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i//*' - J-> ' '/ ' 


iVlodern Languag-e 





VOL. I.— 1897 

« • 

• • • 

• • • * * - 





• • • ' 

• • < 

• • 

• • 


Modern Language 


With which is incorporated 

Vol. 1. 

July 1897 

No. I. 


WuEN a child boasts of his comiog deeds as 
a man, it is forgiven him for his childhood, 
but not so did Prince Hal treat Sir John 
Falstaff. It behoves us in England who care 
for the scholarship of the modern and 
mediaeval tongues to give few promises but 
those of work and zeal. And in making 
this effort to produce a review where English 
thought on modern literature and English 
investigation into problems of language and 
paedagogics may find an opportunity for 
expression, neither the editors nor the con- 
tributors are likely to forget to be modest. 
It is their knowledge of what has already 
been done in Germany, Scandinavia, France 
and America, that makes them believe it 

time to remove a serious hindrance to the 
progress of scholarship in this counliy. It 
is their desire to help teachers and stodeots 
of modem languages to realise with them 
how little can be achieved by isolated work, 
how much is to seek in English methods, 
what need there is for some means of dis- 
cussion, some enthusiasm for their profession, 
that has led them to make this attempt. 
The outcome of the same movement that 
brought about the foundation of the Modern 
Language Association, this Quarterly will 
serve as the organ of the Society, but it will 
also, if it fulfils the desires of its friends, be 
much more than this. 


A CONCISE commentary on the Divina Com- 
media, embodying the results of the numerous 
researches which have been made of late 
years with such good results in Italy and 
elsewhere, is a want which has been much 
felt by students of Dante. This want has 
now, to a large extent, been supplied by the 
fourth edition of Prof. Tommaso Gasini's 
Commenio,^ who, while judiciously, and with 
due acknowledgment, availing himself of 
the labours of his predecessors, has at the 
same time added a good deal of illustrative 
matter from his own resources. Prof. Gasini 
has a CTeat advantage, in that, unlike too 
many Dante commentators, he is not a 'homo 

^ La Divina Co9nmedia di DaiUe Aligkicri, con il 
Commento di Tommaso Casini, 4ta edizione, Sansoni, 

unius libri.' He has a wide and real know- 
ledge of the Italian literature of the thir- 
teenth century, and is well known for his 
scholarly editions of some of the earliest 
Italian poems, as well as for his edition of 
the FUa Nuooa. His association with Pro- 
fessors D'Ancona and Comparetti in the 
publication of the famous Vatican Canzoniere 
(Cod. Vat. 3793), and with the late Adolfo 
^rtoli in the publication of that preserved 
in the Biblioteca Nazionale at Florence (Cod. 
Palat. 418), has enabled him to throw light 
on several vexed points in the matter of 
Dante's vocabulary. Not a few words, 
which wore supposed to have originated with 
Dante, are noted in his commentary as oc- 
curring in one or other of the earlier poets. 
Prof. Casini has effectually broken away 


from the somewhat absurd canon laid down 
by Giuliani — absurd, when carried to excess, 
as it was by its propounder — of * spiegare 
Dante con Dante,' that is to say, of making 
Dante his own commentator, a practice 
which, if it conduces to an intimate acquaint- 
ance with Dante's works, at the same time 
has a dangerous tendency, as was proved in 
the case of Giuliani himself, to result in the 
neglect, on the part of the commentator, of 
contemporary literature, without which it is 
impossible properly to understand Dante. 
As a sample of the sort of note in which 
Prof. Casini excels, we may refer the reader 
to that on the episode of Dante's meeting 
and conversation with Bonagiunta of Lucca 
in Circle VI. of Purgatory, in which a 
succinct and lucid account is given of the 
several schools of Italian i)oetry, and of 
Dante's relation to them. Commentary of 
this kind is of the highest value to the 
Dante student, and it is his recognition of 
this fact which gives Prof. Casini a foremost 

B)sition among recent Dante commentators, 
is work, we may add, is equally distin- 
guished by the excellence of the historical 
notes, in which a considerable advance has 
been made upon previous editions. Prof. 
Casini, as is known to readers of the Giomale 
DantescOf has himself, by his own researches, 
thrown a flood of fresh light upon Dante's 
numerous references to the affairs of 
Romagna and to the distinguished families 
who were concerned in them ; and we trust 
that before loug the call for a new edition 
of his commentary may give him the oppor- 
tunity of supplementing the existing notes 
on tnese passages with the results of his 
recent investigations. In a new edition, too, 
we hope it may be found possible to provide 
an index of proper names, the lack of which 
in the present edition is a serious drawback 
to the usefulness of the work. 

Dante students, we fear, will experience a 
feeling of considerable disappointment on 
opening Dr Scartazzini's Enciclapedia Dant- 
esca,^ It was hoped, at least wo had been san- 
gjuine enough to hope, that with this publica- 
tion Dr Scartazzini would have made a new 
departure, and would have availed himself 
of some of the criticisms, tendered in no 
unfriendly spirit, which have been made from 
time to time, both in England and on the 
Continent, on his previous works. The 
futility, for instance, of loading the pages of 
a Dante commentary, avowedly intended for 
beginners, with Hebrew and Greek words 
(in Hebrew and Greek characters), neither of 

1 Vol. I. A.-L. Ulrico Hoepli, Milano. 

them languages with which Dante had any 
direct acquaintance, has been pointed out 
over and over again ; as has been the ab- 
surdity of giving references to authors, such 
as Homer, Hesiod, Plutarch, ApoUodorus, 
Polybius, Strabo, etc., which were certainly 
unknown to Dante. But so far from show- 
ing any amendment in these respects, Dr 
Scartazzini has in the present work carried 
these practices to the extreme ; so that now 
every biblical name is accompanied by the 
Hebrew equivalent, and every classical name, 
where possible, by the Greek equivalent, 
even to " Cesare, dal lat. Ccesar, e questo dal 
gr. Kartfap!" Similarly, in the article on 
Helen of Troy, for instance, we are given 
nine references to Homer (six to the Hiad 
and three to the Odyssey), one to Pausanias 
(to prove that a monument was erected to 
her in Greece !), one to Herodotus, and one 
to the Aeneid, — not a single one of which 
has the slightest bearing upon Dante's men- 
tion of her. In the article on Cyrus, again, 
we have the Sanscrit, Hebrew, Greek, and 
Latin forms of the name, with three refer- 
ences to Herodotus, two to Plutarch, one to 
Xenophon, one to Ctesias, and one to Justin, 
of which the last only is of the least use, 
and even that is not altogether to the point, 
since Dante's authority for the matter in 
question was almost certainly not Justin but 
Orosius. These are but samples, taken at 
hazard, of what is to be found on nearly 
every page of the volume. And yet Dr 
Scartazzini, after exhausting the patience of 
the reader with all this empty parade of 
learning, writes in his preface with an air of 
mock modesty : " Non vo' offrire uno Speci- 
men ervditionis propriae, ma un libro pratico 
ed utile!" What may be the "practical 
use " of Hebrew and Greek terms, and the 
like, in a Dante Encyclopaedia, it is not easy 
to discover. 

What, again, is to be thought of the 
intelligence of an editor, who, while assum- 
ing an acquaintance with Hebrew, Sanscrit, 
and Greek, on the part of his readers, at the 
same time thinks it necessary to supply 
them with elaborate explanations and deflni- 
tions of the commonest words of every day 
use, such as horse (" Camllo, dal. lat. cdballus ; 
Quadruped e domestico da sella e da tiro, che 
appartiene a' mammiferi, ed ha criniera, 
coda lunga e grossa, e piedi terminanti in 
un sol dito o zoccolo "), rush (" GiuncOy dal 
lat. juncus, Nome generico d'una famiglia di 
piante erbacee, perenni, che fanno nei luoghi 
marittimi o palustri, con fiori bruni in pan- 
nocchia appuntata, e foglie cilindriche, gracili, 
e che terminano in punta acuta e pungente, 


e per la loro resistenza servono a fare stuoicy 
a legare e simili usi ; ^ lo juncus, che i Botanic! 
distinguoDO con diverse denominazioni 
secoudo le respettive specie"), fatigue 
(**Faticay dal verbo lat. fatigare, probabil- 
mente mediante il lat. barb, fatica o fatiga ; 
Sensazione molesta e dolorosa, che proviamo 
nel fare cosa la quale, o per sua propria 
natura o per condizione o disposizione nostra, 
o per prolungarsi soverchiamente, ecceda le 
nostre forze e le stancbi ''), and so on. All 
this is mere ** padding," conveyed piecemeal 
from the nearest dictionary, where it is 
easily accessible to every one, even to that 
fantastic being, according to Dr Scartaz- 
zini's conception of him, "lo studioso di 
Dante ! " 

The great quantity of valuable space thus 
wasted might have been usefully devoted to 
the rectification of the numberless omissions 
in the work. 

We are told that the ideal at which the 
author aimed was **conci8ione o brevity ac- 
coppiate alia ma^or possibile compiutezza." 
An admirable id^l, of which, however, un- 
fortunately the author has fallen as far short 
in the matter of " completeness," as we have 
already shown him to have done in respect 
of " concision and brevity." Under A alone, 
at a first and not specially attentive reading, 
we have noted something like sixty omissions 
in the matter of proper names only, quite 
apart from the vocabulary — not merely 
omitted references, but whole articles omitted. 
To name but a few instances of the latter, 
there is no mention of Acis (Eel. ii. 79), 
Agag (Epist. vii. 5), Africa (Conv. iii. 3 ; iv. 
5 ; Mon. ii. 3, 5), Alcimus (Epist. viii. 4), 
Amalech (Epist. vii. 5), Amos (Epist. vii. 2), 
Aragones (Mon. i. 11), Asiani (Mon. iii. 14), 
etc., etc. ; while of omitted references, chiefly 
to the prose works, and more especially to 
the Epislolae (to which Dr Scartazzini has 
paid very little attention), we might easily 
give a lengthy list. 

Among the most serious omissions are 
those of the titles of books and treatises 
quoted by Dante. For example, the only 
two works of Aristotle mentioned (out of 
seventeen quoted by name by Dante) are the 
Ethics and PhydcSy which are included be- 
cause they happen to be referred to in the 
Divina Commedia ; while not a single one is 
mentioned of the half-dozen works of Cicero 
named by Dante. The student is left in the 
dark as to the De Causis several times re- 
ferred to in the Conmvio and elsewhere ; and 
not a hint is given (evidently because the 
editor himself does not know) that the lAbro 
tkW agg7'egazw7ie delle stdle (Conv. ii. 6) is 

identical with the EUmenfa astronamica of 
Alfraganus, a work about which Dr Scartaz- 
zini is hopelessly at sea, for he quotes the 
same book undtr two dififerent titles, 
which he takes to refer to two distinct 

In the matter of etymologies Dr Scartaz- 
zini informs us that he has followed the best 
authorities, and at times also "il proprio 
cervello," " facendo cio6 tesoro di quel poco 
di cognizioni linguistiche che la somma Bont^ 
mi concedette di appropiarmi," in other 
words, not having the smallest knowledge of 
philology or phonetics, he occasionally amuses 
himself with evolving etymologies out of his 
own head. The amateur etymologist is 
notoriously prone to tumble into all sorts of 
pitfalls, and Dr Scartazzini, we need hardly 
remark, one of whose delusions appears to be 
that Latin is derived from Greek, does not 
escape the usual fate of " quella gente vana." 
From the treasure-house of his own brain he 
has produced several gems in the way of 
etymologies. Thus ingoiare comes from Lat. 
degidare and ingluvies ; Id, entro from illuc intus; 
dispiccare from displicare, etc. In some cases 
we are favoured with an explanation of the 
processes by which these transformations 
were wrought; thus duplicare becomes dis- 
piccare by the simplest process in the world, 
viz., " convertita Ja I in t, e questa, congiun- 
tasi con la i radicale, avrebbe portato il rad- 
doppiamento della c " ; dovere comes from 
debere, " mutata la prima e in o e i\ b in v; 
e per cagion d' origine alcune forme man- 
tengono la prima sillaba de, e invece del v 
hanno il b raddoppiato, al quale talora si 
sostituisce il doppio g " ; digiunare comes 
from de and jejunare by the elision of the 
first syllable, " oppure aa jejunare, dal quale 
si fece gigiugtmre, e per af^resi giunare, quindi, 
mutato per eufonia il g in d, digiunare ; and 
so on ad libitum, 

Dr Scartazzini speaks in his preface of the 
Vocabolario Danteaco of Blanc in a way which 
implies his belief that that most useful and 
handy work will be superseded by the pre- 
sent Enciclopediii, We have no hesitation in 
saying that, so far as it goes, Blanc's scholarly 
little volume is, to use one of Dr Scartazzini's 
favourite expressions, "le mille miglia" 
superior to his own cumbrous and ill-digested 
work. For the purposes of comparison, and 
in justification of our assertion, we will place 
si<ie by side one or two articles from each, 
taken at hazard, which we think will speak 
for themselves. 


DioiUNARK, astenersi 
dal cibo, Purg. xxiii. 27. 
— Osservare il digiuno 
comandato dalla Cniesa, 
Par, xxvii. 130. 

DiONiTOSO, pieno di dig- 
nit^, Purg. iii. 8. 


DiGiUNARE. 1. Astenersi 
dal cibo per V intera 
ffiornata o i)er gran parte 
di essa, ed altresi Ali- 
men tarsi parcamente e 
asten endosi da alcun a sor te 
di cibi, come le carni e 
latticini, in giorni e tem- 
pi comandati da legge 
religiosa, e volontaria- 
mente anche in altri, a 
fine di mortificare il 
corpo ; Par. xxvii. 130. — 
2. Familiarmente, e in 
modo per lo pih scherze- 
vole, vale Non mangiare, 
Stare senza mangiare, 
ovvero Cibarsi assai meno 
del bisogno, contro la pro- 
pria volont^ ; Purg. xxiii. 

DiGNiTOso, dal lat. dig- 
nitosus ; Pieno di dignita, 
Che ha in s^, Che mostra, 
e simili, dignita, cio^ oon- 
tegno, decoroso, mavit^. 
E poeticara. per rroprio 
di persona cne abbia o 
senta gran dignity morale ; 
Purg. iii. 8. 

DiMAGRARE, dal lat. de e 
7nacerj Divenir magro. E 
in forma di Neut. pass, 
figuratam. o poeticam. 
per Andar diminuendo, 
perdendo, e simili ; rifer- 
ito a cosa di cui prima si 
avesse abbondanza, copia 
e simili ; Inf. xxiv. 143. 

Comment on the above would be super- 
fluous. * Quantity not quality/ is evidently 
Dr Scartazzini's ideal, in spite of the protest- 
ations contained in his preface. The fact is 
that Dr Scartazzini unfortunately does not 
possess the qualifications necessary for a task 
of this kind ; he has the gift of industry and 
perseverance, and he is not without a certain 
measure of critical acumen on occasion ; but 
he has no self-restraint, no sense of pro- 
portion, and, most fatal defect of all, he has 
none of the scholarly instinct which is so 
essential a quality in every commentator and 
lexicographer. Another lamentable failing 
on his part is his inability to rise superior to 
petty feelings of resentment against those of 
whom he does not approve. A case in point 
occurs in the present volume. Prof. Casini, 
whose valuable commentary on the Divin^i 
Commedia (now in its fourth edition) we 

*In the case of this word we have left out the 
etymology, which has already been quoted ; we may 
merely state that in Blanc the etymology is given in 
two words, while that of Scartazzini takes more than 
forty, occupying three lines and a half of print. 

DiMAORARSi, lat. de- 
macer, divenir ma^o. 
Per est. spopolarsi, Inf. 
xxiv. 143. 

have noticed above, has incurred Dr Scar- 
tazzini's dislike as a successful rival in the 
same field ; and in consequence the latter 
deliberately omits all mention of Prof. 
Casini' s work from what claims to be a 
complete bibliographical list in the article 
on the ' Comraenti della Divina Commedia,' 
a most unjusti6able proceeding from any 
point of view, and a specially unworthy one 
under the circumstances, inasmuch as Dr 
Scartazzini has not scrupled in at least one 
instance (viz., in his article on Caribo) to 
avail himself of his rival's book. We could 
mention other instances in this same volume 
in which Dr Scartazzini has indulged his 
feelings in a similar way, at the expense of 
his reputation; but the particular case to 
which we have drawn attention will suffice 
to set readers on their guard against an 
author who has so little regard for their 
interests and for the responsibilities of his 

The bibliographical articles are for the 
most part carefully compiled, and constitute 
the most original and valuable part of the 
book. We should have been glad, however, 
of more precise information as to the MSS. 
of the minor works of Dante, the details 
given in the case of the De Vulgari Eloqueiitia, 
the Epistolae, and the Eclogae being scanty in 
the extreme. It is instructive and by no 
means unimportant for the student to know 
that, while the MSS. of the Divina Com- 
media number between five and six 
hundred, and there are some thirty apiece 
of the Convivio and Vita Ntu)va, there are 
only three MSS. of the De Vulgari Elo- 
quentia (and of these one has no indepen- 
dent value), less than a dozen of the De 
Monarchia, and only three or four of the 

The mention of the Latin works brings us 
to a point which we confess we have noticed 
with amazement. Dr Scartazzini describes 
his book in the sub-title as Dizionario critico 
e ragionato di quanto concetme la Vita e le 
Opere di Dante AUghieri ; and yet, will it be 
believed ? not a single word from the Latin 
works, other than proper names, appears as 
the heading of any one article throughout 
this volume ! Latin proper names, in all 
but a very few instances, are given in 
Italian, without any cross references — a 
most inconvenient practice, especially when, 
as not infrequently happens, the Italian 
form differs widely from the Latin, — who, 
for instance, would think of looking for 
Achaemenides under Acmenidef It will be 
seen, therefore, that as regards Dante's 
Latin vocabulary this Dizionario di quanto 


concerne le Opere di Dante is an absolute 
blank; and the student who, on the faith 
of this comprehensive title, consults it for 
the meaning of such words as amussis, 
aporlari, enudeare, ephij>piatus, medlasiinus, 
nequiiatrix, reburrus, syrma, and dozens of 
similar unfamiliar terms, will come away 

A certain proportion of the vocabulary of 
the minor Italian works has been incluaed, 
but on what principle the selection has been 
made it is impossible to discover ; and it 
would, we are convinced, puzzle Dr Scar- 
tazzini himself to explain. The title of the 
work under these circumstances is a com- 
plete misnomer, seeing that the volume only 
to a very limited extent redeems the lavish 
promises made on the title-page. If Dr 
Scartazzini had been content to describe his 
work as a Saggio, which is what it actually 
is, we should have known what to expect, 
and should have been prepared to make 
allowances ; as it is, we think purchasers of 
the volume have just ground lor complaint 
on the score of its incompleteness. The 
references in the Enciclopedia are given to 
various editions of Dante^s several works, 
those of Witte being adopted in some cases, 
those of Giuliani in others — about as incon- 
venient an arrangement, on the whole, as 
could well have been devised, for unless the 
student happens to have these particular 
editions at hand (several of which are not 
now easily obtainable), the Enciclopedia, as 
regards an important section of the refer- 
ences — viz., the line-references — is of no 
assistance to him whatever. It is unfor- 
tunate that Dr Scartazzini was unable to 
avail himself of the Oxford edition of the 
complete works, the immense convenience 
of. which, for the purposes of reference, can 
hardly be overrated. 

Before taking leave of the book, we must 
say a word in praise of the printing, paper, 
and general get-up, which are admirable, 
and do Sig. Hoepli great credit. 

The same enterprising publisher has 

undertaken the issue of an illustrated 
edition of the Divina Commedia,^ under the 
able editorship of Sig. Corrado Eicci (well- 
known to Dantists as the author of Vvltimo 
nfugio di Dante), which is now in process of 
publication. The illustrations consist of 
views of places (mostly reproduced from 
photographs taken on the spot) mentioned 
in the poem, and of portraits, where obtain- 
able, of the most notable personages. Sig. 
Ricci has wisely abstained from including 
portraits of classical personages, except in 
one or two instances where they happen to 
have a special interest, as in the case of 
Virgil, of whom he reproduces the interest- 
ing mediaeval figure at Mantua. A certain 
number of the plates are by the heliotype 
process ; one of the best and most interest- 
ing of these is the finQ full-length figure 
of Farinata degli Uberti by Andrea del 
Castagno. The views, whicn are selected 
from a very wide field (including even 
India and Syria), are for the most part 
well chosen. But some of them are not 
altogether appropriate ; as, for instance, 
that of the Thames, which is taken on one 
of the upper reaches of the river, whereas, 
of course, Dante mentions " Tamigi " merely 
to indicate the city upon its banks — a com- 
mon practice with him — Paris, Florence, 
Vicenza, Faenza, Imola, Cesena, to name 
a few instances, being indicated respectively 
by the mention of the Seine, the Arno, the 
Bacchiglione, the Lamone, the Santerno, and 
the Savio. The text of the poem itself is 
well printed in large type on good paper, 
and when completed the work will form not 
only a very handsome volume, bub at the 
same time an instructive commentary of a 
novel kind, for which every student of 
Dante ought to be grateful. We trust that 
the publication will meet with the success it 
deserves. Paget Toynbee. 

* La Divina Commedia di Dante Alighieri illus- 
trata nei htoghi e nelle pcrsone, a extra di Corrado 
Ricciy con 30 tavole e 4OO illuslrazionu 


In the Legend of Good Women Chaucer 
quotes **Agaton" as his authority for the 
Btory of Alcestis — of her wifely devotion, 
and how it was rewarded by her restoration 
to the light of day — how she 

* * for her husbonde chees to dye, 
And eek to goon to helle rather than he, 
And Ercules rescowed her pardee, 
And broghte her out of helie agayn to blis." 

But who for certain this "Agaton" was, 
and what work is referred to, are questions 
yet unanswered. I propose now to furnish 
an answer, though some points connected 
with them will be left obscure, for the 
present at least. 

The name will be found in the list of 
"Words and Phrases not understood" at 
the end of Tyrwhitt's edition of the Canter- 


bury Tales. And in his G ssary that dis- 
tinguished scholar writes : "I have nothing 
to say concerning this writer, except that 
one of the same name is quoted in the Prol. 
to the Tragedie of CarnbiseSy by Thomas 
Preston. There is no ground for sup- 
posing, with Gloss. Ur, [i.e., with Urry in 
the Glossary to his Edition of Chaucer], 
that a philosopher of Samos is meant, or 
any of the Agathoes of antiquity." It may 
be at once agreed that Chaucer's Agaton 
is not to be identified with Agathon of Samos, 
a geographical writer, the author of a work 
on Scythia and a work on Rivers; but 
Tyrwhitt errs in saying so decidedly that 
there is no ground for identifying him with 
" any of the Agathoes of antiquity." There 
is, in fact, very good ground for recognising 
in Agaton the most famous of the ancient 
Agathons — Agathon, the tragic poet of 
Athens —the poet who seems to have stood 
next in fame to the great three whose glory 
has well-nigh eclipsed the memories of their 
once scarcely less brilliant contemporaries. 
It is odd that Tyrwhitt should so per- 
emptorily exclude all ** the Agathoes of an- 
tiquity" after noticing Preston's "Agathon," 
who, being mentioned along with " TuUy the 
wise" and "the sage and witty Seneca," 
might have been confidently regarded as an 
ancient. Presumably — the matter cannot 
now be discussed — Preston's Agathon is the 
very Agathon that now concerns us, is one 
and the same with Chaucer's " Agaton." 

The first to suggest that ** Agaton " was 
the Athenian Agathon, though without 
giving any reasons or having any except 
that Chaucer might have taken the name 
from Dante's Purgatario (xxii. 105), was 
Cary in his translation of the Divina Comr 
media, " I am inclined," he says, " to be- 
lieve that Chaucer must have meant Agatho 
the dramatic writer, whose name at least 
appears to have been familiar in the Middle 
Ages; for, besides the mention of him in 
the text, he is quoted by Dante in the 
treatise De M&narchia (lib. iii. : * Deus per 
nuncium non potest genita non esse genita 
juxta sententiam Agathonis.') The original 
is found in Aristotle, Ethic Niam., lib. vi. 
c. 2— 

M6voM yap airou xai dthi ^fphxsrai 
aysvrira vonh adtt av p "Tncrpay/ista, 

Agatho is mentioned by Xenophon in his 
Symposium, by Plato in the Protagoras and 
in the Banquet, a favourite book with our 
author [Dante] and by Aristotle in his *'Art 
of Poetry ;'* and he proceeds to quote from 

Aristotle a passage about Agathon's tragedy 
"Avhi or the Flower — a passage of great 
interest, but not just now relevant to our 
purpose. As it happens Cary here names 
the very work which, as we shall see, settles 
the question, but he is quite unconscious 
that he does so, and he passes on to his special 

Professor Skeat, to whom all Chaucer 
students are so infinitely indebted, in his 
invaluable edition of the Legend of Good 
Women, judiciously quotes Carys useful 
note. He records also Dr Bech's suggestion 
made in his paper entitled "Quellen und 
Plan der Legende of Goode Women und ihr 
Verhaltniss zur Confessio Amantis " (see Anglta, 
vol. V. 1882) that the English poet " may also 
have noticed the name in the Saturnalia 
of Macrobius, an author whose Somnium 
Scijnonis Chaucer certainly consulted {Book 
Dtich., 284, Pari Fmdes, 111)." But having 
got so far, even Prof. Skeat loses heart in a 
most uncharacteristic manner, and concludes 
that the name is quite insignificant. ** The 
name of Agatho (of whom he probably knew 
nothing more than the name) [the italics are 
Prof. Skeat's] served his turn as well as 
another. His easy way of citing authors 
is probably, at times, humorously assumed ; 
and such may be the explanation of his 
famous * Lollius.' It is quite useless to make any 
further search" (The italics in this case are 
mine). This is the language of despair. 
Not in such a spirit has Prof. Skeat achieved 
his many splendid successes in untying — 
not cutting, but skilfully untying— Chau- 
cerian knots. However, none I am sure 
will rejoice more heartily than he, if it can 
be shown that Chaucer in speaking of 
" Agaton," did not wildly clutch at a name 
that happened to lie handy, but had good 
reason for his selection. 

This strange fit of despondency on the 
part of Prof. Skeat seems inspired by a sen- 
tence in Dr Bech's article, where Agaton is 
grouped with Eclympasteyre, Ldlius, Corinna, 
and Zansis or Zauzis, But perhaps some day 
all these difficulties may be satisfactorily sur- 
mounted. I trust at all events to reduce, if 
not to completely overcome, one of them. 

Briefly, I venture to suggest that the work 
alluded to by Chaucer is no other than Plato's 
Symposium or Banquet, brought under his 
notice in some indirect way or other which 
has yet to be discovered, and that he was 
quite justified in mentioning Agatho in such 
a connection ; for (i) — it is cunous that this 
fact should have escaped the scrutiny of 
Chaucerian scholars — the story of Alcestis is 
told in Plato's Banquet ; and (ii) Macrobius 


actually, and with good cause, speaks of 
Plato's Banquet as Agathonis Convimum. 

(i) In Plato's Banquet it is proposed by 
Eryximachus, as classical students will re- 
member, that as the banqueters have decided 
that no one shall be compelled to drink more 
than he pleases, they shall send the flute- 
player away to play to herself, or if she 
pleases to the women within, and shall 
devote themselves to conversation (3/a "kSym 
aXKfiKoig tft/vsTVa/) ; and further, that the 
theme shall be the Praise of Love, Phsedrus 
having complained that the God of Love had 
not had his share of hymns and paeons ; hoxtt 
yap fioi y^pr^vdt txaarov rifAuv X6yov e/Vs/k l^a/voir 
"Epatrog iri dt^ia ug eiv divrirat xdkXiffrov, The 
proposal is heartily accepted ; and one after 
the other — PhsBdnis, Pausanias, Eryxi- 
machus, Aristophanes, Asathon, and So- 
crates, each in his manner, laud and magnify 
this strangely neglected deity. And Phaedrus, 
who leads off, speaks of the inspiring in- 
fluence of a great affection— how it will even 
make the lover, man or woman, die for the 
loved, and he illustrates such self-sacrifice 
by the story of Alcestis, the daughter of 
Pelias, ihXriffaga fi6y^ vrtp roD aurtig avdphg 
acro^ats7{r otTOiv aur^ warpog n xai /itirpog ; 
but Admetus' parents seemed, compared with 
her, mere strangers to their own son, and 
only in name his kinsfolk. And the gods 
were so greatly delighted with her conduct 
that they released her soul from the bonds 
of death. Ourw xai hoi rjjv 'srspi rhv ipura 
if'irovdfiv re xai dpirriv fioKKtra rt/iutfiv. Later 
on, the dialogue, when the turn of Socrates 
comes, he tells how Diotima taught him that 
the ultimate spring of all love and desire is 
the passion for immortality. The mortal 
nature seeking so far as it may to live ever 
and be deathless (xara rh duvarhv ait n %lvai 
xai a&dyarog). In a passage that recalls some 
of the most touching stanzas of Gray's Elegy 
written in a Country Churchyard, and that 
may well have been in Gray's mind when he 
wrote them (for Gray was a devoted student 
of Plato, as his extant notes show — see " Some 
account of the Dialogues and Epistles of 
Plato by Thomas Gray "), he points out how 
men long to be remembered when they are 
gone. " Do you believe," he continues, or 
makes Diotima continue, ''that Alcestis 
would have died for Admetus, or Achilles 
for the sake of [literally, over or after] 
Patroclus {iiraiFo&anT^) or your Codrus ere 
his day for the sake of his children's king- 
dom, if they had not thought there would be 
an undying memory of them for their virtue 
— a memory which even now we retain ? " 

Thus the story of Admetus might have 

been found by Chaucer in some translation 
of Plato's Banquet or in some work con- 
fessedly based upon it 

(ii.) But to be more conclusive, the 
" Agaton " whom he names as his authority, 
is certainly the Agathon of Plato's Banket, 
for Plato's Banquet is referred to by Macro- 
bius as "Agathonis Convivium." Either 
title is perfectly correct. The full title 
would be Plato's Agathon's Banquet ; for, in 
fact, Plato is here describing a banquet given 
by Agathon in the year 416 B.C. to cele- 
brate his first tragic victory, at the Lenaean 
Dionysia. If we say " Platonis Symposium," 
we use the author's name ; if we say " Aga- 
thonis Symposium," we use the name of the 
host. We might speak of Christian the 
Pilgrim's Progress, as well as of Bunyan's 
Pilgrim's Progress. 

In the beginning of the Second Book of 
his Saturnalia, Macrobius represents Avienus 
as comparing his Symposium with that 
described by Plato, and with incredible pur- 
blindness not hesitating to give his own the 
preference. " Nostrum hoc convivium quod et 
heroici seculi pudicitiam et nostri conduxit 
elegantiam in quo splendor sobrius et dili- 
gens parsimonia, Agathonis Convivio, vel post 
magnUoquentiam FlaUmiSy non componere 
tantum sed nee pr^ferre dubitaverim. . . 
Illic hoc fieri tentatum est ut Agathonis 
victoria celebraretiu* ; nos honorem dei cujus 
hoc festum est nullo admixtu voluptatis 
augemus." In Book I. Chapter i. he speaks of 
" Platonis symposium " : — ^**Nam cum apud 
alios quibus sunt descripta convivia, turn- in 
illo Platonis symposio, non austeriore aliqua 
de re coiivivarum sermo, sed cupidinis varia 
et lepida descriptio est. In quo quidem 
Socrates non artioribus, ut assolet, nodis 
urget atque implicat adversarium, sed elu- 
dendi magisque decertandi modo apprehensis 
dat elabendi prope atque effugiendi locum ; 
oportet enim versari in convivio sermones ut 
castitate integros, ita appetibiles venustate." 

Thus beyond any question Macrobius, an 
author not unfamiliar to Chaucer, speaks of 
Plato's Symposium as 'Agathonis Convi- 
vium ' ; ana Chaucer, no very accurate 
scholar, naturally enough takes this latter 
title to mean that Agathon was the writer of 
the work referred to, not knowing or re- 
membering that he was only one of the 
interlocutors — one of the Dialogi personae. 

Certainly in Plato's Symposium Agathon 
is a conspicuous figure ; next to Socrates, he 
is the most conspicuous figiure. The banquet 
takes place at his house, and at a time when 
he had just achieved a brilliant success — 
only the day before he had won the Prize 



for Tragedy — had ascended the stage 
(hxpijSag) with the actors and faced a vast 
audience, and recited his verses with entire 
self-possession (see Plat. Symp. 194 B.). He 
was in all the full bloom of his charms, both 
physical and intellectual. His Wihu^tg or 
speech on the theme of that festive night — 
one of the noctes cmncequeDeum — is bright and 
graceful, though not untouched by a certain 
affectation — ^a certain * Euphuism ' — such as 
might be expected in a pupil of Gorgias. And 
even Aristophanes, who had such a keen 
sense of the young poet's iine and superfine 
air and" style, and was to turn it to such 
amusing account in the ThesTuaphoriazusce, — 
even Aristophanes was there to congratulate 
and honour him : for with all his phantasies 
Agathon was one that those who knew him 
prized highly, and was sorely missed, vo^smg 
roTi 9/Xo/(, when in time he passed eg 
fLaxdpuv suu;^/aK. (See Aristoph. Ban. 84 
and 85). Later in that memorable evening 
breaks in Alcibiades, very drunk {6<p6hpcL 
fisQvuv) and calling out loudly (/liya ^ouv). 
* Where's Agathon 1 Lead me to Agathon.' 
Then he crowns Agathon, and there is 
fresh drinkiDg, and fresh talk ; and other 
revellers arrive ; and when the day breaks, 
some are gone home, and some lie fast 
asleep ; but Agathon and Aristophanes and 
Socrates are still talking ; and with an un- 
conscious prescience of one Shakespeare to 
be born long ages afterwards, Socrates is 
insisting that the supreme gifts of tragedy 
and comedy are intimately and profoundly 
associated — roD auroD avdphg thai xoifiudtav 
xai rpayudiav M(fraff6ai ^o/e/V. 

No wonder then if Plato's Symposivm 
should be known also as Agathonis Cmvivium, 
and one whose scholarship was far from 
accurate, should have written down 

Agathon when he should have named 

Perhaps it may occur to some students 
that Agathon's "Ay^og or Flower (Prof. 
Murray in his Literature of Ancient Greece 
prints the title Antheus, but surely this is an 
erratum ?) may have dealt with the Alcestis 
story and the transformation into a daisy, of 
which Chaucer speaks so much with no yet 
ascertained authority — I do not myself 
think it is his own invention. But what little 
we know of that Play quite discoiu*ages this 
notion. We learn from Aristotle that in the 
ArUhos both the names and the incidents 
were pure invention — r& n fffpayfLara xa/ rd 
hvo/J^ara crg^o/jjra/ (Aristot. Poet,), So Alkes- 
tis cannot have been one of its 'persons.' 

It may be interesting to notice, though it 
may be of no Chaucerian importance, that 
Agathon was in some sense specially con- 
nected with Euripides, the great dramatiser 
of the Alcestis story. He was regarded as 
of the * School ' of Euripides. To him as to a 
kindred spirit, according to Aristophanes' 
comedy, Euripides first applies for advocacy 
and protection against the ladies whose 
enmity his bitter misogyny has provoked. 
And after Agathon left Athens — the reason 
of his departure is not known — he too visited 
the court of Archelaus and was residing 
there at the time of Euripides' death. 

It of course remains that Chaucer in the 
Legend follows other authorities besides 
Agathonis Banquet^ however he became ac- 
quainted with it, for nothing is there said of 
Alcestis' stellifaction or of Cybele's creating 
the daisy in her honour. These other authori- 
ties have yet to be discovered. All that this 
paper attempts is the clear identification of 
" Agaton." 

John W. Hales. 


" Yideant consules, ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat. 


The position of German in the educational 
curriculum of the future British officer has 
varied considerably within recent years. It 
may, therefore, be interesting to review 
shortly the regulations for the Army 
Entrance Examinations which determine 
the standard of subjects, not only in these 
examinations, but also in our public schools, 
and which, in their bearing upon the educa- 
tional equipment of officers, are of national 

It will be observed that ten years ago (in 
1887) a candidate for Sandhurst was obliged 

to take up three of the following subjects : 
Mathematics, Latin, French, and German; 
and was practically advised to take up the 
fourth as well, since no subject in Class II. 
counted as much (3000 marks). What did 
this mean 1 Mathematics, Latin and French 
had been for years among the principal subjects 
of an ordinary public school education, and 
needed therefore no impetus, as they would 
be taught and learnt in the natural course of 
events ; but German had not enjoyed such a 
position, and if it was to receive attention, 
it naturally required some stimulus, which 


Open Oompetition for Admission to the Royal Military OoUege, Sandhnrst. 

Subjects and Marks allotted at different Periods, 

In 1887. 

Subjects — 

Class T. 

(1) Mathematics, 

(2) Latin, 

(3) French, . 

(4) German, . 


. 3000 
. 3000 
. 8000 
. 3000 

Class II. 

(1) Higher Maths., . 2000 

(2) Greek, . . 2000 

(3) English History, 2000 

(4) Science, . . 2000 

Class III. 

!1) Eng. Composition, 500 
2) Freehand Draw., 500 
3) Geomet. Draw., 500 

Of these subjects candi- 
dates mtist take up three 
subjects in Class I., and 
9/my, in addition, take up 
one subject in CHass I. or 
II. and all subjects in 
Class III. 

In 1891. 
Subjects — 



[1) Mathematics, . 2500 
2 Latin. . . 2000 
(3) French (or Ger- 
man), . . 2000 

Class II. 

(1) Higher Maths., . 2000 

(2) Greek, . 2000 

(3) English History, 2000 

4) Science, . . 2000 

5) German (or 

French). . 2000 

Class III. 

1) Eng. Composition, 500 

2) Freehand Draw., 500 
(3) Geomet. Draw., 1000 


Subjects in Class I. are 
obligatory. Any tico in 
Class II. may be taken 
up. All three subjects 
in Class III. may be taken 

In 1894. 
Subjects — 

Class I. 

(1) Mathematics, 


. 3000 
. 2000 

(3) French (or Ger- 
man) . . 2000 

4) Eng. Composition, 1000 

5) Geomet. Draw., 1000 

Class II. 


(1) Higher Maths., . 2000 

(2) Greek, . . 2000 

(3) English History, 2000 

(4) Science, . . 2000 

(5) Grerman (or 

French). . 2000 

Class III. 

(1) Freehand Draw., 500 

(2) Geography, . 500 

Only two subjects in 
Class II. may be taken 
up. Both subjects in 
Class III. may be taken 
up. In case of competi- 
tion, candidates must 
obtain such an aggregate 
of marks in Class I. as 
may satisfy the Civil Ser- 
vice Commissioners. 



Proposed fob 1898. 

Subjects — Marks. 

Class I. 

1) Mathematics, . 3000 
Latin, . . 2000 
French (or Ger- 
man) . . 2000 
Eng. Composition, 1000 
Geomet. Draw., 1000 
Freehand Draw., 500 
Geography, . 500 


Class II. 

(1) Mathematics II., 2000 

(2) Mathematic8lIL,2000 

(3) Greek, . 2000 

(4) English History. 2000 

(5) Chemistry and 

Heat, . . 2000 

(6) Physics, . . 2000 

(7) German (or 

French) . 2000 

(8) Physiography 

and Geology, 2000 

All the subjects in Class 

I. may be taken up. Only 
two of the subjects in Class 

II. may be taken up. 

A similar table for the Woolwich examiuation would show the same tendencies, viz.: the gradual exclusion of German from the 
army curriculum, with this addition, that Science is made practically compulsory and that the Mathematics of Class I. will count 
fiOOO marks, and Mathematics of Class II. another 3000 marks, which makes a grand total of 7000 marks out of a maximum of 16,000 
marks for all subjects. This Inordinate amount of Mathematics demanded from Candidates who enter Woolwich practically ex- 
cludes the possibility of giving Candidates an adequate literary training altogether. 

was given to it by assigning 1000 marks 
more to this subject than to any of the 
subjects in Class II. Thus the regulations 
of 1887 obviously meant the encouragement 
of German, without making it compulsory, 
and without excluding candidates who did 
not know German, and whose bent might be 
specially mathematical, or classical, or scien- 
tific, in as much as these could take up as 
their fourth subject Higher Mathematics, 
Greek or History. The reasons for promot- 
ing of the study of German need not here be 
dwelt upon, but one may assume thai the 
authorities who framed the Eegulations of 
1887, while aware of the sad neglect this 
subject had met with in English schools, saw 
clearly the importance and utility of a 
knowledge of German for the English officer, 
and they seem to have appreciated the value 
of German as an instrument for training the 

mind. One cannot help admiring the wisdom 
shown by the men who drew up the scheme 
embodied in the regulations of 1887, or their 
discernment between subjects of greater and 
lesser importance. 

In 1891 the first step was taken towards 
the state of things which the proposals for 
1898 will bring about; for it was in 1891 
that all the subjects of Class I. were brought 
down to the level of those in Class II. (only 
Mathematics keeping 500 marks above it). 
Simultaneously with this degradation of the 
leading subjects began the promotion of those 
in Class II I. Geometrical Drawing was raised 
from 500 to lOGO. Moreover, only one modem 
language was henceforth to keep its place in 
Class I. This meant to all intents and pur- 
poses that German was to be the rival of 
Chemiatry and Geology, since French would, 
fcnr obvious zeaicmtiii existing ciieamstances, 



be chosen as the one modem language. Now, 
anyone acquainted with the difficalties of Ger- 
man will agree with us in saying that it cannot 
be expected that a candidate who has to take 
up one of these subjects, viz., German, Chemis- 
try or Geology, should take German if the 
marks assigned to each are the same. Indeed , 
it is said that the amount of Chemistry and 
Geology required for the Entrance Examina- 
tion to the R. M. College, Sandhurst, could be 
got up in less than one-half of the time and 
with less than one-tenth of the mental e£fort 
required for attaining a similar standard in 
German. And it is not too much to say that 
if candidates had not had to choose ttvo sub- 
jects of Class IL, German would have dropped 
out of the army curriculum altogether over 
since the Regulations of 1891 came into force. 

The alterations made in 1894 proceeded in 
the same direction as those of 1891 without, 
however, further affecting the position of 
German, which was allowed to linger on. 
But whether the English army will be sup- 
plied much longer with candidates who have 
any knowledge of German, when the proposed 
Regulations for 1898 have come into force, 
will depend largely on the modifications the 
proposed scheme will undergo before it is 
finally issued. 

To what extent this new plan affects the 
position of German may be gathered from the 
fact that, while in 1887 German counted the 
same as Mathematics, this subject now counts 
50 p. c. more. Again, while in 1887 German 
counted 50 p. c. more than either English His- 
tory or Chemistry, by the new arrangements 
it is put on a level with these subjects, and 
if a candidate wished to take up the two lan- 
guages in Class IL, viz., Greek and German, he 
would be able to gain for these two heavy 
subjects exactly the same as for science, viz.. 
Chemistry with Heat and Physics alone, i.e,, a 
total of 4000 marks. Finally, if we compare 
the position of German in 1887 with that 
proposed in the new prospectus, we find that 
ten years ago German, as one of eight subjects 
with a total of 15,500 marks (an average 
of 1937 per subject), counted 3000 marks, 
i.e., 1063 marks above the average, whereas 
in 1898 German, as one of nine subjects with 
a total of 14,000 marks (an average of 
1555 marks per subject), will carry 2000 
marks, i.e.y 445 above the average. There 
can be no doubt that this is too little in- 
ducement to that mental discipline which this 
subject demands, especially when we remem- 
ber that it is confessedly twice as difficult to 
reach the required standard in Germany 
as in other subjects with which it has to 

Nor can it be reasonably expected that the 
headmasters and heads of army classes in 
public schools, not to mention crammers, 
should encourage boys to take up a subject 
which is so severely handicapped as German ; 
for however much they may have at heart the 
general education of their pupils, they cannot 
leave out of consideration the fact that, as 
matters now stand, they have to prepare for 
a competitive examination, and that they 
cannot afford to give an hour a day for 
several years to a subject which does not pay 
better than others that can be " got up " in 
half that time. 

So it may be safely said that, if any candi- 
dates should continue to take up German in 
the Army Entrance Examinations, it will be 
done in spite of the regulations and not on 
account of them. And, indeed, it does not 
seem likely that there will be many who can 
afford to take up a subject which is now so 
distinctly treated as the "Cinderella" of 
second-class subjects. How differently the 
French authorities look upon the importance 
of German for the officer of the line may be 
gathered from the fact that it is comjndsory for 
all candidates of the line. (See : Programme 
des conditions d'admission k T^cole sp^ciale 
militaire de Saint-Cyr en 1897, p. 7.) While 
in France a knowledge of German is a sine 
qua non for every officer in the army, this 
language is practically squeezed out of the 
army curriculum in England. It may here 
be mentioned by the way that the French 
Government not only insist on German, but 
also do everything to encourage the study 
of modem languages generally. According 
to the new regulations, candidates will (k 
partir du concours de 1898) be allowed to 
take up one or more of the following langu- 
ages in addition to their ordinary subjects — 
English, Arabic, Spanish, Italian, Russian. 

in passing, we may mention here that after 
the wave of depreciation for German had set 
in, the Civil Service Commissioners, who con- 
duct the Army Entrance Examinations, still 
further discouraged the study of German by 
assigning very low marks to the candidates 
who took up German, while, on the other 
hand, the marks assigned to Chemistry were 
very high, and this, in spite of the regula- 
tions, according to which the two subjects 
were supposed to have equal weight, the maxi- 
mum assigned to each being 2000. Now we 
have, on the one hand, no reason to believe 
that the decrease in the marking of German 
was due to any falling off in knowledge on 
the part of those candidates who offered 
this subject. Nor, on the other hand, 
would anyone seriously contend that the 



amazing incrtjase in the marks allotted to 
Chemistry during the same period was due to 
any great improvement in the general level 
of knowledge in this subject. Yet a close 
investigation of the marks allotted to Ger- 
man and Chemistry respectively reveals the 
significant fact that tJie former have gradually 
decreased^ while the latter have rapidly irir 
creased. Here are the statistics for the ex- 
aminations held from June 1893 to June 

A, The Royal Military Academy, Wool- 
wich. Examination held : — 

1895 June, 

Marks assigned 
to Qerman. 

Marks assigned 
to Chemistry. 

Highest. Lowest. 
1839 781 

^'^ Highest. Lowest. 
1552 867 

1573 688 

1541 606 

1768 763 

1833 794 

1612 654 

1840 680 

1395 712 

1975 740 

It may be said that this result was due to 
some special excellence or ignorance of in- 
dividual candidates in their • respective sub- 
jects. But that this is not the case may be 
shown by taking the average marks for the 
three highest and the three lowest successful 
candidates for those years, when we arrive 
at practically the same result. 

Arerage of Three. 

Average of Three. 


f June, 
1 Dec, 

Highest. Lowest. 
1566 801 

1559 776 

Highest. Lowest. 
1497 881 
1306 713 


[ June, 
[ Dec, 

1705 937 
1541 756 

1787 874 
1834 810 



1340 858 

1902 869 

Again it may be said that it is not so much 
the number of marks allotted to a subject 
which determines its relative weight in a 
competitive examination as the difference in 
the range of marks assigned, and here also a 
comparison of figures will give the same 

Range between the three highest 

and the three lowest snccessfnl 



r June, 

. 765 


. 783 


. 768 


. 785 


. 482 


1895 June, 

From this it will be seen that, while in 1893 
there was but little difference between the 
relative weight of German and Chemistry, 
by June 1896 Chemistry was marked in such 
a way as to give it a value more than twice 
as great as German, to be exact — 2*143 times 

as great. Lastly, if we compare the average 
marks of all successful candidates in these 
subjects, we find 

that in June 1893 they were in 

German, .... 1121 
and in June 1895 do 1122 

while those in Chemistry were 

in June 1893 .... 1072 
in June 1895 . . . .1484 
The statistics for Sandhurst show similar 
results during the same period. In Decem- 
ber 1893 the highest mark allotted to 
German was 1710, and to Chemistry 1515, 
while in June 1895 the respective marks for 
German and Chemistry were 1596 and 1821. 
And similarly the average of the five highest 
in the same examinations — in Gorman, 
(Dec. 1893) 1556/1526 (June 1895); in 
Chemistry, 1526/1704. Likewise the range 
between the five highest and five lowest in 
German (Dec. 1893), 720/622 (June 1895); 
in Chemistry, 418/1001. 

It is only fair to state that in more recent 
examinations the candidates in German have 
been put more on a level with their scientific 
competitors, but the significant fact remains, 
that science is more and more insisted on, and 
that at the expense of German. 

It may be imperative that candidates for 
Woolwich should have some knowledge of 
chemistry before they enter on their profes- 
sional course, but surely it is not so in the 
case of candidates admitted to Sandhurst, 
who are three times as numerous, and who, 
in the opinion of the highest military 
authorities, should possess a competent 
knowledge of German. 

Looking at the regulations for the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich, we find that 
up to the end of 1890, German was practi- 
cally insisted on as it is in France to-day. 
See ; Programme des conditions d'admis- 
sion k L'^cole polytechnique en 1897, 
p. 5 : — " Les 6preuves portent uniquement 
sur les mati^res du programme des con- 
naissances exig^es, arr^t^ tons les ans par le 
ministre; mais toutes ces mati^res, y com- 
pris la langue allemande, sont ^galement ob- 

Until 1890 German was encouraged and 
made practically compulsory for Woolwich 
by placing it in Class I. and assigning to 
it 3000 marks — t.e., putting it on a level 
with mathematics, Latin and French, and 
allotting to it 1000 marks more than to 
the subjects of Class II., viz., Greek, Eng- 
lish History, Chemistry, Physical Geo- 
graphy, and geology ; and further by allowing 
cadets at Woolwich to take up an optional 
modem language in addition to the one that 



was obligatory during their first and second 
terms of residence, and by assigning to it 
1000 marks. This optional language was 
nearly always German, and the practical 
effect of the regulation was that Woolwich 
candidates habitually studied both French 
and German at school, and continued them 
for another year at the Royal Military 
Academy. Now, however, only one Modern 
Language can be taken up at Woolwich, and 
as a result the number of candidates who 
take up German in the Entrance Examina- 
tion, and consequently the number of officers 
in the Royal Engineers and Artillery who 
know German, is steadily diminishing. Be- 
tween 1893 and 1895 the number of boys 
who took up German decreased from 26 
to 16. Moreover, the study of German for 
Woolwich has been further discouraged 
in the same way as for Sandhurst, by 
placing German in Class II. as an alterna- 
tive to Higher Mathematics, Greek, English 
History, Physical Geography and Geology, 
and by placing Chemistry into Class I. 
In other words. Chemistry is being made 
compulsory and German is practically 

We do not wish to depreciate the value 
of Science for the future R.E. or artillery 
officer, but we may doubt the wisdom of 
army regulations, which squeeze German 
out of the curriculum, because Science is 
necessary. According to the proposed new 
regulations the subjects for Woolwich are to 
be as follows : — 

Class I. 

Mathematics, I. . 3000 

Mathematics, II. . 2000 

Latin . . 2000 

French or German . 2000 

Chemistry and Heat 2000 

English Composition 1000 

Geometrical Drawing 1000 

Freehand Drawing . 500 

Geography . . 500 

Class II. 

Mathematics, III. . 2000 

German or French . 2000 

Greek . . . 2000 

English History . 2000 

Physics . . . 2000 
Physiography and 

Geology . . 2000 

All subjects of Class I. 

may be taken up. Only 
one of Class II. 

It is indeed surprising to find that this 
result has been arrived at against the 
opinions of the most distinguished military 
experts; in the face of Lord Sandhurst's 
Commission, which proposed to place Latin, 
along with Chemistry and Heat, German, 
Higher Mathematics, Greek, English History, 
Physiography and Geology, in Class II., and 
to allow three subjects of Class II. to be 
taken up, of which Chemistry and Heat 
must be one. 

The present arrangement practically ex- 
cludes German altogether, since candidates 
will naturally take up all the subjects in 


Class I., and having devoted the time and 
energy to Mathematics which the position of 
this subject in Class I. demands, they will 
nearly all take up Mathematics, IH., and the 
other subjects of Class II. will only exist on 
paper, so that German may be considered 
dead as far as Woolwich is concerned. This 
result is the more deplorable, because it not 
only affects the RM.A., but a great number 
of the future oflBcers of the line, many of 
whom, having failed as candidates for Wool- 
wich, will compete for Sandhurst, and cannot 
at that stage think of taking up German. 
So that the proposed regulations for entrance 
to the R.M.A. will not only tend to exclude 
German from the Woolwich Course, but will 
help to decrease the number of oflBcers in the 
line who possess a knowledge of German. 

It is to be hoped that in the interest of 
the Service this serious blemish in the pro- 
posed regulations will not be permitted to 
remain. There are various means of remedy- 
ing the evil. One would be to return to 
the regulations previous to 1891 ; anothor, to 
adopt the recommendations of Lord Sand- 
hurst's Commission ; and a third, to restore 
German to its former position at Woolwich, 
and to place Latin in Class II. and allow 
Candidates to take up two subjects of this 

This latter arrangement, though it would 
not restore German to its former position, 
would have many advantages, as it would 
give considerably greater vndth to the range 
of subjects which can be taken up, and it 
would make it possible for Candidates, com- 
ing from the modern as well as the classical 
sides of our Public Schools, to offer the sub- 
jects of their regular school-course ; for a 
boy of the Classical side could take up as 
additional subjects, Latin and Greek, and a 
boy of the modern side could take up any 
two of the following — Mathematics, III., 
Latin, German, English History, Physics, 
Geology. In short, boys with special quali- 
fications in Mathematics, Classics, Modern 
Languages, or Science, would all have a 
fairly equal chance. 

This plan of placing Latin in Class II. is 
by no means new; indeed it was recom- 
mended by the majority of Lord Sandhurst's 
Commission, and it would have a further 
advantage, as it would help to decrease the 
number of candidates competing for Sand- 
hurst, whose training had been mainly based 
on Mathematics and Science. This point 
deserves all the more attention as there seems 
to be general agreement on these points — (1) 
that it is desirable for candidates of the line 
that they should have knowledge of French 


and Gennui ; (2) that Mathematics and 
Science have not the same impKirtanco for 
officers of the line as for those of the Rnyal 
Engineers and Artillery. 

It may be eaid, that thia would result in 
the exclusion of Latin. Without entering 
into the question, whether the exclusion 
of Latin would be an evil or not, we 
would answer that such an exclusion is un- 
likely, since the desire for a Public School 
training is very strong in the country, and 
German is generally begun after a boy has 
learnt Latin for about five or six years. So 


it is obvious that even those boys who would 
not take up Latin in the course of their 
special preparation for the army, would not 
be entirely devoid of a knowledge of Latin. 
And, indeed, it seems likely that boys whose 
Latin is so bad when they begin their special 
preparation, that they are advised to drop it, 
are not those who would greatly benefit by 
pursuing their study of Latin for a few 
years longer. 

Otto Sibphann. 
Clifton College. 


The investigation of the positions assumed 
by the tongue in the production of vowel 
sounds has received some share of attention 
from most of the writers on phonetics. 
Their descriptions, accompanied or unac- 
corapanied by dia^ams, as the case may bp, 
vary in those points of detail which are 
beyond the range of comparatively easy 
determination. This has been due, it would 
appear, to lack of suitable methods of 
measurement, more than to lack of enthu- 
siasm on the part of observers. Though 
equipped with the necessary anatomical 
and physical knowledge, they have lacked 
the power of designing appropriate methods 
or apparatus for making exact measure- 
ments. Similarly, in the examination 
of the vowel sounds themselves, the phy- 
siologist and phonetician have made but 
little headway without the physicist. It is 
from him they have received the phonograph. 
By its aid we may hope to have by the 
aualytical method more valuable results 
than ever Helmholtz, by his combinations 
of reed-pipes, reached syntheticnlly. The 
increasingly accurate results which such 
methods render possible in the study of the 
sounds, have not been followed by a similar 
improvement in the accuracy of determina- 
tion of the positions of the organs producing 
them. It is hoped that the method used 
for obtaining the fourteen diagrams accom- 
panying this paper will prove an advance 
in this department of linguistic study. 

In order, however, to the better appreci- 
ation of the accui'acy obtainable by this 
instrument, and of the need of improved 
methods generally, it will be well to give 
a brief note or two of previous workers' 

For their results reference should be made 
to the diagrams in the works cited bolow of 

Brucke, Merkel and Bell, and in Grand- 
gent's, "German and English Sounds," 
Boston. 1892, obtainable, I believe, through 

It would seem that the apparent simplicity 
of method and familiarity of subject of 
observation had concealed the real difficulties 
that surround it. The chief of these may 
bo summarised as follows, 

1. Mere muscular sensation gives but 
very little clue to the position of the tongue. 
Even in letters involving amlaei of tongue 
and jHilate, the evidence is slight enough. 

2. Contact of the tongue with foreign 
substances tends greatly to cause displace- 
ment of the organ, chiefly in the direction 
of closer contact, and this often by an- 

3. The displacement of one organ to ob- 
serve another causes usually displacement 
of the one observed, either forcibly (as by 
inextenstble muscle connections) or by in- 
voluntary accommodation. 

4. The insertion into the mouth of objects 
unsuitable in size or shape leads (from reasons 
2 and 3) to inaccurate results. 

Fig. I (Areas between Kxtremea) will 


' (III/ 1 


make more clear the conditions to be satis- 
fied for making good observations. 

The upper line represents the front teeth 
and hard palate as seen in central longi- 



wisskL M^si:^Ai of the month. The shadtfd 
IMTU A a£pd B uiov respectively the sum 
\i :«j5ni>Ci* thii miv be occupied by the 
v.r^-^ jLTid Ml pkiSL\e in production of 
T-.-r*:!. vysMi. C is the back wall of the 
^CArjTjL The clear spa^ce D is the only 
ZATi K.i :Le moath tb*t remains free for 
:--**rri'-«!L <A iitK'.nmeriis, etc. E ehows the 
-.civ jat: wLeT* wn^e is always present in 
'M ^vj-.'Zz.ub^.riii^ ivsneen oiagiams. What 
i.:jKL:i'_c. :ijrr=*e ocfridiiioiis have received in 
-irv/Tj'M: ttZL hy.»rAT from a few extracts. 

hr-y.L-c JnL'dzu^e der Physiologie und 
^7*Ofri*:£ ct?r Sprachlaute Wien, 1876, 
Zib^^ LI' *ATi : — " Wenn ich den Zeigefinger 
:i i^'. yju:L*:z: brarhte, so machte es fiir 
cit H-enorbririgTing der verschiedenen 
V-.tyjia-t kci-'ie:- U:j:erscbie*i ob ich ihn frei 
z^'-/fizi der Kehideckel (i.^.. epiglottis) legte 
'/dtr oil ith den Kehldeckel durch ihn zu 
rxijfi; Kuthv:.' Further, he savs, " Wenn 
iiiii di^ Total e a und «.> mil dem Sprechton 
i*en '.ir'vriii^en lasst und zugleich das Bild 
d^ Kehlkopfs im Eehlkopf Spiegel ansieht, 
K; bemerkt man dass der Kehlkopfausgang 
bedm a b&deut^end mehr verengt ist als 
bam •-'.' 

How far the production of good vowels 
i^ ix>»cible with the finger in the throat can 
Ije ascertained at once by experiment ; while 
a glance at Nos. 3. i, and 5 of the A'owel 
diagram? as the most like (i will show how 
imp^j«£ible it is Uj produce an (i with a 
Ikryii^fjs^souic mirror in the throat, which 
r*^.'jiiT*si the tongue to be as low as possible. 
Tl^ ia/,t i--, for =uch cases, observers haA'e 
r*l:*:i -^ix^r* what thev call the "Nixus" for 
% ;dv»rr. wy^:j*L If the effort is made to 
y^-^'j: a «y>';r/d, but some organs, as the 
v,r.;.-v: '.-: jAlaV:. are forcibly prevented 
f--.r.-. •-i.iti.'-i' vii tie natural position, it is 
4*btiv.v>*r: t*w: r*fir. will not be affected 
v; -Vi» .•'»?**r,"'>^:.. Merkel. for instance 
^'i;*iv.'.',v* c*-.* it^riV;b]]':hen Sprache, 
J>a; -Jtz, 1 Vr, , kitfAiLii of lanTigc»r<-opic 
'r>ji>;!r •• ♦ ' ^ ',-::*. -•>:,' ::. : - N i x 'i? " ' ( jja^ie -S o ». 

K:yf.'.j^: z:j^.z.'A. that of pr^Aiability. is 
la:;:*: / *'::.:^-oy*r: V.' MerkeL On jia^e 796 
'•■f :Lt •i*5i«: work we read: — " Wie die 
.S^ti.--:;: '^er ^-rauii.^.o'ie«cke o".^.. soft palate) 
uvi 'i:*: Aj^tr.-ir de% IsthmiLs Faiu-iiuu dei 
de: hl'A'::.^ d^r I •ich verbal le, liisst sich 
zwa: TjicLt 'f>to'?A<:h:-ri. doch hiingt t-rstere 
V"h:yj4r'irthch tiefer herab als bei a u ,'i und 
]*ilzx*:rtT et^fcht i/^'-A/ ziemlich offen, da das I 
l^i Zuhalten der Nai-es ein sefar niuales 
Timbre annimmt, un<l Ja die Heber des 
weichen Oaumens keine liesondere Thiitig- 
keit *rnt fallen, iri' wcr/i irfiuo-'-tnu< fiihUu 
kauh." The italics are mine. 

Again, page 790, Mdnem ZeigefingeTy 
den ich zu diesem Behufe in die Mnndhdhle 
fiihrte, lam is Ui dtr E BUdwikg vor als o6 
das Gaumensegel (soft palate) etwas mehr 
nach auf und r tick warts gezogen wurde." 

He even uses *' Digital-palpation " as a 
sort of scientific name fur this method. 

Other means he employed were bent 
sounds (gebogene Sonden) and strips of 
whale -bone (Fischbeinplatten). Another 
rather ingenious one was to employ a coil of 
thin lead wire, which was compressed be- 
tween the tongue and soft palate, so as to 
give a measure of the distance between 

The Abbe Ronsselot in his "Revue des 
patois gallo-romans," L i., p. 13, in his 
analysis of vowel sounds, says: — "Je ne 
tiendrai compte ici que des mouvements de 
la langue et de ceux des levres. L'explora- 
teur que j'emploie est tout simplement le 
doigt." Grandgent in his "Vowel Measure- 
ments*' ^lc>00) quotes this as apparently an 
authority for his oii-n statement : *' it is well 
to explore with the finger all parts of the 
mouth. . . . Much can be learned in this 
way ; in fact for some measurements I have 
discovered no Wtter method." Here is an 
example of this finger-method from Ghrand- 
gent. *' When these distances are consider- 
able {i.f. those between the epiglottis and the 
txick of the tongue on the one hand and the 
inner w;ill of the pharynx on the other), I 
have found it a good plan to swing the end 
of the finger gently from one object to the 
other, to continue this movement until it 
becomes, s<^ to si>t-ak, habitual, and then^ on 
taking the finger out. to reproduce the swing 
lH?fore a ruliT or on the drawing. In this 
wav a toloniblv reliable measurement can be 
made." After ** tolerably reliable " I should 
feel inclineil to in^ert marks of interrogation 
and exclamation. Grandgent de^iends largely 
on the ** Nixus " mentioneil above, and owing 
to the insertion of awkward things into the 
mouth dtx*s not always pronounce the vowel 
while making his mcfisurements ; lest on 
hearing the changed sound the tongue, &c., 
instinctively alter their pi^itions in the 
attempt to correct it. He me;isures thedis- 
tiinco^ WtwetMi tongue and (laLite by means of 
cardlKwird ovals fixetl at riirht angles at the 
end of a In^nt wire. These oA'als are of 
various sizes ; he finds by trial at what point 
a giA'en one touches (lalate and tongue at 
same time, and marks on paper from these a 
SiM-ies of dots from which the cur\'es can be 
drawn. The soft (vilate is mcasiu^ with 
the numth ojhmi under vowel-nix us by means 
of a piece of wikkI and a triangulation 



method, and this forms the basis for the 
back tongue positions as the hard palate 
does for the front positions. 

In spite of the drawbacks which these 
methods have, there is little doubt that Mr 
Grandgent's results are the most accurate we 
yet have. 

I have made as yet no mention of BelFs 
" Visible Speech " Diagrams, as they are so 
manifestly diagrammatical and inaccurate. 
The same may be said of Briicke's. A com- 
parison of either of these series with those 
of Grandgent and Hochdorfer who worked 
with him, or with those that accompany this 
paper will bear out this statement; as in- 
deed, in the case of Bell, will his own con- 
fession to Sweet of their inaccuracy. Simi- 
larly Von Meyer's diagranas in his " Organs 
of Speech " (Internat. Sci. Ser.) contain gross 

These brief notes of the chief methods 

of German silver. In a tube A slides a fine 
wire of which the end appears at C pro- 
truded from the tube. The other end bent 
at a right angle and gripped between the 
coils of the helix D slides in a slot extend- 
ing from E to F on the side towards these 
letters. On D being drawn back to F the 
wire is completely withdrawn within the 
tube ; the distance F to E gives a protruding 
length of 4.5 mm. B is a three-ringed handle. 
Through the rings are placed the first, second, 
and third fingers ; the thumb is then able to 
slide D up and down. G, the tooth-stop is 
moveable; it is so made and bent that on 
turning it with projecting point down — i,e., 
to the inside of the curve it slides freely, 
while in the position shown it grips firmly 
on the tube. 

Fig. III. shows the position A which it 
takes in the mouth. The tooth-stop (Fig. 
II., G) is here omitted. It would be at e. 

TONGUE MEASURER. Length, 17 cm. 
A. Tube. B. Handle. C. Sliding Wire. 
D. Wire-Propeller. E.— E. Length of Slide. 

G. Tooth-Stop. 
A. 2 mm. diam. C. '6 mm. diam. E.— F. 4*5 cram. 

Fig. II. 

hitherto employed will suffice to make clear 
my own work. The earlier stages I will 
not describe here. The results they gave 
were not such as satisfied me in regard to 
accuracy. It is perhaps worth mentioning 
that one method had been arrived at inde- 
pendently by Mr Grandgent and myself — 
viz. that of bending wires by trial to fit the 
tongue. This gave fair results: but again 
lacked sufficient accuracy. 

I set before myself two conditions to be 
observed — 

1. One organ is not to be displaced to 
measure another or another part of itself. 

2. It must be possible to pronounce the 
sound under investigation with the measur- 
ing implement in position. 

After I had designed, made, and discarded 
various forms of instrument, I arrived at 
that shown in Fig. II. It is made entirely 

the pointer of it lying in the valley of the 
two front teeth, the tube touching the edge 
of the teeth at a and the hard palate at b 
(or if reaching further into the mouth at c. 

Fig. III. 

or at both points). The wire is then pro- 
truded until it touches the tongue. Taken 
out of the mouth the instrument is applied 
to a facsimile section in plaster of the cen- 



tral portion of hard (jalate with teeth, as 
shown by the outline d ab c, and the point 
of the wire D marked on the paper. By 
the aid of the tooth-grip G the tube assumes 
a slightly lower position in the mouth ; and 
the grip F puts it in the position shown at 
B for measuring the front cavities of the 
mouth in back vowels. The dotted outline 
C shows a modification of the instrument 
for soft palate measiu'ements. In this the 
wire comes out upwards. 

A comparison of Figs. I. and IL will show 
how closely this instrument conforms to the 
requirements of the case. It will be seen 
that the tube will Just slide into the space 
D of Fig. I. C has to be bent to a curve of 
smaller radius, so as to be forward of the 
lowest position of the soft palate, and does 
in a few cases touch the back of the tongue 
in extreme back vowels. The small size of 
the tube (2 mm. diam.) is such as to leave 
unaffected the vowel sound. Even in tongue- 
profile, No. 1 (I borrow this term from 
(Jrandgent), it is doubtful if it affects appre- 
ciably even to a sensitive ear the character 
of the vowel. 

It is, of course, essential that the plaster 
cast representing the palate and teeth should 
be exact. I use myself a section extending 
about 4 mm. of each side of the centre line. 
(The tooth-stop helix is 6 mm. diam., or 
3 mm. on eacn side of the centre.) This 
cast could be made by any dentist. With 
the aid of a dentist's mouth-modelling tray 
and modelling composition, it is perfectly 
easy to make it oneself. A mould is taken 
of the mouth, the plaster of Paris poured 
into it; when hardened the mould is taken 
off by softening the modelling composition 
again in hot water and the section required 
cut from the cast, either with a knife while 
soft and wet, or with a saw when hard and 
dry. It must then be carefully cut to the 
length of the actual hard palate. The por- 
tion of the gums for about 8 mm. above the 
teeth must bo included in the cast, and be 
also as accurate as the rest. This is essential 
for the employment of the grips shown at 
Fig. III., F and G. 

Let us now turn to the diagrams. Each 
do^^ shows a point determined sis described. 
The curves are thus drawn through a series 
of measured points. In the case of the soft 
palate the lower and continuous line shows 
the actual position. The upper and dotted 
line shows that obtainable by pressing the 
wire too far, t.e. beyond the first and slightest 
contact. Of this more later. In No. 1 are 
shown the series ot points by which the line 
of the wall of the pharynx was determined, 

and the large unjoined dots in the same 
diagram show the position of the soft palate 
in open mouthed breathing through the 
mouth. In the case of the back vowels I used 
a ¥rire with the end bent into a T shape. 
The back of the tongue has in these vowels 
a narrow valley. If this alone was measured 
it would make the tongue appear much lower 
in that region than is true for anything but 
a very small portion of it. The cross bar of 
the T shaped end of the wire bridged over 
this valley; by this means we arrive at a 
more representative diagram. The dotted 
portion at the end of the soft palate ciu've 
shows the length, but not necessarily the 
position, of the uvula. The length is that 
of the uvula in pronouncing a with mouth 
widely open. Though in singing the levator 
uvulse considerably contracts the uvula when 
the palate is raised and the isthmus faucium 
narrowed, I do not imagine there is much 
alteration of its length in normal speech. In 
any case, not having measured it except in 
that one case, I merely give the dotted line 
as a rough approximation. The thin per- 
pendicular line is drawn vertically from 
the junction of hard and soft [lalate. The 
accuracy of the measurements is, I think, 
shown by the uniform way in which the 
points fall on the curves. A peculiarly in- 
teresting case of this appears in the front 
part of No. 4, where in the space of 9 mm. 
there are 8 points recorded in wonderfully 
exact accordance with one another. Another 
case is that of the palate of No. 14. 

There are a few points worth notice that 
come out with some clearness in these dia- 
grams, to which I will call attention. Some 
of these are due to individualities, others of 
more general import. It may be objected 
by some that I should have confined myself 
to English sounds and left foreign sounds for 
foreigners to investigate. I do not propose 
that these should bo accepted as absolutely 
correct diagrams for the sounds they here 
represent. How many of us ever acquire 
exactly a foreign sound 1 They have, how- 
ever, a value which will appear shortly. 
The pronunciations are: — for English, nor- 
mal South of England ; French learnt in 
Paris among French students, and German 
learnt at Alarburg, Hessen, among German 

I may mention that the phonetic script 
used is that of the Association Phonetique 
Internationale, which is that now generally 
adopted for such purposes as the present 
I have not complicated things by the use of 
modifiers. Those required will be sufficiently 
clear from the diagrams. For the more easy 



comprehension of the results of these 
measurements I have reduced them to 

Fig. IV. shows the lines along which, and 
the directions in which, the measurements 
have been taken in the diagrams to obtain 
these numbers. E and F start from the 
centre point towards the most forward and 
most backward point of the tongue on that 
line. G and H also start from the centre 
point, but relate to the palate only. D re- 
presents the jaw lowering as measured by 
the distance from the point where the D 
line commenced behind the teeth. In my- 
self the teeth overlap to that extent. In 
some people the front teeth meet on edge. 

A comparison of these numerical results 
will help to make clear what follows. It will 
be an aid to the comparison of one diagram 
with another if Fig. IV. be traced on tracing 
or other transparent paper, so that it can be 
laid over the diagrams in turn. 


A.BC e.F.uX«5 


Fio. IV. 

Measurements along the lines of Fig. IV. 
taken in the directions shown by the 
arrows and given in millimetres. 
Underlined figures in cols. G and H are 

nasal vowels. 

Front of tongae 






lowei In 
"c D 






1 bictcn 










2 bmt 










8 M 










4 iMftC 










5 bait 










6 «n 









7 \i\m 









8 \>an 










9 bath 





• •• 

• •• 




10 bOM 





• •• 





11 boat 










12 boot (G) 









13 boot (E) 









U bo«t (F) 









It will be noticed at once that the two 
diagrams that show the greatest uncertainty 
are Nos. 6 and 10, the two most difficult 
French nas^il sounds, and in each of these 
the uncertainty only occurs at a compara- 
tively unimportant place. 

The French 6 and ^, Nos. 8 and 4, are 
characterised by a sharper rise of the back 
of the tongue. The narrow passage is 
formed higher in the mouth than for the 
nearest English sound (shown in No. 5). 
The same high position reappears in Nos. 6 
and 7 ; again two French sounds. From a 
comparison of 4 and 7 it would appear that 
7 is not simply the nasalised form of 4 as is 
generally described and as is commonly 
written in phonetic systems. The same 
may be said of Nos. 8 and 9, but with some 
degree of caution, since here we are com- 
paring two different languages. 

In my English back vowels there is much 
greater resemblance to Hochdorfer's German 
sounds (see Grandgent's "German and 
English Sounds," Boston. 1892.)— than to 
Grandgent's own American ones. The 
tongue is however flatter than his, which is 
due probably to the much greater flatness of 
palate in my case : thus the resonant cavity 
would seem in each instance to preserve its 
required shape. This is an example which 
well illustrates the difficulty of establishing 
anything certain with respect to vowel pro- 
duction. Palates vary so in size and shape 
that it seems almost impossible to reduce the 
oral cavities etc. to any general formula 
applicable to all cases. If such a formula 
could be suggested it would be an enormous 
aid to phonetic research. Jespersen's method 
in " Articulation of Speech Sounds " is alto- 
gether too cumbersome and unmanageable 
for practical purposes, and further takes no 
account of variation of jmlate shape. It 
will, I fear, share the fate of Briicke's, 
Merkel's and BelUs organic alphabets. 

I have given the Jaw separation figures in 
column D, not because I attach any particu- 
lar value to them, but because they are 
measurements easily obtained and are often 
given. I am inclined to the opinion of 
Victor, Bell and Jespersen that the chief 
object of the jaw movement is to avoid 
hindering tongue and lip movements. The 
extreme variation in these vowels is 6mm. 

The results which to me seem the most 
interesting and which are, I believe, in no 
small measure new, are those exhibiting the 
variation in form of the soft palate, as well 
in ordinary as in nasal vowels. The accuracy 
of these is considerable. The variation was 
so striking that I was particularly careful 
to check the results. In many cases where 
only one dot appears, it really represents 
two or more identical measurements. Fur- 
ther, I cannot help feeling that even with 
the greatest care on the part of observers by 
the "Nixus" method, the displacement of 


Harold W. Atkinson-, M.A. 



~m — ^^~ 

2W ^ 

b|t£ -itJ: c 


3i|N .<fee 

B4M ^ 


Soff , ^ 

■BgOT^'*-"") ^^^ 



ioer (iMiiiK) liU 

/^ BOtJlC"'"") 

Fia. v.— DiAOiuKH ov K.soLisu, Fiiesch Asr Orhuan Vowels. 



the tongue must by its muscular connections 
influence the position assumed by the palate. 
The two measurements, G and H, are both 
important and will bring out one or two 
points of interest. Gzermak's and Passa- 
rant's experiments seem to have dealt chiefly 
with the completeness or incompleteness of 
closure of the nasal passage rather than 
with the shapes assumed by the palate. 

The great ease with which the soft flesh 
of the palate is indented or displaced by 
pressure has, I think, led to some errors in 
palate determination. The dotted line 
showing the points reached by the wire 
point (which is none too blunt) on pushing 
it beyond its first contact^ shows how easily 
such errors may creep in. And further the 
error does not appear to be constant, which 
would make matters worse. Further than 
this the dotted palate line has no value 
or interest. 

We will now consider one or two special 

It has been a matter of common observa- 
tion that the vowel t, as in No. 1, produces 
more vibration felt throughout the head than 
the other vowels. This fact is indeed turned 
to account in the oral method of teaching 
deaf mutes to speak. This has been supposed 
to be due to greater tenseness of the palate. 
It would appear, however, from No. 1 that the 
form of the palate is one much more adapted 
for vibrating under the influence of sound 
waves arriving from the glottis than any 
other shape among all the fourteen here shown. 
I am, therefore, disposed to attribute the 
effect rather to the peculiar shape than to 
any special tenseness. Moreover we have, 
I should say, greater tenseness in the cases 
2, 13 and 14, and as much in 11 and 12, (c/. 
figs, in cols. 6 and H), but in none of these do 
I observe such great vibration effiects in the 

No. 14 presents a peculiar palate shape ; 
but one confirmed as can be seen bv each of 
the eleven observations. I woula suggest 
the following explanation. To obtain the 
mouth cavity required for the vowel the 
tongue has not only retracted itself in a 
backwards direction but also downwards. 
To preserve the size of passage necessary for 
the vowel the soft palate has descended in 
the middle, while the back portion of it again 
has elevated itself to clear the back of the 

Of all these 14 vowels^only Nos. 1 and 14 
may be said in my own case to effect com- 
plete closure. In all other cases there is 
more or less leakage of air showing conden- 
sation on a mirror held beneath the nose. 

Passavant's experiments led him to the con- 
clusion that a passage of 30 sq. mm. was 
required before a nasal timbre was communi- 
cated to the vowels. From these diagrams I 
should estimate that in my own case that 
limit is passed without adding nasal charac- 
ter ; as, for instance, in Nos. 4 and 9. The 
point of closure is apparently at the point 
occupied by the angle of the palate in 1 and 
14. The distances in these two cases of our 
line from the pharynx are respectively 11.5 
mm. and 10.5 mm., this space being filled by 
the flesh of the palate, while in 4 and 9 they 
attain 17 mm. and 19 mm. The character 
of palate-form for definitely nasal vowels 
comes out clearly in Nos. 6, 7, 8, and 10 
where G falls to 16, 15, 16, 15, the average 
being about 22 for non-nasal vowels ; H 
falling at the same time from about 27.5 to 
22.5. In each of these cases it is not merely 
the opening of the larger passage in the H 
line, for we have as much in the non-nasal 
vowel a and nearly as much in ^ and h, but 
also, and this is, I think, of more importance, 
the expansion of what might be called the 
direct route to the nasal cavities by the re- 
duction of the G measure. In other words, 
the nasal character of a sound does not 
depend simply on the existence of an open 
connection between the pharynx and the 
nasal cavities nor upon the absolute size of 
this passage but rather on the direction of the 
front wall of this passage ; a glance at any 
diagram of a section of the skull will at once 
make clear how it is the drop of the more 
forward part of the soft palate that opens up 
the nasal cavities to the influence of the 
vibrating air-column. 

Von Meyer says (Organs of Speech, 1892, 
page 229) that in the formation of nasal 
vowels muscular sensation gives evidence of 
a movement of the tongue backwards and 
upwards, and that we must infer from this 
and the dropping of the palate that com- 
plete isolation of the mouth takes place. 
That this is not the case is manifest from 
all four nasal vowels measured. A further 
proof lies in the impossibility of pronounc- 
ing a nasal vowel with the lips closed. If 
complete isolation of the mouth existed it 
should make as little difference whether the 
orifice of the mouth were closed or open, as 
it does in the case of piuro oral vowels (such 
as No. 1) whether the orifice of the nose be 
closed or open. 

A comparison of the general characters 
of the curves of tongue and palate for my 
English sounds with those for the foreign 
sounds will show a feature of some interest 
and, I think, importance. In almost every 



instance it will be seen that the shapes for 
the foreign sounds are less uniform in curva- 
ture than for my normal vowels. This im- 
plies that the foreign sound requires special 
muscular effort to produce the peculiar 
irregularities of curve here presented. I 
would suggest a hypothesis based on this 
and other facts. It is, however, purely a 
hypothesis which for its confirmation or 
demolition requires cumulative evidence 
from numerous observers. It is known 
that a child can learn with equal ease (apart 
from the consideration of the number of 
vowel sounds) the vowels of any language ; 
and it will be a legitimate assumption that 
the soft palate and tongue in their growth 
adapt themselves to the soiuids usually pro- 
nounced, by development relatively more or 
lees of the muscles, which by their function 
manipulate, and by their gi*eater or less size 
give shape to, the tongue and to the palate. 
In adults, as compared to children, these 
modifications of growth are of almost 
negligible extent in such organs as the 
tongue and palate. Hence they must rely 
on what are always more or less extra- 
ordinary muscular combinations. And 
though ear has much to do with facility 
in acquiring a good accent, it is possible 
also that in some cases the relative sizes 
and shapes of the fixed and mobile parts of 
the mouth are such as to render almost, 
perhaps entirely, impossible the production 
of the foreign sound; no muscle co-ordina- 
tion enabling the formation of the necessary 
cavities and passages. 

It is onlv by measurements that are really 
accurate that we can hope to make any 
advance in the subjects here treated. I 

do not wish to imply that the method I 
have here employed is the only one possible 
or indeed the best. I believe it is the most 
exact up to the present time; but simple 
though it seems as here described, the pro- 
cess of measurement of the tongue and 
palate is not an affair of pure and unalloyed 
pleasure. On the contrary, I have found it 
toilsome and trying to the nerves. Any 
lack of the most riveted attention allows 
the contact of wire and flesh to become too 
gieat before being noticed. The back of 
the tongue and palate are peculiarly difficult 
at first from this reason. Other causes there 
are, too, for the tiring effect. I feel that 
the only really satisfactory method is one 
which will automatically and instantaneously 
measure several points at the same time. My 
only attempt in this direction was but a 
partial success. The delicacy of construc- 
tion necessary in such an instrument is 
natiurally the chief hindrance, and it is use- 
less trying to get such a thing made by an 
ordinary mechanic or skilled metal-worker ; 
at every point of its development a new 
instrument requires alteration and modifica- 
tion, and these must be made by the person 
who knows what is required. Only such a 
method, however, would enable measure- 
ments to be made on ordinary persons. 
At present, as Sweet has said, the only 
results worth anything are those by skilled 
observers on themselves. 

In conclusion, I would only add, that 
should these results seem worth criticism 
or comment, no one would more value such 
than the author. 

Harold W. Atkinson, M.A. 



In his " Lecture on Mediaeval Universities," 
Mr Gladstone, in common with many other 
critics, has touched somewhat slightingly on 
the history of Oxford and Cambridge during 
the latter half of the eighteenth century. 
Those seats of learning are indeed held to 
have been stagnant societies, devoid alike of 
ideals and of culture. This at first sight 
seems incontrovertible, and it is only when 
we come to look rather more closely behind 
the scenes of that old academic life that we 
find ourselves condemned to modify our 
opinion. The authorities for such modifica- 
tion are, of course, not numerous. We lack 
such a work as Nicholas Amherst's " Terrae 

Filius," the well-known satire on Jacobitish 
Oxford ; and are thus thrown back upon 
memoirs such as those of the Worcester 
College scholar, quoted by Dean Burgon in 
his "Twelve Good Men," on collections of 
University skits, and on such stories as deal 
with bygone University life and character. 
Of these last we personally only know one, 
that is to be found in the library of King's 
College, London ; but in its way it is admir- 
able. Not discoverable on the shelves of 
well-known libraries, unknown to Lowndes, 
unknown to Brunet, and to many an impor- 
tant modern collector, " The Adventures of 
Oxymel Classic, Esq., Once An Oxford scholar," 



has nevertheless deserved a better fate than 
the oblivion which has overtaken it in com- 
mon with innumerable other old novels. 
Published in 1768 by an author who is 
manifestly a loyal Oxonian, its first volume 
furnishes us with the vividest and most 
humorous contrast between the then Oxford 
and Cambridge. Reading the faded pages, 
we can fully understand why our generation 
of competitive examinations and nigh-pres- 
sure attainment is fond of condemning Uni- 
versity life a hundred years ago. It was 
such an easy-going life: the bygone dons 
were such tippling old sluggards, the 
bygone undergraduates were such wild 
ranting young scapegraces ! Oxymel him- 
self is aptly described in the quotation from 
Horace on the title-page of the novel. He 
is at all times — 

** Monitoribus asper, 
Utilium tardus provisor, prodigus aeris, 
Siiblimis, ciipidnsque, et amata relinquere pemix." 

A veritable young reprobate in fact, but 
not a dullard. Neither he nor his associates 
are really unintellectual. Some are even 
studious of Latin and Greek, and that after 
a solid thorough fashion. This is all the 
more to their credit, seeing that their 
pastors and masters throw every imaginable 
obstacle in the serious student's way. The 
struggle with the drowsy dons begins for 
Classic the day after his arrival in Oxford. 
"Never did a young actor, or a young divine, 
at their first appearance in public, undergo a 
greater panic than our hero, whilst he was 
walking from his inn to the college. The 
apprehension of being examined by gradu- 
ates, perhaps of twenty years' standing, 
wrought so violently on his youth and 
inexperience as to disconcert him to the last 
degree." The graduates, however, asked no 
questions about his " learning and qualifica- 
tions," and simply refused to let him 
matriculate. Classic made the important 
discovery that " a competent stock of Greek 
and Latin " was not the thing wanted. There 
was something lacking— the interest of "a 
gentleman of rank and fortune." After a 
miserable delay our hero obtains such 
interest : the college gates fly open to him. 
"The churlish behaviour he had before 
experienced was now converted into the 
most polite afiability, and his name was 
entered in the college books." The air of 
Oxford proved bad for Mr Classic: he 
became a very fast man. It was expected 
of the younger students that they should 
return to their respective colleges before 
ten o'clock at night. This rule Classic con- 

sidered in the light of an infringement of 
the liberties of Englishmen. "In conse- 
quence of which, instead of returning to 
college by ten o'clock at night, he returned 
by three or four in the morning, not with 
the sneaking modesty of one who was 
ashamed of his conduct, but with a whole 
troop of noisy, roaring blades at his heels. 
Neither could he digest the abominable 
custom of attending Latin prayers before 
the sun rose." Such a custom, he declared, 
was an " infamous remains of Popish super- 
stition." He, therefore, never attended 
prayers. Even the dinner-bell failed to 
make him punctual. Indeed, he often 
supped when others breakfasted, and tfice 
versa. As to his studies, he applied him- 
self to Divinity as Ovid and Garrick did to 
the Law; "that is to say, by dedicating all 
his hours of retirement to the perusal of 
those authors who are celebrated for their 
wit and humour." Those hours, alas ! were 
but few. In fact, he "now became the 
profest enemy of gravity; he ridiculed all 
pretenders to learning, and despised and 
exposed those fine gentlemen of the Univer- 
sity who set up for men of taste, on the 
strength of ruffles and a good library." 
Hence he was soon loathea by all the 
" critics, logicians, painters, and fidlers " in 
his own and half the other colleges. One 
Gumberton, who affected "the trip of a 
petit-maitre, as well as the sagacious look 
of a connoisseur," was treated by him to a 
brew of tobacco instead of green tea ; while 
a certain learned don, by name Dr Gk)bbett, 
who had eaten, drunk, and i^erhaps studied, 
till he was "most terribly afflicted with 
lowness of spirits and the vapours," was 
befooled in a manner amusing rather than 
mentionable. Another of our hero's esca- 
pades was to render gloriously dnink one 
of those *' infatuated mortals who at present 
go under the denomination of Methodists, 
though they are nothing but a remnant of 
that perverse and accursed crew who were 
formerly known by the name of Puritans 
and Independents." Mr Darkhouse, the 
Methodistical undergraduate, takes venge- 
ance by denouncing Mr Classic to Mr 
Carfax, a don, who surprises him and a 
" select company of bucks '' at a tipsy mid- 
night frolic. A huge jug of Oxford ale, 
which Classic has just pulled up with a 
rope from outside, pitches upon the doctor's 
great toe ; and this, combined with the fact 
that " the immortal Homer " is lying in a 
punch-bowl, that many of the guests are 
ill a " state of madness," and that the room 
is a litter of tattered gowns, broken pipes, 



and torn periwigs, leads to the condign 
punishment of the tipsy young host. He 
is confined to his room for six weeks, and, 
on the lucus a non lucendo principle, is bidden 
translate Xenophon on the Death of Socrates 
and Cicero on Old Age. In three days' time, 
however, the prisoner longs for liberty ; and, 
understanding *Hhat a fishing scheme on the 
river Isis was going forward," he prevails 
upon his tutor, who this time is himself 
tipsy, to let him visit "an old friend " in the 
town. At five next morning Classic heads a 
detachment of " academics, ' who set off in 
the largest boat procurable, after furnishing 
themselves with " nets, a piece of excellent 
cold beef, and some bottles of good college 
ale." In the most leisurely way, as became 
young fellows entirely unconscious of the 
severe athletic ideals of to-day, they row up 
the willowf ringed Isis, catching nothing 
themselves, robbing other peoples' nets, 
and, in fact, behaving very badly all round. 
At length Classic leaves them and goes for a 
walk, in the course of which he encounters 
the Helen of this egregious undergraduate 
Iliad. "Beautiful as a grace," the young 
lady, Lucy by name, flits across our hero's 
path "in one of the most delightful 
meadows in all Oxfordshire." His romantic 
infatuation for her leads him subsequently 
into all kinds of quandaries, and he is finally 
expelled the university through the bad 
offices of a College Tutor on whom the nymph 
has refused to smile. 

His career so far has been little to his 
credit, and, in describing it, Oxford life has 
been painted in no ideal colours. But both 
our hero and his late university appear in a 
much better light when he removes to the 
sister seat of learning. Frivolous as he has 
been, he nevertheless brings with him to 
the banks of Cam a fine sturdy conceit of 
the value of the Humanities. Indeed, at 
every tuni, we find him giving expression to 
a theory of high culture, as distinguished 
from cram and mere specialisation, which 
would have delighted the late Matthew 
Arnold. Intellectual life in the Cambridge 
of the latter half of the eighteenth century 
seems to have been sufficiently ardent. In 
fact the charge of sluggishness and apathy 
could certainly not have been brought 
against the universities of that time, had 

Cambridge alone been in evidence instead 
of being overshadowed by her sister on the 
Isis. But at Cambridge " the studies of the 
place were by no means adapted" to Mr 
Classic's "genius," "and the conversation 
of those with whom he was obliged to 
associate gave him the spleen. He could 
not without indignation behold the respect 
which was in generality shewn to mathe- 
matical learning, and the contempt in which 
classical and polite literature was held by 
the major part of the University. It 
chagrined him to see Cocker's arithmetic 
more regarded than his favourite Congreve, 
and the eternal Euclid preferred to Steele 
and Wycherley." 

Thus, somewhat violently, Classic upholds 
the traditional Oxford ideal, seeking the 
while for the society of " classics, wits, and 
men of sense." In this quest he proves not 
wholly unsuccessful, "for, notwithstanding 
the small encouragement which polite litera- 
ture generally meets with at this renowned 
university, yet there is no part of the whole 
universe where the Classics are more carefully 
cultivated, or better understood, than by 
some few individuals at Cambridge." The 
university has indeed of late years produced 
some great writers, and to-day it can boast 
of a "Grey, a Whitehead, and a Mason." 
In the midst of a circle, headed presumably 
by Mr Gray of Peterhouse, himself so often 
the butt of surrounding mathematicians, Mr 
Classic, soberer and more studious than of 
yore, supports existence happily enough. 
But his mocking spirit gets the better of 
him in the long run ; he talks of an "academy 
of Dutchmen," he attributes the prevailing 
love of mathematics to " incapacity for suc- 
ceeding in the politer studies," and forthwith 
Cambridge becomes too hot to hold him. 
" On account of the contempt with which he 
had treated the mathematics," he is accused 
of deism and infidelity, and expelled the 
university ! 

Volume the First of " Oxymel Classic " is 
indeed the "Verdant Green" or "Babe 
B.A." of its day and generation; but we 
venture to think that it carries with it, 
despite some ranker flavours, an aroma of 
liberal intellectuality unknown to modern 
works on undergraduate life. 

V. G. Plarr. 





In 1892 the reform of university organisa- 
tion in the four Scottish seats of Higher 
Learning, namely, St Andrews, Glasgow, 
Aberdeen, and Edinburgh (a reform effected 
by the Ordinances of the University Com- 
missioners), was sufficiently advanced to lead 
to the appointment of Lecturers in French 
and German, in that and the following years. 
St Andrews University led the way by the 
appointment of a Lecturer on French and 
Romance Philology ; Aberdeen followed by 
the appointment of a Lecturer on French 
and German; Edinburgh next created a 
Lectureship in French and one in German, 
and Glasgow did the same in 1895. The 
University Modem Language Staflf in Scot- 
land is thus shown to consist of six Lecturers. 
The ordinances of the Commissioners being 
in all essential points common to the four 
Universities, the general conditions attend- 
ant on the introduction of Modem Languages 
(French, German, and Italian are the three 
languages provided for, though the last is 
not yet represented anywhere by a Lecturer) 
are the same throughout. Uniformity goes 
the length of placing the Modem Languages 
on a par with the Ancient (Latin and Greek) 
for graduation in the Faculty of Arts, ana 
only stops short of allowing the Lecturers 
the status of Professors. This inequality 
will no doubt disappear in time, the Lecturers' 
subjects being in every respect placed on 
a par with the Professorial ones, and their 
duties being in every way the same as those 
of Chairs in the Faculty of Arts, while the 
qualifications demanded are no less. 

This similitude is such that while de- 
scribing the procedure whereby a student 
qualifies for Graduation in Arts in the 
Modern Language Subjects, I shall be found 
to have defined a procedure applicable to the 
Ancient Languages as well. Let me remark 
at the outset that the Commission has thrown 
degrees open to women on the same terms 
as to men, and that, in Arts, the majority of 
women-students find their way to the Modern 
Language class-rooms in numbers about 
equal to those of the men, I should even say 
in larger numbers than the men. 

Students who matriculate, and are 
candidates for the M.A. Degree, enter the 
Universities by passing the University Pre- 
liminary Examination, or by obtaining the 
so-called Senior Leaving Certificate of the 
Scotch Education Department before passing 
out of the Secondary Schools. Before 
attending any University Modern Language 

Class, with a view to counting its subject 
as one towards graduation, every student 
must gain his certificate (either the "Pre- 
liminary " or the " Leaving ") in the subject 
of that class and also in all the other subjects 
composing the University " Preliminary 
Examination." The Preliminary Examina- 
tion is uniform throughout the universities. 
It is conducted by a "Joint Board of 
Examiners," divided into committees, the 
Modern Language Committee having to set 
the papers in its department, to examine 
them, and to see that candidates who do not 
attain to the pass mark (55 per cent.) are 
rejected. A common standard of admission 
is thus maintained throughout the universi- 
ties. So-called "Medical" candidates are 
allowed to pass on an easier paper than the 
ordinary "Art" candidates. This system, 
with its obvious advantages, is not free from 
fault. It is difficult to ensure an exact 
equivalence of the papers set by, and the 
pass mark, of the Leaving Certificate Ex- 
aminers, on the one hand, with the setting 
and marking of the Joint Board Examiners 
on the other. As the Modern Language Com- 
mittee of the Joint Board consists of four 
gentlemen, who among themselves set the 
questions, determine the marking, and gener- 
ally revise the papers worked by the candi- 
dates of each university, it is evident that 
when they meet to adjust the proportion of 
successful candidates out of the number pre- 
sented by each university, they have no 
difficulty in doing this with the utmost 
fairness, and with great accuracy. The 
Scotch Education Department, dealing with 
a mass of papers worked in different schools, 
and employing in each subject an examiner, 
who has under him a staff of sub-examiners, 
is obviously at a disadvantage. 

The difficulty of a satisfactory balancing 
of the Preliminary papers with the senior 
leaving certificate papers is increased by 
the fact that the department sets its papera 
independently : the Joint Board of the Uni- 
versities has no voice in determining their 
degree of difficulty. That they have gener- 
ally been too difficult, particularly in French, 
is a point upon which modern language 
masters in Scotland seem to be substantially 

Though the Education Department may 
have been to blame in this respect, any real 
and persevering effort it may make towards 
the raising of the school standards should be 
praised and encouraged. It is. at least free 



from conaidTati'^M which wdgh besvily 
wiUi the Jt;inr Board, whoite control of tini- 
form UiiivcnJty entrance examinations, at 
diwcribtMl nboTC, hjw Iweii awompttnied hy 
u nutrkful docrcsuM in the niimtwr of KtiidL-nta 
Attending the 8cottiah Univcnitiee. Yet 
nnbfjdy with a knowledf;c of the performance 
(rf aucceuful candidateH in modern Language 
|n-eliniinary iNtnnrii, wi)t be t«m|>ted to 
chftrgi! the Boiim with undw; nevcrity. The 
bi^hcr education cannot be )>iit)t on nothing, 
lor much lunicncy in iLdmitting rtudcnta to 
the graduation clawtcH, means of neeesnty a 
poor jwrforninnce in tbo examiiiation for 
grod nation. A fiiir Ttro|)ortion of thi; 
MuduDtM ba« f J bo |>ilmc(1 out of the Gradn- 
ation claiws every year, else the lecturer's 
room would become depleted of candidates, 
ftnd the {lurpoMO for which the mralern lan- 
guag<^B were lulmitteil to the curriculum 
would bo defcfitwl. Now, it cannot well be 
denied that in facultiei of iirte, open to both 
aexon, the doairo to turn out every year a 
cortAin number of young men and women 
well verdod in the cultuni of Fninco and in 
that of Germany ia a dcitiro worthy of a truly 
Bcodemic mind. 

Whou a candidate for ^nduation has com- 
pleted his preliminary exaniinalion (or ita 
equivalent) hu may begin to count his 
cIusH towards graduiLtion. This means that 
nftci' iittornliiif,' a coui'w of ](10 lectures (or 

H ■■iltrii', Umi Ii.ilf I' III I- III ''' ti.'L'tures) 

iiMi i'l'ii , II., ... ; .1 . ■ , ^ lo the 

li- iM. I ■ li ■ I ■ 1 1 ■.,..■ .1 .1 .i, iiKU-cnter 

_Ilis,i„.,irlii, ll„ liP,.ui ■\r^:.:-i,,yvv'. IfllC 

try ii.guiii ivitlnnil. nU.finlitig agiiin 

tare room. Ab a rule, however, and 

.icrouiids, ho will do BO. The 

^fusiated by an external examiner ap- 

fninted by the Univarsjly Court, may reject 
Im OS oftiui 113 may lie thought necessary. 
A ebudenl who has been successful iu taking 
kor German as a quulifi cation towards 
Jtry M.A. degree may then become a 
Jt for liirnmirn by attending 60 lec- 

R ft mdijoct qualifying for honours and 

taking tho honoure pnpor. Hut the " Hon- 
our! Orou|iB " Bie so aiTaugi-d by the onlin- 
itnee, that honoui's cannot lie taken in fewer 
than two modern languages, and that one and 
the mnio modern tangungu lecturer ntnuot 
deliver luctureM (junltlying for bonoura in 
more than tin* languaso, Thus the thorough 
eijuipmont of h graduate witli honours in 
modern lauguagoH is provided fur, and any 
(togradalion of tho sljindard of teaching is 
gimnled againnt. I^i^t it Iw romarkfd that 
tingtish is nnt hold to Im a modern language. 
Ai for Uio cui'ricuU in forte iu tho modern 

language lecture Fooma, these of course 
differ in different Univerdtiea. As each 
University condDcta iu gradnation exunina- 
tion independently, the freedom of each 
lecturer remains complete, within the limits 
which the Hoard of Studies of the Faculty 
may find it ueceesary to fix. Th<? Univeisity 
Calendar may be consulted. 1 shall give 
here, by way of sample, some idea of the 
courses in the University of St Andrews. 
It has to be borne in mind that the modem 
languages enter ito tanln in a Scottish 
student's M.A. degree. This means that 
the lecturer's task in the ordinary class, at 
any rate, cannot l>e to form ipefialiste. He 
has to contribute his share to the general 
culture of bis students, and to do this by 
means of the modern language which they 
may have selected in the exercise of theii- 
libi-rtaa dUcendi. He bos also to take into 
account the slandaT'd of knowledge and 
mental development in possession of which 
his pupils have left the secondary school, 
and generally speaking the ideas current in 
Scotland as to academic culture. Conse- 
quently he cannot wholly apply the method 
which I may style tho German — that of 
turning out specialists who may know 
everything about a language (philologists), 
without necessarily knowing well the 
language itself, or being acquainted with 
the literary and national spirit of the nation 
u«ing it. On the other hand, he must 
l>eware of turning his class-room into a 
mere schoolroom, in which the attainments 

Sained in the secondary school are further 
eveloped and enlarged u]iou. The St 
Andrews curriculum, as it appears from 
the calendars, examination papers, and 
lecturer's system, bears witness to an 
attempt to meet these ditticulties. 

Firetly, the student's acquaintance vrith 
the language as a school subject, and living 
medium of intercourse, had lo be per- 
fected. This was obtained by the delivery 
of certain lectui-es in Fiench (twice a week), 
the taking down in French of the notes of 
those lectures, tho occasional revisal by tho 
lecturer of the said notes written out in a 
more finished shape, the occasional rim voce 
examination of the class in French ; lastly, 
an essay and rtni voce examination in French 
as a part of tho degree paper. To this 
were added occasional essays in French 
and the translation into English of difficult 
passages from the books set ; one of these, 
1>UHring on an cncyclopoidic ncquaintance 
with tho Fi'cnch language and literature, 
was an English manual containing a com- 
pendious history of France, a short history 


of French literature iind outlines of philo- 
logy. This book, being as it were a cata- 
logue or guide, the students were expected 
to study for themselves. The lecturer was 
content to see that the book icas acquired 
in eubstance, and to expose in some thirty 
lectures the main general currents and prin- 
ciples underlying the particulars, either in 
the literary development, the political or 
the philological. This task and the one 
before alluded to would occupy some sixty 
lectures out of the full course. 

Secondly, the remaining forty would be 
devoted to the study of one or two groat 
writers, in their works, life, history, and 
language — say Voltaire, in the session 
'93-94 ; Rousseau, in the session '94-95 ; 

Montesquieu, in the session '95-96 ; Racine 
and La Fontaine, in the session '96-97. 
Thus in every session there was a per- 
manent element In which the student could 
attain, by the eifect of something like 
mechanical repetition, the necessary standard 
of instruction, while each time he repeated 
the class he received a pittance of new food 
by the introduction of a fresh subject making 
towards culture. 

As yet the French Honours class has 
existed on paper only at St Andrews. 
The arrangements for the introduction of 
Modern Ijanguages being of a recent date, 
no student has yet t^ken advantage of the 
honours course. 

F. F. RottET. 


Die Griindung der Universitat Wales, d.h. 
der Zusammonschluss der drei University 
Colleges von Aberystwyth, Bangor, und 
Cardiff, iird die auf diese Weise bedingte 
Neil organisation des akademischen Unter- 
ricbts nach einheitlichen vorgoschrittenen 
Gnmdsiitzen Ist nicht nur fiir Wales allein, 
Bondern auch fiir groaaere Kreise von weit- 
tragender Beileutung, Aus der Initiative 
de« Fiirstentums hervorgegangen und von 
seinen Sympatbieen begleitet hat sich die 
junge strebsomo walHser Universitiit, wie zu 
hoffen steht, der Erwartuugen nicht un- 
wiirdig gezeigt, welche an sie gokniipft 
wurden. Besonderes Interesse beanspruchen 
die neuen Lebrplane (Schemes of Study), 
welche aus deu vieien und sorgfilltigen 
Boratungen der Departmental Committees 
(bestehend aus den Fachprofessoren), der vcr- 
schiedenen University Co liege Senatcsund dos 
Senats der Universitiit hervorgegangen sind. 
Eino Reiho von Boschlusaen wurde gefasst, 
die von dem "Court of Governors," der 
hochflten akademischen Beliiirde, genehmigt 
wurden. Im Kolgenden sei der Vcrauch 
gemacht, don Lehrplan fiir das Deutsche ku 
character isieren. 

Die walliser Universitat unterscheidet im 
Deutschen fiir die Session 1896-97 drei Kursc 
von Vorlesungen, Intermediate Course, Or- 
dinary und Special, welche aich praktisch 
an Studenten des ersten, des zweiten, resp. 
dea dritten Jalires wenden. Ein Honours 
Course ist bisher noch nicht eingerichtot, 
bleibt also der nilchsten Zukunf t vorbchatteii ; 
ira Franzosischen ist ein Honours Course 
bereits vorhanden. Spezielle Kurso fiir die 
Kandidaten, welche sich auf die Priifung 

zur Erlangung des Gradoj eines M.A. vor- 
bereiten sind bisher nicht geplant. Unsere 
Betrachtung bescbriinkt sich deshalb auf eine 
akademiacho Lauf hahn im Deutsihen, welche 
die Matriculations-Priifung zur Vorauaaet- 
zung und die B.A. Priifung sium natur- 
gemjtesen Abschluss hat. Dieser Abschluse 
bniucht nicht notwondig orreicht zu werden, 
OS hiingt das ganz von den Zielen des beti-ef- 
fenden Studiereuden ab; alle, denen ein 
tieferos Interesse fiir die Sache innewohnt, 
werden freilich suchen sich etwas umfasaen- 
dere Kenntnisse anzueignen, als sie bei den 
verlangten Vorkenntniaaen in einem oder 
zwei dahren selbst eifrigen Studlunis oiner 
fremden Sprache und Litteratur zu erlangen 

Was nun zuniichst die vorausgesetzten 
Kenntnisse des Studiorenden betritFt, so wird 
verlangt (I) eine Kenntnis der deutschen 
Formenlehre sowie der loichteren SynUx, 
(2) die Fiihigkoit einen leichteren deutschen 
Text ins Englische zu ubertragen. Soweit 
stimmen die von der Walliser Universitat 
erhobenen Auspriiohe mit denen der Lon- 
doner Universitat wohl im Ganzen iiberein ; * 
das walliser Matriculations - Examen geht 
indcs welter; man erwartet, (3) die Faiiig- 
keit leichte englische Stiicko ins Deutsche zu 
ubertragen, und (4) eine ausreichende Kennt- 
nis der deutschen Aussprache ; ein leicbtes 
Diktat sowie Losen eines deutschen Testes 
bildeu einen Teil der Priifung. 

Es wird aus obigen Bemerkuiigen ersicht- 

• Die in den Londoner Prilfungeu fiir Nouere 

Sprwhen gestellten Anfordarangon werden in aller- 

nachsler &it nicht unwesentlicli ibgcnndurt ww- 

deu.— K.B. 



lich, dass die walliser Matriculationsprii- 
fung umfassendere Anspriiche im Deutschen 
stelit, als die Londoner, in welcher letzteren 
die Kenntnis der deutschen Aussprache 
kaum zur Geltung koromen kann, da die 
Priifung eine rein schriftliche ist. 

Wir wenden uns nun den Kursen selbst zu. 
Sie sind, wie angodeutet, zunachst auf drei 
Jahre verteilt. Das erste Universitatsjahr, 
" Intermediate Coui'se," soil dazu dienen, die 
Kenntnisse des Studierenden in dej: f remden 
Sprache zu erweitern und zu vertiefen. Es 
geschieht dies teilweise durch Vorlesungen 
iiber deutsche Grammatik, teilweise durch 
Ubungen, sei es in der Erklarung deutscher 
Schriftsteller, sei es im Ubersetzen nicht 
zu schwieriger Texte ins Deutsche. An den 
Intermediate Course schliessen sich im 
zweiten und dritten Jahr der Ordinary und 
Special Course an, welche zwar auch noch 
der praktischen VervoUkommung in der 
deutschen Sprache, vor allcm jedoch der 
Einfiihrung in die fremde Litteratur 
gewidmet sind. 

Die beiden letzteren Kurse laufen iibrigens 
parallel, so dass in einem Jahr nur die 
Vorlesungen des Ordinary, in dem anderen 
nur diejenigen des Special Course gehalten 

Die Einfiihrung in die deutsche Litteratur 
bedingt eine doppelte Aufgabe fiir den 
Dozenten ; einmal gehoren dazu Vorle- 
sungen tiber eino bestimmte Epoche der 
Litteratur oder iiber einen bedeutenden 
Schriftsteller, sodann die Erklarung einer 
Anzahl vorgeschriebener Werke, welche die 
gewahlte Epoche oder die behandelte Per- 
sonlichkeit veranschaulichen sollen. So 
haben die drei University Colleges, welche 
der Universitat angehoren, fiir die Session 
1896-97 Folgendes voreeschrieben : 

Aberystwyth una Bangor College: 
Leben und Werke Goethes mit besonderem 
Studium des Gotz von Berlichingen, des 
Torquato Tasso, des Faust (Teil L), des 
Briefwechsels zwischen Goethe und Schiller 
und Goethes Ausgewahlter Gedichte (ed. 
Blume, Wien). 

Cardiff College: Lessings Minna von 
Bamhelm, Goethes Faust (Teil I.), Schillers 
Wallensteins Lager und die Piccolomini, mit 
entsprecheuder Behandlung der Litteratur- 

Ausser der Kenntnis einer bestimmten 
Epoche, einer bestimmten Personlichkeit 
wird in der Priifung eine allgemeine 
Kenntnis der deutschen Litteraturgeschichte 
verlangt. BezUglich der Auswahl der 
Epochen oder der Personlichkeiten hat 
man sich nun freilich auf die modeme 

Zeit zu beschranken, da Kenntnis der 
historischen Grammatik von den Pass 
Candidates nicht gefordert wird, wenn 
auch eine historische Begriindung der 
neuhochdeutschen Grammatik nicht aus- 
geschlossen erscheint Es ist damit das 
litterarische Studium von dem philolo- 
gischen in engerem Sinne losgelost. Fiir 
die Loslosung sprachen gewichtige Grunde, 
die teils in der Natur der Sache, teils in 
der eigentumlichen Organisation der eng- 
lischen Universitiit-en liegen. Es ist hier 
nicht der Ort nahor darauf einzugehen ; 
auch sollen die Vorziige und Nachteile einer 
solchen Einrichtung nicht kritisiert werden. 
Es genuge zu bemerken, dass auch ander- 
warts in England eine solche Trennung 
durchgef iihrt ist, £owie dass man wohl auch in 
Deutschland z.B. beim Lehrerexamen, im Un- 
terschiede von dem rein wissenschaftlichen 
Doktorexamen, grosseren Wert auf das prak- 
tisehe Erfassen des Gegenstandes legt ohne 
freilich die Forderung aufzugeben, dass die 
Kandidaten eine hinreichende Vertrautheit 
mit den Grundziigen der geschichtlichen 
Grammatik und mit einigen wichtigen alt- 
deutschen Schriftstellern oesitzen miissen. 

Zu weiterer Ausbildung in praktischer 
Beherrschung der fremden Sprache wird 
Gelegenheit gegeben, mUndliche Fertigkeit 
im Deutschen kann der Studierende durch 
Anhoren von Vorlesungen in deutscher 
Sprache, durch Ubungen im Seminar, 
privatim, vor alien Dingen durch einen 
empfehlenswerten Aufenthalt in Deutsch- 
land erlernen ; die Priifung im Sprechen 
ist nur fakulfativ. Im schriftlichen Examen 
wird dagegen die Fahigkeit verlangt, aus 
dem Deutschen ins Englische sowie aus dem 
Englischen ins Deutsche Texte von einiger 
Schwierigkeit, "seen" oder "unseen" d.h. 
vorgeschriebene oder beliebig ausgewahlte 
Texte zu ubersetzen. Fiir tJbertragung ins 
Deutsche sind fiir die Session 1896-97 fol- 
gende Texte vorgeschrieben : 

Aberystwyth und Bangor College: 
Macaulay, "History of England" (Long- 
man's Popular Edition), vol. i. pp. 1-32. 

Cardiff College : Motley, " Rise and Fall 
of the Dutch Republic." Introduction, sees, 

tJber den Ordinary Course ist kaum 
etwas hinzuzufiigen, da er ja praktisch mit 
dem Special Course identisch ist ; nur 
wechseln die vorgescbriebenen Epochen, 
bezw. die dichterischen Personlichkeiten, 
und auch die zum Studium vorgeschrie, 
benen Werke und Texte. Bei der Priifung 
wird naturlich, besonders in der Compo- 
sition, auf den vorgeriickteren Stand- 



punkt der Kandidaten Riicksicht genom- 

Es ergiebt sich aus dieser Betrachtung, dass 
die gewohnlichen B.A. Passmen, d.h. die 
Mehrzahl der Studenten, eine vorzugsweise 
litterarische Bildung empfangen ; das streng 
philologische Studium bleibt dem Honours 
man vorbehalten. Da aber auch dieser den 
Ordinary bez. Special Course zu durch- 
laufen hat, so darf man wohl von einem so 
vorgebildeten jungen Mann, wenn er den 
Grad eines B.A. Hon. erwirbt, eine griind- 
lichere Kenntnis des Gegenstandes erwarten. 
Der Grad eines M.A. wird dann eine noch 
hohere Stufe darstellen, der Doktorgrad 
selbst verstandlich an Originalarbeit gekniipft 
sein. Im gangen haben sich die Verhaltnisse in 
der walliser Universitat giinstig entwickelt. 
Dies wird niemand entgehen, der mit den ein- 
schlagigen Londoner Verhaltnissen bekannt 
ist. Erst der Honours man beschaftigt sich 
dort mit Litteraturgeschichte, erst der kiinf- 
tige M.A. mit philologischem Studium.* 
Nach mancherlei Seiten erscheint das ge- 
sammte Studium des Deutschen erweitert 
und vertief t. Damit soil keineswegs der hohe 
Wert des jetzigen Londoner Zustandes gelaug- 
net werden ; man hatte ihn vor Augen und 
durfte, ja man musste be ider allgemeinen lin- 
guistischen Begabung der walliser Studenten 
Einrichtungen treffen, wie sie dem Geiste 
und den Zustanden des Fiirstentums selbst 
entsprechen. Die Schaffung der neuen 
Kurse ist zunachst natiirlich ein Versuch; 
wie er ausfallt, bleibt abzuwarten. Viel 
hangt von den Intermediate Schools ab; 
werden diese erst das leisten, was man von 
ihnen hoffen darf, so wird der Universitat 

* Dies ist fur die B.A. Priifungen der letzten Jahre 
nicht mehr ganz zutreffend. — K. B. 

ein Material an Studenten zugefiihrt werden, 
das die gesteckten Ziele ohne besondere 
Schwierigkeit erreichen wird. 

Die Kritik hat an den neugeschaffenen 
Lehrplanen daher mancheszu loben gefunden ; 
auch der Tadel wird nicht ausbleiben. Der 
Haupteinwand durfte wohl darin liegen, 
dass den Studierenden nicht geniigende 
Initiative eingeraumt ist, dass im allgemeinen 
zuviel vorgeschrieben wird, dass die jahrlichen 
Priifungen vom erziehlichen Standpunkte aus 
geradezu verhangnisvoU wirken konnen. Das 
ist allerdings zum Teil rich tig und auch in 
Grossbritannien in diesem Sinne anerkannt ; 
allein thatsachlich ist doch Platz da f iir selb- 
standige Bestrebungen ; die Individualitat 
des Einzelnen kann auch trotz der gesteckten 
Grenzen entwickelt werden, und die Prii- 
fungen sind, wenn sie in einsichtiger Weise 
vorgenommen werden, kein Hindernis zur 
Erwerbung selbst individueller Kenntnisse. 
Ausserdem wurzeln Fragen, wie z.B. die der 
zahlreichen Priifungen, zu tief in den Ver- 
haltnissen Grossbritanniens, um ohne Wei- 
teres gelost werden zu konnen. Unter den 
gegebenen Bedingungen ist, wie man hofft, 
geleistet worden, was zu leisten war. 


Schemes of Study for the Session 1896-97, 
herausgegeben von der Universitat 

Die allgemeinen "Regulations'' sind der 
Hauptsache nach zu finden in : 

The Calendar of the University College of 
Wales. Aberystwyth. Twenty -fifth 
Session, 1896-97. Manchester: J. E. 
Cornish. Is. 



It is often laid down as a principle of univer- 
sal application that the consecutive utterance 
of a voiced and an unvoiced consonant, or 
vice versa, is more difficult than that of two 
voiced or two unvoiced consonants; and that, 
accordingly, when a word contains a sequence 
of the former kind, one of the two sounds is 
likely to become assimilated to the other, 
unless the mechanical tendency in that direc- 
tion is counteracted by etvmological con- 
sciousness, or some other influence operating 
through the mind. As a general rule, it is 
no doubt true that when a voiced and an 
unvoiced consonant are brought together, a 
tendency to assimilative change does exist. 
But the force of this tendency seems to vaiy 

greatly according to the nature of the parti- 
cular consonants concerned; and it is well 
known that some languages and dialects are 
much more susceptible than others to the 
influences which produce combinatory changes 
of sound. In the English word aibsurd, the 
consonants retain their orthographical value ; 
in the French absurde the b usually sounds, 
to an English ear at least, like a ^. In my 
own pronunciation of obtain, and in that 
which I hear from other north-midland people, 
the b is fully voiced; from many southern 
speakers I have heard something very like 
optain. If it be true that the mechanical 
tendency to assimilation exists in all cases in 
wlufih a voleed AonaonaQt is immediately 



followed by an unvoiced one, that tendency 
is at any rate often too feeble to overcome 
the mere vis ineriim of tradition. What is 
very remarkable is that in some instances, 
though very few, the course of phonetic de- 
velopment has been the exact opposite of 
that which is required by the general rule 
stated above ; that is to say, the former of 
two consecutive consonants, both originally 
unvoiced, has become voiced, while the latter 
of them has retained its quality unchanged. 
It may be worth while to examine one or two 
examples of this anomalous phonetic develop- 
ment, in order to discover, if possible, 
whether they necessitate any modification of 
the ordinary formula with regard to the 
relative mechanical facility of different 
sequences of consonants. 

1 . In North Derbyshire the words baptize^ 
baptistf baptism, are (or, perhaps, I should 
rather say were in my boyhood, when I was 
familiar with the dialect) universally pro- 
nounced by dialect speakers with &b in the 
place of the I?. The dialect, it should be said, 
is markedly syllabic in its pronunciation, and 
the tendency to assimilate successive con- 
sonants belonging to different syllables is 
very slightly operative. Hence the only 
thing that requires explanation in such a 
pronunciation as babtize is how the p comes 
to be voiced. If it was, from any either 
phonetic or analogical cause, easier to say 
bob than bap, the change would not bo pre- 
vented from taking place by the fact that the 
following consonant was t. Now I think 
there can be no doubt that, according to 
English habits of articulation, a syllable con- 
sisting of two identical voiced consonants 
separated by a short vowel is easier to 
pronounce than one in which the short 
vowel is preceded by a voiced consonant and 
followed by the corresponding unvoiced 
consonant. There is perhaps an exception 
in the case of the so-called dentals : it may 
not be perceptibly more difficult to say cUit 
than dad. But it seems clear that syllables 
like gag, bob, judge, are more pronounceable 
than syllables like gack, bap, jutch. A pro- 
nunciation such as babtize is therefore quite 
natural in a dialect in which the tendency to 
assimilate succeeding consonants in different 
syllables is slight ; while in a dialect in which 
this tendency prevails more strongly such a 
pronunciation would be difficult. 

The only circumstance whicli leads me to 
doubt whether this is a correct accotuit of 
the matter is that I remember that in North 
Derbyshire the surnames Hopkinson and 
Atkinson were always pronounced by unedu- 
cated people as Obkisn and Adkisn. As, how- 

ever, these surnames are derived from Hob 
and Adam respectively, their dialectal pro- 
nunciation may simply represent the original 
forms, which have been preserved locally 
because the repugnance to the sequences 
bk, dk, which has produced the orthographical 
forms, did not exist in the dialect. 

2. Another anomaly which calls for ex- 
planation is the pronunciation of depth as 
d€b]>, which, it seems, is by no means con- 
fined to northern or midland dialects, or to 
the speech of uneducated persons. The late 
Miss Soames, in her Introduction to Phonetics^ 
writes debths ; and Prof. Storm, in his Eng- 
lische Phihlogie, quotes a letter from the 
author, in which she says that she does not 
know any person who pronounces the word 
differently. I do not think that my own 
experience quite accords with that of Miss 
Soames ; but the pronunciation indicated is 
certainly very often met with, and I am 
inclined to think that it is mechanically 
easier than the original pronunciation which 
is represented by the spelling. The explana- 
tion offered for the dialectal pronunciation of 
baptize, etc., does not apply to this case at 
all, as the word is a monosyllable, and it 
contains no repetition of a consonant. The 
English language contains no other instance 
of a syllable ending in pth, so that there is no 
direct evidence to show whether the nature 
of the initial consonant has anything to do 
with the matter. But as syllables like dip 
have undergone no change in the pronuncia- 
tion of their final consonant, it may reason- 
ably be supposed that this is not the case. 
We seem then to have a real instance in 
which, contrary to the general rule, the com- 
bination of a voiced and an unvoiced con- 
sonant in the same syllable is found intrinsi- 
cally easier than the combination of two 
unvoiced consonants. The explanation of 
this anomaly is difficult to find. I can only 
suggest that it may be due to the necessity 
of auditory distinctness. When the dental 
spirant ]> follows a labial stop in the same 
syllable, the protrusion of the tongue close to 
the lips at the moment of opening tends to 
impair the distinct audibility of the two 
sounds. The combination b]> at the end of 
the syllable is more distinct than p]>, partly 
because the voicing of the labial increases the 
difference between the two sounds, and partly 
because it permits the labial to be slightly 
prolonged. I am not entirely satisfied with 
this attempt at explanation, but it is the 
most plausible that I have been able to 

Henky Bradley. 





This is the title of an Old-Irish tract con- 
tained in the British Museum MS. Harleian 
5280, fo. 39b-42a, written in the sixteenth 
century, and in the Bodleian MS. Rawlinson 
B 512, foil. 37al-39al, of the fifteenth cen- 
tury (see Kuno Meyer s " Hibernica Minora," 
Clar. Press, pp. v. vi.). There is also a copy 
in the " Yellow Book of Lecan " (^ published 
in photographic facsimile by the Royal Irish 
Academy, 1896), and Whitley Stokes, in his 
"Martyrology of Gorman," p. viil, says that 
there is in a Brussels MS. a copy of De 
verbis Colmain mac o Bonae A, de uitiis laienti- 
bus v/mbra honorum operum, beginning Is dual 
duit n% thorgoeihai na duailchi i fail na sualach 
(" It is meet for thee that the vices accom- 
panying the virtues should not deceive"). 
A section beginning with these words occurs 
in Harl. fo. 41a, and Rawl. fo. 37bl. Por- 
tions of the tract occur in the "Book of 
Lismore " (fifteenth century), fo. 39b2, lines 
4535-4544, in Stokes* edition (Clar. Press), 
with the heading Cose ^mo Colmoe maic ui 
Beona, The first paragraph in the Lism. 
extracts begins with the question : Cidh as 
imgaibthe do duine (what is to be avoided 
by man t) and the second with : Ceist, cid as 
inleanta 1 (Query, what is to be followed ?)' 
In H. and R. the second paragraph comes 
first, and is of considerably greater length, as 
both H. and R. have eight sentences not 
contained in Lism. These two paragraphs 
are also found in a Royal Irish Academy 

MS., R.I.A. ]^i, fo. 18bl, and are there of 
the same length and in the same order as in 
the Lismore copy. Other portions of the 
tract occur in the RI.A. MS. and also in the 
Trin. Coll. Dublin MS. H3 18, p. 40a. 

Like the fragment of the Psalter in 
Meyer*s " Hibernica Minora," this tract is 
full of Old-Irish forms, in H. and R., and 
evidently belongs to an early period, though 
it contains numerous Middle-Irish forms 
introduced by the copyists : especially 
noticeable are the fuller inflections of the 
article, twwa, gen. sing, fem., gen. pi., accus. 
pi., instances of which may be seen in the 
extracts given below : there are also many 
Old-Irish verb-forms. 

The title in H. (ancl R. with differences of 
spelling) runs as follows: Inndpiuni uerba 

* See Zeitschrift fiir Celtischo Philologie, Band I. 
Heft. 3, p. 496. 

* Mo-cholm6c (otherwise Colmdn) of Lcs-mcSr is 
commemorated ou 22nd January. Stokes, p. 359. 

* H. = Harleian 5280. R. = Rawlinson B 512. 

Colmani fill Beognae uiri dei A, aipgitir 

As the heading implies, the tract is a 
kind of religious manual, giving practical 
advice on spiritual matters in a very concise 
form. One might almost call it a cram-book 
of devotion. 

Some of the sections have Latin headings, 
e.g. : De peritia ueritatiSf de prudenHssmo 
Iwmine, The infoL*mation is sometimes given 
in the form of question and answer, ^ e,g. : 
Ce dech do cresinil Semplui ocus diuiti. 
What is best for religious faith f Simplicity 
and sincerUy, C6 messam do menmain 1 
Coiei (read coile with R) ocus cr6idhe ocus 
cumce, ar ni talla nach mait ioi' menmoin 
coil cruaid^, cumaing. 

IFhat is worst for the mind f Narrowr^ss, 
hardiness, closeness ; for no good finds room in 
a narrow, harsh, confined mind. 

The writer sometimes gives long lists of 
virtues and vices, e.g. Coic nert deac inna 
hanmo .i. nert niresi, nert cennsa, nert humol- 
doiti, neurt nainmnet, nert marbtha [?leg 
inarbtha i.e. innarbtha "of expelling"], 
neurt nerlato^Z, nert cartoit, nert firindi, nert 
trocairi, nert neslabia, nert f uarrigi, nert com- 
alti, nert ninmus&e, nert netlai, nert ndeurcai. 

" Fifteen virtues of the soul, to wit, the virtue 
of faith, the virtue of meekness, the virtue of 
humility, the virtue of patience, the virtue of 
killing (or expelling something ?), the virtue of 
obedience, the virtue of charity, the virtue of 
truth, the virtue of mercy, the virtue of liberality, 
the virtue of clemency, the virtue of quietness {i), 

the virtue of , the virtue of penitence, the 

virtue of charitable love.'* 

Lists of things in groups of three or four 
occur frequently : e.g. Ceteoir ice na hanmo ; 
homun ocus atrige, sere ocus frecse. " Four 
salvations of the soul, fear and repentance, 
love and hope.'* 

Tri namaid anmo, doman ocus diabti/ 
ocus forcet^irf anetail, " Three enemies 
of the sold, world and devil and a wicked 
teacher. '* At times the reader's attention 
is called to the Divine promises and rewards, 
e.g., Nac duine ^diu adaigfedur dia ocus 
2 nodcechraear ocus comallnabat^^er a ^t/tail 
ocus a ti77ina, bid ^airmidiu do fiad doinib 
hislu, bid ^ findfaduch la dia ^ hitall ; " Jny 

^ All extracts before the one beginning Cetharda 
nod conleanaijuf are from H., the three longer ones 
from R. 

^d'vdiu R. *airmidech R. 

^ nodcechra R. ^ findbodhach R. 

' a thoil ocns a thimnai R. ^ tall R. 



man then who will fear Gody and love him^ and 
fulfil his will and command^ to him will there be 
reverence before men and he will be blessed with 
God in the other world (lit. yonder)." Anti 
bias a noenta na h<?cailse catlaice ocus a 
ndess ina frescsen nemda ocus comalna- 
batAar na timno amai i donimiwarnad, rom- 
biad ceddiablai ^a \aXmain ocus rombia 
3 bithbethai for nim, " He who will be in the 
unity of the Catholic Church and in the peace of the 
heavenly hope^ and will fulfil the commands as 
has been commanded, to him mil be a hundred- 
fold on earth and life eternal in heaven" 

R. 38a2, *Cetharda *nad ^contecmaing 
do ^ neuch caras Dia .i. ni fuirsedar, ni ® fath- 
guatar, ni ben ecndach, ni mitomnadar o 
neoch : maith seom la each, maith each 
^laisium. *^®Cetheoire trebaire ^Mwa mac 
mbethad .i. eredbud ina tol (SSbl), oman 
inna plan, sere inna foehaide, ^^ cretem inna 
foehraice. ^^ Maine credbaitis inna tola ni 
leefitis. ^* Maine aigtis na piana ni ^* foim- 
nebdais. ^^ Maine cardais inn[si] fochaidhe ni 
^7 foidemdais. ^® Maine creidis in[na] foeh- 
raice ni ^^ ricfaitis. Cethair glais mna pec- 
tach .i. iadad a suile frisin ndomun, iadad 
talman ior a corpaib, iadad flatha ^ nime fria 
nanmannaib, iadad iffim ^^ for suidhib. 

^^ Four things that do not happen to anyone 
who loves Gody to wU—he does not juggle^ he 
does not mock, he does not utter blasphemy, he 
does not judge HI of anybody, he is esteemed by 
everybody, everybody is esteemed by him. Four 
prudent actions of the * sons of life,* to wit — the 
binding of their desires, fear of the punishments, 
love of the sufferings, belief in the rewards. If 
they did not bind their mils, they would not 
leave them; if they did not fear the punish- 
ments, they would not beware of them; if they 
did not love the sufferings, they would not endure 
suffering ; if they did not believe in the rewards, 
they would not reach them A 

^ donimamada R. 
^ i talmain R. 
*■ cetarda H. 

* contecmoing H. 
"^ neoch H. 
"fathgatar H. 
' laisscm H. 
I Cetoir trebairi H. 

" na H. 
^ cretium H. 
^' man! credbatis H. 
^^ mani agitis H. 
*' foimnibtis H. 
^' mani cartais H. 
^^ fodAemtis H. 
^* mani H. 

*• ricfitiB H. risfitis 

® < Cetheora trebaire, * nimi H. 

( R.I.A. « for a suidAib H. 

* This section {i.e, to ricfaitis) occurs also in 
R.I.A. —^ fol6a. 

t Cf, Rev. Celt iv. Sc^la ki bratha (L.U.). Ed. 
b Stokes, p. 252, § 20, line 7. 

ladlaiter andsin triglais napecthach, .i. iadad 
iffim tria bith sir form ocus iadad asul frisin- 
domun diotartsat grdd ocus iadad na flatha 
nemda friu. 

Four Jocks of sinners, to wit — the shutting 
of their eyes upon the world, the shutting of the 
earth aver their bodies, the shutting of the king- 
dom of heaven against their souls, the shutting 
of hell over them." 

R. 38bl. 1 Cethair ^flaithe duine «isin 
cenntar, i. ■* oetiu * duw (?) ocus ® soinmigAe, 
slaine ocas sochraite. Cethuir iftm duine 
isin cenntar, .i. galar ocus senta, bochta ocus 
dochraiti. ^Treihe tr^mbi faidherc diabad 
tre duine, ®tre gnuis, ®tre toichim, ®tre 
labrad^. Et per haec tria d^us per hominem 
intelligitttr. Inna ^toire (leg. teoir) tonnai 
tiagdae tar duine a ^^ mbathais tre ^^ fretech 
frisstoing indib, .i. fristoing don domun cona 
adbchlossaib, fristoing don demon cona 
inntledaib, fnstoing do tolaib colla. Issed 
indso immefolngai duine dendi bes mac bais 
combi mac betnudh [SSb^] dendi bes mac 
^2 dorcha combi mac ^^ soillsi, o chonabbaing 
inna tri ^* fretecha so isna ^* teoraib tonnaib 
tiagda tairis. Mani ^^tudig ^^tria drilinn 
afnthisi ^^ ni curaaing dochoi i flaith De, .i. 
linn d^r aithirge, lind tofaiscthe fola hi pen- 
naint, lind naillse illebair. 

" Four heavens of man in the world, to wit — 
youth and happiness, health and beauty. Four 
hells of man in the world, to wit — sickness and 
old age, poverty and deformity. Thru things 
through which the devil is manifest in man — 
through his face, through his gait, through his 
speech. Et per hcec tria deus per hominem in- 
telligitur. * The three leaves which pass over 
man at baptism through a renunciation which he 
makes {lit. renounces) in them: to wU — he re- 
nounces the world with its vainglories, he re- 
nounces the devil with his wiles, he renounces the 
desires of the flesh. It is this that makes man a 
son of life from being a son of death, a son of 
light from being a son of darkness, when he 
accomplishes these three renunciations in the three 
toaves which pass over him. Unless he goes 

^ cetoir H. 

^ flath© H. 

' isan centur H. 


' H. omits 

• soinmidi H. 

7 tredW H. 

8 tria H. 

* teora tonna tiagAtai H. 
10 mbatis H. 

» fretiuch H. 
1' dorcoi H. 
i» solse H. 
1* fretiuch H. 
" teura H. 
" tndchaid H. 
17 tre drilind H. 
1^ ni cumaing omitted 

* An allusion to triple immersion. Cf. Wb : Glosses 
27a — teora tonna tomnni in babtismo, tr^enus dosom 
in aepulcro : " three waves over us in baptismo ; three 
days to him in sepulcro ; " a gloss to Colossians iL 
12. Consepulti ei in baptismo. Also, Wb : 21 d. 
Cesuthr^e mtummud ; * * though the dipping is a 
threeness, i,e., though in baptism the immersion is 
triple " (See Stokes' Edition, pp. 304, 319) : a gloss 
to Ephesians iv. 5, imus Dommus, una fides, unum 



through three pooh again he will not come to the 
Kin>gdom of God, to mt, the pool of tears of 
repentance, the pool of the squeezing of blood in 
penance, the pool of sweat in toiV* 

R. 38b2. ^Cia nessam do Dial 2inti 
immoradai. Cia ^ frisi congna Crist ? [39al] 
frisinti dognl maith. Cia a natreba an spirut 
naemi Isindi as glan cen pecad. Is '^and 
^as lestar ^spiratu naeim ^an duine o 
^dodiethet na suailche ^ara eisso na [n] 
duailcne. Iss ann forbeir tol D6 ^®i 
ndnine antan sercas an ^^ tol domuuda. Iss 
ferr fochellamar inna coic ^2 d^la is arradfem, 
.i. dal fri ^^ cneit, ddl fri bds, dal fri muinntir 
nD6, dal fri demnae, dal fri heis^irge ^^ illaithe 
bratha. Finid. 

" fFho is nearest to God ? The one who con- 
templaies Him, Who is it that Christ helps f 
The one who does good. In whom does the Holy 
Ghost dwell ? In him who is pure icithout sin. 
It is then that man is a vessel of the Holy Ghost, 
when the virtues have come after {the departure 

^ ce nessam H. 
2 anti immoradAi. 
^ frisa congnae H. 

* ann H. 

* spirto H. 

' in duiui H. 

* dondigset H. 

^ tar esse na ndualc^ 
^^ a nduine H. 
^^ tal ndomanda H. 
^ daloi H. 
^ a ricfom H. 
^* cneid H. 
» allaithiu H. 

of) the vices. It is then that the will of God 
grows in man, when the worldly will withers up. 
It is better that we should prepare for the fixe 
trysts to which we shall come, the tryst toith 
suffering, the tryst tciih death, the tryst tciih the 
household of God, the tryst with demons, the tryst 
mth resurrection on the Day of Doom,, Finis. 

For a copy of the MSS., and valuable 
suggestions, I am indebted to the kindness 
of Professor Kuno Meyer. 

After writing the above I have seen the 
copy in the Yellow Book of Lecan (facsimile 
edition, R.I.A., 1896). The first column (fo. 
252a) is (at least in the facs.) blurred, and 
almost illegible, of 252b some portions are 
quite legible, others not ; on the next page, 
253, the right-hand side of the column is 
quite clear, the other side is one blurred 
mass : the text breaks off abruptly at line 
25, with the words aurcuireuthur piana, 
which occiu's in H, fo. 42a, 1. 5. The version 
seems to be almost identical with that in 
H and R; the two paragraphs referred to 
above are in the same order as in H and R. 
The spelling in Y. B. L. is somewhat remark- 
able. (See Atkinson's introduction, p. 15.) 

T. Hudson Williams. 

University College of North Wales, 



The finding of the Trinity Coll. Camb. 
MS. of the "Proverbs of Alfred'' seems 
likely to be epoch-making for Middle Eng- 
lish phonetics. In a most careful paper 
read before the Philological Society on May 
7th, Prof. Skeat pointed out the characteris- 
tics of this MS., and indicated some of the 
problems they suggest. The MS. was writ- 
ten by a scribe who was not thoroughly 
familiar either with the orthography or pro- 
nunciation of the English language; this 
scribe was in all probability a Norman. He 
starts by making a note on the bottom of his 
first page of the symbols with which he was 
not intimate. These are, 3 {i,e, tailed g), 
above the symbol is written iye; ]> (above 
which is written ithom; y (above which is w) 
and the abbreviation for " and,"\iz, 7 (above 
which is ant). He uses these symbols with 
tolerable consistency, occasionally confusing 
"tailed g/' and the O.E. symbol for "w,'' 
e,g,, sginHn for smnkin. 

More significant even than these is the 
point that the very sounds a Norman would 
naturally find difficulty to pronounce are 
represented in remarkable ways. Most 

noticeable among these is the representa- 
tion of the O.E. voiced guttural continuant, 
e.g, in mi3t, which has disappeared in Modern 
English pronunciation, but remains in the 
form " gh " in orthography. The Norman 
found this an impossible sound, and conse- 
quently we find such forms as "mist,'' 
"mitt," "mith" (might) and "cnit," 
" cnith" (knight) : by the " th " he probably 
intended to express the strong explosive 
nature of the " t " sound, that was the result 
of his own attempts at the English " th." 
This is confirmed by such forms as " blitnes " 
and " biouit." The distinction between final 
"d"and "t'*was also a difficulty, e.^. ant 
(and), hid (hit), hunt (hund). Final conson- 
ants, especially if they be part of a consonant 
combination, are often either omitted, e.g, 
chil (child), wen (went), gol (gold), or modi- 
fied, e,g,, kinc (king), bi]?eng (bethink). 
Among initial sounds, the combinations " sh " 
or " sch," " wh," " wu " seem to have pre- 
sented most difficulties ; " sh " becomes " s," 
" shal " becomes " sal " ; " ship " " sip " ; 
" schame" "same" ; " wh" is sometimes " w," 
sometimes "qu" : thus, ** wat," "quil": 



" wu " is simplified to " w " : " wulf " 
" wlf." 

Initial " h " is put on and left off in an 
arbitrary fashion; — osed (hosed); his (is); 
]>e herl and ]>e hetheling (the earl and the 

Of internal sounds, the most noticeable 
are the representations of "r'* and "1 + 
cons": " r " is generally " rr," e.g. " cherril" 
(churl), " arren " (arn) : " 1 + cons " becomes 
" le 4- cons," e.g, welethe (welthe). 

These same peculiarities are found in the 

" Lay of Havelock," and to a certain extent 

in the Otho MS., c. xiii., of Layamon's "Brut," 

in ** King Horn," and here and there in MSS. 

of the fourteenth century. 

Out of all the difficulties in pronunciation 
suggested by these peculiarities the only one 
that has permanently affected the language 
is the silencing of the O.E. voiced guttural 
continuant. But from the prevalence of 
such spellings in many late MSS., from the 
frequent occurrence, for instance, of such a 
form as " mist " (might), it is clear that in 
certain districts these were not merely 
idiosyncrasies, but the regularly accepted 

Thus this MS. opens up a large field for 
investigation, and explains at the same time 
many forms, such as "sal" and "sip" in 
Southern texts that have hitherto been in- 
explicable. T, G. F. 


Perhaps the title " Study of German in the 
Protestant boy schools of Dublin" would 
have been more accurate for the following 
lines. Yet I believe that several of the 
points I shall mention must of necessity affect 
most Irish schools, though, if I am rightly 
informed, the study of German is far more 
flourishing in Belfast than in Dublin. One 
of the principal causes, why German is so 
little studied here, is, in my opinion, the 
absence of " a Modern Side " in most Irish 
schools. In consequence Modern Languages 
are allotted a very inferior part in the school 
curriculum, generally only two or three hours 
a week being given to each. French usually 
forms part of the ordinary course, but German 
is mostly an extra which must be specially 
paid for, and the study of which is only in a 
few schools looked upon favorably by those 
in authority; indeed, in some schools it is 
decidedly discouraged. That the latter is 
the case, is often due to the Intermediate 
Examination system, established all over 
Ireland. This system resembles, I believe, 
the Oxford and Cambridge Local Examina- 
tions in England, with the addition, that 
valuable prizes and exhibitions are given 
to the pupils, and substantial result-fees to 
the heads of schools. These result-fees 
amount in the larger Protestant schools to 
several hundred pounds, and I should not 
wonder if in some of the largest Catholic 
schools they exceeded a thousand pounds. 
As the incomes of most Irish headmasters 
are but small, these fees often form a con- 
siderable item of their receipts. Is it then 
to be wondered at, if sometimes all other 
considerations are sacrificed to the desire of 
obtaining as large result-fees as possible) 
Consequently classes are only too frequently 

arranged solely according to the age pre- 
scribed by the Intermediate ; while subjects 
which do not pay for this examination are 
discouraged. As the total number of subjects 
a pupil is allowed to take up for the Inter- 
mediate is limited, the subjects not required 
are often much neglected, and, I am sorry to 
say, German generally goes to the wall. I 
have looked over the lists of the candidates 
for the last Intermediate Examination, and 
the number of those who took up German as 
a subject is as follows : — In the Senior Grade 
(under 18), 32 out of 219 pupils examined 
Middle Grade (under 17), 51 out of 591 
Junior Grade (under 16), UO out of 2759 
Prejmratory Grade (under 14), 39 out of 
2378. This refers only to the boys ; with 
regard to girls the average is consider- 
ably higher, viz. : — Senior Grade, 79 out 
of 135; Middle Grade, 137 out of 298; 
Junior Grade, 298 out of 943; Prepara- 
tory Grade, 153 out of 684. On inquiry 
I found that the number of boys learning 
German in some of the larger schools (con- 
taining 1 20-260 boys) in Dublin and suburbs 
is as follows: — Wesley College, 3, three 
hours weekly; High School, none, though 
I believe there were a few pupils last term ; 
St Andrew's College, 20, about four hours 
given to each division ; Corrig School, Kings- 
town, 7, though the average is about 10, six 
hours per week; Rathmines School, 20 

As for the instruction given it is almost 
impossible to make even an attempt to 
teach conversation, except in those classes 
which do not prepare for Intermediate Ex- 
aminations, or in the few schools which 
devote more than the average time to the 
study of German, For an oral examination 



does not as yet form part of the Intermediate 
Scheme, besides, the books are prescribed, 
and the course of translation is often long, 
so that, especially in classes where there are 
backward boys, or where, owing to the small 
number of pupils, two divisions have to be 
taught in the same hour, the translation 
takes away so much from the time (par- 
ticularly when only two hours weekly are 
set apart for German) that very little of it is 
left for composition and grammar. Needless 
to say, backward pupils are often neglected, 
for the master must hurry on. 

Also in the so-called Armv Cramming 
Institutions (though I really believe there is 
less cramming in them than in the schools) 
the number of students of German has lately 
decreased, since not more marks are given to 
German, than to subjects like Geology and 
Chemistry, which candidates make up in 
twelve, if not even in six, months. 

In the Alexandra College for Ladies there 

is a fair number of students of German, 
though the German classes are far less 
numerous than the French ones. The time 
allotted to each division is two hours weekly. 
The majority of the young ladies attending 
the College prepare either for the higher 
Grades of the Intermediate, or for the 
various University Examinations. In fact, 
even in private tuition, a pupil who wishes 
to learn German for the sake of the language, 
and not in order to pass an examination, is a 
rara avis. 

In both Universities, the Royal University 
of Ireland, which counts many ladies among 
its students, and in Dublin University 
(Trinity College), German is studied a good 
deal, and a certain fluency of speakihg 
required of the candidates. It is, however, 
to be regretted, that Dublin University has 
not yet admitted German Philology into its 
ciuriculum. Albert J. W. Cerf. 



Edited by Frederic Spencer, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of the French Language and Litera- 
ture in the University of North Wales. Cambridge : The University Press. 284 pp. 6s. 

Professor Spencer's volume consists of 
twelve chapters. Each deals with a separate 
subject of the ordinary school curriculum, 
and is written by a specialist. The section 
which discusses the aims and methods of 
Modern Language teaching comes from the 
pen of the editor himself and covers 45 
pages. The first half of this article is de- 
voted to a survey of the method advocated 
by the adherents of the *• Neuere Richtung,'* 
which has wrought a revolution in the teach- 
ing of modem languages on the Continent, 
and in particular in Germany. The second 
half sketches briefly an experimental course 
of German lessons given at Bangor to a class 
of students. 

Professor Spencer is a warm admirer of 
the reform method, and has given modern 
language teachers a clear and forcible account 
of the results attained in secondary schools 
in Belgium and Germany, and of the methods 
employed. We have ourselves seen what can 
be done by men like Walter at Frankfort 
and others, and we have no doubt that the 
war-cry of Professor Victor and his followers 
has produced a beneficial eflect on the 
methods employed in German schools, but 
we are not prepared to say that all we have 
to do in England is to accept their method 
of teaching and be saved. ''Fines schickt 
sich nicht fiir alle," says Goethe, and indeed 
it would not be advisable, and far less practi- 

cable, to adopt in our schools a system of 
teaching which is essentially suited to Ger- 
many. At the same time we admire Pro- 
fessor Spencer's enthusiasm, and congratulate 
him on the success of his experiment. His 
essay should be carefully read and considered 
by every teacher of modern languages in the 
country ; it points in the right direction for 
the much needed reform in our own schools. 
There can be no doubt that the old gram- 
matical method as represented by Ahn, Otto 
and others is based on a wrong princi])le, 
and has produced most unsatisfactory results. 
Neither can one shut one's eyes to the sound- 
ness of the new method when it makes more 
of pronunciation, lays more stress on the 
spoken tongue, and attaches greater import- 
ance to the interdependence between the 
reader, the grjimmar, and the writer, but 
whether it is wise to introduce phonetic 
transcriptions, drop translation into the 
foreign language entirely for imitative and 
free composition, or whether it is prudent to 
try to teach entirely in the foreign language, 
are far-reaching questions, and it would 
perhaps be well to see this method tried and 
tested further before we adopt this part of 
the "Neuere Richtung" definitely. In the 
matter of translation we are inclined to think 
that Munch, whose words are always worth 
careful consideration, and who is too well 
balanced and experienced a man to rush 



into extremes, cannot be far wrong when he 
says : — " Die Wiirde der schriftlicnen Arbeit 
muss gegeniiber den miindb'chen Leistungen 
immerhin die grossere bleiben ; denn sie 
bildet nicht bloss ein sicheres Zeugnis, 
sondern notigt auch zii grosserer Konzentra- 
tion." (Zur Forderung des franzosischen 
Unterrichts, p. 20.) There are other reasons 
besides in this country which make it im- 
possible to abolish translation into the foreign 
language altogether. 

We miss Professor Spencer's notice of the 
efforts that have already been made in Eng- 
land to apply the principles of the " Neuere 
Richtung" to the teaching of German in 
English schools, so far as this is feasible under 

existing circumstances. The appearance of 
"German for Beginners," by L. Harcourt 

g Warburg : Elwert), and of " A Public School 
erman Primer " by 0. Siepmann, of Clifton 
College (London : Macmillan), are unmis- 
takable proofs of the belief that the reform 
movement is receiving attention among 
practical teachers. 

In conclusion, we would recommend, as a 
guide to modern language masters who wish 
to study the literature on this important ques- 
tion of Reform more thoroughly, Professor 
H. Breymann's " Die neusprachliche Reform- 
Literatur von 1876-1893 " (Leipzig, 1895), 
in addition to the books referred to by Pro- 
fessor Spencer. S. 


Tel est le titre du dernier livre de Pierre 
Loti qui vient de paraitre, et dont la trou- 
blante reverie vient de bercer doucement 
quelques heures de dolcefar niente, 

Bamuntcho est une peinture attachante, 
po^tique et fidMe de ce petit pays Basque, 
Stroitement enserr^ par les ctmes desPyr^n^es 
qui lui font comme un nid bien abrit^, et 
jalousement gard^, entre la France et 
I'Espagne, et oil se conservent presque intactes 
sa langue, ses traditions, ses moeurs, et sa 
physionomie vraiment particulifere. 

M. Pierre Loti d^crit tout cela avec un 
grande charme, avec, aussi, ces grilces un 
peu mi^vres, qui font son succ^ aupr^s des 
ftmes f^minines. 

L'intrigue de son livre est I6g^re. 

Ramuntcho, fils d'une m^re basque et d*un 

Kre inconnu,aime Gracieuse, fiUe de Dolores, 
ncienne amie de sa m^re Franchita. Mais 
Dolores est orgueilleuse, et regarde avec 
mepris, depuis sa faute, son amie d'autrefois. 
Vingt ans d'une vie s^v^re, consacr^e tour 
enti^re k T^ducation de son fils dans le petit 
village d'Etch^zar, n'ont pu la fldchir. Elle 
ne veut pas donner sa fille k Ramuntcho. 

Cependant les deux jeunes gens s'aiment. 
lis se le disent, et Gracieuse, la blonde fille 
aux ycux profonds et doux, promet sa foi k 
Ramuntcho. Mais pour h4ter leur manage, 
ce dernier, k la pri^re de Gracieuse, part 
pour aller faire son service militaire. En 
son absence, Dolores essaie de marier sa 
fille, qui refuse. Gracieuse est alors emmen^e 
par sa m^re, et I'on apprend bient6t qu'elle 
est entree dans un couvent basque. 

Apr^ trois ans pass^ au regiment, 
Ramuntcho revient au pays. II n'a point 
oubli^ sa petite amie d'autrefois, et le fr^re 
de Gracieuse, Arrochkoa, lui laisse entrevoir 

qu' avec un peu d'audace peut-^tre, s^il se 
prcsentait au couvent, et tentait de r^veiller 
dans le cceur de Gracieuse, qui ne Ta point 
encore oubli^, le souvenir de Pancien amour, 
elle consentirait k le suivre. Ramuntcho 
h^site d'abord k la pens6e d'une tentative 
qui lui paralt une veritable profanation. 
Puis sa m^re 6tant morte, il se decide, et se 
presente un soir avec Arrochkoa k la porte 
du couvent. Gracieuse vient. A la vue 
de Ramuntcho, son pauvre cceur bat de 
grands coups sourds dans sa poitrine, mais 
bient6t " il semble qu*un suaire blanc peu k 
peu recouvre tout pour calmer et ^teindre," 
. . . "c'est comme d'infiniment loin qu'elle 
le regarde, c'est comme de derriere d*in- 
franchissables brumes blanches, comme de 
Vautre rive de Tabime, de Pautre cot^ de la 
mort ; tr^s doux pourtant, son regard indique 
qu*elle est comme absente, repartie pour de 
tranquilles et inaccessibles ailleurs ..." 

"Et c*est Ramuntcho qui est vaincu, 
qui abaisse ses yeux ardents devant 
les yeux vierges ... II sent que tout 
est fini, qu^elle est peru de pour jamais 
la petite compagne de son enfance; qu*on 
I'a ensevelie dans un inviolable linceul ! . . . 
Les paroles d'amour et de tentation qull 
avait pens^ dire, les projets qu*il roulait 
depuis des mois dans sa t^te, tout cela lui 
paraissait insens^, sacrilege, inex^cutables 
choses, bravades d'enfant . . . Arrochkoa 
subit les m^mes envotitements irr^sistibles 
et lagers . . . Tun k Tautre, sans paroles, 
ils s'avouent qu'il nV a rien k faire, qu41s 
n'oseront jamais , . .* 

Et sans m^me avoir serr^ la petite main 
froide qui retombe le long de sa robe, sur 
les grains du rosaire, Ramuntcho part, seul, 
triste, comme un f uyard, dans la nuit, pour 



le port oil il trouvera le navire qui devaifc 
— tous les deux d'abord — les mener en 
Am^rique, pendant que " 1^-haut, dans leur 
petit convent, dans leur petit s6pulcre aux 
murailles si blanches, les nonnes tranquilles 
recitent leurs pri^res du soir . . . 

crux, ave, spes unica / . . . 

Le livre se ferme sur ces mots et laisse 
cette impression inqui^tante et douce, faite 
de tristesse et d'espoirs inexprim^s qui se 
d^gage comme un parfum troublant des 
livres de Loti. 

Tous les admirateurs de Loti liront ce 
livre avec joie. Les autres le liront certaine- 
ment avec un tr^s grand plaisir. L' auteur 
de ** Pdcheur dlslande " qui depuis — il faut 
bien le dire — nous avait vraiment trop sou- 
vent servi le meme livre, a trouv^ cette fois 
une note nouvelle. Sans doute Touvrage a 
des lon^ieurs. M. Pierre Loti qui est un 
descriptif, et qui le sait, abuse un pen, voire 
beaucoup, de la description. Son livre 
pourrait s'appeler le Po^me des Quatre 
Saisons en Pays Basque. II ne nous fait 
gr4ce ni du printemps, ni de Tet^, ni de 
Tautomne, ni de Thiver. La saispn des 
vents et la saison des pluies figurent k leur 
place. II y a done comme on pourrait s*y 
attendre, des repetitions. Deux Episodes 
seulement dans le livre : la partie de pelote, 
le dimanche, apr^s la grand'messe, et 
rexi)edition de contrebande la nuit — et ces 
deux Episodes alternent avec une r^gularit^ 
un pen fatigante. 

Puis Ramuntcho, "cr^^ par la fantaisie 
triste d'un des raffin^s de nos temps de 
vertige," prom^ne un peu trop, dans ses 
courses de contrebande — car ce jeune homme 
est contrebandier comme tout Basque qui 
se respecte — P^me inqui^te et douloureuse 
de son p^re en litt^rature M. Pierre Loti. 

" Entre lui et les hommes qui Tentourent 
se dressent d'irr^ductibles dissemblances 
h^r^ditaires . . . il a Tintuitive inquie- 
tude des mille choses autres, la notion et le 
confus d^sir des atUeurs ; le trouble des 
inconnaissables lointains ... la pes^e 
des si^cles morts, les MUl^naires Taccablent. 
. . ." Un peu plus de simplicity plairait 
peut-^tre davantage. 

Mais, ces critiques faites, quels ravissants 
tableaux ^voquant tout enti^re devant nous 
la vie simple, rude et forte de ces monta- 
gnards du pays basque ! Surtout quelles 
pages deiicieuses d'^motions tendres et 
deiicates! M. Pierre Loti n'est pas un 
psychologue; il ne faut pas lui demander 
tanalyse subtile, infiniment compliqu^e de 
lous ces rouages, de tous ces ressorts qui 

entrent en jeu dans le violent amour 
ou la grande passion. Mais il est un 
peintre incomparable des demi-teintes, du 
clair obscur, des sensations fiigaces, in- 
d^cises. II les effleure avec une d^licatesse 
de jeune fille. II ^veille en nous sans id^es 
precises, avec des phrases qui n'ont pas de 
contour arr^t^, toutes ces pens^es confuses 
et charmantes qui vous envahissent comme 
une brume l^g^re, apaisante et douce, et qu'il 
semblait impossible de traduire par sed mots. 

Les derniers chapitres surtout, ceux qui 
content la derni^re entrevue de Gracieuse 
et de Ramuntcho, sont certainement parmi 
les meilleures pages que Loti ait ecrites. 
II est impossible de mieux peindre la paix 
silencieuse de cet humble convent perdu 
dans la montagne, les murs blancs de ce 
petit parloir oil s'affairent les bonnes Soeurs 
empress^es, discretes et souriantes. Et I'on 
a bien, en ^coutant les paroles pMes qui 
s'^changent dans le parloir, en entrevoyant, 
si lointaine sous son voile noir, la petite 
soeur Marie- Ang^lique — la Gracieuse d'autre- 
fois ! — en entendant la Sup^rieure, cette 
vieille femme au sourire enfantin et bon, 
qui dit de sa voix tranquille : " Allons, ma 
s(jeur, faites-leur vos adieux. ..." on a 
bien cette impression de renoncement, de 
calme, de paix douce, "un peu tombale 
aussi," de detachement absolu, que Loti a 
voulu nous donner. 

"... Enfin elle parle, et parle 4 
Ramuntcho lui-meme. Vraiment on ne 
dirait plus que son coeur vient de se briser 
une supreme fois . . . ni qu^elle vient 
de fr^mir de tout son corps de vierge sous 
ce regard d'amant. D'une voix qui peu k 
peu 8 affermit dans la douceur, elle dit des 
choses toutes simples. . . . 

"... Oh ! elle est bien bris^e aussi, 
celle qui va disparaltre 1^-haut, dans les 
ten^bres de la mont^e ombreuse. Mais elle 
n'en demeure pas moins comme anesthesi^e 
par de blanches vapeurs apaisantes, et tout 
ce qu^elle souffre s'attenuera vite, sous une 
sorte de sommeil. Demain elle reprendra, 
pour jusqji'4 la mort, le cours de son 
existence 6trangement simple : imperson- 
nelle, livr6e k une s^rie de devoirs quotidiens 
qui jamais ne changent ; absorb6e dans une 
reunion de creatures presque neutres, qui 
ont tout abdiqu6, elle pourra marcher les 
yeux lev^s toujours vers le doux mirage 
c6leste. . . . 

Crux, ave, spes unica" 

Po^sie, tristesse et douceur, voil4 bien 
tout le livre, qu'il faut lire, et qui restera 
certainement Tun des bons livres de Loti. 




The attention of the Executive Committee of the 
Modem Language Association has chiefly been occupied 
since the beginning of the year with the revision of 
the "Memorandum of Association." As soon as the 
General Committee had given its adherence to their 
suggestions the new Memorandum was sent to members 

of the Association. 

• « « 

On April 8th, at a special meeting of the Executive 
Committee, a memorial was drawn up for presentation 
to the Senate of the University of London in favour 
of a rtm-voce test in its Modem Language examina- 
tions. We understand the Senate has sanctioned the 
introduction of an obli^tory viva-voce test in Modern 
Languages at all Exammations for a degree in Arts, 
and that the new regulations will be found to have 
brought these examinations into closer touch with the 

best teaching. 

» • • 

A Sub-Committee is at present engaged in drawing 
up a '* Scheme for the teaching of French in Secondary 
Schools. " Such a task, however, is no light one ; and 
it has already been made clear at the three meetings 
of the Executive Committee, at which the proposals of 
the Sub-Committee have been discussed, that it is a 
very difficult matter at present to reach any agreement 

upon the details of such a scheme. 

• • « 

A CIRCULAR has been sent out to all members of the 
Association, calling attention to the arrangements that 
have lately been made for correspondence between boys 
and girls of dififerent countries. Teachers anxious to 
find correspondents for their pupils in Qermany or 
France should communicate with Dr Martin Hartmann, 
2 Wiesenstrasse, Leipdg-Gohlis, or with the Editors of 
the Itevue Univeniiatre, Armand Colin et C*"-, 6 Rue de 

M^^res, Paris. 

« « • 

English University students of German who are 
anxious to have r^ular opportunities of exchanging 
letters with German University students of English 
will henceforth be able to keep up such a correspond- 
ence. The ** Sachsischer Neuphilol<^en-Verband " is 
prepared to furnish addresses of German University 
stuaents desirous of corresponding with English fellow- 
students. English students who would like to avail 
themselves of the opportunities thus offered, should 
apply, in the first instance, to the F^fessor or Lecturer 
of (xerman in their own University. The Secretwy of 
the Saxon Society is Dr M. Hartmann, Leipmg-Gohlis, 


« • « 

Mr W. G. Lipscomb, the Hon. Secretary M.L.A. (Uni- 
versity College School, Gower St.,W.C.j, has a number of 
addresses of families in Germany and m France, recom- 
mended to teachers or students who desire opportunities 
of studv or conversation^ for long or short periods, and 
he will be happy to give mf ormation to applicants. 

For the first time this year the Examination for the 
new English Honour School at Oxford has been com- 
pleted. Last year one Candidate entered, but withdrew 
Dofore the close of the Examination. This year there 
were several men and women, who continued to the 
bitter end. The papers wore quite searching enough 
to satisfy the doubts of those who think English 
language and literature an unsuitable subject for a 
high examination, but they were, at the same time, of 
a straightforward character, and did not show the 
influence of individual courses of lectures so plainly as 

did some of the questions last year. 

• ♦ • 

The eleventh examination for the Mediaeval and Modem 
Languages Tripos has just taken place at Cambridge. 
Oat of 32 catididates, 28 (12 men and 16 women) ob- 
tained honours, and 2 (men) were allowed the ordinary 
degree. There were 7 first classes (4 men, 3 women), 
14 second classes (4 men, 10 women), and 7 third classes 

(4 men and 3 women). Of the 7 first-class candidates 5 
were placed in that class for proficiency in German 
(either for proficiency in German only or for proficiency 
in German together with either French or English). (Jf 
these 7 candidates 3 obtained the mark of special dis- 
tinction in Grerman only, and 1 in German and English. 

« • • 

In the eleven examinations held since the establish- 
ment of the Mediseval and Modem Languages Tripos 
179 candidates (84 men. 95 women) mive obtained 
Honours Degrees. In the first years the number of 
successful candidates was but small (1886, 6 ; 1887, 5), 
but after the reform of the Tripos (in 1891, first ex- 
amination in 1894) made it less medieval and much 
more elastic, the numbers of successful candidates have 
always been well over 20 (1894, 22 ; 1895, 28 ; 1896, 22 ; 
1897, 28). The special distinctions obtained so far for 
German have been 16 ; English, 6 ; French, 3. A more 
detailed account of the rise, progress and aims of the 

Tripos will be given in a subsequent number. 

• « « 

In the Intercollegiate Examination in Mediaeval and 
Modem Languages held for Honours Students in their 
first and second years 41 candidates (20 men, 21 women) 
presented themselves. Some students do not for some 
reason or other enter for this examination, hence it 
may be assumed that the total number of first and 
second year Honours Students of Modem Languages 
amounts to about 50. As there were 82 candidates (an 
unusually large number) for the Tripos, it follows that 
at least oO students (about half of whom women) were 
reading for the Medieval and Modem Languages Tripos 
at Cambridge during the academical year 1896-7. 

The Special Examination for Modem Languages does 
not flourish at Cambridge. The requirements are too 
low and the study not very attractive. Hence almost 
all students of Modem Languages are reading for the 


• « « 

The question is often being asked what a boy should 
prepare who intends to come up to Cambridge to com- 
pete fcH* an Entrance Scholarship or Exhibition m Modem 
Languages. As to German it is necessary that he 
should be well prepared in general information, and be 
proficient in oixlinary German translation, composition 
and essay- writing. But it is not at all important that 
he should have read any German older than Luther's 
language^ and he is not required to know any old German 
or historical grammar systematically. Questions used 
to be asked in some early Scholarship papers, but were 
abandoned some time ago. A little Middle High 
German would prove very useful but need not be taken. 
A boy's knowledge of Modem German should reach the 
same standard as that required of the liatin of boys 
competing for classical scholarships. The more he 
knows of the classical languages the better. (See Edu- 
cational Timet, May 1, 1894, pp. 228-29.) 

« « • 

Modern Language Scholarships, Exhibitions and 
Prizes, although still scarce, are vet b^ no means wanting 
at Cambridge. Entrance Scholarships are so far only 
offered by King's College and by (xonvillo and Caius 
College (application for particulars should be made to 
the ^nior Tutors of these Colleges}. Several (Alleges, 
more especially King's, CJaius, Christ's, and St John's, 
award Soholaruiips, etc., to their own students on the re- 
sults of the Intercollegiate Examination in Modem Lan- 
guages at the end of the first or second year. Trinity 
oUege, which has more than once given Sisarshipe U> 
Modem Language students, has several times provided 
special Scho&rship Examinations in Modem Languages, 
and has twice awarded scholarships to students of excep- 
tional merit King's Colle^ has just awarded a scholar- 
ship to a student who obtained a good first class in the 
Tnpos. Apart from these scholarships and exhibitions, 
there are two prises (Skeat Prise, Yidil Prise, but not 
yet a prize for (German) to be competed for by Modem 


Laogua^ studonta. (Soe "Ttui Studiuit'i Ouide to tlic 
UniTemty of Cambridin," part iL, p. 39. Cambiiiiite, 
1892. li.) r- ' i~ 

TBI Alllnare /"mnjiiiV, tbat does such good wgrk in 
propneating the Pranoh inngunga and enooura^nD^ ita 
ktiid^, has, a^ain this year, a double summer s«ssior>, 
hegiDoina, tbo one on the Jat ot July, the Bopond on 
tha lat of AugiiBt. 

Thrsi Conn de Vataiuu are held in Paru. Tba Pro- 
(^Duna ia uomprehenaiTe. Each series will contain a 
oouna of laotures on — (1) pronunciation and elocution {a 
eoune which oan be warmly ret^ommended to lecturerSf 
and jBpeaken in genorol; (2) tho Fronoh language t 
(3) Clusical literutiiro (tiiil«eiitb, soventeen^ and 

thteent)] ceaturieg); (4) OoDtamiionu'y literature; 
the Inatitutions of France; (6) tho Iliitorj of 
iDoh Art, illustralnd by visits to the Museuttis and 
Monumonla of Paris. Knally, there will bs amall 
CoDTetsntion DlasBeB. [iresided over by a French leo- 

Tkk lecturura are all well known ; we nood only quote 
the riuroes of M. Oeorgos Berr. o( tlie Cnmfdie Fninetitt. 
H. Doumic, the author of the excellent French litera- 

The lectims an> ■□ nrrangod as not to ohish, and ore 
■^n to stndDntH of both hbiba, and of all nationalities ; 
uid the fe«e very low. Any information ia Eivon at 
DDoe on npidicBtlon to theSo^tary, AUiana Fraa^it, 
4S Rue de Greuelle, Paris, 

Fob those who pr 
pisge Holiday Coun 

' ' ' the Teachers' Guild, boa arraiieed a 
■ at Toura an well as at Caon. ' Erory 
diBtaJ] is^ven in the practical PrDspectua inaaed by the 
Secratanes. and tha progmnima for tbis year i 

>untry tbe Modem Lan- 
day Courses (.'ommiltoo. Aiot has now omnl- 
gamatad with the Teachers' Guild, baa i 

Teachers' Guild, 7< G 


It should not be for^tCen that tbe French cycline 
etub, Totring Club de Fmaa (subaeiiptioo, 5 Inncsf. 
has anrnmer eicursiona, imder tho leader«hip of /iru- 
foitun, in wbteh many would find both enjoyment and 
profit. Address, fi Rue Coq Htfron, Paris, 

It is regrettable that tho similar couraoa being held 
this moDth in Horbiir); i. H. can ho of no use to the 
majority of BngliiA students, whose vacation bogina in 
AiuniBt. Thoae who wish for poliiculan lihonld write 
to ProfesMor Koschwils, in Marburg. 

'Has ObeitsWaLU Courses will bo held from July Sth 
to Angust 3rd, These ooursea ore not aoDfin»l to 
German and French only, but coiirsea on Pfaoneticii, 
English, and History are also offered. They are larDsly 
Rttsndeil bf Gorman and Scandinavian teocbora. Cer- 
tiflc&tOB of attandonce will he given if desired. Tba 
fee for the whole course is £1. A reception of members 
trill bo held on July 7th. For portioulare application 
■faould be tmule to Trof. Bcbmitt, Ph.D., I>}mftrasse 
(0, Greifawold. 

Tb> Jbna Holiday Courses will Uko place after tbe 
two before -mentioned countee are over, vis., from 
Auniat 3n>l to 'Jlst, They will bo portly philosophical 
witb special retereDce to the weals of teuchen in 
general Ipnidagogv, psyohology, health ut crbool. etc.), 
partly philological and literary for foreign (eachera lud. 
students. Elementary leasona in German Bcoerdii^ to 
the direct method will be given by an experienced 
Qennan teacher. The fees voir- Que whole linguistic 
(German) courao. including loo for six exouraiontt, 
eomoB to £1, ]0a. For particulan apply to Herm 
Tlngo Weintuiuin, 4 SjiitKwutdenweg, Jonn. 

These German Holiday Courses are now so well known 
and appreciated that they do not stand in need of 
special eulogy. They are iDstruotive, enjoyable and 
inexpensive, and thus bid fair to And more lavour every 
year with English students and teachers of Geimon. 
Additional attraction is afforded by tha beautiful ex- 
ournons which can easily be made from Morbuiv along 
thelovely Lahn valley to Wetzlar, Ems and tbe Rhino: 
from Oreif><wald to the ahores of tho Baltic, Stnilsund 
and the island of Itllgcn ; and from Jena to Weimar, 
Eisenach and the fine oastlea on Uie banks of tbe Saale. 

Therh appears to bo room — in Germany— for anoUiar 
series of monographs on questions of English Language 
and Literature. Professor Trautmann'a "BoonorBeTt- 
rii^ mr Anglistik " will comiiionce well with the 
editor's inveatigations on Cynowulf, the Old Knglish 
Riddles, and Old English Metric. Dr Max Flimtor 
[dii JCAgludLm fcVo-AmrAnWBjw"). and Dr T. Emirt 
Wtllfing Idif TVoju Sagt in Englcmd), will also be early 

for tho \ 

'e roodeiit labour of ooUecting 

Deeded, and should oommunioato with Mr Walter Ripp- 

STrDBNTS of Phonetics may beint^reslod in Dr B. J. 

Aoatoniy and Phynology, i 

i. p. 233 ff. 

Sir JnaBu,^ FrrcH gave a useful warning in hii paper 
on "9oDie rimitatiiniB to Technical Inatruction, read 
before the International Congresa on Technical Ednea- 
tion, which mot in London on Jane 15th and 16th. Ha 
asked the enthuaiasta" not to exaggerate the ednoa- 
tional value of manual inatruotion, or suppoae that all 
our difficullie* were to bo solved by turning onr aohools 


by turning onr sohoola 
Tor the Germans have 

In order to rightly ostimalo the priiapecte and needs of 
Uieirtudyand teaching of German in Great Britain it 
is of ^Toet importance to obtain a general nu-rey of 
what u being done and required at the present moment 
in our Schools and UniversitJea. As a first inalalment 
we print in this number some interesting aecoanti of 
German in the Army Examinations, of Gorman in the 
Univorsi ty of Wales, of Gorman io Inah Schools (Dublin). 
Further contributions will bo welcome. 

PlutFiason CHADLEa H, HRnFORD of AtMryatwrth is 
preparing a History of German Lileraturo for Mrdixse's 
series called "Literatures of the World" (London, 
Heinemann). A really good history of Qennan litera- 
ture written in Engliah is very much wanted. Profeaaor 
C. A. Buchbeim of London is preparing an edition of 
Hoine's "Lioder und Oedichta" (selected and edited 
with a literary Introduction and Notes). The book will 
form a companion volume to the same editor's "Deutecho 
Imik" and ■' Balladen und Romansen," publbhed liy 
Messrs Macmillan in their Oolden Tnatary Srria. Dr 

oul of Cambridge is linisbinj 
lioeme s Iphigeoie, and Mr H. J. noanennoims ms 
edition of Lesaing's Minna von Bambelm for tho Pitt 
Press tteries. Messrs Macmillan and Co. will publish 
before long a now " German Series " edited by Mr Otto 
Sjiepmann of Clifton College. This eeriea introduces a 
number of works by dislinguiahod German authors, 
such ut GrillparMr, Roseggor, Fontono, who are pro- 
minent in their own country, but whose hooka have not 
yet received the roeognition among our school -classics 
which is their due ; it further includes some master- 
pieces by well-known authors, such as Guatav Preytag. 
Victor Ton ScbelTuI, Emit von Wiidenlirush and othera 
of which OS yet do English sobool editions aiiBt. 
Among the editora are ProFcaaors Fiedler, Bim^Anann and 
Weiss, Menrs Siepoiann, Schlapp, MUner-fiarry, Ash, 
Voogplin, and Dr Breul, 






Sir, — It is scarcely too much to say that the method 
of teaching in this country is not only different from, 
but also sorely behind the standard of instruction as 
practised on the Continent. We say " teaching " : since 
no fair-minded person will find fault with English edu- 
cation as opposed to English instruction. For the 
character and morale of the English youths ; for their 
bodily development ; there is no lack of right methods, 
and thus no want of great results. As to the training 
of the mind, on the other hand, there is very little to 
be proud of. The various branches of knowledge are 
taught unsystematically ; without any higher impulse ; 
stimulating neither the intellect nor the imagination, 
and least of all, the memory. The British Empire has 
immense possessions in the East; yet there is no 
'* Oriental Academy " for the study of Asiatic languages, 
as there is in Russia, Prussia, Austria, Italy, and 
France. The British Empire has the greatest number 
of colonies ; yet the condition of cartography and of 

Siogntphic instruction is of the poorest. Tne study of 
istorv does not date back over twenty years ; and 
instead of giving English boys and girls a clear view of 
European history, the study of that indivisable subject 
is broken up into bits of " periods/' and parts of such 

The faults committed are numerous. We venture to 
advance that the most glaring shortcoming is in the 
manner of delivering lectures in England. The teacher 
almost invariably reads his lecture. This is supposed 
to carry great advantages of precision, accuracy, etc. 
with it. It does nothing of the kind. It deadens the 
entire effect by relaxing the attention of the hearer. 
A read lecture is a still -^m lecture. A lecture freely 
delivered goes straight from the teacher's mind to that 
of the pupil. Person talks to person, soul to soul. 
What is chiefly wanted in teaching young minds, is the 
power of rivetting their attention, that conditio sine qua 
Hon of all concentrated mental effort. This the reading 
lecturer cannot do. He cannot watch his i>upil ; he has 
no means of ascertaining whether or no his pupils are 
following him. It is quite idle to allege that lectures, 
if to be delivered freely, would tax the teacher's 
memory and powers of exposition too heavily. So they 
would, if the teacher had had no preliminary training. 
But then he ought not to teach. In Austria-Hungary, 
Germany, Italy, and largely also in France, nearly all 
teaching, and nearly all examinations are done virni voce. 
The rule is, that every teacher is expected to know his 
subject well enough to bo able to give 70 or 80 
lectures on it in the course of a year, without con- 
stantly staring into his manuscript. After some time 
the teacher is so accustomed to that mode of teaching, 
that reading his subject would simply confuse him ; 
just as it would any two persons having a serious 
business dialogue in an office. Preachers too almost 
invariably abstain from reading their sermons ; and in 
Austria- Hungary, for instance, a professor who should 
read his lecture would be badly laughed at by his pupils, 
likewise the pupils. The most rigorous exams on 
the Continent are invariably and almost exclusively 
viva voce. By this means the pupil learns what both in 
theoretic research and in the battle of life is the most 
important thin^ to learn : quick apprehension and 
rapid coordination of facts, together with facile expres- 
sion of their purport. Hence the ^neral intellectual 
superiority ot young merchants, engineers, doctors, and 
lawyers, etc. on the Continent, as compared with their 
colleagues of the same age in England, It is largely 
complained of that the German commercial traveller 
supplants the English traveller. It is not so generally 
seen that he does so chiefly owing to his greater adapt- 
ability and quickness of mind. It ought to be known 
that this greater adroitness and readiness of mind is 
mainly the consequence of viva voce examinations, and 
vifa voce teaching. 

If the above statements can be easily proved with 
regard to the study of Science and History generally, 
they become self-evident with regard to the study of 
modem languages. The imperative need of that study 
is conceded on all hands. The poor results obtained so 
far — speaking generally — are also admitted. We have 
no hesitation in saying that these results are owing to 
an incomprehensible neglect of viva voce teaching and 
examining of modem languages. ** Papers " have their 
use ; but they become bcmeful when they crowd out the 
living teaching and examining by viva voce methods. 
Let us begin ^e reform of teaching by insisting in all 
possible and feasible manners on the absolute necessity 
of discarding the bulk of the " paper "-work, putting 
in its stead the animating and alone truly instructive 
method of inva voce teaching and examining. Language 
is articulate music ; and music cannot be acquii^ by 
sight. If teachers of modem languages take the lead, 
the surprising results that they will soon be able to 
show, vnU. be the most effective means of introducing 
the reform in English instruction: viva voce teaching 
and examining. Emil Rkich. 

Dbar Sir, — Will you kindly allow mo to ask the help 
and advice of Members of the Association through the 
medium of your columns. 

I am adapting for English readers a recently pub- 
lished work by Prof. Koschwite entitled ** EUnleitung 
sum Studium der franzosisohen Philologie," and as I 
wish to give the translation a more authoritative value 
than it would have as expressing merely the personal 
opinion of the translator, I should be extromely obliged 
if Modem Language masters would be so good as to 
give me the benefit of their advice and experience on 
the following points : 

(1) The best advanced text-books for prose, un- 

seens, historical grammar and Frencn history. 

(2) The names of any good dictionaries other than 

Gasc, ElwflJl, and Spiers. littr^, and the dic- 
tionaries of the Frencn Academy (with, if 
possible, reliable hints for pronunciation^. 

(3) The addresses of any good French pensions in 

f^nce or Switzerland, with particulars of the 
cost of living, etc. 

(4) The personal opinion of the writers as to the ad- 

visability of introducing some form of phonetic 

instruction in the lower forms of English 

schools^ and secondly, as to the advisability of 

secondmg all written examinations with a vive 

voce conversational text. 

I had originally intended to send round a printed 

circular asking for information on these points, but as I 

am living in Germany, there were too many difficulties 

in the way and, I hope, gentlemen interested in Modem 

Language teaching will be so kind as to respond to this 

app^, — the voice of one crying in the wilderness. 

P. Shaw Jeffrbt, M.A. 
Elisabethstrasse 6, Marburg i. Hessen, Germany. 


" Capadoeums." ** Capadosha,*' 

In tho north-west of Devon the word ** capadoci- 
ous *' is in fairly common use in the sense of splendid, 
excellent. Thus, ** I tellee I've a-had a capa- 
docious dinner." In East Yorkshire a similar word, 
''capadosha," is used in much the same sense. 
'* Machine lewks capadosha, an she gans capadosha." 
I should be glad to hear whether either of these 
words or anything like them may be heard in any 
part of the British Isles besides Devon and Yorkshire. 
*' Cappadochio " was formerly used as a slang name 
for prison, according to Nares. — The Editor of the 
English Dialect Dictionabt. 
Clarendon Press, Oxford. 




NOVEMBER 15th 1896 to JUNE 15th 1897. 

Reference U made to the following Jonmals : Acad. (The Academy), Anglia, gJ.d.P. (zeltsehrift ftir dentflohe PhOologle), 
Archi9 (Arehlr fUr das Stndinm der Neaeren Sprachen and Litteratnren), Neupiil. Cbl. (Kenphilologlaches Centralblatt), 
The Practical feaeher. The School Guardian, The Schoolmaster s^.d U., (zeltachrlit ftir den deotaehen Unterrioht), Secondary 
Education, Time* (The Timea). 

Qalde 1., Qoide 11^ Nov. 1 and 3 of the Modem Language Teachers' Guide, edited bj Waltbb Rippmanv, copies of which 
(price 4d., bj post 4|d.)i can be obtained on application to the Editor of the Quarterly, 



AddiaoB. Sir Socer de CoTerley. Edited, with Notes, 
Life, etc, by J. R. Larob and A. A. Larok. Rox- 
burghe Press. 1897. Long 8vo, pp. 138 ; 2b. 1 

*< Spectator,** Selectloms firom the. Edited, 

with Introduction and Notes, by Rev. H. Evans, 
D.D. Blackie&Son. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 148 ; 2s. 2 

Speaker, 27 March '97 (" notes admirable in their cleameas 
and accuracy**); Athen,, 24 April *97 (" notea not adequate**). 

Mattliew Ameld** Peems. Selected and Edited by 

G. C. Macaulat. Macmillan k Ck>. 1897. 12mo, 

pp. 180 ; 28. 6d. 3 

Journ. Bduc., Feb. 97, p. 116 (*' notes few and to the point 
... no impertinences of philological lore or grammatical 
commonplaces"); Edue. Rev., Feb. '97 (▼. fav.). 

Aytomn. TIm Sarlal MMrck ef Dawdee, aad Tke 
Islaad af the Seats. Edited by W. K. Lbask, 
M.A. Blackie & Son. 1897. Fcap. 8yo, pp. 32 : 
paper, 2d., cl. 8d. 4 

Bacaa. Opat Majas. Edited by Dr Bridobs. Oxford, 
Clarendon Press. [Immtdiaiely, 5 

Bssajs. Selected and Edited by Dr Evans. 

Blackie & Son. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 100 ; Is. 6 

Essays. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by 

A. S. Wbst, M.A. Cambridge University Press. 
1897. 12mo. pp. 322 ; cL 3s. ^., hlf. pchmt 5s. 7 

Speaker, 10 April *97 ('* admirable, and in every sense satis- 
factory"): Bduc. Rev.,A'pr.*97 C*one of the best educational 
editions of Bacon now in the market*'). 

Banyaa. Pllgrlaa*s Prasress. In Modem English. 
Edited by J. Morrison. Macmillan. 1897. 12mo, 
pp. 196 ; Is. 6d. 8 

Aead., 17 Apr. '97 ("of all old writers none so little needs 
clarifying as John Bunyan. . . . The new illomlnated Ban- 
yan . . ."). 

a. Barke, Seleetloai froai. Edited, with Notes 
imd Introduction, by Buss Bbrrt, Professor in 
Princeton University. New York : H. Holt & Co. 
1897. 16mo, pp. xxvi. and 298. 9 

Jlaras. Select Paeais. Arranged in chrono- 
logical order, with Introduction, Notes and a 
Glossary, by A. J. Gboror, M.A. Isbister. 1897. 
O. 8vo, pp. 406; Ss. 6d. 10 

ByroB, Warks} ed. £. K5lbino {Ouide U, 4). 
Weimar. Felber. 11 

Reviewed by R. W[Ulker] in LU. Chi., 6 March *97 (*'die 
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ChUde IUrold*s Pllgrtmace. Edited by K 

C £. OwBN. Edw. Arnold. 1897. 12mo, pp. 
300 ; Is. 6d. 12 

Carlyle. The Hero as Bfaa af letters. Edited, with 
Introduction, by M. HuNTER, M.A. Bell k Sons. 13 

The Hero as Dlvlalty. Edited, with Introduc- 
tion, by M. UUNTBR, M.A. 14 

Colerldsc. The Blme of the Aaeleat Marlaer. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by U. Batbs, 

A.B. ; Preface by P. A. Barnbtt, M.A. Long- 

mans & Co. 1897. Crown 8vo, pp. 92 ; Is. 4d. 15 

Joum. Edue., May '97, p. 292 (faronrablo) ; Edue. Rev., March 
'97 ('< introducUon particularly good**). 

Coveatry Papers firom the ** Spectator ** } ed. K. 

Dbiohton {Ouide IL 5). Macmillan k Co. 16 

Edue, Rev,, Nor. *96 (favourable). 

Cowper, Shorter Poems f ed. W. T. Wrbb {Outde 
n. 6). Macmillan & Ca 17 

Joum. Edue., Feb. *97, p. 168 (*' an honest piece of Journey- 
man work "). 

Coldsmlth. The ¥icar af Wakefleld. Edited, with 
Introduction and Notes, by M. Macmillan. Mac- 
millan k Co. 1897. Globe 8vo, pp. xxviii. -1-268; 
2s. 6d. 18 

Cray. Poeais. Edited by Rev. D. C. Tovbt. Cam- 
bridge University Press. [In preparation, 19 

Washlastoa Irvlag. Tales af a Traveller. With 
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face by P. A. Barnbtt, M.A. Longmans k Co. 
1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 438 ; 2s. 6d. 20 

Edue. Rev., March *97 ('* special emphasis hid on the fanport- 
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ing up other paths of reading suggested by his works'*). 

Ben Joasoa. Every Haa la his Hamaar. Edited, 
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NEiLB Dixon, Litt.D. Dent k Co. 1897. 16mo, 
pp. 160 ; cl. Is. net, roan Is. 6d. net. 21 

Hacaalay. Lord Cllve. Warren Hasttacs {Guide 
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Joum. Edue., Apr. '97, p. 247 (" wiB supply a distinct want**). 

-^ — Essay oa Hlltoa. Edited by J. G. Crosswbll, 

A.B. ; Preface by P. A. Barnbtt, M.A. Longmans 

k Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, p.p. 136; Is. 4d. 28 

Edue. THmes, March '97, p. 162 (•* notes poor; interesting 
introduction"); Edue. Rev., March '97 ('*a very completely 
equipped edition.'*) 

Harlowe. Edward the Second. Edited, with a 
Preface, Notes, and Glossary, by A. W. Vbritt, 
M.A. Dent k Co. 1896. 16mo, pp. xL-|-138; 
cl. Is. net, roan Is. 6d. net. 24 

Dr Faastas. Edited, with a Preface, Notes, 

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1897. 16mo., pp. xiv. and 112; cl. Is. net, roan 
Is. 6d. net. 25 

Atheu., 6 June '97 (** . . . errors, however, excepted, it must 
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Hlltoa. Paradise Lost. Books IX. and X. Edited, 

with Introduction, Notes, Glossary and Indexes, by 

A. W. Veritt. Cambridge University Press. 1897. 

12mo, pp. 236 ; 2s. 26 

Guard., 18 Jan. *97 ; Eiiuc. Rev., Apr. '97 (very faroarabls.) 

Samson Isonlstcs. Edited bv Bdm. K. Cbam- 

BBRS. Blackie & Son. [Nearly nadp. 27 



J«lim IIC1117 MewBiaw, Belertions ttomt tke Prose 
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1895. 16mo, pp. lxi.+228; cl. 50o., buckram. 
90c. 28 

Pope. Essay on CriticlsBi. Edited, with Intro- 
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Essay on Criticism. Edited by Rev. H. Evans. 

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Speaker^ 9 Jan. *97 (**lntrodaetory matter useful and not too 
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Essay on Criticism; ed. A. S. West {Ouidt 

L 15, IL 15). Cambridge University Press. 81 

Speet.f 9 Jan. *97 (very favourable). 

Scott. Tlie Lay of tlie Last Blinstrel ; ed. J. H. 

Flather {Guide I. 20). Cambridge University 
Press. 32 

BpecL, 9 Jan. *97 (** useful ") ; Athen., 26 Aug. *96. 

Tlie Talisman. Edited, with Introduction, 

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Oxford, Clarendon Ihress. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. xx. + 471; 
28. 33 

Woodstock. Edited by Prof. B. Pbrbt. A.M. 

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'97, p. 292 (** notes conflned to indispensable explanations of 
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(V. fav.). 

Sluikespeare. Cymbelinc. Edited by A. J. Wtatt. 

Blackie k Son. 1897. 12mo. pp. 210 ; Is. 6d. 35 

Speaker, 6 Feb. '97 (favourable) ; Bookman, March '97. p. 187 
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Hamlet. Questions and Notes. By Stanley 

Wood, M.A. Manchester, Heywood. Is. 36 

Edne. Times, March '97, p. 162 (highly commended); 
Bookman, Feb. '97, p. 158 (** questions Intelligent enough; some 
of the answers are far from being models of style **). 

Part I. of Kins Henry the Fonrtli. Edited 

by Dr Aldis Wrioht. (Oxford, Clarendon Press. 

[ImmediaUly. 87 

A Midsnmmer Nlfflit's Dream ; ed. E. K. 

CHAMBBiiS (Guide II. 31). Blackie & Son. 38 

Aead., 20 March '97 (<* wonderfully rich In Illustrative 
natter, and no aspect or Interest of the play Is neglected ") ; 
Sat. Rev,, 80 Jan. '97 (" serviceable"). 

Hlcluird n. Edited by C. H. Gibson. Edw. 

Arnold. 1897. 12mo, pp. 198 ; Is. 6d. 39 

Aead., 8 May '97 (" exceOent of its kind "). 

Hlcluml lU. ; ed. G. Maodonald {Outde II. 34). 

Blackie & Son. 40 

Sat. Rev., 80 Jan. *97 (*' serviceable ") ; Joum. Edue., April 
'97, p. 247 (" a useful working edition"). 

The Tempest I ed. A. W, Vkrity {Guide II. 

36). 41 

Educ. Rev., Nov. '96 (*' probably the most complete school 
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The Tempest. Edited by F. S. Boas. Blackie 

& Son. 1897. 12mo, pp. 160 ; Is. 6d. 42 

Speaker, 6 Feb. '97 (favourable) ; Bookman, March *97, p. 187 
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parttculfu'ly good . . . notes show desire to bring the Utersry 
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The Tempest. Edited by Stanlbt Wood, M.A. 

Manchester, Heywood. Is. 43 

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Faerie Qneene. Book I. Edited by Katb M. 

Warren. Constable & Co. 1897. Fcap. 8vo, p] 
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Edue., 20 Msrch *97 C* The text Is good, sad so Is the print- 
ing. But the introduction Is hardly, and the notes are not at aU, 
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(commended) ; Speaker, 27 March 97 (very favourable) ; Book- 
man, Apr. '97, p. 22 C'carefnlly edited ") ; Educ. Rev,, Apr. '97 
(*' notes brief, glossary copious "). 

Steele, Selections fkrom the « TaUer,** « Spectator,** 
and ** ISnanlian.** With Introduction and Notes, 
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1697. 2nd. Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Extra 
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SelecUons flrom the << Tatler." Edited by L. £. 

Stbblb, M.A. Macmillan h Co. 1896. Gl. Svo. 
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Sat. Rev., 80 Jan. '97 (favourable); Educ. Rev., Feb. *97 
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John Webster. The Dnchess of Malfl. Edited, with 
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M.A. Dent & Co. 1896. 16mo, pp. xv.+151; 
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Aead., ft Dec. '96 C* pleasantly printed. . . . Prof . Vanghan's 
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Webster and his play, together with some very Just and useful 
criticism "). 

Wordsworth. The Excursion. Book I. With 
Introduction and Notes by M. T. QuiNN, M.A. 
Bell & Sons. 1897. Is. 3d. 50 

Arden of Fevertham. Edited, with a Preface, Notes 
and Glossary, by Rev. R. Batnb, M.A. Dent & 
Co. 1897. 16mo, pp. xi. +114; cl. Is. net, roan 
Is. 6d. net. 51 

Athen., ft June *97 C' satisfactorily edited"). 

The Two Noble Kinsmen. Edited, with a Preface. 
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net, roan Is. 6d. net. 52 

Aead., 8 May *97 (" excellent "); Athen., 6 June '97 (** satis- 
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English I.yric Poetry. 1560-1700. With an Intro- 
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An excellent selection of Ijrrics, with a suggestive Introdnetlon. 
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Knclish Masiines. With an Introduction by H. A. 
Evans, M.A. (The Warwick Library). Blackie & 
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A Treasnry of Minor British Poetry. Selected and 
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Joum. Edue., Feb. 
burled merit "). 

'97, p. 116 (** he has unearthed much 

English Prose Selections. Edited by Hbnrt Craik. 
Vol. v., "Nineteenth Century." Macmillan 
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Aead. 9 Jan. *97 C' Looking back over the work now happily 
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Edue. Rev., Feb. '97 (" on the whole a finely representative 
selection "). 

Bnglish Essays ; ed. J. H. Lobban {Guide II. 43). 
Blackie k Son. 57 

Joum. Educ., March '97, p. 179 (*' Mr Lobban has accom. 
pUshed his task with care and good Judgment"). 



A Manual of Eoallili Lllrmtarr. BlRlorlrnl anil 
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Bnsll«li I,llrT»Iar« from A.D, «• l« A.D. I83i. 

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BaslUb UlcralBTe, fran eT«-is»s. By H. A. Brooke. 

Partly rewritton, reviBwl, and corractod. Mm- 

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UUnrr Mudmti Uiat we kninr . . . ■ mnt lunrijr anil reiubli 

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Tke As* of Wardawi 

Boll&Soni. 1891 

Htmlcabljr. . '. , The tndi 
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("InlmMlT InMreiMng I 

. Frof. a. wrllei 

A HIstsry orBacUiik FMlry. By W. J. OoiTRTHnnc, 

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dmn eln Buch vie da* Kinlce lunn hUhv uieiteodGa Wb^unc 

niwb adf diD vlueDechoftliche Fondiang nlehl enuonEeln'' 

SkakCBitrai'F. Bacon, Johmb, and Vrmnt-t a 
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dIdiWi and the ' I 
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InlelUgcot rudlng of nine unmeet IIidh 
an mint (iw|nentl» read -at «heol."'): 
T ('-a rciT hsl]i(al lolrudactlon to the cblof 

Tke TearhtBC at Knglkk LlleralHre In Brbooti. 

By J. Chuhtiim Collins. 7G 


An EbrI1*Ii VranBiar for Ike Isr of HliA Hrhsoi, 
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BaSHBBVILLS and J. W. Sswell. American Book 
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._.... .. "- >hlrh ft h •rtllen. ThBilnu 

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Key la Dr Kow'a Mctkad at BnsHik (hr H«coiid- 

ary Hcfaoall. By T. B. HABor. Moomilkn A Co. 

1897. 12roo, pp. 240 : Si, net 77 

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T>Y a book on EnffUih waya and eniUnna. amuifBd on Che 

far tapsrkir to any of (he DTiUnary " aoDTcnalloo bookt" The 
aoibor li Is ha cooBralulUed on imUntln* a moil oaoful piece of 
work. WoharcnMicedaleHilipa, liierluMewhereaBchaboM 

bylhc knosledce and care wl 

delleMr of UloaiT appnclatlco and ripe Judgment")^ Baatmaii. 
AwrW, p. 13 ("adnilnbla'i caretnlly rerlcwed by B. K. 



L Abanl. Lo lUI drs MontacBu. Edited, with 
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Cambridge ITnivonity Preaa, 1887. Kxtra fcnp. 

nma, 11 Dec. 'M (" wlUiln tl 


aumyi tlie gcTenl dcnarimenU 

of lltsrston lu tbH period wl 

aagaclty-); iaum. Bd.c, Fob.' 

■d ^mpMht and tine erlli« 

and wril infanned. But hi* aeer 

nnt la tomewbal .mppjr , 


('■note* iM^bly brief, i 

mncb dlaappolnicd , . . lUmneil tor 
'dinati! number of Iruialallou glrrn 
gf huly proiloillon"); Kiv. Ttmci, 
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■Ulan. By J. BaSb Hpllinger, M.A., 
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[T (oil and canfnily prepared"). 

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<S. Aimard. !«• Trmppean d«rArluiHMUi. Edited 
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Acad.1 23 Jan. '97 (rery fayoarable) ; Bdue. Timet, March '97, 
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Aasler amd Sandeaa. I> Geadre de H. Poirter. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by B. W. 
Wblls, Ph.D. Isbister k Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 
118 : Is. 3d. 82 

Guard., 28 Apr. *97; Joum. Edue., March *97, p. 175 ("topical 
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A. de Balsac. Le Car^ de Toars aad other Stories. 

Selected and Edited, with Introduction and ^otes, 
by F. M. Warren. New York : H. Holt k Co. 
1897. 8vo, pp. xi7. +267 ; 75 c. 83 

De Beraard. L'Aaaeaa d'argeat. Edited by Louis 
Sers, Wellington College. (Siepmann's French 
Series.) Maomillan & Co. [^Ready shortly. 84 

L. Blart. Qaaad J*«Uts petit. Part I. ; ed. J. 
BolBLLB (Quide IL 59). Cambridge University 
Press. 85 

Sped., 30 Jan. '97 ("a quite delightful book, which has been 
adequately handled by the editor "); Educ 7Ytne«, Feb. '97, 
p 81 (** not«s fair, free of glaring errors, but at times somewhat 
prolix and stagey. The vocabulary is helpful") [The Yocabu> 
bury Is Incomplete]. 

L^Blart. Qaaad J*«tols petit. Part II. Edited by 
J. BoIbllb. Cambridge University Press. 

[In preparation, 86 

L. Cladel. Aehllle et Patrocle. Edited, with 
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Lb Francois. Blackie k Son. 1897. Fcap. 8vo, 
pp. 56 ; 8d. 87 

Caraeille. ht Cld. Avec notices, analyses et notes, 
par L. Pbtit de Jullbvillb. Hachette & Co. 
1897. 16mo, pp. 251 ; Is. 88 

Caraetlle. I^ €ld« Edited, with Introduction and 
Notes, by F. M. Warrbn. Isbister k Co. 1897. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. 164 ; Is. 6d. 89 

Guard., 28 Apr.' 97. 

Daaias, ¥lact Aas Aprte ; ed. F. Tarvbr {Guide II. 
65). Edw. Arnold. 90 

Athen., 6 Feb. '97 C* a good rending book; notes brief, but to 
the point "); Edue, Times, Feb. '97, p. SI (" notes fairly (till and 
useful ">. 

Pierre Latl, Belectlaas flrai 

Edited, with Intro- 

duction, Notes, and Bibliography, by A. G. 
Camkron, Ph.D. New York : H. Holt k Co. 1897. 
12mo, pp. X.+185. 91 

Hlckaad. La preaii^re €rolsade« Edited by V. 
Houghton, Isleworth College. (Siepmann's French 
Series.) Macmillan & Co. [Ready shortly. 92 

Holt^re. L*A¥are. Edited, with Introduction and 
Notes, by E. G. W. Braunholtz, M.A., Ph.D. 
Cambridge University Press. 1897. Extra fup. 
8vo, pp. xlviii. +245 ; 2s. 6d. 93 

Acad., 23 Jan. '97 (*' of uniform excellence . . . grammatical 
and explanatory DOtes adequate and clear*'); Edue. Times, 
March '97, p. 158 ('* a noteworthy edition ; to lovers of Holl^ro 
we heartily recommend the book"); L. g. r. P., March '97, 
110 C*gani vonttgUch . . . alien andem welt Uberlegen"); 
Guard., 90 Jan. '97 ; Edue. Rev., Feb. '97 (v. fav.). 

■aciae. Iphlg^ale. Edited by B. D. Woodward, 
B.-^-L., Ph.D. American Book Co. ; 60 cents. 94 

Saadeaa. Umen et pareliemias. Edited by E. Pbl- 
LI8SIER, Lvc^e Rochefort. (Siepmann's French 
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Thearlet. L*abM Daalel. Edited by Paul Dbsaoes, 
Cheltenham College. (Siepmann's French Series. ) 
Macmillan k Co. Ready shortly, 96 

Taadaase. Madame Laaibelle} ed. J. BoIbllb 
(Guide I. 79). Whittaker k Co. 97 

Edue., 27 March '97 (^* notes and Introduction kept within due 
limits"); ilca</., 28 Jan. '97 ("notes short and to the point**); 
Edue. Times, Feb. '97, p. 81 ('< notes good throughout**). 

Freaeh Poetry for the Toaas ; ed. V. Oger {Guide 
IL 81). Macmillan k Co. 98 

Edue. Rev., Jan. *97 (*' recommended for girls and boys from 
14 and upwards '*). 

Sceaes af Familiar Life; by Mrs J. G. Fbazbr 
{Guide II. 83). Macmillan k Co. 99 

Athen., 6 Feb. '97 ("dialogues lively and amusing; vocabulary 
Incomplete "); Sat. Rev., 8 Apr. *97 (" the little scenes are con- 
ceived In a dr^matij spirit, and written with a moat pleasant 
brightness and vivacity"); Edue. Times, Feb. '97, p. 81 (very 
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Preach Plays for Hchools \ by Mrs J. G. Frazbb 
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Joum. Edue. Jan. '97, p. 27 (** lively little comedies**) ; Edue. 
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(Teiy favourable) ; Edue. Rev., Apr. '97 (v. fav.). 

Coates et L^eades« Par H. A. Gubrbbr. American 
Book Co. 1895. 1" Partie, 8vo, pp. 183 ; II"** 
Partie, 8vo, pp. 192 ; 101 

Extralts des historleas fHuicals da XIX sltele. 

Par C. JULUAN. Hachette k Co. 1896. 16mo, 
pp. 800 ; 3s. 102 

B^lts extraltii des pontes et prosatears da aioyea 
lise mis ea nraarals aiodenie. Par Gaston 
Paris. Hachette £ Co. 1896. 8to, pp. viii.+ 
232 ; Is. 6d. 103 


Freaeh Llteratare. 


By Prof. E. Dowdbn, LL.D. 
[In prepa^'oiion. 104 

Gebert, W. Pr^els hlstorlqae de la Lltt^ratare 
ft^a^lse {Guide I. 90, II. 87) 105 

Lit. ChL, 12 Dec. '96 ("cine Im Ganzen wohlgelun^ne 
Ilberslchtiiche Darstellung der Geschichte der franz. Lit. . . . 
die aucb allgemein ols Lectllrewesrwelser nnd zu Repetitions- 
zwecken verwendbar und zn empfehlen ist.** Kn.)\ Neu. Spr., 
IV. 600 (»'brauchbar," U. P. Junker); Arehiv, XCVII. 488 
(favourable on the whole). 

La Lltt^ratare Fraa^lse da Dlx-Neavl^aie Sltele, 

Par Hago P. Thieme. Paris, Welter. 1897. 

Large 8vo, pp. 90 ; 3f. 50. 106 

'* Bibllofpraphie des prindpauz prosateurs, pontes, auteurs 

dramstiques et critiques, avec indication 1* pour chaqne auteur, 

du lieu et de Tanntfe de sa nalssance et, s*Il y a lieu, de sa mort ; 

8° pour chaquc onvrage, de son format, de son dditenr et de la 

date de sa premiere MItion ; 3° k la suite de chaque auteur, des 

biographies et des critiques litt^rnires parues soit sons forme de 

libre, soit dans des revues et Joumaux, tant en France qu* k 


Leetares aa Freaeh Llteratare; by L Drbtfus 
{Guide II. 86). Longmans k Co. 107 

Sped., 28 Nov. '96 ('* though insufficiently critical for much 
criticism, it is Interesting reading, and above all things, 
sympathetic"); Acad. 19 Dec. '96 ('*... Her great merit Is 
that she quotes abundantly . . . Her own comments are never 
very profound, but are Judicious, and make pleasant enough 
reading . . . The book is not so abominably dry ai m(»t 
similar compilations "). 


A Complete Freaeh Reader. Revised, with Addi- 
tions, by A. DuDBVANT, and edited by C. A. 
Thimm. Biarlborough. 1896. 6th ed. enlarged, 
pp. 836 ; 2b. 6d. 108 

I.ectares Coaraates t Qaaraate Lecoas de I<eetare 
et de Coayersatloas salvles d*Bxerclces et 
de Tradactloa. Par C. Fontainb, B.L., L.D. 
Isbister k Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 242 ; 8s. 6d. 109 

Edw. Rev., Apr. '97 ("a French readtr for advanced students, 
supplemented by exercises to be orally transUted Into French In 
class, and afterwards prepared, corrected, and re-copied ad hoe "). 



Framcals. Par G. JOST et A. Cahbn. Haohette 
kCo, 1897. 

Premiere S^rie : Contds, Fables, Proverbes et R^its 
morauz, Scenes de la Vie Scolaire et de la Vie de 
Famille, La Nature et lea Betes, La Patrie et 
rfiistoire, La Commie, etc. Cr. 8vo, pp. 416 ; 
Is. 6d. 110 

Deuxi^meSeri^; Fables, R^its, Contes, Scenes de la 
Vie Famili^re, .La Nature et les BStes, A Travers 
les Pays, L'Histoire et la L^gende, La Patrie, La 
Com^die. Crown 8vo, pp. 600; 2s. Ill 

VaefM Extmcto ^f BTeryday Fr««eli. By E. M. 

Spicbr. Simpkin. Marshall k Ca 1897. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 166; 28. 112 

Aead,^ 28 Jan. '97 (**a collection of cattings from rery 
recent newspapers . . . notes should be added"). 

A Hlfflier Fremeli Sender. By E. Wbeklet. Clive. 

1896. Crown 8to, pp. xiL + 190 ; Ss. 6d. 113 

Acad,, 33 Jan. *97 (*'well chosen from many of the best 
anthors of the present centnry, chiefly of the romantic school ") ; 
Sat. Rev,^ 8 Apr. '97 (** very much up to date"); Educ. Time*^ 
March '»7, p. 163 ("a very interesting compilation"); Joum. 
EduCf Feb. '97, p. 118 ("the difDculty is mainly one of vocabu- 
lary, not of construction or sWle . . . This Is a distinct defect. 
. . . With this reservation the passsRes are well chosen"); 
Bdme. Rev,^ Apr. '97. 

F«Hrth Fremeh Sender and Writer. By M. Ber- 
THON. Swan Sonnenschein k Co. 

[/n preparaJion, 114 

A Book of French Composition for Middle Forms ; 

b^ J. DuHAMBL and B. Minssbn (OuicU II. 93). 
Rivington, Percival & Co. 115 

8ai. Rev., 9 Jan. *97 (favourable); Athm., 34 Apr. '97 
{** fairly useful . . . the English of some of the exercises is 
clumsy and by no means idiomatic "). 

Selections for French Composition, with a Vocabu- 
lary. By Prof. C. H. Grandqent of Harvard 
University. (Heath's Series.) Isbister k Co. 

1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 160; Is. 6d. 116 

Edue.^ 37 March '97 ("constructed on the Imitative plan 
... it is assumed that pupils will have Prof. Grandgcnt's 
French Orammar*'); Educ. Time*, May *97. 

French Composition nnd Conversation. By E. T. 

ScHOKDBUN, B.A. Hachette & Co. 1897. Cr. 
8vo, pp. 192; 28. 6d. 117 

Educ., 37 Feb. *97 ('* Tlic book should prove very useful to 
teachers ss a mine from which to draw illustrations and 
examples, even if the class do not have it in their hands "). 

Famagefi ft'om Standard Anthors for Translation 
Into Modem Langnaces (Advanced Texts) ; 

ed. Milnbb-Barby and RiPPMANN. See below. 118 

First Facts and Sentences. By V. B^Tis and H. 

Swan. Geo. Philip & Son. {In preparation. 119 

A collection of simple scenes snd stm'ies described in easy 
Isnguage for the use of beginners, forming sn introduction to 
the " Facts of Life." 

€;iaM-room Conversations In French; by B^tis 
and Swan {Ouide II. 95). Geo. Philip k Son. 120 

Aead., 38 Jan. *97 (" The Conversations now before us seem 
well calculated to give the learner a rich store of idiom and 
considerable readiness ; formsl grammar must he sought else- 
where"); Edve. Timet, Jan. '97, p. 33 ("Messrs B. A S. h%ve 
done their work conscientiously"). 

II. GRAMMAR, <ftc. 

Anschannncsnnterrlcht Im Franftfslschen. Von 

Wilke Denervand. Leipzig und Wien, Raimund 
Gerhard. 1897. 8 vols (corresponding to the 8 
Hi>lfel pictures), each 80 pf . , with coloured H^lfel 
picture (reduced) each 45 pf. ; and a vocabulary to 
the whole, 60 pf. 121 

Hethodlsche fAnleltnng fttr den Anschannnctnn- 
terrlcht Im Kncllschen nnd Franzdslschen. 

Von Dr Edmund Wilke. Leipzig und Wien, Rai- 
mund Gerhard. 1897. 122 

Die Wlchtlipiten Erschelnnngen der Franxtf sischen 
Grammatlk. Von Professor Dr Boddbkbr. 
Leipzig, Renger. 1896. Large 8vo, pp. vi.-H32; 
2m. 123 

A most useful book, with a large number of well-chosen 
examples fW>m modern writers; Archiv xcvil. p. 459 ("Dem 
mittelroHssigen Vorwort folgt ein branchbares Bnch"). 

A. Darmesteter. €^nrs de grammalre hlstorlqne 
de la langne francalse, 4« et deml^re partle t 
Syntaxe. Publico par les soins de M. Leopold 
SUDRB. Paris, Delagrave. 1897. 12mo, pp. 
ix.+237; 2fr. 50. \2i 

French Yerbs by Tenses taught by Ideography. 

By T. DB Marney. Nutt. 1896. Obi. 4to, 
23; cl. 28. 6d., boards 2$. 

A Junior French Book. By A. Barr^re, Prof. 
R.M.A. Whittaker & Co. [In preparation, 126 

A Hecond French Course. By J. J. Bbuzbmakbr, 
a A. Blackie k Son. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 274; 
2s. 6d. 127 

Educ, 27 March '97 C continuation of First Course . . . 
prominence given to phonetics"); Educ. Rev., May '97. 

Longmans* Illnstrated Second French Keadlng 
Book and Crammar ; by BiDQOOD and Campbell 
{Guide II. 99). Longmans k Co. 128 

Educ, 18 Feb. '97 ("a most useful book for young children 
leiming French"); Educ. Times, Jan. '97, p. 84 ("interesting 
snd varied in matter, profusely and well illustrated"); Educ. 
Rev., Ap. '97 (fav.). 

The Stndy of French according to the newest and 
best systems. By A. F. Edo^nb and H. E. 
Ddriaux. Macmillan & Co. 1896. Books i.-viii ; 
GI. 8vo, pp. 32 each, printed on one side only, 6d. 
each ; complete voL, pp. 348, 3s. 6d. 129 

Received too late for reviewing; a superficial examination, 
however, shows it to be a stimulating and carefully prepared 
hook. Thj Introduction is vslusble. 

French lessons for Middle Forms. By £. 

Fasnacht. Macmillan k Co. 1896. Gl. 8vo, pp. 
280 ; 4s. 6d. laO 

Educ. Timet, Jan. *97, p. 88 ('* clear in its arrangement, 
lucid in its exposition, and carefully progressive") ; Educ. Rev., 
Apr. '97 (" lessons arranged with simplicity and clearness "X 

The Beginner's French Cirammar and Exercise 
Book. By H. R. Harper, M.A., Assistant 
Master at Clifton College. Rivington, Percival k 
Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 98 ; Is. 6d. 131 

Educ, 18 Feb. ' 97 C*The arrangement is of the usiul old- 
fsAhioned style"); Sat. Rev. 3 April '97 (**not a real help"); 
Educ Times, March '97, p. 158 (" not unsatisfactory "). 

Le Premier LIvre de Fransals. By Louise S. 
HoTCHKiss. Isbister k Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 
80 ; Is. 3d. 132 

Object Lessons In French. By Alec Cran, M.A. 
Illustrated. T. Nelson k Sons. 1897. Post 8vo, 
pp.viii. fl22; Is. 6d. 133 

A useful book in the hands of an energetic teacher. The 
illustrations are very fair indeed. 

Educ, 22 May '97 (''an attempt to teach French words by 
attaching them to objects which are pictorlally before the pupll^i 
eye. . . . Will surely hare a great success "). 

Nelson's Second French Book {Guide II. 101). T. 
Nelson k Sons. 134 

Joum. Educ, Dec. '96, p. 720 (*' For the execution we hare 
nothing but praise. . . . As to the method we have our doubts "). 

First ¥ear In French. By L. C. Stms. American 
Book Co. 1895. 8vo, pp. 128; 136 

Second ¥ear In French. By L. C. Stms. Amerioan 
Bcok Co. 1896. 8vo, pp. 287 ; 186 



The Aeademle Fr««cli €?o«rse« By A. Muzzarblll 
American Book Ck). 1891 Ist year. 8to, dd. 


-, Key to the same. 

1896. 8to, pp. 91. 


The Aeademle FreBch Coarse. By A. Muzzarblu. 
American Book Co. 1894. 2d year, 


-, Key to the same (1895). 8yo, pp. 142. 


A French Grammar. By L. Bevixb, Ph.D. With 
Exercises by T. LooiB, Ph.D. New York: H. 
Holt k Co. 1896. P. 8vo, pp. x. +341 ; 141 

MaemlllmB** Selcetiom of French Idioms; by 

Madame Ph Plan iOvide II. 106). Macmillan k 
Co. 142 

Jovm. Edue. Dec. '96, p. 725 (*' araliuble glossary of carious 
French Idioms"). 

French Essentials and French Conversation 

Sentences. Bv R, R. Ladbll, M.A. Relfe 

Bro. 1897. 2na ed. revised. Cr. 8vo, pp. yiii. + 

84 ; paper boards, Is. 6d. cL, 28. 143 

Educ. 37 March '97 C*a CFam-book ") 

S. Sues. Calllcismen, Fransdsische Sprechttbnn- 
sen fhr Torgerlkckte. Qenf, R. Burkhardt. 
1896. 8vo, pp. 208 ; 8f. 144 

Neuphil. Cbl,, Dec. *96, 873 ("eine bedeatende nnd wohl- 
gelangene Leistang und Lehrenden sowie aach Lernenden nicht 
genug za empfehlen ** Dr Erdmann). 

A Collection of the French Homonyms, Synonyms, 
Faronymes, and ** If nltisenses,** with HelpfU 
Notes. By M. H. dk Labmoter. Nerille 
Beeman. 1897. 16mo, pp. 70 ; Is. net 145 

The colleetions of synonyms may proye osefnl, the rest of the 
book is of little valne. 
Edue. Times, Jan. '97, p. S4 (" contains a fair amoont that is 

good and osefal; Athen., 34 
intelligent pnpils "). 

April *97 C*a real help to 

Dr S. liron. Le Petit FarUien. {Guide 1. 125.) 
Karlsruhe, Bielefeld. 1897. 8vo, pp. TiiL+176; 
2m. 40. 146 

Tliind edition of Uiis admirable book, which the author has 
carefully revised. We recommend it very strongly as on- 
doabtedly the clearest and most reliable guide to French ways 
and customs. One who has mastered this little volume will 
derive twice as much benefit from a stay in France as he otherwise 
would. A Review of the 3d ed. by O. Cherbup in Neu. Spr., v. 
p. 87. 

Leo If ell let. French Whys and Wherefores. 

Haohette & Co. "A Magazine of Notes and 
Queries: The indispensable vade meeum of the 
French Scholar and Public School Teacher." Pub- 
lished monthly from October to May; price 
number, 6d. 

Edue. Times, Feb, '97, p. 81 (commended). 

Nngent*s Poeltet Dictionary ofEnglish and French ; 

by Brown and Martin. With Additions by J. 
Duhamel. New ed. Routledge. 1897. lomo, 
pp. 252 ; limp, Is. 148 


Case Dictionary of the 
Langnaccs. Sir Isaac 
Edition. Pt. I. 2d. 

French and English 

Pitman & Sons. New 


C. Fricsland. Wegweiser durch das dom Studium 
der fransosischen Sprache und Ldtteratur dienende 
bibliographische Material ; ein Hilfsbuch fiir Neu- 
philologen. Gottin^^n, Horstmann. 1897. 8vo, 
pp. viii.+37; Om. 75. 150 



Arnold. FriU anf Ferien. Edited, with Introduc- 
tion and Notes, by A. W. Spanhoofd. Isbister & 
Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 60 ; 9d. 151 

B. Anerbaeh, Schwanwttlder Dorfkeschichten | 

ed. Davis and Wiiss (Guide TL 118). Whit- 

taker & Co. ^^^ 

Edue., 37 March *97 ("overloaded with notes, for the most 

part merely translations"); Educ. Times, Jan. '97, p. 84 

(reviewer objects to *' South Crerman Frovindalisms," without 

making clear to what he alludes). 

Banmbaeh. Der Schwiegersohn. Annotated by 
Dr W. Bernhardt. Isbister k Co. 1897. Cr. 
8vo, pp. 130 ; Is. 153 

Guard., 3^Apr. *97. 

K. Benedix, Die Hochieitsrelse ; ed. Nat. Sohibf- 
FERDBCKSR {Guide II. 114). Isbister & Co. 154 

Edue. Times, Nov. 96, p. Ml (*' notes helpful "); Educ. Rev., 
Nov. '96 (" well adapted for class reading.") 

Elster. Ewischen den Schlachten. Edited by Dr 
HiRSCH, Alleyn's School, Dulwich. (Siepmann's 
German Series. ) Macmillan k Co. 

[Ready shortly. 155 

Gsethe. Dichtloff nnd Wahrheit. Selections firom 
Books, I.-UI. Edited, with Introduction and 
Notes, by H. C. G. von Jaokmann, Assistant-Pro- 
fessor in Hanrard Univ. New York : H. Holt k Co. 
1890. Pp. xvi -f-373 ; 1 doL 12 c 156 

Fanst. The so-called First Part (1770-1808); 

together with the scenes, "Two Imps and 
Amor " ; the variants of the Gi>chenhausen Tran- 
script ; and the complete Paralipomena of the 
Weimar Edition of 1887. In Exuplish, with Intro- 
duction and Notes, by R. M'Clintock. Nutt. 
1897. Demy 8vo, pp xxxviil +373 ; 10s. net. 157 

An Interesting review by C. B. Her/ord in Bo<^man, May '97. 

Csethe. <S6tB von Berlichincen. Edited, with Intro- 
duction, Notes and Map, by F. GrOODRiCH, Ph.D. 
New York: H. Holt k Co. 1896. Pp. xU.-H70; 
70 c. 158 

Iphigcnie. Edited by K. H. Brbul, Ph.D., 

Litt.D. Cambridge Umversity Press. 

[/» prepanUion. 159 

Criilpaner. Sappho. Edited by Waltbr Ripp- 
MANN, M.A. (Siepmann's German Series.) Mac- 
millan k Co. [Headp in July, 160 
See Ouide 11. 116. 

Crlmm, Kinder-nnd Hansmlirchen } ed. van DBR 

Shisskn (Guide II. 118). Isbister k Co. 161 

Edue. Times, Nov. '96, p. 001 (" full notes and complete 
vocabulary ") ; Edue. Rev.,»ox,^W (** printed In Roman cluu*- 
aiter" ; a favourable review.) 

Heine, Harsrelse. Edited by Prof. C. A. Buchhbim. 
Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1896. 3rd ed., revised. 
Extra fcap. 8to, pp. 155 ; 2s. 6d. 162 

Lieder nnd ISedlchte. Selected and edited, 

with an Introduction and Notes, by Dr C. A. 
BucHHEiM, Prof, of German Literatiu^ in King's 
College, London. With a Portrait of Heine. 
Macmillan k Co. 1897. Pott 8vo, 2s. 6d. net. 

[In, the Autumn, 163 

Lessins. Emilia Galotti. Edited, with Introduction 
and Notes, by M. Winkler, Ph.D. Isbister k Co. 
1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 169 ; 2s. 164 

Guard., 38 Apr. '97. 

Minna von Bamhelm. Edited, with Intro- 
duction and Notes, by Rev. C. Merk. Macmillan 
k Co. 189x. 18mo, pp.viii. + 224 ; 2s. 6d. 165 

Acad. 80tb Jan. '97 ("a piece of careful and thorough 
work") ; Educ. Rev., March '97 (fav.) 

Minna von Bamhelm. Edited by H. J. WoL- 

8TEN HOLME. Cambridge University I¥eas. 

[In prepaixUion. 166 

SchelTcl. Ekkehard. Abbreviated and Edited, with 
Notes, by Carla Wenckebach. Isbister k Co. 
1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 241 ; Ss. 167 

(7tfar(f., 38 Apr. '97. 



Sdieirel. Tmnipeter of Saeklnsen. Abridged and 
Edited, with Notes, by Carla Wenckebach. Is- 
bister k Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 197 ; 28. 6d. 168 

Schoolmaster, 17 Apr. '97. 

Til. Storm, Immensee. Edited by F. H. Daubr. 
American Book Co. 35 cents. 169 

Cemiaii Stories. By Mrs DE Saumarbz Brock. 
Blackie k Son. 1897. Fcap. 8vo. pp. 129; 
Is, 6d. 170 

lliircliem mid Enahlnneem I. Edited, with a Vo- 
cabulary and Questions in German on the Text, by 
H. A. GUERBER. (Heath's Series.) Isbister k Co. 
1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 164 ; 28. 171 

Ednc. 27th March *97 C* recommend this book strongly, 
especially for young children '*). 


<;es€]iiehtc der Dcntscliem Lltteratar Ton den iU- 
tefiten leiten bis xnr Ges<^nwart. Von Prof. 
Dr. F. VoGT und Prof. Dr. M. Koch. Leipzig: 
Bibliographisches Institut. 1896. 16 Parts, each 
Im. 172 

With numerous irustratlons; a companion Tolnme to Dr 
WiUkefs *' History of English Literature " (No. > 

goelal Forees In German Utemtnre, a Study In 
the History of ClTllisatlon. B^r KuNO Francke. 
Assistant Professor of German liateratnre in Har- 
vard University. New York, Henry Holt k Co. 
1896. 8vo, pp. xiv. +577 ; 2 doL net. 173 

Mod. Lang. Notet, Jan. *97, p. 84 (*'wide readier, minute 
observation, keen insight and catholic spirit that combiae to in- 
struct and fascinate in this unique study." The reriew is by 
B. W. Weits^ and repays perusal); Nat. Ob*, and Brit. Rev., 
May 8, '97 (^* We cannot resist expressing our admiration for 
this book as a history of German literature. There is no better, 
more suggestive history of German literature in the Engiish 
language. It is as superior as day to night to the usual 
histories which Englishmen or Americans write of foreign 
literatures, based, in the case of nine autliors out of ten, on 
purely second-hand opinions and information. Tliis volume Is 
evidently written from direct knowledge, from a careful and 
independent study of the literature. Prof. Francke's views are 
original and striking, and, if occasionally tending to exaggera- 
tion — to mention a conspicuous example, when he extols 
Lesslng's conception of the ^ Faust* tragedy above Goethe's— 
are always entitled to respectful attention. . . . The chief thing 
is that we have here an excellently written volume, opening up 
new vistas in the study of the literature of our kinsfolk, throw- 
ing fresh light on dark places, and altogether the best book of 
its kind that has appeared either in Germany or out of It for a 
very long time"); Professor Paulsen, University of Berlin, In 
the Deutsche Litteratuneitung, Nov. 28, '96, says:— "The 
literary characterisations are not merely shsdowy outlines of 
types or tendendes, but set men and their works In their concrete 
peculiarities clearly before our eyes, and in an extraordinari'y 
life-like way. The author has a groat faculty for selecting 
characteristic extracts from the writers he treats of— a poem, 
a word, an opinion — to give his picture life and motion. The 
■elections of poetical spechnens seem to me especially happy ; 
one feds that the verses are Just the ones the author would 
have written undo: his own plctui-e. Happy contemporary 
opinions are also thrown In to illuminate the author's po&ilion 
and his surroundings. Francke shows astounding readiness 
and breadth of sympathy in finding Just the right point of view 
and Just the right word for characterising the most diverse 
personalities"; The Nation, Oct. 29, '96 O'To the study of 
G<»Tian literature in its organic relation to society this bo<^ is 
the bcKt contribution in English that has yet been published "); 
Prof. W. H. Carruth, In The Dial, Oct. 16, '96 ('• For the first 
time German literature has been depicted with a spirit that 
imparts to it organic nnity . . . rich in well-weighed, con- 
densed Judgments of writers . . . not mere re-wordings of the 
opinions of standard critics. . . . The style is clear, crisp, and 
unobtrusive . . . destined to be a standard work for both pro- 
fessional and general uses ";. 

Flseher, Knno. Lessings Nathan der Weise. Die 
Idee und die Charaktere der Dichtung. 4. , neubear- 
beitete Auflage. Stuttgart, Cotta. 8vo, pp. viiL 
+ 194; 3m. 174 

Helnr. «lol$l. Die Naeksoethliielie Uttemtnr In 

den oberen Klassen. Z.f.d.U. XI. pp. 22- 

43. 176 

Contains valuable hints for the teacher who wishes to give 

his pupils some idea of German Literature since the classical 


Die dentftehe Dlchtnns der Gegenwart. Die 
Alten nnd die Jungen. Elne lltteratnr- 
Kesciilclitllrlie Stndle. Von Adolfh Bartels. 
Leipzig, Avenarius. 1896. 8yo, pp. 119 ; Im. 
50. 176 


Passages flroni Standard Anthors for Translation 
Into Modem Langnages (Advanced Texts). 

Selected and Edited b^E. L. Milner-Barrt, M.A., 
Examiner in German m the University of London, 
Lecturer in German at Mr Wren's, Assistant Master 
in Mill Hill School ; and Walter Rifpmann, M.A., 
Professor of German Language and literature at 
Queen's College, and at Bedutrd College, London. 
Hachette & Co. 1897. Crown 8vo, pp. vii.+59; 
Is. 177 

Cemtan Renderings of ** Passages flrom Standard 
Anthors;** by K L. Milner-Barrt, M.A., and 
Walter Rippmann, M.A. [Head^ shoHly, 178 

Tliese versons will be published— (1) in one volume; (3) 
each extract on a separate sheet, in order to enable the 
teacher to distribute fair copies of each passage among his 
pupils, thus avoiding the waste of time entailed by dicta- 
ting or writing them out. 

German Commercial Correspondence ; by S. 

Bally. (Guide II. 139). Methuen. 179 

Athen. 6 Feb. '97 ("carefully compiled"); Educ, Timet, 
Jan. '97, p. 84 C* useful ") ; Speaker, 7 Nov. '96 (very favourable). 

German Sclentlflc Reading. With Notes and 
Vocabulary, by H. C. G. Brandt. Ph.D., and W. 
C. Day, Ph.D. New York : H. Holt k Co. 1896. 
12mo, pp. vi.+269; 180 


I^ltfaden fMr den erslen IJnterrlcht Im Dentschen. 
Enm Gebranche ffUr Schiller aUer NaUonmllt- 
aten. Von S. Alge und S. Hamburger. St Gallen, 
Fehr'sche Buchhandlung. 1897. 8vo. pp. 351 ; 181 
We received this book too late to give it as foil a notice as It 
deserves ; we must content ourselves with drawing the atten- 
tion of all teachers to Its excellence. It has been prepared with 
great care, and should go far towards Introducing the New 
Method into Englantl. Arrangement, accuracy, and printing 
leave nothing to be desired. 

A Public Mhool German Primer. By 0. Siephakn 
{Guide I. 160). Macmillan & Co. 182 

Athen. 6 Feb. '97 (" an excellent book"); Sat. Rev. 9 Jan. *97 
(favourable) ; Edue. Times, Nov. *96, p. 601, C* seems to us some- 
what complicated ") ; Joum. Educ. Dec. '96, p. 723 C* a book 
which, In the hands of a competent teacher, will prove a most 
satisfactory introduction to German"); Educ. Rev., March '97 
(" seems highly practical and is carefully worked out "). 

The Pnbllc School German Grammar. By A. L. 

Meisswer, M.A., Ph.D., D.Iit., Professor of 
Modem Languages in Queen's College, Belfast. 
Second Edition. Hachette k Co. 1897. 8vo, pp. 
XV. +424; 38. 6d. 183 

A Practical German Grammar. By Caloin Thomas, 
Professor of German in the University of Michigan. 
New York : H. Holt k Co. 1895. 8vo, pp. ix. + 
411 ; 1 dol. 12 c. 184 

Kcole de Conversation Allemande; par Georges 
Stier. Paris, H. Welter. 1897. 8vo pp. xxv. + 
282;8f., cL3f. 75. 185 

We warmly recommend this carefully compiled book ; It will 
prove useful to every teacher of French as well as of Gennan. 

A Second German Conrse. By H. Bauxakv, M.A. 
Blaokie k Son. 1897. Cr. Sro, n^" ^^i^J Si. 6d. 186 



First ¥ear in Cerniaii. Bv I. Kellbr. American 
Book Company. 1896. 8vo, pp. 290 ; 1 dol. 187 

PrakUsche ABfiuissflTttBde. By Hermine Stuybn. 
Isbister & Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 203 ; 28. 6d. 188 

Til. Matthias, lUeiner Wesweiser darch die 

SciiwanifBgem and Schwlerlslceltcn des 

deatsehen Sprachsebranclm. Leipzig, Richter. 

1896. Large 8vo, pp. 144 ; lm.50. 189 

The well-known Spraehleben und Spraehschaden boiled 
down. M^Brmly commended by Otto Lyon in Z.f. d. U. x. 854. 

iJlric]i*8 German Dceleniiion of Articles, Nonns, 
AdJeetlYes, Pronouns, By A. J. Ulrich ; re- 
vised by J. W. F. Forbes, M.A. Williams k Nor- 
gate. 1897. Don. cr., pp. 20; Is. net. 190 

Beltrttge inr I^hre Yom Gebraneh des Inflnltiyfl 
ini Nenhochdentsehen anfliistorlsrher Grand - 
lace. Von Dr P. Mbrkes. I. Teil. Leipzig, 
Robolsky. 1896. Large 8vo, pp. 171. 191 

" Of oonsklerable interest to all engaged in teaching Ger- 
man . . . deals particularly with the forms kdnnen^ h6ren^ 
etc., in such sentences as Er hat nicht kommen kdnnen, Hahen 
tie ihn spieUn hdren t Dr. M. arrives at the conclnsion that 
they are inflaitiyes (not strong participles)." (Dr. <?. Fiedler.) 

O. Weise. iJnsere If attertpraehe (Guide I. 167 ; 
II. 144). 192 

A favourable notice by H. Schuller in Neu. Spr.. Nov. '96, 

F. Harder. Werden and Wandem nnserer Wtf rter. 
Etymologisciie Plaaderelen* Berlin, Gartner. 

1896. 8vo, pp. 204 ; 3m. 193 

2nd ed., considerably revised. 

Sad. midebrand. Beitrllge som deatselien 
Vnterrielit. Leipzig, B. G. Teubner. 1897. 8vo, 
pp. X. + 446; 6m. 194 

A fascinating volume, warmly recommended to every 
teacher and student of the German language. A notice by 
0. L. yon In Z. /. d, U. xi. 1. 

Kaaflteiann, Friedr. Deatselie IMetrilc nacli 
ilirer eesdiielit lichen EntwiclKlanc Marburg, 
Elwert. 1896. 8vo, pp. viu.+266; 8m. 60. 195 

"None Bearbeitung der ans dem Nachlass Dr A. F. C. 
Vilmars von Dr C. W. Grein hsg. dentschen Verskunst." 

An Ontline Historjr of Germany \ by Mrs H. C. 

Hawtret {Quide II. 149). Longmans & Co. 196 

Joum. Edve.^ Dec '96, p. 724 (" it is strange that anyone 
capable of making the mistakes we have noted bhonid have 
undertaken to write a history of Germany"). 

A Child's History of Germany. By Mrs Kroekbr 
{Guide II. 148). Fisher Unwin. 197 

Joum. Educ.f March '97, p. 178 ("more facts and dates 
Inserted than an ordinary child can digest. ... A really skilful 
teacher will find this volume decidedly useful fai many ways "); 
Speaker, 5 Dec. *96 (" a fascinating litUe book"). 

(Flttsel) Schmidt-Tanser^s Dictionary (Guide 1. 174 ; 
IL 146). Asher k Co. 198 

Athen., 9 Jan. '97 ("a decided advance upon FlUgel . . . 
handsome pages and clear type "). 

Deatsches Wdrtcrbach von H. Heyne (Guide I. 171). 
Halle, Niemeyer. 199 

Edue. Times, Feb. '97, p. 79 (" cordially and universally 
recommended "). 

Haret and Sanders. Encyclopssdlc Dictionary of 
the English and German liangaaces. Grevel. 

1897. German-English, Part I., pp. 100 ; Is. 6d. 
net. 200 

H. Paal. Deatsches Wdrterbach (Guide I. 172; 
II. 145). Hallo, Niemeyer. 201 

Archiv xcvll., p. 390 C* eine wiirdige Ergttnzung zu Kluges 
Etymologischem WSrterbuch*'). 


La DiTina Commedia die Dante Alighlcri, illustrata 

nei luoghi e nolle persone a cura di Corrado RiccL 

Con. 30 tav. e 400 lUustr. Milan, HoepU. 1896-97; 

to be issued in 36 parts, 1 ire each. 202 

A very faroaraUe notice in Idt. Cbl.j 8 May '97. 

E. Zanella. Da Dante a Torqoato Tassot prose 
scelte ed annotate per le scuole secondarie, ^ con 
notizie biografiche e bibliografiche dei principali 
prosatori e poeti. Roma. 1897* 16mo, pp. 2roS ; 
21. 203 

Selections from the First Nine Booiu of the 
Croniche Florentine of Giovanni ¥illani. 

Translated for the use of Students of Dante, and 
others. By Rose E. Sblke. Edited by P. H. 
WicKSTEED, M.A. Constable & Co. Cr. 8vo, pp. 
xxiv. + 461; 6e. 204 

Acad., 20 Feb. '97 (" the idea is an excellent one, and for the 
most part well carried out. ... Mr W. supplies a helpful intro- 
duction "); Speaker, 26 Dec. *96 (" this skilful and consclentloas 
bit of work '*). 

First Italian Readings. Selected and Edited, with 
Notes and Vocabulary, by B. L. Bowbn, Ph.D. 
Isbister k Co. 1897. (>. 8vo, pp. 174 ; 28. 6d. 205 

Italian Dialognes i An Aid to Practical Conversa- 
tion. By P. MoTTi. Dulau k Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, 
pp. 178 ; 2s. 6d. 206 

A Hannal of Italian Literatnre. By F. H. Cuffk 
(Guide II. 152). Macqueen. 207 

Educ. Times., Jan. *97, p. 82 C*The chief value of this 
manual is a<i a matter of fact outline of Italian writers and their 
works"); Sat. Rev., 9 Jan. '97 ('* nerveless and unsatisfactory **). 

Italian Literatare. By Dr. Richard Garnbtt. 
Heiuemann. [In preparation. 208 


Cervantes. The AdTcntares of the Wooden Horse 
and 8ancho Pansa in Barataria. Edited, with 
Introduction, Life and Notes, by Cloyis Bevenot. 
Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. Extra fcap. 8vo, 
pp. 147 ; 2s. 6d. 209 

Simiiish Literatare. By William G. Aston. Heine- 
mann. [In preparatu^n, 210 

Spanish Belf-tonsht. Revised Edition. By C. A. 

Thimm. Marlborough, 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 92 ; pap. 

Is.; cl. Is. 6d. 211 

Joum. Edue, Feb. *97, p. 118 ('* an admirable traveller's vade 

Elementary SfNinish Crammar. By L. Pavia. 
Nutt 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 222; 28. 6d. 212 


Egyptian* Seir-taasht. By C. A. Thimm. Marl- 
borough. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 70 ; 2s. 6d. 218 

A Hanaal of Hassian and Enclish Conversation. 

By Julius Cornet. Hirschfeld, 1897. 12mo, pp. 
vui.+425; 4s. 6d. 214 

Modem Scandinavian Literatnre. By Dr Georo 
Brandes. Heinemann. [In preparation, 215 


Chancer. Selections firom the Canterbnry Tales. 

Edited, with Introduction, Notes and Glossary, by 
H. Corson. Macmillan k Co. 1896. 12mo, pp. 
HV.+677; 48. 6d. 216 

Sped., 80 Jan. *97 (" the introdaction contains most valuable 
critical matter; Rood notes on pronunciation **) ; Edue. Rev., 
Jan. '97 (** one of the best introductions to Chaucer we have 
seen . . . glossary very full '*). 

Cluiacerian and other Pieces. Edited by Prof. 
Skeat. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. Demy 
8vo, pp. lxxxiv.+608 ; 188. 217 

Uniform with the Libraiy Edition of Chaucer's works in six 
volumes (1894). 



CTlMBcer. Canterbury Tales. The Prologwe and 
Tlie Man of Iiaw*ii Tale. Edited by A. J. 
Wtatt, M.A., with a Glossary by J. Malins, M.A- 
Clive. 2s. 6d. 218 

Bdue.^ 20 March *97 ("nscfal for examination parposes; 
notea copious, Riosaaries satisfactory **) : Joum. Educ.^ Apr. *97 
(favourable); Educ. Times^ Apr. '97; Educ Rev., May '97 
(''copious not«s, good glossary ; the appendix especially deserves 

lUns Hem. Edited by J. Hall. Oxford, Clarendon 
Press. [Imwedtafefy. 219 

liawrence Hlnof. Poems. Edited, with Introduc- 
tion and Notes, by Joseph Hall, M.A. Oxford, 
Clarendon Press. 1897. 2nd ed., revised. Extra 
fcap. 8vo, pp. 177 ; 4s. 6d. 220 

Ktehard Solle of Hampole; ed. C. Horsthann 
(Ouidt I. 56, II. 54). Swan Sonnenschein & Co. 221 

Vol. II. Athen., 20 March *97 ; Anglia^ Apr. '97 ; a good review 
by F. ffolthsn in Lit. Cbl., 22 May '97; Vol. I. favourably 
reviewed by K. D. BUlbring in L. g. r. P., Dec. '96, 4W. 

An Elementary Old Engllah Grammar. (Early 

West Saxon.) By A. J. Wtatt, M.A. Cambridge 
University Press. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 160 ; 48. 6d. 


Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon. By H. 

SwEBT, M.A. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. 
Sm. 4to, pp. 234 ; 8$. 6d. net. 223 

A careful review in Athen.^ 8 May '97 ("worthy of the dis 
tlnguished reputation of its author**). 


Ex traits de la ehanson de Koland, public avec 
une introduction littdraire, des observations gram- 
maticales, des notes et un glossaire complet, par 
Gaston. P4ris. 5« ^d. , revue et corrig^e. Hachette 
& Co. 1896. 8vo, pp. XXXV. +160 ; Is. 6d. 224 


Poems of Waltber ▼• d. ¥., trans, by W. A. Philups 
{Guide II. 151). Smith, Elder kOo, 225 

Athen.f 26 Dec. *96 (" [he translates] n little freely may be, 
but still with a choice sense of the grace and sweetness of the 
Minnesinger . . . the cuts Mr P. has added to his verses are 
tame and weak **) ; Acad.^ 23 Jan. '97 (favourable). 

Dr W. Streltberg. Vrsermanlsehe Cirammatlk. 
Einflllirnns in das Terglelcliende Stadlnm 
der altcermanlsehen Dlalekte. Heidelberg, 
Winter. 1896. 8vo, pp. xx.+372; 8m., cl. 9m. 226 

A careful and eminently favourable review by if. If. 
Jellinek in Z.f. d. P. xxix. 874. 

<Sotlselies Elementarbveh. By Dr W. Strbitbkro. 
Heidelberg, Winter. 1896. 8vo, xii.+200; 3m., cl. 

3m.60. 227 

An excellent book. 


Epie and Somaneet Essays In NedlieTal Litera- 
ture. By W. P. Ker, Prof, of English Literature 
in University College, London. Macmillan & Co. 
1897. 8vo, pp. XX. + 452 ; lOs. net. 228 

Athm., 10 Apr. '97 ("a notable and highly interesting 
coBtribution to the history of Middle Age Literature"); 
Acad.^ 20 March '97 (by F. York Powell: very favourable); 
Bookman, Apr. *97, p. 14 (an interesting and eminently 
favourable review by C. II. Herford), 

Tke Flonrlsklne of Bomanee and the Sise of 
Allegory (Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries). By 
G. Sahttsbury, M.A. Blackwood & Sons. 1897. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. 448 ; 58. net 229 

Nai, Gbt., 20 March *97 C'this fantastically named book"); 
Aead., 24 Apr. '97 (favourable) ; Bookman^ May '97 (a favourable 
review by E. K. Chawben) ; Athen., 1 May *97 (unfavourable : 
*' if the ol^ect of the book, aa one would have supposed, waa to 
Inspire an interest in Middle Age European literature, here one 
moat, alas I conf eas it to have cmisplcaoiialy failed **). 


Breymann, H., Die phonetlsche LItteratnr von 
18T6 bis 1H95. Elne blbllosrapUschliritsciie 
IJbersleht. Leipzig, Deichert. 1896. 8vo, pp. 
170. 230 

A favourable notice by Ad, Tobler in Archiv xcviii., p. 221 ; a 
valuable and not altogether favourable review by W. V[ieior] in 
Lit. C6/., 22 May '97. 

The Teaelier*s Manual of Phonetles i the Sounds 
of English. By the late Laura Soambs. Edited 
by Prof. ViETOR of Marburg (Ouide II. 61). Swan 
Sonnenschein & Co. [In preparation. 231 

L*Ab^eMalre of French Pronnnelatlon. By G. 

Lbpr^vost. Griffith, Farran, Browne k Ck>. 
1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 112 ; 28. 232 

Kllnghardt, H. Artikulations- und HSrubungen. 
Praktiscbes Hulfsbuch der Phonetik filr Studierende 
und Lehrer. Cothen, Schulze. 1897. Large 8vo, 
pp. viii. + 256 ; 5m. 60. 288 

Highly commended in a review by W. Vlieior] in Lit. Cbl.f 
1 May '97. 


Alms and Praetlee of Teaehlnc Edited by Prof. F. 
Spencbr, M.A. Cambridge University Press. 1897. 
Cr. 8vo, pp. 292 ; 6s, 234 

Edue. 10 Apr. '97 ; Joum. Educ. Apr. W, p. 245 (" The 
editor's essay on ' Modem Language Teaching ' is admirably 
clear and lucid. He is a thorough-going advocate of the new 
method. Mr Way*s essay on * English ' shows a true apprecia- 
tion of the power of literature'*); Secondary Education^ 1 May 
•97 ; Practical Teacher^ May '97 ; Educ. Time$, Apr. 97 ; School 
Guardian, 20 March '97; Times, U M«rch *97; ilood., 29 May 

We have inserted a review above (p. 38). 

An Experiment In Modem IiunKuace Teaehlng. 

By H. W. Atkinson (Letter to Journal of Edvea- 
tum, May '97). 235 

A criticism of Mr Kirkman's articles in Joum. Educ. 

Wendt, G. Dldahtlh und Methodlk des deut- 
sehen Vnterrlchts und der phllosophlsehen 
Propildeutlh. Munich, Beck. 1896. 8vo, pp. 
160; 3m. 50. 236 

Erzlehnnss - und llnterrlehtslehre fttr hdhere 
Nildehenschulen. Von Dr. B. Rittbr. Weimar, 
H. Bohlaus Nachfolger. 1897. Large 8vo, pp. 
ix. + 490; 10m. 237 

Bossmann, Dr. Ph. Eln Studlenaufenthalt In 
Paris. Eln Ftthrer fttr Neuphllolocen. Mar- 
burg, Elwert. 1896. Lai^e 8vo, pp. ii. + 40 ; Om. 
60. 238 

A reprint of the article mentioned in the last Note in Ouide 
No. 11. ; commended to Lit. Cbl., 12 Dec. '96. 

«. Sehmedlng. Die elffene Welterblldung Im 
Franxdslsehen. Dresden, Koch. 1897. 8vo, 
pp. 24 ; 50 pf . 239 

Die neusprachllehe Reformlltteratur von 1875-93. 

Von H. Breymann (Ouide 1. 179). Leipzig, Deich- 
ert. 240 

An toteretting review, eminently favourable, by A. Rambeau 
in Neu. Spr. iv. 552. 

Franitfslsehe und Ensllsche Lektttre auf hdheren 
Nildehenschulen. Von E. Wundbr. An article 
in Neu. Spr. Vol. iv. pp. 477-485. 241 

Modem Foreign lianguases i Examination of 
NaTal Ollleers (1) proceeding to the Continent for 
Study, (2) for the Grade of Interpreter. Eyre k 
Spottiswoode. 1897. Is. 242 

■•den Par«lKn Lanc««Ke«i Examination of 
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With which is incorporated 

Vol. I. 

November 1897 

No. a. 


Thb influence of Chaucer upon the Scottish 
poets of the fifteenth, and even of the six- 
teenth century, has often been discussed ; 
and instances have been given shewing that 
Henrysoun and King James I., Dunbar, and 
Gawain Douglas were well acquainted with 
the works of one who was acknowledged as a 

Yet I cannot find that any one has yet 
noticed that Blind Harry came under the 
influence of the same great poet. The choice 
of his subject was such that he could nol 
avail himself of an English writer's opinions 
or expressions to any great extent. He 
writes with so patriotic and so hearty a feel- 
ing of enmity against all things belonging to 
the southerner that he has unanimously been 
acquitted of all such indebtedness. But the 
good man came under the spell, all the same. 

In the first place, consider his metre. It 
is simply that of the Knightes Tale, through- 
out the greater part of the poem. But he 
sometimes breaks out into stanzas, and it 
seems to have puzzled the critics to guess the 
origin of these metrical efforts. The answer 
is not recondite. 

Thus, in Book VL lines 1-104, he has 18 
stanzas of 8 lines each, on the pattern ex- 
emplified in the Monkes Tale. 

In Book H. lines 180-359, he has 20 
stanzas of 9 lines each, with the rhyme- 
formula — (wJb, aab, bah, as in Chaucer's 

In Book n. lines 171-179, he has a 9-line 
stanza on a pattern of his own, with the 
formula aab, aah, M. But it is easy to see 
its origin. It is simply borrowed from the 
9-line stanzas in the Complaint of Mars, 
with the formula aab, aaby occ. In the last 

three lines he has repeated his rhjnnes, 
instead of bringing in a new one. The idea 
is the same, viz., that of making the last pair 
of lines rhyme together. 

We know that, in the case of the Kinds 
Quhair, even the grammar was influenced by 
that of Chaucer. It is fairly astonishing to 
find that even Blind Harry acknowledged the 
charm of Southern grammar ! He frequently 
uses beyn, ue, been, instead of are, in the 
present of the plural The glossary gives 
only one reference, but more occur; e,g, in 
Book XI. line 83.^ Still more wonderful 
is the use, in one instance only, of the 
Southern past participle yno7n{e) in place of 
the Northern nomen. This prefixed y- occurs 
in Book IX. line 53,^ where it is necessarv 
for the scansion, and rimes to com (which 
cannot here be comen), Cf. Troilus, i. 242. 

But, of course, the most interesting point 
is that of indebtedness of knowledge and ex- 
pression. Thus, in Book VII. line 189, we 
nave : 

'' Quhen Sampsone powed to grond the gret 
Saturn was than in-till the heast sper." 

The note says : " It is difficult to see how 
the date of Sampson's expiring feat could be 

However, we have it on the authority of 
Saturn himself. He says, according to 
Chaucer's Cant. Tales, A. 2466 : 

*' 1 slow Sampsoun in shaking the piler." 

It is amusing to see how Blind Harry has 
made a hash of it after all. He wants to tell 
us that, at the death of Sampson, Saturn was 

^ *' Parteis heyn met ner a favr forert-sid." 
' " Leyt salys £bJ1, and has toir oonn y&om : 
A god gRj frynd 4wt o*** " *ni." 



in the ascendant But he actually says that 
Saturn was in the highest sphere. Well, he 
has always been in the highest sphere ; at 
least until Uranus and Neptune were dis- 
covered. This is, probably, the vaguest date 
on record. 

It is not merely this sole line, but much 
of the context, which is borrowed from this 
passage in the Knightes Tale. Thus Blind 
Harry tells us that Saturn " wakens war, and 
waxing (increase) of pestilence." The note 
says : " In Lilly there is nothing in support 
of this." But Lilly knew mucli less than 
Chaucer did about astrology. Just above 
the line cited, Saturn claims as his '' the 
cherles rebelling," which accounts for " war " ; 
and a few lines below he says : " My loking 
is the fader of pestilence." Cant, TaieSf A. 

Now that we are on the track, we can 
easily explain the corrupt line just above 
(Book VI r. 1. 183), viz. : 

** His drychyn is with Pluto in the se ; " 

where His means Saturn's. This curious 
word drychyn is entered in the New English 
Dictionary under dretching, and is explained 
as " procrastination " or " delay," which gives 
no true sense. It was not Saturn's drychyng 
that sent people to Pluto ; it was his drench- 
ing, i,e, his power of drowning his victims. 
See the preceding Chaucerian line (A. 2456), 
which settles it. 

** Myn is the drenehiTig in the see so wan." 

The mistake is easy. The scribe has left out 
the mark for n over the y, and that is all. 
Read drynchyn, with yn for en, and final n 
for final Tig ; both too common to need com- 

Compare again such lines as these : 

** Fallyng off wallis with cruel wiolence." Wallace, 
Vll. 186. 
" Myn is the mine of the hye halles, 
The fallyng of the toures and the walles." 

Cant, TaUSy A. 2463. 

Once more, Chaucer's "cherles rebelling" 
becomes, in Blind Harry, "rebell renkis." 
The whole of these two passages should be 
compared throughout. 

Just below (Book VII. 1. 192) we read : 

** Qnhen Phiorax sank thronch the erd till hell." 
It is vigorously put ; but Chaucer said it first. 

''Amphiorax fil through the ground to hoUe." 
Troil,, II. 105. 

I conclude (from other passages besides this) 
that Harry had read his Trouus, 

In Book VI. 303-4 we read of a man who 
is thus described : 

*« All Ingland cost he knew it wondyr weiU, 
Fra Hull about to Biyato euerilkdeilL" 

I think he was first cousin to Chaucer's ship- 
man : 

*' He knew well alle the hayenes, as they were, 

From Gootland to the cape of Fiuisterre. . . . 

Ther nas noon swich from Hulk to Cartage." 

It is said of the same individual (vi. 307) : 

" In Pvkart^ and Flandrys he had beyne ; 
All Normond^ and Frans haill he had seyne.'* 

So he must have travelled about like 
Chaucer's Knight. 
In Book VI. 346 we have : 

** Quhar claryowns blew full mony mychty sonis." 

But Chaucer says that clarions blew ''blody 
sounis " (C. T., A. 251 1) ; which is more forc- 
In Book VIII. 1183 we read : 

" The mery day sprang fra the oryent," 

This reminds of Chaucer's "mery day" 

(C. T., A. 1 499) which also appears in company 

with " the orient." And immediately below 

comes our old friend Zephyrus. 

** Zepherus began his morow cours 
The swete wapour thus fra the ground resours." 

In Book IX. 1. 9 Zephyrus appears, as 
in Chaucer, arm in arm with "eek" and 
**sweet ": 

'* Zepherus eek, with his suet vapour." 

And in the next line we have " by werkyng 
of natour"; which answers to Chaucer's 
" vertu." 

• Nothing can be more hopeless than Blind 
Harry's astrology. It is always wrong ; but 
he knew that Unaucer was fond of it, and he 
felt bound to be the same. In Book IX. 
1. 20 he tells, amongst other thin^, that 
"Caprycorn" is "the sygn of the Lioun.'* 
But how one sign can also be at the same 
time another sign he omits to explain. This 
is no exaggeration ; see the whole of the 
hopeless 24 lines which begin this book. 
In Book IX. 1. 1937 he says of Wallace : 

" In tym off pes, mek as a maid was he." 

Chaucer's Knight was just like him : 

'* And of his port as mek as is a mayde." 

I will trace just one more passage. In Book 
I. 111-2 we read : 

** Is nayne in warld, at scaithis ma do mar 
Than weUe trastyt in borne familiar." 

Here borne does not mean, as the Glossary 
says, ^*a pledge"; but a "bom familiar" 
means a born friend. I think, moreover, 
that in is an error for and. The main idea 
comes from Chaucer's Cant. Tales, R 1784; 
but Chaucer himself got it first from 
Boethius, Book III., prose 5, last line: 

** And what pestilence is more mighty for to anoye 
a wight than a familier enemy ? " 

Walter W. Skeat. 




L 0.R oBcelma, "a chilblain." 

In an article in the Modem Language Notes 
XL (1896), col. 322, 0. B. Schlatter takes ex- 
ception at the explanation of O.E. cecelma as 
" chilblain,'^ a meaning rightly assigned to it 
by Cockayne, Bosworth-Toller, Sweet, Hall, 
etCi, and tries to show that it means 
" furfuratiom." He then adds: "The way 
Cockayne has arrived at the meaning * chil- 
blain ' is this : Mone exhibits a gloss midas 
acdman. . . . But Mone's mulas^ I have 
reason to believe, is rather a mutilation of 
glumulas.*' What Schlatter's "reason'* for 
this assumption is he does not state, but if 
he had taken the trouble to look up the text 
from which the gloss is taken, he might have 
easily convinced himself that he was wrong, 
and that the reading mulas is perfectly cor- 
rect. The glosses printed by Mone are from 
a Brussels MS. of Aldhelm's De laudibtis vir- 
gvnjUads,^ and a reference to the passage 
whence the glossed mulas is taken, would 
have shown him that it reads,^ " Omnia hoec 
non sunt exira palatium regis^ sed alUer sedet in 
carruca prcefecturce digiiitaSy aliier mulionum 
vUUaSf alikr, qui pedibus continei mulas" 
With this compare the Modern French, 
" avoir les mules avx talons^' and the entries 
quoted by Schlutter from Florio {mule kibes 
chUblanes) and from Cotgrave {mule a hihe). 
In the face of this evidence, I do not think 
there can be any doubt that cecelma means 
« chilblain." 

2. O.E. egw\ " dodrans." 

In the Modem Language Notes^ XL (1896), 
col. 408, Schlutter discusses Hall's " egur = 
flood, tide," which is based on the gloss 
egur = dodrans in WrightrWiUker^ 18^^, etc. 
Schlutter hesitates between two explanations 
-—either to accept dodrani as correct, and to 
explain egur as a corruption of []>a n]egun 
\dilas]j or else to accept egur, and to regard 
dodransaa a corruption of [re]dondans = r&iunr 
dans.^ It is not my object here to criticise 
S.'8 suggestions, — they are not likely to 
be accepted — I merely wish to point out 
that both the English egur and the Latin 
dodrans are perfectly correct and well 

^ They were again edited by Bouterwek in Haupt's 
ZeUKhrytfUrdeutsches AUerihum, ix. 403. 

* Cp. Aldhelm, ed. Giles, p. 19. 

' In the Anglia, xix. 471, S. somewhat modifies 
his yiews, but his newer theory that aegur is a cor- 
mption ot aeciir=ea'€lr (sic !) "Wasserkehr," is not 
Hkely to be taken more seriously than his former 

authenticated. Besides the instances in 
Wright-WiUker^ there are others; and the 
inflected forms of both the English and 
Latin words which occur show that the 
possibility of scribal corruption is out of the 
question. The first instance, which, more- 
over, confirms the correctness of the meaning 
" flood " assigned to egor, I printed from the 
Salisbury Aldhelm MS., in the Jnglia, XV., 
208, catacltsmi = egares, and in my forthcom- 
ing volume of O.E. glosses (vii. 159) the same 
gloss is given from another MS. In the same 
volume (xiii. 1) we have the gloss dodran- 
tium = eogra (var. lect. eogora) ; this is taken 
from Aldhelm's Epistola ad Eahfridum {Aid- 
helm, ed. Giles, 92^) — Polissimum, quod ie 
exulem almus arbiter priscam patemi visitant em 
dientelam ruris {ccerda ponti trans glauci, enor- 
masque dodrantium glareas atque spumiferas 
lymphce nymphce obstirpationes, drdli carina 
procellosum sulcante salum) reducere, ovante 
novarcho, dignatus est. 

This quotation confirms the correctness of 
the above cited gloss dodrans = egur, and in 
addition afifords us an undoubted instance of 
the use of the Latin dodrans. But it is, by 
no means the only iu stance : dodrans, ** flood, 
high-tide," is found also in certain Latin 
writings composed in a very curious and in- 
flated style, viz., the so-called Hispevica 
famina and a Hymn.^ Cp. J. M. Stowasser, 
Incerti auctoris Hisperica famina, Vienna, 1887, 
p. 12^, vastaque tumerUe dodrante inundatfreta ; 
and ibid., p. 13*®, guod spumaticum rapuit tola 
diluvium, pcllentemque tonuit rapere dodrantem. 
Cp. also J. M. JStowasser, StoUmes Latini^ 
Vienna, 1889, p. vi.*^ 

uidemus litus 

Blepomen agialus 

uincitur adsiasis id est adiauou 

nicate dodrantibus : 

sic mundi et uita huius. 

The word adsissa, which here glosses dod- 
rans, also occurs in the Hisperica famina, 
p. 11^, protinus spumaticam peUit in littora 
adsisam. The meaning, as Stowasser, p. 33, 
points out, is " floodj high-tide " : cp. Isidor, 
De ord. creat., 9, 7. On adlauau, cp. Stowasser, 
StoL Lai., p. X. 

* On these works, to which also the Lorica of 
Gildas is nearly related, cp. Zimmer, Nenniua Vindi- 
catttSy 291. It is not at all impossible that these or 
similar writings may have been the source whence 
Aldhelm got 5ie word dodrans. His Latinity pos- 
sesses various features in common with the Hisperica 
famina group, which point to the conclusion that he 
was not uninfluenced by the style of this sohooL 

« Also in Haupt's Zeilsehrifl, v. 207. 



3. On New English pillow. 

The N.E. pUlotD and the M.K pilwey from 
which it is regularly developed, are com- 
mooly assumed to be the descendants of 
O.E. pyle, " a pillow." But this O.E. pyle 
would normally have yielded a N.E *jpt//, 
and though Skeat alludes to the difficulty 
of explaining the development of the M.K 
from the O.E. form, so far as I know no 
attempt has been made to clear the matter 

The O.E. pyle, like the Old High German 
pfdiuHy is an early loan word from the Latin 
pulvinus ; it was borrowed in the form 
*pulvjiny and the n having been dropped in 
the West Germanic period (cp. Paiu and 
Braune's Beitrdge, xii. 381), it must in O.K 
have assumed the form *pultci, and been 
treated as an i-stem. At a very early period 
the masculine i-stems ^ve up their genitive 
and dative singular in favour of the cor- 
responding forms of the o-declension : this 
was the case in Gothic, Old Saxon, Old 
High German, and O.E. (for O.E. cp. the 
dative /aen^o^^ in the Epinal Glosses), and we 
should therefore expect in the earliest O.K a 
gen. and dat. *pyltDaes, *pylwae, later 'toes, 
-we. At a period subsequent to this change 
of declension, the phonetic law came into 
action, by which w was dropped before i 
(cp. Sievers, § 173), so that the nom. ace. 
*pulwi became *pw/t, whence O.E. pyle^ 
which is the regular form for the nom. and 
ace. Now the forms for the gen. and dat. 
which actually occur are not *pyltceSy -Iwe^ 
but pyles,^ -U^ : that is, a levelling has 
taken place, the nom. and ace. forms without 
w having caused the loss of the w in the 
gen. and dat. But that the forms *pylwe8^ 
*pylwey though unrecorded, did exist, seems 
proved by the M.E. pilwe,^ Moreover, I 
think I have found further confirmation of 
this. A corresponding levelling in the 
opposite direction, starting from ^pyltoes, 
-we^ would have produced a nom. ace. pylu 
(on the analogy of the tm-stems: healu^ 
oealwes, etc.), and this form actually occurs 
in an O.E. gloss: cervical = pylu (in my 
forthcoming vol. of O.E. glosses, xxix. 4). 
The starting point of the M.K and N.E. 
forms were, of course, the O.E. fr-forms 
(cp. yellow from O.K geolu, geolwes). 
In the same volume of O.E. glosses there 

^ The t-form daeli is instmniental. 

* Cp. Techmer's Intematumale ZeUachr^ft^ II. 
12S», Pyles tacen, 

' Cura Pastoralis, p. 148^, etc. 

* The w of the M.E. form obviously goes back to 
the V of the Latin pulvinus, and shows that pilwe 
oannot be an independent M.E. reborrowing of the 
aame word. 

occurs (Ivi 16) the gloss cervical ^pylewer 
(originally pyle was written, and another 
hand sul^equently added the wer). With 
this compare a gloss in the twelfth century 
MS., Bodley 730 foL U4> : Hoc auriculare d 
hie pulvillus idem sunt .8. oreiler .i. pulewar, 
et hoc cervical, and fFnghtfFiaker, 742"*: Hoe 
cervical =pel(koare. This word, which is not 
recorded in BradleyStralmann, must, of 
course, be distinguished from Chaucer's 
pilweberey and seems to be a compound of 
O.E. pyle and Old Norse ver^ "a case, 


4. Sir Oawayne and the Green Knighi. 

(a) Line 427. 

Sir Gawayne had just severed the Green 
Knight's head from his body, when — 

" Pe favre hede fro >e halce hit [felle] to >e er>e, 
bat fele hit foyned wyth her fete, yem hit forth 

The felle in brackets is an addition of Sir 
F. Madden's, and it was retained by Morris 
in his text, whilst Matzner, AUenglische 
SprachprobeHf i. 319, in his note to this 
passage, suggests helde instead of felle, on 
account of the alliteration ; and it certainly 
would appear more probable that hede and 
hcUce should bear the alliteration than fayre. 
But it seems to me that the line requires no 
emendation at all, and that we ought to 
adhere to the manuscript reading : 

" Pe fayre hede fro \fe halce hit to ]» er[K5." 

The hil is not a pronoun, but a verb, and 
bears the alliteration. M.E. hiUen was used 
intransitively as well as transitively, and 
meant "to come, arrive." Cp. Patience, 1. 
289, he hitte to a hyme, "he came to a 
corner," and Destruction of Troy, 13495, the 
haven that he hit to, 

(b) Lines 1280-81. 

" Pus [lay mcled of much-quat, til myd-mom paste, 
& ay ])e lady let lyk, a hym loued mych.'* 

For the a in the second line and is sug- 
gested in Morris's edition, whilst let lyk is 
translated "appeared pleased." But there 
is no justification for this rendering of lyk. 
The simplest and most probable explanation 
— one, moreover, which involves no altera- 
tion of the text — is to regard a as a 
weakened form of ho : cp. 1. 1283, where / 
were apparently stands for ho were. The 
comma after lyk must of course be struck out. 
The meaning is, " And ever the lady acted 
(feigned) as though she loved him much." 

I am bound to add that I have not found 
further instances of any such weakened 
forms of ho, and if this explanation should. 



on that account^ be rejected, one might 
regard the a as a scrilMil error for ?io, or 
possibly for as ho. The meaning would 
remain the same. 

(c) Lines 1398 ff. 

'* Pay la^ed, k made hem hijpe, 
Wyth lotej >at were to lowe, 
To soper t>ay )ede asswyjie, 
Wyth dayntes nwe in-nowe." 

Lowe is rendered in the glossary " quiet, 
secret," but "they laughed and made merry 
with words that were too quiet (or secret) " 
does not seem very satisfactory. More- 
over, a still more fatal objection has been 
overlooked, viz., that, if identified with 
" low," the ow would have the diphthongal 
(n^sound, whereas the rhyme words, motce, 
innoice, in both of which the ow denotes the 
iZ-sound, show that we must pronounce lu-e, 
not lou-e^ and that it is therefore quite a 
different word. 

The explanation is, I believe, a very 
obvious one: lowe is simply an aphetized 
form of the common M.E. verb aUnoen, "to 
praise, commend," from O. French alouer^ 
Latin aUaudare. Cp. lowable " praiseworthy " 
for alowable in Piers PlowmaUy C. vi. 103, 
xviii 130, etc. The meaning of the line 
then is, " with words (behaviour) that were 
(was) to be praised." Cp. AyenbiU^ p. 95", 
^is trau is to alowe and to louie uor manye ]>inges; 
also pp. 227" ; 233»*. Bobert of Brunne*s Chron 
ide, ed. Heame, p. 281, His dedes ere to alowe 
for his hardynesse. Merlin, ed. Wheatley, 
p. 355''^, Oretly were thei to alowe and to 

(d) Lines 1450-51. 

** Ful oft he bydej )« bayo, 
& mayme) ]!e mute Inn-melle.'* 

The second line is generally considered to 
mean "maims the pack in the conflict,'^ 
melle being identified with the Romance wonl 
meaning " battle, conflict" ^ 

It seems to me more probable that innmdle 
stands for imeUe, from the Old Norse i mUli^ 
or rather from its Old Danish equivalent. 
The n is, of course, due to the influence of 
the English m, and this t7i-form is met with 
elsewhere, e,g. Pearl, 1. 1126.* 

This M.K imelle was used not only as a 
preposition, but also as an adverb meaning 
" between times, at the same time." 

Cp. Ywain and Gawain, ed. Schleich, 
Oppeln, 1887, IL 118-20: 

" Madame, al hale )>is cumpani 
Praies )ow hertlv now omell, 
Pat he his tale K>rth might tell. " 

Ibid., 1. 3235 ff. 

*' Darof cowth Ywayn no rede, 
Sare he douted to be ded ; 
And also his damysel 
Ful mekil mumyng made omeU, 
And wele sho wend, he sold be slane.** 

If we assign a similar meaning to innmeUe 
in Sir Gawayne, we may translate " Full oft 
he (the boar) awaits the attack and maims 
the pack at the same time." 

Arthur S. Napikr. 


' Cp. Morris's Glossary, s.y. MeUe, Melly ; and 
Luick, Anglia, zi. 573. 

2 Cp. inbland, "together" {Sir Qawayne, 1. 1205 ; 
Cleanness^ 1. 885), which stands for ibland, from Old 
Norse i bland, "among." Cp. also inlyche {Pearl, 
645, 602), " alike," for Uyche. 


Mr Gollancz has at length given us his 
text of Sir Gawayns, but without Introduc- 
tion, Glossary, or Notes ; they are still " in 
preparation, the new text being bound up 
with the apparatus supplied by Morris in 

It is impossible to estimate fully the value 
of Mr Gollancz' work on the text until we 
get his Glossary and Notes, but owing to the 
importance of the text it has been thought 
worth while to notice the revision at once. 

To begin with, I will take the restoration 
of the readings of the MS. : — Mr Gollancz 
(G) has maintained the MS. readings in some 
35 cases (11. 172, 334, 440, 558, 651, 652, 

^ Early English Text Sodetj^. Original Series, 4. 
Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight l^orth Edition, 
roTiaed, 1897. 

889, 893, 988, 1114, 1188, 1265, 1281, 1304, 
1355, 1393, 1480, 1497, 1540, 1564, 1572, 
1678, 1817, 1878, 1962, 1965, 2002, 2018, 
2027, 2102, 2111, 2167, 2185, 2422, 2447), 
in which Morris (M.) either introduced 
different readings into his text or suggested 
them in foot-notes. 

In some cases the difference between the 
two editors is merely a matter of spelling 
{e,g, 334, 2027) : in others the reading 
adopted or suggested by Morris seems quite 
unnecessary, and the MS. can be accepted at 
once {e,g, 172, 440, 558, 651): in others 
again the MS. reading is, to say the least, 
difficult to interpret, and we await Mr 
Gollancz' explanation with interest, e,g,: — 

889. Wyth sere sewes and sete. 



Does sete = Bw^te, as M. suggests, or 
s^te — ie. proper, suitable? 
893. and ay sawes so sle3e3. 

Satoes presumably = sayings, and not = 
sewes, dishes (Morris). 
1114. ]>ay dronken and daylyedon & dalten 
M. suggests that unty^tel is a corrup- 
tion of uniyl ny^te^ or if correct that 
it is connected with iy^t (fasten) and 
therefore = unrestrainedly. Both 
are unsatisfactory. 
G. prints urUy^Ul, and we await his ex- 
planation. I think urUy^td is a cor- 
ruption of urdytel. 
1304. &yJre lest he displese yow. 

M. suggests /re = fere (fear): there 
can be little doubt, I think, that 
fire = firre (moreover), an interpre- 
tation first pointed out by Miss 
Turner of Bedford College. 
1497. 3if any were so vilanous l^at yow de- 
vaye wolde. 
M. reads denaye: I do not know how 
devaye is to be interpreted. 
1540. Bot to take J?e toruayle to my-self. 
Both M. and G. give this as the MS. 
reading : I have looked at the MS. 
carefuUy and read trauayUy not 
toruayle; this reading suits the 
context exactly. 
Next in interest to the MS. restorations 
are the deviations from the MS. introduced 
by G. ; there are some 40 in all, of which 
eight were suggested in foot-notes by M., but 
were not introduced into the text. The fol- 
lowing are the most noteworthy : — 

86. He wat3 so loly of his lofnes (MS.). 

G. reaas lolyfnes. 
88. G. reads Umge for MS. lenge. 
124. „ sylueren (M. conj.) for MS. 

157. Heme wel haled hose of jTat same grene 
M. put a comma after haled^ and evi- 
dently took heme as a substantive. 
G. reads : — Heme-wel haled hose of 
)>at same grene. This is im- 
doubtedly a step in the right 
direction; it makes Heme-wel ad- 
verbial and comparable with Hemely 
(1852); in fact the similarity of 
1. 1852 (WhUe he hit hade hemely 
halched aboute) makes the change 
of hdUd into halched a likelv one. 
But I hardly think " heme-wel haled " 
is attributive to ''hose," because 
" l^at spenet on his sparlyr " repeats 
the same idea, and the author of Sir 
Gawayne does not repeat himself : 

it must then refer to ''mantile" 
and '' hod " and modify the idea of 
156i. We should then punctuate 
1566 & layde on his schulderes 

Heme-wel haled ; 
286. G. supplies -vx)d as suggested by 
Morris, and reads " brayn-wod in hys 
hede,'' which completes the sense and 
the metre. 

653. G. reads caudadoung for MS. caueUmn^ 
697. „ neghe „ noghe 

751. „ sei-uyse „ seruy 

795. „ towres „ iowre 

822. „ quil „ guel 

884. „ tabu „ tapU 

which is an excellent emendation. 
956. G. reads schedes (M. conj.) for MS. 

975. „ a-guoyrUance „ a guoynianee 
1032. ,, y „ (& 

1047. According to M., MS. reads deme 
„ G., „ derue 

It is very difficult to distinguish be- 
tween the scribe's " u " and " n " : 
probably G. is right. 
1053. G. reads with MS. " I wot in worlde," 
but suggests in foot-note " I ne wot," 
. the negative being required. Why is 

it not introduced into the text 1 . 
M. suggests **I not," which is prob- 
ably the true reading. 
1124. G. reads lede for MS. leude. 
1156. According to M., MS. reads mene, 

„ G., „ meue; ef. 

I 1047. 
1315. G. reads fFai^ (M. conj.) for MS. fFOi 

1836. I haf worthly )?is wonej wythinne 
G. reaas :^— )?at I haf worthyly wonnen 
}>is wone3 wythinne ; a reading that 
commends itself on all grounds, for 
the line wants a p.p. both gram- 
matically and metrically. 
1412. G. reads hade growe for MS. hade 

1440, 41. Long sythen for >e sounder ]>At 
wi3t for-olde, 

For he wat3 b . . . bor al]>er grattest 
G. gives the admirable reading : 
Long sythen woned fro ]>e sounder 

]>&t wi3t for-olde. 
For he wat3 beste baleful and bor 
all?er grattest. 
1467. G. reads schifled for MS. Schafted 
1588. „ freke (M. conj.) „ freke^ 
1696. „ caste3 „ costej 
1720. .. muete „ mute 





6. reads : — 
1729. and ^e lad hem, bMaggid mon for MS. 
And je lad hem bi lag mon. 
an ingenious emendation that satis- 
factorily explains the presence of 
" mon.f 
1743. There is a difference between M. and 
G. in reading the MS. M. reads 
wayne^ and suggests wayue^ : 
G. reads wayne^ as MS. reading. Cf, 
1. 1047. 
1752. The line is defective. M. supplies 
G. improves upon it with " dy3t him." 
1815. G. reads rw^t (M. conj.) for MS. 03/. 
1863. G. reads /ro for MS. for. 
1906. „ hym „ by, 

1909. „ bra}p „ - bray, 

2177. G. suggests : — ^e rayne and his riche 

bridle. MS. omits hidle. 
2187. G.'s change of Re into Here seems 

unnecessary and pointless. 
2290. G. reads ryney M. ri/m^, 
2329. G.'s conjecture of Schaped as the 
illegible woid by preserving alliter- 
ation is better than M.'s sikered. 
2448. G. supplies a necessary hat^. 
2461. G. reads glopnyng (M. conj.) for MS. 
There are a large number of deviations 
from the MS., some 75, introduced by M. 
and maintained by G. Most of them are 

unimportant, being corrections of slips in 
spelling ; in some few cases redundant or 
repeated words are omitted ; in others, of 
greater importance, missing words are sup- 
plied (e.g. 11, 427, 1444, 1639), but they 
are quite convincing. 

A few modifications and improvements 
have been made in the punctuation and in 
the addition of necessary inverted commas ; 
but the punctuation is still overdone in 
some cases, and in others requires considera- 
tion from the point of view of its effect on 
the meaning. 

The s)'stem of the textual notes is not 
always consistent Now and again where 
square brackets are used in the text, indi- 
cating of course an editorial addition, an 
unnecessary footnote is also given ; in a few 
cases the textual notes are placed at the side 
of the page, which is confusing; and the 
numbering of notes is now and again incor- 
rect ; the marginal paraphrase wants revision 
in a few cases, notably in IL 2187, 88. 

Altogether the new text is a gain; it is 
at the same time a tribute to the scholarship 
of M. that so many of his conjectures can 
be accepted by later scholars. 

There are of course a series of difficult 
passages in the text, for the explanation of 
which we shall look to G.'s Glossary and 
Notes. May they soon appear. 

^ ^ T.G.F. 



1. Luke xiv. 31, as given in this famous 
codex, reads and is arranged thus : — 

. . . Ai)>)>au 
bwas Inudans gaugands stinqnan 
wi|ira an)Nirana biudan du xoigA 
na, nia gasitan(i8 faar)»i8y ... etc 

The original Greek (similarly arranged) 
is: — 

... 11 

rlt /SeurtXci>i Topevd/ievos d'Vfi/SaXcti' 
oix^ KoOlirat irpCcrrov . . . K.r.X. 

The English :— 

. . . "Or 
what king going to encounter {or make 
an attack upon) another king vnUi 
aview to war^ will not first sit down ..." etc. 

2. If, for the sake of reference hereafter, 
we first Inquire how phrases of the same 
pattern as tig 'iriXtfiov are rendered into 
Gothic, we shall find (1) that ih followed 
by a concrete substantive is given by du 
plus a concrete subst^ as f/^ sv cufia cjSaT* 

rMnM'iv (1 Cor. xii. 13) ; Go., du ainamma leika 
daupidai sium : but (2) that tig plus an abstract 
subst. may be given either (a), and generally, 
by du plus an abstract subst., as : ourog xtT^ai 
tig vruffiv xai avd6Ta<fi¥ foWZv (Luke li. 
34); Go., sa ligi> du drusa jah ussiassai 
managaize ; or (b) sometimes by the infinitive 
with du, as: tifnTg apvaytigSfAiOa tig d^d¥- 
Tfiffiv rov xvpiov (1 Thess. iv. 17); (jIo., weis 
frawilwanda du gamotjan fraujin ; and so 
dufiskon = tig &ypay (Luke v. 4) ; &c. 

3. Turning to the Gothic lines in para> 
graph 1, we see that line 3 ends with wigd 
(i.e. wigan), and line 4 begins with rui ; and, 
as the Goths knew nothing of hyphens, 
these three syllables apparently make up 
vnganna. In this expression, Ihre and the 
older editors and critics saw no diflBculty; 
and, indeed, it has been defended within the 
last quarter of a century by Dr Julius Jolly 
{Gesdi, des Infin,), Now wiganna is of course 
to be taken as the dative of a verbal wbst. 



or infin., answering exactly to the Anglo- 
Saxon gerund in -anne after id (td cwmanne, 
etc.), and to the similar forms in other West- 
Teutonic dialects. But it is objected, firstly, 
that, notwithstanding the numerous oppor- 
tunities for the use of such forms, no other 
instance occurs anywhere else in the Gothic 
remains ; nor do parallel forms occur in the 
closely-related Old Norse; and secondly, 
that the original form of the suffix -anna, 
-anne having been -anja^ such gerund in 
Go. would have been of the form wiganja ; 
for Gothic is highly conservative of the 
old jor ( = yor) suffix. 

4. Wiganna being rejected, the suggestions 
of editors and critics have to be considered. 
Of these only two, not very dissimilar ones, 
maintain their ground. The simpler is, to 
treat one of the n's as an error of repetition, 
so that the word intended should be mgana, 
dative of an assumed masc subst., nom. 
wigans, " war," stem wigana-. But the only 
subst. of that form extant in Gothic is the 
concrete personal subst. ^^xidana-, ')^vdanSy 
" a king" ; and in the related dialects, even 
in Old Norse, as we shall see, the word for 
"war" is of a different stem. The other 
suggestion, viz. to read wigna, dat. of an 
assimied neuter subst. loign, stem tdgna-, 
differs only, or chiefly, in being rather less 
probable than the former ; for it credits (or 
discredits) the scribe with making two rather 
glaring blunders: he is supposed to have 
put the nasal stroke over the a instead of 
the g {wigd, instead of wiga = wigna), and then 
to have written the na a second time : yet 
Bernhardt is so enamoured of this compound 
muddle, that he actually introduces wigna 
Into his text of Ulfilas. It need hardly be 
added that the stem loigna- also disagrees 
with that of the word for " war " in the 
other old dialects, and that other neuters in 
-na are concrete. 

5. It seemed to me, on first examining 
the passage and its proposed emendations, 
at least ten years ago,^ that the simplest 
correction, and, as I shall try to show, the 
most defensible, had been entirely over- 
looked ; that, instead of inserting super- 
fluous letters without obvious temptation or 
excuse, the scribe was misled by an error of 
the eye into writing one letter less than 
he should have written — a sort of mistake 
which is not uncommon in the codices. A 
curious instance occurs in the last clause of 
John xii. 42 (Cod. Arg.), and under con- 
ditions which, one would have thought, 

^ This article is based on the notes and lexicon to 
a yet unpublished edition of Ulfilas. 

must have made it impossible. The scribe 
originally wrote : 

• . • 

ei us synagogein utwaur- 
panai waur^ina. 

, , , ** that from the synagogue they 
might be cast out,*' 

thus omitting m, " not," after synagogein. 
Discovering the omission, he returned to 
write it in over the line, but actually wrote 
only an t, sleepily supposing the final n of 
synagogein to be the first letter of ni, (It 
should be remembered that in the codices 
there are no spaces between the successive 
words.) One other instance, and one more 
to our point, may be taken from the codex 
containing the fragments of that curious old 
exposition of St John's Gospel, to which 
Massmann ^ve the title Skeireins. Line 10 
of section V. should end with taiknjandan, 
and 11 should begin with an\paranuh; but 
the copyist writes taiknjanda and n]>aranuhf 
actually dropping two lettera, and not merely 
leaving the former word incomplete, but 
mistaking its a for the initial of the latter. 
The instance we are discussing (see par. 1) 
is not quite so bad: only one letter is 
omitted, and the omission occurs, like the 
last mentioned, in the most likely place, 
viz. at the break between two lines. The 
former line ended, as we have seen, in 
du wigd: before the next line was begun, 
there would probably be a short interval, 
and most likely a reference to the pattern- 
copy : on turning his glance again to his 
own parchment and looKing back to make 
the junction, the scribe would see that the 
last letter he wrote was an a, and, not 
noticing its surroundings, proceeded as if 
it were the first letter of the first word of 
the new line : this word should therefore be 
ana, and the whole phrase should be du 
toigan ana, "to make-war on or upon," t.c, 
upon the said king. 

6. This reading might be left to stand on 
its own merits ; but I will add a few lines of 
exposition and defence. Some points, in- 
deed, require no discussion. Thus, it has 
been shown (par. 2) that the infin. with du 
is one of the ways of rendering iig plus an 
abstract subst. As to ana, and similar 
words placed after the verb or verbal, this 
usage is as good Gothic as the corresponding 
constructions in our own language are good 
English, e,g,: 

Jah spaiw in augona is, aUagjands ana handuns 
seinos (Mark viiL 23) ; 

"And he spat into his eyes, laying on his 

$.e, of course, "laying his hands on [the 



man's eyes]." This usage is sometimes rather 
awkwardly called the ''absolute" use of 
''prepositions": in point of fact, in Gothic 
at any rate, it looks like the transference 
of a separable prefix (which is really an ad- 
verb) nrom the head to the tail of its verb or 
verbal : la^an ana^ therefore, is = andagjan 
(which occurs) ; wigan ana = anamgan ; just 
as our forefathers coald say orUecgan, on- 
standan, &c., while we can only say to lay 
on, to stand on, &c. This branch of the sub- 
ject, however, must be left for future con- 
sideration: at the present moment I am 
anxious to cite a passage which is, for my 
purpose, the most striking example of such 
"projection," so to say, of ana, and which 
most forcibly supports my emendation, if it 
does not demonstrate its accuracy. The 
passage occurs in Matt, xxvii. 7. The 
Greek is : 

• . . ifyhpoffap iJi airrCav 
Th» dyobp K€pa/ji4u)t els ra^^r 

Tois ^€¥01S. 

The Gothic (arranged as in C.A) is : 

. . . usbauhtedun us )>aiin 
)>ana Akr Kasjins du usfilhd 
ana gastim. 

. . . "they bought with them 
the Potter's Field to bury in 
for strangers ; " 

or " to bury strangers in " ; or, again (as the 
Go. active infin. had also to serve sometimes 
as passive), " for strangers to be buried in," 
— singularly English idioms. The Go. infin. 
phrase here answers point by point to 
the phrase in Luke, and similarly renders 
iig + an abstract suljst., "for the burial of 
strangers." ^ 

7. With the Gothic of this passage in 
Matthew it is highly interesting to com- 
pare the A-S. version : 

8d gel>6hton hig senne aecer , , . ov td be- 
hyrgenne elffeodisce men ; 

and also that of Wyclif (later version) : 

thei bougten a feeld ... in to biryyng of 
pilgrymys ; 

where du usfilhan is represented by /o + a 
gerundive, and ana by a preceding (instead 
of a following) on and in respectively; and 
thus three Teutons of genius, but of different 
age and nation, independently chose sub- 

* A curious coincidence>-not, of course, aflfectinc the 
substance — is that the two infin. phrases are written 
and divided in the codex in exactly the same way : 
Mt, du usfilh&Wana . . . ; Lk., du wiga\\{a)na; 
but the scribe was more vigilant in the former 

stantially the same mode of expressing %h 

8. A few remarks must be added respect- 
ing toigan, or rather respecting its root ; for, 
as this word occmrs nowhere else in the Go. 
remains, some reader may think it open to 
the same objections as the other proposed 
readings (par. 3, 4); but it isn't. In the 
first place, it is the exact form in the C.A. ; 
secondly, it is a probable and an easily 
explicable form ; and thirdly, it is supported 
by the other Old Teut. dialects. Preceding 
editors, whatever they may have made of 
loigan, have correctly connected it with the 
Go. strong verb weihan, "to fight.'' The 
"principal parts" of this verb in Ulfilas are 
^infin.) weihan, (pret. sing.) tcaih, (pret pi. 
«c.) waihum, (pf. ptcp.) waihana-; and the 
related subst. is waikjon-, "a fight"; but, 
by Verner's Law (explaining what older 
Teutonists called the " grammatical change "), 
those parts in the more ancient prse-Ulfilic 
Gothic must have been wdhan, wath, tcigum, 
wfgana-; and the strong-root forms ^those 
showing h) and the weak-root forms (those 
showing g) shared, on definite principles, the 
whole verbal paradigm between them. In 
such a case, levelling or assimilation of the 
root-forms, and impimis of their final con- 
sonants^ might be expected and predicted. 
The Gothic of Ulfilas's time, throughout 
nearly the whole series of strong verbs, had 
already, in fact, assimilated such difi'ering 
consonants, and had usually levelled in 
favour of the strong root. The West-Teut. 
dialects, although generally maintaining dif- 
ferences between root -forms, and so far 
showing themselves more primitive than the 
Go., nevertheless, as regards this particular 
verb, levelled in favour of the weak root 
(except in the pret. sing, indie.) ; e.g., A-S. 
tdgan, wdh, wigon, wtgen ; and O. H. Grerm. 
wigan (also wthan\ loih, wtgum, giiofgan ; cf. 
also the related subst. (A-S. and O.N. 
toig, O.H.G. t%), of which the stem was 
toigo', and not either wtgana- or wtgna-. The 
prevalence of these ^-f orms in the Teut. area 
makes it probable that the Go. once pos- 
sessed, alongside of toeihan, a duplicate verb 
of the form tceigan,^ tcaig or waih, wigum, 
icigana-. But the usage of language, when a 
phonetic variation of a word radiates from 
an older word, is to seize the newer form to 
express a variation of the idea expressed by 
that older one. In this instance weihan was 
lefo with the specific and concrete meaning 
" to fight" ; and the byform weigan must be 

^ Massmann, in his emendation, assumed this 
in6n., but made it directly govern a pronoun (tna= 



supposed to have assumed the generic and 
abstract meaning " to carry on war." ^ 

9. There is yet the root-vowel of weigan, 
as compared with loiganj to consider. Now, 
as is well known, ei in Go., although written 
as a diphthong, is phonetically a simple 
vowel = continental I (our ee); and in the 
Go. remains many instances, too many to 
be merely mis-spellings, occur, in which t 
( = i) appears where we expect ei (laisans for 
laisareiSf " a teacher " ; digan for deigan, " to 
knead," &c.); so that tcigan may easily be 
ttigan^weigan. But there is another ex- 
planation which, if less simple, is equally or 
even more probable : for not only may the 
consonant, but also the vowel, of the weak 
root of a verb insinuate itself into what was 
previously the strong root. This has hap 
pened, e.g,^ in the English word come^ A.-S. 
ciiman, once cwiman, Teut. ^ueman,— a change 
which is exactly paralleled in Go. itself and 
its sister dialect the O.N., in the case of the 
verb (Go.) trudan, (O.N.) /roSa, where the u 
of the weiak root penetrated all the strong- 
root forms, supplanting the e (i) of the older 
tr^^n, &c. (our tread^ ue, Md), In the case 
of weigan there could have happened a simi- 
lar levelling within the paradigm of the verb 
itself; but the process was probably assisted 
from without For there was in Teut. a 

^ That the 60. did, in some instancesi allow the 
weak-root consonant to supplant that of the strong 
root has been made pretty certain by Paul in his 
and Braune's Beitr&ge (vol. vi. p. 541). 

verb whose principal parts in Gothic were of 
the form tdgan, wdg, tcegum, wtganor, where 
it is seen that the root-forms throughout 
resemble — exactly in the consonant and 
closely in the vowels — the weak forms of 
the prffi-Ulfilic weihan-seneSy and all the four 
forms of the weigan- (wtgarir) series (see par. 
8). Moreover, the meaning of that verb 
(originally =^Lat. vehe^e) was a rather forci- 
ble one in East Teut. (see Ulf., Lk. vL 38,— 
mitads goda jah ga-mgana, ''good measmre 
and shaken down "), and not altogether alien 
to the fundamental idea of weihan or wtgan; 
so that we have here conditions inviting to the 
formal approximation of one verb (uigan) to 
the other (tvigan). That such approximation 
took place is not a baseless fancy or conjec- 
tiure ; for in O.N. not merely approximation 
but apparently complete absorption took 
place, and the vega- ( = Go. wtgan-) paradigm 
ultimately conveyed the meanings of both 
verbs.2 This absorption occurred at so re- 
mote a period that no remains of the totgan- 
series survived at the literary period : we 
may easily conceive, therefore, that a similar 
process was going on in the closely-related 
Grothic, and need not scruple to read du 
wigan ana in Lk. xiv. 31. 

T. Lk Marchant Douse. 

^ Compare the way in which our vb. bid (A-8. 
Uddan, Go. bidjan, ** pray, beseech ") has supplanted 
the descendant of A-S. b^odan (60. KH^-biudan), 
*' command," which should have given us the parts, 
beedt bode, boden ; not only taking over the meaning 
of the latter, but at last actually losing its own. 


In this passage, in which he is speaking 
of the healing properties of the spear of 
Achilles, Dante refers to the latter as having 
formerly belonged to Peleus, the father of 
Achilles :— 

*' Od'io ohe soleva la lancia 
D'Achille e del suo padre esser cagione 
Prima di trista e poi di buona mancia." 

This is, of course, the Homeric tradition 
{Iliad, xvi. 143-4), but, as Dr Moore points 
out in his Studies in Dante (i. 302), there 
does not appear to be any Latin authority 
from which Dante could have derived his 
knowledge of it. There can be little doubt, 
however, that Dante's statement is based 
upon a misunderstanding of Ovid's couplet 
in the Bemedia Amoris : — 

'* Vulnns in Herculeo quae quondam fecerat hoste, 
VulneriB auxilium Pelias hasta tulif 

(w. 47-8.) 

Dante, it is evident, took Pelias hasta to 
mean " the spear of Peleus,'' instead of 
" the spear from Mt. Pelion " (the abode of 
the Centaur Chiron, who gave the spear to 

To this same misunderstanding of the 
Ovidian phrase was doubtless due the not 
infrequent association, by other medieval 
writers, of Peleus with the spear which pos- 
sessed the marvellous healing power referred 
to by Dante. The reference to Peleus and 
his lanpe had, in fact, come to be regarded 
almost as a poetical commonplace, especially 
by writers of amatory poems, as is evident 
from the following instances : — 

*' Ja sa bella boca rizens 
No cugei baizan me trays, 
Mas ab nn dous baizar m'aucis ; 
£ s'ab autre no m'es guirens, 
Atressi m'es per semblansa 
Cum fo de Peleus lia lansa, 
Que de son colp non podi' hom guerir, 
Si per eys loc no s'en fezes ferir. 



Bernart de Ventadour^ (in Raynouard, 
Choix des Poesies miginales des Troubadours^ 
m. 43). 


Sperando morte, ond 'eo poria gioire 

La mia crudel feruta, 

Si ch'io nom fosse in tutto a morte dato : 

Gh^ ricieputo V 6 por folle ardire, 

Laudando mia yeduta, 

E credendom aver gioioso stato. 

Penzo ch'anoor pom en zo' tomare, 

Sol per una semblanza, 

Che d'amoroso core, 

Perseyerando da lei mi yonisse, 

G'a Pelleus la posso asimilgliare ; 

Feruto di sua lanza, 

Non gueria mai, s'aJtroye 

Con eila forte no' lo riferisse.*' 

Messer Tomaso da Faenza ^ (iu D'Ancooa 
e Comparetti, Le Ardicke Rime Volgari setondo 
la lessione del Codice Vaticano 3793, U. 45-6). 

"Pelao con la lancia attossicata 

Ferendo, Tuomo non pottsa guarire 
Se non londe ferisse altra fiata : 
Si mi yeggio di yoi, bella, yenire, 
Che la fcruta, che m'ayete data, 
Farami d'esto sccolo partire ; 
Conyene per yoi essere sanata, 
Che la pena fig^ietemi sentire." 

Giovanni dall' Orto* (in Nannucci, Manuale 
della Letieratura del prima secoh della Lingua 
lialiana, L 227-8). 

"La boccha piccioletta et oholorita, 
Yermiglia come rosa di giardino, 
Piagente et amorosa per basciare ; 
£ M llo saccio, ch'i' Pagio proyato 
Una fiata, yostra gran merzede. 
Ma quella mi fu la lancia di Pelus, 
Ch* ayea tal yertude nel suo ferire 
Ch* al primo cholpo daya pene e morte, 
£ al sechondo yita et allegrezza. 
Chod mi diede quel bascio mal di morte 
Ma sse n'ayesse un altro, ben guerira." 

" II Mare Amoroso," * . w. 99 - 109 (in 
Monaci, Crestomazia Italiana del jprimi SecoH, 
p. 321). 

' * Cod m'ayen com Pallaus sua lanza, 

Ca del suo colpo non p|Otea om guerire, 
Mentre ch'un altro a simile semoianza 
Altra fiata nom si faoiea ferire. 
Cosi dioh'io di yoi, donna, i' leanza, 
Che ci6 ch'io presi mi toma i' languire : 
Se sumilgliante non agio Tusanza, 
Di presente yedretemi morire." 

^Cent. xii. This passage is printed also by Dr 
Moore (to whom it was supplied by Prof. W. P. Ker) 
in his Studies in Dante, L 803. 

^ Cent. xiii. This poem is printed also by Valeriani 
in his PoetidelPri'mo Secolo, II. 83 ; and by Nannucci, 
Lett, Ital,, I. 358. The author is mentioned by 
Dante in the De Vulgari Eloquentia, L 14. 

' Cent. xiii. This poem is printed also by Valeriani, 
Poeti del Primo Secolo, IL 101. 

* Cent. xiii. 

Chiaro Davanzati^ (in D'Ancona e Com- 
paretti, op. city IV. 289). 

This comparison, to the frequent use of 
which Professor Renier draws attention in 
his Tipo estdico della Donna nd Medioevo^^ was 
commonly employed, as appears from the 
foregoing examples, with reference to the 
"wounds" received by the lover from the 
lips or eyes of his mistress. Dante borrows 
the hackneyed simile, but very characteristic- 
ally endows it with fresh life by giving it an 
application quite different from tlie common- 
place one which previous writers had made 
familiar. His was no case of a lover stricken 
down beneath the amorous glances or fond 
kisses of an idealised mistress — the " W(^und " 
from which Dante smarted was inflicted by 
the tongue of his guide and mentor, " il pid 
che padre," ^ Virgil, in sharp rebuke,® and it 
was this self-same tongue which administered 
the healing words of comfort * : — 

** Una medesima liueua pria mi morse, 
Si che mi tinse T'una e I'altra guancia, 
£ poi la medicina mi riporse. 
Cosi od' io che soleva la lancia 
D'Achille o del suo padre esser cagione * 
Prima di trista e poi di buona maucia." 

In/,, zxxL 1-6. 

Paget Toynbee. 

•Cent. xiii. 

* Prof. Renier gives a reference (p. 18) to four of 
the five passages quoted above, as well as to two 
others in which the name of Peleus is not mentioned, 
viz. : — 

" B la mia cradel piftga 
Ml par ebe ogoiora, ardendo, mi coniami; 
E farit sempre. fla che 1 dolce tgnardo 
Non la riiam ra d*aii altro dardo." 

Fazio degli Uberti (in R. Renier, Liriche di Fazio 
degli Uberti^ p. 54). 

*' Ch'aomo dl pre fcio non poria (roarlre 
Qneir uom che dl sua luicfa rha fdagato, 
S'el'o non ftna sol dl referlre. 
Cosi, madoQna mia, simllemente 
Ml conTtn biOTcmente 

Accoatarm« dl rottra vidnanxa 
Che la fflolA lande Tolse la mia lania 
Con qaeila credo tosto e broTemente 
Vlnoere pena, e stutar dlalanza." 

Guittone d'Arezzo {in Valeriani, Le Poesie di 
OuiUone d^Arezzo, I. 206). 

^ Purg,, xxiii. 4. 

^ '' il.Maestro mi disse : *■ Or pur mira,, 

Che per poco h che teco non mi risso.' 
Quand io '1 senti' a me parlar con ira, 
Yolsimi verso lui con tal yergogna, 
Ch' ancor per la memoria mi si gira." 

/»/., XXX. 131-5. 
Maggior difetto men vergogna lava,* 
Disse il Maestro, ' che il tuo non h stato ; 
Per6 d'ogni tristizia ti disgrava.' " 

Inf,, XXX. 142-4. 

9 (( ( 



CoNViTO IV. 29. 

At the conclusion of Dante's treatise on true 
and false nobility the reader will find a pas- 
sage which may thus be rendered : " Oh ye 
who have heard me, see how many are they 
that have been led astray ! they, that is, who 
from being of famous and ancient lineage, 
and descended from illustrious ancestors, 
believe that they are noble, having no 
nobility in themselves. ... So might say 
Ser Manfredi da Vico, who now calls himself 
praetor and prefect : . . . * Whatever I may 
be, I recall to memory and represent my 
ancestors, who by their nobility earned the 
office of the prefecture, earned their share 
in the coronation of the emperor, earned the 
gift of the rose from the Roman pastor ; it 
is my due therefore to receive honour and 
reverence from the people.' " 

This reference to Manfredi of Vico pre- 
sents several points of interest to students 
of Dante's Convito, The first question 
which naturally arises is : Has this reference 
any bearing upon the vexed question of the 
date of tlie Convito 1 Thep follows the con- 
sideration : Why did Dante select the family 
of Vico as the typo of nobility in the popular 
sense, the nobility of which the qualification 
is antica ricchezza ? Why, in conclusion, was 
Manfredi, of all the lawless reprobates of 
Italy, stigmatised as the personification of 
false nobUity, as the most obvious example 
of those whose ignoble character belied the 
nobility of their descent ? 

Such is the want of internal evidence as 
to the date of the Convito that the reader in 
peril of drowning in a flood of generalities 
clutches at any concrete fact towards which 
he is swept. Scartazzini, as is well known, 
rejecting the earlier dates often ascribed to 
the ConviiOy attributes its composition to 
1 308. It is strange that he has not utilised 
the reference to Manfredi, because it is con- 
clusive a^inst the earlier group of dates 
assigned by his opponents. Manfredi was 
certainly not Prefect before 1303 ; Contelori ^ 
dates his accession at 1 304 ; he was unques- 
tionably Prefect in 1306.^ Thus this portion 
of the Convito, at least, cannot have been 
written before 1303 at the very earliest. 

* De Prw/ecio Urhis. 

' If, as seems probable, the Petrus de Vico, who 
was invested with Givitk Vecchia on September 
24, 1305 (Cristofori / PrefeUi), was Manfredi's pre- 
decessor and not his own younger son, his accession 
most fall between this date ana October 1306. 

Manfredi outlived Dante, and is therefore 
of no service as an ultimate date. 

The house of Vico professed descent from 
Julius Csesar, or at least from Nero.^ More 
modest genealogists derived them iv6m the 
Dukes of Spoleto, and this origin, if the 
geographical position of the family be con- 
sidered, is not impossible. Their later pos- 
sessions lay from Civit^ Vecchia to the Lieike 
of Vico. But they are also early found 
settled at Bome in the Trastevere, and are 

5>robably to be identified with the house of 
lomani. They held the Prefecture without 
interruption from the middle of the twelfth 
century to the middle of the fifteenth, and it 
is likely that many of the Prefects from the 
tenth century belonged to the house. The 
Prefecture is reported to have been made 
an hdfeditary fief of the family by Inno- 
cent III. At all events, the terms Proefec- 
tani, Prefetteschi, or de Prcefectis, became 
a family name. 

The office of Prsefectus Urbis was precisely 
one which would impress Dante's imagina- 
tion. The Prefect was still regarded as the 
direct representative of the Emperor in Rome 
and the Sub-urban districts, as " Cesare 
absente summi Pontificis ductor.'' He was 
no mere territorial feudatory, but was still 
-an official of the Empire. His chief import- 
ance was, perhaps, derived from his strong- 
holds on the Ciminian hills, but not his 
principal interest. It is doubtful whether he 
retained his Court in Rome after the middle 
of the thirteenth century, and ho certainly 
had forfeited his fief on the Island of the 
Tiber. But he still in Dante's time and later 
retained the right of appointing local notaries 
and justices. Manfredi himself is found, on 
July 12, 1324, to invest Giovanni Andreutii 
Alberti de Viterbo with book, inkstand, and 
pen, ** auctoritate nostre prefettorie digni- 
tatis." * 

The Imperial Praefectus Urbis had exer- 
cised jurisdiction to the hundredth mile on 
every side of Rome ; those of Vico were still 
nominally responsible for the security of the 

' The most reliable and accessible work on the 
Pi-efects of Vico is '* I Prefetti di Vico," byC. Calisse, 
ArchiTio dclla R. Society Romana di Storia Patria. 
Vol. X., 1887. From this are mainly derived the 
biographical data of this article. 

F. Cristofori has published '* Memorie storche del 
Signori di Vico prefetti di Roma" in Miscellanea 
storioa viterbese, vol. iii, 1888. 

^ Quoted by Calisse, op. cU^ 



roads which from the north converged upon 
the capital, and for the prevention of un- 
licensed castles. A survival of the cura 
(mnonce existed In the present of rolls from 
the bakeries, of wine from the wine:stores, 
and of a sheep's head from the butchers; 
the memory of this all-important function 
was perpetuated in the monogram, a P with 
little rolls around it.^ 

At the accession of Boniface VIII. the 
office of Prefect is described as " Magnum 
sine viribus omen." But there was much 
external magnificence. The Pope invested 
the Prefect with the purple mantle and the 
cup^ the Emperor's delegate conferred on him 
the eagle and the swora Each fourth Sun- 
day of Lent he received from the Pope the 
golden rose. The dalmatic with its broad 
pur{^ stripe and the gold embroidered 
mantle recalled the laticlave and the toga 
prsBtexta of Imperial days. The red slippers, 
tied round the calf by black laces, were re- 
placed by the barbaric high-laced boots 
(zanchas), the one of purple, the other of 
cloth of gold. Of late Roman origin were, 
perhaps, the infulsB which decked the high 
conical cap. The Prefect no longer drove in 
a small chariot, but rode a charger with 
purple trappings and golden bosses to its 

In Imperial Rome the supreme preoccupa- 
tion of the Prasfectus Urbis had been the per- 
sonal security of the Emperor. The Popes 
' had wrested the appointment both from 
Emperor and people. So now the Prefect 
of Yico would ride by the Pope's side in 
processions attended by his judices, or on 
Assumption Day ride before him with twelve 
torchbearers. Yet, whenever the Emperor 
came to Rome, it seemed a point of honour 
that the Prefect should desert the Pope and 
again become the Emperor's representative 
and his guardian. This was the office 
assumed by the lords of Yico at the corona- 
tion of Henry VII. and of Louis IV. 

It is clear that Dante was singularly happy 
in selecting as an example of nobility, popu- 
larly so called, the lineage of Vico, " che per 
loro nobilt^ meritarono I'ufficio della pre- 
fettura, c meritarono di porre mano al corona- 
mento dell' imperio, meritarono di ricevere la 
rosa dal romano pastore." Was he equally 

^ Manfredi's seal shows an eagle with a crown of 
roses in its claw ; around the eagle are rolls. The 
functions and insignia of the medieyal prefecture 
may be found in ContelorL The illustrations are of 
much interest. The seal representing the prefect in 
1S34 is dven in Bussi, Istona della cittib di Yiterbo, 
1742. For the insignia of the Imperial Prefecture, 
see *'£8sai sur I'hStoire de la Prefectura Urbis," 
liy P. E. Vigneauxy 1896. 

happy in the selection of the individual 
whose character should be brought into 
strong contrast with his lineage and honours ? 
Manfredi was godson of King Manfred. 
He was a middle-aged man when he suc- 
ceeded to the Prefecture. Little is known 
of him previously, except that he was podestd 
of Corneto, where his name may still be seen 
on the facade of the palace, and that he 
had probably by unjust means acquired the 
fief of Montalto. He married a cousin of 
fourth degree without waiting for Papal dis- 
pensation. In 1307 he invaded the coniado 
Aldobrandino in the Marcmma. The Or- 
vietans complained to the Eector of the Patri- 
mony, but Manfredi surprised the deputies 
and imprisoned them at Yico. This fact 
brings us down to the date ascribed to the 
Convito by Scartazzini. In 1309 Manfredi 
promised compensation to the Orvietans, but 
broke his word. He was one of the Emperor 
Henry VII.*s staunchest supporters; and, 
although he left him at Rome, he waged war 
on his behalf in the Patrimony, surprised and 
sacked Orvieto, but was beaten back and 
would have lost his life but for the interven- 
tion of Napoleone Orsini. His next exploit 
was to induce the people of Montalto to 
rebel against the Papal Government. On 
the other hand, when in 1315 the Orvietans 
headed a revolt of Guelfic towns and lords 
against Bernard de Coucy, Vicar of the 
Patrimony, and closely besieged him in the 
Castle of Montefiascone, Manfredi headed 
the Ghibelline forces who drove the Guelfs 
with great slaughter from their entrench- 
ments and liberated the Vicar. But then 
the offence of Bernard de Coucy was that he 
had favoured the Ghibellines and persecuted 
the Guelfs.2 In 1317-8 the new Vicar excom- 
municated Manfredi. After this the Prefect 
carried his devastations up the Tiber Valley 
as far as Todi, where he had to retire before 
the Florentines whom the Orvietans had 
called to their aid. When the Bolognese 
asked Orvieto for help against Can Grande, 
the town refused on the ground that all its 
forces were employed against the Prefect. 
Upon the march of Louis of Bavaria to Eome, 
Manfredi was among his chief supporters, 
but because Louis would not give him the 
lordship of Viterbo he deserted to the 
Papacy. He is known to be already dead in 
1333, and was succeeded bv his son Giovanni, 
the most powerful of all tne Prefects. 

This is substantially all that is known of 

' For this curious rebellion sec '* Una ribellioue 
contro il Vicario del Patrimonio," by M. Antonelli. 
Archivio della R. Societii Romana, Vol. xx. p. 177, 



Manfredi of Yico, and if it is all that Dante 
knew it miist be confessed that he somewhat 
inartistically i6rced the contrast between the 
famous family and the infamous individual. 
Most of Manfredi's least creditable actions 
were after the latest date ascribed to the 
Conviio. The nobles of the Patrimony rarely 
made war in kid gloves, and Manfredi would 
seem to have been little better or worse than 
his contemporaries. The very triviality of 
the facts which we have given form their 
interest for the passage under discussion. 
Why should this unfortunate nobleman have 
been pilloried for all time ? It is noticeable 
that as long, at least, as Dante lived Man- 
fredi was a consistent Ghibelline, the 
champion of Henry of Luxemburg, and virtu- 
ally the ally of Can Grande delk Scala, the 
friend, that is, of Dante's friends. 

In considering this difficulty it has occurred 
to me as possible that Dante was, after all, 
utilising a commonplace, that the house of 
Vico was popularly regarded as a type of 
antica ricchezza, whereas its individual mem- 
bers enjoyed an infamous reputation from 
the Florentine and Guelfic point of view, 
which Dante had inherited. Were then the 
Prelects traditionally a type of rascality) 
They were unquestionably for generations 
the bugbear of the Papal government^ and of 
the municipalities of the Patrimony, sup- 
porters of schism and of anti-popes, tradi- 
tional enemies of democracy. They had an 
ill name for turning coat in their personal 
interest ; this they did in the reign of Bar- 
barossa, in that of Henry VI., and in that 
of Frederic U. The most characteristic 
scoundrel of the race was, however, Man- 
fredi*s father, Pietro IV., and Dante is not 
improbably visiting the sins of the father 
upon the son. Urban IV. stigmatised this 
Prefect as ** quel perfido e scomunicato tradi- 
tore che ^ Pietro di Vico ; " his castle of Vico 
is the " nido di tutte lo iniquity" Upon the 
news of the approach of Charles of Anjou in 
the Pope's aid, Pietro tried to surprise Konie. 
He foiied his way into the Trastevere, but 
was beaten off from the Isola. Again, by 
order of King Manfred he attempted to seize 
the Pope in Orvieto. When, however, 
Charles of Anjou arrived Pietro deserted 
the King, did homage to Charles, and joined 
in the attack on San Germano. The Pope, 

in reward, restored to him the fief of Civitii 
Vecchia, an old possession of the house, but 
always suspected his good faith. Pietro 
afterwards deserted the Angevin cause, joined 
Conradin, and died in December 1269 of the 
effects of wounds received at the historic 
fight of Tagliacoazo. The Prefect undoubt- 
edly regarded himself as the personification 
of all iniquity, for he directed that his body 
should be cut into seven pieces, ** a detesta- 
zione dei vizi capitali, di nessuno dei qpsli 
conosceva essere stato mondo in sua vita." 
He was popularly, though falsely, believed 
to have died unshriven. 

Pietro's immediate successor was Pietruccio, 
Manf redi's elder brother. He was less power- 
ful, cautiotis and time-serving, coloiirless, 
as it seems, in character. To students of 
Dante it is of some slight interest that 
he married Totnmasia, daughter of Guy de 
Montfort, the villain of the ibmg dy of Viterbo. 
The girPs father, however, did not approve 
the match. Then followed Manfredi. Now 
it is clear that the personal iniquity of the 
father, Pietro, would have been a more 
forcible example for Dahte's purpose than 
the character of his owti contemporary, 
Manfredi. We venture to suggest tnat the 
latter was singled out merely because he was 
the contemporary member of the house to 
which infamy now hereditarily clung. 

In denunciation of the Prefects of Vico, 
Dante was not the last Demosthenes nor 
Manfredi the last Philip. The latter's very 
son, Giovanni, was the detestation both of 
Rienzi and of Cardinal Albornoz. He is 
vituperated as the " vipera, scorpione, cancro, 
tarlo, veleno, mostro uscito dall' abisso del 
fetore, bestia sulle coma della quale sono 
scritte bestemmie."^ In the forcible lan- 
guage of the Papal Chancery the teimaJUius 
miquUatis or damncUe memorie are almost as 
hereditarily attached to the house of Vico as 
the proud title of PrcBfedvs aJme urtis. The 
brutality of the house of Vico certainly be- 
came a literary commonplace after Dante's 
death until the day of its merciless extinc- 
tion at the hands of its neighbour of Cometo, 
the Cardinal Vitelleschi A ruined tower by 
the lonely lake of Vico is now the sole relic 
of the antica ricchezza of Ser Manfredi. 

E. Armstrong. 

^ Quoted by Galisse, op, cU., Appendix. 




The end of the world has occupied men's 
minds in all ages, and attempts to interpret 
and foretell the signs of its coming are to be 
foond even among pagans. Our Lord's con- 
stant admonitions to His disciples to watch, 
although he refrained from giving them any 
definite answer, made this matter a very 
Vivid reality to the Christian of early times 
and also to the roan of the Middle Ages. It 
is only natural then that we find a mass of 
poems in all languages on the subject. 

Modem scholars have collected these writ- 
ings, particularly (i.) Hofmann in "Muen- 
chenw Gelehrter Anzeigor " ^1860) ; (ii.) C. 
Michaelis in " Herrig's Archiv," vol. xxvi. ; 
and (iii.) Nolle in ''Paul und Braune's 
Beitrage," vol. vi. (1879). Paul Meyer in 
his edition of " Daurel et Beton " (Aiciens 
Textes fran^ais^ describing the MS. Didot, 
quotes a small fragment of a French version 
copied by a Southern scribe. In his notice 
of a Burgundian MS. in "Romania" (1887), 
he further mentions a fragment on the same 
Bubject in octosyllabic rimed couplets, and 
gives, too, much useful information as to 
other MSS. dealing also with the last day. 
One of these thus referred to is contained in 
the MS. No. 36 of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford. It corresponds somewhat to the 
versions inserted in the old "Drama of 
Adam," and published from the Tours MS. 
by Luzarche (" Drame d'Adam," 1854, p. 70) 
and Palustre (Adam, 1875), and agrees 
somewhat more closely with the Bern MS., 
published by Hofmann {loc, ciL) The Ox- 
ford fragment begins at the middle of the 
usual Prologue, and consists of only 125 
verses : — 

Si ne yns cremiise ennuer, . . . 

On desturber d'auciin mester, 

Des quinze signes vus deisse, 

Ainz que remuer mei queisse : 

Ce que est escrit de verite, 5 

£nz les veiiz livres d*antiqaite ; 

Si cum resent Seint Jeronimes 

Quant il parla des quinzes signes. 

Al jur del fin del cest mund, 

Quant tutes ohoses finerant, 10 

Frat Deus par sa grant puissance 

Des quinze sispes tele demustrance 

N'ad suz del l*ome tant felun, 

Si vers Deu ad sa entensiun, 

Si un poi mei yelt escuter 15 

Que 11 n*estuce ^ suspirer. 

Car cum cist siecle nnerat, 

Koetre sire signes ferat 

Ce nns reoonte Jeremias, 

Zorobabel e Ysayas, 20 

. I90 afferme Ezecniel, 

1 £iitaoesT(oiirs). 

£ 11 prophete Daniel, 
David, Amon e Moses 
£ autres prophetes apres. 
£n poi devant le jugement, 
Ou 11 felun semint dolent, 
Mustrat Deus sa maest^, 
£ on terre sa poeste, 
Qui ore veut oi'r la merveille, 
£nTers que ren ne s'aparoille. 
£ndreit sun quer si me regard 
Si li dirai de quele part 
Vendra la grant mesaventure. 
Qui passera tute mesure. 
Ore entendez de la jom^ 
Que tant deit estre redut^. 
Del ciel charra pluie sanglante, 
Ne quidez mie que je vus mente : 
Tute la terre en ert coluree. 
Mult i avera aspre rusee. 
Les enfants que nez ne serrunt, 
Dedenz les ventres crierunt, 
Od clere voiz mult hautement : 
Merci, reis Deus omnipotent ! 
Nus ne querons ja ci nestre, 
Car melz nus serreit neut estre 
Que nasquerons aicel jur 
Quant tute ren suffira dolor. 
Li enfants crierunt issi 
£ tuz dimmt ** sire, merci " ! 

Li primer ior ert tut itaus. 
Mes li secund ert plus maus ; 
Car del ciel oharrunt les esteilles, 
Ce ert un des granz merveilles. 
Nuls ne ert tant bien affichee, 
Que a eel jur del oiel ne chid 
£ currunt issi desur terre, 
Com foldre quant ele deserre 
Par tut le mund irrunt curant. 
Le fin del siecle signefiant. 
£ nequedent mot ne dirrunt 
Desques en abime desoendrunt 
Od grant dolor e grant turment 
£ totes eboses ... 
Hore perdront la grant clart^ 
Dunt le siecle fust enlumin^ 
Biaus sire Pere que femms 
Que cest pour attenderoms ! 
Qoi si somes envenim^ 
£ en peche envolop^ 

Li tierz si^es ert merveillos, 
Plein d'angoisse e do dolors ; 
Car li throne <}oe vos veez, 
Qoi est tant bien enlominez, 
Serra plos neir qoe nole ren. 
Bien voil quid toz le sachent bien, 
Qoe li soleil dreit a midi, 
£n ert . . . tot enneirci, 
Si qoe nole ren ne verront 
Icil qm a eel jor serront 
Hai, Deos ! Icil 00 devendront, 
Qoi granz pecohez fet averont ; 
Qoi od Deo sont si corocez ; 
A icel jor serront irez. 

Li qoart signes ert molt dntables 
£ plos des aotres epoovantables 
Car la lone qoi tant est bele, 
Al chef des meis, qoant est novele, 
Serrat mod en vermeil sane 
E de dolnr aem semblant. 
Mnli nns de hnre i remeiiidreit 
E mnlt'tost tTmtmdntf ' 

















Mes poi de hure i remeindreit 

£ mult tost yendra al mer 

Dedenz se voldra enserer 

Pur eschiire le jur e I'ire ; 

Quant nus jugera nostre sire 95 

Alas ! cum serrunt malbailli. 

Icil de (}ui Deus n'avera merci. 

Li quint signes ert plus horribles 
Que tuz les autres e plus femioles : 
Car trestuz les mues oestes 100 

Vers le ciel tendrunt lur testes : 
A Deu voldrunt merci crier. 
Mes eles ne porrunt parler, 
Ghescun getura tel brait, 
Cum horribles toneire fait, 105 

Taut douterunt angussement. 
Deu, qui vendra al jugement. 
Adunc n'i avra nule leesee 
Tute ren serra en tristesse. 

Li sist jur par ert si maus 110 

Que unques ne fust si mortaus 
Que ne si croulerat pas ; 
Car tuz les mnnz en vendrunt bas 

E enountre cresterunt li val 
Taut que a munz serrunt egal. 
A icest jur ^ue je vus di 
Pur veir, seigneurs, le vus affi 
Serra le pais mu6 en guerre 
£ tant fort croulera la terre, 
Que n'ad suz ciel si ferine tur, 
Que jus ne chece a ioel pur ; 
E done chernint trestuit li arbre, 
£ li paleis qui sunt de marbre. 
Li setime jur ert tant cruans 
Que devant eel ne ert nul tens. . 




Here the MS. breaks off very abruptly, 
and the blank piece of parchment has been 
carefully cut off. The MS. itself dates 
probably from the second half of the 
thirteenth century — ^the version, however, 
would not be less than a hundred years 
older. A. T. Baksb. 


Dans les questions d'^ducation et d*in- 
struction qui se sont agit^es et qui s'agitent 
depuis les temps de la renaissance et de la 
R6forme, I'^cole classique en Angleterre a su 
persuader le public, aussi bien que com- 
mander et faire valoir la raison non moins 
que I'autorit^, telles qu'elle les envisage, en 
faveur d'un enseignement bas6 sur P^tude du 
latin et du grec. En vertu de cette autorit^ 
que lui a assur^e la tradition et de cette 
position qu'elle a prise et occup^e k Tombre 
des institutions dont les chefs 6taient imbus 
de classicisme, cette ^cole a r^clam6 la 
direction des Etudes d'une Education lib^rale, 
cultiv^e. Elle maintient qu'il n'y a d'autres 
Etudes humanisantes, qu'il n'y a de discipline 
intellectuelle, je veux dire par 1^, Tensemble 
des regies et des influences au moyen des- 
quelles on pent former Tesprit, fortifier le 
caract^re et purifier les sentiments de I'in- 
dividu en vue de le preparer k remplir les 
devoirs du rdle social auquel les circonstances 
de son environnement le destineront, que 
celles des langues mortes. 

A Tappui de cette attitude et en faveur de 
ce cumculum d'^tudes on nous dit que les 
difficult^s qui s'y trouvent sont des difficult^s 
propres k former Pesprit de T^l^ve, qu'ellos 
sont propres k Thabituer k travailler, k 
" b(icher " laborieusement, p^niblement. Plus 
il trouvera les sujets difficiles k mattriscr, plus 
sa m^moire gagnera en t^nacit^. II retien- 
dra sans Foublier ce qu'il aura une fois appris. 
Plus le travail sera dur, plus T^l^ve s'en trou- 
vera bien au bout du compte. Si les diffi- 
cultes des langues mortes fortifientla m^moire 
et rintelligence, r^l6ve qui apprendra le plus 

lentement, le plus laborieusement^ leplus p^ni- 
blement, sera celui-lii qui sera le plus stir de se 
rappeler et les choses et les faits qu'on lui 
aura enseign^ ; en un mot, les connaissances 
qu'aura acquises un imbecile, un lourdaud, 
seront plus durables, plus solides, plus 
^tendues que celles qu'aura apprises un ei^ve 
de m^rite et intelligent Si c'est le but de 
Tenseignement de rendre difficiles les sujets 
que r^l^ve doit ^tudier, pourquoi ne pas 
rendre les sujets doublement difficiles et lui 
faire consacrer trente ann^es de son existence 
au lieu de quinze k vaincre ces difficolt^s t 
Les difficult^s que rencontre dans son enseigne- 
ment le mattre de latin et de grec deman- 
dent un talent et des connaissances d'un ordre 
sup^rieur k ceux qu'exigent les difficult^s 
que rencontre dans le sien le maitre de 
langues vivantes. 

Nous avons accepts jusqu'^ pr^ent^ tout 
bonnement et bien naivement les pretentions 
de cette ^cole sans examiner les bases sur 
lesquelles elles se platt k les fonder. Cette 
attitude et cette assertion de P^ole classique 
ne sont fondles que sur la tradition ainsi que 
sur rignorance des difficult^ inseparables k 
Tenseignement d*une langue parl^e. 

L'enseignement des langues nationales 
parlies est sous beaucoup de rapports bien 

f>1us difficile, bien plus compliqu^ que ne 
^est celui des langues mortes. En ceci, 
se trouvent principalement ces difficult^s: 
cet enseignement pent devenir en des mains 
inhabiles, et, il y en a, la carri^re en four- 
mille, un enseignement trivial, mauvais, 
insuffisant, pen scientifique, un enseigne- 
ment qui ne devient efficace que par I'nsage 



oral, plutdt que par I'^tude et les regies. 
Le maltre classique est exempt dans son 
enseignement de ces difficult^s que trouve 
dans le sien le maltre des langues vivantes. 
Le fait est que celui-ci, en grande partie 
formule et precise ses regies, ses propres lois ; 
il doit organiser son cours aux exigences des 
lieux et selon le caprice des individus, tandis 
que celui-1^ trouve ses regies, ses lois toutes 
formul^es et pr^cis^es en des termes concis ; 
elles sont approfondies par une phalanee 
d'illustres pr^d^cesseurs dans la province de 
la critique et de Tex^g^se grammaticales. 
Son travail et son system e sont compl^tement 
outill^ avant d'entrer dans sa classe, avant 
d'ouvrir uu livre. Les connaissances et les 
faits qu'il trouve dans les auteurs anciens 
sont fix^, arr^t^s, immuables, tandis que les 
connaissances et les l^^t^ qui s'obtiennent 
par r^tude des langues vivantes et que le 
maltre inculque dans son cours sont conven- 
tionnels, variables, susceptibles, comme tout 
ce qui a vie et ^nergie, des changements qu'ap 
portent le caprice et la mode, la civilisation 
et le progr^s. La fashion, de concert avec le 
th^&tre et le roman, branche de litt^rature 
qu'ignorait Tantiquit^, exerce une autorit^ 
imp^rieuse sur tout ce qui conceme la langue 
parl^ et sur tout ce qui s y rattache. Des mots, 
des termes et des expressions qui autrefois 
4taient encore en usage et qui 4taient admis 
dans la litt^rature sont tomb^s en d^su^tude 
ou ont vieilli, ou encore ont acquis im sens 
tout k fait diffi^rent de celui qu'on leur donne 
aujourd'hui, d'autres sont reUgu^s parmi les 
archalsmes ou bien sont compl^tement ou- 
bli^, tandis que sous Pempire de la mode et 
du caprice des ^crivains, de nouvelles expres- 
sions s'introduisent dans le vocabulaire ordi- 
naire et r^clament le droit de bourgeoisie, le 
droit d'etre admis comme faisant partie du 
langage de la soci^t6 cultiv^e. J'en trouve 
des exemples sans nombre dans les langues 
vivantes. Les mots de la langue anglaise, 
parson, lawyer^ dame, etc., en leur temps ex- 
primaient correctement la pens^e et la signifi- 
cation d'alors. Qu'on les emploie de nos 
jours, je Tadmets; mais on s'en sert pour 
exprimer quelque chose d'un peu d^nigrant, 
certainement pour exprimer une id^e bien 
moins respectueuse que n'est Tid^e du sens 
des mots clergyman, tody, barrister, etc. 

L'admission ou Poxclusion de ces mots qui 
ne sont nullement des ndologismes, depend 
do circonstances, de caprices, de vogue que 
le maltre de langues vivantes ne pent pr^voir. 
n doit ^tre h, m^me de faire face aux difficul- 
t^s de ce genre, de les surmonter par une 
6tade contmue, persistante, aa mojen d'lme 
critique comparative da lai^gage dv ^ 

rentes ^poques de Thistoire de la langue. II 
doit faire face, dis-je, aux changements et 
aux vicissitudes qui sont comme sur tout ce 
qui est humain, empreints sur la construction 
phras6ologique des langues parlies. En outre, 
la m6th(^e scientifique d'enseigner une 
langue vivante exige que toutes les facult^s 
de r^leve soient mises en jeu, qu'elles soient 
constamment tenues en 6veil dans son travail. 
L'oreille, la voix, les yeux doivent §tre exerc^s 
a chaque instant Le maltre de langues 
modernes, des langues analytiques, de celles 
qui exprimant chaque id6e, chaque rapport 
granunatical par un mot distinct, embras- 
sant dans son enseignement la synthase et 
I'analyse, le g^n^ral et le particulier, d^ploie 
un champ plus vaste d'observations et de 
connaissances des choses qui sont k la port^e 
immediate de Timagination et de Fintelli- 
gence de T^l^ve, de ce qui le touche de plus 
pr^s. Son enseignement demande de T^nergie, 
de la volont^, de la passion, du feu sacr^. 
Get enseignement exige des connaissances 
6tendues qu'on ne demande pas du maltre 
classique, car il faut ^tre instruit poiu* 
enseigner les langues parlies aux hommes et 
plus encore pour les faire comprendre des 
enfants. Le maltre fran^ais, pour prendre 
un exemple, outre les difficult^s inh^rentes 
k son enseignement, doit poss^er un tact 
consomm^ en presence de jeunes gens dont 
le patriotisme et les pr^jug^ nationaux 
peuvent, avec raison, s'offusquer de certains 
extraits d'une litt^ratiu:e ^trang^re k ses senti- 
ments, il doit se tenir constamment en garde 
contre Temploi d'expressions qui pourraient 
froisser et la fiert4 et Tamomr-propre. 

Les langues mortes sont arriv6es k cette 
condition avantageuse au maltre classique 
qu'elles sont affranchies de la loi des change- 
ments, qu'engendrent le progr^ des lumi^res ; 
elles ne sont pas sujettes au d^p^rissement 
verbal et k Pinfluence troublante des circon- 
stances du moment dans Tordre des id^. 
Leur caract^re est inalterable. L'usage n'est 
plus 1^ pour compliquer la grammaire, 
pour imposer ses caprices. Ces faits et ces 
circonstances qui s'y rattachent constituent 
une difference essentielle, capitale entre 
I'enseignement des langues mortes et Ten- 
seignement des langues vivantes. Seulement 
occupy que le maltre de classique est des 
ergoties du p^dantisme et des disputes de 
mots, du "cutting and pairing" des vers 
lambiques, du "topping and tailing" des 
hexam^tres, purement confine qu'il est dans 
le cercle 6troit des petites et mesquines 
prescriptions de sa rh^torique et de sa 
po6tiinie, sa tftche 4 lui, si e'en est. une, est 



On en impose quand P^cole classique 
nous dit qu' il faut maintenir les langues 
mortes k la position acad^mique exclusive 
qu' elles occupent, parce que, nous dit-on, il 
n'y a que les langues mortes pour former 
un homme cultiv^, instruit; ce sont des sujets 
indispensables pour s'instruire et pour 
acqu6rir des connaissances. A entendre nos 
collogues classiques, ce sont eux seuls qui 
peuvent d^licatement ouvrir une huitre. Je 
maintienSy au contraire, que les connaissances 
intellectuelles ne sont point emmagasin^es 
dans le d6p6t litt^raire des anciens, dans le 
cercle 6troit de P^tude du grec et du latin. 
II y a peu de faits, bien peu de connais- 
sances qu*il vaille la peine de savoir et qui 
puissent s'acqu^rir dans un cours uniquement 
et exclusivement bas6 sur Penseignemeut 

L'antiquit^ avait sans doute observ6 ct 
not^ d'importants faits. Les Arabes, surtout, 
nous avaient transmis avec gloire le d^p6t 
de certaines connaissances qu'ils avaient 
re9ues des Grecs, disciples eux-m^mes des 
Egyptiens, mais les faits des sciences dans 
leur exactitude et leur ach^vement, tels que 
nous les trouvons de nos jours, ne datent 
que du moyen &ge. 

Ce n'est pas dans les Merits des auteurs 
anciens qui nous sont parvenus quo nous 
apprendrons k connaltre les doctrines et les 

f)ratiques de la religion, les lois de la nature, 
es ph^nom^nes et les propri^t^s physiques, 
les lois de la composition des corps ; que nous 
apprendrons la science qui traite des organes 
dans les Stres vivants, que nous apprendrons 
par quelles lois Thomme se forme, crolt, vit, 
reproduit son semblable, d^p^rit et meiurt. 
Et rbistoire naturelle qui aujourd'hui peut 
passer, par la mani^re dont elle est trait^e, 
pour la plus int^ressante de toutes les 
sciences que les hommes cultivent et celle, 
comme le dit bien un auteur francais dont le 
nom m'^chappe, qui ram^ne le plus naturel- 
lement de Tadmiration des ouvrages k Tamour 
de Touvrier, la fera-t-on ^tudier dans les 
langues mortes 1 Elle ne s'y trouve pas. 

£fous veuons tous plus ou moins en contact 
dans notre carri^re professionnelle avec des 
personnes dans Tesprit desquelles se trouve 
une vague association d'id^es confuses parmi 

lesquelles nous obeervons cette singuliire 
notion que T^tude des anciens produit le 
caract^re vertueux, que le coeiu* et les affec- 
tions de lliommo se d^veloppent k mesuro 
que Tesprit et la reflexion se a^veloppent en 
s*exercant k maitnser les constructions 
phraseologiques des langues mortes, do 
langues qui apr^ tout ce qu'on pjeut avancer 
en leur favour, n'ont jwint subi Tinliuence 
purifiante du g^nie du christianisme. Dans 
r^tat actuel de notre organisme social, de la 
litt^rature moderne qui repr^nte le meilleur 
c6t^ de notre culture, dans les m^thodes 
d'enseignement et d'instruction morale et 
intellectuelle qui se font de nos joiu's, dans 
les conditions du progr^s des lumi^res qui 
nous accompagnent, il n'y a aucune raison 
fondamentale qui puisse supporter une 
pareille attitude mentale en favour des 
Etudes classiques. II me serait bien facile 
de prouver le contrair& Si on avait k 
traduire des langues modernes et k expliquer 
les^ sentiments peu d^licats ainsi que les 
cboses crues qu'on rencontre k chaque page 
^crite des auteurs latins, etc., on serait 
oblig^ de faire comme Midas qui soufflait 
ses secrets aux roseaux qui les murmuraient 
de nouveau aux autres au bord des ondes crys- 
tallines du ruisseau. R^lamer en f aveiu* des 
quinzeann^derexistenced'unjeune homme, 
toutes consacr^es k I'aoriste et k I'oratio 
obliqua une influence plus humanisante, plus 
delicate dans la formation du caract^re 
de rindividu, une plus ])rofonde admiration 
de la force morale, une disposition plus fine 
de Ykme k fuir le mal et k faire le bien, un 
sens plus vigoureux du beau, une affection 
plus intense de la nature et des oeuvres de 
Dieu que T^tude jet la connaissance des 
langues vivantes, expliqu^ et enseign^es 
de u m^me mani^re et avec la m^me rigueur 
que celles que Ton applique dans le traite- 
ment des sujets anciens, ne peuvent r^Iamer 
en leur favour — c'est se montrer de parti 
pris absurde, d^raisonnable et contraire aux 
r^sultats de I'observation et des faits. A 
entendre nos innocents confreres classiques, 
eux seuls peuvent 6ter k Pan sa fliite et en 
tirer des sons m^lodieux. {A suivre.) 

Paul Barbixr. 


AusiAS March, whose life and writings form 
the subject of this article, was probably born 
in one of the early years of the fifteenth 
century. The exact date is not known, but 
his intimate friendship with the unfortunate 

Prince, Don Carlos de Viana, seems to con- 
firm the traditionary epoch of his birth some- 
where in this period. He belonged to a 
family in which the spirit of poesy was 
hereditary. Jaume March, his ancestor, was 



a famous troubadour, who, at the Court of 
Peter the Fourth, answered a question of the 
Viscount de Rocaberti as to the relative ad- 
vantages of summer and winter, in which the 
King decided the controversy in his favour. 
Another ancestor, Pere March " the old,'* is 
mentioned by Santillana as the contemporary 
of Berguedan and Paul de Bonviure, well- 
known poets. To a Jaume March is to be 
attributed a rhjrming dictionary, while to a 
Pere Ausias March, the father of Ausias, is 
to be ascribed a collection of moral proverbs. 
The name of our poet's father shows that 
Ausias had become part of the family name. 
Its true pronunciation may perhaps be 
gathered from the form Ocias, in which the 
word occurs in the " Gloria d' Amor " of 

Mossen Pere Ausias March and his wife, 
Na Lionor Ripoll, both belonged to families 
of noble origin who had been established in 
the kingdom of Valencia since its reconquest 
in 1253 A.D. Their son Ausias had doubt- 
less from his earliest years been accustomed 
to hear his father read and recite poetry, as 
well his own as that of other well-known 
authors. His education he received in the 
Duchy of Gandia, where his father was 
Treasurer or Gk)vernor-General of the lands 
of the Duke, a scion of the house of Borgia, 
that well-known name in Papal history. 
Gandia is a town on the Western shore of 
the Mediterranean, l3ring at the mouth of 
the river Alcoy, due east of San Felipe de 
Jativa. The beauty of its situation and 
such a home we may conjecture would be 
highly favourable to the cultivation of the 

As soon as Ausias emerged from tender 
years in his capacity as a noble, and also prob- 
ably on his father's business, he had occasion 
to journey to Italy, being presented at the 
courts of the Pope, while at various subsequent 
times his was a well-known face at the courts 
of the King of Aragon and Valencia. When 
Alfonso the 5th of Aragon and the 3rd of 
Valencia, styled the Magnanimous^ conquered 
the kingdom of Sicily, he doubtless accom- 
panied him, and proved a frequent guest at 
the castle " Del Ovo " at Naples, where his 
friend and patron died on the 21st of June 
1458. Thus he acquired a knowledge of 
the world and the virtues and vices of men 
in general. In return for his services, what- 
ever they may have been, Kine Alfonso 
bestowed on him the lordships of Beniarjo 
and Pardirnes, small villages lying not &r 
from Gandia. Madoz, in his Gaeetteer, do-; 
scribes Beniarjo as containing 140 haoBmi 
Pardirnes contained in 1328, m Mf% boll 

houses and a church, of which there are no 
remains except a piece of its wall. 

We know very little of Ausias' life and 
character. To satisfy our natural curiosity 
we have only two sources of information : 
the poet's last will and testament and his 
writings. The former document, with a 
codicil attached to it, does not seem to have 
come under the notice of the biographers 
until Don Fransesch Fayos published his 
edition of the poems in 1884. From it we 
learn that Ausias March had a son called 
Pere Joan March, and three illegitimate 
children, two of them sons. 

As Lord of Beniarjo he had natiu'ally his 
country house there, his town residence being 
situated in the Garrer Major of Grandia, of 
which he styles himself "Miles, habitator 
Gandiae." His native town was the city of 
Valencia, where, in the Parish of Saint 
Thomas, he had two houses, in one of which 
he died on Saturday, the 3rd of March 
1459. His will, dated in 1458, with a codicil 
attached, was published in 1459 in the house 
called " de Funety " on the day on which he 
died, an inventory being made of his eflfects 
"en la dita ciutat de Valencia," where 
" Mossen Ausias es mort." 

The contents of this inventory comprise all 
the moveable furniture of a country gentle- 
man's house. Costumes, arms, cuirasses, all 
that pertains to falconry and to the art of 
fencing, saddles and horses, are mentioned 
together with household effects, such as 
bc^s and bedding, tables and chairs of all 
kinds, all the furniture of the servants' offices, 
and amidst all this is the following item: 
"dos llibres de paper de forma de full 
desquademats ab cobles" — "two books of 
paper in quarto form with verses"; and 
another — " una caxa ab scripturas de poqua 
valor" — "a case with writings of little 
value." Who knows what treasures they 
may have contained! Besides, mention is 
made of various treatises which formed our 
author's library, such as "the Science of 
Bamon Lull," "the customs of Spain," books 
on the Gay Science, Commentaries on the 
Psalms, works of Philosophy, etc. And 
to conclude, in accordance with his direc- 
tions, the poet was buried " in the cemetery 
of the Cathedral of Valencia, in the chapel 
of the Marchs, in the cloister of the cathedral 
near the Capitol." 

Having now exhausted all exterior means 
of information, we come to what we may 
glean from the works themselves. These 
are anaMed imder the following headings : 
8fM0i nfTiiMMi. of which there are 88 in 

■.and 6 Eq^ar^ 



or scattered pieces : then a question put by 
Mossen Ausias March to the lady Na Tecla 
de Borja, niece of the Holy Father, and the 
lady's answer to the same : then a question 
put by Mossen FenoUar to Mossen Ausias 
March, with his response, and another by 
Rodrigo Diez : then the Songs of Death, 7 
in number, followed by one without end- 
rhymes: then Moral Songs, 12 in number, 
besides 2 without end-rhymes; and, lastly, 
what may be considered as another Moral 
Song, a H3nnn called the " Cant Espiritual." 
The metre for the most part consists of 
Rhymed Iambic Pentameter in Stanzas 
of eight lines, of which the rh3nnes are 
abbacddc. Occasionally longer stanzas 
of ten lines are found with the same rhymes 
as before and e e added. Often in the eight- 
lined stanzas, the rhyme a of the first Tine 
corresponds to the rhyme of the last line 
of the preceding stanza, and so on. Some 
of the poems are in the same metre with- 
out end-rhymes, and then they are termed 
Estramps. But all the poems, with one or 
two exceptions, end with a "Tornada" or 
Envoy, mostly composed of four lines, some- 
times only of two. 

It is hardly the place here to write at 
length on the peculiarities of the old lan- 
guage of Valencia, which is but a variation 
of the old Catalan, as is also that of the 
province of the Balearic Islands. It has a 
peculiar attraction for English readers on 
account of a feature common to both tongues, 
namely, its monosvllabic character, from 
whence much of its force is derived. Taking 
a chance page of Ausias (p. 45), we find in 
40 lines 278 words, of which 181 are monosyl- 
labic. The same number of lines in a 
chance page of Shakespeare's sonnets gives 
us 312 words, of which 232 are monosyl- 
lables, so that the proportion of vowels to 
consonants, taking the double consonants 
and the double vowels or diphthongs as one, 
we get in one stanza or 8 lines of Ausias 
126 consonants to 84 vowels, while in the 
same number of lines in Shakespeare, 176 
consonants to 82 vowels. 

To any one who knows Castilian or legal 
Spanish, and has some acquaintance with 
mediaeval languages, the general sense of 
the words is, with a few exceptions, not hard 
to make out, but the author's exact meaning 
is very obscure at times, rendered more so 
as well by the philosophical nature of his 
subject as bv the curtness of his style. Most 
frequent is tne use of the nominative absolute, 
a construction which often admits of a 
variety of interpretations. Indeed, it has 
been remarked that the more often one reads 

over a passage the deeper a meaning seems 
to be found. And this is very necessary if 
we wish to avoid the general verdict of the 
critics, that these poems have an intolerable 
sameness about them. On the perusal of 
the entire contents of the volume, some 
conclusion may perhaps be drawn both as 
to the poet's life and as to the nature of his 
innermost feelings. 

First then as to the persons to whom 
allusion is made. This is scanty enough. 
Apparently without reason he gives us his 
name at the end of one of his poems {Amor^ 
XLIV.) : " Jo so aquell que'm dich Ausias 
March." From another we learn that he 
was a Valencian, " La velledat en Valencians 
mal prova, 4 no s^ com jo fa9a obra nova." 
Whence we see that he was old when he 
wrote thus, and we may remark the play on 
the word " Valen9a," which means also good 
health. Besides the mention of his own 
name, a habit not unusual among trouba- 
dours, we also find, what was generally the 
custom, the name of his lady-love, Dofia 
Theresa, of whom we know nothing further. 
In one poem devoted to her he describes all 
the good qualities of a lady, and adds, 
''Mas compliment Dofia Teresa '1 tasta," 
(Amor, XL.), and from the same poem 
we may possibly conclude that she was a 
Venetian. Tradition states that the surname 
of Theresa was Bou, and Amor, III., informs 
us that Ausias fell in love with her on a 
Good Friday — " lo jorn que'l ignocent per 
be de tots fon posat en lo pal vos me fens." 
Here we are reminded of Petrarch, with 
whom our author was familiar, who says 
that he made acquaintance with Laura on 
the 6th day of April 1327, when there was 
an eclipse of the sun, an event which cannot 
be proved asti'onomically to have happened 
on that date ; nor was the 6th of April on 
a Friday. This passage tends to show that 
the idea of Good Friday must be taken as 
no more than a poetical licence, as Ausias 
himself says (Amor, XI.) ''Leixant apart 
Testil dels trooadors, qui per escalt trepassan 

The epoch of his writings is found in the 
question put by Ausias March to the Lady 
Na Tecla de Borja, as to which is better, 
the hearing or sight, to which the reply of 
the lady is added. Tecla de Borja was the 
niece of Calixtus the 3rd, wholield the Keys 
from the year 1455 to 1458 A.D. Another 
question is addressed to Ausias March by 
Mossen FenoUar, a troubadour like himself, 
to which are two answers by Ausias and 
by Eodrigo Diez eirolaining why two good 
lovers quarrel, the latter quoting the well- 



known line of Terence — AmanHum irae 
anwris integratio est One more troubadour, 
the celebrated Paul de Bon Viure, whom 
the Viscount de Kocaberti mentions in the 
"Gloria d'Amor," is alluded to in the 
following lines: — 

** Leizant sqaells qui per ben amar moren 
En recort es aquell Pau de Bon Viure 
Qui per amar sa dona toma foil : 
Tal oami tinch sobtat roinpent lo call 
De tot mon dan dubten na us veja riure." 

Finally he alludes (Amar, XXIIL) to the 
King of Cyprus taken prisoner by a heretic, 
and in a very obscure passage to Arnau 
Daniel (Amar, LII.), whom Dante notices in 
his Purgatorio (Canto XXVI.), and (Amor, 
LXVIII.) to Cava, if that is the right 
reading, and not Lava, as some editions 
have it, the lady mentioned b^ the author 
of Don Quixote, celebrated in Southey's 
poem of Roderick and the line in Byron's 
Marino Faliero: "A Virgin's wrong made 
Spain a Moorish province." Her treachery 
in 711 at Gibraltar opened the doors to the 
Moors and led the way to their conquest of 
the Gtoths in Spain. She is also known as 

Ausias March was, in his habits of life, 
besides being a courtier, essentially a country 
gentleman, not a mere squire who was fond 
of all the pursuits of the chase, given up to 
habits of every kind of self-indulgence, but 
an educated gentleman, as fond of his books 
at home as of his hawks. Consequently 
the images that he employs to make clear 
his meaning all through his philosophical 
remarks on the nature of love, morals, and 
death are almost entirely drawn from what 
he observed around him in nature, as well 
on land as from the sea and the habits cf 
sailors, which he must have had frequent 
occasion to notice during his journeys to 
and fro from Naples to the court of his 
patron. But a large majority of his similes 
touch upon one special point, which indeed 
shews the natural bent of his mind — that is, 
the study of medicine and the habits and 
feelings of sick people. His knowledge of 
the art was in all probability gathered from 
Arabic writings in his possession, and it is 
worth while to collect what he had learnt 
about the subject. His remarks, keeping 
the order which obtains in his works, are 
as follows : 

''The sick man, although oppressed by 
various chronic diseases, lives on in com- 
parative tranquillity, but the moment a 
fresh accident happens to him he is much 
impressed thereby and straightway imagines 
that be is dying." (Amar^ 111.) 

" A doctor of one's own nationality natur- 
ally understands one's case better than a 
foreign doctor would." (Amor, IV.) 

"The case is a grave one if the heat of 
the interior of the body does not by some 
means find its way out to the extreme part." 
{Amor, V.) 

'' If the doctor conceals the nature of the 
disease from the patient, the soul is healed 
to the detriment of the body." (Amcr. 

"A doctor can only judge of a man's 
true state by an observation of the outward 
signs of the body when uncovered." (Amor, 

" Sick people have a natural tendency to 
grow worse at night." {Amor, XLV.) 

" Good and bad humours are necessary to 
a man's life in order to preserve the natural 
heat of the body." {Arrm, XLVIL) 

'' The heart is the first part of the body to 
live and the last to die." {Amor, LXVIII.) 

'* The sudden appearance of a plague-spot 
reveals the nature of the disorder to the sick 
man." {ATnor, LXX.) 

"In order to escape from death the sick 
man is ordered to drink down a full cup of 

Eoison, the danger not being hidden from 
im : in such a way does the poet make 
experiment of love." {Amor, LXX XL) 

The poet compares himself to a sick man 
in whom a good physician sees a good brain, 
heart, belly, spleen, and liver, and cannot 
discover in him any of the eight mortal signs 
which, he says, Hippocrates lays down. 
{Amor, LXXXV.). What these eight signs 
were is hard to say : after a perusal of the 
entire works of Hippocrates, we fail to find an 
exact mention of them. We must therefore 
suppose that Ausias alludes to some passage 
in one of those spurious works to which the 
name of the great physician was attached. 

" When a man is suddenly attacked with 
fever he attributes it to eating beef or hare, or 
taking cold, or drinking bad water " {lb., ib.) 

" The science of medicine is beautiful in the 
extreme, but the practice of it is disagreeable, 
and the senses loathe it." {Amor, mtramps 

" If the doctor is repelled bv sickness, he 
is not likely to cure his patient. ' {Morals, X.) 

" To the sick bitter medicine tastes sweet, 
and the sweet bitter." {Morals, XI.) 

So much for medicine. Allusions to per- 
sonal pleasures are passing and rare. Mis 
delight is to hunt with dogs of various kinds 
the wild boar, the hare, the stag, and the 
beaver, and of the latter he states its well- 
known habit of biting off a part of its body 
in order (o escape mm tii^ luudi ^ d^i 



enemy (Amor, EstrampsJI.). His particular 
passion, however, was pursuing the heron or 
the wild goose with one of his favourite 
hawks, and there is a remarkable poem 
{AmoTy LXXXVI.) addressed to some one in 
authority, most probably the King himself, 
petitioning him to fulfil his promise of 
sending him a hawk, while he appeals to 
a nameless lady to further his suit by the 
love which she bears to the same. His 
journeying to and fro from the royal court 
makes us appreciate his images drawn from 
the force of wind and wave and the various 
perils to^which ships and sailors are from time 
to time exposed. 

Having now cleared the ground by lay- 
ing stress on minor details, we come to three 
main subjects of Ausias' work — viz., love, 
morals, and death. Of the first his view 
is on the whole eminently pure. But the 
purity is a natural one, and by no means 
excludes passion or even cases where self- 
restraint is entirely thrown off. Writing, 
says Ausias, is much harder work than ex- 
cavating {Amor, XLIL), and the style, though 
fluent, shows signs of much reflection and 
correction. And this we can gather to have 
been the case from numerous instances of 
variations of readings in the several editions 
in which the alterations of words in no way 
change the sense of the passage. 

The poet tells us (^7n(?r, LVL) that he was 
in his youth fond of bad women, and indeed 
the picture that he draws indicates that he 
thought of the sex only as a useful com- 
modity. The very next poem {Amor, LVU.) 
is entirely addressed to a widow named Na 
Monbohi, of whom nothing creditableisknown. 
She appears, after the death of her husband, 
to have run off with a cloth merchant who 
sold cloth at Florence, and ultimately to have 
made the poet's acquaintance in doubtful cir- 
cumstances. May this one poem have been 
written with the intention of laying stress on 
man's dual nature % Elsewhere, too, the poet 
tells us that he was the creature of passion. 
" If,'' he says, " I have done anything that 
men call good, I have only done it owing to 

Cion ; if it has seemed to me that reason 
done it, I have certainly lied to myself. 
The movement came through passion or 
occurred through chance, just like the man 
who is drawn from the world of scarcity 
through the passion which overcame it." 
And he goes on: "He who has of virtue 
no formed habit, all that he does is work- 
ing through passion: in all his deeds he 
finds himself vacillating." (Amor, LXXIL). 
This he evidently wrote in his old age, 
for he says in the earlier part of the 

poem: "I cannot love, and much less be 
loved, and there cannot be said what would 
happen if I were loved : an old man has 
been before now in love, and to a greater 
extent if he were so in past time. God 
keep me and grant me death before I turn 
back to where I altogether lost time, since 
there fails me that whereby love failed ; the 
end ple«'ises me not and much less the means. 
As to acts of folly, whence everyone receives 
deceptions, how are they likely to startle me 1 
When I reflect on this idea I hold as empty- 
headed well-disposed youths if they love. 
Then what will he do whom love does not 
receive into his hostel through his havii^ 
become too old % In such a case he is not 
called a Valencian : in him and his like I 
treasure up follies." Here, as we said above, 
is a play on the word Valencian, which 
implies also a man in sound health. 

Love, Ausias says almost throughout 
the volume, must be accompanied by pain, 
pain of varied kind and owing to various 
causes. At the outset, where desire springs 
up there is the pain of longing; then, 
if satisfied, the pleasure must cease and 
pain consequently ensue; then again, just 
as when the senses of sight and sound, 
if urged to excess, cease to appreciate the 
sights and sounds required, so when love is 
carried to excess the sensation of pleasure 
ceases and cannot be acquired, and pain 
follows to a heightened degree. Anger and 
love, apparently two opposite poles, are in 
the case of love inseparable, for the more 
one loves the more one is inclined to be 
angry at all the various obstacles which love 
meets with in its path. 

In another passage we are told that all 
delight of love is lost if we would know 
completely how we are loved, for what 
reasons, and when, where, and why, and if 
we would attempt to fathom the natiu*e of 
the person loving. 

Again, in a beautiful compadson of the 
spiritual and carnal nature of love, he says : 
''Love which comes to us altogether on 
the side of the soul addresses itself to the 
virtues and the understanding, this simple 
desire God rears up, and can be such as to 
disarm all others. But in me, finding room, 
each falls into its place, each moved by its 
own semblance; I have felt two blows as 
each one gives its dart, each one acts within 
mo. One by itself gives light, the other 
darkness, and both combined together^ 
delight, health and fever." 

Further on he adds : '' Yet I do not 
forbid that love tempts me with that passion 
which our flesh embraces ; two loves natora 



attracts to me, through two parts it will 
come about that it contents me. Just as a 
man may attain to more glory when our flesh 
shall be joined to the soul, love in me 
mounts to a delightful degree when two 
bonds have to bind body and soul. 

In another place he clearly points out the 
imaginary natiu*e of his passion : " All the 
signs that go to make up a lover I find in 
me, and there is not one that is wanting; 
through her I come into joy and pain ; all my 
senses within and without know it; for I 
see nothing if it is not her who inspires me ; 
I desire not touch of any other lady; no 
other voice appears to me to be good : her 
body is not fair, and by this I am not cast 
doJa. In ima^nation: for I know no more 
about her, I love her parts for the whole with 
great wonder." 

Yet again elsewhere, he says {Amor, 
LXXIV.J : "No one ought to withdraw 
himself from his nature ; to man it is given 
for his natural right, to desire good longing 
to know the evU; of this knowledge 1 
will then have great care." And in the 
"Tbmoda": "To lovers love assures them 
that they will not have in it security ; in their 
passions there will not result firmness, then 
how will there be amongst them a thing 
secure 1" Ausias, like all men of great 
genius, seems to have had a remarkable 
sympathy with the natural character of 
man; in one passage he tries to atone for 
the infamous character of the holder of the 
Papal chair, who, be it remembered, was of 
the family of Borgia, and therefore a patron 
of his family {Am(n\ LXX.). " I have heard 
say that in order that the Holy Father 
might be more free to pardon sinners, God 
has permitted his terrible errors, showing 
him how the sincere man may be wanting ; 
so in me God has permitted me to love so 
much that I am not able to describe it," etc. 

Ab in the case of Petrarch, and other pre- 
decessors of our poet in amorous poetry, 
thoughts of love are followed by those on 
death which, if not so numerous as the 
former, contain much that is very fine. 
Naturally his flesh grieves, but his spirit 
rejoices. The nature of his subject lends 
itself to long disquisitions as to the different 
nature of the bodfy and the soul. For bodily 
pleasures being denied in this life, inasmuch 
as he is joined in spirit to his lover, " at the 
day of judgment when we shall rise with flesh 
and bones, we shall share our flesh and bones 
intermingled together." Yet the thought of 
death bnogs quabns to hb oonscieiice. He 
fears it no^ but is in doaM at to wiMi •^ 
come after. Perhaps the * 

number in the series is one (No. VI.) in 
which he invokes the spirit of his Theresa, 
and beseeches it to tell him in what state 
she is placed, and he thus concludes : " 
thou spirit, if nothing keeps thee forbidden, 
break through the custom which is common 
to the dead ; return to the world, and show 
me what thou art become : thy regard will 
not give me terror." The whole is a beau- 
tiful expression of longing for the other 
world. And just as Dante and Petrarch 
appeal to the Virgin, so Ausias concludes one 
of his numbers : " Mother of God, if her 
spirit is in Purgatory through impure de- 
lights, pray thy Son not to regard the prayers 
whence they come but whither they go, that 
my sins hurt her not" Above, in the same, 
he speaks of the purity of his passion thus : 
" He who loves tne flesh when the flesh is 
lost loves not but in remembering the de- 
light, the pain remains to him. . . . With 
honest shame I love and fear the spirit of 
her whom God pardon, and I covet nothing 
of myself or of the world, except that God 
place her in heaven." Side by side with this 
must be placed what Ausias says of poets, 
evidently with an allusion to himself: 
"Poets will not attain to virtues through 
great ability, nor will they have them by 
means of their art : they alone have them 
who put vices on one side, working virtues 
through love of goodness." {Morals, II.). 

The CarUs Morals are not so numerous as 
those on love, but they are of great interest, 
and show signs of having been written for 
the most part somewhat late in life. The 
reflections therein show disgust with the 
world in general, and particularly with the 
political regime then current. There is per- 
haps a covert allusion in No. 1 to the new 
King John the 1st of Aragon, in whose time 
the revolution broke out in Catalonia, in the 
course of which the unhappy Prince Don 
Carlos de Viana was put to death, as was 
popularly supposed, by poison. Number 
10 is on ignorance. In it occurs this re- 
markable passage : " God we do not under- 
stand except under some form taken through 
the sense ; and God is not capable of being 
felt, nor is he to us a substance knowable, 
the understanding forms it through the 
reason." And again further on: "After 
knowing in the first place the truth of God, 
the second is the true knowledge of our- 
selves." . . . "Who is the man that has 
knowledge of matter except in so far as the 
form can be understood ? To understand 
tbe different nature of things is not in man, 

^'>e8'not here apply. And 
Nm th&^ {leading 



how and why it passes cannot be known, one 
entity proceeds from their mass different 
from them, on that point I do not require 
advice. From copper and tin one sees brass 
come out, so that in force strong steel cannot 
do it any harm. Leaving aside hidden things 
which we do not understand, and without 
any fault of ours, and imagining the ignor- 
ance which inculpates us," etc. . . . Again, 
when he talks of ignorance, how truly does 
he say : '* As knowledge increases, ignorance 
is awakened: the more a man knows the 
greater the doubt that occurs to him; at 
the time that he knows nothing he does not 
doubt; to the gross and foolish man every- 
thing is certain. Let no one glory of his 
own self in his knowledge; no one knows 
the subject of knowledge ; it is the soul, and 
we know only the effect ; the being covets 
much knowledge: for those that are past 
dimly felt it (viz. ignorance), and the present 
generation is referred to their sayings." 

Magnificent is the jeremiad in the Cants 
Morals, No. IL, on the wickedness of the 
times, the love of money-getting, and the 
loss of honour. It is evidently written 
after the death of the poet's patron, when 
John the 1st, his successor, had by his 
misrule brought the country into anarchy. 
As to this compare the following stanza : 
"When the King does not govern, and 
the people do not obey] I do not know 
who is the most to blame: no estate im- 
pugnes the other, for there is not any one 
who does not turn away from his end. If 
there is any one who breaks the rule, so 
small a part does not change the whole a 
whit ; with all that the rule remains fast ; a 
storm does not destroy the summer. . . . 
Of all the judgments that are made between 
men, affection orders the sentence, whence I 
hold for a fool the one who mounts up to 
glory through the judgment by which such 
a judge grants it. People cause this com- 
mon error, since in the world they find such 
understanding ; instead of having the know- 
ledge of the truth they have engendered 
habits of evil conceptions. There is not 
much to do for the man who suffices in 
knowledge, but he who has it let him take 
the good part ; to weak men it appears an 
impossible work, for with a weak eye they 
look at a difficult thing." 

At the end of the Cants Morals^ and, in 
some editions, forming part of them, comes 
the last poem in the volume, called the " Cant 
Espiritual" or Hymn — one of the sweetest 
and most divine compositions ever written 
in any language. It is too long to quote 
here, or even to give an analysis of it : the 

devotional spirit which it breathes through* 
out is simply perfect, and had Ausias written 
no more than this poem, he would have been, 
through it, stamped for ever by succeeding 
ages as one of the greatest poets of his time 
and country. His confession of humility and 
trust in the mercies of his all-pardoning God 
is sustained to the end ; his hope and fear 
are mingled sweetly together, but the former 
predominates over the lattor, and, in the end, 
that power which he feels through his know- 
ledge tonds to reassure him as to the result 
of his pravers. The weakness of man's fiesh, 
contrasted with the power of God's Holy 
Spirit, is ever kept before the mind, while 
the whole course of redemption is incident- 
ally traced from the law of Moses to the 
comins of John the Baptist foretelling the 
arrival of the Messiah, and, further, the 
necessary disquietude of human aims and 
the perfection of man's nature in its summit 

Such, then, are the works of Ausias March. 
Of the celebrated poets whom he imitated, 
three are mentioned by name — viz., Paul de 
Bon Viure, Arnau Daniel, and Dante. The 
works of the latter had been first trans- 
lated into Spanish in 1428, and the ren- 
dering of the Divine Comedy by Andreu 
Ferrer, still exists. But, more than these, 
the writings of the great love poet, Petrarch, 
must have been familiar to our author, and 
this we see clearly indicated by the remark- 
able antitheses in Amor, LXXXIII., corre- 
sponding to Petrarch's Sonnet No. XIV. 
And yet Ausias is no servile imitator of the 
grand trumpeter of Laura's virtues. The 
two natures are essentially different The 
Italian, expansive and gifted with all the fire 
of the children of the South, is at all times 
prone to expatiate on the outward virtues 
of his heroine, and is never tired of enlarg- 
ing on the beauties of her face and form, the 
colour of her eyes and hair, and, in shoit, of 
all external points of attraction. The Valen- 
cian, on the other hand, endowed with a 
mind of a strictly contemplative kind, find- 
ing his pleasure mainly, if not only, in re- 
flection, in but one passage mentions the 
name of his lady-love, adding that of all 
virtues Dona Theresa possesses the full com- 
plement. We do not gain from the poet's 
description the slightest detail of her form, 
figure, or any external qualities by which 
we may recognise her. We are only allowed 
to judge of the copious, divine and subtle 
admiration which the poet feels for a lady 
to whom he devotes his unrequited passion. 
But just as Petrarch is pure with respect 
to externalSi so is Ausias as regards the 


inward Trorkings of his spirit. Each poet 
describes love from two opposite points of 
view, eacli in equally beautiful language : 
the one more polished, the other more 
simple : and if at first blush the latter 
seems to ua less clear, it must be ascribed 
to the dulnesH of our mental vision. Pet- 
rarch describes love in its effects : Ansias in 
its essence and its origin. The kind of love 
in the one holds good only for Laura : the 
sort of love in the other holds guod for any 
image that wo ourselves may have seen and 
admired. In Petrarch the love is mytho- 
logical; in Ausias almost exclusively mys- 
tical In reading the former, our minds 
are fixed on the persons of Petrarch and 
Laura J in perusing the latter, we are re- 
minded of the effects of love on the world 
in general and ourselves in particular. We 
are brought by the sweet harmony of lyric 
poetry face to face with the contentions of 
virtue and vice ; and so personally applic- 
able to ourselves do we find the moral pre- 


cepts contained in the work, that we are not 
surprised to read that a famous bishop is 
said to have beea never without a copy of 
Ausias' poems in his pocket, as a consolation 
under misfortune and a guide through the 
labyrinths and difficulties that beset man's 
path during his walk in life. 

Franseack F«yos j Antony, Barcelona, 188* ; 
(4] by F. Gird, 4to, Bsrcetoua, 1888. Other editions 
etiamerated by Seboi Fayoa are^(l) u trftuala- 
tiou hy one Vicens Mariner, printed in Toumay by 
Uaia Pillliet iu 1G33, in 6vo ; (2) a translation into 
CastCian by Baltasar de Roniani, printed in Valencia 
in 1639 : (3) another trauiUtiOD into Coatilian by the 
Portuguese, Jonli de MonteiDayor, printed in Valencia 
in 1&60, uid again in Madrid in IS79 ; (4) two trans- 
lations, one by Juan Pujol, priest of Mataro, and an- 
other by Doctor Don Arcis Aranyiry Onyate, priest 
of San lliguel of Valencia ; and, faatly, an edition by 
Dan Frajuosch Pelaj Briz, printed in Barcelona in 

Edward Hailstone. 


Preliminary Remarks. 

In preparing a Bcries of Schedules, of which 
this is the first, for the consideration of our 
fellow-teachers, it is our wish mainly to offer 
suggestions for the better organisation of 
French and German teaching in secondary 

Although there are some hea<l8 of schools 
thoroughly com^Mtent to dntw up a scheme 
to suit their own requirements, we have 
been told that there are many who woulil be 
glad to be guided more or less by the 
experience of a few modern language 

We are fully aware of the indisputable 
fact that each teacher is the best judge of 
the work his own pupils are capable of 
doing, and of the books that best suit his 
individual teaching. At the same time many 
feel that, iu spite of the goodwill of both 
authors and publishers, there are many very 
useful books thai escape their notice, and 
that would prove of great value. This is 
why we mention a few books which have 
been found of good practical use. We 
mention them, impartially, not only on 
account of their own value, but also as 
samples of the books we recommend, well 
knowing that there are many others of the 
same ku>d and of similar worth. 

Course I. — Ages 9-12. 
Section I.— Age 9-10. 

Time.— A minimum of four Ussms n week, 
occupying at least three hours ; some, 
but not necessarily all, should involve 
home preparation. One lesson of half- 
an-hour i^cry day is better than three 
lessons of an hour on alternate days. 

MfTHOD. — There are three recognised 
methods of teaching : 

1. The exclusive use of Grammar and 


2. The use of a Reading-Book in connec- 

tion with which the Grammar is 
incidentally taught in its barest 

3. The Oral Methotl. 

The method that, in our opinion, gives the 
best results is a judicious combination of 
these three. 
Scheme of Work. 
I. Oral Tracking. 

{a) Proiiiinciation. — It is most important 
that beginners should be given none 
but the correct pronunciation. It is 
advisable that teachers should know 
something of phonetics. 
(6) Coaver$alUm, — Pictures will be found a 



valuable help as a first step towards 
connecting the French words with 
the actual objects, rather than with 
their English equivalents. Short and 
easy sentences are made up out of a 
prepared passage of the Reading 
Book, questions asked in French, 
and answers repeating a large part of 
the question exacted. Only by con- 
stant oral practice can words and 
forms of verbs be fixed in the 
(c) Dictation of a short conversation made 
up in class will ensure the recognition 
of the individual words used. This 
can be followed by dictation of por- 
tions of the Reader ; or, a short story 
can be compressed by the teacher 
himself into a few lines. 

II. The Reading Booh — ^Translation should 
always be preceded by reading aloud, 
first by the master, then by the pupils, 
individually or in chorus. It is most 
important that the Reading Book should 
be interesting to the pupils: of such 
books there is no scarcity. We recom- 
mend beginning from the very first with 
a set of stories or a continuous tale. 
The first pa^e is read and translated, 
and the vocabulary taken down by the 
pupil, unless it be already printed at 
the end of the book according to pages. 

For the first few lessons, the pages should 
be read over and over again, until they are 
practically known by heart. 

Among the Books most generally found 
useful, we should mention — 
Madame Blouet's " Bible Stories," in easy 

Hachette's French Readers for Beginners 

Rivington's Beginners' Texts (6d.). 
Macmillan's Primary Series, and principally 
Fasnacht's French Readings for Children 

Mrs Hugh Bell's French without tears, 
Books I. and II. (illustrated), (Ed- 
ward Arnold), Conversation, etc, 
Le Premier livre de franfais, by Miss 

Hotchkiss (illustrated), (Isbister). 
The Study of French, Book L, by 
Eugene and Duriaux (Macmillan). 

III. Grammar, — The Auxiliary Verbs and a 
Regular Verb of the 1st Conjugation. 
The principal forms of the other Con- 
jugations and of the principal Irregular 
Verbs. The general rules \i.e,, plurals 
in s, feminines in e] are also learnt. 

Obs, 1. — Retranslation takes time and 

trouble; but^ when well prepared, 
amply repays both. It is useful from 
the very beginning. 

Some books have been specially prepared 
for this purpose; they have short French 
stories and anecdotes on the lefb page, and 
an English translation on the right. The 
pupil has to repeat the French from the 
English ; fluency should be insisted on. 
This practice is less difficult than actually 
learning the passage by heart, and illustrates 
most usefully the difference of idiom. This 
work can be prepared by the dullest pupil, 
and perfect accuracy seciured. 

There is but one book of this kind suit- 
able for this stage that has come under our 
notice, but it seems excellent — 

Nelson's 2nd Reading Book (illustrated). 

Obs, 2. — Repetition (from memory) of 
French prose or poetry — as much as 
time can be found for: a minimum 
of ten lines a week. 

Obs. 3. — The teacher should continually 
exercise his class in repeating their 
back work, and should hold monthly, 
or at least quarterly, examinations. 

Section II.—Age 10-11. 

The work should be carried on upon the 
same lines as in Section /., except in the 
Orammar : — 

Verbs, — Revision of the Auxiliary 
Verbs and the 1st Conjugation. Regu- 
lar Verbs of the 2nd and 4th Con- 
jugations. Negative and Interrogative 

Nouns ' and Adjectives, — Irregular 
Plurals and Feminines in common use 
that fall into groups. 

Adjectives, — Demonstrative and Pos- 

Numerals, — One to a hundred, car- 
dinal and ordinal; names of months 
and days of the week. 

Section IIl^Age 11-12. 

Work on the same lines as before, with 
the addition of — 
Orammar: — 

Verbs, — Revision of Auxiliaries and 
of Conjugations 1, 2, and 4. Con- 
jugation 3. 

Nouns and Adjectives. — Irregular 
Plurals and Feminines (unclassified) in 
common use. 

Adjectives, — Comparison. 

Pronoum, — Personal, Relative, and 
Possessive, in their simplest forms. 



As re^urdfl Books, those mentioned for 
Section L would all prove useful. We 
would add one which we think more suitable 
to the 2nd or 3rd year. Here English 
teachers who are too diffident to launch out 
into extempore oral practice upon the lesson 
of the day, or too busy to prepare it, will 
find the work admirably done for them. 

Courthope Bowen*s First Lessons in French 

The Sub-Committee have used their best 
endeavour to obtain information and hints 
from, and submitted this first schedule to, 
their friends and colleagues inside and 
outside the Modern Language Association. 
At the same time they offer this tentaHve 
scheme as their own work, and in no way 
as representing the opinion either of the 

Association or of the General Committee. 
They do so upon a direct request, and in 
the hope of being of use to their fellow 

Should this first scheme be thou<;ht useful, 
the French School-Schedule Sub-Committee 
will be happy to prepare a similar schedule 
for Courses IL and UL 

The Sub-Committee would be grateful to 
any who would assist them in their task by 
sending a list of the books they have found 
most useful in their teaching, specifying, if 
possible, the prices of the books (a deplorable 
omission on the part of most publishers), 
the purpose of their teaching, and the age 
of their pupils. 

Victor Spiers. 

DK V. Payen Payne. 


Few men have been so often and so variously 
represented as Goethe, of whom we possess 
about 200 different portraits, including busts 
and reliefs, silhouettes, pencil-drawings, and 
paintings in oils or water-colours. For only 
thirty of them, however, did Goethe sit, 
while the rest are merely worked up from 
these, the artist often combining the char- 
acteristic points of several portraits, or giving 
rein to his fancy in the idealisation of one. 

Many difficult questions are connected 
with this subject. It is not always easv 
to decide whether a picture is an original, 
and if not, from which original it is taken, 
nor can the date and the name of the artist 
always be ascertained. 

On all these points Friedrich Zarncke was 
an acknowledged authoritv, and his numerous 
articles on the subject, wnich have just been 
republished in the first volume of his col- 
lected essays, are of the highest interest.^ 
Havins studied the subject for years, and 
being himself an ardent collector of Goethe 
portraits, he had acquired the keen eye of 
the connoisseur, and knew the history and 
home, the relative value and present condi- 
tion of every one of them. Many pictures 
formerly supposed to be Goethe portraits 
have been deposed by him from their place, 
while others, until then looked upon as por- 
traits of some one else, he has proved to be 
genuine representations of Goethe. Many a 
desperate hunt has he had for lost portraits, 
and many a time he has been successful ; but 
in spite of vigorous enquiries and the good 

^ Goethesohriften von Friedrich Zarncke (Kleine 
Schriften, YoL I.). Leipzig: £. Avenariua. 1897. 


services of English friends, in spite of adver- 
tisements in English papers, he failed to 
discover the present owner of the portrait 
painted in 1819 by the celebrated English 
artist, George Dawe. Judging by the engrav- 
ings, which were published in England by 
Wi-ight and Posselwhite, it must have been 
one of the most beautiful and lifelike of all 
the Goethe portraits. Zarncke could discover 
no more than that in 1835 the pictiu*e was in 
the possession of the artist's younger brother 
Henry, who died at Windsor in 1848. Who 
were his heirs 1 To whom was the picture 
sold I Would it not be possible, even now, 
to trace it 1 Here is a task worthy of the 
energies of the English Goethe Society ! 

It is little encoura^ng, certainly, to read of 
the place and condition in which an inter- 
esting portrait was found for which Goethe 
sat in 1806. It was discovered in a little 
Thuringian village, not far from Weimar, 
where for years it had been lying in a fowl- 
house, and had occasionally been used to 
keep out the wind and rain in place of a 
broken pane of glass ! 

English readers will be specially interested 
in the essays on the well-known portrait 
which appeared in March 1832, shortly 
before Goethe's death, in Fraser's Magazine, 
It is a full-length figure, holding a hat in his 
hands behind the back, the body is slightly 
bent forward, the head turned to one side, 
and the whole decidedly realistic to the verge 
of caricature.' This sketch, which appear^ 
without any signature, was formerly univer- 

* Copies i>f it an tiw^ ^^'^ ^ Koennecke'(who 
oalla it a aaiifittBi nihyEjoadg 




sally considered to be the work of Thackeray, 
and was supposed to have been made by him 
during his stay at Weimar in the winter of 
1830-31. In his well-known letter to Lewis,^ 
in which he describes his life at Weimar, 
Thackeray says : " My delight in those days 
was to make caricatures for children," and 
the sketch in Fraser^s Magazine was believed 
to be one of these caricatures, which was all 
the more plausible, as the description of 
Goethe given in the same letter corresponds 
in several particulars with the picture in the 
magazine — for instance, when he says : " He 
was habited in a long grey or drab redingot, 
with a white neckcloth and a red ribbon in 
his buttonhole. He kept his hands behind 
his back, just as in Ranch's statuette." 

The sketch thus found its way into the 
collection of Thackeray's drawings, published 
in 1875 under the name of " Thackerayana," 
accompanied (on page 103) by the following 
notice, which is certainly authoritative 
enough, but, as we shall presently see, entirely 
wrong : " In October 1830 we find Thackeray 
writing to a bookseller in Charterhouse Square 
for a liberal supply of the Bath post paper, 
on which he wrote his verses and drew his 
countless sketches. On certain sheets of this 
paper, after his memorable interview with 
Goethe, we find the young artist trying to 
trace from recollection the features of the 
remarkable face which had deeply impressed 
his fancy.*' 

There are, indeed, several things in the 
letter to Lewis which might have raised 
doubts as to Thackeray's responsibility for 
the drawing. 

He tells how he showed Goethe the first 
numbers of Frasei^s Magazine^ and how 
Goethe was interested in the outline portraits 
which appeared in it, but that on seeing 
among them a very ghastly caricature, he 
shut the book angrily, and put it away from 
him, saying: "They would make me look 
like that ! " and then Thackeray goes on : 
" though, in truth, I can fancy nothing more 
serene, majestic, and healthy-looking than 
the grand old Goethe." 

Again, in another part of the same letter, 
he waxes enthusiastic in describing the 
appearance of the Weimar patriarch, and 
adds : '* I fancied Goethe must have been 
still more handsome as an old man than even 
in the days of his youth." 

In the picture we are considering there is 
certainly no trace of majesty, and the bent 
figure and the wasted features suggest the 
very contrary of health. Moreover, is it 

1 "Life and Works of Goethe," Book YII., 
chapter yii. 

likely that Thackeray, admiring Goethe as 
he did, and knowing his dislike to carica- 
tures, would have published one of him ? 

Zarncke, however, frankly admits that for 
a long time he shared the popular belief, 
until he was assured by a fnend of his, an 
old librarian in Weimar, who had known 
Goethe personally, that he had never seen 
him stoop in that way, and that the sketch 
could not possibly have been made by a 
person who had ever seen Groethe. 

His doubts once being raised, Zarncke set 
to work with his characteristic thoroughness 
to probe the subject to the bottom. 

He first of all ascertained that the whole 
tradition of Thackeray's authorship origin- 
ated in a notice of the Autographic Mirror^ 
a medley collection of facsimiles of auto- 
graphs and pen-and-pencil sketches, pub- 
lished in 1864. There, on page 96 of the first 
volume, we find our picture, together with 
the famous drawing of Goethe's head, made 
by Friedrich Preller on the day after the 
poet's death, and on the opposite page we 
read the following remarkable notice : " We 
give two sketches of Goethe. The first, 
which represents him at the age of eighth- 
two, is by Thackeray, and was published m 
Fraser^s Magazine for March 1832 ; Oie second 
is from the pencU of Bettina von AmimJ* This 
statement, in itself sufficient to shatter our 
faith in anything the Autographic Mirror 
may say, is, however, only one of a long 
series of palpable mistakes to which we 
are treated in the pa^es of this wonderful 
compilation, and it is evident, therefore, 
that no reliance whatsoever can be placed 
on its statement as to Thackeray's author- 
ship of our sketch. 

But there is direct evidence against it 

The picture in Fraser^s Magazine waa ac- 
companied by the following eulogistic lines : 

"Eeader! thou here beholdest the Eido- 
lon of J. W. von Goethe. So looks and 
lives, now in his eighty-third year, afar in 
the bright little friendly circle of Weimar, 
the dearest, most universal man of his time. 
Strange enough is the cunning that resides 
in the ten fingers, especially what they bring 
to pass by pencil and pen ! . . • Croquis, a 
man otherwise of rather satirical turn, sur- 
prises us on this occasion with a fit of enthu- 
siasuL He declares often that here is the 
finest of all living heads; speaks much of 
blended passion and repose ; serene depths 
of eyes; the brow, the temples, royally 
arched, a very palace of thought."* 

' Zarncke does not print the second part of this 
passage (beginning "Croquis"), nor does he draw 
any conclusions from it. 



It is evident that whoever wrote this 
ludicrously inappropriate description of our 
portrait cannot have seen the print which 
appeared in Fraset's Magazine. It was either 
intended to accompany a totally different pic- 
ture, for which in the last hour another was 
substituted, or the original drawing must 
have been completely spoiled in the repro- 
duction. It is also evident that the writer, 
if he had not actually a sketch by Croquis 
before him, had at any rate been told that 
the Goethe portrait, with which his article 
was to appear, would be done by Croquis, 
and that the latter had assured him that, far 
from attempting to caricature Goethe, he 
would do his utmost to produce a faithful 
and lifelike picture which could serve as a 
fitting tribute of his English admirers to the 
great German poet.^ 

Croquis is the pseudonym of that dis- 
tinguished artist, Daniel Maclise, KA., to 
whom we owe nearly all the delightful 
portraits of eminent Englishmen in the early 
volumes of the Fraser Magazine, These 
sketches in many cases being tinged by cari- 
cature, and in nearly all taken surreptitiously, 
Maclise thought it wiser to obscure his iden- 
tity by signing them either Alfred Croquis or 
simply A. C. 

The description above quoted appeared 
without any signature, and for a long time 
was attributed, together with the portrait, to 
Thackeray, but we know now that it was 
written by Thomas Carlyle, who included it 
in his ** Miscellanies " (vol. iii.) under the 
title of " Goethe's Portrait," with the follow- 
ing somewhat startling footnote : " By Stieler 
of Munich : the copy in Fraser's Magazine 
proved a total failure and involuntary cari- 
cature, resembling, as was said at the time, 
a wretched old clothesmaa carrying behind 
his back a hat which he seemed to have 

" By Stieler of Munich " ! and yet in the 
text Carlyle speaks of Croquis as being the 
author of the portrait. 

It is clear to us that Carlyle wanted to say 
that the picture he had in his mind when he 
wrote his panegyric was that by Stieler ^ which 

^ It must be remembered that on his birthday in 
1831 Goethe had been presented with a golden seal 
by a number of Englishmen, mostly Fraserians, and 
amongst them Carlyle, W. Scott, Lockhart, Words- 
worth , Southey and Fraser. 

^ One of the noblest and most beautiful Goethe 
portraits we have. The poet sat for it in 1828 ; an 
enffraving of it by Schremer was published in 1880, 
ana this Carlyle probably knew. Reproductions are 
given by Koenig and Koennecke ; also in Heinemann's 
" Goethe " ii. p. 385 ; and in Sir John B. Seeley's 
' ' Goethe reviewed after Sixty Years. " London, 1894 
(facing the title-page). 

Maclise had promised to copy and, if possible, 
render even more lifelike, and that he was 
utterly disappointed when he saw Maclise's 
sketch, which, in his opinion, had turned out 
a total failure and involuntary caricature. 
It being too late then to withdraw or alter 
his article, he later added the foot-note to 
protect himself and to enter a vigorous pro- 
test against such a representation of his 
Weimar friend and "spiritual teacher." 

Zarncke, on the contrary, considers that 
Carlyle wrote his enthusiastic article with 
Maclise's sketch before him, that he highly 
admired it, and that his adverse criticism 
was only directed against the bad repro- 
duction of the sketch. 

This opinion, with all deference to 
Zarncke, we cannot accept. What Carlyle 
finds fault with is the pose, not want of ex- 
pression in the face, for which bad repro- 
duction might be responsible. Nor does it 
seem possible to us that Carlyle's words, ' By 
Stieler of Munich' can be translated — as 
Zarncke does — by *nach (after) Stieler in 

However this may be, Carlyle's note gives 
us the clue to the genesis of the sketch in 
Fraser's Magazine : we have only to compare 
it for a minute with Stieler's painting — 
though it be only in Koennecke's reproduc- 
tions — to see at once that the face is nothing 
but a copy from Stieler. So striking is 
the resemblance that the only wonder seems 
that it should not have been noticed from 
the very first. 

But where did Maclise get the curious 
stooping position? Perhaps from Bauch's 
statuette, which might have been known in 
England in 1832. But there, too, though 
Goethe is represented with his hands crossed 
behind his back, the pose is majestic and the 
body quite upright 

To this question, we consider, Zarncke 
gives a perfectly satisfactory answer. 

On page 100 of the " Thackerayana " 
there is a second sketch of Goethe, this time 
really by Thackeray, taken in Weimar in 
the year 1830 (1835 in Zarncke's essay is an 
obvious misprint). It is also a full-length 
figure with the hands crossed behind the 
back, but the drawing is stiff and awkward, 
the head in profile, ill-sbapet] and not a bit 
like Goethe's, there i^ a slight stoop in the 
upper part of the body, but this, un- 
doubtedly, is only the fault of bad drawing. 
It is obviously a hasty sketch, drawn from 
memory, and, may be, partly from Eauch's 
statuette, and by no means shows Thackeray's 
artistic talent to the best advantage. 

Madisei we ItaTe no doobt^ taw this dceteh 



and adopted the stoop, mistaking bad draw- 
ing for a faithful copy of nature, which he 
was all the more likely to do as he knew the 
great knack Thackeray possessed of bringing 
out in his sketches the most striking charac- 
teristics of his subjects. A closer compari- 
son of the two pictures will remove all 
doubts that may still exist on this point. 
In Thackeray's portrait Goethe wears very 
peculiar slippers — as he very likely did 
when he received Thackeray in his study — 
Maclise reproduces them, although he draws 
Goethe with a hat in his hand ; Thackeray 
puts a ribbon in Goethe's buttonhole, as 
Goethe happened to wear one at the time 
of Thackeray's call,^ and Maclise does the 
same, although no other portrait of Goethe 
represents him with such a decoration. 
Aeain, in Stieler's portrait, which in every 
other respect Maclise has copied, the hair 
falls in soft waves, while in the Eraser 
portrait the hair — as in Thackeray's sketch 
— is made to lie flat to the head. Maclise 
evidently considered Stieler's portrait an 
ideal representation, Thackeray's sketch, on 
the contrary, though rough and hasty, in all 
these details a faithful copy of nature, and 
endeavouring, as he always did, to give a 
realistic touch to his portraits he followed 
Thackeray in almost everything but the 
form and expression of the face. 

The original drawing still exists. It is 
at South Kensington, among the original 
sketches by Daniel Maclise. After the death 
of the artist they came into the possession 
of John Forster (the author of *' Dickens' 
Life"), who left the whole set to the 

^ See Thackeray's letter to Lewis, quoted above. 

museum, and in it our picture labelled as by 
Maclise. This, taken together with Carlyles 
testimony, should settle once for all the 

Question as to the authorship of the Goethe 
'ortrait in Fraser's Magazine, for a mistake 
on the part of Forster is hardly possible con- 
sidering that he was an intimate friend of 
the artist, and a great admirer of his work. 
The picture, therefore, has been rightly in- 
cluded in the "Maclise Portrait Gallery," 
published in 1883, but it is incomprehensible 
that the editor should persist in sa^ng that 

"it is set down to Thackeray with much 
probability." 2 

The results of Zamcke's researches are 
given both by Koennecke and Koenig, the 
latter at the same time repeating Zarncke's 
remark that of all the Goethe portraits this 
one is the most widely known in England, a 
statement which we are much inclined to 

The fruits of Zarncke's labours have also 
been made use of in an article by Walter 
Vulpius, which appeared in the April number 
of the Centwry Magazine under the title 
"Thackeray in Weimar." 2^ncke's name, 
however, has not even been mentioned. 

Another time we hope to speak of the 
other contents of Zarncke's interesting essays. 
No one who seriously takes up the study of 
Goethe can afford to leave them unread. 
They are models of method and contain a 
wealth of information. We are looking 
anxiously for the second and third volumes. 

Gborg Fiedler. 

3 The Maclise Portrait Gallery of Illastrions 
Literaiy Characters, by William Bates, London, 
1883, p. 96. 


Do the Germans possess the gift of telling 
stones? This is not an easy question to 
answer. The earliest stories in the literature 
of the different nations are told in verse; 
the epic poem is the romance of the heroic 
age. Has there ever been a story-teller 
equal to the grand old father of epics, to 
Homer 1 Was there ever a craftier weaver 
of fairy-tales than the far-famed traveller 
Odysseus? When during the last centiuy 
the Germans began to discover the ballads 
of their own ancient history, of E^mhilde, 
who brought upon her house a doom as 
terrible as Helen brought upon Troy, of 
Gudrun, who was faithful to her lover as 
Penelope had been to her husband, German 
scholars instituted comparisons between 
themselves and the Greeks. It was patriotic 

pride which prompted them at one time 
seriously to place the Nibelungenlied beside 
the Iliad, and the Gudrunlied on a level 
with the Odyssey. It is only Seiir to add 
that the later generation of savants have 
employed all their acumen and research 
to trace the composite character and the 
remarkably unequal workmanship of their 
national epics. German critics have shown 
themselves keen in pointing out the literary 
failings that are found throughout these relics 
of poetical tradition. The very sharpness 
of their criticism has set in stronger relief 
the incomparable value of some of the old 
ballads. Hildebrand's duel with his son, 
Walther's fight in the narrow pass of the 
Yosges with the companion of his youth, 
Sie^ried's last fatal hunting-party, the death 



Agony of the Nibelungen, or again the release 
of Griidran — all these episodes, drawn from 
various cycles of ballads, show that some of 
the old German bards possessed in the 
highest degree the gift of " telling stories." 
Refined and artistic poems, like Tristan 
and Isolde, Farzivalf or der arme Heinrichf 
prove that courtly writers shared that 
wonderful talent of narrative. But when 
we come to modern writers, when we com- 
pare the second classical period with the 
first, we are struck by the dearth of 
works of simple fiction. It is certain 
that German literature, with all its variety, 
its seriousness and depth, its readiness of 
adaptation to other languages and forms of 
thought, shows in this direction a singular 
poverty. Of the great authors of the last 
century, only two, Goethe and Wieland, culti- 
vated the form of narrative which we call the 
novel. They certainly possessed imagination, 
the power of personifymg and creating char- 
acters, the wit and grace of style — in fact, 
all those qualities that make the perfect 
story-teller. They were full of "die Lust 
zu fabulieren." Their masterpieces are 
most instructive, as they exhibit those 
peculiar and subtle qualities of character 
rather than of intelligence which seem to 
prevent the best modem German writers 
from becoming perfect masters of narrative. 
What is it that makes Agathon or die 
Abderiten in some degree distasteful to 
modem readers) Wieland was, of course, 
a child of his age; and the philosophy of 
his century is no longer wisdom for us. It 
is not, however, the easy Epicurean view of 
life which did duty for a serious system of 
thought, but the manner in which that view 
is presented to us, in which the figures of 
Agathon, Hippias, and Danae, of Demokrit 
and the men of Abdera, instead of being 
"flesh and blood and living soul," appear 
to be mere vehicles, conveying moral teach- 
ing that seems to us at variance with the 
true art of poetry. 

Goethe is far more modern than Wieland ; 
he belongs as much to our century as to the 
eighteenth. But even the Wahlverwandi- 
schajten and Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjohre 
have in them that which renders their 
artistic appreciation not quite easy to modem 
readers. The former work treats with 
infinite skill of the relationship of the moral 
law to natural affinities ; the latter is inter- 
woven with remarks on family and state, 
and gives expression to all manner of ideas 
on the spiritual education of man. All very 
good — Wit is ^ the novel, even in the treat- 
ment of a Goethe, the best means for die 

enunciation of these truths ? Does not the 
story, whilst carrying a weight of philosophi- 
cal ideas, occasionally erow heavy and dra^ ? 
Ask the devoutest Goethe-worshipper : " Did 
you the first time you set eyes on the WahU 
verwandtschaften read that book right through 
from cover to cover in one sitting, allowing 
only such interruptions as exhausted nature 
requires for food or sleep, without skipping 
a few pages, and without being tempted to 
yawn? n yawning in the face of such a 
work of art is improper, is it permissible 
over the last books of Wilhelm Meister 1 
Honestlv, how many Germans have cared to 
follow the wanderings of that most estimable 
personage to the end? Of course, some — 
for instance, academical lecturers on the 
History of Literature — have sivdied him, as 
they study Kant's Kritik der reinen Vemunfl 
but how many have read him as they read a 
novel ? " Ask the same person, provided he 
be fairly reasonable, and his faculties not 
spoiled by over-study, which book he would 
take up with greater delight and interest 
during his leisure hours — either any one of 
the works mentioned above, or else Ivanhoe 
or The Bride of Lammermoor or Vanity Fair. 
Which class of writings rivet our pas- 
sionate interest, those which are surcharged 
with philosophical instruction, or those 
which are simply, plainly, pitifully human ? 
Frankly, Walter Scott as a story-teller is far 
more interesting than Goethe. It may be a 
yery low standard which the "modem 
reader" sets up in his "leisure hours." 
But, after all, a story which has to be pon- 
dered over, which does not at its first 
reading captivate, enthral, take possession of 
all our faculties, is like a drama that cannot 
be acted, like painted fire, like the charge of 
the Light Brigade, "magnificent, but not 
war." If this is done in the green wood, 
what of the dry? If this holds good of 
Goethe, what must be said of his successors ? 
Why cannot the Germans tell plainly a plain 
tale ? Why do they brine in philosophy, or 
history, or archaeological learning? Pre- 
sumably because as a nation they are en- 
dowed with a most remarkable power of 
philosophical abstraction; the countrymen 
of Leibnitz, Kant, Hegel, and Schopenhauer 
cannot, perhaps, boast of the highest poeti- 
cal achievements of modem times, but 
they can certainly point to the most per- 
fect systems of metaphysics that have 
been elaborated by human brains since the 
days of Aristotle and the Stoics ; they have 
produced an enormous amount of scientific 
and historical research. Is science at vari- 
ance with poetry? Does philoeophicsd 



thought blight and wither creative imagina- 
tion t It is a little difficult to answer these 
questions ; but it certainly seems as though 
by a kind of Nemesis that very solvent, 
that acid of historical criticism, which the 
Germans have unsparingly used on legends 
and traditions, had burned the fingers that 
employed it ; had impaired that very creative 
faculty by which those legends were origin- 
ally called into being. Are Germans too 
learned to write simple fiction ? Or do they 
consider such work beneath their dignity t 
It is a far cry from the Nibelungenlied and 
Gudrun, from medieval epics to the novel, but 
it cannot be maintained that the Teutons of 
to-day have kept, as compared with other 
nations, the promise of their youth. In the 
novel, which is, after all, the epic of our times, 
have they brought forth any writers of the 
highest rank whom they could place beside 
Scott, Dickens or Thackeray, beside Balzac, 
George Sand or Victor Hugot The most 
patriotic Germans will admit that their best 
men — Paul Heyse, Gustav Freytag, Ebers, 
Felix Dahn, Scheffel, Renter and Auerbach — 
do not attain to the standard of the French 
and the English. This is a fact which is, 
unfortunately, soon brought home to the 
mind of the German teacher. Of the ster- 
ling character of the language which he 
is endeavouring to impart to his pupils, 
of its depth and seriousness, there can 
be as little doubt as of the intricacies of 
its grammar or the length of its sentences. 
Grammar and syntax mastered, where are 
the short stories, gay and sparkling, 
bright as daylight and warm as the sun, 
tiles like those of About or Daudet, which 
we can put before young readers t There 
are Orimru^ Fairy Tales, They are as fresh 
as flowers in spring, not "sicklied o'er by 
the pale cast of thoaghf But children 
soon outgrow fairy-tales. We require 
very different reading-books for our German 
classes. The following suggestions may, 
perhaps, be of use to those who, like 
ourselves, have diligently sought, amidst 
works of much wisdom, for simple stories 
which could be put into the hands of young 
students. Such stories are found, we believe, 
in the first instance, amongst the writers who 
have revived in our days the old epics — the 
poets of the Romantic School. Some of 
Tied^s legends and tales, der blonde Eckberty 
der RuTienberg, die Elfen, or a selection from 
PharUasuSf might be appreciated by young 
English readers. Has any English editor 
thought of Clemens Brentano*s amusing little 
stories, Oeschichte vom hrwoen Ka^perl and 
OockelfHinkd^yndOackdeiaf Fouqu/sUndinef 

which seems to us far less suited, has been, 
strange to say, repeatedly edited. Of E. T. 
Amaaeus Hoffrnann^ some excellent narratives 
are contained in the Serapionsbruder. One 
of their number, Meister Martin, has appeared 
in the dress of an English school edition; 
but another far more taking story. Das 
Frdtdein von Scudery, seems to have escaped 
the attention of commentators. Die Elixiere 
des Teufels, on the other hand, have too much 
the character of a feverish nightmare to be 
made amenable to the discipline of a school- 
book, even by the most liberal use of the 
pruning scissors and the red pencil. Of 
Ch4imisso's Peter SchlemiU, who sold his 
shadow to the Evil One^ as Faust his soul, 
we need not say a word. It is a jewel and 
a gem, repeatedly presented to the public in 
the setting of a school edition — and richly it 
deserves that casket — and is known to every 
reader of German. But it is strange how 
Eichendorff has been overlooked. Have 
English people ever been introduced to the 
most lovable Rip van Winkle, who has 
told us, as only he could do, all the adven- 
tiures aus dem Leben eines Taugenichls f The 
shorter stories. Das Marmorbtldf das Schloss 
Durande, bearing on the French Revolution, 
are most interesting reading. The youngest 
of the Swabian authors belonging to that 
school, Hauffy has been a great favourite 
amongst the young; his fairy-tales, his novels 
and stories, have been frequently edited. 
We do not think that any of his writings 
have been overlooked; an abbreviated 
edition even of lAdUenstein has appeared. 
When we survey the novelists of our own 
time, our attention is at first arrested by 
Riehl. Of the peculiar and original character 
of his CuUurhistorische Novellen it is not neces- 
sary to speak ; their real significance may be 
hidden to young readers, who for all that 
relish his descriptions of character and inci- 
dent^ his simple yet skilful plots. Notwith- 
standing the various editions that have ap- 
peared, a renewed search amongst his books 
would reveal fresh treasures, that could be 
made use of for schools. Pavl Heyse^s 
novelettes we own to have read from 
end to end repeatedly, with the keenest 
interest. They are small pictures, perfectly 
finished, aglow with all the colour and light 
of an Italian sky. But very few were written 
we suspect " Virginibus puerisque.** In 
several of his books, moreover, his Straussian 
philosophy intrudes itself in a somewhat dis- 
turbing fashion. Of Felix Dahn there are some 
short historical romances, Felicitas, Gelimer, 
and particularly die Kreuzfahrer, which are 
most readablci most interesting, and in 



which the learned author's theories of Ger* 
man antiquity do not retard the course of 
simple narrative. F. Spielhagen has given us 
some exquisite sketches of stories. fFas 
die Schwaibe sang, Eine Dorfkoktite, Qyisisana, 
Deutsche Fianiere are most delightflil; their 
fine and elegant style, their brilUant descrip- 
tions deserve the editor's most painstaking 
care; they can be safely recommended 
as reading books. In these short tales the 
writer has for once left aside his theories 
of state, of socialism, and of the universal 
regeneration of the human race. It will be 
difficult to make anything of Gustav Freytag 
and of Ehers ; short episodes of their works 
have been edited ; but the general compass 
of their books places them beyond the reach 
of the learner. We do not know whether 
any of Auerbach's DorfgescMchten would be 
appreciated by English youths; his later and 
more pretentious novels, Auf der Hohe, Das 
Landhaus am Bhein, are so full of Spinoza's 
pantheism, that they deserve, no doubt, pro- 
found study, but cannot be simply read and 
enjoyed. fFUlibald Alexis is hardly known 
in England ; but his seven Brandenburgian 
stories, notably die Hosen des Harm von 
Bredow and der fFdrwolf possess a romantic 
interest ; they have a peculiar fascination, and 
are thoroughly German, or, rather, thoroughly 

These brief and cursory remarks on 
German story-books do not, of course, pre- 
tend to completeness; they are merely 
hints to teachers and editors, who are on 
the lookout for short and suitable novels 
which they can put into the hands of 
their students. For the reasons given 
above the number is not very great; it is 
still more reduced by the limits of time and 
space. How could we think of reading '' Soil 
und Hahen " or " Hammer und Ambosz " or "(fie 
Nilbraui " in the twelve weeks allotted to a 
term, and the two hours a week allotted to 

German ? Is it, however, quite impossible to 
bring these larger works within the reach of 
young readers to shorten and abridge them 
somewhat after the fashion of the English 
"Masterpiece Library") It seems almost 
sacrilege to lay violent hands on a work 
of literary art^ and to shorten it by 
manifold mutilations ; certainly the opera- 
tion requires tact and skill. It has been peiy* 
formed on Hauffs Lichtenstein and on SeheffePs 
Ekkehard. We cannot say that the latter, one 
of the most masterly works of our times, was 
very happily chosen for the experiment. 
That grand story of the monJk of St 
Gaul and the Swabian duchess appears in 
this edition like an oak tree of a thousand 
winters that has been pruned by a French 
gardener. The author of this article may 
perhaps be pardoned if he refers on con- 
cluding his remarks to a similar attempt 
which he has made. In his edition of 
Schiller's Geisterseher (published by Hachette) 
he has endeavoured to reduce that remark- 
able work to the limits of a German reading 
book. The only lengthy novel Schiller ever 
wrote, it possesses all the merits of his earlier 
manner, a fiery imagmation, a rich, resonant, 
somewhat rhetorical style, a deeply and 
skilfully laid plot. It is spoiled by a fault, 
peculiarly German — ^it is full of philosophy. 
The first part is a splendid stoiy splendidly 
told, the second is a tissue of dissertations. 
The thread is needlessly spun out, and 
eventually lost. The work has remained a 
fragment. No doubt in this edition the pnm- 
ing knife has been frequently used towards 
the end of the book. Admirers of Schiller 
— amongst whose number the editor wishes 
to be humbly enrolled — will severely censure 
him for his audacious attempt. Where he 
has failed others may succeed, and present, 
in a larger measure than has been done 
hitherto, German reading books to English 
students. Charles Mbrk. 


There are no doubt many difficulties which 
beset a teacher of modern languages in this 
country, such as — want of time allotted to his 
subject in the school curriculum, necessity 
of preparing his pupils for a host of 
examinations, want of a clearly defined 
and methodically arranged curriculum, lack 
of encouragement of the subject in the vast 
majority o? schools, shyness of the pupils in 
dealing with the living and spoken idiom, 
uncertainty concerning the best method to 
be adopted in teaching, and doubt as to 

what books should be used with the classes, 
and more especially in preparing for his 

It can, however, not be urged that there 
is not now a great number of really good, 
scientific, as well as practical books avail- 
able for a teacher to refer to in all cases 
of difficulty and doubt, such as may arise at 
any moment from the various departments 
of his every-day teaching. On the con- 
trary, there are, at least m some cases, so 
many books on the same subject that a real 



diflSculty is experienced by teachers as to 
which should be used by preference. The 
Bchool reference-libraries are, as a rule, very 
poor as far as German is concerned ; more- 
over, most teachers will probably wish to 
possess or to purchase gradually all the 
necessary books of reference for themselves. 
The choice of tools will, of course, largely 
■depend on the kind of work which the 
teacher will have to do. It is the object of 
this article to assist younger teachers to 
some extent in making their choice. New 
books of value and interest will henceforth 
be regularly noticed in the Modem Language 

Such ordinary grammars, composition- 
books, school dictionaries, and the like, as 
are in daily use in the schools, and with 
whom every teacher is naturally familiar, 
have all, or nearly all, been excluded from 
the following lists. I shall, in the subse- 
quent paragraphs, freely refer readers to 
my *' Handy Guide," ^ where a much greater 
number of books of reference is given. 

Dictionaries. — A number of dictionaries 
of different kinds should be found on the 
shelves of a well-equipped reference library. 
Apart from the ordinary small school-dic- 
tionaries, a teacher will be in constant need 
of at least one large dictionary of the first 
order. The last edition of Fliigers well- 
known and time-honoured dictionary is at 
present the largest English-Grerman and 
German-English dictionary which is com- 
plete. Its full title 18— Felix Fliigel, " Allge- 
meines Englisch-Deutsches und Deutsch- 
Englisches Worterbuch." Fourth, entirely 
remodelled, edition. 2 parts in 3 vols. 
Braunschweig, 1891. (Price, bd., £2, 5s.). « 
The EnglishrGerman part is by far the better 
of the two. A smaller dictionary, partly 
based on the large Fliigel (the English- 
German part only), is the one called — 
Flugel'SchnUdt'Tangerj "A Dictionary of 
the English and German Languages for 
Home and School." Two vols. Braun- 
schweig, 1896. (15s. bound.) It is excel- 
lently printed, very full, and most useful for 
all ordinary purposes. Prof. Imm. Schmidt 

* Karl Breul, *' A Haudy Bibliographical Guide to 
the study of the German Lanfimaffe and Literature 
for the use of Students and Teacners of German." 
London : Hachette k Co. 1895. 8vo. Bound, 
28. 6d. Some books enumerated in this article are 
of more recent date than the ' Guide.' 

' The prices <^uoted in this article are those which 
are given in Deighton, Bell k Co.'s **Li8t of Books." 
Cambridge: Trinity Street, Oct. 1897. Most of the 
prices are liable to discount The prices of some 
books not mentioned in this list are given approxi- 

is the well-known author of the excellent 
Shakespeare Dictionary. 

A work which will surpass in complete- 
ness even the big Fliigel is now in course 
of publication. It will ultimately consist 
of four volumes. The first two volumes, 
containing the £nglish and German part 
(compiled by G. Muret^ with the help 
of many specialists), have just been com- 
pleted (half bound, £2, 8s.). The publica- 
tion of the second part has been begun 
by the Langenscheidt'sche Buchhandlung, 
Berlin, 1897. The editor of the first 
number was the late Daniel Sandeas. The 
work is being continued by the before- 
mentioned Immanuel Schmidt 

The smaller books by 6ne&, Thiemey 
Kohler (all of which have been, or are 
being, completely re-edited), and the stUl 
smaller books by Whitney and Weir are cer- 
tainly useful in many respects, but do not 
always afford all the information a teacher 
of German may desire to obtain. 

Apart from German-English and English- 
German dictionaries, a teacher will often 
desire to consult a German dictionary with 
German explanations, and, if possible, with 
well-chosen German instances. The very 
big works of the brothers Grimm and their 
successors, and of Daniel Sanders (see my 
Guide^ pp. 48-49), are too bulky and expen- 
sive for ordinary purposes. Two recent 
dictionaries of smaller size will probably be 
very welcome to many teachers of German. 
One is by Moriz Heyne^ " Deutsches Worter- 
buch," 3 vols. Leipzig, 1890-95 (£1, 16s.). 
It contains numerous well-chosen instances, 
and is most handy for reference. An abridg- 
ment of it in one vol. has recently been pub- 
lished. Another very useful dictionary, in 
which no instances are given, but the develop- 
ment of meaning of the words very carefully 
elaborated, is the " Deutsches Worterbuch," 
by Hermann Paul. Halle, 1897 (9s. 6d.). 
Both books strictly exclude all foreign words 
of recent importation. English teachers of 
German will sometimes be in doubt as to the 
inflexion or pronunciation of foreign words 
in German. They will find all desirable in- 
formation in the " Fremdworterbuch," by 
Daniel Sander s, in 2 vols. Leipzig, 1871, 
21891-2 (about £1 f). There is now, how- 
ever, a strong t<endency in Germany to avoid, 
if possible, the use of foreign words, and 
several dictionaries have been compiled in 
which German equivalents of foreign words 
are given. Perhaps the best of these is the 
following — Hermann Dungery "Worterbuch 
von Verdeutschungen entbehrlicher Fremd- 
worter." Leipzig, 1882 (about 3s. ?). Many 



teachers will be glad of a very complete 
and useful dictionary giving every ordinary 
modern German word, whether of German 
or of foreign origin, according to the so- 
called new spelling. One of the greatest 
authorities on spelling reform, Konrad 
DudeUy has compiled a " vollstandiges ortho- 
graphisches Worterbuch der deutscheii 
Sprache mit etymologischen Angaben, kurzen 
Sacherklarungen una Verdeutschiingen der 
Fremdworter. Nach den neuen amtlichen 
Re^ln." Leipzig, 3rd ed., 1888 (2s.). 
The most handy dictionary of synonyms is 
Eberhard's " Synonymisches Handworterbuch 
der deutschen Sprache'' (the latest, 15th, ed. 
by Otto Lyon) with well -chosen German 
instances and translation of the German 
synonyms into English, French, Italian, and 
Russian. Leipzig, 1896 (half bound, 14s. 6d.). 
The etymology of words of German origin has 
been admirably treated by Fr. Kluge in his 
" Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen 
Sprache." The last and much-en 'arged ed. 
appeared at Strassburg in 1894. A very 
good systematical English-German vocabu- 
lary (parts of which will be found useful for 
class-teachiug) has been compiled by Gtistav 
Kruger, " Englisch - Deutsches Worterbuch 
nach Stoffen geordnet, fiir Studierende, 
Schulenund Selbstunterricht." Berlin, 1893 
(3s.). A most useful and handy little 
pocket-dictionary for travelling purposes is 
the "English-German Conversation Diction- 
ary," by Richard Jdschke, London, 1893 
(2s. 6d.). 

Many other dictionaries, including older 
German dictionaries, special glossaries, dia- 
lect dictionaries, dictionaries of technical 
words and phrases, etc., which are of less 
importance for ordinary teaching, must be 
passed over in this article. Their full titles 
are given in my Guide, chapter vi., pp. 45-54. 

Grammars, etc — Such books as are very 
widely known and used in class teaching, 
e.g., the grammars by K. Meyer, Macgowan, 
Fiedler, Siepmann, Aue, Eve, Weisse, Meiss- 
ner, and others, need not be discussed here. 
I wish to call attenaon to some books which 
seem to be less known, and which, if con- 
sultt'd, would often be found very helpful. 
Among the smaller grammars of German for 
English students there is the American book 
by H. C. G. Brandt, "A Grammar of the 
German language for High Schools and 
Colleges, designed for beginners and ad- 
vanced students." Sixth ed. Boston, 1893 
(6s.), which will be found extremely useful 
on account of its brief but accurate explana- 
tions of grammatical phenomena. Among 
the more bulky works on German gram- 

mar, written in German anl intended for 
teachers and students, the following deserves 
special recommendation, F, Blatz, ** Neuhoch- 
deutsche Grammatik mit Beriicksichtigung 
der historischen Entwickelung der deutschen 
Sprache." Third ed., entirely rewritten, in 
2 vols. Karlsruhe, 1895-6 (half bound, 30s.). 
Of the oMer books, Y. Ch. Aug. Hei/s^s 
"Deutsche Grammatik," 25th ed., com- 
pletely rewritten by Otto Lyon. Hannover, 
1893 (5s. 6d.), may, in spite (^f some 
shortcomings, still be used with advantage 
in many cases. The " Deutsche Grammatik " 
(Gotisch Alt-Mittel-und Neuhochdeutsch), 
by W. Wilmanns, which is now in course of 
publication, will probably be of too strictly 
philological a character to meet the practical 
needs of most teachers. So far vol. 1. (phon- 
ology). Strassburg, 1893, and vol. II. (word- 
formation). Strassburg, 1896, have appeared 
(price, 9««. 6d. and 14s.). Two, or possibly 
three, more volumes are to follow. It is an 
admirable piece of work. 

An excellent short book for repetition of 
the principal facts of old and modern 
phonology and accidence is Fr. Kauffniann, 
" Deutsche Grammatik.'* Marburg. Second 
edition. 1895 (3s.). 

With regard to Syntax alone, the works 
by Vemaltken, Erdmann, Kern, and Wmider- 
Hch, give much useful information. (See 
my Guide, p. 32.) 

There are a number of German books in 
which doubtful points of grammar and the 
"best German" are discussed at length. 
Three of these will be especially service- 
able to English teachers (for others, see 
my Guide, pp. 29-30). K. G. Andresen, 
" Sprachgebrauch und Sprachrichtigkeit im 
Deutschen." Seventh edition, Leipzig, 1892 
(6s.). This is the most conservative book of 
the three. Th. Matthias, in his " Sprachleben 
und Sprachschaden." Leipzig, 1892 (6s. 6d.), 
of which an abridged edition has recently 
been published, is inclined to make greater 
concessions to recent usage. Both books 
are well indexed. The third book is much 
shorter, but also very useful — A. Ueintze, 
"Gut Deutsch." Sixth edition, Berlin, 1895 
(Is. 6d. nett). 

Teachers who are anxious to have a brief 
survey of the history of the German lan- 
guajre should refer to the following books — 
0. Weise, " Unsere Muttersprache ; ihr Wer- 
den und ihr Wesen." Second ed., Leipzig, 
1896 (3s.). An English translation of this 
work is being prepared in America. A 
somewhat older book of a similar character 
is 0. Behaghel, "Die deutsche Sprache." 
Leipzig, 1886 (Is. 3d.), an English adapter 



tion of which, by E, Trechmann, was pub- 
liabed in London, 1891, under the title, " A 
Short Historicai Grammar of the German 
Language." (3b. Gd.) A smuU pamphlet 
containing a few abort and popular articlee 
on the German language, such as boys pre- 
paring for BcholarBiiipa may like to read, 
IB E. WasseTzielur, "Ans dem Leben der 
deatechen Sprache." Leipzig, no year 
(3d.). A. F. W. CerJ has begun a " Short 
Historical Grammar of the German Lan- 
gnage " (Part I. : Introduction and Phon- 
ology. London, ISO-l. 4fi.), the second part 
of which has not yet appeared. A somo- 
wbat larger book is the one by Henri 
lAchtenherger, "Histoire de la langue alle- 
mande." Paris, 1895 (Ts. 6d.). Another 
useful French book, treating of the mutual 
relation of English and German grammar, is 
a book by V. Henry, which was translated 
by the author himself, under the title, "A 
Short Comparative Grammar of English and 
German, as traced back to tbeir Common 
Origin and contrasted with the Classical 
Languages." London, 1894 (Ts. 6d.). All 
desirable information with regard to the 
new spelling is given by W. WUmanns in 
his valuable book, "Die Orthographie in 
den Schulen Deutsch lands." Berlin, 1887 
(4s. 6d.), A short guide to modern punctua- 
tion is the book by 0. Glikle, "Die deutsche 
Interpunktionslehre." Leipzig, 1893 (Is. 3d.). 
Teachers who have to prepare boya for ex- 
aminations in which they must show pro- 
ficiency in reading German handwriting 
should use B. Livy, "Recueil de lettres 
allemandes reproduites en tScritures autu- 
grapbiques pour exercer ji la lectiu^ dea 
manuBcrits allemands." Paris. Sixth edition, 
1892 (About 2a. 6d.). The subject of the 
best German pronunciation is still a very 
vexed question, even among the Genuans 
themselves. I do not propose to treat it in 
full in the present article, still I should like 
to refer teachers to the various books by 
W. Victor (see my Ouide, p. 35), Those 
which will be most helpful for English 
teachers are bis "German Pronunciation: 
Practice and Theory." Leipzig, 1890 (2s.), 
and the reprint of his lecture, " Wie iet 
die AuBspracbe des Deuiachen zu lehren ) " 
Marburg, 1893 (Is.). A "Deutsche Laut- 
tJifel," illustrated by this lecture, was pub- 
lished at the same lime. (6d.) Teachers 
who are anxious to consult handy books 
on phonetics may refer either to Laura 
Soames, "An Introduction to Phonetics." 
London, 1891 (2a. 6d.), or to 11". Victor's 
" Elemente der Phonetik und Orthoepio dea 
Deutachen, KngliEchen und Franzusischen, 

mit Kiicksicht auf die Bediirfniase dd 
Lebrpraxia." Leipzig. Third edition (witB 
useful bibliography), 1894 (Gs.), An abridged _ 
edition of this work has just been issued. 
Leipzig, 1897 (3s.). It is called "Kleine 
Phonetik des Deutschen, Engliscben nnd 
Franzcisischen, " 

There are several books devoted to I 
teaching of conversation (see my Guid 
p. 38). Perhaps the most serviceable t _ 
them is A. Hamann's "Echo of Spoken' 
German," Leipzig, 1892 (3s.), a series of 
excellent dialogues which afford, at the 
same time, a useful introduction to the_ 
study of German life and manners. 

For the explanation of German idiomatji 
phrases, no better booka could be desire 
than those by Wilh. Borchardl, " Die spricl^ 
wortliehen Redensarten im deutachen Volhl 
mund nach Sinn und Ursprung erlautertj 
Leipzig. Fourth ed., 1894 (7s), and by SSL 
Schroder, "Der Bilderschmuck der deutachen 
Spraohe." Berlin. Second edition, 1889 (7a,). 
For other similar books, familiar quotations, 
slang, etc., aee my G-uide, p. 39. 

Teachers who make their advanced pnpila 
write free essays on German classical works 
or characters occurring in great plays should 
iise the books of Firtor ifiy, " Themata und 
Dispositionen zu deutschen Aufsiitzen nnj 
Vortragen im Anschluss an die deutache 
Schulldtture fiir die oberon Elasson boherer 
Lehranstalten." Three parts. Berlin, 1895- 
1897 (about 3s, each), 

Histories of Literature. — There is not as 
yet a really satisfactory History of German 
Literature written in English and based on 
a first hand aeqaaintance of the author with 
the German works of literature of old and 
modern times. The English translations and 
adaptations of German works are none <' 
thorn free from very serious shortcoming! 
Hence a teacher will very likely prefer tm 
possess one or more German works on titf 
subject, The following will, in my opinionLl 
Iwst serve bis purpose — Wilh. Scherer, " " 
schichto der deutschen Litteratur." Berlinj 
7th ed., 1895 (10s. Gd.), perhaps the moa 
brilliant book of its kind, written by a rip< 
scholar, who was endowed with a refined 
taste for literary beauty. A book of simila 
compass ia that by the poet and professa. 
IHlo Eoqueite, "Geschichte der deutschel 
Dichtung von den iiltesten Denkmiilem bi^ 
auf die Neuzeit." Fi'ankfurt-on-the-MainJ 
3rded., 1882 (9s. Cd.). The lastbookofthfij 
kind deserving warm recommendation ha4 
only just appeared. It is the " Geschichte doB 
deutachen Littoratur von don iiltesten Zdt«i 
bis «ur Gegenwart," by Fr. Vogt and Ma^ 



Kodi. Leipzig and Wien, 1897 (bound, 
IBs. 6d.). This book is profusely illus- 
trated with very carefally selected and 
splendidly executed illustrations, giving 
facsimilia of old and modern manuscripts 
and handwritings, and numerous portraits 
of famous authors, etc. The scientific value 
of this book is incomparably higher than 
that of another well-illustrated historv of 
literature by Robert Kdnig (25th revisea ed. 
in 2 vols. Bielefeld and Leipzig. 1895 
(£1, 4s.), which has had a wide circulation 
in Germany. A splendid work, merely 
illustrating German literature from the 
earliest times to the present day by over 
2200 pictures and illustrations, is Gust, 
KoenneMs *' Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der 
deutschen Nationallitteratur. Erganzung zu 
jeder deutschen Litteraturgeschicnte." 2nd 
ed. Marburg, 1895 (£1, 128.). For the eigh- 
teenth century the great work by fl. Hettner, 
"Geschichte der deutschen Litteratur im 
achtzehnten Jahrhundert," 4th ed. (re- 
vised by 0. Hamack)y Braunschweig, 1894 
(£1, 15s. 6d.), will be found as useful as 
it is interesting. 

There are several books from which infor- 
mation as to German literature in our own 
century can be obtained. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say that they differ a great deal in 
character and judgment, but in all of them 
there is plenty of interesting matter and 
valuable information. The following may 
be mentioned in the first instance — R. v. 
GattschaUf "Die deutsche Nationallitteratur 
des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. Litterar- 
historisch und kritisch dargestellt." 6th 
ed., 4 parts. Breslau. 1892 (about £1). 
Fr, Kirchner^ "Die deutsche Nationallitte- 
ratur des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts." Heidel- 
berg. 1894 (about 10s.). L, Sahrrwn, " Qe- 
schichte der deutschen Nationallitteratur des 
neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. 2nd ed. (with 
thirty portraits of poets). Stuttgart. 1887. 
A short " Geschichte der deutschen Litteratur 
in der Gegenwart," by Eugm Wolffs was pub- 
lished last year. Leipzig. 1896 (6s. 6d.). 
The modem German drama has been treated 
with much interest by Berth, LUzmann. 2nd 
edition. Hamburg and Leipzig. 1894 (5s.). 
From a great number of German primers of 
literature for schools only those by H. Kluge, 
Gs Ugelhaaf^ Max Koch, G. Bottidier and K, 
Kinzely and GoUhold Klee (Dresden and Ber- 
lin. 2nd ed. 1897) need be mentioned. See 
my Guide, pp. 63-64. Each has its own 
advantages. ELlee's book is perhaps the best 
for school purposes. 

Metre. — A short but useful survey of the 
history of German metre, with good speci- 

mens and due consideration of modem forms, 
is given by Fr, Kauffmann in his " Deutsche 
Metrik nach ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicke- 
lung." Marburg. 1897 (4s. 6d.). A more 
detailed account of modern German metre — 
a subject which apparently is hardly ever 
touched upon in school teaching, while the 
outlines of it deserve to be just as well 
known as the metrical art of the ancient 
classical writers — is given in F. Minor's 
" Neuhochdeutsche Metrik." Strassburg. 
1893 (128.). Most teachers will probably 
find the book too elaborate for their purpose 
in spite of its being extremely readable and 

Theory of Poetry, etc. — A number of 
" Poetiken " of very different size and char- 
acter are enumerated in my Guide on pp. 74- 
75. There will be little time, and perhaps 
need, for systematic instruction in our 
school-teaching, but teachers will probably 
like to possess and use at least the following 
two small and cheap hand-books : C. F, A, 
Schuster, "Lehrbuch der Poetik fiir hohere 
Lehranstalten." Halle. 3rd. ed. 1890 ^28.), 
and the still smaller " Deutsche Poetik by 
Karl Bovinski. Stuttgart. 1895 (Is.). In 
this connection I should like to mention and 
to recommend very strongly two books 
which teachers will find helpful in discussing 
German dramas with more advanced pupils, 
or in preparing for scholarship examinations: 
R. Franz, " Der Auf bau der Handlung in den 
klassischen Dramen." Bielefeld and Leipzig. 
1892 (about 5s.), and H, Bulthaupt, " Drama- 
turgie des Schauspiels." Vol. I. (Lessing, 
Goethe, Schiller, Kleist). Oldenburg and 
Leipzig. 5th ed., 1893 (6s.). 

German Olassics. — ^A great number of school 
editions of German Ckssics with English, 
German, and French Notes are enumerated 
in my Guide, pp. 94-6. For particulars as to 
English editions of German Classics available 
in 1893 see my article in Lyon's " Zeitschrift 
fiir den deutschen Unterricht," Vol VIIL 
(1894), pp. 167 sqq. Of Grerman editions : 
the Uempel editions of Lessing, Goethe and 
Schiller, the new Schiller edition bv Beller- 
man for the Leipzig Bibliographical Institute, 
and most of the volumes of Kiirschner's 
"Deutsche National-Litteratur '' and of 
Brockhaus' "Bibliothek der deutschen 
Nationallitteratur des achtzehnten und 
neunzehnten Jahrhunderts," deserve to 
be mentioned. Of the cheap series the 
volumes of Cotta's "Bibliothek der Welt- 
litteratur " (bound), and those of the "Collec- 
tion Spemann " (bound), can be had for Is. 
each ; the Hendel editions (Halle, unbound) 
for 25 pfennige per volume ; Beclam's texts 



" Universal Bibliothek," Leipzig), 20 pf. per 
volume ; and the texts of the series called 
" Meyer^j* Volksbiicher" (Leipzig) for 10 pf. 
per volume. 

Some other excelk nt sets of classics of a 
more scientific character are enumerated in 
my Guide on pp. 81-82, and a number of 
commentaries mentioned on pp. 100-104. 
English teachers of German will find M. W, 
Gotzinger's "Deutsche Dichter," 6th ed. 
(partly re-written by E, G6tdnger\ 2 vols. 
Aarau, 1876-7 (about £1). Very useful. 

Old German. — Few teachers will feel 
inclined to give much time and attention 
to Old German, and will therefore hardly be 
in need of advice as to what books to use 
for the study of the older German classics. 
Still many teachers may in a not very dis- 
tant future wish to prepare boys for Scholar- 
ships at the Universities, and although Old 
German is with very good reason no longer 
an indispensable condition for success in an 
Entrance Scholarship, a teacher may occa- 
sionally like to give promising pupils a start 
and teach them the elements of Middle High 
German and sixteenth century German.* 
Some Middle High German is also required 
for the Cambridge Higher Local and other 

I shall not, in the following list of booki>, 
include any works of an advanced character, 
being strongly of opinion that Old German 
as such is not a school subject, and should 
not, unless in very exceptional cases, be 
begun before the University course. More- 
over, a smattering of Old German and Ger- 
man philology, if not very well and carefully 
taught by an experienced teacher, is sure to 
do far more harm than good. 

The basis of the modern literary language 
is sixteenth century German. A teacher 
might first use Raphael Meyer's " Einfiihrung 
in das altere Neuhochdeutsche." Leipzig. 
1894 (2s.), in which the first fifty-five stanzas 
of the poem of Hvemen Seyfrid are commen- 
tated, and then proceed to reading some of 
the small volumes in " Goschen's " or " Bot- 
ticher and KinzeVs " sets (see Guide, pp. 79- 
80). In the " Sammlung Goschen," Vol. 24 
might be selected for this purpose. It con- 
tains a selection (by L, Pariser) of passages 
from *' Seb. Brant, Luther, Hans Sachs and 
Fischart." Stuttgart 1893 (Is.). In 
"Botticher and KinzePs" "Denkmaler der 
jQteren deutschen Litteratur," the volumes 

^ On the whole qnestion, see my lecture " On the 
training of teachers of modern foreign languages " 
before the College of Preceptors. Printed in the 
EilwcUional Times of May 1, 1894, and reprinted, at 
the request of tlie editors, in Die Neueren Sprach^n, 
II. 424 sqq., 585 sqq. 

« Hans Sachs " (by K. Kimel). Halle. 1893 
(la), and "Kunst- und Volkslied in der 
Ref ormationszeit " (by K, Kinzel). . Halle. 
1892 (Is.), will be found useful. 

If teachers should desire to give their 
pupils some specimens of the actual text of 
Luther's first translation of the Bible (" Sep- 
temberbibel ") they cannot do better than 
use the excellent and handy book by A. 
Reifferscheidj "Marcus Evangelion Mart, 
Luthers nach der Septemberbu)el, mit den 
Lesarten aller Originalausgaben, etc." Heil- 
bronn. 1889 (about 3s. 6d. 1). For other 
sixteenth century texts Braune's cheap and 
reliable " Neudrucke " should be used. (See 
Guide, p. 81.) 

The best introduction to the study of 
Middle High German is Jul. Zupitza^s " Ein- 
fiihrung in das Studium des Mittelhoch- 
deutschen." Oppeln. 1868. 4th ed., 1891 
(2s. 6d.). Many scholars have been first 
initiated into a serious study of Middle High 
German by this most excellent little book. 
After having gone through Zupitza's intro- 
duction, teachers might use Jos. fFrtghfs 
"Middle High Geiman Primer." Oxford. 
1888 (3s. 6d.), and then read Hartman von 
Ouwe's "JDer arme Heinrich" in /. G. 
Robertson^ s edition. London. 1895 (4s. 6d.), 
or W, Golther's selections from "Der Nibe- 
lunge N6t" (Sammlung Goschen, IQ^). ' 
Stuttgart. 1895 (Is.), or some other vol- 
umes from Goschen's series. The small 
Middle High German grammar by H, Paul 
(Halle. 81889, 38. 6d.), and the small diction- 
ary by M, Lexer (Leipzig. ^1885, 68.), are 
much to be recommended. 

Mythology Sagas. — A teacher who is de- 
sirous of obtaining a rapid survey of German 
Mythology and " Heldensage " without being 
able to devote much time to the study of the 
more comprehensive books might read two 
handy volumes (Is. each) of the very use- 
ful ** Sammlung Goeschen.". The one on 
" Deutsche My thologie " is by Ft. Kavffmann. 
2nd ed. Stuttgart, 1893 ; the booklet on "Die 
deutche Heldensage" is by 0, L, Ziriczek, 
Stuttgart, 1894. The larger books on those 
subjects are enumerated in my Guide on pp. 
110-112 To these should now be added 
W. GoliheVy "Handbuch der gerroanischen 
My thologie." Leipzig, 1895 (14s). 

History and Geography. — Although Ger- 
man history and geography as such will hardly 
ever be taught in ordinary schools, a teacher 
of German should mak^ it a point to be well 
informed as to either sulDJect, and should 
possess German books with German names 
pf places and events in his private library. 
The histories and atlases of this kind need 



not be very bulky and expensive; some 
really good German school books will amply 
suffice for his purpose. There are a good 
many books which would do very well ; I can 
recommend the following ; David Miiller 
"Leitfaden zur Geschichte des deutschen 
Volkes." 5th. ed. Berlin, 1885 (there are 
later edd.), 2s. 6d. A larger book by the 
same author is " Geschichte des deutschen 
Yolkes in kurzgefasster iibersichtlicher 
Darstellung." 11th ed. Berlin, 1884 (58.). 
There are probably later editions. The 
" Deutsche Geschichte " by Kammd is also 
largely used in Germany. Some consider it 
to be now the best work of its kind. It used 
to cost 12s., but can now be had for 8s. A 
most excellent " Atlas fiir Mittel-und Ober- 
klassen hoherer Lehranstalten'' was published 
this year at Bielefeld and Leipzig under the 
editorship of B. Lehmann and W, Peizold 
(5s.). Teachers of German will find it ex- 
tremely useful. The small Atlas by E, Dehes 
"Schulatlas fiir die mittlere Unterrichtsstufe," 
Leipzig (Is. 6d.), deserves to be mentioned in 
this connection, and will suffice for ordinary 
purposes. Very cheap and useful for class 
teaching is P. KnoteVs "Bilderatlas zur 
deutschen Geschichte" (with explanatory 
notes). Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1895 (3s.). 
A number of valuable and interesting books 
on German History and on German Life and 
Customs are enumerated in my Guide on pp. 
116 sqq. 

Qeneral Information. — Succi net and reliable 
information on all matters connected with 
German history and biography, life and 
thought, may be obtained from Meyers' 
"Kleines Konversations-Lexikon" in three 
volumes. 5th ed. Leipzig, 1893 ^half bound, 
£1, 8s.), which will prove of the greatest 
use in many questions, and which every 
teacher of German should endeavour to get. 

Method of Teaching. — However well in- 
formed a teacher may be, he will have to 
adapt himself in his teaching to the school 
curriculum, to the aims to be attained by his 
pupils, and he will have to give his most 
serious attention to the study and considera- 
tion of the methods to be followed in his 
teaching. No school teacher can at the 
present time afford to keep aloof from the 

discussions as to the best method of teaching 
modern foreign languages, and ewery one will 
be able to learn a great deal from the books 
written on the subject of the teaching of 
German. Some of these works he will no 
doubt wish to possess himself, so as to be 
able to refer to them from time to time as 
occasion arises. The following books appear 
to me to be especially suggestive — W. H. 
Widgerpy "The teaching of languages in 
schools." London, 1888 (2s.). Michel BrM, 
" De I'enseignement des langues vivantes, 
Conferences faites aux 6tudiants en lettres 
de la Sorbonne." Paris, 1893 (2s.). Fr. 
SpenceVy "Aims and Practice of Teaching." 
Cambridge, 1897 (6s.). All of these books 
advocate more or less the so-called " Neuere 
Richtung," and are written for teachers 
whose native tongue is not German. But 
much that is useful cau also be learned from 
some German books for German teachers, if 
one bears in mind that the standards set up 
in them require modification and abatement, 
as German is a foreign language in this 
country. Teachers can still learn a great 
deal from a careful study of the books by E. 
Laos (see my Guide, pp. 37 and 119), but 
generally speaking they will derive most 
benefit from the works by B, Lehmanny 
"Der deutsche Unterricht. Eine Methodik 
fiir hohere Lehranstalten." Berlin, ^1897 
(9s. fid.) ; and by G. Wendt, " Der deutsche 
Unterricht." Miinchen, 1896 (4s. fid.). The 
latter contains also an admirable biblio- 
graphy. Some more books connected with 
the recent discussions as to methods of 
modern language teaching are enumerated at 
the end of my lecture "on the training of 
teachers of modem foreign languages " (Edu- 
cational TimeSy May 1894). 

I should be very pleased if the above sug- 
gestions should enable teachers to make a 
good choice of the books of reference in the 
various departments of their teaching and 
private study. More than once I have been 
asked by practical teachers for information 
of this kind ; may it now prove useful to a 
wider circle of readers, and thus render some 
service to the cause of modern language 
study and teaching in Great Britain. 

Karl Breul. 

A PUBLIC SCHOOL GERMAN PRIMER. Otto Siepmann. London : MacmUlan & Co. 

1896. New Edition, 1897. Pp. xiv. and 360. 

The Neuere Bichtung has already led to the 
publication of several books on the teaching 
of German, and to this number Mr Siep- 
mann's volume must be added. It contains 
a reader, grammar and writer, the exercises 

in the reader and writer being in duplicate, 
so that boys who are not moved up to a 
higher form, need not necessarily be taken 
over familiar ground again. . The system of 
the book is satisfactory, * and a careful ex- 



amination of it leads us to believe that pupils 
should be able to attain a sound knowledge 
of the elements of German within a year or 
so, if the teacher follows out the instructions 
of Mr Siepmann. Reading, writing, speaking 
form part of each lesson, and every extract 
for translation or retranslation is illustrative 
of some part of the grammar of the language. 
The extracts for translation into English 
are carefully graduated, and lead up to some 
pieces from standard authors, such as Lessing 
and Heine. The grammar is complete in 
itself, and, no doubt, will be the basis for a 
further reader and writer, should Mr Siep- 
mann decide to issue one. We therefore 
look to find in the grammar, work beyond 
the scope of the Reader and Writer with which 
it is issued. Beginners will derive their 
grammatical training from it, and it is, there- 
fore, important that in method and arrange- 
ment, it should reach a high standard of 
excellence. We may say at once that this 
part of Mr Siepmann's work is carefully 
done, and though we differ from him on 
certain points of nomenclature and detail, 
we should find it hard to instance any other 
outline of German Grammar of equal merit. 
Mr Siepmann, we are glad to see, does not 
write about regular and irregular verbs, and 
if he does have recourse to four declensions, 

it is merelv to make the line of demarcation 


between strong and weak more clear. We 
should like to offer one or two suggestions. 
Would it not be well to indicate more 
exactly the sub-divisions of the strong declen- 
sion and to include in the scheme a mixed 
declension, t.e., nouns such as Name, Staat, 
etc., rather than relegate them to an 
appendix] The following classification sug- 
gests itself : — Strimg Declension, Weak Declm- 
sum, Mixed Declension, with the following 
subdivisions for the strong declension ; A. 
Normal Form— Tag Tage, Gast Gaste, Stadt 
Stadte, Gtebirge Gebirce, etc. B. Contracted 
Form — ^Vater Vater, Wagen Wagen, Fenster 
Fenster, etc. C. Enlarged Form — Dorf 
Dorfer, Wald Walder, Reichtum Reichtiimer, 

The term Mixed Declension is obviously the 
only scientific one for nouns of the type of 
Name,Namens,Namen; Staat,Staates,Staaten, 
and explains the origin of the declension. 

Again in dealing with the verbs and 
adjectives, we would advocate a similar 
terminology. The verbs of mood and the 
verb wissen are correctly classified together ; 
they might be staled the mixed conjugation, 
and such a title is, of course, philologically 
correct, as these verbs show certain cnarac- 
teristics of the strong and of the weak 

With regard to the adjectives, the mixed 
declension is suggested for forms such as — 
ein arm^ Mann eines arm^ Mannes; ein 
gross^ Haus eines grosser^ Hauses etc., etc. 

One or two small points occur to us. We 
should like to see the term " Weak verbs with 
vowel mutation '* substituted for " Irregular 
weak verbs," p. 142, and in these verbs the 
imperfect subjunctive should be given. The 
natural tendency is to write brannte or 
brannte not brennte, as the imperfect subjunc- 
tive. Djiinken should also find a place in 
this list. Again, in the list of strong verbs, 
the imperfect subjunctive should be added 
when the vowel differs from what we should 
call the normal vowel, e.g, wlirfe, not warfe, 
befbhle, not befahle. In the Ablautsreihen 
the VIII. series should be deleted altogether, 
heben assigned to the vi., and fechten to the 
IV. series. Of the verbs classed as Anom- 
alous gehen should be assigned to the vii. 
series, stehen to the vi. ; tnis would leave 
thun as anomalous, to which we would fur- 
ther add sein. 

In the treatment of the passive voice we 
do not notice that attention is drawn to the 
frequent use of the impersonal passive ; and 
in the chapter on the subjunctive a slightlv 
fuller treatment seems desirable. In deal- 
ing with comparison it seems rather mis- 
leading to say "the superlative with am is 
rather absolute," especially as later on 
absolute is correctly applied to the form 
auf hochste. We should also prefer the 
term vowel gradation instead of Ablaut and 
vowel mutation instead of Umlaut, 

Where we differ from Mr Siepmann, it is 
on questions of detail and arrangement; 
with the principle of his book we are in com- 
plete accord and recommend the book to the 
attention of Teachers of Modern Languages, 
who have not yet become acquainted with it. 

K L. M. B. 

•':< >. 


It was ineyitable that a few members of the Modem 
Lan^fuage Association should experience delay in re- 
ceivmg the first number of the QtcaWer/^, for this was 
the fint occasion upon which the register had been 
put to a full test We are requested by the Hon. 
Secretary, Iffr W. G. Lipscombe, to state that any 
members who haye not yet reoeiyed a copy of No. 1 

will do so on application either to him at Uniyendty 
College School, uower Street, W.C, or to Uie Hon. 
Treasurer, Mr de V. Payen Payne, King's College 

School, Wimbledon Common, S.W. 

« « « 

Sbyebal enquiries haye been made as to terms of 
subscription to the Quarter2|f. It is hoped that all who 



dedre to subscribe will send their names to the Hon. 
Secretary as members of the Modem Language Associa- 
tion, the annual subscription of half -a-guinea to which 
will ensure the receipt of the Quarterly, post free. 
Those^ howeyer, who do not wish to support the 
Association, but still desire to subscribe to this journal, 
will receive it post free for a year on sending 8s. 6d. 
to the Hon. Treasurer. 

« « « 

Thb interest taken in this first attempt to supply 
an organ in this country for the publication of really 
scholarly work on Modem Languages and Literature 
has been yery great, and encourages the Editors to 
hope tiiat the Modam Language Quarterly will soon 
obtain an eyen wider circulation than that of the first 
nnmber, which is now practically out of print. 

« « « 

Thb Annual Meeting of the Association of Teachers 
of Modem Languages in the Secondary Schools of 
Scotland was held on Saturday, October 16th, in 
Olasgow. In spite of its rather lengthy and very 
oarenil title tms Society is practically doing for 
Scotland what the Modern Jianguage Association, with 
its possibly more catholic sympathies, is doing for 
England, wales, and Ireland. Educational questions 
north ^ of the Tweed are modified by a different 
organisation of primary, secondair, and uniyersity 
teaching^, but the ultimate desire of all is the same — 
the placing of Modem Language Teaching and Scholar- 
ship on a really sound basis. 

« • * 

Thb meeting in Qlasgow was well attended : Dr 
Scholle of Aberdeen was in the Chair, and Professor 
Patrick Qeddes (Uniyersity College, Dundee), Mr James 
Caldwell, M.P., Dr Ross (Church of Scotland Training 
College), Mr Alexander JQlasgow School Board), Dr. 
Sarolea, Herr Schlapp (Edinburgh University), Mens. 
Mercier (Glasgow University), and other representa- 
tive educationuts, took part in the proceedings. Papers 
were read b^ Professor Geddes on *' Modem Languages 
at the Edmburgh Summer Meeting," and by M. 
Mercier on "Holiday Courses in M<^em Languages 
on the Continent." A lively discussion was also held 
on the IVench Examination Papers for the Leaving 
Certificate, in which they were severely criticised, and 
with good reason. The proceedings closed with the 
election of officers for the ensuing year. 

« • « 

Still another Association, this time the Anglo- 
German, "for the promotion of friendly relations be- 
tween Germany and Great Britain." Its purpose is 
unexceptionable, but its method of attaining it less so. 
There are three factors underl^ong any unfriendly 
feeling that may exist on this side of the Channel. 
The first is ignorance of German thought, German 
literature, and the German people. This the Modem 
Luiguage Association is doing its best to remove, in 
the only way in which this is practicable, by influencing 
the education of this country. The second factor is the 
commercial rivalry between the two nations, which 
must increase in spite of the Anglo-German Association, 
while its evil effects can only be neutralised by the en- 
lighteningof our iniorance of the real Germany and her 
people. The thira factor is purely temporary, and is 
best dealt with by being left alone— for ill-timed 
telegrams, like unfriendly letters, go best unanswered. 
Where, then, does the Anglo-German Association come 
in ? Unless it thinks it can be of use in Germany, 

* • « 

Thb Modem Languages Courses at Marburg this 
summer were such a success that it is intended, in order 
to suit those who cannot spend a whole month in 
Germany, to organise three series of a fortnight each, 
— two for French and one for English, with German 
lectures during the whole period. Why cannot similar 
courses be organised in England in connection with the 
summer University Extension Meeting at Oxford ? 
Nothing can be done in London until the University is 
reoigamsed, unless the London Extension Society 
would take it up. 

An interesting attempt is being made to collect the 
fast disappearing patois of Normandy. Words, popular 
songs, ana legends are noted down phonetically. The 
first number of the Bulletin da ParUrt du CcUvadot 
appeared in June, and the subsequent issues will appear 
every two months. M. de Guer, 20 Rue du Costil St 
Julien, at Caen, is the Editor. 

« « « 

Normandy and Brittany were flooded with English 
and Americans this summer. The Holiday Course at 
Caen was most successful, and in the hotels round Saint 
Malo it was comparatively rare to hear any French. The 
*' Entente Cordiale " ougnt to be satisfied. 

It is proposed to make Saint-Marguerite, near Sain 
Mazaire, in South Brittany, a little winter centre for a 
studious E^lish colony wishing to improve their French. 
There is to ^ a French or competent English master and 
a "good disciplinarian," and nothing but French is to 
be spoken. Fiif e in the very comfortable hdtel would be 
cheap ; the climate is always temperate in this pine- 
covered bay of southern aspect, and the asphalt lawn- 
tennis court and golf-links offer exercise to those who 
do not care for cycling even on the perfect Breton roads. 
The chances for the success of the scheme are therefore 


• • ft 

Thb "Entente Cordiale" is an association for the 
development of more cordial relations between the 
United Kingdom and France. Its Vice-Presidents are 
Sir William MacCormac, Sir James Blyth, Sir Arthur 
Arnold, and Sir Henry Irving. Its object are mnefa 
the same as those of the Anglo-German AsBociatkm, 
and it is likely to do as 'much or as little good as itii 
neighbour, though it is certainly in less danger of doing 
positive harm. In both cases adherence to the objects 
m view qualifies for membership. 

• « « 

Thb following ante-dated epitaphs are a few remini- 
scences of merry evenings when Daudet, de Heredia, and 
other celebrities of the present day, whose names were 
not then the household words they are now, met, and 
chatted, and turned out epigrams d la RivarcU : — 

Sur ce tertre oh Tully-Prudhomme est remis^, 
On distingue un vase bris^. 

Ci-git Ferdinand Bruneti^re 

Avec son oeuvre tout enti^re. 

Pasteur, I'^tonnement de ce si^le oti nous sommes ; 
n prit la rage aux chiens pour la donner aux hommes. 

Ci-git Boissier, ce vieux raseur 
Plus connu comme confiseur. 

I^sseps 1 
n nous fait Suez avec son Panama ! 

Heredia que nul mot ne peutparodier 
1<^ le seul pr^t^rit du verbe H^r^er. 

• « « 

It is only fair to Professor Sonnenschein to remind 
our readers, who may have thought our review of 
Professor Spencer's book implied it was the first 
attempt at the Neuere Richiung in this country, that 
the Parallel Grammar Series of which Professor 
bonnenschein is the General Editor and intellectual 
father, adopted and applied the new method in this 
coimtry as long ago as 1889. The strict method was 
doubtless modified to suit our different conditions, bQt 
it was the same in all essentialB. 

Dr a. W. ScHtyDDBKOPF, lecturer in German in the 
Yorkshire College, Leeds, one of the constituent 
Collep^es of the Victoria Univenitj, has just been 
appomted Professor of the Teutomc Languages and 
literature in that College. 

« « « 

Mr Ernbst Wbbklet, M.A., lector in English in 
the University of Freiburg i. B., has been appointed 
lecturer in French at University College, Nottotgham. 



Mr Paobt Toynbie, who compiled the Index of 
Proper Names appended to the Oxford edition of the 
complete works of Danto, has completed the first part 
of his Dante Dictionary (comprising the Proper Names), 
which will be published shortly by the Clarendon Press. 
The second part will contain the Vocabulary of the 
Divina Cammed ia and Camoniere. Mr Toynbee pro- 
poses to deal in a subsequent volume with the 
vocabulary of the prose woiks (Latin as well as 

At last we are to have a Globo edition of the works 
of Chaucer. Messrs MacmiUan have been trving for a 
whole generation to get the *' father of Engluh poetry '* 
edited for their famous series, and now the new volume 
will appear in the next few weeks under the joint 
editorship of Messrs A. W. Pollard, H. Frank Heath, 
W. S. M'Cormick and Mark H. LiddelL The text is a 
new one based upon a critical investigation of the 
original authorities, and is supplied with notes and a 



With Professor Friedrich Althaus, who died in London 
on July 7. at the age of sixty-eight, one of the pioneers of 
University teaching of the German language and litera- 
ture in this country has passed away from among us, 
and great has been the niunber of those who in England 
and abroad have mourned the loss of a man of rare 
high-mindedness, unfailing kindness and wide culture. 
After having held several appointments in London, he 
filled the chair of German at University College for 
twenty- three years, and, as I know from more than one 
of his former pupils, his teaohiug was very highly 
apDreciated by them. 

Dr Friedrich Althaus was bom at Detmold on May 
14, 1829. Learning and culture were traditional in his 
family. His father was "Generalsuperintendent," i.«. 
the chief clergyman of the little residential town ; his 
mother's father was the well-known last Protestant 
bishop Draeseke. He studied philology and history at 
the Universities of Bonn, Leipzig, and Berlin. There 
did not vet exist in those years in (Germany a well- 
organised scientific study of *' Modem Languages," but 
he was able to attend a few courses on Old German. 
In 1851 he obtained the Berlin Ph.D. degree, the sub- 
ject of his dissertation beine "De historiae conscrip- 
tionis historia." While studying at Berlin he had the 
good fortune to see much of Alexander von Humboldt, 
and out of this interooursegrew the '* Brief wechsel una 
Gespriiche Alexander von Humboldts mit einem jungen 
Freunde," which Dr Althaus published anonymous! v. 
(2nd ed. Berlin, 1869). In Bonn, at one of Kinkel's 
lectures, he made the acquaintance of Carl Schurz, 
which soon developed into a life-long friendship. After 
having finished his studies he went to Italy, whore 
he travelled for a year and formed another most 
intimate friendship, that with the great historian 
Ferdinand Gregorovius. For nearly forty years they 
corresponded regularly, and after the death of his 
friend, Dr Althaus edited the interesting "Bomieche 
Tagebucher" (Stuttgart, 1892, 2nd ed. 1893) which 
Gregorovius had left to him in manuscript. 

In November 1853, Dr Althaus came over to England, 
being warmly recommended by A. v. Humboldt to the 
Prussian ambassador Bunsen. He first taught at various 
schools, especially at military institutions. From 1856 
to 1864 he arranged and catalogued for the late Prince 
Consort his vast collection of 60,000 prints of historical 
portraits at Buckingham Palace and handed it over to 
Her Majesty the Queen in 1864 at Windsor. After 
having completed this task, he turned again to teach- 
ing. He first was ProfoFsor at the Royal Military 
Academy, Woolwich ; in 1874 he was appointed Pro- 
fe«or of German at University College, wnich post he 
held until his death. He has a^so acted as Examiner 
in German in many important examinations—via. , those 
of the University of London (for three periods of five 
years), Victoria University, University of New Zeidand, 
Home and Indian Civil Service, the Foreign Office, 
Woolwich and Sandhurst examinations, etc. 

Apart from his teaching and examining work, Dr 
Althaus was most active as a writer. He did not, it is 
true, compose any handbooks of philology, histories of 
literature, or editions of German classics, nor anything 
in fact which was immediately connected with his 
teaching ; but having lived for many years in England, 
and being animated by feelings of loyal attachment to 
this country, he strove to contribute, as far as lay in 

his power, to a friendly understanding between the two 
nations. If he zealously promoted the btudy of the Ger- 
man language, literature and national spirit in England, 
he was no lees keen in introducing British authors and 
statesmen to his native land, and m helping his German 
countrymen to form a just appreciation of England and 
the English. He wrote a number of valuable eastja 
on political, social and literary matters in this country, 
for many leading German and Austrian periodicus 
and magazines. He contributed most of the articles 
on English subjects to three successive editions of 
Brock^us' Conversations Lexicon. He wrote the bio- 
graphies of C. J. Fox, Lord Nelson, Lord Rof sell, and 
Lord Beaconsfield in Brockhaus' " Neue Plutarch." He 
was the translator into German of the concluding 
volumes of Carlyle's " Frederick the Great " and of 
Forster's " Life of Dickens." Perhaps the best known 
of all bis publications are the two volumes of ** Englische 
Charakterbilder" (Berlin, 1869), which afford most 
interesting reading, and are written throughout in a 
hi^y appreciative spirit. 

During his early London life he saw a great deal of 
the more prominent political refugees, such as Schurz, 
Kinkel, Muzzini, and others. His acquaintance with 
Carlyle was more than superficial. It began with his 
translation of the concluding volumes of " FVederick the 
Great"; in later years Dr Althaus often visited him, and 
most probably induced him to write the famous article 
on the Franco-Gkrman war. His first article on the sage 
of Chelsea (in " Unsere Zeit'*) was found among Car- 
lyle's left papers, interleaved, containing a number of 
notes in Carlyle's own land, and the following criticism : 
' ' This is on the whole the best account ihat has yet 
appeared of me and my work." In later years Dr 
Althaus published (in '^Nord undSiid") his *'Erinne- 
rungen an Carlyle." 

His style was very lucid and expressive, and his 
peculiar grace of writing was noticeaole even in short 
letten and notes. 

Dr Althaus took a keen interest in the organisation 
and development of modem language studies in this 
country, although of late years the state of his health 
did not permit him to take an active part in new under- 
takings. On April 1, after he had barely recovered 
from a severe attack of influenza, he wrote to me aiy- 
ing that he wished the new "Quarterly " every success, 
and hoped to contribute to it if his health woula 
permit nim. Soon after that time, however, he became 
worse again, and was thus prevented from sending a 

A portrait of Dr Althaus appeared in the Ulnslraied 
London News of July 17, and Englidi as well as German 
papers had obituary notices, which were 1 11 couched in 
terms of highest eiriogy. 

Dr Althaus was a tail man of dignified appearance. 
Though his fine features were usmdly grave, a mo»t 
genial smile readily appeared on his face in animated 
conversation. His character was one of the very 
noblest, and absolutely free from all pettiness and 
narrowness of aims ana views. He thus realised in his 
own life Gk)ethe's beautiful but difficult teaching, always 
to strive, 

". . , im Ganzen, Guten, Schonen 
Besolut zu leben." 

. KarlBrbul. 




JUNE 15th to OCTOBER 15th 1897. 

JtetBrmcb Is made to the following Joarnals : Acad.CThe Academy), Archiw (Archly fiir daa StadiamderNoacren Sprachen 
and Lltterataren), Athen. (The Athenaeam), The Bookntartj Edue. (Education), Edue. Rev. (The [Engllah] Educational Review), 
Edme. Rev. Amer. CThe [American] Educational Reriew), Edue. Times (The Educational Times). The Qltugow Berald^The Guardian^ 
Joum, Edme. (The Journal of Education), L.g.r.P. (Lltteraturblatt flir germantoche und romanische PhlloloRie), Lit. Cbl. 
(Utterarischea Centralblatt), Le MaUre Phon^tique, Nenphii. Cbl. (Neuphllologischea (^cntralblatt), Neu. Spr. (Neuere Sprachen), 
Rev. Intern. Em. (Revue Intemttionale de I'Enseignement), The Schoolnuuter^ The Sa^iman^ The Speaker, Speet. (The Spectator), 
The Times^ Univ. Corr. (The Uniyervity Corroapondent), Z\fji.A. (Zeitachrift fiir deutachea Altertum), Z^.d.U. (Zeitachrlft fiir den 
deutachen Unterrlcht), 

Guide 1. and II. : Nos. 1 and 3 of the Modem Language Teaehert' Guide:, edited by Waltbs RiPPXAinr, copies of which 
(price 4dM hj post 4|d.) can be obtained on application to the Editor of the Qiiarlerfy. 


but** notes at 

Q. '97. 



AddlsoB. Belectloiu ftrom Ui« '* Spectator ** ; ed. 

H. Evans (if. L. Q. '97, No. 2). Blackie & Son. 244 
Joum. Educ.^ Auf(. '97, p. 493 (*'lntit)duction good; notes 
more than oyer superfluous "). 

Aytoui** B«rlAl Marcli of DandeOy and Islaad of 
the Scots I ed. W. K. Lbask (Af. L. Q. '97, No^ 
4). Blackie & Son. 
J<nim. Edue,, Aug. *97, p. 493 (*<the editing 
well-Informed, and to the point "). 
Bacon*B E^Afsi od. H. Evans (Af. L, 
G). Blackie & Son. 
Joum. Edue, Aug. '97, p. 493 (** really useful " ; 
foot of page**). 

Essays I ed. A. a Wkst (M. L. Q., '97, No. 7). 

Oambridge University Press. 247 

Atha^, 26 June *97 (** oyerfoaded with comments ") ; Aead.. 
SI Aug. *97 (fayourable, but condemns the large number of 
Superfluous notes). 

Mobcrt Buns, Select Poems; ed. A. G. Qkorob 

{M. L. Q., '97, No. 10). Isbister. 248 

Edue. Timet, June *97, p. 264 (fayourable). 

Carlyle. Sartor Besartns. Edited by J. A. S. 

Barbkit, M.A. a. & C. Black, 1897. Cr. 8vo. 

pp. 874 ; 58. 249 

Edme., 2 July *97 (** not suitable for junior students . . . notes 

at foot of psge *') ; Aead., 8 July '97 (" most copious notes "). 

Tbe Hero as llaB of Letters. Edited by Mark 

Hunter. M.A. Geo. Bell & Sons. 1897. Cr. 8vo. 
pp. lzzii+110; 2s., swd.. Is. 6d. 250 

Edue., 24 July *97 (fayourable); Univ. Corr. 11 Sept '97; 
Edue, Timee, Aug. *97, p. 328 (" notes yery interesting, intro- 
duction too long"). 

Ckildsmltk* The ¥lcar of Wakefleld | ed. M. Mao- 
MiLLAN {M, L, Q. '97. No. 18). Maomillan k Co. 251 
Joum. Edue., July '97, p. 441 0* for the use of adult students 
. . . a satisfactory piece of work**). 

Washlnston Irving. Tales of a TraTeller {M, L, Q, 

'97, No. 20). Longmans & Co. 252 

Athen., 18 Sept. *97 (commended). 

IiOBsfellow. The Coartship of Miles ^tandlsh. 

Edited by H. Evans, D.D. Blackio k Son. 1897. 

Fcap. 8vo, pp.' 78 ; Is. 253 

Maeavlay. Essay ob Nlltoa i ed. J. G. Crosswbll 

(if. L, Q. '97, No. 23). Longrmans k Co. 254 

Athen., 18 Sep>. '97 (commended). 

Lays of Ancient Koine. Edited by L. R F. 

Du PoNTET, B.A. Edw. Arnold. 1897. Pp. 172 ; 
Is. 6d. 255 

Edue. TimeM, Aug. '97, p. S38 (" yery senrlccable, appredatlye, 
and scholarly "X 

Malory. ]Le Morte d*Arthnr . (Selections from). 
Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and Glossary, by 
A. T. Martin, M:A. Macmillan & Co. 1897. 
Globe 8vo, pp. xxxyi+254 ; 2s. 256 

Joum. Edue., July *97, p. 441 (fayourable). 
Milton. Comns. Edited- by T. Page. Moffatt k 
Paige. 1897. Is 6d. 257 

Paradise Lost. Books IX. and X. ; ed. A. W. 

Vbrttt {Af. L. Q, '97, No. 26). Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press. 258 

Joum. Edue,, July, '97, p. 441 (speaking of the completed 
edition of Ptnnxdite Lott : ^ a work which will do much to pro- 
mole tho sound study of literature In sehooto **). 

Milton. Samson Agonlstes. Edited by E. K. Cham- 
bers. Blackie k Son. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 146; 
Is. 6d. 259 

Bookman, July *97, p. 106 (fayourable); Aead., 21 Aug. '97 

C^on the whole a yery respectable edition"); Edue., J8 Sept. 

'97 ('* a solid and well-writt«n little book"); Edue. Times, Aug. 

*97, p. 828 (" excellent "). 

Pope. Essay on Criticism | ed. J. Churton 
CoLLD<s(ir. L. Q, '97, No. 29). Macmillan & Co. 260 
. Joum. Edue., Jnly*97, p. 441 (** a worthy addition to a goo 1 
series "). 

Essay on Criticism | ed. H. Evans (A/. L, Q. 

•97, No. 30). Blackie k Son. 261 

Joum. Edue , Aug. *97, p. 498 (« really useful"). 

Shakespeare. Corlolanns. Edited by E. K. Cham- 
bers. Blackie k Son. 1897. Fcap. 8to, pp. 230 ; 
Is. 6d. 262 

Corlolanns. Edited by R. F. Cholmelst, M.A. 

Gdw. Arnold. 1897. 12aio, pp. 172; Is. 6d. 263 
Aead, 8 July '97 ("a useful piece of work"); Athen., 34 

July *97 (very fayourable) ; Edue. Times, Aug. '97, p. 828 

(y. fay.). 

Cymbellnei ed. A. J. Wtatt {M. L. Q. '97, 

No. 35). Blackie k Son. 264 

Joum. Edue., July '97, p. 44t (fayourable). 

Hamlet. With Notes. By Rev. F. Marshall, 

M.A. Geo. Gill k Sons. 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. 192 ; 
Is. 265 

Edue , 9 Oct. '97 (" a ill fulfil Its purpose well ''). 

Hamlet i ed. Stanley Wood (3/. L. Q. '97, No. 

36). Manchester, Heywood. 266 

Joum. Edue., Aug. *97, p. 498 (" snggestiye and helpful "). 

King Henry I¥. Part I. Edited by Aldis 

WrioUT, M.A. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1897. 
Estra fcap. 8vo ; 2s. [JVearlff readif.] 267 

Mln^ Joim. Edited by F. P. Barnard. Edw. 

Arnold. 1897. 12mo, pp. 152 ; Is. 6d. 268 

Aead., 3 July '97 (*' notes exceedingly good »nd Interesting"); 
Athen., 24 July '97 (Very fayourable); Edue. Times, Aug. *97, p. 
828 (y. fay.). 

Kins Lear. Edited by Miss Shbavtn. A. k 

C. Black. 1897. Sm. cr. 8yo ; Is. net. 

The Nerehant of Venice. Edited by H. L. 

WiTHBRS, B. A. Blackie k Son. [Inprejxtraiwn,] 2|0 

A Nldsnmmer Nlslit*s Dream | ed. E. K. 

Chambers (Guide II. 31 ; M. L. Q. '97, No. 88). 
Blackie k Son. 271 

Joum. Edue., July '97, p. 441 (fayourable) ; Athen., 18 Sept 
*97 (yery fayourable). 

A Mldsnmnier Nlslit*8 Dream. Edited by L. W. 

Ltdb, M.A. A. &C. Black. 1897. .Cr. 8vo, pp. 

146 ; Is. net. 272 

Edue , 21 Aug. *U7 (yery fayourable); Athen., 18 S^t '97 

A Nldsnmmer Nlglit*8 Dream. Edited by 

T. Paob. Moffatt k Paige. 1897. 28. 273 

Edue. Times, Aug. '97, p. 328 (" cxceptlonnlly good**). 

Klehard II. j ed. C. H. Gibson {M. L, Q. '97, 

No. 39). Edw« Arnold. 274 

Joum, Edue., July '97, p. 440 (fayourable). 

' QaeitloBS cm Hie Tempest. By T. D. BABmnr. 

Relfe Bro. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 52 ;• 8d^ • 276 



_ . . Tbr TcmpMl I od. F. ». Boab {M. L. 
No. 42), BlMkio t Son. 276 

Jaiy '«T (-crltiol appncliUiiD oC the c 
iniM . . . naiM vid glcuHiT roT) goed ") 

SiMle. Selsr 


:.. July '0 

'M, p. »fl3 (rerj- (sroiinible). 

>in me "TaUcr") od. L. B. 

, '97, No. 48). "" " 

p. 441 {"good n 

rocmi In TWO VsIbiun. 

Reprinted trom the Orieinai E-lition of 3S07, 
Edited, with a Note on the WordiiworthikD Soniiet, 
byTL. HutcBWSOW, M.A. Nutt, 18fl7. Tworels,, 
pp.i»ii-f'32Sanil Tui-(-233: 7b 6d. 27S 

Wordawortk, SelMtlaBii rrom. Edited by W. T. 
Wbbb. Maemillttn & Co. 1S97. Cr. 8t<j, iip. 287 : 
2a. 8d. 280 

Edward Ike Third. Edited, nitb Preroce, Na'tea, 
aiid Glosaory, by G. C. Hoore Suith. M.A. Dent 
& Co. 1897. I6mD, pp. iiil-)-I27i el. I& not, 
roan I«. fid. net. 281 

8b, Sd. 

■eadlDB* ■■ EhbIIiiIi INtelry l Collection of Speci- 
mens (rem 1558-1800. Clmnibers. 1897. Cr. 8»o, 
pp. 220 : reduced to la. 6d. 281 

Slucteenth CcBlorr Poelrr. By A. C, M'Donnell, 
M,A. A. ft C. Blaek. 18B7, Cr. Sro. pp. 128; 
U, net. 285 

A Trcunrr of ninnr Brldik raelrr | ed. J, 
CucRTOK CoLuwa (J/. L. y. '97, Nu. M). Edw. 
Arnold. 28a 

AUini.. 10 Jnlf '31 (DD( purtlcalirlt FlvDnnble). 

The TcHiple Bnuler. Edited by E. K Sfriobt, B.A. 
With an Introductjon by Edward Dowdkh, LL.D. 
HciseaHaiduU. 18S7. Cr. 8to, pp.230; li. Sd. 287 

Freni r^haknltpare to nryitca. Being Vol It. of 

A School Hiatory of English Litenlutv. By 
Elizabeth Lbe. BUckie&SoQ. I/»nrnunii>*iiN.12S6 
For Vnl, 1. BM dviJl 1. 43 ud M. L. Q. ■«, No. K. 
Enr. Nearlenl. S«kI crlllel dl leltenumra 
inslruFi ran preOulane dl ei«ia# Cardxwl. 
Firenie. Le Monoier. 18B7. ISnio, pp. »-H4fi6 ; I 

41. sn I 

The A|i« or TflBBrMB (I89a-181»t. By Prof. H. ( 

Walkkh. Geo. Boll tt Bona. 18B7. 8m. or. 8to, 

pp. x-l-303; 3a. Od. S»8 

" Thli lideddedlT ibo b«t htDdbwk npon TIcloriu UlemtDn 

ret pubtlilied. It ia pecnllulf dlfflctiK to writs DiefDUy foi 

middle qnirtera o[ ibe preioot cnunir. Tb.t booka blibcrto 

put tOfCtllBr from i nomlKr of ninre Dr leit brUHint bat Blwiym 
dlajDlnled ertH^ins and "■pprodgt)[nu"ol thelBTgannoniben 
or KTlter* Itau the ■)» a[ the boek mnld tUow. TUi b aot 
litoruT bUlerr, Ndlber \t ■ eollecUon o( tnleraatlii( but oB' 
enllghtaDing uiBcdoieB of the penoiHd siperteDCHudihoDgbli 
or aitban. Thli It the flnt book wbleb inakei (or Mrlona 
■Uempt (0 Inee the K">wlb or raodorn clMnght le Iir u It 
Bndi eipmiloB In our llteniDn, ud M the Bmo time laku 
aeme jueouit. thoneli cnl j In part^ of the def elopmeol of lenn. 
ProIuiDt Walker rtmarka. wttb tratb,lb>t"al leaal aa renida 
ttie DTdar In which proaa and faeirj claim netlce, and peihaT* 
partly ■• ngardi Iheir relallTs promlnann." the Vlcteclwi ace 
!• eiceptlonal when cotupBrnl with moit literary pnhida. Bal 
the oeed fcr logloal order, eren " relaUm prombHDce," doei net 
linplr the game rolallve imponancs In the hlitoty of mencun. 
Thli Proteaior Welhef rnlly tocoimlBei, yf "■ ■" — ■ 

nsRC">; Bocttmm, AuM.'VI, p. tSS (lery fatunr. hai the moio ' 
:i(i, injaly's;; AhnJiaailir, 90 Aug, 'K l"lbe hU work thai 

... .. » wMIkic under the InflDeoeeol 
ncenl ttaeorlei and Ideaa eomga by a larger ahare ef anentlen 
than It wDUld were tbo author Urlng at the cloae or the neii 

crlUclam ti cadilltluDed by hit aiilfni. Ihe moat remarkable 
pluee of literary iDTCitlgatlon jmbllthed In recent yean In Ihll 
cDimtiy. the "Epic and Be&>Bce"of ProfeaHr Ker. anlfenla 
a alinilar way from the uarnatLon oT the InteDeetnal tppetl tA 
the comparative uxelotlria of the emotional and tcnmons. 

It would be dlfflcnlt to hnpnm npoo the cendM awt jllnmlnal- 
lng account iItcd bf Pnrfeator Walker ut the work of Carlyle, 
RntklD, Herbert Spencer, and ihe phlliwuphen generally, 
Tbackeny It treated with great Intlf^ii and eynpethf , tHckena 
with lEM ; Browning b HDely jndnd. and the eithoale of 
TennytoB It ateady and wbote. Particularly hiterullDg are the 

learn more about liUblank-rane than thai It It graeefBl, ameotb, 
Deilble, rarled In pauia, and iknral In Ibe ote oT ullluntlon. 

Uoworer, peitapa 11 

and GompletelT taUi 

able); 1 

Abb- 'IT (very la.onmhl'c) ; Pall UaU Mag.. SepU "BT (Ital pp.). " 

KeNdlBE* » Engllak Proae t CoUcctinn of Speci- 
mens from 1S58-1880, Chambers. 1897. Cr. 8yo, 
pp, 220 ; reduced to la. 6d, 288 

NlaelMnlh CenlBry rrsae. By J, H. FnwLEB, M.A, 
A. fcCBlnck. 1887. Cr.8T0,pp, 136:1s, not. 289 

A PnbUe Sehool BcctMr. Sy Bertiia Skeat, Ph.D. 
Longmans a Co. 1897. \U prtpa<Txtioti.\ 200 


A NMBual or Enclleh Uleralarpi by ThoUas 

lo period. The 

I (J/. L. Q. '97, No, £ 

*■ ■■ ■ ■' ', a. m. No, 70). 

AO}f%.,lii July 'P7 (" MrU. dependt far too mnch on prefleui 
oiclei for hit f udgmrnlt ") - Bdtic. Rn., July '97 : Eiue, Timei, 
July •07, p. ns (V. raiounhle) ; Timet. U June 'M, 
WUllani Bhalirtpesrc I a i'rldeal Hlndy. By D. 

Georq Bbakdss ; traoalatod by Wiluau AHcaxa. 
Hoinemann. 1897 2 vola. liemy 8to ; 24a, 300 

A. HaadlHMili al Easllah LIM'tvlBrrt by At'sriN 

DOBSO.-i and W. HaLl Gbiffin (if, L. Q. '97, No. 

62). Croiby Lockwood k Sua. 292 

/mm. JUuc., Ang. '9T. p. 477 ("a ler; acceptable haad- 

K. WUker. Gesehiuhte der englisohen Litteratur 
IM. L. Q. '97, No. 03), Loiprig, Bibliograpbiaehea 
Inetitnt. 2»S 

•uUIbu of Entllah UtrrBlBre for Iobbk 

ftrbolara. With nioatratiTe fipeoiniens. By J. 

Louie Bobebtbon, U.A. W. Blackwuod ft ^ns. 

1897. C-r, Sto, pp, 186 ; 1», 8d. 294 

A DIctloBaiT nr En^lah AXhara, By K. F. SsAitr. 

Geo. Ro.iway, 1897. Cr. Svo, pp. abt. 400; 

7s. 6d, net. 29S 

Shall ap«rei HclbatbekeBnlalaac. Hanlel aad 

■fIb llrblld. Von HsnuANN ContAS. Stuttgart, 

Melsler. 1897. Paper, 4ai.60, ol,, Bm.35. 303 

An unfarourabig review by Dny. In IM. Cbl., II Aug. 

Clnaeppe Cblarbd, Stadl Sbakcaperlaal. UTomo, 

Giuati. 1896. 8to, pp. iT-l-47S : .'.!. SOS 

Parourtbly noticed by Hjvrfg Proeid\iiUI In III. CM., II 

A Flral Boob In WrIllnR EDicllnh. By G. B. 

Lswia. Ph.D. MacraUlao k Co. 1897. Cr. 8to, 
pp. 305 i 3l Od. net 305 


TMCklBS tke t«>K<uit« ArUi ipeeob, readiox and 
comporitioo. By B. A. Hihsd^lb. PI1.D.. LL,D. 
Nbvf York, D, Appleton & Co, ISBB. Pp. 205 : 

Dt Enalliti tbrDogliDut Ihe caaattj t/h 
vlier for ■ careful ataHy at tMi work "y 
IWm CB WrIUiv BBCUak. B 

ton, □ougbton, Miffln k Co. 

1 dol. 

BlTlawed l>r C. S. Baldtcin In Eduf. 

p. i;» ('■■-' ' ■— — - 

mot 11 

ml til 

„ ikCnunnar. By A, A. Brockrtoton, 
Ralfe Bra. 1867- Cr. Sro, pp. Ill ; In. SOS 

Eim. ICn., Sept. 'K, p. 131 (" »n loeipenilTo bmlt, artaoged 

ID pUftU 

__,,,. ; Is. 

Afiu. Timei, July '»7, p. S»7 (" one mi 

ol ' Dcv iDd erlKlni'l Sogl'')' Onmniir ' . 

BlBfltkroMB In dM Htadlau drr RbkI'mIicii 
milolOBlc, nil RHcluleht mut die Anfor- 
dCTwascn d«r Praili, Voa Dr Wileiklm 
VlEIOR, Mit oineca Anhaog : dna Enalische als 
Fnoh dra PrauooatudiumB. Ziroits uniEBiirbeitoto 
Anflaga. Murburg, Elwert. 1897. Largu 8vd, 
pp. 1+ 102. 310 

GcnnaDiitDdylngED^Uib. It li iugg»lLTg,pJcii«nUy vrlllsn. 
ud tree fnun inddlng. Engllsb itDdauu nil] dDrlTs mDCh 
boQbBt froia b pcnunL 



L. Blftrl. Quand ytUkU pclll. Piin IL Edited, 

witb Notes and Vocabulary, by J. BoIelle. B.A. 

(Uai>. Gttll.) CsmbridKe OniTeraity Prsfa. 1897. 

Eitnifcap. Svo^pp. 16fl; 2». 811 

Tart. pp. 1-80 ; Notes, pp. 81-110; Voeabulttry, pp. 

For Part I. BOD Ouidt 11. 6B ; jtf, L. Q. "87, No. 85. 
SiBdel, Aehllle el PatnKlc ; ed. E. B. Lk PXAHgnis, 
IM. L. Q. '87. No, 87). Blackia A 8cm. 313 

Alh^^ S4 ia\! '97 (■• II !• g brlRhl lltUs .Kry. aoS In llil. 
ToTf ckup tuuo ihould be popular"). 

romellle <■« CId en enller t Bonro, ('Inna, 
Polrenetf. Le Menlcnr, KotloKanr, Iratnun 


M. JuLiKN BoiTHL. PariB, A, Colin, 1897. 12nio, 
pp. 33< ; 2fr. 313 

Florlan Fable*. Book I. Edited viith lntn>ductioti, 
Notes and Vocabulary, by Prof. H. Attwbi-L. 
K.O.C. Hncbette 4 Co. 1897, Cr. 8to, j.p. 



Hnchetto li Co. 

80; M. 

LatI, SpImIIou. Ed. A. 0. CaKSbON (.IT. L. Q. '97, 
No. 91), New York. Henry Holt k Co. 


Hlchaad. HUloIre de la Prtmttre crolnade. 

Kdited by A. V, Hoiigbton. MacmiUan. 1897. 

12iiii>, pp iTi-f-189 ; 2a. ed. 820 

'■Anauy andlntmcnloBbookot IMpajeiol leiL TboO|[h 
Mlchaad li not mig of Itae best Kriten, tbo ule «IU ii^ral 10 
tNTB. Tlia aattt uv to Uw point, tlisiigli lomstbnBi rodiiD. 
dABI, WhTuyltutln'leiuDt, (diHinatiBaka Ualnon'C 
l.M).ortlut'iirlbn,paDtbhrFindpiKtn."i " 


ttw prindpil noDiii iD -lin thu ui 


'■1 new f eatom about tUt 

av Tbe hudeal worda In 

acb PUS in Mt dawn ]a EBEllib 

Ijl Ihta will bo ol material 

u^tiDce CO boya wben getilng an t 

Hdlwork. TheumetbliiE 

baa bean dona for tbg chltf Pbraaaa ud IdlOD). Secondlf. 

'ScDtraeaa ou Srntai and Idloma 

for tit toa nractlu' b 

flCtom ehapttni it abonl tweotir lOiteacM, and abaDl tweutir 
■ Puiais tor tnmilaUan IBW French.' bar* bmii added. Tb«« 

ve nloable additional ikey would 

encewHiudalotho page or pagn 

0( the IBit Tbia lUglit 

altentloD would be welnnosd In a le 

cond edition. TbeprcaenCB 

el the ■ Cbapteron Word-FonnallOD * 


- IM FcBwaea HaTaalek Edited, witb no 

Introdnotion and Note*, by A. Fortub, D.Lit 

labister. 1807. Cr. 8to, pp. 143 ; In. 8d. 821 

Tbc Fairr Tale* «r Maetcr Frnanll. Edit«d, with 

1 and a Vocabulaiy, by Walteh Rippmahii. 

Ity Pros- "" 

Carabndge UniTermty Proas. 1897, Ertm fcap. 
Sro, pp. viii-t-139; . [Rmdy Shorlly.l 823 

Inr, AlbaUe. TrsDaUted into English virse b; 

'. THOMPSCffl, 

8to, pp. 204 i 3a. ft 

w«ic moiieT oo iu'l. inmalatlon ■■) ; Bdne. Tfma, Aug. 
3I> (" well and amiably meut"). 

1 iplilt of the lordy tnaedr. 1 
BS Id partleularlj bappj."— ( V. S.) 
~ " ir». Edite" ■ 

pp. 88 ; 6d. n 

' and abuple short falrT atery 

Vollaire (L'HIaloIre de I'harin Xll.i Le SUcle de 
IdBla XIV.i Zaire, MiTapr), rraRnento rcll«a 
mr dr* analync*. Choli de leilrel arec de> 
Batlcei el del note*. Par H, F£|JX R&ISOK. 
Paria, A. Colin. 1897. 12nio. pp, 340 ; 2tr. 325 
I Hlatery at Fruirli Ltleraiure. By Edward 


Edited with Ii 
Vooabulary. by A. P, Hoo 

18S7. Cr, 8vo, pp. 41 j 8d. aio 

- Book 111. Edited with Introductory RcmarkH, 
Explanatory Notes and Vocabulani, hy E. B, Lk 
F_lti»5^tiia. Hacbetto ft Co. 1897. Cr. 8yo, pp. 

UowDBH. D.C.L.LL.D. 

ieas'^l J«™''oo?;.'*j{''lllai 
!h Ulerattire In the llngtlah 

ra DO claim to profc 
on, It li TSry pl>>aw 

:" Iha iieneral atgila la easy and 

ngth lies lu deicrlplloD. . . . 

idlty or orlKlDalllj. bot, partly 

tllgbt reading"); Edia-Jbu., 

I, ™ i> lorj •vpriKiKirt. but not Tory crlUaU, rmisw 

lurpafBlngtylntarealing lef turca ^')- 

■lalolre tf e« relattana illMmlrea ealre la Fraaeeel 

rAllemiiBBe. PbtVirqilk Rosseu. f^irii, Fiscfa- 

bachar. IS97, Largo Hto, pp. liii + S3S ; . 328 

Ad DnlaroomUe review b» — lU-a, la UI. Cbl. , M July '97. 

O. SeABlta-Cara. llnlcKaBeal luuralrede Je«» 

Jaeqaca Kauaean, Nutt. 1867. Svo, pp. 43. 32S 

" 'T'le bitrod union eipuina ibia mu«c1e of alghtaea pagei to be 

luloe work ol Jean-Jacques led nnnoUced tn the Boyal 

— ' 1— 'In nniU IMK. There li In Ihlj Teabunoul of Joan- 

pauage upon bli aUigularlTy o( dlipo.ltlon and a 

iiria4DeolhlaCDairiii,SKia;, Ur Scbulla-Qora,"— <l 

L'Alde-dc.ranip Marbal, Seleellaaa 
MCnialre*. By GlutiviLLi SbakI', 
mans jc Co. 1897, Cr. 8(0, p[ 

loalaU. Edited with Introduoljon, Notes 

and Vocabubu-y, by J. F. Davib, D.Lit,, M.A, 
Haubetto&Co, 1397, Crown 8vo, pp. IDS; 2b, 319 

lie nw of bi'Blnnf n, and ti 

itLire'lOuWf 1. lD,1i U s 

Tcacbeti ate iironglj re 



Chrettomatkle Fran^alset moreeaux ekolsfts de 

prwie et de po6ile, aTee prononctalloa flsvr^ 

A rnsase den ^Inmsen. Par Jban Passt et 

Adolphb Rambkau. Paris, H. le Soudier; New 

York, Henry Holt. 1897. 8vo, pp. xxxv+258; 

5fr. 881 

Joum. Edue., Sept. '97, p. 539 C*witb aids of this Idnd the 

teacher need do longer leave his pnpil to (rope about in blind 

imitation : he can tell him exactly the action of the vocal 

iH-gans by which every sound is produced. And the pni'll, too, 

with such a book in hi$ hands, can recall the maitet's teaching 

in his absence, and con over, repeatedly ard at leisure, the 

pronunciations which he has heard ") ; Rev. Jnte'n. Ens., Sept. 

'97, p. 28d(** notu ne poucons qv'apirouv^ tt rtcommander ce 

petit livre^ persueuU gu'il rendra des terviee* ajpreciableg aux 

Mudiants anglo-am^rieaim*' ; F. Lot); Mnitre l*honitique/xi\. 

180 {vttj favouiable review by J. W. Bearder). 

Wreneh Poetical Keader aad Keciter. Edited by 

£. B. Lb Francois. Hachette & Co. 1897. Cr. 

8to, pp. 72 ; Is. 832 

A CowLpltte €k>nrse of Frencli CemposltloB aad 

Idioms. By Hector Rbt, B.-^-L. Blaokie & 

Son. 1897. Cr. 8yo, pp. 214 ; ds. 6d. 883 

Graduated Coarse of Traaslatioa lato Freaeh 

Prose. By Victob Spibrs. Simpkin, Marshall. 

1897. 8vo, pp. 88 ; 28. 6d. 334 

Joum. Edue.^ Aug. '97, p. 477 (very favourable): JSeotswan, 

14 July '97 ("practical and carefully complied"); Ola$gow 

Herald, S3 July '97 ("carefully graduated"); Educ. Time*, 

Aug. '97, p. 8S7 ; Vniv. Corr., 11 Sept. '97 ; Speet., 11 Sept. 

'97 ; Guardian^ 15 Sept. '97. 

Key to the Gradaated Coarse of Traaslatlon Into 
Frencli Prose. By Victor Spibrs, M. A. Simpkin, 
Marshall. 1897. Pp. 63 ; 48. 2d. net, on applica- 
tion to the author direct, under severe restric- 
tions. 835 

ABC Handbook of French Correspondence. Com- 
piled by W. E. M. Granvillb. Geo. Bell k Sons. 
1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. viii + 216 ; 2s. 6d. 886 

Sectsman, 24 Sept. '97 

Cilll*s French Commercial Correspondence. By 

L. SOLBIL. Gill. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. 80 ; Is. 337 
" A very useful little collection of French (Jommerclal Corre- 
spondence, wicti the vocabulary at t* e end of each of tlie M 
letter*, ami a French proverb with the Kngli«h equivalent. In 
the 'inetiic weights and measures, with their equivalents,* wo 
notice that the plots are divided into gills Instead of ounces, snd 
one or two otber slight errors, easily corrected in a subsequent 
edition"— <^.^.). 


Anleltnng ram Stadlam der franidslschen 
Philolofcle, fllr Stndierende, Lehrer and 
Lehrerlnnen. Von Dr £. KoscuwiTZ. Marburg, 
Elwert. 1897. 8vo, pp. viii+148 ; swd. 2m. 60, cl., 
3m. 338 

A favourable review In Lit. ChU, 81 July '97. 

C. Frlesland. We^welser, Ac. {M. L, Q. '97, No. 

150). 839 

NeuphU.Chl., March '97. p. 85 (" wird gute Dienste lelaten" 
KoMten); LU. Cbh, 2i May '97 ('*ein tranriges Machwerlc"). 
The 8tndy of French according to the Newest and 

Best Systems. By A. F. Euqbnb and H. E. 

DuRiAUX (J/.Z.Q.'97.No.l29). Macmillan & Co. 340 
Edue. Time*, Aug. '97, p. S27 (*' on the main points we are at 
one with the authors"). 
llevler*s French Grammar (M. L. Q. '97, No. 141). 

New York, Holt & Co. 341 

A notice by M. M. Ram»ey in Edue. Rev. {Amer.), April '97, p. 
893 ('*a careful and scholarly tpitome, thorough, yet con- 
Cieors Stler. Franxtfslsche Syntax. Mlt Berllck- 

slchtlffang der lllteren Sprachc. Wolfen- 

buttel, Zwissler. 1897. 8vo, pp. viii + 475 ; 6 m. 842 
Arehiv xcvili., 461 (**Das Bnch wiid manchtn gute DienKte 
thnn, ntcbt als Schnlbuch, woran der Yerfasser auch riiht 
gedacht hat, aber als Nachschlasebuch. wo man flndet, was Uber 
manche wlchtlge und manche minder wichtige Pnnkte dlo 
bl&herigen Lebren der FachmSnm r aind, und wo man Beisplele 
in Menge fUr alle 'Regeln' und 'Ausnahmen' holen kann" 
Adolf TobUr). 
French Yerbs Slmplllled and Made Easy. By 

F. JuLiBN. Sampson, Low, Marston & Co. 1897. 

Pp. 52 ; Is. net. 343 

French wlthont Tears. Book III. By Mrs Hugh 

Bell. Edw. Arnold. 1897. Roy. 8vo, pp. 128; 

Is. 3d. 344 

Edue. Tima, Aug. '97, p. 827 C' not written In good French"). 

Object Lessons In French i by A. Cran (Af. L. Q. 

'97, No. 138). T. Nelson k Sons. 345 

Jaurn, Edme., Jnne '97, p. S64 (fairly fsroiirslkle). 

A Primer of French Etjaiolacj* By B. Dalt 

Cocking. Innes & Co. 1897. Roy. 18mo, 
pp. vi + 101 : 3s. 6d 846 

" when we noticed the list of works consulted— via. , Braehet'a 
Orammaire hittorique, Littr^s Bittoire de la langue /rattfoite, 
and Cl^dat's Orammaire de la vieille lamgue frmnfaise^ we did 
not expect a great effort— bat every page shows us how csrf»- 
fully Mr Cocking haa brought to life again the mistakes ef 
twenty years ago. The author only admits flv« Bomaree 
languages, while even Dies admits alx. The old ideaa crop ap 
on every page, and roiseonctptiona are every a here. It is a book 
which nuuies our German eonfrtrtt despise our acholarahip, and 
rightly so. Altogether we doutkt if the book is worth the psper 
it is printed on. Lt-t the teacher take Darmesteter's amr% dt 
grammaire (M. L. Q. '97, No. 124) and Schvsn-Behrras, and 
teach from them, if he need etymology, and avoid this Primer ** 
{A- T. B.) ; Athen., SI Aug. *97 (*' Ezaminatlona have much to 
anawer for when they produce a book like this"); Educ,, 18 
Sept. *Vl ('* the compilation of such an unsdratiflc and weari- 
some vocabulary necessitates strong denunciation*'). 

French Iicssons for Middle Forms | by £. Fasnacht 
(M, L, Q. '97, No. ISO). Macmillan k Co. 847 
Athen., 26 June '97 C* well-arranged and acenrale,bnt orer- 
elabtrate "). 

Drill In the Essentials of French Accidence and 
Elemenlary Syntax. iJy Prof. V. Spikbs. 
Simpkin, Marshall. 1897. Fcap. 8to, pp. 157: 
Is. 6d. 848 

aiMffov Herald, 12 Aug. '97 (" an excellent little book of ita 
kind "); Scoteman, 12 Aug. '97; Guardian, 16 Sept. '97 (favoui- 

Vn Pen de Tonts being a complete school or 
ptrivate preparation of French for the examina- 
tions of the London University Matriculation, 
the Oxford and Cambridge Locals, the College of 
Preceptors, &c. By F. Julien. Sampson, Low, 
Marston & Co. 1897. Crown bvo, pp. 282 ; 28. 6d. 
net. 349 

French Practical Coarse. By J. Maonknat. Mac- 
millan & Co. 1897. Cr. 8vo, pp. xi+286: 5e. 350 
"This is one of the books of which we have so many: gram- 
mar and exercises in the shape of drill sentences. One agree- 
able feature is that the greater part of the vocabulary is derived 
from Colomba, but as no reference b made to the chapters, the 
work of H^rimde will be of no great help to the studtnt of 
M. Magnenat's method. The grammar proceeds in no visible 
order; this need not be a fsult; but it is puzzling to see on p. 
2*2, Mil. Pronom.— Premiere ela>»e,* and to have to wait till p. 
65 to And * ill. Pronom. — Deuxikme elaue,' with intervening 
subUvihions and figurea of l>cwlldering multiplicity. It is a 
pleasare to see discarded the terms pronom eonjonctif awi di$- 
jatieti/, which were never French, auU never had any sense in 
£ngllsh : * toniqoe ' and * atonlque ' (though * atone * Is better still) 
are, of course, preferable for schools to the terms * proclltiquo ' 
and ' non-proclitique * used in Clddat's grammar" — (V. 8.). 

A €k>mprehenslTe French Mannal. By Orro C. 
Nap, M.A. Blackie & Son. U97. Cr. 8vo, pp., 
292 ; 38. 6d. ;j51 

Kollt t a means of learning French. By J. J. Ttlor. 

CasseU & Co. 1897. 3s. 852 

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Athen., 31 Aug. '97 ('*an excellent little compendium")! 
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B»Herford. BlneBtndlenrelsenaehParii. Thorn, 

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* Agaton/ Cbaucer's. J. W. Hales . 5 
Aipgitir Crabuid. See Elements of 

Devotion 29 

Ausias March, the Valencian Poet. 

Edward Hailstone .... 66 
Chaucer and Blind Harry. W. W. 

Skeat 49 

Chaucer's * Agaton.' J. W. Halea . 5 
Contested Heading in the Codex 

Argenteus, A. T. Le M. Douse . 55 
Convito, iv., 29. See Manfredi da 

Vico, Ser 60 

Dante Books, Some Italian. Paget 

Toynbee 1 

Dante's Reference to the Spear of 

Peleus. Paget Toynbee . 58 

Doomsday, The Fifteen Signs of. 

A. T. Baker 63 

Elements of Devotion, An Old Irish 

Treatise on the. T. W. Williams . 29 
Fifteen Signs of Doomsday, The. 

A. T. Baker 63 

Gawayne and the Oreen Knight, Sir, 

The Revised Text of. T. G. F. . 53 
Crowayne and the Green Knight, Sir. 

See Old and Middle English Notes . 51 
German in the Army Entrance 

Examinations. Otto Siepmann . 8 
German Reading Books. Charles 

Merk 78 

Goethe Portraits, Some. Georg 

Fiedler 76 

Inferno, xxxi., 4-6. See Dante's Re- 
ference to the Spear of Peleus 58 
Introduction, By Way of . . . 1 
Ireland. See Study of German . 32 
Last Century Oxford and Cambridge. 

V. G. Plarr 20 

Manfredi da Vico, Ser. E. Armstrong 60 
March, Ausias. Edward Hailstone . 66 
Middle English Notes. T. G. F. . 31 
Modems verstis Ancients. Paul Bar- 
bier 64 

N.E * pillow.' See Old and Middle 

English Notes .... 51 
O.E. 'secelma.' See Old and Middle 
English Notes . . . .51 


O.E. *egur.' See Old and Middle 

English Notes . .51 

Old Irish Treatise, An. See Elements 

of Devotion 29 

Old and Middle English Notes. A. S. 

Napier 51 

Oxford and Cambridge, Last Century. 

V. G. Plarr . . . . .20 
Phonological Anomalies, Some. Henry 

Bradley 27 

Reference Library of a School Teacher 

of German, The. Karl Breul . 81 
Scottish Universities. See Teaching 

of Modern Languages . .23 

Spear of Peleus, Dante's Reference to 

the. Paget Toynbee ... 58 
Studium des Deutschen in der Uni- 

versitat Wales, Uber das. W. Bors- 

dorf 25 

Study of German in Ireland, The. 

A. J.W. Cerf .... 32 
Suggestions for a Scheme for the 

Teaching of French in Secondary 

Schools. Victor Spiers and de V. 

Payen-Payne .... 73 

Teaching of Modern Languages in 

the Scottish Universities, On the. 

F. F. Roget 23 

Tongue Positions of Vowel-Sounds. 

IL W. Atkinson . . .13 

University of Wales. See Studium 
des Deutschen .... 25 

Reviews (Authors). 

Gollancz, I. Sir Gawayne and the Oreen 
Knight. T. G. F. See Articles . 53 

Loti, P. Ramuntcho ... 34 

Siepmann, O. A Public School 
German Primer. E. L. M. B. 87 

Spencer, F. Chapters on the Aims 
and Practice of Teaching. S. 33 

Reviews (Titles). 

Chapters on the Aims and Practice of 
Teaching. By F. Spencer. S. . 33 




Dante Books. Paget Toynbee. See 
Articles 1 

Gawayne and the Green Knight, Sir. By 
L Gollancz. See Articles . . 53 

Public School German Primer, A. 
By 0. Siepmann. E. L. M. B. 87 

Ramuntcho. By Pierre Loti 34 


Einleitung zum Stadium der franzo- 
sischen Philologie, by Professor 
Koschwitz. P. Shaw JeflFrey . 38 

English Dialect Dictionary : A Query. 
Ed. E. D. D. . . . . 38 

Radical Fault in the Method of 
Teaching, A. E. Reich 38 

Notes and News. 

Alliance Francaise . 
Althous, Friedrich. (Obituary.) 
Anglo-German Association 
Association of Teachers of Modern 

Languages .... 
Bibliographical List . 
Bonner Beitrage zur Anglistik . 
Breul, Dr. Karl 
Buchheim, Prof. C. A. 
Bulletin des Parlours du Calvados 
Chaucer, The * Globe ' 
Correspondence in French and German 
Cours de Vacances, Paris . 
Dante Dictionary, by Paget Toynbee 
English Honour School at Oxford 
Entente Cordiale 




Families in Germany and France 

Fitch, Sir Joshua 

Forster, Dr. Max 

Greifswald Courses . 

Herford, Prof. C. H. 

Holiday Courses Committee 

Jena Holiday Courses 

Lloyd, Dr. R. J. 

Medieval and Modern Languages Inter- 
collegiate Examination at Cam- 
bridge, . . . 

Medieval and Modern Languages 
Tripos, Cambridge, 

Memorandum of Association, 

Modern Languages Scholarships at 
Cambridge, . 

Scheme for the Teaching of French in 
Secondary Schools 

Schiiddekopf, Dr; A. W. . 

Siepmann, Otto 

Taylorian Scholarship (German), Ox- 
ford .... 

Technical Education, International 
Congress of . 

Touring Club de France . 

Toynbee, Paget. Dante Dictionary 

Trautmann, Prof. 

University of London 

Vivd Voce Tests 

Weekly, E 

Wolstenholme, H. J. 

Wulfing, Dr. T. Ernst 









Bibliographical List. 

A Classified List of Recent Publica- 
tions . . . 39, 91 



(R.) Review. (G.) Correspondence. 


Armstrong, E. Ser Manfredi da Vice 60 
Atkinson, H. W. Tongue Positions of 

Vowel-Sounds .13 

B., K L. M. See Milner-Barry, E. L. 
Baker, A. T. The Fifteen Signs of 

Doomsday, 63 

Barbier, Paul. Moderns versus 

Ancients ..... 64 
Borsdorf, W. tJber das Studium des 

Deutschen in der Universitat Wales 25 
Bradley, Henry. Some Philological 

Anomalies 27 

Breul, KarL The Reference Library 

of a School Teacher of German . 81 

Friedrich Althous. (Obituary.) 90 

Cerf, Albert J. W. The Study of 

German in Ireland .32 

Douse, T. Le Marchant. A Contested 

Reading in the Codex Argenieus 55 

Editor of the English Dialect 

Dictionary, The. Query. (C.) 38 
F., T. G. See Foster, T. Gregory 
Fiedler, Georg. Some Goethe Por- 
traits 75 

Foster, T. Gregory. Middle English 

Notes 31 

The Revised Text of Sir Gaimyne 

and the Green Knight . .53 

Hailstone, Edward. Ausias March, 

the Valencian Poet . .66 

Hales, John W. Chaucer's * Agaton ' 5 
Jeffrey, P. Shaw. Einleitung zur 

Studium der franzosischen Philo- 

logie, by Prof Koschwitz. (C.) 38 


Merk, Charles. German Reading 
Books 78 

Milner-Barry, E, L. A Public School 
German Primer, by Otto Siepmann. 
(R.) 87 

Napier, Arthur S. Old and Middle 
English Notes .51 

Payeu-Payne, de V, See Spiers, 
Victor, and Payen-Payne, de V. 73 

Plarr, V. G. Last Century Oxford 
and Cambridge .... 20 

Reich, Emil. A Radical Fault in the 
Method of Teaching. (C.) . 38 

Roget, F. F. On the Teaching of 
Modern Languages in the Scottish 
Universities 23 

S. Chapters on the Aims and Prac- 
tice of Teaching, by F. Spencer. 

(Xv. ) ...... oo 

Siepmann, Otto. German in the 
Army Entrance Examinations 8 

Skeat, Walter W. Chaucer and Blind 
Harry 49 

Spiers, Victor, and Payen-Payne, de V. 
Suggestions for a Scheme for the 
Teaching of French in Secondary 
Schools 73 

Toynbee, Paget. Some Italian Dante 
Books 1 

Dante's Reference to the Spear 

of Peleus 58 

Williams, T. Hudson. An Old Irish 
Treatise on the Elements of Devo- 
tion ...... 29