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Full text of "Modern metrology; a manual of the metrical units and systems of the present century"

MODERN METROLOGY 



WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



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I 



i :;,:,:.:;', 




MODERN METROLOGY 

A MANUAL OF THE 

METRICAL UNITS AND SYSTEMS 

OF THE 

PRESENT CENTURY 

WITH AN APPENDIX CONTAINING A PROPOSED ENGLISH SYSTEM 



BY 



LOWIS D'A. JACKSON 

i \ 

AUTHOR OF 'AID TO SURVEY-PRACTICE' 'HYDRAULIC MANUAL AND STATISTICS' 
' CANAL AND CULVERT TABLES ' ETC. 




LONDON 
CROSBY LOCK WOOD AND CO. 

7 STATIONERS'-HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL 
1882 




LONDON : PRINTED BY 

SFOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE 
AND PARLIAMENT STREET 

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W!1 



TC T'T! 'K 
HT HONOURABLE 

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lABCtTRS ARE INSCRIBE 

ijHE IN'^'EllE- f /AKF:N BY 
1 RNi'rLIHIH; Vi 1.ZG11TS AND .', 



Ill 




INTRODUCTION. 



MEASURES, as exemplified in the pecks, pots and pounds 
of the tradesman, may at the onset appear uninviting 
and uninteresting from the fact of their being generally 
associated with small shopping transactions. The subject, 
however, even in the smallest of its bearings, cannot be 
viewed with indifference. 

Among almost all nations, an adherence to the cus- 
tomary measures of the people is generally a deep-rooted 
sentiment much akin to conformity to habitual forms of 
religious ceremony, old politicalnst itutions, and ancient 
modes of linguistic expression. Such conservatism is a 
habit of the masses, including preponderating numbers 
of unreflecting and narrow-minded persons ; while the 
opposite phase of thought and tendency, progress and 
improvement, constitute the aim of the more enlightened 
and the scientific ; the balance between the two is much 
affected by temporary circumstances, and controlled by 
fitful impulse. Change is sometimes considered harass- 
ing, sometimes eagerly welcomed. Any important 
alteration in the measures of a country cannot be unat- 
tended with some difficulty ; while the adoption of foreign 
measures, and the abolition of the indigenous measures, 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

i 

nearly amounts to a national disgrace from the implied 
admission that the nation cannot devise or produce a 
sufficiently good system for itself. 

Measures are essentially national, and it is in this 
respect that they are chiefly of interest. 

There is, perhaps, no more rapid and certain mode of 
tracing the influence of a race than through the adoption 
of its measures. Language may vary in districts, in 
families, and in individuals ; habits and customs, even 
modes of construction and of destruction, may follow 
diverse lines within very circumscribed areas ; but 
measures take the most condensed form in which a nation 
can indicate its peculiarity. 

A collection of the measures of all nations constitutes 
in one form an annal of the world, and metrology in the 
same way corresponds to history ; in this respect 
measures become scientifically interesting. 

Ancient metrology has its votaries, some that like it 
for itself, others that explore it for its scientific interest 
as the foundation of modern and of present measures, 
and as throwing light on probable future development. 
Useful and indispensable though it may be in some re- 
spects, it is yet too antiquarian and frequently too vague 
to command many followers. 

Modern metrology, on the contrary, forms a branch 
of ordinary education, and supplies part of the stock of 
general knowledge that every well-informed man should 
possess. If it is incumbent on the masses that their 
children should learn at school the measures, or as they 
are commonly termed, the weights 1 and measures, of 

1 It is an unfortunate and irrational English mode of expression to 




INTRODUCTION. ix 

their native country, it is no less requisite that the more 
highly educated should have some knowledge of the 
measures of all countries. 

Books on the subject are few, and frequently have the 
defects of being unnecessarily and repulsively dry, as 
well as highly inaccurate and incorrect. As regards dry- 
ness, probably nothing can equal the repulsiveness of a 
column or set of measures unaccompanied by any expla- 
nation of the purposes, history, or mode of formation or 
subdivision ; perhaps, however, a column of difficult 
words in a child's spelling-book, without any account of 
their derivations, or illustration of their meanings, forms 
an analogous case. With reference to incorrectness, this 
may be of two kinds, one due to simple errors and 
clerical mistakes both on the part of the author and of 
the printer : the other due to mistaken principles. The 
revision and seeing through press of such books consti- 
tutes a formidable undertaking, which should properly 
involve working-out and re-checking every figure, a 
labour most often neglected not only on account of the 
toil, but because press-corrections are exceedingly ex- 
pensive and charged on elastic principles ; while the 
general public estimate the value of a book less according 
to the value of its information and the labour involved in 
its production, than by its weight of paper, size of type, 
and other small details. 

speak of a measure of weight, or unit of weight, as an actual weight. A 
measure of anything, whether of power, elasticity, heat, weight or distance, 
should never be confounded either with the amount or with the quality 
estimated. The clerk that refers in anecdote to a cow as ' my gentleman ' 
is not more illogical or inaccurate than those that adopt the term weight 
to represent a unit or a measure of weight. 



x INTRODUCTION. 

The errors due to mistaken principles generally may 
be ascribed to the following causes. 

The values of units of measure are sometimes com- 
piled from the first available book, regardless of the 
probable time, mode, or circumstances under which the 
comparison of the standard unit was effected, and the 
number of figures to which the value may be safely relied 
on. If, as is often the case, the original comparison was 
made in foreign units, the multiples of a converted value 
are then liable to an error amounting to a multiple of 
the primary error in conversion. Next, as a great 
number of comparisons have been made with French 
units at o Centigrade in vacuo, and as the English 
standard commercial temperature is now 62 Fahrenheit, 
and was formerly 30 Fahrenheit, in air at 30" baro- 
meter, allowances for the change of temperature and dis- 
placement of air are almost invariably quite neglected ; 
this makes a serious difference in the values of large 
multiples or units, and may vitiate many pages of units r 
or even a whole book. 

These defects have, as far as possible, been avoided 
in this work ; and, as a rule, English books on the sub- 
ject have not been made use of. The allowances for 
temperature, pressure, and air-displacement are the same 
as in the conversion tables for English and French 
measures attached to the translation of Kutter's work on 
velocity-formulae (London, Spon, 1876), and are very 
nearly identical with those published later by the Warden 
of the Standards in the Report for 1872, issued a few 
years afterwards. 

The principal sources of reference and compilation 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

here utilised are the whole series of Reports of the 
Warden of the Standards from 1866 to 1878, and 
Doursther's ' Dictionnaire des Poids et Mesures,' Brux- 
elles, 1 840, a book long out of print, in which sometimes, 
the French values and sometimes the English values are 
correct ; also such information as was collected by 
myself in Europe, Asia, Africa and America during 
travel and intervals of professional work, and that due to 
the kind aid of foreign consulates and embassies in 
England. In one or two instances a small amount of 
information may have been taken from sources now for- 
gotten. Some of the Persian measures in Clarke's 
Persian Manual (London, Allen, 1875), and some of the 
Japanese and Chinese measures in Browne's * Merchant's. 
Handbook/ were used at the suggestion of the corre- 
sponding embassies ; some stray information may also- 
have been gleaned from books of travel. 

But, under all circumstances, the whole of the values- 
adopted in this book have been worked out afresh from 
the basic units believed to be the most correct available. 
Any values of the multiples of these basic units will 
necessarily hold with exactitude to the last figure, after 
allowing for augmentation, only in the original series 
in which the comparison was made ; sometimes, in the 
French values, sometimes in the English values. 

As regards the measures only used actually at the 
present day, it would be perfectly impossible to distin- 
guish them authoritatively from others that have only 
lately become nominally obsolete. It may be noticed 
that legal enactments do not rapidly sweep away old 
measures, which are liable to survive to a very wide 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

extent under all circumstances, in spite of comminatory 
fine and imprisonment Old measures, too, that may 
even have become practically as well as legally obsolete, 
so frequently survive in the language and books of a 
people, that it becomes convenient to have their values 
recorded for reference in a book of this sort. The whole 
of the measures of the present century are therefore in- 
cluded in this collection, excepting the old French and 
Belgian units, which would require an extra volume ; 
thus, even when any nation has already both adopted 
French measures and abolished its own by legal enact- 
ment, the old measures will be found in the book, and 
the French system can be referred to in order to obtain 
the new measures. 

The dates of the legal adoption of French measures 
by various nations will be found in the text (page 14*7) ; 
but those of their actual employment in internal trade 
to the exclusion of national measures cannot be deter- 
mined with certainty. 

It is a marked feature in the tables of this book that 
not only are the English commercial or ordinary equiva- 
lents of measures given, but also the English scientific 
equivalents ; and this comparative novelty needs special 
explanation. 

The basis of the English scientific system was laid 
down by the Warden of the Standards in his work ' On 
the Science of Weighing and Measuring ' (London, Mac- 
millan, 1 877), where he explains that the English scientific 
values of foreign units are those taken at 32 Fahrenheit 
in vacuo ; and thus form a segregated set of values Mr. 
Miller also constructed in 1859 the new English unit 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

of weight, the foot-weight or talent, which is the weight of 
an English cubic foot of water. These constituted an 
admirable basis for developing a complete English 
scientific system, of which full advantage has been taken 
throughout this work. 

Of the necessity for some such complete system there 
can be no doubt. English commercial measures, being 
defective in systematisation, are ill-suited to professional, 
technical, and scientific purposes, while French measures 
are utterly out of all accord both with English measures 
and modes and with all other naturally developed 
systems ; hence neither of them can conveniently answer 
the purposes of an English scientific or professional man, 
apart from the undesirability of borrowing foreign 
measures. An English scientific system must, in order 
to suit all such purposes, be necessarily either strictly 
decimal, or mixedly decimal, centesimal and millesimal, 
as argued in the chapter devoted to the subject, and be 
in some accord also with ordinary English trade-units. 

The complete English scientific system, drawn up 
on these principles, is given in Part II. chapter vi. with 
attached conversion tables. It has also been used 
throughout the whole of the tables as a useful and con- 
venient medium for comparing and computing values of 
foreign units, without the intervention of French 
measures. 

It is also to a certain extent parallel with the French 
system, that is, as regards standard temperatures and 
pressure, and thus forms a convenient medium of calcu- 
lation for foreigners, to whom English commercial 
measures are a bugbear of incongruity. 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

It may also be mentioned, such a permissive profes- 
sional and scientific system cannot cause any alarm to 
English shopkeepers that have lately invested in new 
scales and weights. 

Had any other equally perfect and convenient 
English scientific system been either available or prac- 
ticable, it would have been adopted in preference ; as the 
need of some such system in a work of this kind was 
absolutely pressing. 

The general arrangement of this book is in two parts. 
Part I. can be referred to for the value of any single or 
detached unit of measure used in the present century ; 
in this case it is solely necessary to know beforehand 
whether the unit is one of length, of surface, of cubicity 
or capacity, or of weight ; it can then be looked for in 
the corresponding collection and chapter. Part II. in- 
cludes merely the more common national systems and 
collections of measures, that are most frequently re- 
quired ; these are arranged in single pages, so that the 
whole of the measures of any such nation may be seen 
at a glance. 

The second Part hence involves some repetition of 
portions of the first Part ; but the arrangement is more 
suited to rapid reference, and the values of the units are 
carried to a greater number of figures. 

The book has been enlarged by about one-third 
during its passage through the press, with the object of 
rendering it more complete than was originally in- 
tended. 

L. D'A. J. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION i 



PART L METRICAL UNITS. 
CHAPTER I. 

PRIMITIVE MEASURES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT. 

Primitive, personal and natural units; Reduction to standard Royal, 
sacred and double units Special units and segregated systems 
Dynastic changes of unit Stages of development Reorganisa- 
tions Modern spread of French measures .... i 

CHAPTER II. 

LINEAR MEASURES. 

Classification The foot, its origin, and subdivision The subdivision 
of the inch, and the wire gauge The cubit, modern cubits and 
their subdivision The yard and double ell, their derivation and 
subdivision The fathom and the canna The rod and the pole 
The rope or cord The chain The acre-side Itinerary 
measures, the mile, league and stage Geographical and nautical 
itinerary measures Commercial and scientific values of units . 16 

TABLES OF MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Feet, general and national units, local and former units ... 51 

Cubits, ells, bracci, piks, hath, hasta, &c. . . . . 55 

Double cubits, yards, stab, vara, zar', gaz, haila .... 60 

Paces 62 



CONTENTS. 



Fathoms 63 

Rods and poles 64 

Cords, chains and acresides ... . . . . . 65 

Itinerary measures ; geographical and nautical . ... 66- 

CHAPTER III. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Classification Formation and derivation The square foot, square 
cubit, square yard The square pace and square fathom The 
square rod, square pole, and square chain Agrarian units, acres, 
hides, &c. Topographical units 69 

TABLES OF MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Square feet, square cubits 91 

Square double cubits, square paces, square fathoms ... 96 

Square rods, square poles, and square chains . . . . . 100 

Land measures, acres, hide, &c. Square miles, &c. . . . 105 

CHAPTER IV. 

CUBIC MEASURES. 

Formation Theif relation to capacity units Their subdivision 
Small English units, their comparison with capacity units, and 
units of weight Large English units, their comparison with 
capacity units, and units of weight Foreign units, their com- 
parison with capacity units . . 109 

TABLES OF CUBIC MEASURES. 

Cubic inches, cubic tithes, and fluid ounces . . . . .127 
Cubic feet and cubic yards . . . . . . . . 128 

Fuel units, stacks, cords, &c. Tons of bulk 132 

Cubic fathoms and cubic rods 134 

CHAPTER V. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

Modes of formation Transitional or doubtful units English units, 
comparison of large and small standard units Nominal liquid 
measures Foreign measures of capacity Dry measures Large 
and nominal dry measures Barrels used in the Baltic trade . 135 




CONTENTS. xvii 

TABLES OF LIQUID MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

PACK 
Small liquid measures, corresponding to the quart . . 159 

Intermediate liquid measures, corresponding to the gallon . . . 164 
Large liquid measures, corresponding to the runlet . . . .168 

Nominal liquid measures ; barrels, and loads 170 

Hogsheads, puncheons; butts, pipes, tuns The brew . . .173 

TABLES OF DRY MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

Ordinary dry measures, corresponding to the bushel . . 179 

Large dry measures, corresponding to the quarter . . . . 185 
Nominal dry measures, grain-lasts and coyangs . . . .190 

CHAPTER VI. 

MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 

Former separate systems, troy, monetary, and medicinal Old English 
units Old German units Modes of subdivision The origin of 
pounds, &c. Old Arab units Standard units of various nations 
Large units, stones, centals, man, kandi, pikul Tons and 
lasts 192 

TABLES OF MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 

Commercial pounds, rotal and ching . . . . . ..211 

Double pounds, oka, ser . . 221 

Triple pounds ; the vis and the catti-utan ...... 223 

Stones, liespfund, pud, small man, and dharri .... 223 

Quarters, arrobas and the kachcha man . . . . . . 225 

The foot weight or talent Miscellaneous English units Barrels . 227 

Hundredweights and analogous units ...... 228 

Loads, kandi, and bahar . . . . . . . . 233 

Tons and lasts of heavy goods . . 236 

Miscellaneous lasts 238 



PART IL METRICAL SYSTEMS. 
CHAPTER I. 

MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 

Systematisation of measures Original methods The subdivision of 
measures, decimal, sexagesimal, duodecimal, binary septimal 
Combined modes of subdivision Complications resulting from 
heterogeneous modes . . ..... 239 



xviii CONTEXTS. 

CHAPTER II. 

EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 

PAGE 

Comparison of the English, Danish, Swedish and Prussian systems 
Defects of the English system Austro-Hungarian system- 
Russian Imperial system French metric system Modified 
metric systems French ' mesures usuelles ' Baden, Hesse and 
Swiss systems Old measures Spanish and Portuguese systems 
Greek and Turkish measures Distinctions between European, 
Moslem and Pagan systems . . . . . . 2 57 

TABLES OF EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 

Early English measures 282 

Present English system with conversion tables . .... 284 

Russian, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish systems . . . 290 

North German systems 294 

South German systems ......... 35 

Spanish and Portuguese 309 

Old measures of Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels, Florence, and Venice. 312 
Metric systems Present French Former French Baden, Hessian, 

and Swiss . . . . . . . . 3 T 7 



CHAPTER III. 

COLLECTIONS OF ORIENTAL MEASURES. 

General classification Historic causes of the separation of Moslem 
from Christian measures Peculiarities of Oriental measures of 

various kinds .......... 3 2 ^ 

TABLES OF ORIENTAL COLLECTIONS OF MEASURES. 

Ottoman 338 

Greek . . . 339 

Syrian ........... 34 

Arab 341 

Egyptian and Abyssinian . . . . . . . 34 1 

Berber, Tunisian, and Moorish ........ 343 

Algerine ........... 344 

Persian 345 

North Indian .......... 346 



CONTENTS. xix 

CHAPTER IV. 

COLLECTIONS OF PAGAN MEASURES. 

PAGE 

Classification Primitive indigenous systems Comparison of Pagan 
with English measures Peculiarities of Pagan units and systems 
The values of some African units 347 

TABLES OF PAGAN COLLECTIONS OF MEASURES. 

South Indian 355 

Burmese 356 

Thai (or Siamese) 357 

Anam 358 

Malacca ........... 359 

Sumatra ............ 360 

Java, &c., and Manila 361 

China . 362 

Japan . 363 

Indigenous African 364 

CHAPTER V. 

MEDICINAL AND LAPIDARIES' SYSTEMS. 

Medicinal and monetary units The medicinal ounce Its subdivi- 
sion Metric units Remedy for English incongruity The 
abolition of separate medicinal systems Lapidaries' systems . 365 

TABLES OF MEDICINAL SYSTEMS 372 

TABLES OF LAPIDARIES' AND JEWELLERS' UNITS .... 377 



CHAPTER VI. 

SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 

Their peculiarities and desiderata Ancient scientific systems, Chal- 
d?ean, Indian, and Pyramidal The French metric system The 
English scientific system The English decimal scientific series 
Other scientific systems Prussian, Danish, Swedish, Neapoli- 
tan and Florentine ........ 379 

Tables of French and English scientific systems, and conversion 

tables for the same ......... 406 

Compound units .......... 414 

Tables of moneys of account ........ 416 



xx CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Remarks on complete decimalisation . . . . . .418 

Pressure units Irrigation units Water supply units Power units 

and units of work Thermal and electro-magnetic units . . 420 
Tables of English and French compound units, on the commercial 

and on the scientific scale ....... 429 

Tables of constants, as used in connection with standards Tempera- 
tures Densities and expansion . . . . . .431 

Weight of air Displacement Weight of water . . . . 433 

Allowance in English and French measure . 435 



APPENDIX L 
PROPOSED ENGLISH COMMERCIAL SYSTEM ..... 439 

APPENDIX IL 

THE ACTUAL AND THE PROPOSED STANDARD TEMPERATURE 

AND PRESSURE 443 



ESITY 



ERRORS AND OMISSIONS. 



Page 42, line 28, for 2,000 read 2000 

56 ,, 31, for foot, and read for land, 

,, 62 ,, 30, >>- 1-15223 mo/ i -85223 

,, 67 ,, ii, add : 

Turkey. Agasha = 3 berri. 3-1084 | 1-6408 | 5-0010 

96 2S,/or 17-628 read 7'628 

96 29, for 1-929 m*/ 11-929 

,, 1 02 ,, 5, for ahn read Slen 

,, 103 ,, 25, for thaoc ra&/ thuoc 

,,114 ,, io,for aliquot or multiple read aliquot-multiple 

jj *37 !f or par rah rm^/parah 

,, 145 ,, 27, yfo' medical raw? medicinal 

,,151 ,, i8,for into three classes raz</ under three heads 

, , 1 93 , , 12, for them read it 

,,231 ,, 1 2, y#r Manilla read Manila 

232 37, twice for Manilla read Manila 

,, 260 ,, 2, read Troy weight apart from Apothecaries' weight is 

legally abolished 

,,286 16, for 25-277 3350 read 25 -277 5033 

,, 289 ,, Cwts. into quintals, for 4-572 254 rau/ 4*572 214 

373 2O , a ft er customary addtoi medicinal purposes 

j 377 )? 22, y^r mardo r^a^/ marco 

,,416 ,, 3 5, for centimes read cent esimi 

,,418 ,, i6,for money account read money of account 

,,448 ,, 24, for also read now 



ueiaciieu, wiien strong anu cosmopolitan, Wttfiii 
dismembered and sunk in darkness, or when passing 
through the various progressive stages either of com- 



CONTENTS. 

TAGE 



PAGE 

Remarks on complete decimalisation . . . . . 418 

Pressure units Irrigation units Water supply units Power units 

and units of work Thermal and electro-magnetic units . . 420 




ESITY 
.v 



MODERN METROLOGY. 



PART L METRICAL UNITS. 



CHAPTER I. 
PRIMITIVE MEASURES and THEIR DEVELOPMENT. 

ALTHOUGH antiquarian research and archaic curiosity 
are by no means of direct importance in a book that 
deals with the ' Units and Systems of Measure ' of the 
present century, and occupies itself about their future 
development, yet the indirect bearing that the experience 
of ages has produced on the present, and may produce on 
the future, certainly deserves some notice and considera- 
tion. Not only so, but the past development of the appa- 
rently very heterogeneous collection of measures of all 
sorts, that are now and have been in use throughout the 
world, affords indication of natural transformation suited 
to the progressive wants of communities, when primitive 
and detached, when strong and cosmopolitan, when 
dismembered and sunk in darkness, or when passing 
through the various progressive stages either of com- 

B 



2 METRICAL UNITS. PART I, 

mercial progress or of enlightenment, civilisation and 
scientific development. This natural transformation,, 
based on rational requirements, is doubtless much 
obscured in the chaos of measures, of which many are 
due to unintentional departure from original or from 
local uniformity ; it existed, nevertheless. 

In primitive times, and among nations in a primitive 
state, there were probably no very definite measures of 
surface or of capacity like those now used in Europe, but 
only measures of length and of weight. The measures 
of length corresponding to the side of a square surface 
were sufficient for denoting small areas ; while large 
areas were indicated by natural limits or boundaries, 
such as rivers, watercourses, the edges of forest, marsh, 
hil.l-skirts, borders of natural pasture, or of arable land ; 
these, in addition to occasional boundary stones or 
pillars, answered the requirements of the period. 
Measures of capacity were comparatively rare, almost 
all commercial and monetary transactions were deter- 
mined by weight ; measures of weight, either small or 
large, appear to have always been in existence ; of this 
there is ample evidence in the customs of Oriental races 
to this day. In India, and partly in China, grain, oil, 
and every commodity is sold by weight, while many of 
the measures of capacity of the Ottoman, as well as 
those of the East-Asiatic races, are really only trans- 
formed measures of weight ; thus a very large number 
of persons exist in the world to whom a measure of capa- 
city is an unknown and apparently a most useless and 
cumbrous contrivance. 

The primitive measures of length were the grain of 
corn placed lengthwise, the finger-breadth or digit, the 
palm-breadth, the span, the foot-length, the cubit (from 



CH. I. PRIMITIVE MEASURES. 3 

the elbow to the finger-tip, and sometimes only to the 
roots of the finger), the double cubit, the gird or girdle, 
the fathom (comprised in the reach of the two arms to 
their fullest extent), the step, the pace or pair of steps, 
the local acreside of 80 or 100 cubits, or some simple 
multiple of a small measure, the itinerary measure or 
mile of 1000 paces, of 4000 cubits, or some convenient 
multiple of the pace or cubit, and the itinerary distances 
expressed by the hour's march, and the day's journey. 
The primitive measures of weight were the weights of 
various grains of corn, millet, rice, barley, wheat, gunj 
or abrus (more especially the last on account of their 
wonderful uniformity in weight) ; the weights of the 
current pieces of money locally used ; the weight 
of a certain number of small shells of a sort that 
.happened to be tolerably uniform in size and appear- 
ance ; the weight of certain stones bearing some certain 
proportion to that of a number of coins, shells, or grains ; 
the weight of water, oil, wine, rice, wheat or commonly- 
used grain contained in a temporarily-formed local cubic 
foot, or in a cubic cubit ; the weight of a man (a rather 
variable quantity), and the load of a man, or of a pack- 
animal, ass, mule, bullock, or camel. 

Such primitive measures in their original condition 
may now be considered exceedingly variable, but were 
certainly quite as well suited to the wants of a primi- 
tive epoch as modern measures are to modern require- 
ments ; for under ordinary circumstances the common 
commodities of merchandise, grain, oil, &c., were of 
low value, and when prices were exceptionally high 
the variation in price was out of all proportion to the 
fluctuation of unit of measure. The habits of Indian 
grain-merchants at the present time show an indifference 

B 2 



4 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

about units of weight that throws light on the habits 
of the past in this respect. These merchants, avaricious 
though they are, will sometimes, on being pressed about 
their stones and weights being incorrect, volunteer to let 
one use any weight shown or mentioned, and simply 
offer a guessed price to suit the case. They can well 
afford this, for they have the power to get up fictitious 
famines in districts, and actually do so under the bene- 
ficent patronage of the free-trade doctrines of the 
British Government, that does not interfere with the 
market-rate, compete with ordinary trade, or aid the 
helpless native to co-operate against his oppressors. 
Under such circumstances it is evident the price is 
everything, while the unit of measure is comparatively 
immaterial. The same principle would also hold in 
trade transactions in which measures of length were 
used. They may now be termed rough measures, but 
they were amply exact enough. The weight of the 
pieces of money, whether silver, gold, or electrum a 
mixture of the two were certainly of more importance ; 
monetary weight, in periods when monetary tokens were 
unknown, or regarded simply as medals, was necessarily 
the most important part of a system of measures ; 
but even then estimation by apparent weight in the 
hand, or recognition by some peculiarity of form or of 
mark, was generally sufficient for this purpose, for this 
was similarly a consideration far inferior to the genuine- 
ness, purity, or quality of trie precious metal ; a point 
on which the judgment of any ordinary semi-savage is 
wonderfully correct. 

A second stage in the development of measures is 
denoted by the demand for greater exactitude ; the 
personal and primitive measures then requiring some 



en. I. PRIMITIVE MEASURES. 5 

degree of fixity, the personal measures of some chief, 
king, patriarch, or high-priest then became reduced to 
actual standards, and were introduced into the temples, 
the markets, the judgment halls and public buildings, 
and the people could refer to these for comparison. 

In this stage, a cubit was not the cubit of any indi- 
vidual, but had become a standard unit ; while the cubit 
of the individual was merely useful as affording an ap- 
proximation to the standard unit. Cubic measures, and 
units of weight based on cubic measure, in preference to 
arbitrary units, then became possible. 

Such standards were few in number, perhaps two of 
length, and two of weight, one large and one small ; 
while the multiples and submultiples were mere 
matters of calculation, arrived at in accordance with the 
habits of thought of the people and their chiefs or 
priesthood. Some nations, especially the more primi- 
tive early Egyptians and the Chinese, counted and 
thought decimally ; others, as the Assyrians, by sixties 
and sixtieths or shekels ; the Romans by twelfths, inches 
or ounces of land-measure, capacity, length and weight ; 
while the races that obtained the ascendency in modern 
ages the Teuton in Europe, and the higher castes or 
races in India adhered generally to binary subdivision 
in their commercial measures, halves, quarters, eighths, 
and sixteenths, and arranged their multiples so as to 
admit of it. The subject of systematised modes of sub- 
division will be treated in another chapter. The natural 
mode of subdivision was, apart from these methods of 
counting, based on the natural proportions that the 
natural units of length, or personal measures, bore to 
each other. 

Taking the digit or finger-breadth as the smallest 



6 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

common personal unit of length, the proportions of the 
others to it probably followed nearly the accompany- 
ing scale 

I Palm = 4 digits 

I Span =12 

I Foot = 16 

I Cubit = 24 

I Step = 40 

I Pace = 80 

I Fathom = 96 

i Rod =160 

These proportions held generally ; the inch or twelfth 
of a foot, the yard, whether a double cubit, a half-fathom 
or an actual girdle, and the rod, were probably less 
ancient units, about which some doubt may exist ; but 
it would be futile to avoid the indication afforded by 
these proportions, the strong tendency to the conveni- 
ence of binary and fractional subdivision ; while on the 
other side, the habits of people of a primitive race, aided 
in counting by the presence of their ten fingers, would 
naturally tend to the adoption of decimal multiples, as 
more easily counted. 

Apart from such simple or natural measures for 
ordinary commercial uses, there were also royal mea- 
sures, and sacred measures, almost invariably larger than 
the corresponding natural measures. Among coarse 
uncivilised and ignorant people, size or bulk meant 
power ; an enormous Apis, a heavy bull, conveyed awe ; 
a Saul, being a head and shoulders above the crowd, 
was elected king and commander-in-chief to manage 
the war against the Philistines ; a celebrated Hindu 
deity, whose worshippers are millions, is represented by 



CH. I. PRIMITIVE MEASURES. 7 

the figure of a very replete man, with an enormous 
stomach quantity then expressed grandeur. Corre- 
spondingly also, a large gift or tax paid to the king, or 
tithe to a priest, conveyed with it an idea of dignity, of 
sanctity, of reverence, or of special respect. As, also, 
such increased measures were of considerable advantage 
to the king or priest, royal and sacred measures were a 
special institution, involving a separate set of standards, 
at least for some considerable time before merging into 
a general combination or into application to separate 
nationalities or communities. 

Besides these temporarily special standard units, there 
is on record much evidence to the effect that in some cases 
the units were doubled at pleasure under some monarchs. 
The inscriptions on the well-known Babylonian and 
Assyrian bronze and stone lion and duck weights in the 
British Museum, and the verifications of Mr. Chisholm, 
show that the manah or pound under Shalmaneser and 
some other emperors was double of that under Tiglath- 
pileser, Nebo-vulibar, Dungi, and Irba-merodach. Double 
weight, double tribute, and double rent or tax are by 
no means unknown Oriental arrangements. In years 
of plenty, a double rent for land is frequently now paid 
without demur, on the principle that remission accom- 
panies a year of scarcity ; and it is probable that the 
alteration of the standard weight was a mode of altering 
taxation without the necessity for altering accounts or 
issuing edicts that might redound to the advantage rather 
of the collector than of the king. Fixity of measure was 
not in those times an admitted necessary principle to 
the extent of being binding on the government of the 
country ; even now, in semi-Oriental countries, govern- 
ment paper money is often forced by edict to be accepted 



8 METRICAL UNITS. PART u 

at a very false value, and deemed a justifiable financial 
proceeding. 

Another cause of variety in measure was the tendency 
of various trades to adopt units of their own, an evident 
imitation by the tradesmen of the method adopted by 
the king and the high priest A single system of com- 
mercial measures was thus not only supplemented by 
royal, sacred, and double measures, but was practically 
broken up into a mass of special systems ; such as a. 
monetary system, a grain and oil or common com- 
mercial system, a jeweller's and a precious-stone system, 
a druggist's ; artisans' systems for a large number of 
crafts, carpentry, masonry, and so on, and finally scien- 
tific, astronomical, and geodetic systems. Now, though 
all such systems doubtless ramified from a single compre- 
hensive system of which they were parts, yet local 
departure from standard values, engrafted on results 
in all these sub-systems, inevitably led to complexity. 

The overthrow of a dynasty, the influx of a new 
governing class, might in those ages have produced as* 
much alteration in the measures l as now occurs in the 
names of the streets of Paris under similar conditions ; 
though conquests involving imperialism effected more 
extended uniformity. This advantage, great as it may 
appear to persons living in an age of international 
commerce and rapid communications, was of far less 
commercial importance in those days ; and although it 
must certainly have been the means of sweeping away 
a great quantity of local measures, it cannot be assumed 
that the measures of the conquering were necessarily 
better than those of the conquered race. 

All this variety of standard and modification of units 

1 Exemplified at present in China. 



CH. I. PRIMITIVE MEASURES. 9 

culminating in extreme confusion of measure, naturally 
necessitated a complete reorganisation, or a fresh 
departure, after recurrent periods. 

In such a development the following stages may be 
clearly traced : 

1. Primitive personal measures. 

2. Primitive standard units, and original systems. 

3. Combined and expanded series of measures of 
great commercial utility. 

4. Intricate, confused, and debased measures, hetero- 
geneous in arrangement. 

5. Reorganised systems of measures. 

After this, the reorganised measures then seem to 
take the place of primitive standard measures, and the 
development then repeats itself in the way that history, 
or rather historic development, invariably does. 

The first of these reorganisations (of the measures of 
the civilised world) of which there is full historic record 
was the Phileterian system, of the Ptolemaic age, in- 
geniously devised to suit all purposes in commercial and 
monetary transactions. 

At a later period, there was the Olympic system of 
Greece, based on the Olympic cubit and Olympic talent, 
which were identical with the ancient Egyptian natural 
cubit and the Grseco-Egyptian talent ; the subdivision 
adopted in this system had many advantages as regards 
simplicity, as well as practical utility, besides that of a 
rigid adherence to such ancient and correct standard 
units as were retained. 

The Roman reorganisation of measures was a com- 
bination of the Egyptian and the Greek modified units, 
arranged under a fresh system, and a mode of duo- 
decimal subdivision of certain selected primary units of 



10 



METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 



length, surface, capacity, and weight, which was suited 
to Roman forms of thought and calculation. 

Among more modern reorganisations were that of 
Charlemagne, about 780 A.D., better known as the 
French poids de marc system, or pile de Charlemagne 
(the weights of which are said to have been based on 
the Arab yusdruman pound of Harun al Rashid) ; the 
Nuremberg and the Coin marc systems, retained for 
medicinal and for monetary measures of weight until the 
present age ; and the Spanish marc system. 

The Anglo-Saxon system, with its Saxon gird or 
yard, its moneyer's and its marchant's pounds (also having 
some affinity to the Continental marc), its Saxon acre, 
and the Roman mile of 5000 'Saxon feet engrafted on 
the system, seems also to have been a complete and well- 
arranged reorganisation, suited to the period and the 
wants of the people, at the close of the Heptarchy. 

A Scandinavian or a Danish system, about which 
little information is available, was probably a reorganisa- 
tion of about the same period. 

The Mughal system of Akbar the Great, about 1570, 
comprised a complete set of weights and measures re- 
arranged and reorganised from the ancient and surviving 
Indian measures. 

The Russian system of measures, reorganised at the 
command of Peter the Great, were so arranged that the 
Russian foot should be exactly identical with the English 
foot ; and the tschetwerik and vedro, the measures of 
capacity, were, like those of the English, rearranged in 
accordance with the measure of weight by comparison 
with distilled water. 

In 1795, the whole of the French measures having 
arrived at an extreme state of heterogeneous confusion, a 



<;H. i. PRIMITIVE MEASURES. n 

new system was adopted, in preference to a reorganisa- 
tion : a modified half-toise, named a metre, was adopted 
as the basic standard unit of length, its length being 
determined on geodetic considerations, or on an estimated 
value of the meridional arc passing through Paris then 
believed to be correct. The system based on this single 
unit, termed the metric system, was as rigidly decimal 
as the primitive Chinese or the ancient Egyptian systems, 
and thus possessed all the advantages of a primitive 
system, while it was also in strict accordance with the 
numerical modes of calculation universally adopted, in 
which the digital system is decimal. The measures of 
the Netherlands, Greece, and some Italian States being 
also very heterogeneous and confused, the French 
metric system was also adopted in those countries at a 
very early date, to the exclusion of the old measures, 
and in preference to a reorganisation. 

In 1824, the English measures, derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon system, having become debased and con- 
fused from the successive introduction of French measures, 
the Troy pound, Avoirdupois pound, and French ell, 
and from a variety of local measures, the whole collection 
of measures was reorganised, local measures were 
abolished, and a complete imperial system, based on the 
greater part of the preferable existing measures, was 
drawn up with a certain amount of fixity and certainty, 
and established by law. 

In England, in 1869, a new standard-unit of weight 
was constructed and legalised, the weight of a cubic foot 
of distilled water represented in commercial weight by 
62^32 1 Ibs. The corresponding scientific unit, which 
corresponds to the ancient Greek talent, and may be 
termed an English talent, is of extreme importance from 



12 METRICAL UNITS. PART I, 

its enabling English scientific and technical calculations 
to be made and recorded in a purely decimal system, 
based on the English foot, which possesses all the ad- 
vantages of the French system, while it is superior to it 
in its employing a natural unit in common use. The 
only standard-units necessary in this English scientific 
system are 

The foot, as the unit of length ; 

The square foot, as the unit of surface ; 

The cubic foot, as the unit of capacity ; 

The foot-weight, or talent, as the unit of weight 

while the multiples and submultiples are purely decimal 
in accordance with ordinary arithmetical notation. 

Most of the subsidiary units of this system are well- 
known measures ; the facts, that technical, professional, 
and scientific men have long utilised the coincidence 
that the Avoirdupois ounce is very nearly one-thou- 
sandth of the foot-weight, and that the fluid-ounce has 
been long used as a measure of capacity or cubic 
measure corresponding to the ounce-weight, combine to 
render such a decimal system convenient. The comple- 
tion of it worked out throughout this book, and fully ex- 
plained in the chapter on Scientific Systems, may render 
its use and application more easy and convenient. 

The sets of units are these : 

In length : the foot, the rod of 10 feet, the chain of 
100 feet (Ramsden's), the cable of 10 chains, and the 
league of 100 chains, or 10000 feet, which is equal to 
two old London miles. In surface, the square foot, the 
square rod of 100 square feet, the square chain of 100 
square rods, the square cable or century (an old Roman 
term once well known in England) of 100 square chains, 



-CH, I. PRIMITIVE MEASURES. 13 

and the square league of 100 centuries. In weight and 
cubic measure the two series correspond thus : 



I rod-weight = 1000 foot-weight 
i foot- weight = 1000 decimal oz. 
I decimal oz. = 1000 mils 
j mil = looo doits 



I cubic rod - 1000 cubic feet 

i cubic foot = looo fluid-oz. 

I fluid-oz. = looo fluid mils 

I fluid mil = 1000 fluid doits 



The term fluid-ounce has been retained in preference to 
cubic ounce, cubic decimal inch, or cubic thumb, for the 
sake of adherence to well-known terms, and because 
^very new term seems a new difficulty to those adopting 
it. The units themselves cover the whole range of 
ordinary measures for technical purposes. 

A corresponding system based on the inch, including 
the square inch, cubic inch, and inch-weight, and 
another based on the yard, including the square yard, 
cubic yard, and yard-weight, would also be possible, 
either as detached and purely decimal systems, or in 
combination with the others ; but would be far less con- 
venient. 

The most recent improvement in the English com- 
mercial system of measures, declared by Act in 1878, 
but not yet practically that is, entirely effected, is its 
simplification through the abolition of separate systems 
of Troy weight and Apothecaries' weight, and consequent 
reduction of the whole of the commercial weights to a 
single system. 

During a period from about 1859 to the present 
time, the metric system has been permissively adopted 
by almost all civilised nations, in addition to the com- 
mercial measures of these nations ; thus avoiding the 
disadvantage and inconvenience inseparable from the 
rejection of the national measures in common use. 



I 4 METRICAL UNITS. PART K 

The dates of these^ permissive enactments in various 
countries are as follow : 

Spain, Portugal and Italy . . . .1859 

England Act of 1864 

United States .... . 1866- 
North German Confederation . . . 1868 

Dominion of Canada 1871 

Indian Empire, applied only to Officials, 
Municipalities, and Companies, and 
solely as regards measures of weight . 1871 
Austrian Empire and Switzerland . . 1873 
Sweden and Norway 1875 

The compulsory employment of the metric system 
in France dates from a law passed in 1837. 

In Portugal, French measures were actually adopted 
in their entirety by 1864; in Spain, the compulsory 
adoption became effective in 1868. 

The re-establishment of the German Empire in 1871 
led to the necessity for adopting some single system 
of measures in place of the very various and heretogene- 
ous measures used in the various States and provinces ; 
and, whether local jealousies prevented the extension of 
the Prussian; or any other existing commercial system 
to the whole Empire, or other reasons were more 
influential, the result was the compulsory and exclusive 
adoption of the metric system in the German Empire 
from January I, 1872, and followed by a corresponding 
change adopted in the Austrian Empire from January \ Y 
1876. 

In 1873, the Canadian Government adopted a deci- 
mal system of measures based on English units ; these 
units being the English foot and yard ; the English 



CH. I. PRIMITIVE MEASURES. 140, 

avoirdupois pound, its decimal multiples and sub- 
multiples, from 100 Ibs. down to O'ooi Ib. ; the English 
grain, its decimal multiples and submultiples, from 1,000 
grains to O'Oi grain ; the old English Troy ounce, its 
decimal multiples and submultiples, from 500 Troy oz 
down to O'OOI Troy oz. ; the English cubic foot and its 
multiples; and the English measures of capacity with 
their binary subdivision from the bushel to the half-gill. 

In colonies, possessions, and dependencies the legal 
system of measure is generally that of the colonising 
race or parent-country, but the actual system is practi- 
cally more often some old system of the parent country, 
and sometimes a hybrid compromise between old in- 
digenous measures and imported units. 

The various typical systems of measure, mentioned 
as reorganisations in this chapter, will be described in 
detail in a following part of the book (Part II.). 



DATES OF ALTERATIONS IN NATIONAL MEASURES 
DURING THE PRESENT CENTURY. 

DENMARK. 
1 86 1. Decimal subdivision of the pound. 

SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 
1878. French measures adopted by Act of 1875. 

ENGLAND. 

1824. Reorganisation of measures. 

1853. Date of the present primary parliamentary standards. 
1859. The foot- weight adopted as a unit of weight. 
1864. French measures rendered permissive. 
1872. New normal standard temperature 62 Fahrenheit exclusively 

adopted for trade measures. 
1878. Readjustment of measures. Abolition of troy-weight. 



14* ALTERATIONS IN NATIONAL MEASURES. PART i. 

FRANCE. 

1795. Publication of the metric system. Old local measures used till 

1812. 

1812. Adoption of the mesures usuelles. 
1840. Adoption of the simple metric system for commercial purposes. 

GERMANY. 

1806. Wiirtemburg linear measures readjusted. 

1 8 10. Baden adopts a modified metric system. 

1816. Prussian foot and pound readjusted. 

1817. Saxony: Dresden dry measures, and Leipzig weights adopted 

throughout Saxony. 

1818. Darmstadt adopts a modified metric system. 
1834. Zollverein units proposed. 

1856. Zollverein measures adopted. 

1868. French measures permissive. 1872 compulsory. 

NETHERLANDS. 
1820. French measures adopted with local names. 

BELGIUM. 
1836. French denominations of metric measures adopted. 

HOLLAND. 
1870. French denominations of metric measures adopted. 

AUSTRO-HUNGARY. 

1873. French measures permissive. 1876 compulsory. 

RUSSIA. 

1819. Adjustment of Polish measures on a metric basis. 
1826. Readjustment of the Russian Imperial system. 
1831. Imperial system adopted in Poland. 

SWITZERLAND. 

1822, Canton Waadt adopted a modified metric system, Five other 

cantons partially adopted it. 
1873. French measures legally adopted. 



ICH. i. PRIMITIVE MEASURES. 15 

ITALY. 

1803. Lombardo-Venetia adopted French measures. 
1840. Naples adopted a geodetic system of measures. 
1859. French measures adopted throughout Italy. 

SPAIN. 
859. French measures permissive. 1868 compulsory 

PORTUGAL. 

French linear units adopted. 
French weight units adopted. 
French surface units adopted. 
French capacity units adopted. 

GREECE. 
1836. French measures adopted with local names, termed Royal measures 







IONIAN ISLANDS. 



1800-1815. Local and Venetian measures in use. 
1815-1864. English measures used. 
1864. Greek Royal measures adopted. 

EUROPE. 
1870. First Conference of the International Standards Commission. 



METRICAL UNiTS. PAKT 



CHAPTER II. 
LINEAR MEASURES. 

MEASURES of length may be generally divided into 
three classes : 

1. Ordinary commercial measures from the smallest 
unit up to the fathom. 

2. Agrarian measures, as the rod, the pole, cord, rope, 
chain, and acreside. 

3. Itinerary measures, as furlongs, miles, leagues, 
stages, and journeys. 

THE FOOT. 

TJte Foot is the most general natural standard unit of 
length retained throughout the civilised world, and for 
that reason the most important of the natural units still 
used. There seems little doubt that it was in some 
countries, but in very primitive times, a primitive unit 
like the cubit, while in others it was certainly a second- 
ary unit taken in some proportion to cubits already in 
use as primary units. 

The original foot, from which many of the existing 
European feet has been remotely derived through 
successive intermediate changes, was probably the 
ancient Egyptian and the Olympic foot, equal to two- 
thirds of the natural Egyptian and Olympic cubit ; as 



I 



a. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 17 

his was the principal foot of the civilised world of 
ancient times. Its length was nearly 1*013 English foot, 
and it was probably partly based on geodetic considera- 
tions, as, in accordance with the sexagesimal systems 
then in vogue, it holds the following relation to a roughly 
estimated mean degree of latitude : 

i mean degree = 60 minutes ; I minute = 6000 feet. 

There is, however, an alternative mode of accounting 
for the derivation. There were several ancient cubits of 
much greater length than the natural cubit, some of 
them termed royal cubits ; among them was the Hash- 
emic, or later Arab cubit, of great antiquity, as shown by 
its identity with the ancient Chaldaean cubit of 2*10 
English feet ; and it is very probable that many of the 
German ells are merely debased Hashemic cubits, which 
were halved to form the German and European feet of 
modern times, and doubled to form the German stab and 
the large French aune. 

It is also possible that the European feet may have 
been derived from various cubits ; but they certainly 
seem as a rule to be approximations either to halves of 
royal cubits or to two-thirds of natural cubits of assign- 
able historic origin ; and this same principle seems to 
hold generally throughout the world, for even the ancient 
Chinese foot of Hoang Ti, of O'888 English foot, is said 
to have some such connexion. 

The foreign names of the foot are : 



German : Fuss, Schuh. Spanish : 

Dutch and Flemish : Voet. Italian : piede. 



Danish and Norwegian : 

Fod. 
Swedish : Fot. 



French : pied. 
Portuguese : pt*. 
Chinese : Chih. 



i8 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



The values of the feet used since 1 800 will be found 
in the table of equivalents at the end of this section. 

The subdivision of the foot. The Roman subdivisior 
of the foot into twelfths, or inches, was generally adopted 
throughout the whole of Europe that fell under Roman 
sway, and has been retained to the present day ; but in 
a few provinces and countries, more specially in Belgium, 
Holland, and parts of France, the inch became the 
eleventh part of the local foot, possibly with the view 
of adjusting it to equal the twelfth of some other larger 
foot ; in a few places also the inch was the tenth of the 
foot exclusively. 

The foot was divided into eleven inches, at the 
following places : 



Amsterdam. 
Anvers. 


Boulogne. 
Caen. 


Metz. 
Sedan. 


Aisne. 


Cambrai. 


St. Omer. 


Ardennes. 


Ghent. 


Soissons. 


Arras. 


Laon. 


Tournai. 


Bruges. 
Brussels. 


Normandy. 
Malines. 


Vermandois. 
Vervins. 


Beauvais. 


Mezieres. 





The foot was divided into ten inches at the following 



places : 


Baden. 
Carlsruhe. 


Liege. 
Louvain. 


Tongres. 
Vaud. 


Cassel. 
Darmstadt. 
Hanau. 
Hasselt. 


Luxemburg. 
Maestricht. 
Mons. 
Nassau. 


Valais. 
Wurtemberg. 


Sweden. 


Hcrenthals. 


Nivelles (Belg.) 
Namur. 


China. 
Japan. 



CH. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 19 

At many places in France and the Netherlands the 
foot was both divided into eleven inches and into ten 
inches ; and at a few places in France the three modes 
of subdivision were in use. 

The most ancient mode of subdividing the foot was 
probably decimal, as decimalisation was in vogue in 
ancient Egypt and in ancient China, as well as in China 
to the present day ; the duodecimal method is more 
modern, comparatively, but in recent times, both methods 
have been adopted as suited to various purposes. For 
geodetical purposes, levelling, and surveying, and all 
matters in which rapidity and simplicity in calculation 
is more important than adherence to former measures, the 
decimal subdivision is more convenient ; while in iron- 
work, where a large amount of plant and of practical 
construction is in accordance with the true inch or duo- 
decimal system, the latter mode would be preferred from 
economic considerations. The subdivision of the foot 
into thirds, or hands, of four inches each, is a method re- 
tained to the present time for horse measurement 
only. 

Another mode of subdividing the foot, which is of 
great antiquity, is into digits, or finger- breadths, which 
should not be confused with inches ; this method is 
principally applied in Oriental countries to the cubit and 
double cubit. 

The subdivision of the Inch. The ancient subdivision 
into thirds, denominated barleycorns, is now gener- 
ally obsolete ; and the subdivision into twelfths or lines 
is now comparatively rare. The present methods are 
either binary, into halves, quarters, eighths, and sixteenths, 
or the decimal subdivision of the inch ; the former is 
almost exclusively adopted in iron-work. 

c 2 



2 o METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

The modern necessity for some smaller unit than 
either the sixteenth or even the hundredth of an inch 
has been practically demonstrated by the adoption of 
various wire-gauges. Although Birmingham wire-gauge 
was often supposed to be based on some principle of 
subdivision, or arithmetic or geometric ratio, recent 
investigation has proved this to be fallacious. The 
English wire-gauges are purely arbitrary, and even in 
Birmingham vary greatly according to the maker. In 
Canada, Stubbs' Birmingham wire-gauge is nearly exclu- 
sively adopted ; and in France the wire-gauge is in 
tenths of millimetres. It seems probable that some 
legal standard wire-gauge will be eventually adopted in 
England, either in ten-thousandths of a foot, or in thou- 
sandths of an inch. 

THE CUBIT. 

The Cubit has only retained its extreme importance 
as a primitive unit to the present time in countries and 
among people that never entirely and exclusively 
adopted the foot ; as some Oriental, Ionian, Asiatic, 
and African races, that entirely ignore the foot : thus, 
the pik of Turkey, Arabia, Egypt, Morocco, and of 
modern Ionian Greece, is a primary unit, so also the 
hath and hasta, or esto of India, Burma, and of the 
Malays and Indo-Chinese. Among some semi-Oriental 
races, or in localities formerly under Oriental sway, the 
cubit and the foot are both used as distinct units for 
different purposes, as in Russia, Spain, and Portugal, and 
their dependencies, where the arsheen and the foot, the 
codo and the pie", the covado and pe, have been simul- 
taneously employed. In Europe generally, the cubit, as 
represented by the German ell and the Italian braccio, 



CH. II. LINEAR MEASURES. 21 

was almost exclusively confined to cloth and stuff- 
measurement, whenever it was not a multiple of the foot, 
and hence became a measure of secondary importance. 
In England the cubit is now merely a nominal half- 
yard ; and in France, even under the old system of mea- 
sures, the cubit or coudee was similarly treated as obso- 
lete, although the long French aunes, corresponding to 
the German stab, were probably double-cubits by origin ; 
while in Spain there were two cubits, one of half-a-yard, 
and the other of two feet. In India the hath or cubit is 
generally equal to the English cubit, and is used and 
known as well as the gaz or yard : it has been supposed by 
some to be a debased Egyptian natural cubit ; by others, 
a correct ancient Hindu hasta, either derived through 
the Phileterian system or of direct Chaldaean origin. 

The Chinese cubit still existing appears not to bear 
any relation to the principal present Chinese foot, but to 
an ancient one it bears approximately the same ratio as 
that shown by the ancient Egyptian cubit to the corre- 
sponding foot, namely of three to two. 

The cubits of modern times, which alone are treated 
in this work, consist of the following classes : 

1. The German and Scandinavian ells. 

2. The Italian and Levantine bracci. 

3. The Spanish and Portuguese codo and covado. 

4. The Russian and Turkish arsheens, and the 
Turkish, Moorish, and Arab piks. 

5. The hath, asta, esto, and sok of India- and South- 
Eastern Asia. 

Although a great proportion of these measures are 
nearly obsolete, or have been declared to be so by legis- 
lative enactment, they yet happen not to be quite null 
and void, as measures survive enactments for a consider- 



22 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

able time, generally to nearly an average lifetime, and 
sometimes longer ; it would hence be a serious omission 
to neglect mentioning them in a book to which reference 
might be made in particular cases not of every-day 
occurrence, and which is intended to deal with the 
measures of the present century. 

The former ells now quite obsolete are those of 
Flanders and Franche-Comte, or of Belgium and 
Holland, which varied but slightly, being generally very 
nearly equal to two and a half local feet, or rather less ; 
the consideration of these may now be neglected entirely. 
The German and Scandinavian ells may be divided into 
two sets, those that are or were exactly equal to two 
local feet, and those that are independent of any con- 
venient ratio or of any well-defined ratio to the local 
foot. The values of the former may be obtained by 
reference to the table of German feet in which those 
marked with an asterisk merely require doubling to give 
the value of the local ell ; the latter set in most instances 
are less important, generally from having been used in 
less important towns and from being detached measures 
of limited application ; hence their values are only given 
in a few special cases. The same remarks apply to the 
ells of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and of the German 
cantons of Switzerland. 

The English ell, down to the time either of Henry 
VII. or perhaps of Queen Elizabeth, was always 
identical with the yard ; the Elizabethan ell of 45 
English inches was probably an imported modification 
of some French aune of 44 larger French inches, and 
is now happily obsolete : the French aune has also 
been practically obsolete for some time, owing to the 
facility of replacing it by the metre. The foreign names 



CH. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 23 

of the ell are : in German and Flemish, elle ; in Dutch, 
el\ in Danish, alen ; and in Swedish, din. 

The Italian bracci, like the Teutonic ells, were mostly 
used merely for measuring cloth and fabrics of silk and 
haberdashery, and in a few instances were submultiples 
of the canna, but in hardly any case have any well- 
defined ratio to the local foot, when such a foot exists. 
Sometimes the foot is absent from a local system, or is 
little used as a submultiple, its place being supplied by 
the braccio and the canna or pertica, and their submulti- 
ples ; and this occasional deficiency of the foot, added to 
the habits and customs of adhering to so-called obsolete 
measures, renders the braccio not by any means an 
unknown unit in Italy, at places distant from the 
principal towns. Its values are hence given in the tables 
following this chapter. The braccio sometimes is sub- 
divided into 3, and sometimes into 2\ or 2^- palms, the 
palms being submultiples of the canna ; but as a rule the 
braccio is in practice merely divided into halves or thirds 
as required. These Italian bracci are entirely distinct 
from the Spanish and Portuguese braza, braga, and 
brasada, and the French brasse marine, which are fathoms. 

The Spanish codo de ribera, formerly used in the 
arsenals, was exactly two local feet, while the ordinary 
codo of commerce was half a vara, or a foot and a 
half; the Portuguese covado, on the contrary, was not 
originally a fixed submultiple of the local vara, though 
it was a double foot. The values of these are given in 
the tables of linear measures at the end of this chapter. 

The Russian arsheen, an Oriental cubit, originally was 
divided into 32 palez or digits, and was equal to 2-3557 
English feet ; and at one time it was divided into 2 local 
feet in a manner corresponding to most of the German 



24 METRICAL UNITS. PART u 

and Scandinavian ells ; but as it was also the third of 
the sasheen, Peter the Great reduced the arsheen to 2^ 
English feet, thus making the sasheen exactly 7 English 
feet, and causing the English and the Russian foot to be 
identical in value. The arsheen is divided into sixteen 
werschock. 

The various Oriental and Levantine piks, or draa, 
in present use, are said to be mostly derived from the 
Arabian or Hashemic cubit of Omar, deraga akhdam, 
of 8 palms or 32 digits, the value of which is estimated 
to be 2'io English feet, and from the larger Phileterian 
cubits, of 8 and of 7 palms, whose values are variously 
estimated at from 2-433 to l '&3 English feet. The inves- 
tigation of these various piks seldom leads to very useful 
trustworthy conclusions ; even the pik of the Cairene- 
Nilometer, now estimated at about 18-19 English inches 
from recent measurement, \vas formerly supposed to be 
identical with the black cubit of the Khalifat, variously 
stated as 21 '26 and 21*34 English inches. The usually- 
accepted values of the modern piks are given in the 
tables of linear measure. 

The Indian, Indo-Chinese, and Malayan cubits still 
existing are supposed by some metrologists to have had 
their common origin in the Arab Hashemic cubit, and 
their reduced values to be merely due to the degradation 
of the two ancient cubits of India and of China, which are 
assumed to have been identical with the former. Whe- 
ther this is a correct theory, and whether either of those 
two cubits were Hashemic cubits, is apparently very 
doubtful. Judging from the facts that the ordinary 
hath or Indian cubit, of the present day and for long 
past, has been 18 English inches, that the Burmese taim 
has the same value, that the less-used district Indian 



CH. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 25 

cubits rarely exceed 19 English inches, that the Thai' 
(Siamese) sok is 20 English inches, and the Chinese 
and Malayan cobid vary between 1 5 and 20 inches, the 
above supposition seems hardly tenable. 

It is, however, very possible that some special sacred 
or royal ancient Indian hasta, as well as the Royal 
saundaung of Burma, may be correctly attributed to that 
origin ; while the ordinary hath, from being near in 
value to the Olympic or Egyptian cubit also used by 
the Phoenicians, may have been brought into the country 
by Alexander the Great, or by any of the races entering 
India from the west at any time, or by the maritime and 
commercial Phoenicians trading with them. 

However this cubit may have been introduced, its 
identity with the English cubit is very remarkable. The 
double-cubit, or gaz, of India is also identical with the 
English yard ; the principal distinction consisting in 
that the Indian hath is the primary unit, whereas the 
English yard is, at least at present, the primary unit in 
the other case ; while the subdivision of the gaz and 
hath into inches, in the Roman and English style, is 
locally unknown in India, although customary in Burma. 
The ordinary Indian subdivision of the hath is : 

I hath = 2 spans = 8 girah. 

Also, I hath = 6 palms = 24 digits or ungli = ^2 jao 
(barleycorns). 

Some of these subdivisions are adhered to and some 
omitted in various provinces and towns, but none of 
them correspond to the English inch in length. 

The Chinese cubit is subdivided decimally ; and the 
Malayan cubits mostly into halves and quarters. 

The values of the various piks, haths, and other 
cubits are given in the tables following this section. 






6 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

THE YARD. 

The yard, as known in England, has been consid- 
ered a purely primitive unit of measure, an Anglo-Saxon 
girdle, developed into the Winchester yard of King Edgar ; 
but the alternative theory, that it was an approximate 
double-cubit, adopted during the four centuries of 
Roman sway, and borrowed from the Romans, is equally 
tenable. The vara of Spain and of Portugal, which alone 
correspond to it in Europe, afford indication of support 
to the latter theory, while the additional argument con- 
veyed by the fact of the ordinary Indian yard or gaz 
being a recognised double-cubit, and also equal to the 
English yard, seems entirely conclusive as regards the 
latter being a double-cubit derived from some source. 
Its value too indicates that its original cubit either was 
an Egyptian natural cubit coming through Phoenician 
traders, or in some other way, or was a Roman cubit 
(ulna). The analogy afforded by the other English land- 
measures points to the latter conclusion ; the old 
London mile of 5000 feet or 1000 paces was a Roman 
mile retained to a very recent epoch, while the actus 
simplex of the Romans was a rectangle, 120 feet (40 
yards) long by 4 feet in width, and the English acre was 
established by old statute as a rectangle 40 poles in 
length by 4 in width ; an evident similarity in mode 
which indicates that the Roman double-cubit may have 
been actually used for measuring land in England for 
centuries before the Saxon invasion. In the statutes of 
the Norman dynasty, and even till the time of Henry the 
Seventh, the term ell (ulna) was applied to the yard, the 
words being indiscriminately used for the same measure ; 
the aune of France and Normandy being the measure 



CH. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 27 

nearest to the Anglo-Saxon yard known to those that 
drafted the statutes. It is hence reasonable to imagine 
that, when the witangemot of King Edgar decreed ' the 
measure of Winchester shall be the standard/ it enacted 
in pithy Anglo-Saxon a uniformity that did not pre- 
viously exist, that the Roman double-cubit and the 
Saxon gird were till then of different value, but thence- 
forth rendered identical by adjustment on a Winchester 
standard. The term verge applied to the English yard 
in the Anglo-Norman statutes does not convey simply 
a connection between it and the French, Belgian, and 
Norman verges, these latter being invariably poles of 
from 1 6 to 22 feet in length ; the term terra virgata, or 
terre vergee, in the same way was merely an expression 
for measured land that was naturally convenient to the 
Franco-Norman priests that acted as scribes in drawing 
up enactments at that early period ; for they then 
thought and wrote in accordance with their own ideas; the 
vergee being a quarter of the Norman acre, as the rood 
latterly was the quarter of the Anglo-Saxon acre. The 
more correct term would doubtless have been terra ulnata, 
as in England it was the Roman double-ell that had 
been principally and for long time the land-measure, 
and not especially a mesure daunage, or cloth-measure ; 
an arrangement exactly the reverse of the French 
custom. 

The subdivision of this compounded yard and double 
ell was necessarily two-fold, one, the Roman mode, 
dividing it into 3 feet or 36 inches ; the other, the Saxon 
method of natural application to a girdle measure, by the 
folding and successive halving the girdle length, and thus 
producing sixteenths ; both these modes are adopted in 
the exchequer standard yard of Henry VII. 



28 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

The complete series of subdivisions in accordance 
with English tradition is : 

I yard 2 cubits = 3 feet = 4 spans = 9 hands 

= 1 2 palms = 1 6 nails = 36 inches = 1 08 barley- 
corns. 

The Spanish vara, which alone among the measures 
of Europe corresponds exactly to the English yard, was 
about as much shorter than the Roman double-cubit as 
the English yard was longer, but was not divided into 
sixteenths, the mode of subdivision being : 

i vara = 2 codos = 3 pies = 4 palmos = 36 pulgadas 
= 48 dedos, or digits. 

The Portuguese vara was a measure less neatly sys- 
tematised, being thus : 

i vara= if covado =5 palmos de craveira ; 
the covado, or perhaps the palmo, being the more primi- 
tive and ordinary unit, one covado being equal to three 
palmos, 24 pollegadas, or 36 dedos. 

It may be noticed that the palmo of Spain, Italy, and 
the palme of Southern France is not a palm but a 
span. 

The Indian gaz is not only a distinct double-cubit 
identical in value with the English yard, but is also di- 
vided into sixteenths, in the Anglo-Saxon method ; the 
habit of measuring with the personal cubit and that of 
doubling the girdle-length to obtain a measure being 
still practised. 

The ordinary modes of subdividing the common 
Indian gaz are thus : 

1 gaz = 2 hath = 4 spans=i2 palms = 24 tassu 

= 16 girah 48 ungli, or digits=i44 jao or 
barleycorns. 



CH. II. LINEAR MEASURES. 29 

But at some places on the Malabar side the local gaz 
consisted of \\ or 1} hath, or of a certain number of 
local tassu ; these being exceptional cases. 

The geza or gaz of Persia and Arabia differ greatly 
from the Indian gaz. 

The values of all the secondary measures correspond- 
ing to the English yard will be found grouped in one set 
in the tables at the end of this section. 

Considering the yard as a double-cubit it may be 
said to correspond in this respect to the stab or double- 
ell of Germany and the large French aune, also a double- 
ell ; the values of these will not be found in the tables, as 
those of the stab can be easily deduced from the ells by 
multiplying them by two, and in many cases from the feet 
by multiplying them by four ; while the French aunes 
may be considered not only as perfectly obsolete since 
1 840, but as possessing no further interest. 

THE FATHOM. 

The primitive personal fathom was the natural mea- 
sure applied to a cord in measuring it with the extended 
arms to the fullest extent, nearly equal to a man's height ; 
convenience developed this either into lengths marked 
along the cord, or into short rods or canes of fixed length 
for enabling it to be done. The fathom or cane, when 
systematised in a series of measures, was eventually made 
some simple multiple either of the local foot, or the cubit ; 
in a few cases of the local span ; and in occasional but 
comparatively rare instances it was made identical with 
the pace or double-step. 

The fathom being thus a secondary unit in almost 
all systems, it merely becomes necessary here to give the 
ratio that it bears to the primary unit. 



METRICAL UNITS. 



In England the fathom is now treated as a sounding 
measure of six feet, subdivided in practice to quarters, 
and termed the common fathom ; the distinctive nauti- 
cal fathom being a decimal submultiple of the nautical 
mile, and cable-length, thus : I nautical mile= 10 cables 
= 1000 nautical fathoms, this fathom being about -gL- or 
an inch longer than the common fathom. 

The foreign names of the fathom are : 



German : Faden, Klafter, 
Lachter, Dumpflachter. 

Dutch : Vaam. 

Flemish : Vaem. 

Danish : Favn. 

Swedish : Famn. 

French : Brasse marine, 
Toise. 

Spanish : Braza, Estado, 
Brazada, Toesa. 

Portuguese : Bra^a, Toesa. 



Italian : Cavezzo, Trabucco, 
Canna, Pertica, Tesa, 
Bracciata. 

Russian : Faden, Sasheen. 

Polish : Sazen. 

Hindi: Danda. 

Chinese : Pu. 

Japanese : Ikje. 

ThaT(Siam): Wa. 

Malayan : DepaJi. 



In Europe generally the fathom is not merely a 
sounding-measure, but also used in land-measure, and 
for works of construction ; sometimes having different 
names in accordance with its mode of use, and some- 
times also having different values when applied in these 
various ways. 

Its proportions are or were thus : 

In Germany and Austria the faden and klafter were 
merely different names for the same unit, consisting of 6 
local feet ; and in Holland, Belgium, Denmark, and 
Sweden, the fathoms or toises were all of 6 local feet 
The exceptions are the modern klafter of Darmstadt of 



CH. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 31 

10 local feet ; the lachter used in mines, which is 6 local 
feet in Prussia and 7 local feet in Saxony ; and the 
Bohemian dumpflachter, 4 Bohemian ells. 

In France generally, under the old system, the brasse 
marine was 5 local feet, but the toise 6 local feet ; in 
Burgundy the toise was 7^ local feet, and in some few 
places 5^, 6^, 7, or even 8 local feet. In Spain, the 
estado, braza, brazada, and toesa, were all names for a 
measure of 6 local feet ; but the brazada of the Canaries 
was 6J local feet. In Portugal the braca as a sounding- 
measure was 5 local feet, but was also termed either a 
braga or a toesa for other purposes when it was a measure 
consisting of 2 local varas or 6 local feet. In some 
parts of Switzerland the klafter or toise was 8 local feet, 
and in others the toise was also the perch and consisted 
of 10 local feet. The Italian fathom, generally termed 
the cavezzo, but taking the name trabucco in Piedmont, 
Nice, and Sardinia, is almost invariably equal to 6 local 
feet ; the exceptions are the cavezzi of Florence and of 
Mantua, equal to 6 local bracci, and the trabucchi of Nice 
and of Sardinia, equal to 12 local spans (palmi). The 
sasheen of Russian land-measure is 7 Russian or English 
feet, but there is also a fathom identical with the English 
fathom. The Polish sazen is reputed to have been 6 
local feet. 

The Chinese pu is the pace of. 5 Chinese feet with 
which the national fathom is identical. The ink or 
tattami of Japan, also a pace, is equal to 6^2355 English 
feet ; and the ikje of commerce and cloth-measure is 
nearly 7 English feet, a long fathom. The wa of That 
(Siam) of 4 local cubits is equal to 6 English feet, and 
the depah of Sumatra, Prince of Wales Island, and some 
other places in the Malayan Archipelago, is equal to the 



32 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

English fathom, and is subdivided into 8 spans (jaukal). 
The Indian danda was 2\ local gaz. 

Among all these fathoms, the French toise holds the 
prominent place of affording the origin of a new system 
of measures ; the half-toise, slightly modified and named 
a metre, having been made the basic unit of the metric 
system, hereafter described. 

The proportions of the whole of this series of fathoms, 
or measures corresponding to the fathom, being here 
given, their actual values may be easily calculated from 
the values of the foot, or of the cubit or yard, given in 
the tables, excepting in one case, that of the Italian 
canna or pertica, which bears no direct proportion either 
to the bracci or the piede, and cannot be termed a perch 
in the general sense of the term, which indicates a much 
larger measure. This measure, termed the canna in 
commerce and pertica in land-measurement, was exceed- 
ingly variable in value all over Italy ; it was generally 
equal to 8 local spans (palmi), in a few places equal to 7 
spans, 7^, 7^, or 7 spans, and in Sardinia 10 spans ; at 
Rome and at Florence the canna of commerce was 8 
spans, but the canna of works of construction and build- 
ings 10 spans ; the tesa of Savoy was 6 Chamberi feet, 
and the Neapolitan bracciata was simply a French brasse 
marine of 5 French pieds du roi. This detail would not 
be worthy of mention, so long after the Italians have 
adopted the metric system, were it not a land-measure, 
and on account of the long survival that so-called obso- 
lete land-measures pre-eminently enjoy. There seems 
however, to have been no need for these incongruous 
Italian canne or pertiche, as the Italian cavezzi and 
trabucchi, which were convenient measures used all over 
Italy for the same purpose, and also multiples of bracci 
or piede, could always be made to take their place. 



CH. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 33 

THE ROD AND THE POLE. 

The rod, rood, pole, perch, lug, are various names 
applied to large linear measures of land -measure, that 
sufficiently indicate their origin ; the values of measures 
of this type, when distinct from fathoms, generally lie 
between 10 and 25 local feet, or some approximate 
corresponding values in cubits or yards. It would, 
however, be a mistake to imagine that the rod, the pole, 
and the perch have always been* measures of exactly the 
same sort ; there seems little doubt that the rod was 
generally a small unit, a double pace, or double fathom, 
either 10 or 12 feet, while the pole was between 12 and 
24 feet. 

In Italy the canna or rod was a small'unit used both 
for land-measure and cloth-measure, an approximate 
fathom ; the exceptional or large canne of Tuscany and 
Sardinia alone being true rods. 

In early English times the rod was probably a Roman 
pertica of 10 feet, while the pole had its present' value 
as a special English term, and the foreign perch or ruthe 
was from about 14 to 24 feet ; the present EngHsh unit 
is evidently one of compromise, to which the term pole 
is alone strictly applicable. 

In England there were formerly several local pole 
measures, 6 yards, 7 yards, and 8 yards ; the pole of 5^ 
yards or \6\ feet, still remaining, seems to have been 
adopted not from any advantage it possesses as a linear 
measure, but because its square, the square pole or perch, 
the y-J-oth part of the acre, supplied a mode of arriving at 
the latter through calculation, in a method analogous to 
the Roman mode of deriving the actus quadratus. 

At present the English linear pole may be considered 
D 



34 METRICAL UNITS. TART i. 

a practically obsolete measure as far as surveyors are 
concerned, besides being an inconvenient and unnecessary 
unit of calculation. It seems even very doubtful whether 
a linear pole of any other length would not be also an 
entirely needless intermediate unit of calculation. 

For the practical purposes of measuring land with 
deal rods under ordinary circumstances, rods of 10 feet 
are most convenient, as shown by the demands of 
Canada for numerous lo-feet standards mentioned in the 
reports of the Warden of the Standards for the last 10 
years ; but rod-measurement being less rapid than 
chaining, the latter mode of measuring has generally 
superseded the former ; and the rod is hence mostly 
used merely for taking offsets in surveying. The term 
rod, though under old legal statute applicable to the pole, 
is actually more often applied to the lo-foot rod, which 
is the tenth of the Ramsden chain of 100 feet, and forms 
a convenient intermediate unit in the decimal system of 
measures based on the English foot. The pole or perch 
may be considered a mere nominal unit not alone in 
England, but almost everywhere. In Spain where they 
have, as in England, a yard (vara) of 3 local feet, a 
fathom (estado or braza) of 6 local feet, and a double- 
fathom (estadal) of 12 local feet corresponding to 
our rod the estadal was practically disused both in 
measurement and in calculation, the vara being the unit 
of calculation, the braza being occasionally used, and 
perches almost unknown. In Italy there was, properly 
speaking, no perch at all that corresponded to European 
perches, the cavezzi and trabucchi used for the same 
purpose being fathoms of 6 local feet, while the so-called 
pertica was really a canna, and merely an approximate 
fathom of a particularly inconvenient kind, as before 
explained. 



CH. II. 



LINEAR MEASURES. 



35 



The Russian arsheen used in land-measure is a local 
fathom, and the perch does not exist ; the Japanese ikje 
is also a local fathom, and the perch is either wanting, 
undiscoverable, or identical with it. 

The foreign terms applied to rods, poles, and perches 
are 



Germany and Sweden : 

Ruthe. 

Dutch and Flemish : Roede. 
Danish and Norwegian : 

Rode. 
French, also in Belgium : 

Perche and Verge. 
Italian : Canna and Pertica. 



Polish : Pretow. 
Arabic : Gassab. 
Hindi : Vansa. 
Burma : Dha. 
Sumatra : Jamba. 
Chinese : CJiang. 
Guinea : Jacktan. 



The German ruthe is also termed a land-ruthe, feld- 
ruthe, or wald-ruthe, in accordance with the description 
of land measured, and sometimes varies in value on that 
account alone. In a few exceptional cases in Germany, 
the value of the linear ruthe has been unduly forced into 
prominence by attempts to form on its basis a decimal 
series of measures, and by forming an additional land- 
foot from it in that way. 

The reds of the following countries and places con- 
sisted of 10 local feet or were double paces : 



Baden. 

Bavaria. 

Denmark 

Norway. 



and 



Darmstadt. 
Frankfurt. 
Elsass and Loth- 
ringen. 



Vienna. 
Wurtemberg. 
Zurich and Basel. 
China. 



The rods of Prussia, Franconia, Wiirzburg, Anspach, 
and Constance were double fathoms, or equal to 12 local 
feet. 



D 2 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART 



The gassab or Arab rod is 12 local feet or 8 cubits. 
The dba of Burma is equal to 7 royal cubits (saun- 
daung) or 12 feet 10 inches of English measure. The 
jamba of Sumatra is 4 haila, or equals 4 English yards. 

The poles of Lithuania, Silesia, and Poland were 1 5 
local feet. 

In the following places and provinces the pole was 
1 6 local feet : 

Aachen. 
Bremen and 

Hamburg. 
Brunswick and 

Hanover. 
Coblenz. 

Other poles, verges, ruthes, &c., were thus : 



Coin. 


Mecklenburg. 


Creveld. 


Mayence. 


Gotha. 


Nuremberg. 


Luxemburg. 


Pomerania. 


Leipzig. 


Weimar. 


Lippe-Detmold. 





Gotha and Hesse : 14 local 

feet. 
Oldenburg and Paris : 1 8 

local feet. 



Old Indian Vansa : 10 

cubits. 

Normandy : 22 local feet. 
France, generally from 20 

to 22 local feet. 



The present Dutch roede is 10 metres, and the perche 
or ruthe of Baden and the Canton de Vaud is 3 metres. 
The metric French perch, adopted in the transition 
period, was 10 metres. 



THE ROPE OR CORD 

The cord or rope is a measure slightly more obsolete 
than the rod, pole, or perch ; in England there were 
several of these measures, the principal being the cords 
and ropes of 20 feet and of 25 feet. In Spain the 
cuerda was either 25 local feet, or 8 local yards (varas). 



CH. II. LINEAR MEASURES. 37 

In Brittany the corde was equal to 4 Parisian fathoms, 
toises, or 24 Parisian feet, but more correctly was 3 
gaules, an old fathom of Brittany ; 80 square cordes went 
to the journal of Brittany, which slightly exceeded the 
English acre. The chainee of Poitiers was equal to the 
corde of Brittany ; and the chainee of Tours and other 
places was equal to 25 Parisian feet ; all these measures 
being evidently of one type. Although obsolete, this 
measure is of a convenient length for common rough land- 
measurement ; the cause of its abandonment is doubtless 
due to the practical inaccuracy of rope-measurement 
from shrinkage ; but as thick wire or wire-rope would 
not be open to this objection, would coil easily, and be 
inexpensive, there is yet some possibility of a future 
revival of some such measure, from its practical supe- 
riority over the pole in point of convenience in every 
way. 

THE CHAIN. 

The chain of land- measure varies, or has varied in 
different parts of the world, from about 50 to 150 feet in 
length. In England at the present day there are two 
chains in use, one the so-called Gunter's chain of 4 poles, 
equal to 22 yards or 66 feet, a submultiple both of the 
statute mile and the acreside ; the other, the Ramsden 
chain of 100 feet, suited to the convenience in detail of 
surveying, arrived at by keeping all measurements in 
feet and decimal submultiples. 

As to the real origin of the former chain, there is 
little information available about ancient English chains ; 
the old Scotch chain was equal to 24 Scotch ells or 74*4 
present English feet ; a more modern one exactly 74 
feet ; the old Roman chain factus) was 24 Roman paces, 



38 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

or 1 20 Roman feet ; and both the Ptolemaic Phileterian 
and the Greek chains (amma) were 60 local feet. This 
last value being near the short English chain, it may be 
conjectured to have been either an imported Phoenician 
unit of measure, or a half Roman chain, until readjusted 
as a multiple of the pole by Gunter. 

The long chain was probably a modified Roman chain, 
as its square is very nearly a rood, but its reintroduction 
is very modern, probably dating from not long before 
the time of Ramsden, and the commencement of the 
Ordnance Survey of England. 

The following are the foreign names for the chain : 



German : Schnur, Seil, 

Kette. 

Dutch : Snoer. 
Polish : Sznurow. 
French : chaine. 



Italian : catena. 
Spanish : cadena. 
Thai': Sen. 
India : Tendb. 



The German chains are said to have been generally 
10 rods in length, and, as many of these rods were 10 
feet, they were mostly chains of 100 local feet. In other 
cases they were more, the Danzig seil being 1 50 local 
feet ; so also the schnur of Kcenigsberg and Pillau. 
The sznurow of Poland was 1 50 local feet. The Bohe- 
mian wald-seil was 42 local ells, and the weinberg-seil 
64 local ells. 

The Arab chain is 10 gassab (poles) or 120 local feet; 
the ancient Indian tenab was 50 gaz (yards) ; and the sen 
of Thai' (Siam) is 20 wa (fathoms) or 80 local cubits (sok). 
The metric chain, used by nations that have adopted 
the metric system, is 20 metres, or, as it is termed by 
the French, a double-decametre. 

The values of the various fathoms, rods, cords, and 



CH. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 39 

chains, which are in all cases secondary units of linear 
measurement, can be obtained by treating them as mul- 
tiples of the foot, or from values given in the table at 
the end of this chapter. . 

THE ACRE-SIDE. 

The acre-side, the rood-side, or the side of the prin- 
cipal measure of surface used by any nation, is often a 
linear unit of importance in calculation, although very 
frequently not an acknowledged legal unit, and unfortu- 
nately sometimes so entirely lost to sight in the arrange- 
ments of a system of measures as to be rendered most 
incongruous and inconvenient in its relation to other 
linear measures. 

For instance, the English acre-side is 

208710326 ft. = 69-5701085 yds. = 3478505425 fathoms 

= 12-6491106 poles= 3*1622777 Gunter's chains 

-=2-08710326 Ramsden chains. 

The English rood-side is 

I04'355 l62 9 ^. = 347850543 yds. = 17-3925272 fathom 

= 6-3245553 rods= 1-5811388 Gunter's chains 

= 1-043551629 Ramsden chains. 

But in the French system, the side of the hectare is 
exactly 100 metres, and the side of the arc is 10 metres. 
Even in Sumatra, the linear orlong, or local acre-side 
corresponding to the square orlong, or local acre, is 
exactly 20 jambas (local perches) or 80 haila (English 
yards) in length ; while the side of the jamba or local 
square perch is a linear jamba of 4 hailas. 

The side of the Arab feddan is exactly 240 local 
feet ; the side of the Spanish cuadra cuadrada is exactly 



40 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

150 local varas ; the side of the Bavarian tagwerk is 
exactly 20 perches or 200 local feet, so also is that of 
the Baden morgen ; that of the Piedmontese giornata 
was I2ojocal feet, and that of the Mecklenburg acre 10 
local perches, or 160 local feet. 

The side of the Tyrolese starland is 10 perches or 
100 feet. The side of the Venetian migliajo was, like 
the English acre-side, exceedingly inconvenient, being 
v/ 1000 passi or 31 '622776 paces of 5 local feet ; although 
the migliajo itself of 1000 square passi was well arranged 
with respect to the miglio or mile of 1000 passi ; as it 
formed the thousandth part of the square mile ; and 
this is a typical case illustrating the inconvenience of 
using thousands in square measure ; in the same way as 
the hectare, are, and square metre show the advantages 
of hundreds and myriads for the same purpose. The side 
of the Darmstadt morgen was 20 klafter or 200 local feet, 
and several other acre-sides of Germany and France were 
equal to 10 or to 12 local perches or ruthes, as may be 
seen by inspecting the table of acres and taking the 
square roots of the number of square perches and square 
feet of which they are composed. But the greater part 
of the remaining acre-sides, &c., in present use do not 
bear any such convenient relation to other linear measures 
of the system, so that a record of their values would 
not be of much use in any calculations. 



ITINERARY MEASURES. 

THE FURLONG of 40 poles long, unknown by that 
name out of England, is a modification of the Roman 
stadium, which was an eighth of the Roman mile, and 
nearly equal to the Olympic <TTO&IOV. There are corre- 



CH. II. LINEAR MEASURES. 41 

spending estadios in Spain and in Portugal, that are 
eighths of the national miles, and consist of 125 paces. 

The present value of the English furlong adapted 
to the English statute mile a modern arrangement is 
132 paces, but as the Old London mile of 1000 paces 
was the local form of the Roman mile, its former value 
was 125 paces. 

At present it may be termed a mere expression for 
the eighth of the mile that is in use, and a multiple of a 
disused pole, but can hardly be considered a measure. 

The values of the furlong and estadios may be reduced 
from the values of the corresponding miles given in the 
table at the end of this chapter. 

THE MILE. Among the itinerary measures of the 
civilised world, the mile has, since the Roman period, 
been the principal and the most important. The mile, 
considered as a simple measure of distance taken from 
primitive personal measures, was 1000 paces or pairs of 
steps ; but the mile, in a system of national measures, 
consisted of 1000 reputed paces or units called paces, 
which among the Romans was 5 Roman feet, so that 
the Roman milliarium was 1000 paces or $000 feet. 
The Old London mile, which, as well as the rebuilding 
of London, was due to the Romans, was correspondingly 
5000 local feet. 

The old Irish mile of 320 Irish perches was 6720 
English feet, and the old Scotch mile of 1920 Scotch 
ells was 5929-6 English feet ; there were also several 
ether local miles in England before the modern statute 
mile of 5280 feet, or 1056 paces, was adopted as the 
Imperial unit. This last was evidently a systematised 
mile, arranged to make the mile exactly 320 poles, and 
the square mile exactly equal to 640 acres an unfortu- 



42 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

nate mode of disposition that entirely neglected the 
consideration of that important unit, the acre-side. 

Had the land-mile been made 6000 feet, or 2000 
yards, in length, and the acre-side exactly 200 feet 
instead of 2087, there would have been exactly 30 acre- 
sides to the mile, and also exactly 900 acres to the 
square land-mile ; a preferable arrangemem that would 
have adjusted the whole, altered the acre slightly, and 
abolished the pole entirely. Such a mile would have 
been one-fifth longer than the London mile, and easily 
estimated in calculation ; besides becoming identical 
with the correct and typical Indian kos of 2000 gaz 
(yards) of Indo-Germanic origin. 

However much the statute mile and its complication, 
may be regretted, there is no doubt that any departure 
from the original London mile would have entirely 
altered the type from the milliarium of 1000 paces ; 
while the change actually made removed the mile from 
one type without putting it into another class of 
itinerary, and rendered it an exceptional measure. 

Among all the miles of antiquity since the Roman 
period, no such modification of the type appears to have 
been ever made. The other type of mile is an itinerary 
measure roughly approximating in value to a milliarium, 
such as the Chinese li of 360 paces, or 1800 local feet ; 
the Russian werst of 500 sasheen, or 3500 feet ; the 
French kilometre of 1000 metres ; and the Indian cos 
of 2,000 yards ; also the Hebrew Saturday walk of 
2000 cubits, or about 4000 feet, which cannot be 
correctly termed a journey. 

The values of the modern miles, that are approxi- 
mately milliaria of the Roman type, are given in the 
tables of miles at the end of this chapter ; it will, how- 



CH. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 43 

ever, be noticed that the German stage-miles do not 
follow this type, and are given separately ; the small 
itinerary measures of some nations are also given apart. 

THE LEAGUE appears to be in general an itinerary 
unit representing an hour's walk, based on the ancient 
parasang f Chald?ea, Persia, and Arabia, and the later 
parasangs of Egypt, Asia Minor, and Armenia. 

Most of these consisted of 3 local miles, but some of 
them of 4 local miles. The surviving parasang of 
modern times, the Turkish agasha, is 3 berri ; and the 
leagues of most modern nations that adopted Roman 
milliaria are generally 3 miles ; among these the English 
had a league of 3 statute miles, which is not a legal unit 
at present, and hardly even survives in the language of 
the people as an expression. The term league being hence 
free, it is proposed (see ' Scientific System ') to apply 
it to a unit of two Old London miles, 10000 feet, or 100 
Ramsden chains, which is nearly equal to three kilometres, 
and thus to complete the decimal series of measures based 
on the foot. 

The discarded French postal league consisted of two 
old French miles. 

The German stunde is a measure corresponding to 
the league, conveying the same idea of the hour's walk, 
and it is very possible that the old stunden of Germany, 
of which those of Westphalia, Baden, Bavaria, Wiirtem- 
berg, and Bohemia, retained the longest vitality, were 
primitive units of itinerary measure in that country, 
although latterly they have been treated as secondary 
measures or halves of the large German post-miles or 
stages. 

In countries that were destitute both of an approxi- 
mate Roman milliarium, and of a stage-measure or post 



44 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

mile, and any very large itinerary, the hour's walk could 
neither be a multiple of the one nor a submultiple of the 
other ; as, for instance, the old Flemish and Dutch uer 
and uur, which were primary measures consisting of 
1000 verges or roede, or 20000 local feet Also the 
roeneng of Thai' (Siam), of 2000 local fathoms (wa) ; 
and the dain of Burma, of 1000 dha or local perches. 

The Chinese pou, consisting of 8 li or nearly 4 Eng- 
lish miles, is a league of the secondary description, being 
a tenth of the tsan or journey. 

The values of the primary leagues are given in the 
table following ; but those of most secondary leagues 
may be obtained either by multiplying the miles 
(milliaria) by three, or by dividing the Germaji post-miles 
(stages) by two. 

THE STAGE, post-mile., gross-mile, or staging-distance 
of Germany is an itinerary measure not to be confounded 
with the ordinary miles, or milliaria, before mentioned, as 
it belongs to an entirely different type. The Teutonic 
and Scandinavian meil is a stage, or stathm. 

Referring to ancient measures, we find a stathm or 
stage as a unit of measure in use in Syria and Asia 
Minor, consisting of 6 Egyptian miles ; also a stathm 
used in Persia and Western Asia that was equal to 4 
parasangs or leagues, and was therefore nearly 12 miles ; 
the latter stage being very nearly double the former. 
Now, double measures of many sorts were quite a com- 
mon institution in Asia in ancient times, and probably 
also double stages ; also there was the postal-stage for 
runners, and that for mounted men or for horses, as well 
as the stage that consisted of a day's march or a journey. 
The latter stathm was probably a journey, while the 
former seems to have been a postal distance, corre- 



CH. II. LINEAR MEASURES. 45 

spending to the Teutonic post-meil of about two 
leagues. In India there was in ancient times a yojana 
of 4 ancient kos, which may have been from 5 to 6 miles, 
and was probably a postal-stage of the same type, though 
nominally a journey. The values of the various primary 
post-meil and gross-meil are given in the table. 

THE JOURNEY, day's walk, or day's march, is now an 
obsolete itinerary measure in Europe, and nearly so 
elsewhere. The Norwegian and Westphalian postal- 
meil, and Swedish and the old Hanoverian polizei-meil, 
the longest of their type, do not exceed 7 English miles 
in length, and are therefore merely stages. In Asia, the 
journey was in many countries a specified measure, of 
which the various corresponding miles, leagues, and 
stages were well-defined submultiples. 

The present tsan of China is= I pou = 8o li. 

The ancient marhala of Arabia =8 parasangs. 

The South-Indian kadam = 7 nali-vali. 

The gavada or journey in Maisur had two values, the 
ordinary and the large gavada, one about 10 miles, the 
other about \2\ miles; and in India generally, to the 
present day, stages or camping-grounds are fixed at 
distances on a route, called a kunch or march, that are 
about 10 miles ; while the duna kunch, or double march 
of 20 miles, is similarly recognised. There are probably 
in several other countries accepted notions of the journey 
as a unit of measure that have not received the attention 
of metrologists. 

GEOGRAPHICAL AND NAUTICAL ITINERARY MEASURES. 

Measures of this type differ from all the preceding 
itinerary measures in that, instead of being multiples of 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



common and commercial linear measures, they are sub- 
multiples of some estimated geodetic quantity or value, 
such as the polar or the equatorial axis of a mean 
terrestrial sphere, a terrestrial meridional quadrant pass- 
ing through some country or town, a mean degree of 
latitude, or of longitude, either on the earth as a sphere, 
as a spheroid, or on any great circle of the earth. 

The geographical mile is considered in England to 
have a value that varies with the latitude ; adopting the 
English method of treating the geographical mile as a 
minute of latitude, or a sixtieth of a degree, its value for 
any locality would have to be deduced from the nearest 
recorded or estimated values, such as the following : 



Latitude. 

At o 

lo' 

20 

45 

50 

54 



Value of the mile. 

Feet. 
6045-5 
6044 '4 
6054-3 
60757 
6082-5 
6085-1 



But the more usual Continental method, as far as 
the books of foreign metrologists indicate, apparently 
was to treat the geographical mile as a sixtieth of a 
fixed value of a mean degree of latitude, determined 
or deduced from such measurements as have been 
afforded by various geodetic surveys. The value they 
use for their purpose is equal to 6076-98 English feet (at 
the scientific value) ; according to another computation, 
taking iiri34 metres as= 12 1-540 yards, the value 
would be 6077-00 feet. On referring to the latest Eng- 
lish book on the subject of 'The Science of Weighing and 




LINEAR MEASURES. 47 

Measuring and Standards of Measure and Weight/ by H. 
W. Chisholm, Warden of the Standards (London, 1877), 
the mean length of a degree of the meridian is stated to 
be 364591 English feet, at page 26 of that book; thus 
making the minute 6076-52 English feet Taking the 
old accepted mean diameter of a sphere corresponding 
to the spheroid to be 7912-5 statute miles, a minute of 
mean latitude becomes 6076*36 English feet ; but the 
higher value of 79167 miles gives 6076*52. 

This variation in the estimated value of a mean 
minute of latitude amounts as a maximum to about f of 
a foot, or one per myriad ; if this were a final maximum, 
it might not be considered excessive, but future geodetic 
measurement and astronomical observation, aided by 
modern devices, such as electric communication, and 
electric-light signals, may cause perpetual alteration of 
the estimated value. The insufficient information now 
available, based on limited geodetic measurements, is at 
present fatal to accuracy and certainty. The recent 
triangulation across the Straits of Gibraltar, aided by the 
electric light, has enabled a connection to be formed 
between European and future African series ; ,but until a 
few degrees both of latitude and longitude at and on the 
equator have been actually measured, not only by per- 
sons of some single nationality having particular metro- 
logic views and objects, but by scientific men of several 
nations, the nucleus of geodetic measurement may be con- 
sidered a mere embryo. At present the world is believed 
to be a doubly oblate spheroid, oblate at the poles, and 
oblate on the equator at 105 34' of longitude ; future 
measurements may prove so much variety of configura- 
tion as to greatly alter the mode of reduction to mean 
sphere, and thus doubly affect the variation in value of 
the mean minute of latitude. 






48 METRICAL UNITS. PART 






Under these prospects it is perhaps better not to 
attempt any fresh reduction of Continental geographical 
or of nautical miles to commercial or scientific measures 
of length, but to leave them in. their original form, as 
submultiples of a mean degree^of; latitude, whatever it 
may be. 

The geographical mile of Prussia, and of Poland is 
an arc of 4 minutes,, or 15 miles to the mean degree ; a 
larger mile of 5 minutes,, or 1 2 miles to the mean degree 
is also adopted in Germany as well as in Bohemia ; a 
geographical mile of six. minutes, or 10 miles to the 
degree, is adopted in Norway. The geographical 
leagues of France in former times were the common 
league of an arc of 2' 24", or 25 leagues to the mean 
degree, and the mean league of an arc of 2' 42", or 
22-f leagues to the mean degree. 

The Italian mile is a geographical mile of I minute, 
or 60 miles to the mean degree. According to English 
notions, as before explained, none of these would be 
geographical miles. 

Nautical miles and leagues may be estimated in 
several ways ; first, as an English geographical mile, or 
length of a minute of a degree of latitude at mean sea- 
level, varying with the latitude from 6046 feet to 6107 
feet ; second, as a Continental geographical mile, of one 
minute of a mean degree of latitude, or about 6076*5 
feet or 1*1508 statute mile; third, as the value of 
a minute of a supposed mean degree of longitude 
at the equator, or about 6086-5 feet, or 1*1528 statute 
miles. The Continental nautical miles are determined by 
the second method. Besides the nautical miles thus 
determined, there are arbitrary knots or sea-miles in 
common use : first, the common knot of 6082*66 feet or 



en. ii. LINEAR MEASURES. 49 

1*15202 statute miles; second, the Admiralty knot of 
6080 feet or 1*1515 statute miles. The sea-league is 
equivalent to three sea-miles or knots as the case may 
be ; and the sea-miles and knots are subdivided into 10 
cables or 10000 fathoms, such cables and fathoms being 
termed nautical cables and nautical fathoms, to distin- 
guish them from the common or land units. 



COMMERCIAL AND SCIENTIFIC VALUES. 

The English equivalents of the foreign metrical units 
of length, given in the following table, are arranged 
separately as commercial and scientific values. The 
whole series of commercial measures is by law deter- 
mined at the English normal temperature of 62 Fahren- 
heit in air under special average conditions of pressure, 
air-density, latitude and so forth ; this rather intricate 
arrangement affords the commercial man practically 
possible conditions under which he may compare his 
units with standards, and arrive at a close approximation 
to exactitude in any single detached unit. It hence 
meets the requirements of separate branches of com- 
merce, and fulfils its object ; although for scientific and 
for more extended purposes it fails, in that the relation 
between units of weight and volume is complicated. 

The whole series of English scientific values of units 
of measure is determined at 32 Fahrenheit in vacuo ; 
though the water used for comparison of weight and 
volume is at its maximum density, involving a tempera- 
ture of about 39. The relation between units of weight 
and volume is hence more simple ; and the system is 
more suited to technical and scientific purposes. The 
decimalised series of scientific units, based solely on the 

E 



50 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

foot, square foot, cubic foot, and foot-weight render com- 
parison with French units excessively simple throughout. 
The comparison of English scientific units with English 
commercial units of length is effected by allowing for 
the linear expansion of brass or bronze for 30 differ- 
ence of temperature, about 0*000285, which can be 
easily applied in the form of a percentage ; this small 
quantity seriously affects values in large units. 

The French metric units are determined at 32 and 
39 in the same way, and constitute a scientific system ; 
no special arrangement to suit commercial purposes 
forming part of the system. 

In comparing units belonging to systems of dif- 
ferent temperature, contraction or expansion, has neces- 
sarily to be taken into account ; this allowance has been 
made in the following tables. 



CH. II. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



IMPERIAL AND NATIONAL FEET. 



Foot of Great Britain, America, Russia, 
and of their dependencies and colonies, 
at the normal temperature of 62 Fahr. 

The same at the temperature of 32 Fahr. 

Rheinfuss of Norway, 1 Denmark, 1 and 
Prussia ...... 

Foot of Sweden l and Finland ] 

Foot of the Austro- Hungarian Empire . 

Spanish foot ...... 

Portuguese foot' ..... 

Chinese foot of the Board of Works, 
Kambuchih 



English 
Commercial 


English 
Scientific 


French 
Scientific 


Equivalent. 


Equivalent. 


Equivalent. 


Feet 


Feet 


Millimetres 


I -0000 


0-9997 


30471. 


1-0003 


1-0000 


304-79 


I -0300 


1-0297 


3I3-85 


0-9743 


0-9740 


296-87 


I -0373 


1-0370 


3I6-08 


0-9134 


0-9132 


278-33 


I -0830 


1-0827 


330-00 


1-0594 


1-0591 


322-8I 



FORMER AND LOCAL SPECIAL FEET. 



GERMANY: 
Rheinfuss, Prussia 
Anspach, Baireuth l 
Altona, Hamburg 1 
Baden (metric foot) } 
Bavaria (ordinary foot) . 

,, (Werkschuh) 1 . ... 

Culm 1 , 

Bavaria, Rhenish .... 

Bremen '..... 

Brunswick l . 

Coin and Aschaffenberg l 

Danzig l ..... 

Elsass (Stadtschuh) 

,, (Landschuh) 

Gotha 

Halle 1 

Hanover J ..... 

Heiligenstadt and Erfurt J 

Hesse Darmstadt l . 

Hesse (Electoral) ordinary l . 

,, ,, (Landfuss) . 

,, ,, (decimal Landfuss) 

Holstein 1 

1 The ells of these countries and places 



. I -0300 


1-0297 


3I3-85 


. 0-9839 


0-9836 


299 -80 


. 0-9402 


0-9399 


286-5 


. 0-9846 


0-9843 


300 


. 0-9578 


0-9576 


291. -86 


. 0-9721 


0-9718 


296-2 


0-9455 


0-9452 


288-1 


. I -0939 


1-0936 


333 '33 


. 0-9491 


0-9488 


289-2 


0-9365 


0-9362 


285-36 


. 0-9438 


0-9435 


287-6 


. 0-9416 


0-9413 


286-9 


. 0-9491 


0-0488 


289-2 


. 0-9681 


0-9678 


295 


0-9439 


0-9436 


287-62 


. 0-9472 


0-9469 


288-63 


. 0-9586 


0-9583 


292-10 


. 0-9291 


0-9288 


283-1 


. 0-8205 


0-8203 


250 


. 0-9442 


0-9439 


2877 


. 0-9350 


0-9347 


284-9 


. 1-3091 


1-3087 


398-9 


. 0-9795 


0-9792 


298-45 


were = 2 local feet ; the stab = 2 ells. 


2 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



FEET continued. 


English 
Commercial 


English 
Scientific 


GERMANY : 


Equivalent. 
Feet 


equivalent. 
Feet 


Lippe Detmold ' . 


0-9501 


0-9498 


Lothringen ...... 


0-93 8 5 


0-9382 


Liibeck 1 and Rostock l . 


0-9448 


0-9445 


Miinster l ...... 


0*9544 


0-9541 


Mecklenburg Strelitz and Schwerin ' 


0-955 


0-9547 


Nassau (Werkfuss) 


0-9846 


0-9843 


,, (Landfuss) .... 


i -6409 


1-6404 


Nuremberg (Stadtfuss) .... 


0-9972 


0-9969 


(Artilleriefuss) . 


0-9261 


0-9258 


Oldenburg ...... 


0-9727 


0-9725 


Saxe Weimar (Werkfuss) ' . . 


0-9255 


0-9252 


,, (Landfuss) 


i -4808 


1-4804 


***{$$$. : : : : 

Silesia (Prussian) J . 


0-9291 
0-9276 
0-9450 


0-9288 
0-9274 
0-9447 


Wiirtemberg 


0-9402 


0-9399 


Worbis 1 


0-9402 


0-9399 


SWITZERLAND : 






Berne and Freiberg .... 


0-9624 


0-9621 


Basel 


O'QQQC 


0-9992 


Saint Gall l 


w yyyj 
I -OOO"? 


1-0090 




1 V^V/^^ 
I "6OI2 


1-6007 


Claris, 1 Grisons, Uri, 1 Waadt, 1 Valais, 1 






Schweitz 1 


O-9846 


0-9843 


Lucerne, 1 ordinary foot .... 


I -0300 


1-0297 


,, Joiners' foot . 


0^972 


0-9969 


,, Land and Works 


0-9328 


0-9325 


Neufchatel, Landfuss .... 


O-9624 


0-9621 


,, Feldmessfuss 


0-9424 


0-9421 


Rheinfelden, Vienna foot 


1 >0 373 


1-0370 


Schaffhaus, 1 Werkschuh. 


0-9776 


0-9773 


Ticino, Brazetto of artisans , 


i -3029 


1-3025 


Zug ' (ordinary foot) .... 


0-9846 


0-9843 


,, (Steinschuh) ..... 


0-8818 


0-8815 


Zurich l (ordinary foot) . 


0-9846 


0-9843 


,, (Steinschuh) . 


0-9891 


0-9888 


FRANCE : 






Former^pied de roi ou de Paris, duod. . 


i -066 1 


1-0658 


Pied metrique (from 1812 to 1840), duod. 


1-0939 


1-0936 


NETHERLANDS : 






Old Amsterdam voet, undec. . 


0-9291 


0-9288 


Old Brussels 


0-9050 


0-9047 



1 The ells at thej.e places were = 2 local feet ; and the sta'u 2 ells. 






CH. II. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



FE ET continued, 
AUSTRIA : 
Imperial foot ...... 


English 
Commercial 
Equivalent. 
Feet 

1*0373 
0-9727 
0-9746 
I -0439 
0-9714 
1-1696 
0-9498 
1-0965 

I -0000 

I -066 1 

0-8728 
0-8995 
0-9452 

0'9002 

1-4368 

I -2474 

1-5457 
1-5868 

I- 5323 
1-4283 
1-7166 
1-1729 

17875 
1-6307 
1-6861 
1-1241 
i -7423 
0-9776 
1-1139 
1-1412 

1-1253 
1-1729 

0-9134 
9-9922 
0-8434 

0-9271 
0-9975 
i-o65 1 

et ; and the 
:se places w 


English 
Scientific 
Equivalent 
Feet 

1-0370 
0-9724 
0-9743 
1-0436 
0-9711 
1-1692 
0'9495 
1-0962 

0-9997 
1'0658 
0-8725 
0-8992 
0-9449 
0-8999 

1-4364 
1-2470 
1-5452 
1-5863 
1-5318 
1-4279 
1-7161 
1-1725 
1-7870 
1-6302 
1-6856 
1-1238 
1-7418 
0-9773 
1-1136 
1-1409 
1-1250 
1-1726 

0-9132 
0-9919 
0-8431 

0-9268 
0-9972 
1-0658 

stab = 2 ells 
re = 6 local 


Fr 

Sci< 
Equ 
Milli 

31 

29 
29 

31 

29 

11 

33 

30 
32 
26 

27 

2& 

27 

43 
38 
47 
48 
46 
43 
52 
35 
54 
46 

5* 

34 
53< 
29 
33 
34 
34 
35 

27 
30 
25 

28 
30 

32< 
feet. 


Galicia 1 
Illyria, Trieste 
Moravia ...... 
Poland (Cracow stopa) ' ... 
Silesia 1 


Tyrol 


RUSSIA : 

Imperial foot ..... 
Lithuania l . . 
Revel 1 
Riga 1 
Poland (Warsaw stopa) l after 1819. 


ITALY : 

Bergamo 2 ...... 
Bologna (^ pertica) ... 
Brescia 2 ..,.,, 


Cremona 2 ...... 


Milan (agrarian foot) 2 . 
Modena 2 


Padua 2 
Parma (agrarian foot) .... 
Piacenza 2 ...... 


Piedmont (piede liprando) " . 
,, (piede mamiale) 
Reggio 2 
Rome ...... 


Savoy (Chamberi) ..... 
Venezia 2 ...... 
Verona 2 ...... 
Vicenza 2 ...... 

SPAIN : 
Castile 


Valencia ...... 


AMERICA : 

Mexico, Peru, Chili, La Plata, La Havana 
(old Spanish foot) .... 
Pernambuco 
Quebec (pied du roi) .... 

The ells at these places were = 2 local fc 
8 The fathoms (cavezzi or trabucehi) of th< 



54 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



FEET continued. 

INDIA : 
Malabar ady 

CHINA : 

Kambuchih, or kongpuchih of the Board 

of Works 

Chih of the Imperial Survey (1700) 
Chih of the Tsing dynasty since 1644 



Canton customs chih, of the British treaty 

,, retail merchants' <chih . 

, , wholesale merchants' chih . 

,', architects' chih . 

,, tailors' chih . 
Pekin, Palace chih for works . 

,, * Imperial statistics chih 

,, Tribunal of Mathematics chih 

,, Board of Works chih (doubtful 
value) . 

,, ordinary chih . 

,, land ehih ..... 

,, architects' chih . 

,, tailors' chih . 

,, mercers' chih . 
Nankin commercial chih 
Shanghai land-revenue chih . 

,, custom-house chih . 

,, ship-builders' chih . 

,, , artisans' chih . 

,, carpenters' chih 

,, tailors' chih .... 
Amoy ordinary chih .... 
,, custom-house chih . . 
,, traders' chih for fabrics 
Macao customs chih . . 

,, wholesale merchants' chih . 
,, retail merchants' chih . 
,, artisans' chih . 
Tientsin tradesmen's chih 

,, ordinary chih .... 
The chih= 10 tsun= 100 fan 



English 
Commercia 


English 
Scientific 


Equivalent. 


Equivalent. 


Feet 


Feet 


0-8717 


0-8714 


I '0594 


1-0591 


I -0083 


1-0080 


I '0487 


1-0484 


AJES. 
1-1750 


1-1747 


1-2133 


1-2130 


i -2270 


1-2267 


i '05.83 


1-0580 


1-2238 


1-2235 


i -0390 


1-0387 


1-0333 


1-0330 


i -0932 


1-0929 


i -0283 


1-0280 


i -0567 


i-0564 


1-0729 


1-0726 


i -0487 


1-0484 


1-1013 


1-1010 


1-1217 


1-1214 


1-1614 


1-1611 


1-0984 


1-0981 


1-1740 


1-1737 


1-3083 


1-3080 


i -0474 


1-0471 


0-9284 


0-9281 


i -1600 


1-1597 


1-0083 


1-0080 


0-9860 


0-9857 


I-O2OO 


1-0197 


II2I 55 


1-2152 


I-222O 


1-2217 


1-2000 


1-1997 


I-I300 


1-1297 


I-I4I7 


1-1414 


I-0300 


1-0297 



almost invariably. 



JAPAN : 

Ordinary shaku or jaku = 10 sung = 

100 bu x 0-9909 I 0-9906 

Kujirad shaku for fabrics . . . i -2500 | 1'2497 
1 This is the latest correct value obtained in 1881. 



301 -94 



CH. II. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH, 



FEETcentintutf. 

MANILA : 

The Castilian pie. See General Values. 
A Chinese chin for ship-building &c. 



English 

Commercial 

Equivalent. 

Feet 



English 

Scientific 

Equivalent. 

Feet 

1-1512 



Equivalent. 

Millimetres 



CUBITS, ELLS, BRACCI, ETC. 

England, North America, and India cubit I '5000 | 1'4995 [ 
DENMARK, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN: 



Swedish aln 


. I -9486 1-9480 


Danish ell = 2 feet 


. 2-0600 2-0594 


Iceland ale 


. 1-8731 1-8725 


GERMANY. The German 


ells were very often 2 


local feet ; see Table of 


Feet. Those that did 


not consist of two local feet were the following : 


Anhalt elle 


. 2-0869 2-0863 


Bavaria (34^ zoll) .... 


. 2-7338 2-7330 


Berlin, Prussian (25^ zoll) 


. 2-1887 2-1880 


Coblentz . . . 


. 1-8812 1-8807 


Coburg ...... 


. i -9242 1-9236 


Frankfurt, Homburg 


. 1-7962 1-7957 


Gotha, Saxe Gotha 


. 1-8465 1-8460 


Hof, Bavaria. .... 


. 2-0914 2-0908 


Mannheim, Baden .... 


. 1-8316 1-8311 


Nassau ...... 


. i -8230 1-8225 




i -8969 1-8964 


Wurtemberg ..... 


. 2-0159 2-0153 


SWITZERLAND : 




Altorfelle 


2-3024 2-3017 


Berne ...... 


. 1-7805 1-7800 


Basel (elle or braccio) 


. 1-7722 1-7717 


Langenthal ..... 


. 2-0452 2-0446 


Neufchatel (elle or halberstab) 


. 1-8233 1-8227 


Rheinfelden (Argau) 


. i -7985 1-7980 


Uznach ...... 


. 2 -02 1 1 2-0205 


. AUSTRIA : 




Austro- Hungarian Imperial elle 


. 2-5518 2-5511 


Hungary (Kaschau) 


. 1-9804 1-9798 


Buda-Pesth 


. 1-8831 1-8826 


Cracow lokiec = 4 cwierci 


. 2-0249 2-0243 


Transylvania (Clausenberg) . 


. 2-0458 2-0452 




2-5949 2*5941 


Tyrol (generally) .... 


. 2-6393 2-6385 




2-5801 2-5793 


,, (Trent, for wool) . 


. 2-2210 2-2203 . 


( for silk) . 


. 2-0085 2-0079 



METRICAL UNITS. 



C U BI TS contin ued. 

AUSTRIA : 

Illyria (Trieste, for wool) 
, ( for silk). 

NETHERLANDS : 



Amsterdam el ( 
Brussels el 



1 6 talien) 



English 

Commercial 

Equivalent. 

Feet 

2-22IO 
2-1069 



2-2830 



ITALIAN BRACCI, formerly in 
general use : 

Ancona 2-1791 

Bergamo ...... 2-1506 

Bologna (and for silk at Brescia) . . 2-1003 

Brescia (for woollen fabrics) . . . 2-2119 

Carrara (commercial braccio) . . . 2-0338 

Casale 2-1706 

Cremona ...... 1*9524 

Firenze and Livorno (J pertica = 2 palmi l 
= 20 soldi ; and Pisa, braccio di panno, 
i pertica= 12 crazie) . . . .1-9153 

Forli 2-0198 

Genoa ( = 2^ palmi) . . . I -9077 

Lucca (for silk) ..... I -9462 

,, (for woollen) .... 1-9855 

Mantua 2-1129 

Milano (= 12 oncie) before 1803 . . 1-9523 

Modena 2-0774 

Napoli ( = 2 palmi, ' spans) . . .2 -2930 

Novara I'97I5 

Padua (for silk) ..... 2-0922 

,, (for woollens) .... 2-2350 

Parma (di legno, foot, and | pertica) . 1-7792 

(for silk) 1-9214 

,, (for cloth) ..... 2-1003 

Pavia 1*9523 

Perugia. ...... 2*1218 

Piacenza 2-2153 

Reggio (braccio = 12 oncie) . . . 2-1037 

Ravenna 2-2063 

Rimini ....... 2-1010 

Rome (3 p. for woven goods) . . . 2-0872 

,, (4 p. ordinary commerce) . . 2-7831 

,, (6 p. sacri,) braccio di ara . . 2-4614 

Siena (for woollen goods) . . I -2393 

,, (for linen ,, ). . . . 1-9700 

Sinigaglia (for silk and cloth) . . . 2-1791 

,, (for local cloth . . . 2-5665 

Trevico 2-2010 

Trevisa (for silk) 2-0807 

1 These palmi were substitutes for feet 



English 

Scientific 

Equivalent 

Feet 

2-2203 
2-1063 



2-2566 
2-2823 



2-1785 
2-1500 
2-0997 
2-2113 
2-0332 
2-1700 
1-9518 



1-9147 

2-0183 

1-9071 

1-9456 

1-9849 

2-1123 

1-9517 

2-0768 

2-2923 

1-9709 

2-0916 

2-2343 

1-7787 

1-9208 

2-0997 

1-9517 

2-1212 

2-2146 

2-1031 

2-2056 

2-1004 

2-0866 

2-7823 

2-4607 

1-2389 

1-9694 

2-1785 

2-5657 

2-2003 

2-0801 



en. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



57 



CUBITS continued. 


English 
Commercial 


English 
Scientific 


French 
Scientific 


ITALIAN BRACCI : 


Equivalent. 
Feet 


equivalent. 
Feet 


Equivalent. 
Millimetres 


Trevisa (for woollen) 


. 2-2186 


2-2179 


676 


Udine (for silk) .... 


. 2-0872 


2-0866 


6 3 6 


,, (for woollen) 


. 2-2349 


2-2342 


68 1 


Urbino 


. 2-2950 


2-2943 


699-3 


Venezia (for silk) .... 


. 2-0961 


2-0955 


638-7 


Venezia (for woollen) 


. 2-2429 


2-2422 


683-4 


Verona (for silk) .... 


. 2-1081 


2-1075 


642-4 


,, (for woollen) 


. 2-1299 


2-1293 


649 


Vicenza (for silk) .... 


. 2-0922 


2-0916 




,, (for woollen) 


. 2-2655 


2-2648 


690-3 


Swiss AND TYROLEAN BRACCI : 






Basel . . . . 




1-7717 


- 


Bolzano ..... 


I -8042 


1-8037 


54975 


Lugano (piccolo) .... 


. 1-7271 


1-7266 


526-3 


(tango) .... 


. 2-2277 


2-2270 


678-8 


Locarno (for silk) .... 


. 1-5748 


1-5743 


479-8 


,, (the ordinary) . 


. I -9693 


1-9687 


600-05 


Roveredo (for silk) . . . 


. 2TI02 


2-1096 


643 


,, (for woollen) . 


. 2-2940 


2-2933 


699 


Ticino (for silk) .... 


. I-727I 


1-7266 


526-3 


Ticino (the ordinary) 


. 2-2277 


2-2270 


678-8 


Trent (for silk) .... 


. 2 -0709 


2-0703 


631 


(for cloth) .... 


. 2-3039 


2-3032 


702 


Unterwalden . .... 


. 1-8719 


1-8716 


570-45 


Wintherthur and Zoffingen 


. 1-9938 


1-9932 


607-5 


Zoffingen (retail) .... 


. 2-0478 


2-0472 


624 


BRACCI OF THE IONIAN 


ISLANDS : 






Cephalonia, Cerigo, "\ (for silk) . 


. 2-1151 


2-1145 


6 44'5 


Corfu, Thiaki, Paxos, 1 /f or cotton 








Santa Maura, and ( _J. ? r w i?" 


. i 2-2662 


2-2655 


690-5 


Zante . . . J and woollen 


) J 






SPAIN, PORTUGAL, AND 


BRAZIL : 






Codo = \ vara = \\ pie 


1-3701 


1-3698 


4I7-5 


Codo de ribera = 2 pies 


. i -8269 


1-8264 


556-67 


Lisbon covado = 24 inches 


. 2-1660 


2-1654 


660 


,, commercial, 24^ inches 


. 2-2338 


2-2331 


680-6 


Oporto covado .... 


. 2-1796 


2-1789 


664-1 


Goa covado ..... 


2-2333 


2-2326 


680-4 


Brazilian covado = 25! inches 


. 2-1397 


2-1391 


652-2 


commercial covado . 


. 2-2219 


2-2212 


677 


RUSSIA : 








Arsheen = 16 vershok 


2-3333 


2-3327 


711 


Ancient arsheen = 32 palez 


2-3564 


2-3557 


718 


Crimean pik ..... 


3-I983 


3-1973 


974-5 


Crimean halebi, or arsheen 


. 2-3987 


2-3980 


730-9 


Old Warsaw lokiec ' 


1-9543 


1-9538 


595-5 


1 The lokiec of 1819 was = 2 stopa. 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



CUBITS continued. 


English 
Commercial 


English 
Scientific 


ROUMANIA : 


Equivalent. 
Feet 


Equivalent. 
Feet 


Bucharest halibin '-,'....> 


23015 


2-3008 


,, endezah . 


2-1736 


2-1730 


TURKISH AND GREEK PIKS 


. 




Stambul pik halebi, or arsheen (silks 






and woollens) ..... 


2-3257 


2-325U 


Stambul draa, or pik endezah (cottons 






and carpets) ..... 


2-2556 


2-2550 


Stambul, common pik, Mekka standard = 






24 kirat 


2-2500 


2-2494 




2-O72O 


2-0714 


Albania, Valona pik 


2-054I 


2-0535 


,, Arta pik ... 


1-8722 


1-8716 


,, Negropont pik . 


2-O226 


2-0220 


Morea, Mistra pik ... 


I -4998 


1-5003 


,, Patras pik (for woollens) 


2-2514 


2-2507 


(for silk) 


2-0848 


2-0842 


Lepanto pik .... 


2-0866 


2-0860 


Negropont .... 


2-O226 


2-0220 


Candia 


2-0914 


2-0908 


Chios (large pik) ... 


2-2514 


2-2507 


,, (small pik) ... 


2-1669 


2-1663 


Cyprus pik .... 


2-2039 


2-2033 




2-4808 


2-4801 


SYRIA : 






Acra pik ... 


2-2750 


2-2743 


Aleppo and Alexandretta pik 


2-2222 


2-2215 


Damascus (large pik) 


2-0744 


2-0736 


,, (small pik) 


I-9IOI 


1-9095 


Jerusalem pik 


2-25I4 


2-2507 


Sidon pik 


1-9841 


1-9835 


Smyrna pik . 


2-2500 


2-2493 


Tripoli pik . 


2-2506 


2-2499 


ARABIAN PIKS : 






Mesopotamia, Bassara, an Aleppo pik 
Mesopotamia, Bassara hadid (for cotton 


2-2083 


2-2076 


and linen) ...... 


2-8500 


2-8492 


Arabia, Moka pik ..... 


I-5830 


1-5825 


, , Mekka pik = 24 kirat . 


2-2500 


2-2494 


,, Beyt al fakiah pik 


I -5000 


1-4995 


EGYPTIAN PIKS : 






Alexandrian pik endazi (for cotton) . 


2 -0692 


2-0686 


,, ,, beledi (for linen) 


I-8379 


1-8373 


,, ,, Stambul (for cloth) 


2-2194 


2-2187 




r87E(2 


1-8746 


Cairo pik endazi (for Oriental silks) 


L */ j* 
20951 


2-0945 



CH. II. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



CUBITS continued. 

EGYPTIAN PIKS : 
Cairo pik beledi (for cloth and cotton 
Cairo pik Stambul (for European silks) 
Cairo pik mehandeze (for land) = 24 kirat 
Abyssinia, a Jurkish pik 

ALGERIAN, BERBER, AND 
Algeria, the Turkish pik = 8 robi . 
,, the Moorish or Arab pik . 
,, Oran pik ..... 
Tunis pik (for woollen fabrics) 
,, (for silken ,, ) 
,, ,, (for linen ,, ) 
Morocco covado .... 
Also a Moorish pik 
Barbary, Tripoli pik = 3 spans 
,, arbidraa or small pik 

PERSIAN PIKS: 
Bandar Abbas pik .... 
Bushahr gezcha .... 



INDIAN HATH : 



Common hath = i gaz = 2 spans . . 
Ahmadnaggar hath = y gaz . 
Belgaum hath .... 
Bangalur hath = gaz = 8 gira 
Dharwar hath .... 
Jaulna hath 24 ungli = 8 gira 
Masulipatam hath = 3 spans . 
Ranibednor hath .... 
Surat hath = 1 8 tassu . 
Bombay hath = 16 tassu 
Goa covado ..... 
Ceylon cobido .... 
Burma, ordinary cubit = 1 8 pulghat 
,, royal saundung = 22 pulghat 

CUBITS OF EASTERN ASIA : 

Singapore (asta) ; Prince of Wales' Island 
(asta = depa) ; Sumatra, Fort Marl- 
borough (esto = \ depoh) 

Sumatra, common etto . 

Thai (Siam) sok =2 kub= 12 niu . 

China Canton, Cachao, Pekin, ! 
Islands (cubit = 10 fun) 

Moluccas, Amboyna, Malacca (cubit) 

Java, Bantam (cubit) 
,, Batavia ,, 

Anam thuok= IO tak 

Borneo hasta . 



English 
Commercial 


English 
Scientific 


Equivalent 


Equivalent. 


Feet 


Feet 


. 1-8657 


1-8651 


. 2 -2690 


2-2684 


at 2-5320 


2-5312 


. 2-2506 


2-2499 


MOORISH P 


IKS : 


. 2-1003 


2-0997 


1*5753 


1-5748 


. 2-2514 


2-2507 


. 2-2084 


2-2077 


. 2-0699 


2-0693 


I-5525 


1-5520 


. 17500 


1-7495 


. 2-1692 


2-1685 


. 2-2024 


2-2017 


. 1-5863 


1-5858 


. 2'OOI 


2-001 


1-533 


1-533 


. -500 


1-500 


. -125 


1-125 


604 


1-604 


592 


1-592 


. '625 


1-625 


400 


1-400 


'594 


1-594 


'573 


1-573 


742 


1-742 


500 


1-500 


233 


2-233 


-542 


1-542 


. -500 


1-500 


- -833 


1-833 


id 
rl- 
. 1-500 


1-500 


. 1-560 


1-560 


. i -666 
i 


1-666 


lu 
. 1-21-9 


1-219 


. 1-522 


1-522 


. i -650 


1-650 


. 2-250 


2-250 


. i -600 


1-600 


. 1-500 


1-500 



6o 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I 



DOUBLE-CUBITS. 



Yard, metre, vara, stab, aune, gaz, zar', &c. 



English 


English 


French 


GENERAL VALUES. EquSj 1 


Scientific 
Equivalent. 


Scientific 
Equivalent. 


q Yards ' 


Feet 


Metres 


England, North America, and India : the 






yard = 2 cubits = 3 feet = 16 nails ; or 






gaz = 2 hath = 16 gira ... .1 


2-9991 


0-9141 


The scientific value of the same at 32 . i -0003 


3 


0-9144 


Germany, Austria, and Switzerland : the 






stab 2 local ells. See tables of ells. 






France, Italy, &c. : the metre, or metro. ^ 






Holland and Belgium : the Nederlandsche 1 1 '0939 


3-2809 


I 


el or metre . . . . . . J 






Spain : the Castilian vara = 2 codos ordina- 






rios = 3pies 0-9134 


2-7396 


0-8350 


Portugal : the Lisbon vara= if covados = 






3?pes 1-2033 


3-6090 


I-IOOO 


Persia : zar' = 4 charak= 16 gira . . 1*1377 


3-4121 


I -0400 


Thai (Siam) : ken = 2 sok = 4kiib . . I'liil 


3-3324 


1-0157 


Sumatra : hailah = 2 esto = 4 jankal . . "1 
Borneo ella = 2 hasta . . . . J 


2-9991 


0-9141 


LOCAL OR FORMER SPECIAL ^ 


/A LUES. 




French aune (mes. anc.) . . . . 1-3001 


3-8992 


1-1884 


,, demitoise (mesures anc. ) . . 1-0660 


3-1973 


0-9745 


,, aune metrique (1812-1837) . . ~] 






Stab of Waadt, Valais, and Rhenish [ 1-3127 


3-9704 


1-2000 


Bavaria (metric) . . . . . J 






French demitoise metrique (1812-1837) .' 1*0939 
Vara of Aragon = 4 quartas o palmos . 0*8434 


3-2809 
2-5296 


0-77IO 


Barcelona = 4 palmos --= 1 6 quartos o -8490 


2-5460 


0-7760 


Galicia 1*1874 


3-5614 


I "0855 


Valencia = 4 palmos . . . 0-9921 


2-9757 


0-9070 


Canary I. . . . . . 0-9206 


2-7609 


o 8415 


Cuba, Mexico, and La Plata . 0-9277 


2-7822 


0-8480 


Chili, Peru, and Manila . . 0-9272 


2-7806 


0-8475 




2-7813 




Brazil ..... 1*1892 


3-5663 


I -0870 


Madeira I. . 1*2001; 


3-6000 


I -007? 



CH. II. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Double- Cubits continued. 



61 



ORIENTAL UNITS. 


English 
Commercia 


English 
Scientific 


French 
Scientific 


ARABIA : 


Equivalent. 
Yards 


Equivalent. 
Feet 


Equivalent. 
Metres 


Gaz of Mokha and Betel faghi . 


. 0-6943 


2-0823 


0-6347 


(An exceptional gaz that was probably a royal cubit.) 


MESOPOTAMIA : 




Gaz of Baghdad .... 


. 0-8797 


2-6382 


0-8041 


Hadid of Bassara .... 


. 0-9500 


2-8819 


0-8784 


PERSIA : 








General value of zar' = 2 kadam (step) 


. 1-1377 


3-4121 


I -0400 


Zar' of Yazd and Kirman 


. I -0666 


3-1989 


0-9750 


Common geza .... 


. 0-6893 


2-0674 


0-6301 


Royal geza ..... 


. I -0340 


3-1011 


0-9452 


Common arish .... 


I -0636 


3-1899 


0-9723 


Royal arish ..... 


. 0-8761 


2-6274 


0-8008 






3-1194 


O'9?o8 


Bandarabbas geza .... 


. I-0756 


3-2259 


0-9832 


Bandarabbas double cubit . . 


. 1-0503 


3-1500 


0-9601 


SOUTH-INDIAN 


LOCAL UNITS. 


The Imperial gaz or yard 


i 


2-9991 


0-9141 


Ahmadnaggar gaz= if hath 


. 0-6806 


2-0412 


0-6222 


Bangalur gaz = 2 hath 


. 1-0611 


3-1824 


0-9700 


Baroda gaz = 24 tassu 


07535 


2-2599 


0-6888 


Belgaum gaz = 24 tassu . 


. 0-9132 


2-7387 


0-8348 


Bombay gaz = \\ hath 


. 0-7500 


2-2494 


0-6856 


Calicut gaz ..... 


0-7889 


2-3661 


0-7211 


Cambai gaz ..... 


0-7777 


2-3325 


0-7109 


Dharwar gaz ..... 


. 0-9042 


2-7117 


0-8265 


Haidarabad (dakhan) gaz 


. 0-9815 


2-9436 


0-8972 


Jaulna (dakhan) gaz = 2 hath . 


0-9333 


2-7990 


0-8531 


Malwa gaz ..... 


. 0-7777 


2-3325 


0-7109 


Masulipatam gaz = 2 hath 


. i -0625 


3-1866 


0-9713 


Palamkattah gaz .... 


. i -0069 


3-0198 


0-9204 


Seringapatam gujah 


. i -0694 


3-2073 


0-9776 


Surat cloth gaz = 24 tassu 


. 0-7685 


2-3049 


0-7025 


,, artisans' gaz of 24 tassu . 


. 0-6666 


1-9992 


0-6094 


, , woodwork gaz = 20 wassa 


. 0-7246 


2-2632 


0-6898 



EASTERN ASIA : 

See General Values. 



62 



METRICAL UNITS. 



THE PACE, OR DOUBLE STEP. 



GENERAL VALUES. 

Pace of England and America = 5 feet 
The scientific value of the same at 32 Fahr. 
Ordinary schritt, pace of Germany = 5 

Rheinfuss ...... 

Geodetic schritt, pace of Germany = 

5-9016 Rheinfuss . 
Ancienne mesure, pas of France = 5 pieds 

du roi ...... 

Paso of Spain = 5 pie .... 

Passo of Portugal = 5 pe . 
Switzerland, pace of 5 Bernese feet . 
Arab kathuah of 6 old feet = | gassab 
Chinese pu ! or pace = 5 chih . 
Japanese ink or tattamy .... 

Sumatra gochih or depah of 4 cubits 



English 
Commercial 


English 
Scientific 


French 
Scientific 


Equivalent. 
Pace 


Equivalent. 
Feet 


Equivalent. 
Metres 


I 


4-9986 


1-52350 


1-0003 


5 


I-52395 


I-0300 


5-1486 


1-56925 


I-2I57 


6-0770 


1-85223 


I -066 1 


5-3289 


I -62420 


0-9134 


4-5659 


1-39167 


I -0830 


5-4135 


I -6500 


0-9624 


4-8108 


I -46628 


I -2602 


6-2993 


I -9200 


1-0594 


5-2955 


1-61405 


I -2472 


6-2337 


I -90000 


I-2OOO 


5-9983 


I -82826 



FORMER SPECIAL OR LOCAL PACES AND STEPS. 



Hamburg, ordinary double step, 4-8 local 
feet 


0-9026 


5-5118 


16 


,, geodetic pace, 6-535 local feet 
Berne, pas forestier 3 feet step 
,, pas agraire, z\ feet step 
Trieste, passo = 5 feet . . 

ITALIAN PASSI : 


1-2157 

0-5794 
0-4812 
1-0439 

0-9776 


6-0770 
2-8864 
2-4054 
5-2178 

4-8869 


1-85223 
0-87977 

i -59036 
i -480 to 


Tuscany, 3 bracci ..... 
Napoli, 2 7| palmi before 1840. 
,, geodetic pace (of 1840) = 7 palmi 


1-1492 
I -2898 

I '21 $7 


5-7442 
6-4473 

6-0770 


I "1^223 


Venezia, 5 piede ..... 
Bologna, 5 piede ..... 
Milanese pace ..... 
French Antilles, pas agraire, 3| feet step . 
Ionian Islands, 5 feet (Venetian) 
Patras pace, 5 feet (Parisian) . 


1-1401 
I -2474 
I -0847 
0-7463 
1-1401 
I -066 1 


5-7044 
6-2353 
5-4220 
3-7302 
5-7044 
5-3288 


I-73868 
I -90050 
I -65260 
1-13694 
I -73868 
I 62420 



1 The pu is also a fathom. 

' The passo di Napoli is also a pertica. 



CH. II. 



MEASURES Of LENGTH. 



England, Russia, "1 
and India J 
Russia 

Germany, generally 
Austria, generally 
Sweden 
Denmark 
Belgium 
Holland 

Fiance, old measures 
Spain 

Portugal 
Italy generally 
Switzerland 

China 

Japan 

Thai (Siam) 

Sumatra, Malacca, &c. 

Japan 

Anam 



FATHOMS. 
GENERAL RATIOS. 

Fathom or Danda < 
Sasheen 
I Faden or klafter 

> Famn or toise 

f Toise 

\ Brasse marine 

I Estado 

I Braza, brazada 

fBraga for soundings 

\Toesa or braga 

Cavezzo or trabucco 
f Klafter or toise 
\ also toise or perch 

Pu 

Ikje 

Wa 

Depah 

Keng 

Ngu 



2gaz 

6 local feet 
' 1 local feet 

= 6 local feet 



= 6 local feet 

= 6 local feet 

= 5 local feet 

= 6 local feet 

= 6 local feet 

= 5 local feet 

= 2 local varas 

= 6 local feet 

= 8 local feet 

= 10 local feet 

= 5 local feet 

= nearly 7 English feet 

= 4 local cubits 

= 4 local cubits 

= 6 local feet 

= 5 local cubits 



LOCAL OR SPECIAL RATIOS. 



Poland 

Savoy 

Darmstadt 

Prussia 

Saxony 

Bohemia 

Burgundy 

French provinces 

Canary Islands 

Florence and Mantua 

Sardinia and Nice 

Naples 

Rome 

Naples 

Florence 

Nice 

Malta 



Sazeen 

Tesa 

Klafter 

Lachter 

Lachter 

Dumpflachter 

Toise 

Brazada 

Cavezzo 

Trabucco 

Bracciata 

Canna 



= 6 local feet 

- 6 local feet 

= 10 local feet 

= 6| local feet 

= 7 local feet 

= 4 Bohemian ells 

= 7i local feet 

-5j to 8 local feet, 

various 
= 61 local feet 
= 6 local bracci 
= 12 local spans 
= 6 French feet 
= 8 palmi 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



AGRARIAN LINEAR MEASURES. 
GENERAL RATIOS. 

RODS. 

Rods ofW local feet, or double paces. 



Austro- Hungary 
Baden 
Bavaria 
Darmstadt 



Denmark 
Norway 
Frankfurt 
Elsass 



Lothringen 

Wiirtemburg 

Zurich 

Basel and Berne 



China 
Prussia 
England (new 
decimal series') 



Rods of about 12 local feet, or double fathoms. 



Prussia 




Arab gasab, 8 cubits 


= 12 local feet 


Franconia 


12 feet 


Burmese dha, 7 royal cub. 


= 12' 10" English 


Wiirzberg 




Sumatra tunga *l 8 , . 


, . 


Anspach 
Constance 


2 fathoms 


Guinea jaktan 


= 12' Eng. nearly 


Spain 




Turkish gasab 


= 63 arsheen 



POLES, PERCHES, VERGES, &c. 

Poles of "15 local feet. 
Lithuania, Silesia, and Poland. 

Poles of 16 local feet. 



Aachen 
Bremen, "\ 

Hamburg/ 
Brunswick, 1 

Hanover / 



Coblentz 
Coin 
C re veld 
Dresden, "I 
Leipsig/ 


Gotha 
Lippe-Detmold 
Luxemburg 
Maintz 

Mecklenburg 


Nuremberg 
Pomerania 
Weimar 

Sweden 



Other poles of -various values. 



Gotha ") 

Hesse- \ 14 local feet 

CasselJ 

England, 1G| local feet 
Ireland, 21 local feet 
Scotland, fall of 6 ells or 18 '53 feet 
Oldenburg} 181ocalfeet 

Normandy, 22 local feet 
France, 20 to 22 local feet 
Belgium, 16| to 201 local feet 



Dutch roede "1 , A 

Metric French perche/ 10 metres 
(Old) Amsterdam, 13 local feet 
(Old) Brussels, 16| local feet 

,, also verge, 20 local feet 
Baden ruthe "1 , , 
Waadt ) 3 metres 

Indian vansa, 10 local cubits 
Malabar culey, 24 adye 
Trichinopoly kolu, 21| feet English 
Anam Sao, 15 cubits 






CH. II. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



CORDS. 



Old English cord or rope . ^ 
Brittany and Poitiers corde 
Tours and other places in France 
Spain, cuerda = 8j varas . 



20 or 25 feet 

24 Parisian feet 

25 Parisian feet 
24| Castilian feet 



England (Older) . 
(Newer) . 

Germany . 

Dantzig . 
Koenigsberg . 
Bohemia. . 
Bohemia. . 

Poland 

France, Holland, and Belgium 
Valencia. . 
Naples . 
Arabia . 

India . 
Thai (Siam) . 

China 



CHAINS. 

Gunter's chain of 22 yards or 4 poles 
Ramsden's chain of 100 feet or 10 rods 

(in the series of decimal measures) 
generally chains of 10 rods, and mostly 

also of 100 local feet 
seil of 150 local feet 
schnur of 150 local feet 
waldseil of 42 local ells 
weinbergseil, 64 local ells 
snurow of 150 local feet 
chaine of 20 metres, or double-decametre 
cuerda of 40 local varas 
catena of 8 passi, also one of 10 passi 
chain of 10 gassab (rods) ori 120 local 

feet 

tenab of 50 gaz (yards) 
sen of 20 wa (fathoms> or 80 (local 

cubits) sok 
yu or yin of 100 chih , 



ACRE-SIDES. 



Austrian joch-side 

Baden, morgen-side 

Bavarian tagwerk-side 

Darmstadt, morgen-side 

England, cable (new series) or 

century-side 
France, hectare-side 
Mecklenberg, acre-side 
Piedmontese giornata-side 
Tyrolese starland-side 
Spanish fanegada-side 

,, cuadra-side 
Arabian feddan-side 
Sumatra, linear orlong 



= 40 klafter 
= 20 ruthen 
= 20 ruthen 
= 20 klafter 

= 10 chains 

= 5 chains 

= 10 ruthen 

= 20 trabucchr 

= 10 perches 

= 96 varas 

= 150 varas 

= 2 chains 

= 80 hailah (yards) 



: 240 local feet' 
= 200 local feet 
: 200 local feet 
= 200 local feet 

= 1000 feet 
100 metres 
160 local feet' 
120 local feet 
100 local feet 

' 288 local feet 
450 local feet 
240 local feet 
160 cubits 



A large number of countries possess rectangular land units of agrarian 
superficial measures, which do not afford an aliquot acre-side in feet, cubits, 
or yards. 



66 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART 1. 



ITINERARY MEASURES. 





^i 


j. B C* 


ORDINARY MILES, MILLIARIA, 


fil 


fl.l I'll 


AND CORRESPONDING UNITS. 


wJJ- 


wsj- ^sj 1 




Miles 


Leagues Kilom. 


English statute mile (since 1824) = 8 furlongs = 






1 760 yards =1056 paces . 


I 


0-5278 1-6089 


The same, reduced to 32 Fahr. 


I -0003 


0-5280 1-6093 


Old London mile = 1000 paces = 5000 feet 


0-9470 


0-4998 11-5236 


The same, reduced to 32 Fahr. 


0-9472 


0-5000 1-5240 


Irish mile = 2240 yards 


I -2728 


0-6718 2-0477 


Scotch mile = 1984 yards = 1920 ells 


I-I273 


0-5951 1-8137 


France, Italy, and the Netherlands, kilometre 






= looo metres ...... 


0-62I6 


0-3291 i 


Old French mile= 1000 toises 


I-2II4 


0'6395 1-9490 


Russia, werst = 500 sasheen = 3500 feet . 


0-6629 


0-3499 i -0665 


Spanish mill a = 1000 paces = 5000 feet . 


0-8650 


0-4566 1-3917 


Portuguese milha = | legoa = 6236-37 feet of 54 






to a mean degree ..... 


1-2792 


0-6752,2-0580 


Old Italian units. (See Geographical miles.) 






Roman mile = 1000 paces = 5000 feet 


0-9257 


0-5430 1-4895 


Milan mile = i ooo passi . . . . f . 


I-027I 


0-6024 1-6526 


Venice mile = I ooo passi. . . . ' . 


I -0807 


0-6839 7387 


Naples mile= 1000 passi (before 1840) . 


1969 


0-7020 -9257 


Tuscan mile = 28335 bracci = 5665 pertiche 


0278 


0-5425 -6535 




O36l 


0-5469 -6670 


Arab mile = 1000 kathuah or paces . 


wj^i 
1934 


0-6299 -9200 


Indian kos = 2000 gaz or yards 


1364 


0-5998 -8282 


Chinese li = 36o paces-: 1800 feet (B. Works). 






(See eeodetic li) . 


0-^612 


0-1906 o-;8n 



LEAGUES, STUNDEN, AND UER. 



The old leagues of England, Spain, Portugal, 
the sea league of Holland, the Turkish agasha, 
the Arab farsakh or parasang, consisted of 
3 miles ....... 

England, new league of the decimal system at 
32 = 10000 feet = 1000 rods = 100 chains = 10 
cables = 2 old London miles 

France, old post -league = 2 miles = 2000 toist s . 

Netherlands, old Amsterdam uer = 20000 feet . 
,, old Brussels uer = 20000 feet 

Baden stunde= 14815 feet . 

Bavarian stunde= 12703 feet . 

Anspach stunde= 14400 feet . 



(See Miles and Milliaria.) 



1-8945 


1 


3-0479 


2 -4229 


1-2789 


3-8981 


3'5!93 


1-8576 


5-6621 




1-8094 


5-5i5o 


2-7631 


1-4585 


4 '4454 


2-3044 


1-2164 


37075 


2-6823 


1-4164 





CH. II. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 





LEAGUES, &C. continued. 


ill 

bog > 
III 

CJW 


it 


||j 




Miles 


Leagues 


Kilom. 


Bohemian stunde = \ grossmeile 


. 2-8783 


1-5193 


4-6306 


Westphalian stunde = \ grossmeile . 


3-4538 


1-8231 


5-5567 


Swiss stunde = 1600 ruthen (metric) . 


. 2-9835 


1-5748 


4-8000 


India, Maisur hardari = 6000 guj ah . 


3-6458 


1-9245 


5-8656 


Burmah, dain = 1000 dha (rods) 


. 2-4306 


1-2830 


3-9104 


Thai (Siam), roeneng= 100 sen (chains) 




1-3330 


4-0628 


China, pou= 10 li . 


. 3-6116 


1-9064 


5-8106 


Japanese ri = 1 2960 shaku 


. 2-4321 


1-2838 


3-9129 


Persia, farsakh = 6000 zar 


. 3-8785 2-0473 


6-2400 


STAGES, GROSSMEILEN, 


POSTMEILEN, &c. 


Danish mill = 4000 favn . 


. 4-68191 2-4713 


7^325 


Swedish mil = 6000 famn 


. 6-6427 3-5064 


10-6872 


Russian or Polish meile = 8 verst 


. 5-3030 


2-7992 


8-5321 


German meile = 20000 Rheinfuss 


3-9015 


2-0594 


6-2770 


Prussian postmeile (Danish) 


. 4-6819 


2-4713 


7-5325 


Baden meil = 2 stunden . 


. 5-5261 


2-9169 


8-8907 


Anspach mile = 2 stunden 


. . 5-3666 


2-8328 


8-6342 


Hanover postmeile = 25400 feet 


. 4-6099 


2-4333 


7-4167 


Saxony postmeile = 24000 feet 


. 4-2233 


2-2292 


67946 


Silesia, Breslau mile = 22500 feet 


. 4-0274 


2-1257 


6-4790 


Weimar mile = 26096 feet 


. 4*5740 


2-4142 




Austro-Hungarian mile = 4000 klafter 


4"7 I 5i 


2-4889 


7-5859 


Old Hungarian mile 


. 5-1806 2-7346 


8-3350 


Bohemian grossmeile 


5-7567 


3-0385 


9-2612 


Old Lithuanian mile 


. 5-5264 


2-9170 


8-8907 


Old Livonian mile .... 


4. -06^6 


9-1MR 




Old Swiss mile .... 


. 5-1937! 2-7415 


8-3559 


Later Swiss mile = 24690 feet (metric) 


. 4-6039; 2-4302 


7-4070 


Indian kunch or stage = 10 miles 


. 10 


5-2785! 16-0886 



JOURNEYS, AND SPECIAL UNITS. 



Arabia, marhala = 24 miles = 8 farsakh 
Persia, journey =10 farsakh . 
India, Maisur gavada = 4 hardari 

,, ,, small gavada 
Madras kadum = 7 nalli valli . 
Burma, uzena = 6400 dha 
Thai (Siam), yot = 4 roeneng . 
China, tsan = 8 pou = 80 li 



28-6411 
38-7853 
14-5833 
10-9375 

1 1 -2OOO 
I5-5556 
lO'IOIO 

28-8930 


15-1183 
20-4728 
7-6978 
5-7734 
5-9120 
8-2113 
5-3318 
15-2512 


46-0800 
62-4000 
23-4625 
17-5969 
18-0193 
25-0267 
i6-2Sii 
46-4846 



F 2 



68 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



FORMER GEOGRAPHICAL MILES 


-sis 


^o| 


^o-S 


AND LEAGUES, 


|H 


fl'1.1 


111 


Estimated on the old asmmed metric value of 


w al 


W* 


^rf 


the mean degree of latitude then adopted. 


Miles 


Leagues 


Kilom. 


Former English, American, Italian, and Dutch 








nautical mile= I minute of arc; or 60 to i 










I "I ~ I ~" 


0-6077 


I-8=?22 


Neapolitan miglio of the geodetic system (after 






} 


1840)= IOOO passi = 7000 palmi . 


i'15'S 


0-6077 


1-8522 


China, old geodetic li of 200 to the degree (tu) 


0*3454 


0-1823 


0-5557 


Modern geodetic li of 250 to the degree (tu) 


0-2763 


0-1458 


0--T445 


Old French, Flemish, and Dutch sea league = 








3 minutes of arc, or 20 to i 


3-4540 


1-8231 


5-5567 


Portuguese legoa, 3| minutes, or 1 8 to I 




2-0257 


6-1741 


Prussian, Bavarian, and Polish league = 4 minutes 








of arc, or 15 to i 


4-6054 


2-4308 


7-4089 


German and Bohemian league = 5 minutes of 








arc, or 12 to i . 


5-75 6 7 


3-0385 


9-2612 


Norwegian and Westphalian league = 6 minutes 








of arc, or of 10 to the mean degree of latitude 


6-9081 


3-6462 


11-1134 


Modern English nautical mile, I minute of longi- 








tude at the equator at sea level, subdivided 








into looo nautical fathoms, or 10 nautical 










1-1528 


0-6085 


1-8547 



CH in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 69 



CHAPTER III. 
MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

MEASURES of surface may be generally divided into 
two classes. 

1. Ordinary commercial and artisans' measures, from 
the square foot to the square fathom, or small measures 
of surface. 

2. Land-measures, from the square pace to the acre 
and square mile, or large measures of surface. 

Such measures have necessarily from their object a 
high range of values, and being mostly based on the 
squares of the various commercial, agrarian and itinerary 
linear measures, and their multiples, are in general 
accordance with them in any thoroughly systematised 
set of national measures ; but this principle sometimes 
holds only as regards the small units. 

The land-measures or measures of ground were often 
originally based on other considerations. Usually a 
small land-measure, suited to measuring building-plots 
in town, an ordinary agrarian measure suited to arable 
land pasture and vineyards, and sometimes a large one 
suited to forest and marsh land and to large domains, 
seem to have been the original requirements. Some of 
the smaller land-measures were probably originally based 
on the space covered by some local temple or public 
building, or the space included in the court of such 



70 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

buildings ; the basic idea being evidently in many cases 
a rectangle of considerable length, and sometimes in- 
volving a superficial quantity that was not the square of 
any integral unit of length in common use ; in other 
cases, when the idea was taken from a square court, this 
anomaly did not occur. 

The ordinary agrarian measure was based, in accord- 
ance with various motives, first, on the surface capable 
of being ploughed in a day by a man with a yoke of 
oxen ; secondly, on the surface capable of being advan- 
tageously sown with a certain weight or quantity of corn 
of some sort, naturally that most commonly grown in the 
country or region ; thirdly, a unit for pasture land, fixed 
in accordance with the number of cattle it might support 
by pasturage ; fourthly, a vineyard unit, based on the 
produce in wine measured by local measures of capacity, 
or on the surface tended in a day by the work of a single 
man. 

The large land-measure may in some cases have been 
the extent of land that could be comprised within a 
periphery of strips cut from the hide of a single bullock ; 
and in others a mere multiple of the local agrarian mea- 
sure, or a local square mile or square itinerary measure. 

All these original methods of determining a unit of 
surface caused much deviation from anything like uni- 
formity of result ; and eventually, when such primitive 
units became systematised, they were both modified in 
accordance with each other and with the linear measures, 
and the squares of the linear measures of the system of 
the country. 

Of the building-plot type are the Italian tavola, and 
the old tornatura, the European square perches, square 
ruthen, or square poles, of the small measures. Of the 



CH. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 71 

agrarian type are the ploughing units, the Roman 
jugerum, the acres, tagwerk, journal, and morgen, the 
yugada and juchart, of arable measure; also the sower's 
units, the ancient Egyptian series, bethcor, bethletech, 
bethsea, bethroba, and bethcab ; the modern tunna and 
toendehartkorn, the cahizada, the fanegada ; the stajo 
and starland of Italy and the Tyrol ; the vineyard units, 
the misura, and zappada, and the old French hommee, 
ouvree, fossoree, poneur, and German tauen or thauen. Of 
the large land-measures are the haken and hufe of 
Germany and Poland, suited to large extent of forest 
country corresponding to the ancient Roman centuria 
of 100 heredies or 200 jugera, and the Roman saltus of 
4 centuriae the old English hide of 100 acres, now 
declared an illegal measure, and several ancient hides of 
other nations ; and lastly the square mile, or some topo- 
graphic unit of that class. 

The smallest of the commercial and artisans' mea- 
sures that happens to be much used is the square foot, 
of which the square inch may be considered as a sub- 
multiple less frequently employed ; while the largest of 
the land-measures is either a square mile or a hide of 
some sort. 

THE SQUARE FOOT. 

The square foot is in England a simple superficial 
unit about which there is no doubt or difficulty ; in some 
other European countries this simplicity does not exist. 
In Germany in many cases there were two and some- 
times three sorts of feet in a single town, one for the 
ordinary purposes of commerce and of the artisan, a 
second exclusively for land-measure, and sometimes a 
third either specially for the carpenter, or the stone- 



72 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

mason and builder : in fact, the foot as a unit was not 
thoroughly digested into the German system in all cases, 
but remained in its transition state, being a name for 
either a half-cubit or half-ell or for a submultiple of the 
pole or ruthe. In Italy and Switzerland this ambiguity 
is less frequent among the feet, but occurs among the 
cubits or bracci. Another cause of ambiguity in con- 
nection with the German feet is due to the mode of sub- 
division, and its nomenclature ; which is troublesome to 
an Englishman, for in England an inch is an inch, that 
is a twelfth in linear measure, but in Germany an inch 
may be either a tenth or a twelfth ; hence a local inch 
may be one of six values at any one place, where there 
are three local feet, and both modes of subdivision. 
The same ambiguity extends to the square inch, which 
may be either the looth or the I44th part of any one 
of the three local square feet. The decimal inches are 
hence worthy of notice, as well as the nature of the work 
to which it is applied. In Sweden, Prussia, Darmstadt, 
Baden, and Wiirtemberg, and at some places in Switzer- 
land, the decimal inch is more used. In Germany the 
inch zoll or daumen may also be the 8oth part of the 
lachter, and the square inch the 64OOth part of the square 
lachter. 

In England decimal multiples and submultiples of 
the square foot are used without involving the misplaced 
term, inch ; they are exceedingly convenient in building, 
engineering, and surveying ; the square of 100 square 
feet applied to roofing and flooring is one of these ; while 
1 08-9 squares amount to a rood or a quarter of an acre ; 
the rood being 10890 square feet. 

In Italy as well as in France, a measure of surface 
smaller than the square foot was formerly -used, namely, 



CH. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 73 

the square span, palmo quadrate or palme carre, a sub- 
multiple of the square canna. It was in Italy of 64 to the 
square canna; in France 81 to the square canna; in 
Sardinia, Sicily, and Pisa, 100 to the square canna; in a 
few places held some other ratio, and in others apparently 
was an independent unit ; but as the metric system has 
been long exclusively adopted in France and Italy these 
values are of little consequence ; the present linear Italian 
palmo is a decimetre, and the square palmo is a square 
decimetre. Similarly in the Netherlands, the palm and 
the vierkante palm have the same values. 

But there are one or two marked exceptions where 
the former palmi formed sub-multiples of the land-mea- 
sures, as in the stioro and quadrato of Tuscany, the 
moggio and carro of Naples, the rubbio and pezzo of 
Rome, and the starello of Sardinia. For these cases the 
values of the square spans or palmi are given in the 
tables at the end of this chapter, in addition to those of 
the square feet. 

The following are places and provinces where special 
geometric land-feet or perch-feet are or were in use in 
addition to the ordinary or other foot. 



Aachen. 

Elsass. 

Bavaria. 

Electoral Hesse. 

Poland. 

Flanders. 

Frankfurt-on-Main. 

Genoa. 

Lippe-Detmold. 

Lippe-Schaumberg. 



Lothringen. 

Lucerne. 

Mainz. 

Nassau. 

Neufchatel. 

Nuremberg 

Piedmont. 

Prussia. 

Savoy. 

Weimar. 



74 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

THE SQUARE CUBIT. 

The square cubit is in Germany a square ell, in Italy 
a square braccio, in Spain a square codo, and in Portugal 
a square covado, though in England an unused unit. 
When the German or Scandinavian ell happens to be 
equal to two local feet, the square ell of 4 square feet 
falls into the system of measures of surface ; and may be 
also used as a unit of measure for flooring and roofing in 
construction, as well as for carpets and such things. The 
values of these square ells may be obtained by squaring 
the values of the linear ells given in the last chapter. 
The former square bracci of Italy correspond in this 
respect with regard to trade requirements, but, as they 
rarely have any convenient ratio to the square foot, and 
are besides long obsolete, are of less importance gener- 
ally ; there are, however, one or two exceptions. A few 
of the very various land-measures of Italy are based on 
the square braccio, and not on the square foot ; such as 
the tavola, staro, and biolca of Parma, the saccata, 
stajolo, and the quadrato of Tuscany. The values of the 
square bracci that might be required for such cases are 
hence given in the tables at the end of this chapter. 

The square codo, square codo de ribera, and square 
covado, are not necessary submultiples of the land-mea- 
sures of Spain and Portugal, which are most frequently 
expressed as multiples of the square vara and estado, 
and sometimes of the estadal ; the covado of Portugal 
falls entirely outside the geometric measures. 

The Oriental square cubits, or square pik, seem to be 
unfrequently submultiples of their land-measures, which 
are often either based en the square pace, in accordance 
with the natural mode of determining a surface by 



CH. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 75 

pacing two sides of a mean rectangle, or of a mean 
square representing it, or are based on some square 
perch, gassab, or vansa, and in some instances on some 
local square chain, square fathom or square yard. 

The Indian biggah is indifferently represented as a 
multiple of the square hath (cubit) or of the square gaz 
(yard) ; and though the typical biggah (that of Bengal) 
is one of 80 cubits square (6400 square hath), it is 
probably greatly due to the varieties of gaz and hath, 
and the employment of either as basic units of land- 
measure, that the biggahs of India present so great a 
variation in value. 

It is as a rule most convenient to the English to re- 
present these Indian biggahs as consisting of a certain 
number of square yards, but to the Indian, to deal with 
his more favourite unit, the hath or cubit But as both 
these units are understood by those races, and both 
have identical values, it becomes a matter of practical 
indifference. 

The Arabian and Egyptian feddans are sometimes 
said to be based on the square cubit, and sometimes on 
the square pace ; and this seems to be correspondingly 
a matter of indifference. The Arab pace (or double 
step), named kathuah, is not a 5 -foot pace, but is a 
rather exceptional pace of about 6 feet in fact, a fathom 
and is divided into 4 cubits of the type dera'a cabda, 
although it was anciently divided otherwise. It is, how- 
ever, more convenient to treat the Arabian feddan as a 
multiple of the square kassaba, or square perch, 400 of 
which go to the feddan. The Egyptian feddans are of 
various values, and this is probably due to the variety of 
cubits employed as basic units for the gassab of two 
paces, and thus altering the value of the pace. 



76 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

The Chinese cubit, which appears to be also termed 
a foot (chih) and divided decimally, is sometimes employed 
in commerce to the exclusion of the kambuchih ; so 
that a second system of measures of both length and 
surface is probably based on this separate unit. The 
value of this linear cubit is 14! English inches, or 
1*21875 feet, English, making the square cubit =1*485 
feet, English. 

THE SQUARE YARD. 

The linear yard, and the corresponding vara of Spain 
and Portugal, the gaz and geza of Asia, remain unre- 
presented in the general measures of several European 
countries ; the aune and stab of France and Germany, 
also double cubits, are applied specially to cloth-measure ; 
and the passetto, or double cubit, of Italy is unfortunately 
confined to Tuscany alone. The metre of the French 
metric system (originally a half-fathom) is, however, 
an approximate yard, adopted by several European 
nations, which supplies the deficiency. (Metric measures, 
forming a system of their own, will be treated under the 
head of systems of measures apart from the ordinary 
commercial measures.) 

Existing square measures of this type generally are 
the highest of the commercial and artisans' measures, 
excepting when the square fathom, klafter, or toise is 
in common use ; and the use of the square rod and 
square ruthe of England and Germany in connection 
with brickwork and masonry. They are sometimes, but 
not always, submultiples of the units of land-measure. 

The values of the square yard and corresponding 
quantities are given in the tables. 



CH. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 77 

THE SQUARE PACE. 

The most expeditious and simple method of roughly 
measuring a plot of ground is to pace one side of an 
approximate square representing its area, or to pace two 
sides of a corresponding rectangle ; and the estimation 
by pace therefore developed into a similar more exact 
mode of dealing with the pace as a fixed unit, and the 
larger multiples of the square pace as well-defined units 
of land-measure. 

The versus of the ancients was one of the earliest 
measures of this type known to us ; it consisted of 20 
paces, or 100 feet square, or 400 square paces = 10000 
square feet ; and it certainly appears unfortunate that 
the Romans did not adhere to it, as the jugerum type 
of land-measure has led to an infinity of very incon- 
venient land-measures over the whole of modern Europe. 

The Chinese land-measure (the king) nominally is. 
60000 square feet, or 2400 square paces, but, practically 
it appears to have been a decimal multiple of the mao 
in the ordinary Chinese method, being equal to 10 mao, 
while the mao is described as a measure 1 6 paces long 
by 15 paces broad. 

Several of the land-measures of modern Europe are 
based on the square pace ; and some values of the 
square pace of various nations are hence given in the 
accompanying tables. 

Among the land-measures based on the pace are the 
Venetian migliajo of 1000 square passi ; the misura 
of the Ionian Islands of 400 square paces, like the 
ancient versus ; the Neapolitan moggio of 900 square 
paces ; and the multiples of these the moggio of the 
Ionian Islands, and the carro of Naples. 



78 METRICAL UNITS. FART i. 

The gochih or pointung of Sumatra is a pace corre- 
sponding to the Chinese pu, and the corresponding 
square unit is probably used in a similar manner. 



THE SQUARE FATHOM. 

Nations that do not possess a yard, double-ell, or 
some corresponding measure, generally make use of the 
fathom and its submultiples in building, construction, 
artisans' work, &c. &c., in the same way as the English 
yard is applied. The same principle also applies to the 
square faden, square klafter, square toise, square cavezzi 
and trabucchi, square sasheen ; and possibly also to the 
square depah, wa, chang, of Oriental nations. 

In the preceding chapter the various corresponding 
linear units have been classified and valued, see pages 
51-68 ; and it merely remains to give the values of the 
superficial units. Some of these square fathoms answer 
the purpose of a square rod, as basic units of land- 
measure, thus rendering a square rod a needless unit 
in the system, or entirely supplanting it. The Italian 
and South-French square canne, of about or below 36 
square feet may be treated as square fathoms, or as 
square paces, in accordance with their dimensions, 
nomenclature, and history. 

The more important values of the square fathom are 
given in the tables attached to this chanter. 



CH. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 79 

LAND MEASURES. 
THE SQUARE ROD. 

THE square rod is the smallest measure of surface 
exclusively applied to land-measure. (See rod in 
Chapter II.) Taking the values of the linear rod at 
either 10 or 12 feet, and the general limits applied to 
the linear pole at 14 to 25 local feet, the values of the 
square rod, and of the square pole, as general expressions 
representing units of surface anywhere, thus come be- 
tween 100 and 144, and between 196 and 625 local 
square feet respectively. 

The terms perch and square perch are expressions 
applied to many units of land-measure, both canes, rods, 
and poles, and even square chains ; but, taken philologi- 
cally, the term ruthe, or rod, is a Teutonic and Scan- 
dinavian word, while the term perch is South-European, 
and perhaps purely Roman. The Roman pertica was 
the decempede, corresponding to the Greek, the Olympic, 
and the Phileterian a/cr^vy ; all of which were dekapods 
or true rods of the strictest type double paces. The 
Roman square pertica or square decempede of 100 
square feet was a scruple, being the 24th part of the 
ounce (uncia) or the 288th of the jugerum, the basic 
unit, or as of gromatic measure. Many of the perches 
of Southern France and Italy were canes, half- rods, or 
fathoms, some were true rods, and a few Italian pertiche 
were by value chains. The perches of Northern France 
were Belgic, Flemish, or Norman units properly poles 
or verges to which the term perche was misapplied at 
some early date. 

The square poles, though frequently considered as 



80 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

mere nominal multiples of smaller units, square feet, 
square yards, or square fathoms, were probably by origin 
perfectly independent units of surface in most cases, 
and sometimes the feet of the system were modified or 
added to suit them as submultiples. Many square poles 
were also perhaps originally independent of the larger 
land-measures, though harmonised with them in the 
system at a later date. 

Land-measures being usually arranged in a set of 
rather large multiples, a centesimal arrangement is par- 
ticularly well suited to them ; hence the convenience of 
the square ruthe of so many places in Germany consist- 
ing in 100 square feet ; the are of 100 square metres, and 
the hectare of 100 ares ; a simple, primitive, and very 
ancient principle adopted in the versus of the ancients 
of 10,000 square feet, and in the Chinese decimal sub- 
division of the mao to the myriadth part. However 
inconvenient a rigid decimal system may be when 
applied to strictly commercial measures of capacity 
and of weight, where binary multiples and submultiples 
are almost necessary, it has great advantages both in 
land-measure and itinerary measure ; hence the con- 
venience of reverting to the English square rod of 100 
square feet of the decimal scientific measures. 

Square rods of 100 square feet are or were adopted 
at the following places and provinces : 



Altona. 

Baden. 

Basel. 

Bavaria. 

Berne. 

Darmstadt. 



Denmark and Norway. 

Frankfurt (special foot). 

Freiburg. 

Halle. 

Hesse (special foot). 

Lausanne. 



CH. III. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



fiz 



Lippe-Detmold (special Vaud. 



foot). 

Lothringen and Elsass. 
Nassau. 

Poland (precikow). 
Prussia (geom. foot). 
Wiirtemberg. 



Vienna. 
Zurich. 
Tyrol. 

Ancona, Bologna, and 
Ferrara. 



The special and geometrical feet mentioned are 
special feet of land-measure in distinction to the werk- 
fuss or werkschuh. 

Square rods of 144 square feet are or were in use at 
the following places, countries, and provinces : 



Anspach. 

Prussia (ord. foot). 
Emden. 
Franconia. 

Nuremberg (spec. foot).. 
Wiirzburg and Ost 
Frise. 



Spain. 

Malacca. 

Sumatra. 

India. 

Burma. 

Some Italian tavole. 



In Italy the tavola is often the smallest unit of land > 
measure, corresponding to the square rod, and is gener- 
ally = 4 square cavezzi, or trabucchi= 144 local square 
feet 

The exceptional tavole are those of Belluna and 
Treviso, which consist of 25 local square feet, and are 
yrj-oth of the campo ; and those of Padua,. Rovigo, 
Udine, Venice, and Verona, which consist of 36 local 
square feet, or are identical with the square cavezzo and 
are also sometimes termed square pertiche. 

Returning to the Italian perches : some of them 
are neither subdivided into tavole nor square feet, as the 



8a METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

tavola and the square foot are sometimes non-existent. 
These exceptional cases are the Tuscan square pertiche, 
which consist of 25 square bracci (cubits) or of 100 
square spans (palmi), and the Neapolitan pertiche. 
The square pertica of Naples itself is 56^ local square 
palmi, but the other Neapolitan square pertiche vary at 
almost every town, ranging between 49 and 60 square 
palmi, without being well-defined integral multiples. 

THE SQUARE POLE. 

Small square poles were the following : 
The old Amsterdam roede . . . 1 69 square feet. 
In Poland, Lithuania, and Silesia . 175 square feet. 
Gotha (feldruthe), Erfurt, and Fulda 

(Hesse) 196 square feet. 

Square poles of the ordinary type, 256 square feet, 
were in use at the following places : 



Bremen. 

Brunswick. 

Coblenz. 

Coin and Creveld. 

Gotha (waldruthe). 

Hamburg. 

Hanover. 

Lippe-Detmold. 

Lubeck. 

Mainz. 



Mecklenburg. 
Neufchatel (land-foot). 
Neufchatel (werk-foot) 

(vineyard). 
Nuremberg. 
Pomerania. 
Rostock. 
Saxony. 
Stettin. 
Weimar. 



The juck or square pole of Oldenburg was 324 
square feet. The square poles of the now obsolete 
land -measures of France, Belgium, and Holland were 
very various ; the most important were these : 



CH. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 83 

La perche carree d'ordonnance . . 484 square feet 
La perche de Normandie . . . 484 
La perche commune .... 400 
La perche de Paris . . . .324 
La verge de Bruxelles . . . 266^- 
Also the English square pole . . 272^ 

There were also Dutch, Flemish, and Belgian verges 
of 300$, 336^, 373^, 400, and 413$ square feet. 

The present Nederlandsche vierkante roede is the 
square decametre, 100 square metres, or are of the metric 
system, while it is also a hundredth part of the bunder 
or hectare. (See Metric Systems.) 

The square pole is among Northern and Scandina- 
vian nations termed the geviert or quadrat ruthe, rode, 
or roede ; in Belgium and the north of France the verge 
carree ; in southern Europe, including Southern France, 
the perche, or pertica, is either a rod, or a cane, or a 
chain never a pole ; and it must be noticed that some 
of the Italian square perches consist of 96 square 
cavezzi, or square trabucchi, and are subdivided into 
24 tavole ; they are then units corresponding to the 
square chain. 

The English square pole of 272^ square feet or 30^ 
square yards is certainly inconvenient in value, both 
in this form and as being the i6oth part of an acre, 
and the iO24OOth part of the square mile; but this 
inconvenience is frequently avoided by ignoring the 
pole, and expressing land-measure simply in acres and 
decimal parts, or in acres and square yards. 



G 2 



84 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

THE SQUARE CHAIN. 

Formerly the English rood was probably quite 
distinct from the farthing-deal, or rectangular land-unit 
of 40 poles in length by one in breadth, forming the 
quarter of an acre, although they have been long synony- 
mous and identical. The farthing-deal was always the 
fourth of the Anglo-Saxon acre, and connected with the 
pole ; but a rood is a relic of a former unit, probably 
based on the original rod of 10 feet, the former 
having some value near 10890 square feet, perhaps 
10000 or 14400, and the rod being 10 or 12 feet, the 
rood thus being 100 square rods. At such an epoch 
the rood was a convenient unit ; corresponding to what is 
now a square chain on Ramsden's system, and probably 
was by origin a square chain of some ancient system. 

A square chain is one of the most natural and con- 
venient units of land-measure, dependent neither on the 
reputed activity of a theoretic ploughman, nor the size of 
the sower's corn-barrel, but on the appliance of measure- 
ment. The English square chain (Ramsden's) of 10000 
square feet is also convenient as a decimal unit, besides 
being nearly a rood or a quarter-acre. 

The values of foreign square chains and units ap- 
proximating to them, which have been much neglected 
by metrologists, are given in the tables. 

AGRARIAN MEASURES. ACRES, &C. 

The acre, or ploughman's unit of land-measure in 
England, is also the ordinary unit of land-measure for 
all purposes. Whether based on the Roman jugerum 
or not, it is a measure of the same type, representing 



CH. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 85 

the amount of land a ploughman can plough in a day 
with a yoke of oxen. The other European measures 
of this type are 

The tagwerk of Germany. 

The tagmatt of the Tyrol. 

The juchart, or joch, of Austria, Bavaria, Wiirtem- 
berg, Elsass, Switzerland, and the Tyrol. 

The jour and journal, formerly used in France and 
Belgium. 

The acre of Gotha, Mecklenburg, Ravensburg, 
Leipzig, Weimar, Cassel, Fulda, and Normandy. 

The yugada of Spain. The pose of Switzerland. 
The giornata of Piedmont. The geira of Portugal. 

Some other European land-measures may possibly 
belong to this type, although there may not be sufficient 
evidence to demonstrate it. 

The German morgen and the French arpent, or at 
least some of them, appear to be measures corresponding 
to each other. The French arpent, derived from the 
ancient arepenna of Gaul, which was half a Roman 
jugerum, was probably at one time intended for a half- 
acre, and, in a few cases, the German morgen was half a 
tagwerk. This distinction is, however, a thing of the 
past ; the varieties of both sorts of measure obliterating 
it and throwing both classes into one. 

The quarter-acre, now termed in England a rood, 
but formerly a farthing-deal, 1 had its analogous measures 
in Germany, France, and Italy, where quarters of some 
of the land-measures were termed vierling and vorling, 
quart and quartel, quarta and quartuccio ; also the fjer- 
dedels-tunneland of Sweden, and the quartillo of Spain. 

1 In Holland, vierendeel, or quarter. 



86 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

The sower's units of land-measure, corresponding to 
various measures of capacity for grain, and representing 
the amount of land that could be advantageously sown 
with certain quantities of grain, are fortunately entirely 
unknown in England. The principle is, however, a very 
ancient one, adopted by the Egyptians before the Mosaic 
exodus. The European measures of this type are : 

The tunna or tunneland) 

~i i , \ of Sweden. 

The spannland j 

The toendehartkorn \ 
The toendescedeland \ of Denmark. 
The skieppehartkorn j 

The scheffel of Hamburg, Liibeck, Rostock, Lippe- 
Detmold, and Oldenburg. 

The metze of Austria and Bohemia. 

The moggio, rubbio, and scozzo of Italy, including 



The stajo, staro, starello, and 



seteree 



Nice and Pied- 
mont. 



The starland of the Tyrol, and the setine of Switzer- 
land. 

The imbuto and corbula of Sardinia. 

The saccata of Tuscany ; the bacile of modern 
Greece. 

The fanegada and cahizada of Spain, and a very 
large variety of old French land-measures. 

The almude or celemin of the Canary Islands. 

The vineyard-units of land-measure are : 

The aranzada of Spain ; the thauen of Germany. 

The zappada and moggio of the Ionian Islands, 
the fossore"e of Switzerland, and, perhaps, the stremo of 
modern Greece, as well as several old French land- 



CH. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 87 

measures, besides others that do not afford traces of 
their original formation or intention. 

The other unassignable units of land-measure, which 
are either multiples or submultiples of the others, or 
were based on square and rectangular formation from 
linear measures, apart from any other object now evident, 
are : 

The album and penge of Denmark ; the cuadra and 
cuadra cuadrada of Spain and of South America ; the 
biolca, campo, pezzo r rnigliajo, quadrato, tornatura, carro, 
zuoja, of Italy ; the stochiaca of Tyrol ; the biggah and 
kani of India ; the orlong of Sumatra ; the king and 
mao of China ; the dessatina of Russia ; the feddan of 
the Levant ; as well as others. 

The relation of these ordinary land-measures to the 
small land-measures of square perches is very varied in 
different localities. The following small table gives the 
number of square perches to the acre, morgen, or tag- 
werk for some of the more important cases : 

Mecklenburg, and frequently for the old French 

arpent 100 

Bremen, Brunswick, Hanover, Lippe-Detmold . 120 

Gotha and Weimar 140 

Franconia 144 

Aachen, Bamberg, Coin, Creveld, Hesse, Wurtem- 

berg, and Lothringen 150 

England, Gotha, Coblenz, Frankfurt, Mayence,] 
Normandy, Nuremberg, and Wiirzburg j 

Erfurt 168 

Prussia and Wiirzburg 180 

Elsass . 240 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



Baden (Constance) 260 

Saxony (Leipzig), Lithuania, Poland, Pomerania, 

Silesia 300 

Zurich . . 320 

Oldenburg' 356 

Anspach, Basel, and Zurich 360 

Wiirtemberg 384 

Baden, Bavaria, Darmstadt, Wiirtemberg, Geneva 400 

Hamburg, and occasionally .near the Rhine . . 600 

The ratios to the small measures of some of the 
former Italian land-measures, and those of countries 
other than France and the Netherlands, are given in 
the tables. The former land-measures of France were 
very numerous, intensely complicated, and varied much 
in value. The following is a rather incomplete list of 
them : 



Acre 

Arpent 

Boisseree 

Boisseau 

Bicheree 

Carre 

Carreau 

Chainee 

Concade 

Corde 

Danree 

Eminee 

Escat 

Faucheur 

Faux 

Fossoree 

Grande mesure 



Hommee 

Jallois 

Journee 

Journal 

Jour 

Latte 

Mesure 

Mesuree 

Mine 

Minee 

Mouee 

(Euvre 

Ouvree 

Pauque 

Perche 

Picotin 

Place 



Port 

Pugnere 

Puniere 

Quartier 

Quart 

Quartel 

Raie 

Reges 

Sadon 

Salmee 

Seteree 

Setier 

Seytive 

Sillon 

Verge 

Verge'e 

Vertison 



CH. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE. 89 

Some of these measures had several, and some 
many, values. The Belgian bunder had an infinity of 
values. 

The perusal of such lists, and reflection on the 
confusion involved in the variety of their values, will 
demonstrate the cause of the avidity of the French, 
Belgians, and Italians for the metric system, which is 
specially well suited to land-measure, and will also show 
that no similar eagerness can be expected in a country 
like England, where there is only one acre, not only 
in the mother-country, but wherever English measures 
are used. 



LARGE AGRARIAN UNITS. HIDES, &C. 

The hide was a large land-measure, consisting of 
100 acres, formerly used in England, but now legally 
obsolete ; the measures of Germany and Poland, that 
are slightly analogous, are the haken and the hufe, or 
wloka. 

The following are the ratios of these measures to the 
local morgen : 

Pomerania\ haken=i5 morgen, also termed the 
Wendische hufe, or Vandal hufe ; the priester-hufe of 
20 morgen, the land-hufe of 30 morgen. Also the 
tripel-hufe of 3 haken, and the haeger-hufe of 4 haken. 

Kcenigsbcrg : the haken of 20 morgen and the hufe 
of 30 morgen. 

Berlin, Breslau, Danzig, Frankfurt-on-the-Main, and 
Hesse : the hufe of 30 morgen. 

Mecklenburg : the hufe of 400 acres. 

Poland: the haken of 20 morgow, and the hufe, or 
wloka of 30 morgow. 



90 METRICAL UNITS. PART 1. 

The domain-unit, or estate-unit, appears almost as 
necessary a part of a complete system as an agrarian 
unit; the English hide being now obsolete, its place 
may be supplied by the unit of the decimal system 
termed a century, in accordance with Roman nomen- 
clature, which is equal to 100 square chains, or nearly 
the same number of roods. This unit also serves to 
complete the system, in other respects being a square 
cable, or the square of a cable 1000 feet long, and also 
the hundredth part of a square league of the same series. 

TOPOGRAPHICAL MEASURES. 

The square mile is a recognised superficial unit of 
surface in England, being exactly 640 acres. The 
square kilometre of the metric system is in the same 
way an Integral multiple of the hectare, and the Chinese 
square li an integral multiple of the mao and the 
king, but though some such relation may also exist in 
some other countries and places, it is comparatively 
rare. In some countries very large units are wanting, 
numerical multiples being used instead of determined 
units ; in others square geographical miles or leagues of 
various sorts are employed ; but these are generally 
detached units, not coalescing in the general system. 

The square league of the English decimal series 
consists of 100 centuries, or 10000 square chains (Rams- 
den's) ; and as the linear league=2 Old London miles of 
5000 feet, the square league is 4 square miles of the Old 
London type. The series is hence complete in surface 
measure, is centesimal throughout, and has a wider 
scope than the French system y with which it is parallel 
in some respects. 



CH. III. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



SQUARE FEET. 



NATIONAL AND GENERAL. 



The square foot of England, America, and 
Russia, their colonies and dependencies, duod. 

The scientific value of the same at 32 Fahr. . 

The square foot of Prussia, Norway, and Den- 
mark ........ 

The square geometric foot of Prussia for land . 

The square foot of Sweden and Finland, dec. 1 
and duod. ....... 

The square foot of the Austro- Hungarian Em- 
pire, dec. and duod. ..... 

The square foot of Spain generally, duod. 
,, ,, Portugal, duod. . 

,, ,, Arabia .... 

,, ,, the Chinese Empire, dec., 

the Board of Works kambuchih . 



g English 
^ Commercial 
% Equivalent. 


# English 
U, Scientific 
$ Equivalent. 


French 
Scientific 
P Equivalent. 


I 

I -OOO6 


0-9994 
1 


9-2846 
9-2900 


I '0609 
I-S277 


1-0603 
1-5269 


9-8504 
14-1846 


0-9492 


0-9487 


8-8130 


1-0760 
0-8344 
I-I729 
I-I029 


1-0754 
0-8339 
1-1722 
1-1022 


9-9907 
7-7469 
10-8900 
10-2400 


I-I223 


1-1217 


10-4206 



FORMER, LOCAL, OR SPECIAL SQUARE FEET. 
GERMANY : 



Prussia, Imperial quadrat Rheinfuss 
,, geometric quadrat Feldfuss 
Anspach and Baireuth, duod. . 
Altona and Hamburg, duod. . 


. I -0609 
. 1-5277 
. 0-9680 
. 0-8440 
0-969 3 


1-0603 
1-5269 
0-9674 
0-8835 
0-9688 


9-8504 
14-1846 
8-9880 
8-2077 
9-0000 


Bavaria, dec. and duod. . 
Rhenish Bavaria, metric duod. 
Bremen, dec. and duod. . 
Brunswick, duod. . 
Coin and Aschaffenberg . 
Culm 


. 0-9174 
. 1-1967 
. 0-9008 
. 0-8771 
. 0-8909 
. 0-8940 


0-9169 
1-1960 
0-9003 
0-8766 
0-8904 
0-8935 


8-5182 
ii-iiii 

8-3635 
8-1432 
8-2714 
8-3002 


Dantzig. duod. 
Elsass (Stadtschuh) 
Elsass (Landschuh) 


. 0-8864 
. 0-9008 
Q'9373 


0-8859 
0-9003 
0-9367 


8-2303 
8-7025 



The feet are marked decimal when the inch is a decimal submultiple of the foot. 



9 2 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 





ill 


iS^-a 


g|| 


SQUARE FEET continued. 




HI 


jj|.| 


GERMANY : 


CJW 


Wc "w 


fac "w 




Sq. feet 


Sq. feet 


De'c. car. 


Gotha, duod. ....... 


0*8910 


0-8905 


8-2724 


Halle (Werkfuss) 


0-8973 


0-8968 


8-3309 


,, (Feldfuss, of i \ Werkfuss) 


2-OI89 


2-0177 


18-7446 


Hanover, duod . 


0-9183 


0-9178 


8-5261 


Heiligenstadt and Erfurt 


0-8632 


0-8627 


8-0149 


Hesse Darmstadt, metric dec. .... 


0-6732 


0-6728 


6-2500 


Hesse-Electoral, forest foot, duod. . 


0-8915 


0-8910 


8-277I 


,, i perch, field foot 


0-8742 


0-8737 


8-II68 


, , i perch, dec. field foot . 


I7I38 


1-7128 


I5-9I2I 


Holstein ....... 


0-9597 


0-9591 


8-9103 


Lippe-Detmold and Schaumburg 


0-9028 


0-9023 


8-3818 


Lothringen ordinary square foot 


0-8805 


0-8800 


8-1754 


,, square field foot .... 


0-955 


0-9544 


8-8667 


Liibeck and Rostock ..... 


0-8927 


0-8922 


8-2887 




0-9121 


0-9115 


8-4682 


Nassau, metric quad. Werkfuss, dec. 


0-9693 


0-9687 


9-0000 


,, metric quad. Feldfuss, dec. 


2-6926 


2-6910 


25 -oooo 


Nuremberg, metric quad. Stadtfuss . 


0-9944 


0-9938 


9-2331 


,, ,, Artilleriefuss 


0-9259 


0-9253 


8-5966 


Oldenburg ....... 


0-9463 


0-9458 


8-7862 


S axe- Weimar, quad. Werk r uss, duod. 


0-8564 


0-8559 


7-9512 


Saxe-Weimar, quad. Feldfuss, dec. . 


2-1923 


2-1910 


20-3551 


Saxony, Dresden, duod. ..... 


'8632 


0-8628 


8-0149 


,, Leipzig, dec. and duod. 


0-8605 


0-8600 


7-9894 


Silesia (Prussian) ..... ^ 


0-8633 


0-8928 


8-2919 


Wiirtemberg, dec 


0-8840 


0-8835 


8-2077 


SWITZERLAND : 








Berne and Freiberg, square foot 


0-9463 


0-9457 


8-6000 


Basel, square foot ...... 


0-9987 


0-9981 


9 -2 743 


Saint Gall, square foot 


I-OI87 


1-0181 


9-4586 


Geneva, square foot ..... 


2-5644 


2-5629 


23-8098 


Claris, Grisons, Uri, Waadt, Valais, Schweitz, 








square foot ....... 


0-9693 


0-9687 


9-0000 


Lucerne, ordinary square foot .... 


I -0609 


1-0603 


9-8504 


joiners' . 


0-9944 


0-9938 


9-2329 


, , for land and works .... 


0-870I 


0-8696 


8-0789 


Neufchatel, Landfuss 


0-9463 


0-9457 


8-6000 


,, Feldmessfuss . . 


0-8880 


0-8875 


8-2451 




I "0760 


1-0754 


Q-QQO7 


Schaffhause. Werkschuh .... 


0-9558 


0-9552 


v v y / 
18-8744 


Ticino, square brazzetto . . . . 


1-6975 


1-6965 


5-7609 


Zug, Halberstab quad. ..... 


0-9693 


0-9687 


9-0000 




O'7776 


0-7771 


7-2200 


Zurich, Halberstab quad, field 


/ / / v 
0-9693 


0-9687 


9-0000 


,, builders' measure .... 


0-9695 


0-9698 


9-0015 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



93 



SQUARE FEET continued. 
FRANCE : 

Pied du roi, Parisian square foot . 
Pied metrique (from 1812 to 1840) 

HOLLAND AND BELGIUM : 

Amsterdam, vierkante voet=i2i v. duimen 
Brussels, vierkante voet= 121 v. duimen 

AUSTRO-HUNGARY : 

Imperial square foot, dec. and duod. 
Bohemia, ,,,,.... 

Galicia , 

Illyria, Trieste, square foot, duod. 
Moravia, square foot .... 
Poland, Cracow square stopa, duod. 
Silesia (Austrian), square foot 
Tyrol, square foot .... 



RUSSIA : 

Imperial square foot, duod. . 
Lithuania ,, ,, 

Revel ,, 

Riga ,, ,, 

Pernau ,, ,, 

Poland (Warsaw), square stopa, duod. . 
,, ,, square precikow, dec. 

ITALY : 

Ancona, square foot .... 

Bergamo 

Bologna 

Brescia 

Cremona 

Mantua 

Milan 

Modena 

Padua and Vicenza, square foot 

Parma, square foot .... 

Piacenza ,, ,, .... 

Piedmont, piede manuale, 8 in. 

,, piede liprando, 12 in. 
Reggio, square foot .... 
Rome (piede = i| palmo) ^ square palmo 
Savoy, Chamberi square foot 
Venetia, square foot .... 
Verona, square foot .... 



^z 


j 


** 


111 


'5;<G v 


JSJQ S 


'IMS 


is? 


11 


11 
ow 


fl| 


**! 


Sq. feet 


Sq. feet 


Dec. car. 


I-I365 


1-1359 


10-5521 


1-1967 


1-1960 


II-IIII 


0-8632 


0-8628 


8-0149 


0-8I90 


0-8185 


7-6038 


1-0760 


1-0754 


9-9907 


0-9462 
0-9487 


0-9456 
0-9491 


87853 

8-8180 


I -0896 


1-0890 


10-1168 


0-9437 


0-9431 


8-7616 


I-368I 


1-3673 


12-7021 


0*9020 


0-9015 


8-3752 


I -2023 


1-2016 


11-1630 


I 


0-9994 


9-2846 


I-I365 


1-1358 


10-5521 


07618 


0-7613 


7-0733 


0-8091 


0-8086 


7-51 19 


O-8IO4 


0-8099 


7-5240 


0-9612 


0-9606 


8-2944 


2-QIOO 


2-0088 


18-6624 


I 8067 


1-8057 


16-7748 


2-0644 


2-0632 


19-1669 


I-556I 


1-5552 


14-4476 


2-3893 


2-3879 


22-1841 


2-5178 


2-5163 


23-3772 


2-3474 


2-3460 


18-7952 


2-0399 


2-0387 


27-9399 


2-9466 


2-9449 


12-3579 


I-3758 


1-3750 


12-7735 


3-I948 


3-1929 


19-6630 


2-378I 


2-3767 


22-0796 


I -2634 


1-2627 


11-7306 


2-8429 


2-8412 


26-3955 


3-0357 


3-0339 '28-1855 


0-9558 


0-9552 8-8744 


I -2407 


1-2400 11-5192 


1-2998 


1-2991 12-0687 


I -2665 


1-2658 11-7586 



94 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



SQUARE FEET continued. 


^11 
111 


ja^S 

^a.5 
til 


SPAIN : 


w g. 

OH 


W8| 




Sq. feet 


Sq. feet 


Castile, square foot, duod. .... 


0-8344 


0-8339 


Aragon ,, ,, .... 


07114 


0-7110 


Valencia ,, ,, .... 


0-9843 


0-9837 


AMERICA : 






Mexico, Buenos Ayres and Monte Video, Chili, 






Peru, La Havana, duod. (old value of the 






Spanish square foot) ..... 


0-8608 


0-8603 


Pernambuco square foot, duod. 


0-9947 


0-9941 


Quebec (pied du roi, Parisian), duod. 


I-I365 


1-1359 


INDIA : 






Malabar, square ady ..... 


0-7599 


0-7593 


CHINA : 






Board of Works square kambuchih . 


1-1223 


1-1217 


Imperial survey of 1700, square chih 


1-0167 


1-0161 


Square chih of the Tsing dynasty since 1644 . 


1-0998 


1-0992 


Local values. ! 






Canton customs, square chih .... 


1-3806 


1-3798 


Pekin palace ,, ,, 


i -0795 


1-0789 


,, imperial statistics square chih 


i -0677 


1-0671 




1-1952 


1-1945 


,, board of works , ,, (?) 


1-0574 


1-0568 


land ,, . 


1-1511 


1-1504 


Shanghai land revenue , ,, 


i -2065 


1-2058 


,, shipbuilders' , ,, 


1-7116 


1-7106 


Special value of the square chih frequently used 






in land-measure as a sub-multiple of the mau, 






eo^oth P art - 


1-1968 


1-1961 


JAPAN : 






Square shaku ordinary ..... 


0-9819 


0-9813 


Special value, as a square land-foot, the myriadth 








I '0*7 T C 


1-07C9 


MANILA : 






The Castilian square foot .... 


0-8344 


0-8339 



N. B. Some of the old values of square feet, having been deduced 
through old Parisian measure, will not be exact squares of linear values, 
given in metric or English terms. 

1 For other values of Chinese square feet, square the English linear values on p. 54. 



CH. III. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



95 



SQUARE CUBITS. 






SQUARE ELLS, SQUARE 
BRACCI, &c. 

Square cubit, English half yard squared 
Scientific value of the same at 32 Fahr. . 
Square ell of Prussia, 4-5157 square feet . 
Square ell of Norway and Denmark, 4 sq. ft. 
Square ell of Sweden and Finland, 4 sq. ft. 
Square ell of Austria, not much used ; replaced 

by the square klafter ..... 
Square codo ordinario of Spain, 2.\ square feet . 
Square codo de ribera of Spain, 4 square feet 
Square covado of Portugal, 4 square feet . 
Square covado do commejcio, Portugal, 24! 

inches square ...... 

Square braccio of Tuscany, 4 square palmi 

square palmo of Tuscany .... 
Square braccio di legno of Parma (this is also 

termed an agrarian foot) .... 
Square braccio of Naples, 7| square palmi . 

square palmo of Naples ..... 
Square braccio of Rome, 16 square palmi . 

square palmo of Rome, ^ square foot 
Square arsheen of Russia, 5| square feet . 
Square pik endesa of Stambul .... 
Square pik of Patras, Oran, Scio, and Jerusalem 
Square pik of Aleppo and Alexandretta 
,, ,, endeza of Cairo . 
,, ,, endeza of Alexandria 

,, ,, of Cyprus 

,, ,, of Abyssinia 

,, ,, ofBassara . 
Square hath of India and Burmese taim, and 

Sumatra esto ...... 

Square sandang of Burmah .... 

Square cubit of commerce of China, also termed 

a foot ; decimally divided .... 



alj 


SlJ 


<iJ 


111 


111 


811 


w 1 & 


W ^w* 


fa Cfl O 4 


Sq. feet 


Sq. feet 


Dec. car. 


2-250 


2-249 


20-891 


2-25I 


2-250 


20-903 


4790 


4-788 


44-476 


4-244 


4-241 


39-401 


3796 


3-794 


35-248 


6-539 


6-535 


60715 


1-877 


1-876 


I7-43I 


3-338 


3-336 


30-991 


4-692 


4-689 


43-560 


4-989 


4-986 


46-322 


3-668 


3-666 


34-059 


0-917 


0-917 


8-5I5 


3-166 


3-164 


29-393 


5*258 


5-255 


48-818 


0739 


0-739 


6-864 


7745 


7-740 


7I-9IO 


. /> 


0-538 


4-992 


5-444 


5-441 


50-545 


5-o88 


5-085 




5-069 


5-066 


47-060 


4-926 


4-923 




4389 


4-386 


40755 


4-282 


4-279 


39753 


4-857 


4-854 


45-098 


5-066 


5-063 


47-032 


4-880 


4-877 


45-306 


2-250 


2-249 


20-891 


3-361 


3-359 I 31-201 




1 


1-486! 1-4861 13-801 



9 6 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



SQUARE DOUBLE CUBITS. 

Square yards, metres, varas, pasetti, &c. 



GENERAL VALUES. 


HI 


'3cg_> 


IjJ 




Sq. yds. 


Sq. feet 


Met. car 


Square yard of England and America, square 








gaz of India : 9 square feet, or 36 square 








cubits (hath), or 256 square nails . 


I 


8-995 


0-8356 


The scientific value of the same at 32 Fahr. . 


1-0006 


9-000 


0-8361 


Metre carre of France, Holland, and Belgium, 








metro quadrate of Italy, &c., divided deci- 








mally 


1-1967 


10-764 


I 


Vara cuadrada of Spain = 9 pies cuad. =256 








avas cuad. ....... 


0-8344 


7-505 


0-6972 


Vara cuadrada of Portugal = 9 pes cuad. . 


1-4480 


13-024 i -2 100 


FORMER, LOCAL, OR SPECIAL VALUES. - 


FRANCE : 




Demi-toise car. (ancienne) .... 


1-1364 10-221 '0-9496 


Demi-toise car. metrique (1812 to 1840) . 


1-1967 10-764 


I 


Aune carree (ancienne) ..... 


i -6903 15-204 


1-4124 


Aune carree metrique (1812 to 1840) 


1-7233 15-501 


1-4400 


SPAIN AND AMERICA : 








Castilian vara cuadrada 


0-8344 


7-505 


0-6972 




o 7113 


6-398 


O'CQAA 


Barcelona ,, ,, ..... 


0-7207 


6-483 0-6022 


Galician ,, ,, . . * . 


1-4102 12-685 


1-1784 


Valencian ,, ,, ..... 


1-0358! 9-317 0-8655 


Vara cuadrada of Peru, Chili, Mexico, Buenos 






Ayres, Montevideo, and La Havana 


0-8606! 7-741 0-7191 


Vara cuadrada of Canary Islands 


0-8480 


17-628 


0-7086 


,, ,, of Brazil ..... 


1-3262 


1-929 


1-1816 


ITALY : 








Tuscan pasetto quad. = 16 palmi quad. 


i -6304 


14-665 


i -3624 


Roman stajolo quad. =33^ palmi quad. . 


i975i 


17-765 


i -9504 


ORIENTAL COUNTRIES : 








Arabia, Mokha square gaz .... 


0-4825 


4-340 


0-4032 


Persia, 1 square zar' 


i -2944 


11-643 


i -0816 


India, Imperial square gaz .... 


i 


8-995 0-8356 


,, Bombay square gaz .... 


0-5625 5-060 0-4700 



Square Measures are not generally used. 



CH. III. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



97 



THE SQUARE PACE. 






GENERAL VALUES. 



Square pace of England and America = 25 

square feet ....... 

The scientific value of the same at 32 Fahr. . 
Square pace of Germany in ordinary quad. 

schritt = 25 square Rheinfuss. 
Square pace of Germany, geodetic quad, schritt 

= 42-706 square feet of Hamburg 
Pas carre de France = 25 pieds carres de Paris . 
Pas carre of 25 pieds carres metriques 
Paso cuadrado of Spain = 25 square pies . 
Passo cuadrado of Portugal = 25 square pes 
Ionian Islands, 25 square feet (Venice) 
Patras, 25 square feet (Paris) .... 
Square pu 1 of China, 25 square chih of the 

Board of Works ...... 1-1223 

Square gochih of Surratra, 25 square chih; or 

depa, 1 6 square cubits .... 



FORMER, SPECIAL, OR LOCAL VALUES. 



sli 


Si I 


^I 


1|| 


1!| 


ni 


"It 


W -| 


**$ 


Sq. pace 


Sq. feet 


Met. car 


I 


24-993 


2-32II 


i -0006 


25 


2-3217 


i '0609 


26-508 


2 -4626 


4777 


36-930 


3-4299 


1365 


28-396 


2-6380 


1967 


29-901 


2-7777 


0-8344 


20-848 


1-9367 


1729 


29-306 


2-7225 


2998 


32-478 


3-0172 


1365 


28-396 


2-6380 


1-1223 


28-042 


2-6050 


1-4400 


35-976 


3-3420 



Square pace, Hamburg, ordinary 23*04 sq 
feet 
Square step, Berne, 9 square feet 
Square pace, Berne, 25 square feet . 
Square pace, Trieste, 25 square feet 
Rome, 25 piede quad. .... 
Tuscany, 9 bracci quad. .... 
Napoli, 1 56-25 palmi quad. 


0-815 

0-333 
0-946 
1-090 
0-956 
321 
664 
300 


20-36 
8-33 
23-64 
27-23 
23-88 
33-00 
41-57 
32-48 


1-891 
0-774 
2-1500 
2-529 
2-2219 
3-0660 
3-8610 
VOI76 


Bologna, 25 piede quad 
Milan ........ 


JVV, 

556 

177 


38-88 
29-41 


j i 
3-6119 
2-7320 


Square step, French Antilles, 12^ square feet . 


* / / 

Q'557 


13-92 


1-293 



This is also a square fathom. 



9 8 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



SQUARE FATHOMS. 

Lachters, klafters, toises, sasheens, estados. 



GENERAL VALUES. 


-glg 

111 

rS E' 3 


M^.E 


11| 




W o cr 
OW 


p&g 


*"&* 




Sq. yards Sq. feet 'Met. car. 


English square fathom = 36 square feet, rarely 










4 


35-979 3-3425 


Value oi the same at 32 .... 


4-0023 


36 3-3444 


Danish and Norwegian square favn = 36 square 








feet 


4-2437 


38-172 3-5461 


Swedish square famn = 36 square feet 


3-7968 


34-152 1 3-1727 


Prussian square klafter = 36 square feet 


4-2437 


38-172 3-5461 


,, square berglachter = 44! square feet . 


5-2390 


47-134 4-3778 


Austrian square klafter =36 square feet . 


4-3042 


38-715 


3-5967 


Russian square sasheen = 49 square feet . 


5 '4444 


48-972 


4-5495 


Spanish square estado = 36 square feet 


3-3375 


30-021 


2-7889 


Malacca and Sumatra square depah= 16 square 








cubits . 


4 35-979 3-3425 


FORMER, LOCAL, OR SPECIAL VALUES 


GERMANY : 




Bavaria, square klafter = 36 square feet . 


3-6698 33-009 3-0665 


Bremen, geviert klafter = 36 square feet . 


3-6031 32-410 13-0109 


Darmstadt, square werkklafter= 100 square feet 


7-4795 


67-277 6-2500 


Frankfurt, square klafter = 35 square feet . 


3-4899 


31-391 2-9162 


Hamburg, square klafter = 36 square feet . 
Hanover, square klafter = 36 square feet . 


3-5360! 31-806 2-9548 
3-6732 33-040 3-0694 


Lothringen, toise carree = 36 square feet . 


3-5223 


31-682 2-9433 


Saxony, Dresden, square klafter == 36 square feet 
Saxony, Leipzig, square klafter = 36 square feet 


3-4530 31-059 2-8854 
3-4420 30-960 2-8762 


Saxony, Leipzig, square lachter = 49 square feet 
Weimar, geviert klafter = 36 square feet . 


4-6850 42-141 3-9149 
3-4256;30-813 2-8625 


Wurtemberg, geviert klafter = 36 square feet 


3-536o 


31-806 2-9548 


SWITZERLAND : 








Metric square toise = loo square feet 


10-7704 96-879 9 


Berne, square klafter = 64 square feet 


6-5864 59-243 : 5 -5037 


Freiberg, square werkklafter= 100 square feet . 


10-2919 92-574 8-6001 


Gentva, square toise = 64 square feet 


8-0818 72-695 6-7533 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



99 



SQUARE FATHOMS continued. 
SWITZERLAND : 

Lausanne, square toise = 100 square feet . 
Neufchatel, square toise = 100 square feet. 
Neufchatel, square toise for hay = 36 square feet 
Zurich, square klafter = 36 square feet 

FRANCE : 

Toise carree ancienne = 36 square feet 
Toise carree metrique = 36 square feet 

RUSSIA : 
: faden = 36 square feet 



Pernau square laden = 36 square feet 
Polish square sazen = 36 square stopa 
Revel, square faden = 36 square f< et 
Riga, square faden = 36 square feet . 

ITALY : 

Turin, square tesa = 25 square feet (p. manuale) 

Savoy, square tesa = 64 square feet (Chamberi). 

Bergamo "| 

Brescia 

Cremona 

Milan 

Modena Italian e cayezzi of j u 

pLtr^ 1 ^^ 36 square feet 

Reggio 

Trevisa 

Venice 

Verona 

M-mtua, square cavezzo = 36 square bracci 

Tuscany, square cavezzo = 36 square bracci 

Sardinia, square trabucco= 144 square palmi 

Piedmont, square trabucco = 36 square feet 



:d t> ~a 


||| 


||| 


c E -- 




E.S.5 


c3w 


HC ^W 


^^W 


Sq. yards 


Sq. feet 


Met. car. 


10-7704 


96-879 


9 


10-2919 


92-574 


8 6001 


37051 


33-327 


3-0961 




34-876 


3-2400 


4-5460 


40-891 


3-7988 


47869 


43-057 


4 


3-^383 


29-146 


2-7060 


3-5734 


32-142 


2-9860 


3-0483 


27-419 


2-5472 


3-2383 


29-146 


2-7060 


3-5IOO 


31-572 


2-9330 


8-8225 


79-358 


73732 


r 8-257 


74-28 


6-900 




85-97 


7-986 


10-071 


90-59 


8-416 


8-160 


73-40 


6-818 


11-786 


106-01 


9*849 


5-503 


49-50 


4-598 


9-5I3 


85-56 


7*949 


12-143 


09-33 


10-147 


7-175 


64-54 




5-I99 


46-77 


4345 




45-57 


4-232 


77-858 


150-62 


14-922 


14-673 


131-99 


12-261 


11-875 


106-81 


9-923 


11-372 


102-29 


9-502 



K2 



1OO 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



SQUARE RODS. 1 



GENERAL UNITS. 



England and America, square rod of 100 square 

feet ; at 62 normal temp. .... 
The same at the temperature of 32 . 
Square rod of Denmark and Norway = I oo 

square feet ....... 

Square stong of Sweden = 100 square fot 
Square rod of Prussia =144 square feet=ioo 

geometric square feet ..... 
Square rod of Austro-Hungary = 100 square 

feet ; (superseded by the square klafter) 
Square estadal of Spain = 144 square feet . 
Square gasab of Arabia = 144 square feet . 
Square dha of Burmah = 49 square royal cubits . 

Square jumba of Malacca "1 , 

e > = 64 square cubits . 

Square tung of Sumatra J 

Square chang of China = 100 square feet (B. 

Works) 

Square jaktan of Guinea ..... 



all 

111 
w al 

Sq. yards 


1|| 
Sq. rods 


II-III 
II-II7 


0-9994 

1 


II786 
10-547 


1-0603 
0-9487 


16-975 


1-5269 


II-956 

I3-35 
17-646 
I8-209 


1-0754 
1-2008 
1-5873 
1-6460 


l6-OOO 


1-4392 


12-471 
I6-OI4 


1-1217 

1-4404 



.as 



LOCAL, FORMER, OR SPECIAL UNITS 

GERMANY : 

Prussian square rod= 144 square feet 
Anspach = 144 ,, 

Baden ,, = 100 ,, 

Bavaria ,, = 100 ,, 

Elsass =100 

Hesse-Darmstadt, square rod= 100 sq 
Holstein, square rod= 100 square feet 
Lothringen ,, = 100 ,, 
Niirnberg ,, =144 ,, 

Wiirtemberg ,, = 100 ,, 

1 For units greater than Jouble paces or double fathoms see Poles and Square Poles. 



. 


16-975 


1-5269 


. 


I5-489 


1-3932 


t 


10-770 


0-9688 




10-194 


0-9169 


. 


10-009 


0-9003 


e feet 


7-479 


0-6728 


, 


11-788 


1-0603 




9-783 


0-8799 


, 


15-912 


1-3222 




9-822 


0-8835 



CII. III. 



MEASURES OF SURF AC E. 



rot 





sis 


||| 


gjsl 


SQUARE "RODS continued. 


Jz <u"d 
M g > 


. e 'a 


c c 13 
".- 




wl'g. 




fc^J g, 


SWITZERLAND : 


ow 

Sq. yards 


Sq. rods 


W 
Met. car. 


Berne and Freiberg, square rod= 100 sq. ft. 


10-514 


0-9457 


8-6000 


Basel, square rod = i oo square feet . 


1 1 097 


0-9981 


9-2743 


Geneva ,, 64 Parisian square feet 


8-082 


0-7269 


67533 


Waadt, Valais, square rod= 100 square feet 


10-770 


0-9688 


9-OOOO 


Zurich, square rod= 100 square feet. 


IO-772 


0-9689 


9-OOI5 


BELGIUM : 








Square rod= 100 square feet (Brussels) 


9-099 


0-8185 


7-6038 


AUSTRIA : 








Cracow, sq. pretow= IOO square stopa 


I5-2OI 


1-3673 


I2-7O2I 


Tyrolese square rod = 100 square feet 


J3-358 


1-2016 


11-1630 


ITALY : 








(Former Tavole.) 








Bergamo, tavola = 4 square cavezzi = 144 sq. ft. 


33-03I 


2-9710 


27-6003 


Cremona, tavola = 4 square cavezzi = 144 sq. ft. 


40-286 


3-6236 


33-6632 


Milan, tavola = 4 square cavezzi = 144 sq. ft. 


32-639 


2-8358 




Modena, tavola = 4 square cavezzi = 144 sq. ft. . 




4-6237 


393954 


Piacenza, tavola = 4 square cavezzi = 144 sq. ft. 


38-177 


3-4339 


31-7946 


Piedmont, tavola = 4 square trabucchi = 144 sq. 








feet, also termed a square pertica . 


45-488 


4-0915 


38-0095 


(Square Pertiche.) 








Ancona square pertica = 100 square feet . 


20-075 


1-8057 


16-7748 


Bologna ,, ,, 


17-290 


1-5552 


14-4476 


Ferrara ,, ,, .. 


19-518 


1-7556 


16-3098 


Naples = 56^ square palmi 


4-622 


0-4153 


3-8617 


Parma = 36 square bracci . 


12*664 


1-1390 


10-5814 


Tuscany =25 square bracci . 


IOT90 


0-9165 


8-5I47 


Venice, square pertica or tavola = 36 sq. ft. 


5-I99 


0-4677 


4-3447 


Verona, square pertica or tavola = 36 sq. ft. 


5-069 


0-4557 


4-233I 



Some Italian square pertiche consist of 24 tavole or 96 square cavezzi. 
For these see Square Chains. 



102 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



SQUARE POLES. 



GENERAL VALUES. 



Sq. yards Sq. rods 



English square pole = 30^ square yards or 272^ 

square feet 30-250 2721 

Square roede of Sweden = 64 square ahn or 256 

square feet ....... 27-0^ 2'429 

Are of the metric system of France; metric 

tavola of Italy ; vierkante nederlandsche roede 

of Holland and Belgium = 100 metres carres . 1 19-672 10'764 100 
Greece, Patras stremo = 25 square paces = 625 

square feet 78-923 7'099 



LOCAL, FORMER, OR SPECIAL VALUES. 
GERMANY : 



Bremen, square ruthe = 64 square ells 
Brunswick ,, ,, . 

Coin ,, 256 square feet 

Erfurt ,, =196 ,, 

Gotha, square feldruthe= 196 square feet . 

,, ,, waldruthe = 256 ,, 

Halle, square ruthe = 225 square feet 
Hamburg, square marschruthe = 49 square ells . 

,, ,, geestruthe = 64 square ells 

Hanover, square ruthe = 64 square ells 
Hesse, Electoral, square ruthe= 196 square feet 
Lippe-Detmold, square ruthe = 256 square feet . 
Mecklenberg, square ruthe = 256 square feet 
Nurnberg, square ruthe = 256 square feet . 
Oldenberg, juck = 324 square feet . 
Saxe-Weimar, square ruthe = 256 square feet . 
Saxony, Dresden, square ruthe = 256 square feet 
,, Leipzig, square ruthe = 256 square feet 
Silesia (Prussian), sq. ruthe = 225 square feet . 

SWITZERLAND : 

Neufchatel, common sq. perche = 245 sc l- f eet 
,, for vineyards = 256 square feet 



25-622 


2-305 


24-828 


2-244 


25-341 


2-305 


18-800 


1-691 


19-404 


1-745 


25-343 


2-280 


22-432 


2-018 


19-252 


1-732 


25-146 


2-262 


26-120 


2-349 


19-021 


1-711 


25-679 


2-310 


25-943 


2-334 


28-287 


2-544 


34-067 


3-064 


24-748 


2-226 


24-555 


2-209 


24-476 


2-202 


22-327 


2-008 


25-261 


2-272 


26-348 


2-370 



CII. III. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



103 



SQUARE POLES continued. 


fl 


li "Zi ctf 

a -g 


11! 


FRANCE : 

Perche car. = 25 toises car. (mes. usuelles) 
,, de Paris = 324 square feet 
, , commune = 400 square feet . 
, , des eaux et forets = 484 sq. feet 


Sq. yards 
119-672 
40-9I5 
50-5I3 


Sq. rods 

10-764 
3-680 
4-543 
5-498 


Met. car. 
100 
34-1887 
42-2083 
51-0720 


HOLLAND AND BELGIUM : 








Amsterdam, vierkante roede= 169 square feet. 
Brussels, vierkante roede = 266| square feet . 
,, ,, verge = 400 square feet 


16-210 

24-276 


1-458 
2-184 
3-274 


I3-5452 
20*2853 
30-4152 


AUSTRIA : 








Silesian square ruthe = 225 square feet . 


22-550 


2-028 


18-8442 


RUSSIA : 








Warsaw, sq. pretow = 225 square stopa . 


22-333 


2-OQ9 


18-6624 


INDIA : 








Bengal, kattah = 80 square gaz = 16 chittack = 
320 square hath ..... 
Madras, kuli = 64 square gaz .... 
Malabar, square kuli = 5 76 square ady . 
Trichinopalli, square kolu .... 
Indian revenue gunta = 4 square poles . 


So 

6 86 
4978o 

121 


7-1959 
5-7567 
4-3765 
4-4775 
10-8840 


66-8492 

40-6572 

4I-5975 
IOI-IIOO 


ANAM : 








Square sao = 9 square ngu * 225 square cubits 


6 4 


5-7567 


53-4* 


CHINA : 


The fan of surface measure is the tenth of the 
mao, and = 24 square pu (paces) or kung = 
600 square chih. (For values reduce from 
the mao, or square chih. ) 
Board of Works value of fan .... 




6-7302 


62-5236 


JAPAN : 


II9-082 


10-7112 


99-5067 



104 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



SQUARE CHAINS AND ANALOGOUS UNITS. 



GENERAL VALUES. 



England, the rood = 40 sq. poles= 1210 sq. yds. 
Scientific value of the rood at 32 Fahr. . 
The Ramsden square chain of 10000 square feet 

= 100 square rods ..... 
Its scientific value at 32 Fahr., the unit of the 

English decimal system .... 
The Gunter's square chain of 484 square yards, 

or 1 6 square poles ..... 
Sweden, square ref= 100 square stanger= 10000 

square fot ....... 

Germany, square chain = 10000 square Rhein'uss 
Danzig, square seil = 22500 square feet 
Konigsberg, square schnur = 22500 square ft. . 
France, Holland, Belgium, and Italy, square 

chain = 400 metres carres .... 
Bohemia, square waldseil = 1 764 square ells 

,, sq. weinbergseil = 4096 square ells . 
Poland, square snurow = 22500 square feet 
Tyrol, starland^ 10000 square feet . 
Spain, celemin = 768 varas cuad. 
Valencia, sq. cuerda= 1 600 sq. varas 
Naples, square catena = 64 square passi 

,, also sq. catena= 100 square passi 
Rome, square catena 1 = 100 square stajoli. 
Bergamo, square pertica 2 = 96 cavezzi quad. 
Cremona ,, ,, ,, 

Milan ,, ,, ,, 

Piacenza ,, ,, ,, 

Greece, Ionian Islands, misura = 3 zappade = 

i oooo square feet = 400 square paces 
Arabia, square chain = 100 square gassab . 
India, sq. tenab = 2500 sq. gaz (yards) 

,, square jarib = 36oo square gaz illahi, of 

the North-West Provinces .... 
Thai (Siam), sq. sen = 4OOsq. wa (fathoms) 
China, square yu=ioo square chang =10000 

square chih ....... 

Japan, ittau= 10 ijje ..... 

This small unit is termed a chain, though corresponding in value to a large pole. 
1 These are very exceptional pertiche. 



ill 


as! 


HI 


f> jj 


wf S 


y y QH 


uw 


w 


Roods 


Sq. ch. 


I 


1-0884 


1-0006 


1-0890 


0-9183 


0-9994 


0-9188 


1 


0-4000 


0-4354 


0-8716 


0-9487 


0-9742 


1-0603 


I-83I5 


1-9934 


2-1069 


2-2930 


03956 


0-4306 


0-6155 


0-6699 


I -4292 


1-5555 


1-8458 


2-0088 


1-1041 


1-2017 


0-5296 


0-5764 


I-3696 


1-4906 


0-2444 


0-2661 


0-3825 


0-4157 


0-1633 


0-1777 


0-6551 


0-7130 


0-7991 


0-8697 


0-6474 


0-7046 


07547 


0-8214 


1-1936 


1-2991 


1-4581 


1-5873 


2 'O66 1 


2-2487 


2'5 


2-7210 


1-6325 


1-7768 


1-0^41 


1-1217 


0-9841 


1-0711 



OH. III. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



LAND MEASURES, ACRES, 



GENERAL VALUES. 



England, America, and parts of India: acre = 4 

roods = 1 60 square poles = 4840 square yards . 
The scientific value of the same at 32 Fahr. 
Sweden: tunnland = 2i8f square poles = 56000 

square feet = 2 spannland = 8 fjerdingar . 
Denmark : toendehartkorn = 2240 square rods = 

2 toende-soedeland 224000 square feet 
Prussia : morgen= 180 sq. rds. =25920 sq. ft. . 
France, Holland, Belgium, and Italy : hectare 

= 100 ares = 10000 met. carres ;. ettaro or tor- 

natura=ioo tavole ; nederlandsche bunder = 

100 vierkante roeden ..... 
Austro- Hungarian Empire: joch or jochart = 3 

metzen = 576 square rods= 1600 square klafter 

= 57600 square feet . 
Russia : dessatina = 2400 square sasheen = 

117600 square feet . 
Spain : fanegada = 12 celemin = 576 estadales 

cuad. =9216 varas cuad. . 
Portugal : geira = 4840 varas cu ad. . 
Greece : Ionian I., moggie = 24 zappade = 32oo 

square paces = 8 misure = 80000 square feet . 
Arabian feddan = 400 square rods = 57600 sq. ft. 

(also used in Turkey and Egypt) . 
Malacca and Anam : sq. orlong or mao = 400 sq. 

Jamba = 1600 sq. depa (fathoms) = 100 sq. sao 
China : king ' = 10 mao = 6 square yu (B. of W.) 

Common king = 10 mao . 

Shanghai king= 10 mao .... 

Macao king = 10 mao . 

Canton king= 10 mao ..... 

Japan ichchu = 10 ittau = 100 ijje . 



sll 

T3> g > 

w|! 

CJW 
Acres 



I -OOO6 



a* 13 



Sq. ch. 

4-3535 
4-3560 



1-2203 5-3125 

S'455723-7513 
0-6313 2-7484 



2-4726 



i -4229 



10-7643 



6-1945 



2-6997 11-7532 

1-5888 6-9167 
1-4480 6-3040 

2-3919 10-4130 



i -4584 

i -3223 
I-55I2 

i -6495 
i -6666 
2-0981 
2-0631 
2-4604 



6-3490 

5-7567 
6-7302 
7-1810 
7-2560 
9-1341 
8-9817 
10-7112 



FORMER, LOCAL, OR SPECIAL VALUES. 



GERMANY : 

Prussian morgen = 180 sq. rods 

Anspach ,, =400 ,, 

Baden ,, =400 ,, 

Bavaria, tagwerk =400 ,, 



Local 

sq. ft. 

259201 0-6313 
51840 I-I52I 
40000| 0-8901 
4OOOO! 0-8425 



2-7484 
5-0155 
3-8751 
3-6677 



1 The king is also considered ten times these values, or=ioo mao. 



io6 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 







i|| 


.HlJ 


^g 


ACRES continued. 






'"tJM 


ill 






W S'3 


y o ^ 


^ '^ rT< 


GERMANY : 


Local 


<JW 


^W 


^W 




sq. ft. 


Acres 


Sq. Ch. 


Hectares 


Bremen, morgen = 120 sq. poles . 


30720 


0-6353 


2-7656 0-2569 


Brunswick ,, =120 ,, 


30720 


0-6l85 


2-6928 


0-2502 


Coin ,, =150 ,, 


38400 0-7853 


3-4190 


0-3176 


Danzig ,, =300 


67500 


I-3736 


5-9802 


0-5556 


Elsass, arpent = 240 sq. rods . 


240CO 


0-4963 


2-1536 


O-2OO7 


Erfurt, acker = 168 sq. poles . 


32928 


0-6526 


2-8409 


0-2639 


Gotha, feldacker =140 ,, 


27440 


0-5613 


2-4434 


O-227O 


,, waldacker = 1 60 ., 


40960 


0-8378 


3-6474 


0-3388 


Hamburg, morgen = 600 , , 


117600 


2-3866 


10-3899 


0-9652 


Hanover ,, =120 ,, 


30720 


0-6476 


2-8194 


0-2619 


Hesse-Darmstadt, morgen = 400 sq. rods 


40000 


0-6181 


2-6911 


0-2500 


Holstein, toende 


225280 


5-4868 


23-8871 


2-2I9E 


Kurhesse, acker =i5osq. poles . 


29400 


0-5901 


2-5689 


0-2387 


LippeDetmold, morgen = 120 ,, 


30720 


0-6367 


2-7717 


0-2575 


Lothringen, arpent = 250 sq. rods . 


25000 


0-5054 


2-2001 


0-2044 


Mecklenberg, acker = 100 sq. poles . 


25600 


0-5360 


2-3336 


0-2168 


Nassau, morgen = 100 sq. rods . 


1 0000 


0-6181 


2-6911 


0-2500 


Nuremberg, acker = 160 ,, 


23040 


0-5260 


2-2899 


O-2I27 


,, morgen =2OOsq. poles . 


51200 


1-1689 


5-0887 


0-4727 


Pomerania, ,, =300 ,, 


76800 


i -6205 


7-0545 


0-6554 


Saxony, Leipzig, acker = 300 ,, , 


76800 


1-5171 


6-6048 


0-6136 


Wurtemberg, morgen = 384 sq. rods . 


38400 


0-7793 


3-3926 


0-3152 


SWITZERLAND : 










Basel, juchart = 360 sq. rods . 


36000 


0-8255 


3-5939 


0-3339 


Berne, acker =400 ,, 


40000 


0-8506 


3-7029 


0-3440 


Freiberg, juchart =500 ,, 
Lucerne ,, (large) 


50000 

45000 


i -0632 
0-8989 


4-6287 
3-9134 


0-4300 
0-3636 


(small) 


31250 


0-6242 


2-7176 


0-2525 


Waadt ,, =500 ,, 


50000 


1-1126 


4-8439 


0-4500 


Zurich ,, =400 ,, 


40000 


0-8903 


3-8758 


3-3601 


Geneva, pose =4OOsq. tois.s 


25600 


0-6679 


2-9078 


0-270I 


FRANCE : 










Arpent de Paris = 100 sq. poles . 


32400 


0-8453 


3-6802 


0-34I9 


,, commun = 100 ,, 


40000 


i -0436 


4-5434 


0-422I 


,, d'ordonnance = 100 ,, 


48400 I -2628 


5-4976 


0-5I07 


The old French units were excessively 


numerous. 






HOLLAND AND BELGIUM :- 








Amsterdam, juchart = 300 sq. poles 


. I -0047 


4-3741 


0-4064 


, , morgen = 600 , , 


. 2-0095 


8-7483 


O-8I27 


Brussels, dagwand--= i oo ,, 


. 0-5016 


2-1836 


0-2029 


,, bunder = 400 ,, 


. 2-0063 8-7343 0-8114 



The old units varied excessively in value. 



CH. III. 

Austrian 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



107 



ACRES continued. 




111 


l|| 


111 


AUSTRO-HUNGARY : 




CJH 


wjj 


**jf 






Acres 


Sq. ch. 


Hectares 


Austrian jnch = 3 metzen = 576 square rods 1600 






square klafter = 57600 square feet . 




I -4229 


6-1945 0-5755 


Tyrolese jauchart = 1000 square klafter = 


36000 








square feet of Vienna . 




0-8899 


3-8745 


0-3599 


Botzen, tagmatt = 4 starland = 5 grabe 


= 400 








square rods = 40000 square feet 




I-I04I 


4-8066 


0-4465 


Polish morgow = 300 square pretow = 


67500 








square feet = 3 square snurow 





I-3843 


6-0266 


0-5599 


SPAIN : 










Ordinary fanegada = 92 1 6 square varas 
Small fanegada = 8000 square varas . 




I-5888 
I -3792 


6-9167 
6-0041 


0-6426 
0-5578 


Aranzada = 6400 square varas 




I-I033 


4-8033 


0-4462 


Valencian cahizada = 6 Valencian fanegad 


is 


I -0272 


4-4717 


0-4I54 


Valencian yugada = 6 cahizadas 




6-1629 


26-8304 


2-4925 


Canary I. , fanegada = 600 sq. brasadas 





0-4935 


2-1484 


0-1996 


ITALY : 


Local 
sq.ft. 








Bologna, biolca =196 sq. rods 


19600 


0-7002 


3-0481 


0-2832 


Ferrara ,, =400 ,, 


4OOOO 


1-6131 


7-0225 


0*6524 


Modena ,, =72 tavole 


10368 


0-7013 


3-0533 


0-2837 


Parma ,, = 72 ,, 


10368 


07535 


3-2799 


0-3047 


Padua and Vicenza campo = 840 tavole 


30240 




4-1579 


0-3863 


Venice, campo = 640 tavole 


20340 


0-6875 


2-9931 


0-2781 


,, migliajo = 1000 sq. passi . 


25000 


0-7460 


3-2478 


0-3017 


Verona, campo = 720 tavole 


25920 


0-7536 


3-2808 


0-3048 


Piedmont, moggio = 96 , , 


13824 


0-8008 


3-4861 


0-3239 


,, giornata=ioo ,, 


14400 


0-9398 


4-0915 


0-3801 


Lombardy, tornatura = 100 metric tavole . 




2-4726 


10-7643 


I 


Naples, moggio = 900 square passi . 




0-8393 


3-7411 


0-3475 


Rome, rubbio= 112 square catene . 




4-5705 


19-8977 


1-8485 


,, quarto = 28 ,, . 




i -1426 


4-9744 0-4621 


Sardinia, starello = 576 squaie rods . 




0-9814 


4-2724 0-3969 


Tuscany, quadrato = 400 ,, ,, 




0-8421 


3-6662 0-3406 


,, saccata = 66o ,, ,, 





I-3895 


6-0492 


0*5620 


INDIA : Sq. yds. 








Bengal, biggah = 20 kattah 
Benares and Ghazipur, biggah 
Northern India, biggah . 


I6OO 
3136 


0-3306 
0-6479 
0-6250 


1-4392 
2-8208 
2-7209 


0-1337 
0*2620 
0-2528 


Orissa, biggah 


4840 


i 


4-3535 ; 0-4044 


Tirhut ,, . 


4225 


0-8729 


3-8003 0-3530 


Madras, kani= 100 kuli . 


6400 


i -3223 


5-7567 ' 0-5348 


Bombay, biggah = 20 pund 


3406 


07037 


3-0637 0-2846 



io8 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



LARGE LAND MEASURES, HIDES, 





.1g M&i 


Ssl 


GENERAL VALUES. 


ill 

ill 

CJW 


^n c & 

Hc/2 0< 


II 

*<*! 




Hides 


Sq. cab. 


Hectares 


England : the (obsolete) hide= 100 acres . 


I 


or cent. 


40-444 


England : the century of the decimal scientific 








system= I square cable = 100 square chains = 








10000 square rods= loooooo square feet 


0-2297 


4 


9-2900 


Prussian haken = 20 morgen .... 


0-1263 


0-5497 


5-I065 


, , hufe = 30 , , 


O-l8<jJ4 


0-8245! 7-6597 


,, grosshufe = 66 morgen 


0-4209 


1-8322 17-0215 


Pomeranian haken = 15 ,, ... 


0-2431 


1-0583J 9-8112 


,, landhufe = 3O ,, ... 


0-4862 


2-1165 


I9'662^ 


, , hseger hufe = 60 morgen 


0-9723 


4-2330 


39-3246 


Mecklenberg hufe = 400 acker .... 


2-1441 


9-3342 86-7145 


Rostock hufe = 450 acker = 600 scheffeln . 


2-4121 


10-5010 97-5538 


Spain : yugada= 50 fanegadas. 


0-7944 


3- 4584 1 32-1281 


Polish : haken = 20 morgow .... 


0-2769 


1-2053 11-1974 


,, hufe or wloka = 30 morgow . 


0-4I53 


1-8080 16-7962 


Bombay chahar= 1 20 biggah .... 


0-7037 


3-6764 34-1532 


SQUARE MILES AND SQUARE LEAGUES. 


England : square statute mile = 64 square fur- 


Sq. miles Sq.leag. Fq. kilom. 




j 


0-2786 


2^884 


Former square London mile = 2500 square chains 






o ^ 


at 62 Fahr 


0*8960 


0-2499 


2-3212 


London square mile = 2500 square chains at 32 


0-8973 


0-25 


2-3225 


London square league of the decimal scientific 








system = 100 centuries or square cables = 








loooo square chains = 4 square London miles 


3-589I 


1 


9-2900 


France : kilometre carre=ioo hectares . 


0-3863 0-1076 


I 


,, mille itineraire car. = I million toises 








i -4667 


0-4089 


3 -70X7 


France : lieue de poste car. = 4 milles car. 


A t\J\J 1 

5-8704 


1-6356 


15-195 


Germany : square postmeile (Danish) 


2I-920I 


6-1075 




,, square geographic meile (of 15 to i) 


2I-2O69 


5-9088 


54-8923 


Spain : legua cuad. (geogr. of 171 to i) . 


15-5806 


4-3411 


40-3290 


Portugal : legoa cuad. (geogr. of 1 8 to i) 


14-7270 


4-1033 


38-1196 


India : square kos = 4 million square yards 


1-2913 0-3598 


3-3425 



CH. IV, MEASURES OF SURFACE. 109 



CHAPTER IV. 
CUBIC MEASURES AND UNITS OF CUBICITY. 

THE principal distinction between measures of capacity 
and cubic measures, as regards their origin, consists in 
the former having been deduced from measures of weight 
and the latter from the cubes of linear measures in com- 
mon use. In a perfect system of measures, the whole 
fall into unison, and become corresponding in every re- 
spect. 

The attempt to carry out this principle to perfection 
was made in the design and operations for laying down 
the metric system. A litre, the basic unit of capacity, 
was to be cubic decimetre ; and the measures of weight 
were to be based on the weight of water contained in the 
litre. Practically one kilogram, the ' kilogramme des 
archives,' was actually made to equal as near as possible 
the weight of a litre of water at 39 Fahrenheit, or 4 
Centigrade ; but as the standard temperature for the 
metric system was o Centigrade or 32 Fahrenheit, the 
anomaly of the vessel being required at one temperature, 
and the water at another, prevented its being done with 
actual precision ; and hence computation had to be 
depended on for making allowance to suit the case. 
Since then, that kilogram, whether right or faulty, has 
been enshrined, secluded strictly from public gaze, and 



no METRICAL UNITS PARTI. 

not even weighed in water by scientific men in private 
on account of some alleged deterioration that might 
occur owing to a supposed presence of soluble arsenic in 
the platinum ; hence its density is unknown. This can- 
not be termed a very scientific basis for measures of 
weight, though doubtless well suited to public venera- 
tion ; yet the standard metric weights of Europe are 
copies of an inexact copy of this kilogram. The ancient 
Egyptians may have built pyramids as mural standards 
of measure, the Romans may have laboriously adapted 
the Greek and the Egyptian measures to practical pur- 
poses and wants ; were the English to reconstruct their 
metrical system they would scientifically weigh a 
cubic yard, or at least a cubic foot of water, but the 
French alone would make a single miserable cubic deci- 
metre weight of such pretensions, borrow decimalisation 
from the Chinese, and propagate the result by presents 
of Sevres vases, large medals, and sentiments of mutual 
admiration. 

One kilogram, however, being thus made, the litre 
has ever since not been a cubic decimetre, but a measure 
of capacity containing such a kilogram-weight of dis- 
tilled water at its maximum density. In other words 
the French eventually fell back on the old system of 
making their measures of capacity in accordance with 
their measures of weight ; in the same way as in Eng- 
land the gallon was made to contain ten pounds' weight 
of distilled water. There would apparently have been 
no necessity for this abandonment of intention, if the 
temperature of 4 Centigrade had been adopted as the 
standard for the system throughout. 

The cubic measures of a system may hence be distinct 
fiom the measures of capacity, both in origin and in 



CH. iv. CUBIC MEASURES. in 

fact. This is more especially the case in England 
where the measures of capacity are based on the legal 
idea that a cubic foot of water weighs 62-321 pounds 
of water at the temperature of 62 Fahrenheit a value 
believed to be incorrect ; so that there are two causes 
of departure affecting the two series as regards unison 
and uniformity. 

In England, therefore, we have a standard gallon and 
a standard cubic foot based on linear measures that are 
not in accordance ; and in order to compare the sets of 
measures dependent on each of them with real accuracy, 
we must assume some approximately correct weight of 
a cubic foot of water either at 62 Fahrenheit, or at 39 
Fahrenheit and at 32 Fahrenheit. 

Taking the values as nearly as can be possibly 
deduced from Miller's results (See { Philosophical 
Transactions,' 1856), they are : 

At 39 Fahrenheit . . 62-4245 Ibs. 

62 - 62-3548 

The legal enactment giving 62-321 

There is, however, another legal definition of an 
English gallon, namely, that it contains 277*274 cubic 
inches ; while a cubic inch of water weighed in air was 
also declared to weigh 252-458 grains at a temperature 
of 62 Fahrenheit and a barometric pressure of 30 inches. 

If this side of the matter be taken in preference to 
the other, and the advantages of the law be made use of, 
the bushel then becomes 2218*192 cubic inches ; and on 
this basis the cubic measures and the measures of capa- 
city may be compared in one system. Any error will 
then be thrown into the weight, and into the whole of 



ii2 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

the series of English commercial measures of weight ; 
this will be treated in a succeeding chapter. 

Having thus arrived by a legal subterfuge at a 
single system of measures, formed by the coalition of the 
capacity and the cubic measures, it may be first noticed 
that the whole English series is comparatively small, 
extending from the minim to the bushel in capacity, and 
to the cubic yard in cubic measure ; everything beyond 
this, such as a vat, a barrel, &c., being a calculated and a 
numerical rather than an actual practical measure ; and 
it may secondly be remarked that the capacity-measures 
are mostly those of ordinary retail and trade and simple 
commerce, while the cubic measures are mostly those of 
technical business and work involving skilled or technical 
labour. 

In Germany, under their old system which ap- 
peared to be intended to suit every special branch to the 
utmost there were not only decimal feet and decimal 
perches to suit the land-surveyor, and the cubic foot, 
klafter, and rod to suit artisan's work ; there was also 
the berglachter system of measures to suit mining 
operations. The berglachter, or lachter of about a 
fathom, was taken as the unit, and a complete system 
based on it, both in Prussia and Saxony. There were 
thus sometimes four systems co-existent, one based on 
the foot for ordinary purposes, one on the ruthe and its 
decimal submultiples through a special land-foot, a par- 
tial system on the ell, and another on the common 
klafter, and on the lachter. 

The unity of the English cubic measures is in strik- 
ing contrast to these, in a manner exactly corresponding 
to the singleness of the English land-measures, con- 
trasted with the multifarious old land-measures of France. 



CH. iv. CUBIC MEASURES. 113 

CUBIC MEASURES. 

Among all European nations that possess a linear foot 
as a measure, the cubic foot forms a cubic measure. Its 
decimal subdivision into thousandths, and its duodecimal 
subdivision in 1728 cubic inches, are both convenient, 
when used so as not to interfere with each other or cause 
confusion ; and either one method or the other, or both, 
appear to be adopted indifferently. 

The independent ell, not forming any simple mul- 
tiple of the foot, is seldom cubed ; and when the ell is a 
simple multiple, the numerical advance in point of 
measure is so small as not to render it very useful ; 
hence it is only when the foot is unknown or little used 
that the cubit, or ell, becomes sufficiently important to 
be cubed and used in cubic measure. 

The cubic yard, or cube of a double cubit, exists in 
England and America, in Spain and Portugal, and in 
India ; other nations being deficient in this useful 
natural unit, with the sole exception of the Florentine 
passetto, a double cubit now declared to be obsolete. 
Its place is supplied by the metre of the French metric 
system, and the cubic metre ; its decimal subdivision 
has the advantage of convenience in numerical calcula- 
tion in large numbers, but not so in small differences, as 
cubic quantities increase very rapidly with the cubes ol 
the corresponding linear dimensions ; the subdivision 
into 27 cubic feet is certainly more convenient for this 
latter reason ; and the cubic foot thus forms a fresh 
point of departure. The absence of any cubic foot, or 
measure corresponding to a cubic foot, is hence a 
marked defect in a system, which is not compensated by 
any measure near the cube of a tenth of a yard, or any 

I 



H4 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

cubic decimetre. In fact, the entire absence of the cubic 
yard itself would not be so serious, as its place might be 
well supplied either by decimal multiples of the cubit 
foot, or by submultiples of the cubic fathom. 

The cubic fathom, klafter or lachter, toise, favn, braza 
or estado, is necessarily most used by nations that do 
not possess a cubic yard of any sort. The fathom, origin- 
ally the embrace of the outstretched arms, or about the 
height of a man, is a measure of about 6, or from 5 to 7 
feet, and is usually an aliquot or multiple. The cubic 
fathom hence is generally either 216 or 343 cubic feet in 
a series of measures ; the exceptions being the large 
cubic werkklafter, lachter, berglachter, and cubic toise of 
Prussia, Darmstadt, and Switzerland, which are decimal 
multiples of the cubic foot, or of some special cubic foot, 
and are fixed at 1000 cubic feet. However convenient 
these may be for purposes of numerical calculation, they 
are not, strictly speaking, cubic fathoms, but fall in the 
next higher class of measure cubic rods. 

The cubic rod, or cube of the rod of land-measure, 
is sometimes supplemented in German measures by 
a special cubic rod adapted to artisans' work, masonry, 
and building, and these, when real cubic rods of either 
sort, are multiples of the cubic foot in one class or the 
other. In England the real cubic rod is hardly ever 
mentioned as such multiples of the cubic yard, or of 
the cubic foot, being used instead ; but a nominal rod of 
brickwork, a cubic measure formed on a square pole of 
surface by a thickness of a brick and a half of such 
bricks as are most commonly used, is still used ; it 
is a mere term for about 306 cubic feet, or 1 1 J cubic 
yards of brickwork in walling. Corresponding measures 
of this type of parallclopipedon are, or were, used in 



CH. iv. CUBIC MEASURES. 115 

Germany and France ; of these the following are 
instances : 

The Prussian schachtruthe is a square rod by a foot 
of thickness, and is 144 cubic feet in masonry and 
earthwork. 

The Prussian feldsteinruthe is a term for 120 cubic 
feet. 

In Saxony the cubic rod for ashlar is 7^ ells long 
x 8 broad x i^ high, or 90 cubic ells =720 cubic feet. 

At Frankfurt-on-the-Main there are two cubic rods, 
the ordinary one 12 feet long x 6 broad x 4 high 
= 288 cubic feet; the mason's rod 12 feet long x 13 
broad x 2 high = 312 cubic feet. 

In Hesse there are two rods, the ordinary one of 12 
feet long x 6 broad x 4 high = 288 cubic feet ; the 
mason's rod is 144 cubic feet only. 

In France there were, besides the real toise-cube of 
216 cubic feet, the cubic measure known as the toise-toise- 
pied of 36 cubic feet, and the toise-toise-pouce of 3 
cubic feet. 

It may be noticed that such contrived measures were 
peculiar to countries that did not possess a cubic yard 
measure, and served a useful purpose under such pur- 
poses. In England there is no excuse for the retention 
of the nominal rod of brickwork as a measure of n^ 
cubic yards, as brickwork, being dependent on the chance- 
size of a burnt brick, the uniformity of the bricks, the 
size of the mortar joints and the shrinkage of the work, 
does not demand a specially exact measure, and can be 
estimated in cubic yards or cubic feet. Units of fuel- 
measure, stacks and cords, are most frequently incon- 
gruous ; their values range from the cubic yard to the 
cubic fathom, mostly between 40 and 200 local cubic 

I 2 



ii6 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

feet. Tons by bulk are from 40 to 60 cubic feet in 
value. A few special loads, voies, carrate are also cubic 
units. The English ton of 40 cubic feet is an excellent 
unit for binary subdivision, and would serve well as a 
basis for rearrangement of capacity-measures down to 
the bushel or the cubic foot. 

The extremes of cubic measure, hence, are the cubic 
inch and the cubic rod ; and the arrangement of the 
measures between these two extremes is diversely effected 
in accordance with local habit, both in accordance with 
the preferred linear units and the mode of subdivision 
adopted. The natural subdivision based on the ordinary 
values of linear measures is thus : 

1728 cubic inches = I cubic foot ; 27 cubic feet = I cubic 
yard ; 2 1 6 cubic feet or 8 cubic yards = I cubic fathom ; 

and if we take the one typical value of the linear rod, 
the double fathom, then 

1728 cubic feet =64 cubic yards = 8 cubic fathoms 
= I cubic double fathom ; 

and there becomes a binary subdivision throughout 
exactly corresponding to that of the cubic foot into 
cubic inches ; this typical arrangement was adopted in 
Prussia, in some parts of Germany, and in Spain, while 
the corresponding principle was applied to some square 
measures in Italy, the tavola being often a square of 12 
feet or 144 feet. Such is the typical and natural binary 
mode of subdividing cubic measures, which possesses 
great advantages in continual halving. The other mode 
of subdivision is decimal, any of these measures being 
taken as a basis. Taking the other typical value of the 
linear rod used by the Romans, Greeks, Arabs, and 



CH. iv. CUBIC MEASURES. 117 

Egyptians, which is more natural, the double pace of 10 
feet, then 

i cubic rod =1000 cubic feet; and I cubic foot =1000 
fluid ounces. 

The cubic foot, being the most intermediate measure 
is the most convenient for several reasons, as the thou- 
sandth of a cubic foot is near if cubic inch (1728); 
and a thousand cubic feet is a measure nearly 37 cubic 
yards, being 37-037 cubic yards, or 4-64 cubic fathoms,. 
Also with the English cubic foot, the thousandth part 
has the additional advantage of very closely represent- 
ing the quantity of water that weighs an ounce. 

Decimalisation on the cubic yard, the cubic fathom, 
and the cubic inch would have less practical convenience, 
as the thousands and the thousandths or mils, which are 
the important points in a system of cubic measures, do 
not fall in useful positions. 

The relations existing between the English cubic 
units, inches and feet, that is both of the binary and of 
the decimal scale, and the units of: capacity are shown 
in small comparative tables, following on pages 119- 
122 : these clearly demonstrate the superior advantage 
of the foot and decimal-ounce units. While considering 
the position of these various units of cubicity with 
regard to each other, it becomes also imperative to notice 
their position with regard to corresponding English units 
of weight, and more especially in the lower part of the 
scale, applied in the compounding of the druggist, and 
in the smaller operations of the scientific chemist, 
analyst, and experimentalist in natural science. 

Small English Units. The thousandth part of a 
cubic foot of water weighs nearly an ounce, and it 
would be well if the ounce were very slightly adjusted 



Ii8 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

to be exactly in correspondence ; also the fluid-ounce 
is a legal measure of capacity, containing an ounce- 
weight of water, a permanent binding connection 
between the measures of weight and of capacity that is 
convenient, like that of the cubic foot and the foot- 
weight 

The fluid-ounce is divided into 480 minims, and the 
ounce-weight into 437*5 grains, and hence a minim is 
not a grain-weight of water. Also the fluid-ounce is 
divided into 8 fluid-drams, while the ounce-weight is 
divided into dram-weights of two sorts, one the com- 
mercial dram, which is the sixteenth of the ounce, or 
27*344 grains, the other, the medical dram of 60 grains, 
neither of which correspond to the weight of a fluid-dram 
<of water ; thus the English small measures of capacity 
below the fluid-ounce are at present neither convenient 
in their relation to cubic measure, nor in connection with 
measures of weight. 

This anomalous arrangement will doubtless be even- 
tually swept away and adjusted, not by lapse of time, 
but by someone that possesses the courage, ability, and 
influence necessary to have it done. Probably the best 
plan would be the following : 

1. To make the ounce and the fluid-ounce exactly 
the loooth of the foot-weight and the cubic foot of pre- 
sent English measures. 

2. To subdivide both this ounce and- this fluid-ounce 
into ten drams and fluid-drams, also into 400 grains and 
fluid-grains respectively. 

3. To abolish the whole of the old avoirdupois units, 
and substitute for them the corresponding English units 
which differ from them very slightly, only -^ per cent. 

The attached small tables illustrate the connection 
of the decimal submultiples of the cubic foot and of the 



CH. IV. 



CUBIC MEASURES. 



119 



cubic inch with the existing series of small measures of 
capacity and of weight 

COMPARISON OF SMALL MEASURES OF CAPACITY WITH THOSE 
OF CUBIC MEASURES AND OF WEIGHT. 

By Subdivision of the Cubic Foot. 



Cubic Measure 


Capacity 


Weight 




Cub. ft. 






Cub. ft. after 


legal 






adjustment 


measure 


Minims 


Grains 


*oo i cub. ft. 1 
or 1000 mils j 


1003 


i fluid-oz. (480 m.) 


{i ounce-weight 
(437'5 g rs -) 


137*2 mils 


137-6 


(65*826 minims) 


i medical dram 








(60 grs.) 


125* mils 


125*4 


i fl.-dram (60 m.) 


5 4 '6 9 grains drm. 


62*5 mils 


62*68 


(30 minims) 


i commercial drm. 


2*286 mils 


2*293 


(1*0971 minims) 


i grain 


2*083 m ^ s 


2*089 ' I minim 


0*9115 grain 


i mil 


1*003 


(0*48 m.) 


'4375 grain 



By Subdivision of the Cubic Inch. 



Cubic Measure 


Capacity 


Weight 


Cubic inches 


Cubic inches 






after ad- 


legal 






justment 


measure 


Minims 


Grains 


1*728 


1*7329 


i fluid-oz. (480 m.) 


i ounce weight 








(437 '5 g^) 




I 


0*577 fluid-oz. 


0*577 oz. (252*4 






(276*9 m.) 


grs.) 


0*2238 


0*2377 


(65-826 m.) 


i medical dram 








(60 grs.) 


0*216 


0*2166 


i fl.-dram (60 m.) 


(54*69 grs.) 


0*103 


0*1083 


(30 m.) 


i commrcl. dram 








(27*34 grs.) 


0*00373 


0*00396 


(1*0971 minim) 


i grain 


0*0034 


0*00361 


i minim 


(0*9115 grs.) 



120 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

From these it will be seen that these measures are 
in ill-accordance with the cubic inch, both at present, and 
even under the supposition that the ounce be adjusted so 
as to be made exactly to the weight of loooth part of a 
cubic foot of water ; but under this latter supposition the 
fluid-dram is exactly 125 myriad ths of a cubic foot, and 
the myriadth of a cubic foot is nearly half a minim, 0*48 
minim a convenient relation that now holds good ap- 
proximately. There is no such convenient relation be- 
tween the cubic measures and the existing grain or its 
decimal multiples : the advantage of correspondence 
being solely in the cubic foot and the ounce. 

Continental nations generally have no small measures 
of capacity, such as minims and fluid-drams, as they 
compound simply by weight in their old measures ; the 
adoption of the metric system which has a cubic centi- 
metre, about one-fourth of the English .fluid-dram, is 
hence a considerable advantage to them in this respect. 

Large English Units. 

The accordance between the English cubic measures 
and the large measures of capacity as well as with those 
of weight is almost as unfortunate as in the case of the 
very small measures ; in fact nowhere, excepting at the 
fluid-ounce and ounce-weight, and at the cubic foot and 
foot-weight, is there any identity of principle. 

The legal capacity of the gallon is 277-274 cubic 
inches, and the legal weight of a gallon of water is 10 
pounds ; the gallon being the standard English unit of 
capacity on which the whole of the rest of the capacity- 
measures are based. These form an excellent binary 
series from the bushel down to the quarter-gill, and are 



CH. iv. CUBIC MEASURES. 121 

hence thoroughly adapted to commercial purposes ; but 
from the basic unit, the gallon, being in ill-accordance 
with the cubic measures, the whole series suffers in the 
way already explained. 

One approximation to adjustment which now exists, 
and may hereafter be made perfect, is the connection 
through the fluid-ounce and ounce-weight. 

The gallon consists of 8 pints, the pint of 20 fluid- 
ounces ; hence, as the gallon is 277*274 cubic inches, 
the ounce is its i6oth part, or is 1*7329 cubic inches, 
which is very nearly 1*728 cubic inches, or the loooth 
of a cubic foot. Taking it at exactly that value, the 
gallon would proportionately become 276*48 cubic inches, 
or 0*160 cubic foot exactly; and the whole series of 
measures of capacity would then be in accordance with 
cubic-measure as a result of the small adjustment of 
0*003 P er un fr> or t% tns P er cent - even ly throughout the 
whole. 

Although this is doubtless a matter of the future, and 
not of the present, as regards the fact, it is yet now a 
convenient mode of arriving through calculation from 
cubic measure to capacity-measures and the converse, 
which is in itself important, whether the adjustment 
of the -^ths be made at an early date, in the dim future, 
or never. 

The legal equivalents of the English measures of 
capacity, from the quarter to the pint, as well as the 
weights of water they contain, are given in the attached 
table. There are still higher measures, the wey or load 
of 5 quarters, and the last of 10 quarters, which consti- 
tute an unfortunate departure from a nearly perfect 
binary system ; there are also subdivisions on the binary 
scale, from the pint down to the quarter-gill of I \ fluid- 



122 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I, 



ounces ; thus making in all 14 measures of a strictly 
binary formation, which are perhaps unequalled any- 
where as regards their commercial convenience, although 
not yet scientifically adjusted to cubic measure. 



COMPARISON OF THE LARGER MEASURES OF CAPACITY WITH 
CUBIC MEASURE AND WEIGHT. 



'3 N 

5 

73 

si 


Actual Legal 
Capacity in 
Cubic Inches 


Adjusted or 
approximate 
Capacity in 
Cubic Feet 


Weight of water 
contained 


Quarter 10240 


I7745'536 


10-24 


640 pounds 


Coomb 5120 


8872768 


5-12 


3 20 


Strike 2560 


4436-384 


2-56 


160 


Bushel 1280 


22l8'J92 


1-28 


80 


Half-bushel 640 


1109-096 


0*64 


40 


Peck 320 


554-548 


0-32 


20 


Gallon 1 60 


277-274 


0-16 


10 


Pottle 80 


138-637 


0-08 


5 


Quart 40 


69-318 


0*04 


2f 


Pint 20 


34'659 


0'02 


J i 


Fluid-ounce i 


1-7349 o'ooi 


T V or i oz. 



In addition to the natural cubic measures before 
referred to, which in England do not go beyond the 
cubic yard, there are terms of cubic measure that are 
convenient multiples of the cubic yard, or of the cubic 
foot ; such as the various loads, lasts, and tons of mea- 
surement which are not to be confused with the lasts, 
loads, and tuns of capacity, the latter being multiples of 
the bushel or of the gallon. 

The real cubic measures are mostly fuel and wood 
measures, and shipping tons, as before mentioned. Even 
some of the old English measures of capacity were deter- 

1 These quantities are nearly ^ per cent, less than the legal capacities. 



en. iv. CUBIC MEASURES. 123 

mined in cubic measure, although they may have been 
originally based on weight of corn or of flour. The 
Winchester bushel was 2150^ cubic inches, and the Win- 
chester gallon was 274^ cubic inches ; the Elizabethan 
ale-gallon was 282 cubic inches, and the Queen Annian 
wine-gallon 231 cubic inches. The present gallon of 
277*27384357 cubic inches is an invention dating only 
from the reorganisation of 1825. 

The inherent defect of the present English capacity 
measures is that they are dependent on an old French 
avoirdupois pound, which cannot coalesce in the English 
measures without some slight alteration. Beyond that 
there is the anomalous two-temperature standard under 
which weight and capacity are compared. 

Foreign Units. 

While the English cubic measures are not in strict 
accordance with the commercial measures of capacity, 
the same may be said of a very great number of cubic 
measures of other nations. The fact that the litre is no 
longer a cubic decimetre in reality, but is a measure of 
capacity containing a kilogram weight of water, in 
accordance with a primitive kilogram of unknown den- 
sity, has been already mentioned. The Russians, in the 
same way as the English, have hitherto conformed their 
measures of capacity to those of weight ; thus their 
vedro of liquid measure is 30 local pounds of water and 
their tschetverik 64 pounds. The Turkish fortin and the 
kiloz are based on weight of wheat, the former being 2 
canthars, the latter 22 oka, and the alma is 8 oka of oil. 
The Iberian almudes and arrobas are now nominally 
based on weight of water in some cases and on weight 



124 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

of oil in others ; formerly they were Arab or Moorish 
makuk and waebe, or true cubic measures of another 
series, which cannot coalesce with the cubic units of the 
Visigoths and Suevi. It cannot, therefore, be expected 
that measures of capacity formed on this principle, and 
rigidly adhered to, can be in strict accordance and uni- 
formity with the cubes of the linear measures of the 
nation, until some mode of adjustment be adopted to 
effect a real systematisation. It seems that this habit of 
neglecting the accordance between cubic and capacity- 
measures is not only unscientific, but is a marked evi- 
dence of a want of ordinary civilisation. 

The ancient Egyptians, the Chaldseans, the Assyrians, 
the Persians, the Ptolemaic Egyptians, and the Greeks, 
all deduced their weights from their cubic measures 
and subdivided large cubic measures to form small mea- 
sures of capacity, when they required them ; although 
there is no doubt that Oriental nations did not much use 
capacity-measures, and preferred buying and selling 
almost everything by weight ; but the mode of making 
measures of capacity to suit old foreign units of weight, 
without considering their relation to true local cubic 
measure, is a proceeding suited to savage tribes, desti- 
tute of apparatus, appliances, and scientific men. 

The whole series of Swedish units of capacity are 
actual cubic units (see Swedish system). 

The Prussians and the Danes, as well as some of the 
former German nationalities, regulated their measures of 
capacity by cubic measure, as may be seen by the 
attached table giving the values. 



CH. IV. 



CUBIC{ MEASURES. 



125 



EQUIVALENTS OF MEASURES OF CAPACITY IN LOCAL CUBIC 
MEASURE. 



Danish pot or krug . 
Danish kanne . 
Danish bushel . 
Danish corn-barrel . 
Danish tar-barrel 
Danish grain last 

Prussian scheffel 
Prussian eimer . 
Prussian beer-barrel . 
Prussian maker 

Lubeck scheffel 

Lippe-Detmold scheffel . 

Bavarian scheffel 

Dresden scheffel 

Gotha bergscheffel for coal 

Bavarian schankeimer for wine 

Castilian fanega 



^V of a cubic foot 
1 08 cubic inches 
972 cubic inches 

4^ cubic feet 

3f cubic feet 
99 cubic feet 

3072 cubic inches 

3840 cubic inches 

6400 cubic inches 

2it cubic feet 



2343 cubic 
3154 cubic 
8944 cubic 
8064 cubic 
2920 cubic 
2580 cubic 



inches 
inches 
inches 
inches 
inches 
inches 



4440 cubic inches 



Zurich grain malter, 1 2^ cubic feet ; vegetable malter, 
12^ cubic feet; lime malter, 12 cubic feet; charcoal 
malter, 27^ cubic feet. 

In other parts of Europe the cases of capacity- 
measures in strict accordance with cubic measure are 
detached and comparatively rare ; most of them are 
based on weight, the weight-units being generally old, 
borrowed, and foreign ; thus preventing these national 
collections of units from being perfect in systematisation, 
or deserving of being named systems. 

In Oriental countries capacity-measures hardly exist, 
or are comparatively rare. In Pagan countries, capacity- 
measures are mostly based on weight of grain, and 



125 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

sometimes are deductions from weighing several sorts of 
grain ; in some places they do not exist, but are sup- 
planted by direct weight ; and in very few, such as Thaif 
(Siam), Anam, and one or two other cases, they are 
correctly formed on local cubic measure. 

The very marked distinction between foreign mea- 
sures of capacity that are truly cubic or otherwise is 
important ; it has, however, not been preserved in the 
tables, all nominal measures of capacity being classified 
together for the sake of convenience in reference. 



CH. IV. 



CUBIC MEASURES. 






127 



XL * 



CUBIC INCHES, DECIMAL CUBIC INCHES, 
AND DECIMAL FLUID-OUNCES 





x-Sg 

JS 4513 


JjSj 


-g<fil 


GENERAL VALUES. 


t* E.J; 


"If g.f 


fill 




W 
UW 


3| 


*8| 




Cub. inch 


Fluid-oz. 


Cent. cub. 


English cubic inch duodecimal at 62 Fahr. 


I 


0'5782 


16-3721 


Scientific value of the same at 32 Fahr. . 


I 0009 


0-5787 


16-3862 


Fluid-ounce of the English decimal measures, 








or the loooth of the cubic foot at 32 Fahr. 








= 1000 fluid mils 


17290 


1 


28-3153 


Decimal cubic turn of Sweden .... 


I-5980 


0-9240 


26-1629 


Cubic inch of Prussia, Norway, and Denmark, 










I '0928 


0-6319 


I7-8QII 


Cubic inch of Austro- Hungary . . 


I-II62 


0-6454 


* / ^ J y * * 
I8-2749 


Decimal kubikzoll of Austro-Hungary 


I -9288 


1-1153 


3<'5790 


Cubic inch of Spain, duod. .... 


07622 


0-4407 


I2-4782 


,, Portugal, duod. .... 


1-2703 


0-7345. 


20-7969 


Cubic tsun of China (Board of Works) dec. 


2-0547 


1-1880 33-639I 


FORMER, LOCAL, OR SPECIAL VALUES. 


GERMANY : 




Baden and Nassau, decimal and metric . 


1-6491 0-9535 27-0000 


Bavaria, decimal ...... 


j -5185 


0-8780 


24-86ir 


,, duodecimal ..... 


0-8788 


0-5081 


143872 


Brunswick, duod. . . . . . . 


0-8213 


0-4749 


I3-4468 


Bremen, decimal (also the duod. ) 


i '4773 


0-8542 


24-1870 


Gotha, duod. ....... 


0-8410 


0-4863 


I3769I 




0-8800 


0-5088 


14-4074 


Hesse-Darmstadt, decimal and metric . . 


0-9544 


0-5518 


I5-6250 


Hamburg, duod. 


0-8312 


0-4806 


I3-6077 


Mecklenberg, duod. ..... 


0-8710 


0-5036 


I4-2605 


Oldenberg, duod. ...... 


0-9194 


0-5322 


1 5 -0692 


Saxony, Dresden duod. ..... 


0-8020 


0-4638 


13-1312 


,, Leipzig duod. ..... 


0-7982 


0-4615 


13-0686 


Wurtemberg, decimal ..... 


i -4362 


0-8304 


23-5142 


Swiss (Waadt) decimal and metric . 


i -6491 


0-9535 


27-0000 


FRANCE : 








Pouce cube (mesures usuelles) duod. and metric 


i -3091 


0-7570 


21-431 


Parisian pouce cube, duod. .... 


1-2117 


0-7006 


19-8364 


HOLLAND AND BELGIUM : 








Amsterdam, kubieke duim (undec. ) . 


1-0413 0-6021 


17-0479 


Brussels, kubieke duim (undec.) 


0-9622 0-5563 


157532 



For other values, decimalise on the equivalents of the cubic feet. 



128 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



CUBIC FEET. 





js3a 


^ o c' 


S 




H y ! 


fjSj 


"oJS-SJ 


GENERAL VALUES. 


Ill 




III 




cjw" 


W V5 0- 


^fzf 




Cub. ft. 


Cub. ft. 


D(?c. cub. 


The cubic foot of England, America, and Russia, 








and their dependencies, duod. = 1728 cubic 








inches 


I 


0-9991 


28*2909 


The scientific value of the same at 32 Fahr. 








= 1000 decimal fluid-ounces, decimal . 


1-0009 


1 


28-3153 


The cubic foot of Prussia, Norway, and Den- 








mark ........ 


I -0928 


1-0918 


30*9158 


The cubic foot of Sweden and Finland (formerly 










O "Q24.8 


0-9240 


26*1629 


The cubic foot of Austro- Hungary, dec. and 


-/*T'*-* 








I "I l62 


i. H HCO 


._,fc_ 


The cubic foot of Spain, duod. 


0*7622 


1 1 1 JO 

0-7615 


21*5623 


The cubic foot of Portugal, duod. . 


I -2703 


1-2692 


35-9370 


The cubic foot of the Chinese Empire, decimal 








(the Board of Works' kambuchih) 


I-I890 


1-1879 


33-639I 



FORMER, LOCAL, OR SPECIAL CUBIC FEET. 
GERMANY : 



Prussian Rheinfuss . 
Anspach and Baireuth, duod. . 


1-0928 
. 0-9525 


1-0918 
0-9517 
0-8304 


30-916 
26-946 

2~2 'C \A 






0-9535 


27 


Bavaria, dec. and duod. 
Werkschuh 
Rhenish Bavaria, metric duod. 
Bremen, dec. and duod. . 


. 0-8788 
. 0-9186 
. 1-3091 
. 0-8549 


0-8780 
0-9178 
1-3080 
0-8542 
0-8206 


24-86I 
25-987 

37'037 
24-I87 

2? *276 


Coin and Aschaffenberg . 
Culm 
Danzig, duod. . . . 


. 0-8407 
. 0-8452 
. 0-8348 


0-8400 
0-8445 
0-8341 
0-8542 


23-764 
23-913 
23-615 
24*188 


,, Landschuh . 


0-9073 


0-9065 
0-8403 


25*672 
2V7Q3 


Halle 


0-84.08 


0-8491 




Hanover, duod. 
Heiligenstadt and Erfurt . 


. 0-8800 
. 0-8020 


0-8792 
0-8012 


24*896 
22-69I 



CH. IV. 



CUBIC MEASURES. 



129 



CUBIC FEET continued. 


ill 

tug > 


:i|l 

s3 


SSJ 

C rt 
5 S > 


GERMANY continued : 


111 

<JW 


C .J-'S 
W -| 


,^-3 

3| 




Cub. ft. 


Cub. ft. 


Dec. cub. 


Hesse Darmstadt, metric dec. .... 


0-55 2 3 


0-5518 


i5' 62 5 


,, Electoral, ordinary duod. 


0-8418 


0-8410 


23-813 


,, ,, landfuss .... 


0-8174 


0-8166 


23-125 




O-Q^oS 


0-9389 


26-C8A 


Lippe-Detmold and Schaumberg 


\j y^y^J 
0-8576 


0-8568 


*** JT* 

24-266 




O-8266 


0-8258 


23 "377 


Liibeck and Rostock ..... 


0-8434 


0-8426 


*j $1 1 
23-863 


Minister. ....... 


0-8693 


0-8685 


24-591 


Mecklenburg, duod. ..... 


O-87IO 


0-8703 


24-642 


Nassau, werkfuss, dec. and metric . 


Q'9544 


0-9535 


27 


Nuremburg, stadtfuss, duod. .... 


0-9916 


0-9907 


28-055 


,, artilleriefuss .... 


0-7943 


0-7935 


25-192 


Oldenburg, duod. ...... 


0-9204 


0-9196 


26-040 


Saxe- Weimar, werkfuss, duod. 


0-7927 


0-7920 


22-426 


Saxony, Dresden, duod. ..... 


0-8020 


0-8014 


22-691 


,, Leipzig, dec. and duod. 


0-7982 


0-7975 


22-583 


Silesia (Prussian) ...... 


0-8439 


0-8431 


23-876 


Wiirtemberg, dec 


0-8312 


0-8304 


23 '5 H 


SWITZERLAND : 








Berne and Freiberg, duod. .... 


0-8914 


0-8906 


25-220 


Basel, duod. .... ... 


0-9985 


0-9976 


28-244 


Saint Gall, duod 


1-0281 


1-0272 


29-087 


Geneva ........ 


4-1063 


4-1028 


116-17 


Claris, Grisons, Uri, Waadt, Valais, Schwytz, 








duod. ........ 


0-9544 


0-9535 


27-000 




i '0928 


1-0919 


3O'Ql6 


,, joiners' ...... 


0-9916 


0-9907 


ju y nj 
28-049 


,, bauschuh ..... 


0-8116 


0-8109 


22 '962 


Neufchatel, landfuss, duod. .... 


0-8914 


0-8906 


25-22O 


Rheinfelden, Arau (Vienna) .... 


1-1162 


1-1153 


31-579 


Schaffhausen, werkschuh .... 


0-9343 


0-9335 


** *// -/ 

26-432 




-j -0206 


3-0270 


62" ^7 1 


Zug, ordinary duod. ..... 


O ^ J **?* J 

0-9544 


0-9535 


\ji 3/ A 
27-000 


,, steinschuh ...... 


0-6857 


0-6851 


19-400 


Zurich, dec. and duod. ..... 


0-9544 


0-9535 


27 -ooo 


,, bauschuh ...... 


0-9677 


0-9669 


27 -007 


FRANCE : 








Pied du roi, Paris, duod.. .... 


1-2117 


1-2106 


34-277 


Pied metrique, duod. 


1-3091 


1-3080 


37-037 


HOLLAND AND BELGIUM : 










O'8O2O 


0-8014 


22*691 




O-7A.Il 


0-7405 


20 '067 



K 



130 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



CUBIC FEET continued. 
AUSTRO HUNGARY : 


*!! 

Cub. ft. 
I-II62 

0-9203 
0-9257 

1*1374 
0-9166 
I -6002 
0-8568 
I-3I82 

i -2116 

0-6649 

0-7278 
0-7295 

o "8444 
2-9661 

1-9411 
3*6933 
3*9952, 

3*5977 
2*9i35 
5*0581 
1*6137 
57II3 
3*6675 
1-4201 

4*7944 
5-2892 

Q'9343 
1-3819 
i -4820 

0-7622 

0-5999 
0-9768 

' 0-7969 
0-9925 

I-2II7 


xf 
|j| 

Cub. ft. 

1-1153 
0-9195 
0-9249 
1-1364 
0-9158 
1-5988 
0-8560 
1-3170 

0-9991 
1-2105 
0-6642 
0-7271 
0-7288 
0-8437 

2-9635 
1-9394 
3-6901 
3-9918 
3-5946 
2-9110 
5-0538 
1-6123 
5-7064 
3-6644 
1-4189 
4-7903 
5-2847 
0-9334 
1-3807 
1-4807 
1-4239 

0-7615 
0-5993 
0-9759 

0-7961 
0-9916 
1*2106 


l|l 
e|.| 

Dec. cub. 

31-579 
26-040 
26-I88 
32*I79 
25*934 
45-270 
24-243 
37*293 

28-291 
34*278 
18-812 
20-589 
20-6^8 
23-888 

83*9I3 

54*9i5 
104-487 
113-029 
101-782 
82-426 
143-100 
45*652 
161-580 

103757 
40-177 

I35*638 
149-637 
26-437 
39*096 
41-927 
40-318 

21-562 
16-975 
27-634 

22-545 
28-078 
7A-277 










Poland, Cracow, duod. ..... 
Silesia ...... 


Tyrol 


RUSSIA : 










Poland, Warsaw, duod 

ITALY : 
Bergamo 








Milan 








Piacenza (agrarian) ...... 
Piedmont, piede manuale (in 8ths) . . 
,, piede liprando (in I2ths) . 
Reggio ........ 
Rome 
Savoy, Chamberi ...... 




SPAIN : 

Castile, duod. 
Aragon 


AMERICA : 

Mexico, Buenos Ayres, and Montevideo, Chili, 
Peru, La Havana j old value of the Castilian 


Pernambuco 



CH IV. 



CUBIC MEASURES. 



CUBIC YARDS, METRES, STAB, VARAS, <5-r. 



GENERAL VALUES. 



Ill 

! 

CJW 
Cub. yds. 



England and America cubic yard = 27 cubic 

feet ; Indian cubie gaz = 8 cubic hath . . i 
Scientific value of the same at 32 . . . 1-0009 
Metre cube of France, Holland, Belgium, and 

Italy= looo dec. cub. i'3O9i 

Vara cubica of Spain = 27 pies cub. . . . 0-7622 
Vara cubica of Portugal = 37 5 \ pes cub. =125 

palmos cubicos de craveira .... 1*7425 



Vj 

Cub. ft. 

26-977 
27 

35-317 
20-914 

47-006 



Met. cub 



FORMER LOCAL, 
FRANCE : 



OR SPECIAL VALUES. 



Demitoise cube metrique (1812-1840) 


1-3091 


35-317 


,, ancienne (till 1812) 


1-2117 


32-685 


Aune (stab) metrique cube (18*2- ^840) . 


1-8853 


50-857 


,, ,, ancienne cube .... 


2-1977 


59-283 


SPAIN AND AMERICA : 






Castile 


0-7622 


20-91 


Aragon 


0-5999 


16-19 


Barcelona ....... 


0-6120 


16-50 


Galicia 


1-6739 


45-16 


Valencia ....... 


0-9765 


26-35 


Mexico, La Plata, La Havana. 


0-7984 


21-54 


Peru, Chili, and Manila 


0-7971 


21-50 


Canaries 


0-7810 


21-06 


Curagao . 
Brazil 


0-7976 
1-6815 


21-52 
45-36 


ITALY : . 






Tuscan pasetto cub. = 8 bracci cubichi = 64 






palmi cub 


2-0806 


56-13 


Carrara carrata = 25 palmi cubichi (a load used 






as a cubic measure for marble) . . . 


0-4736 


-12-80 



K 2 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART 



NOMINAL UNITS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES. 
UNITS OF WOOD-FUEL MEASURE. 



GENERAL AND FORMER 
LOCAL VALUES. 

England, the stack, I xi X4 = 4c. yards . 
,, the cord, 4' x 4' x 8'= 128 c. feet 
Denmark, l favn for fuel, 3x3x1=9 cub. alen 
Sweden, 1 famn for fuel, 3 x 3 x i|= 13^ cub. Sin 
Prussia, holzfaden, 3x3x1=9 kub. ellen 
,, haufen, 18' x 9' x 3' = 486 kub. f. . 
Baden, holzklafter, 6' x 6' x 4'= 144 c. f. . 
Bavaria, holzklafter, 6' x 6' x 3!'- 126 c. f. 
Bremen, holzfaden = 72 kub. fuss 
Brunswick, malter, 3^ x 4' x 4!' = 6o| c. ft. 

,, klafter, 6|' x 4' x 4!'= I2o| c. feet . 

Breslau, holzstoss, 10 x 5 x i = 75 c. ells . 
Coblenz, holzfaden =192 c. ft. 
Darmstadt, stecken, 4' x 5' x 5'= 100 c. ft. 
Frankfurt, stecken, 3^' x 3| x 3'| = 42| c. ft. 

,, gilbert = 2 stecken = 85! c. ft. . 
Gotha, charcoal malter, 3^' x 3^' x 3^ = 42! c. ft. 
Gotha, holzklafter, 6' ~ 6' x 3'= 108 c. ft. . 
Hamburg, 1 holzfaden, 6|' x 6|' x 2' = 88| c. ft. . 
Holstein, holzfaden, 6 x 6' x 2' = 72 c. ft. . 
Nassau, holzklafter, 6' x 6' x 4' = 144 c. ft. 
Mecklenburg, holzklafter, 7' x 7' x 2! 98 c. ft. . 
Mainz, stecken, 4^' x 4!' x 3' = 56^ c. ft. . 
Saxony, Leipzig klafter, 6' x 6' x 3!= 126 c. ft . 
Saxony, schragen = 3 holzklafter = 3 78 c. feet . 
Wiirtemberg, scheitholzklafter, 6' x 6' x 4'= 144 

c. ft 

Wiirtemberg, the wanne for hay, 8' x 8' x 8' = 512 

c. ft. , 

France and the Netherlands, the stere or wisse . 
France, voie de Paris, 4' x 4' x 3|' = 56 c. ft. 

,, corde de porte, 8' x 5' x 3^'= 140 c. ft. . 
Swiss Berne holzklafter, 6' x 5' x 3|' = 105 c. ft. 
Swiss Waadt moule, 5x5x5= 125 c. ft. . 

1 The true cubic fathom is also used for fuel. 



ill 


-S.<5 S 


-g<s I 


Ij! 


SJ 


I'll 


Cub. ft. 


Cub. ft. 


Met. cub. 


108 


107-91 


2-QC 1:4 


128 


127-89 


3-6212 


78-68 


78-61 


2-2259 


99-88 


99-79 


2-8256 


118-02 


117-92 


3-3389 


53I-09 


530-63 


15-0251 


I37-43 


137-31 


3-8880 


110-73 


110-63 


3' 1 3 2 5 


61-56 


61-50 


I-74I5 


52-95 


52-90 


i -4979 


105-89 


105-80 


2-9958 


550-94 


550-47 


'5-5867 


166-57 


166-44 


4-7127 




55-18 


1-5625 


34'94 


34-91 


0-9885 


69-88 


69-82 


1-9769 


36-06 


36-03 


i -020 1 


90-83 


90-75 


2-5696 


73|8 


73-82 


2 -0902 




5979 


I '6930 


137-43 


137-31 


3-8880 


82-66 


82-59 


2-3386 


47-32 


47-28 


I-3387 


100-58 


100-49 


2-8454 


301-72 


301-47 


8-5362 


119-68 


119-58 


3-3860 


425-55 


425-19 


12-0393 


35-35 


35-32 


I 


67-85 


67-79 


I-9I95 


169-62 


169-48 




93-6o 


93-52 


2-6481 


119-30 


119-19 


3-3750 



CH. IV. 



CUBIC MEASURES. 



133 



FUEL-MEASURES continued. 



Swiss Zurich holzklafter, 6 x 6 x 2 = 72 c. ft. 
Swiss Zurich torf klafter = 6 korben = 72 c. ft. 



11.1 

Wfg- 

CJW 

Cub. ft. 

68-73 



-S| 
111 



Cub. ft. Mfct. cub 



68-67 



1-9445 



UNITS OF TONNAGE BY BULK (FOR LIGHT 
MERCHANDISE). 



England, ton = 40 c. ft. . . . . .40 

France, old ton = 42 c. ft. de Paris . . .. 50*88 

Hamburg, ton = 40 c. ft 33 '25 

Portugal, ton = 57| c. ft 73'36 



39-97 

50-84 

33-22 

3-30 



1-1316 
I-4396 
0-9406 
2-0754 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



CUBIC FATHOMS AND CUBIC RODS. 



GENERAL AND FORMER 


ill 


l|| 


111 


LOCAL UNITS. 


CJW 


s 


^w 




Cub. yds. 


Cub. ft. 


Met. cub. 


England, cubic fathom = 8 cubic yards = 216 








cubic feet (not generally used) . 


8 


215-8 


6-II09 


,, cubic rod of the decimal system at 32 








= looo cubic feet .... 


37-069 


1000 


28-3153 


Sweden, cubic famn = 2i6 cubic feet 




199-6 


5-6512 


Danish, Norwegian, and Prussian cubic favn = 










8'7A2 


235-8 


6-6778 


Prussian cubic berglachter = 296^ c. ft. . 
,, schachtru the = 144 cubic feet 


11-979 
5-828 


323-5 
157-2 


9-1602 
4-45*9 


,, feldsteinruthe = 120 cubic feet . 




131-0 


3-7099 


Leipzig, cubic klafter = 216 cubic feet 


6-386 


172-3 




,, cubic lachter = 343 cubic feet 


IO-I4O 


273-6 


7-7458 


^, kubikruthe = 7 20 cubic feet . 


21-286 


574-2 


16-2594 


Frarikfurt cubic klafter = 216 cubic feet . 


6-5I9 


175-9 


4-9797 


,, kubikruthe (earth) = 288 c. ft. . 


8-692 


234-5 


6-6396 


,, ,, (mason's) = 312 c. ft. 


9-4I7 


254-0 


7-1929 


Baden, kubikruthe = 1000 cubic feet. 


35*347 


953-5 


27 


Darmstadt, kubikruthe = 1000 cubic feet . 


2 0'455 


551-8 


15-6250 


Berne, kubikklafter= 5 12 cubic feet. 


I6-904 


456-0 


12-9127 


Geneva, cubic toise = 5i2 cubic feet (Paris) 


22-975 


619-8 


17-5499 


Freiberg, cubic werkklafter = 1000 cub. ft. 




890-7 


25 -2202 


Lausanne, cubic toise= i ooo cubic feet 


35-347 


953-5 


27 


Neufchatel, cubic toise= 1000 cubic feet . 




890-7 


25-2202 


Zurich, cubic klafter = 216 cubic feet 


3 7'636 


206-0 




France, toise cube metrique = 2i6 p. c. usuels . 


10-473 


282-5 


8 


,, ,, ancienne = 2i6 p. c. (Paris) . 


9-693 


261-5 


7 '4039 


Russia, cubic sasheen = 343 cubic feet 


12-704 


342-7 


97038 


Austria, cubic klafter = 2i6 cubic feet 


8-930 


240-9 


6-8210 


Spain, braza or toesa cub. =216 cubic ft. . 


6-097 


167-3 


4*6575 


Portugal, bra9a or toesa cub. = 125 c. ft. . 




158-6 


4-4921 



ORIENTAL AND EAST-ASIATIC CUBIC MEASURES. 

It is very doubtful whether the cubes of linear units are generally 
employed as cubic measures. 



N. B. These English and French values of cubic units are clipped or 
reduced from longer values that correspond exactly. 



135 



CHAPTER V. 
MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

COMMERCIAL measures of capacity, as distinct from 
cubic measures before treated, have their origin under 
one or other of the three following forms of deriva- 
tion : 

First Some convenient vessel is adopted as suitable 
to measuring produce of various kinds, such as a cubical 
or cylindrical box for corn, or an earthenware or metal 
vessel for ale or wine ; and its dimensions are measured 
in the linear measure of the country. This rather hap- 
hazard mode is undoubtedly very primitive. 

Second. A vessel is made to contain a certain 
amount of produce, wine, oil, water, rice, wheat, flour, 
or grain, so that when full its contents will counter- 
balance a certain number of specified weights in use. 
This method is slightly in advance of the former as re- 
gards care and accuracy. 

Third. A vessel is made in accordance with the 
linear measures of the country, so as to form a definite 
and easily defined cubic measure, and is also arranged in 
accordance with the weights of the country, while the 
latter are adjusted to suit the cubic measures. This 
method is in advance of the other two, as it is a 
matter involving much care and skill to make a weight 
that shall exactly balance the contents of a filled 



136 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

cubic measure. Such a plan therefore is usually only 
adopted at the reorganisation, reconstruction, or in the re- 
modelling of a complete national system. 

It may be noticed that measures of capacity are not 
by any means necessary to nations not largely employed 
in commerce, as almost everything may be bought or 
sold by weight ; the exceptions being such things as 
cannot be conveniently weighed, and produce or merchan- 
dise that may be made to absorb a large amount of 
water without showing much subsequent trace of the 
operation. 

Oil, corn, grain, and vegetable produce may be, and 
are in some places sold by weight, and so also may any 
liquid, beer, wine or spirits ; but it is principally for the 
convenience of the trade in liquids that measures of ca- 
pacity are at all desirable, and secondly only with the 
object of preventing the adulteration with water of 
absorbent goods and produce, such as coke, flour, and 
things of low specific gravity or of a loose nature. 

In many Oriental countries measures of capacity are 
almost unknown, and even in some semi-Oriental coun- 
tries the so-called measures of capacity are merely 
disguised measures of weight, and are termed and 
expressed in accordance with the weight of grain, oil, 
wine or water, they may hold. From these very marked 
habits it may be supposed that the Oriental has been 
long fully aware of the fact that a capacity-measure of 
grain is comparatively valueless, and may hold nearly 
a quarter more by filling it with force. 

In some countries, where Oriental influences have 
left an Arab, Moorish, or a Turkish trace, these undeve- 
loped measures of capacity are common ; and show the 
unobliterated effect of the units as applied to various 
substances. 



CH. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 137 

Similarly the Indian seer, or ser, of weight, passing 
into Ceylon, forms a measure of capacity, and its 
multiples the parrah and mercal follow the sam-e process. 
The same thing occurs also in Maisur, and some parts 
of Southern India, the Carnatic, Madura, Madras, and 
Trichinopalli ; where there were some real ancient mea- 
sures of capacity, the colaga, bullah, and others, with 
which the ser weight and the kandi weight system was 
blended at some comparatively late epoch. 

" Most of the doubtful measures of this transition class 
are more conveniently and correctly treated as measures 
of weight, even when varying in value with the nature 
of the produce or merchandise ; but it is the natural 
error of the Teuton to assume a measure of capacity to 
exist under circumstances where he himself would use 
one, though as a rule the contrary is more true in any 
land where transition-measures may exist. The correct 
test is to examine whether three or more such measures 
of various sorts of produce vary in moderately close 
accordance with the specific gravities ; two cases may 
be accidental, and afford no basis of reasoning. 

As regards true measures of capacity, although they 
afford the conveniences before mentioned, they yet have 
disadvantages of their own ; the mode of placing or 
packing the goods or produce in a measure of capacity 
may affect the amount, to a very important extent, as 
much as 10 per cent, so also may shaking it ; again, 
there is no resource against a moderately incorrect 
measure of capacity, while a false weight or a faulty 
balance is easily exposed in a moment by means of a 
correct weight, or by reversing the weight and the 
counterpoise ; besides this, measures of capacity become 
unclean from use. 



i- 3 8 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

Whether measures of capacity are generally more con- 
venient than those of weight, for any other commercial 
purpose than that of a rapid retail sale of liquids, and 
of compounding medicine, is hence a matter still open to 
some doubt, as very large quantities of liquids have 
necessarily to be gauged, very small quantities of liquids 
may be weighed, large quantities of dry merchandise 
have to be weighed in the majority of cases, and the 
same is the case with very small quantities generally. 

The general tendency in England has been to revert 
to weight in preference to capacity, for a large number 
of things ; and to entirely abolish neutral measures. 
The sack, the keel, and the chaldron, of coal-measure, 
were for a long time neutral measures, that is, nominal 
measures of capacity, controlled by stipulations regard- 
ing weight ; the bushel of salt-measure was a nominal 
bushel controlled by weights legislated for various sorts 
of salt ; the butter-measures were actual kilderkin and 
firkin casks under regulated weights for the contents ; 
the soap-measures were very similar to the butter-mea- 
sures in having regulated weight for kilderkin barrel 
and firkin filled casks. These things have now been 
long obsolete, and replaced by direct weight, but they 
serve to explain the transition-measures of other coun- 
tries, though in the converse way, as in England the 
transition has been back to weight, while in semi-Orien- 
tal lands the transition was from weight to capacity. 

ENGLISH UNITS * 

Measures of capacity have generally been treated in 
England as following two separate systems one for 
liquids, the other for dry merchandise ; but though there 



CH. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 139 

may be some convenience in dealing with them in this 
manner, and thus taking one set at a time, there is no 
more necessity for such a separation than for the 
German double arrangement in linear measure ofawerk- 
fuss, and a feldfuss. 

In any complete system of measures of rapacity 
some will necessarily be more useful for dry produce, 
and some for liquids, while a certain number serve both 
purposes equally well ; also, the measures applicable to 
any single branch of trade may be very restricted and 
detached ; but this is not a sufficient reason for form- 
ing two distinct general categories. That we neither 
talk of a bushel of ale nor of a firkin of corn is simply 
due to custom and habit, for there is no special reason 
or necessity for the measure of capacity for ale being 
a firkin of 9 gallons, while that for corn is a bushel of 8 
gallons ; in fact, the ale-firkin of Henry VIII. (Act 23 of 
1531) was a bushel, for it was an 8-gallon measure; 
and the ale-barrel was a coomb, being 32 gallons an ar- 
rangement not by any means transient, but lasting for a 
century and a half, or until the time of Charles II. (Act 
12 of 1660). The system of binary multiples and binary 
subdivision applies to liquids quite as conveniently as it 
does to dry produce, and there is no sufficient reason 
for adopting different methods for them ; we have hence 
receded in this respect from the advantages of the time 
of Henry VIII. 

If at any time the 8-gallon firkin, containing a 
bushel of water, and the 32-gallon barrel, containing 
a coomb of water, be revived, there would not only be an 
accordance between wet and dry measures up to the 
barrel, but the barrel would then form a convenient unit 
for the upper or nominal measures above it, put these in 



140 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

accordance both for wet and dry measures in the same 
way, and reduce the incongruities in the system. 

At present the English wet and dry measures cor- 
respond only from the pint to the gallon ; the fixed 
liquid measures extend from the minim to the butt of 
1 08 gallons ; and the fixed dry measures from the pint to 
the quarter of 64 gallons. Besides these there are variable 
nominal measures that differ with various sorts of pro- 
duce ; tuns, lasts, sacks, and other units. 

The division into legal and nominal measures of the 
whole series, which is given in the chapter on Systems, 
does not admit of very exact separation, without a 
lengthy study of various Parliamentary Acts ; but a more 
practical division may be otherwise effected. There are 
certain actual measures that are copies of national stan- 
dard measures, made by scientific men in accordance with 
legal definition, and there are others, that are multiples 
of the foregoing, that do not admit of direct scientific 
verification, from their size being beyond the powers, 
means, and apparatus used for such purposes. Now, a 
standard capacity-measure cannot be sufficiently verified 
by simple linear measurement, but must, for exactitude, 
have its contents in water correctly weighed ; and all 
such standard measures, as do not admit of this process 
may be termed nominal measures in a correct sense of 
the word. On referring to the Report of the Warden of 
the Standards for 1866 it is mentioned that no balance 
existing in the Department could weigh more than 
561bs. of water ; also in 1859 a standard cubic foot- 
weight (of about 62-42454 Ibs. at 39 Fahrenheit) was 
made, and declared to be 62-321 Ibs. at 62 Fahr. the 
English normal commercial temperature, instead of about 
62-3548 Ibs. ; hence the probability is that this was not a 



CH. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 141 

standard from direct construction and verification, but one 
of estimation. From the above facts it may be deduced 
that the half-bushel is the largest real measure in Eng- 
land, and all higher measures are estimated measures, 
while perhaps even the gallon may be the highest unit 
of scientific verification. The parsimony of the nation 
with regard to scientific men and matters is too notori- 
ous to require comment ; gratuitous and voluntary con- 
tributions to scientific progress and improvement being 
alone received, with due regard for the delicate suscepti- 
bilities of the British tax-payer. Even the labours of 
restoring the lost national standards were works of 
scientific charity (for detail see page 82 of Chisholm, 
' On the Science of Weighing and Measuring.' London, 

18/7). 

The scientific determination of the larger English 
measures hence cannot be expected until scientific bene- 
volence is again patronised ; and in the meantime we 
do not know with much exactitude the weight of water 
contained in a cubic foot at the English normal tem- 
perature. 

The measures of capacity of which standards exist 
are given in the following list : 

STANDARD ENGLISH MEASURES OF CAPACITY, 

with their legal capacity and weight of water. 

THE BINARY SERIES. 

Gallons. Cubic inches. Grains. 

Bushel 8 2218*192 560000 

Half-bushel 4 1109 '096 280000 

Peck 2 554*548 140 ooo 

Gallon i 277*274 70000 

Pottle \ 138-637 35 ooo 

Quart 69*318 17500 



I 4 2 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

STANDARD ENGLISH MEASURES OF CAPACITY continued. 





Gallons. 


Cubic inches. 


Grains. 


Pint 


I 


34'659 


8750 


Half-pint 


re- 


17-329 


4375 


Gill 


A 


8-664 


2 187-5 


Half-gill 


BT 


4-332 


i 063-75 


Quarter-gill 


riir 


2-166 


546-875 


Bottle 


* 


46*211 


n666f 


Half-bottle 


TV 


23-105 


5833* 



Other Measures. 

Fluid-ounce measures of 4 oz., 2 oz., i oz., \ oz. 

Sixteen liquid-grain measures from 7,000 grains down to i 
grain. 

Seven cubic-inch measures from 10 cubic inches down to 
OT cubic inch. 

Three gas standards : 10 cubic feet, 5, and i cubic foot. 

Also the following : 



LEGAL W T EIGHT OF WATER LEGAL 

IN CONTENTS. CAPACITY. 





Grains. 


TO cubic inches. 


2524-58 


5 


1262*29 


2 


504-916 


1 


252*46 


o'5 


126*23 


0-2 


50-492 


o-i 


25*246 




Grains. 


4 fluid-ounces. 


I 750 


2 ,, 


875 


i 


437'5 


i 


21875 



Cubic inches. 
6*932 
3-466 

1*733 
0-866 



CH. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 143 

Grains. Cubic inches. 

i o liquid grains. 10 0*0396106 

5 5 0-0198 

3 3 0-01188 

2 2 0-00792 

I I 0-00396 

Besides measures between 10 and 7000 liquid-grains. And the 
cubic foot measure, 62-321 Ibs. of water. 

Such are the measures, their legal capacities, and 
weights of water they may contain, at the standard 
temperature of 62 Fahrenheit under a barometric 
pressure of thirty inches. 

The basis of the tabulated series is the acceptance of 
the determination by Sir George Shuckburgh in 1798, 
that the cubic inch of water weighs 252*458 grains ; a 
matter that will be further referred to in the chapter on 
measures of weight. 

The highest legal measure in this series being the 
bushel, all higher measures may be treated as nominal, 
without entering into the Acts that regulate them. 

It will be noticed that minim measures do not exist, 
and that a large set of liquid or fluid-grain measures do 
exist, in the series, which is taken from the Warden's 
Report for 1874-5, and the list given in Chisholm's 
work dated 1877. This seems to foreshadow the aboli- 
tion of the minim, its entire replacement by the fluid- 
grain measure, and a thorough accordance between all 
measures of weight and capacity from the ounce and 
fluid-ounce downwards a consummation much to be 
desired, though under a more convenient subdivision. 

A matter that appears neglected in connection with 
this arrangement is the dram and fluid-dram ; whether 
they are to be abolished in all their old forms, and no 



144 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

measure between the fluid-ounce and the fluid-grain, nor 
between the ounce-weight and the grain-weight, is to 
exist, or whether some new arrangement is in prospect, 
seems still undecided. In the meantime the old fluid- 
dram, an eighth of the fluid-ounce, would be represented 
by 54*685 fluid-grains, the equivalent of 60 old minims. 

The old subdivision of the fluid-ounce into 480 
minims, making the fluid-dram exactly 60 minims, 
preserved the binary method. 



THE NOMINAL MEASURES. 

Among the upper and nominal liquid-measures, the 
barrel of 36 gallons is the principal unit. The half- 
barrel and the quarter-barrel are termed kilderkin for 
beer, or runlet for spirits, and firkin ; and the rest are 
multiples, as far as real English measures extend ; the 
hogshead being i^- barrel, and the butt 3 barrels ; the butt 
being the highest fixed nominal measure completing the 
English series, which is arranged to suit the measurement 
of ale and beer. 

The nominal spirit-measures. The Jamaica puncheon 
of rum or spirits is often treated as a fixed English 
measure of 84 gallons, though it holds no place in the 
national series, varies greatly in amount, from about 72 
to nearly 108 gallons, and is a measure of foreign origin, 
possibly a double French poingon. The tierce of brandy 
or spirits is also a measure of foreign origin, a Bordeaux 
tiergon, which was two-thirds of the barrique and held 
about 1 5 1 litres, or 34 gallons, although its former trade 
value in London was 42 old wine-gallons, or about 35 
imperial gallons. The awm of spirits was either a 
German or a Dutch ahm, ohm, or aam ; the Prussian 



CH. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 145 

ahm is 30^ gallons, the Dutch aam 33^; the trade value 
of the^awm in England is 30 gallons. The anker of 
spirits was apparently a Continental anker at one time, 
but as the latter seldom exceed 8^- gallons, and the 
English trade anker is a reputed 10 gallon measure, the 
origin is doubtful. 

The whole of these spirit-measures of foreign intro- 
duction appear perfectly unnecessary in the English 
system, and might be well abolished in favour of the 
barrel, the half-barrel or runlet, and the quarter-barrel 
as an anker, which could be recognised by legal enact- 
ment, and thus complete the system. 

The nominal wine-measures. The pipes, butts, and 
hogsheads of wine are not English measures, but im- 
ported measures received from other nations, varying 
greatly in value ; their correct values will be found in 
the tables of equivalents of foreign measures at the end 
of the chapter, also in many cases their English reputed 
trade values. 



FOREIGN MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

On reviewing the whole of the capacity-measures 
used in modern times in Europe, their variety in value is 
certainly very marked, and their origin is generally very 
obscure ; whilst at the same time they present a general 
uniformity of object or intention. 

Commencing with the smallest measures and going 
upwards, the absence of medical measures corresponding 
to minims and fluid-grains is notable, indicating that 
compounding is done entirely by weight ; the sole ex- 
ception to this appears to be the cubic centimetre of the 
metric system, which is the thousandth part of the 

L 



146 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

litre, and whose content of water weighs a gramme. In 
English equivalents the cubic centimetre is either 1 6-931 
or 1 5 '43 2 liquid grains, and its content in water weighs 
I -5'43 2 grains. The multiples of the cubic centimetre 
up to the litre are simple numerical multiples, and can 
hardly be termed measures ; thus there is no convenient 
measure in the system corresponding to the English 
fluid ounce, the corresponding value of which would be 
28-4 cubic centimetres. The litre is 17614 pint, or 
O'22Oi8 gallon, and is therefore larger than the new 
English bottle-measure, Jj- of the gallon, -16667 gallon or 
ij pint. 

Proceeding to the small commercial liquid-measures 
devised to meet convenience in the retail sale of liquids, 
ale, beer, wine, oil, and honey, there is a marked accord- 
ance among the whole of the quarts, pots, mass, and 
crushka of Northern Europe, and the boccale and bozze 
of Southern Europe ; the quartas and quartillos of Spain 
deviate most from the general type, being submultiples 
of the azumbre, and of the arroba, or old Moorish 
or Arab units. The extended employment of the term 
quart with local modification over so large a part of 
Europe, including Poland, for a measure of about the 
same value, is also worthy of note; whether this has 
been a mere repetition of the old Roman term quartarius 
is doubtful, because the quartarius was a much smaller 
measure (less than half an English pint), being a quarter 
of the sextarius or Roman unit (as) of capacity. This con- 
tained ^ of a Roman pound of water = u> x f , or about 
I '2 English pounds, thus making the quartarius about a 
quarter of an English pint ; while the quarts of Modern 
Europe are almost all near the English quart. Such 
quarts may, therefore, have been Gothic and Teutonic in 



CH.V. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 147 

origin, or, if that were not the case, they present a very 
striking instance of the generalisation of a unit of 
measure based on natural requirement and convenience 
the correct principle of formation. 

The multiples of the quart, pot, mass, stof, and 
crushka of Northern Europe are binary ; the general 
type being, 2 quarts or pots I kanne or can ; and 2 
kannen=i stiibchen or gallon in strict analogy with 
the English measures ; for the term pot is exclusively 
used in some parts of England, and the term can is also 
applied to two pots in the same way. In Southern 
Europe, or rather in Italy, the pinta was a measure of 2 
boccali ; but no measure of 4 boccali, or any liquid mea- 
sure corresponding to the Teutonic stiibchen and English 
gallon, exists otherwise than as a very exceptional case. 
There are seldom any Italian measures between the pinta 
and the barile or the brenta, an approximate runlet, 
kilderkin, or half-barrel in English terms ; the exceptions 
occurring only when the local Italian barile either takes 
the place of the brenta or happens to be rather smaller. 

Proceeding from the gallon to the nominal liquid- 
measures of capacity, the German and Scandinavian 
ahm or ohm of about 30 gallons seems the most marked 
unit of this class, and though local measures vary, its 
ordinary typical subdivision is into 2 eimers, 4 ankers, 
20 viertel, or 40 stiibchen. The ahm, therefore, corre- 
sponds to the English kilderkin, runlet, or half-barrel. 
In the present Italian measures the soma is a hectolitre, 
but in the former local Italian measures, the soma, the 
brenta, and the mastello of from 15 to 20 gallons, and 
the wine-barrel, barile, of about two-thirds that amount, 
were the measures corresponding to the runlet. 

In Northern Europe the higher nominal liquid-mea- 
L 2 



148 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI, 

sures of capacity are mostly multiples of the awm, and 
sometimes of the barrel (termed a tonne) ; the barrel 
being variable, between 20 and 40 gallons, its local 
values are given in the tables. The Swiss saum corre- 
sponds to the English barrel, it is sometimes 3 local 
awms, or 4 local eimer, but is almost invariably a mea- 
sure equal to 100 mass ; the exceptions being the saum 
of Basel and Wintherthur of 120 mass, of Schaffhausen 
and Saint Gall 128 mass, of Zurich 90 mass. The double 
system of stadtsaum and landsaum correspond to the 
stadtmass and landmass. 

The oxhoft or hogshead is i^ awm, the butt is 2 awm, 
and the fuder or tun is 6 awm. The fass or vat corre- 
sponds to the Jamaica puncheon, and is variable, some- 
times being a multiple of the barrel (tonne) and 
sometimes having some simple ratio to the oxhoft or to 
the eimer ; its values are therefore given in the tables. 
It must, however, be noticed that the term fass is fre- 
quently and unnecessarily applied to the German fuder, 
kufe, and stuckfass, thus causing confusion. 

In Southern Europe the butt and the pipe are some- 
times different measures and sometimes identical, but 
they form the more important units, while the barrica, 
which slightly corresponds to the oxhoft or hogshead, 
is a mere term for either half a pipe or for half a butt, 
and the tonelada (or tun) is a term either for two pipes 
or for two butts. The values of the pipes and the butts 
of Southern Europe are given in the tables, and in some 
cases the accepted English trade-values corresponding to 
them. The general arrangement adopted in the tables 
of liquid-measures of capacity is this : a series of small 
measures approximating to the quart is first given ; this 
is followed by a series of general values of measures 



CH. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 149 

corresponding to the gallon, and another set correspond- 
ing to the runlet or kilderkin. The last set is a series of 
nominal measures from the barrel to the tun. 

The Asiatic and African liquid measures of capacity 
given are very few in number, but it must be remembered 
that Eastern nations deal by weight generally, rarely 
use measures of capacity, and seldom have any ; for 
the Oriental Moslem neither takes strong drink, nor 
consumes the midnight oil. 



DRY-MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

MEASURES of this class are the most unsatisfactory of 
measures generally, from the fact that their use is or 
should be mostly confined to produce and goods of a 
loose nature, grain, coke, lime, fruit, vegetables, &c., and 
to those of an absorbent nature that may be easily 
tampered with and adulterated with water without leav- 
ing much trace of the operation. Such produce may 
often be so handled in measurement as to render the 
indicated amount entirely fallacious ; the error possible 
being fully 25 per cent. ; though in most cases it even 
amounts to 10 per cent. On the other hand, it is almost 
as unsatisfactory to weigh many such goods ; for 
instance, coke, which will absorb more than one-third its 
original weight of water, without its being apparent, 
would be liable to an undiscoverable error of 33 per 
cent. Other things are not liable to such a high error 
from trusting to weight, and as a rule estimation by 
weight is preferable to measurement by capacity. 

Under such circumstances any tabulated values of 
equivalents of foreign dry-measures of capacity are not 



i 5 o METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

more useful from being extended to many figures, for 
they cannot be practically applicable with exactitude. 

The range of dry-measures of capacity is necessarily 
very limited, from the reason that small quantities of 
dry produce are sold by weight, while very large quanti- 
ties are either sold by weight or by nominal measures of 
capacity, loads and lasts that are mere arithmetic multi- 
ples of real measures. 

In every well-regulated system of measures, the dry- 
measures are in conformity with the liquid-measures, and 
are convenient multiples and submultiples of them ; but 
this cannot be said to be the case generally either in the 
old German measures or in the old Italian measures, 
where in some instances the accordance is very imper- 
fect and badly arranged. In the old French measures 
the arrangement was worse. Such circumstances are the 
cause of and form the necessity for a reconstruction of 
the whole series, or a reason for the adoption of the 
metric system. In England, where a bushel is 8 gallons, 
and a quarter is 8 bushels, and the system is in this 
respect perfect and complete, any such change would 
not only be undesirable and unnecessary, but needlessly 
troublesome. 

In Russia where the vedro of liquid is 30 Ibs. of 
water, the chtof, its eighth part, is 3| pounds, the 
tschetverik of dry-measure is 64 pounds ! of water, and 
the tschetvert is 8 tschetverik there is a relation which 
holds throughout the whole, which similarly renders the 
adoption of metric measures unnecessary and unadvisa- 
ble. On the other hand, it does seem unfortunate that 
the binary system is not rigidly adhered to in the Russian 

1 The Russian pound (funt) is divided in a perfect binary scale into 96 
sol, or 9216 dola ; its value in English is 6319-81 grains. 



CH. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 151 

system, which might be done either by making the 
tschetverik exactly equal to two vedro, or by making the 
vedro exactly half a tschetverik. 

As to the range of dry-measures, it may be noticed 
the English gallon is comparatively large as a liquid- 
measure, while as a dry-measure it is a comparatively 
small one. In point of importance, the bushel of dry- 
measure is the principal unit of use, and the submulti- 
ples, the pecks, gallons, pottles, quarts, and pints are of 
less consequence, while the quarter of eight bushels is an 
important measure. Hence the extent of the more im- 
portant English dry-measures is from the bushel to the 
quarter, higher measures being nominal measures, and 
smaller measures being treated as fractions of the bushel. 

The tables of equivalents of foreign measures at the 
end of this chapter are arranged in accordance with this 
classification, and are divided into three classes : measures 
analogous to the bushel, those corresponding to the 
quarter, and nominal measures of higher value. 

It might at the first glance appear preferable to 
arrange them in accordance with their names, and follow 
out types of measure based on nomenclature. Such an 
arrangement is possible in the tabulation of the liquid- 
measures, and is actually carried out, for the reason 
that the liquid-measures of Europe were found to follow 
certain types in a general and approximate way ; but 
among the dry-measures, where less parallelism exists, 
any such attempt would have caused confusion, and 
hence the English bushel and the English quarter 
were taken as types with which the tabulated measures 
were grouped, either as small or as large measures. 
The principal cases that led to this arrangement were, 
first, the metzen, some of which are small, being mere 



152 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

subdivisions of the scheffel, and others very large, being 
even larger than many of the scheffel ; and secondly, the 
scheffeln, some of which are comparatively small, and 
others being larger than an average malter. Also in 
Switzerland the values of the mass, the viertel, and the 
sester or setier, are similarly subversive of strict con- 
formity of type to general value. 

Following out the classification adopted, it may be 
noticed that the measures analogous to the English 
bushel, or small measures, are among the nations of 
Northern Europe termed scheffel, skieppe, schepel ; the 
exceptionally large scheffel of Brunswick and that of 
Bavaria falling outside this class, and being approximate 
quarters. In Southern Germany and in certain pro- 
vinces of Central Germany the scheffel is wanting, and 
its place, or rather its employment as an approximate 
bushel, is supplied by the simmer, sester, himt, and by a 
metze of large size ; in Switzerland the viertel holds a 
generally corresponding position, although there is much 
diversity among Swiss measures. The Italian staja and 
stari were mostly rather small bushels ; while the 
Spanish and Portuguese fanegas and fangas are very 
large bushels, mostly about a bushel and a half. The 
kiloz and bacile of Turkey and Greece, again, are rather 
small bushels ; while in Asiatic and African countries 
true dry-measures are rare, as grain is most frequently 
sold by weight. 

LARGE AND NOMINAL DRY-MEASURES. 

The English nominal dry measures are multiples of 
the bushel in the same way as the nominal liquid 
measures are multiples of the barrel. 



CH. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 153 

The quarter is a fixed measure of eight bushels, the 
half-quarter being called a coomb, and the half-coomb or 
two-bushel measure a strike convenient terms less 
used now than in former times. The sack is unfor- 
tunately variable, its reputed values being for coke 3 
bushels, for corn 4 bushels, and for flour 5 bushels ; 
while the sack of coal is not a measure of capacity but a 
weight of two hundredweight ; and the sack of wool is 
also a weight, being 364 Ibs. The exclusive sale of corn 
and flour by weight would reduce the sack to a fixed 
single measure. The chaldron, used for coke alone, is 
9 bushels an unnecessary measure that might well be 
suppressed and superseded by the quarter of 8 bushels ; 
while, if convenient, retaining the name of chaldron as 
applied to coke ; similarly, also, the sack might either 
be entirely ignored as a measure of capacity, or fixed at 
4 bushels for goods of all sorts. 

Proceeding to the foreign measures, that approximate 
to the English quarter as regards value that is, a measure 
of about 8 bushels, or 3 hectolitres of the metric system- 
it may be noticed that the English quarter is seldom 
closely represented anywhere ; the Russian tschetvert 
being that most nearly corresponding. Anything more 
than roughly approximating to a general uniformity can 
hardly be expected in measures of this type ; but the 
greater part of them appear to range between the half 
and the double of the English quarter, and it would not 
be conducive to clearness to subdivide them into sepa- 
rate sets. 

The makers of Germany range between 3 and 8 
bushels, excepting the unusually large Prussian malter ; 
the large scheffel of Bavaria and that of Brunswick fall 
among these large measures. The droemt is a large 



154 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

measure, analogous to the Prussian malter, and a few of 
the simmer and simra fall in this category, all the 
measures of which are rather larger than the English 
quarter. 

The Austrian miith is an exceptional measure of 
large size. The Swiss mutt are smaller measures follow- 
ing a type of their own generally, but are very diverse 
in value ; hence the Swiss malters and Swiss sacks, that 
approximate more nearly to the English quarter, are 
given in preference to them in the tables ; from these, 
the values of the mutt may be reduced when required. 

The old Italian moggio, rubbio, sacco, and soma, are 
very diverse ; so also are the Spanish cahiz and the 
Portuguese moio. The Levantine large measures show 
a similar diversity. 

There is one dry-measure of capacity that is common 
to almost every nation that uses capacity-measures, and 
that is the sack ; the word sack is reputed to be one of 
the most widely spread terms in the vocabulary of the 
world, and accounted for by the theory of anxiety to 
secure luggage and effects on the disruption of races 
at the historic city of Babel. However this may be, the 
values of the grain-sack of various nations are exceed- 
ingly varied, the extreme limits being an English bushel 
and an English quarter that is, the value is between 
one bushel and eight bushels ; most of them, however, 
lie between two and four bushels, thus affording suffi- 
cient grounds for theorising about a primitive or 
primaeval sack. As a modern measure the sack is 
seldom worthy of consideration ; the cases in Italy and 
in Switzerland where its place is not supplied con- 
veniently by some other measures are comparatively 
few. 



en. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 155 

The nominal measures of capacity are the load, the 
barrel, the cartload, and the last. 

The load, or man's load, is usually a measure of 
about five English bushels, but does not admit of any 
fixity ; the cartload is generally about 40 bushels, or 
five English quarters, and is similarly variable. 

The barrel, or, as many nations term it, the tonne, of 
capacity, varies with the description of produce, and is 
also very variable as regards capacity ; the only source 
of uniformity being the common custom of using old 
barrels intended for liquids, which have some approxi- 
mate known capacity branded on the bung-stave. 

The grain-last is frequently a multiple of the barrel, 
and, as it is often referred to in commercial transactions 
and shipping matters, it becomes a more important unit 
than the barrel ; the values of the grain-lasts are given 
in the tables, and from these the contents of some grain- 
barrels may be reduced when required. 

A great number of lasts of various sorts are mere 
numerical expressions, or customary terms for produce 
packed according to stereotyped habit and the require- 
ments of trade, in barrels, bales, or collections of various 
forms ; such lasts can seldom be considered measures of 
capacity, as the barrels are estimated by weight. 

The English last of capacity varies from 10 to 12 
quarters ; the numerical last expressing a quantity is 
sometimes a multiple of any customary barrel ; thus the 
last of herring or of cod consists of 1 2 barrels, the last 
of gunpowder 24 barrels, a last of soap 12 barrels, and 
of salt 1 8 barrels ; the barrels being very various. 

The following small collection of values of the foreign 
barrels as dry-measure is suited to the Baltic and North- 
ern ports of Europe : 



i 5 6 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

NORWAY AND DENMARK. 

English French 

gallons. litres. 

For corn and lime. 

Barrel = ^V last =14 4 kriige . . 30-60 138-97 
For flour, soap, butter, tallow and meat. 

Barrel =136 kriige or pots . . 28-92 131*38 
For fish, pitch and tar. 

Barrel=i2o kriige .... 25-50 115*81 
For coal. 

Barrel = T V last= 1 76 kriige . . 37*70 169-85 
For salt. 

Barrel=i8o kriige or pots . . 38-55 17371. 

SWEDEN AND FINLAND. 

For corn. 

Augmented barrel=63 kannar . 36*29 164*81 
For flour and fish. 

Augmented barrel =48 kannar . 27*65 125-57 
For salt and lime. 

Augmented barrel =34 kappar . 34*27 155*65 
For pitch and tar. 

Augmented barrel=95 stop . . 27-36 124-26 
For malt. 

Augmented barrel =38 kappar . 38-31 173*97 
The exceptional customary barrels in Finland are : 
For coal. 

Barrel of 56 kannar . . . 32*26 146*50 

or the unaugmented Swedish corn-barrel. 
For salt. 

The Finnish barrel is the Swedish augmented corn-barrel 
The augmentation is a customary addition of one-eighth. 

RUSSIA AND FINLAND. 

For Finland, see as under Sweden. 
The Riga barrel for dry merchandise is : 
For corn and flax, pitch and tar, fish and salt. 

[=^th last=2 Iof=i2 kulmet 30*07 136*57 



en. v. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 157 

The Revel barrels for dry merchan- English French 

dise : gallons. litres. 

For corn, flax, hemp, and lime. 

Barrel=^ th last=3 lof=9 kulmet . 26-05 JI 8*3o 
For salt. 

Barrel= T Vth last=4 Iof=i2 kulmet 3473 15774 

HOLLAND. 

The Nederlandsche vat or barrel of 

i oo kannen (metric) . . . 22*02 100 

NORTH GERMANY. 
Berlin barrels. 

For coal, salt, cement, lime, potash. 

Barrel=4 scherTel or 7^ cubic feet . 48*41 219*85 
For flax and hemp. 

Barrel=37 metzen or 7232 cubic 

inches 28-49 I2 9'39 

Hamburg barrels. 

For corn and flax. 

The Danish corn-barrel . . . 30-60 138*97 
For lime. 

Barrel =3 fass=6 himten . . 34*84 158*25 
For coal. 

Barre^^ last= 8^ cubic feet . 42*46 192-82 
For salt. 

Barrel=^ last=7 himten . . 40-65 184*62 

Bremen. 

For coal. 

Barre^^ last .... 42*45 192-82 
For salt. 

Barrel = T V last= 3 \ scheffel . . 54*36 246-90 

Liibeck. 

^ last =4 scherTel . 29-33 I 33' 62 



158 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

Much of the difficulty in connection with barrels 
is obviated in practice by the brand on the bung-stave, 
which gives, either in English or in French units, the 
reputed capacity or weight of contents of the barrel. 
Values of the last, a multiple of the barrel, are easily 
computed for cases other than those of grain ; the grain- 
lasts alone are given in the tables following : 

As regards the future of the English capacity- 
measures, based on an old French pound of another 
system, it perhaps cannot be expected that they will 
exist unaltered much longer. As to substitutes for them, 
the English cubic foot and its multiples, whether decimal, 
binary, or both, are always available. 

The strong attachment that a nation of copious 
drinkers has for its quarterns, pints, and quarts, mili- 
tates against any change in retail or small liquid- 
measures, below the cubic foot ; the wholesale liquid 
traders might object to change in casks and barrels ; but 
in dry-measures above the cubic foot there seems a good 
opportunity for immediate change with a small amount 
of alteration, by adopting three units, the cubic foot, the 
quarter =10 cubic feet, instead of 10*27 cubic feet ; and 
the last=ioo cubic feet, instead of 1027 cubic feet. 
These three units would answer all purposes in the 
upper part of the scale ; while liquid-measures could 
serve for retail dealing. If required, a chaldron of 4 
quarters might be also adopted. Anything more is 
evidently superfluous. 

The same principle might also be similarly applied 
in liquid measures, with equal convenience and simpli- 
city. 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



S9 



SMALL LIQUID MEASURES. 



GENERAL VALUES. 



England, imperial quart 2 pints = 4 gills = 40 

fluid ounces ; 2\ pounds of water at 62 Fahr. 
Prussia, quart =? 2 oesseln ; 64 cubic inches . . 
Norway and Denmark, pott = 4 poegel ; 54 cubic 

inches ........ 

Sweden, stop = 4 qwarter = 16 ort ; 50 cubic turn 
Russia, crushka = 10 charki ; 3 pounds of water 
Austria, mass = 2 kannen = 4 seideln . 
France, litre of the metric system ; I kilogram 

of water ...... 

Holland, Nederlandsche kan= 10 maatje . 
Italy, pinta= 10 coppi .... 

Poland, kwarti (metric) after 1819 

Waadt and other Cantons, mass or pot = 10 glas 

(metric) ; 50 cubic inches ; (since 1823) . 
Spain, Castilian azumbre = 4 quartillos ; 154! 

cubic inches = 16 copas . . 
Portugal, Lisbon canhada = 4 quartillos 

ORIENTAL COUNTRIES : 

Liquids are generally sold by weight ; for excep- 
tions, see under local values. 



? English 
Commercia 
Equivalent 


4&1 

||| 

Fluid oz. 


French 
Cf Scientific 
w Equivalent 


I 

I -008 


40-10 
40-44 


I-I35 


0-851 
I-I52 
I-082 
1-246 


34-12 
46-20 
43-40 
49-96 


0-966 
I-308 
1-229 
I-4I5 


0-88 1 


35-32 


I -000 


1-189 


47-68 


1-35 


1-777 
1-214 


71-24 
48-68 


2-017 

1-380 



FORMER LOCAL OR SPECIAL MEASURES. 

GERMAN MASS, KANNE, QUART : 

Prussian quart of 64 cubic inches - 2 oesseln 
Anspach, mass = 2 seideln = 4 schoppen 
Altona, Hamburg, Liibeck, and Rostock 

,, pot, or kanne = 2 quart = 4 oesst 
Baden, mass = 10 glaser . 
Bavaria, masskanne = 4 quarteln ; 43 

cubic inches ..... 
Bremen, quart = 2 oesseln . 
Brunswick, quart = 2 noesseln . 



eln 


i -008 


40-44 


i-i45 


'". . 


1-194 


47-89 


I-356 


>ln 


},594 


63-92 


1-810 




I-32I 


52-98 


1-500 


decimal 








, . 


0-942 


37-75 


1-069 


; ; 


O-7II 
0-809 


28-41 
32-46 


0-805 
0-919 



1 6o 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 





11 J 


SnjJ 


SMALL LIQUID MEASURES -*/*/. 


HI 


J|| 




uw* 


73 H* 




Quarts 


Fluid oz. 


Coblentz, biermass = 4 schoppen 


1-515 


60-75 


,, weinmass ...... 


I "241 


49-76 


,, oelmass 


IT26 


45-03 




I -171 


46-97 


Dantzig, bierstof= 4 quarts . 


1 1 / M. 
2-027 


81-26 




I'CII 


60-60 




? 

I '692 


67-84 


Erfurt, Thuringian kanne ..... 


1-648 


66-08 


Frankfurt, altmass ...... 


i'579 


63-32 


,, neumass ...... 


1-404 


56-29 


,, oelmass, of I pound of oil 


0-456 


18-29 


Gotha, schenkmass = 2 noesseln 


0-801 


32-13 


,, oelmass of i pound of oil 


0-440 


17-66 


Hanover, quart = 2 noesseln ; 2 pounds of spring 






water ........ 


0-856 


34-33 


Hesse Darmstadt, mass = 4 schoppen . 


1-761 


70-63 


Hesse (Electoral), weinmass = 4 schoppen ; 144 






cubic inches ....... 


1-747 


70-07 


Hesse (Electoral), biermass= 1^ weinmass 


1-922 


77-06 


Holstein, quart = 2 oesseln .... 


0-797 


31-96 


Lippe-Detmold, visirkanne = 4 ort 


I -212 


48-60 


Mainz and ') kleinemass = 4 schoppen . 


i '493 


59-86 


Nassau / grossemass, for beer and oil . 


1-661 


66-61 


Oldenburg, weinkanne = 4 ort .... 


1-293 


51-85 


,, bierkanne I T ^ quart 


1-206 


48-35 


Saxe-Coburg, bier mass ..... 


0-840 


33-69 


Saxe- Weimar, schenkmass = 2 noesseln 


0-807 


32-35 


Saxony, visirkanne ...... 


1-237 


49-60 


f hellaichmass = 4 schoppen . 


1-618 


64-88 


Wiirtemberg < triibaichmass = ,, . . 


1-688 


67-70 


I. schenkmass = ,, 


1-471 


58-98 


SWITZERLAND : 






Arau, mass ....... 


268 


50-86 


Berne, mass = 4 vierteln ..... 


472 


59-01 


Basel, altmass = 4 schoppen . 


252 


50-22 


,, neumass= ,, .... 


002 


40-19 


,, oelmass= ,, .... 


370 


54-95 


Freiberg, mass= ,, .... 


1-376 


55-17 


Geneva, pot of 48 Parisian cubic inches 


0-838 


33-62 


Claris, mass = 4 stotzen ..... 


1-567 


62-83 


Grisons, mass = 4 quartlein . . . . 


1-170 


46-94 


Lucerne, mass = 4 schoppen .... 


1-522 


61-03 


Neufchdtel, pot of 96 Parisian cubic inches 


1-677 


67-24 


Schaffhaus, mass 


i-iif 


46-44 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 





ill 


rfj 


SMALL LIQUID MEASURES continued. 


"* 6.5 


ill 


SWITZERLAND continued. 


uw* 


**$ 




Quarts 


Fluid oz. 




O-cqi 


23-70 


Saint Gall, mass = i| schenkmass 


v J7* 


46-34 


Thurgau, mass ...... 


407 


56-40 


Uri, mass = 2 quartli ..... 


598 


64-10 


Waadt, mass = 10 glas ; 50 cubic inches 


I8 9 


47-68 


Zurich, lautermass = 2 quartli = 4 statzen 


607 


64-45 


,, stadtmass= ,, ,, 


446 


57-99 


,, oelmass, 88 cubic inches 


211 


48-56 


FRANCE : 






Parisian pot = 2 pintes = 4 chopines ; 93 -9 cubic 








I "640 


65-78 


HOLLAND AND BELGIUM : 


J. \Sf.vr 




Amsterdam, mengel = 2 pinten .... 


1-068 


42-82 


Brussels, wine pot = ,, ; 64 ounces 


1-193 


47-83 


beer pot = . 


I -145 


45-92 


AUSTRIA : 






Imperial mass = 2 kannen = 4 seideln 


1-246 


49-96 


Hungarian halbe or icze = 2 seitel or messli 


0735 


29-45 


Bohemian and Moravian mass \. 


0-942 


37-75 


Poland, Cracow kwarti = \ garniec 


0-835 


33-48 


Silesia, quart ....... 


0-618 


24-79 


Trieste, boccale = Vienermass .... 


1-246 


49-96 


Tyrol, mass 


0712 


28-57 


RUSSIA : 






Imperial crushka= 10 charki . 


1-082 


43-40 


Pernau and Narva, stof = 4 quarts 


I-I 35 


45-52 


Revel, common stof =4 quarts .... 


1-048 


42-03 


, , stof for oil ; 2| pounds .... 


0-942 


36-16 


Riga, stof . . . . 


1-063 


42-63 


Warsaw, kwarti = \ garniec .... 


0-881 


35-32 


,, old kwarti \ garniec; before 1819 


0-835 


33-48 


ITALY : 






The pinta of Lombardo-Venetia and Sardinia . 


0-881 


35-32 


Ancona, boccale = 4 fogliette . . ... 


1-577 


63-22 


Bologna, ,, ,, 20 ounces of wine . 


1-083 


43-44 




I "21 7 


48-81 


Brescia, boccale = \ pinta ..... 


1 ** 1 
0-607 


24-33 


Ferrara, ,, ...... 


1-220 


48-91 


Milan, ,, ...... 


0-693 


27-79 



M 



162 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART 



SMALL LIQUID MEASURES continued. 


lj| 


||| 


111 


ITALY continued : 


uw 


w w 


w w 




Quarts 


Huid oz. 


Litres 




0*917 


36-77 


I-O4I 


,, fiasco = 2 boccale .... 


I-834 


73-53 


2-082 


Padua and Vicenza, bozza .... 


0-872 


34-96 


0-990 


Piedmont, boccale = 2 quartini .... 


0-603 


24-19 


0-685 


Rome, boccale of wine ..... 


I -606 


64-38 


1-823 




I -808 


72-51 


2-QC'J 


Rovigo, bozza ....... 


0-854 


34-26 


0-970 


Trevisa, boccale di campagna .... 


1-909 


76-53 


2-I67 


,, town boccale ..... 


I-43 1 


57-39 


I '625 


Tuscany, wine ,, =2mezzette 


1-004 


40-24 


I-I39 


, , oil , , =4 quartucci . 


0-920 


36-89 


1-045 


,, fiasco = 2 boccale, wine 


2-007 


80-49 


2-279 


Venice, boccale = i quartuccio 
,, bozza = 4 quartucci .... 


0-891 

2-378 


35-74 
95-35 


I -OI2 
2-700 


Verona, inghistara ...... 


0-862 


34-58 


0-979 




0-816 


33-52 


0-949 


Naples, caraffa. ...... 


, J 
0-640 


25-68 


0727 


,, quarto = 6 misurelle .... 


o-557 


22-36 


0-633 


Sardinia, quartana= 12 quartucci 


3*699 


148-33 


4'20O 




0-80 *: 


35-88 


1-016 


SPAIN AND PORTUGAL : 


7*/ 






Spain generally azumbre = 4 quartillos 


1777 


71-24 


2*017 


Alicante, quarto = 4 quartillos .... 


2-543 


101-99 


2*888 


Asturias, azumbre = 4 quartillos. 


1*983 


79-50 


2*251 


Barcelona, quarto = 4 quarias .... 


0-907 


36-38 


1*030 


Valencia, azumbre = 2 medios .... 


2'595 


104-04 


2*946 


Galicia, ,, =4 quartillos 


2-044 


81-97 


2-321 


Malaga, =-4 ,, ... 


1745 


69-96 


1-981 


Majorca, quarta (varies much) .... 


0-919 


36-87 


1-044 


Minorca, quartillo ...... 


5-049 


202-47 


5-733 


Lisbon, canhada = 4 quartillos .... 


1-214 


48-68 


1-380 


Oporto, ,, 


1-841 


73-81 


2-090 


Bahia ,, ...... 


6-244 


250-39 


7-090 


Brazil, medida = 2 canhadas = 4 garrafas 


2-447 


98-11 


2-778 


Colombo, Canada = 2 quarts 92* c. in. 


1-330 


53-33 


1-510 


GREECE: 








Cephalonia, boccale = 2 quartucci 


0-833 


33-42 


0-947 


Patras and Morea, wine boccale 


1-880 


75-42 


2-135 


,, ,, oil ,, ... 


i -606 


64-38 


1-823 


Thiaki, boccale = 2 quartucci .... 


0-9-38 


37-60 


1-065 


ARABIA : 








Mokha, nasfiah= 16 vakia . 


0-83 


33-41 


0-946 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



163 



SMALL LIQUID MEASURES continued. 


||| 


fl.l 


I'll 


ABYSSINIA : 


W Jfl 


W ^(f 


^$- 


Cuba, for honey = 62 English cubic inches . 


Quarts 
0-894 


Fluid oz. 

35-85 


Litres 
I-O15 


ORIENTAL COUNTRIES, INCLUDING 
NORTHERN INDIA : 








Liquids are sold by weight. 








SOUTHERN INDIA: 








Madras, measure = 8 olluck=ioo cubic inches, 


I '442 


57-82 


I "6^7 


Cochin, oil measure 
Madura, ,, ....... 
Masulipatam, manika ..... 
Negapatam, oil measure ..... 
Trichinopalli ,, . .. 


* H*T r '*' 

0-625 

1-578 
2-083 

0-516 


25-05 
63-28 
83-54 
40-08 
20-68 


1 w o/ 
O-yiO 
1792 
2-365 

0-585 


CEYLON : 








Colombo, measure or ser of capacity = 65 cubic 
inches, English ...... 


0-938 


37-58 


1-064 


THAI (OR SIAM) : 


o-8u 


33-46 


0-047 


SUMATRA : 
Pakha 


* '-'OH- 
0*484 


19-42 


w y\i 


CHINA : 


w T^T" 






Liquids are sold by weight ; tching measure also 
exists, corresponding to the tching weight 


0-6I5 


24-72 


0-700 


JAPAN : 


j 


64-07 


I-8I4 



1-12 



6 4 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



INTERMEDIATE LIQUID MEASURES. 



GENERAL VALUES. 

England : the imperial gallon of 10 pounds of 

water at 62 Fahr. = 4 quarts = 6 bottles = 1 60 

fluid ounces ...... 

Germany : Prussian stiibchen = 4 quarts or 

mass ; 256 cubic inches .... 
Norway and Denmark : stiibchen = 3^ pots 
Sweden : double kanna = 2 kanna = 4 stop j | of 

a cubic foot of water, or 200 cubic tomme 
Russia: vedro=io crushka ; 30 pounds of 

water ...... . 

Austria : viertel=lo ordinary mass . 
Italy : the soma= 10 pinte (metric) . 
Waadt : the broc of 500 cubic inches = 10 pots 

or mass= loo glas ..... 
Spain : the wine arroba = 4 quartillas = 8 

azumbres (Castile) 

Spain : the oil arroba = 4 quartillas = 100 

panillas (Castile) ..... 

Portugal : the almude of Lisbon = 2 alqueiras 

= 12 canhadas ...... 

Turkey : alma or meter ; 8 oka of oil ..'- 
Oriental liquid measures are few and local (see 

Local Units). 



5 S 


i- C 

gssj 

'bj'c j 


Gallons 


Cub. ft. 


t 


0-1604 


1-0084 
0-8243 


0-1617 
0-1322 


I-I52I 


0-1847 


2-7057 


0-4340 
0-4996 


2'2Ol8 


0-3532 


2-9724 


0-4768 


3-553I 


0-5699 


2-7663 


0-4437 


3-6418 


0-5841 
0-1849 



FORMER, LOCAL, OR SPECIAL VALUES. 

GERMANY : 

Prussian stiibchen = 4 quarts or mass . . 1-0084 0-1617 

= 3 quarts .... 0-7563 0-1213 

Bremen =4 . . . .0-7110 0-1136 

Brunswick ,, -4 M 0-8094 0'1298 

Gotha =4schenkmass . . . 0-8012 0'1285 
Hamburg, Holstein, and Llibeck, stiibchen = 4 

quarts 0-7971 0'1278 

Hanover, stiibchen = 4 quarts .... 0-8561 1 0'1373 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



INTERMEDIATE LIQUID MEASURES 
continued. 

GERMANY : 

Altona, 1 Rostock, Lubeck, and Bremen, viertel 


ill 

^S > 
III 

ow 

Gallons 

CQ4I 


=> ? English 
2 F' Scientific 
SJ] pp Equivalent. 


Coblenz, viertel = 4 mass. .... 


J -/T^ 
2409 


0-1990 


Coin ,, =4 ,, 


I7II 


0-1878 


Frankfurt 1 ,, =4altemass . . . 


5789 


0-2533 


Hamburg 1 ,, =8 quarts .... 


5941 


0-2557 


Hanover ,, =8 ,, . .- .- 


7122 


0-2746 


Hesse-Darmstadt, 1 virtel = 4 mass . . . 


7614 


0-2825 


Kiirhesse, ' viertel = 4 mass . : ., T , 


7471 


0-2802 


Lippe-Detmold, ' viertel = 5f kannen . ; 


6362 


0-2625 


Mainz, 1 wine and spirit viertel = 4 mass . . 


4924 


0-2394 


,, beer and oil ,, =4 


I -6608 


0-2664 


Baden, stutz=iomass ..... 


3-3027 


0-5297 


Wurtemberg, imi = 10 helleichmass . 


4-0447 


0-6488 


FRANCE : 






Velte = 4 quarts = 8 pints (Paris) 


I '6405 


0-2631 


,, (mesures usuelles)= 10 litres (1812-1840) 


2'2Ol8 


0-3532 


Corsica, zucca = 9 boccali .... 


2-5695 


0-4122 


AUSTRIA : 






Viertel = 10 mass (imperial) . 


3-II49 


0-4996 


Cracow (old), garniec = 4 kwarti 


0-8351 


0-1339 


Illyria, Trieste, caffiso ..... 


2 6290 


0-4217 


RUSSIA : 






Vedro = 10 crushki = 30 pounds of water . 


27057 


0-4340 


Warsaw, old garniec = 4 kwarti 


0-835I 


0-1339 


,, metric garniec = 4 kwarti . 


0-8807 


0-2595 


HOLLAND AND BELGIUM : 






Amsterdam, viertel = 3^j stoopen 


I-627I 


0-2610 


Brussels, schreef = 2 geltes = 4 pots . 


I-I93 


0-1913 


SPAIN AND PORTUGAL : 






Castilian wine arroba = 8 azumbres . 


3'554 


0-5699 


,, oil ,, of 27^ Ibs. of water . 


2766 


0-4437 


Aragon, cantaro, or wine arroba = 8 azumbres . 


2-28I 


0-3655 


,, oil arroba of 36 pounds 


2-983 


0-4786 


Barcelona, cortan, or wine arroba = 6 mitadellas 


2-270 


0-3641 


Malaga, cantara (wine) = 8 azumbres 


3-490 


0-5598 


Valencia, cantaro (wine) = 4 azumbres . ."1 
,, oil arroba of 30 pounds , . . / 


2-528 


0-4055 


1 At these places 20 vierteln = i a 


tun. 





156 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART 



INTERMEDIATE LIQUID MEASURES - 
continued. 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL contimied : 

6'anary L, arroba of 4^ old English wine gallons 
(libra Itar, arroba of 3! old English wine gallons 
Majorca, oil cortan of 9 rottoli .... 

Minorca, gerra = 2 cortes ..... 

La Havana, arroba of 4^ old English wine gals. 
Valparaiso, arroba of 8j English imperial gallons 
Mexico, jame= 18 quartillos .... 

Lisbon, almude = 2 alqueiras= 12 canhadas 
Oporto ,, =2 ,, =12 ,, 
Madeira almude ...... 

Brazil ,, =2 cantaros= 12 canhadas 

ITALY : 

Florence, fiasco = 2 boccali 

,, fiasco (oil) = 2 ,, .... 

Ferrara, secchio = 5 ,, 

Venice , = io| ,, .... 

Vicenza ,, = 10 bozze o inghistare 
Milan, bassa =6 boccali ..... 
Verona .,, = 4^ inghistare .... 
Rome, cugnatell a = 4^ boccali (oil) . 
Messina, caffiso of 12| rottoli grossi (oil) . 
Calabria, stajo = 30 pignatoli .... 
Milan , , =32 boccali .... 
Naples, staro =20 pignate= 16 quarti 
Sardinia, misura of oil 
Malta, caffiso (oil), 5| English wine gallons 
Ionian -I., jaro of wine or oil = 4 mittre 

,, secchio= 12 boccali .... 
Zante and 1 Cephalonia, lira o pagliazza 

ARABIA, ALGIERS, MOROCCO': 

Mokha, gadda = 8 nasfiah . . . . . 

Algiers, khulleh or khull ..... 
,, metal of oil of 20 rotal kebir 

Tripoli ,, 42 rottal 

,, harbaia = 6 caraffa, i8| rottal . * 

,, ,, ofpommade2o ,, unknown spec. 

Tunis, wine matar ..... 
,, t)il ,, =2 wine matar 

Soussa, oil matal ..... 

1 In Oriental countries, including Northern India, liqu 
weight ; and large liquid measures do not exist. 



f 


!f| 


Gallons 


Cub. ft. 


3-54I 


0-5680 


2-666 


0-4276 


0-890 


0-1428 


2-655 


0-4259 


3-416 


0-5479 


8 -.250 


1-3233 


1-761 


0-2825 


3-642 


0-5841 


5-522 


0-8957 


3-902 


0-6258 


3-642 


0-5841 


0-502 


0-0805 


0-459 


0-0738 


i-5 2 4 


0-2444 


2-378 


0-38f4 


2-089 


0-3352 


I '039 


0-1667 


0-971 


0-1558 


i -808 


0-2899 


2-576 


0-4132 


6-709 


1-0761 


5-544 


0-8893 


2-228 


0-3574 


2-114 


0-3390 


4-582 


0-7349 


3-750 


0-6015 


2-500 


0-4010 


r-666 


0-2674 


1-666 


0-2673 


3'523 


0-5297 


3-94I 


0-6322 


5-I39 


0-8243 


2-294 


0-3680 


g rav - 




2-068 


0-3477 


4-335 


0-6954 


5-284 


0-8476 


lids are generally 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



167 



INTERMEDIATE LIQUID MEASURES 

continued. 


Ill 

HJ 


flj 


.- 


SOUTHERN INDIA : 

The markal of 12 pakka ser weight. 
Madras, markal = 8 measures (oil) . 
Madura ,, =6 ,, ,, 
Masulipatam, markal 6 manika (oil) 
Negapatam ,, =4 measures ,, 
Trichinopalli ,, =4 


Gallons 

2-8839 
2-3672 
3-I250 

0-516 


Cub. ft. 

0-4626 
0-3797 
0-5012 
0-1604 
0-0827 


C/5 Cf 

w 

Litres 

13-098 
10-751 
I4-I93 

2-340 


CEYLON : 








Colombo, markal, 780 c. in. = 12 measures, or 
seers of capacity ...... 


2-8I3 


0-4511 


12-770 


THAI (OR SIAM) : 








Thangsat = 20 thanan ..... 


4-I722 


0-6692 


18-949 


SUMATRA : 




0-2331 


6-598 


CHINA : 






v J S 


Liquids are sold by weight. 
Also, teu= 10 tching measures . 


i'S4l 


0-2472 


7'OOQ 


JAPAN : 








Liquids are sold by weight. 
Also, To= 10 shoo= 100 goo .... 


3 '9938 


0-6407 


I8-I4I 



i68 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



LARGE LIQUID MEASURES. 



GENERAL VALUES. 

England : runlet or kilderkin = 18 imperial 

gallons ; or 180 pounds of water at 62 Fahr. 

= 2 firkins = 72 quarts = 2880 fluid ounces 
Prussian eimer = 2 anker = 60 quarts ; or 3840 

cubic inches 

Sweden : eimer = 2 ankar = 30 kannen = 60 stop ; 

or 3 cubic feet ...... 

Norway and Denmark: anker = 5 viertel=io 

stiibchen= 1 9^ kannen = 39 pots . 
Russia : anker = 2 stekar = 3 vedro = 30 crushki ; 

or 90 pounds of water ..... 
Austria : eimer = 4 viertel = 40 mass 
France : hectolitre of 100 kilogrammes of water . 
Italy : soma = io mina= 100 pinte . 
Holland : vat = 100 kannen 
Polish beczka = 25 garniec = 100 kwarti . 
Greece : koilon= 100 litra 



O English 
; Commercial 
g Equivalent. 


P English 
cr Scientific 
, Equivalent. 


18 


2-887 


15-126 


2-426 


17-282 


2-772 


8-243 


1-322 


8-117 
12-460 


1-302 
1-999 


22-018 


3-532 



FORMER, LOCAL, OR SPECIAL VALUES. 

GERMANY: 

Anspach, eimer = 66 mass .... 19-700 3'160 
Altona, Hamburg, Liibeck, and Rostock, eimer 

= 4 viertel = 8 stiibchen .... 6-377 1'023 

Bavaria, schankeimer = 60 masskannen . . 14-123 2'235 

,, visireimer = 64 ,, . . 15 -064 2.416 

Brunswick, anker = 10 stiibchen . . . 8-094 I 1'218 

Erfurt, Thuringian eimer =2 anker = 36 kannen 14 -830 2-3/9 

Gotha, eimer = 40 kannen = 80 mass . . 16-025 \ 2'5 

Hanover, eimer =32 kannen = 64 quarts . . 13-785 2'197 

Lippe-Detmold, anker =5 viertel . . . 8-182 i 1'312 

Oldenberg, anker = 26 kannen =40 quarts . 8-403! 1-348 

Dresden, eimer = 2 anker = 48 visirkannen . 14-842 2'381 

Leipzig, eimer = 2 anker = 54 visirkannen . 16-698 2' 678 

Weimar, eimer 72 kannen = 80 schenkmass . 16-139 2'589 
Wurtemberg eimer is the ohm = i6imi (seep 

V 7 2) 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



LARGE LIQUID MEASURES- continued. 


ill 


if| 


SWITZERLAND s 


W c3w 


WC ^H 




Gallons 


Cub. ft. 


Berne, eimer or brenter = 25 mass . 


9-199 


1-476 


Basel, ahm = 8 viertel = 32 altemass . 


10-OlS 


1-607 


Arau, brenta 25 mass ..... 




2-361 


Freiburg, brenter = 25 mass .... 


J 8-598 


1-379 


Geneva, setier = 24 quarterons = 48 pots . 


10-062 


1-614 


Claris, eimer = 4 viertel = 30 kopf = 60 mass 


23-506 


3-770 


Saint Gall, eimer = 4 viertel = 32 mass 


9-245 


1-483 


Lucerne ,, = 30 mass or pots . 




1-831 


Neufchatel, setier 2 brochets= 16 pots . V 


6-709 


1-076 


Schaffhaus, eimer = 4 viertel = 32 mass 


9-263 


1-486 


Thurgau ,, =32 mass . . - .. 


11-251 


1-805 


Uri of 60 . 


23-978 


3-846 


,, ,, of 64 ,, 


2C-C76 


4-102 


Waadt, setier 3 brocs = 30 pots 


3 j/ " 

8-917 


1-430 


Zurich, eimer stadtmass = 4 viertel = 60 mass . 


2I-699 


3-481 


Ticino, brenta = 66 boccale .... 


9758 


1-565 


HOLLAND : 






Amsterdam, anker = 2 steekkannen = 16 stoopen . 


8-543 


1-370 


AUSTRIA : 






Eimer = 4 viertel = 40 mass .... 


12-460 


1-999 


Hungary, Presburg and Pesth eimer = 64 icze 
Hungary, Tokay antal = 88 icze = 176 messli 


11-744 
16-152 


1-884 
2-591 


Bohemia, Prague eimer =32 pints =128 seidel . 


13-452 


2-158 


,, Temeswar kis-czeber = 50 icze . 


9-176 


1-472 


Illyria, Trieste orna = 40 boccale 


12-460 


1-999 


Tyrol, uren, or yuren= 128 zimment 


9782 


1-569 


For SOUTHERN EUROPE see Barrels and Loads. 






RUSSIA : 






Anker = 2 stekar = 3 vedro = 40 bottles . 


8-117 


1-302 


Narva and Pernau, anker = 30 stof . 
Revel, anker = 5 viertel = 30 stof . . , 


8-517 
7-863 


1-366 
1-261 


Riga =5 =30 >t 


7-971 


1-278 


SUMATRA : 






Tub= 10 sukat= 120 pakha .... 


I4-530 


2-331 


CHINA : 






Tche=io teu=ioo tching . . . 


15-412 


2-472 



I 7 o 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



NOMINAL LIQUID MEASURES. 



BARRELS. 


Ill 


||| 


111 


Tonne, fas schen, barile, barril, 


III 

r \ rvi 


111 


IjJ 


brenta, &c. 


QJ W 

Gallons 


Cub. ft. 


Hectol. 


England : beer and ale barrel = 4 firkins . 


36 


5-775 1-6350 


Norway and Denmark : toende= 136 pots 


28-930 


4-640 ! 1-3139 


Sweden and Finland : tunna = 96 stop 


27-650 


4-439 1-2558 


GERMANY : 








Berlin, tonne = 100 quarts, or 6400 cub. in. 


25-2II 


4-044 


I-I450 


Bremen ,, =48 stiibchen .... 


34-009 


5-455 


I 1 5446 


,, oil tonne = Berlin tonne 


25-2II 


4-044 i -^450 


Brunswick tonne = 27 stiibchen 


21-855 


3-506 0-9926 


Gotha ,, =24 ,, . 


19-228 


3-084 0-8733 


,, brandy tonne = 1 10 kannen 


44-065 


7-068 2-0013 


Hanover, tonne = 26 stiibchen .... 


22-258 


3-570 , i -0109 


Holstein, Hamburg and Rostock tonne = 32 








stiibchen ; (also one of 48 stiibchen) 


25-506 


4-091 


1-1584 


LUbeck, tonne = 42 stiibchen .... 


33^78 


5-370 


1-5205 


Saxony, Dresden tonne = 70 visirkannen . 


21-646 


3-472 


0-9831 


,, Leipzig ,, =75 kannen 


19-878 


3-188 


0-9028 


Oldenburg, tonne = 112 kannen . . . 


33754 


5-414 


I-5330 


FRANCE : 








Tonne de biere (mesure usuelle) = 7^ veltes 








(1812 1840) 


i6*ciA 


2-649 


0*7 ^oo 


AUSTRIA : 








Tonne = 2 imperial eimer = 80 mass . 


24-920 


3-997 


1-1318 


Vienna, old tonne = 2 eimer = 85 mass 


26-481 


4-248 


i -2027 


Temeswar, nagy-cseber = 2 kis-cseber 


18-352 


2-944 


0-8335 


Cracow, old beczka = 36 garniec 


30-063 


4-822 




RUSSIA : 








Narva and Pernau, tonne = 128 stof . 


3 6 -339 


5-829 


i -6504 


Revel, tonne 128 stof ..... 


--,.-. 2 


5-380 




Riga ,, =90 ,, 


2VQI2 


3-835 


i -0860 


,, brandy tonne = 1 20 stof .... 


3I-882 


5-114 


i -4480 


Warsaw, old beczka = 36 garniec before 1819 . 


30-063 


4-822 




Lemberg, old beczka = 36 garniec , , . 


30-471 


4-888 1-5839 



The above barrels are for liquids generally, except when otherwise 
specified, as for Bremen, Gotha, Riga. 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



171 



NOMINAL LIQUID MEASURES 





H 


o a 


- o a 


Wine barrels and oil barrels. 


ill 


ill 


gSj * 

u o > 




III 


wjj'g* 


S'0'3, 


SPAIN : 


ow 

Gallons 


Cub. ft. 


^W 
Hectol. 


Aragon, barril = 4 wine arrobas 


. 9-124 


1-464 


0-4144 


Barcelona ,, =2 mallals = 32 mitadellas . 


. 6-636 


1-064 


0-3014 


, , oil barril = 7| cortanes 


6-804 


1-091 


0-3090 


Valencia, barril = 3f wine arrobas 


9-479 


1-520 


0-4305 


Alicante, oil barril = 2\ oil arrobas . 


. 6-319 


1-014 


0-2870 


Majorca, covtin = 6i corters (wine) . 


5-976 


0-958 


0-2714 


Minorca, barillo = 5| quartillos 


. 6-942 


1-114 


0-3I53 


Spanish barrels are mostly estimated by 


weight, and vary greatly. 


ITALY : 




Ancona, barile = 24 boccale . . 


9-459 


1-517 0-4296 


Genoa, wine barrel = 50 pinte . 


. 16-344 


2-G22 


0-7423 


,, oil ,, = 64 quarteroni . 


. 14-239 


2-284 


0-6467 


Modena, wine ,, =20 fiaschi 


. 9-I73 


1-471 


0-4166 


Naples ,, ,, =6ocaraffe 


. 9-604 


1-541 


0-4362 


Palermo ,, ,, 


. 7-865 


1-262 


0-3572 


Rome ,, ,, =32 boccali 


. 12-845 


2-060 


0-5834 


,, oil ,, =28 boccali 


. 12-658 


2-030 


0-5749 

*" ~T^ 


Sardinia, oil ,, =3^ pots 


7'398 


1-187 


0-3360 


Tuscany, wine,, =20 fiaschi (wine) 


10-036 


1-610 


0-4558 






1-471 


o -4. 1 6 ^ 


,, oil orchio= 1 6 fiaschi (oil) . 


. 7-360 


1-180 


w *r 4 V 3 
Q'3343 


Bergamo, brenta = 52 pinte 


. 15-822 


2-538 


07186 


Cremona ,, 


. 32-367 


5-192 


1-47 


Milan ,, = 16 basse 


. 16-632 


2-668 


07554 


Parma ,, .... 


I5-853 


2-543 


O-72 


Piacenza and Reggio, brenta 


. 16-734 


2-684 


076 


Piedmont, brenta = 36 pinte 


. 10-850 


1-740 


0-4928 


Verona ,, =16 basse 


I 5"5 2 3 


2-490 


0-7050 


Belluna, mastello = 40 boccali . 


. 16-447 


2-638 


07470 


Ferrara =40 ,, 


. 12-194 


1-956 


0-5538 


Padua = 72 bozze 


. 15-699 


2-518 


0-7I30 


Rome 40 boccali . 


. 18-081 


2-900 


0-8212 


Rovigo = 108 bozze . 


23-075 


3-701 


I -0480 


Trevisa = 36 boccali di campagna 


. 17-174 


2-755 


0-78 




14-268 


2-289 


0*6480 


Vicenza =120 bozze . 


25 -079 


4-023 


I -1 190 


Bologna, corba = 60 boccali 


. 16-247 


2-606 0-7379 


Lucca, coppo = 264 pounds of oil 


. 21-987 


3-527 0-9986 


Mantua, moggio = 320 pounds of oil . 


. 24-519 


3-933 1-1136 



172 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART 1. 



NOMINAL LIQUID MEASURES 


slj 


-sii 


** 


continued. 


ill 


I'll 


III 


GREECE, MEDITERRANEAN, &c. : 


on 


Cub. ft. 


Hectol. 


Patras, barrel = 24 boccali (wine and brandy) . 


11-284 


1-810 


0-5125 


,, oil and honey barrel 19 Ib. or 25^ bocc. 








Ionian I., wine and oil barrel = 4 jari 


15*005 


2-407 


06815 


Zante ,, ,, =120 quartucci , 
Malta, wine and oil barrel = 2 caffisi, II old 


14-690 


2-356 


o 6672 




Q-l64 


1-470 


0-4162 


Ragusa, oil and honey barrels = 84 centlets 


./ * ui r 
I6-972 


2-722 


0-7708 


Tripoli (Barbary), barrel = 24 bozze (Venetian) . 


I4-268 


2-289 


0-6480 


Majorca, odre= 12 cortanes = 48 quartas . 


IO-68I 


1-713 


0-4851 


JAPAN : 









Koku = 10 to = loo shoo = 1000 goo . 



39*938 6-407 1-8141 



LOADS. 



The awm, ahm, ohm, and the tierce. 

DENMARK, SWEDEN, AND GER- 
MANY : 

The ahm is an expression for 4 ankers ; in some 
cases for 20 vierteln or f oxhoft (see Ankers 
and Vierteln, pp. 165, 168, or see Oxhoft). 

The exceptional ahmen are : 
Baden ahm= 10 stiitzen ..... 
Coblenz ,, =27 vierteln. .... 
Coin =28 ..... 
Gotha ,, =2ehner . . . . 
Hanover,, =2\ ,, =4 anker 
Wurtemberg ohm, or eimer= 16 imi, 12\ c. ft. . 

HOLLAND AND BELGIUM : 

Old Amsterdam aam = 4 anker 

Old Brussels aem = 24 schreef .... 

FRANCE (mesures anciennes) : 

Parisian tier5on= 13 veltes .... 

Bordeaux ,, =20 ,, 

Champagne,, or demicaque = 7| veHes . 

RUSSIA : 
Warsaw, tiercon = 40 garniec (old) . 



33-027 


5-297 


'So 


33 -55 


5-374 


5217 


32-794 


4-909 


4894 


32-049 


5-141 


4555 


34-242 


5-492 


5552 


64715 


10-381 


2-9393 


34-172 


5-481 


i'552 


28-628 


4-592 


1-3002 


19-686 


3-158 


0-8941 


33'203 


5-326 


i -5080 


11-729 


1-881 


0-5327 



33-423 5-358, 1-5171 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



173 



NOMINAL LIQUID MEASURES- -continued. 



LOADS continued. 


3% 


.e c" 




HI 


.JS'S J 


CJiarges, carica, carga, salma, soma, taunt. 


rS 1'3 


c.l-| 


SWITZERLAND : 


W 3 o 4 
UW 
Gallons 


Cub. ft. 


The saum is generally = 100 mass (see Mass). 






The exceptional saum were: Basel, 96 altmass; 






St. Gall, 128 mass ; Grisons, 90 mass ; Schaff- 






haus and Stein, 128 mass; Wintherthur, 120 






mass ; Zurich, saums of 90 and of 96 mass. 






SPAIN : 






The carga for wine or oil generally consists of 






4 nominal barrels (see Barrels) ; its value 






varies locally from 27 to 36 gallons, and is, 






besides, differently estimated, even by Spanish 






metrologists. 






ITALY : 








22'Ol8 


3-532 


Ancona, soma = 2 barili = 48 boccali . 


18-918 


3-034 


Tuscany ,, (oil) = 2 barili = 32 fiaschi . 


I4-7I9 


2-361 


Rome ,, ,, = 2 mastelli = 80 boccali 


36-165 


5-801 


Naples, salma ,, =256 quarti .... 


35-660 


5-720 


Sicily, ordinary wine salma .... 


18-341 


2-942 


,, Messina wine salma = 8 barili 


19-288 


3-094 


,, Syracuse salma ..... 


17-139 


2-749 


Cyprus, some or coriche ..... 


22'8OO 


3-657 



HOGSHEADS. 

Oxhoft, oxhufwud, barrica, barrique. 

England, hogshead = i| barrel (since 1803) 
Sweden, oxhufwud = i| awm = 3 embar 
Denmark, oxehoved^i| M =6 anker . 

GERMANY : 
Prussian oxhoft =ii ahm = 6 anker . 



-6 anker 
= 6 
-6 



Hanse towns,, =i| ,, =6 
Brunswick ,, = if ,, =6 
Hanover ,, i\ ,, =6 
Lippe-Detmold, oxhoft = i\ ahn 
Oldenburg ,, = i 

Saxony, Dresden ,, = i 
,, Leipzig ,, =i| 



54 


8-662 


2-4525 


5I-84 


8-316 


2-3544 


49-457 


7-933 


2 -2462 


45-38 


7-279 


2-0611 




7-671 


2-1721 


48-57 


7-790 


2-2057 


5I-36 


8-239 


2-3328 


49-09 


7-873 


2-2294 


50-42 


8-087 


2-2899 


44*53 


7-142 


2 -O224 


50-10 


8-035 


2-2752 



174 



METRICAL UNITS, 



PART I. 



NOMINAL LIQUID MEASURES 
continued* 

HOLLAND : 
Amsterdam okshoofd = i| aam = 6 anker . 

RUSSIA: 

Russian oxhoft = 12 stekar= 18 wedro 
Warsaw ,, = 60 garniec (old) 

,, ,, =60 ,, (metric) . 

SOUTHERN EUROPE : 

The barrica of Southern Europe is a term for the 
half-pipe or demiqueue. (See Pipe.) 

SAN DOMINGO : 
Barrica = 60 old wine gallons .... 



3KJ 

'^S-> 

6 g, 

UW 

Gallons 

51-26 



4870 
5O-IO 
52-84 



s<s 

'' 



Cub. ft. 

8-220 



7-812 2-2119 
8-037 2-2756 
8-476 2-4000 



49-99 8-018 2-2702 



PUNCHEONS, /ass, vat, fat, &*c. 



GERMANY : 

Prussian fass, beer or brandy = 2 barrels 

Brunswick fass for mumme= 10 anker 

Brunswick , for beer =4 ,, 

Gotha , for brandy = I ,, 

Hanover , for beer =4 ,, 

Liibeck , ,, = I Hamburg oil fass = 1 3- 

, for brandy = I oxhoft . 

Saxony, Dresden fass (beer) =4 barrels 

,, Leipzig ,, ,, = 4 ,, . . 

,, Dresden ,, (wine) = 10 anker 
Leipzig =10 

AUSTRO- HUNGARY : 

Bohemian fass (beer or wine) = 4 eimer 
Presburg ,, ,, = 4 eimer = 256 icze . 
Tokay ,, (wine) = 2f Presburg eimer 

JAMAICA : 

Rum puncheon, variable nominal value ; actual 
values between 72 and 108 gallons . 



50-42 


8-088 


80-94 


12-983 


87-42 


14-021 


44-07 


7-068 


8903 


14-280 


31-88 


5-114 


47-83 


7-671 


86-58 


13-887 


79'S 1 


12-754 


74-21 


11-904 


83'5c 


13-392 


S3'8i 


8-631 


46-98 


7-536 


32-30 


5-181 


84 


13-473 



3-8151 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



175 



NOMINAL LIQUID MEASURES 
continued. 

BUTTS AND PIPES, bota, pipa, queue. 

Germany "| 

Norway I The butt or pipe (when not imported) 

Sweden f consists of 2 oxhoft. (See Oxhoft.) 

Denmark J 

England, the butt = 2 hogsheads = 3 barrels 

Russia : Sarokowaja-botschka for oil or brandy 

= 40 wedro . 

Austria: weinfass= 10 eimer .... 

SPAIN : 

Pipa of wine = 27 wine arrobas .... 

, , of oil 34^ oil arrobas .... 

Bota of wine = 30 wine arrobas .... 

, , of oil = 385 oil arrobas .... 

Local values. 

Alicante, pipa vino = 40 arrobas 

Barcelona, pipa (wine) =4 carga; = 64 wine cor- 

tans, reputed trade value loc gallons 
Barcelona, pipa (oil) = 119 oil cortans, same val. 
Cadiz, pipa (oil) = 34 oil arrobas 
Malaga ,, (wine) = 25 arrobas . 

,, bota (wine) = 30 ,, reputed trade 

value 100 gallons ...... 

Malaga, pipa (oil) = 34 Castilian oil arrobas 

bota (oil) -42 
Teneriffe, pipa vino, varies from 116 to 124 old 

wine gallons ; reputed trade value 100 gallons 
Valencia, pipa vino = 42 cantaros 

,, pipe (oil) =40 arrobas . . 
,, bota, or tonel = i oo cantaros 
Xeres, bota vino, 120 old wine gallons, English ; 

reputed trade value 108 imperial gallons 
Majorca, pipa (oil) = 108 cortanes 
Minorca, pipa = 40 gerra ; reputed trade value 

105 gallons ...... 

Malta, pipe = 1 1 barrels .... 

PORTUGAL : 

Lisbon, pipa o bota = 26 almudes 

,, ,, for London, 31 almudes, reputed at 
140 wine gallons ...... 

Porto, pipa = 21 almudes, reputed at 115 gallons 
Madeira, pipa = 23^ almudes, reputed at 92 galls. 



c i'3 


|l 


Gallons 


ub. ft. 


1 08 


7-324 


108-2 

124-6 


7-359 
9-985 


95*9 

95 '4 
106-6 
106-5 


15-387 
15-308 
17-097 
17-084 


1017 
I 


16-320 


1 106-2 


17-031 


J 
94-1 

87-2 


15-087 
13-994 


1047 
94-1 
116-2 


16-792 
15-087 
18-637 


. 

100 

106-2 

lOI'I 

252-8 


16-040 
17-033 
16-217 
40-543 


! 
IOO 

. 96-1 

e 
106-2 


16-040 
15-421 

17-041 


100-8 


16-175 


947 


15-188 


t 
112-9 
116 
92 


18-107 
18-598 
14-708 



176 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART 



NOMINAL LIQUID MEASURES 


"rt 
'0 
.52 *-< -* 


*%i 


*&i 


continued. 


">!. 


Ill 


III 


BRAZIL ; 


uw* 


^w 


^w 




Gallons 


Cub. ft. 


Hectol. 


Rio Janeiro, pipa = 1 80 medidas 
Bahia, pipa (rum) = 72 canhadas 


. HOT 

112-6 


17-658 
18-032 


5 


,, ,, (molasses) = I oo ,, 


. 156-1 


25-045 


7-0915 


ITALY &c. : 








Rome, botta vino = 16 barili 


205-5 


32-967 


9-3346 


Venice, ,, = 10 mastelli . 


. 142-7 


22-885 


6-4800 


,, anfora = 8 mastelli . 


114-1 


18-308 


5-1840 


,, botta of oil = 2000 pounds weight. 








Vicenza ,, = 8 mastelli = \ carro . 


. 200-6 


32-181 


9-II2O 






18-486 


C "?'2/l A 






21-567 


6-1068 


Sardinia, botta = 500 pinte 


no'i 


17-658 


5 


Messina, bota o pipa = 90 gallons 


. 90 


14-436 


4-0876 


Palermo, pipa = 12 barili .... 


94-4 


15-136 


4-2858 


Gallipoli, pipe of oil = 2f salme . 


95-6 


15-327 


4-3400 






17-40 


4/928 


SWITZERLAND : 






*T ;7*'' ta/ 


Geneva, char =12 setier .... 


. 120-8 


19-369 


5 -4844 


Waadt, char = 16 eimer = 48 broc 


. 142-7 


22-885 


6-4800 



TUNS, FUDER, TONELADA, TONNE AU, STUCKFASS, 
KUFE, FASS. 



England, tun of beer or ale = 2 butts . 
,, ,, whale oil = 2 10 gallons 

,, ,, vegetable oil = 197 gallons 

United States, tun = 200 wine gallons 

Norway and Denmark, fuder = 2 pipes =4 oxhoft 

,, ,, stykfad = i fuder = 30 

ankar ........ 

Former Elsinor tun, for wine, vinegar, and beer . 
,, ,, ,, of whale oil = 252 wine gals. 

Sweden, fuhre = 2 pipas = 4 oxhufwud 

GERMANY : 

Hamburg tun of wine, or fass = 4 oxhoft 
Danzig fuder = 2 both or pipes .... 
Munich fass = 25 eimer ..... 
Heidelberg, stiickfass= 150 vierteln . 
Frankfurt = i^ fuder = 8 ahmen . 

Nuremberg = ii ,, =15 eimer. 
Vienna, dreiling = 3 fass = 30 eimsr . 



216 


34-65 


9 810 


2IO 


33-69 


9 '539 


197 


31-60 


8-947 


166-6 


26-74 


7-570 


197-8 


31-73 


8-984 


2473 


39-66 


1 1 -230 


204-2 


32-75 


9-274 


2IO'O 


33-69 


9*539 


207-4 


33-26 


9-418 


I9I-3 


30-68 


8-688 


I8I-5 


29-11 


8-244 


376-5 


60-39 


17-10 


26l-2 


41-90 


1 1 -863 


252-6 


40-52 


n-473 


242'4 


38-87 


11-007 


383-I 


61-45 


17-40 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



177 



NOMINAL LIQUID MEASURES 

continued. 

SWITZERLAND : 

Berne, landfass = 6 saum .... 

, , fass = 4 saum = 26 brenten 
Freiberg, fass, or fahrt= 16 ,, 
Gruyere ,, = 16 brenten 

FORMER FRENCH UNITS : 

Bordeaux, tonneau = 4 barriques = 6 tierfons 
Le Havre ,, =4 ,, 
Nantes ,, = 2 pipes = 4 barriques . 

La Rochelle ,, =4 barriques = 120 veltes 
Marseille, tonneau d'huile .... 



HOLLAND AND BELGIUM (former): 



ill 


111 


c e'3 


e?.U m ~ 


wji- 


W crt o 1 


Gallons 


Cub. ft. 


220-8 


35-41 


147-2 


23-609 


137-6 


22-065 


22O'O 


35-280 


I99-2 


31-65 


200-8 


32-21 


2II-4 


33-90 


2OI 'I 


32-25 


I98-2 


31-78 


201-3 


32-29 


I87-9 


30-14 


joi-6 


30-73 


198-2! 31-78 



213-2 



Amsterdam, wine vat, or kufe = 60 aamen 

,, olive oil vat = 717 mengel 

Rotterdam ,, =340 stoopen 

Anvers, tun of Geneva 



SPAIN : 

Spanish tonelada = 2 botas = 4 barrigas 
At Alicante, Barcelona, and in Valencia the 
tonelada = 2 pipas. (See Pipes.) 

PORTUGAL AND BRAZIL : 



Lisbon, tonnelada = 2 pipas = 4 barricas . . 189-4 

,, ,, de junta = loo cubic palmos . 176-1 

Rio de Janeiro, tonelada = 2 pipas = 360 medidas 220-2 

SICILY : 



Messina, tonna= 12 salme . 
Syracuse, tonna= 12 salme 
Naples, carro = 24 barili . 



205-7 
230-6 



34-19 



30-38 
28-25 
35-32 



37-13 
32-99 
36-97 



N 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



JNUM1JNAL, i^l^UIiJ JVmA.au Ka 

continued. 


111 

c^-- 


fli 


lj| 


BREW, BRAU, GEBRAUDE, 


W c3w 


^ w* 


^w 


BROUWSEL, BRASSIN. 


Barrels 


Cub.rods 


Hectol. 


Berlin, gebraude = 9 kupen = 36 barrels 
Bremen, brau = 45 scheffeln 


. 20-4 


0-14558 
0-11772 


41-22 




55*9 


0-30683 


86-88~ 


Dresden ., = 12 kufe = 96 barrels . 


577 


0-33332 


94-38 


Leipzig ,, =8kufe = 64 ,, 
Hanover ,, =172 barrels 


. 35-3 
. 106-3 


0-20406 
0-61405 


57-78 
I73-87 



CII. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



179 



DRY MEASURES* 



GENERAL VALUES. 

England : the Imperial bushel = 8 gallons ; or 80 

pounds of water ..... 
Germany: the Prussian scheffel = 4 viertel = 16 

metzen = 3072 cubic inches 
Norway and Denmark : the grain skieppe = 4 

fierdingkar = 18 pott = 972 cubic inches . 
Norway and Denmark : the coal skieppe = 22 pots 
Sweden : the spann = 4 fjerdingar= 16 kappar = 

56 stop = 2 -8 cubic feet . 
Russia : tschetwerik = 4 tschetwerka = 8 garnetz ; 

or 64 funt of water 

Austria: metze = 4 viertel = 16 muhlmassl . 
France : hectolitre of the metric system 
Holland : mudde= 10 schepel = 100 kop 
Italy: soma= 10 mina= 100 pinte 
Rhenish Bavaria : hektoliter = 8 simmern . 
Waadt : quarteron=io mines = 100 copets = 5oo 

cubic inches (metric) ..... 
Spain : Castilian fanega = 4 quarrillas = 12 al- 

mudes, standard in 1830 .... 
Portugal : Lisbon fanga * 4 alqueiras = 8 meios . 
Turkey : kiloz of 22 okas of wheat . . . 



gf English 
v Commercial 
K* Equivalent. 


*\ 
ll*a 

Cub. ft. 


I 


1-283 


I-5I3 


1-941 


0-479 
0-585 


0-614 
0-751 


2-016 


2-587 


0-722 
1-692 


0-926 
2-172 


2752 


3-532 


0-372 


0-477 


1-508 

1-488 


1-935 
1-910 


0-966 


1-240 



FORMER, LOCAL, AND SPECIAL VALUES. 



GERMANY (Scheffeln) : 

Prussian scheffel = 4 viertel = 16 metzen = 3072 

cubic inches . , . . . . l'5i- 

1-45* 



Anhalt, scheffel of Koethen 

Bremen, scheffel = 4 viertel = 16 spint ; or 104 Ibs. 

of rye . . 2-039 2-616 

Elsass, scheffel = Parisian boisseau . . . 0-358 0'459 

Gotha, ,, = 2 viertel = 8 metzen . . . 2-428 3'116 

,, bergscheffel = 2920 cubic inches . . 1-106 1'420 

Hamburg, scheffel (wheat) = 4 himten=i6 spint . 2-903 3725 

Hamburg, scheffel (oats) = 6 himten = 24 spint . 4-354 5-588 

1 The values of Small Dry Measures may be obtained by division. 

N 2 



1-941 
1-870 



igo 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



all 


*&* 


,dg' 


DRY MEASURES continued. fl| 


111 


S'f1 


GERMANY continued : 6w 




"I 


Bushels 


Cub. ft. 


Litres 


Hesse (Electoral), scheffel = 2 himten = 8 metzen . 2 -208 


2-834 


80-23 


Holstein, the Danish skieppe .... 0-479 


0-614 


1 7 '39 


Lippe - Detmold, scheffel (wheat) = 6 large 






metzen = 24 mehlmetzen, 3154 cubic inches . 1-219 


1-564 


44-29 


Lippe-Detmold, scheffel (oats) - 7 large metzen . i -422 


1-825 


51-67 


Lubeck, scheffel (wheat), 2343 cubic inches . 0-919 


1-180 


33'40 


,, (oats), 2752 . i -080 


1-386 


39 '24 


Mecklenberg Schwerin, scheffel (wheat) = 4 viertel 








1-373 


38-80 


Mecklenburg Schwerin, scheffel (oats) . . i -206 


1-548 


O oy 

43-82 


,, Strelitz, scheffel .... 1-422 


1-824 


Si' 6 S 


Oldenburg, scheffel = 16 bierkanne . . . 0-603 


0-773 


21-90 


Saxe- Weimar ,, =4 viertel = 16 metzen . . 2-118 


2-718 


76-97 


Saxony ,, -4 ,, = 16 ,, =8064 






cubic inches of Dresden, since 1719 . . 2-914 


3-740 


105-89 


Wiirtemberg, scheffel = 8 simri = 32 viertel . . 4-878 


6-259 


177-23 


,, zuberscheffel = 4 imi = 40 mass . 2-022 


2-595 


7 3 '48 


Schleswig, scheffel (wheat) . i -238 


1-589 


44 '99 


,, ,, (barley) .... 1-212 


1-555 


44-02 


German sester, simmer, and large metzen. 






Bavaria, metze = 8 massl . . . - . i -020 


1-309 


37-06 


Brunswick, himt = 4 vierfass= 16 loechern . . 0-856 


1-098 


31-10 


Baden, sester= 10 massl = i oo becher . . 0-413 


0-530 


15 


SJrasburg, sester = 4 vierling=i6 massl, town- 






measure, 924 cubic inches, Parisian . . 0-505 


0-647 


I 8'33 


Strasburg, sester country measure, 952 Parisian 






cubic inches ....... 0-520 


0-667 


18-88 


Rhenish Bavaria, simmer = 4 vierling . . . 0-344 


0-441 


12-50 


Saxe-Coburg, simmer = 4 viertel = 16 metzen . 2-416 


3-099 


87-76 


Hesse-Darmstadt, simmer = 4 kiimpfe = 16 ge- 






scheid 0-881 


1-130 


32 


Nassau, simmer = 4 kiimpfe = 16 gescheid . . 0-753 


0-966 


27'35 


Nuremberg, metz (wheat) = 16 mass . . . 0-547 


0-702 


19-88 


,, ,, (oats) ..... 0-506 


0-649 


18-39 


AUSTRIA :- 






Metze = 4 viertel = 16 muhlmassl . . . 1-692 


2-172 


61-49 


Moravia, old metze ...... i -943 


2-493 


70-60 


Bohemia, strich = 4 viertel = 16 massl . . 2-576 


3-306 


93-60 


Hungary, Pesth-Buda metze = 96 halben, or icze of 








2-826 


80 -oi. 


Hungary, Temeswar and Presburg metze, or kila 
= 64 halben ; or 40 oka weight, after 1808 . 1-468 


1-884 


53*34 


Illyria, Fiume metze of 37! wine boccali of 3456 
Viennese cubic inches 1-739 


2-231 


63-17 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY* 



iSi 



DRY MEASURES continued. 


ill 


o U 






111 


AUSTRIA continued : 


CJW* 






Bushels 


Cub. ft. 


Illyria, Trieste staro .... 


2-274 


2-918 


Galicia, Lemberg cwiercek = 8 garniec = 32 kwarti 
Poland, Cracow cwiercek = 8 garniec = 32 kwarti 


0-846 
0-826 


1-086 
1-060 


Tyrol, staro or star ...... 


0-841 


1-080 


Dalmatia, Ragusa roupell ..... 


0-682 


0-875 


Trent, staja 


0-581 


0-746 


RUSSIA : 






Imperial tschetverik = 4 tschetverka . . 


0-722 


0-926 


Pernau, lof= 4 kulmitz (stricken) . . . 


1-743 


2-236 


Revel, ,, =3 kullmet = 36 stof. 


1-085 


1-393 


Riga, ,, =6 ,, =54 ,, . 


1-880 


2-412 


Warsaw, cwiercek = 8 metric garniec, litres 


0-881 


1-130 


,, ,, =8 old garniec before 1819 . 


0-830 


1-065 


FRANCE, HOLLAND, AND BELGIUM : 






The old Parisian boisseau = 16 litrons . 


o-358 


0-459 


The boisseau metrique (1812-1840) 


o-344 


0-441 


Amsterdam, old schepel = 32 koppen . 


0-744 


0-954 




0-671 


0-861 


SWITZERLAND : 






Arau, viertel = 4 vierling = 1 6 massli . 


0-620 


0-795 


Basle, sester = 2 mudde = 8 kupfli= 16 becher 


0-940 


1-206 


Berne, mass = 2 massli = 4 immi 


0-386 


0-495 


St. Gall, viertel = 4 vierling =16 masslein . 


0-568 


0-729 


Geneva, bichet of 1957^ Parisian cubic inches 


1-069 


1-371 


Grisons ,, =4 quartanen= 16 masslein . 


0-825 


1-059 


Lucerne ,, = 10 imni= 16 becher . 


0-956 


1-227 


Neufchatel, setier = 8 pots = 24 copets . 


0-419 


0-538 


,, ,, foroats = 25copet = 8oop.c., Paris 


0-437 


0-560 


Schaffhausen, viertel = 4 vierling = 16 masslein . 


0-622 


0-798 


Schwytz, Uri, Claris, Zurich, viertel for corn 


0-569 


0-730 


oats 


0-576 


0-738 


Waadt, quarteron= 10 mines = loo copets = 500 






cubic inches ....... 


0-372 


0-477 


Wyl, viertel (grain) =4 vierling = 16 masslein 


0-706 


0-806 


Zug ,, (wheat) =4 ,, = 16 ,, 


0-618 


0-793 


Ticino, large staro of Locarno .... 


0-810 


1-039 


,, small ,, ,, 


0-722 


0-926 


ITALY : 






Soma= 10 mine = 100 pint e . 


2-752 


3-532 


Bergamo, stajo = 6 copelle .... 


0-570 


0-731 


Bologna ,, = 4 quartaroli , 


1-016 


1-303 




0-0,82 


1-260 



IC2 



METRICAL UNITS. 



= \\ starello 

= 2 mine= 16 mitadelle 



DRY MEASURES continued. 
ITALY continued : 

Ferrara, staro = 4 quart! = 8 quartini 

Mantua, stajo of 80 pounds 

Milan, staro = 2 starelli = 1 6 meta 

Modena, stajo .... 

Padua ,, = 4 quartaruole 

Parma, staro = 2 mine = i6 quartaroli 

Piacenza, stajo = 2 mine 

Reggio 

Rome 

Tuscany 

of rye . 
Piedmont, staro 
Venice ,, = 4 quarti= 16 quartaioni; 

pounds of wheat 

Vicenza, stajo = 16 quartaruole . 
Sicily, bisaccia = 4 tomoli 16 modilli 
Naples, tomolo = 4 quarti = 24 misure ; 

rottoli of wheat 



Castilian fanega -4 quartillas= 12 almudes . 

Ferrol , , - 4 ferrados ( 1 1 < 

Aragon ,, = 3 quartales= 12 almudes 

Asturias ,, = 12 celemines . 

Canary Is. ,, =12 almudes . 

La Havana ,, =2 Castilian fanegas . 

Buenos Ayres, fanega = 3 75 Winchester bushels . 

Montevideo ,, =375 Imperial 

Valparaiso, fanega for wheat and barley 

maize = 160 
potatoes = 200 

wheat = 150 

=175 
= 100 

wheat =140 

grain, old C 

cacao = no 

Lisbon, fanga = 4 alqueiras = 8 meios = 1 6 quartos . 
Oporto =4 ,, =8 , 
Madeira ,, =4 ,, =8 . 
Azores ,, =4 ,, =8 , 
Brazil =4 =8 \ 

TURKEY, THE LEVANT, &c. : 
Kiloz of 22 okas of wheat 
Bucharest, demerli of 1 6 okas 
Morea, the Stamboul kiloz . 



San Antonio 
Concepcion 
Peru, ordinary 

H 

Mexico 



ill 


III 


,e<e S 


c !! 






M|| 


fvi ' D ^4 


fo'^ Q- 


ow 


^ W 


w w 


Bushels 


Cub. ft. 


Litres 


. 0-861 


1-105 


31-29 


0-959 


1-230 




. 0-503 


0-646 


l8'28 




2-481 


70-24 


! ! 1 0-798 


1-023 


28-98 


. 1-415 


1-816 


5^42 


. 0-963 


1-236 


35-00 


. 1-638 


2-101 


59-50 


. 0-675 


0-866 




e ; or 50 Ibs. 






. 0-670 


0-860 


24-36 


. 1-055 


1-354 


38-34 


oni; or 132 






. 2-293 


2-942 


83-3I 


0-744 


0-955 


27-05 


. i -886 


2-420 


68-51 


ure ; or 45 






. 1-520 


1-950 


55-22 


'H AMERICA : 






mdes . . i -508 


1-935 


54-80 


lianfan.) . 2 -on 


2-581 


73-07 


nudes . 0-621 


0-797 


22-56 


. 2 -or i 


2-581 


73-07 


. 1723 


2-211 


62-60 


. 3-016 


3-870 


109-60 


er bushels . 3-635 


4-664 


132-07 


3-750 


4-812 


136-25 


ey . . 2-498 


3-205 


9075 


unds . . 2-578 


3-308 


93-67 


. 3-222 


4-135 


117-08 




3-101 


87-81 


'. 2-830 


3-618 


102-45 


1-611 


2-067 


58-54 


. 2-256 


2-895 


81-96 


ilian value . -555 


1-995 


56-49 


iinds . . -773 


2-274 


64-40 


-16 quartos. -488 


1-910 


54-08 


-16 . -879 


2-411 


68-27 


; *6 '553 


1-992 


56-41 


--16 . -319 


1-692 


47-92 


= 16 . -488 


1-910 


54-08 


&c. : 






. 0-966 


1-240 


35-11 


. 0-677 


0-869 


24-60 


. 0-966 


1-240 


35-" 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



DRY MEASURES continued. 


ill 


w ** 

111 




H i'gi 


M O 3 
W WD 0* 


TURKEY, &c. continued : 


CJW 


W 




Bushels 


Cub. ft- 




0*824 


1-057 


Negropont, kiloz ..... 


0-835 


1-071 


Cerigo, chilo = I Winchester bushel . 
Thiaki, bacile =i ,, ,, 


|j 0-969 


1-243 


Cephalonia, bacile = if Imperial bushel 


i '375 


1-764 


Zante, bacile = ^ Cephalonia bacile . 


. 1-238 


1-603 


Corfu and Paxos, mi sura .... 


. 0-578 


0-743 


Cyprus, coffino ...... 


0*^44. 


0-698 


,, moose of 40 oka of wheat 


. 1-761 


2-26 


Malta, tummolo (stricken measure) 


. 0-498 


0-639 


SYRIA AND ARABIA : 






Smyrna, kilo of 32 okas of wheat 


. 1-412 


1-812 


Mokha and Beitulfakiah, teman = 4O kella 


or 




mecmeda, 168 pounds (avoir.) of rice 


. 2 -625 


3-369 


EGYPT AND ABYSSINIA : 






Gondar, ardeb = 10 madega 


. O-I2I 


0-189 


Massowah, ardeb = 24 madega . 


. 0-29I 


0-453 


(See also Large Dry Measures.) 






TUNIS AND ALGIERS : 






Tunis, weba= 12 saa .... 


. 0-909 


1-167 


Tripoli, temen = 4 orba = 8 nasforba 


, 0-739 


0-948 


Algiers, tarri ...... 


. 0-546 


0-701 


NORTHERN INDIA : 






(Grain is sold by weight.) 






The English cubic foot (commercial value) . 


. 0-779 


0-999 


The French hectolitre .... 


2-752 


3-532 


In Sindh the coss&h = 4 toyah 


. 0-321 


0-412 


SOUTHERN INDIA : 






Bombay, parah (grain) = 28 ser measures 


. 0-254 


0-326 


,, (salt) =40 ,, 


. 0-725 


0-930 


Anjar, shahi = 4 map = 32 palli . 


0-855 


1-098 


Cochin, parah = 45 local measures 


. 0-875 


1-123 


Madras ,, =40 measures, or 4000 cubic in. 


. i -802 


2-313 


Ballari ,, = 60 ser measures 


. 2 -023 


2-597 


Bangalur, colagah = 8 ser measures 


. 0-269 


0-346 


Madura, markal = 6 measures . . 


. 0-298 


0-380 


Travancor, parah = 10 dungalli . 


. 0-043 


0-057 


Masulipatam, markal = 12 zavah = 96 giddah 


. 0-391 


0-501 


Negapatam ,, = 4 measures (grain) . 


. 0-II3 


0-146 


Palamkattah ,, = 6 bazar measures . 


. 0-270 


0-346 



I8 4 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 





"a 


SjiJ 


DRY MEASURES continued. 


I'll 


111 


SOUTHERN INDIA continued*. 


W 6w 


MC ^W 




Bushels 


Cub. ft. 


Dindigal ,, =5 measures 
Trichinopalli ,, =4 ,, 


0-264 
0-139 


0-338 
0-178 


PondicherrT ,, of 12 liv. p. demarc . 


0-193 


0-247 


CEYLON : 






-Colombo, parah = 2 markal = 24 ser measures 


0-702 


0-902 


BURMAH : 






Rangun, basket, parah or teng, 1 6 vis of rice = 8 sa 


0-833 


1-069 


Pegu 16 =8,, 


0-848 


1-089 


THAI (SiAM) : 






Thangsat = 20 thanan = 2000 cubic niu 


0-522 


0-669 


ANAM (COCHIN CHINA).: 






Tao = 2 hao 


*'55 6 


1-996 


MALACCA AND SUMATRA : 








O'lIO 


0-141 


Singapore ,, =4chupa 


O-I22 


0-157 


Sumatra, sukat= 12 pakha 


0-I82 


0-233 


Bencoolen, kula, or bambu = 4 chupa 


O'I22 


0-146 


Palembang, gantang of 6 catti of grain 


0-135 


0-173 


,, bally = 10 gantang . 


1-349 


1-731 


Acheen, nelli = 8 bambu = 32 chopa 


0-480 


0-616 


JAVA, BORNEO, MOLUCCAS, 






CELEBES, &c. : 






Bantam, gantam=^ 8 bambu 


0-716 


0-918 


Batavia, gantang 


0-264 


0-339 


Borneo ,, 20 pounds troy (Dutch) rice 


0-358 


0-459 


Macassar, home gantang 


0-138 


0-177 


,, export ,, I 1 1 Ibs. troy (Dutch) rice 


0-206 


0-265 


Mindanao, battel, or raga = 10 gantang 


0-440 


1-130 


CHINA : 






(Grain is sold by weight.) 






Tche=io teu=ioo tching . 


1-927 


2-472 


JAPAN : 








0-897 


0-641 


SOUTH AFRICA : 


.// 




Madagascar, trubahuash, or monka = 2 bambu = 






12 voules .... . 


o-iio 


0-141 


Madagascar, zatu = 100 voules, rice 


0-918 


1-177 


Cape of Good Hope, bally = 5 gantang 


1-266 


1-625 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



185 



LARGE DRY MEASURES. 



GENERAL VALUES, 

England : the quarter = S bushels ; 640 Ibs. of 

water ...,,.. 
Germany: the Prussian maker = 12 scheffein = 

2i| cubic feet . ...... 

Norway and Denmark : the toende (barrel) = 

4 fierde = 8 skieppe = 4| cubic feet . 
Sweden : the tunna = 2 spann =112 stop = 5 '6 

cubic feet ....... 

Sweden : augmented tunna, \2\ per cent, added, 

= 6-3 cubic feet ...... 

Russia : tschetwert = 4 pajok = 8 tschetverik ; 512 

funt of water, or 10 pud of wheat . 
Austria : the grain muth = 30 metzen . 
Spain : cahiz=i2 fanegas . 

Portugal : moio =15 fangas .... 
Turkey : for tin = 4 kiloz ; 2 kanthar of wheat 
Syria : makuk of Aleppo ; 250 rotl of grain 
Egypt : ardeb of Cairo ..... 
Morocco : almud or mud ..... 
China : ping = 8 tche ..... 



3l 

-S "J? 


111 


c'-g'nt 


"Id 


W'cEJ- 


^H 


Bushels 


Cub. ft. 


Hectols. 


8 


10-266 


2-9067 


18-152 


23-292 


6-595 


3-829 


4-913 


1-391 


4-032 


5-174 


1-465 


4^536 


5-821 


1-648 


5772 
50-768 
18-099 
22-326 
3-865 
22-018 


7-407 
65-145 
23-226 
28-649 
4-960 
28-253 


2-097 
18-446 
6-576 
8-112 

1-404 

8-000 


4-800 

5 
15-413 


6-160 
6-416 
19-778 


1-744 
1-817 
5-600 



FORMER, LOCAL, AND SPECIAL VALUES. 



GERMANY : 

Prussian maker = 12 schefFeln ; 2i| cubic feet 

,, winspelkarre, 7 cubic feet 
Anspach, simra of wheat =17 metzen . 

oats = 576 mass 

Bairetith ,, = 16 maes . 
Baden, maker = 10 sester= 100 massl . 
Bavaria, scheffel = 6 metzen = 8944 cubic inches . 
Brunswick, scheffel = 10 himten = 4O vierfass 
Coblentz, maker = 8 simmern = 32 sester (stricken) 
Coin ,, = 4 fasser = 8 simmern 

Elsass, sac, or resal = 8 boisseaux de Paris ; 160 
poids de marc pounds of wheat 



18-152 23-29 


6-595 


5-956 ; 7-64 


2-164 


9-306 


11-94 


3-381 


17-177 


22-04 


6-241 


13-648 


17-51 


4-959 


4-128 


5-30 


1-500 


6*190 


7-85 


2-224 


8 560 


10-58 1 vi 10 


5-224 


6-70 


1-898 


3-95I 

O/T 


5-07 

n nrt 


1-435 



1-041 



i86 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



ill 


SI'S 




LARGE DRY MEASURES--*********. 1|.fc 


{Ml 


\ 


H o cr 
GERMANY continued : 
Bushels 


Cub. ft. 


fn 
He 


Eisenach, malter = 2 scheffeln ... .8 *o8o 


10-37 


2' 


Frankfurt ,, = 4 simmern = 8 metzen . . 3*158 


4-05 


I- 


Gotha ,, =2 scheffeln =16 ,, . . 4-857 


6-23 


I 


,, charcoal malter (see Cubic Measures). 






Hamburg, sac ' = 2 scheffeln == 4 fasser = 8 himten 5 -806 


7-45 


2 


Hanover, malter = 6 himten . . . -5*136 


6-59 


I 


Hesse-Cassel, viertel = 2 scheffeln = 16 metzen . 4*415 


5-67 


I 


Hesse-Darmstadt, malter = 4 simmern = 16 kumpfe 3*523 


4-52 


I 


Homburg, viertel = 4 himten = 16 metzen . . 4*910 


6-30 


I 


Mainz, malter = 4 simmern = 16 kumpfe . . 3-010 


3-86 


I 


Lufceck, droemt of wheat = 12 soheffeln . . 11*034 


14-16 


4 


oats =12 . . 12-958 


16-63 


4 


Rostock , , wheat =12 , , . .12 -844 


16-48 


4 


,, ,, oats =12 . . 14-471 


18-57 


5 


Nassau, malter = 4 simmern = 16 kiimpfe . . 3-010 


3-86 


i 


Nuremberg, simmer (wheat) = 16 metzen . . 8*755 


11-24 


3 


,, ,, (oats) =4 malter = 32 metzen 16-194 


20-78 


5 


Oldenburg, molt l = i| barrel = 12 scheffeln . 7 -233 


9-28 


2 


Saxony, malter = 12 scheffeln (Dresden) . . 34-972 


44-88 


12 


Schleswig and Holstein, the Danish barrel l toende 3 -829 


4-9t 


I 


Schleswig, heitscheff = 2| scheffeln . . .3 -095 


3-97 


I 


The winspel of grain. 






is in Prussia = 2 malter; in Brunswick = 4 scheffeln; 






in Hanover = 8 ,, at Hamburg = 10 ,, 






in Saxony =2 ,, at Rostock =32 ,, 






AUSTRIA : 






Grain miith = 30 metzen . .... 50-768 


65-15 


18 


Hungary, Temeswar schinek = 2 metzen ; 80 








3-77 




Slavonia, kila = 3| Presburg metzen = 224 halben 5*138 
Galicia, Lemberg korzec = 4 kwerki = 32 garniec 3*385 


6-59 
4-34 




Poland, Cracow korzec = 4 kwerki = 32 garniec . 3-306 


4-24 




Dalmatia, Ragusa stajo = 6 roupell . . . 4-090 


5-25 






5-97 




RUSSIA : 






Imperial tschetwert = 8 tschetverik ; 512 Ibs. of 






water ........ 5*772 


7-41 


2 


Finland, Swedish tunna 1 augmented . . . 4*536 


5-82 




Narva, grain barrel ! = 4 viertel = 32 kapp . . 4-462 


5-72 


I 


Pernau ,, ,, =2 lof=8 kullmets . . 3-484 


4-47 


I 



1 For other barrels of dry merchandise see text, pp. 156 and 157. 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



187 





ill 


sgj 


LARGE DRY MEASURES continued. 


||.| 


ef !'l 


RUSSIA continued \ 


Bushels 


Cub. ft. 


Revel, grain barrel ' = 3 lof=9 kulmet = 108 stof . 


3-256 


4-18 


Riga ,, ,, =2 ,, =12 ,, = 108 ,, . 


3-760 


4-82 


Warsaw, korzec = 4 k werki = 32 garniec (metric) . 




4-52 


,, =4 -32 ,, (before 






1819) 


33I9 


4-26 


FRANCE, HOLLAND, AND BELGIUM : 






Old Parisian seder of grain = 12 boisseaux . 


4-294 


5-51 


,, ,, salt =- 16 ,, 


5*723 


7-35 


,, oats =24 


8-588 


11-03 


,, ,, charcoal = 32 ,, 


11-446 


14-70 


Amsterdam, sac = 3 schepeln = 96 koppen . 
Brussels, muid = 6 rasieres = 24 vierteln 


2-23I 
8-052 


2-86 
10-33 


SWITZERLAND : 






Arau, maker = 4 miitt = 16 viertel 


9-916 


12-73 


Basel, vierzel = 2 sac = 8 sester = 64 kupfli . 


7-522 


9-65 


Berne, miitt = 12 maess (11520 cubic inches) 


4-627 


5-94 


St. Gall, maker = 2 miitt = 8 viertel 


4-547 


5-83 


Geneva, sac = 2 bichets ; no Ibs. of wheat . 


2-139 


2-74 


Claris and Schwytz, the Zurich makers. 






Grisons, ladi = 8 miitt = 44 viertel 


36-330 


46-62 


Lucerne, maker = 4 miitt = 16 viertel . 


I5-304 


19-64 


Neufchatel, sac = 8 setiers 


3-355 


4-31 


S chaff hausen, grain maker = 2 miitt = 8 vitrtel 




6-39 


Waadt, sac= 10 quarterons= 100 emines 


3716 


4-77 


Wyl, grain maker = 2 miitt = 8 viertel . . . 


5-651 


7-25 


Zug ,, =4 ,, =16 ,, . 


9-884 


12-68 


Zurich, maker (grain) = 4 miitt =16 viertel (i2| 






cubic feet) ....... 


9-106 


11-68 


Zurich, maker (oats and vegetable) = 16 viertel 






(12/3 cubic feet) 


9-209 


11-82 


ITALY : 






Ancona, rubbio = 8 coppe .... 


7-874 


10-10 


Bergamo soma 8 staja ..... 




5-85 


Bologna, corba = 2 stari = 8 quartaroli 


2-031 


2-61 


,, fruit corba = 3 stari . . . 


3-046 


3-92 


Brescia, soma =12 quarti 


4-018 


5-16 


Cremona, sac = 3 staja . 


2-945 


3-78 


Ferrara, moggio = 20 staje .... 


17-226 


22-11 


Genoa, mina = 8 quarti = 96 gombette 


3-322 


4-26 


Milan, rubbio = 2 moggia= 16 staja . - . 


8-049 


10-33 


Modena, saco = 2 staja ..... 


3'496 


4-49 


Padua, moggio = 12 staje ..... 


9-572 


12-28 


Piedmont, sacco = 5 emine= 10 quartieri 


3-I65 


4-06 


Reggio ,, =2 staja . 




4-20 


1 For other barrels of dry merchandise see text 


pp. 156 and 157. 



188 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



LARGE DRY MEASURES continued. 


i|! 


111 


ITALY continued : 


Bushels 


Cub. ft. 


Rome, rubbio= 12 staja . 


8-103 


10-40 


Tuscany, rubbio = 3| sacchi = 1 1| staja 


7-54I 


9-68 


,, moggio = 8 ,, =24staji . 


16 091 


20-65 


Venice ,, =4 stari= 16 quarti 


9-172 


11-77 


Verona, sacco = 3 minelli= 12 ,, 


3-157 


4-05 


Vicenza ,, =4 staja ..... 


2-978 


3-82 


Sicily, salma = 4 bisaccie ..... 


7-543 


9-68 


Naples, carro = 36 tomoli ..... 


54718 


70-21 


SPAIN AND SOUTH AMERICA : 






Castilian cahiz =12 fanegas = 52700 pul. cub. 


18-099 


23-23 


Alicante ,, = 1 2 barcellas = 48 almudes . 


6781 


8-70 


Aragon ,, =8 fanegas =96 ,, 


4-968 


6-37 


Valencia ,-, 1 2 barcellas = 48 ,, 


5 '649 


7-25 


Barcelona, salma = 48 cortanes .... 


7-816 


10-03 


Buenos Ayres, cahiz = 3! fanegas 


13-631 


17-49 


PORTUGAL AND BHAZIL : 






Moio for grain and salt =15 fangas = 60 alqueiras . 


22-326 


28-65 


Moio for lime = 50 alqueiras . . 


18-605 


23-87 


,, for limestone = 30 alqueiras 


ii 163 


14-33 


TURKEY, LEVANT, &c. : 






Fortin = 4 kiloz of 2 canthar of wheat 


3-865 


4-96 


Bucharest, kile = 2 mirze=i6 demerli ; 256 oka 






of wheat ....... 


10-833 


13-90 


Ibrahil, kilo of 400 oka of wheat 


17-614 


22-60 


Moldavia, Galatz kilo ... 


1 1 -284 


15-01 


Salonica, kilo of 85 oka ..... 


5 '337 


6-85 


Corfu and Paxos, moggio= 8 misure . 




5-95 


Thiaki, moggio = 5 bacile ..... 


4-844 


6-22 


Malta, salma rasa = 16 tummoli . 


8-000 


10-27 


SYRIA : 






Aleppo, makuk of 250 rottal .... 


22-018 


28-25 


Smyrna, fortin = 4 kiloz ..... 


5-648 


7-25 


Acre ardeb ....... 




12-01 


EGYPT : 






Alexandria, kilo of 202 Amsterdam koppen 


4-694 


6-03 


,, Rosetta ardeb = 7f Imp. bushels 


7750 


9-95 


,, Damietta ,, for rice 


11-180 


14-35 


Cairo, flax ardeb = 4| Imperial bushels 


4-800 


6-16 


For ABYSSINIA see p. 183. 







CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



189 



LARGE DRY MEASURES continued. 


|1| 

2|-| 


ill 


Sis S 
HI 


TUNIS, MOROCCO, ALGIERS: 


wl| 


Wg. 


i3 




Bushels 


Cub. ft. 


Hectols. 


Morocco, almud, or mud ..... 


5 


6-42 


I-8I7 


Algiers, caffiso= 1 6 tarri . 


8-737 


11-21 


3-I74 


Tunis ,, = 16 weba . 


14-545 


18-66 


5'285 


Tripoli, weba = 4 temen ; 2iorottol of wheat 


2-954 


3-79 


1-073 


PERSIA : 








No measures of capacity. 








NORTHERN INDIA : 








In Moslem Asia generally, grain is sold by weight, 








and measures of capacity are rarely used. 
Sindh, karwal = 60 cossah ..... 


19-266 


21-19 


7 


SOUTHERN INDIA : 








Anjar kulsey= IQ shai .... 


13-688 


17-56 


4-973 


Bombay, the kandi = 8 parah of grain . 


2-032 


2-91 


0-738 


,, rice kandi = 12 ,, ,, . 


3-044 


3-91 


1-106 


,, mora or muddi = 25 grain parah . 


6-342 


8-14 


2-304 


Madras, kandi = 4 parah .... 


7-208 


9-25 


2-620 


Colombo, ammonam = 8 ,, ... 


5-623 


7-21 


2-043 


The kandi of capacity in Southern India corre 








sponds to the kandi of weight of various 








merchandise, it hence varies greatly. Esti- 








mation by weight is the more usual method. 








CHINA : 








Ping - 8 tche ....... 


15-413 


19-78 


15-600 


JAPAN : 






J 


Koku = ioto= loo shoo 


4-992 


6-41 


1-814 


MANILA : 








Kaban = 25 ganta, rice . 


2-750 


3-53 


0-999 


Kaban of cacao = Salibras castillanas. 









190 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



NOMINAL DRY MEASURES. 



Grain Lasts. 


.fl'O 


s.|1 


GENERAL AND FORMER 


111 


II -1 


LOCAL UNITS. 


Woo- 
OW 


w wj 




Quarters^ Cub. ft. 


England : grain last = 10 quarters 


IO 


102-66 


Danish and Norwegian: last = 22 toende (barrels) 






or 99 cubic feet ...... 


10-530 


108-09 


Sweden : last of rye = 24 tunna (augmented) 


13-609 


139-70 


,, ,, barley = 27,, ,, 


I5-3IO 


157-17 


,, oats = 30 ,, ,, 


I7-OII 


174-63 


GERMANY : 






Prussian last of wheat or rye = 6 matlern= 128 








13-614 


139-75 


Prussian last of barley or oats = 4 maltern . 


9-076 


93-17 


Bremen, last = 40 scheffeln .... 


10-193 


104-64 


Brunswick, last=io ,, .... 


10-698 


109-85 


Hamburg , , =60 fasser .... 


IO-887 


111-76 


Hanover ,, = 16 maltern .... 


IO-27I 


105-45 


Liibeck ,, of wheat = 8 droemten = 24 








1 1 'Old. 


113-27 


Liibeck, last of oats = 8 droemten 


* ^J^T 
I2-958 


133-02 


Oldenberg, last= 18 barrels = 144 scheffeln 


IO-849 


111-37 


Rostock, last of wheat = 8 droemten 


I2-844 


131-85 


,, ,, oats = 8 droemten . 


I4-47I 


148-56 


RUSSIA : 






Grain last =19 tschetwert .... 


"'544 


118-51 


Finland (see Swedish lasts) 






Narva, last = 24 barrels = 96 vierteln 


I3-38 


137-4 


Pernau, last = 24 barrels = 48 lof 


IO-46 


107-3 


Revel, last = 24 barrels = 72 lof 


977 


100-3 


Riga, rye last =15 tschetwert .... 


10-823 


111-10 


,, wheat and barley last = 16 tschetwert 


"544 


118-51 


oats last = 20 tschetwert .... 


14-43 


148-13 


Warsaw ,, = 30 korzec (metric) 


13-211 


135-62 


,, ,, 30 ancient korzec, before 1819 


12-448 


127-79 


HOLLAND AND BELGIUM : 






Amsterdam, metric last = 3 metres cubes = 30 






mudden = 300 schepeln .... 


10-321 


105-95 


Old Amsterdam last = 36 sacs (grain) 


10-039 


103-06 


SOUTHERN EUROPE AND AMERICA 


: 






"O4.Q 


92-90 


Buenos Ayres, last = 4 cahices .... 


y ^"ry 

6-816 


69-96 



Sa'f 



CH. V. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY: 



191 



NOMINAL DKY MEASURES 
continued. 

SOUTHERN EUROPE AND 
AMERICA continued : 

Lisbon and Brazilian last = 4 moios = 60 fangas . 
Syria, garava ....... 

Genoa, la?t = 25 mines ..... 

Livorno ,, =40 sacchi= 120 staji . 

NORTHERN INDIA : 
(Grain is sold by weight.) 
Calcutta, kahun of 40 man .... 

SOUTHERN INDIA AND BURMA: 

Cambay, coyang ...... 

Madras, garsah = 20 kandi = 80 parah 

Masulipatam, garsah = 5 kandi = 400 markal 

Maisur, garsah = 521 pukkaser. 

Pondicherri, garsah = 600 markal 

Colombo, last = 75 parah .... 

Ceylon, garsah = 25 ammonam .... 

Rangoon, coy an = 100 baskets .... 

MALACCA, &c. : 

Malacca, coyang = 80 mass, or sacks 

Thai (Siam), cohi = 4O seste .... 

Thai, coyan = 80 thangsat .... 

Malacca, last = 50 mass, or sacks 

Singapore, coyang = 40 sacks, or pecul 

SUMATRA AND FORT MARLBOROUGH : 

Sumatra, coyang = 80 tub = 800 sukat 
Bencoolen and Fort M. coyang = 800 kula 
Palembang, coyang = 80 balli .... 
Acheen, coyang = i oo nelli = 800 bambu . 

JAVA, BORNEO, MOLUCCAS, CELEBES : 

Amboyna, coyang, 3000 Ibs. T. D. rice . 
Bantam ,, =2OOgantam, 8000 Ibs. T. D. 

Batavia ,, = 230 gantam, 3375 Ibs. T. D. 

SOUTH AFRICA : 

Cape of Good Hope, last = 46 balli = 230 gan- 
tang of 3200 Ibs. (Dutch Troy) of wheat 

Lasts of miscellaneous merchandise are either based on weight, as 
weight-lasts ; or on cubic measure, as shipping-tons, or lasts of measure- 
ment. For lasts of capacity used in the Baltic trade, deduce from values 
of barrels, given in the text at pp. 156 and 157. 



English 
Commercial 
Equivalent. 


English 
Scientific 
Equivalent. 


French 
Scientific 

Equivalent. 


Quarters 


Cub. ft. 


Hectols. 


11-163 


114-60 


32-449 


4-988 


51-21 


I4-5 


10-381 


106-57 


30-I75 


10-057 


103-24 


29-232 


6-004 


61-63 


17-45 


8-257 


84-76 


24 


18-025 
I9-53 


185-03 
200-49 


52-39I 
56-768 


2-196 


22-54 


6-383 


I4-44S 


148-29 


4I- 9 88 


6-595 

I7-548 


67-70 
180-26 


I9-I7 
5I-08I 


10-417 


106-93 


30-28 


11-009 


113-01 


32 


5215 
6-881 


53-54 
70-63 


15-16 
20 


12-248 


125-73 


35'60 


18-16 


186-49 


52-79 


12-166 


116-47 


^ 

35-36 


13-486 


138-44 


39'2 


6-004 


61-63 


17-45 


6-709 


68-87 


I9-5 


17-890 


183-65 


52-O 


7-819 


77-70 


22-0 


7-283 


74-73 


21-16 






1 92 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 



CHAPTER VI. 
MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 

THE classification of measures of weight into two cate- 
gories, 

1. Purely commercial, 

2. Monetary and medicinal, 

is the method most usually adopted by metrologists, and 
is also a convenient mode of separating the voluminous 
amount of and variety of weights in use throughout the 
world. 

Medicinal weights are necessarily small, so also 
are those for precious metals and precious stones, 
while the commercial weights have an enormous range, 
from the granottino of Turin, of which 165 888 went 
to a rather small pound, up to the Russian perma of 
nearly four tons, a very large unit approached by the 
Spanish cajon of about two tons, and only seriously 
exceeded by the enormous maniasa of Bhopal and 
Malwah, which vary from about 15 to nearly 22 English 
tons. 

There appears, however, never to have been any 
actual need for separate monetary and commercial sys- 
tems of weight, although the smaller subdivisions neces- 
sary to a monetary system as well as to a medicinal one 
would require an arrangement suited to the greater 
delicacy and refinement of the operations of testing 



CH. vi. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 193 

money and compounding minute quantities of drugs. 
On examining the old English monetary system of 
weight, in which the still used Troy grain was divided 
into ii 520 periots, and the periot into 24 blanks, units 
actually used and referred to in old records, the conclu- 
sion at once suggests itself that any such grain whether 
commercial or not would have answered the same pur- 
pose, apart from the disadvantages accompanying a 
change. The principle of selection is the same when 
applied to measures intended for one purpose as it is to 
another ; a unit is to be forthcoming at the points of a 
general scale where convenience demands them, and the 
secondary units in the scale must be multiples and sub- 
multiples of those units placed at other convenient 
points in the scale. A single system of measures may 
hence be made to include any multiples and submultiples 
to any degree of any one unit once determined, 
without adopting the coarse expedients either of a de- 
tached system, or of borrowing foreign-units. 

It is only very recently that the principle of sys- 
tematic uniformity has been thoroughly and entirely 
accepted in England. The old apothecaries' weight- 
system and the old Troy weight-system are now nomi- 
nally discarded, and will become really obsolete very 
shortly after some perfect mode of supplanting them is 
arranged. 

At present the Troy ounce is the marked relic of that 
system, the Canadian Government having obtained 
standards of the Troy ounce from England as late as 
1875 ; and the apothecaries' dram of 60 grains cannot 
be expected either to make way for the inconvenient 
avoirdupois dram of 27-3475 grains, or to be prac- 
tically abolished until some more perfect arrangement 

O 



194 METRICAL UNITS. PART I 

be made ; the abolition and the transition are incom- 
plete. 

The adjustment of this matter appears to involve 
much difficulty. The practical requirements are that the 
dram should consist both of some convenient submul- 
tiple of the ounce, and be some convenient multiple of 
the grain, so as to admit of halving and quartering in 
aliquot numbers. The difficulties result from the unfor- 
tunate conjunction of the binary and the septimal modes ; 
the pound is divided by one method into sixteenths or 
ounces, and those again into sixteenths, thus arriving at 
the 256th part in one mode, while the pound is also 
divided into 7000 parts or grains on another method. 
The advantages of both binary and decimal modes can- 
not be preserved in a septimal system ; the halving and 
quartering, doubling and quadrupling in a binary system 
are of practical convenience in actual weighing, while 
the decimal multiplication and division is convenient 
when dealing with far-separated units, and generally 
facilitates calculation ; the question therefore arises, 
which advantages should be preserved, and which re- 
jected. 

Considering the English system as a whole, and 
bearing in mind that the capacity-measures are binary 
throughout, a corresponding mode might appear suitable 
also in the series of weights. 

The cause of the difficulty is evidently inherent in 
the original engrafting of the Troy system on to the 
avoirdupois system, each of which were complete and 
convenient to a certain degree. 

The old Troy pound consisted of 5760 grains Troy, 
and the avoirdupois pound of 7680 grains avoirdu- 
pois ; both of these pounds were quite unnecessarily 



CH. vi. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 195 

introduced from France into England, and eventually a 
combination was effected, the avoirdupois grain was 
abolished and the avoirdupois pound was declared equal 
to 7000 grains Troy exactly ; the convenient subdivision 
of this purely accidental number 7000 in accordance with 
the traditional submultiples of either one class or the 
other is the apparent stumbling-block. 

Before the introduction of these foreign measures 
of weight, the Anglo-Saxon or real English weights 
answered every purpose, and were much superior to the 
innovations, said to have been imported by the Black 
Prince after the annexation of France. 

The Anglo-Saxon moneyer's pound, afterwards 
termed the Tower pound, consisted of 12 ounces, or 20 
shillings, or 240 pence ; and the pennyweight being 32 
grains, this pound was 7680 Anglo-Saxon grains ; the 
merchant's pound consisted of 15 such ounces or of 
9600 Anglo-Saxon grains (O'7O3I25 grs. Troy). The 
values of these pounds given in the tables are based on 
the data given in the Reports of the Warden of the 
Standards. The Anglo-Saxon ounce hence was 640 
grains, a number admitting of continuous halving down 
to 5 grains. The analogy between this subdivision of 
the merchant's pound into 9600 grains, and the existing 
subdivision of the pint into 9600 minims, affords evi- 
dence of the natural English method of suiting their 
measures to their own practical requirements, and of 
their marked preference for binary subdivision. 

The monetary weights of olden time were of much 
greater importance than the commercial weights, and 
show traces of greater care and nicety of arrangement 
The repeated weighing of money, of which much was 
debased, clipped, defective, and very irregular in form, 

o 2 



196 METRICAL UNITS. PART I. 

was then a necessity ; while at present improved coinage 
and severe penal enactment render it comparatively need- 
less, and at the same time principally confine monetary 
measures to the hands of a special and limited number 
of persons. In fact, recognition of coin and the accept- 
ance of tokens of perfect form has superseded weighing 
money as a general rule ; the scale is not now much used 
for silver coin, and though retained for gold coin it is 
perhaps not used for more than five per cent, of the 
cases where gold coin is accepted in ordinary trade of 
the country. Such a custom could never have existed 
with the pieces of money, crooked, much battered, and 
very variable, that have been handed down to us from 
antiquity, nor before the penal edicts that provide im- 
prisonment for half a life-time as the meed for making 
payment with a bad shilling, or as it is termed, uttering 
base coin. Comparatively modern experience in India 
with the rupees of native States proves the necessity for 
perpetual weighing that must have similarly been re- 
quired not only with the silver pence of the Anglo- 
Saxon period, but, if we may judge from the compara- 
tive rarity of perfect ancient pieces of money, also with 
the mass of the money of all nations in olden time. 

At present, an unknown coin is either rejected or 
valued as so much metal, and the reputed fineness of 
the coins and tokens of other countries is the basis of 
their valuation. Not only is Troy weight now unneces- 
sary, but it always was so ; for, on examining the whole 
of the old Continental monetary systems, fully three 
quarters of them were merely marc systems, in which 
the marc was exactly half a commercial pound (the 
cases in which it was two-thirds are exceptional) ; the 
marc was divided into 16 lodes, or loth, in the same 



en. vi. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 197 

way as the pound was divided into 16 ounces, and the 
commercial units were simply doubled monetary units. 
If then a unit approximating to the present avoirdupois 
ounce is not now suited to the requirements of Mint- 
officials, and a smaller unit be necessary, the adoption of 
a monetary marc of half a pound, or even merely of a 
monetary lode of half an ounce, would be sufficient for 
all purposes, provided the subdivision were also rendered 
convenient. 

The English subdivision of the Troy ounce was 

I ounce = 20 penny weights = 480 grains = 9600 mites 
and the mite was anciently divided into 

24 doits=576 periots= 13824 blanks. 

The latter series has been long discarded as un- 
necessarj', but the former part, the subdivision of the 
ounce into 9 600 parts, follows the natural and typical 
English method, formerly applied to the merchant's 
pound and still applied to the pint, that will probably 
be never improved upon for practical purposes, although 
it is inferior for purposes of very rapid calculation. 

The subdivision of the Coin loth, which was the i6th 
of the Coin marc, or Continental unit of monetary mea- 
sure, was : I loth, or lode = 4 drams or quetitchen = 1 6 
pfennig or penny weights =32 heller = 272 asschen, but 
the further division of the ass was unsystematic and 
clumsy. 

It may here be noticed that the marcs or half- 
pounds mentioned in the tables of Continental com- 
mercial pounds were not necessarily units of monetary 
weight, for in a few cases they were mere commercial 



laS METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

submultiples : besides this the term marc was frequently 
applied to a unit of fineness of metal in distinction to a 
fixed value either of commercial or monetary weight, and 
in that form was the basis of a ratio, differently ex- 
pressed for gold and for silver. A marc cannot therefore 
be invariably treated as a monetary half-pound when 
mentioned in connection with Continental systems. 

The modes of subdivision above mentioned, indicate 
practical requirements to be remembered when super- 
seding the old Troy weight by new arrangements. 
There is, however, another alternative method of arrang- 
ing new measures and their subdivision ; it consists in 
entirely ignoring all practical requirements and all the 
convenience afforded by choice of suitable unit, in 
forming a rigid decimal scale based on any unit what- 
ever taken at hazard, and depending on the chance that 
some one of the decimal sub-multiples will be near 
enough to answer any required purpose. Such a method 
is generally attributed to scientific men that are indif- 
ferent to the public convenience, and is stigmatised 
perhaps justly, as a very coarse and unscientific mode 
of doing things ; though more strictly it amounts to a 
mode of avoiding the care and thought involved in pro- 
ducing anything useful. 

The former apothecaries' weights in use in Europe 
are mentioned in the tables of medicinal systems. The 
Nuremberg medicinal pound and system of subdivision 
was that most widely adopted, in the same way as the 
Coin commercial pound was most generally used for 
mercantile purposes throughout Northern Europe. 

The special requirements of apothecaries' weight do 
not appear to vary much from those of monetary weight: 
and hence English Troy weight was apothecaries 



CH. vi. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 199 

weight for a considerable time ; there is, however, one 
practical requirement of the compounder that calls for 
attention, the connection between the weight-measure* 
and the capacity-measures. The ounce-weight should 
be the weight of a fluid ounce of water, and correspond- 
ingly also for the dram and fluid dram, grain and fluid 
grain, and any other such measures. This principle 
has been admitted in England by the modern adoption 
of the fluid ounce, and the recent adoption of the 
liquid grain measure ; at present the English apothe- 
caries' system of both weight and measure seems to 
be resolving itself into the employment of a single unit 
of weight, the grain weight, and a single unit of 
measure, the liquid grain, with their decimal multiples 
an arrangement that possesses the advantage of ex- 
treme simplicity. 

The purely commercial weights of almost all nations 
present a tolerably general similarity. Most nations pos- 
sess some sort of pound, rotl or catti, or some approximate 
double-pound, oka, ser, or small man ; and these form 
the standard units of which all others are multiples and 
sub-multiples. 

The origin of these pounds was in most cases an 
Oriental rotl of very ancient date ; and it was an unfor- 
tunate custom formerly to take the linear square and 
cubic measures of a nation from one source, while adopt- 
ing weight-units from another. In other cases the pound 
is a unit dependent on the weight of water contained in 
a cubic measure, based on some linear units of national 
measure, as in the case of the Danish pound, and the 
Prussian pound, respectively the 62nd and the 66th part 
of a cubic foot of water of local measure. 

The avoirdupois pound falls in the former of these 



200 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

classes, but its French origin cannot be distinctly as- 
signed ; and as it is not exactly the j-J-g-o of an English 
cubic foot of water, although nearly so, it is hence a 
most unfortunate and inexact unit. Even its name, 
avoirdupois, is not capable of perfect explanation ; from 
its being mentioned as a haberty-pound, it is supposed 
to have been a weight used for averia, haberties, or 
movable goods and commodities, in distinction to money 
and valuables. Its value does not indicate connection 
with the weights of the pile de Charlemagne^ or explain 
its history and derivation. Its utility in England is 
simply due to the fact that the English are now habi- 
tuated to a measure of that value ; its historic asso- 
ciations would not be injured by putting it in strict 
adjustment with cubic measure, and making it exactly 
the y^-6 Q th of a cubic foot ; and the variation introduced 
would be so small as to be unimportant in the generality 
of commercial matters, less than ^ per cent. 

An English pound on this principle would render 
the whole English series systematic. Several of the 
German pounds are degraded values of the ancient and 
historic unit, the Coin pound, while others have not their 
individual origin historically assignable. 

The metric pound of France, in use from 1812 to 
1840, was a metric approximation to the livre poids de 
marc, in use before that period, the former being half a 
kilogramme, 500 grammes ; the latter, 489-5 grammes. 
This last was divided into 2 marcs, 1 6 ounces, 128 gros, 
384 scrupules or deniers, or 9216 grains, and was sup- 
posed to be a unit belonging to the French series, de- 
nominated the pile de Charlemagne, and based on a 
yusdruma sent by the Khalif Almamun to Charlemagne, 
The actual livre esterlin of Charlemagne is reputed to 



CH. vi. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 201 

have had a value of 367*1 grammes, or 5666^ English 
grains, and to have been in value i^- marc of the French 
monetary system in the middle ages. 

On referring to the tables of former Italian pounds, 
it will be noticed that some of them either are avowed 
rottoli or happen to be indiscriminately termed libbre 
or rottoli) while the same principle holds with pounds 
of the Levant and the Mediterranean. In some of 
these places, the rottal and the pound preserve some 
aliquot ratio to each other, but this does not occur suffi- 
ciently often for the purpose of drawing any general 
conclusion. The values of these rottal> however, afford 
useful indication. Apart from one or two very excep- 
tional rottal, such as the very small one of Jidda, the 
remainder may be divided into two very marked classes, 
the large ones, of about two English pounds and up- 
wards, and the ordinary ones, about thirty-two in number, 
that group well together as approximations to the com- 
mercial pounds of Northern Europe, and to the avoirdu- 
pois pound more specially ; those of the latter group never 
approximating to the Northern marcs and monetary 
pounds. There is therefore sufficient reason for sup- 
posing that the mercantile pounds of Europe are rottals 
by origin ; the other alternative is to suppose them to 
be simply double-marcs, or augmented marcs. 

If the marc was the original unit, preserved in value 
in the form of current money through a barbarous epoch, 
and the commercial pounds were afterwards formed, when 
wanted, either by doubling it, or by adding a half to 
the monetary pound, or augmented marc (both methods 
being in vogue from Spain to North Germany), the 
origin of commercial pounds may then be entirely 
independent of Oriental derivation. 



202 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

The closeness of value of the ancient Coin marc 2 33-8 
grammes or 3608 grains Troy to the Charlemagne 
marc, 244*7 grammes, places the old French and German 
pounds in the same category as regards origin, which 
probably dated from before that period in the earlier 
ages when France was entirely overrun and occupied 
by races from Germany. The French monetary pound 
is historically assumed to have been a yusdruma or later 
Arab pound, and a corresponding connection may 
also have existed with the German pounds. There is 
hence just as much reason for believing the i^-marc 
units or monetary pounds to have been generally yus- 
druma, as for considering the 2-marc units or commercial 
pounds to have been rottals, in the vast majority of cases ; 
and both of these theories seem equally probable. 

The ordinary rottal seems to have been very widely 
adopted eastward as well as westward, going as far as 
Persia and India, being known still in Maisur and 
Travancore and Goa ; it is also possible that the tching 
of China, known to the English as the catti t was also 
either a rottal or a mina. 

The Arab units are believed to have been thus con- 
nected : 

I canthar = 44 oka= 100 rottal = 132 yusdruma. 
i yusdruma=i2 wakia (ounces) =120 dirhem 

(drachms). 

I dirhem = 4 obole = 6 danik=i2 kirat (carats) = 48 
chabba (grains). 

But there were also earlier units of the same name, but 
diversely derived, and hence of slightly different values ; 
and besides metrologists have different opinions on this 
particular subject. Taking the accepted value of the 



en. vi. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 203 

later canthar, the rottal corresponding to it must have 
been 7 238 English grains, and the yusdruma 5 483 
English grains ; but the older yusdruma is estimated to 
have been 5 666 grains, and this is the one that probably 
was a really ancient mina, and not a yusdruma in the 
strict sense, its antiquity in Almamun's time making it a 
valuable present to Charlemagne. Without prolonging 
this subject of endless discussion, it may be noticed that 
the above-mentioned Arab units of weight appear to 
have formed the basic units of weight for almost all 
nations, and to have remained so to the present day, in 
the same way as the Arabic numerical notation. The 
exceptional races that have neither an approximate oka, 
mina, rottal, yusdruma, or a cheki, are comparatively 
few, and may have some older but more specially local 
weights. There appears to have been only one fresh 
point of departure, the kilogramme des archives of un- 
known density ; while the few modified pounds of Europe, 
adapted to local cubic measure of water, corn, or other 
substance, are probably systematised approximations to 
former and more ancient pounds of the type of -the Arab 
rottal. 

Leaving the pounds and rottoli of Europe for the 
oka of the Levant, that shows its origin in its name, the 
ser and the man (called by the English the seer and the 
mun or maund) come next in order for consideration. 
First taking the Persian and present Arab man, which 
is an exceptionally small one of its name, this gene- 
rally varies from 2 to ?lbs. in value only, being a small 
multiple of the local rottal ; but there are also some 
double, royal, and special Persian man that are mere 
augmentations on the ordinary value. 

The mass of the larger seers, or ser, of India seem to 



204 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

be undoubtedly okas by origin, more especially the 
typical and common North-Indian seer of 80 rupees, 
which approximates to the oka in value. Some of the 
small local and mostly South-Indian seers were probably 
ancient units of quite another class, belonging to some 
former regime and older races ; these were, in accord- 
ance with Oriental custom, kept up and represented by 
the weight of a certain number of local current coins. 
The older races and dynasties being driven south by 
invading races from the north-west and west, the older 
seers, or kuchcha ser, are hence found in Southern India. 
They are generally nominally based on pagodas, star- 
pagodas, and curious antique rupees, some of which are 
mere lumps of pure silver with a just perceptible trace 
of a stamp of perhaps one letter of the name of some 
ancient chief. 

There is also another very marked distinction to be 
drawn between the proper or pukka ser of Northern 
India, and the small or kuchcha ser of Southern 
India. They are both units of connection between 
monetary weight and commercial weight, thus corre- 
sponding to the marc and monetary pounds of Europe, 
and hence fall in both categories as far as estimation 
and numerical calculation is concerned. But the pukka 
ser of Northern India is fairly employed and adapted to 
both purposes, so that a seer of silver, or of oil, grain, or 
of anything, is an ordinary expression, while the kuchcha 
ser of Southern India has seldom held so important a 
position as regards commercial weight, the viss of five 
kuchcha sers there being the distinctive commercial 
unit. The values of the viss are hence given in the fol- 
lowing tables in addition to those of the ser, all of which 
are collected and given together. The pussurree or 



CH. vi. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 205 

pasari, the measure of five pukka seers in Northern 
India, is the unit parallel to the viss on the other scale, 
but is comparatively seldom referred to, being a nominal 
multiple and not a distinctive unit. 

It is this change from the northern ser to the 
southern viss, or from a chosen unit of about 2^1bs. cor- 
responding to the Arab oka to another unit of about 
3 to 3-^lbs. of indigenous origin, that marks an impor- 
tant transition in system of measure. There is also a 
corresponding transition in civilisation to be noticed in 
passing from Northern to Southern India, which has 
earned for the southern provinces the appellation of 
' the realms of the benighted.' This expression of the 
idea may be an exaggeration in language, yet the actual 
facts not only remain but may be fully accounted for. 

Indian civilisation, whether considered semi-civilisa- 
tion or not, was that of Northern India as regards origin 
and historic association ; the Rajput ascendency, the 
Brahmanical supremacy, the Buddhist reactionary sway, 
and the Mughal dominion, each supported a civilisation 
of their own in Northern India for a considerable period, 
and with an important amount of homogeneity in each 
case, before being successively broken up and supplanted. 

The Dakhan, Southern India, and the two coasts, 
never received corresponding advantages to such a 
widely-spread extent ; the Telingi, Tamil, Mahratta, 
Maisur, and the Haidarabad developments were local 
and confined round certain centres, while the coasts ob- 
tained their enlightenment from a fitful commercial 
intercourse with distant nations. The permanence and 
grandeur of the northern civilisation, when pressed 
southward, was invariably frittered into fractions ; while 
the old substratum of less-expanded and more aboriginal 



206 METRICAL UNITS. PART i. 

ideas and customs remained steadfast, and was accom- 
panied by the retention of the older and more primitive 
measures in the lower part of the peninsula. 

Proceeding eastward, the Malayan and Indo-Chinese 
weights appear to be of an intermediate or mixed type ; 
as the Indian Buddhist exodus took Indian weights 
further east ; while the more purely Malayan races 
brought Chinese weights westward ; some of the weights 
hence belong to one category, some to the other, as 
regards origin, although their names may vary consider- 
ably. 

The Chinese tching or pound is the standard unit of 
weight in China, and is locally peculiar in its subdivision, 
being divided into 16 Hang or ounces ; this is in marked 
contradistinction to Chinese habits of thought, which 
are rigidly decimal. The Chinese divide anything and 
everything into fun, li, hdo, and ssa, or tenths, 
hundredths, thousandths, and myriadths, going on fur- 
ther to the infinitely small in the same way. A com- 
mon fraction is comparatively unknown to them and 
requires special explanation ; such a thing as a sixteenth 
could hardly have entered their unaided minds ; hence 
the tching and Hang must have been importations. Their 
origin may be a matter of mere surmise, but even this does 
not offer a very wide range of choice. 

The value of the tching, 1*325 Ibs., or 9275 grains 
English, may indicate some Chaldaean or early Egyptian 
mina of a large and primitive type for its source, but as all 
trace of sexagesimal subdivision, as well as of decimal sub- 
division, is missing, this objection seems almost conclusive. 
In the second place, it may have been an Arab rottal of the 
larger type introduced with and by the Moslem, and may 
have followed the same rule as the European commer- 



CH. vi. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 207 

cial pounds, being treated as 16 wakia or ounces, of 
which about 12 went to the yusdruma, although, as 
before explained, the rottals were not generally exactly 
1 6 wakia. 

Thirdly, the tching may have been a borrowed Dutch 
commercial pound of 16 ounces, augmented for increased 
size and consequent imaginary grandeur, while its 
antiquity may have been an Oriental invention ; this 
origin becomes more probable from the reason that the 
Chinese itinerary measure the pou of 10 li is believed to 
be a Dutch league. But the fact that the Chinese ///&/ 
of 100 tching corresponds proportionately to the Arab 
canthar of 100 rottal, while also any unit of 10 tching or 
10 rottal is entirely absent in both scales, may be con- 
sidered as evidence that the trio of Chinese weight, pikul, 
tching, and Hang, are derived from the Arab canthar, 
rottal, and wakia. 

The tching, when termed a catti (a word that is not 
Chinese), is a modified and an export tching used in 
foreign trade only ; the English making it exactly i^ 
pounds avoirdupois, the Dutch sometimes ij and some- 
times 1^- pounds Troy Dutch, the Spaniards 22 Cas- 
tilian ounces ; in these forms it is used all over the 
Chinese Archipelago and the Indian Ocean, in Borneo 
Sumatra, and Malacca. 

The Japanese have a national picul, tching, and 
Hang of their own, that probably were borrowed from 
China and afterwards varied from accidental fluctuation 
of standard. 

Large Units. The larger measures of weight among 
almost all nations are multiples of their standard 
units, the pounds, rottals, sers, okas, viss, and tching ; 
and hence require but little comment. The values of 



208 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

the stone, being dependent on those of the smaller units, 
may be obtained by applying the ratios given in the 
tables. The European liespfunds are units of this class. 

The Indian dharri is a stone ; it is invariably a 
quarter of a maund, but varies from 6 to 1 5 pounds in 
value. 

In Turkey, Syria, Arabia, and Persia the man or 
batman is generally a small unit corresponding to the 
stone. 

In Malacca, the capin of 10 vis is a unit near the 
value of an English foot- weight or talent. 

The English foot-weight, of I ooo millesimal ounces 
or 62*32 1 Ibs. av., may be considered an approximate half- 
hundredweight, essentially necessary in the systematisa- 
tion of the English system. (See Scientific Systems.) 

The values of the centners, centals, quintals, and 
hundredweights of Europe are given in the tables, as 
well as their ratios to their corresponding standard units. 
The English cental of 100 pounds is gradually gain- 
ing ground on the hundredweight of 112 pounds in 
external commerce, and may possibly altogether replace 
it for such purposes ; in the meantime it would be per- 
haps premature to imagine it has done so, and to give 
all tabular values in centals instead of in hundred- 
weight. 

Perhaps the most convenient mode of arranging the 
upper English weight-units would be to abolish both the 
hundredweight and the cental, and use the foot-weight 
or talent of 62-321 Ibs. as the standard unit, with a unit 
of 40 foot- weight as a ton ; thus preserving correspond- 
ence with cubic measure and the tun of capacity. 

The Levantine and Syrian cantaro is either 44 okas 
or 100 rottal, according as the oka or the rottal is con- 



CH. VI. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 209 

sidered the standard unit ; in some cases both ratios are 
preserved. The Cairene canthar of 36 okas and of 100 
local rottal is an exceptional case, probably due to the 
incorporation of older local measures with the Arab 
system. 

In Northern India, the large mun, or maund, not to 
be confounded with the small Arab and Persian mun, is 
a multiple of the proper ser, being almost invariably 40 
ser, or about 90 English pounds. In Central India, the 
Malwah mun are rather small, from 16 to 28 ser and 
upward ; but in this province the mani of 12 mun, 
varying from 3 to 5 English hundredweight, are the 
peculiar units ; in one or two cases they are merely 4 
mun. 

In Southern India the mun is comparatively small in 
value, for it generally consists of 40 nominal or kuchcha 
sers, which, as before explained, are usually small ; the 
Gujrat mun is small, but here the mauni of 12 mun, or 
480 local ser, varying from 4^ to 6 English hundred- 
weight, is also a peculiar local unit. The Malabar, Ganjam, 
and Travancore mun are small ; the more notable of the 
exceptional South Indian mun are the Bangalore mun 
of 24 rottal, the Travancore mun of 25 rottal, the Goa 
mun of 24 rottal, the Tranquebar mun of 68 Danish 
pounds, and the maunds of Allepay, Quiloa, and 
Trevandrum of 25 and of 30 olundas or Dutch pounds. 

In Southern India besides the maund there is also 
the kandi or candy, a unit much more frequently em- 
ployed in all transactions than the maund, in the same 
way as the viss is more usually adopted than the 
seer. The kandi is 20 small man, and varies from 500 to 
560 English pounds ; it is hence the large commercial 
unit in common use, corresponding to the baharvi China, 

P 



210 METRICAL UNITS. PARTI. 

Malacca, and the Malayan Archipelago, and it occasion- 
ally takes the latter name. 

The bahar of modern Arabia varies much in value ; 
the bahar of China and Malacca io 3 piculs or 300 tching 
or catti. 

Tons and lasts. The very large or nominal measures 
of weight corresponding to the English ton are units 
adopted only by nations having extensive commercial 
transactions ; the number of various tons used in the 
world is hence comparatively small, as may be seen 
from the list of them given with their values in the 
tables at the end of this chapter. 

Lasts of freight vary much with the nature of mer- 
chandise ; although those used for heavy goods are well- 
defined and invariable. 

Units far beyond the ton in value are few in number. 
The South American cajon for minerals, a case or chest 
of 50 quintals, or about two English tons (see the tables) 
is one of these ; the Russian perma of four Russian tons 
or eight packen, used for hay and similar goods, is 
another ; but the whole series of Malwah maniasa of 100 
mauni exceed them ; the highest being that of Bhopal ; 
their values range from 15 to 25 English tons, and they 
indicate a high degree of commercial development in the 
land of opium. 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



211 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS AND ANALOGOUS 
UNITS. 



GENERAL VALUES. 

England and America : the avoirdupois pound 
= 16 ounces = 7000 grains troy =128 medi- 
cinal drams = 256 commercial drams . 

An English pound = 16 millesimal ounces, each 
Y^ooth of the English foot- weight of water on 
the scientific series = 16 ooo mils = 16 ooo ooo 
doits 

Denmark : the Danish pound = ^nd part of a 
foot-weight of water at ordinary temperature 
= 2 marcs = 1 6 ounces = 32 lod = 128 qwintin 
= 512 ort 

Norway : the Danish pound, but valued thus 
according to Warden's Report for 1874-75 

Sweden : the skSlpund=i6 ounces = 32 lod = 
128 qwintin = 8848 ass ; (detached unit) 

Prussia : the Prussian pound = ith part of a 
foot-weight of water in vacuo at 15 Reau- 
mur = 2 marcs = 1 6 ounces = 32 loth =128 
quentchen = 5i2 pfennige; the half pfennig 
being also termed a heller .... 

A'^stro-Hungarian Imperial pound = 4 vierling 
= 16 ounces = 32 loth =128 quentchen = 5 1 2 
pfennige ; (detached unit) .... 

German Zoll -pound (metric) = \ kilogramme 
de la Conservatoire 

Russian Imperial pound (funt) = i2 Iana=l6 
ounces = 96 501 = 9216 doli ; (detached unit) 

France, Italy, and the Netherlands, &c. : the 
kilogramme = I cubic decimetre of water at 
0-4 Centigrade =1000 grammes 

Spain: the Castilian pound = 2 marcos = i6 
onzas =128 ochavas = 256 adarmes = 768 
tomines - 9216 granos ; (detached unit) 

P 2 



0-9988 



English 
Scientific 
Equivalen 



16-019 



16 



i-ioio I 17-637 

1-0981 I 17'691 j 0-49810 

0-9337 | 14-958 0-42354 



1-0311 16-518 



1-2347 



1-1023 
0-9028 



2 -2046 



19-779 



17-658 



14-463 



35-317 



1-0141 , 16-246 0-46000 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS, &c. 
continued. 

GENERAL VALUES continued. 

Portugal : arratel or arrate = 2 marcos = 4 

quartas=i6 onzas=i28 outavas = 384 scru- 

pulos = 92i6 graos ; (detached unit) . 
Ottoman Empire : the Stambul oka = 4 cheki 

= 400 dirhem = 6400 kirat or taim = 25600 

taim ; (detached unit) .... 

Also the Stambul rotal or lodar= 176 dirhem . 
Greece : the oka = 400 drachmata . 
Syria : the Damascus rotal = 60 wakia = 400 

mitkal = 600 dirhem 

Arabia : mekka rotal ..... 
Egypt : Cairo oka or harsela = 400 darham . 
Abyssinia : rotal or litre = 10 mocha =- 120 

darham = 12 wakia ..... 
Tunis : rotal = 16 wakia = 128 mitkal 
Algiers: rotal-attari = 16 wakia 

Morocco : rotal 

Persia : the saddarham = 6 giya = 8 danar = 16 

pinar = 20 seritahran = 100 darham = 320 

miskal 

Persia: rotal = 100 miskal .... 
Northern India: the Imperial serorseer=i6 

chattak = 80 tola or rupis = 14400 grains troy 
Also the French kilogramme .... 
Southern India : the Madras vis = 50 ounces 

avoirdupois ...... 

Also the Bombay ser = 30 paise = 4900 grains 

troy ........ 

Burma : the Rangun vis = loo tical 
Thai (Siam) chang = 80 bat = 20 tael 
Malacca tampang, or Dutch catti=ij Ibs. 

Dutch troy . . . . 
Sumatra : the English catti .... 
Java, Celebes, and Borneo : the Dutch catti . 
Mindanao and Sulu Islands : the English catti 
Manila : the Spanish catti = 22 onzas espailoles 
China : the tching= 16 Hang .... 
,, the export tching or catti = 16 taels . 
Japan : Japanese king= 160 nomme 

NOTE. These units are detached, when not expressed as cubicised. 



fij 

uw* 

Lbs. av. 


l|l 
Jjl'3 

Ounces 


I-OII9 


16-210 


2-8283 
1-2444 

3-37ii 


45-308 
19-935 
54-003 


3-9544 
i -0206 
2-7769 


63-347 
16-349 
43-704 


0-6857 
1*1104 
1-2039 
1-1.123 


10-985 
17-788 
19-286 
17-819 


3-2508 
1*0159 


52-076 
16-274 


2*0571 

2 -2046 
3-I250 


32-954 
35-317 

50-060 



0-7 


11-214 


3-3333 


53-398 


2-675 


42-852 


1-3564 


21-729 


1-3333 


21-359 


1-3564 


21-729 


1-3333 


21-359 


1-3946 


22-341 


1-3252 


21-229 


1-3333 


21-359 


i-3 


20-825 



CH. VI. 



MEASURE'S OF WEIGHT. 



213 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS, &c. 

contimud. 

FORMER, LOCAL, OR 

SPECIAL UNITS. 
ENGLAND : 

Former troy and apothecaries' pound ' = 12 oz. 
troy = 5760 grains troy = 96 drachms = 288 
scruples 

Old commercial pound used in foreign trade = 
1 6 ounces (7200 grains troy) = 10240 grains. 

Old merchants' pound =15 ounces = 25 shillings 
= 300 pence (6750 grains troy) = 9680 grains 

Old moneyers' pound 1 =12 ounces = 20 shil- 
lings = 240 pence = \\ marc = 7680 grains 
(5400 grains troy) ..... 

DENMARK AND NORWAY : 

Monetary pound,' for subdivision see commer- 
cial pound, also = 8192 as = 63536 grains . 

SWEDEN : 

Export pound and jernwigt pound = f skalpund 
Town pound, uppstadswigt = 74$os ass 
Miners' pound, bergwerkwigt = 7821^ ass 
Copper pound, rakopparwigt = 7853 ass . 
Iron-ore pound, rajernwigt= 10168 ass .. 

GERMANY : 

The Prussian pound was used in several addir 

tional places after 1816; Weimar, Silesia, 

Hesse, and Wurtemberg. The subdivision. 

of the following German pounds follows the 

Prussian type except when otherwise ex- 
pressed. (See General Values.) . 
The Coin pound used in Saxony, Lippe-Det- 

mold, and at Hamburg for retail trade 
Baden, after 1810, zoll-pfund = 10 zehnling = 

loo centass = 1000 pfennige = 10000 as ;. also 

divided into 32 loth = 128 quentchen. . 
Bavaria, from 1810 to 1872, pound = 16 unzen 
= 32 loth = 128 quentchen .... 

Bremen pound 

Brunswick pound 

Coburg pound . . . . . 
Darmstadt, zoll-pfund = 32 loth =128 quentchen 

= 512 richtpfennige 

Elsass, livre poids de marc (see France) . 

1 Monetary pounds were used for some purposes in retail trade. 



cr English 
*" Commercial 
< Equivalent 


Ounces 


o . 8229 


13-182 


I -0286 


16-477 


0-9643 


15-447 


07714 


12-358 


I -0379 


1 6-627 


0-7469 
0-7862 
0-8254 
0-8287 
I -0750 


11-965 
12-486 
13-223 
13-275 
17-189 


I-03II, 


16-518 


I -0307 


16-511 


L-I023 


17-658 


I -2346 
1-0985 
I -0302 
I-I239 


19-777 
17-596 
1&503 
17-994 


ITO23 
I -0792 


17-658 
17-288 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS, &c. 


ill 


s^I 


continued. 


fc* 6 i 


l|| 


GERMANY continued : 


W JI 


W ^w 




Lbs. av. 


Ounces 


Elsass, old pfund of Elsass for retail trade 


I -0395 


16-652 


Frankfurt-on-the-Main, wholesale pound 


I-II4O 


17-846 


,, ,, ,, retail pound 


I-03I5 


16-524 


Gotha pound 


I -0304 


16-507 


Hamburg, wholesale Ib. is the Holstein Ib. 


I -0679 


17-107 


,, retail pound is the Coin pound 


0307 


16-511 


Hanover pound ...... 


0794 


17-291 


Holstein pound ...... 


0679 


17-107 


Llibeck pound ...... 


0684 


17-114 


Mecklenburg Schwerin, wholesale pound as at 






Hamburg ....... 


0679 


17-107 


,, ,, retail Ib., aug. 5 per ct. 


1213 


17-962 


Nassau, the Wiesbaden pound 


0377 


16-624 


Nuremberg, old commercial pound. 


1244 


18-012 


,, old monetary pound . 


I -0518 


16-850 


Oldenburg, the Hamburg pound subdivided 






down to 8192 as 


I -0679 


17-107 


SWITZERLAND : 






The three pounds most commonly used were 






Zoll-pfund 


I 'IO23 


17-658 


Uri, Zug, Zurich, "1 Zurich heavy pound = i8oz. 


1-1654 


18-668 


Schwytz & Claris / Antorf light pound = 16 oz. 


I '0357 


16-592 


Arau pound = 32 loth ..... 


I-0507 


16-832 


Basel, wholesale or heavy pound = 16 ounces . 


I -0873 


17-418 


,, retail pound = 16 ounces =32 Ioth=i2& 






quentchen . . 


I-07I9 


17-171 


,, monetary pound (Prussian) = 1 6 ounces 


I-O3II 


16-518 


Berne and Neufchatel, heavy pound = 16 ounces 


1-1466 


18-368 


,, ,, light Ib. {Fr. p. de marc). 


I -0792 


17-288 


Freiberg, commercial pound = 32 loth =128 






quentchen . . ... 


1-1654 


18-668 


,, monetary pound (French p. de marc) 






St. Gall, heavy pound = 20 ounces = 40 loth . 


1-2733 


20-397 


,, light pound = 1 6 ounces = 32 loth 


I -0252 


16-422 


Geneva, heavy pound = 1 8 oz. =432 pfennige . 


I-2I4I 


19-449 


, , light pound =15 ounces = 360 pfennige 


I-OII7 


16-207 


Grisons, meat pound = 48 loth 


1-5296 


24-493 


,, fish pound = 36 loth . 


I-I47I 


18-375 


,, light pound = 32 loth 


I-OI96 


16-334 


Lucerne, pound = 36 loth = 144 quentchen 


I'lOIO 


17-637 


Schaffhausen, heavy pound = 40 loth 


I -2677 


20-307 


,, light pound = 32 loth . 


1-0141 


16-246 


Thurgau, Appenzell heavy Ib. =20 oz. =40 loth 


I -2888 


20-646 


,, light Ib. = 16 oz. =32 loth. 


1-0252 


16-422 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



21$ 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS, &c. 


fll 


$&i 


continued. 


||| 


t|| 


SWITZERLAND continued : 


CJW 


CO * 




Lbs. av. 


Dunces 


Ticino, libbra grossa = 32 ounces = 64 loth 


I-942I 


31-110 


,, libbra sottile= 12 ounces = 24 loth 


0-7283 


11-667 


Waadt, since 1822, pound =^ 5 th part of a foot- 






weight of water at 39 Fahr. = 16 oz. = 128 






gros = 5 12 pfennige = 9216 grains 


I-I023 


17-658 


NOTE. The ounces of the light and heavy 






pounds are not necessarily identical at any 






one place or canton. 






FRANCE : 






Livre metrique (1812 to 1840) = ^ kilogramme 






= 1 6 onces = 128 gros = 9216 grains . 


I-I023 


17-658 


Livre poids de marc = 2 marcs = 1 6 onces = 128 






gros = 92 1 6 grains ..... 


I -0792 


17-288 


Livre esterlin = I \ marc =12 onces = 20 sous = 






24 deniers = 4800 oboles = 5 760 grains . 


07093 


12-965 


HOLLAND AND BELGIUM : 






Amsterdam pond = i6 onsen = 32 looden= 128 






drachms = 10280 as ..... 


1*0893 


17-451 


Troy-pond, subdivided in the same way, but 






also = 320 engeln = 10240 as 


I -0850 


17-382 


Brussels shop-pound = 4 quarter =16 onsen = 
64 satin =128 gros = 92 1 6 grains . 


I-03II 


17-220 


AUSTRO-HUNGARY : 






The Imperial and the Zoll-pound (General Values] 








I '134.2 


18-169 


Buda-Pesth, old pound . . . . 


J. L 3t+* 
I-0576 


16-941 


Galicia, old Lemberg pound .... 


O-9262 


14-836 


Cracow pound = 2 marc = 1 6 ounces = 32 loth = 






48 skoykiecs ...... 


0-8949 


14-335 


Silesian old pound (subdivided as at Vienna) . 


I-I676 


18-704 


Dalmatia, Ragusa pound = f oka= 12 ounces == 






120 drachms ...... 


0-8437 


13-516 


Illyria, funto of Fiume ..... 


I-23I7 


19-731 


Tyrol, Tyrolese pound = 1 6 ounces = 32 loth . 


I -2403 


19-869 


,, Trent commercial pound 


O-74O8 


11-866 


,, Botzen heavy pound .... 


I-I045 


17-693 


,, Botzen light pound for grocery 


0-7290 


11-678 


RUSSIA : 






Imperial, commercial, and monetary ( General 






Values). 






Old Lithuanian pound ..... 


0-826I 


13-233 


Narva pound = 96 solotnik 


I-O3I8 


16-528 



216 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS, &c. 


-sis 


$< 


continued. 


if! 


m 


RUSSIA continued : 


w li 


* 




Lbs. av. 


Ounces 


Pernau pound = 16 oz. = 32 loth= 128 quenten 


0-9185 


14-713 


Revel ,, ,, ,, ,, 


0-9502 


15-221 


Riga . 


O'Q2I7 


14-764 


Warsaw, metric funt= 16 ounces = 32 loth = 48 


\J y*r A f 




skoykiecs = 9216 granikow of 8 milligrams . 


o -8940 


14-321 


,, ancient funt before 1819 . 


0-8352 


13-379 


ITALY : 






Libra metrica (since i8o3)=io oncie = 100 






grossi= i ooo denari = I oooo grani 


2 -2046 


35-317 


Ancona, lira commerciale = 12 oncie 


0-7293 


11-683 


Belluna, libbra peso grosso .... 


I-I39I 


18-248 


sottile .... 


0-6640 


10-637 


Bergamo, lira = 30 oncie = 720 denari =17280 






grani 


i 7973 


28-792 


Bergamo, Iiretta=i2 oncie = 288 denari 6912 








0*7180 


11-517 


Bologna, libbra = 12 oncie = 96 ottave = 192 


\j i i_>y 




ferlini = 1920 carati = 7680 grani . 


0-7981 


12-785 


Brescia, libbra commerciale .... 


07077 


11-337 


Como, libbra 


0-6839 


10-955 


Cremona, libbra commerciale 


0-6812 


10-913 


Ferrara ,, , ,, = 12 oncie . 


0-7625 


12-214 


,, the monetary pound was that of Rome. 






Genoa, peso grosso = 12 oncie 


07686 


12-313 


,, libbra peso scarso = rottolo =12 oncie 


0-6989 


11-195 


,, , "1 rottolo ordinario = 30 oncie 


1 7502 


28-037 


J 360 trapesi .... 


0-7072 


11-328 


Milan, libbra peso grosso = 4 quarti = 28 oncie 


1-6811 


26-931 


,, ,, ,, sottile = 12 oncie = 6912 






grani 


0-7205 


11-542 


Modena, lira =12 oncie =192 ferlini 


07500 


12-015 


Monetary pound was that of Bologna. 






Naples, rottolo of commerce = 2 Ibs. = 33! 








i -064'? 


31-467 


Naples, monetary libbra =12 oncie = 360 tra- 


?^^3 




pesi = 7 200 acini ..... 


0-7072 


11-328 


Padua and 1 libbra peso grosso = 12 oncie 


I ^726 


17-182 


Vicenza / ,, sottile =12 ,, 


0-7472 


11-969 


Parma, libbra = 12 oncie = 288 denari = 6912 






grani 


07196 


11-527 


Piacenza, libbra = 12 oncie = 288 denari = 69 12 








O-7OII 


11-231 


Piedmont, Turin libbra = i marc= 12 ounces 






= c6 ottavi = 69i2 grani = 165888 granatini . 


0-8I3I 


13-027 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS, &c. 
continued. 

ITALY continued : 

Reggio, libbra ...... 

Rome =12 oncie = 288 denari = 6912 

grani . . . .... 

Rovigo, libbra peso grosso .... 

,, ,, ,, sottile .... 

Sardinia ,, =12 oncie . 
Sicily, Neapolitan pound =12 oncie 

,, old Sicilian pound =12 oncie = 5760 

cocci. ....... 

Tuscany, libbra =12 oncie = 96 drachme = 69 1 2 

grani 

Tuscany, Livorno rottolo = 3 libbre = 36 oncie . 
Venice, libbra peso grosso = 2 marc = 72 sazi 

= 2304 carati 

Venice, libbra peso sottile = 1 2 oncie = 72 sazi 

= 1728 carati ...... 

Verona, libbra peso grosso = 12 oncie =192 

mezetti 

Verona, libbra peso sottile =12 oncie =192 

mezetti 

SPAIN : 

Castile and Leon, libra castillana (general) 

Aragon, libra pensil=i| marcos =12 onzas = 
48 quartos =192 adarmes = 6144 granos 

Asturias, libra mayor = 3 marcos = 24 onzas cast. 
, , , , menor = libra castillana. 

Cataluna, Majorca and Minorca, libra = i| 
marcos =12 onzas = 48 quartos =192 arienzos 
= 6912 granos ...... 

Galicia, libra gruesa or gallega = 2O onzas 

, , , , sutil = libra castillana = 1 6 onzas. 

Grenada, old libra mayor .... 
,, menor .... 

Iviza, libra 

Murcia ,, . . 

Navarra, libra = 2 marcos = 16 onzas =17 
onzas cast., divided in the Castilian manner 

San Lucar, libra 

San Sebastian, libra = i *o6 libra castillana 

Tortosa (Spain) libra ..... 

Valencia, libra mayor = 18 onzas . 

, , , , menor =12 onzas (Castilian sub- 
division) 

Valencia, libra for saffron and chocolate =16 
onzas ....... 

Valencia for bread and meat 36 onzas . 

Canary Islands, libra castillana. 



Ill 


l|| 


Lbs. av. 
0-7165 


Ounces 

11-477 


T '5 23 
0-6645 

0-8963 
0-7072 


11-976 
16-857 
10-644 
14-356 
11-328 


07001 


11-215 


0-7486 
2*2457 


11-992 
35-975 


1-0517 


16-848 


0*6643 


10-641 


1*1019 


17-651 


0*7346 


11-768 


1-0141 


16-246 


07716 
1*5212 


12-361 
24-369 


0*8818 
i -2703 


14-127 
20-350 


1*1018 
0-9793 
i -0207 
0*9586 


17-649 
15-688 
16-352 
15-356 


i -0787 
i -0450 
i -0759 
0-6716 
1*1751 


17-280 
16-613 
17-234 
10-759 
18-824 


07834 


12-540 


2*3501 


16-732 
37-648 



2lS 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS, &c. 
continued. 

SOUTH AMERICA, MANILA, &c. : 
The Castilian pound. (See General Values.) 

BRAZIL, MADEIRA, GOA, &c. : 
The Portuguese arratel. (See General Values.) 

IONIAN ISLANDS, GREECE, &c. : 
The pound avoirdupois .... 

The Venetian libra peso grosso 

,, marc = libra .... 

Patras, pound = \ oka = 12 oz. = 133! drachma . 

, , silk pound 15 ounces 
Morea, pound = f oka = Venetian libra p. g. . 
Malta, monetary lira = f rottolo = 12 oncie 

INDIA AND THE ANTILLES : 
Cannanor, pound = 4 pollam = 4O Surat rupis . 
Cochin ,, =42| Surat rupis . 

Ceylon, pound avoirdupois .... 
Ceylon, formerly the Dutch troy pound . 
Antilles (French) livre poids de marc 
Cura9ao, old pound ..... 
Saint Croix, the Danish pound 



ill 


111 


-I! 


*w 


Lbs. av. 


Ounces 


I 


16-019 


1-0517 
070II 


16-848 
11-232 


0-8810 


14-114 


I-IOI3 


17-642 


1-0517 


16-848 


0-6980 


11-181 


I-O227 


16-383 


I -0867 


17-408 


I 


16-019 


I -0850 


17-332 


1-0792 


17-288 


I-I7I3 


18-764 


I-IOIO 


17-637 



The Rotal, Lodar, and Cheki. 

For the Italian rottoli see the Italian pounds 
(p. 216). The Portuguese rotal is given 
among the General Values. 

Balearic Islands, rottolo = 3 libras = 36 onzas . 

Malta, rottolo = 2| lire = 30 oncie . 
, , , , gro?so = 2| lire = 33 oncie . 

Cyprus ,, = 12 ounces = 7 50 drachms 

OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND GREECE 
Stambul, rotal or lodar = 1 76 dirhem 

,, cheki or yusdruma=ioo dirhem = 
1600 karat or taim = 66| mitkal . 
Stambul, opium cheki = 250 dirhem 

Rhodes, rotolo 

Scio 

Candia 

The Wallachian litre = Stambul cheki 
Patras, rotolo or pound = \ oka 
Negropont, rotolo . ... 

Mistra ,, . . . . . 

SYRIA : - 
Acra, rotal for raw cotton, and general use 



2-6454 
1-7450 
1-9195 

5' 2441 


42-381 
27-953 
30-748 
84-007 


I-2OOO 
0-79150 
0-87065 
2-37868 


1-2444 


19-935 


0-56447 


0-7071 
1-7677 

5 '2744 
i -0925 
1-1656 


11-327 
28-317 
84-493 
17-500 
18-672 


0-32073 

0-80181 
2-39245 

Q'49553 
0-52869 


0-8810 
i -1802 
0-9969 


14-114 
18-905 
15-969 


0-39963 

0'5353i 
0-45218 


4-8652 


77-937 


2-20682 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



219 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS, &c. 


sU 


S.I I 


continued. 


til 


|j| 


SYRIA continued : 


W JI 


We *ff 




Lbs. av. 


Ounces 


Acra, rotal for spun cotton .... 


4-4909 


71-942 


Aleppo and Alexandretta, rotal = i oka =12 






ounces = 720 darham ..... 


5*0266 


80-523 


Aleppo, rotal for Syrian silk = 700 darham 


4-8870 


78-286 


,, ,, Persian ,, =680 ,, 


47472 


76-049 


,, ,, drugs =600 ,, 


4-1889 


67-103 


Damascus, rotal = 60 wakia = 400 mitkal = 600 








3 'QZAA. 


63-347 


Smyrna, rotal or lodar= 180 darham 


I-2746 


20-419 


,, cheki = \ oka= 100 ,, 


0-708I 


11-344 


,, opium cheki =250 >, 


1-7703 


28-360 


Tripoli, small rotal = \\ oka = 600 darham 


4-0053 


64-162 


,, large ,, = if =720 


4-8063 


76-994 


Said (Sidon), the rotal for ordinary trade 


5 <2 537 


84-161 


, , the silk rotal = 600 darham 


4-1081 


65-810 


ARABIA : 






Mekka and Medina, rotal .... 


i 0206 


16-349 


Mokha, rotal =15 vakia . 


I c 


24-029 


,, coffee rotal = 14! vakia 


J '45 


23-228 


Betelfaghi, rotal =15 vakia .... 


1-0194 


16-330 


,, coffee rotal = 14! vakia . 


0-9854 


15-786 


,, rotal for dates, iron, &c. = 16 vakia 


i -0874 


17-419 


Jidda, rotal = 15 vakia 


0-3660 


5-863 


EGYPT AND ABYSSINIA : 






Alexandria, rotal = 144 dirham 


0-9678 


15-503 


Cairo, rotal = 12 vakia =144 dirham 


0-9499 


15-217 


Abyssinian rotal or litar= 10 mokha= 12 vakia 






144 dirham ...... 


O-68S7 


10-985 


BARBARY, TUNIS, AND MOROCCO : 


w u "j/ 




Tunis, rotal = 16 vakia = 128 mitkal 


1-1104 


17-788 


Tripoli ,, = 16 ,, =160 darham = 2560 






kharuba ....... 


i -0970 


17-574 


Fez, rotal . 


1-0370 


16-613 


Tangiers, rotal ...... 


i -0608 


16-993 


Tetuan ,, ...... 




25-047 


Morocco, small rotal ..... 


1-1123 


17-819 


,, large ,, = i| small rotal 


i -6685 


26-728 


Mogador, rotal = 20 piastres espanoles . 


1-1865 


19-007 


ALGIERS : 






Rotal feudi (monetary) = 16 vakia 


i -0966 


17-568 


,, attari (ordinary) = 16 ,, 


i -2039 


19-286 


,, kebir = i| rotal attari = 24 vakia 


i -6450 


28-929 


Oran rotal ....... 


1-1107 


17-793 



220 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



COMMERCIAL POUNDS, &c. 
continued. 


-dig' 

Hi 


English 
Scientific 
Equivalent. 


GUINEA : 


OM 

Lbs. av. 


m 
Ounces 


Benda = 8 piso= 16 agirac .... 


0-1414 


2-265 


PERSIA AND INDIA : 






Persian rotal = i oo miskal 


I-OI59 


16-274 


Maisur rotal =40 rupis= i| Bangalur ser . 


I-0062 


16-118 


Travancor rotal or putur = ^ tulam 


0-9959 


15-954 


,, another rotal = ^ man . 


I -0010 


16-035 


,, Colachi rotal = 5 pollam = 1350 man 






jandi 


0-752I 


12-048 


EASTERN ASIA : 






The Tching or Catti. 






China, tching = 16 liang = 160 tchen = 1600 






fun = 16000 li 


1-3252 


21-229 


China, export tching, or Anglo-Chinese catti 






= 1 6 tael = 1 60 maces = 1600 condorin = 






16000 cash : also for Japanese export . 


"i '3333 


21-359 


Used also at Singapur, Sumatra, Camboja, 






Moluccas, Mindanao, and Sulu Islands 






Dutch-Chinese catti = \\ pounds, Dutch troy, 






used in Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Celebes, and 






Malacca : also termed a tampang 


I-3564 


21-729 


Hispano-Chinese catti = 22 onzas espanoles, 






used at Manila, and in the Philippines 


3946 


22-341 


Malacca, catti = 16 tael . . 


3500 


21-626 


Molucca catti = i| Ibs. Dutch troy (Amboyna) . 


3022 


20-860 




6211 


25-969 


Anam, kan= 16 luong= 160 dong . 


375 


22-027 


Mocamoco, catti = 16 tael = 24 ringit 


4583 


23-361 


Acheen, catti = 20 bunkal = 100 tael 


2-1171 


33-915 


Malacca, monetary catti = 20 bunkal 


2-0491 


32-825 


Singapur ,, =20 ,, 


2-3768 


38-075 


Japan, king = 1 60 nomme . 


1-3000 


20-825 


,, the king is also estimated to be equal 






to the Anglo-Chinese catti .... 






Thai (Siam), chang or ching = 80 bat 


2-6750 


42-852 


Manila, the tola for gold = 10 piastres 


0-5966 


9-558 


,, ,, silk = 11 piastres, or ounces 


0-6563 


10-513 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



221 



ORIENTAL DOUBLE POUNDS. 


ja-ol ' 


*&i 




**"* & *rt 


'-ipl 


The Oka, Okijah, and Large Wakia. 


M 8 '3 




EASTERN EUROPE : 


W cr 
CJW 


Wc ^w 





Lbs. av. 


Ounces 


Hungarian oka = 2\ pounds = 400 dirham 


27778 


44-499 


Moldavian, or Galatz oka .... 


2-8660 


45-912 


Wallachian, or Ibrahil oka .... 


2-8660 


45-912 


Dalmatian, or Ragusa oka = 3^ pounds = 42 






ounces = 420 drachms .... 


2-9527 


47-300 


Ionian Islands, oka = 2-7 Ibs. = 400 drachms . 


27 


43-252 


Cyprus, oka = 400 drachms .... 


27968 


44-803 


TURKEY : 






Stambul, oka = 4 cheki = 400 dirham 


2-8283 


45-308 


Candia, oka = 2 j\ rotal = 400 drachms 


2-6491 


42-436 


GREECE : 






Greek oka = 400 drachms .... 


S'37 11 


54-003 


Patras and Morea, oka = 3 pounds = 36 ounces 


1 

> 2 '643 1 


42-341 


Also the Stambul oka . 


J 




SYRIA : 






Aleppo, oka = 400 drachms .... 


27925 


44-734 


Smyrna ,, = 4 cheki = 400 drachms 


2-8325 


45-375 


Tripoli ,, =400 drachms . . . . 


2-6702 


42-775 


MESOPOTAMIA : 






Bagdad and Bussara, oka = 400 drachms 


2-7425 


43-934 




. .8228 


77-418 




I -1665 


18-586 


EGYPT AND BARBARY : 






Alexandrian oka = 400 drams 


2-7282 


43-704 


Cairo, oka or harsela = 2| rotal = 400 drams 


2-7769 


44-485 


Tripoli, oka = 2| rotal = 400 darham 


27425 


43-934 


PERSIA : 






The Saddirham = 8 danar= 100 dirham . 


3-2508 


52-076 


Persian wakia = 90 miskal = 4 nimmih 


0-9143 


14-646 


The Ser, or Seer. 






Indian Imperial ser = 16 chattak = 80 rupis 






weight = 14400 troy grains . 
A double pound of 32 millesimal ounces of the 


2-0571 


32-954 


English scientific series .... 


I -9976 


32 


The French kilogramme (used as a ser) . 


2-2046 


35-317 



222 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



ORIENTAL DOUBLE POUNDS 


.elas 


** 


continued. 


III 


Tjjg i> 

I'll 


NORTH INDIAN UNITS (or 


"It 


H ^l 


proper sers) : 


Lbs. av. 


Ounces 


Allahabad and Lakhnau, ser = 96 sicca . 


2-4640 


39-473 


Balasur (Orissa), ser= 1 6 chattak . 


I '8906 


30-288 


Bauleah and Serampur, ser=i6 chattak = 60 








I '54OO 


24-666 


Banaras, ser of 105 rupi of Benares 


2-6250 


42-050 


96 J5 


2-4000 


38-446 


Bhopal (Malwa) ser = 80 rupi 


I-9286 


30-895 


Calcutta, bazar ser ..... 


2-0533 


32-892 


,, factory ser = 8o sicca = 16 chattak 


I -8667 


29-903 


Calp! and Etawah (Agra) ser= 16 ,, . 1 
, , Khaus-ser for sugar and metal . . j 


2-I2II 


33-978 


,, Raipur-ser, retail .... 


2-3750 


38-046 


,, ,, wholesale .... 


2-53I3 


40-550 


Dakka, ser =16 chattak .... 


2*0469 


32-790 


Hughli =16 ,, 


2-1047 


33-716 


Indor ,, =82 Ujjain rupi .... 


2-0266 


32-387 


Malda ,, =100 Bengal sicca 


2-5625 


41-050 


Malwah, or Bunswara ser = 84 Salimshahi rupi 


2-0250 


32-439 


Mirzapur, ser = 84 Bengal sicca 


2-1560 


34-538 


Patna, many ser units, the principal one is ser 






= 80 sicca ...... 


2-0566 


32-945 


Pertabghur, ser = 80 Salimshahi rupi 


I -9286 


30-895 


Ujjain, ser = 80 rupis= 16 chattak . 


I-977I 


31-672 


SOUTH INDIAN UNITS (mostly 






kachcha sers) : 






Ahmadnagar, commercial ser = 80 Ankosi rupi 


I-97I4 


31-577 


,, goldsmiths' ser = 24 tola . 


0'6453 


10-337 


Bangalur, kachcha ser = 24 Arcot rupi . 


0-6035 


9-668 


,, pakka ser = 84 ,, 


2TI32 


33-852 


Ballari, commercial ser = 21 Maisur rupi 


0-5288 


8-471 


Baroda, ser = 42 Babashahi rupi 


I-0620 


17-009 


Belgaum and Shahpir, ser = 24 Shahpir rupi . 


0-5966 


9-557 


Bombay goldsmiths' ser = 24 tola . 


0-6I37 


9-831 


,, and Surat, commercial ser = 30 paise 






(pice) . . .... 


0-7 


11-212 


Haidarabad, Dakkan, ser = 80 rupi 


1-9851 


31-800 


Madras, native ser = 80 pagoda = 8 pollam 


0-6028 


9-657 


Anglo-Madras ser= 10 ounces avoirdupois 


0-6250 


10-012 


Puna, commercial ser = 72 tola 


I-97I4 


31-577 


Telicherri and Calicut, ser = 20 Surat rupi 


0-5II4 


8-192 


Trichinopalli, metal ser . . 


0*5954 


9-538 


,, retail ,, = 243 star pagodas . 


I -9060 


30-533 


, , wholesale ser = 270 star pagodas 


2-II78 


33-926 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



223 



ORIENTAL TRIPLE-POUNDS. 


fjj 


III 


1|| 


The Vis t PanJ-ser, or Passari. 


W |w 


"coj 1 


^Jf 




Lbs. av. 


Ounces 


Kilog. 


The panj-ser of Northern India is a mere term 








for 5 proper sers. The passari of Central 








India is generally 5 sers, but at Bhilsa is 6 
sers, at Bhopal 6| sers, and at Omutwara is 








3 sers. 








SOUTHERN INDIA : 








Bangalur, vis = 5 ser kachcha 


3'Ol89 


48-361 


1-3694 


= 5~ >i ' 


3-I698 


50-778 


1-4378 


Ballari, panchaser = 6 ser .... 


3-I725 


51-025 


1-4390 


Seringapatam, panchser = 5 ser 


3-0343 


48-608 


I-3763 


Surat, panseri = 5 ser 


4-6875 


75-091 


2-I262 


Madras, indigenous vis = 400 pagodas = 5 ser . 


3-0143 


48-287 


I -3673 


,, Anglo ,, =5 ser = 50 ounces av. 


3-1250 


50-060 


I-4I75 


Masulipatam, vis = 5 ser = 450 pagodas . 
Pondicherri , , = 3 pounds, poids de marc . 


3-5I56 


56-318 
51-853 


1-5947 
I -4682 


Trichinopalli ,, =5 (metal) ser, nearly . 


3 


48-058 


1-3608 


BURMA AND MALACCA : 








Rangun, vis= 100 tical= 10000 mus 


3-3333 


53-398 


I-5I20 


Pegu ,, =100 ,, =10000 ,, - 4 agito 








= 8 abuco 450 pagodas .... 


3-3929 


54-352 


1-5390 


Tocopa, vis = 4 put= 12 pinga 


5-9500 


95-315 


2 "6989 


Janselon, vis = 4 put ..... 


6-0667 


97-184 


27518 


SUMATRA &c. : 








Sinkel, catti-utan = 3 English cattis 


4 


64-077 


I-8I44 


,, ,, for camphor 


3-8400 


61-514 


I-74I8 


,, ,, for benzoin 


3-5 


56-068 


I-5876 


Banda ,, 


6-10 


97-721 


2-7669 



THE STONE AND THE LIESPFUND. 
Ratios to the Commercial Pound for both General and Former Local Units. 



England : ordinary stone 
,, For meat or fish 

For glass 



Local Ibs. 
. 14 
8 



Sweden : sten . . -32 

,, lispund for iron . 1 6 

,, ,, or ordinary . 20 

GERMANY : 

Berlin, stein, light . . . n 

,, ,, heavy . . 22 



Local Ibs. 
GERMANY continued : 

Berlin, liespfund . . . i6| 

,, ,, formerly . 14 

Baden, stein. . . .10 

Bavaria ,, . . . .20 

Bremen ,, light (wool) . 10 

Bremen, stein, heavy (flax) . 20 

,, liespfund (light) . 14 

(heavy) . 14* 

Breslau, stein . . .22 

laep ... 24 

Brunswick, stein, 10, 1 1, 20 or 22 



224 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



THE STONE AND THE LIESPFUND continued. 



Local Ibs. 

GERMANY continued : 
Brunswick liespfund 
Cassel, kleuder (wool) 
Danzig, stein (sugar, rice, sirup) 
,, ,, (flax, hemp, cord) 
,, liespfund (Prussian). 
Frankfurt on Main, stein 
Hamburg, stein (flax) 

,, (wool, feathers) 
liespfund . 

(freight) . 
Hanover, stein (wool) 

,, (flax and hemp) 
liespfund , 
Holstein ,, 
Koenigsberg, stein (light) 

,, (heavy) . 

,, liespfund, Prussian. 

Lubeck, stein (wool, feathers) . 

(flax) 
,, liespfund (ordinary) . 

(freight) 

Mecklenburg, stein (light) 
,, (heavy) 

, , liespfund (ordin. ) 

(freight) 

Oldenburg, stein (wool, feathers) 
,, liespfund 

The values may be reduced 



Local Ibs. 

GERMANY continued : 



14 


Oldenburg stein (flax) 


20 


21 


Saxony, stein .... 


22 


22 

33 


SWITZERLAND : 






Zug, stein .... 


4i 


22 


HOLLAND AND BELGIUM 


._ 


2O 
IO 


Amsterdam, steen . 


8 


14 


,, lyspond 


IS 


16 


Brussels, sten 


8 


IO 


AUSTRO-HUNGARY : 




20 


Vienna, stein .... 


20 


I 4 


,, ,, (also) 


22 


14 


Bohemia ,, 


20 


20 


Cracow, kamieneck 


25 


33 


(old) 


32 


IO 


(also) 


24 


20 


RUSSIA : 




14 


Imperial pud in Imperial runt . 


4 


16 


Local pud in local funt . 


4 


ii 


Warsaw, kamieneck 


25 


22 


,, ,, (wool) . 


32 


14 


Narva, liespfund 


20 


16 


Pernau ,, 


2O 


10 


Riga ... 


20 


'4* 


Revel ,, ... 


2O 



from those of the pounds. 



ORIENTAL STONES. 
The Smaller Mun, Man, or Batman. 
OTTOMAN EMPIRE: 

Turkish and Syrian man = 6 local oka. 
Arabian man, generally = 2 ,, rotal. 
But the Jidda man = 5 Jidda rotal. 

PERSIA : 

Man i tabriz = 40 sir i tahran = 640 miskal 
,, shiraz = 6o ,, shiraz =720 ,, 
,, bushahr=i6 giya =768 ,, 
,, shah = 4 saddirham = 400 dirham . 

INDIA : 
The Dharri or Dhadda. 

The dharri or dhaddha is an expression foi the quarter of an Indian man or 
inun : the dassari is ten seers. 



6-5017 

7-3I44 

7-8020 

13-0034 



104-153 
117-172 
124-983 
208306 



2-9491 
3-3I78 



5-8982 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



225 



QUARTERS AND ANALOGOUS UNITS. 



ti 

ENGLAND AND AMERICA : Lbs?av. 
The English quarter (weight-unit) is the quarter 
of the hundredweight. The American quarter 
(weight -unit) is the quarter of the cental. 


=> ^ English 
^ ^ Scientific 
r Equivalent. 


M H French 
4 g* Scientific 
w Equivalent. 




0-4005 


1 1 *34O 


The half of the commercial talent or foot-wt. . 31 *l6l 
The half of the talent or foot-weight of the 
Scientific series . ..... 31-212 

The arroba. 
SPAIN : 
The Spanish arroba (weight-unit) is the quarter 
of the quintal. 
Castilian arroba = 25 libras castillanas . . 25-353 
Alicante ordinaria = 36 libras menores 28*254 
granesa =30 23-545 
Aragon = 36 libras menores . . 27778 
Cataluna =26 ,, . . . 22-928 
Galicia % =25 gallegas . . 31-758 
Valencia ordinaria = 36 libras menores 28-254 
delgada =30 23*545 
(for flour) = 32 25*115 
Canaries = 25 libras castillanas . . 25*353 
Majorca j g 


0-4992 
0-5 

0-4061 
0-4526 
0-3772 
0-4450 
0-3673 
0-5088 
0-4526 
0-3772 
0-4023 
0-4061 

0-3673 


I4'I34 
14*158 

11*500 
12-816 
10-680 
12*600 
10*400 

12*816 
10*680 
11-392 
1 1 -500 

10*400 


Gibraltar ,, =25 ,, . . . . 25*435 
Buenos Ayres, Chili, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, 
La Havana, Manila, the Castilian arroba . 25*353 

PORTUGAL : 

The Portuguese arroba (weight-unit) is the 
quarter of the quintal. 
Lisbon, arroba = 32 arrateis .... 32-381 
Brazil and Goa, the Lisbon arroba. 


0-4075 
0-4061 

0-5187 


"'537 
11*500 

14-688 



226 



METRICAL UNITS. 



FART I. 



The kachcha man. 

SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL INDIA : 
The kachcha man = 40 kachcha ser (see Sers) 
in some cases 8 vis. 

The exceptions were the following : 

CENTRAL INDIA : 

Bhilsa, man = 48 ser . 

Indor, kachcha man = 20 ser 

Mandissor, man = 1 5 ser 

Omatwara, man = 28 ser .... 

Pertabghur, man = 20 ,, .... 

Rutlam, Malwah, and Banswara, man = 20 ser 

Ujjen, man = 1 6^ ser ..... 

SOUTHERN INDIA : 

Baroda, 1 man = 42 ser . 

Belgaum, man = 44 ser .... 

Ballari, man = 48 ser . 

Bombay, ! man, for arrack = 50 ser 

Calicut, man = 34 pounds = 60 ser 

Cannanor, man = 30 pounds = 60 ser 

Carwar. man = 42 ser . 

Cochin, man = 30 pounds 

Colachi, man = 30 rotal .... 

Darwar, man, for liquids = 48 ser . 

Goa, man = 24 rotal = 24! pounds avoir. 

Jamkhair, ' man (dry) = 64 ser 

Pallamkatta, man = 2 tulam = 200 pullam 

Puna, * besides a man of 40 ser, there are five. 

Surat, 1 besides a man of 40 ser there are 

several. 

Telichery, man = 32 pounds = 64 ser 
Tranquebar, man = 68 Danish pounds . 
Travankor, man = 25 olundas for metals and 

sugar . 

Travankor, also a man = 30 olundas (general) 

, , man = 25 putur or rotal 

Trichinopalli, man = 8| vis = 25 pounds av. . 

In several places a special man for cotton of 42 ser (local) was commonly 
used ; and occasionally also a man of 40 ser ( ' ) in addition to the man 
given in the table. 



ill 


III 


Cwt. 


Fwt. 


0-8204 


1-4720 


0-3619 


0-6493 


0-2970 


0-5329 


0-4880 


0-8756 


0-3431 


0-6179 


0-3616 


0-6488 


0-2979 


0-5345 


0-3983 


0-7145 


0-2344 


0-4205 


0-2266 


0-4066 


0-6850 


1-2289 


O-62IO 


0-5571 


0-2740 


0-4916 


0-230I 


0-4059 


0-2911 


0-4352 


O-2OI5 


0-3615 


0-2204 


0-3955 


O-22IO 


0-3965 


I-3I82 


2-3651 


0-2232 


0-4005 


O-2922 


0-5244 


0-6685 


1-1991 


0-2443 


0-4383 


0-293I 


0-5259 


0-2235 


0-4009 


0-2232 


0-4005 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



227 



THE FOOT-WEIGHT OR TALENT (fwt.\ 



ENGLAND : 

The commercial foot -weight, or talent, being 
the weight of an English cubic foot of 
distilled water at 62 Fahr. in air, by 
standard constructed and legalised in 1859 
for Great Britain 

The scientific foot-weight at 32 Fahr. 
water at 39 Fahr. in vacuo; in corre- 
spondence with the French standard 
method) = 1000 millesimal or English 
ounces = I million mils = I billion doits, j 
on the English scientific system, = ] 
28-315 311 931 kilogrammes 

FRANCE : 

The kilogramme, theoretically the weight") 
of a cubic decimetre at o Cent, of water 
in vacuo at 4 Cent. =2-20462125, 
pounds, av. ; since 1864 = 35-316580740^ 2 ' 2 46 
millesimal ounces English. Its old value 
was 2-204 857 14 Ibs. av. J 



*%i 


S.41J 


s^l 


pi 
wig. 

cjy 


Isl 
SBS 


fe ^w 


Lbs. av. 


Fwt. 


Kilog. 


62-3210 

I 


0-9983 


28-2686 


1 
62-4245 


1- 


28-3153 


1 






1 






J 
1 







VARIOUS NOMINAL ENGLISH UNITS. 



Truss of straw . 

,, ne\v hay 

,, old ,, (Sept. 
Tod of wool . 
Barrel of anchovies . 
Pocket of wool . 

malt . 
Seam of glass . 



Lbs. av. 






Lbs. av. 


I 


Barrel of gunpowder 
stockfish 





. 100 
IOO 


56 




raisins . 





. 112 


28 




candles 




I2O 


30 




flour . 


, 


. 1 9 6 


I2O 




butter = 4 firkins 


. 224 


140 




soap =4 


it 


. 256 


1 2O 


Faggot of steel . 




. 120 


Q 2 







228 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



HUNDREDWEIGHTS AND ANALOGOUS 
UNITS. 



GENERAL VALUES. 



112 pounds 



=100 



= loo kilog. 



The English hundredweight . 

The ,, cental 

The American hundredweight / 

The Zollverein metric centner = 100 ,, 

The Prussian centner . . =110 ,, 

The Danish and Norwegian 

centner .... = 100 ,, 

The Swedish centner . . =120 ,, 

The Austrian ,, . . = 100 ,, 

For Russian centners see Local Values, 
p. 230. See also imperial berkowitz, 
under Loads, p. 234. 

The French metric quintal . 

The Italian centinajo = 10 
rubbi .... 

The Nederlandsche centenaar 

Switzerland: the Waadt quin- 
tal = 100 pounds 

Spain: the Castilian quintal . = 100 ,, 

Portugal : the Lisbon ,, . =128 ,, 

Ottoman Empire : the Stam- 
bul cantar . . . = 100 rotl 

Egypt : the Cairo cantar * = 100 ,, 

Algiers : kantar attari = 100 ,, 

Persia : the man i hasham = 16 man i bushahr 
the man or maund . = 40 ser 
the picul . . = loo tching 
,, the export picul = 100 English catti 
,, the Dutch ,, = 100 Dutch ,, 

Japan : the tan or picul . = 100 king 



= loo 
= loo 



India : 
China 



.=!' 


all 


Ill 


111 


w o o 1 




UW 


M 


Cwt. 


Fwt. 


I 


1-7942 


0-8929 


1-6019 


0-9842 


1-7658 


I-OI27 


1-8170 


0-9830 


1-7637 


1-0004 


1-7950 


I-0756 


1-9779 


I -9684 


3-5317 


0-9842 


1-7658 


0-9055 


1-6246 


1-1565 


2-0749 


I-III2 


1-9935 


0-8481 


1-5217 


I -0749 


1-9286 


I-H46 


1-9997 


0-7347 


1-3182 


1-1832 


2-1229 


1-1905 


2-1359 


1-2093 


2-1729 


1-1607 


2-0825 



LOCAL, FORMER, 

GERMANY : 
The Zollverein metric centner = 



AND SPECIAL VALUES. 



Altenburg centner 
Baden ,, 



10 s'em 



= loo pounds 
= 110 ,, 

= IOO 



0-9842 

I -0104 
0-9842 



1-7658 
1-8128 
1-7658 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



HUNDREDWEIGHTS, &c. 
continued. 


j|j 


i 


GERMANY continued : 


Cwt. 


Fwt. 


Bavarian centner = 5 stein . = 100 pounds 


I-IO23 


1-9777 


Rhenish-Bavaria, centner . = 100 kilog. 


1-9684 


3-5317 


Bremen, centner . . . =116 pounds 


I-I377 


2-0412 


Brunswick, centner . . =114 


I -0486 


1-8814 


Cassel ,, . . =108 


I -0294 


1-8470 


Coburg ,, . =110 


1-1039 


1-9794 


Coin, old ,, . . =106 


0*9754 


1-7501 


Darmstadt ,, . . = 100 


0-9842 


1-7658 


Frankfurt on Main, centner . = 100 


0-9947 


1-7846 


Hamburg & Holstein, centner = 112 


I -0679 


1-9160 


Hanover, centner . . =112 


1-0794 


1-9366 


Lippe-Detmold, centner . = 108 
Liibeck, centner . . . =112 


0-9936 
1-0684 


1-7828 
1-9168 


Nuremberg, old centner . = 100 


1-0039 


1-8012 


Oldenburg, centner . . = 100 


0-9535 


1-7107 


Prussian = 5 stein . = 1 10 


1-0127 


1-8170 


Rostock , . =112 


i -0679 


1-9160 


Saxony =5 stein. =110 


1-0123 


1-8162 


Wiesbaden ., . = 106 


0-9821 


1-7621 


Wiirtemberg . . = TOO 


0-9206 


1-6518 


augmen. centner = 104 


0-9575 


1-7179 


SWITZERLAND : 






Waadt, centner . . = 100 pounds 


0-9842 


1-7658 


Arau, centner . . = 100 


0-9381 


1-6832 


Basel ,, . . . ~ioo 


0-9708 


1-7418 


Berne ,, ... = 100 


1-0238 


1-8368 


Saint Gall, centner, . = 100 light 


0-9153 


1-6422 


Geneva ,, (liq.) =104 heavy 


1-1273 


2-0227 


Grisons, heavy centner = 100 ,, 


i -0242 


1-8375 


,, light ,, i oo light 


0-9104 


1-6334 


Solothurn centner . . =- 100^ , 


I -0202 


1-8305 


FRANCE : 






The metric quintal . . = 100 kilog. 


19684 


3-5317 


Old quintal poids dq marc . = 100 pounds 


0-9635 


1-7288 


NETHERLANDS : 






The metric centenaar . . <= 100 kilog. 


I -9684 


3-5317 


Old Amsterdam centenaar . = i op, pounds 


0-9726 


1-7451 


Brussels ,., = 100 shop ,, 


0'9206 


1-7220 


AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE : 






Zollverein centner . . = 100 pounds 


0-9842 


1-7658 


Vienna ,, . . = 100 ,, 


1/0756 


1-9779 


Old Bohemian centner = 6 stein = 120 ,, 


I-2I52 


2-1803 



230 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



HUNDREDWEIGHTS, &c. 

continued. 

AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE 
continued : 

Galician-Lemberg centner = 

75 Vienna pounds . 
Tyrol, Botzen heavy centner 

, %ht . 

Cracow, centner = 4 stein 

,, also a centner 
Trieste, tfee Vienna centner . 

RUSSIA : 

See berkowitz, among Loads, p. 
Pernau, centner ='6 liespfund 
Revel =6 ,, 
Warsaw , , =4 heavy stein 
,, ,, =4 light ,, 

ITALY : 

Metric centinajo = 10 rubbi . 
Cagliari, cantarello 
Genoa, cantaro grosso.. 

,, ,, sottile . 

Modena, centinajo 
Nice ,, =6 rubbi . 

Naples, cantaro grosso 

,, ,, piccolo 

Rome ,, = 10 decine . 
Sardinia, cantarello 
Sicily, cantaro ordinario 
grosso . 
Tuscany, centinajo (since 

1836) .... 
Venice, centinajo grosso 
sottile 

SPAIN : 

The Castilian quintal = 4 arro- 
bas 

Aragon, quintal = 4 arrobas . 

Cataluna, quintal = 4 ,, 

Bilbao, quintal pequano o 
ordinario .... 

Bilbao, quintal macho, for iron 
,, ,, for fish . 

Cadiz ,, ordinario = 4 
arrobas .... 

Cadiz, quintal macho = 6 arro- 
bas . 



S, &c. 


"c* ** 


j 




111 

bo6.> 


fl| 


EMPIRE 


CJW 


^ W ft 




Cwt. 


Fwt. 


= loo pounds 


0-8067 


1-4836 


= 100 ,, 


0-9862 


1-7693 


= IOO ,, 


0-6509 


1-1678 


= 128 


I-O227 


1-8349 


= IOO ,., 


0-7990 


1-4335 


. 


!I -0756 


1-9779 


). 234. 






= 120 ,, 


0-9I27 


1-7656 


= I2O ,,, 


i-orSi 


1-8265 


= 128 . 


i 0217 


r8331 


= IOO 


0-7982 


1-4321 


=joo kilog. 


1-9684 


3-5317 


= 104 pounds 


0-8325 


t-4936 


= 150 


i -0295 


1-8471 


='150 


0-9360 


1-6793 


= 100 . 


0-6697 


1-2015 


= 150 


0-9200 


1-6507 


= loo rottoli 


17539 


3-1467 


= 150 pounds 


0-9471 


1-6992 


= IOO ,, 


06675 


1-1976 


= 100 ,, 


SCD-8002 


1-4356 


=250 


I -5627 


2-8037 


=273 ,, 


I-7I90 


3-0841 


= IOO ,, 


0-6684 


1-1992 


= 100 


0-593I 


1-0641 


= 100 ,\ 


0-9270 


1-6848 


= loo pounds 


09055 


1-6246 


= 144 


09921 


1-7800 


= $04 , 


0-8189 


1-1-779 


= roo ,, 


0-9631 


1-7280 


= 146 


I -4062 


2-5230 


= 110 ,, 


1-0595 


i-9009 


= IOO 


0-9055 


1-6246 


= 150 


I-3583 


2-4369 



^KpB LIB!? 


// \vV 
CH. vi. MEASURES OF WEIGHT. ' 231 


HtrifivTirTB s 


' 




HUNDREDWEIGHTS, &c. ||| 


^Ijg 


o 'A 

ill 


continued. IfS-l 


111 


s si 


SPAIN continued : P wt 


Fvrt. 


Quintals 


Galicia, quintal = 4 arrobas . = 100 pounds 1-1342 


2-0350 


0-57620 


Valencia ,, =4 ,, . =144 ,, 1-0072 


1-8071 


0-51168 


Majorca 1 cantaro ordinario 
and V =4 arrobas . =-104 ,, 0-8189 


1-1779 


0-4160 


Minorca J cantaro barbaresco = 100 ,, 0-7874 


1-1326 


0-4000 


Canary Islands 1 






South America 1 th c ast ^i an qu i nt al. 
Antilles & Mexico | 






Manilla J 






Brazil and Madeira : the Lisbon quintal . i 1 565 


2-0749 


0*5875 


GREECE, MEDITERRANEAN, ETC. : 






Malta, cantaro = i oo rottoli . =250 pounds 1*5580 


2-7953 


0-79150 


Cyprus ,, =100 ,,.... 4-6822 


8-4007 


2-37868 


,, Famagusta cantaro = 






104 rottoli 4*8695 


8-7367 


2-47383 


Ionian Islands, Levantine 






cantaro = 44 oka . = 44 oka . i -0607 


1-9031 


0*53887 


Anglo-Levantine talent 






(English cental) . . = 100 pounds 0-8929 
Former Levantine talent = IOO Ibs. peso grosso 0-9370 


1-6019 
1-6848 


0-45359 
0-47705 


Greece generally, cantaro . = 44 oka . i -3244 


2-3761 


0-67280 


,, Patras ,, . = 132 pounds 1-0384 


1-8630 


0-52752 


,, also, the Stambul kantar . . . 1-1112 


1-9935 


0-5645 


OTTOMAN EMPIRE-. 






The Stambul kantar = 44 oka = 100 rotl . 1-1112 


1-9935 


0-56450 


,, kantar for cotton =45 oka . 1*1364 


2-0388 


0-57733 


Wallachia, the Stambul kan- 






tar .. . . . = loo rotl . i -i 1 12 


1-9935 


0-5645 


Candia, kantar = 44 oka . = 100 ,, . 1-0407 


1-8672 


0-52869 


SYRIA : 






{ordinary kan- 






thar . . = loo rotl . 4-4880 


8-0522 


2-2800 


kola = 7 vesnos =35 large rotl I -5708 


2-8183 


0-7980 


zurlo . . =27! ,, 1-2342 


2-2144 


0-6270 


Damascus, kanthar . . = 100 rotl . 3*5307 


6-3347 


1 7937 


Smyrna, kanthar = 45 oka . = loo rotl . 1*1381 


2-0424 


0-5782 


,, also a kanthar of 44 oka. 






Tripoli, ordinary kanthar = 100 small rotl 3*5762 


6-4163 


i -8168 


large = 100 large 4-2915 


7-6996 


2-1801 


MESOPOTAMIA: 






Bassara, man = 24 wakia . . . .1-0356 


1-8580 


0-52610 


,, man-attari = 24 wakia attari . . 0*2499 


0-4485 


0-12698 



232 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



HUNDREDWEIGHTS, &c. 


^11 


||| 


continued. 


1?M 


!?.! 


EGYPT : 


W c3w 
Cwt. 


Fwt 


Alexandria, kanthar = 36 oka nearly =100 rotl 


0-8634 


1-5503 


Cairo, ordinary kanthar = 36 oka = 100 rotl 


0-8392 


1-5217 


The canthars of Cairo are about 10 to 12 in 






number varying from 36 to 82 okas in value. 






TUNIS AND MOROCCO : 






Tunis, kanthar . . . = 100 rotl 


0-9170 


1-7788 


Tripoli ,, = loo ,, 


0-9914 


1-7574 


Mogador ,, ... = 100 ,, 


1-0594 


1-9007 


Morocco generally, kanthar . = 100 ,, 


0-9931 


1-7819 


Bengazi, kanthar = 50 oka . =125 ,, 


I -2244 


2-1967 


ALGIERS : 






Kantar attari . . = 100 rotl-attari 


1 -0749 


1-9286 


for cheese and cotton = no ,, 


1-1824 


2-1214 


gharduri, vegetables =-H2 ,, 


1-2093 


2-1696 


kebir . . =150 ,, 


1-6124 


2-8929 


for butter and fruit oil = 1 66 , , 


17843 


3-2014 


for hemp and flax =200 


2-1498 


3-8571 


PERSIA : 






Man i hasham = 16 man i bushahr 


1-1146 


1-9997 


INDIA : 






The Imperial man, mun, or maund = 40 Im- 






perial ser 


0-7347 


1-3182 


NORTHERN INDIA : 






The old local man = 40 local ser (see Ser). 






EAST ASIATIC : 






Anam, tan= 10 yen= loo kan 


2277 


2-2027 


Thai (Siam), the hap or pikul = 50 chang 


1942 


2-1426 


Malacca, pikul = 100 Malacca catti 


2054 


2-1626 


English ,, = i oo English ,, 


1905 


2-1359 


Sumatra, tarn pang = 60 ,, ,, 


0-7143 


1-2816 


Dutch pikul = 100 Dutch catti 


2111 


2-1729 


Molucca, pikul = 100 Molucca catti 


1627 


2-0860 


Bandq, soekel = 28 Banda catti . 


-5 2 50 


2-7361 


Manilla, pikul = 100 Manilla catti 


I -2452 


2-2341 


China, common pikul = 100 tching 


I-I832 


2-1229 


,, export pikul "\ = IOO English catti . 


I-I905 


2-1359 








Japanese tan or pikul = 100 king . 


I-I607 


2-0825 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



LOADS AND ANALOGOUS UNITS. 



Load, karch, bilrde, charge, carga, carica, 4--"|| 


X c 


schiffpfund, skippund, frachtpfund, pfund- | fc-| 
schwer, schwerpfund, berkowitz. c |-| 

aw 


III 


EUROPE : Cwt. 


Fwt. 


The load is a general expression for 3 local 




quintals, centner, or cwt. ; for values de- 




duce from cwts., &c., p. 226-221. The 




following are mostly exceptional : 




ENGLAND : 




The load (generally) = 3 cwt. . . 3 


5-3825 


The pig of lead = 300 pounds . . 2-6914 
The sack of wool = 3| cwt. ... 3-25 


4-8058 
5-8310 


The load of straw = 36 trusses = 1296 pounds 1 1 -5714 


20-7611 


hay =36 =2160 ,, 19-2857 


34-6018 


NORWAY AND DENMARK : 




Skippund = 20 lispund = 320 pounds . . 3 1 45 7 


5-6439 


SWEDEN : 




Skippund = 20 lispund = 400 skSlpund . . 3 '3348 


5-9832 


There were also skippunds of 400 stapelstads- 




wigt pund, 400 bergwerkwigt pund, and 




400 landstadswigt pund. 




GERMANY : 




German schiffpfunds. 




Prussian schiffpfund = 20 liespfund = 330 pounds 3 -038 1 


5-4509 


Bremen =290 2-8442 


5-1030 


Brunswick =280 2-5755 


4-6210 


Hamburg =280 2-6689 


4-7901 


Hanover = 280 2 -6985 


4-8415 


Liibeck =280 2-6709 


4-7920 


Nuremberg =300 3*0117 


5-4034 


Oldenburg =290 27651 


4-8072 


Rostock =280 2-6698 


4-7901 


Bremen, pfundschwer or frachtpfund = 300 Ibs. 2-9423 
Hamburg and Rostock, pfundschwer or fracht- 


5-2789 


pfund = 320 pounds . . . . .3-0512 


5-4744 


Hanover, pfundschwer or frachtpfund = 336 






5-8098 


Liibeck, pfundschwer or frachtpfund = 320 Ibs. 3 -05 1 2 


5-4769 


Stettin, biirde of steel = 3 centner =336 pounds 3 -0987 


5-5595 


Vienna, karch = 400 pounds of Vienna . . 4*4097 


7-9118 



234 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 





!s 


y 




LOADS, &c. continued. 


ill 


81 1 






"31 


*Sl 


1 


FRANCE : 


w W 

Cwt. 


Fwt. 


Q 


Old charge = 3 quintals = 300 Ibs. p. de m. . 


2-8906 


5-1863 


i 


Nice, old charge = 300 pounds 


I '8401 


3-3014 





Bruxelles, poose or charge of coal = 144 Ibs. . 


I -4847 


2-4797 


o 


A nvers old charge = 400 pounds 


3-6825 


6-8881 


I 


SPAIN, &c. : 








Alicante, carga = 2\ quintales = 240 libras 










2*5180 


4-5177 


T 


Aragon, carga = 3 quintales = 432 libras . 


2-9762 


5-3399 


I 


Malaga ,, =2 serones =175 ,, cast. . 


1-5846 


2-8430 





Cataluna and Majorca, carga = 3 quintales = 








312 libras .... 


ty . . tfifi 


4-4075 


I 


Quayaquil, carga of cacao = libras cast. . 


0-7244 


1-2997 


o 


Valencia ,, =3 quintales = 432 libras 








menores ....... 


2 'O2 1 C 


5-4211 


I 


ITALY : 


j *-'*' 3 






Venice, carica = 4OO pounds peso sottile 


2-3723 


4-2564 


I 


RUSSIA : 








Imperial berkowitz= 10 pud = 400 funt . 


3-2244 


5-7851 


I 


Pernau, schiffpfund = 20 liespfund = 400 pounds 


3-2804 


5-8855 


I- 


Revel ,, =20 ,, =400 ,, 


3 '3953 


6-0918 


I- 


Riga ,, =4lof ,, =400 ,, 


3-2916 


5-9056 


I- 


ARABIA : 








Betelfaghi, bahar = 40 farzel . = 800 rotl 


7-2814 


13-0640 


3" 


Jiddah ,, = 10 ,, . =5oorattal . 


1-6338 


2-9313 


o- 


Mokha ,, =15 ,, . =300 


4-0179 


7-2087 


2- 


PERSIA : 








Kharwar= loo man i tabriz .... 


5-8060 


10-4153 


2' 


CENTRAL INDIA AND GUZRAT : 








The mani=i2 local man (see Man) ; in four 








exceptional cases it is otherwise, but there 








is then a maniasa also (see Maniasa), p. 237. 








SOUTHERN INDIA : 








The kandi or bahar = 20 local man (see Man). 








The following are special values. 








Anglo-Madras, kandi = 20 kachcha man = 










A * A f\A 'J 


R-OfiQ? 


21 


Anglo-Bombay, kandi = 20 kachcha man = 




O UU\J/ 






q 


8-9708 2- 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



LOADS, &C. continued. 

CEYLON AND BURMA : 

Anglo-Cingalese kandi = 500 pounds avoir. 
Old Dutch kandi = 480 pounds Troy Dutch 
Burma, English kandi = 500 pounds avoir. 
Old Pegu kandi = 1 50 local vis 

EAST ASIATIC : 
Malacca, bahar = 3 Malacca pikul 



= 3 English 
= 80 vis 



' 405 Ibs. 
= 400 
= 476 

= 1 5 hali = 240 ganta = 480 , , 
= 80 vis =4851,, 

= 560 pounds avoir. = 560 ,, 
= 200 Acheen catti 
= iooBanda ,, =6iolbs 
Batavia, amat = 2 Dutch pikul 
Java, bahar = 3 ,, 

Batavia, tampang = 5 Dutch pikul 
Molucca, bahar = 3 Molucca ,, 
China, large export bahar =4| English pikul 

,, small ,, =3 

Anam quan = 5 tan or pikul . 



English 

Tocopa 

Queda 

Jansalon 

Sumatra 

Acheen 

Banda 



o g 


| 


g 


ill 

wow 


III 


g^ls 

c g-g 
fccnW* 


Cwt. 


Fwt. 


Quintals 


4 '4643 


8-0097 


2-26796 


. 4-6684 


8-3765 


2-37163 


. 4-4643 


8-0097 


2-26796 


. 4-5440 


8-1528 


2-30849 


5. 3-6162 


6-4878 


1-83705 


3-57I5 


6-4077 


I-8I437 


4-25 


7-6252 


2-I59IO 


4-2857 


7-6893 


2-17725 


4-3333 


7-7747 


2-20144 


5 


8-9708 


2-54012 


3-7805 


6-7829 


I -92060 


5 5-4464 


9-7718 


2-76692 


2 -4222 


4-3457 


1-23051 


3*6333 


6-5186 


1-84576 


6-0555 
3-4880 


10-8643 
6-2581 


3-07627 
J-7720I 


ll 5-3573 


9-6116 


272156 




6-4077 


1-81437 


. 6-1384 


11-0133 


3-II85 



236 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART r. 



TONS AND LASTS OF HEA VY GOODS. 



GENERAL AND SPECIAL 
FORMER LOCAL UNITS. 

England : ton = 20 hundredweight 

A ton of 40 foot-weight on the scientific series 

America : ton = 2000 pounds = 20 centals 

DENMARK : 

Danish last (heavy goods) = 5200 pounds 
Els-inor ,, ,, =12 skippund 

SWEDEN : 

Last of heavy goods = 5760 pounds (skSlpund) 
GERMANY : 

Prussian ton = 2000 pounds . 
Hamburg, ton = 2000 pounds 
Frankfurt ,, =2000 ,, 
Prussian last (heavy goods) =4000 pounds 

,, ,, also a last= 12 schiffpfund 
Bremen , , of heavy goods = 4000 pounds 
Frankfurt, last = 2 tons = 4000 pounds . 
Hamburg, schiffslast = 2 tons . . 

,, commerzlast = 2| tons . 
Hanover, last = 3360 pounds = 30 centner 

NETHERLANDS : 

Last of heavy goods = 2000 kilog. . 
Old Amsterdam last = 4000 ponden 

FRANCE : 

Tonne, tonneau, or millier = 1000 kilog. 
Old French tonne = 2000 Ibs. poids de marc 

RUSSIA : 

Ton = 60 pud = 2400 pounds 
Last of heavy goods = 120 pud = 2 tons . 
Perma = 8 packen = 4 tons . 

SPAIN : 

Spanish tonelada = sooo pounds . 
Alicante ,, = 1920 pounds = 80 arrobas 
Mexican timber tonelada = 2240 pounds cast. 
S. American cajon (mineral) = 50 quintales 
Malaga, last = 6200 pounds cast, net 

large last = 8800 pounds cast, gross 



sfl' 


rfs 


111 


||i 


Tons 


Fwt. 


. I 


35-883 


S I -1 147 


40 


. 0-8929 


32-039 


2 -5559 
. 1-8874 


91-713 
67-726 


) 2-4011 


86-158 


. 0-9206 


33-036 


0*9535 


34-215 


. 0-9946 


35-691 


1-8413 


66-072 


. i -8229 


65-411 


. 1-9615 


70386 


. i -9892 


71-382 


. i -9070 


68-429 


. 2-3837 


85-537 


. 1-6191 


58-098 


. 1-9684 


70-633 


i-945i 


69-804 


. 0-9842 


35-317 


0-9635 


34-575 


. 0-9673 


34-711 


. i -9346 


69-421 


. 3-8693 


138-842 


0-9055 


32-491 


1-0091 


36-209 


1-0141 


36-390 


2-2637 


81-228 


2-8070 


100-723 


3*9841 


142-961 



CH. VI. 



MEASURES OF WEIGHT. 



237 



TONS AND LASTS, &c. 
continued. 

PORTUGAL : 

Portuguese tonelada and "1 , 

Rio de Janeiro ton } ^8 pounds . 
Pernambuco ton = 2240 pounds 

ITALY : 

French tonne (see Millier). 
Formerly the old Amsterdam last . 

,, the English ton .... 
Livorno, last = 5600 pounds Tuscan 

PERSIA : 
Kara = 100 man i hasham . , . . 

NORTHERN INDIA : 

Sau man = ioo man (Imperial) 
Also values based on the local man now obso- 
lete. (See Man and Ser.) 

CENTRAL INDIA : 
Maniasa= ioo mam invariably. 

Special Values. 

Bhairsiah, ioo man! = 400 man 
Bhilsa =375 

Bhopal ,, =4OOOpassari 

Omatwara ,, =800 man 

SOUTHERN INDIA : 
Garsah = 20 kandi = 400 man (generally). 

Values. 

Bangalur, garsah = 30 kandagon . . . 
Madras ,, =20 kandi. 
Pondicherri , , = 7200 pounds poids de marc 

CEYLON : 
Colombo, garsah = 9256^ pounds avoir. 



(_)W 


English 
Scientific 
Equivalent. 


French 
Scientific 
Equivalent. 


Tons 


Fwt. 


Milliers 


0-7806 


28-011 


07932 


I-OII9 


36-311 


I -0282 


I-945I 
I 

1-8714 


69-804 
35-883 
67-154 


1-9764 
I -01 60 

I-90I5 


5-5729 


199-97 


5-6623 


3-6735 


131-82 


37324 


137754 
I5-3825 
22-3853 

I9-52I4 


494-31 
551-99 
803-26 
700-49 


13-9964 
15-6298 
227445 
19-8347 


4^283 
4-3061 
3-4688 


162-49 
154-62 
124-47 


4-6009 
43752 
3'5244 


4-I324 


148-28 


4-I987 



23 8 



METRICAL UNITS. 



PART I. 



MISCELLANEOUS LASTS AND ANALOGOUS 
UNITS. 






rill 


f|| 


,cg 




a| g 


'Sbc'j! 


115 


ENGLAND : 


"11 

Tons 


Fwt. 


Milliers 




I-QH 


69-972 


i-oSn 


Last of flax, hemp, or feathers =17 cwt. 


0-85 


30-501 


7 V <J 

0-8636 


Last of gunpowder = 2400 pounds 


1-0714 


38-447 


1-0886 


Fodder of lead, London and Hull= 19^ cwt. . 




34-089 


0-9652 


,, ,, Newcastle = 2I | 


1-075 


38-575 


1-0923 


Derby =22! . 


1-125 


40-369 


1-1431 


NORWAY AND DENMARK : 








Last of butter (net) =-- 2688 pounds . ' . 


1-3212 


47-409 


I -3424 


, , according to Norwegian standard 


1-3158 


47-215 


I-3369 


SWEDEN : 








Last of hemp and flax, tallow, and malt = 6 








skippund = 2400 skalpund .... 


1-0005 


35-899 


1-0165 


RUSSIA : 








Last of hemp and flax, hair, isinglass, tobacco, 








and Russian thread = 60 pud 


0-9673 


34-711 


0-9828 


Last of candles, foreign thread, and of wax in 








barrels = 80 pud = 8 berkowitz . 


1-2897 


46-281 


i'3 IO 5 


Last of resin, soap, or wax in bales = loo pud 


i -6122 


57-851 


1-6381 


Last of caviar, tallow, linseed oil, potash, 








copper and iron ; also of heavy goods = 120 








pud = 12 berkowitz = 2 tons 


i -9346 


69-421 


1-9657 


For Lasts of Capacity see Measures of Capacity. 








ROD-WEIGHT. 








England : rod-weight of the decimal system 








= 1000 footweight or talents =i million 








ounces = I billion mils = I trillion doits = 25 








tons of the same series . . . .2 


7-868 


000- 


28-315 



MODERN METROLOGY 



PART II. METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



CHAPTER I. 
SYSTEMS AND MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 

WHILE many of the primitive units of measure men- 
tioned in the foregoing chapters were originally perhaps 
independent, and afterwards became either primary or 
secondary units, and were re-arranged both in value and 
in proportion to each other, yet some of them became 
nearly obsolete, and others came forward into common 
use ; several becoming less suitable to direct measurement 
from changes in commercial usage and in the com- 
mercial products principally dealt with, and some also 
becoming inconvenient in calculation from not being 
aliquot parts, or multiples or sub-multiples of other more 
useful primary measures. 

The first result of such changes was the systematisa- 
tion of a series of measures of length and distance, a 
series for surface, a series for capacity, and a series for 
weight. Sometimes also there remained two or three 
sets in each series ; these sets being often independent 
of each other. 

The next result was the formation of a complete 



240 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

system of measures of length, surface, capacity, and 
weight, arranged with perfect interdependence, and 
sometimes also following one single method of sub- 
division throughout the whole. 

The connection between the series of measures of 
length, surface, capacity, and weight, which alone justified 
the name of system, was made in various ways. 

The relation between measures of length and of sur- 
face was apparently a most easy arrangement ; the mul- 
tiple of some unit of length in common use was squared 
to form a unit of surface, and from this unit of surface a 
set of multiples and submultiples, or secondary units 
of surface were formed. This, the most simple and 
ordinary method, was, however, inconvenient from its 
incompleteness ; it was also necessary that the second- 
ary units of surface should bear some convenient pro- 
portion to the secondary units of length, besides to 
that from which it was derived ; otherwise calculation 
became troublesome. We have at present an example 
of this defect in English measures ; the acre is 43560 
square feet, or 4840 square yards, or 160 old square 
poles, which are perfect multiples ; the acre is also -^ 
of a square mile, a perfect sub-multiple ; but the repre- 
sentation of the acreside in feet, in yards, in poles, 
and in parts of a mile is by no means simple or rapidly 
calculated, for the reason that the acre was based on the 
square pole, irrespective of its relations with the foot, 
yard, and mile being convenient or otherwise. 

The relation between measures of length and of 
capacity was a matter much neglected by many nations 
in ancient times, for the reason that measures of capacity 
were not much used at an early epoch, weight being 
the mode of estimating commercial produce, both liquid 



CH. I. MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 241 

and solid ; hence generally the above-mentioned rela- 
tion was adjusted only when perfect systematisation was 
deemed necessary. 

The general relation, whenever made, was in accord- 
ance either with the cubit, with the foot, or with the 
half-foot, or some fraction of it, or some other linear 
unit ; thus 

Egyptian Grand Artaba was the cube of the Natural Cubit. 
Egyptian Royal Artaba Royal Foot 

(f Royal Cubit). 
Egyptian Common Artaba ,, Egyptian Foot 

(f Natural Cubit). 

The Ancient Hindu Chari Hindu Cubit. 

The Arab Den or Kor Hashemic cubit. 

Greek Metretes Olympic Foot. 

Roman Congius half a Roman Foot. 

Danish, Swedish, Prussian, and French capacity-measures are 
based on cubic units. 

The relation between measures of capacity and 
measures of weight was diversely made, according as it 
was thought advisable to conform the former to the 
latter, or the latter to the former. 

In some cases the measures of weight were based on 
ancient and arbitrary standards, and the rectification of 
the measures of capacity was effected by adjusting them 
to certain weights of some common liquid or agricul- 
tural produce. Thus in China, the ching of capacity 
was adjusted to the ching (or pound) weight of un- 
husked rice ; in England the bushel was formerly ad- 
justed to 56 Ibs. of wheaten flour or of meal, and at 
one time to 60 Ibs. of wheat ; and in recent times only 
to 80 1'bs. of distilled water. The Roman amphora or 

R 



242 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

quadrantal was at one time adjusted to 80 Roman 
pounds' weight of wine. 

The preferable method, however, adjusted the mea- 
sures of weight to those of capacity, and thus rendered 
systematisation more simple ; for example 

One of the Egyptian Talents was the weight of a Common 
Artaba of Water (cubic foot). 

The Great Attic Talent (Solon) was the weight of a Metretes 
of water (cubic foot). 

The Arab Artaba weight was the weight of an Arab Artaba 
of water. 

The Arab Yusdruman was the weight of y^ of this. 

The Lesser Greek Talent was the weight of an Amphora 
of water. 

One of the Roman Amphorae was the weight of a Roman 
cubic foot of water. 

The Kilogramme is the weight of a litre of water (nomi- 
nally). 

When the whole of these relations became, or were, 
perfected, the result was a complete system of measures 
of all sorts, suitable for calculation as well as for weigh- 
ing and measuring, such as those of Ancient Egypt, 
Ancient China, probably those of Assyria, those of 
Ancient Greece, and probably at one period those of 
Ancient Rome. 

In modern ages in Europe, we have not only debased 
units, but also disjointed systems to deal with ; the 
debased units, being approximations to the original 
correct units, are almost invariably excellent for purposes 
of weighing and measuring, and for all the objects of de- 
tached trades and commercial matters they have met the 
requirements of ages, and want little more than rectify- 
ing ; the disjointed systems, however little they may 



CH. i. MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 243 

affect detached trades, are, on the contrary, a consider- 
able difficulty to the calculator, to the scientific man, and 
to all trades and professions that habitually deal with 
more than one, or with several sets of measures. 

The principle of facilitating calculation has been 
thoroughly carried out in the design of the metric 
system, in which the relations of the measures of length, 
surface, capacity, and weight have been carefully 
adjusted ; this advantage has, however, its counterpart 
in the comparative disadvantages it possesses as regards 
purposes of weighing and measuring in commercial 
affairs, and as regards the practical inconvenience of 
many of its units of measurement, and the fact that 
many others remain mere decimal names, instead of 
practically useful measures. The choice of the demi- 
toise or metre, as the basis of this system is one much 
to be lamented ; had a natural unit been used instead, 
and had a practical man developed the system, it might 
have been as good in weighing and measuring as it is 
convenient in calculation. At present the metre fails as 
a geodetic unit, and many of its dependent units fail in 
commercial convenience. 

Decimal subdivision. The most primitive and ancient 
method of estimating and dividing measures is doubtless 
the decimal system. From information given in the 
appendices to the Ninth Annual Report of the Warden 
of the Standards, 1874-75, it appears that the Ancient 
Egyptian standard-weight and copper coinage were 
based on this system, and the following was the scale : 

I Ten or Men=io Kat= 1400 grs. English. 
I Kat = 140 grs. English. 

The Ten or Men thus being about one-fifth of a 



244 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

pound, deduced from the weight of a 5-Kat weight 
found at Thebes, being 700 grains. A papyrus of the 
period of Rameses II. gives an account in Ten and Kat, 
and the inscriptions at Karnac both mention Ten and 
Kat, and state amounts of tributes in Ten up to 3000. 
It is also extremely probable, from the units of measure 
being few, and from the remarkable apparent similarity 
of habit that the Ancient Egyptians had to the Chinese, 
that a system of decimal subdivision of any unit was as 
common with the former nation as with the latter. The 
land-measure of Egypt was, according to Herodotus, an 
aroura =10000 sacred square cubits; or 100 cubits 
square. 

The ancient measures of China, which are said to 
date from the reign of Hoang Ti, or about 2600 years 
B.C., were generally decimal. Doursther thus gives the 
ancient measures of capacity to be : 

i kou= 10 teu= 100 chin= 1000 ho 10000 yo, 

and estimates I kou = 2i English bushels. 

There seemed also to have been some corresponding 
system of measures of weight, the lowest unit being the 
weight of a grain of millet ; 100 millet grains = I tchu, 
and ascending by a decimal scale up to the tan ; but 
there is also an opinion that there was always a break 
in this system, and that the Chinese pound or tching 
was always =16 Hang, or ounces ; although it is more 
probable that several systems existed. The Tan, accord- 
ing to Doursther, was 5ojlbs. English. 

The decimal subdivision of any unit is so imbedded 
in the minds of the Chinese that any other but a deci- 
mal fraction requires special explanation ; the terms of 



CH. I. MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 245 

decimal subdivision were probably in ancient times 
much as now, any unit being = 

10 fan = 100 li= 1000 hao= 10000 ssa= 100000 hoe, &c., 

continued down to the trillionth part. 

The advantages of rapidity of calculation accompany- 
ing any decimal system are very great, and the rigidity 
of the ancient decimal systems of Egypt and China has 
been scrupulously imitated by the French in their me- 
tric system. It can be applied to any unit equally 
well, provided that there is an indifference as to whether 
the dependent units of the system are convenient or in- 
convenient for commercial purposes in weighing and 
measuring. It must, however, be noticed that the con- 
venience is solely due to accordance with numerical 
notation, as regards decimality. 

Sexagesimal subdivision. This method prevailed with 
the Chaldaeans, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Phoenicians, 
also with the Egyptians, under certain dynasties in the 
period intervening between that of the early decimal 
system before mentioned, and that of the later Ptolemaic 
or Phileterian decimal system. Cycles of time were 
invariably reckoned as periods of 60 years ; the Indians 
still date back in cycles from the Kali-Yog ; the Chinese 
also ; this method was universal ; the century of 100 
years is a comparatively modern arrangement. 

The subdivision of both time and angular measure- 
ment into minutes and seconds is the remnant of it now 
surviving in Europe ; in India the subdivision of the 
day into 60 ghari (or periods equal to 24 minutes), the 
ghari into 60 pul, and the pul into 60 taz, each equal 
to 0*4 second of European measure, still indicates the 
perfect sexagesimal method of those ancient astro- 



246 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

nomers ; latterly the English commuted the ghari into a 
sub-multiple of the hour. 

All the ancient talents of a certain epoch, whether 
monetary, commercial, or royal, or specially for gold, were 
in the same way divided into 60 pounds or manah, and 
these manah into sixtieths or shekel. The values of these 
are given in Chisholm, ' On the Science of Weighing and 
Measuring ' (page 47). Among these it is most likely 
that the manah was the original unit, based on 60 
pieces of money, or small bars of gold or silver, the 
same mode being afterwards applied to the talent. A 
double system, in which one set of talents, manah, and 
shekel were respectively equal to double those of the 
other, shows strong attachment to this subdivision. 
The larger measures of capacity, the cor or komer of 
Media, and the artaba of Egypt, were also divided into 
60 hin, according to some accounts. 

The sexagesimal system possessed the advantage of 
facility of subdivision into thirds, sixths, and twelfths, as 
well as into tenths, but appears to demand some digital 
notation specially adapted to it in order to render it 
practically convenient in every respect 

Duodecimal subdivision. The system of subdivision 
into twelfths, ounces or inches (unciae) was carried out 
by the Romans ; their foot was divided into 12 unciae ; 
their jugerum, a small acre of 28800 square feet, equal to 
about 2987^ square yards English, was subdivided into 
1 2 unciae ; their sextarius, a measure of capacity one 
sixth of the congius, was divided into 12 unciae; and 
the libra, or pondo, or pound, was divided into 12 unciae. 
Each of the four standard units was termed an as or 
entire original unit ; its duodecimal fractions from -J--J- 
down to the f were denominated deunx, dextans, 



CIT. i. MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 247 

dodrans, bes, septunx, semis, or sexunx, quincunx, 
triens, quadrans or teruncium, sextans, uncia. The term 
sescunx for an uncia and a half, corresponding to the 
anderthalb of the Germans and the derh of the Hindus, 
afforded a convenient single term for expressing the 
eighth part of the as in unciae, and for the ounce and a 
half without using a fractional term ; for this there also 
appears to have been at one time a single digital symbol 
also. 

The multiples of the as, the tressis, quadrussis, quin- 
cussis, sexcussis, septussis, octussis, nonussis, decussis, 
or 10 as, were, on the contrary, on a decimal scale, in ac- 
cordance with their notation, which was decimal in 
intention, although not dependent on place or position 
of the numerals. All European nations that took their 
foot measures through the Romans followed the duo- 
decimal subdivision ; while in the subdivision of the 
pound, the Italians, the French, and the English alone 
adopted it partially for commercial purposes, although it 
was retained by almost all European nations for the 
division of the medicinal pound. 

Excellent as the duodecimal system may be for pur- 
poses of subdivision of a single unit, it appears to fail 
when applied beyond that limit without the aid of some 
special corresponding notation or arrangements of digits. 

Binary subdivision. The reciprocals of numbers that 
admit of perpetual halving down to unity, such as, 2, 4, 
8, 1 6, 32, and 64, form excellent sub-multiples of measures 
to serve as secondary units of a lower degree ; some of 
them also afford exact square roots and cubic roots in 
integers, and thus give simplicity of relation between 
the units of surface and of capacity, and the original 
measures of length. Besides these conditions, which 



248 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

may be termed partly theoretical, and principally 
affect calculation, there is the higher advantage that 
measures subdivided on a binary scale possess consider- 
able convenience in actual weighing and measuring 
(which is the main object of commercial measures), as a 
half of any weight or measure throughout the series can 
always be conveniently arrived at, an advantage conceded 
neither by decimal subdivision, nor strictly even by duo- 
decimal subdivision, but only arrived at by the device 
of treating the term i^, an improper fraction, as a special 
digit. 

For instance, the halves of 3, 5, 7, and 9 on a decimal 
scale run into inconvenient fractions ; the square roots 
of 10, 1000, and 100000 are inconvenient, so also the 
cube roots of 100, 10000, and I ooo ooo ; while the 
numbers on the decimal scale that do not give surds 
are very few and very far apart. A binary sub- 
division hence is a more civilised arrangement for com- 
mercial measures, and seems to have been adopted 
both by the commercial and by the more intellectual 
nations ; the Romans for commercial purposes, the Hin- 
dus, the Germanic, and Teutonic races ; while decimal- 
isation was favoured by primitive nations only for 
commercial purposes, though even now well adapted to 
the scientific purposes and calculations of advanced races. 

The Hindus were perhaps among the earliest of 
nations to adopt binary subdivision ; their system of 
expressing fractions is clear of decimal terms, being 
real fractional terms, and not mere reciprocals in form of 
language. Thus their natural subdivision is 

The adha = J; the pao = ^; the adhpao = ; the 
chittak and the anna =-^5 the adh-chittak=3!j ; the 
pa win, or subsidiary quarter =gV 



CH. i. MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 249 

Originally this method applied to everything, though 
latterly it was retained only with reference to certain 
special units ; thus the term chittak is now used for the 
-j^ of the ser (or common unit of weight) ; but it was also 
applied to the -^ of the kottah (a unit of surface = 80 
square yards) as well as other units. The anna, now 
mostly confined as a term to the j^ of a tola, or rupl- 
weight for monetary weight, was also a term used in 
some parts of the country for the ^ of a ser, thus 
corresponding to the chittak ; the anna or, more pro- 
perly, ana was also the ^ of a large measure of 
capacity, the rash, principally used for salt on the 
Bombay coast, and equal to 1160 English bushels, 
or 14^ loads. The gaz or yard was subdivided thus : 
I gaz = 2 hath=i6 girah = 64 pawln ; although there 
was also a subdivision of the girah into 3 ungll (fingers) 
or 9 jau (barleycorns) ; but it is remarkable that not 
only does this correspond to I yard = 2 cubits = 16 nails 
of English and Dutch subdivision, but the values are 
also identical with English units, if we reject exceptional 
local gaz. 

The more ancient Hindu division of the day into 8 
pahar or watches was distinct from the Chaldaean system 
of sixtieths borrowed at a later date. 

The old Hindu measure of capacity, the chari, or 
cubic cubit, was divided in a corresponding manner : 

I chari = 16 drona = 64 adhaca, 
I adhaca = 4 prastha= 16 kadaba, 

but it seems doubtful whether measures of capacity were 
ever much used by them at any time. At present, 
measures of weight take their place entirely and almost 
exclusively in commerce. 



250 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

The Arabs, although renowned for thedecimal notation 
adopted by all civilised nations, also used binary subdivi- 
sion. 

The artaba measure was \ den or kor, and = 2 
kafiz = 4 khul = 8 woeba=i6 makuk. 

The Arab batman of weight was thus divided ; 
I great batman = 4 small batman = 8 oka=i6 rotl = 32 
cheki. 

The commercial European pounds are almost in- 
variably divided into sixteenths (called ounces) ; not 
only so, but the Teutonic marks, or marcs, or half- 
pounds, are also invariably divided into sixteenths (called 
loths l or lodes) or half-ounces. The origin of these 
commercial pounds seems obscure, and the existence of 
the marc as an independent original unit appears also 
doubtful. Whether these pounds were based on the 
ancient Phoenician commercial pound, or whether the 
greater Attic mina, which corresponded to 16 Roman 
ounces derived by twelfths from the lesser mina, was 
the real origin, or both combined, is an interesting 
subject of antiquarian research ; but the fact remains 
that the Teutonic races divide weight-units into six- 
teenths, although the standards have varied. 

The same races divide their measures of capacity in 
the same way ; not only in England does the quarter = 
8 bushels, and I bushel = 4 pecks 8 gallons = 16 pottles 
= 32 quarts = 64 pints, but the malter, scheffelj and 
boisseaux of Europe mostly follow the same invariable 
principle of subdivision. 



1 This measure, known as the loth, and used all over Germany, 
Austria, and Switzerland, also in Holland as the lood, in Sweden, Denmark, 
and Norway as the lod, and in Russia and Poland as the loth and lutow, 
seems to be absent in England only, where it would be termed lode. 



en. i. MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 251 

Such a mode, thoroughly well-suited to commercial 
purposes, cannot be lightly rejected. 

Septimal Subdivision. This method is generally 
subsidiary or secondary. Even the week of seven days, 
undoubtedly ancient, was probably the quarter of some 
approximate month. The English stone of 14 pounds, 
the eighth of a hundredweight of 112 Ibs., appears 
to have been adopted to suit the weight of certain 
measures of flour a bushel of flour weighing 56 Ibs., 
and a peck of flour weighing 14 Ibs. also to suit 
certain, now antiquated, peck-loaf arrangements. The 
firkin of butter weighing 56 Ibs., the Winchester bushel 
of Chester salt weighing 56 Ibs., and the sack of wool 
being 26 stone of 14 Ibs. each, are three other practical 
commercial considerations that rendered septimal divi- 
sion of the half-stone into pounds a real convenience. 
The English hundredweight is not the only one that 
consists of 112 Ibs. ; those of Altona, Hamburg, Han- 
over, Holstein, Rostock, and Stettin, are similarly sub- 
divided. 

The subdivision of the present pound into 7000 
grains seems to have been merely the result of accident, 
in the adaptation of former measures to each other 
on the correct principles of natural systematic develop- 
ment ; though in this case the results shown in retain- 
ing the Troy grain with the avoirdupois pound, and 
allowing both the ounce and the dram to involve fractions 
of grains, were particularly unfortunate. 

The so-called septimal subdivision of weight hence 
appears to be due to a particularly unfortunate series of 
causes now relatively unimportant. The subdivision 
into eighths or octaves is the real mode of dividing the 
hundredweight, each eighth consisting of 14 pounds ; 



252 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART 11. 

the pound is also successively divided into sixteenths 
among all civilised nations ; the English 7-pound weight 
and 7000 grain subdivision are inconvenient. Were it 
not for the involved change, it would be best to divide 
the pound either into 8000 grains or into 6400 grains ; 
and besides, to abolish the hundredweight of 1 1 2 Ibs., 
thus ridding the English system of the anomaly and 
encumbrance of septimality. 1 

Combined Modes of Subdivision. When any collec- 
tion of measures, as in England, presents a combination 
of all the foregoing modes of subdivision, it certainly 
appears complicated. The first wish of the calculator 
and of the scientific and professional man is then to 
render it convenient for calculation by modification. 
The last wish of the commercial man and tradesman is 
that the measures he uses should be altered in any 
way, for the reason that he does not calculate beyond 
narrow limits, but does wish to retain the measures to 
which he is accustomed, for purposes of weighing and 
measuring. In other words, each department of trade 
may have its requirements met by some portion of the 
rather heterogeneous collection, while rarely does any 
tradesman calculate throughout the entire series, or want 
to do so ; he does not reckon from the cubic yard and 
go on through the pint or the gallon to the hundred- 
weight or ton ; and, besides, is quite indifferent regarding 
those who really have to do so, for he considers they 
should have a system of their own without interfering 
with his. Certainly, a series of commercial measures 
well suited to their object should not be broken up for 

1 The notion of sanctity attached to the number seven is an ancient 
Jewish relic that was condemned with sabbatariar ism more than eighteen 
centuries ago. 



en. i. MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 253 

professional or scientific purposes ; the modes of sub- 
division suit the tradesman, and should not be radically 
altered. The various anomalies such as stones of dif- 
ferent sorts, tons of various description, also lasts and 
sacks, and the various quarters, quarts, and quarterns 
are mostly matters of denomination, that may be ad- 
justed by alteration of names. The rejection of some 
secondary units, and alterations of value not exceeding 
5 per cent, could meet but little opposition. But any 
radical alteration of a useful system could only be the 
suggestion of one indifferent to the commercial conve- 
nience of the millions that use English measures. 

In the Dominion of Canada, where the inheritance 
of old and heterogeneous measures was an incubus 
rather than a convenience, English measures have 
in the main been adhered to. The Act of 1873, legis- 
lating for the period of 1880, retains the English foot- 
measure, and from the standards made for Canada, its 
decimal multiples and sub-multiples appear in vogue 
there ; it also adopts the cubit foot as a measure of capa- 
city for gas, and all the English measures of capacity 
from the bushel to the half-gill ; it adopts the English 
pound, the old English Troy ounce, and the English 
grain, and the decimal multiples and sub-multiples 
of all these three measures of weight. The old French 
measures of the province of Quebec are now limited 
to the Parisian foot, perch, square perch, and arpent. 
As regards the metric system, which has been permis- 
sive in Canada since April 1871, Mr. Brunei, the head 
of the Weights and Measures Department, states that 

* he is not aware that it has been used by anyone in 

* Canada, and that there does not appear much proba- 
' bility of this system being generally used there, though 



254 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART u. 

' it has been adopted to some extent by scientific men 
' for purposes of comparison ' (see Warden's Report for 
1874-75). 

It may here be noticed that not only is Canada less 
fettered by the measures of the past than England, but 
that the province of Quebec with its old French asso- 
ciations may have supplied the scientific men that to 
some extent used the metric system. 

If, then, the Canadians have already avoided a senti- 
mental alteration of their commercial measures, it may 
be hoped that the English-speaking races will never fall 
into the blunder of applying French measures to their 
own commercial purposes. There are scientific men 
living out of France able to make a better system, and 
an English one, suited to English requirements. 

Apart from the inconvenience attending the intro- 
duction of foreign measures, and the difficulties inherent 
in any attempt to incorporate them into any pre-existing 
system, it will be noticed, on examining the tables of 
systems, that there is considerable inconvenience attend- 
ing combined modes of subdivision of any sort, when 
incorporated in a single system, 

When a system is, like the early English, binary 
throughout, when 8 ounces =i marc, 2 marcs =i pound, 
8 pounds of wine = I gallon, 8 gallons I bushel, 8 
bushels = I quarter, 4 quarters = I chaldron, the sim- 
plicity is convenient for trading purposes ; when in the 
Chinese measures I tching- weight of rice= I tching of 
capacity, 10 tching =i ten, ioten=i tche, and, again, 
I tching = 10 fun, I fun= 10 li, I li = 10 hao, I hao= 10 
ssa, i ssa=io hoe, &c., the simplicity is convenient for 
purposes of calculation. Whenever a ternary subdivision 
intervenes, as the English yard into three feet, the butt 



en. i. MODES OF SUBDIVISION. 255 

into three barrels, homogeneity ceases ; when an unali- 
quot term is introduced, as the pole of 5^ yards, the 
chaldron of 4^ quarters, incongruity results. 

A combination of several systems, each the best in 
its own way, would not retain the advantages of any. 

For instance, how needlessly complicated is the time- 
honoured subdivision of the medical or monetary pound, 
or of the marc: 20 grains = I obolus, 2 oboli= I scruple, 
3 scruples = I dram, 8 drams = I ounce, and 8 ounces = I 
marc, or 12 ounces = I pound, as the case may be. The 
needlessness of an additional pound of 12 ounces in a 
system possessing a commercial pound of 16 ounces is 
now perfectly recognised ; a marc of half-a-pound = 8 
ounces answers every purpose without encumbering a 
system with duodecimals. Again, the scruple of one- 
third of a dram is of comparatively little practical use, 
and the introduction of ternary units in a binary series 
here shows to disadvantage ; the English scruple has 
hence been nominally abolished. The old medical 
pound of Europe of 12 ounces, or 5760 grains, gives a 
marc of 8 ounces or 3840 grains, or a commercial pound 
of 1 6 ounces or 7680 grains ; but if it is both practically 
and theoretically unnecessary to complicate the sub- 
division with the third of any of its sub-units to be 
expressed in a perfect number of grains, the whole 
arrangement of the subdivision immediately admits of 
simplification to an extent that was not possible before. 
The marc can then be made equal to 3 200 grains ; the 
ounce or eighth will then be 400 grains, and the dram, its 
eighth will be 50 grains ; or, by an alternative arrangement, 
it may be preferred to make the commercial pound 8 ooo 
grains, the marc 4 ooo grains, the ounce its eighth = 500 
grains. 



256 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART 11. 

On the whole, then, it may be safely said that com- 
bined modes of subdivision are generally troublesome, 
though various combinations of the binary with the deci- 
mal system may be so devised as to be convenient, also 
that the simple binary, or the simple decimal mode of 
subdivision are severally in their own ways the best, the 
one being suited to commercial, the other to scientific 
and geodetic purposes. 

This being generally well-accepted by those conver- 
sant with the subject, it becomes of interest to draw 
conclusions as regards the best practicable mode that 
could be adopted in England. 

Already the distinction between scientific units at 
32 and commercial units at 62 is fully recognised, both 
by officials and the general public. Hence the English 
scientific system should consist of purely decimal units 
at 32, belonging to existing measures. This is carried 
out in the English scientific system described in a 
succeeding chapter and used throughout the tables. 
This system, extending over a wide range, can then 
form the skeleton or framework for intercalation in 
rearranging the commercial units on a binary or on a 
mixed decimal and binary mode whenever requisite. A 
proposal to this effect is made among the Proposed and 
Typical systems at the end of this book. 



257 



CHAPTER II. 
THE COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 

AN examination of the English system of commercial 
measures given at the end of this chapter, and a com- 
parison between it and any other natural commercial 
system of measures in the world, will show it to be either 
as good or nearly as good as any other, excepting in 
one or two respects ; while if the whole of the circum- 
stances and conditions be taken into consideration, it 
may be considered the first, from being most suited to 
the circumstances and the people. 

A country of large commercial transactions in every 
branch of trade is necessarily most liable to a superfluity 
of measures ; and hence also to a considerable amount 
of incongruity ; but when the extent and the diversity 
of English commerce is borne in mind it is a fact 
worthy of notice that the natural English system is a 
single system, having one foot, one mile, one acre, one 
pound, one gallon, and one bushel. 

It will not, it is true, bear comparison with the 
French system as a scientific one, although it is in- 
finitely superior to it for the commercial purposes of 
weighing and measuring in ordinary trade transactions ; 
in fact, the pre-eminence it has is due to the fact that it 

S 



2 S8 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART 11. 

is not a scientific system, but purely adapted to conve- 
nience in commerce at an ordinary temperature. 1 

A purely artificial scientific system may be devised 
in a day, and with hardly any thought or care. The 
length of anyone's walking-stick may be taken as the 
basic unit of length, and a decimal system may be de- 
rived from it which will have a perfect uniformity and 
simplicity. As for the names, Greek and Latin affixes, 
or even German and French affixes, may be easily 
applied. But such a system would necessarily nearly 
ignore the exact wants of many branches of trade ; and 
the haphazard plan of applying in trade the nearest 
applicable unit afforded by such a process is not a satis- 
factory one, as it amounts to a practical indifference to 
the requirements of commerce. 

A commercial system of measures requires time 
for perfect development ; it must be suited to the race, 
and their forms of thought and calculation ; it must also 
prove its suitability to all trading purposes through a 
long practical employment ; and finally, all improvement 
and systematisation, readjustments and rejections, should 
be gradual alterations, aiming at the perfect development 
of the original system, and at a convenient practical 
uniformity and simplicity, without violent departures, or 
borrowing extraneous measures from other nations. 

Among the systems of Northern Europe, the Swedish, 

1 Professor Piazzi Smyth's remark on this subject is : ' Your con- 
clusions and methods are strictly rational, but do not enter into the religious 
history of man,' &c. February 20, 1877. 

The following is the opinion of the late Warden of the Standards : 
' There can be no question of the greater convenience of our Weights and 
Measures over those of the Metric System for the practical purposes of 
weighing and measuring ; the units have been adopted as the most conve- 
nient, and our system is far better than the metric system ; but for pur- 
poses of account it is inferior to it,' &c. August 26, 1878. 



CH. ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 259 

the Danish, and the Prussian systems (see pages 289, &c.) 
seem to be complete and regular. 

The Swedish system is excellent ; its measures of 
capacity are arranged in strict accordance with cubic 
measure ; but it is deficient as regards the measures of 
weight ; the relation of weight to capacity is either 
doubtful or non-existent, while the large number of 
various pounds used for different purposes till very lately 
constituted a serious drawback. 

The Danish system is also an excellent one ; its basic 
unit, the foot, is based on the length of a simple pen- 
dulum beating seconds at sea-level in vacuo at a latitude 
of 45 ; and thus possesses the peculiarity of not being 
dependent on the exactitude of preserved standards, 
although the reconstruction of a standard would involve 
rather intricate reduction of value. The Danish foot is 
also adopted in the Prussian system as the Rheinfuss ; 
while the whole of the Danish system is used in Nor- 
way, although there may be some differences due to 
slight fluctuation of value in the-standards. The Danish 
measures of capacity are arranged in accordance with 
cubic measure, although they have not the same regular 
binary arrangement that constitutes the beauty of the 
Swedish and of the English system. The Danish com- 
mercial pound is the weight of -fa of a cubic foot of 
water at a normal temperature, and this scientific ar- 
rangement renders the system complete ; it has, however, 
the defect that there is also a second pound for monetary 
and perhaps for a few other purposes. 

The English system will compare favourably with 
both the Swedish and Danish systems as regards the 
regularity of its measures of capacity and their sub- 
division, though connection between weight and capacity 

s 2 



260 METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



is inferior ; while, now that separate Troy weight and 
apothecaries' weight are both legally abolished, it has the 
advantage of having a single series of weight-units. 

The Prussian system is in some respects superior to 
the Danish and Swedish systems, in others not so good. 
It has two sorts of foot-measures, one the Rheinfuss, the 
other a geometric foot, a tenth of the ruthe ; it has two 
pounds, one the commercial pound, another the medi- 
cinal pound of 12 ounces, a double method in vogue 
in Germany generally, from which English measures are 
free. The Prussian measures of capacity are in accord- 
ance with cubic-measure, being in aliquot ratios to 
them. The subdivision of the capacity- measures is well 
arranged in accordance with trade requirements from the 
quart to the fuder and the malter. The measures of 
weight are in accordance with the capacity-measures, 
the commercial pound being -gig- of a cubic foot of water 
in vacua at the temperature of 1 5 Reaumur ; while the 
marc or half-pound retained is the ancient unit, the Coin 
marc but slightly varied in value ; the other measures 
of weight follow the forms of multiple and sub-multiple 
well suited to German custom. 

If, after scrutinising these three systems, the English 
system be examined, its advantages and defects become 
more clearly apparent. Its single system of linear 
measures is free from two sorts of foot, pole, or mile, or 
two sorts of inch faults common to German systems ; 
its single system of measures of surface, one square 
pole, rood, and acre, is also an advantage, although it 
must be admitted that the acre is inconvenient from 
the acreside not being a round number. The remedy 
for this defect could be easily supplied by the adoption 
of the square furlong as a hide, which would be the 



CH. ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 261 

64th part of a square mile, while its side would be a 
furlong or 220 yards exactly : the hide would then 
be equal to 40 roods, or 10 acres, and the rood equal 
to 40 perches as before, without altering any measures 
at all ; and the acre could be permissively retained 
until it became unnecessary and practically obsolete. 
A further improvement in the series of surface units 
might be effected by making the rood exactly 10000 
instead of 10890 square feet. The present series, though 
single, is exceedingly bad as regards subdivision. 

The series of English measures of capacity form a 
nearly complete binary system, equalled only by the 
Swedish ; they are deficient, however, in one most im- 
portant respect, that of not being in convenient accord- 
ance -with cubic measure ; for instance, the gallon is 
nominally 277-273844 cubic inches, and the whole sys- 
tem is correspondingly defective. The principle of 
basing the gallon on an arbitrary old French pound 
avoirdupois, that was never any part of the early English 
or Anglo-Saxon system, has been the cause of this 
difficulty. In the earlier period the gallon was eight 
pounds of wine, the pound being then an English pound. 
The incorporation of the French pound, after Cressy and 
Poitiers, into the English system thus disarranged the 
whole of the measures of capacity. The accordance of 
the latter with the measures of weight is, however, well 
defined. 

There is also a defect in the upper part of the series ; 
they do not correspond above the gallon for both wet 
and dry measures ; the bushel is 8 gallons, the quarter 
8 bushels, and the chaldron 4^ quarters in dry measure ; 
while in wet measure the firkin is 9 gallons, the kilderkin 
1 8 gallons, and the barrel 36 gallons. Formerly and 



262 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

for nearly a century and a half, the barrel of ale was 32 
gallons, the kilderkin 16 and the firkin 8 gallons ; the 
firkin and bushel being identical in capacity ; the Eliza- 
bethan barrel of wine was also 32 gallons. 

In the lower part of the scale the objection that a 
minim was not exactly a grain in weight has been met 
by introducing a series of liquid-grain measures into the 
system which will eventually perhaps supersede the old 
minim-measures entirely. 

Proceeding to the English measures of weight, the 
utmost that can be said for them is that they form a 
single system, one pound, one quarter, one hundred- 
weight, and one-ton ; there are not two sorts of liespfund 
and two sorts of schiffpfund, as in the German system, 
nor 5 -or 6 liespfund -and markpfund, as in the Swedish 
system. But beyond this advantage of simplicity and 
unity, there remains hardly a single advantage. The 
ounce is not exactly the 10 1 00 of a cubic foot of water, 
although very nearly so, and thus the adjustment of the 
whole series is imperfect. The Danish pound is -gL-, and 
the Prussian pound -^ of the respective local cubic foot 
of water, but until the English ounce is made exactly 
the YOO~O f a cubic foot of water, and the pound the 
7o~oo~> the connection is imperfect. The error in adjust- 
ment is less than ^ per cent., and could be easily 
effected as soon as the misplaced veneration for the 
French avoirdupois pound has faded, without causing 
any. serious disturbance in commercial transactions. 

The subdivision of the English commercial pound 
is at present clumsy. It consists of 16 ounces, while 
the ounce is 16 drams, and the pound is also divided 
into 7000 grains, thus making the ounce 437^ grains, 
and the dram 27-34375 grains. The cause of this very 



CH, ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 263 

inconvenient arrangement must be sought at its source ; 
the avoirdupois pound originally consisted of 7680 
grains, and thus the ounce was 480 grains, and the 
dram 30 grains ; but as the old Troy pound consisted 
of 5760 Troy grains, and the avoirdupois pound was 
equivalent to 7000 of these Troy grains, the avoirdupois 
grain was abolished in the reorganisation of 1824, and the 
Troy grain alone retained ; this unfortunate combination 
of Troy and avoirdupois measures has brought about 
the above result. It would have been better to have 
entirely abolished the Troy and the medicinal systems 
without retaining the Troy grain. A grain of either 
64 * 00 or of -g oVo f the pound avoirdupois would give 
convenient values in grains to both the ounce and the 
dram. 

It may be here mentioned that there is a widespread 
belief that there are still three stones existing in the 
English system, one of 14 Ibs., one of 10 Ibs., and one of 8 
Ibs. ; the old meat stone of 8 Ibs. is, however, declared an 
obsolete illegal measure in the Warden's Annual Report 
for 1876-7 ; while a stone of wool, or a stone of flour 
has always been 14 Ibs. ; the retention of obsolete 
measures in parts of the country cannot therefore be 
urged as a defect in the system itself. 

If then the advantages of the English system balance 
its defects, or even nearly so, and allowance be made on 
the score of the immense commerce of England in com- 
parison with that of Sweden, Denmark, and Prussia, and 
the consequent difficulty in effecting modification and 
improvement of measures, the English system may be 
fairly considered as good as any of them for purposes of 
trade. 

While examining the systems of other countries a 



26 1 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

marked line must be drawn between the natural systems 
peculiar to those countries and the artificial or metric 
and modified metric systems. The natural systems of 
the Hanse towns, Hamburg and Bremen, and those of 
Saxony, Brunswick, Gotha, Mecklenburg, and Olden- 
burg are inferior in systematisation to the Prussian 
system, although resembling it generally, and hence 
require no special comment. 

The Austro- Hungarian system can hardly be said to 
present any preponderating advantages either as a 
system or from the values of its units, or the connection 
between them ; in this latter respect it appears rather un- 
fortunate. Its advantages rather lie in the fact that it is 
or was a single imperial system adopted to a wide extent 
over many provinces, and that these centralised Austrian 
measures, perhaps inferior in themselves, were important 
from their wide acceptation. The Hungarian units 
given in Part I. are not European but Asiatic, and are 
parallel with Ottoman measures. The South German sys- 
tems of Bavaria and of Wiirtemberg correspond slightly 
to the Austrian system, more especially the former. 
Of these three, the Wiirtemberg system is by far the 
most simple and well-arranged generally ; decimalisation 
is adopted, where applicable, among the inches, feet, 
and poles or ruthen, and binary subdivision is employed 
throughout the measures of capacity generally as most 
suited to them. The triple system of liquid measure, 
the hellaichmass (for clarified wine), the triibmass or 
mostmass (for unclarified wine or wort), and the schenk- 
mass for retail sale, is the principal defect in these South 
German systems. In North Germany the double system 
of visirmass for gauging and schenkmass for retail sale 
is sufficiently troublesome, but on the whole the North- 



CH. ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 265 

German systems are much superior to those of Southern 
Germany. 

The Russian system bears a strong similarity to the 
English ; the Russian foot is identical with the English 
foot, thus making that unit the most widespread and 
largely-used linear measure of the whole world ; and 
the whole of the Russian measures of capacity are based 
on weight, the vedro containing 30 Ibs. of water, the 
tschetverka 64 Ibs., and the whole of the rest in accord- 
ance with the English method. The Russians still, 
however, possess two pounds or funt, one the commercial, 
the other the German medicinal pound of Nuremberg. 
The dessatina of 2400 square sasheen is in accordance 
with English measure, the sasheen or fathom being 
exactly 7 English feet ; and the werst, of 500 linear 
sasheen, is 3500 English feet. A peculiarity in the 
Russian series of weight-units deserves notice ; both the 
stone and the hundredweight are absent, but there is a 
pud of 40 pounds, a berkowitz of 10 pud or 400 pounds, 
and a ton of 6 berkowitz. The pud is nearly half an 
English foot-weight or talent, about 36 pounds avoir- 
dupois, and the berkowitz appears an approximate load 
of nearly 3 English hundredweight. The load (a camel 
load), perhaps the most widely used weight-unit, thus 
becomes important in the Russian system. The arrange- 
ment indicates that stones and hundredweights may be 
dispensed with in a commercial system. The accord- 
ance between English and Russian measures renders 
English and American tabular and scientific values of 
great value to the Russian, a convenience of which they 
avail themselves to the utmost 

A further increased similarity of the Russian and 
English measures may probably be made after the 



255 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

English pound has been adjusted to cubic measure, as 
before explained ; in that case the Russians would be 
wise to discard their two pounds, and adopt the single 
English pound as the basis of their systems of weight 
and capacity, thus completing the correspondence in 
every respect, and making one foot and one pound, of 
-j-j-jL-ths cubic foot of water, the most commonly used 
units in the world. 

The French system, adopted for commercial purposes 
since 1840 in France, Holland, and Italy, and more 
recently adopted by other nations that are now in the 
unenviable state of transition from natural to artificial 
measures, may be said to be at present the most perfect 
system for scientific purposes and for purposes of cal- 
culation ; these advantages would, however, be attained 
by any rigid decimal system. 

For the ordinary purposes of commerce, and for all 
operations of weighing and measuring, it is of consider- 
ably less value. The units themselves, the metre and the 
kilogramme, are particularly inconvenient and perfectly 
arbitrary ; they coalesce with none of the natural mea- 
sures of Europe, and are devoid of significance ; the 
metre is not, as was once supposed, a geodetic unit, and 
the kilogrammes of ordinary use are copies of the kilo- 
gramme de rObservatoire, which is a doubtful copy of 
the kilogramme des archives, whose density cannot be 
determined by immersion from fear of injury. This 
latter kilogramme was the solitary standard originally 
made in 1799 by Fortin. The accepted description of 
the mode in which this cylinder was scraped to the 
size necessary to represent the weight of a decilitre of 
water, and its doubtful density, render its relation to a 
cubic decimetre of water rather doubtful from a scientific 



CH, ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 267 

point of view, while its copies twice removed are not 
likely to be better. 

Apart from the excessive pretensions of the metric 
system, and the method of propagating it by compli- 
mentary expressions and devices, there cannot be found 
any advantage in it beyond that already mentioned, 
which would be inseparable from almost any complete 
and rigid decimal system. 

The disadvantage in commercial dealings arising 
from the want of binary subdivision in the metric system 
is partly amended by using double measures and half 
measures of each unit in the decimal scale. 

The transition period of measures in France, during 
which old measures were still actually, though perhaps 
not legally, in use, must have been nearly half a century 
a considerable disadvantage. But drawbacks of this 
description were trivial to a nation that had an enor- 
mous number of old measures in inextricable confusion, 
probably more than a hundred values of units of land- 
measure, and so forth. The large variety of measures 
in former use in France, in Italy, and in the Nether- 
lands rendered any new single system a boon ; the 
same may also be said of the Empire of Germany. 

In the British Empire there is fortunately no such 
multiplicity of measures as to demand their abolition in 
favour of the introduction of the metric system, and if a 
decimal system were required, the decimalisation of some 
of the units in common use could be much more conve- 
niently effected and applied in commerce. Besides, our 
experience in the past, from the adoption of the French 
avoirdupois and Troy pounds in preference to the old 
Anglo-Saxon merchant's pound, or any of the really 
English pounds, and the incubus they have been to our 



268 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

system up to the present day, constitute a standing 
warning against adopting the newest French fashion in 
measures, apart from the difficulties of a transition period, 
which would be probably greater in England than 
they were in France. 

On an examination of the metric measures that 
have become actual commercial units, apart from the 
nominal metric measures that are mere names, the first and 
most striking peculiarity that presents itself is the rarity 
of the cases in which the values approximate to any of 
the natural measures of the civilised world, and the utter 
impossibility of reducing metric values to natural values 
in any system, by means of simple multipliers and divisors. 
This last feature renders any attempt or proposition to 
incorporate metric measures in the natural measures 
of any country perfectly impracticable. This is perhaps 
extremely fortunate as saving much confusion that 
would otherwise accrue from the efforts of the metre- 
propagators ; in fact, as far as can be discovered, there 
has been only one such attempt yet made, the result 
being that the two sets of units remained purely 
distinct. 

Taking the commercial metric units in detail, the 
metre answers the purposes of the English yard, the 
Spanish and Portuguese vara, and the stab, or double 
ell of Germany, and corresponds to the half-fathom of 
some other nations ; it is therefore a practically useful 
unit. The centimetre of about half an inch of most 
nations is a small and rather inconvenient unit ; the 
decimetre is of little utility in measurement, and the 
millimetre is too small for most commercial purposes, 
its utility being confined to scientific employment and 
purposes of numerical expression. The kilometre is a 



CH. ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 269 

small mile, which possesses no intrinsic advantage apart 
from its decimal advantages. These decimal advantages 
must be considered as perfectly separable matters, not 
as inherent in the metric system. The metric units of 
length are hence, with one exception, exceedingly 
inferior as commercial units, while the absence of any 
unit of length approaching in value to the foot of most 
civilised nations is a most serious defect. The nominal 
metric units of length the decametre, the hectometre, 
and myriametre, and the double decametre or chain of 
20 metres, can hardly be considered as accepted com- 
mercial units of linear measurement. 

Among the metric units of surface, which are 
excellently arranged with regard to each other, the 
square metre is a practically useful unit ; the hectare of 
about 2\ English acres is nowhere near the surface-units 
of any civilised nation, with the solitary exception of 
Russian dessatina ; and the square kilometre does not 
approximate to any known square mile. The decimal 
interdependence of the metric surface-units is exceed- 
ingly convenient ; a square kilometre being 100 hectares, 
a hectare 100 ares, and an are 100 square metres ; but this 
would accompany any decimal system based on other 
non-metric units. There hence appears to be only one 
really useful and convenient commercial unit in this 
series, while the rest are hap-hazard decimal multiples. 

In the metric measures of capacity, the litre is the 
basic unit ; theoretically, this represents the volume of a 
cubic decimetre ; but as, in fact, there is no such primary 
standard cubic decimetre of capacity, the litre is merely 
a measure containing a kilogramme weight, of water, 
that cannot be practically tested, but merely verified by 
computation. This defect is due to the temperature of 



2 ;o METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

4 Centigrade being taken as the standard for the water, 
and that of o for the vessel. 

As a commercial unit, the litre is excellent ; it is a 
very convenient and practical bottle-measure of wine or 
any liquid, and specially useful among nations with 
whom wine is an article of daily food and ordinary 
consumption. The decilitre and centilitre are mere 
decimal sub-multiples of the litre, and unimportant as 
units ; the cubic centimetre or millilitre, equal to about 
15 English liquid-grains or 17 minims, is the druggist's 
small unit of capacity. Whether such a quarter-dram 
is a practically convenient unit or not is very doubtful ; 
apparently it is either too small or too large ; all the 
assumed advantages in connection with it are really only 
those of decimalisation. The hectolitre of about 2| 
English bushels is nowhere near any corresponding 
grain-measure, scheffel, or fanega, of civilised nations. 
Among the metric measures of capacity, the litre-bottle 
is therefore the only commercial unit of practical con- 
venience. 

Continuing to measures of weight, the gramme is too 
large a unit for the more delicate commercial purposes 
for which other nations employ a grain ; though in 
scientific matters its decimal sub-multiples down to the 
milligramme effect all the objects of persons quite indif- 
ferent about the values of the units they employ. The 
kilogramme is more than double the pound of any civi- 
lised nation in Europe, and hence an inconvenient unit 
as regards value, but it certainly is an approximation to 
the Turkish oka and the Indian seer, the former being 
about a fourth more, the latter about a tenth less. The 
quintal resembles the kilogramme in its relation to the 
units of other nations, the hundredweights, centners, and 



CH. ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 271 

quintals of Europe, and also is distant from the cantaros 
and maunds of Asia. The millier, bar, or tonne, some- 
times also called a tonneau, is, however, a practically 
useful metric ton, and thus forms the solitary metric unit 
of weight that possesses real commercial convenience. 

Summarising the results of the foregoing examination, 
the metric system affords the following convenient com- 
mercial units, the metre and its square and cube, the 
litre and the metric ton ; or one unit of length, one of 
surface, one of capacity, and one of weight, while the 
rest are unimportant decimal multiples and submultiples. 
Could any decimal system do less ? Apparently not, 
unless devised with the declared object of ignoring all 
commercial convenience. It is, however, possible that 
any English schoolboy would decimalise better for 
English purposes on a walking-stick selected by him 
from a bundle. As a French scientific system, the 
metric system is excellent, for the single contact with 
natural commercial measures in each class is just suffi- 
cient for all such purposes ; as a French commercial 
system it is an inferior one, adopted as a preferable alter- 
native to the enormous collection of heterogeneous old 
French measures ; for other nations falling into the same 
unfortunate predicament it is a pis alter, a mere mode of 
extrication ; but for any country possessing a good single 
natural system of commercial measures, it is a snare and 
a delusion, that much resembles the soufflee, the fondant, 
the champagne- mousseux, the crinoline, and other in- 
flated French inventions of puerile type. 

As a universal commercial system it is deficient 
from the fact of its being decimal, for most commercial 
nations and races are essentially binary in habit and 
form of thought. The exclusive Chinese are decimal in 



272 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

habit ; for them it would be well suited, were it not that 
all this decimalisation has been borrowed from them, and 
that they subdivide to trillionths already with habitual 
ease ; hence it might be more in accordance with the 
fitness of things for the French to have applied Chinese 
and Japanese prefixes to their metric terms. The 
Romans thought in duodecimals, the Greeks principally 
in sexagesimals, and the English, who afforded the 
French instructors in Latin in the time of Charlemagne, 1 
have, like the rest of the Indo-Germanic races, always 
thought naturally in eighths. The English system of 
measures, which is commercial in origin and develop- 
ment, would, with a small amount of modification, form 
by far the most suitable universal system for Europe and 
the world ; and even in the event of decimalisation 
superseding binary subdivision, a decimalised English 
system of measures based on English units would 
answer the corresponding purpose. 

The enormous increase of French manufactures and 
general trade since the Cobden-Saint-Simonist Treaty, 
has been frequently urged as a reason for preferring 
French to English measures as a universal system ; and 

1 In the period following the utter decadence of everything that was 
Roman, the knowledge of Latin of the higher type was alone thoroughly 
preserved in Cumbria, whence, at the special request of Charlemagne, 
Alcuin sent instructors to him for purposes of education. The ecclesiasti- 
cal Latin of Rome was certainly continuously retained through the Church 
formularies as regards pronunciation, but probably accompanied with very 
contracted notions of meaning, and but little linguistic knowledge. The 
subsequent foundation of universities and colleges all over Europe, appa- 
rently with the sole object of reviving Latinity and theologic lore, supports 
this view. 

In the Cymric ante-Roman period, Britain was the most highly 
civilised Western nation, to which young Gallic nobles were sent for 
education. France has never been pre-eminent in real civilisation, or 
deserving of imitation in matters of high importance. 



CH. ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 273 

hence this basis of argument cannot be neglected in its 
bearing on systems. It assumes that, as in the past the 
English, represented by the Cobden school of policy, 
have facilitated by treaty the loss of manufactures and 
commerce, and given English coal, iron, and manufac- 
turing power in return for Lyons silk dresses and 
ornamental fabrics, in the future this doctrine will be 
perpetuated ; that the English are bound hand-and-foot 
by a false form of free-trade, and cannot extricate them- 
selves from this vicious circle. Certainly, if at intervals 
the English make commercial treaties of that sort, Eng- 
lish trade is doomed to entire extinction ; but the 
assumption of perpetual stupidity is too far-fetched, the 
English are progressive, they do profit from experience, 
and may yet retain the most important share of the 
commerce of the world, and sustain the ascendency of 
their own measures. 

Besides the simple metric system as applied direct to 
commercial measures in France, Holland, Belgium, and 
Italy, for a long time past, there are several systems 
based on metric units, or modified metric systems, that 
either answer the purpose of a temporary or transitional 
system and lessen the abruptness of a change from 
natural to artificial measures, or afford a convenient 
relation to metric measures for countries and nations 
having a trade exclusively connected with that of others 
whose system is already metric. 

The systems of this class are the French mesures 
iisuelles, used from 1812 to 1840, as transitional; the 
Baden system, used from 1810 till lately; the Darmstadt 
system, adopted in the Grand Duchy of Hesse since 1818 ; 
and the Waadt system, exclusively used in the Canton 
Waadt since 1822, and partly in the Cantons Valais, 

T 



274 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

Schwcitz, Uri, Zug, Zurich, Claris, and Grisons, for 
some time, but afterwards applied to the whole of 
Switzerland. These four systems having been expressly 
devised to meet commercial convenience, are necessarily 
more suited both to purposes of ordinary trade, and to 
the people that use them, than the metric system itself ; 
the latter being, on the other hand, preferable for scienti- 
fic purposes only. The values of the commercial units 
of these systems are multiples and sub-multiples of 
metric units, but have local names in accordance with 
the old local measures ; such units are necessarily -quite 
out of accordance with any natural measures as regards 
exactitude, but approximate to them for purposes of 
convenience. It is evident that these systems in 
coalescing with metric units are cut adrift from all natu- 
ral measures, and aim at adaptation to metric measures 
in combination with a superior adaptability to com- 
mercial purposes ; in these objects they certainly succeed. 
On examining these four systems together, it will be 
noticed that the relation of the commercial foot to the 
metre is diversely fixed, thus : 

France. Baden. Hesse. Switzerland. 

Foot \ metre ^ metre \ metre ^ metre 

also the French pied usuel is divided into 12 inches, 
and in the other three cases tke foot is divided into 10 
parts or tithes. These arrangements have important effect 
on the development in the square and cubic measures. Of 
these methods the Hessian is certainly preferable. 

In surface-measures, the principal unit in each case 
holds some connection with the metric hectare, and with 
the smaller units of its own system, thus : 



CH. ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 275 

France. Baden. Hesse. Switzerland. 

Surface unit "\ l nectare '3 6 hectare 0-25 hectare 0-45 hectare 

pose or morgen f loos( l uare 4 oo square 400 square 500 square 
J perches ruthen ruthen ruthen 

In small units of capacity the distinctive unit is thus 
connected with the litre, and with the smaller cubic 
units of its own system : 

France. Baden. Hesse. Switzerland 

Mass, or small "\ I litre I -5 litre 2 litres I -35 litre 

unit J 8^5 cub. toise 55f cub. in. 128 cub. in. 500 cub. in. 

The pound adopted is a half-kilogramme in every case. 

The modes of subdivision adopted for the measures of 
capacity as well as throughout the four systems gene- 
rally, are thus : 

France. Baden. Hesse. Switzerland. 

Mode of sub- '\ Mixed Purely Binary Nearly 

division / decimal decimal. 

Taking the connections of the measures with the 
cubic measures of the respective systems, that of 
Switzerland is the most convenient, that of Hesse corre- 
spondingly good for a binary system, while that of 
Baden, though regular, is clumsy, and that of France is 
convenient but rather irregular. 

The comparison of these four systems of the same 
class of arbitrary artificial measures, adopted with 
untrammelled choice under very much the same condi- 
tions, affords a most useful and instructive example to 
those that advocate modified metric measures for Eng- 
land, America, or any other country, possessing a large 
trade with France, and wishing to satisfy both the 
internal and the export requirements of trade-conveni- 
ence by a single intermediate system. Of the above 
four attempts, the Hessian system seems the preferable 
one in almost every respect ; but whether any of these 

T 2 



276 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

methods is worthy of imitation is very doubtful ; pro- 
bably the English method of using the purely metric 
system itself as a legally permissive system, whenever 
it may happen to suit the circumstances of a case, is a 
better alternative. 

Returning to the subject of the natural measures and 
systems of measures of the past century, after this di- 
gression on the subject of artificial or metric units and 
measures, it may be here noticed that it has not been 
considered worth while to introduce in this book the old 
French measures existing before 1799, nor the old mea- 
sures of the Netherlands. They were voluminous and 
complicated to a fearful degree, and now that they have 
not only been legally abolished, but also been allowed to 
fall into practical oblivion, for a very long time, they are 
seldom referred to. Even in local books, when these 
measures are referred to, their values in new measures 
generally accompany them. The old French measures 
that were principally in use at Paris have not entirely 
yet vanished from France ; persons still talk of and sell 
onces of tobacco, and acres, arpents, &c. of land in France 
itself ; in the French Antilles and some of the French 
possessions they are still referred to ; while in the 
Canadian province of Quebec the perche and the arpent 
de Paris were legally abolished only last year. Doubt- 
less, there are many persons ready to inform one that 
all old French measures were abolished by law in 
the month Germinal of the year III. of the French 
Republic ; in spite of this, stern facts remain, and require 
explanation. 

The collection of old Parisian measures is therefore 
given among the tables of systems ; but as a rule the 
older measures of various countries, that have existed 



CH. ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 277 

or been in use within the present century, and survive 
in language, books, and records, rather than in actual 
use, will be found not among the tables of systems but 
among the tables of measures in Part I., under the heads 
of Former Local or Special Values. 

The old Italian measures, the German measures 
that have been for a long time abolished, and the old 
Swiss measures, will be thus found. As regards the 
German measures that have been abolished by law in 
the last few years and are merely surviving through a 
transitional period, these are necessarily treated in this 
book as recent measures still existing, because reference 
to them is frequently made and their values in English 
and in French terms are often wanted. 

The Spanish and the Portuguese measures are sup- 
posed to have been abolished even as long ago as the 
Italian measures, and to have similarly made way for 
French metric measures. Though the old Italian mea- 
sures have, uith the exception of various local land- 
measures, been completely abolished as regards reference 
and expression, as well as by law, the Spanish measures 
have not yet vanished to the same degree. 

The Spanish system is on the whole a good one ; 
it much resembles the English in its advantages and 
defects, though certainly less simple and hence inferior; 
it requires a comparatively small amount of modification 
and adjustment to render it an excellent system, and far 
superior for commercial purposes to the metric system 
partially adopted in preference to it. The linear mea- 
sures, up to the furlong of an eighth of a mile, and the 
mile of 5000 feet, are good and more simple than the 
corresponding English measures. The square measures' 
include some rather complicated land-units ; and if 



278 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

the celemin, fanegada, and yugada were replaced by a 
square furlong and a square mile (in the same way as is 
much wanted in England), this class of measures would 
also become perfect. 

The Spanish measures of capacity are, like the 
English, independent of local cubic measure ; the dry- 
measures are simple and convenient units, but the liquid- 
measures, from having two arrobas and four butts of 
various sorts, inclusive of pipes, are extremely incon- 
venient. Were the term arroba abolished from the 
capacity-measures, and the whole of the liquid capacity- 
measures readjusted in strict accordance with the dry- 
measures, as well as with the cubic units, the whole 
would form a useful commercial system. The origin of 
the Spanish capacity-units is probably the makuk, and 
other Moorish and Arab units ; while the Spanish cubic 
units are Gothic ; hence the divergence of the two series. 

The Spanish measures of weight are simple, excel- 
lently arranged, and admit of little improvement ; there 
is but one pound of commerce, and the marc or half- 
pound is merely differently subdivided for monetary 
and medical purposes; the arroba of 25 pounds, the 
quintal of 100 pounds, and the tonelada of 2000 
pounds, complete this very well-arranged class of mea- 
sures. 

The Portuguese system is greatly inferior to the 
Spanish system ; the linear measures are complicated 
by an inconvenient cubit, and an irregular mile ; the single 
land-measure, the geira of 4840 square varas, is, how- 
ever, advantageous, and so also are the liquid-measures 
which are simple ; the two alqueiras, one liquid, the 
other dry and of another value, are, however, troublesome. 
The Portuguese measures of weight resemble the Spanish 



CH. ii, EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 279 

in all respects, excepting that the multiples adopted are 
less convenient. 

The measures of Greece and Turkey in Europe will 
be given in the collection of Oriental measures in the 
following chapter, as they belong to a type distinct from 
the generality of European measures. 

It may be here noticed that systems of the European 
type are markedly distinct from Oriental and Asiatic 
measures, apart from causes referable to mere geo- 
graphical position and location of the races using them. 

It is perhaps quite possible to assign an Asiatic 
origin or derivation for every measure in the world at 
present in existence ; but in* some cases this derivation 
is very remote, in others comparatively so, and in a few 
cases hardly admits of being clearly traced. European 
measures under their own distinctive type have become 
changed in a way peculiar to themselves, and differ in 
system and in arrangement from the Oriental systems 
from which they may have been derived. 

The Moslem sway carried Oriental measures over 
North Africa, parts of Southern Europe, and the whole 
of Western Asia. The retention of those measures in the 
countries from which the Moors and Moslems were ex- 
pelled was not of long duration, while the measures of 
the same type are retained in Moslem countries to the 
present day. The Christian form of religion is hence 
generally associated with distinctive type of measures, 
nearly peculiar to Europe at one period, but subsequently 
carried into America, where few indigenous measures 
are known to have existed. The peculiarities princi- 
pally consist in the adoption of a foot as a basic standard 
unit of length, in preference to a cubit or ell, in using a 
pound as a standard unit of weight in preference to an 



280 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n 

oka or larger unit, and in employing a systematised 
series of true measures of capacity in preference to 
measures of weight for liquid and dry merchandise. 
The adoption of these three principles seems to be dis- 
tinctive of a race free from Moslem sway, and generally 
but not always peculiar to a Christian and European 
race. Any single one of these three principles may be 
ultra-European ; thus the Arab rottal and vakia corre- 
spond exactly to European pounds and ounces, but the 
Arab foot is, when retained, not the primary unit of 
length, but gives way to the cubit ; in China there is 
both a foot and a pound, but in China and Eastern Asia 
generally the capacity-measures are merely nominal, 
often hardly known to the masses, and replaced entirely 
by measures of weight in trade transactions. In 
Southern India, and the Burmese peninsula, beyond the 
limits of Moslem preponderance, true measures of capa- 
city may be found, but then in most cases either the foot 
or the pound is missing. Such races have a geographical 
location at present widely distinct from that of the 
European races, and markedly separated from them, by 
'the intervening extent of continent long retained under 
Moslem sway. The division of the measures of the 
world into three great classes, the European or Christian, 
the Oriental or Moslem, and the East-Asiatic or Pagan, 
is hence comparatively well-defined. As to indigenous 
African measures little is known, the North African 
measures being Oriental, and the South and East 
African measures facing clearly assignable to an East- 
Asiatic origin. The indigenous American measures, 
like the aboriginal American races, have become matters 
of archaic curiosity. 



CH. ii. EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 281 

The collection of the European systems of commercial 
measures here given is arranged in order as follows : 

1. Early English Measures. The Present English 
System. Conversion Tables. 

2. The Russian ; the Danish and Norwegian ; and 
the Swedish Systems. 

3. North German Systems (ten in number). 

4. South German Systems : Austria, Bavaria, and 
Wiirtemburg. 

5. The Spanish and Portuguese Systems. 

6. The Old Measures of Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels, 
Florence, and Venice. 

7. Metric Systems. I. Present French System of 
France, Italy, and the Netherlands, with Conversion 
Tables ; 2. The Mesures usuelles ; 3. The Baden System ; 
4. The Hessian System ; 5- The Swiss System. 



282 METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



Early English and Anglo-Saxon measures, 
Inch=3 barleycorns ......... 

Foot=i2 inches .......... 

Yard or ell=3 feet=l6 nails ; (the Elizabethan ell = 45 inches abolished) 
Rod (decemped or perch)=io feet ...... 

Pole=5^ yards ; (also poles of 6, 7, and 8 yards, and of 25 feet) 
Furlong=4o poles ......... 

London mile= i ooo paces =5 ooo feet ... . 

Common mile =8 furlongs =5 280 feet ... . 

Square pole = 30 J square yards 

Rood=4o square poles 

Acre=4 roods . . 

Hide=ioo acres . ......... 

London (Stricken) measures for wine, corn and all produce. 
Pint or pound of wine = nearly 29 cubic inches .... 

Gallon=8 pounds=23i cubic inches ...... 

Bushel=8 gallons 04 pounds=i848 cubic inches 
Quarter=8 bushels=5 12 pounds= 14784 cubic inches. 
Chaldron=4 quarters=ii8272 cubic inches. .... 

Reputed Winchester and other measures, someti?nes heaped. 

Old Winchester corn gallon stricken = 268*8 cubic inches 
bushel =2150-4 

chaldron=36 Winchester bushels stricken . 

Elizabethan ale gallon=282 cubic inches ..... 

Revived ancient measures 1 /T -, \ , . . , 

Queen Annian wine gallon } (London measure) = 23 x cubic mches 

coal bushel =-33 wine quarts=22i8"48 cubic inches 

Modern Winchester gallon of William III. = 272^ 

bushel=6o Ibs. of wheat^= 2 150*42 

Imperial gallon of 1824=277-274 ,, 

Weight-units. 

Anglo-Saxon marc=8 ounces=i6opence=5i2o grains 
Moneyers' pound= i \ marc= 1 2 oz. = 20 sh. = 240 pence = 7680 grs. 
Merchants' pound=i5 oz. = 25 shillings=96oo grains . 
Commercial pound=2 marcs=i6 ounces= 10240 grains 
Foreigners' pound (Dutch weight)=i6 foreign 0^ = 256 for. drms. 
Troypound=i2 troy ounces =240 penny weights= 5 7 60 troy grains, "1 

used for bread till 1709. . . . . . . ./ 

Avoirdupois pound=i6 avoirdupois oz. = 768o avoirdupois grains ; "1 

latterly =16 oz. = 256 drams=7ooo grains . j 

For Standard Temperatures 



CH. II. 



EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 



283 



Equivalents 




French 


in present English 




Equivalents. 


Commercial Measures. 


N 


r. 


. still retained 


25-39 millim. 


** &-^ d >! 

<1J Cj r^2 g j- O 


. . 


5) 


304*71 


_^ *~O o 4 _r1 *- 


. 




0*9141 metre. 


^ 5 -s|^ 


retained in Canada &c. 


3*0471 metres. 


hell* 





. still retained 


5-0277 


8 8 f ?? 




? 


0*2011 kilom. 


r * ajt'jj I' 5 retained on Indian Canals 


i'5235 


If-fi * * 


. 


. still retained 


1*6089 


*.g |1 H I 


. . . 


. retained 


25*2775 met. carr. 


H c cl, *! (/" "S 






lo'in ares. 


^^ D tr >~> -i-i c 

J f n i 


. . 


5) 


0*40444 hectare. 


I. . . abolished in 1701 


40-444 hectares. 


Period of Retention. 


. 0*8331 pint 




0-4730 litre. 


. 0*8331 gallon 


Generally retain - 


3-7841 litres. 


. 0*8331 bushel 


. ed till 1413, . 


3 '273 


. 0*8331 quarter 


Henry V. 


2-422 hectol. 


. 0*7405 chaldron 




, 9-687 


eaped to 272 cub. in. "1 Retained till 1701 " 
eapedto 2218 cub. in. J William III. 


4-401 to 4 -45 3 lit. 
f 35-21 to 36 -32 lit. 


. 42-717 cub.' ft. 


Retained till 1713. 


13-0757 hectol. 


. i -oi 70 gallon 


1589 till 1824. 


4-6169 litres. 


. 0-8331 gallon 


> 1707 till 1824. 


> 37841 litres. 


eapedto 2815 cub. in. 


1713 till 1824. 


36-32 to 46-09 *' 


. 0-9818 gallon ] 
eaped to 2218*19 cub. in. J 


, 1701 till 1824. J 


4*4573 litres. 
35-21 to 36-32 lit. 


i- gallon 


retained 


4-5417 litres. 



3600 grains 



675 
7200 

7600 



7000 



see Chapter VI. 



"1 Abolished, f 233-277 grammes. 



Abolished, 
Edward III. 



Edward III. [349-915 
J 437*393 

1 492'472 



45 3 593 



Introduced Ed. 
III., retained. 



28 4 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



Present English Commercial Measures at 62 Fahr. 



Commercial Units 


Dec. Scientific Equivalent 


Inch . . . . . . 


0-83308 tithe 


Nail . = 2\ inches . 


0-18745 foot 


Hand . = 4 inches 


0-33324 foot 


Foot . =12 inches 


0-99971 foot 


Yard . = 3 feet . 


2-99913 feet 


Fathom = 2 yards 


5-99826 feet 


Pole . = 5^ yards 


1-64952 rod 


Furlong = 40 poles 


6*59809 chains 


Mile . = 8 furlongs . 


0-52785 league 


Square inch ...... 


0"69405 sq. tithe 


Square foot =144 square inches . 


0-99943 sq. foot 


Square yard= 9 feet 


8-99487 sq. feet 


Square pole = 30^ yards . 


2-72095 sq. rods 


Rood . = 40 sq. poles . 


1-08838 sq. chain 


Acre . = 4 roods 


4-35352 sq. chains 


Sq. furlong = 10 acres 


43-53517 sq. chains 


Sq. mile 64 square furlongs 


0-27863 sq. league 


Cubic inch ...... 


0-578205 fl. ounce 


Cubic foot =1728 cubic inches 


0'999139 cub. foot 


Cubic yard= 27 feet. 


26-976753 cub. feet 


Minim . =0*0036 cubic inch 


2-088621 fluid mils 


Liquid grain =0*0040 cubic inch 


2-291515 fluid mils 


Fluid drachm =60 minims . 


125-3172325 fluid mils 


Fluid ounce =8 fl. drms. = i*7329 c. in.. 


1 '002538 fl. ounce 


Gill . =5 fluid ounces 


5-012690 fl. ounces 


Pint . =4 gills .... 


20-050760 fl. ounces 


Bottle . =1^- pint .... 


26-734347 fl. ounces 


Quart . =2 pints .... 


4010152 fl. ounces 



1 For the decimal units see Scientific Systems in a 
N.B. The exact correspondence between capacity 



CH. II. 



EUROPEAN' COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 



285 



with their Decimal Scientific Equivalents at 32 . 1 



Commercial Units 


Dec. Scientific Equivalent 


Quart . =69*318 cubic inches 


40101 515fl. ounces 


Pottle . =2 quarts 


80-203 03 fl. ounces 


Gallon . = 2 pottles 


1 60'406 06 fl. ounces 


Peck . =2 gallons 


320-81212 fl. ounces 


Bushel . =4 pecks=i*2837 cub. ft. 


1-283 248 cub. foot 


Strike. . =2 bushels 


2-566 497 cub. feet 


Coom . =2 strikes 


51 32 994 cub. feet 


Quarter . =2 cooms= 10*2696 c. ft. . 


10-265 9878 c. feet 


Chaldron . =4^ quarters . 


461969451 c. feet 


Gallon . =277*274 cubic inches 


160-40606 fl. ounces 


Firkin . =9 gallons =1*4441 c. ft. . 


1-443 654 54 c. foot 


Kilderkin . =2 firkins 


2-887 309 cub. feet 


Barrel . =2 kilderkins=5*7766c. ft. 


5-774 61 8 cub. feet 


Hogshead . i\ barrel=8*6649 c. ft . 


8-661 927 cub. feet 


Butt . . =2 hogsheads . 


17-323 854 cub. feet 


Tun . . 2 butts=34*6596 c. ft . 


34-647 709 cub. feet 


. , L f 2=; 2*41-; 8 grs. 
Inch-weight = < 22,. Jt M 


] 0-577 7445 ounce 


I 0*57705 oz. . 


J 


Foot- weight = 62*321 pounds . 


0'998 3425 foot-wt 


Yard-weight = 15*0238 cwt 


26-955 2475 foot-wt 


Grain . . . . . 


2-288 478 mils 


Com. drachm = 27*34375 grs. . 


62-575 55 mils 


Med. drachm = 54*6875 grs. 


125151 1 mils 


6o-grain drachm ..... 


137-308 666 mils 


Ounce . =437i grains . 


1-001 209 ounce 


Pound . = 1 6 ounces . 


16-01 9 344 ounces 


Stone . . = 14 pounds . 


224-270 76 ounces 


Quarter . = 2 stone 


448-541 52 ounces 


Cental . =100 pounds . 


1 '601 934 foot-wt 


Hundred weight = 1 12 pounds . 


1-7941661 foot-wt 


Ton . = 20 cwt . 


35-883 21 6 foot-wt 



succeeding chapter (Chapter VI., Part II.). 

and weight does not exist in Commercial Units at 62 C 



286 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



The English Commercial System at normal temp., 62 Fahr., 



Inch . . 


0*253 9229 d&cim. 


Foot . =3 12 inches 


304 7075 metre 


Yard . . = 3 feet . 


0-9141225 


Fathom . = 2 yards 


1-8282450 


Rod . = TO feet . 


3 '047 075 metres 


Pole . . =. 5! yards 


5-0276738 


Chain (Gunter's) = 4 poles . 


20-110695 


Chain (Ramsden's)= 100 feet 


30-470 750 


Furlong . = 40 poles 


201*106950 


Mile . . = 8 furlongs . 


i -608 8556 kilom. 


Square inch . . . 


0-0644768 de'c. carr. 


Square foot . =144 square inches . 


0-092 8467 met. carr. 


Square yard . = 9 square feet 


' 8 35 6l 99 


Square rod . = 100 square feet 


9*284 6661 ,, 


Sq. pole . = 30^ square yards . 


25' 2 77 3350 


Sq. chain (Gunter's) =16 sq. poles . 


4-044 4005 ares 


Sq. chain (Ramsden's) = ioo sq. rods . 


9-284 6661 ,, 


Rood . . =E 40 sq. poles . 


lo'in 0013 


Acre . . = 4 roods 


0-4044401 hectare 


Square furlong = 10 acres 


4*0444005 hectares 


Square mile . = 64 square furlongs 


2*5884163 kil. carr. 


Cubic inch ...... 


16*372 1492 cent. cub. 


Cubic foot . =1728 cubic inches 


28-291 0738 dec. cub. 


Cubic yard . = 27 cubic feet 


0*763 8590 met. cub. 


Minim . . =773- f a fluid ounce . 


0*05914 millilitre 


Liquid grain = 7Tr iW of a gallon 


0*06488 


Fluid drachm = 60 minims . 


3-54823 millilitres 


Fluid ounce . = 8 fluid drachms . 


28-38587 


Gill , = 5 fluid ounces 


0*141 929 litre 


Pint = 4 gills. 


o'567 7i7 


Bottle -r = i pint 


0756 956 



For connecting values of Measures of Capacity, Cubic 
For English Scientific Values at 32 Fahrenheit, 



CH. II. 



EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 



287 



with French Commercial Equivalents at 32 Fah r. 





Quart . . = 2 pints 


T>1 35435 litre 




Pottle . . = 2 quarts 


2*270 869 litres 




Gallon. . = 2 pottles 


4'54i 739 




Peck . = 2 gallons 


9' 8 3477 




Bushel . = 4 pecks 


36-333909 




Strike . . = 2 bushels . 


72-667818 




Coom . = 2 strikes 


J'45335 6 hectolitre 




Quarter . = 2 cooms 


2*906 713 hectolitres 




Chaldron . 4^ quarters . 


13-080 207 




Last . . = 10 quarters . 


29-067 127 




Gallon 


4-541 739 litres 




Firkin . = 9 gallons 


40-875 647 




Kilderkin . = 2 firkins 


81751295 




Barrel . = 2 kilderkins 


1-635 26 hectolitre 





Hogshead . = i^ barrel 


2*452 539 hectolitres 




Butt . 2 hogsheads 


4-905 078 


.> 


Tun . = 2 butts 


9-810 155 




Inch-weight ..... 


16-358 998 grammes 




Foot-weight =1728 inch-weight . 


28*268 349 kilogrammes 




Yard-weight= 27 foot-weight . 


7*632 454 quintals 




Grain . . =.^-^^ of a pound 


0*064 7989 gramme 




Commercial drachm=27'344 grains 


1-771846 




Medical drachm =54-69 grains 


3*543 6 93 grammes 


) 


6o-grain drachm =60 grains . 


3-887 937 




Ounce . = 1 6 com. drachms . 


28-34954 ( 




Pound. . = 1 6 ounces 


'453 593 kilogramme 




Stone . = 14 pounds 


6-350 297 kilogrammes 




Quarter . = 2 stone 


12700594 




Cental. . = 100 pounds 


'45 3 593 quintal 




Hundred weight = 4 quarters . 


0-508 024 




Ton . = 20 hundredweight 


1*016 048 millier 


Measure and Weight, see pp. 119, 122, 141-143. 
see tables in Chapter VI., Part II. 



288 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



Conversion Tables for reducing English 



Inches into decim. Feet into metres. Yards into metres. 


0-253923 


0*304 708 


0*914 123 


0*507 846 


0*609 415 


1*828 245 


0*761 769 


0*914 123 


2*742 368 


1*015 692 


1*218830 


3*656490 


1*269 615 


I-523538 


4*570613 


I-523537 


1*828 245 


5-484735 


1*777460 


2-132953 


6*398858 


2*031383 


2*437 660 


7*312 980 


2*285 36 


2742369 


8*227 I0 3 


2*539229 


3-047 075 


9*141 225 


Sq. in. into decim. carr. Sq. ft. into metres carr. Sq. yds. into metres carr. 


0*064477 


0*092 847 


0*835 620 


0*128 954 


0*185 6 93 


1*671 240 


0*193420 


0*278 540 


2*506 860 


0*257907 


0*371 387 


3*342 480 


0*322 384 


0*464 234 


4*178 100 


0*386861 


0*557 080 


5*013720 


0*451 338 


0*649 927 


5^49339 


0*515 814 


0*742 774 


6*684959 


0*580 291 


0*835 620 


7-520579 


0*644 768 


0*928 467 


8*356 199 


Cub. in. into litres. Cub. feet into litres. Gallons into litres. 


0*016 372 


28*291 07 


4-541 739 


0*032 744 


56*582 15 


9*083 477 


0*049 116 


84*873 22 


13*625 216 


0*065 488 


113*16430 


18*166 954 


0*08 1 860 


i4i'455 37 


22*708 693 


0*098 232 


169*746 44 


27-250433 


0*114 605 


198*037 52 


31*792 170 


0*130977 


226*32859 


36*333909 


o-i47 349 


254*61967 


40*875 647 


0*163721 


282*910 74 


45-417386 



CH. II. 



EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS. 



289 



Commercial Measure into French Measure. 


Units Miles into kilom. Grains into Grammes. Ounces into kilog. 


I 


1-608856 


0-064 799 


0*028 350 


2 


3-217 711 


0-129 59** 


0*056 700 


3 


4-826 567 


0-194397 


0*085 5 


4 


6-435 422 


0-259 J 96 


0*113 4 




8-044 278 


0-323 995 


0*141 750 


6 


9^53 i34 


0-388 794 


0*170 100 


7 


11-261 989 


o-453 593 


0*198 450 


8 


12-870845 


0-518 392 


0*226 800 


9 


14-479 700 


0-583 191 


0-255 150 


10 


16-088556 


0-647 9^9 


0*283 495 


Sq. miles into kilom. carr. Acres into hectares. Pounds into kilog. 


I 


2-588416 


o '404 440 


o'453 593 


2 


5-176832 


0-808 880 


0*907 186 


3 


7-765 248 


1-213320 


1*360778 


4 


10-353 664 


1-617 760 


1-814371 


5 


12-942 080 


2-022 200 


2*267 964 


6 


i5'530496 


2-426 640 


2*721556 


7 


18-118 912 


2-831 080 


3-I75 J 49 


8 


20-707 328 


3^35 520 


3*628 742 


9 


23'295 747 


3-639960 


4*082 334 


10 


25-884 163 


4-044401 


4-535 927 


Bushels into hectolitres. Cwts. into quintals. Tons into millieis. 


I 


0-363 339 


0*508 024 


1*016 048 


2 


0726 678 


1*016 048 


2*032095 


3 


1*090017 


1-524071 


3*048143 


4 


I-453356 


2-032095 


4*064 190 


5 


1-816696 


2-540 119 


5-080 238 


6 


2-180 035 


3-048 142 


6-096 285 


7 


2-543374 


3-556 167 


7*112333 


8 


2-906 713 


4*064 190 


8*128380 


9 


3-270052 


4-572 254 


9*144428 


10 


3-63339! 


5-080238 


10*160475 



290 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



f J I d * * ' * 

1 5 - -x .2 .o -tj 1 . a r = a .. 

g S 3 -o S J3 -S ;=; a 



si-. 



2 rs "'2 '3 ^ 



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vO nvO ^t ON >- O NOOvQ' 

ON w ON rovO 00 rf O\ ON M ro 

ro t^ ON >-* O C^ *O O W HH c^ *O 

t^Tt-ON" ONT(- 00 6>-'>-' 



Tj- N ON ^ ONOO N Tj- N VO 

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M rf t^ 



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DCU 

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Ed 



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sr 



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vers 
arsh 
sash 



H H ii H H 

iiin 

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Q * v 8 CJ 

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o KC^CU^CXQ a s s ra a OQ^^^Q^ 
U HUc^>c^<Opq OHHf^Hi-3 G en fe PH W h J 



CII. II. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



291 



i! 

11 



.* a 



"||l $U ~* "II j i$i ' | J s : s S 

C C -4 o '"C C ,-C i-C i-^ o *"O C r^H i-^ r-C ^ 



B 

w to 



to TJ-vO M rj- N ^- CO t-i 00 ONOO M 

O O i-t VO O f*5vO OO t-itotot^vO.. .-- . 

O OO C^ ro "^- *o O "^t" to O O ^o ON i-< W t^. *O co ^ co *"* ON Tj-cO 

p-i OO t^OO 1-1 to OO 00 rj- toCO *H Mt-^ OO ONNvO ONONt^.Ttco^-N ON 



moo 



to w 

ON O^ 



jf N 

x X '- 13 



;; -^ <f- 

^33 



-a-2* 



: SSsS 852! 

i r~- c 






W 



G O o> E? v c 

co CO totoO 1 - 1 NM - N N 

8S QQ r ^ < - ) COCOMW 

O O O O ON o\ ON i> t^ 

co co vo O O OO vo 

O O O O co^O O 

** ON 



m ooo DHCT'CTCJO 
vO vo t^ O 

O cTc7 N ^^ ^J. " 

N O^ ON HH T^- o O ON ^f- 



CN Ox ON 
OO 00 10 

co co O 



82; 



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25 o- 



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o* 
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I o 2 vg 



i_ s -^ . .y p 

= .3.^^FTa-^ 



HH N ^ 

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b 

II 



Tl 



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333 O O CXS O G rt 

ooo O-, O-, Hoo to Pi rt ^ 

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^ S3 ON 

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00 00 M 

II I! II 




8 JHs 
(S =-->- 



e. ^l-i 



S 
K 

K 



292 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 









MOO ON O 

HI t^ O ON ON Tf 

rt-Qto O J>ONHIW 




la.*! g s = _ g 

II 's'g "3 % 's 3 

W j^. _, rooo HI o 

^. N -00 N o o >o o moo N 

HI OO ON t^ fi N N CO HI N vo 

C *^ ^OO *O ^OO HI to t^. I-H \Q to HI 

JJ OO t^ t-^ ON t^'O OO N HI op to ro M 

fevOrOHiCS^l-b OOto fOOO W ON V 

ON ON HI CO CNl *d" ^j~ 





WCd 
, 







CM 



s 



JJ 

g - 

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T3 - 



iiMl 

in *O 



ro 



tr> to ON t^ to 

6\orocr\oO OMt^Ovo 
0.0^- O.OOOMD ^00 
O xj-irO"^^."^ 
O w 00 rJ-QO u-> 



s 
lod 

2 
od 



4 quintm= 16 ort= 
2 mark = 16 ounces 
4 quintin= 16 ort 



ot-weight of wate 
mark=i6 oz. =3 
nds . 



pund = 320 pounds 
= 12 skippund 
kippund = 520 



.2 

lil 

g.^a 

" i! 

u> O 

1-s 

11 

a 
91 

|| 



Monetary lod 
Monetary pou 
Commercial l 

C 

Li 
C 
S 
El 



und . = 16 po 
entner . . = 100 po 
kippund . = 20 lis 
lsinor last of heavy good 
of heavy goods = i6j 

.B. Th 
litres, 



e No 
the co 



N 

38-97 







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CH. II. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



293 






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294 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



TART II. 



"s S o 8 ,: S . s = d 3 3 , _ 

la = =5:8 *J = o * sis 04 & ti . f .1 M 

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COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



295 



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PART 



S 



*g t^ Tj- ON O O 0000 

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CH. II. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



297 






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298 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



ii P :JVJ*' 

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299 



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CH. II. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



301 



a 

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METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



i-e.444 



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303 



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CH. II. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



305 



8 S 
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306 



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CH. ii. COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



307 




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PART II. 



<=' -a 
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f I 'I : 

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vr> O M 11 - 00 t^ 

ON N 10 y> 10 co p 



co O 10 N 

ON t^ O ONVO O 

w> ro t-,. ro ff) ' 



vO 

HH 1O 

r^ vp op 



N w rj- rOt>.v 



-^ 




6 ^ 



VO N N O 

^s-s I 



I-H TfOO N 10 O 

M CONN NHHOON ONO\t^NN 
N TJ-VQ NO. VO-iNOj OOt^r*-iO 



t^ CO CO CO 



N 10 tN. 

VO Tj- 
w O t^ 

ro ci 10 



^o 
w 



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k rt-CC 

VO 00 

CO 



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1 1 



ii ii 



s 

~ o*o< cr 1 



-SrlSfi^ 00 

8 5 ^ s --^ ^' 

' O M M ^^OvOvo -^-OO 00 

ii ii ii ii ! ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii 




CH. II. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



309 



II - -a 8 -1 

|i--i : ri 

.y vo o ooo >i 

5 fO Y^^p OO vO CO ON CO 

S oo t^vb b M co fo 



o o 



OS vO 
VO t^ vo 
TJ- ON vo 

^.VO M4 

t^ O "-> 




ectares 



111 



49 

ro O 

m M N 

vooo oo 

vo M t^ 



n 



" 







CO fOQO 

vo COOO vp 

^- ^-ON 



II 111 11 f^J If 1 : 11 e -. t | 

CT'rT'CT'CT'cr 1 -33 33 33 

a M 9 03 u w 03 O o uu 33 

cl- CSlP" -r T i CO CO 




| 8 

v M OO 

ISs 






o^ o o 
B 



g ^^43 S3 
o rs 3 3 J3 rt 

cj Sod cr tuo 



MOOrONmt^vovo N-II-I 

m -*\o mvo N N w oo oo 

rhOO t^ O O ro ff 

H* c^ vovO vO ^O tO vo W 66 ~^O VO vO VO i^ vo CO ONVO Tt" O OO" O 

ON op vp op op opopp vo vorf 1-^r^.r^ ^V ? 1 ^ ^^ 10 ^ 9 



MMM voM^voro 



O M. M 



mo O O O 



O "-I 00 




310 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



I .-3 | 
ill I 3 



O ^ * **^5 

"' 




f- CMCO 



CH. II. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



S a 

= i I 



13 






a Sa 



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X b/J ^ 8 



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t^ ON H-I \O ON ^O fO OC T^ O O N CO ^^ t*>* 

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vb o*-icx) o ^o HI M\O ^oc 



g> 












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ii 






312 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 









1 



I/I 

i "1 _ IS . 


01 <U 

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h 

pi 



l||ii B , , 3aa 

:g = = sg -s.p^E, h^| !|.FS| till ggglfi 
i| ^5J^ 8 J ox-^r? ?5^5J?i !53s oo^o'u^ 



CH. II. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 




. 

N ONMD 
10 O t> 

ON jf O\ 

CO ON w 



i I 

I I 111 

II =1 =1J S STSrsT 

g LgO }^g UO 

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'<o o CM ix> ^- -^- -^- o ^- -3- 





rv. is. OT 




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i < v/"j vo O Q 

p ON op p y> ri- op p 

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w " 





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80 


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c '2 

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111 


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m & f 

lit 
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314 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



s 

rt U3 



fc 



o g C 



ON O O 00 




-tjT3 I ^ 2 . " ~ ^ 

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issfc; 

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cbcb 



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2 

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o-l I "Sa P 

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pa 



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CH. ii. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS 



EUROPE. 



315 



1 



fc S ,d 

c s s . g ~ s . 

t/5 C/5 C/3 O C r hfl 

o cj " ^ ~ u v f4~l!Si..u rt w . 



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xt- o T}* ON **-- O ON ON N ON 

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CO CO 






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o a 53 cs3^ - c^^sqs ?sSS> 



N 00 VO 

ro LO M OO ON ON LO 

t^ONLOON t^ COt^LO ONONONON 



S i-i VO 00 LOOO' !>. O" O CO i-i CO LOW Tt- Tj-VO N OO 
ONvp w to p op pop ONOO cor^ r^PPPP Y~* 
i-< o co OO W O ^^c^O O |H t**" T^ HH HH LO d LO ri~ 



11 


ll 


t/> N O -- 


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Is.? ^ 


&s 




METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART IT. 



J 

P 

1 

fi :* 

fa r^ 



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c o 2; o 



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t^oo 1-1 foi-i oomro WCOM 



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O ^* | ^ oo t^ c^ vo O 

ON vooO OO t^vo ^ t^vo 

N ONVO Mt^ON ^- < ">f< l ~' S^P 

wvoWi-i tiNCOvoNN >-> NTt-^J- COvo 



*i ON vooO 00 



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vO tOvO r ^- 
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w 



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So 




METRIC COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS, 

OR 

SYSTEMS BASED ON THE FRENCH METRE. 



N.B. The units in these systems are employed in com- 
merce at any temperature, without reduction for expansion. 
The standard temperature is o centigrade in vacuo. 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



No. I. THE PRESENT 

Used in France as a Commercial System since 1840. 



Units. 


Multiples. I Eng. Commercial Equiv. 


Millimetre . 


O'OOI 


metre 


'39 382 inch 


Centimetre . 


O'OI 


3) 


0-393 820 


Decimetre . 


O'l 


3) 


0*328 183 foot 


Metre . 


I 


. 


i '093 943 yard 


Decametre . 


10 


metres 


i '988 987 pole 


Hectometre 


100 


5J 


0*497 248 furlong . 


Kilometre . 


IOOO 





0-621 560 mile 


Centimetre carre. 


O'OOOI 


metre carre 


0*155 094 sq. inch . 


Decimetre carre . 


O'OI 


j) 


0-107 74 sc l- f ot 


Metre carre 


I 




1*196 716 sq. yard . 


Are . 


100 


met. carres 


0*098 902 rood 


Hectare 


100 


ares . 


2-472 550 acres 


Kilometre carre . 


100 


hectares 


'386 336 sq. mile . 


Centimetre cube . 


O'OOI 


litre . 


0*061 079 cub. inch 


Decimetre cube 1 
or litre . j 


I 





0*220 1 80 gallon 


Hectolitre . 


100 


litres . 


2752 250 bushels . 


Metre cube or 1 
stere . J 


IOOO 


j) 


1-309 140 cub. yard 


Milligramme 


O'OOI 


gramme 


0-015 43 2 grain 


Gramme . 


I 


. 


1 5 '43 2 349 g rains 


Kilogramme 


IOOO 


grammes . 


2-204 621 pounds . 


Quintal . 


100 


kilogrammes i'9684i2cwt 


Millier or tonne . 


IOOO 


)j 


0-984 206 ton 



Metric units are arranged at o Centigrade in vacuo both for 
English Commercial Units are at 62 Fahr. in air, bar. 30 inches, 
English Scientific Units are arranged at o Centigrade in vacuo, 
N.B. Some of the nominal metric units, being mere terms for 



CH. II. 



COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



FRENCH METRIC SYSTEM. 

Also adopted by other nations at various dates. See text. 



Eng. Scientific Equiv. 


Dutch term. 


Italian term. 


Greek. 


0-032 809 tithe 


Streep . 


Atoma 


Gramme 


0-328 090 


Duim . 


Dito . 


Dactylus 


3-280 899 tithes 


Palm . 


Palmo 


Palame 


3-280 899 feet 


El 


Braccio . . | Pecheus 


3-280 899 rods 


Roed . 


. 




3-280 899 chains 


.... 


. 




0-328 090 league 


Myl . . . 


Chilometro 


Stadion 


0-107 643 sq. tithe . 


Vierkante duim . 


Dito quadrato 




10-764 299 sq. tithes. 


palm . 


Palmo quadrato . 




10-764 299 sq. feet . 


el 


Metro quadrato . 




10-764 299 sq. rods . 


roed . 


Tavola . 


Strema 


10764 299 sq. chains 


Bunder 


Ettaro, Tornatura 




0-107 6 43 s q- league 


Vierkante myl 


Chilom. quad. 




35-316 581 fluid mils 


Kubieke duim 


Dito cubico 


Kybos 


35-316 581 fluid oz. . 


Kop or kan . 


Pinta . 


Litra 


3-531 658 cubic feet 


Mudde or vat 


Soma . 


Koilon 


35*316581 


Kubieke el, Wisse 


Metro cubico 




35-316 581 doits 


Milligram . 


.... 




35-316581 mils 


Wigtje. 


Denaro 


Drachme 


35-316 581 ounces . 


Pond . 


Libbra 


Mna 


3-531 658 ft. -weights 


Centenaar . 


Centinajo . 


Talanton 


35-316581 


Ton . 


Migliajo 


Tonos 



commerce and for scientific purposes. (See Part II. , Chapter VI.) 

at mean sea level. See pp. 282, 283. 

for technical and scientific purposes. (See Part II., Chapter VI.) 

decimal multiples, are omitted in the commercial system. 



320 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



Conversion Tables for reducing Metric Measures 



Units Decimetres into inches. Metres into feet. Metres into yards. 


1 


3-9382 


3-28183 


1-09394 


2 


7-8764 


6-56366 


2-18789 


3 


11-8146 


9 ^4549 


3-28183 


4 


15*7528 


13-12732 


4*37577 


5 


19-6910 


16*40915 


5*46972 


6 


23-6292 


19-69098 


6*56366 


7 


27-5674 


22-97281 


7*65760 


8 


31 '556 


26-25464 


8*75i55 


9 


35*4438 


29*53647 


9'84549 


10 


39-3820 


32-81830 


10-93943 


Decim. car. into sq. in. Met. car. into sq. ft. Met. car. into sq. yards. 


1 


i5*5094 


10-7704 


1*19672 


2 


31-0188 


21-5409 


2-39343 


3 


46-5283 . 32-3*13 


3*59oi5 


4 


62-0377 


43-0817 


4*78686 


5 


77*547i 


53*8522 


5*98358 


6 


93*0565 


64*6226 


7-18030 


7 


108-5659 


75*3930 


8*37701 


8 


124-0754 


86-1634 


9*57373 


9 


139-5848 


96-9339 


10*77045 


10 


i55*o942 


107*7043 


11*96716 


Litres into cubic inches. Litres into cubic feet. Litres into gallons. 


1 


61-0793 0-035347 


0*22018 


2 


122*1587 


0-070 694 


0*44036 


3 


183-2380 


0*106 041 


0*66054 


4 


244 "3 1 73 


0*141 388 


0*88072 


5 


305-3966 


0-176739 


1*10090 


6 


366-4759 


O"2I2 082 


1*32108 


7 


427'5553 


0-247 429 


1-54126 


8 


488-6346 


0-282 776 


1-76144 


9 


549-7139 


0-318 123 


1*98162 


10 


6107933 


0-353 468 


2*20180 



CH. ii. COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE, 



into English Commercial Measures. 



Kilometres into miles. Grammes into grains. Kilogrammes into oz. 


0*62156 


15-432349 


35-273941 


1-24312 


30*864 698 


70-547 882 


I '86468 


46-297 047 


105-821 823 


2*48624 


61729 396 


141-095 764 


3-10780 


77-161 745 


176-369 704 


372936 


92-594094 


211*643 646 


4'35092 


108*026 443 


246-917587 


4-97248 


123-458792 


282-191 528 


5'59404 


138-891 141 


317-465469 


6*21560 


154-323 487 


352739408 


Kilometres carres into 


sq. miles. Hectares into acres- Kilogrammes into lb. c .. 


0-38634 


2-47255 


2*204 621 


077267 


4-94510 


4*409 242 


1-15901 


7-41765 


6-613864 


1 '54534 


9-89020 


8-818485 


1-93168 


12-36275 


11*023 IO 7 


2-31802 


14-83530 


13-227 728 


270435 


17-30785 


15-432349 


3-09069 


19-78040 


17-636970 


3-47702 


22-25295 


19-841 592 


3-86336 


247255 


22*046 213 


Hectolitres into bushels. Quintals into cwt. Milliers into tons. 


275225 


1-968 412 


0-984 206 


5-50450 


3-936 824 


1*968 412 


8-25675 


5-905 236 


2*952 618 


1 1 '00900 


7-873648 


3-936824 


13-76125 


9*842 060 


4-921030 


16-5135 


11-810 472 


5-905 236 


I 9"26575 


13-778884 


6-889 44 2 


22-01800 


15-747 296 


7-873648 


2477025 


17-715 708 


8-857854 


27-52250 


19-684 120 


9*842 060 


Y 



3-2 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



i'fl 



rn 

O ***"* ^^ 

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co ^ o??NSC 50N '~' ^^> M ^ ONONro 

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Mi-iwCO i-iCMMMfO t^t-^NCJOOrj- 
vO^OOi-i vO>ou-iNOO r<-roOOvOOO 


i 

< 


O ^ WiMi-ih-ixobo M^tONN wi-cvD 


i i i i oj 'O ^^ CM o t^> ' o O '"^ |HH *^ O 




PH C^ W M 


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i Mill : lilt it 


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to ^ w a; to T3 to toai c3 

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ii ii ii ii ii ii ;i ii H ii ii ii 


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ei , H ' 3 


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s o i; 2 -S o S'Jg 



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CH. . COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 




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vo O^ O ^^O O *O f*O *^ c^ t^* HH r> HH O O^ 



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COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE. 



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326 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 



CHAPTER III. 
COLLECTIONS OF ORIENTAL MEASURES. 

THE Oriental measures in the following tables differ from 
the systematised measures of European nations and 
provinces principally in the very important consideration 
that they are not national systems. The measures are 
not identical throughout a kingdom or a province, but 
vary in different towns and different parts of the same 
province ; and to collections of such measures the word 
system would not be applicable. 

It will, however, be noticed that there is a general 
resemblance throughout the whole of the measures given 
under the heads of 



1. Turkish measures. 

2. Greek measures. 

3. Syrian measures. 
.4. Arab measures. 

3. .Egyptian measures. 
6. Abyssinian measures. 



7. Berber, Tunisian, and 
Moorish measures. 

8. Algerine measures. 

9. Persian measures. 

10. North - Indian mea- 
sures. 



In fact, they appear to form detached parts and modifi- 
cations of one general system or ruling intention, 
although the variety in value of the units may be occa- 
sionally rather large. This similarity is entirely due to 
the Moslem predominance that has existed and con- 
tinued over the whole of those countries for a lengthened 
period, and it is on account of this evident self-classifi- 



CH. in. COLLECTIONS OF ORIENTAL MEASURES. 327 

cation that the group of Moslem or Oriental collections 
of measures is treated apart. 

The three grand divisions under which nations and 
races can be classified are, Christian, Moslem, and Pagan ; 
their metrical systems also group most conveniently in 
the same way. Modern Christianity is by association 
or 'through transition European, as it barely exists in 
Asia and Africa ; in the same way Islam is Oriental, 
and Orientalism is confined to parts of Asia and Africa ; 
while paganism covers the remainder of the world un- 
peopled from Europe. Orientalism, forming the inter- 
mediate group, hence requires special notice in the 
sense here applied. It hardly admits of exact defi- 
nition beyond that it includes races still under Moslem 
influence ; as it does not by any means include all races 
of Oriental origin. The Hungarian is an Asiatic and 
nearly a Turkish race by descent. The modern Russian, 
offspring from the blending of ancient Russian and of 
Slavonic races under Rurik, and only partially Finnish 
or Ugrian, is an undoubted Oriental by descent ; for 
the ancient Russian was a Scythian-Tatar, whose ori- 
ginal location was near Mount Taurus, and the Slavonian 
before his original settlement on the Danube was a Semi- 
Persian : the ancient Portuguese were probably Phoeni- 
cian, and some of the Italian peoples descendants of 
Lycians and emigrants from Asia Minor : yet none of 
these nations can now be justly termed Oriental. The term 
Orientalism cannot either be confined or applied exclu- 
sively to races or countries that never fell under the yoke 
of Roman Imperialism, and hence retained their own 
measures ; for the reason that all the countries mentioned 
in the above list were subjugated, and submitted to the 
political domination of Rome, which was then considered 



328 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

conterminous with civilisation. The distinctive limit is 
mostly coincident with that of religious belief, although 
original Christianity spread itself over Eastern nations ; 
hence the origin of the present limit between Christen- 
dom and lolam, that is so marked in its bearing on 
Metrical Systems, requires some explanation. 1 

1 Original Christianity, spreading under missionary and apostolic teach- 
ing, extended to the two extremes of Britain and Southern India ; idolatry 
and paganism gave way before it, and Christian life and doctrine were 
accepted : but Christian dogma did not exist ; in fact, Christianity was 
actually Arian for nearly five centuries throughout the greater part of the 
world, both east and west ; the vagueness in detail of the Christian tenets 
rendering them acceptable to all forms of thought. 

From A.D. 319 to 351, Christendom was divided against itself: the 
two parties, Athanasians and Arians, were hostile factions. The former 
evolved and enforced a ponderous amount of dogma, besides aiming at a 
centralised hierarchical sway, an imperialised ecclesiasticism of arrogant 
authority ; while the latter, wishing to retain the previously existing 
freedom of tenet, struggled against this usurpation of supremacy or dominion 
over the realms of religious opinion, and were for a long time successful. 
As, however, they in their turn, not content *vith opposing Athanasianism, 
also fell to drawing up creeds, and confessions of faith involving dogma, 
and were forced into drawing up theological definitions, and visiting trans- 
gressors with excommunication ; they thus ceased to remain Christians of 
the old type, and became rigidly sectarian, opposing the Athanasians in 
the main, and excommunicating both Semi-Arians and Sabellians on the 
one side and on the other. Athanasianism eventually triumphing at 
central points with the aid of papal and imperial support, set to work to 
secure its ecclesiastical domination, centralisation, and invariability of 
dogma over the whole of Christendom. In fact, a new and rigid form of 
Christianity was propagated from A.D. 351 till A.D. 600, when Spain was 
still partly Arian, and this had hardly obtained universal assent, when 
Maharnmed reproduced a modified Arianism in the form of Islam in 604 
to 623 A.D. 

Islam allowed extreme diversity of tenet without interference, thus 
imitating early Christianity, but being severely monotheistic, was uncom- 
promising with both pagan idolatry and Christian image-reverence. A 
hard and firm line thus drawn was rigidly adhered to. Association with 
or imitation of the infidel was henceforth impossible, even in the minutest 
detail of habit and custom ; towns and places were renamed, and pagan 
and Christian units of measurement rejected or altered. 



CH. in. COLLECTIONS OF ORIENTAL MEASURES. 329 

The original uncompromising separation of the 
Moslem from both Christian and pagan in point of 
religion caused a most rigid line to be made practically 
between Islamic and non-Islamic measures, while the 
geographical locality of the Moslem races also intervened 
between Christendom and paganism, and thus divided 
Christian and Roman units from pagan and miscel- 
laneous measures. 

This dividing line in some places became eventually 
less defined and uncertain, more especially in India and 
Eastern Asia, where the population became only partly 
Moslem ; but it exists even now. 

Among the peculiarities of Islamic units and sys- 
tems may be noticed, the adherence to a cubit or a 
double cubit as a unit of length, and the absence of a foot, 
a want of rigidity about surface measures or land-units, 
and often their entire absence ; also the general absence 
of all measures of capacity both wet and dry ; cubic units, 
and submultiples of the cubic unit, are and have been 
comparatively rare ; both these and capacity units being 
generally supplanted by direct weight-units. 

In some places, a pik (cubit) and a rotal (pound), or, 
as we might say, a stick and a stone, answered all pur- 
poses. 

. These facts inform us most clearly of the habits of 
the peoples using such systems, whether due to race- 
tendency or to the effect of Islam. They indicate non- 
agricultural races, or tribes not much attached to tillage, 
rather pastoral and semi-nomadic, trusting to force rather 
than to definition as the preserver of boundary. They 
show those races to be not only abstemious as regards 
consumption of alcoholic liquid, but positively non-com- 
mercial, despising trade as a means of acquiring wealth, 



330 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

and treating both usury and speculation as sinful. Races 
of this type being generally noble, brave, and religious, 
their habits would naturally be warlike, and their ten- 
dencies in time of peace would be to employ their ener- 
gies in work involving skill and science, or, as we would 
say, professional, technical, operative and scientific labour, 
These deductions are completely borne out by the habits 
of the Spanish Moors, and the earlier Arabs in Egypt 
and Syria, and the former Indian- Moguls : even the de- 
cadence of these races, the absence of all energy and 
scientific or skilled achievement or labour, is shown in 
the diminution in number of the metrical units in use, 
and the absence of both the very small and very large 
units that would occasionally enter into such work. 

There is, however, one point as regards Moslem metrical 
units that is specially worthy of notice ; and that is, that 
anything like rigid adherence to standard is totally absent. 
One would imagine that a severe rigid monotheistic 
dominion would, at least within certain moderate limits, 
enforce some uniformity of unit, or of standard ; and one 
would naturally look to the standard units of Mekka- 
Sharif as prototypes. Certainly the pik of Mekka, which 
happened to be very nearly 2\ English feet, and the 
rotal of Mekka, that is very nearly a pound avoirdupois, 
are treated nominally as standard units, and these units 
are used at several other places including Stambul ; but 
anything approaching a wide-spread uniformity of stan- 
dard is quite wanting. 

The types of pik are, however, comparatively few ; on 
examining the units of this type from the Russian ar- 
sheen to the Bushahr gezcha, pp. 57 to 59, it will be noticed 
that the values generally lie between 2 and 2j English 
feet, and they are probably by derivation, sacred cubits : 



CH. in. COLLECTIONS OF ORIENTAL MEASURES. 331 

while the piks of Arab origin, whether used in Arabia, 
Tunis, Algiers, or Morocco, are approximately i^ Eng- 
lish foot, and thus belong to another class, the natural 
cubit. The arsheens, piks, mihandesah, or halibins also 
form a class by themselves as land-cubits having high 
values. The distinction between the tradesman's small 
pik and -large pik for two sorts of fabrics or stuffs exists 
in a way corresponding to that of the Italian and South 
European arrangement in bracci and ells. 

Proceeding to larger linear units, the pace is a recog- 
nised Oriental measure, the most common type of which 
appears to be the pace of three Turkish or large cubits, or 
of four Arab or natural cubits, about six feet ; but there 
is considerable lack of exact information about Oriental 
paces. The Kassaba, gasab, or rod, having been also 
based on diverse cubits is also very various in value, and 
does not admit of very exact definition ; the com- 
monest type is the gasab of 2 paces, equal to 8 small 
cubits, or 6 ordinary cubits, or 4 large cubits, approxi- 
mately 12 English feet, but sometimes more nearly 
ten old Arab feet. Tracing these gasabs back to their 
origin, they were apparently founded on ancient cubits of 
three sorts, the Hashemic cubit of 0*6417 m. or about 
2' 1 5 English feet, the Beledi cubit of 0^5775 m. or about 
1-90 English foot, and the later Arab cubit of 0*4813 m. 
or about 1*56 English foot; hence the diversity of the 
derived units. The same complication also occurs in the 
Oriental chains of 10 gasab and in the Oriental miles of 
nominally 1000 paces, or 500 gasab, which are sometimes 
considered 5000 feet, and sometimes 6000 feet of differ- 
ent values. Oriental paces, rods and miles, are hence 
speculative units. The farsakh, agasha or parasang, a 
league representing an hour's walk on rather bad roads of 



332 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART 11. 

about 3 miles, is therefore the unit more commonly referred 
to, and in general use as an itinerary measure ; it may be 
nominally fixed at 3 local miles, but actually is as vari- 
able as a Scotch bittock. Apart from the above units, 
that are purely Oriental by origin, there are others that 
have survived and existed for a long time in some Ori- 
ental countries, but are probably of Pagan origin. The 
Arabian gaz differs from a two-foot pik merely in name, 
but the gaz and hadid of Mesopotania, the zar' of Persia, 
and the North Indian gaz are evidently yards or double 
natural cubits. On these as primary units, the itineraries, 
the Indian kos of 2000 gaz, and the Persian farsakh of 
6000 zar', and the surface units, the North-Indian biggahs 
are evidently based. 

In Oriental surface measures, there is the Arab square 
chain, of 100 square gasab, and the Arab feddan of 400 
square gasab, the former corresponding to the English 
rood, the latter to the English acre ; but their values, 
owing to the above-mentioned causes, are necessarily also 
variable. They are certainly adopted in Arabia, Turkey, 
and Egypt ; but more often units of surface in Oriental 
countries are quite unused ; it is said that there are none 
in Persia. 

This absence of land units is notable, but due to as- 
signable causes. The Oriental landowner or landholder 
is not, like the European, anxious to know how much 
land he holds, nor does he want others to know it; 
it appears to him inquisitorial interference ; he has a 
tenderness on the subject similar to that of an English 
tradesman with regard to his books of account ; and 
besides is afraid of assisting the tax-gatherer and the 
oppressive extortionate officials that are inseparable from 
Oriental and semi-Oriental sway. Again even under 



CH. 



CH. in. COLLECTIONS OF ORIENTAL MEASURES. 333 

a just regime of fixed tenure and just officials, he is 
opposed to permanent taxation ; he perfectly admits 
the right of the Government to demand at intervals a 
war-tax, or a subsidy, for some comprehensible clear 
object, and he fully acknowledges it is his duty to 
assist the State ; but a perpetual rate, and worse a 
rated tax, is in his eyes severe and repugnant in every 
way. A lump-sum demanded occasionally he cheerfully 
agrees to in a way strange to a North-European, but a 
yearly rate per acre opens to his vista of thought a pos- 
sible double form of future enhancement, both by the 
acre and by the year; in fact, the principle is too dread- 
ful to be admitted, otherwise than under strong compul- 
sion. The land-units still existing in Oriental countries, 
that differ very markedly from the Arab feddan, are 
generally surviving pagan measures : the North Indian 
biggahs are units of that description. 

Cubic measure also seems at present comparatively 
unknown in Oriental countries, almost all goods being 
estimated by weight. Capacity measures are occasionally 
used but generally rare ; as liquids, with the exception of 
oil, are not much consumed or sold as merchandise, and 
both liquids and grain are sold by weight. The strong 
objection to buying dry goods by weight, due to possible 
adulteration with water, does not exist in Oriental and 
hot countries under climates of very speedy evaporation ; 
and the speed and time saved by filling a vessel in pre- 
ference to weighing a liquid is unimportant to people 
that hardly appreciate the value of time. Pseudo-capa- 
city measures are, however, sometimes used for conveni- 
ence' sake ; these holding a certain weight of commodities 
of different sorts are of different capacities for the same 
weight in accordance with the specific gravities of the 



334 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

merchandise. Real capacity measures are few, being 
generally the most commonly used and locally prevalent 
pseudo-capacity measures ; thus in wheat-consuming 
countries it would be a wheat measure, in rice growing 
countries a rice measure, and in millet-growing countries 
a millet measure, holding a fixed weight of grain of 
each sort. Such a measure, being that most frequently 
used, eventually becomes the general measure for grain of 
all sorts, and then is a real capacity measure, independent 
of weight in all subsequent application. Some of the 
kiloz, mecmeda, ardeb, temen, tarri and almud thus be- 
come real capacity measures, while others are not ; it takes, 
however, much investigation to discover to which class 
any one of them may belong, and it has been found im- 
possible to distinguish them in the tables of this book. 

Oriental weight-units are, like most European pounds, 
antiquated in origin, and of irrecoverable standard ; that 
is, they cannot be readjusted or newly formed at any 
time from cubic measure ; for instance, the French kilo- 
gramme is the weight of a cubic decimetre of water, 
and the English foot-weight or talent is the weight of 
a cubic foot of water, but the Turkish, Egyptian, 
Persian and Indian, okas, rotals, wakia, and ser, do 
not admit of this, the sole check on them is by balan- 
cing them against a certain number of coins or pieces 
of money of known weight. Formerly they were recog- 
nised submultiples of talents, anciently based on the 
weight of water contained in cubic measures formed on 
then well-known linear units ; but the linear units were 
numerous, the talents were of several kinds, and the 
modes of subdivision were various ; thus making the 
derivations complicated matters of archaic research, in 
all but a very few cases. 



CH. in. COLLECTIONS OF ORIENTAL MEASURES. 335 

The rotal generally is now the term for an Oriental 
unit of weight corresponding in use to a European com- 
mercial pound ; while the yusdruma, cheki, saddirhem, 
okiejah, or wakiah is more often a smaller monetary 
pound corresponding to the former English Troy-pound ; 
the oka being a larger unit than either, nearly but 
not exactly falling in both series, being exactly equal to 
four okiejah, and nearly 2\ rotal ; this is the Turkish 
and the present typical Oriental mode. The Syrian 
rotals are exceptional, being large units exceeding the 
oka. In most cases the wakia is an ounce of 10 or 12 
dirhems, while the saddirhem or small pound of 100 
dirhems is absent from the system, and replaced by some 
subsidiary rotal or other special unit. The Persian dirhem 
is exceptional and has a high value, being about half an 
ounce. The miskal, mitkal, or kaffala is the primary 
unit most frequently used from Persia to Morocco ; its 
value is almost invariable, nearly 72 grains English, or 
one-sixth of an ounce. The foregoing units are the basic 
units of weight, some of them occurring and some being 
absent from each system. The principal difficulty in com- 
prehending the systems lies with the waki', wakiah, or 
okiejah, for sometimes and more generally the wakiah is an 
ounce, as in Arabia, Egypt, Tripoli, Tunis, and Morocco ; 
while the okiejah in Turkey and the waki' in Persia are 
small pounds. The clue to clearness in such doubtful cases 
is to treat all Oriental units of weight generally either as 
multiples of some miskal, or of some dirhem, up to 
some approximate pound, and then to start again from 
the derived units, going up to some approximate kanthar 
or hundredweight. 

Among the peculiarities of Oriental systems of weight 
units, there is one that partly extends into Pagan systems. 



336 METRICAL SYSTEMS. FART n. 

The man, pronounced mun, and sometimes called by 
the English maund, is a very variable unit which does 
not occur in European or Eastern Asiatic systems. It 
does, however, exist in Southern India, although not as 
a practically important unit, for the kandi is more 
frequently used. The man is a term applied to units of 
three sorts, 

1. A very small man, between 2 and 14 Ibs. 

2. The kachcha man, of about 28 to 40 Ibs. 

3. The large man, of 70 to 80 Ibs. 

Probably the whole of these are by origin stones, 
although the smallest, those of the first class, alone ap- 
proach the English stones in value, while those of the 
second are approximate quarters, and those of the third 
being about three-quarters of a hundredweight may 
be termed approximate hundredweights. Class I is 
peculiar to Arabia, Syria, Turkey and Persia ; class 
2 is peculiar to Southern and Central India ; while 
class 3 exists throughout the whole of Northern India, 
and in the special form of the man-i-hdsham in Persia 
also. 

The second class thus exists beyond the strict geo- 
graphical limits assigned to purely Oriental systems, 
although probably due to Oriental influence in some now 
unassignable manner. 

Proceeding to the Oriental hundredweight or kanthar, 
it will be observed that this is in most cases 100 rotal, 
an arrangement followed by most European nations and 
derived from the Arabs ; the exceptional kanthars are 
very rare. 

Units above the kanthar are very few ; the bahar of 
Arabia is a load very varying in value, between ij and 



CH. in. COLLECTIONS OF ORIENTAL MEASURES. 337 

7 hundredweight ; the kharwar of Persia is also a large 
load ; the kara of Persia, a large unit of about 5 \ tons, 
and the sauman of Northern India, of 3 \ tons, are both 
equal to 100 large man. 

On the whole the Oriental arrangement of weight- 
units is rather perplexing from local diversity of 
method. 



338 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



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PART IT. 



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Ci-i. in. COLLECTIONS OF ORIENTAL MEASURES. 



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METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



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347 



CHAPTER IV. 

PAGAN MEASURES OF EASTERN ASIA, AND THOSE 
INDIGENOUS TO AFRICA. 

THE collections of measures of this type are markedly 
distinct from Oriental measures introduced and sustained 
by Moslem preponderance and dominion. 

The geographical limit in India accompanying this 
type may be roughly drawn as a nearly tropical parallel 
of. latitude dividing Northern India from Southern India : 
though in Asia the general limit is ultra-Indian. 

It may be noticed, however, that, though the Moslem 
religion, and the Moslems themselves, entered into 
Southern India, parts of Malacca, the Eastern Archi- 
pelago, and greatly into China, they never established a 
firm preponderance and dominion on a very large scale 
in those regions ; had they done so, the indigenous mea- 
sures would have been generally abolished or modified. 

These collections are classified under the heads of 

I. Southern India and 6. Anam (or Cochin 



Ceylon. 

2. Burmah. 

3. Thai' (or Siam). 

4. Singapore, Malacca, and 

Prince of Wales Island. 

5. Sumatra and Fort 

lylarlborough. 



China). 

7. Java, Borneo, Moluc- 

cas, &c. 

8. Philippines and Sulu 

Islands. 

9. China. 
10. Japan. 



348 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART IT. 

Besides these, and in completion of the whole of the 
Pagan measures now used in the world, there is doubt- 
less a comparatively large number of indigenous primi- 
tive measures, about which little or no precise informa- 
tion exists. These would include the measures used 
by savage and semi-savage tribes and peoples in Central 
Africa, that are independent of Christian and Moslem 
influence ; also any indigenous American measures sur- 
viving among the Red-skins of North America, and the 
descendants of the Incas, Caribs, Tupi-speaking Brazi- 
lians, and Patagonians. 

All such units owe their sole importance to the 
evidence they afford of ethnological distinction, variety, 
origin, and habit. It is hence much to be regretted 
that travellers, anthropologists, and scientific men should 
have comparatively neglected the metrical units of savage 
and expiring races, although they may now be of no 
commercial utility. 

Reverting to the better-known Asiatic Pagan mea- 
sures before classified, it will be noticed that they 
generally have some similarity to ancient European 
measures. 

The cubits of Eastern Asia (see page 59) are mostly 
approximate natural cubits, or English cubits ; the 
double cubits of Thai' (Siam), Sumatra and Borneo, are 
approximate English yards ; and the fathoms of Burma, 
Anam (Cochin China), Thai', Sumatra, China, and Japan, 
are markedly parallel with European fathoms. 

The foot that exists in China and Japan, though 
markedly missing in Pagan measures generally, is 
evidently an exceptional unit ; the Malabar ady of 
the Western (Muabbar) coast of India was perhaps 
imported from Syria or Arabia, but certainly was not 



CH. iv. PAGAN MEASURES OF EASTERN ASIA. 349 

indigenous. The parallelism between ancient China 
and ancient Egypt and Chaldsea leads to the presump- 
tion that the Chinese, and consequently also the 
Japanese foot, was Chaldaean by origin ; while all 
European feet were of Roman or Christian derivation, 
never indigenous ancient units. The Kymri, whether in 
Britain, Gaul, or the Kimmerian Chersonese, never had 
any foot-unit, as far as is now known. The Kymric 
Welsh had a goad, of about 27 J English inches, which 
was probably divided into halves, quarters, and eighths, 
independently of any foot ; although it may have been 
by origin a sacred cubit. 

The general resemblance between ancient European 
and present Asiatic Pagan units is hence most striking ; 
any few exceptions to the rule regarding the absence of 
the foot can but aid in establishing the main principle. 

The rods of Pagan-Asia are mostly double-fathoms ; 
the exception being the rod of China, which is a double- 
pace of ten local feet ; large units corresponding to the 
pole exist in some countries in addition to the rod ; also 
some rather large chains ; the itinerary units, approxi- 
mate furlongs, leagues, and journeys are rather varied. 

The surface-units of Pagan-Asia, both small and 
large, are necessarily also very diverse in value, yet 
among them may be noticed the biggah of Orissa, 
identical with the English acre of 4840 square yards, 
also the Sumatra square orlong, which is identical with 
the Madras kanl (in vulgar English cawney), a very 
convenient unit of 6400 square yards, giving a corre- 
sponding linear orlong or kanl-side of exactly eighty 
yards. Similarities of this kind cannot be justly attri- 
buted to mere hazard, or fortuitous accident. 

Capacity measures, shown in the various parahs, 



350 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

markals, baskets, gantangs, balli, kula, &c., mentioned 
on pages 183, 184, and 189, form the chief distinctive 
between the Pagan and Oriental-Moslem systems of 
measure ; in the latter none or hardly any such units 
exist This peculiarity extends also to large capacity 
units, as shown by the garsah, lasts and coyan, given at 
page 191. 

In the Asiatic-Pagan units of weight, the tching or 
king (Anglice, catti) is the unit corresponding to the 
pound in a large number of cases ; it is used in China, 
Japan, the Chinese Archipelago, and through a great 
portion of Eastern Asia. In some cases, however, the 
principal unit of weight is a double pound, but this is 
more generally a monetary catti, as that of Malacca, 
Acheen, Singapur, and Thai'. The Kachcha sers, or seers 
of Southern India are exceedingly variable, and are 
mostly less than a pound, corresponding to the former 
English troy pound ; but the vis of Southern India, 
Burma, and Malacca, and the variable catti-utan of 
Sumatra are mostly approximate triple pounds, and are 
the commercial standard weight-units. 

The kachcha man of Southern India is an approxi- 
mate quarter (English weight - quarter 14 pounds) 
peculiar to that country, but not very much used even 
there, as the next larger unit, the kandi, with its 
quarters and eighths, throws it out of employment. 
This kachcha man, an improper or incomplete maund, 
must be distinguished both from the very small man 
of Turkey, Syria, Arabia, and Persia, which is a 
stone, and from the pakka, real, proper, or large man 
of Northern India, and man-i-hasham of Persia and 
Mesopotamia, which are approximate hundredweights. 
The term man is applied to units of these three sorts, 



cil. iv. PAGAN MEASURES OF EASTERN ASIA. 351 

probably from the reason that the word meant a stone 
in some language, and that all such corn-weighing units 
were practically stones of various sizes. The similarity 
between the kachcha man of Southern India and the 
proper or large man of Northern India solely consists in 
their being in each case composed of forty sers ; but as 
the North-Indian ser was a large unit and the South- 
Indian kachcha ser was a small unit, the difference in 
value is very great. There are, how r ever, a few excep- 
tional cases that can be easily accounted for by ethno- 
logical and historic causes. In the main, the kachcha 
man is an indigenous Pagan unit quite distinct and 
peculiar ; it is yet a most troublesome unit in any 
system, and its total obliteration from the measures of 
the world would hence be advantageous. 

Among Pagan weight-units, the load, generally 
termed the bahdr or kandi, holds a prominent position ; 
its value ranges between three and six English hundred- 
weight as extremes, with a mean of about 3^ or 4 
hundredweight (see page 234). Its formation is various, 
according as it is based on a pound, or ching, a double 
pound, or a vis or triple-pound ; it has in most cases 
degenerated as regards simplicity and directness of 
multiple, from having been forced by English commerce 
into another form, its nearest equivalent in avoirdupois 
pounds. 

Proceeding to the largest weight-units corresponding 
to English tons and lasts, these appear rare among 
Pagan measures ; the garsah of Southern India and 
Ceylon is the only one of which full record exists ; 
possibly there may be others that have not attracted 
notice. The garsah when a weight-unit is about 4 tons ; 
but it might perhaps be more strictly considered a 



352 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

doubtful or nominal unit partly of capacity and partly of 
weight ; although there are sufficient grounds for treat- 
ing the garsah separately as a weight-unit and as a 
capacity-unit of dry measure. See pages 191 and 237. 

Pagan systems of measures may on the whole be 
considered as but little inferior to either Oriental or 
European systems. Decimalisation has been carried 
out thoroughly by the Chinese and Japanese. Perfect 
systematisation is only known to exist in the measures 
of Thai' (Siam), which have been lately reorganised ; the 
capacity units being cubicised on the niu, and standards 
supplied by the English Warden of the Standards. The 
ordinary common defect in Pagan, as well as in Oriental 
and European systems, is that the weight-units are not 
systematised or adjusted to cubic measure, and thus 
remain independent, arbitrary multiples of coins fre- 
quently long obsolete. 

In thus completing an account of the measures of 
the world, it becomes necessary to apologise for the 
absence of indigenous African, Australasian, and 
American measures in this book. Communications have 
been opened with travellers which may eventually result 
in procuring detailed and trustworthy information on the 
subject At present vague and general statements alone 
exist. The indigenous savage African apparently most 
often adopts a fathom as a standard unit of length, and 
divides it into four natural cubits ; the weight units are 
apparently very diverse and arbitrary, shells, berries, 
and eggs ; and the capacity units are gourds and cala- 
bashes. 

Among indigenous African measures, those of Guinea 
and of Madagascar have been longest known to a partial 
extent The jacktan of Guinea is a rod or double 



CH. iv. PAGAN MEASURES OF EASTERN ASIA. 353 

fathom, reputed to be I2>*oo5 English feet in value ; 
the refe of Madagascar is a fathom reputed at 6*56 
English feet, but it appears also to be very variable, 
generally varying between 4 and 6 feet in different pro- 
vinces. The indigenous capacity measures of Guinea 
are not yet forthcoming it is said that Abyssinian 
measures, the kuba and ardeb, are used there ; but those 
of Madagascar show an evident connection with those 
of the Chinese Archipelago, whence former immigrations 
came. 

The series is thus : 

i zatu = 8'5 trubahuash=: 17 bambu= 100 voules. 

The zatu is thus about 7*339 gallons, the voule 0*5867 
pint, and the bambu 17614 quart. 

In Guinea, the weight-units are peculiar : 
I benda=2 benda offa = 4 egebba 8 piso=i6 agerac 
or aid = 32 media tabla ; the value of the benda being 
989-6 grains, or about 2\ ounces, and the media tabla 
30*925 grains ; these are monetary units used for gold 
dust. There is also a kanthar, subdivided into 5 gamel, 
which may be of Moslem and of Moorish origin, 
although it is unusually large, 0*9635 ton. 

In Madagascar there is also- a. series of monetary 
weight-units as follows : 

I sompi = 2 vari = 3 sacare =6 nankin I2~nanke, 

the sompi being about 60 grains, and the nanke 5 grains. 
In some portions of Africa various Moslem units are 
employed, Arab, Egyptian, and Moorish ; near the old 
Portuguese settlements, Mozambique and Loando, old 
Portuguese measures are in use. At the Cape of Good 
Hope, and in Southern Africa, though English measures 
are now generally employed, and formerly Dutch units 

A A 



354 METRICAL SYSTEMS. I-ART n. 

were in use, there were also some compounded measures 
of capacity that afford some idea of the old indigenous 
measures ; they were : 

Last = 4.6 balli ; balli = 5 gantang, 

the last being 7'283 quarters, and supposed to represent 
a capacity holding 3200 troy Dutch pounds of wheat ; 
and the balli 1*266 bushel, holding 500 troy Dutch 
pounds of wheat. The arrangement of units and their 
names are similar to some in Sumatra and at Batavia ; 
but whether they were brought over by the Dutch or by 
the native immigrants at an earlier epoch, and after- 
wards merely modified by the Dutch as regarded value, 
is a matter that may perhaps be considered doubtful ; 
although the latter appears more probable. This pro- 
bability is further supported by the analogy of the 
bambu of Madagascar, which is most markedly a unit of 
Sumatra derivation. 



CH. iv. PAGAN MEASURES OF EASTERN ASIA, 



355 



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366 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



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CH. iv. PAGAN MEASURES OF EASTERN ASIA. 



357 






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UHH 



rt <u c3 -5 c 

Us o-a 
gJl^ 



358 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



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II II II ii II II II 



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rt^oxiCrt-flJSSo &'a H o-'J2rt o^rtort 
tHH^H^U^C^^^ c^c^c^ KH O ^ W ^ H 



CH. iv. PAGAN MEASURES OF EASTERN ASIA. 



359 




I =111 

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METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



II. 



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.83113 

H en V3 v5 al <1 



CH. iv. PAGAN MEASURES OF EASTERN ASIA. 



s 


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362 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



TART II. 



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ii 7 ii 3 ii ii ii ii ii ii ii 






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CH. IV. PAGAN MEASURES OF EASJ^ERN ASIA. 



363 






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364 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



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365 



CHAPTER V. 
MEDICINAL AND LAPIDARIES' SYSTEMS. 

IT is comparatively recently that in Europe medicinal 
weights and measures have been incorporated in the 
commercial weights and measures of various countries 
and nations ; in some cases, more notably in Russia, 
this has not yet been effected, while in England the 
transition is now merely imperfectly effected. In 
Oriental countries under Moslem sway, the medicinal 
weights, the dram and its subdivisions, appear to have 
always formed part of the commercial measures, and 
never a segregated collection ; in Pagan countries the 
monetary weights most frequently served also as 
medicinal weights ; and generally in olden time com- 
pounding was effected entirely by weight, and inde- 
pendently of measures of capacity. 

The adoption of three distinct systems of commer- 
cial, of monetary, and of medicinal weight, appears to 
have been confined to European nations. The typical 
European unit of monetary weight was the old Coin 
marc of 8 ounces, with which the old English or Anglo- 
Saxon marc was nearly identical ; the typical unit of 
commercial weight in Europe was not a solitary unit, for it 
is probable that some one Oriental rotal, rottolo, or arratel, 
or a variety of them, formed the basic units in Southern 



365 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

Europe, while in Northern Europe the double-marc 
became the commercial pound ; the typical or basic 
unit of medicinal weight in Northern Europe was the 
Niirnberg pound of 12 ounces, or marc and a half of 
Niirnberg, though in Southern Europe no corresponding 
single unit of medicinal weight retained any such marked 
importance. 

Treating the matter broadly, the monetary unit com- 
monly used was an eight-ounce marc, the medicinal unit 
was a twelve-ounce pound, and the commercial unit was 
a sixteen-ounce pound ; but these marcs and pounds 
generally belonged to different systems or scales of mea- 
sure, before their incorporation into a single one. 

Immediately this incorporation is effected, the medi- 
cinal pound becomes either obsolete or merely nominal, 
the commercial ounce of the nation becomes the medici- 
nal ounce, and its mode of subdivision into smaller units 
alone retains importance in its bearing on the com- 
pounding of drugs. 

Under these circumstances, which are generally true 
of Europe in the nineteenth century (the period to 
which this book is intended to apply), the values of the 
medicinal ounce and its various modes of subdivision in 
Europe form the principal part of any useful information 
on this subject ; these will be found at the end of this 
section in tabular form, arranged under the heads of the 
various nations to which it applies. 

On referring to it, it will be noticed that the typical 
mode of subdividing the ounce in Northern Europe is 
the Niirnberg method. 

I ounce = 8 drams = 24 scruples = 480 grains. 



CH. v. MEDICINAL SYSTEMS. 367 

In Southern Europe, in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and 
France, the mode was 

i ounce = 8 drams = 24 scruples =5 76 grains, 

the difference between the two consisting in dividing the 
scruple into 20 grains in Northern Europe, and into 24 
grains in Southern Europe. In some cases the obolus 
of half a scruple and in others the carat of four grains 
were units used in addition to the above. The Neapoli- 
tan mode of subdivision formed the only exception to 
the above general type. 

The introduction of metric measures in France, Italy, 
and the Netherlands in the earlier part of this century 
and in other countries in recent times, had for its princi- 
pal effect on medicinal weights the abolition of pounds, 
ounces, and grains, and the substitution of the gramme 
for the scruple which it nearly represented ; the gramme 
thus became the unit of metric medicinal weight, and its 
decimal multiples and sub-multiples became nominal 
measures. (See ' Medicinal Measures of France, Italy, 
and the Netherlands.') 

In England the medicinal measures are particularly 
unfortunate, not having yet gone through their transi- 
tion stage, and not being yet cleared of the difficulties 
resulting from borrowing in ancient times from France 
both the Troy grain and the avoirdupois pound. The 
medicinal weight is still old Troy weight, but medi- 
cinal measures of capacity are avoirdupois fluid ounces 
with submultiples. The best remedy for this would 
be in accordance with general improvement of the 
system ; the adoption of an English millesimal ounce, 
YoVo f tne foot-weight ; and the subdivision of this 
ounce into 1000 mils or thousandths. See also ' Pro- 

*A A 8 



368 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

posed Systems ' at the end of the book. Under any 
circumstances, the medical measures of capacity, the 
fluid ounce, fluid dram, and fluid grain (or liquid grain 
as it is officially termed) ; or the fluid mil, on the other 
method, should correspond with the weights of similar 
name. This correlation is preserved in the French 
System, where the centimetre cube corresponds to the 
gramme. 

The entire abolition of separate medicinal measures 
of all sorts, and the unification of a national series of 
measures, is the natural course of development, and 
constitutes progress in this special branch of measures. 



LAPIDARIES' SYSTEMS. 

Diamonds, pearls, and precious stones are frequently 
estimated in weight-units, distinct from both the com- 
mercial and medicinal measure of the country or place. 
They are mentioned as weighing a certain number of 
carats ; these carats are almost invariably divided into 
four grains, and these grains are further divided into 
quarters, sixteenths and sixty-fourths, on a binary scale. 
Such carats vary in value in various countries, although 
they may be mere departures from some original 
Kspdnov, perhaps an ancient Alexandrian carat, or in 
later times from the Amsterdam carat. 

The estimation of the value of rough and cut dia- 
monds is a matter closely allied to the values of the carat 
as a weight-unit, and requires some explanation. The 
value of an uncut diamond varies with the square of its 
actual weight expressed in carats ; thus, taking a price 
of >2 per carat, the value of a five-carat uncut diamond 
is 5x5x2 = ^50. The value of a five-carat cut dia 
mond, which has lost about half its weight in cutting, * 



CH. V. JEWELLERS' SYSTEMS. 369 

similarly estimated at a price of 2 per carat, but is 
based on the square of double its actual weight in carats ; 
thus 10 x 10 x 2 = 200. 

In most places pearls are estimated in diamond- 
carats ; in others there are special pearl-carats, of dif- 
ferent value. There are also both real and nominal 
weight-units applied to pearls. For instance, Bombay 
pearls are first estimated by weight in tanks of real 
weight; the tank being = 24 ratti (see table), or 72 
English grains ; they are secondly estimated in nominal 
chows by calculation thus. The square of the number of 
tanks multiplied by 330 and divided by the number of 
pearls weighed, gives the number of chows ; and the 
current price is applied to the chow. If 50 pearls weigh 
4 tanks, and the chow is worth 1 2 rupees, their value = 
12 rupeeSj or about 



50 

Madras pearls are differently estimated ; they are 
first weighed in mangals of real weight-units, and then 
estimated in Madras chows by calculation thus. Three 
quarters of the square of the weight of the pearls in 
mangals is divided by the number of the pearls weighed 
to obtain the number of chows, and the current price is 
then applied to the Madras chow. Thus, if 60 pearls 
weigh 50 mangal, and the price of the Madras chow be 

40 rupees, the value of the pearls =J X 5 X S x 4 = 

1250 rupees, or 125. 

In both such cases the chow r is a mere nominal unit 
of estimation ; although there is also an Indian chow 
that is a real weight-unit. 

The term carat } when applied to precious metals, 
fold and silver, is not a weight-unit, but a mere mode of 

B B 



370 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

expressing the purity or fineness of the metal in twenty- 
fourths. Thus 1 8- carat gold is metal in which 18 parts 
out of 24, or three-fourths, are pure gold ; the remaining 
6 parts, or one -fourth, being alloy. This method of es- 
timating fineness is due to the old marc having been 
divided into twenty- four real carats, or actual weight- 
units. The more modern method is to estimate fineness 
in thousandths; thus gold 750 fine has 250 parts alloy, 
and corresponds to 1 8-carat gold ; three-quarters of the 
metal being pure gold in each case. 

Reverting to the real carats of various nations, their 
values will be found in a table immediately following the 
tables of medicinal measure in this chapter. 

Besides these carats, there are in some countries other, 
weight-units that are used for precious stones, and occa- 
sionally for precious metal also. One of the most 
notable of these is the Indian gonj, gunja, or gundumini ; 
it is by origin a hard scarlet pea, dotted with black, 
which when dry is very invariable in weight ; its weight 
is also termed a ratti or rutti ; but in a few places the 
gonj and the ratti are distinct, the latter having become 
an abstract unit apart from the former, subsidiary to the 
tolah or weight of the local rupee. 

Another of the more notable of these weight-units 
used for precious stones and precious metal is the can- 
darin, or condorine, or cantarai, also termed by the 
Chinese a fun or fan, and by the South-Indians %.fanam, 
and used all over the Indo-Chinese Archipelago. This 
is by origin a large lentil, or pea, of a pinkish colour 
dotted with black, about double the size of the gonj, and 
possessing the same quality of very slight variability of 
weight when dry ; is probably a variety of the same 
botanic genus or species. The value when reduced to 



CH. v. JEWELLERS' SYSTEMS. 371 

absolute standard became a subsidiary part or sub- 
multiple of the weight of some local coin, rupee or 
pagoda, or a decimal fraction of some local ounce or 
tchen, as in China and Japan. The term candarin, vul- 
garised by the English into condorine, is probably a 
Portuguese corruption of the Indian word cantarai ; the 
word fanam is also Indian, but the word fan or fun is 
Chinese, though perhaps of South-Indian origin, and now 
denotes not only the tenth of a chien or ounce, but is a 
general term for a tenth, or a decimal fraction. 

The values of the ratti and the fanam are given in 
tables following that of the carat, at the end of this 
chapter. 



*B B 2 



372 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART II. 

MEDICINAL MEASURES OF WEIGHT AND 
OF CAPACITY. 

NUREMBERG WEIGHT. 

THE medicinal pound of Nuremberg, = f Nuremberg monetary pound, was 
formerly universally adopted in Germany and Russia : 

English French 

Value of the Nuremberg pound 5522 grains =357 '85 grammes 
The Nuremberg ounce = ^ pound 460' 17 grains = 29*821 grammes 

The subdivision of the Nuremberg ounce was : 



Ounce Drachms Scruples Oboles Grains 

I = 8 = 24 = 48 = 480 

i 3 6 60 

I = 2 = 2O 

I = 10 

I 



Grammes 
29'82I 
3-726 
1-243 
0-622 
0*062 



Compounding was then mostly done by weight. 

In modern times the commercial ounce of various nations has been 
mostly taken as the unit of medical weight. The Nuremberg or German 
mode of subdivision into 480 grains is used by most northern nations of 
Europe ; the French mode by southern nations. 



DENMARK, NORWAY, AND GERMANY. 

The Nuremberg pound and ounce are generally adopted, with their 
typical subdivision, for medicinal purposes. (See also Prussia, Austro- 
Hungary, and Bavaria.) 

SWEDEN. 

The Swedish medicinal pound is iff of the skSlpund, and is 7410 as. 
Valueof the medicinal pound = 5478 -5 English grains = 35 5 grammes. 
Value of the medicinal ounce = 456*54 English grains = 29-583 grammes. 
Its subdivision follows the Nuremberg type as given above. 



ENGLAND. 



The medicinal weights and measures are now in a state of transition. 

At present (1881) the English medicinal ounce (for weight) is the old 
Troy ounce of 480 grains ; this grain being identical with the commercial 
grain (a Troy grain). 

The subdivision of the medicinal ounce is thus : 



Troy Ounce Med. Drachms Scruples G>ains 

I = 8 -'24 = 480 

i 3 60 

I = 20 



Grammes 
31-103 

3-888 
1-296 
0-065 



CH. V. 



MEDICINAL SYSTEMS. 



373 



The English medicinal measures of capacity are arranged on two alter- 
native systems, based on the commercial fluid ounce at 62 Fahrenheit 
normal temperature. 
First 

Cubic Centim. 

28-350 
I 



Fluid Ounce 

I 



Fluid Med. Drms. 
8 



Minims 
480 
60 
I 



Secondly 
Fluid Ounce 

I 



3 '544 
0-059 



Fluid Med. Drms. 



Liquid Grains 
437-50 



Cubic Centim. 
28-350 

3-544 
00648 

The latter system is not yet customary, although standards have been sup- 
plied to the public. 

A preferable mode of subdivision may be used for technical purposes, 
both in weight and in capacity, thus^ 

i ounce = looo mils I i foot-weight = looo ounces 

I fluid ounce = looo fluid mils { I cubic foot = looo fluid ounces 

but this method is not yet customary. 



PRUSSIA. 

The medicinal ounce is identical with the commercial ounce. Value 
of the ounce 451-11 English grains, or 29-232 grammes. Its subdivision 
follows the Nuremberg type (see preceding page) into 480 medicinal grains. 



AUSTRO-HUNGARY. 

The medicinal ounce is identical with the commercial ounce. Value of 
the ounce 540-19 English grains, or 35*004 grammes. Its subdivision 
follows the Nuremberg type (see preceding page) into 480 grains. 



BAVARIA. 

The medicinal ounce is identical with the commercial ounce. Value of 
the unze 462-97 English grains, or 30 grammes. Its subdivision follows the 
Nuremberg type, or it may be divided into grammes, and decimal parts of 
the gramme. 



RUSSIA. 

The Russian medicinal funt = commercial funt, and is divided into 
12 ounces. 

Medicinal pound = 5529 -765 Eng. grs. =358-323 grammes 
Medicinal ounce = 460-814 ,, = 29-860 

The subdivision of the ounce into 480 grains is that of the Nuremberg 
type (see above). 



374 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

The former Russian medical weights were those of Nuremberg. 

The former Polish medicinal pound of 1819 was fixed at 358-5 grammes 
= 5532 '49 grains English, and the ounce at 29*875 grammes = 46 1-04 
grains English ; its subdivision was like that of Nuremberg. 



FRANCE. 

The gramme is the unit of medicinal weight ; and the cubic centimetre 
or millimetre that of medicinal capacity ; the decimal multiples and sub- 
multiples of both are solely employed. 

I gramme . . =15-4321 English grains 

I cubic centimetre = 15-4321 ,, liquid grains 

the mode of subdivision is : 

I kilogramme = IOOO grammes = I OOO ooo milligrammes 
I gramme 1000 milligrammes 
and 

I litre = 1000 centim. cub. = I ooo ooo millim. cub. 
i centim. cub. = 1000 millim. cub. 

From 1812 to 1840, the mesures usttelles were : 

the livre usuelle = 5oo grammes = 7716-05 English grains 
the once ,, =32 ,, = 493'83 ,, 

and the following was the mode of subdivision (codex) : 

Once Gros Grammes Grains 

I = 8 = 32 = 640 

I 4 80 

I = 20 



Before 1840, the Iivre = 367'i3 grammes = 5665 -67 English grains 

the once = i livre = 30-594 472'H 

and the following was the old French mode of subdivision : 

Drachmas or Deniers or 
Once Gros Scrupules Grains 

i = 8 = 24 = 576 

i 3 72 

i = 24 

This old French mode of subdivision into 576 grains was typical in 
Southern Europe, and was employed in Italy, Spain, and Portugal. 



ITALY. 
Metric units as in France, but with local names : 

Oncia = 100 grammes = 1543-210 English grains 
Grosso =10 ,, = 154-321 ,, 

Denaro= I gramme = 15*432 ,, 

Grano = o-i ,, = 1-543 English grain 



CH. V. 



MEDICINAL SYSTEMS. 



375 



The former Italian medicinal ounces were local light commercial ounces, 
or twelfths of the light commercial pound, peso sottile, and had the follow- 
ing values : 

28-296 grammes = 436 '67 English grains 
28-258 =436-08 



Tuscany . 

Roman States of the Church 
Sardinia, Genoa . 
Turin . 
Lombardy, Milan 
Venetia, Venice . 
Kingdom of Naples 



. 25-617 =395-32 

. 26-500 =408-95 

. 27-233 =420-37 

. 25-108 =387-47 

. 26729 =412-49 

The typical mode of subdivision was, excepting at Venice and Naples, 
the same as the old French method, into 576 grains (see France). 

At Venice, the sazio of one-sixth of the ounce was an additional unit of 
subdivision. 

The Neapolitan mode of subdivision into 10 drams was of Oriental type. 

Trapezi or 
Onzia Drammi Scrupoli Acini 

i = 10 = 30 - 600 

i 3 60 

i = 20 



THE NETHERLANDS. 

The metric units as in France, but with local names : 
Wigtje or Gramme 



Ons 
I 



Lood Wigtje or Gramme Korrel 

IO = IOO = IOOO 

The medicinal pound of Holland and Belgium was | kilogram 
or grammes. 

For values of metric units, see France and Italy. 



375wigte 



SWITZERLAND. 

At present the French metric measures are used for medicinal purposes. 
From 1822 till lately the old mesures usuelles (see France) ; before 1822, 
the Nuremberg pound in most- cantons, but at Basle, Friberg, Berne, 
Neufchatel, and Soleure the older Parisian livre of 12 onces poids de marc 
of 367-13 grammes. 

For all these see France, and Nuremberg measures. 



SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

The Spanish and Portuguese medicinal ounces are identical with the 
respective commercial ounces. 

Spanish ounce = 443 -67 English grains = 28-75 grammes 
Portuguese ounce = 442-75 ,, =28-69 

The mode of subdivision is the same in both cases, and is nearly identical 
with the typical old French mode. 

Ochavas or 
Onza Dracmas Escrupulos Caracters Granos 

i - 8 - 24 = 144 576 

i = 3 = 18 = 72 

i 6 = 24 

I = 4 



376 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART H, 



THE LEVANT. 

The Venetian medicinal weights (see Venice, Italy). Also Oriental 
commercial dirhams, &c. (see Commercial Systems of Turkey, Syria, &c.) 



ORIENTAL COUNTRIES. 

The medicinal weights are identical with both the commercial and 
the monetary weights, all of which are arranged in a single system. See 
subdivisions of commercial measures. 



PAGAN COUNTRIES. 



The medicinal weights for compounding are identical with the monetary 
weights in many cases ; in others sufficient information is not available. 



TABLE OF MEDICINAL OUNCES. 





is! s 


n 


1 




"G 






In some cases identical with commercial 


ill 


<e~ 


-s|l 


ounces. 


Ml 

wow 


H_S'3 


fewW 




Grains 


Mill. oz. 


Grammes 


D Norway & } Nurember g UnCe = 4 8 grains. 


460-17 


1-0532 


29-821 


Sweden. Medicinal ounce . =480 grains 


456*44 


1-0448 


29-583 


England. Troy ounce . . =480 grains | 480 | 1-0985 


3I-I03 


Millesimal ounce . = 1000 mils 


436-97 


1 


28-315 


Prussia. Commercial ounce . =480 grains 


451-11 


1-0324 


29-232 


Austro- Hungary. Com. ounce =480 grains 


540-I9 


1-1362 


35-004 


Bavaria. Commercial ounce . =480 grains 


462-97 


1-0595 


30 


Germany. Nuremberg ounce . = 480 grains 


460-17 


1-0532 


29*821 


Russia. Medicinal ounce . = 480 grains 


460-81 


1-0546 


29'860 


France, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, and 








Greece. The gramme . = 1000 milgr. 


I5-43 


0-0353 


I 


Spain. Commercial ounce . =576 grains 


443-67 


1-0154 


28-750 


Portugal. Commercial ounce = 576 grains 


442-75 


1-0132 


28-690 


Levant. Venetian com. ounce. =576 grains 


387-47 


0-9574 


27-108 



CH. V. 



MEDICINAL SYSTEMS. 



377 



MEDICINAL MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 







ill 


ill 






WCJH 


*.a 

ww 






Fluid oz. 


Fluid oz- 


England. Fluid ounce avoir. = 
grains = 480 minims . 


437i liquid 


I 


1-0025 


England. Fluid ounce millesimal 


= 1000 fluid 










O-QQ7C 


1 


France. Centimetre cube =1000 


millimetres 


yy/j 




cube ..... 


. 


0-0352 


0-0353 



N.B. For details, see preceding pages. 



LAPIDARIES' WEIGHT-UNITS. 



Reputed values of the carat, 
The carat invariably is = 4 carat grain?. 

England. Diamond carat .... 
,, Pearl carat . . 

Germany. Kolnische diamant-karat 

Austro- Hungary. Vienna diamond carat 

Holland. Amsterdam diamond carat . 

Russia. Amsterdam diamond carat 

France. Old diamond carat = 3 '876 grains 
poids de marc ...... 

Spain. Diamond carat = 4 Castilian grains . 

Portugal and Brazil. Quilate^4'i32 granos 
peso de mardo ...... 

Italy. Bologna carat ..... 
,, Florence carat ..... 
,, Turin carat ..... 
,, Venice carat ..... 

Turkey. Kara, killo or taim 

Egypt. Alexandrian kerat .... 

Arabia. Mokha karat ..... 

Persia. Kirat=i6una . . 

India. English diamond carat 

Java, Borneo, &c. A Dutch carat of 4-096 as 

For China, Japan, and the Chinese Archi- 
pelago, see fan, fanam, or candarin, 



ll 


og 


js 4513 


SSI 


lit 

HOW 


||| 


Grains 


Mils. 


3-168 


7-250 


3-2OO 


7-323 


3'17I 


7-2s7 


3'lSl 


7-280 


3-I65 


7-243 




7-243 


3-I77 


7-270 


3-085 


7-060 


3-I76 


7-268 


2-9IO 


6-660 


3-033 


6-941 




7-543 


3-I96 


7-314 


3-094 


7-081 


2'959 


6-772 


3 


6-865 


3-232 


7-397 


3-168 


7-250 


3-038 


6'952 



378 



METRICAL SYSTEMS 



PART II. 



LAPIDARIES' WEIGHT-UNITS 

continued. 

Values of the gonj or ratti. 
Bombay gonza -= 6 chow 
Puna gunja = 2 wat . 
Ahmadnagar, Chandor, & Nassick gonja 
Bombay ratti = 13! takka = 16 ana . 
Ahmadabad ratti ..... 
Aurangabandar ratti = 24 mun 
Calcutta ratti = 4 dhan = 8 nelli= 16 pan- 

kho 

Calcutta pearl ratti or pakka ratti . 
Dehli jewellers' ratti .... 
Jaulna ratti = 2 wheat grains = 4 urd -grains 

= 8 rice grains ..... 

Malwa ratti = 8 chaul .... 

Patna ratti ...... 

Sindhi ratti = 24 mun .... 

,, pearl ratti = 8 hubla 
Surat ratti = 6 chauwal .... 

, , pearl ratti = 20 vassa 

Values of the fan, fanam, or candarin. 

Bangalur fanam or cantarai = 4 grumatri 
= 1 6 paddy grains .... 

Ballari fanam or cantarai 

Calicut fanam, ii^toamiskal 

Cochin fanam ..... 

Pondicheri fanam = 16 nelli . 

Masulipatam chunam or fanam 

Madras. Mangal= 16 ana 

Sumatra. Bencoolen fanam or candarin. 
,, Natal fanam or candarin 

,, Padang fanam or candarin . 

Moluccas. Timor fanam cr candarin 

Sulu Islands. Chusuk or candarin 

China. Fan, or candarin = 10 li or cash 

Japan. Fan (old value) = 10 ring . 
,, Modern value of fan = 10 ring . 

Madagascar. Nanke .... 





"a c" 


a 


o 


'o g 

."a |l5 


2 w*S 


M 

I 


"So s '3 

G & 

wow 


'"lag. 


i ^ 


Grains 


Mils. 


100 


I-790 


4-095 


96 


1-997 


4-570 


96 


1-960 


4-485 




3 


6-865 


96 


2-015 


4-611 


72 


2-486 


5-689 


100 


2-246 


5-140 




2-825 


6-465 




1-250 


2-861 


96 


1-923 


4-401 




1-979 


4-529 






6-980 


72 


2-486 


5-689 




16 


36-616 


96 


J "953 


4-469 




2-846 


6-513 


30 


5-870 


13-433 


30 


5-875 


13-445 




5-800 


13-273 


31 


5-796 


13-264 




5-871 


13-436 


30 


5-968 


13-657 




6 


13-731 




6-380 


14-601 




5-840 


13-365 




6-360 


14-555 




5-800 


13-273 






13-349 




5798 


13-269 




5-688 


13-217 




5-824 


13-328 




5 


11-442 






379 



CHAPTER VI. 
ON SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 

WHILE a commercial system of measures has for its 
principal object the convenience of the general public 
and of the wholesale and the retail tradesman, in buying 
and selling any saleable commodity, and in measuring, 
weighing, and subdividing it in accordance with a rigid 
unalterable set of commercial units of known value and 
fixed ratio, a scientific system of measures on the con- 
trary may be almost independent of retail trade-conve- 
nience, and, comparatively speaking, unsuited to purposes 
of ordinary and frequent measuring and weighing. 
Thus, while in a commercial system some recognised 
suitable unit with an appropriate mode of subdivision 
must be forthcoming at almost every point where any 
brr.nch of trade may require one, such a heavy demand 
is not made on a scientific system, which is sufficiently 
complete in this respect, if it supplies only one unit of 
length, one of surface, one of capacity, and one of 
weight, in accordance with the commercial measures of 
the same country. 

A scientific set of measures is made use of by a com- 
paratively very small section of the public, scientific and 
professional men, who are nearly indifferent to the units 
cf retail trade, the pecks, pots, and pounds, and the 
quarters, eighths, and sixteenths of perpetual daily 



380 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n 

weighing and measuring ; in fact, for the purposes of a 
certain number of scientific men, a set of scientific 
measures belonging to any foreign nation, and totally 
disconnected with their own national commercial system, 
might be quite suitable, provided it was convenient in 
other respects. For professional men, however, who 
form a connecting link between scientific men and the 
general public, it is an absolute necessity that the 
scientific system shall have the small amount of accord- 
ance with the commercial measures of their own 
country already mentioned. 

The second distinctive element in a scientific system 
is that, as convenience of calculation on an extensive 
scale is more important than facility in measuring, 
weighing, and subdividing, the decimal mode of sub- 
division, with decimal multiples and submultiples, 
becomes as necessary in it as a binary or a mixed 
binary-decimal subdivision is in commerce ; for the 
professional man wishes to calculate with facility from 
the ounce to the bushel, from the pint to the ton (using 
commercial units for illustration) or from the gallon to 
the acre and the inch, while the retail tradesman and 
those dealing with him calculate in a very limited range 
peculiar to one single trade. 

In the third place, the scientific and professional 
man is contented with units set far apart, such as hun- 
dreds or thousands of the next lower unit, while the 
tradesmen requires his commercial units at comparatively 
short distances, generally counting and dividing merely 
to quarters, eighths, twelfths, or sixteenths before coming 
to another commercial unit of distinctive name and 
value, from which he may make a fresh start in his 
small calculations. 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 381 

The fourth distinctive element in a perfect scientific 
system is that the standard units, though few in number, 
should be absolutely correct and truly determined, most 
especially in the connection between the standard unit 
of capacity or cubic measure and the standard unit of 
weight ; any defect in this respect being liable to vitiate 
the deductions and calculated results of scientific men, 
many of which are based on very small and excessively 
meagre data, and are thus liable to superimposed and 
cumulative error from such a cause. As regards the 
connection between the standard unit of cubic measure 
or capacity, which in a scientific system are identical, 
and the standard unit of weight, there is no doubt that 
the method of comparison by distilled water at its utmost 
density that is, at a temperature of about 39 Fahren- 
heit has been accepted as the most convenient mode 
in principle, and that most commonly recognised as the 
best at present. Whether it really is so or not may be 
doubtful, but the determination of this point should rest 
with special experts. When the investigations and 
labours of scientific men have arrived at a preferable 
liquid of uniform density, at a solid of uniform density 
preferable to a brass or platinum weight, and at an 
improved mode of conducting scientific comparisons 
of weight and capacity on a far larger scale than is at 
present usual, an immensely higher degree of exactitude 
will be attainable. At present only one of these three 
important desiderata has been arrived at in the form of 
the quartz weights introduced by Steinheil. 

There is, however, another desideratum that would 
give a stimulus to the development of all the others ; 
it is that the governments of civilised countries should 
depart from the old methods of accepting gratuitously 



382 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

the labours of scientific men, or of nominally and tardily 
rewarding the latter by some official post, the retention 
of which may require courtierlike finesse and intrigue 
rather than skill. When the whole system of charitable 
patronage of scientific labour and of appropriating 
foreign results is swept away, and when substantial en- 
couragement replaces detraction, more rapid progress 
may be expected in this branch of science. 

As regards actual scientific systems of measures, very 
few may be said to exist at present. In ancient times 
commercial measures were formed on a scientific basis, 
were developments from a set of scientific units, or 
derived from a scientific system. The ancient Baby- 
lonian, Egyptian, Indian, the Hashemic, Ptolemaic, 
Greek, and Roman systems, were all scientific, being 
based on a cubit or a foot, and the weight of water or 
of wine contained in a cubic cubit or a cubic foot. 



Ancient Scientific Systems. 

The earliest of these ancient scientific systems, of 
which any mention is made, appears to have been Chal- 
daean ; and it is very probable that the earliest of the 
Egyptian and Phoenician systems were Chaldaean by 
origin. Both decimal and sexagesimal modes of sub- 
division were employed at a very early epoch ; but the 
systems were probably very simple, and unembarrassed 
by an infinity of commercial requirements ; a cubit once 
determined and accurately fixed, its square, its cube, and 
the weight of water, wine, or grain in its cube, were four 
standard units of length, surface, capacity, and weight ; 
the rest was probably nearly left to the habits of the 
people. The cubits themselves were very various, and" 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 383 

perhaps changed with each dynasty as the foot does in 
China to the present day ; but there is also sufficient 
reason to suppose that some of these ancient cubits were 
geodetic, or based either on a theoretical geodetic unit, 
or a measured terrestrial arc ; some were historic, and 
venerated for their antiquity ; and others were carefully 
systematised, so that the submultiples of the weight-units 
dependent on them might be in convenient accordance 
with monetary and commercial requirements. About 
this purely-cubitic period there is little direct evidence, 
its probable existence can only be inferred from analogies 
that appear conclusive. 

At a later period, the foot, diversely derived from 
natural, royal, and sacred cubits, became the recognised 
standard unit ; and the same principles were applied to 
it. The talent or foot-weight of water, wine, or grain 
was the unit of weight, and was divided either sexa- 
gesimally into manah or pounds, or into fiftieths and 
hundredths in the decimal mode. The ancient weights, 
discovered by Layard (see Layard's ' Nineveh and 
Babylon') and now existing in the British Museum, 
afford ample evidence of the modes adopted in this 
period. This historic method of dealing with the foot 
and the talent as standard units has never yet been 
improved upon, and is as applicable in England in the 
present day as it ever was. (The revival of the English 
foot-weight as a legal unit in 1859 affords evidence of 
this.) It has unfortunately been considered fashionable 
to decry this ancient system as unscientific, and to over- 
rate the importance of the modern French system from 
a scientific point of view. No valid reason can be urged 
against the existence of carefully computed and ingeni- 
ously arranged metrical units and systems at the earliest 



384 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

periods, when the Chaldaeans, the Phoenicians, and the 
Egyptians were the civilised races. Ignorance and bar- 
barism may be imputed to them, but cannot be proved 
except as regards the masses. Of our own ignorance 
and barbarism at the present day as regards an infinity 
of subjects there is not the slightest doubt ; our ignorance 
also extends to not knowing enough about the ancients, 
and their scientific doings (which were necessarily 
secluded), to be able to say what they could not do ; it 
is hence safer to assume that they could do about as 
much as ourselves in most matters, although probably in 
very different ways, and with very different means and 
appliances. 

When we reflect on the vastness of the ancient Tyrian 
mole, in comparison with our puny breakwaters ; on the 
stupendous Egyptian pyramids and monoliths compared 
with our buildings and fragmentary monuments ; on the 
2O-ton shot used by the Turks at the siege of Byzan- 
tium, and not yet attempted by ourselves, and on many 
other similar or corresponding facts, we cannot but con- 
clude that skill of a high description must have been 
employed in such matters, and that the vastness and 
grandeur of scale was not due to a thoughtless or coarse 
aggregation of small things. 

Comparatively uncivilised races at the present day 
can achieve wonderful results with hardly any visible 
appliances or mechanism ; travellers meet with many 
such cases, of which one may be quoted in illustration. 
After the Burmese war, a very heavy bell was taken as 
a trophy, lowered from a pagoda, and, probably from 
mismanagement, never arrived at the ship ; it was left 
imbedded on the muddy shore ; the English could not 
move it. One day a Burmese ecclesiastic asked if he 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 385 

might have the bell, as the English apparently did not 
want it ; he was informed that he might take it, if he 
could ; the next morning the bell was hanging in its 
former place at the pagoda. 

Can we reasonably believe that the Phoenicians and 
Chaldaeans were less skilful than the Burmese ? 

As regards geodesy and astronomy in ancient times, 
it is possible that the masses may have considered the 
stars to be holes pricked through a concave, and the 
earth a plane bounded by an immensity of ocean ; but 
the enlightened priests, chiefs, and astrologers could not 
have had such ideas. The ruins of enormous observa- 
tories in India prove that angular observations must have 
been made with very minute accuracy, even though 
verniers and micrometers may have been wanting. The 
knowledge of cycles, the Chaldaean Saros, the Indian 
Vrihaspati Chacram or cycle of Jupiter, and the Indian 
very correct knowledge of lunar motions, were based on 
actual and extended series of astronomical observations. 
Yet a large number of persons at the present day would 
not hesitate to assert that ' black people, without even a 
telescope, could not possibly know much about as- 
tronomy.' 

Some corresponding argument is also used to prove 
that the ancients could not measure a geodetic arc, nor 
even weigh or measure anything with precision. The 
following is one : f 

' It is obvious that without a thermometer or other ' 
' adequate means, and without a barometer or knowledge ' 
' of pressure and density of air, all weighings and measur- ' 
' ings must have been wanting in scientific precision.' 

The want of uniformity in the battered specimens of 
ancient weights and measures that now exist is also 

C C 



386 . METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

brought forward as an argument against precision in 
early periods. Yet how would a few stray unselected 
specimens of English units, Anglo-Saxon, British, 
early Elizabethan standards (condemned as inaccurate), 
Georgian and Victorian, appear to anyone two thousand 
years hence ? 

It is quite true that the appliances and means em- 
ployed for many purposes in ancient times are wholly 
unknown to us. The ancients and their astrologers had, 
however, always the privilege of choosing a lucky moment 
and a secluded place for their operations ; their moments 
and their places and conditions may have been well 
selected, so as to secure uniformity of temperature as well 
as other objects ; they may also have had some superior 
knowledge about the animal and the vegetable world 
which could be utilised in a way rendering many of 
our present appliances quite unnecessary within certain 
limits. Also, by employing very large units, they may 
through them have arrived by some process of their own 
at accurate submultiples with quite as much accuracy as 
is now done with small units and minute instrumental 
readings. 

There is therefore no more cogent reason for dis- 
believing the powers of the ancients to measure a geo- 
detic arc than to compute the cycle of Jupiter. 

It has been believed for a long time that the Great 
Pyramid, though probably a tomb, was also a perfect 
storehouse of standard Egyptian units of measurement, 
length, surface, capacity, and weight ; and that the units 
of length were also formed on a geodetic basis. Many 
have taken measurements there, and their deductions 
differ widely ; yet this would hardly be sufficient ground 
for condemning the opinion. It is far more probable 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS, 387 

than otherwise that any constructors would under any 
circumstances build a mass of that description in accord- 
ance with, and in some definite ratio to, the units of 
measurement used by them ; and this probability would 
hold independently of any presumed object in forming a 
permanent record of those units for future reference. It 
would also be more convenient to the constructors that 
certain standard units should be adhered to throughout 
the work. 

The discrepancies in the measurements of the base 
of the Great Pyramid made at various times may be 
easily accounted for ; the base is irregularly covered up 
by accumulations of sand, the visible base is therefore a 
very fluctuating length, and even if shafts be sunk at the 
corners, and horizontal measurements made between 
them, there is yet then some doubt as to which is the 
real exact base, or where the original foundation ceased. 

The astronomer Ptolemy determined the base to be 
600 Phileterian feet, =690 English feet, and to be also 
-g-Jpo of a degree of the meridian ; the most modern 
measurements by the English Ordnance Surveyors made 
the base about 760 English feet, or nearly -^-oth of the 
mean degree. 

Taking this latter as correct, a side would then be 
nearly an eighth of a minute, and the sum of the four sides 
half a minute ; so that there still remains as much 
reason as ever to believe that some geodetic unit was 
used in the construction of the Great Pyramid ; and 
perhaps also more than one. 

Ancient authors assert that the length of one of the 
sides of the Great Pyramid was 500 cubits ; presuming 
these to have been natural cubits from which the natural 
Egyptian, Phoenician, and Olympic foot was derived by 

c c 2 



388 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

taking two-thirds of it ; the natural cubit, 1-520 English 
feet, and the natural foot, 1*013 English foot, must both 
have been geodetic units. Taking another view of the 
matter, and supposing that a sacred cubit was the unit 
adopted, of Tin English feet, the length of the base 
would be nearly if not exactly 360 sacred cubits ; a 
species of sexagesimal stadium in harmony with ancient 
Chaldaean multiples, and corresponding to the Chinese li 
of 360 paces as regards mode of formation ; in that case 
the sacred cubit may also have been geodetic in origin. 

It is beyond the scope of this work to enter deeply 
into ancient measures ; the reader is hence referred to 
works on ancient metrology, and more especially to 
Piazzi Smyth's book on the Pyramid for further informa- 
tion regarding Pyramidal units. The object of the 
foregoing digression has been simply to show that the 
ancients may have been capable of producing accurate, 
scientific, and geodetic units in very early periods of the 
world's history. 

Between the Pyramidal epoch and the later Arab or 
Moslem period, several metrical systems, some of which 
were scientific reconstructions, and others mere rearrange- 
ments, were adopted by various nations at different times 
and places. 

The latest of these ancient systems recorded was the 
Arab, or Almamun system, of the fifth or sixth century, 
since which time, until nearly the present, 1 the nineteenth 
century, not a single new scientific weight-unit appears to 
have been formed; while the whole of the commercial 
weights and measures of the world during that period appa- 
rently consisted of the debris of ancient scientific systems. 

Modern scientific systems, of which there are very 

1 The kilogramme dates from 1795. 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 389 

few, and these confined to Europe, are necessarily based 
on some existing standard units of the country. 

The most perfect of these, taken generally, is the 
metric system of France, nominally dating from Decem- 
ber 9, 1799, as regards the acceptance of its standards 
by the nation as a scientific system. 



The French Metric System. 

The basic unit of this system, termed the metre, is a 
slightly enlarged half-toise, half-fathom, or yard of the old 
French system of commercial measures, and was at one 
time imagined to be the ten-millionth part of the 
meridian-quadrant passing through Paris, as deduced 
from French geodetic measurements made in 1740. Later 
investigation proved the incorrectness of the metre as a 
geodetic unit, and thus placed it in the category of arbi- 
trary units, the prototype or primary unit being the metre 
des archives, made by Lenoir at Paris, in or about 1799. 

The unit of surface of the metric system was the are 
of 100 square metres, and the unit of cubic measure, the 
litre, which was nominally the loooth part of a cubic 
metre, though at a later date it lost its pifrely scientific 
and theoretical value by becoming a measure containing 
a kilogramme weight of distilled water at 4 Centigrade, 
while the measure itself was supposed to remain at the 
temperature of o Centigrade. This unfortunate depar- 
ture from uniformity of temperature for the system is a 
most serious defect annulling practical certainty, and 
forcing a recourse to calculated adjustment. 

The nominal basic unit of weight is the gramme, but 
the real unit is in actual fact the kilogramme, of 1,000 
grammes, as exemplified in the kilogramme des archives 



390 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

made at Paris about 1799, representing its legally defined 
value, the weight in vacuo of a cubic decimetre of dis- 
tilled water at 4 Centigrade. 

The scientific value of this prototype is open to 
much doubt ; its density cannot be directly determined 
from fear of damage, while the calculated weight of a 
cubic decimetre of water, according to Stampfer in 1830, 
was 999^653 grammes, and according to Kupffer in 1841 
was 999^989 grammes. 

The French basic units, though small compared with 
the cubic cubits of ancient times, thus appear to be par- 
ticularly unfortunate in their practical development, both 
as regards geodesy and adherence to original intention 
in every respect. The other units of the system are, as 
may be seen in the subjoined table, mere decimal multi- 
ples and sub-multiples of these four basic units ; their 
names being well arranged with Latin and Greek affixes, 
so as to denote their positions in the scale. 

Though decimalisation may thus be easily applied to 
any arbitrary units, and corresponding advantages may 
be obtained to a far higher degree by a more exact and 
accurate scientific management, the fact remains that 
the French and the Chinese and Japanese systems are the 
only ones in which it is actually carried out and fully 
applied at the present day. ' 

In the period from 1812-1840, when the French 
mesures usuelles were the commercial measures used in 
France, the metric system formed a nearly perfect scien- 
tific system for French professional and scientific men, 
not only on account of its simplicity and its decimal 
advantages, but from its convenient relation to the com- 
mercial measures then used in France. This advantage 
would not accrue from the adoption of the metric system 



CH. V7. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 391 

in England for the purposes of the professional and 
scientific man as a purely scientific system ; nor would 
the same advantage be obtained in any country where 
the ordinary commercial measures are not metric. 

Excellent, then, as the metric system is, as a scientific 
system under certain circumstances, it would be entirely 
inapplicable under others ; decimalisation on local or 
national commercial units, then, affords the only con- 
venient alternative for the scientific and professional 
man in many countries, including England. 

The English Scientific System. 

The English scientific system, though incomplete and 
unpretentious, may yet be said to exist. It practically 
consists in a selected few of the principal commercial 
English units, reduced from the commercial standard 
temperature, 62 Fahrenheit, to the accepted scientific 
standard temperature, 3 2 Fahrenheit, thus corresponding 
to the metric system in this respect, and thereby ob- 
taining the advantage of maintaining the correct con- 
nection between the units of capacity or cubic measure 
and the units of weight. 

It may be here noticed that under the conditions ap- 
plied by law to English commercial measures, which 
are that the units are correct at a normal temperature of 
62 Fahrenheit in air under a barometric pressure of 30 
inches, the important advantage of a perfect relation of 
weight to volume theoretically obtained in the metric 
system either does not exist ; or if it does, is different. 

This will become apparent on noticing the different 
values of the weight of an English cubic foot of water 
under different conditions according to such information 
as is at present available. 



392 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

VALUES OF THE ENGLISH TALENT OR FOOT-WEIGHT. 

At 39 Fahrenheit in vacuo, according to 

Miller, 'Phil. Trans.' 1856 . . 62-4245 Ibs. 

At 62 Fahrenheit 62-3548 Ibs. 

At 62 Fahrenheit, bar. 30", the legal or 

commercial English value determined 

by Shuckburgh in 1798 . . . 62-3210 Ibs. 

If, too, the values of a cubic decimetre of water be 
considered in the same way, they are, according to 
Chisholm (see page 20 of his work on the ' Science of 
Weighing and Measuring/ London, 1877) : 

VALUES OF THE CUBIC DECIMETRE OF WATER. 

Theoretic French value at 39 Fahrenheit 

in vacuo, against brass weights at 32 1,000 grammes. 

French value at 62 Fahrenheit, baro- 
meter 30" . 998-717 

According to the English ratio under the 

same conditions .... 998*680 

The causes of this marked variety in value is not 
only the varying density of water at different tempera- 
ture, but the loss of weight by displacement of air, 
which is greater in the case of water than in that of its 
brass counterpoise an important consideration, as the 
weight of a cubic foot of air at the temperature 62 
Fahrenheit with the barometer at 30" is reputed to be 
53i'33 grains. 

There can be little doubt that both the English com- 
mercial value of the foot-weight, determined by 
Shuckburgh, and the theoretic French value of the 
decimetre-weight are rather inaccurate, thus producing 
two sources of discrepancy in the comparison of French 
and English weight by volume ; but apart from these two 



en. V7. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 393 

causes the alteration in the relation of weight to volume 
due to departure from the scientific standard temperature 
of comparison and from the vacuum is clearly illustrated 
by the above figures. 

In point of fact such figures are merely computed, as 
it is obviously a practical impossibility to weigh a 
vessel of water at one fixed temperature while the water 
contained in it must have another fixed temperature ; 
hence the necessity for a thorough re-investigation of 
the matter by scientific men, and probably too the 
desirability of fixing some one single temperature, per- 
haps that of the extreme density of water (about 39 
Fahrenheit), as the single normal temperature for scientific 
standard purposes in Europe generally. 

In the meantime, and with the object of maintaining 
the accepted relation with metric standards, it may be 
best to apply the French ratio in the English scientific 
measures and weights, and thus avoid one of the two 
above-mentioned sources of complication. 

The English scientific units consist of the inch, foot, 
a^d yard, the square inch, square foot, and square yard, 
the cubic inch, cubic foot, and cubic yard, and the inch- 
weight, foot-weight, and yard-weight, with their decimal 
multiples and sub-multiples to any required extent ; these 
form a complete series which, if taken at the scientific 
standard temperatures 32 and 39 Fahrenheit, answer 
most of the purposes attained by the metric system, 
without adopting the pecks, gallons, and pounds of the 
tradesman. 

When it is desired to compare quantities expressed 
in scientific units with quantities expressed in commercial 
values of units of the same name, some care is necessary 
to avoid error or confusion. To take the single case of a 



394 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n 

quantity expressed in inches, for instance 2 scientific 
inches at the temperature 32, which has to be reduced to 
commercial inches at the temperature 62. The original 
scientific inch when expanded to the extent afforded by 
this increase of temperature becomes = 1*0003 of its former 
value taken rigidly, hence 2 scientific inches = 2*0006 com- 
mercial inches ; correspondingly also 2 commercial inches 
= r 9994 scientific inches. 

For all ordinary purposes, a simple percentage of 
reduction may be applied in such numerical reductions 
as follows : 

1. In linear scientific units, at 32, I = 1*00029 commercial 

units. 

2. In superficial scientific units,, 1 = 1*00057 

3. In cubic scientific units 1 = 1*00086 

Some corresponding reduction for weights at dif- 
ferent temperatures would also be strictly necessary, 
were it not that the ordinary mode of comparing weight, 
namely, by balance, practically nearly annuls any result- 
ing effect of temperature ; the actual effect of tempera- 
ture and gravity on weight is hence most frequently 
ignored, and an ounce at the equator is thus placed in 
mechanical identity with an ounce at the pole. 

The values of the scientific units in metric measures 
are given in the table following this section ; the scienti- 
fic values of the furlong and mile and of the square fur- 
long and square mile have been added to make up an 
obvious deficiency by the most simple means, though a 
further improvement as regards itinerary and land-mea- 
sure may effect desirable change in the future. 

The units of scientific weight have been arranged 
according to the best of the author's ability with the 
view of simple decimal systematisation. 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 395 



JYie English Decimal Scientific Series. 

Taking the three scientific units of weight at 32 
Fahrenheit, the inch-weight, or weight of a cubic inch of 
water is about 0-578005 commercial ounce, and neither 
it nor its decimal multiples or sub-multiples have any 
simple convenient or even any approximate relation to 
the English commercial units of weight ; this series is 
consequently discarded as unnecessary and is therefore 
omitted in the table. The corresponding weight of a 
cubic yard of water is about 15-04877 commercial 
hundredweights, and both it and its decimal multiples 
and sub-multiples are similarly out of accordance with 
commercial units, and hence are also rejected. 

The weight of a cubic foot of water has, however, 
been a legalised standard unit of weight since the year 
1859, and its legally declared value at 62 Fahrenheit, 
barometer 30", was 62-3210 pounds; taking then the 
correct value of this unit at 32 Fahrenheit as 62-4245 
pounds, or 998-79 commercial ounces, its relation to the 
ounce of commercial weight is tolerably well-defined 
and more convenient for purposes of calculation and 
comparison with commercial weight than any other 
unit that might be proposed. Denominating this foot- 
weight of water at 32 Fahrenheit in accordance with 
ancient nomenclature, it is an English talent, in the same 
way as the Greek rakavrov, or talant, was the weight of 
a Greek or Olympic cubic foot of water. 

Decimalising on this talent at intervals of 1000 
(which are sufficiently small for scientific purposes, and 
extending the decimalisation to include every possible 
requirement beyond the two extremes of the com- 



390 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



mercial ton and grain), the thousandth part of the 
English talent is 0*99879 commercial ounce, thus varying 
from it by only O'I2 per cent, and may hence be termed 
a scientific or a millesimal ounce. The thousandth part 
of the scientific ounce, here named a mil, is 0-43697 
commercial grain, or about T V^s of it ; and if a very 
small unit be required as is sometimes the case in 
monetary weight and in scientific matters, the thou- 
sandth part of the mil, termed a doit, is 0*000437 of a 
grain, or very nearly a fifth of the now obsolete English 
doit, which was -^th of a grain. A unit of 1000 
talents, to which the hitherto appropriated term thou- 
sand-weight might be applied, having a value of 27-868 
tons, and just exceeding the largest known commercial 
unit of weight, completes this decimal series of scientific 
measures of weight. It is actually a rod-weight or 
weight of a cubic rod of water. 



} \ =1000 talents or foot-weight, 

l-weight J 



Units of Water-weight, 

at 32 Fahrenheit, 
based on the weight of an English cubic foot of water. 

i Rod-weight or 

thousand- 

i Foot-weight or 1 I000 scient in c ounces. 

talent J 

i Scientific ounce =1000 mils. 
i Mil =1000 doits. 

This small category has thus been newly arranged and 
put in definite form to suit professional purposes and 
wants until such time as the Government of the country, 
aided by scientific investigation, makes some move in 
this long-deferred matter, and completes the English 
scientific series in some way by permissive legal enact- 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 397 

ment. It will perhaps be noticed by professional men 
that the advantages of the above units are : 

1. That they are based on a recognised legal unit 

2. That they are transmutable into commercial units 
through the ounce by a reduction of O'I2 per cent. 

3. That they are purely decimal, and evenly spaced 
at intervals of 1000 so as to cover the requisite range. 

4. That conversion from weight to volume, and from 
volume is practicable with them as with metric units. 

5. That the actual weight of any body of known 
volume and density is easily ascertained. For example, 
the weight of two cubic feet of wrought iron, having a 
specific gravity of 778, is 15-56 talents. 

6. That the reduction of units of pressure in which 
these weight-units are applied is as easily effected as 
with metric pressure-units. 

Taking the English scientific system as a whole, with 
the addition of the decimal weight-units, it appears 
practical, rational, and effectual ; it is, however, not yet 
purely decimal throughout, as the inch-units and yard- 
units of length, surface, and cubic measure, entering so 
largely into trade-matters in direct connection with 
professional business, cannot be entirely dispensed with 
for a very long time to come. When such a period does 
arrive, the system may be reduced to a simply decimal 
one based on the foot alone ; but even then some new 
itinerary and superficial units will be required to take the 
place of the incongruous furlong of 220 yards, the mile of 
8 furlongs, the square furlong of 10 acres or 48400 
square yards, and the square mile of 64 square furlongs 
or 640 acres. 

At such an epoch, extended decimalisation on the 



398 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

foot and square foot will probably be necessary ; and 
the subjoined mode will probably be inevitable : 

Linear. The foot. 

The rod =10 feet. 

The chain (Ramsden's)=ioo feet. 

The cable =1000 feet. 

The league =100 chains = 10000 feet. 

Superficial. The square foot. 

The square rod =100 square feet. 

The square chain =10000 square feet. 

The square cable or 1 

century | =100 square chains. 

The square league =10000 square chains. 

Also, if the principle adopted in the weight-units be 
also applied to cubic units, they would become thus : 

Cubic measure. Corresponding 

water-weight units. 

i cubic rod 1 The rod-weight or 

or mass } ' thousand-weight, 

i cubic foot = 1000 fluid ounces . The talent, or foot- 
weight. 

i fluid ounce = 1000 fluid mils . . The scientific ounce, 
i fluid mil = 1000 fluid doits . . The mil = 1000 doits. 

The proposed league of two old London miles or 
10000 feet, which is nearly 3 kilometres, though conve- 
nient in value, is open to a slight objection as regards 
its name, but as the ancient English league of three 
miles is very nearly practically obsolete, and has long 
ceased to be a legal unit, any confusion arising from 
this cause is hardly probable, while the necessity for 
adopting some name indicative of itinerary measure is 
sufficiently evident. 

When the decimalisation of the English scientific 
system thus becomes perfect, it will be as convenient for 



en. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS 399 

the English scientific and professional man as the French 
metric system now is for the French scientific and pro- 
fessional men ; and will also be in correlation with 
English commercial measures. There is, as far as can 
be ascertained, no reason for deferring the adoption of 
the simplified English scientific system l to any future 
time, apart from the need of a nominal retention of the 
inch-units and yard-units. They are hence used through- 
out the tables in this book. 



Other Scientific Systems. 

While in France a scientific system has now been 
long in use (since 1800), and in England a scientific 
system is just barely complete, in other European 
countries local or national scientific systems are either 
entirely wanting or are merely partial and incomplete, 
and are sometimes replaced by foreign measures, more 
frequently by the French metric units. 

The partial and incomplete scientific systems are, 
however, worthy of some notice, although they should 
more properly be considered as mere attempts. It may 
be urged that almost all nations possess linear, square, and 
cubic measure based on some one or two units, such as 
a foot, or an ell or cubit, and that so far a scientific 
system generally exists ; but the incompleteness or 
non-existence of a scientific system precisely consists in 
the absence of a series of weight-units in simple correla- 
tion with cubic units and measures of volume. Such a 
deficiency is due to the fact that European commercial 
systems of measure are mostly based on two totally 
independent units, one of length and one of weight. 

1 Treating it as a permissive system for technical purposes. 



4 oo METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

Two exceptional cases may be noticed, the Danish, 
in which the Rheinfuss is the linear unit, and the pound 
is -J-nd part of the cubic foot of water, and the Prussian 
in which the same Rheinfuss is the linear unit, and the 
pound is -Jgth of the cubic foot of water at 1 5 Reaumur 
or 657 Fahrenheit ; but in neither of these cases does 
the ounce fall sufficiently near the loooth part of the 
foot-weight of water to admit of small adjustment and 
the adoption of a decimal series on that basis, the 
Rhein foot-weight being equal to 992 Danish ounces, or 
to I 056 Prussian ounces, any adjustment involving a 
change of nearly I per cent, in the former case, and of 
5 -6 per cent, in the latter ; compared with which the 
present English discrepancy of about 0*12 per cent, is a 
trifle. 

The Swedish commercial system of measures, so 
perfect in every respect except as regards the whole of 
the weights, would be capable of a superimposed scien- 
tific system only by a complete rejection of these ; in 
that case, if a new pound = 5-V tn f the Swedish foot- 
weight of water were adopted (which would be about 
523*26 grammes), a decimal series of weight-units might 
be formed for scientific purposes, which would then hold 
a most convenient correlation with local commercial 
measures and weights throughout. 

At present there exists merely an incomplete local 
decimal system in Sweden. In length and distance the 
fot, or foot, is divided decimally, and the multiples of 
the fot are the stong, or rod, of 10 feet, and the ref, or 
chain of 100 feet, beyond this there is a mil or league of 
360 chains. In surface, the measures are the square 
foot, the square stong = 100 square feet, and the square 
ref= 100 square stanger. In cubic measure, the cubic 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 401 

foot= 1000 cubic turn, the kannar= 100 cubic turn, and 
the cubic ell = 4 cubic feet. In weight, there is no 
weight-unit in correct correspondence with cubic measure 
and it is in this respect that the system fails from a 
scientific point of view. The commercial skalpund, 
apparently an arbitrary unit, is the basis ; its sub- 
multiples are the crt^y^- skalpund, and the korn = 3-^ 
ort ; its multiples, the centner = 100 skalpund and the 
nylast= 100 centner ; the arrangement being centesimal. 
The system itself is applied at the standard temperature 
adopted by the Swedes for commercial units, namely 
1 5 Celsius. The centesimal subdivision, so convenient 
in surface measures, is a defective mode of arranging 
either cubic units or weight-units, which, for scientific 
purposes, should be arranged in strict correspondence, 
either decimally or millesimally. 

The Russians, not possessing any distinct scientific 
system of their own at present, more frequently adopt 
French units in scientific matters ; and it seems as 
difficult to forecast the future of Russian scientific 
measures as to prophesy their future internal and politi- 
cal development. In commercial measures, they possess 
a series of units Oriental or semi-Oriental by origin ; 
these, by the order of their most practical and renowned 
Peter the Great, were modified slightly to be in ac- 
cordance with English units, so that the Russian foot 
and the English foot became identical. One might 
imagine that the Russians would adhere to this principle 
in the future development and systematisation of their 
measures. 

Since that time, however, a semi- French regime, 
accompanied with an assumption that everything French, 
from corsets to kilometres, was highly civilised, has held 

D D 



402 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

temporary sway in that country ; this was carried so far 
that most Russians of the higher classes spoke French 
and were comparatively ignorant of their own language ; 
among the lower classes the revolutionary and com- 
munistic ideas of the French became a sort of propa- 
gated gospel, taking various forms of Nihilism. At a 
later period these national follies were counteracted to a 
certain extent by German proclivities, while lastly the 
most recent tendency has been towards Slavonism, local 
and national development of the purely Slavonic branches 
of the Russian nation. Possibly the Finnish Ugrian 
and true Russian portion of the nation may, at some 
period, reject the Slavonic idea and take their turn at 
preponderance ; or perhaps the nation may revert to 
and stand by the principles of the time of Peter the 
Great In the meantime a curious mixture of ideas 
seems to reign, and the same holds true in the measures, 
where the Oriental arsheen and sasheen exist side by 
side with the Anglo-Russian foot and a werst that is an 
approximate kilometre, though by origin an Oriental 
and a Persian unit, about one seventh of a Persian 
farsakh. 

Probably the best scientific system for the Russians 
would be the English decimal scientific system, based 
on the international foot. 

Among remaining European nations a complete 
scientific system in correlation with local commercial 
measures in use seems hardly practicable. 

As regards partial attempts at decimalisation and the 
formation of a scientific system in North-European 
countries, these have been generally limited. First, the 
substitution of a decimal inch, tithe or tenth of a foot, 
for a true duodecimal inch ; thus making the subdi- 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 403 

visions in square and cubic measure strictly decimal. 
Second, the employment of a ruthe or pole of 10 feet, 
so as to make the square ruthe or perch 100 square feet, 
and afford convenience in surveys and land -measurement, 
though to a very small extent. Another and an inferior 
alternative mode of doing this was adopted by intro- 
ducing a special land-measuring foot equal to the tenth 
of the local ruthe or pole. Third, the berglachter or 
dumpflachter system adopted by mining engineers in 
Germany was a combination of the two last as regards 
principle, the unit being a lachter, klafter, or large 
fathom (in Prussia equal to 6f feet, in Saxony equal to 
7 feet, and in Bohemia 4 ells, which was decimally 
divided into 10 feet, loo inches, or 1000 lines, and on 
this was formed a decimal system of linear, superficial, 
and cubic measure, distinct from ordinary commercial 
units, though in correlation with them. But beyond 
these three things decimalisation was not carried, and 
never extended into the units of weight, so as to form a 
complete decimal system. There is no doubt that not 
only a complete system of scientific measures might 
have been based on the Rheinfuss of Northern Ger- 
many and Denmark and Norway, but that a uniform 
commercial system for Germany might have been 
satisfactorily carried out on that basis, without the 
degradation of borrowing French measures. A sketch 
of such a German system, as a typical proposition, is 
given among the proposed systems at the end of this 
book. 

In Southern Europe, an incomplete scientific system 
was adopted in the kingdom of Naples or, more 
properly, the two Sicilies in April 1840, and lasted 
until the unification of Italy. 

D D 2 



4 o 4 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART IT. 

The basis of this system was a geodetic mile, or 
miglio, equal to one minute of arc of the meridional 
quadrant ; and the mode of subdivision was principally 
but not entirely decimal. The scale of linear units was 
thus : 

i miglio = 700 canne=iooo passi = 7OOO palmi, 

and the palmo (corresponding to a foot) was 0*2646 
metre, or about 0*868 foot English ; and was divided 
both decimally into decimi and centesimi, and duode- 
cimally into 12 oncie, 60 minuti and 120 punti. 
The scale of surface units was thus : 

I moggio=ioo square canne =10000 square palmi, 

the moggio being nearly 7*0013 ares or 0*69264 rood. 
The cubic measures were : 

i cubic canna = 1000 cubic palmi, 

the cubic canna being about 18*5255 cubic metres or 
653*97 cubic feet 

Beyond this, the system did not go, as apparently 
the old units of weight, the libbra of 320*76 grammes, 
the rottolo of 2-J- libbre, the cantaro piccolo of 100 
libbre, and the cantaro grosso of 100 rottoli, were re- 
tained ; while no new units of weight were adopted ; 
nor, as far as present inquiry reaches, was any attempt 
made to form any cubicised unit of weight on the cubic 
palmo. 

In Tuscany there were some decimalised units, based 
on the ordinary palmo of Florence ; they were : 

In length, I canna or pertica = 10 palmi = 100 soldi. 

In surface, i pertica quadrata = 100 palmi quad. = 10000 soldi quad. 
In cubicity, I palmo cubico = 1000 palmi cubichi. 
In weight, the old commercial units unmodified ; the libbra, centinajo, 

and migliajo. 



CH. VI. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 405 

This system was therefore both non-geodetic and in- 
complete, while the range of its decimalised units was 
exceedingly limited, not even arriving at units near 
either the rood or the furlong. 

Such very partial attempts at scientific system- 
atisation, though deserving notice, will not be found 
classified as scientific systems in the tables devoted to 
that branch of the subject. 

The following tables give the values of the English 
and the French scientific units in terms of each other, 
and afford a means of converting quantities without 
need of multiplication. 



4 o6 



^METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



The French 



French 
Commercial 










Values 


Millimetre 





O'OO I 


metre . 


g>jg 


Centimetre 


ss 


O'OI 


metre . 


'S ' M 


Decimetre 


= 


O'l 


metre . 


5 ^ 


Metre 








metre . 


o ~ 


Decametre 


= 


10' 


metres 


r-| 


Hectometre 


- 


100* 


metres 


gfr|j 


Kilometre 





IOOO' 


metres 


j3 > 

Cj 


Myriametre 


= 10000* 


metres 


L> ""^ 

U"*P w 


Centiare 


= 


I 


metre carre 


1 1 I* ! 


Deciare 


= 


10 


metres carres 


'0 S *^ . 


Are 


= 


IOO 


metres carres 


w 8 ro . 


Hectare 


ca 


IOO 


ares 


rC P- . 


Kilometre carre* 


= 


IOO 


hectares 


^5 . 


Myriametre carrd 


= 


IOO 


kilometres carres. 


'1 ^ '. 










, M d) 


Millilitre 





O'OO I 


litre . 


^ _S ^ 


Centilitre 





0*01 


litre . 


'" *'' J2 


Decilitre 


= 


O'l 


litre . 


'S .2 ' 


Litre 


= 


I 


litre . 


g 53 


Decalitre 





10 


litres . 


^ -4-S 


Hectolitre 





IOO 


litres . 


S.S | ' 


Stere or metre cube 


= 


IOOO 


litres . 


"i ^^ 










> tCl) 


Milligramme 
Centigramme 
Decigramme 


= 


O'OO I 
O'OI 
O'l 


gramme 
gramme 
gramme 


111 

8?i: 


Gramme 


= 


I* 


gramme 


g as "K 


Decagramme 


= 


10 


grammes 


^c^ 


Hectogramme 


= 


IOO 


grammes 


^ I'C '. 


Kilogramme 


= 


IOOO 


grammes 


C 5 O 

<u f* <u 


Myriagramme 


= 


IO 


kilogrammes 


^ ^ ^d * 


Quintal 
Millier ou tonne 


= 


IOO 
IOOO 


kilogrammes 
kilogrammes 


1 : 



See Tables of English 



CH. VI. 



SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 



407 



System. 



English Decimal 


English 


Scien. Values based 


Scientific Values 


on the Foot at 32 Fahr. 1 


in other units at 32 Fahr, 


. 0-032809 tithe . 


. 0-039371 inch 


. 0-328090 tithe . 


. 0-393708 inch 


. 0-328090 foot . . - . 


. 3-937079 inches 


. 3-280899 feet . 


. 1 -093633 yard 


. 3-280899 rods (Ramsden) . 


. 10 -936330 yards 


. 3-280899 chains (Ramsden) 


. 0-4971 06 furlong 


. 0-328090 league. 


. 0-621 382 mile 


. 3-280899 leagues 


. 6 -21 3820 miles 


. 10764299 square feet . 


. 1196033 sq. yard 


1 -076430 square rod . 


. 11 -960330 sq. yards 


. 10764299 sq. rods (Ramsden) 


11 9-603300 sq. yards 


. 10764299 sq. chains (Ramsden) 


. 0'247114sq. furlong 


. 1 07630 sq. league . 


. 0-386116 sq. mile 


, 10764299 sq. leagues . 


. 38-611611 sq. miles 


, 35-316581 fluid-mils . 


. 0-061027 cubic inch 


. 353165810 fluid-mils . 


. 0-610271 cubic inch 


3-531658 fluid-ounces (milles.) 


. 6102705 cubic inches 


. 35-316581 fluid-ounces (milles.) 


. 61 -027052 cubic inches 


353*165810 fluid-ounces (milles.) 


610-270515 cubic inches 


3-531658 cubic feet . 


. 0130802 cubic yard 


. 35*316581 cubic feet . 


. 1 -308022 cubic yard 


35-316581 doits . 


. 0-000061 inch-weight 


.353-1 65810 doits . 


. 0-000610 inch-weight 


3 '531 658 mils . 


. 0-006102 inch- weight 


35-316581 mils . 


. 0-061027 inch-weight 


.353-1 65810 mils . 


. 0-610271 inch-weight 


3-531658 ounces (milles.) . 


. 6 102705 inch-weight 


35-316581 ounces (milles.) . 


. 61 -027052 inch-weight 


. 353165810 ounces (milles.) . 


61 0-27051 5 inch-weight 


! 3*531658 foot-weight or talents 


. 01 30802 yard- weight 


. 35*316581 foot-weight or talents 


. 1 '308022 yard-weight 



Scientific Values. 



4 o8 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



English Decimal Scientific System ; of Units based on the Foot 

French 



LENGTH. 


FRENCH VALUES. 


The foot 
The rod 
The Ramsden "1 
chain J 


= 10 tithes 
= 10 feet . 

= 10 rods . 


3'04794 
3 '4794 

3 '04794 


decimetres 
metres 

decametres 


The cable 
The (decimal) "1 
league / 


= 10 chains 
100 chains or 1 
"10000 feet / 


3 '04794 


hectometres 
kilometres 


SURFACE. 








The sq. foot 
The sq. rod 
The sq. chain 
The sq. cable "1 
or century J 
The sq. league 


= 100 sq. tithes . 
= lOOsq. feet . 
= 100 sq. rods . 

= 100 sq, chains . 
= 100 centuries . 


9-28997 
9-28997 
9-28997 

9-28997 
9-28997 


decim. car. 
metres car. 
ares 

hectares 
kilom. car. 


CAPACITY. 








Fluid-mil 
(Millesimal) "1 
fluid-ounce j 


= 1000 fld. -doits . 
= 1000 fld. -mils . 


28-31531 
28-31531 


millim. cub. 
centim. cub. 


Cubic foot 
Cubic rod 


= 1000 fld. -ounces 
= 1000 cubic feet . 


28-31531 
28-31531 


decim. cub. 
met. cub. 


WEIGHT. 








Mil 
(Milles.) ounce 
Foot-weight or 1 
talent J 


= 1000 doits. 
= 1000 mil . 

= 1000 ounces 


28-31531 
28-31531 

28-31531 


milligrammes 
grammes 

kilogrammes 


Rod-weight 


= 1000 foot-weight 


28-31531 


milliers 



This system, containing a legal unit of length, surface, capacity, and weight, 
under legal statute, which allows the use of decimal multiples and submultiples 



CH. VI. 



SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS, 



409 



alone, at Temperature 32 Fahr. in Vacuo^ with Corresponding 
Values. 



LENGTH. 

Metre 
Decametre 
Hectometre 
Kilometre 



= 10 decimetres 
= 10 metres . 
= 100 metres . 
==1000 metres . 



SURFACE. 

Metre carre = 100 decim. Carre's 
Are = 100 metres carres 

Hectare = 100 ares 

Kilom. carre =- 100 hectares . 
Myriam. carre' =. 100 kilom. carres 



CAPACITY. 

Millilitre or centimetre cube . 
Litre =1000 millilitres 

Metre cube =1000 litres 
Kilostere =1000 metres cubes 



WEIGHT. 

Milligramme .... 

Gramme =1000 milligrammes 

Kilogramme =1000 grammes 

Millier =1000 kilogrammes 



ENGLISH VALUES. 

3-280899 feet 
3-280899 rods 
3-280899 chains 
0-328090 league 



107643 sq. feet 

107643 sq. rods 

10*7643 sq. chains 

010764 sq. leagues 

107643 sq. leagues 



35-316581 fluid-mils 
35-316581 fluid-oz. 
35-316581 cubic feet 
35*316581 cubic rods 



35-316581 doits 
35-316581 mils 
35-316581 ounces 
35-316581 foot- weights 



and merely decimal multiples and submultiples of them, is doubtfully permissible 
applied to any unit, provided they are so mentioned. 



4 ro 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



Conversion Tables for Reducing French Values into English 
Scientific Equivalents at 32. 





Metres into ft., and 




Units Metres into inches for corn dec. mult. 


Metres into y^rds 


1 39-37079 


3-28090 


1 -09363 


2. 7874158 


6-56180 


218727 


3. 11811237 


9-84270 


3-28090 


4. 15748316 


1312360 


4-37453 


5. 196*85395 


16-40450 


5-46817 


6. 236-22474 


19-68539 


6-56180 


7. 275-59553 


22-96629 


7-65543 


8. 314-96632 


26-24719 


874906 


9. 354-33701 


29-52809 


9-84270 


10. 39370790 


32-80899 


10-93633 




Square meties 




Square metres 


into square feet, and 


Square metres 


into square inches 


forcorr. dec. mult. 


into square yards 


1. 1550-06 


1076430 


119603 


2. 3100-12 


21 -52860 


2-39207 


3. 465018 


32-29290 


3-58810 


4. 6200 24 


43-05720 


478413 


5. 7750-80 


53-82150 


5-98017 


6. 9300*35 


64-58579 


717620 


7. 10850-41 


75-35009 


8-37223 


8. 12400-47 


8611439 


9-56826 


9. 13950-53 


96-87869 


10-76430 


10- 15500-59 


107-64299 


11-96033 




Cubic decimetres 




Cubic decimetres 


into cubic feet, and 


Cubic metres 


into cubic inche? 


for corr. dec. mult. 


into cubic yards 


1. 61-02705 


0-035317 


1 -30802 


2. 122-05410 


0-070634 


2-61604 


a 183-08115 


0105950 


3-92407 


4. 244-10821 


0141266 


5-23209 


5. 30513526 


0176583 


6-54011 


6. 36616231 


0-211900 


7-84813 


7. 42718936 


0-247216 


915615 


a 488-21642 


0-282533 


10-46418 


a 549-24347 


0-317849 


1177220 


10- 610-27052 


0-353166 


13-08022 


Also for 


Also for kilogrammes 


Also for 


kilogrammes into 


into talents, or 


milliers into 


inch-weight units 


foot-weight units 


yard-weight units 



CH. 



SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 



411 



Conversion Tables for Reducing English Scientific Values at 32 
into French Values. 
Ft. into metres, and 



Units In. into centimetres 


for corr. dec. mult. 


Yards into metres 


1- 2-539954 


0-30479 


0-91438 


2. 5-079908 


0*60959 


1-82877 


3. 7-619862 


0*91438 


2743*5 


4. 10*159816 


1*21918 




5. 12*699771 


1*52397 


4-57192 


6. 15*239725 


1*82876 


5 -48630 


7. 17*779679 


2-I3356 


6*40068 


8. 20*319633 


2-43835 


7-31506 


9. 22*859587 


2743*5 


8-22945 


10. 25*399541 


3*04794 


9*14383 




Square feet into 




Square inches into 


square metres, and 


Square yards into 


square centimetres 


for corr. dec. mult. 


square metres 


1. 6*45137 


0*09290 


0*83610 


2. 12*90273 


0-18580 


1*67219 


3. 19*35410 


0-27870 


2*50829 


4. 25*80547 


0-37160 


3*34439 


5. 32*25684 


0*46450 


4*18049 


6. 38*70820 


0*55740 


5*01658 


7. 45*15957 


0*65030 


5*85268 


8. 51*61094 


074320 


6-68878 


9- 58-06230 


0*83610 


7*52487 


10. 64-51367 


0-92900 


8*36097 




Cubic feet into 




Cubic inches into 


cub. decimetres, and 


Cubic yards into 


cubic centimetres 


for corr. dec. mul. 


cubic metres 


1. 16-38618 


28-31531 


0*76451 


2. 3277235 


56*63062 


1-52903 


a 49*15853 


84-94594 


2-29354 


4. 65-54470 


113*26125 




5. 81-93088 


141*57656 


3-82257 


6. 98-31706 


169*89187 


4-58708 


7. 114-70323 


198*20718 


5*35*59 


8. 131-08941 


226*52250 


6"ii6io 


9. 147*47558 


254*83781 


6-88062 


10. 163-86176 


283*15312 


7*645*3 


Also for 


Also for 


Also for 


inch-weight units 


foot-weight units 


yard-weight units 


into grammes 


into kilogrammes 


into millier 



412 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



The English Decimal Scientific System, at 32' 



Scientific Units 


Commercial Values 


LENGTH. 




The foot = 10 tithes . 
The rod = 10 feet . 
The chain = 100 feet . 
The cable = 1000 feet . 


1*00029 f ee t 

3*3343 Y ards 
6*06236 poles 
0*15156 furlong 


^eaguT 11 " 1 }^ 10000 ^ ' 


1*89449 miles 


SURFACE. 




The sq. foot = 100 sq. tithes . 
The sq. rod = 100 sq. feet 
The sq. chain 10000 sq. feet 

Th o e r S c q en?u b r y}= 1 00 sq. chains . 
The sq. league =1 0000 sq. chains . 


1*00057 sq. feet 
0*36752 sq. poles 
0*91880 rood 

22*96991 acres 
3*58905 sq. miles 


CAPACITY. 




Fluid-mil = 1000 fluid-doits . 
Fluid-ounce = 1000 fluid-mils . 

Cubic foot = lOOOfluid-oz. 
Cubic rod = 1000 cubic feet . 


2*07804 minims 
50*99746 fluid-oz. 
1*72903 cub. inch 
1*00086 cub. feet 
6*2344 gallons 
37*06892 cub. yards 


WEIGHT. 




Mil = 1000 doits . 
Ounce = 1 000 mils . 

^JSS? }= 1000 ounces { 
Rod-weight = 1000 foot- weight 


*43697 grain 
0*99879 ounce 
62*42454 pounds 
1*00 1 66 foot-weight 
27*86810 tons 



The reduction from and to scientific units merely consists in reduction foi 

cimalisation of the ounce ; these unite to form the cubicity of the decimal 

In calculations the reductions can be effected by conversion into foot-units 



CH. VI. 



SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 



413 



Fahr., compared with English Commercial Values at 62' 



Commercial Units 


Scientific Values 


LENGTH 




Foot = 12 inches . 


. 0-99971 foot 


Yard = 3 feet 


. 2 -9991 3 feet 


Pole = 5^ yards 


. 1-64952 rod 


Furlong = 40 poles 


. 6-59809 chains 


Mile = 8 furlongs . 


. 0-52785 league 


SURFACE. 




Square foot =144 sq. inches 


. 0-99943 sq. foot 


Square yard = 9 sq. feet . 


. 8-99487 sq. feet 


Square pole = 30^ sq. yards 


. 272095 sq. rod 


Rood = 40 sq. poles. 


. 1 -08838 sq. chain 


Acre = 4 roods 


. 4-35352 sq. chains 


Square furlong = 10 acres 


. 43-53517 sq. chains 


Square mile = 64 sq. furlongs 


. 0-27863 sq. leagues 


CAPACITY. 




Cubic inch .... 


. 0'57821 fluid-ounce 


Cubic foot = 1 72*8 cub. inches 


. 0-9991 4 cubic foot 


Fluid ounce = 480 minims . 


. 1 -00254 fluid-ounce 


Gallon = 1 60 fld. -ounces 


160*40606 fluid-ounces 


Bushel = 8 gallons . 


. 1 -28325 cubic feet 


Quarter = 8 bushels . 


. 10-26599 cubic feet 


WEIGHT. 




Grain . . 


. 2-28848 mils 


Ounce =43 7 '5 grains 


. 1-00121 ounce 


Pound = 1 6 ounces 


. 16-01934 ounces 


Foot- weight = 62*3210 pounds 


. 0*99834 foot- weight 


Hundred weight = 112 pounds 
Ton = 20 cwt. 


. 1 -7941 7 foot-weight 
. 35-88322 foot- weights 



temperature, change of standard, and the slight modification due to exact de- 
scientific system, as in the French system at 32. 
and application of a percentage. 



4 i4 METRICAL SYSTEMS, PART n. 



COMPOUND UNITS. 

The foregoing systems of all sorts, whether com- 
mercial or scientific, have been hitherto dealt with 
merely as systems composed of simple units ; it will be 
evident, however, that well-arranged systems can only be 
perfect when they afford convenient compound as well 
as simple units, and that resulting compound units thus 
form an important test of a system. 

In commercial systems, the principal tests of con- 
venience are, that a unit shall be forthcoming at any 
part of the series where trade, or any branch of trade, 
demands it as necessary ; that these units shall be taken 
as estimated in air at some mean temperature well 
suited to the country ; that the mode of subdivision shall 
be in accordance with the habits or forms of thought of 
the people, either binary or decimal, or a combination of 
the two ; and that the framework or skeleton of the 
commercial system shall be thoroughly systematised on 
scientific principles. 

For a scientific system, the principal tests are that 
it shall be complete and convenient for all scientific and 
professional purposes, that the units shall be very 
exactly defined and easily recoverable, that the corre- 
spondence or connection between any two units in the 
system, however far apart or different in kind, shall be 
exceedingly simple and arranged on a decimal basis ; 
also that the system shall be in some convenient 
accordance with the commercial measures of the 
country. 

The extent to which the English commercial system 
and the just-completed English scientific system ap- 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 415 

proximate to these conditions has been a subject 
frequently referred to in the foregoing chapters. 

Compound units, however, require a higher amount 
of simplicity than simple units, as their nature renders 
them more difficult to manipulate or calculate. Gene- 
rally speaking, they are regarded as scientific units, and 
hence should form part of a scientific system ; frequently 
however, they are taken as commercial units, even 
when having but slight connection with commercial 
matters. 

Strictly speaking, and taking matters as they should 
be rather than as they are, the commercial compound 
units are units compounded of monetary and commercial 
simple units, while scientific compound units should 
include all technical compound units and be calculated 
and dealt with as parts of a scientific system. 

The most common type of compound unit is purely 
commercial, being compounded of a commercial and 
a monetary unit, and taking the forms, i per acre, 
I shilling per gallon, I penny a pound, and so forth. 
Now, though coinage and monetary matters generally 
are beyond the scope of this book, yet when com- 
pound units of the above type are so important, it 
becomes necessary to take moneys of account into 
consideration. 

The following list of the moneys of account and 
modes of subdivision used in various countries, with 
their nominal values at par in English money and in 
Canadian dollars, may be useful for reference, while 
considering the effect of compounding commercial and 
monetary units in foreign transactions. 



4 i6 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



MONEY OF ACCOUNT 

USED IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES. 



EUROPE : 

England and "\ th d = 2Q shillings 

English Colonies J 

the shilling = 12 pence 
the penny = 4 farthings 

France and 1 th f = 100 centimes 

French Colonies / 

the centime 
German Empire : reichsmark = 100 pfennige 

pfennige 
Denmark : the kroner = 100 ore . 

ore ...... 

Sweden : the riksdaler = 100 ore 

ore ..... 



Norway : Specie-daler = 4 kroner 

kroner =100 ore 

Holland and Colonies, "I Ud = 
Java, Surinam J & 

cent .... 

Belgium : franc = 100 centimes .... 

centime ...... 

Switzerland : franc = 100 rappen .... 

rap or centime .... 

Austro-Hungarian Empire : gulden = 100 kreutzer 

kreutzer . 
Russia : silver ruble = 100 copek 

copek ....... 

Spain : peseta = 100 centimes .... 

centimo 

Gibraltar : duro = 20 reals 

real = 10 decimas . 
Portugal : milrei = 1000 reis 

rei . . 

Italy : lira = 100 centimes 

centime ....... 

Malta : scudo = 12 tari 

taro = 2 carlini ..... 

carlino = 10 grani 

Turkey : lira turca = 100 piastres 

piastre = 40 paras 

Greece : drachma = 100 lepta .... 
lepton 

AFRICA : 
Egypt : piastre = 40 fuddah .... 

fuddah 

Abyssinia : pataka, or old Austrian thaler = 23 harf 

harf=4 divani 

Tripoli : mahbub = 20 piastres .... 



Nominal Values at par 


$> 


s. d. 


4-80 


1 


0-24 


1 


0-02 


1 


0-19 


9* 


0-0019 


0-095 


0-24 


1 


0-0024 


0-12 


0-2666 


1 11 


0-0027 


0-133 


0-2666 


1 i^ 


0-0027 


0-133 


0-2666 


1 1- 


0-0027 


? 133 


0-40 


1 8 


0-0040 


0-2 


0-19 


9- 


0-0019 


2 095 


0-19 


91 


0-0019 


0-095 


0-47 


1 111 


0-0047 


0-235 


0-76 


3 2 


0-0076 


0-38 


0-19 


91 


0-0019 


0-095 


0-98 


4 1 


0-0490 


2-45 


1-0667 


4 51 


0-0011 


0-053 


0-19 


91 


0-0019 


0095 


0-40 


1 8 


0-0333 


If 


0167 


0-633 


4-32 


18 


00432 


2-16 


0-19 


91 


0-0019 


2 095 


0-05 


a 


0-0013 


JL 


1 


4 2** 


0-0435 


2 


I 


4 2 23 



CH. VI. 



SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 



417 



MONEY OF ACCOUN1 -continued. 



AFRICA continued. 

piastre = 40 para 
para 
Tunis : piastre = 16 karub . 

karub . 

Morocco : mitkal = 10 wakia 
waki = 4 blankil 
blankil 



ASIA : 
Arabia : piastre = 80 kavir 

kavir . 

Persia : toman = 10 keran 
keran = 20shahi 
shahi = 50 dinar 
India : rupi = 16 anna 
anna = 12 pai 



100 cents 



8 mus 



Ceylon : Rupi 
cent 

Burma : tikal, or kyat 
mus = 2 bai 
bai = 8 rewh 

Siam : tikal, or bat = 4 miam 

miam = 2 fuan 

fuan = 4 fainun 

: quan = 10 mas 

mas = 60 cash 

Philippines and Borneo 



Anam 



China : liang=10 tsin 
tsin = 10 fan . 
fan = 101i . 

Japan : yen = 100 sen 
sen = 10 rin , 



peso: 
real = 



= 20 reals 
100 cents 



AMERICA : 
Dominion of Canada : dollar = 100 cents 

cent 

United States : dollar =100 cents 
cent . 



Central America :- 
Mexico : dollar =100 cents 
Guatemala 
Nicaragua 

Honduras J> dollar = 100 centavos 

Costa Rica 
Spanish Antilles 

E E 



Nominal Values at par 


$ s. d. 


0-05 


2 


0-0013 
0-1167 


3 


0-0073 


If 


0-74 


3 i 


0-0740 


3-7 


0-0185 


0-925 


0-82 


3 5 


0-0103 


i 


2-230 


9 3| 


0-1115 


lU 


0-0056 


5 

3 


0-48 


2 


0-03 


If 


0-0025 
0-48 


i 


0-0048 


0-24 


0-48 


2 


0-06 


3 


003 


1| 


0-60 


2 6 


0-15 


7| 


0-07 




0-6667 


2 9i 


0-0667 


31 


1 


4 2 


0-01 
1-40 


2* 
5 10 


0-14 


7 


00140 


0-7 


1 


4 2 


o-oi 


i 


1 


4 2 


0-01 


i 
j 


0-9863 


* Ii 5 


0-0099 


i 

2 


1 


4 2 


0-96 


4 



4 i8 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



MONEY OF ACCOUNT continued. 



South America : 

Colombia : peso, or fuerte = 100 centavos . 
Venezuela : peso, or old Prussian thaler =* 100 cen- 

tavos ..... 
British Guiana : dollar = 100 cents 
Ecuador : peso = 100 centavos 
Peru : sol = 100 centesimos 
Bolivia : peso = 100 centenas 
Chili : peso = 100 centavos . 
Buenos Ayres : patacon = 100 centesimos 



Nominal Values at par 



Brazil : milreis = 1000 reis . 



096 

0-72 

1 

0-96 

0-96 

0-74 

090 

0-96 

0-96 
054 



4 
4 
4 
3 1 

3 9 

4 

4 
2 3 



At some places and countries in Asia and Africa, where there is no 
established money account, the precious metals, whether coined or not, or 
in the form of gold-dust, are estimated by weight : thus, weight-units and 
their subdivision take the place of monetary units and subdivision, in 
dealing with compound commercial units. 



An examination of this list shows the general pre- 
valence of decimalised moneys of account, and as it may 
be accepted as a principle that compound units are 
more simple in calculation when the two units from 
which they are compounded are similar in mode of sub- 
division, the conclusion becomes inevitable that for 
purposes of foreign trade generally, decimalisation is 
the most convenient method for arranging compound 
units. 

It is on this basis that the decimalisation of all 
commercial measures has been strenuously advocated ; 
but while granting the correctness of the basis, it may 
be noticed that it also affords a strong argument against 
the decimalisation of English commercial measures, 
until the English money of account is decimalised. 

On the same basis also the general adoption of 
French commercial measures has been urged ; if, how- 
ever, there is any advantage in that, it would only 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 419 

be when adopting the French monetary system 
also. 

There is a very wide distinction between decimalising 
English measures and English money and adopting 
French measures and French money ; but whatever 
opinions may be held as to the advisability of either mode, 
it seems an inevitable conclusion that the measures and 
the money should be of the same sort. When the pre- 
ponderance of commerce is French, it may become 
advisable to adopt French measures and monetary units 
in foreign trade ; until that time it is certainly unneces- 
sary, while for purposes of home-trade it would be a mis- 
chievous innovation. 

The decimalisation of English commercial measures 
and money together may be advisable ; but this seems 
a matter open to much doubt ; probably the rectification, 
improvement, and simplification of the commercial 
measures through small changes, not exceeding fluctua- 
tion due to change of temperature, and their rearrange- 
ment on a decimal framework, such as that of the 
English scientific system already described, would serve 
every required purpose and pressing need at present. 
The compound units and calculations of cost in con- 
nection with foreign trade would, as hitherto, be carried 
out by clerks and others conversant with the business ; 
and as far as personal injury goes, neither the number 
of clerks employed nor the amount of trade done would 
be much affected under any system of measures and 
moneys of account. 

Should at any time decimalisation become inevitable 
in both English commercial measures and monetary units, 
the decimalised framework of the commercial system 
comprised in the English scientific decimal series can 

E E 2 



420 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

then serve the requirements of the case, with but few 
additional units ; and the monetary decimalisation will 
be most conveniently effected by slightly altering the 
copper money, making the penny J^th of the pound, 
and the farthing 3-^oiyth of the pound, without altering 
the gold or the silver money in any way. 

The principal inconvenience in this latter plan is that 
1 2\ pence would go to a shilling, and that a half-shilling 
would no longer be called sixpence l ; but any other mode 
of effecting monetary decimalisation in England would 
be more subversive in effect. The arrangement pro- 
posed, being millesimal, has also some advantages over a 
centesimal subdivision. 

Proceeding to compound units of another sort ; the 
principal of these are Pressure-units, Irrigation-units 
and Water-supply-units, Power-units, Heat-units, and 
Electro-magnetic-units. Most of these are dealt with 
entirely by technical, professional, and scientific men, and 
hence should fall entirely in a scientific series or system, 
although in England hitherto this has not been possible 
owing to the want of fixity and completeness of any 
distinct scientific system 

Pressure-units. Taking the pressure-units first in 
order, those ordinarily used in England, the pound per 
square inch, the pound per square foot, and the ton per 
square inch. Adopting the simple units at the commercial 
or normal standard temperature, 62 Fahrenheit in air, the 
compound units are thus compared with French com- 
pound units : 

Since I pound =0-45 3 593 kilog. ; and I square 
inch = 6*447 68 cent. car. ; hence I Ib. per sq. inch = 
0*070 3498 kilog. per cent. car. 

1 Perhaps the term tester, testoon, or some other old name could be re- 
applied. 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 421 

In the same way also 

I Ib. per sq. foot = 4-8 8 5 403 kilog. per cent. car. 
I ton per sq. inch= 1*57583 quintals per cent. car. 

Conversely also in the reduction of French com- 
pound units to English values on the commercial scale ; 

Since I kilogramme = 2*20462 Ibs. ; and I centimetre 
car. = 0*15509 square inch; hence I kilog. per centim. 
car. = 14*21468 Ibs. per sq. inch. 

In the same way also 

I kilog. per metre car. = 0*204692 Ibs. per sq. foot. 
I millier per cent. carre = 6*345 87 tons per sq. inch. 
I quintal per metre car. = 0*182761 cwtper square foot. 

The reduction and manipulation of such quantities 
and units is evidently troublesome and inconvenient. 

If, however, the English units of the decimal scientific 
system at 32 be applied to form compound units of 
pressure, the calculation is not only more simple, but 
requires merely the movement of the decimal point in 
the values of the simple units. 

In compound units of this system, it is preferable to 
use the term talent instead of foot-weight, so as to avoid 
much repetition of the word foot in the combined terms ; 
but this not often of great consequence. 

Using the foot-weight and the square foot, it is thus 
effected ; 

Since 1 foot-weight = 28*3 15 312 kilogrammes, and 
1 square foot = 0*092 899 68 metre carr^ ; hence 1 foot- 
weight per sq. ft. = 304*7945 kilog. per met. car. Also, 

1 foot-weight per square foot = 0*304 7945 milliers per 
metre car. 



422 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

And this corresponds to the metric value of the linear 
foot, at the scientific standard, which is 0^304 7945 
metre. 

In the same way also 

1 foot-weight per sq. foot = 0^030 479 45 kilog. per 
cent. car. 

1 rod-weight per sq. foot = 3047945 milliers per metre 
car. 

And conversely also 

I kilogramme per metre carre = 0'003 280 899 foot- 
weight per sq. foot. 

I millier per metre carre = 3'280 899 foot-weight per 
sq. foot ; 

where the values correspond to that of the linear 
metre, as regards figures apart fron\ their decimal posi- 
tion, the latter being 3'280 899 feet of the scientific 
system. 

The figures can thus be taken in all cases of pressure- 
units from the values of simple linear units of the 
scientific system, given in the preceding chapter ; and 
there is no need of special tables, or of troublesome reduc- 
tion. 

Pressure is frequently estimated in simple, in prefer- 
ence to compound, units ; in that case the unit adopted 
is the theoretical pressure of one atmosphere. Its values 
expressed in other terms are thus 

I atmosphere = 1471 Ibs. per sq. inch =1*03 3 kilog. 
per cent. car. 

Its equivalents in counterbalancing water column 
and mercurial column are 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 423 

I atmosphere = 33-9 ft. of water = 10-33 met. of water. 
= 2*5 feet of mercury = 76 centimetres of 
mercury. 

Irrigation-units. Treating irrigation-units in the 
same manner as the compound units of pressure, and 
using the English commercial units, such as cubic feet of 
water per acre irrigated : 

Since I cubic foot 0*028 291 metre cube; and 
I acre = 0*404 440 hectare ; 

Hence I cubic foot per acre = 0*069 951 metre cube 
per hectare. 

Conversely also 

i metre cube per hectare = 14*2958 cubic feet per 
acre. 

But if the English scientific units are used at 32 
Fahr., the cubic foot and the square chain, or the cen- 
tury : 

Since 1 cubic foot = 0*028 3153 metre cube; and 
1 square chain = 0-092 8997 hectare; 

Hence 1 cubic foot per sq. chain = 0*304 7945 metre 
cube per hectare ; and 1 cubic rod per century = 3 "047 94 5 
metres cubes per hectare. 

Conversely also 

i met. cube per hectare = 3*2:80 899 cub. ft. per sq. chain. 
=0-328090 cubic rods per 
century. 

The figures in each case being those of values of the 
linear units, the foot and the metre. 

Irrigation is also sometimes estimated in simple in 
preference to compound units ; in that case the unit 



424 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

adopted is the linear unit of depth of water when the 
irrigation is theoretically spread over, or is standing on a 
surface. 

I foot of standing water = 10 000 cubic feet per sq. 
chain. 

0*1 foot of standing water = 10 cubic feet per century. 
,, =0-030479 metre cub. per 

hectare. 
And 

i decimetre of standing water=iooo met. cub. per 

hectare. 

=328-090 cubic rods 
per century. 

Water-supply-units. These, being units of continuous 
supply, are irrigation-units, compounded with time- 
units ; the second being the time-unit most commonly 
adopted both by the English and French. 

With commercial units, then 

i cub. ft. per second per acre = 0*069 951 met. cub. 
per sec. per hectare. 

i met. cub. per second per hectare = 14*2958 cub. ft. 
per sec. per acre. 

And with scientific units 

1 cub. ft. per sec. per sq. chain 0*304 79 met cub. 
per sec. per hectare. 

i met. cub. per sec. per hectare = 3*2809 cub. ft. per 
sec. per sq. chain. 

Power-units and Units of Work. The ordinary 
English power-units on the commercial scale at 62 
Fahr. are the foot-pound and the horse-power; the 



CH vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 425 

French corresponding units on the scientific scale at 32 
Fahr. are the kilogrammetre and the force de chevaL 
The relation is as follows 

i foot =0*304708 metre. 

i pound =0*453593 kilogramme. 

I foot-pound =0*1382134 kilogramme-metre. 

Conversely also 

i kilogrammetre = 7*23 5 1 87 foot-pounds. 

The English horse-power is 33000 Ibs. raised i foot 
in one minute, or 5 50 foot-pounds per second ; the French 
force de cheval, or cheval-vapcvr is 4500 kilogram- 
metres per minute, or 75 kilogrammetres per second. 

Hence 

i H.-P. English= 33000 foot-pounds = 4561 -0422 

kilog.-metres per minute. 
=1*0135649 C.-V. French. 
And 
i cheval-vapeur = 4500 kilog.-metres = 32558*3415 

foot-pounds per minute. 
=0*9866164 H.-P. English. 

In applying English decimal and scientific units at 
32 Fahr. in compound units of this class, it may be 
noticed that as the standard value of the ounce is slightly 
altered, the millesimal ounce being 0*99879 of a com- 
mercial ounce, there may be two modes of obtaining the 
compound unit, one by reduction and forming an exactly 
equivalent unit in other terms, the other by simple sub- 
stitution of the millesimal ounce for the commercial 
ounce, and thus slightly varying the absolute value of the 
compound unit. 



426 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

The latter method is to be preferred, from the advan- 
tage of adherence to round numbers. 

Next, as the pound does not exist in the decimal 
series, either the foot-weight, here more conveniently 
termed a talent, or the millesimal ounce must be adopted. 
Adopting the talent, the new compound unit will be the 
foot-talent ; then 

I foot =0*3047945 metre. 

I talent =28315 312 kilogrammes. 
Hence I foot-talent = 8-630 3504 kilogrammetres. 

And conversely 
i kilogrammetre = 011 5870 foot-talents. 

Hence also 

I cheval-vapeuraa45oo kilog.-metres per minute. 
=521'4150 foot-talents per minute. 

Adopting also the slightly modified value of the 
English H.-P. unit, instead of being 528000 foot-ounces of 
the commercial ounce, it becomes 528000 foot-ounces of 
the millesimal ounce in the scientific series. 

Hence I H.-P. = 528 foot-talents exactly per minute. 

= 4556*825 kilogrammetres. 

= roi2 6277 cheval-vapeur. 

Conversely i cheval-vapeur =3'9875284 H.-P. of this 
sort. 

While thus keeping as close to the old value of the 
English H.-P. unit as is possible with corresponding 
numbers on the scientific scale, no very important altera- 
tion is effected, as the change is less than one-tenth 
per cent, being 0*0009. 

It may, however, be noticed that this theoretical 



SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 427 

horse-power unit would be much more convenient, if 
entirely altered in value, so as to be in more simple ratio 
to the lower units and the whole scale of scientific 
units ; 600 foot-talents per minute or 1 foot-talents per 
second would be a much more convenient value for 
English H.-P. 

Thermal and Electro-magnetic units. The units 
adopted in calculations involving heat, thermal equiva- 
lents, mechanical equivalents of heat, and calculations of 
quantity and current, are frequently very complicated 
and require logarithmic computation. Most of the 
units involve the foot-grain in English, and the metre- 
gramme in French measure, and the second is the unit 
of time with both. 

Taking the commercial values of these 

The foot-grain =0-30471 x 0-0648 = ( ' OI 974 met- 

L gramme. 



Themetre-gramme = 3'28i8x 15-4323 = 

I grains. 

For purposes of this description in scientific units the 
mil, T -oV o tn f tne millesimal ounce, would be the unit 
to replace the grain, being somewhere about half of it, or 
0*43697 grain ; and the new compound scientific unit 
would be the foot-mil, so that 

1 foot-mil = 0-30479x0-0283 1 5 =0-0086303 5 metre- 
gramme. 

i metre-gramme = 3-2809x35-31 66 = 11 5-870 foot-mils. 

The change effected by the adoption of these units 
would run through the whole system of thermal and 
magnetic quantities and equivalents ; but it would cer- 
tainly be an advantage, on the whole, to carry out the 



428 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

English decimal scientific system in every branch of 
scientific work, and thus to become perfectly independent 
of French terms and units, while obtaining all the 
advantages of decimalisation and simple systematisation. 
At some future period it may be hoped that the whole 
series of English scientific units may be arranged to a 
single temperature ; but at present, and as long as the 
French adopt two temperatures in their system, the ad- 
vantages of exact correlation in this respect, and easy 
interchange of scientific results with exactitude, perhaps 
counterbalance that of adopting a single standard 
temperature. 



CH. vi. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 429 

COMPOUND UNITS. 
At the English Commercial Standard, Temp. 62, Bar. 30". 

PRESSURE. Commercial Equivalents. 

i pound per square inch = 0-070 3498 kilog. per centim. carre* 

I ,, foot = 4-885 40 kilog. per metre carre 

i cwt. ,, ,, = 5-471645 quintals per metre carre 

i ton ,, inch = 0*157 583 milliers per centim. carre* 



i kilogramme per centim. carre* = 14-21468 pounds per square inch 

i ,, metre ,, = 0-204692 ,, ,, foot 

i millier ,, ,, = 1-82761 cwt. per ,, ,, 

I ,, per centim. ,, = 6-34587 tons per inch 

IRRIGATION. Commercial Equivalents. 

i cubic foot per acre = 0-069 95 J metre cube per hectare 

* ,, rood = 0-279804 



i metre cube per hectare = 14-2958 cubic feet per acre 

i = 3*57395 rood 

POWER AND WORK. Commercial Equivalents. 

I foot-pound = 0-138 2134 kilogrammetres 

i h.-p. = 33000 ft.-lbs. per min. = 1-013 5649 force de cheval, c.-v. 



I kilogrammetre = 7-235 187 foot-pounds 

i c.-v., or force de cheval (4500) = 0-986 6164 h. p., horse-power 

HEAT AND ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. Commercial Equivalents. 
i foot-grain 0*019 7448 metre-grammes 



i metre-gramme = 50-6464 foot-grains 

UNITS OF REDUCTION. 

The units of reduction required with the English commercial equivalents 
are hence many and diverse ; the preferable mode is to use the following 
scientific equivalents, which involve only four units of reduction and their 
reciprocals apart from the position of the decimal point. 



430 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



COMPOUND UNITS. 
At the English Scientific Standard, Temp. 32 Fahr. in vacua. 

PRESSURE. Scientific Equivalents. 

I talent (or foot-weight) per sq. foot. =3047945 kilog. per met. car. 

,, ,, = 0-03047945 kilog. per cent. car. 

= 0-304 7945 milliers per met. car. 
= 304-7945 milliers per met. car. 



I rod-weight per square foot 

I kilogramme per metre carre 
I kilogramme per centim. carre . 
I millier per metre carre . 
I millier per centim. carre . 



0-003 2809 talents per sq. foot 
0-328 0899 talents per sq. tithe 
3-280 899 talents per sq. foot 
32-808 990 rod-weight per sq. foot 



IRRIGATION. Scientific Equivalents. 

I cubic foot per square chain . = 0-304 7945 met. cub. per hectare 

I cubic foot per century . . = 0-003 0479 met. cub. per hectare 

I cubic rod per century . . = 3 -047 945 met. cub. per hectare 



I metre cube per hectare . 



3-280 899 cubic feet per sq. chain 
328-089 9 cubic feet per century 
0-328 090 cubic rods per century 



POWER AND WORK. Scientific Equivalents. 

I foot-talent = 8*6303542 kilogrammetres 

i h-p. = 528 ft. -talents per min. = I '012 63 c-v. force de cheval 



i kilogrammetre = 0-115 870 foot-talents 

i c-v. force de cheval (4500) = 0-987 528 h-p. (scientific) 

HEAT AND ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. Scientific Equivalents. 
I foot-mil = 0-00863035 metre-grammes 



I metre-gramme 



= 115-870 154 foot-mils 



UNITS OF REDUCTION. 



English into French 

Simple . . 0-304794494 
Square . . 0-092899683 
Cubic . . . 0-028315312 
Fourth power . 0-008630354 



French into English 

Simple . . . 3-2808992 

Square . . . 107642993 

Cubic . . . 35-3165807 

Fourth power . . 115-8701450 



CH. VI. 



SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 



43' 



CONSTANTS, CORRECTIONS, AND QUANTITIES 

Used in connection with Standards. 
Comparison of Standard Temperatures on Various 

Former English normal temperature . 

Temperature of melting ice . . . ~\ 

French commercial and scientific normal . . J 

English scientific normal . . . . . J 

English temperature for max. density of water . 

French temperature for max. density of water . 
Hassler's temperature for max. density of water . 

Mean atmospheric temperature in connection with 
barom. pressure ...... 

Former French temperature of comparison 
Swedish normal commercial temperature . 
Former French normal, for the toise de Perou . 
English normal commercial temperature, since 

1872 generally ; since 1824 partially 
Prussian normal commercial temperature . 
Normal temperature for Tha'i (Siam) . 



Various Scales. 


Fahr. Cent. 

o o 
30 -1-11 


RSau. 
o 
-0-89 


32 








39-2 


3-945 
4 
4-35 


E 


50 


10 


8 


54-5 
59 
61-25 


12-5 
15 
16-25 


10 
12 
13 


62 

6575 
85 


16-66 
18-75 
29-44 


15 
23-55 



Compensating Temperatures for verifying Measures of Capacity 
by the weight of water contained. 



For a Litre Measure, according to Van der Toorn. 

o 

Glass vessel . . . . . . 45 

Copper ,, 51-8 

Brass ,, 52-8 

Pewter , 5 tin to I lead . . . . 56-3 

for English Commercial Measures Standards 
Department^ applicable to the gallon, 

Glass vessel ....... 5 

Brass 57'4 



7-22 
11-00 
11-56 
13-50 



10 
14-1 



5-8 
8-8 

9 '2A 
10-8* 



8 
11-83 



432 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



PART II. 



DENSITY AND EXPANSION. 

Mean Densities of materials used in Standard measures. 

At temp. 32 Fahr. 
Pure platinum 
Annealed platinum . 
Pure iridium . 
Platinum - iridium of ~ 

iridium 

Ditto annealed 
Brass .... 
Gun-metal 

Ordinary mean densities of metals, accepted. 



At temp. 62 Fahr. 


Platinum . 




21-1572 


Brass 




8-1430 


Bronze gilt 




8-2829 


Iron adjusted 


witl 


i 


lead . 




7-1270 


Quartz 




2-6505 


Glass 




2-5179 


Water . 




0-9988834 



Brass, 3 copper to i zinc . 
Gun-metal, 9 copper to I tin 
Bailey's metal, 16 copper, 


8-435 
8-694 


Copper . 
Zinc 
Tin 


z\ tin, i zinc . 
Nickel .... 


8-554 
8-670 


Iron (cast) . 
Steel 


Wrought iron . 


7750 





21-402 

21 -326 
22-194 

21-449 
21-429 
8-0298 

8-4947 



8-85 
7-19 
7-29 
7-00 
8-00 



Mean densities of grain. 



Wheat 
Barley 
Linseed 
Colza 



0-76 
0-63 
0-64 
0-66 



Rye 

Buckwheat 

Millet 

Oats 



0-69 
0-68 
0-68 
0-44 



Rice 

Peas, lentils 

Maize 

Hemp 



0-80 
0-80 
0-60 
0-52 



Table of Linear Expansion of Metal Bars between temperatures 0/36 and 
79 Fahr. applicable to any linear unit. 



For i Fahr. 


For 30 Fahr. 


For i Cent. 


For 15 Cent. 


Platinum . o-ooo 00476 


o-ooo 1428 


0-00000857 


o-ooo 1285 


Brass . . 0-00000956 


0-0002870 


O-OOOOI72I 


o-ooo 2581 


Bronze . . 0-00000947 


0-000284I 


0-OOOOI705 


0-0002557 


Copper . . 0-00000873 


O-OOO26l8 


O-OOOOI57I 


o-ooo 2357 


Wrought iron 0-00000550 


o-ooo 1650 


0-00000990 


o-ooo 1485 


Cast iron . o-ooo 00611 


o-ooo 1833 


O'OOO OIIOO 


o-ooo 1650 


Cast steel . 0-00000575 


o-ooo 1725 


0-00001035 


o-ooo 1553 


Glass . . 0-00000492 


o-ooo 1477 


0-00000886 


o-ooo 1328 


Pinewood . 0-00000275 


0-0000827 


0-00000495 


0-0000743 



Table of Cubic Expansion. 

For 1 Fahr. 
Platinum-iridium . . . . . 0-00001428 

Brass 0-00002870 

Glass 0-00001476 

Mercur 0-0000998 

Dry air . 0-0002031 



For i Cent. 
0-00002570 
0-00005166 
0-00002658 
o-ooo 17971 
0-00036560 



CH. VI. 



SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 



433 



WEIGHT OF AIR. 

Observed values of the weight of a Litre of dry air. 



Observer. Place. 

Hegnault. Paris. 

Miller. Cambridge. 

Lasch. Paris. 

Berlin. 
Calculated for mean position 



Latitude. 

48 50' 14" 
50 12' 18" 
48 50' 14" 
52 30' O' 
45 


Height 
60 m 
8m 

60 m 
40 m 
O m 


Weight in 
grammes. 
1-293496 
1-293893 
I -293 204 
I -293 880 
I -293 030 



Formula for calculating the weight of a Litre of dry air at any place. 

W = weight in grammes at O Centigrade, barom. 760 mm. 

h = height of place above mean sea level. 

L = latitude. 

R = terrestrial radius = 6 -366198 metres. 

Then W = i -293 0693 ( I ~- I< 3 2 ^) (1-0-0025659 cos 2L). 

7'able of Corrections for applying to the mean value I '29303 for other 
heights and latitudes, at o Cent. , bar. 760 mm. 



tat. 


h = m 


50 m 


100 m 


150 m 


200 m 


250 m 


40 


0-00058 


59 


60 


62 


63 


64 


41 


0-00046 


48 


49 


50 


52 


53 


42 


0-00035 


36 


37 


39 


40 


4i 


43 


0-00023 


25 


26 


27 


29 


30 


44 


0-00012 


13 


14 


16 


17 


18 


45 


O'OOOOO 


OI 


03 


04 


05 


07 


46 


+ 0-00012 


10 


09 


08 


06 


05 


47 


+ O'OOO23 


22 


21 


19 


18 


17 


48 


4-0-00035 


33 


32 


31 


29 


28 


49 


+ O-OOO46 


45 


43 


42 


4i 


39 


50 


+ 0-00058 


56 




54 


' 52 


51 


51 


+ 0-00069 


68 


66 


65 


64 


62 


52 


+ 0-00080 


79 


77 


76 


75 


74 


53 


+ 0-0009I 


90 


89 


87 


86 


85 


54 


+ O-OOIO2 


01 


oo 


98 


97 


96 


55 


+ 0-OOII3 


12 


ii 


09 


08 


07 



Having thus obtained a value (W) at o Cent, and 760 mm. bar., 
allowance may be made for any other temperature (t Cent.) between o 
and 50 Cent. ; also for pressure of vapour (v) present, and barometric 
pressure (b), both in millimetres of mercury at o Cent., by the following 
formula : 

Corrected value = VMb-o;378v)_ 
(i +0-003656 t) . 760 

F F 



434 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n r 



WEIGHT OF AIR continued. 

Weight of air displaced by Standard Kilogrammes of various materials 
at temp. i6| Cent., barom. 761-986 mm. 

Weight of air displace 

Density. in milligrammes. 

French platinum .... 20*5487 59 -25 

English platinum .... 21*1379 57*60 

French brass . . . ... 8*2063 I 5 I '7S 

English bronze gilt .... 8*3291 146*23 

,, iron adjusted with lead . . 7*1270 170*84 

quartz 2*6505 459 -32 

Weight of air that wotttd be displaced by Standard Foot-weights (or Talents) 
ofvarioits materials, at temp. 62 Fahr., barom. 30 inches. 

Weight of air displaced 
Density. in English mils. 

Platinum 21*1572 57'476 



Brass ..... 
Bronze gilt .... 
Iron adjusted with lead 
Quartz . . . . 


8*1430 
8*2829 
. 7-1270 


149*324 
146757 
170-575 
458-812 
482-772 






2*<;i7Q 



The allowance to be applied for other temperatures and pressures. 

For 10 Fahr. less, deduct 2*12 per cent. ; for i" bar. less, deduct 3*54; 

per cent. 
For 10 Cent, less, deduct 3*82 per cent. ; for 10 mm. bar. less, deduct 

1*31 per cent. 



English and French Values. 

At 62 Fahr. At 32 Fahr, 

At Westminster. foot-wt. foot-wt. 

Weight of I cubic foot of dry air, bar. 30" . . 0*001 215 0001 294 
Weight of a talent or foot-weight of water on the 

scientific scale I *ooi 657 1 

Weight of a talent or foot- weight of water on the 

commercial scale I 0-998343 

At o Cent, 
At Pans. kilogt 

Weight of I decimetre cube of dry air, bar. 760 

mm. (Biot) ... ... 0*001 299 

Weight of i decimetre cube of water in vacuo 

(nominally) . I 



CH. vr. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 435 



ALLOWANCE; OR ERROR ALLOWED. 
ENGLISH STANDARD MEASURES. 

In length and in capacity the error allowed in excess is the 
same as in deficiency. In weight-units and gas measures the 
error allowed in excess is double that in deficiency. 

LENGTH : 

Allowance in excess 

In rod of 10 feet, and in 6 feet . 0*01 inch 
In 3 feet, 2 feet, and i foot , . 0*005 i ncn 
In i inch to 0*01 inch . . . o'ooi inch 

CAPACITY : 

Allowance in excess in grain-weights of water. 



Grain-weights 
In bushel . . 280 | 
In half-bushel . 140 
In peck . . 70 
In gallon . . 50 
In half-gallon t 25 
In quart, or pint . 10 


Grain-weights 
In half-pint and gill . 8 
In half-gill . . 4 
In quarter-gill . . 2 


In bottle . 
In half-bottle . 


. 10 

5 



For gas-standards. 

Allowance in excess 
10 cubic feet, 5 cubic feet, and i cubic 

foot dry test 2\ and . . . 0-5 per cent, fast 

Burette measures. 

Allowance in excess 
10 cubic inches, 5 cubic inches, 2 

cubic inches . . . . i grain-weight 
i cubic inch, 0-5 cubic inch, 0-2, and 

o.i cubic inch .... 0-5 grain- weight 

F F 2 



436 METRICAL SYSTEMS. PART n. 

WEIGHT : 

Allowance in excess 
In 56 pounds, in 28 pounds, and in 14 

pounds 5 grs. 

In 7 pounds, in four pounds, and in 2 

pounds 2 grs. 

In i pound, in 8 ounces, in 4 oz., in 2 

oz., and in i oz. . . . . 0*25 grs. 
In 8 drams, in 4 drs., in 2 drs., in i dr., 

and in ^ dr. . . . . 0-05 gr& 

In bullion : 

In 500 ounces, in 400 oz., in 300 oz., 

and in 200 oz. . . . . i gr. 
In 100 ounces, in 50 oz., in 40 oz., in 

30 oz., in 20 oz. . . . 0-25 grs. 

In 10 ounces, 5 oz., 4 oz., 3 oz., and in 

2 oz 0-025 grs. 

In weights between i ounce and 0*001 

ounce ..... 0*005 g rs> 

In burette measures, for specified weight 

of water : 

In bottle of ii 666f grains ... 6 grs. 

In half-bottle 4 grs. 

In 7000 grains, in 4000 grs., in 2000 

grs., in 1000 grs. ... 4 grs. 

In 500 grains, in 300 grs., in 200 grs . 2 grs. 

In 100 grains . . . . . i gr. 
In 50 grains, in 30 grs., in 20 grs., in 

10 grs. 0-5 grs. 

In 40 ounces, in 20 ounces ... 5 grs. 

In 10 ounces, 5 oz., 4 oz., 2 oz. . . 2 grs. 

In i ounce, and in oz. . . . i gr. 



CH. VI. SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS. 437 



Allowance: (French) Tolerance; (German) Remedium. 
FRENCH STANDARD MEASURES. 

LENGTH : 

Allowance in excess 

or in deficiency 

Double decametre .... 3 millimetres 
De'cametre . . . . . 2 

Demi-decametre i 

Double-metre, et metre en me'tal . 0-2 
Demi-metre, et decimetre en me'tal . o'i 

CAPACITY : 

Allowance in excess 

or in deficiency 

Double litre contenant 2000 grammes 3 grammes 
Litre 1000 2 ,, 

Demi-litre 500 1-5 

Quart de litre 250 i 

Demi-quart 125 07 

Seizieme 62^5 0*5 

Pour matieres seches. 

La verification se fait par moyen de la graine de 
navette ; les differences en plus ne doivent pas exce'der un 
centieme pour les mesures en chene. Les differences en 
moins ne sont pas tolere"es. 

Pour bois de chauffage. 
On ne tolere les erreurs aux membrures qu'en plus. 

Excedant tolere 

Stere 5 millimetres 

Double stere 8 

Demi-ddcastere . . . .15 



438 
WEIGHT. 


METRICAL SYSTEMS'. PART 
Extreme error allowable in excess only. 






In 


iron 


In 


copper 


In 50 


kilogrammes 


20 grammes 


20 


33 


10 


150 centigrammes 


10 





6 


33 


80 


33 


3, 5 





4 


33 


5 


33 


3, 2 


33 


2 


33 


25 


33 


33 I 


33 


I 


33 


15 


3) 


5 


hectogrammes 


'5 


33 


10 


J> 


2 





0-3 


, 


5 


M 


33 I 


33 


0'2 


33 


3 





5 


decagrammes 


O'l 





2*5 


n 


33 2 


33 


3) 


33 


2'0 


3) 


,3 I 


33 


. 


33 


x *5 


3) 


5 


grammes 


3) 





I 


3) 


2 








H 


0-4 


J) 


* 


33 





n 


0'2 


n 



439 



APPENDIX 

PROPOSED ENGLISH COMMERCIAL SYSTEM. 

HAVING set forth and arranged the commercial units of 
measure used by the greater part of the world, in the foregoing 
volume, and estimated the values of these units in accordance 
with English commercial measure at the modern normal stan- 
dard temperature, in accordance with English scientific measure 
at 32 Fahrenheit, and in French units ; the work is so far 
-complete as to enable any one to refer to the foregoing . tables 
for any detached commercial unit in Part I. and for any com- 
plete commercial system to Part II. 

The English scientific system, hitherto deficient in several 
respects, has been rendered more perfect and complete, and is 
wow available for employment in any scientific and technical 
work and calculation; the details are given in Chapter VI., Part 
II. ; the system itself at page 408. 

So far, the object of the book as a work of reference may 
have been attained. 

This, however, has not been the sole aim of the laborious 
calculations, compilation, reduction, and arrangement. The 
rationale of formation, the origin and modes of development, 
the defects, advantages, redundancies and incongruities of 
various modern commercial systems and units of measure have 
been dealt with in the text, so that every possible light may be 
thrown on the subject of modern metrology without exceeding 
Ihe limits of a single volume. 

The reasoning and deductions need not necessarily be 



440 METRICAL SYSTEMS. 

barren talk, but should point to some practical and logical con- 
clusion that may benefit the English-speaking millions who are 
at present heirs to a rather incongruous set of commercial 
measures ; the pro et contra in the argumentation should cer- 
tainly be borne in mind, but some useful result in the form of 
an improved English commercial system, drawn up by some 
one conversant with the whole subject, seems to be impera- 
tively demanded by the public. 

The author has therefore drawn up the following proposed 
English system^ as a conclusion to the arguments before ad- 
vanced. 

If these arguments be recapitulated in broad and firm lines- 
they may be generally thus expressed : 

1. A commercial system should be sufficiently compre- 
hensive to meet the requirements of every trade ; and its range 
should comprise the lowest and the highest values of units in 
common use. 

2. A commercial system should rest on a scientific basis, 
and thus be thoroughly systematised throughout. 

3. The basic units should be familiar to the people, and 
chosen from among such existing units. 

4. Every secondary unit in the whole system should be 
capable of being conveniently and terminably expressed in 
terms of the basic units. 

5. The mode of subdivision should be in accordance with 
geometrical formation, thus in linear units, decimal, in surface 
units centesimal, in cubic units and in weight units millesimal. 
Any departure from this principle should alone be permitted at 
subsidiary points, where the customs of the people imperatively 
demand a binary or a mixed binary-decimal subdivision. 

6. A strict correspondence should exist between the 
capacity units and the weight units, which should be formed on 
cubic measure, and the weight of water contained in cubic 
measure. 

7. The changes introduced should be as few as a thorough 
systematisation can admit of : the amount of change in any 
old value of a unit should be generally less than that due to 
change of temperature. 



APPENDIX. 441 

8. The entire system should be as condensed as possible ; 
all unnecessary and incongruous units being discarded. 

These principles have been studiously observed in drawing 
up the following proposed English commercial system. 

This, though probably better suited than any other to the 
wants of the English at the present day, cannot be considered 
as absolutely final, or as not susceptible of further improvement 
at some future time, when the habits of the people have 
changed to a greater degree. At such a period, the portions 
of the system that appear slightly incongruous, and are solely 
retained in deference to old custom in retail trade, may be 
further modified ; but this can be then done without altering 
the framework of the system. Such portions can be best 
referred to when examining the whole. 

The linear measures, it will be observed, are strictly decimal, 
with one exception ; the mile, which is the old London mile of 
5000 feet, in use for ages before the innovating statute-mile 
became obligatory, is exceptional, and might eventually be 
abolished, in favour of the league. 

In the surface measures, the whole are centesimal with two 
exceptions, the acre and the square mile, which might eventu- 
ally be discarded and supplanted by the rood, century, and 
square league. 

The strictly cubic measures are perfect, but the capacity 
measures based on cubic measure still retain concession to old 
habits in retail trade ; a gallon of 200 fluid ounces, and a fluid 
pound of 20 fluid ounces, would be otherwise preferable. 

The measures of weight also might be correspondingly im- 
proved by similarly making the stone 200 ounces, and the 
pound 20 ounces. 

The whole of these possible further improvements appear 
almost impracticable at present, for it seems necessary to keep 
both the pound and the gallon at some value very close to the 
present Georgian values ; the same reason compels the reten- 
tion of an acre and a mile. 

For the present, therefore, the following simplified and 
concise English system may be considered as the utmost change 
practicable. 



442 



METRICAL SYSTEMS. 



THE PROPOSED SYSTEM. 
BASED ON THE ENGLISH SCIENTIFIC SYSTEM. 



LENGTH. 

FOOT =10 tithes=12 inches 
Rod 10 feet 
Chain=10 rods 
Cable= 10 chains 
Mile=5000 feet=50 chains 
League=10 000feet=100 chains 

SURFACE. 

SQUARE FOOT=WO sq. tithes =1 ^4. sq. in. 

Square rod= 100 sq. ft. 

Square chain or rood 10 000 sq. ft. 

Acre=^ roods ^0 000 sq.ft. 
Square cable or century 100 roods 
Square mile=25 centuries=625 acres 
Square league=lOO centuries 



Equivalent in Existing 

English Units 
= 1 foot 

= 10 feet 

= 100 feet 

= 1000 feet 

= 5000 feet 

= 10 000 feet 



= 1sg.fi. 

= 100 sq. ft. 

= 10 000 sq. ft. 

= 40 000 sq. ft. 

= 1 000 000 sq. ft. 

= 25 000 000 sq. ft. 
= 100000000 sq. ft. 



CUBIC. 



Cubic tithe, or fluid ounce 
CUBIC FOOT= WOO cub. tithes-- 
Cubic rod=1000 cub. ft. 



. n. 



=0-001 cub. ft. 
= 1 cub. ft. 
= 1000 cub. ft. 



WET CAPACITY (in retail). 

Fluid ounce= 1 cubic tithe= 1000 fluid mils =0'001 cub. ft. 

Fluid pound= 16 fluid ounces = 0-016 cub. ft. 

Gallon= 10 fluid ounds= 160 fluid ounces =0'160 cub. ft. 

WET AND DR? CAPACITY. 

Hushel orflrkin=1 CUBIC FooT=1000fl. oz. = 1 cub. ft. 

Tun=^0 flrkins or bushels=^0 cubic feet = 1+0 cub. ft 

WEIGHT. 

Ounce= 1000 mils = 0-00 1 ft.-wt. 

Pound= 1 6 ounces =0' 01 6 ft. -wt. 

Stone= 1 pounds= 1 60 ounces =0'l60ft. -wt. 

FOOT- WEIGHT OR TALENT=1 000 OZ. = 6ty pounds = 1 ft.-Wt. 

Ton=^0 foot-weight or talents = 1+0 ft.-wt. 

Jtod-weight=1 000 foot-weight = 1000 ft.-wt. 



APPENDIX. 443 



APPENDIX II. 

THE ACTUAL AND THE PROPOSED STANDARD 
TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE. 

ON referring to the tables giving values of foreign commercial 
units, it will be noticed that in every case a French metric 
value, an English commercial value, and an English scientific 
value, are given. 

The reasons for so doing are that the correct mode of com- 
paring English and French units is a matter still open to con- 
sideration and grave doubt, and that either mode might not 
only be adopted in actual practice, but might also be made 
legal at any time. The reader can choose for himself, and the 
tables afford convenience, whichever may be his choice. 

i. The French Conditions. The French system is a two- 
temperature system, under a pressure of zero, or, as it is termed, 
a vacuum system ; the temperatures are o Celsius, or centi- 
grade, for the material of the standard, and 4 C. for the distilled 
water, through which measures of weight and of capacity and 
cubic measure are made to correspond. These are laboratory 
conditions tolerably convenient on the whole, owing their prin- 
cipal advantage to the absence of pressure and of any need for 
the consideration of air-displacement; but the two tempera- 
tures, one for the vessel or material, the other for the water, 
constitute a defect. 

In French commercial transactions the litre and metre are 
not used in vacuo at freezing-point, but in open air, under any 
pressure and at any temperature; no allowance is made either 
for pressure, displacement, or expansion ; the small loss to the 



444 METRICAL SYSTEMS. 

seller in length, and the small gain to him by displacement in- 
capacity and weight, being borne by him. His litre and metre 
cannot be absolutely true and correct, except under the theo- 
retical laboratory conditions under which they are formed, and 
under which they may be verified at any time. 

Hence, to speak with exactitude, the true values of the 
litre and metre are not used in actual trade ; approximate 
values take their place. The materials of which measures are 
constructed are various, with different expansions, but the 
primary kilogramme and metre are made of platinum. Thus the 
French in commerce disregard the whole of the discrepancies 
arising from local conditions and material, and the seller in any 
transaction, while submitting to the burden, can enhance his 
prices and recover from the buyer. This mode is probably on 
the whole the most convenient; and is certainly the best for 
all ordinary coarse purposes of trade. 

The French law, however, confines this method to trade 
only, and wisely abstains from interference with the scientific 
man and his calculated results. It does not say to him, * Thy 
metre shall not expand,' or 'Thou shalt not calculate on the 
expansion of thy metre.' Any such edict, whether imperial,, 
papal, national, or bureaucratic, could only meet with a reply 
corresponding to the ' E pur si muove ' of the distressed Galileo 
Galilei. Hence, practically, the French scientific man is in 
purely scientific matters exempt from the regulation to disregard 
the before-mentioned discrepancies. 

It may also be noticed that the French do not and cannot 
lay down the law regarding the use in trade of French metric 
measures in countries beyond French rule ; far less can they 
regulate details affected by temperature and local conditions. 
The country of adoption alone has the requisite regulative 
power, and that is necessarily then confined to trade alone. 

2. The English Commercial Conditions. The English com- 
mercial standards are now said to be correct in air under a two- 
temperature system, in which the material is at a temperature 
of 62 Fahrenheit, and the distilled water of comparison is 
taken at a maximum density temperature about 39 -4 F. 



APPENDIX. 445 

Probably this method has been too much extolled on 
account of its advantage of approximating to the mean con- 
ditions under which English trade weighing and measuring is 
conducted. Its historic accuracy is also in its favour, as our 
Anglian, Saxon, and Danish forefathers doubtlessly used open- 
air standards, and probably verified them at some grand annual 
gathering that would not have taken place in the winter season. 
The Georgian normal temperature was artificial and excep- 
tional. 

Great as the above-mentioned practical advantage may be, 
it is more imaginary than real : discrepancies due to change of 
temperature must exist, and it is of slight consequence whether 
they are a little greater or a little less in value ; while from a 
scientific point of view any and every open-air system is neces- 
sarily very clumsy and inconvenient, from the perpetual change 
of allowance to be made on account of altered air-displacement 
under different temperatures. The material used is brass, and 
sometimes bronze, or Baily's metal ; which mixed metals are 
scientifically inconvenient, on account of variety of expansion 
and of density in material nominally the same. But the prin- 
cipal monstrosity is the problem the system presents in re- 
quiring the gallon or other vessel-measure to be at a tempera- 
ture of 62 F., while its contents, the distilled water, must be 
at about 39 '4 F., for actual correct verification. As this is 
manifestly impossible, recourse is had to theoretical compen- 
sating temperatures and calculated adjustment : this is a mode 
of avoiding the correct construction, but cannot be justly said 
to be doing it. 

A system is most faulty that does not permit of direct and 
simple determination of every unit belonging to it. 

If the English conditions included a temperature of 62 
F. for the water as well as the material that is, throughout 
they would be more defensible in an open-air and a prac- 
tical commercial system ; but as they are, they both fail greatly 
from a scientific point of view, and are defective in not suf- 
ficiently approximating to ordinary commercial conditions. 

Some judicious alteration seems imperatively needed. 



446 METRICAL SYSTEMS. 

3. The English Scientific Conditions. On account of the 
extreme clumsiness and incongruity in the English commercial 
conditions, a great number of scientific men in England have 
preferred adopting the simpler conditions of the French metric 
standards ; that is, a vacuum system, with the two temperatures, 
freezing for material, and that of maximum density for the 
water. It is of great convenience to them in many ways, 
especially in exact calculations, and has the advantage of 
keeping the values of English units exactly parallel with the 
French units. Having adopted as four basic units, the foot, 
the square foot, the cubic foot, and the foot-weight, and their 
decimal multiples and submultiples, under these conditions 
Englishmen can keep their scientific calculations as simple and 
clear as the French. 

It may perhaps be said that such conditions are not legal ; 
and this is true in that English law does not yet acknowledge 
them. On the other hand, the law does not forbid them, and 
could not practically hinder their adoption in non-trading 
matters, even though a bureaucrat should arise that knew not 
the name of science. 

The former Warden of the Standards, Mr. Chisholm, in his 
work on 'The Science of Weighing and Measuring,' refers to 
scientific and commercial units, and thus recognised the two 
distinct sets of conditions. 

That it would be more advisable to have only one set of 
conditions in England both for scientific and commercial 
purposes, is a theory that may be true ; but assuming it to be 
correct, the trade should then not lay down the law for science, 
but should follow it, and adopt the conditions preferred by 
scientific men generally. In the meantime things remain as 
they are. 

4. Comparison of French and English Units. There are at 
present two distinct modes of comparing French and English 
units, and these two methods have each a strong array of sup- 
porters on various theoretical and logical grounds, in addition 
to the numerous backers that follow their own likes and dis- 



APPENDIX. 447 

likes : they may be briefly termed the expanders and the 
freezers. 

The expanders believe that the French and English units 
should be compared in similar material at the same tempera- 
ture and under the same conditions, and adopting the English 
commercial conditions as those of comparison in England, use 
the expanded metre at 62 R, the expanded litre in air in- 
stead of in vacuo, and the rest of the metric units as they 
then would be under English conditions, although using such 
metric standards as were previously originally correct under 
French conditions. The expanders hence allow for expansion, 
air-displacement, and for every change in the value of French 
standards that has practically occurred in the transition from 
32 in vacuo to 62 F. in air. They thus obtain the English 
commercial equivalents of French units ; and correspondingly 
also reduce English commercial to French units in the converse 
way. 

The former Warden of the Standards was a supporter of 
this method ; and a great number of men have adopted it for 
a long time (since 1860); it appears logical, rational, and cor- 
rect, although it is perhaps not so good as it seems. 

The freezers adopt a different mode of comparison ; they 
say the French metre is a French metre, by which they mean 
an abstract unit of length; and they either ignore or avoid 
expansion or allowance for change by thus denying the presence 
of material in the unit. They also explain with considerably 
better argument that the French metric system laid down by 
the French in vacuo at o and at 4 G, can be correct 
only under its own conditions. As also the corresponding 
assertion that the English commercial system can only be 
accurate under its own conditions is also true ; the freezers 
arrive at the conclusion that the proper mode of comparison is 
to allow each system its own conditions, and to compare French 
and English units side by side under the diverse circumstances. 
The next thing to decide is, * Can that be actually done ? ' 

In a few special cases it can be done, for a frozen metre 
can be placed by the side of an English yard heated to 6 2 F., 



448 METRICAL SYSTEMS. 

and a linear comparison may be easily made ; something 
similar might also be done with a surface-unit and a cubic unit 
of French and English measure. 

When, however, it comes to attempting anything similar 
with either capacity-units or weight-units it seems almost hope- 
less. 

The practical problem of comparing a frozen metal litre- 
vessel in vacuo, having water at 4 C, with a gallon at 62 
F. in air, having water at its maximum density, is indeed 
too formidable. The comparison even of French and English 
weight-units seems to involve using a balance with a vacuum- 
chamber on one side and not on the other a serious matter. 
The freezer's method hence fails, and recourse has to be had 
to calculation instead of practical determination. On what 
basis, then, can the calculations be made? If on the admission 
of expansion, the method fails ; if on ignoring expansion alto- 
gether, the deductions must be faulty from a scientific view. 

The results, however, of this method are the so-called English 
scientific equivalents of French metric units, in which expansion 
&c. is all ignored, and which necessarily commands the at- 
tachment of that very large category of persons that delight in 
trouble saved ; that is, in a less amount of labour, with indif- 
ference to the intrinsic merits of the result. English enact- 
ment also supports this method, also a certain number of 
scientific men. Curiously, however, the commercial and 
trading communities and chambers seem by no means in its 
favour generally, but rather follow the expanders. 

In consequence of these two methods being both in vogue, 
it has been necessary to give two English sets of equivalents, 
the commercial and the scientific equivalents of foreign units, 
throughout the whole of this book. It could not rest with the 
author to exclude either, as either might be required by anyone 
according to choice, and because the matter cannot yet be said 
to be definitively and permanently settled. 

The conclusion to which the arguments of both the ex- 
panders and the freezers point is, that no just precise com- 
parison between two such different systems as the French and 



APPENDIX. 449 

English in their original conditions is practically possible ; and 
that either system, when transmuted in any way, is spoilt. 
Hence the necessity for having some international conditions, 
fit for purposes of comparison, drawn up by scientific men of 
both nations ; also the further necessity for a single temperature 
instead of a double temperature in those conditions. 

5. Proposed Normal and International Conditions. The 
foregoing facts and conclusions lead to the belief that the 
temperature of maximum density of distilled water would form 
the best normal temperature for all systems or any system, as 
long as the method of comparing weight-units and capacity- 
units by means of water remains in vogue. 

Such a single temperature could be applied equally well to 
metallic or other material, as it is now applied to water by 
universal consent. 

Each nation could then declare its units and make its 
international standards on the basis of that temperature, and 
in vacuo ; difficulties of comparison would then cease. 

On the same grounds it would also be advisable to reform 
the English conditions, and construct and verify English 
standards in vacuo, at a uniform and single temperature ; that 
of the maximum density of distilled water. 

This temperature has been lately re determined by a com- 
mittee of scientific English investigators, in communication 
with the English Standards Department; the way for the change 
is therefore prepared, the step alone has to be taken. 



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with Practical Remarks on Iron Construction. By F. W. SHEII DS, 
M. Inst. C.E. Second Edition, with 5 Plates. Royal 8vo, 5-r. cloth. 
" The student cannot find a better little book on this subject than that written by 
Mr. Sheilds." Engineer. 

Barlow on tke Strength of Materials, enlarged. 

A TREATISE ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS, 
with Rules for application in Architecture, the Construction of 
Suspension Bridges, Railways, &c. ; and an Appendix on the 
Power of Locomotive Engines, and the effect of Inclined Planes 
and Gradients. By PETER BARLOW, F.R.S. A New Edition, 
revised by his Sons, P. W. BARLOW, F.R.S., and W. H. BARLOW, 
F.R.S. The whole arranged and edited by W. HUMBER, A-M. 
Inst. C.E. 8vo, 400 pp., with 19 large Plates, iSs. cloth. 

"The best book on the subject which has yet appeared We know of 

no work that so completely fulfils its mission." English Mechanic. 

'' The standard treatise upon this particular subject." Engineer. 

Strength of Cast Iron, &c. 

A PRACTICAL ESSAY on the STRENGTH of CAST IRON 
and OTHER METALS. By THOMAS TREDGOLD, C.E. Fifth 
Edition. To which are added, Experimental Researches on the 
Strength and other Properties of Cast Inn, by E. HODGKINSON, 
F.R.S. With 9 Engravings and numerous Woodcuts. 8vo, I2J. 
cloth. %* HODGKINSON'S RESEARCHES, separate, price 6s. 

Hydraulics. 

HYDRAULIC TABLES, CO-EFFICIENTS, and FORMULA 
for finding the Discharge of Water from Orifices, Notches, Weirs, 
Pipes, and Rivers. With New Formulae, Tables, and General 
Information on Rain-fall, Catchment-Basins, Drainage, Sewerage, 
Water Supply for Towns and Mill Power. By JOHN NEVILLE, 
Civil Engineer, M.R.I. A. Third Edition, carefully revised, with 
considerable Additions. Numerous Illustrations. Cr. 8vo, 14^. cloth. 

"Undoubtedly an exceedingly useful and elaborate compilation." Iron. 

" Alike valuable to students and engineers in practice." Mining Journal, 

River Engineering. 

RIVER BARS : Notes on the Causes of their Formation, and on 
their Treatment by 'Induced Tidal Scour,' with a Description of 
the Successful Reduction by this Method of the Bar at Dublin. By 
I. J. MANN, Assistant Engineer to the Dublin Port and Docks 
Board. With Illustrations. Royal 8vo. TS. 6d. cloth. \Justpublished. 

B 2 



4 WORKS IN ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, ETC., 

Levelling. 

A TREATISE on the PRINCIPLES and PRACTICE of 
LEVELLING ; showing its Application to Purposes of Railway 
and Civil Engineering, in the Construction of Roads ; with Mr. 
TELFORD'S Rules for the same. By FREDERICK W. SIMMS, 
F.G.S., M. Inst. C.E. Sixth Edition, very carefully revised, with 
the addition of Mr. LAW'S Practical Examples for Setting out 
Railway Curves, and Mr. TRAUTWINE'S Field Practice of Laying 
out Circular Curves. With 7 Plates and numerous Woodcuts. 8vo, 
Ss. 6d. cloth. ** TRAUTWINE on Curves, separate, 5^. 

" The text-book on levelling in most of our engineering schools and colleges." 
Engineer* 

Practical Tunnelling. 

PRACTICAL TUNNELLING: Explaining in detail the Setting 
out of the Works, Shaft-sinking and Heading-Driving, Ranging 
the Lines and Levelling under Ground, Sub-Excavating, Timbering, 
and the Construction of the Brickwork of Tunnels with the amount 
of labour required for, and the Cost of, the various portions of the 
work. By F. W. SIMMS, M. Inst. C.E. Third Edition, Revised 
and Extended. By D. KINNEAR CLARK, M.I. C.E. Imp. 8vo, 
with 21 Folding Plates and numerous Wood Engravings, $os. cloth. 
" It has been regarded from tht first as a text-book of the subject. . . . Mr. Clark 
has added immensely to the value of the book." Engineer. 

Steam. 

STEAM AND THE STEAM ENGINE, Stationary and Port- 
able. Being an Extension of Sewell's Treatise on Steam. By D. 
KINNEAR CLARK, M.I. C.E. Second Edition. I2mo, 4^. cloth. 

Civil and Hydraulic Engineering. 

CIVIL ENGINEERING. By HENRY LAW, M. Inst C.E. 
Including a Treatise on Hydraulic Engineering, by GEORGE R. 
BURNELL, M.I. C.E. Sixth Edition, Revised, with large additions 
on Recent Practice in Civil Engineering, by D. KINNEAR CLARK, 
M. Inst. C.E. I2mo, ys. 6d., cloth. [Just published. 

Gas-L ighting. 

COMMON SENSE FOR GAS-USERS : a Catechism of Gas- 
Lighting for Householders, Gasntters, Millowners, Architects, 
Engineers, &c. By R. WILSON, C.E. 2nd Edition. Cr. 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

Bridge Construction in Masonry, Timber* & Iron. 

EXAMPLES OF BRIDGE AND VIADUCT CONSTRUC- 
TION OF MASONRY, TIMBER, AND IRON ; consisting of 
46 Plates from the Contract Drawings or Admeasurement of select 
Works. By W. DAVIS HASKOLL, C.E. Second Edition, with 
the addition of 554 Estimates, and the Practice of Setting out Works, 
with 6 pages of Diagrams. Imp. 4to, 2/. \2s. 6d. half-morocco. 
"A work of the present nature by a man of Mr. Haskoll's experience, must prove 
invaluable. The tables of estimates considerably enhance its value." Engineering. 

Earthwork. 

EARTHWORK TABLES, showing the Contents in Cubic Yards 
of Embankments, Cuttings, &c., of Heights or Depths up to an 
average of 80 feet. By JOSEPH BROADBENT, C. E., and FRANCIS 
CAMPIN, C.E. Cr. 8vo, oblong, $s. cloth. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 5 

Tramways and their Working. 

TRAMWAYS : their CONSTRUCTION and WORKING. 
With Special Reference to the Tramways of the United Kingdom. 
By D. KINNEAR CLARK, M. Inst. C. E., Author of 'Railway 
Machinery,' &c., 2vols. 8vo, with Wood Engravings and thirteen 
folding Plates, 30^. cloth. 

* w * The Second or Supplementary Volume, recording analyti- 
cally the Progress recently made in the Design and Construction 
of Tramways, and in the Means of Locomotion by Mechanical 
Power, may be had separately. With Wood Engravings. Large 
Crown 8vo, 12s. cloth. {Just published. 

" All interested in tramways must refer to it, as all railway engineers have turned 
to the author's work ' Railway Machinery.' " Tfie Engineer. 

Pioneer Engineering. 

PIONEER ENGINEERING. A Treatise on the Engineering 
Operations connected with the Settlement of Waste Lands in New 
Countries. By EDWARD DOBSON, A.I.C.E. With Plates and 
Wood Engravings. Revised Edition. I2mo, 5-y. cloth. 
" A workmanlike production, and one without possession of which no man should 
start to encounter the duties of a pioneer engineer." Atketueum. 

Steam Engine. 

TEXT-BOOK ON THE STEAM ENGINE. By T. M. 
GOODEVE, M.A., Barrister-at-Law, Author of "The Principles 
of Mechanics," "The Elements of Mechanism," &c. Third 
Edition. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 6s. cloth. 
" Mr. Goodeve's text-book is a work of which every young engineer should pos- 
sess himself." Mining Journal. 

Steam. 

THE SAFE USE OF STEAM : containing Rules for Unpro- 
fessional Steam Users. By an ENGINEER. 4th Edition. Sewed, (yd. 
" If steam-users would but learn this little book by heart, boiler explosions would 
become sensations by their rarity." English Mechanic. 

Mechanical Engineering. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING: Comprising Metallurgy, 
Moulding, Casting, Forging, Tools, Workshop Machinery, Mecha- 
nical Manipulation, Manufacture of the Steam Engine, &c. By 
FRANCIS CAMPIN, C. E. i2mo, 3^. cloth boards. 

Works of Construction. 

MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION : a Theoretical and 
Practical Treatise on the Strains, Designing, and Erection of 
Works of Construction. By F. CAMPIN,C.E. I2ino. ^s. 6d. cl. brds. 

Iron Bridges, Girders, Roofs, &c. 

A TREATISE ON THE APPLICATION OF IRON 
TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, GIRDERS, 
ROOFS, AND OTHER WORKS. By F. CAMPIN, C.E. 1 2010,3*. 

Boiler Construction. 

THE MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S OFFICE BOOK : 

Boiler Construction. By NELSON FOLEY, Cardiff, late Assistant 
Manager Palmer's Engine Works, Jarrow. With 29 full-page 
Lithographic Diagrams. Folio 2is. half -bound. \_Just published. 



6 WORKS IN ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, ETC., 

Oblique Arches. 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE CONSTRUCTION of 
OBLIQUE ARCHES. By JOHN HART. 3rd Ed. Imp. 8vo, gj.doth. 

Oblique Bridges. 

A PRACTICAL and THEORETICAL ESSAY on OBLIQUE 
BRIDGES, with 13 large Plates. By the late GEO. WATSON 
BUCK, M. I. C. E. Third Edition, revised by his Son, J. H. WATSON 
BUCK, M.I.C.E. ; and with the addition of Description to Dia- 
grams for Facilitating the Construction of Oblique Bridges, by 
W. H. BARLOW, M.I.C.E. Royal 8vo, I2j. cloth. 

"The standard text book for all engineers regarding skew arches is Mr. BuJc's 
treatise and it would be impossible to consult a better." Engineer. 

Gas and Gasworks. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF GASWORKS AND THE 
MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF COAL-GAS. 
Originally written by SAMUEL HUGHES, C.E. Sixth Edition. 
Re-written and much Enlarged, by WILLIAM RICHARDS, C.E. 
With 72 Woodcuts. I2mo, 5^. cloth boards. 

Waterworks for Cities and Towns. 

WATERWORKS for the SUPPLY of CITIES and TOWNS, 
with a Description of the Principal Geological Formations of Eng- 
land as influencing Supplies of Water. By S. HUGHES. qs.6d. cloth. 

L ocomotive-Eng ine Driving. 

LOCOMOTIVE-ENGINE DRIVING ; a Practical Manual for 
Engineers in charge of Locomotive Engines. By MICHAEL 
REYNOLDS, M. S.E., formerly Locomotive Inspector L. B. and 
S. C. R. Fourth Edition, greatly enlarged. Comprising A 
KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. With Illustra- 
tions and Portrait of Author. Crown 8vo, 4^. 6d. cloth. 
" Mr. Reynolds has supplied a want, and has supplied it well. We can confidently 

recommend the book not only to the practical driver, but to every one who takes an 

interest in the performance of locomotive engines." Engineer. 

The Engineer, Fireman, and Engine-Boy. 

THE MODEL LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEER, FIREMAN, 
AND ENGINE-BOY : comprising a Historical Notice of the 
Pioneer Locomotive Engines and their Inventors, with a project 
for the establishment of Certificates of Qualification in the Running 
Service of Railways. By MICHAEL REYNOLDS, Author of 
"Locomotive-Engine Driving." Crown 8vo, 4^. 6d. cloth. 
" From the technical knowledge of the author it will appeal to the railway man of 
to-day more forcibly than anything written by Dr. Smiles." English Mechanic. 

Stationary Engine Driving. 

STATIONARY ENGINE DRIVING. A Practical Manual for 
Engineers in Charge of Stationary Engines. By MICHAEL REY- 
NOLDS ("The Engine-Driver's Friend"), Author of "Locomo- 
tive-Engine Driving,"" &c. With Plates and Woodcuts, and Steel 
Portrait of James Watt. Crown 8vo, 4^. 6d. cloth. 

Engine- Driving Life. 

ENGINE-DRIVING LIFE; or Stirring Adventures and Inci- 
dents in the Lives of Locomotive Engine-Drivers. By MICHAEL 
REYNOLDS. Crown 8vo, 2s. cloth. \Just published. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 7 

Construction of Iron Beams, Pillars, &c. 

IRON AND HEAT ; exhibiting the Principles concerned in the 
construction of Iron Beams, Pillars, and Bridge Girders, and the 
Action of Heat in the Smelting Furnace. By J. ARMOUR, C.E. 3^. 

Fire Engineering. 

FIRES, FIRE-ENGINES, AND FIRE BRIGADES. With 

a History of Fire-Engines, their Construction, Use, and Manage- 
ment ; Remarks on Fire- Proof Buildings, and the Preservation of 
Life from Fire ; Statistics of the Fire Appliances in English 
Towns ; Foreign Fire Systems ; Hints on Fire Brigades, &c., &c. 
By CHARLES F. T. YOUNG, C.E. With numerous Illustrations, 
handsomely printed, 544 pp., demy 8vo, I/. 4?. cloth. 

" We can most heartily commend this book." Engineering. 

" Mr. Young's book on ' Fire Engines and Fire Brigades ' contains a mass of 
information, which has been collected from a variety of sources. The subject is so 
intensely interesting and useful that it demands consideration." Building News. 

Trigonometrical Surveying. 

AN OUTLINE OF THE METHOD OF CONDUCTING A 
TRIGONOMETRICAL SURVEY, for the Formation of Geo- 
graphical and Topographical Maps and Plans, Military Recon- 
naissance, Levelling, &c., with the most useful Problems in Geodesy 
and Practical Astronomy. By LIEUT. -GEN. FROME, R.E., late In- 
spector-General of Fortifications. Fourth Edition, Enlarged, and 
partly Re-written. By CAPTAIN CHARLES WARREN, R.E. With 
19 Plates and 115 Woodcuts, royal 8vo, i6s. cloth. 

Tables of Curves. 

TABLES OF TANGENTIAL ANGLES and MULTIPLES 

for setting out Curves from 5 to 200 Radius. By ALEXANDER 
BEAZELEY, M. Inst. C.E. Second Edition. Printed on 48 Cards, 
and sold in a cloth box, waistcoat-pocket size, 3-r. 6d. 
" Each table is printed on a small card, which, being placed on the theodolite, leaves 
the hands free to manipulate the instrument." Engineer. 

" Very handy ; a man may know that all his day's work must fall on two of these 
cards, which he puts into his own card-case, and leaves the rest behind." 

Engineering Fieldwork. Wto~m. 

THE PRACTICE OF ENGINEERING FIELDWORK, 

applied to Land and Hydraulic, Hydrographic, and Submarine 
Surveying and Levelling. Second Edition, revised, with consider- 
able additions, and a Supplement on WATERWORKS, SEWERS, 
SEWAGE, and IRRIGATION. By W. DAVIS HASKOLL, C.E. 
Numerous folding Plates. In I Vol., demy 8vo, I/. 5.$-., cl. boards. 

Large Tunnel Shafts. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF LARGE TUNNEL SHAFTS. 
A Practical and Theoretical Essay. By J. H. WATSON BUCK, 
M. Inst. C.E., Resident Engineer, London and North- Western 
Railway. Illustrated with Folding Plates. Royal 8vo, 12s. cloth. 
" Many of the methods given are of extreme practical value to the mason, and the 
observations on the form of arch, the rules for ordering the stone, and the construc- 
tion of the templates, will be found of considerable use. We commend the book to 
the engineering profession, and to all who have to build similar shafts." Biiilding 
Neivs. 

" Will be regarded by civil engineers as of the utmost value, and calculated to save 
much lime and obviate many mistakes." Colliery Guardian. 



8 WORKS IN ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, ETC., 

Sur'Ue'V Practice 

AID TO SURVEY PRACTICE : for Reference in Surveying, 
Levelling, Setting-out and in Route Surveys of Travellers by Land 
and Sea. With Tables, Illustrations, and Records. By Lowis 
D'A. JACKSON, A-M.I.C.E. Author of "Hydraulic Manual and 
Statistics," &c. Large crown, 8vo, I2s. 6d., cloth. 

" Mr. Jackson has produced a valuable -vade-mecum for the surveyor. We can 
recommend this book as containing an admirable supplement to the teaching of the 
accomplished surveyor." A thenceum. 

"A general text book was wanted, and we are able to speak with confidence of 
Mr. Jackson's treatise. . . . We cannot recommeRd to the student who knows 
something of the mathematical principles of the subject a better course than to fortify 
his practice in the field under a competent surveyor with a study of Mr. Jackson's 
useful manual. The field records illustrate every kind of survey, and will be found 
an essential aid to the student." Building News, 

" The author brings to his work a fortunate union of theory and practical expe- 
rience which, aided by a clear and lucid style of writing, renders the book both a very 
useful one and very agreeable to read." Builder. 

Sanitary Work. 

SANITARY WORK IN THE SMALLER TOWNS AND 
IN VILLAGES. Comprising : i. Some of the more Common 
Forms of Nuisance and their Remedies ; 2. Drainage ; 3. Water 
Supply. By CHAS. SLAGG, Assoc. Inst. C.E. Crown 8vo, 3^. cloth. 

"A very useful book, and may be safely recommended. The author has had 
practical experience in the works of which he treats. " Builder. 

Locomotives. 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES, A Rudimentary Treatise on. Com- 
prising an Historical Sketch and Description of the Locomotive 
Engine. By G. D. DEMPSEY, C.E. With large additions treat- 
ing of the MODERN LOCOMOTIVE, by D. KINNEAR CLARK, C.E., 
M.I.C.E., Author of "Tram ways, their Construction and Working," 
&c., &c. With numerous Illustrations. I2mo. 3^. 6d. cloth boards. 

"The student cann.it fail to profit largely by adopting this as his preliminary text- 
book." Iron and Coal Trades Review. 

" Seems a model of what an elementary technical book should be." Academy. 

Fiiels and their Economy. 

FUEL, its Combustion and Economy ; consisting of an Abridg- 
ment of "A Treatise on the Combustion of Coal and the Prevention 
of Smoke." By C. W. WILLIAMS, A. I. C.E. With extensive 
additions on Recent Practice in the Combustion and Economy of 
Fuel Coal, Coke, Wood, Peat, Petroleum, &c. ; by D. KIN- 
NEAR CLARK, C.E., M.I. C.E. Second Edition, revised. With 
numerous Illustrations. I2mo. 4^. cloth boards. 

" Students should buy the book and read it, as one of the most complete and satis- 
factory treatises on the combustion and economy of fuel to be had." Engineer. 

Roads and Streets. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND STREETS. In 
Two Parts. I. The Art of Constructing Common Roads. By 
HENRY LAW, C.E. Revised and Condensed. II. Recent 
Practice in the Construction of Roads and Streets : including 
Pavements of Stone, Wood, and Asphalte. By D. KINNEAR 
CLARK, C.E., M.I. C.E. Second Edit, revised. I2mo, 5.5-. cloth. 
" A book which every borough surveyor and engineer must possess, and which will 

be of considerable service to architects, builders, and property owners generally. " 

Building News. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 9 

Sewing Machine (The]. 

SEWING MACHINERY ; being a Practical Manual of the 
Sewing Machine, comprising its History and Details of its Con- 
struction, with full Technical Directions for the Adjusting of Sew- 
ing Machines. By J. W. URQUHART, Author of "Electro 
Plating : a Practical Manual ; " " Electric Light : its Production 
and Use." With Numerous Illustrations. I2mo, 2s. 6d. cloth 
boards. 

Fie Id- Book for Engineers. 

THE ENGINEER'S, MINING SURVEYOR'S, and CON- 
TRACTOR'S FIELD-BOOK. By W. DAVIS HASKOLL, C.E. 
Consisting of a Series of Tables, with Rules, Explanations of 
Systems, and Use of Theodolite for Traverse Surveying and Plotting 
the Work with minute accuracy by means of Straight Edge and Set 
Square only; Levelling with the Theodolite, Casting out and Re- 
ducing Levels to Datum, and Plotting Sections in the ordinary 
manner; Setting out Curves with the Theodolite by Tangential 
Angles and Multiples with Right and Left-hand Readings of the 
Instrument ; Setting out Curves without Theodolite on the System 
of Tangential Angles by Sets of Tangents and Offsets ; and Earth- 
work Tables to 80 feet deep, calculated for every 6 inches in depth. 
With numerous Woodcuts. 4th Edition, enlarged. Cr. 8vo. 12s. cloth. 
" The book is very handy, and the author might have added that the separate tables 

of sines and tangents to every minute will make it useful for many other purposes, the 

genuine traverse tables existing all the same." Athen&um. 

" Cannot fail, from its portability and utility, to be extensively patronised by the 

engineering profession.'' Mining Journal. 

Earthwork, Measurement and Calculation of. 

A MANUAL on EARTHWORK. By ALEX. J. S. GRAHAM, 
C.E., Resident Engineer, Forest of Dean Central Railway. With 
numerous Diagrams. i8mo, 2s. 6d. cloth. 

" As a really handy book for reference, we know of no work equal to it ; and the 
railway engineers and others employed in the measurement and calculation of earth- 
work will find a great amount of practical information very admirably arranged, and 
available for general or rough estimates, as well as for the more exact calculations 
required in the engineers' contractor's offices." Artizan. 

Drawing for Engineers, &c. 

THE WORKMAN'S MANUAL OF ENGINEERING 
DRAWING. By JOHN MAXTON, Instructor in Engineering 
Drawing, Royal Naval College, Greenwich, formerly of R. S. N. A., 
South Kensington. Fourth Edition, carefully revised. With upwards 
of 300 Plates and Diagrams. I2mo, cloth, strongly bound, 4J. 
" A copy of it should be kept for reference in every drawing office." Engineering, 
" Indispensable for teachers of engineering drawing." Mechanics' Magazine. 

Weales Dictionary of Terms. 

A DICTIONARY of TERMS used in ARCHITECTURE, 
BUILDING, ENGINEERING, MINING, METALLURGY, 
ARCHAEOLOGY, the FINE ARTS, &c. By JOHN WEALE. 
Fifth Edition, revised by ROBERT HUNT, F.R.S., Keeper of Mining 
Records, Editor of " Ure's Dictionary of Arts." I2mo, 6s. cl. bds. 
" The best small technological dictionary in the language." Architect. 
" The absolute accuracy of a work of this character can only be judged of after 
extensive consultation, and from our examination it appears very correct and very 
complete. " Mining Journal. 

B 3 



io WORKS IN MINING, METALLURGY, ETC., 

MINING, METALLURGY, ETC. 

Metalliferous Minerals and Mining. 

A TREATISE ON METALLIFEROUS MINERALS AND 
MINING. By B.C. DAVIES, F.G.S., author of "A Treatise on 
Slate and Slate Quarrying." With numerous wood engravings. 
Second Edition, revised. Cr. 8vo. 12s. 6d. cloth. 

" Without question, the most exhaustive and the most practically useful work we 
have seen ; the amount of information given is enormous, and it is given concisely 
and intelligibly." Mining Journal. 

" The volume is one which no student of mineralogy should be without" Colliery 
Guardian. 

" The author has gathered together from all available sources a vast amount of 
really useful information. As a history of the present state of mining throughout 
the world this book has a real value, and it supplies an actual want, for no such infor- 
mation has hitherto been brought together within such limited space." Athenceum. 

Slate and Slate Quarrying. 

A TREATISE ON SLATE AND SLATE QUARRYING, 

Scientific, Practical, and Commercial. By D. C. DAVIES, F.G.S., 

Mining Engineer, &c. With numerous Illustrations and Folding 

Plates. Second Edition, carefully revised. I2mo, 3^. 6d. cloth boards. 

" Mr. Davies has written a useful and practical hand-book on an important industry, 

with Rll the conditions and details of which he appears familiar." Engineering. 

" The work is illustrated by actual practice, and is unusually thorough and lucid. 
. . . Mr. Davies has completed his work with industry and skill." Builder. 

Metallurgy of Iron. 

A TREATISE ON THE METALLURGY OF IRON : con- 
taining Outlines of the History of Iron Manufacture, Methods of 
Assay, and Analyses of Iron Ores, Processes of Manufacture of 
Iron and Steel, &c. By H. BAUERMAN, F.G.S., Associate of the 
Royal School of Mines. With numerous Illustrations. Fourth 
Edition, revised and much enlarged. I2mo, cloth boards, 5-r. 
" Has the merit of brevity and conciseness, as to less important points, while all 
material matters are very fully and thoroughly entered into.' Standard. 

Manual of Mining Tools. 

MINING TOOLS. For the use of Mine Managers, Agents, 
Mining Students, &c. By WILLIAM MORGANS, Lecturer on Prac- 
tical Mining at the Bristol School of Mines. Volume of Text. 
I2mo, 3-r. With an Atlas of Plates, containing 235 Illustrations. 
4to, 6s. Together, gs. cloth boards. 
" Students in the Science of Mining, and Overmen, Captains, Managers, and 

Viewers may gain practical knowledge and useful hints by the study of Mr. 

Morgans' Manual." Colliery Guardian. 

Mining, Surveying and Valuing. 

THE MINERAL SURVEYOR AND VALUER'S COM- 
PLETE GUIDE, comprising a Treatise on Improved Mining 
Surveying, with new Traverse Tables ; and Descriptions of Im- 
proved Instruments ; also an Exposition of the Correct Principles 
of Laying out and Valuing Home and Foreign Iron and Coal 
Mineral Properties. By WILLIAM LINTERN, Mining and Civil 
Engineer. With four Plates of Diagrams, Plans, &c., I2mo, 4^. cloth. 
" Contains much valuable information given in a small compass, and which, as far 
as we have tested it, is thoroughly trustworthy." Iron and Coal Trades Review. 

%* The above, bound with THOMAN'S TABLES. (See page 20.) 
Price 7*. 6d. cloth. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. H 

Coal and Coal Mining. 

COAL AND COAL MINING : a Rudimentary Treatise on. By 
WARINGTON W. SMYTH, M.A., F.R.S., &c., Chief Inspector 
of the Mines of the Crown. Fifth edition, revised and corrected. 
I2mo, with numerous Illustations, 4^. cloth boards. 

" Every portion of the volume appears to have been prepared with much care, and 
as an outline is given of every known coal-field in this and other countries, as well as 
of the two principal methods of working, the book will doubtless interest a very 
large number of readers." Mining Journal. 

Underground Pumping Machinery. 

MINE DRAINAGE ; being a Complete and Practical Treatise 
on Direct-Acting Underground Steam Pumping Machinery, with 
a Description of a large number of the best known Engines, their 
General Utility and the Special Sphere of their Action, the Mode 
of their Application, and their merits compared with other forms of 
Pumping Machinery. By STEPHEN MICHELL, Joint- Author of "The 
Cornish System of Mine Drainage." 8vo, I5j-.cloth. \Just published. 



NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, NAVIGATION, ETC. 
Pocket Book for 'Naval 'Architects & Shipbuilders. 

THE NAVAL ARCHITECT'S AND SHIPBUILDER'S 
POCKET BOOK OF FORMULA, RULES, AND TABLES 
AND MARINE ENGINEER'S AND SURVEYOR'S HANDY 
BOOK OF REFERENCE. By CLEMENT MACKROW, M. Inst. 
N. A., Naval Draughtsman. Second Edition, revised. With 
numerous Diagrams. Fcap., 12s. 6d., strongly bound in leather. 
" Should be used by all who are engaged in the construction or design of vessels." 
Engineer. 

"There is scarcely a subject on which a naval architect or shipbuilder can require 
to refresh his memory which will not be found within the covers of Mr. Mackrow's 
book." English Mechanic. 

" Mr. Mackrow has compressed an extraordinary amount of information into this 
useful volume." A thenceum. 

Granthams Iron Ship- Building. 

ON IRON SHIP-BUILDING; with Practical Examples and 
Details. Fifth Edition. Imp. 4to, boards, enlarged from 24 to 40 
Plates (21 quite new), including the latest Examples. Together 
with separate Text, also considerably enlarged, I2mo, cloth limp. 
By JOHN GRANTHAM, M. Inst. C.E., &c. 2/. zs. complete. 

" Mr. Grantham's work is of great interest. It will, we are confident, command an 
extensive circulation among shipbuilders in general. By order of the Board of Admi- 
ralty, the work will form the text-book on which the examination in iron ship-building 
of candidates for promotion in the dockyards will be mainly based." Engineering, 

Pocket-Book for Marine Engineers. 

A POCKET-BOOK OF USEFUL TABLES AND FOR- 
MULAS FOR MARINE ENGINEERS. By FRANK PROCTOR, 
A.I.N.A. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. Royal 32mo, 
leather, gilt edges, with strap, 4.5-. 

" A most useful companion to all marine engineers." United Service Gazette. 
" Scarcely anything required by a naval engineer appears to have been for- 
gotten." Iron. 



12 WORKS IN NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, ETC., 

L ight-Houses. 

EUROPEAN LIGHT-HOUSE SYSTEMS ; being a Report of 
a Tour of Inspection made in 1873. By Major GEORGE H. 
ELLIOT, Corps of Engineers, U.S.A. Illustrated by 51 En- 
gravings and 31 Woodcuts in the Text. 8vo, 2is. cloth. 

Surveying (Land and Marine). 

LAND AND MARINE SURVEYING, in Reference to the 
Preparation of Plans for Roads and Railways, Canals, Rivera, 
Tov-ns' Water Supplies, Docks and Harbours ; with Description 
and Use of Surveying Instruments. By W. DAVIS HASKOLL, C.E. 
With 14 folding Plates, and numerous Woodcuts. 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. 

"A most useful and well arranged book for the aid of a student" Builder. 

" Of the utmost practical utility, and may be safely recommended to all students 
who aspiie to become clean and expert surveyors." Mining Journal. 

Storms. 

STORMS : their Nature, Classification, and Laws, with the 
Means of Predicting them by their Embodiments, the Clouds. 
By WILLIAM BLASIUS. Crown 8vo, IQJ. 6d. cloth boards. 

Rudimentary Navigation, 

THE SAILOR'S SEA-BOOK: a Rudimentary Treatise on Navi- 
gation. By JAMES GREEN WCOD, B. A. New and enlarged edition. 
By W. H. ROSSER. I2mo, 3*. cloth boards. 

Mathematical and Nautical Tables. 

MATHEMATICAL TABLES, for Trigonometrical, Astronomical, 
and Nautical Calculations ; to which is prefixed a Treatise on 
Logarithms. By HENRY LAW, C.E. Together with a Series of 
Tables for Navigation and Nautical Astronomy. By J. R. 
YOUNG, formerly Professor of Mathematics in Belfast College. 
New Edition. I2mo, 4-y. cloth boards. 

Navigation (Practical], with Tables. 

PRACTICAL NAVIGATION : consisting of the Sailor's Sea- 
Book, by JAMES GREENWOOD and W. H. ROSSER ; together 
with the requisite Mathematical and Nautical Tables for the Work- 
ing of the Problems. By HENRY LAW, C.E., and Professor 
J. R. YOUNG. Illustrated with numerous Wood Engravings and 
Coloured Plates. I2mo, 7^. strongly half bound in leather. 



WEALE'S RUDIMENTARY SERIES. 

The following books in Naval Architecture, etc., are published in the 

above series. 
MASTING, MAST-MAKING, AND RIGGING OF SHIPS. By 

ROBERT KIPPING, N.A. Fourteenth Edition. I2mo, 2s. 6d. cloth. 
SAILS AND SAIL-MAKING. Tenth Edition, enlarged. By ROBERT 

KIPPING, N.A. Illustrated. I2mo, 3-r. cloth boards. 
NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. By JAMES PEAKE. Fourth Edition, 

with Plates and Diagrams. I2mo, 4^. cloth boards. 
MARINE ENGINES, AND STEAM VESSELS. By ROBERT 

MURRAY, C.E. Seventh Edition. I2mo, 3-y. 6d. cloth boards. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 13 

ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, ETC. 
Construction. 

THE SCIENCE of BUILDING : An Elementary Treatise on 
the Principles of Construction. By E. WYNDHAM TARN, M.A., 
Architect. With 58 Wood Engravings. 2nd Edition, revised and 
enlarged. Crown 8vo, 7-r. 6d. cloth. 

" A very valuable book, which we strongly recommend to all students." Builder. 

" No architectural student should be without this hand-book." Architect. 

Villa Architecture. 

A HANDY BOOK of VILLA ARCHITECTURE ; being a 
Series of Designs for Villa Residences in various Styles. With 
Detailed Specifications and Estimates. By C. WICKES, Architect, 
Author of " The Spires and Towers of the Mediaeval Churches of Eng- 
land," &c. 31 Plates, 4to, half morocco, gilt edges, I/, is. 
%* Also an Enlarged edition of the above. 61 Plates, with Detailed 

Specifications, Estimates, &c. 2/. 2s. half morocco. 
" The whole of the designs bear evidence of their being the work of an artistic 
architect, and they will prove very valuable and suggestive." Building News. 

Useful Text- Book for Architects. 

THE ARCHITECT'S GUIDE : Being a Text-book of Useful 
Information for Architects, Engineers, Surveyors, Contractors, 
Clerks of Works, &c. By FREDERICK ROGERS. Author of 
"Specifications for Practical Architecture, "&c. Cr. 8vo, 6s. cloth. 

"As a text-book of useful information for architects, engineers, surveyors, &c., it 
would be hard to find a handier or more complete little volume." -Standard. 

Taylor and Cresys Rome. 

"THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES OF ROME. By 

the late G. L. TAYLOR, Esq., F.S.A., and EDWARD CRESY, Esq. 
New Edition, Edited by the Rev. ALEXANDER TAYLOR, M.A. (son 
of the late G. L. Taylor, Esq,), Chaplain 'of Gray's Inn. Tkis is 
the only book which gives on a large scale, and with the precision 
of architectural measurement, the principal Monuments of Ancient 
Rome in plan, elevation, and detail. Large folio, with 130 Plates, 
half-bound, 3/. 3^. 
%* Originally published in two volumes, folio, at i8/. iSs. 

Viiruvius. A rchitecture. 

THE ARCHITECTURE OF MARCUS VITRUVIUS 
POLLIO. Translated by JOSEPH GWILT, F.S.A., F.R.A.S. 
Numerous Plates. I2mo, cloth limp, $s. 

The Young Architect's Book. 

HINTS TO YOUNG ARCHITECTS. By GEORGE WIGHT- 
WICK, Architect. New Edition, revised and enlarged. By G. 
HUSKISSON GUILLAUME, Architect. I2mo, cloth boards, 4^. 
"Will be found an acquisition to pupils, a ( nd a copy ought to be considered as 
necessary a purchase as a box of instruments." Architect. 

" A large amount of information, which young architects win do well to acquire, if 
they wish to succeed in the everyday work of their profession." English Mechanic. 

Drawing for Builders and Students. 

PRACTICAL RULES ON DRAWING for the OPERATIVE 
BUILDER and YOUNG STUDENT in ARCHITECTURE. 
By GEORGE PYNE. With 14 Plates, 4to, Is. 6d. boards. 



14 WORKS IN ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, ETC., 



Cement. 

PORTLAND CEMENT FOR USERS. By HENRY FAIJA, 
A.M., Inst. C.E., with Illustrations. Crown 8vo. $s. 6d. cloth. 
"A useful compendium of results for the practical builder and architect." Build- 
ing News. 

The House-Owner s Estimator. 

THE HOUSE-OWNER'S ESTIMATOR ; or, What will it 
Cost to Build, Alter, or Repair? A Price-Book adapted to the 
Use of Unprofessional People as well as for the Architectural 
Surveyor and Builder. By the late JAMES D. SIMON, A.R.I. B. A. 
Edited and Revised by FRANCIS T. W. MILLER, A, R. I.E. A., 
Surveyor. Third Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, $s. 6</., cloth. 
" In two years it will repay its cost a hundred times over." Field. 
" A very handy book for those who want to know what a house will cost to build, 
alter, or repair." English Mechanic. 

Boiler and Factory Chimneys. 

BOILER AND FACTORY CHIMNEYS ; their Draught -power 
and Stability, with a chapter on Lightning Conductors. By ROBERT 
WILSON, C.E. Crown 8vo, -$s. 6d. cloth. 

Civil and Ecclesiastical Building* 

A BOOK ON BUILDING, CIVIL AND ECCLESIASTICAL, 
Including CHURCH RESTORATION. By Sir EDMUND BECKETT, 
Bart., LL.D., Q.C., F.R.A.S., Chancellor and Vicar- General 
of York. Author of "Clocks and Watches and Bells," &c. 
Second Edition, I2mo, 5-r. cloth boards. 
"A book which is always amusing and nearly always instructive. Sir E. Beckett 

will be read for the raciness of his style. We are able very cordially to recommend 

all persons to read it for t' emselves.' 1 Timfs. 

" We commend the book to the thoughtful consideration of all who are interested 

in the building art." Builder. 

Architecture, Ancient and Modern. 

RUDIMENTARY ARCHITECTURE, Ancient and Modern. 
Consisting of VITRUVIUS, translated by JOSEPH GWILT, 
F.S.A., &c., with 23 fine copper plates; GRECIAN Archi- 
tecture, by the EARL of ABERDEEN ; the ORDERS of 
Architecture, by W. H. LEEDS, Esq. ; The STYLES of Archi- 
tecture of Various Countries, by T. TALBOT BURY; The 
PRINCIPLES of DESIGN in Architecture, by E. L. GARBETT. 
In one volume, half-bound (pp. 1,100), copiously illustrated, 12s. 
*%* Sold separately, in two vols., as follows 

ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE. Containing Gwilt's Vitruvius 
and Aberdeen's Grecian Architecture. Price 6s. half -bound. 

N.B. This is the only edition of VITRUVIUS procurable at a 
moderate price. 

MODERN ARCHITECTURE. Containing the Orders, by Leeds ; 
The Styles, by Bury; and Design, by Garbett. 6s. half-bound. 

House Painting. 

HOUSE PAINTING, GRAINING, MARBLING, AND 

SIGN WRITING : a Practical Manual of. With 9 Coloured 

Plates of Woods and Marbles, and nearly 150 Wood Engravings. 

By ELLIS A. DAVIDSON. Third Edition, Revised. I2mo, 6s. cloth. 

" Contains a mass of infonr.ation of use to the amateur and of value to the practical 

man." English Mechanic. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 15 

Plumbing. 

PLUMBING ; aText-book to the Practice of the Art or Craft of the 

Plumber. With chapters upon House-drainage, embodying the 

latest Improvements. By W. P. BUCHAN, Sanitary Engineer. 

Third Edition, enlarged, with 300 illustrations, I2mo. 4^. cloth. 

" The chapters on house-drainage may be usefully consulted, not only by plumbers, 

but also by engineers and all engaged or interested in house-building." Iron. 

Handbook of Specifications. 

THE HANDBOOK OF SPECIFICATIONS; or, Practical 
Guide to the Architect, Engineer, Surveyor, and Builder, in drawing 
up Specifications and Contracts for Works and Constructions. 
Illustrated by Precedents of Buildings actually executed by eminent 
Architects and Engineers. By Professor THOMAS L. DONALD- 
SON, M.I.B.A. New Edition, in One large volume, 8vo r with 
upwards of 1000 pages of text, and 33 Plates, cloth, I/, nj. 6d. 
" In this work forty-four specifications of executed works are given. . . . Donald- 
son's Handbook of Specifications must be bought by all architects." Builder, 

Specifications for Practical A rchitecture. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRACTICAL ARCHITECTURE: 
A Guide to the Architect, Engineer, Surveyor, and Builder ; with 
an Essay on the Structure and Science of Modern Buildings. By 
FREDERICK ROGERS, Architect. 8vo, \$s. cloth. 

*** A volumeof specifications of a practical character being greatly required, and the 
old standard work of Alfred Bartholomew being out of print, the author, on the basis 
of that work, has produced the above. Extract from Preface. 

Designing, Measuring, and Valuing. 

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE to the PRACTICE of MEA- 
SURING and VALUING ARTIFICERS' WORKS; containing 
Directions for taking Dimensions, Abstracting the same, and bringing 
the Quantities into Bill, with Tables of Constants, and copious 
Memoranda for the Valuation of Labour and Materials in the re- 
spective Trades of Bricklayer and Slater, Carpenter and Joiner, 
Painter and Glazier, Paperhanger, &c. With 43 Plates and Wood- 
cuts. Originally edited by EDWARD DOBSON, Architect. New 
Edition, re-written, with Additions on Mensuration and Construc- 
tion, and useful Tables for facilitating Calculations and Measure- 
ments. By E. WYNDHAM TARN, M.A., 8vo, icv. bd. cloth. 

" Well fulfils the promise of its title-page. Mr. Tarn's additions and revisions have 
much increased the usefulness of the work." Engineering. 

Beaton s Pocket Estimator. 

THE POCKET ESTIMATOR FOR THE BUILDING 
TRADES, being an easy method of estimating the various parts 
of a Building collectively, more especially applied to Carpenters' 
and Joiners' work, priced according to the present value of material 
and labour. By A. C. BEATON, Author of "Quantities and 
Measurements." Second Edition. Waistcoat-pocket size. u. 6d. 

Beaton's Builders' and Surveyors Technical Guide. 

THE POCKET TECHNICAL GUIDE AND MEASURER 
FOR BUILDERS AND SURVEYORS: containing a Complete 
Explanation of the Terms used in Building Construction, Memo- 
randa for Reference, Technical Directions for Measuring Work in 
all the Building Trades, &c. By A. C. BEATON, u. 6</. 



1 6 WORKS IN CARPENTRY, TIMBER, ETC., 

Builder s and Contractor s Price Book. 

LOCKWOOD & CO.'S BUILDER'S AND CONTRACTOR'S 
PRICE BOOK, containing the latest prices of all kinds of Builders' 
Materials and Labour, and of all Trades connected with Building, 
&c., &c. The whole revised and edited by F. T. W. MILLER, 
A.R.I.B.A. Fcap. half-bound, 4^. 

CARPENTRY, TIMBER, ETC. 

Tredgold's Carpentry, new and cheaper Edition. 

THE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CARPENTRY : 

a Treatise on the Pressure and Equilibrium of Timber Framing, the 
Resistance of Timber, and the Construction of Floors, Arches, 
Bridges, Roofs, Uniting Iron and Stone with Timber, &c. To which 
is added an Essay on the Nature and Properties of Timber, &c., 
with Descriptions of the Kinds of Wood used in Building ; also 
numerous Tables of the Scantlings of Timber for different purposes, 
the Specific Gravities of Materials, &c. By THOMAS TREDGOLD, 
C.E. Edited by PETER BARLOW, F.R.S. Fifth Edition, cor- 
rected and enlarged. With 64 Plates, Portrait of the Author, and 
Woodcuts. 4to, published at 2/. 2s., reduced to I/. $s. cloth. 
" Ought to be in every architect's and every builder's library, and those who 
do not already possess it ought to avail themselves of the new issue." Builder. 

"A work whose monumental excellence must commend it wherever skilful car- 
pentry is concerned. The Author's principles are rather confirmed than impaired by 
time. The additional plates are of great intrinsic value." Building News, 

Grandys Timber Tables. 

THE TIMBER IMPORTER'S, TIMBER MERCHANT'S, 

and BUILDER'S STANDARD GUIDE. By RICHARD E. 

GRANDY. 

2nd Edition. Carefully revised and corrected. I2mo, 3-f. 6d. cloth. 
" Everything it pretends to be : built up gradually, it leads one from a forest to a 
treenail, and throws in, as a makeweight, a host of material concerning bricks, columns, 
cisterns, &c. all that the class to whom it appeals requires." English Mechanic. 

Timber Freight Book. 

THE TIMBER IMPORTERS' AND SHIPOWNERS' 
FREIGHT BOOK : Being a Comprehensive Series of Tables for 
the Use of Timber Importers, Captains of Ships, Shipbrokers, 
Builders, and all Dealers in Wood whatsoever. By WILLIAM 
RICHARDSON, Timber Broker. Crown 8vo, 6s. cloth. 

Tables for Packing-Case Makers. 

PACKING-CASE TABLES ; showing the number of Superficial 
Feet in Boxes or Packing -Cases, from six inches square and 
upwards. By W. RICHARDSON. Oblong 410, $s. 6d. cloth. 

" Invaluable labour-saving tables." Ironmonger. 

Coach Building. 

COACH BUILDING: A Practical Treatise, Historical and 
Descriptive, containing full information of the various Trades and 
Processes involved, with Hints on the proper keeping of Carriages, 
&c. With 57 Illustrations. By JAMES W. BURGESS. i2mo, 3^., 
cloth boards [Just published. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 17 

Hortoris Measurer. 

THE COMPLETE MEASURER ; setting forth the Measure- 
ment of Boards, Glass, &c. ; Unequal-sided, Square-sided, Oc- 
tagonal-sided, Round Timber and Stone, and Standing Timber. 
With just allowances for the bark in the respective species of 
trees, and proper deductions for the waste in hewing the trees, 
&c. ; also a Table showing the solidity of hewn or eight-sided 
timber, or of any octagonal-sided column. By RICHARD HORTON. 
Third edition, with considerable and valuable additions, I2mo, 
strongly bound in leather, 5-r. 

H or tons Underwood and Woodland Tables. 

TABLES FOR PLANTING AND VALUING UNDER- 
WOOD AND WOODLAND ; also Lineal, Superficial, Cubical, 
and Decimal Tables, &c. By R. HORTON. I2mo, 2s. leather. 

Nicholsons Carpenter s Guide. 

THE CARPENTER'S NEW GUIDE ; or, BOOK of LINES 
for CARPENTERS : comprising all the Elementary Principles 
essential for acquiring a knowledge of Carpentiy. Founded on the 
late PETER NICHOLSON'S standard work. A new Edition, revised 
by ARTHUR ASHPITEL, F.S.A., together with Practical Rules on 
Drawing, by GEORGE PYNE. With 74 Plates, 4to, i/. u. cloth. 

Dowsing' s Timber Merchant's Companion. 

THE TIMBER MERCHANT'S AND BUILDER'S COM- 
PANION ; containing New and Copious Tables of the Reduced 
Weight and Measurement of Deals and Battens, of all sizes, from 
One to a Thousand Pieces, also the relative Price that each size 
bears per Lineal Foot to any given Price per Petersburgh Standard 
Hundred, &c., &c. Also a variety of other valuable information. 
By WILLIAM DOWSING, Timber Merchant. Third Edition, Re- 
vised. Crown 8vo, 3^. cloth. 

"Everything is as concise and clear as it can possibly be made. There can be no 
doubt that every timber merchant and builder ought to possess it." Hull Advertiser. 

Practical Timber Merchant. 

THE PRACTICAL TIMBER MERCHANT, being a Guide 
for the use of Building Contractors, Surveyors, Builders, &c., 
comprising useful Tables for all purposes connected with the 
Timber Trade, Essay on the Strength of Timber, Remarks on the 
Growth of Timber, &c. By W. RICHARDSON. Fcap. 8vo, y. 6^. cl. 

Woodworking Machinery. 

WOODWORKING MACHINERY; its Rise, Progress, and 
Construction. With Hints on the Management of Saw Mills and 
the Economical Conversion of Timber. Illustrated with Examples 
of Recent Designs by leading English, French, and American 
Engineers. By M. Powis BALE, M.I.M.E. Large crown 8vo, 
\2s. 6d. cloth. 

" Mr. Bale is evidently an expert on the subject, and he has collected so much 
information that his book is all-sufficient for builders and others engaged in the con- 
version of timber." Architect. 

"The most comprehensive compendium of wood-working machinery we have 
seen. The author is a thorough master of his subject." Building News. 

" It should be in the office of every wood-working factory." English Mechanic. 



i8 WORKS IN MECHANICS, ETC. 

MECHANICS, ETC. 
Turning. 

LATHE- WORK: a Practical Treatise on the Tools, Appliances, 

and Processes employed in the Art of Turning. By PAUL N. HAS- 

LUCK. With numerous Illustrations drawn by the Author. 

Crown 8vo, $s. cloth. \Just published. 

" Evidently written from personal experience, and gives a large amount of just 

that sort of information which beginners at the lathe require." Builder. 

" Expounds the art and mystery of the turner in an informative fashion." Scstsnian. 
" Mr. Hasluck's book will be a boon to amateurs." Architect. 

Mechanic s Workshop Companion. 

THE OPERATIVE MECHANIC'S WORKSHOP COM- 
PANION, and THE SCIENTIFIC GENTLEMAN'S PRAC- 
TICAL ASSISTANT. By W. TEMPLETON. 1 2th Edit., with 
Mechanical Tables for Operative Smiths, Millwrights, Engineers, 
&c. ; and an Extensive Table of Powers and Roots, I2mo, 5-r. bound. 
" Admirably adapted to the wants of a very large class. It has met with great 
success in the engineering workshop, as we can testify ; and there are a great many 
men who, in a great measure, owe their rise in life to this little work. " Building News. 

Engineers and Machinist's Assistant. 

THE ENGINEER'S, MILLWRIGHT'S, and MACHINIST'S 
PRACTICAL ASSISTANT ; comprising a Collection of Useful 
Tables, Rules, and Data. By WM. TEMPLETON. i8mo, 2s. 6d. 
"A more suitable present to an apprentice to any of the mechanical trades could not 
possibly be made." Building News. 

Superficial Measurement. 

THE TRADESMAN'S GUIDE TO SUPERFICIAL MEA- 
SUREMENT. Tables calculated from I to 200 inches in length, 
by i to 108 inches in breadth. For the use of Architects, Engineers, 
Timber Merchants, Builders, &c. ByJ. HAWKINGS. Fcp. 3^. 6d. cl. 

The High-Pressure Steam Engine. 

THE HIGH-PRESSURE STEAM ENGINE ; an Exposition 
of its Comparative Merits, and an Essay towards an Improved 
System of Construction, adapted especially to secure Safety and 
Economy. By Dr. ERNST ALBAN. Translated from the German, 
with Notes, by Dr. POLE, F.R.S. 8vo, i6s. 6d. cloth. 

Steam Boilers. 

A TREATISE ON STEAM BOILERS : their Strength, Con- 
struction, and Economical Working. By R. WILSON, C.E. 
Fifth Edition. I2mo, 6s. cloth. 

" The best work on boilers which has come under our notice " Engineering. 

" The best treatise that has ever been published on steam boilers." Engineer. 

Power in Motion. 

POWER IN MOTION : Horse Power, Toothed Wheel Gearing, 
Long and Short Driving Bands, Angular Forces, &c. By JAMES 
ARMOUR, C.E. With 73 Diagrams. I2mo, 3-5-., cloth. 

Mechanics. 

THE HANDBOOK OF MECHANICS. By DIONYSIUS 
LARDNER, D.C.L. New Edition, Edited and considerably En- 
larged, by BENJAMIN LOEWY, F.R.A.S., &c., post 8vo, 6s. cloth. 

" Studiously popular .... The application of the various branches of physics to 
the industrial arts is carefully shown." Mining Journal. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 19 

MATHEMATICS, TABLES, ETC. 

Gregory s Practical Mathematics. 

MATHEMATICS for PRACTICAL MEN ; being a Common- 
place Book of Pure and Mixed Mathematics. Designed chiefly 
for the Use of Civil Engineers, Architects, and Surveyors. Part I. 
PURE MATHEMATICS comprising Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, 
Mensuration, Trigonometry, Conic Sections, Properties of Curves. 
Part II. MIXED MATHEMATICS comprising Mechanics in general, 
Statics, Dynamics, Hydrostatics, Hydrodynamics, Pneumatics, 
Mechanical Agents, Strength of Materials. With an Appendix of 
copious Logarithmic and other Tables. By OLINTHUS GREGORY, 
LL.D., F.R.A.S. Enlarged by HENRY LAW, C.E. 4th Edition, 
revised by Prof. J. R. YOUNG. With 13 Plates. 8vo, I/, is. cloth, 

" The engineer or architect will here find ready to his hand, rules for solving nearly 
every mathematical difficulty that may arise in his practice." Builder. 

The Metric System. 

A SERIES OF METRIC TABLES, in which the British 
Standard Measures and Weights are compared with those of the 
Metric System at present in use on the Continent. By C. H. 
DOWLING, C.E. 2nd Edit, revised and enlarged. 8vo, lor. 6d. cl. 
"Their accuracy has been certified by Prof. Airy, Astronomer-Royal." Builder. 

Inwood's Tables, greatly enlarged and improved. 

TABLES FOR THE PURCHASING of ESTATES, Freehold, 
Copyhold, or Leasehold; Annuities, Advowsons, &c., and for the 
Renewing of Leases held under Cathedral Churches, Colleges, or 
other corporate bodies ; for Terms of Years certain, and for Lives j 
also for Valuing Reversionary Estates, Deferred Annuities, Next 
Presentations, &c., together with Smart's Five Tables of Compound 
Interest, and an Extension of the same to Lower and Intermediate 
Rates. By WILLIAM INWOOD. 2ist edition, with Tables of 
Logarithms for the more Difficult Computations of the Interest of 
Money, Discount,&c. By M. FDOR THOMAN. I2mo. &r. cloth. 

" Those interested in the purchase and sale of estates, and in the adjustment of 
compensation cases, as well as in transactions in annuities, life insurances, &c., will 
find the present edition of eminent service." Engineering. 

Geometry for the Architect, Engineer, &c. 

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY, for the Architect, Engineer, and 
Mechanic. By E. W. TARN, M. A. , Architect. Second Edition, with 
Appendices on Diagrams of Strains and Isometrical projections. 
Demy 8vo, gs. cloth. 

Mathematical Instruments-. 

MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS: Their Construction, 
Adjustment, Testing, and Use ; comprising Drawing, Measuring, 
Optical, Surveying, and Astronomical Instruments. By J. F. 
HEATHER, M.A. Enlarged Edition. I2mo, $s. cloth. 

Weights, Measures, Moneys, &c. 

MEASURES, WEIGHTS, and MONEYS of all NATIONS, 
and an Analysis of the Christian, Hebrew, and Mahometan 
Calendars. Entirely New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. By 
W. S. B. WOOLHOUSE, F.R.A.S. I2mo, 2s. 6d. cloth boards. 



20 WORKS IN MATHEMATICS, ETC., 

Compound Interest and Annuities. 

THEORY of COMPOUND INTEREST and ANNUITIES ; 

with Tables of Logarithms for the more Difficult Computations of 

Interest, Discount, Annuities, &c., in all their Applications and 

Uses for Mercantile and State Purposes. By FEDOR THOMAN, 

of the Societe Credit Mobilier, Paris. 3rd Edit., I2mo, 4.5-. 6d. cl. 

"A very powerful work, and the Author has a very remarkable command of his 

subject." Professor A. de Morgan. 

Iron and Metal Trades' Calculator* 

THE IRON AND METAL TRADES' COMPANION : 
Being a Calculator containing a Series of Tables upon a new and 
comprehensive plan for expeditiously ascertaining the value of any 
goods bought or sold by weight, from is. per cwt. to H2J. per 
cwt., and from one farthing per lb. to is. per Ib. Each Table ex- 
tends from one lb. to 100 tons. By T. DOWNIE. 396 pp., 9.5-., leather. 
" A most useful set of tables, and will supply a want, for nothing like them before 
existed." Building News. 

Iron and Steel. 

'IRON AND STEEL': a Work for the Forge, Foundry, 
Factory, and Office. Containing Information for Ironmasters and 
their Stocktakers ; Managers of Bar, Rail, Plate, and Sheet Rolling 
Mills ; Iron and Metal Founders ; Iron Ship and Bridge Builders ; 
Mechanical, Mining, and Consulting Engineers ; Architects, Builders, 
&c. By CHARLES HOARE, Author of 'The Slide Rule,' &c. Eighth 
Edition. With folding Scales of " Foreign Measures compared 
with the English Foot," and "fixed Scales of Squares, Cubes, 
and Roots, Areas, Decimal Equivalents, &c." Oblong, 32mo, 6^., 
leather, elastic-band. 
" For comprehensiveness the book has not its equal." Iron. 

Comprehensive Weight Calculator. 

THE WEIGHT CALCULATOR, being a Series of Tables 
upon a New and Comprehensive Plan, exhibiting at one Reference 
the exact Value of any Weight from lib. to 15 tons, at 300 Pro- 
gressive Rates, from I Penny to 168 Shillings per cwt., and con- 
taining 186,000 Direct Answers, which, with their Combinations, 
consisting of a single addition (mostly to be performed at sight), 
will afford an aggregate of 10,266,000 Answers ; the whole being 
calculated and designed to ensure Correctness and promote 
Despatch. By HENRV HARBEN, Accountant, Sheffield. New 
Edition. Royal 8vo, I/. 5-v. , strongly half-bound. 

Comprehensive Discount Guide. 

THE DISCOUNT GUIDE : comprising several Series of Tables 
for the use of Merchants, Manufacturers, Ironmongers, and others, 
by which may be ascertained the exact profit arising from any mode 
of using Discounts, either in the Purchase or Sale of Goods, and 
the method of either Altering a Rate of Discount, or Advancing a 
Price, so as to produce, by one operation, a sum that will realise 
any required profit after allowing one or more Discounts : to which 
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sion, &c., from | to 10 per cent. By HENRY HARBEN, Accountant. 
New Edition. Demy 8vo, I/. 5-r., half-bound. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 21 

SCIENCE AND ART. 
The Construction of the Organ. 

PRACTICAL ORGAN BUILDING. By W. E. DICKSON, 
M.A., Precentor of Ely Cathedral. Crown 8vo, $s. cloth. 
" In many respects the book is the best that has yet appeared on the subject. We 
cordially recommend it." English Mechanic. 

"Any practical amateur following the instructions here given might build an 
organ to his entire satisfaction." Leeds Mercury. 

Dentistry. 

MECHANICAL DENTISTRY. A Practical Treatise on the 
Construction of the various kinds of Artificial Dentures. Com- 
prising also Useful Formulae, Tables, and Receipts for Gold 
Plate, Clasps, Solders, etc., etc. By CHARLES HUNTER. With 
numerous Wood Engravings. Crown 8vo, *js. 6d. cloth. 
"The work is very practical." Monthly Review of Dental Surgery. 

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treatise to all students preparing: for the profession of dentistry, as well as to every 

mechanical dentist." Dublin^ Jouriial of Medical Science. {and Circular. 

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Brewing. 

A HANDBOOK FOR YOUNG BREWERS. By HERBERT 
EDWARDS WRIGHT, B. A. Crown 8vo, 3^. 6d. cloth. 

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Gold and Gold-Working. 

THE GOLDSMITH'S HANDBOOK : containing full instruc- 
tions for the Alloying and Working of Gold. Including the Art of 
Alloying, Melting, Reducing, Colouring, Collecting and Refining. 
The processes of Manipulation, Recovery of Waste, Chemical and 
Physical Properties of Gold, with a new System of Mixing its 
Alloys ; Solders, Enamels, and other useful Rules and Recipes, &c. 
By GEORGE E. GEE, Goldsmith and Silversmith. Second Edition, 
considerably enlarged. I2mo, 3^. 6d. cloth boards. 
" The best work yet printed on its subject for a reasonable price. ' Jeweller. 
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are peculiarly well adapted to his use." Clerkenwell Press. 

" Essentially a practical manual, well adapted to the wants of amateurs and 

apprentices, containing trustworthy information that only a practical man can 

supply." English, Mechanic. 

Silver and Silver Working. 

THE SILVERSMITH'S HANDBOOK, containing full In- 
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preparation of imitation alloys, &c. By GEORGE E. GEE, 
Jeweller, &c. I2mo, -$s. 6d. cloth boards. 

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supplies a want long felt in the silver trade." Silversmith's Trade Journal. 



22 WORKS IN SCIENCE AND ART, ETC., 

Electric Lighting. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT : Its Production and Use, embodying plain 
Directions for the Working of Galvanic Batteries, Electric Lamps, 
and Dynamo-Electric Machines. By J. W. URQUHART, C. E., 
Author of " Electroplating : a Practical Handbook." Edited by 
F. C. WEBB, M.I.C.E., M.S.T.E. With 94 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo, Js. 6d. cloth. 
" It is the only work at present available, which gives a general but concise history 

of the means which have been adopted up to the present time in producing the 

electi ic light. " Metropolitan. 

" An important addition to the literature of the electric light. Students of the 

subject should not fail to read it." Colliery Guardian. 

Electroplating, &c. 

ELECTROPLATING: A Practical Handbook. By J. W. 
URQUHART, C.E. Crown 8vo, 5.?. cloth. 

" A large amount of thoroughly practical information." Telegraphic Journal. 

"An excellent practical manual." Engineering. 

" The information given appears to be based on direct personal knowledge. . . . 
Its science is sound, and the style is always clear. " A thetusum. 

"Any ordinarily intelligent person may become an adept in electro-deposition 
with a very little science indeed, and this is the book to show him or her the way." 
Builder. 

" The volume is without a rival in its particular sphere." Design and Work. 

Electrotyping, &c. 

ELECTR.OTYPING : a Practical Manual on the Reproduction 

and Multiplication of Printing Surfaces and Works of Art by the 

Electro-deposition of Metals. By J. W. URQUHART, C.E. 

Crown 8vo, $s. cloth. \_Justpublished. 

" Will serve as a guide, not only to beginners in the art, but to those who still 

practise the old and imperfect methods of electrotyping." Iron. 

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ing them out. We have no hesitation in recommending it as a reliable work." 
Paper and Printing Trades Journal. 

The Military Sciences. 

AIDE-MEMOIRE to the MILITARY SCIENCES. Framed 
from Contributions of Officers and others connected with the dif- 
ferent Services. Originally edited by a Committee of the Corps of 
Royal Engineers. Second Edition, most carefully revised by an 
Officer of the Corps, with many additions ; containing nearly 350 
Engravings and many hundred Woodcuts. 3 vols. royal 8vo, extra 
cloth boards, and lettered, 4/. IQJ. 

Field Fortification. 

A TREATISE on FIELD FORTIFICATION, the ATTACK 
of FORTRESSES, MILITARY MINING, and RECON- 
NOITRING. By Colonel I. S. MACAULAY, late Professor of 
Fortification in the R. M. A., Woolwich. Sixth Edition, crown 
8vo, cloth, with separate Atlas of 12 Plates, 12s. complete. 

Dye- Wares and Colours. 

THE MANUAL of COLOURS and DYE- WARES : their 
Properties, Applications, Valuation, Impurities, and Sophistications. 
For the Use of Dyers, Printers, Drysalters, Brokers, c. By J. 
W. SLATER. Post 8vo, 7*. 6d. cloth. 



PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 23 



The Alkali Trade Sulphuric Acid, &c. 

A MANUAL OF THE ALKALI TRADE, including the 
Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid, Sulphate of Soda, and Bleaching 
Powder. By JOHN LOMAS, Alkali Manufacturer, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne and London. With 232 Illustrations and Working Draw- 
ings, and containing 386 pages of text. Super-royal 8vo, 
2.1 12s. 6d. cloth. [Just published. 

This work provides (i) a Complete Handbook for intending Alkali and Sulphuric 
Acid Manufacturers, and for those already in the field who desire to improve their 
plant, or to become practically acquainted with the latest processes and developments 
of the trade ; (2) a Handy Volume which Manufacturers can put into the hands of 
their Managers and Foremen as a useful guide in their daily rounds of duty. 

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. 



Chap. I. Choice of Site and General 
Plan of Works II. Sulphuric Acid- 
Ill. Recovery of the Nitrogen Com- 
pounds, and Treatment of Small Pyrites 
IV. The Salt Cake Process- V. Legis- 
lation upon the. Noxious Vapours Ques- 
tion VI. The Hargreaves' and Jones' 
Processes VII. The Balling Process 
VIII. Lixiviation and Salting Down 



IX. Carbonating or Finishing X. Soda 
Crystals XI. Refined Alkali XII. 
Causdc Soda XIII. Bi-carbonate of 
Soda XIV. Bleaching Powder XV. 
Utilisation ot Tank Waste XVI. General 
Remarks Four Appendices, treating of 
Yields, Sulphuric Acid Calculations, Ane- 
mometers, and Foreign Legislation upon 
the Noxious Vapours Question. 



"The author has given the fullest, most practical, and, to all concerned in the 
alkali trade, most valuable mass of information that, to our knowledge, has been 
published in any language." Engineer. 

" This book is written by a manufacturer for manufacturers. The working details 
of the most approved forms of apparatus are given, and these are accompanied by 
no less than 232 wood engravings, all of which may be used for the purposes of con- 
struction. Every step in the manufacture is very fully described in this manual, and 
each improvement explained. Everything which tends to introduce economy into 
the technical details of this trade receives the fullest attention. The book has been 
produced with great completeness." Athenceum. 

"The author is not one of those clever compilers who, on short notice, will 'read 
up" any conceivable subject, but a practical man in the best sense of the word. We 
find here not merely a sound and luminous explanation of the chemical principles of 
the trade, but a notice of numerous matters which have a most important bearing 
on the successiul conduct of alkali works, but which are generally overlooked by 
even the most experienced technological authors. This most valuable book, which 
we trust will be generally appreciated, we must pronounce a credit alike to its author 
and to the enterprising firm who have undertaken its publication." Chemical 
Re-view. 

Chemical Analysis* 

THE COMMERCIAL HANDBOOK of CHEMICAL ANA- 
LYSIS ; or Practical Instructions for the determination of the In- 
trinsic or Commercial Value of Substances used in Manufactures, 
in Trades, and in the Arts. By A. NORMANDY, Author of " Prac- 
tical Introduction to Rose's Chemistry," and Editor of Rose's 
"Treatise on Chemical Analysis." New Edition. Enlarged, and 
to a great extent re-written, by HENRY M. NOAD, Ph. D., F.R.S. 
With numerous Illustrations. Cr. 8vo, I2s. 6d. cloth. 

"We recommend this book to the careful perusal of every one ; it may be truly 
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guide, alike indispensable to the housewife as to the pharmaceutical practitioner. " 
Medical Times. 

" Essential to the analysts appointed under the new Act. The most recent results 
are given, and the work is well edited and carefully written. " Nature. 



24 WORKS IN SCIENCE AND ART, ETC., 

Dr. Lardners Museum of Science and Art. 

THE MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND ART. Edited by 
DiONYSlus LARDNER, D.C.L., formerly Professor of Natural Phi- 
losophy and Astronomy in University College, London. With up- 
wards of 1 200 Engravings on Wood. In 6 Double Volumes. 
Price i is., in a new and elegant cloth binding, or handsomely 
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OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

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PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 25 

Dr. Lardner s Handbooks of Natural Philosophy. 

%* The following five volumes, though each is Complete in itself, and to be pur- 
chased separately ; form A COMPLETE COURSE OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, and are 
intended for the general reader who desires to attain accurate knowledge of the 
de 



departments of Physical Science, "without pursuing' them according to the 
tnore profound methods of mathematical investigation. The style is studiously 
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the Student, the Engineer, the Artisan^ and the superior classes in Schools. 

THE HANDBOOK OF MECHANICS. Enlarged and almost 
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tions. Post 8vo, 6s. cloth. 

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THE HANDBOOK of HYDROSTATICS and PNEUMATICS. 

New Edition, Revised and Enlarged by BENJAMIN LOEWY, 

F.R.A.S. With 236 Illustrations. Post 8vo, 5^. cloth. 
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THE HANDBOOK OF HEAT. Edited and almost entirely 

Rewritten by BENJAMIN LOEWY, F.R.A.S., etc. 117 Illustra- 

tions. Post 8vo, 6s. cloth. 

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THE HANDBOOK OF OPTICS. New Edition. Edited by 

T. OLVER HARDING, B. A. 298 Illustrations. Post 8vo, 5.!-. cloth. 

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illustrated. "Mechanics' Magazine. 

THE HANDBOOK OF ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, and 
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work to the present state of scientific knowledge." Popular Science Review. 

Dr. Lardner s Handbook of Astronomy. 

THE HANDBOOK OF ASTRONOMY. Forming a Com- 
panion to the " Handbooks of Natural Philosophy." By DIONY- 
Sius LARDNER, D.C.L., formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy 
and Astronomy in University College, London. Fourth Edition. 
Revised and Edited by EDWIN DUNKIN, F. R.S., Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich. With 38 Plates and upwards of 100 Woodcuts. 
In I vol., small 8vo, 550 pages, Qs. 6d., cloth. 
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offered to the public." Athen&um. 

" We can do no other than pronounce this work a most valuable manual of astro- 

nomy, and we strongly recommend ii to all who wish to acquire a general but at 

the same time correct acquaintance with this sublime science."- Quarterly Journal 

of Science. 

Dr. Lardners Handbook of Animal Physics. 

THE HANDBOOK OF ANIMAL PHYSICS. By DR. 
LARDNER. With 520 Illustrations. New edition, small 8vo, 
cloth, 732 pages, 7-r. 6d. 
1 We have no hesitation in cordially recommending it." Educational Times,. 



26 WORKS IN SCIENCE AND ART, ETC., 

Dr. Lardners School Handbooks. 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY FOR SCHOOLS. By DR. LARDNER. 

328 Illustrations. Sixth Edition. I vol. y. 6d. cloth. 
" Conveys, in clear and precise terms, general notions of all the principal divisions 
of Physical Science." British Quarterly Review. 

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY FOR SCHOOLS. By DR. LARDNER. 

With 190 Illustrations. Second Edition. I vol. 3.5-. 6d. cloth. 
"Clearly written, well arranged, and excellently illustrated." Gardeners' Chronicle. 

Dr. Lardners Electric. Telegrapk. 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. By DR. LARDNER. New 
Edition. Revised and Re- written, by E. B. BRIGHT, F.R. A. S. 
140 Illustrations. Small 8vo, 2s. 6d. cloth. 
" One of the most readable books extant on the Electric Telegraph." Eng. Mechanic. 

Electricity. 

A MANUAL of ELECTRICITY ; including Galvanism, Mag- 
netism, Diamagnetism, Electro -Dynamics, Magneto- Electricity, and 
the Electric Telegraph. By HENRY M. NOAD, Ph.D., F.C.S. 
Fourth Edition, with 500 Woodcuts. 8vo, I/. 4^. cloth. 
" The accounts given of electricity and galvanism are not onlycomplete in a scientific 
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Text-Book of Electricity. 

THE STUDENT'S TEXT-BOOK OF ELECTRICITY. By 
HENRY M. NOAD, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. New Edition, care- 
fully Revised. With an Introduction and Additional Chapters 
by W. H. PREECE, M.I.C.E., Vice-President of the Society of 
Telegraph Engineers, &c. With 470 Illustrations. Crown Svo, 
I2s. 6d. cloth. 

"A reflex of the existing state of Electrical Science adapted for students." 
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" An admirable text-book for every student beginner or advanced of electricity." 
Engineering: 

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can have. Mr. Preece appears to have introduced all the newest inventions in the shape 
of telegraphic, telephonic, and electric-lighting apparatus." English Mechanic. 
"The work contains everything that the student can require." Academy. 
" One of the best and most useful compendiums of any branch of science in our 
literature." Iron. 

" Under the editorial hand of Mr. Preece the late Dr. Noad's text book of elec- 
tricity has grown into an admirable handbook." Westminster Re-view. 

Carriage Building, &c. 

COACH BUILDING : a Practical Treatise, Historical and 
Descriptive, containing full information of the various Trades and 
Processes involved, with Hints on the proper Keeping of Carriages, 
&c. With 57 Illustrations. By JAMES W. BURGESS. i2mo, 3,5-. 
cloth boards. \_Just published. 

Geology and Genesis. 

THE TWIN RECORDS OF CREATION ; or, Geology and 
Genesis, their Perfect Harmony and Wonderful Concord. By 
GEORGE W. VICTOR LEVAUX. Fcap. 8vo, $s. cloth. 

" A valuable contribution to the evidences of revelation, and disposes very conclu- 
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PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 27 

Science and Scripture. 

SCIENCE ELUCIDATIVE OF SCRIPTURE, AND NOT 
ANTAGONISTIC TO IT ; being a Series of Essays on I. 
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Figure of the Earth ; 3. The Mosaic Cosmogony ; 4. Miracles in 
general Views of Hume and Powell ; 5. The Miracle of Joshua 
Views of Dr. Colenso : The Supernaturally Impossible ; 6. The 
Age of the Fixed Stars, &c. By Prof. J. R. YOUNG. Fcap. 5^. cl. 

Geology. 

A CLASS-BOOK OF GEOLOGY: Consisting of "Physical 
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and "Historical Geology," which treats of the Mineral and Organic 
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being made to the British Series of Rocks. By RALPH TATE. 
With more than 250 Illustrations. Fcap. 8vo, 5-r. cloth. 

Practical Philosophy. 

A SYNOPSIS OF PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY. By Rev. 
JOHN CARR, M.A., late Fellow of Trin. Coll., Camb. iSmo, $s. cl. 

Mollusca. 

A MANUAL OF THE MOLLUSCA ; being a Treatise on 
Recent and Fossil Shells. By Dr. S. P. WOODWARD, A.L.S. 
With Appendix by RALPH TATE, A.L.S., F.G.S. With numer- 
ous Plates and 300 Woodcuts. 3rd Edition. Cr. 8vo, Js. 6d. cloth. 

Clocks, Watches, and Bells. 

RUDIMENTARY TREATISE on CLOCKS, and WATCHES, 
and BELLS. By Sir EDMUND BECKETT, Bart, (late E. B. 
Denison), LL.D., Q.C., F.R.A.S. Sixth edition, revised and en- 
larged. Limp cloth (No. 67, Weale's Series), 4^. 6d.; cloth bds. $s. 6d. 

"Asa popular and practical treatise it is unapproached. " English Mechanic. 

"The best work on the subject probably extant. The treatise on bells is un- 
doubtedly the best in the language. "-E ngineering. 

"The only modern treatise on clock-making." Horological Journal, 

Grammar of Colouring. 

A GRAMMAR OF COLOURING, applied to Decorative 
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larged. By ELLIS A. DAVIDSON. With new Coloured Diagrams 
and Engravings. I2mo, 3^. 6d. cloth. 
" The book is a most useful resume of the properties of pigments." Builder. 

Pictures and Painters. 

THE PICTURE AMATEUR'S HANDBOOK AND DIC- 
TIONARY OF PAINTERS : A Guide for Visitors to Picture 
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Copyists and Imitators. By PHILIPPE DARYL, B. A. Cr.8vo,3J.6^.cl. 

Woods and Marbles (Imitation of). 

SCHOOL OF PAINTING FOR THE IMITATION OF 
WOODS AND MARBLES, as Taught and Practised by A. R. 
and P. VAN DER BURG, Directors of the Rotterdam Painting 
Institution. Illustrated with 24 full-size Coloured Plates ; also 
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28 WORKS IN SCIENCE AND ART, ETC., 

Delamotte's Works on Illumination & Alphabets. 

A PRIMER OF THE ART OF ILLUMINATION ; for the 
use of Beginners : with a Rudimentary Treatise on the Art, Prac- 
tical Directions for its Exercise, and numerous Examples taken 
from Illuminated MSS., printed in Gold and Colours. By F. DELA- 
MOTTE. Small 4to, qs. Elegantly bound, cloth antique. 
"The examples of ancient MSS. recommended to the student, which, with much 

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judgment and knowledge, as well as taste." Athenceum. 

ORNAMENTAL ALPHABETS, ANCIENT and MEDIAEVAL ; 
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PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 29 



AGRICULTURE, GARDENING, ETC. 
Youatt and Burn's Complete Grazier. 

THE COMPLETE GRAZIER, and FARMER'S and CATTLE- 
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By WILLIAM YOUATT, ESQ., V.S. I2th Edition, very con- 
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volume, 860 pp. with 244 Illustrations. I/. \s. half-bound. 

" The standard and text-book, with the farmer and grazier." Farmer's Magazine. 

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History, Structure, and Diseases of Sheep. 

SHEEP ; THE HISTORY, STRUCTURE, ECONOMY, 
AND DISEASES OF. By W. C. SPOONER, M.R.V.C., &c. 

Fourth Edition, with fine engravings, including specimens of New 
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Production of Meat. 

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Modern Farming. 

OUTLINES OF MODERN FARMING. By R. SCOTT BURN. 
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known Vegt table and Herb, etc. By GEORGE M. F. GLENNY. 
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Management of Estates and Farms. 

LANDED ESTATES AND FARM MANAGEMENT. By 
R, SCOTT BURN, With Illustrations. Consisting of the above 
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English Agriculture. 

THE FIELDS OF GREAT BRITAIN. A Text-book of 
Agriculture, adapted to the Syllabus of the Science and Art 
Department. For Elementary and Advanced Students. By 
HUGH CLEMENTS (Board of Trade). With an Introduction by 
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" A clearly written description of the ordinary routine of English farm-life.'' Land. 
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FRUIT TREES, the Scientific and Profitable Culture of. From 
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Good Gardening. 

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Grounds, &c. By S. WOOD. Third Edition. Cr. 8vo, $s. cloth. 

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Houses, so as to realise ^176 per annum clear Profit. By SAMUEL 
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Bulb Culture. 

THE BULB GARDEN, or, How to Cultivate Bulbous and 
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ing Plants. By SAMUEL WOOD. i2mo, 2s. 6d. cloth. 

Tree Planting, Pruning, & Plant Propagation. 

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POTATOES, HOW TO GROW AND SHOW THEM. A 
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Potato. By JAMES PINK. With Illustrations. Cr. 8vo, 2s. cl. 

Hudson s Tables for Land Valuers. 

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32 WORKS PUBLISHED BY CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO. 

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No ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, ETC. 

16.' ARCHITECTURE ORDERS The Orders and their Esthetic 
Principles. By W. H. LEEDS. Illustrated, is. 6d. 

17. ARCHITECTURE STYLES The History and Description of 

the Styles of Architecture of Various Countries, from the Earliest to the 
Present Period. By T. TALBOT BURY, F.R.I. B.A., &c. Illustrated, zs. 
*#* ORDERS AND STYLES OF ARCHITECTURE, in One Vol., 3$. 6d. 

1 8. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN The Principles of Design in 

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*** The three preceding Works, in One handsome Vol., half bound t entitled 
" MODERN ARCHITECTURE," price 6s. 

22. THE ART OF BUILDING, Rudiments of. General Principles 

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Working Drawings, Specifications, and Estimates. By E. DOBSON, as.t 

23. BRICKS AND TILES, Rudimentary Treatise on the Manufac- 

ture of; containing an Outline of the Principles of Brickmaking. By EDW. 
DOBSON, M.R.I.B.A. With Additions by C. TOMLINSON, F.R.S. Illustrated, 334 
25. MASONRY AND STONECUTTING, Rudimentary Treatise 
on ; in which the Principles of Masonic Projection and their application to 
the Construction of Curved Wing- Walls, Domes, Oblique Bridges, and 
Roman and Gothic Vaulting, are concisely explained. By EDWARD DOBSON, 
M.R.I.B.A., &c. Illustrated with Plates and Diagrams. 2S. 6d.* 

44. FOUNDATIONS AND CONCRETE WORKS, a Rudimentary 

Treatise on ; containing a Synopsis of the principal cases of Foundation 
Works, with the usual Modes of Treatment, and Practical Remarks on 
Footings, Planking, Sand, Concrete, Beton, Pile-driving, Caissons, and 
Cofferdams. By E. DOBSON, M.R.I.B.A., &c. Fourth Edition, revised by 
GEORGE DODD, C.E. Illustrated, is. 6d. 
42. COTTAGE BUILDING. By C. BRUCE ALLEN, Architect. 

Ninth Edition, revised and enlarged. Numerous Illustration?, is. 6d. 

45. LIMES, CEMENTS, MORTARS, CONCRETES, MASTICS, 

PLASTERING, &c. By G. R. BURNELL, C.E. Eleventh Edition, is. 6d. 
57. WARMING AND VENTILATION, a Rudimentary Treatise 
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83**. CONSTRUCTION OF DOOR LOCKS. Compiled from the 
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and a Note upon IRON SAFES by ROBERT MALLET, M.I.C.E. Illus. 2s. 6d. 
in. ARCHES, PIERS, BUTTRESSES, &<;. : Experimental Essays 

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Architecture, Building, etc., continued. 
116. THE ACOUSTICS OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS; or, The 

Principles of the Science of Sound applied to the purposes of the Architect and 
Builder. By T. ROGER SMITH, M.R.I.B.A., Architect. Illustrated, is. 6d. 
1.24. CONSTRUCTION OF ROOFS, Treatise on the, as regards 
Carpentry and Joinery. Deduced from the Works of ROBISON, PRICE, and 
TREUGOLD. Illustrated, is. fid. 

127. ARCHITECTURAL MODELLING IN PAPER, the Art of. 

By T. A. RICHARDSON, Architect. Illustrated, is. 6d. 

128. VITRUVIUSTHE ARCHITECTURE OF MARCUS 

VITRUVIUS POLLO. In Ten Books. Translated from the Latin by 
JOSEPH GWILT, F.S.A., F.R.A.S. With 23 Plates. 53. 

130. GRECIAN ARCHITECTURE, An Inquiry into the Principles 
of Beauty in ; with an Historical View of the Rise and Progress of the Art in 
Greece. By the EARL OF ABERDEEN, is. 
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ARCHITECTURE," price 6s. 

s6, 17, 18, 128, and 130, in. One Vol., entitled " ANCIENT AND MODERN ARCHITEC- 
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132. DWELLING-HOUSES, a Rudimentary Treatise on the Erection 
of. Illustrated by a Perspective View, Plans, Elevations, and Sections f a 
pair of Semi-detached Villas, with the Specification, Quantities, and Esti- 
mates, and every requisite detail, in sequence, for their Construction and 
Finishing. By S. H. BROOKS, Architect. New Edition, with Plates. 2s. 6d.* 
1 56. QUANTITIES AND MEASUREMENTS, How to Calculate and 
Take them in Bricklayers', Masons', Plasterers', Plumbers', Painters', Paper- 
hangers', Gilders', Smiths', Carpenters', and Joiners' Work. By A. C. 
BEATON, Architect and Surveyor. New and Enlarged Edition. Illus. is. 6d. 

175. LOCKWOOD & CO:S BUILDER'S AND CONTRACTORS 

PRICE BOOK, for 1881, containing the latest Prices of all kinds of Builders' 
Materials and Labour, and of all Trades connected with Building : Lists of 
the Members of the Metropolitan Board of Works, of Districts, District 
Officers, and District Surveyors, and the Metropolitan Bye-laws. Edited by 
FRANCIS T. W. MILLER, Architect and Surveyor. 35. 6d. ; half bound, 45. 

182. CARPENTRY AND JOINERY THE ELEMENTARY PRIN- 
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THOMAS TREDGOLD, C.E. With Additions from the Works of the most 
Recent Authorities, and a TREATISE ON JOINERY by E. WYNDHAM 
TARN, M.A. Numerous Illustrations. 35. 6d.J 

182*. CARPENTRY AND JOINERY. ATLAS of 35 Plates to 
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cloth boards, ys. 6d. 

187. HINTS TO YOUNG ARCHITECTS. By GEORGE WIGHT- 

WICK. New, Revised, and enlarged Edition. By G. HUSKISSON GUILLAUMB, 
Architect. With numerous Woodcuts. 35. 6d.J 

1 88. HOUSE PAINTING, GRAINING, MARBLING, AND SIGN 

WRITING: A Practical Manual of, containing full information on the 
Processes of House-Painting, the Formation of Letters and Practice of 
Sign-Writing, the Principles of Decorative Art, a Course of Elementary 
Drawing for Hcmse-Paintera, Writers, &c., &c. With 9 Coloured Plates of 
Woods and Marbles, and nearly 150 Wood Engravings. By ELLIS A. 
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189. THE 5 ' RUDIMENTS OF PRACTICAL BRICKLAYING. 

In Six Sections : General Principles ; Arch Drawing, Cutting, and Setting ; 
Pointing; Paving, Tiling, Materials; Slating and Plastering; Practical 
Geometry, Mensuration, &c. By ADAM HAMMOND. Illustrated, is. 6d. 
191. PLUMBING. A Text-Book to the Practice of the Art or Craft of 
the Plumber. With Chapters upon House Drainage, embodying the latest 
Improvements. Third Edition, enlarged. Containing 300 Illustrations. 
By W. P. BUCHAN, Sanitary Engineer. 33. 6d.t 

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Architecture, Building, etc., continued. 

192. THE TIMBER IMPORTER'S, TIMBER MERCHANTS, 
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205. THE ART OF LETTER PAINTING MADE EASY. By 

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206. A BOOK ON BUILDING, Civil and Ecclesiastical, including 

CHURCH RESTORATION. With the Theory of Domes and the Great Pyramid, 
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CIVIL ENGINEERING, ETC. 

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29. THE DRAINAGE OF DISTRICTS AND LANDS. By G. 

DRYSDALE DEMPSEY, C.E. {New Edition in preparation. 

30. THE DRAINAGE OF TOWNS AND BUILDINGS. By 

G. DRYSDALE DEMPSEY, C.E. \_NewEditioninpreparation. 

31. WELL-DIGGING, BORING, AND PUMP- WORK. By JOHN 

GEORGE SWINDELL, A.R.I. B. A. New Edition, by G.R. BURNELL, C.E. is.6d. 

35. THE BLASTING AND QUARRYING OF STONE, for 
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By Gen. Sir JOHN BURGOYNE, Bart., K.C.B. Illustrated, is. 6d. 

62. RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION, Elementary and Practical In- 
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by EDWARD NUGENT, C.E. With Statistics of the Capital, Dividends, and 
Working of Railways in the United Kingdom. By E. D. CHATTAWAY. 43. 
80*. EMBANKING LANDS FROM THE SEA, the Practice of. 

Treated as a Means of Profitable Employment for Capital. With Examples 
and Particulars of actual Embankments, &c. By J. WIGGINS, F.G.S. 2s. 
81. WATER WORKS, for the Supply of Cities and Towns. With 

a Description of the Principal Geological Formations of England as in- 
fluencing Supplies of Water ; and Details of Engines and Pumping Machinery 
for raising Water. By SAMUEL HUGHES, F.G.S. , C.E. New Edition. 43. 

117. SUBTERRANEOUS SURVEYING, an Elementary and Prac- 

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1 1 8. CIVIL ENGINEERING IN NORTH AMERICA, a Sketch 

of. By DAVID STEVENSON, F.R.S.E., &c. Plates and Diagrams. 33. 

197. ROADS AND STREETS (THE CONSTRUCTION OF), 
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LAW, C.E., revised and condensed by D. KINNEAR CLARK, C.E. ; II. RECENT 
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203. SANITARY WORK IN THE SMALLER TOWNS AND IN 
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book for Members of Local Boards and Rural Sanitary Authorities, Health 
Officers, Engineers, Surveyors, &c. By CHARLES SLAGG, A.I.C.E. 2s. 6d.l 

212. THE CONSTRUCTION OF GAS-WORKS, and the Mann- 

facture and Distribution of Coal Gas. Originally written by SAMUHL 
HUGHES, C.E. Sixth Edition, re-written and much Enlarged by WILLIAM 
RICHARDS, C.E. With 72 Illustrations. 45. Cd.t \_Jtistpublished. 

213. PIONEER ENGINEERING. A Treatise on the Engineering 

Operations connected with the Settlement of Waste Lands in New Coun- 
tries. By EDWARD DOBSON, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 45. 6d.i 

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ETC. 

33. CRANES, the Construction of, and other Machinery for Raising 

Heavy Bodies for the Erection of Buildings, and for Hoisting Goods. By 
JOSEPH GLYNN, F.R.S., &c. Illustrated, is. 6d. 

34. THE STEAM ENGINE, a Rudimentaiy Treatise on. By Dr. 

LARDNER. Illustrated, is. 6d. 
59. STEAM BOILERS : their Construction and Management. By 

R. ARMSTRONG, C.E. Illustrated, is. 6d. 
67. CLOCKS, WATCHES, AND BELLS, a Rudimentary Treatise 

on. By Sir EDMUND BECKETT (late EDMUND BECKETT DENISON), LL.D., Q.C. 

A New, Revised, and considerably Enlarged Edition (the 6th), with very 

numerous Illustrations. 45. 6d. cloth limp ; 55. 6d. cloth boards, gilt. 

82. THE POWER OF WATER, as applied to drive Flour Mills, 

and to give motion to Turbines and other Hydrostatic Engines. By JOSEPH 

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139. THE STEAM ENGINE, a Treatise on the Mathematical Theory 

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162. THE BRASS FOUNDER'S MANUAL; Instructions for 

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164. MODERN WORKSHOP PRACTICE, as applied to Marine, 

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1 66. POWER IN MOTION: Horse-Power, Toothed- Wheel Gearing, 

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167. IRON BRIDGES, GIRDERS, ROOFS, AND OTHER 

WORKS. By FRANCIS CAMPIN, C.E. as. 6d4 
171. THE WORKMAN'S MANUAL OF ENGINEERING 

DRAWING. By JOHN MAXTON, Engineer. Fourth Edition. Illustrated 

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190. STEAM AND THE STEAM ENGINE, Stationary and ' 

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By D. K. CLARK, M.I. C.E. Second Edition, revised. 35. 6d.J 
200. FUEL, its Combustion and Economy. By C. W. WILLIAMS, 

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217. SEWING MACHINERY, being a Practical Manual of the 

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223. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, A Practical Treatise on. 
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53*. SHIPS FOR OCEAN AND RIVER SERVICE, Elementary 
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53**. AN ATLAS OF ENGRA VINGS to Illustrate the above. Twelve 

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54. MASTING, MAST-MAKING, AND RIGGING OF SHIPS, 

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54*. IRON SHIPBUILDING. With Praetical Examples and Details 
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54**. AN ATLAS OF FORTY PLATES to Illustrate the above. 

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55. THE SAILOR'S SEA BOOK: a Rudimentary Treatise on 

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99. NAVIGATION AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY, in Theory 
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100*. TABLES intended to facilitate the Operations of Navigation and 
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155. THE ENGINEER'S GUIDE TO THE ROYAL AND 
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72. MANUAL OF THE MOLLUSCA ; a Treatise on Recent and 
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96. ASTRONOMY. By the Rev. R. MAIN, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

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138. TELEGRAPH, Handbook of the; a Manual of Telegraphy, 
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143. EXPERIMENTAL ESSAYS. By CHARLES TOMLINSON. 

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173. PHYSICAL GEOLOGY, partly based on Major-General PORT- 

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133. METALLURGY OF COPPER ; an Introduction to the Methods 

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134. METALLURGY OF SILVER AND LEAD. A Description 

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135. ELECTRO-METALLURGY; Practically Treated. By ALEX- 

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172. MINING TOOLS, Manual of. For the Use of Mine Managers, 

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172*. MINING TOOLS, ATLAS of Engravings to Illustrate the above, 
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176. METALLURGY OF IRON. Containing History of Iron Manu- 
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1 80. COAL AND COAL MINING, A Rudimentary Treatise on. 

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195. THE MINERAL SURVEYOR AND VALUER'S COM- 
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214. SLATE AND SLATE QUARRYING, Scientific, Practical, and 

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215. THE GOLDSMITH'S HANDBOOK, containing full Instruc- 

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22$. THE SILVERSMITH'S HANDBOOK, containing full In- 
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220. MAGNETIC SURVEYING, AND ANGULAR SURVEY- 
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20. PERSPECTIVE FOR BEGINNERS. Adapted to Young 
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40 GLASS STAINING ; or, The Art of Painting on Glass. From 
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69. MUSIC, A Rudimentary and Practical Treatise on. With 

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71. PIANOFORTE, The Art of Playing the. With numerous Exer- 
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181. PAINTING POPULARLY EXPLAINED, including Fresco, 

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Sketches of the Progress of the Art by THOMAS JOHN GULLICK, assisted by 
JOHN TIMES, F.S.A. Fourth Edition, revised and enlarged. 554 
186. A GRAMMAR OF COLOURING, applied to Decorative 
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adapted to the Use of the Ornamental Painter and Designer. By ELLIS A. 

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29. THE DRAINAGE OF DISTRICTS AND LANDS. By 

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66. CLAY LANDS &> LOAMY SOILS. By Prof. DONALDSON, is. 
131. MILLER'S, MERCHANT'S, AND FARMER'S READY 

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141. FARMING <5r- FARMING ECONOMY, Notes, Historical and 

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142. STOCK; CATTLE, SHEEP, AND HORSES. (Vol. 3. 

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145. DAIRY, PIGS, AND POULTRY, Management of the. By 

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146. UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE, IRRIGATION, AND 

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198. SHEEP; THE HISTORY, STRUCTURE, ECONOMY, AND 
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201. KITCHEN GARDENING MADE EASY. Showing how to 

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207. OUTLINES OF FARM MANAGEMENT, and the Organi- 

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Animals. By ROBERT SCOTT BURN. as. 6d.J [Just published. 

208. OUTLINES OF LANDED ESTATES MANAGEMENT. - 

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Houses, Pits, &c. By SAMUEL WOOD. as.J [Just published. 

210. THE TREE PRUNER: Being a Practical Manual on the 

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forming a complete Calculator and Ready-Reckoner, especially adapted to 

persons connected with Agriculture. Third Edition. By JOHN STEELE. as. 
222. SUBURBAN FARMING. The Laying-out and Cultivation of 

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and Pigs. By the late Prof. JOHN DONALDSON. With Additions by 

R. SCOTT BURN. Second Edition. 35. 6d.t [Just published. 

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60. LAND AND ENGINEERING SURVEYING, a Treatise on; 
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trated with Plates and Diagrams. 2S.t 

61*. READY RECKONER FOR THE ADMEASUREMENT OF 
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Tables for the Valuation of Land, from is. to 1,000 per acre, and from one 
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^.DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY, an Elementary Treatise on; 
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G. MONGE. To which is added, a description of the Principles and Practice 
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Application of Descriptive Geometry to various branches of the Arts. By 
J. F. HKATHER, M.A. Illustrated with 14 Plates, as. 

178. PRACTICAL PLANE GEOMETRY: giving the Simplest 

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179. PROJECTION : Orthographic, Topographic, and Perspective: 

giving the various Modes of Delineating Solid Forms by Constructions on a 
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%* The above three volumes -will form a COMPLETE ELEMENTARY COURSE OF 
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83. COMMERCIAL BOOK-KEEPING. With Commercial Phrases 

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84. ARITHMETIC, a Rudimentary Treatise on : with full Explana- 

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84*. A KEY to the above, containing Solutions in full to the Exercises, together 
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85. EQUATIONAL ARITHMETIC, applied to Questions of Interest, 
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86. ALGEBRA, the Elements of. By JAMES HADDON, M.A., 

Second Mathematical Master of King's College School. With Appendix, 
containing miscellaneous Investigations, and a Collection of Problems in 
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86*. A KEY AND COMPANION to the above Book, forming an extensive repository of 
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90. ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY AND CONIC SECTIONS, 

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91. PLANE TRIGONOMETRY, the Elements of. By JAMES 

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