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H. P. B. 





Collection of Fugitive Fragments 




Volume I. 

The Theosophicat, Publishing Society, 7, Duke Street, Adei.phi, W.C. 

The Path Office, 144, Madison Avenue. 

The Theosophist Office, Advar. 


The H.P. B. Press, 
42, Henry Street, Regent's Park, 


(Printers to the Theosophical Society.) 



The Eddy Manifestations 
Dr. Beard Criticized 
The Lack of Unity among Spiritualists 
The Holmes Controversy 
The Holmes Controversy (continued) 
Notice to Mediums 
A Rebuke . . 

Occultism or Magic 
Spiritualistic Tricksters 
The Search after Occultism 
The Science of Magic . 
An Unsolved Mystery . 
Spiritualism in Russia . 
Spiritualism and Spiritualists . 
What is Occultism? 
A Warning to Mediums 

(New) York against Lankester. A new War of the Roses 
Huxley and Slade 
Can the Double Murder - 
Fakirs and Tables 

A Protest ..... 
The Fate of the Occultist 
Buddhism in America . 
Russian Atrocities 
Washing the Disciples' Feet . 
Trickery or Magic ? . 
The Jews in Russia 
H. P. Blavatsky's Masonic Patent 
Views of the Theosophists 
A Society without a Dogma . 
Elementaries .... 
Kabalistic Views of "Spirits" 
The Knout. As Wielded by the Great Russian Theosophist. 
First Appearance ...... 

Mt. Coleman's 













Indian Metaphysics 

••II. M." and the Todas 

The Todas 

The Ahkoond of Sv at. The Founder of 

The Arya Samaj .... 

Parting Words .... 

"Not a Christian"! 

The Retort Courteous . 

"Scrutator Again" 

Magic ..... 

A Republican Citizen . 

The Theosophists and their Opponents 

Echoes from India. What is Hindu Spiritualism 

Missionaries Militant . 

The History of a "Book" 

A French View of Women's Rights 

Occult Phenomena 

Hindu Widow-Marriage 

"Oppressed Widowhood" in America 

"Esoteric Buddhism" and its Critic 

Mr. A. Lillie's Delusions. 

What is Theosophy? 

What are the Theosophists? . 

Antiquity of the Vedas 

Persian Zoroastrianism and Russian Vandalism 

Cross and Fire . 

War in Olympus 

A Land of Mystery 

Which First— the Egg or the Bird? 

The Pralaya of Modern Science 

The Yoga Philosophy . 

A Year of Theosophy . 

"A Word with Our Friends" . 

Questions Answered about Yoga Vidy 

The Missing Link 


The Leaven of Theosophy 

Count St. Germain 

Lamas and Druses 

A Reply to Our Critics. Our Final Answer to Seve 

"The Claims of Occultism" . 

A Note on Eliphas Levi 

The Six-Pointed and Five-Pointed Stars 

The. Grand Inquisitor. 

The Brfght Spot of Light 

anv Mvstical Societies 

« t> 

ral Objections 














"Is it Idle to Argue Further?" ........ 434 

Fragments of Occult Truth ........ 43S 

Notes on some Aryan-Arhat Esoteric Tenets . . . 475 

The Thoughts of the Dead . 48] 

Dreamland and Somnambulism ...... . 482 

Are Dreams but Idle Visions? ........ 485 

Spiritualism and Occult Truth ........ 490 

Reincarnation in Tibet. ........ 497 


The title A Modern Panarion has been taken from the controversial 
Panarion of the Church Father Epiphanius in which he attacked 
the various sects and heresies of the first four centuries of the 
Christian era. The Panarion was so called as being a "basket" of 
scraps and fragments. We are told that this Panarion was "a kind 
of medicine chest, in which he had collected means of healing 
against the poisonous bite of the heretical serpent." 

A Modern Panarion is of a like nature with the intent of the 
Christian Father; only in the nineteenth century, heresy has in 
many instances become orthodoxy, and orthodoxy heresy, and the 
Panarion of H. P. Blavatsky is intended as a means of healing 
against the errors of ecclesiasticism, dogma and bigotry, and the 
blind negation of materialism and pseudo-science. 



In 1 89 1 the following resolutions were passed by all the 
Sections of the Theosophical Society : — 

Resolved : 

1. That the most fitting and permanent memorial of 
H. P. B.'s life and work would be the production and publication 
of such papers, books and translations as will tend to promote that 
intimate union between the life and thought of the Orient and the 
Occident to the bringing about of which her life was devoted. 

2. That an "H. P. B. Memorial Fund" be instituted for 
this purpose, to which all those who feel gratitude or admiration 
towards H. P. B.for her work, both within and without the T. S., 
are earnestly invited to contribute as their means may allow. 

3. That the President of the Theosophical Society, together 
with the General Secretaries of all Sections of the same, constitute 
the Committee of Management of this Fund. 

4. That the Presidents of Lodges in each Section be a 
Committee to collect and forward to the General Secretary of 
their respective Sections the necessary funds for this purpose. 


[The following letter was addressed to a contemporary journal by Mine. Blavatsky, 
and was handed to us for publication in The Daily Graphic, as we have been taking 
the lead in the discussion of the curious subject of Spiritualism. — Editor "Daii/v 

Aware in the past of your love of justice and fair play, I most 
earnestly solicit the use of your columns to reply to an article by 
Dr. G. M. Beard in relation to the Eddy family in Vermont. He, in 
denouncing them and their spiritual manifestations in a most sweeping 
declaration, would aim a blow at the entire spiritual world of to-day. 
His letter appeared this morning (October 27th). Dr. George M. Beard 
has for the last few weeks assumed the part of the "roaring lion" seek- 
ing for a medium "to devour." It appears that to-day the learned 
gentleman is more hungry than ever. No wonder, after the failure he 
has experienced with Mr. Brown, the "mind-reader," at New Haven. 

I do not know Dr. Beard personally, nor do I care to know how far 
he is entitled to wear the laurels of his profession as an M.D., but what 
I do know is that he may never hope to equal, much less to surpass, 
such men and savants as Crookes, Wallace, or even Flammarion, the 
French astronomer, all of whom have devoted years to the investiga- 
tion of Spiritualism. All of them came to the conclusion that, suppos- 
ing even the well-known phenomenon of the materialization of spirits 
did not prove the identity of the persons whom they purported to 
represent, it was not, at all events, the work of mortal hands ; still less 
was it a. fraud. 

Now to the Eddys. Dozens of visitors have remained there for 
weeks and even for months; not a single seance has taken place with- 
out some of them realizing the personal presence of a friend, a relative, 
a mother, father, or dear departed child. But lo! here comes Dr. Beard, 
stops less than two days, applies his powerful electrical battery, under 
which the spirit does not even wink or flinch, closely examines the 


cabinet (in which he finds nothing), and then turns his back and 
declares most emphatically "that he wishes it to be perfectly under- 
stood that if his scientific name ever appears in connection with the 
Eddy family, it must be only to expose them as the greatest frauds who 
cannot do even good trickery." Consummatum est! Spiritualism 
is defunct. Rcquiescat in pace! Dr. Beard has killed it with one 
word. Scatter ashes over your venerable but silly heads, O Crookes, 
Wallace and Varley! Henceforth you must be considered as demented, 
psychologized lunatics, and so must it be with the many thousands of 
Spiritualists who have seen and talked with their friends and relatives 
departed, recognizing them at Moravia, at the Eddys', and elsewhere 
throughout the length and breadth of this continent. But is there no 
escape from the horns of this dilemma? Yea verily, Dr. Beard writes 
thus: "When your correspondent returns to New York I will teach 
him on any convenient evening how to do all that the Eddys do." 
Pray why should a Daily Graphic reporter be the only one selected by 
G. M. Beard, M.D. for initiation into the knowledge of so clever a 
"trick"? In such a case why not publicly denounce this universal 
trickery, and so benefit the whole world? But Dr. Beard seems to be 
as partial in his selections as he is clever in detecting the said tricks. 
Didn't the learned doctor say to Colonel Olcott while at the Eddys' 
that three dollars' worth of second-hand draper}- would be enough for 
him to show how to materialize all the spirits that visit the Eddy 
homestead ? 

To this I reply, backed as I am by the testimony of hundreds of 
reliable witnesses, that all the wardrobe of Niblo's Theatre would not 
suffice to attire the numbers of "spirits" that emerge night after night 
from an empty little closet. 

L,et Dr. Beard rise and explain the following fact if he can: I 
remained fourteen days at the Eddys'. In that short period of time 
I saw and recognized fully, out of 119 apparitions, seven "spirits." 
I admit that I was the only one to recognize them, the rest of the 
audience not having been with me in my numerous travels throughout 
the East, but their various dresses and costumes were plainly seen and 
closely examined by all. 

The first was a Georgian boy, dressed in the historical Caucasian 
attire, the picture of whom will shortly appear in The Daily Graphic. I 
recognized and questioned him in Georgian upon circumstances known 
only to myself. I was understood and answered. Requested by me in 


his mother tongue (upon the whispered suggestion of Colonel Olcott) 
to play the Lezguinka, a Circassian dance, he did so immediately upon 
the guitar. 

Second — A little old man appears. He is dressed as Persian merchants 
generally are. His dress is perfect as a national costume. Everything 
is in its right place, down to the "babouches" that are off his feet, 
he stepping out in his stockings. He speaks his name in a loud 
whisper. It is "Hassan Aga," an old man whom I and my family have 
known for twenty years at Tiflis. He says, half in Georgian and half 
in Persian, that he has got a "big secret to tell me," and comes at three 
different times, vainly seeking to finish his sentence. 

Third — A man of gigantic stature comes forth, dressed in the 
picturesque attire of the warriors of Kurdistan. He does not speak, 
but bows in the oriental fashion, and lifts up his spear ornamented with 
bright-coloured feathers, shaking it in token of welcome. I recognize 
him immediately as Jaffar Ali Bek, a young chief of a tribe of Kurds, 
who used to accompany me in my trips around Ararat in Armenia on 
horseback, and who on one occasion saved my life. More, he bends 
to the ground as though picking up a handful of mould, and scattering 
it around, presses his hand to his bosom, a gesture familiar only to the 
tribes of the Kurdistan. 

Fourth — A Circassian comes out. I can imagine myself at Tiflis, so 
perfect is his costume of "nouker" (a man who either runs before or 
behind one on horseback). This one speaks more, he corrects his 
name, which I pronounced wrongly on recognizing him, and when I 
repeat it he bows, smiling, and says in the purest guttural Tartar, which 
sounds so familiar to my ear, "Tchoch j^achtchi" (all right), and goes 

Fifth — An old woman appears with Russian headgear. She comes 
out and addresses me in Russian, calling me by an endearing term that 
she used in my childhood. I recognize an old servant of my family, a 
nurse of my sister. 

Sixth — A large powerful negro next appears on the platform. His 
head is ornamented with a wonderful coiffure something like horns 
wound about with white and gold. His looks are familiar to me, but I 
do not at first recollect where I have seen him. Very soon he begins 
to make some vivacious gestures, and his mimicry helps me to recognize 
him at a glance. It is a conjurer from Central Africa. He grins and 


Seventh and last — A large, grey-haired gentleman comes out attired 
in the conventional suit of black. The Russian decoration of St. Ann 
hangs suspended by a large red moire ribbon with two black stripes — 
a ribbon, as every Russian will know, belonging to the said decoration. 
This ribbon is worn around his neck. I feel faint, for I think I recog- 
nize my father. But the latter was a great deal taller. In my excite- 
ment I address him in English, and ask him: "Are you my father?" 
He shakes his head in the negative, and answers as plainly as any 
mortal man can speak, and in Russian, "No; I am your uncle." The 
word "diadia" was heard and remembered by all the audience. It 
means "uncle." But what of that? Dr. Beard knows it to be but a 
pitiful trick, and we must submit in silence. People that know me 
know that I am far from being credulous. Though an Occultist of 
many years' standing, I am more sceptical in receiving evidence from 
paid mediums than many unbelievers. But when I receive such 
evidences as I received at the Eddys', I feel bound on my honour, and 
under the penalty of confessing myself a moral coward, to defend the 
mediums, as well as the thousands of my brother and sister Spiritualists 
against the conceit and slander of one man who has nothing and no 
one to back him in his assertions. I now hereby finally and publicly 
challenge Dr. Beard to the amount of $500 to produce before a public 
audience and under the same conditions the manifestations herein 
attested, or failing this, to bear the ignominious consequences of his 
proposed expose. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

124, East Sixteenth Street, New York City, 
October 2jth, iSyj. 


As Dr. Beard has scorned (in his scientific grandeur) to answer the 
challenge sent to him by your humble servant in the number of The 
Daily Graphic for the 13th* of October last, and has preferred instruct- 
ing the public in general rather than one "credulous fool" in par- 
ticular, let her come from Circassia or Africa, I fully trust you will 
permit me to use your paper once more in order that by pointing out 
some very spicy peculiarities of this amazingly scientific exposure, the 
public might better judge at whose door the aforesaid elegant epithet 
could be most appropriately laid. 

For a week or so an immense excitement, a thrill of sacrilegious fear, 
if I may be allowed this expression, ran through the psychologized 
frames of the Spiritualists of New York. It was rumoured in ominous 
whispers that G. Beard, M.D., the Tyndall of America, was coming out 
with his peremptory exposure of the Eddys' ghosts and — the Spiritual- 
ists trembled for their gods ! 

The dreaded day has come, the number of The Daily Graphic for 
November the 9th is before us. We have read it carefully, with respect- 
ful awe, for true science has always been an authority for us (weak- 
minded fool though we may be), and so we handled the dangerous 
exposure with a feeling somewhat akin to that of a fanatic Christian 
opening a volume of Biichner. We perused it to the last : we turned 
the page over and over again, vainly straining our eyes and brains to 
detect therein one word of scientific proof or a solitary atom of over- 
whelming evidence that would thrust into our Spiritualistic bosom the 
venomous fangs of doubt. But no, not a particle of reasonable expla- 
nation or of scientific evidence that what we have all seen, heard and 
felt at the Eddys' was but delusion. In our feminine modesty, still 
allowing the said article the benefit of the doubt, we disbelieved our 

* This appears to be a misprint, unless the challenge had been made on the 13th, and was only 
repeated in the letter of Oct. 27th. — Eds. 


own senses, and so devoted a whole day to the picking up of sundry 
bits of criticism from judges that we believe more competent than 
ourselves, and at last came collectively to the following conclu- 

The Daily Graphic has allowed Dr. Beard in its magnanimity nine 
columns of its precious pages to prove — what? Why, the following: 

First, that he. Dr. Beard, according to his own modest assertions (see 
columns second and third) is more entitled to occupy the position of 
an actor intrusted with characters of simpletons (Moliere's "Tartuffe" 
might fit him perhaps as naturally) than to undertake the difficult part 
of a Prof. Faraday vis-a-vis the Chittenden D. D. Home. 

Secondly, that although the learned doctor was "overwhelmed already 
with professional labours" (a nice and cheap reclame, by the way) and 
scientific researches, he gave the latter another direction, and so went 
to the Eddys. That, arrived there, he played with Horatio Eddy, for 
the glory of science and the benefit of humanity, the difficult character 
of a "dishevelled simpleton," and was rewarded in his scientific re- 
search by finding on the said suspicious premises a professor of bumps 
"a poor harmless fool"! Galileo, of famous memory, when he detected 
the sun in its involuntary imposture chuckled certainly less over his 
triumph than does Dr. Beard over the discovery of this "poor fool" 
No. i. Here we modestly suggest that perhaps the learned doctor had 
no need to go as far as Chittenden for that. 

Further, the doctor, forgetting entirely the wise motto, Non bis in 
idem, discovers and asserts throughout the length of his article that 
all the past, present and future generations of pilgrims to the "Eddy 
homestead" are collectively fools, and that every solitary member of 
this numerous body of Spiritualistic pilgrims is likewise "a weak- 
minded, credulous fool"! Query — the proof of it, if you please, Dr. 
Beard? Answer — Dr. Beard has said so, and Echo responds, Fool! 

Truly miraculous are thy doings, indeed, O Mother Nature! The cow 
is black and its milk is white! But then, you see, those ill-bred, igno- 
rant Eddy brothers have allowed their credulous guests to eat up all 
the "trout" caught by Dr. Beard and paid for by him seventy-five cents 
per pound as a penalty; and that fact alone might have turned him a 
little — how shall we say — sour, prejudiced? No, erroneous in his state- 
ment, will answer better. 

For erroneous he is, not to say more. When, assuming an air of 
scientific authority, he affirms that the sc'ance-xoom is generally so dark 


that one cannot recognize at three feet distance his own mother, he 
says what is not true. When he tells us further that he saw through a 
hole in one of the shawls and the space between them all the manoeu- 
vres of Horatio's arm, he risks finding himself contradicted by thou- 
sands who, weak-minded though they may be, are not blind for all that, 
neither are they confederates of the Eddys, but far more reliable wit- 
nesses in their simple-minded honesty than Dr. Beard is in his would-be 
scientific and unscrupulous testimony. The same when he says that 
no one is allowed to approach the spirits nearer than twelve feet dis- 
tance, still less to touch them, except the "two simple-minded ignorant 
idiots" w 7 ho generally sit on both ends of the platform. To my know- 
ledge many other persons have sat there besides those two. 

Dr. Beard ought to know this better than anyone else, as he has sat 
there himself. A sad story is in circulation, by the way, at the Eddys'. 
The records of the spiritual seances at Chittenden have devoted a 
whole page to the account of a terrible danger that threatened for a 
moment to deprive America of one of her brightest scientific stars. Dr. 
Beard, admitting a portion of the story himself, perverts the rest of 
it, as he does everything else in his article. The doctor admits that 
he had been badly struck by the guitar, and, not being able to bear 
the pain, "jumped up," and broke the circle. Now it clearly appears 
that the learned gentleman has neglected to add to the immense stock 
of his knowledge the first rudiments of "logic." He boasts of having 
completely blinded Horatio and others as to the real object of his 
visit. What should then Horatio pummel his head for? The spirits 
were never known before to be as rude as that. But Dr. B. does not 
believe in their existence and so lays the whole thing at Horatio's door. 
He forgets to state, though, that a whole shower of missiles were thrown 
at his head and that — "pale as a ghost," so says the tale-telling record 
— the poor scientist surpassed for a moment the "fleet-footed Achilles" 
himself in the celerity with which he took to his heels. How strange 
if Horatio, not suspecting him still, left him standing at two feet dis- 
tance from the shawl ! How very logical ! 

It becomes evident that the said neglected logic was keeping com- 
pany at the time with old mother Truth at the bottom of her well, 
neither of them being wanted by Dr. Beard. I myself have sat upon 
the upper step of the platform for fourteen nights by the side of Mrs. 
Cleveland. I got up every time "Honto" approached me to within an 
inch of my face in order to see her the better. I have touched her 


hands repeatedly as other spirits have been touched, and even embraced 
her nearly every night. 

Therefore, when I read Dr. Beard's preposterous and cool assertion 
that "a very low order of genius is required to obtain command of a few 
words in different languages and so to mutter them to credulous Spiri- 
tualists," I feel every right in the world to say in my turn that such a 
scientific exposure as Dr. Beard has come out with in his article does 
not require any genius at all; per contra, it requires a ridiculous faith 
on the part of the writer in his own infallibility, as well as a positive 
confidence in finding in all his readers what he elegantly terms "weak- 
minded fools." Every word of his statement, when it is not a most 
evident untruth, is a wicked and malicious insinuation built on the very 
equivocal authority of one witness against the evidence of thousands. 

Says Dr Beard, "I have proved that the life of the Eddys is one long 
lie, the details need no further discussion." The writer of the above 
lines forgets, by saying these imprudent words, that some people might 
think that "like attracts like." He went to Chittenden with deceit in 
his heart and falsehood on his lips, and so judging his neighbour by 
the character he assumed himself, he takes everyone for a knave when 
he does not put him down as a fool. Declaring so positively that he 
has proved it, the doctor forgets one trifling circumstance, namely, that 
he has proved nothing whatever. 

Where are his boasted proofs? When we contradict him by saying 
that the seance-xoo\\\ is far from being as dark as he pretends it to be, 
and that the spirits themselves have repeatedly called out through Mrs. 
Eaton's voice for more light, we only say what we can prove before any 
jury. When Dr. Beard says that all the spirits are personated by W. 
Eddy, he advances what would prove to be a greater conundrum for 
solution than the apparition of spirits themselves. There he falls right 
away into the domain of Cagliostro: for if Dr. B. has seen five or six 
spirits in all, other persons, myself included, have seen one hundred 
and nineteen in less than a fortnight, nearly all of whom were differ- 
ently dressed. Besides, the accusation of Dr. Beard implies the idea 
to the public that the artist of The Daily Graphic who made the 
sketches of so many of those apparitions, and who is not a "credulous 
Spiritualist" himself, is likewise a humbug, propagating to the world 
what he did not see, and so spreading at large the most preposterous 
and outrageous lie. 

When the learned doctor will have explained to us how any man in 


his shirt-sleeves and a pair of tight pants for an attire can possibly con- 
ceal on his person (the cabinet having been previously found empty) 
a whole bundle of clothes, women's robes, hats, caps, head-gears, and 
entire suits of evening dress, white waistcoats and neckties included, 
then he will be entitled to more belief than he is at present. That 
would be a proof indeed, for, with all due respect to his scientific mind, 
Dr. Beard is not the first CEdipus that has thought of catching the 
Sphinx by its tail and so unriddling the mystery. We have known more 
than one "weak-minded fool," ourselves included, that has laboured 
under a similar delusion for more than one night, but all of us were 
finally obliged to repeat the words of the great Galileo, "B pur, se 
muove!" and give it up. 

But Dr. Beard does not give it up. Preferring to keep a scornful 
silence as to any reasonable explanation, he hides the secret of the 
above mystery in the depths of his profoundly scientific mind. "His 
life is given to scientific researches," you see; "his physiological know- 
ledge and neuro-physiological learning are immense," for he says so, 
and skilled as he is in combating fraud by still greater fraud (see 
column the eighth), spiritualistic humbug has no more mysteries for 
him. In five minutes the scientist had done more towards science 
than all the rest of the scientists put together have done in years of 
labour, and "would feel ashamed if he had not." (See same column.) 
In the overpowering modesty of his learning he takes no credit to 
himself for having done so, though he has discovered the astounding, 
novel fact of the "cold benumbing sensation." How Wallace, Crookes 
and Varley, the naturalist-anthropologist, the chemist and electrician, 
will blush with envy in their old country! America alone is able to 
produce on her fertile soil such quick and miraculous intellects. " Veni, 
Vidi, Via/" was the motto of a great conqueror. Why should not Dr. 
Beard select for his crest the same? And then, not unlike the Alex- 
anders and the Caesars of antiquity (in the primitive simplicity of his 
manners), he abuses people so elegantly, calling them "fools" when he 
cannot find a better argument. 

A far wiser mind than Dr. Beard (will he dispute the fact?) has sug- 
gested, centuries ago, that the tree was to be judged according to its 
fruits. Spiritualism, notwithstanding the desperate efforts of more 
scientific men than himself, has stood its ground without flinching for 
more than a quarter of a century. Where are the fruits of the tree of 
science that blossoms on the soil of Dr. Beard's mind? If we are to 


judge of them by his article, then verily the said tree needs more than 
usual care. As for the fruits, it would appear that they are as yet in the 
realms of "sweet delusive hope." But then, perhaps the doctor was 
afraid to crush his readers under the weight of his learning (true merit 
has been in all times modest and unassuming), and that accounts for 
the learned doctor withholding from us any scientific proof of the fraud 
that he pretends to be exposing, except the above-mentioned fact of 
the "cold benumbing sensation." But how Horatio can keep his hand 
and arm ice cold under a warm shawl for half an hour at a time, in 
summer as well as in any other season, and that without having some 
ice concealed about his person, or how he can prevent it from thawing 
— all the above is a mystery that Dr. Beard doesn't reveal for the pre- 
sent. Maybe he will tell us something of it in his book that he adver- 
tises in the article. Well, we only hope that the former will be more 
satisfactory than the latter. 

I will add but a few words before ending my debate with Dr. Beard 
for ever. All that he says about the lamp concealed in a bandbox, the 
strong confederates, etc., exists only in his imagination, for the mere 
sake of argument, we suppose. "False in one, false in all," says Dr. 
Beard in column the sixth. These words are a just verdict on his own 

Here I will briefly state what I reluctantly withheld up to the present 
moment from the knowledge of all such as Dr. Beard. The fact was 
too sacred in my eyes to allow it to be trifled with in newspaper gossip- 
ing. But now, in order to settle the question at once, I deem it my 
duty as a Spiritualist to surrender it to the opinion of the public. 

On the last night that I spent with the Eddys I was presented by 
Georgo Dix and Mayflower with a silver decoration, the upper part of 
a medal with which I was but too familiar. I quote the precise words 
of the spirit: "We bring you this decoration, for we think you will 
value it more highly than anything else. You will recognize it, for it is 
the badge of honour that was presented to your father by his Govern- 
ment for the campaign of 1828, between Russia and Turkey. We got 
it through the influence of your uncle, who appeared to you here this 
evening. We brought it from your father's grave at Stavropol. You 
will identify it by a certain sign known to yourself." 

These words were spoken in the presence of forty witnesses. CoL 
Olcott will describe the fact and give the design of the decoration. 

I have the said decoration in my possession. I know it as having 


belonged to my father. More, I have identified it by a portion that, 
through carelessness, I broke myself many years ago, and, to settle all 
doubt in relation to it, I posssess the photograph of my father (a pic- 
ture that has never been at the Eddys', and could never possibly have 
been seen by any of them) on which this medal is plainly visible. 

Query for Dr. Beard : How could the Eddys know that my father was 
buried at Stavropol; that he was ever presented with such a medal, or 
that he had been present and in actual service at the time of the war 
of 1828? 

Willing as we are to give every one his due, we feel compelled to say 
on behalf of Dr. Beard that he has not boasted of more than he can do, 
in advising the Eddys to take a few private lessons of him in the trickery 
of mediumship. The learned doctor must be expert in such trickeries. 
We are likewise ready to admit that in saying as he did that "his 
article would only confirm the more the Spiritualists in their belief" 
(and he ought to have added, "convince no one else"), Dr. Beard has 
proved himself to be a greater "prophetic medium" than any other in 
this country ! 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

jj, Irving Place, New York City, 

November 10th, 1874. 


[From a letter received from JIme. Blavatsky last week we make the following 
extracts, want of space alone preventing us from publishing it entire. It was 
written in her usual lively and entertaining style, and her opinions expressed are 
worthv of careful study, many of them being fully consistent with the true state of 
affairs.— Editor "Spiritual Scientist" (Dec. 3rd, 1874).] 

As it is, I have only done my duty; first, towards Spiritualism, that 
I have defended as well as I could from the attacks of imposture under 
its too transparent mask of science; then towards two helpless slandered 
"mediums" — the last word becoming fast in our days the synonym of 
"martyr"; secondly, I have contributed my mite towards opening the 
eyes of an indifferent public to the real, intrinsic value of such a man 
as Dr. Beard. But I am obliged to confess that I really do not believe 
that I have done any good — at least, any practical good — to Spiritualism 
itself; and I never hope to perform such a feat as that were I to keep 
on for an eternity bombarding all the newspapers of America with my 
challenges and refutations of the lies told by the so-called "scientific 

It is with a profound sadness in my heart that I acknowledge this 
fact, for I begin to think there is no help for it. For over fifteen years 
have I fought my battle for the blessed truth; I have travelled and 
preached it — though I never was born for a lecturer — from the snow- 
covered tops of the Caucasian Mountains, as well as from the sandy 
valleys of the Nile. I have proved the truth of it practically and by 
persuasion. For the sake of Spiritualism I have left my home, an easy 
life amongst a civilized society, and have become a wanderer upon the 
face of this earth. I had already seen my hopes realized, beyond the 
most sanguine expectations, when, in my restless desire for more 
knowledge, my unlucky star brought me to America. 

Knowing this country to be the cradle of modern Spiritualism, I 


came over here from France with feelings not unlike those of a 
Mohammedan approaching the birthplace of his prophet. I had for- 
gotten that "no prophet is without honour save in his own country." 
In the less than fourteen months that I am here, sad experience has 
but too well sustained the never-dying evidence of this immortal truth. 

What little I have done towards defending phenomena I am ever 
ready to do over and over again, as long as I have a breath of life left 
in me. But what good will it ever do? We have a popular and wise 
Russian saying that "one Cossack on the battle-field is no warrior." 
Such is my case, together with that of many other poor, struggling 
wretches, everyone of whom, like a solitary scout, sent far ahead in 
advance of the arm}-, has to fight his own battle, and defend the post 
entrusted to him, unaided by anyone but himself. There is no union 
between Spiritualists, no entente cordialc, as the French say. Judge 
Edmonds said, some years ago, that they numbered in their ranks over 
eleven millions in this country alone; and I believe it to be true; in 
which case, it is but to be the more deplored. When one man — as 
Dr. Beard did and will do yet — dares to defy such a formidable body 
as that, there must be some cause for it. His insults, gross and vulgar 
as they are, are too fearless to leave one particle of doubt that if he 
does it, it is but because he knows too well that he can do so with 
impunity and perfect ease. Year after year the American Spiritualists 
have allowed themselves to be ridiculed and slighted by everyone who 
had a mind to do so, protesting so feebly as to give their opponents the 
most erroneous idea of their weakness. Am I wrong, then, in saying 
that our Spiritualists are more to be blamed than Dr. Beard himself in 
all this ridiculous polemic? Moral cowardice breeds more contempt 
than the "familiarity" of the old motto. How can we expect such a 
scientific sleight-of-hand as he is to respect a body that does not respect 
itself? . . . 

My humble opinion is, that the majority of our Spiritualists are too 
much afraid for their "respectability" when called upon to confess and 
acknowledge their "belief." Will 3 7 ou agree with me, if I say that the 
dread of the social Areopagus is so deeply rooted in the hearts of your 
American people, that to endeavour to tear it out of them would be 
undertaking to shake the whole sj'stem of society from top to bottom? 
"Respectability" and "fashion" have brought more than one utter 
materialist to select (for mere show) the Episcopalian and other wealthy 
churches. But Spiritualism is not "fashionable," as yet, and that's 


where the trouble is. Notwithstanding its immense and daily increasing 
numbers, it has not won, till now, the right of citizenship. Its chief 
leaders are not clothed in gold and purple and fine raiment; for, not 
unlike Christianity in the beginning of its era, Spiritualism numbers 
in its ranks more of the humble and afflicted ones, than of the powerful 
and wealthy of this earth. Spiritualists belonging to the latter class 
will seldom dare to step out in the arena of publicity and boldly pro- 
claim their belief in the face of the whole world; that hybrid monster, 
called "public opinion," is too much for them; and what does a 
Dr. Beard care for the opinion of the poor and the humble ones? He 
knows but too well that his insulting terms of "fools" and "weak- 
minded idiots," as his accusations of credulousness, will never be applied 
to themselves by any of the proud castes of modern "Pharisees"; 
Spiritualists as they know themselves to be, and have perhaps been for 
3 ? ears, if they deign to notice the insult at all, it will be but to answer 
him as the cowardly apostle did before them, "Man, I tell thee, I know 
him not!" 

St. Peter was the only one of the remaining eleven that denied his 
Christ thrice before the Pharisees; that is just the reason why, of all 
the apostles, he is the most revered by the Catholics, and has been 
selected to rule over the most wealthy as the most proud, greedy and 
hypocritical of all the churches in Christendom. And so, half Christians 
and half believers in the new dispensation, the majority of those 
eleven millions of Spiritualists stand with one foot on the threshold of 
Spiritualism, pressing firmly w T ith the other one the steps leading to 
the altars of their "fashionable" places of worship, ever ready to leap 
over under the protection of the latter in hours of danger. They 
know that under the cover of such immense "respectability" they are 
perfectly safe. Who would presume or dare to accuse of "credulous 
stupidity" a member belonging to certain "fashionable congregations" ? 
Under the powerful and holy shade of any of those "pillars of truth" 
every heinous crime is liable to become immediately transformed into 
but a slight and petty deviation from strict Christian virtue. Jupiter, 
for all his numberless "Don Juan" like frolics, was not the less on that 
account considered by his worshippers as the "Father of Gods" ! 


A few weeks ago, in a letter, extracts from which have appeared in 
The Spiritual Scientist of December 3rd, I alluded to the deplorable 
lack of accord between American Spiritualists, and the consequences 
of the same. At that time I had just fought out my useless battle with 
a foe who, though beneath my own personal notice, had insulted all the 
Spiritualists of this country, as a body, in a caricature of a so-called 
scientific expose'. In dealing with him I dealt with but one of the 
numerous "bravos" enlisted in the arm}- of the bitter opponents of 
belief; and my task was, comparatively speaking, an easy one, if we 
take it for granted that falsehood can hardly withstand truth, as the 
latter will ever speak for itself. Since that day the scales have turned ; 
prompted now, as then, by the same love of justice and fair play, I feel 
compelled to throw down my glove once more in our defence, seeing 
that so few of the adherents to the cause are bold enough to accept 
that duty, and so man}* of them show the white feather of pusillanimity. 

I indicated in my letter that such a state of things, such a complete 
lack of harmony, and such cowardice, I may add, among their ranks, 
subjected the Spiritualists and the cause to constant attacks from a 
compact, aggressive public opinion, based upon ignorance and wicked 
prejudice, intolerant, remorseless and thoroughly dishonest in the 
employment of its methods. As a vast army, amply equipped, may be 
cut to pieces by an inferior force well trained and handled, so Spiri- 
tualism, numbering its hosts by millions, and able to vanquish every 
reactionary theology by a little well-directed effort, is constantly 
harassed, weakened, impeded, by the convergent attacks of pulpit and 
press, and by the treachery and cowardice of its trusted leaders. It is 
one of these professed leaders that I propose to question to-day, as 
closely as my rights, not only as a widely known Kabalist but also as a 
resident of the United States, will allow me. When I see the numbers 
of believers in this country, the broad basis of their belief, the im- 


pregnability of their position, and the talent that is embraced within 
their ranks, I am disgusted at the spectacle that they manifest at this 
very moment, after the Katie King— how shall we say— fraud? By no 
means, since the last word of this sensational comedy is far from being 


There is not a country on the face of our planet, with a jury attached 
to its courts of justice, but gives the benefit of the doubt to every 
criminal brought within the law, and affords him a chance to be heard 
and tell his story. 

Is such the case between the pretended "spirit performer," the 
alleged bogus Katie King, and the Holmes mediums? I answer most 
decidedly no, and mean to prove it, if no one else does. 

I deny the right of any man or woman to wrench from our hands all 
possible means of finding out the truth. I deny the right of any 
editor of a daily newspaper to accuse and publish accusations, refusing 
at the same time to hear one word of justification from the defendants, 
and so, instead of helping people to clear up the matter, leaving them 
more than ever to grope their way in the dark. 

The biography of "Katie King" has come out at last; a sworn 
certificate, if you please, endorsed (under oath?) by Dr. Child, who 
throughout the whole of this "burlesque" epilogue has ever appeared 
in it, like some inevitable deus-ex-machina. The whole of this made- 
up elegy (by whom? evidently not by Mrs. White) is redolent with the 
perfume of erring innocence, of Magdalene-like tales of woe and 
sorrow, tardy repentance and the like, giving us the abnormal idea of 
a pickpocket in the act of robbing our soul of its most precious, 
thrilling sensations. The carefully-prepared explanations on some 
points that appear now and then as so many stumbling-blocks in the 
way of a seemingly fair expose do not preclude, nevertheless, through 
the whole of it, the possibility of doubt ; for many awkward semblances 
of truth, partly taken from the confessions of that fallen angel, Mrs. 
White, and partly — most of them we should say — copied from the 
private note-book of her "amanuensis," give you a fair idea of the 
veracity of this sworn certificate. For instance, according to her own 
statement and the evidence furnished by the habitues of the Holmeses, 
Mrs. White having never been present at any of the dark circles (her 
alleged acting as Katie King excluding all possibility, on her part, of 
such a public exhibition of flesh and bones), how comes she to know 
so well, in every particular, about the tricks of the mediums, the pro- 


gramme of their performances, etc.? Then, again, Mrs. White who 
remembers so well — by rote we may say — every word exchanged 
between Katie King and Mr. Owen, the spirit and Dr. Child, has evi- 
dently forgotten all that was ever said hy her in her bogus personation 
to Dr. Felger; she does not even remember a very important secret com- 
municated by her to the latter gentleman! What an extraordinary 
combination of memory and absence of mind at the same time. May 
not a certain memorandum-book, with its carefully-noted contents, 
account for it, perhaps? The document is signed, under oath, with 
the name of a non-existing spirit, Katie King. . . . Very clever! 

All protestations of innocence or explanations sent in by Mr. or Mrs. 
Holmes, written or verbal, are peremptorily refused publication by the 
press. No respectable paper dares takes upon itself the responsibility 
of such an unpopular cause. 

The public feel triumphant; the clergy, forgetting in the excitement 
of their victory the Brooklyn scandal, rub their hands and chuckle; 
a certain exposer of materialized spirits and mind-reading, like some 
monstrous anti-spiritual mitrailleuse shoots forth a volley of missiles, 
and sends a condoling letter to Mr. Owen; Spiritualists, crestfallen, 
ridiculed and defeated, feel crushed for ever under the pretended expo- 
sure and that overwhelming, pseudonymous evidence. . . . The 
day of Waterloo has come for us, and sweeping away the last remnants 
of the defeated army, it remains for us to ring our own death-knell. 
. . . Spirits, beware! henceforth, if you lack prudence, your mate- 
rialized forms will have to stop at the cabinet doors, and in a perfect 
tremble melt away from sight, singing in chorus Edgar Poe's "Never 
7noreT One would really suppose that the whole belief of the Spiri- 
tualists hung at the girdles of the Holmeses, and that in case they 
should be unmasked as tricksters, we might as well vote our pheno- 
mena an old woman's delusion. 

Is the scraping off of a barnacle the destruction of a ship? But, 
moreover, we are not sufficiently furnished with any plausible proofs 
at all. 

Colonel Olcott is here and has begun investigations. His first tests 
with Mrs. Holmes alone, for Mr. Holmes is lying sick at Vineland, 
have proved satisfactory enough, in his eyes, to induce Mr. Owen to 
return to the spot of his first love, namely, the Holmeses' cabinet. He 
began by tying Mrs. Holmes up in a bag, the string drawn tightly 
round her neck, knotted and sealed in the presence of Mr. Owen, Col. 


Olcott and a third gentleman. After that the medium was placed in 
the erapt}' cabinet, which was rolled away into the middle of the room, 
and it was made a perfect impossibility for her to /esc her hands. The 
door being closed, hands appeared in the aperture, then the outlines of 
a face came, which gradually formed into the classical head of John 
King, turban, beard and all. He kindly allowed the investigators to 
stroke his beard, touch his warm face, and patted their hands with his. 
After the seance was over, Mrs. Holmes, with many tears of gratitude 
in the presence of the three gentlemen, assured Mr. Owen most solemnly 
that she had spoken many a time to Dr. Child about "Katie" leaving 
her presents in the house and dropping them about the place, and that 
she — Mrs. Holmes — wanted Mr. Owen to know it; but that the doctor 
had given her most peremptory orders to the contrary, forbidding her 
to let the former know it, his precise words being, "Don't do it, it's 
useless; he must not know it." I leave the question of Mrs. Holmes' 
veracity as to this fact for Dr. Child to settle with her. 

On the other hand, we have the woman, Eliza White, exposer and 
accuser of the Holmeses, who remains up to the present day a riddle 
and an Egyptian mystery to every man and woman of this city, except 
to the clever and equally invisible party — a sort of protecting deity — 
who took the team in hand, and drove the whole concern of "Katie's" 
materialization to destruction, in what he considered such a first-rate 
way. She is not to be met, or seen, or interviewed, or even spoken to 
by anyone, least of all by the ex-admirers of "Katie King" herself, so 
anxious to get a peep at the modest, blushing beauty who deemed her- 
self worthy of personating the fair spirit. Maybe it's rather dangerous 
to allow them the chance of comparing for themselves the features of 
both? But the most perplexing fact of this most perplexing imbroglio 
is that Mr. R. D. Owen, by his own confession to me, has never, not even 
on the day of the exposure, seen Mrs. White, or talked to her, or had other- 
wise the least chance to sea// her features close cno2tgh for hi/// to identify her. 
He caught a glimpse of her general outline but once, viz., at the mock 
seance of Dec. 5th, referred to in her biography, when she appeared to 
half a dozen of witnesses (invited to testify and identify the fraud) 
emerging de novo from the cabinet, with her face closely covered with a 
double veil (!) after which the sweet vision vanished and appeared no 
more. Mr. Owen adds that he is not prepared to swear to the identity 
of Mrs. White and Katie King. 

May I be allowed to enquire as to the necessity of such a profound 


mystery, after the promise of a public exposure of all the fraud? It 
seems to me that the said exposure would have been far more satis- 
factory if conducted otherwise. Why not give the fairest chance to 
R. D. Owen, the party who has suffered the most on account of this 
disgusting swindle — if swindle there is — to compare Mrs. White with 
his Katie? May I suggest again that it is perhaps because the spirit's 
features are but too well impressed on his memory, poor, noble, con- 
fiding gentleman. Gauze dresses and moonshine, coronets and stars 
can possibly be counterfeited in a half-darkened room, while features, 
answering line for line to the "spirit Katie's" face, are not so easily 
made up ; the latter require very clever preparations. A lie may be easy 
enough for a smooth tongue, but no pug nose can lie itself into a 

classical one. 

A very honourable gentleman of my acquaintance, a fervent admirer 
of the "spirit Katie's" beauty, who has seen and addressed her at two 
feet distance about fifty times, tells me that on a certain evening, when 
Dr. Child begged the spirit to let him see her tongue (did the honour- 
able doctor want to compare it with Mrs. White's tongue — the lady 
having been his patient?), she did so, and upon her opening her mouth, 
the gentleman in question assures me that he plainly saw, what in his 
admiring phraseology he terms "the most beautiful set of teeth — two 
rows of pearls." He remarked most particularly those teeth. Now 
there are some wicked, slandering gossips, who happen to 'have culti- 
vated most intimately Mrs. White's acquaintance in the happy days of 
her innocence, before her fall and subsequent expose', and they tell us 
very bluntly (we beg the penitent angel's pardon, we repeat but a hear- 
say) that this lady can hardly number among her other natural charms 
the rare beauty of pearly teeth, or a perfect, most beautifully formed hand 
and arm. Why not show her teeth at once to the said admirer, and so 
shame the slanderers? Why shun "Katie's" best friends? If we were 
so anxious as she seems to be to prove "who is who," we would surely 
submit with pleasure to the operation of showing our teeth, yea, even 
in a court of justice. The above fact, trifling as it may seem at first 
sight, would be considered as a very important one by any intelligent 
juryman in a question of personal identification. 

Mr. Owen's statement to us, corroborated by "Katie King" herself in 
her biography, a sworn document, remember, is in the following words: 
"She consented to have an interview with some gentlemen who had 
seen her personating the spirit, on condition that she -would be allowed to 


keep a veil over her -face all the time she was conversing with them" {Phila- 
delphia Inquirer, Jan. nth, 4th col., "K. K. Biography.") 

Now pray why should these "too credulous weak-minded gentle- 
men," as the immortal Dr. Beard would say, be subjected again to such 
an extra strain on their blind faith? We should say that that was just 
the proper time to come out and prove to them what was the nature of 
the mental aberration they were labouring under for so many months. 
Well, if they do swallow this new veiled proof they are welcome to it. 

Vulgus vult decipi decipiaturl But I expect something more sub- 
stantial before submitting in guilty silence to be laughed at. As it is, 
the case stands thus: 

According to the same biography (same column) the mock seance 
was prepared and carried out to everyone's heart's content, through 
the endeavours of an amateur detective, who, by the way, if any one 
wants to know, is a Mr. W. O. Leslie, a contractor or agent for the 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York Railroad, residing in this city. 
If the press and several of the most celebrated victims of the fraud are 
under bond of secrecy with him, / am no/, and mean to say what I 
know. And so the said seance took place on Dec. 5th last, which fact 
appearing in sworn evidence, implies that Mr. Leslie had wrested from 
Mrs. White the confession, of her guilt at least several days previous to 
that date, though the precise day of the "amateur's" triumph is very 
cleverly withheld in the sworn certificate. Now comes a new conun- 

On the evenings of Dec. 2nd and 3rd, at two seances held at the 
Holmeses', I, myself, in the presence of Robert Dale Owen and Dr. 
Child (chief manager of those performances, from whom I got on the 
same morning an admission card), together with twenty more witnesses, 
saw the spirit of Katie step out of the cabinet twice, in full form and 
beauty, and I can swear in any court of justice that she did not bear 
the least resemblance to Mrs. White's portrait. 

As I am unwilling to base my argument upon any other testimony than 
my own, I will not dwell upon the alleged apparition of Katie King at 
the Holmeses' on Dec. 5th to Mr. Roberts and fifteen others, among 
whom was Mr. W. H. Clarke, a reporter for The Daily Graphic, for I 
happened to be out of town, though, if this fact is demonstrated, it 
will go far against Mrs. White, for on that precise evening, and at the 
same hour, she was exhibiting herself as the bogus Katie at the mock 
seance. Something still more worthv of consideration is found in the 


most positive assertion of a gentleman, a Mr. Wescott, who on that 
evening of the 5th, on his way home from the real seance, met in the 
car Mr. Owen, Dr. Child and his wife, all three returning from the 
mock seance. Now it so happened that this gentleman mentioned to 
them about having just seen the spirit Katie come out of the cabinet, 
adding "he thought she never looked better"; upon hearing which 
Mr. Robert Dale Owen stared at him in amazement, and all the three 
looked greatly perplexed. 

And so I have but insisted on the apparition of the spirit at the 
mediums' house on the evenings Dec. 2nd and 3rd, when I witnessed 
the phenomenon, together with Robert Dale Owen and other parties. 

It would be worse than useless to offeror accept the poor excuse that 
the confession of the woman White, her exposure of the fraud, the 
delivery to Mr. Leslie of all her dresses and presents received by her 
in the name of Katie King, the disclosure of the sad news by this 
devoted gentleman to Mr. Owen, and the preparation of the mock 
seance cabinet and other important matters, had all of them taken 
place on the 4th; the more so, as we are furnished with most positive 
proofs that Dr. Child at least, if not Mr. Owen, knew all about Mr. 
Leslie's success with Mrs. White several days beforehand. Knowing 
then of the fraud, how could Mr. Leslie allow it to be still carried on, 
as the fact of Katie's apparition at the Holmeses' on Dec. 2nd and 3rd 
prove to have been the case? Any gentleman, even with a very mode- 
rate degree of honour about him, would never allow the public to be 
fooled and defrauded any longer, unless he had the firm resolution of 
catching the bogus spirit on the spot and proving the imposition. But 
no such thing occurred. Quite the contrary; for Dr. Child, who had 
constituted himself from the first not only chief superintendent of the 
seances, cabinet and materialization business, but also cashier and ticket- 
holder (paying the mediums at first ten dollars per seance, as he did, and 
subsequently fifteen dollars, and pocketing the rest of the proceeds), on 
that same evening of the 3rd Took the admission money from every visitor 
as quietly as he ever did. I will add, furthermore, that I, in propria 
persona, handed him on that very night a five-dollar bill, and that he 
(Dr. Child) kept the whole of it, remarking that the balance could be 
made good to us by future sca?ices. 

Will Dr. Child presume to say that getting ready, as he then was, 
in company with Mr. Leslie, to produce the bogus Katie King on the 
5th of December, he knew nothing, as yet, of the fraud on the 3rd? 


Further; in the same biography (chap, viii, column the ist), it is 
stated that, immediately upon Mrs. White's return from Blissfield, 
Mich., she called on Dr. Child, and offered to expose the whole humbug 
she had been engaged in, but that he would not listen to her. Upon 
that occasion she was not veiled, as indeed there was no necessity for her 
to be, since by Dr. Child's own admission she had been a patient of his, 
and under his medical treatment. In a letter from Holmes to Dr. Child, 
dated Blissfield, Aug. 28th, 1874, the former writes: 

Mrs. White says vou and the friends were ver}' rude, wanted to look into all our 
boxes and trunks and break open locks. What were you looking for, or expecting 
to find? 

All these several circumstances show in the clearest possible manner 
that Dr. Child and Mrs. White were on terms much more intimate then 
than that of casual acquaintance, and it is the height of absurdity to 
assert that if Mrs. White and Katie King were identical, the fraud was 
not perfectly well known to the "Father Confessor" (see narrative of 
John and Katie King, p. 45). But a side light is thrown upon this 
coined}' from the pretended biography of John King and his daughter 
Katie, written at their dictation in his ozan office by Dr. Child himself. 
This book was given out to the world as an authentic revelation from 
these two spirits. It tells us that they stepped in and stepped out of 
his office, da} - after day, as any mortal being might, and after holding 
brief conversations, followed by long narratives, they fully endorsed 
the genuineness of their own apparition in the Holmeses' cabinet. 
Moreover, the spirits appearing at the public sc'anccs corroborated the 
statements which they made to their amanuensis in his office; the two 
dovetailing together and making a consistent story. Now, if the 
Holmeses' Kings were Mrs. White, who were the spirits visiting the 
doctor's office? and if the spirits visiting him were genuine, who were 
those that appeared at the public seances? In which particular has the 
"Father Confessor" defrauded the public? In selling a book containing 
false biographies or exposing bogus spirits at the Holmeses'? Which 
or both? Let the doctor choose. 

If his conscience is so tender as to force him into print with his 
certificate and affidavits why does it not sink deep enough to reach 
his pocket, and compel him to refund to us the money obtained by him 
under false pretences? According to his own confession, the Holmeses 
received from him, up to the time they left town, about $1,200, for four 
months of daily seances. That he admitted every night as many visitors 


as he could possibly find room for — sometimes as many as thirty-five — 
is a fact that will be corroborated by every person who has seen the 
phenomena more than once. Furthermore, some six or seven reliable 
witnesses have told us that the modest fee of %i was only for the 
habitues, too curious or over-anxious visitors having to pay sometimes 
as much as $5, and in one instance $10. This last fact I give under all 
reserve, not having had to pay so much as that myself. 

Now let an impartial investigator of this Philadelphia imbroglio take 
a pencil and cast up the profit left after paying the mediums, in this 
nightly spirit speculation lasting many months. The result would be 
to show that the business of a spirit "Father Confessor" is, on the 
whole, a very lucrative one. 

L,adies and gentlemen of the spiritual belief, methinks we are all of 
us between the horns of a very wonderful dilemma. If you happen to 
find your position comfortable, / do not, and so will try to extricate 

Let it be perfectly understood, though, that I do not intend in the 
least to undertake at present the defence of the Holmeses. They may 
be the greatest frauds for what I know or care. My only purpose is to 
know for a certainty to whom I am indebted for my share of ridicule — 
small as it may be, luckily for me. If we Spiritualists are to be laughed 
and scoffed at and ridiculed and sneered at, we ought to know at least 
the reason why. Either there was a fraud or there was none. If the 
fraud is a sad reality, and Dr. Child by some mysterious combination 
of his personal cruel fate has fallen the first victim to it, after having 
proved himself so anxious for the sake of his honour and character to 
stop at once the further progress of such a deceit on a public that had 
hitherto looked on him alone as the party responsible for the perfect 
integrity and genuineness of a phenomenon so fully endorsed by him 
in all particulars, why does not the doctor come out the first and help 
us to the clue of all this mystery? Well aware of the fact that the 
swindled and defrauded parties can at any day assert their rights to the 
restitution of moneys laid out by them solely on the ground of their 
entire faith in him they had trusted, why does he not sue the Holmeses 
and so prove his own innocence? He cannot but admit that in the 
eyes of some initiated parties, his cause looks far more ugly as it now 
stands than the accusation under which the Holmeses vainly struggle. 
Or, if there was no fraud, or if it is not fully proved, as it cannot well 
be on the shallow testimony of a nameless woman signing documents 

2 4 


with pseudonyms, why then all this comedy on the part of the prin- 
cipal partner in the "Katie materialization" business? Was not Dr. 
Child the institutor, the promulgator, and we may say the creator of 
what proves to have been but a bogus phenomenon, after all? Was not 
he the advertising agent of this incarnated humbug — the Barnum of 
this spiritual show? And now that he has helped to fool not only 
Spiritualists but the world at large, whether as a confederate himself or 
one of the weak-minded fools — no matter, so long as it is demonstrated 
that it was he that helped us to this scrape — he imagines that by help- 
ing to accuse the mediums, and expose the fraud, by fortifying with his 
endorsement all manner of bogus affidavits and illegal certificates from 
non-existing parties, he hopes to find himself henceforth perfectly 
clear of responsibility to the persons he has dragged after him into this 
infamous swamp! 

We must demand a legal investigation. We have the right to insist 
upon it, for we Spiritualists have bought this right at a dear price: 
with the life-long reputation of Mr. Owen as an able and reliable writer 
and trustworthy witness of the phenomena, who may henceforth be 
regarded as a doubted and ever-ridiculed visionary by sceptical wise- 
acres. We have bought this right with the prospect that all of us, 
whom Dr. Child has unwittingly or otherwise (time will prove it) fooled 
into belief in his Katie King, will become for a time the butts for end- 
less raillery, satires and jokes from the press and ignorant masses. We 
regret to feel obliged to contradict on this point such an authority in 
all matters as The Daily Graphic, but if orthodox laymen rather de- 
cline to see this fraud thoroughly investigated in a court of justice 
for fear of the Holmeses becoming entitled to the crown of martyrs, we 
have no such fear as that, and repeat with Mr. Hudson Tuttle that 
"better perish the cause with the impostors than live such a life of 
eternal ostracism, with no chance for justice or redress." 

Why in the name of all that is wonderful should Dr. Child have all 
the laurels of this unfought battle, in which the attacked army seems 
for ever doomed to be defeated without so much as a struggle? Why 
should he have all the material benefit of this materialized humbug, 
and R. D. Owen, an honest Spiritualist, whose name is universally 
respected, have all the kicks and thumps of the sceptical press? Is 
this fair and just? How long shall we Spiritualists be turned over like 
so many scapegoats to the unbelievers by cheating mediums and specu- 
lating prophets? Like some modern shepherd Paris, Mr. Owen fell a 


victim to the snares of this pernicious, newly materialized Helen ; and 
on him falls heaviest the present reaction that threatens to produce a 
new Trojan war. But the Homer of the Philadelphia Iliad, the one 
who has appeared in the past as the elegiac poet and biographer of that 
same Helen, and who appears in the present kindling up the spark 
of doubt against the Holmeses, till, if not speedily quenched, it might 
become a roaring ocean of flames — he that plays at this present hour 
the unparalleled part of a chief justice presiding at his own trial and 
deciding in his own case — Dr. Child, we say, turning back on the spirit 
daughter of his own creation, and backing the mortal, illegitimate off- 
spring furnished by somebody, is left unmolested! Only fancy, while 
R. D. Owen is fairly crushed under the ridicule of the exposure, Dr. 
Child, who has endorsed false spirits, now turns state's evidence and 
endorses as fervently spirit certificates, swearing to the same in a court 
of justice! 

If ever I may hope to get a chance of having my advice accepted by 
some one anxious to clear up all this sickening story, I would insist 
that the whole matter be forced into a real court of justice and un- 
riddled before a jury. If Dr. Child is, after all, an honest man whose 
trusting nature was imposed upon, he must be the first to offer us all 
the chances that lie in his power of getting at the bottom of all these 
endless "whys" and "hows." If he does not, in such a case we will 
try for ourselves to solve the following mysteries: 

1st, Judge Allen, of Vineland, now in Philadelphia, testifies to the 
fact that when the cabinet, made up under the direct supervision and 
instructions of Dr. Child, was brought home to the Holmeses, the 
doctor worked at it himself, unaided, one whole day, and with his tools, 
Judge Allen being at the time at the mediums', whom he was visiting. 
If there was a trap-door or "two cut boards" connected with it, who 
did the work? Who can doubt that such clever machinery, fitted in 
such a way as to baffle frequent and close examinations on the part of 
the sceptics, requires an experienced mechanic of more than ordinary 
ability? Further, unless well paid, he could hardly be bound to 
secrecy. Who paid him? Is it Holmes out of his ten-dollar nightly 
fee? We ought to ascertain it. 

2nd, If it is true, as two persons are ready to swear, that the party, 
calling herself Eliza White, alias "Frank," alias Katie King, and so 
forth, is no widow at all, having a well materialized husband, who 
is living, and who keeps a drinking saloon in a Connecticut town — then 


in such case the fair widow has perjured herself and Dr. Child has 
endorsed the perjury. We regret that he should endorse the state- 
ments of the former as rashly as he accepted the fact of her mate- 

3rd, Affidavits and witnesses (five in all) are ready to prove that on a 
certain night, when Mrs. White was visibly in her living body, refresh- 
ing her penitent stomach in company with impenitent associates in a 
lager beer saloon, having no claims to patrician "patronage," Katie 
King, in her spirit form, was as visibly seen at the door of her 

4th, On one occasion, when Dr. Child (in consequence of some 
prophetic vision, maybe) invited Mrs. White to his own house, where 
he locked her up with the inmates, who entertained her the whole of 
the evening, for the sole purpose of convincing (he always seems 
anxious to convince somebody of something) some doubting sceptics 
of the reality of the spirit-form, the latter appeared in the sea?ice-xoom. 
and talked with R. D. Owen in the presence of all the company. The 
Spiritualists were jubilant that night, and the doctor the most trium- 
phant of them all. Many are the witnesses ready to testify to the fact, 
but Dr. Child, when questioned, seems to have entirely forgotten this 
important occurrence. 

5th, Who is the party whom she claims to have engaged to personate 
General Rawlings? Let him come out and swear to it, so that we will 
all see his great resemblance to the defunct warrior. 

6th, Let her name the friends from whom she borrowed the costumes 
to personate "Sauntee" and "Richard." They must prove it under 
oath. Let them produce the dresses. Can she tell us where she got 
the shining robes of the second and third spheres? 

7th, Only some portions of Holmes' letters to "Frank" are published 
in the biography: some of them for the purpose of proving their co- 
partnership in the fraud at Blissfield. Can she name the house and 
parties with whom she lodged and boarded at Blissfield, Michigan? 

When all the above questions are answered and demonstrated to our 
satisfaction, then, and only then, shall we believe that the Holmeses are 
the only guilty parties to a fraud, which, for its consummate rascality 
and brazenness, is unprecedented in the annals of Spiritualism. 

I have read some of Mr. Holmes' letters, whether original or forged, 
no matter, and blessed as I am with a good memory, I well remember 
certain sentences that have been, very luckily for the poetic creature, 


suppressed by the blushing editor as being too vile for publication. 
One of the most modest of the paragraphs runs thus: 

Now, my advice to you, Frank, don't crook your ciboiu too often; no use doubling 
up and squaring your fists again. 

Oh, Katie King! 

Remember, the above is addressed to the woman who pretends to 
have personated the spirit of whom R. D. Owen wrote thus: 

I particularly noticed this evening the ease and harmony of her motions. In 
Naples, during five years, I frequented a circle famed for courtly demeanour; but 
never in the best-bred lady of rank accosting her visitors, have I seen Katie out- 

And further: 

A well-known artist of Philadelphia, after examining Katie, said to me that he 
had seldom seen features exhibiting more classic beauty. "Her movements and 
bearing," he added, "are the very ideal of grace." 

Compare for one moment this admiring description with the quota- 
tion from Holmes' letter. Fancy an ideal of classic beauty and grace 
crooking her elbow in a lager beer saloon, and — judge for yourselves I 

H. P. Beavatsky. 

////, Girard Street, Philadelpliia. 



In the last Religio-Philosophical Journal (for February 27th) in the 
Philadelphia department, edited by Dr. Child, under the most poetical 
heading of, "After the Storm comes the Sunshine," we read the 

I have been waiting patiently for the excitement in reference to the Holmes 
fraud to subside a little. I will now make some further statements and answer 
some questions. 


The stories of my acquaintance with Mrs. White are all fabrications. 

Further still: 

I shall not notice the various reports put forth about my pecuniary relations 
farther than to say there is a balance due to me for money loaned to the Holmeses. 

I claim the right to answer the above three quotations, the more so 
that the second one consigns me most unceremoniously to the ranks of 
the liars. Now if there is, in my humble judgment, anything more 
contemptible than a cheat, it is certainly a liar. 

The rest of this letter, editorial, or whatever it may be, is unanswer- 
able, for reasons that will be easily understood by whoever reads it. 
When petulant Mr. Pancks (in Little Dorrit) spanked the benevolent 
Christopher Casby, this venerable patriarch only mildly lifted up his 
blue eyes heavenward, and smiled more benignly than ever. Dr. Child, 
tossed about and as badly spanked by public opinion, smiles as sweetly 
as Mr. Casby, talks of "sunshine," and quiets his urgent accusers by 
assuring them that "it is all fabrications." 

I don't know whence Dr. Child takes his "sunshine," unless he 
draws it from the very bottom of his innocent heart. 

For my part, since I came to Philadelphia, I have seen little but 
slush and dirt; slush in the streets, and dirt in this exasperating 
Katie King mystery. 


I would strongly advise Dr. Child not to accuse me of "fabrication," 
whatever else he may be inclined to ornament me with. What I say 
I can prove, and am ever willing to do so at any day. If he is innocent 
of all participation in this criminal fraud, let him "rise and explain." 

If he succeeds in clearing his record, I will be the first to rejoice, and 
promise to offer him publicly my most sincere apology for the "erro- 
neous suspicions" I labour under respecting his part in the affair; but 
he must first prove that he is thoroughly innocent. Hard words prove 
nothing, and he cannot hope to achieve such a victory by simply 
accusing people of "fabrications." If he does not abstain from apply- 
ing epithets unsupported by substantial proofs, he risks, as in the game 
of shuttlecock and battledore, the chance of receiving the missile back, 
and maybe that it will hurt him worse than he expects. 

In the article in question he says: 

The stories of my acquaintance with Mrs. White are all fabrications. I did let 
her in two or three times, but the entry a_nd hall were so dark that it was impossible 
to recognize her or any one. I have seen her several times, and knew that she 
looked more like Katie King than Mr. [?] or Mrs. Holmes. 

Mirabile dictu! This beats our learned friend, Dr. Beard. The latter 
denies, point-blank, not only "materialization," which is not yet actually 
proved to the world, but also every spiritual phenomenon. But Dr. 
Child denies being acquainted with a woman whom he confesses him- 
self to have seen "several times," received in his office, where she was 
seen repeatedly by others, and yet at the same time admits that he 
"knew she looked like Katie King," etc. By the way, we have all 
laboured under the impression that Dr. Child admitted in The Inquirer 
that he saw Mrs. White for the first time and recognized her as Katie 
King only on that morning when she made her affidavit at the office 
of the justice of the peace. A "fabrication" most likely. In the 
R. -P. Journal for October 27th, 1874, Dr. Child wrote thus: 

Your report does not for a moment shake my confidence in our Katie King, as 
she conies to me every day and talks to me. On several occasions Katie had come 
to me and requested Mr. Owen and myself to go there [meaning to the Holtneses'] 
and she would come and repeat what she had told me above. 

Did Dr. Child ascertain where Mrs. White was at the time of the 

spirit's visits to him? 

As to Mrs. White, I know her well. I have on many occasions let her into the 
house. I saw her at the time the manifestations were going on in Blissfield. She 
has since gone to Massachusetts. 


And still the doctor assures us he was not acquainted with Mrs. 
White. What signification does he give to the word "acquaintance" 
in such a case? Did he not go, in the absence of the Holmeses, to their 
house, and talk with her and even quarrel with the woman? Another 
fabricated story, no doubt. I defy Dr. Child to print again, if he dare, 
such a word as fabrication in relation to myself, after he has read a 
•certain statement that I reserve for the last. 

In all this pitiful, humbugging romance of an "exposure" by a too 
material she-spirit, there has not been given us a single reasonable 
explanation of even so much as one solitary fact. It began with a bogus 
biography, and threatens to end in a bogus fight, since every single duel 
requires at least two participants, and Dr. Child prefers extracting 
sunshine from the cucumbers of his soul and letting the storm sub- 
side, to fighting like a man for his own fair name. He says that "he 
shall not notice" what people say about his little speculative transac- 
tions with the Holmeses. He assures us that they owe him money. 
Very likely, but it does not alter the alleged fact of his having paid 
$10 for every seance and pocketing the balance. Dare he say that he 
did not do it? The Holmeses say otherwise, and the statements in 
writing of various witnesses corroborate them. 

The Holmeses may be scamps in the eyes of certain persons, and the 
only ones in the eyes of the more prejudiced; but as long as their 
statements have not been proven false, their word is as good as the 
word of Dr. Child; aye, in a court of justice even, the "Mediums 
Holmes" would stand just on the same level as any spiritual prophet 
or clairvoyant who might have been visited by the same identical spirits 
that visited the former. So long as Dr. Child does not legally prove 
them to be cheats and himself innocent, why should not they be as well 
entitled to belief as himself? 

From the first hour of the Katie King mystery, if people have ac- 
cused them, no one so far as I know — not even Dr. Child himself — has 
proved, or even undertaken to prove, the innocence of their ex-cashier 
and recorder. The fact that every word of the ex-leader and president 
of the Philadelphian Spiritualists would be published by every spiritual 
paper (and here we must confess to our wonder that he does not hasten 
much to avail himself of this opportunity) while any statement coming 
from the Holmeses would be pretty sure of rejection, would not neces- 
sarily imply the fact that they alotie are guilty ; it would only go towards 
showing that, notwithstanding the divine truth of our faith and the 


teachings of our invisible guardians, some Spiritualists have not 
profited by them to learn impartiality and justice. 

These "mediums" are persecuted; so far it is but justice, since they 
themselves admitted their guilt about the photography fraud, and 
unless it can be shown that they were thereunto controlled by lying spirits, 
their own mouths condemn them; but what is less just, is that they 
are slandered and abused on all points and made to bear alone all the 
weight of a crime, where confederacy peeps out from every page of the 
story. No one seems willing to befriend them — these two helpless un- 
influential creatures, who, if they sinned at all, perhaps sinned through 
weakness and ignorance — to take their case in hand, and by doing 
justice to them, do justice at the same time to the cause of truth. If 
their guilt should be as evident as the daylight at noon, is it not ridicu- 
lous that their partner, Dr. Child, should show surprise at being so 
much as suspected! History records but one person — the legitimate 
spouse of the great Caesar — whose name has to remain enforced by law 
as above suspicion. Methinks that if Dr. Child possesses some natural 
claims to his self-assumed title of Katie King's "Father Confessor," he 
can have none whatever to share the infallibility of Madame Caesar's 
virtue. Being pretty sure as to this myself, and feeling, moreover, 
somewhat anxious to swell the list of pertinent questions, which are 
called by our disingenuous friend "fabrications," with at least one 
fact, I will now proceed to furnish your readers with the following: 

"Katie's" picture has been, let us say, proved a fraud, an imposition 
on the credulous world, and is Mrs. White's portrait. This counterfeit 
has been proved by the beauty of the "crooking elbow," in her bogus 
autobiography (the proof sheets of which Dr. Child was seen correct- 
ing), by the written confession of the Holmeses, and, lastly, by Dr. 
Child himself. 

Out of the several bogus portraits of the supposed spirit, the most 
spurious one has been declared — mostly on the testimony endorsed by 
Dr. Child and "over his signature" — to be the one where the pernicious 
and false Katie King is standing behind the medium. 

The operation of this delicate piece of imposture proved so difficult 
as to oblige the Holmeses to take into the secret of the conspiracy the 

Now Dr. Child denies having had anything whatever to do with the 
sittings for those pictures. He denies it most emphatically, and goes 
so far as to say (we have many witnesses and proofs of this) that he 


was out of town, four hundred miles away, when the said pictures were 
taken. And so he was, bless his dear prophetic soul ! Meditating and 
chatting with the nymphs and goblins of Niagara Falls, so that, when 
he pleads an alibi, it's no "fabrication" but the truth for once. 

Unfortunately for the veracious Dr. Child — "whose character and 
reputation for truthfulness and moral integrity no one doubts," here 
we quote the words of "Honesty" and "Truth," transparent pseu- 
donyms of an "amateur" for detecting, exposing and writing under 
the cover of secrecy, who tried to give a friendly push to the doctor in 
two articles, but failed in both — unfortunately for H. T. Child, we say, 
he got inspired in some evil hour to write a certain article, and for- 
getting the wise motto, Verba volant, scripta manent, to publish it in 
The Daily Graphic on Nov. 16th, together with the portraits of John 
and Katie King. 

Now for this bouquet of the endorsement of a fact by a truthful 
man, "whose moral integrity no one can doubt." 

To the Editor of "The Daily Graphic" 

On the evening of July 20th, after a large and successful seance, in which Katie 
had walked out into the room in the presence of thirty persons and had disappeared 
and reappeared in full view, she remarked to Mr. Leslie and myself that if we, with 
four others whom she named, would remain after the seance, she would like to try 
for her photograph. We did so, and there were present six persons besides the 
photographer. I had procured two dozen magnesian spirals, and, when all was 
ready, she opened the door of the cabinet and stood in it, while Mr. Holmes on one 
side, and I upon the other, burned these, making a brilliant light. We tried two 
plates, but neither of them was satisfactory. 

Another effort was made on July 23rd, which was successful. We asked her if she 
would try to have it taken by daylight. She said she would. We sat with shutters 
open at 4 p.m. In a few moments Katie appeared at the aperture and said she was 
ready. She asked to have one of the windows closed, and that we should hold a 
shawl to screen her. As soon as the camera was ready she came out and walked 
behind the shawl to the middle of the room, a distance of six or eight feet, where 
she stood in front of the camera. She remained in that position until the first 
picture was taken, when she retired to the cabinet. 

Mr. Holmes proposed that she should permit him to sit in front of the camera, 
and should come out and place her hand upon his shoulder. To this she assented, 
and desired all present to avoid looking into tier eyes, as this disturbed the conditions 
very much. . . . 

The second picture was then taken in -which she stands behind Mr. Holmes. When 
the camera was closed she showed great signs of weakness, and it was necessary to 
assist her back to the cabinet, and when she got to the door she appeared ready to sink 
to the floor and disappeared [?]. The cabinet door 'was opened, but she raas not to be 


seen. In a few minutes she appeared again and remarked that she had not been 

sufficiently materialized, and said she would like to try again, if we could wait a 

little while. We waited about fifteen minutes, when she rapped on the cabinet, 

signifying that she was ready to come out. She did so, and we obtained the third 


(Signed) Dr. H. T. Child. 

And so, Dr. Child, we have obtained this, we did that, and we did 
many other things. Did you? Now, besides Dr. Child's truthful 
assertions about his being out of town, especially at the time this third 
negative was obtained, we have the testimony of the photographer, 
Dr. Selger, and other witnesses to corroborate the fact. At the same 
time, I suppose that Dr. Child will not risk a denial of his own article. 
I have it in my possession and keep it, together with many others as 
curious, printed like it, and written in black and white. Who fabricates 
stories? Can the doctor answer? 

How will he creep out of this dilemma? What rays of his spiritual 
"sunshine" will be able to de-materialize such a contradictory fact as 
this one? Here we have an article taking up two spacious columns of 
The Daily Graphic, in which he asserts as plainly as possible, that he 
was present himself at the sittings of Katie King for her portrait, that 
the spirit come out boldly, in full daylight, that she disappeared on the 
threshold of the cabinet, and that he, Dr. Child, helping her back to 
it on account of her great weakness, saw that there was no one in the 
said cabinet, for the door remained opened. Who did he help? Whose 
fluttering heart beat against his paternal arm and waistcoat? Was it 
the bonny Eliza? Of course, backed by such reliable testimony of 
such a truly trustworthy witness, the pictures sold like wild-fire. Who 
got the proceeds? Who kept them? If Dr. Child was not in town 
when the pictures were taken, then this article is an " evident fabrica- 
tion." On the other hand, if what he says in it is truth, and he was 
present at all at the attempt of this bogus picture-taking, then he 
certainly must have known "who was who, in 1874," as the photographer 
knew it, and as surely it did not require Argus-eyes to recognize in full 
daylight with only one shutter partially closed, a materialized, ethereal 
spirit, from a common, "elbow-crooking" mortal woman, whom, though 
not acquainted with her, the doctor still "knew well." 

If our self-constituted leaders, our prominent recorders of the pheno- 
mena, will humbug and delude the public with such reliable statements 
as this one, how can we Spiritualists wonder at the masses of incredulous 
scoffers that keep on politely taking us for "lunatics" when they do 


not very rudely call us "liars and charlatans" to our faces? It is not 
the occasionally cheating "mediums" that have or can impede the 
progress of our cause; it's the exalted exaggerations of some fanatics 
on one hand, and the deliberate, unscrupulous statements of those who 
delight in dealing in "wholesale fabrications" and "pious frauds" that 
have arrested the unusually rapid spreading of Spiritualism in 1874 and 
brought it to a dead stop in 1875. For how many years to come yet, 
who can tell? 

In his "After the Storm comes the Sunshine," the Doctor makes the 
following melancholy reflection : 

It has been suggested that going into an atmosphere of fraud, such as surrounds 
these mediums [the Holmeses] and being sensitive [O poor Yorick!] I was more 
liable to be deceived than others. 

We shudder indeed at the thought of the exposure of so much 
sensitiveness to so much pollution. Alas! soiled dove! how very 
sensitive must a person be who picks up such evil influences that they 
actually force him into the grossest of fabrications and make him 
invent stories and endorse facts that he has not and could not have 
seen. If Dr. Child, victim to his too sensitive nature, is liable to fall 
so easily as that under the control of wicked "Diakka," our friendly 
advice to him is to give up Spiritualism as soon as possible, and join a 
Young Men's Christian Association; for then, under the protecting 
wing of the true orthodox Church, he can begin a regular fight, like a 
second St. Anthony, with the orthodox devil. Such Diakka as he fell 
in with at the Holmeses' must beat Old Nick by long odds, and if he 
could not withstand them by the unaided strength of his own pure 
soul, he may with "bell, book and candle" and the use of holy water 
be more fortunate in a tug with Satan, crying as other "Father Con- 
fessors" have heretofore, " Exorciso vos in nomine Lucisf" and signify- 
ing his triumph with a robust Laus Deo. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 
Philadelphia, March, 1875. 


In compliance with the request of the Honourable Alexander Aksa- 
koff, Counsellor of State in the Imperial Chancellery at St. Petersburg, 
the undersigned hereby give notice that they are prepared to receive 
applications from physical mediums who may be willing to go to 
Russia, for examination before the committee of the Imperial Univer- 

To avoid disappointment, it may be well to state that the undersigned 
will recommend no mediums whose personal good character is not 
satisfactorily shown; nor any who will not submit themselves to a 
thorough scientific test of their mediumistic powers, in the city of New 
York, prior to sailing; nor any who cannot exhibit most of their 
phenomena in a lighted room, to be designated by the undersigned, 
and with such ordinary furniture as may be found therein. 

Approved applications will be immediately forwarded to St. Peters- 
burg, and upon receipt of orders thereon from the scientific commis- 
sion or its representative, M. Aksakoff, proper certificates and instruc- 
tions will be given to accepted applicants, and arrangements made for 
defraying expenses. 

Address the undersigned, in care of E. Gerry Brown, Editor of The 
Spiritual Scientist, 18, Exchange Street, Boston, Mass., who is hereby 
authorized to receive personal applications from mediums in the New 
England States. 

Henry S. Olcott. 
Helkn P. Blavatsky. 


I am truly sorry that a Spiritualist paper like The Religio- Philo- 
sophical Journal, which claims to instruct and enlighten its readers, 
should suffer such trash as Mr. Jesse Sheppard is contributing to its 
columns to appear without review. I will not dwell upon the previous 
letter of this very gifted personage, although everything he has said 
concerning Russia and life at St. Petersburg might be picked to pieces 
by anyone having merely a superficial acquaintance with the place and 
the people; nor will I stop to sniff at his nosegays of high-sounding 
names — his Princess Boulkoffs and Princes This and That, which are 
as preposterously fictitious as though, in speaking of Americans, some 
Russian singing-medium were to mention his friends Prince Jones or 
Duke Smith, or Earl Brown — for if he chooses to manufacture noble 
patrons from the oversloppings of his poetic imagination, and it 
amuses him or his readers, no great harm is done. But when it comes 
to his saying the things he does in the letter of July 3rd in that paper, 
it puts quite a different face upon the matter. Here he pretends to 
give historical facts — which never existed. He tells of things he saw 
clairvoyantly, and his story is such a tissue of ridiculous, gross ana- 
chronisms that they not only show his utter ignorance of Russian his- 
tory, but are calculated to injure the cause of Spiritualism by throwing 
doubt upon all clairvoyant descriptions. Secondarily in importance 
they destroy his own reputation for veracity, stamp him as a trickster 
and a false writer, and bring the gravest suspicion upon his claim to 
possess any mediumship whatever. 

What faith can anyone, acquainted with the rudiments of history, 
have in a medium who sees a mother (Catherine II) giving orders to 
strangle her son (Paul I), when we all know that the Emperor Paul 
ascended the throne upon the decease of the very mother whom the 
inventive genius of this musical prodigy makes guilty of infanticide? 

Permit me, O young seer and Spiritualist, as a Russian somewhat 


read in the history of her country, to refresh your memory. Spiritual- 
ism has been laughed at quite enough recently in consequence of such 
pious frauds as yours, and as Russian savants are about to investigate 
the subject, we may as well go to them with clean hands. The journal 
which gives you its hospitality goes to my country, and its interests 
will certainly suffer if you are allowed to go on with your embroidery 
and spangle-work without rebuke. Remember, young poetico-historian, 
that the Emperor Paul was the paternal grandfather of the present 
Czar, and everyone who has been at St. Petersburg knows that the 
"old palace," which to your spiritual eye wears such "an appearance of 
dilapidation and decay, worthy of a castle of the Middle Ages," and the 
one where your Paul was strangled, is an every-day, modern-looking, 
respectable building, the successor of one which was pulled down early 
in the reign of the late Emperor Nicholas, and known from the be- 
ginning until now as the Pavvlowsky Military College for the "Cadets." 
And the two assassins, begotten in your clairvoyant loins — Petreski 
and Kofski! Really now, Mr. Sheppard, gentlemanly assassins ought 
to be very much obliged to you for these pretty aliases! 

It is fortunate for you, dear sir, that it did not occur to you to discuss 
these questions in St. Petersburg, and that you evolved your history 
from the depths of your own consciousness, for in our autocratical 
country one is not permitted to discuss the little unpleasantnesses of 
the imperial family history, and the rule would not be relaxed for a 
Spanish grandee, or even that more considerable personage, an Ameri- 
can singing-medium. An attempt on your part to do so would assuredly 
have interfered with your grand concert, under imperial patronage, 
and might have led to your journeying to the borders of Russia under 
an armed escort befitting your exalted rank. 

H. P. Blavatskv. 


Among the numerous sciences pursued by the well-disciplined army 
of earnest students of the present century, none has had less honours 
or more scoffing than the oldest of them— the science of sciences, the 
venerable mother-parent of all our modern pigmies. Anxious in their 
petty vanity to throw the veil of oblivion over their undoubted origin, 
the self-styled positive scientists, ever on the alert, present to the coura- 
geous scholar who tries to deviate from the beaten highway traced out 
for him by his dogmatic predecessors, a formidable range of serious 

As a rule, Occultism is a dangerous, double-edged weapon for one to 
handle who is unprepared to devote his whole life to it. The theory 
of it, unaided by serious practice, will ever remain in the eyes of those 
prejudiced against such an unpopular cause an idle, crazy speculation, 
fit only to charm the ears of ignorant old women. When we cast a 
look behind us and see how for the last thirty years modern Spiritual- 
ism has been dealt with, notwithstanding the occurrence of daily, hourly- 
proofs which speak to all our senses, stare us in the eyes, and utter 
their voices from "beyond the great gulf," how can we hope, I say, that 
Occultism or Magic — which stands in relation to Spiritualism as the 
infinite to the finite, as the cause to the effect, or as unity to multifari- 
ousness — will easily gain ground where Spiritualism is scoffed at? One 
who rejects a priori or even doubts the immortality of man's soul can 
never believe in its Creator; and, blind to what is heterogeneous in his 
eyes, will remain still more blind to the proceeding of the latter from 
homogeneity. In relation to the Kabalah, or the compound mystic 
text-book of the great secrets of Nature, we do not know of anyone in 
the present century who could have commanded a sufficient dose of 
that moral courage which fires the heart of the true Adept with the 
sacred flame of propagandism, to force him into defying public opinion 
by displaying familiarity with that sublime work. Ridicule is the dead- 


liest weapon of the age, and while we read in the records of history of 
thousands of martyrs who joyfully braved flames and faggots in support 
of their mystic doctrines in the past centuries, we would scarcely be 
likely to find one individual in the present times who would be brave 
enough even to defy ridicule by seriously undertaking to prove the 
great truths embraced in the traditions of the Past. 

As an instance of the above, I will mention the article on Rosieru- 
cianism, signed "Hiraf." This ably-written essay — notwithstanding 
some fundamental errors, which, though they are such, would be hardly 
noticed except by those who had devoted their lives to the study of 
Occultism in its various branches of practical teaching — indicates with 
certainty to the practical reader that, for theoretical knowledge, at 
least, the author need fear few rivals, still less superiors. His modesty, 
which I cannot too much appreciate in his case — though he is safe 
enough behind the mask of his fancy pseudonym — need not give him 
any apprehensions. There are few critics in this country of Positivism 
who would willingly risk themselves in an encounter with such a 
powerful disputant, on his own ground. The weapons he seems to 
hold in reserve, in the arsenal of his wonderful memory, his learning, 
and his readiness to give any further information that enquirers may 
wish for, will undoubtedly scare off every theorist, unless he is perfectly 
sure of himself, which few are. But book-learning — and here I refer 
only to the subject of Occultism — vast as it may be, will always prove 
insufficient even to the analytical mind — the most accustomed to extract 
the quintessence of truth, disseminated throughout thousands of con- 
tradictory statements — unless supported by personal experience and 
practice. Hence "Hiraf" can only expect an encounter with some 
one who may hope to find a chance to refute some of his bold asser- 
tions on the plea of having just such a slight practical experience. 
Still, it must not be understood that these present lines are intended 
to criticize our too modest essayist. Far from poor, ignorant me be 
such a presumptuous thought. My desire is simple: to help him in 
his scientific, but, as I said before, rather hypothetical researches, by 
telling a little of the little I picked up in my long travels throughout 
the length ami breadth of the East — that cradle of Occultism — in the 
hope of correcting certain erroneous notions he seems to be labouring 
under, and which are calculated to confuse uninitiated sincere enquirers, 
who might desire to drink at his own source of knowledge. 

In the first place, "Hiraf" doubts whether there are in existence, in 


England or elsewhere, what we term regular colleges for the neophytes 
of this Secret Science. I will say from personal knowledge that such 
places there are in the East — in India, Asia Minor, and other countries. 
As in the primitive days of Socrates and other sages of antiquity, so 
now, those who are willing to learn the Great Truth will ever find the 
chance if they only "try" to meet some one to lead them to the door of 
one "who knows when and how." If "Hiraf" is right about the 
seventh rule of the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross, which says that 
"the Rose-crux becomes and is not made," he may err as to the excep- 
tions which have ever existed among other Brotherhoods devoted to 
the pursuit of the same secret knowledge. Then again, when he 
asserts, as he does, that Rosicrucianism is almost forgotten, we may 
answer him that we do not wonder at it, and add, by way of parenthesis, 
that, strictly speaking, the Rosicrucians do not now even exist, the last 
of that fraternity having departed in the person of Cagliostro. 

"Hiraf" ought to add to the word Rosicrucianism "that particular 
sect" at least, for it was but a sect after all, one of many branches of the 
same tree. 

By forgetting to specify that particular denomination and by includ- 
ing under the name of Rosicrucians all those who, devoting their lives 
to Occultism congregated together in Brotherhoods, "Hiraf" commits 
an error by which he may unwittingly lead people to believe that the 
Rosicrucians having disappeared, there are no more Kabalists prac- 
tising Occultism on the face of the earth. He also becomes thereby 
guilty of an anachronism, attributing to the Rosicrucians the building 
of the pyramids and other majestic monuments, which indelibly exhibit 
in their architecture the symbols of the grand religions of the past. 
For it is not so. If the main object in view was, and still is, alike, with 
all the great family of the ancient and modern Kabalists, the dogmas 
and formulae of certain sects differ greatly. Springing one after the 
other from the great Oriental mother-root, they scattered broadcast all 
over the world, and each of them desiring to out-rival the other by 
plunging deeper and deeper into the secrets jealously guarded by 
Nature, some of them became guilt}' of the greatest heresies against 
the primitive Oriental Kabalah. 

While the first followers of the secret sciences, taught to the Chal- 
daeans by nations whose very name was never breathed in history, 
remained stationary in their studies, having arrived at the maximum, 
the Omega of the knowledge permitted to man, many of the subse- 


quent sects separated from them, and, in their uncontrollable thirst for 
more knowledge, trespassed beyond the boundaries of truth and fell 
into fictions. In consequence of Pythagoras — so says Jamblichus — 
having by sheer force of energy and daring penetrated into the mys- 
teries of the Temple of Thebes, obtained therein his initiation and 
afterwards studied the sacred sciences in Egypt for twenty-two years, 
many foreigners were subsequently admitted to share the knowledge 
of the wise men of the East, who, as a consequence, had many of their 
secrets divulged. Later still, unable to preserve them in their purity, 
these mysteries were so mixed up with fictions and fables of the 
Grecian mythology that truth was wholly distorted. 

As the primitive Christian religion divided, in course of time, into 
numerous sects, so the science of Occultism gave birth to a variety of 
doctrines and various brotherhoods. So the Egyptian Ophites became 
the Christian Gnostics, shooting forth the Basilideans of the second 
century, and the original Rosicrucians created subsequently the Para- 
celsists, or Fire Philosophers, the European Alchemists, and other 
physical branches of their sect. (See Hargrave Jennings' Rosicrzccia?is.) 
To call indifferently every Kabalist a Rosicrucian, is to commit the 
same error as if we were to call every Christian a Baptist on the ground 
that the latter are also Christians. 

The Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross was not founded until the middle 
of the thirteenth century, and notwithstanding the assertions of the 
learned Mosheim, it derives its name neither from the Latin word Ros 
(dew), nor from a cross, the symbol of Lux. The origin of the 
Brotherhood can be ascertained by any earnest, genuine student of 
Occultism, who happens to travel in Asia Minor, if he chooses to fall 
in with some of the Brotherhood, and if he is willing to devote himself 
to the head-tiring work of deciphering a Rosicrucian manuscript — the 
hardest thing in the world — for it is carefully preserved in the archives 
of the very Lodge which was founded by the first Kabalist of that 
name, but which now goes by another name. The founder of it. a 
German Ritter, of the name of Rosencranz, was a man who, after 
acquiring a very suspicious reputation through the practice of the 
Black Art in his native place, reformed in consequence of a vision. 
Giving up his evil practices, he made a solemn vow, and went on foot 
to Palestine, in order to make his amende honorable at the Holy Sepul- 
chre. Once there, the Christian God, the meek, but well-informed 
Nazarene— trained as he was in the high school of the Essenians, those 


virtuous descendants of the botanical as well as astrological and 
magical Chaldaeans — appeared to Rosencranz, a Christian would say, in 
a vision, but I would suggest, in the shape of a materialized spirit. 
The purport of this visitation, as well as the subject of their conversa- 
tion, remained for ever a mystery to many of the Brethren; but imme- 
diately after that, the ex-sorcerer and Ritter disappeared, and was 
heard of no more till the mysterious sect of Rosicrucians was added to 
the family of Kabalists, and their powers aroused popular attention, 
even among the Eastern populations, indolent and accustomed as they 
are to live among wonders. The Rosicrucians strove to combine to- 
gether the most various branches of Occultism, and they soon became 
renowned for the extreme purity of their lives and their extraordinary 
powers, as well as for their thorough knowledge of the secret of secrets. 

As alchemists and conjurers they became proverbial. Later (I need 
not inform "Hiraf" precisely when, as we drink at two different sources 
of knowledge), they gave birth to the more modern Theosophists, at 
whose head was Paracelsus, and to the Alchemists, one of the most 
celebrated of whom was Thomas Vanghan (seventeenth century), who 
wrote the most practical things on Occultism under the name of 
Eugenius Philalethes. I know and can prove that Vaughan was, most 
positively, "made before he became." 

The Rosicrucian Kabalah is but an epitome of the Jewish and the 
Oriental ones, combined, the latter being the most secret of all. The 
Oriental Kabalah, the practical, full, and only existing copy, is care- 
fully preserved at the headquarters of this Brotherhood in the East, 
and, I may safely vouch, will never come out of its possession. Its 
very existence has been doubted by many of the European Rosi- 
crucians. One who wants "to become" has to hunt for his knowledge 
through thousands of scattered volumes, and pick up facts and lessons, 
bit by bit. Unless he takes the nearest wa) r and consents "to be made," 
he will never become a practical Kabalist, and with all his learning 
will remain at the threshold of the "mysterious gate." The Kabalah 
ma;.- be used and its truths imparted on a smaller scale now than it was 
in antiquity, and the existence of the mysterious Eodge, on account of 
its secrecy, doubted, but it does exist and has lost none of the primitive 
secret powers of the ancient Chaldaeans. The lodges, few in number, 
are divided into sections and known but to the Adepts; no one would 
be likely to find them out, unless the Sages themselves found the neo- 
phyte worthy of initiation. Unlike the European Rosicrucians — who,. 


in order "to become and not to be made," have constantly put into 
practice the word of St. John, who says, "Heaven suffereth violence 
and the violent take it by force," and who have struggled alone, 
violently robbing Nature of her secrets — the Oriental Rosicrucians (for 
such we will call them, being denied the right to pronounce their true 
name), in the serene beatitude of their divine knowledge, are ever 
ready to help the earnest student struggling "to become" with practical 
knowledge, which dissipates, like a heavenly breeze, the blackest 
clouds of sceptical doubt. 

"Hiraf" is right again when he says that 

Knowing that their mysteries, if divulged, in the present chaotic state of society, 
would produce mere confusion and death, 

they shut up that knowledge within themselves. Heirs to the early 
heavenly wisdom of their first forefathers, they keep the keys which 
unlock the most guarded of Nature's secrets, and impart them only 
gradually and with the greatest caution. But still they do impart 

Once in such a cerclc vicieux, "Hiraf" sins likewise in a certain com- 
parison he makes between Christ, Buddha, and Khoung-foo-tsee, or 
Confucius. A comparison can hardly be made between the two former 
wise and spiritual Illuminati, and the Chinese philosopher. The 
higher aspirations and views of the two Christs can have nothing to 
do with the cold, practical philosophy of the latter, brilliant anomaly 
as he was among a naturally dull and materialistic people, peaceful and 
devoted to agriculture from the earliest ages of their history. Con- 
fucius can never bear the slightest comparison with the two great 
Reformers. Whereas the principles and doctrines of Christ and 
Buddha were calculated to embrace the whole of humanity, Confucius 
confined his attention solely to his own country, trying to apply his 
profound wisdom and philosophy to the wants of his countrymen, and 
little troubling his head about the rest of mankind. Intensely Chinese 
in patriotism and views, his philosophical doctrines are as much devoid 
of the purely poetic element, which characterizes the teachings of 
Christ and Buddha, the two divine types, as the religious tendencies of 
his people lack in that spiritual exaltation which we find, for instance, 
in India. Khoung-foo-tsee has not even the depth of feeling and the 
slight spiritual striving of his contemporary, Lao-tsee. Says the 
learned Ennemoser: 


The spirits of Christ and Buddha have left indelible, eternal traces all over the 
face of the world. The doctrines of Confucius can be mentioned only as the most 
brilliant proceedings of cold human reasoning. 

Harvey, in his Universal History, has depicted the Chinese nation 
perfectly, in a few words: 

Their heavy, childish, cold, sensual nature explains the peculiarities of their 

Hence any comparison between the first two Reformers and Con- 
fucius, in an essay on Rosicrucianism, in which "Hiraf" treats of the 
Science of Sciences and invites the thirsty for knowledge to drink at 
her inexhaustible source, seems inadmissible. 

Further, when our learned author asserts so dogmatically that the 
Rosicrucian learns, though he never uses, the secret of immortality in 
earthly life, he asserts only what he himself, in his practical inexperi- 
ence, thinks impossible. The words "never" and "impossible" ought 
to be erased from the dictionary of humanity, until the time at least 
when the great Kabalah shall all be solved, and so rejected or accepted. 
The Count St. Germain is, until this very time, a living mystery, aud 
the Rosicrucian Thomas Vaughan another one. The countless authori- 
ties we have in literature, at well as in oral tradition (which sometimes 
is the more trustworthy), about this wonderful Count's having been 
met and recognized in different centuries, is no myth. Anyone who 
admits one of the practical truths of the occult sciences taught by the 
Kabalah tacitly admits them all. It must be Hamlet's "to be or not 
to be," and if the Kabalah is true, then St. Germain need be no myth. 

But I am digressing from my object, which is, firstly, to show the 
slight differences between the two Kabalahs, that of the Rosicrucians 
and the Oriental one; and, secondly, to say that the hope expressed by 
"Hiraf" to see the subject better appreciated at some future day than 
it has been till now, may perhaps become more than a hope. Time 
will show many things; till then, let us heartily thank "Hiraf" for this 
first well-aimed shot at those stubborn scientific runaways, who, once 
before the Truth, avoid looking her in the face, and dare not even throw 
a glance behind them, lest they should be forced to see that which 
would greatly lessen their self-sufficiency. As a practical follower of 
Eastern Spiritualism, I can confidently wait for the time, when, with 
the timely help of those "who know," American Spiritualism, which 
■even in its present shape has proved such a sore in the side of the 
materialists, will become a science and a thing of mathematical certi- 


tude, instead of being regarded only as the crazy delusion of epileptic 

The first Kabalah in which a mortal man ever dared to explain the 
greatest mysteries of the universe, and show the keys to 

Those masked doors in the ramparts of Nature through which no mortal can 
ever pass without rousing dread sentries never seen upon this side her wall, 

was compiled by a certain Simeon Ben Iochai, who lived at the time 
of the second Temple's destruction. Only about thirty years after the 
death of this renowned Kabalist, his MSS. and written explanations, 
which had till then remained in his possession as a most precious 
secret, were used by his son Rabbi Elizzar and other learned men. 
Making a compilation of the whole, they so produced the famous work 
called Sohar (God's splendour). This book proved an inexhaustible 
mine for all the subsequent Kabalists, their source of information and 
knowledge, and all more recent and genuine Kabalahs were more or 
less carefully copied from the former. Before that, all the mysterious 
doctrines had come down in an unbroken line of merely oral tradition as 
far back as man could trace himself on earth. They were scrupulously 
and jealously guarded by the wise men of Chaldsea, India, Persia and 
Egypt, and passed from one Initiate to another, in the same purity of 
form as when handed down to the first man by the angels, students of 
God's great Theosophic Seminary. For the first time since the world's 
creation, the secret doctrines, passing through Moses who was initiated 
in Egypt, underwent some slight alterations. 

In consequence of the personal ambition of this great prophet- 
medium, he succeeded in passing off his familiar spirit, the wrathful 
"Jehovah," for the spirit of God himself, and so won undeserved laurels 
and honours. The same influence prompted him to alter some of the 
principles of the great oral Kabalah in order to make them the more 
secret. These principles were laid out in symbols by him in the first 
four books of the Pentateuch, but for some mysterious reasons he with- 
held them from Deuteronomy. Having initiated his seventy Elders in 
his own way, the latter could give but what they had received them- 
selves, and so was prepared the first opportunity for heresy, and the 
erroneous interpretation of the symbols. While the Oriental Kabalah 
remained in its pure primitive shape, the Mosaic or Jewish one was full 
of drawbacks, and the keys to many of the secrets — forbidden by the 
Mosaic law — purposely misinterpreted. The powers conferred by it on 
the Initiates were formidable still, and of all the most renowned 


Kabalists, King Solomon and his bigoted parent, David, notwith- 
standing his penitential psalms, were the most powerful. But still the 
doctrine remained secret and purely oral, until, as I have said before, 
the days of the second Temple's destruction. Philologically speaking, 
the very word Kabalah is formed from two Hebrew words, meaning 
to receive, as in former times the Initiate received it orally and directly 
from his Master, and the very book of the Sohar was written out on 
received information, which was handed down as an unvarying stereo- 
typed tradition by the Orientals, and altered, through the ambition of 
Moses, by the Jews. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 


A most outrageous swindle was perpetrated upon the public last 
Sunday evening at the Boston Theatre. Some persons with no higher 
aspirations in the world than a lust for a few dollars to fill their pockets, 
depleted by unsuccessful cheap shows, advertised a "seance," and en- 
gaged as "mediums" some of the most impudent impostors with which 
the world is cursed. They furthermore abused public confidence by 
causing it to be understood that these people were to appear before the 
scientific commission at St. Petersburg. 

Is it not about time that some Society in Boston should be suffi- 
ciently strong financially, and have members who will have the re- 
quisite energy to act in an emergency like this? Common sense would 
dictate what might be done, and a determined will would overcome all 
obstacles. Spiritualism needs a Vigilance Committee. Public opinion 
will justify any measures that will tend to check this trifling. "Up, 
and at them!" should be the watchword until we have rid society of 
these pests and their supporters. 

The press of Boston are disposed to be fair towards Spiritualists. 
But if Spiritualists do not care enough for Spiritualism to defend it 
from tricksters who have not sufficient skill to merit them the title of 
jugglers, how can they expect any different treatment than that it is 

As a proof of the sincerity of the Boston press and also in support 
and further explanation of the above we might mention that the fol- 
lowing card, sent to all the morning dailies, was accepted and printed 
in Tuesday's edition. 

Boston, July 10th, 1875. 

Sir, — The undersigned desire to say that the persons who advertised a so-called 
spiritualistic exhibition at the Boston Theatre last evening were guilty of false re- 
presentations to the public. We are alone empowered by the Academy of Sciences 
attached to the Imperial University of St. Petersburg, Russia, to select the mediums 


who shall be invited by that body to display their powers during the forthcoming 
scientific investigation of Spiritualism, and Mr. E. Gerry Brown, editor Spiritual 
Scientist, of this city, is our onfy authorized deputy. 

Neither "F. Warren," "Prof. J. T. Bates," "Miss Luydam," "Mrs. S. Gould," nor 
"Miss Lillie Darling" has been selected, or is at all likely to be selected for that 

As this swindle may be again attempted, we desire to say, once for all, that no 
medium accepted by us will be obliged to exhibit his powers to earn money to de- 
fray his expenses, nor will any such exhibition be tolerated. The Imperial Univer- 
sity of St. Petersburg makes its investigation in the interest of science — not to 
assist charlatans to give juggling performances in theatres, upon the strength of 
our certificates. Henry S. Olcott. 



[From The Spiritual Scientist.'] 

Being daily in receipt of numerous letters, written with the view of 
obtaining advice as to the best method of receiving information respect- 
ing Occultism, and the direct relation it bears to modern Spiritualism, 
and not having sufficient time at my disposal to answer these requests, 
I now propose to facilitate the mutual labour of myself and corre- 
spondents by naming herein a few of the principal works treating upon 
Magism, and the mysteries of such modern Hermetists. 

To this I feel bound to add, respecting what I have stated before, to 
wit: that would-be aspirants must not lure themselves with the idea of 
any possibility of their becoming practical Occultists by mere book- 
knowledge. The works of the Hermetic philosophers were never 
intended for the masses, as Mr. Charles Sotheran, a learned member 
of the Society Rosae Crucis, in a late essay observes: 

Gabriel Rossetti in his disquisitions on the anti- papal spirit which produced the 
Reformation shows that the art of speaking and writing in a language which bears 
a double interpretation is of very great antiquity, that it was in practice among the 
priests of Egypt, brought thence by the Manichees, whence it passed to the Tem- 
plars and Albigenses, spread over Europe, and brought about the Reformation. 

The ablest book that was ever written on Symbols and Mystic Orders, 
is most certainly Hargrave Jennings' The Rosicrucians, and yet it has 
been repeatedly called "obscure trash" in my presence, and that too, 
by individuals who were most decidedly well-versed in the rites and 
mysteries of modern Freemasonry. Persons who lack even the latter 
knowledge, can easily infer from this what would be the amount of 
information they might derive from still more obscure and mystical 
works; for if we compare Hargrave Jennings' book with some of the 
mediaeval treatises and ancient works of the most noted Alchemists 
and Magi, we might find the latter as much more obscure than the 
former — as regards language — as a pupil in celestial philosophy would 



find the Book of the Heavens, if he should examine a far distant star 
with the naked eye, rather than with the help of a powerful telescope. 

Far from me, though, the idea of disparaging in anyone the laudable 
impulse to search ardently after Truth, however arid and ungrateful the 
task may appear at first sight; for my own principle has ever been to 
make the Light of Truth the beacon of my life. The words uttered by 
Christ eighteen centuries ago: "Believe and you will understand," can 
be applied in the present case, and repeating them with but a slight 
modification, I may well say: "Study and you will believe." 

But to particularize one or another book on Occultism, to those who 
are anxious to begin their studies in the hidden mysteries of nature, is 
something the responsibility of which I am not prepared to assume. 
What may be clear to one who is intuitional, if read in the same book 
by another person might prove meaningless. Unless one is prepared to 
devote to it his whole life, the superficial knowledge of Occult Sciences 
will lead him surely to become the target for millions of ignorant scoff- 
ers to aim their blunderbusses loaded with ridicule and chaff against. 
Besides this, it is in more than one way dangerous to select this science 
as a mere pastime. One must bear for ever in mind the impressive 
fable of CEdipus, and beware of the same consequences. CEdipus un- 
riddled but one-half of the enigma offered him by the Sphinx and 
caused its death; the other half of the mystery avenged the death of 
the symbolic monster, and forced the King of Thebes to prefer blind- 
ness and exile in his despair rather than face what he did not feel him- 
self pure enough to encounter. He unriddled the man, the form, and 
had forgotten God, the idea. 

If a man would follow in the steps of Hermetic philosophers he 
must prepare himself beforehand for martyrdom. He must give up 
personal pride and all selfish purposes, and be ready for everlasting 
encounters with friends and foes. He must part, once for all, with 
every remembrance of his earlier ideas, on all and on everything. 
Existing religions, knowledge, science, must rebecome a blank book 
for him, as in the days of his babyhood, for if he wants to succeed he 
must learn a new alphabet on the lap of Mother Nature, every letter of 
which will afford a new insight to him, every syllable and word an un- 
expected revelation. The two hitherto irreconcilable foes, science and 
theology — the Montecchi and Capuletti of the nineteenth century — will 
ally themselves with the ignorant masses against the modern Occultist. 
If we have outgrown the age of stakes, we are in the heyday, per 


contra, of slander, the venom of the press, and all these mephitic ven- 
ticelli of calumny so vividly expressed by the immortal Don Basilic 
To science it will be the duty — arid and sterile as a matter of course — of 
the Kabalist to prove that from the beginning of time there was but 
one positive science — Occultism ;' that it was the mysterious lever of all 
intellectual forces, the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil of the alle- 
gorical paradise, from whose gigantic trunk sprang in every direction 
boughs, branches and twigs, the former shooting forth straight enough 
at first, the latter deviating with every inch of growth, assuming more 
and more fantastical appearances, till at last one after the other lost its 
vital juice, got deformed, and, drying up, finally broke off, scattering 
the ground afar with heaps of rubbish. To theology the Occultist of 
the future will have to demonstrate that the Gods of the mythologies, 
the Elohims of Israel as well as the religious and theological mysteries 
of Christianity, to begin with the Trinity, sprang from the sanctuaries 
of Memphis and Thebes; that their mother Eve is but the spiritualized 
Psyche of old, both of them paying a like penalty for their curiosity, 
descending to Hades or hell, the latter to bring back to earth the 
famous Pandora's box, the former to search out and crush the head 
of the serpent — symbol of time and evil, the crime of both expiated 
by the pagan Prometheus and the Christian Lucifer ; the first delivered 
by Hercules, the second conquered by the Saviour. 

Furthermore, the Occultist will have to prove to Christian theology, 
publicly, what many of its priesthood are well aware of in secret, 
namely, that their God on earth was a Kabalist, the meek representa- 
tive of a tremendous Power, which, if misapplied, might shake the 
world to its foundations; and that of all their evangelical symbols, 
there is not one but can be traced up to its parent fount. For instance, 
their incarnated Verbum or Logos was worshipped at his birth by the 
three Magi led on by the star, and received from them the gold, the 
frankincense and myrrh — the whole of which is simply an excerpt from 
the Kabalah our modern theologians despise, and the representation 
of another and still more mysterious "Ternary" embodying allegori- 
cally in its emblems the highest secrets of the Kabalah. 

A clergy whose main object has ever been to make of their Divine 
Cross the gallows of Truth and Freedom, could not do otherwise than 
try and bury in oblivion the origin of that same cross, which, in the 
most primitive symbols of the Egyptians' magic, represents the key to 
heaven. Their anathemas are powerless in our days — the multitude is 


wiser; but the greatest danger awaits us just in that latter direction, if 
we do not succeed in making the masses remain at least neutral — till 
they come to know better — in this forthcoming conflict between Truth, 
Superstition and Presumption, or to express it in other terms, Occult 
Spiritualism, Theology and Science. We have to fear neither the 
miniature thunderbolts of the clergy, nor the unwarranted negations of 
science. But Public Opinion, this invisible, intangible, omnipresent, 
despotic tyrant — this thousand-headed Hydra, the more dangerous for 
being composed of individual mediocrities — is not an enemy to be 
scorned by any would-be Occultist, courageous as he may be. Many 
of the far more innocent Spiritualists have left their sheepskins in the 
clutches of this ever-hungry, roaring lion, for he is the most dangerous 
of our three classes of enemies. What will be the fate in such a case of 
an unfortunate Occultist, if he once succeeds in demonstrating the close 
relationship existing between the two? The masses of people, though 
they do not generally appreciate the science of truth or have real 
knowledge, on the other hand are unerringly directed by mere instinct; 
they have intuitionally — if I may be allowed to so express myself — an 
idea of what is formidable in its genuine strength. People will never 
conspire except against real Power. In their blind ignorance, the 
Mysteries and the Unknown have been, and ever will be, objects of 
terror for them. Civilization may progress; human nature will remain 
the same throughout all ages. Occultists, beware! 

L,et it be understood then that I address myself but to the truly 
courageous and persevering. Besides the danger expressed above, the 
difficulties in becoming a practical Occultist in this country are next 
to insurmountable. Barrier upon barrier, obstacles in every form and 
shape, will present themselves to the student; for the keys of the 
Golden Gate leading to the Infinite Truth lie buried deep, and the gate 
itself is enclosed in a mist which clears up only before the ardent rays 
of implicit faith. Faith alone — one grain of which as large as a mustard- 
seed, according to the words of Christ, can lift a mountain — is able to 
find out how simple becomes the Kabalah to the Initiate once he has 
succeeded in conquering the first abstruse difficulties. The dogma of it 
is logical, easy and absolute. The necessary union of ideas and signs; 
the trinity of words, letters, numbers, and theorems; the religion of 
it can be compressed into a few words. "It is the Infinite condensed 
in the hand of an infant," says Eliphas L,evi. Ten ciphers, twenty- 
two alphabetical letters, one triangle, a square and a circle. Such are 


the elements of the Kabalah from whose mysterious bosom sprang all 
the religions of the past and present; which endowed all the Free- 
masonic associations with their symbols and secrets, which alone can 
reconcile human reason with God and Faith, Power with Freedom, 
Science with Mystery, and which has alone the keys of present, past 
and future. 

The first difficulty for the aspirant lies in the utter impossibility of 
his comprehending, as I said before, the meaning of the best books 
written by Hermetic philosophers. These, who mainly lived in the 
mediaeval ages, prompted on the one hand by their duty towards their 
brethren, and by their desire to impart only to them and their suc- 
cessors the glorious truths, and on the other very naturally desirous 
to avoid the clutches of the bloodthirsty Christian Inquisition, en- 
veloped themselves more than ever in mystery. They invented new 
signs and hieroglyphs, renovated the ancient symbolical language of 
the high priests of antiquity, who had used it as a sacred barrier be- 
tween their holy rites and the ignorance of the profane, and created a 
veritable Kabalistic slang. This latter, which continually blinded the 
false neophyte, attracted towards the science only by his greediness for 
wealth and power which he would have surely misused were he to suc- 
ceed, is a living, eloquent, clear language, but it is and can become 
such only to the true disciple of Hermes. 

But were it even otherwise, and could books on Occultism, written in 
a plain and precise language be obtained in order to get initiated in 
the Kabalah, it would not be sufficient to understand and meditate on 
certain authors. Galatinus and Pic de la Mirandola, Paracelsus and 
Robertus de Fluctibus do not furnish one with the key to the practical 
mysteries. They simply state what can be done and why it is done; 
but they do not tell one hozv to do it. More than one philosopher who 
has by heart the whole of the Hermetic literature, and who has de- 
voted to the study of it upwards of thirty or forty years of his life, fails 
when he believes he is about reaching the final great result. One must 
understand the Hebrew authors, such as Sepher Yetzirah, for instance, 
learn by heart the great book of the Zohar in its original tongue, master 
the Kabalah Demidata from the Collection of 1684 (Paris); follow up the 
Kabalistic pneumatics at first, and then throw oneself headlong into 
the turbid waters of that mysterious* . . . never tried to explain: 
the Prophecy of Ezckiel and the Apocalypse, two Kabalistic treatises, 

* The cutting is here imperfect— some paragraph or so wanting-. 


reserved without doubt for the commentaries of the Magi kings, books 
closed with the seven seals to the faithful Christian, but perfectly clear 
to the Infidel initiated in the Occult Sciences. 

Thus the works on Occultism, were not, I repeat, written for the 
masses, but for those of the Brethren who make the solution of the 
mysteries of the Kabalah the principal object of their lives, and who 
are supposed to have conquered the first abstruse difficulties of the 
Alpha of Hermetic philosophy. 

To fervent and persevering candidates for the above science, I have 
to offer but one word of advice, "try and become." One single journey 
to the Orient, made in the proper spirit, and the possible emergencies 
arising from the meeting of what may seem no more than the chance 
acquaintances and adventures of any traveller, may quite as likely as 
not throw wide open to the zealous student the heretofore closed doors 
of the final mysteries. I will go farther and say that such a journey, 
performed with the omnipresent idea of the one object, and with the 
help of a fervent will, is sure to produce more rapid, better, and far 
more practical results, than the most diligent study of Occultism in 
books — even though one were to devote to it dozens of years. 

In the name of Truth, yours, 

H. P. Blavatsky. 


Happening to be on a visit to Ithaca, where spiritual papers in 
general, and The Banner of Light in particular, are very little read, but 
where, luckily, The Scientist has found hospitality in several houses, I 
learned through your paper of the intensely interesting and very erudite 
attack in an editorial of The Banner, on "Magic," or rather on those 
who had the absurdity to believe in Magic. As hints concerning myself 
— at least in the fragment I see — are very decently veiled, and, as it 
appears, Col. Olcott alone, just now, is offered by way of a pious 
holocaust on the altar erected to the angel-world by some Spiritualists, 
who seem to be terribly in earnest, I will — leaving the said gentleman 
to take care of himself, provided he thinks it worth his trouble — pro- 
ceed to say a few words only, in reference to the alleged non-existence 
of Magic. 

Were I to give anything on my own authority and base my defence 
of Magic only on what I have seen myself, and know to be true in rela- 
tion to that science, as a resident of many years' standing in India and 
Africa, I might, perhaps, risk to be called by Mr. Colby — with that 
unprejudiced, spiritualized politeness, which so distinguishes the vener- 
able editor of The Banner of Light — "an irresponsible woman"; and 
that would not be for the first time either. Therefore, to his astonishing 
assertion that no Magic whatever either exists or has existed in this 
world, I will try to find as good authorities as himself, and maybe better 
ones, and thus politely proceed to contradict him on that particular point. 

Heterodox Spiritualists, like myself, must be cautious in our days 
and proceed with prudence, if they do not wish to be persecuted with 
all the untiring vengeance of that mighty army of" Indian controls" 
and miscellaneous "guides" of our bright Summer-Land. 

When the writer of the editorial says that he — 

Does not think it at all improbable that there are humbugging spirits who try to 
fool certain aspirants to occult knowledge with the notion that there is such a thing 
as magic, (?) 


then, on the other hand, I can answer him that I, for one, not only 
think it probable but I am perfectly sure and can take my oath to the 
certainty, that more than once spirits who were either very elementary 
or very unprogressed ones, calling themselves Theodore Parker, have 
been most decidedly fooling and disrespectfully humbugging our most 
esteemed editor of The Banner of Light into the notion that the Apen- 
nines were in Spain, for instance. 

Furthermore, supported in my assertions by thousands of intelligent 
Spiritualists, generally known for their integrity and truthfulness I 
could furnish numberless proofs and instances where the Elementary 
Diakka, Esrito malins etfarfadeto and other such-like unreliable and 
ignorant denizens of the spirit-world, arraying themselves in pompous, 
world-known and famous names, suddenly gave the bewildered wit- 
nesses such deplorable, unheard-of, slipslop trash, and betimes some- 
thing worse, that more than one person who, previous to that, was an 
earnest believer in the spiritual philosophy, has either silently taken to 
his heels, or if he happened to have been formerly a Roman Catholic, 
has devoutly tried to recall to memory with which hand he used to 
cross himself, and then cleared out with the most fervent exclamation 
of " Vade retro, Satanas /" Such is the opinion of ever)' educated 

If that indomitable Attila, the persecutor of modern Spiritualism and 
mediums, Dr. G. Beard, had offered such a remark against Magic, I 
would not wonder, as a too profound devotion to blue pill and black 
draught is generally considered the best antidote against mystic and 
spiritual speculations; but for a firm Spiritualist — a believer in invisible, 
mysterious worlds swarming with beings, the true nature of which is 
still an unriddled mystery to everyone — to step in and then sarcastically 
reject that which has been proved to exist and believed in for countless 
ages by millions of persons, wiser than himself, is too audacious! And 
that sceptic is the editor of a leading Spiritual paper! — a man whose 
first duty should be to help his readers to seek, untiringly and perse- 
veringly, for the truth in whatever form it might present itself; but 
who takes the risk of dragging thousands of people into error, by 
pinning them to his personal rose-water faith and credulity. Every 
serious, earnest-minded Spiritualist must agree with me in saying, that 
if modern Spiritualism remains, for a few years only, in its present 
condition of chaotic anarchy, or still worse, if it is allowed to run its 
mad course, shooting forth on all sides idle hypotheses based on 


superstitious, groundless ideas, then will the Dr. Beards, Dr. Marvins 
and others, known as scientific (?) sceptics, triumph indeed. 

Really, it seems to be a waste of time to answer such ridiculous, 
ignorant assertions as the one which forced me to take up my pen. 
Any well-read Spiritualist who finds the statement "that there ever 
was such a science as magic, has never been proved, nor ever will be," 
will need no answer from myself, nor anyone else, to cause him to 
shrug his shoulders and smile, as he probably has smiled, at the 
wonderful attempt of Mr. Colby's spirits to reorganize geography by 
placing the Apennines in Spain. 

Why, man alive, did you never open a book in your life besides your 
own records of Tom, Dick and Harry descending from upper spheres 
to remind their Uncle Sam that he had torn his gaiters or broken his 
pipe in the far West? 

Did you suppose that Magic is confined to witches riding astride 
broomsticks and then turning themselves into black cats? Even the 
latter superstitious trash, though it was never called Magic but Sorcery, 
does not appear so great an absurdity for one to accept who firmly 
believes in the transfiguration of Mrs. Compton into Katie Brinks. 
The laws of nature are unchangeable. The conditions under which a 
medium can be transformed, entirely absorbed in the process by the 
spirit, into the semblance of another person, will hold good whenever 
that spirit, or rather force, should have a fancy to take the form of a 

The exercise of magical power is the exercise of powers natural, 
but superior to the ordinary functions of Nature. A miracle is not a 
violation of the laws of Nature, except for ignorant people. Magic is 
but a science, a profound knowledge of the Occult forces in Nature, and 
of the laws governing the visible or the invisible world. Spiritualism 
in the hands of an Adept becomes Magic, for he is learned in the art 
of blending together the laws of the universe, without breaking any of 
them and thereby violating Nature. In the hands of an experienced 
medium, Spiritualism becomes unconscious sorcery; for, by allowing 
himself to become the helpless tool of a variety of spirits, of whom he 
knows nothing save what the latter permit him to know, he opens, 
unknown to himself, a door of communication between the two worlds, 
through which emerge the blind forces of Nature lurking in the astral 
light, as well as good and bad spirits. 

A powerful mesmerizer, profoundly learned in his science, such as 


Baron Dupotet, and Regazzoni Pietro d'Amicis of Bologna, are magicians, 
for they have become the Adepts, the initiated ones, into the great 
mystery of our Mother Nature. Such men as the above-mentioned — 
and such were Mesmer and Cagliostro — control the spirits instead of 
allowing their subjects or themselves to be controlled by them; and 
Spiritualism is safe in their hands. In the absence of experienced 
Adepts though, it is always safer for a naturally clairvoyant medium to 
trust to good luck and chance, and try to judge of the tree by its fruits. 
Bad spirits will seldom communicate through a pure, naturally good 
and virtuous person; and it is still more seldom that pure spirits will 
choose impure channels. Like attracts like. 

But to return to Magic. Such men as Albertus Magnus, Raymond 
I,ulli, Cornelius Agrippa, Paracelsus, Robert Fludd, Eugenius Phila- 
lethes, Kunrath, Roger Bacon and others of similar character, in our 
sceptical century, are generally taken for visionaries; but so, too, are 
modern Spiritualists and mediums — nay worse, for charlatans and 
poltroons; but never were the Hermetic philosophers taken by anyone 
for fools and idiots, as, unfortunately for ourselves and the cause, every 
unbeliever takes all of us believers in Spiritualism to be. Those 
Hermetics and philosophers may be disbelieved and doubted now, as 
everything else is doubted, but very few doubted their knowledge and 
power during their lifetime, for they could always prove what they 
claimed, having command over those forces which nozv command help- 
less mediums. They had their science and demonstrated philosophy 
to help them to throw down ridiculous negations, while we sentimental 
Spiritualists, rocking ourselves to sleep with our "Sweet Bye-and-Bye," 
are now unable to recognize a spurious phenomenon from a genuine 
one, and are daily deceived by vile charlatans. Even though doubted 
then, as Spiritualism is in our day, still these philosophers were held 
in awe and reverence, even by those who did not implicitly believe 
in their Occult potency, for they were giants of intellect. Profound 
knowledge, as well as cultured intellectual powers, will always be 
respected and revered; but our mediums and their adherents are 
laughed at and scorned, and we are all made to suffer, because the 
phenomena are left to the whims and pranks of self-willed and other 
mischievous spirits, and we are utterly powerless in controlling them. 

To doubt Magic is to reject History itself, as well as the testimony of 
ocular witnesses thereof, during a period embracing over 4,000 years. 
Beginning with Homer, Moses, Hermes, Herodotus, Cicero, Plutarch, 


Pythagoras, Apollonius of Tyana, Simon the Magician, Plato, Pausa- 
nias, Iamblichus, and following this endless string of great men — 
historians and philosophers, who all of them either believed in Magic 
or were magicians themselves — and ending with our modern authors, 
such as W. Howitt, Ennemoser, G. des Mousseaux, Marquis de Mirville 
and the late Eliphas Levi, who was a magician himself — among all of 
these great names and authors, we find but the solitary Mr. Colby, 
editor of The Banner of Light, who ignores that there ever was such a 
science as Magic. He innocently believes the whole of the sacred army 
of Bible prophets, commencing with Father Abraham, including Christ, 
to be merely mediums; in the eyes of Mr. Colby they were all of them 
acting under control ! Fancy Christ, Moses, or an Apollonius of Tyana, 
controlled by an Indian guide! The venerable editor ignores, perhaps, 
that spiritual mediums were better known in those days to the ancients, 
than they are now to us, and he seems to be equally unaware of the fact 
that the inspired sibyls, pythonesses, and other mediums were entirely 
guided by their high priest and those who were initiated into the 
esoteric theurgy and mysteries of the temples. Theurgy was Magic; 
as in modern times, the sibyls and pythonesses were mediums; but 
their high priests were magicians. All the secrets of their theology, 
which included Magic, or the art of invoking ministering spirits, were 
in their hands. They possessed the science of discerning spirits; a 
science which Mr. Colby does not possess at all — to his great regret, no 
doubt. By this power they controlled the spirits at will, allowing but 
the good ones to absorb their mediums. Such is the explanation of 
Magic — the real, existing, White or Sacred Magic, which ought to be 
in the hands of science now, and would be, if science had profited by 
the lessons which Spiritualism has inductively taught for these last 
twenty-seven years. 

That is the reason why no trash was allowed to be given by un pro- 
gressed spirits in the days of old. The oracles of the sibyls and 
inspired priestesses could never have affirmed Athens to be a town in 
India, or jumped Mount Ararat from its native place down to Egypt. 

If the sceptical writer of the editorial had, moreover, devoted less 
time to little prattling Indian spirits and more to profitable lectures, he 
might have learned perhaps at the same time that the ancients had 
their illegal mediums — I mean those who belonged to no special temple 
— and thus the spirits controlling them, unchecked by the expert hand 
of the magician, were left to themselves, and had all the opportunity 


possible to perform their capers on their helpless tools. Such mediums 
were generally considered obsessed and possessed, which they were in 
fact, in other words, according to the Bible phraseology, "they had 
seven devils in them." Furthermore, these mediums were ordered to 
be put to death, for the intolerant Moses the magician, who was learned 
in the wisdom of Egypt, had said, "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to 
live." Alone the Egyptians and Greeks, even more humane and just 
than Moses, took such into their temples, and, when found unfit for 
the sacred duties of prophecy cured them in the same way as Jesus 
Christ cured Mary of Magdala and many others, by "casting out the 
seven devils." Either Mr. Colby and Co. must completely deny the 
miracles of Christ, the Apostles, Prophets, Thaumaturgists and Magi- 
cians, and so deny point-blank ever}- bit of the sacred and profane his- 
tories, or he must confess that there is a Power in this world which can 
command spirits — at least the bad and unprogressed ones, the elemen- 
tary and Diakka. The pure ones, the disembodied, will never descend 
to our sphere unless attracted by a current of powerful sympathy and 
love, or on some useful mission. 

Far from me the thought of casting odium and ridicule on all 
mediums. I am myself a Spiritualist, if, as says Colonel Olcott, a firm 
belief in our spirit's immortality and the knowledge of a constant possi- 
bility for us to communicate with the spirits of our departed and loved 
ones, either through honest, pure mediums, or by means of the Secret 
Science, constitutes a Spiritualist. And I am not of those fanatical 
Spiritualists, to be found in every country, who blindly accept the 
claims of every "spirit," for I have seen too much of various pheno- 
mena, undreamed of in America; I know that Magic does exist, and 
10,000 editors of spiritual papers cannot change my belief in what I 
know. There is a White and a Black Magic, and no one who has ever 
travelled in the East can doubt it, if he has taken the trouble to investi- 
gate. My faith being firm I am therefore ever ready to support and 
protect any honest medium — aye, and even occasionally one who 
appears dishonest, for I know but too well what helpless tools and vic- 
tims such mediums are in the hands of unprogressed, invisible beings. 
I am furthermore aware of the malice and wickedness of the elemen- 
taries, and how far they can inspire not only a sensitive medium, but 
any other person as well. Though I may be an "irresponsible," despite 
the harm some mediums do to earnest Spiritualists by their unfairness, 
one-sidedness, and spiritual sentimentalism, I feel safe to say that 


generally I am quick enough to detect whenever a medium is cheating 
under control, or cheating consciously. 

Thus Magic exists, and has existed, ever since prehistoric ages. 
Beginning in history with the Samothracian Mysteries, it followed its 
course uninterruptedly, and ended for a time with the expiring theurgic 
rites and ceremonies of Christianized Greece; then reappeared for a 
time again with the Neo-Platonic, Alexandrian school, and, passing by 
initiation to sundry solitary students and philosophers, safely crossed 
the mediaeval ages, and notwithstanding the furious persecutions of the 
Church, resumed its fame in the hands of such Adepts as Paracelsus 
and several others, and finally died out in Europe with the Count St. 
Germain and Cagliostro, to seek refuge from frozen-hearted scepticism 
in its native country of the East. 

In India, Magic has never died out, and blossoms there as well as 
ever. Practised, as in ancient Egypt, only within the secret enclosure 
of the temples, it was, and still is, called the "Sacred Science." For 
it is a science, based on the occult forces of Nature; and not merely a 
blind belief in the poll-parrot talking of crafty elementaries, ready 
to forcibly prevent real, disembodied spirits from communicating with 
their loved ones whenever they can do so. 

Some time since a Mr. Mendenhall devoted several columns, in The 
Religio- Philosophical Journal, to questioning, cross-examining, and 
criticizing the mysterious Brotherhood of Euxor. He made a fruitless 
attempt at forcing the said Brotherhood to answer him, and thus unveil 
the sphinx. 

I can satisfy Mr. Mendenhall. The Brotherhood of Euxor is one of 
the sections of the Grand L,odge of which / am a member. If this 
gentleman entertains any doubt as to my statement — which I have no 
doubt he will — he can, if he chooses, write to Lahore for information. 
If, perchance, the seven of the committee were so rude as not to answer 
him, and should refuse to give him the desired information, I can then 
offer him a little business transaction. Mr. Mendenhall, as far as I 
remember, has two wives in the spirit world. Both of these ladies 
materialize at M. Mott's, and often hold very long conversations with 
their husband, as the latter told us several times and over his own 
signature; adding, moreover, that he had no doubt whatever of the 
identity of the said spirits. If so, let one of the departed ladies tell 
Mr. Mendenhall the name of that section of the Grand Lodge I belong 
to. For real, genuine, disembodied spirits, if both are what they claim 


to be, the matter is more than easy ; they have but to enquire of other 
spirits, look into my thoughts, and so on; for a disembodied entity, an 
immortal spirit, it is the easiest thing in the world to do. Then, if the 
gentleman I challenge, though I am deprived of the pleasure of his 
acquaintance, tells me the true name of the section — which name three 
gentlemen in New York, who are accepted neophytes of our Lodge, 
know well — I pledge myself to give to Mr. Mendenhall the true state- 
ment concerning the Brotherhood, which is not composed of spirits, as 
he may think, but of living mortals, and I will, moreover, if he desires 
it, put him in direct communication with the Lodge as I have done for 
others. Methinks, Mr. Mendenhall will answer that no such name can 
be given correctly by the spirits, for no such Lodge or Section either, 
exists at all, and thus close the discussion. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

(From The Spiritual Scientist?) 


The circumstances attending the sudden death of M. Delessert, 
inspector of the Police de Surete, seem to have made such an impression 
upon the Parisian authorities that they were recorded in unusual detail. 
Omitting all particulars except what are necessary to explain matters, 
we produce here the undoubtedly strange history. 

In the fall of 1S61 there came to Paris a man who called himself Vic 
de Lassa, and was so inscribed upon his passports. He came from 
Vienna, and said he was a Hungarian, who owned estates on the 
borders of the Banat, not far from Zenta. He was a small man, aged 
thirty-five, with pale and mysterious face, long blonde hair, a vague, 
wandering blue eye, and a mouth of singular firmness. He dressed 
carelessly and unaffectedly, and spoke and talked without much 
empressement. His companion, presumably his wife, on the other hand, 
ten years younger than himself, was a strikingly beautiful woman, of 
that dark, rich, velvety, luscious, pure Hungarian type which is so nigh 
akin to the gipsy blood. At the theatres, on the Bois, at the cafes, on 
the boulevards, and everywhere that idle Paris disports itself, Madame 
Aimee de Lassa attracted great attention and made a sensation. 

They lodged in luxurious apartments on the Rue Richelieu, frequented 
the best places, received good company, entertained handsomely, and 
acted in every way as if possessed of considerable wealth. Lassa had 
always a good balance chez Schneider, Ruter et Cie, the Austrian bankers 
in Rue Rivoli, and wore diamonds of conspicuous lustre. 

How did it happen then, that the Prefect of Police saw fit to suspect 
Monsieur and Madame de Lassa, and detailed Paul Delessert, one of the 
most ruse inspectors of the force, to "pipe" him? The fact is, the 
insignificant man with the splendid wife was a very mysterious per- 
sonage, and it is the habit of the police to imagine that mystery always 
hides either the conspirator, the adventurer, or the charlatan. The 
conclusion to which the Prefect had come in regard to M. de Lassa was 


that he was an adventurer and charlatan too. Certainly a successful 
one, then, for he was singularly unobtrusive and had in no way trum- 
peted the wonders which it was his mission to perform, yet in a few 
weeks after he had established himself in Paris the salon of M. de L,assa 
was the rage, and the number of persons who paid the fee of 100 francs 
for a single peep into his magic crystal, and a single message by his 
spiritual telegraph, was really astonishing. The secret of this was 
that M. de Lassa was a conjurer and deceiver, whose pretensions were 
omniscient and whose predictions always came true. 

Delessert did not find it very difficult to get an introduction and ad- 
mission to De Lassa's salon. The receptions occurred every other day — 
two hours in the forenoon, three hours in the evening. It was evening 
when Inspector Delessert called in his assumed character of M. Flabry, 
virtuoso in jewels and a convert to Spiritualism. He found the hand- 
some parlours brilliantly lighted, and a charming assemblage gathered 
of well-pleased guests, who did not at all seem to have come to learn 
their fortunes or fates, while contributing to the income of their host, 
but rather to be there out of complaisance to his virtues and gifts. 

Mine, de Lassa performed upon the piano or conversed from group to 
group in a way that seemed to be delightful, while M. de Lassa walked 
about or sat in his insignificant, unconcerned way, saying a word now 
and then, but seeming to shun everything that was conspicuous. 
Servants handed about refreshments, ices, cordials, wines, etc., and 
Delessert could have fancied himself to have dropped in upon a quite 
modest evening entertainment, altogether en regie, but for one or two 
noticeable circumstances which his observant eyes quickl} 7 took in. 

Except when their host or hostess was within hearing the guests 
conversed together in low tones, rather mysteriously, and with not 
quite so much laughter as is usual on such occasions. At intervals 
a very tall and dignified footman would come to a guest, and, with a 
profound bow, present him a card on a silver salver. The guest would 
then go out, preceded by the solemn servant, but when he or she 
returned to the salon — some did not return at all — they invariably 
wore a dazed or puzzled look, were confused, astonished, frightened, or 
amused. All this was so unmistakably genuine, and De Lassa and his 
wife seemed so unconcerned amidst it all, not to say distinct from it all, 
that Delessert could not avoid being forcibly struck and considerably 

Two or three little incidents, which came under Delessert's own 


immediate observation, will suffice to make plain the character of the 
impressions made upon those present. A couple of gentlemen, both 
young, both of good social condition, and evidently very intimate 
friends, were conversing together and tutoying one another at a great 
rate, when the dignified footman summoned Alphonse. He laughed 
gaily, "Tarry a moment, chcr Auguste," said he, "and thou shalt know 
all the particulars of this wonderful fortune!" "E/i Hen!" A minute 
had scarcely elapsed when Alphonse returned to the salon. His face 
was white and bore an appearance of concentrated rage that was 
frightful to witness. He came straight to Auguste, his eyes flashing, 
and bending his face toward his friend, who changed colour and recoiled, 
he hissed out: "Monsieur L,efebure, vons etes un lac/ie!" "Very well, 
Monsieur Meunier," responded Auguste, in the same low tone, "to- 
morrow morning at six o'clock!" "It is settled, false friend, execrable 
traitor! A la mort!" rejoined Alphonse, walking off. " Cela va sans 
dire!" muttered Auguste, going towards the hat-room. 

A diplomatist of distinction, representative at Paris of a neighbouring 
state, an elderly gentleman of superb aplomb and most commanding 
appearance, was summoned to the oracle by the bowing footman. 
After being absent about five minutes he returned, and immediately 
made his way through the press to M. de Lassa, who was standing not 
far from the fireplace, with his hands in his pockets and a look of 
utmost indifference upon his face. Delessert standing near, watched 
the interview with eager interest. 

"I am exceedingly sorry," said General Von , "to have to absent 

myself so soon from your interesting salon, M. de L,assa, but the result 
of my seance convinces me that my dispatches have been tampered 
with." "I am sorry," responded M. de L,assa, with an air of languid 
but courteous interest; "I hope you may be able to discover which of 
your servants has been unfaithful." "I am going to do that now," said 
the General, adding, in significant tones, "I shall see that both he and 
his accomplices do not escape severe punishment." "That is the only 
course to pursue, Monsieur le Comte." The ambassador stared, bowed, 
and took his leave with a bewilderment in his face that was beyond the 
power of his tact to control. 

In the course of the evening M. de L,assa went carelessly to the 
piano, and, after some indifferent vague preluding, played a remarkably 
effective piece of music, in which the turbulent life and buoyancy of 
bacchanalian strains melted gently, almost imperceptibly away, into a 


sobbing wail of regret, and languor, and weariness, and despair. It 
was beautifully rendered, and made a great impression upon the 
guests, one of whom, a lady, cried, "How lovely, how sad! Did you 
compose that yourself, M. de Lassa?" He looked towards her absently 
for an instant, then replied: "I? Oh, no! That is merely a remini- 
scence, madame." "Do you know who did compose it, M. de Lassa?" 
enquired a virtuoso present. "I believe it was originally written by 
Ptolemy Auletes, the father of Cleopatra," said M. de Lassa, in his 
indifferent musing way; "but not in its present form. It has been 
twice re-written to my knowledge; still, the air is substantially the 
same." "From whom did you get it, M. de Lassa, if I may ask?" per- 
sisted the gentleman. "Certainly, certainly! The last time I heard it 
played was by Sebastian Bach; but that was Palestrina's — the present 
— version. I think I prefer that of Guido of Arezzo — it is ruder, but 
has more force. I got the air from Guido himself." "You — from — 
Guido!" cried the astonished gentleman. "Yes, monsieur," answered 
De Lassa, rising from the piano with his usual indifferent air. " Mon 
Diai!" cried the virtuoso, putting his hand to his head after the manner 
of Mr. Twemlow, "Mon Dicu! that was in Anno Domini 1022." "A 
little later than that — July, 103 1, if I remember rightly," courteously 
corrected M. de Lassa. 

At this moment the tall footman bowed before M. Delessert, and 
presented the salver containing the card. Delessert took it and read: 
" 0?i vous accorde trente-cinq secondes, M. Flabry, tout aii plus /" Delessert 
followed; the footman opened the door of another room and bowed 
again, signifying that Delessert was to enter. "Ask no questions," he 
said briefly; "Sidi is mute." Delessert entered the room and the 
door closed behind him. It was a small room, with a strong smell of 
frankincense pervading it; the walls were covered completely with red 
hangings that concealed the windows, and the floor was felted with a 
thick carpet. Opposite the door, at the upper end of the room near the 
ceiling was the face of a large clock, under it, each lighted by tall wax 
candles, were two small tables, containing, the one an apparatus very 
like the common registering telegraph instrument, the other a crystal 
globe about twenty inches in diameter, set upon an exquisitely wrought 
tripod of gold and bronze intermingled. By the side of the door stood 
a man jet black in colour, wearing a white turban and burnous, and 
having a sort of wand of silver in one hand. With the other he took 
Delessert by the right arm above the elbow, and led him quickly up the 


room. He pointed to the clock, and it struck an alarum; he pointed to 
the crystal. Delessert bent over, looked into it, and saw — a facsimile 
of his own sleeping-room, everything photographed exactly. Sidi did 
not give him time to exclaim, but still holding him by the arm, took 
him to the other table. The telegraph-like instrument began to click- 
click. Sidi opened the drawer, drew out a slip of paper, crammed it 
into Delessert's hand, and pointed to the clock, which struck again. 
The thirty-five seconds were expired. Sidi, still retaining hold of 
Delessert's arm, pointed to the door and led him towards it. The door 
opened, Sidi pushed him out, the door closed, the tall footman stood 
there bowing — the interview with the oracle is over. Delessert glanced 
at the piece of paper in his hand. It was a printed scrap, capital letters, 
and read simply: "To M. Paul Delessert: The policeman is always 
welcome, the spy is always in danger!" 

Delessert was dumbfounded a moment to find his disguise detected, 
but the words of the tall footman, "This way if you please, M. Flabry," 
brought him to his senses. Setting his lips, he returned to the salon, 
and without delay sought M. de L,assa. "Do you know the contents 
of this?" asked he, showing the message. "I know even-thing, M. 
Delessert," answered De Lassa, in his careless way. "Then perhaps you 
are aware that I mean to expose a charlatan, and unmask a hypocrite, 
or perish in the attempt?" said Delessert. " Cela mest egal, monsieur" 
replied De Lassa. "You accept my challenge then?" "Oh! it is a 
defiance, then?" replied De Lassa, letting his eye rest a moment upon 
Delessert, "mats oui, je racccpte!" And thereupon Delessert departed. 

Delessert now set to work, aided by all the forces the Prefect of 
Police could bring to bear, to detect and expose this consummate 
sorcerer, whom the ruder processes of our ancestors would easily have 
disposed of — by combustion. Persistent enquiry satisfied Delessert 
that the man was neither a Hungarian nor was named De L,assa; that 
no matter how far back his power of "reminiscence" might extend, in 
his present and immediate form he had been born in this unregenerate 
world in the toy-making city of Nuremburg; that he was noted in 
boyhood for his great turn for ingenious manufactures, but was very 
wild, and a maztvais sujet. In his sixteenth year he escaped to Geneva 
and apprenticed himself to a maker of watches and instruments. Here 
he had been seen by the celebrated Robert Houdin, the prestidigitateur. 
Houdin recognizing the lad's talents, and being himself a maker of 
ingenious automata, had taken him off to Paris and employed him in 


his own workshops, as well as for an assistant in the public performances 
of his amusing and curious diablerie. After staying with Houdin some 
years, Pflock Haslich (which was De L,assa's right name) had gone East 
in the suite of a Turkish Pasha, and after many years' roving, in lands 
where he could not be traced under a cloud of pseudonyms, had finally 
turned up in Venice, and come thence to Paris. 

Delessert next turned his attention to Mme. de L,assa. It was more 
difficult to get a clue by means of which to know her past life; but it 
was necessary in order to understand enough about Haslich. At last, 
through an accident, it became probable that Mme. Aimee was identical 
with a certain Mme. Schlaff, who had been rather conspicuous among 
the demi-monde of Buda. Delessert posted off to that ancient city, and 
thence went into the wilds of Transylvania to Mengyco. On his return, 
as soon as he reached the telegraph and civilization, he telegraphed 
the Prefect from Kardszag: "Don't lose sight of my man, nor let him 
leave Paris. I will run him in for you two days after I get back." 

It happened that on the day of Delessert' s return to Paris the Prefect 
was absent, being with the Emperor at Cherbourg. He came back 
on the fourth day, just twenty-four hours after the announcement of 
Delessert's death. That happened, as near as could be gathered, in 
this wise: The night after Delessert's return he was present at De 
Lassa's salon with a ticket of admittance to a seance. He was very 
completely disguised as a decrepit old man, and fancied that it was 
impossible for any one to detect him. Nevertheless, when he was 
taken into the room, and looked into the crystal, he was utterly horror- 
stricken to see there a picture cf himself, lying face down and senseless 
upon the side-walk of a street; and the message he received read thus: 
"What you have seen will be, Delessert, in three days. Prepare!" 
The detective, unspeakably shocked, retired from the house at once 
and sought his own lodgings. 

In the morning he came to the office in a state of extreme dejection. 
He was completely unnerved. In relating to a brother inspector what 
had occurred, he said: "That man can do what he promises, I am 
doomed ! " 

He said that he thought he could make a complete case out against 
Haslich alias De L,assa, but could not do so without seeing the Prefect 
and getting instructions. He would tell nothing in regard to his dis- 
coveries in Buda and in Transylvania — said he was not at liberty to do 
so — and repeatedly exclaimed: "Oh! if M. le Prefet were only here!" 


He was told to go to the Prefect at Cherbourg, but refused upon the 
ground that his presence was needed in Paris. He time and again 
averred his conviction that he was a doomed man, and showed himself 
both vacillating and irresolute in his conduct, and extremely nervous. 
He was told that he was perfectly safe, since De Lassa and all his 
household were under constant surveillance; to which he replied, "You 
do not know the man." An inspector was detailed to accompany 
Delessert, never to lose sight of him night and day, and guard him 
carefully; and proper precautions were taken in regard to his food and 
drink, while the guards watching De Lassa were doubled. 

On the morning of the third day, Delessert, who had been staying 
chiefly indoors, avowed his determination to go at once and telegraph 
to M. le Prefet to return immediately. With this intention he and his 
brother officer started out. Just as they got to the corner of the Rue 
de Lanery and the Boulevard, Delessert stopped suddenly and put his 
hand to his forehead. 

"My God!" he cried, "the crystal! the picture!" and fell prone 
upon his face, insensible. He was taken at once to a hospital, but only 
lingered a few hours, never regaining his consciousness. Under ex- 
press instruction from the authorities, a most careful, minute, and 
thorough autopsy was made of Delessert's body by several distin- 
guished surgeons, whose unanimous opinion was, that the cause of his 
death was apoplexy, due to fatigue and nervous excitement. 

As soon as Delessert was sent to the hospital, his brother inspector 
hurried to the Central Office, and De Lassa, together with his wife and 
everyone connected with the establishment, were at once arrested. De 
Lassa smiled contemptuously as they took him away. "I knew you 
were coming; I prepared for it; you will be glad to release me again." 

It was quite true that De Lassa had prepared for them. When the 
house was searched it was found that every paper had been burned, the 
crystal globe was destroyed, and in the room of the seances was a great 
heap of delicate machinery broken into indistinguishable bits. "That 
cost me 200,000 francs," said De Lassa, pointing to the pile, "but it has 
been a good investment." The walls and floors were ripped out in 
several places, and the damage to the property was considerable. In 
prison neither De Lassa nor his associates made any revelations. The 
notion that they had something to do with Delessert's death was 
quickly dispelled, in a legal point of view, and all the party but De 
Lassa were released. He was still detained in prison, upon one pretext 


or another, when one morning he was found hanging by a silk sash to 
the cornice of the room where he was confined — dead. The night 
before, it was afterwards discovered, Madame de L,assa had eloped with 
a tall footman, taking the Nubian Sidi with them. De Lassa's secrets 
died with him. 

"It is an interesting story, that article of yours in to-day's Scientist. 
But is it a record of facts, or a tissue of the imagination? If true, why 
not state the source of it, in other words, specify your authority for it." 

The above is not signed, but we would take the opportunity to say 
that the story, "An Unsolved Mystery," was published because we 
considered the main points of the narrative — the prophecies, and the 
singular death of the officer — to be psychic phenomena, that have been, 
and can be, again produced. Why quote "authorities"? The Scrip- 
tures tell us of the death of Ananias, under the stern rebuke from 
Peter; here we have a phenomenon of a similar nature. Ananias is 
supposed to have suffered instant death from fear. Few can realize 
this power governed by spiritual laws, but those who have trod the 
boundary line and know some few of the things that can be done, will 
see no great mystery in this, nor in the story published last week. We 
are not speaking in mystical tones. Ask the powerful mesmerist if 
there is danger that the subject may pass out of his control? — if he 
could will the spirit out, never to return ? It is capable of demonstra- 
tion that the mesmerist can act on a subject at a distance of many 
miles; and it is no less certain that the majority of mesmerists know 
little or nothing of the laws that govern their powers. 

It may be a pleasant dream to attempt to conceive of the beauties of 
the spirit-world ; but the time can be spent more profitably in a study 
of the spirit itself, and it is not necessary that the subject for study 
should be in the spirit-world. 


To the Editor of " The Spiritual Scientist." 

Dear Sir, — In advices just received from St. Petersburg I am re- 
quested to translate and forward to The Scientist for publication the 
protest of the Hon. Alexander Aksakoff, Imperial Counsellor of State, 
against the course of the professors of the University respecting the 
Spiritualistic investigation. The document appears, in Russian, in the 
Vcdomostji, the official journal of St. Petersburg. 

This generous, high-minded, courageous gentleman has done the 
possible, and even the impossible, in order to open the spiritual eyes 
of those incurable moles who fear the daylight of truth as the burglar 
fears the policeman's bull's-eye. 

The heartfelt thanks and gratitude of every Spiritualist ought to be 
forwarded to this noble defender of the cause, who regretted neither 
his time, trouble nor money to help the propagation of the truth. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

New York, April 10th, i8?6* 

See Appendix, "A. Aksakofifs Protest." 


[From The Spiritual Scientist, Jan. 6th, 1876.] 

Dear Sir, — For the last three months one has hardly been able to 
open a number of The Banner, or the other papers , without finding one 
or more proofs of the fecundity of the human imagination in the condi- 
tion of hallucination. The Spiritualist camp is in an uproar, and the 
clans are gathering to fight imaginary foes. The tocsin is sounded ; 
danger signals shoot, like flaming rockets, across the hitherto serene 
sky, and warning cries are uttered by vigilant sentries posted at the 
four corners of the "angel-girt world." The reverberations of this 
din resound even in the daily press. One would think that the Day of 
Judgment had come for American Spiritualism. 

Why all this disturbance? Simply because two humble individuals 
have spoken a few wholesome truths. If the grand beast of the Apoca- 
lypse with its seven heads and the word "Blasphemy" written upon 
each, had appeared in heaven, there would hardly have been seen so 
much commotion there, as this ; and there seems to be a concerted effort 
to cast out Col. Olcott and myself (coupled like a pair of Hermetic 
Siamese twins) as ominous to the superstitious as a comet with a fiery 
tail, and the precursor of war, plagues and other calamities. They seem 
to think that if they do not crush us, we will destroy Spiritualism. 

I have no time to waste, and what I now write is not intended for the 
benefit of such persons as these — whose soap-bubbles, however pretty, 
are sure to burst of themselves — but to set myself right with many 
most estimable Spiritualists for whom I feel a sincere regard. 

If the spiritual press of America were conducted upon a principle of 
doing even justice to all, I would send your contemporaries copies of 
this letter, but their course in the past has made me — whether rightly 
or not — feel as if no redress could be had outside of your columns. I 
shall be only too glad if their treatment, in this case, gives me cause to 
change my opinion that they, and their slandering theorists, are inspired 


by the biblical devils who left Mary Magdalene and returned to the land 
of the "Sweet Bye-and-Bye.'" 

To begin, I wish to unhook my name from that of Col. Olcott, if you 
please, and declare that, as he is not responsible for my views or 
actions, neither am I for his. _ He is bold enough and strong enough 
to defend himself under all circumstances, and has never allowed his 
adversaries to strike without knocking out two teeth to their one. If 
our views on Spiritualism are in some degree identical, and our work 
in the Theosophical Society pursued in common, we are, notwithstand- 
ing, two very distinct entities and mean to remain such. I highly 
esteem Col. Olcott, as everyone does who knows him. He is a gentle- 
man; but what is more in my eyes, he is an honest and true man, and 
an unselfish Spiritualist, in the proper sense of that word. If he now 
sees Spiritualism in another light than orthodox Spiritualists would 
prefer, the}' themselves are only to blame. He strikes at the rotten 
places of their philosophy, and they do all they can to cover up the 
ulcers instead of trying to cure them. He is one of the truest and 
most unselfish friends that the cause has to-day in America, and yet he 
is treated with an intolerance that could hardly be expected of any- 
body above the level of the rabid Moodys and Sankeys. Surely, facts 
speak for themselves; and a faith so pure, angelic and unadulterated as 
American Spiritualism is claimed to be, can have nothing to fear from 
heresiarchs. A house built on the rock stands unshaken by any storm. 
If the New Lutheran Church can prove all its "controls, guides and 
visitors from behind the shining river" to be disembodied spirits, why 
all this row? That's just where the trouble lies; they cannot prove it. 
They have tasted these fruits of Paradise, and while finding some of 
them sweet and refreshing because gathered and brought by real angel 
friends, so many others have proved sour and rotten at the core, that 
to escape an incurable dyspepsia, many of the best and most sincere 
Spiritualists have left the communion without asking for a letter of 

This is not Spiritualism; it is, as I say, a New Lutheran Church, and 
really, though the late oracle of The Banner of Light was evidently a 
pure and true woman — for the breath of calumny, this raging demon of 
America, has never been able to soil her reputation — and though cer- 
tainly she was a wonderful medium, still I don't see why a Spiritualist 
should be ostracized, only because after having given up St. Paul, he 
or she does not strictly adhere to the doctrines of St. Conant. 


The last number of The Banner contained a letter from a Mr. Saxon, 
criticizing some expressions in a recent letter of Col. Olcott to the New 
York Sun, in defence of the Eddys. The only part which concerned 
me is this: 

Surely some magician, with his or her Kabalistic "Presto! Change!" has worked 
sudden and singular revolutions in the mind of this disciple of Occultism, this 
gentleman who "is" and "is not" a Spiritualist. 

As I am the only Kabalist in America, I cannot be mistaken as to 
the author's meaning; so I cheerfully pick up the glove. While I am 
not responsible for the changes in the barometer of Col. Olcott's spiri- 
tuality (which I notice usually presage a storm), I am for the follow- 
ing facts: Since I left Chittenden, I have constantly and fearlessly 
maintained against everyone, beginning with Dr. Beard, that their 
apparitions are genuine and powerful. Whether they are "spirits of 
hell or goblins damned" is a question quite separate from that of their 
mediumship. Col. Olcott will not deny that when we met at Chittenden 
for the first time, and afterwards — and that more than once — when he 
expressed suspicions about the genuineness of Mayflower and George 
Dix, the spirits of Horatio's dark seanees, I insisted that, so far as I 
could judge, they were genuine phenomena. He will also no doubt 
admit, since he is an eminently truthful man, that when the ungrateful 
behaviour of the Eddys — toward whom every visitor at the homestead 
will testify that he was kinder than a brother — had made him ready to 
express his indignation, I interfered on their behalf, and begged that 
he would never confound mediums with other people as to their 
responsibility. Mediums have tried to shake my opinions of the Eddy 
boys, offering in two cases that I can recall to go to Chittenden with 
me and expose the fraud. I acted the same with them that I did with 
the Colonel. Mediums have tried likewise to convince me that Mr. 
Crookes' Katie King was but Miss F. Cooke walking about, while a 
wax bust, fabricated in her likeness and covered with her clothes, lay 
in the cabinet representing her as entranced. Other mediums, regard- 
ing me as a fanatical Spiritualist, who would even be ready to connive 
at fraud rather than see the cause hurt by an exposure, have let, or 
pretended to let, me into the secrets of the mediumship of their fellow 
mediums, and sometimes incautiously into their own. 

My experience shows that the worst enemies of mediums are 
mediums. Not content with slandering each other, they assail and 
traduce their warmest and most unselfish friends. 


Whatever objection anyone may have to me on account of country, 
religion, occult study, rudeness of speech, cigarette-smoking, or any 
other peculiarity, my record in connection with Spiritualism for long 
years does not show me as making money by it, or gaining any other 
advantage, direct or indirect. .On the contrary, those who have met me 
in all parts of the world (which I have circumnavigated three times), 
will testify that I have given thousands of dollars, imperilled my life, 
defied the Catholic Church — where it required more courage to do so 
than the Spiritualists seem to show about encountering elementaries — 
and in camp and court, on the sea, in the desert, in civilized and 
savage countries, I have been from first to last the friend and champion 
of mediums. I have done more. I have often taken the last dollar 
out of my pocket, and even necessary clothes off my back, to relieve 
their necessities. 

And how do you think I have been rewarded? By honours, emolu- 
ments, and social position? Have I charged a fee for imparting to 
the public or individuals what little knowledge I have gathered in my 
travels and studies? Let those who have patronized our principal 
mediums answer. 

I have been slandered in the most shameful way, and the most un- 
blushing lies circulated about my character and antecedents by the 
very mediums whom I have been defending at the risk of being taken 
for their confederate, when their tricks have been detected. What 
has happened in American cities is no worse nor different from what 
has befallen me in Europe, Asia and Africa. I have been injured 
temporarily in the eyes of good and pure men and women by the libels 
of mediums whom I never saw, and who never were in the same city 
with me at the same time; of mediums who made me the heroine of 
shameful histories whose action was alleged to have occurred when I 
was in another part of the world, far away from the face of a white 
man. Ingratitude and injustice have been my portion since I had 
first to do with spiritual mediums. I have met here with a few excep- 
tions, but very, very few. 

Now, what do you suppose has sustained me throughout? Do you 
imagine that I could not see the disgusting frauds mixed up with the 
most divine genuine manifestations? Could I, having nothing to gain 
in money, power or any other consideration, have been content to pass 
through all these dangers, suffer all this abuse, and receive all these 
injurious insults, if I saw nothing in Spiritualism but what these critics 


of Col. Olcott and myself can see? Would the prospect of an eternity, 
passed in the angel-girt world, in company with unwashed Indian 
guides and military controls, with Aunt Sallies and Prof. Websters, 
have been inducement enough? No; I would prefer annihilation to 
such a prospect. It was because I knew that through the same golden 
gates which swung open to admit the elementary and those unpro- 
gressed human spirits who are worse, if anything, than they, have 
often passed the real and purified forms of the departed and blessed 
ones. Because, knowing the nature of these spirits and the laws of 
mediumistic control, I have never been willing to hold my calumniators 
responsible for the great evil they did, when they were often simply 
the unfortunate victims of obsession by unprogressed spirits. Who 
can blame me for not wishing to associate with or receive instruction 
from spirits who, if not far worse, were no better nor wiser than I ? Is 
a man entitled to respect and veneration simply because his body is 
rotting under ground, like that of a dog? To me the grand object of 
my life was attained and the immortality of our spirit demonstrated. 
Why should I turn necromancer and evoke the dead, who could neither 
teach me nor make me better than I was? It is a more dangerous 
thing to play with the mysteries of life and death than most Spiri- 
tualists imagine. 

L,et them thank God for the great proof of immortality afforded 
them in this century of unbelief and materialism; and, if divine 
Providence has put them on the right path, let them pursue it by all 
means, but not stop to pass their time in dangerous talk indiscrimi- 
nately with ever} 7 one from the other side. The land of spirits, the 
Summer Land, as they call it here, is a terra incognita; no believer will 
deny it; it is vastly more unknown to even 7 Spiritualist, as regards its 
various inhabitants, than a trackless virgin forest of Central Africa. 
And who can blame the pioneer settler if he hesitates to open his door 
to a knock, before assuring himself whether the visitor be man or 

Thus, just because of all that I have said above I proclaim myself a 
true Spiritualist, because my belief is built upon a firm ground, and 
that no exposure of mediums, no social scandal affecting them or 
others, no materialistic deductions of exact science, or sneers and 
denunciations of scientists, can shake it. The truth is coming slowly 
to light and I shall do my best to hasten its advent. I will breast the 
current of popular prejudice and ignorance. I am prepared to endure 


slander, foul insinuations and insult in the future as I have in the past. 
Already one spiritual editor, to most effectually demonstrate his spiri- 
tuality, has called me a witch. I have survived, and hope to do so if 
two or two-score more should do the same ; but whether I ride the air 
to attend my Sabbath or not, one thing is certain: I will not ruin 
myself to buy broomsticks upon which to chase after every lie set afloat 
by editors or mediums. 

H. P. Blavatskv. 


[From The Spiritual Scientist.'] 

I BELIEVE Occultism to be essentially a reincarnation of ancient 
paganism, a revivification of the Pythagorean philosophy; not the 
senseless ceremonies and spiritless forms of those ancient religions, 
but the Spirit of the Truth which animated those grand old systems 
which held the world spell-bound in awe and reverence long after the 
spirit had departed, and nothing was left but the dead, decaying body. 

Occultism asserts the eternal individuality of the soul, the imperish- 
able force which is the cause and sustaining power of all organization, 
that death is only the casting off of a worn-out garment in order to 
procure a new and better one. 

So death, so-called, can but the form deface, 
The immortal soul flies out in empty space, 
To seek her fortune in another place. 

Occultism, in its efforts to penetrate the arcana of dynamic forces 
and primordial power, sees in all things a unity, an unbroken chain 
extending from the lowest organic form to the highest, and concludes 
that this unity is based upon a uniformly ascending scale of organic 
forms of being, the Jacob's ladder of spiritual organic experience, up 
which every soul must travel before it can again sing praises before the 
face of its Father. It perceives a duality in all things, a physical and 
spiritual nature, closely interwoven in each other's embrace, inter- 
dependent upon each other, and yet independent of each other. And 
as there is in spirit-life a central individuality, the soul, so there is in 
the physical, the atom, each eternal, unchangeable and self-existent. 
These centres, physical and spiritual, are surrounded by their own 
respective atmospheres, the intersphering of which results in aggrega- 
tion and organization. This idea is not limited to terrestrial life, but 
is extended to worlds and systems of worlds. 

Physical existence is subservient to the spiritual, and all physical 


improvement and progress are only the auxiliaries of spiritual progress, 
without which there could be no physical progress. Physical organic 
progress is effected through hereditary transmission; spiritual organic 
progress by transmigration. 

Occultism has divided spiritual progress into three divisions — the 
elementary, which corresponds with the lower organizations; the astral, 
which relates to the human; and the celestial, which is divine. "Ele- 
mentary spirits," whether they belong to "earth, water, air or fire," are 
spirits not yet human, but attracted to the human by certain congeniali- 
ties. As many physical diseases are due to the presence of parasites, 
attracted or produced by uncleanness and other causes, so parasitic 
spirits are attracted by immorality or spiritual uncleanness, thereby 
inducing spiritual diseases and consequent physical ailments. They 
who live on the animal plane must attract spirits of that plane, who 
seek for borrowed embodiments where the most congeniality exists in 
the highest form. 

Thus the ancient doctrine of obsession challenges recognition, and 
the exorcism of devils is as legitimate as the expelling of a tape-worm, 
or the curing of the itch. It was also believed that these spiritual 
beings sustained their spiritual existence by certain emanations from 
physical bodies, especially when newly slain; thus in sacrificial offer- 
ings the priests received the physical part, and the Gods the spiritual, 
they being content with a "sweet-smelling savour." It was further 
thought that wars were instigated by these demons, so that they might 
feast on the slain. 

But vegetable food also held a place in spiritual estimation, for 
incense and fumigations were powerful instruments in the hands of the 
expert magician. 

Above the elementary spheres were the seven planetary spheres, and 
as the elementary spheres were the means of progress for the lower 
animals, so were the planetary spheres the means of progress for spirits 
advanced from the elementary — for human spirits. The human spirit 
at death went to its associative star, till ready for a new incarnation, and 
its birth partook of the nature of the planet whence it came, and whose 
rays illumined the ascendant — the central idea of astrology. When 
the lessons of a planetary sphere were fully mastered, the spirit rose to 
the next sphere to proceed as before. The character of these spheres 
corresponded to the "seven ages of man." But not always did the spirit 
return to the astral spheres. Suicides; those from whom life had been 


suddenly taken before fully ripe; those whose affections were inordi- 
nately attached to earthly things, etc., were held to the earth till certain 
conditions were fulfilled, and some whose lives had fitted them for such 
disposal were remanded to the elementary spheres, to be incarnated as 
lower animals, corresponding to the nature of their lives. Such were 
the perturbed spirits who sometimes disturbed the peace of sensitive 
mortals in the days gone by — perhaps now. 

Transcending the planetary spheres were the three divine spheres 
where the process of apotheosis took place, where the spirit progressed 
till it reached the fulness of the Godhead bodily. From these spheres 
were appointed the Guardians of the inferior spheres, the Messengers of 
God, ministering spirits, sent to minister to them who shall receive the 
inheritance of salvation. 

Such is a brief outline of spiritual Occult philosophy; it may seem to 
be inconsistent with the ideas of modern Spiritualism, } r et even Spiri- 
tualism has not altogether lost sight of the seven spheres and other 
peculiarities of the ancient astro-spiritual faith; and as knowledge is 
acquired and experience gained, a better understanding of both ancient 
and modern mysticism will bring them nearer together and show a con- 
sistency and mutual agreement which has never been disturbed — only 
obscured — by human ignorance and presumption. 

But Occultism has a physical aspect which I cannot afford to pass by. 
Man is a fourfold being. 

Four things of man there are: spirit, soul, ghost, flesh; 
Four places these four keep and do possess. 
The earth covers flesh, the ghost hovers o'er the grave, 
Orcus hath the soul, the stars the spirit crave. 

When the spirit leaves the body, and is properly prepared for the 
stellar spheres, these are retained in the mortal remains; and the 
shade, which is no part of the spirit or the true man or woman, may 
still counterfeit them, make revelations of the past, in fact reveal more 
of its sensual history, and prove sensual identity better than the spirit 
itself could do, seeing it knows only spiritual things. The sciomancy 
of the past bears the same relation to modern psychometry that 
ancient Magic does to modern Spiritualism. Thus in haunted houses, 
in graveyards and places where deeds of violence have occurred, sensi- 
tives see the drama reacted which transpired long ago, the spirit being 
no accessory thereto. 

The spirit cannot even communicate unless through the interblend- 


ing of physical and spiritual aune, and only by coming en rapport with 
physical things can it know anything of them ; and thus mediums are 
as necessary on the other side as on this; through which mediums, 
Guardian Spirits, we may gain a nearer apprehension of spiritual truths, 
if we live for them. 

Buddha of California.* 

* We cannot say positively that this is H. P. B.'s, but it is either written by her, or under her 


[From The Banner of Light, May 13th, 1876.] 

Dear Sir, — I take the earliest opportunity to warn mediums gener- 
ally — but particularly American mediums — that a plot against the cause 
has been hatched in St. Petersburg. The particulars have just been 
received by me from one of my foreign correspondents, and may be 
relied upon as authentic. 

It is now commonly known that Prof. Wagner, the geologist, has 
boldly come out as a champion for mediumistic phenomena. Since he 
witnessed the wonderful manifestations of Bredif, the French medium, 
he has issued several pamphlets, reviewed at great length in Col. 
Olcott's People from the Other World, and excited and defied the anger 
of all the scientific pyschophobists of the Imperial University. Fancy 
a herd of mad bulls rushing at the red flag of a picador, and you will 
have some idea of the effect of Wagners Olcott-pamphlet upon his 

Chief among them is the chairman of the scientific Commission which 
has just exploded with a report of what they did not see at seances never 
held! Goaded to fury by the defence of Spiritualism, which they had 
intended to quietly butcher, this individual suddenly took the deter- 
mination to come to America, and is now probably on his way. Like 
a Samson of science, he expects to tie our foxes of mediums together 
by the tails, set fire to them, and turn them into the corn of those 
Philistines, Wagner and Butlerow. 

L,et me give mediums a bit of friendly caution. If this Russian Pro- 
fessor should turn up at a seance, keep a sharp eye upon him, and let 
everyone do the same; give him no private seances at which there is not 
present at least one truthful and impartial Spiritualist. Some scientists 
are not to be trusted. My correspondent writes that the Professor — 

Goes to America to create a great scandal, burst up Spiritualism, and turn the 
laugh on P. Wagner, Aksakoff and Butlerow. 


The plot is very ingeniously contrived: he is coming here under the 
pretext of the Centennial, and will attract as little attention as possible 
among the mediums. 

But, Mr. Editor, what if he should meet the fate of Hare and become 
a Spiritualist! What wailing would there not be in the Society of 
Physical Sciences! I shudder at the mortification which would await 
my poor countrymen. 

But another distinguished Russian scientist is also coming, for whom 
I bespeak a very different reception. Prof. Kittara, the greatest tech- 
nologist of Russia and a member of the Emperor's Privy Council, is 
really sent by the government to the Centennial. He is deeply inter- 
ested in Spiritualism, very anxious to investigate it, and will bring the 
proper credentials from Mr. Aksakoff. The latter gentleman writes 
me that every civility and attention should be shown Prof. Kittara, as 
his report, if favourable, will have a tremendous influence upon public 

The unfairness of the University Commission has, it seems, produced 
a reaction. I translate the following from a paper which Mr. Aksa- 
koff has sent me, the St. Petersburg Berjeveya I ledomostji (Exchange 
Reports) : 

We hear that the Commission for the investigation of mediumism, which was 
formed by the Society of Physical Sciences attached to the University, is preparing 
to issue a report of its labours [? !]. It will appear as an appendix to the monthly 
periodical of the Chemical and Physical Societies. Meanwhile another Commis- 
sion is being formed, but this time its members will not be supplied from the 
Physical Science Society, but from the Medical Society. Nevertheless, several 
members of the former will be invited to join, as well as the friends of medium- 
ism, and others who would be able to offer important suggestions pro or con. We 
hear that the formation of this new Commission is warmly advocated, its necessity 
having been shown in the breach of faith by the Physical Science Society, its failure 
to hold the promised forty seances, its premature adoption of unfair conclusion-, 
and the strong prejudices of the members. 

Let us hope that this new organization may prove more honourable 
than its predecessor (peace to its ashes!). 

H. P. Blavatskv. 



[From The Banner of Light, Oct. 24th, 1S76.] 

Despite the constant recurrence of new discoveries by modern men 
of science, an exaggerated respect for authority and an established 
routine among the educated class retard the progress of true know- 
ledge. Facts which, if observed, tested, classified and appreciated, 
would be of inestimable importance to science, are summarily cast 
into the despised limbo of supernaturalism. To these conservatives 
the experience of the past serves neither as an example nor a warning. 
The overturning of a thousand cherished theories finds our modern 
philosopher as unprepared for each new scientific revelation as though 
his predecessor had been infallible from time immemorial. 

The protoplasmist should, at least, in modesty remember that his past 
is one vast cemetery of dead theories; a desolate potter's field wherein 
exploded hypotheses lie, in ignoble oblivion, like so many executed 
malefactors, whose names cannot be pronounced by the next of kin 
without a blush. 

The nineteenth century is essentially the age of demolition. True, 
science takes just pride in many revolutionary discoveries and claims 
to have immortalized the epoch by forcing from Dame Nature some of 
her most important secrets. But for every inch she illumines of the 
narrow and circular path within whose limits she has hitherto trodden, 
what unexplored boundless stretches have been left behind ? The 
worst is that science has not simply withheld her light from these 
regions that seem dark (but are not), but her votaries try their best to 
quench the lights of other people under the pretext that they are not 
authorities, and their friendly beacons are but "will-o'-the-wisps." 
Prejudice and preconceived ideas have entered the public brain, and, 
cancer-like, are eating it to the core. Spiritualism — or, if some for 
whom the word has become so unpopular prefer it, the universe of 


spirit — is left to fight out its battle with the world of matter, and the 
crisis is at hand. 

Half- thinkers, and aping, would-be philosophers — in short, that 
class which is unable to penetrate events any deeper than their crust, 
and which measures every day's occurrences by its present aspect, 
unmindful of the past and careless of the future — heartily rejoice over 
the latest rebuff given to phenomenalism in the Lankester-Donkin 
offensive and defensive alliance, and the pretended exposure of Slade. 
In this hour of would-be Lancastrian triumph, a change should be 
made in English heraldic crests. The Lancasters were always given 
to creating dissensions and provoking strife among peaceable folk. 
From ancient York the War of the Roses is now transferred to Middle- 
sex, and Lankester (whose name is a corruption), instead of uniting 
himself with the hereditary foe, has joined his idols with those of 
Donkin (whose name is evidently also a corruption). As the hero of 
the hour is not a knight, but a zoologist deeply versed in the science 
to which he devotes his talents, why not compliment his ally by quar- 
tering the red rose of Lancaster with the downy thistle so delicately 
appreciated by a certain prophetic quadruped, who seeks for it by the 
wayside? Really, Mr. Editor, when Mr. Lankester tells us that all 
those who believe in Dr. Slade's phenomena "are lost to reason," we 
must accord to biblical animals a decided precedence over modern 
ones. The ass of Balaam had at least the faculty of perceiving spirits, 
while some of those who bray in our academies and hospitals show no 
evidence of its possession. Sad degeneration of species! 

Such persons as these bound all spiritual phenomena in Nature by 
the fortunes and mishaps of mediums; each new favourite, they think, 
must of necessity pull down in his fall an unscientific hypothetical 
"Unseen Universe," as the tumbling red dragon of the Apocalypse 
drew with his tail the third part of the stars of heaven. Poor blind 
moles! They perceive not that by inveighing against the "craze" of 
such phenomenalists as Wallace, Crookes, Wagner and Thury, they 
only help the spread of true Spiritualism. We millions of lunatics 
really ought to address a vote of thanks to the "dishevelled" Beards 
who make supererogatory efforts to appear as stupid clodpoles to 
deceive the Eddys, and to Lankesters simulating "astonishment and 
intense interest," the better to cheat Dr. Slade. More than any advo- 
cates of phenomenalism, they bring its marvels into public notice by 
their pyrotechnic exposures. 


As one entrusted by the Russian Committee with the delicate task 
of selecting a medium for the coming St. Petersburg experiments, and 
as an officer of the Theosophieal Society, which put Dr. Slade's powers 
to the test in a long series of seances, I pronounce him not only a 
genuine medium, but one of the best and least fraudulent mediums 
ever developed. From personal experience I can not only testify to 
the genuineness of his slate-writing, but also to that of the materializa- 
tions which occur in his presence. A shawl thrown over a chair 
(which I was invited to place wherever I chose) is all the cabinet he 
exacts, and his apparitions immediately appear, and that in gas-light. 

No one will charge me with a superfluous confidence in the person- 
ality of materializing apparitions, or a superabundance of love for 
them; but honour and truth compel me to affirm that those who 
appeared to me in Slade's presence were real phantoms, and not "made 
up" confederates or dolls. They were evanescent and filmy, and the 
only ones I have seen in America which have reminded me of those 
that the Adepts of India evoke. Like the latter, they formed and 
dissolved before my eyes, their substance rising mist-like from the 
floor, and gradually condensing. Their eyes moved and their lips 
smiled; but as they stood near me their forms were so transparent that 
through them I could see the objects in the room. These I call gemiine 
spiritual substances, whereas the opaque ones that I have seen else- 
where were nothing but animated forms of matter — whatever they be 
— with sweating hands and a peculiar odour, which I am not called 
upon to define at this time. 

Everyone knows that Dr. Slade is not acquainted with foreign lan- 
guages, and yet at our first se'ance, three years ago, on the day after my 
arrival in New York, where no one knew me, I received upon his slate 
a long communication in Russian. I had purposely avoided giving 
either to Dr. Slade or his partner, Mr. Simmons, any clue to my nation- 
ality, and while, from my accent, they would of course have detected 
that I was not an American, they could not possibly have known from 
what country I came. I fancy that if Dr. Lankester had allowed Slade 
to write on both knees and both elbows successively or simultaneously, 
the poor man would not have been able to turn out Russian messages 
by trick and device. 

In reading the accounts in the London papers, it has struck me as 
very remarkable that this "vagrant" medium, after baffling such a host 
of. savants, should have fallen so easy a victim to the zoologico-osteological 


brace of scientific detectives. Fraud, that neither the "psychic" Ser- 
jeant Cox, nor the "unconsciously cerebrating" Carpenter, nor the wise 
Wallace, nor the experienced M.A. (Oxon.), nor the cautious Lord 
Rayleigh — who, mistrusting his own acuteness, employed a professional 
juggler to attend the seance with him — nor Dr. Carter Blake, nor a 
host of other competent observers could detect, was seen by the eagle 
eyes of the Lankester-Donkin Gemini at a single glance. There has 
been nothing like it since Beard, of electro-hay fever and Eddy fame, 
denounced the faculty of Yale for a set of asses, because they would 
not accept his divinely-inspired revelation of the secret of mind-reading, 
and pitied the imbecility of that "amiable idiot," Col. Olcott, for 
trusting his own two-months' observation of the Eddy phenomena in 
preference to the electric doctor's single sc'ance of an hour. 

I am an American citizen in embryo, Mr. Editor, and I cannot 
hope that the English magistrates of Bow Street will listen to a voice 
that comes from a city proverbially held in small esteem by British 
scientists. When Prof. Tyndall asks Prof. Youmans if the New York 
carpenters could make him a screen ten feet long for his Cooper 
Institute lectures, and whether it would be necessary to send to Boston 
for a cake of ice that he wished to use in the experiments; and when 
Huxley evinces grateful surprise that a "foreigner" could express him- 
self in your (our) language in such a way as to be so readily intelli- 
gible, "to all appearance," by a New York audience, and that those 
clever chaps — the New York reporters — could report him despite his 
accent, neither New York "spooks," nor I, can hope for a standing in a 
London court, when the defendant is prosecuted by English scientists. 
But, fortunately for Dr. Slade, British tribunals are not inspired by the 
Jesuits, and so Slade may escape the fate of Eeymarie. He certainly 
will, if he is allowed to summon to the witness-stand his Owasso and 
other devoted "controls," to write their testimony inside a double slate, 
furnished and held by the magistrate himself. This is Dr. Slade's 
golden hour; he will never have so good a chance to demonstrate the 
reality of phenomenal manifestations, and make Spiritualism triumph 
over scepticism; and we, who know the doctor's wonderful powers, are 
confident that he can do it, if he is assisted by those who in the past 
have accomplished so much through his instrumentality. 

H. P. Blavatskv, 
Corresponding Secretary of the Theosophical Society. 

New York, Oct. 8th, 1S76. 


[From The Banner of Light, Oct. 28th, 1876.] 

As I see the issue that has been raised by Dr. Hallock with Mr. 
Huxley, it suggests to me the comparison of two men looking at the 
same distant object through a telescope. The Doctor, having taken 
the usual precautions, brings the object within close range where it 
can be studied at one's leisure; but the naturalist, having forgotten to 
remove the cap, sees only the reflection of his own image. 

Though the materialists may find it hard to answer even the brief 
criticisms of the Doctor, yet it appears that Mr. Huxley's New York 
lectures — as they present themselves to me in their naked desolation — 
suggest one paramount idea which Dr. Hallock has not touched upon. 
I need scarcely say to you, who must have read the report of these 
would-be iconoclastic lectures, that this idea is one of the " false pre- 
tences" of Modern Science. After all the flourish which attended his 
coming, all the expectations that had been aroused, all the secret 
apprehensions of the church and the anticipated triumph of the mate- 
rialists, what did he teach us that was really new or so extremely 
suggestive? Nothing, positively nothing. Exclude a sight of his per- 
sonality, the sound of his well-trained voice, the reflection of his scien- 
tific glory, and the result may be summed up thus: "Cr., Thomas H. 
Huxley, ^1,000." 

Of him it may be said, as it has been of other teachers before, that 
what he said that was new was not true; and that which was true was 
not new. 

Without going into details, for the moment, it suffices to say that the 
materialistic theory of evolution is far from being demonstrated, while 
the thought that Mr. Huxley does not grasp — i.e., the double evolution 
of spirit and matter — is imparted under the form of various legends in 
the oldest parts of the Rig Veda (the Aitareya Brahmand). Only these 
benighted Hindus, it seems, made the trifling improvement over Modern 


Science, of hooking a First Cause on to the further end of the chain of 

In the Chaturhotri Mantra (Book V of the Aitareya Brahmana) the 
Goddess Eath (Iyam), who is termed the Queen of the Serpents (Sarpa), 
for she is the mother of everything that moves (Sarpat), was in the 
beginning of time completely bald. She was nothing but one round 
head, which was soft to the touch, i.e., "a gelatinous mass." Being dis- 
tressed at her baldness, she called for help to the great Yayu, the Lord 
of the airy regions; she prayed him to teach her the Mantra (invoca- 
tion or sacrificial prayer — a certain part of the Veda), which would 
confer on her the magical power of creating things (generation). He 
complied, and then as soon as the Mantra was pronounced by her "in 
the proper metre" she found herself covered with hair (vegetation). 
She was now hard to the touch, for the Lord of the air had breathed 
upon her — the globe had cooled. She had become of a variegated or 
motley appearance, and suddenly acquired the power to produce out of 
herself every animate and inanimate form, and to change one form to 

Therefore in like manner [says the sacred book] the man who has such a know- 
ledge [of the Mantras] obtains the faculty of assuming any shape or form he likes. 

It will scarcely be said that this allegory is capable of more than one 
interpretation, viz., that the ancient Hindus, many centuries before the 
Christian era, taught the doctrine of evolution. Martin Haug, the 
Sanskrit scholar, asserts that the Vedas were already in existence from 
2,000 to 2,200 B.C. 

Thus, while the theory of evolution is nothing new. and may be con- 
sidered a proven fact, the new ideas forced upon the public by Mr. 
Huxley are only undemonstrated hypotheses, and as such liable to be 
exploded the first fine day upon the discovery of some new fact. We 
£nd no admission of this, however, in Mr. Huxley's communications to 
the public; but the unproved theories are enunciated with as much 
boldness as though they were established scientific facts, corroborated 
by unerring laws of Nature. Notwithstanding this the world is asked 
to revere the great evolutionist, only because he stands under the 
shadow of a great name. 

What is this but one of the many false pretences of the sciolists 1 
And yet Huxley and his admirers charge the believers in the evolution 
of spirit with the same crime of false pretences, because, forsooth, our 
theories are as yet undemonstrated. Those who believe in Slade's 



spirits are "lost to reason," while those who can see embryonic man in 
Huxley's "gelatinous mass" are accepted as the progressive minds of 
the age. Slade is arraigned before the magistrate for taking $5 from 
Lankester, while Huxley triumphantly walks away with $5,000 of 
American gold in his pockets, which was paid him for imparting to us 
the mirific fact that man evolved from the hind toe of a pedactyl horse! 

Now, arguing from the standpoint of strict justice, in what respect 
is a materialistic theorist any better than a spiritualistic one? And 
in what degree is the evolution of man — independent of divine and 
spiritual interference — better proven by the toe-bone of an extinct 
horse, than the evolution and survival of the human spirit by the 
writing upon a screwed-up slate by some unseen power or powers? 
And yet again, the soulless Huxley sails away laden with flowers like 
a fashionable corpse, conquering and to conquer in fresh fields of glory, 
while the poor medium is hauled before a police magistrate as a " vagrant 
and a swindler," without proof enough to sustain the charge before an 
unprejudiced tribunal. 

There is good authority for the statement that psychological science 
is a debatable land upon which the modern physiologist hardly dares 
to venture. I deeply sympathize with the embarrassed student of the 
physical side of Nature. We all can readily understand how disagree- 
able it must be to a learned theorist, ever aspiring for the elevation of 
his hobby to the dignity of an accepted scientific truth, constantly to 
receive the lie direct from his remorseless and untiring antagonist — 
psychology. To see his cherished materialistic theories become every 
day more untenable, until they are reduced to the condition of mummies 
swathed in shrouds, self-woven and inscribed with a farrago of pet 
sophistries, is indeed hard. And in their self-satisfying logic, these 
sons of matter reject every testimony but their own: the divine entity 
of the Socratic daimonion, the ghost of Caesar, and Cicero's Divinum 
Quidam, they explain by epilepsy; and the prophetic oracles of the 
Jewish Bath-Kol are set down as hereditary hysteria! 

And now, supposing the great protoplasmist to have proved to the 
general satisfaction that the present horse is an effect of a gradual 
development from the Orohippus, or four-toed horse of the Eocene for- 
mation, which, passing further through Miocene and Pliocene periods, 
has become the modern honest Equus, does Huxley thereby prove that 
man has also developed from a one-toed human being? For nothing 
short of that could demonstrate his theory. To be consistent he must. 


show that while the horse was losing at each successive period a toe,, 
man has in reversed order acquired an additional one at each new for- 
mation; and unless we are shown the fossilized remains of man in a 
series of one-, two-, three- and four-toed anthropoid ape-like beings- 
antecedent to the present perfected Homo, what does Huxley's theory 
amount to? Nobody doubts that everything has evolved out of some- 
thing prior to itself. But, as it is, he leaves us hopelessly in doubt 
whether it is man who is a hippar ionic ox equine evolution, or the ante- 
diluvian Equits that evolved from the primitive genus Homo! 

Thus to apply the argument to Slade's case we may say that, whether 
the messages on his slate indicate an authorship among the returning 
spirits of antediluvian monkeys, or the bravos and L,ankestrian ances- 
tors of our day, he is no more guilty of false pretences than the $5,000 
evolutionist. Hypothesis, whether of scientist or medium, is no false 
pretence; but unsupported assertion is, when people are charged money 
for it. 

If, satisfied with the osseous fragments of a Hellenized or Latinized 
skeleton, we admit that there is a physical evolution, by what logic can 
we refuse to credit the possibility of an evolution of spirit? That there 
are two sides to the question, no one but an utter psychophobist will 
deny. It may be argued that even if the Spiritualists have demonstrated 
their bare facts, their philosophy is not complete, since it has missing 
links. But no more have the evolutionists. They have fossil remains 
which prove that once upon a time the ancestors of the modern horse 
were blessed with three and even four toes and fingers, the fourth 
"answering to the little finger of the human hand," and that the Proto- 
hippus rejoiced in "a fore-arm" ; Spiritualists in their turn exhibit entire 
hands, arms, and even bodies in support of their theory that the dead 
still live and revisit us. For my part I cannot see that the osteologists 
have the better of them. Both follow the inductive or purely scientific 
method, proceeding from particulars to universals; thus Cuvier, upon 
finding a small bone, traced around it imaginary lines until he had built 
up from his prolific fancy a whole mammoth. The data of scientists- 
are no more certain than those of Spiritualists; and while the former 
have but their modern discoveries upon which to build their theories, 
Spiritualists may cite the evidence of a succession of ages, which began 
long prior to the advent of Modern Science. 

An inductive hypothesis, we are told, is demonstrated when the facts 
are shown to be in entire accordance with it. Thus, if Huxley possesses 



conclusive evidence of the evolution of man in the genealogy of the 
horse, Spiritualists can equally claim that proof of the evolution of 
spirit out of the body is furnished in the materialized, more or less 
substantial, limbs that float in the dark shadows of the cabinet, and 
often in full light — a phenomenon which has been recognized and 
attested by numberless generations of wise men of every country. As 
to the pretended superiority of modern over ancient science, w T e have 
only the word of the former for it. This is also an hypothesis; better 
evidence is required to prove the fact. We have but to turn to Wendell 
Phillips's lecture on the Lost Arts to have a certain right to doubt the 
assurance of Modern Science. 

Speaking of evidence, it is strange what different and arbitrary 
values may be placed upon the testimony of different men equally 
trustworthy and well-meaning. Says the parent of protoplasm : 

It is impossible that one's practical life should not be more or less influenced by 
the views which he ma}' hold as to what has been the past history of things. One 
of them is human testimony in its various shapes — all testimony of eye-witnesses, 
traditional testimony from the lips of those who have been eye-witnesses, and the 
testimony of those who have put their impressions into writing or into print. 

On just such testimony, amply furnished in the Bible (evidence 
which Mr. Huxley rejects), and in many other less problematical 
authors than Moses, among whom may be reckoned generations of 
great philosophers, theurgists, and laymen. Spiritualists have a right 
to base their fundamental doctrines. Speaking further of the broad 
distinction to be drawn between the different kinds of evidence, some 
being less valuable than others, because given upon grounds not clear, 
upon grounds illogically stated and upon such as do not bear thorough 
and careful inspection, the same gelatinist remarks: 

For example, if I read in your history of Tennessee [Ramsay's] that one hundred 
years ago this country was peopled by wandering savages, my belief in this state- 
ment rests upon the conviction that Mr. Ramsay was actuated by the same sort of 
motives that men are now, . . . that he himself was, like ourselves, not inclined 
to make false statements. ... If you read Caesar's Commentaries, wherever he 
gives an account of his battles with the Gauls, you place a certain amount of confi- 
dence in his statements. You take his testimony upon this, you feel that Caesar 
would not have made these statements unless he had believed them to be true. 

Profound philosophy! precious thoughts! gems of condensed, gelati- 
nous truth! long may it stick to the American mind! Mr. Huxley 
ought to devote the rest of his days to writing primers for the feeble- 
minded adults of the United States. But why select Caesar as the type 


of the trustworthy witness of ancient times? And if we must im- 
plicitly credit his reports of battles, why not his profession of faith in 
augurs, diviners and apparitions? — for in common with his wife, Cal- 
purnia, he believed in them as firmly as any modern Spiritualist in 
his mediums and phenomena. We also feel that no more than Caesar 
would such men as Cicero and Herodotus and L,ivy and a host of 
others "have made these false statements," or reported such things 
"unless they believed them to be true." 

It has already been shown that the doctrine of evolution, as a whole, 
was taught in the Rig Veda, and I may also add that it can be found in 
the most ancient of the books of Hermes. This is bad enough for the 
claim to originality set up by our modern scientists, but what shall be 
said when we recall the fact that the very pedactyl horse, the finding of 
whose footprints has so overjoyed Mr. Huxley, was mentioned by 
ancient writers (Herodotus and Pliny, if I mistake not), and was once 
outrageously laughed at by the French Academicians? Let those who 
wish to verify the fact read Salverti's Philosophy of Occult Science, trans- 
lated by Todd Thompson. 

Some day proofs as conclusive will be discovered of the reliability of 
the ancient writers as to their evidence on psychological matters. What 
Niebuhr, the German materialist, did with Livy's History, from which he 
eliminated every one of the multitude of facts of phenomenal "Super- 
naturalism," scientists now seem to have tacitly agreed to do with all 
the ancient, mediaeval and modern authors. What they narrate, that 
can be used to bolster up the physical part of science, scientists accept 
and sometimes coolly appropriate without credit; what supports the 
Spiritualistic philosophy they incontinently reject as mythical and 
contrary to the order of Nature. In such cases "evidence" and the 
"testimony of eye-witnesses" count for nothing. They adopt the 
contrary course to Lord Verulam, who, arguing on the properties of 
amulets and charms, remarks that: 

We should not reject all this kind, because it is not known how far those con- 
tributing to superstition depend on natural causes. 

There can be no real enfranchisement of human thought nor expan- 
sion of scientific discovery until the existence of spirit is recognized, 
and the double evolution accepted as a fact. Until then, false theories 
will always find favour with those who, having forsaken "the God of 
their fathers," vainly strive to find substitutes in nucleated masses of 
matter. And of all the sad things to be seen in this era of "shams," 


none is more deplorable — though its futility is often ludicrous — than the 
conspiracy of certain scientists to stamp out spirit by their one-sided 
theory of evolution, and destroy Spiritualism by arraigning its mediums 
upon the charge of "false pretences." 

H. P. Blavatsky. 


To the Editor of " The Sun." 

Sir, — One morning in 1867 Eastern Europe was startled by news of 
the most horrifying description. Michael Obrenovitch, reigning Prince 
of Serbia, his aunt, the Princess Catherine, or Katinka, and her daugh- 
ter had been murdered in broad daylight, near Belgrade, in their own 
garden, assassin or assassins remaining unknown. The Prince had 
received several bullet- shots and stabs, and his body was actually 
butchered; the Princess was killed on the spot, her head smashed, and 
her young daughter, though still alive, was not expected to survive. 
The circumstances are too recent to have been forgotten, but in that 
part of the world, at the time, the case created a delirium of excitement. 

In the Austrian dominions and in those under the doubtful pro- 
tectorate of Turke) r , from Bucharest down to Trieste, no high family 
felt secure. In those half-Oriental countries every Montecchi has its 
Capuletti, and it was rumoured that the bloody deed was perpetrated 
by the Prince Kara-Gueorguevitch, or "Tzerno-Gueorgey," as he is 
usually called in those parts. Several persons innocent of the act were, 
as is usual in such cases, imprisoned, and the real murderers escaped 
justice. A young relative of the victim, greatly beloved by his people, 
a mere child, taken for the purpose from a school in Paris, was brought 
over in ceremony to Belgrade and proclaimed Hospodar of Serbia. In 
the turmoil of political excitement the tragedy of Belgrade was for- 
gotten by all but an old Serbian matron who had been attached to the 
Obrenovitch family, and who, like Rachel, would not be comforted for 
the death of her children. After the proclamation of the young Obreno- 
vitch, nephew of the murdered man, she had sold out her property and 
disappeared; but not before taking a solemn vow on the tombs of the 
victims to avenge their deaths. 

The writer of this truthful narrative had passed a few days at 
Belgrade, about three months before the horrid deed was perpetrated, 


and knew the Princess Katinka. She was a kind, gentle, and lazy 
creature at home; abroad she seemed a Parisienne in manners and 
education. As nearly all the personages who will figure in this true 
story are still living, it is but decent that I should withhold their 
names, and give only initials. 

The old Serbian lady seldom left her house, going but to see the 
Princess occasionally. Crouched on a pile of pillows and carpeting, 
clad in the picturesque national dress, she looked like the Cumsean 
sibyl in her days of calm repose. Strange stories were whispered 
about her Occult knowledge, and thrilling accounts circulated some- 
times among the guests assembled round the fireside of the modest 
inn. Our fat landlord's maiden aunt's cousin had been troubled for 
some time past by a wandering vampire, and had been bled nearly to 
death by the nocturnal visitor, and while the efforts and exorcisms of 
the parish pope had been of no avail, the victim was luckily delivered 

by Gospoja P , who had put to flight the disturbing ghost by merely 

shaking her fist at him, and shaming him in his own language. It 
was in Belgrade that I learned for the first time this highly-interesting 
fact in philology, namely, that spooks have a language of their own. 

The old lady, whom I will call Gospoja P , was generally attended 

by another personage destined to be the principal actress in our tale of 
horror. It was a young gipsy girl from some part of Roumania, about 
fourteen years of age. Where she was born, and who she was, she seemed 
to know as little as anyone else. I was told she had been brought one 
day by a party of strolling gipsies, and left in the yard of the old lady, 
from which moment she became an inmate of the house. She was 
nicknamed "the sleeping girl," as she was said to be gifted with the 
faculty of apparently dropping asleep wherever she stood, and speak- 
ing her dreams aloud. The girl's heathen name was Frosya. 

About eighteen months after the news of the murder had reached 
Italy, where I was at the time, I travelled over the Banat in a small 
waggon of my own, hiring a horse whenever I needed one. I met 
on my way an old Frenchman, a scientist, travelling alone after my 
own fashion, but with the difference that while he was a pedestrian, 
I dominated the road from the eminence of a throne of dry hay in a 
jolting waggon. I discovered him one fine morning slumbering in a 
wilderness of shrubs and flowers, and had nearly passed over him, 
absorbed as I was in the contemplation of the surrounding glorious 
scenery. The acquaintance was soon made, no great ceremony of 


mutual introduction being needed. I had heard his name mentioned 
in circles interested in mesmerism, and knew him to be a powerful 
adept of the school of Dupotet. 

"I have found," he remarked, in the course of the conversation after 
I had made him share my seat of hay, "one of the most wonderful 
subjects in this lovely Thebaide. I have an appointment to-night with 
the family. They are seeking to unravel the mystery of a murder by 
means of the clairvoyance of the girl . . . she is wonderful ! " 

"Who is she?" I asked. 

"A Roumanian gipsy. She was brought up, it appears, in the family 
of the Serbian reigning Prince, who reigns no more, for he was very 

mysteriously mur Halloo, take care! Diable, you will upset us 

over the precipice!" he hurriedly exclaimed, unceremoniously snatch- 
ing from me the reins, and giving the horse a violent pull. 

"You do not mean Prince Obrenovitch?" I asked aghast. 

"Yes, I do; and him precisely. To-night I have to be there, hoping 
to close a series of seances by finally developing a most marvellous 
manifestation of the hidden power of the human spirit; and you may 
come with me. I will introduce you; and besides, you can help me as 
an interpreter, for they do not speak French." 

As I was pretty sure that if the somnambule was Frosya, the rest of 

the family must be Gospoja P , I readily accepted. At sunset we 

were at the foot of the mountain, leading to the old castle, as the 
Frenchman called the place. It fully deserved the poetical name given 
it. There was a rough bench in the depths of one of the shadowy 
retreats, and as we stopped at the entrance of this poetical place, and 
the Frenchman was gallantly busying himself with my horse on the 
suspicious-looking bridge which led across the water to the entrance 
gate, I saw a tall figure slowly rise from the bench and come 
towards us. 

It was my old friend Gospoja P , looking more pale and more 

mysterious than ever. She exhibited no surprise at seeing me, but 
simply greeting me after the Serbian fashion, with a triple kiss on both 
cheeks, she took hold of my hand and led me straight to the nest of 
ivy. Half reclining on a small carpet spread on the tall grass, with 
her back leaning against the wall, I recognized our Frosya. 

She was dressed in the national costume of the Wallachian women, 
a sort of gauze turban intermingled with various gilt medals and bands 
on her head, white shirt with opened sleeves, and petticoats of varie- 



gated colours. Her face looked deadly pale, her eyes were closed, 
and her countenance presented that stony, sphinx-like look which 
characterizes in such a peculiar way the entranced clairvoyant som- 
nambule. If it were not for the heaving motion of her chest and 
bosom, ornamented by rows of medals and bead necklaces which 
feebly tinkled at every breath, one might have thought her dead, so 
lifeless and corpse-like was her face. The Frenchman informed me 
that he had sent her to sleep just as we were approaching the house, 
and that she now was as he had left her the previous night; he then 
began busying himself with the sujct, as he called Frosya. Paying no 
further attention to us, he shook her by the hand, and then making a 
few rapid passes stretched out her arm and stiffened it. The arm, as 
rigid as iron, remained in that position. He then closed all her fingers 
but one — the middle finger — which he caused to point at the evening 
star, which twinkled in the deep blue sky. Then he turned round 
and went over from right to left, throwing on some of his fluids here, 
again discharging them at another place; busying himself with his 
invisible but potent fluids, like a painter with his brush when giving 
the last touches to a picture. 

The old lady, who had silently watched him, with her chin in her 
hand the while, put her thin, skeleton-looking hands on his arm and 
arrested it, as he was preparing himself to begin the regular mesmeric 

"Wait," she whispered, "till the star is set and the ninth hour com- 
pleted. The Vourdalaki are hovering round; they may spoil the 

"What does she say?" enquired the mesmerizer, annoyed at her 

I explained to him that the old lady feared the pernicious influences 
of the Vourdalaki. 

"Vourdalaki! What's that — the Vourdalaki?" exclaimed the French- 
man. "Let us be satisfied with Christian spirits, if they honour us 
to-night with a visit, and lose no time for the Vourdalaki." 

I glanced at the Gospoja. She had become deathly pale and her 
brow was sternly knitted over her flashing black eyes. 

"Tell him not to jest at this hour of the night!" she cried. "He does 
not know the country. Even this holy church may fail to protect us 
once the Vourdalaki are roused. What's this?" pushing with her foot 
a bundle of herbs the botanizing mesmerizer had laid near on the 


grass. She bent over the collection and anxiously examined the 
contents of the bundle, after which she flung the whole into the 

"It must not be left here," she firmly added; "these are the St. 
John's plants, and they might 'attract the wandering ones." 

Meanwhile the night had come, and the moon illuminated the land- 
scape with a pale, ghostly light. The nights in the Banat are nearly 
as beautiful as in the East, and the Frenchman had to go on with his 
experiments in the open air, as the priest of the church had prohibited 
such in the tower, which was used as the parsonage, for fear of filling 
the holy precincts with the heretical devils of the mesmerizer, which, 
the priest remarked, he would be unable to exorcise on account of 
their being foreigners. 

The old gentleman had thrown off his travelling blouse, rolled up 
his shirt sleeves, and now, striking a theatrical attitude, began a regular 
process of mesmerization. 

Under his quivering fingers the odile fluid actually seemed to flash 
in the twilight. Frosya was placed with her figure facing the moon, 
and every motion of the entranced girl was discernible as in daylight. 
In a few minutes large drops of perspiration appeared on her brow, 
and slowly rolled down her pale face, glittering in the moonbeams. 
Then she moved uneasily about and began chanting a low melody, to 
the words of which the Gospoja, anxiously bent over the unconscious 
girl, was listening with avidity and trying to catch every syllable. 
With her thin finger on her lips, her eyes nearly starting from their 
sockets, her frame motionless, the old lady seemed herself transfixed 
into a statue of attention. The group was a remarkable one, and I 
regretted that I was not a painter. What followed was a scene worthy 
to figure in Macbeth. At one side she, the slender girl, pale and corpse- 
like, writhing under the invisible fluid of him who for the hour was her 
omnipotent master; at the other the old matron, who, burning with her 
unquenched fire of revenge, stood waiting for the long-expected name 
of the Prince's murderer to be at last pronounced. The Frenchman 
himself seemed transfigured, his grey hair standing on end ; his bulky 
clumsy form seemed to have grown in a few minutes. All theatrical 
pretence was now gone ; there remained but the mesmerizer, aware of 
his responsibility, unconscious himself of the possible results, studying 
and anxiously expecting. Suddenly Frosya, as if lifted by some super- 
natural force, rose from her reclining posture and stood erect before us, 


again motionless and still, waiting for the magnetic fluid to direct her. 
The Frenchman, silently taking the old lady's hand, placed it in that 
of the somnambulist, and ordered her to put herself en rapport with 
the Gospoja. 

"What seest thou, my daughter?" softly murmured the Serbian lady. 
"Can your spirit seek out the murderers?" 

"Search and behold!" sternly commanded the mesmerizer, fixing his 
gaze upon the face of the subject. 

"I am on my way — I go," faintly whispered Frosya, her voice seem- 
ing not to come from herself, but from the surrounding atmosphere. 

At this moment something so strange took place that I doubt my 
ability to describe it. A luminous vapour appeared, closely surround- 
ing the girl's body. At first about an inch in thickness, it gradually 
expanded, and, gathering itself, suddenly seemed to break off from the 
body altogether and condense itself into a kind of semi-solid vapour, 
which very soon assumed the likeness of the somnambule herself. 
Flickering about the surface of the earth the form vacillated for two or 
three seconds, then glided noiselessly toward the river. It disappeared 
like a mist, dissolved in the moonbeams, which seemed to absorb it 

I had followed the scene with an intense attention. The mysterious 
operation, known in the East as the evocation of the scin-lecca, was 
taking place before my own eyes. To doubt was impossible, and 
Dupotet was right in saying that mesmerism is the conscious Magic of 
the ancients, and Spiritualism the unconscious effect of the same Magic 
upon certain organisms. 

As soon as the vaporous double had smoked itself through the pores 
of the girl, Gospoja had, by a rapid motion of the hand which was left 
free, drawn from under her pelisse something which looked to us sus- 
piciously like a small stiletto, and placed it as rapidly in the girl's 
bosom. The action was so quick that the mesmerizer, absorbed in his 
work, had not remarked it, as he afterwards told me. A few minutes 
elapsed in a dead silence. We seemed a group of petrified persons. 
Suddenly a thrilling and transpiercing cry burst from the entranced 
girl's lips, she bent forward, and snatching the stiletto from her bosom, 
plunged it furiously round her, in the air, as if pursuing imaginary 
foes. Her mouth foamed, and incoherent, wild exclamations broke 
from her lips, among which discordant sounds I discerned several times 
two familiar Christian names of men. The mesmerizer was so terrified 


that he lost all control over himself, and instead of withdrawing the 
fluid he loaded the girl with it still more. 

"Take care," exclaimed I. "Stop! You will kill her, or she will 
kill you!" 

But the Frenchman had unwittingly raised subtle potencies of Nature 
over which he had no control. Furiously turning round, the girl struck 
at him a blow which would have killed him had he not avoided it by 
jumping aside, receiving but a severe scratch on the right arm. The 
poor man was panic-stricken; climbing with an extraordinary agility, 
for a man of his bulky form, on the wall over her, he fixed himself on 
it astride, and gathering the remnants of his will power, sent in her 
direction a series of passes. At the second, the girl dropped the 
weapon and remained motionless. 

"What are you about?" hoarsely shouted the mesmerizer in French, 
seated like some monstrous night-goblin on the wall. "Answer me, I 
command you!" 

"I did . . . but what she . . . whom you ordered me to obey 
. . . commanded me to do," answered the girl in French, to my 

"What did the old witch command you?" irreverently asked he. 

"To find them . . . who murdered . . . kill them. . . I 
did so . . . and they are no more . . . Avenged! . . . Avenged! 
They are . . ." 

An exclamation of triumph, a loud shout of infernal joy, rang loud 
in the air, and awakening the dogs of the neighbouring villages a 
responsive howl of barking began from that moment, like a ceaseless 
echo of the Gospoja's cry: 

"I am avenged! I feel it; I know it. My warning heart tells me 
that the fiends are no more." She fell panting on the ground, drag- 
ging down, in her fall, the girl, who allowed herself to be pulled down 
as if she were a bag of wool. 

"I hope my subject did no further mischief to-night. She is a 
dangerous as well as a very wonderful subject," said the Frenchman. 

We parted. Three days after that I was at T , and as I was 

sitting in the dining-room of a restaurant, waiting for my lunch, I 
happened to pick up a newspaper, and the first lines I read ran thus: 
Vienna, 186— . Two Mysterious Deaths. 

Last evening, at 9.45, as P was about to retire, two of the gentle men-in -wait- 
ing suddenly exhibited great terror, as though they had seen a dreadful apparition. 


They screamed, staggered, and ran about the room, holding up their hands as if to 
ward off the blows of an unseen weapon. They paid no attention to the eager 
questions of the prince and suite, but presently fell writhing upon the floor, and 
expired in great agony. Their bodies exhibited no appearance of apoplexy, nor 
an}' external marks of wounds, but, wonderful to relate, there were numerous dark 
spots and long marks upon the skin, as though they were stabs and slashes made 
without puncturing the cuticle. The autopsy revealed the fact that beneath each 
of these mysterious discolourations there was a deposit of coagulated blood. The 
greatest excitement prevails, and the faculty are unable to solve the mystery. 

Hadji Mora. 
(H. P. Blavatsky.) 


[From the New York Sim, April ist, 1877.] 

However ignorant I may be of the laws of the solar system, I am 
at all events so firm a believer in heliocentric journalism that I sub- 
scribe some remarks for The Sun upon my "iconoclasm." 

No doubt it is a great honour for an unpretending foreigner to be 
thus crucified between the two greatest celebrities of your chivalrous 
country — the truly good Deacon Richard Smith, of the blue gauze 
trousers, and the nightingale of the willow and the cypress, G. Wash- 
ington Childs, A.M. But I am not a Hindu Fakir, and therefore can- 
not say that I enjoy crucifixion, especially when unmerited. I do not 
even fancy being swung round the "tall tower" with the steel hooks of 
your satire metaphorically thrust through my back. I have not in- 
vited the reporters to a show. I have not sought notoriety. I have 
only taken up a quiet corner in your free country, and, as a woman 
who has travelled much, shall try to tell a Western public the strange 
things I have seen among Eastern peoples. If I could have enjoyed 
this privilege at home I should not be here. Being here, I shall, as 
your old English proverb expresses it, "Tell the truth and shame the 

The World reporter who visited me wrote an article which mingled 
his souvenirs of my stuffed apes and my canaries, my tiger-heads and 
palms, with aerial music and the flitting doppel gangers of Adepts. It 
was a very interesting article and was certainly intended to be very 
impartial. If I appear in it to deny the immutability of natural law, 
and inferentially to affirm the possibility of miracle, it is either due to 
my faulty English or to the carelessness of the reader. 

There are no such uncompromising believers in the immutability and 
universality of the laws of Nature as students of Occultism. Let us 
then, with your permission, leave the shade of the great Newton to rest 
in peace. It is not the principle of the law of gravitation, or the neces- 


sity of a central force acting toward the sun, that is denied, but the 
assumption that, behind the law which draws bodies toward the earth's 
centre, and which is our most familiar example of gravitation, there is 
no other law, equally immutable, that under certain conditions appears 
to counteract the former. 

If but once in a hundred years a table or a Fakir is seen to rise in the 
air, without a visible mechanical cause, then that rising is a manifesta- 
tion of a natural law of which our scientists are as } r et ignorant. Chris- 
tians believe in miracles; Occultists credit them even less than pious 
scientists, Sir David Brewster, for instance. Show an Occultist an un- 
familiar phenomenon, and he will never affirm a priori that it is either 
a trick or a miracle. He will search for the cause in the reason of 

There was an anecdote about Babinet, the astronomer, current in 
Paris in 1854, when the great war was raging between the Academy 
and the "waltzing tables." This sceptical man of science had pro- 
claimed in the Revue des Deux Maudes (January, 1S54, p. 414) that the 
levitation of furniture without contact "was simpl} r as impossible as 
perpetual motion." A few days later, during an experimental seance, 
a table was levitated without contact in his presence. The result was 
that Babinet went straight to a dentist to have a molar tooth extracted, 
which the iconoclastic table in its aerial flight had seriously damaged. 
But it was too late to recall his article. 

I suppose nine men out of ten, including editors, would maintain 
that the undulatory theory of light is one of the most firmly estab- 
lished. And yet if you will turn to page 22 of The New Chemistry, by 
Prof. Josiah P. Cooke, Jr., of Harvard University (New York, 1876), 
you will find him saying: 

I cannot agree with those who regard the wave-theory of light as an established 
principle of science. ... It requires a combination of qualities in the ether of 
space which I find it difficult to believe are actually realized. 

What is this but iconoclasm ? 

Let us bear in mind that Newton himself accepted the corpuscular 
theory of Pythagoras and his predecessors, from whom he learned it, 
and that it was only en desespoir de cause that later scientists accepted 
the wave theory of Descartes and Huyghens. Kepler maintained the 
magnetic nature of the sun. Leibnitz ascribed the planetary motions 
to agitations of an ether. Borelli anticipated Newton in his discovery, 
although he failed to demonstrate it as triumphantly. Huyghens and 


Boyle, Horrocks and Hooke, Halley and Wren, all had ideas of a 
central force acting toward the snn, and of the true principle of dimi- 
nution of action of the force in the ratio of the inverse square of the 
distance. The last word has not yet been spoken with respect to gravi- 
tation; its limitations can never be known until the nature of the sun 
is better understood. 

They are just beginning to recognize — see Prof. Balfour Stewart's 
lecture at Manchester, entitled, The Su?i and the Earth, and Prof. A. M. 
Mayer's lecture, The Earth a Great Magnet — the intimate connection 
between the sun's spots and the position of the heavenly bodies. The 
interplanetary magnetic attractions are but just being demonstrated. 
Until gravitation is understood to be simply magnetic attraction and 
repulsion, and the part played by magnetism itself in the endless corre- 
lations of forces in the ether of space — that "hypothetical medium," 
as Webster terms it — is better grasped, I maintain that it is neither 
fair nor wise to deny the levitation of either Fakir or table. Bodies 
oppositely electrified attract each other; similarly electrified they 
repulse each other. Admit, therefore, that any body having weight, 
whether man or inanimate object, can by any cause whatever, external 
or internal, be given the same polarity as the spot on which it stands, 
and what is to prevent its rising? 

Before charging me with falsehood when I affirm that I have seen 
both men and objects levitated, you must first dispose of the abundant 
testimony of persons far better known than my humble self. Mr. 
Crookes, Prof. Thury of Geneva, Louis Jacolliot, your own Dr. Gray 
and Dr. Warner, and hundreds of others, have, first and last, certified 
the fact of levitation. 

I am surprised to find how little even the editors of your erudite 
contemporary, The World, are acquainted with Oriental metaphysics in 
general, and the trousers of the Hindu Fakirs in particular. It was 
bad enough to make those holy mendicants of the religion of Brahma 
graduate from the Buddhist Lamaseries of Tibet; but it is unpardon- 
able to make them wear baggy breeches in the exercise of their reli- 
gious functions. 

This is as bad as if a Hindu journalist had represented the Rev. Mr. 
Beecher entering his pulpit in the scant costume of the Fakir — the 
dhoti, a cloth about the loins, "only that and nothing more." To 
account, therefore, for the oft-witnessed, open-air levitations of the 
Swamis and Gurus upon the theory of an iron frame concealed beneath 


the clothing, is as reasonable as Monsieur Babinet's explanation of the 
table-tipping and tapping as unconscious ventriloquism. 

You may object to the act of disembowelling, which I am com- 
pelled to affirm I have seen performed. It is as you say, "remark- 
able," but still not miraculous. Your suggestion that Dr. Hammond 
should go and see it is a good one. Science would be the gainer, and 
your humble correspondent be justified. Are you, however, in a posi- 
tion to guarantee that he would furnish the world of sceptics with an 
example of "veracious reporting," if his observation should tend to 
overthrow the pet theories of what we loosely call science? 

Yours very respectfully, 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

New York, March 28th, i8yy. 


[From the New York World, April 6th, 1S77.] 

There was a time when the geocentric theory was universally 
accepted by Christian nations, and if you and I had then been carrying 
on our little philological and psychological controversy, I should have 
bowed in humility to the dictum of an authority so particularly at home 
in "'the Mysticism of the Orient." But despite all modifications of our 
astronomical system, I am no heliolater, though I do subscribe for The 
Sun as well as The World. I feel no more bound to "cajole" or con- 
ciliate the one than to suffer my feeble taper to be extinguished by the 
draught made by the other in its diurnal rush through journalistic 

As near as I can judge from your writing there is this difference 
between us, that I write from personal experience, and you upon 
information and belief. My authorities are my eyes and ears; yours, 
obsolete works of reference and the pernicious advice of a spontaneously 
generated Lampsakano, who learned his Mysticism from the detached 
head of one Dummkopf. (See The Sun of March 25th.) My assertions 
may be corroborated by any traveller, as they have been by the first 
authorities. Elphinstone's Kingdom of Kabul was published sixty-two 
years ago (1815), his History of India thirty-six years ago. If the 
latter is the "standard text-book" for British civil servants, it certainly 
is not so for native Hindus, who perhaps know as much of their Philo- 
sophy and Religion as he. In fact, a pretty wide reading of European 
"authorities" has given me a very poor opinion of them, since no two 
agree. Sir William Jones himself, whose shoe-strings few Orientalists 
are worthy to untie, made very grave mistakes, which are now being 
corrected by Max Miiller and others. He knew nothing of the Vedas 
(see Max Midler's Chips, vol. i. p. 183), and even expressed his belief 
that Buddha was the same as the Teutonic deity Woden or Odin, and 
Shakya — another name of Buddha — the same as Shishak, a king of 


Egypt! Why, therefore, could not Elphinstone make a mess of such 
subtle religious distinctions as the innumerable sects of Hindu Mystics 
existing at present? 

I am charged with such ignorance that I imagine the Fakirs to be 
"holy mendicants of the religion of Brahma," while you say they are 
not of the religion of Brahma at all, but Mohammedans. 

Does this precious piece of information also come from Elphinstone? 
Then I give you a Roland for your Oliver. I refer you to James Mill's 
History of British India, vol. i. p. 2S3 (London: 1S5S). You say: 

Those seeking ready-made information can find our statements corroborated in 
any encyclopaedia. 

Perhaps you refer to Appleton's? Very well. In the article on 
James Mill (vol. ii. p. 501), you will find it saying that his India 

Was the first complete work on the subject. It was without a rival as a source of 
information, and the justice of its views appeared in the subsequent measures for 
the government of that country. 

Now, Mill says that the 

Fakirs are a sect of Brahmanism; and that their penances are prescribed by the 
Laws of Manu. 

Will your Lamp-sickener, or whatever the English of that Greek 
ma} T be, say that Manu was a Mohammedan? And yet this would be 
no worse than your clothing the Fakirs, who belong, as a rule, to the 
Brahman pagodas, in yellow — the colour exclusively worn by Buddhist 
lamas — and breeches — which form part of the costume of the Moham- 
medan dervishes. Perhaps it is a natural mistake for your Lampsakanoi, 
who rely upon Elphinstone for their facts and have not visited India, 
to confound the Persian dervishes with the Hindu Fakirs. But "while 
the lamp holds out to burn" read Louis Jacolliot's Bible in India, just 
out, and learn from a man who has passed twenty years in India, that 
your correspondent is neither a fool nor a liar. 

You charge me with saying that a Fakir is a "worshipper of God." 
I say I did not, as the expression I used, "Fakir is a loose word," well 
proves. It was a natural mistake of the reporter, who did not employ 
stenograph}- at our interview. I said, "A Svami is one who devotes 
himself entirely to the service of God." 

All Svamis of the Nir-Narrain sects are Fakirs, but all Fakirs are 
not necessarily Svamis. I refer you to Coleman's Mythology of the 
Hindus (p. 244), and to The Asiatic Journal. Coleman says precisely 
what Louis Jacolliot says, and both corroborate me. You very oblig- 


ingly give me a lesson in Hindustani and Devanagari, and teach me 
the etymology of "Guru," "Fakir," "Gossain," etc. For answer I refer 
you to John Shakespear's large Hindustani- English Dictionary. I may 
know less English than your Lampsakanoi, but I do know of Hindu- 
stani and Sanskrit more than can be learned on Park Row. 

As I have said in another communication, I did not invite the visits 
of reporters, nor seek the notoriety which has suddenly been thrust 
upon me. If I reply to your criticisms — rhetorically brilliant, but wholly 
unwarranted by the facts — it is because I value your good opinion 
(without caring to cajole you), and at the same time cannot sit quiet 
and be made to appear alike devoid of experience, knowledge and 

Respectfully, but still rebelliously, yours, 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

Monday, April 2nd, iSyy. 


[From the New York World, May 6th, 1S77.] 

From the first month of my arrival in America I began, for reasons 
mysterious, but perhaps intelligible, to provoke hatred among those 
who pretended to be on good terms with me, if not the best of friends. 
Slanderous reports, vile insinuations and innuendoes have rained about 
me. For more than two years I have kept silent, although the least 
of the offences attributed to me were calculated to excite the loathing 
of a person of my disposition. I have rid myself of a number of these 
retailers of slander, but finding that I was actually suffering in the esti- 
mation of friends whose good opinion I valued, I adopted a policy of 
seclusion. For two years my world has been in my apartments, and for 
an average of at least seventeen hours a day I have sat at my desk, 
with my books and manuscripts as my companions. During this time 
many highly-valued acquaintanceships have been formed with ladies 
and gentlemen who have sought me out, without expecting me to 
return their visits. 

I am an old woman, and I feel the need of fresh air as much as any 
one, but my disgust for the lying, slanderous world that one finds out- 
side of "heathen" uncivilized countries has been such that in seven 
months I believe I have been out but three times. But no retreat is 
secure against the anonymous slanderer, who uses the United States 
mail. Letters have been received by my trusted friends containing the 
foulest aspersions upon myself. At various times I have been charged 
with: (1) drunkenness; (2) forgery; (3) being a Russian spy; (4) with 
being an anti-Russian spy; (5) with being no Russian at all, but a 
French adventuress ; (6) with having been in jail for theft ; (7) with being 
the mistress of a Polish count in Union Square; (8) with murdering 
seven husbands; (9) with bigamy; (10) with being the mistress of Col. 
Olcott, (11) also of an acrobat. Other things might be mentioned, but 
decency forbids. 


Since the arrival of Wong Chin Foo the game has recommenced with 
•double activity. We have received anonymous letters and others, and 
newspaper slips, telling infamous stories about him. On his part, he 
has received communications about us, one of which I beg you to 

May ft/i. 
Does the disciple of Buddha know the character of the people with whom lie is 
at present residing? The surroundings of a teacher of morality and religion should 
be moral. Are his so? On the contrary, they are people of very doubtful reputa- 
tion, as he can ascertain by applying at the nearest police-station. 

A Friend. 

Of Wong Chin Foo's merits or shortcomings I know nothing, except 
that since his arrival his conversation and behaviour have impressed 
me very favourably. He appears to be a very earnest and enthusiastic 
student. However, he is a man, and is able to take care of himself, 
although, like me, a foreigner. But I wish to say for myself just this: 
that I defy any person in America to come forward and prove a single 
charge against my honour. I invite everyone possessed of such proof 
as will vindicate them in a court of justice to publish it over their own 
signatures in the newspapers. I will furnish to anyone a list of my 
several residences, and contribute towards paying detectives to trace 
my every step. But I hereby give notice that if any more unverifiable 
slanders can be traced to responsible sources, I will invoke the protec- 
tion of the law, which, it is the theory of your national Constitution, 
was made for heathen as well as Christian denizens. 


H. P. Blavatskv. 

New York, May 5th, iS~-. 


[From the New York Sun, May 13th, 1877.] 

As, in your leading article of May 6th, I am at one moment given 
credit for knowing something about the religion of the Brahmans and 
Buddhists, and, anon, of being a pretender of the class of Jacolliot, 
and even his plagiarist, you will not wonder at my again knocking at 
your doors for hospitality. This time I write over my own signature, 
and am responsible, as I am not under other circumstances. 

No wonder that the "learned friend" at your elbow was reminded 
"of the utterances of one Louis Jacolliot." 

The paragraphs in the very able account of your representative's 
interview, which relate to "Adhima and Heva" and "Jezeus Christna," 
were translated bodily, in his presence, from the French edition of the 
Bible in India. They were read, moreover, from the chapter entitled, 
"Bagaveda" — instead of "Bhagavat," as you put it, kindly correcting 
me. In so doing, in my humble opinion, he is right, and the others 
are wrong, were it but for the reason that the Hindus themselves so 
pronounce it — at least those of southern India, who speak either the 
Tamil language or other dialects. Since we seek in vain among Sans- 
krit philologists for any two who agree as to the spelling or meaning of 
important Hindu words, and scarcely two as to the orthography of this 
very title, I respectfully submit that neither "the French fraud" nor 
I are chargeable with any grave offence in the premises. 

For instance, Prof. Whitney, your greatest American Orientalist, 
and one of the most eminent living, spells it Bagavata; while his 
equally great opponent, Max Miiller, prefers Bagavadgita, and half 
a dozen others spell it in as many different ways. Naturally each 
scholar, in rendering the Indian words into his own vernacular, follows 
the national rule of pronunciation; and so, you will see, that Prof. 
Miiller in writing the syllable ad with an a does precisely what Jacolliot 
does in spelling it ed, the French e having the same sound as the 



English a before a consonant. The same holds good with the name 
of the Hindu Saviour, which by different authorities is spelt Krishna, 
Crisna, Khristna and Krisna; everything, in short, but the right way, 
Christna. Perhaps you may say that this is mere hypothesis. But 
since every Indianist follows his own fancy in his phonetic transcrip- 
tions, I do not know why I may not exercise my best judgment, 
especially as I can give good reasons to support it. 

You affirm that there "never was a Hindu reformer named Jezeus 
Christna"; and, although I confined my affirmation of his existence to 
the authority of Jacolliot at the interview in question, I now assert on 
my own responsibility that there was, and is, a personage of that name 
recognized and worshipped in India, and that he is not Jesus Christ. 
Christna is a Brahmanical deity, and, besides by the Brahmans, is 
recognized by several sects of the Jains. When Jacolliot says "Jezeus 
Christna," he only shows a little clumsiness in phonetic rendering, and 
is nearer right than many of his critics. I have been at the festivals of 
Janmotsar, in commemoration of the birth of Christna (which is their 
Christmas) and have heard thousands of voices shouting: "Jas-i- 
Christna! Jasas-wi-Christna!" Translated they are: Jas-i, renowned, 
famous, and Jasas-wi, celebrated, or divinely-renowned, powerful; and 
Christna, sacred. To avoid being again contradicted, I refer the reader 
to any Hindustani dictionary. All the Brahmans with whom I have 
talked on the subject spoke of Christna either as Jas-i-Christna, or 
Jadar Christna, or again used the term, Yadur-pati, Lord of Yadavas, 
descendant of Yadu, one of the many titles of Christna in India. You 
see, therefore, that it is but a question of spelling. 

That Christna is preferable to Krishna can be clearly shown under 
the rules laid down by Burnouf and others upon the authority of the 
pandits. True, the initial of the name in the Sanskrit is generally 
written k; but the Sanskrit k is strongly aspirated; it is a guttural 
expiration, whose only representation is the Greek cJii. In English, 
therefore, the k instead of having the sound of k as in king would be 
even more aspirated than the h in heaven. As in English the Greek 
word is written Christos in preference to H'ristos, which would be 
nearer the mark, so with the Hindu deity; his name under the same 
rule should be written Christna, notwithstanding the possible un- 
welcomeness of the resemblance. 

M. Taxtor de Ravisi, a French Catholic Orientalist, and for ten years 

Governor of Karikal (India), Jacolliot's bitterest opponent in religious 



conclusions, fully appreciates the situation. He would have the name 
spelt Krishna, because (i) most of the statues of this God are black, 
and Krishna means black; and (2) because the real name of Christna 
"was Kaneya, or Caneya." Very well; but black is Krishna. And if 
not only Jacolliot, but the Brahmans themselves are not to be allowed 
to know as much as their European critics, we will call in the aid of 
Volney and other Orientalists, who show that the Hindu deity's name 
is formed from the radical Chris, meaning sacred, as Jacolliot shows it. 
Moreover, for the Brahmans to call their God the "black one" would 
be unnatural and absurd; while to style him the sacred, ox pure essence, 
would be perfectly appropriate to their notions. As to the name being 
Caneya, M. Taxtor de Ravisi, in suggesting it, completes his own dis- 
comfiture. In escaping Scylla he falls into Charybdis. I suppose 
no one will deny that the Sanskrit Kanya means Virgin, for even in 
modern Hindustani the Zodiacal sign of Virgo is called Kaniya. 
Christna is styled Kaneya, as having been born of a Virgin. Begging 
pardon, then, of the "learned friend" at your elbow, I reaffirm that if 
there "never was a Hindu reformer named Jezeus Christna," there was 
a Hindu Saviour, who is worshipped unto this day as Jasi Christna, or, 
if it better accords with his pious preferences, Jas-i-Kristna. 

When the 84,000 volumes of the Dharma Khanda, or sacred books of 
the Buddhists, and the thousands upon thousands of ollse of Vaidic 
and Brahmanical literature, now known by their titles only to Euro- 
pean scholars, or even a tithe of those actually in their possession are 
translated, and comprehended, and agreed upon, I will be happy to 
measure swords again with the solar pandit who has prompted your 
severe reflections upon your humble subscriber 

Though, in common with various authorities, you stigmatize Jacolliot 

as a "French fraud," I must really do him the justice to say that his 

Catholic opponent, De Ravisi, said of his Bible in India, in a report 

made at the request of the Societe Academique de St. Quentin, that it 

is written 

With good faith, of absorbing interest, a learned work on known facts and with 
familiar arguments. 

Ten years' residence and studies in India were surely enough to fit 
him to give an opinion. Unfortunately, however, in America it is but 
too easy to gain the reputation of "a fraud" in much less time. 


H. P. Blavatsky. 


[From the New York World, Aug. 13th, 1877.] 
The Sublime Porte has had the sublime effrontery to ask the 
American people to execrate Russian barbarity. It appeals for sym- 
pathy on behalf of helpless Turkish subjects at the seat of war. With 
the memories of Bulgaria and Servia still fresh, this seems the climax 
of daring hypocrisy. Barely a few months ago the reports of Mr. 
Schuyler and other impartial observers of the atrocities of Bashi- 
Bazouks sent a thrill of horror through the world. Perpetrated under 
official sanction, they aroused the indignation of all who had hearts to 
feel. In to-day's paper I read another account of pretended Russian 
cruelties, and your able and just editorial comments upon the same. 
Permit one who is, perhaps, in a better position than any other private 
person here to know what is taking place at the front, to inform you of 
certain facts derived from authentic sources. Besides receiving daily 
papers from St. Petersburg, Moscow, Tiflis and Odessa, I have an uncle, 
a cousin and a nephew on active service, and every steamer brings me 
accounts of military movements from eye-witnesses. My cousin and 
nephew have taken part in all bloody engagements in Turkish Armenia 
up to the present time, and were at the siege and capture of Ardahan. 
Newspapers may suppress, colour or exaggerate facts; the private 
letters of brave soldiers to their families rarely do. 

L,et me say, then, that during this campaign the Turkish troops have 
been guilty of such fiendish acts as to make me pray that my relatives 
may be killed rather than fall into their hands. In a letter from the 
Danube, corroborated by several correspondents of German and Aus- 
trian papers, the writer says : 

On June 20th we entered Kozlovetz, a Bulgarian town of about two hundred 
houses, which lies three or four hours distant from Sistova. The sight which met 
our eyes made the blood of every Russian soldier run cold, hardened though he is 
to such scenes. On the principal street of the deserted town were placed in rows 
140 beheaded bodies of men, women, and children. The heads of these unfortu- 


nates were tastefully piled in a pyramid in the middle of the street. Among the 
smoking ruins of every house we found half-burned corpses, fearfully mutilated. 
We caught a Turkish soldier, and to our questions he reluctantly confessed that 
their chiefs had given orders not to leave a Christian place, however small, before 
burning it and putting to death every man, woman, and child. 

On the first day that the Danube was crossed some foreign corre- 
spondents, among them that of the Cologne Gazette, saw several bodies 
of Russian soldiers whose noses, ears, hands, etc., had been cut off, 
while the genital organs had been stuffed into the mouths of the corpses. 
Later, three bodies of Christian women were found — a mother and two 
daughters — whose condition makes one almost drop the pen in horror 
at the thought. Entirely nude, split open from below to the navel, 
their heads cutoff; the wrists of each corpse were tied together with 
strips of skin and flesh flayed from the shoulder down ; and the corpses 
of the three martyrs were similarly bound to each other by long ribbons 
of flesh dissected from their thighs. 

A correspondent writes from Sistova: 

The Emperor continues his daily visits to the hospitals and passes whole hours 
with the wounded. A few days ago His Majesty, accompanied by Colonel Wellesley, 
the British military attache, visited two unfortunate Bulgarians who died on the 
night following. The skull of one of them was split open both laterally and verti- 
cally, by two sword-cuts, an eye was torn out, and he was otherwise mutilated. He 
explained, as well as he could, that several Turks seeing him, demanded his money. 
As he had none, four of the party held him fast while the fifth, brandishing his 
sword, and repeating all the time, "There, you Christian dog, there's your cross 
for you! " first split his skull from the forehead to the back of the head, and then 
crosswise from ear to ear. While the Emperor was listening to these details the 
greatest agony was depicted upon his face. Taking Colonel Wellesley by the arm, 
and pointing to the Bulgarian, he said to him in French: "See the work of your 
proteges!'''' The British officer blushed and was much confused. 

The special correspondent of the London Standard, describing his 
audience with the Grand Duke Nicholas, Commander-in-Chief, on July 
7th, says that the Grand Duke communicated to him the most horrify- 
ing details about the cruelties committed at Dobroudga. A Christian 
whose hands were tied with strips of his own skin cut from the length 
of both his arms, and his tongue cut down from the root, was laid at 
the feet of the Emperor and died there before the eyes of the Czar and 
the British agent, the same Colonel Wellesley, who was in attendance. 
Turning to the latter, His Majesty, with a stern expression, asked him 
to inform his Government of what he had just seen for himself. Says 
the correspondent: 



From the beginning of the war I have heard of quite a number of such cases, 
but never witnessed one myself. After the personal assurances given to me by the 
Grand Duke, it is no longer possible to doubt that the Turkish officers are unable 
to control their irregular troops. 

The correspondent of The Northern Messenger had gone the rounds 
of the hospitals to question the wounded soldiers. Four of them, 
belonging to the Second Battalion of Minsk Rifles, testified with the 
most solemn asseverations that they had seen the Turks approach the 
wounded, rob them, mutilate their bodies in the most cruel way, finish 
them with the bayonet. They themselves had avoided this fate only 
by feigning death. It is a common thing for wounded Turks to allure 
Russian soldiers and members of the sanitary corps to their assistance, 
and, as they bend over them, to kill with a revolver or dagger those 
who would relieve them. A case like this occurred under the eye of 
one of my correspondents in Turkish Armenia, and was in all the 
Russian papers. A sergeant's assistant (a sanitar) was despatched 
under such circumstances; thereupon a soldier standing by killed the 

My cousin, Major Alexander U. White — of the Sixteenth Nije- 
gorodsk Dragoons, one of the most gallant soldiers in the army of 
Loris Melikof, and who has just been decorated by the Grand Duke, 
under the authority of the Emperor, with a golden sword inscribed, 
"For Bravery" — says that it is becoming positively dangerous to 
relieve a wounded Turk. The people who robbed and killed the 
wounded in the hospital at Ardahan upon the entry of the Russian 
troops were the Karapapahs, Mussulmans and the supposed allies of 
the Turks. During the siege they prudently awaited the issue from 
a safe distance. As soon as the Russians conquered, the Karapapahs 
flew like so many tigers into the town, slaying the wounded Turks, 
robbing the dead, pillaging houses, bringing the horses and mules of 
the fleeing enemy into the Russian camp, and swearing allegiance to 
the Commander-in-Chief, The Cossacks had all the trouble in the 
world to prevent their new allies from continuing the greatest excesses. 
To charge, therefore, upon the Russians the atrocities of these cowardly 
jackals (a nomadic tribe of brigands) is an impudent lie of Mukhtar 
Pasha, whose falsifications have become so notorious that some Parisian 
papers have nicknamed him "Blaguer Pasha." His despatches are 
only matched in mendacity by those of the Spanish commanders in 


The stupidity of charging such excesses upon the Russian army 
becomes apparent when we remember that the policy of the Govern- 
ment from the first has been to pay liberally for supplies, and win the 
goodwill of the people of the invaded provinces by kindness. So 
marked and successful has this policy proved in General L,oris Meli- 
kof's field of operations, that the anti- Russian papers of England, 
Austria and other countries have denounced it as Russian "craft." 
With the Danubian forces is the Emperor in person, liberator of 
millions of serfs, and the mildest and justest sovereign who has ever 
occupied the throne of any country. As he won the love of his whole 
people and the adoration of his army by his sense of justice and 
benevolent regard, I ask you if he is likely to countenance any cruel 
excesses? While the cowardly Abdul-Hamid hides in the alcoves of 
his harem, and of the imperial princes none have taken the field, the 
Czar follows his army, step by step, submits to comparatively severe 
and unaccustomed hardships, and exposes his health and life against 
all the remonstrances and prayers of Prince Gortschakof. His four 
sons are all in active service, and the son of the Grand Duke Nicholas 
was decorated at the crossing of the Danube for personal courage, 
having exposed his life for hours under a shower of bullets. 

I only ask the American people to do justice to their long-tried 
and unfaltering friends, the Russians. However politicians may have 
planned, the Russian people have entered this war as a holy crusade to 
rescue millions of helpless Slavonians — their brothers — of the Danube 
from Turkish cruelty. The people have dragged the Government to 
the field. Russia is surrounded by false neutrals, who but watch the 
opportunity to fly at her throat, and, shameful fact, the blessing of 
the Pope rests upon the Moslem standards, and his curse against his 
fellow Christians has been read in all the Catholic churches. For my 
part, I care a great deal less even than my countrymen for his blessings 
or curses, for besides other reasons I regard this war not as one of 
Christian against Moslem, but as one of humanity and civilization 
against barbarism. This is the view of the Catholic Czecks of Bohemia. 
So great was their indignation at what they rightly considered the 
dishonour of the Roman Catholic Church that on July 4th — anniver- 
sary of the mart3 7 rdom of John Huss — notwithstanding the efforts of 
the police, they repaired in multitudes to the heights of Smichovo, 
Beraun and other hills around Prague, and burnt at the stake the 
portraits and wax effigies of the Pope and the Prince Archbishop 


Schwartzenberg, and the papal discourse against the Russian Emperor 
and army, singing the while Slavonian national songs, and shouting, 
"Down with the Pope! Death to the Ultramontanes! Hurrah for the 
Czar-Liberator!" — all of which shows that there are good Catholics 
among the Slavonians, at least, who rightly hold in higher estimation 
the principles of national solidarity than foolish dogmas of the Vatican, 
even though backed by pretended infallibility. 

August gth. H. P. Blavatsky. 


[From the New York Suti, August 16th, 1877.] 

At the ceremony of "feet-washing" which occurred at L,imwood 
Camp-ground, August 8th, and is described in The Sun of to-day, 
Elder Jones, of Mechanicsburg, Pa., professed to give the history of 
this ancient custom. The report says: 

He claimed that its origin did not date anterior to the coming of Christ; neither 
was the matter of cleanliness to be thought of in this connection. Its observance 
was due exclusively to the fact that it was a scriptural injunction; it originated in 
Christ's example, and it devolved upon his hearers to follow this example. Numer- 
ous scriptural passages were quoted in support of this argument. 

The reverend gentleman is in error. The ceremony was first per- 
formed by the Hindu Christna (or Krishna) who washed the feet of 
his Brahmans as an example of humility, many thousand years anterior 
to the Christian era. Chapter and verse will be given, if required, 
from the Brahmanical books. Meanwhile, the reader is referred to the 
Rev. John P. L,undy's Monumental Christianity, p. 154. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 


[From The Religio- Philosophical Journal, Dec. 22nd, 1877.] 

A wise saying is that which affirms that he who seeks to prove too 
much, in the end proves nothing. Prof. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. (and 
otherwise alphabetically adorned), furnishes a conspicuous example in 
his strife with men better than himself. His assaults accumulate 
bitterness with every new periodical he makes his organ, and in pro- 
portion with the increase of his abuse his arguments lose force and 
cogency. And, forsooth, he nevertheless lectures his antagonists for 
their lack of "calm discussion," as though he were not the very type of 
controversial nitro-glycerine! Rushing at them with his proofs, which 
are "incontrovertible" only in his own estimation, he commits himself 
more than once. By one of such committals I mean to profit to-day, 
by citing some curious experiences of my own. 

My object in writing the present is far from that of taking any part 
in this onslaught upon reputations. Messrs. Wallace and Crookes are 
well able to take care of themselves. Each has contributed in his own 
specialty towards real progress in useful knowledge more than Dr. 
Carpenter in his. Both have been honoured for valuable original 
researches and discoveries, while their accuser has been often charged 
with being no better than a very clever compiler of other men's ideas. 
After reading the able rejoinders of the "defendants" and the scathing 
review of the mace-swinging Prof. Buchanan, every one, except his 
friends, the psychophobists, can see that Dr. Carpenter is completely 
floored. He is as dead as the traditional door nail. 

In the December supplement of The Popular Science Monthly, I find, 
(p. 116) the interesting admission that a poor Hindu juggler can per- 
form a feat that quite takes the great Professor's breath away! In 
comparison, the mediumistic phenomena of Miss Xichol (Mrs. Guppy) 
are of no account. Says Dr. Carpenter: 

The celebrated "tree-trick," which most people who have been long in India have 
seen, as described by several of our most distinguished civilians and scientific 


officers, is simply the greatest marvel I ever heard of. That a mango-tree should 
first shoot up to a height of six inches, from a grass-plot to which the conjurers 
had no previous access, beneath an inverted cylindrical basket, whose emptiness 
has been previously demonstrated, and that this tree should appear to grow in the 
course of half an hour from six inches to six feet, under a succession of taller and 
yet taller baskets, beats Miss Nichol. 

Well, I should think it did. At any rate, it beats anything that any 
F.R.S. can show by daylight or dark, in the Royal Institution or else- 
where. Would not one think that such a phenomenon so attested, and 
occurring under circumstances that preclude trickery, would provoke 
scientific investigation? If not, what would? But observe the knot- 
hole through which an F.R.S. can creep out. "Does Mr. Wallace," 
ironically asks the Professor, 

Attribute this to a spiritual agency ? or, like the world in general [of course 
meaning the world that science created and Carpenter energizes] and the per- 
formers of the tree-trick in particular, does he regard it as a piece of clever 
jugglery ? 

Leaving Mr. Wallace, if he survives this Jovian thunder-bolt, to 
answer for himself, I have to say for the "performers" that they would 
respond with an emphatic "No" to both interrogatories. The Hindu 
jugglers neither claim for their performance a "spiritual agency," nor 
admit it to be a "trick of clever jugglery." The ground they take is 
that the tricks are produced by certain powers inherent in man him- 
self, which may be used for a good or bad purpose. And the ground 
that I, humbly following after those whose opinion is based on really 
exact psychological experiments and knowledge, take, is, that neither 
Dr. Carpenter nor his body-guard of scientists, though their titles 
stream after their names like the tail after a kite, have as yet the 
slightest conception of these powers. To acquire even a superficial 
knowledge of them, they must change their scientific and philosophical 
methods. Following after Wallace and Crookes, they must begin with 
the A B C of Spiritualism, which — meaning to be very scornful — Dr. 
Carpenter terms "the centre of enlightenment and progress." They 
must take their lessons not alone from the true but as well from 
spurious phenomena, from what his (Carpenter's) chief authority, the 
"arch-priest of the new religion," properly classifies as "Delusions,. 
Absurdities and Trickeries." After wading through all this, as every 
intelligent investigator has had to do, he may get some glimpses of 
truth. It is as useful to learn what the phenomena are not, as to find 
out what they are. 


Dr. Carpenter has two patent keys warranted to unlock every secret 
door of the mediumistic cabinet. They are labelled "expectancy" and 
"prepossession." Most scientists have some pick-lock like this. But 
to the "tree-trick" they scarcely apply; for neither his "distinguished 
civilians" nor "scientific officers" could have expected to see a stark- 
naked Hindu on a strange glass-plot, in full daylight, make a mango- 
tree grow six feet from the seed in half an hour, their "prepossessions" 
would be all against it. It cannot be a "spiritual agency"; it must be 
"jugglery." Now Maskelyne and Cooke, two clever English jugglers, 
have been keeping the mouths and eyes of all London wide open with 
their exposures of Spiritualism. They are admired by all the scien- 
tists, and at Slade's trial figured as expert witnesses for the prosecu- 
tion. They are at Dr. Carpenter's elbow. Why does he not call them 
to explain this clever jugglery, and make Messrs. Wallace and Crookes 
blush with shame at their own idiocy? All the tricks of the trade are 
familiar to them; where can science find better allies? But we must 
insist upon identical conditions. The "Tree-Trick" must not be per- 
formed by gas-light on the platform of any Egyptian Hall, nor with 
the performers in full evening dress. It must be in broad daylight, on 
a strange grass-plot to which the conjurers had no previous access. 
There must be no machinery, no confederates, white cravats and 
swallow-tail coats must be laid aside, and the English champions 
appear in the primitive apparel of Adam and Eve — a tight-fitting 
"coat of skin," and with the single addition of a dhoti, or a breech- 
cloth seven inches wide. The Hindus do all this, and we only ask fair 
play. If they raise a mango-sapling under these circumstances, Dr. 
Carpenter will be at perfect liberty to beat therewith the last remnant 
of brains out of the head of any "crazy Spiritualist" he may encounter. 
But until then, the less he says about Hindu jugglery the better for his 
scientific reputation. 

It is not to be denied that in India, China and elsewhere in the East 
there are veritable jugglers who exhibit tricks. Equally true is it that 
some of these performances surpass any with which Western people 
are acquainted. But these are neither Fakirs nor the performers of 
the "mango-tree" marvel, as described by Dr. Carpenter. Even this 
is sometimes imitated both by Indian and European adepts in sleight- 
of-hand, but under totally different conditions. Modestly following in 
the rear of the "distinguished civilians" and "scientific officers," I will 
now narrate something which I have seen with my own eyes. 


While at Cawnpur, en rozitc to Benares, the holy city, a lady, my 
travelling companion, was robbed of the entire contents of a small 
trunk. Jewelry, dresses, and even her note-book, containing a diary 
which she had been carefully compiling for over three months, had 
mysteriously disappeared, without the lock of the valise having been 
disturbed. Several hours, perhaps a night and a day had passed since 
the robbery, as we had started at daybreak to explore some neighbour- 
ing ruins, still freshly allied with the Nana Sahib's reprisals on the 
English. My companion's first thought was to call upon the local 
police; mine for the help of some native gossain (a holy man supposed 
to be informed of everything) or at least a jadugar, or conjurer. But 
the ideas of civilization prevailed, and a whole week was wasted in 
fruitless visits to the chabutara (police-house), and interviews with the 
kotwal, its chief. In despair, my expedient was at last resorted to, 
and a gossain procured. We occupied a small bungalow at the extreme 
end of one of the suburbs, on the right bank of the Ganges, and from 
the verandah a full view of the river was had, which at that place was 
very narrow. 

Our experiment was made on that verandah in the presence of the 
family of the landlord — a half-caste Portuguese from the south — my 
friend and myself and two freshly-imported Frenchmen, who laughed 
outrageously at our superstition. Time, three o'clock in the afternoon. 
The heat was suffocating, but notwithstanding, the holy man — a coffee- 
coloured, living skeleton — demanded that the motion of the pankah 
(hanging fan worked by a cord) should be stopped. He gave no 
reason, but it was because the agitation of the air interferes with all 
delicate magnetic experiments. We had all heard of the "rolling- 
pot" as an agency for the detection of theft in India — a common iron 
pot being made, under the influence of a Hindu conjurer, to roll of its 
own impulse, without any hands touching it, to the very spot where 
the stolen goods are concealed. The gossain proceeded otherwise. 
He first of all demanded some article that had been latest in contact 
with the contents of the valise; a pair of gloves was handed him. He 
pressed them between his thin palms, and, rolling them over and over 
again, then dropped them on the floor and proceeded to turn himself 
slowly around, with arms outstretched and fingers expanded, as though 
he were seeking the direction in which the property lay. Suddenly he 
stopped with a jerk, sank gradually to the floor and remained motion- 
less, sitting cross-legged and with his arms still outstretched in the 


same direction, as though plunged in a cataleptic trance. This lasted 
for over an hour, which in that suffocating atmosphere was to us one 
long torture. Suddenly the landlord sprang from his seat to the 
balustrade, and began intently looking towards the river, in which 
direction our eyes also, turned. Coming from whence, or how, we 
could not tell, but out there, over the water, and near its surface, was 
a dark object approaching. What it was we could not make out; but 
the mass seemed impelled by some interior force to revolve, at first 
slowly, but then faster and faster as it drew near. It was as though 
supported on an invisible pavement, and its course was in a direct line 
as the bee flies. It reached the bank, disappeared again among the 
high vegetation, and anon, rebounding with force as it leaped over the 
low garden wall, flew rather than rolled on to the verandah and dropped 
with a heavy thud under the extended palms of the gossain. A violent, 
convulsive tremor shook the frame of the old man, as with a deep sigh 
he opened his half-closed eyes. All were astonished, but the French- 
men stared at the bundle with an expression of idiotic terror in their 
eyes. Rising from the ground the holy man opened the tarred canvas 
envelope, and within were found all the stolen articles down to the 
least thing. Without a word or waiting for thanks, he salaamed low to 
the company and disappeared through the doorway, before we recovered 
from our surprise. We had to run after him a long way before we 
could press upon him a dozen rupees, which blessings he received in 
his wooden bowl. 

This may appear a very surprising and incredible story to Europeans 
and Americans who have never been in India. But we have Dr. 
Carpenter's authority for it, that even his "distinguished civilian" 
friends and "scientific officers," who are as little likely to sniff out 
anything mystical there with their aristocratic noses as Dr. Carpenter 
to see it with his telescopic, microscopic, double-magnifying scientific 
eyes in England, have witnessed the mango "tree-trick," which is still 
more wonderful. If the latter is "clever jugglery" the other must 
be, too. Will the white-cravated and swallow-tailed gentlemen of the 
Egyptian Hall, please show the Royal Society how either is done? 

H. P. Blavatskv. 


[From the New York World, Sept. 25th, 1877.] 

IT is to be regretted that your incandescent contemporary, The Sun, 
should have no better sources of information. It stated on Saturday 
last that 

In Russia the persecution of the Israelites is continued, with nearly all its ancient 
cruelty. They are not permitted to reside in many of the greatest cities. Kief 
and Novgorod as well as Moscow are forbidden to them, and even in the rural dis- 
tricts they are burdened with multiform exactions. 

This is the reverse of correct, as is also the further statement that 

They have been robbed and oppressed in Bulgaria by the Russians. 

The murdering and plundering at the seat of war, it is now pretty 
well settled, has been done by the Turks exclusively, and, notwithstand- 
ing that the English and other Turkophile organs have diligently cast 
the blame upon the Russians, the plot of the Ottoman Government, 
thanks to the honest old German Emperor, is now discovered. The 
Turks are convicted of systematic lying, and nearly every country, 
including England herself, has sent a protest to the Sublime Porte 
against atrocities. As to the condition of Israelites in Russia, it has 
immensely improved since the ascension of Alexander II to the throne 
of his father. For more than ten years they have been placed on jury 
duty, admitted to the bar, and otherwise accorded civil rights and 
privileges. If social disabilities still linger, we are scarcely the ones 
to chide, in view of our Saratoga and L,ong Branch customs, and the 
recent little unpleasantness between Mr. Hilton and the descendants 
of the "chosen people." 

If your neighbour would take the trouble to ask any traveller or 
Russian Israelite now in America, it would learn that Kief, as well as 
other "greatest cities" are full of Jews; that in fact there are more Jews 
than Gentiles in the first-named of these cities. Pretty much all trade 
is in their hands, and they furnish even all the olive-oil that is perma- 


nently burnt at the rakka (shrines) of the 700 orthodox saints whose 
beatified mummies fill up the catacombs of Kief, and the wax for the 
candles on all the altars. It is again the Jews who keep the dram- 
shops, or Kabak, where the faithful congregate after service to give a 
last fillip to their devotional ardour. It is barely four months since the 
chief Rabbi of Moscow published in the official Viedomosty an earnest 
address to his co-religionists throughout the empire to remind them 
that they were Russians by nativity, and called upon them to display 
their patriotism in subscriptions for the wounded, prayers in the syna- 
gogues for the success of the Russian arms, and in all other practical 
ways. In 1870, during the emeute in Odessa, which was caused by 
some Jewish children throwing dirt into the church on Easter night, 
and which lasted more than a week, the Russian soldiers shot and 
bayoneted twelve Christian Russians and not a single Jew; while — and 
I speak as an eye-witness — over two hundred rioters were publicly 
whipped by order of the Governor-General, Kotzebue, of whom none 
were Israelites. That there is a hatred between them and the more 
fanatical Christians is true, but the Russian Government can be no 
more blamed for this than the British and American Governments 
because Orangemen and Catholics mutually hate, beat, and occasionally 
kill each other. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 
New York, Sept. 24th, iS-jy. 



[From The Franklin Register, Feb. 8th, 1878.] 

[Editorial. — We are gratified to be able to present to the readers 
of The Register this week, the following highly-characteristic letter, 
prepared expressly for our paper by Madame Helen P. Blavatsky, the 
authoress of his Unveiled. In this letter the lady defends the validity 
of her diploma as a Mason, reference to which was had in our issue of 
January 18th. The immediate cause of the letter from Madame B. was 
the multiplication of attacks upon her claim to that distinguished 
honour both before and since the publication mentioned. 

The field is open for a rejoinder; and we trust that a champion 
will appear, to defend that which she so vigorously and bravely assails. 

That the subject-matter in controversy may be seen at a glance by 
those who may not be regular readers of our paper, we again print 
the text of her diploma. 

To the Glory of the Sublime Architect of the Universe. 

Ancient and Primitive Rite of Masonry, derived through the Charter of the 

Sovereign Sanctuar}- of America, from the Grand Council of the 

Grand Lodge of France. 

Salutation on all points of the Triangle. 

Respect to the Order. 

Peace, Tolerance, Truth. 

To all Illustrious and Enlightened Masons throughout the world — union, prosperity, 

friendship, fraternity. * 
We, the Thrice-Illustrious Sovereign Grand Master General, and we, the 
Sovereign Grand Conservators, thirty-third and last degree of the Sovereign 
Sanctuary for England, Wales, etc., decorated with the Grand Star of Sirius, etc., 
Grand Commanders of the Three Legions of the Knights of Masonry, by virtue of 
the high authority with which we are invested, have declared and proclaimed, and 
by these presents do declare and proclaim our illustrious and enlightened Brother, 
H. P. Blavatsky, to be an Apprentice, Companion, Perfect Mistress, Sublime Elect 


Scotch Lady, Grand Elect, Chevaliere de Rose Croix, Adonaite Mistress, Perfect 
Venerable Mistress, an 1 a crowned Princess of Rite of Adoption. 

Given under our hands and the seals of the Sovereign Sanctuary for England 
and Wales, sitting in the Valley of London, this 24th day of November, 1S77, year 
of true light 000,000,000. 

John Yarker, thirty-third degree, Sovereign (hand Master. 

M. Caspari, thirty-third degree, Grand Chancellor. 

A. D. Loewenstark, thirty- third degree, Grand Secretary.] 

To the Editor of " The Frank/in Register." 

I am obliged to correct certain errors in your highly complimentary 
editorial in The Register of January 18th. You say that I have taken 
"the regular degrees in Masonic Lodges" and attained high dignity in 
the order, and further add : 

Upon Madame B. has recently been conferred the diploma of the thirty-third 
Masonic Degree, from the oldest Masonic body in the world. 

If you will kindly refer to my his Unveiled (vol. ii. p. 394), you will 
find me saying: 

We are neither under promise, obligation, nor oath, and therefore violate no 

— reference being made to Western Masonry, to the criticism of which 
the chapter is devoted ; and full assurance is given that I have never 
taken "the regular degrees" in any Western Masonic L,odge. Of 
course, therefore, having taken no such degrees, I am not a thirty-third 
degree Mason. In a private note, also in your most recent editorial, 
you state that you find yourself taken to task by various Masons, 
among them one who has taken thirty-three degrees — which include 
the "Ineffable" — for what you said about me. My Masonic experience 
— if you will so term membership in several Eastern Masonic Frater- 
nities and Esoteric Brotherhoods — is confined to the Orient. But, 
nevertheless, this neither prevents my knowing, in common with all 
Eastern "Masons," everything connected with Western Masonry (in- 
cluding the numberless humbugs that have been imposed upon the 
Craft during the last half century) nor, since the receipt of the diploma 
from the "Sovereign Grand Master," of which you publish the text, 
my being entitled to call myself a Mason. Claiming nothing, there- 
fore, in Western Masonry but what is expressed in the above diploma, 
you will perceive that your Masonic mentors must transfer their quarrel 
to John Yarker, jun.. P.M., P.Mk., M.Pz., P.G.C., and M.W.S.K.T. 
and R.C., K.T., P.K.H., and K.A.R.S., P.M.W., P.S.G.C. and P.S., 


Dai A.D., A. and P. Rite, to the man, in short, who is recognized in 
England and Wales and the whole world, as a member of the Masonic 
Archaeological Institute; as Honorary Fellow of the London Literarv 
Union; of Lodge No. 227, Dublin; of the Bristol College of Rosi- 
crucians; who is Past Grand Mareschal of the Temple; member of the 
Royal Grand Council of the Antient Rites time immemorial; keeper of 
the Ancient Royal Secrets, Grand Commander of Mizraim, Ark 
Mariners, Red Cross Constantine, Babylon and Palestine, R. Grand 
Superintendent for Lancashire, Sovereign Grand Conservator of the 
Ancient and Primitive Rite of Masonry, thirty-third and last degree, 
etc., from whom the Patent issued. 

Your "Ineffable" friend must have cultivated his spiritual percep- 
tions to small purpose in the investigation and contemplation of the 
"Ineffable Name," from the fourth to the fourteenth degrees of that 
gilded humbug, the A. and A. Rite, if he could say that there is, 

No authority for a derivation through the charter of the Sovereign Sanctuarv of 
America, to issue this patent. 

He lives in a veritable Crystal Palace of Masonic glass, and must look 
out for falling stones. Brother Yarker says, in his Notes on the . 
Modern Rosicrucianism and the various Rites a?id Degrees (p. 149), that the 

Grand Orient, derived from the Craft Grand Lodge of England, in 1725, works 
and recognizes the following Rites, appointing representatives with chapters in 
America and elsewhere: 1. French Rite; 2. Rite of Heredom; 3. A. and A. Rite; 
4. Rite of Kilwinning; 5. Philosophical Rite; 6. Rite du Regime rectif; 7. Rite of 
Memphis; 8. Rite of Mizraim. All under a grand college of Rites. 

The A. and P. Rite was originally chartered in America, November 
9th, 1856, with David McChellan as G. M. [see Kenneth Mackenzie's 
Royal Masonic Cyclopccdia, p. 43], and in 1S62 submitted entirely to the 
Grand Orient of France. In 1S62, the Grand Orient vised and sealed 
the American Patent of Seymour as G. M., and mutual representatives 
were appointed, down to 1S66, when the relations of the G. O. with 
America were ruptured, and the American Sovereign Sanctuary took 
up its position, "in the bosom" of the Ancient Cernear Council, of 
the "Scottish Rite" of thirty-three degrees, as John Yarker says, in 
the above quoted work. In 1872 a Sovereign Sanctuary of the Rite 
was established in England, by the American Grand Body, with John 
Yarker as Grand Master. Down to the present time the legality of 
Seymour's Sanctuary has never been disputed by the Grand Orient of 
France, and reference to it is found in Marconis de Negre's books. 

H. p. blayatsky's masonic patent. 131 

It sounds very grand, no doubt, to be a thirty-second degreeist, and 
an "Ineffable" one into the bargain; but read what Robert B. Folger, 
M.D., Past Master thirty-third, says himself in his Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rite in Thirty-three Degrees : 

With reference to tlie other degrees, . . . (with the exception of the thirty- 
third, which was manufactured in Charleston) they were all in the possession of the 
G. O. before, but were termed . . . obsolete. 

And further: he asks: 

Who were the persons that formed this Supreme Council of the thirty-third 
degree? And where did they get that degree, or the power to confer it? . . . 
Their patents have never been produced, nor has any evidence ever yet been given 
that they came in possession of the thirty-third degree in a regular and lawful 
manner (pp. 92, 95, 96). 

That an American Rite, thus spuriously organized, declines to 
acknowledge the Patent of an English Sovereign Sanctuary, duly 
recognized by the Grand Orient of France, does not at all invalidate 
my claim to Masonic honours. As well might Protestants refuse to 
call the Dominicans Christians, because they — the Protestants — broke 
away from the Catholic Church and set up for themselves, as for A. 
and A. Masons of America to deny the validity of a Patent from an 
English A. and P. Rite body. Though I have nothing to do with 
American modern Masonr} T , and do not expect to have, yet, feeling 
highly honoured by the distinction conferred upon me by Brother 
Yarker, I mean to stand for my chartered rights, and to recognize no 
other authority than that of the high Masons of England, who have 
been pleased to send me this unsolicited and unexpected testimonial of 
their approval of my humble labours. 

Of a piece with the above is the ignorant rudeness of certain critics 
who pronounce Cagliostro an "impostor" and his desire of engrafting 
Eastern Philosophy upon Western Masonry "charlatanism." Without 
such a union Western Masonry is a corpse without a soul. As Yarker 
observes, in his Notes on the Mysteries of Antiquity : 

As the Masonic fraternity is now governed, the Craft is becoming a storehouse 
of paltry Masonic emperors and other charlatans, who swindle their brothers, ami 
feather their nests out of the aristocratic pretensions which they have tacked on 
to our institutions — ad captandum valgus. 


H. P. Blavatsky. 


[From the London Spiritualist.] 
Permit a humble Theosophist to appear for the first time in your 
columns, to say a few words in defence of our beliefs. I see in your 
issue of December 21st ultimo, one of your correspondents, Mr. J. 
Croucher, makes the following very bold assertions: 

Had the Theosophists thoroughly comprehended the nature of the soul and 
spirit, and its relation to the bod}-, they would have known that if the soul once 
leaves, it leaves for ever. 

This is so ambiguous that, unless he uses the term "soul" to desig- 
nate only the vital principle, I can only suppose that he falls into the 
common error of calling the astral body, spirit, and the immortal 
essence, "soul." We Theosophists, as Col. Olcott has told you, do vice 

Besides the unwarranted imputation on us of ignorance, Mr. Croucher 
has an idea (peculiar to himself) that the problem which has here- 
tofore taxed the powers of the metaphysicians in all ages has been 
solved in our own. It is hardly to be supposed that Theosophists or 
any others "thoroughly" comprehend the nature of the soul and spirit, 
and their relation to the body. Such an achievement is for Omni- 
science, and we Theosophists treading the path worn by the footsteps 
of the old Sages in the moving sands of exoteric philosophy, can only 
hope to approximate to the absolute truth. It is really more than 
doubtful whether Mr. Croucher can do better, even though an "inspira- 
tional medium," and experienced "through constant sittings with one 
of the best trance mediums" in your country. I may well leave to 
time and Spiritual Philosophy to entirely vindicate us in the far here- 
after. When any CEdipus of this or the next century shall have solved 
this eternal enigma of the Sphinx — man, ever> r modern dogma, not 
excepting some pets of the Spiritualists, will be swept away, as the 
Theban monster, according to the legend, leaped from his promontory 
into the sea, and was seen no more. 


As early as February iSth, 1876, your learned correspondent, "M.A. 
Oxon.," took occasion, in an article entitled "Soul and Spirit," to 
point out the frequent confusion of the terms by other writers. As 
things are no better now, I will take the opportunity to show how 
sorely Mr. Croucher, and many other Spiritualists of whom he may 
be taken as the spokesman, misapprehend Col. Olcott's meaning and 
the views of the New York Theosophists. Col. Olcott neither affirmed 
nor dreamed of implying that the immortal spirit leaves the body to 
produce the medial displays. And yet Mr. Croucher evidently thinks 
he did, for the word "spirit" to him means the inner, astral man, or 
double. Here is what Col. Olcott did say, double commas and all: 

That mediumistic physical phenomena are not produced by pure spirits, but by 
"souls" embodied or disembodied, and usually with the help of Elementals. 

Any intelligent reader must perceive that, in placing the word 
"souls" in quotation marks, the writer indicated that he was using it 
in a sense not his own. As a Theosophist, he would more properly 
and philosophically have said for himself "astral spirits" or "astral 
men," or doubles. Hence, the criticism is wholly without even a foun- 
dation of plausibility. I wonder that a man could be found who, on so 
frail a basis, would have attempted so sweeping a denunciation. As it 
is, our President only propounded the trine of man, like the ancient 
and Oriental Philosophers and their worth)- imitator Paul, who held 
that the physical corporeity, the flesh and blood, was permeated and so 
kept alive by the Psuche, the soul or astral body. This doctrine, that 
man is trine — spirit or Nous, soul and body — was taught by the Apostle 
of the Gentiles more broadly and clearly than it has been by any of his 
Christian successors (see 1 Thess., v. 23). But having evidently forgot- 
ten or neglected to "thoroughly" study the transcendental opinions of 
the ancient Philosophers and the Christian Apostle upon the subject, 
Mr. Croucher views the soul (Psuc/ic) as spirit (Nous) and vice versa. 

The Buddhists, who separate the three entities in man (though 
viewing them as one when on the path to Nirvana), yet divide the 
soul into several parts, and have names for each of these and their 
functions. Thus confusion is unknown among them. The old Greeks 
did likewise, holding that Psuche was bios, or physical life, and it w;b 
thumos, or passional nature, the animals being accorded but the lower 
faculty of the soul instinct. The soul or Psuche is itself a combination, 
consensus or unity of the bios, or physical vitality, the epithumia or 
concupiscible nature, and the pkren, mens ox mind. Perhaps the animus 


ought to be included. It is constituted of ethereal substance, which 
pervades the whole universe, and is derived wholly from the soul of 
the world — Aninia Mundi or the Buddhist Svabhavat — which is not 
spirit; though intangible and impalpable, it is yet, by comparison with 
spirit or pure abstraction, objective matter. By its complex nature, 
the soul may descend and ally itself so closely to the corporeal nature 
as to exclude a higher life from exerting any moral influence upon it. 
On the other hand, it can so closely attach itself to the Nous or spirit, 
as to share its potency, in which case its vehicle, physical man, will 
appear as a God even during his terrestrial life. Unless such union of 
soul and spirit does occur, either during this life or after physical death, 
the individual man is not immortal as an entity. The Psuche is sooner 
or later disintegrated. Though the man ma}' have gained "the whole 
world," he has lost his "soul." Paul, when teaching the anastasis, or 
continuation of individual spiritual life after death, set forth that there 
was a physical body which was raised in incorruptible substance. 

The spiritual body is most assuredly not one of the bodies, or 
visible or tangible larvae, which form in circle-rooms, and are so 
improperly termed "materialized spirits." When once the metanoia, 
the full developing of spiritual life, has lifted the spiritual body out 
of the psychical (the disembodied, corruptible, astral man, what Col. 
Olcott calls "soul"), it becomes, in strict ratio with its progress, more 
and more an abstraction for the corporeal senses. It can influence, 
inspire, and even communicate with men subjectively; it can make 
itself felt, and even, in those rare instances when the clairvoyant is 
perfectly pure and perfectly lucid, be seen by the inner eye (which is 
the eye of the purified Psuche — soul). But how can it ever manifest 

It will be seen, then, that to apply the term "spirit" to the mate- 
rialized cidola of your "form-manifestations" is grossly improper, and 
something ought to be done to change the practice, since scholars have 
begun to discuss the subject. At best, when not what the Greeks 
termed phantasma, they are but phasma or apparitions. 

In scholars, speculators, and especially in our modern savants, the 
psychical principle is more or less pervaded by the corporeal, and "the 
things of the spirit are foolishness and impossible to be known" 
(i Cor., ii. 14). Plato was then right, in his way, in despising land- 
measuring, geometry and arithmetic, for all these overlooked all high 
ideas. Plutarch taught that at death Proserpine separated the body 


and the soul entirely, after which the latter became a free and indepen- 
dent demon (daimon). Afterward the good underwent a second disso- 
lution: Demeter divided the Psuche from the Nous or Pneuma. The 
former was dissolved after a time into ethereal particles — hence the 
inevitable dissolution and subsequent annihilation of the man who at 
death is purely psychical; the latter, the Nous, ascended to its higher 
divine power and became gradually a pure, divine spirit. Kapila, in 
common with all Eastern Philosophers, despised the purely psychical 
nature. It is this agglomeration of the grosser particles of the soul, 
the mesmeric exhalations of human nature imbued with all its terres- 
trial desires and propensities, its vices, imperfections and weakness, 
forming the astral body, which can become objective under certain 
circumstances, which the Buddhists call the Skandhas (the groups), and 
Col. Olcott has for convenience termed the "soul." The Buddhists 
and Brahmans teach that the man's individuality is not seenred until 
he has passed through and become disembarrassed of the last of these 
groups, the final vestige of earthly taint. Hence their doctrine of 
metempsychosis, so ridiculed and so utterly misunderstood by our 
greatest Orientalists. 

Even the physicists teach us that the particles composing physical 
man are, by evolution, reworked by nature into every variety of inferior 
physical form. Why, then, are the Buddhists unphilosophical or even 
unscientific, in affirming that the semi-material Skandhas of the astral 
man (his very ego, up to the point of final purification) are appropri- 
ated to the evolution of minor astral forms | which, of course, enter 
into the purely physical bodies of animals) as fast as he throws them 
off in his progress toward Nirvana? Therefore, we may correctlv say, 
that so long as the disembodied man is throwing off a single particle 
of these Skandhas, a portion of him is being reincarnated in the bodies 
of plants and animals. And if he, the disembodied astral man, be so 
material that "Demeter" cannot find even one spark of the Pneuma to 
carry up to the "divine power," then the individual, so to speak, is 
dissolved, piece by piece, into the crucible of evolution, or, as the 
Hindus allegorically illustrate it, he passes thousands of years in the 
bodies of impure animals. Here we see how completely the ancient 
Greek and Hindu Philosophers, the modern Oriental schools, and the 
Theosophists, are ranged on one side, in perfect accord, and the bright 
array of "inspirational mediums" and "spirit guides" stand in perfect 
discord on the other. Though no two of the latter, unfortunately, 


agree as to what is and what is not truth, yet the3 r do agree with unani- 
mity to antagonize whatever of the teachings of the Philosophers we 
may repeat. 

L,et it not be inferred, though, from this, that I, or any other real 
Theosophist, undervalue true spiritual phenomena or philosophy, or 
that we do not believe in the communication between mortals and pure 
Spirits, any less than we do in communication between bad men and 
bad Spirits, or even of good men with bad Spirits under bad conditions. 
Occultism is the essence of Spiritualism, while modern or popular 
Spiritualism I cannot better characterize than as adulterated uncon- 
scious Magic. We go so far as to say that all the great and noble 
characters, all the grand geniuses, the poets, painters, sculptors, musi- 
cians, all who have worked at any time for the realization of their 
highest ideal, irrespective of selfish ends — have been spiritually in- 
spired; not mediums, as many Spiritualists call them — passive tools 
in the hands of controlling guides — but incarnate, illuminated souls, 
working consciously in collaboration with the pure disembodied human 
and new-embodied high Planetary Spirits, for the elevation and spiri- 
tualization of mankind. We believe that everything in material life is 
most intimately associated with spiritual agencies. As regards physi- 
cal phenomena and mediumship, we believe that it is only when the 
passive medium has given place, or rather grown into, the conscious 
mediator, that he discerns between Spirits good and bad. And we do 
believe, and know also, that while the incarnate man (though the 
highest Adept) cannot vie in potency with the pure disembodied 
Spirits, who, freed of all their Skandhas, have become subjective to the 
physical senses, yet he can perfectly equal, and can far surpass in the 
way of phenomena, mental or physical, the average "Spirit" of modern 
mediumship. Believing this, you will perceive that we are better 
Spiritualists, in the true acceptation of the word, than so-called 
Spiritualists, who, instead of showing the reverence we do to true 
Spirits — Gods — debase the name of Spirit by applying it to the im- 
pure, or at best, imperfect beings who produce the majority of the 

The two objections urged by Mr. Croucher against the claim of the 
Theosophists, that a child is but a duality at birth, "and perhaps until 
the sixth or seventh year," and that some depraved persons are annihi- 
lated at some time after death, are (1) the mediums have described to 
him his three children "who passed away at the respective ages of two, 


four, and six years" ; and ( 2) that he has known persons who were "very 
depraved" on earth come back. He says: 

These statements have been afterwards confirmed by glorious beings who came 
after, and who have proved by their mastery of the laws which are governing the 
universe, that they are worthy of being believed. 

I am really happy to hear that Mr. Croucher is competent to sit in 
judgment upon these "glorious beings," and give them the palm over 
Kapila, Manu, Plato, and even Paul. It is worth something, after all, 
to be an "inspirational medium." We have no such "glorious beings" 
in the Theosophical Society to learn from; but it is evident that while 
Mr. Croucher sees and judges things through his emotional nature, the 
Philosophers whom we study took nothing from any "glorious being" 
that did not perfectly accord with the universal harmony, justice, and 
equilibrium of the manifested plan of the Universe. The Hermetic 
axiom, "as below, so above," is the only rule of evidence accepted by 
the Theosophists. Believing in a spiritual and invisible Universe, we 
cannot conceive of it in any other way than as completely dovetailing 
and corresponding with the material, objective Universe; for logic and 
observation alike teach us that the latter is the outcome and visible 
manifestation of the former, and that the laws governing both are 

In this letter of Dec. 7th Colonel Olcott very appropriately illustrates 
his subject of potential immortality by citing the admitted physical 
law of the survival of the fittest. The rule applies to the greatest as to 
the smallest things, to the planet equally with the plant. It applies to 
man. And the imperfectly developed man-child can no more exist 
under the conditions prepared for the perfected types of its species, 
than can an imperfect plant or animal. In infantile life the higher 
faculties are not developed, but, as everyone knows, are only in the 
germ, or rudimentary. The babe is an animal, however "angelic" he 
may, and naturally enough ought to, appear to his parents. Be it 
ever so beautifully modelled, the infant body is but the jewel-casket 
preparing for the jewel. It is bestial, selfish, and, as a babe, nothing 
more. Little of even the soul, Psuche, can be perceived except so far 
as vitality is concerned; hunger, terror, pain and pleasure appear to be 
the principal of its conceptions. A kitten is its superior in everything 
but possibilities. The grey neurine of the brain is equally unformed. 
After a time mental qualities begin to appear, but they relate chiefly to 
external matters. The cultivation of the mind of the child by teachers 


can only affect this part of the nature — what Paul calls natural or 
physical, and James and Jude sensual or psychical. Hence the words 
of Jude, "psychical, having not the spirit," and of Paul: 

The psychical man receiveth not the things of the spirit, for to him thev are 
foolishness; the spiritual man discerneth. 

It is only the man of full age, with his faculties disciplined to discern 
good and evil, whom we can denominate spiritual, noetic, intuitive. 
Children developed in such respects would be precocious, abnormal 

Why, then, should a child who has never lived other than an animal 
life; who never discerned right from wrong; who never cared whether 
he lived or died — since he could not understand either of life or death 
— become individually immortal? Man's cycle is not complete until he 
has passed through the earth-life. No one stage of probation and 
experience can be skipped over. He must be a man before he can 
become a Spirit. A dead child is a failure of nature — he must live 
again; and the same Psuche reenters the physical plane through 
another birth. Such cases, together with those of congenital idiots, 
are, as stated in his Unveiled, the only instances of human reincarna- 
tion.* If every child-duality were to be immortal, why deny a like 
individual immortality to the duality of the animal? Those who 
believe in the trinity of man know the babe to be but a duality — body 
and soul — and the individuality which resides only in the psychical is, 
as we have seen proved by the Philosophers, perishable. The com- 
pleted trinity only survives. Trinity, I say, for at death the astral 
form becomes the outw r ard body, and inside a still finer one evolves, 
which takes the place of the Psuche on earth, and the whole is more 
or less overshadowed by the Nous. Space prevented Col. Olcott from 
developing the doctrine more fully, or he would have added that not 
even all of the Elementaries (human) are annihilated. There is still a 
chance for some. By a supreme struggle these may retain their third 
and higher principle, and so, though slowly and painfully, yet ascend 
sphere after sphere, casting off at each transition the previous heavier 
garment, and clothing themselves in more radiant spiritual envelopes, 
until, rid of every finite particle, the trinity merges into the final 
Nirvana, and becomes a unity — a God. 

A volume would scarce suffice to enumerate all the varieties of Ele- 

* [Note that "reincarnation" is here used as a term applying only to the Psuche. This does not 
reincarnate, it has always been taught, except in the instances given. — Eds.] 


mentaries and Elementals; the former being so called by some Kaba- 
lists (Henry Knnrath, for instance) to indicate their entanglement in 
the terrestrial elements which hold them captive, and the latter desig- 
nated by that name to avoid confusion, and equally applying to those 
which go to form the astral body of the infant and to the stationary 
Nature Spirits proper. Eliphas L,evi, however, indifferently calls them 
all "Elementary" and "souls." I repeat again, it is but the wholly 
psychical disembodied astral man which ultimately disappears as an 
individual entity. As to the component parts of his Psuche, they are 
as indestructible as the atoms of any other body composed of matter. 

The man must indeed be a true animal who has not, after death, a 
spark of the divine Ruach or Nous left in him to allow him a chance 
of self-salvation. Yet there are such lamentable exceptions, not alone 
among the depraved, but also among those who, during life, by stifling 
even' idea of an after existence, have killed in themselves the last 
desire to achieve immortality. It is the will of man, his all-potent will, 
that weaves his destiny, and if a man is determined in the notion that 
death means annihilation, he will find it so. It is among our commonest 
experiences that the determination of physical life or death depends 
upon the will. Some people snatch themselves by force of determina- 
tion from the very jaws of death, while others succumb to insignificant 
maladies. What man does with his body he can do with his disem- 
bodied Psuche. 

Nothing in this militates against the images of Mr. Croucher's 
children being seen in the Astral Light by the medium, either as 
actually left by the children themselves, or as imagined by the father 
to look when grown. The impression in the latter case would be but a 
phasma, while in the former it is a phantasma, or the apparition of the 
indestructible impress of what once really was. 

In days of old the "mediators" of humanity were men like Christna, 
Gautama Buddha, Jesus, Paul, Apollonius of Tyana, Plotinus, Por- 
phyry, and the like of them. They were Adepts, Philosophers— men 
who, by struggling their whole lives in purity, study, and self-sacrifice, 
through trials, privations and self-discipline, attained divine illumina- 
tion and seemingly superhuman powers. They could not only produce 
all the phenomena seen in our times, but regarded it as a sacred duty 
to cast out "evil spirits," or demons, from the unfortunates who were 
obsessed— in other words, to rid the medium of their days of the 


But in our time of improved psychology every hysterical sensitive 
looms into a seer, and behold! there are mediums by the thousand! 
Without any previous study, self-denial, or the least limitation of their 
physical nature, they assume, in the capacity of mouthpieces of un- 
identified and unidentifiable intelligences, to outrival Socrates in wis- 
dom, Paul in eloquence, and Tertullian himself in fiery and authorita- 
tive dogmatism. The Theosophists are the last to assume infallibility 
for themselves, or recognize it in others; as they judge others, so they 
are willing to be judged. 

In the name, then, of logic and common sense, before bandying 
epithets, let us submit our difference to the arbitrament of reason. 
Let us compare all things, and, putting aside-, emotionalism and preju- 
dice as unworthy of the logician and the experimentalist, hold fast 
only to that which passes the ordeal of ultimate analysis. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

New York, Jan. 14th, iSjS. 


[From the London Spiritualist, Feb. 8th. 187S.] 
Times have greatly changed since the winter of 1875-6, when the 
establishment of the Theosophical Society caused the grand army of 
American Spiritualists to wave banners, clang steel, and set up a great 
shouting. How well we all remember the putting forth of "Danger 
Signals," the oracular warnings and denunciations of numberless 
mediums! How fresh in memory the threats of "angel-friends" to 
Dr. Gardiner, of Boston* that they would kill Colonel Olcott if he 
dared call them "Elementaries" in the lectures he was about deliver- 
ing! The w r orst of the storm has passed. The hail of imprecations 
no longer batters around our devoted heads; it is raining now, and we 
can almost see the rainbow of promised peace spanning the sky. 

Beyond doubt, much of this subsidence of the disturbed elements is 
due to our armed neutrality. But still I judge that the gradual spread 
of a desire to learn something more as to the cause of the phenomena 
must be taken into account. And yet the time has not quite come 
when the lion (Spiritualism) and the lamb (Theosophy) are ready to 
lie down together — unless the lamb is willing to lie inside the lion. 
While w r e held our tongues we were asked to speak, and when we 
spoke — or rather our President spoke — the hue and cry was raised 
once more. Though the pop-gun fusillade and the dropping shots of 
musketry have mostly ceased, the defiles of your spiritual Balkans are 
defended by your heaviest Krupp guns. If the fire were directed only 
against Colonel Olcott there would be no occasion for me to bring up 
the reserves. But fragments from both of the bombs which your able 
gunner, and our mutual friend, "M.A. Oxon." has exploded, in his two 
letters of January 4th and nth, have given me contusions. Under 
the velvet paw of his rhetoric I have felt the scratch of challenge. 

At the very beginning of what must be a long struggle, it i^ im- 
peratively demanded that the Theosophical position shall be unequivo- 


cally defined. In the last of the above two communications, it is stated 
that Colonel Olcott transmits "the teaching of the learned author of 
Isis Unveiled'" — the "master key to all problems." (?) 

Who has ever claimed that the book was that, or anything like it? 
Not the author, certainly. The title? A misnomer for which the 
publisher is unpremeditatedly responsible, and, if I am not mistaken, 
"M.A. Oxon." knows it. My title was The Veil of Isis, and that head- 
line runs through the entire first volume. Not until that volume was 
stereotyped did anyone recollect that a book of the same name was 
before the public. Then, as a demiere ressource, the publisher selected 
the present title. 

"If he [Olcott] be not the rose, at any rate he has lived near it," 
says your learned correspondent. Had I seen this sentence apart from 
the context, I would never have imagined that the unattractive old 
party, superficially known as H. P. Blavatsky, was designated under 
this poetical Persian simile. If he had compared me to a bramble- 
bush, I might have complimented him upon his artistic realism. He 
says : 

Colonel Olcott of himself would command attention; he commands it still 
more on account of the store of knowledge to which he has had access. 

True, he has had such access, but by no means is it confined to my 
humble self. Though I may have taught him a few of the things that 
I had learned in other countries (and corroborated the theory in every 
case by practical illustration), yet a far abler teacher than I could not 
in three brief years have given him more than the alphabet of what 
there is to learn, before a man can become wise in spiritual and psycho- 
physiological things. The very limitations of modern languages prevent 
any rapid communication of ideas about Eastern Philosophy. I defy 
the great Max Miiller himself to translate Kapila's Sutras so as to give 
their real meaning. We have seen what the best European authorities 
can do with the Hindu metaphysics; and what a mess they have 
made of it, to be sure! The Colonel corresponds directly with Hindu 
scholars, and has from them a good deal more than he can get from so 
clumsy a preceptor as myself. 

Our friend, "M.A. Oxon.," says that Colonel Olcott "comes forward 
to enlighten us" — than which scarce anything could be more inaccu- 
rate. He neither comes forward, nor pretends to enlighten anyone. 
The public wanted to know the views of the Theosophists, and our 
President attempted to give, as succinctly as possible in the limits of a 


single article, some little glimpse of so much of the truth as he had 
learned. That the result would not be wholly satisfactory was inevit- 
able. Volumes would not suffice to answer all the questions naturally 
presenting themselves to an enquiring mind; a library of quartos 
would barely obliterate the prejudices of those who ride at the anchor 
of centuries of metaphysical and theological misconceptions — perhaps 
even errors. But, though our President is not guilty of the conceit 
of "pretending to enlighten" Spiritualists, I think he has certainly 
thrown out some hints worthy of the thoughtful consideration of the 

I am sorry that "M.A. Oxon." is not content with mere suggestions. 
Nothing but the whole naked truth will satisfy him. We must "square" 
our theories with his facts, we must lay our theory down "on exact 
lines of demonstration." We are asked: 

Where are the seers? What are their records? And, far more important, how 
do they verify them to us ? 

I answer: Seers are where "Schools of the Prophets" are still extant, 
and they have their records with them. Though Spiritualists are not 
able to go in search of them, yet the Philosophy they teach commends 
itself to logic, and its principles are mathematically demonstrable. If 
this be not so, let it be shown. 

But, in their turn, Theosophists may ask, and do ask: Where are the 
proofs that the medial phenomena are exclusively attributable to the 
agency of departed "Spirits"? Who are the "Seers" among mediums 
blessed with an infallible lucidity? What "tests" are given that admit 
of no alternative explanation? Though Swedenborg was one of the 
greatest of Seers, and churches are erected in his name, yet except to 
his adherents what proof is there that the "Spirits" objective to his 
vision — including Paul — promenading in hats, were anything but the 
creatures of his imagination? Are the spiritual potentialities of the 
living man so well comprehended that mediums can tell when their 
own agency ceases, and that of outside influence begins? No; but 
for all answer to our suggestions that the subject is open to debate, 
"M.A. Oxon." shudderingly charges us with attempting to upset what 
he designates as "a cardinal dogma of our faith," i.e., the faith of the 

Dogma? Faith? These are the right and left pillars of every soul- 
crushing Theology. Theosophists have no dogmas, exact no blind 
faith. Theosophists are ever ready to abandon every idea that is 


proved erroneous upon strictly logical deductions; let Spiritualists do 
the same. Dogmas are the toys that amuse, and can satisfy but, un- 
reasoning children. They are the offspring of human speculation and 
prejudiced fancy. In the eye of true Philosophy it seems an insult to 
common sense, that we should break loose from the idols and dogmas 
of either Christian or heathen exoteric faith to catch up those of a 
church of Spiritualism. Spiritualism must either be a true Philosophy, 
amenable to the test of the recognized criterion of logic, or be set up 
in its niche beside the broken idols of hundreds of antecedent Christian 

Realizing, as they do, the boundlessness of the absolute truth, Theo- 
sophists repudiate all claim to infallibility. The most cherished pre- 
conceptions, the most "pious hope," the strongest "master passion," 
they sweep aside like dust from their path, when their error is pointed 
out. Their highest hope is to approximate to the truth; that they have 
succeeded in going a few steps beyond the Spiritualists, they think 
proved in their conviction that they know nothing in comparison 
with what is to be learned ; in their sacrifice of every pet theory and 
prompting of emotionalism at the shrine of fact; and in their absolute 
and unqualified repudiation of everything that smacks of "dogma." 

With great rhetorical elaboration "M.A. Oxon." paints the result of 
the supersedure of spiritualistic by Theosophic ideas. In brief, he 
shows Spiritualism a lifeless corpse: 

A bod}' from which the soul has been wrenched, and for which most men will 
care nothing. 

We submit that the reverse is true. Spiritualists wrench the soul 
from true Spiritualism by their degradation of Spirit. Of the infinite 
they make the finite; of the divine subjective they make the human 
and limited objective. Are Theosophists Materialists? Do not their 
hearts warm with the same "pure and holy love"' for their "loved 
ones" as those of Spiritualists? Have not many of us sought long 
years "through the gate of mediumship to have access to the world 
of Spirit" — and vainly sought? The comfort and assurance modern 
Spiritualism could not give us we found in Theosophy. As a result 
we believe far more firmly than many Spiritualists — for our belief is 
based on knowledge — in the communion of our beloved ones with us; 
but not as materialized Spirits with beating hearts and sweating brows. 

Holding such views as we do as to logic and fact, you perceive that 
when a Spiritualist pronounces to us the words dogma and fact, debate 


is impossible, for there is no common ground upon which we can meet. 
We decline to break our heads against shadows. If fact and logic 
were given the consideration they should have, there would be no 
more temples in this world for exoteric worship, whether Christian 
or heathen, and the method of the Theosophists would be welcomed as 
the only one insuring action and progress — a progress that cannot be 
arrested, since each advance shows yet greater advances to be made. 

As to our producing our "Seers" and "their records" — one word. 
In The Spiritualist of Jan. nth, I find Dr. Peebles saying that in due 
time he 

Will publish such facts about the Dravida Brahmans as I am [he is] permitted. 
I say permitted, because some of these occurred under the promise and seal of 

If even the casual wayfarer is put under an obligation of secrecy 
before he is shown some of the less important psycho-physiological 
phenomena, is it not barely possible that the Brotherhood to which 
some Theosophists belong has also doctrines, records, and phenomena, 
that cannot be revealed to the profane and the indifferent, without any 
imputation lying against their reality and authoritativeness? This, 
at least, I believe, "M.A. Oxon." knows. As we do not offensively 
obtrude ourselves upon an unwilling public, but only answer under 
compulsion, we can hardly be denounced as contumacious if we pro- 
duce to a promiscuous public neither our "Seers" nor "their records." 
When Mohammed is ready to go to the mountain, it will be found 
standing in its place. 

And that no one that makes this search may suppose that we Theo- 
sophists send him to a place where there are no pitfalls for the unwary, 
I quote from the famous commentary on the Bhagavad Gita of our 
brother Hurrychund Chintamon, the unqualified admission that, 

In Hindustan, as in England, there are doctrines for the learned, and dogmas 
for the unlearned; strong meat for men, and milk for babes; facts for the few, and 
fictions for the many; realities for the wise, and romances for the simple; esoteric 
truth for the philosopher, and exoteric fable for the fool. 

Like the Philosophy taught by this author in the work in question, 

the object of the Theosophical Society "is the cleansing of spiritual 


H. P. Biayatsky. 

New York, Jan. 20th, iSyj. 


[From The Religio-Philosophical Journal, Nov. 17th, 1877.] 

I perceive that of late the ostracized subject of the Kabalistic 
"Elementaries" is beginning to appear in the orthodox spiritualistic 
papers pretty often. No wonder; Spiritualism and its Philosophy are 
progressing, and they will progress despite the opposition of some very 
learned ignoramuses, who imagine the Cosmos rotates within the 
academic brain. But if a new term is once admitted for discussion, 
the least we can do is to first clearly ascertain what that term means. 
We students of the Oriental Philosophy count it a clear gain that spiri- 
tualistic journals on both sides of the Atlantic are beginning to discuss 
the subject of sub-human and earth-bound beings, even though they 
ridicule the idea. But do those who ridicule know what they are talk- 
ing about, having never studied the Kabalistic writers? It is evident 
to me that they are confounding the "Elementaries" — disembodied, 
vicious, and earth-bound, yet human Spirits — with the "Elementals," 
or Nature Spirits. 

With your permission, then, I will answer an article by Dr. Wold rich 
which appeared in your Joiirnal of the 27th inst., and to which the 
author gives the title of "Elementaries." I freely admit that, owing 
to my imperfect knowledge of English at the time I first wrote upon 
the Elementaries, I may have myself contributed to the present con- 
fusion, and thus brought upon my doomed head the wrath of Spiritu- 
alists, mediums, and their "guides" into the bargain. But now I will 
attempt to make my meaning clear. Eliphas L,evi applies the term 
"Elementary" equally to earth-bound human Spirits and to the creatures 
of the elements. This carelessness on his part is due to the fact that 
as the human Elementaries are considered by the Kabalists as having 
irretrievably lost every chance of immortality, they therefore, after a 
certain period of time, become no better than the "Elementals," who 
never had any souls at all. To disentangle the subject, I have, in my 


/sis U?iveiled, shown that the former should, alone, be called "Elemen- 
taries" and the latter "Elementals" (vol. i. p. xxx. ''Before the Veil"). 

Dr. Woldrich, in imitation of Herbert Spencer, attempts to explain 
the existence of a popular belief in Nature Spirits, demons and mytho- 
logical deities, as the effect of an imagination untutored by Science, 
and wrought upon by misunderstood natural phenomena. He attri- 
butes the legendary Sylphs, Undines, Salamanders and Gnomes — four 
great families, which include numberless sub-divisions — to mere fancy; 
going however to the extreme of affirming that by long practice one 
can acquire 

That power which disembodied spirits have of materializing apparitions by the 

Granted that "disembodied Spirits" have sometimes that power; but 
if disembodied why not embodied Spirits also, i.e., a yet living person 
who has become an Adept in Occultism through study? According to 
Dr. Woldrich's theory, an embodied Spirit or Magician can create only 
subjectively, or to quote his words: 

He is in the habit of summoning, that is, bringing up to his imagination, his 
familiar spirits, which, having responded to his will, he considers as real existences. 

I will not stop to enquire for the proofs of this assertion, for it would 
only lead to an endless discussion. If many thousands of Spiritualists 
in Europe and America have seen materialized objective forms which 
assure them they were the Spirits of once living persons, millions of 
Eastern people throughout the past ages have seen the Hierophants of 
the Temples, and even now see them in India, without being in the 
least mediums, also evoking objective and tangible forms, which display 
no pretensions to being the souls of disembodied men. But I will only 
remark that, though subjective and invisible to others, as Dr. Woldrich 
tells us, these forms are palpable, hence objective to the clairvoyant; no 
scientist has yet mastered the mysteries of even the physical sciences 
sufficiently to enable him to contradict, with anything like plausible or 
incontrovertible proofs, the assumption that because the clairvoyant 
sees a form remaining subjective to others, this form is nevertheless 
neither a "hallucination" nor a fiction of the imagination. Were the 
persons present endowed with the same clairvoyant faculty, they would 
every one of them see this creature of "hallucination" as well; hence 
there would be sufficient proof that it had an objective existence. 
And this is how the experiments are conducted in certain psychological 
training schools, as I call such establishments in the East. One clair- 


voyant is never trusted. The person may be honest, truthful, and have 
the greatest desire to learn only that which is real, and yet mix the truth 
unconsciously and accept an Elemental for a disembodied Spirit, and 
vice versa. For instance, what guarantee can Dr. Woldrich give us that 
"Hoki" and "Thalia," the guides of Miss May Shaw, were not simply 
creatures produced by the power of the imagination? This gentleman 
may have the word of his clairvoyant for this; he may implicitly and 
very deservedly trust her honesty when in her normal state; but the 
fact alone that a medium is a passive and docile instrument in the 
hands of some invisible and mysterious powers, ought to make her 
irresponsible in the eyes of every serious investigator. It is the Spirit, 
or these invisible powers, he has to test, not the clairvoyant; and what 
proof has he of their trustworthiness that he should think himself 
warranted in coming out as the opponent of a Philosophy based on 
thousands of years of practical experience, the iconoclast of experi- 
ments performed by whole generations of learned Egyptians, Hiero- 
phants, Gurus, Brahmans, Adepts of the Sanctuaries, and a whole host 
of more or less learned Kabalists, who were all trained Seers? Such an 
accusation, moreover, is dangerous ground for the Spiritualists them- 
selves. Admit once that a Magician creates his forms only in fancy, 
and as a result of hallucination, and what becomes of all the guides, 
spirit friends and the tutti quanti from the sweet "Summer Land," 
crowding around the trance mediums and Seers? Why these would-be 
disembodied entities are to be considered more identified with humanity 
than the Elementals, or as Dr. Woldrich terms them, "Elementaries," 
of the Magician, is something which would scarcely bear investigation. 
From the standpoint of certain Buddhist Schools, your correspon- 
dent may be right. Their Philosophy teaches that even our visible 
Universe assumed an objective form as a result of the fancy followed 
by the volition or the will of the Unknown and Supreme Adept, differ- 
ing, however, from Christian theology, inasmuch as they teach that 
instead of calling out our Universe from nothingness, He had to exer- 
cise His will upon preexisting Matter, eternal and indestructible as to 
invisible Substance, though temporary and ever-changing as to forms. 
Some higher and still more subtle metaphysical Schools of Nepaul even 
go so far as to affirm — on very reasonable grounds, too — that this pre- 
existing and self-existent Substance or Matter (Svabhavat) is itself 
without any other creator or ruler; when in the state of activity it is 
Pravritti, a universal creating principle; when latent and passive they 


call this force Nirvritti. As for something eternal and infinite, for that 
which had neither beginning nor end there can be neither past nor 
future, but everything that was and will be, IS; therefore there never 
was an action or even thought, however simple, that is not impressed 
in imperishable records on this Substance, called by the Buddhists 
Svabhavat, by the Kabalists Astral Light. As in a faithful mirror, this 
Light reflects every image, and no human imagination could see any- 
thing outside that which exists impressed somewhere on the eternal 
Substance: To imagine that a human brain can conceive of anything 
that was never conceived of before by the "universal brain," is a fallacy 
and a conceited presumption. At best, the former can catch now and 
then stray glimpses of the "Eternal Thought" after this has assumed 
some objective form, either in the world of the invisible, or visible, 
Universe. Hence the unanimous testimony of trained Seers goes to 
prove that there are such creatures as the Elementals; and that though 
the Elementaries have been at some time human Spirits, they, having 
lost every connection with the purer immortal world, must be recog- 
nized by some special term which would draw a distinct line of demar- 
cation between them and the true and genuine disembodied souls, which 
have henceforth to remain immortal. To the Kabalists and the Adepts, 
especially in India, the difference between the two is all-important, and 
their tutored minds will never allow them to mistake the one for the 
other; to the untutored medium they are all one. 

Spiritualists have never accepted the suggestion and sound advice of 
certain of their seers and mediums. They have regarded Dr. Peebles' 
"Gadarenes" with indifference; they have shrugged their shoulders at 
the "Rosicruciau" fantasies of P. B. Randolph, and his Ravalette has 
made none of them the wiser; they have frowned and grumbled at A. 
Jackson Davis' "Diakka"; and finally, lifting high the banner, have 
declared a murderous war of extermination against the Theosophists 
and Kabalists. What are now the results? 

A series of exposures of fraudulent mediums that have brought mor- 
tification to their endorsers and dishonour upon the cause; identifica- 
tion by genuine seers and mediums of pretended Spirit-forms that were 
afterwards found to be mere personations by lying cheats, go to prove 
that in such instances at least, outside of clear cases of confederacy, 
the identifications were due to illusion on the part of the said seers; 
spirit-babes discovered to be battered masks and bundles of rags; 
obsessed mediums driven by their guides to drunkenness and immor- 


alityof conduct; the practices of free-love endorsed and even prompted 
by alleged immortal Spirits ; sensitive believers forced to the commission 
of murder, suicide, forgery, embezzlement and other crimes; the over- 
credulous led to waste their substance in foolish investments and the 
search after hidden treasures; mediums fostering ruinous speculations 
in stocks; free-loveites parted from their wives in search of other female 
affinities; two continents flooded with the vilest slanders, spoken and 
sometimes printed by mediums against other mediums; incubi and suc- 
cubi entertained as returning angel-husbands or wives; mountebanks 
and jugglers protected by scientists and the clergy, and gathering large 
audiences to witness imitations of the phenomena of cabinets, the 
reality of which genuine mediums themselves and Spirits are powerless 
to vindicate by giving the necessary test conditions; seances still held 
in Stygian darkness, where even genuine phenomena can readily be 
mistaken for the false, and false for the real; mediums left helpless by 
their angel guides, tried, convicted, and sent to prison, and no attempt 
made to save them from their fate by those who, if they are Spirits 
having the power of controlling mortal affairs, ought to have enlisted 
the sympathy of the heavenly hosts on behalf of their mediums in the 
face of such crying injustice; other faithful spiritualistic lecturers and 
mediums broken down in health and left unsupported by those calling 
themselves their patrons and protectors — such are some of the features 
of the present situation; the black spots of what ought to become the 
grandest and noblest of all religious Philosophies freely thrown by 
the unbelievers and Materialists into the teeth of every Spiritualist. 
No intelligent person of the latter class need go outside of his own 
personal experience to find examples like the above. Spiritualism has 
not progressed and is not progressing and will not progress, until its 
facts are viewed in the light of the Oriental Philosophy. 

Thus, Mr. Editor, your esteemed correspondent, Dr. Woldrich, may 
be found guilty of an erroneous proposition. In the concluding sen- 
tence of his article he says: 

I know not whether I have succeeded in proving the Elementary a myth, but at 
least I hope that I have thrown some more light upon the subject to some of the 
readers of the journal. 

To this I would answer: (i) He has not proved at all the "Elemen- 
tary a myth," since the Elementaries are, with a few exceptions, the 
earth-bound guides and Spirits in which he believes, together with every 
other Spiritualist. (2) Instead of throwing light upon the subject, 


the Doctor has but darkened it the more. (3) Such explanations and 
careless exposures do the greatest harm to the future of Spiritualism, 
and greatly serve to retard its progress by teaching its adherents that 
they have nothing more to learn. 

Sincerely hoping that I have not trespassed too much on the columns 
of your esteemed journal, allow me to sign myself, dear sir, 

Yours respectfully, 

H. P. Blavatskv, 
Corresponding Secretary of the Thcosophical Society. 
New York. 


[From The Religio-Phihsophical Journal, Jan. 26th, 1S7S.] 

I MUST beg you to again allow me a little space for the further eluci- 
dation of a very important question — that of the "Elementals" and the 
"Elementaries." It is a misfortune that our European languages do 
not contain a nomenclature expressive of the various grades and con- 
ditions of spiritual beings. But surely I cannot be blamed for either 
the above linguistic deficiency, or because some people do not choose, 
or are unable, to understand my meaning! I cannot too often repeat 
that in this matter I claim no originality. My teachings are but the 
substance of what many Kabalists have said before me, which to-day I 
mean to prove, with your kind permission. 

I am accused (1) of "turning somersaults" and jumping from one 
idea to another. The defendant pleads — not guilty. (2) Of coining 
not only words but Philosophies out of the depths of my consciousness. 
Defendant enters the same plea. (3) Of having repeatedly asserted 
that "intelligent Spirits other than those who have passed through an 
earth experience in a human body were concerned in the manifestations 
known as the phenomena of Spiritualism." True, and defendant 
repeats the assertion. (4; Of having advanced, in my bold and un- 
warranted theories, "beyond the great Eliphas Levi himself." Indeed? 
Were I to go even as far as he (see his Science des Esprits), I would 
deny that a single so-called spiritual manifestation is more than hallu- 
cination, produced by soulless Elementals, whom he calls "Elemen- 
taries" (see Rituel de la Haute Magic). 

I am asked: "What proof is there of the existence of the Elemen- 
tals?" In my turn I will enquire: "What proof is there of 'diakkas,' 
'guides,' 'bands' and 'controls'?" And yet these terms are all current 
among Spiritualists. The unanimous testimony of innumerable ob- 
servers and competent experimenters furnishes the proof. If Spiri- 
tualists cannot, or will not, go to those countries where they are living 


and these proofs are accessible, the}', at least, have no right to give the 
lie direct to those who have seen both the Adepts and the proofs. My 
witnesses are living men teaching and exemplifying the Philosophy of 
hoary ages; theirs, these very "guides" and "controls," who up to the 
present time are at best hypothetical, and whose assertions have been 
repeatedly found, by Spiritualists themselves, contradictory and false. 
If my present critics insist that since the discussion of this matter 
began, a disembodied soul has never been described as an "Elemen- 
tary," I merely point to the number of the London Spiritualist for 
Feb. 1 8th, 1876, published nearly two years ago, in which a corre- 
spondent, who has certainly studied the Occult Sciences, says : 

Is it not probable that some of the elementary spirits of an evil type are those 
spirit-bodies, which, only recently disembodied, are on the eve of an eternal disso- 
lution, and which continue their temporary existence only by vampirizing those 
still in the flesh? They had existence; they never attained to being. 

Note two things: that human Elementaries are recognized as exist- 
ing, apart from the Gnomes, Sylphs, Undines and Salamanders — 
beings purely elemental; and that annihilation of the soul is regarded 
as potential. 

Says Paracelsus, in his Philosophia Sagax: 

The current of Astral Light with its peculiar inhabitants, Gnomes, Sylphs, etc., 
is transformed into human light at the moment of the conception, and it becomes 
the first envelope of the soul — its grosser portion; combined with the most subtle 
fluids, it forms the sidereal [astral, or ethereal] phantom — -the inner man. 

And Eliphas Levi: 

The Astral Light is saturated with elementary souls which it discharges in the 
incessant generation of beings. ... At the birth of a child they influence the 
four temperaments of the latter: the element of the Gnomes predominates in 
melancholy persons; of the Salamanders in the sanguine; of the Undines in the 
phlegmatic; of the Sylphs in the giddy and bilious. . . . These are the spirits 
which we designate under the term of occult elements {Rituel de la Haute Ma 
vol. ii. chapter on the "Conjuration of the Four Classes of Elementary" . 

"Yes, yes," he remarks (pp. cit., vol. i. p. 164 : 

These spirits of the elements do exist. Some wandering in their spheres, others 
trying to incarnate themselves, others, again, already incarnated, and living on 
earth. These are vicious and imperfect men. 

Note that we have here described to us more or less "intelligent 
Spirits, other than those who have passed through an earth experience 
in a human body." If not intelligent, they would not know how to 
make the attempt to incarnate themselves. Vicious Elementals, or 


Elementaries, are attracted to vicious parents; they bask in their atmo- 
sphere, and are thus afforded the chance, by the vices of the parents, 
to perpetuate in the child the paternal wickedness. The unintellectual 
"Elementals" are drawn in unconsciously to themselves, and, in the 
order of Nature, as component parts of the grosser astral body or soul, 
determine the temperament. They can as little resist as the animal- 
cules can avoid entering into our bodies in the water we swallow. Of 
a third class, out of hundreds that the Eastern Philosophers and 
Kabalists are acquainted with, Eliphas L,evi, discussing spiritistic 
phenomena, says: 

They are neither the souls of the damned nor guilty; the elementary spirits are 
like children, curious and harmless, and torment people in proportion as attention 
is paid to them. 

These he regards as the sole agents in all the meaningless and useless 
physical phenomena at seances. Such phenomena will be produced 
unless they be dominated "by wills more powerful than their own." 
Such a will may be that of a living Adept, or, as there are none such 
at Western spiritual sc'anccs, these read)' agents are at the disposal of 
every strong, vicious, earth-bound, human Elementary who has been 
attracted to the place. By such they can be used in combination with 
the astral emanations of the circle and medium, as stuff out of which 
to make materialized Spirits. 

So little does L,evi concede the possibility of Spirit-return in objective 
form, that he says: 

The good deceased come back in our dreams; the state of mediumism is an 
extension of dream, it is somnambulism in all its variety and ecstasies. Fathom 
the phenomenon of sleep and you will understand the phenomena of the spirits. 

And again: 

According to one of the great dogmas of the Kabalah, the soul despoils itself in 
order to ascend, and thus would have to re-clothe itself in matter to descend. 
There is but one way for a spirit already liberated to manifest himself objectively 
on earth ; he must get back into his body and resurrect. This is quite another 
thing from hiding under a table or a hat. Necromancy, or the evocation of mate- 
rialized spirits, is horrible. It constitutes a crime against Nature. We have 
admitted in our former works the possibility of vampirism, and even undertaken to 
explain it. The phenomena now actually occurring in America and Europe un- 
questionably belong to this fearful malady. The mediums do not, it is true, eat the 
flesh of corpses [like one Sergeant Bertrand]; but they breathe in throughout their 
whole nervous organism the phosphoric emanations of putrefied corpses, or spectral 
light. They are not vampires, but they evoke vampires; for this reason, they are 
nearly all debilitated and sick (Science des Esprits, p. 258). 


Henry Kunrath was a most learned Kabalist, and the greatest 
authority among mediaeval Occultists. He gives, in one of the clavi- 
cles of his Amphitheatrum Sapientitz sEternce, illustrative engravings 
of the four great classes of elementary Spirits, as they presented them- 
selves during an evocation of ceremonial Magic, before the eyes of the 
Magus, when, after passing the threshold, he lifted the "Veil of Isis." 
In describing them, Kunrath corroborates Eliphas Levi. He tells us 
they are disembodied, vicious men, who have parted with their divine 
Spirits and become Elementaries. They are so termed, because attracted 
by the earthly atmosphere and surrounded by the earth's elements. 
Here Kunrath applies the term "Elementary" to doomed human 
souls, while Levi uses it, as we have seen, to designate another class 
of the same great family — Gnomes, Sylphs, Undines, etc. — sub-human 

I have before me a manuscript, intended originally for publication, 
but withheld for various reasons. The author signs himself "Zeus," 
and is a Kabalist of more than twenty-five years' standing. This 
experienced Occultist, a zealous devotee of Kunrath, expounding the 
doctrine of the latter, also says that the Kabalists divided the Spirits 
of the elements into four classes, corresponding to the four tempera- 
ments in man. 

It is charged against me as a heinous offence that I aver that some 
men lose their souls and are annihilated. But this last-named au- 
thority, "Zeus," is equally culpable, for he says: 

They [the Kabalists] taught that man's spirit descended from the great ocean of 
spirit, and is, therefore, per se, pure and divine, but its soul or capsule, through the 
[allegorical] fall of Adam, became contaminated with the world of darkness, or the 
world of Satan [evil], of which it must be purified, before it could ascend again to 
celestial happiness. Suppose a drop of water enclosed within a capsule remains 
whole, the drop of water remains isolated; break the envelope, and the drop 
becomes a part of the ocean, its individual existence has ceased. So it is with the 
spirit. So long as its ray is enclosed in its plastic mediator or soul, it has an indi- 
vidual existence. Destroy this capsule, the astral man then becomes an Elemen- 
tary; this destruction may occur from the consequences of sin, in the most depraved 
and vicious, and the spirit returns back to its original abode— the individualization 
of man has ceased. . . . This militates with the idea of progression that Spiritualists 
generally entertain. If they understood the Law of Harmony, they would see their 
error. It is only by this Law that individual life can be sustained; and the farther 
we deviate from harmony the more difficult it is to regain it. 

To return to Levi, he remarks {La Haute Magie, vol. i. p. 319): 


When we die, our interior light [the soul] ascends agreeably to the attraction of 
its star [the spirit], but it must first of all get rid of the coils of the serpent [earthly 
evil — sin], that is to say, of the unpurified Astral Light which surrounds and holds 
it captive, unless, by the force of Will, it frees and elevates itself. This immersion 
of the living soul in the dead light [the emanations of everything that is evil, 
which pollute the earth's magnetic atmosphere, as the exhalation of a swamp does 
the air] is a dreadful torture; the soul freezes and burns therein at the same time. 

The Kabalists represent Adam as the Tree of Life, of which the 
trunk is Humanity; the various races, the branches; and individual 
men, the leaves. Every leaf has its individual life, and is fed by the 
one sap; but it can live only through the branch, as the branch itself 
draws its life through the trunk. Says the Kabalah: 

The wicked are the dead leaves and the dead bark of the tree. They fall, die, 
are corrupted and changed into manure, which returns to the tree through the 

My friend, Miss Emily Kislingbury, of London, secretary of the 
British National Association of Spiritualists, who is honoured, trusted 
and beloved by all who know her, sends me a spirit-communication 
obtained, in April, 1S77, through a young lady, who is one of the 
purest and most truthful of her sex. The following extracts are 
singularly a propos to the subject under discussion. 

Friend, you are right. Keep our Spiritualism pure and high, for there are those 
who would abase its uses. But it is because they know not the power of Spiritual- 
ism. It is true, in a sense, that the spirit can overcome the flesh, but there are 
those to whom the fleshly life is dearer than the life of the spirit; they tread on 
dangerous ground. For the flesh ma}' so outgrow the spirit, as to withdraw from 
it all spirituality, and man becomes as a beast of the field, with no saving power 
left. These are they whom the church has termed "reprobate," eternally lost, but 
they suffer not, as the church has taught, in conscious hells. They merely die, and 
are not; their light goes out, and has no conscious being. [Question]: But is this 
not annihilation? [Answer]: It amounts to annihilation; they lose their individual 
entities, and return to the great reservoir of spirit — unconscious spirit. 

Finally, I am asked: ""Who are the trained Seers?" They are those, 
I answer, who have been trained from their childhood, in the Pagodas, 
to use their spiritual sight; those whose accumulated testimony has 
not varied for thousands of years as to the fundamental facts of 
Eastern Philosophy; the testimony of each generation corroborating 
that of each preceding one. Are these to be trusted more, or less, 
than the communications of "bands" — each of whom contradicts the 
other as completely as the various religious sects, which are ready to 
cut each other's throats — and of mediums, even the best of whom are 


ignorant of their own nature, and unsubjected to the wise direction 
and restraint of an Adept in Psychological Science? 

No comprehensive idea of Nature can be obtained except by apply- 
ing the Law of Harmony and analogy in the spiritual as well as in the 
physical world. "As above, so below," is the old Hermetic axiom. If 
Spiritualists would apply this to the subject of their own researches 
they would see the philosophical necessity of there being in the world 
of Spirit, as well as the world of Matter, a law of the survival of the 


H. P. Blavatsky. 


Mr. Coleman's First Appearance. 

[From The Religio-Philosophical Journal, March 16th, 1878.] 

I have read some of the assaults upon Colonel Olcott and myself 
that have appeared in the Journal. Some have amused me, others I 
have passed by unread; but I was quite unprepared for the good fortune 
that lay in store for me in embryo in the paper of Feb. 16th. The 
"Protest" of Mr. W. Emmette Coleman, entitled "Sclavonic Theosophy 
v. American Spiritualism" is the musky rose in an odoriferous bouquet. 
Its pungent fragrance would make the nose of a sensitive bleed, whose 
olfactory nerves would withstand the perfume of a garden full of the 
Malayan flower-queen — the tuberose; and yet, my tough, pug, Mon- 
golian nose, which has smelt carrion in all parts of the world, proved 
itself equal even to this emergency. 

"From the sublime to the ridiculous," says the French proverb, 
"there is but a single step." From sparkling wit to dull absurdity 
there is no more. An attack, to be effective, must have an antagonist 
to strike, for to kick against something that exists only in one's 
imagination, wrenches man or beast. Don Quixote fighting the "air- 
drawn" foes in his windmill, stands for ever the laughing-stock of all 
generations, and the type of a certain class of disputants, whom, for 
the moment, Mr. Coleman represents. 

The pretext for two columns of abuse — suggesting, I am sorry to 
say, parallel sewers — is that Miss Emily Kislingbury, in an address 
before the B.N. A. of Spiritualists, mentioned Colonel Olcott's name in 
connection with a leadership of Spiritualism. I have the report of 
her remarks before me, and find that she neither proposed Colonel 
Olcott to American Spiritualists as a leader, nor said that he had 
wanted "leadership," desired it now, or could ever be persuaded to 
take it. Says Mr. Coleman: 



It is seriously proposed by your transatlantic sister, Miss Kislingbury . . . that 
American Spiritualists should select as their guardian guide . . . Col. H. S. 


If anyone is entitled to this wealth of exclamation points it is Miss 
Kislingbury, for the charge against her from beginning to end is 
simply an unmitigated falsehood. Miss Kislingbury merely expressed 
the personal opinion that a certain gentleman, for whom she had a 
deserved friendship, would have been capable, at one time, of acting 
as a leader. This was her private opinion, to which she had as good 
a right as either of her defamers — who in a cowardly way try to use 
Col. Olcott and myself as sticks with which to break her head — have to 
their opinions. It may or may not have been warranted by the facts — 
that is immaterial. The main point is, that Miss Kislingbury has not 
said one word that gives the slightest pretext for Mr. Coleman's attack- 
ing her on this question of leadership. And yet, I am not surprised at 
his course, for this brave, noble-hearted, truthful and spotless lady 
occupies too impregnable a position to be assailed, except indirectly. 
Someone had to pay for her plain speaking about American Spiritual- 
ism. What better scapegoat than Olcott and Blavatsky, the twin 
"theosophical Gorgons"! 

What a hullabaloo is raised, to be sure, about Spiritualists declining 
to follow our "leadership." In my "Buddhistico-Tartaric" ignorance 
I have always supposed that something must be offered before it can 
either be indignantly spurned or even respectfully declined. Have we 
offered to lead Spiritualists by the nose or by other portions of their 
anatomy? Have we ever proclaimed ourselves as "teachers," or set 
ourselves up as infallible "guides"? L,et the hundreds of unanswered 
letters that we have received from Spiritualists be our witness. L,et us 
even include two letters from Mr. W. Emmette Coleman, from Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, calling attention to his published articles of Jan. 13th, 
20th, 27th, and Feb. 3rd (four papers), inviting controversy. He says 
in his communication of Jan. 23rd, 1S77, to Col. Olcott, "I am in 
search of Truth"; therefore he has not all the truth. He asks Col. 
Olcott to answer certain "interrogatories"; therefore our opinions are 
admitted to have some weight. He says: 

This address [the one he wants us to read and express our opinion upon] was 
delivered some time since; if of more recent date I [he] might modify somewhat. 

Now Col. Olcott's People from the Other World was published Jan., 
1875; Mr. Coleman's letter to the Colonel was written in Jan., 1877; and 


his present "Protest" to the Journal appeared Feb., 1878. It puzzles 
me to know how a man "in search of Truth" could lower himself so 
far as to hunt for it in the coat-pockets of an author whose work is 

Clearly demonstrative of the utterly unscientific character of his researches, full 
of exaggerations, inaccuracies, marvellous statements recorded at second-hand 
without the slightest confirmation, lackadaisical sentimentalities, egotistical rho- 
domontades, and grammatical inelegancies and solecisms. 

To go to a man for "Truth" who is characterized by 
The most fervid imagination and brilliant powers of invention, 
— according to Mr. Emmette Coleman — shows Mr. Coleman in a sorry 
light indeed! His only excuse can be that in January, 1877, when he 
invited Col. Olcott to discuss with him — despite the fact that the Theo- 
sophical Society had been established in 1S75, and all our "heresies" 
were already in print — his estimation of Col. Olcott's intellectual 
powers was different from what it is now, and that Mr. Coleman's 
"address" has been left two years unread and unnoticed. Does this 
look like our offering ourselves as "leaders"? We address the great 
body of intelligent American Spiritualists. They have as much a 
right to their opinions as we to ours; they have no more right than we 
to falsely state the positions of their antagonists. But their would-be 
champion, Mr. Coleman, for the sake of having an excuse to abuse me, 
pretends to quote (see column 2, paragraph 1) from something I have 
published, a whole sentence that I defy him to prove I ever made use 
of. This is downright literary fraud and dishonest}'. A man who is 
in "search of Truth" does not usually employ a falsehood as a weapon. 
Good friends, whose enquiries we have occasionally, but rarely, 
answered, bear us witness that we have always disclaimed anything 
like "leadership"; that we have invariably referred you to the same 
standard authors whom we have read, the same old Philosophers we 
have studied. We call on you to testify that we have repudiated 
dogmas and dogmatists, whether living men or disembodied Spirits. 
As opposed to Materialists, Theosophists are Spiritualists, but it would 
be as absurd for us to claim the leadership of Spiritualism as for a 
Protestant priest to speak for the Romish Church, or a Romish Cardinal 
to lead the great body of Protestants, though both claim to be Chris- 
tians! Recrimination seems to be the life and soul of American 
journalism, but I really thought that a spiritualistic organ had more 
congenial matter for its columns than such materialistic abuse as the 
present "Fort L,eavenworth" criticism! 


One chief aim of the writer seems to be to abuse /sis Unveiled. My 
publisher will doubtless feel under great obligations for giving it such 
a notoriety just now, when the fourth edition is ready to go to press. 
That the fossilized reviewers of The Tribune and Popular Science 
Monthly — both admitted advocates of materialistic Science and un- 
sparingly contemptuous denouncers of Spiritualism — should, without 
either of them having read my book, brand it as spiritualistic moon- 
shine, was perfectly natural. I should have thought that I had written 
my first volume, holding up Modern Science to public contempt for its 
unfair treatment of psychological phenomena, to small purpose, if they 
had complimented me. Nor was I at all surprised that the critic of 
the New York Stin permitted himself the coarse language of a partizan 
and betrayed his ignorance of the contents of my book by terming me 
a "Spiritualist." But I am sorry that a critic like Mr. Coleman, who 
professes to speak for the Spiritualists and against the Materialists, 
should range himself by the side of the flunkeys of the latter, when at 
least twenty of the first critics of "Europe and America, not Spiritualists 
but well-read scholars, have praised it even more unstintedly than he 
has bespattered it. If such men as the author of The Great Dionysiak 
Myth and Poseidon — writing a private letter to a fellow archaeologist 
and scholar, which he thought I would never see — says the design of 
my book is "simply colossal," and that the book "is really a marvellous 
production" and has his "entire concurrence" in its views about: 
(i) the wisdom of the ancient Sages; (2) the folly of the merely 
material Philosopher (the Emmette Colemans, Huxleys and Tyndalls) ; 
(3) the doctrine of Nirvana; (4) archaic monotheism, etc.; and when 
the London Public Opinion calls it "one of the most extraordinary 
works of the nineteenth century" in an elaborate criticism; and when 
Alfred R. Wallace says : 

I am amazed at the vast amount of erudition displayed in the chapters, and the 
great interest of the topics on which they treat; your book will open up to many 
Spiritualists a whole world of new ideas, and cannot fail to be of the greatest value 
in the enquiry which is now being so earnestly carried on, 

— Mr. Coleman really appears in the sorry light of one who abuses for 
the mere sake of abusing. 

What a curious psychological power I must have ! All the Journal 
writers, from the talented editor down to Mr. Coleman, pretend to 
account for the blind devotion of Col. Olcott to Theosophy, the over- 
partial panegyric of Miss Kislingbury, the friendly recantation of 


Dr. G. Bloede, and the surprisingly vigorous defence of myself by Mr. 
C. Sotheran, and other recent events, on the ground of my having 
psychologized them all into the passive servitude of hoodwinked 
dupes ! I can only say that such Psychology is next door to miracle. 
That I could influence men and women of such acknowledged inde- 
pendence of character and intellectual capacity, would be at least more 
than any of your lecturing mesmerizers or "spirit-controls" have been 
able to accomplish. Do you not see, my noble enemies, the logical 
consequences of such a doctrine? Admit that I can do that, and you 
admit the reality of Magic, and my powers as an Adept. I never 
claimed that Magic was anything but Psychology practically applied. 
That one of your mesmerizers can make a cabbage appear a rose is 
only a lower form of the power you all endow me with. You give an 
old woman — whether forty, fifty, sixty or ninety years old (some swear 
I am the latter, some the former), it matters not; an old woman whose 
"Kalmuco-Buddhistico-Tartaric" features, even in youth, never made 
her appear pretty; a woman whose ungainly garb, uncouth manners 
and masculine habits are enough to frighten any bustled and corseted 
fine lady of fashionable society out of her wits — you give her such 
powers of fascination as to draw fine ladies and gentlemen, scholars 
and artists, doctors and clergymen, to her house by scores, to not only 
talk Philosophy with her, not merely to stare at her as though she 
were a monkey in red flannel breeches, as some of them do, but to 
honour her in many cases with their fast and sincere friendship and 
grateful kindness ! Psychology ! If that is the name you give it, 
then, although I have never offered myself as a teacher, you had better 
come, my friends, and be taught at once the "trick" (gratis — for, 
unlike other psychologizers, I never yet took money for teaching any- 
thing to anybody), so that hereafter you may not be deceived into 
recognizing as — what Mr. Coleman so graphically calls — "the sainted 
dead of earth," those pimple-nosed and garlic-breathing beings who 
climb ladders through trap-doors, and carry tow wigs and battered 
masks in the penetralia of their underclothing. 

H. P. Blavatsky, 
— "the masculine-feminine Sclavonic Theosoph from Crim-Tartary" — a 
title which does more credit to Mr. Coleman's vituperative ingenuity 
than to his literary accomplishments. 


[From the London Spiritualist, March 22nd, 1S77.] 

Two peas in the same pod are the traditional symbol of mutual 
resemblance, and the time-honoured simile forced itself upon me when 
I read the twin letters of our two masked assailants in your paper of 
Feb. 22nd. In substance they are so identical that one would suppose 
the same person had written them simultaneously with his two hands, 
as Paul Morphy will play you two games of chess, or Kossuth dictate 
two letters at once. The only difference between these two letters — 
lying beside each other on the same page, like two babes in one crib 
— is, that "M.A. Cantab's" is brief and courteous, while "Scrutator's" 
is prolix and uncivil. 

By a strange coincidence both these sharp-shooters fire from behind 
their secure ramparts a shot at a certain "learned Occultist" over the 
head of Mr. C. C. Massey, who quoted some of that personage's views, 
in a letter published May 10th, 1876. Whether in irony or otherwise, 
they hurl the views of this "learned Occultist" at the heads of Col. 
Olcott and myself, as though the5' were missiles that would floor us 
completely. Now the "learned Occultist" in question is not a whit 
more, or less, learned than your humble servant, for the very simple 
reason that we are identical. The extracts published by Mr. Massey, 
by permission, were contained in a letter from myself to him. More- 
over it is now before me, and, save one misprint of no consequence, I 
do not find in it a word that I would wish changed. What is said 
there I repeat now over my signature — the theories of 1876 do not 
contradict those of 1878 in any respect, as I shall endeavour to prove, 
after pointing out to the impartial reader the quaking ground upon 
which our two critics stand. Their arguments against Theosophy — 
certainly "Scrutator's" — are like a verdant moss, which displays a 
velvety carpet of green without roots and with a deep bog below. 

When a person enters on a controversy over a fictitious signature, he 

!64 a modern panarion. 

should be doubly cautious, if he would avoid the accusation of abusing 
the opportunity of the mask to insult his opponents with impunity. 
Who or what is "Scrutator"? A clergyman, a medium, a lawyer, a 
philosopher, a physician (certainly not a metaphysician), or what? 
Qitien sabe? He seems to partake of the flavour of all, and yet to 
grace none. Though his arguments are all interwoven with sentences 
quoted from our letters, yet in no case does he criticize merely what 
is written by us, but what he thinks we may have meant, or what 
the sentences might imply. Drawing his deductions, then, from what 
existed only in the depths of his own consciousness, he invents phrases, 
and forces constructions, upon which he proceeds to pour out his wrath. 
Without meaning to be in the least personal — for, though propagating 
"absurdities" with the "utmost effrontery," I should feel sorry and 
ashamed to be as impertinent with "Scrutator" as he is with us — yet, 
hereafter, when I see a dog chasing the shadow of his own tail, I will 
think of his letter. 

In my doubts as to what this assailant might be, I invoked the help 
of Webster to give me a possible clue in the pseudonym. "Scrutator," 
says the great lexicographer, is "one who scrutinizes," and "scrutiny" 
he derives from the I^athi scrutari, "to search even to the rags"; which 
scrutari itself he traces back to a Greek root, meaning "trash, trum- 
pery." In this ultimate analysis, therefore, we must regard the ?wm de 
plume, while very applicable to his letter of February 22nd, as very un- 
fortunate for himself; for, at best, it makes him a sort of literary chiffon- 
nicr, probing in the dust-heap of the language for bits of hard adjectives 
to fling at us. I repeat that, when an anonymous critic accuses two 
persons of "slanderous imputations" (the mere reflex of his own im- 
agination), and of "unfathomable absurdities," he ought, at least, to 
make sure (1) that he has thoroughly grasped what he is pleased to 
call the "teachings" of his adversaries; and (2) that his own philoso- 
phy is infallible. I may add, furthermore, that when that critic permits 
himself to call the views of other people — not yet half digested by 
himself— "unfathomable absurdities," he ought to be mighty careful 
about introducing as arguments into the discussion sectarian absurdities 
far more "unfathomable" and which have nothing to do with either 
Science or Philosophy. 

I suppose [gravely argues "Scrutator"] a babe's brain is soft and a quite unfit 
tool for intelligence, otherwise Jesus could not have lost His intelligence when He 
took upon Himself the body and the brain of a babe [! ! ?]. 



The very opposite of Oliver Johnson evidently, this Jesus-babe of 

Such an argument might come with a certain force in a discussion 
between two conflicting dogmatic sects, but if picked "even to rags" 
it seems but "utmost effrontery" — to use "Scrutator's" own compli- 
mentary expression — to employ it in a philosophical debate, as if it 
were either a scientific or historically proved fact! If I refused, at the 
very start, to argue with our friend "M.A. Oxon.," a man whom I 
esteem and respect as I do few in this world, only because he put for- 
ward a "cardinal dogma," I shall certainly lose no time in debating 
Theosophy with a tattering Christian, whose scrutinizing faculties 
have not helped him beyond the acceptance of the latest of the world's 
Avataras, in all its unphilosophical dead-letter meaning, without even 
suspecting its symbolical significance. To parade in a would-be philo- 
sophical debate the exploded dogmas of any Church, is most ineffec- 
tual, and shows, at best, a great poverty of resource. Why does not 
"Scrutator" address his refined abuse, ex cathedra, to the Royal Society, 
whose Fellows doom to annihilation even' human being, Theosophist 
or Spiritualist, pure or impure? 

With crushing irony he speaks of us as "our teachers." Now I re- 
member having distinctly stated in a previous letter that we have not 
offered ourselves as teachers, but, on the contrary, decline any such office 
— whatever may be the superlative panegyric of my esteemed friend, 
Mr. O. Sullivan, who not only sees in me "a Buddhist priestess" (!), 
but, without a shadow of warrant of fact, credits me with the founda- 
tion of the Theosophical Society and its Branches! Had Colonel 
Olcott been half as "psychologized" by me as a certain American 
Spiritualist paper will have it, he would have followed my advice and 
refused to make public our "views," even though so much and so often 
importuned in different quarters. With characteristic stubbornness, 
however, he had his own way, and now reaps the consequence of having 
thrown his bomb into a hornet's nest. Instead of being afforded oppor- 
tunity for a calm debate, we get but abuse, pure and simple — the only 
weapon of partisans. Well, let us make the best of it, and join our 
opponents in picking the question "to rags." Mr. C. C. Massey comes 
in for his share, too, and though fit to be a leader himself, is given by 
"Scrutator" a chief! 

Neither of our critics seems to understand our views (or his own) so 
little as "Scrutator." He misapprehends the meaning of Elementary, 


and makes a sad mess of Spirit and Matter. Hear him say that Ele- 

Is a new-fangled and ill-defined term . . . not yet two years old. 

This sentence alone proves that he forces himself into the discussion, 
without any comprehension of the subject at issue. Evidently, he has 
neither read the mediaeval nor modern Kabalists. Henry Kunrath is 
as unfamiliar to him as the Abbe Constant. L,et him go to the British 
Museum, and ask for Xhe Amphit heat rum Sapientice sEternceoi Kunrath. 
He will find in it illustrative engravings of the four great classes of 
elementary Spirits, as seen during an evocation of ceremonial Magic 
by the Magus who lifts the Veil of Isis. The author explains that 
these are disembodied vicious men, who have parted with their divine 
Spirits, and become as beasts. After reading this volume, "Scrutator" 
may profitably consult Eliphas Eevi, whom he will find using the words 
"Elementary Spirits" throughout his Dogmeet Riticel de la Haute Magie, 
in both senses in which we have employed it. This is especially the 
case where (vol. i. p. 262, seq.) he speaks of the evocation of Apollonius 
of Tyana by himself. Quoting from the greatest Kabalistic authorities, 
he says: 

When a man has lived well, the astral cadaver evaporates like a pure incense, as 
it mounts towards the higher regions; but if a man has lived in crime, his astral 
cadaver, which holds him prisoner, seeks again the objects of his passions and 
desires to resume its earthly life. It torments the dreams of young girls, bathes in 
the vapour of spilt blood, and wallows about the places where the pleasures of his 
life flitted by; it watches without ceasing over the treasures which it possessed and 
buried; it wastes itself in painful efforts to make for itself material organs [mate- 
rialize itself] and live again. But the astral elements attract and absorb it; its 
memory is gradually lost, its intelligence weakens, all its being dissolves. . . . 
The unhappy wretch loses thus in succession all the organs which served its sinful 
appetites. Then it [this astral body, this "soul," this all that is left of the once 
living man] dies a second time and for ever, for it then loses its personality and its 
memory. Souls which are destined to live, but which are not yet entirely purified, 
remain for a longer or shorter time captive in the astral cadaver, where they are 
refined by the odic light, which seeks to assimilate them to itself and dissolve. It 
is to rid themselves of this cadaver that suffering souls sometimes enter the bodies 
of living persons, and remain there for a time in a state which the Kabalists call 
embryonic \embryonnat\ These are the aerial phantasmas evoked by necromancy 
[and I may add, the "'materialized Spirits" evoked by the unconscious necromancy 
of incautious mediums, in cases where the forms are not transformations of their 
own doubles]; these are larvte, substances dead or dying with which one places 
himself en rapport. 


Further, Levi says (op. eil., p. 164): 

The astral light is saturated with elementary souls. . . . Yes, yes, these 
spirits of the elements do exist. Some wandering in their spheres, others trying to 
incarnate themselves, others, again already incarnated and living on earth; these 
are vicious and imperfect men. 

And in the face of this testimony — which he can find in the British 
Museum, two steps from the office of The Spiritualist (!) — that since 
the Middle Ages the Kabalists have been writing about the Elemen- 
taries, and their potential annihilation, "Scrutator" permits himself 
to arraign Theosophists for their "effrontery" in foisting upon Spiri- 
tualists a "new-fangled and ill-defined term" which is "not yet two 
years old"! 

In truth, we may say that the idea is older than Christianity, for it is 
found in the ancient Kabalistic books of the Jews. In the olden time 
they defined three kinds of "souls" — the daughters of Adam, the 
daughters of the angels and those of sin; and in the book of The 
Revolution of the Souls three kinds of "Spirits" (as distinct from mate- 
rial bodies) are shown — the captive, the wandering and the free Spirits. 
If "Scrutator" were acquainted with the literature of Kabalism, he 
would know that the term Elementary applies not only to one prin- 
ciple or constituent part, to an elementary primary substance, but also 
embodies the idea which we express by the term elemental — that 
wmich pertains to the four elements of the material world, the first 
principles or primary ingredients. The word "elemental" as defined 
by Webster, was not current at the time of Kunrath, but the idea was 
perfectly understood. The distinction has been made, and the term 
adopted by Theosophists for the sake of avoiding confusion. The 
thanks we get are that we are charged with propounding, in 1878, a 
different theory of the "Elementaries" from that of 1876! 

Does anything herein stated either as from ourselves, or Kunrath, or 
Levi, contradict the statement of the "learned Occultist" that: 

Each atom, no matter where found, is imbued with that vital principle called 
spirit. . . . Each grain of sand, equally with each minutest atom of the human 
body, has its inherent latent spark of the divine light? 

Italicizing some words of the above, but omitting to emphasize the 
one important word of the sentence, i.e., "latent," which contains the 
key to the whole mystery, our critic mars the sense. In the grain of 
sand, and each atom of the human material body, the Spirit is latent. 
not active; hence being but a correlation of the highest light, some- 


thing concrete as compared with the purely abstract, the atom is vital- 
ized and energized by Spirit, without being endowed with distinct 
consciousness. A grain of sand, as every minutest atom, is certainly 
"imbued with that vital principle called Spirit" ; so every atom of both, 
following the law of evolution, whether of objective or semi-concrete 
astral matter, will have to remain eternal throughout the endless 
cycles, indestructible in their primary elementary constituents. 

But will "M.A. Cantab.," for all that, call a grain of sand, or a 
human nail-paring, consciously immortal? Does he mean us to under- 
stand him as believing that a fractional part of a fraction has the same 
attributes, capabilities, and limitations as the whole? Does he say that 
because the atoms in a nail-paring are indestructible as atoms, there- 
fore the bod}*, of which the nail formed a part, is necessarily, as a 
conscious whole, indestructible and immortal? 

Our opponents repeat the words trinity, body, soul, Spirit, as they 
might say the cat, the house, and the Irishman inhabiting it — three 
perfectly dissimilar things. They do not see that, dissimilar as the 
three parts of the human trinity may seem, they are in truth but 
correlations of the one eternal Essence — which is no essence; but un- 
fortunately the English language is barren of adequate expressions, 
and, though they do not see it, the house, the physical Irishman, and 
the cat are, in their last analysis, one. I verily begin to suspect that 
they imagine that Spirit and Matter are two, instead of one! Truly 
says Vishnu Barva Brahmachari, in one of his essays in Marathi (1869), 
that : 

The opinion of the Europeans that matter is Padartha (an equivalent for the 
pada, or word Abhava, i.e., Ahey, composed of two letters, Ahe, meaning is, and 
nahin, not, whereas Abhava is no Padartha) is foolishly erroneous. 

Kant, Schopenhauer and Hartmann seem to have written to little 
effect, and Kapila will be soon pronounced an antiquated ignoramus. 
Without at all ranging myself under Schopenhauer's banner, who main- 
tains that in reality there is neither Spirit nor Matter, yet I must say that 
if even he were studied, Theosophy would be better understood. 

But can one really discuss metaphysical ideas in a European lan- 
guage? I doubt it. We say "Spirit," and behold, what confusion it 
leads to. Europeans give the name Spirit to that something which 
they conceive as apart from physical organization, independent of 
corporeal, objective existence; and they call spirit also the airy, 
vaporous essence, alcohol. Therefore, the New York reporter who 


defined a materialized Spirit as "frozen whiskey," was right in his way. 
A copious vocabulary, indeed, that has but one term for God and for 
alcohol! With all their libraries of metaphysics, European nations 
have not even gone to the trouble of inventing appropriate words to 
elucidate metaphysical ideas. If they had, perhaps one book in every 
thousand would have sufficed to really instruct the public, instead of 
there being the present confusion of words, obscuring intelligence, 
and utterly hampering the Orientalist, who would expound his Philo- 
sophy in English. Whereas, in the latter language, I find but one 
word to express, perhaps, twenty different ideas, in the Eastern tongues, 
especially Sanskrit, there are twenty words or more to render one idea 
in its various shades of meaning. 

We are accused of propagating ideas that would surprise the 
"average" Buddhist. Granted, and I will liberally add that the 
average Brahmanist might be equally astonished. We never said that 
we were either Buddhists or Brahmanists in the sense of their popular 
exoteric Theologies. Buddha, sitting on his Lotus, or Brahma, with 
any number of teratological arms, appeals to us as little as the Catholic 
Madonna or the Christian personal God, which stare at us from cathe- 
dral walls and ceilings. But neither Buddha nor Brahma represents 
to His respective worshippers the same ideas as these Catholic icons 
which we regard as blasphemous. In this particular who dares say 
that Christendom with its civilization has outgrown the fetichism of 
Fijians? When we see Christians and Spiritualists speaking so flip- 
pantly and confidently about God and the "-materialization of Spirit," 
we wish they might be made to share a little in the reverential ideas of 
the old Aryas. 

We do not write for "average" Buddhists, or average people of any 
sort. But I am quite willing to match any tolerably educated Buddhist 
or Brahman against the best metaphysicians of Europe, to compare 
views on God and on man's immortality. 

The ultimate abstract definition of this — call it God, Force, Principle, 
as you will — will ever remain a mystery to Humanity, though it attain 
to its highest intellectual development. The anthropomorphic ideas of 
Spiritualists concerning Spirit are a direct consequence of the anthro- 
pomorphic conceptions of Christians as to the Deity. So directly is the 
one the outflow of the other, that "Scrutator's" handiest argument 
against the duality of a child and potential immortality is to cite 
Jesus who increased in wisdom as His brain increased. 


Christians call God an Infinite Being, and then endow Him with 
every finite attribute, such as love, anger, benevolence, mercy! They 
call Him all-merciful, and preach damnation for three-fourths of 
Humanity in every church, all-just, and the sins of this brief span of 
life may not be expiated by even an eternity of conscious agony. 
Now, by some miracle of oversight, among thousands of mistransla- 
tions in the "Holy" Writ, the word "destruction," the synonym of 
annihilation, was rendered correctly in King James's version, and no 
dictionary can make it read either damnation or eternal torment. 
Though the Church consistently put down the "destructionists," yet 
the impartial will scarcely deny that they come nearer than their 
persecutors to believing what Jesus taught, and what is consistent with 
justice, in teaching the final annihilation of the wicked. 

To conclude, then, we believe that there is but one undefinable 
Principle in the whole Universe, which being utterly incomprehensible 
by our finite intellects, we prefer rather to leave undebated than to 
blaspheme Its majesty with our anthropomorphic speculations. We 
believe that all else which has being, whether material or spiritual, and 
all that may have existence, actually, or potentially in our idealism, 
emanates from this Principle. That everything is a correlation in one 
shape or another of this Will and Force; and hence, judging of the 
unseen by the visible, we base our speculations upon the teachings of 
the generations of Sages who preceded Christianity, fortified by our 
own reason. 

I have already illustrated the incapacity of some of our critics to 
separate abstract ideas from complex objects, by instancing the grain 
of sand and the nail-paring. They refuse to comprehend that a philo- 
sophical doctrine can teach that an atom imbued with divine light, or 
a portion of the great Spirit, in its latent stage of correlation, may, not- 
withstanding its reciprocal or corresponding similarity and relations to 
the one indivisible whole, be yet utterly deficient in self-consciousness. 
That it is only when this atom, magnetically drawn to its fellow-atoms, 
which had served in a previous state to form with it some lower com- 
plex object, is transformed at last, after endless cycles of evolution, 
into man — the apex of perfected being, intellectually and physically, on 
our planet — in conjunction with them it becomes, as a whole, a living 
soul, and reaches the state of intellectual self-consciousness. 

A stone becomes a plant, a plant an animal, an animal a man, and man a Spirit, 
say the Kabalists. And here again, is the wretched necessity of trans- 


lating by the word "Spirit" an expression which means a celestial, or 
rather ethereal, transparent man. But if man is the crown of evolution 
on earth, what is he in the initiatory stages of the next existence, that 
man who, at his best — even when he is pretended to have served as 
a habitation for the Christian God, Jesus — is said by Paul to have been 
"made a little lower than the angels"? But now we have every astral 
spook transformed into an "angel"! I cannot believe that the scholars 
who write for your paper — and there are some of great intelligence 
and erudition who think for themselves, and whom exact science has 
taught that ex nihilo nihil fit; who know that every atom of man's 
body has been evolving by imperceptible gradations, from lower into 
higher forms, through the cycles — accept the unscientific and illogical 
doctrine that the simple unshelling of an astral man transforms him 
into a celestial Spirit and "angel" guide. 

In Theosophical opinion a Spirit is a Ray, a fraction of the Whole; 
and the Whole being Omniscient and Infinite, Its fraction must par- 
take, in degree, of the same abstract attributes. Man's "Spirit" must 
become the drop of the Ocean, called "Ishvara-Bhava" — the "I am 
one body, together with the universe itself" (I am in my Father, and 
my Father is in me), instead of remaining but the "Jiva-Bhava," the 
body only. He must feel himself not only a part of the Creator, Pre- 
server and Destroyer, but of the Soul of the Three, the Parabrahman, 
Who is above these and is the vitalizing, energizing and ever-presiding 
Spirit. He must fully realize the sense of the word "Sahajanund," 
that state of perfect bliss in Nirvana, which can only exist for the It, 
which has become coexistent with the "formless and actionless present 
time." This is the state called " Vartamana," or the "ever still present," 
in which there is neither past nor future, but one infinite eternity of 
present. Which of the controlling "spirits," materialized or invisible, 
have shown any signs that they belong to the kind of real Spirits known 
as the "Sons of Eternity"? Has the highest of them been able to tell 
even as much as our own Divine Nous can whisper to us in moments 
when there comes the flash of sudden prevision? Honest communi- 
cating "intelligences" often answer to many questions: "We do not 
know; this has not been revealed to us." This very admission proves 
that, while in many cases on their way to knowledge and perfection, yet 
they are but embryonic, undeveloped "Spirits"; they are inferior even 
to some living Yogis who, through abstract meditation, have united 


themselves with their personal individual Brahman, their Atman, and 


hence have overcome the "Agnyanam," or lack of that knowledge as 
to the intrinsic value of one's "self," the Ego or self-being, so recom- 
mended by Socrates and the Delphic commandment. 

London has been often visited by highly intellectual, educated Hindus. 
I have not heard of any one professing a belief in "materialized Spirits" 
— as Spirits. When not tainted with Materialism, through demoralizing 
association with Europeans, and when free from superstitious sectarian- 
ism, how would one of them, versed in the Vedanta, regard these ap- 
paritions of the circle? The chances are that, after going the rounds 
of the mediums, he would say: "Some of these may be survivals of 
disembodied men's intelligences, but they are no more spiritual than 
the average man. They lack the knowledge of 'Dryananta,' and evi- 
dently find themselves in a chronic state of 'Maya,' i.e., possessed of 
the idea that 'they are that which they are not.' The 'Vartamana' has 
no significance for them, as they are cognizant but of the 'Vishama' 
[that which, like the concrete numbers in mixed mathematics, applies 
to that which can be numbered]. Like simple, ignorant mortals, they 
regard the shadow of things as the reality, and vice versa, mixing up 
the true light of the 'Vyatireka' with the false light or deceitful appear- 
ance — the 'Anvaya.' ... In what respect, then, are they higher 
than the average mortal? No; they are not spirits, not 'Devas,' . . . 
they are astral 'Dasyoos.' " 

Of course all this will appear to "Scrutator" "unfathomable absur- 
dities," for unfortunate^, few metaphysicians shower down from Wes- 
tern skies. Therefore, so long as our English opponents will remain 
in their semi-Christian ideas, and not only ignore the old Philosophy, 
but the very terms it employs to render abstract ideas; so long as we 
are forced to transmit these ideas in a general way — particularly as it 
is impracticable without the invention of special words — it will be un- 
profitable to push discussion to any great lengths. We would only 
make ourselves obnoxious to the general reader, and receive from 
other anonymous writers such unconvincing compliments as "Scruta- 
tor" has favoured us with. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

New York, March yth, iSyj. 



[From the London Spiritualist."] 

I have read the communication of "H. M." in your paper of the 8th 
inst. I would not have mentioned the "Todas" at all in my book, if 
I had not read a very elaborate octavo work in 271 pp., by William S. 
Marshall, L,ieut.-Col. of Her Majesty's Bengal Staff Corps, entitled: 
A Phrenologist amo?ig the Todas, copiously illustrated with photographs 
of the squalid and filthy beings to whom "H. M." refers. Though 
written by a staff officer, assisted "by the Rev. Friedrich Metz, of the 
Basle Missionary Society, who had spent upwards of twenty years of 
labour" among them, "the only European able to speak the obscure 
Toda tongue," the book is so full of misrepresentations — though both 
writers appear to be sincere — that I wrote what I did. 

What I said I knew to be true, and I do not retract a single word. If 
neither "H. M." nor Lieut. -Col. Marshall, nor the Rev. Mr. Metz have 
penetrated the secret that lies behind the dirty huts of the aborigines 
they have seen, that is their misfortune, not my fault. 

H. P. Blavatskv. 

New York, March iSlh, 1878. 


[From the London Spiritualist.'] 

For ray answer to the sneer of your correspondent "H. M." about my 
opinion of the Todas a few lines sufficed. I only cared to say that what 
I have written in Isis Unveiled was written after reading Col. Marshall's 
A Phrenologist among the Todas, and in consequence of what, whether 
justly or not, I believe to be the erroneous statements of that author. 
Writing about Oriental psychology, its phenomena and practitioners, 
as I did, I should have been ludicrously wanting in common sense if I 
had not anticipated such denials and contradictions as those of "H. M." 
from every side. How would it profit the seeker after this Occult know- 
ledge to face danger, privations, and obstacles of every kind to gain it, 
if, after attaining his end, he should not have facts to relate of which 
the profane were ignorant? A pretty set of critics are the ordinary 
travellers or observers, even though what Dr. Carpenter euphemistically 
calls a "scientific officer," or "distinguished civilian," when, confessedly, 
every European unfurnished with some mystical passport is debarred 
from entering any orthodox Brahman's house or the inner precincts of 
a pagoda. How we poor Theosophists should tremble before the scorn 
of those modern Daniels when the cleverest of them has never been 
able to explain the commonest "tricks" of Hindu jugglers, to say 
nothing of the phenomena of the Fakirs! These very savants answer 
the testimony of Spiritualists with an equally lofty scorn, and resent as 
a personal affront the invitation to even attend a seance. 

I should therefore have let the "Todas" question pass, but for the 
letter of "Late Madras C. S." in your paper of the 15th. I feel bound 
to answer it, for the writer plainly makes me out to be a liar. He 
threatens me, moreover, with the thunderbolts that a certain other 
officer has concealed in his library closet. 

It is quite remarkable how a man who resorts to an alias sometimes 
forgets that he is a gentleman. Perhaps such is the custom in your 


civilized England, where manners and education are said to be carried 
to a superlative elegance ; but not so in poor, barbarous Russia, which 
a good portion of your countrymen are just now trying to strangle (if 
they can). In my country of Tartaric Cossacks and Kalmucks, a man 
who sets out to insult another does not usually hide himself behind a 
shield. I am sorry to have to say this much, but you have allowed 
me, without the least provocation and upon several occasions, to be 
unstintedly reviled by correspondents, and I am sure that you are too 
much of a man of honour to refuse me the benefit of an answer. " Late 
Madras, C. S." sides with Mrs. Showers in the insinuation that I never 
was in India at all. This reminds me of a calumny of last year, 
originating with "spirits" speaking through a celebrated medium at 
Boston, and finding credit in many quarters. 

It was, that I was not a Russian, did not even speak that language, 
but was merely a French adventuress. So much for the infallibility of 
some of the sweet "angels." Surely, I will neither go to the trouble of 
exhibiting to any of my masked detractors, of this or the other world, 
my passports vises by the Russian embassies half a dozen times on my 
way to India and back. Nor will I demean myself by showing the 
stamped envelopes of letters received by me in different parts of India. 

Such an accusation makes me simply laugh, for my word is, surely, 
as good as that of anybody else. I will only say that more's the pity 
that an English officer, who was "fifteen years in the district," knows 
less of the Todas than I, who, he pretends, never was in India at all. 
He calls Gopuram a "tower" of the pagoda. Why not the roof or any- 
thing else as well? Gopicram is the sacred pylon, the pyramidal gate- 
way by which the pagoda is entered ; and yet I have repeatedly heard 
the people of southern India call the pagoda itself a Gopuram. It may 
be a careless mode of expression employed among the vulgar; but 
when we come to consult the authority of the best Indian lexico- 
graphers we find it accepted. In John Shakespear's Hindustani- 
English Dictionary (edition of 1849, p. 1727) the word Gopuram is ren- 
dered as "an idol temple of the Hindus." Has "Late Madras C. S." or 
any of his friends, ever climbed up into the interior, so as to know who 
or what is concealed there? If not, then perhaps his fling at me was a 
trifle premature. I am sorry to have shocked the sensitiveness of such 
a philological purist, but really I do not see why, when speaking of 
the temples of the Todas— whether they exist or not— even a Brah- 
man Guru might not say that they had their Gopurams? Perhaps 


he, or some other brilliant authority in Sanskrit and other Indian lan- 
guages, will favour us with the etymology of the word? Does the first 
syllable, go or gu, relate to the roundness of these "towers" as my critic 
calls them (for the word go does mean something round) or to gop, a 
cowherd, which gave its name to a Hindu caste and was one of the 
names of Krishna, Go-pal, meaning the cowherd? Let these critics 
carefully read Col. Marshall's work and see whether the pastoral tribe, 
whom he saw so much, and discovered so little about, whose worship 
(exoteric, of course) is all embraced in the care of the sacred cows and 
buffaloes, the distribution of the "divine fluid" — milk, and whose 
seeming adoration, as the missionaries tell us, is so great for their buf- 
faloes that they call them the "gift of God," could not be said to have 
their Gopurams, though the latter were but a cattle-pen, a tirieri, the 
viaiind, in short, into which the phrenological explorer crawled alone 
by night with infinite pains and — neither saw nor found anything. And 
because he found nothing he concludes they have no religion, no idea 
of God, no worship. About as reasonable an inference as Dr. W. B. 
Carpenter might come to if he had crawled into Mrs. Showers' sc'ance- 
room some night when all the "angels" and their guests had fled, 
and straightway reported that among Spiritualists there are neither 
mediums nor phenomena. 

Col. Marshall I find far less dogmatic than his admirers. Such cau- 
tious phrases as "I believe," "I could not ascertain," "I believe it to 
be true," and the like, show his desire to find out the truth, but scarcely 
prove conclusively that he has found it. At best it only comes to this, 
that Col. Marshall believes one thing to be true, and I look upon it 
differently. He credits his friend the missionary, and I believe my 
friend the Brahman, who told me what I have written. Besides, I 
explicitly state in my book (see /sis, vol. ii. pp. 614, 615): 

As soon as their [the Todas'] solitude was profaned by the avalanche of civiliza- 
tion . . . the Todas began moving away to other parts as unknown and more 
inaccessible than the Neilgherri hills had formerly been. 

The Todas, therefore, of whom my Brahman friend spoke, and whom 
Capt. W. L,. D. O'Grady, late manager of the Madras Branch Bank at 
Ootacamuud, tells me he has seen specimens of, are not the degenerate 
remnants of the tribe whose phrenological bumps were measured by 
Col. Marshall. And yet, even what the latter writes of these, I from 
personal knowledge affirm to be in many particulars inaccurate. I 
may be regarded by my critics as over-credulous, but this is surely no 


reason why I should be treated as a liar whether by late or living 
Madras authorities of the C. S. Neither Capt. O'Grady, who was born 
at Madras and was for a time stationed on the Neilgherry hills, nor I, 
recognized the individuals photographed in Col. Marshall's book as 
Todas. Those we saw wore their dark brown hair very long, and were 
much fairer than the Badagas, or any other Hindus, in neither of which 
particulars do they resemble Col. Marshall's types. "H. M." says: 

The Todas are brown, coffee-coloured, like most other natives. 

But turning to Appleton's Cyclopccdia (vol. xii. p. 173), we read: 

These people are of a light complexion, have strongly-marked Jewish features, 
and have been supposed by many to be one of the lost tribes. 

"H. M." assures us that the places inhabited by the Todas are not 
infested by venomous serpents or tigers; but the same Cyclopedia re- 
marks that : 

The mountains are swarming with wild animals of all descriptions, among which 
elephants and tigers are numerous. 

But the "Late" (defunct? — is your correspondent a disembodied 
angel?) "Madras C. S." attains to the sublimity of the ridiculous when, 
with biting irony in winding up, he says: 

All good spirits, of whatever degree, astral or elementary, . . . prevent his 
[Capt. R. F. Burton's] ever meeting with Isis — rough might be the unveiling! 

Surely unless that military Nemesis should tax the hospitality of 
some American newspaper, conducted by politicians, he could never be 
rougher than this Madras Grandison. And then, the idea of suggesting 
that, after having contradicted and made sport of the greatest authori- 
ties of Europe and America, to begin with Max Muller and end with 
the Positivists, in both my volumes, I should be appalled by Captain 
Burton, or the whole lot of captains in Her Majesty's service — though 
each carried an Armstrong gun on his shoulder and a mitrailleuse in 
his pocket — is positively superb! Let them reserve their threats and 
terrors for my Christian countrymen. 

Any moderately equipped sciolist (and the more empty-headed, the 
easier) might tear Isis to shreds, in the estimation of the vulgar, with 
his sophisms and presumably authoritative analysis; but would that 
prove him to be right, and me wrong? Let all the records of medial 
phenomena, rejected, falsified, slandered and ridiculed, and of mediums 
terrorized, for thirty years past, answer for me. I, at least, am not of 
the kind to be bullied into silence by such tactics, as "Late Madras" 


may in time discover; nor will he ever find me skulking behind a 
?iom de plume when I have insults to offer. I always have had, as I now 
have, and trust ever to retain, the courage of my opinions, however 
unpopular or erroneous they may be considered; and there are not 
showers enough in Great Britain to quench the ardour with which I 
stand by my convictions. 

There is but one way to account for the tempest which, for four 
months, has raged in The Spiritualist against Col. Olcott and myself, 
and that is expressed in the familiar French proverb — "Ouand on veut 
tuer son chien, on dit qu'il est enrage." 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

New York, March 24th, iSjS. 



[From the New York Echo, 187S.] 

Of the many remarkable characters of this century, Ghafur was one 
of the most conspicuous. 

If there be truth in the Eastern doctrine that souls, powerful whether 
for good or bad, who had not time in one existence to work out their 
plans, are reincarnated, the fierceness of their yearnings to continue 
on earth thrusting them back into the current of their attractions, then 
Ghafur was a rebirth of that Felice Peretti, who is known in history as 
Pope Sixtus V., of crafty and odious memory. Both were born in the 
lowest class of society, being ignorant peasant boys and beginning life 
as herdsmen. Both reached the apex of power through craft and 
stealth and by imposing upon the superstitions of the masses. Sixtus, 
author of mystical books and himself a practitioner of the forbidden 
sciences to satisfy his lust for power and ensure impunity, became 
Inquisitor-General. Made Pope, he hurled his anathemas alike against 
Elizabeth of England, the King of Navarre, and other important per- 
sonages. Abdul Ghafur, endowed with an iron will, had educated 
himself without colleges or professors except through association with 
the "wise men" of Khuttuk. He was as well versed in the Arabic and 
Persian literature of alchemy and astronomy as Sixtus was in Aristotle, 
and like him knew how to fabricate mesmerized talismans and amulets 
containing either life or death for those to whom they were presented. 
Each held millions of devotees under the subjection of their psycho- 
logical influence, though both were more dreaded than beloved. 

Ghafur had been a warrior and an ambitious leader of fanatics, but 
becoming a dervish and finally a pope, so to say, his blessing or curse 
made him as effectually the master of the Ameers and other Mussul- 
mans as Sixtus was of the Catholic potentates of Europe. 

Only the salient features of his career are known to Christendom. 


Watched, as he may have been, his private life, ambitions, aspirations 
for temporal as well as religious power, are almost a sealed book. But 
the one certain thing is, that he was the founder and chief of nearly 
every secret society worth speaking of among Mussulmans, and the 
dominant spirit in all the rest. His apparent antagonism to the Waha- 
bees was but a mask, and the murderous hand that struck Lord Mayo 
was certainly guided by the old Abdul. The Biktashee Dervishes* 
and the howling, dancing, and other Moslem religious mendicants 
recognize his supremacy as far above that of the Sheik-ul-Islam of the 
faithful. Hardly a political order of any importance issued from Con- 
stantinople or Teheran — heretics though the Persians are — without his 
having a finger in the pie directly or indirectly. As fanatical as Sixtus, 
but more cunning yet, if possible, instead of giving direct orders for 
the extermination of the Huguenots of Islam, the Wahabees, he 
directed his curses and pointed his finger only at those among them 
whom he found in his way, keeping on the best, though secret, terms 
with the rest. 

The title of Nasr-ed-Din (defender of the faith) he impartially applied 
to both the Sultan and the Shah, though one is a Sunnite and the other 
a Shiah. He sweetened the stronger religious intolerance of the 
Osman dynasty by adding to the old title of Nasr-ed-Din those of 
Saif-ed-Din (scimitar of faith) and Emir-el-Mumminiah (prince of the 
faithful). Every Emir-el-Sourey, or leader of the sacred caravan of 
pilgrims to Mekka, brought or sent messages to, and received advice 
and instructions from, Abdul, the latter in the shape of mysterious 
oracles, for which was left the full equivalent in money, presents and 
other offerings, as the Catholic pilgrims have recently done at Rome. 

In 1847-8 the Prince Mirza, uncle of the young Shah and ex-governor 
of a great province in Persia, appeared in Tiflis, seeking Russian pro- 
tection at the hands of Prince Woronzof, Viceroy of the Caucasus. 
Having helped himself to the crown jewels and ready money in the 
treasury, he had run away from the jurisdiction of his loving nephew, 
who was anxious to put out his eyes. Popular rumour asserted that 
his reason for what he had done was that the great dervish, Ahkoond, 
had thrice appeared to him in dreams, prompting him to take what he 
had and share his booty with the protectors of the faith of his principal 
wife (he brought twelve with him to Tiflis), a native of Cabul. The 

* To this day, no Biktashee would be recognized as such unless he could claim possession of a 
certain medal with the seal of this " high-pontiff" of all the Dervishes, whether they belong to one 
sect or the other. 


secret, though, perhaps, indirect influence he exercised on the Begum 
of Bhopal, during the Sepoy rebellion of 1857, was a mystery only to 
the English, whom the old schemer knew so well how to hoodwink. 
During his long career of Macchiavellism, friendly with the British, 
and yet striking them constantly in secret; venerated as a new prophet 
by millions of orthodox, as well as heretic Mussulmans; managing to 
preserve his influence over friend and foe, the old "Teacher" had one 
enemy whom he feared, for he knew that no amount of craft would 
ever win it over to his side. This enemy was the once mighty nation 
of the Sikhs, ex-sovereign rulers of the Punjab and masters of the 
Peshawur Valley. Reduced from their high estate, this warrior people 
are now under the rule of a single Maharajah — Puttiala — who is him- 
self the helpless vassal of the British. From the beginning the Ah- 
koond had continually encountered the Sikhs in his path. Scarce 
would he feel himself conqueror over one obstacle, before his heredi- 
tary enemy would appear between him and the realization of his hopes. 
If the Sikhs remained faithful to the British in 1857, it was not 
through hearty loyalty or political convictions, so much as through 
sheer opposition to the Mohammedans, whom they knew to be secretly 
prompted by the Ahkoond. 

Since the days of the great Nanak, of the Kshattriya caste, founder 
of the Sikh Brotherhood in the second half of the fifteenth century, 
these brave and warlike tribes have ever been the thorn in the side of 
the Mogul dynasty, the terror of the Moslems of India. Originating, 
as we may say, in a religious Brotherhood, whose object was to make 
away alike with Islamism, Brahmanism, and other isms, including later 
Christianity, this sect evolved a pure monotheism in the abstract idea 
of an ever unknown Principle, and elaborated it into the doctrine of 
the "Brotherhood of Man." In their view, we have but one Father- 
Mother Principle, with "neither form, shape, nor colour," and we 
ought all to be, if we are not, brothers irrespective of distinctions of 
race or colour. The sacerdotal Brahman, fanatical in his observance 
of dead-letter forms, thus became in the opinion of the Sikh as much 
the enemy of truth as the Mussulman wallowing in a sensual heaven 
with his houris, the joss-worshipping Buddhist grinding out prayers at 
his wheel, or yet the Roman Catholic adoring his jewelled Madonnas, 
whose complexion the priests change from white to brown and black 
to suit climates and prejudices. Later on, Arjuua, son of Ram das, the 
fourth in the succession after Nanak, gathering together the doctrines 


of the founder and his son Angad, brought out a sacred volume, called 
Adi-garunth, and largely supplemented it with selections from forty- 
five Sutras of the Jains. While adopting equally the religious figures 
of the Vedas and Koran, after sifting them and explaining their sym- 
bolism, the Adi-garunth yet presents a greater similarity of ideas 
respecting the most elaborate metaphysical conceptions with those of 
the Jain school of Gurus. The notions of Astrology, or the influence 
of the starry spheres upon ourselves, were evidently adopted from that 
most prominent school of antiquity. This will be readily ascertained 
by comparing the commentaries of Abhayadeva Suri upon the original 
forty-five Sutras in the Magadhi or Balabasha language* with the Adi- 
garunth. An old Jain Guru, who is said to have drawn the horoscope 
of Runjeet Singh, at the time of his greatest power, had foretold the 
downfall of the kingdom of Lahore. It was the learned Arjuna who 
retired into Amritsir, changed the sect into a politico-religious com- 
munity, and instituted within the same another and more esoteric body 
of Gurus, scholars and metaphysicians, of which he became sole chief. 
He died in prison, under torture, by the order of Aurungzebe, into 
whose hands he had fallen, at the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. His son Govinda, a Guru (religious teacher) of great renown, 
vowed revenge against the race of his father's murderers, and after 
various changes of fortune the Afghans were finally driven from the 
Punjab by the Sikhs in 1764. This triumph only made their hatred 
more bitter still, and from that moment until the death of Runjeet 
Singh, in 1839, we find them constantly aiming their blows at the 
Moslems. Maha Singh, the father of Runjeet, had set off the Sikhs into 
twelve mizals or divisions, each having its own chief (Sirdar), whose 
secret Council of State consisted of learned Gurus. Among these were 
Masters in spiritual Science, and they might, if they had had a mind, 
have exhibited as astonishing "miracles" and divine legerdemain as 
the old Mussulman Ahkoond. He knew it well, and for this reason 
dreaded them even more than he hated them for his defeat and that of 
his Ameer by Runjeet Singh. 

One highly dramatic incident in the life of the "Pope of Sydoo" is 
the following well-authenticated case, which was much commented 
upon in his part of India about twenty years ago. One day, in 1858, 

* This valuable work is now being republished by Ookerdhabhoy Shewgee, and has been received 
by the Theosophical Society from the Editor through the President of the Bombay branch. When 
finished it will be the first edition of the Jain Bible, Sittra-Sangraha or Vihiva Punnutt'i S&tra y 
in existence, as all their sacred books are kept in secret by the Jains. 


when the Ahkoond, squatting on his carpet, was distributing amulets, 
blessings and prophecies among his pious congregation of pilgrims, a 
tall Hindu, who had silently approached and mingled in the crowd 
without having been noticed, suddenly addressed him thus: "Tell me, 
prophet, thou who prophesiest so well for others, whether thou knowest 
what will be thine own fate, and that of the 'Defender of the Faith,' 
thy Sultan of Stamboul, twenty years hence?" 

The old Ghafur, overcome with violent surprise, stared at his inter- 
locutor, but no answer came. In recognizing the Sikh he seemed to 
have lost all power of speech, and the crowd was under a spell. 

"If not," continued the intruder, "then I will tell thee. Twenty 
years more and your 'Prince of the Faithful' will fall by the hand of 
an assassin of his own house. Two old men, one the Dalai Lama of 
the Christians, the other the great prophet of the Moslems — thyself— 
will be simultaneously crushed under the heel of death. Then, the 
first hour will strike of the downfall of those twin foes of truth — 
Christianity and Islam. The first, as the more powerful, will survive 
the second, but both will soon crumble into fragmentary sects, which 
will mutually exterminate each other's faith. See, thy followers are 
powerless, and I might kill thee now, but thou art in the hands of Des- 
tiny, and that knows its own hour." 

Before a hand could be lifted the speaker had disappeared. This 
incident of itself sufficiently proves that the Sikhs might have assas- 
sinated Abdul Ghafur at any time had they chosen so to do. And it 
may be that The May/air Gazette, which in June, 1877, prophetically 
observed that the rival pontiffs of Rome and Swat might die simulta- 
neously, had heard from some "old Indian" this story, which the writer 
also heard from an informant at Lahore. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 


Christendom sends its missionaries to Heathendom at an expense 
of millions drained from the pockets of would-be pious folks, who 
court respectability. Thousands of homeless and penniless old men, 
women and children are allowed to starve for lack of funds, for the 
sake, perhaps, of one converted "heathen." All the spare money of 
the charitable is absorbed by these dead-head travelling agents of the 
Christian Church. What is the result? Visit the prison cells of so- 
called Christian lands, crammed with delinquents who have been led 
on to felony by the weary path of starvation, and you will have the 

Read in the daily papers the numerous accounts of executions, and 
you will find that modern Christianity offers, perhaps unintentionally 
but none the less surely, a premium for murder and other heinous 
crimes. Is anyone prepared to deny the assertion? Remember that, 
while many a respectable unbeliever dies in his bed with the comfort- 
able assurance from his next of kin, and good friends in general, that 
he is going to hell, the red-handed criminal has but to believe at his 
eleventh hour that the blood of the Saviour can and will save him, to 
receive the guarantee of his spiritual adviser that he will find himself 
when launched into eternity in the bosom of Christ, in heaven, and 
playing upon the traditional harp. Why, then, should any Christian 
deny himself the pleasure and profit of robbing, or even murdering, 
his richer neighbour? And such a doctrine is being promulgated 
among the heathen at the cost of an annual expenditure of millions. 

But, in her eternal wisdom, Nature provides antidotes against moral 
as well as against mineral and vegetable poisons. There are people 
who do not content themselves with preaching grandiloquent dis- 
courses; they act. If such books as Higgins' Anacalypsis, and that 
extraordinary work of an anonymous English author — a bishop, it is 
whispered — entitled Supernatural Religion, cannot awaken responsive 


echoes among the ignorant masses, other means can be, and are 
resorted to — means more effectual and which will bring fruit in the 
future, if hitherto prevented by the crushing hand of ecclesiastical 
and monarchical despotism. Those whom the written proofs of the 
fictitious character of biblical authority cannot reach, may be saved by 
the spoken word. And this work of disseminating the truth among 
the more ignorant classes is being ardently prosecuted by an army of 
devoted scholars and teachers, simultaneously in India and America. 

The Theosophical Society has been of late so much spoken about; 
such idle tales have been circulated about it — its members bein? sworn 
to secrecy and hitherto unable, even if willing, to proclaim the truth 
about it — that the public may be gratified to know, at least, about one 
portion of its work. It is now in organized affiliation with the Arya 
Samaj of India, its Western representative, and, so to say, under the 
order of its chiefs. A younger Society than the Brahmo Samaj, it was 
instituted to save the Hindus from exoteric idolatries, Brahmanism and 
Christian missionaries. 

The purely Theistic movement connected with the Brahmo Samaj 
had its origin in the same idea. It began early in the present century, 
but spasmodically and with interruption, and only took concrete shape 
under the leadership of Baboo Keshub Chunder Sen in 1S58. Rammo- 
hun Roy, who ma}- be termed the combined Fenelon and Thomas 
Paine of Hindustan, was its parent, his first church having been 
organized shortly before his death in 1833. One of the greatest and 
most acute of controversial waiters that our century has produced, his 
works ought to be translated and circulated in every civilized land. At 
his death, the work of the Brahmo Samaj was interrupted. As Miss 
Collett says, in her Brahmo Year Book for 1878, it was only in October, 
1839, that Debendra Nath Tagore founded the Tattvabodhini Sabha 
(or Society for the Knowledge of Truth), which lasted for twenty 
years, and did much to arouse the energies and form the principles of 
the young church of the Brahmo Samaj. But exoteric or open religion 
as it is now, it must have been conducted at first much on the prin- 
ciples of the secret societies, as we are informed that Keshub Chunder 
Sen, a resident of Calcutta and a pupil of the Presidency College, who 
had long before quitted the orthodox Brahmanical Church and was 
searching for a purely Theistic religion, "had never heard of the 
Brahmo Samaj before 1S58" (see The Theistic Annual^ 187S, p. 45 . 

Since then the Brahmo Samaj, which he then joined, has flourished 


and become more popular every day. We now find it with Samajes 
established in many provinces and cities. At least, we learn that in 
May, 1877, fifty Samajes have notified their adhesion to the Society 
and eight of them have appointed their representatives. Native 
missionaries of the Theistic religion oppose the Christian missionaries 
and the orthodox Brahmans, and the work is going on livelily. So 
much for the Brahmo movement. 

And now, with regard to the Arya Samaj, The Indian Tribune uses 
the following language in speaking of its founder: 

The first quarter of the sixteenth century was no more an age of reformation in 
Europe than the one we now live in is, at this moment, in India. From amongst 
its own "Benedictines," Swami Dyanand Saraswati has arisen, who, unlike other 
reformers, does not wish to set up a new religion of his own, but asks his country- 
men to go back to the pristine purity and Theism of their Vedic religion. After 
preaching his views in Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and the N.-W. Provinces, he came 
to the Punjab last year, and here it is that he found the most congenial soil. 

It was in the land of the five rivers, on the banks of the Indus, that the Vedas 
were first compiled. It was the Punjab that gave birth to a Nanak. And it is the 
Punjab that is making such efforts for a revival of Vedic learning and its doctrines. 
And wherever Swami Dyanand goes, his splendid physique, his manly bearing, 
eloquence and his incisive logic bear down all opposition. People rise up and say: 
We shall remain no longer in this state for ourselves, we have had enough of a 
crafty priesthood and a demoralizing idolatry, and we shall tolerate them no 
longer. We shall wipe off the ugliness of ages, and try to shine forth in the 
original radiance and effulgence of our Aryan ancestors. 

The Svami is a most highly honoured Fellow of the Theosophical 
Society, takes a deep interest in its proceedings, and The Indian Spec- 
tator of Bombay, April 14th, 1S78, spoke by the book when it said 
that the work of Pundit Dyanand "bears intimate relation to the work 
of the Theosophical Society." 

While the members of the Brahmo Samaj may T be designated as the 
Lutheran Protestants of orthodox Brahmauism, the disciples of the 
Svami Dyanand should be compared to those learned mystics, the 
Gnostics, who had the key to those earlier writings which, later, were 
worked over into the Christian gospels and various patristic literature. 
As the above-named pre-Christian sects understood the true esoteric 
meaning of the Chrestos allegory, which is now materialized into the 
Jesus of flesh, so the disciples of the learned and holy Svami are taught 
to discriminate between the written form and the spirit of the word 
preached in the Vedas. And this is the principal point of difference be- 
tween the Arya Samaj and the Brahmos who, as it would seem, believe 


in a personal God and repudiate the Vedas, while the Aryas see an 
everlasting Principle, an impersonal Cause in the great "Soul of the 
universe" rather than a personal being, and accept the Vedas as supreme 
authority, though not of divine origin. But we may better quote in 
elucidation of the subject what the President of the Bombay Arya 
Samaj, also a Fellow of the Theosophical Society, Mr. Hurrychund 
Chintamon, says in a recent letter to our Society: 

Pundit Dyanand maintains that as it is now universally acknowledged that the 
Vedas are the oldest books of antiquity, if they contain the truth and nothing but 
the truth in an unmutilated state, and nothing new can be found in other works of 
later date, why should we not accept the Vedas as a guide for Humanity? . . . 
A revealed book or revelation is understood to mean one of two things, viz.: (1) a 
book already written by some invisible hand and thrown into the world; or (2) a 
work written by one or more men while they were in their highest state of mental 
lucidity, acquired by profound meditation upon the problems of who man is, 
whence he came, whither he must go, and by what means he may emancipate 
himself from worldly delusions and sufferings. The latter hypothesis may be 
regarded as the more rational and correct. 

Our Brother Hurrychund here describes those superior men whom 
we know as Adepts. He adds: 

The ancient inhabitants of a place near Thibet, and adjoining a lake called 
Mansovara, were first called Deveneggury (Devanagari) or godlike people. Their 
written characters were also called Deveneggury or Balbadha letters. A portion of 
them migrated to the North and settled there, and afterwards spread towards the 
South, while others went to the West. All these emigrants styled themselves 
Aryans, or noble, pure, and good men, as they considered that a pure gift had been 
made to humanity from the "Pure Alone." These lofty souls were the authors of 
the Vedas. 

What more reasonable than the claim that such Scriptures, emanat- 
ing from such authors, should contain, for those who are able to pene- 
trate the meaning that lies half concealed under the dead letter, all the 
wisdom which it is allowed to men to acquire on earth? The Chiefs of 
the Arya Samaj discredit "miracles," discountenance superstition and 
all violation of natural law, and teach the purest form of Vaidic Philo- 
sophy. Such are the allies of the Theosophical Society. They have 
said to us: "Let us work together for the good of mankind," and we 

H. P. Blavatskv. 


[From The Religio-Philosophical Journal, July 6th, 1878.] 

So far as I can at present foresee, this will be the last time I shall 
ask yon to print anything over my, to many Spiritualists, loathed 
signature, as I intend to start for India very soon. But I have once 
more to correct inaccurate statements. If I had had my choice, I 
would have preferred almost any other person than my very esteemed 
friend Dr. Bloede, to have last words with. Once an antagonist, a 
bitter and unjust one to me, as he himself admits, he has since made 
all the amends I could have asked of a scholar and a gentleman, and 
now, as all who read your valuable paper see, he does me the honour 
to call me friend. Honest in intent he always is, I am sure, but still a 
little prejudiced. Who of us but is so, more or less? Duty, therefore, 
compels me to correct the erroneous impression which his letter on 
"Secret Societies" {Journal of June 15th) is calculated to give about 
the Theosophical Society. How man} 7 "Fellows" we have, how the 
Society is flourishing, what are its operations or how conducted, no 
one knows or can know, save the presidents of its various branches and 
their secretaries. Therefore, Dr. G. Bloede, in saying that it has "failed 
in America and will fail in Europe," speaks of that of which neither 
he nor any other outsider has knowledge. If the Society's only object 
were the study of the phenomena called Spiritual, his strictures would 
be perfectly warranted; for it is not secrecy but privacy and exclusive- 
ness that are demanded in the management of circles and mediums. 
It would have been absurd to make a secret society expressly for that 
purpose. At its beginning the Theosophical Society was started for 
that sole study, and therefore was, as you all know, open to any 
respectable person who wished to join it. We discussed "spiritual" 
topics freely, and were willing to impart to the public the results of all 
our experiments, and whatever some of us might have learned of the 
subject in the course of long studies. How our views and philosophy 


were received — no need to recall the old story again. The storm has 
already subsided; and the total of "Billingsgate" poured upon our 
devoted heads is preserved in three gigantic scrap-books whose con- 
tents I mean to immortalize some day. When through the writing 
and noble efforts of the Journal and other spiritual papers the secret of 
these varied and vexing phenomena, indiscriminately called spiritual, 
will be snatched at last, when the faithful of the orthodox church of 
Spiritualism will be forced to give up — partially at least — their many 
bigoted and preconceived notions, then the time will have come again 
for Theosophists to claim a hearing. Till then, its members retire from 
the arena of discussion and devote their whole leisure to the fulfilment 
of other and more important objects of the Society. 

You perceive, then, that it is only when experience showed the 
necessity for its work to be enlarged, and its objects became various, 
that the T. S. thought fit to protect itself by secrecy. Since then, none 
but perjured witnesses, and we know of none, can have told about what 
we were doing, except as permitted by official sanction and announced 
from time to time. One of such objects of our Society we are willing 
to publicly announce. 

It is universally known that this most important object is to antago- 
nize Christianity* and especially Jesuitism. One of our most esteemed 
and valued members, once an ardent Spiritualist, but who must for the 
present be nameless, has but recently fallen a victim to the snares of 
this hateful body. 

The nefarious designs of Jesuitism are plotted in secret and carried 
out through secret agencies. What more reasonable and lawful, there- 
fore, than that those who wish to fight it should keep their own secret, 
likewise, as to their agencies and plans? We have among us persons 
in high position — political, military, financial and social — who regard 
Christianity as the greatest evil to humanity, and are willing to help 
pull it down. But for them to be able to do much and well, they must 
do it anonymously. The Church — "triple-headed snake" as a well- 
known writer calls it — can no longer burn its enemies, but it can blast 
their social influence; can no longer roast their bodies, but can ruin 
their fortunes. We have no right to give our enemy, the Church, the 
names of our "Fellows," who are not ripe for martyrdom, and so we 

* [In later days H. P. B. took great pains to explain that the " Christianity " which she so vigorously 
attacked, was an ecclesiastical system of dogmas to which she subsequently gave the name " Church- 
ianity," and not the spiritual and moral teachings of Jesus. — Eds.] 


keep them secret. If we have an agent to send to India or to Japan, 
or China, or any other heathen country, to do something or confer 
with somebody in connection with the Society's general plans against 
missionaries, it would be foolish, nay, criminal, to expose our agent 
to imprisonment under some malicious pretext, if not death, and even 
the latter is possible in the far-away East, and our scheme is liable 
to miscarry by announcing it to the dishonourable company of Jesus. 
So, sir, to sum up in a word. Dr. Bloede has made a great mistake in 
supposing the Theosophical Society a "failure" in this or any other 
country. Where the Society counted three years ago its members by 
the dozen, it now counts them by the hundred and thousand. And 
so far from its threatening in any respect the stability of society or 
the advancement of spiritual knowledge, the Theosophical institution 


which now bears the name of the "Theosophical Society of the Arya 
Samaj of India" (being regularly chartered by and affiliated with that 


great body in the land of the Aryas) will be found some day, by the 
Spiritualists and all others who claim the right of thinking for them- 
selves, to have been the true friend of intellectual and spiritual liberty 
— if not in America, at least in France and other countries, where an 
infernal priesthood thrusts innocent Spiritualists into prison by the 
help of a subservient judiciary and the use of perjured testimony. Its 
name will be respected as a pioneer of free thought and an uncompro- 
mising enemy of priestly and monkish fraud and despotism. 

H. P. Blavatskv. 
New York, June iyth, i8j8. 



[From the Indian Spectator.'] 

Before entering upon the main question that compels me to ask you 
kindly to accord me space in your esteemed paper, will you inform me 
as to the nature of that newly-born infant prodigy which calls itself 
The Bombay Review? Is it a bigoted, sectarian organ of the Christians, 
or an impartial journal, fair to all, and unprejudiced as every respect- 
able paper styling itself "Review" ought to be, especially in a place 
like Bombay, where such a diversity of religious opinions is to be 
found? The two paragraphs in the number of February 22nd, which 
so honour the Theosophical Society by a double notice of its American 
members, would force me to incline toward the former opinion. Both 
the editorial which attacks my esteemed friend, Miss Bates, and the 
apocalyptic vision of the modern Ezekiel, alias " Anthroposophist," 
who shoots his rather blunt arrows at Col. Olcott, require an answer, if 
it were but to show the advisability of using sharper darts against 
Theosophists. Leaving the seer to his prophetic dream of langoutis 
and cow-dung, I will simply review the editorial of this Review which 
tries to be at the same time satirical and severe and succeeds only in 
being nonsensical. Quoting from another paper a sentence relating to 
Miss Bates, which describes her as "not a Christian," it remarks in that 
bitter and selfish spirit of arrogance and would-be superiority, which 
so characterizes Christian sectarianism: 

The public might have been spared the sight of the italicized personal explana- 

What "public" may I ask? The majority of the intelligent and 
reading public — especially of native papers — in Bombay as throughout 
India is, we believe, composed of non-Christians — of Parsis, Hindus, 
etc. And this public instead of resenting such "wanton aggressive- 
ness," as the writer pleases to call it, can but rejoice to find at least 

one European lady, who, at the same time that she is not a Christian, 

1. 1 


is quite ready, as a Theosophist, to call any respectable "heathen" her 
brother, and regard him with at least as much sympathy as she does a 
Christian. But this unfortunate thrust at Theosophy is explained by 
what follows : 

In the young lady's ozun interest the insult ought not to have been flung into the 
teeth of the Christian public. 

Without taking into consideration the old and wise axiom, that 
honesty is the best policy, we can only regret for our Christian oppo- 
nents that they should so soon "unveil" their cunning policy. While 
in the eyes of every honest "heathen" Theosophist, there can be no 
higher recommendation for a person than to have the reputation of 
being truthful even at the expense of his or her "interest," our Chris- 
tian Review unwittingly exposes the concealed rope of the mission 
machinery, by admitting that it is in the i?iterest of every person here, 
at least — to appear a Christian or a possible convert, if he is not one de 
facto. We feel really very, very grateful to the Review for such a timely 
and generous confession. The writer's defence of the "public" for 
which it speaks as one having authority is no less vague and unsatis- 
factory, as we all know that among the 240,000,000 of native population 
in India, Christians count but as a drop in an ocean. Or is it possible 
that no other public but the Christian is held worthy of the name or 
even of consideration? Had converted Brahmans arrived here instead 
of Theosophists, and one of these announced his profession of faith by 
italicizing the words, not a heathen, we doubt whether the fear of hurt- 
ing the feelings of many millions of Hindus would have ever entered 
the mind of our caustic paragraphist! 

Nor do we find the sentence, "India owes too much to Christianity," 
anything but arrogant and presumptuous talk. India owes much and 
everything to the British Government, which protects its heathen 
subjects equally with those of English birth, and would no more allow 
the one class to insult the other than it would revive the Inquisition. 
India owes to Great Britain its educational system, its slow but sure 
progress, and its security from the aggression of other nations; to 
Christianity it owes nothing. And yet perhaps I am mistaken, and 
ought to have made one exception. India owes to Christianity its 
mutiny of 1857, which threw it back for a century. This we assert on 
the authority of general opinion and of Sir John Kay, who declares, in 
his Sepoy War, that the mutiny resulted from the intolerance of the 
crusading missions and the silly talk of the Friend of India. 


I have done ; adding but one more word of advice to the Review. 
In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, when the latest inter- 
national revision of the Bible — that infallible and revealed Word of 
God! — reveals 64,000 mistranslations and other mistakes, it is not the 
Theosophists — a large number of whose members are English patriots 
and men of learning — but rather the Christians who ought to beware 
of "wanton aggressiveness" against people of other creeds. Their 
boomerangs may fly back from some unexpected parabola and hit the 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

Bombay, Feb. 25th, 1879. 


[From the Indian Spectator.^ 

There is a story current among the Yankees of a small school boy, 
who, having been thrashed by a bigger fellow and being unable to hit 
him back, consoled himself by making faces at his enemy's sister. 
Such is the position of my opponent of the world-famed Bombay Review. 
Realizing the impossibility of injuring the Theosophical Society, he 
"makes faces" at its Corresponding Secretary, flinging at her personal 

Unfortunately for my masked enemies and fortunately for myself, 
I have five years' experience in fighting American newspapers, an}' one 
of which, notwithstanding the grandiloquent style of the "Anthropo- 
sophists," "B.'s" and "Onesimuses" is any day more than a match in 
humour, and especially in wit, for a swarm of such pseudonymous 
wasps as work on the Review. If I go to the trouble of noticing their 
last Saturday's curry of weak arguments and impertinent personalities 
at all, it is simply with the object of proving once more that it requires 
more wit than seems to be at their command to compel my silence. 
Abuse is no argument; moreover, if applied indiscriminately it may 
prove dangerous sometimes. 

Hence, I intend noticing but one particular point. As to their con- 
ceit, it is very delightful to behold! What a benevolent tone of 
patronage combined with modesty is theirs! How refreshing in hot 
weather to hear them saying of oneself: 

We have been more charitable to her than she seems subsequently to deserve [! !]. 

Could dictatorial magnanimity be carried further? And this dithy- 
rambic, which forces one's recognition of the worth of the mighty ones 
"of broad and catholic views," who control the fates of The Bombay 
Revietc, and have done in various ways so much "for the races of 
India"! One might fancy he heard the "spirits" of Lord Mayo and 
Sir William Jones themselves blowing through the pipes of this earth- 
shaking organ. 


Has it acquired its reverberant diapason from the patronage of all 
the native princes whose favours it so eagerly sought a while ago? 

I have neither leisure nor desire to banter penny-a-line wit with such 
gold-medal experts, especially when I honestly write above my own 
signature and they hide themselves behind secure pseudonyms. 
Therefore, I will leave their claptrap about "weeds and Madame 
Sophy " to be digested by themselves, and notice but the insinuation 
about "Russian spies." I agree with the Review editor when he says 
that it is the business of Sir Richard Temple and Sir Frank Souter to 
take care of such "spies." And I will further add that it is these two 
gentlemen alone who have the right or the authority to denoimce such 

No other person, were he even the noblest of the lords instead of an 
anonymous writer, can or will be allowed to throw out such a malicious 
and mischievous hint about a woman and a citizen of the United States. 
He who does it risks being brought to the bar of that most just of all 
tribunals — a British Court. And if either of my ambuscaders wishes 
to test the question, pray let him put his calumny in some tangible 
shape. Such a vile innuendo — even when shaped into the sham-denial 
of a bazaar rumour, becomes something more serious than whole folios 
of the "flapdoodle" (the stuff — as sailors say — upon which fools are 
fed) which the Review? ' s Christian Shastris serve up against Theosophy 
and Theosophists. In the interest of that youthful and boisterous 
paper itself, we hope that henceforth it will get its information from a 
more reliable source than the Bombay market places. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 
Bombay, March i/t/i, iSyg. 



[Probably from the London Spiritualist.'] 

If my memory has not altogether evaporated under the combined 
influences of this blazing Indian sun and the frequent misconstructions 
of your correspondents, there occurred, in March, 1878, an epistolary 
skirmish between one who prudently conceals his face behind the two 
masks of "Scrutator" and "M.A. Cantab.," and your humble servant. 
He again attacks me in the character of my London Nemesis. Again 
he lets fly a Parthian shaft from behind the fence of one of his pseudo- 
nyms. Again he has found a mare's nest in my garden — a chrono- 
logical, instead of a metaphysical one this time. He is exercised about 
my age, as though the value of my statements would be in the least 
affected by either rejuvenating me to infancy, or ageing me into a 
double centenarian. He has read in the Revue Spirite for October last 
a sentence in which, discussing this very point, I say that I have not 
passed thirty years in India. And that : 

Oest justement nion age — qicoique fort respectable tel qiCil est — qui s' oppose violem- 
ment a cette chronologic, etc. 

I reproduce the sentence exactly as it appears, with the sole exception 
of restoring the period after "VInde" in the place of the comma, which 
is simply a typographical mistake. The capital C which immediately 
follows would have conveyed to anyone except a "Scrutator" my exact 
meaning, viz., that my age itself, hozvever respectable, is opposed to the 
idea that I had passed thirty years in India. 

I do hope that my ever-masked assailant will devote some leisure to 
the study of French as well as of punctuation before he attacks again. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

Bombay, Feb., iSjq. 


[From The Deccan Star, March 30th, 1879.] 

In The Indian Tribune of March 15th appears a letter upon the rela- 
tions of the Theosophical Society with the Arya Samaj. The writer 
seems neither an enemy of our cause, nor hostile to the Society; there- 
fore I will try in a gentle spirit to correct certain misapprehensions 
under which he labours. 

As he signs himself "A Member," he must, therefore, be regarded 
by us as a Brother. And yet he seems moved by an unwarranted fear 
to a hasty repudiation of too close a connection between our Society 
and his Samaj, lest the fair name of the latter be compromised before 
the public by some strange notions of ours. He says: 

I have been surprised to hear that the Society embraces people who believe in 
magic. Should this, however, be the belief of the Theosophical Society, I could 
only assure your readers that the Arya Samaj is not in common with them in this 
respect. . . . Only as far as Vedic learning and Vedic philosophy is concerned, 
their objects may be said to be similar. 

It is these voxy points I now mean to answer. 

The gist of the whole question is as to the correct definition of the 
word "Magic," and understanding of what Vaidic "learning and philo- 
sophy" are. If by Magic is meant the popular superstitious belief in 
sorcery, witchcraft and ghosts in general; if it involves the admission 
that s?tpernainral feats may be performed ; if it requires faith in miracles 
— that is to say, phenomena outside natural law; then, on behalf of 
every Theosophist, whether a sceptic yet unconverted, a believer in 
and student of phenomena pure and simple, or even a modern Spiri- 
tualist so-called — i.e., one who believes mediumistic phenomena to be 
necessarily caused by returning human Spirits — we emphatically repu- 
diate the accusation. 

We did not see The Civil and Military Gazette, which seems so well 
acquainted with our doctrines; but if it meant to accuse any Theo- 


sophists of any such belief, then, like many other Gazettes and Reviews, 
it talked of that which it knew nothing about. 

Our Society believes in no miracle, diabolical or human, nor in any- 
thing which eludes the grasp of either philosophical and logical 
induction, or the syllogistic method of deduction. But if the cor- 
rupted and comparatively modern term of "Magic" is understood to 
mean the higher study and knowledge of Nature and deep research 
into her hidden powers — those Occult and mysterious laws which 
constitute the ultimate essence of every element — whether with the 
ancients we recognize but four or five, or with the moderns over sixty; 
or, again, if by Magic is meant that ancient study within the sanctu- 
aries, known as the "worship of the Light," or divine and spiritual 
wisdom — as distinct from the worship of darkness or ignorance — which 
led the initiated High-priests of antiquity among the Aryans, Chal- 
daeans, Medes and Egyptians to be called Maha, Magi or Maginsi, and 
by the Zoroastrians Meghistam (from the root Meh'ah, great, learned, 
wise) — then, we Theosophists "plead guilty." 

We do study that "Science of sciences," extolled by the Eclectics 
and Platonists of the Alexandrian Schools, and practised by the Theur- 
gists and the Mystics of every age. If Magic gradually fell into 
disrepute, it was not because of its intrinsic worthlessness, but through 
misconception and ignorance of its primitive meaning, and especially 
the cunning policy of Christian theologians, who feared lest many of 
the phenomena produced by and through natural (though Occult) law 
should give the direct lie to, and thus cheapen, "Divine biblical 
miracle," and so forced the people to attribute every manifestation that 
they could not comprehend or explain to the direct agency of a per- 
sonal devil. As well accuse the renowned Magi of old of having had 
no better knowledge of divine truth and the hidden powers and possi- 
bilities of physical law than their successors, the uneducated Parsi 
Mobeds, or the Hindu Maharajahs of that shameless sect known as 
the Valiabhacharyas, both of whom yet derive their appellation from 
the Persian word Mog or Mag, and the Sanskrit Maha. More than one 
glorious truth has thus tumbled down through human ignorance from 
the sublime unto the ridiculous. 

Plato, and even the sceptical Lucian, both recognized the high 
wisdom and profound learning of the Magi ; and Cicero, speaking of 
those who inhabited Persia in his times, calls them "sapientium et 
doctorum genus majorum." And if so, we must evidently believe that 


these Magi or "magicians" were not such as London sees at a shil- 
ling a seat — nor yet certain fraudulent spiritual mediums. The Science 
of such Theurgists and Philosophers as Pythagoras, Plotinus, Porphyry, 
Proclus, Bruno, Paracelsus, and a host of other great men, has now- 
fallen into disrepute. But had our Brother Theosophist, Thomas Alva 
Edison, the inventor of the telephone and the phonograph, lived in 
the days of Galileo, he would have surely expiated on the rack or at 
the stake his sin of having found the means to fix on a soft surface of 
metal, and preserve for long years, the sounds of the human voice, 
for his talent would have been pronounced the gift of hell. And yet, 
such an abuse of brute power to suppress truth would not have changed 
a scientific discovery into a foolish and disreputable superstition. 

But our friend "A Member," consenting to descend to our level in 
one point at least, admits himself that in "Vedic learning and philo- 
sophv" the Arya Samaj and the Theosophical Society are upon a 
common ground. Then, I have something to appeal to as an authority 
which will be better still than the so-much-derided Magic, Theurgy 
and Alchemy. It is the Vedas themselves, for "Magic" is brought into 
every tine of the sacred books of the Aryans. Magic is indispensable for 
the comprehension of either of the six great schools of Aryan philo- 
sophy. And it is precisely to understand them, and thus enable our- 
selves to bring to light the hidden summum bonum of that mother of 
all Eastern Philosophies known as the Vedas, and the later Brahraani- 
cal literature, that we study it. Neglect this study, and we, in common 
with all Europe, would have to set Max Muller's interpretations of the 
Vedas far above those of Svami Dyanand Sarasvati, as given in his 
Veda Bhdshya. And we would have to let the Anglo-German Sans- 
kritist go uncontradicted, when he says that with the exception of the 
Rik, none other of the four sacred books is deserving of the name of 
Veda, especially the Atharva Veda, which is absurd, magical nonsense, 
composed of sacrificial formulas, charms and incantations (see his 
Lecture on the Vedas). This is, therefore, why, disregarding every 
misconception, we humbly beg to be allowed to follow the analytical 
method of such students and practitioners of "Magic" as Kapila— 
mentioned in the Shvctdshvatara Upauis/iad as 

The Rishi nourished with knowledge by the Cod himself— 
Patanjali, the great authority of the Yoga, Shankaracharya of theurgic 
memory, and even Zoroaster, who certainly learned his wisdom from 
the initiated Brahmaus of Arvavarta. And we do not see why, for 


that, we should be held up to the world's scorn, as either superstitious 
fools or hallucinated enthusiasts, b> r our own brother of the Arya 
Samaj. I will say more. While the latter is, perhaps, in common 
with other "members" of the same Samaj, unable and perfectly help- 
less to defend Svami Dyanand against the sophistry of such partial 
scoffers as a certain Pandit Mahesa Chandra Nyayaratna, of Calcutta, 
who would have us believe the Veda Bhashya a futile attempt at inter- 
pretation ; we, Theosophists, do not shrink from assuming the burden. 
When the Svami affirms that Agni and Ishvara are identical, the Cal- 
cutta Pandit calls it "stuff." To him Agni means the coarse, visible 
fire, with which one melts his ghee and cooks his rice cakes. Ap- 
parently he does not know, as he might, if he had studied "Magic" — 
that is to say, had familiarized himself with the views about the divine 
Fire or L,ight, "whose external body is Flame," held by the mediaeval 
Rosicrucians (the Fire-Philosophers) and all their initiated predeces- 
sors and successors — that the Vedic Agni is in fact and deed Ishvara 
and nothing else. The Svami makes no mistake when he says: 

For Agni is all the deities and Vishnu is all the deities. For these two [divine] 
bodies, Agni and Vishnu, are the two ends of the sacrifice. 

At one end of the ladder which stretches from heaven to earth is 
Ishvara — Spirit, Supreme Being, subjective, invisible and incomprehen- 
sible; at the other his visible manifestation, "sacrificial fire." 

So well has this been comprehended by every religious Philosophy 
of antiquity that the enlightened Parsi worships not gross flame, but 
the divine Spirit within, of which it is the visible type; and even in 
the Jewish Bible there is the unapproachable Jehovah and his down- 
rushing fire which consumes the wood upon the altar and licks up the 
water in the trench about it (i Kings, xviii. 38). There is also the 
visible manifestation of God in the burning bush of Moses, and the 
Holy Ghost, in the Gospels of the Christians, descending like tongues 
of flame upon the heads of the assembled disciples on the day of 
Pentecost. There is not an Esoteric Philosophy or rather Theosophy, 
which did not apprehend this deep spiritual idea, and each and all 
are traceable to the Vaidic sacred books. Says the author of The 
Rosicmcians in his chapter on "The Nature of Fire," and quoting R. 
Fludd, the mediaeval Theosophist and Alchemist: 

Wonder no longer then, if, in the religions of the Aryans, Medes and Zoroas- 
trians, rejected so long as an idolatry, the ancient Persians and their masters, the 
Magi, concluding that they saw "All" in this supernaturally magnificent Element 



[fire] fell down and worshipped it; making of it the visible representation of the 
truest, but yet, in man's speculations, in his philosophies, nay, in his commonest 
reason, impossible God; God being everywhere and in us, and indeed us, in the 
God-lighted man, and impossible to be contemplated or known outside, being All. 

This is the teaching of the mediaeval Fire-Philosophers known as 
the Brothers of the Rosie-Cross, such as Paracelsus, Kunrath, Van 
Helmont, and that of all the Illuminati and Alchemists who suc- 
ceeded these, and who claimed to have discovered the eternal Fire, or 
to have "found out God in the Immortal Light" — that light whose 
radiance shone through the Yogis. The same author remarks of them: 

Already, in their determined climbing unto the heights of thought, had these 
Titans of mind achieved, past the cosmical through the shadowy borders of the 
Real and Unreal, into Magic. For is Magic wholly false ? 

— he goes on to ask. No; certainly not, when by Magic is understood 
the higher study of divine, and yet not supernatural law, though the 
latter be, as yet, undiscovered by exact and materialistic phenomena, 
such as those which are believed in by nearly twenty millions of well- 
educated, often highly enlightened and learned persons in Europe 
and America. These are as real, and as well authenticated by the 
testimony of thousands of unimpeached witnesses, and as scientifically 
and mathematically proved as the latest discoveries of our Brother 
T. A. Edison. If the term "fool" is applicable to such men of Science 
and giants of intellect of the two hemispheres, as W. Crookes, F.R.S., 
Alfred Russel Wallace, the greatest Naturalist of Europe and a suc- 
cessful rival of Darwin, and as Flammarion, the French Astronomer, 
Member of the Academy of Sciences of France, and Professor Zollner, 
the celebrated Leipzig Astronomer and Physicist, and Professor Hare, 
the great Chemist of America, and many another no less eminent 
Scientist, unquestioned authorities upon any other qzicstion but the 
so-called spiritual phenomena, and all firm Spiritualists themselves, 
often converted only after years of careful investigation — then, indeed, 
we Theosophists would not find ourselves in bad company, and would 
deem it an honour to be called "fools" were we even firm orthodox 
Spiritualists ourselves — i.e., believers in perambulating ghosts and 
materialized bhuts — which we are not. But we are believers in the 
phenomena of the Spiritualists (even if we do doubt their "spirits"), 
for we happen to know them to be actual facts. It is one thing to 
reject unproved theory, and quite another to battle against well-estab- 
lished facts. Everyone has a right to doubt, until further and stronger 


evidence, whether these modern phenomena which are inundating the 
Western countries, are all produced by disembodied "spirits" — for it 
happens to be hitherto a mere speculative doctrine raised up by enthu- 
siasts; but no one is authorized — unless he can bring to contradict the 
fact, something better and weightier than the mere negations of sceptics 
— to deny that such phenomena do occur. If we Theosophists (and a 
very small minority of us), disclaim the agency of "spirits" in such 
manifestations, it is because we can prove in most instances to the 
Spiritualists, that many of their phenomena, whether of physical or 
psychological nature, can be reproduced by some of our Adepts at will, 
and without any aid of "spirits" or resort to either divine or diabolical 
miracle, but simply hy developing the Occult powers of the man's 
Inner Self and studying the mysteries of Nature. That European and 
American sceptics should deny such interference by Spirits, and, as 
a consequence discredit the phenomena themselves, is no cause for 
wonder. Scarcely liberated from the clutches of the Church, whose 
terrible policy, barely a century ago, was to torture and put to death 
every person who either doubted biblical "divine" miracle, or endorsed 
one which theology declared diabolical, it is but the natural force of 
reaction which makes them revel in their new-found liberty of thought 
and action. One who denies the Supreme and the existence of his own 
Soul, is not likely to believe in either Spirits or phenomena, without 
abundant proof. But that Eastern people, Hindus especially, of any 
sect, should disbelieve, is indeed an anomaly, considering that they all 
are taught the transmigration of Souls, and spiritual as well as physical 
evolution. The sixteenth chapter of the Mahabharata, Harivansha 
Parva, is full of spiritual phenomena and the raising of Spirits. And if, 
ashamed of the now termed "superstitions" of their forefathers, young 
India turns, sunflower-like, but to the great luminaries of the West, 
this is what one of the most renowned men of Science of England, 
A. R. Wallace — a Fellow of the Royal as well as a member of the 
Theosophical Society — says of the phenomena in his Contributions to 
the Theory of Natural Selection, and On Miracles and Modern Spiritualism, 
thus confirming the belief of old India: 

Up to the time when I first became acquainted with the facts of Spiritualism, I 
was a confirmed philosophical sceptic. I was so thorough and confirmed a Mate- 
rialist, that I could not at that time find a place in my mind for the conception of 
spiritual existence, or for any other genesis in the universe than matter and force. 
Facts, however, "are stubborn things." 

MAGIC. 205 

Having explained how he came to become a Spiritualist, he considers 
the spiritual theory and shows its compatibility with natural selection. 
Having, he says: 

Been led, by a strict induction from facts, to a belief— firstly, in the existence of 
a number of .preter-human intelligences of various grades; and secondly, that some 
of these intelligences, although usually invisible and intangible to us, can and do 
act on matter, and do influence our minds — I am surely following a strictly logical 
and scientific course, in seeing how far this doctrine will enable us to account for 
some of those residual phenomena which Natural Selection alone will not explain. 
In the tenth chapter of my Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection I have 
pointed out what I consider to be some of these residual phenomena; and I have 
suggested that they may be due to the action of sonic of the various intelligences 
above referred to. I maintained, and still maintain, that this view is one which is 
logically tenable, and is in no way inconsistent with a thorough acceptance of tin- 
grand doctrine of evolution through Natural Selection. 

Would not one think he hears in the above the voices of Manu, 
Kapila and many other Philosophers of old India, in their teachings 
about the creation, evolution and growth of our planet and its living 
world of animal as well as human species? Does the great modern 
Scientist speak less of "Spirits" and spiritual beings than Manu, the 
antediluvian scientist and prehistoric legislator? L,et young and seep- 


tical India read and compare the old Aryan ideas with those of modern 
Mystics, Theosophists, Spiritualists, and a few great Scientists, and then 
laugh at the s7ipcrstitious theories of both. 

For four years we have been fighting out our great battle against 
tremendous odds. We have been abused and called traitors by the 
Spiritualists, for believing in other beings in the invisible world besides 
their departed Spirits; we were cursed and sentenced to eternal damna- 
tion, with free passports to hell, by the Christians and their clergy ; 
ridiculed by sceptics, looked upon as audacious lunatics by society, 
and tabooed by the conservative press. We thought we had drunk to 
the dregs the bitter cup of gall. We had hoped that at least in India, 
the country par excellence of psychological and metaphysical Science, 
we would find firm ground for our weary feet. But lo! here comes a 
brother of ours who, without even taking the trouble to ascertain 
whether or not the rumours about us are true, in case we do believe in 

either Magic or Spiritualism Well! We impose ourselves upon no 

one. For more than four years we lived and waxed in power if not 
in wisdom — which latter our humble deputation of Theosophists was 
sent to search for here, so that we might impart "Vaidic learning and 


philosophy" to the millions of famished souls in the West, who are 
familiar with phenomena, but wrongly suffer themselves to be misled 
through their mistaken notions about ghosts and bhuts. But if we are 


to be repulsed at the outset by any considerable party of Arya Samaj- 
ists, who share the views of "A Member," then will the Theosophical 
Society, with its 45,000 or so of Western Spiritualists, have to become 
again a distinct and independent body, and do as well as it can without 
a single "member" to enlighten it on the absurdity of Spiritualism 
.jand Magic. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 
Bombay, March, iSyg. 


[From The Banner of Light, May 13th, 1879, but addressed to the Editor of 

The Bombay Gazette^ 

On the very day of my return from a month's travel, I am shown by 
the American Consul two paragraphs, viz., one in your paper of the 
10th inst., which mentions me as the "Russian 'Baroness,'" and one in 
The Times of India of the 8th, whose author had tried hard to be witty 
but only succeeded in being impertinent and calumnious. In this last 
paragraph I am referred to as a woman who called herself a "Russian 

With the original and selected matter in your contemporary you, of 
course, have nothing to do. If the editor can find "amusing" such 
slanderous tomfooleries as the extract in question from The Colonial 
Gazette and Star of India, and risk a suit for libel for circulating defa- 
mations of a respectable scientific Society, and vilifying its honoured 
President by calling him a "secret detective" — an outrageous lie, by 
the way — that is not your affair. My present business is to take the 
Gazette to task for thrusting upon my unwilling Republican head the 
baronial coronet. Know, please, once for all, that I am neither "Coun- 
tess," "Princess," nor even a modest "Baroness" — whatever I may 
have been before last July. At that time I became a plain citizen of 
the United States of America. I value that title far more than any 
that could be conferred on me by King or Emperor. Being this, I 
could be nothing else, if I wished ; for, as everyone knows, had I been 
even a princess of the royal blood before, once that my oath of allegi- 
ance was pronounced, I forfeited every claim to titles of nobility. 
Apart from this notorious fact, my experience of things in general, and 
peacocks' feathers in particular, has led me to acquire a positive con- 
tempt for titles; since it appears that, outside the boundaries of their 
own fatherlands, Russian princes, Polish counts, Italian marquises and 
German barons, are far more plentiful inside than outside the police 


precincts. Permit me further to state — if only for the edification of 
The Times of India and a brood of snarling little papers searching 
around after the garbage of journalism — that I have never styled 
myself aught but what I can prove myself to be, namely, an honest 
woman, now a citizen of America, my adopted country, and the only 
land of true freedom in the whole world. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 
Bombay, May 12th. 



[From The Amrita Bazar Patrika, June 13th, 1S79.] 

I pray you to give me, in your Calcutta paper, space enough to reply 
to the mendacious comments of one of our religious neighbours upon 
the Theosophical Society. The Indian Christian Herald, in the number 
of April 4th (which unhappily has just now reached my eye), with a 
generosity peculiar to religious papers, filled two pages with pious 
abuse of our Society as a body. I gather from it, moreover, that The 
Friend of India had previously gone out of its way to vilify the Society, 
since the former paper observes that : 

The Theosophical Society has merited the epithets employed ahout it by The 
Friend of In 

To my everlasting confusion be it said, that I am guilty of the crime 

of not only never reading, but also of never having so much as laid 

my eyes upon that last named veteran organ. Nor can any of our 

Theosophists be charged with abusing the precious privilege of reading 

the missionary journals, a considerable time having elapsed since each 

of us was weaned, and relinquished milk-and-water pap. Not that we 

shirk the somniferous task under the spur of necessity. Were not the 

proof of our present writing itself sufficient, I need only cite the case 

of the Bombay missionary organ, The Dnyanodaya, which, on the 17th 

ult., infamously libelled us, and on the 25th was forced by Colonel 

Olcott's solicitor, Mr. Turner, to write an ample apology, in order to 

avoid a criminal prosecution for defamation of character. We regret 

now to see that while the truly good and pious writer of the Herald 

was able to rise to the level of Billingsgate, he would not (or dared 

not?) climb to the height of actionable slander. Truly prudence is a 

great virtue! 

Confronted, as we all have so often been, with the intolerant bigotry 



— religious "zeal" they call it — and puerile anathemas of the clerical 
"followers of the meek and lowly Jesus," no Theosophist is surprised 
to find the peas from the He?'ald-shootQr rattling against his armour. 
It adds to the clatter, but no one is mortally hurt. And, after all, how 
natural that the poor fellows who try to administer spiritual food to the 
benighted heathen — much after the fashion of the Strasburg goose- 
fatteners, who thrust balls of meal down the throats of the captive 
birds, unmasticated, to swell their livers — should shake at the intrusion 
of Europeans who are read}' to analyze for the heathen these scripture- 
balls they are asked to grease with blind faith and swallow without 
chewing! People like us, who would have the effrontery to claim for 
the "heathen" the same right to analyze the Bible as the Christian 
clergy claim to analyze and even to revile the sacred Scriptures of 
other people, must of course be put down. And the very Christian 
Herald tries his hand. It says: 

Let us without any bias or prejudice reflect . . . about the Theosophical 
Society . . . such a mortal degradation of persons [the Buddhist, Aryan, Jain, 
Pars!, Hebrew and Mussulman Theosophists, included?] who can see nothing good 
in the Bible . . . [and who] ought to remember that the Bible is not only a 
blessed book, but our book [!]. 

The latter piece of presumptuous conceit cannot be allowed to pass 
unnoticed. Before I answer the preceding invectives I mean to demand 
a clear definition of this last sentence, "our Book." Whose Book? 
The Herald's? "Our" must mean that; for the seven thick volumes of 
the Speaker's Commentary on the Old Testament* show that the posses- 
sive pronoun and the singular noun in question can no longer be used 
by Christians when speaking of the Bible. So numerous and glaring 
have been the mistakes and mis-translations detected by the forty 
divines of the Anglican Church, during their seven years' revision 
of the Old Testament, that the L,ondon Quarterly Review (No. 294, 
April, 1S79), the organ of the most extreme orthodoxy, is driven in 
despair to say: 

The time has certainly passed when the whole Bible could be practically esteemed 
a single Book, miraculously communicated in successive portions from heaven, put 
into writing no doubt by human hands, but at the dictation of the divine spirit. 

So we see beyond question that if it is anybody's "Book" it must be 

The Indian Christian Herald's; for, in fact, its editors add: 

* The Bible, according to the authorized version (a.d. i6ii), with an explanatory and critical com- 
mentary and a revision of the translation, by bishops and other clergy of the Anglican Church. 
Edited by F. C Cook, M.A., Canon of Exeter, Preacher at Lincoln's Inn, Chaplain in Ordinary to the 
Queen. Vols, i.-vi. The Old Testament. London, 1871-1876. 


We feel it to be no more a collection of books, but the book. 

But here is another bitter pill for your contemporary. It says in a 
pious gush : 

The words which had come from the prophets of the despised Israel have been 
the life-blood of the world's devotion. 

But the inexorable quarterly reviewer, after reluctantly abandoning 
to the analytical scalpels of Canon Cook and Bishop Harold Browne the 
Mosaic miracles — whose supernatural character is no longer affirmed, 
but they are allowed to be "natural phenomena" — turns to the pre- 
tended Old Testament prophecies of Christ, and sadly says: 

In the poetical [psalms and songs] and the prophetical books especially the 
number of corrections is enormous. 

And he shows how the commentators upon Isaiah and the other so- 
called prophets have reluctantly admitted that the time-worn verses 
which have been made to serve as predictive of Christ have in truth no 
such meaning. He says: 

It requires an effort to break the association, and to realize how much less they 
[the prophecies] must have meant at first to the writers themselves. But it is just 
this that the critical expositor is bound to do . . . for this some courage is 
required, for the result is apt to seem like a disenchantment for the worse, a descent 
to an inferior level, a profanation of the paradise in which ardent souls have found 
spiritual sustenance and delight. 

(Such "souls" as the Herald editor's?) What wonder, then, that 
the explosion of these seven theological torpedoes — as the seven 
volumes of the Speaker's Commentary may truly be called — should 
force the reviewer into saying: 

To us, we confess, every attempt to place the older Scriptures on the same 
supreme pinnacle on which the New Testament of later Revelation stands, is 
doomed to failure. 

The Herald is welcome to what is left of its "Book." 
How childishly absurd it was then of the Herald to make a whole 
Society the scapegoat for the sins of one individual! It is now univer- 
sally known that the Society comprises fellows of many nationalities 
and many different religious faiths, and that its Council is made up of 
the representatives of these faiths; yet the Herald endorses the false- 
hood that the Society's principles are "a strange compound of 
Paganism and Atheism," and its creed "a creed as comprehensive as 
it is incomprehensible." What other answer does this calumny require 
than the fact that our President has publicly declared that it had "no 


creed to offer for the world's acceptance," * and that in art. viii of the 
Society's Rules, appended to the printed Address, in an enumeration 
of the plans of the Society, the first paragraph says that it aims: 
To keep alive in man his belief that he has a soul, and the Universe a God. 

If this is a "compound of Paganism and Atheism," then let the 
Herald make the most of it. 

But the Society is not the real offender; the clerical stones are 
thrown into my garden. The Herald's quotation of an expression 
used by me, in commenting upon a passage of Sir John Kay's Sepoy 
War, making The Friend of India and Co. primarily responsible for 
that bloody tragedy, shows the whole animus. It was I who said (see 
Indian Spectator, March 2nd) that: 

India owes everything to the British Government and not to Christianity 

— i.e., to missionaries. I may have lost my "senses outright," as The 
Indian Christian Herald politely remarks, but I think I have enough 
left to see through the inane sophistries which they make do duty for 

We have only to say to the Herald the following: (1) It is just be- 
cause we do live in "an age of enlightenment and progress," in which 
there is (or should be) room for every form of belief, that such Augus- 
tinian tirades as the Herald's are out of place. (2) We have not a 

Mortal hatred for Christianity and its Divine Founder, 

— for the tendency of the Society is to emancipate its fellows from all 
hatred or preference for any one exoteric form of religion — i.e., with 
more of the human than divine element in it — over another (see rules); 
neither can we hate a "Founder" whom the majority of us do not 
believe to have ever existed. (3) To "retain" a "reverence for the 
Bible" one must at some time have had it, and if our own investiga- 
tions had not long since convinced us that the Bible was no more the 
"Word of God" than half a dozen other holy books, the present con- 
clusions of the Anglican divines — at least as far as the Old Testament 
is concerned — would have removed the last vestige of doubt upon that 
point. And besides sundry American clergymen and bishops we have 
among our Fellows a vicar of the Church of England, who is one of 
its most learned antiquarians. (4) The assertion that the 

Pure monotheism of the Vedas is a pure myth 

• The Tlieosophical Society and its Aim. Address delivered by Colonel H. S. Olcott, at the Framji 
Cowasji Hall, Bombay, March 23rd, 1879. 


is a pure falsehood, beside being an insult to Max Mtiller and other 
Western Orientalists, who have proved the fact; to say nothing of that 
great Aryan scholar, preacher and reformer, Svami Dyanand Saras vat i. 
"Degraded humanity" that we are, there must be indeed "some- 
thing radically wrong and corrupt" in our "moral nature," for, we 
confess to joy at seeing our Society constantly growing from acces- 
sions of some of the most influential laymen of different countries. 
And it moreover delights us to think that when we reach the bottom of 
the ditch, we will have as bedfellows half the Christian clergy, if the 
Speaker s Commentary makes as sad havoc with the divinity of the 
Nciv Testament as it has with that of the Old. Our Indian Christian 
Pecksniff in righteous indignation exclaims: 

How they managed to sink so low in the scale of moral and spiritual being must 
be a sadly interesting study for metaphysicians. 

Sad, indeed; but sadder still to reflect that unless the editors of The 
Indian Christian Herald are protected by post-mortem fire-insurance 
policies, they are in danger themselves of eternal torment. 

Whosoever shall say to his brother, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire, 

says Lord Jesus, "the Desire of nations," in Matthew, v. 22, unless 
— dreadful thought! — this verse should be also found a mistranslation. 

H. P. Bi.ayatsky, 
Corresponding Secretary of the Theosophical Society. 

[N.B.— We insert the above letter with great reluctance. The subject matter of 
the letter is not fit for our columns, and we have no sympathy with those who 
attack the religious creed of other men. The matter of fact is, a Calcutta paper 
attacks a body of men, and the latter are thrown at a great disadvantage if they 
are not allowed an opportunity by another paper of replying to the attack. It is 
from that feeling alone that we have given place to the above letter. — Ed. A. B. 



[From The Banner of Light, Oct. iSth, 1879.] 

Phenomena in India — beside the undoubted interest they offer in 
themselves, and apart from their great variety and in most instances 
utter dissimilarity from those we are accustomed to hear of in Europe 
and America — possess another feature which makes them worthy of 
the most serious attention of the investigator of Psychology. 

Whether Eastern phenomena are to be accounted for by the imme- 
diate interference and help of the spirits of the departed, or attributed 
to some other and hitherto unknown cause, is a question which, for the 
present, we will leave aside. It can be discussed, with some degree of 
confidence, only after many instances have been carefully noted and 
submitted, in all their truthful and unexaggerated details, to an impar- 
tial and unprejudiced public. One thing I beg to reaffirm, and this is, 
that instead of exacting the usual "conditions" of darkness, harmo- 
nious circles, and nevertheless leaving the witnesses uncertain as to 
the expected results, Indian phenomena, if we except the independent 
apparitions of bhuts (ghosts of the dead), are never sporadic and spon- 
taneous, but seem to depend entirely upon the will of the operator, 
whether he be a holy Hindu Yogi, a Mussulman Sadhu, Fakir, or yet a 
juggling Jaddugar (sorcerer). 

In this connection I mean to present numerous examples of what I here 
say; for whether we read of the seemingly supernatural feats produced 

A. A. 

by the Rishis, the Aryan patriarchs of archaic antiquity, or by Acharyas 
of the Pauranic days, or hear of them from popular traditions, or again 
see them repeated in our modern times, we always find such pheno- 
mena to be of the most varied character. Besides covering the whole 
range of those known to us through modern mediumistic agency, as 
well as repeating the mediaeval pranks of the nuns of Eoudon and 
other historical posscdees in cases of bhut obsession, we often recognize 


in them the exact counterparts — as once upon a time they must have 
been the originals — of biblical miracles. With the exception of two 
— those over which the world of piety goes most into raptures while 
glorifying the Lord, and the world of scepticism grins most sardoni- 
cally — to wit, the anti-heliocentric crime performed by Joshua, and 
Jonah's unpleasant excursion into the slimy cavern of the whale's 
bell\' — we have to record as occasionally taking place in India, nearly 
every one of the feats which are said to have so distinguished Moses 
and other "friends of God." 

But alas for those venerable jugglers of Judaea! And alas for those 
pious souls who have hitherto exalted these alleged prophets of the 
forthcoming Christ to such a towering eminence! The idols have just 
been all but knocked off their pedestals by the parricidal hands of the 
forty divines of the Anglican Church, who now are known to have 
sorely disparaged the Jewish Scriptures. The despairing cry raised 
by the reviewer of the just issued Commentary on the "Holy" Bible, in 
the most extreme organ of orthodoxy (the London Quarterly Revi 
for April, 1S79), is only matched by his meek submission to the inevit- 
able. The fact I am alluding to is one already known to you, for I 
speak of the decision and final conclusive opinions upon the worth of 
the Bible by the conclave of learned bishops who have been engaged 
for the last dozen years on a thorough revision of the Old Testament. 
The results of this labour of love may be summarized thus: 

1. The shrinkage of the Mosaic and other "miracles" into mere 
natural phenomena. (See decisions of Canon Cook, the Queen's Chap- 
lain, and Bishop Harold Browne.) 

2. The rejection of most of the alleged prophecies of Christ as such; 
the said prophecies now turning out to have related simply to contem- 
poraneous events in Jewish national history. 

3. Resolutions to place no more the Old Testament on the same 
eminence as the Gospels, as it would inevitably lead to the disparage- 
ment of the new one. 

4. The sad confession that the Mosaic Books do not contain one word 
about a future life, and the just complaint that : 

Moses under divine direction [?] should have abstained from any recognition of 
man's destiny beyond the grave, while the belief was prominent in all the religious 
around Israel. 

This is: 

Confessed to be one of those enigmas which are the trial of our faith. 


And it is the "trial" of our American missionaries here also. Edu- 
cated natives all read the English papers and magazines, and it now 
becomes harder than ever to convince these "heathen" matriculates of 
the "sublime truths" of Christianity. But this by way of a small 
parenthesis; for I mention these newly evolved facts only as having an 
important bearing upon Spiritualism in general, and its phenomena 
especially. Spiritualists have always taken such pains to identify their 
manifestations with the Bible miracles, that such a decision, coming 
from witnesses certainly more prejudiced in favour of than opposed to 
"miracles" and divine supernal phenomena, is rather a new and unex- 
pected difficulty in our way. Let us hope that in view of these new 
religious developments, our esteemed friend Dr. Peebles, before com- 
mitting himself too far to the establishment of "independent Christian 
churches," will wait for further ecclesiastical verdicts, and see how the 
iconoclastic verdicts, and how the iconoclastic English divines will 
overhaul the phenomena of the New Testament. Maybe, if their con- 
sistency does not evaporate, they will have to attribute all the miracles 
worked by Jesus also to "natural phenomena" ! Very happily for Spiri- 
tualists, and for Theosophists likewise, the phenomena of the nineteenth 
century cannot be as easily disposed of as those of the Bible. We have 
had to take the latter for nearly two thousand years on mere blind faith, 
though but too often they transcended every possible law of nature; 
while quite the reverse is our own case, and we can offer facts. 

But to return. If manifestations of an Occult nature of the most 
various character may be said to abound in India, on the other hand, 
the frequent statements of Dr. Peebles to the effect that this country is 
full of native Spiritualists, are — how shall I say it? — a little too hasty 
and exaggerated. Disputing this point in the London Spiritualist of 
Jan. 18th, 1878, with a Madras gentleman, now residing in New York, 
he maintained his position in the following words: 

I have met not only Sinhalese and Chinese Spiritualists, but hundreds of Hindu 
Spiritualists, gifted with the powers of conscious mediumship. And yet Mr. 
W. L. D. O'Grady, of New York, informs the readers of The Spiritualist (see issue 
Nov. 23rd) that there are no Hindu Spiritualists. These are his words: "No Hindu 
is a Spiritualist." 

And as an offset to this assertion, Dr. Peebles quotes from the. letter 
of an esteemed Hindu gentleman, Mr. Peary Chand Mittra, of Calcutta, 
a few words to the effect that he blesses God that his "inner vision is 
being more and more developed" and that he talks "with spirits." We 


all know that Mr. Mittra is a Spiritualist, but what does it prove? 
Would Dr. Peebles be justified in stating that because H. P. Blavatsky 
and half a dozen other Russians have become Buddhists and Yedan- 
tists, Russia is full of Buddhists and Yedantists? There may be in 
India a few Spiritualists among the educated reading classes scattered 
far and wide over the country, but I seriously doubt whether our 
esteemed opponent could easily find a dozen of such among this popu- 
lation numbering 240,000,000. There are solitary exceptions, which 
only go to strengthen a rule, as everyone knows. 

Owing to the rapid spread of spiritualistic doctrines the world over, 
and to my having left India several years before, at the time I was in 
America I abstained from contradicting in print the great spiritualistic 
"pilgrim" and philosopher, surprising as such statements seemed to 
me, who thought myself pretty well acquainted with this country. 
India, unprogressive as it is, I thought might have changed, and I was 
not sure of my facts. But now that I have returned for the fourth 
time to this country, and have had over five months' residence in it, 
after a careful investigation into the phenomena and especially into 
the opinions held by the people on this subject, and seven weeks of 
travelling all over the country, mainly for the purpose of seeing and 
investigating every kind of manifestations, I must be allowed to know 
what I am talking about, as I speak by the book. Mr. O'Grady was 
right. No "Hindu is a Spiritualist" in the sense we all understand 
the term. And I am now ready to prove, if need be, by dozens of letters 
from the most trustworthy natives who are educated by Brahmans, and 
know the religious and superstitious views of their countrymen better 
than any one of us, that whatever else Hindus may be termed it is not 
Spiritualists. "What constitutes a Spiritualist?" very pertinently en- 
quires, in a London spiritual organ, a correspondent with "a passion 
for definition" (see Spiritualist, June 13th, 1879). He asks: 

Is Mr. Crookes a Spiritualist, who, like my humble self, does not believe in 
spirits of the dead as agents in the phenomena? 

He then brings forward several definition-. 

From the most latitudinarian to the most restricted definitions. 

Let us see to which of these "definitions" the "Spiritualism" of the 
Hindus— I will not say of the mass, but even of a majority— would 
answer. Since Dr. Peebles— during his two short visits to India ami 
while on his way from Madias, cro.ssing the continent in its diameter 
from Calcutta to Bombav— could meet "hundreds of Spiritualists," 


then these must indeed form, if not the majority, at least a consider- 
able percentage of the 240,000,000 of India. I will now quote the 
definitions from the letter of the enquirer who signs himself "A Spiri- 
tualist" (?), and add my own remarks thereupon: 

A. — Everyone is a Spiritualist who believes in the immortality of the soul. 

I guess not; otherwise the whole of Christian Europe and America 
would be Spiritualists; nor does this definition A answer to the reli- 
gious views of the Hindus of any sect, for while the ignorant masses 
believe in and aspire to Moksha, i.e., literal absorption of the spirit of 
man in that of Brahman, or loss of individual immortality, as means of 
avoiding the punishment and horrors of transmigration, the Philoso- 
phers, Adepts, and learned Yogis, such as our venerated master, Svami 
Dyanand Sarasvati, the great Hindu reformer, Sanskrit scholar, and 
supreme chief of the Vaidic Section of the Eastern division of the Theo- 
sophical Society, explain the future state of man's Spirit, its progress 
and evolution, in terms diametrically opposite to the views of the Spiri- 
tualists. These views, if agreeable, I will give in some future letter. 

B. — Anyone who believes that the continued conscious existence of deceased 
persons has been demonstrated by communication is a Spiritualist. 

A Hindu, whether an erudite scholar and Philosopher or an ignorant 
idolater, does not believe in "continued conscious existence," though 
the former assigns for the hoi}-, sinless soul, which has reached Svarga 
(heaven) and Moksha, a period of many millions and quadrillions of 
years, extending from one Pralaya* to the next. The Hindu believes 
in cyclic transmigration of the soul, during which there must be 
periods when the soul loses its recollections as well as the conscious- 
ness of its individuality; since, if it were otherwise, every person 
would distinctly remember all his previous existences, which is not the 
case. Hindu Philosophers are likewise consistent with logic. They 
at least will not allow an endless eternity of either reward or punish- 
ment for a few dozens of years of earthly life, whether this life be 
wholly blameless or yet wholly sinful. 

C. — Anyone is a Spiritualist who believes in any of the alleged objective pheno- 
mena, whatever theory he may favour about them, or even if he have none at all. 

* For the meaning- of the word Pralaya see vol. ii. of /sis Unveiled. I am happy to say that not- 
withstanding the satirical criticisms upon its Vaidic and Buddhistic portions by some American 
"would-be" Orientalists, Svami Dyanand and the Rev. Sumangala of Ceylon, respectively the re- 
presentatives of Vaidic and Buddhistic scholarship and literature in India— the first the best Sans- 
krit, and the other the most eminent Pali scholar — both expressed their entire satisfaction with the 
correctness of my esoteric explanations of their respective religions. /sis Unveiled is now being 
translated into Marathi and Hindi in India, and into Pali in Ceylon. 


Such are "phenomenalists," not Spiritualists, and in this sense the 
definition answers to Hindu beliefs. All of them, even those who, 
aping the modern school of Atheism, declare themselves Materialists, 
are yet phenomenalists in their hearts, if one only sounds them. 

D and E. — Does not allow of Spiritualism without spirits, but the spirits need not 
be human. 

At this rate Theosophists and Occultists generally may also be called 
Spiritualists, though the latter regard them as enemies; and in this 
sense only all Hindus are Spiritualists, though their ideas about 
human Spirits are diametrically opposed to those of the "Spiritualists." 
They regard bhuts — which are the Spirits of those who died with 
unsatisfied desires, and who on account of their sins and earthly at- 
tractions, are earth-bound and kept back from Svarga (the "Elemen- 
taries" of the Theosophists) — as having become wicked devils, liable to 
be annihilated any day under the potent curses of much-sought- for and 
appreciated mediums.* The Hindu regards as the greatest curse a 
person can be afflicted with, possession and obsession by a bhnt, and 
the most loving couples often part if the wife is attacked by the bhut 
of a relative, who, it seems, seldom or never attacks any but women. 

F. — Considers that no one has a right to call himself a Spiritualist who has any 
new-fangled notions about "Elementaries," spirit of the medium, and so forth; 
or does not believe that departed human spirits, high and low, account for all the 
phenomena of every description. 

This one is the most proper and correct of all the above given 
"definitions," from the standpoint of orthodox Spiritualism, and 
settles our dispute with Dr. Peebles. No Hindu, were it even possible 
to bring him to regard bhuts as low, suffering Spirits on their way to 
progress and final pardon (?), could, even if he would, account for all 
the phenomena on this true spiritualistic theory. His religious and 
philosophical traditions are all opposed to such a limited idea. A 
Hindu is, first of all, a born metaphysician and logician. If he be- 
lieves at all, and in whatever he believes, he will admit of no special 
laws called into existence for men of this planet alone, but will apply 
these laws throughout the universe; for he is a Pantheist before being 
anything else, and notwithstanding his possible adherence to some 
special sect. Thus Mr. Peebles has well defined the situation himself, 
in the following happy paradox, in his Spiritualist letter above quoted, 
and in which he says: 

[Evidently the word "medium" is here used for "exorcist." EDS. 


Some of the best mediums that it has been 1113- good fortune to know, I met in 
Ceylon and India. And these were not mediums ; for, indeed, they held converse 
with the Pays and Pesatsays, having their habitations in the air, the water, the fire, 
in rocks and trees, in the clouds, the rain, the dew, in mines and caverns! 

Thus these "mediums" who were not mediums, were no more Spiri- 
tualists than they were mediums, and — the house (Dr. Peebles' house) 
is divided against itself and must fall. So far we agree, and I will now 
proceed further on with my proofs. 

As I mentioned before, Colonel Olcott and myself, accompanied by 
a Hindu gentleman, Mr. Mulji-Taker-Sing, a member of our Council, 
started on our seven weeks' journey early in April. Our object was 
twofold: (1) to pay a visit to and remain for some time with our 
ally and teacher, Svami Dyanand, with whom we had corresponded so 
long from America, and thus consolidate the alliance of our Society 
with the Arya Samajes of India (of which there are now over fifty); 
and (2) to see as much of the phenomena as we possibly could; and, 
through the help of our Svami — a Yogi himself and an Initiate into 
the mysteries of the Vidya (or Secret Science) — to settle certain vexed 
questions as to the agencies and powers at work, at first hand. Cer- 
tainly no one could find a better opportunity to do so than we had. 
There we were, on friendly relations of master and pupils with Pandit 
Dyanand, the most learned man in India, a Brahman of high caste, 
and one who had for seven long years undergone the usual and dreary 
probations of Yogism in a mountainous and wild region, in solitude, 
in a state of complete nudity and constant battle with elements and 
wild beasts — the battle of the divine human Spirit and the imperial 
will of man against gross blind matter in the shape of tigers, leopards, 
rhinoceroses and bears, without noting venomous snakes and scorpions. 
The inhabitants of the village nearest to that mountain are there to 
certify that sometimes for weeks no one would venture to take a little 
food — a handful of rice — to our Svami; and yet, whenever they came, 
they always found him in the same posture and on the same spot — an 
open, sandy hillock, surrounded by thick jungle full of beasts of prey — 
and apparently as well without food and water for whole weeks, as if 
he were made of stone instead of human flesh and bones.* He has 
explained to us this mysterious secret which enables man to suffer and 

* Yogis and ascetics are not the only examples of such protracted fastings; for if these can be 
doubted, and sometimes utterly rejected by sceptical Science as void of any conclusive proof— for 
the phenomenon takes place in remote and inaccessible places — we have many of the Jains, inhabi- 
tants of populated towns, to bring forward as exemplars of the same. Many of them fast, abstain- 
ing even from one drop of water, for forty days at a time — and survive always. 


conquer at last the most cruel privations, which permits him to go 
without food or drink for days and weeks; to become utterly insensible 
to the extremes of either heat or cold ; and finally, to live for days out- 
side instead of within his body. 

During- this voyage we visited the very cradle of Indian Mysticism, 
the hot-bed of ascetics, where the remembrance of the wondrous 
phenomena performed by the Rishis of old is no\V as fresh as it ever 
was during those days when the School of Patanjali — the reputed 
founder of Yogism — was filled, and where his Yog-Sankhya is still 
studied with as much fervour, if not with the same powers of compre- 
hension. To Upper India and the North-Western Provinces we 
went; to Allahabad and Cawnpore, with the shores of their sacred 
Ganga (Ganges) all studded with devotees; whither the latter, when dis- 
gusted with life, proceed to pass the remainder of their days in medita- 
tion and seclusion, and become Sannyasis, Gossains, Sadhus. Thence 
to Agra, with its Taj Mahal, "the poem in marble," as Bishop Heber 
happily called it, and the tomb of its founder, the great Emperor- 
Adept, Akbar, at Secundra; to Agra, with its temples crowded with 
Shakti-worshippers, and to that spot, famous in the history of Indian 
Occultism, where the Jumna mixes its blue waters with the patriarchal 
Ganges, and which is chosen by the Shaktas (worshippers of the female 
power) for the performance of their pujas, during which ceremonies 
the famous black crystals or mirrors mentioned by P. B. Randolph are 
fabricated by the hands of young virgins. From there, again, to Saha- 
rampore and Meerut, the birthplace of the mutiny of 1S57. During 
our sojourn at the former town, it happened to be the central railway 
point to which, on their return from the Hardwar pilgrimage, flocked 
nearly twenty-five thousand Sannyasis and Gossains, to numbers of 
whom Col. Olcott put close interrogatories, and with whom he con- 
versed for hours. Then to Rajputana, the land inhabited by the bravest 
of all races in India, as well as the most mystically inclined — the Solar 
Race, whose Rajahs trace descent from the sun itself. We penetrated 
as far as Jeypore, the Paris, and at the same time the Rome of the 
Rajput land. We searched through plains and mountains, and all 
along the sacred groves covered with pagodas and devotees, among 
whom we found some very holy men, endowed with genuine wondrous 
powers, but the majority were unmitigated frauds. And we got into 
the favour of more than one Brahman, guardian and keeper of his 
God's secrets and the mysteries of his temple; but got no more evi- 


dence out of these "hereditary dead beats," as Col. Olcott graphically 
dubbed them, than out of the Sannyasis and exorcizers of evil spirits, 
as to the similarity of their views with those of the Spiritualists. 
Neither have we ever failed, whenever coming across any educated 
Hindu, to pump him as to the ideas and views of his countrymen about 
phenomena in general, and Spiritualism especially. And to all our 
questions, who it was in the case of holy Yogis, endowed "with miracu- 
lous powers," that produced the manifestations, the astonished answer 
was invariably the same: "He [the Yogi] himself having become one 
with Brahm, produces them," and more than once our interlocutors 
got thoroughly disgusted and extremely offended at Col. Olcott's 
irreverent question, whether the bhuts might not have been at work 
helping the Thaumaturgist. For nearly two months uninterruptedlv 
our premises at Bombay — garden, verandahs and halls — were crammed 
from early morning till late at night with native visitors of the most 
various sects, races and religious opinions, averaging from twenty to a 
hundred and more a day, coming to see us with the object of exchang- 
ing views upon metaphysical questions, and to discuss the relative 
worth of Eastern and Western Philosophies — Occult Sciences and 
Mysticism included. During our journey we had to receive our 
brothers of the Arya Samajes, which sent their deputations wherever 
we went to welcome us, and wherever there was a Samaj established. 
Thus we became intimate with the previous views of hundreds and 
thousands of the followers of Svami Dyanand, every one of whom 
had been converted by him from one idolatrous sect or another. Many 
of these were educated men, and as thoroughly versed in Vaidic Philo- 
sophy as in the tenets of the sect from which they had separated. 
Our chances, then, of getting acquainted with Hindu views, Philo- 
sophies and traditions, were greater than those of any previous Euro- 
pean traveller; nay, greater even than those of any officials who had 
resided for years in India, but who, neither belonging to the Hindu 
faith nor on such friendly terms with them as ourselves, were neither 
trusted by the natives, nor regarded as and called by them "brothers" 
as we are. 

It is, then, after constant researches and cross-questioning, extending 
over a period of several months, that we have come to the following 
conclusions, which are those of Mr. O' Grady: No Hindu is a Spiri- 
tualist; and, with the exception of extremely rare instances, none of 
them have ever heard of Spiritualism or its movements in Europe, 


least of all in America — with which country many of them are as 
little acquainted as with the North Pole. It is but now, when Svami 
Dyanand, in his learned researches, has found out that America must 


have been known to the early Aryans — as Arjuna, one of the five 
Pandavas, the friend and disciple of Christna, is shown in Pauranic 
history to have gone to Patal(a) in search of a wife, and married in 
that country Ulupi, the widow daughter of Naga, the king of Patal(a), 
an antipodal country answering perfectly in its description to America, 
and unknown in those early days to any but the Aryans — that an 
interest for this country is being felt among the members of the 
Samajes. But, as we explained the origin, development and doctrines 
of the Spiritual Philosophy to our friends, and especially the modus 
operandi of the mediums — i.e., the communion of the Spirits of the 
departed with living men and women, whose organisms the former use 
as modes of communication — the horror of our listeners was unequalled 
and undisguised in each case. "Communion with bhuts!" they ex- 
claimed. "Communion with souls that have become wicked demons, 
to whom we are ready to offer sacrifices in food and drink to pacify 
them and make them leave us quiet, but who never come but to disturb 
the peace of families; whose presence is a pollution! What pleasure 
or comfort can the Bellate [white foreigners] find in communicating 
with them?" Thus, I repeat most emphatically that not only are 
there, so to say, no Spiritualists in India, as we understand the term, 
but I affirm and declare that the very suggestion of our so-called 
"Spirit intercourse" is obnoxious to most of them — that is to say, to 
the oldest people in the world, people who have known all about the 
phenomena for thousands upon thousands of years. Is this fact 
nothing to us, who have just begun to see the wonders of medium- 
ship? Ought we to estimate our cleverness at so high a figure as to 
make us refuse to take instruction from these Orientals, who have seen 
their holy men — nay, even their Gods and demons and the Spirits of 
the elements — performing "miracles" since the remotest antiquity? 
Have we so perfected a Philosophy of our own that we can compare it 
with that of India, which explains every mystery, and triumphantly 
demonstrates the nature of every phenomenon? It would he worth our 
while, believe me, to ask Hindu help, if it were but to prove, better 
than we can now, to the Materialists and sceptical Science, that, what- 
ever may be the true theory as to the agencies, the phenomena, 
whether biblical or Vaidic, Christian or heathen, are in the natural 


order of this world, and have a first claim to scientific investigation. 
Let us first prove the existence of the Sphinx to the profane, and after- 
wards we may try to unriddle its mysteries. Spiritualists will always 
have time enough to refute "antiquated doctrines" of old. Truth is 
eternal, and however long trampled down will always come out the 
brighter in the expiring twilight of superstition. But in one sense we 
are perfectly warranted in applying the name of Spiritualists to the 
Hindus. Opposed as they are to physical phenomena as produced by 
the bhuts, or unsatisfied souls of the departed, and to the possession by 
them of mediumistic persons, they still accept with joy those consoling 
evidences of the continued interest in themselves of a departed father 
or mother. In the subjective phenomena of dreams, in visions of 
clairvoyance or trance, brought on by the powers of holy men, they 
welcome the Spirits of their beloved ones, and often receive from them 
important directions and advice. 

If agreeable to vour readers I will devote a series of letters to the 
phenomena taking place in India, explaining them as I proceed. I 
sincerely hope that the old experience of American Spiritualists, mass- 
ing in threatening force against iconoclastic Theosophists and their 
"superannuated" ideas will not be repeated; for my offer is perfectly 
impartial and friendly. It is with no desire to either teach new doc- 
trines or carry on an unwelcome Hindu propaganda that I make it; 
but simply to supply material for comparison and study to the Spiri- 
tualists who think. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

Bombay, July, iSyg. 



[Probably from the Allahabad Pioneer, 1880.] 

We have just read the two dreary columns in The Pioneer of March 
15th, "The Theosophists in Council," by Mr. T. G. Scott. The Coun- 
cil of the Society having nothing more to say to the reverend polemic, 
who, in rejoinder to a brief card, treats the world to two columns of 
what Coleridge would call "a juggle of sophistry," I, myself, would 
ask you to favour me with a brief space. 

A few points of Mr. Scott's most glaring misconceptions (?) about 
our Society may be noticed. We are said to have declared, at New 
York, that the Theosophical Society was hostile to the "Christian 
Church"; while at Mayo Hall, Allahabad, our President affirmed that 
his Society was not organized to fight "Christianity." This is assumed 
to be a contradiction and a "change of base." Now if there were 
enough "Christianity" in the "Christian Church" to be spoken of, the 
gentleman's point might be deemed well taken. But, in my humble 
opinion, this is not at all the case. Hence — though not at all hostile 
to "Christianity," i.e., the ethics alleged to have been preached by Jesus 
of Nazareth — I, in common with many Theosophists, am very much 
so to the so-called "Church of Christ." Collectively, this Church in- 
cludes three great rival religions and some hundreds of minor sects, 
for the most part bitterly recriminative and mutually far more hostile 
to each other than we are to all. To accuse, therefore, the Theosophists 
— who may dislike the Methodist, Presbyterian, Jesuit, Baptist, or any 
other alleged "Christian" sect — of bitter hatred of "Christianity" in 
the abstract, is like accusing one of hating light because he opposes 
the use of either or all of the many new-fangled inventions of kerosene 
lamps, which, under the pretext of preserving the light, injure it! The 
Christianity of Jesus, dragged by its numberless sects around the arena 
of our century, appears like that car in the Slavonian fable (a version 
of one by iEsop) to which were harnessed all manner of creeping, 



swimming, and flying things. Each of these, following its own 
instinct, attempted to draw the car after its own fashion. Result: 
between the birds, animals, reptiles and fishes, the unfortunate vehicle 
was torn into fragments. 

The reverend missionaries are hard to please in this country. When 
left unnoticed, they complain of the Theosophists ignoring the brave 
"six hundred"; and when we do notice them — which, indeed, happens 
only under compulsion — the}' begin abusing us in the most un-Christian 
and often, I am sorry to say, ungentlemanly way. 

Thus, for instance, we had to call the strong hand of the law to our 
help in the case of The Dnydnodaya, a diminutive and sorry but quite 
a fighting little missionary weekly of Bombay, which called our Society 
names, and had to apologize in print for it. Now comes The Bengal 
Magazine of January; its Editor — by the by, a Christian reverend, but 
nevertheless very rude Babu — is advised to look out and consult the 
law, before he charges Colonel Olcott or anyone else with "hocus-pocus 
tricks" again; as the "gushing Colonel" ma)- prove as little gushing 
and as active in his case as he was in that of the abusive little Dnyano- 
daya. And now Mr. T. G. Scott calls an article on "Missions in India" 
(Theosopliist, January) a 

Bold, but exceedingly ignorant attempt at making it appear that missions are a 
failure in India. 

Ignorant as we newcomers may be about Indian missionary ques- 
tions, I must remind Mr. Scott that the person whom he stigmatizes 
with ignorance is a lady who has passed many years in India and has 
had ample opportunities for observation. Most military or civil 
employes of experience in India whom I have met take the same view 
of the matter that she does. I cannot imagine why Darwin and 
Tyndall should have been selected by Mr. Scott, out of the thousands 
of scientific and educated men now pulling Christianity to pieces, as 
"noisy characters"; nor why he should cite, in an issue created by 
modern biblical research, Newton, Kepler, Herschell or anyone else 
who lived before the recent advances of Science in this direction, and 
in days when, to deny not merely Christianity, but some minor dogma 
of the State religion was equivalent to self-condemnation to an auto- 
da-fe'. As for the Christianity of Max Miiller, Dr. Carpenter (a prince 
among Materialists) and the late Louis Agassiz, the less said the better. 
Might not his long string of high-sounding names have been profitably 
enlarged by the addition of those of the late Viscount Amberley and 


Lord Queensborough, of the "Church" of Moncure Conway, in which 
is preached the great Religion of Humanity from every "religion" and 

Science is our guide, and truth is the spirit that we worship, 
says the noble Lord Queensborough in his letter recently published in 
The Statesman ! Mr. Scott assures his readers that : 

Never since the Apostles has it [Christianity] been so vigorous as now; . . . 
the tendency is anything else than to infidelity and atheism. 

But Lord Queensborough, in his letter to "E. C. H." challenges the 
latter, and with him the whole world of Christians in these remarkable 

Call us atheists and infidels if you will; . . . and I maintain, and will main- 
tain, that the time has arrived for us to proclaim ourselves and to claim to be 
respected, as other religious bodies are; but as we never shall be, unless we stand 
forward and openly declare what our religion is ... I am only acting as the 
mouthpiece of thousands, perhaps millions, with whom I have faith in common. 
. . . Churches of our religion already exist. I will name one in London, always 
as full as it can hold on Sundays— South Place Chapel, Finsbury, where Mr. Mon- 
cure Conway lectures. 

Moncure Conway, I will remind Mr. Scott, instead of the Bible and 
Christianity preaches every Sunday from The Sacred Anthology, extracts 
from the Vedas, the Buddhist Sutras, the Koran, and so on. Many of 
his parishioners are fellows of the Theosophical Society. And now it 
is my turn to ask, "How does this tally with the utterances of" Mr. 
Scott, the missionary? Equally ill-timed was Mr. Scott's quotation 
from the New Testament of the passage : 

Jesus said, Other sheep I have, not of this fold. 

For in the very mouth of Jesus are put also the words: 

He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall 
be damned (Mark, xvi. 16). 

To this Mr. Scott may, perhaps, repeat what he says in his two- 
column letter: 

The whole question of the nature and extent of future punishment is a matter of 

Exactly. So we, Theosophists and other heathen and "infidels," 
who live in a century of free thought and in a country of religious 
freedom, avail ourselves of it. 

And now all his points being answered, the reverend gentleman is 



at liberty to ventilate his ideas and pour his wrath upon the Theo- 
sophists wherever he likes. Yet, unless he can get his satisfaction 
from following the good example of other missionaries, and indulge in 
monologues of abuse, he can reckon but little upon us to answer him. 
It takes two for a dialogue; and whether as a Society or as individuals, 
we decline any further controversy on the subject with one who gives 
so few facts and so many words. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 


[From the Allahabad Pioneer, March 12th. 1SS0.] 

As the indications in the press all point towards a Russian reign of 
terror, either before or at the death of the Czar — most probably the 
former — a bird's-eye view of the constitution of Russian society will 
enable us to better understand events as the}* transpire. 

Three distinct elements compose what is now known as the Russian 
aristocracy. These may be broadly said to represent the primitive 
Slavonian, the primitive Tartar, and composite Russianized immigrants 
from other countries, and subjects of conquered states, such as the 
Baltic provinces. The flower of the haute noblesse, those whose heredi- 
tary descent places them beyond challenge in the very first rank, are 
the Rurikovitch, or descendants of the Grand Duke Rurik and [the 
ruling families of] the aforetime separate principalities of Novgorod, 
Pskof, etc., which were welded together into the Muscovite empire. 
Such are the Princes Bariatinsky, Dolgorouki, Shonysky (now extinct, 
we believe), Tscherbatow, Ouroussov, Viazemsky, etc. Moscow has 
been the centre of the greater part of this princely class since the days 
of Catherine the Great; and though, in most cases, ruined in fortune, 
they are yet as proud and exclusive as the blue-blooded French 
families of the Quartier St. Germain. The names of some of the 
highest of these are virtually unknown outside of the limits of the 
empire, for, dissatisfied with the reforms of Peter and Catherine, and 
unable to make as fine a figure at the court as those whom they 
delighted to call parvenus, it has been their proud boast that they have 
never served in any subordinate capacity, and have not been brought 
in contact with Western Europe and its politics. Living only upon 
their remembrances, they have made a class apart and dwell on a sort 
of high social table-land, whence they look down upon commoner 
mortals. Many of the old families are extinct, and many of those that 
remain entirely reduced to genteel poverty. 


Rurik, as is well known, was not a Slav by birth, but a Varyago- 
Roos, though his nationality, as well as that of his people who came 
with him" to Russia, is very much questioned unto this day, having 
been a matter of scientific dispute for several years between the two 
well-known professors of St. Petersburg, Kostomarof and Pogodine — 
the latter now dead. Implored by the Slavs to come and reign over 
their country, Rurik is reported to have been addressed by the dele- 
gates in these ominous words: "Come with us, great prince . 
for vast is our mother land; but there is little order in it" — words 
which their descendants might well report with as much, if not more, 
propriety now as then. Accepting the invitation, Rurik came in 
a.d. 861 to Novgorod, with his two brothers, and laid the foundation 
of Russian nationality. The "Rurikovitch," then, are the descendants 
of this prince, his two brothers and his sou, Igor, the line running 
through a long succession of princes and chiefs of principalities. The 
reigning house of Rurik became extinct at the death of Fredor, the 
son of Ivan the Terrible. After a period of anarchy, the Romanoffs, 
a family of petty nobles, came into power. But, as this was only in 
1613, it was not without reason that the Prince P. Dolgorouki, a 
modern historian of Catherine II (a book prohibited in Russia), when 
smarting under the sense of a personal wrong, taunted the present 
Emperor with the remark : 

Alexander II must not forget that it is little more than two centuries since the 
Romanoffs held the stirrups of the Princes Dolgorouki. 

And this, despite the marriage of Mary, Princess Dolgorouki, with 
Michael Romanoff after he became Czar. 

The Tartar princely families descend from the Tartar Khans and 
Magnates of the "Zolotaya Orda" (Golden Orda) of Kazan, who so 
long held Russia in subjection, but who were made tributary by Ivan 
III, father of Ivan the Terrible, in 1523- 1530. Of the families of this 
blood which survive, the Princes Dondoukof, whose head was formerly 
Governor-General of Kiew, and more recently served in Bulgaria in a 
similar capacity, may be mentioned. These are, more or less, looked 
down upon by the "Rurikovitch," as well as by old Lithuanian and 
Polish princely families, who hate the Russian descendants of Rurik, 
as these hate their Roman Catholic rivals. Then comes in the third 
element, the old Livonian and Ksthonian Barons and Counts, the 
Kourland nobles and /rei/terrs, who boast of descending from the first 
Crusaders and look clown upon the Slav aristocracy; and various 



- >» 


foreign families invited into the country by successive sovereigns, a 
Western element engrafted upon the Russian stock. The names of 
the latter immigres have been Russianized in some cases beyond recog- 
nition; as, for instance, the English Hamiltons, who have now become 
the "Khomoiitoff!" 

We have not the data which would enable us to give the numerical 
strength of either of the above classes; but an enumeration, made in 
the year 1842, showed a total of 551,970 noblemen of hereditary, and 
257,346 of personal rank. This comprised all in the empire of different 
degrees of noble ranks, including the princely families and the under- 
stratum of nobility. There is an untitled nobility, the descendants of 
the old Boyars of Russia, often prouder of their family record than 
those who are known as princes. The Demidoff family, for instance, 
and the Narishkine, though frequently offered the ranks of prince and 
count, have always haughtily rejected the honour, maintaining that 
the Czar could make a prince any day, but never a Demidoff or a 

Peter the Great, having abolished the princely privileges of the 
Boyars, and made the offices of the empire accessible to all, created the 
Tchin, or a caste of municipal employes and government officials, di- 
vided into fourteen classes, the first eight of which confer hereditary 
nobility upon the person holding one of them, and the six latter give 
but a personal nobility to the incumbent, and do not transmit gentility 
to the children. Office does not increase the nobility of incumbents 
already noble, but does lift the ignoble into a higher social rank (Tchi- 
novnik, government employe, was for years a term of scorn in the 
mouths of the nobles). It is only since Alexander came to the throne 
that an old edict was done away with, which deprived of noble rank 
and reduced to the peasantry any family which, for three successive 
generations, had not taken service under the government. Those were 
called Od)iodvort~i, and among them some of the oldest families found 
themselves included in 1845, when the Emperor Nicholas ordered the 
examination of the titles of nobles. The nice distinctions among the 
above fourteen classes are as puzzling to a foreigner as the relative 
precedence of the various buttons of Chinese Mandarins, or the tails 
of the Pachas. 

Besides these conflicting elements of high and low nobility, the 
direct descendants of the Boyars of old — the Slavonian peers in the 
palmy days of Russia, divided into petty sovereignties, who chose for 



themselves the prince they wanted to serve and left him at will, who 
were vassals, not subjects, had their own military retinue, and without 
whose approval no grand-ducal "ukase" could be of any avail — and 
the ennobled Tchinovniks, sons of priests and petty traders, there are 
yet to be considered 79,000,000 of other people. These may be divided 
into the millions of liberated serfs (22,000,000), of crown peasants 
(16,000,000), who inhabit cities, preferring various trades and menial 
service to agriculture. The rest comprises (1) the Meshtchanis, or 
petty bourgeois, one step higher than the peasant; (2) the enormous 
body of merchants and traders divided into three guilds; (3) the 
hereditary citizens, who have nothing to do with nobility; (4) the 
black clergy or the monks and nuns; and the secular clergy, or 
married priests — a caste apart and hereditary; and (5) the military 

We will not include in our classification the 3,000,000 of Mohamme- 
dans, the 2,000,000 of Jews, the 250,000 Buddhists, the pagan Izors, the 
Savakots, and the Karels, who seem perfectly well satisfied with the 
Russian rule, thoroughly tolerant to their various worships/'- 1 These, 
with the exception of the higher educated Jews and some fanatical 
Mohammedans, care little as to the hand that rules them. But we will 
remind the reader of the fact that there are over one hundred different 
nations and tribes, who speak more than forty different languages, and 
are scattered over an area of 8,331,884 English square miles ;f that the 
population of all Russia, European and Asiatic, is not above ten to 
the square mile; that the railroads are very few and easily controlled, 
and other means of transport scanty. How far it would be possible to 
effect a complete revolution throughout the Russian Empire, may well 
be a subject of conjecture. With so little to bind the many nationali- 
ties into one movement, it would seem to a foreigner an undertaking 
so hopeless as to discourage even an Internationalist or a Nihilist. 
Add to this the unquestionable devotion of the liberated serfs and 
peasantry to the Czar, in whom they see alike the benefactor of the 
oppressed, the vicegerent of God, and the head of their Church, and 
the case seems yet more problematical. At the same time, we must 
not forget the lessons of history, which has more than once shown us 

* By the last statistics, the Mohammedans have 4,189 mosques and 7,940 muftis and mulahs in 
the Empire of Russia; the Buddhists 389 places of worship and 4,400 priests; the Jews 445 syna- 
gogues and 4,935 rabbis, etc. 

+ According to the calculation made in 1856 by G. Schweitzer, Director of the Observatory of 


how the very vastness of an empire and the lack of a common unity 
aniong its subjects have proved at some supreme: crisis the most potent 
elements of its downfall. 

St. Petersburg is, in reality, the aristocratic Pare aux Cop, a place 
of shameless profligacy and riotous excesses, with so little that is 
national in it that its very name is German. It is the natural port of 
entry for all the continental vices, as well as for the loose ideas about 
morality, religion and social duty, which are becoming so widely preva- 
lent. The corrupting influence that Paris has upon France, St. Peters- 
burg has upon Russia. An influential Russian magazine, Rousskcyc 
Ryetch, gave us only the other day the following picture of St. Peters- 
burg society : 

Russian society slumbers, or rather it feels heavy and somnolent. It lazily nods, 
only now and then opening its lifeless eyes, as might one who, after a heavy 
dinner, forced to sit in an unnatural position, cannot resist a lethargic drowsiness, 
and feels that he must either unbutton his uniform and draw a full breath, or — 
suffocate. Rut the dinner is an official one, and his body pinched in a state uniform 
too tight for him. The man is overcome with an irresistible somnolence; he feels 
the blood rushing to his head, his legs tremble and his hand mechanically fumbles 
the button of the uniform to get one gasp of breath that would interrupt the un- 
endurable torture. Such is the present condition of our society. 

But while it is nodding under its threatened apoplexy, from a surfeit of indiges- 
tible food, those carnivorous jackals, who are always ready to eat and drink, and 
can digest whatever they pick up, do not sleep. The violation of the seventh 
commandment, intellectually as well as physically, having debased body, mind and 
soul, is nestling in the very heart of the public. Adulterers of body, adulterers of 
thought, adulterers of knowledge and science, adulterers of labour — reign in our 
midst, are creeping out from every side as the representatives of society and the 
public, boasting of their brazen hardihood, successful wherever they go, having 
Hung away all shame, cast aside every concern to at least conceal the nakedness 
of their deeds, even from the eyes of those from whom they squeeze all that can he 
squeezed only from Mich a fool as— man. Government and treasury pilferers: em- 
bezzlers of public and private properties; blacklegs and swindlers subsidized by 
numberless bubble companies, by stock companies and fraudulent enterprises; 
thimble-riggers and violators of women and children whom they debauch and ruin; 
contractors, money-lenders, bribed judges and venal counsel, bucket-shop keepers 
and sharpers of all nationalities, every religion, every social class. This i-^ our 
modern social force. Like beasts of prey, hunting in packs, this force, gloating 
over its quarry, satiating itself, noisily crunching its restless, tireless jaws, imposing 
itself upon everyone, dares to offer itself as the patron of everything -science, 
literature, arts, and even thought itself. There it is, the kingdom of this world. 
flesh of the J/cs/i, blood of the blood, made in the image of the animal from which 
the first germ of man evolved. 


Such are the social ethics of our contemporary Russia, on Russian 
testimony. If so, then it must have reached that culminating point 
from which it must either fall into the mire of dissolution, like old 
Rome, or gravitate towards regeneration through all the horrors and 
chaos of a "Reign of Terror." The press teems with guarded com- 
plaints of "prostration of forces" among its representatives, the chronic 
signs of fast-impending social dissolution, and the profound apathy 
into which the whole Russian people seem to have fallen. The only 
beings full of life and activity, amid this lethargy of satiety, seem to 
be the omnipresent and ever-invisible Nihilists. Clearly there must be 
a change. 

From all this social rottenness, the black fungus of Nihilism has 
sprung. Its hot-bed has been preparing for years, by the gradual 
sapping of moral tone and self-respect and the debauchery of the 
higher class, who always give the impulse to those below them for good 
or evil. All that lacked was the occasion and the man. Under the 
passport system of Nicholas, the chances for becoming polluted by 
Paris life were confined to a mere handful of rich nobles, whom the 
caprice of the Czar allowed to travel. Even they, the privileged of 
favour and fortune, had to apply for permission six months in advance, 
and pay a thousand roubles for their passport, with a heavy fine for 
each day in excess of the time granted, and the prospect of confiscation 
of their entire property should their foreign stay exceed three years. 
But under Alexander everything was changed; the emancipation of 
the serfs was followed by numberless reforms — the unmuzzling of the 
press, trial by jury, equalizing the rights of citizenship, free passports, 
etc. Though good in themselves, these reforms came with such a rush 
upon a people unaccustomed to the least of these privileges, as to throw 
them into a high fever. The patient, escaping from his strait -jacket,, 
ran wildly about the streets. Then came the Polish Revolution of 1863,. 
in which a number of Russian students participated. Reaction followed 
and repressive measures were readopted one by one; but it was too late. 
The caged animal had tasted liberty, though ever so brief, and thence- 
forth could not be docile as before. Where there had been one Russian 
traveller to Paris, Vienna and Berlin under the old reign, now there 
were thousands and tens of thousands; and just so many more agencies 
were at work to import fashionable vice and scientific scepticism. The 
names of John Stuart Mill, Darwin, and Biichner, were upon the lip of 
every beardless boy and heedless girl at the universities and colleges. 


The former were preaching Nihilism, the latter Women's Rights and 
Free Love. The one let their hair grow like moujiks, and donned the 
red national shirt and kaftan of the peasantry; the other clipped their 
hair short and affected blue spectacles. Trades Unions, infected with 
the notions. of the International, sprang up like mushrooms; and 
demagogues ranted to social clubs upon the conflict between labour 
and capital. The cauldron began to seethe. At last the man came. 

The history of Nihilism can be summed up in two words. For 
their name they are indebted to the great novelist Tourguenief, who 
created Bazarof, and stamped the type with the name of Nihilist. 
Little did the famous author of Fathers and Sons imagine at that time 
into what national degeneration his hero would lead the Russian 
people twenty-five years later. Only "Bazarof" — in whom the novelist 
painted with satirical fidelity the characteristics of certain "Bohemian" 
negationists, then just glimmering on the horizon of student life — had 
little in common, except the name and materialistic tendency, with the 
masked Revolutionists and Terrorists of to-day. Shallow, bilious, and 
nervous, this studiosus medicines is simply an unquiet spirit of sweeping 
negation ; of that sad, yet scientific scepticism reigning now supreme in 
the ranks of the highest intellect; a spirit of Materialism, sincerely 
believed in, and as honestly preached; the outcome of long reflections 
over the rotten remnants of man and frog in the dissecting room, 
where the dead ma?i suggested to his mind no more than the dead frog. 
Outside of animal life everything to him is nihil; "a thistle," growing 
out of a lump of mud, is all that man can look forward to after death. 
And thus this type — Bazarof — was caught up as their highest ideal by 
the university students. The "Sons" began destroying what the 
"Fathers" had built. . . . And now Tourguenief is forced to taste 
of the bitter fruits of the tree of his planting. Like the creator of 
Frankenstein, who could not control the mechanical monster that his 
ingenuity had constructed out of the putrefactions of the churchyard, 
he now finds his "type" — which was from the first hateful and terrible 
to him — grown into the ranting spectre of the Nihilist delirium, the 
red-handed Socialist. The press, at the initiative of the Moskovskye 
Vyedomosty — a centenarian paper — takes up the question and openly 
accuses the most brilliant literary talent of Russia, one whose sym- 
pathies are, and always have been, on the side of the "Fathers," with 
having been the first to plant the poisonous weed. 

Owing to the peculiar transitional state of Russian society between 


1S50 and i860, the name was hailed and adopted, and the Nihilists 
began springing up at ever}' side. They captured the national litera- 
ture, and their new doctrines were fast disseminated throughout the 
whole empire. And now Nihilism has grown into a power— an im- 
perium in imperio. It is no more with Nihilism with which Russia 
struggles, but with the terrible consequences of the ideas of 1850. 
Fathers and Sons must henceforth occupy a prominent place, not only 
in literature, as quite above the ordinary level of authorship, but also 
as the creator of a new page in Russian political history, the end of 
which no man can foretell. 



[Probably from the Allahabad Pioneer.^ 

With a little book entitled Les Femmes qui Tucnt el les Femmes qui 

Votcnt, Alexandre Dumas, fils, has just entered the arena of social and 
political reform. The novelist, who began by picking up his Beatrices 
and Lauras in the social gutter, the author of La Davie aux Came'lias 
and La Dame aux Per/es, is regarded in France as the finest known 
analyst of the female heart. He now comes out in a new light; as a 
defender of Woman's Rights in general, and of those women especially 
whom English people generally talk about as little as possible. If this 
gifted son of a still more gifted father never sank before to the miry 
depths of that modern French realistic school now in such vogue, the 
school headed by the author of L ' Assommoir and Nana, and so fitly 
nicknamed L'Fco/e Ordurialiste, it is because he is a born poet, and 
follows the paths traced out for him by the Marquis de Sade, rather 
than those of Zola. He is too refined to be the rival of writers like 
those who call themselves auteurs-naturalistcs and romanciers-experimen- 
talistes, who use their pen as the student in surgery his scalpel, plung- 
ing it into the depths of all the social cancers they can find. 

Until now he idealized and beautified vice. In the work under 
review, he defends not only its right to exist under certain conditions, 
but claims for it a recognized place in the broad sunlight of social and 
political life. 

His brochure of 216 pages, which has lately been published in the 
shape of a letter to J. Claretie, is now having an immense success. 
By the end of September, hardly a week after its appearance, it had 
already reached its sixth edition. It treats of two great social difficul- 
ties — the question of divorce, and the right of women to participate in 
elections. Dumas begins by assuming the defence of the several 


women who have recently played an important part in murder cases, 
in which their victims were their husbands and lovers. 

All these women, he says, are the embodiment of the idea which for 
some time past has been fermenting in the world. It is that of the 
entire disenthralment of the woman from her old condition of slavery, 
created for her by the Bible, and enforced by tyrannical society. All 
these murders and this public vice, as well as the increasing mental 
labour of women, M. Dumas takes to be so many signs of one and the 
same aspiration — that of mastering man, getting the best of him, and 
competing with him in everything. What men will not give them 
willingly, women of a certain class endeavour to obtain by cunning. 
As a result of such a policy, he says, we see "those young ladies" 
acquiring an enormous influence over men in all social affairs and even 
in politics. Having amassed large fortunes, when older they appear as 
lady-patronesses of girls' schools and of charitable institutions, and take 
a part in provincial administration. Their past is lost sight of; they 
succeed in establishing, so to say, an imperium in imperio, where they 
enforce their own laws, and manage to have them respected. This 
state of things is attributed by Dumas directly to the restriction of 
Woman's Rights, to the state of legal slavery women have been sub- 
jected to for centuries, and especially to the marriage and anti-divorce 
laws. Answering the favourite objection of those who oppose divorce 
on the ground that its establishment would promote too much freedom 
in love, the author of Le Demi-Monde bravely pushes forward his last 
batteries and throws off the mask. 

Why not promote such freedom? What appears a danger to some, a 
dishonour and shame to others, 

Will become an independent and recognized profession in life — une carriere a part 
— a fact, a world of its own, with which all the other corporations and classes of 
society will have to reckon. It will not be long before everyone will have ceased 
to protest against its right to an independent and legal existence. Very shortly it 
will form itself into an integral, compact body; and the time will come when, 
between this world and the others, relations will be established as friendly as 
between two equally powerful and recognized empires. 

With every year women free themselves more and more from empty 

formalism, and M. Dumas hopes there will never again be a reaction. 

If a woman is unable to give up the idea of love altogether, let her 

prefer unions binding neither party to anything, and let her be guided 

in this only by her own free will and honesty. Of course it is rather to 


review an important current of feeling in an important community 
than to discuss au fond the delicate questions with which M. Dumas 
deals, that we are taking notice of his book. We may thus leave the 
reader to his own reflections on this proposed reform, as also in refer- 
ence to most of the points raised. 

A certain Hubertine Auclaire, in France, has lately refused to pay 
her taxes on the plea that political rights belonging to man are denied 
to her as a woman; and Dumas, with this incident as a text, devotes 
the last part of this brochure to a defence of Woman's Rights, as elo- 
quent, impressive and original as other portions which will less bear 
discussion. He writes: 

In 1847 political reformers thought it necessary to lower the electoral franchise 
and distribute the right of vote according to capacity. 

That is, to limit it to intelligent men. The government refused, and 
this led to the Revolution of 184S. Scared, it gave the people the right 
of universal suffrage, extending the right to all, whether capable or 
incapable, provided the voters were only men. At present this right 
holds good, and nothing can abolish it. But women come, in their 
turn, and ask: "How about us? We claim the same privileges." 

What [asks Dumas] can be more natural, reasonable and just? There is no 
reason why woman should not have equal rights with man. What difference do 
you find between the two which warrants your refusing her such a privilege? None 
at all. Sex ? Her sex has no more to do with it than the sex of man. As to all 
other dissimilarities between us, they go far more to her credit than to ours. If 
one argues that woman is by nature a weaker creature than man, and that it is Ins 
duty to take care of and defend her, we will answer that hitherto we have, it seems, 
so badly defended her that she had to pick up a revolver and take that defence 
into her own hands; and to remain consequent with ourselves we have to enter 
the verdict of "Not guilty" whenever she is caught in that act of self-defence. 

To the plea that woman is intellectually weaker than man, and is 
shown to be so by sacred writings, the author sets off against the bibli- 
cal Adam and Eve, Jacolliot's translation of the Hindu legend in his 
Bible dans V hide, and contends that it was man, not woman, who 
became the first sinner and was turned out of Paradise. If man is 
endowed with stronger muscles, woman's nerves surpass his in capacity 
for endurance. The biggest brain ever found — in weight and size — is 
now proved to have belonged to a woman. It weighed 2,200 grammes 
— 400 more than that of Cuvier. But brain has nothing to do with the 
electoral question. To drop a ballot into the urn no one is required 
to have invented powder, or to be able to lift 500 kilogrammes. 


Dumas has an answer for every objection. Are illustrious women 
exceptions? He cites a brilliant array of great female names, and 
contends that the sex in which such exceptions are to be met has 
acquired a legal right to take part in the nomination of the village 
maires and municipal officers. The sex which claims a Blanche de 
Castille, an Elizabeth of England, another of Hungary, a Catherine II 
and a Maria Theresa, has won every right. 

If so many women were found good enough to reign and govern 
nations, they surely must have been fit to vote. To the remark that 
women can neither go to war nor defend their country, the reader is 
reminded of such names as Joan of Arc, and the three other Joans, of 
Flanders, of Blois, and Joan Hachette. It was in memory of the bril- 
liant defence and salvation of her native town, Beauvais, by the latter 
Joan, at the head of all the women of that city, besieged by Charles le 
Temeraire, that Louis XI decreed that henceforth and for ever the place 
of honour in all the national and public processions should belong to 
women. Had woman no other rights in France, the fact alone that 
she was called upon to sacrifice 1,800,000 of her sons to Napoleon the 
Great, ought to ensure to her every right. The example of Hubertine 
Auclaire will be soon followed by every woman in France. L,aw was 
ever unjust to woman; and instead of protecting her, it seeks but to 
strengthen her chains. In case of crimes committed, does law ever 
think of bringing forward as an extenuating circumstance, her weak- 
ness? On the contrary, it always takes advantage of it. The illegiti- 
mate child is given by it the right to find out who its mother was, but 
not its father. The husband can go anywhere, do whatever he pleases, 
abandon his family, change his citizenship, and even emigrate, without 
the consent or even knowledge of his wife. 

She can do nothing of the kind. In case of a suspicion of her faith, 
he can deprive her of her marriage portion ; and in case of guilt may 
even kill her. It is his right. Debarred from the benefits of a divorce, 
she has to suffer all, and finds no redress. She is fined, judged, sen- 
tenced, imprisoned, put to death, and suffers all the penalties of law 
just as much and under the same circumstances as he does, but no 
magistrate has ever thought of saying yet: 

"Poor weak little creature! . . . Det us forgive her, for she is 
irresponsible, and so much lower than man!" 

The whole eloquent, if sometimes rhapsodical plea in favour of 
women's suffrage is concluded with the following suggestions : 


First, the situation will appear absurd; but gradually people will become accus- 
tomed to the idea, and soon every protest will die ont. No doubt at first the idea 
of woman in this new role will have to become the subject of bitter criticism and 
satire. Ladies will be accused of ordering their hats a l' it rue, their bodices au 
suffrage universel, and their skirts au scrutin secret. But what then? After having 
served for a time as an object of amazement, then become a fashion and habit, the 
new system will be finally looked upon as a duty. At all events it has now become 
a claimed right. A few grandes dames in cities, some wealthy female landowners in 
provincial districts, and leaseholders in villages, will set the example, and it will 
be soon followed by the rest of the female population. 

The book winds up with this question and answer: 

I ma}', perhaps, be asked by some pious and disciplined lady, some fervent be- 
liever in the idea that humanity can only be rescued from perdition by codes and 
gospels, by the Roman law and Roman Church: "Pra} r , tell me, sir, where are we 
driving to with all these ideas?" "He, madame! . . . we go where we were 
going to from the first, to that which must be, that is, the inevitable. We move 
slowly onward, because we can spare time, having some millions of years yet before 
us, and because we have to leave some work to do for those who are following us. 
For the present we are occupied in enfranchising women ; when this is done we 
will try to enfranchise God. And as soon as full harmony will have been estab- 
lished between these three eternal principles — God, man and woman — our way will 
appear to us less dark before us, and we will journey on the quicker." 

Certainly the advocates of Woman's Rights in England have never yet 
approached their subject from this point of view. Is the new method 
of attack likely to prove more effective than the familiar declamation of 
the British platform, or the earnest prosing of our own great woman's 
champion, John Stuart Mill? This remains to be seen; but certainly 
for the most part the English ladies who fight this battle will be puzzled 
how to accept an ally whose sympathy is due to principles so fright- 
fully indecorous as those of our present author. 

H. P. Blavatskv. 


[From the Bombay Gazette, Oct. 29th, 1SS0.] 

In the issue of the 19th instant of your worthy contemporary, I find 
over two columns devoted to the doubtful glorification, but mostly to 
the abuse, of my humble individuality. There is a long confidential 
letter from Colonel Olcott to an officer of our Society, obtained surrep- 
titiously by somebody, and marked "private" — a word showing in 
itself that the document was never meant for the public eye — and an 
editorial, principally filled with cheap abuse, and venomous, though 
common-place, suggestions. The latter was to be expected, but I 
would like information upon the following points: (1) How did the 
editor come into possession of a document stolen from the desk of the 
President of the Bombay Branch of the Theosophical Society? and 
(2) having got it, what right had he to publish it at all, without first 
obtaining consent from the writer or addressee — a consent which he 
could never have obtained? and (3) how is such an action to be charac- 
terized? If the law affords no redress for a wrong like this I am 
content, at least, to abide the verdict of every well-bred man or 
woman who shall read the letter and comments thereon. This private 
letter having been written about, but not by me, I abandon this special 
question to be settled between the offended and the offender, and touch 
but upon the one which concerns me directly. 

I have lived long enough in this world of incessant strife, in which 
the "survival of the fittest" seems to mean the triumph of the most 
unprincipled, to have learned that when I have once allowed my name 
to appear in the light of a benevolent genius, for the production of 
"cups," "saucers" and "brooches," I must bear the penalty; especially 
when the people are so foolish as to take the word "Magic" either in 
its popular superstitious sense — that of the work of the devil — or in 
that of juggler)-. Therefore and precisely because I am an "elderly 
lady from Russia via America," the latter country of unlimited freedom 



— especially in newspaper personal abuse — has toughened me to the 
extent of being indifferent as to the sneering and jeering of news- 
papers upon questions they do not understand at all; provided they 
are witty and remain within the limits of propriety and do no harm 
but to myself. Being neither a professional medium nor a professional 
anything, and making my experiments in "Occult phenomena" only 
in the presence of a few friends — rarely before anyone who is not 
a member of our Society — I have a right to claim from the public a 
little more fairness and politeness than are usually accorded to paid 
jugglers and even alleged Thaumaturgists. And if my friends will 
insist upon publishing about "Occult phenomena" taking place in 
their presence, they should at least preface their narratives with the 
following warning: Pukka Theosophy believes in no miracle, whether 
divine or devilish; recognizes nothing as supernatural; believes only 
in facts and Science; studies the laws of Nature, both Occult and 
patent; and gives attention particularly to the former, just because 
exact Science will have nothing to do with them. 

Such laws are those of Magnetism in all its branches, Mesmerism, 
Psychology, etc. More than once in the history of its past has Science 
been made the victim of its own delusions as to its professed infalli- 
bility; and the time must come when the perfection of Asiatic Psy- 
chology and its knowledge of the forces of the invisible world will 
be recognized, as were the circulation of the blood, electricity, and so 
forth, after the first sneers and lampoons died away. The "silly 
attempts to hoodwink individuals" will then be viewed as honest 
attempts at proving to this generation of Spiritualists and believers 
in past "miracle-mongers," that there is naught miraculous in this 
world of Matter and Spirit, of visible results and invisible causes; 
naught — but the great wickedness of a world of Christians and Pagans, 
alike ridiculously superstitious in one direction, that of their respective 
religions, and malicious whenever a purely disinterested and philan- 
thropic effort is made to open their eyes to the truth. I beg leave to 
further remark that personally I never bragged of anything I might 
have done, nor do I offer any explanation of the phenomena, except 
to utterly disclaim the possession of any miraculous or supernatural 
powers, or the performing of anything by jugglery — i.e., with the usual 
help of confederates and machinery. That's all. And surely, if there 
is anything like a sense of justice left in society, I am amenable to 
neither statutory nor social laws for gratifying the interest of members 


of our Society, and the wishes of my personal friends, by exhibiting to 
them in privacy various phenomena, in which I believe far more firmly 
than any of them, since I know the laws' by which they are produced, 
and am read}' to stand any amount of personal newspaper abuse when- 
ever these results are told to the public. The "official circles at 
Simla" was an incorrect and foolish phrase to use. I never produced 
anything in the "official circles"; but I certainly hope to have im- 
pressed a few persons belonging to such "official circles" with the 
sense that I was neither an impostor nor a "hoodwinker of official 
personages," for whom, moreover, so long as I live up to the law of 
the country, and respect it (especially considering my natural demo- 
cratic feelings, strengthened by my American naturalization), I am 
not bound to have any more respect than each of them personally 
deserves in his individual capacity. I must add, for the personal grati- 
fication of the Editor of your contemporary, and in the hope that this 
will soothe his irate feelings, that of the five eye-witnesses to the 
"cup" production, three (two of these of the "official circle") utterly 
disbelieve the genuineness of the phenomenon, though I would be 
pleased to know how, with all their scepticism, they would be able to 
account for it. I do not imitate the indiscretion of the Editor and 
mention names, but leave the public to draw such inferences as they 

I am a private individual, and no one has a right to call upon me to 
rise and explain. Therefore, by causing Colonel Olcott's stolen letter 
to be followed by a paragraph entitled "The way they treat 'occult 
phenomena' in England," giving an account of the arrest of Miss 
Houghton, a medium who obtained money under false pretences, the 
Editor, by the implied innuendo which likens my case to hers, became 
guilty of one more unprovoked and uugentlemanly insult towards me, 
who obtain neither money nor favours of any sort for my "pheno- 
mena," and lays himself open to vo.ry hard reprisals. The only benefit 
I have ever derived from my experiments, when made public, is news- 
paper abuse and more or less unfavourable comments upon my un- 
fortunate self all over the country. This, unless my convictions were 
strong indeed, would amount to obtaining Billingsgate and martyrdom 
under false pretences, and begging a reputation for insanity. The game 
would hardly be worth the candle, I think. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

Amritzur, Oct. 25th, 1880. 


[The following is a copy of a letter received by Dewan Bahadur Ragunath Row 
from Madame Blavatsky.] 

My dear Sir, — I have not made a study of Hindu law, but I do know 
something of the principles of Hindu religions, or rather ethics, and of 
those of its glorious Founders. I regard the former as almost the em- 
bodiment of justice, and the latter as ideals of spiritual perfectibility. 
When then anyone points out to me in the existing canon any text, line 
or word that violates one's sense of perfect justice, I instinctively know 
it must be a later perversion of the original Smriti. In my judgment, 
the Hindus are now patiently enduring many outrageous wrongs that 
were cunningly introduced into the canon, as opportunity offered, by 
selfish and unscrupulous priests for their personal benefit, as occurred 
in the case of Suttee, the burning of widows. The marriage laws are 
another example. To marry a child, without her knowledge or con- 
sent to enter the married state, and then to doom her to the awful, 
because unnatural, fate of enforced celibacy if the boy-child to whom 
she was betrothed should die (and one half of the human race do die 
before coming of age), is something actually brutal, devilish. It is the 
quintessence of injustice and cruelty, and I would sooner doubt the 
stars of heaven than believe that any one of those star-bright human 
souls called Rishis had ever consented to such a base and idiotic 
cruelty. If a female has entered the marital relation, she should, in 
my opinion, remain a chaste widow if her husband should die. But if 
a betrothed bo}'-husband of a non-consenting and irresponsible child- 
wife should die, or if, upon coming to age, either of them should be 
averse from matrimony, and prefer to take up the religious life, to 
devote themselves to charitable occupations, to study, or for other 
good reasons wish to remain celibate, then they ought to be allowed to 
do so. We personally know of several cases where the males or 
females are so bent upon becoming Chelas that they prefer death 


rather than to enter or continue in — as the cases severally may be — 
the married state. My woman's instinct always told me that for such 
there was comfort and protection in the Hindu law of the Rishis, 
which was based upon their spiritual perceptions, hence upon the 
perfect law of harmony and justice which pervades all nature. And 
now, upon reading your excellent pamphlet, I perceive that my 
instincts had not deceived me. 

Wishing eveiy possible success to your noble and highly philan- 
thropical enterprise, believe me, dear sir, with respect, 

Yours fraternally, 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

Mylaporc, June jrd, 1882. 



[From The Philosophic Enquirer, July 15th, 1883.] 

Having read an article signed with the above pseudonym in The 
Philosophic Enquirer of July 1st, in which the hapless condition of the 
Hindu widow is so sincerely bewailed, the idea struck me that it may 
not be uninteresting to your readers, the opponents as well as the sup- 
porters of child-marriage and widow-marriage, to learn that the sacer- 
dotal caste of India is not a solitary exception in the cruel treatment 
of those unfortunates whom fate has deprived of their husbands. 
Those who look upon the re-marriage of their bereaved females with 
horror, as well as those who may yet be secretly sighing for Suttee, 
will find worthy sympathizers among the savage and fierce tribe of the 
Talkotins of Oregon (America). Says Ross Cox in his Advcnlurcs on 
the Columbia River: 

The ceremonies attending the dead are very singular and quite peculiar to this 
tribe. During the nine days the corpse is laid out the widow of the deceased is 
obliged to sleep alongside it from sunset to sunrise; and from this custom there is 
no relaxation even during the hottest days of summer! [While the ceremony of 
cremation is being performed, and the doctor (or "medicine man") is trying for the 
last time his skill upon the corpse, and using useless incantations to bring him 
back to life,] the widow must lie on the pile, and after the fire is applied to it she 
cannot stir until the doctor orders her to be removed, which, however, is never 
done until her body is completely covered with blisters. 

After being placed on her legs she is obliged to pass her hands gently through 
the flames and collect some of the liquid fit which issues from the corpse, with 
which she is permitted [?] to wet her face and body! When the friends of the 
deceased observe the sinews of the legs and arms beginning to contract they 
compel the unfortunate widow to go again on the pile, and by dint of hard press- 
ing to straighten those members. 

If during her husband's lifetime she has been known to have omitted adminis- 
tering to him savoury food, or neglected his clothing, etc., she is now made to 
suffer severely for such lapses of duty by his relations, who frequently fling her on 


the funeral pile, from which she is dragged by her friends, and thus between alter- 
nate scorching and cooling she is dragged backwards and forwards until she falls 
into a state of insensibility. 

After which she is saved and allowed to go. 

But if the widow was faithful, respectful and a good wife, then : 

After the process of burning the corpse has terminated, the widow collects the 
larger bones, which she rolls up in an envelope of birch bark, and which she is 
obliged for some years afterwards to carry on her back. She is now considered and 
treated as a slave [as in India] ; all the laborious duties of cooking, collecting fuel, 
etc., devolve on her. She must obey the orders of all the women and even of the 
village children, and the slightest mistake or disobedience subjects her to the 
infliction of a heavy punishment. The wretched widow, to avoid this complicated 
cruelty, often commits suicide. Should she, however, linger on for three or four 
vears, the friends of her husband agree to relieve her from her painful mourning. 
This is a ceremony of much consequence. . . . Invitations are sent to the 
inhabitants of the various friendly villages, and when the feast commences 
presents are distributed to each visitor. The object of their meeting is then 
explained, and the woman is brought forward, still carrying on her back the bones 
of her late husband, which are now removed and placed in a carved box, which is 
nailed to a post twelve feet high. 

Her conduct as a faithful widow is next highly eulogized, and the ceremony of 
her manumission is completed by one man powdering on her head the down of 
birds and another pouring on it the contents of a bladder of oil! She is then at 
liberty to marry again or lead a life of single blessedness; but few of them, I believe, 
wish to encounter the risk attending a second widowhood. 

H. P. B. 




[From Light, 1883.] 

Bottom.— Let me play the lion. ... I will roar, that I will do any man's 
heart good to hear me. . . . I will make the Duke say, . . . "Let him roar, 
let him roar again." . . . Masters, you ought to consider with yourselves; to 
bring in— God shield us!— a lion among ladies, is a most dreadful thing; for, there 
is not a more fearful wild-fowl than your lion living; and we ought to look to't. 
. . . Nay, you must name his name, and half his face must be seen through the 
lion's neck; and he himself must speak through, saying thus, or to the same defect: 
"Ladies," or "fair ladies [or Theosophists] I would wish you," or "I would request 
you," or "I would entreat you," not to fear, not to tremble: ... If you think 
I come hither as a lion, . . . no, I am no such thing: I am a man . . . and 
there indeed let him name his name. — Midsummer Night's Dream. 

In Light of July 21st, in the "Correspondence," appears a letter 
signed "G. W., M.D." Most transparent initials these, which "name 
the name" at once, and show the writer's face "through the lion's 
neck." The communication consists of just fifty-eight paragraphs, 
containing an equal number of sneering, rancorous, vulgar, personal 
flings, the whole distributed over three and a half columns. It pre- 
tends to criticize, while only misquoting and misinterpreting Eastern 
Esotericism. Its author would create a laugh at the expense of Mr. 
Sinnett's book, and succeeds in showing us what a harmless creature is 
the "lion," " zvild-fowl" though he may be; and where he would make 
a show of wit, the letter is only — nasty. 

I should not address your public, even in my private capacity, but 
that the feelings of many hundreds of my Asiatic brothers have been 
outraged by this, to them, ribald attack upon what they hold sacred. 
For them, and at their instance, I protest. It might be regarded as 
beneath contempt had it come from an outsider upon whom rested no 
obligation to uphold the dignity of the Theosophical Society; in such 
case it would have passed for a clumsy attempt to injure an unpalatable 
cause: that of Esoteric Buddhism. But when it is a wide-open secret 


that the letter came from a member of about five years' standing, and 
one who, upon the protogenesis of the "British Theosophical Society" 
as the "L,ondon Lodge of the Theosophical Society," retained member- 
ship, the case has quite another aspect. The cutting insult having 
been inflicted publicly and without antecedent warning, it appears 
necessary to enquire as to the occult motive. 

I shall not stop to remark upon the wild resume, which, professedly 
"a criticism from a European and arithmetical standpoint," passed 
muster with you. Nor shall I lose time over the harmless flings at 
"incorrigible Buddhists and other lunatics," beyond remarking a propos 
of "moon" and "dust-bins" that the former seems to have found a 
good symbol of herself as a "dust-bin" in the heads of those whose 
perceptive faculties seem so dusty as to prevent the entrance of a single 
ray of Occult light. Briefly then, since the year 1879 when we came to 
India, the author of the letter in question has made attempts to put 
himself into communication with the "Brothers." Besides trying to 
enter into correspondence with Colonel Olcott's Guru, he sent twice, 
through myself, letters addressed to the Mahatmas. Being, as it 
appears, full of one-sided prejudiced questions, suggesting to Buddhist 
Philosophers the immense superiority of his own "Esoteric" Chris- 
tianity over the system of the Lord Buddha, which is characterized as 
fruitful of selfishness, human blindness, misanthropy and spiritual death, 
they were returned by the addressees for our edification and to show 
us why they would not notice them. Whoever has read a novelette 
contributed by this same gentleman to The Psychological Review and 
entitled "The Man from the East" will readily infer what must have 
been his attitude towards the "Himalayan" and Tibetan Mystics. A 
Scotch doctor, the hero, meets at a place in Syria, in an Occult Brother- 
hood, a Christian convert from this "Himalayan heathen Brotherhood," 
who — a Hindu — utters against his late Adept Masters the self-same 
libels as are now repeated in the letter under notice.* 

The shot at Theosophy being badly aimed, flew wide of the mark; 
but still, like Richard III, "G. W., M.D." resolved, as it appears, to 
keep up the gunnery — 

* The mythical hero of the story would seem to have met at Paris with a certain pseudo-Brahman, 
a convert to Roman Catholicism, who is giving himself out as an ex-Chela— his statements and all 
corroborative ones to the contrary notwithstanding; he may have misled, if not the mythical Scotch 
doctor, at least the actual "M.D." of London. And, by the way, our French Fellows may as well 
know, that unless this pretender ceases his bogus revelations as to the phenomenal powers of our 
Mahatmas being "of the devil " a certain native gentleman who has known this convert of the 
Jesuits from childhood, will expose him most fully.— H. P. B. 


If not to fight with foreign enemies, 

Yet to beat down these rebels here at home. 

The three indignant answers called out by "G. \V., M.D.," having 
emanated from an English lady and two genuine English gentlemen, 
are, in my humble opinion, too dignified and mild for the present case. 
So brutal an attack demanded something stronger than well-bred 
protests; and at the risk of being taken by "G. W., M.D." as the 
reverse of well-bred, I shall use plain words about this whilom friend, 
but now traitor — I hope to show the term is not too harsh. As an 
ardent Theosophist, the grateful loyal friend of the author denounced 
— who deserves and has the regard of Mahatma Koot-Hoomi — and as 
the humble pupil of Those to whom I owe my life and the future of 
my soul, I shall speak. While I have breath, I shall never allow to 
pass unnoticed such ugly manifestations of religious intolerance, nay, 
bigotry, and personal rancour resulting from envy, in a member of our 

Before closing, I must notice one specially glaring fact. Touched 
evidently to the quick by Mr. Sinnett's very proper refusal to let one 
so inimical see the "Divine Face" (yes, truly Divine, though not so 
much so as the original) of the Mahatma, "G. W., M.D." with a sneer 
of equivocal propriety, calls it a mistake. He says: 

For just as some second-class saints have been made by gazing on halfpenny 
prints of the Mother of God, so who can say that if my good friend had permitted 
my sceptical eyes to look on the Divine face of Koot-Hoomi I might not forthwith 
have been converted into an Esoteric Buddhist? 

Impossible; an Esoteric Buddhist never broke his pledged word; 
and one who upon entering the Society gave his solemn word of honour, 
in the presence of witnesses, that he would 

Defend the interests of the Society and the honour of a brother Theosophist, 
when unjustly assailed, even at the peril of my [his] own life, 

and then could write such a letter, would never be accepted in that 
capacity. One who unjustly assails the honour of hundreds of his 
Asiatic brothers, slanders their religion and wounds their most sacred 
feelings, may be a very esoteric Christian, but certainly is a disloyal 
Theosophist. My perceptions of what constitutes a man of honour 
may be very faulty, but I confess that I could not imagine such a one 
making public caricatures upon confessedly "private instructions." 
(See second column, paragraph 14 of his letter.) Private instructions 
of this sort, given at confidential private meetings of the Society in 


advance of their publication, are exactly what the entering member's 
"word of honour" pledges him not to reveal. 

The broken faith hath made thee prey for worms;- 
What canst thou swear by now ? 

Your correspondent deprecates 

At the outset this Oriental practice of secrecy; [he knows] that secrecy and 
cunning are ever twin sisters, [and it appears to him] childish and effeminate [to 
pretend] by secret words and signs to enshrine great truths behind a veil, which is 
only useful as a concealment of ignorance and nakedness. 

Indeed: so he is not an "Esoteric Christian" after all, else I have 
misread the Bible. For what I find there in various passages, of which 
I cite but one, shows me that he is as disloyal to his own Master and 
Ideal Christ, as he is to Theosophy: 

And He said unto them [His own disciples], Unto you it is given to know the 
inystery of the kingdom of God; but unto them that are without [the "G.W., 
M.D.'s" of the day] all these things are done in parables: that seeing they may see 
and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any 
time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them. {Mark, 
iv. 11, 12.) 

Shall we characterize this also as "childish and effeminate," say that 
the twins sisters "secrecy and cunning" lurk behind this veil, and that 
in this instance, as usual, it was "only useful as a concealment of 
ignorance and nakedness"? The grandeur of Esoteric Buddhism is 
that it hides what it does from the vulgar, not "lest at any time they 
should be converted, and their sins forgiven them," or as they would 
say, "cheat their Karma" — but lest by learning prematurely that which 
can safely be trusted only to those who have proved their unselfishness 
and self-abnegation, even the wicked, the si?iners should be hurt. 

And now, may the hope of Bottom be realized, and some IyOndon 
Duke say to this harmless lion: "Eet him roar, let him roar again." 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

Nilgherry Hills, Aug. 23rd, 18S3. 


[From Light, 1884.] 

I WRITE to rectify the many mistakes — if they are, indeed, only "mis- 
takes" — in Mr. L,illie's last letter that appeared in Light of August 
2nd, in answer to the Observations on his pamphlet by the President of 
the London Lodge. 

1. This letter, in which the author of Buddha and Early Buddhism 
proposed to 

Consider briefly some of the notable omissions made in the "Observations," 
begins with two most notable assertions concerning myself, which arc 
entirely false, and which the author had not the slightest right to make. 
He says: 

For fourteen years (1S60 to 1S74) Madame Blavatsky was an avowed vSpiritnalist, 
controlled by a spirit called "John King" . . . she attended many seances. 

But this would hardly prove anyone to be a Spiritualist, and, more- 
over, all these assertions are entirely false. I say the word and under- 
line it, for the facts in them are distorted, and made to fit a preconceived 
and very erroneous notion, started first by the Spiritualists, whose 
interest it is to advocate "spirits" pure and simple, and to kill, if they 
can, which is rather doubtful, belief in the wisdom, if not in the very 
existence, of our revered Masters. 

Though I do not at all feel bound to unbosom my private life to Mr. 
Arthur Lillie, nor do I recognize in him the right of demanding it. yet 
out of respect to a few Spiritualists whom I esteem and honour, I 
would set them right once for all on the subject. As that period of 
my life (1S73-1879) in America, with all its spiritual transactions, will 
be given very soon in a new book called Madame Blavatsky, published 
by friends, and one which I trust will settle, once and for ever, the 
many wild and unfounded stories told of me, I will briefly state only 
the following. 

The unwarranted assumption mentioned above is very loosely based 

254 A MOD; ERN panarion. 

on one single document, namely, Colonel Olcott's People from the Other 
World. As this book was written partly before, and partly after, my 
first acquaintance with Colonel Olcott, and as he was a Spiritualist, 
which he has never denied, I am not responsible for his views of me 
and my "power" at that time. He wrote what he then thought the 
whole truth, honestly and sincerely; and as I had a determined object 
in view, I did not seek to disabuse him too rudely of his dreams. It 
was only after the formation of the Theosophical Society in 1875, that 
he learned the whole truth. I defy anyone, after that period, to find 
one word from his pen that would corroborate his early views on the 
nature of my supposed "mediumship." But even then, when writing 
of me in his book, he states distinctly the following: 

Her mediumship is totally different from that of any other person I ever met, for 
instead of being controlled by spirits to do their will, it is she who seems to control 
them to do her bidding. 

Strange "mediumship," one that resembled in no way any that even 
Colonel Olcott — a Spiritualist of thirty years' standing — had ever met 
with! But when Colonel Olcott says in his book (p. 453) that instead of 
being controlled by, it is I who control the so-called spirits, he is yet 
made to say by Mr. Lillie, who refers the public to Colonel Olcott's 
book, that is I who was controlled! Is this a misstatement and a 
misquotation, I ask, or is it not? 

Again, it is stated by Mr. Lillie that I conversed with this "spirit" 
(John King) during fourteen years, "constantly in India and else- 
where." To begin with, I here assert that I had never heard the name 
of "John King" before 1873. True it is, I had told Colonel Olcott and 
many others that the form of a man, with a dark pale face, black beard, 
and white flowing garments and fettah, that some of them had met 
about the house and my rooms, was that of a "John King." I had 
given him that name for reasons that will be fully explained very soon, 
and I laughed heartily at the easy way the astral body of a living man 
could be mistaken for, and accepted as, a spirit. And I had told them 
that I had known that "John" since i860; for it was the form of an 
Eastern Adept, who has since gone for his final initiation, passing 
through and visiting us in his living body on his way, at Bombay. 
Whether Messrs. Lillie and Co. believe the statement or not, I care 
very little, as Colonel Olcott and other friends know it now to be the 
true one. I have known and conversed with many a "John King" in 
my life — a generic name for more than one spook — but, thank heaven, 


I was never yet "controlled" by one! My mediumship has been 
crushed out of me a quarter of a century or more; and I defy loudly 
all the "spirits" of the Kama Loka to approach — let alone to control 
me — now. Surely it is Mr. Arthur Lillie who must be "controlled" by 
some one to make untruthful statements which can be so easily refuted 
as this one. 

2. Mr. Lillie asks for 

Information about the seven years' initiation of Madame Blavatsky. 

The humble individual of this name has never heard of such an 
initiation. With that accuracy in the explanation of Esoteric terms 
that so preeminently characterizes the author of Buddha and Early 
Buddhism, the word may be intended for "instruction"? If so, then 
I should be quite justified in first asking Mr. Lillie what right he has 
to cross-examine me. But since he chooses to take such liberties with 
my name, I will tell him plainly that he himself knows nothing, not 
merely of initiations and Tibet, but even of exoteric — let alone Esoteric — 
Buddhism. What he pretends to know about Lama'ism he has picked 
up from the hazy information of travellers, who, having forced them- 
selves into the borderland of Tibet, pretend on that account to know all 
that is within the country closed for centuries to the average traveller. 
Even Csomo de Koros knew very little of the real gyclukpas and Esoteric 
Lamaism, except what he was permitted to know, for he never went 
beyond Zanskar and the lamasery of Phagdal — erroneously spelt by 
those who pretend to know all about Tibet, Pugdal, which is incorrect, 
just because there are no meaningless navies in Tibet, as Mr. Lillie has 
been taught to say. And I will tell him also that I have lived at 
different periods in Little Tibet as well as in Great Tibet, and that 
these combined periods form more than seven years. 

Yet I have never stated either verbally or over my signature that I 
had passed seven consecutive years in a convent. What I have said, 
and repeat now, is that I have stopped in Lamai'stic convents; that I 
have visited Tzi-gadze, the Teshu Hlumpo territory and its neighbour- 
hood, and that I have been further into, and have visited such places 
of Tibet as have never been visited by other Europeans, and such as he 
can never hope to visit. 

Mr. Lillie had no right to expect more "ample details" in Mr. Finch's 
pamphlet. Mr. Finch is an honourable man, who speak- of the private 
life of a person only so far as that person permits him. My friends 
and those whom I respect and for whose opinion I care, have ample 


evidence — from my family for instance — that I have been in Tibet, and 
this is all I care for. As to — 

The names, perhaps, of three or four . . . English [rather Anglo-Indian] 
officials, who would certify 

to having seen me when I passed, I am afraid their vigilance would 
not be found at the height of their trustworthiness. Only two years 
back, as I can prove by numerous witnesses, when journeying from 
Chandernagore to Darjeeling, instead of proceeding to it direct, I left 
the train half-way, was met by friends with a conveyance, and passed 
with them into the territory of Sikkhim where I found my Master and 
Mahatma Kuthumi. Thence I went five miles across the old border- 
land of Tibet. 

Upon my return, five days later, to Darjeeling, I received a kind note 
from the Deputy Commissioner. It notified me in the politest of terms 
that, having heard of my intention of going over to Tibet, the govern- 
ment could not allow me to proceed there before I had received per- 
mission to that effect from Simla, nor could it accept the responsibility 
of my safety, 

The Rajah of Sikkhim being very averse to allow travellers on his territorv, etc. 

This I would call shutting the stable-door when the steed is stolen. 
Nor had the very "trustworthy" official even heard that a month before 
Mr. Sinnett had kindly procured for me permission, since I went to 
Sikkhim but for a few days, and no farther than the old Tibetan bor- 
derland. The question is not whether the Anglo-Indian Government 
will or will not grant such permission, but whether the Tibetans will 
let one cross their territory. Of the latter, I am sure any day. I invite 
Mr. Lillie to try the same. He may at the same time study with profit 
geography, and ascertain that there are other routes than those laid 
down into Tibet, besides via "English officials." He tries his best to 
make me out, in plain words, a liar. He will find it even more difficult 
than to disprove that he knows nothing of either Tibet or Buddhism or 
our "Byang Tisubs." 

I will surely never lose my time in showing that his accusations 
against One, Whom no insult of his can reach, are perfectly worthless. 
There are numbers of men quite as intelligent as he believes himself 
to be, whose opinion of our Mahatmas' letters is the reverse of his. 
He can "suppose" that the authorities by him cited knew more about 
Tibet than our Masters; others think they do not; and the thousand 


and one blunders of his Buddha and Early Buddhism show ns what 
these authorities are worth when trusted literally. As to his trying to 
insinuate that there is no Mahatma. Kutlunni at all, the idea alone is 
absurd. He will have to dispose, before he does anything more, of a 
certain lady in Russia, whose truthfulness and impartiality no one who 
knows her would ever presume to question, who received a letter from 
that Master so far back as 1870. Perchance a forgery also? As to my 
having been in Tibet, at Mahatma Kuthumi's house, I have better 
proof in store — when I believe it needed — than Mr. Lillie's rancorous 
ingenuity will ever be able to make away with. 

If the teachings of Mr. Sinnett's Esoteric Buddhism are considered 
atheistic, then I am an atheist too. And yet I would not deny what I 
wrote in /sis, as quoted by Mr. Finch. If Mr. Lillie knows no differ- 
ence between an anthropomorphic extra-cosmic God, and the Divine 
Kssence of the Advaitis and other Esotericists, then, I must only lose 
a little more of my respect for the R. A. S. in which he claims mem- 
bership; and it may justify the more our assertions that there is more 
knowledge in "Babu (?) Subba Row's" solitary head than in dozens of 
the heads of "Orientalists" about London we know of. The same with 
regard to the Master's name. If Mr. Lillie tells us that "Kuthumi" is 
not a Tibetan name, we answer that we never claimed it to be one. 
Everyone knows that the Master is a Punjabi, whose family was settled 
for years in Cashmere. But if he tells us that an expert at the British 
Museum ransacked the Tibetan dictionary for the words "Kut" and 
"Humi," "and found no such words," then I say: Buy a better dic- 
tionary or replace the expert by a more "expert" one. Let Mr. Lillie 
try the glossaries of the Moravian Brothers and their alphabets. I am 
afraid he is ruining terribly his reputation as an Orientalist. Indeed, 
before this controversy is settled he may leave in it the last shreds of 
his supposed Oriental learning. 

Lest Mr. Lillie should take my omitting to answer a single one of 
his very indiscreet questions as a new pretext for printing some imper- 
tinence, I say: I was at Mentana during the battle in October, 1S67, 
and left Italy in November of the same year for India. Whether I was 
sent there, or found myself there by accident, are questions that per- 
tain to my private life, with which, it appears to me, Mr. Lillie has no 
concern. But this is on a par with his other ways of dealing with his 

Mr. Lillie's other sarcasms touch me very little, for I know their 


value. I may let them pass without any further notice. Some persons 
have an extraordinarily clever way of avoiding an embarrassing posi- 
tion by trying to place their antagonists in the same situation. For 
instance, Mr. Ljllie could not answer the criticisms made on his Buddha 
and Early Buddhism in The Theosophist, nor has he ever attempted 
to do so. But he applied himself instead to collect every vile rumour 
and idle gossip about me, its editor. Why does he not show, to begin 
with, that his reviewer was wrong? Why does he not, by contradict- 
ing our statements, firmly establish his own authority as an Orientalist, 
showing first of all that he is a genuine scholar, who knows the sub- 
ject he is talking about, before he allows himself to deny and contra- 
dict other people's statements in matters which he knows still less 
about? He does nothing of the kind, however — not a word, not a 
mention of the scourging criticism that he is tenable to refute. Instead 
of that, one finds the offended author trying to throw ridicule on his 
reviewers, probably so as to lessen the value of what they have to say 
of his own book. This is clever, very clever strategy — whether it is 
equally honourable remains, withal, an open question. 

It might be difficult, after the conclusions reached by qualified 
scholars in India concerning his first book, to secure much attention 
in The Theosophist for his second, but if this volume in turn were ex- 
amined with the care almost undeservedly devoted to the first, and if 
it were referred to the authority of such real Oriental scholars and 
Sanskritists as Mr. R. T. H. Griffith, for instance, I think it would be 
found that the aggregate blundering of the two books put together 
might excite even as much amusement as the singular complacency 
with which the author betrays himself to the public. 

H. P. Blavatsky. 

August 3rd, i$Sj. 



[Vol. I. No. i, October, 1879.] 

This question has been so often asked, and misconception so widely 
prevails, that the editors of a journal devoted to an exposition of the 
world's Theosophy would be remiss, were its first number issued with- 
out coming to a full understanding with their readers. But our head- 
ing involves two further queries: what is the Theosophical Society; 
and what are the Theosophists ? To each an answer will be given. 

According to lexicographers, the term Thcosophia is composed of two 
Greek words — theos, "God," and sop/i/a, "wisdom." So far, correct. But 
the explanations that follow are far from giving a clear idea of Theo- 
sophy. Webster defines it most originally as 

A supposed intercourse with God and superior spirits, and consequent attainment 
of superhuman knowledge, by physical processes, as by the theurgic operations of 
some ancient Platonists, or by the chemical processes of the German fire-philosophers. 

This, to say the least, is a poor and flippant explanation. To attri- 
bute such ideas to men like Ammonius Saccas, Plotinus, Jamblichus, 
Porphyry, Proclus, shows either intentional misrepresentation, or Mr. 
Webster's ignorance of the philosophy and motives of the greatest 
geniuses of the later Alexandrian School. To impute to those whom 
their contemporaries as well as posterity styled "Theodidaktoi," God- 
taught, a purpose to develop their psychological, spiritual perceptions 
by "physical processes," is to describe them as materialists. As to the 
concluding fling at the fire-philosophers, it rebounds from them to fall 
home among our most eminent modern men of science, those in whose 
mouths the Rev. James Martineau places the following boast: "Matter 
is all we want; give us atoms alone and we will explain the universe." 

Vaughan offers a far better, more philosophical definition. He says: 

A Theosophist is one who gives you a theory of God or the works of Cod. which 
has not revelation, but an inspiration of his own for its basis. 

In this view every great thinker and philosopher, especially every 
founder of a new religion, school of philosophy, or sect is necessarily 
a Theosophist. Hence Theosophy and Theosophists have existed ever 


since the first glimmering of nascent thought made man seek instinc- 
tively for the means of expressing his own independent opinions. 

There were Theosophists before the Christian era, notwithstanding 
that the Christian writers ascribe the development of the eclectic 
Theosophieal system to the early part of the third century of their era. 
Diogenes Laertius traces Theosophy to an epoch antedating the dynasty 
of the Ptolemies; and names as its founder an Egyptian Hierophant 
called Pot-Amun, the name being Coptic and signifying a priest conse- 
crated to Amun, the God of Wisdom. But history shows it revived by 
Ammonius Saccas, the founder of the Neo-Platonic School. He and 
his disciples called themselves "Philalethians" — lovers of the truth; 
while others termed them the " Analogists," on account of their method 
of interpreting all sacred legends, symbolical myths and mysteries, by 
a rule of analogy or correspondence, so that events which had occurred 
in the external world were regarded as expressing operations and ex- 
periences of the human soul. It was the aim and purpose of Ammonius 
to reconcile all sects, peoples and nations under one common faith 
— a belief in one Supreme Eternal, Unknown and Unnamed Power, 
governing the universe by immutable and eternal laws. His object 
was to prove a primitive system of Theosophy, which at the beginning 
was essentially alike in all countries; to induce all men to lay aside 
their strifes and quarrels, and unite in purpose and thought as the 
children of one common mother; to purify the ancient religions, by 
degrees corrupted and obscured, from all dross of human element, 
by uniting and expounding them upon pure philosophical principles. 
Hence, the Buddhistic, Vedantic and Magian, or Zoroastrian, systems 
were taught in the Eclectic Theosophieal School along with all the 
philosophies of Greece. Hence also, that preeminently Buddhistic 
and Indian feature among the ancient Theosophists of Alexandria, of 
due reverence for parents and aged persons; a fraternal affection for 
the whole human race; and a compassionate feeling for even the dumb 
animals. While seeking to establish a system of moral discipline, 
which enforced upon people the duty to live according to the laws of 
their respective countries, to exalt their minds by the research and 
contemplation of the one Absolute Truth; his chief object, in order, 
as he believed, to achieve all others, was to extract from the various 
religious teachings, as from a many-chorded instrument, one full and 
harmonious melody, which would find response in every truth-loving 


Theosophy is, then, the archaic Wisdom-Religion, the esoteric doctrine 
once known in every ancient country having claims to civilization. 
This "Wisdom" all the old writings show ns as an emanation of 
the divine Principle; and the clear comprehension of it is typified in 
such names as the Indian Budh, the Babylonian Nebo, the Thoth of 
Memphis, the Hermes of Greece; in the appellations, also, of some 
goddesses — Metis, Neitha, Athena, the Gnostic Sophia — and finally the 
Vedas, from the word "to know." Under this designation, all the 
ancient philosophers of the East and West, the Hierophants of old 
Egypt, the Rishis of Aryavartta, the Theodidaktoi of Greece, included 
all knowledge of things occult and essentially divine. The Mercavah 
of the Hebrew rabbis, the secular and popular series, were thus desig- 
nated as only the vehicle, the outward shell which contained the higher 
esoteric knowledge. The Magi of Zoroaster received instruction and 
were initiated in the caves and secret lodges of Bactria; the Egyptian 
and Grecian Hierophants had their aporrhcta, or secret discourses, 
during which the Mystes became an Epoptes — a Seer. 

The central idea of Eclectic Theosophy was that of a single Supreme 
Essence, Unknown and Unknoivable, for — "How could one know the 
knower?" as enquires the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. Their system 
was characterized by three distinct features: the theory of the above- 
named Essence; the doctrine of the human soul — an emanation from 
the latter, hence of the same nature; and its theurgy. It is this last 
science which has caused the Neo-Platonists to be so misrepresented 
in our era of materialistic science. Theurgy being essentially the art 
of applying the divine powers of man to the subordination of the 
blind forces of nature, its votaries were first termed magicians — a cor- 
ruption of the word "Magh," signifying a wise, or learned man — and 
then derided. Sceptics of a century ago would have been as wick- of the 
mark if they had laughed at the idea of a phonograph or telegraph. 
The ridiculed and the "infidels" of one generation generally become 
the wise men and saints of the next. 

As regards the Divine Essence and the nature of the soul and spirit, 
modern Theosophy believes now as ancient Theosophy did. The 
popular Diu of the Aryan nations was identical with the Iao of the 
Chaldceans, and even with the Jupiter of the less learned and philo- 
sophical among the Romans; and it was just as identical with the 
Jahve of the Samaritans, the Tin or "Tiusco" of the Northmen, the Duw 
of the Britons, and the Zeus of the Thracians. As to the Absolute 


Essence, the One and All — whether we accept the Greek Pythagorean, 
the Chaldaean Kabalistic, or the Aryan philosophy in regard to it, it 
will all lead to one and the same result. The Primeval Monad of the 
Pythagorean system, which retires into darkness and is itself Darkness 
(for human intellect) was made the basis of all things; and we can find 
the idea in all its integrity in the philosophical systems of Leibnitz 
and Spinoza. Therefore, whether a Theosophist agrees with the 
Kabalah which, speaking of En-Soph propounds the query: "Who, 
then, can comprehend It, since It is formless and Non-existent?"; 
or, remembering that magnificent hymn from the Rig Veda (book x, 
hymn 129) — enquires: 

Who knows from whence this great creation sprang? 

Whether his will created or was mute. 

Pie knows it — or perchance even He knows not; 

or, again, accepts the Vedantic conception of Brahma, who in the 
Upanishads is represented as "without life, without mind, pure," u?i- 
conscious, for — Brahma is "Absolute Consciousness"; or even, finally, 
whether, siding with the Svabhavikas of Nepaul, he maintains that 
nothing exists but "Svabhava" (substance or nature) which exists by 
itself without any creator; any one of the above conceptions can lead 
but to pure and absolute Theosophy — that Theosophy which prompted 
such men as Hegel, Fichte and Spinoza to take up the labours of the 
old Grecian philosophers and speculate upon the One Substance, the 
Deity, the Divine All proceeding from the Divine Wisdom, incompre- 
hensible, unknown and 7innamed, by any ancient or modern religious 
philosophy, with the exception of Christianity and Mohammedanism. 
Every Theosophist, then, holding to a theory of the Deity "which has 
not revelation, but an inspiration of his own for its basis," may accept 
any of the above definitions, or belong to any of these religions, and 
yet remain strictly within the boundaries of Theosophy. For the 
latter is belief in the Deity as the ALL, the source of all existence, the 
infinite that cannot be either comprehended or known, the universe 
alone revealing //, or, as some prefer it, Him, thus giving a sex to that, 
to anthropomorphize which is blasphefjiy. True Theosophy shrinks 
from brutal materialization; it prefers believing that, from eternity 
retired within itself, the Spirit of the Deity neither wills nor creates; 
but that, from the infinite effiulgency everywhere going forth from the 
Great Centre, that which produces all visible and invisible things is 
but a Ray containing in itself the generative and conceptive power, 


which, in its turn, produces that which the Greeks called Macrocosm, 
the Kabalists Tikkun or Adam Kadmon — the archetypal man — and the 
Aryans Purusha, the manifested Brahma, or the Divine Male. Theo- 
sophy believes also in the Anastasis or continued existence, and in 
transmigration (evolution) or a series of changes in the soul* which 
can be defended and explained on strict philosophical principles, and 
only by making a distinction between Paramatma. (transcendental, 
supreme soul) and Jivatma (animal, or conscious soul) of the Vedantins. 
To fully define Theosophy we must consider it under all its aspects. 
The interior world has not been hidden from all by impenetrable dark- 
ness. By that higher intuition acquired by Theosophia, or God-know- 
ledge, which carried the mind from the world of form into that of 
formless spirit, man has been sometimes enabled in every age and 
•every country to perceive things in the interior or invisible world. 
Hence the "Samadhi," or Dhya.11 Yog Samadhi, of the Hindu ascetics; 
the "Daimonion-photisma," or spiritual illumination of the Neo- 
Platonists; the "sidereal confabulation of soul," of the Rosicrucians or 
fire-philosophers; and, even the ecstatic trance of mystics and of the 
modern mesmerists and spiritualists, are identical in nature, though 
various as to manifestation. The search after man's diviner "self," so 
often and so erroneously interpreted as individual communion with a 
personal God, was the object of every mystic, and belief in its possi- 
bility seems to have been coeval with the genesis of humanity, each 
people giving it another name. Thus Plato and Plotinus call "Noetic 
work " that which the Yogin and the Shrotriya term Vidya. 

By reflection, self-knowledge and intellectual discipline, the soul can be raised 
to the vision of eternal truth, goodness and beauty — that is, to the / 'ision of God— 
this is the epopteia, 

said the Greeks, and Porphyry adds: 

To unite one's soul to the Universal Soul requires but a perfectly pure mind. 
Through self-contemplation, perfect chastity, and purity of body, we may approach 
nearer to It, and receive, in that Mate, true knowledge and wonderful insight. 

And Svami Dayanand Sarasvati, who has read neither Porphyry nor 
other Greek authors, but who is a thorough Yedic scholar, says in his 
Veda Bhashya: 

• In a series of articles entitled "The World fheosophists," we intend Viewing- that from 

Pythagoras, who got his wisdom in India, down to our best known modern philosophers and Theo- 
sophi>t> David Hume, Shelley, and tin- Spiritists of France included main- believed and yi 1 bi lieve 
in metempsychosis, or reincarnation of the soul, however unelaborated the system of the Spiritists 
may be considered. 


To obtain Diksha (highest initiations) and Yoga, one has to practise according to 
the rules. . . . The soul in human body can perform the greatest wonders by 
knowing the Universal Spirit (or God) and acquainting itself with the properties 
and qualities (occult) of all the things in the universe. A human being (a Dikshita 
or initiate) can thus acquire a power of seeing and hearing at great distances. 

Finally, Alfred R. Wallace, F.R.S., a spiritualist and yet a confessedly 
great naturalist, says, with brave candour: 

It is "spirit" that alone feels, and perceives, and thinks — that acquires know- 
ledge, and reasons and aspires . . . there not unfrequently occur individuals so 
constituted that the spirit can perceive independently of the corporeal organs of 
sense, or can, perhaps, wholly or partially, quit the body for a time and return to 
it again . . . the spirit . . . communicates with spirit easier than with matter. 

We can now see how, after thousands of years have intervened 
between the age of the Gymnosophists* and our own highly civilized 
era, notwithstanding, or, perhaps, just because of such an enlighten- 
ment which pours its radiant light upon the psychological as well as 
upon the physical realms of nature, over twenty millions of people 
to-day believe, under a different form, in those same spiritual powers, 
that were believed in by the Yogins and the Pythagoreans, nearly 3,000 


years ago. Thus, while the Aryan mystic claimed for himself the 
power of solving all the problems of life and death, when he had once 
obtained the power of acting independently of his body, through the 
Atma — "self," or "soul"; and the old Greeks went in search of At me 
— the Hidden One, or the God-Soul of man, with the symbolical mirror 
of the Thesmophorian mysteries; so the Spiritualists of to-day believe 
in the faculty of the spirits, or the souls of the disembodied persons, to 
communicate visibly and tangibly with those they loved on earth. 

a B m 

And all these, Aryan Yogins, Greek philosophers, and modern Spiri- 
tualists, affirm that possibility on the ground that the embodied soul 
and its never embodied spirit — the real se(/— not separated from 
either the Universal Soul or other spirits by space, but merely by the 
differentiation of their qualities; as in the boundless expanse of the 
universe there can be no limitation. And that when this difference is 


once removed — according to the Greeks and Aryans by abstract con- 
templation, producing the temporary liberation of the imprisoned 
soul; and according to Spiritualists, through mediumship — such a 
union between embodied and disembodied spirits becomes possible. 
Thus was it that Patanjali's Yogins, and, following in their steps, 

* The reality of the Yoga- power was affirmed by many Greek and Roman writers, who call the 
Yogins Indian Gymnosophists; by Strabo, Lucan, Plutarch, Cicero, Pliny, etc. 


Plotinus, Porphyry and other Neo-Platonists, maintained that in their 
hours of ecstasy they had been united to, or rather become as one 
with, God, several times during the course of their lives. This idea, 
erroneous as it may seem in its application to the Universal Spirit, was, 
and is, claimed by too many great philosophers to be put aside as 
entirely chimerical. In the case of the Theodidaktoi, the only con- 
trovertible point, the dark spot on this philosophy of extreme mysti- 
cism, was its claim to include that which is simply ecstatic illumina- 
tion under the head of sensuous perception. In the case of the Yogins, 
who maintained their ability to see Ishvara "face to face," this claim 
was successfully overthrown by the stern logic of Kapila. As to the 
similar assumption made for their Greek followers, for a long array of 
Christian ecstatics, and, finally, for the last two claimants to "God- 
seeing" within these last hundred years — Jacob Bohme and Swedenborg 
— this pretension would and should have been philosophically and logi- 
cally questioned, if a few of our great men of science who are Spiri- 
tualists had had more interest in the philosophy than in the mere 
phenomenalism of Spiritualism. 

The Alexandrian Theosophists were divided into neophytes, ini- 
tiates and masters, or Hierophants; and their rules were copied from 
the ancient Mysteries of Orpheus, who, according to Herodotus, 
brought them from India. Ammonius obliged his disciples under oath 
not to divulge his higher doctrines, except to those who were proved 
thoroughly worthy and initiated, and who had learned to regard the 
gods, the angels and the demons of other peoples, according to the 
esoteric hypo no/a, or under-meaning. Epicurus observes: 

The Gods exist, but they are not what the hoi polloi, the uneducated multitude, 
suppose them to be. He is not an atheist who denies the existence of the Gods 
whom the multitude worship, but he is such who fastens on these gods the opinions 
of the multitude. 

In his turn, Aristotle declares that of the 

Divine Essence pervading the whole world of nature, what are styled the Gods 
are simply the first principles. 

Plotinus, the pupil of the "God-taught" Ammonius, tells us that 
the secret gnosis or the knowledge of Theosophy, has three degrees — 
opinion, science and illumination. 

The means or instalment of the first is sense, or perception ; of the second, dia- 
lectics ; of the third, intuition. To the last, reason is subordinate; ii is absolute 
knowledge, founded on the identification of the mind with the object known. 

Theosophy is the exact science of psychology, so to say; it stands in 


relation to natural, uncultivated mediumship, as the knowledge of a 
Tyndall stands to that of a school-boy in physics. It develops in man 
a direct beholding; that which Schelling denominates "a realization of 
the identity of subject and object in the individual" ; so that under the 
influence and knowledge of hyponoia man thinks divine thoughts, views 
all things as they really are, and, finally, "becomes recipient of the 
Soul of the World," to use one of the finest expressions of Emerson. 
"I, the imperfect, adore my own perfect" — he says in his superb Essay 
on The Over-Soul. Besides this psychological, or soul-state, Theosophy 
cultivated every branch of sciences and arts. It was thoroughly fami- 
liar with what is now commonly known as mesmerism. Practical 
theurgy or "ceremonial magic," so often resorted to in their exorcisms 
by the Roman Catholic clergy, was discarded by the Theosophists. It 
is but Jamblichus alone who, transcending the other eclectics, added 
to Theosophy the doctrine of Theurgy. When ignorant of the true 
meaning of the esoteric divine symbols of nature, man is apt to mis- 
calculate the powers of his soul, and, instead of communing spiritually 
and mentally with the higher, celestial beings, the good spirits (the 
gods of the theurgists of the Platonic school), he will unconsciously 
call forth the evil, dark powers which lurk around humanity — the un- 
dying, grim creations of human crimes and vices — and thus fall from 
thcurgia (white magic) into goetia (or black magic, sorcery). Yet, 
neither white nor black magic are what popular superstition under- 
stands by the terms. The possibility of "raising a spirit," according 
to the key of Solomon, is the height of superstition and ignorance. 
Purity of deed and thought can alone raise us to an intercourse "with 
the gods," and attain for us the goal we desire. Alchemy, believed by 
so many to have been a spiritual philosophy as well as a physical 
science, belonged to the teachings of the Theosophical school. 

It is a noticeable fact that neither Zoroaster, Buddha, Orpheus, 
Pythagoras, Confucius, Socrates, nor Ammonius Saccas, committed 
anything to writing. The reason for it is obvious. Theosophy is a 
double-edged weapon and unfit for the ignorant or the selfish. L,ike 
every ancient philosophy, it has its votaries among the moderns; but, 
until late in our own days, its disciples were few in number, and of the 
most various sects and opinions. 

Entirely speculative, and founding no schools, they have still exercised a silent 
influence upon philosophy; and no doubt, when the time arrives, many ideas thus 
silently propounded may yet give new directions to human thought, 


remarks Mr. Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, IX° . . . himself a mystic 
and a Theosophist, in his large and valuable work, The Royal Masonic 
Cyclopedia (articles "Theosophical Society of New York" and "Theo- 
sophy," p. 731).* Since the days of the fire-philosophers, they had 
never formed themselves into societies, for, tracked like wild beasts by 
the Christian clergy, to be known as a Theosophist often amounted, 
hardly a century ago, to a death-warrant. The statistics show that, 
during a period of 150 years, no less than 90,000 men and women were 
burned in Europe for alleged witchcraft. In Great Britain only, from 
a.d. 1640 to 1660, but twenty years, 3,000 persons were put to death for 
compact with the "Devil." It was but late in the present century — in 
1875 — that some progressed mystics and Spiritualists, unsatisfied with 
the theories and explanations of Spiritualism, started by its votaries, 
and finding that they were far from covering the whole ground of the 
wide range of phenomena, formed at New York, America, an associa- 
tion which is now widely known as the Theosophical Society. And 
now, having explained what is Theosophy, we will, in a separate article, 
explain what is the nature of our Society, which is also called the 
"Universal Brotherhood of Humanit) 7 ." 

* The Royal Masonic Cyclopedia of History, Rites, Symbolism and Biography. Edited by Kenneth 
R. H. Mackenzie, IX 5 (Cryptonymus), Hon. Member of the Canongate Kilwinning Lodge, Xo. 2, 
Scotland. New York: J. W. Bouton, 706, Broadway. 1877. 


Are they what they claim to be — students of natural law, of ancient 
and modern philosophy, and even of exact science? Are they Deists, 
Atheists, Socialists, Materialists, or Idealists; or are they but a schism 
of modern Spiritualism — mere visionaries? Are they entitled to any 
consideration, as capable of discussing philosophy and promoting real 
science; or should they be treated with the compassionate toleration 
which one gives to "harmless enthusiasts"? The Theosophical Society 
has been variously charged with a belief in "miracles" and "miracle- 
working"; with a secret political object — like the Carbonari; with 
being spies of an autocratic Czar; with preaching socialistic and nihil- 
istic doctrines; and, mirabilc dictu, with having a covert understanding 
with the French Jesuits, to disrupt modern Spiritualism for a pecuniary 
consideration! With equal violence they have been denounced as 
dreamers, by the American Positivists; as fetish-worshippers, by some 
of the New York press; as revivalists of "mouldy superstitions," by 
the Spiritualists ; as infidel emissaries of Satan, by the Christian 
Church; as the very types of "gobe-mouche," by Prof. W. B. Carpenter, 
F.R.S.; and, finally, and most absurdly, some Hindu opponents, with 
a view to lessening their influence, have flatly charged them with the 
employment of demons to perform certain phenomena. Out of all this 
pother of opinions, one fact stands conspicuous — the Society, its mem- 
bers, and their views, are deemed of enough importance to be discussed 
and denounced: Men slarider only those whom they hate — or fear. 

But, if the Society has had its enemies and traducers, it has also had 
its friends and advocates. For every word of censure, there has been 
a word of praise. Beginning with a party of about a dozen earnest 
men and women, a month later its numbers had so increased as to 
necessitate the hiring of a public hall for its meetings; within two 
years it had working branches in European countries. Still later, 
it found itself in alliance with the Indian Arya Samaj, headed by the 


learned Pandit Dayanand Sarasvati Svami, and the Ceylonese Buddh- 
ists, under the erudite H. Sumangala, High Priest of Adam's Peak and 
President of the Vidyodaya College, Colombo. 

He who would seriously attempt to fathom the psychological sciences, 
must come to the sacred land of ancient Aryavartta. None is older 
than she in esoteric wisdom and civilization, however fallen may be her 
poor shadow — modern India. Holding this country, as we do, for the 
fruitful hot-bed whence proceeded all subsequent philosophical systems, 
to this source of all psychology and philosophy a portion of our Society 
has come to learn its ancient wisdom and ask for the impartation of its 
weird secrets. Philology has made too much progress to require at 
this late day a demonstration of this fact of the primogenitive nation- 
alky of Aryavartta. The unproved and prejudiced hypothesis of 
modern chronology is not worthy of a moment's thought, and it will 
vanish in time like so many other unproved hypotheses. The line of 
philosophical heredity, from Kapila through Epicurus to James Mill; 
from Patanjali through Plotinus to Jacob Bohme, can be traced like the 
course of a river through a landscape. One of the objects of the 
Society's organization was to examine the too transcendent views of 
the Spiritualists in regard to the powers of disembodied spirits; and, 
having told them what, in our opinion at least, a portion of their 
phenomena are not, it will become incumbent upon us now to show 
what they are. So apparent is it that it is in the East, and especially 
in India, that the key to the alleged "supernatural" phenomena of the 
Spiritualists must be sought, that it has recently been conceded in the 
Allahabad Pioneer (Aug. nth, 1879), an Anglo-Indian daily journal 
which has not the reputation of saying what it does not mean. 
Blaming the men of science who, "intent upon physical discovery, for 
some generations have been too prone to neglect super-physical inves- 
tigation," it mentions "the new wave of doubt" (Spiritualism) which 
has "latterly disturbed this conviction." To a large number of persons, 
including many of high culture and intelligence, it adds, "the super- 
natural has again asserted itself as a fit subject of enquiry and research. 
And there are plausible hypotheses in favour of the idea that among 
the 'sages' of the East . . . there maybe found in a higher degree 
than among the more modernized inhabitants of the West traces of 
those personal peculiarities, whatever they may be, which are required 
as a condition precedent to the occurrence of supernatural phenomena." 
And then, unaware that the cause he pleads is one of the chief aims 


and objects of our Society, the editorial writer remarks that it is "the 
only direction in which, it seems to us, the efforts of the Theosophists 
in India might possibly be useful. The leading members of the Theo- 
sophical Society in India are known to be very advanced students of 
occult phenomena already, and we cannot but hope that their pro- 
fessions of interest in Oriental philosophy . . . may cover a re- 
served intention of carrying out explorations of the kind we indicate." 
While, as observed, one of our objects, it yet is but one of many; the 
most important of which is to revive the work of Ammonius Saccas, 
and make various nations remember that they are the children "of one 
mother." As to the transcendental side of the ancient Theosophy, it 
is also high time that the Theosophical Society should explain. With 
how much, then, of this nature-searching, God-seeking science of the 


ancient Aryan and Greek mystics, and of the powers of modern spiri- 
tual mediumship, does the Society agree? Our answer is: With it all. 
But if asked what it believes in, the reply will be: "As a body — 
nothing." The Society, as a body, has no creed, as creeds are but the 
shells around spiritual knowledge; and Theosophy in its fruition is 
spiritual knowledge itself — the very essence of philosophical and 
theistic enquiry. Visible representative of Universal Theosophy, it 
can be no more sectarian than a Geographical Society, which repre- 
sents universal geographical exploration without caring whether the 
explorers be of one creed or another. The religion of the Society is an 
algebraical equation, in which so long as the sign of equality ( = ) is not 
omitted, each member is allowed to substitute quantities of his own, 
which better accord with climatic and other exigencies of his native 
land, with the idiosyncrasies of his people, or even with his own. 
Having no accepted creed, our Society is very ready to give and take, 
to learn and teach, by practical experimentation, as opposed to mere 
passive and credulous acceptance of enforced dogma. It is willing to 
accept every result claimed by any of the foregoing schools or systems, 
that can be logically and experimentally demonstrated. Conversely, it 
can take nothing on mere faith, no matter by whom the demand may 
be made. 

But when we come to consider ourselves individually, it is quite 
another thing. The Society's members represent the most varied 
nationalities and races, and were born and educated in the most dis- 
similar creeds and social conditions. Some of them believe in one 
thing, others in another. Some incline towards the ancient magic, or 



secret wisdom that was taught in the sanctuaries, which was the very 
opposite of supernaturalism or diabolism ; others in modern spiritual- 
ism, or intercourse with the spirits of the dead; still others in mesmer- 
ism or animal magnetism, or only an occult dynamic force in nature. 
A certain number have scarcely yet acquired any definite belief, but 
are in a state of attentive expectancy; and there are even those who 
call themselves materialists, in a certain sense. Of atheists and bigoted 
sectarians of any religion, there are none in the Society; for the very 
fact of a man's joining it proves that he is in search of the final truth 
as to the ultimate essence of things. If there be such a thing as a 
speculative atheist, which philosophers ma}- deny, he would have to 
reject both cause and effect, whether in this world of matter, or in that 
of spirit. There may be members who, like the poet Shelley, have let 
their imagination soar from cause to prior cause ad infinitum, as each 
in its turn became logically transformed into a result necessitating a 
prior cause, until they have thinned the Eternal into a mere mist. But 
even they are not atheist in the speculative sense, whether they identify 
the material forces of the universe with the functions with which the 
theists endow their God, or otherwise; for once that they cannot free 
themselves from the conception of the abstract ideal of power, cause, 
necessity, and effect, they can be considered as atheists only in respect 
to a personal God, and not to the Universal Soul of the pantheist. On 
the other hand the bigoted sectarian, fenced in, as he is, with a creed 
upon every paling of which is written the warning "Xo Thorough- 
fare," can neither come out of his enclosure to join the Theosophical 
Society, nor, if he could, has it room for one whose very religion for- 
bids examination. The very root idea of the Society is free and fearless 

As a body, the Theosophical Society holds that all original thinkers 
and investigators of the hidden side of nature, whether materialists — 
those who find in matter "the promise and potency of all terrestrial 
life," or Spiritualists — that is. those who discover in spirit the source of 
all energy and of matter as well — were and are, properly, Theosophi- 
For to be one, one need not necessarily recognize the existence of 
any special God or Deity. One need but worship the spirit of living 
nature, and try to identify oneself with it. To revere that Presence, the 
invisible Cause, which is yet ever manifesting itself in its incessant 
results: the intangible, omnipotent, and omnipresent Proteus: indiv 
ible in its Essence, and eluding form, yet appearing under all and every 


form; who is here and there, and everywhere and nowhere; is All, 
and Nothing; ubiquitous } r et one; the Essence filling, binding, bound- 
ing, containing everything; contained in all. It will, we think, be 
seen now, that whether classed as theists, pantheists or atheists, such 
men are near kinsmen to the rest. Be he what he may, once that a 
student abandons the old and trodden highway of routine, and enters 
upon the solitary path of independent thought — Godward — he is a 
Theosophist; an original thinker, a seeker after the eternal truth with 
"an inspiration of his own" to solve the universal problems. 

With every man that is earnestly searching in his own way after a 
knowledge of the Divine Principle, of man's relations to it, and 
nature's manifestations of it, Theosophy is allied. It is likewise the 
ally of honest science, as distinguished from much that passes for exact, 
physical science, so long as the latter does not poach on the domains 
of psychology and metaphysics. 

And it is also the ally of every honest religion — to wit, a religion 
willing to be judged by the same tests as it applies to the others. 
Those books, which contain the most self-evident truth, are to it 
inspired (not revealed). But all books it regards, on account of the 
human element contained in them, as inferior to the Book of Nature; 
to read which and comprehend it correctly, the innate powers of the 
soul must be highly developed. Ideal laws can be perceived by the 
intuitive faculty alone; they are beyond the domain of argument and 
dialectics, and no one can understand or rightly appreciate them 
through the explanations of another mind, even though this mind be 
claiming a direct revelation. And as this Society, which allows the 
widest sweep in the realms of the pure ideal, is no less firm in the 
sphere of facts, its deference to modern science and its just representa- 
tives is sincere. Despite all their lack of a higher spiritual intuition, 
the world's debt to the representatives of modern physical science is 
immense; hence, the Society endorses heartily the noble and indignant 
protest of that gifted and eloquent preacher, the Rev. O. B. Frothiug- 
ham, against those who try to undervalue the services of our great 
naturalists. "Talk of Science as being irreligious, atheistic," he ex- 
claimed in a recent lecture, delivered at New York, "Science is creating 
a new idea of God. It is due to Science that we have any conception 
at all of a living God. If we do not become atheists one of these days 
under the maddening effect of Protestantism, it will be due to Science, 
because it is disabusing us of hideous illusions that tease and embar- 


rass us, and putting us in the way of knowing how to reason about the 
things we see. . . ." 

And it is also due to the unremitting labours of such Orientalists as 
Sir W. Jones, Max Midler, Burnouf, Colebrooke, Haug, St. Hilaire, and 
so many others, that the Society, as a body, feels equal respect and 
veneration for Vedic, Buddhist, Zoroastrian, and other old religions of 
the world; and a like brotherly feeling toward its Hindu, Sinhalese, 
Parsi, Jain, Hebrew and Christian members as individual students of 
"self," of nature, and of the divine in nature. 

Born in the United States of America, the Society was constituted 
on the model of its Mother Land. The latter, omitting the name of 
God from its constitution lest it should afford a pretext one day to 
make a state religion, gives absolute equality to all religions in its laws. 
All support and each is in turn protected by the State. The Society, 
modelled upon this constitution, may fairly be termed a "Republic of 

We have now, we think, made clear why our members, as individuals, 
are free to stay outside or inside any creed they please, provided the}' 
do not pretend that none but themselves shall enjoy the privilege of 
conscience, and try to force their opinions upon the others. In this 
respect the rules of the Society are very strict. It tries to act upon 
the wisdom of the old Buddhistic axiom, "Honour thine own faith, and 
do not slander that of others"; echoed back in our present century, in 
the "Declaration of Principles" of the Brahma Samaj, which so nobly 
states that "no sect shall be vilified, ridiculed, or hated." In Section 
VI of the Revised Rules of the Theosophical Society, recently adopted 
in General Council, at Bombay, is this mandate: 

It is not lawful for any officer of the Parent Society to express, by word or act. 
any hostility to, or preference for, any one section (sectarian division, or group 
within the Society) more than another. All must be regarded and treated as equally 
the objects of the Society's solicitude and exertions. All have an equal right to 
have the essential features of their religious belief laid before the tribunal of an 
impartial world. 

In their individual capacity, members may, when attacked, occasion- 
ally break this rule, but, nevertheless, as officers, they are restrained, 
and the rule is strictly enforced during the meetings. For above all 
human sects stands Theosophy in its abstract sense; Theosophy, which 
is too wide for any of them to contain, but which easily contains them. 

In conclusion, we may state that, broader and far more universal in 
its views than any existing mere scientific Society, it has plus science 



its belief in every possibility, and determined will to penetrate into 
those unknown spiritual regions which exact science pretends that its 
votaries have no business to explore. And, it has one quality more 
than any religion, in that it makes no difference between Gentile, Jew, 
or Christian. It is in this spirit that the Society has been established 
upon the footing of a Universal Brotherhood. 

Unconcerned about politics, and all political organizations, the Society 
cares but little about the outward human management of the material 
world. The whole of its aspirations are directed towards the occult 
truths of the visible and invisible worlds. Whether the physical man 
be under the rule of an empire or a republic, concerns only the man 
of matter. His body may be enslaved; as to his soul, he has the right 
to give to his rulers the proud answer of Socrates to his judges. They 
have no sway over the inner man. 

Such, then, is the Theosophical Society, and such its principles, its 
multifarious aims, and its objects. Need we wonder at the past mis- 
conceptions of the general public, and the easy hold the enemy has 
been able to find to lower it in the public estimation. The true student 
has ever been a recluse, a man of silence and meditation. With the 
busy world his habits and tastes are so little in common that, while he 
is studying, his enemies and slanderers have undisturbed opportunities. 
But time cures all, and lies are but ephemera. Truth alone is eternal. 

About a few of the Fellows of the Society who have made great 
scientific discoveries, and some others to whom the psychologist and 
the biologist are indebted for the new light thrown upon the darker 
problems of the inner man, we will speak later on. Our object now 
was but to prove to the reader that Theosophy is neither "a new-fangled 
doctrine," a political cabal, nor one of those societies of enthusiasts 
which are born to-day but to die to-morrow. That not all of its 
members can think alike, is proved by the Society being organized 
in two great divisions — the Eastern and the Western — and the latter 
being divided into numerous sections, according to races and religious 
views. One man's thought, infinitely various as are its manifestations, 
is not all-embracing. Denied ubiquity, it must necessarily speculate 
but in one direction; and once transcending the boundaries of exact 
human knowledge, it has to err and wander, for the ramifications of the 
one central and absolute Truth are infinite. Hence, we occasionally 
find even the greater philosophers losing themselves in the labyrinths 
of speculation, thereby provoking the criticism of posterity. But as 


all work for one and the same object, namely the disenthralment of 
human thought, the elimination of superstitions, and the discovery 
of truth, all are equally welcome. The attainment of these objects, 
all agree, can best be secured by convincing the reason and warming 
the enthusiasm of the generation of fresh young minds that are just 
ripening into maturity, and making ready to take the place of their 
prejudiced and conservative fathers. And, as each — the great ones as 
well as small — have trodden the royal road to knowledge, we listen to 
all, and take both small and great into our fellowship. For no honest 
searcher comes back empty-handed, and even he who has enjoyed the 
least share of popular favour can lay at least his mite upon the one altar 
of Truth. 


[Vol. I. No. i, October, 1879.] 

A journal interested like The Thcosophist in the explorations of 
archaeology and archaic religions, as well as the study of the occult in 
nature, has to be doubly prudent and discreet. To bring the two con- 
flicting elements — exact science and metaphysics — into direct contact, 
might create as great a disturbance as to throw a piece of potassium 
into a basin of water. The very fact that we are predestined and 
pledged to prove that some of the wisest of Western scholars have 
been misled by the dead letter of appearances, and that they are unable 
to discover the hidden spirit in the relics of old, places us under the 
ban from the first. With those sciolists who are neither broad enough 
nor sufficiently modest to allow their decisions to be reviewed, we are 
necessarily in antagonism. Therefore it is essential that our position in 
relation to certain scientific hypotheses, perhaps tentative and only sanc- 
tioned for want of better ones, should be clearly defined at the outset. 

An infinitude of study has been bestowed by the archaeologists and 
the Orientalists upon the question of chronology, especially in regard 
to comparative theology. So far their affirmations as to the relative 
antiquity of the great religions of the pre-Christian era are little more 
than plausible hypotheses. How far back the national and religious 
Vedic period, so-called, extends, "it is impossible to tell," confesses 
Prof. Max Miiller; nevertheless he traces it "to a period anterior to 
1000 B.C.," and brings us to "1100 or 1200 B.C., as the earliest time when 
we may suppose the collection of the Vedic hymns to have been 
finished." Nor do any other of our leading scholars claim to have 
finally settled the vexed question, especially delicate as it is in its bear- 
ing upon the chronology of the book of Gaicsis. Christianity, the 
direct outflow of Judaism and in most cases the state religion of their 
respective countries, has unfortunately stood in their way. Hence 
scarcely two scholars agree; and each assigns a different date to the 


Vedas and the Mosaic books, taking care in every case to give the 
latter the benefit of the doubt. Even that leader of the leaders in 
philological and chronological questions, Prof. Miiller. hardly twenty 
years ago allowed himself a prudent margin by stating that it will lie- 
difficult to settle "whether the Veda 'is the oldest of books,' and 
whether some of the portions of the Old Testament may not be traced 
back to the same or even an earlier date than the oldest hymns of the 
Veda." The Theosophist is, therefore, quite warranted in either adopt- 
ing or rejecting as it pleases the so-called authoritative chronology of 
science. Do we err, then, in confessing that we rather incline to 
accept the chronology of that renowned Vedic scholar, Svami Daya- 
nand Sarasvati, who unquestionably knows what he is talking about, 
has the four Vedas by heart, is perfectly familiar with all Sanskrit 
literature, has no such scruples as the Western Orientalists in regard 
to public feelings, nor desire to humour the superstitious notions of 
the majority, nor has any object to gain in suppressing facts. We are 
only too conscious of the risk in withholding our adulation from scien- 
tific authorities. Yet, with the common temerity of the heterodox, we 
must take our course, even though, like the Tarpe'ia of old, we be 
smothered under a heap of shields, a shower of learned quotations 
from those "authorities." We are far from feeling ready to adopt the 
absurd chronology of a Berosus or even Syncellus, though in truth 
they appear absurd only in the light of our preconceptions. But 
between the extreme claims of the Brahmans and the ridiculously 
short periods conceded by our Orientalists for the development and full 
growth of that gigantic literature of the ante-Mahabharatan period, 
there ought to be a just mean. While Svami Day an and Sarasvati 
asserts that: "The Vedas have now ceased to be objects of study for 
nearly 5,000 years," and places the first appearance of the four Vedas 
at an immense antiquity; Prof. Miiller, assigning for the composition 
of even the earliest among the Brahmanas, the years from about 1000 
to 800 B.C., hardly dares, as we have seen, to place the collection and 
the original composition of the Sanhita, of Rig Vedic hymns, earlier 
than 1200 to 1500 before our era!*- Whom ought we to believe, and 
which of the two is the better informed? Cannot this gap of several 
thousand years be closed, or would it be equally difficult for either of 
the two cited authorities to give data which would be regarded by 
science as thoroughly convincing? 

Chips from a German \\'<<t < tureon Hi,- Vedas, p. 11. 


It is as easy to reach a false conclusion by the modern inductive 
method as to assume false premises from which to make deductions. 
Doubtless Prof. Max Miiller has good reasons for arriving at his chro- 
nological conclusions. But so has Dayanand Sarasvati Pandit. The 
gradual modifications, development, and growth of the Sanskrit lan- 
guage are sure guides enough for an expert philologist. But that there 
is a possibility of his having been led into error would seem to suggest 
itself upon considering a certain argument brought forward by Svami 
Dayanand. Our respected friend and teacher maintains that both Prof. 
Miiller and Dr. Wilson have been solely guided in their researches and 
conclusion by the inaccurate and untrustworthy commentaries of 
Sayana, Mahidara and Uvata; commentaries which differ diametrically 
from those of a far earlier period as used by himself in connection with 
his great work, the Veda Bhashya. A cry was raised at the outset of 
this publication that Svami's commentary is calculated to refute Sayana 
and the English interpreters. Pandit Dayanand very justly remarks: 

For this I cannot be blamed; if Sayana has erred and the Engiish interpreters 
have chosen to take him as their guide, the delusion cannot be long maintained. 
Truth alone can stand, and falsehood must fall.* 

And if, as he claims, his Veda Bhashya is entirely founded on the old 
commentaries of the ante-Mahabharatan period to which the Western 
scholars have had no access, then, since his were the surest guides of 
the two classes, we cannot hesitate to follow him rather than the best 
of our European Orientalists. 

But, apart from such prima facie evidence, we would respectfully 
request Prof. Max Miiller to solve us a riddle. Propounded by himself, 
it has puzzled us for over twenty years, and pertains as much to simple 
logic as to the chronology in question. Clear and undeviating, like 
the Rhone through the Geneva lake, the idea runs through the course 
of his lectures, from the first volume of Chips down to his last dis- 
course. We will try to explain. All who have followed his lectures 
as attentively as ourselves will remember that Prof. Max Miiller attri- 
butes the wealth of myths, symbols and religious allegories in the 
Vedic hymns, as in Grecian mythology, to the early worship of nature 
by man. To quote his words : 

In the hymns of the Veda, we see man left to himself to solve the riddle of this 
world. . . . He is awakened from darkness and slumber by the light of the 
sun, and him whom his eyes cannot behold, and who seems to grant him the daily 

* Answer to the Objections to the Veda Bhashya. 


pittance of his existence he calls "his life, his breath, his brilliant Lord and Pro- 
tor." He gives names to all the powers of nature, and after he has called the 
fire "Agni," the sunlight "Indra," the storms "Maruts," and the dawn "Ushas," 
the) all seem to grow naturally into beings like himself, nay, greater than himself.* 

This definition of the mental state of primitive man, in the days of 
the vers 7 infancy of humanity, and when hardly ont of its cradle, is — 
perfect. The period to which he attributes these effusions of an 
infantile mind is the Vedic period, and the time which separates us 
from it is, as claimed above, 3,000 years. So much impressed seems 
the great philologist with this idea of the mental feebleness of mankind 
at the time when these hymns were composed by the most venerable 
Rishis, that in his Introduction to the Science of Religion (p. 278) we find 
the Professor saying: 

Do you still wonder at polytheism or at mythology? Why, they are inevitable. 
They are, if you like, a parley enfantin of religion. But the world has its child- 
hood, and when it was a child it spoke as a child \nota bene, 3,000 years ago], it 
understood as a child, it thought as a child. . . . The fault rests with us if we 
insist on taking the language of children for the language of men. . . . 

. . . The language of antiquity is the language of childhood . . . The 
parler enfantin in religion is not extinct . . . as, for instance, the religion of 

Having read thus far we pause and think. At the very close of this 
able explanation we meet with a tremendous difficulty, the idea of 
which must have never occurred to the able advocate of the ancient 
faiths. To one familiar with the writings and ideas of this Oriental 
scholar, it would seem the height of absurdity to suspect him of 
accepting the biblical chronology of 6,000 years since the appearance 
•of the first man upon earth as the basis of his calculations. And yet 
the recognition of such chronology is inevitable if we have to accept 
Prof. Midler's reasons at all; for here we run against a purely arith- 
metical and mathematical obstacle, a gigantic miscalculation of pro- 

No one can deny that the growth and development of mankind — 
mental as well as physical — must be analogically measured by the 
growth and development of man. An anthropologist, if he cares to go 
beyond the simple consideration of the relations of man to other mem- 
bers of the animal kingdom, has to be in a certain way a physiologist 
as well as an anatomist; for, as much as ethnology, his is a progressive 
science, which can be well treated but by those who are able to follow 

Chips from a German Workshop! vol. i. p. 68. 


up retrospectively the regular unfolding of human faculties and powers, 
assigning to each a certain period of life. Thus no one would regard 
a skull in which the wisdom-tooth, so-called, should be apparent, as the 
skull of an infant. Now, according to geology, recent researches, 
Prof. W. Draper tells us : 

Give good reasons to believe that under low and base grades the existence of man 
can be traced back into the tertiary times. In the old glacial drift of Scotland the 
relics of man are found along with those of the fossil elephant. 

Now, the best calculations, so far, assign a period of 240,000 years 
since the beginning of the last glacial period. Making a proportion 
between 240,000 years — the least age we can accord to the human race 
— and the twenty-four years of a man's life, we find that 3,000 years 
ago, or the period of the composition of the Vedic hymns, mankind 
would be just twenty-one, the legal age of majority, and certainly a 
period at which man ceases using, if he ever will, the "parler 
enfantin," or childish lisping. But, according to the views of the 
lecturer, it follows that man was, 3,000 years ago, at twenty-one, a 
foolish and undeveloped — though a very promising — infant, and at 
twenty-four has become the brilliant, acute, learned, highly analytical 
and philosophical man of the nineteenth century. Or, still keeping 
our equation in view, in other words, the Professor might as well say 
that an individual who was a nursing baby at 12 noon, on a certain day, 
would at 12.20 p.m. on the same day have become an adult, speaking 
high wisdom instead of his "parler enfantin!" 

It really seems the duty of the eminent Sankritist and Lecturer on 
Comparative Theology to get out of this dilemma. Either the Rig 
Veda hymns were composed but 3,000 years ago, and, therefore, cannot 
be expressed in the "language of childhood" — man having lived in 
the glacial period — but the generation which composed them must 
have been composed of adults, presumably as philosophical and scien- 
tific in the knowledge of their day as we are in our own; or we have 
to ascribe to them an immense antiquity in order to carry them back 
to the days of man's mental infancy. And in this latter case, Prof. 
Max Miiller will have to withdraw a previous remark, expressing the 

Whether some of the portions of the Old Testament may not be traced back to- 
the same or even an earlier date than the oldest hymns of the Vedas. 


[Vol. I. No. I, October, 1879.] 

Few persons are capable of appreciating the truly beautiful and 
aesthetic; fewer still of revering those monumental relics of bygone 
ages, which prove that even in the remotest epochs mankind wor- 
shipped a Supreme Power, and people were moved to express their 
abstract conceptions in works which should defy the ravages of time. 
The Vandals — whether Slavic Wends, or some barbarous nation of 
Germanic race — came at all events from the North. A recent occur- 
rence is calculated to make us regret that Justinian did not destroy them 
all; for it appears that there are still left in the North worthy scions 
of those terrible destroyers of monuments of arts and sciences, in the 
persons of certain Russian merchants who have just perpetrated an act 
of inexcusable Vandalism. According to the late Russian papers, the 
Moscow arch-millionaire, Kokoref, with his Tiflis partner the Armenian 
Croesus, Mirzoef, is desecrating and about to totally destroy the oldest 
relic in the world of Zoroastrianism — the "Attesh-Gag" of Baku. 

Few foreigners, and perhaps as few Russians, know anything of this 
venerable sanctuary of the fire-worshippers beside the Caspian Sea. 
About twenty versts from the small town of Baku in the valley of 
Apsheron in Russian Georgia, and among the barren, desolated steppes 
of the shores of the Caspian, there stands — alas! rather stood, but a 
few months ago — a strange structure, something between a mediaeval 
cathedral and a fortified castle. It was built in unknown ages, and by 
builders as unknown. Over an area of somewhat more than a square 
mile, a tract known as the Fiery Field, upon which the structure 
stands, if one but digs from two to three inches into the sandy earth, 
and applies a lighted match, a jet of fire will stream up, as if from a 
spout* The "Guebre Temple," as the building is sometimes termed, 

• A bluish flame is seen to arise then-, but this fire does not 1 onsumi . "an 1 if a \>< rson finds him- 
self in the middle of it, he is not sensible of any warmth."- -Sec Kinneir's In ria, p. ;,s. 


is carved out of one solid rock. It is an enormous square enclosed by- 
crenelated walls, and at the centre of the square, a high tower, also 
rectangular, resting upon four gigantic pillars. The latter were pierced 
vertically down to the bed-rock and the cavities were continued up to 
the battlements where they opened out into the atmosphere; thus form- 
ing continuous tubes through which the inflammable gas stored up in 
the heart of the mother rock was conducted to the top of the tower. 
This tower has been for centuries a shrine of the fire-worshippers, and 
bears the symbolical representation of the trident — called tirsut. All 
around the interior face of the external wall are excavated the cells, 
about twenty in number, which served as habitations for past genera- 
tions of Zoroastrian recluses. Under the supervision of a High 
Mobed, here, in the silence of their isolated cloisters, they studied the 
Avesfa, the Vendiddd, the Yaskna — especially the latter, it seems, as 
the rocky walls of the cells are inscribed with a greater number of 
quotations from the sacred songs. Under the tower-altar three huge 
bells were hung. A legend says that the}* were miraculously produced 
by a holy traveller, in the tenth century, during the Mussulman perse- 
cution, to warn the faithful of the approach of the enemy. But a few 
weeks ago the tall tower-altar was yet ablaze with the same flame that 
local tradition affirms had been kindled thirty centuries ago. At the 
horizontal orifices in the four hollow pillars burned four perpetual 
fires, fed uninterruptedly from the inexhaustible subterranean reser- 
voir. From every merlon on the walls, as well as from even- embra- 
sure, flashed forth a radiant light, like so many tongues of fire; and 
even the large porch overhanging the main entrance was encircled by 
a garland of fiery stars, the lambent lights shooting forth from smaller 
and narrower orifices. It was amid these impressive surroundings that 
the Guebre recluses used to send up their daily prayers, meeting under 
the open tower-altar; every face reverentially turned toward the setting 
sun, as they united their voices in a parting evening hymn. And as 
the luminary — the "Eye of Ahura-mazda" — sank lower and lower 
down the horizon, their voices grew lower and softer, until the chant 
sounded like a plaintive and subdued murmur. ... A last flash — 
and the sun is gone; and as darkness follows daylight almost suddenly 
in these regions, the departure of the Deity's symbol was the signal for 
a general illumination, unrivalled even by the greatest fireworks at 
regal festivals. The whole field seemed nightly like one blazing 
prairie. . . . 


Till about 1S40, Attesh-Gag was the chief rendezvous for all the 
fire-worshippers of Persia. Thousands of pilgrims came and went; 
for no true Guebre could die happy unless he had performed the 
sacred pilgrimage at least once during his lifetime. A traveller — 
Koch — who visited the cloister about that time, found in it but five 
Zoroastrians, with their pupils. In 1878, about fourteen mouths ago, 
a lady of Tifiis, who visited the Attesh-Gag, mentioned in a private 
letter that she found there but one solitary hermit, who emerges from 
his cell but to meet the rising and salute the departing sun. And now, 
hardly a year later, we find in the papers that Messrs. Kokoref and Co. 
are busy erecting on the Fiery Field enormous buildings for the refining 
of petroleum! All the cells but the one occupied by the poor old 
hermit, half ruined and dirty beyond expression, are inhabited by the 
firm's workmen; the altar over which blazed the sacred flame is now 
piled high with rubbish, mortar and mud, and the flame itself turned 
off in another direction. The bells are now, during the periodical 
visits of a Russian priest, taken down and suspended in the porch of 
the superintendent's house; heathen relics being as usual used — though 
abused — by the religion which supplants the previous worship. And 
all looks like the abomination of desolation. . . . "It is a matter 
of surprise to me," writes a Baku correspondent in the Sf. Petersburg 
Viedomosti, who was the first to send the unwelcome news, "that the 
trident, the sacred tirsut itself, has not as yet been put to some appro- 
priate use in the new firm's kitchen! . . . Is it then so absolutely 
necessary that the millionaire Kokoref should desecrate the Zoroastrian 
cloister, which occupies such a trifling compound in comparison to the 
space allotted to his manufactories and stores? And shall such a 
remarkable relic of antiquity be sacrificed to commercial greediness 
which can after all neither lose nor gain one single rouble by destroy- 
ing it?" 

It must, apparently, since Messrs. Kokoref and Co. have rented the 
whole field from the Government, which seems to feel quite indifferent 
to this idiotic and useless Vandalism. It is now more than twenty 
years since I visited Attesh-Gag for the last time. In those days 
besides a small group of recluses, it had the visits of many pilgrims. 
And since it is more than likely that ten years hence people will h 
no more of it, I may give a few more details of its history. Our IVirsi 
friends will, I am sure, feel an interest in a few legends gathered by 
me on the spot. 


A veil seems to be drawn over the origin of Attesh-Gag. Historical 
data are scarce and contradictory. With the exception of some old 
Armenian chronicles which mention it incidentally as having existed 
before Christianity was brought into the country by St. Nina during 
the third century,-- 1 there is no mention of it anywhere else, so far as 
I know. 

Tradition informs us — how far correctly is not for me to decide — 
that long before Zarathushtra, the people, who now are called in con- 
tempt by the Mussulmans and Christians "Guebres," and who term 
themselves "Behedin" (followers of the true faith) recognized Mithra, 
the Mediator, as their sole and highest God — who included within him- 
self all the good as well as the bad Gods. Mithra representing the two 
natures of Ormazd and Ahriman combined, the people feared him, 
whereas they would have had no need of fearing, but only of loving 
and reverencing him as Ahura-Mazda, were Mithra without the Ahri- 
man element. 

* Though St. Nina appeared in Georgia in the third, it is not before the fifth century that the 
idolatrous Grouzines were converted to Christianity by the thirteen Syrian Fathers. They came 
under the leadership of both St. Antony and St. John of Zedadzene — so called, because he is alleged 
to have travelled to the Caucasian regions on purpose to fight and conquer the chief idol Zeda ! 
And thus while — as incontrovertible proof of the existence of both — the opulent tresses of the black 
hair of St. Nina are preserved to this day as relics, in Zion Cathedral at Tiflis— the thaumaturgic 
John has immortalized his name still more. Zeda, who was the Baal of Trans-Caucasus, had children 
sacrificed to him, as the legend tells us, on the top of the Zedadzene mount, about eighteen versts 
from Tiflis. It is there that the saint defied the idol — or rather Satan under the guise of a stone 
statue — to single combat, and miraculously conquered him, i.e., threw down and trampled upon the 
idol. But he did not stop there in the exhibition of his powers. The mountain peak is of immense 
height, and being only a barren rock at its top, spring water is nowhere to be found on its summit. 
But in commemoration of his triumph, the saint had a spring appear at the very bottom of the deep, 
and — as people assert — fathomless well dug down into the very bowels of the mountain, and the 
gaping mouth of which was situated near the altar of the god Zeda, just in the centre of his temple. 
It was into this opening that the limbs of the murdered infants were cast down after the sacrifice. 
The miraculous spring, however, was soon dried up, and for many centuries no water appeared. But 
when Christianity was firmly established, the water began reappearing on the seventh day of every 
May, and continues to do so till the present time. Strange to say this fact does not pertain to the 
domain of legend, but is one that has provoked an intense curiosity even among men of science, 
such as the eminent geologist, Dr. Abich, who resided for years at Tiflis. Thousands upon thousands 
proceed yearly upon pilgrimage to Zedadzene on the seventh of May, and all witness the "miracle." 
From early morning water is heard bubbling down at the rocky bottom of the well; and, as noon 
approaches, the parched-up walls of the mouth become moist, and clear, cold, sparkling water seems 
to come out from every pore of the rock; it rises higher and higher, bubbles, increases, until at last 
having reached the very brim it suddenly stops, and a prolonged shout of triumphant joy bursts 
from the fanatical crowd. This cry seems to shake the very depths of the mountain like a sudden 
discharge of artillery and awakens the echo for miles around. Everyone hurries to fill a vessel with 
the miraculous water. There are necks wrung and heads broken on that day at Zedadzene, but 
everyone who survives carries home a provision of the crystal fluid. Toward evening the water 
begins decreasing as mysteriously as it had appeared, and at midnight the well is again perfectly 
dry. Not a drop of water, nor a trace of any spring, could be found by the engineers and geologists 
bent upon discovering the "trick." For a whole year the sanctuary remains deserted, and there is 
not even a janitor to watch the poor shrine. The geologists have declared that the soil of the moun- 
tain precludes the possibility of having springs concealed in it. Who will explain the puzzle? 


One day as the God, disguised as a shepherd, was wandering about 
the earth, he came to Baku, then a dreary, deserted sea-shore, and 
found an old devotee of his quarrelling with his wife. Upon this barren 
spot wood was scarce, and she would not give up a certain portion of 
her stock of cooking fuel to be burned upon the altar. So the Ahriraan 
element was aroused in the God, and, striking the stingy old woman, 
he changed her into a gigantic rock. Then, the Ahura-Mazda element 
prevailing, he, to console the bereaved widower, promised that neither 
he nor his descendants should ever need fuel any more, for he would 
provide such a supply as should last till the end of time. So he struck 
the rock again and then struck the ground for miles around, and the 
earth and the calcareous soil of the Caspian shores were filled up to 
the brim with naphtha. To commemorate the happy event the old 
devotee assembled all the youths of the neighbourhood and set himself 
to excavating the rock — which was all that remained of his ex-wife. 
He cut the battlemented walls, and fashioned the altar and the four 
pillars, hollowing them all to allow the gases to rise and escape through 
the top of the merlons. The God Mithra upon seeing the work ended, 
sent a lightning flash, which set the fire upon the altar ablaze, and lit 
up every merlon upon the walls. Then, in order that it should burn 
the brighter, he called forth the four winds and ordered them to blow 
the flame in every direction. To this day Baku is known under its 
primitive name of "Baadey-ku-ba," which means literally the gather- 
ing of winds. 

The other legend, which is but a continuation of the above, runs 
thus: For countless ages the devotees of Mithra worshipped at his 
shrines, until Zarathushtra, descending from heaven in the shape of a 
<; Golden Star," transformed himself into a man, and began teaching a 
new doctrine. He sung the praises of the One but Triple God — the 
supreme Eternal, the incomprehensible essence "Zervana-Akarna," 
which emanating from itself "Primeval Light," the latter in its turn 
produced Ahura-Mazda. But this process required that the "Primeval 
One" should previously absorb in itself all the light from the fiery 
Mithra, and thus left the poor God despoiled of all his brightness. 
Losing his right of undivided supremacy, Mithra. in despair, and insti- 
gated by his Ahrimanian nature, annihilated himself for the time 
being, leaving Ahriman alone, to fight out his quarrel with Ortnazd, 
as best he could. Hence the prevailing duality in nature since that 
time until Mithra returns; for he promised to his faithful devotees to 


come back some day. Only, since then, a series of calamities fell upon 
the fire-worshippers. The last of these was the invasion of their 
country by the Moslems in the seventh century, when these fanatics 
began most cruel persecutions against the Behedin. Driven away from 
every quarter, the Guebres found refuge but in the province of Ker- 
man, and in the city of Yezd. Then followed heresies. Many of the 
Zoroastrians abandoning the faith of their forefathers became Mos- 
lems; others, in their unquenchable hatred for the new rulers, joined 
the ferocious Kurds and became devil-, as well as fire-worshippers. 
These are the Yezids. The whole religion of these strange sectarians 
— with the exception of a few who have more weird rites, which are a 
secret to all but to themselves — consists in the following. As soon as 
the morning sun appears, they place their two thumbs crosswise one 
upon the other, kiss the symbol, and touch their brows with them in 
reverential silence. Then they salute the sun and turn back into their 
tents. They believe in the power of the devil, dread it, and propitiate 
the "fallen angel" by every means; getting very angry whenever they 
hear him spoken of disrespectfully by either a Mussulman or a Chris- 
tian. Murders have been committed by them on account of such 
irreverent talk, but people have become more prudent of late. 

With the exception of the Bombay community of Parsis, fire-wor- 
shippers are, then, to be found but in the two places before mentioned, 
and scattered around Baku. In Persia some years ago, according to 
statistics they numbered about 100,000 men, I doubt, though, whether 
their religion has been preserved as pure as even that of the Gujarati 
Parsis, adulterated as is the latter by the errors and carelessness of 
generations of uneducated Alobeds. And yet, as is the case of their 
Bombay brethren, who are considered by all the travellers as well as 
Anglo-Indians, as the most intelligent, industrious and well-behaved 
community of the native races, the fire-worshippers of Kerman and 
Yezd bear a very high character among the Persians, as well as among 
the Russians of Baku. Uncouth and crafty some of them have become, 
owing to long centuries of persecution and spoliation; but the unani- 
mous testimony is in their favour, and they are spoken of as a virtuous, 
highly moral, and industrious population. "As good as the word of 
a Guebre" is a common saying among the Kurds, who repeat it without 
being in the least conscious of the self-condemnation contained in it. 

I cannot close without expressing my astonishment at the utter 
ignorance as to their religion, which seems to prevail in Russia even 


among the journalists. One of them speaks of the Guebres, in the 
article of the St. Petersburg Viedomosti above referred to, as of a sect 
of Hindu idolaters, in whose prayers the name of Brahma is constantly 
invoked. To add to the importance of this historical item, Alexandre 
Dumas (senior) is quoted, as mentioning in his work, Travels in the 
Caucasus, that during his visit to Attesh-Gag, he found in one of the 
cells of the Zoroastrian cloister "two Hindu idols" ! Without forgetting 
the charitable dictum: De mortuis nil nisi bonum, we cannot refrain 
from reminding the correspondent of our esteemed contemporary of a 
fact which no reader of the novels of the brilliant French writer ought 
to be ignorant of, namely, that for the variety and inexhaustible stock 
of historical facts, evolved out of the abysmal depths of his own con- 
sciousness, even the immortal Baron Munchausen was hardly his equal. 
The sensational narrative of his tiger-hunting in Mingrelia, where, 
since the days of Noah, there never was a tiger, is yet fresh in the 
memory of his readers. 


[Vol. I. No. 2, November, 1879.] 

Perhaps the most widespread and universal symbols in the old astro- 
nomical systems which have passed down the stream of time to our 
century, and have left traces everywhere in the Christian religion as else- 
where, are the Cross and the Fire, the latter the symbol of the sun. 
The ancient Aryans used them both as the symbols of Agni. Whenever 
the ancient devotee desired to worship Agni — says E. Burnouf {Science 
des Religions, ch. x.) — he arranged two pieces of wood in the form of a 
cross, and by a peculiar whirling and friction obtained fire for his 
sacrifice. As a symbol it is called Svastika, and as an instrument 
manufactured out of a sacred tree and in possession of every Brahman, 
it is known as Arani. 

The Scandinavians had the same sign and called it Thor's Hammer, 
as bearing a mysterious magneto-electric relation to Thor, the God of 
Thunder, who, like Jupiter armed with his thunderbolts, holds in his 
hand this ensign of power, not only over mortals but also the mis- 
chievous spirits of the elements, over which he presides. In Masonry 
it appears in the form of the grand master's mallet; at Allahabad it 
may be seen on the fort as the Jaina Cross, or the talisman of the Jaina 
kings; and the gavel of the modern judge is no more than this crux 
dissimulata, as de Rossi the archaeologist calls it; for the gavel is the 
sign of power and strength, as the hammer represented the might of 
Thor, who in the Norse legend splits a rock with it. Dr. Schliemann 
found it in terra-cotta discs, on the site, as he believes, of ancient Troy, 
in the lowest strata of his excavations; which indicated, according to 


Dr. Lundy, "an Aryan civilization long anterior to the Greek — say 
from two to three thousand years B.C." Burnouf calls it the oldest 
form of the Cross known, and affirms that "it is found personified in 
the ancient religion of the Greeks under the figure of Prometheus, the 
fire-bearer crucified on Mount Caucasus, while the celestial bird — the 


29 1 

Shyena of the Vedic hymns — daily devours his entrails." Boldetti 
{Osservazioni, i. 15, p. 60) gives a copy from the painting in the ceme- 
tery of St. Sebastian, representing a Christian convert and gravedigger 
named Diogenes, who wears on both his legs and right arm the signs 
of the Svastika. The Mexicans and the Peruvians had it, and it is 
found as the sacred Tau in the oldest tombs of Egypt. 

It is, to say the least, a strange coincidence, remarked even by some 
Christian clergymen, that Agnus Dei, the L,amb of God, should have 
symbols identical with the Indian God Agni. While Agnus Dei ex- 
piates and takes away the sins of the world, in one religion, the God 
Agni in the other, likewise expiates sins against the Gods, man, the 
manes, the soul and repeated sins, as shown in the six prayers accom- 
panied by six oblations (Colebrooke Essays, vol. i. p. 190). 

If, then, we find these two — the Cross and the Fire — so closely asso- 
ciated in the esoteric symbolism of nearly every nation, it is because 
on the combined powers of the two rests the whole plan of universal 
law. In astronomy, physics, chemistry, in the whole range of natural 
philosophy, in short, they always come out as the invisible cause and 
the visible result; and only metaphysics and alchemy — or shall we say 
metachemistry, since we prefer coining a new word to shocking scepti- 
cal ears — can fully and conclusively solve their mysterious meaning. 
An instance or two will suffice for those who are willing to think over 

The central point, or the great central Sun of the Kosmos, as the 
Kabalists call it, is the Deity. It is the point of intersection between 
the two great conflicting powers — the centripetal and the centrifugal 
forces — which drive the planets into their elliptical orbits, making them 
trace a cross in their path through the Zodiac. These two terrible, 
though as yet hypothetical and imaginary powers, preserve harmony 
and keep the universe in steady, unceasing motion; and the four bent 
points of the Svastika typify the revolution of the earth upon its axis. 
Plato calls the universe a "blessed god," made in a circle and decussated 
hi the form of the letter X. So much for astronomy. 

In Masonry the Royal Arch degree retains the Cross as the triple 
Egyptian Tau. It is the mundane circle with the astronomical cro-s 
upon it rapidly revolving; the perfect square of the Pythagorean 
mathematics in the scale of numbers, as its occult meaning is inter- 
preted by Cornelius Agrippa. Fire is heat — the central point; the 
perpendicular ray represents the male element — spirit, and the hori- 


zontal one the female element — matter. Spirit vivifies and fructifies 
matter, and everything proceeds from the central point, the focus of 
life, and light, and heat, represented by the terrestrial fire. So much 
again for physics and chemistry; for the field of analogies is boundless, 
and universal laws are immutable and identical in their outward and 
inward applications. Without intending to be disrespectful to anyone, 
or to wander far away from truth, we think we may say that there are 
strong reasons to believe that in their original sense the Christian Cross 
as the cause, and eternal torment by hell-fire as the direct effect of 
negation of the former, have more to do with these two ancient sym- 
bols than our Western theologians are prepared to admit. 

If Fire is the Deity with some heathens, so in the Bible God is like- 
wise the Life and the Light of the world. 

If the Holy Ghost and Fire cleanse and purify the Christian, Lucifer 
is also Light, and the "Son of the morning." 

Turn where we will, we are sure to find these conjoint relics of 
ancient worship among almost every nation and people. From the 
Aryans, the Chaldseans, the Zoroastrians, Peruvians, Mexicans, Scan- 
dinavians, Celts, and ancient Greeks and Latins, they have descended 
in their completeness to the modern Parsi. The Phoenician Cabiri and 
the Greek Dioscuri are partially revived in every temple, cathedral, 
and village church ; while, as will now be shown, the Christian Bulgarians 
have even preserved the sun-worship more than a thousand years since 
they were converted to Christianity. And yet they appear none the 
less pagans than they were before, for this is how they keep Christmas 
and New Year's Day. To this time they call this festival Sourjvaki, as 
it falls in with the festival in honour of the ancient Slavonian God 
Sourja. In the Slavonian mythology this Deity — Sourja or Sourva — 


evidently identical with the An^an Surya — sun — is the God of heat, 
fertility and abundance. The celebration of this festival is of immense 
antiquity as, far before the days of Christianity, the Bulgarians wor- 
shipped Sourva, and consecrated New Year's Day to this God, praying 
him to bless their fields with fertility, and send them happiness and 
prosperity. This custom has remained among them in all its primitive 
heathenism, and though it varies according to localities, yet the rites 
and ceremonies are essentially the same. 

On the eve of New Year's Day, the Bulgarians do no work, and are 
obliged to fast. Young betrothed maidens are busy preparing a large 
platiy (cake) in which they place roots and young shoots of various 



forms, to each of which a name is given, according to the shape of 
the root. Thus one means the house, another represents the garden; 
others again, the mill, the vineyard, the horse, a hen, a cat, ami so on, 
according to the landed property and worldly possessions of the family. 
Even articles of value such as jewelry and bags of money are represented 
in this emblem of the horn of abundance. Besides all these, a large 
and ancient silver coin is placed inside the cake; it is called bdbkaand 
and is tied two ways with a red thread, which forms a cross. This coin 
is regarded as the symbol of fortune. After sunset and other cere- 
monies including prayers, addressed in the direction of the departing 
luminary, the whole family assemble about a large round table, called 
paralya, on which are placed the above-mentioned cake, dry vegetables, 
corn, a wax taper, and finally a large censer containing incense of the 
best quality, to perfume the God. The head of the family, usually the 
oldest in the family — either the grandfather or the father himself— 
taking up the censer with the greatest veneration in one hand, and the 
wax taper in the other, begins walking about the premises, incensing 
the four corners, beginning and ending with the east, and reads various 
invocations, which close with the Christian "Our Father, which art in 
heaven," addressed to Sourja. The taper is then laid away to be pre- 
served throughout the whole year, till the next festival. It is thought 
to have acquired marvellous healing properties, and is lighted only 
upon occasions of family sickness, in which case it is expected to cure 
the patient. 

After this ceremony, the old man takes his knife and cuts the cake 
into as many slices as there are members of the household present. 
Each person, on receiving his or her share, makes haste to open and 
search the piece. The happiest for the ensuing year, is he or she who 
gets the part containing the old coin crossed with the scarlet thread; 
he is considered the elect of Sourja, and everyone envies the fortunate 
possessor. Then in order of importance come the emblems of the 
house, the vineyard, and so on; and according to his finding, the finder 
reads his horoscope for the coming year. Most unlucky is he who sets 
the cat; he turns pale and trembles. Woe to him and misery, for he is 
surrounded by enemies, and has to prepare for great trials. 

At the same time, a large log which represents a flaming altar, is set 
up in the chimney-place, and fire is applied to it. This log burns in 
honour of Sourja, and is intended as an oracle for the whole hou; 
If it burns the whole night through till morning, without the flame 


dying out, it is a good sign; otherwise the family prepares to see death 
that year, and deep lamentations end the festival. Neither the mo?itzee 
(young bachelor), nor the mommee (the maiden), sleep that night. At 
midnight begins a series of soothsaying, magic, and various rites, in 
which the burning log plays the part of the oracle. A young bud 
thrown into the fire and bursting with a loud snap, is a sign of happy 
and speed}' marriage. Long after midnight the young couples leave 
their respective homes, and begin visiting their acquaintances from 
house to house, offering and receiving congratulations, and rendering 
thanks to the Deity. These couples are called Souryakari, and each 
male carries a large branch ornamented with red ribbons, old coins, 
and the image of Sourja, and as they wend their way, they sing in 
chorus. Their chant is as original as it is peculiar, and merits trans- 
lation, though of course it must lose in being rendered into a foreign 
language. The following stanzas are addressed by them to those they 

Sourva, Sourva, Lord of the season, 

Happy New Year mayst thou send: 

Health and fortune on this household, 

Success and blessings till next year. 

With good crops and full ears, 

With gold and silk, and grapes and fruit, 

With barrels full of wine, and stomachs full, 

You and your house be blessed by the God . . . 

His blessing on you all. Amen! Amen! Amen! 

The singing Souryakari, recompensed for their good wishes with a 
present at every house, go home at early dawn. And this is how the 
symbolical exoteric Cross and Fire-worship of old Aryavartta go hand 
in hand in Christian Bulgaria. 


[Vol. T. No. 2, November, 1879.] 

Dark clouds are gathering over the hitherto cold and serene horizon 
of exact science, which forebode a squall. Already two camps are 
forming among the votaries of scientific research. One wages war on 
the other, and hard words are occasionally exchanged. The apple of 
discord in this case is — Spiritualism. Fresh and illustrious victims are 
yearly decoyed away from the impregnable strongholds of materialistic 
negation, and ensnared into examining and testing the alleged spiritual 
phenomena. And we all know that when a true scientist examines 
them without prejudice . . . well, he generally ends like Professor 
Hare, Mr. William Crookes, F.R.S., the great Alfred Russell Wallace, 
another F.R.S., and so many other eminent men of science — he passes 
over to the enemy. 

We are really curious to know what will be the new theory advanced 
in the present crisis by the sceptics, and how they will account for such 
apostasy of several of their luminaries, as has just occurred. The 
venerable accusations of non compos mentis and "dotage" will not bear 
another refurbishing. The eminent perverts are increasing numeri- 
cally so fast, that if mental incapacity is charged upon all of them 
who experimentally satisfy themselves that tables can talk sense, and 
mediums float through the air, it might augur ill for science: there 
might soon be none but weakened brains in the learned societies. 
They may, possibly, for a time find some consolation in accounting for 
the lodgment of the extraordinary "delusion" in very scholarly heads, 
upon the theory of atavism — the mysterious law of latent transmission, 
so much favoured by the modern schools of Darwinian evolutionism — 
especially in Germany, as represented by that thorough-going apostle 
of the modern "struggle for culture," Ernst Haeckel, professor at Jena. 
They may attribute the belief of their colleagues in the phenomena to 
certain molecular movements of the cell in the ganglia of their once 


powerful brains, hereditarily transmitted to them by their ignorant 
mediaeval ancestors. Or, again, they may split their ranks, and estab- 
lishing an imperhim in imperio "divide and conquer" still. All this is 
possible; but time alone will show which of the parties will come off 

We have been led to these reflections by a row now going on between 
German and Russian professors — all eminent and illustrious savants. 
The Teutons and Slavs, in the case under observation, are not fighting 
according to their nationality, but conformably to their respective 
beliefs and unbeliefs. Having concluded, for the occasion, an offensive 
as well as a defensive alliance, regardless of race — they have broken 
up in two camps, one representing the Spiritualists, and the other the 
sceptics. And now war to the knife is declared. Leading one party, 
are Professors Zollner, Ulrizzi and Fichte, Butlerof and Wagner, of 
the Leipzig, Halle and St. Petersburg Universities; the other follows 
Professors Wundt, Mendeleyef, and a host of other German and Russian 
celebrities. Hardly has Zollner — a most renowned astronomer and 
physicist — printed his confession of faith in Dr. Slade's mediumistic 
phenomena and set his learned colleagues aghast when Professor 
Ulrizzi, of the Halle University, arouses the wrath of the Olympus of 
science by publishing a pamphlet entitled, The so-called Spiritualism a 
Scientific Question, intended as a complete refutation of the arguments 
of Professor Wundt, of the Leipzig University, against the modern 
belief, and contained in another pamphlet called by its author Spiri- 
tualism — the so-called Scientific Question. And now steps in another 
active combatant, Mr. Butlerof, Professor of Chemistry and Natural 
Sciences in St. Petersburg, who narrates his experiments in London, 
with the medium Williams, and thus rouses up a most ferocious 
polemic. The humoristical illustrated paper Kladderadatsch executes 
a war-dance, and shouts with joy, while the more serious conservative 
papers are indignant. Pressed behind their last entrenchments by the 
cool and uncontrovertible assertions of a most distinguished naturalist, 
the critics, led forward by the St. Petersburg star, Mr. Burenin, seem 
desperate, and evidently short of ammunition, since they are reduced 
to the expedient of trying to rout the enemy with the most remarkable 
paradoxes. The pro and con of the dispute are too interesting, and our 
posterity might complain, were the incidents suffered to be left beyond 
the reach of English and American readers interested in Spiritualism, 
by remaining confined to the German and Russian newspapers. So, 


Homer-like, we will follow the combatants and condense this modem 
Iliad for the benefit of our friends. 

After several years of diligent research and investigation of the 
phenomena, Messrs. Wagner and Butlerof, both distinguished savants 
and professors of St. Petersburg University, became thoroughly con- 
vinced of the reality of the weird manifestations. As a result, both 
wrote numerous and strong articles in the leading periodicals in de- 
fence of the "mischievous epidemic" — as in his moments of "uncon- 
scious cerebration" and "prepossession" in favour of his own hobby, 
Dr. Carpenter calls Spiritualism. Both of the above eminent gentle- 
men are endowed with those precious qualities, which are the more to 
be respected as they are so seldom met with among our men of science. 
These qualities, admitted by Mr. Burenin, their critic, himself, are: 

(1) a serious and profound conviction that what they defend is true; 

(2) an unwavering courage in stating at every hazard, before a preju- 
diced and inimical public that such is their conviction; (3) clearness 
and consecutiveness in their statements; (4) the serene calmness and 
impartiality with which they treat the opinions of their opponents; 
(5) a full and profound acquaintance with the subject under discussion. 
The combination of the qualities enumerated, adds their critic, 

Leads us to regard the recent article by Professor Butlerof, Empiricism and 1 ' 
matism in the Domain of Mediumship, as one of those essays whose commanding 
significance cannot be denied and which are sure to strongly impress the readers. 
Such articles are positively rare in our periodicals; rare because of the originality 
of the author's conclusions; and because of the clear, precise, and serious presenta- 
tion of facts. . . . 

The article so eulogized may be summed up in a few words. We will 
not stop to enumerate the marvels of spiritual phenomena witnessed 
by Professor Zollner with Dr. Slade and defended by Professor Butlerof, 
since they are no more marvellous than the latter gentleman's personal 
experience in this direction with Mr. Williams, a medium of London, 
in 1S76. The seances took place in a London hotel in the room occu- 
pied by the Hon. Alexandre Aksakof, Russian Imperial Councillor, in 
which, with the exception of this gentleman, there were but two other 
persons — Professor Butlerof and the medium. Confederacy was thus 
utterly impossible. And now, what took place under these conditions, 
which so impressed one of the first scientists of Russia 5 Simply this: 
Mr. Williams, the medium, was made to sit with his hands, feet, and 
even his body tightly bound with cords to his chair, which was placed 


in a dead-wall corner of the room, behind Mr. Bntlerof's plaid hung- 
across so as to form a screen. Williams soon fell into a kind of leth- 
argic stupor, known among Spiritualists as the trance condition, and 
"spirits" began to appear before the eyes of the investigators. Various 
voices were heard, and loud sentences pronounced by the "invisibles," 
from every part of the room ; things — toilet appurtenances and so forth 
— began flying in every direction through the air, and finally "John 
King" — a sort of king of the spooks, who has been famous for years — 
made his appearance bodily. But we must allow Professor Butlerof to 
tell his phenomenal story himself. 

We first saw several bright lights moving in the air, and immediately after ap- 
peared the full figure of "John King." His apparition is generally preceded by a 
greenish phosphoric light which, gradually becoming brighter, illuminates, more 
and more, the whole bust of "John King." Then it is that those present perceive 
that the light emanates from some kind of luminous object held by the "spirit." 
The face of a man with a thick black beard becomes clearly distinguishable: the 
head is enveloped in a white turban. The figure appeared outside the cabinet (that 
is to say, the screened corner where the medium sat), and finally approached us. 
We saw it each time for a few seconds; then rapidly waning, the light was extin- 
guished and the figure became invisible to reappear again in a moment or two; 
then from the surrounding darkness "John's" voice was heard proceeding from the 
spot on which he had appeared mostly, though not always, when he had already 
disappeared. "John" asked us: "What can I do for you?" and Mr. Aksakof 
requested him to rise up to the ceiling and speak to us. In accordance with the 
wish expressed, the figure suddenly appeared above the table and towered majesti- 
cally above our heads t<j the ceiling, which became all illuminated with the lumi- 
nous object held in the spirit's hand, when "John" was quite under the ceiling he 
shouted down to us: "Will that do?" 

During another seance M. Butlerof asked "John" to approach him 
quite near, which the "spirit" did, and so gave him the opportunity of 
seeing clearly "the sparkling, clear eyes of John." Another spirit, 
"Peter," though he never put in a visible appearance during the seances, 
yet conversed with Messrs. Butlerof and Aksakof, wrote for them on 
paper furnished by them, and so forth. 

Though the learned Professor minutely enumerates all the pre- 
cautions he had taken against possible fraud, the critic is not yet 
satisfied, and asks, pertinently enough: 

Why did not the respectable savant catch "John" in his arms, when the spirit 
was but a foot distant from him ? Again, why did not both Messrs. Aksakof and 
Butlerof try to get hold of "John's" legs, when he was mounting to the ceiling? 
Indeed they ought to have done all this, if they are really so anxious to learn the 
truth for their own sake, as for that of science, when they struggle to lead on 


toward the domains of the "other world." And, had they complied with such a 
simple and, at the same time, very little scientific test, there would be no more 
need for them, perhaps, to . . . further explain the scientific importance of the 

spiritual manifestations. 

That this importance is not exaggerated, and has as much significance 
for the world of science, as for that of religious thought, is proved by 
so many philosophical minds speculating upon the modern "delusion." 
This is what Fichte, the learned German savant, says of it. 

Modern Spiritualism chiefly proves the existence of that which, in common par- 
lance, is very vaguely and inaptly termed "apparition of spirits." If we concede 
the reality of such apparitions, then they become an undeniable, practical proof of 
the continuation of our personal, conscious existence (beyond the portals of death I. 
And such a tangible, fully demonstrated fact cannot be otherwise but beneficent in 
this epoch, which, having fallen into a dreary denial of immortality, thinks, in the 
proud self-sufficiency of its vast intellect, that it has alread) happily left behind it 
every superstition of the kind. 

If such a tangible evidence could be really found, and demonstrated 
to us, beyond any doubt or cavil, reasons Fichte further on : 

If the reality of the continuation of our lives after death were furnished us upon 
positive proof, in strict accordance with the logical elements of experimental 
natural sciences, then it would be, indeed, a result with which, owing to its nature 
and peculiar significance for humanity, no other result to be met with in all the 
history of civilization could be compared. The old problem of man's destination 
upon earth would thus be solved, and consciousness in humanity would be elevated 
one step. That which, hitherto, could be revealed to man but in the domain of 
blind faith, presentiment, and passionate hope, would become to him— positive 
knowledge; he would have acquired the certainty that he was a member of an 
eternal, a spiritual world, in which he would continue living, and that his tem- 
porary existence upon this earth forms but a fractional portion of a future eternal 
life, and that it is only there that he would be enabled to perceive, and fully com- 
prehend his real destiny. Having acquired this profound conviction, mankind 
would be thoroughly impressed with a new and animating comprehension of life, 
and its intellectual perceptions opened to an idealism strong with incontrovertible 
facts. This would prove tantamount to a complete reconstruction of man in rela- 
tion to his existence as an entity and his mission upon earth; it would be, so t<> say, 
a "new birth." Whoever has lost all inner convictions as to his eternal destiny. 
his faith in eternal life, whether the case be that of an isolated individuality. ,1 
whole nation, or the representative of a certain epoch, he or it may be regarded 
having had uprooted, and to the very core, all sense of that invigorating force 
which alone lends itself to self-devotion and to progress. Such a man becomes 
what was inevitable — an egotistical, selfish, sensual being, cencerned wholl} for his 
self-preservation. His culture, his enlightenment and civilization, can serve him 
but as a help and ornament toward that life of sensualism, or. at best, to guard him 
from all that can harm it. 


Such is the enormous importance attributed by Professor Fichte of 
Germany, and Professor Butlerof of Russia, to the spiritual pheno- 
mena; and we may say the feeling is more than sincerely echoed in 
England by Mr. A. R. Wallace, F.R.S. 

An influential American scientific journal uses equally strong lan- 
guage when speaking of the value that a scientific demonstration of 
the survival of the human soul would have for the world. If Spiritual- 
ism prove true, it says, 

It will become the one grand event of the world's history; it will give an im- 
perishable lnstre of glory to the nineteenth century. Its discoverer will have no 
rival in renown, and his name will be written high above an}' other. If the pre- 
tensions of Spiritualism have a rational foundation, no more important work has 
been offered to men of science then their verification. (Scientific American, 1874, 
as quoted in Olcott's People from the Other World, Preface, p. v.) 

And now we will see what the stubborn Russian critic (who seems to 
be but the mouth-piece of European materialistic science), has to say 
in response to the unanswerable arguments and logic of Messrs. Fichte 
and Butlerof. If scepticism has no stronger arguments to oppose to 
Spiritualism but the following original paradox, then we will have to 
declare it worsted in the dispute. Instead of the beneficial results 
foretold by Fichte in the case of the final triumph of Spiritualism, the 
critic forecasts quite a different state of things. 

As soon as such scientific methods shall have demonstrated, beyond doubt or 
cavil, to the general satisfaction, that our world is crammed with souls of men who 
have preceded us, and whom we will all join in turn; as soon as it shall be proven 
that these "souls of the deceased" can communicate with mortals, all the earthly 
physical science of the eminent scholars will vanish like a soap-bubble, and will 
have lost all its interest for us living men. Why should people care for their pro- 
portionately short life upon earth, once that they have the positive assurance and 
conviction of another life to come after bodily death; a death which does not in the 
least preclude conscious relations with the world of the living, or even their post 
mortem participation in all its interests? Once that, with the help of science, 
based on mediumistic experiments and the discoveries of Spiritualism, such rela- 
tions shall have been firmly established, they will nati;rally become every da}- more 
and more intimate; an extraordinary friendship will ensue between this and the 
"other" world; that other world will begin divulging to this one the most occult 
mysteries of life and death, and the hitherto most inaccessible laws of the universe 
— those which now exact the greatest efforts of man's mental powers. Finally, 
nothing will remain for us in this temporary world to either do or desire, but to 
pass away as soon as possible into the world of eternity. No inventions, no observa- 
tions, no sciences will be any more needed! Why should people exercise their brains, 
for instance, in perfecting the telegraphs, when nothing else will be required but to 



be on good terms with spirits in order to avail of their services for the instantaneous 
transmission of thoughts and objects, not only from Kurope to America, but even 
to the moon, if so desired? The following are a few of the results which a com- 
munion' de facto between this world and the "other," that certain men of science 
are hoping to establish by the help of Spiritualism, will inevitably had us to: the 
complete extinction of all science, and even of the human race, which will be ever 
rushing onward to a better life. The learned and scholarly phantasists who an 
anxious to promote the science of Spiritualism, of a close communication betwi 
the two worlds, ought to bear the above in mind. 

To which the "scholarly phantasists" would be quite warranted in 
answering that one would have to bring his own mind to the exact 
measure of microscopic capacity required to elaborate such a theory as 
this, before he could take it into consideration at all. Is the above- 
meant to be offered as an objection for serious consideration? Strange 
logic! We are asked to believe that, because these men of science, 
who now believe in naught but matter, and thus try to fit every pheno- 
menon — even of a mental and spiritual character — to the Procrustean 
bed of their own preconceived hobbies, would find themselves, by the 
mere strength of circumstances, forced in their turn, to fit these 
cherished hobbies to truth, however unwelcome, and to facts wherever 
found — that because of that, science will lose all its charm for humanity. 
Nay — life itself will become a burden ! There are millions upon mil- 
lions of people wdio, without believing in Spiritualism at all, yet have 
faith in another and a better world. And were that blind faith to 
become positive knowledge indeed, it could but better humanity. 

Before closing his scathing criticism upon the "credulous men of 
science" our reviewer sends one more bomb in their direction, which 
unfortunately, like many other explosive shells, misses the culprits and 
wounds the whole group of their learned colleagues. We translate the 
missile verbatim, this time for the benefit of all the European and 
American academicians. 

Speaking of Butlerof and his article, he adds: 

The eminent professor, among other things, makes the most of th< 
that Spiritualism gains with every day more and more converts within the cm: p. .ra- 
tion of our great scientists. He enumerates a long list of English and German 
names among illustrious men of science, who have more or less confessed them- 
selves in favour of the spiritual doctrines. Among these names we find sue' 
quite authoritative, those of the greatest luminaries of science. Such a fact is to 
say the least, very striking, and. in any case, lends a great weight to Spiritualism. 
But we have only to ponder coolly over it, to come very easily to the conclui 
that it is just among such great men of science that Spirittialism 


■and find ready converts. With all their powerful intellects and gigantic knowledge, 
our great scholars are firstly, men of sedentary habits, and, secondly, they are, with 
scarcely an exception, men with diseased and shattered nerves, inclined toward an 
abnormal development of an overstrained brain. Such sedentary men are the easiest 
to hoodwink ; a clever charlatan will make an easier prey of, and bamboozle with far 
more facility, a scholar than an unlearned but practical man. Hallucination will far 
sooner get hold of persons inclined to nervous receptivity, especially if they once 
concentrate themselves upon some peculiar ideas, or a favourite hobby. This, I 
believe, will explain the fact that we see so many men of science enrolling them- 
selves in the army of Spiritualists. 

We need not stop to enquire how Messrs. Tyndall, Huxley, Darwin, 
Herbert Spencer, Lewes, and other eminent scientific and philosophical 
sceptics, will like such a prospect of rickety ganglionic centres, col- 
lective softening of the brain, and the resulting "hallucinations." The 
argument is not only an impertinent naivete', but a literary monstrosity. 

We are far from agreeing entirely with the views of Professor But- 
lerof, or even Mr. Wallace, as to the agencies at work behind the 
modern phenomena; yet between the extremes of spiritual negation 
and affirmation, there ought to be a middle ground; only pure philo- 
sophy can establish truth upon firm principles; and no philosophy can 
be complete unless it embraces both physics and metaphysics. Mr. 
Tyndall, who declares in Science and Man that "metaphysics will be 
welcomed when it abandons its pretensions to scientific discovery, and 
consents to be ranked as a kind of poetry," opens himself to the criti- 
cism of posterity. Meanwhile, he must not regard it as an imper- 
tinence if his Spiritualistic opponents retort with the answer that 
"physics will always be welcomed, when it abandons its pretension to 
psychological discovery." The physicists will have to consent to be 
regarded in a near future as no more than supervisors and analysts of 
physical results, who have to leave the spiritual causes to those who 
believe in them. Whatever the issue of the present quarrel, we fear, 
though, that Spiritualism has made its appearance a century too late. 
Our age is preeminently one of extremes. The earnest philosophical, 
yet reverent, doubters are few, and the name for those who rush to the 
opposite extreme is — Legion. We are the children of our century. 
Thanks to that same law of atavism, it seems to have inherited from 
its parent — the eighteenth — the century of both Voltaire and Jonathan 
Edwards — all its extreme scepticism, and, at the same time, religious 
credulity and bigoted intolerance. Spiritualism is an abnormal and 
premature outgrowth, standing between the two; and, though it stands 


right on the highway to truth, its ill-defined beliefs make it wander on 
through by-paths which lead to anything but philosophy. Its future 
depends wholly upon the timely help it can receive from honest science 
— that science which scorns no truth. It was, perhaps, when thinking 
of the opponents of the latter, that Alfred de Musset wrote the follow- 
ing magnificent apostrophe: 

Sleep'st thou content, Voltaire? 
And thy dread smile hovers it still above 
Thy fleshless bones . . . . ? 
Thine age they call too young to understand thee; 
This one should suit thee better — 

Thy men are born ! 
And the huge edifice that, day and night, thy great hands undermined, 

Is fallen upon us. . . . 


[Vol. I. Nos. 6, 7, 9 and n, March, April, June and August, 1S80.] 
Whether one surveys the imposing ruins of Memphis or Palmyra; 
stands at the foot of the great pyramid of Ghizeh; wanders along the 
shores of the Nile; or ponders amid the desolate fastnesses of the 
long-lost and mysterious Petra; however clouded and misty the origin 
of these pre-historic relics may appear, one nevertheless finds at least 
certain fragments of firm ground upon which to build conjecture. 
Thick as may be the curtain behind which the history of these anti- 
quities is hidden, still there are rents here and there through which 
one may catch glimpses of light. We are acquainted with the descen- 
dants of the builders; and, however superficially, we also know the 
story of the nations whose vestiges are scattered around us. Not so 
with the antiquities of the New World of the two Americas. There, 
all along the coast of Peru, all over the Isthmus and North America, 
in the canyons of the Cordilleras, in the impassable gorges of the 
Andes, and, especially, beyond the valley of Mexico, lie, ruined and 
desolate, hundreds of once mighty cities, lost to the memory of men, 
and having themselves lost even a name. Buried in dense forests, en- 
tombed in inaccessible valleys, sometimes sixty feet underground, from 
the day of their discover}' until now they have ever remained a riddle, 
baffling all enquiry, and they have been muter than the Egyptian Sphinx 
herself. We know nothing of America prior to the Spanish Conquest 
— positively nothing. No chronicles, not even comparatively modern 
ones, survive; there are no traditions, even among the aboriginal tribes, 
as to its past events. We are as ignorant of the races that built these 
cyclopean structures as of the strange worship that inspired the ante- 
diluvian sculptors who carved upon hundreds of miles of walls, of 
monuments, monoliths and altars, these weird hieroglyphics, these 
groups of animals and men, pictures of an unknown life and lost arts 
— scenes so fantastic and wild, at times, that the} 7 involuntarily suggest 


the idea of a feverish dream, whose phantasmagoria suddenly crystal- 
lized into granite at the wave of sonic might} magician's hand, to 
bewilder the coming generations for ever and ever. So late as the 
beginning of the present century the very existence of such a wealth 
of antiquities was unknown. The petty, suspicious jealousy of the 
Spaniards had, from the first, created a Chinese wall between their 
American possessions and the too curious traveller; and the ignorance 
and fanaticism of the conquerors, and their carelessness as to all but 
the satisfaction of their insatiable greed, had precluded scientific re- 
search. Even the enthusiastic accounts of Cortez and his army of 
brigands and priests, and of Pizarro and his robbers and monks, as to 
the splendour of the temples, palaces and cities of Mexico and Peru, 
were long discredited. In his History of America, Dr. Robertson g< 
so far as to inform his reader that the houses of the ancient Mexicans 

Mere huts, built with turf or mud, or the branches of trees, like those of the 
rudest Indians.* 

And, upon the testimony of some Spaniards, he even risked the 
assertion that there was not 

In all the extent of that vast empire a single monument or vestige of any bnild- 
ing more ancient than the Conquest. 

It was reserved to the great Alexander Humboldt to vindicate the 
truth. In 1S03 a flood of new light was poured into the world of 
archaeology by this eminent and learned traveller. In this he luckily 
proved but the pioneer of future discoverers. He then described but 
Mitla, or the Vale of the Dead, Xoxichalco, and the great pyramidal 
Temple of Cholula. But after him came Stephens, Catherwood, and 
Squier; and in Peru, D'Orbigny and Dr. Tschuddi. Since then 
numerous travellers have visited and given us accurate details of many 
of the antiquities. But how many more yet remain not only un- 
explored, but even unknown, no one can tell. As regards prehistoric 
buildings, both Peru and Mexico are rivals of Egypt. Equalling the 
latter in the immensity of her cyclopean structures, Peru sur] 
her in their number; while Cholula exceeds the grand pyramid of 
Cheops in breadth, if not in height. Works of public utility, such as 
walls, fortifications, terraces, water-courses, aqueducts, bridges, temp: 
burial-grounds, whole cities, and exquisitely paved roads, hundreds of 

* See Stephen >' Central Am 


miles in length, stretch in an unbroken line, almost covering the land 
as with a net. On the coast they are built of sun-dried bricks; in the 
mountains, of porphyritic lime, granite and silicated sandstones. Of 
the long generations of peoples who built them, history knows nothing, 
and even tradition is silent. As a matter of course, most of these lithic 
remains are covered with a dense vegetation. Whole forests have 
grown out of the cities' broken hearts, and, with a few exceptions, 
everything is in ruin. But one may judge of what once was by that 
which yet remains. 

With a most flippant unconcern, the Spanish historians refer nearly 
every ruin to Incal times. No greater mistake can be made. The 
hieroglyphics which sometimes cover whole walls and monoliths from 
top to bottom are, as they were from the first, a dead letter to modern 
science. But they were equally a dead letter to the Incas, though the 
history of the latter can be traced to the eleventh century. They had 
no clue to the meaning of these inscriptions, but attributed all such 
to their unknown predecessors; thus barring the presumption of their 
own descent from the first civilizers of their country. Briefly, the 
Incal history runs thus: 

Inca is the Ouichua title for chief or emperor, and the name of the 
ruling and most aristocratic race or rather caste of the land which was 
governed by them for an unknown period, prior to, and until, the 
Spanish Conquest. Some place their first appearance in Peru from 
regions unknown in 1021; others, also, on conjecture, at five centuries 
after the biblical "flood," and according to the modest notions of 
Christian theology. Still the latter theory is undoubtedly nearer truth 
than the former. The Incas, judged by their exclusive privileges, 
power and "infallibility," are the antipodal counterpart of the Brah- 
manical caste of India. Like the latter, the Incas claimed direct 
descent from the Deity, which, as in the case of the Suryavansha 
dynasty of India, was the Sun. According to the sole but general 
tradition, there was a time when the whole of the population of the 
now New World was broken up into independent, warring and bar- 
barian tribes. At last the "Highest" Deity — the Sun — took pity upon 
them, and, in order to rescue the people from ignorance, sent down 
upon earth to teach them his two children, Manco Capac, and his sister 
and wife, Mama Ocollo Huaco — the counterparts, again, of the Egyptian 
Osiris, and his sister and wife, Isis, as well as of the several Hindu 
Gods and demi-Gods and their wives. These two made their appear- 


ance on a beautiful island in Lake Titieaea — of which we will speak 
further on — and thence proceeded northward to Cuzco, later on the 
capital of the Incas, where they at once began to disseminate civiliza- 
tion. Collecting together the various races from all parts of Peru, the 
divine couple then divided their labour. Manco Capac taught men 
agriculture, legislation, architecture and arts; while Mama Ocollo 
instructed the women in weaving, spinning, embroidery and house- 
keeping. It is from this celestial pair that the Incas claimed their 
descent; and yet they were utterly ignorant of the people who built 
the stupendous and now ruined cities which cover the whole area of 
their empire, and which then extended from the equator over thirty- 
seven degrees of latitude, and included not only the western slope of 
the Andes, but the whole mountain chain with its eastern declivities to 
the Amazon and Orinoco. As the direct descendants of the Sun, they 
were the high priests of the state religion, and at the same time 
emperors and the highest statesmen in the land; in virtue of which, 
they, again like the Brahmans, arrogated to themselves a divine 
superiority over the ordinary mortals, thus founding, like the "twice- 
born," an exclusive and aristocratic caste — the Inca race. Considered 
as the son of the Sun, every reigning Inca was the high priest, the 
oracle, chief captain in w 7 ar, and absolute sovereign; thus realizing the 
double office of Pope and King, and so long anticipating the dream of 
the Roman Pontiffs. To his command the blindest obedience was 
exacted; his person was sacred; and he was the object of divine 
honours. The highest officers of the land could not appear shod in his 
Presence; this mark of respect pointing again to an Oriental origin; 
while the custom of boring the ears of the youths of royal blood and 
inserting in them golden rings, "which were increased in size as they 
advanced in rank, until the distension of the cartilage became a posi- 
tive deformity," suggests a strange resemblance between the sculptured 
portraits of many of them that we find in the more modern ruins, and 
the images of Buddha and of some Hindu deities, not to mention our 
contemporary dandies of Siam, Burmah and Southern India. Once 
more like India, in the palmy days of the Brahman power, no one had 
the right to receive an education or study religion except the young 
men of the privileged Inca caste. And, when the reigning Inca died. 
or, as it was termed, "was called home to the mansion of his fathi 
a very large number of his attendants and his wives wnx- made to die 
with him, during the ceremonies of his obsequies, just as we find in the 


old annals of Rajasthan, and down to the but just abolished custom of 
Sati. Taking all this into consideration, the archaeologist cannot 
remain satisfied with the brief remark of certain historians that : 

In this tradition we trace only another version of the story of the civilization 
common to all primitive nations, and that imposture of a celestial relationship 
wherebv designing rulers and cunning priests have sought to secure their ascen- 
dency among men. 

No more is it an explanation to say that: 

Manco Capac is the almost exact counterpart of the Chinese Foh, the Hindu 
Buddha, the terrestrial Osiris of Egypt, the Ouetzacoatl of Mexico, and Votan of 
Central America. 

For all this is but too evident. What we want to learn is, how came 
these nations, so antipodal to each other as India, Egypt and America, 
to offer such extraordinary points of resemblance, not only in their 
general religious, political and social views, but sometimes in the 
minutest details. The task much-needed is to find out which one of 
them preceded the other; to explain how these peoples came to plant 
at the four corners of the earth nearly identical architecture and arts, 
unless there was a time when, as asserted by Plato and believed in by 
more than one modern archaeologist, no ships were needed for such a 
transit, as the two worlds formed but one continent. 

According to the most recent researches, there are five distinct styles 
of architecture in the Andes alone, of which the Temple of the Sun at 
Cuzco was the latest. And this one, perhaps, is the only structure of 
importance which, according to modern travellers, can be safely attri- 
buted to the Incas, whose imperial glories are believed to have been 
the last gleam of a civilization dating back for untold ages. Dr. E. R. 
Heath, of Kansas, thinks that 

Long before Manco Capac the Andes had been the dwelling-place of races whose 
beginnings must have been coeval with the savages of Western Europe. The 
gigantic architecture points to the Cyclopean family, the founders of the Temple 
of Babel and the Egyptian pyramids. The Grecian scroll found in many places is 
borrowed (?) from the Egyptians; the mode of burial and embalming their dead 
points to Egypt. 

Further on, this learned traveller finds that the skulls taken from 
the burial-grounds, according to craniologists, represent three distinct 
races: the Chinchas, who occupied the western part of Peru from the 
Andes to the Pacific; the Aymaras, dwellers of the elevated plains of 
Peru and Bolivia, on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca; and the 
Huaucas, who "occupied the plateau between the chains of the Andes, 


north of Lake Titicaca to the ninth degree of south latitude." To 
confound the buildings of the epoch of the Incas in Peru, and of 
Montezuma and his Caciques, in Mexico, with the aboriginal monu- 
ments, is fatal to archjeology. While Cholula, Uxmal, Quiche, Pacha- 
camac and Chichen were all perfectly preserved and occupied at the 
time of the invasion of the Spanish banditti, there are hundreds of 
ruined cities and works which were in the same state of ruin even 
then; whose origin was as unknown to the conquered Incas and 
Caciques as it is to us; and which are undoubtedly the remains of 
unknown and now extinct peoples. The strange shapes of the heads 
and profiles of the human figures upon the monoliths of Copan are a 
warrant for the correctness of the hypothesis. The pronounced dif- 
ference between the skulls of these races and the Indo-European skulls 
was at first attributed to mechanical means, used by the mothers for 
giving a peculiar conformation to the head of their children during 
infancy, as is often done by other tribes and peoples. But, as the same 
author tells us, the finding in 

A mummy of a fcetus of seven or eight months having the same conformation of 
skull, has placed a doubt as to the certainty of this fact. 

And besides hypothesis, we have scientific and unimpeachable proof 
of a civilization that must have existed in Peru ages ago. Were we to 
give the number of thousands of years that have probably elapsed 
since then, without first showing good reasons for the assumption, the 
reader might feel like holding his breath. So let us try. 

The Peruvian guano (Jiuano), that precious fertilizer, composed of 
the excrement of sea-fowls, intermixed with their decaying bodies, 
eggs, remains of seal, and so on, which has accumulated upon the isles 
of the Pacific and the coast of South America, and its formation, are 
now well known. It was Humboldt who first discovered and drew the 
world's attention to it in 1804. And, while describing the deposits as 
covering the granite rocks of the Chincas and other islands to the 
depth of fifty or sixty feet, he states that the accumulation of the pre- 
ceding 300 years, since the Conquest, had formed only a few lines in thick- 
ness. How many thousands of years, then, it required to form this 
deposit sixty feet deep, is a matter of simple calculation. In this con- 
nection we may now quote something of a discovery spoken of in the 
"Peruvian Antiquities."* 

A paper published by Dr. E- R. Heath in the Kansas City Review of Science and Industry, 
November, 1878. 


Buried sixty-two feet under the ground, on the Chinca islands, stone-idols and 
water-pots were found, while thirty-three and thirty-five feet below the surface 
"were wooden idols. From beneath the guano on the Guanapi islands, just south of 
Truxillo, and Macabi just north, mummies, birds and birds' eggs, gold and silver 
ornaments were taken. On the Macabi the labourers found some large valuable 
golden vases, which they broke up and divided among themselves, even though 
offered weight for weight in gold coin, and thus relics of the greatest interest to 
the scientist have been lost for ever. He who can determine the centuries neces- 
sary to deposit thirty and sixty feet of guano on these islands, remembering that 
since the Conquest three hundred years ago, no appreciable increase in depth has 
been noted, can give you an idea of the antiquity of these relics. 

If we confine ourselves to a strictly arithmetical calculation, then 
allowing twelve lines to an inch, and twelve inches to a foot, and 
allowing one line to every century, we are forced to believe that the 
people who made these precious gold vases lived 864,000 years ago! 
Leave an ample margin for errors, and give twelve lines to a century — 
say an inch to every ico years — and we will yet have 72,000 years back 
a civilization which — if we judge by its public works, the durability of 
its constructions, and the grandeur of its buildings — equalled, and in 
some things certainly surpassed, our own. 

Having well-defined ideas as to the periodicity of cycles, for the 

world as well as for nations, empires and tribes, we are convinced that 

our present modern civilization is but the latest dawn of that which 

already has been seen an innumerable number of times upon this 

planet. It may not be exact science, but it is both inductive and 

deductive logic, based upon theories far less hypothetical and more 

palpable than many another theory, held as strictly scientific. To 

express it in the words of Prof. T. E. Nipher, of St. Louis, "we are 

not the friends of theory but of truth," and until truth is found, we 

welcome every new theory, however unpopular at first, for fear of 

rejecting in our ignorance the stone which may in time become the 

very corner-stone of the truth. 

The errors of scientific men are well-nigh countless, not because they are men of 
science, but because they are men, 

says the same scientist; and further quotes the noble words of Faraday: 
Occasionally, and frequently the exercise of the judgment ought to end in absolute 
reservation. It may be very distasteful and a great fatigue to suspend a conclusion, 
but as we are not infallible, so we ought to be cautious. (Experimental Researches, 
24th Series.) 

It is doubtful whether, with the exception of a few of the most 
prominent ruins, a detailed account of the so-called American anti- 



quities ever was attempted. Yet, in order to bring out the more 
prominently a point of comparison, such a work would be absolutely 
necessary. If the history of religion and of mythology and — far more 
important — the origin, developing and final grouping of the human 
species are ever to be unravelled, we have to trust to archaeological 
research rather than to the hypothetical deductions of philology. We 
must begin by massing together the concrete imagery of the early 
thought, more eloquent in its stationary form than the verbal expression 
of the same, the latter being but too liable, in its manifold interpreta- 
tions, to be distorted in a thousand ways. This would afford us an 
easier and more trustworthy clue. Archaeological Societies ought to 
have a whole cyclopaedia of the world's remains, with a collation of the 
most important of the speculations as to each locality. For, however 
fantastic and wild some of these hypotheses may seem at first glance, 
yet each has a chance of proving useful at some time. It is often more 
beneficial to know what a thing is not than to know what it is, as Max 
Mtiller truly tells us. 

It is not within the limits of an article in our paper that any such 
object could be achieved. Availing ourselves, though, of the reports 
of the Government surveyors, trustworthy travellers, men of science, 
and even our own limited experience, we will try in future issues to 
give to our Hindu readers, who possibly may never have heard of these 
antiquities, a general idea of them. Our information is drawn from 
every reliable source; the survey of the Peruvian antiquities being 
mostly due to Dr. Heath's able paper, above mentioned. 


Evidently we Theosophists are not the only iconoclasts in this world 
of mutual deception and hypocrisy. We are not the only ones who 
believe in cycles, and, opposing the biblical chronology, lean towards 
those opinions which are secretly shared by so many, but publicly 
avowed by so few. We Europeans are just emerging from the very 
bottom of a new cycle, and progressing upwards, while the Asiatics — 
Indians especially — are the lingering remnants of the nations which 
filled the world in the previous and now departed cycles. Whether the 
Aryans sprang from the archaic Americans, or the latter from the pre- 
historic Aryans, is a question which no living man can decide. But 
that there must have been an intimate connection at some time between 
the old Aryans, the pre-historic inhabitants of America— whatever 


might have been their name — and the ancient Egyptians, is a matter 
more easily proved than contradicted. And probably, if there ever 
was such a connection, it must have taken place at a time when the 
Atlantic did not yet divide the two hemispheres as it does now. 

In his Peruvian Antiquities, Dr. Heath, of Kansas City — vara avis 
among scientific men, a fearless searcher, who accepts truth wherever 
he finds it, and is not afraid to speak it out in the very face of dogmatic 
opposition — sums up his impressions of the Peruvian relics in the 
following words: 

Three times the Andes sank hundreds of feet beneath the ocean level, and again 
were slowly brought to their present height. A man's life would be too short to 
count even the centuries consumed in this operation. The coast of Peru has risen 
eighty feet since it felt the tread of Pizarro. Supposing the Andes to have risen 
uniformly and without interruption, 70,000 years must have elapsed before thev 
reached their present altitude. 

Who knows, then, but that Jules Verne's fanciful idea* regarding the lost conti- 
nent Atlantis ma}- be near the truth? Who can say that, where now the Atlantic 
Ocean is, a continent did not formerly exist, with its dense population, advanced in 
the arts and sciences, who, as they found their land sinking beneath the waters, 
retired part east and part west, thus populating the two hemispheres? This would 
explain the similarity of their archaeological structures and races, and their differ- 
ences, modified by and adapted to the character of their respective climates and 
countries. Thus would the llama and camel differ, although of the same species; 
thus the algoraba and espino trees; thus the Iroquois Indians of North America 
and the most ancient Arabs call the constellation of the "Great Bear" by the same 
name; thus various nations, cut off from all intercourse or knowledge of each 
other, divide the zodiac into twelve constellations, apply to them the same names, 
and the Northern Hindus apply the name Andes to their Himalayan mountains, as 
did the South Americans to their principal chain. t Must we fall in the old rut, 
and suppose no other means of populating the Western Hemisphere except "by 
way of Behring's Strait"? Must we still locate a geographical Eden in the East, 
and suppose a land, equally adapted to man and as old geologically, must wait the 
aimless wanderings of the "lost tribes of Israel" to become populated? 

Go where we may, to explore the antiquities of America — whether of 
Northern, Central, or Southern America — we are first of all impressed 
with the magnitude of these relics of ages and races unknown, and 
then with the extraordinary similarity they present to the mounds and 

* This " idea " is plainly expressed and asserted as a fact by Plato in his Banquet ; and was taken 
up by Bacon in his New Atlantis. 

+ '" The name A merica," said I, in /sis Unveiled (vol. ii. p. 591), three years ago, " ma3' one day be 
found closely related to Meru, the sacred mount in the centre of the seven continents." When first 
discovered, America was found to bear among some native tribes the name of Atlanta. In the states 
of Central America we find the name Amerih, signifying, like Meru, a great mountain. The origin 
of the Kamas Indians of America is also unknown. 


ancient structures of old India, of Egypt and even of some parts of 
Europe. Whoever has seen one of these mounds has seen all. Who- 
ever has stood before the cyclopean structures of one continent can 
have a pretty accurate idea of those of the other. Only be it said — we 
know still less of the age of the antiquities of America than even of 
those in the Valley of the Nile, of which we know next to nothing. 
But their symbolism — apart from their outward form — is evidently the 
same as in Egypt, India and elsewhere. As before the great pyramid 
of Cheops in Cairo, so before the great mound, 100 feet high, on the 
plain of Cahokia — near St. Louis (Missouri) — which measures 700 feet 
long by 800 feet broad at the base, and covers upwards of eight acres 
of ground, having 20,000,000 cubic feet of contents, and the mound on 
the banks of Brush Creek, Ohio, so accurately described by Squier and 
Davis, one knows not whether to admire more the geometrical pre- 
cision, prescribed by the wonderful and mysterious builders in the form 
of their monuments, or the hidden symbolism they evidently sought to 
express. The Ohio mound represents a serpent, upwards of 1,000 feet 
long. Gracefully coiled in capricious curves, it terminates in a triple 
coil at the tail. 

The embankment constituting the effigy is upwards of five feet in height, by 
thirty feet at the centre of the body, slightly diminishing towards the tail.* 

The neck is stretched out and its mouth wide open, holding within 
its jaws an oval figure. 

Formed by an embankment four feet in height, this oval is perfectly regular in 
outline, its transverse and conjugate diameters being 160 and eighty feet respectively, 

say the surveyors. The whole represents the universal cosmological 
idea of the serpent and the egg. This is easy to surmise. But how 
came this great symbol of the Hermetic wisdom of old Egypt to find 
itself represented in North America? How is it that the sacred build- 
ings found in Ohio and elsewhere, these squares, circles, octagons, and 
other geometrical figures, in which one recognizes so easily the pre- 
vailing idea of the Pythagorean sacred numerals, seem copied from 
The Book of Numbers? Apart from the complete silence as to their 
origin, even among the Indian tribes, who have otherwise preserved 
their own traditions in every case, the antiquity of these ruins is proved 
by the existence of the largest and most ancient forests growing on the 
buried cities. The prudent archaeologists of America have generously 
assigned them 2,000 years. But bv whom built, and whether their 

* Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. i. 


authors migrated, or disappeared beneath victorious armies, or were 
swept out of existence by some direful epidemic, or a universal famine, 
are questions, "probably beyond the power of human investigation 
to answer," they say. The earliest inhabitants of Mexico, of whom 
history has any knowledge — more hypothetical than proven — are the 
Toltecs. These are sicpposed to have come from the North and believed 
to have entered Anahuac in the seventh century a.d. They are also 
credited with having constructed in Central America, where they 
spread in the eleventh century, some of the great cities whose ruins 
still exist. In this case it is they who must also have carved the hiero- 
glyphics that cover some of the relics. How is it, then, that the pic- 
torial system of writing of Mexico, which was used by the conquered 
people and learned by the conquerors and their missionaries, does not 
yet furnish the keys to the hieroglyphics of Palenque and Copan, not 
to mention those of Peru ? And these civilized Toltecs themselves, 
who were they, and whence did they come? And who are the Aztecs 
that succeeded them? Even among the hieroglyphical systems of 
Mexico, there were some which the foreign interpreters were precluded 
the possibility of studying. These were the so-called schemes of judicial 
astrology "given but not explained in Lord Kingsborough's published 
collection," and set down as purely figurative and symbolical, "intended 
only for the use of the priests and diviners and possessed of an esoteric 
significance." Many of the hieroglyphics on the monoliths of Palenque 
and Copan are of the same character. The "priests and diviners" were 
all killed off by the Catholic fanatics — the secret died with them. 

Nearly all the mounds in North America are terraced and ascended 
by large graded ways, sometimes square, often hexagonal, octagonal or 
truncated, but in all respects similar to the teocallis of Mexico, and to 
the topes of India. As the latter are attributed throughout this country 
to the work of the five Pandus of the Lunar Race, so the Cyclopean 
monuments and monoliths on the shores of Lake Titicaca, in the 
republic of Bolivia, are ascribed to giants, the five exiled brothers 
"from beyond the mounts." They worshipped the moon as their pro- 
genitor and lived before the time of the "Sons and Virgins of the Sim." 
Here, the similarity of the Aryan with the South American tradition is 
again but too obvious, and the Solar and Lunar races — the Surya 
Vansha and the Chandra Vansha — reappear in America. 

This Lake Titicaca, which occupies the centre of one of the most 
remarkable terrestrial basins on the whole globe, is: 



One hundred and sixty miles long and from fifty to eighty broad, and disc-bar. 
through the valley of El Desaguadero, to the south-east into another lake, called 
Lake Aullagas, which is probably kept at a lower level by evaporation or filtration, 
since it has no known outlet. The surface of the lake is [2,846 feet above the- sea, 
and it is the most elevated body of waters of similar size in the world. 

As the level of its waters has very much decreased in the historical 
period, it is believed on good grounds that they once surrounded the 
elevated spot on which are found the remarkable ruins of Tiahuanaco. 
The latter are without any doubt aboriginal monuments pertain- 
ing to an epoch which preceded the Incal period, much as the Dra- 
vidian and other aboriginal peoples preceded the Aryans in India. 
Although the traditions of the Incas maintain that the great law-giver 
and teacher of the Peruvians, Manco Capac — the Manu of South 
America — diffused his knowledge and influence from this centre, yet 
the statement is unsupported by facts. If the original seat of the 
Aymara, or "Inca" race was there, as claimed by some, how is it that 
neither the Incas, nor the Aymaras, who dwell on the shores of the 
lake to this day, nor yet the ancient Peruvians, had the slightest know- 
ledge concerning their history? Beyond a vague tradition which tells 
us of "giants" having built these immense structures in one night, we 
do not find the faintest clue. And we have every reason to doubt 
whether the Incas are of the Aymara race at all. The Incas claim their 
descent from Manco Capac, the son of the Sun, and the Aymaras claim 
this legislator as their instructor and the founder of the era of their 
civilization. Yet neither the Incas of the Spanish period could prove 
the one, nor the Aymaras the other. The language of the latter is 
quite distinct from the Inichua — the tongue of the Incas; and they 
were the only race that refused to give up their language when con- 
quered by the descendants of the Sun, as Dr. Heath tells us. 

The ruins afford every evidence of the highest antiquity. Some are 
built on a pyramidal plan, as most of the American mounds are, and 
cover several acres; while the monolithic doorways, pillars and stone 
idols, so elaborately carved, are "sculptured in a style wholly different 
from any other remains of art yet found in America." D'Orbigny 
speaks of the ruins in the most enthusiastic manner. He sa\ s: 

These monuments consist of a mound raised nearly 100 feet, surrounded with 
pillars — of temples from 600 to 1,200 feet in length, opening precisely towards the 
east, and adorned with colossal angular columns — of porticoes of a single stone, 
covered with reliefs of skilful execution, displaying symbolical representations of 
the Sun, and the condor, his messenger — of basaltic statues loaded with bas-reli< 


in which the design of the carved head is half Egyptian — and lastly, of the interior 
of a palace formed of enormous blocks of rock, completely hewn, whose dimen- 
sions are often twenty-one feet in length, twelve in breadth, and six in thickness. 
In the temples and palaces, the portals are not inclined, as among those of the 
Incas, but perpendicular; and their vast dimensions, and the imposing masses of 
which they are composed, surpass in beauty and grandeur all that were afterwards 
built by the sovereigns of Cuzco. 

L,ike the rest of his fellow-explorers, M. D'Orbigny believes these 
ruins to have been the work of a race far anterior to the Incas. 

Two distinct styles of architecture are found in these relics of Lake 
Titicaca. Those of the island of Coati, for instance, bear every feature 
in common with the ruins of Tiahuanaco; so do the vast blocks of 
stone elaborately sculptured, some of which, according to the report of 
the surveyors in 1846, measure 

Three feet in width by eighteen feet in length, and six feet in thickness; 

while on some of the islands of the I,ake Titicaca there are monuments 

of great extent; 

But of true Peruvian type, believed to be the remains of temples destroyed by the 

The famous sanctuary, with the human figure in it, belongs to the 
former. Its doorway, ten feet high, thirteen feet broad, with an opening 
six feet four inches by three feet two inches, is cut from a single stone. 

Its east front has a cornice, in the centre of which is a human figure of strange 
form, crowned with rays, interspersed with serpents with crested heads. On each 
side of this figure are three rows of square compartments, filled with human and 
other figures, of apparently symbolic design. . . . 

Were this temple in India, it would undoubtedly be attributed to 
Shiva; but it is at the Antipodes, where neither the foot of a Shaiva 
nor one of the Naga tribe has ever penetrated to the knowledge of 
man, though the Mexican Indians have their Nargal, or chief sorcerer 
and serpent worshipper. The ruins standing on an eminence, which, 
from the water-marks around it, seems to have been formerly an island 
in Lake Titicaca, and : 

The level of the lake now being 135 feet lower, and its shores twelve miles dis- 
tant, this fact, in conjunction with others, warrants the belief that these remains 
antedate any others known in America.* 

Hence, all these relics are unanimously ascribed to the same 

Unknown and mysterious people who preceded the Peruvians, as the Tulhuatecas 
or Toltecs did the Aztecs. It seems to have been the seat of the highest and most 

• New American Cyclopcedia, art. "Teotihuacan." 


ancient civilization of South America and of a people who have left the most 

gigantic monuments of their power and skill. . . . 

And these monuments are all either Dracontias — temples sacred to 
the Snake — or temples dedicated to the Sun. 

Of this same character are the ruined pyramids of Teotihtiacan and 
the monoliths of Palenque and Copan. The former are som • eight 
leagues from the city of Mexico on the plain of Otumla, and are con- 
sidered among the most ancient in the land. The two principal ones 
are dedicated to the Sun and Moon, respectively. They are built of 
cut stone, square, with four stories and a level area at the top. The 
larger, that of the Sun, is 221 feet high, 680 feet square at the base, and 
covers an area of eleven acres, nearly equal to that of the great pyramid 
of Cheops. And yet, the pyramid of Cholula, higher than that of 
Teotihuacan by ten feet according to Humboldt, and having 1,400 feet 
square at the base, covers an area of forty-five acres! 

It is interesting to hear what the earliest writers — the historians who 
saw them during the first conquest — say even of some of the most 
modern of these buildings, of the great temple of Mexico, among 
others. It consisted of an immense square area, 

Surrounded by a wall of stone and lime, eight feet thick, with battlements, orna- 
mented with many stone figures in the form of serpents, 

says one. Cortez shows that 500 houses might be easily placed within 
its enclosure. It was paved with polished stones, so smooth, that "the 
horses of the Spaniards could not move over them without slipping," 
writes Bernal Diaz. In connection with this, we must remember that 
it was not the Spaniards who conquered the Mexicans, but their horses. 
As a horse was never seen before by this people in America, until the 
Europeans landed it on the coast, the natives, though excessively 

Were so awestruck at the sight of horses and the roar of the artillery, 
that they took the Spaniards to be of divine origin and sent them 
human beings as sacrifices. This superstitious panic is sufficient to 
account for the fact that a handful of men could so easily conquer 
incalculable thousands of warriors. 

According to Gomara, the four walls of the enclosure of the temple 
corresponded with the cardinal points. In the centre of this gi 
area arose the great temple, an immense pyramidal structure of eight 
stages, faced with stone, 300 feet square at the base and 120 feet in 
height, truncated, with a level summit, upon which were situated two 


towers, the shrines of the divinities to whom it was consecrated — 
Tezcatlipoca and Huitzlipochtli. It was here that the sacrifices were 
performed, and the eternal fire maintained. Clavigero tells us that, 
besides this great pyramid, there were forty other similar structures 
consecrated to various divinities. The one called Tczcacalli, 

The House of the Shining Mirrors, sacred to Tezcatlipoca, the God of Light, the 
Soul of the World, the Vivifier, the Spiritual Sun. 

The dwellings of priests, who, according to Zarate, amounted to 
8,000, were near by, as well as the seminaries and the schools. Ponds 
and fountains, groves and gardens, in which flowers and sweet smelling 
herbs were cultivated for use in certain sacred rites and the decoration 
of altars, were in abundance; and, so large was the inner yard, that: 

Eight thousand or 1 0,000 persons had sufficient room to dance in it upon their 
solemn festivities, 

says Solis. Torquemada estimates the number of such temples in the 
Mexican empire at 40,000, but Clavigero, speaking of the majestic 
Teocalli (literally, houses of God) of Mexico, estimates the number 

So wonderful are the features of resemblance between the ancient 
shrines of the Old and the New World that Humboldt remains unable 
to express his surprise. He exclaims: 

What striking analogies exist between the monuments of the old continents and 
those of the Toltecs who . . . built these colossal structure, truncated pyra- 
mids, divided by layers, like the temple of Belus at Babylon! Where did they take 
the model of these edifices? 

The eminent naturalist might have also enquired whence the Mexicans 
got all their Christian virtues, being but poor pagans. The code of the 
Aztecs, says Prescott: 

Evinces a profound respect for the great principles of morality, and as clear a 
perception of these principles as is to be found in the most cultivated nations. 

Some of these are very curious inasmuch as they show such a simi- 
larity to some of the Gospel ethics. "He who looks too curiously on 
a woman, commits adultery with his eyes," says one of them. "Keep 
peace with all; bear injuries with humility; God, who sees, will avenge 
you," declares another. Recognizing but one Supreme Power in 
Nature, they addressed it as the Deity 

By whom we live, omnipresent, that knoweth all thoughts and giveth all gifts, 
without whom man is as nothing; invisible, incorporeal, of perfection and purity, 
under whose wings we find repose and a sure defence. 


And, in naming their children, says Lord Kingsborough : 
They used a ceremony strongly resembling the Christian rite of baptism, the lips 
and bosom of the infant being sprinkled with water, and the Lord implored to 
wash away the sin that was given to it before the foundation of the world, so that the 
child might be born anew. Their laws were perfect; justice, contentment and peace 
reigned in the kingdom of these benighted heathens, 

when the brigands and the Jesuits of Cortez landed at Tabasco. A 
century of murders, robbery, and forced conversion, were sufficient to 
transform this quiet, inoffensive and wise people into what they are 
now. They have fully benefited by dogmatic Christianity. And he, 
who ever went to Mexico, knows what that means. The country is 
full of bloodthirsty Christian fanatics, thieves, rogues, drunkards, 
debauchees, murderers, and the greatest liars the world has ever pro- 
duced! Peace and glory to your ashes, O Cortez and Torquemada! 
In this case at least, will you never be permitted to boast of the en- 
lightenment your Christianity lias poured out on the poor, and once 
virtuous heathens! 


The ruins of Central America are no less imposing. Massively 
built, with walls of a great thickness, they are usually marked by 
broad stairways leading to the principal entrance. When composed of 
several stories, each successive story is usually smaller than that below 
it, giving the structure the appearance of a pyramid of several stages. 
The front walls, either made of stone or stuccoed, are covered with 
elaborately carved, symbolical figures; and the interior divided into 
corridors and dark chambers, with arched ceilings, the roofs supported 
by overlapping courses of stones, 

Constituting a pointed arch, corresponding in type with the earliest monuments 
of the Old World. 

Within several chambers at Palenque, tablets, covered with sculp- 
tures and hieroglyphics of fine design and artistic execution, were dis- 
covered by Stephens. In Honduras, at Copan, a whole city — temples, 
houses and grand monoliths intricately carved — was unearthed in an 
old forest by Catherwood and Stephens. The sculpture and general 
style of Copan are unique, and no such style or even anything approach- 
ing it has been found anywhere else, except at Quirigua and in the 
islands of L,ake Nicaragua. No one can decipher the weird hiero- 
glyphical inscriptions on the altars and monoliths. With the excep- 
tion of a few works of uncut stone, 


To Copan we may safely assign an antiquity higher than to any of the other 
monuments of Central America with which we are acquainted, 
says the New American Cyclopaedia. At the period of the Spanish 
conquest Copan was already a forgotten ruin, concerning which only 
the vaguest traditions existed. 

No less extraordinary are the remains of the different epochs in 
Peru. The ruins of the temple of the Sun at Cuzco are yet imposing, 
notwithstanding that the depredatory hand of the Vandal Spaniard 
passed heavily over it. If we may believe the narratives of the con- 
querors themselves, they found it on their arrival, a kind of fairy-tale 
castle. With its enormous circular stone wall completely encompass- 
ing the principal temple, chapels and buildings, it is situated in the 
very heart of the city, and even its remains justly provoke the admira- 
tion of the traveller. 

Aqueducts opened within the sacred enclosure; and within it were gardens and 
walks among shrubs and floiuers of gold and silver, made in imitation of the produc- 
tions of nature. It was attended by 4,000 priests. The ground for 200 paces around 
the temple was considered hoi}', and no one was allowed to pass within this 
boundary but with naked feet.* 

Besides this great temple, there were 300 other inferior temples at 
Cuzco. Next to the latter in beauty was the celebrated temple of 
Pachacamac. Still another great temple of the Sun is mentioned by 
Humboldt; and, 

At the base of the hill of Cannar was formerly a famous shrine of the Sun, con- 
sisting of the universal symbol of that luminary, formed by nature upon the face 
of a great rock. 

Roman tells us 

That the temples of Peru were built upon high ground or the top of the hills, 
and were surrounded by three and four circular embankments of earth, one within 
the other. 

Other remains seen by myself— especially mounds — are surrounded 
by two, three and four circles of stones. Near the town of Cayambe, 
on the very spot on which Ulloa saw and described an ancient Peru- 
vian temple, "perfectly circular in form and open at the top," there are 
several such cromlechs. Quoting from an article in the Madras Times 
of 1876, Mr. J. H. Rivett-Carnac gives, in his Archaeological Notes, the 
following information upon some curious mounds in the neighbour- 
hood of Bangalore:f 

La Vega. 
+ "On Ancient Sculpturing- on Rocks in Kuniaon, India, similar to those found on Monoliths and 
Rocks in Europe." By J. H. Rivett-Carnac, Bengal Civil Service, CLE., F.S.A., M.R.A.S., F.G.S., etc. 


Near the village there are at least one hundred cromlechs plainly to be seen. 
These cromlechs are surrounded by circles of stones, some of them with concentric 
circles three and four deep. One very remarkable in appearance has four circles 
of large stones around it, and is called by the natives "Pandavara Gudi" or the 
temple of the Pandus. This is supposed to be the first instance where the natives 
popularly imagine a structure of this kind to have been the temple of a bygone, if 
not of a mythical, race. Many of these structures have a triple circle, some a 
double, and a few single circles of stone round them. 

Ill the thirty-fifth degree of latitude, the Arizona Indians in North 
America have their rude altars to this day, surrounded by precise! v 
such circles, and their sacred spring, discovered by Major Alfred R. 
Calhoun, F.G.S., of the United States Army Survey Commission, is 
surrounded with the same symbolical wall of stones as is found in 
Stonehenge and elsewhere. 

By far the most interesting and full account we have read for a long 
time of the Peruvian antiquities is that from the pen of Dr. Heath, 
of Kansas, already mentioned. Condensing the general picture of 
the remains into the limited space of a few pages in a periodical,* he 
yet manages to present a masterly and vivid picture of the wealth of 
these remains. More than one speculator has grown rich in a few 
days through his desecrations of the "huacas." The remains of count- 
less generations of unknown races who had slept there undisturbed — 
who knows for how many ages? — are now left by the sacrilegious 
treasure-hunter to crumble into dust under the tropical sun. Dr. 
Heath's conclusions, more startling, perchance, than his discoveries, 
are worthy of being recorded. We will repeat in brief his descrip- 

In the Jeguatepegue valley in Peru in io° 24' S. latitude, four miles north of the 
port of Pacasmayo, is the Jeguatepegue river. Near it. beside the southern shore, 
is an elevated platform "one-fourth of a mile square and forty feet high, all of 
adobes, or sun-burnt bricks. A wall of fifty feet in width connects it with another." 
150 feet high, 200 feet across the top, and 500 at the base, nearly square. This 
latter was built in sections of rooms, ten feet square at the base, six feet at the top 
and about eight feet high. All of this same class of mounds — temples to worship 
the sun, or fortresses, as they may be — have on the northerly side an incline for an 
entrance. Treasure-seekers have cut into this one about half-way, and it is said 
150,000 dollars' worth of gold and silver ornaments were found. 

Here many thousands of men were buried, and beside the skeletons 
were found in abundance ornaments of gold, silver, copper, coral 
beads, etc. 

* See Kansas City Review of Science and Industry, November, 


On the north side of the river are the extensive ruins of a walled city, two miles 
wide by six long. . . . Follow the river to the mountains. All along you pass 
ruin after ruin and huaca after huaca (burial places). 

At Tolon there is another ruined city. Five miles further up the 


There is an isolated boulder of granite, four and six feet in its diameters, covered 
with hieroglyphics; fourteen miles further, a point of mountain at the junction of 
two ravines is covered to a height of more than fifty feet with the same class of 
hieroglyphics — birds, fishes, snakes, cats, monkeys, men, sun, moon, and many odd 
and now unintelligible forms. The rock on which these are cut is a silicated sand- 
stone, and many of the lines are an eighth of an inch deep. In one large stone 
there are three holes, twenty to thirty inches deep, six inches in diameter at the 
orifice and two at the apex. ... At Anchi, on the Rimac river, upon the face 
of a perpendicular wall 200 feet above the river-bed, there are two hieroglyphics, 
representing an imperfect B and a perfect D. In a crevice below them, near the 
river, were found buried 25,000 dollars' worth of gold and silver. When the Incas 
learned of the murder of their chief, what did they do with the gold they were 
bringing for his ransom ? Rumour says they buried it. . . . May not these 
markings at Yonan tell something, since they are on the road and near to the Incal 
city ? 

The above was published in November, 1878; when in October, 1877, 
in Isis Unveiled (vol. i. p. 595), I gave a legend which, from circum- 
stances too long to explain, I hold to be perfectly trustworthy, relating 
to these same buried treasures for the Inca's ransom, a journal more 
satirical than polite classed it with the tales of Baron Munchausen. 
The secret was revealed to me by a Peruvian. At Arica, going from 
Lima, there stands an enormous rock, which tradition points to as the 
tomb of the Incas. As the last rays of the setting sun strike the face 
of the rock one can see curious hieroglyphics inscribed upon it. These 
characters form one of the land-marks that show how to get at the 
immense treasures buried in subterranean corridors. The details are 
given in his, and I will not repeat them. Strong corroborative evi- 
dence is now found in more than one recent scientific work, and the 
statement may be less pooh-poohed now than it was then. Some miles 
beyond Yonan, on a ridge of a mountain 700 feet above the river, are 
the walls of another city. Six and twelve miles further are extensive 
walls and terraces; seventy-eight miles from the coast "you zig-zag up 
the mountain side 7,000 feet, then descend 2,000" to arrive at Coxa- 
molca, the city where, unto this day, stands the house in which 
Atahualpa, the unfortunate Inca, was held prisoner by the treacherous 
Pizarro. It is the house which the Inca "promised to fill with gold 


as high as he could reach in exchange for his liberty" in 1532; he did 
fill it with 17,500,000 dollars' worth of gold, and so kept his promise. 
But Pizarro, the swineherd of Spain and the worthy acolyte of the 
priest Hernando de Lugues, murdered him, notwithstanding his pledge 
of honour. Three miles from this town 

There is a wall of unknown make, cemented; the cement is harder than stone 
itself. ... At Chepen there is a mountain with a wall twenty feet high, the 
summit being almost entirely artificial. Fifty miles south of Pacaomayo, between 
the seaport of Huanchaco and Truxillo, are the ruins of Chan-Chan, the capital 
city of the Chimoa kingdom. . . . The road from the port to the city crosses 
these ruins, entering by a causeway about four feet from the ground, and leading 
from one great mass of ruins to another; beneath this is a tunnel. 

Be they forts, castles, palaces, or burial mounds called "huacas," all 
hear the name "huaca." Hours of wandering on horseback among 
these ruins give only a confused idea of them, nor can any explorers 
there point out what were palaces and what were not. . . . The 
highest enclosures must have cost an immense amount of labour. 

To give an idea of the wealth found in the country by the Spaniards 
we copy the following, taken from the records of the municipality in 
the city of Truxillo by Dr. Heath. It is a copy of the accounts that 
are found in the Book of Fifths of the Treasury in the years 1577 and 
1578, of the treasures found in the "Huaca of Toledo" by one man 

Firstly. — In Truxillo, Peru, on July 22nd, 1577, Don Gracia Gutierrez de Toledo 
presented himself at the royal treasury, to give into the royal chest a fifth. He 
brought a bar of gold 19 carats ley and weighing 2,400 Spanish dollars, of which 
the fifth being 708 dollars, together with \\ per cent, to the chief assayer, were 
deposited in the royal box. 

Secondly.— -On December 12th he presented himself with five bars of gold, 15 
and 19 carats ley, weighing 8,918 dollars. 

Thirdly.— On January 7th, 1578, he came with his fifth of Large bars and plates of 
gold, 115 in number, 15 to 20 carats ley, weighing 153,280 dollars. 

Fourthly.— On March Sth he brought sixteen bars of gold. 14 to 21 carats ley, 
weighing 21,118 dollars. 

Fifthly.— On April 5th he brought different ornaments of gold, being little belts 
of gold and patterns of corn-heads and other things, of 14 carats ley, weighing 
6,272 dollars. 

Sixthly.— On April 20th he brought three small bars of gold, 20 carats ley, weigh- 
ing 4,170 dollars. 

Seventhly.— On July 12th he came with forty-seven bars, 14 to 21 carat- ley, 
weighing 77,312 dollars. 


Eighthly. — On the same day he came back with another portion of gold and 
ornaments of corn-heads and pieces of effigies of animals, weighing 4,704 dollars. 

The sum of these eight bringings amounted to 278,174 gold dollars or Spanish 
ounces. Multiplied by sixteen gives 4,450,784 silver dollars. Deducting the royal 
fifth— 985,95375 dollars — left 3,464,830-25 dollars as Toledo's portion! Even after 
this great haul, effigies of different animals of gold were found from time to time. 
Mantles also adorned with square pieces of gold, as well as robes made with 
feathers of divers colours, were dug up. There is a tradition that in the huaca 
of Toledo there were two treasures, known as the great and little fish. The smaller 
only has been found. Between Huacho and Supe, the latter being 120 miles north 
of Callao, near a point called Atahuangri, there are two enormous mounds resem- 
bling the Campana and San Miguel, of the Huatica valley, soon to be described. 
About five miles from Patavilca (south, and near Supe) is a place called "Para- 
mouga," or the fortress. The ruins of a fortress of great extent are here visible; 
the walls are of tempered clay, about six feet thick. The principal building stood 
on an eminence, but the walls were continued to the foot of it, like regular circum- 
vallations; the ascent winding round the hill like a labyrinth, having many angles 
which probably served as outworks to defend the place. In this neighbourhood 
much treasure has been excavated, all of which must have been concealed by the 
pre-historic Indians, as we have no evidence of the Iucas ever having occupied this 
part of Peru after they had subdued it. 

Not far from Ancon, on a circuit of six to eight miles, 
On every side you see skulls, legs, arms and whole skeletons lying about in the 
sand. ... At Parmayo, fourteen miles further down north, 

and on the sea-shore is another great burving-ground. Thousands 
of skeletons lie about, thrown out by the treasure- seekers. It has 
more than half a mile of cutting through it. . . . It extends up 
the face of the hill from the sea-shore to the height of about 800 feet. 
. . . Whence come these hundreds and thousands of peoples who 
are buried at Ancon? Time and time again the archaeologist finds 
himself face to face with such questions, to which he can only shrug 
his shoulders and say with the natives — "Quien Sabe?" — who knows? 
Dr. Hutchinson writes, under date of October 30th, 1872, in the 
South Pacific Times: 

I am come to the conclusion that Chancay is a great city of the dead, or has 
been an immense ossuary of Peru; for go where you will, on a mountain top or 
level plain, or by the sea-side, you meet at every turn skulls and bones of all 

In the Huatica valley, which is an extensive ruin, there are seven- 
teen mounds, called "huacas," although, remarks the writer, "they 
present more the form of fortresses or castles than burying-grounds." 
A triple wall surrounded the city. These walls are often three yards 



in thickness and from fifteen to twenty feet high. To the cast of these 
is the enormous mound called Huaca of Pando . . . and the great 
ruins of fortresses, which natives entitle Huaca of the Bell. La Cam- 
pana, the Huacas of Pando, consisting of a series of large and small 
mounds, and extending over a stretch of ground incalculable without 
being measured, form a colossal accumulation. The "Bell" mound is 
no feet high. Towards Callao there is an oblong plateau (278 yards 
long and ninety-six across), having on the top eight gradations of 
declivity, each from one to two yards lower than its neighbour, and 
making a total in length and breadth of about 278 yards, according 
to the calculation of J. B. Steere, of Michigan, Professor of Natural 

The square plateau first mentioned, at the base consists of two divi- 
sions . . each measuring a perfect square forty-seven to forty- 
eight yards; the two joining form the square of ninety-six yards. 
Besides this, is another square of forty-seven to forty-eight yards. On 
the top, returning again, we find the same symmetry of measurement 
in the multiples of twelve, nearly all the ruins in this valley being the 
same, which is a fact for the curious. Was it by accident or design? 
. . . The mound is a truncated pyramidal form, and is calculated to 
contain a mass of 14,641,820 cubit feet of material. . . . The "For- 
tress" is a huge structure, eight}- feet high and 150 yards in measure- 
ment. Many large square rooms show their outlines on the top, but 
are filled with earth. Who brought this earth here, and with what 
object was the filling-up accomplished? The work of obliterating all 
space in these rooms with loose earth must have been almost as great 
as the construction of the building itself. . . . Two miles south 
we find another similar structure, more spacious and with a greater 
number of apartments. . . . It is nearly 170 yards in length, and 
168 in breadth, and ninety-eight feet high. The whole of these ruins 
. . . were enclosed by high walls of adobes — large mud bricks — 
some from one to two yards in thickness, length and breadth. The 
"huaca" of the "Bell" contains about 20,220,840 cubic feet of material, 
while that of "San Miguel" has 25,650,800. These two buildings, with 
their terraces, parapets and bastions, with a large number of rooms and 
squares, are now filled up with earth ! 

Near "Mira Flores" is Ocheran — the largest mound in the Huatica 
valley. It has ninety-five feet of elevation and a width of fifty-five 
yards on the summit, and a total length of 428 yards, or [,284 feet, 


another multiple of twelve. It is enclosed by a double wall, 816 yards 
in length by 700 across, thus enclosing 117 acres. Between Ocharas 
and the ocean are from fifteen to twenty masses of ruins like those 
already described. 

The Inca temple of the Sun, like the temple of Cholula on the plains 
of Mexico, is a sort of vast terraced pyramid of earth. It is from 200 
to 300 feet high, and forms a semi-lunar shape that is beyond half a 
mile in extent. Its top measures about ten acres square. Many of 
the walls are washed over with red paint, and are as fresh and bright 
as when centuries ago it was first put on. ... In the Canete valley, 
opposite the Chincha Guano Islands, are extensive ruins, described by 
Squier. From the hill called "Hill of Gold," copper and silver pins 
were taken like those used by ladies to pin their shawls; also tweezers 
for pulling out the hair of the eyebrows, eyelids and whiskers, as well 
as silver cups. 

Dr. Heath observes: 

The coast of Peru extends from Tumbey to the river Loa, a distance of 1,233 
miles. Scattered over this whole extent there are thousands of ruins besides those 
just mentioned, while nearly every hill and spire of the mountains have upon 
them or about them some relic of the past; and in every ravine, from the coast to 
the central plateau, there are ruins of walls, cities, fortresses, burial-vaults and 
miles and miles of terraces and water-courses. Across the plateau and down the 
eastern slope of the Andes to the home of the wild Indian, and into the unknown 
impenetrable forest, still you find them. In the mountains, however, where showers 
of rain and snow with the terrific thunder and lightning are nearly constant a 
number of months each year, the ruins are different. Of granite, porphyritic lime 
and silicated sandstone, these massive, colossal, cyclopean structures have resisted 
the disintegration of time, geological transformations, earthquakes, and the sacri- 
legious, destructive hand of the warrior and treasure-seeker. The masonry com- 
posing these walls, temples, houses, towers, fortresses, or sepulchres, is uncemented, 
held in place by the incline of the walls from the perpendicular, and adaptation of 
each stone to the place destined for it, the stones having from six to many sides, 
each dressed and smoothed to fit another or others with such exactness that the 
blade of a small penknife cannot be inserted in any of the seams thus formed, 
whether in the central parts entirely hidden or on the internal or external surfaces. 
These stones, selected with no reference to uniformity in shape or size, vary from 
one-half cubic foot to 1,500 cubic feet solid contents, and if, in the many, many 
millions of stones you could find one that would fit in the place of another, it 
would be purely accidental. In "Triumph Street," in the city of Cuzco, in apart 
of the wall of the ancient house of the Virgins of the Sun, is a very large stone, 
known as "the stone of the twelve corners," since it is joined with those that 
surround it, by twelve faces, each having a different angle. Besides these twelve 


faces it has its internal one, and no one knows how many it has on its back that is 
hidden in the masonry. In the wall in the centre of the Cuzco fortress there are 
stones thirteen feet high, fifteen feet long, and eight feet thick, and all have been 
quarried miles away. Near this city there is an oblong smooth boulder, eight* ■ 11 
feet in its longer axis and twelve feet in its lesser. On one side arc- large niches cut 
out, in which a man can stand, and, by swaying his body, cause tin- stone to rock. 
These niches apparently were made solely for this purpose. One <>f tin- most 
wonderful and extensive of these works in stone is that called ( Hlantay-Tambo, 
a ruin situated thirty miles north of Cuzco, in a narrow ravine on the- hank of the 
river Urubamba. It consists of a fortress constructed on the top of a sloping, 
craggy eminence. Extending from it to the plain below is a stony stairway. At 
the top of the stairway are six large slabs, twelve feet high, live feet wide and three 
feet thick, side by side, having between them and on top narrow strips of stone 
about six inches wide, frames, as it were, to the slabs, and all being of dressed 
stone. At the bottom of the hill, part of which was made by hand, and at the foot 
of the stairs, a stone wall ten feet wide and twelve feet high extends some distance 
into the plain. In it are many niches all facing the south. 

The ruins in the islands in Lake Titicaca, wdiere Incal history begins, have often 
been described. 

At Tiahuanaco, a few miles south of the lake, there are stones in the form of 
columns, partly dressed, placed in line at certain distances from each other, and 
having an elevation above the ground of from eighteen to twenty feet. In this 
same line there is a monolithic doorway, now broken, ten feet high by thirteen 
wide. The space cut out for the door is seven feet four inches high by three feet 
two inches wide. The whole face of the stone above the door is engraved. Another, 
similar, but smaller, lies on the ground beside it. These stones are of hard por- 
phyry, and differ geologically from the surrounding rock; hence we infer they 
must have been brought from elsewhere. 

At "Chavin de Huanta." a town in the province of Huari, there are some ruins 
worthy of note. The entrance to them is by an alley-way, six feet wide and nine 
feet high, roofed over with sandstone partly dressed, of more than twelve feet in 
length. On each side there are rooms twelve feet wide, roofed over by large pieces 
of sandstone, one and a half feet thick and from six to nine feet wide. The walls 
of the rooms are six feet thick, and have some loopholes in them, probably for 
ventilation. In the floor of this passage there is a very narrow entrance to a sub- 
terranean passage that passes beneath the river to the other side. From this many 
huacas, stone drinking vessels, instruments of copper and silver, and a skeleton of 
an Indian sitting were taken. The greater part of these ruins were situated over 
aqueducts. The bridge to these castles is made of three stones of dressed granite, 
twenty-four feet long, two feet wide by one and a half thick. Some of the granite 
stones are covered with hieroglyphics. 

At Corralones, twenty-four miles from Arequipa, there are hieroglyphics engraved 
on masses of granite, which appear as if painted with chalk. There are figures of 
men, llamas, circles, parallelograms, letters like an A' and an 0, and even remains 
of a system of astronomv. 


At Huaytar, in the province of Castro Virreina, there is an edifice with the same 

At Nazca, in the province of lea, there are some wonderful ruins of aqueducts, 
four to five feet high and three feet wide, very straight, double-walled, of unfinished 
stone, flagged on top. 

At Ouelap, not far from Chochapayas, there have lately been examined some 
extensive works; a wall of dressed stone, 560 feet wide, 3,660 long, and 150 feet 
high. The lower part is solid. Another wall above this has 600 feet length, 500 
width, and the same elevation of 150 feet. There are niches over both walls three 
feet long, one and a half wide and thick, containing the remains of the ancient 
inhabitants, some naked, others enveloped in shawls of cotton of distinct colours 
and well embroidered. . . . 

Following the entrances of the second and highest wall, there are other sepul- 
chres like small ovens, six feet high and twenty-four in circumference; in their 
base are flags, upon which some cadavers reposed. On the north side there is on 
the perpendicular rocky side of the mountain a brick wall, having small windows, 
600 feet from the bottom. A T o reason for this, nor means of approach, can now be 
found. The skilful construction of utensils of gold and silver that were found 
here, the ingenuity and solidity of this gigantic work of dressed stone, make it 
also probably of pre-Incal date. . . Estimating 500 ravines in the 1,200 miles 

of Peru, and ten miles of terraces of fifty tiers to each ravine, which would only be 
five miles of twenty-five ti^rs to each side, we have 250,000 miles of stone wall, 
averaging three to four feet high — enough to encircle this globe ten times. Sur- 
prising as these estimates may seem, I am full}- convinced that an actual measure- 
ment would more than double them, for these ravines vary from thirty to 100 miles 
in length. While at San Mateo, a town in the valley of the river Rimac, where 
the mountains rise to a height of 1,500 or 2,000 feet above the river bed, I counted 
200 tiers, none of which were less than four and man}- more than six miles long. 

Dr. Heath then very pertinently enquires: 

Who then were these people, cutting through sixty miles of granite; transplant- 
ing blocks of hard porphyry, of Eaalbec dimensions, miles from the place where 
quarried, across valleys thousands of feet deep, over mountains, along plains, 
leaving no trace of how or where they carried them ; people (said to be) ignorant 
of the use of wood, with the feeble llama their only beast of burden; who after 
having brought these stones fitted them into other stones with mosaic precision ; 
terracing thousands of miles of mountain side; building hills of adobes and earth, 
and huge cities; leaving works in clay, stone, copper, silver, gold and embroidery, 
many of which cannot be duplicated at the present age; people apparently vying 
with Dives in riches, Hercules in strength and energy, and the ant and bee in 

Callao was submerged in 1746 and entirely destroyed. Lima was 
ruined in 1678; in 1746 only twenty houses out of 3,000 were left stand- 
ing, while the ancient cities in the Huatica and L,urin valleys still 
remain in a comparatively good state of preservation. San Miguel de 


Puiro, founded by Pizarro in 1531, was entirely destroyed in 1855, 
while the old ruins near by suffered little. Arequipo was thrown down 
in August, 1868, but the ruins near show no change. In engineering, 
at least, the present may learn from the past. We hope to show that it 
may in most things else. 


To refer all these cyclopean constructions, then, to the days of the 
Iucas, is, as we have shown before, yet more inconsistent, and seems 
even a greater fallacy than that too common one of attributing every 
rock-temple of India to Buddhist excavators. As many authorities 
show — Dr. Heath among the rest — Incal history only dates back to the 
eleventh century a.d., and the period, from that time to the Conquest, 
is utterly insufficient to account for such grandiose and innumerable 
works; nor do the Spanish historians know much of them. Nor again, 
must we forget that the temples of heathendom were odious to the 
narrow bigotry of the Roman Catholic fanatics of those days; and that, 
whenever the chance offered, they either converted them into Christian 
churches or razed them to the ground. Another strong objection to 
the idea lies in the fact that the Incas were destitute of a written 
language, and that these antique relics of bygone ages are covered 
with hieroglyphics. 

It is granted that the temple of the .Sun, at Cuzco, was of Incal make, but that 
is the latest of the five styles of architecture visible in the Andes, each probably 
representing an age of human progress. 

The hieroglyphics of Peru and Central America have been, are, and 
will most probably remain for ever as dead a letter to our cryptographers 
as they were to the Incas. The latter like the barbarous ancient Chinese 
and Mexicans kept their records by means of a quipus (or knot in Peru- 
vian)— a cord, several feet long, composed of different coloured threads, 
from which a multicoloured fringe was suspended; each colour denoting 
a sensible object, and knots serving as ciphers. Says Prescott: 

The mysterious science of the quipus supplied the Peruvians with the means "I" 
communicating their ideas to one another, and of transmitting them t<> future 
generations. . . . 

Each locality, however, had its own method of interpreting these 
elaborate records, hence a quipus was only intelligible in the place 
where it was kept. Dr. Heath writes: 

Many quipus have been taken from the graves, in an excellent state of preservation 
in colour and texture, but the lips that alone could pronounce the verbal key have 


for ever ceased their function, and the relic-seeker has failed to note the exact spot 
where each was found, so that the records, which con id tell so much we want to 
know, will remain sealed till all is revealed at the last day . . . 

— if anything at all is revealed then. But what is certainly as good as a 
revelation now, while our brains are in function, and our mind is acutely 
alive to some preeminently suggestive facts, is the incessant discoveries 
of archaeology, geology, ethnology and other sciences. It is the almost 
irrepressible conviction that man having existed upon earth millions 
of years — for all we know — the theory of cycles is the only plausible 
theory to solve the great problems of humanity, the rise and fall of 
numberless nations and races, and the ethnological differences among 
the latter. This difference — which, though as marked as the one 
between a handsome and intellectual European and a Digger Indian, 
yet makes the ignorant shudder and raise a great outcry at the thought 
of destroying the imaginary "great gulf between man and brute crea- 
tion" — might thus be well accounted for. The Digger Indian, then, in 
company with many other savage, though to him superior, nations, 
which are evidently dying out to afford room to men and races of a 
superior kind, would have to be regarded in the same light as so many 
dying-out species of animals — and no more. Who can tell but that 
the forefathers of this flat-headed savage — forefathers who may have 
lived and prospered amidst the highest civilization before the glacial 
period — were in arts and sciences far beyond those of the present 
civilization, though, it may be, in quite another direction? That man 
has lived in America, at least 50,000 years ago, is now proved scientifi- 
cally and remains a fact beyond doubt or cavil. In a lecture delivered 
at Manchester, in June last, by Mr. H. A. Allbutt, Honorary Fellow of 
the Royal Anthropological Society, the lecturer stated the following : 

Near New Orleans, in one part of the modern delta, in excavating for gas works, 
a series of beds, almost wholly made up of vegetable matter, were dug through. 
In the excavation, at a depth of sixteen feet from the upper surface, and beneath 
four buried forests, one on the top of the other, the labourers discovered some 
charcoal and the skeleton of a man, the cranium of which was reported to be that 
of the type of the aboriginal Red Indian race. To this skeleton Dr. Dowler ascribed 
an antiquity of some 50,000 years. 

The irresistible cycle in the course of time brought down the 
descendants of the contemporaries of the late inhabitant of this 
skeleton, and intellectually as well as physically they have degenerated, 
as the present elephant has degenerated from his proud and monstrous 
forefather, the antediluvian Sivatherium, whose fossil remains are still 


found in the Himalayas, or, as the lizaxd has from the plesiosaurus. 

Why should man be the only species upon earth which lias never 
changed in form since the first day of his appearance upon this planet? 
The fancied superiority of every generation of mankind over the pre- 
ceding one is not yet so well established as to make it impossible for us 
to learn some day that, as in everything else, the theory is a two-sided 
question — incessant progress on the one side, and an as irresistible 
decadence on the other, of the cycle. 

Even as regards knowledge and power, the advance, which some claim as a 
characteristic feature of humanity, is effected by exceptional individuals who arise- 
in certain races under favourable circumstances only, and is quite compatible with 
long intervals of immobility, and even of decline, ' 

says a modern man of science. This point is corroborated by what we 
see in the modern degenerate descendants of the great and powerful 
races of ancient America — the Peruvians and the Mexicans. 

How changed! How fallen from their greatness must have been the Incas, when 
a little band of 160 men could penetrate, uninjured, to their mountain homes, 
murder their worshipped kings and thousands of their warriors, and carry away 
their riches, and that, too, in a country where a few men with stones could resist 
an army successfully! Who could recognize in the present Inichua and Aymara 
Indians their noble ancestry 3 . . . 

Thus writes Dr. Heath, and his conviction that America was once 
united with Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, seems as firm as our 
own. There must exist geological and physical cycles as well as 
intellectual and spiritual; globes and planets, as well as races and 
nations, are born to grow, progress, decline and — die. Great nations 
split, scatter into small tribes, lose all remembrance of their integrity, 
gradually fall into their primitive state and — disappear, one after the 
other, from the face of the earth. So do great continents. Ceylon 
must have formed, once upon a time, part of the Indian continent. So, 
to all appearance, was Spain once joined to Africa, the narrow channel 
between Gibraltar and the latter continent having been once upon a 
time dry land. Gibraltar is full of large apes of the same kind as those 
which are found in great numbers on the opposite side of the African 
coast, whereas nowhere in Spain is either a monkey or ape to be found 
at any place whatever. And the caves of Gibraltar are also full of 
gigantic human bones, supporting the theory that they belong to an 
antediluvian race of men. The same Dr. Heath mentions the town 

'Journal of Science for February, art. "The Alleged Distinction between Man and I 


of Eten in io° S. latitude of America, in which the inhabitants of an 
unknown tribe of men speak a monosyllabic language that imported 
Chinese labourers understood from the first day of their arrival. They 
have their own laws, customs and dress, neither holding nor permitting 
communication with the outside world. No one can tell whence the}' 
came or when ; whether it was before or after the Spanish Conquest. 
They are a living mystery to all who chance to visit them. 

With such facts before us to puzzle exact science herself, and show 
our entire ignorance of the past, verily, we recognize no right of any 
man on earth — whether in geography or ethnology, in exact or abstract 
sciences — to tell his neighbour, "So far shalt thou go, and no further!" 

But recognizing our debt of gratitude to Dr. Heath of Kansas, whose 
able and interesting paper has furnished us with such a number of 
facts and suggested such possibilities, we can do no better than quote 
his concluding reflections: 

Thirteen thousand years ago, Vega or a Lyrcz, was the north polar star; since then 
how many changes has she seen in our planet! How many nations and races 
spring into life, rise to their zenith of splendour, and then deca} - ; and when we 
shall have been gone thirteen thousand years, and once more she resumes her post 
at the north, completing a "Platonic or Great Year," think you that those who 
shall fill our places on the earth at that time will be more conversant with our 
history than we are of those that have passed? Verily might we exclaim, in terms 
almost psalmistic, "Great God, Creator and Director of the Universe, what is man 
that Thou art mindful of him!" 

Amen ! ought to be the response of such as yet believe in a God who 
is "the Creator and Director of the Universe." 



I beg to present my warmest thanks to Mr. William Simpson, 
F.R.G.S., the distinguished artist and antiquary, who last year ex- 
tended his researches to Peshawur valley and elsewhere, and thereby 
so enriched the Lahore Museum, for kindly presenting me with a copy 
of his ver}' valuable paper, "Buddhist Architecture: Jellalabad," en- 
riched with seven illustrations. Our thanks are none the less due to 
Mr. Simpson, that in one point, and a very important one too, it is 
impossible for either our Society or myself, to agree with his conclu- 
sions. The feature of Mr. Simpson's interesting and learned paper is, 
to quote the words of Mr. James Fergusson, F.R.G.S., Past Vice-Presi- 
dent, that every "form of art was imported into India, and nothing ever 
came out of it" (the italics are mine). Mr. Simpson builds his hasty 
conclusions upon the fact that most of the capitals of the pillars and 
pilasters in the ruins of the valley of the Kabul river, are Corinthian, 
and "the bases and mouldings generally are such as are most unmis- 
takably derived from the far west," and finally that a "number of 
bell-shaped capitals, surmounted by double animals which look like a 
reminiscence of the pillars of Persepolis," are also found in the caves 
of Karli, and other caves of India, as well as in the valley of Peshawur. 

I will not limit my protest in this case to merely pointing to the 
words of Mr. Fergusson, who cautiously remarks that "the similarity 
is, however, so remote that it is hardly sufficient to sustain Mr. Simp- 
son's assertion that every form of art was imported into India, and 
nothing ever came out of it." But I will humbly suggest that in .1 
country like India, whose past history is a total blank, every attempt 
to decide the age of the monuments, or whether their style was original 
or borrowed, is now pretty much as open a question as it was a century 
ago. A new discovery may any day annihilate the theory of the day 



before. Lack of space forbids me to enter upon the discussion more 
elaborately. Therefore, I will permit myself only to say that Mr. 
Simpson's present "assertion" remains as hypothetical as before. 
Otherwise, we would have to decide a priori, whether India or Greece 
borrowed from the other in other important cases now pending. 
Besides "Corinthian pillars" and "double animals," once so dear to 
the Persepolitans, we have, here, the solar race of the Hari-Kula (Sun 
family) whose deeds must have been a copy of, or the model for, the 
labours and very name of the Grecian Sun-God Hercules. No less is 
it a matter for the consideration of philologists and archaeologists 
which of the two — the Egyptian Sphinx, called by them Harimukh, 
or Har-M-Kho (the Sun in his resting-place) or the lofty Himalaya 
peak, also called Harimukh (the mouth of the Sun) in the range to the 
north of Cashmir, owes its name to the other. 



[Vol. II. No. r, October, 18S0.] 

If Science is right, then the future of our Solar System — hence of 
what we call the universe — offers but little of hope or consolation for 
our descendants. Two of her votaries, Messrs. Thompson and Klausius, 
have simultaneously reached the conclusive opinion that the universe 
is doomed at some future, and not very remote period, to destruction. 
Such is also the theory of several other astronomers, one and all 
describing the gradual cooling off and the final dissolution of our 
planet in terms nearly identical with those used by the greatest Hindu 
and even some of the Greek sages. One might almost think he were 
reading over again Manu, Kanada, Kapila and others. The following 
are some of the newest theories of our Western pandits. 

All the ponderable masses which must have separated themselves at the evolution 
or first appearance upon the earth from the primeval mass of matter, will reunite 
themselves again into one gigantic and boundless heavenly body, every visible 
movement in this mass will be arrested, and alone the molecular motion will remain, 
which will equally spread throughout this ponderous body under the form of heat. 

say our scientists. Kanada, the atomist, the old Hindu sage, said as 
much. He remarks: 

In creation two atoms begin to be agitated, till at length they become separated 
from their former union and then unite, by which a new substance i> formed, 
which possesses the qualities of the things from which it arose. 

R-ohschmidt, the Austrian professor of mathematics and astronomy, 
and the English astronomer, Proctor, treating of the same subject, have 
both arrived at another and different view of the cause from which will 
come the future dissolution of the world. They attribute it to the 
gradual and slow cooling of the sun, which must result in the final 
extinction of this planet some day. All the planets will then, following 


the law of gravitation, tumble in upon the inanimate cold luminary, 
and coalesce with it into one huge body. If this thing should happen, 
says the German savant, and such a period begins, then it is impossible 
that it should last for ever, for such a state would not be one of abso- 
lute equilibrium. During a wonderful period of time, the sun, gradu- 
ally hardening, will go on absorbing the radiant heat from the universal 
space, and concentrating it around itself. 

But let us listen to Professor Tay upon this question. According to 
his opinion, the total cooling off of our planet will bring with it un- 
avoidable death. Animal and vegetable life which will have, previous 
to that event, shifted its quarters from the northern and already frozen 
regions to the equator, will then finally and for ever disappear from the 
surface of the globe, without leaving behind any trace of its existence. 
The earth will be wrapped in dense cold and darkness; the now cease- 
less atmospheric motion will have changed into complete rest and 
silence; the last clouds will have poured upon the earth their last rain; 
the course of the streams and rivers bereaved of their vivifier and 
motor — the sun — will be arrested, and the seas frozen into a mass. • 
Our globe will have no other light than the occasional glimmering of 
the shooting stars, which will not yet have ceased to penetrate into and 
become inflamed in our atmosphere. Perhaps, too, the sun under the 
influence of the cataclysm of the solar mass, will yet exhibit for a time 
some signs of vitality, and heat and light will reenter it for a short 
space of time; but the reaction will not fail to reassert itself, for the 
sun, powerless and dying, will again become extinct, and this time for 
ever. Such a change was remarked and actually took place in the now 
extinct constellations of the Swan, the Crown, and the Ophiucus in 
the first period of their cooling And the same fate will reach all the 
other planets, which, meanwhile, obeying the law of inertia, will go on 
revolving around the extinct sun. , . . Further on the learned 
astronomer depicts the last year of the expiring globe in the very words 
of a Hindu philosopher describing the Pralaya: 

Cold and death blow from the northern pole, and spread along the entire face of 
the earth, nine-tenths of which have ahead}- expired. Life, hardly perceptible, is 
all concentrated at her heart — the equator — in the few remaining regions which 
are yet inhabited, and where reigns a complete confusion of tongues and nationali- 
ties. The surviving representatives of the human race are soon joined by the 
largest specimens of animals which are also driven there by the intense cold. 
One object, one aspiration, huddles together all this varied mass of beings — the 
struggle for life. Groups of animals without distinction of kinds crowd together 


into one herd in the hope of finding some heat in the rapidly freezing bodii 
snakes threaten no more with their poisonous fangs, nor lions and tigers with tin ir 
sharp claws; all that each of them begs for is life — nothing but life, lift- to the last 
minute! At last comes that last day, and the pale and expiring rays of the sun 
illuminate the following gloomy scene: the frozen bodies of the last of the human 
family, dead from cold and lack of air, on the shores of a likewise rapidly freezing 
motionless sea. 

The words may not be precisely those of the learned professor, for 
they are utilized from notes taken in a foreign language, but the ideas 
are literally his. The picture is indeed gloomy, but the ideas, based 
upon scientific mathematical deductions, are not new, and we have read 
in a Hindu author of the pre-Christian era a description of the same 
catastrophe as given by Manu in a language far superior to this one. 
The general reader is invited to compare, and the Hindu reader to see 
in this one more corroboration of the great wisdom and knowledge of 
his forefathers, who anticipated the modern researches in almost every- 

Strange noises are heard proceeding from every point. . . . These are the 
precursors of the Night of Brahma. Dusk rises at the horizon and the sun passes 
away. . . . Gradually light pales, heat diminishes, uninhabitable spots multiply 
On the earth, the air becomes more and more rarefied, the springs of waters dry up, 
the great rivers see their waves exhausted, the ocean shows its sand)- bottom, anil 
plants die. . . . Life and motion lose their force; planets can hardly gravitate 
in space; they are extinguished one by one. . . . Surya flickers and goes out; 
matter falls into dissolution, and Brahma, (the creative force) merges back into 
Dyaus, the unrevealed, and his task being accomplished he falls asleep. . . . 
Night for the universe has come! (By VamadEva.) 



[Vol. II. Nos. 2, 4 and 7, November, 1880, and January and April, 1SS1.] 

[Yoga, or human hibernation, being only prolonged sleep, it is interesting to 
notice that there are instances on record of individuals sleeping for weeks, months, 
nay, even for years. ] 

We have ourself known a Russian lady — Mme. Kashereninoff — whose 
sister, then an unmarried lady about twenty-seven, slept regularly for 
six weeks at a time. After that period she would awake, weak but not 
very exhausted, and ask for some milk, her habitual food. At the end 
of a fortnight, sometimes three weeks, she would begin to show un- 
mistakable signs of somnolence, and at the end of a month fall into 
her trance again. Thus it lasted for seven years, she being considered 
by the populace a great saint. It w T as in 1841. What became of her 
after that we are unable to say. 

[Yoga has been differently defined by different authorities. Some have defined 
it as mental abstraction; some have defined it as silent prayer; some have defined 
it as the union of the inspired to the expired air; some have defined it as the union 
of mind to soul. But by Yoga, I understand the art of suspending the respiration 
and circulation. Yoga is chiefly divided into Raja Yoga and Hatha Yoga.], 

Here the author falls into an unmistakable error He confounds the 
Raja with the Hatha Yogins, whereas the former have nothing to do 
with the physical training of the Hatha nor with any other of the in- 
numerable sects who have now adopted the name and emblems of 
Yogins. Wilson, in his Essays on the Religio?is of the Hindus, falls into 
the same confusion, and knows very little, if anything at all of the true 
Raja Yogins, who have no more to do with Shiva than with Vishnu, or 
any other deity. Alone, the most learned among the Shaukara's Dandins 
of Northern India, especially those who are settled in Rajputana, would 
be able — if they were willing — to give some correct notions about the 

* The paragraphs in small type within square brackets are summarized from an article in The 
Theosophisl to which H. P. B. attached notes. We insert them to render the comments intelligible. 


Raja Yogins; for these men, who have adopted the philosophical tenets 
of Shankara's Vedanta are, moreover, profoundly versed in the doctrines 
of the Tantras— termed devilish by those who either do not understand 
them or reject their tenets with some preconceived object. If in speaking 
of the Dandins we have used above the phrase beginning with the con- 
junction "if," it is because we happen to know how carefully the secrets 
of the real Yogins— nay even their existence itself— are denied within this 
fraternity. It is comparatively but lately that the usual excuse adopted 
by them, in support of which they bring their strongest authorities, 
who affirm that the Yoga state is unattainable in the present or Kali 
age, has been set afloat by them. "From the unsteadiness of the 
senses, the prevalence of sin in the Kali, and the shortness of life, how 
can exaltation by Yoga be obtained?" enquires Kashikhanda. But this 
declaration can be refuted in two words and with their own weapons. 
The duration of the present Kali Yuga is 432,000 years, of which 4,979 
have already expired. It is at the very beginning of Kali Yuga that 
Krishna and Arjuna were born. It is since Vishnu's eighth incarna- 
tion that the country had all its historical Yogins, for as to the prehis- 
toric ones, or those claimed as such, we do not find ourselves entitled 
to force them upon public notice. Are we then to understand that 
none of these numerous saints, philosophers and ascetics from Krishna 
down to the late Vishnu Brahmachari Bawa of Bombay had ever 
reached the "exaltation by Yoga"? To repeat this assertion is simply 
suicidal to their own interests. 

It is not that among the Hatha Yogins — men who at times had 
reached through a physical and well-organized system of training the 
highest powers as "wonder workers" — there has never been a man 
worthy of being considered as a true Yogin. What we say is simply 
this: the Raja Yogin trains but his mental and intellectual powers, 
leaving the physical alone and making but little of the exercise of 
phenomena simply of a physical character. Hence it is the rarest 
thing in the world to find a real Yogin boasting of being one, or willing 
to exhibit such powers — though he does acquire them as well as the one 
practising Hatha Yoga, but through another and Jar more intellectual 
system. Generally they deny these powers point-blank, for reasons but 
too well grounded. The former need not even belong to any apparent 
order of ascetics, and are oftener known as private individuals than 
members of a religious fraternity, nor need they necessarily be Hindus. 
Kabir, who was one of them, fulminates against most of the later sects 


of mendicants who occasionally become warriors when not simply 
brigands, and sketches them with a masterly hand : 

I never beheld such a Yogin , O brother! who, forgetting his doctrine, roves about 
in negligence. He follows professedly the faith of Mahadeva and calls himself an 
eminent teacher: the scene of his abstraction is the fair or the market. Maya, is 
the mistress of the false saint. When did Dattatrava demolish a dwelling? When 
did Sukhadeva collect an armed host? When did Narada mount a matchlock? 
When did Vyasadeva blow a trumpet? etc. 

Therefore, whenever the author — Dr. Paul — speaks of Raja Yoga, 
the Hatha simply is to be understood. v 

[Minute directions then follow for the practising of postures, the repetition of 
Mantras; and Yamyasana and Pranayama, or the inspiration and suspension of the 

All the above are, as we said before, the practices of Hatha Yoga, 
and conducive but to the production of physical phenomena affording 
very rarely flashes of real clairvoyance, unless it be a kind of feverish 
state of artificial ecstasy. If we publish them, it is merely for the 
great value we set upon this information as liable to afford a glimpse 
of truth to sceptics, by showing them that even in the case of the 
Hatha Yogins, the cause for the production of the phenomena as well 
as the results obtained can be all explained scientifically; and that 
therefore there is no need to either reject the phenomena a priori and 
without investigation or to attribute them to any but natural, though 
occult powers, more or less latent in every man and woman. 

[Dr. Paul next describes the eight varieties. Kumbhaka, which Yogins practise 
with a view to study the nature of the Soul. Khechari Mudra is the lengthening 
the tongue by splitting and then "milking" it until it is long enough to be turned 
back into the gullet, and, with its point, to press the epiglottis and so close the 
rima glottidis, which confines the inspired air within the system, the lungs and 
intestines being completely filled. By this practice he becomes insensible to every- 
thing that is external. "Without it," says Dr. Paul, "he can never be absorbed into 

As the science and study of Yoga Philosophy pertains to Buddhist, 
L,amaic and other religions supposed to be atheistical, i.e., rejecting 
belief in a personal deity, and as a Vedantin would by no means use 
such an expression, we must understand the term "absorption into 
God" in the sense of union with the Universal Soul, or Parama- 
Purusha — the primal or One Spirit. 

[Directions are then given for the practice of Miilabandha, a process by which 
youth is said to be restored to an old man.] 


This posture will hardly have the desired effect unless its philosophy 
is well understood and it is practised from youth. The appearance of 
old age, when the skin has wrinkled and the tissues have relaxed, can 
be restored but temporarily, and with the help of Maya. The Mula- 
bandha is simply a process to throw oneself into sleep (thus gaining 
the regular hours of sleep). 

[Ujjayi Kumbhaka. Assume the posture called Sukhasana, render the two nos- 
trils free by the first Kumbhaka, inspire through both nostrils, fill tin- stomach and 
throat with the inspired air, and then expire slowly through the left nostril. He 
that practises this Kumbhaka cures all diseases dependent upon deficient inhala- 
tion of oxygen.] 

And if anyone feels inclined to sneer at the novel remedy employed 
by the Yogins to cure "coryza," "worms" and other diseases— which is 
only a certain mode of inhalation — his attention is invited to the fact 
that these illiterate and superstitious ascetics seem to have only antici- 
pated the discoveries of modern science. One of the latest is reported 
in the last number of the New York Medical Record (Sept., 1888), under 
the title of "A New and Curious Plan for Deadening Pain." The 
experiments were made by Dr Bonwill, a well-known physician of 
Philadelphia, in 1872, and have been since successfully applied as an 
anaesthetic. We quote it from the Dubuque Daily Telegraph : 

In 1875 Dr. A. Hewson made a favourable report of his experience with it to the 
International Medical Congress, and at a recent meeting of the Philadelphia County 
Medical Society several papers were read on the subject, and much discussion 
followed. In using the method, the operator merely requests the patient to breathe 
rapidly, making about one hundred respirations per minute, ending in rapid puffing 
expirations. At the end of from two to five minutes an entire or partial absence of 
pain results for half a minute or more, and during that time teeth may be drawn or 
incisions made. The patient maybe in any position, but that recommended is lying 
on the side, and it is generally best to throw a handkerchief over the face to prevent 
distraction of the patient's attention. When the rapid breathing is first begun tin- 
patient may feel some exhilaration, following this comes a sensation of fulness in 
the head or dizziness. The face is at first flushed and afterwards pale or even 
bluish, the heart beats rather feebly and fast, but the sense of touch is not affected, 
nor is consciousness lost. The effect is produced more readily in females than in 
males, and in middle-aged more easily than in the old; children can hardly be 
made to breathe properly. It is denied that there is any possible danger. Several 
minor operations, other than dental ones, have been successfully made by this 
method, and it is claimed that in dentistry, surgery and obstetrics it may supplant 
the common anaesthetics. Dr. Hewson's explanation is that rapid breathing dimin- 
ishes the oxygenation of the blood, and that the resultant excess of carbonic acid 
temporarily poisons the nerve centres. Dr. Bonwill gives several explanations, one 


being the specific effect of carbonic acid, another the diversion of will-force pro- 
duced by rapid voluntary muscular action, and, third, the damming up of the 
blood in the brain, due to the excessive amount of air passing into the lungs. The 
Record is not satisfied with the theories, but considers it well proved that pain may 
be deadened by the method, which it commends to the profession for the experi- 
mental determination of its precise value. 

And if it be well proved that about one hundred respirations per 
minute ending in rapid puffing expirations can successfully deaden 
pain, then why should not a varied mode of inhaling oxygen be pro- 
ductive of other and still more extraordinary results, yet unknown to 
Science, but awaiting her future discoveries? 

[After speaking at some length concerning Samadhi and of the various branches 
of Raja Yoga, Dr. Paul's remarks call forth the following note.] 

This system, evolved by long ages of practice until it was brought to 
bear the above-described results, was not practised in India alone in 
the days of antiquity. The greatest philosophers of all countries 
sought to acquire these powers, and, certainly, behind the external 
ridiculous postures of the Yogins of to-day, lies concealed the profound 
wisdom of the archaic ages, one that included among other things a 
perfect knowledge of what are now termed physiology and psychology. 
Ammonius Saccas, Porphyry^, Proclus and others practised it in Egypt; 
and Greece and Rome did not hesitate at all in their time of philo- 
sophical glory to follow suit. Pythagoras speaks of the celestial music 
of the spheres that one hears in hours of ecstasy, Zeno finds a wise 
man who, having conquered all passions, feels happiness and emotion 
but in the midst of torture. Plato advocates the man of meditation 
and likens his powers to those of the divinity, and we see the Chris- 
tian ascetics themselves through a mere life of contemplation and 
self-torture acquire powers of levitation or aethrobacy, which, though 
attributed to the miraculous intervention of a personal God, are never- 
theless real and the result of physiological changes in the human 
body Says Patanjali: 

The Yogin will hear celestial sounds, the songs and conversations of celestial 
choirs. He will have the perception of their touch in their passage through the air, 

which, translated into more sober language, means that the ascetic is 
enabled to see with the spiritual eye in the Astral Light, hear with the 
spiritual ear subjective sounds inaudible to others, and live and feel, so 
to say, in the Unseen Universe. 

The Yogin is able to enter a dead or a living body by the path of the senses, and in 
this body to act as though it were his own. 


The "path of the senses"; our physical senses, supposed to originate 
in the astral body, the ethereal counterpart of man, or the jivatma, 
which dies with the body; the senses are here meant in their spiritual 
sense — volition of the higher principle in man. The true Raja Yogin is 
a stoic; and Kapila, who deals but with the latter — utterly rejecting 
the claim of the Hatha Yogins to converse during Samadhi with the 
Infinite Ishvara — describes their state in the following words: 

To a Yogin in whose mind all things are identified as spirit, what is infatuation? 
What is grief? He sees all things as one; he is destitute of affections; he- neither 
rejoices in good nor is offended with evil. ... A wise man sees so many false 
things in those which are called true, so much miser}' in wdiat is called happiness, 
that he turns away with disgust. . . . He who in the body has obtained libera- 
tion (from the tyranny of the senses) is of no caste, of no sect, of no order, attends 
to no duties, adheres to no shastras, to no formulas, to no works of merit; he is 
beyond the reach of speech; he remains at a distance from all secular concerns; he 
has renounced the love and the knowledge of all sensible objects; he flatters none, 
he honours none, he is not worshipped, he worships none; whether he practises 
and follows the customs of his fellow-men or not this is his character. 

And a selfish and a disgustingly misanthropical one this character 
would be were it that for which the True Adept was striving. But it 
must not be understood literally, and we shall have something more 
to say upon the subject in the following article, which will conclude 
Dr. Paul's essay on Yoga Philosophy. 

[One of the practices followed by the Hatha Yogin is called Dhauti. This is the 
act of swallowing a bandage of linen moistened with water, measuring three inches 
in breadth and fifteen cubits in length. This is rather a difficult process. But very 
few fakirs can practise it.] 

And a happy thing it is that the process is so difficult, as we do 
not know of anything half so disgusting. No true Raja Yogin will ever 
condescend to practise it. Besides, as every physician can easily tell, 
the process, if repeated, becomes a very dangerous one for the experi- 
menter. There are other "processes" still more hideous, and as use- 
less for psychological purposes. 

[Nor does his hair grow during the time he remains buried.] 
In reference to the arrest of the growth of the hair, some adepts in 
the secret science claim to know more than this. They prove their 
ability to completely suspend the functions of life each night during 
the hours intended for sleep. Life then is, so to say, held in total 
abeyance. The wear and tear of the inner as well as the outer organ- 


ism being thus artificially arrested, and there being no possibility of 
waste, these men accumulate as much vital energy for use in their 
waking state as they would have lost in sleep, during which state, if 
natural, the process of energy and expense of force is still mechanically 
going on in the human body. In the induced state described, as in 
that of a deep swoon, the brain no more dreams than if it were dead. 
One century, if passed, would appear no longer than one second, for 
all perception of time is lost for him who is subjected to it. Nor do 
the hairs or nails grow under such circumstances, though they do for a 
certain time in a body actually dead, which proves, if anything can, 
that the atoms and tissues of the physical body are held under con- 
ditions quite different from those of the state we call death. For, to 
use a physiological paradox, life in a dead animal organism is even 
more intensely active than it ever is in a living one, which, as we 
see, does not hold good in the case under notice. Though the 
average sceptic may regard this statement as sheer nonsense, those 
who have experienced this in themselves know it as an undoubted 

Two certain fakirs from Nepaul once agreed to try the experiment. 
One of them, previous to attempting the hibernation, underwent all 
the ceremonies of preparation as described by Dr. Paul, and took all 
the necessary precautious; the other simply threw himself by a process 
known to himself and others into that temporary state of complete 
paralysis which imposes no limits of time, may last months as well as 
hours, and which is known in certain Tibetan lamaseries as ... . 
The result was that while the hair, beard and nails of the former had 
grown at the end of six weeks, though feebly yet perceptibly, the cells 
of the latter had remained as closed and inactive as if he had been 
transformed for that lapse of time into a marble statue. Not having 
personally seen either of these men, or the experiment, we can vouch 
only in a general way for the possibility of the phenomenon, not for 
the details of this peculiar case, though we would as soon doubt our 
existence as the truthfulness of those from whom we have the story. 
We only hope that among the sceptical and materialistic who may 
scoff, we may not find either people who nevertheless accept with a 
firm and pious conviction the story of the resurrection of the half- 
decayed L,azarus and other like miracles, or yet those who while ready 
to crush a Theosophist for his beliefs, would never dare to scoff at those 
of a Christian. 


[A Yogin acquires an increase of specific gravity by swallowing great draughts of 
the air, and compressing the same within the system.] 

This is what, three years ago, in describing the phenomenon in 
/sis Unveiled., we called "interpolarization." ( v See vol. i. op. cit., pp. 
23 and 24.) 

[On the powers resulting from Prapti, it is said . . .] 

As a deaf and dumb person learns to understand the exact meaning 
of what is said simply from the motion of the lips and face of the 
speaker, and without understanding any language phonetically, other 
and extra senses can be developed in the soul as well as in the physical 
mind of a mute, a sixth and equally phenomenal sense is developed as 
the result of practice, which supplies for him the lack of the other 

Magnetic and mesmeric aura, or "fluid," can be generated and inten- 
sified in every man to an almost miraculous extent, unless he be by 
nature utterly passive. 

We have known of such a faculty (divining the thoughts of others) 
to exist in individuals who were far from being adepts or Yogins, and 
had never heard of the latter It can be easily developed by intense 
will, perseverance and practice, especially in persons who are born 
with natural analytical powers, intuitive perception, and a certain apt- 
ness for observation and penetration. These may, if they only preserve 
perfect purity, develop the faculty of divining people's thoughts to a 
degree which seems almost supernatural. Some very clever but quite 
uneducated detectives in London and Paris, develop it in themselves to 
an almost faultless perfection. It can also be helped by mathematical 
study and practice. If then such is found to be the case with simple 
individuals, why not in men who have devoted to it a whole life, helped 
on by a study of the accumulated experience of many a generation of 
mystics and under the tuition of real adepts? 

The dual soul is no fancy and may be one day explained in scien- 
tific language, when the psycho-physiological faculties of man shall be 
better studied, when the possibility of many a now-doubted pheno- 
menon is discovered, and when truth will no longer be sacrificed to 
conceit, vanity and routine. Our physical senses have nothing to do 
with the spiritual or psychological faculties. The latter begin their 
action where the former stop, owing to that Chinese wall about the 
soul empire, called matter. 

[Concerning the power called Vashitva, it is observed . . .] 


Perhaps the Hobilgans and the Shaberons of Tibet might have 
something to tell us if they chose. The great secret which enwraps 
the mystery of the reincarnations of their great Dalay-Lamas, their 
supreme Hobilgans, and others who as well as the former are supposed, 
a few days after their enlightened souls have laid aside their mortal 
clothing, to reincarnate themselves in young, and, previously to that, 
very weak bodies of children, has never yet been told. These children, 
who are invariably on the point of death when designated to have their 
bodies become the tabernacles of the souls of deceased Buddhas, recover 
immediately after the ceremony, and, barring accident, live long years, 
exhibiting trait for trait the same peculiarities of temper, characteristics 
and predilections as the dead man's. Vashitva is also said to be the 
power of taming living creatures and of making them obedient to one's 
own wishes and orders. 

[Pythagoras, who visited India, is said to have tamed by the influence of his will 
or word a furious bear, prevented an ox from eating beans, and stopped an eagle in 
its flight.] 

These are mesmeric feats and it is only by (in)exact scientists that 

mesmerism is denied in our days. It is largely treated of in /sis, and 

the power of Pythagoras is explained in vol. i. p. 283, ct seq. 

[Ishatwa, or divine power. When the passions are restrained from their desires, 
the mind becomes tranquil and the soul is awakened.] 

In which case it means that the soul, being liberated from the yoke 
of the body through certain practices, discipline and purity of life, 
during the lifetime of the latter, acquires powers identical with its 
primitive element, the universal soul. It has overpowered its material 
custodian; the terrestrial gross appetites and passions of the latter, 
from being its despotic masters, have become its slaves, hence the soul 
has become free henceforth to exercise its transcendental powers, un- 
trammelled by any fetters. 

[With regard to restoring the dead to life.] 

Life once extinct can never be recalled, but another life and another 
soul can sometimes reanimate the abandoned frame, if we may believe 
learned men who were never known to utter an untruth. 

Wherever the word "soul" has occurred in the course of the above 
comments, the reader must bear in mind that we do not use it in the 
sense of an immortal principle in man, but in that of the group of 
personal qualities which are but a congeries of material particles whose 
term of survival beyond the physical, or material, personality is for a 


longer or shorter period, proportionately with the grossness or refine- 
ment of the individual. Various correspondents have asked whether 
the Siddhis of Yoga can only be acquired by the rude training of 
Hatha Yoga; and The Journal of Science (London) assuming that they 
cannot, launched out in the violent expressions which were recently 
quoted in these pages. But the fact is that there is another, an un- 
objectionable and rational process, the particulars of which cannot be 
given to the idle enquirer, and which must not even be touched upon 
at the latter end of a commentary like the present one. The subject 
niav be reverted to at a more favourable time. 


[Vol, II. No. 4, January, 1881.] 

The dial of time marks off another of the world's hours. . . . 
And as the old year passes into eternity, like a rain-drop falling into 
the ocean, its vacant place on the calendar is occupied by a successor 
which, if one may credit the ancient prophetic warnings of Mother 
Shipton and other seers, is to bring woe and disaster to some portions 
of the world. Let it go with its joys and triumphs, its badness and 
bitterness, if it but leave behind for our instruction the memory of 
our experience and the lesson of our mistakes. Wise is he who lets 
"the dead past bury its dead," and turns with courage to meet the 
fresher duties of the New Year; only the weak and foolish bemoan the 
irrevocable. It will be well to take a brief retrospect of those incidents 
of the year 1880 (a.d.) which possess an interest for members of the 
Theosophical Society. The more so since, in consequence of the 
absence from Bombay of the President and Corresponding Secretary, 
the anniversary day of the Society was not publicly celebrated. 

It will not be necessary to enter minutely into those details of ad- 
ministration which, however important in themselves as links, weak or 
strong, in the general chain of progress, and however they may have 
taxed the patience, nerves, or other resources of the chief officers, do 
not at all interest the public. It is not so much explanation as restdts 
that are demanded, and these in our case abound. Even our worst 
enemy would be forced to admit, were he to look closely into our 
transactions, that the Society is immeasurably stronger morally, 
numerically, and as regards a capacity for future usefulness, than it 
was a year ago. Its name has become most widely known; its fellow- 
ship has been enriched by the accession of some very distinguished 
men; it has planted new branch societies in India, Ceylon and else- 
where; applications are now pending for the organization of still other 
branches, in California, India, Australia and elsewhere; its Magazine 


has successfully entered the second volume; its local issues with the 
government of India have been finally and creditably settled; a mis- 
chievous attempt by a handful of malcontents at Bombay to disrupt it 
has miserably failed * It has made official alliances with the Sanskrit 
Samaj of Benares, that is to say. with the most distinguished body of 
orthodox Sanskrit pandits in the world, with the other Sabha of which 
Pandit Rama Misra Shastri is manager, and with the Hindu Sabha, of 
Cochin State; while, at the same time, strengthening its fraternal 


relations with the Arya Samajes of the Punjab and Xorth-Western Pro- 
vinces. Besides all this, we can point with joy and pride to the results 
of the late mission to Ceylon, where, within the space of fifty-seven 
days, seven branch societies of Buddhist laymen, one Ecclesiastical 
Council of Buddhist priests, and one scientific society were organized, 
and some hundreds of new fellows were added to our list. 

All this work could not be accomplished without great labour, 
mental anxiety and physical discomfort. If to this be added the 
burden of a correspondence with many different countries, and the 
time required for making two journeys to Northern India and one to 
Ceylon, our friends at a distance will see that whatever other blame 
may properly attach to the founders, who have never claimed infalli- 
bility of any sort, that of laziness is assuredly not to be cast in their 
teeth. Nor, when they learn that the work done since leaving America, 
the travelling expenses and the fitting and maintenance of the Head- 
quarters' establishment have cost some Rs. 20,000, while the cash 
receipts of the treasurer (exclusive of those from Ceylon, Rs. 2.440, 
which sum is set aside as a special fund to be used in the interests of 
Buddhism) have been only one thousand two hundred and forty rupees, all 
told, including one donation of Rs. 200 from the universally respected 
Maharani Svarnamayi, and another of Rs. 20 from a well-wisher in 
Bengal, will those who direct the Society's affairs be regarded by them 
as making money out of their offices? And these figures, which may 
most readily be verified, are our only answer to the calumnies which 
have maliciously been circulated by some who did not and others who 
did know the truth. 

The trip to Ceylon occupied twenty-seven days in all, the second one 
to Northern India 125 days. Thus the founders have been absent 

* Secret letters by former members denouncing- its founders, sent to Parisian and other T:: • 
sophists, and pretending- that the Bombay Society was virtually extinct its best members having 
resigned . were sent back to us with new protestations of friendship and loyalty and expressions "I 
scorn for the conspirators. — [Ed. T/ieos.] 


from Bombay on duty twenty-nine weeks out of the fifty-two; their 
travels extending through twenty-five degrees of latitude, from Lahore 
at the extreme north of India to Matara, the southernmost point of 
ancient Lanka. Each of the Indian Presidencies has contributed a 
quota of new members; and at the former capital of the late lion- 
hearted Runjeet Singh, a branch was recently organized by Sikhs and 
Punjabis under the title of the " Punjab Theosophical Society." During 
the twelvemonth, President Olcott delivered seventy-nine lectures and 
addresses, a majority of which were interpreted in the Hindi, Urdu, 
Guzerati and Singhalese languages. 

Many misconceptions prevail as to the nature and objects of the 
Theosophical Society. Some — Sir Richard Temple in the number — 
fancy it is a religious sect; many believe it is composed of atheists; 
a third party are convinced that its sole object is the study of occult 
science and the initiation of green hands into the Sacred Mysteries. 
If we have had one we certainly have had a hundred intimations from 
strangers that they were ready to join at once if they could be sure 
that they would shortly be endowed with Siddhis, or the power to work 
occult phenomena. The beginning of a new year is a suitable time to 
make one more attempt — we wish it could be the last — to set these 
errors right. So, then, let us again say: (i) The Theosophical Society 
teaches no new religion, aims to destroy no old one, promulgates no 
creed of its own, follows no religious leader, and distinctly andemphati- 
cally is not a sect nor ever was one. It admits worthy people of any 
religion to membership on condition of mutual tolerance and mutual 
help to discover truth. The founders have never consented to be taken 
as religious leaders, they repudiate any such idea, and they have not 
taken and will not take disciples. (2) The Society is not composed of 
atheists, nor is it any more conducted in the interest of atheism than 
in that of deism or polytheism. It has members of almost every reli- 
gion, and is on equally friendly terms with each and all. (3) Not a 
majority, nor even a respectable minority numerically speaking, of its 
fellows are students of occult science or ever expect to become adepts. 
All who care for the information have been told what sacrifices are 
necessary in order to gain the higher knowledge, and few are in a posi- 
tion to make one tenth of them. He who joins our Society gains no 
Siddhis by that act, nor is there any certainty that he will even see any 
phenomena, let alone meet with an adept. Some have enjoyed both 
these opportunities, and so the possibility of the phenomena and the 


existence of Siddhis do not rest upon our unverified assertions. 
Those who have seen things have perhaps been allowed to do so on 
account of some personal merit detected by those who showed them 
the Siddhis, or for other reasons known to themselves and over which 
we have no control. 

For thousands of years these things have, whether rightly or wrongly, 
been guarded as sacred mysteries, and Asiatics at least need not be 
reminded that often even after months or years of the most faithful and 
assiduous personal service, the disciples of a Yogi have not been shown 
"miracles" or endowed with powers. What folly, therefore, to imagine 
that by entering any society one might make a short cut to adeptship! 
The weary traveller along a strange road is grateful even to find a 
guide-post that shows him his way to his place of destination. Our 
Society, if it does naught else, performs this kindly office for the 
searcher after truth. And it is much. 

Before closing, one word must be said in correction of an unfortunate 
impression that has got abroad. Because our pamphlet of rules men- 
tions a relationship between our Society and certain proficients in 
Occult Science, or "Mahatmas," many persons fancy that these great 
men are personally engaged in the practical direction of its affairs; 
and that in such a case, being primarily responsible for the several 
mistakes that have occurred in the admission of unworthy members 
and in other matters, they can neither be so wise, so prudent, nor so 
far-seeing as is claimed for them. It is also imagined that the Presi- 
dent and Corresponding Secretary (especially the latter) are, if not 
actually Yogis and Mahatmas themselves, at least persons of ascetic 
habits, who assume superior moral excellence. Neither of these sup- 
positions is correct, and both are positively absurd. The administra- 
tion of the Society is, unless in exceptionally important crises, left to 
the recognized officials, and they are wholly responsible for all the 
errors that are made. Many may doubtless have been made, and our 
management may be very faulty, but the wonder is that no more have 
occurred, if the multiplicity of duties necessarily imposed upon the 
two chief officers and the world-wide range of activity be taken into 
account. Colonel Olcott and Madame Blavatsky do not pretend to 
asceticism, nor would it be possible for them to practise it while in the 
thick of the struggle to win a permanent foothold for the Society in the 
face of every possible obstacle that a selfish, sensuality-loving world 
puts in the way. What either of them has heretofore been, or either 


or both may in the future become, is quite a different affair. At present 
they only claim to be trying honestly and earnestly, so far as their 
natural infirmities of character permit, to enforce by example and 
precept the ideas which are embodied in the purposes and rules of the 
Theosophical Society. Once or twice ill-wishers have publicly taunted 
us with not having given practical proofs of our alleged affection for 
India. Our final vindication must be left to posterity, which always 
renders that justice that the present too often denies. But even now — 
if we may judge by the tone of our correspondence, as well as by the 
enthusiasm which has everywhere greeted us in the course of our 
journeyings — a palpably good effect has been produced by our appeals 
to the educated Indian public. The moral regeneration of India and 
the revival of her ancient spiritual glories must be exclusively the work 
of her own sons. All we can do is to apply the match to the train, to 
fan the smouldering embers into a genial warmth, and this we are 
trying to do. One step in the right direction, it will doubtless be 
conceded, is the alliance effected with the Benares pandits. 




[Vol. II. No. 4 (Supplement), January, 1SS1.] 

That cause must be weak and desperate, indeed, that has to resort 
to the arts of the slanderer to prop it up and injure its victims. And it 
is truly lamentable to see people adopting these tactics against the 
Theosophical Society and its founders. Soon after we reached India 
we were obliged to begin legal proceedings against a missionary organ, 
to compel its editor to apologize for some base slanders he had indulged 
in; and readers of The Theosopliist are aware of the conduct of the 
Christian party in Ceylon, and their utter discomfiture at Panadure. 
However great our efforts to avoid any conflict with them, some strange 
fatality seems to be for ever urging these good people to adopt ques- 
tionable measures to hasten their own ultimate ruin. Our Society has 
been their favourite mark. The most recent shot was fired at Benares 
by a well-known convert to the Christian faith, who, unable to lay 
hold upon anything disreputable in our Indian career, did his best to 
injure us in a certain important direction by sneeringly suggesting to a 
very high personage that Colonel Olcott was a man of no position in 
his own country, and had doubtless come to India as an adventurer, to 
make money out of the people. Happily his venom was poured into 
unsympathetic ears. Yet, as he is a man of a certain influence, and 
others of our friends have also been similarly approached by him and 
other enemies of ours, such calumnies as these cannot be well over- 
looked. We are quite aware that a document of such a nature as the 
present, if launched on the public without a word of explanation, 
would give rise to criticism, and perhaps be thought in bad taste, unli 
very serious and important reasons can be shown for its appearance. 
Such reasons unquestionably exist, even were no account to be taken 
of the malicious plot of our Benares opponent. When, in addition to 
this, we reflect that ever since we landed in this country, impelled by 
motives, sincere and honest — though, perhaps, as we now find it our- 


selves, too enthusiastic, too unusual in foreigners to be readily believed 
in by natives without some more substantial proof than our simple 
word — we have been surrounded by more enemies and opponents than 
by friends and sympathizers; and that we two are strangers to rulers 
as well as the ruled, we believe that no available proof should be with- 
held that will show that, at least, we are honest and peaceful people, if 
not actually that which we know ourselves to be — most sincere friends 
of India and her sons. Our personal honour, as well as the honour of 
the whole Society, is at stake at the present moment. "Tell me what 
your friends are and I will tell you what you are," is a wise saying. 
A man at Colonel Olcott's time of life is not likely to so change in 
character as to abandon his country, where he has such an honourable 
past and where his income was so large as it was, to come to India 
and turn "adventurer." Therefore, we have concluded, with Colonel 
Olcott's permission, to give the following details. They are but a 
few out of many now lying before us, that show his honourable, 
efficient and faithful career, both as a member of the Bar, a private 
gentleman, and a public official, from the year 1853 down to the very 
moment of his departure from the United States for India. As Colonel 
Olcott is not a man to sound his own praises, the writer, his colleague, 
may state that his name has been widely known in America for nearly 
thirty 3^ears as a promoter of various public reforms. It was he who 
founded (in 1856) the first scientific agricultural school there upon the 
Swiss model; it was he again who aided in introducing a new crop now 
universally cultivated; addressed three state legislatures upon the sub- 
ject by invitation; wrote three works upon agriculture, of which one 
passed through seven editions, and was introduced into the school 
libraries; was offered by Government a botanical mission to Caffraria, 
and, later, the Chief Commissionership of Agriculture, and was offered 
by M. Evangelides, of Greece, the Professorship of Agriculture in the 
University of Athens. He was at one time Agricultural Editor of 
Horace Greeley's great journal, The Tribune, and also American Corre- 
spondent of The Mark Lane Express. For his public services in con- 
nection with agricultural reform he was voted two medals of honour 
by the National (U. S.) Agricultural Society, and a silver goblet by the 
American Institute. 

The breaking out of the fearful civil war in America called every 
man to serve his country. Colonel Olcott after passing through four 
battles and one siege (the capture of Fort Macon), and after recovering 


from a severe illness contracted in the field, was offered by the late 
Secretary of War the highly honourable and responsible appointment 
of Special Commissioner of the War Department; and two years la! 
was, at the request of the late Secretary of the Navy, ordered on 
special duty in connection with that branch of the service, additional 
to his regular duties in the War Department. His services were most 
conspicuous, as his papers — which include a complimentary report to 
the U.S. Senate, by the Secretary of the Navy — prove. 

At the close of the war the national army of one million men was 
quietly disbanded, and was reabsorbed back into the nation as though 
nothing had happened. Colonel Olcott resumed his profession, and 
was shortly invited to take the secretaryship and practical direction of 
the National Insurance Convention — a conference or league of the 
officials of the various state governments for the purpose of codifying 
and simplifying the laws affecting insurance companies. Accepting, 
he was thus for two } r ears or more in the closest contact with, and the 
trusted adviser of, some of the leading state public functionaries of 
the Union; and a statute drafted by him, in connection with another 
well-known legal gentleman (Mr. Abbott) was passed by ten state 
legislatures and became law. What his public services were in this 
connection, and how he was thanked and honoured for them, may 
readily be seen by consulting the two large volumes of the Conven- 
tion's "Transactions," which are in the Library of the Theosophical 
Society, at Bombay. 

This brings us down to the year 1872. In [876 he was deputed by 
His Honour the Mayor of New 7 York City to collect a public subscrip- 
tion in aid of a charitable object. In 1877 he was one of an Inter- 
national Committee chosen b) r the Italian residents of New York to 
erect a monument to Mazzirii, in Central Park. The same year he was 
Honorary Secretary of a National Committee — one member of which 
was the just elected President of the United States, General Garfield 
— formed to secure a worthy representation of American arts and 
industries at the Paris "Exposition Universelle," of 1S7S. In the 
following year he left New York for India, and just before sailing 
received from the President and Secretary of State a diplomatic pass- 
port, such as is only issued to the most eminent American citizens, 
and circular autograph letters recommending him to the particular 
favour of all U.S. Ministers and Consuls, a- a gentleman who had 
been requested to promote in every practicable and proper way the 


mutual commercial relations of the United States and India. And 
now if the enemies of the Theosophical Society can produce an "ad- 
venturer" with such a record and such testimonials of integrity and 
capacity, by all means let them name their man. 

(Signed) H. P. Blavatsky. 


[Vol. II. No. 5, February, iSSi.] 

A Hindu gentleman of the Madras Presidency propounds a number 
of questions about Occult Science which we answer in these columns, 
as the information is often demanded of us and we can reach all at 
once in this way. 

O. — Do you or Colonel Olcott undertake to teach this wonderful 
Vidya to anyone who may be anxious to learn it? 

A. — No; the correspondent is referred to our January number for 
remarks upon this point. 

O. — Would you like to give proofs of the existence of occult powers 
in man to anyone who may be sceptically inclined, or who may desire 

to have his faith strengthened, as you have given to Mr. and Mrs. 

and the editor of The Amrita Bazar Patrika ? 

A. — We would "like" that everyone should have such proofs who 
needs them, but, as the world is rather full of people — some twenty- 
four crores being in India alone — the thing is impracticable. Still 
such proofs have always been found by those who sought them in 
earnest, from the beginning of time until now. We found them — in 
India. But then we spared neither time nor trouble in journeying 
round the world. 

Q. — Can you give such proofs to one like myself, who is at a great 
distance; or must I come to Bombay? 

A. — Answered above. We would not undertake to do this thing, 
even if we could, for we would be run down with thousands of curiosity- 
seekers, and our life become a burden. 

Q. — Can a married man acquire the Yidya? 

A. — No, not while a G-rihasta. You know the invariable rule was 
that a boy was placed at a tender age under his Guru for this training : 


he stopped with him until he was twenty-five to thirty; then lived as a 
married man fifteen to twenty years; finally retired to the forest to 
resume his spiritual studies. The use of liquors, of beef, and certain 
other meats and certain vegetables, and the relations of marriage, pre- 
vent spiritual development. 

0. — Does God reveal himself by inspiration to a Yogi? 

A. — Ever} 7 man has his own ideas about "God." So far as we have 
learned, the Yogi discovers his God in his inner self, his Atma. When 
he reaches that point he is inspired — by the union of himself with the 
Universal, Divine Principle — Parabrahman. With a personal God — a 
God who thinks, plots, rewards, punishes and repents — we are not 
acquainted. Nor do we think any Yogi ever saw such a one — unless 
it be true, as a missionary affirmed the other day, at the close of Colonel 
Olcott's lecture at Lahore, that Moses, who had murdered a man in 
Egypt, and the adulterous murderer (David), were Yogis! 

O. — If any Adept has power to do anything he likes, as Colonel 
Olcott said in his lecture at Simla,* can he make me, who am hunger- 
ing and thirsting after the Vidya, a thorough Adept like himself? 

A. — Colonel Olcott is no Adept and never boasted of being one. 
Does our friend suppose any Adept ever became such without making 
himself one, without breaking through ever} 7 impediment through 
sheer force of will and soul-power? Such adeptship would be a mere 
farce. "An Adept becomes, he is not made," was the motto of the 
ancient Rosicrucians. 

Q. — How is it that in the presence of such clear proof the most civi- 
lized nations still continue to be sceptical? 

A. — The peoples referred to are Christian, and although Jesus de- 
clared that all who believed in him should have the power to do all 
manner of wonders (see Mark, xxvi. 17, 18), like a Hindu Yogi's, 
Christendom has been waiting in vain some eighteen centuries to see 
them. And now, having become total disbelievers in the possibility of 
such Siddhis, they must come to India to get their proofs, if they care 
for them at all. 

Q. — Why does Colonel Olcott fix the year 1848 as the time from 
which occult phenomena have occurred? 

A. — Our friend should read more carefully, and not put us to the 
trouble to answer questions that are quite useless. What Colonel 
Olcott did say was that modern Spiritualism dates from 1848. 

* Colonel Olcott said nothing of the kind. 


0. — Are there any such mediums in Indians William Eddy, in whose 
presence materialized forms can be seen? 

A. — We do not know, but suspect there are. We heard of a case at 
Calcutta where a dead girl revisited her parents' house in broad day- 
light, and sat and conversed with her mother on various occasions. 
Mediumship can be easily developed anywhere, but we think it a dan- 
gerous thing and decline to give instructions for its development. 
Those who think otherwise can find what they want in any current 
number of the L,ondon Spirittialist, The Medium and Daybreak, the 
Melbourne Harbinger of Light, the American Banner of Light, or any 
other respectable Spiritualistic organ. 

0. — How do these mediums get their powers; by a course of train- 
ing, or as the result of an accident of their constitution? 

A. — Mediums are mainly so from birth; theirs is a peculiar psycho- 
physiological constitution. But some of the most noted mediums of our 
times have been made so by sitting in circles. There is in many persons 
a latent mediumistic faculty, which can be developed by effort and the 
right conditions. The same remark applies to adeptship. We all have 
the latent germs of adeptship in us, but in the case of some individuals 
it is infinitely easier to bring them into activity than in others. 

0. — Colonel Olcott repudiates the idea of spirit agency as necessary 
to account for the production of phenomena, yet I have read that a 
certain scientist sent spirits to visit the planets and report what they 
saw there. 

A. — Perhaps reference is made to Professor William Denton, the 
American geologist, author of that interesting work, The Soul of Things. 
His explorations were made through psychometry, his wife — a very 
intellectual lady though a great sceptic as to spirits — being the psycho- 
meter. Our correspondent should read the book. 

O. — What becomes of the spirits of the departed? 

A. — There is but one "Spirit" — Parabrahnian, or by whatever other 
name one chooses to call the Eternal Principle. The "souls" of the 
departed pass through many other stages of existence after leaving 
this earth-body, just as they were in many others anterior to their birth 
as men and women here. The exact truth about this mystery is known 
only to the highest Adepts; but it maybe said even by the lowest of 
the neophytes that each of us controls his future rebirths, making each 
next succeeding one better or worse according to his present efforts 
and deserts. 


Q. — Is asceticism necessary for Yoga? 

A. — Yoga exacts certain conditions which will be found described at 
p. 47 of our December number. One of these conditions is seclusion 
in a place where the Yogi is free from all impurities — whether physical 
or moral. In short, he must get away from the immoral atmosphere of 
the world. If anyone has by such study gained powers, he cannot 
remain long in the world without losing the greater part of his powers — 
and that the higher and nobler part. So that, if any such person is seen 
for many consecutive years labouring in public, and neither for money 
nor fame, it should be known that he is sacrificing himself for the good 
of his fellow-men. Some day such men seem to suddenly die, and their 
supposed remains are disposed of; but yet they may not be dead. 
"Appearances are deceitful," the proverb says. 


[Vol. II. No. 5, February, 18S1.] 

A good many of the Western papers are terribly excited over a bit 
of news just arrived in Europe from Saigon. The most radical and 
freethinking of them crow over the fact — as well they may in the 
interest of truth — as though the thickest, and hitherto most impene- 
trable of the veils covering Mother Nature's doings had been removed 
for ever, and anthropology had no more secrets to learn. The excite- 
ment is due to a little monster, a seven-year-old boy, now on exhibition 
at Saigon. The child is a native of Cambodia, quite robust and 
healthy, yet exhibiting in his anatomy the most precious and rare of 
physical endowments — a real tail, ten inches long and one and a half 
thick at its root! 

This original little sample of humanity — unique, we believe, of his 
kind — is now made out by the disciples of Darwin and Haeckel to be 
the bona {bony?) fide missing link. L,et us suppose, for argument's 
sake, that the evolutionists (whose colours we certainly wear) are right 
in their hypothesis, and that the cherished theory of having baboons 
for our ancestors turns out true. Will every difficulty in our way be 
then removed? By no means: for then more than ever shall we have to 
try to solve the hitherto insoluble problem, which comes first, the man 
or the ape? It will be the Aristotelean egg and chicken problem of 
creation over again. We can never know the truth until some streak 
of good chance shall enable science Lo witness at different periods and 
under various climates either women giving birth to apes, graced with 
a caudal appendage, or female orang-outangs becoming mothers ol tail- 
less, and, moreover, semi-human children, endowed with a capacity for 
speech at least as great as that of a moderately clever parrot or mini. 

Science is but a broken reed for us in this respect, for science is just 
as perplexed, if not more so, than the rest of us common mortals. So 
little is it able to enlighten us upon the mystery, that the men of m 


learning are those who confuse us the most in some respects. As in 
regard to the heliocentric system, which, after it had been left an un- 
disputed fact for more than three centuries, found in the later part of 
our own a most serious opponent in Dr. Shroepfer, Professor of Astro- 
nomy at the University of Berlin, so the Darwinian theory of the evo- 
lution of man from an anthropoid, has among its learned opponents 
one, who, though an evolutionist himself, is eager to oppose Darwin, 
and seeks to establish a school of his own. 

This new "perfectionist" is a professor in the Hungarian town of 
Fiinfkirchen, who is delivering just now a series of lectures through- 
out Germany. "Man," says he, "whose origin must be placed in the 
Silurian mud, whence he began evoluting from a frog, must necessarily 
some day reevolute into the same animal." So far, well and good. 
But the explanations going to prove this hypothesis, which Professor 
Charles Deezy accepts as a perfectly established fact, are rather too 
vague to enable us to build anything like an impregnable theory upon 
them. He tells us: 

In the primitive days of the first period of evolution there lived a huge, frog- 
like, mammalian animal, inhabiting the seas, but which, being of the amphibious 
kind, lived likewise on land, breathing in the air as easily as it did in water, its 
chief habitat, though, was in the salt sea-water. This frogdike creature is now 
what we call — man (!) and his marine origin is proved by the fact that he cannot live 
without salt. 

There are other signs about man, almost as impressive as the above, 
by which this origin can be established, if we may believe this new 
prophet of science. For instance: 

A well-defined remnant of fins, to be seen between his thumbs and fingers, as 
also his insurmountable tendency towards the element of water; 

a tendency, we remark passim, more noticeable in the Hindu than the 

No less does the Hungarian scientist set himself against Darwin's 
theory of man descending from the ape. According to his new 

It is not the anthropoid which begot man, but the latter who is the progenitor of 
the monkey. The ape is merely a man returned once more to its primitive, savage 

Our Professor's views as to geology and the ultimate destruction of 
our globe, coupled with his notions regarding the future state of man- 
kind, are no less original, and are the very sweetest fruit of his Tree of 


Scientific Knowledge. Provoking though they do general hilarity, 
they are nevertheless given out by the "learned" lecturer in quite a 
serious spirit, and his works are placed among the text-books for 
colleges. If we have to credit his statement, then we must believe 
that "the moon is slowly but surely approaching the earth." The 
result of such an indiscretion on the part of our fair Diana is to be 
most certai?ily the following: 

The sea waves will some day immerse our "lobe and gradually submerge all the 
continents. Then man, unable to live any longer on dry land, will have but to 
return to his primitive form, i.e., he will rebecome an aquatic animal— a man-frog. 

And the life-insurance companies will have to shut up shop and 
become bankrupts — he might have added. Daring speculators are 
advised to take their precautious in advance. 

Having permitted ourselves this bit of irreverence about science — 
those, rather, who abuse their connection with it — we may as well give 
here some of the more acceptable theories respecting the missing link. 
These are by no means so scarce as bigots would like to make us 
believe, Schweinfurth and other great African travellers vouchsafe for 
the truth of these assertions and believe they have found races which 
may, after all, be the missing links — between man and ape. Such are 
the Akkas of Africa; those whom Herodotus calls the Pigmies (ii. 32) 
and the account of whom — notwithstanding it came from the very pen 
of the father of history — was until very recently believed to be erro- 
neous and they themselves myths of a fabled nation. But, since the 
public has had the most trustworthy narratives of European travellers, 
we have learned to know better, and no one any longer thinks that 
Herodotus has confounded in his account men and the cynocephaloid 
apes of Africa. 

We have but to read the description of the orang-outang and of the 
chimpanzee to find that these animals — all but the hairy surface — 
answer in nearly every respect to these Akkas. They are said to have 
large cylindrical heads on a thin neck, and a body about four feet high; 
very long arms, perfectly disproportionate, as they reach far lower than 
their knees; a chest narrow at the shoulders and widening tremen- 
dously toward the stomach, which is always enormous; knees thick. 
and hands of an extraordinary beauty of design (a characteristic of 
monkeys' hands, which, with the exception of their short thuml 
have wonderfully neat and slender fingers tapering to the ends, and 
always prettily shaped finger nails). The Akkas' walk is vacillating, 


which is due to the abnormal size of their stomach, as in the chim- 
panzee and the orang-outang. Their cranium is large, profoundly 
depressed at the root of the nose, and surmounted by a contracting 
forehead sloping directly backward; a projecting mouth with very thin 
lips, and a beardless chin — or rather no chin at all. The hair on their 
heads does not grow, and though less noisy than the orang-outang they 
are enormously so when compared with other men. On account of the 
long grass which often grows twice their own size in the regions they 
inhabit, they are said to jump like so many grasshoppers, to make 
enormous strides, and to have all the outward motions of big anthro- 

Some scientists think — this time with pretty good reason — that the 
Akkas, more even than the Matimbas, of which d'Escayrac de Lauture 
gives such interesting accounts, the Kimosas and the Bushmen, of 
austral Africa, are all remnants of the missing link. 


[Vol. II. No. 5, February, iSSi.] 

The views of medical men in regard to hypnotism or self-mesmeri- 
zation have been greatly strengthened of late. This is evident from 
the report by Dr. Grishhorn, of St. Petersburg, at the latest meeting of 
the Society of the St. Petersburg Physicians, on November i8th (Dec. 
ist), a report which is full of interest. Until recently, the phenomena 
of hypnotism have been only accepted under a quasi protest, while 
mesmerism and clairvoyance were regarded and denounced by the best 
authorities in science as pure charlatanism. The greatest physicians 
remained sceptical as to the reality of the phenomena, until one after 
the other came to learn better; and these were those, of course, who 
had the patience to devote some time and labour to personal experi- 
ment in this direction. Still many have thus acquired the profound 
conviction that there exists in man a faculty — mysterious and yet 
unexplained — which causes him under a certain degree of self- 
concentration to become as rigid as a statue and lose more or less 
his consciousness. That once in such a nervous state, at times his 
spiritual and mental faculties will seem paralyzed, and the mechanical 
action of the body alone remain ; while at others it will be quite the 
contrary; his physical senses becoming benumbed, his mental and 
spiritual faculties will acquire a most wonderful degree of acuteness. 

Last summer Dr. Grishhorn made, with Professor Berger, a series 
of hypnotic experiments and observations in the Breslau Hospital for 
Nervous Diseases. One of the first patients experimented upon was a 
young girl of about twenty, who suffered acutely from rheumatic pain. 
Professor Berger, applying to the tip of her nose a small hammer used 
for auscultations, directed her to concentrate all her attention upon the 
spot touched. Hardly a few minutes had elapsed, when, to his utmost 
astonishment, the girl became quite rigid. A bronze statue could not 
be more motionless and stiff. Then Dr. Grishhorn tried every kind of 


experiment in order to ascertain that the girl did not play a part. A 
lighted candle was closely approached to her eyes, and it was found 
that the pupil did not contract; the eyes remaining opened and glassy, 
as if the person had been dead. He then passed a long needle through 
her lip and moved it in every direction ; but the two doctors remarked 
neither the slightest sign of pain, nor, what was most strange, was 
there a single drop of blood. He called her by her name; there came 
no answer. But when, taking her by the hand, he began to converse 
with her, the young girl answered all his questions, though feebly at 
first and as if compelled by an irresistible power. 

The second experiment proved more wonderful ) T et. It was made 
with a young soldier, who had just been brought into the hospital, and 
who proved "what the Spiritualists call a medium" — says the official 
report. This last experiment finally convinced Drs. Grishhorn and 
Berger of the reality of the doubted phenomena. The soldier, a 
German, ignorant of a single word of Russian, spoke in his trance 
with the doctor in that language, pronouncing the most difficult words 
most perfectly, without the slightest foreign accent. Suffering from a 
paralysis of both legs, during his hypnotic sleep he used them freely, 
walking with entire ease, and repeating every movement and gesture 
made by Dr. Grishhorn with absolute precision. The Russian sen- 
tences he pronounced very rapidly, while his own tongue he spoke 
very slowly. He even went so far as to write, at the doctor's dictation, 
a few words in that language, quite unknown to him, and in the 
Russian characters. 

The debates upon this most important report by a well-known 
physician were announced to take place at the next meeting of the 
Society of the St. Petersburg Medical Practitioners. As soon as the 
official report of the proceedings is published, we will give it to our 
readers. It is really interesting to witness how the men of science are 
gradually being led to acknowledge facts which they have hitherto so 
bitterly denounced. 

Hypnotism, we may add, is rlought but the Trataka of the Yogi, the 
act of concentrating his mind on the tip of the nose, or on the spot 
between the eyebrows. It was known and practised by the ascetics in 
order to produce the final Samadhi, or temporary deliverance of the 
soul from the body; a complete disenthralment of the spiritual man 
from the slavery of the physical with its gross senses. It is being 
practised unto the present day. 


[Vol. II. No. 6, -March, 1SS1.] 

Those of us whose duty it is to watch the Theosophical movement 
and aid its progress can afford to be amused at the ignorant conceit 
displayed by certain journals in their criticisms upon our Society and 
its officers. Some seem to think that when they have flung their 
handful of dirt we must certainly be overwhelmed. One or two have 
even gone so far as, with mock sympathy, to pronounce us already 
hopelessly disrupted. It is a pity we cannot oblige them, but so it is, 
and they must make the best of the situation. Our Society as a body 
might certainly be wrecked by mismanagement or the death of its 
founders, but the idea which it represents and which has gained so 
wide a currency, will run on like a crested wave of thought until it 
dashes upon the hard beach where materialism is picking and sorting 
its pebbles. Of the thirteen persons who composed our first hoard of 
officers, in 1S75, nine were Spiritualists of greater or less experience. 
It goes without saying, then, that the aim of the Society was not to 
destroy but to better and purify Spiritualism. The phenomena we 
knew to be real, and we believed them to be the most important of all 
current subjects for investigation. For, whether they should finally 
prove to be traceable to the agency of the departed, or but manifesta- 
tions of occult natural forces acting in concert with latent psycho- 
physiological human powers, they opened up a great field of research, 
the outcome of which must be enlightenment upon the master problem 
of life: Man and his Relations. We had seen phenomenalism running 
riot and twenty millions of believers clutching at one drifting theory 
after another in the hope to gain the truth. We had reason to know- 
that the whole truth could only be found in one quarter, the Asiatic 
schools of philosophy, and we felt convinced that the truth could 
never be discovered until men of all races and creeds should join like- 
brothers in the search. So taking our stand upon that ground, we 
began to point the way eastward. 


Our first step was to lay down the proposition that, even admitting 
the phenomena to be real, they need not of necessity be ascribed to 
departed souls. We showed that there was ample historical evidence 
that such phenomena had from remotest times been exhibited by men 
who were not mediums, who repudiated the passivity exacted of 
mediums, and who simply claimed to produce them by cultivating 
inherent powers in their living selves. Hence the burden of proving 
that those wonders were and could only be done by the dead with the 
agency of passive medial agents, lay with the Spiritualists. 

To deny our proposition involved either the repudiation of the 
testimony of the most trustworthy authorities in many countries and 
in different epochs, or the wholesale ascription of mediumship to every 
wonder-worker mentioned in history. The latter horn of the dilemma 
had been taken. Reference to the works of the most noted Spiritual- 
istic writers, as well as to the newspaper organs of the movement, will 
show that the thaums, or "miracles" of every "magician," saint, 
religious leader, and ascetic, from the Chaldsean Magians, the ancient 
Hindu saint, the Egyptian Jannes and Jambres, the Hebrew Moses 
and Jesus, and the Mussulman prophet, down to the Benares sanuyasi 
of M. Jacolliot, and the common fakir of to-day, who has made Anglo- 
Indian mouths gape with wonder, have each and all been spoken of as 
true mediumistic marvels. This was the best that could be done with 
a difficult subject, but it could not prevent Spiritualists from thinking. 
The more they have thought, read and compared notes, during the 
past five years, with those who have travelled in Asia and studied 
psychological science as a science, the more has the first acrid feeling 
against our Society abated. We noticed this change in the first issue 
of this magazine. After only five years of agitation, without abuse 
from us or any aggressive propagandism on our part, the leaven of this 
great truth has begun to work. It can be seen on ever}' side. We are 
now kindly asked to show Kurope and America experimental proofs of 
the correctness of our assertions. L,ittle by little a body of persons, 
including some of the best minds in the movement, has come over to 
our side and many now cordially endorse our position: that there can 
be no spiritual intercourse either with the souls of the living or the 
dead, unless it is preceded by self-spiritualization, the conquest of the 
meaner self, the education of the nobler powers within us. The serious 
dangers, as well as the more evident gratifications of mediumship, 
are becoming gradually appreciated. Phenomenalism, thanks to the 


splendid works of Professor Zollner, Mr. Crookes, Mr. Varley, and 
other able experimentalists, is tending towards its proper limits of a 
problem of science. There is a thoughtful and more and more earnest 
study of spiritual philosophy. We .see this, not alone among the Spiri- 
tualists of Great Britain, Australasia and the United States, but also 
among the intellectual and numerous classes of the continental spiri- 
tists and the magnetists. Should nothing occur to break the present 
harmony and impede the progress of ideas, we may well expect, within 
another five years, to see the entire body of investigators of the pheno- 
mena of mesmerism and mediumism more or less imbued with a con- 
viction that the greatest psychological truth in its most unadulterated 
form, can be found in the Indian Philosophies. And let it be remem- 
bered we ascribe this great result not to anything we few may person- 
ally have done or said, but to the gradual growth of a conviction that 
the experience of mankind and the lessons of the past can no longer 
be ignored. 

It would be easy to fill many pages with extracts from the journalism 
of to-day that sustain the above views, but we forbear. Wherever 
these lines are read — and that will be by subscribers in almost every 
quarter of the globe — their truth will not be denied by impartial 
observers. Merely to show the tendency of things, let us take the 
following excerpts from the Spiritual Notes and the Revue Spirite, 
organs respectively of the spiritualist and the spiritist parties. The 
first says: 

From certain delicate yet well-defined signs of the times we are led to believe 
that a great change is gradually passing over the spirit of that system which, for 
the last thirty years, has been called by the not altogether happy title of Modern 
Spiritualism. This change is observable, not perhaps so much in the popular 
aspect of the subject, which will doubtless always remain more or less one of sign 
and wonder. It is probably necessary that such should be the case. It is very 
likely a sine qua lion that there should always be a fringe of the purely marvellous 
to attract the criers of " I.o here! " "Lo there] " from whose numbers the higher and 
inner circle of initiates may be from time to time recruited. It is here we discern 
the great value, with all their possible abuses, of physical manifestations, material- 
izations, and the like. These form the alphabet of the neophyte. But the change 
which strikes us at the present moment is what we may call the rapid growth of the 
initiate class as opposed t<> the neophytes; the class of those who have quite grown 
out of the need of these sensible wonders (a need through which, however, they 
have duly passed) and who are prepared to pass to the sublimest heights of the spiri- 
tual philosophy. We cannot but regard this as an eminently happy sign, because 

it is the evidence of normal growth. We have had first the Made, then tin ear, 



but now we have the full corn in the ear. Among the main- evidences of this 
change we note two especially, each of which has been mentioned already in these 
columns in its single aspect. One is the publication of Dr. Wyld's book on Chris- 
tian Theosophy, the other the formation and development of the secret society 
called the Guild of the Holy Spirit. We are not prepared to commit ourselves to 
all the doctrines of Dr. Wyld's book. The Guild would probably be too ecclesias- 
tical in its structure for many of our readers — it is founded, we may mention, by a 
clergyman of the Church of England — but in each case we notice what is called a 
"levelling up." We perceive that the paramount idea is not to call spirits from 
the vasty deep — not to force the hand of the spirit world, so to say, and to compel 
its denizens to come "down" or "up" to us, but so to regulate life as to open up 
the dormant sense on our side, and enable us to see those who are not in a land 
that is very far off, from which they have come up or down to us. This, we happen 
to know, is preeminently the case with the Guild, which, beginning by being regu- 
lative of life and worship, includes a margin for any amount of thaumaturgical 
element. We may not say more, but we may also point to every page of Dr. Wyld's 
book as an indication of a similar method; and we notice the supervention of that 
method with much satisfaction. It will never be the popular method, but its pre- 
sence, however secret, in our midst, will work like leaven, and affect the whole 
mass of "Modern Spiritualism." 



[Vol. II. No. 8, May, 1SS1.] 

At long intervals have appeared in Europe certain men whose rare 
intellectual endowments, brilliant conversation, and mysterious modes 
of life have astounded and dazzled the public mind. The article now 
copied from All the Year Roinid relates to one of these men — the Count 
St. Germain. In Hargrave Jennings' curious work, The Rosicrucians, 
is described another, a certain Signor Gualdi, who was once the talk of 
Venetian society. A third was the historical personage known as 
Alessandro di Cagliostro, whose name has been made the synonym of 
infamy by a forged Catholic biography. It is not now intended to 
compare these three individuals with each other or with the common 
run of men. We copy the article of our London contemporary for 
quite another object. We wish to show how basely personal character 
is traduced without the slightest provocation — unless the fact of one's 
being brighter in mind, and more versed in the secrets of natural law 
can be construed as a sufficient provocation to set the slanderer's pen 
and the gossip's tongue in motion. Let the reader attentively note 
what follows. The writer in All the Year Round says: 

This famous adventurer [the Count St. Germain] is supposed to have been a Hun- 
garian by birth, but the early part of his life was by himself carefully wrapped in 
mystery. His person and his title alike stimulated curiosity. His age was unknown 
and his parentage equally obscure. We catch the first glimpse of him in Paris, a 
century and a quarter ago, filling the court and the town with his renown. Amazed 
Paris saw a man — apparently of middle age — a man who lived in magnificent style, 
who went to dinner parties where he ate nothing, but talked incessantly and with 
exceeding brilliancy on every imaginable topic. I lis tone was perhaps over trenchant 
— the tone of a man who knows perfectly what he is talking about. Learned, 
speaking every civilized language admirably, a great musician, an excellent chemist, 
he played the part of a prodigy, and played it to perfection. Endowed with extra- 
ordinary confidence or consummate impudence, he not only laid down the law 
magisterially concerning the present, but spoke without hesitation of events 200 
years old. His anecdotes of remote occurrences were related with extraordinary 



minuteness. He spoke of scenes at the court of Francis I. as if he had seen them, 
describing exactly the appearance of the king, imitating his voice, manner and 
laneuasje, affectinsr throughout the character of an eve-witness. In like stvle he 
edified his audience with pleasant stories of Louis XIV., and regaled them with 
vivid descriptions of places and persons. Hardly saying in so many words that he 
was actually present when the events happened, he yet contrived, by his great 
graphic power, to convey that impression . . . intending to astonish, he suc- 
ceeded completely. Wild stories were current concerning him. He was reported 
to be 300 years old, and to have prolonged his life by the use of a famous elixir. 
Paris went mad about him. He was questioned constantly about his secret of 
longevity, and was marvellously adroit in his replies, denying all power to make old 
folks young again, but quietly asserting his possession of the secret of arresting 
decay in the human frame. Diet, he protested, was, with his marvellous elixir, the 
true secret of long life, and he resolutely refused to eat any food but such as had 
been specially prepared for him — oatmeal, groats and the white meat of chickens. 
On great occasions he drank a little wine, sat up as late as anyone would listen 
to him, but took extraordinary precautions against the cold. To ladies he gave 
mysterious cosmetics to preserve their beauty unimpaired; to men, he talked 
openly of his method of transmuting metals, and of a certain process for melting 
down a dozen little diamonds into one large stone. These astounding assertions 
were backed by the possession of apparently boundless wealth, and a collection of 
jewels of rare size and beauty. 

From time to time this strange being appeared in various European capitals, 
under various names, as Marquis de Montferrat, Count Bellamare, at Venice; 
Chevalier Schoening, at Pisa; Chevalier Weldou, Milan; Count Soltikoff, at Genoa; 
Count Tzarogy at Schwalbach, and, finally, as Count St. Germain at Paris; but, after 
his disaster at the Hague, no longer seems so wealthy as before, and has at times 
the appearance of seeking his fortune. At Tournay, he is "interviewed" by the 
renowned Chevalier de Seingalt, who finds him in an Armenian robe and pointed 
cap, with a long beard descending to his waist, and ivory wand in hand — the com- 
plete make-up of a necromancer. St. Germain is surrounded by a legion of bottles, 
and is occupied in developing the manufacture of hats upon chemical principles. 
Seingalt being indisposed, the Count offers to physic him gratis and offers to dose 
him with an elixir, which appears to have been sether; but the other refuses, with 
many polite speeches. It is the scene of the two augurs. Not being allowed to act 
as physician, St. Germain determines to show his power as an alchemist, takes a 
twelve-sous piece from the other augur, puts it on red-hot charcoal, and works 
with a blow-pipe, the piece of money is fused and allowed to cool. "Now," says 
St. Germain, "take your money again." "But it is gold." "Of the purest." 
Augur No. 2 does not believe in the transmutation and looks on the whole opera- 
tion as a trick; but he pockets the piece, nevertheless, and finally presents it to the 
celebrated Marshal Keith, then governor of Neuchatel. 

Again, in pursuit of dyeing and other manufacturing schemes, St. Germain turned 
up at St. Petersburg, Dresden and Milan. Once he got into trouble, and was 
arrested in a petty town of Piedmont on a protested bill of exchange; but he 


pulled out a hundred thousand crowns' worth of jewels, paid on the spot, bullied 
the governor of the town like a pickpocket, and was released with the most re- 
sin ctful excuses. 

Very little doubt exists that during one of his residences in Russia, he played an 
important part in the revolution which placed Catherine II. <>n the throne. In 
support of this view, P.aron C.kichen cites the extraordinary attention bestowed on 
St. (iermain at Leghorn, 1770, by Count Alexis Orloff, and a remark made by Prince 
Gregory OrlofF to the Margrave of Onspach during his stay at Nuremberg. 

After all, w bo was he? — the son of a Portuguese king or of a Portuguese Jew? Or 
did he in his old age tell the truth to his protector and enthusiastic admirer, Prince 
Charles of Hesse Cassel? According to the story told by his last friend, he was the 
son of a Prince Rakoczy of Transylvania, and his first wife a Tekely. He was 
placed, when an infant, under the protection of the last of the Medici. When he 
grew up and heard that his two brothers, sons of the Princess Hesse Rheinfels, of 
Rothenburg, had received the names of St. Charles and St. Elizabeth, he deter- 
mined to take the name of their holy brother St. Germanus. What was the truth ? 
One thing alone is certain, that he was a protigeoi the last Medici. Prince Charles, 
who appears to have regretted his death, which happened in 17S3, very sincerely 
tells us that he fell sick, while pursuing his experiments in colours at Ekrenforde, 
and died shortly after, despite the innumerable medicaments prepared by his own 
private apothecary. I r rederick the (ireat. who, despite his scepticism, took a queer 
interest in astrologers, said of him, "This is a man who does not die." Mirabeau 
adds epigratnmatically, "He w-as always a careless fellow, and at last, like his pre- 
decessors, forgot not to die." 

And now we ask what shadow of proof is herein afforded either that 
St. Germain was an "adventurer," that he meant to "play the part of a 
prodigy," or that he sought to make money out of dupes. Not one 
single sign is there of his being other than what he seemed, viz., a 
possessor of ample means to support honestly his standing in society. 
He claimed to know how to fuse small diamonds into large ones, and 
to transmute metals, and backed his "assertions" by the possession of 
apparently boundless wealth and a collection of jewels of rare size and 
beauty. Are "adventurers" like this? Do charlatans enjoy the confi- 
dence and admiration of the cleverest statesmen and nobles of Europe 
for long years, and not even at their deaths show in one 111111°: that they 
were undeserving? Some encyclopaedists (see New American Cyclo- 
pecdia, xiv. 266) say: "He is supposed lo have been employed during the 
greater part of his life as a spy at the courts at which he resided." But 
upon what evidence is this supposition based? Has anyone found it in 
any of the state papers in the secret archives of either of those courts ? 
Not one word, not one shred of fact to build this base calumny upon, 
has ever been found. It is simply a malicious lie. The treatment 


this great man, this pupil of Indian and Egyptian hierophants, this 
proficient in the secret wisdom of the East, has had from Western 
writers, is a stigma upon human nature. And so has the stupid world 
behaved towards every other person who, like St. Germain, has re- 
visited it after long seclusion devoted to study, with his stores of 
accumulated esoteric wisdom, in the hope of bettering it, and making 
it wiser and happier. 

One other point should be noticed. The above account gives no 
particulars of the last hours of the mysterious Count or of his funeral. 
Is it not absurd to suppose that if he really died at the time and place 
mentioned, he would have been laid in the ground without the pomp 
and ceremony, the official supervision, the police registration which 
attend the funerals of men of his rank and notoriety? Where are 
these data? He passed out of public sight more than a century ago, 
yet no memoir contains them. A man who so lived in the full blaze of 
publicity could not have vanished, if he really died then and there, and 
left no trace behind. Moreover, to this negative we have the alleged 
positive proof that he was living several years after 1784. He is said 
to have had a most important private conference with the Empress of 
Russia in 17S5 or 1786, and to have appeared to the Princess de Lam- 
balle when she stood before the tribunal, a few moments before she was 
struck down with a billet, and a butcher-boy cut off her head; and to 
Jeanne Dubarry, the mistress of Louis XV. as she waited on her scaf- 
fold at Paris the stroke of the guillotine in the Days of Terror of 1793. 

A respected member of our Society, residing in Russia, possesses 
some highly important documents about Count St. Germain, and for the 
vindication of the memory of one of the grandest characters of modern 
times, it is hoped that the long-needed but missing links in the chain 
of his history may speedily be given to the world through these 


[Vol. II. No. 9. June 1SS1.] 

Mr. L. Oliphant' s new work, Land of Gi/cad, attracts considerable 
attention. Reviews appeared some time since, but we had to lay the 
subject aside, until now, for lack of space. We shall now have something 
to say, not of the work itself — though justice can hardly be sufficiently 
done to the writings of that clever author — but of what he tells us 
respecting the Druses, those mystics of Mount Lebanon of whom so 
little is known. We may perchance shed some new light on the 
subject. Mr. Oliphant thinks that 

The Druse has a firm conviction thai the end of the world is at hand. Recent 
events have so far tallied with the enigmatical prophecies of his sacred books, that 
he looks forward to the speedy resurrection of El Hakim, the founder and divine 
personage of the sect. In order to comprehend this, the connection between 
China and Druse theology has to be remembered. The souls of all pious Druses 
are supposed to be occupying in large numbers certain cities in the west of China. 
The end of the world will be signalized by the approach of a mighty army from 
the East against the contending powers of Islam and Christianity. This army will 
be under the command of the Universal Mind ami will consist of millions of 
Chinese Unitarians. To it Christians and Mahomedans will surrender and march 
before it to Mecca. El Hakim will then appear; at his command the Caaba will be 
demolished by fire from Heaven, and the resurrection of the dead will take place. 
Now that Russia has come into collision with China, the Druses see the fulfilment 
of their sacred prophecies, and are eagerly waiting for an Armageddon in which 
they believe themselves destined to play a prominent part. (Pioneer.) 

Mr. Laurence Oliphant is in our opinion one of England's best 
writers. He is also more deeply acquainted with the inner life of the 
East than most of the travellers and writers who have written on the 
subject — not even excepting Captain and Mrs. R. Burton. But even 
this acute and observing intellect could hardlv fathom the secret of the 
profoundly mystical beliefs of the Druses. To begin with. El Hakim 
is not the founder of their sect. Their ritual and dogmas were n< 
made known but to those who had been admitted into their brother- 


hood. Their origin is next to unknown. As to their external religion, 
or rather what has transpired of it, that can be told in a few words. 
The Druses are believed to be a mixture of Kurds, Mardi-Arabs, and 
other semi-civilized tribes. We humbly maintain that they are the 
descendants of and a mixture of, mystics of all iiatioiis, mystics who, 
in the face of cruel and unrelenting persecution by the orthodox 
Christian Church and orthodox Islamism, have, ever since the first 
centuries of the Mohammedan propaganda, been gathered together, and 
who gradually made a permanent settlement in the fastnesses of Syria 
and Mount Lebanon, where they had from the first found refuge. 
Since then they have preserved the strictest silence upon their beliefs 
and truly occult rites. Later on their warlike character, great bravery 
and unity of purpose, which made their foes, whether Mussulmans or 
Christians, equally fear them, helped them toward forming an inde- 
pendent community, or, as we may term it, an imperium in imperio. 
They are the Sikhs of Asia Minor, and their polity offers many points 
of similarity with the late "commonwealth" of the followers of Guru 
Nanak, even extending to their mysticism and indomitable bravery. 
But the two are even more closely related to a third and far more 
mysterious community of religionists, of which nothing or next to 
nothing is known by outsiders: we mean that fraternity of Tibetan 
Lamaists, known as the Brotherhood of Khe-lang, who mix but little 
with the rest. Even Csoma de Kbros, who passed several years with 
the Lamas, learned hardly more of the religion of these Chakravartins 
(wheel-turners) than what they chose to let him know of their exoteric 
rites, and of the Khe-langs he learned positively nothing. 

The mystery that hangs over the scriptures and religion of the 
Druses is far more impenetrable than that connected with the Amritsar 
and Lahore "Disciples," whose Grantha is well known and has been 
translated into European languages more than once. Of the alleged 
forty-five sacred books* of the Lebanon mystics none were ever seen, 
let alone examined, by any European scholar. 

Many manuscripts have never left the underground Holoweys (place 

* The work presented by Nasr-Allah to the French king as a portion cf the Druse scriptures, 
and translated by Petis de la Croix in 1701, is pronounced a forgery. Not one of the copies 
now in the possession of the Bodleian, Vienna, or Vatican Libraries is genuine; and, besides, each 
of them is a copy from the other. Great was always the curiosity of the travellers, and greater yet 
the efforts of the indomitable and ever-prying missionary, to penetrate behind the veil of Druse 
worship, but all have resulted in failure. The strictest secrecy as to the nature of their beliefs, the 
peculiar rites practised in their subterranean Holoweys. and the contents of their canonical books was 
enjoined upon their followers by H'amsa and Boha-eddin, the chief and first disciple of the former. 


of religious meeting), invariably built under the meeting-room on the 
ground floor, and the public Thursday assemblies of the Druses are 
simply blinds intended for over-curious travellers and neighbours. 

Verily a strange seel arc the disciples of H'amsa, as they call them- 
selves. Their Okhal or spiritual teachers, besides having, like the 
Sikh Akali, the duty of defending the visible place of worship, which 
is merely a large unfurnished room, are also the guardians of the 
Mystical Temple and the "wise men," or the Initiates of their mysteries 
— as their name of Okhal implies, Akl being in Arabic "intelligence" or 
"wisdom." It is improper to call them Druses, as thev regard it as an 
insult; nor are they in reality the followers of Daruzi, a heretical pupil 
of H'amsa, but the true disciples of the latter. The origin of that 
personage, who appeared among them in the eleventh century, coming 
from Central Asia, and whose secret or mystery name is El Hamma, 
is quite unknown to our European scholars. His spiritual titles are 
"Universal Source or Mind," "Ocean of Light," and "Absolute or 
Divine Intelligence." They are, in short, repetitions of those of the 
Tibetan Dalai-Lama, whose appellation, "Path to the Ocean,"* means 
Path or "Way to the Ocean of Light" (Intelligence) or Divine Wis- 
dom — both titles being identically the same. It is curious that the 
Hebrew word lamad should also mean the "God-taught." 

An English Orientalist recently found that the religion of Xanak had 
a good deal of Buddhism in it (art. "Diwali," in Calcutta Review). 
This would only be natural, since the Empire of Hindustan is the 
land of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. But that the religion of the 
Druses, between whose geographical and ethnological position and 
that of the Hindus there is an abyss, should be so, is far more incom- 
prehensible and strange. Yet it is a fact. They are more Lamaists in 
their beliefs and certain rites, than any other people on the face of the 
globe. The fact may be contradicted, but it will only be because 
Europe knows next to nothing of either. Their system of government 
is set down as feudal and patriarchal, while it is as theocratic as that of 

" Lama" means path >r road in the vulgar Tibetan langu gt . but i: 
veys the meaning ol way; asthe"wayto wisdom or salvation." strung igh it also mi 

"cross." It is the Roman figure X "r ten. the emblem of perfection or perfect number, and -tooi.1 for 
ten with the Egyptians, Chinese, Phoenicians, Romans, etc. It is also found in the Mexican secular 
calendars. The Tartars call it I. una from the Scyth .-Turanian word lamh, hand (from tile number 
of fingers on 1 ». >t 1 1 hands), and it is synonymous with th rod of the Ch ind thus 

the name of a the High I'riest of the Tartars, and of the I.aniair Me — ng 

the author of The />'<><£ of God, in the "Commentaries on the Apocalypse." with the Irish, luam 
signifies the headof the church, a spiritual chief. 


the Lamaists — or as that of the Sikhs, as it used to be. The mys- 
terious representation of the Deity appears in H'ainsa, whose spirit is 
said to guide them, and periodically reincarnate itself in the person of 
the chief Okhal of the Druses, as it does in the Guru-Kings of the 
Sikhs, some of whom, like Guru Govind, claimed to be the reincarna- 
tions of Nanak, while the Dalai L,amas of Tibet claim to be those of 
Buddha. The latter, by the way, are loosely called Shaberons and 
Kubilghans (both in various degrees reincarnations not of Buddha, the 
man, but of his Buddh-like divine spirit) by Abbe Hue and others, 
without any regard to the difference in the appellation: El Hamma or 
H'amsa came from the "land of the Word of God." Where was that land ? 
Swedenborg, the Northern Seer, advised his followers to search for the 
Lost Word among the hierophants of Tartary, Tibet and China. To 
this we may add a few explanatory and corroborative facts. LJ'hassa, 
the theocratic metropolis of Tibet, is commonly translated as "God- 
land," that is to say, this is the only English equivalent that we can 

Though separated by the Karakorum range and Ljttle Tibet, the 
Great Tibet is on the same Asiatic plateau in which our biblical 
scholars designate the table-land of Pamir,f as the cradle of the human 
race, the birthplace of the mythical Adam. Tibet, or Ti-Boutta will 
yield, etymologically, the words Ti — which is the equivalent for God 
in Chinese — and Buddha or Wisdom: the land then of the Wisdom 
Deity, or the incarnations of Wisdom. It is also called "Bod-Jid." 
Now "Jid" and "Jod" are synonymous apocalyptic and phallic names 
for the Deity — Yod being the Hebrew name for God. G. Higgins 
shows in his Celtic Druids, the Welsh Druids altering the name Bod- 
Jid into Bndd-ud, which with them too meant the "Wisdom of Jid" — 
what people now call "God."| 

The religion of the Druses is said to be a compound of Judaism, 
Mohammedanism and Christianity, strongly tinged with Gnosticism 

-- And a most unsatisfactory terra it is, as the Lamaists have no conception of the anthropomorphic 
deity which the English word "God" represents. For Buddha (the latter name being quite unknown 
to the common people) is their equivalent expression for that All-embracing, Superior Good or Wis- 
dom from which all proceeds as does the light from the sun, the cause being nothing personal, but 
simply an abstract principle. And it is this that in all our Theosophical writing, for the want of a 
better word, we have to terra "God-like" and "Divine." 

+ There are several Pamirs in Central Asia. There is the Alichur Pamir which lies more north than 
either; the Great Pamir with Lake Victoria in its vicinity; Taghdumbash Pamir and the Little Pamir 
more south; and eastward another chain of Pamirs dividing Mustagh Pass and Little Guhjal. We 
would like to know on which of these we have to look for the garden of Eden. 

t The name in Hebrew for sanctuary is te-bah, and ti-boulta and te-bet, also a cradle of the human 
race, thebelh meaning "a box," the "ark" of Noah and the floating cradle of Moses. 


and the Magian system of Persia. Were people to call things by their 
right names, sacrificing all self-conceit to truth, they might confi 
things otherwise. They could say, for instance, that .Mohammedanism 
being a compound of Chaldeeism, Christianity and Judaism; Christian- 
ity a mixture of Judaism, Gnosticism and Paganism; and Judaism a 
wholesale Egypto-Chaldsean Kabalism, masquerading under different 
names and fables, made to fit the bits and scraps of the real history of 
the Israelite tribes — the religious system of the Druses would then be 
found one of the last survivals of the archaic Wisdom-Religion. It is 
entirely based on that element of practical mysticism of which branches 
have from time to time sprung into existence. They pass under the 
unpopular names of Kabalism, Theosophy and Occultism. Except 
Christianity — which owing to the importance it gives to the prin- 
cipal prop of its doctrine of salvation (we mean the dogma of Satan) 
had to anathematize the practice of theurgy — every religion, including 
Judaism and Mohammedanism, credits these above-named branches. 
Civilization having touched with its materialistic, all-levelling and all- 
destroying hand even India and Turkey amid the din and chaos of 
crumbling faiths and old sciences, the reminiscence of archaic truths 
is now fast dying out. 

It has become popular and fashionable to denounce "the old and 
mouldy superstitions of our forefathers," verily even amongst the most 
natural allies of the students of theurgy or occultism — the Spiritualists. 
Among the many creeds and faiths striving to follow the cyclic tide, 
and helping it themselves to sweep away the knowledge of old. strangely 
blind to the fact that the same powerful wave of materialism and 
modern science also sweeps away their own foundations, the only 
religions which have remained as alive as ever to these forgotten truths 
of old, are those which from the first have kept strictly aloof from the 
rest. The Druses, while outwardly mixing with Moslems and Chris- 
tians, and alike ever ready to read the Kuran as well as the Go-pels in 
their Thursday public meetings, have never allowed an uninitiated 
stranger to penetrate the mysteries of their own doctrines. Intelligence 
alone, they say, communicates to the soul (which to them is mortaL 
though it survives the body) the enlivening ami divine spark of the 
Supreme Wisdom, or Ti-meami, but it must be screened from all 
non-believers in H'amsa. The work of the soul i- to seek Wisdom, 
and the substance of earthly wisdom is to know Universal Wisdom, or 
"God," as other religionists call that principle. This is the doctrine 


of the Buddhists and Lamaists who say "Buddha" where the Druses 
say "Wisdom" — one word being the translation of the other. "In 
spite of their external adoption of the religious customs of the Moslems, 
of their readiness to educate their children in Christian schools, their 
use of the Arabic language, and their free intercourse with strangers, 
the Druses remain even more than the Jews a peculiar people" says a 

The}- are very rarely, if ever, converted; they marry within their 
own race, and adhere most tenaciously to their traditions, baffling all 
efforts to discover their cherished secrets. Yet neither are they fanatical 
nor do they covet proselytes. 

In his Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China, Hue speaks with great 
surprise of the extreme tolerance and even outward respect shown 
by the Tibetans to other religions. A Grand Lama or a "living 
Buddha," as he calls him, whom the two missionaries met at Choaug 
Long, near Koum-Boum, certainly had the best of them in good breed- 
ing as well as tact and deference to their feelings. The two French- 
men, however, neither understood nor appreciated the act, since they 
seemed quite proud of the insult offered by them to the Hobilgan. 
"We were waiting for him . . . seated on the kang, and purposely 
did not rise to receive him, but merely made him a slight salutation," 
boasts Hue (vol. ii. pp. 35, 36). The Grand Lama "did not appear dis- 
concerted," though; upon seeing that they as "purposely withheld 
from him" an invitation to sit down "he only looked at them surprised," 
as well he might. A breviary of theirs having attracted his attention, 
he demanded "permission to examine it," and then carrying it solemnly 
to his brow, he said: "It is your book of prayer; we must always 
honour and reverence other people's prayers." It was a good lesson, 
yet they understood it not. We would like to see that Christian mis- 
sionary who would reverently carry to his brow the Yedas, the Tripi- 
taka, or the Grantha, and publicly honour other people's prayers! 
While the Tibetan "savage," the heathen Hobilgan, was all affability 
and politeness, the two French "Lamas of Jehovah," as Abbe Hue 
called his companion and himself, behaved like two uneducated bullies. 
And to think that they even boast of it in print! 

No more than the Druses do the Lamaists seek to make proselytes. 
Both people have their "schools of magic," those in Tibet being 
attached to some La-khaug (lamaseries), and those among the Druses in 
the closely-guarded crypts of initiation, no stranger being even allowed 


inside the buildings. As the Tibetan Hobilgans are the incarnations of 
Buddha's spirit, so the Druse Okhals — erroneously called "Spiritual- 
ists" by some writers — are the incarnations of H'amsa. Both peoples 
have a regular system of pass-words and signs of recognition among 
the neophytes, and we know them to be nearly identical. 

In the mystical system of the Druses there are five "Messengers" or 
interpreters of the "Word of the Supreme Wisdom,*' who occupy the 
same position as the five chief Bodhisattvas, or Hobilgans of Tibet, each 
of whom is the bodily temple of the spirit of one of the five Buddhas. 
Let us see what can be made known of both classes. The names of 
the five principal Druse "Messengers," or rather their titles — as these 
names are generic, in both the Druse and Tibetan hierarchies, and the 
title passes at the death of each to his successor — are: 

(i) H'amsa,* or El Hararaa (Spiritual Wisdom), considered as the 
Messiah, through whom speaks Incarnate Wisdom. 

(2) Ismail- Ti-meami (the Universal Soul). He prepares the Druses 
before their initiation to receive "Wisdom." 

(3) Mohammed (the Word). His duty is to watch over the behaviour 
and necessities of the brethren; a kind of bishop. 

(4) Se-lama (the Preceding), called the "Right Wine;.' 

(5) Mokshatana, Boha-eddin (the Following', named the "Deft 

These last are both messengers between H'amsa and the Brother- 
hood. Above these living mediators who retnai?i ever unknown to all but 
the chief Okhals, stand the ten incarnates of the "Supreme Wisdom," 
the last of whom is to return at the end of the cycle, which is fast 
approaching, though no one but El Hamma knows the day — that last 
"Messenger," in accordance with the cyclic recurrences of events, 
being also the first who came with H'amsa, hence Boha-eddin. The 
names of the Druse incarnations are AH A-llal, who appeared in India 
(Kabir, we believe); Albar, in Persia; Aha, in Yemen; Moill and 
Kahim, in Eastern Africa; Moessa and Had-di, in Central Asia; Albou 

* Very curiously the Druses identify their H'amsa with Hemsa, the Prophet Mahomet's uncle, 
who, they say, tired of the world and it- d< ceitful temptations, simulated d< ath at the battle of Dhod, 
,\.ii.< 25, and retired to the fastnesses of a great mountain in Central Asia, where lie lire. one a saint. He 

1 died in spirit. When several centuries after that he ap] imoug them it was in h 

spiritual body, ami when their Messiah had, after founding the Brotherhood, disappeared S< -lama 

and Boha-eddin were the only ones to know the ol their Master. They alone knew the 

bodies into which he went on successively reincarnating himself, as he is not permitted to die until 
the return of the Highest Messenger, the last one of the ten Avatars. He alone -the now invis 
but expected one— stands higher than H'amsa. But it is not, as erroneously believed. " HI Hakim," 
itimite Khalif of bad name. 


and Manssour, in China; and Budea, that is Boha-eddin,* in Tartary, 
whence he came and whither he returned. This last one, some say, 
was dual-sexed on earth. Having entered into El Hakim — the Khalif, 
a monster of wickedness — he caused him to be assassinated, and then 
sent H'amsa to preach and to found the Brotherhood of Lebanon. El 
Hakim, then, is but a mask. It is Budea, i.e., Boha-eddiu, they 
expect. f 

And now for the Lamaic hierarchy. Of the living or incarnate 
Buddhas there are five also, the chief of whom is Dalay, or rather 
Talay, Lama — from tale, "ocean" or "sea"; he being called "Ocean of 
Wisdom." Above him, as above H'amsa, there is but the "Supreme 
Wisdom," the abstract principle from which emanated the five Buddhas 
— Maitrei-Buddha (the last Bodhisattva or Vishnu in the Kalki Avatar), 
the tenth "Messenger" expected on earth, included. But this will be 
the One Wisdom, and will incarnate itself in the whole humanity col- 
lectively, not in a single individual. But of this mystery no more at 
present. These five Hobilgans are distributed in the following order: 

(1) Talay-Lama, of L,ha-ssa, the incarnation of the "spiritual, pas- 
sive" wisdom, which proceeds from Gautama or Siddhartha Buddha, or 

(2) Bande-cha-an Rem-boo-tchi, at Djashi-Loombo. He is "the 
active earthly wisdom." 

(3") Sa-deha-fo, or the "Mouthpiece of Buddha," otherwise the 
"Word," at Ssamboo. 

(4) Khi-sson-Tamba, the "Precursor" (of Buddha) at the Grand 

(5) Tchang-Zya-Fo-Lang, in the Altai Mountains. He is called the 
"Successor" (of Buddha). 

The Shaberons are one degree lower. They, like the chief Okhals 
of the Druses, are the Initiates of the great wisdom or Buddh, esoteric 
religion. This double list of the "five" shows great similarity at least 
between the polity of the two systems. The reader must bear in mind 
that they have sprung into their present visible conditions nearly at the 
same time. It was from the ninth to the fifteenth centuries that 

* One of the names of Minerva, Goddess of Wisdom, was Budea. 

+ In the Druse system there is no room for a personal deity, unless a portion of the divine imper- 
sonal and abstract wisdom incarnates itself in a mortal man. The deific principle with them is the 
essence of Life, the All, and as impersonal as the Parabrahm of the Vedautins or the Nirvana state 
of the Buddhists, ever invisible, all-pervading and incomprehensible, to be known but by occasional 
incarnations of the spirit in human form. These ten incarnations or human avatars, as above speci- 
fied, are called the "Temples of Ti-meam" (Universal Spirit). 


modern Lamaism evolved its ritual and popular religion, which serves 
the Hobilgans and Shaberons as a blind, even against the average 
Chinaman and Tibetan. It was in the eleventh century that H'ainsa 
founded the Brotherhood of Lebanon, and till now no one has acquired 
it-- secrets! 

It is supremely strange that both the Lamas and the Druses should 
have the same mystical statistics. They reckon the bulk of the human 
race at 1,332,000,000. When good and evil, they say, will come to an 
equilibrium in the scales of human actions (now evil is far the heavier), 
then the breath of "Wisdom" will annihilate in the wink of an eye 
just 666,000,000 of men. The surviving 666,000,000 will have "Supreme 
Wisdom" incarnated in them.* This may have and probably has an 
allegorical meaning. But what relation might it possibly bear to the 
number of the "beast" of St. John's Revelation ? 

If more were known than really is of the religions of Tibet and the 
Druses, then would scholars see that there is more affinity between 
Turanian Lamaists and the Semitic "El Hammists," or Druses, than 
was ever suspected. But all is darkness, conjecture and mere guess- 
work whenever the writers speak of either the one or the other. The 
little that has transpired of their beliefs is generally so disfigured by 
prejudice and ignorance that no learned Lama or Druse would ever 
recognize a glimpse of likeness to his faith in these speculative phan- 
tasies. Even the profoundly suggestive conclusion to which Godfrey 
Higgins came (Ccltie Druids, part i. p. 101) however true is but half so. 
"It is evident," he writes, "that there was a secret science possessed 
somewhere [by the ancients] which must have been guarded by the 
most solemn oaths . . . and I cannot help suspecting that there 
is still a secret doctrine known only in the deep recesses of the crypts 
of Tibet." 

To conclude with the Druses. As Se-lama and Boha-eddin — two 
names more than suggestive of the words "Lama" and "Buddha" — are 
the only ones entrusted with the secret of H'amsa's retreat, and having 
the means of consulting with their Master, they from time to time 
bring his directions and commands to the Brotherhood; so even to 

• The Hindus have the same belief. In the Deva-Yuga tiny will all be Devs or Gods. See Lama- 
nim-tshen-po, or "Great Road to Perfection," a work of the fifteenth century. The author of this 
book is the great reformer of Lamaism, the famous Tzong-ka-pa, from whose hair sprang up the 
famous Koum-boum letter tree. ;i tree win ise 1' aves all bear sacred Tibetan inscriptions, according to 
tradition. This tree was sei a by A.bbe Hue some forty years ago, and was seen last year by the Hun- 
garian traveller Count Szitcheny, who, however, begging his pardon, could not, under its physical 
surroundings, have carried away a branch of it as he pre tends to have done. 


this day do the Okhals of that name travel every seventh year through 
Bussora and Persia into Tartary and Tibet to the very west of China, 
and return at the expiration of the elsventh year, bringing fresh orders 
from "El Hamma." Owing to the expectation of war between China 
and Russia, only last year a Druse messenger passed through Bombay 
on his way to Tibet and Tartary. This would explain the "supersti- 
tious" belief that "the souls of all pious Druses are supposed to be 
occupying in large numbers certain cities in China." It is around the 
plateau of the Pamirs — they say, with the biblical scholars — that the 
cradle of the true race must be located — but the cradle of initiated 
humanity only, of those who have for the first time tasted of the fruit 
of knowledge, and those are in Tibet, Mongolia, Tartary, China and 
India, where also the souls of their pious and initiated brethren trans- 
migrate and become "sons of God." What this language means every 
Theosophist ought to know. They discredit the fable of Adam and 
Eve, and say that they who first ate of the forbidden fruit, and thus 
became Elohim, were Enoch or Hermes (the supposed father of 
Masonry), and Seth Sat-an, the father of secret wisdom and learning, 
whose abode, they say, is now in the planet Mercury," 5 and whom the 
Christians were kind enough to convert into a chief devil, the "fallen 
angel." Their evil one is an abstract principle, and called the "Rival." 
The "millions of Chinese Unitarians" may mean Tibetan Eamas, 
Hindus and others of the East, as well as Chinamen. It is true that 
the Druses believe in and expect their resurrection day in Armageddon, 
which, however, they pronounce otherwise. As the phrase occurs in 
the Apocalypse it may seem to some that they got the idea from St. 
John's Revelation. It is nothing of the kind. On that day, which, 
according to the Druse teaching, will consummate the great spiritual 
plan, "the bodies of the wise and faithful will be absorbed into the 
absolute essence, and transformed from the many into the One." This 
is preeminently the Buddhist idea of Nirvana, and that of the Vedautin 
final absorption into Parabrahm. Their "Persian Magianism and Gnos- 

* Buddha is son of Maya, and (according to the Brahmauic notion) of Vishnu; Maia is mother 
of Mercury by Jupiter. Buddha means the "wise," and Mercury is God of Wisdom (Hermes); and 
the planet sacred to Gautama Buddha is Mercury; Venus and Isis presided over navigation, as Mary 
or Maria, the Madonna, presides now. Is not the latter hymned to this day by the Church: 

"Ave Maria, stella . . . 
Dei mater alma".' 

"Hail, Star of the Sea, 
Mother of God" 
— thus identified with Venus? 


ticism" makes them regard St. John as Oannes, the Chaldaean man- 
fish, hence connects their belief at once with the Indian Vishnu and 
the Lamaic symbology. Their "Armageddon" is simply " Ramda- 
gon,"* and this is how it is explained. 

The sentence in Rcvc/a/ion is no better interpreted than so many 
other things by Christians, while even the non-Kabalistic Jews know 
nothing of its real meaning. Armageddon is mistaken for a geo- 
graphical locality — the elevated table of Esdraelon or Ar-mageddon, 
the mountain of Megiddo, where Gideon triumphed over the Midian- 
ites.f It is an erroneous notion, for the name in the Revelation refers 
to a mythical place mentioned in one of the most archaic traditions of 
the heathen east, especially among the Turanian and Semitic races. 
It is simply a kind of purgatorial Elysium, in which departed spirits 
are collected to await the day of final judgment. That it is so is proved 
by the verses in Revelation: "And he gathered them together into a 
place called . . . Armageddon. And the seventh angel poured out 
his vial into the air" (xvi. 16, 17). The Druses pronounce the name of 
that mystical locality "Ramdagon." It is, then, highly probable that 
the word is an anagram, as shown by the author of the "Commentary 
on the Apocalypso." It means "Rama-Dagon," \ the first signifying 

' Rama, of the solar race, is an incarnation of Vishnu— a Sun-God. In the "Matsya," or first 
Avatar, in ortk-r to save humanity from final destruction (see Vishnu Parana) that God appears to 
King Satyavrata and the seven saints who accompany him on the vessel to escape universal deluge, 
as an enormous fish with one stupendous horn. To this horn the king is commanded by Hari to tie 
the ship with a serpent (the emblem of eternity) instead of a cable. The Dalay-Lama, besides his 
name of "Ocean," is also called Sarou. which in Tibetan means the "unicorn," or one-horned. He 
wear-- on his head-gear a prominent horn, set over a Yung-dang, or mystic cross, which is the Jain 
and Hindu Svastika. The "fish" and the sea or water are the most archaic emblems of the .Messiahs, 
or incarnations of divine wisdom, among- all the ancient peoples. Fishes play a prominent figure 
on old Christian medals; and in the catacombs of Rome the "Mystic Cross" or "Anchor" stands 
between two fishes as supporters. Uagh-dae, the name of Zaratushtra's mother, means the 

Divine Fish" or Holy Wisdom. The "Mover on the Waters." whether we call him Nar.ivana or 
Abatur (the Kabalistic Superior Father and "Ancient of the World") or "Holy Spirit" is all one. 

>rding to Codex Nazareeus, Kabalah and Genesis, the Holy Spirit when moving- on the wal 
mirrored himself and "Adam Kaduion was born." Mare in I.atin i-- tin- sea. Water is associated 

with y creed. Mary and Venus are both patronesses of the sea and of sailors— and both mothers 
of Love whether divine or earthly, the mother of Jesus is called Mary or Mariah— the word 

meaning in Hebrew »iiri<>>, that in which we find but the reflection instead of a reality, and 600 
year- in ion Christianity there was Maya. Buddha's mother, whose name means illusion— identically 

the same. Another curious "coincidence" is found in the selections Of new Dalav-I.amas in Tibet. 

The new incarnation of Buddha is ascertained by a curious ichthyomancy with three gold fishes. 

Shutting themselves up in the liuddha-I.a (temple), the HCobilgans pla 1 1 1 : ■ gold fish in an urn. 
and on one of these ancient emblems of Supreme Wisdom shortly appears the name of the child into 
whom the soul of the late- Dalay-Lama is supposed to have transmigrated. 

+ It is not the "Valley of Megeddo," tor there is no such valley known. Dr. Robinson's typo- 
phical and biblical notions being no better than hypothesi - 

X Ram is also womb anil valley, and in Tibetan "goat"; Dag is fish, from Dagon, the man-li-h. 
or perfect wisdom. 

3 86 


Sun- God of that name, and the second "Dagon," or the Chaldaean Holy 
Wisdom incarnated in their "Messenger," Oannes, the Man-Fish, and 
descending on the " Sons of God'' or the Initiates of whatever country; 
those, in short, through whom Deific Wisdom occasionally reveals itself 
to the world. 



[Vol. II. No. 10, July, 1881.] 

In the ordinary run of daily life speech may be silver, while "silence 
is gold." With the editors of periodicals devoted to some special object 
"silence" in certain cases amounts to cowardice and false pretences. 
Such shall not be our case. 

We are perfectly aware of the fact that the simple presence of the 
word "Spiritualism" on the title-page of our journal "causes it to lose 
in the eyes of materialist and sceptic fifty per cent of its value" — for 
we are repeatedly told so by many of our best friends, some of whom 
promise us more popularity, hence an increase of subscribers, would 
we but take out the "contemptible" term and replace it by some other, 
synonymous in meaning, but less obnoxious phonetically to the general 
public. That would be acting under false pretences. The undisturbed 
presence of the unpopular word will indicate our reply. 

That we did not include "Spiritualism" among the other subjects to 
which our journal is devoted "in the hopes that it should do us good ser- 
vice among the Spiritualists" is proved by the following fact: From the 
first issue of our Prospectus to the present day, subscribers from "spiri- 
tual" quarters have not amounted to four per cent on our subscription 
list. Yet, to our merriment, we are repeatedly spoken of as "Spiritual- 
ists" by the press and our opponents. Whether really ignorant of, or 
purposely ignoring our views, they tax us with belief in spirits. Not 
that we would at all object to the appellation — too many far worthier 
and wiser persons than we firmly believing in "Spirits" — but that 
would be acting under "false pretences" again. And so we are called 
a "Spiritualist" by persons who foolishly regard the term as a "brand," 
while the orthodox Spirituali>t>, who are well aware that we attribute 
their phenomena to quite another agency than spirits, resent our pecu- 
liar opinions as an insult to their belief, and in their turn ridicule and 
oppose us. 



This fact alone ought to prove, if anything ever will, that our journal 
pursues an honest policy. That, established for the one and sole 
object, namely, for the elucidation of truth, however unpopular, it has 
remained throughout true to its first principle — that of absolute im- 
partiality. And that as fully answers another charge, viz., that of 
publishing views of our correspondents with which we often do not 
concur ourselves. "Your journal teems with articles upholding ridicu- 
lous superstitions and absurd ghost-stories," is the complaint in one 
letter. "You neglect laying a sufficient stress in your editorials upon 
the necessity of discriminating between facts and error, and in the 
selection of the matter furnished by your contributors," says another. 
A third one accuses us of not sufficiently rising "from supposed facts 
to principles, which would prove to our readers in every case the 
former no better than fictions." In other words, as we understand it, 
we are accused of neglecting scientific induction. Our critics may be 
right, but we also are not altogether wrong. In the face of the many 
crucial and strictly scientific experiments made by our most eminent 
savants, it would take a wiser sage than King Solomon himself to 
decide now between fact and fiction. The query, "What is truth?" is 
more difficult to answer in the nineteenth than in the first century of 
our era. The appearance of his "evil genius" to Brutus in the shape 
of a monstrous human form, which, entering his tent in the darkness 
and silence of the night, promised to meet him in the plains of 
Philippi, was a. fact to the Roman tyrannicide; it was but a dream to 
his slaves, who neither saw nor heard anything on that night. The 
existence of an antipodal continent and the heliocentric system were 
facts to Columbus and Galileo years before they could actually demon- 
strate them; yet the existence of America, as that of our present solar 
system, was as fiercely denied several centuries back as the phenomena 
of Spiritualism are now. Facts existed in the "pre-scientific past," 
and errors are as thick as berries in our scientific present. With 
whom then is the criterion of truth to be left? Are we to abandon it 
to the mercy and judgment of a prejudiced society, constantly caught 
trying to subvert that which it does not understand ; ever seeking to 
transform sham and hypocrisy into synonyms of "propriety" and "re- 
spectability"? Or shall we blindly leave it to modern exact science, 
so-called? But science has neither said her last word nor can her 
various branches of knowledge rejoice in their qualification of exact 
but so long as the hypotheses of yesterday are not upset by the dis- 


coveries of to-day. "Science is atheistic, phantasmagorical, and always 
in labour with conjecture. It can never become knowledge per sc. 
Not to know is its climax," says Prof. A. Wilder, our New York Vice- 
President, certainly more of a man of science himself than many a 
scientist better known than he is to the world. Moreover, the learned 
representatives of the Royal Society have as many cherished hobbies, 
and are as little free of prejudice and preconception as any other 
mortals. It is perhaps to religion and her handmaid theology, with 
her "seventy-times seven" sects, each claiming and none proving its 
right to the claim of truth, that in our search for it we ought to humbly 
turn? One of our severe Christian Areopagites actually expresses the 
fear that "even some of the absurd stories of the Puranas have found 
favour with The Theosophist." But let him tell us, Has the Bible any 
less "absurd ghost-stories" and "ridiculous miracles" in it than the 
Hindu Puranas and Buddhist Mahd Jataka, or even one of the most 
"shamefully superstitious publications" of the Spiritualists? (We 
quote from his letter.) We are afraid in one and all it is but 

Faith, fanatic faith, once wedded fast 

To some dear falsehood, hugs it to the last . . . 

and — we decline accepting anything on faith. In common with most 
of the periodicals we remind our readers in even- number of The Theo- 
sopkist that its "Editors disclaim responsibility for opinions expressed 
by contributors," with some of which they (we) do not agree. And 
that is all we can do. We never started out in our paper as teachers, 
but rather as humble and faithful recorders of the innumerable beliefs, 
creeds, scientific hypotheses, and — even "superstitions" current in the 
past ages and now more than lingering yet in our own. Never having 
been a sectarian — i.e., an interested party — we maintain that in the 
face of the present situation, during that incessant warfare, in which 
old creeds and new doctrines, conflicting schools and authorities, revi- 
vals of blind faith and incessant scientific discoveries, running a race 
as though for the survival of the fittest, swallow up and mutually 
destroy and annihilate each other — daring indeed were that man who 
would assume the task of deciding between them! Who, we ask, in 
the presence of those most wonderful and most unexpected achieve- 
ments of our great physicists and chemists would risk to draw the line 
of demarcation between the possible and the impossible? Where is the 
honest man who, conversant at all with the latest conclusions of 
archaeology, philology, palaeography and especially Assyriology, would 


undertake to prove the superiority of the religious "superstitions" of 
the civilized Europeans over those of the "heathen," and even of the 
fetish-worshipping savages? 

Having said so much, we have made clear, we hope, the reason why, 
believing no mortal man infallible, nor claiming that privilege for 
ourselves, we open our columns to the discussion of every view and 
opinion, provided it is not proved absolutely supernatural. Besides, 
whenever we make room for "unscientific" contributions it is when 
these treat upon subjects which lie entirely out of the province of 
physical science — generally upon questions that the average and dog- 
matic scientist rejects a priori and without examination, but which the 
real man of science finds not only possible, but after investigation very 
often fearlessly proclaims the disputed question as an undeniable fact. 
In respect to most transcendental subjects the sceptic can no more 
disprove than the believer prove his point. Fact is the only tribunal 
we submit to, and recognize it without appeal. And before that tribu- 
nal a Tyndall and an ignoramus stand on a perfect par. Alive to the 
truism that every path may eventually lead to the highway as every 
river to the ocean, we never reject a contribution simply because we do 
not believe in the subject it treats upon, or disagree with its conclu- 
sions. Contrast alone can enable us to appreciate things at their right 
value; and unless a judge compares notes and hears both sides he can 
hardly come to a correct decision. Dum vitant still ti vilia in contraria 
is our motto; and we seek to walk prudently between the many ditches 
without rushing into either. For one man to demand from another 
that he shall believe like himself, whether in a question of religion or 
science, is supremely unjust and despotic. Besides, it is absurd. For 
it amounts to exacting that the brains of the convert, his organs of 
perception, his whole organization, in short, be reconstructed precisely 
on the model of that of his teacher, and that he shall have the same 
temperament and mental faculties as the other has. And why not his 
nose and eyes, in such a case? Mental slavery is the worst of all 
slaveries. It is a state over which brutal force having no real power, 
it always denotes either an abject cowardice or a great intellectual 

Among many other charges, we are accused of not sufficiently exer- 
cising our editorial right of selection. We beg to differ and contradict 
the imputation. As every other person blessed with brains instead of 
calves' feet jelly in his head we certainly have our opinions upon things 


in general, and tilings occult especially, to some of which we hold very 
firmly. But these being our personal views, and though we have as 
good a right to them as any, we have none whatever to force them for 
recognition upon others. Wc do not believe in the activity of "departed 
S pi r its" — others, and among these many of the Fellows of the Theo- 
sophical Society, do, and we are bound to respect their opinions so 
long as they respect ours. To follow every article from a contributor 
with an Editor's Note correcting "his erroneous ideas" would amount 
to turning our strictly impartial journal into a sectarian organ. We 
decline such an office of "Sir Oracle." 

The Theosophist is a journal of our Society. Each of its Fellows 
being left absolutely untrammelled in his opinions, and the body repre- 
senting collectively nearly every creed, nationality and school of philo- 
sophy, every member has a right to claim room in the organ of his 
Society for the defence of his own particular creed and views. Our 
Society being an absolute and an uncompromising Republic of Con- 
science, preconception and narrow-mindedness in science and philo- 
sophy have no room in it. They are as hateful and as much denounced 
by us as dogmatism and bigotry in theology; and this we have repeated 
usque ad nauseam. 

Having explained our position, we will close with the following 
parting words to our sectarian friends and critics. The materialists 
and sceptics who upbraid us in the name of modern science — the dame 
who always shakes her head and finger in scorn at everything she has 
not yet fathomed — we would remind of the suggestive but too mild 
words of the great Arago: "He is a rash man who outside of pure 
mathematics pronounces the word 'impossible.'" And to theology, 
which under her many orthodox masks throws mud at us from behind 
every secure corner, we retort by Victor Hugo's celebrated paradox: 
"In the name of Religion we protest against all and every religion!" 


[Vol. II. No. 12, September, 18S1.] 

This is the heading of an article I find in a London publication, a 
new weekly called Light, and described as a "Journal Devoted to the 
Highest Interests of Humanity, both Here and Hereafter." It is a 
good and useful journal; and, if I may judge from the only two num- 
bers I have ever seen, one whose dignified tone will prove far more 
persuasive with the public than the passionate and often rude remarks 
passed on their opponents and sceptics by its "spiritual" contempora- 
ries. The article to which I wish to call attention is signed by a 
familiar name (jiom de plume), "M.A. Oxon.," that of a profoundly 
sympathetic writer, of a personal and esteemed friend — of one, in 
short, who, I trust, whether he remains friendly or antagonistic to our 
views, would never confound the doctrine with its adherents, or, putting 
it more plainly, visit the sins of the Occultists upon Occultism and 
vice ve?'sd. 

It is with considerable interest and attention, then, that the present 
writer has read "The Claims of Occultism." As everything else 
coming from "M.A. Oxon.'s" pen, it bears a peculiar stamp, not only 
of originality but of that intense individuality, that quiet but deter- 
mined resolution to bring every new phasis, every discover}' in Psycho- 
logical sciences back to its (to him) first principles — Spiritualism. 
And when writing the word, I do not mean by it the vulgar "seance- 
room" Spiritualism, which "M.A. Oxon." has from the very first out- 
grown, but that primitive idea which underlies all the subsequent 
theories, the old parent root from which have sprung the modern 
weeds, namely, belief in a guardian angel or a tutelary spirit, who, 
whether his charge is conscious of it or not — i.e., mediumistic or non- 
medium istic — is placed by a still higher power over every (baptized?) 
mortal to watch over his actions during life. And this, if not the 
correct outline of "M.A. Oxon.'s" faith, is undoubtedly the main idea 


of all the Christian-born Spiritualists, past, present, and future. The 
trine, Christian as it now may be — and preeminently Roman Catholic 
it is — has not originated, as we all know, with the Christian, but with 
the Pagan world. Besides being represented in the tutelary daimon of 
Socrates — that ancient "guide" of whom our Spiritualists make the 
most they can — it is the doctrine of the Alexandrian Greek theurgists, 
of the Zoroastrians, and of the later Babylonian Jews. one. moreover. 
sadly disfigured by the successors of all these — the Christians. It 
matters little though, for we are now concerned but with the personal 
views of "M.A. Oxon.," which he sets in opposition to those of some 

His doctrine then seems to us more than ever to centre in, and gyrate 
around, that main idea that the spirit of the living man is incapable of 
acting outside of the body independently and per se ; but that it must 
needs be like a tottering baby guided by his mother or nurse — be led 
on by some kind of spiritual strings by a disembodied spirit, an indi- 
viduality entirely distinct from, and at some time even foreign to him- 
self, as such a spirit can only be a human soul, having at some period or 
other lived on this planet of ours. I trust that I have now correctly 
stated my friend's belief, which is that of most of the intellectual, pro- 
gressive and liberal Spiritualists of our day, one, moreover, shared by 
all those Theosophists who have joined our movement by deserting the 
ranks of the hoi polloi of Spiritualism. Nevertheless, and bound though 
we be to respect the private opinions of those of our Brother- Fellows 
who have started out in the research of truth by the same path as 
"M.A. Oxon.," however widely they may have diverged from the one 
we ourselves follow, yet we will always say that such is not the belief 
of all the Theosophists — the writer included. For all that, we shall 
not follow the nefarious example set to us by most of the Spiritualists 
and their papers, which are as bitter against us as most of the mis- 
sionary sectarian papers are against each other and the infidel Theo- 
sophists. We will not quarrel, but simply argue, for "Light! more 
light!" is the rallying cry of both progressive Spiritualists and Theo- 
sophists. Having thus far explained myself, "M.A. Oxon." will take. 
I am sure, en bon seigneur every remark that I may make on his article 
in Light, which I here quote verbatim. I will not break his flowing 
narrative, but limit my answers to modest footnotes. 

It is now some years since Spiritualists were startled by the publication of two 
ponderous volumes by Madame Blavatsky, under the title of Isis Unveiled. Th< 


who mastered the diversified contents of those large and closely-printed pages,, 
upwards of twelve hundred in number, bore away a vague impression that Spiri- 
tualism had been freely handled not altogether to its advantage, and that a porten- 
tous claim had been more or less darkly set up for what was called Occultism. 
The book was full of material — so full that I shall probably be right in saying that 
no one has mastered its contents so as to fully grasp the author's plan; but the 
material sadly needed reducing to order, and many of the statements required 
elucidation, and some, perhaps, limitation.* Moreover, the reader wanted a guide 
to pilot him through the difficulties that he encountered on every hand; and, 
above all, he sorely needed some more tangible hold on the history and pretensions 
of the mysterious Brotherhood for whom the author made such tremendous 

It seemed vain for any seeker after truth to attempt to enter into relations, how- 
ever remote, with any adept of the order of which Madame Blavatsky is the visible 
representative. All questions were met with polite or decisive refusal to submit to 
any examination of the pretensions made. The Brothers would receive an enquirer 
only after he had demonstrated his truth, honesty and courage by an indefinitely 
prolonged probation. The}- sought no one; they promised to receive none.J 
Meantime, they rejected no one who was persevering enough to go forward in the 
prescribed path of training by which alone the divine powers of the human spirit 
can, they allege, be developed. 

The only palpable outcome of all this elaborate effort at human enlightenment 
was the foundation in America of the Theosophical Society, which has been the 
accepted, though not the prescribed, organization of the Occult Brotherhood. § 
They would utilize the Society, but they would not advise as to the methods by 
which it should be regulated, nor guarantee it any special aid, except in so far as to 

* It is not the first time that the just reproach is unjustly laid at my door. It is but too true that 
"the material sadly needed reducing to order," but it never was my province to do so, as I gave out 
one detached chapter after the other, and was quite ignorant, as Mr. Sinnett correctly states in The 
Occull World, whether I had started upon a series of articles, one book or two books. Neither did 
I much care. It was my duty to give out some hints, to point to the dangerous phases of modern 
Spiritualism, and to bring to bear upon that question all the assertions and testimony of the ancient 
world and its sages that I could find, as an evidence to corroborate my conclusions. I did the best 
I could and knew how. If the critics of Isis Unveiled but consider that (i) its author had never 
studied the English language, and after learning it in her childhood colloquially had not spoken it 
before coming to America half-a-dozen of times during a period of many years; (2) that most of the 
doctrines (or shall we say hypotheses?) given had to be translated from an Asiatic language; and 
(3) that most, if not all of the quotations from, and references to, other works — some of these out of 
print, and many inaccessible but to the few — and which the author personally had never read or seen, 
though the passages quoted were proved in each instance minutely correct, then my friends would 
perhaps feel less critically inclined. However, Isis Unveiled is but a natural entree en matiere in the 
above article, and I must not lose time over its merits or demerits. 

+ Indeed, the claims made for a "Brotherhood" of living men were never half as pretentious as 
those which are daily made by the Spiritualists on behalf of the disembodied souls of dead people. 

X No more do they now. 

\ We beg to draw to this sentence the attention of all those of our Fellows and friends in the West 
as in India, who felt inclined to either disbelieve in, or accuse the " Brothers of the First Section" on 
account of the administrative mistakes and shortcomings of the Theosophical Society. From the 
first the Fellows were notified that the First Section might issue occasionally orders to those who 
knew them personally, yet had never promised to guide, or even protect, either the body or its 


give the very guarded promise that whatever aid might at any time be vouchsafed 
by them to enquiring humanity, would come, if at all, through that channel. It 

must be admitted that this was a microscopically small crumb of com tort to fall 
from so richly laden a table as Madame Blavatsky had depicted, but Theosophists 
had to be content, or, at least, silent; and so they betook themselves, some of them. 
to reflection. 

What ground had they for belief in the existence of these Brothers, adepts who 
had a mastery over the secrets of nature which dwarfed the results of modern 
scientific research, who had gained the profoundest knowledge — "Know thyself" — 
and could demonstrate by actual experiment the transcendent powers of the 
human spirit, spurning time and space, and proving the existence of soul by the 
methods of exact experimental science? What ground for such claims existed 
outside of that on which the Theosophical Society rested? 

For a long time the answer was of the vaguest. But eventually evidence was 
gathered, and in this book* we have Mr. Sinnett coming forward to give us the 
benefit of his own researches into the matter, and especially to give us his corre- 
spondence with Koot Hoonii, an adept and member of the Brotherhood, who had 
entered into closer relations, still however of a secondary nature,t with him than 
had been vouchsafed to other men. These letters are of an extremely striking 
nature, and their own intrinsic value is high. This is greatly enhanced by the 
source from which they come, and the light they throw upon the mental attitude 
of these Tibetan recluses to whom the world and the things of the world are 
alike without interest, save in so far as they can ameliorate man's state, and teach 
him to develop and use his powers. 

Another fruitful subject of questioning among those who leaned to theosophical 
study was as to the nature of these occult powers. It was impossible to construct 
from Isis Unveiled any exact scheme, supported by adequate testimony, or by suffi- 
cient evidence from any proper source, of what was actually claimed for the adept. 
Madame Blavatsky herself, though making no pretension to having attained the 
full development of those whose representative she was, possessed certain occult 
powers that seemed to the Spiritualist strangely like those of mediumship.i This, 
however, she disclaimed with much indignation. A medium, she explained, was 
but a poor creature, a sort of conduit through which any foul stream might be 
conveyed, a gas-pipe by means of which gas of a very low power of illumination 
reached this earth. And much pain was taken to show that the water :cas very 
foul, and that the gas was derived from a source that, if at all spiritual, was such 
as we. who craved true illumination, should by no means be content with. It is 

• The Occult World, by A. P. Sinnett. 

+ With Mr. Sinnett. and only so far. Hi^ relations with a few other I'i Hows have been as personal 
as they could desire. 

1 Medium, in the sense of the postman who brings a letter from one living person to another: in 
the sense of an assistant electrician whose master tells him how to turn this screw and arrange that 
wire in the Lattery; never in the sense of a Spiritual medium. "Madame Blavatsky" neither needed 
nor did she ever make use of either dark seance-rooms, cabinets, "trance-state." " harmony." nor any 
of til- hundreds of conditions required by the passive mediums who know not what i- going to cur. 
She always knew beforehand, and could state what was going to happen save infallibly answering 
each time for con:;.'.! U success. 


impossible to deny that the condition of public Spiritualism in America, at the 
time when these strictures were passed upon it, was such as to warrant grave cen- 
sure. It had become sullied in the minds of observers, who viewed it from with- 
out, and who were not acquainted with its redeeming features, by association with 
impurity and fraud. The mistake was to assume that this was the complexion of 
Spiritualism in itself, and not of Spiritualism as depraved by adventitious causes. 
This, however, was assumed. If we desired true light, then we were told that we 
must crush out mediumship, close the doors through which the mere Spiritual 
loafers come to perplex and ruin us, and seek for the true adepts who alone could 
safely pilot us in our search. These, it was explained, had by no means given up 
the right of entrance to their Spiritual house to any chance spirit that might take 
a fancy to enter. They held the key and kept intruders out, while, by unaided 
powers of their own, they performed wonders before which medial phenomena 
paled. This was the only method of safety; and these powers, inherent in all 
men, though susceptible of development only in the purest, and then with diffi- 
culty, were the only means by which the adept worked. 

Some Theosophists demonstrated by practical experiment that there is a founda- 
tion of truth in these pretensions. I am not aware whether anyone has found 
himself able to separate quite conclusively between his own unaided efforts and 
those in which external spirit has had a share. There is, however, one very note- 
worthy fact which gives a clue to the difference between the methods of the 
Spiritualist and the Occultist. The medium is a passive recipient of spirit- 
influence. The adept is an active, energizing, conscious creator of results which 
he knowingly produces, and of which evidence exists and can be sifted. Spiritual- 
ists have been slow to accept this account of what they are familiar with in another 
shape. Theosophists have been equally slow to estimate the facts and theories of 
Spiritualism with candour and patience. Mr. Sinnett records many remarkable 
experiences of his own, which are well worthy of study, and which may lead those 
who now approach these phenomena from opposite sides to ponder whether there 
may not be a common ground on which they can meet. We do not know so much 
of the working of spirit that we can afford to pass by contemptuously any traces 
of its operation. Be we Spiritualists or Theosophists — odd names to ticket our- 
selves with ! — we are all looking for evidence of the whence and whither of 
humanity. We want to know somewhat of the great mystery of life, and to pry a 
little into the no less sublime mystery of death. We are gathering day by day 
more evidence that is becoming bewildering in its minute perplexities. We want 
to get light from all sources; let us be patient, tolerant of divergent opinion, quick 
to recognize the tiny hold that any one soul can have on truth, and the multiform 
variety in which that which we call truth is presented to man's view. Is it strange 
that we should see various sides of it? Can we not see that it must needs be so? 
Can we not wait for the final moment of reconciliation, when we shall see with 
clearer eye and understand as now we cannot? 

There is much in Mr. Sinnett's little book that may help those who are trying to 
assume this mental attitude. The philosophy that it contains is clearly stated, and 
affords rich material for thought. The facts recorded are set forth with scientific 


accuracy, and must profoundly impress the careful and candid reader. The 
glimpses revealed of this silent Brotherhood, in its lonely home on one of the 
slopes of the mountains of Tibet, working to solve the mighty problem, and to 
confer on humanity such benefits as it can receive, are impressive enough even to 
the Philistine sceptic. If they should indeed be Hashes of a greater truth, now 
only dimly revealed, the importance of such revelation is not to be measured in 

Be this, however, as it may— and there are many points on which light is neces- 
sary before a decisive opinion may be pronounced — there is no doubt whatever 
that the philosophy contained in Mr. Sinnett's book is similar to that which the 
great students of Theosophy in ages past have arrived at. It is a mere piece of 
nineteenth-century arrogance to pooh-pooh it as unworthy of attention by those 
on whom has flashed the dazzling light of the spirit circle. The facts recorded are 
at least as scientifically conclusive as any recorded as having happened in a dark 
seance, or under the ordinary conditions of Spiritualistic investigation. The letters 
of Koot Hoomi are fruitful of suggestion, and will repay careful study on their own 
merits. The whole book contains only 172 pages, and will not, therefore, unduly 
tax the reader's patience. If any instructed Spiritualist will read it, and can say 
that there is nothing in it that adds to his knowledge, he will at least have the 
satisfaction of having read both sides of the question, and that should Dresent 
itself to all candid thinkers as a paramount and imperative duty. 


[Vol. III. No. i, October, 1SS1.] 

[To the Editor of " The Theosophist." 
Madam, — Since you have published a posthumous letter of my master and 
beloved friend, the late Eliphas Levi, I think it would be agreeable to you to 
publish, if judged suitable, a few extracts of the many manuscripts in my posses- 
sion, written expressly for, and given to, me by my ever- regretted master. 
To begin with, I send you "Stray Thoughts on Death and Satan" from his pen. 
I cannot close this letter without expressing the deep indignation aroused in me 
by the base diatribes published in the London Spiritualist against your Society and 
its members. Every honest heart is irritated at such unfair treatment, especially 
when proceeding from a man of honour as Mr. Harrison (editor of The Spiritualist) 
who admits in his journal anonymous contributions that are tantamount to libels. 

With the utmost respect, I remain, Madam, 
Yours devotedly, 


Marseilles, July 29th, 18S1.] 

It is with feelings of sincere gratitude that we thank Baron Spedalieri 
for his most valuable contribution. The late Eliphas Levi was the 
most learned Kabalist and Occultist of our age in Europe, and every- 
thing from his pen is precious to us, in so far as it helps us to compare 
notes with the Eastern Occult doctrines and, by the light thrown upon 
both, to prove to the world of Spiritualists and Mystics, that the two 
systems — the Eastern Aryan, and the Western or the Chaldaeo-Jewish 
Kabalah — are one in their principal metaphysical tenets. Only, while 
the Eastern Occultists have never lost the key to their esotericism, and 
are daily verifying and elaborating their doctrines by personal experi- 
ments, and by the additional light of modern science, the Western or 
Jewish Kabalists, besides having been misled for centuries by the 
introduction of foreign elements in it such as Christian dogmas, dead- 
letter interpretations of the Bible, etc., have most undeniably lost the 
true key to the esoteric meaning of Simeon Ben Iochai's Kabalah, and 
are trying to make up for the loss by interpretations emanating from 


the depths of their imagination and inner consciousness. Such is 
evidently the case with J. K., the self-styled London "adept," whose 
anonymous and powerless vilifications of the Theosophical Society and 
its members are pertinently regarded by Baron Spedalieri as "tanta- 
mount to libels." But we have to be charitable. That poor descendant 
of the biblical Levites — as we know him to be — in his pigmy efforts to 
upset the Theosophists, has most evidently fractured his skull against 
one of his own "occult" sentences. There is one especially in The 
Spiritualist (July 22nd), to which the attention of the mystically 
inclined is drawn further down, as this paragraph is most probably the 
cause of the sad accident which befell so handsome a head. Be it as 
it may, but it now disables the illustrious J. K. from communicating 
"scientifically his knowledge" and forces him at the same time to 
remain, as he expresses it, "in an incommunicable ecstatic state." For 
it is in no other "state" that our great modern adept — the literary man 
of such a "calibre"* that to suspect him of "ignorance" becomes 
equal, in audacity, to throwing suspicion upon the virtue of Caesar's 
wife — could possibly have written the following lines, intended by him, 
we believe, as a lucid and clear exposition of his own psycho-kabalistic 
lore as juxtaposed to the "hard words," "outlandish verbiage," "moral 
and philosophical platitudes," and "jaw-breakers" of "the learned 

These are the "gems of occult wisdom" of the illustrious Jewish 
Kabalist who, like a bashful violet, hides his occult learning under two 
modest initials. 

In every human creature there lies latent in the involitional part of the being a 
sufficient quantity of the omniscient, the absolute. To induce the latent absolute, 
which is the involitional part of our volitional conscious being, to become mani- 
fest, it is essential that the volitional part of our being should become latent. 
After the preparatory purification from acquired depravities, a kind of introversion 
lias to take place; the involitional lias to become volitional, by the volitional 

* "To accuse a literary man of my calibre of ignorance, is as amusing a mistake as it would hare 
been to charge Forson of ignorance of Greek," he writes in The Spiritualist of July 8th. . . . "The 

occult is my special subject, and . . . there is but little . . . that I do not know," lie a Ids. 
Now. the above sentence settles th< question 11 once for us. .Not only no ,; adept," but no layman 
or profane of the most widely recognized intellect and ability would ever have dared, under the 
penalty of being- henceforth and for ever regarded as the most ridiculously conceited of Sjsop's 
heroes, to use such a sentence when speaking of himself! So stupidly arrogant and cowardly im- 
pertinent behind the shield of his initials has he shown himself in his transparent attacks upon far 
better and more worthy nun than himself in the- above-named Spiritualist, that it is the fir-: 
certainly the last time that we do him the honour oi noti( ing him in these columns. Our journal 
a nobler task, we trust, than to be polemizing with those, whom in vulgar parlance the world gener- 
ally terms— bullies. 


becoming involitional. When the conscious becomes semi-unconscious, the, to us, 
formerly unconscious becomes full} - conscious. The particle of the omniscient that 
is within us, the vital and growing, sleepless, involitional, occult or female prin- 
ciple being allowed to express itself in the volitional, mental, manifest, or mascu- 
line part of the human being, while the latter remains in a state of perfect passivity, 
the tw r o formerly dissevered parts become reunited as one holy (wholly) perfect 
being, and then the divine manifestation is inevitable. 

Very luckily, J. K. gives us himself the key to this grandiloquent 
gush by adding : 

Necessarily, this is only safely practicable while living in uncompromisingly firm 
purity, for otherwise there is danger of unbalancemeut— insanity, or a questionable 
form of mediumship. 

The italics are ours. Evidently with our immaculate "adept" the 
"involitional, occult or female principle" was not allowed to "express 
itself in the volitional, mental, manifest, or masculine part" of his 
being, and — behold the results! 

For the edification of our Hindu readers, who are unprogressive 
enough to refuse to read the lucubrations of J. K., or follow the mental 
"grand trapeze" performed by this remarkable "adept" on the columns 
of The Spiritualist, we may add that in the same article he informs 
his English readers that it is "Hindu mystification, acting on Western 
credulity" which "brought out the Theosophical Society." "Hindu 
philosophy," according to that great light of the nineteenth century, 
is no "philosophy" but rather "mysticism." 

Following the track of the mystifying and mystified Hindus they [the Theo- 
sophists] consider the four above faculties [Siddhis of Krishna], Anima, Mahima, 
Laghima and Garima to be the power they [we] have to strive for. 

Indeed, what a ludicrous confusion of effect with cause! The injury 
to the brain must have been serious indeed. L,et us hope that timely 
and repeated lotions of "witch-hazel" or the "universal magic balm" 
will have its good effects. Meanwhile, we turn the attention of our 
Hindu readers and students of Occultism to the identity of the doc- 
trines taught by Eliphas Eevi (who is also contemptuously sneered at, 
and sent by the "adept" to keep company with "Brothers," "Yogis," 
and "Fakirs") in every essential and vital point with those of our 
Eastern initiates. 



[Vol. III. No. 2, November, 1881.] 

Our authorities for representing the pentagram or the five-pointed 
star as the microcosm, and the six-pointed double triangle as the macro- 
cosm, are all the best known Western Kabalists — mediaeval and modern. 
Eliphas Levi (Abbe Constant) and, we believe, Kunrath, one of the 
greatest occultists of the past ages, give their reasons for it. In Har- 
grave Jennings' Rosicrucians the correct cut of the microcosm with 
man in the centre of the pentagram is given. There is no objection 
whatever to publish their speculations save one — the lack of space in 
our journal, as it would necessitate an enormous amount of explana- 
tions to make their esoteric meaning clear. But room will always be 
found to correct a few natural misconceptions which may arise in the 
minds of some of our readers, owing to the necessary brevity of our 
editorial notes. So long as the question raised provokes no discussion 
to show the interest taken in the subject, these notes touch but super- 
ficially upon every question. The excellence of the above-published 
paper ["The Six-pointed and Five-pointed Stars," by Krishna Shankar 
Lalshankar], and the many valuable remarks contained in it, afford us 
now an opportunity for correcting such errors in the author's mind. 

As understood in the West by the real Kabalists, Spirit and Matter 
have their chief symbolical meaning in the respective colours of the two 
interlaced triangles, and relate in no way to any of the lines which 
bind the figures themselves. To the Kabalist and Hermetic philo- 
sopher, everything in nature appears under a triune aspect; everything 
is a multiplicity and trinity in unity, and is so represented by him 
symbolically in various geometrical figures. "God geometrizes," says 
Plato. The "Three Kabalistic Faces" are the "Three Lights" and the 
"Three Lives" of Ain-Suph (the Parabrahman of the Westerns . 
which is also called the "Central Invisible Sun." •'The Universe i> 


his Spirit, Soul and Body," his "Three Emanations." This triune 
nature — the purely Spiritual, the purely Material, and the Middle 
nature (or imponderable matter, of which man's astral soul is com- 
posed) — is represented by the equilateral triangle, whose three sides 
are equal because these three principles are diffused throughout the 
universe in equal proportions, and — the one law in nature being per- 
fect equilibrium — are eternal and coexistent. The Western symbology 
then, with a trifling variation, is identically the same as that of the 


Aryans. Names may van', and trifling details may be added, but the 
fundamental ideas are the same. The double triangle, representing 
symbolically the macrocosm, or great universe, contains in itself the 
ideas of Unity, of Duality (as shown in the two colours, and two 
triangles — the universe of Spirit and that of Matter), of Trinity, of the 
Pythagoraean Tetraktys, the perfect Square, up to the Dodekagon and 
the Dodekahedron The ancient Chaldsean Kabalists — the masters 
and inspirers of the Jewish Kabalah — were neither the Anthropo- 
morphizes of the Old Testament, nor those of the present day. Their 
Ain-Suph — the Endless and the Boundless — "has a form and then has 
no form," says the Zohar* and forthwith explains the riddle by adding: 
"The Invisible assumed a Form when he called the Universe into 
existence." That is to say, the Deity can only be seen and conceived of 
in objective nature — pure pantheism. The three sides of the triangles 


represent to the Occultists as they do to the Aryans — Spirit, Matter, and 
the Middle nature (the latter identical in its meaning with "Space"); 
hence also the creative, preservative and destructive energies, typified in 
the "Three Lights." The first Eight infuses intelligent, conscious life 
throughout the universe, thus answering to the creative energy. The 
second Eight incessantly produces forms out of preexistent cosmic 
matter within the cosmic circle, and hence is the preservative energy. 
The third Eight produces the whole universe of gross physical matter. 
As the latter keeps gradually receding from the central spiritual Eight, 
its brightness wanes, and it becomes Darkness or Evil, leading to Death. 
Hence it becomes the destructive energy, which we find ever at work 
on forms and shapes — the temporary and the changing. The "Three 
Kabalistic Faces" of the "Ancient of the Ancient" — who "has no 


face" — are the Aryan deities called respectively Brahma, Vishnu and 
Rudra or Shiva. The double triangle of the Kabalists is enclosed 

' The Book of Splendom , written by Simeon Ben Iochai, in the first century B.C. ; according to 
others in the year a.d. So. 


within a circle represented by a serpent swallowing its own tail Cthe 
Egyptian emblem of the eternity), and sometimes by a simple circle 
(see the theosophical seal). The only difference we can see between 
the Aryan and the Western symbology of the double triangle — accord- 
ing to the author's explanation — lies in his omission to notice the 
profound and special meaning in that which, if we understand him 
rightly, he terms "the zenith and the zero." With the Western Kaba- 
lists, the apex of the white triangle loses itself in the zenith,* the 
world of pure immateriality or unalloyed Spirit, while the lower angle 
of the black triangle pointing downward towards the nadir shows — to 
use a very prosaic phrase of the mediaeval Hermetists — pure, or rather 
"impure matter," as the "gross purgations of the celestial fire" (Spirit) 
drawn into the vortex of annihilation, that lower world, where forms 
and shapes and conscious life disappear to be dispersed and return to 
the mother fount (Cosmic Matter). So with the central point and the 
central cavity, which, according to the Pauranik teaching, "is con- 
sidered to be the seat of the Avyakta Brahma, or Unmanifested 

The Occultists, who generally draw the figure thus, instead of a 
simple central geometrical point (which, 
having neither length, breadth nor 
thickness, represents the invisible " Cen- 
tral Sun," the L,ight of the "Unmani- 
fested Deity"), often place the Crux 
Ansata (the "handled cross," or the 
Egyptian Tau), at the zenith of which, 
instead of a mere upright line, they 
substitute a circle, the symbol of limit- 
less, uncreated Space. Thus modified, 
this cross has nearly the same signifi- 
cance as the "Mundane Cross" of the 
ancient Egyptian Hermetists, a cross within a circle 

Therefore, it is erroneous to say that the editorial note stated that 
the double triangle represented "Spirit and Matter only" for it repre- 
sents so many emblems that a volume would not suffice to explain 
them. Says our critic: 

* The meaning is the same in the Egyptian pyramid. A French archaeologist of -nun- renown, Dr. 
Heboid, shows the great culture of the Egyptians, 5,000 B.C., by stating upon various authorities that 
therewere at that time no less than "thirty or forty colleges of the initiated priests who studied 
occult sciences and practical magic." 



If, as you sav, the double triangle is made to represent universal spirit and matter 
only, the objection that two sides — or any two things — cannot form a triangle, or 
that a triangle cannot be made to represent one — spirit alone, or matter alone — as you 
appear tc have done by the distinction of white and black — remains unexplained. 

Believing that we have now sufficiently explained some of the diffi- 
culties, and shown that the Western Kabalists always had regard to the 
"trinity in unity" and vice versa, we may add that the Pythagoraeans 
explained away the "objection" especially insisted upon by the writer 
of the above words about 2,500 years ago. The sacred numbers of that 
school — whose cardinal idea was that there existed a permanent prin- 
ciple of Unity beneath all the forces and phenomenal changes of the 
universe — did not include the number two or the Duad among the 
others. The Pythagoreans refused to recognize that number, even as 
an abstract idea, precisely on the ground that in geometry it was im- 
possible to construct a figure with only two straight lines. It is obvious 
that for symbolical purposes the number cannot be identified with any 
circumscribed figure, whether a plane or a solid, geometric figure; and 
thus, as it could not be made to represent a unity in a multiplicity as 
any other polygonal figure can, it could not be regarded as a sacred 
number. The number two, represented in geometry by a double hori- 
zontal line =r, and in the Roman numerals by a double perpendicular 
line || , and, a line having length, but not breadth or thickness, another 
numeral had to be added to it before it could be accepted. It is only 
in conjunction with number one, thus becoming the equilateral triangle, 
that it can be called a figure. It thus becomes evident why, in sym- 
bolizing Spirit and Matter (the Alpha and Omega in the Kosmos), the 
Hermetists had to use two triangles interlaced (both a "trinity in 
unity"), making the one typifying Spirit white with chalk, and the 
other typifying Matter black with charcoal. 

To the question, what do the two other angles of the white triangle 
signify, if the one "white point ascending heavenward symbolizes 
Spirit" — we answer that, according to the Kabalists, the two lower 
points signify "Spirit falling into generation," i.e., the pure divine 
Spark already mixed with the Matter of the phenomenal world. The 
same explanation holds good for the two base angles of the black 
triangle; the third points showing respectively the progressive puri- 
fication of Spirit, and the progressive grossness of Matter. Again, to 
say that "any thought of upward or downward" in "the sublime idea 
of the Kosmos" seems "not only revolting but unreal," is to object to 


anything abstract being symbolized in a concrete image. Then win- 
not make away with all the signs altogether, including that of Vishnu 
and with all the learned Pauranik explanations thereof given by the 
writer? And why should the Kabalistic idea be more revolting than 
that of "Death, Devourer, Time," the latter word being a synonym of 
Endless Eternity — represented by a circle surrounding the double 
triangle? Strange inconsistency, and one, moreover, which clashes 
entirely with the rest of the article! If the writer has not met "any- 
where with the idea of one triangle being white and the other black," 
it is simply because he has never studied, nor probably even seen the 
writings and illustrations of Western Kabalists. 

The above explanations contain the key to the Pythagoraean general 
formula of unity in multiplicity, the One evolving the many, and per- 
vading the many and the whole. Their mystic Dekad (1+24-3+4= IO )> 
expresses the entire idea; it is not only far from being "revolting" but 
it is positively sublime. The One is the Deity; the Two Matter — the 
figure so despised by them as Matter per sc can never be a conscious 
unity.* The Three (or Triangle), combining Monad and Duad, par- 
taking of the nature of both, becomes the Triad or the phenomenal 
world. The Tetrad or sacred Tetraktys, the form of perfection with 
the Pythagoraeans, expresses at the same time the emptiness of all — 
Maya. While the Dekad, or sum of all, involves the entire Kosmos. 
"The universe is the combination of a thousand elements, and yet the 
expression of a single element — absolute harmony or spirit — a chaos to 
the sense, a perfect kosmos to reason," we say in /sis Utiveiled. 

Pythagoras learned his philosophy in India. Hence, the similarity 
in the fundamental ideas of the ancient Brahmanieal Initiates and the 
Pythagorists. And when in defining the Shatkon, the writer says it 
"represents the great universe (Brahmanda) — the whole endless Malia- 
kasha — with all the planetary and stellar worlds contained in it," he 
only repeats in other words the explanation given by Pythagoras and 
the Hermetic philosophers of the "hexagonal star or the "double 
triangle," as shown above. 

Nor do we find it very difficult to fill up the gap left in our brief note 
in the August number as to the "remaining three points of the two 
triangles," and the three sides of each element of the "double triangle" 

»6 ' 

or of the circle surrounding the figure. As the Hermetists symbolized 

* Compare hi Kapila's Sankhya— Purusha and Prakriti; only the two combun I whi n forming a 

unity can manifest themselves in this world of the senses. 



everything visible and invisible they could not fail to symbolize the 
macrocosm in its completeness. 

The Pythagoreans who included in their Dekad the entire Kosmos, 
A held the number twelve in still higher 

reverence as it represented the sacred 
Tetraktys multiplied by three, which 
, C gave a trinity of perfect squares called 
tetrads. The Hermetic philosophers or 
Occultists following in their steps re- 
presented this number twelve in the 
"double triangle" — the great universe 
or the macrocosm as shown in this 
figure — and included in it the penta- 
gram, or the microcosm, called by them 
the little universe. 

Dividing the twelve letters of the 
outer angles into four groups of triads, or three groups of tetrads, 
they obtained the Dodekagon, a regular geometric polygon, bounded 
by twelve equal sides and containing twelve equal angles, which symbol- 
ized with the ancient Chaldseans the twelve "great gods,"* and with 
the Hebrew Kabalists the ten Sephiroth, or creative powers of nature, 
emanated from Sephira (Divine Light), herself the chief Sephiroth 
and emanation from Hakoma, the Supreme (or Unmanifested) Wisdom, 
and Ain-Suph the Endless; viz., three groups of triads of the Sephiroth 
and a fourth triad, composed of Sephira, Ain-Suph and Hakoma, the 
Supreme Wisdom which "cannot be understood by reflection," and 
which "lies concealed within and without the cranium of Long Face,"f 
the uppermost head of the upper triangle forming the "Three Kabalistic 
Faces," making up the twelve. Moreover, the twelve figures give two 
squares or the double Tetraktys, representing in the Pythagorsean sym- 
bology the two worlds — the spiritual and the physical. The eighteen 
inner and six central angles yield, besides twenty-four, twice the sacred 
macrocosmic number, also the twenty-four "divine unmanifested 

* According to Haug's Aitareya Brdkmana, the Hindu Manas (Mind) or Bhagaviu creates no 
more than the Pythagoroean Monas. He enters the Egg of the World and emanates from it as 
Brahma, as itself iBhagavan) has no first cause (Apurva). Brahma, as Prajipati, manifests himself 
( as the androgyne Sephira and the ten Sephiroth) as twelve bodies or attributes which are represented 
by the twelve Gods symbolizing (i) Fire, (2) the Sun, (3) Soma, (4) all living Beings, (5) Vayu, (6) Death 
— Shiva, (7) Earth, (8) Heaven, (9) Agni, (10) Aditya, (ni Mind, (12) the great Infinite Cycle which is not 
to be stopped. This, with a few variations, is purely the Kabalistic idea of the Sephiroth. 

+ Idra Rabba. vi. 58. 


powers." These it would be impossible to enumerate in so short a 
space. Besides, it is far more reasonable in our days of scepticism to 
follow the hint of Iamblichus, who says, that "the divine powers always 
felt indignant with those who rendered manifest the composition of the 
Icosahedron," viz., those who delivered the method of inscribing in a 
sphere the Dodekahedron, one of the five solid figures in geometry, 
contained by twelve equal and regular pentagons — the secret Kabalistic 
meaning of which our opponents would do well to study. 

In addition to all this, as shown in the "double triangle" above, the 
pentagram in the centre gives the key to the meaning of the Hermetic 
philosophers and Kabalists. So well known and widespread is this 
double sign that it may be found over the entrance door of the Lha- 
khang (temples containing Buddhist images and statues), in every 
Gong-pa (lamasery), and often over the relic-cupboard, called in Tibet 

The mediaeval Kabalists give us in their writings the key to its mean- 
ing. "Man is a little world inside the great universe" — Paracelsus 
teaches. And again: "A microcosm, within the macrocosm, like a 
foetus, he is suspended by his three principal spirits in the matrix of 
the universe." These three spirits are described as double: (1) the 
spirit of the elements (terrestrial body and vital principle); (2) the 
spirit of the stars (sidereal or astral body and the will governing it); 
(3) the spirits of the spiritual world (the animal and the spiritual souls); 
the seventh principle being an almost immaterial spirit or the divine 


Augoeides, Atma, represented by the central point, which corresponds 
to the human navel. This seventh principle is the personal God of 
every man, say the old Western and Eastern Occultists. 

Therefore it is that the explanations given by our critic of the 
Shatkon and Panchkon rather corroborate than destroy our theory. 
Speaking of the five triangles composed of "five times five" or twenty- 
five points, he remarks of the pentagram that it is a "number otherwise 
corresponding with the twenty -five elements making a living human 
creature." Now we suppose that by "elements" the writer means just 
what the Kabalists say when they teach that the emanations of the 
twenty-four divine " unmanifested powers" — the "unexisting" or "cen- 
tral point" being the twenty-fifth — make a perfect human being. But 
without disputing upon the relative value of the words "element" and 
"emanation," and strengthened moreover as we find the above sen- 
tence bv the author's additional remark that "the entire figure" of the 

408 a modern panarion. 

microcosm, "the inner world of individual living being," is "a figure 
which is the sign of Brahma, the deified creative energy" — in what 
respect, we ask, does the above sentence so much clash with our state- 
ment that some proficients in Hermetic philosophy and Kabalists 
regard the five points of the pentagram as representing the five 
cardinal limbs of the human body? We are no ardent disciple or 
follower of the Western Kabalists, yet we maintain that in this they 
are right. If the twenty-five elements represented by the five-pointed 
star make up a "living human creature" then these elements are all 
vital, whether mental or physical, and the figure symbolizing "creative 
energy" gives the more force to the Kabalistic idea. Every one of the 
five gross elements — earth, water, fire, air (or "wind") and ether — 
enters into the composition of man, and whether we say "five organs 
of action" or the "five limbs" or even the "five senses," it means all 
one and the same thing, if we would refrain from hair-splitting. 

Most undoubtedly the "proficients" could explain their claim at least 
as satisfactorily as the writer who controverts and denies it, in explain- 
ing his own. In the Codex Nazarczus, the most Kabalistic of books — 
the Supreme King of Light and the chief /Eon, Mano, emanates the 
five ^Eons — he himself with the Lord Ferho (the "Unknown Formless 
Life" of which he is an emanation) making up the seven, which typify 
again the seven principles in man; the five being purely material and 
semi-material, and the higher two almost immaterial and spiritual. 
Five refulgent rays of light proceed from each of the seven ^Eons, five 
of these shooting through the head, the two extended hands, and the 
two feet of man represented in the five-pointed star, one enveloping 
him as with a mist and the seventh settling like a bright star over his 
head. The illustration may be seen in several old books upon the 
Codex Nazarceus and the Kabalah. What wonder, then, that since elec- 
tricity or animal magnetism streams most powerfully from the five 
cardinal limbs of man, and since the phenomena of what is now called 
"mesmeric" force had been studied in the temples of ancient Egypt 
and Greece, and mastered as it may never hope to be mastered in our 
age of idiotic and a priori denial, the old Kabalists and philosophers 
who symbolized every power in nature, should, for reasons perfectly 
evident for those who know anything of the arcane sciences and the 
mysterious relations which exist between numbers, figures and ideas, 
have chosen to represent "the five cardinal limbs of man" — the head, 
the two arms and the two legs — in the five points of the pentagram? 


Eliphas Levi, the modern Kabalist, goes as far, if not farther, than his 
ancient and mediaeval brethren, for, he says in his Dogme et Rituel di 
la Haute Magie (p. 175): 

The Kabalistic use of the pentagram can determine the countenance of unborn 
infants, and an initiated woman might ,yh' e to her son the features of Nereus or 
Achilles, or those of Louis XIV or Napoleon. 

The Astral Light of the Western Occultists is the Akasha of the 
Hindus. Many of the latter will not study its mysterious correlations, 
either under the guidance of initiated Kabalists or that of their own 
initiated Brahmans, preferring to Prajna Paramita — their own conceit. 
And vet both exist and are identical. 


[Vol. III. Nos. 2 and 3, November and December, 1881.] 

[Dedicated by the Translator to those sceptics who clamour so loudly, both 
in print and private letters — "Show us the wonder-working 'Brothers,' 
let them come out publicly and — we will believe in them/"'] 

[The following is an extract from M. Dostoevsky's celebrated novel, 
The Brothers Karamazof, the last publication from the pen of the great 
Russian novelist, who died a few months ago, just as the concluding 
chapters appeared in print. Dostoevsky is beginning to be recognized 
as one of the ablest and profoundest among Russian writers. His 
characters are invariably typical portraits drawn from various classes 
of Russian society, strikingly life-like and realistic to the highest 
degree. The following extract is a cutting satire on modern theology 
generally and the Roman Catholic religion in particular. The idea is 
that Christ revisits earth, coming to Spain at the period of the Inquisi- 
tion, and is at once arrested as a heretic by the Grand Inquisitor. One 
of the three brothers of the story, Ivan, a rank materialist and an 
atheist of the new school, is supposed to throw this conception into 
the form of a poem, which he describes to Alyosha — the youngest of 
the brothers, a young Christian mystic brought up by a "saint" in a 
monastery — as follows:] 

"Quite impossible, as you see, to start without an introduction," 
laughed Ivan. "Well, then, I mean to place the event described in the 
poem in the sixteenth century, an age — as you must have been told at 
school — when it was the great fashion among poets to make the deni- 
zens and powers of higher worlds descend on earth and mix freely with 
mortals. ... In France all the notaries' clerks, and the monks in 
their cloisters as well, used to give grand performances, dramatic plays 
in which long scenes were enacted by the Madonna, the angels, the 
saints, Christ, and even by God Himself. In those days, everything was 
very artless and primitive. An instance of it may be found in Victor 



Hugo's drama, No t l re Dame de Paris, where, at the Municipal Hall, a play 
called Lc Bon Jugement de la Tres-sainte et Gracieuse Vierge Marie, is 
enacted in honour of Louis XI, in which the Virgin appears personally 
to pronounce her 'good judgment.' In Moscow, during the pre- 
petrean period, performances of nearly the same character, chosen 
especially from the Old Testament, were also in great favour. Apart 
from such plays, the world was overflooded with mystical writings, 
'verses' — the heroes of which were always selected from the ranks of 
angels, saints and other heavenly citizens answering to the devotional 
purposes of the age. The recluses of our monasteries, like the Roman 
Catholic monks, passed their time in translating, copying, and even 
producing original compositions upon such subjects, and that, remem- 
ber, during the Tartar period! ... In this connection, I am re- 
minded of a poem compiled in a convent — a translation from the 
Greek, of course — called 'The Travels of the Mother of God among 
the Damned,' with fitting illustrations and a boldness of conception 
inferior nowise to that of Dante. The 'Mother of God' visits hell, 
in company with the Archangel Michael as her cicerone to guide her 
through the legions of the 'damned.' She sees them all, and is wit- 
ness to their multifarious tortures. Among the many other exceed- 
ingly remarkable varieties of torments — even' category of sinners 
having its own — there is one especially worthy of notice, namely, a 
class of the 'damned' sentenced to gradually sink in a burning lake 
of brimstone and fire. Those whose sins cause them to sink so low 
that they no longer can rise to the surface are for ever forgotten by 
God, i.e., they fade out from the omniscient memory, says the poem — 
an expression, by the way, of an extraordinary profundity of thought, 
when closely analyzed. The Virgin is terribly shocked, and falling 
down upon her knees in tears before the throne of God, begs that 
all she has seen in hell — all, all without exception, should have their 
sentences remitted to them. Her dialogue with God is colossally 
interesting. She supplicates, she will not leave Him. And when God, 
pointing to the pierced hands and feet of her Son, cries, ' How can I 
forgive His executioners?' she then commands that all the saints. 
martyrs, angels and archangels, should prostrate themselves with her 
before the Immutable and the Changeless One and implore Him to 
change His wrath into mercy and — forgive them all. The poem clo 
upon her obtaining from God a compromise, a kind of yearly respite of 
tortures between Good Fridav and Trinity, a chorus of the ■damned' 


singing loud praises to God from their 'bottomless pit,' thanking and 

telling Him: 

Thou art right, O Lord, very right, 
Thou hast condemned us justly. 

"My poem is of the same character. 

"In it, it is Christ who appears on the scene. True, He says nothing, 
but only appears and passes out of sight. Fifteen centuries have 
elapsed since He left the world with the distinct promise to return 
'with power and great glory'; fifteen long centuries since His prophet 
cried, 'Prepare ye the way of the Lord!' since He Himself had foretold, 
while yet on earth, 'Of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not 
the angels of heaven but my Father only.' But Christendom expects 
Him still. . . . 

"It waits for Kim with the same old faith and the same emotion; 
aye, with a far greater faith, for fifteen centuries have rolled away since 
the last sign from heaven was sent to man, 

And blind faith remained alone 

To lull the trusting heart, 

As heav'n would send a sign no more. 

"True, again, we have all heard of miracles being wrought ever 
since the 'age of miracles' passed away to return no more. We had, 
and still have, our saints credited with performing the most miraculous 
cures; and, if we can believe their biographers, there have been those 
among them who have been personally visited by the Queen of Heaven. 
But Satan sleepeth not, and the first germs of doubt, an ever-increas- 
ing unbelief in such wonders, already had begun to sprout in Christen- 
dom as early as the sixteenth century. It was just at that time that a 
new and terrible heresy first made its appearance in the north of Ger- 
many.'" A great star 'shining as it were a lamp . . . fell upon 
the fountains of waters' . . . and 'they were made bitter.' This 
'heresy' blasphemously denied 'miracles.' But those who had re- 
mained faithful believed all the more ardently. The tears of mankind 
ascended to Him as heretofore, and the Christian world was expecting 
Him as confidently as ever; they loved Him and hoped in Him, thirsted 
and hungered to suffer and die for Him just as many of them had done 
before. ... So many centuries had weak, trusting humanity im- 
plored Him, crying with ardent faith and fervour: 'How lone:, O Lord, 
holy and true, dost Thou not come!' So many long centuries hath it 

* Luther's reform. 


vainly appealed to Him, that at last, in His inexhaustible compassion, 
He consenteth to answer the prayer. . . . He decideth that once- 
more, if it were but for one short hour, the people — His long-suffering, 
tortured, fatally sinful, yet loving and child-like, trusting people — shall 
behold Him again. The scene of action is placed by me in Spain, at 
Seville, during that terrible period of the Inquisition, when., for the 
greater glory of God, stakes were flaming all over the country, 

Burning wicked heretics, 
In grand auto-da-fes. 

"This particular visit has, of course, nothing to do with the promised 
Advent, when, according to the programme, 'after the tribulation of 
those days,' He will appear 'coming in the clouds of heaven.' For, 
that 'coming of the Son of Man,' as we are informed, will take place as 
suddenly 'as the lightning conieth out of the east and shineth even 
unto the west.' No; this once, He desired to come unknown, and 
appear among His children, just when the bones of the heretics, sen- 
tenced to be burnt alive, had commenced crackling at the flaming 
stakes. Owing to His limitless mere}', He mixes once more with 
mortals and in the same form in which He was wont to appear fifteen 
centuries ago. He descends, just at the very moment when before 
king, courtiers, knights, cardinals, and the fairest dames of court, 
before the whole population of Seville, upwards of a hundred wicked 
heretics are being roasted, in a magnificent auto-da-fe ad majorem 
Dei gloriam, by the order of the powerful Cardinal Grand Inquisitor. 
. . . He comes silently and unannounced; yet all — how strange 
— yea, all recognize Him, at once! The population rushes towards 
Him as if propelled by some irresistible force; it surrounds, throngs, 
and presses around, it follows Him. . . . Silently, and with a smile 
of boundless compassion upon His lips, He crosses the dense crowd, 
and moves softly on. The Sun of Love burns in His heart, and warm 
rays of Light, Wisdom and Power beam forth from His eyes, and pour 
down their waves upon the swarming multitudes of the rabble assembled 
around, making their hearts vibrate with returning love. He extends 
His hands over their heads, blesses them, and from mere contact with 
Him, aye, even with His garments, a healing power goes forth. An 
old man, blind from his birth, cries, 'Lord, heal me, that I may see 
Thee!' and the scales falling off the closed eyes, the blind man beholds 
Him. . . . The crowd weeps for joy, and kisses the ground upon 
which He treads. Children strew flowers along His path and sing to 


Him, 'Hosanna!' It is He, it is Himself, they say to each other, it 
must be He, it can be none other but He! He pauses at the portal 
of the old cathedral, just as a wee white coffin is carried in, with 
tears and great lamentations. The lid is off, and in the coffin lies 
the body of a fair girl-child, seven years old, the only child of an 
eminent citizen of the city. The little corpse lies buried in flowers. 
'He will raise thy child to life!' confidently shouts the crowd to the 
weeping mother. The officiating priest who had come to meet the 
funeral procession, looks perplexed, and frowns. A loud cry is suddenly 
heard, and the bereaved mother prostrates herself at His feet. 'If it be 
Thou, then bring back my child to life ! ' she cries beseechingly. The 
procession halts, and the little coffin is gently lowered at His feet. 
Divine compassion beams forth from His eyes, and as He looks at the 
child, His lips are heard to whisper once more, "Talitha Cumi' — and 
'straightway the damsel arose.' The child rises in her coffin. Her 
little hands still hold the nosegay of white roses which after death was 
placed in them, and, looking round with large astonished eyes she 
smiles sweetly. . . . The crowd is violently excited. A terrible 
commotion rages among them, the populace shouts and loudly weeps, 
when suddenly, before the cathedral door, appears the Cardinal Grand 
Inquisitor himself. . . . He is a tall, gaunt-looking old man of 
nearly fourscore years and ten, with a stern, withered face, and deeply 
sunken eyes, from the cavity of which glitter two fiery sparks. He 
has laid aside his gorgeous cardinal's robes in which he had appeared 
before the people at the auto-da-fe of the enemies of the Romish 
Church, and is now clad in his old, rough, monkish cassock. His 
sullen assistants and slaves of the 'holy guard' are following at a 
distance. He pauses before the crowd and observes. He has seen all. 
He has witnessed the placing of the little coffin at His feet, the calling 
back to life. x\nd now, his dark, grim face has grown still darker; his 
bushy grey eyebrows nearly meet, and his sunken eye flashes with 
sinister light. Slowly raising his finger, he commands his minions to 
arrest Him. . . . 

"Such is his power over the well-disciplined, submissive and now 
trembling people, that the thick crowds immediately give way, and 
scattering before the guard, amid dead silence and without one breath 
of protest, allow them to lay their sacrilegious hands upon the stranger 
and lead Him away. . . . That same populace, like one man. now 
bows its head to the ground before the old Inquisitor, who blesses it 


and slowly moves onward. The guards conduct their prisoner to the 
ancient building of the Holy Tribunal; pushing Him into a narrow, 
gloomy, vaulted prison-cell, they lock Him in and retire. . . . 

"The day wanes, and night — a dark, hot, breathless Spanish night — 
creeps on and settles upon the city of Seville. The air smells of laurels 
and orange blossoms. In the Cimmerian darkness of the- old Tribunal 
Hall the iron door of the cell is suddenly thrown open, and the Grand 
Inquisitor, holding a dark lantern, slowly stalks into the dungeon. He 
is alone, and, as the heavy door closes behind him, he pauses at the 
threshold, and, for a minute or two, silently and gloomily scrutinizes 
the Face before him. At last, approaching with measured steps, he 
sets his lantern down upon the table and addresses Him in these 
words : 

"Tt is Thou! . . . Thou!' . . . Receiving no reply, he rapidly 
continues: 'Xay, answer not; be silent! . . And what couldst 

Thou say? ... I know but too well Thy answer. . . . Besides, 
Thou hast no right to add one syllable to that which was already 
uttered by Thee before. . . . Why shouldst Thou now return, to 
impede us in our work? For Thou hast come but for that only, and 
Thou knowest it well. But art Thou as well aware of what awaits 
Thee in the morning? I do not know, nor do I care to know who 
Thou mayest be: be it Thou or only Thine image, to-morrow I will 
condemn and burn Thee on the stake, as the most wicked of all the 
heretics; and that same people, who to-day were kissing Thy feet, to- 
morrow at one bend of my finger, will rush to add fuel to Thv funeral 
pile. . . Wert Thou aware of this?' he adds, speaking as if in 

solemn thought, and never for one instant taking his piercing glance 
off the meek Face before him." . 

"I can hardly realize the situation described — what is all this, Ivan?" 
suddenly interrupted Alyosha, who had remained silently listening to 
his brother. "Is this an extravagant fancy, or some mistake of the 
old man, an impossible quid pro quo?" 

"Let it be the latter, if you like," laughed Ivan, "since modern 
realism has so perverted your taste that you feel unable to realize any- 
thing from the world of fancy. . . . Let it be a quid pro quo. if you 
so choose it. Again, the Inquisitor is ninety years old, and he might 
have easily gone mad with his one idiefixeoi power; or, it might have- 
as well been a delirious vision, called forth by dying fancy, overheated 
by the auto-da-fe of the hundred heretics in that forenoon. . . . But 


what matters for the poem, whether it was a quid pro quo or an uncon- 
trollable fancy? The question is, that the old man has to open his 
heart; that he must give out his thought at last; and that the hour has 
come when he does speak it out, and says loudly that which for ninety 
years he has kept secret within his own breast." . . . 

"And his prisoner, does He never reply? Does He keep silent, 
looking at him, without saying a word?" 

"Of course; and it could not well be otherwise," again retorted Ivan. 
"The Grand Inquisitor begins from his very first words by telling Him 
that He has no right to add one syllable to that which He had said 
before. To make the situation clear at once, the above preliminary 
monologue is intended to convey to the reader the very fundamental 
idea which underlies Roman Catholicism — as well as I can convey it, 
his words mean, in short: 'Everything was given over by Thee to the 
Pope, and everything now rests with him alone; Thou hast no business 
to return and thus hinder us in our work.' In this sense the Jesuits 
not only talk but write likewise. 

"'Hast thou the right to divulge to us a single one of the mysteries 
of that world whence Thou comest?' enquires of Him my old Inquisitor, 
and forthwith answers for Him, 'Nay, Thou hast no such right. For, 
that would be adding to that which was already said by Thee before; 
hence depriving people of that freedom for which Thou hast so stoutly 
stood up while yet on earth. . Anything new that Thou wouldst 

now proclaim would have to be regarded as an attempt to interfere 
with that freedom of choice, as it would come as a new and a miraculous 
revelation superseding the old revelation of fifteen hundred years ago, 
when Thou didst so repeatedly tell the people: "The truth shall make 
you free." Behold then, Thy "free" people now!' adds the old man 
with sombre irony. 'Yea! . . . it has cost us dearly,' he continues, 
sternly looking at his victim. 'But we have at last accomplished our 
task, and — in Thy ?iamc. . . . For fifteen long centuries we had to toil 
and suffer owing to that "freedom"; but now we have prevailed and 
our work is done, and well and strongly it is done. . . . Believest 
not Thou it is so very strong? . . . And why shouldst Thou look 
at me so meekly as if I were not worthy even of Thy indignation? 
. . . Know then, that now, and only now, Thy people feel fully sure 
and satisfied of their freedom; and that only since they have them- 
selves and of their own free will delivered that freedom unto our hands 
by placing it submissively at our feet. But then, that is what we have 


done. Is it that which Thou hast striven for? Is this the kind of 
<* freedom" Thou hast promised them?'" . . . 

"Now again, I do not understand," interrupted Alyosha. "Does the 
old man mock and laugh?" 

"Not in the least. He seriously regards it as a great service clone 
by himself, his brother monks and Jesuits, to humanity, to have con- 
quered and subjected unto their authority that freedom, and boasts that 
it was done but for the good of the world. 'For only now,' he says 
(speaking of the Inquisition) 'has it become possible to us, for the first 
time, to give a serious thought to human happiness. Man is born a rebel, 
and can rebels be ever happy? . . . Thou hast been fairly warned 
of it, but evidently to no use, since Thou hast rejected the only means 
which could make mankind happy; fortunately at Thy departure Thou 
hast delivered the task to us. , . . Thou hast promised, ratifying 
the pledge by Thy own words, in words giving us the right to bind and 
unbind . . . and surely, Thou couldst not think of depriving us of 
it now!'" 

"But what can he mean by the words, 'Thou hast been fairly 
warned'?" asked Alexis. 

"These words give the key to what the old man has to say for his 
justification. . . But listen — 

"'The terrible and wise spirit, the spirit of self-annihilation and non- 
being,' goes on the Inquisitor, 'the great spirit of negation conversed 
with Thee in the wilderness, and we are told that he "tempted" Thee. 
. . . Was it so? And if it were so, then it is impossible to utter 
anything more truthful that what is contained in his three offers, which 
Thou didst reject, and which are usually called "temptations." Yea; 
if ever there was on earth a genuine, striking wonder produced, it was 
on that clay of Thy three temptations, and it is precisely in these three 
short sentences that the marvellous miracle is contained. If it were 
possible that they should vanish and disappear for ever, without leaving 
any trace, from the record and from the memory of man, and that it 
should become necessary again to devise, invent, and make them re- 
appear in Thy history once more, thinkest Thou that all the world's 
sages, all the legislators, initiates, philosophers and thinkers, if called 
upon to frame three questions which should, like these, besides answer- 
ing the magnitude of the event, express in three short sentences the 
whole future history of this our world and of mankind— dost Thou 
believe, I ask Thee, that all their combined efforts could ever create 



am'thing equal in power and depth of thought to the three propositions 
offered Thee by the powerful and all-wise spirit in the wilderness? 
Judging of them by their marvellous aptness alone, one can at once 
perceive that they emanated not from a finite, terrestrial intellect, but 
indeed, from the Eternal and the Absolute. In these three offers we 
find, blended into one and foretold to us, the complete subsequent 
history of man; we are shown three images, so to say, uniting in them 
all the future axiomatic, insoluble problems and contradictions of 
human nature, the world over. In those days, the wondrous wisdom 
contained in them was not made so apparent as it is now, for futurity 
remained still veiled; but now, when fifteen centuries have elapsed, we 
see that everything in these three questions is so marvellously fore- 
seen and foretold, that to add to, or to take away from, the prophecy 
one jot, would be absolutely impossible! 

'"Decide then Thyself,' sternly proceeded the Inquisitor, 'which of 
ye twain was right: Thou who didst reject, or he who offered? Remem- 
ber the subtle meaning of question the first, which runs thus: Wouldst 
Thou go into the world empty-handed? Wouldst Thou venture thither 
with Thy vague and undefined promise of freedom, which men, dull 
and unruly as they are by nature, are unable so much as to understand, 
which they avoid and fear? — for never was there anything more unbear- 
able to the human race than personal freedom! Dost Thou see these 
stones in the desolate and glaring wilderness? Command that these 
stones be made bread — and mankind will run after Thee, obedient and 
grateful like a herd of cattle. But even then it will be ever diffident 
and trembling, lest Thou shouldst take away Thy hand, and they lose 
thereby their bread! Thou didst refuse to accept the offer for fear of 
depriving men of their free choice; for where is there freedom of 
choice where men are bribed with bread? Man shall not live by bread 
alone — was Thine answer. Thou knewest not, it seems, that it was 
precisely in the name of that earthly bread that the terrestrial spirit 
would one day rise against, struggle with, and finally conquer Thee, 
followed by the hungry multitudes shouting: "Who is like unto that 
Beast, who maketh fire come down from heaven upon the earth!" 
Knowest Thou not that, but a few centuries hence, and the whole of 
mankind will have proclaimed in its wisdom and through its mouth- 
piece, Science, that there is no more crime, hence no more sin on earth, 
but only hungry people? "Feed us first and then command us to be 
virtuous!" will be the words written upon the banner lifted against 


Thee — a banner which shall destroy Thy Church to its very founda- 
tions, and in the place of Thy Temple shall raise once more the terrible 
Tower of Babel; and though its building be left unfinished, as was 
that of the first one, yet the fact will remain recorded that Thou 
couldst, but wouldst not, prevent the attempt to build that new tower 
by accepting the offer, and thus saving mankind a millennium of use- 
less suffering on earth. And it is to us that the people will return 
again. They will search for us everywhere; and they will find us 
under ground in the catacombs, as we shall once more be persecuted 
and martyred — and they will begin crying unto us: "Feed us, for they 
who promised us the fire from heaven have deceived us!" It is then 
that we will finish building their tower for them. For they alone who 
feed them shall finish it, and we shall feed them in Thy name, and 
lying to them that it is in that name. Oh, never, never, will they learn 
to feed themselves without our help! No science will ever give them 
bread so long as they remain free, so long as they refuse to lay that 
freedom at our feet, and say. "Enslave, but feed us!" That day must 
come when men will understand that freedom and daily bread enough 
to satisfy all are unthinkable and can never be had together, as men 
will never be able to fairly divide the two among themselves. And 
they will also learn that they can never be free, for they are weak, 
vicious, miserable nonentities born wicked and rebellious. Thou hast 
promised to them the bread of life, the bread of heaven, but I ask 
Thee again, can that bread ever equal in the sight of the weak and the 
vicious, the ever-ungrateful human race, their daily bread on earth? 
And even supposing that thousands and tens of thousands follow Thee 
in the name of, and for the sake of, Thy heavenly bread, what will 
become of the millions and hundreds of millions of human beings too 
weak to scorn the earthly for the sake of Thy heavenly bread? Or is 
it but those tens of thousands chosen among the great and the mighty, 
that are so dear to Thee, while the remaining millions, innumerable as 
the grains of sand in the seas, the weak and the loving, have to be 
used as material for the former? No, no! In our sight and for our 
purpose the weak and the lowly are the more dear to us. True, they 
are vicious and rebellious, but we will force them into obedience, and 
it is they who will admire us the most. They will regard us as gods, 
and feel grateful to those who have consented to lead the masses and 
bear their burden of freedom by ruling over them— so terrible will 
that freedom at last appear to men! Then we will tell them that it is 


in obedience to Thy will and in Thy name that we rule over them. 
We will deceive them once more and lie to them once again — for never, 
never more will we allow Thee to come among us. In this deception 
we will find our suffering, for we must needs lie eternally, and never 
cease to lie ! 

"'Such is the secret meaning of "temptation" the first, and that is 
what Thou didst reject in the wilderness for the sake of that freedom 
which Thou didst prize above all. Meanwhile Thy tempter's offer con- 
tained another great world-mystery. By accepting the "bread," Thou 
wouldst have satisfied and answered a universal craving, a ceaseless 
longing alive in the heart of every individual human being, lurking in 
the breast of collective mankind, that most perplexing problem — "whom 
or what shall we worship?" There exists no greater or more painful 
anxiety for a man who has freed himself from all religious bias, than 
how he shall soonest find a new object or idea to worship. But man 
seeks to bow before that only which is recognized by the greater 
majority, if not by all his fellow-men, as having a right to be wor- 
shipped; whose rights are so unquestionable that men agree unani- 
mously to bow down to it. For the chief concern of these miserable 
creatures is not to find and worship the idol of their own choice, but to 
discover that which all others will believe in, and consent to bow down 
to in a mass. It is that instinctive need of having a worship in common 
that is the chief suffering of every man, the chief concern of mankind 
from the beginning of times. It is for that universality of religious 
worship that people destroyed each other by sword. Creating gods 
unto themselves, they forthwith began appealing to each other: "Aban- 
don yo ur deities, come and bow down to ours, or death to ye and your 
idols!" And so will they do till the end of this world; they will do so 
even then, when all the gods themselves have disappeared, for then 
men will prostrate themselves before and worship some idea. Thou 
didst know, Thou couldst not be ignorant of, that mysterious funda- 
mental principle in human nature, and still Thou hast rejected the 
only absolute banner offered Thee, to which all the nations would 
remain true, and before which all would have bowed — the banner of 
earthly bread, rejected in the name of freedom and of "bread in the 
kingdom of God"! Behold, then, what Thou hast done furthermore 
for that "freedom's" sake! I repeat to Thee, man has no greater 
anxiety in life than to find some one to whom he can make over that 
gift of freedom with which the unfortunate creature is born. But he 


alone will prove capable of silencing and quieting their consciences 
that shall succeed in possessing himself of the freedom of men. With 
"daily bread" an irresistible power was offered Thee: show a man 
"bread" and he will follow Thee, for what can he resist less than the 
attraction of bread? but if, at the same time, another succeed in 
possessing himself of his conscience — oh! then even Thy bread will 
be forgotten, and man will follow him who seduced his conscience. So 
far Thou wert right. For the mystery of human being does not solely 
rest in the desire to live, but in the problem — for what should one live 
at all? Without a clear perception of his reasons for living, man will 
never consent to live, and will rather destroy himself than tarry on 
earth, though he be surrounded with bread. This is the truth. But 
what has happened? Instead of getting hold of man's freedom, Thou 
hast enlarged it still more! Hast Thou again forgotten that to man rest 
and even death are preferable to a free choice between the knowledge 
of Good and Evil? Nothing seems more seductive in his eyes than 
freedom of conscience, and nothing proves more painful. And behold ! 
instead of lajung a firm foundation whereon to rest once for all man's 
conscience, Thou hast chosen to stir up in him all that is abnormal, 
mysterious, and indefinite, all that is beyond human strength, and hast 
acted as if Thou never hadst any love for him, and yet Thou wert He 
who came to "lay down His life for His friends"! Thou hast burdened 
man's soul with anxieties hitherto unknown to him. Thirsting for 
human love freely given, seeking to enable man, seduced and charmed 
by Thee, to follow Thy path of his own free-will, instead of the old and 
wise law which held him in subjection, Thou hast given him the right 
henceforth to choose and freely decide what is good and bad for him,