(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Modern_Mysore"

Chamaraja Wodeyar X. 



Dr. B. R. AMBEDKAR 
OPEN UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 

HYDERABAD-500 033 



Dr. B.R. AMBEDKAR OPEN UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARY 



CallNo. H Accession No. 

Author: 

Title 



This book should be returned on or before the date 
last marked below. 



DEDICATED 

to the revered memory of 
CHAMARAJA WODEYAR X. Maharaja of Mysore, 

who first made ihe experiment of a constitutional 

form of Government for an Indian State a success, and 

in the hands of whose son 

HIS HIGHNESS KRISHNARAJA WODEYAR IV. 

the present MAHARAJA, 
it has received great development. 



PREFACE. 



In this volume is comprehended the story of modern Mysore 
from 1868 to the present time. If Bowring came hack to life and 
took a survey of Mysore, it would not be far from truth to say that 
he would find the Mysore Administration developed more largely on 
the British model than when he left the country. Similarly, if 
Sir James Gordon revisited the earth, he would find that what was 
regarded in his time as only an experiment in constitutional 
government in the hands of Indians is no more so, but has 
practically established itself as a successful reality, though not in 
the exact form generally associated with it in other countries. It is 
true that the expression ' Constitutional Government ' has not the 
same meaning in Mysore as it has, for instance, in England. This 
constitutional government in Mysore cannot be attributed to any 
struggle between the sovereigns of the country and its people, but 
is the outcome of a spontaneous desire on the part of Chamaraja 
Wodeyar X, the first Ruler of Mysore after the Rendition in 1881, 
and of his son and successor the present Maharaja Krishnaraja 
Wodeyar IV, to share the responsibilities of government with the 
people of the State. Whether in taxation or legislation or in any 
important administrative measure, the people may be said to possess 
an effective voice to influence the final decisions of Government. 
Rarely are the wishes of the representatives of the people as 
expressed in the two constitutional assemblies the Representative 
Assembly and the Legislative Council are overriden, unless the 
ministers of the Maharaja can place a clearly convincing case 
before His Highness. The ministers themselves being generally 
the inhabitants of the State and being affected by the operations of 
any measure that may be introduced in the same manner as the 
rest of the people, few occasions arise for radical differences of 
opinion between them and the people to cause embarrassment to 
the sovereign who, in the existing political circumstances of the 
country, cannot divest himself of the final voice with which he is 
invested, A perusal of the chapters of this volume will 



confirm the truth of this statement. These happy results, it must 
be acknowledged, are as much due to the care bestowed on and 
the solicitude evinced in the imparting of suitable education and 
proper political training to their wards Chamaraja Wodeyar X and 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV by the British Government during the 
period of their minority, as to the naturally good instincts possessed 
by these two rulers. It may also be noted that the value of the 
experiment of a constitutional form of government in Mysore 
transcends the limits of the State, as the hope expressed by the 
Government of India that such a form of government, if successful, 
would serve as a model for other Indian States may be said to have 
been substantially realised. 

In conclusion, I repeat my obligations to all those whose 
names have been mentioned in the previous volume Sir Mirza 
Ismail and Messrs. Ranganatha Rao Sahib, T. V. A. Iswaran, 
N. Madhava Rao, A. V. Ramanathan, T. R. A. Thumboo Chetty, 

B. T. Kesava lyengar, R. Ranga Rao, M. Seshadri, M. Rama 
Rao, H. V. Ramaswamy, A, K. Syed Taj Peeran, K. Mylari Rao, 
Amildar K. Seshagiri Rao as well as to C. M. Cariapa and 

C. E. Noronha. 

In the preparation of this volume also, I have to repeat 
that my obligations are due to my assistant Mr. B. M. Gopala 
Rao, B.A. (Hons.), for the very valuable help he has given me. 

Messrs. Higginbothams are again entitled to my thanks for 
their neat execution of this volume also. 

BANGALORE, M. SHAMA RAO. 

September 1936. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 
CHAPTER I. Installation of Chamaraja Wodeyar X. 1 to 12 

CHAPTER II. Fresh arrangements connected with the 

Palace ... ... ... ... 13 to 19 

CHAPTER III. Closing years of the British Com- 

ERRATA. 

Page 304. Line 14 from top For * Mysore* read ' Madras.' 
Page 384. Line 20 from top For ' clear 1 read * cleaner. 1 



CHAPTER VI. Re-settlement of political relations with 

the British Government ... ... 43 to 53 

CHAPTER VII. Re-settlement of political relations 
with the British Government (Continued I An 
experiment in constitutional government for 
Native States ... ... ... 54 to 58 

CHAPTER VIII. Investiture of Chamaraja Wodeyar 

with ruling powers ... ... ... 59 to 67 

CHAPTER IX. Economic, social and other conditions 
in Mysore about the period of the young 
Maharaja's assumption of power ... ... 68 to 73 

CHAPTER X. Establishment of a Representative 
Assembly Experiment of establishing Anglo- 
Indians and Eurasians in agricultural and 
industrial occupations Death of Rangacharlu... 74 to 81 

CHAPTER XI. Appointment of Sir K. Seshadri Iyer 
as Dewan Steps taken to improve the finances 
of the State ... ... ... 82 to 90 



iv 

PAGE. 
CHAPTER XII. More Judges for the Chief Court 

Revenue Code, Local Boards Bill Separate 
legislative branch in the Secretariat Some 
important Regulations including the Prevention 
of the Infant Marriage Regulation ... ... 91 to 98 

CHAPTER XIII. Improvement of administrative 
efficiency (Continued) Anche or local post 
Life Insurance Civil Service examination 
Status of village servants Offer of Imperial 
Service troops Revision of the State Council... 99 to 107 

CHAPTER XIV. Famine Policy Railways ... 108 to 114 

CHAPTER XV. Irrigation ... ... ... 115 to 121 

CHAPTER XVI. First agricultural and industrial 
Exhibition Special encouragement given to 
arecanut gardens Agricultural Banks En- 
couragement to industries Gold Mining Trade 
and development of communications Census of 
1891 ... ... ... ... 122 to 133 

CHAPTER XVII. Progress of education in general 
Special encouragement to women's education 
Oriental Library Archaeology Encouragement 
to native drama Chamaraja Wodeyar's catholi- 
city of mind ... ... ... 134 to 140 

CHAPTER XVIII. Four distinguished visitors Lord 
Dufferin, Prince Albert Victor, Lord Lansdowne 
and Field Marshal Sir George Wolsley (later 
Viscount), Commander-in-Chief ... ... 141 to 154 

CHAPTER XIX. The Representative Assembly and 

its growth ... ... ... ... 155 to 165 

CHAPTER XX. Tours of the Maharaja His last days. 166 to 170 

CHAPTER XXL The Maharani- Regent Reformed 
State Council Sir Seshadri Iyer continued as 
Dewan Visits of Lord Elgin and Lord Curzon. 171 to 174 



PAGE. 

CHAPTER XXII. Some useful measures introduced 
Construction of the Marikanave reservoir Re- 
construction of the Palace destroyed by fire 
First appearance of plague The Kaveri Electric 
Power scheme Diamond Jubilee of Queen 
Victoria Boer War Military Transport Corps 
Census of 1901 Sir Seshadri Iyer's retire- 
ment and death in 1901 Sir P. N. Krishna 
Murti appointed Dewan ... ... 175 to 185 

CHAPTER XXIII Termination of the Regency In- 
vestiture with power of H. H. Krishnaraja 
Wodeyar IV Edward VI Ts coronation in 
England ... ... ... ... 186 to 195 

CHAPTER XXIV. Form of the new Government in 

Mysore ... ... ... ... 196 to 201 

CHAPTER XXV. Maharaja's visit to Delhi for the 
Coronation Durbar Opens the Madras Exhibi- 
tion and visits Lord Ampthill, Governor of 
Madras Tours in the State Yuvaraja's illness 
at Ajmer Visits of Lord Kitchnerand H. R. H. 
the Prince of Wales Birthday and Dasara 
festivities ... ... ... ... 202 to 209 

CHAPTER XXVI. Various administrative improve- 
ments Mr. Kiernander's scrutiny of the finances 
of the State Educational progress Local 
Boards Regulation passed Revised scheme of 
tank restoration Ethnological investigations 
Electric illumination of Bangalore City Co- 
operative Societies Regulation The eccj 
conditions of the country as they 
opening years of the Maharaja's ru 

CHAPTER XXVIL Retirement of Sir 
Murti V, P. Madhava Rao and 
the next successors V. P. 
'gloomy view of the finances of 




vi 
r 

measures to establish equilibrium Change in 
the working of the State Council Railways 
Study of forestry Sericulture Mining Irri- 
gation Veterinary Department Abolition of 
Halat Establishment of a Legislative Council 
Tank Panchayet Completion of the Palace 
reconstruction The Kannambadi reservoir 
Formation of the Public Health Department 
Encouragement to Ayurvedic and Unani 
medicines The Newspaper Regulation The 
Co-operative Movement Economic Conference. 223 to 240 

CHAPTER XXVIII. Anniversary of Queen Victoria's 
Proclamation Visit of Lord and Lady Minto to 
the State Death of Edward VII Accession to 
the throne of George V Coronation Durbar at 
Delhi ... ... ... ... 241 to 246 

CHAPTER XXIX. Sir M. Visvesvaraya appointed 
Dewan Visit of Lord Hardinge and the treaty 
of 1913 ... ... ... ... 247 to 250 

CHAPTER XXX. Part played by Mysore in the Ger- 
man War ... ... ... ... 251 to 260 

CHAPTER XXXI. Fresh railway construction Deve- 
lopment of electric power and Kaveri arbitration 
Jury System Separation of magisterial from 
executive functions Reform of the Legislative 
Council Fresh financial scrutiny ... ... 261 to 269 

CHAPTER XXXII. Economic Conference Establish- 
ment of the Mysore Bank Sandal Oil Factory 
Soap ^Eactory Commercial and industrial 
activities Climber of Commerce Bhadravathi 
Iron Works Sericulture Agricultural experi- 
ments Rural arid Malnad improvements 
Educational improvements A University for 
Mysore ... ... ... ... 270 to 280 

t COPTER XXXIII. Local Self-Government ... 281 to 286 



vii 

PAGE. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. Aftermath of the war Food 
control Retirement of Sir M. Visvesvaraya and 

appointment of Sir M. Kantaraj Urs Mr. A. R. 
Banerji acting Dewan during Sir M. Kantaraj 
Urs' illness Effects of food control Unsettle- 
ment of the State's finances Public loans of 
1920 Income-Tax Special finance com- 
mittee ... ... ... ... 287 to 294 

CHAPTER XXXV. Outbreak of influenza Education 
Development of Local Self-Government 
Industries and Commerce Sericulture ... 295 to 301 

CHAPTER XXXVL Wet assessment concessions 
Encouragement to coffee industry The Bhadra- 
vathi Iron Works Krishnarajasagara Hydro- 
Electric Works The Co-operative Committee 
Tank Restoration The Public Service and the 
Backward Communities The problem of un- 
employment Railways Unprecedented floods.. 302 to 309 

CHAPTER XXXVII. Representative Assembly and 

Legislative Council reforms ... ...310 to 315 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. The Seal Committee Report on 

constitutional reforms ... ... ... 316 to 330 

CHAPTER XXXIX. Inauguration by the Maharaja of 
the reformed Legislative Council and the Repre- 
sentative Assembly ... ... ... 331 to 336 

CHAPTER XL. Distinguished visitors to Mysore 
Lord Chelmsford, Prince of Wales, the Earl of 
Reading and the Prince of Connaught ... 337 to 339 

CHAPTER XLI. Retirement of Sir A. R. Banerji 
Mr. Mirza Muhammad Ismail (afterwards Sir) 
appointed Dewan His policy enunciated 
Financial adjustments Taxation Enquiry 
Assets and Liabilities of the State Economic 
Depression Policy regarding public loans re- 
t$ted EJxcise Duty on notches 3nd sugar .., 340 to 345 



viU 

PAGE. 
CHAPTER XLII. Visit of Lord Irwin Reduction of 

subsidy by Rs. 10i lakhs Silver Jubilee ... 346 to 353 
CHAPTER XLIII. Views of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 354 to 367 

CHAPTER XLIV. The Maharaja as a pilgrim From 

Almora to Manasarowar ... ... 368 to 377 

CHAPTER XLV. The Maharaja as a pilgrim 
(Continued) From Manasarowar to Mount 
Kailas and return ... ... ... 378 to 386 

CHAPTER XLVI. Census of 1931 Measures for 
encouraging trade and manufacture Revival of 
Dasara Exhibition Deputation of Mr. N. 
Madhava Rao to England A Trade Commis- 
sioner in England for Mysore Sericultural 
developments The Dasara Exhibition of 1935... 387 to 396 

CHAPTER XL VI I. Various measures tending to the 
increase of material prosperity Gold Mining 
Bhadravathi Iron Works Extension of electric 
power Railways Irrigation Establishment of 
a Sugar Factory Agreement with the Madras 
Government ... ... ... 397 to 407 

CHAPTER XLVIII. Measures relating to agriculture 
Record of Rights Improvement of live-stock 
and veterinary aid Unemployment and Bhadra 
agricultural colony The economic position of 
the agriculturists during this period ... 408 to 416 

CHAPTER XLIX. Sanitation, Public Health and 

Rural Improvements ... ... ... 417 to 422 

CHAPTER L. Education Local Self -Government 
The Representative Assembly and the Legislative 
Council ... ... ... .. 423 to 429 

CHAPTER LI. Two important legislative measures : 
Workmen's Compensation- Regulation and the 
Regulation to amend the Hindu Law as to the 
* rights of women w4 iu certain other directions,,. 430 to 43$ 



ix 

PAGE. 
CHAPTER LII. Visit of Lord Willingdon to Mysore 

Abrogation of the Article 18 of the Treaty of 

1913 Death of the Maharani late Regent ... 437 to 441 

CHAPTER LIII. Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms 
Constitution of the Chamber of Princes The 
Butler Commission and its report ... 442 to 446 

CHAPTER LIV. The Simon Commission ... 447 to 450 

CHAPTER LV. Conference at Bangalore preliminary 

to the Round Table Conference ... ... 451 to 454 

CHAPTER LVI. The first Round Table Conference... 455 to 465 

CHAPTER LVIL The Second and Third Round 

Table Conferences ... ... ... 466 to 469 

CHAPTER LVIII. The proposals of the White Paper 
and their consideration by a Joint Parliamentary 
Committee ... ... ... 470 to 477 

CHAPTER LIX. The Government of India Act of 1935 
as passed by Parliament Sir Mirza Ismail, Lord 
Willingdon and Lord Linlithgow on its future 
working ... ... ... ... 478 to 483 

CHAPTER LX. The Mysore State and Federal 
India Settlement of certain issues prior to its 
accession to the Federation ... 484 to 491 

Appendix ... ... ... ... 493 to 497 



CHAPTER!. 

Installation of Chamaraja Wodeyar X. 

It was customary with the Mysore royal family that after the 
completion of the funeral ceremonies of a deceased Maharaja the 
coronation of his successor should take place without much interval 
of time. The ceremony of seating the young Prince on the throne 
should therefore have followed about the middle of April 1868. 
But beyond the proclamations published by the Commissioner no 
further action leading to the installation was taken. This inaction 
caused considerable anxiety not only to the Ranees in the Palace 
but also to the other relatives of the Maharaja as well as the 
general public. It was pressed on the attention of Bowring by the 
leading people of the country that the usual coronation ceremony 
should take place, so that at the ensuing Dasara His Highness 
might seat himself on the historic throne of Mysore and receive the 
homage due to his position from his subjects. It was also urged on 
the Commissioner that as the representative of Her Majesty's 
Government he should attend the installation ceremony which 
was to be marked with all the solemnity as was associated on the 
occasion of the installation of Krishnaraja Wodeyar in 1799. 

Bowring, however, considered it advisable previously to 
consult the Government of India on the matter and accordingly 
applied on the 7th May 1868 for instructions. In doing so, he wrote 
that as the young Maharaja was a ward as well as a minor if he 
was placed on the throne at that time possibly future complications 
might arise as to the extent of his rights and jurisdiction which had 
been left undefined being subject to decision in the future. He also 
considered that there was no strict analogy between the proposed 
installation of the young Maharaja and the installation of 1799 and 
that the present Maharaja could not as a ward be permitted to be 
enthroned until the British Government was satisfied of his 
competency to discharge worthily the important duties that would 
devolve on him. 

The Government of India on their part referred the question 
on the 12th June to the Secretary of State desiring to have 



9. pronouncement of the Home Government on the subject. 
In this communication the Government of India expressed their 
own opinion in these terms : " Having regard to the views 
expressed in your despatch, dated 16th April 1867, it appears to us 
that until the Maharaja attains his majority and is found qualified 
for Government and until the terms on which the administration 
will be made over and the conditions of the new treaties are 
arranged, anything like a formal installation would be premature 
and out of place/* 

Meanwhile, there was considerable solicitude in the minds of 
the people of Mysore as to the value of the proclamation published 
relating to the recognition of the young Maharaja as successor to 
the throne of Mysore, so much so that there was danger of the 
proclamation being regarded as a mere scrap of paper. The Dasara 
festival also was not far distant when according to the family 
custom the Raja was to show himself to his subjects seated on his 
throne. On the 10th of August the two Ranees addressed a 
communication to the Commissioner pointing out in view of the 
approaching Dasara the urgent need of procuring a reply regarding 
the performance of the installation ceremony, so that there might be 
no* break in that long observed custom. On the 19th September 
following Major Elliot, Superintendent of the Ashtagram Division 
and Officer in charge of palace duties, waited on the Ranees and 
announced to them the message he had received from the Commis- 
sioner conveying the consent of the British Government for the 
performance of the installation ceremony of the young Maharaja. 
The Government in England had read the situation more correctly 
than either the Government of India or the Commissioner of Mysore 
inasmuch as they considered that recognition by mere proclamation 
would be incomplete and that a formal ceremony of installation 
was needed to inspire confidence in the sincerity of the 
intentions of the British Government. The date on which this 
announcement was made corresponded to the 5th day of the Dasara 
festival and at once removed the gloom that had been felt every- 
where by the suspension of the public performance of this annual 
pageant. The news at once spread in the town and there were 
general rejoicings with a distribution of sugar to the people in all 



the streets of Mysore. Later in the day the leading townspeople 
sought an interview with the young Maharaja and presented fruits 
and garlands. After this function was over, Bakshi Narasappa and 
other important officials of the Palace visited Major Elliot at his 
residence and presented him fruits and garlands as a token of 
thankfulness and joy on the part of the royal family for the happy 
message coqveyed. On the 22nd September Bowring came to 
Mysore and on the next day corresponding to the 7th day of the 
Dasara at 12 noon the installation ceremony took place in a 
specially erected pandal in the inner quadrangle of the Palace. 
Even though the interval for making arrangements was very short, 
all the leading men were assembled with a number of Europeans 
also. After the religious ceremonies were finished, Bowring and 
Elliot holding the hands of the young Prince seated him on the 
throne when three volleys of musketry and a royal salute were 
fired. The Maharaja was pelted with a storm of flowers from every 
side and the large assembly testified by shouts and clapping of 
hands their satisfaction. The family priest next pronounced 
benedictory prayers and offered to His Highness water from several 
sacred streams with other consecrated articles. On these initiatory 
ceremonies being completed, the genealogy of the royal family was 
read out aloud and on its termination the spearmen rattled their 
spears, the band struck up, and the building resounded with the 
shouts and cheers of the people. Bowring then proceeded to 
present to the Maharaja on the part of the Viceroy a khillat 
of 21 trays fastening a piece of jewellery round His Highness* 
neck and a similar khillat was submitted through him for 
the Viceroy's acceptance. The Rajbindies and officials then each 
in turn presented their nazars and the ceremony concluded with the 
customary offering of pansupari and garlands of flowers. In the 
evening there was the usual durbar and continued daily during 
the whole of the Dasara festival. 

In this connection the account given by Mrs. Bowring in a 
letter to a friend from the time she left Bangalore with her husband 
till she returned is so graphic and replete with interesting details 
that no apology is needed to reproduce it here, though somewhat long, 



" On Saturday, September 19, a telegram was received from 
Mysore that the installation of the young Raja must take place on 
the 23rd as the wise men and astrologers having consulted the stars 
found that that was the auspicious day, the hour to be between 1 1 
and 12 o'clock. It was ^useless to remonstrate at this short notice, 
so L said * Fiat ', and I grumbled and set Marie and two tailors 
to work and stitch their fingers off to get ready. 

"The Raja's stables having been reduced from unlimited 
supplies of horses and carriages to ten pairs it was no longer 
possible to post royally along the road of eighty four miles in His 
Highness* carriage as of old. So bullocks were laid and out of 
consideration for my bones the bullock coach was discarded and a 
pole adjusted to the office carriage which makes up into a bed 

" A pair of bullocks having been pressed into the service with 
many blows and shouts we set off at a famous trot, a Silledar 
curvetting in front and several more kicking up adust behind, while 
a peon ran in front shouting to everybody to keep out of the way. 
Away we went, down through the native town, the people staring 
and salaaming, out into the wild rocky country beyond. As we 
passed through the different taluks or villages, the Amildar or 
Magistrate came out to meet us followed by the inhabitants and 
while we changed bullocks presented garlands of flowers and limes 
and chatted with my husband in Canarese of the coming event. 
" After a time, the road became more rough very bad indeed and 
the bullocks had hard work to get along. The difficulty was over- 
come by a native, with only his loins girt, sitting on the shaft, 
shouting and twisting the tails of the poor beasts, while the driver 
lashed and the peons running on either side poked them with their 
sticks! Two wild-looking natives ran on ahead, as it grew dark, 
with torches, the smoke and smell of which were anything but 
agreeable. As we approached the village, a native with a curious 
horn announced our arrival by a cheerful blast. During the night 
in passing through the villages we saw the people asleep outside 
their huts rolled up in their blankets white or coloured looking like 
90 many mummies, The great banyan trees looked so ghastly in 



the moonlight with their gnarled branches and beardlike 
appendages. 

44 Once during the night we were awakened by loud cries and 
stopping found that the SUledar had given a whack to a pair of 
bullocks at the head of a train of carts which had resulted hi the 
animals upsetting the cart into a ditch. The cries were so piteous 
that we concluded that the driver was under his cart and L got 
out to render assistance but found the man unhurt sitting by the 
wayside weeping I ought to say howling and wringing his hands, 
Indian fashion, instead of setting to work to do anything. 

" At the Maddur Station which was nice and clean I made 
myself tidy. We had a comfortable breakfast and being joined by 
Major C started again at 6 o'clock in a comfortable carriage of 
the Raja's with good horses. 

" We soon crossed the Kaveri the first Indian river I had 
seen. The country was very green with rice crops and mulberry 
trees and is irrigated by the water channels of the Kaveri at this 
season of the year. We now got along at a great pace and soon 
came in sight of Seringapatam peeing out amongst the luxuriant 
vegetation. There was the mosque, the fort, the tomb of Tippu 
Sultan, the house and garden occupied by the Duke of Wellington 
and the lofty monument erected to the memory of the officers who 
perished at the storming of the fort. In crossing an arm of the 
Kaveri we had a beautiful view at the Raja's bathing-place beneath 
a very picturesque bridge. Great flights of steps lead down to the 
water and women in bright clothes were filling their brass vessels 
with the water and walking away with them on their heads. The 
river looked so deliciously cool that it is not very strange that these 
poor Indians should worship it when it is the source of such 
blessings to their country. 

" The next stage seemed very short and we were joined by a 
regiment of Silledars who look very well in a body with their gold 
and scarlet dresses and turbans. The native saddles also are very 
handsome, whilst the horses adorned with coloured ropes and tassels 
necks add greatly to the general good effect. They 



certainly consider themselves fine fellows and show o&and kick up 
no end of dust. I was nearly choked. 

" Next we came upon a man with his horn ; then a temple with 
all the dancing girls outside in their best, with their priests and 
their everlasting tomtoms. A little farther on was a deputation of 
all the merchants of the city with a congratulatory speech with a 
stout burly gentleman with much gesticulation, which had we not 
been obliged to listen to it almost uncomfortably in the glare of the 
sun would have amused me greatly. Then garlands and 
bouquets were thrown into the carriage. I was indeed rejoiced to 
reach the Residency and get into the cool house. 

"On Wednesday at 11 o'clock we were all dressed and 
assembled at the Residency which was formerly a palace of the 
Raja and has in it one of the finest rooms in India. All the 
company at last arrived and we went off in carriages preceded by 
the Silledars, while natives ran on each side bearing very long 
lances with scarlet streamers and gold cords and tassels. These 
lances they shake and clang in a peculiar manner and to my mind 
most musically. In the procession were carried some curious 
batons and mitres, insignia of royalty. 

" All the people were thronging about and when we turned 
under the gates of the fort within which is the Palace and arrived 
at the great square in front of it, the noise was such that it was 
impossible to make any one hear. It was all dumb show. God 
save the Queen ! Native music ! Tomtoms ! A great mass of 
human beings in the square and every individual shouting. Had I 
not been told what to expect, I should have been frightened. 

" Upon driving up in front of the Palace, one of the princes 
came forward. I salaamed, he salaamed and extended his two 
hands upon which I placed one of mine and he led me up the steps 
surging with people into the inner court of the Palace to the chair 
on which sat the young Raja to whom I salaamed and with whom 
I then shook hands. 

" My husband and Major Elliot following did the same and 
they took the little man by the h^pd &n4 leading him up th$ 



silver Steps lifted him on to his throne. Then you should have 
heard the row! The lances were clanged, the English hurrahed, 
the natives shouted and the bands and tomtoms played. I never 
was in such a din, and the crowd surged up, and there came a 
perfect shower of flowers. We were pelted on all sides and L 
had to protect the little Raja with his cocked hat, while Major 
C did his best for me; but it was hopeless and there was 
nothing for it but to endure. My dress was ruined at once, all the 
flowers being soaked in attar of roses ! I looked up expecting to 
see the little Raja terrified and in tears, but like a high-born 
oriental he sat as cool as a cucumber. 

" I must describe the little fellow to you and his throne. 
Chamaraja Wodeyar, Maharaja of Mysore, is going on for 
seven years of age. He is not dark but of a rich olive complexion, 
with most splendid eyes. He has bare feet, coat and trousers of 
gold and a beautiful turban hung round with great drops of 
emeralds and diamonds. Major had the State rings and 
bangles made to fit his small feet and fingers. The throne is like 
what one reads of in a fairy tale, of solid gold, very ancient, and 
exquisitely chased and carved. From the arms hang ropes of real 
pearls. The umbrella above it is surmounted by a peacock in 
emeralds and diamonds. Two attendants stood behind waving 
feathers tipped with diamonds and two others waved in the air in 
a peculiar way Kashmere shawls or what looked to me like them. 

" After a time, order was established and we all sat down, the 
English on the left, the royal princes on the right. The little king 
looked about him with astonishing coolness and began chewing a 
betel-nut ! Had he cried, the people would have thought it a bad 
omen. As it was, he was a born king and they were all delighted. 

"Then followed the ceremonies. First came the Brahmins, 
with incantations and prayers, sprinkling the child with the waters 
of the sacred rivers of India. Secondly, his pedigree from the gods 
down to the present day was read out. We gave him three cheers 
and there was a great row. Thirdly, presentation of the fruits of 
the earth carried in on trays, the Raja laying his tiny hand OQ 



ft 

everything with great dignity. Fourthly, presentation of 21 trays 
of presents and a very handsome necklace from our Government, 
and my husband fastened the ornament round the little fellow's 
neck. Fifthly, descending from his throne the Raja presented 
21 trays to L and fastened a splendid necklace of pearls, 
diamonds and rubies round his neck, a shawl embroidered in green 
and gold being thrown over his shoulders. Then the Raja placed 
wreaths of flowers over L's neck and mine, but he could not get 
them over my bonnet which seemed to amuse him greatly. Then 
he presented each with a rose, and a gold tray being handed in he 
scented the roses with attar and gave each of us a betel-nut, after 
which he was again placed on his throne. 

" Then followed the homage of all his relatives who advanced 
one by one and bowing down placed their heads on the throne, each 
offering a present which the Raja just touched. Then all the 
English officers salaamed and shook hands and were handed out to 
the carriages as before amidst renewed shoutings, the bands playing 
* God save the Queen.' 

" I must tell you that the floor of the raised platform was 
carpeted with cloth of gold which was soon inches deep in flowers. 

" In the afternoon of the same day we went a second time to 
the Palace for a durbar. Inside the Palace is a great room looking 
on and opening into the square but upstairs and the throne had 
been placed in the balcony so that all the public might see it. 

"First came the Brahmins and the child had actually to 
worship his throne walking round it three times and throwing 
lotus flowers at the foot of it, prayers being meanwhile recited. 
Then L put him on his throne, while the mob below closed in 
and there was another storm of flowers, L protecting the 
Raja's face with my fan ! 

" Then there were wrestlers below fighting, then sword-dancing 
and behold the State elephant painted and done up for the occasion 
in his best. He was led up to the front of the balcony and saluted 
with his trunk in the air. He was followed by the State horse 



magnificently caparisoned and lastly came the sacred cart 
worshipped as an impersonation of the Deity covered .with pearls 

and cloth of gold. Finally all ended with fireworks and 'Good 
Night.' 

" On returning to the Residency we had just time to dress for 
the grand dinner given to all the European officers. After dinner, 
we drank the health of the Queen, L made a short speech, and 
then we drank the Raja's health. After dinner, we had music and 
we got up some Christy Minstrel's songs. In fact, everything 
went off well. 

" On the following day L and I drove round the town of 
Mysore and had a very picturesque view of the old walls of the 
fort, an avenue of trees, and a large tank a lake-like sheet of water, 
with Chamundi rising beyond, on the summit of which is a house 
and a temple dedicated to the tutelary deity of the Mysore dynasty. 
On returning we all went to the stables to see the horses and feed 
the pigeons, great beauties, and formerly special pets of the late 
Raja. 

" After breakfast, we went to the Palace and saw all over it. 
It is a most curious and interesting place. We went first into the 
inner courtyard where the installation took place the day before 
and then took a squint down a long dirty -looking passage to the 
kitchen, which Major Elliot advised us not to visit. Passing up 
an open staircase into a low wide gallery we saw to the left the 
ladies apartments and turned to the right into a small ante-room 
lighted from above, in the centre of which was a square place 
railed off and slightly sunk in which are kept the sacred cow and 
her calf. The former was evidently viciously disposed towards us 
and made a thrust at the railing to get at us ringing a silver bell. 
Her daughter however was more amiable and allowed us to pat 
her. They Were both as sleek as horses and had each an attendant 
watching to administer to their wants. 

" We then went into the inner durbar-room. In the centre the 
ceiling was hung with long chains of coloured glass beads and as 
the sun shone upon them the effect was very pretty. The doors 

A2 



Id 

Were of massive silver carved all over with hideous gods and 

goddesses * In the Raja's proper bedroom we were 

shown a pearl necklace composed of 2400 pearls. 

" We then went to another part of the Palace to pay our visit 
to the queens. The gentlemen had to speak to them through a 
curtain, but I was allowed to pass behind with a lady interpreter. 
On going in, I found all the six ladies seated on chairs. I salaamed 
to each and shook hands. A chair was then placed for me before 
the first queen and I was asked to sit down. 

" As to their costume, as they were all in mourning no jewels 
were worn and all had plain clothes excepting the first queen who 
had on a very rftagnificent green and gold shawl. She was a 
nice-looking old lady with refined features and after shaking hands 
with me rarely spoke during my visit. Next to her sat No. 2, 
a jolly, good-natured, portly old lady who talked all the time as 
fast as her tongue would go. She began by drawing my chair 
close to her and seizing and squeezing both my hands in hers said 
she was delighted to see me and we had the following conversation. 

Mrs. B. ' I hope you were not all much fatigued by 
yesterday's ceremonies ?' 

2nd Queen (tears rolling down her fat cheeks). ' My two eyes 
were not big enough to look at it all ! But you must intercede that 
it may not be all show but real !' 

Mrs. B ' There is no further need of intercession. The boy 
is crowned and the British Government will protect his rights !' 

3rd Queen * We are overcome with gratitude to Mr. Bowring. 
We know that all the joy we feel is owing to him !' 

Mrs. B ' I should like to see the mother of the young Raja !' 
1st Queen' We will send for her !' 

" Then the second began talking to my husband in Canarese 
through the curtain and in a few minutes in came the young Raja 
and his mother, a very nice-looking young woman with splendid 



u 

eyes like her son's. She salaamed down to the ground and then 
with all her heart in her eyes she took up the little fellow and put 
him on my lap saying * I give my child to you. He is not mine 
any longer and you must protect him and intercede for him.' Then 
women servants came in with a silver dish with a garland of 
flowers which the child took and put round my neck and then 
placed a rose in my hand scented by him from a gold scent-bottle 
with attar. Finally he handed me a betel-nut, all which I, of 
course, accepted with a salaam. 

"The little boy was superbly dressed and had on such a 
necklace ! 

1st Queen ' Do you admire the necklace ?' 

Mrs. B ' It is most beautiful but the child is far handsomer 
than the jewels.' 

" At which pretty speech great satisfaction was evinced by all 
the ladies* 

3rd Queen * I see by your face that you love children. Have 
you any of your own ?' 

Upon which an explanation followed of the loss of my baby. 

2nd Queen ' You have travelled a long way. Do you like 
India ?' 

1st Queen ' We will show you our jewels ! ' 
Mrs. B could not speak for looking at them ! 

2nd Queen ' You speak more kindly to us than any English 
lady we have seen. We like you better than any one we have seen/ 

" But here a message came that I had remained long enough 
and that I must come away. So I shook hands with them all, the 
second queen begging me to ask L to send them to Benares that 
they may finish their religious duties for their husband's soul. The 
little Raja gave me his two hands and conducted me out with 
astonishing self-possession and gravity. 



12 

"When I got out, the gentlemen began laughing at me for 
.staying so long but I found they were, nevertheless, all curiosity to 
know what the queens were like and what they had said. 

" We next visited the library. The books are all written on 
palm leaves strung together and compressed between wood, ivory 
or silver plates. Poems and fairy tales comprise the literature of 
the 'country and some of the books were illuminated. 

" We then visited the armoury, a most curious collection, but 
some of the weapons were terribly cruel and made me shudder ! 
We then passed into a great durbar -room full now of boxes of 
treasures. We had one box opened and looked till we were tired at 
ladies' clothes made of cloth of gold worth Rs. 1000 each. We 
saw shawls by the dozen and our eyes ached with looking. Some 
of the boxes were marked outside with the name of the queen whose 
particular treasure they contained. 

" I was attacked by a violent cold and could not go to the 
evening durbar but was told that the little Raja complained of the 
great weight of his turban and begged he might have a lighter one, 
which I think shows him to be a very sensible child. 

" On returning to Bangalore we travelled at different hours 
and I was glad to see something of the country we had before 
passed in the dark, parts of which are strikingly picturesque. We 
entered Bangalore in the evening and as we drove through the 
pettah or native town we came in for the procession at the close of 
the Dasara. All the gods and goddesses were being carried on 
cars with shoutings and tomtoms, the people being painted and got 
up in most extraordinary costumes, so that it really was a very 
singular sight but I was so sleepy and tired that I could hardly 
take it all in. Thus ended our visit to Mysore which I thoroughly 
enjoyed notwithstanding the fatigue and my cold," 



CHAPTER II. 
Fresh arrangements connected with the Palace. 

The demise of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar in March 1868 
a little over a year after his adopted son was recognised as the heir 
to the throne of Mysore caused anguish and disappointment in 
the minds of all those who were associated with His Highness in 
the struggle for the restoration of the country. Bakshi Narasappa 
was the principal agent and co-adjutor of the deceased Maharaja in 
this struggle and his acute intellect, diplomatic cleverness and 
capacity for organization were of no inconsiderable service to the 
Maharaja. It was also a feature of this struggle that several of the 
European and Indian officers in the service of the State as well as 
others lent their hearty co-operation to the Maharaja in what they 
considered his righteous cause. 

Bowring who was Commissioner was fully aware of this 
attitude on the part of some of his subordinate officers but considered 
it prudent to assume an air of indifference about the matter to avoid 
giving rise to any possible trouble by any hasty action of his. He 
mistrusted especially the officials of the Hebbar Sri Vaishnava 
class, " the wily lyengar clan " as he called them and who were in 
his eyes as able as they were unscrupulous. A high official named 
B. Krishna lyengar was regarded by him as head of this party and 
to get him out of his way Bowring had promoted him some years 
before to the charge of an outlying district. Krishna lyengar 
however was not, as Bowring found later, a man to be easily 
suppressed and he continued to carry on as before correspondence 
from Kolar where he was placed and with an affectation of 
confidence showed to Bowring himself several letters he had 
received from Colonel Macqueen and other Europeans interested in 
the Maharaja's cause. Narasappa also specially laid himself open 
to the suspicion of Bowring as he had been the principal channel 
of access to the Maharaja and had control over the Palace purse. 

To assist Major Elliot to wind up the late Maharaja's affairs 
Bowring regarded that the services of a native officer were essential 
and, in the circumstances above described, that officer he thought 



14 

should be one imported from outside the State and quite unconnected 
with Mysore. Accordingly Bowring obtained the sanction of the 
Government of India for the appointment of a native assistant to 
Major Elliot and obtained from the Madras Government the service 
of C. V. Rangacharlu, a Deputy Collector in the Madras Service, 
who subsequently became the first Dewan of Mysore when' 
Chamaraja Wodeyar was entrusted with the Government of the 
State. Rangacharlu was a pupil of E. B. Powell the famous 
educationist of Southern India and at the time he joined the 
Mysore Service was 37 years old. Rangacharlu began his service 
as a clerk in 1849 and in 1856 he wrote a bold and outspoken paper 
on bribery and condemned it in strong terms as a vice not to be 
tolerated among public officials. He joined the Mysore Service in 
April 1868 and Bowring at the very first interview he had with him 
found him not only a man of undoubted ability but also as a man 
possessed of somewhat uncommon ambition. Rangacharlu 
had an intimate knowledge of revenue matters and accounts, 
combined with unusual sagacity and shrewdness, though his manners 
were peculiar and not attractive at first sight. 

Major Elliot and Rangacharlu were engaged for over 6 months 
in the laborious task of overhauling the Palace affairs and reorgani- 
sing the establishments there. There were at the time of 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar's death 7 departments in the Palace under 
the designations of 1. Aramanay. 2. Barr Cutcherry. 3. Body- 
Guard. 4. Zillo Cutcherry. 5. Killey Cutcherry. 6. Shagird 
Pesha Cutcherry and 7. Khazana. The total number of employees 
was 10,119 at a monthly cost of Rs. 78,000/-. Among the religious 
and charitable institutions to which grants were confirmed were 
included, taking into consideration the catholicity of Krishnaraja 
Wodeyar's mind, the Civil Orphan Asylum at Madras and the 
Roman Catholic Church at Mysore. The Maharaja had also 
established four chatrams or feeding-houses and some temples, the 
chatrams being situated on the four important roads leading out of 
the Mysore town within a radius of about 4 miles and two more 
being situated in the town itself. Major Elliot's proposal to abolish 
these feeding-houses and to utilise the funds for establishing one 
large chatram as well as poor-house at Mysore in memory of Hie 



15 

Highness was not accepted by the Government of India. On the 
other hand, they suggested that one good chatram might in addition 
to the existing ones be established at Mysore. Reference has 
already been made to the English School and the hospital maintained 
by His Highness. These two institutions were transferred to the 
Education*and Medical departments respectively and fees for tuition 
were introduced in the former, orphan boys however being admitted 
without payment. The services of a conductor were obtained from 
the military department of the Madras Government and all the guns 
in the Mysore fort which were not absolutely required were 
destroyed and large quantities of shot and cartridges were broken 
up and rendered unserviceable. 

The Palace enquiry was conducted under three heads debts 
of the late Maharaja, scrutiny into property of all kinds, and 
remodelling and reduction of existing establishments. The revision 
of the establishments demanded the exercise of great discretion, 
firmness and patience and it was done on a liberal basis. After 
revision, three thousand one hundred and ninety-six persons were 
retained at a monthly cost of a little above Rs. 19,000 and the 
remainder of the employees were either absorbed in the Government 
departments or given gratuities and pensions on a special scale so 
as to minimise all hardship. The establishments were divided into 
three cutcherries and eight minor branches with a general office of 
management. Cutcherries (i) Aramanay Dufter ; (ii) Killey 
Dufter; (iii) Zillo Dufter. Minor Branches (i) Religious or 
Chamundi Thotti ; (ii) Out-door servants or Avasarada Hobly; 
(iii) In-door servants Samukada Ooligai Khas; (iv) In-door 
servants Zenana ; (v) Stables Aswasala and Gajasala ; (vi) Cows 
Karohutty ; (vii) Maramat ; (viii) Gardens or Bagayat. There 
were also attached to the general office Tosheekhane or treasury, 
Correspondence and Accounts, and Supplies or Motikhane. The 
term 'cutcherry' was confined to the three principal depart- 
ments which were prominently connected with the state and 
dignity of the Palace and over which the leading members of the 
Maharaja's relations were continued as honorary Bakshis. The 
remaining establishments which were of a more private and 
personal character were styled Ilakhas and were superintended by 



16 

one or more paid servants under the name of Gurkars. The 
Aramanay Dufter Cutcherry was a general office of record for the 
Palace, to which all the papers requiring to be preserved were 
transferred from time to time by the several Ilakhas. To this 
office were also entrusted the duties of keeping the genealogy of the 
Maharaja and his relations, rules of precedence, custom* and other 
matters. The Killey cutcherry dealt with the sepoy establishment 
retained for providing guards for the fort and palace and escorts of 
body-guard. The Zillo cutcherry was intended to regulate and 
undertake all arrangements connected with escorts and processions 
and comprised the whole of the Rachaiwar and Bahlg forces. The 
Rachaiwars were chiefly employed as trustworthy guards in the 
interior apartments of the palace where admission was not allowed 
tp the more miscellaneous classes of sepoys. The JBahle or spearmen 
provided some of the outside guards and were also largely 
employed as escorts for the Maharaja and his relations. They 
represented a class of the Bedar peons so famous in the former 
Carnatic warfare a class addicted to hunting and noted for their 
great jdaring, hardy habits, and strong attachment to their 
masters. 

To provide for the reasonable ambition of old and distinguished 
servants of the Palace the class of Moosahibs was also retained 
who corresponded to privy councillors and attended durbars and 
other State occasions in which they were allowed certain rights of 
precedence. After Rangacharlu was employed for regulating 
Palace affairs, Bakshi Narasappa was placed in the class of 
Moosahibs. 

During the late Maharaja's time the salaries of Palace establish- 
ments were counted in Canteroi Pagodas and fanams and now they 
were ordered to be disbursed in British currency as was the case in 
all the offices under the Commissioner. It was specially enjoined 
on the Commissioner that while care was to be taken to avoid all 
extravagant expenditure, at the same time the dignity and comfort 
of the Maharaja were to receive scrupulous attention* Major 
Elliot and Rangacharlu performed the work entrusted to them with 
great promptitude, tact and judgment, the duties on which they 



1? 

were employed involving as they did an inquiry into confused and 
intricate accounts and needed firmness and discretion. 

As regards one-fifth share of the net revenues of the State 
which were being paid to the late Maharaja under the Subsidiary 
Treaty of 1799, the same was closed under the authority of the 
Secretary of State for India. The Secretary of State at the same 
time impressed upon the Governor- General the need . of adminis- 
tering in trust the revenues of Mysore and for making adequate 1 
provision for the support of the Maharaja, his family and dependents 
during the period of minority, the unappropriated balances being 
accumulated for the future benefit of the Maharaja and of the State 
of Mysore. 

In April 1868 Bowring proposed to the Government of India 
that the young Maharaja should take his residence in the palace in 
the fort at Bangalore. But the Government of India overruled the 
proposal as it was open to misconstruction and the Secretary of 
State subsequently concurred in this decision. The attempted 
removal of the family from the present home, said the Secretary of 
State, was open to be regarded with suspicion by ail the inmates of 
the Palace and probably with consternation by the ladies of the 
family. 

In October 1868 the Secretary elf State sanctioned the appoint- 
ment of a Guardian to the young Maharaja and approved of the 
nomination of Lieu tenant -Colonel Gregory Haines who was formerly 
Superintendent of the Bangalore Division. Krishnaraja Wodeyar 
while he was alive had proposed this appointment in April 1867. 
His words contained in a Khareetha addressed to the Viceroy at 
the time may be taken as even now retaining the freshness of the. 
significance which they possessed at the time they were written. " I 
am very desirous," said His Highness, " that my son Chamarajendra 
Wodeyar who by the blessing of God has now entered on. his fifth 
year should receive greater advantages of education and 'training 
than I myself enjoyed in my childhood and youth, and as it is no 
longer possible for me to delay the matter and as it is the best time' 
calculated for the purpose, I have to inform your Excellency that 

A3 



18 

With this view I have selected as his Guardian Lt-Col. Gregory 
Haines, late Superintendent of the Bangalore Division, an officer 
well-known and respected in this country and who has received from 

Earl Canning an acknowledgment of his services to the State 

" Although there may be a difference of opinion between your 
Excellency and myself as to the actual position and rights of this 
dear child, I feel sure there will be no difference of opinion between 
us as to the value of education to the princes and nobles of India. 
I am equally sure that whatever may be the destiny of my son and 
heir and whatever duties may devolve upon him, your Excellency 
and your Excellency's successors will never forget that he is by 
birth a member of this ancient royal family and that he is by Hindu 
law the son of the Raja of Mysore, ' the oldest ' and ' the staunchest ' 
although the humblest ally of Her Majesty the Queen of Great 
Britain and India." Colonel Gregory Haines' appointment how- 
ever was made after the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar on account 
of the delay caused in connection with the correspondence between 
the Viceroy and the Secretary of State. After his arrival in India, 
Colonel Haines was placed in subordination to the Commissioner 
and was also given the assistance of Rangacharlu who was 
appointed to the newly created post of Controller of the Palace and 
was expected to make himself useful in regulating and controlling 
the officers of the Palace household. 

The Government of India also pointed out that the education 
to be imparted to the young Maharaja was to embrace a sound 
knowledge of the English language and literature as well as of the 
languages most prevalent in Mysore, besides provision for good 
physical and moral training. It was further prescribed that the 
young Maharaja should be taught to ride, to swim, to play cricket 
and to handle firearms and he was also to be encouraged to devote 
himself successively to those strengthening exercises which were 
suited to his country, position and age, and that by precept as well 
as by example his views were to be constantly directed to the 
discharge of the regal and administrative functions which his high 
office would one day demand. It was also expressly laid down that 
while truthfulness and sound morality were to be inculcated, at the 



19 

same time there was to be no interference whatever with his 
religion or his forms of worship. 

Lt.-Col. Haines continued only for a few months in Mysore and 
he was obliged to resign his appointment as he was too old and had 
also differences of opinion with the Chief Commissioner. In June 
1869 the Government of India appointed Colonel G. B. Malleson as 
his successor. He was an officer of the Indian army and possessed 
a reputation for ability, experience, varied information and good 
judgment and was 44 years of age at the time when he entered on 
his new duties. 



CHAPTER III. 
Closing years,, of the British Commission* 

The British Government after the demise of Krishnaraja 
Wodeyar became practically a trustee for the administration of the 
country on behalf of his successor the young Chamaraja Wodeyar 
and the Commission continued in power till March 1881, when the 
administration was transferred to the hands of the young Maharaja 
on the 25th of the same month. Bowring, as we have seen, 
resigned his appointment and left the country in February 1870 and 
in the interim between his departure and the restoration of the country 
to the Maharaja's rule there were three Chief Commissioners. The 
first was Colonel Richard Meade who was, prior to his appointment 
in Mysore, Agent to the Governor-General for the Central Indian 
States and whom the Earl of Mayo who had by this time succeeded 
Sir John Lawrence chose as the fittest person to administer the 
State of Mysore and in a letter addressed to him, dated 3rd 
February 1870, wrote: "In taking Mysore you have assumed a 
most interesting and responsible task which will require the exercise 
both of political and administrative duty of the highest importance. 
It is needless for me to recapitulate the relations under which the 
British Government now stands to that State. They are unique in 
India and though the fate of the State in future may be still 
uncertain, it is our duty to endeavour by every means in our power 
during the period in which it wholly remains in our hands to place 
every part of its administration upon a firm and efficient basis." 
In 1871 sub-divisions composed of groups of taluks were constituted 
and an Assistant Superintendent was placed in charge of each, the 
object being to bring the Government officers in closer communica- 
tion with the people and to give the Assistant Superintendents a 
greater interest in their work. 

The first step of preparing the State for administration by the 
natives of the country was taken in the time of Colonel Meade. In 
March 1873 the Government of India sanctioned a scheme for the 
appointment of a class of Attaches or probationers for the higher 
grades of the executive service pf the tate. These Attaches 



21 

to ta trained for permanent appointments in the Commission on 
giving proof of turning out to be good and efficient public .servants. 
The persons selected for these posts were to be chosen from 
amongst the best educated youths belonging to the families of the 
State most entitled to consideration from their acknowledged 
position in the State or their eminent public services. The age 
limit for the Attaches was fixed at between 18 and 23 and the total 
number was limited to four for the time being. It was also laid 
down that no person appointed an Attache was to be retained in 
that post for more than two years, unless he was considered 
qualified for permanent employment. At the same time it was 
clearly expressed that there was no desire to abandon entirely the 
existing practice of promoting to the higher grades officials in the 
lower grades whose services and character merited special reward. 
The main object of the measure now initiated was to establish 
amongst the officers a higher tone than generally could be looked 
for from men who commenced their career in the smaller situations 
in which they had toiled for a long number of years and become 
accustomed to temptations on account of inadequate salaries often 
so damaging to one's character. In 1873 the designation of 
Commissioner was substituted for that of Superintendent through 
all the grades, the head of the administration having already been 
called Chief Commissioner in 1869. In the same year an important 
scheme for the establishment of MunsifFs courts with purely civil 
jurisdiction was brought into operation. The Amildars were 
relieved of their jurisdiction in civil cases and the judicial powers 
of other officers were greatly modified. The re-organisation of the 
police was commenced, one of the principal features of the scheme 
being the recognition of the village police and its utilisation after 
being placed on a reasonable footing of efficiency. The local 
military force was greatly improved by proper selection of men and 
horses and by the enforcement of a regular course of drill. Special 
training was provided for preparing native officers for the Public 
Works, Survey and Forest departments. 

Meade was a true follower of Bowring and he not only 
supported the reforms which the latter had introduced but also 
developed them and extended them to various other branches of the 



22 

administration. Meade's views on what is called the Regulation 
System of Government contained in the Administration Report for 
1872-73 are instructive : " There are some," he said, " who oppose 
every reform tending towards the introduction of a Regulation 
System on the ground that the administration may become too 
elaborate and that the system of Government usually termed 
Patriarchal is best adapted to a native State. These however 
are not the views which during the last ten years under the 
directions of the Government of India have actuated the adminstra- 

tion The present Chief Commissioner believes that while 

over-elaboration in the system of Government cannot but be an 
evil as well in a native State as in British territory, the patriarchal 
system is even less adapted to a native State than to a province 
under the British rule, for the reason that those personal qualities 
in the ruler which can alone secure for such a system even a 
moderate and transient success are rarely possessed by the natives 

of India On the other hand, in these days of high education 

no difficulty will ever be experienced in procuring the services of 
native officers who are qualified to work any system however 
elaborate. Nor, if we examine the conditions of those States which 
are now governed by native rulers, do we find any tendency to 
allow subordinate officers to improvise any decisions for themselves 

unchecked by law, precedent, or central authority 

The patriarchal system in a native State is a synonym for 
anarchy and corruption and the most successful native States are 
those which strive to imitate a European model. The Chief Com- 
missioner therefore believes that the closing years of British rule in 
Mysore should witness not disorganisation in the vain pursuit of a 
phantom system of native administration but a thorough consolida- 
tion of what has already been done to the end that the Province 
may be handed over to His Highness the Maharaja in perfect 
order." 

In September 1873 Meade was called away to Baroda for a few 
months as the chairman of the committee appointed to enquire into 
and report upon the affairs of that State, which it was believed 
had become serious. He returned to Bangalore in March 1874 
jrfter this duty and in June following received the title of K.C.S.{ T 



He continued in Mysore till February 1875 when he was again 
required to go to Barpda as member of the committee which was to 
enquire into the charge against Malhar Rao, Gaekwar of Baroda, 
of attempting to poison the British Resident at his court. 

During Sir Richard Meade's absence R. A. Dalyell of the 
Madras Civil Service who was at the time a member of the 
Viceroy's Council officiated for him. Meade though he finished his 
labours at Baroda by November following was not able to return to 
Mysore as he was transferred to Hyderabad as Resident by Lord 
Northbrook who had succeeded the Earl of Mayo who was 
assassinated in the An damans by a prisoner there. C. B. Saunders 
then took Meade's place permanently as Chief Commissioner and 
continued in Mysore for two years and it was during his time that 
there occured the great famine of Southern India which crippled 
the resources of the country and caused an appalling mortality 
among the people. 

In the years 1875 and 1876 the monsoons had failed to give a 
sufficient quantity of rainfall as was needed for a normal harvest. 
The Mungar or the early rains of 1877 which fell as usual had 
raised hopes of a normal year. But the Hingar or the later rains 
disappointed these expectations and it became certain that measures 
were necessary to meet the grim spectre of famine. The surround- 
ing Madras districts were also in the same plight. Even in the 
earlier period some attempts had been made to give help to the 
people by starting relief works in several parts of the State as well 
as by granting remissions of assessment. The State forests were 
thrown open for the grazing of cattle and a few other measures 
were also adopted. The only railway that existed in the State at 
the time was the one from Madras to Bangalore and although large 
quantities of grain were imported into the State, yet the want of 
adequate conveniences for internal transport stood in the way of 
affording relief to the stricken people when and where needed. In 
May 1877 there were 1,00,000 of people fed in relief kitchens and 
in August this number rose to 2,27,000, besides 60,000 employed on 
relief works paid in grain and the 20,000 on the railway to Mysore 
under construction. 



Sir Richard Temple who afterwards became Governor of 
Bombay had been deputed as special Commissioner to co-operate 
with the Government in carrying? out relief measures. Lord Lytton 
who had succeeded Lord Northbrook as Governor- General visited 
Mysore in September 1877 and finding that relief on a larger scale 
was needed sent a number of European officers from Northern 
India to cope with the distress. Mr. (afterwards Sir Charles) Elliot 
was appointed Famine Commissioner and Major (afterwards Sir 
Colin) Scott-Moncrieff, Chief Engineer. Copious rains however in 
the months of September and October brought joy to the stricken 
population and ultimately put an end to the famine, although relief 
works were not generally closed till November 1878. At this time 
a fund called the Mansion House Fund raised in London and to 
which contributions were generously made by the people in England 
afforded considerable support for the rehabilitation of the people 
who had suffered from the famine and for resuming their vocations. 
The Christian Missions and other private bodies took charge of a 
number of orphan children for whose upbringing the Government 
also gave large contributions. 

Before the famine broke out, there was an invested Govern- 
ment surplus of Rs. 63 lakhs in the treasury. This amount was all 
spent and there came to be a debt of 80 lakhs of rupees due to the 
Government of India who advanced the money for meeting this 
calamity. The population also was reduced by about a million, not 
to speak of the appalling loss of cattle. The revenue collections 
which in the year before the famine stood at over Rs. 109 lakhs fell 
in 1876-77 to Rs. 82 lakhs and in 1877-78 to Rs. 69 lakhs. 

At the close of the famine relief operations the Goverment at 
Calcutta while commending to the Secretary of State for India the 
services of the European officers also referred appreciatively to the 
services rendered by the native officials. " Especially those of a 
higher standing and superior education/ 1 said the Government of 
India, " laboured strenuously and successfully in relieving distress 
and in carrying into effect the instructions that had been issued for 
guidance in the conduct of relief operations," . 



25 

Another event of importance of a pleasanter nature however 
that took place during Saunders' term of office was the proclaiming 
of the Queen of England as Empress of India. This event was 
fittingly celebrated in all parts of the Mysore State. The young 
Maharaja and Saunders who had both received invitations from the 
Viceroy attended the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi held on the 1st 
January 1877 which not only set the seal on India being a part of 
the British Empire but also opened the way for the establishment 
of a new political relationship between the British Government and 
the Native States of India. 

In April 1878 J. D. Gordon (afterwards Sir James) succeeded 
Saunders as Chief Commissioner. Gordon belonged to the Bengal 
Civil Service and had been' transferred to Mysore as Judicial 
Commissioner. In April 1878 he was appointed Chief Commissioner 
in succession to Saunders. It was in the early years of his period 
of office as Chief Commissioner that the Mysore Government under- 
took to construct for the first time a line of railway and this line 
was the one from Bangalore to Mysore, a distance of 88i miles, 
begun as a famine relief work. So far back as 1871 this project had 
been thought of and an estimate prepared, but the Secretary of 
State had put off the proposal on the ground whether it was not 
preferable to spend money on irrigation works rather than on 
railways. When famine broke out in 1877, it became a necessity 
to start immediate relief works and among these were the banks and 
cuttings on the metre guage of the suspended railway line from 
Bangalore to Mysore. By the time the famine operations ceased in 
October 1878 a sum of Rs. 7 lakhs had been spent, of which Rs. 4 
lakhs worth of work was substantially available for the completion 
of the line. The cost of the line was estimated at about Rs. 60 lakhs. 
Gordon was strongly in favour of executing the project. But the 
main obstacle in the way was that the Mysore State was already 
under obligation to the Government of India to the extent of Rs. 80 
lakhs spent in combating famine. The Chief Commissioner proposed 
that if the repayment of this debt was postponed he would be able 
to meet the cost of construction from the current revenues of the 
State. The Government of India however were more inclined to 
advance the cost from their own funds rather than allow the postpone- 

A4 



26 

rhent of the repayment of the debt. Lord Cranbrooke who was 
then Secretary of State for India decided in May 1879 that the re- 
covery of the debt might be postponed on condition of paying 5 per 
cent interest per annum on the amount till it was 'discharged and 
that the construction of the railway might be undertaken from the 
current revenues of the State. Subsequently an agreement was also 
concluded with the Madras Railway Company to extend their broad 
guage line from the C. & M. Station terminus to the Bangalore City 
railway station, a distance of 3 miles. 

The great famine of 1877-78 led to considerable unsettlement 
in the finances of the State. Bo wring and Meade had both aimed 
at raising the standard of administration in Mysore to that 
prevailing in British India and they were averse to maintain large 
sums of surplus money in unfructifying reserve. Accordingly, 
much money had been spent on irrigation, on the employment of a 
large number of European officers on liberal salaries, on the formation 
of new departments, and on promotions to native officers. During 
the period that famine prevailed, necessarily a larger expenditure 
had to be incurred on mitigating its horrors. On the cessation of 
famine, therefore, it became clear that material reductions in 
expenditure could not be avoided and on J. D. Gordon the last Chief 
Commissioner fell not only the unpleasant task of introducing 
drastic cuts in State expenditure but also the imperative need of 
handing over to the young Maharaja's hands a fairly efficient 
system of administration. 

To facilitate the reduction of the establishments, rules for the 
grant of liberal pensions and gratuities were temporarily promul- 
gated and with the co-operation of C. V. Rangacharlu who had now 
been appointed Revenue Secretary to the Government of Mysore 
with the view of eventually being appointed Dewan, Gordon 
resolutely faced the situation. During the two years of famine 
1876-78 there was a fall in revenue of 67 lakhs and the expenditure 
during these years exceeded the normal collections by about 66i 
lakhs in consequence of the requirements of famine relief, so that 
the total deficit from diminished revenues and increased expenditure 
amounted to 13 Sir lakhs Against this amount however was the 



27 

surplus invested in the Government securities which on sale 
realised a little over Rs. 61 lakhs, the rest being met from the loan 
advanced by the Government of India. While only 104 lakhs of 
rupees was budgetted as revenue for 1878-79, the actual collections 
amounted to 121 lakhs on account of the unexpectedly bountiful 
harvests of the year, coupled with the good prices which ruled, 
which enabled the ryots to pay large portions of the accumulated 
arrears of revenue. The expenditure however was 126 lakhs of 
rupees. Considerable reductions had therefore to be carried out in 
the expenditure of the several departments as it was no longer 
possible to keep up its old level. The Public Works grant was 
reduced by nearly one- half and the Irrigation Department was 
abolished as a separate branch and the provincial and local fund 
works were concentrated under one agency. The training of natives 
for posts in the D. P. W. had already begun by the establishment 
of an Engineering College and these trained men began gradually 
to take the place of the European officers at smaller cost. In 
the Judicial Department a native Civil and Sessions Judge on a 
salary of Rs. 1200 was substituted for the Commissioner on 
Rs. 2500 in the Nandidoorg Division and Judicial Assistants were 
called Subordinate Judges. Similar changes were also introduced 
in the two other divisions sometime later. For four of the 
districts out of eight native officers on lower pay were appointed 
as Deputy Commissioners and a reduction was also made in the 
number of Assistant Commissioners by the abolition of the sub- 
divisions and of separate police Assistant Commissioners. 

The coffee planters of Mysore held their lands under grant 
subject to an excise tax of Re. 1 per cwt. of coffee produced. In 
order to safeguard their interests on the administration being 
handed over to native rule, the Chief Commissioner proposed that 
each planter should have the option of choosing either a 30 years' 
settlement at Re. 1 per acre or a permanent settlement at Rs. li. 
The Government of India however vetoed the latter and the 
planters then accepted the 30 years' leases under protest. They 
however sought the intercession of the Secretary of State and an 
understanding was arrived at that on the transfer of the administra- 
tion to the Maharaja there was to be no difficulty for the cpffee 



planters both European and native to obtain a permanent settlement 
of their holdings at a fixed acreage rate. 

In 1878-1879 the Forest Department was abolished and the 
Conservator was transferred elsewhere, there remaining only three 
trained forest officers and the control was transferred to the 
Revenue Department. 

Among the welcome legacies bequeathed by the British Com- 
mission to the future Maharaja's Government was 3750 miles of 
public road planted with trees on both sides at distances varying 
from 12 to 60 feet. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Education of Chamaraja Wodeyar Visit to the Delhi 
Imperial Assemblage J. D. Gordon who was Judicial 
Commissioner appointed Guardian. 

Colonel Malleson who had been appointed Guardian to the 
Maharaja in July 1869 and who in future years became noted as 
the historian of the great Indian Mutiny displayed great sagacity 
and tact in rendering the course of training pursued both pleasant 
and profitable. By August 1871 the young Maharaja had learnt to 
take pleasure in his school lessons and was inspired with emulation 
to outstrip his school-fellows. He also evinced a desire to excel 
in those active and athletic exercises and pursuits which were 
essential to the formation of a manly character. An accident 
forced Lt.-Col. Malleson to go on leave for a time, when 
J. D. Gordon temporarily took his place. Associated with these 
two officers were Rangacharlu and Jayaram Rao who was head- 
master of the special school established for the education of the 
young Maharaja. Jayaram Rao was a person of high intellectual 
qualifications and excellent moral character on whom devolved the 
practical duties of tuition. At this time it was also realised that 
for a Prince whose destiny was to rule over a country, residence 
in places other than his capital would also be beneficial. The 
Secretary of State at this time strongly impressed upon all 
concerned in the education of the young Maharaja the extreme 
desirability of remembering that when he came of age he had to 
rule over mainly a Hindu people peculiarly jealous of and attached 
to the faith of their ancestors. Malleson himself had fully realised 
that any measure which might alienate from the young Prince the 
sympathies of his people was to be carefully guarded against. The 
Secretary of State also regarded the attempt on the part of the 
British Government to train up an Indian Prince upon principles 
recognised by European statesmen without offending the prejudices 
or injuriously affecting the interests of many attached to oriental 
model as an experiment of supreme importance and hopefulness. 

The course of life devised for the Maharaja in the early years 
Of his education was that he was to live under the care of his first 



30 

adoptive mother Rama Vilas Maharani who was to regulate his 
diet and minister generally to his comfort. The special school was 
established in the Lokaranjana Mahal at some distance from the 
Palace and was modelled on the public schools of England, the only 
difference being that the learning of English took the place of Latin 
and Greek. In respect to the formation of classes, the preparation 
of lessons, the mode of examination, the hours of work and of play 
and the general control of the masters the system that was followed 
was based upon that which prevailed at Winchester. The number 
of boys in the school was 60 and they were divided into four classes 
each of which had its own separate master. One of the masters 
assisted the Maharaja in his lessons. 

For the first time during the summer of 1872 Chamaraja 
Wodeyar in his 9th year was taken out of Mysore to visit 
Ootacamund. In December 1874 Colonel Malleson took the 
Maharaja on a visit to the Gersoppa waterfalls or Jog as it is also 
called on the western border of the Shimoga district where the 
river Sharavathi makes a magnificent leap into a gorge of 960 feet 
in depth and flows into the western sea at Honavar. Towards the 
end of 1875 the young Maharaja was taken to Bombay on a visit 
to the Prince of Wales who had arrived there for a tour in India 
and who later succeeded his mother Victoria as Edward VII. 

The standard of education which the young Maharaja had 
reached in English when he was 13 years old may be gathered from 
the following two letters which he wrote at the time, one to a school 
companion and the other to Sir Richard Meade. 

Letter to m School Companion. 

OOTY, WEDNESDAY, 
28th April 1875, 

My Dear Friend Ibrahim, 

We are quite well by the good grace of our Creator. I 
received your kind letter on the 28th April. I was very glad to 
that letter. We are spending our time in. reading, walking, 



running and every day cricket playing. In reading Physical 
Geography of India we finished beginning three chapters. We are 
going hunting twice a week and we killed one tiger and 20 

porcupines and some jackals Convey my best compliments 

to Abbas Khan, Bheema Rao and C. Subbaraj Urs. Here all the 
boys give their compliments to you. 

I am yours 
CHAMARAJENDRA WODEYAR. 



Letter to Sir Richard Meade. 



MYSORE, 
23rd December 1875. 



My Dear Sir Richard Meade, 



Colonel Malleson delivered to me this morning your letter of 
the 18th instant. At the same time he explained to me the reasons 
of duty which had caused you to accede to the wishes of His 
Excellency the Viceroy and to leave Mysore for Hyderabad. 

I can easily understand your preference for a place which you 
know, when the other is comparatively unknown. I used to 
experience a similar feeling when it was proposed to take me from 
Mysore to Bangalore. But I trust the results in both cases may 
be the same. 

At all events, you have given me the example of sacrificing 
inclination to duty, though I must admit that since my journey to 
Bombay my previous prejudices against change have been 
removed. 

My best wishes will go with you and it will always be a 
pleasure to me to hear that you and Lady Meade are happy. 

I remain, 
>ear Sir Richard Meade, 

Your sincere friend 
CHAMARAJA WODEYAR, 



Early in 1875 Colonel Malleson thought it was time to 
introduce some changes in the arrangements as they existed then 
for the Maharaja's education. In 1874 a house had been bought at 
Bangalore and this house with the repairs and renovations needed 
had almost reached completion and become fit for occupation. 
Malleson's proposals now were : 

1. An English gentleman was to be selected from one of the 

English universities to fill the office of private tutor to 
His Highness occupying a house adjoining that of the 
Maharaja and exercising supervision also over his home 
life. 

2. One of the masters was to accompany His Highness to 

Bangalore occupying the post of assistant tutor and 
manager of the household. 

3. Seven or eight young Arasu boys and the second brother of 

the Maharaja were to accompany His Highness occupy- 
ing rooms in the same house. 

4. The school at Mysore was to continue to work for the time 

being under the supervision of Rangacharlu. 

5. Colonel Malleson also proposed that the appointment of 

Guardian which he himself held might be abolished. 

By the appointment of an English university graduate as 
tutor Malleson expected that broad, liberal and manly ideas would 
be instilled into the mind of the young pupil and his thoughts 
would be directed to the great duties and responsibilities which 
were to devolve on him and that thereby such prevailing ideas as 
that royalty was a pageant, that the k'ing was an irresponsible 
despot, and that the government of a country was the means of 
securing an unlimited command of the national purse would be 
regarded by the Maharaja as foreign to the conduct of life of one in 
his position. In Malleson's opinion, the tendency of the Indian life 
was to bring the mind into a groove from which it rarely emerged 
and it was therefore necessary that by the side of the Maharaja 



J3 

there should be an English tutor whose mind had thought out 
problems for itself and which took nothing on trust. 

The Marquis of Salisbury (formerly Lord Cranborne) who was 
Secretary of State at this time on a reference being made to him by 
the Government of India for the selection of a tutor expressed 
dissent from the views of Colonel Malleson and communicated his 
own views in these terms : " If no other object was in view but to 
bestow upon His Highness the best possible instruction in 
philosophical and literary knowledge, no exception could be taken 
to the arrangement proposed by Colonel Malleson. Such teaching 
could not be given more effectively than by a tutor fresh from the 
education of one of the English universities. But literary efficiency 
is not in this instance the principal object to be attained. At an 
age when the education of other men is not complete His Highness 
will be invested with powers upon the due exercise of which the 
happiness of large numbers will depend and will be charged with 
duties which will leave to him little leisure for the pursuits of a 
student's life. It is of great importance that he should be well 
instructed in the knowledge which will help him to success 
in this high vocation. The principles of the Government which 
will be administered by his authority and in his name, the 
special dangers and errors to which it is exposed, the blessings 
which if rightly directed it may confer, the warnings or the 
encouragement furnished by the history of the other princes of his 
own race are matters to which his mind should be specially turned 
during the remaining years of his minority. To the communication 
of such knowledge some familiarity with the experience of Indian 
administration in its various forms is essential. A person duly 
qualified will be more easily found in India than in England. Your 
Excellency will doubtless be able to select in the military or the 
civil service under your orders, on suitable salary and condi lions, 
some gentleman possessed of the requisite administrative 
experience and fitted by character and disposition to win the 
confidence of his pupil. It is needless for me to remind your 
Excellency of the importance of the issues which may depend on 
the choice you are about to make. Not only the happiness of the 
people of Mysore but the future form and permanency of native 



34 

ftite in India will be largely influenced by the career of the Prince 
whose education you are preparing to complete." 

The Government of India agreeing with the above views of 
the Secretary of State appointed in July 1876 Captain F. A. Wilson 
of the Royal Artillery temporarily as tutor. He was at the time 
holding the appointment of Superintendent of the Tehree State and 
had formerly discharged the duties of tutor to the Nawab of Jowra 
in a manner which secured to him the good opinion of his official 
superiors and the sympathies of the native community. After 
Captain Wilson arrived in Mysore and relieved Malleson, the latter 
was allowed to retire from service and the office of Guardian was 
placed in abeyance for the time being. 

Regarding the contemplated removal of the headquarters of the 
Maharaja to Bangalore, it was found that the intended step had 
caused on the part of the Ranees and His Highness 1 family 
generally a certain amount of distress and uneasy feeling, which it 
was considered desirable to avoid. It was also a question whether* the 
Maharaja's removal from his hereditary capital was not open to 
grave political objections. It was accordingly decided that while the 
young Maharaja was free to pay occasional visits to other parts of his 
dominions and to British India, Mysore was to be regarded as his 
permanent place of residence. 

On the 1st January 1877 the memorable Imperial Assemblage 
was held at Delhi to celebrate the assumption of the additional title 
of "Empress of India" by the Queen of England as representing 
the Paramount Power. The Maharaja of Mysore received an 
invitation from Lord Lytton to attend this assemblage and 
Chamaraja Wodeyar with his two brothers Gopalaraj Urs and 
Subramanyaraj Urs, his brother-in-law Basappaji Urs, Dalavoy 
Devaraj Urs, C. B. Saunders, J. D. Gordon, Captain Wilson, 
Rangacharlu and a few others left Mysore for Delhi on the 10th 
December 1876 and reached that place on the 19th. The gathering 
on the occasion at Delhi was on an unprecedented scale in the annals 
of India. There were assembled Princes and other important 
personages from all parts of the country. During the time devoted 



35 

to receiving and returning the visits of the chiefs there were 
banquets and receptions and entertainments of every kind. At the 
Assemblage itself, ranged in a vast semicircle in front of the 
Viceroy's seat were all the important ruling princes and noblemen 
of India interspersed with the Governors, administrators and other 
high officers in diplomatic or military uniforms. 

At noon a flourish of trumpets from six heralds announced the 
arrival of the Viceroy. Then the Queen's Proclamation was read 
in sonorous tones by the chief herald and there after a translation 
was read out in the Urdu language to the assembly by the Foreign 
Secretary. At its conclusion the Royal Standard was hoisted in 
honour of Her Majesty the Empress and a grand salute of 101 
salvoes of artillery was fired, interspersed at intervals with 
feux-de-joie from the combined lines of British and native infantry, 
while massed bands played the British national anthem. The 
scene at this moment, according to an eye-witness, was very unique. 
The splendid semicircle of princes, the vast expanse of troops, 
brilliant retinues, State elephants and crowds on crowds of human 
beings shading off into the distance, the sounds of music sounding 
above the roar of the artillery and the reverberations of the 
feux~de-joie combined to produce an effect never to be forgotten 
by those who witnessed the scene. 

As the echoes of the last salvo died away, the Viceroy delivered 
an address explaining the intentions of Her Majesty in assuming 
the new title. The Queen, said Lord Lytton, regarded India as a 
glorious inheritance and recognised in its possession a solemn 
obligation to use her power for the welfare of its people and for 
safeguarding the rights of the feudatory princes. He claimed as a 
distinctive feature of the present as contrasted with past regimes 
the maintenance of order, justice and perfect religious toleration 
and towards the conclusion of the address Lord Lytton pronounced 
these memorable words : " It is on the gradual and enlightened 
participation of her Indian subjects in the undisturbed exercise of 
mild and just authority and not upon the conquest of weaker States 
or the annexation of neighbouring territories that Her Majesty 
relies for the development of her Indian Empire." A telegraphic 



36 

message of greeting received on the occasion from the Queen was 
also read by the Viceroy : " We Victoria by the grace of God, of 
the' United Kingdom, Queen -Empress of India, send through our 
Viceroy to all our officers, civil and military and to all Princes, 
Chiefs and peoples now at Delhi assembled, our royal and Imperial 
greeting and assure them of the deep interest and earnest affection 
with which we regard the people of the Indian Empire. We have 
witnessed with heartfelt satisfaction the reception accorded to our 
beloved son and have been touched by the evidence of their loyalty 
and attachment to our House and Throne. We trust that the 
present occasion may tend to unite in bonds of yet closer affection 
ourselves and our subjects, that from the highest to the humblest 
all may feel that under our rule the great principles of liberty, 
equity and justice are secured to them, that to promote their 
happiness and to add to their prosperity and advance their welfare 
are the ever present aims and objects of our Empire." 

On the conclusion of this grand event at Delhi during the whole 
period of which the young Maharaja of Mysore was treated with 
every mark of consideration as one belonging to the first rank of 
princes along with the Nizam of Hyderabad and Gaekwar of 
Baroda, the party left the place on the 9th January 1877 and 
arrived at Mysore on the 29th of the same month visiting on the 
way Agra, Cawnpore, Benares, Nasik and several other places of 
interest. 

Now reverting to the Maharaja's education. After a 
little over a year's experience, it was found that for the 
higher training of the Maharaja for the important duties which 
awaited him and for the proper ordering of the household an 
officer of greater weight and influence than one of Captain Wilson's 
standing and experience was required, while for the direction of the 
young Prince's studies there was also the need of an officer of more 
practical experience in education. J. D. Gordon the Judicial 
Commissioner was considered to be the fittest person to occupy the 
post of Guardian at the stage then reached in the educational 
progress of the Maharaja and he was accordingly appointed to the 
post about the end of 1877. 



37 

For the post of tutor there was, as we have seen, at first an 
idea to appoint an English University graduate but the Secretary 
of State felt that it was desirable that one should be selected from 
among the existing officers of Government. For he thought that a 
person who had no experience of official life and who felt himself 
under no special obligation of obedience to the Government might 
out of mere partisanship for the Maharaja or in pursuance of some 
speculative view use his influence in a manner embarrassing to the 
British Government. To avoid such a contingency W. A. Porter, 
Principal of the Kumbakonam College, who had the reputation of 
being a famous educationist in Southern India was appointed tutor 
to the Maharaja in 1878. 



CHAPTER V. 

Marriage of Chamaraja Wodcyar Tours in the Stale 
Finishing touches to his education. 

In February 1878 the Maharaja completed his 15th year and 
it was considered time to marry him to a suitable bride. The bride 
selected was named Kempananjammanniavaru and was 12 years 
of age at the time of marriage. She was the daughter of Narse 
Urs of the Kalale family who was a descendant in the female line 
of Immadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar who ruled the country before the 
government passed into the hands of Haidar. The bride had 
received fairly good education in English, Kanada and Sanskrit. 

On the morning of the 26th May Chamaraja Wodeyar seated 
on an elephant with his two brothers Gopala Raj Urs and Subra- 
manyaraj Urs one on either side passed in procession in the four 
main streets of the fort at Mysore with all the paraphernalia usual 
on such occasions and arrived in front of the Palace where he was 
received on behalf of the bride's party by Bakshi Basappaji Urs 
the brother-in-law of the Maharaja and conducted to the marriage 
pavilion. Here the marriage ceremony was performed according 
to Hindu rituals in the midst of the rejoicings of all the assembled 
people. At the time of the tying of the Thali or the marriage 
symbol the Chief Commissioner and a number of European officers 
were present. When the Thali was tied and the contracting 
parties became formally united, a royal salute of 21 guns was fired 
from the ramparts of the fort. The Chief Commissioner then went 
up to the screen behind which the surviving Dowager Maharani of 
Seetha Vilas was seated and intimated to her the contents of a 
telegram received from the Viceroy conveying the congratulations 
of Lady Lytton and himself on the happy occasion and in return 
the Maharani desired her thanks to be conveyed for the honour 
done to her House. The Chief Commissioner then delivered a tray 
of presents from the Viceroy consisting of a fine diamond ring for 
the Dowager Maharani and a diamond necklace for the bridegroom 
which was fastened round his neck by the Secretary to Govern - 
#}ent. A pearl necklace and a golden waist-belt set with precious 



stones were presented to the bride. At this time an imperial salute 
of 31 guns was fired. On behalf of the Dowager Maharani 31 
trays containing valuable cloths and jewels were delivered to the 
Chief Commissioner as the representative of the Viceroy for the 
latter's acceptance. 

Various sports and entertainments were arranged for the Indian 
visitors and assembled guests during all the days of the festivities. 
A banquet for the European guests took place on the 3rd June in 
the Jagan Mohan Palace. At the conclusion of the dinner, the 
Maharaja with some of his relations and leading officials joined the 
party. After the toast of Her Majesty was proposed by the 
Maharaja, J. D. Gordon who had become Chief Commissioner by 
this time in acknowledging the toast expressed the hope that His 
Highness would live to rule his State with justice and benevolence. 

On the night of the next day a grand procession took place. 
His Highness was seated in a gold am bar i or howdah on a magni- 
ficent elephant and was attended on foot by his relations and native 
gentlemen. Elephants richly caparisoned and surmounted with 
howdahs and carrying the State flag led the procession. These 
were followed by troops of Silledar horses and these again by a 
company of Barr sepoys, behind whom walked the bearers of 
insignias and other paraphernalia of State accompanied by the 
English band and other music. The rear of the procession was 
similarly brought up by bodies of Silledar horses and elephants. 
The whole length of the cavalcade was lined on both sides by 
Silledar horses and Bahle peons carrying long spears mounted with 
flags which had a picturesque effect in the torch light with which 
the procession was profusely illuminated. The procession after 
leaving the fort proceeded through the main street of the town 
under arches and pandals erected by the townspeople for the occa- 
sion. There was also a general illumination of the town. The 
procession passed on its return through the camp of the English 
guests at the Residency where His Highness was loudly cheered 
and reached the Palace at about 1 a.m. 

W. A. Porter took charge of the Maharaja's education in the 
beginning of July 1878 and at the very outset introduced a few 



40 

salutary changes. Instead of teaching the Maharaja in the class 
along with others Porter acted mainly as his private tutor, thereby 
allowing His Highness to have all his lessons by himself. The 
subject in which the royal pupil took the most interest was Physics 
and he showed great patience and handiness in working with the 
instruments and his interest in the experiments was always fresh. 
Except sometimes on a hunting morning when the run had been an 
unusually long one, Porter never found the Maharaja attending his 
class late or absenting himself. His cheerful and ready application 
to all his lessons even to those for which he had no great liking or 
aptitude was as great as his regularity. He was never sullen or 
ill-tempered under difficulty but always did his best with a cheerful 
temper. One of the teachers A. Narasimha lyengar assisted the 
Maharaja in the preparation of his lessons and was in a considerable 
degree his attendant companion. The Maharaja also took a deep 
interest in games and athletic exercises. He hunted twice a week 
during the hunting season and had the character of a forward rider. 
On most other mornings he rode out for exercise. His afternoon 
amusements were lawn tennis, cricket and driving. He also played 
polo one evening in the week. 

On the occasion of a visit to the famous Kaveri waterfalls at 
Sivasamudram, Porter recorded the following notes: "The 
interest shown in the Maharaja all along the route was in fact 
very remarkable and in many cases touching and impressive. 
Though the journey was perfectly private, the arrangements 
requisite for conveying so large a party necessarily made the fact 
known at the chief places along the route and the interest of the 
people was shown in a way which was evidently wholly spontaneous. 
On the part of the simple villagers the feeling manifested had 
something in it of almost religious veneration. Away on the 
outskirts of the crowd, too far away to receive any notice or 
recognition or serve any object except to gratify his feeling of 
reverence, a poor ryot would drop on the ground and this simple act 
of devotion over would rise and stare with all his eyes, or a woman 
equally far away from the scene with a child in her arms would put 
it down at full length with, its face to the ground and then drop 



41 

beside it. Any one could see by unmistakable signs that loyalty to 
the ancient dynasty of Mysore is still a living and powerful feeling. 
All I have since noticed in every journey made with the Maharaja 
confirms my first opinion. Whenever he travels, it seems to be a 
holiday along the route and the faces of the crowd as evincing the 
intensity of their feelings are subjects of unfailing interest." 

In April 1878 Saunders retired and Gordon was made Chief 
Commissioner combining the duties of the Guardian also and on 
him devolved the responsibility of giving the finishing touches to 
the training of the Maharaja for the proper administration of his 
country. Luckily, Chamaraja Wodeyar was found to be of a 
tractable disposition and all the efforts made by Gordon and Porter 
to train up their young ward for his future responsibility bore happy 
fruit. In November 1879 the young Maharaja was taken on a tour 
through the State accompanied by the Chief Commissioner J. D. 
Gordon, General Secretary W. J. Cunningham, tutor W. A. Porter, 
Revenue Secretary Rangacharlu and Chief Engineer Colonel 
Johnson. In the course of the tour as well as on other occasions 
the system of administration and various administrative details as 
they affected the people in their homes were explained to the 
Maharaja. His Highness wherever he went was welcomed 
enthusiastically by his subjects by means of addresses and other 
demonstrations. Gordon spent much time with the Maharaja at 
Mysore, at Bangalore and at Ootacamund and availed himself of 
these opportunities to converse with him on various subjects and to 
draw out his mind. 

In the latter half of the year 1880 the Maharaja was again 
taken out on a tour of six weeks. During this period His Highness 
travelled through most of the districts in the State, visiting not only 
the headquarters of districts but also many other places of interest 
and importance. The loyalty and devotion displayed by all classes 
of people during this tour were, as the Chief Commissioner himself 
bore testimony, most remarkable. " At every station," wrote 
Gordon, " the Maharaja was greeted by an immense concourse of 
the population who had flocked from all parts of the Province to see 
At every turn of the road it may almost be said there were 

A6 



42 

eager crowds from the neighbouring villages gathered to welcome 
him. Triumphal arches, illuminations and other joyful demonstra- 
tions were everywhere spontaneously and enthusiastically made in 
honour of the occasion, so that the whole tour may be described as 
one continuous procession. The principal officials and the leading 
members of the local communities were at each place introduced to 
His Highness. He visited and inspected with me schools and all 
other institutions as well as important public works, roads, bridges 
and tanks. At all these places every opportunity was taken to 
impress on his mind what was important and to direct his attention 
to it. The effect has been, on the whole, most beneficial both 
in opening his mind and in awakening in him a kindly interest in 
the welfare of the people with whom he has thus early been brought 
in contact." After this tour was completed, Porter led His Highness 
over a somewhat higher range of subjects embracing the leading 
facts of constitutional history and the elementary principles of 
political economy. The practical details of the administration were 
imparted by the Chief Commissioner himself or by Colonel A. C. 
Hay, Commissioner of the Ashtagram Division, stationed at Mysore. 
At the period at which we have now arrived the Maharaja's 
education and political training may be said to have been practically 
concluded and, in the meanwhile, arrangements for the investiture 
of His Highness with ruling powers also went on apace as will be 
seen in the next chapter. 



CHAPTER Vt. 

Re-settlement of political relations with the British 
Government An experiment in constitutional Government 
for Native States Revision of administrative departments. 

In June 1875 the Marquis of Salisbury who was then Secretary 
of State for India called the attention of the Government at Calcutta 
to the advisibility of making a beginning for overhauling the 
administrative machinery of Mysore so as to adapt it for the 
Maharaja's rule when the time came for the restoration of the 
country to His Highness. The Government of India were also 
aware that several complicated questions required solution in the 
interval that existed before the young Maharaja's installation in 
power. The distraction caused by the famine however had prevented 
both the Government of India as well as the Chief Commissioner 
from bestowing any attention on this subject and it was not till 
November 1878 that the matter was taken up. 

On the 9th of November of that year the Government of India 
in a letter addressed to the Chief Commissioner observed that in 
settling the new form of administration for Mysore it was to be 
noted that the case under consideration was different from that of 
any other Native State which had been temporarily administered 
by the British Government. Two generations of the inhabitants 
of Mysore had grown up under British rule and in one part of the 
State there was a considerable body of English settlers who relying 
upon the protection assured to them by a systematic administration 
had invested their capital and acquired valuable property in the soil. 
The whole population had thus become accustomed to be governed 
upon principles which were universally admitted to be essential. 
The laws were written and duly promulgated, criminal and civil 
justice was dispensed by regular courts, the assessment and 
collection of revenue were made under permanent rules and 
generally the administration was carried on upon the same method 
and according to the standard of conduct which prevailed through- 
out British territory. It was therefore advisable, they said, that before 
Mysore was transferred to its future ruler the Government of India 



4+ 

should take adequate guarantees against any prejudicial changed 
being made in the administration which had taken root in the 
country. 

The Government of India also considered it necessary to 
determine at the outset -the main conditions which were to be 
attached to the investiture of His Highness the Maharaja with the 
full powers of executive government. These conditions, in their 
opinion, were to be regarded as forming something of the nature of 
a constitution for Mysore and were to be regarded as not liable to 
change without the assent of the British Government. The first 
condition was that the body of laws and rules made for the transac- 
tion of public affairs approved by the Government of India upto the 
time of the transfer were to remain in force until they were modified 
by competent authority. Any material deviation from the adminis- 
trative system thus settled required the concurrence of the Govern- 
ment of India, while for the amendment of laws provision was to be 
made by the establishment of some legislative machinery. An 
immediate consequence of the declaration of the principle that all 
official authority was derived from some definite sanction would 
mean that no demands for taxes or other payments to the State 
could be made except under some law or prescriptive right or recog- 
nised custom. Further, a clear distinction was to be drawn between 
the private fortune 1 of the Maharaja and the public revenues of the 
State, so that no appropriation of public money could be made 
otherwise than under the regularly constituted authorities entrusted 
with its expenditure. Complete accounts of the public expenses 
were to be rendered and subjected to competent audit. The system 
of annual appropriations based on a budget estimate to supply the 
funds needed for the several departments of the Government was to 
be continued. In judicial matters the executive was to have the 
same ample power of interference which was possessed by the 
executive government in British India and by similar analogy the 
restrictions upon prosecutions of public servants for acts done in 
their public capacity were to be the same as those established by 
the laws of British India. These were to be, according to the 
Government of India, the principles which the future Government 
of Mysore was to accept and maintain. 



45 

Next as regards the manner in which the administration was 
to be organised, it was thought necessary to follow at all events at 
the outset the form of administration as it existed then. The 
administration at the time was conducted by a Chief Commissioner 
aided by a Secretary, by a Judicial Commissioner who besides 
exercising a general supervision over the proceedings of the inferior 
courts of justice was the chief judioial appellate authority in the State, 
by three Commissioners of Divisions who discharged both judicial 
and administrative functions and by an organisation in each district 
at the head of which was a Deputy Commissioner who was judge 
and magistrate as well as collector. In the Departments of Public 
Works and Education the organisation was very similar to that 
which prevailed in British Provinces. The management of the 
police was under the Deputy Commissioners of districts aided by 
Police Assistants and by a Deputy Inspector-General who exercised 
a general supervision over the whole police of the State. There 
was a small military force under the command of a European 
officer who was designated Military Assistant to the Chief 
Commissioner. 

Under the future regime most of the duties which were being 
discharged by the Chief Commissioner, it was considered, would 
fall to the share of the principal officers of the Maharaja's 
Government in subordination to him. The allotment of functions 
to these officers and the fixing of their relative responsibilities were 
matters for careful deliberation. While it was desirable, said the 
Government of India, that the vigour and promptitude in the des- 
patch of business which usually resulted from investing one person 
with ample and superior powers should be secured, especially during 
the early years of the Maharaja's rule when he was yet to acquire 
sufficient strength and experience, it should at the same time be 
recognised that the system of concentrating the executive authority 
over all departments in a State in the hands of a single high official 
had proved by constant trial to be open to objections. Where the 
Chief of a State was able and energetic, the extensive powers of a 
Dewan, it was believed, rarely survived for any period after the 
termination of a Chief's minority. Where the Chief was by training 
or temperament indisposed to assume the burden of personal 



administration, the institution of a Dewan favoured that indisposi- 
tion and encouraged tendencies which were apt in the end to affect 
injuriously the position and character of the hereditary Chief. The 
Government of India therefore considered that the safest arrange- 
ment at the beginning was to provide the Maharaja with a Council 
consisting of not more than three of the highest officials at head- 
quarters. Of this Council, one member could be selected as the 
Maharaja's chief executive officer or Dewan and as the immediate 
directing head of the departments in all matters except those which 
by the rules of business were to be reserved for consideration in 
Council. The other two members were to be selected from among 
the heads of the principal departments according to personal 
qualification and were to undertake in addition to their special 
departmental business such portions of the work sent up to the 
Council as were allotted to each. At the Council which would meet 
once or more often in the week the Maharaja was to usually preside 
and no important measure was to be inaugurated until it had been 
thus collectively discussed and passed. In the Judicial Department 
provision was needed for a Chief Court of appeal which was to 
discharge the duties then being discharged by the Judicial Commis- 
sioner. In the opinion of the Government of India this court was 
to be composed of a plurality of judges with a European Chief 
Judge for some years to come. The administration of the police 
was also to remain for many years to come in the hands of a 
European officer and similarly the department of Public Works. 

J. D. Gordon the Chief Commissioner gave his concurrence to 
the above principles and propositions and at the same time impressed 
upon the Government of India the ad visibility of maintaining a 
proper and adequate machinery for the administration of the State 
and of placing some restriction on the military forces to be main- 
tained by the State. As regards the Chief Judge of the High Court 
being a member of the State Council, Gordon expressed the opinion 
that though the combination in the same person of the functions of 
a Lord Chancellor with those of a Chief Judge might not be in strict 
accordance with European ideas, yet in a native administration it 
would be a source of strength to the executive government without 
impairing the judicial administration of the High Court. Gordon 



47 

also suggested that the proposed Council might with advantage be 
supplemented by a deliberative assembly composed of eminent 
retired officials, representatives of great local families, and represent- 
atives of the various sections and interests of the people before whom 
all proposed legislation, important measures of administrative 
reform and budget appropriations of public money might be placed 
for discussion and opinion. Such an assembly would, in his opinion, 
give the executive government an expression by practical and 
intelligent men of public opinion on all proposed measures, while it 
would not fetter the action of the executive. Moreover, it would 
afford the further advantage of providing a field of useful occupation 
and distinction to the leading non-official members of the commu- 
nity. As regards the ruler himself, having regard to the inevitable 
imperfections of chiefs succeeding to power by hereditary right and 
to the attendant evils in fixing on them the responsibility for the 
acts of Government, it was desirable that the Maharaja should not 
take upon himself too much of the details of administration. He 
should, of course, take a lively interest in the administration, exercise 
a healthy influence upon it by approval or displeasure, but in the 
main, said Gordon, it was desirable that he should confine himself to 
the consideration and discussion and the approval or veto of general 
measures and of nominations to the more important offices and to 
the selection of proper men for filling the highest posts in the 
administration. 

In May 1879 Lord Lytton's Government addressed a despatch 
to the Secretary of State which began with a recital of Lord 
Northcote's observations made in 1867 of the need of assuring a 
sufficient guarantee for the continued good administration of the 
Mysore territory whose inhabitants had become used to orderly 
government for a long period under British rule and contained a 
summary of the measures which, in their opinion, secured the 
object in view as set forth in the correspondence with the Chief 
Commissioner of Mysore. The despatch also set forth that the 
transfer of a rich and civilised State from British to native rule 
with the stipulation that its Government should continue to be 
maintained at the British Indian standard of efficiency was a unique 
experiment in^sinUQh *s it w^s necessary to n^^int^in the dignity 



48 

and comparative independence of the ruler of the State by reserving 
to him personally some substantial share in the actual direction of 
the affairs of his State, remembering that in the great majority of 
the States in India the ruler's authority was by theory, though not 
actually, unlimited. This consideration had however to be 
subordinated to the still more essential necessity of providing 
beforehand some positive guarantees and checks against the 
consequences which would follow any serious misuse of the ruler's 
power through inexperience, through an unfortunate disposition, or 
under the advice of bad counsellors. At the same time, it was 
necessary to remember that while the constitution framed with 
these objects should continue effectively to fulfil them, the ruler and 
his Government should not feel themselves kept too closely under 
tutelage and restraint. The first step in framing the constitution 
was to surround the Maharaja with counsellors and high officials of 
known ability and experience and to establish such methods of 
transacting public business as would ensure every step being taken 
after deliberation and under distinct responsibility. 

As regards the deliberative assembly proposed by Gordon, the 
despatch stated that it was premature to introduce in the beginning 
an institution which had not been tried in British India and which 
was not known to have succeeded elsewhere under circumstances 
analogous to those of Mysore, although some such accessory 
development might follow in the future. 

The despatch also referred to the importance of the military 
establishment of the State. It was necessary that this establish- 
ment should not undergo a reduction below a certain numerical 
strength which should be adequate to the dignity and importance of 
the ruler of a State like that of Mysore. The Silledar Horse was a 
body of old standing and of long repute and it would be. impolitic to 
leave the State with a local force of that kind much inferior in 
numbers to the mounted troops which were kept up in other first 
class States for internal protection and for display. The despatch 
concluded with these important observations : " The experiment of 
placing His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore at the head of a 
constitutional government that is, a Government to fee cpn4ucte4 



49 

on fixed and fundamental principles undoubtedly makes a new 
departure in the policy of the Imperial Government towards the 
Native States of India. To determine the proper method of dealing 
with these States and of discharging the responsibilities which they 
entail upon the Paramount Power has always been and still is a 
problem of great difficulty. For the improvement of their condition 
and their gradual assimilation to the general system and standard 
of the Imperial Government is almost essential to their 
preservation. But the knowledge that we are now anxious to 
preserve Native States and the feeling of political security which 
has gradually gained ground among their rulers have tended almost 
as much to impede as to facilitate our endeavours to strengthen and 
consolidate these governments. In the period which preceded 
British predominance in India, a State which fell into confusion and 
embarassment was in imminent danger from attack by more 
powerful neighbours and in the period which followed it was often 
threatened with annexation. The Native States have now no longer 
anything to fear either from foreign conquest or from annexation, 
while the Chiefs have received a distinct assurance from Her 
Majesty's Government that the succession of their legitimate heirs 
shall be recognised and maintained. Thus, while the power of the 
ruler has remained in theory and occasionally in practice absolute, 
the natural preventives and antidotes to extreme imprudence and 
mismanagement have to some extent been withdrawn. It is certain 
that this freedom from fear of the consequences of lax and injurious 
administration has been to some perceptible extent detrimental in 
its effects upon their counsellors and officials and upon all those 
who are influential in the governments of the States. 

" Under these circumstances and through the operation of 
these causes the Supreme Government has been obliged of late 
years to interpose frequently in the affairs of Native States. The 
incapacity or the grave misconduct of a ruler has produced compli* 
cations which have demanded immediate and stringent remedies, or 
the interval of a long minority has made it necessary to superintend 
more closely a State's management. Where the government has 
not been for the time sequestrated and placed under British officers, 
the personal authority of the ruler has ordinarily passed with little 

A7 



56 

change into the hands of some native minister specially selected for 
ability. But while the frequent intervention of the British 
Government in any shape to restore order in a Native State is of 
itself inconvenient and undesirable and while the expedient of 
introducing British officers has its obvious drawbacks, the alternative 
of entrusting very large powers to a single minister however able 
and energetic has been found by experience to be attended with 
special disadvantages. 

" The policy now enunciated proceeds upon the broad principle 
that in order to guard against chronic misrule in a Native State and 
to obviate the necessity for frequent and arbitrary interposition by 
the Supreme Government to remedy the consequences of such 
misrule, it is expedient to avail ourselves of every opportunity of 
placing some reasonable limitations upon the personal power of the 
ruler or of the minister to whom the administration may be 
entrusted. The limitations thus imposed must be brought on public 
record in order to place them beyond question or controversy ; 
and in certain cases the general power of supervision to be exercised 
by the Supreme Government may need to be strengthened and 
extended. If the application of these principles to Mysore be 
approved by Her Majesty's Government, they may form the ground- 
work of a settled policy which will guide the Government of India 
in the general discharge of its responsibilities towards feudatory 
States. A new and valuable precedent will have been established 
and this with the experience which will have been gained in Mysore 
may enable us in future to deal systematically with similar questions 
of reorganisation or reform " 

In August 1879 Viscount Cranbrooke, Secretary of State for 
India, conveyed his approval of the measures proposed by the 
Government of India for the gradual adaptation of the then existing 
administrative system of Mysore to the new conditions in which 
that State was to be placed on its transfer to native rule. He also 
agreed with the Government of India that the experiment of placing 
the Maharaja of Mysore at the head of a Government to be 
conducted on fixed and fundamental principles was a new departure 
in the policy of the Imperial Government towards the Native States 



il 

of India. To determine the proper method of dealing with those- 
States and of discharging the responsibilities of the British 
Government towards them had always been a problem of great 
difficulty. The absolute security against internal revolt now 
enjoyed by native rulers entailed upon them obligations towards 
their subjects which they could not be allowed to disregard. It was 
in the gradual and judicious extension in Native States of the 
general principles of government which were applied in British 
territory that their rulers would find the surest guarantee of their 
administrative independence and the best safeguard against 
intervention on the part of the Paramount Power. Experience 
alone could determine how far the proposed system would effect a 
perfectly satisfactory adjustment of the relative powers of the 
Maharaja, his Minister and Council, and the British Government. 
Much would depend on the cordial goodwill and co-operation of the 
native ruler himself and it was therefore the desire of Her Majesty's 
Government that no time should be lost in explaining to the 
Maharaja the changes in the administration which were already in 
course of execution and the political organisation of which he was 
intended to be the head. His Highness was then of an age to take 
a comprehensive and intelligent view of the question which 
intimately affected his future position, in order that he might form 
at least a general idea of the system which he would be required to 
administer. 

On the 3rd March 1880 the Government of India informed the 
Secretary of State that the Chief Commissioner had frequently 
discussed with and explained to the Maharaja the administrative 
changes which were being made or were contemplated and the 
nature of the political institutions over which His Highness was to 
preside. With regard to the extent to which the direction of the 
administration would remain in the hands of the Maharaja himself, 
the Government of India communicated their views to the Secretary 
of State in these words " It has never been intended that His 
Highness 1 personal authority in State affairs should be other than 
wide and substantial or that the powers entrusted to the Dewan or 
to the Council should be exercised independently of the State's 
It is mpst difficult, on the ope hand, to define befprehan4 



32 

with any precision the share of authority to be retained in 
His Highness' hands without producing the appearance, if not the 
effect, of limiting that authority; and this we desire not to do 
formally. On the other hand, it is not easy to settle any exact 
limitations other than rules of procedure in the transaction of 
business upon the powers either of the Dewan or the Council which 
will not in practice be construed as giving them some independent 
authority within those limitations. According to the system we 
would introduce, no councillor or ministerial officer would have any 
constitutional power to act independently of the Maharaja or to 
issue orders except in His Highness* name and subject to His 
Highness* revision. Thus the chief authority and the ultimate 
governmental responsibility would in all classes rest actually as well 
as nominally with the State's ruler. But we consider it essential 
under this system of personal government to provide that all 
important acts and orders shall necessarily have passed through 
certain departmental formalities and shall have undergone certain 
regular processes of examination and joint consultation before they 
issue in the Maharaja's name and by his will. Moreover, since 
it is obviously necessary that a large part of the details of current 
business should be disposed of by His Highness' ministers, it is 
equally necessary that these ministers should have defined duties 
and responsibilities. For these reasons and with these objects we 
consider it expedient to give the official advisers and chief ministerial 
officers a voice in all important deliberations and the right to place 
on record their views regarding any matter of consequence affecting 
the administration of the country. Unless some such foothold in the 
system of Government is secured to the members of the Council, 
they can scarcely be held answerable either for the proper discharge 
of their departmental duties or for the advice which they may give 
to the Maharaja and their influence and utility will be proportionately 
slight* But beyond this privilege of advising and of recording their 
advice, the proposed measures would confer upon them no separate 
status." 

Before handing over the administration to the young Maharaja, 
considerable reductions in expenditure became necessary on account 
of the f41 iA the cganual reverse due to the famine of 1876-1977 



53 

and this task was undertaken in the period between 1878-1881. 
The total expenditure in 1878-1879 was Rs. 1,09,50,760 and the 
same in 1881 on account of revision stood at Rs. 99,96,281. One 
effect of this revision of expenditure was that intermediate offices 
of control like those of the Commissioners of Divisions were 
abolished and District and Sessions Judges were appointed for per- 
forming judicial work which was being done by the Commissioners. 
So far as the higher judiciary was concerned there came to be a 
complete separation between the executive and judicial functions 
from this period. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Re-settlement of political relations with the British 
Government (continued). 

With their Despatch dated 3rd March 1880 to the Secretary of 
State the Government of India submitted to him for approval the 
draft of a written Instrument embodying the conditions under which 
the young Maharaja was to assume possession of his State and also 
defining authoritatively his future relations with the Paramount 
Power. As regards the internal administration of the State, the 
Instrument advisedly avoided entering upon details but reserved to 
the Governor -General in Council discretionary power of interposi- 
tion when he considered it necessary. The draft also in the 
Preamble made no reference to the preceding engagements 
which existed between the British Government and Krishnaraja 
Wodeyar III. The Government of India said that there was no 
necessity to examine in detail the terms of the previous treaties 
except so far as it was necessary to reconcile the maintenance of 
an Indian Dynasty on the Throne of Mysore with the good 
government of the country and the security of British interests. 
Agreeing with the view contained in Sir Stafford Northcote's 
Despatch of 1867, the Government of India also said that the present 
settlement was to supersede all prior engagements and was to 
constitute a new departure in the relations between the British 
Government and the Maharaja's Family. 

The first question related to the succession to the Throne of 
Mysore regarding which this important pronouncement is contained 
in the despatch: "The Government of India now deals with 
successions in the ruling families of Native States throughout India 
upon certain general principles which if not formulated in writing 
are universally recognised in practice. Where there is a natural 
heir whose title to succeed is beyond dispute according to law and 
usage, he succeeds as a matter of course unless he is obviously and 
totally unfit, though in this as in every other case a succession is 
thoroughly understood to require formal confirmation and recogni- 
tion by the Paramount Power, Where the successipa i disputed, 



55 

the Supreme Government steps in and decides authoritatively 
according to the usages of the race or the family. Where all heirs 
natural or adopted fail, the Supreme Government will not only 
recognise such successor to the rulership of a Native State as on 
general considerations may seem best but may attach to the 
succession whatever conditions seem fitting and desirable 

" It appears to us, nevertheless, expedient in the particular 
case of Mysore that the main conditions under which the throne 
will become hereditary in the Maharaja's Family should be distinctly 
entered upon record. We think this advisable not only for reasons 
analogous to those which have induced the Government of India to 
make definite stipulations for the future administration of the 
country but also because since this Instrument will be in some 
sense the title-deed of the family, there may be a tendency to 
regard it as exclusively representing the whole body of rights and 
liabilities existing between the State and the Supreme Government. 
The 3rd clause of the Instrument has therefore been so framed as 
to forestall all controversy regarding the right of the British 
Government to pass over an heir on the ground of obvious 
incapacity, or to decide among claimants to the succession, or 
generally to select a successor among collaterals where no clear 
pretensions to succeed by inheritance can be established. This last 
mentioned provision appears very expedient in the case of Mysore 
where the collateral branches of the Ruling House are remote, while 
the order of succession among the collaterals is so far as can be 
ascertained singularly unsettled, obscure and complicated. The 
form in which the clause has been drawn admits the right of 
adoption, while it precludes, in our opinion, the possibility of any 
such difficulty arising as has- been produced by doubts as to the 
right construction of Lord Canning's Adoption Sannads. It will 
be noticed that no succession will be valid until it shall have been 
recognised by the Governor- General in Council and that by the 
last clause of the Instrument the decision of the Governor- General 
in Council upon any question regarding the succession is final." 

As regards the annual subsidy and the extra contributions to 
be paid to the British Government for the protection ensured to the 



56 

State by that Government, it will be remembered that the claim 
had been expressed in very general terms in the Subsidiary Treaty 
of 1799 and in 1807 these indefinite liabilities were commuted to 
the maintenance of a body of 4000 effective Horse. It was 
estimated at the time that of this body 3000 Horse represented 
the additional force which the State was required to maintain for 
external defence. During the days of the British Commission 
large reductions in the body of the Silledar force had been 
sanctioned from time to time and the number in 1880 stood at 
one-fourth of the number of 4000 mentioned in the treaty of 1807. 
These reductions, it is understood, were made with the object of 
economising the State's revenue by limiting the Silledar Horse only 
to the strength requisite for the needs of internal administration. 
It was considered very improbable under the military system 
of the British Government as it existed that the Maharaja would in 
the future be required to raise the force upon a military footing to 
its full obligatory complement or to keep up cavalry ready to 
accgmpany British troops on foreign service. The existing body 
of 1000 horsemen was accepted as sufficient for the internal 
protection of the State and it was proposed that the cost of 
maintaining the remaining 3000 horsemen calculated at Rs. lOi 
lakhs might be added to the Subsidy of Rs. 24i lakhs, raising it 
in all to Rs. 35 lakhs per annum. 

As regards the land required for British cantonment or for any 
other establishments or purposes connected with British interests 
within Mysore, the Government of India said that they assumed 
that Bangalore would remain in their possession and under 
complete jurisdiction, although in demarcating the precise limits it 
was unnecessary to include the whole town which formed the chief 
centre of provincial trade. The Maharaja, they said, need not be 
required to yield in full sovereignty the lands required by 
the British Government. It was sufficient to reserve such lands hi 
occupation on perpetual assignment securing under the Instrument 
the British Government's right to hold at pleasure these and any 
other lands which they might require for similar purposes. 

The Government of India also now proposed that the 
opportunity might be taken to make over the island of Seringapatsuq 



$9 

absolutely to the Mysore State which was still regarded as British 
territory though it had been from 1829 in the possession of the 
Mysore Government upon an annual rent of Rs. 50,000, this rent 
being entirely remitted for the future. 

The external relations of the Mysore State were proposed to be 
placed on the same footing as those of all Indian States and the 
Maharaja was to have no political communications with any other 
State except through the medium of the Government of India. 
The employment in his service of Europeans was to be subject to 
the approval of the British Government and jurisdiction over 
European British subjects could only be exercised by the British 
Government. In regard to railways and telegraphs in Mysore, 
the British Government was to be free to reserve power to retain 
the working of them in their own hands and to assume jurisdiction 
over railway lands where necessary as had been done in almost all 
the other States of India. The draft Instrument also stipulated 
that the consent of the British Government was requisite for the 
alteration of any laws in force at the time of the transfer and for 
any material change in the constituted system of any important 
branch of the administration and also that no title-deeds granted or 
settlement of land revenue made under British administration were 
alterable except by a competent law court. 

On the 12th August 1880 Lord Hartington who was then 
Secretary of State in a despatch to the Marquis of Ripon who had 
succeeded Lord Lytton as Governor- General conveyed the approval 
of Her Majesty's Government to the draft Instrument of Transfer. 
In doing so, Lord Hartington while accepting the proposed total 
subsidy of Rs. 35 lakhs as fair observed that the recent famine in 
the State had imposed so heavy a burden on its resources that the 
British Government instead of being able to hand over the country 
to the Maharaja with a surplus found the revenues of the State 
burdened with a debt to the Government of India amounting to 
Rs. 80 lakhs. In these circumstances Her Majesty's Government 
influenced by a desire not to place any undue burden on the finances 
of Mysore in the early stage of the Maharaja's rule expressed 
willingness to postpone the increased subsidy of Rs. 10i lakhs for a 

A8 



5S 

period of five years from the date of the Maharaja's accession to 
power. In this despatch Lord Hartington also added that Her 
Majesty's Government were glad that steps had been taken to 
explain fully to the Maharaja the administrative changes which 
were being made or were contemplated as well as the nature of the 
political institutions over which His Highness was to preside and 
that it was intended that his share in the work of Government was 
to be a substantial one, though no doubt it was right that the 
Maharaja's advisers and chief ministerial officers should have a 
voice in all important deliberations affecting State affairs. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Investiture of Chamaraja Wodeyar X with Ruling Powers. 

All preliminary arrangements for transferring the State to the 
Maharaja's hands having been completed, a Durbar for formally 
effecting this transfer was held in the Palace at Mysore on the 
morning of the 25th March 1881. Lord Ripon was not able to be 
personally present at the Durbar and under his instructions the 
Right Honourable W. P. Adams, Governor of Madras, represented 
the Viceroy on behalf of the Government of India. The Governor 
arrived at the Palace gate with his personal staff escorted by a body 
of troops and was received with the usual honours. A short time 
after, the Governor, the Maharaja and J. D. Gordon the Chief 
Commissioner entered the Durbar hall and took their seats on a 
raised platform, the Governor seating himself in the centre with the 
Maharaja on his right and the Chief Commissioner on his left. 
The British civil and military officers, the Mysore officers and all 
others invited for the occasion were seated to the right and left of 
the platform. 

The Governor of Madras then rose and said that at the request 
of the Viceroy and Governor- General of India he was there as his 
representative, as the Viceroy was unable to be present in person. 
It gave him, the Governor said, great pleasure to be present on the 
occasion considering the intimate relationship of the Presidency of 
Madras with the State of Mysore. He then called upon 
R. Davidson, Chief Secretary to the Government of Madras, to read 
the following proclamation : " Whereas in the year 1868 the 
Viceroy and Governor- General of India in Council announced by 
proclamation to the chiefs and people in Mysore that His 
Highness Chamarajendra Wodeyar Bahadur, the adopted son 
of the late Maharaja Sri Krishnaraja Wodeyar Bahadur, had 
been acknowledged by the Government of India as successor 
to Maharaja Krishnaraja Wodeyar and as Maharaja of the 
Mysore territories and declared that when His Highness 
Should attain the age of eighteen years the Government 



60 

of 'the country would be entrusted to him, subject to such conditions 
as might be determined at the time; 

" Now, therefore, His Excellency the Viceroy *and Governor- 
General of India in Council announces to the chiefs and people of 
Mysore by command of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain 
and Ireland and Empress of India that His Highness Sri 
Chamarajendra Wodeyar Bahadur is placed in possession of the 
territories of -Mysore and invested with the administration of the 
Mysore State. 

"And His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor- General in 
Council declares further to the chiefs and people of Mysore that the 
administration of the aforesaid territories by the British Government 
has on this day ceased and determined." 

After the proclamation was read, the Maharaja was formally 
installed at 7-15 a.m. and the Governor on delivering the Instrument 
of Transfer to His Highness said : " Maharaja Chamarajendra 
Wodeyar Bahadur, Maharaja of Mysore As the representative of 
the Viceroy and Governor- General of India and in obedience to the 
proclamation which has just been read, I now invest you with the 
administration of the State of Mysore and in doing so I dgsire 
to offer you my warmest congratulations and on behalf of the 
Queen-Empress and the Viceroy as well as for myself and all here 
present I wish you success and prosperity and that you may long 
continue to rule over a peaceful, happy and contented people. Her 
Majesty the Queen-Empress always mindful of the gracious words 
she used in the proclamation to the Princes, Chiefs and people of 
India in 1858 has by the great act which we celebrate this day 
given a further practical proof of her desire scrupulously to adhere 
to that proclamation both in letter and spirit. 

41 Your Highness The Queen and Viceroy are well aware of 
the high and responsible trust which the British Government this 
day commits to Your Highness* charge. But happily they also 
know that you have endeavoured to render yourself fit for the great 
duty that devolves upon you and that under the guidance of Mr. 
Gordon, tfoe Chief Commissioner of Mysore, you have studied the 



61 

principles of Government and by the interest that you have shown 
therein and also by your own manly life and conduct you have given 
every indication of becoming a wise, liberal and enlightened ruler. 
Having therefore this confidence in your good qualities, believing 
also in the attachment of the chiefs and people of Mysore to Your 
Highness and in their steadfast loyalty to the British Government, 
I now on behalf of the Viceroy and Governor- General of India 
present you with this Instrument of Transfer and pray that God 
who watches over us whatever our creed may guide you aright in 
all that you undertake and may bless the act that we perform 
this day. 1 * 

The Maharaja in response said : " Your Excellency I am 
deeply sensible of the generosity and kindness which Her Majesty 
the Queen-Empress has invariably shown to my Family. In now 
installing me as ruler of the territory of my ancestors Her Majesty 
has given a further proof of the justice and generosity which the 
Mysore House has ever experienced at the hands of the British 
Government. I beg Your Excellency to convey to Her Majesty an 
expression of my deep, grateful loyalty and attachment to the 
British Crown and my assurance that it shall be my earnest 
endeavour by promoting the welfare of the people to prove myself 
worthy of the confidence reposed in me. I would ask Your 
Excellency to accept my thanks for the kind interest shown in me 
on this occasion." 

The usual khillats from the Viceroy were then presented to the 
Maharaja. At this time a telegraphic message arrived from the 
Viceroy which ran as follows : " I am commanded by the Queen - 
Empress to offer to Your Highness Her Majesty's congratulation 
upon your installation and to express Her Majesty's best wishes for 
Your Highness' prosperity and that of your country. The Queen- 
Empress also commands me to thank Your Highness warmly for 
the very kind and loyal telegram which Her Majesty has received 
from you." A gentle shower of rain fell at the time the Durbar 
was held and this incident and the birth of a daughter to His 
Highness on the llth March previous were regarded as happy 
auguries for th$ future and caused rejoicings among the people, 



62 

In the afternoon addresses were presented to the Maharaja 
from various taluks, towns and districts as well as from Societies 
and Associations. Among the addresses was one on behalf of the 
Catholic community of Mysore presented by His Lordship 
Dr. Coadou in Latin. It was a unique address full of meaning and 
good sense and a translation of it in English was read by T. R. A. 
Thumboo Chetty a prominent member of that community and who 
held a high position in the Mysore Service. The address after 
offering the felicitations of the communitty concluded with these 
words : " We also pray with our whole heart and beseech God 
that He may grant that wisdom with which He enlightened the 
heart of King Solomon. May He grant you so to rule that your 
reign may be a reign of peace and justice, so to govern that under 
your auspices the good may walk without fear in the path of 
righteousness and the bad may be frightened out of their evil ways. 
May God grant that as the throne on which you sit is of refulgent 
gold so may Your Highness be resplendent with virtues which 
become a King. May God grant that during your reign the 
ministers who help you with their counsel and stand round your 
throne may walk in the ways of justice and that the people subject 
to your sceptre may enjoy undisturbed peace and happiness " 

His Highness in reply said : " Those who labour in the cause 
of religion are always a help to Government and your religion 
especially may well be credited with inculcating principles of peace 
and loyalty in the minds of the people. The 26,000 Canarese 
Christian population of my territories peacefully and zealously 
following their industrial occupations without any collision with 
fellow countrymen of other faiths bear testimony to the fact how 
while propogating your faith you sacredly avoid breaking social 
institutions or impairing mutual good-will. Permit me, my Lord 
Bishop, to assure you of my support and sympathy in your 
disinterested godly work. I am touched by the piece of Jewish 
history quoted by you. I assure you that trust in God and 
submission to His Will have ever ruled and shall ever rule the 
conduct of my family and myself and I look to that high power as 
my help and guide and for crowning with success my endeavours in 
the good government of my country and of my people." 



63 

On the evening of the same day a second durbar was held at 
which the following proclamation issued by His Highness was read 
and was also published in all parts of the State : " Whereas the 
Government of the territories of Mysore heretofore administered on 
our behalf by the British Government has this day been transferred 
to us by the proclamation of His Excellency the Viceroy and 
Governor- General of India in Council, dated this 25th day of 
March 1881, we do hereby notify and declare that we have this day 
assumed charge of the said Government and we call upon all our 
subjects within the said territories to be faithtul and to bear true 
allegiance to us, our heirs and successors. 

" We do hereby further declare that all laws and rules having 
the force of law now in force in the said territories shall continue to 
be in force within the said territories. 

" We do hereby accept as binding upon us all grants and 
settlements heretofore made b}' the British Government within the 
said territories in accordance with the respective terms thereof, 
except in so far as they may be rescinded or modified either by a 
competent court of law or with the consent of the Governor -General 
in Council. 

" We hereby confirm all existing courts of Judicature within 
the said territories in the respective jurisdictions now vested in 
them and we confirm in their respective appointments the judges 
and all other officers, civil and military, now holding office within 
the said territories. 

" For the conduct of the executive administration of the said 
territories under our commands and control we have resolved to 
appoint a Dewan. And we placing trust and confidence in the 
loyalty, ability and judgment of Chettipaniam Veeravalli 
Rangacharlu, C. I. E., do hereby appoint the said Chettipaniam 
Veeravalli Rangacharlu, C. I. E., to be our Dewan for the conduct 
of the executive administration of the said territories. 

" His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General in 
Council having complied with our request to lend us the services of 



64 

the present judicial Commissioner Mr. John Doublas Sandford, 
Bengal Civil Service, Barrister-at-law and Master of Arts to aid us 
m the administration of justice in our territories, we hereby confirm 
the same John Douglas Sandford in his appointment under the 
designation of Chief Judge of Mysore* 

" We have further resolved that a Council shall be formed to 
be styled * the Council of His Highness the Maharaja of 
Mysore ' which shall consist of the Dewan for the time being as 
ex-officio President and of two or more members to be specially 
appointed by us from time to time. It shall be the duty of the 
members of the said Council to submit for our consideration their 
opinions on all questions relating to legislation and taxation and on 
all other important measures connected with the good administration 
of our territories and the well-being of our subjects. We are 
accordingly pleased to appoint Chettipaniam Veeravalli Rangacharlu, 
C. I. E., Dewan, ex-officio President, Trichnopoly Rayalu 
Arogyaswamy Thumboo Chetty, Judge, ex-officio member, Purna 
Krishna Rao, Attupakam Ratna Sabhapathy Mudaliar to be 
members of the said Council, to hold office as such Councillors for 
the term of three years or during our pleasure." 

Thumboo Chetty before he joined the Mysore Service was 
MunsifT of Pnrghi in the Bellary district. In February 1867 he 
was appointed Head Sheristadar of the Judicial Commissioner's 
Court at Bangalore and at the time of his appointment as senior 
member of the Council was holding the post of Distrkt and 
Sessions Judge of the Nandidoorg Division. He belonged to the 
Catholic community and had earned a name for assiduous work and 
upright conduct. The other two, Purna Krishna Rao and 
Sabhapathi Mudaliar, were retired officers who had held high 
positions in the days of the British Commission. 

J. D. Gordon (later Sir James) who had shown himself a 
genuine friend and sincere well-wisher of the young Maharaja was 
appointed the first Resident of Mysore. He retired from his post 
as Resident in 1883 on account of illness. In grateful memory of 



65 

his services to Mysore a statue was erected later and stands before 
the public offices at Mysore. 

The cantonment area of Bangalore was demarcated and the 
jurisdiction over it was transferred to the British Government for 
administrative purposes. The introduction of the Act III of 1880 
was regarded as superfluous inasmuch as it was intended for 
military cantonments in British India, while Bangalore was never 
merely a military cantonment and was not a part of 
British India, it being regarded as a mere station in a 
foreign territory. The Civil and Military Station was to be 
administered by the civil officers of the British Government under 
the laws introduced from time to time with the Governor- General's 
authority. But the Maharaja was to retain sovereignty over the 
territory, though by the terms of the Instrument of Transfer His 
Highness renounced the exercise of jurisdiction within it. The 
Bangalore fort continued to be in the possession of the British 
Government as the arsenal was kept there and it was not till 1888 
that it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Maharaja in 
exchange for the Residency. 

The Maharaja's Civil List was fixed at Rs. 13 lakhs per 
annum with the proviso that during the next five years only 10 
lakhs were to be appropriated. This amount of 13 lakhs was 
based on the annual average sum given to Krishnaraja Wodeyar III 
as 1/5 share of the net revenues of the State. From this amount 
was to be incurred all charges classed as Palace Charges at the 
time and generally all expenditure relating to the personal wants of 
the Maharaja and his family, his relations and dependents apart 
from the public requirements of the State. The Government of 
India at the same time looking to the numerous and miscellaneous 
charges that would fall upon the Civil List admitted the 
desirability of its revision from time to time. 

There was a State banquet at the Jagan Mohan Palace on the 
night of the day of installation and the Madras Governor in his 
speech referred to a variety of topics. " In the first and foremost 
place/' he said, " let your Government always be guided by truth. 

A9 



66 

You have been brought up in the observance of it ; insist upon it in 
others. Without absolute and pure truth no Government can 
long stand. I hope you will be recognised as a mild and gentle 
ruler, but if you show the utmost severity in any cases of deviation 
from truth, you may be sure of this that the British Government 
and all good men will support you. Choose your ministers with 
the utmost care and circumspection, but when you have once 
chosen a man to act in a confidential position give him your fullest 
confidence, have no concealment, no corner in your mind which 
your confidential adviser does not know. Allow no intrigue or 

outside influence to undermine him in your estimation t 

Whoever your Resident may be make a friend of him and go to 
him for advice in any difficulty. You may depend upon it that he 
can have no ulterior motive or end to serve and that the advice he 
gives is meant for your good and for the good of the State of 
Mysore. You have a large Province to administer. Do not waste 
too much time in details but endeavour to grasp the large questions 
and see the country for yourself." 

On the 1st April 1881 the Maharaja sent a formal letter to the 
Viceroy intimating his assumption of the Government of the 
Mysore territories. " I have to announce to Your Excellency with 
grateful feelings," said His Highness, "my assumption of the 
Government of my territories on the 25th March 1881 under the 
proclamation of the Government of India of the same date and 
under the Instrument of Transfer whicih has been delivered to me 
in due form by His Excellency the Governor of Madras on Your 
Excellency's behalf. I am deeply sensible of the generosity and 
kindness which Her Majesty the Queen-Empress has invariably 
shown to my Family and in now installing me in the Government 
of the territories of my ancestors Her Majesty has given a further 
proof of the justice and generosity which the Mysore House has 
ever experienced at the hands of the British Government. I beg 
Your Excellency to convey to Her Majesty an expression of my 
deep and grateful loyalty and attachment to the British Crown and 
to accept my grateful acknowledgments to yourself and my 
assurance that it shall be my earnest endeavour by promoting the 



67 

welfare of my people to prove myself worthy of the confidence 
reposed in me." 

The Marquis of Ripon on receipt of this letter sent a reply in 
which among other matters he stated that he had read with 
pleasure His Highness* assurance that in administering his 
dominions it would be His Highness* earnest endeavour to promote 
the welfare of his people and to prove himself worthy of the con- 
fidence reposed in him, " It is my sincere hope," concluded the 
Marquis of Ripon, " that bearing in mind the important duties that 
now devolve upon you, Your Highness will conduct the administra- 
tion of your dominion with justice and firmness, so that while 
securing the affection and prosperity of your people you will 
maintain the honour of the Mysore State and preserve the cordial 
relations now existing between the British Government and Mysore.*' 



CHAPTER IX. 

Economic, social and other conditions in Mysore about 
the period of the new Maharaja's assumption of power. 

Reference has already been made to the disastrous effects 
produced by the great famine of 1876-77. A test census was taken 
on the 19th January 1878 throughout all the villages comprised in 
one hobli in each of the 51 taluks out of a total number of 68, no 
census being taken in 17 taluks where the famine had not been 
severely felt. The area in which the census was thus taken 
represented 8 per cent of the whole country. The average 
population of a hobli before the famine was about 8000 persons. 
In the hoblies in which this partial census was taken the total 
population as taken in 1878 amounted to 2,94,126 persons as 
compared with 4,12,934 who were reckoned at the census of 1871, 
thereby showing a loss of population equal to 28.77 per cent in the 
areas where the census was taken. It was found that 15.1 percent 
of the people had died, that 7.9 per cent had emigrated and that the 
remainder 5.77 were not accounted for. C. A. Elliot, the Famine 
Commissioner, calculated that the total loss of population in the 
whole State amounted to 10,50,000, while Gordon set it at 7 lakhs 
and the loss in property was estimated at Rs. 10 crores. In any 
case the mortality from famine in Mysore was deplorably great. 
Lord Cranbrooke, the Secretary of State, at the time expressed the 
opinion that it was necessary to investigate how far the melancholy 
sacrifice of life which had taken place was due to causes which 
could at the time have been rendered less severe or how far such 
causes could be counteracted in any future similar visitation. Lord 
Lytton who, it will be remembered, visited Mysore in 1877 wrote a 
memorandum in November 1878 and the following extract from 
this memorandum summarises the disastrous effects of this famine. 

" The beginning of the recent calamity was the partial failure 
of the rains in 1875. The rainfall was from one- third to two-thirds 
of the average. Much of the food crop was lost ; but the stocks of 
food in Mysore have always been large ; and this failure caused 
only temporary or occasional distress, for the price of food did not 



69 

rise to double the ordinary rates. In the year 1876 the rainfall 
again was short ; barely a third of the ordinary harvest was reaped ; 
matters were aggravated by the fact that crops had failed in the 
adjacent districts of Madras and Bombay; and by the middle of 
December 1876 famine had begun. From December till March 
matters grew' worse ; 500 tons of food (enough to support 900,000 
people) were imported daily by railway; yet the price of food 
ranged during those months at 13 to 15 R>s a rupee; that is to say, 
at four to five times the ordinary rates. In the months of April and 
May 1877 the usual spring showers came and hope revived. But 
as the month of June wore on and as July came, it was apparent 
that the early rains were going to fail again, and for the third year 
in succession. Panic and mortality spread among the people; 
famine increased in the land; and it was not until the bountiful 
rains of September and October 1877 that the pressure of famine 
began to abate. During the eight months of extreme famine no 
crops were reaped ; the price of food ranged from 3 to 6 times the 
ordinary rates, and for the common people there were no means of 
earning wages outside the relief works. Even in 1877-78 though 
some relief was felt, the yield of the harvest was less than half the 
food-crop of an ordinary year. From November 1877 till the 
present time of writing (November 1878) the price of food has 
ranged at nearly three times the rate of ordinary years." 

The second regular census was taken on the 17th February 
1881 and the area of the State at this census was regarded to be 
24,723 square miles based upon the measurements of the Revenue 
Survey then in progress. The total population in 1881 numbered 
41,86,000 giving a density of 169 per square mile. In 1841 the 
population was calculated at 30 J lakhs and in 1851 at a little over 
34i lakhs. In 1860 it was about 38i lakhs. These estimates were 
more or less based on the Khaneshumari or village accounts, 
according to which only an enumeration of families was made. 
The rate of increase based on these estimates for 29 years was thus 
1.16 per cent per annum. The total population in 1871 according 
to ' the first regular census was 50,55,412 speaking six different 
languages Kanada, Telugu, Tamil, Hindusthani, Marathi and 
English in tb* descending order of minority. During the rule of 



70 

Haidar Ali and Tippu Sultan which lasted from 1761 to 1799 
unceasing warfare not only kept the country in continual turmoil 
but also led to a great intermingling of various classes in the 
population. A strong Mahratta element had been introduced into 
the northern and eastern parts of the present Mysore State by 
Shahji the father of Sivaji who governed that part of the country 
on behalf of the Bijapur Kings. Next followed the Mughal 
Government of Sira. Subsequently, even after the Mysore Rajas 
had established their power, large tracts in the centre of the country 
were pledged to the Mahrattas to buy off their repeated invasions. 
During the last wars of Mysore with the British vast hordes of 
Lambanies also known as Brinjaries accompanied the march of the 
latter for the supply of grain, while considerable numbers of Tamil 
camp followers and traders attended on their footsteps for service 
and trade and many of these settled in the State. The Telugu- 
speaking people were mostly the descendants of those who came to 
the country during the days of the Vijayanagar rule. Taking the 
normal increase that should have occurred if there had been no 
famine at only 1 per cent instead of at 1.16 per cent per annum, 
the population of 1881 showed a decrease of 8,69,224 being a 
diminution of 17.19 per cent on the previous census largely attri- 
butable to the disastrous effects of the famine of 1876-77. 

Regarding the civil condition of the population in 1881, 
11,55,674 males and 7,57,563 females were single ; 8,02,297 males 
and 8,14,607 females were married; and 1,27,871 males and 
5,28,176 females were widowed. 

The sale by public auction of women accused of adultery was 
very frequent even in the earlier days of the British Commission 
and it was only by a proclamation issued in 1834 that this odious 
practice by which the Government derived a revenue under the head 
of Samayachar was completely prohibited. Among Brahmins and 
Vaisyas females were not sold jbut expelled from their caste and 
branded on the arm as prostitutes. They then paid to the 
contractor an annual sum as long as they lived and when they died, 
all their property became his t Females pf other Hindu, castes were, 



71 

sold by the contractor unless some relative stepped forward to 
satisfy his demand. 

Taking the occupations of the people, the regular commercial 
classes numbered 45,366 males and 10,142 females ; agricultural 
class numbered 10,08,826 males and 5,99,809 females or a little 
over 16 lakhs; industrial class 1,28,926 males and 46,034 females; 
professional class 90,452 males and 4948 females. Among the 
professional classes those engaged in Government Service numbered 
65,015. 

There were under instruction in 1881 only 1.63 of the total 
population. The number of illiterates formed 94.18 per cent of the 
total population. Only one boy out of 5 of school-going age and 
one girl out of 100 of the same were under instruction. 

Of the total area of land 12,177 square miles were regarded as 
uncultivable, 5491 square miles as cultivable and 7055 square miles 
were under cultivation. The amount of payments to Government 
whether as land revenue or quit-rent was Rs. 68,11,568. In 
addition, wet lands were charged also with an irrigation cess of one 
anna per rupee of the land assessment. The total amount of local 
rates and cess paid on land was Rs. 5,62,558 and was appropriated 
towards district roads, rural education and other local requirements. 
House and other taxes were levied in all municipalities. The 
average incidence of amount of payments per acre of revenue-paying 
cultivated area was Re. 1-11-3, while that of local rates and cesses 
per acre of cultivated land was 1 anna 11 pies. The average 
incidence of rent paid per cultivated acre was Re. 1-8-1. 

The exact yield from the land wet or dry cannot be 
accurately calculated. In 1881, however, it was regarded that an 
average estimate of 2 Candies per acre (l Candi being equal to 160 
seers) for dry and 3 Candies for wet land was considered not far 
from the actual produce in a good year. The seed grains came to 
8 seers per acre for dry and 25 seers for wet land and the wastage 
was reckoned at 5 per cent, leaving a residum available for domestic 
or other purposes. The consumption per head of a labouring adult 
when well off was generally about 1 seer or 2 Tbs a day and rather 



above it than below. Taking women, children and infants 
together along with adult males, the average consumption was 
about li Ibs a day. The usual rate of consumption per head per 
annum was li Candies or 480 Ibs. 

The coffee plantations offered employment to a great number 
of labourers in coffee-picking which lasted from November to the 
end of February, when almost all the coolies returned to their 
villages to observe the Ugadi feast or new year in their own homes 
only a few remaining in the coffee districts, though a good number 
returned in April when there was work to be done in hoeing and 
weeding the planted ground or clearing for fresh plantation. The 
eastern parts of Hassan and of Mysore were the tracts in which 
emigration was most common. Tumkur and the western parts of 
Bangalore also supplied some labour, but none went from Kolar or 
the east of Bangalore and hardly any from Chitaldrug. These 
coolies totalling about l lakhs were employed annually in Coorg, 
Manjarabad, Koppa and Nilgiri plantations. The wafees generally 
given were 4 annas per man and 2 annas 8 pies per woman per day. 

Upto the time of the famine there were in the interior of the 
Mainad labourers called Huttalu and Kondalu with many of the 
respectable ryots. But after the famine, they almost ceased to 
exist. Their masters rinding it difficult to maintain themselves 
during the famine did not attempt to prevent these labourers from 
leaving their service. 

The number of towns and villages returned in 1881 was 17,655 
which when compared with the 19,630 returned in 1871 showed a 
diminution of 1975 or 10 per cent. 

Mysore the Dynastic capital and Bangalore the chief seat of 
Government were the only two places in telegraphic communication 
in 1881 except railway stations on the lines from Bangalore to 
Mysore and from Bangalore to Jalarpet. From Bangalore, how- 
ever, telegraphic lines ran through north to Bellary and west via 
Mercara to Mangalore and Cannanore without intermediate 
stations. Messages could be wired from Bangalore to all parts of 
India and the world. In the interior of the country good roads 



73 

intersected almost every part and means of communication as 
compared with the past had become easy. 

As regards trade in ordinary years, salt, piece-goods and metals 
were brought to Bangalore by rail and distributed by country-carts 
all over the State, ragi, rice, coffee, cocoanut and arecanut being 
exported in return. The food supply was usually in excess of the 
local consumption. The ordinary load of a cart was more than i a 
ton and the ordinary day's march 18 to 20 miles. 



A10 



CHAPTER X. 
Chamaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 

Establishment of * Representative Assembly Experiment 
of establishing Anglo-Indians and Eurasians in agricultural 
and industrial occupations Death of Rangacharlu. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar assumed the reins of Government under 
very favourable circumstances so far as he was personally 
concerned. The Supreme Government had shown unwearied 
solicitude in providing for him a general education which was to 
befit him for the exalted position to which destiny had called him. 
His Highness had been placed under able tutors who spared no 
efforts to instil into his mind high ideas of public morality and 
conduct. His political training was attended to by some of the 
high officers of the State and the British Government evinced a 
sincere anxiety that when their young ward was placed in power 
no occasion should arise for interference similar to that of 1831. 
No doubt the Instrument of Transfer placed on His Highness* 
shoulders full responsibility for efficient administration of the 
country. But, at the same time, care was taken to surround His 
Highness with expert advisers and to provide him with a 
machinery of Government which enabled him when dealing with 
measures coming up for his decision to obtain all facts bearing on 
the subject at one view in a thoroughly sifted form as well as the 
opinions of his expert officers who were more or less veterans in the 
public service. At the time His Highness received the country 
from the hands of the British there was, however, one great cause 
of anxiety and that was that the country was just emerging from 
the evil effects of a disastrous famine which had disorganised the 
finances of the State burdening it with a debt of 80 lakhs of rupees 
to the British Government, not to speak of the disappearance of the 
surplus of about a crore of rupees and of the loss to the country of 
a million of its inhabitants and of property worth 10, crores of 
rupees. His Highness and his advisers were fully mindful of the 
situation in which they were placed and faced their task in the early 
years with courage and prudence. 



75 

The new Government after it was established earnestly wished 
to provide itself with the means to guage popular opinion on the 
measures of Government from time to time. Accordingly, 
encouraged by Sir James Gordon who was the first Resident after 
the Rendition the now famous Representative Assembly was 
brought into existence by a proclamation of the Maharaja, dated the 
25th August 1881, only five months after the date of ?the investiture 
of the Maharaja with power. In this proclamation it was stated 
that the object of the establishment of such an assembly was to 
make better known to the people and better appreciated by them 
the views and objects of His Highness' Government in the 
measures adopted for the administration of the State. For the 
attainment of this object a beginning was to be made by an annual 
meeting at Mysore immediately after the Dasara festivities of a 
number of representative landholders and merchants from all parts 
of the State, before whom the Dewan was to place the results of 
the past year's administration and a programme of what was 
intended to be carried out in the coming year. Such an arrange- 
ment, it was considered, by bringing the people into immediate 
communication with the Government would serve to remove from 
their minds any misapprehension in regard to the views and actions 
of Government and would convince them that the interests of the 
Government were identical with those of the people. 

The first Assembly the members of which had all been 
nominated by district officers was attended by 144 members, 
although the attendance had been declared voluntary. Rangacharlu 
placed before this Assembly which met on the 7th October 1881 an 
abstract of the financial position of the country as well as the 
administrative, industrial and other measures that were in 
contemplation, and the following paragraph from . this address 
affords instructive reading : " I must not omit to place before you 
the important truth that the prosperity of the country can never be 
assured until the labour of its people yields a surplus over and 
above the food consumed by them. So long as the labour of the 
agriculturists scarcely yields the food consumed by them, it is not 
possible to avoid their complete prostration on the occurrence of a; 
famine or other calamity. Improvement in this respect can only be. 



76 

effected by diminishing the proportion of the human labour 
employed in the production of the country by the application of 
machinery and capital. Irrigation works answer this purpose to 
some extent as they enable a larger quantity of produce to be raised 
by the same labour. But on the much wider area of dry lands the 
produce yielded is scarcely more than sufficient for the consumption 
of the cultivator and his family. It is even worse with the 
artisan and manufacturing classes. Hitherto the high rate of 
interest for money in the country and the cheapness of labour have 
told against the employment of costly ' machinery. But now 
that English capital is being drawn to India on cheap terms and a 
wide gap has been made in the labouring population by the recent 
famine, the present time offers a particularly favourable opportunity 
for raising the status of the people by the introduction of capital 
and k machinery in industrial pursuits. Extensive tracts of good 
land 'lie waste for want of labour both in this province and in the 
neighbouring British territories affected by the famine. They offer 
a good field for capitalists to bring them under cultivation for the 
growth of exportable articles by means of steam-ploughs and other 
machinery. Such an extension of cultivation and manufactures by 
means of machinery by outstriping the growth of population will' 
tend to increase wages and raise the status of the labourer. At 
present population increases at a more rapid rate than production 
and increasing want and poverty is the inevitable result/' 

The railway from Bangalore to Mysore was opened for through 
traffic in February 1882 and proved not only a great boon to the 
country from the beginning but also a profit -yielding concern. 
The idea of having teak sleepers from the Mysore forests for this 
line was found not feasible. Although there was a large demand 
for timber in connection with the construction of Bangalore- Mysore 
line, it was found cheaper to get Rangoon timber from Madras than 
1 to use the timber of the Mysore forests, except to a small extent at 
the Mysore end of the line. Creosoted pine sleepers which were 
considered superior to the teak for this particular purpose were 
brought all the way from Europe by sea and by the railway from 
Madras and were delivered at Bangalore at cheaper rates than the 



77 

Mysore teak sleepers and with a rapidity which could not be hoped 
for in the Mysore forests. 

In 1882 Rangacharlu inaugurated a measure of great financial 
importance which marked a new policy in obtaining capital for 
profitable undertakings. In that year in order to extend the railway 
line from Bangalore as far as Tiptur, a loan of Rs. 20 lakhs was 
floated by the new Government at 5 per cent interest per annum. 
Tenders from private English and native gentlemen were received 
from Madras, Calcutta, Bombay, Allahabad, Peshawar, Karachi, 
Ahamedabad and other places to the extent of nearly one-half of 
the loan. The most noticeable feature however was the large 
amount subscribed in small sums by the ryots and merchants in the 
Shimoga, Kadur and Tumkur districts showing how much the 
railway was appreciated by them. It was at the same time realised 
that the full advantages of the railway could not be obtained unless 
it was carried to Kadur and the great arecanut mart of Birur and 
both places brought into nearer communication with Shimoga. In 
undertaking the local railways it was intended not only to meet the 
necessary and urgent wants of the people but also to train a select 
number among them in the working of the railways and of the 
engines and machinery connected with them. Arrangements were 
also made for placing a number of native young men of intelligence 
and good health and physique in the locomotive workshops to 
receive their training, so that a considerable portion of the working 
staff might be manned from them in future. 

Although reductions to the extent of 8 lakhs of rupees had 
been effected in the charges of the administration before the country 
was transferred to the Maharaja's hands, yet the new Government 
found that further reductions were indispensable, especially as the 
extension of railways was a pressing need. Rangacharlu was fully 
alive to the financial situation of the State and in his : 
Representative Assembly in 1881 observed that 
on a Government wishing to reduce its exper 
efforts to a proper retrenchment rather than de 
expectation of deriving an increase of revenue fr 
country. Accordingly in 1882 Rangacharlu we 




78 

reducing the eight districts of the State to six by the*abolition of 
Hassan and Chitaldrug districts and by the reduction of 69 taluks 
to 60 replacing them by 3 sub-divisions under Assistant Commis- 
sioners and 17 sub- taluks under Deputy Amildars. 

It was a matter for gratification that after the Representative 
Assembly was instituted in Mysore the Government of India 
resolved upon a comprehensive scheme for extending self-govern- 
ment in local matters throughout the British territories in India. 
Their despatch of 8th May 1882 which contained their orders on the 
subject from its earnestness of purpose, its liberal views and far- 
seeing statesmanship might be regarded, said Rangacharlu, as 
introducing a new era in Indian administration. The universal 
satisfaction with which it had been received throughout India was 
also proof of the appreciation of the boon by the people and refuted 
the assertion often made that they were not yet prepared for 
self-government. The stirring appeal which he then addressed to 
the representatives is worth recalling to mind even now and bears 
testimony to the earnestness of purpose with which his mind was 
actuated. " If the spread of any high degree of education among 
the great mass of the people were to be insisted upon," he said, 
" we may have to wait for ever. What is required in the great 
body of representatives is common sense and practical views which 
are sure to be possessed by men of ordinary knowledge engaged in 
industrial and other useful occupations. The real education for 
self-government can only be acquired by the practical exercise of 
representative functions and responsibilities under the guidance, as 
observed by the Government of India, of officers possessed of 
administrative tact and directive energy and evincing an earnest 

interest in the success of the experiment It cannot be too 

often impressed on the representatives that in the discharge 
of the important functions entrusted to them they are ex- 
pected to evince a true public spirit and to be actuated by 
- considerations not of any personal wants or grievances or of even 
those of any particular caste or section of the community only but 
considerations of the interest of the public at large. It cannot 
however be concealed that Government officers themselves require 
as much education in the rpatter a.$ the less informed representatives 



79 

of the people and earnestness on their part to promote the public 
interest, not to mention considerations of personal distinction and 
importance, begets a desire to devise and carry out what appear to 
them useful works ; and this is not unnaturally followed by 
intolerance of difference of opinion or opposition from others. 
These have to give way to the higher qualities of a patient and 
watchful interest in the proceedings of others which they must be 
content to guide and direct by advice and suggestions without any 
abatement of their earnestness to promote the public interests. 
District officers have to be strongly imbued with the idea that in 
municipal and other matters the public interests are better served 
by diffusing sound ideas on the subject amongst the people and 
thereby inducing them to work out the results for themselves than 
by the Government doing the work for them. Though the objects 
arrived at may not be accomplished so promptly and successfully as 
by Government agency, the result will be enduring and will have a 
spreading influence amongst the people and will be less subject to 
those changes which often characterise the improvements initiated 
by public officers. 

" Whatever Government or any few outsiders can do must be 
small compared with what the great mass of the population engaged 
in industrial pursuits could accomplish in their several occupations 
when stirred up by a desire for advancement. When all the world 
around is working marvellous progress, the 200 millions of people 
in India cannot much longer continue in their long sleep simply 
following the traditions of their ancestors of 2000 years ago and 
earning a miserable subsistence, ready to be crushed on the first 
occurrence of a famine or other calamity. Steam began to be 
utilised in Europe as a motive power only in the beginning of the 
19th century. India then used to export cloths to England. Now 
England notwithstanding a severe competition from the other 
countries of Europe and America supplies the greater portion of the 
world with cloths and other manufactures. These are not the 
fruits of any large individual discoveries which alone can attract the 
attention of the official mind but the result of numerous individual 
men devoting their intelligence to effect small discoveries and 
improvements from day to day in their several occupations which 



so 

in their aggregate produce such marvellous wealth and general 
prosperity. What then may not be accomplished if the large 
population in this country once entered on a similar career of 
progress. The one great problem to be solved by Indian statesmen 
is how the people could be raised from the crushing influence of 
officialdom and stirred up to industrial enterprise and progress." 

A unique experiment of establishing Anglo-Indians and 
Eurasians on the land received encouragement from the Mysore 
Government at this time. A Eurasian and Anglo-Indian Associa- 
tion had been formed in 1879 for the purpose of improving the 
economic condition of the families belonging to this community and 
industrial and agricultural pursuits were intended to be largely 
encouraged among them. To begin with, a boot and shoe factory 
was started and a number of young Eurasians were apprenticed 
to various trades. A land scheme was also taken in hand which 
aimed at the formation of agricultural settlements or colonies. 
The Mysore Government lent ready aid by granting in July 1881 
nearly 4000 acres of land selected by the Association to- be held 
free of assessment for the first five years. With the help of Sir 
James Gordon special sanction was obtained for holding a lottery 
in order to raise funds for starting the scheme. One lakh was thus 
obtained, but half of it was allotted for prizes. The original 
intention was to establish four colonies : 

ACRES. 

Glen Gordon ... 527 ) To the west of Bangalore on 

Haldwell Green ... 757 J the Magadi Road. 

Whitefield ... 542 ) 10 ., , , _, 

Sausmond ... 926 ) 12 miles east of Bangalore. 

This novel venture however, it may be stated, did not fulfil 
all the expectations formed of it. There are at present only two 
settlements Whitefield and Sausmond where some Eurasians and 
Anglo-Indians reside. 

The encouragement given by the Mysore Government to this 
novel venture on the part of the Eurasian community was however 
based upon very laudable motives. In 1882 in his address to the 



81 

Representative Assembly Rangacharlu explained that the first 
object of making large grants of land to this community was to 
enable such of the members as were in need of occupations to find 
a home and the means of pursuing agricultural industry. It was 
also hoped at the time that if the experiment succeeded it would 
have an important bearing on the general agriculture and industry 
of the country, as agricultural improvements of foreign countries 
were likely to be readily adopted by them and when tried practically 
and successfully would be taken up by the people in general. 

Rangacharlu however was not destined to live long and carry 
out his ideas. In the latter part of December 1882 he was taken 
ill and went to Madras. He was expected to return in about a 
fortnight. But fate willed it otherwise. He died at Madras on 
the 20th January 1883 and his death was deeply deplored by all. 
He was 52 years old at the time. His high talents and unblemished 
integrity of character won for him the admiration of all who knew 
him. His simple habits and warmth of heart always attracted to 
him a large circle of friends. His memory is now perpetuated by a 
building constructed at Mysore known as the Rangacharlu Memo- 
rial Hall where on one of the walls hangs an oil-painting of his 
likeness. 



CHAPTER xf. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 

. Appointment of Sir K. Seshadri Iyer as Dewan Steps 
taken to improve the finances of the State. 

The choice' of a. Dewan for a Native State" is always a matter 
of some difficulty as 'a number of cohrliictihg claims require to be 
balanced before any 'decision can be arrived at. At this time thfee 
candidates were prominently mentioned for the place. The first 
was P. N. Krishna Murthi who was a direct descendant of the 
great minister Purnaiya and the fifth holder of the jahagir of 
Yelandur granted to his arfcestor. Krishna. Murthi was regarded 
as the first nobleman of the country. He was 32 years of age. 
The other two T, R. 4. Thumboo Chetty and K. Seshadri Iyer 
though, they came as strangers to Mysore had served long under the 

k ; . u*i r- 

Mysore Government. Thumboo Chetty was 46 years old and 
Seshadri Iyer 38 year { s. The official status of all these officers was 
more or ,less equal, Krishna Murthi and Seshadri Iyer being heads 
of districts and Thumboo Chetty a District Judge. Krishna Murthi 
from his long ancestral connection with the State had considerable 
local support, though he was the youngest of the three. Thumboo 
Chetty had a reputation for rectitude and conscientious discharge 
of duty. He was already a member of the State Council though in 
an ex-officio capacity. Seshadri Iyer was yet unknown to the 
people as possessing any special merits. It took about 3 weeks for 
the choice to be made and it was at last announced that the 
Maharaja had selected Seshadri Iyer as his Dewan. The announce- 
ment evoked no enthusiasm at the time and it is said that it took even 
Seshadri Iyer by surprise. He had begun his official life in 1866 as 
Translator in the Collector's office in his native town of Calicut in 
the Madras Presidency and later there being need in Mysore for the 
services of capable English-knowing men, Seshadri Iyer at the 
suggestion of Rangacharlu was appointed Judicial Sheristadar 
in the Superintendent's office at Mysore, which post he joined on 
the 30th October 1868. He took the B.L Degree of the Madras 
University in 1874. In 1879 he was Deputy Commissioner and 



83 

District Magistrate of one of the districts and from August 1881 he 
had been placed on special duty in the Dew^nls office} under 
Rangacharlu. Seshadri Iyer entered upon his n^w duties with 
great earnestness and wisdom and proved himself a man of 
undoubted talents. 

The finances of the State, as we have already seen, were in a 
disorganised state and on "assuming office the new Dewan found 
that he was faced with a serious situation which required prompt 
attention. The retrenchments begun in 1878-79 and continued 
even after the Maharaja came to power did not yield a saving of 
more than 8 lakhs of rupees a year. The average annual revenue 
as then developed was not expected to bring in more than 102 lakhs 
which 'included the cost of collection -Rs. 10i lakhs. Against 
the net amount -of Rs. ^ 91i lakhs were ear-marked certain 
fixed charges amounting to about Rs. 48 lakhs such as the Subsidy, 
the 1 Civil List, Interest on Famine and Railway loans. Early in 1884 
the British Government took over under its direct management 
from the Durbar the administration of the Assigned Tract forming 
the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore and the surplus revenue 
which this tract was yielding was thereby lost to Mysore. The 
! available amount for public works and civil administration was less 
than 44 lakhs of rupees. The average total expenditure of the 
State on the minimum calculation could not, it was found, be 
reduced below Rs. 99J lakhs and the State was therefore faced with 
a deficit of 7 to 8 lakhs of rupees a year, unless a remedy was found 
in time. On account of the large departmental reductions already 
noticed the administration had become very much centralised and 
in the hands of the Dewan was concentrated the control of all the 
principal departments ' such as the tand Revenue, Forests, Excise, 
Mining, Police, Education, Muzrai and Legislation, ''aiici it had 
become apparent that without close supervision by separate 
departmental heads the work of the departments must deteriorate, 
as it was impossible for one man, whatever his capacity, to do 
justice to this extraordinary multiplicity of work.- 

Seshadri Iyer's first attention in the circumstances in which he 
was placed was naturally turned to find m$ans qf .meeting the deficit 



84 

and finding funds lor improving the efficiency of the administra- 
tion. It should be said to his credit that in 1884 only a little more 
than a year after he became Dewan when he had yet to consolidate 
his position, he made bold to put forward a strong plea for the 
payment of the surplus revenue of the Station and even carried an 
appeal to the Secretary of State, though without success. The 
surplus however that had accumulated till then was allowed to be 
appropriated towards a partial payment of the Subsidy. 

Seshadri Iyer took this disappointment calmly and turning his 
attention to the enhanced Subsidy of Rs. 10i lakhs and finding that 
the period during which it had been suspended had only two years 
more to run submitted with the full concurrence of the Maharaja 
a vigorous representation to the Government of India for the 
remission of this new burden. There was, he said, no special 
elasticity about the revenues of Mysore. In the first three decades 
of the 19th century the annual average revenue was Rs. 86f, Rs. 86i 
and Rs. 76 lakhs respectively. In the first three decades after the 
British assumption of the Government in 1831 it was Rs. 70i lakhs, 
Rs. 76 and Rs. 84i lakhs respectively. The subsequent increase 
whereby the maximum average of Rs. 105 lakhs was reached in the 
decade before the famine was due to rise in prices owing to such 
exceptional causes as the American Civil War which caused a great 
demand in England for Indian cotton on account of the supply 
from America having failed. Agricultural operations in Mysore 
depended upon a rainfall which was most uncertain. The 
Revenue Survey and Settlement was not expected to produce 
any large increase and required also a long number of years for its 
completion. The incidence of taxation taking into account the 
Rs. 12 lakhs which the Mysore population was contributing to the 
salt revenues of British India was already so high as Rs. 2-4-0 per 
head per annum and increase of revenue by additional taxation was 
therefore out of question. The country was likely to require half a 
century to recover from the terrible loss of population and property 
due to the famine. An income thus reduced without any 
immediate prospect of any material growth had also to meet 
some new charges such as interest on Famine and Railway 
loans, the increase to the Civil List, augmentation of pensionary 



85 

charges, remuneration of village servants in taluks where the new 
Survey and Settlement had been introduced in substitution of 
Mirasi or grain payments. The enhancement of the Subsidy to 
Rs. 35 lakhs in these circumstances would, urged Seshadri Iyer, 
reduce the amount required for the ordinary administration .of the 
country to a sum with which it was impossible to maintain good 
Government. The extension of the railway line to Harihar which 
was the terminus of the. Southern Mahratta Railway was an 
important work of famine protection and it was a duty in the eyes 
of the Mysore Government to execute it without any delay. 

J. B. Lyall was the British Resident at this time and had 
succeeded Sir James Gordon the first Resident who retired from 
service and proceeded to England on account of illness. Lyall's 
abilities -were of a high order and his political views were of a 
statesmanlike character. Seshadri Iyer's representation strongly 
supported as it was by the new Resident received sympathetic 
consideration at the hands of the Government of India as well as 
of the Secretary of State, with the result that the extra levy of 
Rs. 10$ lakhs was further postponed for a period of 10 years till the 
end of March 1896. In his address to the Representative Assembly 
in October 1885 the Dewan in expressing gratitude for this boon on 
the part of the British Government said that it was only a fresh 
but a very signal illustration of the generous treatment which the 
Mysore State had invariably received at the hands of the 
Paramount Power, for it enabled the Mysore Government to 
maintain the administration at least at the standard of efficiency as 
it stood then. 

No Government however, it was recognised, could be content 
with merely marking time or doing the routine business that came 
to its hands from day to day. All the departments were in great 
need of improvement and a scheme of decentralisation was an 
urgent necessity. Immediate measures also were necessary to 
afford the country protection against the uncertainties of seasons, 
not to speak of the distresses deepening into famines at times. 
The liquidation by instalments of the debt due to the Government 
of India as well as the payment of interest at 5 per cent per annum 



86 

imposed a great strain on the finances of the State as they stood at 
the time. . Some way however had to be found for the immediate 
introduction of some of the improvements which were essential for 
the .nOriual life of the country. During the famine of 1876-78 
the jtjracts .-of country that suffered most were over 50 and 
100 miles If fcotn the nearest railway and the area now situated on 
either side f of; the Bangalore -Harihar line was found to have 
suffered- the severest distress and this part of the country therefore 
needed the earliest protection from the spectre of a future famine. 

, i ' E ." * 

* l The State had already constructed 141 miles of railway from 
< Mysore, to Gubbi from its own resources supplemented by a public 
loan! of, Rs, 2Cklakhs and it was also in a position to carry the line 
as far^S Tiptur. The line from Tiptur to Harihar 125 miles in 
length. had already been surveyed. But the construction could not 
be undertaken as the resources of the State, it was found, could not 
be safely relied oh to yield a surplus revenue every year and even 
then it -would be many years before the line could reach Harihar. 
In these circumstances the Durbar agreed to a proposal made by 
the Government of India that. the extension from Gubbi to Harihar 
should -.be executed- with foreign capital. The Secretary of State on 
behalf dip Mysore negotiated a loan with the Southern ,,Mahratta 
Railyvay Company of ^"1,200,000 at 4 per cent interest per annum on 
the hypothecation of the whole line including the line from Mysore 
to Tiptur and the Company also was entrusted with the work of 
construction from Tiptur to Harihar. This measure enabled the 
Durbar ta discharge in full in 1889, earlier than it would have been 
otherwise possible, the famine debt of Rs. 80 lakhs due to the 
Government of India by appropriating for that purpose the amount 
of the refund of a little over 68 lakhs, the cost incurred by the 
Mysore Government till then for the construction of the line upto 
Tiptur. . J . 

By this time the Durbar was also relieved to a very large extent 
of its financial embarassments by the growth of its land revenue and 
by the development of other sources of revenue. The land revenue 
which had suffered greatly from the effects of the famine reached 
R&. B7 lakhs in the year 1886-87 .out of which excluding the 



collections of old arrears, 80 lakhs of rupees was regarded as the 
amount of normal land revenue per year. 

Among the other items of revenue which contributed to th^ 
growth of the finances might be mentioned Excise, Fores,t and 
Gold Mining. The Abkari or the excise revenue yielded in the yeaf ' 
1881 only a little over Rs. 10i lakhs and by 1892-93 the year 
previous to that of Chamaraja Wodeyar's death it almost trebled 
itself. This large increase was due not to any extraordinary growth 
of intemperance on the part of the consumers but to the adoption of 
more effective measures to intercept the revenue which was' going 
into other pockets and to divert it to the State treasury. As regaIs 
arrack, the policy followed was one of gradual enhancement of duty. 
In 18S1 there existed differential rates of duty per gallon in 
different parts of the State. But these varying rates were later 
assimilated to a uniform rate while the selling price continued 
at the old rate. Further, all outlying distilleries were abolished 
and a new system of manufacture and distribution under 
centralised control was introduced. In 1892 the manufacture 
of arrack was separated from that of distribution. By this measure 
the Government was able to attract to the business of manufacture 
the capital, resources and technical knowledge of a large Madras 
firm Messrs. Parry & Co. and thereby to reduce the cost of 
the manufactured article. The right to vend liquor was 
separately sold throughout the State. In the case of Banga- 
lore and Mysore cities and the Kolar Gold Fields individual 
shops were sold and elsewhere clusters of villages and only in 
a few cases entire taluks. The work of vending was thus placed in 
the hands of persons of local knowledge whose watchfulness 
in their own interest was a most useful check upon illicit distillation 
in their respective tracts. The increase of duty which involved 
no increase of price to the consumer and of the sale of the right 
of vend had the effect of securing to Government money which 
till then formed the profits of middlemen. 

As regards toddy, the system in existence was one of eight 
large District Farms for the entire State. These farms were given 
out for terms of three years for the highest tender by a limited 



88 

number of persons whose standing in the business practically 
excluded all outside competition. Under this system owing to the 
existence of a series of middlemen between the Government and the 
contractor the State did not derive its proper share of the revenue 
and owing to the want of sufficient control the date groves 
themselves deteriorated to such an extent as in some places to 
imperil the toddy revenue of the future, while in many instances 
the quality of toddy supplied to the public was so bad as to drive 
many persons accustomed to this comparatively innocent drink 
to the more harmful arrack. To remedy these defects, the 
eight large farms were divided into smaller farms numbering 1236. 
The increase of revenue was due not to any increase in the number 
of shops but almost entirely to the abolition of needless inter- 
mediaries between the Government which owned the date groves 
and the small farmer who supplied a certain number of shops from 
a particular grove or part of a grove. 

There was a progressive rise in the Excise revenue during the 
thirteen years of Chamaraja Wodeyar's reign and 63 per cent of the 
rise in the incidence of total taxation was more or less due to this 
source. The moral and social aspects of this large increase of 
Excise revenue require some consideration on account of their 
importance. The increased revenue from toddy was almost wholly 
the result of improved management, while that from arrack was 
due to both improved management and increased consumption. 
Compared with 1881-82 there was a total increase of revenue of a 
little over 12 lakhs of rupees in 1894, of which Rs. 5,67,000 
represented increased consumption. This increased consumption 
was however chiefly among migratory gangs of coolies and artisans 
employed in the Gold Mines, mills, public works, buildings and 
coffee plantations. Altogether 3,94,751 gallons of arrack were 
consumed during 1893-94 giving a consumption of 4.1 drams per 
head of population. In the Kolar Gold Fields there was a labour 
population of 11,000 including women and children constituting 
1/440 of the total population of the State and they consumed 
43,937 gallons which was a little over 1/9 of the total consumption 
for the whole State giving a consumption per head of nearly 4 
gallons. In the large city of Bangalore which was the chief centre 



80 

of industry in the State the consumption was 37.8 drams per head 
of population, while the large cooly population living in the outskirts 
of the Bangalore City and Cantonment swelled the arrack con- 
sumption of the taluk to 14.3 drams per head. Owing to similar 
Conditions in the Mysore City the rate of consumption was 18.3 
drams per head. In the coffee tracts of Manjarabad, Koppa, 
Chikmagalur and Mudigere the rate of consumption was 10.9 drams 
per head. These figures showed that 10i per cent of the total 
population of the State resident at the time in the Gold Fields, the 
Mysore City, the Bangalore City and taluk and the coffee tracts 
were responsible for 52 per cent of the total consumption of the 
State. 

Another method of increasing the resources of the State was 
undertaken by the closer conservancy of forests than before. 
Several State forests were extended and a large number of valuable 
jungle tracts which were in varying stages of denudation were 
brought under proper conservancy. The solution of the fuel 
problem had become pressing. The railway extension to Harihar, 
the advancing Kolar Gold Industry, the cotton and woollen mills at 
Bangalore and a rising population with expanding cultivation 
tended to enormously increase the demand for fuel and to diminish 
the source of its supply. There thus arose the necessity for care- 
fully conserving large jungle tracts and as many of them as 
possible, more especially those in the vicinity of the railway. The 
spontaneous growth of timber in forests and of fuel in reserved 
jungle tracts was supplemented by plantations on an ex tensive scale. 
In 1893-94, 65.37 per cent of the forest revenue was derived from 
sandal wood and 34.63 per cent from all other sources such as 
timber or wood-fuel. 

Gold Mining also began to yield a revenue from the year 
1886-87 and for the first time a Royalty of Rs. 47,000 at 5 per cent 
on the production found its entry in the budget and this item of 
revenue gave a continuous increase every year subsequently. 

Leaving out of account the income from the State Railways as 
well as that of the C. & M. Station of Bangalore, the total revenue 

A12 



at the State which was slightly over Rs. 104 lakhs in 1881 rose to 
nearly Rs. 167f lakhs in 1893-94, the increase being over 61 per 
cent. This revenue was derived from taxes properly so called as 
well as from sources which were not really taxes. In Mysore the 
heads of Land Revenue, Excise, Mohatarfa, Sayer, Stamps and 
Registration were at the time taken as coming under taxation proper. 
Taking the revenue under these heads only, there was an increase 
from Rs. 93,04,000 to Rs. 1,38,12,000 or 48i per cent. The income 
from sources other than taxes such as Royalty from Gold Mining, 
forest revenue and similar items nearly trebled itself during the 
same period. The rise in the incidence per head of population was 
from Rs. 2-4-4J to Rs. 2-13-7J or 25i per cent. Thus the amount 
of increase was 9 annas and 3 pies. 

The assets and liabilities of the State on 31st March 1881 
the opening year of Chamaraja Wodeyar's rule were assets a 
little above Rs. 49 J lakhs, liabilities nearly Rs. 30$ lakhs ; on the 
30th June 1895 the closing year of the same rule assets a little 
above Rs. 3 crores and 60 lakhs, liabilities nearly Rs. 1 crore and 
84 lakhs, excess of assets over liabilities a little above Rs. If crores 
as compared with the excess of assets of a little more than Rs. 18i 
lakhs in March 1881. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Charaaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 
Improvement of administrative efficiency. 

More judges for the Chief Court Revenue Code, 
Local Boards BillSeparate Legislative Branch in the 
Secretariat Some important Regulations passed including 
the Prevention of Infant Marriage Regulation. 

We have seen that on account of the famine of 1876-1877 the 
administrative efficiency of the State had suffered considerably and 
various measures were now adopted to revive and improve that 
efficiency. The Judicial Department claimed the earliest attention. 
Sir James Gordon in his minute dated 10th February 1879 had 
represented to the Government of India the need of a High Court for 
Mysore with a plurality of judges instead of only a single judge 
designated Judicial Commissioner. On account of restricted finances 
the question had however been postponed and at the time of the 
Rendition beyond calling the highest court the Chief Court of 
Mysore and the single presiding judge as the Chief Judge nothing 
more had been done. In 1883 Seshadri Iyer conveyed the cheering 
news to the members of the Representative Assembly that the 
Maharaja had decided upon the introduction of a plurality of judges 
from May 1884. Regulation I of 1884 governing the Chief Court 
was subsequently passed. The number of judges was raised from 1 
to 3 and Section 1 1 of the new Regulation prescribed that where in 
any suit or proceeding it was necessary for the Chief Court to decide 
any question regarding succession, inheritance, marriage or caste or 
any religious usage or institution, the Mahomedan law where the 
parties were Mahomedans and the Hindu law where the parties were 
Hindus, or any custom (if such there was) having the force of law 
and governing the parties or property concerned was to form the 
rule of decision, unless such law or custom had by legislative 
enactment been altered or abolished and that where no rule 
existed, the Chief Court was to act according to justice, equity and 
good conscience. When Thumboo Chetty was Chief Judge, he 



92 

arranged at the request of the members of the bar for the publication 
weekly of a digest of important decisions and rulings of the Chief 
Court. 

The revenue administration of the State was found to be 
dependent on mere executive orders and circulars issued from time 
to time and a Revenue Code was imperatively needed to remove 
most of the difficulties and defects which marred the revenue 
administration and also to set at rest many important differences of 
opinion. A Bill based mostly on the Bombay Revenue Code was 
prepared and explained by Seshadri Iyer to the members of the 
Representative Assembly at the meeting held in October 1883. 
The Bill was a pretty large one and also of great importance, 
considering the subject to which it referred. , Some of the chief 
matters codified referred to the relation of land-lord and tenant, 
the rights of Government in land, and the mining and forest rights 
of the Government and of the occupants of agricultural lands, 
upon all of which there existed at the time neither any definite 
nor any uniform practice. The rules for the recovery of 
Government revenue had been varied so frequently by executive 
orders that precedents could be quoted on almost any side of a case 
involving the public and sometimes the revenue officers themselves 
in useless litigation attended with much expense and delay. In the 
new code the provisions relating to these and other matters were 
simplified arid while care was taken for the proper collection of 
revenue, private rights to property were adequately protected. The 
rights and obligations of Inamdars and their tenants were definitely 
defined in strict accordance with usage. Provision was made 
for protecting tenants from capricious enhancement of rents 
by Inamdars, the grounds on which and the mode in which the 
rents were enhanceable being definitely prescribed. Where written 
leases were executed, the Inamdars were given the right to recover 
the demands through the revenue authorities as if they , were 
demands for Government land revenue. The jurisdiction of civil 
courts in revenue matters had been vague and these courts were 
considered competent to take cognisance of almost any revenue 
matter. The Bill now excluded in clear terms from the jurisdiction 
of civil courts only such matters as had immediate reference to the 



93 

appointment, dismissal and remuneration of village servants, the* 
assessment and realisation of the Government revenue and the 
protection of tenant rights. In October 1884 the Dewan again 
referred .to this Bill at the meeting of the Representative Assembly 
and while stating that it had undergone thorough revision at the 
hands of a committee composed of able and experienced officers 
mentioned also that except on a few points (which need not be 
specified here) no material alterations had been suggested by the 
committee. 

This Revenue Bill formed the subject of discussion between 
the Mysore Government and the British Residents of the period 
and it was finally forwarded in 1886 for the approval of the 
Government of India. This Government, however, took a long 
period of more than two years to accord their sanction and the Bill 
became law only with effect from 1st April 1889, thereafter limiting 
as far as possible the former uncertainties of the revenue 
administration due to varying executive actions based on 
individual temperaments. Sir James Lyall and Sir Dennis 
Fitzpatrick were the British Residents whose co-operation was 
regarded as most valuable in the promulgation of this piece of 
legislation. Reference has already been made to the former and as 
regards the latter it may be stated that he was an able lawyer who 
had an intimate knowledge of the various Indian enactments and of 
the debates connected with them and always looked out for facts. 

Advantage was taken of the introduction of this Regulation to 
inaugurate a system for the regular hearing and disposal of all 
revenue matters coming before the Government in appeal or 
revision. The Revenue Code excluded, as has been mentioned 
already, from the jurisdiction of the civil courts an important class 
of questions which arose before the revenue authorities and it was 
essential that these and other matters involving rights often of a 
quasi -judicial nature should not be finally decided without thorough 
investigation and without full opportunities being given to the 
parties interested to support their claims and contentions. It was 
therefore ordained by the Maharaja that all revenue appeals and 
revision cases coming up before the Government were to be heard 



94 

and decided at least by two members of the State Council and that 
the procedure adopted was to be generally that of the civil courts. 

Another subject which also engaged the attention of the 
Maharaja's Government at this time was the broadening of self- 
government in local matters. Rangacharlu had touched upon this 
subject in 1882 in his address to the Representative Assembly and 
in 1883 when Seshadri Iyer met the representatives he also 
referred to this subject and called attention to a draft Local Boards 
Regulation which had already been published in the official Gazette. 
This Bill when it became law was to supersede the rules issued by 
the Chief Commissioner in 1874 for the formation of District 
Committees and for purposes to be carried out by them. These 
rules were found defective on account of the preponderence of the 
official members, absence of reasonable powers of disposal over the 
funds and the unlimited subordination of the Committees to 
Government officers in the administration of these funds. The new 
Bill assumed the taluk or the existing sub-division of a taluk 
to be the unit of area for which a Local Board was to be 
constituted. As one chief cause of the inefficiency of the existing 
District Committees lay in the fact that their members did not 
possess the requisite local interest and local knowledge, it seemed 
evident that if the system was to have a fair trial a beginning was 
to be made with a Taluk Board. The functions of these Boards 
were, to start with, to relate to such matters as elementary 
education, medical, charitable and other similar institutions, local 
plantations and water-supply. As regards the constitution of these 
Boards, the Bill provided for a preponderence of the non-official 
element in them but left to Government as to whether the members 
were to be appointed by nomination or by election by the rate- 
payers. It also provided for an official or an elected President. 
This course, assured the Dewan, had been advisedly adopted in 
.the public interest in order to prevent failure in their working. 
" Village communities " said the Dewan "have not yet recovered 
from the severe blow which owing to political causes they sustained 
early in the century; and administrative activities have to be 
revived an4 nurtured sifter a long period of disuse under an 



95 

autocratic Government. Under such circumstances, it is not 
surprising to find the greater part of the Province unprepared at 

present for the elective system How soon the elective 

system can be extended to any particular Taluk Board will depend 
upon the appreciation of its labours by the people interested ; for 
without such appreciation, it will not be advisable to resort to 
such election in any case. The non-official members of the 
District Board which is to be constituted for each district or 
sub-division of a district, will, however, all be delegates from the 
Taluk Boards, and it will at first be under the presidency of the 
District or Sub-Division officer as the case may be " 

Referring to the Taluk Boards, one of their functions, said 
the Dewan, would relate to elementary education. This was an 
important subject as the hobli schools had proved not an adequate 
medium for the wide spread of elementary education. It was found 
that they were wanting in that popular element in their constitution 
and direction which alone could give them success and it had 
therefore been provided in the Bill that the Local Boards assisted 
by Village Boards where practicable were to take entire charge of 
these schools, manage them with the funds that were made 
available for them, appoint and dismiss the masters at their own 
discretion, the Government interference being limited to the 
prescribing of the proper standard of education for them and to 
providing the Board with a good and competent staff of inspectors. 
Next in importance to education, observed the Dewan, was the 
establishment of hospitals and dispensaries in places where the 
Boards deemed them to be required and the formation of a body 
of travelling dispensers of medicine at times of cholera and other 
epidemics was to come under the jurisdiction of these Boards ; and 
similarly, institutions of charity such as Chatrams and 
Dharmasalas. The Bill did not specifically provide for the transfer 
of all Government Muzrai institutions to the Boards' management, 
but there existed provision for such transfer whenever such step 
was likely to be attended with advantage. Charitable institutions, 
especially the feeding chatrams would, it was expected, fare better 
under the Boards' management than they did under the 



96 

Government, thereby obviating the long-standing complaints of 
mismanagement and peculation against these institutions. It was 
also proposed to entrust works of irrigation such as tank repairs 
to the District Local Boards and that as the majority of the 
members would naturally belong to classes having large interests in 
agriculture in all parts of the district, it was likely that all 
important tanks throughout the district would receive their due 
share of attention. This Bill was submitted to the Government of 
India in April 1885. But it was received back after nearly a year 
with an exhaustive minute by C. E. R. Girdlestone who was then 
the British Resident and further discussion became necessary. 

After the Rendition though a Representative Assembly came 
into existence no separate Legislative Council was formed. But 
a separate department was constituted in 1886 in the head office 
under the superintendence of an officer designated the Legislative 
Secretary. The European members of the United Planters' 
Association pointed out more than once the need of such a council 
as suited to the age in which they lived. Among the reasons which 
influenced the Durbar not to countenance the proposition put 
forward, the main one was that it would not be possible with a 
Legislative Council as part of the constitution to give effect in 
practice to the principle laid down by the Government of India 
that the chief authority and ultimate responsibility was in all cases 
td rest actually as well as nominally with the State's Ruler. Under 
the Instrument of Transfer the people of Mysore including the 
European planters had a guarantee that the British laws in force in 
Mysore at the time of the Rendition would not be altered by the 
Mysore Government without the concurrence of the Governor- 
General in Council. Any special legislation required by the 
planting community of Mysore could be easily introduced with the 
previous approval of the Government of India. The legislative 
measures, it was stated, which necessarily were required for a 
progressive administration mostly followed those introduced for 
British India and the modifications required for their adoption in 
Mysore -were made by the executive government in consultation 
with the -British Resident and were promulgated in the State with 
the sanction of the Maharaja. 



97 

A number of other Regulations were passed during the reign 
of Chamaraja Wodeyar and an enumeration of some of the 
important ones will show to what subjects they related : 1. Mysore 
Civil Court Regulation of 1883. 2. Mysore Chief Court Re- 
gulation of 1884. 3. The Mysore Legal Practitioners Regulation 
of 1884. 4. The Mysore Land Revenue Code of 1888. 5. The 
Land Improvement Loans Regulation of 1890. 6. The 
Mysore Arms Regulation of 1890. 7. The Mysore Factories 
Regulation. 8. The Mysore Railways Regulation. 9. The Mysore 
Infant Marriages Prevention Regulation. 

The last Regulation was an important piece of social legislation. 
The imperative need of this legislation was brought home to the 
Government from the figures relating to marriages revealed in the 
census report of 1891. The number of married girls under 9 was 
18,000 as compared with only 12,000 in 1881. The increase was 50 
per cent whereas the increase of population during the same period 
of 10 years was only 18 per cent. Again out of 9,71,500 married 
women in the country in 1891 the statistics specially collected at 
the census showed that 11,157 had been married at or before the 
age of four (74 in the first year, 349 in the second, 2347 in the 
third and 8387 in the fourth) and 1,81,000 between the ages of 5 
and 9. Of the girls married before nine, 3560 were found to be 
widows at that early age. In regard to boys, it had been ascer- 
tained that 512 had been married before four, 8173 between 10 and 
14 thus giving a total of 81,516 boys, all married before 14. 

The proposed raising of the marriageable age of boys to 14 
was expected to react beneficially on the marrying age of girls. 
For, considering the disparity that generally prevailed between 
husband and wife it was not too much to infer that in all boy- 
marriages under 14 the girls were more likely 
above 9 years of age and therefore the raising of 
age of boys to 14 would, it was considered, en 
nearly 82,000 girls to put off their marriage 
These facts established that the evil attempte 
one of some magnitude showing signs more of 
of decline. The progressive party in the 




urged on the Government in the light of the census figures the need 
of some prohibitory legislation and thereupon the Government 
consulted the heads of religious institutions who expressed the 
opinion that such marriages were opposed to the spirit of the 
Sastras. The general popular sentiment was also found to be in 
favour of some kind of prohibition. The Government, however, 
wished to move cautiously and explained to the Assembly in 1892 
that as a beginning it was proposed to prohibit marriages of girls 
below 8 years and those of men above 50 years of age with girls 
below 16 years. It was inexpedient to treat such marriages if they 
took place as altogether void, as the nullity of such marriages would 
involve endless difficulties regarding legitimacy of children born 
and their rights of inheritance. The utmost therefore that was 
intended to be done was to visit the persons responsible for such 
marriages with criminal penalties. 

A draft Regulation on the lines above indicated was published 
in 1893 with the view of affording the fullest opportunity for 
discussion and criticism. In his address to the Representative 
Assembly held in October of that year Sir Seshadri Iyer observed 
that though the Bill was regarded in a few quarters as an undue 
interference with the liberty of the subject, yet the measure had 
been framed in response to the general sentiment of the country 
which demanded under the authority of the law the abolition of 
certain usages which were as much opposed to the spirit of the 
Hindu Sastras as to the best interests of society. This Bill was 
finally passed into law in the latter half of 1894 embodying some 
of the more valuable suggestions made at the meetings of the 
Representative Assembly. The Dewan impressed upon the 
members of the Representative Assembly that met in October 1894 
that His Highness the Maharaja wished the Regulation to be 
particularly regarded as an important measure of protection against 
a growing evil of some magnitude. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 
Improvement of administrative efficiency (continued). 

Anche or Local Post Life Insurance Civil Service 
examination Status of village servants Offer of Imperial 
Service Troops Revision of the State Council. 

Among the measures adopted during this period for the 
improvement of administrative efficiency were two which elicited 
much comment. The first one related to the Anche or local 
post and the second was the institution of a Civil Service 
examination open to the whole of India. The Anche, no doubt, 
needed much improvement and two alternative proposals were 
received from the Director- General of Post Offices in India. The 
first proposal was that the complete control of the postal arrange- 
ments in Mysore should be surrendered by the Durbar to the 
Imperial Postal Department, that that department was to take over 
the whole of the postal establishments existing in Mysore, pay them 
from imperial revenues and treat Mysore in all postal matters 
exactly as if it were a British Province, the service correspondence 
of the State being carried at the cheap official rates as in British 
India prepaid by service stamps. The proposal was regarded in 
some quarters as advantageous to Mysore as it would secure 
centralisation and uniformity of rules and organisation, remedy that 
public inconvenience which naturally resulted from Mysore being 
isolated from the rest of India in postal matters and would save the 
Maharaja's Government the trouble and cost of maintaining a local 
postal department which at best imitated the imperial system in a 
manner necessarily imperfect. It involved, it was further said, no 
interference, administrative or political, though the liability of the 
State in respect of mail robberies would increase as the British 
postal system expanded. The alternative proposal was : 

1. That Mysore was to adopt all British rules and rates of 
postage using British postage stamps over-printed 



100 

' Mysore ' which were to be supplied to it for the mere 
cost of manufacture ; 

2. That all paid inland correspondence, official or non-official, 

transferred from Mysore to British post offices or vice 
versa was to be delivered free, each post office keeping 
whatever it collected in stamps or on bearing letters ; 

3. That Mysore was to introduce the Money-Order, Insurance, 

Value-payable Parcel, Postal -Note and other systems 
peculiar to British Indian post office retaining any fees 
it earned on account of them. This alternative proposal 
while securing complete reciprocity to the State in all 
postal matters was regarded as throwing great responsi- 
bility upon the State and also as involving it in 
additional expenditure for the improvement of the then 
existing establishment. 

The whole subject was discussed at the meeting of the 
Representative Assembly in 1885. The representatives unanimously 
expressed their opinion that the department should be retained by 
the Durbar and worked even at a loss if. it was unavoidable. The 
Government of Mysore thereupon intimated to the Director- General 
that the second alternative was agreeable to them, but a reply was 
received that that alternative proposal had led to some practical 
inconvenience in the States to which it had been applied and that it 
could not be introduced elsewhere until more experience was gained. 
After much correspondence, the Anche was at last amalgamated 
with the British postal system from the beginning of April 1889. 
The change was financially a gain to Mysore to the extent of J a 
lakh of rupees per annum. The Dewan when he next met the 
members of the Representative Assembly had, however, to adopt 
an apologetic tone in justifying this transfer. Surrounded on every 
side by British territory and its highly developed postal system, the 
isolation of the local post, said the Dewan, could not long continue 
without causing marked inconvenience to trade and without 
impeding general progress. With the railways and roads which 
Were so rapidly opening out every part of the country and the 
growth of commercial relations with the other parts of India, 



101 

Mysore was expected to keep pace with the requirements of the 
times and requisitions had indeed been made from various quarters 
for the insurance of parcels, money orders, telegraph offices and 
other new wants such as were elsewhere met by the Postal 
Department. It was however apparent that such an elaborate 
system could not usefully be attempted by a purely local post, for 
the essential condition of success in every postal system was 
centralised control and absolute uniformity of rules and organisation. 
As there were some difficulties in improving the local Anche, His 
Highness' Government decided to amalgamate the local with the 
imperial post. This explanation of the Dewan to the Representa- 
tive Assembly was felt as somewhat of a volte-face by the side of 
what had been said in the earlier year regarding the retention of the 
department in the. hands of the Durbar and the introduction of all 
the conveniences found in the British postal system. Though the 
transfer has become an accomplished fact, the desire in the minds 
of the people for its retention has not even now been wholly 
extinguished, especially as its origin was associated with so 
distinguished a ruler of Mysore as Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, 
the contemporary of Aurangzebe. 

After the Rendition, various attempts had been made from 
time to time to improve the efficiency of the subordinate public 
service by prescribing the minimum general qualifications that were 
required for the various grades of appointments. Till 1892 no 
attention, however, had been paid to the upper service. In 1874, as 
we have seen, an attempt had been made to improve the tone of the 
public service by direct appointments to it of young men of 
education and good antecedents. The scheme however had not 
been systematically followed, and especially with the large 
reductions carried out consequent on the famine the appointments 
to the service became somewhat haphazard, with the result that it 
became increasingly difficult, it was said, to find men of requisite 
qualifications to fill vacancies in the higher ranks of the service. 
The new scheme prescribed the holding of a periodical competitive 
examination open to the whole of India and that those who passed 
in this examination were to be admitted as probationary Assistant 
Commissioners, an equal number being admitted by nominations 



102 

from among the members of old Mysore families and from among 
the distinguished officers of the subordinate service. Strong 
objection was taken at the time to placing the young men of Mysore 
under such odds as would be involved when they were required to 
undergo an examination in which they had to sit side by side with 
candidates drawn from, as was said, the Himalayas to Cape 
Comorin. The European officers who had served in Mysore 
had borne testimony to the equal capacity of the Mysorean with 
his brethren outside the State. A competitive examination 
confined as it generally was to persons- of talent placed the 
Mysorean in point of numbers under a great disadvantage, 
especially a test by the number of marks scored involved an 
element of chance also according to the temperaments of the 
examiners. Vigorous protests against such a disability imposed 
on the Mysore graduates were made both in the Representative 
Assembly as well as outside. But the grievance was not remedied 
till after a number of years. 

A measure brought into effect to help the employees in the 
public service was the introduction of a system of Life Insurance 
from 1st December 1891. This subject had engaged the 
consideration of the Government of India some years earlier, 
but it was abandoned on the ground of the difficulty of managing 
the business and the fear that the native community might not 
avail itself of its advantages as largely as was necessary. His 
Highness' Government, however, now made bold to extend this 
boon of insurance to its own servants over and above the existing 
privileges of pensions and gratuities. The system aimed at offering 
a ready and safe investment for the small savings of the official 
class and at securing for them and their families a certain and 
substantial provision in the future in return for small payments 
spread over a series of years which were not likely to be felt as 
burdensome. The Government made no profit out of the 
business. The measure was calculated not only to benefit the 
families of the public servants left .in want but also to 
improve the general tone of the public service and to promote 
its independence and purity of character. The salient points 
pf the scheme were that every person who entered the service 



103 

of Government after a particular date on a monthly pay of 
Rs. 10/- and upwards upto a limit of Rs. 500/- was to be required 
to insure his life with the Government for a bonus which was to be 
payable to him on his attaining the age of 55 or to his family in 
the event of his dying before that age in return for a premium of 
10 per cent on the salary. The offiials already in the service were 
also given the option of insuring their lives, if their age did not 
exceed 45 years. To avoid undue risk to Government, a limit of 
Rs. 50/- was prescribed as the maximum premium payable by all 
officials even when their salaries exceeded Rs. 500. 

Another measure which engaged the attention of Government 
in the early period of Chamaraja Wodeyar's reign was the 
improvement of the status of village officers. Subsequently, 
however, it was found that no tangible improvement was possible. 
But the remarks made by the Dewan in 1883 in his speech to the 
Representative Assembly are of some interest, though the 
reasoning is not quite convincing. "The village establishments 
remain to be revised, not with the object of effecting 
any immediate reduction in the remuneration now paid to them but 
for the purpose of improving their status and of avoiding in the 
future a needless, heavy expenditure. The Survey and Settlement 
abolished the levy of mirasi by Shanbogues and Patels and fixed 
their remuneration on a liberal scale. It is not desirable to alter 
this scale, but the remuneration according to it must be paid not 
by cash payments from the treasury which are not valued but in 
the shape of service inam lands which confer upon their holders a 
position and status in the eyes of village communities and which 
for that reason are highly prized. Money remuneration has the 
effect of converting them into paid Government officials of the 
lowest rank and of affecting their traditional influence as heads of 
villages. Moreover, the amount which has to be paid from the 
treasury on this account is annually increasing. In 1878-79 it was 
Rs. 80,000. It has since gradually increased and is now about 
Rs. 2i lakhs. Unless the whole system is altered as above 
indicated, it may amount to nearly 7 lakhs by the time the 
Revenue Settlement of the Province is complete. Under such 
circumstances, the conversion of the money payments into land 



104 

emoluments is a step which should not be longer delayed. II 
carried out with proper precaution, it ought not to entail any 
appreciable decrease in the land revenue, for assignments of land 
as service inams must necessarily include a fair proportion of 
arable, unoccupied land and will to a large extent be 
counterbalanced by increased cultivation " 

In the year 1889 the Dewan announced the forest policy of the 
Maharaja's Government which was to conserve all forest tracts and 
to husband their resources to aid natural reproduction by artificial 
means, to replace indiscriminate felling by systematic operations, to 
allow the agricultural classes facilities for grazing and for meeting 
their essential wants and to ensure an unfailing supply of 
sandalwood. 

We have seen how the efficiency of the Silledar cavalry 
underwent considerable deterioration during the days of the British 
Commission. There was in the State excellent military material 
from which a very efficient force could readily be raised. In 
physique the Mysorean was far superior to the average man of the 
plains and he was specially noted for his endurance and hard work 
in distant countries and under the most trying conditions of climate 
and fatigue. The Bedar Infantry and the Mysore Cavalry so well 
known for their valour were all drawn from warlike classes who 
were indigenous to the country and who furnished excellent 
recruits for an army. The climate of Mysore placed the inhabitants 
in a better position than most other provinces for maintaining an 
excellent cavalry and the Amrit Mahal cattle of Mysore also 
provided an exceptional advantage in the matter of transport. The 
limitations under which the Durbar was placed in regard to 
military matters offered no effective means of readily devising 
measures to raise the efficiency of the Mysore troops. In 1883, 
however, a cavalry officer of the British Service was appointed as 
Staff Officer for the purpose of drilling the Silledars and bringing 
them up to a higher standard of efficiency. In 1885 the three 
regiments of Silledars stationed at Bangalore, Mysore and Shimoga 
with detachments at other district headquarters were all stationed 



105 

either at Bangalore or Mysore for greater convenience of manage- 
ment, furnishing detachments where required. About this period a 
change in the military policy of the Imperial Government towards 
the Indian States became markedly visible. The policy of 
isolation and mistrust pursued in the earlier period of British rule 
towards Indian Princes gradually gave place to one of union and 
friendship with them. As an illustration of the policy of the earlier 
period, it may be stated that in 1788 when the Raja of Travancore 
applied to the Governor of Madras to lend as a matter of favour 
and friendship four officers and twelve sergeants well acquainted 
with the exercise and discipline of troops for employment in his 
State, the Governor replied that it was contrary to the system of 
the Company to lend their officers to command any troops except 
such as were actually in their own pay and under their authority. 
In 1885 when war seemed imminent with Russia on the other side 
of the north-west frontier of India, the Indian Princes in a body 
approached the Viceroy with offers of the whole resources of their 
States to supplement those of the Supreme Government. Again, in 
1887 on the occasion of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria's 
accession to the throne, many rulers of Indian States offered to 
contribute in a very liberal way to the defence of the empire. But 
the Government of India did not think it necessary or in all 
respects desirable to accept from the Native States the pecuniary 
assistance which they so freely tendered. In 1888 Lord Dufferin 
the Viceroy in a speech at Patiala in November of that year 
suggested that the Princes who had specially good fighting material 
in their armies might raise a portion of their armies to such a pitch 
of general efficiency as would make them fit to go into action side 
by side with the Imperial troops. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar influenced by the traditions of his family 
was one of the first to accept this suggestion by offering to 
reorganise and improve the military forces of Mysore and to place 
them at the disposal of the Imperial Government for active service 
with the regular armies of the empire. Other Princes also, 
especially those of Hyderabad, Kashmir, Patiala, Indore and 
Bikanir, had made similar offers and all these were received by the 
Supreme Government in the spirit in which they were made. In 

AM 



106 , . 

his' speech to the Representative Assembly in 1889 the Dewan was 
able to announce that Major Mellis who had been deputed by the 
Government of India to reorganise and improve the existing armies 
of various States had already completed his work in Kashmir, the 
Punjab and the Rajputana States and was expected to visit Mysore 
in connection with his important mission. Major Mellis commenced 
his work in Mysore in 1 890 and completed it in the following year. 
The two regiments of Silledars were broken up into two corps, one 
for imperial and the other for local service. In order to permit 
of the former being brigaded with the troops of the British 
Government and kept in a constant state of efficiency for active 
service, it was stationed at Bangalore. It was armed with breech 
loading carbines, provided with camp equipage and a standing 
Pony Transport so as to be ready for immediate active service 
whenever called upon for the purpose, and in matters of pay, 
discipline and equipment it was made similar to the native cavalry 
in the British Service. This new plan, as stated by Sir William 
Lee-Warner, secured in comparison with the former establishments 
of Native States both efficiency and economy efficiency, because 
the officers lent to the States ensured the uniformity and harmony 
of organisation and equipment required by the general system of 
Imperial defence and economy, because larger bodies of inefficient 
levies were disbanded. 

In 1887 the subject of reconstituting the State Council came 
up before the Maharaja, as the Dewan felt the necessity of having 
as one of the councillors an officer with revenue experience who 
could be deputed for the inspection of the ordinary revenue work in 
the districts. Nothing however was done till Krishna Rao died in 
1888, when Colonel Grant, Superintendent of the Revenue Survey, 
was proposed to be appointed as a member of the Council. The 
Government of India, however, considered it inadvisable that a 
European officer should be a member of His Highness' Council 
and the proposal fell through. In April 1889 Sabhapathi Mudaliar 
was allowed to retire and P. Chentsal Rao, a retired member of 
the Madras Service, was appointed a member of the Council. In 
May of the same year an addition was made to the Council 
subjects by prescribing that all matters coming before His 



107 

Highness* Government either in appeal or in revision under 
Section 217 of the Mysore Land Revenue Code were to be heard 
and decided by a committee consisting of not less than two 
members of the Council, except in certain specified cases. In July 
1891 Chentsal Rao was placed in charge of the Land Revenue 
Department in addition to the charge of Local Fund and Municipal 
Departments. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 
Famine Policy : Railways. 

There have been droughts and famines in India from the 
remotest times arising out of the climatic conditions of the country 
and references to deficiency of rains, failure of crops and consequent 
distresses caused to the people exist both in the Sanskrit and 
vernacular literatures of India. There are also references to 
various kinds of measures put in operation to carry relief to the 
suffering people. There were however, it must be admitted, no 
systematised attempts to mitigate the horrors arising out of these 
visitations. Irrigation as testified by the numerous tanks and 
river canals found all over the country was one means of 
combating this failure of rain. But on account of want of facilities 
of communication it was not possible to carry food easily and 
rapidly from where it was in plenty to parts where its lack was 
sorely felt. 

In 1769-70 there was a terrible famine in Bengal and the 
records of the period showed that about a third of the population 
perished from starvation. Even under the British rule for a long 
number of years the principles and methods of famine relief were 
unsettled. It was in connection with the Orissa famine of 1886 
that a policy of famine relief was for the first time inaugurated. 
After the great famine of 1876-78, a Commission was appointed by 
Lord Lytton to enquire into the whole subject of famines in India 
and to advise the Government on the measures to be taken for their 
prevention and relief. Their report for the first time reduced to 
system the administration of famine relief. The labours of this 
Commission resulted in formulating general principles for the proper 
treatment of famines and in suggesting particular measures of a 
preventive or protective character. In Mysore at the time of the 
famine of 1876-78 the means of communication in the shape of 
roads had been admirably developed during the regime of the 
British Commission, but there was no easy and rapid transport 



109 

except carts drawn by bullocks to carry the food to the stricken 
parts. As a consequence, in spite of the large sums spent to 
provide food for the distressed people and in spite of the strenuous 
efforts made by the officers of the British Commission to mitigate 
the distress caused, the loss of life and property was appalling. 
Prudence now directed that the Government of Mysore should 
always be prepared to meet contingencies of deficiency or failure of 
rainfall causing scarcity, if not famine. 

In 1885 the rains held off for a time in some parts of the State 
and there was fear of a drought occurring. In October of the same 
year in his speech to the Representative Assembly the Dewan while 
accepting the British Indian mode of famine relief, indicated a few 
lines of departure from it. The system of relief, said the Dewan, was 
almost to be the same as that which was prescribed for all the 
British Provinces. There was, however, one point connected with 
the administration of relief upon the importance of which His 
Highness* Government laid special stress. In their opinion, it was 
essential that a scheme of relief in order to be efficient should begin 
with works in the vicinity of villages inhabited by the agricultural 
population. The main object of the relief was to be the prevention 
of the dispersion of families in quest of distant works. Near every 
inhabited village it was therefore considered advisable to provide 
suitable work such as the improvement of tanks, the digging of 
wells and the formation of village roads, the improvement of 
existing local sanitary arrangements, construction of Saguvalikattes 
and other similar works. The employment of the people on such 
works, it was believed, would enable them to return to their homes 
at the end of each day's work and thus it would be possible to 
preserve the mutually helpful bonds of village society. The early 
commencement of such works was to be regarded as of paramount 
importance. Experience showed, according to the Dewan, that 
in the earlier stages of distress the ryots preferred to cling to their 
homes upon unwholesome or insufficient food rather than seek 
employment on distant works. It was only when even such food 
failed and emaciation set in that they left their homes in quest of 
work or food and entered upon that career of aimless wandering 
which was so fruitful a source of suffering in the famine of 1876-77, 



110 

A programme was accordingly arranged for some of the most 
affected parts of Tumkur and Chitaldrug on the principle of leaving 
no inhabited village without suitable work within a radius of 3 
miles. At the same time, to meet the contingency of a drought 
deepening into a famine of some intensity involving landless classes 
on a large scale arrangements .were also made for undertaking 
when required a system of works under the professional control of 
the Public Works Department and intended chiefly for persons who 
generally resorted to such works for employment. The scheme of 
relief under the management of the Department of Public Works 
comprised the restoration or repair of a large number of tanks and 
the formation of a few useful new roads and the improvement of 
existing ones, the works being so situated that the labouring and 
even the agricultural classes could reach them without losing touch 
of their village homes. It was at the same time realised that when 
a desolating famine like that of 1876-78 occurred, resort must 
necessarily be had to the larger projects of railways and irrigation. 

Again in 1891-92 a severe drought occured which affected the 
whole State except the Malnad taluks. In the Maidan parts of the 
Mysore and Hassan districts the south-west monsoon was so 
scanty and precarious that the early dry crops were completely lost 
except in a few scattered places. The northern and eastern 
districts did not get any of the early rains and had in consequence 
to defer the preparation of land for cultivation much beyond 
the usual season. A few showers which came later permitted the 
sowing of nearly the usual extent of land with the ordinary crops 
in most taluks. These soon began to fade from insufficient 
moisture. The rain which fell towards the end of September raised 
hopes of a favourable change in the season. But by November it 
was evident that the north-east monsoon also was disappointing 
and that the general outturn of dry crops would not be much above 
a four anna average in most taluks. The tanks received no water 
and wet cultivation under them could not be attempted. The 
failure of fodder was widespread and altogether there was every 
indication of an impending distress of a very aggravated type and 
s the et^d oi November the. price of food grains began to ri 



Ill 

rapidly owing to the local failure of crops as well as large exports 
to the neighbouring Madras districts. 

In these circumstances the chief aim of Government, said the 
the Dewan to the Representative Assembly in October 1892, was 
to put into operation the policy sketched in 1885 and to provide 
work to the affected people as far as possible near their own homes. 
Accordingly, minor tanks conveniently situated were first selected 
whether yielding any revenue or not. To meet the rare cases where 
minor tanks were not available as , also to provide work near 
villages after completion of the tanks taken up, a programme of 
work of a supplementary character was kept ready. These works 
were also of special local utility being such as those relating to 
village sanitation, planting of topes in villages and round the fringe 
of the waterspread of the bigger tanks. The execution of these 
works was entrusted to the hereditary village patels as it was 
deemed safer to rely upon the autonomy of the village than upon 
any paid agency from outside. A system of periodical inspection 
and general control by the local revenue authorities was established 
and wide discretion given to district officers as regards the details 
of execution with due regard to local circumstances. Later, 
Government bore* testimony to the fact that the entire official 
agency from the patels to the district officers had shown itself fully 
equal to the high responsibility placed upon it and to the scheme of 
relief planned being carried out with complete success in every 
affected part. 

Besides placing the means of earning wages within the ready 
reach of the general population, several other measures were also 
adopted for the relief of special classes. The most important and 
the largest among these classes was the class of weavers, the 
demand for whose articles had been very much reduced owing to 
the high prices of food grains that prevailed. After much considera- 
tion of alternative measures, the Government eventually adopted a 
system of purchase, according to which advances of money were 
made to local merchants of standing for purchasing on behalf of 
Government the entire produce of the looms at the market-value to 
be re-sold when the demand became re-established. The merchants 



112 

were paid a small commission and in return they guaranteed the 
full recoupment of the advances made. The scheme was in 
operation in a number of weaving centres and afforded relief to 
considerable bodies of weavers who generally were the first to 
suffer on every occasion of widespread scarcity and high prices. In 
the Bangalore City the relief given extended to so many as 4000 
looms and 10,000 weavers. 

The Maharaja's Government were not content with merely 
starting famine relief works when actually the need for them arose. 
It was regarded that the opening out of the State by means of 
railways was a necessary preliminary not only to meet droughts and 
famines but also for the development of the material resources of 
the State. The first line of railway from Bangalore to Mysore 
was, as has been already stated, commenced by the British 
Commission and was opened for through traffic in February 1882 
and proved to be a great boon to the country even from the 
beginning. The railway line from Bangalore to Tumkur constructed 
from funds obtained by the railway loan of Rs. 20 lakhs was 
opened for through traffic on the llth August 1884. Further, 
this line was carried as far as Gubbi, an important centre of trade 
at a distance of 1 1 miles from Tumkur, by using surplus stores and 
by a cash outlay of li lakhs of rupees from the current revenues. 
The whole system of railway from Mysore to Gubbi was 141 miles 
in length. The survey of the line from Gubbi to Tiptur had 
already been finished. At this stage the Durbar agreed in 1885 to 
the proposal made by the Government of India for the construction 
of the line from Gubbi to Harihar by means of foreign capital. 

The Secretary of State on behalf of Mysore negotiated, as we 
have seen, a loan of 1,200,000 at 4 per cent per annum with 
the Southern Mahratta Railway Company. The proceeds of the 
loan raised by the Company amounted to 1,224,000 including a 
premium of 2 per cent and was equivalent in Indian currency to 
Rs. 1,63,82,801. Out of this amount, the Durbar reimbursed itself 
the amount spent on the railway constructed by it, viz.> 
Rs. 68,60,508 and out of the remaining amount the cost of the 



113 

construction of the line from Tiptur to Harihar by the Southern 
Mahratta Railway Company was defrayed. 

It was agreed that the entire railway from Mysore to Harihar 
was to be worked by the Company from 1st July 1886 as a separate 
system distinct from their railways in British India and the cost of 
management was to be apportioned between the two systems in the 
proportion of their respective gross earnings. Out of the net 
earnings of the Mysore system the Company were to retain for 
themselves a quarter-share, the remaining three-quarters being 
handed over to the Mysore State. The loan raised by the Company 
was not redeemable before 1st March 1936 but was redeemable 
after that date upon a year's previous notice being given. The 
contract with the Company regarding the management of the line 
was to be in force for a period of 46 years from the 30th June 1886 
to 30th June 1932. The railway from Gubbi to Harihar was 
completed by the Company in 1889 and on the 5th August of the 
same year the lines from Mysore to Tiptur and from Harihar to 
Tiptur were finally linked together and the through line declared 
open by Chamaraja Wodeyar. 

The ambition of the Durbar grew with this success to secure 
to the State a system of railway communications as complete and 
perfect as was possible. In his address to the Representative 
Assembly in 1891 the Dewan assured the members that if the 
financial conditions continued to improve as they had done in the 
past, there would be no pause in the construction of more railways 
which had been already mapped out and the State would thereby 
become intersected by lines which in the decade preceding the 
Rendition were only thought of as remote possibilities. The 
railways completed during the reign of Chamaraja Wodeyar besides 
the Bangalore- Harihar line were the extension from Mysore to 
Nanjangud 15i miles in length, the line from Bangalore to 
Hindupur 5li miles and the Kolar Gold Field railway 10 J miles. 
This last line was entrusted to the Madras Railway Company and 
the remaining ones to the Southern Mahratta Railway Company 
for management for fixed periods. The results of the survey to 

A15 



'114 

Carry the line from Nanjangud to Gudaloor were found dis- 
couraging and the Governments of Madras and Mysore concurred 
that this project should give way to that proposed to connect 
Nanjangud with Erode. The line from Bangalore to Guntakal was 
expected to advance the commercial prosperity of Mysore by 
connecting it with Bellary, Secunderabad and other important 
places to the north-east and to give a special impetus to the traffic 
in cotton and grain. The Kolar Gold Field Railway was expected 
to give an impetus to the Gold Mining industry. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 
Irrigation. 

As regards extension and improvement of irrigation, it was 
found in the early years of Chamaraja Wodeyar's rule that the 
irrigable area was only 15 per cent of the area under cultivation. 
Of this small area the greater portion was dependent upon tank 
irrigation. These tanks were fed by rain which at times failed 
when most needed. The Government was also under no illusion as 
regards the damage done to irrigation by allowing tanks in the State 
generally to deteriorate. 

So far back as 1866 Bowring who was then Commissioner of 
Mysore had found that the ryots had silently ignored their 
obligation and that the whole duty and cost of repairing the tanks 
both in regard to the requisite labour and material had fallen on the 
Government. At the same time he had also realised that it was 
manifestly impossible for Government to undertake the petty annual 
repairs of this large number of tanks scattered in all parts of the 
State. The ryots' liability was re-emphasised in 1873 by the Chief 
Commissioner of those days. Owing, however, to the decline of 
communal spirit, the absenteeism of the land -lords and the absence 
of any penalty for non-performance, it was found in the early years 
of the Maharaja's rule that nothing substantial had been achieved. 
There existed 38,000 tanks, both large and small, and it was found 
that these required regular attention both towards their restoration 
as well as towards their maintenance. 

In 1884 the Dewan said at the Representative Assembly 
meeting of that year that they could not conceal from themselves 
the fact that a large number of the tanks were in complete ruin, 
that the failure of the system of tank management was due to the 
non-recognition of the important fact that the ryot was jointly 
interested with the Government for the upkeep of the tanks and 
that when Government found that with its costly agency it could 
not undertake with any prospect of profit the full management of 



116 

these tanks it became necessary to call upon the ryots to once more 
come forward with their co-operation. It was true that the ryots 
had to a large extent lost all traditions of combination for works of 
public utility, nor were the civil officers in a position to enforce the 
ryots' liabilities in an efficient manner. The various inams and 
privileges attached to the upkeep by ryots had been withdrawn and 
cesses had been imposed on the understanding that the work was to 
be done by Government. Thus by emphasising at different times 
the responsibility of the one or the other of the two bodies 
interested in the tanks and by neglecting the interests of the other 
the tanks on the preservation of which so much depended had been 
allowed to deteriorate. The Dewan concluded this portion of his 
address with these words which are as true now as they were then : 
" Any reform in our tank system must start with a clear recognition 
of the fact that it was beyond the ability of any Government to 
undertake the repair and maintenance of all the tanks in the State 
with any ultimate benefit to its revenues, nor would it be equitable 
to throw the burden on the ryots after the village system or what 
little remained of it had been disorganised and after the ryot had 
tacitly been relieved of his responsibilities by the imposition of 
special cesses for the repair of tanks." 

In these circumstances it became necessary for the 
Maharaja's Government to evolve a new policy. To start with, it 
was considered necessary to draw a distinction between tanks 
which Government was to reserve for its direct management 
through the Public Works Department and tanks that could be left 
to the ryots under the supervision of the Revenue Department. It 
was true that from long disuse there was not the same skill 
available in villagers for the purpose intended as in the earlier 
days, but it was considered that under the sympathetic guidance of 
the Revenue and the Public Works Departments the old spirit 
could be revived and that thereby the ryots would rise to the 
occasion and utilise to their advantage the opportunities created. 
Accordingly the proposal now took the shape of reserving all tanks 
yielding more than Rs. 500 revenue under the direct control of the 
Public Works Department, the number of such tanks being 790. 
From the large revenue these tanks yielded, from the heaviness of 



117 

the cost of their repair, and from the risk involved in their breach, 
it was regarded as advisable that they should be managed by the 
skilled agency under Government. Tanks yielding less than 
Rs. 500 were proposed to be handed over to the management of the 
villagers concerned subject to the responsible control of the revenue 
officer but without any hard and fast rules irksome to the ryots. This 
system, it was hoped, would be sufficiently elastic to admit of its 
easy application to the varying conditions of the Maidan and the 
Malnad or of places where capital and intelligence were 
forthcoming and places where ryots were too poor and ignorant 
to do anything without State-aid. 

In return for the responsibility to be transferred to the ryot it 
was proposed to relieve him of the payment of the irrigation cess of 
one anna per rupee of assessment. In the case of works other than 
maintenance whole or partial remissions of wet kandayam for one or 
more years were also to be granted according to circumstances in 
order to enable the ryots immediately to carry them out. If motives 
of self-interest failed to have the desired effect, the next step was to 
throw open the tanks to private capital and enterprise under the 
' Chouthayi ' system or remission of one-fourth of the land assess- 
ment. In the case of tanks requiring an exceptionally heavy outlay 
for their repair or restoration concessions even more liberal were to 
be granted. Under the existing system when a tank breached it was 
many years before it was repaired and in partial relief half the wet 
assessment was remitted. The ryots paid half assessment for some 
years and when the prospect of the tank being repaired became 
more and more remote, they often resigned their holdings to the loss 
of the entire assessment to the Government. When these proposals 
were discussed in the Representative Assembly in October 1884 
they were found to be beset with many difficulties and there were 
also differences of opinion on the subject as to the limit to be fixed 
in regard to the relative responsibilities of the Public Works 
Department and the ryots. The settlement of the question one 
way or the other was however imperative and the Government 
were in favour of testing the scheme by introducing it tentatively 
in seven selected taluks, 



118 

AS regards the general irrigation policy of the Government, 
the DetarSui explained in 1886 that it was to be a settled policy of 
the Government to assign for the general improvement of irrigation" 
as large an allotment as was compatible with other demands on the 
finances of the State. The Durbar was conscious, said the Dewan, 
that a great deal remained to be done either in the shape of 
general improvements or the reconstruction of ruined or abandoned 
tanks likely to be remunerative or the restoration and where 
practicable the extension of channels drawn from the Kaveri 
Sind other rivers. Though the magnitude of these works in the 
aggregate was very large, still the Government accepted it as a 
settled principle that their annual operations on them were to be 
limited only by the extent of the resources at their disposal for the 
time being. In the case of the tank maintenance scheme already 
describee! the Rs. 500 limit was lowered to one of Rs. 300, and put 
into . operation in eight selected taluks, one in each district instead 
of only seven. A new Public Works Division was formed and to 
it ^vas entrusted all improvements of irrigation and the restoration 
and ejcteqsion of channels drawn from the rivers Kaveri, Hemavathi, 
Kapini and Lakshmanathirtha. 

After the minor tank restoration scheme entrusted to the ryots 
was in, operation fbr some time, the Dewan in his speech to the 
Representative Assembly of 1887 gave a hopeful indication of the 
success of the scheme. The scheme, he said, was an earnest effort 
to revive a custom which though formerly well recognised had 
unfortunately been allowed to fall into. disuse in later times. On 
the whole, a fair measure of success having been achieved the 
scheme continued to be extended to other taluks. The Dewan in 
concluding his speech relating to this *part of the subject. again 
emphasised on the obligation that rested on the ryots in these 
earnest words : " I need scarcely remind you, gentlemen, that the 
principle that the villagers must do the earthwork required for the 
proper maintenance of their tanks and appeal to the Government 
only when stonework or masonry work is required is an ancient 
custom of the land as old as the tanks themselves. Successive 
'Chief Commissioners' took advantage of every opportunity to 
impress this principle upon the executive officers of the Governmept. 



When the irrigation cess was imposed, the Government restricted 
the appropriation of the funds thereby raised to the repair and 
improvement of tanks as distinguished from mere ' maintenance ' 

. which was expressly declared to continue as an obligation on the 
part of the ryots. So lately as October 1873 the Chief Commis- 
sioner in the Public Works Department laid down elaborate rules 
"for the enforcement of this obligation. The practical enforcement, 
however, of the ryots' obligation as regards the tanks whether 
brought up to standard by the Public Works Department or not 
varied very much with each district officer's appreciation of the 
importance of this part of his duty. To add to this unsatisfactory 
condition of things the famine intervened and completely disorga- 
nised the administrative machinery, and the different opinions from 
time to time expressed as to the future tank policy of the 
Government contributed not a little to unsettle people's minds. 
Under such circumstances His Highness the Maharaja's Govern- 
ment deem it of paramount importance to declare and enforce a 
definite policy on the question and hence the scheme now 
promulgated which aims at the re -establishment of a formerly fully 
recognised custom a scheme moreover which is essential for the 
well being of the State, for it is possible in no other way to cope 

'with the work of maintaining in perfect safety the enormous number 
of tanks, large and small, scattered all over the State. When once 
this end is attained, and it is possible to attain it only by the ryot 
making good the deficiencies due to his past neglect the annual 
work required of him for proper future maintenance will indeed be 

.very slight and the Government will always undertake all work of 
improvement, all stone and masonry work and also repair all 
damages done by breaches and other inevitable accidents beyond 

-the power of the ryot to avert." 

The Government also by this time had become fully aware 
that the improvement and extension of the river channels in 
Mysore and Hassan districts were of equal importance with that of 
the upkeep of tanks. Accordingly the enlargement and extension 
of the Jodi Rampur channel was taken in hand as well as the 
extension of the Ramasamudra channel to a distance of 10 miles 
beyond its former limit. The Rajaparameswari channel was also 



120 

improved. It was calculated that on the full completion of the 
extension of these channels an additional area of nearly 30,000 
acres could be brought under wet cultivation in about five years. 
A forecast programme for the next five years was prepared in 1889 . 
including all projects costing over Rs. 20,000. In this programme 
were included the great Marikanave dam, a project for the 
construction of a new anecut across the Kaveri to be called after 
the name of Chamaraja Wodeyar and the permanent improvement 
of the old Chikkadevarajasagar, Virjanadi and Devaraya systems. 
The Dewan invited the representatives to make any suggestions on 
the programme by way either of alterations or additions from their 
intimate knowledge of local wants and local interests and several 
of the suggestions so made were accepted. 

In 1890 it was found that several works included in the 
irrigation programme would be materially affected by the rights 
claimed by the Madras people to the drainages of Mysore hitherto 
passed unchecked or but partially checked across the Mysore 
boundaries and it became therefore necessary to place some 
reasonable limit to the extent of the claims put forward by the 
Madras ryots. As this was a general question and had a most 
important bearing on the future irrigation policy of the State, a 
representation was made to the Government of India for a fair 
adjudication. 

In 1891 His Highness' Government became impressed with 
the need of giving encouragement to irrigation from wells which for 
protective value in times of drought and local prosperity in 
ordinary times were considered far superior to ordinary works of 
tank irrigation. In the famine of 1876-1877 the only oases amidst 
the general desolate appearance of the country were besides the 
tracts watered by the river channels those special regions favoured 
with well irrigation. The disappearance of surface springs in 
localities where they formerly existed and a general lowering of the 
spring level which had taken place in the northern and north- 
eastern taluks of the State indicated the need for exceptional 
activity in the construction of new irrigation works on a large 
scale. Want of capital and almost the usurious interest at which 



121 

alone money could be had in the market had been the cause of the 
ryot's inability to provide himself with irrigation wells even when 
all other conditions were favourable. The Durbar, therefore, now 
resolved to make advances for the sinking of wells at a nominal 
rate of interest repayable in easy instalments in a long number of 
years and the procedure under which such advances were 
obtainable was made exceedingly simple. No further security was 
demanded from the ryot than the well and the land it irrigated and 
exemption from enhanced assessment was also guaranteed to the 
holders of lands and the risk of any failure in finding water was 
undertaken by Government. A special officer was appointed to 
give the advances on the spot without the delay of circuitous 
correspondence through the usual official channel. The ryots were 
somewhat mistrustful of this scheme in the beginning but 
subsequently they evinced an eager desire to avail themselves 
of its benefits and in the districts of Kolar, Tumkur, Chitaldrug 
and Bangalore loans were taken within a short time for 917 kapile 
and 530 yatam wells calculated to irrigate 5252 acres. 

Another important class of works for which Government loans 
were given was the construction and repair of Saguvalikattes or 
small reservoirs for impounding water generally. The restriction 
placed upon the construction and improvement of these kattes by 
an order of 1873 had been felt as a great hardship, especially in the 
Chitaldrug district where much of the dry cultivation depended 
upon the retention of moisture under these kattes. That order was 
accordingly withdrawn and special encouragement was afforded for 
the construction and improvement of these most useful private 
works by a system of Government loans. 



A16 



CHAPTER XVI. 
Chamaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 

Growing prosperity of the country First Industrial 
and Agricultural Exhibition in 1888 Special encourage- 
ment given to arecanut gardens Agricultural Banks 
Encouragement to Industries Gold Mining Trade and 
development of communications Census of 1891. 

During the reign of Chamaraja Wodeyar there was owing to a 
variety of causes an increase in the agricultural prosperity of the 
country. Generally the seasons were favourable for agricultural 
operations and there was also an increase in the growth of 
population creating larger and larger demands for agricultural 
products. The census taken in 1891 showed an increase of nearly 
10 lakhs of people as compared with the number in 1881. The 
opening up of the country by means of railways and roads and the 
extension of irrigation had also their due share of influence in 
producing this agricultural prosperity. Taking Raiyatwari lands 
alone, inams or rent-free lands being inconsiderable in extent in 
Mysore and not subject to any appreciable variation, the occupied 
area increased from 40,90,402 acres in 1881 bearing a land revenue 
assessment of Rs. 63,51,000 to 61,73,826 acres in 1894 bearing an 
assessment of Rs. 84,47,525. Out of the increase, nearly a third 
was due to the introduction of the Revenue Survey and Settlement 
into 31 taluks, while the remaining two-thirds was wholly due to 
the extension of cultivation. Taking the two together, the total 
increase in the occupied area was 51 per cent, while that in the 
assessment was 33 per cent. It is evident, therefore, that the 
individual ryot held more land in 1894 in which year Chamaraja 
Wpdeyar died and paid proportionately less for it than in 1881, the 
average assessment per head showing a decline from Re. 1-8-10 to 
Re. 1-5-11. 

Prior to 1886 the office of the Director of Agriculture was held 
along with the offices of the Inspector -General of Police and of 
Forests and Plantations. In that year a separate Director of 



123 

Agriculture and Statistics was appointed and he was also entrusted 
with the duties of collection of statistics relating to rainfall, 
cultivation, breeding of stock, promotion of experiments in 
agriculture, trade and manufacture. In October 1888 during the 
Dasara festivities an Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition was 
held for the first time in Mysore and was opened by the Maharaja 
on the 16th of the same month. 

The aims of an Exhibition were stated by L.- Ricketts the 
President of the Exhibition Committee to be to guage the resources 
of the country, to stimulate agricultural and industrial pursuits by 
disseminating useful information, to create a healthy emulation and 
secure excellence in the quality of products and to enhance their 
value by increasing the demand for them. The educational 
importance of the Exhibition consisted, according to the President, 
in forming as it were a vast sample room where the best specimens 
of agricultural produce and a varied collection of arts and 
manufacture could be seen together. The Exhibition was held in 
the Gordon Park at Mysore, a prominent site having been selected 
midway between the New Public Offices and the Oriental Library. 
The exhibits were classified under the following heads : 

SECTION A. Horses and Ponies, Cattle, Sheep and Goats. 

SECTION B. Field Produce, Garden, Plantation and Jungle 
Produce, Fibres, Spices and Condiments, 
Sugars, Dyes and colours, Miscellaneous 
Vegetables and fruits. 

SECTION C. Machines, Implements and Tools. 
SECTION D. Ploughing competition. 
SECTION E. Fine Arts. 



SECTION F. Industrial Arts: Hardware 

thenware, Glassware, FujiWjpBasketwarc 
Textile Manufactures, 

SECTION G. Foliage Plants. 



124 

The Exhibition gave an opportunity to the members of the Repre- 
sentative Assembly as well as to the visitors in general for 
comparing the agricultural capabilities of their respective taluks 
with those of other places, for informing themselves of the success 
that had been attained in various parts of the country in improving 
the breed of cattle and for obtaining some practical idea of the 
extent to which manual labour could be saved by the employment 
of suitable machinery for lifting water for irrigation purposes as 
well as for other operations connected with agriculture. In 1890 
the Dewan announced that an increased number of agricultural 
scholarships was to be given to the Mysore students proceeding to 
the Madras Agricultural College for study on condition of their 
carrying on agriculture on their own lands and farms after 
completing their course of instruction. It was thereby the hope of 
Government to create agricultural centres on improved principles 
in different parts and by that means to bring about a gradual and 
steady permeation through the community of information respecting 
improved methods of agriculture and other industries connected 
with it. 

The Supari or betel-nut garden owners of the Malnad were 
given special encouragement for the preservation of existing 
gardens as well as for the opening of new ones. The representa- 
tive members from the Shimoga district had on several occasions 
placed before Government the hardships caused to the garden owners 
by the double levy of a heavy land assessment as well as a Sayer 
duty on the produce. In regard especially to the supari growers of 
Sagar and Nagar it was evident that they suffered not only from a 
comparatively high land assessment in addition to a Sayer duty on 
the produce but also from difficulty of procuring labour, from want 
of suitable markets within easy reach, and from a peculiar kind of 
rot known as Koleroga which affected the betel trees, for all of 
which remedial measures were necessary. In 1887 a set of Shraya 
rules was issued as a partial solution for the difficult problem of 
of garden assessment in the Malnad. Bearing in mind the 
importance of maintaining uniformity in the system of assessment, 
the Durbar arrived at the conclusion that it was necessary to retain 
in the hands of Government a special garden rate which had the 



125 

sanction of the usage of the country. As a first step the Shraya 
rules introduced gave formal effect to a system which had fallen 
into disuse on the introduction of the Revenue Survey. The rules 
issued offered liberal encouragement for the formation of new gardens 
by allowing in the Malnad a nominal assessment of 4 annas per 
annum for 12 years and for a progressive assessment during the 
next three years. In the case of all arecanut gardens situated 
elsewhere and all cocoanut gardens wherever situated the 
assessment was fixed at 4 annas per acre for the first 9 years, 
followed by a progressive assessment during the next three years. 
In 1891 Government made a concession to the ryots of the Malnad 
taluks by granting to them full rights in their Soppinbettas to such 
garden owners as had defined tracts to their gardens. Where 
no such allotment existed, a survey party was deputed for alloting 
such Soppinbettas to each survey number of the garden. The 
garden owners were free to cut in the Bettas assigned to them all 
kinds of trees except sandal and teak. 

In 1894 a scheme of Agricultural Banks which was expected 
to yield very beneficent results was introduced and the Dewan's 
speech to the Representative Assembly of that year expounding 
the hopes and intentions of His Highness* Government is worth 
reproducing in full : " Before concluding, I wish to make a few 
observations regarding the establishment of Agricultural Banks in 
this country which on more than one previous occasion was pressed 
on the attention of Government. The subject has now received 
that careful study and investigation which its vital importance 
demands and I am able to place in your hands the Kanada draft of 
a scheme whereunder banks for the special benefit of agriculturists 
can most readily be established in this country. The details of the 
scheme are set forth in full in the draft before you but I may in 
this place add a few remarks in explanation of its more salient 
features. 

" On the one hand, we have large accumulations of unused 
capital in the country as evidenced by the balances in the Presidency 
and other Exchange Banks, the refusal of the former to receive any 
private deposits except as current ones carrying no interest and the 



126 

high premium which the Government of India 3$ per cent securities 
command. On the other hand, we have the agriculturist suffering 
from inability to raise the funds required for his bona fide purposes 
except at ruinous rates of interest. In our own State the balance 
of the Government Savings Banks deposits has risen from 4 
lakhs in 1S81 to 28 lakhs during the last year though the rate of 
interest was recently reduced to 3$ per cent, but the borrowing 
power of our ryot is as low as ever. The substantial agriculturist, 
especially the coffee planter and the grower of exportable produce, 
is able to obtain some credit from the foreign buyer on the security 
of his crops at 9 and 12 per cent interest. But the ordinary ryot is 
unable to get any credit except at usurious rates. To bridge over 
the wide gulf that thus separates capital from want is one of the 
most important problems of the day in this country and it is not 
without considerable diffidence that His Highness* Government 
approach its solution. But we derive the hope of eventual success 
from what has already, been accomplished in some European 
countries where conditions very similar to ours have existed. These 
countries have tried various experiments for the reorganisation of 
land credit by interposing an intermediate body such as the Land 
Credit Banks of the continent between the capitalist and the 
agricultural borrower. These experiments have been attended with 
varying degrees of success according to the degree of identification 
attained of the interests of the intermediate body with those of the 
borrower. But the most successful system has proved to be that 
in which the agriculturists forming themselves into an association 
on strictly co-operative principles substituted their own credit for 
that of the intermediate body, thus securing for themselves the 
fullest return for their own credit as agriculturists and doing away 
with the profits of the middlemen. 

"The existing conditions among us offer no insuperable 
obstacle in the way of the establishment and successful working of 
similar associations in this country under the designation of 
Agricultural Banks. Indeed, speaking of our State, the tracts in 
which the Suttige and crop-advance systems exist afford highly 
favourable cpnditipns fpr their establishment," 



12? 

The essential principles underlying the constitution of" these 
banks were : 

1. Every bank was to be an association of landholders formed 

on strictly co-operative principles and enlisted on the 
basis of mutual confidence arising from the mutual 
information of one another's character and resources, 
the object being the common benefit of cheap credit and 
not the earning of divisible profits. 

2. The bank was to have no share capital, the funds required 

for the bank being obtained by means of loans raised 
or deposits received. 

3. The members were to contribute their liability only. 

4. The funds raised by the bank were to be lent only to its 

members at such moderate rates of interest as would 
leave the bank a small margin for the actual expenses of 
management and for the formation of a Reserve Fund. 

5. The affairs of the bank were to be managed by a body 

elected from among the members themselves and giving 
their services gratuitously. 

6. No loan was to be made except for an approved purpose 

such as some agricultural operation which with ordinary 
care could be expected to repay the loan and to leave 
some profit to the borrower. 

While the credit of the bank was in the process of growth, the 
Government were prepared, assured the Dewan, to help the bank 
with deposits of money at favourable rates of interest. Further, 
exemptions were also to be granted from stamp and other duties to 
provide for the special registration of loans and their ready 
recovery, for the custody of funds in public treasuries and for the 
periodical audit of accounts. The co-operative spirit on which the 
association was based was, of course, to come from the people 
themselves. " I have no doubt," concluded Sir K. Seshadri Iyer, 
" such a spirit is to be found in most parts of the State, at least to 



128 

the extent of enabling us to make a small beginning. Small 
beginnings and early struggles are the necessary conditions of 
vigorous life and I indulge in the hope that the scheme if carefully 
worked on a moderate scale and in places where the conditions are 
most favourable will soon be the means of establishing a system of 
agricultural banks throughout the country. They will be a great 
education to the people in thrift and co-operation and they will be 
the means of creating a wholesome public opinion against 
unproductive expenditure and extravagance of all kinds." 

The importance of industrial development was equally 
realised by the Maharaja's Government. In 1881 Rangacharlu in 
his address to the Representative Assembly in explaining the fall 
in land revenue drew pointed attention to the loss of a million of 
the population of the country and the consequent reduction in 
demand for food grains leading to a fall -in their prices and deterring 
the ryots from bringing more lands under the plough, indicating 
thereby how much the success of agriculture was dependent on the 
flourishing condition of the manufacturing industries. The old idea, 
said Rangacharlu, that India must confine itself to the growth of 
agricultural produce was giving way to the more correct theory 
that no country could prosper unless its agricultural and manufac- 
turing industries were equally fostered. In 1890 Sir K. Seshadri 
Iyer in explaining to the Representative Assembly certain 
concessions granted to a private capitalist for the establishment of 
a large scale iron industry in the Malavalli taluk, which however 
did not materialise, announced that it was to indigenous industries 
that they should look for the growth of capital and wealth in the 
country and real progress in other directions also. With the 
general poverty of the people on the one hand and their growing 
intelligence on the other, the great want of the people was doubtless 
the establishment of suitable industries on a scale calculated to 
afford a variety of remunerative occupations to large numbers and 
thus to obviate profitless competition within narrow spheres. 
Under such circumstances, the Dewan further said, it behoved the 
Government to do everything in their power not only to foster 
existing local industries but also to establish new ones wherever 
possible and recognising the principle that a far more powerful 



129 

agency in the matter than Government was the enterprise and 
intelligence of the people themselves, it was always the policy of 
Government to give every reasonable encouragement for the growth 
of new industries. 

An outstanding industry that grew up during the reign of 
Chamaraja Wodeyar was that of Gold Mining. Mysore has now 
acquired a definite place among the gold producing countries of the 
world, The existence of old workings in the tract of country 
adjacent to Bowringpet in the Kolar District had long been known. 
But it was not till 1873 that any special attention was directed to 
them. In that year, one M. F. Lavelle, a resident of Bangalore who 
possessed some knowledge of Geology retired from the army and 
applied to the Government of Mysore for the exclusive privilege of 
mining in the Kolar District. His request was granted, one of the 
conditions being that a Royalty of 10 per cent was to be paid on all 
ores raised. Lavelle commenced operations by sinking a shaft in 
1875 near Oorgaum. But finding that large capital was required for 
carrying out the work, he next year with the approval of the 
Government transferred all his rights and concessions to a military 
officer by name Beresford. This officer with some friends formed a 
syndicate known as the Kolar Concessionaires who took up the 
matter in earnest, at the same time obtaining a reduction in the 
rate of Royalty from 10 to 5 per cent. On these terms twenty 
square miles forming the Kolar Gold Fields were from time to time 
taken up by the Concessionaires and the Royalty and rent claimed 
by Government were further optionally allowed to be commuted by 
an immediate payment of Rs. 55,000 per square mile. By 1881 
the Concessionaires secured the aid of Messrs. John Taylor & Sons, 
a firm of mining engineers in London. A general rush was now 
made for gold and rules for grant of mining-leases in other parts of 
the State were drawn up on similar terms. In 1886, finding that 
the Kolar Concessionaires were realising vast sums by sale of land 
containing gold, a fine of one-tenth of the consideration for every 
assignment of the lease was levied by Government. 

The Government in 1886 also considered it necessary to have 
the country generally surveyed with reference to auriferous tracts 

A17 



130 

and Lavelle accordingly made a rough survey which was then gone 
over by Bruce Foote of the Geological Survey of India and duly 
mapped out. On information thus obtained, the existing rules were 
modified by providing for the grant of prospecting licences and 
making the grant of a lease conditional on a Company being 
formed within two years with paid-up working capital of 5000 
per square mile and by reserving to Government the right to limit 
the total area to be leased for the time being and to dispose of 
mining leases for such areas by public competition. Under these 
conditions about ninety-seven square miles in all were leased out 
up to 1891, the land being situated in every district except 
Bangalore which was not within the auriferous zone. 

In 1894 the Dewan stated in the Representative Assembly 
that under a system of prospecting licences and mining leases on 
favourable terms British capital and enterprise were attracted to 
the State and the mineral resources of the country had been so far 
developed that the anticipations of the past had been more than 
realised and the position of Mysore as a gold -producing country 
had become assured. The time therefore had arrived to organise 
and carry out a systematic survey of the State. At the end of 1894 
a regular Geological Department was established under Bruce 
Foote whose services were borrowed from the British Government. 
The work of this department was to include a thorough 
investigation and record of the mineral resources of the country, the 
collection in a special museum of objects of geological and mining 
interest, maintenance of a laboratory for the purpose of making 
assays and analyses of minerals, and the training of young men for 
the work of the department in all its branches. Geology was also 
added to the curriculam of the Central College as an optional 
subject for the University Course. 

It need scarcely be said that there was always much risk and 
uncertainty inherent in the mining industry and the success of even 
the Kolar Gold Mines was for a considerable time far from assured. 
In February 1881 one Captain B. D. Plummer, a miner of great 
experience, was appointed manager of the Nandidoorg Mine and 
Tie commenced operations there. These were continued till April 



131 

1883, when work was stopped for want of funds. Captain 
Plummer, however, from the crush ings found that the prospects 
were encouraging and urged the shareholders to continue the work. 
But the shareholders had not the courage to venture more money. 
Meanwhile, another of the Companies the Mysore Mine had also 
come nearly to the end of its resources. A balance of only 
13,000 remained and it was a question whether to divide this 
among the shareholders or to risk it on the mine. The strong 
advice of John Taylor prevailed and Captain Plummer was sent in 
December 1883 to do the best he could with the amount available. 
What actually occurred afterwards has now become a matter of 
history. The Champion Load was discovered by Captain 
Plummer and by 1885 the success of the Kolar Gold Fields became 
established. The 1 shares of the Mysore Mine which was as 
low as 10 pence were soon quoted 7-10-0 and it paid in 1886 a 
Royalty of Rs. 33,368 to Government. This was the first sum of 
Royalty received by the Mysore Government and in succeeding 
years it went on increasing till in 1894-95 it was Rs. 7,33,527. 
In 1894-95 there were 13 Companies at work representing a capital 
of 35,00,000 with a labour population including women and 
children, of 400 Europeans and 11,700 Indians. The annual 
payments on the spot in wages and otherwise exceeded 60 lakhs of 
rupees. In an area which was a few years ago a desolate waste 
sprung up a large and flourishing town humming with life and 
activity. A branch railway, as has been already stated, was 
opened in 1893 running from the Bowringpet junction 'of the 
Jalarpet-Bangalore line through most of the principal mining areas 
proving an immense convenience. In 1886-87 the total output of 
gold was 16,325 ounces valued at Rs. 8,88,606 and in 1894-95 the 
total production was 2,34,859 ounces valued at 8,44,271. The 
total quantity of gold produced during a period of about 10 years 
was 10,56,941 ounces valued at Rs. 2,34,39,352 plus 23,45,915. 
The total amount of Royalty received by the Mysore Government 
at 5 per cent on the gross income was Rs. 31,68,872. These figures 
showed the magnitude of the interests created. But although the 
country was naturally benefited greatly thereby, the principal 
transactions all took place in England where all the capital had been 



132 

raised and whither all the gold was conveyed. The dealings in 
shares took place on the London Stock Exchange and except some 
. shares held by the Mysore Government very few shares were held 
by the people of the country. The Captains and other officials were 
English but the labour employed as far as Europeans were 
concerned consisted principally of Italian miners, and the native 
miners were at one time largely Moplahs from the Western Coast 
but in course of time others also were attracted by the liberal wages 
given. 

Next turning to the textile trade, Bangalore became one of the 
most important distributing centres for this trade in Southern 
India. The first mill started in the Mysore State at Bangalore was 
in the year 1884 now known as the Mysore Spinning and 
Manufacturing Mills. The next mill started was in 1887 under the 
designation of the Bangalore Woollen, Cotton and Silk Mills. 
These Mills were started with local capital and large concessions 
were given by the Government in the shape of suitable sites and 
facilities for water supply. The Durbar also subscribed towards the 
share capital. These mills though now in a prosperous condition 
had a very chequered career in the earlier years and came to be 
largely financed with outside capital and the management also 
passed into the hands of outside agencies. 

During the reign of Chamaraja Wodeyar considerable impetus 
was given to the trade of the country both by the extension of 
railways and by connecting them with those in British India as 
well as by the increase of the mileage of good roads. In the first 
ten years of this reign 471 miles of entirely new roads were opened 
out and 218 miles of roads which were incomplete at the time of the 
Rendition were fully completed. Some of these roads were 
reckoned as important railway feeders on which the development of 
the railway traffic mainly depended. The road from Avinhalli and 
that from Talguppa were designed and carried out via the Ninne 
Ghat to Gersoppa so as to afford a much needed outlet for the 
supari of the western Malnad. The construction of bridges over the 
Thunga at Hariharpur and the Bhadra at Balehonnur materially 



133 

removed the great obstacles that existed to the trade of Mysore 
with the Western Coast. 

In February 1891 the usual decennial census was taken of the 
entire State on the system adopted in British India. The 
population of the whole State including that of C. & M. Station, 
Bangalore, was found to be nearly 49j lakhs as compared with 
nearly 42 lakhs in 1881, the increase being nearly 18.08 per cent. 
To reach the figures of 1871 when the first census was taken and 
when the population was a little over 50j lakhs, there still existed 
a gap of over one lakh which had to be made up. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 

Progress of education in general Special encourage- 
ment to women's education Oriental Library Archaeo- 
logy Encouragement to Kanada drama Chamaraja 

Wodeyar's catholicity of mind. 

During the reign of Chamaraja Wodeyar both branches 
of education general and special received considerable 
encouragement. In 1881 the number of schools was only 866 and 
in 1894 the closing year of the Maharaja's reign, the number 
of schools increased to 1797 and the expenditure on them from 
Rs. 3,15,000 to Rs. 8,20,000. The increase in the number of boys 
was from 39,413 to 83,398 and in that of girls from 3000 to 12,000. 
Eight hundred primary vernacular schools, fifty English Middle 
Schools, five Industrial Schools, two Normal Schools, thirty 
Sanskrit schools, one first grade English College and three Oriental 
Colleges were newly established. Taking the census figures of 1891 
it was found that in a period of 10 years from 1881 the total 
number of educated males among the population of the State had 
increased from 2,34,698 to 2,61,508 or 11.4 per cent and of educated 
females from 9082 to 17,885 or 96.3 per cent. 

The financial exigencies of the early period of the Maharaja's 
rule necessitated the abolition of a separate departmental head for 
education and his designation of Director of Public Instruction was 
in 1883 changed to that of Education Secretary to the Dewan and 
with these duties were combined the duties of Police Secretary to 
the Dewan as well those of the Census Superintendent. In August 
1884 Archaeology was substituted for police duties and in April 
1890 Education was separated from Archaeology and was entrusted 
to Dr. H. J. Bhabha, a Parsi gentleman of ability who was 
principal of the Maharaja's College at the time. 

On the occasion of the prize distribution on the 24th March 
1882 to the students of the Maharaja's College at which Chamaraja 



135 

Wodeyar presided, Rangacharlu on behalf of His Highness* 
Government stated that the requirements of an advancing age did 
not permit of education being left to the chances of individual 
philanthropy as in former days but that it was necessary that 
Government should undertake the maintenance of public schools 
and colleges, care being however taken not to allow them to 
degenerate into a mere Government Department worked on mere 
routine and on considerations of monetary gain. Further, if 
educational institutions were to attain their highest success, 
emphasised Rangacharlu, they needed to be characterised by public 
spirit, purity of intentions and devoted attachment between masters 
and pupils which belonged to the older schools. No nation could 
thrive without a highly educated class at its head and the system of 
Government schools would never be complete without the colleges. 
So long as these colleges were attended by all classes of people and 
a well-devised system of scholarships placed them within the reach 
of the more gifted students of the poorer classes, it might fairly be 
accepted that it was the national and not individual interests that 
were served. Education was but a means to an end and a desire for 
it could only spring among the people by political ambition, or any 
religious movement, or great industrial changes. What was really 
required at the time, concluded Rangacharlu, .was to stimulate a 
desire for education among the large agricultural classes. If this 
was accomplished, Government would no more be called upon to 
pay for their education than are required to feed them. 

Till the year 1886 however, education did not receive much 
support from Government funds on account of various other 
urgent demands on its revenue. In that year Sir K. Seshadri 
Iyer was in a position to announce in the Representative 
Assembly the educational policy of Government for the future. 
It would be the aim of Government, he said, to maintain 
unimpaired and in thorough efficiency all the means of elementary 
and secondary education and to bring them within the reach of all 
classes both by direct agency and by assisting private efforts, to 
promote a scholarly study of the local vernacular and of the 
Sanskrit language, to elevate and extend female education and to 
conduct it on a system strictly national so as to enlist popular 



136 

sympathy in its progress and to encourage higher education and 
train young men for the professions of medicine and engineering. 

The most notable advance during the period of Chamaraja 
Wodeyar's rule was that made in women's education. There existed 
in the days of the British Commission a few schools for girls 
managed by religious bodies. But these were not generally popular as 
they paid little regard to the religious beliefs and social habits of the 
people. As a consequence, the attendance in these schools was very 
limited and the girls attending mostly belonged to the lower strata 
of society. As far as the Mahomedan population was concerned, no 
girls belonging to that community attended any school. In the very 
first year of Chamaraja Wodeyar's accession to power this defect 
was recognised and a school at Mysore was started under the desig- 
nation of the Maharani's Girls' School where caste prejudices were 
consulted and teachers drawn from respectable communities were 
appointed. This school later developed into the far-famed Maharani's 
College. At the end of the first year of the existence of the school, 
Rangacharlu presided at a prize distribution and his views on 
women's education are interesting. " I attach great importance," he 
said, " to getting up among our leading families numbers of young 
ladies with a high English education who could feel for the 
advancement of their sex and take up the same position in regard 
to them as that occupied by educated men in relation to their 
brethren. We cannot altogether trust in the legislation of men for 
the softer sex any more than in the legislation of one class for 
another. Such legislation is as much apt to err on the side of 
extravagance as on that of despotism, indulging in imaginary ideas 
of women's rights and other extravagant notions. The happy 
mean will be arrived at if we leave to women all that concerns 
themselves to be judged and determined by the standard of their 
feelings and ideas on the subject." By the course adopted, the 
orthodox sentiments of the people were conciliated and several 
other girls' schools also subsequently started gained in popularity. 
A school was later opened at the important pilgrimage centre of 
Melkote and another was established at Tumkur to commemorate 
the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887, both mainly 
maintained from private funds. By the year 1889 women's education 



137 

came to be regarded as an object of general approval and the 
Maharani's Girls' School was always looked up to as a guide. An 
English lady of good literary attainments was at this time deemed 
necessary to be appointed as Lady Superintendent at its head. 

An important change was made in the system of supervision 
over girls' schools throughout the State. To enable the local people 
directly interested in the success of women's education to watch 
over the growth of the system and so direct it that every step taken 
might enlist in advance the sympathy and support of the native 
community at large, Government placed in 1890 every girls' school 
maintained from State funds under the immediate supervision of a 
local committee. The committees were given large powers of 
management and the initiative was generally allowed to rest in 
almost all cases with them. Women's education, the Government 
considered, could not become firmly established in the country until 
the people began to look upon the education of their girls, whether 
children or adults, as necessary and as obligatory as that of 
their boys. 

The Maharani's Girls' School, Mysore, Arya Balika Pathasala 
in Bangalore and the Empress Girls' School at Tumkur which had 
been started and worked as aided private institutions were later 
converted into Government institutions on account of their size and 
importance and were also placed under the supervision of 
committees. The Maharani's Girls' School underwent a thorough 
revision of its system of studies and management at the hands of 
the influential committee appointed to supervise it. Five Brahmin 
ladies trained in the school were appointed teachers in the same 
institution and subsequently the number was raised to 16 as lady 
teachers became available. So many as 59 girl pupils above the 
age of 12 attended the Maharani's School showing strong 
indications of the disillusion of social prejudices against women's 
education. A training class consisting of ten pupils was also for the 
first time opened and a graduate of Newnham College, Cambridge, 
was appointed Lady Superintendent. Before leaving this subject, 
it may be stated that in its early years women's education owed its 
progress to the zealous services of Rai Bahadur A. Narasimha 

A1S 



13$ 

lyengar whom we have already met as tutor to Chamaraja Wodeyar 
and who subsequently as Durbar Bakshi to His Highness used all 
the influence he possessed for the wider spread of knowledge among 
women, not to speak of the large sums he spent from his own purse 
in behalf of a cause of which he was an earnest advocate. 

Various other measures of improvement in education were also 
introduced during this reign. An Industrial School was opened at 
Mysore in February 1892 with arrangements for imparting 
instruction in carpentry, blacksmiths* work, masonry, pottery, rattan 
work and free-hand drawing. The pupils of this school were drawn 
from all classes Hindus of all castes, Mahomedans, Native 
Christians and Eurasians. The Maharaja's College affiliated to the 
Madras University was raised to the first grade and came to occupy 
the same status' as the other first grade college in the State, namely, 
the Central College at Bangalore. A number of Government 
scholarships was instituted for the benefit of the Mysore students to 
study the subjects of Engineering, Medicine, Veterinary Science, 
Arts and Forestry in the British Indian Colleges at Poona, 
Madras, Bombay and Dehra Dun. In 1888 the Maharaja 
instituted a system of special scholarships for the benefit of the 
palegar pensionaries of the State and for the Mahomedans. The 
former were designed as inducements to the principal palegar 
houses to put the younger members of their families under suitable 
courses of instruction to qualify them for the public service. 
It was found that the Mahomedans had not come forward readily 
to avail themselves of the benefits of higher education and the 
scholarships now provided for them were intended as an encourage- 
ment to march alongside of the other communities. The fees 
payable by Mahomedan pupils were also reduced to half of the 
usual rates so as to give special impetus to the spread of education 
among them. 

Government aid was also extended to a large number of 
private schools, among which were included many giving 
instruction in Sanskrit. The promotion of the study of Sanskrit in 
conjunction with that of Kanada was calculated to raise the general 
standard of education in the country. An examination known as 



139 

the Mysore Local Examination for vernacular candidates was 
instituted in 1886, while the Middle School Examination afforded a 
similar goal to the pupils of English Schools. The Mysore Local 
Examination was also later recognised as a qualifying test for some 
of the subordinate grades of the public service. 

His Highness was a great patron of Sanskrit and Kanada 
learning. The Sanskrit college which had been started some years 
before was greatly improved and examinations in all branches of 
that learning open to scholars from all parts of India were instituted 
and liberal rewards were given to them at the durbar during 
the Dasara festival, along with the certificates of merit. To 
encourage Kanada learning and literature a Sabha was started 
under the name of * Karnataka Bhashojjivini Sabha ' and a 
pathasala was also established in connection with it. Pandits 
Seetharama Sastry, Kasturi Rangachar, Vyakarana Shamachar and 
Sundara Sastrigal were noted Sanskrit Pandits at the time. 
Basavappa Sastry was a Kanada scholar of great merit who wrote 
not only original works but also brought out apt translations into 
Kanada of Kalidasa's * Sakuntala ' and other dramas in Sanskrit. 
Among the Mahomedans was Moulvi Shabudin, a well-known 
scholar both in Urdu and Persian. To mark the appreciation of 
His Highness for great learning or extraordinary public services, 
various titles were instituted and were conferred on deserving men. 
Prior to the period of Chamaraja Wodeyar there were no regularly 
constituted theatres in Mysore of the modern type. His Highness 
established one and attached it to the Palace and gave considerable 
encouragement to those connected with it. The catholicity of the 
Maharaja's mind may be understood from the fact that he was the 
first Hindu Ruler who gave material encouragement to Swami 
Vivekananda and enabled him to proceed to Chicago to attend the 
Parliament of Religions held there. 

In 1887 on the occasion of the Golden Jubilee of Queen 
Victoria advantage was taken to found an institute at Mysore as a 
memorial of the occasion, in which it was proposed to make as 
complete a collection as possible of ancient manuscripts both 
Sanskrit and Kanada and to provide facilities for scholars for 



140 

consulting and obtaining copies of the works. This Oriental 
Library was opened to scholars for the first time in October 1891. 
In the last year of His Highness* reign there were in all in this 
library 1653 printed works and 1358 manuscripts in Kanada and 
Sanskrit. 

In 1890 it was found that a more vigorous and systematic 
effort was needed for the completion of the archaeological survey of 
the State. In the neighbouring Madras and Bombay Presidencies 
regular archaeological survey had already been established and it 
was found that Mysore by occupying an intermediate position often 
contained the key or connecting link to much that was being 
discovered in those Presidencies. Accordingly this work was 
separated from that of the Education Secretary and B. L. Rice was 
put in sole charge of it, as he was by his high scholarly attain- 
ments and varied researches in Indian antiquities regarded as 
specially qualified to take charge of the work. The most important 
of the inscriptions found in Mysore were the edicts of Asoka in the 
Molakalmuru taluk of the Chitaldrug district. These edicts 
subsequently formed the subject of learned papers published in 
Paris, Vienna and London. At the end of each of the inscriptions 
were a few letters which were later deciphered by Professor Buhler 
of Vienna as the word * Lipikarena ' indicating the profession of 
the engraver in Kharoshtri or Baktrian-Pali characters which were 
written from left to right. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
Chamaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 

Four distinguished visitors Lord Dufferin, Prince Albert 
Victor, Lord Lansdowne and Field-Marshal Sir George 
Wolsley (later Viscount) Commander-in-chief. 

Lord Lytton was the last Viceroy that visited Mysore in the 
days of the British Commission. But his visit was purely a 
business one in connection with the mitigation of the acute famine 
that prevailed at the time in the Mysore State. Lord Dufferin who 
succeeded the Marquis of Ripon was the first Viceroy to pay a 
friendly and ceremonial visit to the Maharaja at Mysore in 
November iSSfi. The Countess of Dufferin also accompanied 
her husband on this occcision. His Excellency arrived at Mysore 
on the 1st December and was received by His Highness and other 
principal officers and citizens of the State with all the honours due 
to the rank of so distinguished a guest. There was an exchange of 
visits later between the Maharaja and the Viceroy on the same 
day. At night the Palace was brilliantly illuminated. 

On the same night a State banquet was given at which the 
Maharaja proposed the health of the Queen -Empress, and the 
Dewan on behalf of the Maharaja proposed the health of the 
Viceroy and of Lady DufTerin in a speech full of sentiments of 
gratitude to the British Government for the generosity shown in 
restoring to their ancient heritage the old Hindu Royal family of 
Mysore and for the benefits conferred on the country- by British 
rule for a period of half a century*. Towards the end of the 
Dewan's speech a reference was also made to the movement started 
by the Countess of Dufferin whose labour of love in the cause of 
the suffering women of India had won for her a high place in the 
affections of the Princes and peoples of India. 

Lord Dufferin in responding to the toast gave expression, 
among other matters, to these sentiments : " Under the benevolent 
rule of the Maharaja good government, enlightened progress and 
the blessings of education are everywhere in the ascendent and 



142 

there is no State within the compass of the Indian Empire which 
has more fully justified the wise policy of the British Government 
in supplementing its own direct administration of its vast territories 

by the associated rule of our great feudatory Princes It has 

now been my good fortune to have passed through most of the 
Native States of India and to have come into intimate contact with 
the Chiefs, and I have no hesitation in saying that though there 
may be differences between them, though some states may be more 
advanced than the others, some rulers less sensitive than others to 
the weighty responsibilities imposed on them by Providence, on the 
whole my experiences have been eminently satisfactory and 
reassuring and the Queen -Empress and the Government of Great 
Britain have the greatest reason to congratulate themselves on the 
general enlightenment, the desire to do their duty and the conscien- 
tious application to affairs which are so generally prevalent amongst 
them." 

After the banquet, there was in addition to the display of 
fireworks a performance of a very interesting and exciting kind of 
war-dance by a party of Manjarabad Gowdas. Illuminated by 
various coloured lights, the figures and faces of the dancers are 
described to have assumed most fantastic appearances, while the 
successive flashes from their swords lent a fierce lustre to the 
performance and conveyed the impression of a real warfare. 

The next day the Viceroy received an address from the 
members of the Representative Assembly of Mysore and referring 
to the general contentment prevailing in the country said : " That 
you should use such terms does not surprise me, for your good 
fortune has placed you under the rule of one of the most intelligent, 
upright and high-minded among the great Princes of India and when 
I leave this country, I shall have the satisfaction of knowing that, 
at all events so far as this part of the country is concerned, its 
welfare, its proper security and its peace are amply provided 

for I am very glad that you have touched upon the question 

of education, as it gives me an opportunity of impressing in as 
earnest and as strong a language as I can command, the extra- 
ordinary pleasure J have experjepced in seeing on every side such 



143 

manifest signs of the deep interest with which that subject is 
regarded in this State as well as of the liberal and intelligent energy 
with which its development is being prosecuted. When I passed 
along what I imagine must have been a quarter of a mile of street, 
lined on either side in rows of eight and ten deep, with the youth of 
the country congregated under their respective teachers, I felt that 
you were laying broad and deep for all time to come the foundations 
of a prosperous future. But great as has been my satisfaction at 
these proofs of the progress made in general education, I was still 
more pleased by a sight which, I imagine, is not to be seen in any 
other part of India and that was the appearance of rows and rows 
of young ladies belonging to the highest caste families assembled 
together under the same admirable system and enjoying, as far as I 
can understand, as extensive opportunities of acquiring knowledge, 
of enlarging their experience and of strengthening their understand- 
ing as could be found in any of the most advanced cities of Europe. 
And those gentlemen who are the leaders of society and who 
represent the aristocracy of the land, who have in so generous and 
liberal-minded a manner seconded the able efforts of Her Highness 
the Maharani to establish the Mysore female school are entitled to 

the greatest credit for their exertions I am pleased to think 

that the Maharaja should have called to his counsels men of such 
intelligence, influence and authority as I see around me." 

On the 2nd December Lady Dufferin presided at a prize 
distribution to the pupils of the Maharani's Girls' School. This 
school was started on the 21st January 1881 with a strength of 28 
pupils. It was necessary to establish this school in order to make 
women's education popular among the upper grades of the Hindu 
society consistently with their cherished customs and manners. At 
the time of Lady Dufferin's visit in December 1886 the strength of 
the school had risen to 463 pupils, of whom 6 had reached the high 
school stage. A home-teaching branch was opened to continue the 
education of such girls as could no longer attend school on account 
of their domestic circumstances and to impart instruction to some 
elderly ladies who began to express a desire for studying at home 
being unable and unwilling to attend school in consequence of their 
conditions of life. This branch began with 15 pupils and two 



144 

teachers and in 1886 when Lady Dufferin visited the school there 
were 67 pupils, one of whom was a middle aged widow belonging to 
a respectable orthodox family. One subject on which special stress 
was laid in the school was the teaching of Hindu music which was 
considered essential for women for being sung on festive occasions. 
The study of Sanskrit occupied an important position in the 
curriculum, for it was deemed a living language so far as moral and 
religious readings were concerned. After the prize distribution was 
over, Lady Dufferin and the Viceroy proceeded to shake hands with 
a number of those present and expressed their warm interest in the 
work which had been undertaken. At night there was an 
entertainment in the Rangacharlu Memorial Hall which was 
brilliantly illuminated on the occasion. The entertainment 
programme included a nautch, a performance on swords and a 
Hindu drama ' Droupadi Swayamvara.' The last was acted in 
Kanada by a group of high caste young men. The Viceroy seemed 
interested in the whole performance but especially with the dancing 
on swords. After the entertainment was over, he went up to 
examine the stand upon which the blades were fixed. 

Later, after Lady Dufferin returned to England, she published 
a book called "Our Viceregal Life in India" in which occurs the 
following passage: "When we saw them (the young children of 
the Maharaja, two girls and a boy) they were all carried in by men, 
though the eldest girl is six years old. She and her sister looked 
intensely solemn and wore their hair plaited very stiffly and smoothly 
down. The boy looked very delicate." 

The next visitor to Mysore was the lamented Prince Albert 
Victor, eldest son of King Edward VII, then Prince of Wales. 
His Royal Highness landed at Bombay on the 9th November 1889 
and after visiting Hyderabad and Madras left the latter place on 
the night of the 22nd. On the morning of the 23rd the royal train 
passed Bangalore on its way to Mysore and halted at Seringapatam 
for a while. Here the first sight noticed by the Prince was that 
near the railway bridge where feathery bamboos were hanging down 
to the water's edge of the Kaveri river and spreading their roots 
were completing the destruction of the fort-walls begun by British 



145 

guns in 1799. The Prince visited the corner where the breach was 
made and through which the British troops entered and the place 
where they divided themselves into two parties. The next place 
visited was the summer-house of Tippu known as Daria Dowlat, a 
beautiful garden-house of open halls and verandahs. From the 
Daria Dowlat the royal party proceeded to the Mausoleum of 
Haidar and Tippu. After luncheon, the party crossed the second 
branch of the Kaveri at Paschimavahini and boarded the 
special train. 

At the Mysore Railway-station the Prince was met by the 
Maharaja attended by the Dewan and other officers as well as by 
notable men of the place, besides a complimentary escort consisting 
of the Mysore Lancers, gaily caparisoned elephants, the Mysore 
infantry clad in scarlet, carriages drawn by teams of white horses 
wearing pink aigrattes and other paraphernalia of magnificence. 

The next day the J4th of November was spent in exchange of 
visits between the Prince and the Maharaja and in a visit to the 
Maharani's Girls 1 School. At the time the Prince visited the school 
it is stated that there were five hundred well-dressed and intelligent 
girls between the ages of six and sixteen. From the Maharani's 
Girls* School the Prince paid a visit to the Palace. At night there 
was a banquet in honour of the distinguished visitor. After the 
banquet was over, His Royal Highness was driven round the city 
to witness the illuminations. The large tank to the east of the 
fort known as the Doddakere tank was lighted up by thousands of 
wicks burning in earthen saucers containing oil. Eight circular 
basket boats floated over a surface of small rippling waves, their 
gunwales being picked out with lamps, the reflections of which 
shimmered down the slowly moving surface of the water. In the 
centre of the lake was a glittering white house built of pith and 
talc, all one blaze of light. Later in the same night there was an 
entertainment in the Rangacharlu Memorial Hall where were 
presented some unusual features. On either side of the vestibule 
had been placed transparencies exhibiting types of the various 
classes of people who inhabited the Mysore country. These were 
all in pairs, male and female, in their usual costume. Among them 

A 19 



146 

Wefe a few peculiar ones the Saranas who served at the temple, 
the male carrying a bell in his right and a bunch of peacock 
feathers in his left hand and an umbrella under his left arm, and 
the female also carried a bell and wore a rough bead necklace and 
bead wristlets ; Vuribattidasiyas or fire-eaters, the man carrying a 
saucer of fire on his head, and in his left hand a lighted wick, the 
end of which he now and again put into his mouth, the female 
carrying faggots under her left arm ; Jenukuruba or honey -drawer 
dressed in very simple costume with only a cloth girt about his 
loins and carrying only a stick. 

On the morning of the 25th November the Maharaja drove 
the Prince forty -six miles on his way to the Khedda camp in the 
Chamarajnagar taluk where G. P. Sanderson, the famous elephant 
shikar of the time, awaited the party. The locality chosen for the 
operations was the Biligirirangan hills, a small range by some 
thirty miles in length by ten in width which formed a portion of the 
southern boundary of Mysore. His Royal Highness 1 drive from 
Mysore to the camp was somewhat long and wearisome and the last 
five miles were accomplished on horseback under a hot sun. The 
royal party and the gentlemen accompanying arrived at a place 
called Budipadaga at 1-30 p.m. The quiet neighbourhood of this 
place was enlivened by much bustle and preparations, with the 
result that a canvas city had come into existence. There was one 
main road terminating at one end at His Royal Highness' tent and 
flanked on each side by the tents of His Highness the Maharaja, 
Colonel Sir Oliver St. John the British Resident in Mysore, 
Dewan Seshadri Iyer and of the other visitors who were invited to 
be present and officials whose duties necessitated their presence 
there. Native shop-keepers were established with stocks of rice 
and other provisions for sale to the camp followers. A temporary 
post office was also opened. 

After bath and breakfast, a start was made for the Khedda 
where a herd of* elephants had been impounded. His Royal 
Highness and Sir Edward Bradford who was attached to the 
persona] staff of the Prince rode on an elephant and Sanderson 
accompanied them to explain to His Royal Highness the arrange- 



147 

ments by which the herd had been surrounded and what the further 
programme was. The Maharaja, Sir Oliver St. John and othere 
rode on horseback, while the Dewan trotted along in a small 
bullock-cart belonging to Sanderson which was well adapted for 
jungle travel. On arriving at the Khedda the party proceeded 
on foot outside the enclosure to a sort of jungle grand stand. 
This stand overlooked at a distance of thirty yards the gateway 
through which the elephants were to be driven into the small 
Khedda or enclosure in which they were to be secured. The 
pavilion was screened with leaves as were also the gateway and 
the barricades and the whole of the enclosure and the ground in 
front of it where all had lately been trampled and bare had been 
converted into a dense, cool covert by the simple horticultural 
expedient of sticking feathery bamboos and leafy saplings into the 
ground to a height greater than the elephants* backs. The 
pavilion was sixty feet long and ten wide and a level space had 
been made for it by cutting into the steep hillside and using the 
earth for banking up the floor. Along the whole length of the 
pavilion a bench made of bamboos extended and the floor and roof 
were neatly matted. The rope by which the gate of the Khedda 
was suspended was led to this place and secured, so that by cutting 
a small cord the gate was to be released. The Maharaja was 
entrusted with a knife for cutting the cord, an experienced hunter 
standing near to apprise when the correct moment arrived. 

All had been prepared for the drive before the arrival of His 
Royal Highness and the party. The beaters were in position and 
only awaited the signal to begin. A platform had been constructed 
on a tree which overhung a stream about twenty yards from the 
gate by which the elephants were to enter the first enclosure and 
where it was necessary for Sanderson to station himself to help the 
men at the moment of getting the elephants through the gates and 
where the beasts were likely to break and charge the beaters. The 
platform had been made large enough to accommodate more than 
one in case the Prince desired to see the drive from that point. 
This the Prince elected to do and accompanied by Captain Harvey 
and Sanderson, His Royal Highness climbed the ladder into the 



148 

platform which had been made comfortable by an elephant's soft 
pad being spread as a cushion to sit on. 

Immediately the signal was given the beat commenced and 
after much varied fortune the herd breaking back more than once, 
the animals came and stood close to the tree on which stood the 
Prince's platform. His Royal Highness had a good view of them 
here at the distance of but a few yards. The herd ought to have 
been driven in at the first attempt. But the beaters were some- 
what excited on the occasion and it was some time before the herd 
was made to descend the bank of the stream under the tree on 
which was the platform. At last in a compact herd, each 
individual elephant struggling not to be last, they crowded through 
the gateway into the first enclosure urged on by several charges of 
small shot which His Royal Highness plied them with. The herd 
continued its march through this enclosure into the inner one, above 
which on the hillside a visitors' stand had been erected and the 
rope controlling the gate of which was in the Maharaja's hands. 
As soon as all the elephants entered the inner enclosure His 
Highness dropped the gate. All was made secure in a short time, 
when the dividing gate between the enclosures was hauled up and 
on a few of the hunters climbing the stockade and showing them- 
selves, the elephants retired into the first enclosure. They were 
then left for the night with the run of the two enclosures which 
were guarded all round with fires by the hunters. His Royal 
Highness and party returned on horseback led by men with torches 
to the camp at Budipadaga. 

About 1 p.m. the next day the Prince and the visitors again 
started for the Khedda to see the operation of tying up the captives. 
By the time the royal party arrived, the elephants had all been 
driven into the inner enclosure where they were temporarily 
confined, while the gate of the outer enclosure was opened and the 
tame elephants or ' Koonkies ' as they were called were admitted. 
These were twelve in number and had been brought to Mysore some 
months previously from Dacca, 1000 miles away in Bengal. They 
were all females except one and were all highly trained animals 
that had been employed in the Bengal Kheddas. They were 



149 

exceedingly docile and allowed the men to move about among their 
legs, taking care not to injure them intentionally or by inadvertence. 
The Mahuts or keepers of these elephants were also men from 
Dacca. These Koonkies were drawn up in a row awaiting the 
re-admission to the outer enclosure of the herd confined in the inner 
one. Some of the Koonkies had ropes hanging down their shoulders 
as a sort of ladder r by which the men below could quickly climb up 
their backs during the work of tying up if danger threatened them. 
Seated behind the Mahuts on the backs of two of the best elephants 
were two chief rope- tiers who with no clothing but a pair of short 
drawers and with the ready ropes in their hands were anxious to 
begin the difficult and dangerous work of leashing each elephant's 
legs together. 

When the Prince, the Maharaja, Sir Oliver St. John and 
visitors had taken their places, the gate dividing the enclosures 
was opened and the herd was driven towards the enclosure where 
the Koonkies were. As soon as some ten or twelve elephants 
had entered, the others were frightened back and the gate was 
closed, the object being to make the work of the Koonkies more 
easy by only giving them a few elephants at a time to deal with. 
Among the elephants that were cut off from entry was the mother 
of a calf which latter had found its way in advance of her. Missing 
her little one and divining where it had gone, the mother charged 
the gate with the force, it is said, of a battering ram. The men 
had just commenced to secure it but she burst it open and with the 
heavy flap gate dangling on her head and back she got through 
and joined her young one. 

The wild elephants now approached the Koonkies which were 
drawn up in a line to make their acquaintance as it were. No 
sooner was the dividing gate once more secured than the work of 
tying up commenced. A tame one was ranged up along each side 
of the largest wild one, while another was placed face to face to it 
to prevent it from moving forward. The rope-tiers now slipped to 
the ground and standing close behind the wild elephant dexterously 
secured its legs together by thin ropes in a figure of 8. During 
this time the tame elephants on each side of the wild one squeezed 



150 

it tightly between them and it being unable to see behind was not 
aware of what was being done to its hind legs as the ropes were 
lightly tied. A soft rope of loosely twisted jute as thick as a man's 
arm was now secured to one hind leg and the end taken to a tree 
by a rope-tier under shelter of a couple of tame elephants. Two 
turns being taken round the tree the wild elephant was backed 
against it from where it stood several yards away. This was done 
by the tame elephants between which it stood being backed, while 
the elephant facing the wild one butted and forced it to retire. 
After the tame ones left it, the wild elephant struggled hard to 
release itself by throwing itself on the ground and its hind legs 
raised straight behind it, but all to no avail. In this way the larger 
elephants were quickly secured, when the time of the youngsters 
came. For all of five and a half feet in height and under, the 
simple plan of lassoing was adopted. Each tame elephant had a 
stout, soft rope fastened round it, about 15 feet of the rope being 
free and having a running noose at the end. This was held open 
by the Mahut with both hands and thrown over the head of any 
young elephant that offered a good chance. In this manner all the 
elephants 37 in number were secured and after large cables had been 
put round the necks of the bigger ones, they were all marched out 
tied to one or two Koonkies according to size and were then 
fastened in a large clearing among the trees where the undergrowth 
had all been removed. Here fodder had been cut and stacked in 
readiness and despite the strangeness of their position, none of 
them refused the succulent grass and bamboo leaves that were 
placed before them. 

After bison shooting for a day, the party returned to Mysore on 
the 28th November and left for Bangalore the next day, where also 
a grand reception was accorded to the Prince. Before the Prince 
proceeded to Travancore, one of the functions performed by His 
Royal Highness was the laying of the foundation-stone of a 
permanent building for the periodical horticultural show in the 
Lai Bagh gardens belonging to the Mysore Government. 

The next visitor was Lord Lansdowne who was the second 
Viceroy to visit Mysore after the termination of the 



151 

Commission. His Excellency accompanied by Lady Lansdowne 
and his staff arrived at Mysore on the 10th November 1892 and 
was received by the Maharaja, his principal officers and the leading 
men of the State with all the pomp and ceremonial usual on such 
occasions. The same night there was a State banquet in the Jagan 
Mohan Palace. Lord Lansdowne in responding to the toast of his 
health proposed by the Dewan on behalf of the Maharaja, referred 
to the momentous change which had been made eleven years 
previously in the administration of the country by placing it in the 
hands of an Indian Ruler and said that the responsibility of those 
who had taken that step was a very serious one. " I am glad to 
bear witness to the fact." he further said, " that His Highness has 
never given cause to regret the decision carried out in 1881 by Lord 
Ripon's Government. The Mysore State far from adding to our 
cares and anxieties has been administered with much success. Its 
people are contented with their position and its ruler has shown by 
his acts that he was worthy of the trust reposed in him. If the 
result had been different, the Maharaja would certainly have been 
held accountable. The result having been what it is, he is entitled 
to the most liberal measure of credit. He has proved himself an 
intelligent and upright ruler who has from the commencement of his 
reign shown himself alive to the duties of his position. His Highness 
has received an education which has enabled him to profit by the 
culture and understand the political ideas of the West. But he has 
not lost touch of his own people or forfeited their confidence and 
probably there is no State in India where the ruler and the ruled 
are on more satisfactory terms or in which the great principle upon 
which His Highness has insisted Government should be for 
the happiness of the governed receives a greater measure of 
practical recognition. There is, perhaps, no better test of the 
soundness of the administration than its ability to pass without 
discredit through a period of exceptional difficulty. The Mysore 
State has lately encountered such a trial and has, I am glad to say, 
surmounted it successfully. I have to express my acknowledgments 
of the manner in which His Highness has placed a portion of his 
troops under special discipline, in order to qualify them to take 
their place alongside of ours for the defence of the empire. I am 



152 

glad to think that that portion of the outlay which has been 
appropriated for the Imperial Service troops has been the means of 
adding to the resources of the empire as well as to the efficiency of 
the Mysore army without imposing an excessive burden upon the 
exchequer of the State. There is one other matter as to which I 
should like to say a few words. I have watched with the utmost 
interest the valuable experiment which His Highness has instituted 
in the formation of the consultative council known as the Mysore 
Representative Assembly. This council has been in existence ever 
since His Highness' accession and of late years he has increased its 
numbers and has invited the various Local Boards, Municipalities 
and Public Associations to depute members to it. More recently 
still, the wealthier classes of the community have been permitted to 
choose a certain proportion of the members and I understand that 
the qualification for membership has been fixed so as to include not 
only the largest land -holders and the most representative merchants 
and traders but also in certain cases the possession of a high 
education has been recognised as in itself a qualification. His 
Highness has found that his hands have been materially 
strengthened by the deliberations of the public body thus constituted 
and I sincerely congratulate him on the result of the experiment. 
It is one which possesses a particular interest for me, because as 
you are aware the Government of India is at this moment itself 
engaged in a very interesting attempt to increase the numbers and 
to enlarge the functions of its own Legislative Councils. His 
Highness in his desire to inform himself of the feelings of the 
leading classes and people of Mysore has, it seems to me, acted 

with true statesmanlike instincts I am glad to have this 

opportunity of publicly assuring His Highness of the goodwill and 
approval of the Government of India/' 

On the morning of the 12th November the party drove to 
Hinkul, a distance of 3 miles where the Imperial Service troops of 
Mysore was stationed. The regiment was drawn up on the 
parade ground under the command of Colonel Mclntyre, Military 
Secretary to the Mysore Government, and was inspected by the 
Viceroy and the Maharaja and were then put through some 
manoeuvres culminating in the march past. The troops drew from 



153 

His Excellency encomiums for their smartness and up-to-date 
methods. 

In the afternoon several addresses were presented to the 
Viceroy, one of which was from the members of the Representative 
Assembly in which reference was made to the necessity of some 
kind of legislation for the prevention of infant marriages and the 
Viceroy's reply to this part of the address is interesting : " I shall 
be glad to hear," he said, " that your efforts to secure a measure of 
reform in regard to infant marriages are successful. The subject is 
one of very great difficulty. The Government of India has, as you 
are aware, given practical proof of its desire to protect immature 
children. But in passing the measure to which I refer a measure 
which appeared to us to be required in the interests of humanity 
the Government of India did not attempt to interfere with the 
domestic institutions of this country. As such, we feel that it is 
mainly to the spontaneous action of the people, whether within or 
without the limits of British India, that we must look for social 
reforms of the kind which you desire to effect." 

To afford an opportunity for the Viceroy and his party to 
witness the catching of elephants, Khedda operations had been 
arranged in the Kakankote Jungles at a distance of about 30 miles 
from Mysore. G. P. Sanderson to whose labours the success of the 
Khedda conducted on the occasion of the visit of Prince Albert 
Victor in 1889 was due had died sometime previously and no one 
coveted to take his place at Kakankote. It was at such a time that 
an Amildar by name K. Shania lyengar came forward and offered 
his services to relieve the Mysore Durbar from the embarrassing 
position in which they found themselves. Shama lyengar's 
audacity was the wonder of his friends. Amateur though he was, 
he succeeded in every detail of the operations and was profusely 
complimented by the Viceroy on the success achieved by him. On 
the afternoon of the next day the party left for Seringapatam and 
after visiting all places of interest there, the Viceroy, Lady 
Lansdowne and staff left for Bangalore by special train. 

Field- Marshal Sir George Wolsley (later Viscount) who 
succeeded the Duke of Cambridge as Commander-in-chief of the 

A20 



154 

feritish army in 1895 was a visitor to Mysore during the Dasara of 
1894 and in a paper contributed by him to one of the English 
magazines has made the following interesting observations : " The 
day after I reached Mysore, I drove with His Highness round the 
lake (or properly speaking, the tank) to the new race course and it 
was on that occasion that I first saw his five children three 
daughters and two sons. The eldest princess is of marriageable 
age according to eastern etiquette being nearly fourteen. But 
owing to her father's enlightened views, she is fortunate enough to 

be exempted from what is called the Purdah Just before 

the race began, the children joined their father and kept up a brisk 
conversation all the time with their English governess by whom 
they were accompanied. The young princesses did not wear either 
hats or bonnets, but they had strings of pearls and other precious 
stones twisted in their dark, silky hair. The two little boys both of 
whom speak English very prettily wore coats of richly brocaded 
silk and trousers to match, together with turbans thickly sprinkled 
with pearls and emeralds which glittered and sparkled brightly as 
the sun's rays flashed upon them. Both they and their sisters 
looked bright and intelligent and they all seemed to be healthy 
and happy." 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Chamaraja Wodcyar X 1881 1894. 
The Representative Assembly and its growth. 

In October 1883 in his address to the Representative Assembly 
Sir Seshadri Iyer assured the members that the Maharaja took 
great interest in the success of the annual meeting of the 
representatives and entertained the hope that the Assembly 
would become, year after year, more and more useful to the country. 
It had become manifest that it was in the power of the 
representatives to contribute in some measure to the good govern- 
ment and prosperity of the country by carefully watching the 
working of the administration in all its branches, by unhesitatingly 
pointing out all shortcomings that might strike them and by 
affording practical suggestions for improving the condition of all 
classes of His Highness' subjects. Again in October 1885 Sir 
Seshadri Iyer assured the representatives that the Maharaja had 
become fully convinced that the opportunities given for the 
representation of public wants and for the suggestion of measures 
calculated to better the condition of the people was appreciated as a 
valuable privilege in all parts of the State. The continued interest 
the representatives evinced and the practical common sense 
which characterised their discussions had disproved the misgivings 
of the earlier period whether the establishment of an institution of 
the kind was not premature. Strengthened by this assurance, His 
Highness' Government now took a step forward in widening the 
privileges of the members by investing the Local Boards with 
power to nominate their representatives to the Assembly from 
among their members. 

Prior to 1887, in order to represent the landed interests the 
Deputy Commissioners had been required to select from each taluk 
one or two cultivating land-holders possessed of general influence 
and information. Similarly it had been left to the same officers to 
select three or four leading merchants for each district generally to 
represent the interests of trade. In August 1887 a property 
qualification -was introduced, the numbers for each district were 



156 

fixed and the names of the members were published in the official 
Gazette. Recognised public Associations were also allowed to 
depute representatives. The Dewan in his speech to the Assembly 
that mst in October following referring to these changes said that 
His Highness the Maharaja's earnest desire to take the people into 
his confidence more and more in the adoption of various measures 
for their advancement had been very fairly realised and that the 
success attained in the past six years afforded an encouragement to 
his Government to persevere in their endeavours to make the 
Assembly of still greater help for the good administration of the 
State. The Dewan also explained that the changes newly 
introduced were intended to secure in the Assembly as full a 
representation as possible of every interest in the country and 
thereby to procure the most complete information regarding the 
wants and wishes of every class of His Highness 1 subjects. In 
fixing a property qualification in an agricultural country like 
Mysore the first place was naturally accorded to the land-holders 
and each of the sixty-six taluks that then existed was authorised to 
send five of its largest land-holders. In the provision which enabled 
the Local Boards and Municipalities to nominate members for the 
Assembly there was a fair guarantee for the representation of all 
other classes and localities, while the privilege given to the 
important Associations to depute members afforded the means of 
securing the views of the more advanced section of the community. 

Before 1887 there existed no rules of any kind to regulate the 
proceedings of the Assembly. The course generally followed was 
that at the termination of the Dewan's address the members 
individually made such observations and representations as 
suggested themselves to them at the time. Generally one or two of 
the representatives of each district acted as spokesmen except 
when any particular member stood forward to give expression to 
any particular statement. In 1887 it was prescribed that the 
members of the several districts were to meet together at Mysore 
and choose in concert the subjects for discussion and to nominate 
persons to speak on the subjects chosen. The object of these 
measures was to render the discussions more useful and to give to 
the observations of such members the authority and weight which 



157 

the 'opinions of individuals could not by themselves be expected 
to possess. 

Satisfactory as the working of the Assembly on the above lines 
proved itself to be, the subject of further improving the constitution 
of the Assembly again engaged the attention of Government in 
1890. At the meeting of the Assembly of that year, Sir Seshadri 
Iyer complimented the members on the moderation, the intelligence 
and the practical good sense which had in the past characterised 
their discussions and on the material help they had given in the 
discussion of important questions and on the sustained interest they 
had evinced in public affairs. The Maharaja was now convinced 
that the time had arrived when the wealthier and more enlightened 
classes could with safety be entrusted with the privilege of choosing 
the members to the Assembly. A set of draft rules was accordingly 
placed before the Assembly for discussion and in these rules the 
property qualification was so fixed as to include the largest land- 
holders and the leading merchants and traders in each taluk, besides 
high education being made a qualification by itself for a voter to 
exercise the privilege of election. The property qualification 
proposed was the payment of a land revenue of from Rs. 100 to 
Rs. 300 or of a Mohatarfa tax of from Rs. 13 or more, or the 
ownership of one or more inam villages with a total assessment of 
Rs. 500. These property qualifications were expected to give not 
less than 50 qualified persons on an average for each of the 66 taluks. 
All persons so qualified by property or by education were to meet 
and elect from among themselves 2, 3 or 4 persons according to a 
fixed scale as members of the Assembly for their respective taluks 
as well as for the cities of Bangalore and Mysore. In addition to 
the members thus elected, the various Local Fund Boards, Munici- 
palities and Public Associations were also to depute members to the 
Assembly from among themselves. The maximum number of 
members of the Assembly thus constituted was expected to be about 
351. The Dewan closed this subject at the meeting of the Assembly 
in 1890 with these earnest and significant words : " Let me add that 
it is His Highness* sincere hope that the privilege he has now been 
pleased to grant will be exercised to the fullest extent and in the 
most beneficial manner possible and that it will be so appreciated 



158 

by all as to enable His Highness gradually to enlarge the circle of 
electors, so as to give wider effect to the principle of representation 
in the constitution of this Assembly." The new rules were 
brought into effect in the following year and the Assembly which 
met in the Dasara of 1891 was elected under these rules. 

At a meeting of the Assembly on the 15th October 1891, the 
Dewan communicated to the representatives the gratification of 
the Maharaja that all misgivings naturally entertained as to how the 
experiment of obtaining representatives for the Assembly by election 
would succeed, had been dispelled and that though unused to the 
system the electoral body had been able in the very first year of its 
existence to exercise the privilege with so much judgment and sense 
of responsibility and to send to the Assembly men in every way 
qualified to speak on its behalf. The Dewan further said that the 
fact that men representing the capital, the industry and the intellect 
of the country should have so early taken so much interest in the 
scheme augured well for the future of the institution. He also 
conveyed a message from His Highness acknowledging the expres- 
sions of warm gratitude which had reached him from all sides for 
the privilege of election granted. In 1893 a further reform was 
introduced by which the system of annual election was replaced by 
one of triennial election which the representatives had been urging 
on the attention of Government. The Dewan in referring to this 
subject stated that it had given the Maharaja great pleasure to 
extend the duration of the Assembly from one to three years, 
especially as His Highness hoped that the concession granted 
would enhance the interest of the members in the subjects brought 
forward by them and would afford them the opportunity for 
continuous action from year to year, adding thereby largely to the 
further practical usefulness of the Assembly. 

It need hardly be stated that the scope of this book does not 
allow of any exhaustive summary being given of the proceedings of 
the Assembly. To satisfy, however, the curiosity of our readers as 
to the lines on which the proceedings were conducted, a short 
summary of the exchange of views between the Government and 
the members of the Assembly relating to some of the important 



159 

subjects discussed in the earlier years may be given. The discus- 
sions of the Assembly extended to every department in the State 
and related to a variety of subjects. ' To merge their individual 
grievances in those of the community in general and by a due 
attention to public interests to qualify themselves for higher 
privileges ' these words had formed the text of an exhortation by 
Kangacharlu to the representatives assembled for the first time in 
1881. There was little need, however, for this appeal to the 
representatives not to confound, in Tennyson's language, the rustic 
cackle of their burgh with the murmur of the world. They quite 
understood that the great object of the new institution was the 
promotion of the public interests in general, and that if they looked 
to securing any personal advantages or obtaining redress for any 
personal grievances, they would be disappointed. Accordingly a 
Hindu member Tangali Seshappa and a Mahomedan member Syed 
Amir Ali Sahib assured Kangacharlu of their abiding sense of 
gratefulness for the privilege granted to them and of their resolve 
to offer their co-operation in a disinterested manner. The 
succeeding years showed that these assurances were no mere idle 
words but had a ring of sincerity in them. 

From the keen interest the representatives evinced from 
the very beginning in the proceedings of the Assembly, His 
Highness 1 advisers evidently felt encouraged to take them more 
and more into their confidence. The local or individual grievances 
to which Kangacharlu made reference were very few in number, 
a lamp-post at Kolar, a midwife at Chikballapur, a chattram or 
free-feeding house at Arasikere, and even here it may be 
observed that though the subjects were local they were not 
personal. In expressing their loyalty and attachment to the 
person and the family of the Maharaja as well as in expressing 
their gratefulness for the benefits conferred on the country by the 
Paramount Power, the representatives were ever to the front. In 
1884 on the occasion of the birth of a son and heir to the 
Maharaja, Ganesh Rao a coffee-planter from Kadur read an 
address in which the great honour of the title of G. C. S, I. con- 
ferred on His Highness by the Queen- Empress and the birth of a 



160 

prince as heir to the throne were referred to as joyful events for 
which they all returned thanks to Providence. In 1885 the 
representatives obtained the permission of His Highness' Govern- 
ment to present an address of thanks to the Imperial Government 
for the postponment of the enhanced Subsidy for a period of ten 
years. In December 1886 when Lord Dufferin visited Mysore, the 
representatives took occasion to assemble at the capital and in an 
address presented to the Viceroy, repeated on behalf of the people 
of Mysore their deep gratitude for the lasting benefits which the 
half-century of British rule had conferred on them. Lord Dufferin 
in his reply stated that it was always a fortunate circumstance 
when a Viceroy found himself in the midst of a community who 
were able to bring to his notice such proofs of their general pros- 
perity as to which the members had referred, and still more so, 
when in the language with which he was approached, he saw 
evidence of an equally wide-spread contentment with the adminis- 
tration under which they lived. He finally complimented them by 
saying that he was glad that the Maharaja had called to his 
counsels men of such intelligence and influence. In November 
1892 when Lord Lansdowne visited Mysore, the members of the 
Assembly presented an address to him also and a few sentences 
quoted from his reply will show what keen interest he felt in the 
success of the experiment which had been inaugurated by the 
Maharaja. " The inquiries which I have made from those who are 
best able to judge," said the Viceroy, " have satisfied me that your 
proceedings have served a most useful purpose and have brought 
His Highness* Government into touch with all classes of the com- 
munity. I have heard with much pleasure that your discussions 
have been conducted in a thoroughly practical, spirit and that 
on the one hand, the members have not hesitated to bring forward 
grievances where they existed, while on the other the Dewan had 
dealt in the frankest possible manner with the suggestions which 
have been made. You are quite right in supposing that this 
remarkable experiment has a special interest in my eyes, because 
the Government of India is at this moment engaged in introducing 
considerable changes in the constitution and functions of the 
British Indian Legislative Councils." 



161 

The functions of the representatives, it may be noted, were not 
confined to mere thanksgiving or to mere presentation of addresses 
but they also pressed their claims for more substantial privileges. 
The progress of the Assembly was due as much to the earnest 
importunity of the members as to the sympathetic interest of the 
Government in its improvement. Whenever the occasion demanded 
it, the representatives did not hold back from giving fearless 
expression to their demands. At the same time, they kept themselves 
aloof generally from what could be regarded as discourteous or 
obnoxious criticism. The Government of the time amply 
appreciated this attitude on the part of the members and hardly on 
any occasion was the cordiality subsisting between the Government 
and the members disturbed. In 1883 the representatives raised the 
question of the Famine Debt of nearly a crore of rupees due to the 
Government of India and sought for information concerning the 
arrangements made for its liquidation. They wished to know 
whether the Government had any idea of fresh taxation in the 
shape of general land customs or general house- tax ; and they were 
satisfied only when they were assured by the Dewan that a way had 
been devised to reduce the famine loan without imposing any new 
charge on the country and that the Government of India had very 
considerately consented to receive the loan in annual instalments of 
four lakhs each. In the same year a request was made that all the 
proceedings of the Government might be in Kanada also. The 
Government considered this request a reasonable one. Having 
called the representative men of the country to the counsels of the 
State, it was regarded as both right as well as expedient that their 
desire to keep themselves informed of the measures of the 
Government needed to be satisfied. 

In 1884 the representatives urged that the Revenue Code 
might be referred to them for opinion and that it might be passed 
only after their views were obtained. In a subsequent year they 
suggested that a meeting for the nomination of the members might 
be held one month before the Dasara, and that the names of the 
representatives chosen together with the subjects to be discussed 
might be published in the official Gazette. They also sought 



162 

t>ermission for access to any Government records they needed 
for information before they came to the Assembly. Two other 
suggestions which they made although they proved to be not 
feasible in the then existing state of things, still bore testimony to 
their anxiety for securing due and prompt attention to such matters 
as could not be disposed of at the Dasara meeting itself. One 
suggestion was that a Standing Committee should be appointed to 
attend to all subjects the settlement of which was put off for 
reference to heads of departments, and the other was to see that no 
delay occurred in early consideration being given to the subjects 
postponed. Finding that sometimes the orders issued by the 
Government were based on an imperfect acquaintance of the wants 
of the people, the representatives made a bold suggestion in 1888 
that all circulars issued by the Government might, as a rule, be 
previously discussed by the Assembly. The suggestion was 
however found impracticable as it necessitated the continuance of 
the sitting of the Assembly during the entire year. But they so far 
succeeded as to obtain a promise from the Dewan that the orders 
of each year or for that matter any order of Government might 
be discussed during the annual meetings freely and that the 
Government would gladly consider their opinions and accept all 
reasonable amendments proposed. In the same year the members 
from Kadur proposed that a proposition recommended by a 
majority of the representatives might be at once passed. The 
Dewan in reply regretted that though in theory it was a fair 
proposal, still he could not see his way as matters stood then to 
grant their wishes as some of the proposals might affect Imperial 
policy or sanctioned principles of administration. But he assured 
them that every deference possible would be paid to their wishes. 
Prior to 1887 the Amildar used to send a written order from the 
taluk office to each representative directing him to attend the 
Assembly at Mysore. But the representatives now considered that 
an order from the Amildar was inconsistent with their dignity as 
members of the Representative Assembly. It was thenceforth 
prescribed that the members should be invited by means of letters 
from the Deputy Commissioners instead of by Takeeds or orders 
from Amildars. 



163 

An objection taken by the representatives in 1889 affords an 
explanation as to why salaried officers of Government were 
subsequently declared ineligible either to vote for or sit in the 
Representative Assembly. Raghavachar, Sheristadar of the 
Bangalore Deputy Commissioner's office and a municipal councillor 
for the city of Bangalore, was chosen as a delegate to the 
Representative Assembly on behalf of the Bangalore Municipality 
and the opinion was now expressed that it was unlikely that a 
Government servant could do justice to his position as a member 
of the Assembly while remaining as a salaried officer of 
Government. The Dewan could not interfere with the discretion 
of the Municipality at the time. But subsequently an order was 
issued excluding Government servants from seeking nomination to 
the Assembly. It was represented that the annual address did not 
contain the details of receipts and disbursements and the Dewan 
agreed to supply the members with the detailed budget for their 
information. 

The Survey and Settlement introduced into some taluks was 
regarded by the representatives as tending to the impoverishment 
of the ryot and to the general deterioration of the country and 
strong protests were made. The persistence which they showed in 
agitating for a reduction of the assessment of arecanut gardens in 
the Malnad parts of the State led to an acknowledgment on the part 
of the Government of the justice of their agitation and to the 
appointment of a special officer for purposes of investigation. 
A simpler procedure was desired to be prescribed for the grant of 
loans under the Land Improvement Regulation and the Regulation 
passed in 1890 satisfied the wishes of the representatives in this 
respect. The representatives also brought to light many of the 
anomalies which existed in the administration. It was an anomaly, 
for instance, that the assessment on lands JU^lfMIMtttL the 
rain-fed tanks were higher than on land 
channels. In the matter of Darkhasthg 
applications for lands and for their relinc 
out that the ryots were required by 
applications for new lands written by thd 




164 

in which the lands happened to be and also to get all relinquish* 
ments certified by him. The Dewan regretted that that practice 
should have been still adhered to by the taluk officials and issued 
instructions to at once discontinue the same. 

There were several other matters also which were brought 
forward by the members for the consideration of Government. The 
taluk authorities, it was stated, directed criminal prosecution for 
felling trees of the unreserved kind standing on the margin of a 
ryot's field and belonging to him. One of the forest rules directed 
the ryot not to cut for manure such branches of the jungle trees as 
were thicker than an inch in girth. But when inadvertently they 
did so, where accurate measurements were not possible, they were 
exposed to criminal prosecution. Regarding trees that could be 
felled for fuel, the Inspector- General of Forests had published a 
list enumerating 33 kinds of trees, all conserved againt felling and 
the ryots could only fell trees other than those enumerated. The 
jungles in some places contained no other trees fit for fuel and the 
restriction had practically closed the jungles against obtaining 
any fuel supply. A kind of duty known as Kan-Khist was 
continued to be paid by the ryots of Koppa, although its abolition 
had been notified by Bowring when he was Chief Commissioner. 
In matters relating to the police and to judicial courts, the 
representatives were very explicit and expressed the opinion that 
the cost of civil litigation was very heavy and that the delay 
that generally took place in the disposal of suits was unusually 
long. The conveniences that were likely to be created by 
the establishment of Village Panchayet Courts or arbitration 
tribunals as well as the introduction of the Jury System were also 
suggested. The anomaly of combining police, magisterial and 
revenue functions in one and the same officer did not escape the 
notice of the Assembly. Loud complaints were made against the 
Arms Act, especially by the representatives of the Malnad where 
wild animals abounded. The depredations caused by these animals 
were very damaging and in the harvest season when the arms were 
most needed, they were seized by the police and taken away to 
taluk office and not returned till a renewed ligence was obtained 



165 

and that meant considerable delay. The prohibition of the 
slaughter of cows, the improvement of industries, the ameliora- 
tion of the condition of Lambanies, Korachars and other wandering 
gangs, the improvement of primary education, the introduction of 
technical instruction, the extension of female education, the 
encouragement of Mahomedan youths by means of scholarships to 
seek collegiate education, the institution of vernacular examina- 
tions these and numerous other subjects engaged the attention of 
the representatives and were placed before Government at their 
annual meetings. 

The members of the Assembly were proud of the offer by the 
Maharaja of a military contingent for Imperial defence and were 
thankful to the Government of India for its acceptance. 



CHAPTER XX. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar X 1881 1894. 
Tours of the Maharaja His last days. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar's first tour after he assumed power was 
made to Madras. Lord Ripon the Viceroy was to have visited 
Mysore in February 1884. But on account of the prevalence of 
cholera there, the visit did not take place. Lord Ripon was a very 
popular Viceroy and it was during his time that Chamaraja 
Wodeyar had been invested with power and the State restored to 
his rule. The Maharaja considering that it was but right on his 
part to make the personal acquaintance of Lord Ripon before he 
left India, proceeded to Madras and bade farewell to the out -going 
Viceroy. 

In 1887 the Maharaja undertook another tour. On the 16th 
December of that year His Highness started on a tour to Northern 
India and halted at Bombay for ten days. Here he acquainted 
himself with the working of all the public institutions. The next 
important place he visited during this tour was Calcutta, where he 
returned the visit of the Earl of Dufferin who had visited the 
Mysore State in the previous year. General Roberts (afterwards 
Lord) who was the Commander-in-chief of the Indian army at the 
time gave a garden party in honour of the Maharaja. On the 
return journey His Highness paid visits to the Native States of 
Jeypore and Jodhpur, and while at Bombay he paid a visit to the 
Duke of Connaught who was then in command of the army. 

In December 1892 the Maharaja again visited Calcutta 
travelling from Madras to that place by sea and returned the visit 
of Lord Lansdowne. In 1893 His Highness stayed for two months 
at Bombay and met Lord Elgin when he was on his way to 
Calcutta to assume the viceroyalty from Lord Lansdowne. 

His Highness also toured on more than one occasion in various 
parts of the State and acquainted himself personally not only with 
the conditions of the country but also with the wants pf his subject^ 



167 

These visits enabled His Highness to introduce various 
improvements both in his capital as well as in other places. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar's last tour was undertaken in December 
1894. His Highness left his capital on the 9th of that month with 
the Maharani and the children and a large retinue and passing 
through Poona, Allahabad and other places, finally reached Calcutta 
and on the 21st of that month visited the Viceroy Lord Elgin. On 
the 23rd His Highness had an attack of fever and on the 26th his 
illness was regarded as serious. On the 27th one of the Calcutta 
doctors was called in for consultation who along with Dr. Benson 
the Durbar Surgeon examined the royal patient and discovered that 
the disease from which His Highness was suffering was the 
insidious throat-disease Diphtheria. The malady was a serious one 
and ail remedies to check its course were of no avail and the 
Maharaja passed away on the morning of the 28th surrounded by 
the members of his family, a number of State officials and a large 
number of followers. 

The Dewan Sir K. Seshadri Iyer immediately communicated 
the sad news of the Maharaja's death to the Foreign Secretary, Sir 
William Cunningham, who in the days of the British Commission 
had served in Mysore as Secretary to the Chief Commissioner and 
had known the Maharaja from his boyhood. Lord Elgin was 
shocked by the news when it was conveyed to him and immediately 
issued instructions for postponing a visit to him of the Maharaja of 
Kapurthala fixed for that day. The Foreign Secretary and an 
aid-de-camp Captain Pollen were immediately deputed to convey 
the condolences of the Viceroy to the members of the bereaved 
family and, needless to say, they found the Maharani and the 
children overwhelmed with sorrow. 

It was at first proposed that the Maharaja's body should be 
taken to Benares for cremation, but on the advice of Gurudas 
Banerji, Judge of the Calcutta High Court, it was settled that the 
cremation was to be at Kalighat on the banks of the Ganges. 
Various preparations had to be made and it was nearly six o'clock 
in the evening by the time the funeral cortege reached Kalighat 



168 

The Foreign Secretary and Captain Pollen accompanied the 
procession as well as the Dewan and an aid -de -camp of the 
Maharaja of Kapurthala. On either side of all the roads on which 
the funeral procession passed, crowds of people were assembled 
expressing the greatest sorrow for the sudden and untimely death 
of the Maharaja whom they had seen only two years before in 
radiant health. At Kalighat the last funeral rites were performed 
by the deceased Maharaja's brother-in-law Bakshi Basappaji Urs 
on behalf of the two sons Princes Krishnaraja Wodeyar and 
Narasimharaja Wodeyar who were both of tender years. 

The next day a message reached the Maharani from the 
Viceroy that the eldest son Krishnaraja Wodeyar was recognised as 
successor to the deceased Maharaja and that till the form of 
administration was settled, the Dewan Sir Seshadri Iyer was to 
carry on the daily administration of the State with the advice of the 
British Resident and as far as possible in consultation with the 
Maharani's wishes. On the 30th December the Maharani and the 
children with all the retinue left Calcutta, the Foreign Secretary 
and Captain Pollen taking leave of them at the Railway-Station. 

In the meanwhile, Colonel Henderson the British Resident 
who had been immediately apprised by the Foreign Secretary of the 
sad event that had taken place, sent instructions by wire from 
Bangalore to the Controller of the Palace at Mysore to place seals 
on the doors of all the important apartments in the Palace and 
reached Mysore the next day with T. R. A, Thumboo Chetty who 
was then in temporary charge of the Dewan's duties. The 
Resident in announcing to the people of Mysore who had assembled 
in the Palace Square the sad intelligence of the Maharaja's death 
spoke as follows : " It is with feelings of the profoundest sorrow 
that I have to communicate formally to those assembled here that 
the distressing intelligence has been received by telegram of the 
sudden and untimely death of His Highness the Maharaja 
Chamarajendra Wodeyar Bahadur, Knight Grand Commander of 
the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, which melancholy 
event took place at Calcutta yesterday at 7 a.m. This is not a 
suitable occasion for the expression of the sorrow which these 



grievous tidings must cause not only in Mysore but throughout all 
India and even beyond wherever the name of your beloved sovereign 
is known. I am indeed come among you accompanied by my 
friend Mr. Thumboo Chetty, the Senior Member of the Council 
who has been left in temporary charge of the administration of the 
country, to exhort to you to exercise for the present all possible 
self-control in the expression of those very natural emotions called 
forth by this grievous intelligence and to urge all those present, 
relatives of His Highness and the civil and military officers of the 
State, to do their best to allay any excitement or apprehension that 
may possibly be caused by the news of the melancholy event. You 
are aware that the succession to the administration has been settled 
by the 3rd Article of the Instrument of Transfer and in due course 
the formal recognition of His Excellency the Viceroy and the 
Governor- General to the succession as therein provided will be 
received and the necessary arrangements made after the 
Subaswikaram ceremony. You must also be aware that under the 
same Instrument arrangements for the administration of the 
country have been definitely laid down, so that all apprehensions of 
any change in the policy of the Government of India towards Mysore 
may be at once dismissed as baseless. The deep interest ever 
shown by the Government of India in the welfare of Mysore and 
the friendly relations that ever existed with the illustrious Kuler 
whose loss we have now occasion to deplore are a sufficient 
guarantee that the best possible arrangements will be made for the 
administration of the country and for the welfare of all classes 
of the people." 

There was great mourning throughout the State and all public 
offices and courts were closed for eight days. Thirty -two minute 
guns were fired in Bangalore and Mysore and all flags kept at 
half-mast till the ceremony on the twelfth day was completed. 

The Maharani and the children reached Mysore on the 3rd 
January 1895 and at once drove to the Palace from the Railway- 
Station in the midst of crowds of people whose grief expressed itself 
in loud lamentations. Messages and letters of condolence reached 
the bereaved family from all parts of India as well as from outside 

A22 



170 

where His Highness* reputation as a beneficent ruler had reached. 
A message was also received from the Queen- Empress expressing 
her sorrow for the bereavement. On the 5th of the same month 
the inhabitants of Mysore presented through the Dewan a written 
representation to the Maharani expressing their sorrow for the 
unexpected death of their ruler and wishing that Her Highness 
during the minority of her young son should fill the place of the 
departed Maharaja and rule them till the minority terminated. 

Chamaraja Wodeyar left five children surviving him at the 
time of his death three daughters and two sons ranging from 14 
to 6 years. The present Maharaja was only 10 years old at the 
time and the present Yuvaraja Narasimharaja Wodeyar only six. 

In his address to the Representative Assembly that met in 
October 1895 the Dewan Sir K. Seshadri Iyer referred in these 
terms to the loss the country had sustained by the death of 
Chamaraja Wodeyar : " Our late sovereign passed away in the 
prime of life and in the midst of a most beneficent career. His 
untimely death was lamented as a great national misfortune 
throughout India; it evoked feelings of widespread sympathy in 
England ; it was deplored as an imperial loss by the British 
Government. For us, his subjects, whose good always occupied 
the foremost place in his heart, it is impossible to cease to bemoan 
our great loss. Time cannot assuage our sorrow. The many 
monuments of his rule will ever remind us of the nobility of his 
character and the beneficence of his aims/' 

Later, to perpetuate the memory of Chamaraja Wodeyar an 
equestrian statue by Onslow Ford was placed in the Lai Bagh at 
Bangalore. A marble statue was also placed subsequently before 
the north-gate of the fort at Mysore and a similar one in the 
Cubbon Park at Bangalore. At the place of cremation in Calcutta 
a brindavan has been erected and a dharmasala also established, 
where gifts of grain are given to the people daily. 



CHAPTER XXL 
The Maharani Regent. 

Maharani appointed Regent Reformed State Council 
Sir Seshadri Iyer continued as Dewan Visits of Lord 
Elgin and Lord Curzon. 

The Proclamation read by the British Resident Col. Henderson 
did not quite relieve the anxiety of the people of Mysore as to the 
future of their State during the minority of their young Maharaja. 
There was an eager wish, as we have already seen, on the part of 
the people that the Maharani should for the time being take the 
place of the deceased ruler on behalf of her son. It took, however, 
some time for the Government of India to announce definitely the 
ad interim arrangements made for the administration of the 
country and to give relief to the minds of the people. The 
coronation of the young Maharaja was fixed for the 1st February 
following at which Col. Henderson the British Resident was 
present. On this occasion a Khareetha addressed by the Viceroy to 
the young Maharaja was read which contained the announcement 
that Her Highness the Maharani Kempananjammanni Avaru had 
been appointed as Regent to carry on the administration during the 
minority of her son, an announcement which was hailed with 
visible joy by all who were present at the time and accepted with 
sincere rejoicings everywhere by the people of the State. 

It is only on rare occasions that women in India are called on 
to face situations such as the one that arose in Mysore. We have 
seen how Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni successfully fulfilled all the 
expectations formed of her during the minority of Krishnaraja 
Wodeyar III. Maharani Kempananjammanni equally rose to the 
occasion to worthily fill the gap which had been caused by the 
untimely and unexpected demise of her illustrious consort, away 
from his home and surroundings in the distant city of Calcutta. 
The Maharani though thus suddenly bereft of her beloved partner 
in life was fortunately found to possess an extraordinary degree of 
mental courage, and it is stated that when Sir William Cunningham, 



172 

the Foreign Secretary, offered condolences on behalf of the 
Government of India, Her Highness judiciously replied that it 
appeared to her as if the Maharaja had proceeded to Calcutta to 
personally entrust his family and his State to the special care of the 
Paramount Power. In October 1895, when Sir K. Seshadri Iyer in 
his address to the Representative Assembly gave expression to the 
sentiment that in their great affliction they had the consolation to 
know that the illustrious consort of their departed Maharaja was 
with them to guide and to encourage them in the task of administra- 
tion, and that striken with sorrow though she was, yet Her 
Highness had with exemplary self-denial placed the prestige of her 
great name, her rare intelligence and her great heart at the disposal 
of her loving subjects by consenting to preside over the administra- 
tion of the country as Regent of the State, that sentiment found a 
ready echo in the hearts of all present on the occasion. An old and 
respectable Mahomedan representative member who was present at 
the time was overheard to remark : " Hakdarka huk hai ; Usme Kya 
farrak" it was but the claimants right and there was no 
departure there." 

Nevertheless, it must be confessed that here and there some 
misgivings were felt as to the wisdom of placing the Maharani in 
the void caused by the death of her distinguished husband. To 
her own subjects, the Maharani was known as the worthy spouse of 
their beloved sovereign and the mother of a happy group of 
children. To the outside world, she was known as an enlightened 
lady who had lent the weight of her name to an institution at 
Mysore for the education of girls. The Government of India knew 
her as the holder of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India 
which had been conferred on Her Highness in 1893. Outside the 
Palace precincts these items constituted the sum- total of knowledge 
regarding the new Regent and even this knowledge was mostly 
based on report inasmuch as only very few who could judge of her 
merits had the privilege of knowing her by sight. Fortunately the 
result proved that these misgivings were baseless and it was the 
good fortune of Mysore to find in the Maharani a ruler who 
possessed much tact and intelligence, 



173 

A few days after the installation of the young Maharaja, the 
new administration assumed its full form. Sir K. Seshadri 
Iyer was continued as Dewan and to assist him and the Maharani- 
Regent an Executive Council of three whole-time members was 
formed with T. R. A. Thumboo Chetty, P. N. Krishna Murti who 
was a Judge of the Chief Court and Abdul Rahaman who was 
a Deputy Commissioner. During Chamaraja Wodeyar's reign 
although there existed a council, it had played no effective 
part in the administration of the State. So far back as April 1886 
Thumboo Chetty had drawn the attention of Sir Seshadri Iyer to 
the need of improving the constitution of the Council so as to make 
it really a useful institution. But the latter had contented himself 
by replying that the real difficulty was about finding the men. His 
own words were : " The ministry in your memo must be an 
Executive Council. I shall only be delighted to have such a 
Council. Where are the men ? Never mind the cost which really 
is only a subordinate matter " 

The Government of India however, after Chamaraja Wodeyar's 
death, considered that there was need for a strong Council and the 
rules of business of the re-constituted Council were accordingly 
revised. The subjects which were to be laid before the Council were 
more precisely defined than in the notification issued in 1881. The 
list of subjects contained in that notification was found so vague as 
possibly to afford opportunities to a member to unduly hamper the 
Dewan by pressing for submission to the Council all kinds of 
insignificant questions and hence the subjects were more exactly 
defined. In the revised list of subjects were also now included all 
questions relating to the appointment of officers to the upper grades 
of the Civil Service in all its branches, which the Government of 
India considered, should be matters for the consideration of the 
whole Council. The Dewan-in-Council was to distribute the work 
of the State by departments between himself and the three 
councillors. The member in charge of a department was 
competent to dispose of all ordinary work of that department and to 
issue orders in the name of the Government, referring however 
matters of doubt, delicacy or importance to the Dewan and 
it was within the sphere of the Dewan tQ determine whether 



174 

final orders could be issued or not without reference to the Council 
as a whole. It was at all times open to the Dewan to refer any 
matter to the Council. The decisions of the Dewan -in -Council 
were to be carried into effect where there was no difference of 
opinion, but where the Dewan did not agree in any opinion with the 
majority of the Council, power was given to him to refer the matter 
to the Regent for her orders. It was also made incumbent on the 
Dewan to refer to the Resident all matters which had to go 
up to the Government of India. The Dewan also possessed the 
right to call for the production of any public records from any of 
the departments assigned to a member of the Council for re- 
consideration in the Council. 

The Palace arrangements and the Civil List expenditure were 
entirely placed in the hands of the Maharani- Regent. The purdah 
which according to custom Her Highness observed proved no bar 
to her desire to acquaint herself with the wants and wishes of her 
subjects. Her Highness readily granted interviews to the British 
Resident, to her ministers and to the leading officers of the State 
and invited them to discuss with her important questions that 
concerned the prosperity of the country. 

Lord and Lady Elgin paid a visit to the country in November 
1895 and so did Lord and Lady Curzon in November 1900. 



CHAPTER xxii. 

The Maharani Regent. 

Some useful measures introduced Construction of the 
Marikanave Reservoir Re-construction of the Palace des- 
troyed by fire First appearance of Plague The Kaveri 
Electric Power Scheme Diamond Jubilee of Queen 
Victoria Boer War Military Transport Corps Census of 
1901 Sir Seshadri Iyer's retirement and death in 1901 
Sir P. N. Krishna Murti appointed Dewan. 

Early in the period of the Regency, considerable relief was 
given to the supari garden -owners of the Malnad by a reduction in 
the annual assessment imposed on the lands on which the trees 
stood, the rates in the four taluks of Sorab, Sagar, Nagar and 
Koppa being assimilated to those of Thirthahalli which had been 
accepted as equitable. The relief amounted to 22 per cent of the 
tax which had been imposed. The garden-owners with scarcely an 
exception when consulted, preferred a reduction in the land-tax to 
the abolition of the Sayer duty, the incidence of the latter being 
regulated by the actual production of the year and they did not also 
look with favour upon a system of tree- tax, though under such a 
system the land-tax would have been reduced to the ordinary rice 
rates and the Sayer abolished altogether. 

A number of other useful measures introduced during the 
Regency may also be referred to. A Department of Geology had 
been established during the late reign in October 1894 and 
R. Bruce Foote, retired Superintendent of the Geological Survey of 
India, placed in charge of it. Shortly after, the geological survey 
was undertaken and it brought to light the great iron ores forming 
the upper part of the Dharwar system in the Bababudan hills west 
of Kadur. In the year 1897-98 a Mining Regulation was passed 
and rules were framed more or less similar to those in force in 
England, New South Wales, the Transval and other countries. 
There was a remarkable development of the Gold Mining industry 
during this period. The population of the Kolar Gold Fields which 



m 

in 1891 was only 7085 rose to 38,204 in 1901. The value of gold 
extracted from the commencement of the industry was over 16 
millions, out of which the value of the quantity produced during the 
period of the Regency was a little over \2\ millions. The Royalty 
received during the eight years of the Regency was more than 
Rs. 91 lakhs. As more water was required to treat the ore, the 
Bethamangala tank was improved at a cost of Rs. 1 1 lakhs and its 
water was allowed to be used for gold mining purposes. In 
December 1901 the Hon'ble Mark Napier was deputed by 
Messrs. Taylor & Sons, London, as a delegate on behalf of the 
Kolar Mining Companies and the long-pending question of the 
renewal of the leases was settled. An agreement was arrived at 
between the Mysore Government and the leading Companies, 
allowing the latter to renew the leases for a further period of 30 
years from 1910 on condition of their paying 5 per cent Royalty on 
the gross output, together with 2i per cent on all dividends declared 
by the Companies. 

In 1898-99 a beginning was made for the establishment of an 
Agricultural Department by the appointment of an Agricultural 
Chemist for the purpose of a systematic examination of soils in all 
parts of the State, the ascertainment of the appropriate manures 
required for particular soils, the adoption of measures for the 
removal of insects and other pests, the introduction of improved 
methods of cultivation generally, the revival of decaying industries 
and other allied purposes. 

Two important changes under Excise were introduced in 1897. 
The first was the increase of the retail price of arrack per gallon 
from Rs. 5-5-0 to Rs. 6-6-0. This increase was expected to exercise 
a moderating, salutary effect upon the consumer without inflicting 
any undue hardship. The other change introduced was the system 
of licences for tapping trees for toddy and the allotment of specific 
groves for specific shops which led to the augmentation of the toddy 
revenue without any increase in consumption. 

With regard to educational improvements, the First in Arts 
classes affiliated to the Madras University were opened in the 



Maharani's Girls' School in 1897. In 1900 a regular college 
department was formed and the name of the school was altered to 
that of the Maharani's College in 1901. Spacious and well- 
ventilated buildings were constructed for hostels for students both 
at Bangalore and Mysore. In other places also homes for students 
were established in rented or Government buildings. A liberal 
grant and a large extent of land were offered for the location of the 
Indian Institute of Science proposed to be established by J. N. Tata 
in Bangalore. In 1896 a Regulation was enacted for the appointment 
of a special tribunal to settle the claims of certain descendants of 
Brijlal Das to whom an award had been made during the days of 
the British Commission for some money due to him from 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar III. Brijlal, however, had refused the sum 
granted in the award claiming a higher amount. The special 
court however found that none of the applicants were the legal 
heirs of the deceased creditor entitled to receive the sum awarded, 
namely, Rs. 5,67,338-15-1. The Maharani- Regent however, true 
to the traditions of her family decided to allot the amount for 
charitable purposes under the designation of ' Darnodar Das 
Charities.' The whole of this amount was invested in Government 
of India 3j per cent securities and it was decided that four-fifths of 
the income from the investment was to be devoted to the grant of 
scholarships to enable selected candidates to prosecute post-graduate 
studies or researches of an advanced scientific or technical 
character in any university or other institution in India or in any 
foreign country. The remaining one-fifth of the annual income 
from the fund was decided to be spent in granting scholarships to 
the members of the Guzerati community to which Damodar Das 
belonged. 

The Regulation relating to Local Boards which, as we have 
seen, was first published in 1883 and was pending from that year 
on account of prolonged discussions between the Government of 
India and the Government of Mysore was finally passed into law 
in 190L 

Among the notable public works undertaken or completed 
during the Regency were the construction of the Marikanave 

A23 



Reservoir, the re-construction of a part of the Mysore Palace, and 
the opening in December 1899 of a railway line from Birur to 
Shimoga connecting the latter place with the Bangalore -Harihar 
railway line. The construction of the great Marikanave Reservoir 
in the arid district of Chitaldrug about which there had been contro- 
versial opinions from the days of Sir Mark Cubbon, was finally 
undertaken in the year 1897-98 and was successfully completed in 
1906, four years later after Krishnaraja Wodeyar's accession to 
power and the project cost in all about Rs. 39 lakhs. 

The re -construct ion of a part of the Palace in the Mysore fort 
became necessary in 1897. In the early part of that year, some 
days after the celebration of the marriage of the eldest princess 
Jayalakshmi Ammanni, an accident occurred which caused for the 
time being some gloom among those who witnessed it. On account 
of the folly of a maid-servant, the marriage pandal erected in the 
quadrangle of the Palace caught fire and one-fifth of the old building 
was destroyed including the Sejje and the three storeys rising above 
it up to the gold pinnacles, the Sanskrit Library, the armoury, the 
music-room and the Balakhana. Fortunately the occurrence was 
turned to advantage and it proved a veritable blessing in disguise, 
as it tended to some extent to encourage and conserve the declining 
sculpture of India. A new design prepared by an English architect 
and following at the special desire of the Maharani- Regent the 
general outline of the old building as constructed in the days of 
Purnaiya was adopted. A large number of masons and other 
workmen were collected from all parts of India. The new building 
was constructed mostly of stone and iron materials and it came as a 
revelation at the time that excellent stones of all kinds were 
procurable in abundance from quarries in the Mysore State itself. 
The quarry at a place called Turuvekere furnished a unique kind of 
trap which lent itself to the finest and most elaborate carvings and 
kept very sharp edges. The masons from Trichnopoly, Madras and 
other districts from Southern India were at first able to work only 
with pointed chisels but they learnt from their brethren of Kolhapur, 
Jeypore and other places in Northern India to work with sharp- 
edged, wedge-shaped tools and were able to do exquisite carving. 



179 

The work was finally completed in the year 1912, ten years after 
the close of the Regency. The new structure further improved 
subsequently by the present Maharaja now stands in the midst of 
clean surroundings and artistically laid out gardens attracting the 
admiration of visitors. 

One sad occurrence which in common with other parts of India 
beclouded Mysore in this period was the outbreak of the plague 
which defied all human efforts put forward for its suppression. 
This fell disease prior to its appearance in the Mysore State had 
broken out and was increasing in virulence at Hubli in the Dharwar 
district of the Bombay Presidency, a populous town only 80 miles 
from the Mysore frontier. It was, therefore, deemed essential that 
all possible precautions should be taken to prevent its entry into 
Mysore. The Epidemic Diseases Regulation passed in 1897 armed 
the Government with extensive powers to this end. Under this 
enactment, rules were framed from time to time for meeting the 
special exigencies of the situation as they arose and various 
precautionary measures were adopted such as the establishment of 
railway and frontier inspection station and outposts, the examina- 
tion of passengers by rail and road, and the establishment of 
temporary plague hospitals and segregation and health camps. 
Notwithstanding all these precautionary measures, plague first made 
its appearance in the Bangalore City on the 12th August 1898 and 
from there it spread with increasing virulence in every direction in 
the districts of Bangalore, Mysore, Kolar and Tumkur. The 
severity of the epidemic reached its height in the Bangalore City in 
the months of October and November, during each of which 
months more than 1000 persons fell victims to it. Altogether it 
was calculated that in the first year of this outbreak, there were 
nearly 15,000 attacks and *more than 12,000 deaths. Vigorous 
measures were adopted by Government to check the spread of the 
disease by making provision for the treatment of the disease in 
special hospitals. Accommodation was provided in camps for 
contacts and persons living in infected houses. Infected persons 
and houses were subjected to systematic disinfection. Plague 
corpses were removed at the expense of the State to the burial or 



180 

burning grounds allotted for the purpose. Every encouragement 
was afforded for inoculation. A large number of houses condemned 
as unfit for habitation were demolished in the Bangalore City after 
payment of compensation, and congested portions opened out by 
the removal of many more. Special attention was paid to sanitation 
both in cities and in villages. Two large extensions Basavangudi 
and Malleswaram covering an area of 1000 acres and capable of 
providing accommodation for 50,000 persons were laid out in the 
Bangalore City. A large number of temporary health camps was 
also established. Free issues of timber and bamboos were made to 
the poorer classes to enable them to camp out. Relief works for 
the indigent people were started wherever necessary. Advances to 
Government servants of a year's pay was sanctioned in the 
Bangalore City to enable them to build houses in the new 
extensions and of three months' pay in certain infected taluks for 
putting up sheds. Yet this dire disease, as Lord Curzon expressed, 
baffled all attempts to eradicate it, defying analysis, defeating the 
utmost efforts of medical skill and administrative energy, inscrutable 
in its origin, merciless in its ravages, sweeping off very often 
thousands in a day and tens of thousands in a week. In Mysore it 
continued its havoc in all parts of the State and in the last four 
years of the Regency period from the outbreak of the disease 61,000 
persons were attacked, of whom nearly 47,000 perished. The 
magnitude of this calamity is not to be measured by its numbers 
alone. Its ravages led to the unsettlement of the families of 
these victims and left numerous young children without proper 
guardians. 

A work which was planned and completed during the period 
of the Regency was the great Kaveri Electric Power scheme. 
Prior to 1899 the possibility of generating electric power by the 
utilisation of the Kaveri Falls at Sivasamudram had been discussed. 
In 1894 Edmund Carrington, an electrical engineer, had applied 
for a concession of the water power at the Falls. He was con- 
nected with Mr. Holmes of Madras, one of the pioneers of electric 
lighting in India. These gentlemen and Col. Henderson the then 
British Resident in Mysore who took a keen interest in the scheme 



181 

recognised the possibility of transmitting electric power to long 
distances. The Mysore Government considered it advisable to 
investigate the practicability of generating power at the Falls and 
obtained the loan from the Madras Government of the services of 
Col. Pennyquick, R.E., then Chief Engineer at Madras, for the 
purpose. In his report he took a most favourable view of the 
capabilities of the Falls. In June 1899 Captain A. J. De 
Lotbiniere, R.E., Deputy Chief Engineer of Mysore, after studying 
the account of the installation at Niagara Falls conceived the idea 
of working the machinery at the Kolar Gold Mines with electricity 
generated by the power of the Kaveri Falls. The scheme received 
the support of Sir K. Seshadri Iyer and was approved by the 
Maharani. By August 1900 the agreements with the Mining 
Companies were formally ratified and signed and contracts were 
given to the General Electric Company of New York and Messrs. 
Escher Wyss & Co., Zurich, for the supply and erection of electric 
and hydraulic plant respectively, all details having been scrutinised 
by a committee of experts in London. In connection with the 
preliminary works required at Sivasamudram before the arrival of 
the machinery, a temporary camp was opened at a place called 
Rottikatte, li miles from the works, and ground was broken by 
beginning the excavation on the 10th of August 1900 of the suplpy 
channels, a memorable day, it may be said, in the industrial history 
of the whole of India. All the labour required for the works had 
necessarily to be imported on account of the thinly populated 
surroundings of Sivasamudram. During the last quarter of 1900 
and the first six months of 1901 the number of labourers did not 
fall short of 5000. The first party of the General Electric 
Company's engineers and employees arrived in India in December 
1900, the remainder following at intervals during 1901 as their 
services were required. The first shipment of line material arrived 
at Marmugao in January 1901 and the final survey of the line, 
jungle clearing and other preliminary operations through the 
country to be traversed, in many parts very rugged and difficult, 
were at once commenced. The whole of the plant for generation, 
transmission and distribution, together with the buildings required 
for the purpose, was ready in June 1902 and on the 30th of that 



182 

month electric power was for the first time transmitted to the 
Gold Fields, the switch being operated by Mrs. Robertson, wife of 
the British Resident. The agreement with the Mining Companies 
at this time was for a supply of 4000 horse power for a period of 
ten years. The cost of the scheme was about -Rs. 50 lakhs. Thus 
one of the greatest and most recent developments of modern 
science was successfully carried out in Mysore and to the 
Maharani- Regent and her advisers as well as to Captain Lotbiniere 
belonged the credit of carrying out this bold enterprise. 

The Diamond Jubilee of the reign of Queen-Empress Victoria 
celebrated on the 21st and 22nd June 1897 afforded an occasion 
for rejoicings throughout the State and an opportunity to the 
Maharani -Regent to once more give expression to the traditional 
loyalty and grateful devotion of both the Ruling Family and the 
people of Mysore to the British throne. The celebration at 
Bangalore was conducted by Her Highness in person. In 
commemoration of the event, the Maharani -Regent laid the 
foundation-stone of a hospital known as the Victoria Hospital on 
the day of the Jubilee and a building was constructed at a cost of 
about Rs. 4 lakhs which was opened to the public by Lord Curzon 
towards the end of 1900. The building is a handsome, two-storied 
one with abundant accommodation and equipped with the most 
modern appliances. 

In 1901-02 the Boer War was concluded. In this connection, 
Mysore had the honour and satisfaction of several of its residents 
joining the famous Lumsden's Horse. More than 100 horses were 
supplied for mounting this corps and four non-commissioned native 
officers with some syces accompanied these horses. 

Another obligation towards strengthening the bond of Imperial 
friendship cheerfully undertaken during this period was the 
formation of a Transport Corps as a complement to the regiment of 
Imperial Service Lancers which had been organised during the time 
of Chamaraja Wodeyar for the purpose of Imperial defence. From 
the days of the treaty of Seringapatam in 1 799 about 200 bullocks 



183 

of the Amrut Mahal breed used to be supplied yearly for British 
bullock batteries. But after the Boer War as all batteries were 
ordered to be horsed, the British Government was no longer in need 
of the Mysore bullocks. The full strength of the corps now formed 
was 300 carts and 700 ponies. As regards the cadre of the corps, 
it was organised as closely as possible on the cadre of the transport 
trains in the British service. 

Queen Victoria died in the beginning of the year 1901 after a 
long reign of 64 years. The Dewan referred to this occurrence in 
his speech to the Representative Assembly in 1901 as an event 
which affected the people of Mysore not merely in common with the 
teeming millions of the British Empire but with the whole mankind 
over whose hearts the good queen had firmly established her 
dominion by her personal virtues as she had done over those of her 
own subjects by the beneficent exercise of her sovereign power. 
The accession of the Prince of Wales to the throne as Edward VII 
was at the same time welcomed. 

In 1901 the usual decennial census was taken and it was found 
that the population had increased notwithstanding the devastations 
of plague by about 12 per cent, the density per square mile rising 
from 168 to 188. Of girls less than 10 years old, fewer were found 
married and fewer widowed than in 1891 ; the actual figures were 
7130 girls under the age of 10 against 18,072 at the census of 1891, 
due no doubt mostly to the restrictions placed on such marriages by 
the Infant Marriage Regulation passed some years earlier. 
Similarly, against 705 married boys below 10 years of age in 1891 
there were only 235 such in 1901. As regards education, the 
census standard of literacy was low being limited only to reading 
and writing. About 5 per cent of the entire population were found 
to be literate, consisting of 8.8 per cent of the males and 0.6 per cent 
of the females. 

The area under cultivation increased by more than two and a 
half lakhs of acres. In June 1900 by which time it was found that 
out of a total area of the State 1,74,55,539 acres, the extent of 



184 

culturable land was 69,60,442 acres. There were 65,03,556 acres 
under cultivation at the end of the year made up as follows : 

Wet 7,73,677 acres assessed at Rs. 31,34,825. 

Dry 53,17,508 41,65,900, 

Garden 2,43,611 12,93,232. 

Coffee 1,65,691 1,80,902. 

Cinchona I 

and 3069 1912. 

Cardamom j 

Total 65,03,556 acres assessed at Rs. 87,76,771. 



The revenues of the State showed a progressive development 
from 181 lakhs of rupees in the first year to 189 lakhs in 1901-02, 
the last year of the Regency. Even after paying the increased 
Subsidy of Rs. 10i lakhs per annum to the British Government 
which became payable from July 1896, the State was able to grant 
larger allotments than before for education, sanitation, medical 
relief and other objects which directly benefited the people. 

Excepting the personal changes which were inevitable, the 
provisional Government underwent no alteration during the period 
of the Regency. Abdul Rahaman having retired in 1895, 
V. P. Madhava Rao, Inspector-General of Police, was nominated to 
his place. Madhava Rao was a native of Tanjore and had entered 
the Mysore Service as a clerk in the office of the Guardian to the 
late Maharaja Chamaraja Wodeyar when the latter was a minor. 
Madhava Rao rose to the position of a Member of Council after 
holding various appointments. In March 1901 Sir K. Seshadri 
Iyer who had been on long leave on account of ill-health 
retired but did not survive his retirement for any length of 
time, having died in September of the same year. He 
possessed a powerful intellect and a strenuous will, though 
in warmth of heart he was not the equal of Rangacharlu. During 
his long period of office, he rendered various useful services to 
the country of his adoption and achieved distinction as a statesman 
of Indian repute. Later, a statue was raised and a building known 



185 

as the Seshadri Iyer Memorial Hall in the Cubbon Park at 
Bangalore to commemorate his services was constructed. Sir 
W. W. Hunter of the Indian Civil Service and the first compiler of 
the Gazetteer of India at one time characterised Sir Seshadri Iyer 
as a man who gave his head to Herbert Spencer and his heart to 
Parabrahma. T. R. A. Thumboo Chetty, the Senior Councillor, 
who was acting as Dewan in place of Sir Seshadri Iyer while the 
latter was on leave also retired simultaneously with him after a 
long and honourable career. 

P. N. Krishna Murthi (later Sir) was now appointed Dewan 
and for the two vacant councillorships C. Srinivasa lyengar one of 
the Secretaries to Government and Rao Bahadur C. Madiah, 
Deputy Commissioner of Mysore, were appointed. V. P. Madhava 
Rao now became the Senior Member of Council. 

It was fortunate that there were only a few changes among 
the British Residents. After Col. Henderson left Mysore in 
February 1895, his place was taken by Sir William Lee-Warner 
and by Sir Macworth Young for short periods. In December 1896 
Col. Donald Robertson, Governor- General's agent, Central India, 
became the occupant of the Resident's place during the rest of the 
period of the Regency. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Termination of the Regency Investiture with power 
of H. H. Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV Edward VII's Coronation 
in England. 

In 1902 the young Maharaja Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV reached 
the age of 18 years and was considered both by his education and 
the administrative training he had received quite competent to 
assume the responsibility of ruling his State. Almost in the first 
year of her lonely life the Maharani- Regent had readily given her 
consent to an arrangement by which Mr. S. M. Fraser (afterwards 
Sir) of the Bombay Civil Service was appointed Tutor and Guardian 
of the young Maharaja. Before he came to Mysore, he had held a 
similar position in Kolhapur and had earned a name for having 
very successfully trained up the ruler of that State. It was 
considered at the time by a large number of people that it was cruel 
to separate the son from the mother. Her Highness, however, saw 
the wisdom of the arrangement and suppressing her natural feelings 
yielded to the sense of duty she owed to her son. Fortunately 
Mr. Fraser's tact, conciliatory disposition and abilities were such as 
to cause no regret on the part of the Maharani for the approval she 
had given to the arrangement for the education of her son. 

Under the guidance of Mr. Fraser, a systematic and sustained 
effort was made to prepare His Highness for the duties of his 
exalted office, which was ultimately attended with great success. 
The curricula of studies were framed with a view to giving the 
Maharaja an intelligent knowledge both of the theory and practice 
of government. The reading of modern history and science was 
combined with a study of the principles of jurisprudence and 
methods of revenue administration. This book learning was 
supplemented by extensive tours in every part of the State by 
which the Maharaja was brought into contact with all classes of 
officials and gained a first-hand knowledge of the nature and 
resources of the country which he was to govern. In the last tour 
made before assuming the government of the State, His Highness 




H. H. Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, G.C.S.I., G.B.E. 



187 

in several places took the opportunity to visit taluk and other 
offices to examine the accounts and papers of village officials and 
to speak to the people by his own mouth and thus was introduced 
to the practical working of the machinery of the districts. To 
familiarise himself with legal procedure, His Highness more than 
once attended the law courts and sat upon the bench with the 
presiding judges and magistrates. On some occasions His Highness 
attended the meetings of the State Council and followed the discus- 
sions with intelligent appreciation of the points raised. It was the 
opinion of those responsible at the time for the Maharaja's training 
that His Highness had made excellent use of the opportunities 
afforded to him. The Maharaja's health during his minority was 
uniformally good. He had regular and varied outdoor exercises 
which developed his physical strength and endurance. His 
Highness Jearnt to play tennis and racquets well and was able to 
acquire proficiency in horsemanship. 

The investiture ceremony took place on the 8th August 1902 
at Mysore and it was performed by the Viceroy Lord Curzon. 
A deputation from Mysore consisting of Mr. C. L. S. Russel, first 
assistant to the British Resident, Bakshi Bassappaji Urs a 
nobleman of the State and related to the Royal Family and V. P. 
Madhava Rao, Member of the State Council, welcomed the 
Viceregal party at Hindupur on behalf of the Maharani- Regent and 
accompanied the party to Bangalore, arriving there on the 4th 
August. The Viceroy made a stay of two days at Bangalore. On 
the afternoon of the first day he drove to the Imperial Service 
Cavalry and Transport Lines and witnessed some 200 Imperial 
Service Lancers under the command of Captain Macquiod execute 
various manoeuvres. On the arrival of the Viceroy at the Imperial 
Service Lines, he was received by Dewan Krishna Murthi and 
conducted to a position near the saluting flag. After the horses of 
the entire regiment had lain down on the word of command so as 
to form covers for their riders in action, the regiment formed mass 
and the men dismounted and left their horses entirely alone with 
the rein passed through the girths. Rockets, carbine discharges 
and other noises were then made to test the training of the horses 
and except one or two horses which broke away, the remainder kept 



188 

perfectly steady and unconcerned. After galloping past and 
advancing in review order, the Lancers cheered His Excellency. 
The Viceroy remarked that the display he had seen proved the 
excellence of the training of the horses and the special attention 
paid to the matter by Colonel Desaraj Urs and Captain Macquiod. 
The manoeuvres subsequent to special show in connection with 
the horses reflected great credit, said His Excellency, on the 
. regiment. On the night of the next day, the Viceroy and party 
attended a reception given by the Dewan P. N. Krishna Murthi 
at the latter's palatial residence ' Puma Prasada.' On the 6th 
August the electric works at Sivasamudram were visited and 
Mysore was reached on the morning of the 7th, where the Viceroy 
was received with all the ceremonies usual on such occasions. 

On Friday the 8th August 1902 a grand durbar was held in the 
pavilion attached to the Jagan Mohan Palace. The civil and 
military officers of the Government and others who had been 
invited for the occasion were in their seats before the arrival of the 
Viceroy. A deputation consisting of the Dewan and three principal 
officers of the State waited on His Excellency at 9-15 a.m. for the 
purpose of conducting him to the durbar hall. His Excellency left 
his residence at 9-30 a.m. attended by the Private and Military 
Secretaries and the Under- Secretary in the Foreign Department 
and was escorted by a wing of a regiment of British cavalry and a 
battery of Royal Field Artillery. His Highness the Maharaja 
accompanied by Colonel Donald Robertson the British Resident 
and four principal nobles and officers of the State received the 
Viceroy as he alighted from his carriage. A guard of honour 
furnished by the Royal Warwickshire Regiment with band and 
colours which had been drawn up outside the durbar hall saluted 
the Viceroy on arrival. The band played a slow march as the 
procession approached the door of the durbar hall and at the 
entrance a second guard of honour of British troops presented arms. 
A royal salute of 31 guns was fired from the ramparts of the fort 
and the band played the British National Anthem. All present rose 
on the entrance of the procession and remained standing till His 
Excellency th* Viceroy took bis seat ro the date, The Maharaja 



rssr 

took his seat on the right hand and on the left of the Viceroy were 
seated the Resident, the Foreign Secretary and other British officers. 
The other European guests were seated in an other group at some 
distance apart. On the right of the Maharaja sat the Dewan, the 
nobles and other native officers and guests in the order of their rank 
and precedence in different rows. After all were seated, the Foreign 
Secretary declared the Durbar open. 

His Excellency the Viceroy then rose and addressed His 
Highness the Maharaja in these words : " Your Highness and 
Gentlemen This is the first time since I have been in India that I 
have been called upon personally to instal a Ruling Chief. It gives 
me the greatest pleasure that the Chief in whose case I am about 
to discharge these agreeable functions should be one whose career 
I have had such close opportunities of watching and for whom I 
entertain so sincere a regard as the young Maharaja of Mysore. 
Indeed, I think I may add that I should not have come all the way 
from Simla at this season of the year had I not felt the keenest 
personal interest both in this State and in its future Ruler. About 
the latter I shall have a word to say presently. But first let me 
explain how it is that the fortunes of the Mysore State occupy such 
a place in the concern and regard of the Government of India. 

" We can never forget that for 50 years this State was under 
British administration during which time it enjoyed the full 
benefits of the discipline and method and experience that are 
associated with the British system. At the end of that period a 
great experiment was made. The famous Rendition took place 
and the State was given back to its native rulers. It is interesting 
to recollect that the statesman who was mainly responsible for that 
act was the veteran Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, who only three 
Weeks ago resigned the helm of affairs in England after half a 
century of unsurpassed service to the State. It was a just and 
magnanimous act, but it was also, as I have said, a great experi- 
ment ; for if the result had been failure, then a cruel rebuff would 
have been administered to the generosity which dictated the 
proceeding and the cause of Native States and of Native Adminis- 
tration throughout India must have suffered a lasting recoil* 



wo 

The eyes of every one therefore were directed upon Mysore to see 
how the venture would result and how far the State would justify 
the confidence reposed in it. I will not pretend that there have 
never been shades in the picture or that an unassailable standard 
has everywhere been maintained. In this world we talk about 
ideals more often than we realise them. But this I can unhesita- 
tingly say the State has been well served by the members of its 
Ruling Family and by faithful and patriotic ministers. The first 
Dewan Rangacharlu did not long survive the Rendition. But his 
successor Sir Seshadri Iyer for 1 8 years wielded an authority that 
was a reflex of his powerful character and abilities and that left its 
mark upon every branch of the administration. The late Maharaja 
whose amiability and excellence of disposition endeared him to all 
was unfortunately removed by a premature death while still in the 
prime of life. And since then Sir Seshadri Iyer has died also. 
Thus the old order has passed away and we stand on the threshold 
of a new era. 

" For nearly eight years there has been a minority during 
which the Regency has been in the hands of Her Highness the 
Maharani- Regent assisted by a Dewan and Council and relying upon 
the firm and constant support of the British Resident. As the head 
of the Government of India, I have pleasure in stating that the 
smooth progress of events during the minority has been largely due 
to the unfailing tact and discretion of Her Highness. If I may be 
allowed to say so, she has set an example of public and domestic 
virtue which has been of equal value to her people and to her 
family and which has earned for her the admiration and respect of 
all. It gives me pleasure to announce that in recognition of these 
services I had submitted to His Majesty the King-Emperor the 
request that he would allow Her Highness the salute of 19 guns to 
be continued to her for life and that His Majesty has gladly 
consented to bestow upon Her Highness this exceptional mark of 
favour. It is our hope now that she is retiring from the responsible 
position which she has so long and successfully filled that she may 
observe the fruits of her sagacious example and may meet with the 
rewards of her motherly devotion in the conduct and career of 
foer son, 



191 

" I am thus brought to the circumstances that have led up to 
the ceremony of to-day. The young Maharaja whom I am about 
to instal has recently attained his eighteenth birthday. He has 
passed through a minority of nearly eight years. They have not 
been idle or vapid years spent in enjoyment or dissipated in 
idleness. They have been years of careful preparation for the 
duties that lie before him and of laborious training for his exalted 
state. It is no light thing to assume the charge of 5,000,000 of 
people and it is no perfunctory training that is required for such a 
task. In Mr. Fraser we were fortunate enough to discover a Tutor 
and Governor thoroughly alive to the duties of his onerous position 
and well qualified to win the confidence as well as waken the 
energies of his pupil. In Colonel Robertson the young Chief has 
met with a mentor as sympathetic as he was wise, and under this 
combined influence, associated by those happy domestic associations 
to which I have before referred, we have seen the natural good 
judgment and sound sense of the Maharaja develop by steady 
degrees until we felt satisfied of his capacity to assume the full and 
final responsiblity of the government of men. He has made 
frequent tours among his people. He has studied their wants and 
needs at first hand. He has thereby acquired the knowledge which 
will enable him to understand the problems with which he will be 
confronted. Fortified by this knolwedge, his naturally business-like 
habits and his instinctive self-reliance should enable him to steer a 
straight course. He will be assisted by a Dewan who has already 
earned confirmation in his responsible office and by two capable 
Councillors of State. He will have the advice of a Private 
Secretary whose abilities have specially recommended him for the 
selection. The time, I hope, will never come when the Maharaja 
may be unable to rely upon the support and counsel of the 
British Resident to whom he should turn, not as to a schoolmaster 
but as a protector and friend." 

Then turning towards the Maharaja, Lord Curzon continued : 
" Pray do not think that I am going to read you a lecture. Rulers 
are not made virtuous by installation homilies but by the instincts 
of their nature, by a diligent training and by a willingness to profit 
by the wisdom and experience of others. There was a learned 



French priest named Fenelon who was specially engaged to give 
lectures in the art of rule to the grandson of Louis XIV of France. 
But I am sorry to say that the young man was no better at the end 
than at the beginning. Similarly we know that all the precepts of 
the wisest of men, King Solomon, left no impression upon his son. 
I am not going, therefore, to give you a text- book of moral maxims. 
I will only ask you to remember this the young man of 18 who 
becomes a Ruler not only enjoys one of the noblest opportunities but 
also bears one of the greatest responsibilities in the world. Upon you 
to a large extent will depend the happiness and comfort of several 
millions of your fellow creatures who already look up to you with 
reverence, who if you rule well, will regard you with devotion but 
if you rule badly, with indifference and despair. You are put in 
this place not for your own sake ; to think that is the greatest of 
all human errors, but for theirs. If you act conscientiously and 
dutifully, you may leave a name that will live for generations in 
the memory of your people. If you throw away your chances and 
become a sluggard or worse, your name will be written in water 
and your memory will pass like a puff of smoke from the minds of 
men. Therefore I beg of you at this turning-point in your life 
to remember these things. Put your heart into your work. Be 
just. Be courageous. Be merciful to the lowly. Be considerate 
to all. Work as though you were going to live not for 90 years 
but for 5 ; for duty, believe me, cannot afford to loiter and there 
ought to be no blank spaces in a Ruler's dairy " 

The Maharaja was after the conclusion of the speech formally 
led up the dais by the Viceroy and installed in one of the two State 
chairs. The Foreign Secretary having read the titles of the 
Maharaja, the Viceroy declared that the Maharaja was invested 
with full powers of administration. The event was immediately 
signalised by a salute of 21 guns from the fort, while the band 
played the National Anthem. The Viceroy's khillats were then 
brought in and conferred on the Maharaja. 

The Maharaja thn rose and made a reply to the Viceroy's 
speech in these words: "It is with feelings of no mere con- 
veational loyalty and gratitude loyalty to His Majesty the King- 



193 

Emperor and gratitude to yourself his representative that I 
acknowledge the great honour conferred upon me in receiving at 
Your Excellency's hands the charge of my State this day. The 
history of Mysore with the romantic fortunes of our ancient dynasty 
must ever inspire in its Ruler a feeling of gratitude to the British 
throne, which adds, I think, a special quality to the allegiance 
which it is my first duty to publicly tender to the person of His 
Gracious Majesty King Edward VII. The restoration of His 
Majesty to health by God's goodness is nowhere in the British 
Empire hailed with more heartfelt thankfulness than in the loyal 
State of Mysore. To Your Excellency I owe something more 
than ordinary thanks. In common with the rest of the Chiefs of 
India, I am indebted to Your Excellency for the many acts by 
which you have proved yourself to be our friend, most of all perhaps 
for the ennobling ideal of duty ever held up before us, and the words 
of weighty advice which Your Excellency has now addressed to me 
will, believe me, sink the deeper into my mind from the example 
and authority of the illustrious Viceroy who has uttered them. But 
more than this, I am under a particular and personal obligation to 
Your Excellency for the distinction bestowed upon me by this 
second visit to Mysore. 

" In gratefully acknowledging the sacrifice entailed on Your 
Excellency, I would venture to assure Your Excellency that I shall 
never forget the honour done me on this the most important day of 
my career. How important are the responsibilities which now 
devolve upon me I fully realise and this it is my ambition to prove 
by performance rather than by words. The inheritance to which I 
succeed is no ordinary one and I appreciate what Mysore owes to 
wise statesmen and the care of the British Government under the 
Regency of my revered mother. But at the same time, I know full 
well that I cannot rest on the laurels won by others and that my 
utmost efforts are needed not only to maintain for my subjects the 
benefits they already enjoy but to press onward to a yet higher 
standard of efficiency. How far I may be granted the ability to 
cope with the problems before me the future only can show, but it 
is a comfort to me to feel that I shall for some time at any rate 
enjoy the assistance of my well proved friend the Honourable 

A25 



194 

Colonel Donald Robertson as Resident of the State. And speaking 
with all deference, I am able to say that I begin my task with some 
knowledge of its difficulties, thanks to the education I have received 
from Mr. Fraser to whom I hope to prove that his labours for the 
past six years have not been without fruit. This much at any rate 
can confidently be affirmed that the desire and the effort to succeed 
shall not be lacking. I have now seen a great deal of my State 
with its beautiful scenery and its loyal people and it would be a 
poor heart indeed that was not filled with pride and love for such 
an inheritance. May Heaven grant me the ability as well as the 
ambition to make a full and wise use of the great opportunities of 
my position and to govern without fear or favour for the lasting 
happiness of my people." 

In the afternoon the Maharaja received addresses from 
various bodies and made separate suitable replies. To the members 
of the Madhva Siddhantonnahini Sabha, a religious body represent- 
ing the followers of Sri Madhva's Dwaitha philosophy, His 
Highness conveyed the assurance that all institutions which had 
for their object the development of reverence and godliness in man 
deserved encouragement and as such the Sabha had his sympathy. 
To the representatives of the London and Wesleyan Missions in 
the Mysore State, His Highness said that their efforts to spread 
education and to foster qualities of good citizenship needed no 
commendation at his hands, that it was a matter of pride and 
pleasure to him that they spoke in such appreciative terms of his 
late lamented father and of his revered mother, and striving after 
the same high ideals as they entertained, he would continue to 
promote the welfare of all classes and creeds among his subjects. 
To the members of the Mahomedan community, the Maharaja 
replied in Urdu and assured them that it was his great wish that 
his Muslim subjects in Mysore should progress in the arts, science 
and literature like the other communities. To the representatives 
of the North and South Planters* Associations, His Highness said 
that it was gratifying to him to note their reference to the 
broad-minded and enlightened principles that had guided the 
administration of his illustrious father and of his esteemed mother 
and to assure them that he would be guided by the same principles. 



195 

A number of other addresses also were presented to His Highness, 
among them being one from the inhabitants of the French 
Settlement of Pondicherry, another from the members of the 
Eurasian and Anglo- Indian Association of Mysore and Coorg, and 
a third from the people of Coorg. Among the deputations that had 
arrived to offer their congratulations to the young Maharaja was 
one from Kapurthala in the Punjab. 

The happy recovery of the King- Emperor Edward VII and 
His Majesty's Coronation in England on the day succeeding the 
installation of the Maharaja were events of common rejoicing 
throughout the British Empire. On this day an open air 
Coronation parade service was held in Mysore on the old polo 
ground adjoining the Government House at which both the Viceroy 
and the Maharaja were present. Lord Curzon after spending a 
few days in the jungles of Mysore in the Gundlupet taluk engaged 
in bison shooling and other shikar, finally left Mysore on the 
morning of the 13th August and proceeded to Ootacamund. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Form of the New Government in Mysore. 

The investiture of the young Maharaja with ruling powers 
came at a time and in circumstances more fortunate than existed 
in the days of His Highness' grand-father or of his father. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar III had by the prudent management of 
Purnaiya no financial embarrassment when he started his career as 
actual ruler. But the Paramount Power allowed him to assume 
the government merely imposing on him a vague obligation to rule 
the country to the benefit of his subjects, without making any 
proper provision to give His Highness adequate training to do so 
according to the standard expected by that Power. Chamaraja 
Wodeyar no doubt succeeded to the government of a peaceful 
country with all the advantages of a good education and proper 
political training for the great position he was to fill. But it must 
at the same time be said that the country had been devastated by a 
severe famine and had been left burdened with a debt of Rs. 80 
lakhs with all branches of administration crippled. On the other 
hand, Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV was fortunate to assume the 
country in more favourable circumstances inasmuch as he had 
received not only a good training fitting him for his position but 
also whose parents had by wise management left him a surplus of 
more than Rs. 44 lakhs in the treasury, with a reconstructed 
Government consisting of efficiently administered departments. 

The first official act of the Maharaja was the issue of a 
proclamation to the people of the State in which His Highness 
announced that he had assumed on the termination of his minority 
the government of the country from the hands of his revered 
mother. All judges and magistrates and other officers of the civil 
and military departments were continued in their respective posts 
and were allowed to exercise the respective functions belonging to 
them, subject to such alterations as might be made in the future for 
the good of the State. His Highness also declared that it would 



197 

be his earnest endeavour to promote the advancement of the State 
as well as the welfare of his subjects following in the footsteps of 
his illustrious father of blessed memory and of his revered and 
beloved mother. P. N. Krishna Murthi (afterwards Sir) was 
continued as Dewan, but the number of Members of the State 
Council which was three during the period of the Regency was 
reduced by one and V. P. Madhava Rao and C. Srinivasa lyengar 
were confirmed in their places. 

On the accession of the Maharaja to power, the exigencies 
which existed during the time of the Regency to have a Council 
more or less of an executive character ceased to operate. To the 
British Government the Maharaja was solely responsible for 
maintaining amicable relations with that Power and for the efficient 
administration of his State. The Council, therefore, resumed its old 
character of being a Consultative Council. But at the same time 
care was taken to maintain it as an efficient body with real power, 
acting not only in co-operation with the Dewan but also serving as 
a sort of check on his actions and opinions. The work of the State 
was distributed as during the Regency period between the Dewan 
and the Councillors according to a prescribed list and a schedule 
was drawn up in which all cases which needed the orders of His 
Highness the Maharaja were specified. Cases falling under this 
schedule were, in the first instance, to be submitted by the Secretary 
concerned to the Councillor in charge of the department on whom 
rested the initiative entailing where necessary the preparation of a 
note for the consideration of the Council. The matter was then to 
be placed before the Council and submitted with the opinions of the 
Dewan and the Councillors for the orders of the Maharaja, Cases 
not falling under this schedule were to be dealt with by the Dewan 
as the senior executive officer of the State. In such matters the 
Secretary was to draft the necessary orders and forward the papers 
to the Dewan through the Member of Council concerned. If any 
material difference of opinion became perceptible between a member 
of Council and the Dewan, it was left to the discretion of the 
Dewan to treat the subject as a Council matter or to submit the 
same for the orders of the Maharaja. If in any matter connected 
with a department not directly under his own charge the Dewan 



198 

considered that immediate action was necessary, he was free to 
issue orders on his own authority, a copy of the order issued being 
at once sent to the Councillor concerned and a report being also 
made to the Maharaja for the necessity of such an order. A 
Revenue Commissioner was also appointed for the State with 
the powers specified in the Land Revenue Code and V. P. Madhava 
Rao was appointed to the place, in addition to his being a member 
of the Council. 

Evan Machonochie (afterwards Sir) of the Bombay Civil 
Service was appointed Private Secretary to the Maharaja. It was 
considered at the time that an undue share of authority had passed 
into the hands of the Dewans during the period of the Regency and 
in Lord Curzon's opinion such a state of things did not betoken a 
healthy future. The Maharaja, he regarded, ought to be the actual 
ruler of his people and master in his own house. It was therefore 
thought that a Private Secretary drawn from the Indian Civil 
Service and who was equipped with the requisite experience would 
be able to relieve His Highness of drudgery, show him something 
of the method of disposing of work in British Government offices, 
and while suppressing his own personality exercise some influence 
in the direction desired. Mr. S. M. Fraser (afterwards Sir), Tutor 
and Governor of the Maharaja during his minority, left Mysore 
after the investiture ceremony was completed and his parting 
assurance to Machonochie was that in any contingency His 
Highness could be trusted to ' go four annas better ' than could be 
reasonably expected, an assurance that was to be most amply 
fulfilled in the succeeding years. 

Sir Evan Machonochie has recorded the following sketch of the 
Maharaja in his book * Life in the Indian Civil Service ' which he 
published in 1926 after his retirement. " Happily, His Highness is 
to-day ruling wisely a contented people and it is sufficient to say 
that I found in him a kind and considerate Chief and a loyal friend. 
On young shoulders he carried a head of extraordinary maturity 
which was, however, no bar to a boyish and whole-hearted enjoyment 
of manly sports as well as of the simple pleasures of life. He rode 
straight to the hounds, played polo with the best, and a first class 



199 

game of racquets. He was devoted to animals, particularly his 
horses and the terrier that would be his constant companion, and 
he never failed to attend stables of a morning to watch the training, 
supervise the care and gratify the taste for lucerne and carrots of a 
stable of carriage horses, hunters and polo ponies that ran well into 
the second hundred. It was at such times or on a morning ride 
that confidential matters could be most easily discussed and so we 
did much business out of office. He had the taste and knowledge 
to appreciate Western music as well as his own. So my violin came 
out of its case after many years and we would have musical 
evenings at my house, with quartets and the like, in which His 
Highness would take the part of first violin." 

Regarding the Maharam- Regent, Machonochie has recorded in 
the same book this estimate of her character. 1 " A word of tribute 
is due to Her Highness the Maharam, late Regent. A certain 
clinging to power would have been more than excusable in a lady 
of character and education who during the eight years of her son's 
minority had ruled the State. But I can say that never during the 
seven years that I spent in Mysore was I aware of the faintest 
indication on her part of a desire to intrude, even in minor personal 
matters, upon her son's domain. Dignity and good sense could no 
further go." 

Scarcely had the Maharaja been in power for a week, when he 
summoned an extraordinary meeting of his Council at Mysore on 
the 14th August 1902 and addressed the members in these words: 
" Dewan Sahib and Councillors , Our business to-day is purely 
formal and will not detain us long. My object in calling this 
extraordinary meeting is two-fold. In the first place, I desire that 
no time should be lost by the new administration in giving tangible 
evidence of its existence and, in the second place, I wish to take 
the earliest opportunity of meeting my Dewan and Councillors 
personally in their corporate capacity. We are once again at the 
beginning of a new experiment in Mysore. Whether that experi- 
ment will be a success or the reverse will depend greatly on you. 
Of your devotion to myself personally, I am well aware. In your 
devotion to the interests of the State, I have full confidence. No 



200 

human institution can be perfect and the new scheme of administra- 
tion will, no doubt, disclose one kind of defect or another. As the 
fruit of the labours of my Dewan, aided by my good friend the 
Resident Colonel Robertson, I myself hope and expect much. 
This object can only be attained however by single-hearted and 
unselfish co-operation between the members of Council of the 
State. It cannot be expected that you will always agree with one 
another or that I shall always agree with you. It may be that at 
times you will feel soreness individually and collectively at being 
overruled. At such times I ask you to give credit to those who 
disagree with you for being actuated by the same sense of public 
duty as yourselves and to reflect that in giving your honest opinion 
and urging it to the utmost of your power you have done your duty 
and retained your self-respect. I ask you to banish all sense of 
resentment and to address yourselves to the next question before 
you with undiminished courage and goodwill. If this is the spirit 
that animates our labours, I can, relying on your mature experience 
and proved abilities, look forward with confidence to the future. In 
conclusion, I desire to assure you collectively of my loyal support 
and individually of my unfailing sympathy and consideration. 
May Heaven always guide us to the lasting good of my dear 
people." 

Some rooms were allotted in the Palace for the Private 
Secretary's office and His Highness lost no time in getting to work. 
He also attended the office with unfailing regularity at any time 
after eleven and usually remained there till the business of the day 
was completed. Apart from private correspondence and disposal of 
matters relating to the Palace, a large number of papers relating to 
Government were placed before the Maharaja daily for his orders 
and the number of such papers exceeded 900 even in the first year 
of his rule. Judged by even a quantitave standard, said the Dewan 
Sir P. N. Krishna Murthi in his address to the Representative 
Assembly of 1903, it must be acknowledged that the new scheme 
was not behind its predecessor and that His Highness had borne 
a considerable share of the work of the State. The subjects dealt 
with by His Highness were, as might be expected, of considerable 
variety and range embracing all the important cases in all the 



201 

branches of the administration. The Dewan also said that His 
Highness with the shining examples of his two illustrious parents 
before him had shown the same earnest devotion to duty and given 
the same unfailing support to his ministers as had been received 
at the hands of His Highness* father and his mother. 



CHAPTER XXV. 
KrUhnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Maharaja's visit to Delhi for the Coronation Durbar 
Opens the Madras Exhibition and visits Lord Ampthill, 
Governor of Madras Tours in the State Yuvaraja's illness 
at Ajmer Visits of Lord Kitchner and H. R. H. the Prince 
of Wales Birthday and Dasara Festivities. 

On the 1st January 1903 the Maharaja took part in the 
historic functions of the great Durbar at Delhi to celebrate the 
event in India of the accession of Edward VII to the throne as 
successor to Queen Victoria. A Mysore camp was formed at a 
distance of about six miles from the fort with a large party of 
officials and other guests who accompanied the Maharaja. The 
Imperial Service troops took part in the Coronation mancL-uvres 
and earned the encomiums of the British military department for 
their smart turn-out, soldierly bearing and excellent behaviour. In 
the State itself durbars were held at all district headquarters and 
other places at which proclamations in English and Kanada 
announcing His Majesty Edward VI Ts accession to the throne as 
King of England and Emperor of India were read to the assembled 
people. School sports and illuminations and fireworks formed 
parts of the programme. Divine worship was conducted in all 
temples and mosques and there was a general feeding of the poor 
of all classes. A large number of prisoners were released in 
honour of the occasion. 

In December 1903 the Maharaja proceeded to Madras in 
response to a request to open the Industrial and Arts Exhibition 
got up there. On the 22nd of that month the citizens of Madras 
received His Highness at the Railway Station with an address of 
welcome, and in reply the Maharaja while expressing genuine 
pleasure at meeting so many of the leading citizens of that great city, 
conveyed the assurance to them that his earnest desire was to uphold 
the great traditions of the State and to do what in him lay to maintain 
for Mysore that position in the Indian polity which they were good 



203 

enough to assign to it. On the 26th the Exhibition was opened by 
His Highness and the following extracts from his speech on the 
occasion indicate some of his views : " Here, in India, the 
problem is peculiar. Our trade tends steadily to expand and it is 
possible to demonstrate by means of statistics the increasing 
prosperity of the country generally. On the other hand, we in 
India know that the ancient handicrafts are decaying, that the 
fabrics for which India was renowned in the past are supplanted by 
the products of Western looms, and that our industries are not 
displaying that renewed vitality which will enable them to compete 
successfully in the home or the foreign market. The cutivator on 
the margin of subsistence remains a starveling cultivator, the 
educated man seeks Government employment or the readily 
available profession of a lawyer, while the belated artisan works on 
the lines marked out for him by his forefathers for a return that 
barely keeps body and soul together. It is said that India is 
dependent on agriculture and must always remain so. That may 
be so ; but there can, I venture to think, be little doubt that the 
solution of the ever recurring famine problem is to be found not 
merely in the improvement of agriculture, the cheapening of loans, 
or the more equitable distribution of taxation, but still more in the 
removal from the land to industrial pursuits of a great portion of 
those, who, at the best, gain but a miserable subsistence, and on the 
slightest failure of the season are thrown on public charity. It is 
time for us in India to be up and doing ; new markets must be 
found, new methods adopted and new handicrafts developed, whilst 
the educated unemployed, no less than the skilled and unskilled 
labourers, all those, in fact, whose precarious means of livelihood is 
a standing menace to the well-being of the State must find employ- 
ment in reorganised and progressive industries It 

seems to me that what we want is more outside light and assistance 
from those interested in industries. Our schools should not be left 
entirely to officials who are either fully occupied with their other 
duties or whose ideas are prone, in the nature of things, to run in 
official grooves. I should like to see all those who " think " and 
*' know " giving us their active assistance and not merely their 
criticism of our results. It is not Governments or forms of 



204 

Government that have made the great industrial nations, but the 
spirit of the people and the energy of one and all working to a 
common end." 

Early in January following, the Maharaja paid a visit to Lord 
Ampthill, then Governor of Madras. Sir Evan Machonochie gives 
in his book the following description of this visit : " I remember 
being much struck with the attitude of the crowd as we drove in 
state. On such occasions an Indian crowd is impassive and the 
progress of a Governor usually excites no more than a dull 
curiosity. With a Maharaja the scene is very different. To gaze 
on his auspicious countenance brings good luck. Every face is 
eager, animated and smiling and the babies are held up in their 
mothers* arms to share in the blessings diffused by the divinity of 
his presence. 11 

The first tour undertaken by the Maharaja within the limits of 
the State after he assumed power was in November 1904. On the 
18th of that month His Highnes left his Palace at Mysore soon after 

9 a.m. in semi-state with escort and drove to the toll-bar on the 
Bannur road. Here a motor car was waiting and His Highness 
and the Yuvaraja with two others of the party started shortly after 

10 o'clock. Rapid travelling was impracticable owing to the 
numerous pandaJs erected all along the road by the inhabitants of 
the adjoining villages and the throngs of people that were gathered 
to catch a sight of His Highness. The Maharaja stopped at a 
number of places on the way where he conversed with officials and 
others. Outside Gargeshwari a deputation was present of the Sri 
Vyasaraya Mutt at Sosal6 closeby with the insignias of the 
institution and an address of welcome. At Tirumakudlu the 

'Maharaja was received by the district officers and by the important 
-local people. His Highness then embarked on a raft with a very 
carefully designed canopy and was conveyed across the junction of 
the Kaveri and Kapila rivers to the steps of the Gunja Narasimha 
Swamy temple at T-Narsipur. The scene during the crossing was, 
it is stated, most striking. Thousands of people from all the 
country round had collected and filled the river, wading up to the 
waist and deeper to get a glimpse of the Maharaja. The insignias 



205 

of the Lingayat and other communities were also displayed and 
the whole distance between between the Mysore road and the 
temple was paced with a surging crowd, jostling and splashing but 
immensely good-humoured and most anxious to lend a hand at the 
raft. The high banks on the Narsipur side were hidden by sight- 
seers offering a most enthusiastic welcome. 

A pandal had been erected in the temple precincts where His 
Highness received addresses from the T-Narsipur Municipality and 
inhabitants of the taluk and acknowledged them briefly in Kanada. 
In the afternoon a visit was paid to the Hoysala temple at 
Somnathpur, some 4 miles alon^r the Bannur road on the north side 
of the Kaveri. After returning to camp, His Highness visited in 
the evening the temples on either side of the junction, when the 
river banks and bed and adjoining buildings were illuminated 
effectively. 

On the morning of the 19th November His Highness left 
T-Narsipur on horseback and reached Nanjangud at about 
10-30 a.m. As on the previous day, pandals were much in evidence 
all along the route, at each of which short halts were made. Out- 
side the town of Nanjangud a deputation from the Sri Ragha- 
vendraswamy Mutt and the temple received His Highness and 
numerous pandals along the streets of the town testified to the 
loyalty of the inhabitants. In a pandal in the Bazaar Chowk, His 
Highness received an address from the Municipality enclosed in a 
silver casket and acknowledged it in a short reply. The members 
of the Municipality and of the Representative Assembly, the local 
officials, legal practitioners and leading merchants were then 
introduced to His Highness. In the afternoon His Highness visited 
some of the local offices and institutions and the evening closed 
with fireworks and illuminations. On the 20th the party left 
Nanjangud in the morning and taking the road to Gundlupet turned 
from Begur to Hediyal where a shooting camp had been formed. 
The next day His Highness and the Yuvaraja returned to Mysore. 

In subsequent years His Highness made trips to various 
places Ajmer, Calcutta, Bombay, Kashmir, Simla, Badrinath, 



206 

Mount Kailas. The trip to Ajmer was in connection with the 
illness of His Highness' brother the Yuvaraja who was studying at 
the Mayo College. On receiving news that the Yuvaraja had an 
attack of typhoid, the Maharaja started off at a moment's notice 
with his mother and his durbar physician. Happily, all ended well 
and the patient recovered and returned to Mysore. The Maharaja 
and the members of his family were however not so fortunate in the 
case of the second princess Narasarajammanni who passed away 
while still young after a long illness in November 1904 and the 
whole country mingled its sorrow with that of the members of the 
Royal Family. 

The earliest visitor to the Maharaja after his accession to 
power was Lord Kitchner, the brilliant British General and 
Commander-in-Chief of the Indian forces. In April 1904 he visited 
Mysore and inspected the Imperial Service Regiment and the 
Transport Corps of the State. 

In January and February 1906 Their Royal Highnesses the 
Prince and Princess of Wales (subsequently known as George V 
and Queen Mary) paid a visit to the State. They were warmly 
welcomed everywhere with spontaneous demonstrations of joy and 
devotion by all classes of people in the State. To afford the august 
visitors an opportunity to see the products of the arts and industries 
of the State and its resources as well, an Industrial and Agricultural 
Exhibition was held at Mysore. Their Royal Highnesses paid a 
visit to it and evinced considerable interest in the exhibits. The 
Prince of Wales also laid the foundation-stone of the Chama- 
rajendra Technical Institute at Mysore, and at Bangalore he 
unveiled the statue raised to the memory of Her late Majesty the 
Queen- Empress Victoria. 

At the banquet in honour of the Prince and Princess of Wales 
on the 30th January 1906 the Maharaja said: "The fortunes of 
Mysore will ever be associated in history with the consolidation of 
the British Power in India. It was in Mysore that the great Duke 
of Wellington received his baptism of fire and won his first laurels. 
It was with the aid of the Mysore Horse and the Transport that he 
.gained imperishable fame on the battle fields of the Deccan. In 



207 

the horsemen who now have the greatly -prized honour of forming 
your escort and personal guard, Your Royal Highnesses see the 
descendants of the men who fought at Seringapatam and in the 
Deccan. Of the efficiency of my Imperial Service troops, it is not 
for me to say more than that one and all have worked their hardest 
to fit themselves for the front line of the army of the Empire. But 
of their spirit I dare affirm that the one ambition of every officer 
and man is to emulate the valour of his ancestors in the service of 
His Majesty the King- Emperor. I beg Your Royal Highness to 
convey to His Gracious Majesty the assurance that whenever the 
call may come, Mysore will not be found wanting." 

The Birthday and the Dasara festivities now assumed their 
old splendour even in a larger degree than they possessed in the 
days of His Highness' father and of his grand -father. On these 
occasions large numbers of European and Indian guests are usually 
invited and larger and larger crowds of people are attracted to the 
capital to witness the sports and gaieties taking place at the time. 
On occasions of his Birthday the Maharaja goes to the Government 
House in procession through some of the main streets and there 
His Highness is welcomed by his European guests. At night His 
Highness returns to the Palace in grand procession. Polo tourna- 
ments, lawn tennis matches and various other sports are also 
combined with horse racing during this period. 

Occasion may be taken here to mention that Sir S. M. Fraser 
the former Tutor of the Maharaja returned to Mysore in the 
capacity of British Resident in 1905 and when he proposed the 
toast of His Highness at the Birthday Banquet held on the 15th 
June 1908, the Maharaja gave expression to these sentiments: 
" I find some difficulty in responding adequately to the more than 
generous terms in which you, Sir, have proposed my health, but if I 
am tempted to ascribe some measure of your appreciation to the 
partiality of an old friend, it is none the less gratifying to me to 
learn that the hospitality of Mysore is so warmly recognised by my 
friends. There are, however, two references in your speech to 
which I can respond without reserve. As you truly observe, my 
lamented father established a tradition of personal regard and, 



208 

indeed affection, between the Ruler of Mysore and his European 
friends and that tradition I regard it as my duty and my privilege 
to maintain. In the second place, you have referred to the 
peculiar relation in which Mysore stands with regard to the 
Government and officers of the Paramount Power. This relation 
stands on the solid basis of benefit conferred on the one hand and 
as I am proud to maintain, justified on the other. The friendship 
thus begun has been confirmed and cemented by the closest and 
most cordial intercourse at work and at play, in fair weather and in 
foul, for more than one hundred years. That these relations may 
ever be continued is, I can assure you, the earnest desire of Mysore 
and its Ruler." 

The celebration of the Dasara first began, as we know, in the 
days of Raja Wodeyar, one of His Highness' ancestors in the 
beginning of the 17th century. This festival opens on the first day 
of Aswija (September or October) and annually attracts to the 
Mysore City multitudes of people both from inside and outside the 
State as well as a number of European and other visitors interested 
in the social and artistic aspects of the occasion. Vijayadasami or 
victory day is the name given to the last day of the Dasara, while 
the preceding nine days are designated Navaratri or Nine Nights. 
On the morning of the first day of the festival His Highness goes 
to Chamundi Thotti where all the religious functions of the Palace 
take place. An image of the family goddess is here installed. On 
this occasion His Highness appears before the image wearing a 
special vesture and also a Kankanam or bangle sacred to the 
goddess. This bangle is not removed nor does His Highness leave 
the Palace until the first nine days of the festival are completed. 
Following the traditions of his ancestors, the Maharaja daily in the 
evening sits on the throne in view of the public and in the open 
space in front of the Palace a programme of musical drills and 
other displays is gone through. To the durbar on the ninth day, 
European guests are invited and are received with appropriate 
formalities usual on such occasions, while the latter return to the 
Maharaja the usual civilities. The Resident is seated in a chair of 
state on His Highness 1 right, while the other European guests are 
feated in long rows on the same side. On the left are seated 



209 

members of the Ruling Family, Arasu noblemen, State officers and 
other invitees. His Highness seated on the golden throne and 
wearing magnificent jewels is the gorgeous centre of a brilliant 
scene. At the close of the scene the guests bow in front of the 
throne and each lady is handed by the Maharaja a bouquet and a 
small bottle of scent. 

On the tenth day the Maharaja goes in full State procession to 
the Banni Mantap (so designated in memory of the Banni tree on 
which the Pandavas are said to have deposited their arms during the 
year of their obligatory concealment) situated at some distance to the 
north of the city. On the morning of this day the State sword is 
placed in a palanquin and sent to the Banni Mantap along with the 
State horse and the State elephant. The great procession takes 
place late in the afternoon through the streets packed with dense 
crowds of sight-seers on both sides. The Maharaja sits in a golden 
howdah carried on the back of a magnificent elephant. At Banni 
Mantap a parade is held just after sunset. Alter the parade, His 
Highness performs Puja (worship) before the State sword and the 
Banni tree. The sword, the elephant and the horse are then sent 
back to the Palace. His Highness follows them in a. magnificent 
procession illuminated at one time by torch lights which have given 
place now to bright electric lights. 



CHAPTER XXVt. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Various Administrative Improvements 1902 1906. 

Finance. 

During the period closing the early part of the year 1906 
various measures of internal improvement were inaugurated. 
The earliest administrative event of the new Maharaja's reign 
was the completion of the examination of the State accounts by 
Mr. Kiernander, a retired financial officer of the Government of 
India. In the year 1881 the ordinary revenue of the State was 
Rs. 107i lakhs, while in 1902-03 the first year of the Maharaja's 
reign it stood at Rs. 180 lakhs. What were regarded as permanent 
charges in which little scope existed for curtailment in a time of 
necessity amounted to about Rs. 95$ lakhs, while in 1881 it was 
about Rs. 58 lakhs. The increase in expenditure was partly due 
to the enhancement of the Subsidy. The total expenditure under 
other administrative heads where reduction was possible in a time 
of need was about Rs. 88 lakhs as compared with Rs. 39 lakhs in 
1881 the year of the Rendition. It was found, however, that the 
most appreciable increases related to such useful departments as 
Medical, Education, Public Works, Police, Law and Justice. Mr. 
Kiernander recorded his testimony to the prosperous condition of 
the finances of the State notwithstanding the heavy drain on its 
resources due to enhanced Subsidy, cost of reconstruction of a 
number of administrative departments, the Kaveri Electric scheme 
and other items. 

Sir Donald Robertson, the British Resident who vacated his 
office in November 1903, apart from the service he rendered in the 
framing of the Mysore Constitution was also helpful in placing the 
financial control of the State on a more satisfactory footing. He 
suggested the appointment of a trained audit officer as Comptroller 
of the State finances and this suggestion was accepted by the 
Durbar. He also expressed the opinion that this officer should have 
adequate freedom to express his views on matters involving any 



211 

substantial expenditure or departure from financial rules as well as 
the right of direct access to His Highness in the last resort. 
Application was made to the Government of India for the services 
of a qualified officer and one was borrowed from the Finance 
Department of that Government. Both this officer as well as his 
successor, however, did not perceive the difference between British 
India and a Native State and made no attempt to apply the audit 
rules of British India in a flexible manner to the Mysore State. In 
British India, it is believed that the financial officers are accustomed 
generally to have the Secretary of State at their back and in the 
case of any difference with the Government have the privilege of 
the last word expressed with considerable latitude. In a Native 
State, on the other hand, the Government for the time being and the 
Maharaja as matters stand at present should have the final word. 

Educational Progress. 

Notwithstanding the progress that was achieved in the 
general education of the people since the Rendition in 1881, 
there was still a vast field of popular ignorance which the light 
of knowledge had not touched. Out of a population of nearly 
54 millions, only 4.8 per cent were returned at the census of 
1901 as literate, or in other words 95.2 per cent of the population 
were unlettered. If the two sexes were viewed separately, the 
percentage of males literate was 8.8 of their population and that of 
females 0.6 per cent to their total number. Similarly the 
percentage of male pupils under instruction was 23.09 and that of 
females 4.15 or an average of 13.62 for the children of both sexes 
together to the school-going population. The percentage of 
number of schools to the number of towns and villages was 23.29. 
It was regarded at this time as a serious problem how within a 
reasonable time further facilities could be created to diminish this 
appalling mass of popular ignorance. 

In the year 1902 when the Maharaja began to rule his State, 
there were 2231 public schools, their total attendance being 
1,11,624. The percentages of boys and girls to those of school- 
going age were respectively 23 and 4. In this year some schools 
were opened specially for the backward class of Lambanies. 



212 

total expenditure on education was Rs. 11,44,352, A number of 
private benefactions now began to come in for educational and 
other purposes. Of these, the offer of Sowcar Doddanna Setty of 
Bangalore to construct and endow a free English school up to the 
Lower Secondary standard at a large cost and the gift by Sowcar 
Padma Setty of a substantial building named Vani Vilas Pathasala 
after H. H. the Maharani- Regent at Sravanabelagola, the great 
pilgrim centre of the Jains, were noteworthy. The same Sowcar 
gave also an endowment for scholarships. 

Various other measures were also adopted to give an impetus 
to all kinds of education. In 1902-03 two scholarships were for the 
first time awarded to Mahomedan students to study in the famous 
college at Alighar established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. In the 
same year the Maharani's Girls' School at Mysore was raised to the 
grade of a college and affiliated to the Madras University, and one 
young lady passed in two and another in one of the branches of the 
B.A. Degree examination and a third in the First in Arts 
examination, and from this time the college began to admit girls of 
respectable parentage of all communities. In 1905 a further 
impetus was given to adult female education by instituting 30 
scholarships for the education of widows, in addition to the scholar- 
ships given from a fund called the Devaraja Bahadur Fund. 

In 1902 an offer of substantial help was made by the Mysore 
Government to the provisional committee for the Institute of 
Science projected by J. N. Tata of Bombay on the understanding 
.that it was to be located at Bangalore. It took some time for 
the provisional committee in consultation with the Government of 
India to accept this offer. In 1905, however, it was settled that 
the institute was to be established in Bangalore and the annual 
grant from the Mysore Government was fixed at Rs. 50,000. 

In the social and economic conditions of the country as they 
stood at this time, it was considered that any scheme of technical 
education which involved a large outlay or the co-operation of a 
large number of people would end in disappointment, if not total 
failure. It was therefore regarded safer to embark on humbler 



213 

schemes of technical or industrial education. The object kept in 
view was not the imparting of any ideal, theoretical or scientific 
course of instruction but the teaching of such industries and trades 
on improved methods as were adapted to supply the existing wants 
of the people such as carpentry, weaving, silk-rearing, iron-work, 
rattan -work, lacquer -work and to turn out every year a number of 
pupils fully equipped with the means of earning their livelihood. As 
a first step, schools were established at Chennapatna and four 
others places and these were intended more or less as workshops 
also conducted on business principles. In the case of industries for 
training in which facilities did not exist in the Mysore State, 
a number of scholarships was instituted to enable Mysore pupils to 
undergo training in the School of Arts, Madras or Bombay, or other 
institutions where such industries were taught. In connection with 
the weaving industry, weaving schools with a carpentry class 
attached in which elementary drawing was also taught were 
established at Hole-Narsipur and three other places. 

As an experimental measure, a few selected schoolmasters were 
deputed to Tata's Silk Farm at Bangalore for training for a period 
of three months in improved methods of growing mulberry trees, 
rearing silk worms and reeling, the ultimate object being to train up 
a number of schoolmasters who like the special inspectors in Japan 
were to help in the constant maintenance of a healthy breed of 
worms. 

Apart from increasing the efficiency of the artisans and of their 
mechanical appliances, it was also considered necessary to give 
dignity to the various callings which they greatly lacked at the time 
and which therefore precluded the higher classes from engaging 
themselves in them as freely as they otherwise would have done. 
As a means to achieve this object, it was considered desirable to 
teach some of the handicrafts to the high school and college 
students. It was also considered necessary in order to increase the 
level of the knowledge of the technical arts .among the higher 
classes to depute a number of students to foreign countries for the 
purpose of studying selected industries in those countries. 
Accordingly three students were deputed to America to learn 



214 

electrical engineering in the workshops of the General Electric 
Company at Schenectaddy. An officer of the Geological Depart- 
ment was sent to England to undergo an advanced course of training 
in Geology. 

Local Self-Government. 

The Local Boards Regulation which was long in incubation 
from 1883 at last received the approval of the Government of India 
and was passed into law by the Durbar in 1902, and the rules 
required under this enactment were issued in September 1903. 
Under these rules were constituted eight District Boards 
corresponding to the 8 revenue districts, 77 Taluk Boards one for 
each taluk or sub-taluk and 38 Unions. These Unions were 
formerly Minor Municipalities and they were converted into Unions 
as they contained a population of less than 3000 each. The 
strength of the members of a Union was to be fixed in each case by 
Government and the chairman of the Panchayet or the governing 
body was to be appointed by Government on the recommendation 
of the Deputy Commissioners. Each Taluk Board was to consist of 
12 members, four ex-officio the Assistant Commissioner, the 
Amildar, the medical officer and the senior officer of the Public 
Works Department, 4 elected members being men of the full age of 
21 years able to read and write and either holding or owning in the 
taluk land assessed at not less than Rs. 50 per annum, or officiating 
as Patel of any village in the taluk, or paying a house-tax of not 
less than Rs. 5 per annum. The electors were to be men with 
the same qualifications, the educational qualification being however 
regarded as not indispensable. One member of the taluk head- 
quarter Municipal Board was to be elected by its members from 
among their own body and the remaining three were to be 
nominated by Government. The District Board was to consist of 
(a) ex-officio members the Deputy Commissioner as President, 
Assistant Commissioners in revenue charge of the taluks as well as 
the Assistant Commissioner if any at the headquarters not placed 
in revenue charge of a taluk, and the chief or senior officer for the 
district in each of the departments of Medical Relief, Engineering 
and Education ; (b) one non -official representative from each of 
the taluks in the district to be elected by the members of the Taluk 



215 

board from among their body ; and (c) such number as would 
make up the strength of the Board, which strength in the case of 
the Mysore District was to be 30 and in the case of the other 
districts 25, to be appointed by Government on the recommendation 
of the the Deputy Commissioner. The Vice- President of the District 
Board was to be one appointed by the Government or one elected 
by the members when so authorised by Government. The 
members of the Local Boards other than the ex-officio members 
were to hold office for three years. Questions coming before the 
Local Boards were to be decided by a majority of votes. 

The income under Local Funds consisted chiefly of the one 
anna local cess collected on a number of items of revenue. 76 per 
cent of the cess on land revenue in each district was credited to the 
District Board of that district and was expended within the district 
through the agency of District and Taluk Boards and Unions. 
The balance of 24 per cent, together with the 33 per cent of the 
local cess on Excise and other items of revenue, went to form a 
fund called the Village School Fund which was spent entirely on 
primary education in rural parts. 

Mysore City Improvement Trust. 

In 1903 an annual sum of Rs. 3 lakhs was allotted for the 
improvement of the Mysore City and a Trust Board to carry out 
improvements was also formed. Sir Evan Machonochie has given 
in his book " Life in the Indian Civil Service " a description of the 
work done by this Board : " Shortly after my arrival, a committee 
was constituted to consider the improvement of the Mysore City. 
It was composed of all the leading officials of the State and was too 
large to be of any practical use. I ventured to suggest that if they 
N would appoint a small sub-committee and place at its disposal a 
competent surveyor, it would be possible to submit definite 
proposals. This was agreed to and we got to work. The 
committee included the Civil Surgeon (P. S. Achuta Rao), a 
Mysorean who besides possessing high professional qualifications 

was the most genial and kindly of men Another (M. Venkat- 

krishnaiya) was the editor of the * Mysore Herald * which was the 
organ of the local opposition. He devoted much ink and eloquence 



216 

to attacks on our early efforts towards a new efficiency and 
preached ' Mysore for Mysorean ' with much vigour. But his 
intentions were good and we got on amicably. We were fortunate 
in the officer of the Public Works Department placed at our 
disposal. J. E. A. D'Cruz was not only a good all-round engineer 
and an exceptionally competent surveyor but also an untiring and 
devoted worker. The committee went over every part of the 
town, a not very appetising business before breakfast, for though 
the late Maharaja had effected immense improvements in the way 
of magnificent roads and had opened new quarters laid out on the 
grand scale, much of the town was congested and some portions 
were no better than slums. In something like six months 
Mr. D'Cruz with a diminutive staff mostly trained by himself and 
at trifling cost had completed an admirable city survey giving every 

holding in detail to scale We submitted our proposals and 

suggested the formation of an Improvement Trust ' to carry them 
out with a substantial allotment from Government funds. The 
proposal was accepted and the Trust was constituted, composed of 
a few officials and some leading citizens with a senior executive 
engineer as chairman. We got to work, cleared out the slums, 
straightened and widened the roads, put in a surface drainage 
system leading into main sewers that discharged into septic tanks, 
provided new quarters for the displaced population and tidied up 
generally. The city of Mysore, as a consequence, challenges 
comparison for beauty, cleanliness and general amenity with any 
capital of its size in the world." 

Irrigation. 

The large number of tanks in the Mysore State inherited from 
the past always was, as we have already seen, a matter of much 
soiiejjade to- the Government. A distinction was maintained 
between tanks paying an assessment of Rs. 300 and under and 
>ho'se paying Rs. 100 and under. For the latter the Government 
was incurring no expenditure, while for the former it undertook to 
do the masonry And stonework provided the ryots did the earth- 
work. This distinction was abolished in 1904 and all masonry and 
stonework was undertaken to be executed by Government under 



217 

certain specified conditions. In special cases, however, when the 
amount of earthwork imposed an unreasonable burden on the ryots, 
discretion was given to the Deputy Commissioners to allow some 
relaxation. By this measure it was hoped that the people would 
accord their full co-operation in preserving from deterioration the 
great heritage of tanks, the usefulness of which could not be 
over-rated. 

Ethnological Survey. 

An Ethnological Survey was inaugurated by the Government 
of India soon after the census of 1901 and the Mysore Government 
also followed their example shortly after. The survey included not 
only a systematic enquiry into the ethnography of each of the 
major castes but also a detailed examination, from an anthro- 
pometric point of view, of their physical characters. The 
ethnographic portion of the survey in Mysore was entrusted to the 
late H. V. Nanjundaiya who was Secretary to Government at 
the time. 

Electric Lighting of Bangalore. 

The Electric Power Scheme continued to yield considerable 
profit, and power began to be applied for purposes of illumination, 
besides that of mining. On the 3rd August 1905 the electric- 
lighting scheme for the Bangalore City was completed, the inaugural 
ceremony being performed by the Hon'ble Sir John Hewett, 
Member of the Viceroy's Council. In declaring that Bangalore 
was the first city in India to be lighted by electricity, Sir John 
Hewett complimented His Highness' Government for the 
far-seeing wisdom that marked the administration of the State. 

Co-operative Societies* 

As has been already stated, the Agricultural Banks started 
for the relief of rural indebtedness had not fulfills 
formed of them. The problems relating to 
the agriculturists and the industrialists 
important to be left to themselves and as 
necessary to devise better methods. Fort 
of India had passed a measure in 1904 
Credit Societies Act and the Durbar takinf 




218 

knowledge and larger experience of the Supreme Government 
adopted the same Act for the Mysore State in June 1905 with 
certain modifications suited to local conditions. This Regulation 
was intended to be helpful to all classes of people for the 
furtherance of thrift and providence among them. To the 
agriculturists and artisans especially, the Regulation was intended 
to be an easy means of combination by which they could obtain 
the credit they needed for their business and derive benefit in other 
ways also. The societies were also meant to act in behalf of the 
members for the supply to them of raw material, seed or manure, 
articles of consumption or other requisites. There existed also 
a provision in the Regulation to authorise the Registrar who 
was the supervising otficer of all societies to himself settle disputes 
relating to their business or to refer them to arbitration. 

In the first year of the introduction of this new scheme, seven 
societies were started at different places. The society at Bangalore 
was purely an urban society and the one at Hole-Narsipur was 
mainly intended for the benefit of the weavers of that taluk. The 
society at Kotta in the Sira taluk was a grain bank in which the 
capital subscribed by the members and the loans issued were in the 
shape of grain. His Highness the Maharaja manifested keen 
interest in the development of these societies and placed a large 
sum of money from his own purse at the disposal of the Registrar 
for popularising this movement. His Highness 1 Government also 
gave exemption from stamp and registration fees and issued well- 
considered rules for the settlement of disputes by arbitration. 
They also granted advances of money to the societies in the early 
years of their working. In the second year, the number of societies 
started was 15 and the society at Saligram in the Krishnarajanagar 
taluk deputed one of its members to Baroda to study the improved 
processes of weaving introduced there. 

The economic condition* of the country as they stood in the 
opening years of the Maharaja's rule. 

The total area of Government lands under occupation before 
the Rendition was the largest in 1875-76, viz., 42,31,826 acres. 



219 

There was a falling off in the subsequent years in the occupied 
area in consequence of famine. In 1881-82 the extent under 
occupation excluding area under coffee was 42,13,505 acres. The 
extent of cultivated area steadily increased from that year and 
in 1903 the total area was a little over 66 lakhs of acres, 
showing an increase of more than 56 per cent from the year of the 
Rendition. The area under dry crop rose from 35,20,687 acres to 
55,57,331 ; that under wet crop from 5,54,554 acres to 7,97,904 
and that under garden crop from 1,38,264 acres to 2,43,866. The 
net value of the produce of an acre of dry cultivation was calculated 
at Rs. 12/-, of wet at Rs. 50/- and of garden at Rs. 80/-. Taking 
these estimates which were considered moderate, the total value 
of the yield in 1903 which was an average year was calculated to 
amount to a little over Rs. 12i crores. The nature of the cultiva- 
tion underwent little improvement in the interval and the increase 
could more or less be attributed only to the extended area brought 
under cultivation. Applying the standards of 1903, the total value 
of the produce of 1881 may be considered to have amounted to a 
little over Rs. 8 crores, the error if any being in favour of 1881 
when prices were low as compared with those of the later year. 
The average area of a holding increased from 4.8 acres in the period 
from 1893-97 to 7.22 in the next five years, the assessment also 
similarly rising from Rs. 6.3 to Rs. 9.6 for each estate. 

An Agricultural Chemist had been employed for some years 
before the Maharaja assumed power. But most of his time had 
been taken up in acquainting himself with the agricultural and 
industrial conditions of the country and with the fitting up of a 
chemical laboratory. He was now directed to devote his attention 
only to those points that would be of help to the agriculturists. 
His efforts were required particularly to be directed to a systematic 
examination of soils in all parts of the State, the ascertainment of 
the appropriate manures required for particular soils, the adoption of 
measures for the removal of insects and other pests, the introduc- 
tion of improved methods of cultivation generally and other allied 
purposes. An Entomologist was also appointed to assist the 
Agricultural Chemist in the investigation of the insect pests that 
attacked the crops. 



220 

The depression in the coffee trade owing to the competition front 
Brazil and other causes much retarded the growth of that industry 
throughout India. The Durbar, therefore, with great willingness 
complied at this period with the request made by the North and 
South Mysore Planters' Associations for a conference on the 
subject. V. P. Madhava Rao, Member of Council, who was 
deputed on behalf of Government met Graham Anderson and other 
leading planters and conferred with them on the state of the 
industry at Mudigere and Sakalespur, the two important centres of 
coffee growth. Some of the important subjects considered were the 
registration of titles, levy of coffee cess, measures for preventing 
adulteration of coffee. The question of introducing the Coffee 
Stealing Act and the Labour Law were also touched upon. The 
fullest assurance of sympathy and help on the part of Government 
was given to this enterprising body of gentlemen whose industry 
was of so much benefit to the country. Later, a contribution from 
the State of Rs. 5000 was sanctioned to enable the Planting 
Associations to exhibit Mysore coffee and cardamoms at the 
Luisana Purchase Exposition held in 1904. 

The introduction of the Survey and Settlement was completed 
in 1895 in all parts of the State and the first revision settlement 
was begun in the year 1900 and the first taluks taken up were 
Challakere and Molakalmuru. It was noteworthy that there was 
no necessity in any case whatever for again classifying the soil, the 
original classification having been found quite satisfactory. The 
maximum enhancement of assessment on account of revision was 
about 22 per cent on the original settlement and the minimum was 
15 per cent, it being understood that the Government was entitled 
to a maximum limit of enhancement of 33 per cent. The most 
noticeable effect of the new revision was upon the garden rate 
which underwent considerable diminution. The average rate was 
reduced in Davangere from Rs. 4-6-11 to 2-13-9 and in the 
Chitaldrug taluk from Rs. 3-14-5 to Rs. 2-8-2, there having been a 
corresponding decrease in the other taluks also. This reduction 
was partly due to the large extent of dry lands about 2616 acres 
which had been converted since the first settlement into garden by 
means of well irrigation without any aid from Government water 



221 

and on which only dry rates were levied. In the Chitaldrug 
District it was found that there was an increase of prices all round 
of 35 to 40 per cent since the original settlement. The facilities of 
communication had also improved and the opening of the railway 
had not only improved the market for its produce but had also 
helped in the development of its resources. 

The establishment of an experimental farm near the Hebbal 
village in the Bangalore taluk was taken in hand by the 
Agricultural Chemist in 1905. A Mycologist and Entomologist 
for the investigation of insect pests and plant diseases was selected 
in Canada. 

The procedure of inviting objections if any to the grouping of 
villages and to the maximum rates of assessment within two 
months before a revision settlement became final was found to give 
to the land- holders no clear ideas as to how their holdings were 
individually affected, and facilities were now therefore created for 
appeals being preferred within three months from the introduction 
of the revised settlement. 

While development of communications in the shape of roads 
and railways had tended to bring about an expansion of the area of 
the land under cultivation and a consequent increase in the produce 
derived from it, the same cause had had a somewhat detrimental 
effect on the manufactures of the country. The artisans as 
in other parts of India generally carried on their occupations 
in their own homes and found a market in their own 
neighbourhood or, at best, at short distances from their places of 
business. The facilities of transport now created while opening a 
a market for grain and other raw produce of the country, at the 
same time opened also a door for the influx of cheap foreign goods 
which necessarily caused a shrinkage in the manufacturing industries 
of the State. The statistics of the railborne trade during the ten 
years from 1890 to 1900 showed a large export trade in grain and 
pulse, hides and skins, horns, oil seeds, raw silk and similar produce, 
while the imports were mostly such as manufactured leather, cotton 
goods, European liquors, oils, salt and other articles. The economic 



222 

position of the Mysore artisan from his own choice continued to be 
one of isolation and like the agriculturist, he was unable to enter into 
any large combination for a common purpose. The same industries 
as were in existence in the early years of the Rendition such as 
metal industry, pottery, carpentry, textile fabrics continued without 
much change. No doubt in the early years of the Rendition a few 
factories came into existence such as the Woollen Manufactory, 
the Cotton Mill, the Tile Works and the Sugar Manufactory at 
Goribidnur. But most of these were under European management 
and afforded no evidence of progress of either technical knowledge 
or co-operative spirit among the people of the country. Attempts 
to encourage the manufacture of paper, the establishment of iron 
industry on a large scale, the spinning and weaving of silk by 
machinery did not produce any appreciable results. 

To give an incentive to industries, a separate Mysore Section 
was organised in December 1904 in connection with the Bombay 
Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition held there. A number of 
exhibitors and artisans from some of the chief centres of manufacture 
were sent to Bombay to study the exhibits and the working of some 
of the industrial institutions there. A few influential ryots were 
also sent to acquaint themselves with the several improved patterns 
of agricultural implements exhibited there. In this year a 
commencement was made of holding rural exhibitions by organising 
a Cattle and Agricultural Show at Hiriyur on the occasion of the 
annual jatra or congregation of people to pay homage to the 
presiding deity of the place. Besides the local cattle and articles 
produced in the district, products from other parts of the State were 
also exhibited. There was also a collection of several varieties of 
manure, the composition and nature of which the exhibitors 
explained to the visitors. In the ploughing competitions, there were 
different kinds of ploughs at work to demonstrate their comparative 
merits. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Various Administrative Improvements 1906-12. 

Sir P. N. Krishna Murthi laid down the office of Dewan on 
the 30th March 1906 and he was succeeded by V. P. Madhava Rao 
who continued in office for three years. This latter officer had 
retired from the Mysore Service in 1904 and was at the time he 
came back to Mysore holding the place of Dewan of Travancore. 
With Sir P. N. Krishna Murthi retired also his two collegues who 
were Members of the State Council, viz., C. Srinivasa lyengar and 
C. Madiah, their places being taken by T. Ananda Rao who was 
Revenue Commissioner at the time and Mr. K. P. Puttanna Chetty 
(afterwards Sir) who was a Deputy Commissioner. Ananda Rao 
was a son of Sir T. Madhava Rao, a famous Indian statesman of 
the bygone days, and had entered the Mysore Service as a 
probationer in November 1873 during the days of the British 
Commission. He was appointed Dewan in succession to Madhava 
Rao in March 1909. Mr. Puttanna Chetty had entered the 
Mysore Service in 1875 as a clerk in one of the Government offices 
and had been a Deputy Commissioner for some years, when he 
was chosen to fill the vacancy on the State Council. He was all 
along known as a strenuous worker and a man of upright conduct. 

The new Dewan, Madhava Rao, took a somewhat pessimistic 
view of the finances of the State as they appeared to him at the 
time, although the Kaveri Power Scheme and the Bethamangala 
Water Works had both begun to yield incomes, the former from 
1902-03 and the latter from 1906-07. Madhava Rao justified 
his view by stating that in the seven years from 1898-99 to 
1904-05 the liabilities of the State had considerably increased under 
Savings Bank deposits and the Insurance Fund, while simulta- 
neously the cash and invested reserves had considerably decreased 
from Rs. 140 lakhs in the beginning of 1898 to Rs. 43i lakhs in 
1905-06. He accordingly introduced certain remedial measures 
which, he considered, would set right the situation. Prior to the 



224 

year 1899, Savings Bank deposits were being received in the 
Government treasuries up to a maximum limit of Rs. 5000 on each 
individual account. In August of that year all limitation on the 
deposits was withdrawn, with the result that the deposits which 
stood at Rs. 38 lakhs on the last day of June 1899 rose to Rs. 95 
lakhs at the close of 1905. A revised limit was now imposed in 
August 1906 fixing the maximum deposit at Rs. 2000 a year at 2 
per cent instead of at 3j per cent per annum, the total balance at 
the credit of an individual depositor not exceeding Rs. 5000 at any 
time. A sum of Rs. 48 lakhs was added to the reserve of the 
State from the additional revenue derived from the Kaveri Power 
Scheme and the Bethamangala Water Works. A Famine Reserve 
of Rs. 2 lakhs a year was created from 1906-07 to meet the 
expenditure on possible future famines without dislocating the 
normal finances. Madhava Rao justified the creation of this 
reserve, somewhat dubiously however, by stating that in a year of 
famine while heavy expenditure would be necessary on relief 
measures, the revenue resources of Government would be crippled 
and in the absence of a special provision for meeting the situation 
the Government would be forced to contract loans and to starve the 
administrative departments. In October 1912 which was the 
closing year of T. Ananda Rao's Dewanship the limits imposed on 
Savings Bank deposits were removed in response to the repeated 
demands of the people for affording facilities for investment. 

Change in tbe working of the Council. 

In 1906 a welcome change was introduced in the working of 
the State Council. The modified rules invested the members with 
a certain measure of administrative responsibility, the lack of 
which had been felt to be the chief reason why the new Consulta- 
tive Council of 1902 had failed to fulfil the objects with which it 
was constituted. Under the revised rules the Members of the 
State Council, though not formally possessing any executive powers 
as such, were empowered in their respective departments to pass 
final orders in the name of the Government instead of merely 
recording their opinions on all ordinary matters which were not of 
sufficient importance to require reference to the Dewan or to the 
.Council as a body. 



225 

Railways. 

In 1906 the construction of a light railway from Bangalore to 
Chikballapur which had been under discussion for some years 
past was undertaken by an indigenous private company, the first 
co-operative effort of its kind on a large scale. As an encourage- 
ment to such an undertaking, a guarantee of four per cent interest 
on the capital cost was sanctioned by Government. The contract 
for the working of the Mysore State lines by the Southern Mahratta 
Railway Company having terminated, a fresh agreement was 
concluded with the same company now known as the Madras and 
Southern Mahratta Railway Company by the Secretary of State for 
India acting on behalf of the Durbar and this agreement came into 
effect from the 1st July 1908. Under this revised agreement, the 
Railway Company received a remuneration of 1/20 of the net 
earnings of all the lines as against one-fourth of the net earnings 
of the Mysore-Harihar line and nothing for the branch lines under 
the old contract. 

Study of Forestry. 

The proper conservancy of forests received much attention 
during this period. In 1881 the total area of the State forest was 
454 square miles. In 1904 it was 1950 miles exclusive of 1200 
square miles of ghaut forest and 183 square miles of Kan forest. 
In 1906 two students were deputed for the study of forestry at the 
university of Oxford and five students to the college at Dehra Dun. 

Sericulture. 

In the same year the Government took advantage of the 
existence of the Sericultural Farm at Bangalore started by the 
great philanthropist J. N. Tata to develop the practical side of 
sericulture and to make the farm a training-ground for persons 
interested in the industry. In 1908 arrangements were made for 
the Japanese silk-expert in charge of the farm to visit centres of 
silk industry and to give suitable advice on the selection of seed 
and the rearing of worms. 

In 1907 was commenced the Industrial and Agricultural 
Exhibition during the period of the Dasara festivities at Mysore at 



226 

which agricultural and industrial products of the State and of places 
outside the State were exhibited and the use of the machinery and 
implements connected therewith were demonstrated and explained. 
The first Exhibition was held on the 5th October 1907 and in 
opening the same the Maharaja said that it was not to be expected 
that such Exhibitions would have an immediate or revolutionary 
influence on the agriculture and industries of the country. But 
they offered to all classes an opportunity of seeing what their 
neighbours were producing, to craftsmen they were of especial use 
in indicating the directions in which their skill might be most 
usefully directed, while distributors might learn from them of new 
markets on the one hand, and on the other, of new sources of supply. 
Whatever other disappointments might be in store, His Highness 
further said, of the educative value of these Exhibitions and of their 
far-reaching influence on the economics of the country there was no 
doubt. 

Mining. 

In order to provide for the safety and well-being of the 
employees of mines and for preventing theft of and illicit traffic in 
mining materials including gold in various stages of extraction, a 
Regulation had been passed in 1897 known as the Mysore Mines 
Regulation. Being an enabling law, certain sections of this 
Regulation were applied only to a limited tract of the country round 
the Gold Fields in the Bowringpet taluk. The Regulation so far 
as it went, worked satisfactorily but was found defective when 
stolen gold in the shape of amalgam or sponge gold was converted 
into bar gold for which great facilities existed in and around the 
Gold Field areas. The necessity for bringing the unwrought gold 
or bar gold within the purview of the Regulation now forced itself 
on the notice of Government. A revised Regulation was according- 
ly brought into operation extending to unwrought gold also the 
presumption contained in the old Regulation that property of the 
description peculiar to the Mining industry when found in the 
possession of individuals in the Mining area was illegally obtained 
until the contrary was proved, which of course was an evident 
departure from the accepted maxims of criminal jurisprudence. 



227 

About the year 1907, many manganese deposits were discovered 
and a great rush for lands containing them took place on account of 
the success which had been achieved by the Mysore Manganese 
Company, Limited. It was felt that as this Company had been the 
pioneer of an industry new to the State, it required some protection. 
The Government accordingly decided to withhold the issue of 
further licences in the Shimoga district until the conditions of 
successfully working the mineral became clearly understood. But 
as a tentative measure, it was decided to permit manganese to be 
mined under prospecting licences for a period of three years without 
insisting on mining leases being taken out. A further consideration 
of the matter showed that where actual mining operations were 
going on involving a large outlay of capital, the issue of long period 
leases was undesirable and that the tying up of large areas under 
prospecting licences did not deserve encouragement. At this time, 
chrome also was sought after and a number of licences were 
issued for its mining. 

Irrigation. 

During the year 1906-07 the Marikanave Works were 
practically completed and water began to be supplied from that year 
to the lands below the reservoir. The Government tentatively 
sanctioned for this tract a system of levying differential water rates, 
regard being had to the nature of the crops which the occupants 
desired to raise and the quantity of water required for them. This 
measure was adopted to popularise wet cultivation among the people 
of the district who were unaccustomed to it. 

Veterinary Department. 

A Veterinary Department helpful to cattle-owners was 
established during the Dewanship of Madhava Rao. To 
start with, an inspector of cattle diseases was appointed whose 
duties consisted of the investigation of the nature of epidemic 
diseases among cattle, visits to localities where such diseases were 
prevalent and the adoption of measures for checking their ravages. 
He was also required to devote his attention to improve veterinary 
knowledge in rural parts by organising and encouraging local effort 
and by instructing the rural cattle doctors and large cattle-owners 



228 

in a scientific diagnosis of cattle diseases and a proper application 
of easily available indigenous drugs. In January 1908 a veterinary 
hospital was started in Bangalore and in May following, hospitals 
and dispensaries were opened at Mysore, Chickmagalur, Kolar and 
Hassan in furtherance of the scheme for a Civil Veterinary 
Department. The serum required to inoculate cattle was obtained 
from the Government of India Bacteriologist working at the 
Muktesar laboratory in the Punjab. 

Abolition off HaUt. 

The Halat which was a tax on supari or arecanut which had 
been substituted in place of a share of produce payable to 
Government some years previously was abolished from the 
beginning of 1907. The decadence of the supari industry and the 
necessity of relieving it of the burden of this impost had been urged 
for many years past. The subject had engaged the attention of 
Government from 1891 and as the outcome of the investigations 
made by a special officer deputed for the purpose, some relief was 
given to the industry in the year 1896 by a reduction of assessment 
on supari gardens, but the Halat remained though felt as open to 
objection. Various considerations were regarded as standing in the 
way of its abolition, the chief of which was the supposed inability 
of the State to forego an item of revenue which yielded about 
Rs. 3$ lakhs annually. In 1905 Sir P. N. Krishna Murthi after a 
close study of the matter and after consultation with all those whose 
opinions were of any weight, placed the matter before the Maharaja 
with his own opinion and His Highness agreeing with his Dewan 
generously sanctioned the entire remission of this irksome levy. 
The remission of this was to have been announced at the meeting of 
the Representative Assembly in the Dasara of 1905. But it could 
not be done on account of some unexpected difficulties in the 
way. On V. P. Madhava Rao succeeding Sir P. N. Krishna 
Murthi, he took some time for the consideration of the subject 
once more, and it was not till 1907 that this much needed relief to 
the areca garden-owners was granted. 

In the same year, an important change in the rules was made 
tor the grant of land for coffee cultivation to help the poorer 



229 

cultivators by reducing the minimum area to be granted for 
cultivation from 15 to 5 acres. 

The LafUUtire Council. 

A measure of considerable importance introduced during this 
period was the establishment of a Legislative Council which 
formally came into existence on the 22nd June 1907. In 
previous years, on several occasions the need for such a Council had 
been pressed on the attention of the Government, especially by the 
European coffee- planters. But as all changes in the laws which 
were in force at the time of the Rendition could only be made in 
consultation with the Government of India and introduced after 
their approval, a separate Legislative Council had been deemed 
unnecessary. As time went on however, the necessity of such a 
Council came to be felt and in March 1907 a Regulation was passed 
authorising its establishment. Before the establishment of this 
Council, all new legislative enactments as the need arose used to be 
passed by the State Council and then brought into force with the 
sanction of the Maharaja. The character and composition of the 
State Council, the smallness of its numbers and the want of 
publicity in its proceedings did not permit of the Bills being 
considered as fully and from as many points of view as sometimes 
their importance demanded. His Highness was therefore now 
pleased to sanction the formation of a Legislative Council and to 
appoint to it, besides a certain number of official members, a 
limited number of non -officials also who could bring their practical 
experience and knowledge of local conditions and requirements to 
bear on the discussious of the measures before the Council. 

The Dewan, according to the enactment, was the President 
and the members of the State Council were Vice- Presidents 
ex-officio of this Council. There were to be not less than ten and 
not more than fifteen additional members, of whom not less than 
two-fifths were to be non -officials. The elective principle, however, 
was not adopted in the recruitment of the non-official members and 
instead the Representative Assembly was given the privilege of 
deputing two of its members to the Council, 



230 

Tank Panchayet. 

The Tank Panchayet Bill was introduced in the Legislative 
Council on the 1st October 1908 by Mr. K. P. Puttanna Chetty 
who was then a Member of the State Council. The rules issued in 
1873 and in 1887 had not produced any satisfactory results. 
In 1903 a committee was appointed to investigate the causes of this 
failure. This committee pointed out that though no material 
changes were needed in the rules as they stood, yet there were two 
circumstances which militated against their efficient working. The 
first was the want of a spirit of co-operation among the ryots and 
the second was the absence of sufficient inducements to make them 
take a real and personal interest in their tanks. The present Bill, in 
addition to educating the ryots to co-operate with one another, 
aimed also at creating in them an interest in the proper maintenance 
of their tanks. This it was intended to be done by the creation of a 
Panchayet, thereby allowing a certain measure of self-government 
to the ryots in respect of the tanks. The Bill did not relieve the 
ryots of any of their existing obligations, nor did it impose any 
additional obligations on them. All that it did was that it only 
altered the agency by which these obligations were enforced. In 
place of the purely official agency then existing, the Bill substituted 
the agency of Panchavets composed mostly of members elected by 
the ryots themselves. The Bill did not contemplate the constitution 
of Panchayets compulsorily in places where the villagers did not 
wish to have them, but the Panchavets were to be formed only in 
villages where not less than two-thirds of the inhabitants wished to 
have them ; and even in these cases, discretion was left with the 
Government to accept the proposal or not, according as conditions 
for the favourable working of the scheme existed or not. As an 
immediate consequence of the constitution of a Panchayet in a 
village, the enforcement of the Tank Maintenance Rules became 
vested in the Panchayet ; and as a corollary, the Panchayet became 
possessed of the power which hitherto vested in the village Patel 
and the hobli Shekdar or revenue inspector to apportion the work 
required for the maintenance of the tank or tanks in the village 
among the ryots according to their respective obligations. If a ryot 
failed to do the work that fell to bis share or preferred to commute 



231 

his quota of labour into a money payment, it was to be open to the 
Panchayet to get the work done out of the funds at its disposal and 
recover the cost from the ryot. The Bill also proposed to transfer 
to the Panchayet the power to grant the beds of tanks for temporary 
cultivation of quick -growing crops. In order to avoid the 
waste of water that might be caused by different ryots 
commencing the sowing of wet crops at different times, 
the Bill also laid down that the Panchayet was to decide on the 
time when such sowing operations were to be commenced 
as well as to regulate the issue of water from the tank. 
A Tank Panchayet specially empowered by Government with the 
consent of a majority of not less than two-thirds of the ryots whose 
interests were affected in any year, having regard to the quantity of 
water available in the tank, were allowed to impose such restrictions 
as it considered necessary on wet cultivation below the tank. If in 
accordance with a decision of the Panchayet any holder of wet land 
was not allowed water to irrigate his land, the Bill proposed to 
allow a remission of half the assessment on the land. As regards 
the funds required by the Panchayet for the work, it was proposed 
that the money payments from the ryots in lieu of labour and a 
portion of the irrigation cess fund collected in the village were to be 
credited to a fund called the Tank Fund to be controlled by the 
Panchayet. As an additional inducement to the ryots to constitute 
Panchayets, it was also proposed that several items of receipts 
which were then credited to the general revenues of the State, such 
as the sale proceeds of the right of tishmg in the tank and of the 
right of grazing in the tank bed were to be credited to the Tank 
Fund. The Bill also embodied that when the Panchayet undertook 
the work of construction, restoration or improvement, it was open 
to the Government to entrust to the Panchayet the stone and 
masonry work also which was to be done at the cost of Govern- 
ment. There was a general feeling everywhere that an attempt 
should be made to revive the ancient indigenous institution of the 
Village Panchayet. The scheme proposed in the Bill was an 
attempt in that direction. 

The Bill as revised by the Select Committee finally came up 
before a meeting of the Legislative Council on the 22nd November 



232 

1910 and was passed into law and came into operation from 
February 1911. 

It may be stated that the Royal Commission on Decentralisation 
in India whose report was issued after the introduction of the above 
Bill in the Mysore Legislative Council, in expressing their views on 
village organisation suggested the gradual establishment of Village 
Panchayets by beginning with those villages in which the 
circumstances were most favourable by reason of homogeneity, 
natural intelligence and freedom from internal feuds and by 
conferring on them only certain limited powers at the commence- 
ment which the Mysore Bill more or less anticipated. 

Notwithstanding all the efforts made to establish village 
autonomy in the management of the tank, it may be stated that the 
scheme has been attended with somewhat indifferent success 
till now. 

Completion of Palace reconstruction. 

In 1910 the reconstruction of the Palace on account of the old 
building having been destroyed by fire in 1S97 was practically 
completed and it became possible for the Maharaja to hold the 
Dasara durbars amid the old historic surroundings after an 
interval of 13 years. The design of the new Palace had been 
entrusted to Henry Irwin who built the Viceregal Lodge in Simla. 
The Palace was built throughout of massive stone including fine 
granite, porphyry and marble, all from local quarries and its 
construction led to the assemblage of a large number of skilled 
craftsmen masons, carvers in wood and stone, and marble inlayers 
from Agra and other places. The decoration of the durbar hall was 

entrusted to the Travancore artist Ravi Varma and his brother 
Raja Varma. 

The Kaanambadi Reservoir. 

During Dewan Ananda Rao's time, the proposal to construct a 
large reservoir across the Kaveri at Kannambadi took shape in the 
year 1911. The main object of this reservoir was to provide 
irrigation for perennial crops for which till then there had been no 
Wtisfectory provision in that valley and to protect the supply of 



electric power by impounding some of the water which was then 
going to waste into the sea, and along with the canals when 
completed, the reservoir was expected to prove a large protective 
work which would materially minimise the evil effects of a famine. 
The construction of the dam was started in November 1911. In 
the first stage, it was intended to raise the dam to a height of 97 
feet with weir crest at 80 feet above the river bed with a storage 
of a little over 11,000 million cubic feet of water. This first stage 
of the work was estimated to cost Rs. 91 lakhs. 

Public Health. 

A Department of Public Health was formed in the year 
1906-07. The Government had spent large sums of money in 
combating the plague from the time the disease broke out in 1898 
and the necessity had shown itself for the formation of a separate 
Health Department to overcome such diseases in a systematic 
manner. Special health officers were appointed for the cities of 
Bangalore, Mysore and Kolar Gold Fields. A laboratory also was 
provided for the Health Department. 

Medicine. 

At the same time, the Government felt that while extending 
medical aid on western lines, it was equally the duty of a Native 
State to encourage also the indigenous systems of medicine, 
Ayurvedic and Unani. Accordingly a scheme was introduced for 
imparting instruction in these systems by qualified professors. 
Arrangements were also made for the teaching of Anatomy and 
Physiology in the new institution. 

The Newspaper Regulation. 

In 1908 an enactment known as the Mysore Newspaper 
Regulation was passed into law which created much uneasiness in 
the country. The Regulation required every printer, publisher and 
editor of a newspaper to obtain the permission of the Government 
before starting the same and provided also for any permission 
granted being withdrawn at any time. Certain penalties were also 
provided for the cases in which papers were published without 
permission or after such permission had been revoked. Some of 



234 

the provisions of this Regulation were regarded by the public as 
very drastic and Madhava Rao in his speech to the Representative 
Assembly in the same year put forth a long defence, although it did 
not quite allay the apprehensions entertained regarding the scope 
and character of the enactment. " As regards the Newspaper 
Regulation, there is," said the Dewan, " nothing to be alarmed 
about. It is not contended that the legislation gives more powers 
to the Government than were already inherent in the Maharaja. 
Hut objection has been taken by our critics to the power to refuse 
permission and withdraw it when once granted being reserved to 
the executive Government. This objection, however, assumes that 
the Government of His Highness the Maharaja will exercise power 
arbitrarily on the least provocation and that the press will be exposed 
to the petty tyranny of officials dressed in brief authority. I have 
already assured the public that the Government would always be glad 
to have their acts criticised with as much freedom as the critics like, 
provided that the criticisms stopped short of disseminating absolute 
falsehoods and deliberate perversions of facts likely to be 
prejudicial to the interests of the State. The Government of His 
Highness have never shrunk from giving publicity to their acts and 
the opening of the Press Room and the public discussion of 
questions in this very Assembly than which there is not a body in 
the whole of India better representing the people of a State will 
convince you that such is their attitude. There is a misapprehen- 
sion still prevailing even in the minds of otherwise well-informed 
persons that the refusal or withdrawal of permission under the 
Regulation may depend upon the whims and caprices of individual 
officers. In regard to this, I may assure vou that such a fear is 
quite groundless and that all such cases will be treated as scheduled 
cases under the rules of business which have to be considered by 
the State Council and submitted to His Highness the Maharaja 
for his orders. This is what has been done in the past and this 

will invariably be done in the future also Government 

would have been glad if it was possible to do so, to lay down rules 
for regulating their action under the Regulation. But I think 
you will admit that it is extremely difficult to bring under rules 
all the circumstances that would justify Government taking action 



235 

under the Regulation. All that it is possible to say is that the 
Regulation will not be put into force in regard to any newspaper, 
unless the character of the publication is such that its continuance 
is undesirable in the interests of the State or in the cause of public 
morality." 

Education. 

In 1908 the erection of buildings needed to locate the Tata 
Institute was commenced and the Maharaja's Government gave a 
special grant of Rs. 5 lakhs towards the cost. 

To bring the rudiments of education within the reach of all in 
rural parts, the levy of school fees was abolished in all village 
Elementary Schools from October 1907. The fees levied in the 
Lower Secondary classes maintained in such schools and in the 
vernacular classes of Anglo- Vernacular schools were also abolished 
and elementary education in all Government schools was thus 
made entirely free. In the year 1908 a beginning was made to 
introduce moral and religious teaching in Government schools. 
A departmental conference was held to draw up curricula for this 
teaching and suitable text-books were selected and prescribed. 

In April 1909 in response to the representations made in the 
Assembly from time to time, a scheme for the constitution of 
Benches of Honorary Magistrates was introduced and as a first 
step, two such courts were formed in Bangalore and Mysore as a 
tentative measure. 

The Co-operative Movement. 

By 1907 the Co-operative Movement became known all over 
the State and popular interest in it was aroused. The movement 
at this time also received the active support and keen sympathy 
of several retired officers of Government and among the early 
pioneers, the names of Dewan Bahadur C. Srinivasa lyengar who 
had retired from the State Council, M. S. Narayana Rao who had 
retired as a Deputy Commissioner and C. D. Ramaswamaiya a 
retired Superintendent of Police came in for honourable mention. 
In this year a Central Co-operative Bank was started at Bangalore 
for supplying funds to the various outlying societies and the 



236 

Maharaja generously placed a large sum of money as fixed deposit 
in the Bank to mark his appreciation of the usefulness of such an 
institution. About this time, Mr. R. Ranga Rao a graduate of 
promise was deputed to England to go through a course of study at 
the London School of Economics with special reference to 
co-operative credit and types of co-operative institutions in the 
continental countries of Europe, where the movement had achieved 
marked success. 

The Maharaja on the 5th October 1907 when he opened 
the Dasara Exhibition of that year lent further support to 
the Co-operative Movement by personally commending it to the 
public in his speech. " I make no apology," said His Highness, 
" for drawing your attention to the existence of the Co-operative 
Societies Regulation and of a highly qualified officer specially 
deputed to advise and assist those who desire to take advantage 
of its provisions. I have little doubt in my own mind that the 
main difficulty which at present prevents large classes of the 
community from successful competition in industrial and 
other enterprises is the deficiency of organised capital and the 
want of confidence between man and man, of which that deficiency 
was in no small measure the result. Under the co-operative 
system, any local body of craftsmen or agriculturists, however 
poor and however limited in numbers, has the means of acquiring 
gradually and from small beginnings sufficient capital to provide for 
immediate needs and for future progress, and I would urge on all 
educated and enlightened men, whether immediately connected or 
not with agriculture, crafts or commerce, the duty of promoting 
these societies to the extent of their ability. Apart from the 
material return which is their immediate object, such societies have 
in every country where they have taken root proved great moral 
educators and promoters of mutual confidence, self-reliance and 
honest enterprise." 

By 1911 the number of societies increased to more than 200, 
and during the Dasara festival of that year a conference was held at 
Mysore which was attended by co-operators from all parts of the 
State numbering about 300. Sri Narasimharaja Wodeyar the 



237 

Yuvaraja opened the conference. His Highness in the course of a 
speech characterised by great earnestness described the advantages 
of Co-operation in these words : " Various expedients have been 
tried in the past for bringing together capital and labour to the 
greatest advantage of the community at large. Western countries 
such as Germany, Denmark, England have found out by experience 
that the best method of doing this is by a co-operation of the 
workers for purposes of mutual benefit. This idea of co-operation is 

based on the great principle of self-help and combination 

Self-help and combination for mutual benefit are, in fact, essential 
for our advancement as a community and Co-operative Societies 
bring these two forces together for our economic advantage, a thing 
which the most ignorant person can understand, work for and profit 

by A conference like this will focus experience, 

elucidate matters of doubt, and give a fresh impetus to the 

movement The Co-operative Movement demands in 

almost every village willing and intelligent workers who will take 
the trouble to understand the principles of co-operation and carry 
them into practice. Have we not patriotism enough ? Are we not 
anxious to improve the lives and promote the welfare of our 
ignorant brethren ? Do we not all admire beneficent action and 
practical work for the Rood of others ? Then let us all give some 
of our time, thought and energies to promoting the Co-operative 
Movement which is so certain to improve the welfare of the 
poverty-striken masses around us. There is no industrial 
movement higher and more worthy of attention than this one of 
co-operation. I see in it a field in which the members of every 
village community can train themselves in habits of business and 
the management of their own affairs. I cannot too earnestly 
impress on you all that it rests with the people themselves to make 
the Co-operative Movement a permanent success " 

Economic Conference. 

About the year 1911 when the results achieved in the fields of 
agriculture, industry and commerce were reviewed, it was felt that 
without more vigorous efforts on reformed lines the country must 
remain economically backward for a long period to come* With a 



238 

view to bring together the non-officials as well as the officers of the 
Government in the deliberations connected with the economic pro- 
gress of the State, the Maharaja directed the formation of an 
Economic Conference to keep up a sustained interest in the 
numerous questions relating to economic progress by a constant 
interchange of views. 

The first session of the conference was held at the public 
offices at Mysore during the Birthday Week on the 10th June 1911 
and the two succeeding days, and the Maharaja inaugurated the 
conference personally with a speech from which the following are 
extracts : " It will be your privilege at this first session to 
consider measures for the economic development of the 

country With the growth of communications and the 

increasing use of steam and electricity, questions of economic 
interest are assuming new aspects closely associated with the 
well-being of the people. The need for greater attention to 
industrial and commercial development is beginning to be 
recognised in British India. We have also therefore to give 

increasing attention to our economic problems The 

economic inefficiency of our people will be patent to any one who 

looks beneath the surface of things In the more advanced 

countries of Europe, it is stated that the earning power of the 
people averages Rs. 400 or more per head per annum. In England 
it is taken at Rs. 600 to Rs. 700 per head. In India we have it on 
high authority that the average income per head does not exceecj 
Rs. 30. As regards education, the proportion of the entire 
population who can read and write is over 90 per cent 
in the United Kingdom and Germany and over 80 in Japan. 
In Mysore the corresponding proportion is only 5 per cent. 
The average death-rate in Mysore is about the same as in the 
neighbouring British Provinces, that is, over 30 for every 1000 of 
the population. The corresponding death-rate in England and 
Germany is as low as 15 to 18 per 1000. The comparison under 
the above three heads forcibly brings to light the extent of poverty, 
ignorance and low vitality prevailing in our midst and is a striking 

reminder of the economic inefficiency of our people * That 

Country is, the most prosperous which has the least number of 



239 

useless or unemployed people' is, I understand, a common saying in 

Europe Education is the sovereign remedy for all economic 

evils. Agriculture which is our staple industry should be practised 
on more scientific lines. Manufactures and trades the chief 
instruments for increasing wealth should be specially encouraged.... 
We cannot hope lo succeed if we continue to work with antiquated 

tools and old-fashioned business methods The number of 

questions requiring attention is so large that officials single-handed 
can do very little for their solution. The non-officials will require 
guidance and further have not had experience and opportunities of 
co-operation for public good on a large scale. This conference will 
bring officials and non-officials together and there will be committees 
and sub-committees formed to carry on its work throughout the 

year \Vewantearnest\vorkers. It is our desire to reach 

all people who desire to co-operate. The aim we have in view, 
namely, the economic security and vital efficiency of the people 
must appeal to every right-thinking person." At this opening 
conference three committees were formed relating to Education, 
Agriculture, and Industries and Commerce and certain questions 
were referred to them for detailed consideration and the preparation 
of schemes for being placed before the next conference. 

By about the Dasara of 1912 the objects of the conference 
became widely known among the people and the committee for 
industries and commerce was strengthened. His Highness* 
Government at this time also engaged the services of Mr. A. 
Chatterton (afterwards Sir), officer in charge of the Pumping and 
Boring operations and the Bureau of Industrial Information in 
Madras, and under him six special officers were appointed to work. 
An industrial survey of the State was also started at the same time 
under a special officer appointed for the purpose. District committees 
were formed in the districts and funds were placed at their disposal 
for small establishments, experiments and contingencies. The 
industries and commerce committee paid attention to a large 
number of subjects such as the improvement of silk and silk goods, 
tanning, hand-weaving, sandalwood-carving, lacquerware, manu- 
facture of toys, the manufacture of tiles. The most promising of 



240 

these from the point of view of production of wealth in the State 
was the silk industry, the export of silk and silk goods in favourable 
years being valued at over a crore of rupees. One of the first steps 
which the industries and commerce committee considered necessary 
for the promotion of industries was the provision of suitable facility 
for financing enterprises within the limits of the State and accord- 
ingly proposed the establishment of a State-aided Bank. 

In order to encourage the formation of District Agricultural 
Associations, the agricultural committee made grants of sums 
varying from Rs. 70 to Rs. 250 to the agricultural associations in 
the districts of Mysore, Kolar, Tumkur, Hassan and Kadur. The 
subject of improving sericulture engaged the serious attention of 
this committee. A number of scholarships was allotted for training 
students in the Tata's Silk Farm at Bangalore. A dozen students 
were sent to the Lai Bagh at Bangalore to learn Horticulture. 
Steps were also taken to institute an enquiry into the subject of the 
indebtedness of the Mysore ryot and his general economic condition 
and to more largely popularise the Co-operative Movement among 
the agricultural classes. This committee also issued from time to 
time leaflets in English and Kanada on subjects coming within 
its sphere. 

The committee for education prepared a Bill for the introduc- 
tion of compulsory education as well as a revised Grant-in-aid Code. 
This committee also recommended, as a preliminary step to the 
establishment of a Mysore University, the improvement of college 
hostels and libraries, the provision of honours courses and the grant 
of diplomas. A special grant of Rs. 2 lakhs was provided for the 
extension of primary education, of which Rs. 1 lakh was for opening 
new schools and improving the existing ones and the other lakh 
was for school buildings. 



CHAPTER xxvtii. 

Krithnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Anniversary of Queen Victoria's Proclamation 
Visit of Lord and Lady Minto to the State Death of 
Edward VII Accession to the throne of George V 
Coronation Durbar at Delhi. 

On the 2nd November 1908 the 50th anniversary of Queen 
Victoria's historic Proclamation of 1858 issued after the suppression 
of the Indian Mutiny was celebrated throughout the State, and 
durbars were held at all district headquarter towns and the Royal 
Proclamation was read to all the assembled citizens in English and 
in the vernaculars. In commemoration of the event, the poor were 
fed and clothed and sports and treats arranged for school children. 
The following message of His Majesty the King-Emperor to the 
Princes and People of India was reprinted in the official Gazette in 
English and Kanada and copies of the same were widely distributed 
in the State: " It is now fifty years since Queen Victoria, my 
Beloved Mother and my August Predecessor on the Throne of 
these Realms, for divers weighty reasons, with the advice and 
consent of Parliament, took upon herself the Government of the 
territories theretofore administered by the East India Company. 
I deem this a fitting anniversary on which to greet the Princes 
and peoples of India in commemoration of the exalted task then 
solemnly undertaken. Half a century is but a brief span in your 
long annals ; yet this half century that ends to-day will stand amid 
the floods of your historic ages, a far-shining land-mark. The 
Proclamation of the direct supremacy of the Crown sealed the 
unity of Indian Government and opened a new era. The journey 
was arduous and the advance may have sometimes seemed slow ; 
but the incorporation of many strangely diversified communities 
and of some three hundred millions of the human race, under 
British guidance and control, has proceeded steadfastly and without 
pause. We survey our labours of the past half century with clear 
gaze and good conscience. 

A31 



242 

11 Difficulties such as attend all human rule in every age and 
place have risen up from day to day. They have been faced by 
the servants of the British Crown with toil and courage and 
patience, with deep counsel and a resolution that has never faltered 
nor shaken. If errors have occurred, the agents of my Government 
have spared no pains and no self-sacrifice to correct them ; if 
abuses have been proved, vigorous hands have laboured to apply 
a remedy. 

" No secret of empire can avert the scourge of drought and 
plague, but experienced administrators have done all that skill and 
devotion are capable of doing to mitigate those dire calamities of 
nature. For a longer period than was ever known in your land 
before, you have escaped the dire calamities of war within your 
borders. Internal peace has been unbroken. 

" In the great Charter of 1858, Queen Victoria gave you noble 
assurance of her earnest desire to stimulate the peaceful industry of 
India, to promote works of public utility and improvement, and to 
administer the Government for the benefit of all resident therein. 
The schemes that have been diligently framed and executed for 
promoting your material convenience and advance schemes 
unsurpassed in their magnitude and their boldness bear witness 
before the world to the zeal with which that benignant promise 
has been fulfilled. 

"The rights and privileges of the Feudatory Princes and 
Ruling Chiefs have been respected, preserved and guarded ; and 
the loyalty of their allegiance has been unswerving. No man 
among my subjects has been favoured, molested, or disquieted by 
reason of his religious belief or worship. All men have enjoyed 
protection of the law. The law itself has been administered 
without disrespect to creed or caste, or to usages and ideas rooted 
in your civilization ; it has been simplified in form and its 
machinery adjusted to the requirements of ancient communities 
slowly entering a new world. 

" The charge confided to my Government concerns the 
destinies of countless multitudes of men now and for ages to come ; 



243 

and it is a paramount duty to repress with a stern arm guilty 
conspiracies that have no just cause and no serious aim. These 
conspiracies I know to be abhorrent to the loyal and faithful 
character of the vast hosts of my Indian subjects, and I will not 
suffer them to turn me aside from my task of building up the 
fabric of security and order. 

" Unwilling that this historic anniversary should pass without 
some signal mark of Royal clemency and grace, I have directed 
that, as was ordered on the memorable occasion of the Coronation 
Durbar in 1903, the sentences of persons whom our Courts have 
duly punished for offences against the law should be remitted or in 
various degrees reduced ; and it is my wish that such wrong-doers 
may remain mindful of this act of mercy and may conduct them- 
selves without offence henceforth. 

" Steps are being continuously taken towards obliterating 
distinctions of race as the test for access to posts of public authority 
and power. In this path I confidently expect and intend the 
progress henceforward to be steadfast and sure, as education 
spreads, experience ripens, and the lessons of responsibility are well 
learned by the keen intelligence and apt capabilities of India. 

" From the first, the principle of representative institutions 
began to be gradually introduced, and the time has come when, in 
the judgment of my Viceroy and Governor-General and others of 
my counsellors, that principle may be prudently extended. 
Important classes among you representing ideas that have been 
fostered and encouraged by British rule, claim equality of citizen- 
ship and greater share in legislation and government. The politic 
satisfaction of such a claim will strengthen, not impair, existing 
authority and power. Administration will be all the more efficient, 
if the officers who conduct it have greater opportunities of regular 
contact with those whom it affects and with those who influence 
and reflect common opinion about it. I will not speak of the 
measures that are now being diligently framed for these objects. 
They will speedily be made known to you and will, I am very 
confident, mark a notable stage in the beneficent progress of your 
affairs, 



241 

" I recognise the valour and fidelity of my Indian troops, and 
at the New Year I have ordered that opportunity should be taken 
to show in substantial form this, my high appreciation, of their 
martial instincts, their splendid discipline, and their faithful 
readiness of service. 

" The welfare of India was one of the objects dearest to the 
heart of Queen Victoria. By me, ever since my visit in 1875, the 
interests of India, its Princes and peoples have been watched with 
an affectionate solicitude that time cannot weaken. My dear son 
the Prince of Wales and the Princess of Wales returned from 
their sojourn among you with warm attachment to your land and 
true and earnest interest in its well-being and content. These 
sincere feelings of active sympathy and hope for India on the part 
of my Royal House and line only represent, and they do most 
truly represent, the deep and united will and purpose of the people 
of this Kingdom. 

*' May Divine protection and favour strengthen the wisdom 
and mutual goodwill that are needed for the achievement of a task 
as glorious as was ever committed to rulers and subjects in any 
state of Empire of recorded time." 

In November 1909 Lord and Lady Minto paid a visit to the 
State. During their stay of a fortnight they visited the celebrated 
Gersoppa Falls, the historic place of Seringapatam, the Kunigal 
Stud Farm and the Kolar Gold Fields. They also witnessed the 
Khedda operations for the capture of elephants at the Kakankote 
jungles. Their Excellencies met with a most loyal and enthusiastic 
welcome everywhere in the course of their visit. 

At the banquet given in honour of his distinguished guest on 

the 25th November 1909, the Maharaja said: " The 

four years which have elapsed since Your Excellency came to India 
have been years of strenuous work and grave anxiety. A wave of 
sedition and anarchy has swept over the Indian Empire, and the 
Government of India have had no light task in grapping with these 
insidious foes and maintaining that law and order which have 
always been the watch word of British rule in India, , f . . f , 



245 

I can assure Your Excellency that the efforts of the Government of 
India to maintain its authority have always had my sincere 
sympathy and that I am and always have been ready to co-operate 
to the utmost of my power in furthering these efforts. Your 
Excellency needs no assurance of my own loyalty to the King- 
Emperor and as regards my people, I take this opportunity of 
publicly expressing my conviction that they are actuated by 
nothing but friendly feelings towards the British race and loyal 
sentiments towards the Paramount Power. Happily, therefore, it 
has not been necessary for my Government to adopt any repressive 
measures except to arm ourselves, as a matter of precaution, with 
summary powers against a small but irresponsible section of the 

public press Their existence is in itself sufficient to 

keep in check the evil against which they are aimed and I trust it 
may never be necessary to enforce them rigorously." 

The Opthalmic Hospital at Bangalore constructed later was 
named after Lord Minto in commemoration of his visit to the State. 

The sad news of the demise of Edward VII was received in 
India on 7th May 1910 and caused great regret throughout the 
country as a powerful factor for the preservation of the peace of 
Europe was thereby lost. In announcing this great calamity which 
had befallen the empire, the Maharaja directed that all public 
offices, courts and schools in the State should be closed for five 
days from that date. All flags were ordered to be hoisted 
half-mast high and sixty-eight minute guns were fired at the 
Palaces at Mysore and Bangalore. 

The Viceroy announced on 9th May 1910 that His Majesty 
King George V had been proclaimed King of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India and this was 
communicated to the people of Mysore on the same date under a 
salute of 101 guns. The Proclamation of His Majesty's accession 
to the throne and the declaration made by him subsequent to it was 
read at the Residency at Bangalore on the 12th May 1910 in the 
presence of the officers of the Mysore and British Governments and 
the principal citizens of the City and the Civil and Military Station, 



246 

The coronation of the King-Emperor was celebrated at Pelhi on 
12th December 1911 and in response to the invitation of the 
Viceroy the Maharaja was present at the Imperial Durbar held 
there. His Highness was accompanied by the Yuvaraja and by 
the principal officers and Sirdars of the State as well as a few 
leading non-official gentlemen. The great event was also 
celebrated throughout the State in a manner befitting the occasion. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Sir ML VUvesvaraya appointed Dewan Visit of Lord 
Hardinge Conclusion of the treaty of 1913 Yuvaraja 
appointed Extraordinary Member of the State Council. 

T. Ananda Rao on whom the title of C. I. E. had been conferred 
by the British Government was also honoured with the title of 
Pradhana Siromani by the Maharaja before his retirement from the 
Dewanship which took place on the 10th November 1912. 
Mr. M. Visvesvaraya (afterwards Sir) who was Chief Engineer of 
Mysore at the time became his successor. Sir M. Yisvesvaraya 
was born in 1861 at Mokshagundam a village in the Mysore State 
and received his earlv education in the Government school at 
Chikballapur and took the B.A. Degree from the Central College, 
Bangalore. He then joined the Poona College of Science and won 
a guaranteed appointment as an Assistant Engineer under the 
Bombay Government in 1884. In 1895 he designed and carried 
out the water works of Sukkur Municipality in Sind. In 1898 he 
visited China and Japan and in 1901 he gave evidence before the 
Indian Irrigation Commission. He designed and constructed 
automatic gates patented by him at Lake Fife storage reservoir for 
the Moota Canal and the source of water supply to the Poona City. 
He also introduced a new system in 1903 and represented the 
Bombay Government at the Simla Irrigation Commission in 1904. 
In 1906 he was deputed to Aden to advise the executive committee 
of the Aden Settlement with regard to certain sanitary matters. 
He also visited Egypt, Canada, the United States of America and 
Russia in 1908. He retired from the British Service in 1909, when 
he was appointed Chief Engineer of Mysore. He soon established 
a name as a strenuous worker for the good of the State and his 
extensive knowledge of the world, combined with his abilities, soon 
came to be regarded as an asset which could be utilised for larger 
purposes. The Maharaja accordingly broke the old tradition of 
drawing the Dewans of the State always from the Revenue and 
Executive Services of the Government and appointed Sir M, 



248 

Visvesvaraya as his Dewan in 1912. Sir M. Visvesvaraya was also 
the first Dewan who had no connection with the old Mysore Com- 
mission, though he had his training under the British Government. 

Lord Hardinge, Viceroy and Governor- General of India, and 
Lady Hardinge paid a visit to the State in November 1913. Their 
stay in the State lasted from the 3rd to 21st November and included 
visits to the Gersoppa Falls, Mysore, Seringapatam, the Kheddas, 
Bangalore and the Kolar Gold Fields. Lord Hardinge's visit was 
made memorable by His Excellency's announcement of a new 
treaty of Mysore in place of what was called in 1881 the Instrument 
of Transfer. We have seen that when Chamaraja Wodeyar was 
installed in power, a document known as the Instrument of 
Transfer signed by Lord Ripon, then Governor-General, was placed 
in His Highness* hands as his authority to rule the country. 
Subsequently it became noticeable that the position actually held 
by the Maharaja as the ruler of a first class Native State was 
not the same as what the Instrument of Transfer appeared to 
assign to him. At the State Banquet held on the 6th of 
November, Lord Hardinge announced that it had been decided 
to replace the Instrument of Transfer by a formal treaty 
between the British Government and the Maharaja, the 
terms of which were agreed to by both the parties. 

" After a very careful consideration of the question, I 

have decided with the concurrence of His Majesty's Secretary of 
State for India," said Lord Hardinge, "to substitute for the 
Instrument of Transfer a new treaty which will place the 
relations between us on a footing more in consonance with Your 
Highness* actual position among the Feudatory Chiefs in India. 
His Majesty's Government in accepting my proposal have observed 
that Your Highness* views on this question were stated with much 
force and moderation and that they derive additional weight from 
the high character and reputation which Your Highness has always 
borne. With this observation I desire to associate myself in the 
fullest degree and I look on it as a particularly happy circumstance 
that it should have fallen to my lot to convey to Your Highness on 
this occasion so striking a proof of the esteem and regard in which 



249 

you are held by those responsible for the government of the empire." 
This announcement, coming as it did from so popular a Viceroy as 
Lord Hardinge whose escape from a cruel bomb outrage in the 
previous year had caused universal rejoicing in India and nowhere 
more so than in the Mysore State, added doubly to the pleasure the 
visit gave both to the Maharaja as well as to His Highness' 
subjects. 

On the day following the banquet, the Maharaja acknowledged 
in writing the gratitude felt both by himself and his people for the 
grant of the treaty : " It is difficult for me to express in words," 
said His Highness, " my gratitude for the gracious and generous act 
of Your Excellency's Government in granting a treaty to Mysore to 
replace the Instrument of Transfer under which Mysore was 
restored to my father's rule thirty-two years ago. I can only assure 
Your Excellency that I value very highly not only the gift of the 
treaty itself but the trust and confidence in my Government which 
the grant of the new treaty implies. I could wish for no greater 
reward for my efforts to maintain a high standard of administration 
than the gracious words of praise and encouragement which have 
fallen from Your Excellency's lips. Not only will the new treaty 
be welcomed by all classes of my people, but it will draw still closer 
the bond of gratitude and loyalty which has always united us to the 
British Government and will also be regarded as a signal proof of 
the sympathy and generosity which have always marked the policy 
of the Supreme Government towards Native States." The treaty 
was formally executed at Mysore on the ^6th November following 
between the Maharaja and Sir Hugh Daly, the British Resident in 
Mysore at the time, acting on behalf of the Governor -General who 
later ratified the same. 

The terms in the new treaty are not strikingly different from 
those contained in the Instrument of Transfer. The new treaty has, 
however, this merit that while the Instrument of Transfer was a 
one-sided document, the treaty of 1913 is a document concluded by 
two parties both able to realise the significance of their actions. 
Article 22 of the Instrument of Transfer underwent a little 
modification by limitirg the very wide scope which it ga\e to the 

A33 



256 

Governor-General to interfere in all the internal concerns of the 
State generally. Article 23 of the Instrument of Transfer relating 
to the resumption of the State by the British Government in 
certain contingencies was entirely omitted. The general prohibi- 
tion to repair fortresses or strongholds contained in Article 7 of 
the old Instrument was made applicable only to repairs for 
military purposes. 

The Yuvaraja, Narasimharaja Wodeyar, now became a 
dominant personality in the State next to the Maharaja. The 
Yuvaraja was born in June 1888 and joined the Mayo College at 
Ajmer in November 1903 when he was a little over 15 years old. 
But he was obliged to discontinue his studies in that college a 
few months after on account of illness and returned to Mysore in 
April 1904. At Mysore a special institution was organised and the 
young prince received very careful education at the hands of 
private tutors specially engaged for the purpose. On completing 
his education, he was appointed Military Secretary to the Maharaja 
and worked in that capacity for some time. In the early part of 
1913 he started on a European tour with a staff of three officers 
and with his cousin Balaraj Urs and returned in October after 
spending about six months in that continent. In this travel the 
Yuvaraja visited a large number of institutions both on the 
continent as well as in England, studying the varied activities of 
the countries he passed through. He was accorded a cordial 
reception wherever he went and returned filling his mind with rich 
experience and possessed of an ardent desire to work for the uplift 
of the people. After his return from Europe, in order to give His 
Highness a larger scope for the exercise of his abilities as well as 
to enable him to obtain a deeper insight into the working of the 
Government machinery, he was appointed in 1914 as an Extra- 
ordinary Member of the State Council. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

KrUhnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Part played by Mysore in the German War. 

We have seen that on the occasion of the visit of His late 
Majesty King George V (then Prince of Wales) in January 1906 to 
Mysore, the Maharaja expressed a hope that the Mysore Imperial 
Service troops may some day have an opportunity of showing their 
spirit by being associated in the fight for the defence of the empire 
whenever it might come. Such a contingency arose in 1914 when 
the great German War was launched and almost all the important 
countries of the world were ranged on one side or the other. This 
war lasted for a little over four years and caused the greatest 
havoc that the world has witnessed. For the first time in the 
history of India the Indian troops conveyed to France stood face to 
face with a highly organised European enemy and successfully 
resisted them in their own continent. The troops of Native States 
who had on account of long-established peace in India come to be 
looked upon as fit only for pompous parades and ceremonial shows 
quickly proved their mettle when the opportunity they longed for 
presented itself. 

In August 1914 the Maharaja intimated to the Viceroy that 
he felt that at that time of danger, it was the duty of all the 
feudatory States and also of the people of the British Empire as a 
whole to stand shoulder to shoulder for the defence of the empire 
and offered the services of the Mysore troops as well as a sum of 
Rs. 50 lakhs to the Indian War Fund. This offer of men and 
money created a profound impression all over India and England. 
At a meeting of the Indian Legislative Council, Lord Hardinge 
the Viceroy commended this striking and patriotic offer by His 
Highness whose loyalty, generosity and liberal views, he said, 
were so well-known. The Marquess of Crewe, the then Secretary 
of State for India, speaking in the House of Lords referred in 
appreciative terms to the splendid offer, as he called, of the 
Maharaja of Mysore, 



252 

The Mysore regiment consisting of 29 officers, 444 non- 
commissioned officers and men with 526 horses, 49 mules and 132 
followers left Bangalore on the 13th October 1914 under the 
command of Regimentdar B. Chamaraja Urs. Major M. H. 
Henderson accompanied the regiment as special service officer and 
Colonel J. Desaraja Urs as the representative of the Durbar. 
Fifteen draughts of reinforcements aggregating 3 officers, 426 other 
ranks and 49 followers were despatched to the field subsequently 
from time to time. The Mysore Transport Corps was mobilised 
for active service in 1915. Six detachments of the corps consisting 
of 12 officers, 321 ranks, 49 followers, with 210 carts, 468 bullocks, 
7 mules and 35 ponies were despatched in September 1916 under the 
command of Furzulla Khan. To keep the corps up to strength, 
nine draughts of reinforcements consisting of four officers, 133 
ranks and 37 followers with bullocks were also sent. 

To meet the local and Imperial demands in regard to man 
power, a Central Recruitment Committee was constituted in the 
State. A director of recruiting was appointed and district 
recruiting agencies were organised. Though the difficulties to be 
surmounted were great, nearly the whole of the required number of 
recruits 5000 were secured before the termination of the war. 

Early in 1915 a separate fund was also started for providing 
the Mysore troops at the front with articles of comfort and also to 
relieve want and distress among the members of their families left 
behind. The idea emanated from the Yuvaraja who was a 
Member of the State Council at this time in charge, among others, 
of the military portfolio and who evinced keen interest in all 
matters connected with the war. Arrangements were also made 
for awarding speedily special pensions and gratuities to those 
disabled in service and to the families of those who lost their lives, 
for securing fresh recruits for the army, for enlisting the aid of the 
public and for various other matters. All this work meant of 
course, constant thought and involved also heavy strain, which the 
Yuvaraja willingly faced. As an encouragement to the men at the 
front, a spirited message conveying the best wishes of His 
Highness the Maharaja, the Royal family and of the people of 



253 

Mysore was printed and copies were sent for distribution ?rmong all 
officers, men and followers at the front : " At this hour of supreme 
struggle of the British Empire and its Allies," said the message, 
" you enjoy the great honour of forming a part, however small, of 
the magnificent army which is fighting for the cause of liberty and 
righteousness. We have heard with keen pleasure and pride of 
your heroic conduct in the field and of your brilliant successes. 
We have no doubt that whatever the duty assigned to you, you 
will do it in such a way as will add fresh lustre to the country and 
uphold the high traditions of Mysore for loyalty and devotion to 
the Crown of England. Day by day and minute by minute, 
you are present in our thoughts and our prayers. Those dear 
to you whom you have left behind are our sacred charge until 
you return victorious. Remember always in whatever you do that 
the fair name and honour of Mysore are in your keeping and that, 
to an Indian, honour is dearer and far more precious than life. 
Have firm faith in Providence and in the justness of our cause and 
by the grace of Almighty God you shall be safe and successful/' 

The Mysore Imperial Service Regiment had three engagements 
with the enemy in the Suez Canal Zone in November 1915 and 
took part in the attack on Gaza in Palestine in November 1917. 
They did excellent work both in the battle of Gaza and in the 
subsequent pursuit. In the latter half of 1918 the regiment was 
placed in the firing line and in the last action of Aleppo on 26th 
October 1918 the regiment suffered serious casualties. In addition 
to the excellent work carried out by them in active operations 
against enemy outposts, they were also employed on the arduous 
task of constructing strong field works for the defence of the Suez 
Canal and in guarding important and valuable points in the lines of 
communications. In every case they carried out the tasks allotted 
to them to the entire satisfaction of General Sir John Maxwell, 
Commander-in-Chief, Egyptian Expeditionary Force, as was 
reported by him to the Commander-in-Chief in India. In the 
victory of Gaza and subsequent pursuit of the enemy the Mysore 
Lancers were often under heavy fire. But there was not a single 
instance of shirking or alarm and it was acknowledged that they 



254 

had acquitted themselves as if they had been old and tried soldiers. 
In December 1917 the Commander-in-Chief of the army in 
Palestine on the completion of the operations resulting in the 
capture of Beersheba and Gaza specially commended the good work 
done by the Mysore Lancers. In a despatch from General Sir 
Edmund Allenby, dated the 31st October 1918, dealing with the 
operations which resulted in the destruction of the Turkish army, 
the liberation of Palestine and Syria and the occupation of 
Damascus and Aleppo, special reference was made to the work of 
the Mysore Lancers in the field. Dealing with the capture of 
Haifa, General Allenby stated that two miles from the Haifa, 
Rhode, in the passes between the spur of Mount Carmell on the 
left and the marshy banks of river Kishon on the right, the fifth 
Cavalry Division reaching this point on the 23rd September was 
shelled from the slopes of Mount Carmell and found the road and 
the river crossings defended by numerous machine guns. While 
Mysore Lancers cleared the rocky slopes of Mount Carmell, the 
Jodhpur Lancers charged through the defile and riding over the 
enemy machine guns galloped into the town, where a number of 
Turks were speared in the streets and a large number of prisoners 
taken. 

The Mysore Imperial Service Transport Corps which was sent 
to Mesapotamia for active service turned out much useful work. 
Landing at Basra early in October 1916, they were at first employed 
on convoy work on the lines of communication. The Corps was 
subsequently concentrated for work at Shaik Saad and beyond and 
early in 1917 was employed in clearing the battle fields of Sanniaya 
and Hai. The Corps was unfortunate in losing their Commandant 
Furzulla Khan who died in hospital in July 1917. 



: ' 'Where all Acquitted themselves with distinguished gallantry, 
ft is difficult to make a selection of individual heroes. However, a 
few names may-be mentioned. Commandant A. T. Thyagaraj of 
the Transport Corps was specially mentioned in the despatches for 
gallantry and deftaftion to duty and was awarded the title of 
' Captain ' by His Jlighness the Maharaja. Jama<}a.r Abdul Gaffaj 



255 

Khan of the Imperial Lancers while serving in Egypt showed great 
coolness and gallantry under very heavy fire while leading on the 
the 25th October 1918 his squadron in a charge against a strongly 
held enemy position. He rallied his squadron after his British 
officer had been killed and continued in action though the squadron 
had suffered heavy casualties. Risaldar A Lingaraj Urs was a 
young hero who was killed in action at Aleppo on the 26th October 
1918 during the final phase of the operations in Palestine. On a 
previous occasion this hero did a daring feat. On the 23rd 
November 1915 a squadron of the Mysore Lancers operating 15 
miles east of Cantarah obtained touch with a force of sixty Turks 
on camels, the advance guard of a raiding party 200 strong. These 
were pursued for seven miles, with the result that 7 were killed, 
twelve were captured and many others wounded. Amongst the 
dead was a famous Bedouin leader. He was killed after a hand-to- 
hand fight by Lingaraj Urs and the latter was awarded the Indian 
Order of Merit for this act of gallantry. The significance of the 
gallant deed done by Lingaraj Urs lay in the fact that after the 
Bedouin leader's death, the attempts on the Suez canal entirely 
ceased. 

Risaldar Subbaraja Urs was another young hero whose 
gallantry was rewarded by the grant of the Indian Distinguished 
Service medal. During an attack on the ferry-post Ismalia on 2nd 
February 1915, the patrol was commanded by Subbaraja Urs and 
this patrol came suddenly upon the enemy who were entrenched 
and advanced close to them mistaking them for their own men. 
The enemy immediately opened fire and the patrol had to retire 
from the enemy's entrenchments under a heavy fire. Sowar Ram 
Singh of the Bhavnagar Lancers had the misfortune to have his 
horse hit in the leg, with the result that the horse fell and the^ rider 
also over the horse's head. Subbaraja Urs who wj 
yards in front of the sowar at the time had his aj 
the mishap. He immediately returned to the 
Singh had fallen, took him on his own hor 
they were behind a hill. Subbaraja Urs 
February 1920 and in the following md 
Commandant of the Imperial Service Lancers J 




256 

Risaldar B. P. Krishne Urs was yet another young hero who 
is entitled to all honour. He left for active service with his 
regiment in 1914. He greatly distinguished himself in meeting 
the attack of the Turks on the Suez Canal in 1915, when with about 
forty men he captured eighty camels and took forty Turks as 
prisoners along with much booty. In the beginning of 1916 he 
joined the staff of General Archibald Murray and served on it for 
nine months, during which time he had the opportunity of meeting 
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales and accompanying him 
on his visits to various camps. In 1917 he followed the regiment in 
its march from Suez to Gaza, where he was sent to gain experience 
in trench warfare. In an action on the 26th October 1918 in the 
Suez Canal Zone, Krishne Urs showed great gallantry while 
leading his squadron in a charge against a strongly held army 
position under very heavy fire. He was severely wounded in the 
hand and chest but continued to lead his squadron until exhaustion 
compelled him to fall out. His splendid example inspired all 
ranks. He was awarded the Military Cross by the British 
Government, the title of * Captain ' by the Maharaja and the 
* White Eagle of Serbia ' by the King of Serbia. 

Mir Turab Ali was another hero who rose to the position of 
Risaldar by his military prowess. He enlisted himself as a sowar 
in the Imperial Service Lancers in 1903, when he was about 18 
years old. Turab Ali's intelligence and energy gave him 
opportunities to secure rapidly higher and higher positions and he 
left for active service to Egypt in October 1914. On arrival, he 
was detailed to undergo machine-gun training and scarcely had he 
been a week old at this course, when his skill was put to the proof 
during an attack on a Turkish redoubt at Belel-Mahadat. By the 
time Turab Ali fired 300 rounds out of his machine-gun, the gun 
got jammed. But the fire was so effective that such of the 
defenders as did not fall hastily retreated. Turab Ali got his 
commission as Jamadar in January 1915 and was placed in charge 
of a machine-gun section and he was ever present with his section 
in every engagement in which his regiment took part and specially 
distinguished himself in the attack upon Gaza. He was for some 



257 

time appointed instructor of the 15th machine-guns squadron and 
he trained and made ready for the field two sub- sect ions of the 
Bikanir Camel Corps and Jodhpur Imperial Service Lancers. 
Turab AH accompanied the Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade to 
Jericho and took part in several engagements, his name being 
mentioned in despatches for gallantry and devotion to duty. Turab 
AH also took a conspicuous part in the capture of Haifa. Under a 
heavy fire of machine-gun and artillery he led an attack upon a 
hillock capturing a Turkish officer, four machine-guns and other 
booty. One of these guns was brought to India by the regiment as 
a war trophy. For these distinguished services Turab AH was 
awarded the Indian Order of Merit and the Maharaja promoted him 
to the position of a Risaldar. 

Sirdar Bahadur B. Chamaraja Urs left for Egypt in October 
1914 in command of the Mysore Imperial Service Lancers. His 
military career began in March 1890 as Jamadar, Local Service 
Regiment. He rapidly rose from position to position and in May 
1905 was permanently appointed Commandant of the Imperial 
Service troops. He was presented valuable Khillats by His 
Highness the Maharaja in open durbar in recognition of his services 
in connection with the visit of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales and 
Princess of Wales in 1906. Relating to his services in Egypt, 
Major-General W. A. \Vatson, Commanding Line of Communica- 
tion Defences, writing to Chamaraja Urs on 27th March 1916 
said : -" From the moment when the brigade was concentrated at 
Deolali seventeen months ago, it was evident to me that your 
regiment was imbued with a splendid military spirit and it 
was clear that your own character and influence was the 
cause. You have never hesitated to enforce discipline or feared 
to inflict punishment and the result has been that your men have 
reached a high standard of efficiency. They have behaved 
admirably, sometimes under trying circumstances, both in the 
camp and in the field. Their success in the action at Bel-el-Jafir 
on the 23rd November 1915 must have been a great satisfaction to 
you. I congratulate you on being commander of a regiment of 
which you may justly feel proud.** Chamaraja Urs was present 
in the action around Gaza in Palestine in November 1917 

A33 



258 

ftnd showed remarkable bravery and steadiness in leading the 
men under his command during the attack which ultimately ended 
in victory. On the 7th February 1918 Brigadier- General C. R. 
Harbard, Commanding Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade, in 
writing to the Inspector- General, Imperial Service troops in India, 
said : " Regimentdar B. Chamaraja Urs (Sirdar Bahadur) having 
been ordered to return to India, I feel that I cannot let him vacate 
the command of Mysore Lancers in the field without placing on 
record my appreciation of the services this officer has rendered, 
which I trust may be brought to the notice of His Highness the 
Maharaja of Mysore. A strict disciplinarian and possessing a 
strong innate sense of justice, Chamaraja Urs has always maintain- 
ed the right spirit in his men and by his personal example has 
taught them to undertake any duty, however monotonous and 
irksome it may have been, with cheerfulness and alacrity. The 
British officers who have been connected with the regiment since 
it came on service have all remarked upon the nice tone that 
prevailed in this regiment and what a pleasure it was to work 
with them. I attribute this tone in a large measure to the influence 
of Chamaraja Urs. Instead of resenting the presence of Special 
Service officers, he has always shown himself grateful for their 
assistance, and the good name that the Mysore Lancers have won 
for themselves during their stay in Egypt is largely due to the 
good relations that have always existed between this officer and 
through him with the other officers of the regirhent." 

On returning to India, he was appointed Chief Commandant in 
1919. For his distinguished military services he was appointed to 
the order of British India in June 1916. His Highness the 
Maharaja honoured him with the first class Medal of the 
Gandabherunda Order and the position of Lt.-Col. in the Mysore 
army. He also received the foreign decoration of the White Eagle 
of Serbia from His Majesty the King of Serbia. 

Last but not least comes the honoured name of Col. Desaraja 
Urs who, as has already been stated, went to Egypt as the 
representative of the Durbar and whose ardent military spirit is 
remembered even now with pride by the people of Mysore. As a 



259 

testimony to his innate military instincts, it may be stated that he 
preferred service in the military department, though he could have 
easily entered any of the civil departments on higher emoluments. 
He was appointed attache in the Mysore Military Department in 
August 1884. After a short period of service, his fighting instinct 
asserted itself and resigning the State Service in June 1885 joined 
the British Military Department as Jamadar, 3rd Madras Light 
Cavalry. He soon obtained an opportunity for active service. 
From September 1886 to October 1887 he was in the field in Burma 
during the Burmese War which resulted in the capture of King 
Thebaw and the annexation of his country. On the 14th December 
1887 his services were lent to the Mysore State by the Madras 
Government, when he was appointed assistant to the Military 
Secretary and aid-de-camp to His Highness the Maharaja. In 
December 1890 he resigned the Madras Service and was appointed 
Commandant, Imperial Service Regiment, in March 1894 and in 
August 1897 he rose to the responsible position of Chief Com- 
mandant, Mysore State troops, which he held continuously for a 
period of 22 years. 

From October 1914 to January 1916 he served in Egypt during 
the Great War and his name was mentiond in the despatches of 
General Maxwell, Commander-in-Chief of the forces in Egypt. In 
August 1917 in appreciation of the services rendered by him during 
the war, His Majesty the King- Emperor awarded him the honorary 
rank of Lt.-Col. in the British army and in June 1918 His 
Highness the Maharaja decorated him with a first class medal of 
the Gandabherunda Order. 

Apart from the work in connection with the arrangements for 
field service, the Durbar undertook with alacrity much other work 
of a miscellaneous character at the request of the Government of 
India. With a view to conserve all the tanning bark grown for the 
tanning of hides urgently required for army purposes, skin tanning 
was prohibited about the close of the year 1917 and a special police 
establishment was maintained to prevent any evasion of the rules. 
The great loss unavoidably caused to the people in consequence of 
r^ inability to work up a valuable raw material was cheerfully 



260 

borne by them in aid of the war. Some 19,000 army blankets were 
supplied to the Indian Munitions Board. One lakh and fifty 
thousand cubic feet of rosewood were supplied by the State Forest 
Department to the gun-carriage factory at Jubbalpore and 30,000 
teak metre gauge sleepers for railway construction in Mesapotamia ; 
land lastly, about 20,000 acres of plantation and Kaval lands were 
leased to the British Grass Farm for raising grass. 

. The Government of India offered to refund to the Durbar the 
cost of mobilising their troops for active service amounting in all to 
Rs. 11 lakhs. But His Highness while greatly appreciating the 
offer, preferred that the cost of mobilisation should form part of the 
contributions made by the Durbar in aid of the war. In April 
1918 His Highness made a further gift of Rs. 10 lakhs for war 
purposes and also contributed Rs. 20 lakhs towards the War Loan. 
In June 1918 His Highness issued a stirring message to his 
subjects calling upon them to join the army in larger numbers and 
to contribute liberally to the War Loan. The war, however, came 
to an end in November 1918 by the Germans suing for peace. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Various Administrative Improvements 1913 1918. 

Although the period from 1914 to 1918 was a period of great 
excitement and anxiety on account of the great European War, 
there was no lack of continuity in the introduction of various 
internal improvements to enhance the prosperity of the country. 
Sir M. Visvesvaraya was a financier of advanced views and he was 
in favour of incurring larger expenditure for the material and 
moral advancement of the country. He was also not a timid 
financier inasmuch as he held the view that public borrowing for 
productive purposes which had an unsavoury odour to some was 
quite justified when it brought additional revenue to the State and 
gave occupation and food to the people. 

In November 1912 when Sir M. Visvesvaraya became Dewan, 
the assets of the State amounted to Rs. 795 lakhs and the liabilities 
to Rs. 362 lakhs. During the six years he was in charge of the 
administration, the revenues of the State ranged between Rs. 255 
and Rs. 315 lakhs. The expenditure increased progressively from 
Rs. 202 lakhs in 1912-13 to Rs. 298 lakhs in 1918-19, but in spite 
of this increase in expenditure, large annual surpluses were left. 

Railway Construction. 

The construction of fresh lines of railway which had been 
suspended for some time was resumed. The work on the 
Mysore-Arsikere railway line via Hassan was commenced in 
November 1913 and completed and opened for traffic in 1918. 
This line was 103 miles in length and crossed three rivers the 
Lakshmanatirtha, the Kaveri and the Hemavathi. In 1913 the 
Government at the request of the Chikballapur Light Railway 
Company took over the construction of this line to its hands and 
the section between Yelahanka and Devanhalli was opened for 
goods traffic in the following year. Similarly the Kolar District 
Board metre gauge line from Bowringpet to Chikballapur via 
Kolar, Srinivasapur and Chintamani was also completed ancj 



262 

opened for traffic. On the 17th December 1913 His Highness the 
Maharaja opened the completed line from Bowringpet to Kolar and 
in his speech on that occasion said : " I am particularly glad 
to perform the opening ceremony, because I wish to show my 
appreciation of the public spirit which has prompted the people of 
the Kolar District to construct this much needed line among 
themselves. As the pioneers of Local Fund Railways in Mysore, 
you deserve the warm support of my Government and I earnestly 
hope that when you have shown the way, other districts will not 
be slow to follow." 

A tramway was also undertaken for construction between 
Tarikere and Narasimharajapur and completed as far as Luckwalli 
at this time. In 1915-16 a Railway Committee was constituted 
consisting of official and non -official members to advise the 
Government on questions relating to railway policy, finance, 
construction and establishment. In fulfilment of the conditions of 
the branch lines agreement, the Government of India agreed in 
1918 to restore to the State the management of the Bangalore- 
Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangud and Birur-Shimoga sections from 
the hands of the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Company. 
With the resumption of these lines, a total length of 372 miles 
of metre and narrow gauge lines came under the management of 
the State. 

For the satisfactory development, however, of the trade and 
commerce of the State, it was understood that two main arterial 
connections were of vital importance. The metre gauge system 
terminated at Nanjangud and unless it was continued and 
connected with the same system in South India, the Mysore 
railway system would remain incomplete. This question which 
was of 30 years standing at the time was again brought under 
correspondence with the Government of India. Similarly a railway 
line was needed to connect the State railway system with a 
suitable port on the West Coast. A project for a line from 
Arsikere to Mangalore via Hassan was for a long time under the 
consideration of His Highness* Government. But later it was 
Abandoned as the port of Mangalore was not open to shipping for 



at least 3 months in the year. It was now considered preferable 
to have a port at Bhatkal and investigations for the purpose were 
started. The sea-board near Bhatkal was only 10 miles from the 
State frontier. There was a project to construct a new railway 
from Shimoga to the top of the Western Ghauts for opening up 
the forests and the Malnad area and the distance of Bhatkal from 
the terminus of the new railway was less than fifty miles. The 
length of additional railway needed to join the sea-board at this 
point was much shorter and the descent from the top of the Ghauts 
to the coast much easier than it was from any other point. 
Bhatkal however was entirely in British territory and the execution 
of the project depended entirely on the sympathy and support of 
the Government of India. 

Development of Electric Power. 

The electric scheme obtained considerable development from 
time to time ever since it was started. By 1912 a sum of over 
Rs. 83 lakhs had been spent as capital outlay and the net profit in 
that year amounted to 8.51 per cent on the total capital invested, 
after deducting interest charge at 4 per cent. Both the city of 
Mysore and the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore were for 
the first time illuminated with electric lighting in the year 1908. 
Subsequently arrangements were also made for supplying electric 
power at cheap rates for small household appliances and industrial 
concerns. 

In 1913 an agreement was concluded with the Gold Mining 
Companies to afford protection to the existing power supply by 
storage in the Kannambadi reservoir and also to provide them with 
an additional supply of power. The dam of the Kannambadi 
reservoir begun in 1911 had risen by this time to a height of 51.50 
feet in the river bed. The storage of water thus far secured not 
only enabled the Government to guarantee to the Gold Mines 
power supply up to 9321 H.P. as previously agreed to, but also to 
supply additional power to the extent of 5000 H.P. Regarding the 
second stage of the reservoir, as there were differences of opinion 
between the Madras Government and the Mysore Durbar, the 
Government of India appointed a Court of Arbitration presided 



264 

over by Sir Henry Griffin, Judge of the High Court of Allahabad, 
assisted by the Hon'ble Mr. Nethersole, Inspector- General of 
Irrigation in India, as assessor. The proceedings of the court 
commenced on the 18th July 1913 and after conducting investi- 
gations for nearly ten months, the Court submitted its award to the 
Government of India in 1914. In March 1916 that Government 
confirmed the award of the Arbitration Court, thereby enabling the 
Durbar to undertake the construction of the second stage of the 
reservoir project which when completed was expected to bring 
under irrigation an additional extent of land of over 1,25,000 acres 
in the Mandya, Malavalli, Nagamangala and T-Narsipur taluks. 
Among the inhabitants of the Kaveri delta, particularly those of 
Tanjore and Trichnopoly districts, there was however considerable 
misconception regarding the effect of this award. The area in the 
Mysore territory irrigated at this time by the Kaveri was 1,15,000 
acres, while the corresponding area in the lower reaches of the river 
within the Madras Presidency was 12,25,000 acres ; that is to say, 
92 per cent of the area irrigated by this river lay in the Madras 
Presidency and only 8 per cent in Mysore. Three-fourths of the 
water-supply of the river however passed through Mysore territory 
and thus the benefit derived by the State was wholly incommensu- 
rate with the high proportion of the total flow contributed by 
Mysore. A large surplus flow in the river went to waste into the 
sea year after year after meeting the needs of both the Mysore and 
Madras irrigation and the Mysore project was intended to intercept 
only a small portion of this surplus. The award contained a 
proviso placing the Mysore Government under an obligation to 
deliver a constant supply of 900 cubic feet of water per second 
regularly in the hot weather, while the natural river flow was 
on occasions as low as one-tenth of that discharge, compelling 
Mysore thus to pay a heavy price for the award in her favour. 

Fresh attempts for efficient maintenance ol tanks. 

During this period fresh attempts were made to devise more 
efficient methods for the proper maintenance of tanks. As the 
efforts hitherto made had not yielded the expected results, a 
committee was now appointed for the investigation and suggestion 



265 

of more efficient means than those hitherto adopted. This 
committee submitted its report in August 1918. The report stated 
that there were many tanks in the State with atchkats (maximum 
cultivable area) disproportionate to their capacities due to a variety 
of causes such as the accumulation of silt in the tank thereby 
diminishing the storage of water, the indiscriminate grant of fresh 
lands on Nirsardi or water-rate without reference to the capacity of 
the tank, there being no co-ordination between the three depart- 
ments concerned in the matter the Public Works who were 
responsible for the storage of water, the Revenue Department 
whose duty it was to grant facilities for extension of cultivation 
and the Settlement Department whose duty consisted in fixing 
assessments on lands more or less as they found them at the time 
of their operations. Further, the mode of choosing major tanks 
for restoration was left to chance without a properly pre-arranged 
programme. It was also found that there were still 737 major 
tanks waiting for restoration out of a total number of 2507 in the 
State. The rule enjoining the pre-payment of one-third of the 
estimated amount either in money or in labour proved irksome to 
the land-holders and was often evaded. In addition to the major 
tanks which had not been touched, there were also 18,490 
minor tanks still to be restored. At the rate at which 
restoration in the past had been carried out, the committee 
calculated that it would take 140 years to complete the 
whole. Further, simultaneously with the efficient restoration of 
tanks, there was also needed an arrangement for their periodical 
repair and proper maintenance. Various other methods such as 
the commutation of the ryot's liability by the imposition of an 
acreage cess, attempts to revive the communal spirit by the 
formation of village statutory bodies under the Tank Panchayet 
Regulation had also failed to fulfil the expectations formed of them. 
The question of efficiently maintaining the tanks was however of 
paramount importance to an agricultural country like Mysore, and 
at all times it has caused anxiety to Government to find an 
effective solution in a matter where old established traditions were 
light-heartedly interfered with in the past. 

A34 



266 

The Introduction of the Jury System. 

Frequent representations having been made at the meetings of 
the Representative Assembly for the introduction of the jury 
system in the trial of sessions cases, the Government sanctioned 
for the first time its introduction in the Bangalore and Mysore 
districts from July 1917 and the system was extended in later years 
to other districts. 

Separation of Magisterial from Executive functions. 

In 1916 one hundred and twenty-eight Village Munsiffs' Courts 
commenced to work. In the same year sanction was accorded to 
the formation of courts of Benches of Honorary Magistrates at 
four of the district headquarter towns and these courts were made 
permanent in May 1918, the scheme being subsequently extended 
to the remaining four districts also. 

In 1907 as an experimental measure, the Amildars of seven 
taluks in different parts of the State had been relieved of their 
magisterial functions and the same assigned either to City 
Magistrates or to Munsiffs. Later, the Government became 
convinced that it would tend on the whole to a better and prompter 
administration of justice, if the duty of trying cases was assigned 
as far as possible, to officers whose attention was not distracted by 
other important and heavy work, and accordingly in May 1918 a 
scheme was introduced for providing a separate agency for the 
disposal of original criminal work. According to this scheme, 
three grades of special magistrates came into existence those of 
the first grade being first class magistrates with, as a rule, appellate 
powers, those of the second grade generally exercised second class 
powers, and the third grade magistrates generally exercised second 
class powers. Assistant Commissioners, Amildars and Deputy 
Amildars continued to be magistrates ex-officio, but they ceased to 
exercise magisterial functions in practice, except such as were 
really executive in their nature under the Criminal Procedure Code. 
The scheme was in the first instance introduced in the districts of 
Bangalore and Shimoga where it came into operation from 1st July 
1919 and was completed hi the whole State by 1925. 



267 

In 1906 the Mysore Municipal Regulation VII of that year 
had been passed into law and the Municipal Councils of the cities 
of Bangalore and Mysore had been brought under its operation. A 
change in the appointment of Presidents of Municipal Councils was 
made in 1913 allowing the choice to be made from among non- 
officials also. The Bangalore City Municipality was the first to be 
selected for this change and Sir K. P. Puttanna Chetty who had 
retired as a Member of the State Council readily came forward to 
fill this place. In the Municipalities of Kolar, Tumkur and 
Chickmagalur non-officials were appointed as Vice-Presidents. 

Reform of the Legislative Council. 

After an experience of the working of the Legislative Council 
for about 8 years, it was found that improvements in certain 
directions were needed and these were effected by Regulation I of 
1914. The Legislative Council formed in 1907 had been based on 
the model of the British Indian Act of 1861. But though this act 
had been revised more than once, the Mysore Council continued on 
its old lines. In order to improve the representative character of 
the Council, the number of members was raised to 24 from the old 
maximum number which varied from 15 to 18. Of the increased 
number, 4 were nominated on the recommendation of the Represen- 
tative Assembly, 4 by territorial representation from the districts. 
Ten were officials and six were nominated by Government. The 
number of elected members by these changes was raised from 2 to 
8. The privileges of discussing the annual State Budget and of 
raising interpellations were given. The Council, however, had no 
power to modify or to add to the budget or to move resolutions on 
the same. The interpellations were limited to 12 questions at each 
session and the nature of the questions to be admitted was 
determined, among other considerations, on the measure of 
support accorded to the questions by the members. These changes 
however did not modify the ultimate character of the Mysore 
State constitution and the responsibility for the good government 
of the country rested entirely with the Maharaja as settled by 
the Government of India. In reforming the Legislative Council 

Highness was Actuated by a keen desire to associate the 



268 

representatives of his subjects in the councils of the administration, 
so that they might bring to bear their influence on the policy and 
activities of Government. 

Finance. 

The privilege of discussing the annual financial budget of 
the State accorded by the Maharaja was for the first time 
availed of by the Members of the Legislative Council at their 
meeting held in July 1914. Subsequently the Finance Committee 
was re-constituted and the scope of its work was enlarged with a 
view to enable it to investigate means of expanding revenue as well 
as scope for retrenching expenditure. In order that greater 
attention might be given to the more important questions connected 
with finance and the development of revenue, a full time Financial 
Secretary was also appointed in 1916. The draft budget was also 
ordered to be published before the session of the Representative 
Assembly was held, so that the members might have ample time to 
carefully acquaint themselves with the allotments made for each 
department. In this year J. S. Chakravarthi who had been 
appointed to the new post of Financial Secretary, speaking 
at the Budget Session of the Legislative Council humourously 
likened the Mysore finances before this reformed committee came 
into existence to an ailing Purdahnashin Sultana and he pointed 
out the difficulties under which the doctors formerly laboured 
whenever they wanted to understand the condition of the patient. 
Till a couple of years ago, he said, the doctors could only diagnose 
the disease by examining the tongue shown through a slit in the 
purdah or a hand thrust through a door chink, but under the change 
introduced, the doctors had been given the necessary access to the 
extent permitted by civilised medical etiquette. 

On account of the world war which prevailed at this time, the 
political and other conditions had become very unstable and it was 
therefore considered that the finances of the State should undergo 
further scrutiny by an expert. Mr. K. L. Datta, a retired officer of 
the Finance Department of the Government of India, was 
temporarily appointed to make an independent examination of the 
accounts and finances of the State, no such examination having 



269 

taken place after that of Mr. Kierpander in 1902. Mr. Datta on 
reviewing the State's finances as they stood on the 30th July 1916 
found that the State had succeeded in creating assets equal to its 
gross income for nearly two years after making provision for the 
two loans which it had raised and was of opinion that the 
administration might be justly proud of the results achieved. A 
new classification of the budget heads was introduced by Mr. Datta 
and the budget also came to include for the first time the detailed 
estimates of the Public Works Department. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

KrUhnaraja Wodcyar IV. 

Economic and other improvement* 1913 1918. 

Economic Conference. 

The Economic Conference which began in 1911 had achieved 
some beneficial results in the shape of training the people through 
its committees and associating them in public work with 
Government officers. In May 1913 the conference was strengthened 
by election to it by ballot of eight members from the Representative 
Assembly. In his address to the Representative Assembly in 
September 1914 the Dewan Sir M. Visvesvaraya used these 
earnest words to rouse the people to greater activity : " The 
recent growth of communications has been bringing us closer to the 
populations of the world. It is an advantage to come into contact 
with people more civilised than ourselves, if we can profit by their 
example. But this close association has also brought us increased 
responsibilities. It has brought us into the vortex of the struggle 
for existence. Where formerly the economic effects of local 
enterprises were determined by local conditions, we are called upon 
without adequate training or skill and with our primitive 
implements to take our place in international competition. In the 
face of the increasing severity of the struggle, our spirit of content, 
our indifference to science and material progress are a growing 
peril." 

To stimulate interest in the work connected with public 
measures in rural areas, it was arranged to hold district and taluk 
conferences commencing from July 1916. At these conferences, 
questions connected with economic subjects, village improvement 
and co-operative societies and the wants of the people generally 
were discussed. These conferences had an educative value and 
they helped the district officers to ascertain and catalogue local 
wants and to focus the activities of the people on specific 
measures of improvement. In his address to the Representative 
Assembly held during the Dasara of 1917 Sir M- Visvesvaraya 



271 

who was from the beginning the inspirer of the idea of the 
Economic Conference summed up its objects in these words : 
" All the activities hitherto attempted, though appearing 
fragmentary, should be taken as forming a connected scheme of 
progress. A determined effort is necessary to raise the level of 
education and working power of the masses, including the 
backward and depressed classes. With the spread of primary 
education at one end and the university with its rapidly developing 
modern side on the other, our education will help to create greater 
homogeneity and social unity among our population. The end and 
aim of our activities should be to increase production and wealth, to 
strengthen and encourage habits and practices among our people 
which are already found to be good, to correct wrong popular 
beliefs and to place before them sound ideals based on the 
experience of progressive nations ; in other words, to prepare a 
prosperous, energetic, alert and enterprising population. All 
activities of the State may be classed under one or other of the 
three main heads administration, economic progress, and civic and 
social progress. Those which fall under administration are attended 
to by His Highness 1 Government, assisted by the representations 
and advice of the Representative Assembly or other public bodies. 
The economic activities are controlled by a semi-official organisation 
which is becoming more and more effective and in which a large 
number of Government officers and non-official gentlemen are taking 
part. The civic and social activitie's have been recently begun and 
a considerable amount of propaganda work is needed before the 
activities assume their rightful importance in the public eye.*' 

In 1918 the Maharaja decided that the Economic Conference 
organisation was to remain permanent. With the Legislative 
Council, the Representative Assembly and the Economic 
Conference, it was believed that there would be more or less a 
complete organisation for the political and economic training of the 
people. 

EftUblifthmtat of th Mysora Bank- 

We have seen that in 1912 the Industries and Commerce 
Committee of the Economic Conference recommended the 



272 

establishment of a financing Bank for the encouragement of 
industries and commerce. The scheme subsequently took shape 
and a Bank of the kind proposed was established under the 
patronage of the State and commenced work from 2nd 
October 1913. 

Sandal Oil Factory. 

Various special economic activities were also undertaken 
during this period. Prior to 1916, sandal wood was being sold by 
public auction by the Forest Department which brought a fairly 
good revenue to the State. Soon after the outbreak of the war, 
the auction sales of sandalwood held in November and December 
1914 proved unfavourable, and on the recommendation of Sir Alfred 
Chatterton the idea of converting sandalwood into oil and placing 
the oil on the market was then seriously considered by Government, 
with the result that a small sandalwood distillation factory was 
established at Bangalore which commenced work in May 1916. 
As the undertaking proved successful through the energy and 
resourcefulness of Sir Alfred Chatterton, a factory on a larger scale 
was established at Mysore and work commenced in August 1917. 

Soap Factory. 

It was found that very good soap was being made on a small 
experimental scale in the Indian Institute of Science. To develop 
the industry on a commercial scale, the Government established a 
soap factory at Bangalore and placed it under the supervision of 
Mr. S. G. Sastry (now Director of Industries) who had been 
specially deputed to England to acquaint himself with the methods 
of manufacturing soap in that country. The factory commenced 
working in February 1918. 

Commercial and Industrial activities. 

In the year 1918 the Department of Industries was reorganised 
by the addition of a commercial section. A Central Industrial and 
Commercial Museum was started and a scheme for granting loans 
for cottage and minor industries also came into operation. A small 
party of merchants and officers was deputed to Japan to study 
industries and trade there. 



Chamber of Commerce. 

In his speech on the 26th June 1915 to the Economic 
Conference, Sir M. Visvesvaraya threw out a suggestion for the 
establishment of a Chamber of Commerce for the whole State. 
The question of starting this Chamber received special attention at 
the hands of the Industries and Commerce Committee for 18 
months, prominent among the members of this Committee being 
Sir Alfred Chatterton, W. C. Rose, Mr. B. K. Garudachar, 
Vardhamaniah and Mr. Ranganatha Rao Sahib. The com- 
mittee found that the bulk of the trade in the State was 
carried on in a very primitive fashion. The outlook of the 
merchants was narrow, their power of co-operation feeble and 
their business methods out of date. They were ignorant of 
trade statistics and on account of lack of training they were 
unable to adapt themselves to the rapidly changing conditions of 
the world trade. One of the means to broaden the outlook of the 
merchants was no doubt the establishment of an association like the 
Chamber of Commerce which would give them opportunities of 
personal service and of joint deliberation and action on large 
questions connected with industries and trade generally. The 
object of the Chamber was to bring the wants and grievances of the 
men engaged in industry and trade to the notice of the Government 
and of public service corporations like the railway companies, 
municipal and other local bodies, bank, post and telegraph or other 
authorities whose operations affected them. In the second place, 
the Chamber was to maintain a continuous study of large 
commercial questions of local interest and constantly strive to 
strengthen the conditions under which trade and industries were 
carried on at the time. The Chamber was also intended to focus 
and consolidate commercial opinion on current topics and to publish 
the united judgment of representative merchants and businessmen 
regarding such topics for the information of the public. 

A Chamber with these objects was inaugurated on 8th May 
1916 in the hall of the Government High School, Bangalore, at a 
meeting at which over 500 merchants were present. The Chamber 
began work in 1917 under the chairmanship of W. C. Rose its first 
president and sub-committees of the Chamber were formed at 

A35 



274 

Tumkur, Davangere, Chickmagalur and Tiptur. The Chamber now 
possesses a building of its own due to the munificence of Sir Haji 
Ismail Sait and others. 

The Iron Works at Bhadravathi. 

The valuable deposits of iron ore on the Bababudan hills 
which had been discovered and reported upon by the Geological 
Department of the State now engaged attention as to whether 
these deposits could be worked on a commercial scale. The lack 
of coal in the State however stood in the way of working them. 
But now the question of manufacturing pig iron on a small scale 
with the aid of charcoal fuel was investigated by Mr. C. P. Perin 
of the firm of Messrs. Perin & Marshall of New York who were 
Consulting Engineers to the Tata Iron and Steel Company, Ltd., 
of Sakchi, and on his advice the Government installed a wood 
distillation plant to manufacture charcoal and a blast furnace for 
smelting iron. The scheme was financed by Government and the 
Tata Iron and Steel Company was appointed in 1918 to manage 
the technical portion of the concern under the general supervision 
of a Board of Management. 

Sericulture. 

Measured by its outturn, sericulture next to agriculture was 
the most important industry carried on in the State. But owing 
to the spread of disease amongst the worms, the industry began 
to show signs of decline and in 1913 experiments were started in 
the Tata Silk Farm at Bangalore which was then under the control 
of a member of the Salvation Army to ascertain what improvements 
could be effected in the reeling of silk for the local market and a 
silk filature also was established at Chennapatna. 

Under the direction of Signer Mari whose services were 
engaged in 1914, a rearing school at Chennapatna was established 
where there existed a Central Farm the gift of a local merchant 
Mr. Abdul Quddus for supplying disease-free eggs on a large 
scale. A Central School was opened at Mysore for the training 
of the staff of the department and for purposes of demonstration 
and instruction to the ryots. A number of other schools were also 



275 

opened in some of the important centres of the State. Later, a 
reeling school was started at Santemarhalli and in the school at 
Chennapatna special arrangements were made to train a large 
number of gosha women in re-reeling and twisting. 

Agricultural Experiments. 

In 1913 an Agricultural School was opened in Bangalore and 
the curriculum of studies in the school was made as practical as 
possible. The major portion of the students' time was given to 
practical farm-work, only the principles of elementary sciences 
being taught to enable the students to understand agricultural 
processes. In the same year the Agricultural Department was 
strengthened by the appointment of a Director as its head. In 
1914 the department was re-organised and a large amount of new 
work was inaugurated, particularly demonstration work which was 
extended to every district in the State. 

In December 1914 the Government sanctioned a scheme for 
the creation of some large landed estates and blocks of land 
available for the purpose in each district were published for general 
information. At Nagenhalli in the Mysore District a Government 
farm was opened to investigate questions connected with sugarcane 
and to study the agricultural needs of the area commanded by the 
Kaveri channels. 

Rural and Malnad Improvements. 

Increased attention began to be paid during this period to rural 
improvements. In 1913 in his address to the Representative 
Assembly Sir M. Visvesvaraya drew attention pointedly to the 
condition of the villages in the State and to the vast possibilities of 
improvement that existed if only organised efforts were made for 
the purpose. One of the measures proposed for vrllage improvement 
was the formulation of a scheme for the establishment of Village 
Improvement Committees. The system of devoting half-a-day's 
labour every week for improving village sites and carrying out 
works of communal benefit was begun in 1915. For the formation 
of roads, wells and other improvements, Government grants were 
supplemented by the villagers with contributions either in the shape 



276 

of cash or labour. The improvement of village cart-tracks and tree 
planting received special attention. To ensure progress under the 
rural water-supply scheme, the purchase of a set of boring tools and 
the employment of a special staff were sanctioned for each district. 

A special scheme for Malnad improvement was introduced in 
February 1914 and in a period of a little over two years, rank 
vegetation was cleared in 570 villages. Fifty -four wells were 
completed, some village roads were opened and greater facilities 
were afforded to the people for building houses for themselves. 
Propaganda work included the distribution of leaflets on sanitation 
and hygiene and the exhibitions of lantern slides depicting the health 
conditions in the Malnad and the precautions to be taken by the 
people residing in the area. A disease survey was also commenced 
on a small scale in the Sagar taluk. 

Educational Improvements. 

In the year 1913 a comprehensive scheme of elementary and 
advanced technical and commercial education was introduced by 
the Government and it consisted in the main of the establishment 
of the Chamarajendra Technical Institute at Mysore and a Com- 
mercial and a Mechanical Engineering School at Bangalore. The 
Engineering School and the Industrial School which existed at 
Mysore were combined to form the nucleus of the new Chama- 
rajendra Technical Institute. The institute consisted of five 
sections, viz., the Engineering Section, the Industries and Crafts 
Section, the Fine Arts Section, the Commercial School Section and 
the Workshop. The Commercial School at Bangalore provided for 
an elementary course in commercial subjects in English and Kanada 
for one year and a secondary course in English for two years. The 
Mechanical Engineering School undertook to teach the management 
and care of oil and steam engines, erection of machinery, working 
of mills, electric work, driving motor cars and other subjects. The 
main object of Government in starting these institutions was to 
create an incentive for manual work in the younger generation and 
to enable them to earn their subsistence by following an 
independent profession in after life, 



277 

In 1913 a Regulation for introducing compulsory primary 
education was passed into law and in the following year, sanction 
was given to the opening of 1000 elementary schools on a revised 
grant-in-aid basis. The principle followed was that the villagers 
were to supplement the grant given by Government by contributions 
in money or kind, so that no teacher was required to serve on less 
than Rs. 10 a month. The scheme of compulsory education was 
introduced in 15 selected centres to start with. In the same year 
the Widows' Home at Mysore was taken over by Government and 
was attached to the Maharani's College as a hostel. Provision was 
also made for imparting English instruction in a large number of 
Girls' Schools. The re-organisation of women's education provided 
also for instruction in industrial and domestic arts in addition to 
education of a literary character. 

In 1915 a new scheme for opening more village elementary 
schools was brought into operation under a grant-in-aid basis by 
offering a Government contribution of half the cost of each school. 
The scale of pay of village schoolmasters was revised at a cost of 
nearly half a lakh of rupees annually. To encourage the study of 
English in rural areas, the rate of contribution payable by the 
villagers concerned for village English Schools was reduced and 
many night schools for adults were also opened. A provision of 
Rs. 7000 in the budget was made for the grant of scholarships in 
foreign countries for the study of various technical subjects such as 
Paper Manufacture, Banking, systems of Education, Organic 
Chemistry, Mechanical Engineering and Acturial Science. One of 
the most hopeful features of the situation was that the people were 
fully alive to the advantages of education and readily came forward 
with liberal contributions for maintaining teachers and constructing 
school buildings. 

A Unirersitjr for Mysore. 

It was felt at this time that without a separate university for 
Mysore the educational system would be seriously defective and 
accordingly a university was started and began work from July 
1916. The University Bill as introduced in the Legislative 
Council provided for a new type of university of which the colleges 



278 

formed an integral part. His Highness the Maharaja was the 
Chancellor of the University and the late H. V. Nanjundaiya who 
had rendered distinguished service both as a Judge of the High 
Court of Mysore and also as a Member of the State Council was 
the first Vice-Chancellor. On the 12th October 1916 on the 
memorable occasion when the first meeting of the Senate of the 
new Mysore University took place, the Maharaja as Chancellor 
made a speech from which the following are extracts : 

" I think we all realise the solemnity and importance of 
to-day's ceremony. It marks an epoch in the development of 
education in the Mysore State ; for, what could be more significant 
in our history than the creation at the express desire of the people 
of a national university. It is the first university in this country 
to be founded outside the limits of British India and is an 
institution which meets the special needs of Mysore and which will 
in time have far-reaching effects on the intellectual progress and 
the material development of the State. I feel that on this occasion 
I should publicly state how great is the debt of gratitude we 
owe to the University of Madras under whose fostering care the 
constituent colleges of our university have attained their 
present state of high efficiency. Nearly all our distinguished 
Mysoreans owe their education to the same university and are 

justly proud of the connection The ideal of university 

life which the constitution of the older universities in India has 
hitherto favoured no longer remains the same and the creation of 
local teaching universities is the inevitable outcome of the circum- 
stances of the present time. Our university is in reality one of the 
first fruits of the benevolent policy inaugurated by the Government 
of India of the encouragement of smaller and more compact 
universities approximating to the unitary type. The university 
derives an advantage by the appointment of a full-time Vice- 
Chancellor who can devote all his energy to administrative work 
and establish intimate relations with the professors and lecturers. 

This feature of our university is so far unique in India 

Another advantage is that we have a special guarantee of harmony 
and efficiency in the fact that the principals of the colleges and 
representative professors have a place on the Council and therefore 



279 

a direct voice in prescribing courses of study, in directing exami- 
nations and, in fact, in every detail of administration. This 
intimate connection between the teaching staff and the university 
is still further strengthened by the fact that all the professors 
without exception are constituted members of the university and 
have a seat on the Senate. Another very important feature in a 
small university is the stricter control which it can exercise over 
the social life of the students. The Unions which are to be built 
at Mysore and Bangalore will encourage the best form of club 
life among both professors and students. The hostels which we 
intend to extend and amplify will develop the residential feature in 
university life. Supervision will be exercised also over non- 
residential students who are not living with their parents or 
relations. I need hardly point out how great a stimulus will be 
given to the important branch of athletics by the development of 
residential life, the erection of gymnastic and cricket pavilions and 
the direct influence of the professors who will in time be provided 
with residences in the university areas. I feel that I ought to say a 
few words as to what I think should be the aim of our university. 
In the first place, we should spare no effort to gain for the Mysore 
University the respect of the educational world. This end can 
only be achieved by maintaining a really high standard of teaching 
and examination and also by never allowing that standard to be 
lowered, however strongly you may be tempted by the lure of 
numerical results. It should be the aim, too, of the university to 
turn out graduates who are not merely learned but who are of 
high character and refinement which are the distinguishing marks 
of every true gentleman/' The first convocation of the university 
for conferring degrees was held on the 19th October 1918, when 
His Highness the Maharaja as Chancellor presided and Sir 
Ashutosh Mukherji, Judge of the Calcutta High Court and Vice- 
Chancellor of the Calcutta University, delivered the convocation 
address. 

In this year a donation of Rs. 2 lakhs and an annual recurring 
grant of Rs. 12,000 were sanctioned for the Hindu University at 
Benares, of which the Maharaja was the Chancellor. 



280 

In the year 1917 a sum of Rs. 1 lakh was provided in the 
budget for the grant of scholarships to pupils belonging to the 
backward and depressed communities, chiefly to encourage them 
to take to higher education. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Various Administrative Improvements 1913 1918. 

Local Self-Government. 

Local Self -Government in Mysore had achieved a fair measure 
of success and it was now deemed advisable to take a step forward. 
A new Bill to amend the Municipal Regulation of 1906 was 
accordingly introduced in the Legislative Council on the 29th June 
1917. The legislation effected in 1906 although based on liberal 
principles was found not to have produced any marked results, 
especially in the case of Minor Municipalities owing to the prepon- 
derance of the official element and to too much subordination of the 
councils to Government officials. The Regulation was also too 
complex for the smaller towns to which it could not be applied, 
thereby causing the anomaly of the existence of Municipal Boards 
created under the executive orders of Government alongside of those 
constituted under statutory provisions. In 1915 the Dewan in his 
address to the Representative Assembly had stated that the Local 
Bodies were not playing their legitimate role in the administration 
of the country and that the apathy displayed by these bodies was 
attributable chiefly to a deficiency in the elected popular element 
and to the want of reasonable powers of control over their own 
funds. There were at this time before Government two well- 
considered reports, one by the Local Self-Government Committee 
and the other by the Local Finance Committee. The first committee 
was appointed in February 1914 under the presidency of the late 
Sir M. Kantaraj Urs who was a Member of the State Council at the 
time and the second in May 1914 under the chairmanship of Dewan 
Bahadur C. Srinivasa lyengar who was a retired member of the 
same Council. In 1915 a conference of Local Boards and 
Municipalities had been held in Mysore which was opened by His 
Highness the Yuvaraja. At this conference Sir K, P. Puttanna 
Chetty who had considerable experience in municipal problems 
invited attention to the fact that Government exercised too much 

A36 



282 

supervision and control over Municipalities and that thereby those 
institutions had come to be regarded as mere adjuncts of Govern- 
ment. Under the rules as they stood at the time, the Deputy 
Commissioner was the president of all the Municipalities outside the 
Regulation in the district and also of all the Regulation Municipali- 
ties in the taluks. The sub-division Assistant Commissioners were 
the presidents of all Regulation Municipalities in the taluks of which 
they were in revenue charge. The Local Self -Government 
Committee very rightly pointed out in their report that the nominal 
appointment of Deputy Commissioners as presidents of these small 
Municipalities had been of very little value inasmuch as they hardly 
attended any of their meetings. Although the Regulation of 1906 
was meant to mark a distinct advance in the principles of local 
self-government so far as Municipalities were concerned, it really 
did not affect the municipal administration of a majority of the 
Boards which had been established without a statutory basis, though 
it was admitted that these Boards undoubtedly tended to educate 
the people in the art of managing local affairs. 

The object of the amending Bill of 1917 was to bring within 
the purview of the Regulation such of the non- Regulation Munici- 
palities and the Unions in inam villages as were fit to be constituted 
into Minor Municipalities. Under the new constitution, an increase 
in the elected element was introduced, one-third being increased to 
one-half in the case of Town Municipal Councils and two-thirds in 
the case of City Municipalities. The Government also accepted 
the principle recommended by the committee and the conference of 
the election of Presidents and Vice-Presidents in the City and Town 
Municipal Councils and also of providing in the Regulation itself 
for a full-time paid President who might or might not be an official. 
Another amendment in the Bill was intended to invest Municipal 
Councils with enlarged powers, limiting the control of Government 
to broad questions only. In order to give an increased scope of 
work to the Municipal Councils, power was also reserved by the 
Government to vest selected Municipal Councils with the control of 
Elementary Education, Medical Relief including vaccination, and 
Muzrai institutions. 



283 

Again as regards the Local Boards, the Regulation of 1902 
which governed them was characterised by the above Committee as 
' illiberal * in its provisions. The Taluk Boards were found to be 
wholly inactive for lack of any distinct sphere of work for them. 
The revenue officials of all grades were invariably Presidents from 
the Deputy Commissioner downwards and the Amildars were 
nominal presidents of more than one Union in their taluks. Although 
in 1907-08 villages comprising three hundred houses or 1000 
inhabitants were authorised without any distinction to be constituted 
into Unions, the Union administration had not proved any more 
successful than before. 

In 1917 it was considered that under the circumstances 
mentioned above, instead of introducing amendments to the Local 
Boards Regulation of 1902 it was desirable to recast it as a whole 
and to introduce it in the Legislative Council as a new Bill. The 
most important feature in the new Regulation after it emerged 
from the Legislative Council was the insertion of a chapter on 
Village Panchayets and the reason assigned for this addition was 
that the village should for ever be the unit of local self-government 
and that greater attention was therefore to be paid to the improve- 
ment of village administration, thereby laying a surer foundation 
for the more efficient development of local self-government. A 
large number of Village Improvement Committees had been 
established under the executive orders of Government and were 
already working in the State on definite principles. It was now 
intended to place on a statutory basis all those committees which 
had attained a fair amount of efficiency and to notify them as 
Panchayets. The majority of the members of these Panchayets 
were to be elected as well as the President. Their functions were 
classified under three heads 1. Ordinary duties connected with 
the maintenance of roads, sanitation, water-supply and other like 
items ; 2. improvement work ; and 3. education, irrigation, village 
courts and other connected work. The Bill also contained the 
necessary provision for giving these Panchayets financial 
autonomy, subject to the general supervision of the Taluk Boards. 
The Panchayets besides having their own funds accruing from house- 
tax, taxes on vacant village sites and other items were also to have 



284 

a definite portion of the local cess and Mohatarfa, apart from any 
Government contributions they might receive. 

Next as regards the Taluk Boards, the main defect in the 
system as it existed then was that these Boards had no definite 
responsibilities and functions and so far had been only the agents 
of District Boards in name. The Government in the main 
accepted the recommendations of the Local Self -Government 
Committee, according to which there was to be an elected majority 
in all the Boards, both district and taluk. The Taluk Boards 
were to be given independent powers subject only to the control of 
the District Boards to administer and control only those functions 
and services which were more or less localised, leaving to the 
District Boards functions and services which required a co-ordinate 
organisation throughout the district. This necessitated a separate 
Taluk Board Fund for administrative purposes as well as a 
separate budget, for all of which necessary provision was made in 
the new Bill. The Bill also contained in accordance with the 
views of the Committee provisions for the transfer of institutions 
such as minor Muzrai institutions, primary education, medical 
relief and veterinary dispensaries. The Government's desire was 
ultimately to develop the District Boards into District Councils 
and the Bill accordingly provided that in matters that did not 
ordinarily come within their functions, it was open to the Boards to 
pass resolutions on the subjects outside their cognisance and send 
them to Government for consideration. 

Sir Albion Banerji who belonged to the Indian Civil 
Service and was employed for the time being as a Member 
of the Mysore State Council, in piloting this Bill through 
the Legislative Council on the 29th June 1917 quoted from 
Harris 1 ' Problems of Local Self -Government ' the following 
passage in order to indicate the spirit which lay behind 
the Bill : " If we endeavour to formulate one or two of the 
principles underlying the best lines for administration to follow, the 
first will undoubtedly be that local government is the business of 
the local authorities and that all that the Central Government 
has to do is to give them information and guidance, to apply the 



285 

whip or the brake. Complete independence of the Central 
Government is certainly undesirable, but local authorities must be 
freer than they are at present to make experiments, even to make 
mistakes. Continuous meddlesome interference by the Central 
Government hampers good government, delays progress, destroys a 
sense of responsibility, and this in turn discourages the best men 
from taking part in the local administration." 

On the 28th September 1917 when the report of the Select 
Committee on the above Bill was considered in the Legislative 
Council, Sir A. R. Danerji strongly deprecated the idea of 
representation on communal grounds which had been urged by 
some of the members, though rejected by the Select Committee as a 
whole. " The best representatives in Municipal Councils and 
Local Boards are certainly those who do not take a sectarian or 
communal view of their duties and responsibilities but have a 
broader outlook and discharge their duties as true citizens. The 
whole principle of communal representation is opposed to every 
sound idea of advancement, solidarity and the promotion of 
common interests so far as Municipal and Local Boards' 
administration is concerned." Again, when the same member 
brought forward a motion at the meeting of the Legislative Council 
held on the 28th March 1918 to pass the Bill into law, he reverted 
to the subject of communal representation and once more explained 
his views in these words: " The expression ' communal represen- 
tation ' only means to me the interests of minorities amongst the 
population who on account of their low numerical strength are 

unable to cope with electoral contests with the majorities 

When legislating on affairs relating to local self-government, the 
Legislative Council would be entering into dangerous ground if it 
attempted to solve questions relating to such delicate matters as 
sectarian and caste differences. What one would hope with the 
refining process of civilisation and enlightenment is to see a gradual 
coalescence of the different communities that constitute the Hindu 
population of the country and a corresponding increase in the 
homogeneity of interests and a spirit of equality of rights and 
obligations in all dealings between man and man." 



286 

The Bill on receiving the assent of the Maharaja became law 
as Regulation V of 1918. In accordance with its provisions, the 
Municipalities were classified into Minor, Town and City Municipal 
Councils. The Deputy Commissioners, as a general rule, ceased to 
be members of such councils and Amildars were appointed as 
presidents of taluk headquarter Municipalities as well as of Minor 
Municipal Councils in the taluk, except when an Assistant 
Commissioner or a non-official member was appointed as such. 
Several Town and Minor Municipal Councils were allowed the 
privilege of electing their own Vice- Presidents. 

As regards the Local Boards, the Local Boards Regulation II 
of 1902 had been amended by Regulation IX of 1911 whereby 
power was conferred on the District Boards to frame bye- laws for 
the regulation of markets, slaughter-houses, cart-stands, hotels, 
burial and burning grounds, and for the control of unwieldy 
traffic on roads. In 1916-17 rules were framed for the election 
of Vice- Presidents for the District Boards. Subsequently, 
however, to give effect to the the Government Order of November 
1916 on the scheme of local self-government as recommended by 
the special committees already referred to as well as to consolidate 
the existing law, a revised Regulation known as the Mysore Local 
Boards and Village Panchayets Regulation VI of 1918 was passed 
on the 25th June 1918. The number of members on District and 
Taluk Boards was increased so as to provide for an elected 
majority in all Districts and Taluk Boards, giving independent 
powers to Taluk Boards subject only to a general control by the 
District Board and allotting separate funds to Taluk Boards. The 
Regulation also provided for the establishment of Village 
Panchayets and authorised them to undertake 1. the ordinary 
maintenance of roads, sanitation, water-supply, drainage ; 
2. improvement works as specified in the village improvement 
scheme ; and 3. all other communal work connected with education 
and irrigation. The Regulation also empowered the Local Boards 
to raise a special cess for guaranteeing repayment, of loans for 
specified purposes, 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Aftermath of the war Food control Retirement of 
Sir M. Visvesvaraya and appointment of Sir M. Kantaraj 
Urs Mr. A. R. Baner ji acting Dewan during Sir M. Kantaraj 
Urs' illness Effects of food control Unsettlement of the 
State finances Public loans of 1920 Income-tax Special 
Committee for investigation of the financial condition of 
the State. 

Now turning to the aftermath of the Great War. All the 
countries of the world had to face severe economic evils almost 
immediately after the conclusion of peace. Lord Curzon one of the 
former Viceroys of India said that to meet the new situation after 
the war, new schemes, new plans, new policies needed to be devised 
and that a new adjustment was called for of many of the basic 
principles upon which public life rested at the time. 

In the Dasara Session of the Representative Assembly held in 
1918, Sir M. Visvesvaraya observed that that year had been a trying 
one for the country. The war, the drought and the unparalleled 
epidemic of influenza which spread into this part of the country 
marked a distressing combination of calamities which pressed 
heavily on the population and especially on the poorer classes. The 
deficiency of food supplies was a common experience all the world 
over at that time. The position in Mysore was intensified by the 
almost entire failure of the south-west monsoon. A Director of 
Food Supplies was appointed in May 1918 to regulate railway 
traffic and among his other duties, he was asked to watch the prices 
of food grains and other necessaries of life and to suggest measures 
from time to time to prevent cornering and holding up of stocks. 
All district officers were instructed to keep in close touch with the 
state of the market in their respective charges. These measures of 
vigilance were supplemented with others when it was found that the 
failure of the south-west monsoon unsettled the grain trade and 
caused a further rise in the prices. At the same time it was noticed 



288 

that large quantities of grain were being exported from some of 
the frontier taluks of the State to. British India. 

These circumstances necessitated greater precautions on the 
part of Government and a more elaborate organisation. In August 
1918 to prevent a possible depletion of stocks, the export of food 
grains from the State was prohibited except under licences which 
were to be granted only after the issuing officer satisfied himself that 
the export was urgently required at the destination, was not 
abnormal in quantity or direction, and would not prejudicially affect 
the food requirements of the State. Ookads or watching stations 
were established on the frontier roads to guard against the 
unauthorised export of food grains and to collect statistics of grain 
exported under licence. Frontier police parties were also organised 
to prevent surreptitious exports. These measures, however helpful 
in themselves, were found not fully effective in controlling the export 
of grain as several hundred miles of frontier required much more 
vigilance to guard than could be devised. Government thereupon 
in September and October took the additional step of fixing the 
maximum retail prices of the principal food grains in the districts 
of Bangalore, Tumkur, Hassan, Kolar and Mysore. But this 
measure had an altogether unlooked-for result as merchants and 
agriculturists alike became unwilling to part with their grain at the 
prescribed maximum rates and preferred to hold up stocks. The 
distress caused by higher prices synchronised with the wider spread 
of influenza all over the State. 

The cumulative effect of all these adverse circumstances was 
that the position became serious in November 1918. Rice was 
actually sold at 3j seers per rupee and ragi at 8 seers in Bangalore 
and even with these abnormally high prices the markets were 
indifferently supplied. The situation was then carefully reviewed 
and the policy to be pursued was explained by Sir M. Visvesvaraya 
at a public meeting at Bangalore held on the 16th November 1918. 
Detailed instructions were then issued to restrict more rigidly the 
exports, to compel people to declare stocks, to control movement of 
grain from village to village, from taluk to taluk, and from district 
to district, to license wholesale and retail merchants, to fix revised 



maximum wholesale prices for ragi and rice and to fix a lower 1 
maximum for commandeering by Government. In order to work 
out the scheme, Mr. K. Mathan of the Mysore Civil Service who 
subsequently rose to be a member of the State Council was 
appointed a whole-time Food Controller. 

At this time Sir M. Visvesvaraya went on leave from 10th 
December 1918 for six months prior to retirement and was 
succeeded by Sirdar M. Kantaraj Urs (afterwards Sir) who 
belonged to the first rank of noblemen in Mysore being the brother 
of the Do wager -Maharani who was Regent during the minority of 
her son Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Sir M. Kantaraj Urs was born 
in 1870 and received his early education in the Maharaja's College 
at Mysore and then joining the Madras Christian College took the 
B.A. Degree in 1894. He was appointed to the Mysore Service as 
a probationary Assistant Commissioner and then became Assistant 
Private Secretary to his sister the Maharani -Regent. He rose to 
the position of a Member of the State Council in 1913 and 
continued to hold that place till he was appointed Dewan. He was 
however not able to take charge of his office till 14th June 1919 on 
account of illness, and in the meanwhile, Mr. Albion Banerji 
(afterwards Sir) of the Madras Civil Service, then First Member of 
the State Council, acted as Dewan. Sir M. Kantaraj Urs was the 
first Dewan who had no connection either with the Mysore 
Commission or with the British Service outside the State. 

Now reverting to the events of the aftermath of the war, the 
immediate effect of the more rigid control of food grains was to 
slightly lower their prices but the effect was temporary. Merchants 
lost all incentive to bring grain to the market and the agriculturists 
more tightly held up stocks and only parted with small quantities 
under compulsion, as the maximum prices fixed were far below the 
actual market price. Clandestine sales continued in greater volume 
and frequency, leaving Government powerless to deal with such 
cases under penalties. The only alternative left for Government 
was to commandeer stocks to supply areas where there was distress 
and this was proceeded with. Rice and ragi were supplied to 
Shimoga, Kolar and Kadur districts and also to the two cities of 

A37 



Bangalore and Mysore. Two provincial depots were opened in 
Bangalore and Tumkur and depots at all district and most of the 
taluk headquarters were also opened according to necessity. From 
the middle of November to the end of December 1918 nearly 
43,000 pallas of food grains were commandeered and this stock was 
largely supplemented by imports of rice from Burma and elsewhere. 
Notwithstanding all these expedients, it was found impossible for 
Government to keep the markets supplied by their own unaided 
efforts. 

The situation was necessarily reconsidered in the light of 
actual experience and more reliable data. A relaxation of the 
rules controlling internal trade was then ordered in the hope 
expressed on all sides that supplies would be more readily coming 
to the market, Government retaining the power to commandeer at 
their own rates whenever they considered that there was need to do 
so. According to this policy, while exports from the State were 
strictly regulated, all restrictions on internal traffic were withdrawn. 
Agriculturists and merchants were allowed to sell at their own rate 
according to the conditions of the market. It was no doubt 
anticipated that an immediate rise in prices would result from these 
measures. But this was considered less of a public evil than a 
total absence of supplies in the markets which was beginning to be 
felt in every district, people depending entirely on supplies 
commandeered by Government and sold at below market rates. 
The strain on Government depots everywhere came almost to a 
breaking point when not only the poor for whom they were 
intended but others also resorted in large numbers. Accordingly 
the attempt to bring under regulation not only export trade but 
also internal traffic as well as the wholesale and retail distribution 
of foodstuffs was given up in January and February 1919, and a 
modified policy was adopted of an absolute control over exports 
and imported rice and limited control over available stocks to meet 
emergent demands in the cities of Bangalore and Mysore, district 
headquarters and other places only for the purpose of bringing 
relief to the poor. 

A preliminary census of foodstuffs was taken in October 1918 
and a more detailed one in December following. According to the 



291 

figures received, the stock of food-grains on the 10th December 
1918 was 3,06,493 pallas of rice, 15,78,784 palias of ragi, 1,51,191 
pallas of Jola and 36,044 paJlas of Navane, a palla being equal to 
100 measuring seers. The new harvest was estimated to yield 
12,89,134 pallas of rice, 30,77,817 pallas of ragi, 7,79,470 pallas of 
Jola and 1,78,416 pallas of Navane. The total supply of all kinds 
of food-grains was calculated to be sufficient for about 8 months 
assuming the rate per head of population to be 2 pallas per annum. 
Whatever policy the Government pursued, there was one point on 
which there was unanimous agreement at this time, namely, total 
prohibition of export of food-grains from the State subject only to 
the fulfilment of the obligations to allow a certain quantity to be 
exported to Madras, Hosur, Wynad, the Nilgiris and Coorg. In 
regard to this policy however, a serious difficulty arose when the 
Government of India sought the co-operation of the Mysore Durbar 
in the matter of relaxing inter-provincial restrictions in respect of 
minor food-grains. But the difficulty was overcome by the 
Government of India permitting the Mysore Government to import 
in exchange for an equivalent of ragi aud pulses sufficient 
quantities of rice from Burma, Bengal and Madras, as the quantity 
of rice grown in the State was not enough for the consumption of 
the people of the State even during normal years. Various 
inducements were also offered to the ryots to grow more grain 
under the Marikanave and Kannambadi channels and under other 
tanks, chiefly in the shape of cash advances for the purchase of seed 
grains and manures, or remission of wet assessment on failure 
of crops. 

Though the agricultural season in 1919 was propitious and 
yielded a liberal harvest, it was found that in the following year the 
prices did not show a diminution but remained at about 113 per 
cent above the pre-war level as against 143 per cent in July 1919. 
All restrictions against the export of food continued therefore to be 
maintained, local supplies also being augmented by large imports of 
rice from Burma as the only effective means against profiteering. 
By May 1921, however, as it was found that the markets were all 
adequately supplied with the necessary grains, the food depots were 
all closed, the post of Food Controller was abolished and all 



292 

restrictions on the export of food grains were withdrawn from the 
end of June of the same year. 

Another effect of the aftermath of the war was the 
unsettlement caused in the revenues of the State. During the 
regime of Sir M. Visvesvaraya, both the income as well as the 
expenditure increased largely. But the increased expenditure was 
well within the growth of revenue and the surplus in the year 
1917-18 was as large as Rs. 52$ lakhs. In the very next year 
however, the position transformed itself into one of a small deficit. 
It became necessary therefore to constantly maintain strict 
scrutiny over all kinds of expenditure and for this purpose 
the Budget Finance Committee was reorganised and strengthened. 
After the reorganisation, this committee came to consist of six 
officials and the same number of non -official members, with 
one of the members of Government as chairman. Of the 
six non-official members, two were from among the members 
of the Representative Assembly by election, one from the Legislative 
Council and the remaining three were nominated by Government. 

Notwithstanding all the care taken, the decrease in revenue 
persisted on account of high prices, increased cost of living, 
unstable exchange and inflated currency as well as a shrinkage 
under certain heads of revenue. Taking the effect of variations in 
exchange first, the main items of State revenue realised in England 
were the Royalty payable by the Gold Mining Companies, receipts 
on account of electric power sold to the Mines and the proceeds of 
the sale of sandalwood oil. The average annual income under 
these heads was hitherto Rs. 60 lakhs at the old rate of Is. 4d. the 
rupee. The Committee on Indian Exchange and Currency 
recommended a higher exchange rate for India, the reason among 
others being that it would not only serve to keep down prices but 
also would effect a saving in the charges incurred in England. The 
Government of India accepted this recommendation and as a 
consequence, the exchange rate became as high as 2s. a rupee. The 
decrease in receipts for the Mysore Government in the year 1920 
ampunted to Rs, 13*47 lakhs, of which about Rs. 10$ lakhs was 



293 

entirely due to the rise in exchange and the remainder to diminished 
demands for sandal wood oil and tanning bark. 

The Government now considered that a stage had been reached 
at which it was inadvisable to trench further upon the accumulated 
balances at its credit without jeopardising the capacity of 
Government to meet current liabilities, it being at the same time 
found impossible to curtail to any material extent their 
commitments towards capital expenditure. It became therefore 
necessary for Government to resort to public loans and to 
additional taxation to meet their obligations. Accordingly, for the 
execution of capital works a new loan was floated, the terms of 
which were announced in July 1920. Prior to the flotation of this 
new loan, the 4 per cent loan of Rs. 20 lakhs raised in 1906 had 
been converted into one of 5 J per cent with a currrency of 25 years. 
Two issues were now offered with a view to meet the varying 
requirements of investors. One was a seven year loan carrying 
interest at 7 per cent issued at par and the other was a 6i per cent 
long-term loan repayable in 20 to 30 years at par and issued at 97i 
per cent. The loans were kept open for subscription for 3 months 
through the whole of India. The limit to the loan was fixed at 2 
crores which was over subscribed. A large amount of subscriptions 
was received from outside the State testifying to the confidence 
placed in its credit. The wisdom of establishing the Bank of 
Mysore was now proved by the active help it gave in placing 
the loan on the market. 

To overcome the difficulty that no adequate return could be 
expected from the capital works till they were completed while an 
increase in revenue was urgently required to restore equilibrium 
between the receipts and expenditure, it also became necessary to 
resort to additional taxation. Mr. Datta the financial expert had 
expressed the opinion that Government servants, members, of the 
learned professions, bankers and large industrial concerns in 
Mysore did not contribute their proper quota of general taxation 
and the only way to reach them was by the imposition of 
an income-tax. There were also a large number of persons 
and companies from outside Mysore who enjoyed the benefits 



294 

of an advanced administration but paid no tax on their 
income. A Bill to levy income-tax was accordingly introduced 
in the Legislative Council and was passed into law in June 
1920. At about the same time, an increase was made to the rates 
of general stamps as well as of court fees. In the first year of 
the working of the Income-Tax Regulation, the total revenue derived 
was Rs. 14 lakhs and the number of assessees was 4209. 

At the same time, retrenchment measures also became 
necessary because of the practically stationary character of the 
revenues, coupled with the substantial increase in the standard of 
expenditure for some time past. The increased cost of living had 
necessitated the grant of relief to the subordinate services to the 
extent of Rs. 20 lakhs per annum, the cost of the upkeep of the 
army during the German War as well as the higher prices paid for 
materials and other necessaries for the different service depart- 
ments had swelled the expenditure. Land revenue which was the 
mainstay of the resources of the State was practically steady at 
Rs. 107 lakhs showing little sign of development. The other heads 
of revenue also showed no perceptible progress except Excise 
which notwithstanding the increased rates at which the intoxicants 
were sold to the drinking population, far from showing a diminution 
was attended with a tendency to show an increase. In February 
1922 a special committee was appointed consisting of four non- 
officials presided over by Sir K. P. Puttanna Chetty to review the 
State's finances and to formulate proposals for wiping out the 
deficit and for restoring financial equilibrium. Of the proposals 
made by this committee for the improvement of revenue as well as 
for the reduction of expenditure, almost half the number was 
accepted by Government. 

On the 1st May 1922 Sir M. Kantaraj Urs retired from his 
appointment having again been taken ill and Mr. A. R. Banerji 
(afterwards Sir) was made permanent Dewan. While holding 
office, he showed himself as possessed of a genuine desire to 
advance the interests of the country of his birth, though in his 
efforts he laboured under considerable handicap on account of 
physical weakness caused by ill-health, 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Administrative and other Improvements 1919-25. 

Outbreak of Influenza. 

On account of an outbreak of influenza in 1918 there was 
widespread distress as well as loss of life throughout the State, 
which numbered about 2\ lakhs of persons or 2.9 per cent of the 
total population. The Government spent large sums in relief 
measures and it was brought home that an effective organisation 
for medical relief, prevention of epidemics and improvement of 
sanitation and public health both in towns and villages was 
necessary and urgent, and a committee was accordingly appointed 
to investigate the subject and formulate a scheme. 

Education. 

The Scout Movement was established in the Mysore State in 
the year 1919 and continued to make good progress. In the 
matter of women's eduction, the college and collegiate high school 
classes maintained in the Maharani's College were transferred to 
the control of the University. The education of the Panchamas or 
Adi-karnatakas as they are called now received particular attention 
during this period. The Central Panchama Boarding School at 
Mysore was raised to the status of a Kanada High School with 
separate sections for industrial and normal training. To further 
stimulate education among the Panchamas, special concessions 
were granted in the shape of scholarships, travelling allowance to 
and from schools to pupils learning English, free supply of books 
and slates, and allowances to parents while the children were under 
training in schools. Next as regards fees, all fees in middle 
schools were abolished from the year 1918-19, education below the 
high school grade being imparted absolutely free to all 
communities. In regard to the higher grades of education, 
increased facilities were afforded to the poorer classes of all 
communities by providing freeships and scholarships on a liberal 
scale, in addition to the special encouragement given to the back- 
ward communities. 



In May 1921 Government passed orders on an educational 
memorandum which had been drawn up containing a programme 
for the spread of primary education in the State. The most 
important measures indicated in the memorandum and sanctioned 
now were the gradual conversion of aided village primary schools 
to Government institutions, the development of vernacular middle 
schools into anglo- vernacular schools of a uniform type, the 
combination of practical with literary instruction and the establish- 
ment of a large number of industrial schools, the extension of the 
course of normal training, the provision of special facilities for the 
education of Panchamas and the revision erf the scale of pay of all 
appointments in the tutorial line as well as of the inspectorate. 
The execution of this programme was calculated to involve an 
additional expenditure ranging from Rs. 21 to Rs. 41 lakhs in the 
course of five years. To meet this heavy expenditure, the levy of 
an education cess under the Local Boards and Municipal 
Regulations was determined upon to enable the Local Bodies to 
contribute towards the cost of primary education both in rural as 
well as in urban areas. 

After a year's experince however, it was found that the 
progress made under the educational memorandum was slow owing 
mainly to want of funds. The percentage of expenditure on 
education to the total revenues was already about 14 including 
revenues derived from capital and industrial works. The 
percentage to normal revenues was 1 7. To carry out the education 
programme, it had been calculated that a cess of one anna in the 
rupee would be raised by all the' District Boards on certain items 
of revenue and of two annas in the rupee by City Municipalities 
and one anna in the rupee by the other Municipalities. It was 
however found in 1924 that the anticipations of the Govern- 
ment in the matter of raising sufficient funds by means of an 
education cess had not been realised and that the amount so far 
realised was only Rs. 2,92,000. It was also found that only five 
districts had taken action in the matter, while the remaining three 
districts and practically all the Municipalities had remained 
indifferent. Even where the cess was levied, it was only half an 
anna in the rupee as against one anna suggested in the Government 



297 

Order on the memorandum. The financial basis of the memo- 
randum therefore, it was found, required serious consideration. 

Development of Local Self-Government. 

In 1919 the constitution of the Taluk and District Boards were 
defined in accordance with the Taluk Boards and Village 
Panchayets Regulation VI of 1918 and rules were also framed for 
making due provision for the representation of important interests 
and communities on these Boards. The Town and Minor Municipal 
Councils were permitted to elect their own Vice-Presidents. The 
development of economic work in the districts which was hitherto 
being managed by the District and Taluk Progress Committees 
was transferred in 1920 to the District and Taluk Boards. The 
Municipal Regulation of 1906 was amended by Regulation III of 
1921 making suitable provision for conduct of work relating to 
economic development by the Municipalities. The Local Boards 
and Village Panchayets Regulation was also amended to render it 
obligatory on the part of the Local Boards to devote attention to 
economic development and to levy an education cess. One 
noticeable advance under Local Boards administration was the 
grant of the privilege of electing a President to the Bangalore 
District Board and the appointment of non-official gentlemen 
as Presidents for the District Boards of Kolar and Hassan. All 
the District Boards now came to have non-official Vice-Presidents. 

A Local Self -Government Conference was held in the year 
1923 and 48 resolutions were submitted to Government for 
consideration. The conference recommended the abolition of 
Village Improvement Committees and urged the constitution of 
Panchayets for all villages in the State on a statutory basis. This 
measure had been repeatedly urged for consideration ever since the 
introduction of the village improvement scheme and the Govern- 
ment now accepted the recommendation of the conference to 
constitute a Panchayet for every village or group of villages in the 
State. Each Panchayet was to consist of not less than 5 and not 
more than 12 members, at least half of whom were to be elected. 
The chairman of the Panchayet was to be nominated by 
Government in the initial stages, the right of election being 

A3* 



conceded when the Panchayets were well established and showed 
satisfactory work. The functions of the Panchayets were classified 
under two heads- obligatory and optional, the former including 
village sanitation and communications and the latter all other items 
of work which promoted the health, convenience or comfort of the 
inhabitants. Provision was made for investing select Panchayets 
with powers under the Village Courts and Tank Panchayet 
Regulations and Forest Panchayet Rules and also for the transfer 
of the control over Muzrai institutions and supervision over village 
elementary schools. To enable the Panchayets to function 
efficiently they were empowered to levy taxes on houses, shops, 
vacant sites and backyards, the rural Mohatarfa taxes being 
abolished. The Amildar was invested with the powers of control, 
inspection and supervision of the Panchayets in order to provide 
for close and efficient supervision over their working. 

On the introduction of the Panchayet scheme, the Government 
expressed readiness to abolish all the Taluk Boards and thereby 
allow the District Boards a freer scope to attend to all the 
district, taluk, inter-taluk and inter- village services under sanitation, 
communications, medical relief and other services. The removal of 
the intermediary agency of the Taluk Boards left the District 
Boards a free hand in developing the larger local interests in the 
districts, while securing to them greater control over their finances 
and concentration of funds in their hands. The franchise was 
extended to women to vote at elections to the District Boards. 
Besides the Kolar Gold Fields Sanitary Board constituted for 
the special sanitation of the mining area under the Mines 
Regulation, there were in 1924-25 eight District Boards. 

As regards Municipalities, the resolutions of the conference 
did not recommend any radical changes either in their constitution 
or functions. The more important of the recommendations of the 
conference accepted by Government were 1. the elected element 
in the Minor Municipal Councils was raised from one-third to half 
the strength of the Municipal Council ; 2. franchise was extended 
to women to vote at elections; 3. the Presidents of City and 
Town Municipal Councils were ordinarily to be elected and it was 



299 

also accepted that the election might be made by the general body 
of voters instead of by the Municipal Councils concerned. 

Industries and Commerce. 

During the period up to the end of 1925 after the termination 
of the world war, anticipating the recommendations of the Indian 
Industrial Commission, the development of industries was 
recognised as one of the primary duties of Government. As a 
consequence, following the example of the British Indian 
Provinces, a well-equipped Department of Industries and 
Commerce came into existence in Mysore also. The establishment 
of the Sandalwood Oil Factory a direct product of the war was 
found not only to have rescued a valuable source of revenue which 
had been seriously threatened during the war, but also demonstrated 
the practicability of carrying on a chemical industry producing 
a medicinal oil of a high degree of purity with the assistance 
of the chemists trained in the local colleges. The Soap and the 
Metal factories established by the Department of Industries also 
gave promise of success. The Commercial Section of the depart- 
ment issued for the first time a review of the railborne trade for the 
year 1918-19 and also a report regarding the road traffic of the 
State and helped the formation of an Association of grain merchants 
in Bangalore. In 1921 the administration of the Industries 
Department was entrusted to Mr. P. G. D'Souza, a member of the 
Mysore Civil Service who had been specially deputed to Europe 
and America to study the industrial and commercial developments 
and organisations in the countries of those continents. The 
concerns under the control of the Industries and Commerce 
Department at this time were the Soap Factory, the Central 
Industrial Workshop, the Metal Factory, the Art Workshop, the 
Weaving Factory and the Arts and Crafts Depot. Some of these 
were started as pioneer concerns, while others were established 
partly for training and demonstration purposes and partly as 
commercial concerns. In January 1923 the department was 
reorganised and the control over industrial education transferred to 
it. In this year Government also granted certain concessions for 
the establishment of a Match Factory in the State, 



300 

In April 1924 there was an exhibition in London of the 
resources of all parts of the British Empire. The Mysore 
Government participated in this exhibition in a manner befitting 
the importance of the State and its varied resources. A special 
Mysore court was established with a floor space of about 1200 
square feet occupying a prominent position in the Indian pavilion. 
Mr. S. G. Sastry who was at this time Industrial Chemist to the 
department was placed in charge of this court. The exhibits from 
Mysore won the appreciation of all the visitors to the Mysore 
court and the opportunity afforded by the exhibition was utilised 
for finding new markets for the surplus products of the State. 

According to the statistics gathered, it was found in 1924 that 
there were for a year imports of Rs. 1.69 crores worth of grain and 
pulses, Rs. 3.88 crores worth of yarn and textiles, Rs. 67.67 lakhs 
worth of oils and Rs. 124 lakhs worth of drugs and chemicals; and 
exports of Rs. 47 lakhs worth of oil seeds, Rs. 68 lakhs worth of 
cotton, Rs. 23.66 lakhs worth of hides and skins and Rs. 29 lakhs 
worth of unmanufactured leather, Rs. 37 lakhs worth of silk and 
Rs. 58 lakhs worth of sugar and jaggery. These figures indicated 
that Mysore was being exploited for its valuable raw materials. 
Its food production was insufficient and the people of the State had 
to go outside for many of their requirements which could very well 
be provided within the State itself. It was also found that the 
balance of trade had gone against the State for a number of years. 
In 1922-23 the balance of railborne trade that had gone against the 
State was Rs. 178 lakhs, but in the subsequent year it turned in 
favour of the State to the extent of Rs. 75 lakhs. This result 
however was found to be due more to the decrease of imports of 
commodities like salt, sugar, piece-goods, 'coal, machinery and 
provisions" than to any increase in the exports which remained 



The bulk of the trade remained in the hands of outside 
middlemen. Large quantities of piece-goods were usually imported 
into Bangalore whence they were exported to various centres. A 
major portion of 'the money required for financing this trade was 
tp have cpm$ from outsi<te ap<J the profits derived from these 



301 

transactions were estimated at nearly a crore of rupees. It may 
be said, however, that these figures related only to railborne trade 
and did not show the position of Mysore as a whole by taking into 
computation the Malnad trade in the important products of coffee, 
paddy, cardamom, areca and jaggery and the exports of silk to 
Kollegal in the Coimbatore district by road. The statistics 
gathered also went to show that the question of increased food 
production was one of great importance. Action was taken by 
Government in this direction by throwing open for cultivation a 
number of Amrut Mahal grass reserves and date groves to the 
extent of above 50,000 acres. 

Sericulture. 

In 1919 there were 10 taluk sericultural schools distributed 
throughout the sericultural parts of the State and at 8 of them the 
sons of ryots received training in improved methods. A silk expert 
from Japan was now engaged for the general development of the 
silk industry and was also entrusted with the control of all research 
and experimental work in the State. A lady expert from Japan 
was also engaged for the introduction of foot-reeling as a home 
industry. The Government grainages supplied large quantities of 
disease-free eggs but as the demand was larger than the supply 
could meet, a scheme for the establishment of private grainages 
under departmental supervision was also introduced. 



CHAPTER XXXVL 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Administrative and other Improvements 1919-25. 

In the year 1921 a long-standing grievance received solution to 
some extent which was to the advantage of the land-holders. The 
holders of lands under tanks had been placed under obligation under 
the rules of the Survey Settlement to pay the wet assessment on 
their holdings whether the tank received a sufficient supply of water 
or not. At the meetings of the Representative Assembly this 
subject was being repeatedly pressed and now Government came to 
a decision that whenever in any tract not less than half the total 
cultivable area or atchkat was left uncultivated in any year, or if 
cultivated, did not yield more than a quarter of the normal yield, 
the collection of half the assessment was to be postponed for a year 
and if similar conditions prevailed during the following year also, 
the suspended assessment was to be remitted. This measure was 
to some extent a departure from the established principles of Survey 
and Settlement as introduced in Mysore. In Mysore the Bombay 
system of Settlement was, as we have seen, followed under which 
wet lands were classed with reference to the capacity of the tanks 
to supply them with water for irrigation and the assessment on 
them was fixed with reference to the average of a series of years 
good and bad, making sufficient allowance for occasional deficiencies 
of rainfall and other vicissitudes. A system of assessment however 
under which a soil assessment and a water assessment are separately 
imposed on wet lands and the water assessment is remitted when no 
water is given for irrigation is regarded as more equitable on account 
of its simplicity and elasticity, though in practice some difficulties 
may be encountered. 

Encouragement to Coffee Industry. 

In 1924 a Bill to impose a cess on coffee grown in the State 
was introduced in the Legislative Council. Coffee, as we have seen, 
was in the beginning used to be cultivated in the State on Waram 
or produce-scaring system. Subsequently a halat or a cash levy 



303 

was introduced which varied from four annas to one rupee per 
maund of produce. On account of the great fluctuations in prices 
subsequently, a system of acreage assessment of Re. 1 per acre for 
temporary and Rs. 1-8-0 per acre for permanent tenures was next 
substituted. The Bill referred to was now introduced not as a 
money bill to add to the general revenues of the State but was 
intended to give special assistance to an important industry which 
was in need of special attention. But the terms on which the 
coffee lands were given were not the same as those applying to the 
agricultural lands in general. It was regarded that when Govern- 
ment gave lands on concession terms, it was not to be expected 
that the whole cost of special investigations or of special facilities 
leading to an increase in the outturn of the industry concerned 
should be defrayed from the general revenues of the State. The 
industry however had passed through a series of vicissitudes for the 
past some years and deserved some encouragement, and the main 
object of this legislation was to establish a principle of mutual 
co-operation between the Government and the people where special 
circumstances warranted a generous treatment. This Bill was 
passed into law in the year 1926. In this connection, it may be 
mentioned that the supari or areca cess as a separate cess was 
abolished in this period as the industry enjoyed no special concessions 
and as it was also felt that it was the duty of the Department of 
Agriculture to help the supari growers with advice and to suggest 
the necessary remedies against causes that interfered with supari 
cultivation. 

The Bhadravathi Iron Works. 

After the difficulties due to the war for obtaining the requisite 
machinery from foreign countries had been overcome, the Bhadra- 
vathi Iron Works were started. Messrs. Tata & Sons were 
appointed agents and a Board of Management was also appointed. 
The construction of the plant in the Iron Works was for the most 
part completed by December 1922 and the blast furnace started 
working from the 18th January 1923. In June 1924 the agreement 
concluded with the Tata Iron and Steel Company was terminated 
by mutual consent. 



304 

KrUhnarajasagara Hydro-Electric Works. 

By 1921 the first stage of the Krishnarajasagara Reservoir as 
the Kannambadi tank was now named was nearly completed. The 
power generated at Sivasamudram with the first three installations 
which were in existence when the dam was commenced was 
13,000 H.P. With the finishing of the first stage of the dam, the 
power generated -increased from 13,000 H.P. to 32,000 H.P. On 
the completion of the sixth installation, the storage in the reservoir 
was expected to enable the Government to develop irrigation to the 
extent of about 70,000 acres. 

* 
With regard to the further raising of the storage capacity of the 

Krishnarajasagara reservoir, there arose a dispute between the Mysore 
Government and the Government of Madras as to the extent of 
their respective rights to share the waters of the river. A conference 
took place at Mysore on the 13th November 1923 at which Lord 
Willingdon then Governor of Madras was present and Sir Albion 
Banerji the Dewan represented Mysore. After full discussion 
lasting for some period, an agreement was arrived at between 
the two Governments in February 1924 and this agreement was 
subsequently ratified by the Secretary of State for India. By this 
agreement it became possible for the Mysore Government to bring 
under cultivation more than 21 lakhs of acres of land. 

The Co-operative Committee. 

In the year 1920 the Government appointed a committee of 10 
members consisting of officials and non-officials, with the Hon'ble 
Sir Lallubhai Samaldas Mehta of Bombay as chairman to examine 
the progress of co-operation in the State and to suggest lines of 
further development. The Committee toured in all the districts and 
submitted their report to Government in 1923. As proposed in 
the report of the Committee, an Apex Bank was established in the 
year 1925. 

Tank Restoration. 

Notwithstanding the extreme solicitude shown by Government 
for the proper restoration of all the irrigation tanks in the State, the 
progress was found to be extremely slow. The ryots profiting by a 



305 

tank were expected to contribute all the earthwork required, while 
the Government's share consisted in completing the stonework. 
Next, it was made optional for the ryot to pay a money value for 
his share of the work. After some time, this pptional commutation 
of labour into money was made a compulsory levy and the total 
contribution was made recoverable in five equal instalments. 
These changes however brought no increased efficiency in the work 
of restoration and in agreement with the views expressed both in 
the Representative Assembly as well as in the Legislative Council 
a new amended Tank Regulation was brought into force by 
Government from September 1923. By the change effected by this 
Regulation the voluntary contribution was converted into a com- 
pulsory levy of one-fourth the estimated cost of the work. The 
duty of executing the repairs was taken out of the hands of the 
Revenue Department and entrusted to those of the Public Works. 
The latter were also directed to proceed with the work without 
waiting for the recovery of the contribution as in the past, once the 
estimate was sanctioned. 

The Public Serrice and the Backward Communities* 

In the year 1920-21 the Government passed orders to increase 
the representation of the backward communities in the service of 
the State. So long ago as 1892, in considering the question of 
recruitment to the civil service Sir K. Seshadri Iyer referring to the 
question of maintaining a fair proportion of all classes in the service 
of the State had remarked of the Brahmin community that it was 
already too well represented. During the tenure of Sir. M. 
Visvesvaraya's office as Dewan, several measures were adopted for 
securing the increased representation of non-Brahmin communities 
in the Public Service. In 1914 a somewhat lower scale of qualifica- 
tion for appointments of Amildars was prescribed for non-Brahmin 
candidates. In 1915 this principle was extended to the class of 
Shekdars or Revenue Inspectors. In 1916 it was directed that 25 
per cent of the appointments was to be given to qualified members 
of the non-Brahmin communities. In August 1918 the Govern- 
ment in appointing a committee of six non-official gentlemen 
presided over by Sir Leslie Miller, Chief Judge of the Chief Court, 

A39 



306 

wished that as there was at the time a large preponderance of the 
Brahmin community in the Public Service, measures should be 
devised for the adequate representation of all communities. The 
committee submitted their report in August 1919 and in May 1921 
the Government decided that, provided qualified candidates were 
available, the proportion of the members of the backward 
communities in all departments of the State Service was to be 
gradually raised to 50 per cent of the total strength in 7 years, 
exclusive of those in inferior service. To achieve this end the 
Government directed that during this period of seven years 
candidates belonging to the backward comrnunities were to be 
given preference in respect of initial appointments so long as 
they possessed the prescribed qualifications. A Central Recruit- 
ment Board was also instituted with one of the members of the 
State Council as chairman to register all applications for 
appointments and to put applicants in touch with offices where 
vacancies existed and also to serve as a vigilance committee for 
watching the administration of the rules. 

The Problem of Unemployment. 

By 1923 it came to be felt that a verv large number of 
graduates and under-graduates were being annually turned out of 
the University who could not find employment. Some attempt was 
made as proposed by the University to equip it for teaching not 
merely the arts and humanities and the pure sciences but also the 
application of science to agricultural, technological and vocational 
subjects, thereby opening fresh fields of employment. Sir Albion 
Banerji in September 1925 in his speech at the Dasara Session of 
the Representative Assembly summed up the results of the 
extension of collegiate and secondary education in these words : 
" Since the Mysore University was started, it has turned out 85 
M.A.'s, 963 B.A.'s and 197 B.Sc.'s. According to the statistics of 
the Central Recruitment Board, no less than 405 graduates and 517 
candidates with under -graduate qualifications and 2708 Secondary 
School Certificate holders applied for Government Service but 
failed to secure any post. The total number of appointments in all 
grades in the State Service is about 20,000, of which appointments 



307 

those on a pay of above Rs. 100 are one thousand and the rest are 
those carrying a salary of Rs. 15 and above up to Rs. 100. The 
percentage of school- going population who now come up for higher 
grades of education is increasing gradually from year to year. All 
our high schools are over-crowded and split up into innumerable 
sections. The middle schools are filled to overflowing and as 
regards primary schools, Government cannot open them as fast as 
is necessary to meet the demands of the people. As circumstances 
stand at present, general education is only a passport to Govern- 
ment Service. The inevitable result is that all those who are 
qualified according to certain prescribed standards knock at the 
door of Government for employment and the majority of them 
cannot be absorbed as the scope is limited. That is the problem of 

unemployment In the course of the past 4j years the total 

number of appointments made by Government through the 
Recruitment Board came only to 2410. When we compare these 
with the total number of applications which came to 28,000, it is 
pitiful to imagine the distress, the disappointment and the hardship 
that these poor, unfortunate candidates may now be labouring 
under, if during the period of their whole educational career their 
one object was to seek a Government appointment " 

Railways. 

The metre-gauge line from Chikjajur to Chitaldrug 21 miles 
was opened for traffic in May 1921. The State had now over 400 
miles of open lines owned by it under its management, including 
the Nanjangud-Bangaloreand Birur-Shimoga sections, a total length 
of nearly 140 miles which were resumed from the Madras and 
Southern Mahratta Railway Company on 1st October 1919, besides 
275i miles worked for it by the same Company and they constituted 
a valuable asset worth about Rs. 5 crores. 

Owing to various urgent demands on the finances of 
Government, the chief of them being the Krishnarajasagara and 
the Iron Works schemes, sufficient allotments could not be made 
for railway construction and proposals were now made to some of 
the District Boards to ascertain whether they could raise any 
capital in the districts to complete the construction of the unfinished 



308 

lines, so that they might be part-proprietors with the Government 
of such railways. The Mysore District Board accordingly came 
forward to make the Nanjangud-Chamarajanagar line their own 
concern and the Board was authorised to float a loan with 
Government guarantee to resume the construction of this railway. 

Unprecedented Floods. 

In July 1924 there were unprecedented floods in five of the 
districts of the State, rising to a height of 30 feet in some of the 
rivers. In the Mysore district the valleys of the Kaveri, Kapini, 
Hemavathi and minor tributaries like the Taraka were seriously 
affected. One hundred and two villages, Besides the towns of 
Nanjangud, Yedatore (Krishnarajanagara as it is now called), 
Seringapatam and T-Narsipur suffered the heaviest and nearly 
4000 houses collapsed in this area and property to the extent 
of nearly Rs. 3j lakhs was destroyed. Public roads, tanks, 
channels and anekats were breached in several places and traffic 
was interrupted. The Nanjangud road and railway bridge and also 
the Wellesley Bridge at Seringapatam were seriously threatened 
and suffered considerable damage. Nearly 8000 acres of land were 
damaged and portions entirely washed away. In the Shimoga 
district besides the town of Shimoga which was inundated, fifteen 
important villages on the banks of the Thunga and the Bhadra 
suffered badly. In Shimoga 735 houses were under water, of 
which 250 collapsed. In other places the total number of houses 
lost was estimated at about 1000. Agricultural lands also suffered 
as in the Mysore district. In the Kadur district there happened no 
serious damage to the villages, but paddy lands suffered severely 
and caused considerable loss to the agriculturists. In the Hassan 
district the damage was slight except that nearly 100 houses were 
lost, Ramnathpur being the worst sufferer. The damages to the 
roads, channels and anekats also contributed to the agricultural 
distress. In the Chitaldrug district Harihar suffered much. 

Various relief parties were sent to the affected parts with funds 
and provisions to help the villagers who had been rendered home- 
less and destitute by this unprecedented visitation and to re-settle 
them by providing them with suitable sites higher up and nearby. 



309 

On account of the promptness of the official aid and help from the 
people in general, no lives were lost and much of the property that 
otherwise would have been lost was saved. 

A public meeting was held at Mysore on the 2nd August 1924 
in the Rangacharlu Memorial Hall to express sympathy with those 
who suffered from the floods and to organise relief measures for 
them. A meeting was also held at Bangalore on the 8th of the 
same month to organise a Central Flood Relief Committee with His 
Highness the Yuvaraja as chairman. The Government of India 
sent a message expressing their deep concern at the loss and the 
suffering caused by the floods and H. E. the Viceroy also conveyed 
to His Highness the Maharaja his personal sympathy with those 
who had suffered. The Servants of India Society collected 
subscriptions and materially helped in affording relief. The Kolar 
Gold Field Mining Board also did the same and the Maharaja 
contributed Rs. 15,000 from the privy purse. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Proposals to place the Representative Assembly and the 
Legislative Council on a reformed basis. 

In the year 1902 when the present Maharaja assumed the 
reins of Government, no meeting of the Representative Assembly 
was held on account of the virulence of the plague which prevailed 
in the State during the season of the Dasara festivities. On the 
5th October 1903 His Highness was able Jo open the Assembly 
personally when it met as usual in that year at Mysore. His 
Highness at the very start stated that the decision of the previous 
year to postpone the meeting was taken with much reluctance and 
acknowledged that one of the conspicuous results of the establish- 
ment of the Assembly was the consolidation of a sense of common 
interest between the Government and the people. 

In the Dasara Session of 1913 a proposition was brought 
forward by the members of the Assembly that a second session 
should be held, as one sitting in a year for a few days was not 
enough to deal adequately with all the subjects which the 
representatives brought forward. Of the prominent speakers on 
this subject at the time may be mentioned the names of Ramanuja 
lyengar of Gubbi, C. Srinivasa Rao of Chickmagalur, Amble 
Anniah Pandit, M. Venkatakrishniah of Mysore, D. Venkataramiah 
of Bangalore. In this year certain rules were for the first time 
issued for the discussion of subjects in the Assembly. It was laid 
down that every subject was to be first introduced and explained 
by the member or one of the members by whom it was sent up to 
Government and that any other member who wished to speak on 
the subject might follow. The members introducing the subject 
were given the right to close the discussion with a reply. 

The system of triennial election was, as we have seen, 
instituted in 1894 and on the occasion of the 8th such election in 
1915 the election rules were slightly revised, the candidates being 
required to notify their desire to stand for election one month 



311 

before the date fixed for such election. The dates for the several 
preliminary events such as the submission of the representations 
to be brought forward, the district meeting for the selection of 
subjects were all fixed a month earlier than usual. The number of 
representatives due to be returned was fixed at 290. 

The privilege of holding a second session of the Assembly 
every year was granted by the Maharaja in 1917, and in April of 
that year when the second session was held for the first time, the 
State budget was placed before it for discussion prior to its going 
to the Legislative Council. A new procedure for the preliminary 
investigation of questions by means of committees was adopted. 
This procedure, it was expected, if properly developed would 
faciliate the work of the Assembly by placing before it concrete 
issues or definite recommendations formulated after a thorough 
study of the questions by members specially interested in them. 
The change was intended also to provide special opportunities to 
members to make constructive proposals for the consideration of 
Government in matters in which they took an interest. 

Among the committees appointed was one to discuss and 
report on the constitution and improvement of the Assembly itself. 
In passing orders on this report in April 1918 the Government 
introduced certain changes in the constitution of the Assembly. 
Firstly, the electorate was broadened by the adoption for all taluks 
in the State of a uniform qualification of the payment of land revenue 
of Rs. 50 or of a Mohatarfa payment of Rs. 10 per annum. 
Secondly, the distinction between the qualification for voting and 
for membership was abolished, thereby rendering it identical for 
both, and thirdly the privilege of interpellation on matters of public 
interest subject to certain restrictions were granted. Subsequently 
a re-distribution of the seats was also made in order to provide 
larger representation to Municipalities. 

In his concluding remarks at the close of the meeting of the 
Representative Assembly in April 1918, the Dewan Sir M. 
Visvesvaraya pointed out that till then members brought up 
individual subjects of varying degrees of importance, but that in the 



312 

future, time had to be found not only for such subjects but also for 
large questions previously reported upon by special committees and 
for budget debate and interpellations. Thenceforward it was 
necessary for the Assembly, the Dewan further said, to curtail 
greatly individual complaints and specific subjects and for the 
members to give increased attention to large schemes, comprehensive 
proposals and general principles of progress, not to speak of attempts 
to place correct ideals before the public to mould their habits and 
thoughts properly. 

On the 13th October 1919 the question of the time for holding 
the second session of the Assembly was discussed and on the 
suggestion of Amble Anniah Pandit and other members, it was 
settled that the second session should begin every year a few days 
prior to the Birthday of the Maharaja. 

In 1920 the term of office of the members deputed by the 
Municipal Councils and other corporate bodies was raised from one 
to three years so as to be in agreement with that of the members 
returned from the taluk electorates, as the term of one year was 
found too short for any useful work and the change also avoided 
the drawback of re-elections to the Legislative Council from the 
Representative Assembly in the case of members elected by that 
Assembly. Provision was also made for bye-elections when 
vacancies occurred. Retired officers of the Mysore State troops 
were given the privilege of voting for members as well as standing 
for membership. 

In July 1921 a deputation of ladies interested in the subject of 
women's franchise waited on the Dewan Sir M. Kantaraj Urs and 
pressed for the removal of sex disqualification in the matter of 
voting for and election to the Representative Assembly, the 
Legislative Council and Local and Municipal bodies. This subject 
was also discussed in the Dasara Session of the Representative 
Assembly of the same year. 

In 1922 the Legislative Council had in addition to the Dewan 
and Members of Council a strength of 30, of whom 12 were 
officials and 18 were non-officials. The functions of this Council 



313 

as they stood at the time comprised (l) legislation (2) discussion 
of the budget (3) interpellations and (4) moving of resolutions, 
which power had been conceded in 1919. Certain subjects such as 
the Subsidy payable to the British Government, the Civil List, 
Military Forces were outside the competence of the Council. No 
measure could also be introduced without the previous sanction in 
writing of the Dewan. 

It was now felt that the time had come to take a further step 
forward in the policy of associating the people more and more with 
the Government and increasing the popular element in the 
administration and accordingly a re-constitution of both the Repre- 
sentative Assembly as well as of the Legislative Council was 
decided upon, based on past experience of the working of these 
institutions. The general principles on which the reconstitution 
was to be based were clearly enunciated. 

The Representative Assembly was to have a definite place in 
the constitution of the State. The qualifications for voters were to 
be substantially reduced so as to extend the franchise to a consider- 
able extent. The sex disqualification for voters was to be removed. 
No new tax was to be levied without previously consulting the 
Assembly. This Assembly was also to have the right of moving 
resolutions on matters relating to the public administration and also 
on the annual State budget. It was to be consulted in regard to 
all important legislative measures. The legislative programme of 
the year was to be placed before it at the Dasara Session and the 
general principles of the Bills were to be discussed. In cases 
where legislation was introduced in the Legislative Council before 
discussion in the Assembly, the Maharaja's consent was ordinarily 
to be reserved till the next session of the Assembly. The strength 
of the Assembly was to be fixed at about 200, provision being also 
made for the representation of minorities and of special interests 
by nomination, if necessary. The Dewan was to continue to be 
the President of the Assembly, while the Members of the State 
Council were to be Vice-Presidents. Local subjects were not, as a 
rule, to be brought before the Assembly but were to go before the 
District Boards whose functions were to be enlarged, 



M4 

The strength of the Legislative Council was to be increased 
and fixed at not less than 40 and not more than 50 members. The 
number of members elected from the Uepresentative Assembly to 
this body was to be substantially increased. Provision was to be 
made for the representation of special interests such as industries 
and commerce, planting, educational, minorities. This Council 
was also to be given the power of voting on the annual State 
budget by major heads in respect of all items of expenditure except 
those affecting the Palace, the military, pensions of public servants 
and the political relations with the British Government. In parti- 
cular cases where this Council refused its % assent to a provision in 
the budget or reduced it, it was to be open to the Government 
to restore the provision, if they considered it essential. 

All matters relating to the internal administration of the State 
were to be thrown open for discussion both in the Representative 
Assembly as well as in the Legislative Council except those 
specifically excluded. The resolutions of the Representative 
Assembly and the Legislative Council were to have effect only as 
recommendations to Government. In order to enlarge the opportu- 
nities of the non -official representatives of the people to influence 
the everyday administration, one or more Standing Committees 
consisting of the members of the Legislative Council and the 
Representative Assembly were to be appointed in an advisory 
capacity on the model of the Standing Committees of the Indian 
Legislature. The members were to be selected from a panel to be 
elected by the members of the Representative Assembly and the 
Legislative Council respectively from among themselves. The 
meetings of the Standing Committee were to be held under the 
chairmanship of a Member of Government and summoned at such 
times and as frequently as might be decided by the Dewan. All 
major questions of general policy on which the member in charge 
of the department concerned desired the advice of the committee 
were to be placed before it. The existing Budget Finance 
Committee consisting of officials and non-officials was to be 
abolished. 

On the 10th October 1922 when the Dasara Session of the 
Representative Assembly concluded, Sir Albion Banerji made the 



31S 

following appeal to the members in connection with the reform of 

the constitution : " This is not the time to discuss 

the merits of the scheme that His Highness has been pleased to 
sanction for the liberalisation of his administration on the lines 
generally indicated. No scheme however perfect can please every- 
body. All I desire to impress upon you is that so far as His 
Highness* Government is concerned, every shade of opinion 
expressed has been carefully weighed and considered and that they 
have reason to believe that the scheme will receive the enthusiastic 
support of the whole moderate opinion of Mysore. I am myself 
fully confident that with the political insight and sagacity which 
the people of Mysore possess in a marked degree they will recognise 
that Mysore history and Mysore traditions and above all, the 
absolute solidarity of interest between the Ruler and the ruled that 
exists in the State point to a path of progress and healthy evolution 
on the lines now announced and that they will appeal to one and all 
as the measure of advancement in constitutional progress that is 

indicated by our present conditions and limitations " 

Before the Assembly dispersed to meet again in June 1923 for the 
second session, the Dewan announced that the Maharaja had given 
his approval to the appointment of a mixed committee of officials 
and non -officials presided over by Dr. (afterwards Sir) Brajendranath 
Seal, Vice-Chancellor of the University, for the elucidation of all 
the details connected with the constitution of the Assembly, the 
electorates, the length and frequency of the sessions and the 
procedure of the House. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Krithnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

The Seal Committee Report on Constitutional Reforms. 

The Committee over which Sir Brajendranath Seal presided, 
submitted its report to Government in March 1923 and it was 
published in April following, to elicit public opinion on the proposals 
contained in it. The report was widely discussed by public bodies 
and also at various conferences, and a large number of representa- 
tions and suggestions were sent to Government. The report was 
unanimous on all important points except on the question of the 
representation of minorities. Careful and detailed consideration 
was given to this report as well as to all other views placed at the 
disposal of Government and the decisions arrived at were embodied 
in a Proclamation issued by the Maharaja on the 27th October 1923 
as well as in the two Regulations, one relating to the Representative 
Assembly (XVIII of 1923) and the other to the Legislative Council 
(XIX of 1923), promulgated on the same date. These two 
Regulations did not pass through the Legislative Council but were 
issued by His Highness on his own authority, possessing as he did 
as between himself and his subjects undivided sovereign authority 
under the Mysore constitution as it stood, and it was therefore 
expressly provided in the Legislative Council Regulation itself that 
that Council had no authority to alter its own constitution nor that 
ot the Representative Assembly. It is true that amendments to the 
Legislative Council Regulation of 1907 made in the years 1914, 
1917 and 1919 were placed before and passed through the Legislative 
Council. But in doing so, it was subsequently realised that the 
constitutional aspect of the matter had been overlooked. Other 
matters taken out of the purview of the Legislative Council were 
1. All measures relating to or affecting the Ruling Family of 
Mysore; 2. the relations of His Highness the Maharaja with the 
Paramount Power or with foreign Princes or States ; and 3. matters 
governed by treaties, conventions or agreements then in force or 
thereafter to be made by the Maharaja with the Paramount 
Power. 



317 

The Proclamation issued began by asserting that it was the 
constant desire of the Maharaja to provide for the increasing 
association of the people in the administration of the State, that the 
measures which had been introduced from time to time towards this 
end had met with a gratifying response from the people and from 
their chosen representatives, and that an announcement had already 
been made by the Dewan as to His Highness' resolve to take 
further substantial steps in the same direction. His Highness now 
ordained that the Representative Assembly established by his father 
by an executive order forty-two years ago was for the future to be 
placed on a statutory basis with enlarged functions. The Assembly 
was to have the privilege of being consulted on all proposals for the 
levy of new taxes and also, except in cases of urgency, on the 
general principles of all measures of legislation within the cognisance 
of the Legislative Council. The Assembly was also given the right 
of passing resolutions on all matters relating to public administration 
and on the general principles and policy underlying the annual 
State budget. The following however were placed outside the 
scope of the Assembly : 1. the Palace including the staff and 
household of His Highness the Maharaja. 2. the Military Forces. 
3. the pensions of public servants. 4. Items of expenditure relating 
to or affecting : 

(a) the relations of the Maharaja with the Paramount 

Power or with other States ; 

(b) matters governed by treaties or conventions or agree- 

ments then in force or thereafter to be made by the 
Maharaja with the Paramount Power. 

5. Interest on loans and charges on account of sinking funds 
guaranteed at the time of raising the loans. 

6. Expenditure of which the amount is specified by or under 
any law. 

The Assembly was to consist normally of 250 members, power 
being reserved to the Government to increase the number up to a 
maximum of 275 for the purpose of removing inequalities of repre- 
sentation if any and in order to provide for new interests and 
constituencies that might develop in the future, 



318 

The Proclamation also declared that the Legislative Council 
was to be enlarged and its constitution revised so as to increase the 
elected element and to ensure a statutory non-official majority as 
well as to provide for special interests and minorities. The Council 
was to have the power of voting on the annual State budget by 
major heads in respect of all items of expenditure save those 
specially excluded from its cognisance, with power however to 
Government to restore a provision wholly or partly disallowed by 
the Council, if they considered such restoration necessary for the 
carrying on of any department or for the discharge of Government's 
responsibility and also to authorise in cases of emergency such 
expenditure as might be necessary for the safety and tranquillity 
of the State notwithstanding the absence of provision therefor in the 
budget. 

In order to increase and widen the electorate, representatives 
of the urbran as well as the rural constituencies in the Legislative 
Council were to be returned by direct election and in the case of 
members to the Representative Assembly the existing property 
qualifications were to be reduced by one-half. The franchise was 
extended to all persons paying income-tax. The franchise was also 
extended to women possessing the qualifications prescribed for 
voters. In order to ensure that the Representative Assembly truly 
voiced the wishes and sentiments of the people, all members of the 
Assembly except those representing special interests and minorities 
were to be returned by direct election. To enable the representatives 
of the people to maintain close touch with and influence the every- 
day administration of the State, Standing Committees consisting of 
such number of members as might be prescribed, elected by the 
Representative Assembly and the Legislative Council were to be 
formed to help the Government in an advisory capacity. The 
Economic Development Boards dealing with the subjects of 
education, agriculture and industries and commerce were to be 
continued in close relationship with the Representative Assembly 
and the Legislative Council and reconstituted on new lines. The 
Proclamation also expressed the desire of His Highness that the 
constitution, powers and functions of the Municipal Councils, District 
and Taluk Boards and Village Panchayets were to be revised so 3,3 



319 

to give them the largest possible measure of responsibility and 
autonomy in the administration of local affairs. The Government 
was to have power to make rules in regard to all matters of detail 
not provided for in the Proclamation or in the Representative 
Assembly or in the Legislative Council Regulations and to introduce 
such modifications as might be necessary or expedient in the future, 
but not so as to curtail in any manner the powers and privileges 
granted in the Proclamation. Finally, the Proclamation closed in 
these words : " My Government will take immediate steps to give 
effect to this Proclamation and to adopt such measures as may 
become necessary from time to time to carry out my intentions. I 
now invite my people to utilise the larger opportunities of public 
service and usefulness to the State which I am now conferring upon 
them and I have every confidence that they will respond to my call 
with the same loyalty and sense of responsibility as in the past 
and in a spirit of mutual toleration and goodwill. It is my earnest 
prayer that these measures now inaugurated may under Divine 
guidance promote the happiness and prosperity and ensure the 
progress of all classes of my subjects." 

The Government in fixing the details found that the constitution 
of the Assembly as it existed at the time was defective in some 
respects. While the taluk representatives came in by direct 
election by the taluk voters, in the case of representatives of urban 
areas and the Kolar Gold Field Sanitary Board the election 
was secondary, the members representing them being returned not 
by the voters in these areas directly but by the Municipal Councils 
in the former case and the Sanitary Board in the latter. In the 
case of the members deputed by the District Boards the 
representation was even more remote, since these Boards included 
members returned by secondary election through the Municipal 
Councils and Taluk Boards. A mixed electorate consisting of direct 
and indirect constituencies caused many anomalies and failed to 
secure proper representation of the people. The recommendation 
of the Committee to have direct election for the Representative 
Assembly was therefore accepted by Government. The Government, 
however, differing in some respects from the conclusions of the 
Seal Conmiitee decided that the two City Municipalities of 



320 

Bangalore and Mysore were to be given the privilege of returning 
four members each, while the Town Municipalities were to return 
only one member each and all Municipalities with a population of 
5000 or more were declared Town Municipalities. It was also 
prescribed that seats reserved for the representation of special 
interests and minorities were to be filled up by persons elected by 
recognised Associations as far as possible, and the special interests 
selected for representation were the Mysore University, Legal 
interests, European planting interest, Indian planting interest, Gold 
Mining, Trade and Commerce, and Inamdars' interests. These 
constituencies were given the privilege of returning one member 
each, except the University which was to return two. Seats were 
also provided for the representation of such interests as Factory 
and Mining Labour, industries other than Gold Mining and the 
like when organisations were formed to develop these interests. 

In the case of minorities, the Seal Committee recognised that 
the problem of their representation was one of great importance 
and that the demand for their protection was not unreasonable. 
But they rejected as unsuitable the devices of exclusive communal 
electorates and the reservation of seats for communal candidates in 
plural constituencies, which they considered would likely widen and 
perpetuate the cleavage between communities. The majority of the 
Committee recommended a system of * facultative representation ' 
of minorities through Associations or by nomination where it 
became necessary, such minorities being communities numbering 
not less than 20,000 persons as classified in the Census tables. As 
regards the Mahomedan community, the majority of the Committee 
were of opinion that between the general electorates and the 
Associations, the Mahomedan community had reasonable expectations 
of obtaining adequate representation in the Assembly. Regarding 
Panchamas and Animists, the Committee remarked that their 
literacy was extremely low and that vigorous efforts were necessary 
for the political education and the increased representation of these 
classes. Referring to Indian Christians, the Committee stated 
that having regard to the total strength of this community and the 
percentage of literacy which was more than that among the 



321 

followers of the Hindu religion, its adequate representation wa 
desirable. 

The Government considered that the scheme proposed by the 
Committee for securing the adequate representation of the minorities 
through Associations was an extension of the scheme already in 
vogue and while providing for it, they thought it necessary to go 
farther than the Committee for the reason that certain communities 
which were distinct social groups might not under the new method 
of direct election through the general electorates succeed in 
securing proper representation of their interests. This could only 
be remedied by guaranteeing to them a certain number of seats in 
the Assembly fixed with reference to the percentage of their popu- 
lation, literacy, present representation and voting strength. The 
Government therefore decided that in the event of these commu- 
nities not obtaining the required number of members through the 
general electorates, provision was to be made for the return of such 
number of members as might be required to make up the 
guaranteed number either through recognised Associations or 
by nomination if necessary. 15 seats were guaranteed for 
Mahomedans, 5 for Indian Christians and 3 for the Depressed 
Classes. The principle of separate communal electorates the 
Government rejected as inexpedient and unsuited to Mysore. The 
guarantee provided was only intended for securing adequate repre- 
sentation with the hope that in course of time the same would 
become unnecessary as education spread and political consciousness 
developed, leading to a homogeneity of interests in place of the 
present divergences. Ten seats were also kept in reserve for 
communities less than 20,000 in number who failed to secure repre- 
sentation through the general electorate. In the case of members 
returned through Associations representing minorities and registered 
under the Mysore Societies Regulation, the Associations, it was 
ruled, must have been formed for the furtherance of one or more 
specific interests of the community or for its general advancement. 
The number of members on the roll of any Association was not to 
be less than 100 members, except when Government for special 
reasons accepted a smaller number. Membership of the Assembly 
was restricted to non-officials, but as proposed by the Committee 



322 

the officers deputed by Government could sit in the Assembly and 
take part in the proceedings, without however any right to vote. 
Yelandur and Sringeri Jahagirs which hitherto had no place in the 
Assembly were now accorded representation. 

It was open to any member of the Representative Assembly to 
propose an amendment to the general principles of any measure 
but not to particular clauses in the Bill. The President might 
thereupon at his discretion obtain the opinion of the Assembly by 
taking votes. In the case of Bills brought forward by non -official 
members with the Dewan's previous consent, the general principles 
as sent in by the member were to be placed before the Representa- 
tive Assembly at its next session before the Bill was introduced in 
the Legislative Council. In urgent cases Government reserved 
power to pass Bills through the Legislative Council and to submit 
them to His Highness, in which case there would be no 
consultation of the Assembly. Such Bills were, however, to 
be of such extreme urgency as to justify the Government 
to pass them at a single sitting of the Legislative Council by 
suspending the rules of business. As regards taxation, the 
Committee recommended that proposals for the levy of new 
taxes were to be laid before the Assembly for discussion and the 
opinion of the Assembly ascertained by votes, any modifications 
which might be suggested in the course of the discussion being also 
put to the vote at the discretion of the President. In the case of 
any new taxation involving legislation, the Representative Assembly 
was to be consulted before legislation was introduced in the 
Legislative Council. In accordance with the Committee's recom- 
mendation, new taxes were defined as taxes which required for 
their imposition the passing of a new Regulation or the amendment 
of an existing one. 

The practice as to the annual State budget prior to the passing 
of the Representative Assembly Regulation was that it was placed 
before the Assembly for general discussion and the representations 
made by the members during these discussions were taken into 
consideration by the Government before the budget was finally 
passed. The Assembly was now given the right of moving 



323 

resolutions on the budget. But in keeping with the constitution 
and character of the Representative Assembly as a body voicing 
popular opinion on the general principles underlying the matters 
submitted to it without undertaking any detailed examination, the 
resolutions were to have reference only to the general principles 
and policy underlying the budget and not to any particular grants 
or appropriations. 

The Assembly hitherto did not possess the right to divide in 
respect of any matter placed before it, although Government had 
frequently taken the opinion of the Assembly on specific questions 
by votes. The Committee recommended that the practice of 
presenting addresses to the President either sectional or by the 
whole House might be discontinued, but that addresses by the 
whole House to His Highness the Maharaja might be permitted 
and the Government agreed with the Committee in these matters. 

Before the Representative Assembly was placed on a statutory 
basis, the following were eligible to stand as candidates and to vote 
at elections : 1. Persons paying land revenue to Government of 
not less than Rs. 50 per annum. 2. Kadim tenants paying an 
annual rent of not less than Rs. 50 to the holder of an alienated 
village to which certain of the provisions of the Land Revenue Code 
had been applied. 3. Those who paid annually Mohatarfa tax or 
Municipal tax of not less than Rs. 10 to a Municipal Council. 
4. Every person who was the owner of one or more entire Inam 
villages with a total beriz of Rs. 250 per annum and who ordinarily 
resided in the constituency. 5. Every graduate of a University 
who ordinarily resided in the constituency. 6. Every person who 
was a retired or pensioned officer, whether commissioned or non- 
commissioned, of the Mysore State troops. . 

The Committee proposed that these qualifications should be 
modified so as to reduce the property qualifications of voters and 
candidates by 50 per cent and the Government accepted the 
recommendations. The Committee also recommended that all 
persons paying income-tax to Government should be qualified as 
voters and candidates and that sex disqualification should be 



324 

removed so as to render women eligible to vote at the elections to 
the Representative Assembly which also were accepted by Govern- 
ment. In cases of special interests and Associations representing 
minorities, the qualification of voters and candidates was to be the 
membership of the Association or other institution concerned, 
except that in the case of the Mysore University only fellows were 
to be eligible to stand as candidates for the Representative 
Assembly. In the case of general qualifications required for voters 
and candidates for the Representative Assembly, the Government 
agreed with the Committee that no special literacy qualification 
was to be prescribed as the language in which* the proceedings of 
the Assembly were conducted was mainly Kanada. Government 
also agreed that to be a voter or a candidate, he was to be a 
subject of the Mysore State possessing certain residential 
qualifications, except in case of special interests where exemptions 
could be granted. 

The actual composition of the Legislative Council as last 
constituted in 1919 was nominated members (official and non- 
official) 5, elected members by District Constituencies 8, by the 
Representative Assembly 4, and by the Mysore University 1, 
total 13. The Committee recommended that exclusive of the 
ex-officio members, the strength of the Legislative Council should 
be fixed at 50, that not less than 50 per cent of this total strength 
was to consist of non -official members and that not more than 
one-third of the non-ofRcial members were to be nominated, the 
other non-official members being elected representatives of the various 
constituencies. The Committee also recommended that in addition 
to the strength of 50 members as fixed above, not more than two 
persons having special knowledge or experience of the subject matter 
of any particular Bill might be temporarily nominated to this Council 
for the purposes of such a Bill. The above recommendations were 
accepted by the Government with the modification that the propor- 
tion of non -official members was to be not less than 60 per cent 
instead of 50 per cent as proposed by the Committee so as to ensure 
a decided non-official majority. As regards the constituencies 
representing special interests, the Mysore University was to consist 
of the fellows of the University. The member to represent 



325 

Commerce and Trade was for the time being to be returned by the 
Chamber of Commerce. The member representing the Planting 
Interest was to be elected by a constituency consisting of owners of 
estates of not less than 50 acres under coffee, tea, cardamom or 
rubber. If the member returned by this constituency did not 
represent European planting interest, one of the eight seats reserved 
for the nomination of non-official members was to be given to the 
representative of the European Planters' Association in the State. 
Labour was to be represented by one member who pending the 
formation of a proper electorate was to be nominated by Govern- 
ment. The members deputed to this Council by the Representative 
Assembly were to be voted without any restriction as to the 
candidates representing particular districts or divisions. As regards 
the 8 seats reserved for nomination of non-official members, 
Government agreed with the Committee's proposal that these nomi- 
nations were to be made with a view to secure the representation of 
the Depressed Classes, Child and Woman welfare, Minorities, 
Education and such others. Two seats on this Council were 
guaranteed to the Mahomedan community. But when two 
Mahomedans secured seats through the general electorates, there 
were to be no nominations. The same principle applied to the 
Indian Christian community except that only one seat was 
guaranteed to them. Similarly one seat was guaranteed to the 
Depressed Classes. 

As regards the powers of the Legislative Council, no legislative 
measure of any description could be introduced into the Council 
without the previous sanction in writing of the Dewan and the leave 
of the Council duly obtained. It was also not competent to the 
Council to pass any measure affecting the Ruling Family of Mysore 
and other specified matters as might be reserved by the Maharaja 
from time to time including extradition of criminals, European 
vagrants, European British subjects, the Post Office, Telegraphs 
and Railways. In the case of subjects excluded from the purview 
of this Council, it was open to Government to frame any Regulation 
that might be required and any such Regulation when assented to 
by the Maharaja was to come into operation. In cases not 
excluded from the purview of this Council in which legislation was 



326 

urgently required, Government had power to frame emergent 
Regulations which if assented to by the Maharaja were to have 
the same force as a Regulation passed through the Council for a 
period of six months from the date of their promulgation in the 
official Gazette. The Legislative Council Regulation and the 
Representative Assembly Regulation were excluded from the 
purview of this Council and thus the constitution, powers and 
functions of the Legislative Council and of the Representative 
Assembly were outside the cognisance of the Legislative Council. 
Changes in the constitution were therefore possible only by means 
of Proclamations or Regulations promulgated by the Maharaja 
independently of the Council. 

As regards the annual State budget, the power of the 
Legislative Council hitherto extended only to a general discussion 
of the budget and the Council had no power to submit or propose 
any resolutions on it. The grant of the power now to vote on the 
State budget was a measure of far-reaching importance and signifi- 
cance. While the resolutions adopted by the Council had effect only 
as recommendations, voting or refusing had under the terms of the 
announcement a binding effect on the Government which could 
only be annulled for a specified reason. Further, voting by major 
heads imposed an important limitation on the Government's powers 
of re-appropriation of sanctioned expenditure. Since the grant was 
to be sanctioned by the Council under major heads, re-appropriations 
by the Government from one major head to another was no longer 
permissible. It was thus made possible for the Legislative Council 
with its statutory non-official majority to exercise a large measure 
of control over the financial policy of the Government. The 
Government did not consider it necessary or desirable to exclude 
the salaries of any class of public servants from the vote of the 
Council, as the result would have been a considerable curtailment of 
the control over financial policy and administration which it was 
proposed to vest in the Council. 

As regards the qualifications of voters in the rural constituencies, 
the following were deemed eligible to vote : 1. All persons paying 
land revenue of not less than Rs. 50 per annum to Government ; 



327 

similarly Kadim tentants paying an annual rent of not less than 
Rs. 50 per annum to the holders of alienated villages and those 
who paid annually Mohatarfa or Municipal tax of not less than 
Rs. 10 to a Municipal Council. 2. All persons who owned one or 
more entire Inam villages with a total beriz or assessment of 
Rs. 250 per annum and who ordinarily resided in the district. 
3. All graduates of a University who ordinarily resided in the 
constituency. 4. All persons who were retired or pensioned officers 
(whether commissioned or non-commissioned) of the Mysore State 
troops. 5. All persons who paid income-tax to Government. 

As regards urban constituencies, the qualifications of voters 
were to be the same as those of voters in the rural constituencies, 
except that in respect of property qualifications, the qualifications 
laid down for voters at municipal elections were to be accepted in 
lieu of those prescribed for voters in rural constituencies of the 
Legislative Council. No distinction was made in the property 
qualifications of voters and candidates to the Legislative Council. 

Regarding Standing Committees, Government decided that 
there were to be, to begin with, three Standing Committees, one in 
connection with the Railway, Electrical and Public Works 
Departments, one in connection with Local Self -Government and 
the Departments of Medicine, Sanitation and Public Health and the 
third in connection with Finance and Taxation, the Government 
reserving discretion to appoint committees for other departments 
or to add other departments to the above committees. 
In view of the formation of a Standing Committee of Finance and 
Taxation, the Budget Committee that then existed was abolished. 
As separate Boards existed for Education, Agriculture and 
Industries and Commerce, no separate Standing Committees were 
appointed for them. In order that the Legislative Council might 
be in a position to know to what extent its wishes as expressed in 
its grant of demands had been complied with, the formation of a 
committee of the Legislative Council which would scrutinise the 
audit and appropriation reports of the Audit Department of 
Government and bring to the notice of the Council all deviations 
from its intentions was sanctioned. 



In July 1919 the Economic Conference which had undergone 
several improvements in its working during its existence of eight 
years was made a permanent adjunct to the administration with a 
strong and compact organisation consisting of (l) a Central 
Economic Development Board for organising and co-ordinating 
the work of all agencies, (2) three provincial Boards dealing with 
Education, Agriculture, and Industries and Commerce, and 
(3) a Board of Scientific Research and Advice. As regards work 
in the districts, economic development work was made an integral 
part of the functions of the local self-governing bodies. All the 
Boards were re-constituted so as to provide for the adequate 
representation of the Representative Assembly as well as of the 
agencies working in the districts and of semi-official and private 
bodies devoted to economic work of any importance and of 
special interests. 

In accordance with the announcement contained in His 
Highness' Proclamation, the advisory Boards of Education, 
Agriculture and Industries and Commerce connected with the 
economic development work were re-constituted and continued in 
close relationship with the Representative Assembly and the 
Legislative Council. The Board of Scientific Advice was abolished 
as a separate entity and its work was assigned to a sub-committee 
of the Industries and Commerce Board and such scientific experts 
from outside as might be co-opted by them. 

The main features of the constitutional changes introduced 
may for the sake of convenience be thus summarised Property 
qualifications of voters was reduced by one-half. A large number 
of urban constituencies was created. The disqualification of 
women on the ground of sex from exercising the franchise was 
removed. By these changes the total strength of the electorate 
increased from 28,000 to over 1,00,000. The unscientific 
combination of direct and indirect elections was done away with. 
The representation of special interests was systematised and Labour 
was recognised as one of the special interests to be represented 
both in the Representative Assembly and in the Legislative 
Council. Adequate provision was made for the representation of 



minorities under a scheme that sought to avoid the widening and 
perpetuation of the cleavage between communities. Communities 
which formed distinct social groups and were not likely to obtain 
their due share of representation were afforded special protection 
by the guarantee of a fixed number of seats both in the 
Representative Assembly and in the Legislative Council. The 
Representative Assembly was given a definite place in the 
constitution and its position as a popular body placing before the 
Government the wants and wishes of the people and voicing 
public opinion in respect of legislation, taxation, finance and 
administrative measures generally was recognised by statute. The 
strength of the Legislative Council was substantially raised and it 
was given an increased elected element with a statutory non-official 
majority. By its power of voting on the State budget it secured 
an effective voice in determining the financial policy of the 
Government. The association of the representatives of the people 
in the everyday administration of the principal departments of 
Government was obtained by the formation of Standing Committees 
consisting of members of both Houses. The Development Boards 
for the promotion of the economic interests of the State already in 
existence were reconstituted so as to work in close relationship with 
the Representative Assembly and the Legislative Council. 

Lord Ronaldshay, now Marquis of Zetland and Secretary of 
State for India, it may interest the readers to know has in a 
book written by him and known as " The Heart of Aryavartha " 
expressed the following views on the constitution as visualised in 
in the Seal Committee Report : " The Committee while not 
ignoring the present-day tendencies, based its proposals on Indian 
rather than Western theory and gave expression to Indian rather 
than to European ideals. The basic fact of such a constitution 
was the assumption that the head of the State was the supreme 
executive authority as well as the source and sanction of law. The 
sovereign of an Indian State was regarded as representing the 

people directly and primarily in his person and as standing 

in a more direct and vital relationship to them than the members of 
any representative body. He might seek the aidvice of individuals 



330 

or of corporations; he might delegate his functions to individuals 
or to chambers, but he remained the head of the body politic, such 
other limbs as might evolve or be created being but subordinate 
members organs of one Will centred in the head wherein rested 
the permanent reservoir of law-making power. While this was the 
recognised position of the head of the State, the object of the 
introduction into the constitution of other bodies was in the main to 
provide machinery for perfecting the process by which effect was 
given in the domain of legislation and of administration to the one 
undivided Will of the State." 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Inauguration by the Maharaja of the Reformed 
Legislative Council and the Representative Assembly. 

On the 17th March 1924 His Highness the Maharaja 
inaugurated the new Legislative Council and the Representative 
Assembly at a joint session held at Mysore. His Highness in 
welcoming the members who had been elected by an enlarged 
electorate under a wider franchise, complimented them on their 
now being regarded as truer representatives of their constituencies 
than ever before and on their having larger opportunities of 
influencing the decisions of Government in accordance with popular 
demands. " I recall to mind on this occasion," said His Highness, 
"the words which I spoke nearly 21 years ago when I opened the 
Representative Assembly in person for the first time after I 
assumed the reins of Government. The hopes I then expressed of 
the value of the yearly gatherings of the Assembly in contributing 
to the well-being and contentment of my subjects have been amply 
fulfilled. The Legislative Council, too, which came into existence 
in 1907 with certain important functions bearing on legislation, 
finance and administration generally has fully justified expectations. 
Yet you will realise that the changes which I am inaugurating 
to-day are fundamental, providing as they do for a far closer 
association of the people with the administration and affording a 
freer outlet for their natural and legitimate aspirations than seemed 
possible a few years ago. 

" I am aware that a section of my people are in favour of 
further radical changes, including a wider franchise and increased 
powers. While fully sympathising with their ideals, I may state 
that our decision was made after prolonged consultation. Each 
State must evolve its own constitution suited to its own needs and 
conditions and to the genius of its people. Without departing 
from the fundamental principles of development common to all 
forms of polity, it has been deemed necessary to maintain the 



332 

character of the Representative Assembly as essentially a body 
for consultation and reference as well as representation, directly 
voicing the needs of the people and with a constitution sufficiently 
flexible to expand with the expanding consciousness of the people, 
leaving to the Legislative Council the more formal work of 
legislation and other functions usually associated with such bodies, 

" I have no doubt that you will use your new powers to 
strengthen all the beneficent activities in the country to spread 
education, to diffuse knowledge, to further industrial enterprise 
both public and private, and to foster the, civic virtues and the 

spirit of social service The Standing Committees of the 

Legislature will, I hope, bring the popular representatives into 
closer association with the principal departments of Government. 
When the projected extension of Local Self-Government comes 
about and the powers of the District and Taluk Boards, Munici- 
palities and Village Panchayets are enlarged, there will be many 
opportunities for men of ability to take part in public work and for 
the local management of local interests. 

" There is a certain self-discipline which lies at the root of 
success, and which I feel you must observe for the serious treatment 
of public issues. I trust that, although party conflicts will be 
inevitable, your discussions will be conducted with mutual tolerance 
and respect and will be consistent with the decorum and the dignity 
of a State Legislature. A wise restraint is necessary in expressing 
your views. Exaggeration and violence of speech defeat their own 
purpose. I would urge you also to make a thorough study of the 
subjects before you speak on them and in all your pleadings, to 
place the interests of the State as a whole before those of any 
section or class. A third point which I would emphasise is that 
you must keep in close touch with the Government and the people 
and interpret the one to the other. In this way may we hope that 
the long silence of the depressed and the humble will be broken and 
full responsibility for their well-being shouldered by the educated 
and well-to-do classes. 

" It is the ambition of my life to see the people of my State 
develop self-sustaining qualities, exhibit initiative <w4 enterprise,. 



333 

and take a front rank in all progressive movements and activities in 
the country. In making our plans for the future, we have got to 
take note of the tremendous changes of the recent past. India 
under the beneficent guidance of the British nation is shaping into 
a federation of Provinces and States. We, in Mysore, form as it 
were a nation within a nation. While co-operating with both the 
Government of India and the rest of the Indian public in measures 
which lead to the prosperity of the country as a whole, we in our 
local sphere should promote education and economic growth to the 
fullest extent permitted by our resources, so that our people may 
not fall behind other Provinces and States in the race of progress. 

" That the history of Mysore in the recent past has run 
smoothly is a good omen for the future. We have known neither 
stagnation nor precipitate change. We have been advancing 
steadily, adapting our constitution and administrative machinery to 
new times, needs and aspirations. All constitutional progress 
relates to the enlightenment of the people and the quickening and 
utilising of their energies in the business of the State. Progress of 
this kind has been the constant aim of the Government of Mysore. 
The ceremony which I am performing to-day is thus a step in a 
continuous and well-ordered process of development which has been 
going on for over forty years and it is my hope that the process 
will continue with the same adaptability in the future. 

" You will find yourselves exercising a considerable, frequently 
a decisive, influence upon the policy of Government. Not merely 
your resolutions, but all that you urge in debate will be of high 
importance. I would have you apprehend with mind and heart 
this vital fact that the interests of Government and people are 
identical. The happiness of the people is both the happiness and 
the vindication of Government. Any difference of opinion between 
the executive and yourselves and such differences naturally occur 
in all lands and all along the road of progress can refer only to the 
means, never to the end. You can count upon responsiveness and 
goodwill in Government, as they certainly count upon them in you. 

" This day, therefore, marks the dawning of a new era in the 
history of Mysore, My faith in the power and willingness of my 



334 

people to render patriotic service is firmly rooted in experience and 
you may rely on my abiding sympathy with your aspirations, 
If every act of yours is guided by common sense, goodwill 
and useful study of facts and of experience, if your powers are used 
only for the promotion of the common good, you cannot fail to rise 
in power and influence. You will help to build up the prosperity 
and reputation of our State and will become custodians with me of 
its permanent interests " 

At the Dasara Session of the Representative Assembly in 1925 
Sir Albion Banerji, the Dewan, reviewed the work done by both the 
Legislative Council and the Representative Assembly since their 
inauguration on a reformed basis by the Maharaja. Taking the 
Representative Assembly first, it was found that Government had 
consulted it in respect of 14 Bills, most important of which were 
the Coffee Cess Bill, the Mysore Village Panchayet Bill, the 
Mysore District Boards Bill, the Bill to amend the Mysore 
Municipal Regulation, the amendment of the Press Law, the 
Ancient Monuments Preservation Bill and the amendment of the 
Mysore Muzrai Regulation. On their own initiative Government 
took the opinion of the Assembly on certain matters under their 
consideration, and among the most important of these were the 
question of reciprocity between the Hindus and Mahomedans 
regarding the stoppage of music in front of mosques and temples 
and the question of prohibiting cow-slaughter. The privilege of 
interpellating Government was fully exercised by the Assembly and 
the number of questions asked by the members on matters of 
various kinds came to 140. In respect of resolutions also on 
matters of general importance, the members had shown great 
keenness in the exercise of their privilege. The total number of 
resolutions moved during the three previous sessions amounted to 
nearly 50. All these items of work were in addition to the 
discussion of over 360 subjects of a general character. Most of the 
matters which were dealt with by the House were of a highly 
useful and interesting nature and included such important matters 
as trade conditions in Mysore, technical education in the lower 
schools, promotion of temperance, encouragement of indigenous 



335 

system of medicine, extension of medical relief, improvement of 
sanitation, restoration of minor tanks, promotion of education 
among all classes of His Highness' subjects, promotion of industries, 
grant of relief on occasions of floods and drought, extension of 
Sanskrit education, re-organisation of the Civil Service, Panchama 
education, working of the Recruitment Rules, rural education, 
education in the Malnad, town and village improvements. Speaking 
generally, there was not a single Department of Government the 
work of which did not come in for review before the House. 

The Assembly had two opportunities of exercising the privilege 
of discussing the general principles involved in the annual State 
budget and in moving resolutions in respect of it. In the course of 
the general discussions, the Dewan acknowledged that the Govern- 
ment had received most useful suggestions and the discussion of 
resolutions had given the Government an opportunity of explaining 
their principles and policy. 

Turning to the Legislative Council, the work transacted by 
it was equally heavy and varied. The Council considered 21 Bills, 
of which 14 were passed and the others were in various stages of 
consideration. The number of resolutions on general matters 
moved in the Council was nearly 50 and the number of 
interpellations asked was over 160. The Council also passed the 
budgets for- two years and in connection with them moved no 
less than 177 motions for reduction or omission of grants. 

In closing the review, the Dewan bore whole-hearted 
testimony to the work done by the two Houses in these weighty 
words : " It will be clear from the facts and figures given by me 
that the representatives of the people in both the Houses have 
taken the fullest advantage of the opportunities afforded to them by 
the reforms. The keenness of the members to obtain information 
and help Government with useful advice has been a pleasing and 
prominent feature of the working of the two Houses. On behalf of 
Government I can assure this House that the Government have 
given their most earnest attention to the suggestions of the peoples' 
representatives and in all possible cases have already given or will 



336 

soon be giving effect to them. I may mention in passing that the 
average attendance of members of both the Houses was never so 
high in the pre-reform days as it is now and the sessions of both 
the Houses are also longer. This is a clear indication of the 
interest, earnestness and public spirit displayed by the members in 
the discharge ot their duties, responsibilities and privileges. 



CHAPTER xt. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Distinguished Visitors to Mysore Lord Chelmsford, 
Prince of Wales, the Earl of Reading and the Prince of 
Connaught. 

In the early years of the post-war period there were a number 
of distinguished visitors to the Mysore State. Lord Chelmsford 
who was Viceroy of India visited Mysore in December 1919 with 
Lady Chelmsford and was accorded a grand reception. 

H. R. H. the Prince of Wales (now His Majesty King Edward 
VIII) paid a visit to the State in January 1922. Prior to His 
Royal Highness' visit to Mysore, the Maharaja had as Chancellor 
of the Hindu University at Benares met the Prince when the 
degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred on him by that University. 
During his visit to the Mysore State between the 18th and 23rd of 
that month, the Prince visited Bangalore and Mysore Cities, 
Seringapatam and the Krishnarajasagara Irrigation Works and 
witnessed the Khedda operations at the Karapur camp. His Royal 
Highness was welcomed by all classes of people in Mysore with 
spontaneous demonstrations of joy and devotion. 

At the banquet given on the 19th January 1922, the Maharaja, 
in proposing the toast of his guest, in the course of his speech said 
that no one who had followed the events of the Great War could 
help realising that while it had resulted in overthrowing the three 
great monarchies of Europe, its effect on the British Empire had 
been to strengthen the bonds between king and people and to leave 
the British Throne more deeply seated in the affections of every 
class of His Imperial Majesty's subjects. Truly, further said the 
Maharaja, might His Royal Highness be described as England's 
princely ambassador who won the hearts of the Empire's subjects 
wherever he went. 

In response to the toast, the Prince of Wales referred among 
other matters, to the military services rendered by Mysore during 

A43 



the German War: " In October 1914 Your Highness* Imperial 
Service Lancers sailed from India for Egypt. They fought in 
Egypt where I had the pleasure of seeing them in 1916 and 
subsequently took part in a two years' desert campaign which 
ended in the capture of Gaza and the fall of Jerusalem. In both 
the latter engagements they played a brilliant part. They then 
joined the 15th Cavalry Brigade and were active in the advance 
in the Jordon valley and the final series of engagements which 
broke down the Turkish resistance and carried our arms into Syria. 
They distinguished themselves at Haifa, where they drove the 
enemy from strong positions on Mount Carmel capturing seven 
guns and three hundred prisoners. At the final action at Aleppo 
they were again to the fore with a fine charge against heavy odds 
in which they suffered severe casualties. They only returned to 
India in February 1920. The honours and decorations won by 
the corps and the frequent mention of the officers and men in 
Despatches bear eloquent testimony to their courage and efficiency 
and to the excellent spirit and tone that prevailed in the regiment. 

" The Imperial Service Transport Corps proceeded to 
Mesopotamia in 1916 and continued on active service till the end of 
the war. It won the highest recommendations from the General 
Officer commanding in Mesopotamia. All praise is due to this 
gallant corps and to the officers who helped them to deserve and win 
their high reputation. In addition to keeping those units up to their 
full strength, 5000 of Your Highness' subjects enlisted in the units 
of the Indian army. 

" When I turn to the more prosaic, but equally important, 
question of the ways and means for the war, I find that the 
'assistance given by the Mysore State has been of an equally high 
order. At the outbreak of the war, Your Highness offered Rs. 50 
lakhs towards the cost of our Expeditionary Forces. You added a 
further gift of Rs. 10 lakhs and later another gift of Rs. 13 lakhs. 
Your State subscribed Rs. 14 lakhs in the war loans. The people 
of Your State gave Rs. 2 lakhs to the war charities and invested 
Rs, 113 lakhs in the war loans. 



339 

" The contributions from Your Highness 1 State and subjects 
reached a total of nearly Rs. 2 crores. Besides this, the State was 
prominent in the supply of hides, timber, blankets and other 
material necessary for the efficiency of our arms. 

" The war record of Your Highness 1 State is, indeed, a notable 
one and it is a great privilege to me to be able to offer my thanks 
and congratulations in person to-night to Your Highness on these 
achievements." 

On the occasion of his departure, on crossing the State frontier 
His Royal Highness sent a message to the Maharaja conveying the 
great pleasure he felt in making His Highness* acquaintance and 
his great admiration for the beauties of Mysore and the efficiency 
of the administration that prevailed. 

The Earl of Reading, Viceroy and Governor- General of India, 
accompanied by H. E. the Countess of Reading paid a visit to the 
State from the 27th November to the 5th December 1923. At the 
State Banquet on the 29th November, the Maharaja welcomed the 
Viceroy not only as the chief representative in India of His Majesty 
the King-Emperor but also personally as an eminent jurist, 
diplomatist and statesman with a record of high achievements in the 
public life of Great Britain. In replying to His Highness' speech, 
His Excellency bore testimony to the sound traditions of administra- 
tion prevailing in Mysore and the past achievements of the State 
and the development of its resources and the expansion of natural 
production. 

In 1925 His Royal Highness the Prince of Connaught, 
grandson of Queen Victoria, paid a visit to Mysore with the 
Princess of Connaught and both were accorded an enthusiastic 
welcome in the Mysore City. 



CHAPTER XLI. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Retirement of Sir A. R. Banerji Mr. Mirza Muhammad 
Ismail (afterwards Sir) appointed Dewan His policy 
enunciated Financial adjustments Taxation Enquiry- 
Assets and liabilities of the State- Economic depression- 
Policy regarding public loans re-stated Excise duty on 
matches and sugar. 

In February and March 1925 Sir A* R. Banerji went on short 
leave and Mushir-ul-Mulk Mir Humza Hussain who was a 
Member of the State Council officiated for him. Sir A. R. Banerji 
retired on the 1st May 1926 from the Mysore Service and was 
succeeded in his office by Amin-ul-Mulk Mr. Mirza Muhammad 
Ismail (afterwards Sir), Private Secretary to the Maharaja. He 
was only 43 years of age at this time having been born in 1883. 
He was a school-mate of His Highness the Maharaja and was a 
grandson of Ali Asker who, as we have already known, rendered 
considerable help to Krishnaraja Wodeyar III in his attempts to 
obtain the restoration of his State into his hands from the British 
Government. Sir Mirza Ismail joined the Mysore Service as an 
Assistant Superintendent of Police in 1905 and in 1910 became 
Assistant Secretary to the Maharaja. Thereafter he continued 
attached to the Maharaja's staff and successively filled the places 
of Huzur Secretary and Private Secretary to His Highness till he 
became Dewan on 1st May 1926. At the time this appointment 
was made, there was much diffidence in the minds of the people as 
to the advisibility of the appointment of a comparatively young 
man with very limited official experience, but subsequent events 
have proved that no mistake was made. 

Sir Mirza Ismail's period of office has been a very eventful one, 
coincident as it has been with the period of political reforms in 
British India and the Round Table Conferences in England. At 
the very outset of his career he declared that his main task would 
be to make possible for every class of the Maharaja's subjects the 



341 

life of comfort and contentment as far as possible and that for that 
purpose he needed the co-operation of all. The Birthday Session 
of the Representative Assembly commenced on the 14th June 1926 
and at this session the new Dewan in a speech of some length 

elaborated the main lines of his future policy. " While 

we accept all the objects and plans bequeathed to us by previous 
administrations and intend to do our best for them in the light of 
the conditions of our time, let me pause," said the new Dewan, 
" to lay some special stress on one or two points. The economic 
question stands first among all our questions and it will continue to 
receive our constant and careful attention. To take the simplest, 
the most obvious and yet the most neglected of matters the 
production and use of the necessities of life within the State. 
Home production, manufacture and the proper use of the necessities 
of life are the triple root of material prosperity. The first step 
towards the larger attainment of such prosperity is the improvement 
of means and methods of agricultural production. To this the 
Government will give all possible help. I need not emphasise, 
since it is patent to us all, the desirability of the development of 

agricultural co-operation and of technical instruction The 

Government are fully aware also of the need that exists for 
increasing facilities for industrial enterprise and for the expansion 
of trade, both inland and foreign. Much was attempted in these 
fields in our State, as we all know, by way of study and experiment 
in the past, and I am anxious that efforts should be renewed in the 
same direction, on more fruitful lines, if possible. Government 
will be ready to respond to any well-considered and practical 
suggestion for the encouragement of local enterprise, either in the 
field of large scale manufacture or commerce, or in the field of 
indigenous arts and crafts. We have all felt the need for the 
extension of avenues of employment particularly for the middle 
and the poorer classes. This is undoubtedly the most pressing and 
the most widely felt problem to-day. But there is no royal road to 
its solution. Greater prosperity for which all should work will 
cause a natural increase of employment. The State will do what 
it can in this respect in the various works that are in hand or are 
under consideration. Such works need not necessarily be utilitarian. 



342 

They may also be beautiful, for beauty and order are as necessary 
to the welfare of the nation as utility. Then, looking at the 
sanitary conditions of our towns and villages. They can command 
neither comfort nor good health. Improvement in this respect 
must depend very largely on more earning capacity, for improve- 
ment means expenditure which affects both the Government and 
the people. This is an other reason why special efforts should be 
made towards augmenting the natural production of the State. 
Where material increase flows through the life of a country, it 
carries better conditions over a wider area. I would, therefore, also 
urge that the development of handicrafts^ and village industries 

should be pushed on as vigorously as possible With 

economic and educational development goes also political develop- 
ment. Indeed, political advancement is at bottom a question 
of public education ; and this means a process of patient study 
and careful preparation on the part of both the Government and 

the people In this respect, Mysore affords an unrivalled 

opportunity for developing a form of Government which may 
serve as a type for study, and perhaps adaptation, by other 

parts of India I would therefore appeal to you that 

you might spare all the time and thought that you possibly can 
to the task of promoting public work and popular organisation in 
your localities. We shall be eagerly looking for instances of 
non-official initiative and effort in reviving rural industries, in 
helping joint action in manufacture or trade, in building up 
co-operative societies and aided schools, and in making the 
institutions of local self-government more successful " 

After his advent as Dewan, Sir Mirza Ismail found that far 
too large a sum of money was being set aside annually for the 
liquidation of the loans taken by the State. He rightly observed 
that it was inexpedient to make the present generation share all the 
burdens, leaving to the next generation only the enjoyment of the 
benefits accruing from the productive works on which capital had 
been spent. At the time the Assembly met, the Rupee Debt of the 
State stood at Rs. 354.42 lakhs against which had accumulated a 
a sum of Rs. H6 lakhs forming the Sinking Fund The net 



343 

Rupee Debt was therefore only Rs. 238 lakhs. The time also 
was favourable to convert the short term loans into long term ones 
at rates of interest favourable to the tax-payer, as this latter kind 
of loans had come to be viewed with favour by the investing public. 
Even taking interest at 6 per cent and the Sinking Fund at 4 per 
cent, the yearly contribution required from the general revenues to 
wipe off the remaining Rupee Debt in 30 years was only Rs. 18.5 
lakhs, while at the time the amount set apart to meet the charges 
towards both interest and Sinking Fund was no less than Rs. 42.39 
lakhs. It was therefore found possible to divert over Rs. 20 lakhs 
out of the accumulations towards making provision for new capital 
works, such as the High Level Canal from the Krishnarajasagara 
Reservoir and for some of the nation-building activities which had 
not been adequately provided for. 

In the latter part of 1926 Mr. N. S. Subba Rao (now 
Director of Public Instruction) who was a specialist in economics 
was placed on special duty to prepare an accurate and up-to-date 
statement of the facts relating to each tax or group of taxes levied 
in Mysore, to see how far the recommendations of the Taxation 
Enquiry Committee of the Government of India were applicable to 
the conditions existing in Mysore, and to make his own suggestions. 
The object of the Government in so doing was to follow in the 
wake of the Government of India and the Governments of some of 
the other countries of the world who had come to feel the necessity 
for arranging for an equitable system of taxation that could be 
readily expanded whenever necessary. The special officer 
completed his report by the Dasara of 1927 and sent the same to 
Government. 

By the middle of 1929 the Government emerged from a 
condition of financial stringency to one of fair prosperity and ease 
and the Dewan was able to assure the Representative Assembly 
that he could with sufficient optimism venture to translate into 
permanent conventions some of the arrangements for expansion 
which the Government had been carrying out in a more or less 
hand-to-mouth way in the past three years. The total of the 
material assets of the State at the end of June 1926 amounted to 



344 

Rs. Ill crores, while at the end of 1930 the same more or less 
reached the neighbourhood of Rs. 14 J crores. In addition to these 
assets, there were cash and investments without diminution from 
1926 amounting to about Rs. 6 crores in 1930. Against these two 
categories of assets, there were liabilities which amounted to 
Rs. 11.16 crores in 1926 and to about Rs. 13.94 crores at the end 
of June 1930. The result was that the assets and liabilities account 
showed an increase of material assets by three crores with no 
reduction under cash and investments. 

Early in 1930 a world-wide depression of prices due to over- 
production began to prevail and over-production meant unemploy- 
ment for workers and loss for the capitalists and no way could be 
readily discovered even by the wisest men of the world for over- 
coming this calamity. The Government of Mysore managed, 
however, to maintain the State activities as before without resorting 
to any additional taxation, but secured a margin of saving in the 
payment of interest by converting some of the older loans raised at 
higher rates of interest in the past into those bearing lower rates. 
Sir Mirza believed that in these days of new processes, of rationali- 
sation and of world-wide combines, progress was essential to 
existence and that it was not possible to mark time, but that we 
had to set our faces forward and struggle ahead unless we wished 
to be swept back by the tide. At the Dasara Session of the 
Representative Assembly in 1930 Dewan Bahadur Mr. M. N. 
Krishna Rao (afterwards Sir), First Member of the State Council, 
in his capacity as acting Dewan on account of Sir Mirza Ismail's 
absence in England in connection with the Round Table Conference, 
re-stated the views of Government regarding the raising of public 
loans, remarking that it was neither possible nor desirable to 
undertake from current revenues public works which were more or 
less of permanent utility and which cost large sums of money. 
The progress of the country however demanded that such works 
were essential and the only means of financing them was to raise 
public loans. The policy of Government, according to Mr. Krishna 
Rao, was therefore to be to borrow the funds required for carrying 
out a continuous programme of capital works calculated to develop 



345 

the resources of the country and improve the economic condition 
of the people. 

In October and December 1933 a 4 per cent loan free from 
income-tax repayable after twenty or thirty years at the option of 
the Government was issued in two instalments. The total 
subscriptions to the loan amounted to about Rs. 2\ crores and with 
this amount and the accumulations of the Sinking Fund at the 
usual rate of Rs. 17.78 lakhs per annum, the Government calculated 
that they would be able to pay off the unconverted securities 
maturing before 1941 amounting to Rs. 380 lakhs without resort to 
further public borrowing. In 1934 a windfall occurred to the 
Mysore revenues from the action of the Government of India in 
imposing an excise duty on matches and another on factory- 
produced sugar. The excise duty on matches was one of the 
measures of taxation contemplated for the purpose of balancing the 
budget under the new constitution to be later set up in India and 
these duties came to be levied in advance of the introduction of the 
new constitution. Mysore in common with other States agreed to 
recover a corresponding tax on matches manufactured in the State 
and to pay the proceeds into a common pool along with the 
proceeds of the British Indian tax for distribution between British 
India and the States on the basis of estimated consumption. The 
amount of the duty on matches manufactured in Mysore was 
estimated at Rs. li lakhs per annum, while the share of the 
Mysore Government of the proceeds of the general taxation on the 
consumption basis was expected to amount to about Rs. 5 lakhs 
per annum. As regards sugar, in order not to give an amount of 
protection greater than was required by the industry, the Govern- 
ment of India imposed an excise duty Re. 1-5-0 per cwt. on factory- 
produced sugar from 1st April 1934. The Government of India 
invited the States which produced sugar in factories to impose an 
equal duty for their own benefit on production in their territories as 
otherwise sugar exported from these States would be made liable 
to import duty on entering British India. The Mysore Govern- 
ment accepted the proposal of the Government of India and agreed 
to levy the duty as suggested. 



A44 



CHAPTER XLII. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Visit of Lord Irwin Reduction of the Subsidy by 
Rs. 1(H lakhs Silver Jubilee of the Maharaja. 

Lord Irwin who succeeded Lord Reading as Viceroy in 
November 1925 visited with Lady Irwin the State from the 25th 
July to 1st August 1927. At the State Banquet held on the 29th 
July the Viceroy in replying to the toast proposed by .the Maharaja, 
announced a reduction of Rs. 10i lakhs, in the subsidy of Rs. 35 
lakhs paid by the State to the Government of India since the 
Rendition. In doing so, His Excellency said : " For many years 
we have watched and admired the maintenance of those high 
standards of administration ; we have not forgotten the noble services 
you have rendered to the British Government when the need for 
service was the greatest, and we are not blind to what Your 
Highness has done to set an example of the fashion in which the 

government of a great State should be conducted Mysore 

has perhaps a longer tradition of progressive government than any 
other State in India, and the Government of India can feel assured 
that any relief which they may feel it in their power to give will 
inure to the benefit of the people of your State/' 

The University of Mysore took occasion to hold a special 
convocation and confer the honorary degree of D.Sc. on Lord 
Irwin. 

On the 8th August 1927, Krishnaraja Wodeyar completed the 
25th year of his rule. Ever since his assumption of power, His 
Highness had striven hard to promote the welfare of his subjects 
and to keep his State in the forefront, so that it became common to 
readily cite the name of Mysore whenever any reference was made 
to well-governed Native States. Long before the Jubilee arrived, 
considerable eagerness was manifested by the people of Mysore for 
the celebration of the day in a manner worthy of the high reputation 
of their Sovereign and in keeping with the benefits they had 
received from him. 



347 

On the llth April 1927, a large and enthusiastic public meeting 
was held in the Lai Bagh at Bangalore to concert measures for the 
celebration of the Jubilee at which representatives from all the 
districts were present. The gathering consisted of both ladies and 
gentlemen and Sir Mirza Ismail the Dewan presided. The 
chairman in his speech began by saying that at that meeting there 
were no officials or non -officials, no critics or champions of policy 
and that the strongest and subtlest unifying power in the State was 
the personality of the Maharaja. " Those of us who have had the 
honour of knowing something of the personal life of His Highness," 
continued Sir Mirza, " know that he is essentially a man of simple 
taste, though not in the bald sense sometimes associated with that 
term. There is a simplicity without taste. But His Highness' 
simplicity includes the love of beauty and includes a very simple 
and strong desire that his people shall share in the beauty of culture 
and of nature that he loves. In fulfilment of this desire, he has 
bounteously inspired and helped every movement for beautifying 
the environment of his people. His Highness has penetrated 
deeply into the actual life of his people, not officially only, but 
often without announcement or recognition ; and what he has not 
been able to do fully in the body, he has assiduously tried to do 
with the imagination, by keeping in close and constant touch with 
all that concerns the welfare of the State. His impartiality in the 
consideration of opposing details in affairs, his quick and sound 
judgment, the dignity and restraint which goes with him as a never- 
failing atmosphere are realised by all who know anything of his 
life and work. To us in Mysore, he stands as the centre of our 
social organisation and in personality. To India as a whole and to 
the large body of persons beyond India who are looking to India 
for fresh light and direction in the present time of world-crisis, he 
stands as the type of the true succession of Indian rulership. In 
the modern ruler a new tolerance and neutrality is called for and 
the broad-mindedness of His Highness has passed into a proverb. 
A religious devotee himself, he makes no distinctions on religious 
grounds. He follows his own faith and respects the sincere faith 
of others. But it is probably in the department of public affairs, 
in legislation and administration that His Highness has, taken his 



348 

place as one of the most sagacious statesmen of our time. He has 
recognised, on the one hand, the increasing political importance of 
the individual citizen, and, on the other hand, he has felt the 
necessity and advantage of viewing Mysore as a vital member of the 
great entity called India, with whose destinies those of Mysore are 
interwoven. His Highness is ever alert to the indications of the 
growing spirit of humanity both within Mysore and India as a 
whole and ever eager to adapt the machinery of co-operative life 
to the behests of evolution " 

On 13th June 1927 when the Birthday Session of the 
Representative Assembly began, the Dawan announced to the 
members that the proposal to celebrate the Silver Jubilee had evoked 
unparalleled enthusiasm throughout the State, that people every- 
where were arranging to celebrate the Jubilee in a fitting manner 
and that a permanent memorial was also intended to be erected to 
serve to remind the future generations of the era of well-being and 
progress which the State had enjoyed under a benign and far- 
sighted ruler. 

The 8th August 1927 was, as has been already stated, the day 
of the Silver Jubilee of His Highness' reign and it began at Mysore 
with a salute of 25 guns. The weather was delightfully mild and 
pleasant. Thousands of His Highness' loyal subjects had 
assembled to pay their homage to the Sovereign and all the 
proceedings were marked by much enthusiasm and devotion. At 
9 a.m. His Highness proceeded from the Palace to the marriage 
pavilion in the Jagan Mohan Palace and took his seat in a chair of 
State. The pandits and Vaidiks were ranged in a semi-circle in 
front of His Highness. The Vaidiks chanted verses from the 
three Vedas invoking the blessings of the Almighty on their 
Sovereign. Sacramental rice was then showered on His Highness 
by the pandits. His Highness then stood up and made a speech 
in Sanskrit expressing his gratitude for their benedictions, coming 
as they did from such a scholarly body of representatives of ancient 
learning as he saw before him. 

At 10 a.m. His Highness entered the Durbar Hall of the 
Palace and took his seat in a chair of State, The Yuvaraja 



349 

accompanied His Highness and took his seat on the dais to the 
left of his brother. There was a large gathering of invited persons 
from all parts of the State. The military forces had assembled in 
the courtyard and saluted. Obeisances were offered to the 
Maharaja which were duly acknowledged. A Sanskrit Pandit then 
recited a number of Sanskrit verses in appreciation of the many 
virtues of His Highness and of the benefits of his rule. Sir K. P. 
Puttanna Chetty then, with the permission of His Highness, made 
a speech in Kanada in which he referred to the numerous benefits 
which the people of Mysore had obtained during the 25 years of 
His Highness' reign and also spoke of the great qualities of head 
and heart which His Highness possessed. Urdu and Sanskrit 
versions of the speech were also read. 

In reply His Highness made the following speech : 
" My Beloved People, 

"It gives me the deepest pleasure to receive this address from 
you, and I thank you all from the bottom of my heart for 
the sentiments of loyalty and devotion to my throne and 
person that you have so eloquently expressed. 

" I thank God who has blessed Mysore so abundantly in 
material ways that He has blessed her also with a sincere, 
modest, liberal-minded and industrious people; and I thank 
my people themselves, my Government and my officers that 
by their hearty co-operation for the good of Mysore they 
have earned for it the name of the Model State and the signal 
proof of appreciation which we have just received from the 
Supreme Government. 

" I pray that we may all be assisted in the years to come to 
work together in the spirit of brotherhood for the same good 
end, so that with an efficient administration, increased facilities 
for agriculture, industry and commerce and equal opportunities 
for all, we may devote our common energies to a level in 
keeping with the foremost countries of the world. 



350 

" It is my earnest desire that this spirit of brotherhood 
should be extended to the continuous improvement of the 
conditions of those who are less fortunate than ourselves, 
remembering that all the communities alike are members of 
my people and children of our country. 

" I pray that a similar spirit may extend itself to the dumb 
creation, and that we may see animals, and especially those 
we hold sacred, treated with ever-increasing consideration 
for the feelings which they cannot express. 

" And I appeal specially to the rising generation to hold 
before themselves always the ideal of brotherhood and good 
citizenship, so that when they come to fill our places, they may 
continue in all good ways to advance and increase the welfare 
of our beloved Motherland. 

" Finally, I send my loving greetings to each one of my dear 
people, with a heart full of solicitude for their happiness. 
With increasing effort I shall, while life lasts, endeavour to 
promote their welfare and prosperity, and I pray that God may 
give me light and strength to achieve this, the supreme object 
of my life and rule." 

His Highness also issued the following message to his 
subjects : 

THE PALACE, 

MYSORE, 
8th August 1927. 

On this day, when I complete the twenty-fifth year of my 
reign, I send my loving greetings to each one of my dear 
people, with a heart full of solicitude for their happiness. 
With unceasing effort I shall, while life lasts, endeavour to 
promote their welfare and prosperity, and I pray that God may 
give me light and strength to achieve this, the supreme object 
of my life and rule. 

(Sd.) Krishnaraja Wodeyar, 



351 

Souvenirs containing a photo of His Highness and the message 
were distributed in the Durbar. 

At 5 p.m. His Highness accompanied by the Yuvaraja drove 
in state to the Silver Jubilee Clock Tower. A shamiana had been 
put up and tastefully decorated. Her Highness the Maharani late 
Regent and all the Palace ladies were present in motor cars. Their 
Highnesses took their seats on a raised dais and thousands were 
able to pay their homage to the Maharaja. A pandit read some 
verses composed by Rajakavibhushana Mr. H. Lingaraj Urs. 
The Rajkumar C. Desaraj Urs, nephew of the Maharaja, then 
requested His Highness to switch the clock into action. His 
Highness accordingly complied and the bell of the clock struck 
25 times. Its sonorous peal was heard above the acclamations of 
the multitude. This clock tower, it may be stated, was intended by 
all the employees of the Palace to commemorate the Silver Jubilee 
of the reign of His Highness the Maharaja and an inscription to 
that effect was recorded on the tower. His Highness then drove in 
state to a public fete which had been organised in the grounds 
near the Government House and after witnessing the same, 
returned to his residence. The Fort Palace was illuminated in the 
evening. 

The next day in the morning in honour of the Silver Jubilee, 
the Boys and Girls of Mysore organised a meeting in the Jagan 
Mohan Palace Pavilion, at which His Highness the Yuvaraja 
presided. Prince Jayachamaraja Wodeyar, the eldest son of the 
Yuvaraja, was also present at this meeting. A message of 
congratulation and loyalty was sent by the Boys and Girls to the 
Maharaja. The message was carried to the Palace by a relay of 
Boy Scouts and the following reply was received from His 
Highness : " I am deeply touched by the message of the Boys and 
Girls of Mysore. I cannot wish them anything better in reply than 
that they be all their lives good Mysoreans and good Scouts 
and Guides/* 

In the evening of the same day, the Pinjrapole Society 
organised a tree-planting ceremony to commemorate the Silver 



352 

Jubilee at the Pinjrapole grounds. His Highness the Yuvaraja 
arrived on the grounds at 5 p.m. and was received by Sir Charles 
Todhunter, Private Secretary to the Maharaja, and other members 
of the Committee. In response to the request of Sir Charles 
Todhunter, His Highness planted the first tree in the Mysore 
Jubilee tope which was one of the many that were planted 
all over the State that day. The Yuvaraja, in a short concluding 
speech, expressed a wish that the trees planted that day might 
flourish exceedingly, and that the Pinjrapole Society and the 
animals entrusted to its care might flourish with them and that as 
the trees spread out their branches, so the Society might spread its 
interests, bringing more and more of the 'suffering dumb creation 
under its sheltering care. 

The citizens of Bangalore expressed a strong wish that the 
Maharaja should visit their city and that there should be some 
demonstration of the joy that the celebration of the Jubilee had 
given them. In compliance with these wishes, a procession took 
place on the 7th September 1927 in the Bangalore City. On the 
evening of that day, His Highness drove in a carriage and four with 
escort from the Bangalore Palace to the Cubbon Park, accompanied 
by the Yuvaraja, the Dewan and Sirdar Lakshmikantharaj Urs. 
Their Highnesses were received by the President, the Commissioner 
and members of the Municipality. An address was then read by 
the President and it was presented to the Maharaja in a beautiful 
casket. Among other matters, the address stated that they were 
highly grateful for the opportunity given to the citizens of 
Bangalore to demonstrate their deep love and reverence to their 
Sovereign, that that day had been looked forward to with 
unbounded pleasure by all classes and communities in the city, and 
that the occasion would stand as a memorable landmark in the 
history of the corporation. His Highness made a suitable reply 
and said that he would watch with pleasure and sympathy the 
various improvements which they were carrying out to enhance its 
beauty and healthfulness and at the same time, impressed upon 
them the extreme importance of paying a due share of their 
attention to the less favoured parts of the city and of doing all that 



353 

lay in their power to brighten the lives and surroundings of the 
poorer classes, so that they too might enjoy the benefits of a 
healthy and enlightened life. After a short interval, Their Highnesses 
mounted an elephant which was kept ready and the procession 
started from the Seshadri Memorial Hall. On the procession 
reaching the City market-square, His Highness alighted at a 
specially erected pavilion and the members of the Municipality who 
were introduced to His Highness paid their respects. His 
Highness remounted the elephant and the procession continued. 
Fireworks were displayed in the grounds of the District Offices as 
the procession passed. The procession came to a close at the new 
Krishnflrajendra Circle. 

It took some time to decide the form of the memorial and in 
1929 an announcement was made that it would take the form of a 
Technological Institute at Bangalore. The Maharaja laid the 
foundation of this institute near the Krishnarajendra Circle, 
Bangalore, on 8th March 1933. Before performing the ceremony, 
His Highness made a speech in which he referred to the multitude 
of events startling in their own way occurring in the first quarter of 
the 20th century which coincided with his own reign. " My 
greatest hope for the future of this Technological Institute is," said 
His Highness, " that it will form an abiding link between the 
purely literary education to which we have so largely devoted 
ourselves in the past and the practical adaptation of new inventions 
and discoveries which must, whether we like it or not, form so 
great a part of our life in the future." 

A third part of the subscriptions raised was made available to 
to the district, taluk and other committees who established memo- 
rials suitable to their own local needs. These local memorials have 
been generally in the form of public utilities such as Orphanages, 
Hospitals, Maternity Wards, Poor Houses, Public Halls, Recreation 
Grounds, Reading Rooms, Libraries and other like institutions. 



CHAPTER XLIIf. 
Krithnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV's views on some religious, 
social and other topics. 

The decorous reserve and the studied stiffness which the 
Indian Princes of the olden days were accustomed to assume 
whenever they appeared in public no longer characterise the 
Princes who have received training under the modern methods of 
educational discipline. They have become frank in their manners 
and sociable in an enlarged degree when they are in company. 
They are freely to be seen gracing public gatherings and presiding 
over functions of various kinds, no longer deterred by any old-world 
sentiments of rank or dignity from giving expression to their views 
on public or other questions whenever circumstances call for 
them. Krishnaraja Wodeyar has freely availed himself of such 
opportunities, and the workings of his mind stand revealed to all 
those who wish to know them. These views of His Highness go 
to reveal that the mind behind them is a cultured mind not bound 
by any narrow limits, but bold and forward in its movements. 
A few typical views of His Highness* expressed on various 
occasions will illustrate the truth of these remarks. These views 
are valuable not only for the immediate purpose they served but 
also for serving as beacon lights for the guidance of the people of 
the country and a model for his successors to follow. 

In December 1902 on the occasion of a visit to Poona when 
the Gayana Samaj there presented him an address, His Highness 
in expressing his pleasure for the welcome offered to him said that 
he appreciated the compliment that in Mysore under the auspices 
of his revered parents this fine art had made much advancement. 
As a lover of music of both the East and the West, it pleased him, 
His Highness said, to renew his acquaintance with the Gayana 
Samaj and to assure the Samaj of his hearty interest in it and 
in its aims. 



355 

On the 22nd December 1903 when the Maharaja visited 
Madras to open the Industrial Exhibition organised there by the 
citizens of Madras, His Highness in reply to a welcome address 
said that his earnest desire was to uphold the great traditions of his 
State and to do what in him lay to maintain for Mysore that 
position in the Indian polity which had been assigned to it in the 
address. His Highness congratulated himself that thus early in 
his career he had been afforded an opportunity of meeting so many 
of the most enlightened citizens not only of Madras but of all parts 
of India and of taking his part with the people of India in a 
movement which had for its object the development of the 
industries of India, their great Motherland. 

In January 1904 in addressing a deputation of Mysoreans 
resident in Madras, His Highness said that though for the 
administration and development of Mysore the best heads and 
hearts that the soil could produce were needed, he would be the last 
to discourage young men from seeking an honourable livelihood 
abroad. For it was certain that though absent for a while, they 
were not unmindful that Mysore was their home and would ever be 
eager when opportunity offered to devote the knowledge and 
breadth of mind acquired by residence amongst progressive 
communities to the service of their Motherland. 

In reply to an address from the Lingayat Community 
presented on the 8th June 1906 on the occasion of the elevation of 
Mr. K. P. Puttanna Chetty (now Sir) as a Member of Council, the 
Maharaja gave expression to the view that the doors of education 
and of the Public Service lay open to all alike and in the appoint- 
ment which had then been made they could find ample assurance 
that those who proved their fitness would not lack recognition from 
him or from his Government. 

In reply to an address presented on the 28th August 1906 on 
the occasion of the opening of the Wesleyan Mission Hospital at 
Mysore, His Highness said that the Wesleyan Mission were old 
friends of all in Mysore and were the pioneers of modern education 
in the city and that their good work was well-known to every 



$56 

This their latest enterprise was one that must appeal to the hearts 
of all. The provision of medical relief for the sick and suffering 
women and children was a question apart from all questions of 
caste, creed or nationality and there was no object to which those 
that were in a position to help could more worthily contribute. 

In January 1907 the Maharaja visited Calcutta and in reply to 
an address presented by the members of the Association for the 
advancement of scientific and industrial education, His Highness 
said that there had been an awakening all over the Indian continent 
regarding the urgent need that existed for ^recovering the ground 
which had been lost in the matter of industries and commerce and 
that all those who took a true interest in the well-being of the 
country could not but rejoice at the signs of revival that were 
noticeable on all sides. 

In reply to the address presented by the citizens of Mysore on 
llth March 1907 congratulating the Maharaja on the title of 
G. C. S. I. conferred on him by His Majesty the King-Emperor, 
His Highness said : " You allude in your address to the honour as 
being a fit recognition of my four years' personal rule. Though I 
appreciate the depth of feeling which has prompted you to express 
this opinion, yet I must candidly confess that I cannot altogether 
endorse it. I feel that I have only just begun my work of 
administration, that there is a very great deal to be done and that 
very little has yet been achieved. My responsibility is a heavy one, 
but I fully realise it. As it has pleased Providence to call upon me 
to discharge it, I can only submit to the Divine Will. It shall ever 
be my aim and ambition in life to do all that lies in me to promote 
the progress and prosperity of my beautiful State and the happiness 
of my beloved people. I can assure you that I shall not spare 
myself in my endeavours to accomplish this. Neither perseverence 
nor effort will, I trust, be ever found wanting in fulfilling that aim." 

In reply to the address of the Vokkaligara Sangha consisting 
Of people mainly following the occupation of agriculture, His 
said on the 1 7th October 1907 that any improvement that 




H. H. Narasimharaja Wodeyar, G.C.I.E. 



357 

tended to the welfare of that community must command his warm 
support. 

On the occasion of the Birthday Banquet to his European 
friends on the 27th June 1910, His Highness said: "It is a 
renewed pleasure to me as the Mysore Birthday Week comes round 
year after year to welcome my English friends to the capital of my 
State, and this year that pleasure is intensified by the thought that 
the large and distinguished company who have been my guests on 
this occasion have come here not only to join in the celebrations of 
my birthday but to unite with my people in the universal rejoicing 
occasioned by the marriage of my brother. Mr. Eraser has alluded 
in feeling and eloquent terms to the strong bond of affection which 
unites my brother and myself, and I can assure you that it is a 
source of great pride and gratification to me to realise what a high 
place my brother has secured in your regard. My mother too will, 
I know, appreciate very deeply the congratulations on the happy 
event in our family which Mr. Eraser has so gracefully offered 

her I also appreciate very much the complimentary 

words in which Mr. Eraser has alluded to the military rank recently 
conferred on me by His Majesty the King-Emperor. Not only do 
I feel proud to belong to the British army as my father did before 
me, but I regard it as an honour to be associated with such a fine 

regiment as the 26th Cavalry It is difficult for me to give 

an adequate response to the warm and friendly words in which 
Mr. Eraser has referred to his many years of close association with 
my family and his personal relations with myself, and I can only 
acknowledge the deep debt of gratitude which I owe him for the 
care and devotion which he displayed during my boyhood and early 
manhood and to which I mainly owe any small measure of success 
that I may have attained in my work of administration." 

In laying the corner-stone of the Y. M. C. A. building at 
Bangalore on the 14th April 1912, His Highness welcomed the 
extension of the Association's work to the State as he felt that its 
influence religious, moral and educational would be all for the good, 
not 'only of its Christian members but also of the young men 
belonging to other religions who would pass tbeir leisure hours 



358 

within its walls. The people of India, His Highness further said, 
owed a deep obligation to the Missionary Schools and Colleges which 
had done so much not only to spread education but to impart a high 
moral character to the vast number of Indian pupils who had come 

under their influence There could be no more valuable 

training for a young man than that which made him fear his God 
and do good to his neighbour, or in other words, which taught him 
to believe in his own religion, to be a good citizen and to render 
social service. 

On the occasion of the opening on the llth April 1913 of the 
Vani Vilas Ursu Girls* School which is said to have come into 
existence mainly through the instrumentality of His Highness 1 
cousin the late H. Nanjundaraj Urs, the Maharaja said that it was 
a trite saying that no community could expect to advance when 

half of its members were illiterate and ignorant The 

education of the future mothers of children could not with impunity 
be neglected and it was therefore none too soon that they had 
awakened to the true needs of such an education. 

In reply to an address presented to him at Davangere on the 
19th December 1914 by the people of the place on the occasion of 
his provincial tour, His Highness referring to the German War 
which had begun a few months before, said that though it might be 
admitted that the war had affected the business of the producers 
and exporters of cotton and oil seeds, still it was to be understood 
that distress of that kind was inevitable and could not easily be 
remedied by administrative measures. Whatever might be the 
effect of the war on their trade, they were to remember that ties of 
gratitude and friendship bound them to the British Government and 
that they were to submit cheerfully to some sacrifice in support of 
the righteous cause for which Great Britain and her allies had taken 
up arms. 

On the occasion of the opening on the 6th July 1915 of the 
Seringapatam Memorial Mantap built on the site where Krishnaraja 
Wodeyar III was born, His Highness said " There are few places 
more closely associated with Mysore history than the island and 
fortress of Seringapatam, and it is a spurce of peculiar satisfaction tp 



359 

me that this site should be chosen for a memorial to my illustrious 
grandfather whose name will long be remembered not only in 
connection with the restoration of our ancient dynasty after the fall 
of Seringapatam but with its second restoration after 50 years of 
British administration. It may be truly said that we owe that 
signal act of generosity and justice the Rendition of Mysore in 
1881 to the recognition by the British Government of the high 
personal character of my grandfather, of his patience and fortitude, 
and of his unswerving loyalty to the British Government during 

many years of adversity I grieve to see as I look around 

me the ruin and decay which have fallen on this once flourishing 
city and no one can sympathise more deeply than I do with the 
earnest wish of its inhabitants to see something of its former 
prosperity restored 

" As I stand on this historical battle-ground, my thoughts 
naturally go back to the terrible war now raging in Europe in which 
our Indian soldiers are righting side by side with their British 
comrades in defence of a righteous cause. May we all unite in a 
constant prayer for victory to the British arms and for an 
honourable and lasting peace." 

On the occasion of laying the foundation-stone of the Daly 
Memorial Hall for the location of the Mythic Society on 31st 
August 1916, His Highness referred to the two objects of the 
memorial building, namely, to provide a local habitation to the 
Mythic Society and to honour the memory of Col. Sir Hugh Daly 
who was till recently the British Resident in the State. Sir Hugh 
Daly's active interest in the progress of the State and his geniality 
won for him a warm place in the hearts of the people of Mysore. 
His Highness also said that if the objects of the Mythic Society 
came to be better understood to conduct researches connected 
with history and archaeology he hoped that the people of 
Mysore, not the learned few only, would feel pride and interest in 
its work. Much of the credit for the building was due to Father 

Tabard who was its founder and mainstay The building 

would serve to recall to the memory of the future generations the 
name of a high-minded British officer who was a sincere friend of 



560 

Mysore and its people. It would bring together Europeans and 
Indians to work on a common platform for an object which appealed 
to the higher intellectual tastes of civilised life. 

On the occasion of the opening of the Science Congress 
presided over by Sir Alfred Bourne, Director of Tata Institute, on 
10th January 1917 His Highness said : " The last half of a century 
has witnessed a marvellous progress in the application of science to 
the needs of man. Inventions and improvements have been 
pouring in with bewildering rapidity. Transport by land, water 
and air has been quickened and cheapened. The uses of science for 
alleviating sickness have been multiplfed. That fever can be 
defeated by science can be demonstrated by what has been done on 
the Panama Canal. 

" Meeting as we do here in an atmosphere of peace and 
sunshine, our thoughts cannot but turn to the Great War and to 
the terrible scenes of death and destruction which are being enacted 
in Central- Europe. One cannot help feeling it a tragedy that 
science to which the world so largely owes its progress and 
civilisation is being, as it were, debased in this war and used for the 

purpose of destroying human life May we not look 

forward to a time when science will be hailed not only as a beacon 
light of civilisation but as the world's peace-maker 

" Scientific education in India is in its infancy and her 
industrial output per ' head of population is as yet a negligible 
quantity. India at the rate her population is growing cannot long 
maintain herself by merely growing raw produce. Science has 
soon to come to the aid of her agriculture and industry to maintain 
her population." 

In reply to the address of the Chamarajanagar Municipal 
Council on 8th December 1917, His Highness appealed to the 
people to develop the spirit of co-operation with Government, for 
Government by its unaided efforts could achieve very little and 
that any real progress must depend on the initiative and 
the public spirit of the people themselves, that they must not 



361 

look to Government or its officers to do everything for them, but 
must learn to be self-reliant and to develop the resources of the 
country by their own independent efforts also. 

In reply to an address by a Non-Brahmin deputation at 
Karikal Thotti on 24th June 1918 His Highness said : " It has 
always been my earnest desire to see all classes of my subjects 
represented in just proportion in the Public Service. The preponder- 
ence of the Brahmins in the Government Service is due to 
inevitable causes and I feel convinced that time and the spread of 
education and enlightenment will gradually remove the inequality 
of which you rightly complain. At the same time, I must tell you 
that it is far from my desire that any community should in any way 
be penalised on account of its caste, simply because it has worked 
hard and utilised fully the opportunities for advancement which are 
open to all my subjects. For, I believe I have in the Brahmin 
community subjects as loyal as any among my people. Nor can I 
for a moment forget the eminent services rendered in the past and 
are still being rendered to my House and State by the representa- 
tives of that gifted community. My ambition is to pursue a 
righteous policy as between various castes and communities in the 
State, neither unduly favouring nor suppressing any community but 
trying to uplift them all for the permanent good of the State. 

" My Government is using its utmost endeavours to encourage 
backward classes in the State and you may rest assured that this 
policy of affording special facilities and encouragement to all 
communities who are lagging behind in the race of progress will be 
readily pursued in future even more than it has been in the past." 

In 1915 when the Benares Hindu University was founded, the 
Maharaja was elected as the first Chancellor of the University, 
On the first convocation of the University on 17th January 1919, 
His Highness gave utterance to these sentiments : " Of the many 
important measures which distinguish the viceroyalty of Lord 
Hardinge, not the least in its beneficent and far-reaching effects is 
the Benares Hindu University Act of 1915 by which the Govern- 

A46 



362 

rhent of India, under his inspiration and guidance, set the seal of its 
approval upon one of the greatest popular educational movements 

of the times After many vicissitudes and many years of 

toil, we are assembled here to-day to gather the first fruits of our 
labours, and this important event in the history of our University 
conies happily at a time when the most terrible war that the world 
has ever seen is at an end. We rejoice on such an occasion to 
congratulate His Majesty the King- Emperor and the British nation 
on the decisive victory of the British Empire and its Allies. The 
war has demonstrated the greatness of the British character, no 
less than the deep-rooted loyalty of the Princes and people of India 
to the British connection. May we hope that the outlook of the 
human race is changing and a new era is dawning on a world 
saddened by the tears and sacrifices of many nations an era of the 
reign of right as opposed to might, of principle as opposed to 

expediency, and of peace as opposed to aggression Centres 

of culture like this University have a noble purpose to serve and 
can contribute materially to the enlargement of human ideals and 
to the promotion of interracial and international fellowship. But 
they can achieve this end only if their outlook is as wide as 
humanity itself 

" Especially should we Hindus with our glorious past beware 
of the temptation to confuse patriotism with blind adoration of 
ancient days, coupled with a repugnance for everything modern and 
foreign. No nation is impoverished by commerce with other 
nations; no civilisation can suffer by intercourse with other nations 
and by an intelligent appreciation of the principles, ideas and 
practices that have proved to be beneficial to other peoples and 

countries I understand that in America where the 

problem of fusing a variety of peoples into a common nationality is 
as urgent, though perhaps not so difficult, as in India, education in 
citizenship, patriotism and loyalty to the constitution have been 
included amongst the objectives of the school system. The 
cultivation of the ethics of citizenship and patriotism is specially 
needed in India where clan, tribe and caste have had a deplorable 
tendency to produce communal exclusiveness and differences. 



363 

" The country needs something more than the accomplished 
gentleman. It needs men of enthusiasm even more than refined 
intellectuals pursuing the easy path of worldly wisdom, worldly 
compromise and worldly success. It needs men of stout hearts and 
strong hands who will not allow their conscience to be drugged by 
sophistry of any kind, or their nerve to be paralysed by the fear of 
unpopularity, but will oppose wrong wherever found and fight 
unflinchingly the battle of social justice and emancipation on behalf 
of the weak and down -trodden." 

At the opening on the 14th April 1922 of the mosque at the 
Body Guard Lines at Mysore constructed at the Maharaja's cost 
and presented to the Mahomedan community, His Highness made 
a speech in Urdu and said that it was one of the striking features 
of Islam that it laid special emphasis on the inestimable value of 
prayer, and that it would give him great pleasure if the Mussalman 
community made full use of the mosque and if they constantly 

resorted to it for prayer and meditation The Almighty 

God could confer no greater blessing on a Ruler, further said the 
Maharaja, than the happiness and well-being of his people be they 
Hindus, Mahomedans or Christians in whose welfare, spiritual as 
well as material, he is deeply interested. 

On the occasion of the celebration on the 3rd September 1923 
of the Janma Ashtami of Sri Krishna by the members of the 
Sanatana Dharma Pratap Sabha of Srinagar, His Highness who 
happened to be in Kashmir at the time gave utterance to the*e 
elevated sentiments: "On this auspicious day our thoughts 
naturally turn to the holy nativity and life of Sri Krishna and our 
minds piously dwell on the meditations of His Divine virtue. We 
may not attain to the same level of perfection as He ; it would 
indeed be presumptuous on our part even to dream of achieving it, 
but we may at least strive to follow his footsteps, to understand the 
words of wisdom contained in the songs of that Celestial Bard, to 
emulate his example and to gain that personal holiness without 

which no man can come up to true knowledge of God 

The sacred Hindu religion is the priceless heirtage handed down to 
us by our forefathers and it is, believe me, God's best gift to us." 



364 

On the occasion of the All -India Jain Conference held at 
Sravanabelagola on the 14th March 1925, His Highness said : 
" In welcoming this all- India gathering of Jains to the land of 
Mysore, I cannot forget that this land is to them a land of pilgrimage, 
consecrated by some of the holiest traditions and the tenderest 
memories of their faith. This picturesque rock on an elevated 
table-land was, as a thousand year old tradition has it, the scene 
where the venerable Bhagavan Srutakevali Bhadrabahu leading the 
first migration of the Jains to the Southern Peninsula broke his 
journey through the jungles and took up his abode, and tradition 
still points to the cave in which years after he passed away in 

Sallekhana leaving his foot-prints on the fock This is 

also the sacred spot to the Muniswara Gomata Fora 

thousand years has the Muniswara's colossal statue carved, it may 
be, out of a huge boulder on the rock and visible for miles around 
ruled over this scene, unsurpassed in massive grandeur and sublimity 
of spiritual power by anything that the Egyptian or Assyrian 

monuments can show What is unique in Jainism among 

Indian religious and philosophical systems is that it has sought an 
emancipation in an upward movement of the spirit towards the 
realm of infinitude and transcendence and that it has made power, 
will, character, in one word charitra, an integral element of perfec- 
tion, side by side with knowledge and faith. 

" The conference is, I understand, a purely religious and social 
one. It will have nothing to do with politics. I commend the 
wisdom of the promoters on this limitation. Let me not, however, 
be misunderstood in this commendation as putting politics outside 
the pale of your consideration as something to be dreaded or ignored. 
On the contrary, I feel that every intelligent person should take an 
earnest and intelligent interest in the political questions of the day 
and contribute his and I ought, perhaps, to add her share towards 
the solution of the problems that must inevitably arise from the 
necessity of adapting the organisation of humanity to the needs of 
its expanding consciousness 

" In the sphere of politics whether concerning India or any of 
the areas of which it is composed, you are Indians first and Jains 



365 

afterwards. As Jains you command the sympathetic interest of 
everyone looking at the problems of your community from your 
particular standpoint. As Indians, your political point of* view as 
well as of every other religious community in India should, in my 
opinion, be that of India as a whole. 

" So long as the thousand and one different communities into 
which our country is split up bear this doctrine in mind and act 
towards one another in a true spirit of brotherhood, we need have 
no misgivings as to her future. It is when the purely religious and 
social questions invade politics that vast difficulties arise, difficulties 
which must inevitably retard the progress of the country. Within 
the religious and social sphere of each community there can be no 
improvement which does not exercise a beneficial effect on the 
general progress of the country. We must, therefore, wish every 
community all possible success in its endeavour to advance itself 
religiously, socially and educationally. At the same time, we must 
realise that if there is to be real progress in the country at 
large, it must be all along the line ; it must embrace every 
community. And I personally consider it the sacred duty of the 
more advanced communities not only to have earnest regard for 
their own progress, but also to extend a helping hand to less 
fortunate communities which from some remediable cause are 
lagging behind in the path of human evolution." 

On the occasion of the celebration of the Jubilee of the 
Maharaja's Sanskrit College at Mysore on the 20th October 1926, 
His Highness said: "Started in 1876 at the express desire of my 
grandfather, its importance cannot be judged by numerical 
standards alone. For, this institution stands for ancient culture. 
It is the centre of Sanskrit learning from which a knowledge of the 
rich store of our ancient heritage has radiated to all parts of the 
State and even outside. It has, in fact, preserved for the use of 
future generations the essence of those traditions and characteristics 
on which the structure of our Indian civilisation was built in the 
past. This college is thus rendering a national service of no mean 
order to the country. That this is not an unduly large claim will 
be clear if we remember that in any reconstruction of our social, 



366 

political and religious polity, we could not and should not cut 
ourselves off from our historic past and that our future must have 
its roots in the past. 

l< Besides, Sanskrit learning embodies a culture, a discipline, a 
type of humanism which few other learning, old or new, dead or 
living, can present to our age." 

The mosque known as the Jumma Musjid Mosque at Mysore 
was reconstructed at a cost of Rs. 38,000 by the State engineers at 
the command of the Maharaja and was handed over on the 6th 
April 1927 to the Mahomedan community* for use. When the 
seat of Government was transferred from Seringapatam after the 
events of 1799, there was no Jumma Musjid in the city and the 
Mahomedan inhabitants who had migrated from Seringapatam 
prayed that one might be constructed. This prayer for a mosque 
was not only acceded to by Krishnaraja Wodeyar III, grandfather 
of the present Maharaja, but he also attached a suitable cash grant 
for the maintenance of the institution and for the relief of poor 
travellers at a Langarkhana. The present Maharaja in declaring 
the new mosque open wished that the building might endure for 
many generations as a source of inspiration, as a place of goodwill, 
as a centre of all that is best and noblest in the Mahomedan religion. 

On the occasion of laying the foundation-stone of Saint 
Philomena's Church at Mysore on 28th October 1933, His 
Highness said: "I believe with deep conviction that religion is 
fundamental to the richest and strongest life of the nation. There 
are diverse religions in this land of ours and frequently there exists 
a most irreligious hostility between them. But we have been 
gradually coming to understand that the unity is much deeper than 
the differences, that while in creed and custom we are far enough 
apart, in worship and in aspiration we are one. This being so, the 
creed and custom of each religion among us is surely worthy of 
reverent study by the followers of every other. 

" You have reminded me that your present church was built by 
my grandfather of revered memory ninety years ago To 



367 

you, My Lord Bishop, and to your clergy, the State and City of 
Mysore are indebted for countless deeds of charity and goodwill 
and for endless effort for the enlightenment and uplift of the people." 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

Krithnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

The Maharaja as a Pilgrim --From Almora to Manasarowar. 

The Maharaja in June 1931 resolved to make a pilgrimage to 
Lake Manasarowar and to Mount Kilas in the Himalayas. In the 
previous year His Highness had visited Badari Narayan. The 
royal party left Mysore on the 18th June 1931 and reached Almora 
on the 24th of the same month and remained there till the morning 
of the 27th. Six retired Indian sepoys who had seen war service 
three of them Ghurkas and the other three Kumaonese were 
engaged to guard the party right through. The party also carried 
its own arms and ammunition. The party that accompanied His 
Highness consisted of Messrs. 1. N. Rangachar,* Surgeon. 

2. Sadeg Z. Shah, Assistant Secretary to His Highness. 

3. Colonel A. V. Subramanyaraj Urs, Hon. A. D. C. 4. Major 
S. Gopala Rao. 5. Captain Nabi Khan. 6. Lieut. Nanjaraj 
Bahadur of the Mysore Lancers. 7. A. Venkatasubbayya, Manager, 
Private Secretary's Office. 8. C. V. Subramanyaraj Urs, 
Mokthesar, Khas Samukha. 9. K. Venkatarangayya, Clerk, 
Private Secretary's Office. 10. C. Krishnappa, Sub- Assistant 
Surgeon. Mr. Pratap Singh, Tahsildar of Almora, who was on 
duty with His Highness on the occasion of the trip to Badari 
Narayan was deputed by the United Provinces Government to 
accompany the party to arrange for transport and other requisites. 

The first start towards the destination was made on the morning 
of the 27th June at 5-30 when the ponies and guides were ready, 
and the first stage a distance of 8 miles was reached at 8 a.m., 
taking -up . Residence in the forest bungalow situated on a hillock. 
There 'wete pine trees all along the route and patches of cultivation 
In terraces on hill slopes and along the valleys. The bridle-path 
is tortuous and follows the hillsides. Here some large-sized 

v 

* The account of the trip appearing in the following pages is taken from 
the diary kept by Dr. N. Rangachar during the time. 



369 

cardamoms were presented to His Highness by the local people. 
The night was fairly cool with a bright moon and there was mist in 
the valleys in which was running a small stream. The whole of 
the kit was carried on mules. 

The next camp at a distance of about 10 or 11 miles was 
reached on the morning of the 28th. The first part of the journey 
was all uphill for about 3 or 4 miles till a cool ridge was passed, 
when the route was all downhill. All through there were pine 
trees and a halt was made at the forest bungalow as in the first 
stage. There were small plots of rice cultivation in the valley, 
where a small stream was flowing. 

At 4 a.m. on the morning of the 29th the journey was 
commenced for the next camp, a distance of 12 miles, with the aid 
of lanterns as it was still dark. The party walked for about 4 or 5 
miles along the course of the stream referred to above till the Sarju 
river was crossed, spanned over by a nice suspension bridge. As 
the valley was very narrow and tortuous, it was very warm even in 
the early morning. But the valley became broader towards the 
Sarju and after crossing this river on ponies, an ascent of two miles 
was made before the camp was reached. All the ryots of the 
village turned up in the evening to pay their respects to His 
Highness who graciously enquired after their welfare, and before 
they departed they shouted " Mysore Maharaja Ki Jai ! " " Kilasa 
Jatra Ki Jai ! " and went away quite pleased. 

On the 30th as usual the party started early in the morning 
and reached the camp at a place called Berinag at 8 a.m. The 
first 6 miles were covered on foot as the path was mostly level. 
As towards the end there was a steep zig-zag ascent for about 
3 miles, this was accomplished on horseback. On thj 
were small villages with patches of cultivation. 
next camp was made was full of huge pine tr 
.of villagers turned up with their drums and ' 
Here His Highness granted an interview^ 
Bhist, a wealthy land-lord who owned a te 
the neighbourhood, 




370 

On the 1st July the next camp Thai at a distance of about 10 
miles was reached. On the way the party met three European 
missionary ladies who had settled there. 

On the 2nd July the next camp Sandeo was reached, a distance 
of 10 miles and on the 3rd July another camp Askot, about 5000 
feet above the sea level. Here His Highness was welcomed by 
Rajwar Vikram Bahadur Pal, the biggest land-lord there, and by 
his uncle Kumar Khadga Singh Pal, a retired Deputy Collector. It 
rained throughout the day. . In the valley a kind of paddy was 

grown which did not require a constant supply of water. There 

* 

were also found many mango trees. 

On the 4th July, Askot was left at 3-30 a.m. and the party 
descended down a steep valley for about 3 miles and where the 
roaring rapids of the Gowri Gunga was crossed, which joined the 
Kali Ganga a mile or so further on. The party then made an 
ascent on the right side of the Kali river in the opposite direction 
of its course, the path being quite narrow in some places and also 
very slushy on account of rain on the previous day. In some places 
the path was several hundred feet above the bed of the river, and 
the sides of the valley being almost perpendicular, the least slip 
by the ponies would have ended disastrously. The camp at 
Balavakot was safely reached at 8-30 a.m., a distance of 12 miles. 

On the 5th July a start was made from this camp at 3-45 a.m. 
and the next camp Dharchula, a distance of 1 1 miles was reached 
at 7-30. In this part of the country were grown rice, maize, 
plantains, mangoes, lemons and oranges. At this camp His 
Highness was accommodated in the local school-building and the 
rest of the party were accommodated in tents. Near the camp, it 
was found that several coir ropes had been fixed across the river 
Kali to the Nepal side, and from one of the ropes a trapeze-like 
thing was hung with an inverted V-shaped piece of wood resting on 
the rope, from the two limbs of which the trapeze was hanging. 
People crossed the river just as a monkey does, holding on to the 
rope by fingers and toes only, supporting their hips in the trapeze. 
Women and nervous people, however, actually sat on the cross-bar, 



371 

tied with a piece of cloth to the trapeze itself and were pulled 
across. His Highness granted an interview in the evening to 
Swami Anubhavananda of the Ramakrishna Thapovan situated at 
about a distance of two miles. 

The next day's journey to the camp at Khela, a distance of 
10 miles, was a very tiresome and difficult one. As the route was 
not negotiable by laden mules, the kit was all sent by coolies. The 
route followed up the course of the Kali was very narrow, in some 
places only 3 feet wide or even less. It was passable for about 
4 miles and the last piece of about 4 miles was a very steep zig-zag 
ascent paved with rough stones and slippery. It made one feel 
almost giddy to look down into the valley. At Khela as there was 
no room to pitch tents, the party took up their residence in a few 
houses belonging to the Patwari of the place. 

A halt was made at this camp on the 7th July and the party 
left on the 8th for the next camp at Thithla at a distance of 
8 miles. This was reached at 9-30 a.m. It had rained heavily 
the previous night and the ground was all damp. The tents had 
been pitched in a small sloping field and the weather was so cold 
that warm clothing was called for. In the evening a good many 
villagers came to the camp for medicines and as much as could be 
spared was readily given. 

On the 9th July Galagar was reached and on the 10th Malpa, 
a total distance of 21 miles. The latter was the most dangerous 
part of the route and tired the party very much. " We walked 
over rough stones and boulders," says Dr. Rangachar, "right on 
the river bank, now running this way and now that, up and down, 
helter-skelter ! We again crossed the Kali where it was narrowest 
and began our ascents and descents through rugged narrow paths, 
always precariously clinging to the edge or side of a precipice." 
Captain Nabi Khan's poetic effusion relating to this march is 
amusing : 

" From Galagar to Garbayang, we crawled eight miles 
Over boulders and rocks of every size, 
To call it a road is all damn lies, 
It is ^ short cut tp Heaven, if you slip sidewise, 



372 

The Medical Professor what shall I say of his fate ? 
Every few steps he progressed, he made a long wait. 
For a mile we passed through the Nepal State, 
The 10th of July is a memorable date. 

Our beloved Maharaja, he led the whole way, 
His kindness and charity, my words fail to say, 
O ! Lord of the Kailas ! to you we all pray, 
O ! Guard and protect him each hour of the day." 

On the llth July the party left at 5 a.m. for the next camp 

Budi and reached it at 9 a.m., a distance of about 7 miles. The 

% 

party rode for about a mile and then had to walk, as it became 
unsafe to ride. The path was extremely narrow and, as usual, 
on the edge of a precipice, with gaps in several places due to 
landslips. These were "bridged by beams thrown across and 
covered over with rough pieces of wood laid across, with earth on 
top. There were several landslips, some of them recent, and in 
one spot was heard a large stone falling into the valley with a 
crash as soon as the party had passed the place. It was raining 
most of the way. There were seen huge masses of snow in the 
water in the valley on either side of the route. The camp was 
pitched on a flat piece of ground about 2 acres in extent. There 
was bright sunshine till 4 p.m. and the weather afterwards became 
cloudy with chill winds blowing. The elevation of the place was 
9600 feet. 

The next day Garbayang a distance of 5 miles was reached. 
At Garbayang there was a school with 30 children who welcomed 
His Highness with songs. The elevation here was 10,500 feet and 
the temperature early in the morning was 56 degrees Farenheit. 
In the evening several Tibetans came to sell the locally made 
woollen carpets and boots. The sole of the boots was made of thick 
woollen twist and the top was made of multi-coloured pieces of 
broad cloth, velvet etc., and reached up to the knee. In some cases 
the sole which was an inch and a quarter thick was covered with 
thin leather. Here at some distance was witnessed the third day 
funeral ceremonies of the Bhotias. A quantity of wood had been 
piled up and set on fire, round which the people danced to the 



373 

music of drums and cymbals, men, women and children with a 
shield in the left hand and a naked sword in the right. Now and 
again, they drank from a small cup a kind of liquor prepared out of 
fermented rice and jaggery. 

An enforced halt of 2 days was made at Garbayang as one of 
the bridges ahead required repairs. The night was very cool and 
on the next day from 8 in the morning till 2 in the afternoon, there 
was brilliant sunshine and then alternate sunshine and drizzling 
rain. Some Tibetans were found here with ponies for sale. These 
people kept their hair uncut, parting it the centre in front and 
plaiting it behind just as women in South India do. These Tibetans 
had very little growth of hair on the upper lip and no beard, but 
were found strong and sturdy. A Tibetan village headman from 
Takalakot said to be a military officer who had to mobilise a 
thousand fighting men when called upon by his Government to do 
so came here with another Tibetan supposed to be rich but in 
tattered garments. They paid their respect to His Highness and 
noted down the strength of the party, the weapons in their posses- 
sion and the object of the visit and then left. Later, the Rani of 
Sanghai from the United Provinces, a most venerable-looking old 
lady who was also on a pilgrimage to Kailas, had an interview with 
His Highness. On the 14th there was nothing eventful. His 
Highness and some of the party went down to the river-bed for a 
walk and the advance party for the next camp left at 12 noon. 

On the 15th July Garbayang was left at 6 a.m. and the next 
camp was Kalapani, a distance of a little over 9 miles. The party 
had to descend at first to the bed of the river Kali, a distance of 
about half a mile. It was very slippery and more than two inches 
of clay had stuck to the soles of the hob-nailed boots worn by the 
party. In very many places it was impossible to ride or go in a 
dandie and much walking was tiresome owing to the rarefied 
atmosphere. The altitude at the camp was 12,000 feet above the 
sea level, causing giddiness to a few of the party. 

After making a halt on the 16th at Siangchum a distance of 
about 5 or 6 miles, the next camp Takalakot was reached on the 



374 

17th at 10-30 a.m., though at the time the party started, there was 
pouring rain. The village which was in Tibetan territory was 
fairly large. The houses were built of mud and stone and roofed 
over with mud on wooden joists and sticks. The villagers were 
found to be extremely ugly and dirty, varying in complexion from 
jet black to brown and all the men wore large ear-rings in their left 
ear. Immediately behind the Mysore camp on a ridge about 300 
feet above was the residence of the Jungpon (a Tibetan Commis- 
sioner and District Magistrate) which looked like a castle. 
Attached to it was also a large Buddhist monastery. The Jungpon 
paid a visit to His Highness in the evening and presented some 
Tibetan carpets. The interview took place with the help of Bhotia 
interpreters and group photos were taken. He was accompanied 
by his daughter, a girl of 14 or 15 years who was much interested in 
the binoculars and cameras which the party carried. The Jungpon 
was tall and well-built and had an air of authority about him. 
Many Tibetans were revolving their prayer wheels. Here and 
there stones smeared with red earth were piled up, and amidst the 
piles sticks were fixed, to which rags of various colours were tied 
and on some of the stones Buddhist prayers were found carved. 

On the 18th July at eight in the morning the Maharaja with 
some of the party started on a visit to the Jungpon. A zig-zag 
'ascent had to be made over a pathway which was slippery on 
account of the soil being loose and stony. When the top of the 
ridge was reached, the Jungpon conducted His Highness through a 
narrow passage to his residence. After passing through a gate and 
ascending a few steps, the party entered a sort of courtyard in 
which his mules were housed and on a small terrace was tied his 
ferocious Tibetan dog, barking and tugging at his ropes to reach 
the strangers. Another dirty courtyard was reached through a 
flight of steps in which several blacksmiths and silversmiths were 
working at a saddle. They were very dirty and one of them was 
ferocious-looking. The Jungpon next conducted the party to his 
private room, where they were all seated. The room was dark 
with only one window and on one side there was an image of 
and VWPUS other images, with silver wd bronze 



375 

containing consecrated water, bells and other accessories of worship, 
all neatly arranged on wooden steps. The walls were painted with 
dragons, parrots, deer etc., on a green background, and the whole 
smelt of stale butter and ghee. For himself the Jungpon had a 
cosy raised dais with cushions aad Tibetan carpets. Above him, on 
the wall were hung some firearms of Chinese make and a small 
stringed musical instrument on which he played some short 
Tibetan airs. A gramophone with some records was presented to 
the Jungpon and he was taught how to handle them. A pair of 
binoculars also was presented. The Jungpon having shown much 
interest in the nice Malacca walkingstick which had a dog's head 
with a silver muzzle carved at the end of its bent handle which 
His Highness held in his hand, the same was readily presented at 
which the Jungpon was mightily pleased. By the side of one of the 
passages was a dark room which was used as a Jock-up. 

Next, the party was conducted to a large adjoining monastery 
which was several storeys high, all with mud roofs, with small 
covered openings on the top for ventilation and the escape of 
smoke. In a fairly spacious hall supported on crudely carved 
pillars, there were wooden seats for the Lamas and long narrow 
mattresses for the smaller Lamas and the boy priests or novices 
arrange4 in rows for them to sit or eat their food. 

On a higher level was the sanctum in which there was a clay 
image of a sitting Buddha painted in gold with a pleasing 
expression and another of the Dalai Lama, with various accessories 
for worship consisting of silver and brass cups, lamps full of butter 
with burning wicks, drums, cymbals etc., too numerous to mention. 
There was also a bowl made of the upper half of a human skull 
lined inside with silver plate out of which consecrated water was 
poured out with a spoon to the devotees. All round in shelves the 
library of the monastery had been arranged. The whole place was 
dark and smelt of stale butter. The Lamas and their pupils were 
very dirty and were clad in brown or chocolate gowns with a waist* 
band and had their heads close cropped. The chief Lama was then 
visited and he was found to be a very old man. He made kind 
enquiries regarding His Highness and others of the party and gave 



376 

some consecrated things consisting of some incense mixed with 
dry moss and a piece of thin muslin received from the Dalai Lama 
with his blessings. In all the dark passages there were the prayer 
wheels and drums, which the devotees turned round while passing. 
His Highness took leave of the Jungpon at about 11 a.m. and 
returned to camp under a hot sun. 

In the evening at about 5 o'clock a party of Tibetan dancers, some 
men and two women, were sent by the Jungpon for the amusement 
of His Highness and the party. The dancers were all fantastically 
dressed, the men wearing masks and baggy trousers which bulged 
out when they danced round and the women wore several tassels 
round the waist that spread out along with their skirts. The dance 
lasted for about half-an-hour to the accompaniment of a Tibetan 
drum and a pair of brass cymbals worked by a woman. Several 
Tibetan curios such as carved painted tables or stools, bronze 
bells, silver filigree work, kettles were brought to the camp for sale. 

There was not a drop of water on the ridge and women carried 
water in iron drums on their backs from the river. The Tibetan 
men and women were strong and sturdy and when they wished to 
show respect to others, they put their tongues out several times. 
They lived mostly on meat either fresh or dried and ' Sattu ' (fried 
wheat powder) and rarely some kind of bread. 

On the 19th July His Highness again paid a visit to the 
monastery and presented Khillats to the chief Lama who held a 
regular religious durbar. The head Lama took his seat on a 
special dais and he was first given consecrated water and some tea. 
The other Lamas were then given the same and betwixt chantings 
they all partook of dried meat, " Sattu ", and some cake. The 
devotees made their offerings to the Lama and in return got his 
blessings. 

On the 20th July a start was made at 5 a.m. to the next camp 
at a place called Rungung, a distance of about & miles. The 
elevation at this place was 14,400 feet. Perfect stillness prevailed 
throughout but for the jingling of bells on the necks of ponies 
belonging to the party or the bark of the village dogs. There were 



377 

no birds seen on the route. Rice was underboiled at these heights 
and the lips and noses of several of the party became cracked on 
account of the cold to which emollients had to be applied. 

On the 21st July the next halting place Gori Odial about 
11 miles was reached at 8-30 a.m., the march occupying about 
3i hours. Here were seen a few yaks that were used for carrying 
pack-loads. 

The next day Manasarowar was reached, at a distance of 
about 10 or 11 miles, at about 9 in the morning. When the end of 
the Gurla Pass was reached, the sun rose and the mists cleared 
and a clear view of Lake Manas was obtained. After descending 
for about a mile from the Gurla Pass towards the Manas Lake and 
going for about 3 miles over the broad level ground along its shore, 
the camp was reached at about 9 a.m., pitched only about 30 feet 
from the water's edge and in full view of the lake, a distance of 
about 10 or 11 miles from the last camp. His Highness and all 
the Hindus in the camp bathed in the Lake and the water was so 
cold as made one gasp for breath. Tarpans or oblations were then 
offered to the names of ancestors, as this was a sacred lake not only 
for the Tibetans but for the Hindus also. The elevation was 
about 14,900 feet. The Rani of Sanghai also travelled with the 
Mysore party from Garbayang and some sadhus who were also on 
a pilgrimage to Kailas were helped with money and provisions. 



CHAPTER XLV. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

The Maharaja as a Pilgrim From Manasarowar to 
Mount Kailas and return. 

On the morning of the 23rd July, the party left the western 
shores of the Lake and went along its water's edge towards the 
north for about 6 miles. On the way on a steep hill with loose 
slippery side towards the lake, there was a monastery which His 
Highness visited. About here several ducks were seen of moderate 
size, some white in colour with a black patch over their heads and 
others grey or brown. There were also some kinds of smaller birds 
on the shore which flew away on the approach of the party. The 
camp which had been pitched at a distance of about 1 1 miles was 
reached at 9-30 a.m. Nearby was a hot sulphur spring and over 
the hillock was a monastery. About noon a glimpse of the Kailas 
peak was obtained through a gap in the clouds. Piercingly cold 
winds blew throughout the day, though the sun was shining. 

On the 24th leaving at 5-30 a.m., the foot of the Kailas Range 
was reached at about 8-30 a.m., a distance of about 8 miles. On 
the way small hares were seen running about. There were only 
two houses near the camp and a large herd of yaks was seen here. 
On account of the rarefied atmosphere, it was found that neither 
man nor beast could exert much. There was here a Tar j an or 
assistant to the Jungpon who could depute any one he liked to act 
for him in his absence. His Highness visited his residence and was 
conducted to a somewhat dark room with a single small window, 
furnished in the same style as that of the Jungpon at Takalakot. 
There was also a stringed musical instrument like a Banjo on which 
the Tarjan played two short Tibetan tunes singing them himself at 
the same time. The dwelling of a Tibetan shepherd was also 
visited. It was a pit about 10 feet square and waist deep in the 
ground and smoothened with mud-paste and roofed over with cloth 
made of yak hair. There was a mudstove inside for cooking and in 
one corner there was a small image of Buddha with cups for water. 



379 

lamp etc. It was quite snug inside, the whole family residing in 
that single room. Many Tibetans, especially women, applied 
jaggery paste to their cheeks and over their nose as a cosmetic 
which made them hideous-looking. This they did to prevent 
cracks in the skin. There were also seen some black crows which 
were four times the size of those in India. 

On the morning of the 25th July a start was made for the next 
camp at a distance of about 7 miles. The whole Kailas Range 
here became distinctly visible. The party had to cross over to the 
other side of the maidan which was mostly boggy with innumerable, 
small, tortuous streams coursing through it to go to Darchin where 
the camp was. In this place was the residence of the governor 
appointed by Sikkim to which country the place was stated to 
belong. The governor was known as the Raja Loba and the camp 
was pitched opposite to his residence with a hill stream intervening. 
The other abodes consisted of rowties only in which several families 
lived. As soon as the camp was reached, information was received 
that the governor had too much liquor the previous night and had 
very severe bleeding from the nose. He was treated by the 
Maharaja's doctors, Mr. Rangachar and his assistant, and it was 
found to be one of the worst cases treated by these doctors. 
The governor was a tall, sturdy, fair-complexioned individual with 
bushy hair and he recovered in the evening. After 5 p.m. His 
Highness with some of the party paid a visit to Gangta-Gompa, 
the biggest of the five Buddhist monasteries round about Kailas. 
It was not as big as the one at Takalakot but was equally dark and 
dirty inside. It was also a mud and stone storeyed structure. His 
Highness was received at the entrance of the monastery by an old 
Lama with burning incense, to the accompaniment of the blowing of 
trumpets, horns and other instruments on the topmost mud terrace. 
His Highness presented some red banath pieces and some cash to 
the monastery. 

26th July Darchin was at the foot of the Kailas Range on its 
eastern aspect. It was from this spot that pilgrims went to the 
right and finished circumambulation or parikrama of Mount Kailas. 
The party left camp at 5-30 a.m., followed the b^se of d ridge for 



380 

about 2 miles, when they came across a flat-bottomed valley with 
a river flowing through it and separating Mount Kailas from 
another hill chain. As the party entered the valley, they again 
turned to the right and followed up the river on level ground for 
about 5 or 6 miles and saw the peak in its southern and western 
aspects. About the middle of this valley there was a monastery 
known as Nendiphu on the other side of the river which was not 
visited. High up on the Kailas side, there were some ibex 
grazing. Owing to the high altitude and also on account 
of some sulphureous smell here and there, exertion was very 
difficult for both man and beast of the plains. The last 3 miles was 
a gradual ascent over loose stones to* Didiphu, another small 
monastery on the side of a stream. The party was completely 
tired by 1 1 a.m. The camp had been pitched at the foot of Mount 
Kailas on fairly level ground and the Mount itself was very near. 
A good stream flowed down from the Kailas into a river down 
the valley. 

In the evening Dr. Rangachar, Major Gopala Rao and the 
Tahsildar Mr. Pratap Singh mounted their ponies and went up a 
rocky and slippery ascent to the base of the Mount said to be 
18,000 feet above sea level, the elevation of the camp itself being 
16,200 feet. The base of the peak was almost a parallelogram 
and the Mount rose perpendicularly and the top was shaped like a 
dome. When they reached the base, they found two huge masses 
of snow had formed a buttress against it and through a triangular 
opening below at the junction of the two masses a beautiful 
stream was found gushing forth. In a small niche in a snow-wall 
was a beautiful snow Lingam about 9 inches high and 3 inches in 
diameter. The niche had the shape of a saracenic arch. It and 
the Lingam at its entrance were so perfect that it was difficult for 
the visitors to say if it was an accidental formation in the snow or 
the handiwork of any skilled devotee. As it was about to get dark, 
the visitors marched down carefully, in some places over hard 
snow, to the camp, collecting on the way three specimens of a 
flower known as Brahma Kamal or the Brahma Lotus, greyish in 
colour, and reached the camp at 7-30 p.m. Some pigeons near the 
camp were observed. 



381 

The second stage of the Parikram of Mount Kailas began 
at 5-30 on the morning of the 27th July. For the first 3 or 4 miles 
the route lay over a steep and stony ascent, tiresome both to men 
and animals, till a ridge called Gowrikund, 18,600 feet above 
sea level, the highest altitude during this trip, was reached. The 
ascent however was nothing to the local Tibetans. The Gowrikund 
was found to be a small frozen lake, with sheets of ice on it, with 
rough craggy sides. From this ridge an easy descent of about 
two miles over loose stones was made into the bottom of a valley 
through which a stream was flowing. The valley was quite marshy 
and added to the difficulties of the march. The sun was sharp and 
there was a sulphureous odour also. At short intervals were found 
several heaps of stones with carved Buddhist texts interposed. 
When the camp at Zindiphu was reached about 10-30 a.m., it was 
found to have been pitched right in front of a small, dirty 
monastery. 

On the morning of the 28th when the party started as usual 
at 5-30 in the morning, a clear view of Goorla Mandhatha Range 
was obtained. After proceeding for 3 miles down the valley along 
the stream, Barkha maidan was again reached, the Parikram of 
Kailas being finished. Barkha itself was reached at 8-45 a.m., 
a distance of 7 miles. The party were pleased that their pilgrimage 
had thus far succeeded and that their return journey was 
begun. In the evening as the sun was setting in the western 
horizon, a mass of clouds above appeared golden and as the rest of 
the sky was clear, a distinct view of the whole Kailas was obtained, 
while the full moon rose on the eastern horizon. 

On the 29th in deference to the wishes of the Rani of 
Sanghai, His Highness camped on the borders of the Manas 
2 miles south of Jieu Gompa and many had a dip in the Manas as 
the day happened to be a full-moon day. The day was remarkable 
in that strong gusts of cold wind brought down all the rowties 
between 4 and 5 p.m. Subsequently the wind ceased fortunately. 
At about 7 p.m. in the eastern horizon opposite to the camp just 
where two ranges of hills sloped towards each other and in the 

the Brahmaputra flowed out of Lake Manas, the full moon a 



382 

brilliant, beautiful, big sphere slowly rose up leaving a long silvery 
column of its reflection in the calm waters of the lake and 
gladdened all, giving an opportunity to Mr. Nabi Khan to expose 
his camera. On the way a lean, lanky cheeta was observed to go 
up a hill. 

Three more stages on the return journey were completed on 
the 30th and 31st July and 1st August respectively, a total distance 
of 32 miles. On the 2nd August the party proceeded to Khojarnath 
to visit a well-known monastery there. It was situated south-east 
of Takalakot on the Mopchu or Karnali river. On the way were 
found small, neat villages with well-cultivated plots containing 
luxuriant peas, barley and a kind of wheat which was called Jav 
and watered by diverted hill streams that formed neat canals. Each 
village had its sheep and cattle grazing on the green grass bordering 
the canals. The intense green of the cultivated fields was a pretty 
sight. The canals were bordered by some blue, wild flowers. The 
latter half of the route consisted of ascents and descents. The 
camp was reached in 4 hours. 

The village of Khojarnath was in the Sikkim territory and 
consisted of a semi-circular plot of sloping ground, about 2 miles in 
diameter, with a chain of hills for a background and a broad river 
the Karnali separating it from another chain of hills on the Nepal 
side. The monastery was situated right on the river bank unlike 
other monasteries perched on steep precipitous hillocks. On 
entering through a crooked, covered passage, the party came to a 
square, open space with buildings on all the four sides. The main 
shrine was covered terra cotta with mud plastering outside the 
walls. On the terrace a round brass disc with a brass deer on 
either side greeted the eye in front. On entering the gate, there 
was a small courtyard the walls of which were painted with neat 
figures of Buddha, flowers and wild animals. On proceeding 
through an inner door on either side of which revolving prayer 
drums or casks covered with leather were fixed, the party came 
upon a small room on either side of which stood two painted clay 
giants about 8 feet high. It was said that one of them represented 



Havana. Beyond was a hall about 20 feet by 50 feet with wooden 
pillars in two rows, and two rows of seats covered with mattresses 
for the Lamas to sit in prayer. At the further end of the hall, 
there was an image of seated Buddha with all the accessories for 
worship. Behind this, there was a space of about 4 feet right 
across and at the farthest end of the hall over a pedestal about 4 
feet high were 3 standing metallic images cast out of an alloy with 
more of copper in it, of Seetha, Rama and Lakshmana, each about 
7 or 8 feet in height with a Prabhavali or a frame of Gothic shape 
behind them. The whole casting was of exquisite workmanship. 
Across the base of the pedestal, there was a perfect elephant at one 
end and a horse at the other end, and in between, several gods and 
goddesses in a sitting posture. Above this, there was something 
like the stalk of a lotus, on either side of which were two nymphs 
with bent backs and looking upward with folded hands. Then over 
this came the lotus petals, the lower half turned downwards and 
the upper half set upwards to form the top of the pedestal. On 
this stood the image of Rama with Seetha to the right and 
Lakshmana to the left. In fact, the pedestal formed a beautifully 
designed bracket for the images. The faces were painted nicely. 
There seemed to be more of silver in the alloy out of which the 
images had been cast. The Prabhavali or the setting frame showed 
designs of peacocks and other animals with some creepers and was 
very beautiful. There were also two lions crouching on either side 
of the base and when the hands were put behind the base, a gust of 
air was felt. The figures were draped in cloth of gold and some 
jewellery containing mostly torquoise and there was an embroidered 
head-gear also over each image. The whole casting was faultless 
and full of beauty. How old the images were it was unknown. 
There was also a narrow, dark passage for pilgrims to go round the 
main shrine. On a high bench facing the images, there were 
several large silver and gold bowls containing ghee with wicks 
placed in the centre and burning day and night. There was an 
open Prakar or compound round this building in which innumerable 
revolving prayer drums were installed. In a room there was a 
huge drum or cylinder about 10 feet high and 5 feet in 
diameter, with iron rings to set it going, and inscribed all 



384 

over with the sacred mantram " Om mani padme ham " in Tibetan 
script. The wheel was constantly revolved by an old woman 
sitting nearby. On coming out, the party turned into another door 
on the left and on entering a similar very large hall paved with 
mud and rough stones, found in a dark room a painted huge clay 
image of Buddha as if seated on a stool or chair. In a large room 
to the left of the hall there were several painted clay images of 
rishis or saints all seated cross-legged and in an attitude of prayer. 
Opposite to this room, i.e., to the right of the hall, in another 
similar dark, large room there were again seven such, all sitting 
cross-legged but with their hands clasped in various attitudes 
denoting what were called Mudras. These latter were known as 
Saptarishis or seven saints. To the left of the Buddha shrine in 
another dark dungeon, there were two wild-looking figures of Kala 
and Kali, all of painted clay and leather. In one corner of the roof 
of the main hall, there were found suspended a crudely stuffed 
gigantic wild yak and a tiger. The party then adjourned to the 
first floor of the building where they were shown clay images of 
Kali and Lakshmi installed in a large library containing many 
printed Tibetan scriptures. This monastery was very much clear 
than those seen before. The surroundings however were very 
dirty, and outside the building on a wall was shown in gigantic 
letters made of mud-paste and painted white the same " Om mani 
padme ham." Nearby was a small detached tower supported on a 
square base, with each side composed of a low, round arch. After 
leaving the monastery, His Highness and the party went to the 
residence of a young Lama higer up the valley a neat building 
of mud and stone. The courtyard on the first floor had a wooden 
flooring and was neat and had nicely painted walls and wooden 
railings. On one side of this courtyard on a sort of gadi or dais 
sat the Lama aged only 16 and by his side on a lower seat was 
found a child Lama aged only 6 years. Both of them were 
supposed to be incarnations.. Both were fair*complexioned and 
had a very smart appearance. The elder Lama had a bushy hair 
and was reading some scriptures. He had, it was said, made a 
vow not to stir outside the building for three years. He made kind 
enquiries of His Highness who presented him with two pieces of 



385 

red and bright blue banaths and some cash. The Lama gave to 
His Highness and the others his blessings and prasad. 

From Khojarnath which was left on the 3rd August 1931 the 
return journey to Almora occupied 21 days, the latter place being 
reached on the 24th August. At Pala on the 5th August the 
Tibetan territory was left behind and the party entered the Indian 
territory. On the 6th August at Garbayang the local Bhotias 
danced in a circle before His Highness with a shield in the left 
hand and a sword in the right to the accompaniment of drums and 
cymbals. On the 9th August when the party was on its way to the 
camp at Galagar, a big stone fell injuring two or three coolies but not 
very seriously. Some tent poles they were carrying were smashed. 
On the way to the next camp Thithla a big stone got loose from above 
and Mr. Venkatasubbaiya and his pony had a hair-breadth escape, 
passing as it did right in front of him and falling into the valley. 
On the 15th a halt was made at Askot as it was raining heavily, 
and here the Rajwar Saheb invited His Highness and the party to 
tea. On the 19th on the way to the camp at Saniodhiar, the path 
lay through pine forests and several villages were passed on the 
way with their luxuriant crops and streams. Most of the villagers 
were waiting to have a darshan of His Highness and showered 
flowers on him when he passed them. There was a small 
orphanage maintained by an American missionary lady. On the 
20th the camp at Bageshwar was reached. Bageshwar was found 
situated right on both the banks of the Sarju rapids. Here the 
party camped in the spacious dak bungalow which was situated 
only about 20 feet from the water's edge. To the left was a very 
nice suspension bridge, about 60 feet long, the width of the river. 
The elevation was 3200 feet. There were two bazaars, one on 
either side of the river. The people here gave a most enthusiastic 
reception to His Highness decorating the streets and showering 
flowers on him. The prominent citizens waited on His Highness 
in the evening and presented an address in Hindi, enclosed in an 
embroidered velvet bag, praying for a donation for extending the 
local school-building. On the 21st August Binsar was reached, a 
distance of 17 miles. His Highness camped in the bungalow of 

A49 



386 

Mr. Devi Lai Sha, a rich merchant of Almora. On the 24th 
Almora was reached and a halt of two days was made. During 
these two days His Highness granted interviews to Government 
officers and to several of the prominent citizens, and souvenirs, 
Khillats and liberal presents were given to all who had rendered 
service to His Highness. Almora was left on the 27th August and 
Mysore was reached on the 7th September, greatly to the joy of His 
Highness' subjects and of the members of the Royal family, thus 
completing the pilgrimage and returning safely to his Capital with 
all his followers after a hazardous journey of 2 months and 20 days. 



CHAPTER XLVI. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Administrative and other improvements 1926 1936. 

Census of 1931. 

The seventh Census was taken on Thursday the 26th February 
1931 under the direction of Mr. M. Venkatesa lyengar of the Mysore 
Civil Service who had been appointed Census Superintendent for 
Mysore. The total population of the State on the date mentioned 
was found to number 65,57,302 made up of 33,53,963 males and 
32,03,339 females, the figures showing an increase of 5,78,410 over 
those of 1921. The rate of increase for the whole population was 
97 per mille. This population of over 6j millions was distributed in 
16,591 towns and villages. The area of the State being 29,326 
square miles, the density of the population in the State at the time 
of this Census was 224 persons per square mile as compared with 
142 in 1881 and the increase was more than 50 per cent compared 
with the figures of the Census of 1881. Mr. Venkatesa lyerigar in 
his Report has made some observations on this growth of population 
which afford material for thought. " There are several reasons," 
he says, " for thinking that under present conditions the population 
of the State, if it has not overtaken, is at any rate running abreast 
of the means of subsistence. The first of these reasons is its low 

standard of living Information about the standard of living of 

the people in the State is lamentably lacking. A low standard of 
living, the prevalence of unemployment and the presence of a 
population which can migrate if a decent living were available 
elsewhere, seem together to indicate that the State has a population 
larger than its resources as now exploited can support in comfort." 

Encouragement to Trade and Manufacture. 

Further attention now began to be paid for the encouragement 
of the trade and industries of Mysore. The statistics of the 
railborne trade of the year 1924-25 showed a total trade during the 
year valued at Rs. 25.45 crores, the value of the imports being about 
Rs, 12.47 crores and that of exports about Rs. 12.98 crores. 



388 

Deducting from these figures the total value of the trade due to the 
Gold Mines an industry conducted under exceptional conditions , 
the imports exceeded the exports by about Rs. li crores. On the 
30th September 1926 Sir Mirza Ismail convened a meeting at the 
Daly Memorial Hall, Bangalore, at which a large body of merchants, 
tradesmen, bankers and others were present and a discussion took 
place regarding the measures to be adopted for the expansion of 
both trade and manufacture. The Dewan explained that the 
foreign trade of the State passing through the railway no doubt 
showed some increase in the figures, being then about Rs. 2529 
lakhs as against Rs. 1677 lakhs in 1913-14. A great deal, however, 
of this apparent increase was due to changes affecting the currency. 
The total value of the trade of the State per head of population was 
only Rs. 40 and both exports and imports were more or less 
stationary. The trade in grains and pulses, in piece-goods and 
cloth, in leather and skins, metals, oil-seeds and the like had passed 
from local merchants into the hands of outsiders from distant 
provinces in India who naturally took advantage of the openings 
they found in Mysore. It was time, said Sir Mirza, that the people 
of Mysore took a leaf out of their book and devised methods to give 
training in large business houses to their boys, popularising suitable 
schemes of apprenticeship for them. Further, it was necessary to 
improve the methods of saving by which the availability of cheap 
capital might be rendered automatic. Those interested in trade 
should travel not only in India but also in foreign countries in order 
to widen their outlook and strengthen their business connections. 
Ten years ago, the Dewan further said, a Chamber of Commerce 
was inaugurated in Bangalore, but a network of mercantile or 
Trades' Associations affiliated to the chamber or assisting it in its 
work and co-operating with it in its endeavours to further its 
objects was yet to be created. Sir Mirza while expressing the 
keen desire of His Highness' Government to afford all possible 
facilities for the protection and expansion of the trades and 
industries of the State, plaintively exclaimed that the trade condi- 
tions were still primitive in the State, that the importance and value 
of trade statistics had not yet been realised, and that enterprise and 
adventure were wholly lacking. No doubt, the Bank of Mysore 



389 

started some years ago had done good work and had been of yeoman 
service to the trade of the State, but there was still room for the 
expansion of its usefulness. 

In furtherance of these objects, marketing surveys were 
subsequently conducted in collaboration with the Government of 
India in respect of rice, wheat, groundnuts, linseed, tobacco, fruit, 
eggs, milk, cattle, hides and skins. The virtues of Mysore goods 
came to be prominently advertised in most of the leading newspapers 
in India as well as in some of the newspapers in England. At 
Bombay a Mysore Emporium was organised in order to improve 
the sales of Mysore products and to facilitate an intensive propa- 
ganda being carried on. It was opened on the 14th April 1936 by 
Sir Chunilal Mehta. The emporium makes an effective display of 
the products of the Government factories, and facilities have been 
afforded to the private manufacturers also to display their articles. 

Revival of Dasara Exhibition. 

The Dasara Exhibition at Mysore was re-opened in 1927 after 
an interval of 8 years and has continued to be held regularly from 
that year. In 1928 Sir Mirza Ismail explained the objects of this 
annual exhibition in these words : " The real function of an annual 
exhibition like ours is to throw on the screen, so to speak, the 
industrial activities and progress of the country. Each year's 
exhibition should afford a cross section of the economic advance 
of the country and show in a striking manner the chief points 
of divergence and progress; and the Dasara at Mysore is the 
most appropriate time for this stock-taking, because people from 
all parts of the State and also from outside congregate here for 
the national festival in a care-free and receptive state of mind. 
As the exhibition should not only illustrate and record but 
also teach and suggest, it should be the special care of the 
Development Departments of the State to see that the most recent 
knowledge pertaining to their work is exhibited in an easily 
understandable form " 

A Trade Commissioner (or Mysore. 

In the year 1929 various defects were discovered in the 
arrangement that existed of entrusting the sale of sandfU oil to 



390 

private agents. Government, therefore, deputed Mr. N. Madhava 
Rao (now a member of the State Council) to make a close 
investigation of the entire question in England and in America and 
to formulate proposals for the realisation of the moneys due to 
Government and for the adequate safeguarding of the sandal oil 
business. This executive measure, though it was primarily 
suggested by the requirements of the sandal oil business, later began 
to exercise a very important influence on the trade interests of the 
State in general, as it led to the permanent appointment of a Trade 
Commissioner in London for Mysore. This officer, in addition to 
his duties connected with the sandal oil business, has also been 
entrusted with other functions of great importance to the develop- 
ment of industries and commerce of the State. A close study of 
the exports and imports of the State for formulating proposals to 
conduct commercial transactions to the largest advantage of the 
State, the extent to which markets for Mysore products can be 
extended, the possibilities of supplying the requirements of foreign 
countries by the development of industries for which Mysore 
enjoys natural advantages, scientific and technical improvements 
in manufactures which may advantageously be introduced in 
Mysore, collection of commercial and industrial information having 
a bearing on the existing or potential industries of the State and 
making it available for those interested in commercial and 
industrial enterprises these also engage the attention of the Trade 
Commissioner. Mr. N. Madhava Rao held the place of the Trade 
Commissioner till he was relieved by Mr. 13. T. Kesava lyengar 
of the Mysore Civil Service. 

Sericultural Developments. 

During the period between 1926-35 the silk industry was 
confronted with a serious set back, supporting as it did about one- 
eighth of the total population of the State. Due to the depressed 
state of the market in America and the depreciation of the Japanese 
currency, large quantities of foreign silk including artificial silk, 
especially from China, were dumped on the Indian market at very 
low prices. As a consequence, there was a marked fall in Mysore 
in mulberry cultivation, production of cocoons and silk products, 



391 

The export of silk goods from Mysore to outside places which 
amounted to 8,66,000 R>s in 1925-26 fell to 3,66,800 K>s in 1933, 
while the imports which were comparatively insignificant in the 
previous year rose to 1,64,400 lt>s. The area under mulberry 
cultivation in the State decreased from 53,000 to 30,000 acres in 
seven years. 

In 1932 a representation was made to the Government of India 
to increase the duty on raw silk and silk goods imported from 
China and Japan. The question was referred by that Government 
to their Tariff Board to investigate the case for protection. The 
Board took evidence and on its recommendation the Government 
of India passed a measure known as the Textile Protection 
Amendment Act, 1934, which afforded however no substantial 
protection as spun silk was given no protection. 

In the meanwhile, the Mysore Government also took vigorous 
measures for guarding this industry from ruin. In March 1927 
the Sericultural Department was transferred to the control of the 
Director of Industries and Commerce. An officer of the depart- 
ment was also deputed to study the requirements of the Northern 
India silk markets. It was found that the most serious drawback 
was the inferior quality of the reeling due to the primitive character 
of the appliances in use. An improved reeling machine patented 
under the name of * The Mysore Domestic Basin ' was designed 
by Mr. N. Rama Rao who was then Superintendent of Sericulture, 
his object being to supplant the local charka. 

A central Sericultural Association was formed in 1927 and 
Mushir-ul-Mulk Mir Humza Hussain, a retired Member of the 
State Council was its first President. The Association proved 
itself a powerful ally of the department in propaganda work which 
was essential for a comprehensive improvement of the industry 
throughout the State. The first President died in the following 
year and his place was taken by Dewan Bahadur Mr. K. R. Srinivasa 
lyengar, also a retired member of the State Council. A scheme 
of aided grainages introduced by the Government was adopted 
with enthusiasm by those concerned and the supply of disease- 
free eggs by Government farms began to be on a much 



larger scale than before. The erection of a Silk Weaving and 
Dyeing Factory at Mysore was completed in November 1931 and 
work was commenced in January 1932. Mysore is now only 
one of the two States represented on the Imperial Sericultural 
Committee, the other being Kashmir. 

The Dasara Exhibition of 1935. 

The Exhibition held during the Dasara of 1935 was managed 
by a special committee of which Rajamantrapravina Mr. S. P. 
Rajagopalachar, Member of the State Council, was the chairman 
and Mr. S. G. Sastry was the secretary, and the exhibits were so 
arranged as to give a panoramic view of the progress made by 
Mysore in arts and industries. More than a lakh of people visited 
the exhibition. One noticeable feature of the exhibition of this 
year was the increased attention paid to the educative side and the 
importance attached to manufacture rather than to retail sales as in 
previous years. As this aspect was specially kept in view by the 
various departments of the Government of Mysore, special efforts 
were made by them to exhibit the various activities in which they 
were engaged. The very useful castings made at the Mysore Iron 
Works, the fine sugar from the Mandya Sugar Factory, the 
unrivalled quality of the Mysore sandal oil, the beautiful fabrics 
shown in the stall of the Silk Weaving Factory, the modern ploughs 
and spraying machines manufactured by the Central Industrial 
Workshop, the insulators produced by the Porcelain Factory, the 
guaranteed medicinal products of the Industrial and Testing 
Laboratory, the artistic furniture of the Chamarajendra Technical 
Institute, the children's dream in the form of new toys prepared 
at the Chennapatna Industrial School and last but not 
least, the well-known products of the Mysore Soap Factory all 
these were objects of great attraction. Another feature of 
the exhibition was the number of demonstrations arranged by 
the Department of Industries and Commerce. The Government 
Soap Factory, Bangalore, demonstrated the process of soap-making 
by the cold process which was capable of being practised as a home 
industry. The same factory showed the different processes of toilet 
soap manufacture. The Government Industrial and Testing 



Laboratory demonstrated the process of manufacture of medicinal 
tablets. Other demonstrations related to the manufacture of 
electrical accessories, manufacture of improved varieties of bangles, 
improved appliances in handloom weaving industry and to results 
of sericultural research. 

A special feature of the exhibition of this year was the part 
played by the British Indian Postal Department in getting up for 
the first time a show of their own under the guidance of Mr. G. V. 
Bewoor, Director- General of Posts and Telegraphs. In this 
section were shown by models the various methods of handling the 
mail in India, such as steamship, railway, aeroplane, models of 
letter-boxes, Post Offices and their appurtenances. There was also 
a model illustrating the handling of the mail between Mysore and 
Munnar, P.O., in the high range. On this route the mail was 
carried by bus, rail, bullock-cart, ropeway and runner. There was 
also a Broadcasting Section and here was exhibited a clock which 
showed the time in a great number of towns in both hemispheres 
simultaneously. The Telegraph, Telephone and Engineering 
Sections displayed a variety of instruments of considerable value. 
The various apparatus in use since the telegraph was first introduced 
into India was also clearly illustrated, as also the effect of corrosion 
by sea-air etc., on metal and the effect of lightning on the porcelain 
insulators. Three Telephone Exchanges Automatic, Central 
Battery system and Repeater had been set up, also Bandot 
Teleprinters, open and closed Morse Circuits, so that visitors could 
see the actual working of the instruments. A small but valuable 
collection of old and current stamps provided interest for Philatelists, 
and a film showing the Post Office work in the city of Mysore was 
projected automatically on a Kodascope in the Post Office portion 
of the stall. The Neopost Franking Machine which was rapidly 
replacing the adhesive stamps was specially interesting to 
businessmen and journalists. 

Ranging next to the Government of India exhibits was a grand 
show arranged by the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, under 
the inspiration of its Director, Sir C. V. Raman. The contributions 
to science both on the theoretical and practical side by the Director 

A50 



of the Institute and its staff and students was vividly brought 
before the public. 

Among the exhibitors was the firm of Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, 
Ltd., of Tokio in Japan who for the first time displayed in Mysore 
products of the various groups of industries under their control. 
These exhibits gave the visitors an idea of the tremendous advance 
made by Japan in recent years in the development of her 
industries. 

His Highness the Yuvaraja at the close of the exhibition 
distributed the prizes and made the following observations : " We 
have just come to the conclusion of a Navaratri festival which in 
the dignity of its ceremonial, in the brilliance of its pageantry, in 
respect of the delights to the eye, the refreshment to the mind, the 
sport and amusement provided, and in the multitude which have 
come to enjoy it, has surpassed any of the most brilliant of its 

predecessors Business to-day consists in persuading the 

crowd. Advertising is the principle of mass production applied 
to selling. Anybody can cut prices, but it takes brains to make 
a better article. Business is never so healthy as when, like a 
chicken, it must do a certain amount of scratching for what it gets. 
These aphorisms which I have taken, not from the eloquent speeches 
made at this exhibition but from the sayings of business magnates 
such as Mr. Henry Ford, are nevertheless inherent in the advice 
that has been given to you from year to year. It has been 
suggested to you that what you want is village exhibitions! taluk 
exhibitions and district exhibitions leading up to one great Dasara 
Exhibition at the top of the pyramid. Then again, you require 
sectional exhibitions such as are common in European countries, at 
which each business in turn is given an opportunity of showing its 
products. Thus you have in England exhibitions of machines, of 
motors, of baking and confectionary, of dairy goods, of cloths, of 
toys, and of numerous other groups of articles ; and great premises 
which would accommodate this exhibition many times over are 
kept busy almost throughout the year with one sectional exhibition 
or another, 



395 

"Let me take one instance of a sectional exhibition that I 
think would be infinitely invaluable to Mysore, and that is the one 
that is suggested by His Highness the Maharaja in his speech here 
in 1929 an Ideal Home Exhibition. You have now a great boom 
in building activity in the State and this is likely to increase if the 
scheme for promoting House-Building Co-operative Societies comes 
to pass. But which of you knows exactly what he wants in his 

home? The idea of the home is developing from year to 

year and in England, for instance, there has been an enormous 
advance in the standard of comfort by the application to common 
use of innumerable inventions as a result of Ideal Home Exhibitions 
and the giving of prizes for the houses that give the greatest 
amount of convenience for a limited sum. One of the best known 
is the " Daily Mail House," and in that country a man of moderate 
means who wishes to maintain a certain standard of convenience 
can quite easily do so without going through the elaborate process 
of employing architect, builder, etc., and learning by trial and 
error, if he simply goes to a House-Building Society and says that 
he wishes a house constructed on one or other of the standard 
plans. I feel that, in circumstances like these, an Ideal Home 
Exhibition would do an enormous amount to stimulate the building 
trade, to promote the creation of House-Building Societies, and 
above all, to increase the standard of comfort of the would-be 
householder without involving him in unnecessary expense. If you 
would add to that an exhibition of an idealised furniture which 
would combine Eastern ideas of art with Western ideas of utility, 
you would carry the idea one large stage further towards perfection. 

The year that has just passed has seen a marked 

advance in the publicity activities of our State It is 

essential that none of us, and especially none of our business 
people, should slacken in the effort both to keep Mysore goods in 
the shop window and to see that there are plenty more in the shop 
behind to justify the display. There is no better advice on this 
subject than that of Sir W. S. Gilbert : 

" If you wish in this world to advance, 

" Your merits you are bound to enhance, 



-396 

" You must stir it and stump it, 

" And blow your own trumpet, 

" Or, trust me, you have'nt a chance." 



CHAPTER XLVII. 
Krishnaraja Wodcyar IV. 

Various measures tending to the increase of material 
prosperity 1926 1936. 

Gold Mining. 

It will be remembered that the Gold Mining leases were 
renewed in December 1901 for a period of 30 years commencing 
from 1910. The representatives of the Mining Companies applied 
in 1934 for a further renewal of the leases, so that they might know 
where they would stand in 1940 when the earliest lease was due to 
expire. Accordingly the question was taken up for consideration 
and fresh terms advantageous to the State were agreed upon for a 
further period of 30 years from 1940. According to the new terms, 
the State is to receive from the year 1940, in addition to the five 
per cent Royalty on all gold produced, a Royalty calculated on 
dividends varying from 2\ per cent to 40 per cent as the percentage 
of dividend increased. In the interval between 1934 and 1940 it 
was stipulated that the Mysore Government was entitled to receive 
a yearly Royalty on dividends calculated at two-thirds of the scale 
fixed for the new lease in lieu of the fixed 2\ per cent as settled in 
1901. By this arrangement the State obtained the advantage of 
participating to an increasing extent in the profits of the Companies 
both during the interim between 1934-40 as well as in the future 
from the latter year, while the Companies were enabled to arrange 
their plans of working with a definite assurance of continuing in 
possession of the mines for a further period of 30 years. As a result 
of the new agreement concluded with the Companies and partly as 
the effect of increased production and partly as the effect of 
increased prices of gold, an incresse under Royalty amounting to 
Rs. 9.80 lakhs accrued in 1935, besides an increase of income-tax 

amounting to Rs. 1.63 lakhs. 

i 

The BhftdrtTftthi Iron Works. 

The Bhadravathi Iron concern is now showing signs of improve- 
ment. At the time the operations were started at Bhadravathi, 
there was a general depression in the iron industry of the 



598 

The coal strike in England and the fall in the French and Belgian 
Exchange affected the sale of Mysore charcoal pig iron in England 
and on the continent. As some wrong impression prevailed 
regarding the working of the iron mines, a committee of visitors 
was appointed in 1928 from among the members of the Representa- 
tive Assembly and the Legislative Council with a view to their 
obtaining and disseminating first-hand information regarding these 
works. Sir M. Visvesvaraya who had been chairman of the Board 
of Management for 6$ years retired in 1929, his place being taken 
by Sir M. N. Krishna Rao, a Member of the State Council. 

The market for lime acetate was* considerably disturbed in 
November 1929 by financial troubles in America and the position 
was also subsequently rendered worse by the competition of 
synthetic acid. The iron industry in India was in a somewhat 
difficult position in 1930. The production was in excess of the 
country's demand for iron and the export markets hitherto 
available for the disposal of the surplus were rapidly contracting. 
But the importance of the industry for national well-being could 
hardly be over-estimated. A concern which manufactured only 
intermediate products or relied largely upon an outside market was 
always at a disadvantage. The Management therefore aimed at 
developing gradually the manufacture of finished articles which 
could find a ready market in the country. 

In 1933 the position became worse by Japanese competition as 
regards cast iron pipes. A representation was made to the Govern- 
ment of India under the Anti-Dumping Law. The Iron and Steel 
Duties Act of 1934 of the Government of India extended protection 
to iron and steel products for seven years up to March 1941 and 
gave some relief for the time being. 

To tide over these difficulties, a Steel Plant was installed and 
has been in operation from about the beginning of 1936. As a 
result, the operations have yielded a profit which for the year from 
July 1935 to the end of June 1936 are calculated to amount to 
about Rs. 2 lakhs. The open-hearth furnace in the Steel Plant 
was started on the 7th March 1936 and the Rolling Mills in the 
first we$k of April About 3700 tops of steel ingots, 2000 tgns of 



billets and 1250 tons of finished sections were manufactured up to 
the end of August. Most of the troubles usually met with in the 
initial stages have now been overcome. The furnance is designed 
to give a daily output of 80 tons. The steel produced is found to 
be exceptionally pure on account of very low percentages of 
phosphorous and sulphur and is regarded as an ideal raw material for 
special and other alloy steels. The high tension line from Mysore 
to Bhadravathi supplies electric power to the plant for its working. 

Economic Depression. 

The economic activities, as we have seen, had received a 
check for some years past. In 1927, however, the Economic 
Superintendents were reappointed, one for each district. Statistics 
of trade were incomplete as the trade across the frontier by road 
was not taken into account, only figures relating to railborne trade 
being ascertainable. Arrangements were therefore made in 1929 
to collect statistics of trade passing across the more important 
trade routes. But in 1931 it became necessary on account of 
general depression to suspend the work of the Economic Conference 
and to terminate the appointment of Economic Superintendents, 
the Revenue Sub- Division Officers being entrusted with the work 
of economic development in the districts. 

The unparalleled economic collapse which began in 1931 all 
over the world seriously dislocated the international trade. The 
fall in commodity prices raised in about two years the real burden 
of indebtedness by more than fifty per cent, falling with special 
severity on countries in which the chief occupation was agriculture 
and where primary commodities were largely raised for export. 
Consequent on the suspension of the gold standard by the Govern- 
ment in England, the downward trend in prices of commodities 
was checked for sometime but it was shortlived. In 1931-32 
the balance of railborne trade against Mysore was a little over 
Rs. 2 crores, exports being a little over 8 crores and imports a 
little over 10 crores of rupees. As Sir Mirza Ismail stated at the 
Birthday Session of the Representative Assembly of the above 
mentioned year, the causes were various for the phenomenal 
economic depression that overtook the world. There had been, 



400 - 

according to Sir Mirza's analysis, slumps before; but what 
distinguished the present slump was the extent and appalling 
rapidity of the fall resulting in world-wide embarrassment and 
inconvenience. No one could say definitely whether this world- 
wide depression was due to the paucity or the maladministration 
of the world's supply of gold, to over-production or under consump- 
tion, to the fall in the price of silver, to the multiplication of the 
tariff barriers since the German War especially in Europe, or to all 
these causes put together. Production and consumption had got 
out of step all the world over and people were faced with the 
paradox of hunger caused by too much plenty. " A policy of 
courage," concluded Sir Mirza, " is however the proper policy for 
Mysore, and it is not therefore proposed that we should shut down 
Bhadravathi or any of the other State industrial establishments 
or call a halt in our schemes for development. On the other hand, 
we have proposed that we should go ahead with the Irwin Canal, 
with the new Silk Factory and with the electrification of towns 
and similar schemes." 

Extension of Electric Power. 

In 1928 negotiations with the Madras Government were 
completed for the supply of electric power from Sivasamudram to 
Mettur at a cost of about Rs. 10i lakhs and the work having been 
completed, power was supplied from the 23rd November 1928 till 
June 1934. The Automatic Telephone was introduced in the 
Bangalore and Mysore Cities and between them and opened to the 
public. Every facility was afforded to the ryots to instal power- 
driven pumps for irrigation purposes and the concessions allowed 
were utilised freely. Power was also supplied to various places for 
purposes of illumination. Arrangements were made early in 
November 1931 for the supply of power to Salem and Erode towns 
in the Madras Presidency from the power station at Mettur. In 
1935 the Krishnarajasagara Hydro-Electric and Irrigation Works 
represented an investment of capital between Rs. 7 and Rs. 7j 
crores. The introduction of electric power in rural parts has 
encouraged the .growth of several industries by substituting 
mechanised power in place of manual labour. The ryot who used to 
bail the water from his well by bullocks has in many places now 



461 

begun to realise the advantages of an electric pump by the help of 
which he is able to pump water at the rate of about 2000 gallons 
per hour. With the advent of electricity in rural areas, other small 
power installations have also sprung up. The electric flour-mill, 
the electric decorticator, the electric power loom are now to be seen 
in several of the rural parts. 

Hand-Spinning. 

A great deal of enthusiasm was evoked in hand-spinning and a 
Spinners' Association was formed and spinning demonstrations and 
competitions were organised in many centres. The most notable 
work in hand-spinning done during the decade was at Badanval 
near Nanjangud, where an attempt was made to ascertain by 
intensive work the prospects of reviving the hand-spinning industry 
as a subsidiary occupation among poor agriculturists. The 
organisation showed healthy signs of growth within the period of its 
existence extending to about four years. 

Railway*. 

The Nanjangud-Chamarajanagar railway having been 
completed, it was opened for traffic by the Maharaja on the 27th 
August 1926. In the year 1919 the construction of this line was 
first undertaken by Government, but after a time the work was 
suspended owing to financial stringency. The Government, 
however, was subsequently enabled to resume the work by the 
Mysore District Board undertaking to finance the construction of 
the line as a District Board Railway out of the proceeds of a 
debenture loan of Rs. 8 lakhs, to which was added a portion of the 
railway cess which was being levied. 

His Highness on the occasion of opening this railway expressed 
regret that he was opening only a very small part of the railway, that 
between Nanjangud and Chamrajanagar. It was at one time intended 
to continue the line to Erode. But the conversion of the line from 
Erode to Trichnopoly from the metre gauge to the broad gauge 
rendered through connection by that route no longer desirable. It 
was however understood that it was intended to build metre gauge 
connections from Gopichettipalyam on the one hand to Satya- 
mangalam and Mettupalyam, and on the other, via Tiruppur and 

A51 



402 

Dharapuram to Palni. These connections would give a through 
metre gauge link from Dharwar on the north to Madura on the 
south, or in other words, would bring lines which traverse the whole 
length of the Mysore State on to a direct route between Bombay 
and Colombo. The Government of Mysore, His Highness said, was 
ready to undertake the portion of this length that lay within the 
State, if the remaining portion was undertaken by the British 
Government. 

His Highness also at this time gave expression to a new 
railway policy, namely, that of Government undertaking to build 
railways on behalf of District Boards o meet local requirements 
on the latter undertaking a guarantee against loss and interest 
charges. In such cases the railway cess where it was voted by the 
District Boards was to be treated as a fund out of which the 
amount so guaranteed was to be met. 

During this period the construction of the Shimoga-Arasalu 
railway up to Ragihosahalli, a distance of 19 miles, was also 
resumed and completed up to Anantapur. A serious danger to 
railway traffic, especially passenger traffic, now began to show itself 
by automobile buses running parallel to railway lines. Excepting 
the small broad gauge line of 55 miles between Bangalore and 
Bisanantham, the whole of the railway system in the State built at 
a cost of Rs. 6 crores belonged to Mysore. 

Before leaving the subject of communications, reference may 
be made to the new policy of co-operation inaugurated in 1929 
between the Government of India and the Indian States in certain 
matters, especially in the matter of road development and to which 
Sir Frank Noyce, Industries and Commerce Member of the 
Government of India, alluded in his speech on the 8th November 
1935 on the occasion of the opening of the Vani Vilas Bridge 
across the Kapini near T-Narsipur. This bridge cost about 
Rs. 3j lakhs, one half of which was met from the reserve of the 
Government of India in the Road Account. The Kaveri Bridge 
close by which was built entirely at the cost of the Mysore State 
opened a direct route to Sivasamudram, while the Kapini bridge 



403 

connected the same road with Kollegal and other important places 
in the Madras Presidency. This co-operation between the British 
Government and the Governments of the Indian States was the 
outcome of a recommendation made by the Indian Road Develop- 
ment Committee. This Committee proposed the creation of a 
Road Fund by the levy of an additional duty of customs on excise 
and petrol. The Committee also urged on the Government of India 
that they should not stand on narrow legal grounds excluding Indian 
States from the benefits of the fund. The Mysore State accordingly 
came to share, in common with the other large States, in the fund 
on the basis of the petrol consumed within her borders and was 
eligible to receive grants from the reserve for specially selected 
projects and for schemes of research and experiments. From the 
year 1930 the Mysore State received over Rs. 12 lakhs from this 
fund as its ordinary share. 

Irrigation. 

The extension of irrigation received vigorous attention in this 
period. Detailed plans and estimates for the excavation of the 
High Level Canal, subsequently named Irwin Canal in order to 
perpetuate the memory of the visit to Mysore of Lord Irwin the 
Viceroy of India, were the first to come under examination. A 
committee presided over by Sir M. Visvesvaraya appointed to 
investigate this problem in all its aspects unanimously approved an 
estimate of Rs. 180 lakhs for the work and recommended that the 
work should be started without delay. The Government accepted 
this recommendation and sanctioned the construction of the High 
Level Canal at a cost of Rs. 222 lakhs which was expected to bring 
under irrigation 1,20,000 acres in the taluks of Mandya, Malavalli 
and T-Narsipur. In the excavation of this canal, there was need 
to bore a tunnel to a total length of 9183 feet. The borings from 
the several sides exactly coincided and the whole work relating to 
the tunnel, including the lining of masonry, was completed in the 
early part of 1931. The waste weir gates were prepared at the 
Bhadravathi Iron Works. 

The Irwin Canal supplies water to an area hitherto practically 
dry. The Krishnarajasagara Works constitute a combined 



404 

hydro-electrical and irrigational project of great magnitude costing 
nearly Rs. 5 crores. The Krishnarajasagara Dam was practically 
complete by about the end of 1932. It was the largest engineering 
work undertaken in the State and a standing monument to the 
talent, skill and resources of the engineers of the Mysore Public 
Works Department, of whom Rajasevasaktha Dewan Bahadur 
Mr. K. R. Seshachar was the most prominent. 

Establishment of a Sugar Factory. 

It was anticipated that when irrigation was fully developed in 
the Irwin Canal area about 40,000 acres^ of land would be annually 
cultivated with sugarcane. For the economic handling and disposal 
of this considerable volume of sugarcane, a sugar factory was 
needed even from the beginning. The sugar industry in India was 
protected by a duty on imported sugar. The committee appointed 
to work out the details connected with the use of the water of 
Krishnarajasagara presided over by the late C. S. Balasundaram 
Iyer who was then Member of Council, had provided in their scheme 
for the introduction of the sugarcane crop which was more profitable 
than rice. In 1933 a scheme for an enquiry into the cost of 
production of sugarcane was sanctioned by the Imperial Council of 
Agricultural Research for a period of 3i years and the experiment 
of growing thick varieties of sugarcane was carried on in certain 
selected villages. It was, however, a long step from growing 
sugarcane to organising production on a scale suitable for 
factory use. New varieties had to be produced, new methods 
of cultivation and irrigation tried out and put into practice 
and a satisfactory rotation arrived at. It had also to be 
arranged that the cane crop came forward to the factory 
in such quantities on each day that the factory could handle and 
was not choked with cane at one period and stopped for want of it 
at another. The credit of overcoming the initial difficulties was 
due to Dr. L. C. Coleman who was then Director of Agriculture in 
Mysore and the factory commenced work from the 15th January 
1934 under the management of a company known as the Mysore 
Sugar Company, the Government possessing the largest number of 
shares in this company. In order to avoid waste in respect of the 



405 

bye-products, it was decided to utilise the molasses produced in the 
factory for the distillation of alcohal, both potable and industrial, 
and with this view the Central Distillery was shifted from 
Bangalore to Mandya where the sugar factory existed and the 
contract for the manufacture of country spirits was entrusted to the 
Mysore Sugar Company which managed the factory. The Sugar 
Factory which finished its first complete year of working on the 30th 
September 1934 returned a profit of 10 per cent on its shares. 

Agreement with the Madras Government. 

A dispute between the Madras and Mysore Governments arose 
regarding the interpretation of certain rules of the agreement of 
1924. According to that agreement, the minimum flow of the 
Kaveri that had to be ensured at the upper anekat in the Madras 
territory before any water was impounded in the Krishnarajasagara 
had been fixed on the basis of certain gauge readings at the Kaveri 
Dam and it had been agreed that the discharge connoted by the 
gauge readings should be finally fixed on the basis of the gaugings 
of the 10 years ending 1926. Later however, the Mysore Govern- 
ment demurred to this arrangement on the ground that the floods of 
1924 had brought about a state of affairs not foreseen at the time of 
the agreement. The Durbar therefore proposed that the period 
taken as the basis for calculating the discharges should be the 7i 
years preceding the floods of 1924. The Madras Government were 
not agreeable to accept this proposal and as attempts to reconcile 
the divergent views of the two Governments in a manner acceptable 
to both were unsuccessful, the good offices of the Governmet of India 
were sought for and recourse was had to arbitration. Sir A. Page, 
Judge of the Calcutta High Court, was appointed arbitrator with 
two expert assessors nominated by the two Governments, one each. 
As a result of this arbitration, an agreement was finally arrived at 
and accepted by the two Governments. 

Under the 1924 agreement with Madras, besides the 1,25,000 
acres under the Krishnarajasagara, Mysore was entitled to irrigate 
1,10,000 acres more by constructing additional reservoirs in the 
Kaveri valley and its tributaries. Investigations made showed 
that under the Kapini 40,000 acres could be secured for irrigation 



406 

and the remaining area in the Hemavathi and Lakshmanathirtha 
valleys. Mysore was also at liberty to extend irrigation by 
improvement of duty under each of the existing channels in the 
Kaveri valley by 33i per cent of the area irrigated in 1910 
remaining unsubmerged. 

The Krishnarajasagara Dam is If miles long and is intended 
to store up water to a depth of 124 feet at full reservoir level. At 
the entrance to the Dam, an ornamental gate-way has been built 
from which a concrete road leads onwards over the Dam. Below 
the Dam is situated the " BRINDAVANA " (Terrace Gardens) 
laid out on both sides of the river. At the entrance to the garden 
on the south side, in a niche built in the face of the Dam is located 
a beautiful image of the goddess Kaveri with a bowl in her hand 
from which a continuous stream of water flows indicative of 
continuous prosperity and benevolence. On the eastern side is an 
orange grove with a plant nursery for ornamental, shady and 
economical trees supplying plants to different parts of the State. 
At another place is a Government experimental orchard where all 
varieties of fruits are grown. The variegated colours of the beds 
with a large number of ever-playing fountains great and small 
arranged all over, with the subdued roar of the cascades from the 
pavilions give the whole place the appearance of a wonder land. 
At night a string of electric lights adorn the full length of the Dam 
and mildly illuminate the flowery landscape below. The Kaveri 
image is illumined with a stream of small lights. These with the 
coloured illumination of the fountains present an appearance which 
is marvellous and enchanting to a degree. The fountains play day 
and night and people in a position to judge have declared these as 
one of the finest gardens in the world unequalled for their beauty 
and grandeur. 

Another irrigation project completed in the middle of 1936 
was the Anjanapur Reservoir in the Shimoga district. The people 
of the Shikarpur taluk were repeatedly urging on the Government 
during a period of nearly 50 years the desirability of constructing a 
reservoir across the river Kumudvathi and providing them with 
irrigational facilities. The scheme had at one time been 
investigated but given up for want of a suitable site for the weir, 



407 

In the year 1927 when the Dewan, Sir Mirza Ismail, toured in 
Shimoga district, the people of the taluk again made a representation 
to him for the construction of the reservoir and agreed also to pay 
an acreage contribution of Rs. 50 and assessment at Rs. 10 per 
acre. Further investigation of the project was immediately ordered 
and a masonry dam across a narrow gorge with two channels 
therefrom was at first thought of, but due to the unsatisfactory 
condition of the rocky substrate so essential for a masonry dam, 
that project was given up. Later, further surveys were undertaken 
and an earthen bund at an other site was decided upon. An 
estimate costing nearly about Rs. 18 lakhs was sanctioned in 
November 1927. Work was started early in 1928 and it took eight 
years to complete the reservoir. 

On the 3rd September 1936 Rajamantrapravina Mr. Raja- 
gopalachar, Member of the State Council in charge of the Dewan's 
duties, performed the opening ceremony and during the course of 
his speech said that the development of a virile and prosperous 
peasantry which would give strength to any country was to be 
welcomed and should be the main aim of any Government worth 
the name. The construction of this reservoir, he further said, bore 
a fresh testimony to the fact that in Mysore both the people and 
Government took a live interest in promoting agricultural 
prosperity. 

The earthen bund is 5000 feet long and at the deepest portion 
of the reservoir the height of the bund is 66 feet and the foundation 
is 20 feet below the bed of the river. The width of the bund at the 
bottom is 352 feet. The waste weir is 885 feet long. Two channels, 
one on the right 18i miles long and another on the left 6i miles 
long to irrigate 7812 and 1832 acres respectively, have been 
provided for. The right bank channel when completed is also 
expected to provide water supply to the Shikarpur town which 
during the summer months at present suffers badly for want of 
adequate supply of drinking-water. 



CHAPTER XLVIIL 

KrUhnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Various Administrative Improvements 1926 1936. 

Measures relating to Agriculture. 

A Regulation known as the Coffee Cess Regulation was 
enacted in 1926. An experimental coffee farm was established at 
Balehonnur, half the cost of which was borne by the coffee planters. 
It was placed in charge of an officer of high attainments who resided 
on the spot and was assisted by a scientific staff competent to deal 
with all aspects of the problem. Subsequently, the equipment of 
the farm was improved and a small advisory committee consisting 
of Indian and European planters was constituted in 1928 to assist 
the Director. Later at the request of the United Planters' 
Association of Southern India which came forward to co-operate 
with the Mysore Agricultural Department, a European scientific 
officer employed by the Association was placed to work under the 
Director of Agriculture at this experimental station. The cultivation 
and study of cardamoms and pepper were also included in the 
programme of work of the station. 

In 1927 the Government sanctioned a scheme for the supply 
of small electrically driven pumps on hire-purchase system for 
pumping water from the wells. The Electrical Department under- 
took to supply and instal the pumping outfits complete and to put 
them into operation at the start. No extra assessment was levied 
when dry lands were irrigated by means of these pumping 
installations. 

Agricultural education made steady progress. In- addition to 
the residential school at Ramakrishnapur which owed its existence 
to the generosity of Mr. G. Venkataramaniah, a citizen of 
Bangalore, a school was also established at Hassan at the instance 
of the District Board. 

Now turning to agricultural improvements, two measures 
sanctioned in 1929 were calculated to have far reaching effects. 



409 

The first was the conversion of the Nagenahalli farm into a 
paddy-breeding station where work on the improvement of this 
important crop was actively pursued. The second was the 
organisation in the Agricultural Department of a section to control 
the distribution of pure seed of the new varieties of crops grown on 
various farms maintained by the department. The Royal 
Commission on Agriculture laid stress in their report on the 
importance of providing an agency such as this and the Mysore 
Government was the first in India to take action on their 
recommendation. An interesting development was the manufacture 
of improved ploughs by local blacksmiths and many of them proved 
to be excellent copies of imported ones. Other agricultural 
implements the sales of which were steadily growing were 
cultivators and sugarcane mills and both these came to be almost 
entirely of local manufacture. 

Record of Rights. 

The Land Revenue system in Mysore presented certain defects 
which were repeatedly urged on Government as calling for remedial 
measures. The rules did not provide for the compulsory mutation 
of Khates with every change of title and for the separate recogni- 
tion of all persons having interest in land as mortgagees and owners 
of portions of Survey Numbers or co-sharers in the Revenue 
Accounts. Much difficulty was also experienced by Government 
in the collection of land revenue as the collecting officials 
did not know as to who was responsible for the payment of 
assessment. There were also frequent' complaints about the 
disabilities caused to the inferior holders whose rights were not 
safeguarded by the existing law. 

To remedy these shortcomings, the Mysore Land Record of 
Rights Regulation was enacted in April 1927 and the rules under 
the Regulation were also issued soon after. The scheme was for 
the first time introduced in 1927-28 in three selected taluks and was 
received with great willingness by the people and the scheme is 
being gradually extended to all parts of the State. 

A52 



416 

The salient features of this Regulation are 1. A Record of 
Rights is to be maintained for every village giving particulars of 
the names of all persons who are holders, occupants, owners or 
mortgagees of land, or the assignees of its rent or revenue, and the 
nature and extent of the interests of such persons. 2. It is made 
obligatory for all persons acquiring rights in land to report the fact 
to the authorities concerned leading to suitable modifications of the 
entries recorded, thereby keeping the Record of Rights up-to-date. 
3. No suit or application relating to agricultural land is to be 
entertained in civil courts unless accompanied by certified extracts 
from the registers maintained under this Regulation. An entry in 
the Record of Rights is to be presumed to be true until the 
contrary is proved. 4. Every plot of land belonging to different 
persons in the same Survey Number is to be separately measured 
and mapped and particulars regarding area and assessment of each 
such sub-holding are to be recorded separately in the register. 

The objects of the scheme are, in the words of the Government 
Notification, to check litigation in regard to land and to facilitate 
its disposal by the courts, to reduce unnecessary expenditure 
by the ryots in executing and registering documents and to protect 
them against fraud and fabrication of false claims. The Record is 
also intended to be of assistance to Government as well as to the 
ryots in the distribution of assessment among the various 
claimants, the grant of takavi and land improvement loans and the 
grant of suspension or remission of land revenue. The system 
incidentally facilitates the work of the Land Mortgage Banks and 
other forms of credit societies by presenting clearly the facts about 
the value and security of mortgaged lands. 

Improvement of Live-Stock and Veterinary Aid. 

One of the most irnportant problems connected with 
agriculture in Mysore is the improvement of live-stock and Mysore 
cattle have a deservedly high reputation in India and large numbers 
are exported annually to places outside the State. The Govern- 
ment realising fully the existing and potential value of live-stock 
and the importance of its improvement appointed in 1929 a strong 
committee consisting of representatives from all the districts and 



411 

experts to investigate the whole question of agricultural improve- 
ment, including the control of epidemic diseases. A Serum 
Institute had been established in 1928 in order to save animals 
from epidemics. Further measures were also now taken to provide 
better breeding stock by establishing a large cattle-breeding station 
at Ajampur in the Kadur District. Almost all the taluks were also 
provided with veterinary dispensaries, the buildings required being 
donated in several instances by private persons. 

Unemployment and Bhadra Agricultural Colony. 

At the Economic Conference held in 1929, Dr. Coleman in a 
speech he made laid considerable stress on the necessity of an 
attempt being made to place young men trained in agriculture on 
the land and referred to the extensive areas in the State, more 
especially in Amrut Mahal Kavals and date-reserves and under the 
new sources of irrigation where also a sound agricultural training 
would enable young men without occupation to earn a decent 
living. The Government had also appointed a committee presided 
over by the late C. S. Balasundaram Iyer, then Member of the State 
Council, to investigate the problem of middle class unemployment 
in Mysore. Again at the Economic Conference held in the year 
following, Sir Mirza Ismail gave expression to the opinion that 
middle class unemployment was not the whole of the problem, 
though it happened at the time to be a specially urgent part of it. 
The most disturbing phenomenon in the country as circumstances 
stood at the time, said Sir Mirza, was undoubtedly the attitude of 
mind of the young men who were bitter and disappointed on 
account of economic despair and the only hope lay in turning more 
and more of the educated young men towards a vocational career, 
especially industrial and agricultural pursuits. Besides the Tech- 
nological College which would be opened as a memorial of the 
Silver Jubilee of the Maharaja which was expected to afford some 
solution of the problem, it was also intended to establish an 
agricultural colony as an experiment under the Bhadra Canal. 
The Dewan concluded his speech in these words : " This problem 

of unemployment is a really difficult problem We cannot 

allow things to drift and we must make the utmost possible effort 



412 

to discover a remedy. It will not do to let our young men remain 
a prey to pessimism. We must fill their hearts they are the 
future hope of the country with that spirit of buoyant optimism 
without which life becomes merely a drab existence." 

The Economic position of the Agriculturists during this period. 

During this period there were great fluctuations in the 
economic position of the agriculturists. Between the years 
1914-20 there was a gradual rise of prices from year to year and the 
pinnacle was reached in the year 1919-20 following the cessation 
of the Great War. Subsequent to 1920 the prices began to fall 
until 1923, when they rose again and kept steady until 1928. 
From this year they began to decline once again. The fall 
continued from year to year until 1932 when it was arrested and 
the prices showed a tendency to rise. The rise was however very 
temporary and the prices began to decline once again, until they 
reached the lowest level in June 1934. During the period of high 
prices following the conclusion of the war, the agriculturists found 
themselves able to increase their standard of life, but at the same 
time their debts also increased as the appreciation of land values 
tempted and enabled them to borrow more largely. 

The Special Economic Survey officer for the Malnad appointed 
in 1925 having proposed legislation on the lines of the Deccan 
Agriculturists* Relief Act of Bombay to afford similar relief to 
agricultural debtors, especially in the Malnad, a committee of 
officials and non-officials with Mr. K. Chandy, Member of the State 
Council as President, was appointed to consider the report of 
this special officer. The committee having recommended legislation 
being undertaken by Government on the lines of the Deccan 
Agriculturists' Relief Act for the relief of indebted agriculturists 
in the State, a note on the subject was placed before the 
Representative Assembly at the Budget Session of 1926 and 
a Bill was introduced in the Legislative Council in December 
of the same year and was finally passed into law in July 
1928. This Regulation applied to agriculturists whose yearly 
income from agriculture did not exceed Rs. 500 and the aggre- 
gate income from all sources did not exceed Rs, 1000. Un4er 



413 

its provisions, immovable property which was not specifically 
mortgaged for debt was exempt from sale and in the case of all 
debts, secured as well as unsecured, courts could permit repayment 
in instalments extending normally up to eight years. This 
Regulation was at first made operative in the three Malnad taluks 
of Manjarabad, Sagar and Koppa and subsequently on the 
recommendation of the Malnad Economic Depression Enquiry 
Committee extended to all the Malnad taluks. Between the years 
1929 and 1933 the prices of agricultural commodities fell by nearly 
50 per cent and the gross money value realised by the agriculturist 
decreased to that extent. In this connection, it may be of interest 
to know what causes have, according to the " World Economic 
Survey, 1932-33, League of Nations," contributed to the great 
economic depression prevailing throughout the world. " There is 
general agreement that the causes of the decline of prices are 
many and complex. Important and far-reaching changes in the 
geographical and technical structure of industry and trade, equally 
important social developments such as a rising standard of living 
together with lessened flexibility of adjustment, political difficulties 
arising from reparation and war debt payments and tariff wars, 
monetary arrangements connected with the post-war currency 
stabilisations and the working of the new gold standard after it has 
been restored, international capital movements, security speculation 
and exchange difficulties all entered into the background of the 
price fall. The exact degree to which these various factors entered 
into the combination of causes which precipitated the depression 
has been a subject of lively controversy." 

In April 1928 the Government sanctioned the opening of a 
Central Land Mortgage Bank at Bangalore, its operations being 
confined to the Malnad taluks of Sagar, Koppa and Manjarabad and 
the Maidan taluk of Tumkur and first entrusted 
supervision and control over the operations of 
Director of Industries and Commerce. In view, 
recommendation of the Royal Commission on 
in response to the general desire expressed by 
legislative Council and the Representative ASS 




414 

ment decided to bring the proposed Land Mortgage institution 
within the purview of the Co-operative Societies Regulation and 
the latter was suitably amended in 1929 to effect this purpose. 
The Co-operative Land Mortgage Bank commenced work in 
December 1929. Government sanctioned certain concessions to 
the Bank by way of guaranteeing the principal and interest of 
the debentures to be floated and of reimbursing the cost of its 
establishment for the first two years. 

At the session of the Representative Assembly held in October 
1933 a representation was made that the Agriculturists' Relief Act 
might be extended to all the taluks tof the State. Government 
accordingly by a notification dated 30th December 1933 directed 
the extension of the Regulation to all parts of the State with effect 
from 1st January 1934. This extension of the Regulation proved in 
practice, however, as one not quite of unmixed good. Representa- 
tions to this effect were made at the session of the Representative 
Assembly held in June 1934. It was said that the wholesale 
extension of the Regulation had adversely affected the honest 
money-lender and that it had also resulted in considerable shrinkage 
of agricultural credit. The question also formed the subject of 
discussion at the session of the Legislative Council which soon 
after followed. 

The Government appointed a committee in July 1934 presided 
over by Mr. N. Madhava Rao to make a rapid enquiry into the 
extent to which the fall in the price of agricultural produce had 
affected the resources, debt obligations and credit facilities of 
the land-owning and cultivating classes in different parts of the 
State and to report upon the nature and extent of the assistance 
that might be given to relieve them from the difficulties 
caused by the depression. The committee after investigation 
afitved at certain conclusions and of the main conclusions, 
the first related to the effect of the depression on the 
different classes of ryots concerned with agriculture as their 
occupation. The fall in prices which began in 1931 did not, the 
committee said, affect all classes of ryots equally. The field 
latxntfers whp constituted ^bput a fifth of the agricultural 



415 

population were little worse off than before. Their wages in grain 
remained unchanged. Money wages too kept steady during the 
earlier years of the depression and where they showed a decline, the 
fall had been less in proportion than the fall in prices, so that the 
real wages of agricultural labour appeared scarcely to suffer. The 
tenant cultivators had no obligation to pay taxes. Their rents were 
generally paid in kind and even where money rents were in vogue, 
they were, except in the Malnad, generally in a position to dictate 
their own terms to their land-lords. The peasant proprietors formed 
the bulk of the agricultural population. They generally grew all the 
grain they required for their household and such small amounts as 
they required for payment of services, taxes or to meet other 
miscellaneous items were obtained by selling non-food crops or 
from the profits of subsidiary occupations. There were various 
occupations available in the vicinity of towns and cities such as 
selling milk, curds and vegetables, hiring of carts which formed an 
important source of income to the suburban ryot. But the peasant 
owners in the interior parts had no such advantages. The 
cultivation of non-food crops, the rearing of cattle, goats, sheep and 
silkworms and suchlike occupations on which they depended had 
ceased to be remunerative. It was believed that this class of 
agriculturist was more heavily in debt than either the tenant 
cultivator or the labourer who enjoyed comparatively little credit. 
The classes which were most hard hit by the depression were the 
land-holders who did not directly cultivate their lands or cultivated 
only a small portion of their holdings. The fall of prices did not 
affect also the growers of all the crops to the same extent. In the 
cultivation of some of the crops like ragi, jola, cotton and 
groundnut, the margin of net profit left to the cultivator was 
comparatively low. 

The second main conclusion related to the increase of 
agricultural indebtedness. According to the calculations made by 
the Banking Enquiry Committees of Bombay and Madras, the 
average debt of the agriculturist in these provinces was Rs. 50 and 
Rs. 49 respectively per head. As the conditions in Mysore were 
not very different, the average debt of the agriculturist in Mysore 
at Rs. 50 per head was considered a fair assumption. On this 



416 

basis the agricultural debt in the State, taking the prevailing 
depressed prices, was calculated to amount to about Rs. 35 crores 
representing nearly 30 times the land revenue assessment of the 
agricultural lands. At this time, out of a total area of 87,85,173 
acres of arable land, 81,48,898 acres or 92.8 per cent were under 
occupancy. 

The principal recommendations made by this committee to 
reduce this appalling magnitude of debt were the expansion of 
Land Mortgage Banks in order to enable the agriculturists to 
convert their debts to long term loans which might be repaid out of 
current income and conciliation between debtors and creditors. 
The Government agreeing generally with these recommendations 
have started action in the directions required. 

The Government also appointed in September 1934 another 
committee presided over by Rajasabhabhushana Mr. K. R. Srinivasa 
lyengar, retired Member of Council, to examine how far the 
extension of the Agriculturists' Relief Regulation to the whole 
State had affected the credit of the agriculturists and to report in 
what respects, if any, the Regulation required to be amended and to 
submit also a draft Bill embodying the recommendations of the 
committee for any legislation that might be required. 



CHAPTER XLIX. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Sanitation, Public Health and Rural Improvements 
19261936. 

At the Budget Session of the Representative Assembly in 1928 
the Dewan made a clear enunciation of the sanitary policy of 
Government as far as it related to the rural parts. " The crying 
needs of the people, especially of those living in the rural parts who 
form the bulk of the population," he said, have yet to be met and 
no administration worth the name can remain indifferent to those 
wants. The Government of Mysore cannot feel happy that they 
have discharged their duty to the people unless successful efforts 
are made to secure to every village of any size in the State all 
those things which are essential to their well-being. There should 
be no village of any importance in the State which does not possess 
a drinking-water well without drying up when water is most 
needed, a tank in good repair not silted up with the sluice neglected, 
a satisfactory school with at least one competent teacher, a well- 
managed co-operative society and a dispensary with sufficient stock 
of medicines." Rural uplift, according to the words of the Dewan 
used in 1929, was one of the Government's most urgent, as it was 
one of their most sacred, duties. 

Boreholes provided an effective way of dealing with the 
problem of drinking-water supply, the cost being much less than 
that of an ordinary well. Power drilling outfits as good as any that 
were imported began to be made in Government workshops and 
supplied for the purpose needed. A small establishment was 
attached to the Sanitary Department for rendering assistance to the 
Local Bodies in town-planning and for furnishing them with schemes 
for the improvement of sanitation, drainage and water-supply. 
The facilities offered by the Government were availed of by a large 
number of Municipalities. Extension of towns received the 
greatest attention, nor was the aesthetic side of town improvement 
lost sight of as could be judged from the number of parks opened 

A53 



418 

and the manner in which sites were allotted for public buildings. 
Provision of drinking-water wells for every village in the State was 
a matter of supreme importance and funds were allotted on a large 
scale for the purpose. In 1925-26 there were 58,000 drinking- 
water wells and 18,000 tube wells making a total of 76,000. In 
1930-31 there were 1,00,000 of drinking-water wells and 1,14,000 
tube wells making a total of 2,14,000. The largest water-supply 
project undertaken was the Thippagondanhalli Reservoir to provide 
water-supply to the growing town of Bangalore, the old Hesarghatta 
tank which supplied water from 1891 being found insufficient for a 
city with a growing population. In 1891 the combined population 
of the City and Civil and Military Station of Bangalore numbered 
1,80,000 and in 1931 it stood at 3,06,470. The new reservoir 
solved the question of water-supply to Bangalore not only for the 
present generation but for many generations to come. The cost of 
the scheme amounted to Rs. 50j lakhs and the whole length of 
14 miles of cast iron pipes required for this was supplied by the 
Bhadravathi Iron Works. The general scheme of rural electrifica- 
tion made steady progress and in 1930 power was taken to Kolar, 
Tumkur and Malavalli towns and the lighting service was started 
in all of them as well as in twenty other places. 

In 1933 there were 10,600 Village Panchayets in operation. 
The activities of some of these Panchayets included the supervision 
and management of village schools, village forests, tanks and topes, 
planting of avenue and fruit trees, purchasing of improved 
implements of agriculture and sugarcane mills and letting them on 
hire to the villagers and distribution of scientific manure. Weekly 
labour for communal purposes was also insisted upon by the Village 
Panchayets. There were also indications of the growth of a spirit 
of public service as evidenced from the liberal donations that were 
given for buildings, for schools, for hospitals and for other village 
purposes. 

Help by the Rockfeller Foundation of the U. S. A. 

Under the auspices of the International Health Division of the 
Rockfeller Foundation of America, a health survey of the State with 
special reference to malaria and hookworm was undertaken in 1927 



419 

and for this purpose the services of Dr. Sweet of the same Founda- 
tion were obtained. Four medical graduates of the State were 
deputed for training in sanitation to America. As a result of the 
spleen survey conducted by Dr. Sweet, three malaria experimental 
stations were established one at Nagenhalli in the Mysore taluk, the 
second at Mudigere and the third at Hiriyur. A Rural Health 
Unit also was established at Mandya as an experimental measure 
for the purpose of determining the staff, equipment and budget 
necessary for organising eventually Health Units in all the taluks. 
The League of Nations Malaria Commission who visited the State 
in December 1929 at the invitation of the Durbar studied the 
malaria-control work at the experimental stations at Nagenhalli 
and Mudigere and the anti -malarial work in the Bangalore City and 
expressed their appreciation of the manner in which the problem 
was being studied. The Rockfeller Foundation lent in 1930 the 
services of Mr. J. J. Mieldazis, a Sanitary Engineer, in addition to 
the services of Dr. Sweet, the Consultant in Health. Under the 
advice of this expert, the Government introduced at this time a 
scheme for the further improvement of the Health Department. 
A Board of Health was also created to advise the Government. 
One of the main features of the scheme of reorganisation was the 
constitution of bureaux for carrying on the work of the depart- 
ment and seven such bureaux were constituted (l) Bureau of 
administration (2) Bureau of Epidemiology and Communicable 
diseases (3) Laboratories (4) Vital Statistics (5) Health Education 
(6) Sanitary Engineering and (7) Rural Health. Mr. Victor 
Heiser of the International Health Board of New York visited the 
State in March 1931 and advantage was taken of his presence to 
discuss questions relating to the future development of the work of 
the department. He recommended the extension of the Rural 
Health Unit work and stressed the importance of health propa- 
ganda. The Mandya Health Unit in a period of a little over two 
years held 94 clinics and examined nearly 1400 children. It also 
did about 15,000 anti-cholera, 10,000 anti-plague inoculations and 
1631 vaccinations against small-pox. A publicity section was 
formed in connection with the Bureau of Health Education and 
the Rockfeller Foundation offered a contribution of money for 



420 

two years for the furtherance of the work of this bureau. The 
operations of the Sanitary Engineering Bureau was extended by 
transferring to its control the execution and maintenance of all 
water-supply works except the works of Bangalore City. The 
bureau dealt with all the public health engineering problems, 
water-supply, drainage and town-planning. The Bureau of Health 
Education organised a large number of cinema shows on health 
subjects and over a lakh of persons witnessed them. Large 
numbers of posters and leaflets on plague, small-pox, soil pollution 
and bore-hole latrines were printed and distributed. 

Medical Relief.' 

The Durbar also realised that the medical relief that existed in 
the State was inadequate. In 1928 there were approximately 
330 doctors in the State or one for every 18,000 of the population. 
Of these, only 40 were private medical practitioners, most of whom 
resided in the cities of Bangalore and Mysore. As the extension 
of medical relief through the agency of a Government staff was 
necessarily slow and costly, a scheme was introduced for sub- 
sidising private medical practitioners with a view to induce and 
enable them to settle down in rural parts. A cheaper kind of local 
fund dispensaries was also introduced under qualified doctors. 

A noteworthy feature of this period was the generous contribu- 
tions given by private persons for the extension of medical relief. 
This was a welcome tendency and among the donors of this 
period were Dharmaprakasa Mr. Chandre Gowda, Mr. Nagappa 
Setty and Pandit Lakshmanachar. The Ayurvedic and Unani 
hospitals received support from some of these donors. Towards 
the construction of the Opthalmic Block in the Krishnarajendra 
Hospital at Mysore, a contribution was made by Mr. Chidambaram 
Chetty, son of the late Sir T. Mutthiah Chettiar. Mr. B. M. 
Srinivasaiah of the Hindu Soap Factory at Bangalore donated a 
large amount for the construction of an Electro-Therapy and 
Radiology Block in the Victoria Hospital. 

The building of the old Maternity Hospital at Bangalore was 
satisfactory neither in its location nor in the accommodation it 



421 

afforded. A new building was therefore undertaken in 1930, the 
foundation-stone of which was laid by H. H. the Yuvaraja. Other 
hospitals constructed during this period were the Malle Gowda 
General Hospital and the Siddalinga Setty Eye Hospital at Chick - 
magalur. A new building for the hospital at Shimoga the 
foundation-stone of which was laid by H. H. the Maharaja was 
constructed and the hospital was named the McGann Hospital 
after the name of a former Head of the Medical Department who 
rendered good service to the State. 

At the Dasara Session of the Representative Assembly held in 
1934 the Dewan specially called attention to the great need that 
existed for extending medical aid to women and children. He 
pointed out that deaths from plague, cholera and small-pox put 
together were less than one-third of the deaths of women in child- 
birth and of children in the first two years of their life. Many 
women for want of proper care were rendered invalids for life and 
many children for want of similar care in their early years were 
rendered defective in one way or another for the whole period of 
their existence. As far back as 1880 there was established in 
Mysore the Women's Hospital that bears the name of the Maharani 
Kempananjammanni Avaru and in the closing years of her life was 
constructed the magnificent new hospital in Bangalore bearing her 
name and known as Vani Vilas Maternity Hospital. In 1923 her 
brother Sir M. Kantaraj Urs set the example of endowing an 
organisation for maternity and child welfare by leaving a sum of 
Rs. 1,20,000 to establish the Gunamba Child Welfare and Maternity 
Trust. This noble example was subsequently followed by other 
people also and the donations within the past ten years have 
amounted to over Rs. 9 lakhs. The Government have also 
played their part by extending the employment of midwives 
and by making special arrangements for such lady doctors as 
there were in the State to extend their activities by visiting 
places within reach from their headquarters. Maternity and 
Child Welfare work has also advanced and in the period between 
1932-34 seven to eight thousand babies came under expert 
Scrutiny of doctors during the Baby Week Shows. Mysore 



422 

was ranked in the second, first and third places respectively in the 
All-Empire Competition held in 1932, 1933 and 1934. In this 
respect the efforts of the Red Cross Society under the guidance of 
Sir Charles Todhunter, Private Secretary to the Maharaja, are 
specially noteworthy in combating the ignorance which is 
responsible for so much suffering and in establishing the Maternity 
Homes and Child Welfare Centres. 

A Bill was introduced by Government in the Legislative 
Council to enable the public to know who were qualified medical 
practitioners and the same was passed into law in December 1931. 
In accordance with the provisions of 4 this Regulation, a Medical 
Council was established for the State with powers to register duly 
qualified practitioners, to take notice of misconduct or unprofessional 
behaviour on the part of such practitioners and to ensure a high 
standard of instruction in medical schools and colleges whose 
degrees or diplomas were recognised. Another measure related to 
the licensing of shops for the sale of allopathic medicines in 
Municipal areas and to the employment of qualified persons for 
the dispensing of such medicines. 



CHAPTER L. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Education Local Self-GovernmentChief Court de- 
signated High Court The Representative Assembly and 
the Legislative Council 1926 1936. 

The Elmentary Education Regulation was passed in the year 
1929-30. Its main object was to invest Local Bodies with the 
management, control and financing of elementary education, while 
retaining effective powers of supervision, direction and ultimate 
control over educational policy and administration in the hands of 
the Education Department. It was a measure of far-reaching 
importance and the credit of bringing it out belonged to Dewan 
Bahadur Mr. K. Mathan, Member of the State Council. The 
Regulation came into force from 1st January 1931 and 12 educational 
authorities were constituted 8 for the districts, two for the cities of 
Bangalore and Mysore, 1 for the town of Tumkur and 1 for the 
Kolar Gold Field Sanitary Board area. School Boards were formed 
as required by the Regulation and the rules framed defining the 
powers and duties of the Boards. The District Educational Officers 
were appointed as School Board Officers under the Regulation. 

As an experimental measure, Kanada was made the medium of 
instruction in one of the Government High Schools in each of the 
cities of Bangalore and Mysore. 

The transfer of control over primary education to the local 
authorities took effect from 1st July 1931. The Mysore University 
Regulation was amended in 1933 so as to make the Senate more 
representative of popular interests. 

Scouting continued to be popular. There were on the 30th 
June 1933 ten thousand six hundred and forty-eight boys getting 
scout training in all the branches. A contingent of four rovers and 
a scout were deputed to represent the Mysore Boy Scouts at the 
world rally at Godollo in Hungary. The Girl Guide Movement 
was reorganised in May 1932 and there were about 500 Girl Guides 
at this time. 



424 

The District Boards were re-constituted under the new District 
Board Regulation from 1st February 1927 and the Taluk Boards 
ceased to exist from that date. The Hassan and Kolar District 
Boards were given the right to elect their own Presidents and the 
Tumkur District Board the privilege of electing a Vice-President. 
Women were given the privilege of voting at elections and women 
members were nominated to some of these Boards. In the year 
1928-29 the Municipal Regulation was amended removing the 
disqualification of women on the ground of sex from being members 
of Municipal Councils. 

* 
The District Boards extended their operations in directions not 

hitherto usual to them. The District Board of Chitaldrug started 
an orphanage in 1929 for providing a house for the board, lodging 
and training of orphans. The District Board of Kadur established 
at Chickmagalur a poor house for destitutes. The District Boards 
of Hassan and Kolar undertook to contribute a portion of the cost 
of maintenance of the high schools at Hole-Narsipur and Chinta- 
mani respectively. 

In 1930 the District Board election rules were modified 
providing for a deposit to be made by every candidate seeking 
election which was liable to forfeiture in certain cases. 

The term of the Malnad Improvement Committee constituted 
for a period of two years ended in August 1929. Each of the four 
District Boards of Shimoga, Kadur, Hassan and Mysore now came 
to have a Malnad Improvement Committee with the President of 
the Board as chairman and four members of the Board as members 
of the Committee, with the District Economic Superintendent as 
Secretary. The Committees possessed the power of co-opting other 
members for special purposes and were authorised to administer the 
annual grants allotted for approved schemes of Malnad 
improvement. 

The Regulations relating to local self-government were further 
revised in 1932-33. The main features of the revision of the 
Municipal Regulation were the increase in the elected element in 



425 

Municipal Councils and the introduction of adult suffrage in the 
Minor Municipalities. 

In 1930 the designation of the Chief Court was changed to that 
of the High Court of Mysore. 

The pension scheme was defective in that it provided no 
relief in cases where officials died before or soon after retirement. 
Government therefore sanctioned in ] 929 a scheme of 
compassionate gratuities for the families of officers dying in harness 
or soon after retirement without enjoying the benefits of their 
pensions. 

The second general election of members to the reformed 
Representative Assembly took place in 1926. Out of the 1,30,000 
persons who were eligible as voters, more than 60,000 persons 
actually attended the polls. There were as many as 782 candidates 
who contested the 204 seats reserved for the rural and urban 
constituencies. The facts indicated that the membership of the 
Assembly was coming to be sought more and more as affording a 
valuable opportunity for public service. 

A special committee was appointed in 1927 in re-ponse to a 
resolution in the Legislative Council to revise the rules relating to 
the Representative Assembly and the Legislative Council. As 
suggested by this committee, it was provided that an oath of 
allegiance to the Maharaja was to be taken by the members of the 
Legislative Council on their first entry. Another recommendation 
of this committee was also accepted, namely, the removal of sex 
disqualification so as to render women eligible for membership of 
the Representative Assembly and of the Legislative Council. In 
June 1930 for the first time some ladies took their seats as members 
at the Budget Session of the Representative Assembly and the 
Dewan on behalf of the whole Assembly offered them a warm 
welcome not only on account of their practical knowledge of many 
matters of which men were ignorant, not only because of their 
ready sympathy with all those who were suffering or in distress, but 
because it was essential to the welfare of Mysore as it was to that 
of India in general that the women should work hand-in-hand with 

A54 



426 

the men who could never reach the common goal without their aid. 
The other changes introduced were : (l) the inclusion of pleaders 
as distinguished from the advocates in the Legal Interests 
constituency of the Representative Assembly and title-holders in 
the rural and urban constituencies of the Representative Assembly 
and the Legislative Council and registered graduates in the Mysore 
University constituency of the Legislative Council ; (2) the 
obligation on the part of those seeking election to the Representa- 
tive Assembly or the Legislative Council to make a deposit of a 
fixed sum of money unless exempted in special cases on the ground 
of being members of the Depressed Classes or candidates for a 
minority or special interest on penalty of forfeiting the deposits, if 
the candidates failed to secure at least one-eighth of the total number 
of valid votes counted ; (3) adjudication of disputes relating to 
elections triable by District Judges instead of by Deputy Commis- 
sioners, subject further to an appeal to the Chief Court on points of 
law ; and (4) permission to the members of the Representative 
Assembly and the Legislative Council to put questions and move 
resolutions in the respective bodies on matters relating to or 
affecting the provisions of the Representative Assembly and the 
Legislative Council Regulations. 

The year 1931 was the year of the Golden Jubilee of the 
Representative Assembly which, as we know, came into existence 
ID the year 1881. Sir M. N, Krishna Rao who was acting as 
Dewan at the time referred to the Assembly as the oldest political 
institution of elected representatives in India and also as having 
contributed in no small measure to the success and high standard 
of administration of the State. 

In June 1932 a special committee was appointed to review the 
existing distribution of seats allowed to the Representative 
V^..pViv and to examine certain other questions referred to it. 
i ,. i uiinu.uee on investigation proposed that the number of seats 
to be given to a taluk or sub- taluk should depend upon its 
population, weightage being given to the Malnad taluks and to the 
taluk of Molakalmuru on account of its remoteness. The committee 
also proposed some re-adjustment in the number of seats allotted 



427 

to special interests and recommended that the seats for women 
should be increased from 2 to 4. As regards the minorities, the 
committee recommended the increase of Muslim seats from 15 to 
18 and those of the Depressed Classes from 6 to 10, the latter 
being contingent on suitable persons being available for nomination. 
Among other matters, the committee recommended that the system 
of proportional representation by means of the single transferrable 
"vote should be introduced for the election of members from the 
Representative Assembly to the Legislative Council and for the 
election of Representative Assembly members from the city 
constituencies of Bangalore and Mysore. These recommendations 
were accepted by Government and brought into effect. 

In the year 1934 a constitutional question of some delicacy 
arose. At the meeting of the Budget Session of the Legislative 
Council of that year, one of the members Mr. D. V. Gundappa 
wished to move the following resolutions and interpellations : 

1. This Council recommends to the Government of His 

Highness the Maharaja of Mysore that they may be 
pleased to appoint a committee at an early date to 
frame and submit, after consulting public opinion, a 
comprehensive scheme of constitutional reforms with a 
view to expedite progress in the direction of 
Responsible Government. 

2. This Council recommends to the Government of His 

Highness the Maharaja of Mysore that they may be 
pleased to appoint a Standing Committee to consider 
all questions pertaining to the entry of Mysore into an 
All- India Federation and to make suggestions thereupon 
to Government from time to time. 

The interpellations were : 

1. Will the Government be pleased to state: (a) What 
action they have so far taken to secure for the State and the 
citizens the utmost possible benefit of the abrogation of the Article 
1$ of the Mysore Treaty of 1913 announced by His Excellency the 



428 

Viceroy in December 1933 ; and (b) what action they propose to 
take hereafter towards that end ? 

2. Will the Government be pleased to State : (a) whether 
they were consulted by the Government of India or by His 
Majesty's Secretary of State for India as to the necessity for the 
legislative measure called the Indian States Protection Act passed 
by the Indian Legislative Assembly in April 1934; (b) and if 
consulted, what opinion they were pleased to give in reply ; and 
(c) whether the Government of Mysore have at any time 
expressed a desire for such a measure of protection ? 

3. (a) Will the Government be pleased to lay on the table a 
copy of the agreement between the State and the Government of 
India as regards the adjustment of the surplus revenues of the 
Assigned Tract of Bangalore ? (b) Will the Government be 
pleased to state how this agreement will be affected by the terms of 
the proposed retrocession of the said Assigned Tract to the State 
of Mysore ? 

These questions were, however, disallowed by the President of 
the Legislative Council who was also the Dewan of the State. 
Mr. Gundappa being dissatisfied with the ruling of the President, 
thereupon wrote an article in the " Hindu " newspaper of Madras 
of 23rd June 1934, discussing whether it was permissible for a 
member of the Legislative Council to give publicity to matters not 
admitted into the agenda by the President of the House. Where 
the President was a person, said Mr. Gundappa in his article, who 
might represent all sections of the House and who might fairly be 
taken to give due consideration to every school of thought present 
in the House, it was proper that the decision should be accepted as 
binding every member not only in relation to his conduct on the 
floor of the House but in relation to all his proceedings outside the 
House also on matters which he sought to place before the House. 
The supreme maxim, according to Mr. Gundappa, in this as in 
other matters was that the highest and the largest public interest 
should prevail, and when the discretion was vested in the 
President, the presumption ^yas th^t his decisions, welcome qr 



429 

unwelcome to individual members, were actuated by considerations 
of nothing less than the highest and the largest public interest. 
The President's authority was in such matters final, because the 
President might be presumed to have taken into consideration all 
conceivable points of view and after deliberation to have upheld in 
the end that which appeared to him as best in the interests of the 
public. This general principle was, however, open to modification 
where the President was not one who could be presumed to 
represent all sections of the House and was one who might 
reasonably be presumed to be identified with one point of view 
more than with other possible viewpoints. The President of the 
Mysore Legislative Council was not a member elected by the vote 
of the House and that therefore was not entitled to be regarded as 
the representative of the entire House in relation to those matters 
on which there was any sharp cleavage of opinion in the House. 
He was, besides, the head of the executive administration of the 
State. Holding this view, the member felt that he had liberty to 
give publicity to the resolutions and interpellations which he 
wished to bring forward in the House. 

It need not be said that the conventions and principles 
referred to by Mr. Gundappa can have their full application only in 
countries which have full political independence. But in British 
India or in the Native States, they have obvious limitations as 
matters stand at present. On the concluding day of the Birthday 
Session of the Representative Assembly in June 1934, Sir Mirza 
Ismail referred to this subject and had apparently these limitations 
in mind when he said : " Improve by all means what you have got 
when any improvement is needed, but attempt no radical changes. 
Let us, like practical men, check our ideals by actualities. There 
lies our success and happiness." 



CHAPTER LI. 

Krishnaraja Wodcyar IV. 

Various Administrative Improvements 1926 1936. 

Two important Legislative Measures : Workmen's 
Compensation Regulation and Regulation to amend the 
Hindu Law as to the Rights of Women and in certain 
other respects. 

Workmen's Compensation Regulation. 

In the Dasara Session of the Representative Assembly of 
1927 the principles of a measure framed in the interests of 
workmen known as the Workmen's Compensation Bill were 
explained. The development of industries in the State in recent 
years led to the use of machinery on a growing scale and to the 
employment in mills, factories and other industrial concerns of a 
large number of workmen who were exposed to risks of accidents 
resulting in injury and sometimes in death. It was equitable that 
the employers should grant compensation to their employees so 
injured or to the families and dependants of such as happened to be 
killed by accidents during the course of their employment. The 
general principles of the Bill were accepted by a unanimous vote 
by the Assembly. Its benefit to the work people will be under- 
stood when it is stated that in the year 1931-32 the compensation 
paid amounted to nearly Rs. 94,000. The sum paid to the 
dependants of the deceased workmen amounted to Rs. 87,295. 
The number of cases of injuries by accidents that came up before 
the Commissioner was 314. Of these, 136 related to fatal accidents, 
54 to non-fatal accidents and 108 to the registration of the 
memoranda of agreements. Out of the total number of claims for 
compensation, the Mining industry accounted for 269, textile 
industries for 36 and the several Government Departments for 9. 

Amendment of Hindu Law. 

The question of improving the position assigned to women 
under the Hindu Law as administered by the courts in the State 
bad been frequently pressed upon the attention of the Government 



431 

and a resolution was also moved at the Dasara Session of the 
Representative Assembly in 1928 recommending legislation on the 
subject. The sense of the Assembly on this motion was that 
before legislation was undertaken, it was desirable that the question 
should be examined by a non -official committee. This proposal 
commended itself to the Government and a committee consisting 
of ten non-official gentlemen with Dewan Bahadur Mr. K. S. 
Chandrasekhara Iyer, retired Chief Justice of the Chief Court of 
Mysore as chairman, was appointed in June 1929. One of the 
members was a lady, Srimathi K. D. Rukminiamma. The terms 
of reference to the committee were : (l) to examine in all its 
aspects the question of improving the position of women under the 
Hindu Law, inclusive of any other incidental points that might 
arise in connection with and also with reference to recent legislation 
in British India in the same direction ; (2) to submit a report to 
Government indicating in what respects the Hindu Law as 
administered at the time stood in need of reform ; and (3) to 
prepare a draft Bill embodying the recommendations of the 
committee in the matter. This committee held a number of sittings 
to discuss the subject and also circulated a questionnaire. 

A large number of replies to the questionnaire was received 
and the committee bore testimony in their report to the breadth of 
view, the comparative freedom from prejudice and the sincere 
desire for progress evinced by the greater number of those who 
individually and collectively favoured the committee with their 
views. At a latter stage of the committee's work when the 
materials available were digested and it became possible to put 
the tentative conclusions reached into a form adapted for legislative 
action, a number of distinguished lawyers and judges in different 
parts of India were approached for advice and suggestions. The 
committee submitted their report to Government in September 
1930 after an elaborate and arduous examination of all the 
materials available. 

The committee expressed the opinion that the State of 
Mysore had not 4o encounter the same difficulties as the British 
Government had to face. The reasons behind the policy of 



432 

non-interference with the personal laws of the Hindus did not apply 
with the same force to a Hindu State like Mysore as they did in 
British India. There were many factors operating in British 
India but not to the same extent in Mysore which impeded the 
undertaking of such legislation, such as the policy of religious 
non-interference, the marked diversities in conditions, languages, 
laws and customs of the people inhabiting the large number of 
British Provinces which on account of their extent formed as it 
were a sub-continent by themselves. There were also several 
schools of Hindu Law in British India and the principles applied 
by one school often materially differed from or conflicted with 
those of another, and it was therefore practically impossible to 
enact a uniform and comprehensive code applicable to all Hindus 
alike in British India. On the other hand, in the Mysore State the 
large majority of the Hindus practically formed a compact 
group and were governed by one uniform law, namely, the 
Mitakshara system. Mysore in the past had taken the lead 
in the eradication of evil social customs like infant marriage and the 
employment of Devadasis in temples and religious institutions. It 
had also gone very far on the way in recent years towards 
enfranchising women for citizenship by the recognition of their 
eligibility to serve on District and Municipal Boards, the Senate of 
the University, the Representative Assembly and the Legislative 
Council of the State. The committee also framed a draft Bill 
amending the Hindu Law in all those points where they considered 
necessary and named it * A Bill to amend the Hindu Law as to the 
rights of Women.' The Bill consisted of five parts : (l) In- 
heritance (2) Separate Property and Adoption (3) Women's full 
Estate (4) Women's Limited Estate and (5) Maintenance. 

On the 4th June 1931 at the Budget Session of the 
Representative Assembly the general principles of this Bill were, 
on behalf of Government, explained by the Law Secretary, 
Dewan Bahadur Mr. P. Mahadeviah, to the members. There 
were two schools of thought, said the Law Secretary, one 
the orthodox school which maintained that the law propounded 
by Manu in times out of memory stood for all time and 



433 

required no change. There was also another school which 
contended that the law laid down by ancient Rishis thousands of 
years ago would not suit the altered conditions of society and that 
it also required to be brought up-to-date so as to suit modern 
requirements. The views of both these schools were carefully 
weighed in the balance by the committee and their report, further 
said the Law Secretary, explained at great length the reasons for 
the modifications suggested by them. The one important departure 
which the committee had sought to make in the law was with 
reference to the recognition of the claims of women for inheritance. 
The women had proved equal to men in the matter of education 
and in other fields of life also had shown themselves fit to be 
entrusted with responsibilities and it was no longer possible to 
confine their activities to mere household duties. The committee 
had taken full note of these changing conditions and the changes 
contained in their draft Bill fully indicated this spirit. The main 
objection from the point of view of orthodoxy, viz., the recognition 
of the rights of women to property, was based on the suspicion that 
it would affect their morals. The committee rightly characterised 
this view as a coarse and incorrect appreciation of the tendencies 
and inclinations of the women-folk. The Bill also proposed to 
give to widows right of adoption in particular circumstances. 
Following the ruling of the Bombay High Court which was 
subsequently upheld by the Privy Council, the Mysore Committee 
gave to the widow the right of adoption unless she had been 
specifically prohibited by her husband in writing to make an 
adoption. Similarly they recognised the right of an unmarried 
daughter to a fourth share of the family property. 

The general principles of the Bill were that no women were to 
be excluded from inheritance on the ground of their sex or on the 
ground of the absence of textual authority. Their right of heirship 
and their place in the order of succession were to be governed by 
the recognised cannons of heirship, namely, consanguinity and 
propinquity. Property acquired by a member of a joint family by 
his self -exert ions was prima facie to be regarded as separate 
property in which female heirs were to have a heritable right. 

A55 



434 

The point was made clear in British India by the passing of the 
Hindu Gains of Learning Act. The right of a member of a joint 
family to bring about a separation of interests by a unilateral 
declaration of intention to divide was established by judicial 
decisions, but it was not sufficiently well-known. The fact had 
obviously a material bearing upon the rights of a coparcener's wife, 
daughters and other female relatives. The law on this point was 
therefore declared in clear terms in the Bill. The allotment of 
shares to female relatives was enjoined in the texts of law and was 
also in operation in certain parts of India. Although the practice 
as it existed in the past could not be restored in full, the Bill 
provided for the revival of the practice in the case of the widow, 
the mother, the unmarried daughter and the unmarried sister. In 
the matter of adoption, widows could only adopt if they were 
specially authorised by the husband or if they obtained the consent 
of the Sapindas after the husband's death, a consent which was 
naturally difficult to obtain. In the Presidency of Bombay, widows 
were presumed to have the authority to adopt except when there 
was an express prohibition. The Bill accordingly embodied this 
principle. Though, according to the Mitakshara, the term 
* Stridhana ' was meant to apply to property of every description 
belonging to a woman, the tendency of judicial decisions had been 
to exclude various items of property from its scope, particularly 
property acquired by inheritance. The result was the creation of 
what was acknowledged to be an anomalous estate known as the 
Hindu Widow's Estate, tending to the undue curtailment of 
women's rights as well as to the perpetual fostering of protracted 
and often speculative litigation. To avoid such contingencies, the 
Bill provided that estates inherited by a female from another female 
or from her husband or son or from a male relative connected by 
blood should be classed as Stridhana. As regards maintenance, the 
existing law presented some unsatisfactory features. While some 
female relatives were legally entitled to be maintained, there was 
only a moral obligation of maintenance in respect of certain others. 
The right of maintenance was often liable to be defeated by the 
collusion or improvidence of those on whom the legal obligation lay. 
The Bill therefore defined the cases in which the obligation of 



435 

maintenance was personal and those in which the obligation was 
dependent on the possession of property and also the circumstances 
entitling a wife to separate maintenance. It was further provided 
to treat the right to maintenance as a charge on property liable to 
meet it, with priority over subsequent alienations not made in good 
faith. 

Among the members of the Assembly present were two lady 
members Srimathi Kamalamma Dasappa and Srimathi Sakamma. 
The first lady member in a speech she made expressed gratitude 
for the paternal care that the Government was taking in the matter 
of securing certain rights to the womanhood of the State. At the 
same time, she brought to the notice of the Assembly that the All- 
India Women's Conference had passed resolutions to the effect that 
the recommendations of the Chandrasekhara Iyer Committee did 
not go far enough and that women wanted equal rights with men in 
the matter of inheritance. But the committee had proposed that 
only one-fourth of the property should go to the unmarried daughter. 
With reference to a querry from a member as to what special claim 
had been established by the women of Mysore for a better treatment 
in future, Srimathi Kamalamma Dasappa retorted by asking what 
particular achievements had entitled the men of Mysore to the 
superior position they were enjoying. She regretted that any 
section of the male population should take a narrow view of the 
matter, particularly at a time when every civilised country 
eastern and western was anxious to improve the position of women. 
Recent political developments in India had shown that woman was 
capable of the best services and the highest sacrifices no less than 
man. While men were fighting for their political rights in the 
shape of responsible Government, how could these self-same men 
deny women their legitimate claims in the matter of inheritance ? 
If men were not prepared to extend these rights to women, how 
could they expect their own claims for better rights and privileges 
to be recognised by others ? There was a mistaken notion in 
certain quarters that property was never safe in the hands of women. 
She asked whether there were not cases of property having been 
wasted by men. Under the Mahomedan law, women were allotted 
a share of their father's property and they had managed and enjoyed 



436 

it in the most frugal manner. Did all Mahomedan ladies mismanage 
their property ? It should be remembered, she said, that after all, 
it was only their own sisters and daughters that were going to be 
helped by the proposed legislation. Childless widows would as 
heretofore spend their property on their own brothers' and sisters' 
children. The other lady member Srimathi Sakamma was equally 
effective in the part she took in the debate. When the general 
principles of the Bill were put to vote, they were accepted by a 
large majority, only four or five voting on the other side. 

The Bill was next introduced in the Legislative Council and 
passed through the usual stages. *Mr. S. P. Rajagopalachar, 
Member of the State Council who was in charge of the Bill, stated 
on the 19th December 1932 when the Bill had reached its final 
stage that the Select Committee which considered the Bill had not 
made any important changes and its report was practically 
unanimous. " I lay stress on the fact," said Mr. Rajagopalachar, 
" that it was found possible to produce an agreed report on such a 
controversial Bill for two reasons. It indicates, in the first place, 
that all aspects of the subject have been fully considered. 
Secondly, in matters of social legislation as in the Bill before us, it 
is better to carry the largest amount of informed public opinion 
with us. It is not meant, of course, that every shade of opinion or 
objection should be listened to, but it is essential that the broad 
outlines of the legislation should find general acceptance." At 
this stage a petition from the President, Mysore State Women's 
Conference, dated 13th December 1932, was placed before the 
Council asking for larger privileges and suggesting the postpone- 
ment of the consideration of the Bill. The petition was read and 
recorded. The Bill with only a few modifications was ultimately 
passed by the Legislative Council and subsequently received the 
assent of His Highness the Maharaja. It came into force from 
1st January 1934. 



CHAPTER LII. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

Visit of Lord Willingdon to Mysore Aberration of 
the Article 18 of the Treaty of 1913 Death of the 
Maharani, late Regent. 

Lord Willingdon, the Governor-General, with Lady Willingdon 
visited the Mysore State in December 1933. Prior to this visit, he had 
visited Mysore on no less than five occasions when he was Governor 
of Madras and was therefore thoroughly well acquainted with the 
internal conditions and progress of the State. A State Banquet was 
given by the Maharaja on the 4th December and in proposing the 
health of his distinguished guest, His Highness referred to Lord 
Willingdon as being entitled to a warm welcome not only as the 
chief representative of the British Crown in India but also as an 
old and sincere friend of the State of Mysore. His Highness also 
referred to His Excellency's visit occurring at a time of much 
importance in the history of India, when all were looking forward 
to a great advance in the system of administration and meanwhile, 
were full of admiration for the success that had attended His 
Excellency's policy of firmness and conciliation. " There are no 
people in the world," continued His Highness, " who by nature and 
tradition are more peace-loving, contented and responsive than 
the people of India. There is no one who is more anxious to 
do all that is humanly possible for the furtherance of the well-being 
of the people committed to his charge than Your Excellency. Your 
utter sincerity, your earnest desire to do the best you can for the 
country you love regardless of all personal consequences are well 
recognise.! and deeply appreciated. And I feel sure that when the 
time comes for you to leave these shores, you will leave them 
amidst the applause of a grateful people and with the consciousness 
of having cemented those bonds of mutual esteem and interest 
which alone can hold your country and mine permanently 
together." 

Lord Willingdon, in answering the toast after paying the usual 
compliments, proceeded to speak on political and pther connected 



438 

matters. " Your Highness has remarked that my visit is made at a 
time of great importance in the history of India. Your Highness 
is also well aware that the goal which we have set before ourselves 
is not exactly approached by a road strewn with roses all the way. 
Nevertheless, the determination of His Majesty's Government and 
the Government of India to achieve that large advance to which 
Your Highness refers, remains and will remain unshaken. This great 
country has but recently passed through times as grave and fraught 
with anxiety as any in its long history, times which are still not 
free from anxiety owing to the economic depression which still hangs 
over us. And although signs are not wanting that happier days are 
in sight, he would be a bold man who would prophesy that India is 
more than at the threshold of that period of peace which is so 
essential for her recovery and progress. But whatever troubles 
India may have had to face, she has had friends and supporters 
staunch and true, and none more constant in loyalty and devotion 
to the British Crown than Your Highness. The active co-operation 
of Your Highness 1 Government has been of material assistance to 
my Government and I am glad to have this opportunity of 
sincerely thanking Your Highness for the very real services which 
Mysore has rendered during the past troublous years. 

" The record of progress of your State since my last visit 
eleven years ago is certainly remarkable. Those years have not 
been happy ones in the histories of the nations and they have closed 
in an economic crisis of the first magnitude. It was impossible 
that Mysore should escape altogether the worldwide depression. 
That she should have been able, despite it, to continue to develop 
her industries and provide for the welfare of her people in the way 

she has done must compel the admiration of all observers 

Of the varied and interesting programme that you have prepared 
for me, there is no item that I look forward to with greater antici- 
pation than my visit to the Krishnarajasagara I have good 

reason to know that it was entirely the friendly co-operation shown 
by Your Highness and your Government with the neighbouring 
Presidency of Madras that secured the successful development of 
the Mettur Project which by impounding ninety-thousand million 



439 

cubic feet of water will, it is hoped, bring prosperity hitherto 
undreamed of to the ryots in that part of the Presidency of Madras. 

Your Highness has not failed to realise the necessity of 

providing facilities for rapid transport and there are, I am told, 
450 miles of railway worked by the State. I can well appreciate 
Your Highness 1 anxiety to link by railway the southern portion of 
Mysore with the adjoining districts of the Madras Presidency, but 
as Your Highness knows well, there are certain difficulties in this 
connection which have so far prevented Your Highness from 
realising this long-cherished and most admirable ambition. But I 
trust that in the future when circumstances are more favourable, a 
means of surmounting these difficulties may be found. The 
industries of Mysore are so numerous that I can do no more than 
express my admiration for the energy and skill with which in the 
face of economic depression they have been and are still being 
developed. One such outstanding instance is the Sugar Factory 
now nearing completion at Mandya. It is my sincere hope that the 
labours of the Tariff Board which are even now engaging the 
serious attention of my Government will result in restoring 

prosperity to your silk and iron industries In 1923 Lord 

Reading referred to the charter which inaugurated great constitu- 
tional changes in your State. The confidence which Your Highness 
has reposed in your subjects has been more than justified by the 
passing of the years. The maintenance of that standard of 
administration which was handed over to your revered father in 
1881 has been a matter of satisfaction to the successive Viceroys, 
and I am glad to be able to give signal proof of the recognition of 
this high standard by the British Government by announcing that 
in response to Your Highness* wishes the restrictions imposed by 
Article 18 of the Treaty of 1913 on legislation by Your Highness* 
Government have now been removed. 

" Your Highness has referred to the remission of those portions 
of Mysore revenues that now form a contribution to the Imperial 
Exchequer. It will be remembered that the Davidson Committee 
who visited your State in February 1932 have recommended that 
all such contributions should as soon as possible be abolished A 



440 

reference to those recommendations will be found in paragraph 61 
of the Introduction to the White Paper. The question is, in fact, 
among those which are now engaging the attention of His Majesty's 
Government and I can assure Your Highness that my Government 
will not cease to give the matter its earnest and sympathetic 
consideration. As Your Highness is aware, the position is 
complicated by the economic depression which has affected the 
rest of India no less than Mysore. I can only express the hope 
that before long the general financial situation will materially 
improve and that Your Highness may be relieved of your anxieties 
over this matter. 

" The question of the retrocession of a portion of the Civil and 
Military Station of Bangalore to which Your Highness has referred 
is under examination by the officers of my Government, and 1 hope 
that by patience and goodwill it may be settled to the satisfaction 
alike of my Government and of Your Highness. 

" Federation is a word that is on everybody's lips to-day. 
That it will come I am confident, that it will come and I look to 
see Mysore play a leading part in the destinies of the new India a 
part she is well qualified to play by her traditions and her long and 
distinguished history, no less than by her capacity for administra- 
tion and by the fact that she has as her Ruler one of the most 
enlightened and broad-minded Princes in India." 

Death of the Maharani, late Regent. 

This sad event occurred on the 8th July 1934 and there was a 
spontaneous outburst of grief throughout the State and even abroad. 
She was held in high esteem and affectionate reverence by all classes 
of people for her great devotion, both during the period of her 
Regency and ever afterwards, to every cause that was in the 
interests of the people. At the Dasara Session of the Represen- 
tative Assembly held on the 19th October 1934 the Dewan, 
Sir Mirza Ismail, referred to the demise of Her Highness in 
these words : " In addressing you this afternoon it is my sad duty, 
in the first place, to refer to the great loss which His Highness the 
Maharaja and the State have sustained in the death in July last of 



441 

His Highness 1 revered mother, Her Highness Sri Vani Vilas 
Sannidhana, who passed away before completing the allotted span 
of years. On the death of His late Highness at the early age of 
thirty-one, the responsibility for the guidance of the State during 
the minority of her son devolved upon Her Highness and she 
conducted the affairs of the State as Regent for nearly eight years 
with much success and to the great admiration of all. To the end 
of her life she took the keenest interest in all that concerned the 
welfare of Mysore, and especially of its women. Her Highness 
was distinguished, not by any desire to enter into public affairs, but 
by her kindliness, generosity and womanly sympathy with all classes, 
poor and rich, and these qualities endeared her to all her people. 
I know I am voicing the sentiment of all Hon'ble Members in 
giving expression to our sense of the irreparable loss suffered by 
His Highness the Maharaja and his people and in conveying to 
Their Highnesses the Maharaja and the Yuvaraja the loyal and 
sincere condolences of this House." It need not be stated that the 
members of the Assembly all joined the Dewan in mourning for the 
loss of so notable a figure as the late Maharani- Regent. 

The Sri Vani Yilas Hospital for Women and Children in 
Bangalore opened by His Highness the Maharaja in March 1935 
and the Sri Vani Vilas Bridge across the Kapini opened by the 
Hon'ble Sir Frank Noyce in November 1935 form fitting additions 
to the many monuments already existing throughout the State 
perpetuating her honoured name. 



CHAPTER Lilt. 

Krishnaraja Wodcyar IV. 

Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms Constitution of the 
Chamber of Princes The Butler Commission and its 
Report. 

After the conclusion of the German War, the British 
Government decided to adopt a new policy in relation to British 
India and the Indian States. Edwin Montagu, Secretary of State 
for India, announced in the House of Commons on the 20th August 
1917 that it was intended to increase the association of Indians in 
every branch of the administration and gradually to develop self- 
governing institutions for the progressive realisation of responsible 
Government in India as an integral part of the British Empire. A 
further announcement was also made that in order to have a free 
and informal exchange of opinions on the subject, the Secretary of 
State was himself visiting India. 

Shortly after, Montagu arrived in India and a joint investiga- 
tion by him and Lord Chelmsford the Viceroy was carried out by 
touring in all parts of the country and a joint report was submitted 
by them to Parliament. In 1919 a new Government of India Act 
was passed by Parliament. 

Prior to 1919, there was no defined and authoritative distribu- 
tion of business between the Central Government and the 
Governments of the British Indian Provinces. The Government of 
India was responsible for the whole country and necessarily kept 
certain classes of business in its own hands such as the Army, 
Relations with Asiatic countries and with most of the Indian 
States. It also controlled Currency and Exchange, Public Debts, 
Tariffs, Post Office, Telegraph and Railways. In certain spheres 
such as Education, Police, Land Revenue, Public Health, the 
Government of India shared responsibility with the Provincial 
Governments. The Central Government was prior to 1919, more 
or less, a closely compacted official machine and generally 
autocratic. The Parliamentary Act of 1919 introduced a demarca- 



443 

tion of business between the Central and Provincial Governments 
and entrusted to the latter full control over certain subjects 
comprised within their sphere of action. New Legislative Councils 
were set up in all the major Provinces on a unicameral and triennial 
basis, elected for the greater part on a general franchise from 
territorial constituencies. In these Councils the element of res* 
ponsibility was restricted to certain specified subjects, thereby 
creating what was called a dyarchical form of Government 
designating some departments of Government as ' Transferred ', 
while others were regarded as ' Reserved '. At the Centre a 
bi-cameral Legislature was set up in which the Upper and the 
Lower Houses, namely, the Council of State and the Legislative 
Assembly were each given a majority of elected members with 
powers as to legislation, finance and interpellation, but without the 
power to change the executive government which remained solely 
responsible to the Governor-General and through him to the 
Secretary of State and Parliament. 

With regard to the Native States, the powers of the Govern- 
ment of India were obviously not so wide as those over the 
Provincial Governments. No doubt the British Crown was 
regarded as possessing general supremacy over the Native States 
on the ground that the security which the Ruling Princes enjoyed 
was due ultimately to the protecting power of the British 
Government. In Lord Reading's words, where imperial interests 
were concerned or the general welfare of the people of the State 
was seriously or grievously affected, the ultimate responsibility for 
taking remedial action rested with the Paramount Power. 

The Princes were fully aware of their obligations to the 
Paramount Power. But their anxiety lay in other directions. 
They found that a body of political usage was gradually growing 
up based on the precedents and rulings of the Political Department 
of the Government of India which were often in conflict with 
their rights as secured to them by their treaties. The financial 
and economic relations between British India and the Indian 
States were vague and various fiscal burdens were also found 
indirectly thrown on the States without their having any 



voice in the matter. Indeed, shortly after Montagu's pronounce- 
ment in the Parliament, Sir M. Visvesvaraya who was then 
Dewan of Mysore took occasion at the Dasara Session of the 
Representative Assembly held in October of the same year to 
observe that the Native States had a direct interest in the reforms 
proposed for British India, the subjects of Indian States being 
affected quite as much as the people of British India, especially 
in questions connected with Currency, Fiscal and Commercial 
Autonomy, Salt duties, Emigration, Army, Navy and Foreign 
Affairs and he claimed on that score an effective voice for the 
States in the Councils of the Empire. * 

The Montagu -Chelmsford Report conceded, as a result of the 
enquiries made, the claim of the Indian States for a share in the 
deliberations of the Government of India in matters such as those 
referred to by the Dewan of Mysore. The Report also contained 
a recommendation for the creation of a Chamber of Princes as a 
permanent consultative body. Accordingly in 1920 a Chamber of 
this kind was inaugurated in which the leading Princes were 
made members in their own right, while the rest elected their 
representatives. The inauguration ceremony was performed by 
the Duke of Connaught in February 1921 and the Royal Proclama- 
tion then read formally marked the abandonment of the policy of 
isolation of the Princes from the Central Government of the 
country. It may be noted here that Lord Chelmsford had before 
the Act of 1919 was passed, adopted the policy of establishing 
direct relations with all the Indian States instead of several of 
them remaining under the political control of the Provincial 
Governments. 

The Act of 1919, however, was regarded by several of the 
Princes as further adding to their anxiety and they desired to know 
whether in case a self-governing constitution was given to British 
India or for India as a whole, this new constitution was to have 
the conduct of the political relations which existed between them 
and the Government of India and what safeguards there would be 
for their sovereignty or in other words, whether the States would 
continue as before to deal with the Governor- General in Council 



445 

who was responsible to the Government in England or whether 
their relations were to he transferred to the executive government 
responsible to the Indian Legislature. The Government of India 
appreciating the point of view from which the Princes looked at 
the proposed reforms undertook a revision of the methods of 
carrying on political business with them, especially in relation 
to their treaty rights, and the same Government also started a 
codification of political practices as they existed both in the 
Government of India Secretariat as well as outside in consultation 
with the Standing Committee of the Chamber of Princes. A 
special committee was also appointed by the Secretary of State for 
India with Sir Harcourt Butler as chairman to report, firstly, upon 
the relationship between the Paramount Power and the Indian 
States with particular reference to the rights and obligations 
arising from treaties, engagements, sannads, usage or other causes, 
secondly, to enquire into the financial and economic relations 
existing between British India and the States and lastly, to make 
any recommendations that they deemed advisable or necessary for 
a more satisfactory adjustment of all such relations for the future. 

This special committee first assembled at Delhi in the middle 
of January 1928 and held informal conferences and consultations 
with the Government of India and with the Indian Princes and 
their ministers. They also visited some ot the larger and more 
important States including Mysore. The members of the 
committee sailed from Bombay for England and reached London 
in the early part of May. Several of the Princes also led by the 
Maharaja of Patiala, Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes, visited 
England and presented their case before the special committee 
through Sir Leslie Scott whom they employed as their legal 
adviser. The Mysore State was not represented by any counsel 
but sent a separate reply of its own to the questionnaire issued by 
the committee, as also did Hyderabad and a number of other States. 
The representations of the counsel on behalf of the Princes in 
England sought to establish the defectiveness of the political 
machinery as it then existed on some main points. In the first 
place, it gave the States no share in the determination of policy 



446 

affecting their relations with the Paramount Power as well as in 
matters of mutual concern to them and to British India and in the 
next place, it provided no impartial method of arriving at decisions 
when differences arose between them and the British Government 
or when questions arose regarding the proper interpretation of their 
treaties. 

The Butler Committee completed their report in 1929. They 
were of opinion that Paramountcy vested in the Crown and that it 
was difficult to devise a proper formula that would define its scope. 
Paramountcy must, they said, be paramount in the interests of the 
Princes themselves. This committee also recognised that the 
policy of discriminating protection adopted by the Government of 
India had raised the revenue from maritime customs from 5 to 
nearly 50 crores of rupees, thereby reducing the taxable capacity of 
the subjects of the States and created a situation in which the 
States were entitled for relief. 



CHAPTER LIV. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 
The Simon Commission. 

The dyarchic from of government established by the 
Parliamentary Act of 1919 did not tend to allay the political dis- 
content that prevailed at the time in India ; on the other hand, the 
demand for a unified form of responsible government grew in volume 
from year to year. Section 84 A of the Parliamentary Act provided 
for the appointment of a Commission within a period of 10 years 
after the passing of the Act for the purpose of investigating how 
far further it was desirable to extend the degree of responsible 
government and to what extent there was growth of education and 
the development of responsible institutions in British India. 
Towards the close of 1927 the Government in England appointed a 
Commission the head of which was Sir John Simon. This 
Commission paid two visits to India, the first lasting from 3rd 
February 1928 to 31st March of the same year and the second from 
llth October 1928 to 13th April 1929. 

As this Statutory Commission approached the final stages of 
its work, it felt that without taking account of the Indian States 
into consideration , no satisfactory solution of the problem of the 
Indian constitution was possible. Sir John Simon, the chairman of 
the Commission, pointed out in a letter dated 16th October 1929 to 
the Prime Minister in England, Mr. Ramsay Macdonald, that 
whatever might be the scheme which Parliament would ultimately 
approve for the future constitution and governance of British India, 
it was essential that the methods by which the future relationship 
between these two constituent parts of Greater India might be 
adjusted should be fully examined. Sir John Simon further said 
that it was clear that the Commission could not ignore the reactions 
of the presence of the States on the problem it was studying in 
British India, or the possible repercussions on the former of any 
recommendations it might make regarding the latter, and suggested 
that a conference of the representatives of both British India as 



448 

well as of Native States might be called to consider them before the 
final proposals of His Majesty's Government were submitted to 
Parliament. The Prime Minister on behalf of the British Govern- 
ment accepted this suggestion and indicated that after the Simon 
Report was received and considered in consultation with the 
Government of India, His Majesty's Government would hold a 
conference in London to which representatives of British India and 
of the Indian States would be invited to discuss with them all the 
problems relating to the future reforms. 

Long before the appointment of* the Simon Commission, 
Sir M. Visvesvaraya had urged, as we have seen, the claim of the 
Indian States for a voice in the Councils of the Central Government 
regarding the common concerns of India as a whole. In 1926 Sir 
Mirza Ismail when he met the Representative Assembly for the 
first time as Dewan at its Birthday Session was equally explicit. 
The question of the position of the Indian States formed, with other 
matters of common interest, the subject of discussion at an 
informal conference held at Bikaner in August 1926 at which 
the Dewan of Mysore also was present. At the Dasara Session 
of the Representative Assembly in the same year Sir Mirza 
Ismail made a very clear pronouncement on this subject 
which may be quoted : " With the gradual development of self- 
government in India, the problem of the position of the Indian 
States enters upon a new phase and India's prosperity and progress 
depend in a large measure upon a right solution of this problem. 
In Mysore, we desire no voice in the internal affairs of British 
India and seek for ourselves complete autonomy in such affairs, 
subject to the suzerainty of the British Crown. Details of relation- 
ship will change with the changing times. Economically, however, 
no Indian State can stand in isolation. Economic union is 
becoming a world policy making for the mutual understanding of 
nations and their co-operation in all things. In this world-wide 
movement India is destined to play an important part and one of 
increasing responsibility and power. She cannot but develop the 
same policy within her borders, gradually breaking down both 
.barriers and distinctions in economic matters. I believe that such 



449 

an effort will work more strongly towards political unity than the 
immediate planning of any political federation. For it will bring a 
living unity of purpose and action, out of which political unity will 
naturally and fitly arise." Again at the Birthday Session of the 
Assembly in June 1929, the Dewan acknowledged that the spirit of 
the times and the inexorable logic of events were tending inevitably 
to bring the two parts of India together both economically and 
politically. There was no doubt, he said, that the trend of events 
was towards a political federation, but that such a federation could 
only endure if it was based on the sure foundation of common 
ideals and mutual interests. While Mysore was quite 
prepared, he further said, to join any well-devised scheme 
of Federation which would ensure her share in the settlement of 
common questions, she could however well afford to wait upon 
events. 

The Statutory Commission completed their report and presented 
it to His Majesty's Government in May 1930. Their recommen- 
dation mainly was that in the British Provinces the dyarchic system 
should be discarded and the work of government entrusted entirely 
to ministers, making however certain reservations in respect of law 
and order and suggesting certain safeguards also. As regards the 
federation of British India and the Indian States, the Commission 
agreed that the ultimate constitution of India must be federal. For 
it was only in a federal constitution that units differing so widely in 
constitution as the British Provinces and the States could be 
brought together while retaining their internal autonomy. A 
number of considerations weighed with the Commission in arriving 
at this conclusion. In the first place, there was, according to the 
Commission, an essential geographical unity in diversity in the 
Indian peninsula regarded as a whole. Next, there was a political 
unity also as policies entered upon in one sphere had their 
repercussions on the other. The political boundaries that separated 
the Indian States from British India were only imaginary lines and 
that popular movements on one side of these lines could not be 
prevented from spreading into the other. Thirdly, the economic 
forces were such that the States and British India must stand or 
fall together, as there was a serious possibility that unless provision 



450 

could be made for the reconciliation of divergent interests the 
number of tariff walls would be perpetuated in an area where fiscal 
unity was most desirable. Fourthly, there were the common 
needs for consideration of both the spheres, as there were few 
subjects which formed the field of activity of a Central Govern- 
ment in India which did not interest also the Indian States ; for 
example, the Defence of India. Lastly, there was the increasing 
growth of a sense of unity among the people of India as a whole 
leading to an acuter sense of common nationhood. But the 
Commission regarded Federation as a distant goal and contented 
themselves by merely observing that the new constitution should 
provide an open door whereby when it seemed good to them, the 
Princes might enter on just and reasonable terms. 

There was widespread criticism of the report in British India 
for its denial of responsibility in the Central Government. There 
was equal dissatisfaction in the States that no satisfactory solution 
had been found to remedy the disadvantages under which they were 
placed. While the Government of India made some effort to 
disarm the criticism in British India of irresponsibility in the 
Centre by an amplification in their despatch to the Secretary of 
State dated 20th September 1930 the plan contained in the Simon 
Report, they at the same time fully accepted the opinion of the 
Commission regarding an AH- India Federation as only a distant 
ideal. The time had not yet come, they said, when the general 
body of Indian States would be prepared to take a step so far- 
reaching in its character as to enter into any formal federal 
relations with British India. 



CHAPTER LV. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV* 

Conference at Bangalore preliminary to the Round 
Table Conference. 

The visit of the Simon Commission, as has been already said, 
did not rouse much enthusiasm in India on account of the absence 
of any Indian representatives on that body. There was considerable 
distrust and suspicion regarding the objects of this Commission 
also. To revive confidence and as far as possible to dispel suspicion, 
Lord Irwin the Viceroy within a few days of his return to India 
after a visit to England on leave made a statement with the 
authority of the Government in England on the 31st October 1929 
and the essential points of this statement were : (l) the recognition 
that the natural goal of Indian political aspirations was the 
attainment of Dominion Status ; (2) a promise that, after the 
Statutory Commission had reported, Indian political opinion would 
be consulted before any new Government of India Bill was placed 
before Parliament. On the 9th July 1930 the Viceroy addressed 
members of both Houses of the Indian Legislature and referring to 
the Round Table Conference proposed to be held in London stated 
that the conference would be free, irrespective of the Simon Report 
or of any other document, to approach its task in order to reach a 
solution that both England and India and all parties and interests 
in them could honourably accept, and any such agreement at which 
the conference was able to arrive would form the basis of the 
proposals which His Majesty's Government would later submit to 
Parliament. 

It was arranged that the first Round Table Conference should 
meet in London on 12th November 1930. The conference was to 
consist of 16 British delegates representing all political parties in 
Parliament, 15 delegates from the Indian States and 51 from 
British India. Among the delegates from the Indian States were 
10 Ruling Princes the Maharajas of Alwar, Baroda, Bikaner, 
Jammu a&d Kashmir, Nawangar, Patiata an<4 Rewa, Rang, of 



452 

Dholpur, Nawab of Bhopal, the Chief of Sangli and six ministers 
from Native States among whom was Sir Mirza Ismail, Dewan of 
Mysore. Among the 57 British Indian delegates from all parts of 
the country there were two ladies, namely, Mrs. Subbaroyan from 
Madras and Begum Shah Nawaz from the Punjab. Sir Mirza 
Ismail represented not only the State of Mysore but also the States 
of Travancore, Cochin and Pudukota. 

On the invitations from the Viceroy reaching the delegates 
who were to represent India, Sir Mirza Ismail issued invitations to 
a number of important persons to meet at .Bangalore to consider the 
subjects which were likely to be discussed in London. The 
conference met at the new Legislative Council Chamber in the 
public offices and lasted for two clays on the 19th and 20th August 
1930. There were present at the conference H. H. the young 
Maharaja of Travancore, the Raja of Sandur, Dewan Bahadur 
SirT. Raghavaiya (Pudukota), Mr. A. C. Dutt, I.C.S., Dewan of 
Travancore and Mr. T. S. Narayana Iyer, Dewan of Cochin, from 
outside the State and a large number of representative persons 
from inside the State which included members of the Represen- 
tative Assembly and members of the Legislative Council, publicists 
of note, Sir K. P. Puttanna Chetty, Sir Charles Todhunter, 
Private Secretary to the Maharaja of Mysore, and Dewan Bahadur 
P. Raghavendra Rao, ex- Member of the State Council. 
Sir Mirza Ismail who presided at the meeting explained that they 
had assembled for the purpose of taking counsel together regarding 
the attitude to be adopted and the proposals to be made at the 
Round Table Conference by the Indian States in general and the 
South Indian States in particular. Referring to the Simon Report 
which had been received with mistrust in India, Sir Mirza said that 
though there were many things in it with which he did not agree, 
yet it had to be admitted that it was a weighty production which it 
would be unwise to discuss in a hasty spirit of prejudice, nor was 
it fair and reasonable on the part of the Indians to expect the 
British Government to ignore a report which had been prepared by 
seven distinguished members of Parliament representing all parties 
and which was regarded by their countrymen as a great essay in 



453 

const ituti on -making worthy of the closest study and destined to 
rank as a State document of historic importance. Sir Mirza next 
referred to the three major problems which, in his opinion, India 
had to solve before she could hope to attain complete self- 
government the problem of the British community, the Hindu- 
Muslim question and the problem of the States. Referring to the 
Indian States, he expressed that they were the custodians of the 
ancient learning and culture of India and that they were developing 
towards a form of constitutional monarchy, though it had to be 
acknowledged that some States were still far in the rear in 
constitutional progress. Referring to the proposal of the Simon 
Commission regarding the federation of India, Sir Mirza said that 
he differed from the Commission when they opined that the vision 
of a federal India was a distant ambition. On the other hand, it was 
quite possible, he said, that the march of events could be made 
more rapid by the immediate reorganisation of the Council of 
State on an All- India basis by enlarging it and including re- 
presentatives from the Indian States. He was further in favour of 
the immediate establishment of a Supreme Court as the States 
had a specicil interest in the institution of a tribunal that should 
have powers to decide justiciable matters at issue between 
themselves and the Government of India and the Provinces, or even 
between the different States themselves. Another matter of 
importance to which Sir Mirza referred was the equitable adjust- 
ment of financial relations between the States and British India 
and the just appraisment of their claims. 

When the informal conference concluded on the 20th August 
1930 after eliciting the opinions of those present, Sir Mirza in 
winding up the proceedings said that there was general agreement 
as regards the necessity for a closer association of the States with 
British India for common purposes by entering an All- India 
legislature in the shape of the Council of State. There was also 
agreement that the States should have the fullest possible measure 
of autonomy in their internal affairs, though in practice the degree 
of autonomy depended largely on the system of administration in a 
State, and it was clear that the mpre constitutionally a State was 



434 

governed the less justification or likelihood there would be for 
intervention on the part of the Paramount Power in its domestic 
concerns. Another matter on which also there was general agreement 
was that so far as British India was concerned, it was desirable that 
an element of responsibility should be introduced at the Centre if the 
constitution was to work satisfactorily and to enjoy an adequate 
measure of confidence and support from the people. A constitution 
which provided full autonomy in the Provinces, responsibility at 
the Centre (subject to such transitional safeguards as might be 
unavoidable), and a closer association between British India and 
the States in matters of common concern would, Sir Mirza hoped, 
be the result of the Round Table Conference. As far as the 
delegates from the Indian States were concerned, he gave the 
assurance that they would appear before the British people, not so 
much only as representatives of the States, still less as representing 
any particular State, but as Indians desiring for their common 
Motherland a position of honour among the nations constituting the 
British Commonwealth, all united in allegiance to the Crown. 

Sir Mirza Ismail sailed for London from Bombay on the 6th 
September 1930, Mr. M. N. Krishna Rao (afterwards Sir), First 
Member of the State Council, taking his place for the time being. 



CHAPTER LVI. 

Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

The First Round Table Conference. 

The first Indian Round Table Conference was inaugurated by 
His Majesty the King- Emperor, George V, in the Royal Gallery 
of the House of Lords on the 12th November 1930 and remained 
in session till January 19th 1931. In opening the conference and 
in offering a welcome to the members, His Majesty said: 

u More than once has the sovereign summoned historic 

assemblies on the soil of India, but never before have British and 
Indian statesmen and Rulers of Indian States met, as you now 
meet, in one place and round one table, to discuss the future system 
of government for India and seek agreement for the guidance of 
my Parliament as to the foundations upon which it must stand. 
Nearly ten years ago, in a message to my Indian Legislature I 
dwelt upon the significance of its establishment in the constitutional 
progress of India. Ten years is but a brief span in the life of any 
nation, but this decade has witnessed, not only in India but 
throughout all the nations forming the British Commonwealth, a 
quickening and growth in ideals and aspirations of nationhood 
which defy the customary measurement of time. It should there- 
fore be no matter of surprise to the men of this generation that, as 
was then contemplated, it should have become necessary to 
estimate and review the results of what was begun ten years ago 
and to make further provision for the future. Such a review has 
been lately carried out by the Statutory Commission appointed by 
me for the purpose and you will have before you the outcome of 
their labours, together with other contributions which have been or 
can be made to the solution of the great problem confronting you. 
No words of mine are needed to bring home to you the momentous 
character of the task to which you have set your hands. Each one 
of you will, with me, be profoundly conscious how much depends 
for the whole of the British Commonwealth on the issue of your 
consultations. This community of interest leads me to count it as 
of happy augury that there should be present to-day the represents^ 



456 

tives of my Governments in all the sister-States of that 

Commonwealth I cannot doubt that the true foundation 

of self-government is in the fusion of divergent claims into mutual 
obligations and in their recognition and fulfilment. It is my hope 
that the future government of India based on this foundation will 
give expression to her honourable aspirations." 

After the King left the Royal Gallery, on the proposal of the 
Maharaja of Patiala, the Prime Minister Mr. Ramsay Macdonald 
was appointed chairman of the Conference. Mr. Ramsay Mac- 
donald said, among other things, that the association of the Princes 
for the first time in joint conclave with the representatives of the 
people of British India was symbolical of the gradual moulding 
together of India into one whole. Referring to the British Indian 
delegates, the Prime Minister said that though he was mindful of 
India's different communities, languages and interests, at the same 
time he was also aware of the quickening and unifying influences 
which had grown up irresistibly from her contact with Great 
Britain and also of the aspirations for a united India which were in 
the minds of her philosophers and rulers before the first English 
trader set foot on her shores. The simple fact that the Indians had 
come to their country to sit at one table with the set and sole 
purpose of India's advancement within the companionship of the 
Commonwealth was in itself an undeniable sign of progress 
towards that end and also an inspiring challange to reach 
agreement. 

With the appointment of a committee to advise the conference 
on the conduct of business, the session adjourned to the 17th 
November. On that day the conference met at St. James' Palace 
and there was a general discussion on the question whether the 
future constitution of India was to be on a federal or unitary basis. 
Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru was the first speaker and in an able and 
lucid speech he stated that in his opinion a federal form of govern- 
ment for India was most acceptable. Sir Tej Bahadur further said 
that never before was India governed by agents and sub-agents as 
it was being done at present and even Mahomedans who came as 
invaders soon settled down in the country and became part and 



457 

parcel of the Indian social system. The system established by the 
British however was that of Parliamentary Sovereignty, sovereignty 
exercised by some 600 and odd members of Parliament on behalf 
of a population of 45 millions over 320 millions of people living 
6000 miles away from England. Ordinary members of Parliament 
had neither the necessary time, nor the necessary capacity, nor the 
necessary vision to understand the mind or feelings of India, and 
the Secretary of State, however distinguished he was, was one of 
those 600 men and necessarily had to depend upon the advice of 
men in the India Office. The Civil Servants might be entitled to 
considerable regard, but while they could be very good servants, at 
the same time they were very bad masters. Thus it came down to 
the sovereignty of half a dozen men in England and half a dozen 
men in India and that was how the theory of Parliamentary 
Sovereignty worked out. It was therefore natural for India to seek 
freedom within her own borders as an integral part of the British 
Commonwealth of Nations. What India wanted and was 
determined to achieve was a status of equality with the other 
members of the British Commonwealth an equality which would 
give it a government not merely responsive to but responsible to 
the popular voice. It would not do for the British Government 
merely to offer Provincial Autonomy, unless it was coupled 
with a decided and clear change in the constitution of the 
Central Government made responsible to the legislature. At 
that stage it might no doubt well be asked what was to 
be the relation of that responsible Central Government 
to the Provinces and to the States. This question gave 
rise to a further question whether the constitution was to be of a 
federal or of any other character. The Indian Princes were every 
inch as patriotic as any others and Sir Tej Bahadur's appeal to 
them was that their vision should not be confined only to that part 
of India which formed their territories, but that they should move 
forward with the vision of India as one whole, each part of which 
might be autonomous and might enjoy absolute independence 
within its own borders, regulated by proper relations with the rest. 
If there was agreement as regards responsibility in the Centre, it 
was inevitable that a federal form of government afforded the best 

A58 



458 

solution. The association of Indian States with British India was 
to be welcomed for three reasons: 1. The States would furnish a 
stabilising factor in the constitution 2. they would begin the 
process of unification at once and 3. they would furnish a practical 
experience in matters of defence which was wanting in British 
India. There might be difficulties in the way of the introduction of 
responsibility in the Central Government in connection with Law 
and Order, European interests, Commerce, Finance, Army and a 
few other subjects. But these difficulties were, however, to be faced 
and not regarded as insurmountable. 

% 

The next speaker was the Maharaja Sir Ganga Singh ji of 
Bikaner who caused a dramatic surprise by declaring the adherence 
of the Princes in general to the scheme of Federation so enthusias- 
tically urged by Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru. In connection with the 
inquiries of the Butler Committee, the attitude of several of the 
Princes in employing a counsel on their behalf to put forward their 
side of the case before the committee appeared, said the Maharaja, 
to have caused misgivings regarding the reforms, which however 
were as much desired in the Indian States as in British India. 
This clear pronouncement by the Bikaner Maharaja regarding 
Federation was acceptable both to the British Government as well 
as to the inhabitants of the States. His speech dispelled the 
illusion that the Indian Princes were speaking only for themselves 
and their dynastic interests and it became clear that they fully 
deserved the compliment paid to them by Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru 
that the present-day Princes were Indians first and Princes after- 
wards. The Maharaja spoke on a variety of topics which need not 
all be referred to here. But a few extracts relating to the 
establishment of a Federal Government in India may be given here 
to understand the angle of vision of the Princes regarding 

Federation. " My own conviction is that if we are to 

build well and truly, we must recognise that associated with its 
geographical unity India is a land of some diversity. Our starting- 
point must be sought not in the dead hand of an impossible 
uniformity but in an associated diversity. For these reasons, the 
establishment of a unitary State with a sovereign Parliament sitting 



459 

at Delhi to which the whole people would look in small things as in 
large is to my mind impossible. There would be no room in such a 
constitution for the Indian States; moreover, such a Government 

would crack under its own imponderability We of the 

Indian States are willing to take our part in and make our contri- 
bution to the greater prosperity and contentment of India as a 
whole. I am convinced that we can best make that contribution 
through a Federal system of Government composed of the States 
and British India. These two partners are of different status. 
The Indian States are already sovereign and autonomous of right 
having the honour of being linked with the Crown by means of 
treaties ' of perpetual alliance and friendship ' and unity of 
interests. British India derives whatever measure of authority it 
may possess by devolution. But it will not be beyond the wealth 
of experience available at this Table to devise a means of linking 
these differing units into a powerful Federal administration. As to 
the question whether if a Federal Government is devised for India 
the Princes and States will enter into association with it, the final 
answer must obviously depend on the structure of the Government 
indicated and on other points involved; such, for instance, as 
certain necessary safeguards constitutional and fiscal for the 
preservation of the rights and interests of the States and their 
subjects. Federalism is an elastic term ; there are several forms of 
Federal Government. Conditions in India are unique. We have no 
historical precedents to guide us, and the position of the Indian 
States is absolutely without parallel. All these and many other 
grave questions of policy and of detail will have to be examined 
and defined and settled first in committee and in informal discus- 
sions. But, speaking broadly, the Princes and States realise that 
an All-India Federation is likely to prove the only satisfactory 

solution of India's problem A period of transition must 

necessarily intervene before the Federal Government is fully 
constituted and Federation cannot be achieved by coercion of the 
States in any form. The Indian Princes will only come into the 
Federation of their own free will and on terms which will secure 
the just rights of their States and subjects The arrange- 
ments between the Central and Provincial Governments in British 



460 

India are matters primarily outside the purview of the Indian 
States. If our co-operation is sought, it will, I am sure, be gladly 
and freely and honestly given. Our duty is to contribute so far as 
we can to the evolution of a system of government which will lead 
to the close and effective association of the Indian States with 
British India." 

H. H. Sikander Khan, the Nawab of Bhopal, in speaking 

on the 20th November said: " I note that 

both Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru and other speakers recognise 
that nothing in a system of Federation connotes any interference 
with the internal affairs of the States, that their treaties 
with the Crown will remain unaltered unless and until modified 
by mutual consent, and that it is in matters of common 
concern hereafter to be defined by mutual agreement and 
in nothing else that Federation will be concerned. On that under- 
standing only one feature has to be added to the picture that the 
Federation shall be equal on both sides and that there can be no 
question of the status of the States being in any way subordinate to 
that of the rest of India. On those conditions I entirely agree with 

the principle of Federation A free Indian State must 

mean the disappearance of that doctrine of Paramountcy which has 
been imported contrary to our treaties into the relations beween the 
States and the Paramount Power and which has been so much in 

vogue in comparatively recent times That is one of the facts 

to be kept steadily in mind. On the other side of the case, we 
Princes have no apprehension as to how the processes at work in 
the rest of India where we must rely on democracy not being made 
a cloak for aggression will affect our peoples and we shall be con tent 
to leave it to our States to work out their own development. In 
this connection, seeing that communal troubles have bulked so 
largely in the news from India thus creating an impression that the 
country is the cockpit of warring sects and thus standing in the way 
of her aspirations, I wish to make it clear as the point has not been 
brought out hitherto that among the Princes no rift exists as 
between Muslims and Hindus and that in the Indian States 
communal tension has so rarely occurred that it can be said to be 



461 

practically non-existent. This fact brings me to a second point, 
namely, that there is nothing in our respective religions which 
should lead to such ill-will and that the reason why it has arisen in 
British India has been solely political. The various minority 
movements have exactly the same basis and equally the attitude of 
the politically-minded in India towards Great Britain which has 
demonstrated itself at times in ways which are frankly to be 
deplored is not, believe me, inspired by racial animosity but is solely 
political and as soon as the foundations of the constitution for a 
self-governing India are well and truly laid, these differences, we all 
believe, will automatically disappear. These are facts which I can 
state from personal knowledge and without risk of contradiction, 
because we Indian Princes are not isolated in our States but from 
our very position as rulers are bound to keep in touch with the 
course of events and the trend of thought in other parts of India. 
We know fully as well as the people of India represented by the 
delegates here present, and possibly more clearly than the British 
authorities, the amazing growth of the national feeling throughout 
India." 

On 20th November 1930 Sir Mirza Ismail said: " I only 
wish to say that in the opinion of the States which I am privileged 
to represent at this conference Mysore, Travancore, Cochin and 
Pudukota the time has come for a radical change in the present 
system of government in India. That is a change which seems 
equally necessary in the interests of both countries not more 
necessary for India than it is for Great Britain, Great Britain 
which is only less dear to us than our own Motherland. To my 
mind, the success of this conference will be judged mainly by this 
test how far have we been able to bring England and India closer 
together in bonds of true friendship and unity. India wants to 
remain within the Empire as an equal partner with the rest. She 
has no desire to sever her connection with Great Britain. As my 
friend Mr. Jayakar said the other day, this cry of independence is 
only a cry of despair. I would attach no importance to it save as 
an indication of the intense desire felt by the people of India 
generally for greater opportunities of self-expression and self- 
development. 



462 

" There is, I believe, general agreement with the view, both in 
this conference and outside, that the future Government of India 
should be constructed on a Federal basis. What exactly is meant 
by the term ' Federal ' in its application to the peculiar conditions 
of India will have to be discussed and determined in committee. 
That I mean the constitution of the Central Government is the 
fundamental issue before this conference. 

" By agreeing to join an All- India Federation, the Ruling 
Princes have rendered incalculable service to their Motherland at 
this most critical juncture in her history. Their attitude has 
enormously facilitated the work of this conference and has made 
the whole political problem of India more easy of a satisfactory 
solution than it would have been otherwise. I am one of those 
who entertain no doubt whatever that the Princes will never have 
any reason to regret their decision and that they and their States 
will occupy an honoured and assured position in the future councils 
of their Motherland. India is a land of many creeds and many 
communities and diverse interests ; but I believe that it is this very 
diversity that will go far to ensure the requisite stability in the 
democratic institutions that are proposed to be established in our 
country. 

" Another matter upon which we I mean the Indian section 
of the conference are agreed is that a measure of responsibility 
should be introduced at the Centre if the constitution is to work 
satisfactorily and to enjoy an adequate measure of confidence and 
support from the people. Whatever may be the risks and the 
difficulties in taking such a step and they are undoubtedly 
considerable the British Government will, we all hope, come to 
the conclusion that a solution which does not satisfy the people at 
large is no solution at all. It can neither work smoothly nor 
endure for any length of time. A constitution which provides for 
full autonomy in the Provinces, responsibility at the Centre subject 
to such transitional safeguards as may be necessary and unavoidable, 
and a close association between British India and the States in 
matters of common concern this, let us hope, may be the result of 



463 

our deliberations here, a result which, I venture to think, would 
satisfy all reasonable people in India. 

" In conclusion, I should like to assure my fellow delegates 
from British India that we of the Indian States whole-heartedly 
join with them in their appeal to the British nation to set India on 
the road to self-government. I would, at the same time, venture to 
ask my countrymen to remember I hope I shall not be misunder- 
stood, for I think I speak nothing but the obvious truth that that 
great journey cannot be accomplished successfully nor can those 
patriotic aspirations, ours as much as theirs, be fully realised except 
in company of their compatriots in the States and, may I also add, 
with the goodwill and co-operation of Great Britain." 

On the 8th January 1931 at the meeting of the Federal 
Structure sub-committee Sir Mirza elaborated his views on the 
form of Federation. The question of responsibility at the Centre, he 
said, was really the crux of the whole problem of further constitu- 
tional reforms in India and was the vital issue before the 
conference. It was because the Simon Commission's Report 
failed to recommend responsibility at the Centre and it was 
because the Government of India Despatch, too, had not 
suggested it that India was so sullen and dissatisfied. Sir 
Mirza assumed that the future Government of India would be a body 
responsible to the Legislature in all matters excepting those 
relating to Defence and Foreign and Political Relations, with such 
temporary safeguards as might be absolutely necessary in the 
interest both of Great Britain and India. In his speech which 
comprehended a number of other subjects also, Sir Mirza touched 
upon the question of tributes or subsidies that some States paid. 
Sir Bhupendranath Mitra's suggestion that if the tributes were 
abolished the States should continue to furnish a fund for meeting 
expenditure connected with the maintenance of 
and their establishments was opposed, Sir 
which brought these subsidies into 
made by Sir Bhupendranath Mitra he not onl^ 
that the tributes were not instituted for the 
political establishments, but that they were on 




464 

internal and external protection. In the future polity of India as 
the function of protection would devolve on the Government of the 
Federation of which the States would form an integral part, it was 
logically right that the tributes must disappear, their place being 
taken by contributions from the States based on grounds common 
to all Provinces and States. Lord Sankey who presided, on the 
conclusion of Sir Mirza's Speech, stated that any advice or any 
views coming from the Dewan of Mysore would receive the most 
careful consideration of all of them. 

Towards the end of the meeting, the Prime Minister read a 
declaration which contained, among other matters, a clear 
enunciation of the policy of the British Government towards India. 
His Majesty's Government, he said, had taken note of the fact that 
the deliberations of the conference had proceeded on the basis 
accepted by all parties that the Central Government should be a 
Federation of All-India embracing both the Indian States and 
British India with a bi-cameral legislature. The precise form and 
structure of the new Federal Government was to be determined 
after further discussion with the Princes and representatives of 
British India. The range of subjects to be committed to it also 
required further discussion, because the Federal Government was 
to have authority only in such matters concerning the States as 
would be ceded by their Rulers in agreements made by them on 
entering into Federation. The connection of the States with the 
Federation was to remain subject to the basic principle that in 
regard to all matters not ceded by them to the Federation their 
relations would be with the Crown acting through the agency of the 
Viceroy. With a legislature constituted on a Federal basis, His 
Majesty's Government were prepared to recognise the principle of 
responsibility of the Executive to the Legislature. 

On his return from London from the first Round Table 
Conference, Sir Mirza Ismail received an ovation from the people of 
Mysore. On the 1st June 1931 when he presided at the Birthday 
Session of the Representative Assembly at Mysore, he was accorded 
a* warm welcome by all the members present and two of them 
Mr. H. C. Dasappa and Mr. Mahomed Imam gave expression to 



465 

the feelings'of the House on the occasion. Mr. Dasappa said that 
the people of Mysore had been closely watching the discussions, 
deliberations and developments at the Round Table Conference and 
that they were pleased to find that their representative materially 
contributed to the success of the conference. The Dewan's bold 
assertion at the very outset that the Indian States would support 
the formation of a Federated India and equally his pleading for 
responsibility at the Centre should have gone a long way in 
dispelling any doubts which the British Indian delegates might 
have had about the attitude which the Indian States would take. 
The other member Mr. J. Mahomed Imam also joined 
Mr. Dasappa in supporting the welcome offered to the 
Dewan and said that in the selection of Sir Mirza Ismail as 
the representative of the South Indian States to the Round 
Table Conference they felt that the whole of Mysore was honoured. 



A so 



CHAPTER LVM. 

KrUhnaraja Wodeyar IV. 
The Second and Third Round Table Conferences. 

The second Round Table Conference which took place after 
the formation of the National Government in Great Britain 
assembled in London on 7th September 1931 and remained in 
session till 1st December of the same year. A feature of this 

conference was that Mr. Gandhi attended it as the sole accredited 

* 

representative of the Indian National Congress. Sir Mirza Ismail 
also was one of those who attended this conference. 

In October 1931 Sir Mirza Ismail presented a note which 
contained some suggestions regarding the proposed reformed 
legislature for India. According to him, the two principal organs of 
Federated India were to be a popular House known as the Federal 
Assembly and an other House known as the Federal Council. The 
Federal Assembly was to consist of representatives chosen by direct 
and indirect election, preferably by both methods, the representation 
being more or less on a population basis, the proportion of members 
from the Native States being one- third of the total strength. The 
Federal Council was to be that organ of the Federal Government 
which was to uphold the federal character of the constitution and 
was to be composed of the delegates appointed by the Governments 
of the States and Provinces at their own discretion and exclusively 
with reference to their expert knowledge, and these representatives 
were to vote and act according to the instructions they received 
from their respective Governments. The Central Government was 
also to be represented in the Federal Council in order to safeguard 
the co-operation of the supreme federal authorities and to prevent 
the various elements in the Council from working on parallel lines 
or against one another. The Federal Council was to have a 
suspensory veto on laws passed by the Federal Assembly with 
which it did not agree, but such veto was to be exercised within a 
period fixed by the constitution in which case the Federal Assembly 
was to show a qualified majority of two-thirds or three-quarters as 



467 

may be specified. Besides the right of first considering Bills when 
introduced by the Federal Executive, the Federal Council was to 
share with the Assembly the right of introducing Bills, the members 
of both the bodies having the same right. The Federal Council 
was also to be in possession of certain powers of an advisory 
nature, such as the right of demanding information regarding 
current administrative matters or legislative measures to be 
introduced, matters relating to External Relations or nominations 
to higher posts. The merits claimed for his scheme by Sir Mirza 
Ismail in the main were the moderate size of the Council allowing 
it to transact business more quickly and economically than a larger 
body could, freedom on the part of the members from party 
influences to a large extent, and avoidance as far as possible of 
conflicts between the Governments of the units and the Central 
Executive. This scheme, in Sir Mirza's opinion, had also the 
merit of allowing such States as had no individual representation of 
sending delegates to address the Council on matters in which they 
were specially interested, without however any power to vote. 

At the meeting of the Federal Structure Committee held on 
the 2nd November 1931, Sir Mirza Ismail at the desire of Lord 
Sankey the chairman added certain explanations in elucidation of 
the views he had expressed. The draft report of the Federal 
Structure Committee recognised, he said, the principle that the 
Upper Chamber in the main was to represent the federal units as 
such and spoke of its members as being in a special sense the 
representatives of the federal units. But it was obvious that it was 
only to the members from the Indian States that such a description 
could be correctly applied. The members from British India could 
not in the nature of things be regarded as the representatives of 
their provincial governments which might have changed or of their 
provincial legislatures which might have been dissolved after their 
election as members of the Upper Chamber. It was in that view, 
Sir Mirza said, that he urged the need for a second chamber 
composed exclusively of delegates selected by and representative of 
the governments of the Federation and of the units One of the 
advantages of the scheme put forward by him was that it would, he 



468 

claimed, obviate the dissimilarity of methods between British India 
and the Indian States in regard to the selection of members for at 
least one of the Houses of the Federal Legislature. The experience 
of Australia went to show the vital importance of close co-operation 
and concerted action on the part of the Governments of the 
federated units in all matters in which the country as a whole was 
interested. 

At the conclusion of the discussions of the second Round 
Table Conference, the Prime Minister assured the members that the 
declaration he made of the policy of His Majesty's Government at 
the end of the first Round Table Conference was endorsed by the 
National Government which had succeeded the Labour Government. 
The great idea of an All- India Federation, he said, still held the 
field and the principle of a responsible federal government subject 
to certain reservations and safeguards through a transition period 
remained unchanged. It was agreed that the Governors' Provinces 
of the future were to be responsibly governed units enjoying the 
greatest possible measure of freedom from outside interference and 
dictation in carrying out their own policies in their own sphere. 
Three committees were then appointed to investigate in India 
questions of franchise and constituencies, problems of federal 
finance, and specific problems arising in connection with the 
finances of certain individual States, which committees subsequently 
came to be commonly known as the Lothian, Percy and Davidson 
Committees after the names of their chairmen. Later, the Indian 
policy of the National Government was approved by an overwhelm- 
ing majority in the House of Commons in a debate held on 3rd 
December 1931 and similarly by the House of Lords on the 10th of 
the same month. 

When the second Round Table Conference dispersed, it was 
believed that no further discussion was needed, but at the meeting 
of the Indian Legislative Assembly held on 5th September 1932 the 
Viceroy announced that it had been decided to hold a further 
conference in London consisting of a small body of representatives 
of British India as well as of the Indian States about the middle of 
November following. This conference accordingly assembled in 



469 

London on the 17th November 1932 and lasted till the 24th 
December following. The conference consisted of 34 delegates 
from India and 12 members of the British House of Parliament. 
Among the Indian delegates 12 represented the Indian States. 

With the information furnished by the three constitutional 
committees, the third conference was able to approach much more 
closely to details and thereby the Government in England were 
enabled to present their plans to the Parliament in a White Paper 
in a clearer manner than would have been otherwise possible. This 
White Paper was placed before Parliament on the 18th March 
1933 and it was referred by the Parliament to the scrutiny and 
investigation of a Joint Select Committee of both Houses of 
Parliament consisting of 16 members of the House of Lords and 16 
members of the House of Commons and was authorised to call into 
consultation representatives of the Indian States and of British 
India. Accordingly, 21 delegates from British India and 7 from 
the Indian States attended the deliberations of this committee. 
Sir Mirza Ismail was among this number and attended on behalf of 
the South Indian States. 



CHAPTER LVIII. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

The proposals of the White Paper and their considera- 
tion by a Joint Parliamentary Committee. 

In the White Paper presented to Parliament the Government 
in England indicated their proposals with sufficient details for a 
new constitution for India mainly under three heads: (1) Provincial 
Autonomy (2) Federation (3) Responsibility at the Centre. These 
proposals were based on the assumption that there was to be a 
Federal form of Government with the Provinces of British India and 
the Indian States as members which necessitated the reconsideration 
of the Parliamentary Act of 1919 and the complete reconstruc- 
tion of the Indian constitution established by that Act. Before 
proceeding further, certain peculiarities which existed regarding the 
Indian Federation may be noted. Federation elsewhere, as the 
White Paper said, resulted from a pact entered into by a number 
of political units each possessed of sovereignty or at least of 
autonomy and each agreeing to surrender to the new central 
organism which their pact created an identical range of powers and 
jurisdiction to be exercised by it on their behalf to the same extent 
for each one of them individually and for the Federation as a whole. 
In the Indian Continent however, British India was a unitary 
state the administrative control of which was centred in the 
Secretary of State in respect of all concerns which related to its 
government or revenues, and such powers as appertained to the 
Provincial Governments in India were derived through the Central 
Government by a species of delegation from this central authority 
and were exercised subject to its control. It followed that the 
Provinces had no original or independent powers or authority to 
surrender. The States, on the other hand, though they were under 
the suzerainty of the King- Emperor formed no part of His 
Majesty's dominions. Their contact with British India was 
maintained through the Governor- General who controlled the 
Political Department of the Government of India. Besides, the 
range of authority to be conferred upon the Federal Government 



and the Legfslature in relation to the States could only be 
determined by agreement with their Rulers, as they made it plain 
that they were not prepared to transfer to a Federal Government the 
same range of authority in their territories as was possible in the 
British Provinces. It therefore followed that the range of powers 
to be exercised by the Federal Government and the Legislature 
necessarily differed in relation to the two classes of units which were 
to compose the Federation. Accordingly it was proposed in the 
White Paper to set up a Federal Legislature consisting of elected 
representatives of British India and of the representatives of the 
Indian States appointed by their Rulers and a Federal Executive 
consisting of the Governor- General representing the Crown, aided 
and advised by a Council of Ministers responsible, subject to 
certain exceptions, to the legislature so composed and to endow 
these authorities with certain powers and functions in relation to 
British India and with such powers and functions in relation to the 
States as the State-members of the Federation formally accepted. 
Full liberty was reserved to the Crown to refuse to accept the 
accession of any State to the Federation, if it was sought on terms 
imcompatible with the scheme of Federation to be embodied in the 
Constitution Act. After the Constitution Act was passed, the 
Indian States were to be allowed to join the Federation only after 
the Rulers of States representing not less than half their aggregate 
population and entitled to hold not less than half the number of 
seats to be allotted to the States in the Federal Upper Chamber 
executed Instruments of Accession. The Federation was to he 
brought into existence by means of a Royal Proclamation, but no 
such Proclamation was to be issued until the two Houses of 
Parliament presented an address to the Crown with a prayer for its 
promulgation. 

The Federal Legislature was to be bicameral, the two 
Chambers possessing identical powers except that money Bills and 
votes of supply were to be initiated in the Lower Chamber and the 
range of functions of the Upper Chamber in relation to supply was 
to be less extensive than those of the Lower Chamber. The Lower 
Chamber or House of Assembly of the Federal Legislature was to 
consist of a maximum of 375 members, of whom 125 were to be 



appointed by the Rulers of Indian States who were members of the 
Federation, the remaining 250 being representatives of British 
India. The Upper Chamber or the Council of State was to consist 
of a maximum of 260 members of whom 100 were to be appointed 
by the Rulers of the States-members of the Federation. The 
Governor-General was to be empowered to nominate not more than 
ten members (not officials), thus providing an opportunity of adding 
to the Chamber a small group of the type of elder statesmen. 

Certain departments, namely, Defence, External Relations 
and Ecclesiastical Administration % were to be regarded as 
4 Reserved f and were to be administered solely by the Governor- 
General, but he was to secure co-ordination in consultation as far as 
possible with his counsellors and responsible ministers. The 
defence of India was to an increasing extent to be the concern of 
the Indian people and not of the British Government alone. The 
ministers were to have the constitutional right to tender advice to 
the Governor- General who was to be guided by that advice. The 
Governor -General was to have power independent of his ministers 
to dissolve, prorogue and summon the legislature, the power to 
assent to or to withhold assent from Bills or to reserve them for 
the signification of the King's pleasure, power to summon a joint 
session of both Houses of the Legislature in case of emergency. 

The Governor-General's special responsibilities related to the 
prevention of grave menace to the peace or tranquillity of India or 
any part thereof ; the safeguarding of the financial stability and the 
credit of the Federation ; the safeguarding of the legitimate interests 
of the minorities; the securing to the members of the Public 
Services of any rights provided for them by the constitution and 
the safeguarding of their legitimate interests ; the protection of the 
rights of any Indian State; the prevention pf commercial dis- 
crimination ; and any other matter which affected the administration 
of any other departments. 

In a constitution created by the federation of a number of 
separate political units and providing for the distribution of powers 
between a Central Legislature and Executives of the federal units 



47* 

on the other? a Federal Court was, in particular, needed to 
interpret authoritatively the Federal constitution itself. It was 
most convenient to entrust to a tribunal independent of Federal, 
Provincial and State Governments the ultimate decisions of 
questions concerning the respective spheres of these authorities. 
Such a tribunal was in any event required in order to prevent the 
conflict of decisions which might otherwise arise if the various 
High Courts and State Courts interpreted the constitution in 
different senses and made the law uncertain and ambiguous. 

Regarding the inclusion in the Constitution Act of a series of 
declarations commonly described as a statement of 'fundamental 
rights ' designed to secure either to the community in general or to 
specified sections of it rights or immunities to which importance 
was attached, His Majesty's Government though they saw serious 
objections to giving statutory expression to any large range of 
declarations of this character, yet were of opinion that certain 
provisions of that kind such, for instance, as the respect due to the 
personal liberty and rights of property and the eligibility of all for 
public office regardless of differences of caste or religion should 
appropriately find a place in the Constitution Act. 

The Joint Parliamentary Select Committee held its first sitting 
on 12th April 1933 with the Marquis of Linlithgow, the present 
Viceroy of India, as chairman. The Indian delegates took their 
final leave of the committee on 16th November 1933. During 
this interval the committee examined a mass of very diverse 
evidence, oral and written, presented on forty-eight different days 
by over 120 witnesses ex-Governors of Provinces, representatives 
of Service and Women's organisations, Communal and Commercial 
Delegations, retired officials and a number of other persons English 
as well as Indian and an ex-Cabinet Minister who all submitted 
themselves to extensive interrogation at the hands of the members 
of the committee and of the Indian delegates. The crowning 
event in this record investigation was the performance of Sir 
Samuel Hoare, the Secretary of State for India, who took the 
witness-box on no less than 19 separate occasions and explained, 
defended and elaborated the White Paper proposals for a total 

A60 



474 

period of over 75 hours, during which he answered more than 5000 
questions. On 28th July the last occasion on which Sir Samuel 
Hoare appeared as a witness, remarkable tributes were paid to him 
by the Marquis of Salisbury and Mr. M. R. Jayakar for placing 
himself so unreservedly for examination at the hands of the 
committee. Mr. Jayakar said that considerable satisfaction must 
have been felt in India with the way in which the Secretary of 
State had acquitted himself. 

The Joint Parliamentary Committee in drawing up its report 
took the report of the Statutory Comnfission as its starting-point in 
dealing with the proposals of the British Cabinet. As regards the 
federation of Indian States with the British Provinces, the Joint 
Committee agreed with the observation contained in the White 
Paper that the Indian States possessed sovereign rights of their 
own, while the British Provinces formed part and parcel of British 
India as a whole without any exclusive rights. The Joint 
Committee recognised that the unification of the country which 
could be achieved by an All -India Federation would confer added 
strength, stability and prosperity to the federating units as a whole. 
For want of such unification, several of the Ruling Princes though 
firm friends of British rule, had sometimes felt their friendship 
tried by the decisions of the Government of India running counter 
to what they believed to be the interests- of their States and their 
peoples. Under a Federal Government the Indian Princes might be 
expected to give steadfast support to a strong Central Government 
and to become helpful collaborators in policies which they had 
sometimes in the past been inclined to criticise or even obstruct. 
Another argument in favour of a Federal form of Government was 
the economic condition of India as it existed. As the economic 
life of India developed, the formulation of suitable economic 
policies securing harmonious working for the whole of the country 
was being put to an ever increasing strain. For instance, any 
imposition of internal indirect taxation in British India involved 
with few exceptions the conclusion of agreements with a number of 
States for concurrent taxation within their frontiers, or in default 
of such agreement the establishment of some system of customs 



475 

duties. With Certain exceptions, the States were themselves free to 
adopt internal customs arrangements of their own which could not 
but impede the flow of trade and even at the maritime ports 
situated in the States the administration of the tariffs was imper- 
fectly co-ordinated with that of the British Indian ports. The 
tariff policies in which every part of India was interested were laid 
down by the Government of India and the British Indian 
Legislature in which no Indian State had a voice. Even where the 
Government of India had adequate powers to impose internal 
indirect taxation or to control economic development as in the 
cases of salt and opium, the use of those powers had caused much 
friction and had often left behind a sense of injustice. Moreover, 
as matters stood then, a common Company Law, a common 
Banking Law, a common body of legislation on Copy Right and 
Trade Marks, a common system of communications were alike 
impossible. 

On these grounds the Parliamentary Committee expressed the 
opinion that an All -India Federation had solid advantages viewed 
from all sides. In acceding to the Federation however, the Indian 
States, the committee said, should be assured of a real voice in the 
determination of policies. The Princes had clearly expressed that 
they were willing to enter the Federation only on the condition that 
the Federal Government was responsible to the Legislature and not 
an irresponsible one. The Parliamentary Committee agreed with 
the proposal in the White Paper that when the Ruler of a State 
signified his intention to the Crown to join the Federation, he should 
be required to execute an Instrument of Accession and this instru- 
ment was to be regarded as enabling all matters accepted as Federal 
by him to be brought under the jurisdiction of the Federal 
authorities under the new constitution, but outside these limits the 
autonomy of the States and their relations with the Crown were not 
to be affected in any way. The Instrument of Accession was to be 
in all cases in the same form, though it might be recognised that 
the list of subjects accepted by the Rulers as Federal need 
not be identical in the case of every State. This list of subjects 
however was to differ as little as possible from one another and a 
Ruler who desired in his o>yn case to except or to reserve subjects 



47 

in the standard list of Federal subjects ought to be invited to justify 
the exception or reservation of certain subjects by the existence of 
treaty rights or because he had long enjoyed special privileges. 

Similarly no Royal Proclamation was to be issued until the 
Rulers of States representing not less than half the aggregate 
population of the States and entitled to not less than half the seats 
to be allotted to the Federal Upper Chamber signified their desire 
to accede to the Federation. The Parliamentary Committee also 
agreed that the Proclamation should be issued on the King 
being petitioned by both Houses of Parliament inasmuch as 
Parliament had a right to satisfy itself not only that the 
prescribed number of States had in fact signified their desire 
to accede, but also that the financial, economic and political 
conditions necessary for the successful establishment of the 
Federation upon a sound and stable basis had been fulfilled. 
In matters where the Crown possessed rights, authority and 
jurisdiction in Native States, including those rights which were 
comprehended under the name of Paramountcy which did not fall 
within the Federal sphere, there should be a legal differentiation of 
functions in the future in non-federal matters, the title of Viceroy 
being attached to the Governor -General on the understanding 
however that the offices of both the Viceroy and the Governor- 
General were to be held by one and the same person. Outside 
the Federal sphere, the States relations were to be exclusively with 
the Crown and the right to tender advice to the Crown in this 
regard was to lie with His Majesty's Government. 

It was accepted by the Joint Committee that the representatives 
of the States were to be appointed by the Rulers concerned, the 
relative rank of the representatives in the Council of State 
depending on the dynastic salute and other factors and in the case 
of the House of Assembly, in the main, on the population. Where 
matters were of exclusively British Indian concern, the States 
representatives were not to be prohibited from exercising their own 
judgment in supporting a ministry with whose general policy they 
were fully in agreement, or from withholding their support to a 
ministry whose policy they disapproved, The Joint 



477 

considered that, the true solution of the problem lay not in a 
statutory prohibition but that the matter should be regulated by the 
common sense of both sides and by the growth of constitutional 
practice and usage. The Joint Committee further were of opinion 
that while every Act of the Federal Legislature regulating any 
subject which had been accepted by a State as a Federal subject 
would apply proprio vigore in that State, yet this jurisdiction of 
the Federal Legislature in the States would not be exclusive. 
Where however there was a conflict between a State law and a 
Federal law in any matter accepted by the State as Federal, the 
latter was to prevail. The Parlimentary Committee accepted that 
a Federal Court was an essential element in a Federal Constitution 
as it was at once the interpreter and the guardian of the 
constitution and a tribunal for the determination of disputes 
between the constituent units of the Federation. 

The Select Committee completed their report in October and 
presented it to Parliament in the same month. 



CHAPTER LIX. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

The Government of India Act of 1935 as patted by 
Parliament Sir Mirza Ismail, Lord Willingdon and Lord 
Linlithgow on its future working. 

On the basis of the White Paper and the report of the Joint 
Parliamentary Committee on it, the British Government framed a 
Bill for the reform of the Indian Constitution. This Bill after a 
stormy passage through the two Houses of Parliament received the 
Royal Assent on the 2nd August 1935 replacing the Act of 1919 
except the preamble. This Act has been made applicable to the 
whole of British India as well as to such of the Indian States as 
will accede to the Federation, but is not to apply to such areas 
as are specified. For the purposes of the Act, British India is to 
be composed of eleven Governors' Provinces, namely, Madras, 
Bombay, Bengal, United Provinces, the Punjab, Bihar, Central 
Provinces and Berar, Assam, North-West Frontier Province, 
Orissa and Sind and with the modifications which may be made by 
the Governor-General, the Chief Commissioners' Provinces of 
British Baluchistan, Delhi, Ajmer-Merwar, Coorg and the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the area known as Panth 
Piploda. Burma and Aden are to be separated from India and to 
have no connection in the future with its Government. The Indian 
States are classed under seventeen divisions, some of the States 
being individually regarded as divisions, while others come 
in groups. 

The Act prescribes certain conditions to be fulfilled prior to 
the introduction of the Federation. In the first place, no initiative 
is to be taken till such number of States come forward as can claim 
half the number of seats in the Council of State, containing also 
not less than half the total population of all the States put together. 
It is then open to the King on an address being presented by both 
Houses of Parliament to approve of the Federation being introduced. 
At the same time, every Ruler of a State wishing to join the 



479 

Federation is placed under an obligation to execute an Instrument 
of Accession containing a declaration that His Majesty the King, 
the Governor- General, the Federal Legislature, the Federal Court 
and any other Federal authority established for the purposes of the 
Federation can exercise in relation to his State such functions as 
the Act might vest in them and this declaration is to be binding on 
his heirs and successors also. The obligation also rests on the 
Ruler to give due effect within his State to the provisions of the 
Act so far as they may apply to his State. The Instrument of 
Accession is to specify the matters which the Ruler accepts as 
those with respect to which the Federal Legislature may make 
laws for his State and in respect to which the executive authority 
of the Federation may be exercised, while in the Governors' 
Provinces such executive authority extends to all matters with 
respect to which the legislature of the Province has power to make 
laws. It is open to the Ruler of a State to extend the Federal 
functions specified in his Instrument of Accession with the 
consent of His Majesty. When any amendments are made 
in the provisions of the Act by Parliament, these amendments 
unless accepted by the Ruler of a State are not to be construed 
as binding on him. After the expiry of a period of 20 years 
from the date of the establishment of the Federation, if any Ruler 
who has not joined the Federation expresses a wish to join it, he 
can only do so if his request is supported by an address to the 
Governor- General by both the Houses of the Federal Legislature. 
The Governor-General may with the consent of the Ruler of a 
Federated State entrust to the Ruler or to his officers functions in 
relation to the administration of any law of the Federal Legislature 
and may also by inspection or otherwise satisfy himself that the 
administration on any Federal law is carried out in accordance 
with the policy of the Federal Government. The executive 
authority of the Ruler of a Federated State is to continue to be 
exercisable in that State in Federal matters except to the extent 
limited by any Federal law under the terms of the Instrument 
of Accession. The Federal Legislature is not empowered to make 
laws for a Federated State otherwise than in accordance with the 
Instrument* 



480 

The Federal Legislature is to consist of His Majesty repre- 
sented by the Governor- General and two Chambers to be known as 
the Council of State and the Federal Assembly respectively. The 
Council of State is to consist of 156 representatives of British India 
and not more than 104 representatives of the Indian States. The 
Federal Assembly is to be composed of 250 representatives of 
British India and not more than 125 representatives of the Indian 
States. The number allotted to the Mysore State which stands 
next to Hyderabad is 3 in the Council of State and 7 in the Federal 
Assembly. The Council of State is to be a permanent body not 
subject to dissolution, but as near as possible one-third of the 
members are to retire in every third year. Every Federal Assembly 
is to continue for five years from the date appointed for its first 
meeting unless dissolved earlier. The Council of State is to choose 
two of its members as President and Deputy President and 
similarly the Federal Assembly two of its members as Speaker and 
Deputy Speaker and the two bodies are also to have power to fill 
up vacancies as often as they occur. The Governor- General is 
given power, except where he is satisfied that a matter affected 
Federal interests or British subjects, to make rules in consultation 
with the President or the Speaker for prohibiting the discussion of 
or the asking of questions on any matter connected with any 
Indian State other than a matter with respect to which the 
Federal Legislature has jurisdiction to make laws for that State. 
Similarly the Governor- General possesses power for prohibiting 
the discussion of or the asking of questions on any matter in 
connection with the relations between the King or the Governor- 
General and any foreign State or Prince, or regarding the personal 
conduct of the Ruler of any Indian State or any member of the 
Ruling Family. 

The executive authority of the Federation is to be exercised on 
behalf of the King by the Governor General. Any powers 
connected with the exercise of the functions by the Crown in itB 
relations with Indian States, if not exercised by the King, are to be 
exercised by his representative who is however to be the same 
person as the Governor- General acting in a dual capacity. 



481 

There is to be a Council of Ministers not exceeding ten in 
number to aid and advise the Governor- General in the exercise of 
his functions, except in matters where he has discretionary power. 
The Governor-General's ministers are to be chosen and summoned 
by him, to be sworn as members of the Council and to hold office 
during his pleasure. A minister who for any period of six 
consecutive months is not a member of either chamber of the 
Federal Legislature is to cease to be a minister at the expiration 
of that period. 

There is to be a Federal Court with a Chief Justice and a 
number of puisane judges limited to six to start with. No person 
is qualified to be a judge of this court unless he has for at least 
five years been a judge of a High Court in British India or in a 
Federated State, or is a barrister or pleader of ten years standing 
including those in the Federated States. In the case of the Chief 
Justice however, he is to be a barrister or a pleader of 15 years 
standing. The Federal Court is to sit at Delhi and at such 
other place or places as the Chief Justice may fix with the 
approval of the Governor- General. The Federal Court is 
given exclusive jurisdiction in any dispute between any two 
or more of the following parties of the Federation any of the 
Provinces or any of the Federated States when the dispute involves 
any question whether of law or fact on which the existence or the 
extent of a legal right depends, subject to certain limitations. An 
appeal lies to the Federal Court from any judgment or other order 
of a High Court in British India, if the latter certified that any 
substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Act or any 
Order- in -Council made under its authority is involved. An appeal 
also lies to the Federal Court from a High Court in a Federated 
State on the ground that a question of law has been wrongly decided 
being a question concerning the interpretation of the Act or of an 
Order- in -Council, or the extent of the legislative or executive 
authority vested in the Federation by virtue of the Instrument of 
Accession of that State, or has arisen under an agreement made in 
relation to the administration in that State of a law of the Federal 
Legislature. In these matters appeals lie to the King without the 

A61 



462 

leave of the Federal Court and in any other matter with such leave. 
Where the Federal Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction requires 
the aid of the civil or judicial authorities in a Federated State, a 
letter of request is to be sent to the Ruler of the State. The law 
declared by the Federal Court or by any judgment of the Privy 
Council is to be binding on all courts in Federated States also so 
far as they are applicable. A High Court in a Federated State is 
to be one which the King has declared to be so in communication 
with the Ruler of the State. 

This Act of Parliament evoked bitter opposition in England 
and roused little enthusiasm in India, though it must be acknow- 
ledged that it marks a distinct advance both for British India as 
well as for the Indian States on the Act of 1919. With the larger 
electorate leading to wider political training and with extended 
ministerial responsibility, the new Act may be taken to concede a 
larger measure of self-government. As far as the Indian States 
are concerned, the Act may be considered to be a distinct gain to 
them as it secures to them a voice in the Central Government of 
India in the settlement of all concerns common to them and the 
British Provinces. At the meeting of the Representative Assembly 
at Mysore in June 1935 Sir Mirza Ismail expressed his opinion 
in favour of accepting the Act and of giving it a fair trial. 

On the 16th September 1935 Lord Willingdon addressed a 
joint meeting of the Legislative Assembly and of the Council of 
State and took occasion to refer to the Government of India Act. 
He drew attention to two of the broad features of the new 
constitution. The Act for the first time would, he said, consolidate 
the whole of India, State and British, fpr purposes of common 
concern under a single Government ; India for the first time would 
become after the Federation Was introduced one great country. The 
second broad feature was that the Government of India under the 
new constitution would draw their authority by direct devolution 
from the Crown just as the Dominion Governments did. They 
Would cease to be agents and would stand for as full political 
and juristic personalities exercising the functions of His Majesty. 



483 

On the 23rd September 1935 the Marquis of Linlithgow who 
has now succeeded Lord Willingdon as Viceroy, speaking at a 
luncheon at the International Grocers' Exhibition held in London 
said that though there were still men of weight and experience who 
regarded the changes to be introduced with doubt, if not fear, he 
did not entertain such doubts but, on the other hand, considered 
that the situation must be faced with resolution and without any 
backward glances. 



CHAPTER LX. 
Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. 

The Mysore State and Federal India Settlement of 
certain issues prior to its accession to the Federation. 

The preliminaries to be settled before the new India Act can 
fully take effect are numerous and complicated as not only the 
British Provinces have to be consulted before they can be placed 
on a basis of autonomy but also the Indian States. The next stage 
is that the Parliament should satisfy itself that the statutory 
provisions have all been properly complied with and then present an 
address to the King for the issue of the necessary proclamations. 
These introductory measures must necessarily take some time and 
it is only after all these formalities are fulfilled that the present 
anomalous relations existing between the Government of India and 
the Indian States can disappear. 

The Mysore Sta