluence in the formation of such words as es- 
clandre, apotre, titre, chapitre, epitre, martre, 

I wish that some thorough specialist in Germanics would 
make our readers acquainted with the chief results obtained 
by the author. Here only a few questions : the first element 
of Ititiitut seems to be the German Leid ? May mastung 
(suffix-- instead of -ing) contain or be influenced by Dung'', 
Should not mhd. meister meinster have been brought into 
connection with tneist, meinst, rather than with /<./? 
Meinst might have received ll.c nasal from ininst, ininnest. 
paste reminds one of ab-bastelu. :ruln seems to be connect- 
ed with troddel. With " as kut esprich" cp. the Swiss " as 
in": chit" and the Saxon " als G.it tier fferre" (in ' BLIEM- 
CHEN IN LONDON'). Der /tern' in the Saxon saying is, of 
course, a transformation of snnie form of reden. Hut the 
whole expression remains difficult to explain. If the ex- 
clamation ma.i \ cou'd be simply undjrstood as the possessive 
pron. mein sc. Gott. it might be compared with the English 
O my ! and dear me \ I think dear me is not, as generally 
believed=Italian dio mio, but<j!fr my Lord, the last word 
being left out for obvious reasons. 



chartre, costre, cordre, and especially Sambrc, 
celestre, escientre, encre, diantre, gouffre, 
fi/andre, perhaps goinfre, gouliafre, safre and 
others of doubtful origin. 

On the other hand, some of the nouns 
with n in their etymon occur also without the 
r. They have, then, preserved the , and 
still the preceding consonant has not disap- 
peared, which proves that here also n was 
originally sonans : juefne, Estefne, ordene; we 
must, of course, not quote asne, chesne, al- 
mosne in this connection, nor imagene, which 
is not a popular word but a learned form, as 
nearly all its sounds show. Have (beside 
havrc) has entirely lost the suffix, and other 
double forms of a similiar character are golfe: 
gouffre, coulte: cotre, marte: martre, (while 
Montmarthe : Montmartre should probably be 
understood differently). Consequently there 
must have been in the language some uncer- 
tainty as regards the suffix -re, and we have 
just seen that it must have been added ana- 
logically in some cases. The question accord- 
ingly arises, whether we shall simply admit its 
influence in all the forms concerned, or whether 
we prefer to lay down phonetic laws, based 
upon only a few words which can be easily 
explained otherwise. 

GUSTAF KARSTKN. 

Indiana University. 

DESIRE NISARD AND THE HIS- 
TOR Y OF LITER A TURE. 

A noticeable feature of the reminiscences of 
DESIRE NISARD in the French periodicals is 
the absence of views on his influence as a 
critic. Old pupils of the Ecole Norm ale skc-Lrh 
his directorship of that institution, his person- 
al bearing, his attitude towards the Erhpire, 
comment on the legend of the "Two Morals," 
but in their mention of his -works cast hardly 
a glance at his master-piece, nor attempt an 
estimate of his services as a historian of 
literature. 

Reasons for this neglect are obvious. The 
memory of NISARD'S campaign against Ro- 
manticism, much more his silence in the face 
of Realism, unite to make all literary critics of 
the present generation hostile to him. The 
few adherents of the Classical school have not 
yet spoken. 



1 88 



377 



Jim,-. MODERN LANGUAGl VOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



378 



Yet Iln ' History i'l Fn-ix h Literature' is of 
no small actual impoi lance. However vulgar 
it may be to estimate literary success from the 
publisher's point of \ie\v, in the case of a book 
ofsolid reading, full ofanalyses and arguments, 
which has no longer tin- attraction of novelty 
anil which is rather out of fashion than other- 
wist-, the demand of the public furnishes an 
indication of its influence. Its prefaces are its 
milestones. NISAKD signed his first preface 
in iS.j4, his third in 1863, his seventh and final 
in 1X79; but he lived to authorize the fourteenth 
edition. Thus in sixteen years, 1863-1879, four 
editions appeared: in the following eight, 
seven were necessary. So increasing a popu- 
larity cannot be wisely ignored. 

NISAKD was a critic of clear-cut theories. 
He chose his measure and abided by it. 
There is thus a unity in his work, a close con- 
nection of its parts, a constantly recurring 
standard of appreciation, which gives to it 
unexcelled order and clearness. His purpose, 
as he states at length in the first chapter, is to 
write a history of literature and not a literary 
history in the manner of the Benedictines. It is 
also not to be a history of language, though 
his distinction here is less obvious, for further 
on he states that all French writing previous 
to the Renaissance belongs to the history of 
language. Literature, he continues, begins 
with the appearance of art and ceases with its 
disappearance. By art in literature, he means 
the expression of general truths in a perfect 
language; that is, a language perfectly con- 
formed to the genius of the country where it 
is spoken and to the spirit of humanity. It 
must therefore be a language formed and 
fixed. Hence the history of literature is the 
history of that which, in literary productions, 
has not ceased to be true, living and acting, 
and, in this instance, the history of that which 
is essential, constant and unchangeable in the 
French spirit. Now this spirit, according to 
NISARD, is preeminently practical, doing away 
with vain curiosity and idle speculations, in 
which quality alone it differs from the spirit of 
antiquity. It favors discipline rather than lib- 
erty. This difference has its cause in the in- 
lluence of Christianity, which develops Un- 
practical side of human nature. That mirror 
of the l-'rench spirit which reflects its image 



most exactly, is naturally to be found in its 
language. Those writers who most faithfully 
return the reflection of the French spirit have 
alone survived in the mind of the nation and 
are alone to !/< considered by the historian. 
It is his duty to compare the original with the 
portrait and to render reasons for the judg- 
ment that France has instinctively given. 

How NISAKU in the individual applica- 
tion of his rule would be a fruitless repetition 
of former criticisms. In general it is best 
adapted to prose writing and he does not hesi- 
tate to treat nearly all the literary prose pro- 
ductions from the time of VILLEHARDOUN. 
I He finds in the early chroniclers and in certain 
j of the early poems, 'Roland,' 'Renart,' the 
| ' Roman de la Rose ' various traits of the 
French spirit and much of the language of 
I durable works. The prose of the sixteenth 
| century commands his increasing approbation 
until in DESCAKTKS and PASCAL he finds the 
models he has sought. Poetry, on the other 
i hand, is but little suited to the requirements of 
NISAKD. He has before his eyes the fear of 
i BOILEAU. No notion of the lyric poetry of 
: the Middle Ages before CHARLES D' ORLEANS. 
! No mention of BAIF, BELLEAU, PASSEKAT, 
while the pages devoted to RONSARD are but 
a prose commentary of BOILEAU'S lines. 
LA FONTAINE he praises, ANDRE CHENIER he 
calls a true poet. 

The chapter on MOLIERE is inferior only to 

to those on DESCARTES and PASCAL in analy- 

i sis, enthusiastic estimate and style, but 

MOLIERE is to him rather the embodiment of 

' the French spirit than a writer of either prose 

or poetry. So in his condemnation of FENK- 

LON and ROUSSEAU he pays his respects rather 

: to their " chimerical " spirit of liberty than to 

their manner. 

The principal defect in the rule of NISARD 
seems to be the assumption that art exists 
in a fixed language only, meaning thereby 
the language of the seventeenth century, the 
language of RACINE. It may be disputed 
against him whether each period of linguistic 
development does not have its artistic lan- 
guage and whether productions that mir- 
ror faithfully the spirit of that age may not be 
considered as literature. The /a is of Marie 
ile France or of 'Aucassin et Nicolette ' bear in 



189 



379 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES 1888. No. 6. 



380 



their grace and beauty no less trace of artistic 
effort than does 'Andromaque.' France, at 
least, no longer refuses to recognize in them 
its image, and thus exposes the arbitrary limits 
of NISARD to the danger of seeing succeeding 
epochs render justice to what had before been 
unknown or disdained. 

Exception might likewise be taken to the 
statement that the predominant trait of the 
French mind is the practical. That common 
sense prevails in French literature is seen in 
the tendency towards satire. Yet it is a ques- 
tion whether this arises so much from a prac- 
tical bent as from aversion to what lacks order, 
moderation ; or, as NISARD says, from desire 
for discipline. There is, however, a logical 
sequence of thought, rigorous in its unfolding, 
running through French literature, whose 
result, practical or otherwise, depends entirely 
on the premises. 

From another standpoint NISARD'S defini- 
tion of art might perhaps be open to objection : 
as to whether literature must always present 
general truths. Human nature remains the 
same in its outlines, but each change of social 
surroundings brings into prominence different 
shades of thought and emotion. That all 
variations of humanity are essentially the 
same general truths may be philosophically 
axiomatic, but whether the presentation in 
literature of these variations is accepted as 
true in all time may be open to doubt. The 
novels of the seventeenth century may be con- 
ceded to represent certain phases of the hu- 
man mind, but it is evident that NISARD does 
not consider them to be literature. DAUDET 
is beyond cavil an artist, but a change of social 
conditions will render his best works unread- 
able. 

Thus the history of literature has for us a 
broader meaning than is afforded by the defi- 
nition of NISARD. It is the history of the 
human mind expressed in language. The 
study of human thought in the various periods 
of its manifestation, which by no means im- 
plies the study of all linguistic productions 
but rather of those that are typical, leads to 
an intelligence of national traits that can be 
used as a basis of comparison for the striking 
characteristics of each period. The rule of 
NISARD embraces but a part of the truth ; it 
was also not applied impartially or indepen- 



dently. Yet with its shortcomings, its one- 
sidedness, we owe to it many admirable de- 
lineations of works and authors, among which 
are the best presentations of some of the 
greatest writers of France, a valuable defence 
of classical taste, and a constant incentive to 
express the true by the beautiful. 



F. M. WARREN. 



Jo/ins Hopkins University. 



OLD ENGLISH LITER A TURE. 

English Writers. Ap attempt towards a 
History of English Literature. By HENRY 
MORLEV, LL. D., Professor of English 
Literature at University College, London. 
Vol. I, Introduction. Origins. Old Celtic 
Literature. Beowulf. Cassell & Co., 
1887. Vol. II. From Caedmon to the 
Conquest. 1888. 

This edition of PROFESSOR MORLEV'S 
' English Writers ' is a re-writing of his well- 
known work first published in 1864-67, two vol- 
umes in three, and extending to Dunbar, or to 
the invention of printing. The two smaller 
volumes now published form the first instal- 
ment of an intended ' History of English 
Literature ' in twenty volumes, and two more 
volumes will complete the period covered by 
the original work. It was designed that the 
volumes should be issued half-yearly, but the 
Preface to the first volume is dated January, 
1887, and the " Last Leaves " of the second 
volume, January 1888, so that at this rate it is 
to be feared that the work will never be 
completed by its author, a result much to be re- 
gretted on many accounts. With great mod- 
esty PROFESSOR MORLEY remarks in his. Pre- 
face : "After waiting and working on through 
yet another twenty years, the laborer has 
learned that he knows less-and less. Little is 
much to us when yonng ; time passes and 
proportions change. But, however small the 
harvest, it must be garnered," and in his 
"Last Leaves:" " If the evening of life do 
not give long enough light for the completion of 
this book, it will be, at any rate, complete as 
far as it goes." That this light may be granted 
will be the earnest desire of every student of 
English literature. 

The instalment now given to the public 



190 



J8i 



///,-. MODEKN-I.AXi:t'.M;i \"//v 1888. 



6. 



forms a complete whole in itself, and consti- 
tutes .1 history "I LXOtt, or, as I'ko- 
M.IKI.I \ pi .ill it, First Kng- 
lisli literature. I ai k Ol t" a copy of 

the original work, now out of print, lias pre- 
vented a comparison tn ;isi ertain tin- "-xact 
changes and additions tliat ha\e In > n made. 
Ifmemo: , the Introduction, Compris- 

ing a general review of tin- four periods of 
Fnglish literature, -namely, the Formation of 
the Language, Italian Inlliience, French In- 
thience, and Fnglish Popular Inllncnce, the 
last dating from Defoe, is reprinted as it 
originally stood. The principal changes seem 
to he in taking advantage of the works that 
have been published in ( iermany, and especial- 
ly of tlie articles that have appeared in the 
.Inglia, discussing Anglo-Saxon literature, 
although PKC>KI:SSC>K MOKI.KY is very conser- 
vative and by no means agrees with the 
iconoclastic views of some German scholars. 
The first impression made upon the reader is 
the extent of the work beyond its immediate 
subject. There is a large amount of valuable 
information contained in it, especially historical 
information, but the question naturally arises, 
what direct connection has this with the his- 
tory of Anglo-Saxon literature? Some of 
the chapters can be regarded only as digres- 
sions, and, while important in themselves, as 
comparatively irrelevant to the main subject. 
A history of Keltic literature, and of the liter- 
ature of other branches of the Teutonic peo- 
ples, has but a remote bearing upon the First" 
Knglish literature, and if discussed at all, 
might have been treated in much less space. 
This would have left room for a fuller treat- 
ment of some works that have been passed 
over rather briefly. 

The first four chapters of the first volume 
treat the Forming of the People, and hen- 
such questions as "Were the Gaels Hyper- 
boreans?" and "Were the Celts Cimmer- 
ians?" are discussed, the Old Literature of 
the (iael and of the Cymry, and the Old Lit- 
erature of the Teutons, including Tlfilas,' 
the ' Song of Hildebraml,' and the ' \Veissen- 
brunner Prayer." The result is that the only 
works in Anglo-Saxon literature treated in this 
volume are the 'P.eowulf and the 'Fight at 
Finneslnirg.' In tlu- scheme, of the iudo- 



F.urope.m family M. i v> the terniinol. 
in. I- be objected to in respei t to the Teutonic 
branch, in that "Gothic " is applied to tin- 
whole branch, Moeso ( iotliic atid tin- S< andi- 
navinn languages are included under " Low- 
(ierman." and "Teutonic " is applied only to 
what are usually known as the Low-(ierman 
languages, namely, Old Saxon, Frisian, and 
Platt-Deutsc h, the relation between the first 
and last of these not being otherwise indicated. 
This is at least different from the ordinary 
arrangement and liable to confuse the learner. 
In the chapters on the literature of the Gael 
and Cymry, there is much translation from the 
works discussed, so that the reader is put in 
possession of much useful information, even 
if it has a very remote bearing upon Knglish 
literature. On pages 257-8 and 261 there is a 
singular lapsus of memory, which causes 
I'lfilas to be referred to as if he were contem- 
porary with Odoacer and Clovis. although his 
correct period has just been given-. This has, 
however, been observed and corrected in the 
" Last Leaves " of Vol. II. 

The ' Beowulf,' as its importance deserves, 
is treated at considerable length. Hy means 
of translation and paraphrase a full account of 
the poem is given, after which follows a fairly 
complete summary of critical opinion. Pk<>- 
SOR MORI.KY follows GKKIN in his inter- 
pretation, but gives too much space to MR. 
HATCH'S theory of identification of names of 
tribes and places mentioned in ' Beowulf 
with those of Kngland, which theory, as far as 
I know, has not been adopted by any other 
scholar. He summarixes also PKOKKSSOK 
FAKI.K'S recent attempt to vindicate an Kng- 
lish origin for the poem. GKKIN'S interpreta- 
tion of the Thrytho episode is given on pp. 
336-7, and seems to be favored, but the old 
error of regarding Hygd as the wife of Of) a is 
mentioned along with GR KIN'S \iew on p. 
300 without condemnation. It appears too in 
the summary of Mr. HAKIM'S view (p. ] 
and on p. 322 we have from MR. HAKIM. 
" I lygd being either another name of Hygelac, 
or the name of his queen." PKOFI.SSOR 
MOKI.KY accepts GRI-ND i VKI'S identification 
of Hygelac with the historical Chocilaicus 
(circa 520) mentioned by Gregory of Tours, 
but does not note the bearing of II. 2921-22, 



191 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



384 



" As waes d 
Merewioinga milts ungyfede," 

upon the date of the poem, although he trans- 
lates (p. 335), "Ever since then we have 
been denied the friendship of the Merovin- 
gians." 

Though of minor importance, as a matter of 
interpretation it maybe noted that PROFESSOR 
MORLEY says (p. 298): "then Grendel's head 
was borne by the hair into the place where 
men were drinking, and the head of the 
woman also;" and again (p. 339): "when 
Beowulf had returned victorious and presented 
to Hrothgar the heads of Grendel and Gren- 
del's mother." The poem does not state that 
he brought back any head but that of Gren- 
del, and I presume this opinion of PROFESSOR 
MORLEY rests upon a misinterpretation of 
idese in 1650 which refers to Wealhtheow and 
not to Grendel's mother ; for we are told that 
he took nothing from the cavern 

' ' buton pone hafelan and pahiltsomod ' ' (1615) ; 

again in 1636 we have hafelan, singular, as ex- 
plained by Grendles heafod in 1640 and 1649 ; 
ides is used of Grendel's mother in 1260 and 
1352, but not in 1650, for the men bore into the 
hall only the head of Grendel. This might 
not deserve mention but that PROFESSOR 
MORLEY'S view is adopted in the argument to 
PROFESSORS HARRISON and SHARP'S edition 
of 'Beowulf.' MULLENHOFF'S theory of the 
composition of 'Beowulf is briefly summar- 
ized at the close of the chapter, and the opin- 
ion expressed that " Courage is all that is 
wanted to make any one great as an analyst in 
the new speculative chemistry applied to 
books." 

The last chapter of Vol. I contains a trans- 
lation of the ' Fight at Finnesburg ' and of 
"the corresponding episode in 'Beowulf,' and 
is followed by a useful bibliography of ' Beo- 
wulf.' 

Vol. II treats the other existing remains of 
Anglo-Saxon literature, beginning with ' Wid- 
sith,' which is translated. The following 
chapter on 'The Sc6p ' contains translations 
of ' The Seafarer ' and ' The Fortunes of Men, ' ' 
and discusses MOLLER'S view of the original 
strophic form of 'Widsith,' which PROFES- 



SOR MORLEY pronounces "critical sleight-of- 
hand," and concludes: "Enough has been 
said to show how largely this method of de- 
structive criticism rests upon conjecture; and 
how little the common repetition of such, 
phrases as ' clearly,' or ' it is certain,' can give 
certainty to the most ingenious system of 
three-piled hypotheses. And when all's done, 
where is our poem?" It must be ac- 
knowledged that the German "tear-to-pieces" 
criticism has been "run in the ground," and 
not sufficient weight has been given to the ob- 
jections that may reasonably be urged against 
this method of analysis. 

Next comes another interesting digressive 
chapter on the " First Teachers of Christiani- 
ty," preliminary to an account of the poems 
ascribed to Caedmon. BAEDA'S familiar ac- 
count is repeated, and the ' Genesis ' is treated 
quite fully, with considerable translation, but 
the 'Exodus and Daniel,' and the second 
book, 'Christ and Satan,' are very briefly 
summarized. A translation of the ' Muspilli ' 
and an account of the ' Heliand ' follow, with 
a summary of SIEVERS' pamphlet on 'The 
Relation of the Heliand to Caedmon's Para- 
phrase,' but PROFESSOR MORLEY thinks that 
"Caedmon's poem . . must have been known 
to the Old Saxons long before the ' Heliand ' 
was written" (p. 108). PROFESSOR MORLEY 
endorses the very probable view that MILTON 
knew of Caedmon's Paraphrase from JUNIUS, 
its first editor (1655). This chapter closes with 
a brief summary of opinion on the authorship 
of Caedmon's poems, and another fling at the 
analytic criticism applied by way of burlesque 
to the Introduction to the first volume of this 
work. 

Two chapters follow, chiefly on Bede and 
Alcuin ; and while containing much of general 
historical interest, there is. little of special 
connection with literature in the Anglo-Saxon 
tongue. This is resumed in brief notices of 
the Northumbrian fragments, and other works 
contained in SWEET'S 'Oldest English Texts, ' 
but PROFESSOR MORLEY does not seem to have 
known of SWEET'S ' Anglo-Saxon Reader, 
Part II,' although it was received in this 
country before the date of the ' Last Leaves,' 
for in his note to p. 178 on the contents of the 
'Oldest English Texts' he ascribes to MR. 



192 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



SUM i tlu- opinion that the Vespasian I'saltcr 
is Kentish, as /.I..IM-U lull], but in his later 
work MK. Su i i r <!<< -ides that it is M< n ian. 
Tliis error is repeated on p. 322, in opposition 
to Si i \ i NSOM'fl old \ j,-w that it was N'orthum- 
hrian. 'I'liis < liapter contains a full translation 
in blank verse of the 'Judith,' that spirited 
fragment of Anglo-Saxon poetry, the superior 
excellence of which makes us regret the more 
that so little of it has been preserved. A de- 
scription of tin contents of the Vercelli and the 
Kxeter Hooks follows, and of the ' Menology ' 
and the 'Salomon and Saturn,' but all very 
brief; and then \ve have a chapter on Cyne- 
wulf, a discussion of his name in the Runes, 
and of his connection with the Riddles, the 
authorship of which PKOKKSSOR MOKI.I-.V is 
inclined to deny to him. I cannot enter into 
the discussion, but I'KOKKSSOR MORI.EY sums 
up his opinion as follows: "We have, then, 
no evidence upon which to ground a belief 
that C'ynewulf wrote any of the First English 
riddles." SARRAZIN'S odd view that C'yne- 
wulf wrote the ' Beowulf is then summarized 
hom~Angliu, Vol. IX, and "the myth of 
C'ynewulf " is reconstructed after WULKKR in 
Anglia, Vol. I ; the conclusion is reached that 
he lived in the eighth century; "His work 
shows that he was a ' sc6p.' There is no 
evidence that he was a priest or monk. Here 
ends our knowledge of the personality of 
Cynewulf, and even that includes a trace of 
supposition." 

'The Vision of the Cro'ss " is next trans- 
lated, but the opinion of DIETRICH and TEN 
BRINK as to its Cynewulfian authorship is 
dissented from. The inscription on the Ruth- 
well Cross is described, and the views of 
CHARITIES and LEFEVRE (Aiiglia, Vols. II 
and VI) as to the ' Guthlac ' are briefly given, 
with short notices of the ' Physiologus,' the 
'Wanderer,' and the 'Ruin,' or 'Ruins,' as 
PRMI-KSSOK MORLEY prefers to call it. 

Hen- follows another digressive chapter 
on Dicuil and Krigena, chiefly the latter, after 
which we have a very full accou-it of king 
Alfred and his literary labors, but the types 
make the author ascribe to King Alfred the 
compilation of the 'Chronicle' in the year 991. 
PROFESSOR EARI.E'S valuable edition of that 
work is curiously omitted on p. 294, although 



I'Kon.ssok KAKI.I 's nann- appears in another 
i! th- ' ' hronicle ' on p. 308. 

Monasticism in the tenth century is f 
in connection with Dunstan and Ethelwold, 
and this is followed by an account of Aelf: 
works, a blank verse translation of the ' Battle 
of Brunanburh,' with brief notice of the other 
pieces of verse in the 'Chronicle,' a prose 
summary of the ' Battle of Maldon, 1 a brief 
notice of the 1'salter and the Charters, and a 
further account of MR. COCKAYNE'S ' Leech- 
doms, Wortcunning, and Star-craft of Early 
England.' The consideration of the period is 
closed with an account of Wulfstan's works, 
bare mention of the ' Apollonius of Tyre ' and 
a few other prose pieces, a description of the 
' Rhyming Poem,' and a summary of the con- 
tents of 'The Grave,' included, perhaps, 
because printed in Thorpe's ' Analecta Anglo- 
saxonica,' but I can see no reason for counting 
this poem as a specimen of Anglo-Saxon 
literature, for its language shows that it was 
manifestly written after the close of the period. 

This chapter closes with a too brief reference 
to the 'Anglo-Saxon Gospels,' which is not 
brought down to date, for PROFESSOR SKEAT'S 
noteworthy edition is omitted entirely, 
THORPE'S being the last one mentioned. 

The volume closes with a chapter on the 
Northmen, in which an account is given of the 
'Eddas,' with a full translation of the ' Volus- 
pa,' of the Northmen in France and England, 
and of the times of Edward the Confessor to 
the Norman Conquest. This chapter il- 
lustrates further what has been said of the 
tendency of PROFESSOR MORLF.V to digress 
from his main subject. His account of Ice- 
landic literature is interesting and useful, but 
of very remote connection with English litera- 
ture, and the subsequent historical narrative 
is readily accessible anywhere, so that some of 
the space occupied with these subjects might 
have been devoted to a fuller and more 
thorough account of some of the Anglo-Saxon 
poems that have been too briefly passed over. 
PROFESSOR MORLEY is acquainted with TEN 
BRINK'S work on ' Early English Literature,' 
as TKN BRINK'S views are occasionally referred 
to, but it is nowhere mentioned, nor is PRO- 
FESSOR 1C A R i. K'S shorter work on 'Anglo-Saxon 
Literature/ although this book will not super- 



193 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



388 



sede them. A useful Bibliography is append- 
ed, but it is not full enough for the scholar. 
The last work mentioned in it is WULKER'S 
' Grundriss,' which might have been used to 
advantage in the body of the volumes. PRO- 
FESSOR MORLEY expresses the hope that when 
WULKER prepares a new edition, he will 
arrange for its translation into English. I 
may be permitted to state that two American 
scholars, MESSRS. MCCLUMPHA and DEERING, 
WULKER'S pupils, are now making arrange- 
ments for the publication of an English trans- 
lation of this valuable work, indispensable to 
every Anglo-Saxon scholar, with the full 
authority of PROFESSOR WULKER and the use 
of the important material that he has collected 
for a second edition. 

Anglo-Saxon scholars will be thankful to 
PROFESSOR MORLEY for this new edition of 
the first volume of his 'English Writers,' 
which deserved re-writing, but while, from 
PROFESSOR MORLEY'S point of view, he may 
defend the inclusion of so much extrinsic 
matter, I think that the work would have 
been improved by both omission and inser- 
tion, so that it might serve as the standard 
history of Anglo-Saxon literature, an office 
that, in its present form, it will scarcely fulfill. 
' ' The half is sometimes more than the whole. ' ' 

JAMES M. GARNETT. 
University of Virginia. 



THE STUDY OF ROMANCE PHIL- 
OLOGY. 

Die Romanische Philologie. Ein Grundriss 
von FR. NEUMANN. Leipzig, Fues's Ver- 
lag, 1886 ; pp. 96. 

Encyclopaedic und Methodologie der roman- 
ischen Philologie, mit besonderer Beriick- 
sichtigung des Franzosischen und Italieni- 
schen von GUSTAV KORTING. Heilbronn, 
Henninger, i884-'86 ; 3 vols., pp. xvi-224, 
xi 1-505, xx-837. 

Grnndriss der romanischen Philologie, unter 
mitwirkung von neunundzwanzig Fach- 
genossen, hera.isgegeben von GUSTAV 
GROBER. Strassburg, Triibner, i886-'88 ; 
I. Band, pp. 835. 
Three publications of a similar character all 

intended to introduce the scholar to a thorough 



study of Romance Philology, yet each treating 
the subject in so distinctive a way that there 
will be but little competition among them. 

We shall not make an effort here to give a 
full account of the immense amount of schol- 
arship set down on nearly 2500 pages by men 
who all rank among our first masters ; but we 
shall try so to characterize the above works, 
and to give such information on their contents, 
that each of our readers may be able to judge 
which of them will best serve his own purpose, 
and where, in a given case, he is likely to find 
just the reference wanted. Only occasionally, 
when the subject under consideration and the 
character of our own studies will allow, shall 
we venture to add some suggestion of our own. 

NEUMANN'S ' Die romanische Philologie, ein 
Grundriss' is a deprintfrom SCHMID'S ' Pseda- 
gogische Encyclopaedic,' vii. The author 
addresses himself not so much to experts in 
our science as to beginners, and to a larger 
public of non-specialists in general. The sub- 
ject was therefore to be treated with the most 
elementary clearness and at the same time 
with the greatest brevity compatible with 
scientific, I mean thorough, work. We must 
say that NEUMANN has succeeded admirably 
well in this difficult task, and his book can 
be highly recommended to students who de- 
sire to receive an insight into the character, 
aims, history, present state and means of de- 
velopment of Romance Philology ; it will also 
prove useful to scholars in other departments, 
especially in Latin and Teutonic Philology, 
whenever they wish to cast the necessary side- 
glance on their neighboring field. 

The book is divided into two parts : in the 
first chapter the author gives an outline of the 
history of our discipline, culminating, as. was 
natural, in a sketch of the life and works of 
our venerated "Altmeister " DIEZ ; the second 
part contains a well, we hesitatingly say bib- 
liography, although it is not a bibliography in 
the common acceptation of the word, not a 
mere compilation and juxtaposition of dead 
titles, appalling to beginners and next to use- 
less, because of the fact that worthless publi- 
cations are mentioned in the same breath with 
important ones, so that the inexperienced stu- 
dent never knows which to choose first and 
rarely strikes the right one. NEUMANN'S bib- 



194 



.//. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



390 



liography is of a v.-ry different character: he 
.n ( din 1 1. 1 nit -. ii- .i! l\ - MTV title u ith some snl>- 
st.iinial remarks on the contents and ; 
character of the hook in question, and the 
arrangement is very simple and |>ractical. 
Yet it is at the same time of scientific int< 
inasmuch as NKTMANN lias divided his suhje< t 
mil geographically hut systematically, treating 
lirst all the Romance: languages in succession, 
and then their literatures. I le has thus, among 
the first in our science, put into practice a 
principle long recognized by our chief author- 
ities. 

As regards the scope of the bibliography, 
NEUMANN quotes only the best and most use- 
ful publications on each subject, and works of 
minor value, dissertations, etc., are mentioned 
only when there was nothing better published. 
So, everything was left to the discretion of the 
author, and while we may perhaps feel in- 
clined to put an interrogation point here and 
there, J we must confess that on the whole 
Ni i MANN'S selection has been a very judicious 
one, and it is altogether astonishing how much 
be has been able to give on bis 82 pages. We 
therefore again recommend the book most 
heartily, especially to our younger readers. 

'Die Encyclopaedie und Metbodologie der 
romanischen Philologie,' 2 by G. KORTING, 
consists of three volumes, containing together 
more than 1500 pages. We must not, however, 
conclude from the size of the work that we are to 
find in it complete treatises on the different 
branches of Romance Philology. Such was not 
the intention of the author, as he himself de- 
clares in the preface. His purpose was more to 
give the student a fair start in the whole subject 
by offering him a solid outline of the mostim- 
. portant principles and the best-established 
facts, and by extensive bibliographies at the 
close of the various chapters to enable him to 
pursue such special studies as he may be par- 

1. For instance H. SWERT'S 'Spoken Portuguese,' SAINTS- 
iti'Kv's work* on French literature, CRANE'S publications on 
Folklore would have deserved special mention, while the com- 
pilations of amateur philolngians like PRINCE L. L. |!C>NA- 
PAKTE are of doubtful value in the hands of beginners. 

2. The American public were first made familiar with this 
work by KI.LIOTT, Anifrican "Journal of Philology, and 
by Tom), who translated into English the chapter: "Obscr- 
Tiiticns on the Academic Study of Romance Philology"' in 
The MODERN LANGUAGE SERIES III. 



ticularly interested in. For obvious reasons, 
then, the author rarely had an opportunity of 
committing himself by going into details, and 
his more or less rudimentary statements may 
be accepted* 0n the whole, as reliable. This 
seems to be espec ially the < ;,se in the dep art- 
mi -nt of literature. We may, occasionally, 
differ from the author's criticism, when he 
calls BKANOHS' ' Lit. i. 19 Jh.' B. v. " kein wis- 
senschaHliches Buch ;" SCARTAZ/INI'S edition 
and commentary of the 'Divina Commedia ' 
should not be left out, whatever may be 
said of the man's scientific and polemical 
work in general. Hut in spite of a few details 
of this kind the history of literature is appar- 
ently KORTING'S strong side. The student 
will have to be more cautious in making use 
of the linguistical part of the work. Here 
KOKTING'S rich and diffusive style often 
becomes vague and misleading, nor have recent 
investigations always been utilized even when 
they are mentioned and recommended in the 
bibliography. The whole chapter on French 
phonetics is in need of many modifications, 
while those on general phonetics and on 
sound-change etc. are rather a failure. KOK- 
-ri NT.'S notions on the most important facts in 
Comparative Philology are somewhat behind 
the times, and have been abandoned by every 
active grammarian since the discovery of the 
famous " Palatalgesetz " and the Indo-Euro- 
pean vowel-theory connected with it. Some 
readers would have willingly dispensed with a 
good many general remarks for a few more 
facts instead. But it would be unfair and ab- 
surd to insist upon such ami other deficiencies, 
when the great work as a whole calls forth our 
sincere recognition, gratitude and admiration. 
It is at once stimulating and humiliating to 
find one man speaking with well-founded au- 
thority on so many branches of our science, or 
rather on so many sciences, each one of which 
seems to be too much for an ordinary man's 
capacities. Every question that could possi- 
bly ever be brought into connection with 
Romance Philology, is treated here with 
equal care if not with equal success; nothing 
is neglected, nothing thought too small. There 
is no frivolous haughtiness or contempt of one 
department in favor of another, on account of 
some personal predilection. We may, indeed, 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



392 



learn from KORTING a noble lesson, which 
professors and especially beginners if, in fact, 
they ever began at all seem to be liable to 
neglect : that in the great field of science each 
part is equally worthy of a thorough treatment, 
of a scholar's earnest occupation ; that no- 
body should belittle his colleague's specialty 
and claim the character of scholarship for his 
own work alone. Rather let everyone come 
bravely forward with the result of his studies." 
Every kind of good work will be welcome, 
whether it be on pedagogics or phonetics or 
literature or syntax , whether on English or 
Rumanian or Volapiik. We hope that a seri- 
ous perusal of such honest work as KORTING'S, 
and the combined efforts of men of experience 
and scientific standing, will successfully check 
a narrowness of mind which might become 
dangerous to the best interests of our young 
students individually, as well as to the sound 
progress of science itself. Only a loyal co- 
operation and a readiness to recognize the 
importance of other branches than our own, 
can lead to the highest success. 

While KORTING'S work is of a more peda- 
gogical character, pointing out to the student 
what and how he must study in order 
to become a Romance scholar, the third pub- 
lication which we bring to the attention of our 
readers, represents at first hand the actual re- 
sults of scientific investigation. In GROBER'S 
' Grundriss cler Romanischen Philologie ' we 
are in the very workshop, the sanctum sanc- 
torum of European, especially German, Ro- 
mance Philology, and the reader may be sure 
that every line here gives the last word on the 
subject in question. This will be explained by 
the origin of the work : it is published under 
the direction of GROBER, not written by him 
alone ; twenty-nine of our first authorities have 
combined forces to produce a picture of Ro- 
mance Philology under the aspect which it 
wears at the date of publication, each of the 
authors treating of such part or parts as he 
has made his most special study. Three in- 
stalments have appeared thus far, the last, 
which completes the first volume of the under- 
taking, having but just issued from the press. 
Three more instalments are reserved for the 
second and concluding volume, which will be 
devoted chiefly to the literature of the Ro- 
mance peoples, the Work being intended to 



cover, when complete, the entire domain of 
the science. In the first volume we find : 
GROBER : " Geschichte der romanischen Phi- 
lologie," "Aufgabeund Gliederungderroman. 
Phil.," " Die miindlichen Quellen," " Metho- 
dik der sprachwissenschaftlichen Forschung," 
" Einteilung und aussere Geschichte der ro- 
man. Sprachen ;" SCHUM : " Die schriftlichen 
Quellen;" TOBLER : " Methodik der philo- 
logischen Forschung ; WINDISCH : "Keltische 
Sprache;" W. MEYER: "Die lateinische 
Sprache in den romanischen Landern, and to- 
gether with FRANCESCO D'.OVIDIO : Die italic- 
nische Sprache ;" FR. KLUGE : " Romanenund 
Germanen in ihren Wechselbeziehungen ;" 
SEYBOLD : Die arabische Sprache in den ro- 
manischen Landern ;" GASTER : " Die nicht- 
lateinischen Elemente im Rumanischen ; TIK- 
TIN : " Die rumanische Sprache ; " GARTNER : 
"Die ratoromanischen Mundarten ;" SUCHIER : 
" Die franzosische und provenzalische Sprache 
und ihre Mundarten ;'' MOREL-FATIO : "Das 
Catalanische ;" BAIST : "Die spanische 
Sprache;" CORNU : "Die portugiesische 
Sprache;" G.MEYER; " Die lateinschen Kle- 
mente im Albanesischen." The volume closes 
with a " Namen, Sach- und Wortverzeichnis," 
with a general map of the "Ausbreitung der 
romanischen Sprachen in Europa " and twelve 
minor maps illustrating the distribution of the 
leading French and Provencal dialect peculiar- 
ities. The abundance of information, the ex- 
actness of the detail work, at once the out- 
growth and the source of sound general prin- 
ciples, the simple, sober style which charac- 
terizes this class of workers, the absolute 
objectivity which makes things speak for them- 
selves, so that we forget all about the author 
and ourselves, about "schools" and polemics, 
under the immediate impression of facts all 
this makes GROBER'S 'Grundriss' a real mas- 
ter work. We have no desire to express any 
unfavorable criticism as regards the subject- 
matter itself, but will only give utterance to a 
wish concerning the arrangement of the 
materials. GROBER'S essay on the history of 
Romance Philology gives a mass of titles, ar- 
ranged half chronologically and half system- 
atically, and, moreover, alluded to rather than 
- given in full, so that students who are not yet 
acquainted with the subject cannot even tell 
whether the publication mentioned is an article 



196 



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394 



or a large work, without constantly consulting 
other bibliographies. While the advanced 
student may with some difficulty derive great 
benefit from the author's sound criticism, it 
remains a pity that so much useful information 
is more or less concealed in a labyrinth inac- 
cessible to beginners. We hope that an ex- 
haustive index will open up all these treasures 
to everybody. Most of the special treatises 
are suggestive of regrets that they are not 
many times longer, and in one or two cases it 
may be doubtful whether this feeling arises 
solely from the superior excellence of the 
essays, or also from the fact that they are 
somewhat fragmentary. But in any case we 
must not forget that, for instance, MEYER'S 
and K LUGE'S, and in fact most of the essays, 
are the first comprehensive works ever pub- 
lished on their respective subjects, and that 
consequently we should not expect to find our 
every curiosity satisfied. Perhaps, indeed, 
the noblest success of a book is to inspire fresh 
curiosity, and in this respect the effect of our 
' Grundriss ' is preeminent. Here, as on an 
excursion into an unexplored country, we are 
constantly surprised by new outlooks and at 
the same time experience an ardent desire to 
know more and more of what lies beyond ; a 
thousand side paths and openings invite us, 
and we would fain stop and examine more 
closely, were it not that the main road itself is 
continually presenting so many interesting 
phenomena. We might, indeed, envy our 
young students, who are to have the pleasure 
of traversing these broad domains under the 
guidance of such distinguished masters ; but 
let us rather join the party : we are all sure of 
receiving our share of benefit as well. 

GUSTAF KARSTEN. 

Indiana University. 



THE COL L A R-E YSENB A CH GER- 
MAN GRAMMAR. 

Graded German Lessons, being a Practical 
German Grammar, by WM. EYSENBACH. 
Revised and Rewritten, with notes, etc., 
byWM. C. COLLAR, A. M., Head-Master 
Roxbury Latin School. Boston, Ginn & 
Co. 
It will require considerable evidence a few 

generations hence to convince antiquarians 



that OLI.ENDORF'S Grammar was ever used 
as a text-book in sober earnest. Yet it is but 
a few years since this book "ignorant of 
man's nature and of boy's " was almost the 
only American publication offered as an aid 
to the teacher of German. Undoubtedly an 
inspired teacher can teach with any text-book, 
however poor, but unfortunately the rank and 
file can hardly lay claim to this high qualifica- 
tion, and it becomes of great importance to 
secure and put before them every most effi- 
cient aid, while even the best teachers cannot 
afford to be indifferent toward the associate 
which they introduce to their pupils. 

The past three years have seen the publica- 
tion of no less than a dozen grammars, all of 
them with more or less valid claim upon 
interest and acceptance, and the problem is 
no longer Where shall I find a good gram- 
mar? but Which is the best? In many cases 
the answer to this question will depend upon 
the peculiar circumstances, Students, for 
instance, who wish only the merest outline to 
enable them to read scientific prose will find 
enough in PROF. SHELDON'S Short Grammar, 
while others who can devote themselves to a 
thorough study of the grammar from a lin-. 
guistic stand-point will take WHITNEY'S or 
BRANDT'S. But as a grammar for the 
average high-school or college class, there are 
a great many points in favor of the one which 
is here under consideration. 

Without feeling obliged to define the 
" Natural Method," it may safely be said that 
most progressive teachers employ it to a 
greater or less extent, even though they do 
not confess their allegiance. This grammar 
will be found to be on the whole a happy 
mean between the Natural and the Scientific 
methods, and especially adapted to the great 
majority of teachers who do not find it prac- 
ticable or wise to follow either course ex- 
clusively. Beyond this, two of the greatest 
merits of the book, points in which it is 
superior to many of its competitors, are its 
arrangement under one series of lessons, and 
the "sweet reasonableness" of the English 
exercises. It has been felt by all teachers 
that a grammar which outlines the subject in 
one series of lessons, but omits just enough 
to oblige the pupil, in order to under- 



'97 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 



No. 6. 



396 



stand it, to go through a second series, is a 
mistake. Many students are unable to spend 
more than a term on the grammar. Such are 
accordingly compelled to buy a book a con- 
siderable portion of which they never use, 
and at the same time fail to get a right view 
of the subject. Hence one of the essentials 
of the ideal grammar is a single series of 
lessons. Together with this should go the 
greatest brevity consistent with thoroughness 
and clearness. In this respect the present 
work leaves something to wish for. The in- 
troduction of German Extracts for Transla- 
tion must be regarded as a mistake. It oc- 
cupies space and serves no good end. As 
PROF. COLLAR says in his Introduction, the 
aim should be to get at translation as soon as 
possible, but the most satisfactory translation 
for the pupil is in continuous work. 

The other strong point of the book is in the 
character of the sentences used for transla- 
tion from English into German. In each 
exercise there is a more or less thorough treat- 
ment of one phase of expression in sentences 
grouped about subject, thus giving a very 
desirable unity to the exercises. In most con- 
versational grammars there is a large propor- 
tion of the ' ' sil ver-spoon-of-my-grandmother ' ' 
element that element which has brought the 
study of German grammar into disrepute. 
With very few exceptions there is a human 
probability about the sentences in MR. COL- 
LAR'S book which will be greatly refreshing 
to the teacher who has missed this quality in 
his older text-books. To this, paragraph 43 
makes a strange exception. Such sentences 
as : My nephew's monkey is in his [whose?] 
room ; What does your nephew buy in that 
shop? Where is the ox of your uncle's 
herdsman ? I am looking- for my hare ; I have 
lost it in the garden; Have you found what 
you are looking for? seem to indicate that 
this lesson escaped the careful revision mani- 
fest in the others. 

The scientific division of nouns into strong 
and weak declensions, aided by the tables on 
pages 69 and 40 (the iatter might be simplified) 
is certainly the clearest way of presenting the 
subject; but it is confused here by an over- 
handling which is likely to offset all the bene- 
fit derived from the plan. Lesson 4 treats the 



strong declension; Lesson 5, the weak. 
Lesson 7 treats the feminine nouns, thus 
overlapping the twojust mentioned. Lessons 
8 and 9 treat masculine and neuter nouns in 
connection with the declension of adjectives, 
this also overlapping 4 and 5. Lesson 10 
treats feminine nouns again, making the 
third appearance of this subject. Then comes 
Lesson ii treating the plural of the weak 
and strong declensions, followed by Lessons 
12 and 13 on the plural of neuter and femi- 
nine nouns. Here is certainly room for mudi 
condensation and consequent improvement. 
In doing this, note should be taken of the 
following : Paragraph 125,2 might fairly say : 
One-half of the monosyllabic feminines ; 
Paragraph 125,3 is wrong, 'two-thirds' should 
be two-sevenths (see 127,2, and 154). Para- 
graph 130 would be clearer: "All feminine 
polysyllables and one-half the monosyllables." 
Paragraph 130,4 should specify "foreign 
nouns accented on the last syllable but not 
ending in al, an, ast, etc." 

Further points of excellence are : the treat- 
ment of prepositions, in which notice the 
single oversight of saying that nach, without 
distinction of meaning, stands either before or 
after its object. Only in the meaning 'accord- 
ing to' may nach stand after its object. The 
negative use of tin, etzuas, etc., the position 
of nicht, the distinction between scin and 
haben as tense auxiliaries, and the distinction 
between the real and the apparent passive 
voice, points which are often omitted or poorly 
handled, are made clear by the author. Only 
in regard to the last, a matter on which too 
much light cannot be shed, such an infallible 
test as that of throwing the doubtful form into 
the active voice, whereby the falae passive 
changes its tense, would certainly be helpful. 

Especially good are the chapters on the 
order of the sentence and on the subjunctive. 
The latter is enforced, as indeed is the case 
throughout the book, with excellent exam- 
ples, but would probably be aided by more 
general statements as to the nature and use 
of the subjunctive. The suggestion always to 
learn the article with the noun, is one which 
long experience has proved valuable. 

The pronunciation is treated briefly and 
well, with the exception of o and ii. For so 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



398 



simple a matter it is queer what an ado gram- 
marians make over these tu<> sounds. MR. 
COLLAR says o is like the English in burr, 
or lik. French en. The first remark is not 
correct enough to be of any use, and the 
second, aside from not being strictly accurate, 
is no help, since French en is one of the most 
dilticult vowel-sounds in any European lan- 
guage. It is a simple matter to direct any one 
how to make these sounds : o is English a, 
and ii is English ee, both made with the position 
of the lips commonly taken in pronouncing oo. 

Matters of detail which we should hope to 
see corrected or improved in a second edition 
are : The insufficient explanation of the 
meanings of the auxiliaries of mode, especial- 
ly of wollcn and sollen, and their mutually 
complementary relation in the sense of inten- 
tion, one active the other passive. The index 
on this subject omits the references to pages 
101 and 107, while Lesson 16, under the title, 
omits the intended reference to page 267. 

Paragraph 197,1 is not entirely correct. 
"Comparative and superlative are formed by 
the addition of -er, and -st, or -est t to the posi- 
tive." The superlative of predicate adjectives 
is formed in two ways : with der, die, das, 
when the comparison is with objects of like 
kind; with am sten, when the object is com- 
pared with itself or with things of another 
kind. 

Lesson 20 should contain a statement of the 
meanings of the. inseparable prefixes. More- 
over, paragraph 232 in this lesson is insufficient. 
Durch, unter, etc., may be recognized as 
separable, for the most part, by the literal 
meaning of the compounds, while those com- 
pounds which have figurative meanings, or 
are rendered by Latin derivatives, are mostly 
inseparable. The place of the accent does not 
help the student, because he does not know it. 

Paragraph 336 contains the only general 
reference to the use of the article in German 
when omitted in English. It consists of a 
few inadequate examples. When used in the 
full extent of their meaning, abstract and 
mass nouns in the singular, and class nouns 
in the plural, take the article in German. The 
same is true of the names of clays of the week 
and names of months and seasons ; also of 
Christian nam -s and I'-.iter and .)//<//<>-, when 



ust (1 in the family. Paragraph 339,3 on 
giebt'\s insufficient. In fact no real explan- 
ation is offered. Es giebt states the facts of 
nature, and others applying to a large extent 
of time and space, in distinction from fs ist, 
which states incidental circumstances and 
facts existing in limited time or space. II y a 
does not help in distinguishing, for it covers 
both. Paragraph 46,3 is in error regarding 
the last two cases. Of the strong verbs in o, 
but one takes o in the second and third singu- 
lar ; of the six in an, but two change to tiu. 

Page 113, Note 6, is not quite accurate. 
"The when of narration is als\ of interroga- 
tion is wann ; implying condition is wenn." Als 
is used for historic tenses, wenn for present 
and future, both meaning " when." In Lesson 
23 and elsewhere, the author makes a mistake, 
pedagogically at least, in rendering the Con- 
ditional by English should. This leads inevi- 
tably to confusion in the pupil's mind. In the 
same Lesson, page 174, Note 6, occurs the ex- 
pression " an impossible wish relating to the 
past," by which is probably meant, a wish 
contrary to fact. The imperfect subjunctive, 
moreover, does not express an impossible 
wish relating to the present ; it carries no im- 
plication of possibility or the contrary. 

The statement of the correspondence of 
consonants, on page 16, is open to the same 
objection as is made by DR. HUGO SCHILLING, 
in MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES for February, 
to the treatment of this subject in the 
JOYNES-MEISSNER grammar, namely, that it 
gives a perverted idea of the relation of the 
two languages, though MR. COLLAR does not 
profess that this is a statement of Grimm's 
Law. Yet the defence which MR. JOYNES 
sets up is scarcely valid, since the arrange- 
ment which would really be the helpful one 
for the student is the reverse of the one given 
by him as well as by most of the grammars 
which touch the subject. Instruction should 
go from the known to the unknown, from 
the English to the German, and so in the 
natural direction of consonantal development. 
A brief statement of the more important limi- 
tations of Grimm's Law would be very 

desirable. 

\V. H. CARRL'TH. 

<>/" A'tinsus. 



199 



399 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



400 



Etymologise ties Worterbuch der romanischen 
Sprachen, von FRIEDR. DIEZ. Fiinfte Aus- 
gabe. Mit einem Anhang von AUGUST 
SCHELER. Bonn, Marcus, 1887. 

This new edition of DIEZ'S ' Worterbuch ' 
shows a much enlarged appendix, as was to be 
expected, and will be very useful. It is per- 
haps unfair to lay much stress on any lack of 
completeness, for completeness in such matters 
is, as we all know, very difficult. But it is sur- 
prising not to find any mention of THURNEY- 
SEN'S ' Keltoromanisches ' under andare and 
in the same place a reference might have been 
given to the Literaturblatt fur germanische 
und romanische Philologie, 1884, col. 104 
(*indare from inde}. The latter omission is 
more excusable than the former, and indeed it 
appears from a hasty search that THURNEY- 
SEN'S book has entirely escaped SCHELER'S 
notice, which is indeed surprising. At least I 
find no mention of it in several places where 
mention might be expected ; for example, 
under ambasciata, camicia, drudo, briser, lai, 
maint, to mention a few examples out of many. 
CORNU'S etymology of bravo (Romania, 1884, 
pp. 110-113) is also not mentioned. Under 
foin II. c, the appendix has the same surpris- 
ing remark as in the last edition. If Latin 
praeda is really related to prehendere then a 
vulgar Latin preda may not seem any stranger 
\\\&\\ pre- in the Latin verb. Of course French 
pro'ic cannot have come from praeda. 

E. S. SHELDON. 
Harvard University. 



Grundriss zur Geschichte der de.utschen Dich- 
tnng aus den Qncllen von KARL GOEDKKE. 
2. Auflage. Dresden, Ls. Ehlermann. Bel. 
I-III, pp. viii, 500; iv, 600; viii, 384. 

Among the representatives of German phi- 
lology and literature who have recently died in 
such rapid succession, PROFESSOR KARL 
GOKDEKE held one of the foremost positions. 
Born in 1814 at Celle, he received his academic 
training at the University of Gottingen, where 
the influence of the Grimm brothers, Benecke, 
Gervinus, Otfried Miiller and Dahlmann 
determined his future career. Even as a 
student he began making the collections vyhich 
became the basis of his later famous works. 



The time following his studies in Gottingen 
he devoted mostly to quiet literary activity ; 
but he also took an active part in the political 
events which were then agitating Germany. 
Not until the year 1873 was he appointed Pro- 
fessor of the History of German Literature at 
the University of Gottingen, which position he 
held up to the time of his death, October 27, 
1887. GOEDEKE'S scientific activity was many- 
sided, though mostly directed to literary in- 
vestigation, the results of which he did not 
withhold from the general public, being widely 
and favorably known as the editor of classical 
writers and the author of ' Goethe's Leben und 
Schriften.' By his clear and objective presen- 
tation of facts he marks a wholesome and 
pleasing contrast to the scientific journalism 
and subjective mannerism so fashionable of 
late. 

The chief work of GOEDEKE'S life is his 
celebrated 'Grundriss,' a monitinciitinn acre 
perennius not only of himself but also of the 
scholarly industry of Germany. A few years 
before his death he prepared a second edition 
of it and succeeded in carrying this as far as 
the third volume, thus covering the litera- 
ture to the close of the Seven Years' War. 
In many respects this second edition must be 
regarded as an entirely new work. The 
author has added a stupendous amount of 
material, thus creating an indispensable store- 
house for the benefit of all future investigators. 
But it is not alone a book of reference : it 
equally excels in subtle observation and 
objective truthfulness qualities which charac- 
terize all of GOEDEKE'S writings. The 
publisher promises that the continuation of 
the second edition will cover the period down 
to the present time; and we hope- that this 
excellent work will find its way not only into 
the libraries of our colleges and other public 
institutions but also into the private collections 
of many cultivated readers throughout the 
country. 

Jri.ius GOKHEL. 



Complete German Manual for Higli Scliools 
and Colleges by WESLEY G. SAWYER, PH. 
D., Chicago, i8t'7. 
The book before us attempts to combine the 

"natural method" and the "grammar 



I" I 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



402 



method," and aids i \ e tin- ends of 

-i.uiini.it, '''.ink. conversation-book 

and rea.K-r. 1'art I, Theory, is devoted to 
Pronunciation, lutlexion, Syntax, and F.ty- 
mology; Part II, Pract. insd) K\- 

- tor Writing and Oral Practice (21 <".< r- 
inan Coi -respondent < < ;,i Continuous Reading 
and Conversation ('Joseph uiul Benjamin, nach 
eiix-t Kr/ahlung von BKRTiioi.nArKKH.vii 'i. 
Then follow Remarks on Punctuation and 
Orthography, a list of Irregular Verbs, Ger- 
man-l-'.nglish and F.nglish-German Vocabu- 
laries, an Index and table of Conjugations 
and Declensions. 

The manual under consideration is an at- 
tempt to supply tin- demands of the unorgan- 
i/ed, or at best poorly systemati/.ed, method 
of teaching German in American Schools, and 
as such is in many respects an improvement 
upon not a few of the older manuals. But cer- 
tain points of theory need comment. The au- 
thor's theory of declensions, as applied to 
nouns, is quite out of harmony with the classifi- 
cation generally recognized in this country and 
in Germany. Whatever may be said of the 
terms "strong"and"weak," "old" and "new," 
as applied to nominal declension, they certain- 
ly are plain finger-boards to the student enter- 
ing the historic study of German or Germanic 
grammar. Tin's classification as applied by 
WIUTNKV, BRANDT, MKISSNKR and all of the 
best writers on German grammar is certainly 
more scientific and more simple than the ar- 
bitrary arrangement into the three declensions 
as given by DR. SAYVYKK : I. Containing 
feminities (both weak and strong); II. Con- 
taining masculines and neuters, ending in -el, 
-er, elicit, -It'in ; III. " 'I he third declension 
includes all nouns not belonging in the first or 
second declension " (181). Then follow 
" classes of masculines " belonging clearly to 
the weak declension (as the author's words in- 
dicate), which are not included " under the 
aoove three declensions . . neither do they 
constitute a forth declension, but follow the 
masculine gender of the weak adjective de- 
clension " (>i9i). It mr.st be apparent to the 
beginner, as well as to the author himself, that 
this classification is complicated ;:nd coniusec'.. 
It the nouns treated in this last-named class 
had been arranged under the weak declension 
of nouns, where they belong, it would not have 



been necessary tO treftl them as intruders in 
nominal inflexion. Inasmuch as the author 
makes use ol the terms "strong"and "weak"of 
adjective declension, would it not have !> 
much more consistent, especially as it is 
simpler, to apply the s.niie terms to nominal 
d'-i lension, and thus introduce the student at 
once to the classification and nomenclature 
which he will meet in all scientific works on 
( ict man grammar ? 

In Part II, the promiscuous collation of ex- 
amples from even the earliest period of N. H. 
G. literature is liable to lead the student to 
suppose that the speech of LruiKK isas good 
modern German as that of KKKVTAC or HKYSK. 
It S'-ems to us that for purposes of style much 
better results would he reached by putting the 
student on his guard to detect deviations from 
the modern idiom. The exercises for transla- 
tion into German, though well selected, se< m 
too varied. The great failure of most of the 
prose exercises in the books, is due to the in- 
discriminate jumble of incoherent sentences 
made to fit the rule under consideration. The 
student should be trained to think consecutive- 
ly and logically in a foreign language as in his 
mother-tongue ; a connected description or 
story can be made to illustrate a rule quite as 
efficiently as a series of disconnected sen- 
tences. 

The vocabulary might have been rendered 
more serviceable by giving more of the im- 
portant meanings of many words and by add- 
ing the essential forms (nom., gen. sg.; nom. 
pi.) of strong nouns. 

Minor points to be noted are : 142 might be 
better stated by saying that variatives are 
formed by adding /</(' kind ') to the geni- 
tive (for examples of the older use of this con- 
struction cf. M. H. G. " ciner leierule," where 
the forms are printed as separate words); 
^153 is not correct, inasmuch as the feminine 
derivatives in /are both numerous and mono- 
syllabic. It is nouns formed on a simple af>- 
laiit stem with HO derivative suffix which are 
i nerally masculine, while those which add 
the suflix / to this stem are regularly feminine. 
Kxampk-s are der /.tiff {<zichcti} but die 
y.iteht(<Zn!i+l,g> r// before /), der Schlag 
(<scliia.t?en) but die Sehlicht, (<Schlag+l)\ 
155 :"<'/ A'l'ie/i/Hiti. tier Irrtnni are exceptions ; 
159 has received fuller treatment in AHN'S 



403 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No., 6. 



404 



'Synopsis of German grammar' 108, BRANDT'S 
'German Grammar' 58, WILMANN'S 
'Deutsche Grammatik,' ZweiterTeil 88; 178, 
add der gefalle, der Schade ; 212 cf. WILL- 
MANN'S ' D. Gram.' ZweiterTeil 90,2; 274, 
ward=wurde etc. should be mentioned at 
least in a note ; 365-369 are not explicit and 
full enough for the average beginner, cf. WIL- 
MANNS' ' D. Gram.' Zweiter Teil 122-127 for a 
clearer treatment. The paragraphs on Pre- 
positions and Word-Order are too scanty to be 
of much service to the student : BRANDT'S 
Ger. Gram.' 301-306 is very happy in giving 
well chosen examples of prepositional con- 
struction. A judicious use of the chapters in 
other grammars referred to above would have 
greatly enhanced the value of DR. SAWYER'S 
manual. In thus pointing out what seems to 
us defects in the manual we would not forget 
to mention some of its excellencies as well. 
Excepting the paragraphs already commented 
upon, the general plan of the book is well 
adapted to college use. The principles are 
concisely stated, the examples happily chosen 
and sufficiently diversified to familiarize the 
student with the essentials of German syntax. 
The German sentences of Part II are certainly 
a vast improvement upon the stilted manu- 
facture of most of the exercise-books. The 
student is here encouraged to collect gems of 
literature rather than to build rugged sen- 
tences out of conventional phrases. The 
chapter on Correspondence is good as far as 
it goes, but too short to teach letter-writing. 
DR. SAWYER evidently intended that his man- 
ual chould be used as a book for practice and 
not for scientific theory, and hence omitted 
many points which the student would like to 
have explained, as, for example, umlaut and 
ablaut. But American education is too de- 
pendent upon the text-book. The success of a 
text-book depends upon the teacher not less 
than upon the author of the book. DR. SAW- 
YER'S manual, in the hands of efficient instruc- 
tors, can be readily supplemented at these 
weaker points. It is to be hoped that this 
work will bring us a step farther toward a more 
thorough and scientific study of the German 
language and literature in our higher schools. 



M. D. LEARNED. 



Johns Hopkins University. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

To THE EDITORS OF MOD. LANG. NOTES : 

Kindly allow me to explain myself. PROF. 
COOK, in MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, III, 5, 
277, quotes me as saying "The scribe of the 
Lindisfarne MS. never employs the letters v or 
j." He then proceeds to quote the word 
onginnvm as occurring in a gloss. 

What I had in my mind was this. I was 
thinking of the original scribe of the Lindis- 
farne MS., who wrote that MS. in Latin; and 
I do not remember that he anywhere uses 
either v or j. As to what the glossator wrote, 
I make no assertion at all. I meant my state- 
ment to be taken in connection with the con- 
text. I go on to say that " the former edition 
has v and j throughout, wherever the u and i 
of the MS. have consonantal values." This 
refers only to the Latin text. I admit I was 
obscure ; but that is all. 

WALTER W. SKEAT. 



BRIEF MENTION. 

In the great mass of mediaeval Provencal 
lyric are found the names and works of not a 
few poetesses, who have hitherto been known 
mainly through their literary relations with 
contemporary Troubadours. The gallantry 
of a student of Romance poetry has rescued 
them from this inferior station and has placed 
them before the modern public in a compact 
and convenient form (' Die Provenzalischen 
Dichterinnen,' O. Schultz : Leipzig 1888,410). 
In the introduction to their biographies and 
writings the editor sketches the rise of woman 
in society and hence in literature. He finds 
in the other languages of Western Europe but 
few representatives of the sex before the four- 
teenth century, and attributes to the peculiar 
institutions of Provence the prominence which 
they there attain. Between the years 1160 and 
1250 no less than twenty-one lyric poetesses 
appear, some few of whom are known only 
by name. The biographies of the greater 
number, sixteen in all, as given by Dr. Schultz, 
can be determined only approximately, and 
mainly by the allusions to them in contempor- 
ary literature. Their works, amounting to 
twenty-two poems, with four doubtful, are in 
this study all edited critically for the first time 



June MODERN LA^GUAGE^ NOTES, IHHH. No. 6. 



406 



\i i-pt the sitAentes of Gormunda given by 
Levy in liis edition of (iuilU-iu Figi:- 
The\ are < hielly sin icty-verses ten/oni, 
coblas but tin- didactic and moral element 
K also represented. Several of tin- writers 
take part in tlu- same ten/one, others, as 
Maria de Yentadoru and Axalais de Porcaira- 
gues. ha\ < OIK- poi-m each to their credit, while 
lady Castello/a of .\uvrr-in-, who wrote prob- 
ably in the lirst part of the thirteenth century, 
has left three to posterity, and Beatrice, 
countess of I >ia, heads the list with four. The 
style of all is simple and free from the com- 
plicated strophes and difficult rimes of the 
more practiced Troubadours. Appended to 
the text are explanatory notes, which complete 
a useful publication on woman's activity in 
literature in the Middle Ages. 

In the May number of the Deutsche I\und- 
schau PROFKSSOR HKKMAN GRIMM publishes 
a very interesting article under the title : "Die 
deutsche Schulfrage uud unsere Classiker," 
in which he takes sides in part with the 
modern language movement. It is gratifying 
for us to notice that I'KOFI.SI'OK GRIMM'S 
views regarding the position which Goethe and 
the moderi\ German classics are to take in the 
education of our youth coincide essentially 
with those already expressed in the Transac- 
tions of the Mod. Lang. Assoc. of Am., Vol. I, 
pp. 156-169 and MOD. LANG. NOTES, Vol. II, 
No. i. 

Among the latest publications of 'Gebr. 
Ilenninger, Heilbronn, the . fifth edition of 
ANDKKSKN'S ' Sprachgebrauch und Sprach- 
richtigkeit im Deutschen ' and the reprint of 
HEINE'S ' Buchder Lieder ' deserve (.'special 
mention. The former of these, though some- 
times taking a somewhat pedantic standpoint 
and deciding the question of ' Sprachrichtig- 
seit ' according to the rules of rigid grammar, 
is an indispensable guide for teachers and pu- 
pils, to whom, in its new and enlarged edition, 
it will b highly welcome. The reprint of the 
songs by which 11 KINK gained his world-wide 
fame is another valuable addition to the ''\eii- 
drucke." It is not the HKINE of the polished 
and retouched ' Huch der Lieder ' that we here 
meet, but the young poet still strongly under 
the influence of the Romanticists and of 'I >es 
Knabeu \Vunderhorn.' Krnst Klster, the 



editor of the reprint, has pn-fa<.-d it with an 
ive and profound introduction, in whit h 
he points out the way to a more 
tific treatment of the great lyric poet. And 
such a treatment will surely dispel the preju- 
:'id piudery in regard to 1 1 MM-, which 
seem to be in vogue among ourselves as well 
as in ( iermany. 

The literatim: devoted to practical instruction 
in German has recently been increased by a 
number of works deserving special mention. 
Miss CAKI. A \YKNCKEBACH, favorably known 
as the editor of a charming anthology of 
German poems, has published a German 
Reader (Boston : Carl Schoenhof ; New York : 
I-'. \V. Christern) the multifarious character of 
which will be best illustrated by giving a synop- 
sis of its contents. After the pupil has been 
taught the elements of German pronunciation 
according to the manner of the primers used 
in the public schools of Germany, he is next 
introduced to the principles of Grimm's law ; 
this is followed by extracts from German 
prose and poetry ; and finally is given a sketch 
of the historical development of the German 
language based upon the works of Scherer, 
Grimm, Max Mu'ller, Delbriick, Joh. Schmidt, 
Paul, Kluge, etc. To illustrate the last chap- 
ter of the Reader, two maps are added repre- 
senting the status of the German dialects in 
the year 1300, and the present extension of the 
Indo-Germanic languages. 

The 'Manual of German Prefixes and Suf- 
fixes' by J. S. BLACKWELL (New York : Hen- 
ry Holt & Co.) will serve as a valuable help 
for teachers and pupils. The book does not 
aim at a scientific explanation of the origin 
and etymology of the material treated, but 
rather intends to be a practical guide for those 
who find the use of these particles one of the 
greatest difficulties in acquiring command of 
a foreign language. 

Teachers of German who desire to acquaint 
their pupils with tlu M. H. G. stage of the 
German language will welcome the 'Middle 
High German Primer' by JOSIIMI \\'KK;MI 
(Oxford: Clarendon Press). This primer, con- 
taining a short grammar based on the works of 
Paul and \Yeinhold, a suitable selection of 
texts, and a glossarv, will doubtless increase 



203 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



408 



the interest in the older forms of German 
among students of that language. 

One of the best edited texts which have 
come recently to our notice is the ' Life of 
Frederick the Great ' by DR. C. A. BUCHHEIM, 
(Oxford : Clarendon Press). The material, 
which is intended to give the student a train- 
ing in reading German historical prose, is ex- 
tracted from Becker's celebrated 'Weltge- 
schichte,' and forms an interesting and power- 
ful sketch of the life of the great Prussian 
king. It is hardly necessary to dwell on the 
excellence of the apparatus furnished by the 
introduction >and notes. In consequence of 
Becker's clear and simple style, which does 
not require extensive grammatical elucidation, 
the predominant character of the notes is that 
of historical explanation, giving in concise 
form an astonishing amount of information 
valuable to the student. The littte map of 
the scene of Frederick's campaigns must be 
considered a valuable addition. DR. BUCH- 
HEIM, who is known also in America as one 
of the foremost editors of German school-texts, 
has by this new work again won the thanks of 
all who, in the interest of progress in the 
study of the modern languages, appreciate the 
value of well-edited books. 

Among the practical productions of German 
literature which seem constantly to invite the 
skill of translators, Schiller's famous ' Lied 
von der Glocke ' takes a highly favored posi- 
tion. We have recently received two transla- 
tions of it : ' The Song of the Bell ' by Fr. 
Schiller, translated by N. W. CUTLER (Boston : 
D. Lothrop Company) ; Schiller's ' Lay of the 
Bell ' translated by E. J. CROCKETT (Southern 
Methodist Revieiv, March 1888), both of them 
showing peculiar merits. While the latter 
keeps more strictly to the German original, 
the former may certainly claim a higher poeti- 
cal character, rising happily, as it does in 
many passages, to Schiller's power and beauty 
of thought and diction. Moreover, it is adorned 
with a number of good reproductions of pic- 
tures selected from the best German illustra- 
tors of the poem, This feature of the trans- 
lation must be highly commended, since it 
wonderfully aids the reader in penetrating the 
foreign poet's mode of thinking and feeling. 
We entertain the hope of again meeting with 



Mr. Cutler as the skilled and graceful media- 
tor between German poetry and English 
readers. 

While we are still waiting for the long- 
needed comprehensive English-German Dic- 
tionary, we are offered in the new edition of 
DR. A. HOPPE'S ' Englisch-Deutsches Supple- 
ment-Lexicon als Erganzung zu alien bis jetzt 
erschienenen Worterbiichern' (Berlin: Langen- 
scheidtsche Verlagsbuchhandlung. i. ab. A 
Close), a work which surpasses everything 
hitherto published in the line of English-Ger- 
man lexicography. The author, presuppos- 
ing as known what is contained in Lucas" 
large dictionary, endeavors to include the 
whole thesaurus of English words and mean- 
ings not recorded in the existing dictionaries. 
The amount of industrious labor bestowed 
upon this work is simply enormous, and its re- 
sults were so much appreciated by the editor 
of Ogilvie's ' Imperial Dictionary ' that he ap- 
propriated, without acknowledgment, a large 
part of the contents of the first edition. A 
most welcome feature of this lexicon is the 
citation of passages illustrative of the use of 
the words treated. The literature utilized by 
DR. HOPPE and his collaborators for this pur- 
pose comprises nearly all fields of literary 
production, technical terms and English and 
American slang and provincialisms receiving 
especial attention. There are naturally some 
omissions to be noted. One is rather sur- 
prised for example not to find the term 
"blatherskite" a word which DR. HOPPE 
would doubtless have inserted had he ever 
witnessed one of our American presidential 
campaigns. We hope also that in due time the 
" Mugwump " will not escape his attention. 
The ' Supplement-Lexicon ' is a worli of which 
author and publisher may justly be proud, and 
deserves the widest circulation in America. 

A fourth revised edition of KLUGE'S ' Ety- 
mologisches Worterbuch ' (Strassburg : Triib- 
ner) is now issuing, of which instalments 1-4 
have already appeared. This skilfully com- 
piled book has from the outset met with so 
much success that it is unnecessary to speak 
further in its praise. A similar success seems 
to be destined for KLUGE'S recent publication, 
' Von Luther bis Lessing, (cf. M. L. N. iii, 281) 
a second edition of which has become neces- 



204 



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June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, i8$8. No. 6. 



410 



s.nv within a feu nuniths. We are, however, 
sorry to notice that in tin- latter case, I'KOK. 
Ki.i iii-. was not able In-fore going to print to 
make use of I'KOKISSOR EDWARD Scm 
i 'i K'S ( -xcellent and instructive review of Ills 
first edition in the Goetting. gel. Anzcii\i >/, 
\o. 7, 1888. In this review it is made evident 
that for a successful treatment of such prob- 
lems as are undertaken by KIAH;K a merely 
linguistic training is not sufficient. Unless an 
author posesses, as the result of many years' 
study a wide erudition, a deep insightinto the 
historical literary development of the lan- 
guage, he will run the risk of repeating plati- 
tudes and even making gross mistakes. 

The students of Folk Lore are reminded by 
MR. A K DREW LANG that ' Mother Goose ' has 
claims on their scientific appreciation (PER- 
RAULT'S ' Popular Tales ': Macmillan & Co.). 
MR. LANG has reprinted the French edition of 
1697, ' Histoires ou Contes du Temps Passe" 
avec des Moralite"z,' to which he has added 
the ' Contes en Vers ' and which he has pre- 
ceded by a sketch of PKRRAULT, of his tales, 
with a study of each story. As usual with the 
works of this writer the studies, which consist 
of comparative views of similar tales and an 
attempt to trace their migrations and changes, 
are made in a scholarly way which the wit- 
ticisms and local hits here and there impair 
but little. The greatest amount of material is 
brought together in the remarks on 'Puss in 
Boots ' and on 'Cinderella.' In the former 
PKRRAULT was hard pushed to find his cus- 
tomary rimed moral yet MR. LANG discovers 
that versions with a moral exist even in France, 
in which the tale continues to show how the 
hero the man in his turn renders evil for 
good. Such a conclusion points to the 
Buddhistic religion, but in India, where the 
story substitutes a jackal for the cat, no moral 
is fojnd, while in Zanxibar, where the animal 
becomes a gazelle, the moral appears: man's 
ingratitude contrasted with a beasts' faithful- 
ness. ' Cinderella ' offers tw.o chief features : 
the friendly beast, for whom a fairy godmother 
has been substituted, and the favoritism shown 
to the youngest child together with the place 
which it occupies in the ashes of the hearth 
Cinderella is a step-daughter, an evident 
variant. The friendly beast is a common 



character in popular stories and seems 
to be connected with the belief in trans- 
migration. The simple version occurs among 
various tribes, as the Kaffirs, where an ox 
protects the child and supplies him with food 
and riches from its horns. The complex or 
perhaps primitive version is found in Russia, 
among the Celts and elsewhere. Here a, 
mother is changed into an animal (sheep or 
cow) by a witch who assumes her form and 
passes herself off as the wife. At her request 
the animal is killed but the daughter is warned 
not to eat the flesh. The bones are buried 
from which comes a tree, as in an old Egyptian 
story, or other magic, to aid the daughter in 
her tasks. In most of these versions the slip- 
per, or a ring, is prominent. The substitution 
of a fairy godmother for the beast is due evi- 
dently to less barbarous society. The second 
leading element, the favored youngest child 
whose place is on the hearth, may be explained 
by an ancient custom common to many tribes 
whereby the youngest inherited. The growth 
of primogeniture, while the youngest was still 
the legal heir, would account for the persecu- 
tion of the latter. In the same way the young- 
est inherited the hearth by old customs and is 
thus, in the stories, placed among the ashes. 
The slipper is a means of recognition, gener- 
ally in the case of a false bride. Readers of 
the old French Epic will recall the plot of 
' Berthe aus grans pie's ' where the false bride 
is exposed by the smallness of her feet and 
where the true one, to the contrary of Cinder- 
ella, possesses large feet. The notices of 
the other stories of PERRAULT contain many 
useful hints, though shorter than the above. 
\Ye notice in the Conclusion, which follows the 
separate analysis, that MR. LANG does not 
state his own theory with the definiteness 
shown in his former studies of Folk Lore 
but contents himself with raising objections to 
the theories of GRIMM and-BENFKV. An in- 
teresting comparison of the views of the three 
schools from the pen of PROF. CRANE to 
whom the last volume of PITRK'S 'Sicilian 
Traditions ' has been dedicated has already 
appeared in the NOTES (Vol. II, col. I74ss). Re- 
views of recent publications of MR. LAM; on the 
same subject are found in the A 7 a/wn(iS8Sp.$6). 
1 La Syntaxe Pratique de la Langue Fran- 



205 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NO TES, 1888. No. 6. 



412 



caise' by B. MKRAS (New York : The Modern 
Language Publishing Co.) presents the gram- 
matical rules in the logical way : the examples 
precede each rule. The obvious result is that 
the rule is conceived by the scholar before it 
is formulated and is thus more readily retained. 
This system is seen to its best advantage in 
the treatment of the past participle (pp. 89-94) 
and in the agreement of the verb with its sub- 
ject. The defects of such a plan consist main- 
ly in the multiplicity of useless rules and 
in the tendency to make rules from idioms. 
Other faults which lie rather with the author 
than the system are the inadequate treatment 
of the subjunctive, where Whitney's grammar 
could have been consulted with profit, and the 
substitution of rules for tabular statements in 
regard to the varying gender and plurals of 
nouns. The Index is valueless for convenient 
reference and should be enlarged before the 
work is taken into class use. 

The same author is represented in a school 
edition of ' Notre Dame de Paris ' (London : 
Williams and Norgate). The editor, M. J. 
BOIELLE, has arranged, in two neat volumes, 
suitable portions of the original, keeping as 
near as possible to the progress of the narra- 
tive. The notes, which are indicated by fig- 
ures in the text, are good and abundant. As 
regards etymologies it is unfortunate that an- 
notators are not yet acquainted with Scheler 
in any of the editions of his Etymological 
Dictionary. 

' Einfiirhung in das Studium der Englischen 
Philologie mit Riicksicht auf die Anforderung- 
en der Praxis ' (Marburg, N. G. Elwert, 1888), is 
a brochure in which PROFESSOR WILHELM 
VIETOR aims to give counsel and direction to 
students who may desire to fit themselves as 
teachers of English in the schools of Germany. 
The scope and character of the examinations 
to be passed, and the true significance of 
the teacher's office are carefully examined, 
and then the practical question is entered upon, 
how the necessary preparation may be best 
acquired. This leac's to a detailed considera- 
tion of the entire course of training which such 
a teacher should endeavor to secure, embrac- 
ing advice as to the books to be used, courses 
of lectures to be attended, etc. These pages 
must prove a helpful guide to those for whom 



they are expressly written, but they have also 
a value for us. The English and American 
teacher of English may here gain many a ser- 
viceable hint from a careful study of the doc- 
trine and methods of English instruction in 
foreign schools ; while our teachers of French 
and German may, by a process of reasoning 
by analogy, be led, by these earnestly written 
chapters, to a better understanding of the 
true import of their own vocation. 

MR. ALEXANDER MELVILLE BELL, the cele- 
brated phonetician and author of ' Visible 
Speech,' has published a pamphlet which may 
be expected to arrest the eye of the curious, 
and to excite a feeling akin to suspicion in the 
breast of the champion of Vola-puk. But 
these are effects not to be ignored, nor do they 
lie wholly without the range of the writer's in- 
tention, if a natural inference may be drawn 
from the newly coined title, 'World-English, 
The Universal Language ' (New York : N. D. 
C. Hodges, 47 Lafayette Place), and the quaint- 
ly eloquent epilogue in which leave is taken 
of the reader: "Everyone has heard of the 
butcher, who, after a long search for his knife, 
at last found it in his mouth. So, speakers 
of English have been seeking for a Uni- 
versal Language, when lo ! it is in their 
mouths ! The intelligibility of words has been 
obscured by a dense mist of letters. This is 
now dispersed in World-English ; and the 
language stands revealed, beyond compari- 
son clear, simple, copious, and cosmopolitan, 
the fitting tongue of humanity." But it were 
quite impossible for MR. BELL to toy with any 
form of popular sensationalism for its own 
sake, and one has but to glance over these 
chastely written and beautifully printed pages 
to become impressed with the graceful and 
philanthropic spirit of the profound scholar. 
For the English-speaking world there are two 
great questions relating to its language that 
are of high importance ; they are these : shall 
our spelling be reformed, and shall any syste- 
matic effort be made towards the establish- 
ment of English as the World's medium of 
universal intercommunication ? The first of 
these questions may be argued apart from the 
second; but the second is, by common consent, 
conditioned by the first. This common con- 
sent among English scholars (for a matter of 



206 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTKS, 1888. No. 6. 



414 



this kind is in\o|\ed in, and has to encounter 
national picjndices) is \v<-ll cxpusscd in MR. 
Hi i i.'s o|n ning uords : " No language could 
!>< invented lor International UM- that would 
surpass English, in grammatical simplicity, 
and in general fitness to become the tonkin- ol 
tin- World. The only drawback to extension 
of English has been its <lillicnlt and unsyste- 
matic spelling." It is then clearly seen that 
MK. \\v.\.\. opens ami closes with the very deli- 
nite belief that English is the true l'ola-f>iik, 
and the object of his pamphlet is not so much to 
enforce this belief as to offer a theory, and to 
submit a practical system, carefully elaborated, 
for the attainment of certain ends. A system 
of English orthography and typography is here 
oH'cred which is not to supplant the present 
form of writing, but which is merely to sup- 
plement it as an " initiatory " form for begin- 
ners in the schools (thereby serving an import- 
ant pedagogical purpose at home) and for 
"non-scholastic learners, and for foreigners 
throughout the world." For our schools, it is 
argued " two forms of the language must thus 
be equally acknowledged ; one for lower 
classes of scholars (MR. RKLL'S ' World-Eng- 
lish ') and one for higher classes (the undis- 
turbed present literary form)." World-Eng- 
lish deserves the careful consideration of all 
serious scholars, to whom MR. BKLI, appeals 
for criticism and suggestion. 

IX C. Heath & Co. have just published the 
second book in the series of ' Practical Les- 
sons in the use of English,' by MARY E. Hvni: 
of the State Normal School, Albany, N. Y. 
The volume covers such technical grammaras 
is essential to a correct use of the language, 
besides giving many selections from the best 
writers, to form a correct taste for the best 
literature. It treats of letter-writing and its 
related subjects ; and contains much matter 
necessary to be familiarly km mi* in the ordin- 
ary business of life. The same House lias 
published ' Exercises in English, a drill book 
on Accidence, Syntax and Style,' by 11. I. 
STRANC;, Head Master, C.oderich High School, 
< >ntario. The book is meant to supply in con- 
cise form, well classified and carefully studied 
exercises for criticism and correction. It is the 
result of much experience in the school-room 
and is decidely a working hook. 



ERCKMANN-CffATKIAN'h amusing comedy 
of ' I. 'Ami Frit/.' with annotations in English 

b\ I'K"I . Al I l'.\ I. Ill NM ..,1 IN, "f tl:- 

sity of Michigan, has been added to the series 
of 'Theatre ( 'oiitemporain ' published by 
William K. Jenkins, of New York. (121 
250.) ' Encouraged by the favor shown to his 
enterprise in furnishing an attractive reprint in 
French of VICTOR Hrc.o's ' I.es Mis'rables,' 
MK. JKNKINS has determined upon issuing a 
uniform edition of all the novels of this author, 
and 'Quatrevingt-trei/e,' printed in one vol- 
ume, forms the second work in the sen 
This story is considered one of the fin- 
nit us of I Iroo's literary genius and style, and 
will undoubtedly prove of great value to stu- 
dents as well as of interest to general readers. 
It is issued in similiar typography and bind- 
ing to' I. es Misi'rables.' (121110, paper fi.oo, 
cloth $1.50.) MMI HI-.NRI (iki'vn.i.K's '1 
due,' will be the next number of tin- ' Romans 
Choisis,' issued by the same publisher. 

The Louisiana Journal of Education for 
March contains an article entitled: "Some 
Suggestions for a Course of Reading in High 
Schools" by PROK. J. R. FICKI.KN of Tulane 
University; likewise a review of I'KOK. 
("i M-Mi's ' The Study of Rhectoric ' by PROK. 
ROHKRT SHARP, of the same institution. The 
Dial (Chicago) for May has an interesting 
characterization Of '.'Arnold and his Work " by 
I'ROK. MKLVIU.K H. ANDKRSON, of State Uni- 
versity of Iowa. '1 \\vltniianu .SVW<-;//(< )rgan of 
Indiana University) for March, gives us a cred- 
itable notice of " Moliere " and his works by 
\Y. EC/HARD (ioi.mw;, a student in the French 
department of that University. The Academy 
(Syracuse), for April, contains a suggesti\e 
article on "The Phonetic Method," by E. 
Si'AMiooKi), of St. Paul's School, Concord, 
N. H. 

The first two numbers have reached us of a 
publication that promises much of interest and 
importance for the worker in modern lan- 
guages : !.< Moycn-Age. Bulletin meiisuel 
d' 1 iisloiiv et de I'hilologie, iindcrtlu direction 
of MKSSRS. A. MARICNAN, ('. PI.AION and 
M. WII.MOTTK. Price 9 francs. Addi. 
Monsieur Picard, l.ibraire-Editcur, Si rue 
Bonaparte, Paris. The list of periodicalsth.it 
are put under contribution for this new journal. 
is the most extensive, perhaps, of any publi- 
cation in existence. All the- periodical htera- 
ature of note, bearing on I listory and l.ingnis, 
tics, is to he reported on for Norway, Sweden- 
iVnmark, Holland, (iermany. Austria, Bel- 
gium, France, Italy Spain, Portugal and Rou- 



207 



415 



June. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 6. 



416 



JOURNAL NOTICES. 

BEITRAEOE < HRSG. v. PAUL UNO BRAUNE) VOL. 
XIII, PART III. Osthoff, II., Ktymologica. Kauff- 
niiuin, Fr., Behaghels argumente flir eine mhd. 
Schriftsprachc. Bugge, 8., Zur altgermanischen 
spraehgeschichte. Pletsch, P., Einige bemerkungen 
Uber ge- bei verben. Bremer, 0., Wurstencr wo'rter- 
verzeichnis. Hellborn, E., Die -reime bei- Opitz. 
Braune, W., Zu den dcutschen -lauten; Reinhardt 
Fuchs ; Nachtrag zu mhd. ein. Luick, K., Geschlossen- 
cs e 1'Ur e vor st. Holthausen, P., Nachtrag. 

ANGLIA. VOL. X. PART III. Honncher, E., Quel- 
len zu Dean Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels. 
(iodwln, Francis, The Voyage of Domingo Gonzales 
to the World of the Moon. Honncher, E., Bemerkung- 
en zu Godwin's Voyage of Domingo Gonzales to the 
Moon. Reum, A., De Temporibus ein echtes werk des 
abtes ^Elt'ric. Sattler, W., Englische Kollektaneen. 
Wllke, W., Anwendung der rhyme-test und double- 
ending test auf Ben JOHSOII'S dramen. Koeppel, E., 
Sidneiana. Logeman, 8., Forrest's Theophilus.-Nader, 
E., Tempus und modus im Beowulf. Hlcketler, K., 
FUnf rfitsel des Exeterbuches. Lcntzner. K., Zu 
Romeo und Julia. Sub lender, P., Btlcherschau ftir 
das jahr 1886. 

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NEUFRANZOSISCHE SPRACHE 

UND LlTTERATUR, BAND IX. HEFT Q.(Referate 
und Rezensionen) . ** J.-B. Stiernet, La Litterature 
franfaise au XVIIe siecle. Essais et Notices, avec 
une introduction (Moyen-age et XVIe siecle). 
Mahrenholtz, K., E. HOnncher, Fahrten nach Mond 
und Sonne. Mahrenholtz, K., E. Hertz, Voltaire und 
die fraiizdsische Strafrechtspflege im XVIII. Jahr- 
hundert. Mahrenholtz, K., Lettres inedites de Mme 
de Lespinasse p. p. Charles Henry. Scheffler, \V., 
Guillaume Ulrich, Essai sur la chanson franyaise de 
notre siecle. Honncher, E., Jan ten Brink, Litterari- 
sche Schetsen en Kritieken. Koschwltz, E., Moliere, 
L'Avare, crklBrt von H. Fritsche. Miszellen. J.-J. (!. 
L (eyds), Principaux ecrits relatifs a la personne et 
aux ceuvres, an temps et a 1'intiuence de Diderot. 
Compilation critique et chronologique. Meyer, R., 
Zur Konstruktion von falloir. Programm der zweiten 
Hauptversammlung des deutschen Einheitsschul- 
vereins in Kassel am 4. und 5. April 1888- Nekrologe. 
Honncher, E., Bibliographic 1887-88. 

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ROMANISCHE PHILOLOGIE, XI, 

4. Tobler, A., Vermisehte BeitrHge zur franz. Gram- 
matik. Nchwan, Ed., Zu den Hltesten franzosischen 
DenkmBlern. Schuchardt, H., ;Romano-baskisehes. 
Beyer, A., Die Londoner Psalterhandschrift Arundel. 
Vermischtes. Appel, 0., Zur Reihenfolge der Trionli 
Petrarca's. Meyer, W., Labialisierung von Gutturalen 
im Nordfranzos. Horning, A., Die Schicksale von en 
+Kons. und an+Kong. im Ostfranztisischen. Srhwan, 
E., Zur Flexion der Feminina der lat. III. Deklination 
im AltfranzOsischen. Wlese, B.,Italienische Etymolo- 
gien. I Irich, J., Romanische Etymologien. Be- 
gprechungen. Appel, ., W. Bernhard, Die Werke des 
Trobadors N'At de Mons. Appel, A. Pakscher, Die 
Chronologic der Gedichte Petrarcas. Tobler, A., F. 
Torraea, La materia dell' Arcadia del Sainm/aro, 



studio. Levy, E. und Tobler, A., Revue des langues 
romanes. T. XXX juill.-dec. 1886; t. XXXI, Jativ.- 
juin 1887. Meyer, W., Studi di fllologia romanza, fasc. 
4. 1887. 



LE CANADA-FRANCAIS, VOLUME PREMIER, 
LlVRAISON AVRIL '|888. L'Admlnlstration, Mgr 
Dominique Racine. Bruche'sl, L'abbe'l'. IN., Los Petites 
Sceurs des Pauvres a Montreal. Polsson, Adolphe, 
Mouvement de la Population Fran<;aise dans Ics i 'mi- 
tons de 1'Est. LeMay, Pamphlle, Le Boquet Po6sie. 
Desroslers, Joseph, Le Roman au Foyer Chretien. 
Routhlcr, A. B., La Question Romaine. E. R., Revue 
des Cours Publics donnas & 1' Univ. -Laval a Quebec 
(Hiver 1887-88.- DeOelles, A. D., Notre Avenir. Routh- 
ler, A, B., Les Fetes Jubiiaires (Lettre de Rouie). 
Ohauveau, P. J. 0., Encore Jacques Cartier. Legend re, 
Nap., La Legende d'un Peuple. ValUe, A., Interven- 
tion Chirurgicale dans les affections du rein. Lcgen- 
dre, Nap., Pelerinageau Pays D'Evangeline.-Ohauveau, 
P.-J. 0., Revue Europeenne. P. F., N. L., P. J. 0. 0., 
Bibliographic Revue des livres. P. J. 0. l\. M.-E. M., 
Revue des revues. Documents Inedits. VIII.-Memoi- 
re de 1'abbe de I'lsle-Dieu a M. Stanly, 1755, (Suite). 
IX. Articles de soumission des Acadiens, 1760. X. 
Lottres de M. 1'abbe Maillard, missioiinaire en Acadie, 
1735-1738. XI. Journal historique du voyage de la 
flotte commandee par M. le Due d'Enville, et partie 
pour le Canada le 20 juin 1746. 

REVUE CRITIQUE, No. 8. Camus, G., Precetti di 
rettorica scritti per Enrico III re di Francia (Ch. J.). 
Les grands ecrivains fran$aits: Bolisshr, G., Mme de 
Sevignc; Sortl, A., Montesquieu ; hay, L., Turgot; 
Uaro, E., George Sand; Simon, J., Victor Cousin (F. 
I Hemon). NO. 9. Gaste, A., Olivier Basselin et Le 
I Vau de Vire (A. Delboulle). Von M'cllen, Altx., Der 
I aegyptische Joseph 1111 Drama des XVI. Jnhrhuuderta 
(A.O.). NO. II. Joiisson, Kiiinur, Edua bnorra Stur- 
lusonar. 111. ((J.). AJbuni paleograpliiiiue ou recneil 
de documents iiuportants (A. Molinier). Catalogue 
des livres oomposant la bibliotluque de feu >l. If 
baron James ue Rothsehild. Tome second. (T. de 
L.). kothler, R., Herders LegenUen (Ch. J.). No. 
12. Hemon, F., Theatre de P. Corneille (A. Del- 
Uoulle). Catalogue Rothschild (H. Cordier). No. 13. 
Wlez, Kr., Etymologisclies WOrterbucli. schtKi-, .1., 
Dictionnaire d'etyniologie t'runeaisu '(A. D.). Vau- 
tliUr, U., Essai sur la Vie et les Oeuvres de N IK.HIII- 
cene Lemercier (A . R belliau). This, ('., Die deutsch- 
frttnzOalsehe Spraehgrenxe im Elsas^ (1;.). No. 14. 
onway, H. 8., Verner's Law in Italy ; oerKe, V'., 
Die Itdlisohen Sprauhen (V. Henry). I'rndel, Ch., 
Notice sur la vie du poete Kancliiii (l.iKi-1*)!)^) ( T. de 
I'-)- No. IS.karoi-iie, t'., Le Franvais et le.-piit 
d'analyse (Ch. J.). Krnault, E., Le mystere de Sainte- 
Barbe (H. d'Arbois de Jubainville). No. 17. t^ode- 
froy, F., La lettre O du Dictionnaire I.A. J<iciues). 
Kurschner, J., DeutsclMj National-Litfratur (vols. 81- 
SW). (A. Chuquet). NO. 18. I'anius, G., L'opera Sah'i- 
nitana "Circa instaus " ed il testo primitiyo del 
"(irunt herbier en fran^ays" (A. Bo-). UUHge, H., 
Courtilz de Sandras una die Anffinge des Men-uiv 
historique et politique (Ch. J.). Arnuudlu, F., Conies 
populairca grand-landais (ti. Oaldoz). NO. 19. 
\iniht, J. B. et C'hubaneaii (.. Deux n;anusi-rits I.K>- 
\enyaux du XIN'e bit-clo (T. de L.). lajbcrt, Krd., De 
la iMononciation en Franc au XVIe siecle et du livrc 
de Thurof, intitule De la prononciation franvaisc ( A. 
D.). Clan, N,, Un epiaodio-delld storia della censura 
in Italia nel sec. XVI. L'edizione spurgata del C<)rtc- 
giano. (P. tie Nolhac). Le in nil re, J., IinpreabJoos de 
th atre 1. (K. Hemon). 8tt cher, J., Histoire dc la 
1 it tc rat ure n^erlandttlse en Belgique (A. 



208 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 



Italtimorc, November. 1 8HH. 



GLISH 

/. Rosens ' Orlando Furtoso.' 

The Italians have complete Rimari, or 
Rime Indexes, of their leading poets, such as 
DANTK, PETRARCH, ARIOSTO and TASSO. 
These Indexes servr many useful purposes, 
and take their place with poetical lexicons 
and concordances. In the early stages of a 
language, rimes, of whatever kind, either 
repose upon etymological kinship or inflex- 
ional similarity, or else are largely fortuitous. 
A happy union of sense and sound is immedi- 
ately consecrated to mnemonic and poetic 
uses, and becomes a recurrent phrase, the type 
and nucleus of many others. 

These are employed at first by popular 
poets, and then by conscious artists. Mean- 
while the resources and the flexibility of the 
language grow. The riming possibilities are 
largely, though never indefinitely, extended. 
New words are added, and words dissimilar 
in sound become assimilated, yet in every 
direction there are limits, in some cases 
ampler, in others narrower. Within the 
ampler limits most of the riming work must 
be done, and every effort is made to wed the 
sense of words which at first appear to have 
nothing in common save their resemblance in 
sound. The language must needs become 
plastic in order to endure the strain which is 
now put upon it. Old words are used in new 
senses, figurative uses multiply, unsuspected 
adaptabilities of words to each other are re- 
vealed, and unsuspected modes of combination 
are discovered. Where the limits are narrow- 
er the struggle is still more intense. The lan- 
guage is ransacked for words as yet unthought 
of. Dialects are made to yield up their spoils. 
Words are put upon the rack, and tortured to 
reveal their secret, and fitted on Procrustean 
beds, happy if they may retain their original 
proportion:.. 

Poets make experiments which their succes- 
sors find too daring, and their apparent con- 
quests, held by too slight a tenure, are aban- 
doned. 

If these artist3 find their material too refrac- 



tory, they admit false rimes, which the next 
generation, encountering the same difficulties, 
d s|x-r;it( ly sanctions. Thus riming conven- 
tions arisr. A word like flight suggests heig ht 
and sight, and the rimes of a triplet are thus 
pn>\ i<U-d. So knight might suggest fight ?ai& 
might. Such triplet or quatrain rimes are 
adopted by other poets, with or without mod- 
ification. According as there is or is not a 
disposition to modify and extend, there are two 
schools of rimers. The coaservative rimer 
accepts combinations as he finds them, em- 
ploys the old, recurrent, familiar jingles, and 
spends his strength upon other portions of his 
task. The innovator is likely to be a great, fe- 
cund, untrammeled spirit, throwing ofl" rimes, 
good and bad, in careless profusion, or else a 
devotee of art for art's sake, whose whole 
study is form. Only exceptionally is a riming 
innovator at once a great and a thoroughly 
artistic poet. This constant experimenting 
and fashioning steadily augments the re- 
sources of the language. Its general plasticity 
and the actual scope and richness of its rime- 
system may, as in the case of the English, go 
hand in hand. A cross-section through the 
riming product of a given author or century 
may afford an indication of the poetic fertility 
and chastened sense of form which are there 
displayed. An abundance of false and dis- 
sonant attempts at rime will signify barrenness 
or undisciplined faculty. Smooth harmonies 
upon a few chords will point to great dexterity 
of handling, but not to the presence of ele- 
mental volcanic forces, struggling for utter- 
ance at whatever cost. Novel, varied, and 
entirely satisfying effects imply that the world 
is enriched by another genius or a very high 
order of talent. 

These considerations have impelled me to 
record some observations upon the rimes em- 
ployed by ROSE, the friend of SCOTT and trans- 
lator of ARIOSTO. Were ROSE'S version bold 
and commonplace, the selection of it might 
well be obnoxious to criticism. But it is gen- 
erally conceded, I believe, that his merits as a 
translator are very great. Soon after the pub- 
lication of his first volume, BlackwoocTs 
Magazine (xv, 418) said : "We believe it will 



209 



4T9 



November. MODERN LANG UA GE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



420 



be considered as, on the whole, the best poet- 
ical translation in our language." And again : 
' ' A specimen of the before unsuspected variety 
and flexibility of our poetical language, inde- 
pendently of all those monstrous and bar- 
barous innovations in which too many of our 
most popular poets have ventured to indulge." 

It is this first volume, together with the first 
twenty-one stanzas of the second, that I have 
chosen for this examination. The first volume 
contains six cantos and 479 stanzas. These 
500 stanzas in the octave measure will yield 
looo triplet rimes. To these I have confined 
myself, neglecting the final couplets. It will 
readily be seen that the selection of this num- 
ber facilitates the calculation of percentages, 
while affording a sufficiently- wide basis for 
some interesting inductions. 

In 500 stanzas, 140 different riming sounds 
are employed, so that an average of more than 
seven triplets are constructed on each riming 
sound, 

On eighteen riming sounds more than 500 
triplets are framed, and on seven riming 
sounds more than 250. Double rimes occur in 
only twenty triplets. The long-vowel sounds 
are preferred, especially a, e, I, d, do, on, and 
the first four of these vowels as modified by a 
following r; 143 triplets are formed on these 
four vowel sounds as finals, that is, followed 
by no consonant. Of short vowels, seems to 
be most in request, especially in -est, -ed, and 
-ent. 

No appreciable distinction appears to be 
made between do and u in riming ; the same 
triplet will frequently contain both sounds. 
Only 83.3 per cent (or, if doubtful false rimes 
are included 84.2 per cent) of the whole are 
absolutely perfect rimes. 

In 5.7 per cent a fully stressed syllable 
rimes with one or more syllables having a 
secondary stress, or the riming syllables have 
all secondary stress ; in other words, monosyl- 
lables rime with trisyllables (exceptionally 
tetrasyllables), or trisyllables with each other. 

Three and one-tenth per cent of the triplets 
contain the same syllable repeated, either (a) as 
a monosyllable of the same form and the same, 
or different meaning, (b) as a monosyllable of 
the same sound but of different form and 
meaning, (r) as the second syllable of a poly- 



syllabic word, the original syllable being a 
monosyllable, (rf)as the second syllable of a 
dissyllabic word in two instances, or (e) as the 
second syllable of a word dissyllabic in sound 
alone. 

In 5 per cent of the triplets, a word is 
mispronounced for the sake of the rime. 

In 6.7 per cent the rimes are merely rimes 
to the eye, or are otherwise inaccurate. In 
two instances there is, apparently, no pretence 
at riming, viz., 

mi tied: bestride: find 

line : came : dame 

and in another (end of Canto VI) a line is 
wanting, and the triplet therefore stands : 

paid: arraid: 

The slight discrepancy between the sum of 
the percentages and the number TOO is due to 
the fact that in two instances the same triplet 
rime is repeated in different categories. 

In the General List each word stands as the 
type of a riming sound ; thus knight is the 
type of the riming sound -ite ; day the type of 
-ay, etc. The General List includes all the 
subsequent categories except that of False 
Rimes. 

Where pronunciations are indicated it is 
done but roughly, and for purposes of identifi- 
cation only. Any attempt to be exact would 
have required an extensive use of diacritical 
marks. 



General List. 



1. knight 

2. see 
3- day 
4. fear 

5- foil" 

6. foe 

7. rest 

8. sped 

9. who 

10. side 

11. nigh 

12. maid 

13. bore 

14. dame 

15. wise 

16. grace 

17. bent 



49- 
4 8. 
4i. 
36- 
32. 
3i- 

29- 

28. 
26. 

23- 

22. 
21. 
2O. 
19- 



18. rain 

19. speed 

20. bound 

21. beat 

22. glows 

23. land 

24. skill 

25. brought 

26. ring 

27. sell 

28. find 

29. date 

30. heart 

31. lord 

32. fire 

33. friends 

34. gale 



18. 



16. 
14. 

12. 
II. 
IO. 

9- 

8. 

7- 
6. 



421 



Novtmbtr, MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



432 



GENERAL LIST. (CONTINUED). 


Principal Stress with Secondary Stress. 


35. hears 


88. lu-irs 




e are arranged in the order of the 


36. bend 


f- 89. blamed 




words in the main list. Only one instance of 


37- zeal 


6. 
90. snared 




each set occurs, except where a number is 


38. tone 


91. calls 




noted, and then the illustration stands for the 


39- sort 


92. blazed 




type. 


40. deep 


93. please 




(a), bright, chrysolite, fight. 


41. heard 


5- 94. s;u ks 




(b). be, see, chivalry, (16). 


42. bold 


95. France 




he, readily, faculty, (12). 


43. hour 


96. shape 




enmity, cruelty, jeopardy. (4). 


44. birth 


97. hands 




(c). crest, manifest, rest. 


45- root 


98. gained 




(d). descried, signified, spied. 


46. mood 


99. fact 




(e). try, die, verify, 


47- riRe 


loo. back 




testify, eye, reply. 


48. gaze 


4 101. charms 




(f). cries, flies, recognize. 


49. horse 


102. task 




(g). bent, spent, banishment, 


50. bruise 


103. cost 




innocent, intent, fraudulent. 


51. wings 


104. done 




(h). strain, vain, Sericane, 


52. queen 


105. world 




Sericane, domain, pain, 


53. shield 


106. turn 




reign, pain, Charlemagne, 


54. shun 


107. trust 




plain, Charlemagne, plain. 


55. doom 


108. scout 




(i). sfill, will, Logistil. 


56. brave 


109. chin 




(j). ring, following, bring. (6). 


57- fling 


no. rides 




(k). bonnibel, sell, rebel, 


58. press 


ill. theft 




Pinabel, cell, fell. 


59. met 


112. took 




(1). twine, Ghibelline, sign. 


60. sure 


113. wrong 




(m). foal, goal, caracole. 


61. line 


114. bruits 


i. 


(n). Sacripant, Levant, Bradamant, 


62. last 


3- 115. time 




Agramant, Agolant, plant. 


63. call 


116. child 




Riming Syllables Repeated. 


64. theme 


117. miles 




(a), rest, west, rest, 


65. make 


118. spouse 




knight, light, light, 


66. learned 


119. crown 




rose, shows, shows, 


67. wit 


120. lips 




plain, Charlemagne, plain. 


68. horn 


121. flock 




(b). way, pray, weigh, 


69. extended 


122. peace 




high, die, hie, 


70. inclination . 


123. weeps 




threw, renew, through, 


71. closed 


124. brink 




grown, bone, groan, 


72. pole 


125. pearl 




seen, scene, queen, 


73. pains 


126. road 




sea, fidelity, see. 


74. man 


127. effect 




(c). tide, divide, eventide, 


75. storm 


128. narrates 




side, beside, pride, 


76. den 


129. retorts 




avows, spouse, vows (or f), 


77. plant 


130. degrees 




depart, heart, part, 


78. smile 


131. rages 




impart, part, heart, 


79. bark 


* 2. 132. sally 




part, impart, heart, 


80. speech 


133. carry 




impart, part, art, 


81. beams 


134. sabre 




upturned, burned, turned, 


82. road 


135. tiding 




steed, deed, misdeed, 


83. shot 


136. prizes 




boy, enjoy, joy, 


84. joy 


137. wonder 




impressed, pressed, best. 


85. affection 


138. petition 




(d). applied, replied, aside, 


86. pleasure 


139. lamented 




replied, complied, tried, 


87. first 140. possession 




avail, prevail, mail. 



423 



November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



424 



(e). say, assay, sway, 
assay, way, say, 
bright, knight, unite, 
veil, avail, scale, 
bruise, eschews, choose, 
feuds, embrued, brewed, 
bends, descends, sends. 

Mispronunciations. 
he, company, Circassy, 
shew, due, view, 
pressed, Este, best, 
gain, Castellain, stain, 
bit, sit, hermaphrodit. 

False Rimes. 
i. Rimes to the eye. 
uv, uv, ddv, (5). 

love, above, remove, 

above, prove, love, (2). 

move, love, above, 

above, move, love. 
ddv, ddv, uv, (i). 

move, prove, love. 
odd, odd, ud, (2). 

stood, wood, blood, 

stood, blood, wood. 
ddd, ddd, odd, (i). 

mood, wood, stood. 

ud, ud, odd, (i). 
blood, flood, mood. 

ud, ud, ood, (i). 

blood, good, flood. 
ain, ain, en (or ain), 

vain, again, plain, 

pain, plain, again, 

strain, again, reign, 

again, rein, vein. 
aid, aid, ed, (2). 

said, aid, blade, 

blade, laid, said. 
ize, Ize, unstressed eeze, (i). 

wise, skies, destinies. 
ite, lie, unstressed it (spelled ite), (i). 

right, fight, opposite. 
own, own, oan, (3). 

renown, crown, own, 

drown, shown, crown, 

alone, gown, town. 
ar, ar, or, (i). 

car, star, war. 



i, I, unstressed ee, (9). 

prodigy, I, reply, 

eye, nigh, sorcery, 

i, die, severity, 

family, sky, eye, 

ply, wrongfully, lie, 

symmetry, eye, die, 

eye, sky, alchemy, 

sky, eye, Camaldoli, 

eye, nobility, lie. 
unstressed ee : unstressed ee, i, (2). 

agony, nigh, insanity, 

balcony, happily, I. 

Unclassified Rimes. 

odd, dod, odd, (i). 

wooed, rude, could. 
odd, ddd, ddd, (i). 

pursued, good, understood. 
ddd, ud, odd, (i). 

good, blood, pursued. 
air, air, ur (or air), (5). 

share, heir, were, 

were, repair, bear, 

care, share, were, 

were, care, bear, 

pair, were, air. 
ore, ore, oor, (4). 

pore, Moor, shore, 

bore, sore, Moor, 

Moor, lore, before, 

bore, Moor, before. 
oan, oan, on, (i). 

grown, gone, own. 
oan, oan, un, (i). 

overblown, done, moan. 
un, un, oan, (i). 

alone, sun, won. 
oan, un, on, (i). 

unknown, done, gone. 

un, un, on,- (3). 

won, none, upon, 

done, upon, sun, 

foregone, done, son. 
d, d, ow, (i). 

brow, flow, below, 

know, how, bestow. 
airs, airs, ears, (2). 

fares, bears, uprears, 

prepares, ears, wears. 



425 



Novftnoer. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



436 



ear, ear, air, (i). 

deer, tear, fear. 
tars, fars, airs, (i). 

tears, cares, fears. 
ffd, fed, fd, (i). 

need, indeed, stead. 
air, air, ar, (i). 

heir, are, rare. 
urned, urned, orned, (i). 

mourned, returned, discerned. 
antes, antes, urns, (i). 

roams, foams, comes. 
ung, ung, ong, (i). 

sprung, flung, throng. 
ount, ount, unt, (i). 

fount, front, mount. 
;</, urd, ard, (i). 

heard, preferred, reward. 
own, own, unstressed on, (i). 

town, crown, gonfalon. 
ante, dme, bom, (i). 

home, foam, gloom. 
ong, ong, ung, (i). 

song, long, among. 
ord, ord : unstressed ord or ard, (i). 

accord, lord, Paris-ward. 
uzf, uze, ooce, (i). 

use, pursues, truce. 
eeth, eeth, fethf, (i). 

sheath, beneath, seethe. 
ine, me, oin, (i). 

join, line, design. 
ide, Ide, igned, (i). 

untied, bestride, find. 
aim, aim, Ine, (i). 

line, cane, dane. 
aid, aid, , (i). 

paid, arraid, . 



University of California. 



A. S. COOK. 



THE GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTION 
IN THE ROMANIC LANGUAGES. 

V. 

The nature of the examples considered up 
to the present time has been such that the 
action of the dependent verb (gerund or infini- 



tive) was performed by a subject in the nomi- 
native case. This necessarily followed from 
the fact that the dependent was joim <I to a 
finite verb, tin- latt-r serving sometimes a* a 
mere copula between the subject and the sue- 
ceeding verb, the former at other times deter- 
mining the modality of the action of the latter. 
Considering the origin of the gerund, this last 
must have been its earlier function ; since being 
virtually a noun in an oblique case, it must 
necessarily at first have expressed adverbial 
relations. Gradually it rose, so to speak, in 
dignity and, from the office of a simple modi- 
fier, it became the principle word in the 
sentence the predicate. II s'en vait corant, 
he goes away running(ly) ; where corant points 
out the manner of going away ; but il vait me 
disant, he is in the act of telling me, or simply, 
he tells me. 

The cases now to be considered belong to a 
different category, in so far that the action of 
the gerund (or infinitive where it can be used) 
is performed by an agent in an oblique case, 
which case is the regime of a verb in a personal 
mood. Constructions of this kind occur with 
words signifying lofind, to see, toJiear, lofeel, 
to perceive, etc., and with/a>r in the sense of 
to cause (to do anything), altho' some special 
remarks will be called for when we come to 
speak of faire as so used. The Romance 
languages did not originate this construction 
for themselves. It was common in the classi- 
cal languages to construct the present partici- 
ple and infinitive with words of similar import. 
It seems to be a principle of syntax applicable 
to most languagues. The distinction between 
gerund and infinitive, when so constructed, 
is in general terms this : the gerund indicates 
the progress of an action into which that of the 
finite verb falls and always begins before, 
and usually continues after, the completion of 
this verb; while the infinitive, in such cases as 
it can be employed in, expresses an action, of 
which the speaker perceives the beginning and 
the end. Logically this could only hold good 
of past completed and future time. The use 
of the infinitive with the present tense is incon- 
sistent a contradiction in terms except to 
designate habitual action. For instance, we 
should say in English ; I saw him go into the 
house ; whereby I should mean : ist, that I saw 



213 



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November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



428 



him complete the action ; ad, that I saw him 
performing an act which he began before I 
looked and may have continued after I turned 
away ; but for the present : I see him going in- 
to the house, only ; since, I see him go into the 
house, can only be said of a habit or an action 
indefinitely repeated and would usually be 
accompanied by an adverb indicating the 
habit, etc ; as, I see him go into the house 
every day. However, here, as in other things, 
what ought to be is at variance with what 
actually is, and we find a great freedom in the 
use of the infinitive. Indeed, with the excep- 
tion of to find (meet, come, upon, etc.), the in- 
finitive (or some other construction) has gen- 
erally usurped, in the modern languages, the 
place of the gerund, and is used to express both 
completed and continued action, according to 
the construction of the sentence. 

Trouver. 

Ses maisuns truva arses e ses viles ardant, 
E un suen fils truva mort en biere gisant, 
E sa femme e sa gent merveillus duel faisant. 

Roman de Ron, 4104. 
Vint milie chevaliers i troverent scant, 
E sunt vestut de palies e de hermines blans. 

Voyage de Charlemagne, 267. 
Les enfans trueve gisanz soz la valee, 
En scant ierent, s'ont grant joie menee. 

Amis et Amiles. 
Le maillet troverent pendant 
A la port par de devant. 

Le Pelerinage Renart, 93. 

E quand venc un dia, Raimons de Castel 
Rosillon trobet passan Guillem de Cabestaing. 
Bib. derTroub., IX. 

This construction is still preserved, in all its 
freedom, in the modern language : 

Linus venant du ciel sur Pegase, au relai, 
Trouve votre sorci're enfourchant son balai. 

V. Hugo, Religions et Religion, p. 33. 

L'abb6 alia rejoindre Jeanne et Gabriel, 
qu'il trouva se promenant avec tristesse dans 
le pare du chateau. 

Alce'e Fortier, Gabriel d'Ennerich, p. 23. 

It is, moreover, common to the whole group of 
Romance tongues, as may be illustrated by 
the 46th verse of the 24th chapter of Matthew, 
which has been rendered by them all in the 
same manner. 

Heureux ce serviteur que son maitre trou- 
vera faisant ainsi quand il arrivera. 



Beato quel servitore, il quale il suo signore, 
quando egli verra, trover^ facendo cosi. 

Bienaventurado aquel siervo, alcual, cuan- 
do su Senor viniere, le hallare haciendo asi. 

Bienaventurado aquelle servo, ao qual, 
quando seu Senhor vier, o achar fazendo 
assim. 

Fericitti este servulti acela, pre care, venindti 
dominultt sen, 'Iti va afla facendtt asa. 

Luther translated here by the infinitive with- 
out any apparent reason, as it was departing 
from the Greek (Sv cASwr xvptof avruv 
f.v/j?'/(3i ovrcrif TToKvrra), and we find him 
using the participle with finden in Marc XIII, 
36 : auf dass er nicht schnell komme und finde 
euch schlafend. The infinitive is not admissi- 
ble in the Romanic languages, as far as my 
observation goes, but is still current in Ger- 
man, its use depending upon certain condi- 
tions, the discussion of which would be out of 
place here. 

Ouir (entendre). 

The gerund or infinitive is indifferently used 
without any appreciable distinction. 
Examples : 

Fors fut la no\se etla bataille grans 
Et li hustins mervillous et pesans, 
N'i oissiez nes damedeu tonnant. 

Ch. de Gibert de Metz (Rom. St. I, 464). 
Nus tut 90 veimes ke m'o"z recuntant. 

Vie d S. Auban, 1184. 

Et frainte d'armes i avait par tout, que Ten 
n'oi'st mie Dieu tonant. 

Tr. de Guil. de Tyr, Liv. iv. 

Li arcevesque les ot contrarier. 

Ch. de Roland, 1737. 
Illoec m'assis pour escouter 
Deus dames que j'oi parler. 

Flore et Blanceflor, 44. 

Car adonc aguera om ausit les sens et campanas 
sonar al repiquet. 

Ch. de la Croisade d'Albigeois. 
" Summae Deus clementiae," nel seno 
Del grand' ardore allora-udi" cantanoo. 

Dante, Purg. XXV, 122. 
E degli uccelli le diverse e tante 
Odo voci cantar dolci e gioconde. 

Vitt. Colonna. 

Le oigo hablando con un hombre desconocido. 

Sauer's Gram, espagnole. 
AstfeluT aucH pero tehiCra cochetS parisiana 
cjicencl ca a primiit un puiti de gSina. 

V. Alecsandri. 



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November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. ^. 



43P 



The Wallachian excepted, the modern lan- 
guages seem to avoid the gerund with words 
signifying to hear, and the infinitive or a rela- 
tive < Inusr is used instead. The two following 
examples with entendre, which now usually 
takes the place of the obsolescent ouir, will 
serve to illustrate the use of the infinitive to 
express completed or progressive action. 

J'ai entendu le rossignolet chanter dans son 
langage. Romania, IX, 565. 

Mais tout e tail. Je n'entends ricn venir. 

V. Hugo, Hernani. 

It is not pretended, of course, that entendre 
is not constructed with the gerund ; yet it 
does not seem possible to lay down a rule for 
its use. Judging from this sentence : Enten- 
dons maintenant Alcuin signalant a Charle- 
magne les me'mes abus (Haure*au), we might 
probably apply to entendre what further on is 
said of voir. 
Ecouter. 

On e*coutait avec plaisir les jongleurs chan- 
tant les jestes des anciens. 

Paulin Paris, Preface to Guil. de Tyr. 
Voir (with the gerund). 

Jeo vi, dist il, une mult bcle 
Par desus les ewes montant. 

Guil. le Clerc de Normandie. 
Quant le virent en Pair salant. 

Bauduin de Sebourc, B. 397, 8. 

Quant li sires le vit venant, 
Si le salua maintenant 

Li Contes del Graal, B. 166, 17. 
Jeu vos vigui entre los layors penden 
On vos fazian trops grans escarnimens. 

Plainte de Notre Dame, 58. 
E vidi spirti per la fiamina andando. 

Dante, Purg. XXV., 124. 

Vido al conde paseando 

Y estas palabras le ha dicho. 

Rom. delCid(Voegelin). 

Diego. ; Que viste T 
Sancho. Al gran Fernando, 

Mi vida con mi muerte amenazando. 
G. de Castro, Moc. del Cid, Pt. seg. I, 4. 
Como vereis o mar fervendo acceso 
Co' os incendios dos vossos pelejando. 

<)s I .us. II, 54 (also 1 1. 68). 

Cine m'ar videa cutrierAnd orasul cu valiza 
pe spinare, ar cuteza porte a crede cJi slnt 
vagabond ? 

V. Alecsandri, Hatmana. 
Voir (with the infinitive). 



Quant ele venir M le voit. 
Tanioi arrlere i'n retoroc. 

Fabliau de Perdrit, B. 9 j, 14- 

donde il mania partilU, 

Vedendo di lonuno fumar le vllle. 

Giutto d*' Contc Romano. 
Ver.lt dctpuet Us potencia* 
If vaJieodo.... 

Juan Rule. 
o grfto Thebano 



Olliando o ajuntamento Luciuno 
Ai mouro er moletto e aborrecido. 

O Lut. I, 73. 

Occasionally both constructions are found 
in the same sentence : 

Mult veiisiez fortnant iir aronez Nortnanz 
Querre turneiemeni e juste demandanz. 

Roman de Row, 3357. 
Ed al nome dell* alto Maccabeo 
Vidi rauoveni un altro roteando. 

Dante, Pur. XVIII, 41. 
E quand' eo veggio li altri cavalieri 
Arme portare e d'amore parlando. 

Folcacchiero de' Folcaccbieri. 

The infinitive is much the more common, 
even where the gerund would be more logical. 
This is especially true of the Old French. It 
would be but reasonable, for instance, to ex- 
pect gisant in the quotation from Guillaume 
d 'Orange (B. 65, 18): 

Vivien vit gesir desoz un guet 
Desoz un abre qu'est foillus et ramez. 

For Guillaume did not see Vivien lie down 
but saw him already in that posture (lying), as 
any other man would, without doubt, have 
been who had had his body pierced with fifteen 
wounds, from any one of which (the old 
romancer naively adds) an emir would have 
died. 

What was said with reference to the current 
construction with verbs signifying to hear, 
holds, with some little modification, of verbs 
meaning to see. 

The Wallachian, which is generally more 
varied in its syntax than the other members of 
its group, makes very free use of the gerund. 
Of thirty odd instances noted in the Bible, the 
Italian, Spanish and Portuguese translate by 
the infinitive or a relative clause, while the 
Wallachian invariably employs the gerund. 
This is strictly in accordance with the rule laid 
down by the grammarians the Italian gerund 



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November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 



432 



being excluded by the grammatical dictum, 
that the gerund should always refer to the sub- 
ject ; while for the Portuguese and Spanish the 
infinitive is to be preferred (unless the idea of 
duration is to be made very prominent), and 
always where the principle verb is in a past 
tense or the object is a noun. The Wallachian, 
however, is not trammeled by any such restric- 
tions, provided the thought is clearly ex- 
pressed. It is this latter point which deter- 
mines, to a great extent, the syntax of the ger- 
und in all these languages. The Italian has 
probably not gained anything by its rigorous 
exactness. In such cases as those cited from 
the Divina Commedia and in the one follow- 
ing, from Vittoria Colonna, there could be no 
possible misunderstanding and, consequently, 
there is no good reason why the construction 
should have fallen under the ban of the gram- 
marian. 

Ed a mirar i lor piTi cari armenti 
Pascendo insieme far piacevol guerra. 

It must be admitted, however, that the rule 
often prevents ambiguity in a very neat way. 
Separated from its context, the following stanza 
from Metastasio's canzonetta, La Potenza, 
might present some difficulty, since giungendo 
could logically be taken either with quanti or 
with the subject of vedrai. The possible mis- 
understanding is obviated by applying the rule. 

Quanti vedrai giungendo 
Al nuovo tuo soggiorno, 
Quanti venirti intorno 
A offrirti amore e fe. 

The same ambiguity is avoided in : 

Ch'amor quest' occhi lagrimando chuida. 

Petrarca. 

The French easily evades the difficulty by 
the use of en before the gerund : En arrivant 
a ton nouveau sejour combien de personnes tu 
verras &c. En with the gerund always express- 
ing adverbial relations, it can never take the 
place of an adjective clause and must conse- 
quently affect the action of the principal verb 
and not its object. 

At the . present day the construction in 
French with verbs of seeing and synonymous 
import is dependent upon conditions more 
easily felt than defined. It would be rash to 
make the rule a general one ; because this 
would leave full scope for a promiscuous use 



of the gerund, which would not coincide with 
practice. I believe that a rule formulated 
somewhat as follows would serve as a pretty 
safe guide : namely, the gerund occurs more 
frequentlywith a verb in a past tense and that 
in any case it should have an object or some 
phrase to modify its action. 

J'ai vu les vents grondant sur les moissons 
superbes. 

Delille. 

Les moines et les pre"tendus savants ne 
virent dans cet obscur Stranger qu'un aventu- 
rier cherchant fortune de ses chimdres. 

Lamartine. 

Us en e"taient la quand des paysans les aper- 
curent marchant c5te a cSte dans 1'enclos. 

Saintine. 

Je les vois cherchant a deviner des e"nigmes 
sans mots et je les aide a s'embrouiller. 

George Sand. 

Je me de"fie de la dialectique, quand je vois 
1'esprit humain tournant sur lui-meme. 

Nisard. 

La famille en palit et vit en fr^missant 
Dans la poudre du greffe un polte naissant 

Boileau. 

II contemplait la forme svelte et e"le"gante 
de la jeune fille traversant la cour au bras du 
docteur. 

X. de Monte"pin. 

Je t'ai vu la griffonant sur ton genou et 
chantant ds le matin. 

Beaumarchais. 
Sentir. 

The construction of this verb, which falls 
tinder the same rubric as other verbs of per- 
ception, has been noted in a few instances ; 
but considered either with reference to modern 
or early usage, it does not call for any special 
discussion which has not already been covered 
by the remarks on other verbs of this class. 
We need to stop, therefore, to notice only a 
few examples. 

Quant il nous senti venans, il toucha en fuie. 
Joinville, Hist, de S. Louis, ch. c. 

Voltando sentirei le gio.stre grame. 

Dante, Purg. XYII, 42. 
Y que con el deseo agonizando 
Morir me siento de la misma snerte. 

Anonymous, isth Cent. 



And in the modern languages : 

Mais il la senlit menteuse, incapable de se 



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November. 



LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



434 



r, se donnant aux amis, aux passants, en 
bom; ais c-lu-ini 

Zola.Nana, p. 474. 

I .a |>auvii- femme M si-ntit litteralement 
inourir. 

X. de Monte"pin. 

Kpopea nella quale si sente palpitareil cuore 
di tutto un popolo. 

Nuovu Antologia, Sec. Ser. XXIV, 385, 
Faire. 

Our attention will now be claimed by faire, 
which occurs with verbals in -ant, and which, 
as already observed, requires special consid- 
eration. It may be stated at the outset that 
this construction has been found only in early 
French and Provencal and is probably pecu- 
liar to these languages. And again, its total 
absence from some authors is somewhat re- 
markable; while others use it only with en- 
tcndant, which usually, tho' not always, may 
be translated by the passive voice. This fact, 
together with the observation that certain 
combinations of the -ant forms with the pre- 
positions d, de, par, etc, were also susceptible 
of a passive rendering, attracted my attention 
quite early in my researches and led me to 
conclude that not only the Latin present parti- 
ciple and gerund, but also the gerundive (par- 
ticiple in -dus) were, in some instances, hidden 
under these verbals in -ant; further, that the 
construction of the gerund with faire, regard- 
ed from the standpoint of its origin, not being 
natural, the construction was probably refer- 
able to the gerundive; and, finally, that the 
fact of its appearing with an active force and 
governing a case was effected through analogy 
and confusion with the gerund and active par- 
ticiple. That is, if what has been assigned as 
the probable cause of the inflexion of the 
Wallachian gerund be true, it is the same pro- 
cess of passing from a passive to an active 
meaning. In Merovingian Latin, too, we have 
instances in which the passivity of the partici- 
ple in -dus was overlooked and it was allowed 
to govern a case. In the "Joca monachonnn " 
we read : quis asinam persiguendtim renuni 
invenet? i. e. quis asinam persequens regnum 
invenit? There can be no doubt, I think, that 
this is the proper interpretation ; and the case 
is not an isolated one ; for in the same collec- 
tion is found a similar interchange of functions 



"I tin two parts of speech: quis vivindum 
sec ulum vicit? Now, whether rnimlinn In- 
here construed with quis or stculutn, it has 
the same for< e, that tArirens. 

Returning now to the |-rench and Proven- 
',al, let us illustrate what h.is been said by 
analyzing a few sentences. 

Aim! li foil la vielle enundanl la (avele. 

Hcrte au* Grans Vitt, 9079. 

Et ces choses vous rementoif-je pour vous 
faire entendant aucune chose qui offierent a 
ma matiere. 

Joinville, S. Louis, ch. XL. 
I.i in the first of these examples is a dative, 
and vous, in the second, may be so taken like- 
wise ; and they might be turned into Latin, 
root for root, in this way : 

Illi facit vetula intendendam fabulam ; and 

vobis facere intendendas aliquas unas 

causas etc. 

Hut the Latin gerundive comes out much 
plainer in cases where a preposition is used 
with the verbal in -ant. 

Des qu'a I'eue de Diepe nus irum esluignant, 
Mais jeo ferrai anceis a cele eue passant. 

Roman de Rou, 3806. 

That is : ad (ab)ecce-illam aquam passandam. 

Sire, on me fait a entendant (ad intendeh- 
dum) que vous aye's une fille &c. 

Henri de Valenciennes, ch. IX. 
If, in the following example from the Trans- 
lation of Guillaume de Tyr, le is to be taken 
for an accusative, as the form usually is, en- 
tendant is then active. 

Mes cil arnons le decent trop malement, qui 
entendant le fit que il serait patriarches.* 

Other similar constructions are not infre- 

The admission of the gerundive in early French offers a 
satisfactory explanation of the construction in Tartuffe, I, i, 
now a very common expression and one which, tho 1 an erident 
difficulty in modern syntax, is passed over in silence by the 
grammars. 

Et Ton sait qu'elle est prude a son cor/t drfetufant. 
By turning this into the Latin : ad suum corpus defenden- 
dum, we at once see a reason for the construction and the diffi- 
culty vanishes. The expression, therefore, originally meant, 
as it still does: en se defendant contre une attaque; the 
other meanings now attaching to it, such as, a contre-cccur, 
avec repugnance etc., are derivative. The translator of Guil- 
laume de Tyr uses an equivalent in Liv. II, ch. a, where in 
answer to Godefroiz, the king says : 

Si y mcismes la main comme cfforcie', sur nous defendant. 



217 



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November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. -j. 



436 



quently met, which are capable of being re- 
solved into the Latin gerundive, as : 

Dont il lessa au roy, par pais faisant (per pa- 
cem faciendam) la contee de Augo. 

Joinville, ch. XVI. 

Et bien voierit ke se il par sens ti par engen 
u par treuage donnant (per tributaticum don- 
andum) n'entrent en la chite". 

Henri de Valenciennes, ch. XVI. 
And so in Joinville (ch. CX): par grant tre"u 
rendant (per grande tributum reddendum). 

Turning now to this sentence from Guil- 
laume de Tyr (Liv. XI, ch. 10) : 

Et Ceus qui ne s'en voudroient issir fesoient 
remanoir seurement en leur teneures par ren- 
dant une resnable somme d'avoir, we seethe 
construction has either become active or so 
ambiguous in point of syntax that it could 
hardly fail to be taken as such. 

If we compare the above phrases with nu- 
merous infinitive constructions, we shall have 
an additional proof of a phenomenon already 
discussed at some length, namely, the con- 
stant interchange of verbals in -ant with the in- 
finitives, without any apparent difference in 
meaning or function. In VILLE-HARDOUIN 
we have many instances of the construction 
in question. 

Et mistrent grant paine a la ville prendre, 
(ch. XCI), which is evidently represented by 
the Latin, ad villam prehendendam. And so 
in ch. XII : mais nos ne somes mie tant de 
gent que par nos passage paier poons les lor 
attendre a construction, which, in the pas- 
sages above cited from Joinville and Henri de 
Valenciennes, we found explicable by a parti- 
ciple derived from the Latin gerundive or par- 
ticiple in -dus. 

This will suffice, I think, to show that the 
force of the gerundive construction partially, 
at least, survived among the early French and 
Provencal speaking people and brought about 
the construction above canvassed ; altho' it is 
more than probable that they were unconscious 
of this, owing to the identity of form with the 
gerund and present active participle. And it 
was likely this identity of form which led to 
its being merged into the other verbals in -ant 
and apparently becoming active in force. 

A few other examples collected, possibly 
show this active force a little more clearly 



than those already given, and I set them down 
here as additional proof. 

Car por fol sembleir 

Me font cil fauls proiant d'ameir. 

Guiot de Provins (Wackernagel XV). 
Renarz mist 1'aive sor le feu 
Et la fist trestot boillant. 

Roman de Renart, B. 209, 9. 
E vuelh tenir autre viatge 
On restaure so que m'a fag perden. 

Cadenet. 

Tant estet enviro lo lor assetjamens 
Tro grans cocha de fam fetz celz dedins rendens. 

Peire de Corbiac, B. 213,23. 
Olhs de merce, boca de chanzimen, 
Nulhs horn nous ve que nol fassatz jauzen. 

Peire Vidal, Song 44 (B.'s ed. 1857). 
Not fazas ardit ne prezan 
Ne ton cor non aviles tan. 
Daude de Pradas, Four card. Virtues (Stickney's ed.). 

With the exception of a son corps defendant, 
all the constructions noticed under the head- 
ing of faire have dropt into desuetude or 
shaded off into other constructions still bear- 
ing an affinity with the original. A la ville 
prendre, for instance, would find its modern 
offspring in : a prendre la ville; par pais fai- 
sant in : en faisant la paix; and par trevage 
donnant in : en donnant (Payanf) le tribut* 

The direct objects of the verbs avoir, lais- 

*It is proper to state that I was anticipated in the above 
explanation by Mr. N . DE WAILLY in his " Memoire sur la lan- 
gue de Joinville,'' and that PROF. ADOLF TOBLER (Vermischte 
Beitrage zur Franzosischen Grammatik), PAUL KLEMENZ 
(Der syntactische Gebrauch des Participium Praesentis und 
des Gerundiums im Altfranz "sischen) and others have ex- 
pressed their belief in the erroneousness of this theory, but 
not, as it seems to me, on sufficient grounds. PROF. TOBLER 
bases his objections, in the main, on the fact that 'many cases 
of this special -ant construction are no more easily explained 
by assuming them to come from the participle in -dus than 
from the present activj participle, and further that, where 
the accompanying noun is feminine, we should expect- 
-endain, -andain to produce -ande and not -ant, the form al- 
ways found. As an answer to the latter part of this statement 
it is relevant to remark that, as -undo, -endo, -untcnt, -entem, 
all through the law of analogy, wore away into-rt/, it hardly 
seems a violation of this law, but rather a natural proceeding, 
to put -anduin, -andatit, -enduin, -endant, together with their 
plural forms, all in the same category, especially as they are 
all, to a certain extent, functional equivalents in syntax. 
Replying to the first ofToBLER's objections, I will say that I 
for my part, in arguing for the gerundive, do not pretend that 
its admission will clear away all the difficulties ; my thesis 
simply is, that the gerundive, as well as the gerund and 
present active participle, was operative in producing the-n/ 
constructions. As the forms were confused, it is not remark- 
able that the syntax should have met with a similar fate. 



218 



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November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



ser, /,-ttir, xnt-r/>ir and smiu- i>tln rs maybe 
.11 . itinpanii-tl l>y tin- vi rl) in -ant to express a 
state or condition existing at the time of the 
action <it tin principle verb. 

Kt le lessierent jjisant sur une table. 

Joinville, ch. XXXVIII. 

Pur mort le guerpissent en xabelum gisant 
Charoinne le tenent fans alnic enfreidissant. 

Vie dc S. Auban, 845. 
La dame ot lore le cuer joiant. 

Flore et Blanceflor, 1065 . 
Qu'us fisjois capdel' em nais 
Quern te jauzent en gran doussor. 

Peire Vidal, Song 22 (B.'s ed. 1857.) 

The verbal in -ant is also used after interjec- 
tions. 

Es-le-vus relevant 

E le (lot tut sechi, dunt cist vunt Deu leant. 

Vie de S. Auban, 1157. 
Ast vus venant de deu fidcil. 

Brandan's Voyage, 580 (Rom. St. I. 573). 
Es vous par le chemin errant 
Mon seignor Renart le goupil. 

B. 266, 12. 

But here, as in so many other cases, the in- 
finitive may likewise be used. The nature of 
the interjection places it in the same category 
with verbs of seeing, beholding, etc. and of 
course the same construction is to be expected 
in both cases. 

Ves les armes reluire : tons li cuers m'en esclaire. 

Jehan Bodel, B. 310, 26. 
Ay filh, tan vos vech malmenar. 

Plainte de Notre Dame. 40. 

SAMUEL GARNER. 
Annapolis, Md. 

THE VERB to fell. 

Whether the economy of our language will 
for many more generations continue to demand 
an expenditure of effort with large classes of 
persons it is an effort of only partial success, 
with others the failure is complete for main- 
taining in use with proper distinction the 
couplets to lie, to fay and to sit, to set, is a 
question upon which some may be disposed to 
speculate. In the case of to fall, to fell, we 
have a somewhat different problem, from the 
circumstance of a natural restriction, more or 
less complete for common speech, of the use 
of tofellto regions of particular industries and 
occupations. I should be pleased if some of 
the friends of this Journal who may find it con- 



venient to make observations in any of the 
ive lumber districts of the country, would 
n-purt the woodman's use cA to fall wn&to fell, 
for I have a suspicion that in some places to fell 
has entirely disappeared, leaving to the in- 
transitive form the burden of a double service. 
This suspicion is based upon my recent obser- 
vation in a large axe manufacturing establish- 
ment, where I discovered the trade name for 
one variety of axes to be the " Falling Pattern 
(For Pacific Coast Trade)," and of another the 
" Puget Sound Falling Pattern." 

JAMES W. BRIGHT. 



THE PRONOUNS IN THE OLD DAN- 
ISH ' TOBIAE KOMEDIE: 

In the MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES for May, 
the personal pronouns occurring in the 'Tobiae 
Komedie ' were briefly discussed. In the 
present paper the rest of the pronouns in that 
work will be treated in somewhat the same 
way. Many of the pronouns are represented 
so incompletely in the text, that it has in some 
cases been found inexpedient to treat them in 
paradigms. The personal pronouns are the 
most complete and satisfactory, and show the 
most interesting phonetic changes. Many of 
these might profitably be compared with cor- 
responding forms in Anglo-Saxon and Early 
English, but that study must be reserved for 
later treatment by itself. For a consideration 
of the earlier forms of hand and hun reference 
may be made to O. KALKAR'S 'Ordbog,' the 
.last issue of which almost completes the letter 
h. In the present paper this valuable diction- 
ary has occasionally been used to explain the 
derivation of some of the pronominal forms, 
especially of the indefinites. 

The worker in the Old Danish field constant- 
ly finds himself hampered by the want of a 
grammar. The paradigms have never been 
systematically developed, and the difficulties 
in the way of any comparative work are in- 
creased greatly by the lack of a complete 
dictionary. When KALKAR'S dictionary is 
finished the task will be very much lightened. 
The scope of the present paper and of the pre- 
ceding one is necessarily limited, since only 
one text is studied, and the results are not to 
be regarded as explaining thoroughly the 



219 



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November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



440 



state of the language at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. It is, however, interest- 
ing to be able to compare, even cursorily, the 
development of the Danish inflections with 
those of English, and by so doing we may be 
led perhaps to a somewhat clearer understand- 
ing of the way in which our language was 
affected in its earlier stages by the Scandi- 
navian. One cannot but be struck by the 
many curious resemblances between Danish 
and English, in the development not only of 
the inflections but also, in no small degree, of 
the syntax. In the gradual wearing away of 
the forms and in the order of words in the 
sentence the two languages are, indeed, close- 
ly related. It is characteristic, too, that, just 
as English grammar received but slight acces- 
sions from the other tongues that at different 
periods had exercised so strong an influence 
upon the vocabulary, so Danish grammar was 
but slightly affected by the German, from 
which so large a proportion of its word-store 
is formed. It is with an ulterior purpose, 
therefore, that this seemingly trivial study of 
the Old Danish pronominal forms is pursued. 
Let us now take up in turn the remaining pro- 
nominal forms, beginning with the possessive. 
The possessives occurring in our text are : 
min, my ; din, thy ; sin, his ; vor, ours ; and 
eder, yours. By comparison with Icelandic, 
we see that these forms must be derived from 
the genitives of the corresponding personal 
pronouns, which do not occur in our text. 
Min occurs unchanged in the singular, both 
masculine and feminine, as follows: mascul., 
nom. [9. 7], dat. [40. 18], ace. [41. 14] ; femin., 
nom. [12. i]. T.he gen., masc. and fern., and 
the nom. and dat. fern., do not occur. In the 
neuter singular the same form occurs under 
different spellings : nom. init [38. 12], ace. 
mitt [16. 6] and mytt [u. 12]. In the plural 
the only form that occurs is mine, once each 
as nom. [47. 21] and ace. [39. 4.]. Din is 
declined like min, with the exception of dit 
[92. 20], which in the MS. appears as did. In 
the sing, we find the nom. [10. 18], dat. [41.10), 
and ace. [56. 13], and in the plural the nom. 
[n. 22]. Of the 3rd person sin we find the 
singular forms masc. ace. sin [5. 20], dat. siin 
[5- S]> a "d neuter dat. sit [45. ii]. Vor ap- 
pears unchanged in all the forms of the masc. 



and fern. sing, that occur. Masc. nom. [35. 
14], dat. [58. 18] and ace. [29. 12], fem. nom. 
[35- J 9]- I" the plural, vor [70. 5] "occurs as 
nom., vore [6. 4] as dat., and voris [20. 16] as 
ace. For the neuter, the only form that oc- 
curs is vortt [76. 22]. Only two examples 
occur of eder: masc. ace. eders [78. 8] and 
fem. ace. eder [34. 13], 

Note i. The possessives in this period of 
Old Danish show remarkably few changes 
from the older forms. In the ist person 
plural we may notice the use of 0. which in 
Icelandic occurs often side by side with a. 

Note 2. The distinction between the masc. 
and the fem., still preserved in the personal 
pronoun, is now lost, and the common gender 
of Modern Danish takes its place. 

The reflexive of the 3rd person, which 
should have been included in the preceding 
article, is sig [5. 14]. It shows the same 
change of k<g, as the first personal pronoun. 

The demonstratives are denne, that ; dissc, 
this; and saadan [56. 17], such. In the sing. 
denne occurs unchanged, nom. [40. 20], dat. 
[40. 23], and ace. [41. i]. In the plural we 
find dat. dennem [57. 4] and ace. dennem [59. 
19]. The nom. dett [78. 22], dat. dette [46. 14], 
and ace. dette [46. 10], all in the singular, are 
the only forms of the neuter that occur. 

Disse appears unchanged in the ace. sing. 
[32. 5], and the ace. plural [61. 20]. 

The demonstrative corresponding to the 
Old Norse sa appears in only few forms : 
Sing. nom. neuter dit [87. 12], det [61. 10]. 
Plur. nom. di [72. 24] 

Plur. ace. di [84. 7], denom [86. 6]. 

Note. The suffixed article, in its origin a 
demonstrative, is used as in Modern Danish, 
en for the common gender, et for the neuter. 

The relatives are som, undeclined, occurring 
as nom. sing. [40. 19] and ace. sing. [44. 20] ; 
huis [85. n], preceded by alt and resembling 
the English 'all that; '" huilckett [44. 17], der 
[6 1. 12] and den [61. 17]. 

Note. Before the sixteenth century Jntis 
occurs as hues. Huilckett appears in earlier 
Danish sometimes as huilki, a mere graphic 
difference ; sometimes, by a very curious as- 
similation, as huikken and huyken (fifteenth 
century). 

The interrogatives are 1m em [6. 5], who, 



441 



November. MODERN LA NCIJACE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



442 



and huad [13. ij, what, llucm appears as 
MOID, sing., but it n-iniixls OIK- strongly of the 
Old Norse dative //;'*/;//. 

Of all the pronominal forms the indefinite * 
are the most numerous. Beginning with nog- 
en, some, we find the nom. [22. 17] and ace. 
[45. 20], and the neuter nogett [75. 12] and 
noget\&. 1 8]. 

Int>e>t, no one, nom. [5. 20], ace. [74. 21] and 
neuter intett[$2. 10], intet [53. n] and inthit 
[87. 20]. 

Note. The doubling of the t in these two 
pronouns is without phonetic significance. 

Somme [33. 7], some, appears only as nom. : 
as also hon som, [38. 9], whoever. 

Huer, each, nom. [5. 5] and dat. [72. 14], 
and the extended form huercken [43. 9]. 

Note i. Huer is weakened from the earlier 
form [i393--i49i] hvar, according to Old 
Norse hvarr, Old Norwegian, hverr. In Old 
Danish the distinction between "each of two" 
and "each of many," so consistently kept up 
in the Old Norse forms hvarr and hverr re- 
spectively, does not appear, so far as can be 
seen. In the two cases cited, reference is 
made to more than two. 

Note 2. Huercken corresponds to Old 
Norse hverge. This change of the spirant to 
the voiceless explosive sometimes occurs in 
Old Norse under special circumstances. In 
the earliest of the Old Danish remains we find 
the spirant. 

Note 3. Under the head of the second per- 
sonal pronoun should be inserted the assimi- i 
lation with the verb skaltu [62. 12]. This is 
the only case in the play, everywhere else the 
two words are separate ; as, schalt du [68. 7], 
skalt du [67. 9], and numerous others. 



DANIEL KILHAM DODGE. 



Columbia College. 



THE PA TO IS OF THE CANTON DE 
VAUD. 

Phonologic des patois du Canton de Vaud. 
Par A. ODIN, Halle, 1886. VIII, 166 pp. 

As the work of a beginner this treatise is 
promising : the choice of the subject is a good 
one, the plan has been ably carried out, and 
the faults are of such a character as may be 



excused in the earliest contributions of a 
scholar. 

Since 1874, when ASCOI.I, the great Italian 
linguist who has done most for promoting the 
study of the Romance dialects, for the first 
time treated in his ' Schizzi francoprovenzali ' 
the French dialects of Switzerland, Savoy, 
Franche-Comte* and Dauphine" as a group of 
dialects standing by itself, distinct from the 
French as well as from the Provencal, the 
dialects of all the French Cantons of Switzer- 
land have been made the subject of special in- 
vestigation by MM. HAEFELIN and AVER (Neu- 
chatel and Fribourg), RITTER (Geneva), COR- 
NU and GILLIERON (Valais); with the excep- 
tion of the most important of them all, the 
dialect of the Canton de Vaud. I say the most 
important, because this Canton is the largest 
and most centrally situated of them all, and 
has the greatest variety of physical contours. 
It will therefore yield the largest variety of 
dialectic shades and supply the intermediate 
link of the whole series. By taking up this 
important dialect MR. ODIN has, accordingly, 
filled up a real gap, and, speaking in general, 
has done this in a very satisfactory manner. 
All the more so, as the task was no easy one ; 
for the author distinguishes not less than 
eleven groups, one of which he further divides 
into seven sub-dialects. 

It is true, the author might have greatly 
simplified this task by studying most thorough- 
ly the dialect of one or two or even three 
single communes of different parts of the Can- 
ton, and by presenting a complete view of the 
facts. He would thus have given an idea of 
the whole dialect as well, an idea which, 
though not complete, would at least have been 
a consistent one. In this way, I should say, 
one ought always to proceed in studying for 
the first time a dialect of great variety. The 
language of one or two places having been 
fixed in a manner that can be in every sense 
relied upon, subsequent investigation will 
easily supply the peculiarities of the rest. 

MR. ODIN, however, having aimed at the 
higher object of giving a general survey of the 
dialect of the "pays de Vaud," we have only 
to accept his work as it stands. He seems, 
indeed, to have had sufficient information at 
his command for the purpose intended, and 



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November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



444 



has thus made a valuable contribution to 
Romance language study. I have, however, 
some criticisms to offer, especially as to the 
form in which the facts are presented. 

1. As regards the transcription of the 
sounds, it is much to be regretted that this 
author, like so many others, has adopted a 
system of his own, using, e. g., f_ for the 
French "e muet," n to indicate the nasalisa- 
tion of the preceding vowel, ( for the v.oiceless 
th and z for the voice'd, hy for the German ch, 
etc. Is there to be no end of creating new 
alphabets, or of using old ones in a new way ? 
That the inventor of new signs is not neces- 
sarily a sound phonetician, the case of MR. 
ODIN sufficiently shows. He makes no differ- 
ence between the voiceless English th and 
the Spanish c before e or i; identifies even the 
voiced English th with the voiceless Spanish z 
(page 19); and when he has to deal with a new 
sound, treats us to a description of it like the 
following : "/. est un son unique en son genre. 
II s'obtient par un tour de langue en sens 
lateYo-vertical " (pp. 19,100). 

2. The facts regarding the accented vowels 
are presented in the old-fashioned tripartite 
division of short and long vowel, and vowel 
" in positioned This arrangement has the 
great inconvenience of separating facts which 
belong together, as the long e (numbers 38- 
43) and short i (66-70), or long o (77-82) and 
short u (107-114); and the still greater dis- 
advantage of confounding in one category 
resultants which are the outcome of diverse 
causes. This accounts for the confusion that 
reigns in the chapters headed : e entrave (50- 
59), * entrave (71-78), o entrave (88-100), u entra- 
ve (115-125), where no distinction is made 
between the short and the corresponding long 
vowel. 

3. The chapter treating of the unaccented 
vowels is defective in this and in other 
respects. Under the " vowels in hiatus," the 
cases in which one of the two vowels has the 
accent ought to have been carefully distin- 
guished from those where two unaccented 
vowels stand together. And among the for- 
mer cases further discrimination was necessary 
between those in which the first vowel is ac- 
cented, and those in which the second has the 
accent. The rules are here enunciated with 



perplexing uncertainty and even contradictions 
like the following are met with. On page 66 
we read : "/.a voye lie persiste toujours lors- 
qtfelle est longue ; elle disparait lorsqu'elle 
est brtve; " but on the very next page we are 
told that " A long ou href se maintient le phis 
souvent ." MR. ODIN seems to be ignorant of 
DAKMESTETER'S important article on this sub- 
ject published some twelve years ago in the 
Romatfin, 

To these remarks on mistakes of a more 
general character let us add a few others on 
special cases. The accented vowel of frd- 
trem, pdtrem, mdtrem, quddrum, (31) as well 
as that of cdpram (33) and dquam (34), of cred- 
ere and petram (51), stands in an open syl- 
lable ; these examples ought, therefore, not to 
be found under the head of "a entrave" and 
"e entrave," nor ought the preposition de (38) 
and the conjunction et (44) to stand among the 
examples of the accented vowels ; nor hoc 
(79) among those of long o. The explanation 
of tshaire, tshdre (43), as being the Latin CAD- 
ERE with the accent on the termination 
(CADERE), and of kuaire, kudre (222 and 403) as 
representing COQUKRE, with the same shifting 
of the accent, is certainly wrong. The two 
Latin verbs accentuated on the termination of 
the infinitive would have left no trace of the 
final -re, for the. infinitive endings -dre, -ere, 
-ire have become -a, -ai, -i in this patois ; -re 
is characteristic only for the infinitive of the 
third conjugation, just as in French, the reason 
for this being the same in both languages. 
The etymon of bussi ' heurter, frapper ' is not 
PULSARE, since the b- and the -i could hardly 
be accounted for. I trace it to the Allem. 
botzen, and therefore to the same root as 
French bouter, \\.a\.bottare. Salyaite (65) can- 
not be a participial form SAL!TAM (salirc) mere- 
ly with shortened i ; the / of such a form could 
not have remained. As draite is Latin DIREC- 
TAM, so salyaite points .to a form SALECTAM, 
participle formed on the analogy of COLLKCTA, 
as in Old French, Provencal and some dialects 
of Raetia and Northern Italy. In daivo 
"debeo," ressaivo "recipio" (213), no transpo- 
sition of the unaccented <? or i of "debeo" 
" recipio" into the accented syllable has taken 
place ; since the 2nd and 3rd person have the 
same ai, owing it to the accented vowels e and 



445 



November. MODI-.KN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



446 



If in an opn: syllable, it must be accounted for 
in the s;uiif way in tin- first person, and *i- 
*RECfPO are to be regarded as tin- Latin forms 
for daivo, ressaivo. MR. ODIN is at a loss 
bow to explain the tsh (=Latin C before A) in 
tshe, tshera CARTM, CARA, for tin- regular ts 
which occurs in another form of the feminine, 
in tsira. The tsh seems to represent the 
fusion of is with the following i; for tshe, 
tshera, as well as tsira, pre-suppose the older 
forms A/V, tsiera. As in Old French and 
Kaetian dialects, this ie has had at onetime 
the stress on the i, at another on the e. These 
different accentuations are represented by 
tsira and tshera. In tsira the strongly accent- 
ed i of tx'iera has entirely absorbed the e, 
while tshera represents tsiera, in which 'the 
unaccented / "in hiatus " becomes the conso- 
nant .y and tsy = tsh. Therefore we have in 
the examples exhibited in number 312 -tsi on 
the one hand, tshe on the other, as martsi or 
martsht MERCATUM, setsi or setshl SICCARE, 
etc. This explanation is confirmed by the fact 
that Latin c before unaccented A or before 
accented "a entravt " never turns into tsh, but 
becomes ts, as in setse SICCA, arise ARCA, 
fortse FURCA, etc., or tsan CAMPUM and CAN- 
TUM, tsd CARNEM and CARRUM, etc. (cf. number 
312 and page 165). The same explanation 
holds good for the corresponding voiced 
sound, as the examples of 313 show ; -dzi or 
dje in tserdz'i or tserdj& CARRICARE, predzi or 
predjt PREDICARE, but only dz in mandze 
MANICA, deniendze DOMINICA, or in dzono GAL- 
BINUM, dzuye GAUDIA, dzuta GABATA. The d 
in pedance (325) does not admit the etymon 
PICTANTIAM. I take it for the present parti- 
ciple of petere 'to ask for, to beg.' There is 
of course no prosthesis of y \\\yd, ye HERi(4i3), 
the.)/ is the regular outgrowth of the unaccent- 
ed i in the former ier. 

I close this review by pointing out some of 
the best chapters of the book. Such are : the 
accented vowel a in connection with a palatal 
consonant (pp. 21-25), point which MR. ASCOLI 
made the main criterium of the whole Franco- 
Provencal group of dialects ; the suffix -arimn 
(pp. 30-32); the long e and o in open syllable 
(pp. 34 and 47-48); the final unaccented 
vowels (pp. 77-80); the combinations of the 
consonant / (pp. 101-108); the general re- 



marks on the shifting of the accent (pp. 145- 
148). All of ihese show the author's ability in 
tr.icing the history of linguistic phenomena. 
Two of them deserve special remark. The 
one treats of a very curious fact of " Sat/pho- 
netik," as described on page 32, and the oth-r 
is i he first attempt at explaining a well known 
but unaccounted-for irregularity in the past 
participle of those verbs of the first conjuga- 
tion which end in -/' or -e (as the case may be) 
in the Infinitive. The explanation, as given 
on pp. 23-24, is not quite satisfactory, yet I 
think the problem is at least halfway solved 
by MR. ODIN. I accept his manner of explain- 
ing the feminine of the participle, but not the 
masculine. The latter seems to have had its own 
development, although both genders use only 
one form. I cannot give here the arguments 
for my opinion, as in fact they need reconsid- 
eration and, being long, will find better place 
in a separate note. Hut this I may state, that 
MR. ODIN was at any rate much mistaken, in 
writing the note on page 24 : // serait par 
trap baroque . . . . de supposer que la palatale 
aurait empche' le passage de 1" a a 1* ?." This 
" par trop baroque " supposition represents a 
plain fact in certain French and Kaetian Dia- 
lects, which are in precisely the same case. 

J. STl'RZINGER. 

Bryn Mawr College. 



A 



German Grammar for Schools and 
Colleges, based on the Public School 
German Grammar of A. L. MEISSNER, M. 
A., PH. D., D. LIT., Professor of Modern 
Languages in Queen's College, Belfast, 
Mitglied der Gesellschaft fiir das Studium 
der neueren Sprachen zu Berlin. By ED- 
WARD S. JOYNKS, M. A., Professor of 
Modern Languages in South Carolina 
University. Revised Edition, 1888. D. C. 
Heath & Co. 394 pp., 8vo. 

Kaum ein Jahr nach dem ersten Erscheinen 
dieses Buches sehen wir es schon in verbesser- 
ter und vermehrter Gestalt vor uns ein 
Beweis dafiir, dass die vorziigliche Methode 
und die praktische Anlage der neu bearbeite- 
ten Grammatik von unseren Schulmannern 
schnell erkannt und gewiirdigt worden sind. 
Ein Vergleich der zweiten Auflage mil der 
ersten ergiebt, dass der Bearbeiter sein VVerk 



223 



447 



November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



448 



mit grosser Sorgfalt durchgesehen, Manches 
ganz iiberarbeitet, Anderes zum Vorteil des 
Buches neu hinzugefugt hat. In letzterer Hin- 
sicht besonders bildet die zweite Auflage 
einen bedeutenden Fortschritt : die friiher feh- 
lenden, obwohl so begehrten Capitel iiber 
Sylbenabteilung, Bindestrich und Apostroph 
finden sich jetzt an geeigneter Stelle und in 
knapper, doch ausreichender Kiirze einge- 
schoben; der Anhang iiber die Declination 
gewisser Hauptworter und den idiomatischen 
Gebrauch der Prapositionen ist der Vollstan- 
digkeit wegen erwunscht und zum Nachsdhlag- 
en bequem ; endlich zeugen zahlreiche neue 
Anmerkungen, Zusatze und erlauternde Bei- 
spiele von dem Fleiss und der padagogischen 
Erfahrung des Bearbeiters. Die mnemoni- 
schen Formeln am Ende des Buches werden 
denen willkommen sein, die solcher Hiilfe 
bediirfen und Vertrauen dazu haben. In der 
Anordnung des Materials sind einige zweck- 
massige Anderungen gemacht worden ; so 
stehen die zwei Seiten deutscher Schrift (friiher 
pp. 17, 18) jetzt am Ende des Buches vor den 
zusammenhangenden Schriftproben. Die Pagi- 
nirung ist dieselbe wie in der ersten Auflage ; 
die Paragraphen haben sich manchmal 
infolge von Einfugungen etc. leicht verschob- 
en. Eine Anzahl vonVersehen, die wirschon 
in unserer Recension der ersten Auflage (Moo. 
LANG. NOTES III, pp. 25 and 84 ff.) verzeichnet 
hatten, ist merkwiirdigerweise der Aufmerk- 
samkeit PROF. JOYNES' entgangen ; wir ver- 
weisen auf unsere in obigem Artikel gemacht- 
en Bemerkungen iiber 101, 105, 313, 357, 358, 
396, 401, 414, 417, 428, 434, 450, 474 und ganz be- 
sonders 329, 384, 452, 485,5. Auch was wir 
iiber die Ubungsstiicke (p. 302 ff.) und die 
alphabetische Liste der starken Verba gesagt 
haben, mochten wir, sofern es nicht schon 
Verwertung gefunden hat, nochmals betonen. 
Die Stellen wo wir sonst noch Versehen ge- 
funden haben oder Anderungen fur angebracht 
halten, fiihren wir im Folgenden der Reihe 
nach an : 

27. s im Anlaut und zwischen Vocalen ist 
nur in Norddeutschland tonend, in ganz Mittel- 
und Siiddeutschland aber tonlos. 68. Kast- 
en mit rtindem .? ist unrichtig ; man teilt 
gewohnlich nach dem st ab. 86. Mancher 
und solcher waren hier anzufiihren, denn in 



den Paragraphen, wo sie spater vorkommen 
(204, 245), wird ihre Declination nicht ausdriick- 
lich angegeben. 96. Die sechs Paradigmen 
sind doch unnotig und verwirren nur ; zwei 
geniigen vollstandig. 123. Wie schon friiher 
bemerkt, heisst der Augapf el (eye-apple) selbst- 
verstandlich 'the eye-ball,' nicht 'the pupil' 
(die Pupille}. 371. Das indent in entgegen 
etc. hat nichts mit ein zu thun ; (ein-) ist also 
zu streichen. 376, 2. Ergehen ist ' to come 
out, be issued,' impers. ' to fare.' 408 ff. Da 
PROF. JOVNES die Anfiihrung der deutschen 
Worter vor bezw. nach den entsprechenden 
englischen Formen zu einer Principienfrage 
macht (Preface, p. vi), so lasst sich natiirlich 
nichts mehr dariiber sagen ; aber staunen muss 
man, wenn man GRIMM'S Lautverschiebungs- 
gesetz immer noch ebenso auf den Kopf 
gestellt findet, wie in der ersten Auflage, trotz 
der in den MOD. LANG. NOTES III, p. 84 von 
uns erhobenen Einwendungen, von deren Be- 
rechtigung PROF. JOYNES sich leicht hatte 
iiberzeugen konnen. Und das ist um so be- 
fremdlicher, als gleich darauf SKEAT'S mne- 
monische Formel angefuhrt wird, in welcher 
dasselbe Gesetz ebenso klar wie kurz darge- 
stellt ist (H. A. S.=Hard, Aspirate, Soft, etc.). 
425. Fiige hinzu : das Tuch, die Tucker 
'cloths, kerchiefs,' die Tuche=' kinds of cloth.' 
455> e - Zu seiner Zeit heisst ' in its (own, 
proper) time ' ; die Worte " and of doubtful ex- 
planation" sind also nicht zutreffend. Zum 
Appendix : p. 368. lahm auf einem Fusse, 
nicht an. p. 374. um ivieviel Uhr, oder um 
welche Zeit, nicht aber um welche Uhr. 376. 
nickte mir zu, nicht zu mir ; zum Schneiden, 
nicht zum schneiden. 

Zu dem Worterbuch, das letztes Jahr ge- 
trennt von der Grammatik und zu spat fiir un- 
sere erste Recension an uns gelangte, tragen 
wir hiermit noch einige Berichtigungen nach : 

Ab, an, auf, aus, bei,. durch, hinter, nach, 
neben, iiber, um, unter, vor, zvider werden als 
Adverbia angefuhrt, kommen aber, ausser als 
Prapositionen, nur als adverbielle Verbalpra- 
fixe vor. Anstatt adv. ist also iiberall zu setzen 
pref. or adv. prej. Zu als Adv. heisst stets 
nur 'too,' als Praf. 'to, together.' Artig 
'well-behaved, polite, 'nicht- 'kind.' Bauer= 
' peasant ' hat stets im Plural (die Bauer= 
'the cages'). Bis ist nie Adv. Darauf dass 



224 



449 



November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



unil daruin dass heissen nicht ' in order that.' 
Denn, adv.=' then ' ; conj.=' for.' Eigen- 
tum 1st iin IMur. nicht gebrauchlich ; die Eigen- 
ttimer='the: proprietors.' Epheu, gen. -s. 
Erloschen ist nur intr.; tr. to put 0/='16sch- 
en, nusloschen.' Himmel auch='sky.' 
Karlchen, nicht Kdrlchen. Komnien von, 
nicht aus, 'to result from.' Ohne zu (infin.), 
ohnc dass, ' without ' (pres. part.). Stmide 
(distance)=* hour's walk' (3-4 miles). Treib- 
cn, intr. 'to drift.' Acquainted, 'kundig.' 
Adapted, 'geeignet.' Bear's skin, 'das Baren- 
fell.' Nach Worten wie bloom und blossom 
('bliihen'), result (' herauskommen') u. dergl. 
sollte angegeben sein, ob die verba oder die 
Subst. gemeint sind. Bluish, 'blaulich.' 
Childish, 'kindisch.' Command, (control), 
'gebieten uber 1 (ace.)- Comparison, 'der Ver- 
gleich.'selten 'die-ung.' Depend, 'abhangen.' 
(Difficult), streiche adv. schwerlich (='hard- 
ly'). {Distressing, adj.) streiche elend (= 
'wretched'). Enough, 'genug' (generally fol- 
lows). (Favor) 'die Gunst ' ist singulare tan- 
turn ; (zu) Cunsten ist Sing, und Analogiebil- 
dung. Incredible, 'unglaublich.' Interest, v., 
' interessieren ' (angehcn=' concern') (p. 345). 
Keep, intr., ' sich halten ' (sich erhalten 1 to be 
preserved '). Many a, ' mancher, manch ein.' 
(Not) streiche -thing, nichts. Opportune, 
' gelegen' (gelegentlich='occa.s\ona\ '). Play, 
'das Spiel.' Rank, 'der Rang ' (pi. e). 

Uber Einen Punkt sind wir trotz eifrigen 
Forschens im Unklaren geblieben : 1st es Zu- 
fall oder Absicht, dass die deutschen Ubungs- 
stiicke XIV bis XXXII lateinisch gedruckt 
sind, wahrend wir sowohl vorher wie nachher 
durchweg dem deutschen Druck begegnen ? 
Auch fehlt unter den Ubungsstiicken No. 
XIII ganzlich. 

Die aussere Erscheinung des Ruches ist sich 
gleich geblieben ; Druck und Papier sind wie 
bei der ersten Auflage vorziiglich. Nur sehr 
wenige Druckfehler sind beim Lesen der Cor- 
recturbogen durchgeschliipft : p. 238, statt 
Chrcnmann lies Ehrenmann ; p. 347, st. bic 
Kleidung\\es die ; p. 349, st. solgen \.folgen ; 
st. (in fin'., das Essen) \. (das Essen, ;;///;/.); 
st. frighten, tr., weak, erschrecken, 1. fr. 
tr., erschrecken, weak; p. 352, st. schlcissen 1. 
schlicssen ; p. 356, st. order, ., der Beschl, 1. 
der Bcfehl ; p. 360, st. set across, itbersetzen 



I. ttber-setzfn ; p. 364, st. twenty-second, der 
tinund'-.t'iiHzigste, I. der zweiundzwanzigsU ; 
p. 365, st. wake (up), auf-wachten, \. auf- 
wachen; p. 373, st. uber alle Massen 1. v. a. 
Maszcn. 

Die im Obigen erwahnten wenigen Mangel 
werden hoffentlich in der zu erwartenden 
dritu-n Auflage fur immer beseitigt werden; 
inzwischen konnen die vielen vortrefflichen 
Eigenschaften des Buches nicht verfehlen, 
demselben in unseren Schulen eine immer 
wachsende Beliebtheit zu verschaffen. 



Wittenberg College. 



Hi GO SCHILLING. 



Was diinkt euch tint Heine ? Ein Bekenntniss 
von Xanthippus. Leipzig, WILHELM GRU- 
NOW. 1888. 104 SS. 

Nachdem die Frage des in Diisseldorf fur 
HKINRICH HEINE zu errichtenden Denkmals 
in den Tagesblattern viel Staub aufgewirbelt 
hat, und namentlich von den Glaubens- und 
Stammesgenossen des grossen Dichters mit 
vielem Eifer erortert worden ist, kommt der 
Verf. vorliegender Broschiire noch einmal auf 
dieselbe zuru'ck, um uber HEINE ein Todten- 
gericht zu halten, und der Denkmal-Errichtung 
ein entschiedenes Nein entgegenzustellen. 
Mit seinen schroff abweisenden Ansichten 
steht X. iibrigens bei uns nicht allein. Nach- 
dem schon die unmittelbaren Zeitgenossen 
und nahen Bekannten des Dichters mancherlei 
Ungiinstiges uber dessen Character und 
dichterische Productionsweise mitgetheilt hat- 
ten, ist jetzt wieder an Stelle der warmen 
Huldigung eines STRODTMANN, der unbeding- 
ten Hingebung eines A. MEISSNER und einer 
C. SELDEN, eine sehr ungiinstige Auffassung 
HEINES getreten. Schon sein neuster Bio- 
graph PROLSS ist nicht mehr geneigt dem Dich- 
ter des ' Buches der Lieder ' die Siinden des 
Journalisten und die Schwachen des Menschen 
straflos hingehen zu lassen. Als dann in 
jiingster Zeit ein Aufruffurdie Beisteuer zum 
HEiNK-Denkmal von P. HEYSE verfasst wurde, 
haben /wc-i namhafte Dichter, A. v. SCHACK 
and M. GREIF, sich gegen die Bezeichnung 
"der grosste lyrische Dichter nach GOETHE " 
scharf ausgesprochen, und ihre Unterschriften 
unter dem Aufrufe zuriickgezogen. Es konnte 



225 



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November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



452 



nicht fehlen, dass in die rein asthetische Frage 
sich auch die nationale einmischte und dass 
die Verfechter des wiedererstarkten National- 
gefiihles sich gegen eine Ausgleichung 
straubten, die man einem Dichter erweisen 
wollte, der sein Vaterland preisgegeben und 
den besten Teil seines Lebens in Paris zuge- 
bracht hatte. Auch die Schmahungen, welche 
H. damals iiber den " deutschen Michel " er- 
goss, die unverdiente Verherrlichung, welche 
er dem franzosischen Geiste im Sinne des 
derzeitigen Liberalismus widmete, konnen 
uns jetzt wenig fur ein Denkmal begeistern, 
das einem abgefallenen Deutschen in einer 
deutschen Stadt errichtet werden soil. Diese 
allgemeinen Vorausschickungen sind zu einer 
unbefangenen Wiirdigung der Broschiire nach 
Inhalt und Form notwendig, wir brauchen 
uns aber nicht auf den wiisten Kampfplatz des 
s. g. Antisemitismus zu begeben, auf dem X. 
sein kritisches Streitross mit Vorliebe turn- 
melt. 

Mit grosser Scharfe bekampft X. im Anfange 
die Versuche mancher Literaten, uns HEINE 
als einen zweiten GOETHE hinzustellen, und 
neben der jetzt so eifrig gepflegten GOETHE- 
Philologie eine Art HEiNE-Philologie und 
HEiNE-Cultus anzubahnen. Zu dem Dichter 
iibergehend, tadelt er die selbstbewusste 
Stellung, welche HEINE gegeniiber echt pa- 
triotischen Dichtern, wie PLATEN und UHLAND, 
jasogar dem "Altmeister" GOETHE eingenom- 
men habe. Wir mu'ssen zur Entschuldigung 
HEINES hier allerdings beriicksichtigen, dass 
PLATEN von anderen Zeitgenossen nicht minder 
verkannt worden ist, dass Uhland in HEINES 
Beurteilung unter dem scharfen Gegensatze 
der jungdeutschen Schule der dreissiger Jahre 
zur deutschen Romantik zu leiden hatte, dass 
GOETHE zwar von H. mit dem einseitigen 
Massstabe des damals herrschenden Liberalis- 
mus gemessen, aber doch ebenso, wie UHLAND, 
in seiner unverganglichen Dichtergrosse er- 
kannt und gewiirdigt worden ist. 

Das ' Buch der Lieder,' auf welches sich 
die iibertriebene Schatzung HEINES bei uns 
zumeist griindet, erkennt X. in mancher Hin- 
sicht als ein poetisches Denkmal von bleiben- 
dem Werthe an, aber er tadelt andrerseits 
die Ungleichmassigkeit und Nachlassigkeit 
mancher Teile, und hebt die Entlehnungen 
hervor, welche H. an zeitgendssischen Dich- 



tern, wie W. MULLER, dem Sanger Neu- 
Griechenlands, EICHENDORFF und BRENTANO 
begangen hat. Das Nachspiiren s. g. Plagiate 
ist namlich eine mit Vorliebe gepflegte Eigen- 
tiimlichkeit unserer literarischen Kritiker, 
der auch die grossten unsrer Dichter nicht 
entgangen sind. Insbesondere aber geisselt 
X. HEINE als den Vorkampfer des jetzt in 
der deutschen Aesthetik und Poesie sich 
ungesttim vordrangenden Realismus und der 
marktschreierischen Effecthascherei, die uns 
zuweilen einen guten Teil unsrer Dichtung 
verleiden kann. Besonders eingehend und 
scharf kritisiert er dann HEINES "jiidischen 
Dialect," die Sprachverderberei seines poeti- 
schen Styles, die Nachlassigkeit seines Reim- 
baus, mit der auch W. KIRCHBACH, der 
Redacteur des Magazins far Lift, des In- und 
Auslandes sich in einem trefflichen Aufsatze 
beschaftigt hat. So schwer nun auch HEINE 
sich an der Sprache des deutschen Volkes 
versiindigt, so muss doch auch X. zugestehen, 
dass andere Dichter jener Zeit, darunter zu- 
weilen selbst ein GOETHE, nicht immer dem 
heute eifrig vorstrebenden " Purismus " ge- 
huldigt haben, und auch hierin liegt eine 
gewisse Entschuldigung fur den hart ange- 
griffenen Dichter. 

Fiir die reichen Einzelheiten dieses 46 Sei- 
ten, also beinahe die Halfte der "Broschiire 
umfassenden Abschnittes miissen wir auf die 
Schrift selbst verweisen und bemerken nur, 
dass manche dort schwer getadelte Sprach- 
widrigkeit noch jetzt nach dem Grundsatze 
des "Usus est tyrannus" weder in deutscher 
Prosa noch in deutscher Poesie immer ver- 
mieden wird. In einem Schlussworte verwehrt 
sich X. gegen den Einvvand, als ob er H. aus 
seiner jiidischen Abstammung einen Vorwurf 
mache, vielmehr tadelt er den Sprossling 
einer rheinischen Handelsfamilie grade we- 
gen seiner Verleugnung und Schmahung der 
urspriinglichen Confession und Abstammung, 
und bekampft ihn. als den Propheten eines 
glaubens- und sittenlosen Semitismus. Wir 
glauben gern dem, was X. sagt, da sein 
mannhaftes Eintreten fiir deutsche Art und 
Sitte uns nur Zutrauen zu seiner Uberzeu- 
gungstreue erwecken kann, aber ohne den 
seit mehr als lojahren bei uns ausgefochtenen 
Kampf des Antisemitismus und Philosemitis- 
mus ware seine Polemik gegen HEINE kaum 



226 






i 16 i 



I .\.\'(. f .!<, 






454 



n-< lit v-isl.indlich. Man muss diesi- erhitl<-it 
mid leidcns< halllit li -i-fulut<- !' lid.-, an <!i-r 
ii-li liir uil< -r K 1 '^' " l 'as deiitsi In- Jndentum 
UK- In. M< mul H. VON 

TKMIX MM , heteiligt haben, aus del I'n/ahl 
der Xeilungsartikel und Broschiin-n kenneii, 
nm hierin X.'s Staiulpunkt mul Kami 
ol>jecti\ /u beurteileii. Bei uns hat namlich 
das ludentum, welches an X.alil fast die Hiilfte 
alU-r iiherhaupt dem jiidischen Glanhen /. 
horeiiden uiulasst, einen ganz namhaften 
F.iulluss in dem offentlu IK n l.eben, ! 
in Handel, Politik und /eitungswesen sich 
erworhen, so dass ein natur.nrma-.ser Gegen- 
satx. des germanischen Wesens, nnd cine nicht 
immer gerechte Abwehr verstandlich ist. 
Schwcrlich aber \vird X. uns einreden, dass 
HKINK kt-in dtnfsc/icr Dirhter ^ewt-scn sei, 
denn auch in der franznsischen Sprache blieb 
sein I'"iililen und Deiiken ein deutsches, und 
si-linsii'-litsvoll scliaute er ofters nach clem 
verlassenen Vaterlande zuriick. Durum leis- 
tet ihm ein in Berlin vielgelesenes Fortscbritts- 
blatt einen sehr zweifelhaften Dienst, wenn 
es den Geist seiner literarischen Tiitigkeit als 
oinen " Voltaireschen," also als einen eobt 
franzosiscben bezeichnet. Mil VOLTAIRK ge- 
mein hat er nur die grossen Ideen <ler religio- 
sen Duldsamkeit und der politischen Freibeit, 
die langst Gemeingut der ICdelsten des deut- 
schen Volkes geworden siiul, und aucb die 
Neigung zu Spott und Sarkasmus, die oft nur 
der Ausdruck eines iiberlegenen Geistes und 
freien Denkens ist. Sonst darf man ibn dein 
" 1'liilosophen von P\-rney," der seinen tiefen 
Hass gegen die alttestamentlicbe Weltanschau- 
ung aucli xiuveilen auf das moderne Juden- 
tnm iibertragt, kauni vergleichen, und darf 
ebensowenig iibersehen, dass \'OLTAIRE in 
erster Linie ein kritiscli zersetzender, HKINK 
ein dichterisch empfmdender Geist isl. 

DR. R. MAHRKMIOI.T/.. 
Drcsd<'>i. 



ANGLO-SAXON POETR Y. 

]\.\-odus and Ihiiiii'/. 1-Mited from 
Cirein. By TMKODURK \V. HTM, I'M. l> 
Third edition, Uoston, (iinn & Co., 1888. 
146 pp., 8vo. 

This contribution to HARRISON'S "Library 
of Anglo-Saxon Poetry" was lust published 



llu- third lies upon n 
lib- U'ilhout dwelling u; 
<-i.iiiparisi!i .f these lhr-- t-dilions of , 
HUNT ! Daniel.' it is gratifying 

at on- that in its , .rm it 

es the recognition of labor well perform- 
ed The < banj." s that ha\i- \><->-\\ mtr< 
in th- ;i of the volume, 

though briefly : litor's- pref- 

atory note, are important enough I. 
further \vord of special notice. Particular < are 
lias been In-stowed upon an improvement of 
the Glossary. This, with the kindly assistance, 
duly acknowledged, of two students of the 
Washington and Lee University, has been 
enlarged, " especially as to definition^ 
ences to text, and quotations of characteristic 
passages," while DR. CHARI.KS W. KuNThas 
contributed help in the matter of accentuation, 
and I'ROF. GARNETT has been enlisted in the 
scrutiny of the work in manuscript and in 
proof. By these means the Glossary has been 
brought to so high a degree of excellence that 
the editor must pardon the solicitation that 
would urge a few additional changes for the 
.sake of attainable completeness. The most 
important modification to be desired is one 
that is suggested by that sense of uniformity 
of plan and purpose that should be regarded 
in the preparation of the separate members of 
any definite series of volumes. In short, the 
Glossary of HARRISON and SHARP'S edition of 
the ' Beowulf represents the system accord- 
ing to which all the Glossaries of the series 
should be constructed. The references should 
provide for every occurrence in the text ; in 
each instance the grammatical function should 
be indicated, and following the general defini- 
tion there should be discrimination of the 
special uses in the text, and of particular 
values in collocation or in phrase. Such, at 
least, is the demand that one would naturally 
wish to urge after seeing the excellent pattern 
of HKVNK'S Glossary adopted in the initial 
volume of the scries, and after that a departure 
from that pattern made in a t ompanion volume, 
without any easily perceived reason, and, 
what is quite unpardonable, without a word 
that might define the supposed advantages of 
the change. But since PROK. Hrxr i 



227 



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November. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, 1888. No. 7. 



456 



this new edition, advanced so far towards 
satisfying the purposes of a special Glossary, 
we may be assured that the little that remains 
to be done for this portion of his work will be 
carefully supplied hereafter ; present criticism, 
therefore, if criticism is to be fault-finding, is 
obliged to take refuge in less essential details. 
Within the range of such details a question 
arises as to the propriety of speaking of " the 
three chief parts of each verb." A character- 
istic feature of the old conjugational system is 
thus obscured. The principal parts of an 
Anglo-Saxon strong verb are four in number, 
not three, and if PROF. HUNT would follow the 
scientific, as well as most practical method, in 
giving these four parts, he would lose nothing 
by cancelling his references to the classifi- 
cations of MARCH and of SWEET. A very few 
errors in quantity also remain to be corrected : 
we must write <zled; bringan, brdhte, gebrdht; 
cyme (adj.); hrtper, hr'eper-gleaw ; lyt, lytel, 
lite I \ swipian; twegan; pryp\ w&g (w&g), 
' wall ' ; wiga, rand-wigend, -wiggend; wttig, 
witigddm (cf. text and the previous editions) ; 
werig should be werig, and is identical with 
the word which follows it; an-wldh has long 
since been branded a monstrum (Beitrdge 
VII, 455 f.), and is to be consigned to the 
limbo of "ghost-words," the true form being 
an-walh (on-wealh, etc.). Of misprints that 
have made their unlawful escape, but are of 
easy detection, there are such as breman (for 
breman} ; fyrstmeare (for fyrstmearc) ; gesine 
(for gesine ; the text retains gesine in memory 
of the erroneous interpretation of this word in 
the former editions); nihtscuwa (for nihtscu- 
wd) ; ofer-medla (for ofer-medld) ; sweot (for 
sweot] ; win-burg (for win-burg). A discrepan- 
cy will also be noticed between geng and ofer-, 
on-ghig. In taking leave of the Glossary with 
these few observations, it remains to be no- 
ticed, with approval, that the etymological 
helps, that formerly were distributed between 
it and the 'Notes,' have been altogether a- 
bandoned. 

The absence of explanatory Notes is another 
change in the editor's plan. Although a con- 
formity to the Beowulf-volume, this can only 
be regretted. An appendix of "Variants" 
supplies indeed the most essential material for 
a critical study of the text, but much more 



should be done for a class-room edition of an 
Anglo-Saxon poem. F.or obscure and difficult 
passages the editor's assistance should not be 
withheld. There are many difficulties in this 
text, where nothing is given to show what dis- 
position the editor would have us make of them. 
We are therefore cut off from a discussion, in 
this review, of such questions as a commentary 
on the text would be sure to call forth. PROF. 
HUNT will not, it is hoped, allow another edi- 
tion to pass through the press without these 
necessary Notes. 

The Text is essentially unchanged. The 
hyphen has properly been removed from the 
seam of compounds, and other corrections of 
various character have been made, but the 
conditions of a critical text are still not fully 
satisfied. Many passages requiring emenda- 
tion are reproduced in their corrupt state, with 
little or no regard for suggestions that have 
grown out of the recent work of others. It is 
not clear to what theory of versification the 
editor's faith has been pledged, and it is 
believed that he would find it difficult to an- 
nounce a system to which many of the verses 
of the ' Exodus and Daniel ' as here given 
would not maintain a stubborn contradiction. 
Almost more than the permissible number of 
misprints remain to be corrected by means of 
the Glossary, and the obsolete and mistaken 
pointing of the instrumental case an indul- 
gence also shared by the Glossary evokes an 
expression of disappointment. 

The editor has modified his Introduction in 
details which do not call for special remark. 
A thorough discussion of the age and author- 
ship of these poems is a difficult and some- 
what unpromising task, yet any degree of fail- 
ure may find redemption in the character of 
the attempt. There are also important 
questions relating to the structure of the poem 
which are not satisfied by a mere rubric, and 
some of which might be expected to make it 
appear desirable to add to the text the ' Az- 
arias ' fragment. 

PROF. HUNT'S * Exodus and Daniel ' has 
now come to be a book that could not well be 
spared ; it is earnestly commended to all 
students of Anglo-Saxon poetry. 

JAMES W. BRIGHT. 



228 



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458 



EAST FRENCH DIALE( 'TS. 
Die Ostfranzbsischcn 6V<r~</m/,-X-/V Xwischen 
Mot/, uiul Bellort \.,n Dr. ADOI.K HORN- 
ING, niit einer Kartr. Hcilhromi, Gebr. 
Henninger, iSSy. pp. 122, or 429-550 of 
Franzos. A'/W/, ;/, V. Hand. M.4. 40 IT. 
To the excellent collection of monographs 
edited by Professors G. Kiirting and Kos li- 
\vit/ tinder the general title Franzosischc 
Stintien, has recently been added this im- 
portant work by Dr. Horning, Oberlehrer am 
Lyceum in Strassburg, well known for his 
phonetic studies in various branches of the 
Romance languages. It constitutes Heft 4 
(Schluss) of the fifth volume of the series and 
is another one of those critical contributions 
on dialectology that have made these Studien 
of peculiar interest to the investigator in this 
special province of Romance speech. Vol. 
III., Heft 2, brought us a suggestive study of 
' Die sudwestlichen Dialekte der Langue d'OIl 
(Poitou, Aunis, Saintonge and Angoumois)' 
by Ewald GiJrlich ; the closing number of vol. 
IV. was devoted to an interesting and elabo- 
rate treatise: ' Geschichtliche Entwicklung 
der Mundart von Montpellier (Languedoc)' by 
Wilhelm Mushacke ; vol. V r ., Heft 3, pub- 
lished in 1886, is a continuation by Dr. Gor- 
lich of his dialect researches in the North- 
west French [as a supplement to those in the 
South-west French, published in 1882] under 
the title : ' Die nordwestlichen Dialekte der 
Langue d'O'il (Bretagne, Anjou, Maine, Tou- 
raine); ' and finally, as the last number of the 
suite, comes the study, as noted above, con- 
tributed to the series by Dr. Horning. 

This is not the first appearance of the writer 
in this particular dialect field ; a part of the 
material incorporated in his 'Grenzdialekte ' 
was published in 1885 under the title: 'Zur 
Kunde der romanischen Dialekte der Vogesen 
und Lothringens,' 1 where he selected for 
treatment a number of examples from a word- 
supply collected in about fifty villages of the 
Vosges and Lorraine territory. Most of the 
explanations given and opinions expressed 
here with reference to the phonetic character 
of the vocables examined, are still held in the 
more recent paper before us. For this, the 

i Cf. Zeitschrift fflr roinnnische J'hilolofie, Vol. IX, pp. 
497-512. 



author makes use of material gathered, be- 
n tin- years 1883-1886, from seventy-six 
points situated along the border district of 
speech extending from .Metz to Helfort. No 
.m.-ni|,t i, made to establish a line of demarca- 
tion betw.-en the Frem h and (icrnian. though 
in certain cases when tin- writer is working on 
thr extrciiK- limits of (iallir spi-e< h (on the 
line, so to speak, if there be one), it would have 
been desirable to note the mixing process 
from this point of view. It is possible that no 
Hear separation of the speech varieties exists 
here such as was sometimes found b\ 
Tourtoulon and Hringuier," and especially 
striking is the fact noted on page five that the 
Vosges mountains do not form a separating 
ba