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Univerfal Hiftory, 


Eadkft Account of Time, 


Original Writers. 

ByAc Authors rftbc Am T I emtPaet. 

VOL. vm. 


Krioted for S. Richardson, T. Osborkb, '* ~ 
A. Millar* John Rivihotoh, S. *' 
P.DatRT andB.LAW,T.Ix>MOMAN, an 

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Univerfal Hiftory, 

Ettlieft AccovNT of Ts»iit. 

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Univerfal Hiftory, 


Earlidl Account of Time. 

CoiB|Mled aom 

Original Writers. 

By the AuTHO-Rs of the Antient Pakt, 

«i I I IlilhJ**— ^—h^h^i. 

VOL. vm. 



^"?'^/°' ^ R»chArdsok, T. Osborwb, C, Hitch, 
A. MtLLA&« John Rivinoton, S. Crowder, 
P. DAVtT and B. Law, T. Ix>noman, and C. Ware. 

M-Dccxix. ■ nTT^lr 

-*. . * V,. 


by Google 


Modem Hiftoiy.* 

B £ I N G A 



Univerial Hiftory. 


C H A P. L 

The Empire of China^ 

S E C Ty I. 
A general View of the Chinefe Empire. 

THIS vaft and opulent empire is fituate on the mofl h$fitum* 
eaftem verge A Afia ; and comprehends, as hath Hon^ tx» 
been already hinted^ the kingdom of China, pro- tent^^ tec. 
perly fo called, and the Chinefe , or, as it is fome- « 
times ftyled, Great Tartary. We have formerly given a 
^lort account of its foundation, antient flate, extent, reli« ' 
pon, laws, ifc. as far as it could be attained from antient 
authors and records * ; and have brought down their hiftory 
to thdr ninth monarch Shim ; in whole £unily the crown be- 
ing become hereditary, we thought it the propereft period to 
b^gin the modem one^. In thofe early days this monarchy y/ir///ji/ 


* See Univ. Hift. vol. xx. p. 109, & feq. ^ Ibid. p. 150. 

♦ The reader is defired to oKcrvc*,*that, by miftakc, Book I. 
is inferted in the title line of thp. even pages of this volume, from 
page 4 to page jii Inclaiive, inftead of Book XII J. 

Mod. Hist. Yoj,. Yin. A was 


by Google 

2 TbeHiJlifyofChiML. B. XIII. 

was confined withia narrow bounds, or perhaps within the 
Croivtb, compafs of one finslc province* ; whofe firft colonies, having^ 
once planted themlelves in it, feem to have taken fuch care 
to bar all the ave^es to it from the ref^of mankind,^ as 
never to be^^peiTEd'to afiy brit ambSIlfflbrs froth othar'ftates ; 
by which' mkans they had n6t oniy Wr poffifele opf)ortiimtics 
of extendhig their dominions, founding then- government, and 
improving arts and fciences frorii thefeadieft times ; and have 
fo far fpread themfelves, as to become the noblell and largeft 

raonftrchy hitherftrdifiovered'^, arid to be luftly eftegfted th^ 
rifc!iiil,largeft, aiid m&ftpopirfloui5,of any tlmt isTKy^g^vernca 
by one prince. Its whole extent^^ from the fortrefs of Cay- 
pirn, in the province of Pe-king, fit(iate^ under the 41ft degree, 
to the moft fouthejn part of the ifland of Hay-na^^ under the 
1 8th degree of nortl| latittfde,* is 2\ degree?, ^rpm ncffthTto 
foutfr. llicrer are feVeiil othef w%5^ dp^tepdiogite \ength 
ancfbAadlfh to more advantage, which the reader may lee in 
Form and xh& margin (A). However, according to the beft and latefl 


« Univ. Hi(h* p.'i24^,(K). < t)i/HAVDE, vol. i. p. i. 

(A) To compute the whole German, or 1269 of our miles, 
extent of this large cbuTitry iq An(| ff ifte meafured from the 
length and breadth, the former town oT Tct^rxhnvan^ iituace on 
mull be taken froirf the north- the' utmoR eaftern verge of 
eadern frontier-town of-Xag- Lyau-toftg, on. the frontiers of 
javeftf in the province o^Lya^'^ Areh, -quite to that of Tfing^ 
toffg, unto the lad city of that of , tau^ on the moft weftf rn part of 
T'unnanyCz\ttdCJbytnU^ei»*/znd: th^Yi^^irite of "S/^*/?, it will 
theft its greateff length wiH be he JliD cpnfid^rably >vi4exX j).i». 

' about 4po Ger^AaH; or i 660 En'" Falfier'X^ Cmftt; vTho fop-^ 
gJiJh miies ; to which if ore add poied the Cfnn^e entire t{j be 
the ifland of i//7j?-««>r, which cinmfaf, gavie it ftill a morjjBx- 
likewHe belongs -to Ghlna, and- tenJvcbrcadtR ; tho'^^he agreed, 
liesfouthof,^tt/ii?^-/o«jr,orCi7«- in ,ttie iijaHi,.?s. to i^^ lengl;^., 
tvHj two degrees, or 1 20 miles. But it hath been fully prpved by ; 
moYemuft be added to its length.' new furveys to be of an oval 

- J<s br fta dth - may b aa t( (ft tfret ft h; ■i fefiB ' i f mdi confeque ntljCyihat 
cd to a greater extent, by mea- its breajth, where broadeft^ 
furing it from the town of JV/w- came fhort of its length 6y fotne- . 
po^ a fea-pojft to;\;n in the pro- whkt above a fourth p'art (2) ; ' 
vince of Che-kyang^' to i\it ot- that is, that it extends itfelf .fo-' 
moll boundary of that of Se- much farther from north to 
chuai^ or Su'chuei^i by which fouth, than- fi^oin eaft to weft 
it will amount to about 315 (3). 

HaiJe, MigJiHan, Cf ai , ^3} Dh Hs.'Jc, p. 2. 

S forveys, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I fOTCfs, h is fooad to be not of a drcular, but oval figtii^ 

' otcDdiag moft from north^to Ibutb, as was hinted in the 
note; and that its leaft extent, which way foever meafnred ia 
aAnutliae, anouats to 360 leagues/ of 20 to a (kffree, or 
to6o of our miles ^ The moft recent writer ^ves it ftill a 
greater extent ; viz. 34 degrees from north to iouth, or 680 
kagoes; and conflderably above 300 from csil toweft^ evea 
wiirc it is narroweft ; fo that, according to him, the whole 
drcoitof it extends above 1800 leagues f ; but upon what 
sew difcoveries he founds his dimenfions, we are not told. 
CHINA is bounded oa the north by Tartary; from which Boundm^, 

'it k parted by the famous Cbinefe wall, of which we ihall give ria. 
afblfer account in its proper place ; and, on tlie eaft, by the 
pftera or Chine/e ocean ; on the fouth, by the fouthern or 
hdian fea ; and, on the weft, by a vafl fandy defart, arfd a 
loag ridge of inacceiSble mountains, which divide it from 
>»efiena Tartary and the kingdoms of Tibet ^ &c. It contains Pro^incifj. 
fifteen provinces (exclufive <rf that of Lyau^tong^ which is 
iitaate wi^om the great wall, tho* under the &me dominion) ; 

'each (rf which nrght, for their largenefs, fertility, populouf-- 
ncfs, and opulence, pafs for fo many diftinft kingdoms. 
Thdr names and fite are as follows : i. Shen-Ji ; 2. Shan-Jii 
^d, 3. Pe-ckeli ; which extend themfelves on the north, ialong 
theCio^ wall- Four more are iituate along the eaftern ocean ; 
W. 4. Sban-tcmg ; 5. Kyan-nang ; 6. Che-kyang ; and, 7. Fo^ 
fyen. Four odiers ftretch themfelves towards the fouth and 
^; viz. 8. ^uang-tong; 9. ^^ng-Ji, 10. Tu-nan; and, 
". Sc^huen. The four laft, viz. 12. Ho-nan; 13. ffu" 
Vf^gl 14. ^uey-chew; and, 15. Kyang'fi\ take up the 
midfie part : of all which, as wdl as of that of Lyau-tong^ 
v^e ftall ^ve a fuller account In a proper place, according tp 


* Du Hauȣ, v(rf. i p: a. See alfo Macaillan, Le-; 
coyPTE, M ARXiNifiRB, & al. t Hift. de la Chine, vol. i, 

(B) It will not be improper who have written oftliis country) 

here to apprife oar readers,.once we have folio Nved the judicioua 

ferall, that in the orthography Eaglijh tranflater of 1 ather Dn 

of thcfe provinces, and all Halde^ who hath taken no fmall 

oAcrs, proper names of men, pains to reduce it, as near as 

tiues, y^ , (which arc fo differ- was poflible, to the Inglljh idiom 

tfltlj fpdt by all the authors (4), both in. the n-aps,'iand in. 

(4) Stt hii fftfaa to that ^.trk, ^, «, & fifj 

As ^h^ 


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? \ ne Hijiory .of Chirn: B- !• 

Climate. As China extends fo far from fouih to north, as from tlie 
' fccond to the fifth climate, fo mufl its temperature vary ac» 

cordlngly. The difference of the length *of its days is little 
more than four hours ; the longefl, in the moft northern 
parts, being about fourteen hours and three quarters ; and 
the ihortcft, in the moft fouthern, about tenhburs and three 
quarters ; and the nights proportionably ^ It is, however. 

' Vid. Magaillan, Lecompte, Mahtinieri, &al. 
DON gram, part ii, ch. 2. fed. 2. 

the body of the work. The 
power and found of the Chinefe 
Utters, vowels as well as confo- 
nants, differ fo vaftly from thofe 
of Eurepe, that thofe authors 
have fpiitthemfelvcs into an al- 
moft irreconcileable, as well as 
unintelligibUydiiTonancy, ill en- 
dfeavouring to convey thofe 
founds«> which can only be 
Caught by the ear, by fuch let- 
ters of their refpe£tive alpha- 
bets as they thought came near- 
eSi to them : fo that, confider- 
ing the vaft difference of pro- 
nunciation between moil Euro- 
fean nations, it was impoffiblc 
for them to convey thofe lounds, 
without fpelling them each ac- 
cording to the pronun- 
ciation of his own country : and 
hence proceeds that vaft differ- 
ence ot writing the fame name 
between the Spaniards^ Portu- 
gneffe^ Englijh^ French ^ Italians^ 
High 2inQ Lonv Dutch, &C. 

What adds flill more to this 
variety, is. the number of let- 
ters, or founds, peculiar to the 
Xlmnefe ; to which none of our 
European alphabets afford us any 
thing equivalent, or even ap- 
proaching to. This peculiarity, 
moreover, extends itfelf not on- 
ly to vowels and confonanti, 
but much more with refpeft to 
fome of their j^utturals and coro- 
pouid letters ;inftances of which 
the reader may fee in great num- 
bers in the preface aJbove-men- 
liE>ned But, with refped to 


the gutturals, we .(hall b^ ta 
fubjoin a fingular one, wnich 
that ingenious author hath not 
tdken notice of, but which hath 
been a pregnant caufe of this 
variety of Ipellings. 

TheChine/e language abounds 
in gutturals, which few of our' 
police Europeans have. One of 
them, in particulair, is fo deep 
and harfii, that neither the He^ 
hreWf Chaldee^ Syriac, Greeks or 
any other tongue, except per- 
haps the Arabic, \izvt anythhig 
anfwerabletoit. This the .J^ii- 
nijh zxiAPortugurfe expreffed, as 
well as they could, by their X, 
which, with them, ispronounced 
gutturally, tho' nothing fo deep. 
But as that letter hath a 4aite 
different found among other 
European nations, each of them 
was forced to fubditute fonie 
other to it, fuch as feemed to 
them to come neareft to the ori- 
ginal ; fome by a i, others by a 
r, others by cht ^c. And hence, 
to prevent all confufion and 
mifunderflanding, as much as 
poifible, we (hafi not only con- 
fine onrfelves to the orthography 
above-named, a^ the moft ad- 
apted to our Englip pronuncia- 
tion 5 but (hall likewife, when- 
ever it differs fo much from any . 
ocher authors quoted in the fe« 
quel, give thofe names accord- 
ing to their own way of writ- 
jpg it, that there may be no 
doubt about our meaning the 
fame perfon or place. 



by Google 

C I. ^e Btfiory of China. 

generally reckoned very moderate^ except only towards the 
north, where the cold is extremely piercings not fo much from 
its northern iite, as from the ridges of mountains that inter-, 
thofe parts, and are vafUy high, and moftly covered with deep 
ibows. £vea in thofe parts which run under the tropics, the 
viods that blow thither from the large and mountainous parts 
of Tartary^ make the cold weather exceeding piercing and 
fevcre during the three, and fomciimcs four, winter months (C). 
The fouthem parts, on the other hand, muft be fuppofed to 
be exceeding hot and dry, the n^ju-er they draw towards the 
tropic, or extend beyond ^t ; but thofe heats are the siore ea- 
% borne by the help of their fine cooling grottoes, groves^ 
cooling (hades, and other refrefhing retirements, to which 
they rejpair during the heat of the day ; at which time there 
is the lame univerfal filence, and ceflation from bufmefs, as . 
if it was midnight. Thefe fouthem parts have indeed neither 
froil not (now ; but they are much troubled with (lorms, and 
violent rains, about the time of the equinoxes, efpecially the 
autumnal, which is all the ^nter they have ; all the reft of 
the year being crowned wth a ferene (ky, and a moft de- 
lightful verdure. Upon the whole, it is univerfally owned by Hwv tm 
thole who have vifited that large empire, that where natur* fro%/td. 
hath been moft unequal in the^ diftributjon of her gifts, the 
Chinefe indufh-y hath fo far fupplicd that defeft, by levelling 
whole ridges of mountains in feme provinces, and raifmg of 
artificial ones in others ; by providing proper fences againft 
exce(five colds in fome, and heats ,and droughts in odiers ; 
and by varying their agriculture, their manuring, planting, 
and fowing, according to the different foils and climates, that 
every fpot almoft of that vaft territory produces more thati 
enou^ to make its inhabitants rich and happy, and the whole 
country delightful and fertile,, populous, healthy, and opu- 
lent ; all which is farther improved by the vaft number of 
canals cut from one river to another^ and the innumerable 

(C) This would hardly be us, that the froft was fo fevere 

credited, were it not confirmed in January and February^ that he 

to HIS by moft' travellers that was forced to lie by till the ice 

liave vifited thofe parts at the Could be broken for his pai^e 

cold feafon, and particularly by over the river Hoamha ; which, 

Y^JiJasx Le Compte I who, in the though one of the largeft ia 

relation he gives of his journey C^/«a, was then, almoii frozen 

from Nimpo lo fe-king^ afiures over (s]% '< 

(5) iMttr }ft, tkifn^ VU. ST Martini^ Ma^atllan^ Du Halde, & aK 

A 3 carriages. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


carnages they ke^p up by laod, by which each cantoa naay 
eafily comnaianic^te its own peculiar produd to all the reft, a^ 
we ihall fee more fully in the fequel. 

Upon all thefe ac<;ounts, the Chinefe entertained fuch extra- 
ordinary notions of themfelves and country, that they Icxjitoed. 
upon all the reft of the wprld, and its inhabitantSi with th»e 
utmoft contempt (D), . efpecialiy till they became better ao- 
quainted with the Europeans^ or even till their laft cooqueft 
by the Tartars. We have formerly fpoken of the various 
naines which antient authojcs, and the neighbouring naticMis, 

(D) The advantages which 
they had over thofe neighbonr- 
Ing nations they knew or heard 
of, appeared fo confiderable to 
them,' that they looked upon 
themfelves as the only favourites 
of hcavcfi, afid all the reft of 
mankind as barbarians, whom 
they reprefentedas dwarfs, mon- 
gers, ,and contemptible crea- 
tures. They looked upon their 
country to be placed in the cen- 
tre of the earth ; and themfelves 
ts the only people who had a 
Oman form, Me, and fhape t 
whilft all the other nations, or 
tEiiig4oms, which they made to 
jamount to Ceventy-two, were 
fcattered about in fmall idands, 
wifthout any order ; the biggcft 
of which, according to thjejir 
maps, was not fo large as the 
lean of the Chinefe provinces ; 
and thcfe were ftiick up found 
their empire (to which they gave 
■& fjuadrangular form), as fa 
many nut- fhells, or fmall fatel- 
lite« attendijng on their gr««t 
planet, and deiigned on^ to 
ferve anS adorn ifi. I'hey gave 
indeed the preference to mcir 
.four neighbouring kingdoms 'Of 
fartary, Japan, Tofig-king^^n^ 
Korean whom, riiou^ they Aili 

ftyled barbarians, they imagined 
to have received fome conuder- 
able improvements by their vi- 
cinity to China 5 but as to the 
red, they were looked upon as 
outcafls into the extreme parts 
of the earth, as the drofs and 
refafe of nature 5 and chara- 
fterifed them accordingly, in 
their 'maps, with foch emblems 
as were apteft to iafpire their na- 
tion with difdain and contempt 
of -them (6). 

It was therefore no fcnall 
matter of wonder to them,when^ 
upon their coming acquainted 
with the Europeans^ they not 
only fofind them as pdi^ and 
k-ational as thanie4ves, but fsr 
faperior |o them in aU kinls of 
leariung : rieither could chcfr 
conceive how it wa-s |)offible iot 
them to havie arrived to fudi a 
perfetlion in all fcienf:es, with* 
out the afliftance of their own 
writings ; fo that they, who, till 
then, had looked upon thcm- 
-felves as the only people wbom 
heav«n had ble€ed with eyes, 
Wh^lt all the reft of mankind 
were left to gKope In tlie dark, 
were now forced to allew the 
Eutvpeans to have one eye at 
leaft (7). 

(6) MMrtifti, Mazailhn, Du Haldi, & al, Vid. et Lt CompU^ htter 5. iVj- 
varetu^ La Martinme fub vCf, Du Hal*?. ® */. W/. (l) U Qmti, 

ubijup* l2f al» fup, citat, ' 


by Google 

C f . the Bifiary «/ Chbuu ^ 

five .to Ais country ^ that of Chong-qm^ t>y wWdi thcjr 
cfaeniel^es flyle it, jSgaJfies tie king£m rf the miJJk, they 
f^pof^ it C0 be fittiate in ^he^eacre of the ^^rld : to this 
tliqriK>t only joined (he names of the l^ad <^ each dynafty, 
as^ea as the goirenuiieBt pafed fit>m one £umly to another, 
aa accoant of wlacfa the reader wiU iee in tfie 4bUowing 
mjtt (£) ; but added Itkcwife foBie fompois ^le to the gua^ Pomp99s 
wliich i^oifies a kmgdom ; fiidi as, Tum-mdng-fpia^ the lang^ titUss 
don of br^tnefs, or perfbdion ; Tayn-chin-qila, the king- 
Awn (rf" purity ; Tyen-hu-quoj or the JdofiEdom Mrhich contaiils , 

all diat is Bnder heaven; and others (^ toe like import. Tlie 

< Univ. Hift. 'vpl. xx, p. i lo, II? feq. 

{£) We have fonnerly gMren 
a fliort account of the firlt dy- 
nafty^ from Fo-hi and his •eig^t 
fbcceffors, down to Shun (Z). 
The odiers, in number, twenty- 

tvpp, together ^vich die number 
of emperors belnnging to eaah 
£imily,ajKl the aumer of years 
they peigned, may be ie^ at 
one view in the foUosving table;. 




i^ Hya — — 





2. Shang — 

— * 




3. Chew 





4. Tfin alChin — 



— . 


5. Han — — 



— . 


0. Henu-han *^ 





7. f Ki», or G^/if ad 



— . 


«. ^^jfg', •r ^0i0f — 

— i- 




9. 7W, orC^i — 





10. Lyang — 





11. C^, /r/. iG« — 





12. 5<«;/, ^m/ — ^ 





13. T^«r^, TtfW — 





14. HeW'lytaig — • 




15. HetW'tang — 



— - 


16. He^-t%in — 





17. HenV'ban ^^ 



. — » 


18. Hnv-chrio .— 





1 9. ^oirg', or 5atff« -— 





ao. i^^» — -7- 





21. Msngf ovMim-^ 



' 4-« 


2,2. Txitt, Chim, — 



' r- 


jEhig laft now reignii^. So that 
China had to its origmal naai^ 
fif Choftg-qjut the a^i>e]lative of 
each one of tbofe dynadies add^ 

(8) u»iv. Bft- 'vol. Jtx. p, 13^^50. 
Jp. 145, G^JS^f . tS al» fu^^ (itau 

ed to it, whi^ the. government 
iconuoaed in it; 3^ ,CJbong-^Ma^ 
hyuf Cb^g-qua-fixtngi Chong-^qua^ 
ckmif,Uc. (9)# . • ' *.v! 

{^,&fe DttiUld0 in EngUjH 




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a The Hiftary of China. B. I. 

Tartarr, though they naturally hated the pompous pride of 

the Chinefe^ are yet fond of diofe fwolien tides, fmce they 

have made themfeives mafters of that noble kingdom, and 

become Icfs and Ids avcrfc to the foftncfs, eafc, and luxury, 

China, of their new fubjefts. As to the name of Chiruif which feme 

whence fi derive from Cf/m, or 7)&i, one of their andent monarchs % 

namd. ^^^ oxis^% from their fdk, which is called Chin *» ; it is moft 

/likely the Eurapfoni brought it firft from Perfia^ or htdiar 

whither that commodity was firft imported^ and where it U 

called Chin^ or TJin K 

What imperfieft notion the antients had of this vaft em- 
pire, and what commerce they had with it, we have elfe« 
When firft where endeavoured to flicw K The firft European traveller 
difcfwered that we know of, who vilited it, was Fra.Pauto^ a Venetian, 
h '^^ E^* more coxtimonly known by the name of Paulas Fenetus, 
ropcans, ^ p^^j ^ Venetian, about the end of the thirteenth cen- 
tury* But his f\Kollen account of the great cham, or empe- 
ror ; of his capital, which he calls Cambalu ; and other ex- 
traordinary particulars which he related of that country ; not 
only led. his readers to imagine, that he there defcribedthe 
empire of Tartary^ but that this greateft part of it was too 
exaggerated to deferve any credit, or a better charafter than 
that of a fine ro9iance. The whole, however, was after- 
wards fufficiently verified by the difcbvery of China by the 
Portuguefe ; when it plainly appeared, that it was this noble 
empire he had been defcribmg ; and that Cambalu,^ by the 
particular! account he had been giving of it, was no other 
than the Chinefe metropolis, now called Pe-king (F). Since 


* Navaretta Martini Hift. Sinic, lib. vi. fuh inlt. Vid. 
,et La Martidier^, & a1. Tup. citat. * See t]ie Englifh 

tranilation of Du Halde, p. i. not. (E). ^ Umv. Hift, 

¥ol, jcx. p. 1 20, Be ftq, 

(F) It is now generally ac the former, in order to b^ 

knowleged, that Cathai is the more at hand to fupprefs the 

rorthern part of Chitta ; and inroads which the 7tfr/«ri were 

Cambalitf thq capital of it, to be continaally making upon them 

the fame city as is now called from that fide. It apj^ears more* 

te-hing ; which name, fignify- over, from the reladon of the 

in^ the northern court, in oppo« Kujpan ambaiTy to Chinas Ann9 

\ fition to.A^«ff^//9^,%vhich is the 1653, that the Mufco^ites ftill 

fouthern one, was doubtlefs gi- call that northern part of it 

▼en it when the Chinefi mon- Chatai^ or Kathal^ and its me<r 

archs were obliged to remove tropolis Cambabij or, according 

th«iT court frcun tbe latter to to Ibm^ others, Camla/eif whicS 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. i: ^bi HifUry of China. ^ 

wkich dmcy the more they have become acqnakted with 
QHm^ the better they have been fatisfied of the laithfulnefs 
«f that Venetian traveller. 

Accordingly, when the Portuguefe firft difcovered this ^ht CU* 
wontry by fea, above 200 years ago, they were fo furprifcd ncfe/<r- 
at the beauty and opulence of it, as well as at the ingenuity /'^^'«' 
and politeneis of its inhabitants, fo far beyond what they had ^^^ j^ 
ohfiavcd in any other country they had hitherto met with, '^^ ^ 
they fcarce knew whether they ought to believe their own^' '*^^* 
eyes : and indeed they had fo much morecaufe to be furprifed 
at it, as they found them a people that lived wholly within 
theinfelves, and who confequently had received no helps or 
imjurovements from any other nations : neither could their Th Eoro- 
firft accounts of them meet with any greater credit here in pcans m§ 
Earo^, than thde of Pattlus Venetut had done before, till ^'/'fo ^ 
dicy were confirmed by a cloud of other eye-witncflcs, whom pf^^^ 
dthercuriofity, commerce, or religion, invited into thb new^**""^*** 
and furprifing worH ; efpccially Cnce the year 1 580, when the 
pope began to fend, and hath continued pouring, a great 
number of jefuits and other priefts into it, in order to bring 
as many of tiiat j)olite nation as he could into the pale of 
Us church. Nor were the relations of thefc laft fo.univer* 
ially credited (efpecially as many of them appeared not only 
exaggerated, but .even in a great meafure romuntic, at leaft ia 
whatever related to religion, or their numerous convcrfions), 
fill we had them^ or at leaft a great part of them, further 
confirmed by perfons of other nations and religions, and lef^ 
liable to be fufpeded. So that, upon the whole, it was^no 
fcfe matter of wonder to the Europeans^ than to the Chinefe^ 
to find a part of the world, at fuch a diAance from them, fo 
like thenw^es in learning and politenefs ; while all the vaft 
tra&s that lay between them, are ftill fo far inferior, not to 
byoppofite to them, in both refpefts. It muft be owned, 
however, that the Chinefe found us much fuperior to them in 
the liberal fciences ; witnefs thofe vaft improvements they 
have made to them by the ailUlance of the miiTionaries, and* . 
0f that vaft apparatus of inftrnments which have been fent to 
them irom France, and other parts : but, in point of rich- 
neis, opulence, fundry manufactures, handicrafts, and, to fay 
lK>tfaing of their excellent agriculture lately mentioned, and 

aames fignl/y the city of God when we come to the divlfion of 
til). We fiiail -have further that empire, and the defcriptioa 
<Nxafion to fpeak of them both, of the city of Pihi»g. 

(u J rt*tr*. ar <>/. rU. ttpi/. da Tartsr. P'UtrltUf Juh Kiaskat, & 



by Google 

to The Hiftcry of Chlha. B. £• 

the many excellent ways they have of fertUiziog aod Mpponi^ 

even their moft barren lands, it wUl be hardly deaied that 

they exceed any country in Europe ; all which will more&ljly' 

appear in the (equel. 

China, Tvi'E Chinefe emph-e hath been long Cnce divided 4ttt9 

hwoi' northern and fouthern ; the former of wh£b, comnaonly kaovrs 

miM't among the Indians^ PerfianSy Ruffians ^ &c by the name of 

Ctfatai, or Katai, contained fix of its provinces ; and the latter 

diftfng«i(hed by the name of Mangi, which contains the other 

nine. CambaJu, or, as it hath been fince caJled, Pe4cing^ vw 

the capital of the one, and Nang-ki^tg that of the other *. 

We have already given the name and ntuatioo of thdfe fso^ 

end con- vinces which compofe this vaft territory; and Aiall <Milyobt- 

fiiUat^. ferve here, that, as they divided the whok heavens into oM 

conftellations, fo they did their provinces; each of whsdl 

' latter they placed under one of the former, without Jbariqgr 

any of them for the reft of the globe* To each pnmnce 

they allowed not only an unreafonable length and tocadth ; 

t)ut likewife dignified them with fome fwoUen title, «iftrer* 

able to thofe which they gave to the empire in general. Thcf 

have indeed been taught fmce, by the Europeans^ t, hcxta 

fort of.aftronomy and gepgraphv, and how tio judge mmt 

fheir truly of the reft of the world ; but it muft be ownod* that, 

great ad' till then, the great advantages they enjoyed abpve tbofc finr 

wantages nations they knew, might naturally enough iaifpire them '■dtk 

9ver other ^t partial vatue and opinion they had S their own. 

natious. THEtR country is fo divided by art and nature fron 

the reft of the world, as' if defigned to have been AiU on- 

jjow de- tained within its own fimits ; being bomaded, as was lateijr 

pndtd, hfOted, on ^e eaft and fouth, by the ocean ; on the 

weft, by defarts and* inacceflible moontains ; aod, on the 

north, by a wall of fuch length, height, and Arenglh, that 

it is jiifHy efteemed the greateft piece of art that the worU 

can boaft of : fo that the coafts aloi\g the &a being .defendol 

cither by prodigious high rocks, flxelves, .aadfmall i£laods, cr 

by a vaft number of fea-ports ecpially ilwmg and comtnodiona; 

itnd their frontiers on the weft and north by fortified towns, 

taftles, and other fortrefles, and large garriA^as ; it ieeau as 

if x\ic€hinefe monarchs had had no other view than to. fecurc 

themfehres from all foreign invafioas, without any def^isf 

€nfergTng'their cjomihions beyond thofe limits. Their hiftory 

hath however ftiewn us, that they wore aiftatoeniatwth their 

reckonings ; fince they have not only hoen more th^n oncfc 

tonquered by the Tartars^ .wder whofe doDwucin Acy notk 

' ' ' ' • ■ 

} Yid noc tFl,'i&'»uft.4bi citat. ^ ' "" . 



by Google 

t U ^be Hijiory ttf Chiaa. U 

arc; and themfelves have alfo been ob%ed to extend thdr 
coaqoefts into ibme of the Tartarian provinces, in order to 
|)ref eat the frequent and dreadful incurfions they made on the^i 
A'om that fide, notwithdandii^ their Aroi^ barrier ; all which 
iiffidently Aiews die (hortae^ of human forecaft ; fmce it 
was their too great confidence in the^ and fame other advaQ- 
tages we are going to mention, that lulled them into that 
fiate of luxury aiKi indolence which made them &li fo eafy a 
prey into the hands of their warlike neighbours, when they 
the leaft thought of it, or were leaA able to make head againfl 

Another advantage, for whkh this country has been Vaft mmm 
{zmcd from the carli^ times, was, the vaft number of its ier of in- 
inhabitants. It doth not indeed appear to us to have been fo habitatus^ 
fcoa peopled as the Chineje records affirm } much lefs to have 
been fo unmenfely populous fo few ages after the flood as is 
there pretended; the contrary of which we have, we think, \ 

fully proved in a fcarmer volume ^ : but, that it became fo in 
procefe of <ime, there is not the leaft doubt to be made, i^ 
we confider eitho* the vaft quantity and largenefs of their 
Katies, t(jw^8, and villages, which, in moft provinces, arc fo 
Aide, and dofe to each other, that the whole fcems but one 
continued towA, ^uid ail of them fwarmkig with inhabitants ; 
€very one employed in fome manufeifturc, trade, or fome 
kind of traffick or work ; or their roads from place to place, 
which areerouded with paflengers night and day, with coaches^ 
carriages, wagons, and ibmetimes with whole caravans, all . „ 

fif thiMi employed in carrying on fojae iifeful commerce, and 
ia conveying all ioT'ts of merchandizes, proviflons, and oth^ 
wares, from one end of the kingdom to the other ; or the 
vaft ftanding armies that are kept ia conftant pay, aiul the au- 
meroiis gamfons they are forced to mainxain on their fron- 
tiers and fea-ports ; or, laftly, from the reg^ers that are regu- 
larly kept both of tfacir forces, and of the neft of the na- 

AccoRtJiNG to tiiefe, we are told by fome authcM-s, that jirm. 
the number of famiEes, exdufrve d£ "fbldiers, and thofe that 
pay no taxes to the government, amouijted to 11,502,87!; 
hut, iacljad;ng the army, the whole number of inaks was 
computed to. MMHigt to J9,78S,3$4 : the army, .then, con^ 
fified of 902,054 vmif who guarded .the frontiers, and 
989,147 horfes, always «»dy tor 'aojuliary. forces :bcfides af//,&Ci 

^ Sec UniverCil Hifiory^ vol. xx< p. 210, & feq. ic'z^i,ic 

H • • . ' . • - . 



by Google 

iz The Hi/lory of China. B. I, 

767,970 men kept in their garrifons " (G), To thefe MVw- 

haff quoted in the laft note, adds 564,200 horfes more, 

maintained by the emperor, to fupply his troops, or to ferve 

for polls and mclfcngers on public and extraordinary occa- 

llons. For thefe, as well as for the accommodation of the 

mandarins, and other officers of the court, that are fent to. 

different parts of the empire, there are reckoned 1145 '^"'» 

or places of entertainment : fo that, upon the whole, to fpeak 

in the ftyle of one of their natives (H), the Chinefe empire is 

fo immenfely populjsuSp that its inhdhitants are ftdl. to be com^ 

putedby. thoufandsy but by millions \ and, if^*^ may believe 

the accounts of fome of the Jcfuit miffionaries, fome of their 

capital cities contain little lefs th^ two millions of inhabit* 

ants «>. 

Barges '^^^ ^^^ number of barges, and thofe very capacious ones, 

that fupply appointed by the government for the conveyance of provi- 

Pe-ksDg. fions, fdks, rice, and other neceflaries, from the fouthern pro- 

. vinces to the metropolis of Pe-king, amount to 9999 ; which 

number is ftriftly kept up, not fo much out of a fuperftitious 

fondnefs for that nnmber, if we may believe thofe writers, 

as becaufe it carries a much greater found, than if, by the 

addition of one more, they were to make it a complete 10,000* 

Thus much may fuffice^o give our readers an idea of the popu- 

Fafi num- loufnefs of this vaft empire : we might indeed add to it the many 

bersli*vitig myriads of families which live almoft continually on the water 

w/^wtf- along the coafts, on the rivers and canals; and carry on a 

^^^ conudcrablc traffick on then: large flat-bottom boats, or, as 

they call them, Boating villages ; and are reforted to from 

thofe that live at land in fuch vaft crouds, that they appear like 

" Magaillan, Le Compte, LaMartiniere, & al. •Na* 
VARBTTA, DioN-Koo, Gemcl, Martin,' & al. fup. citat. 

(G) This prodigioos account pefi convert, who had been em- 
is in a great meafure confirmed ployed by fome of the court 
by Nirwhoffy who attended the mandarins to write an accurate 
Dutch arabafTy into Cbitia ; and furvey of the then ftate of C&r - 
who tells us, that, at that time, na. His account was iince 
the regifters made the num- brought into Europe by his ex- 
ber of families to amoont to celtence Mr. IzbranJs Ides, who 
10,090,792; and that of the was fent ambaiTador from the 
fighting men to 5 5,41 6,476, in- late czar, Peter the Great, to the 
eluding horfe ai^d foot, garri- court of Chindf Anno 1694, and 
fons, &f. is highly recommended by hin| 

(H) The writer here meant \\z). 

wa& called Dionyfius Kao, a Chi* , 

' (iz) R'Jf* amhajf. p. 115, ^ fef, Und^tiit. ijlo, 1706. 

4 . fo 


by Google 

C. ir The Hifiory of China. i j 

fomaoy fairs kept on that element i but theie we fluU find a 
more proper occafion to fpcak of in the feqoel. 

We lately hinteil, that this country doth fo abound with NMwAer%f 
dties, that a man is fcarcely got out of one, but he enters their dths 
into the fuburbs of another. We flull defer, however, the and fart- 
further defcription of them, till we come to fpeak of the ^*Jf*** 
fcvcral provinces they belong to : in the mean time, as we 
are now upon the fubjeft <? the ftrength and populoufnefs 
of this vaft empire, it will not be amiS to give ouit readers 
the fum of them at one view, and according to their rank : 
together with their other fortrefles and flrong-holds, as they 
are fcattered through the whole ; fome within the heart of the 
provinces, ^to guard the roads ; others on the mountainous 
parts, to fupprefs the robbers and freebooters ; and a third 
fort to guard the frontiers on the weft and north fide, efpe- 
cially on the latter, againft the Tartars. The number of ^htir Ufa 
tiwn, as it was taken by hxher Magaillan, out of a Chinefefi^^^ 
bocHc, tempiied by an expert mandarin for the ufe of the go- ^^'^^ 
vemraent, is as follows : Walled towns, 4402 ; and thefe are 
divided into two orders, viz. civil '^nd military, of which 
2045 belong to the former, and 2357 to the htter. The 
dvil are again divided into three different ranks, filled by the 
Ctnnefe FH (or, as they pronounce that word, Foo\ Chew, and 
Hyen\ of wluch, 175 are reckoned of the firft rank, ftyled 
Fu ; 270 of the fecond, or Chew ; and 160 of the third or- 
der, or liyeru 

The military ones are diflinguifhad into feven different Milttgtry 
ranks ; of which, 629 are reckoned of the firft, 560 of the •«</. 
fecond, 311 of the third, 300 of the fourth, 1 50 of the 
fifth, 100 of the fixth, and 300 of the feventh. Father 
he Compte tells us, that J 000 of thefe only are reckoned of 
the firfl rank ; and that their ftrength rather confifts in their 
fituation, and numerous garrifons, than in the ftoutnefs of 
their outworks •* (I). Some of thcrfe military cities are afligned 


P Le Compte, ubi fupra, letter 3. , 

J J) It mav not be amifs to 2^9 of the fecond, and ii^g^f 

obfervc here, that Kao the Chi- the third. Other authors dif- 

ne/cy mentioned in the laft note, fer ftill more from hini, and 

cuth dijTcr from our mandarin from each other ; which (hews 

in the number of thefe cities, either tha^ they took their ac- 

and makes the whole number of count from different furveys, or 

them to amount to but 1700; perhaps from report, or that 

and Na<varetta only to 1536, there «iay have happened fome 

that is, 148 of .the firft rank, changes in the raaks of thofc 



by Google 

to the foldiery; togetheF with a qoanticy of knd in theur 
CnjUs. ceighbourhoody for thehr maibteaaBce. As^ to the caftks on 
the coaflsy which are confpsted at 439, (ereral of them QTQ 
very large, and come little fhort of waUed cities for the nsm- 
ber of their inhabitants ; and all of them ftroBg by aatur^' 
flmw, and art, and defended hy good ganrifons : bcfides whidi, 
kc. they reckon no lefs-than 2920 towns, or boroughs, along tha 

fea-coafls, moft of them equal in bignefs to walled towns. 
The inland towns and villages, we are told, are almeft nnm- 
berlefs, and every-where crouded with i&habit;tnt8» From 
all thefe the emperors receive aa itttysofe iiKone» as will be 
feen in the fequd ; there being b«rt t)urt)^tw« that a«e wholly 
exempt from taxes ; and thele, being governed by thdr own 
lords, or petty kings, are however obliged to pay a Und o£ 
homage, or perhaps feme fmall tribafie^ to the conrt ^. 
Si^alad- To this vaft number of their cities and fortrefibs, aod the 
n/antam immenfe one of Its inhabitants, if we a4d th«r prodigiotts 
eftbeQ\i\' wealth, brought in bv fach a vaft cpiantityof hands contino- 
\, ^^^' ^'V employed erther m a foreign or domeftlc coomeroc, in. ^ 
^ great variety of rich and carious maaniafttires, and ingenious 

^ handicraft trades ; in the cultivating ci the moft feAile, or 

improvement of the moft barren, lands ; in (fig^ag up of 
gold, filver, copper, and other laetals and minerals, from the 
bowels of then- many rich mines, befidcs a great variety of 
diamonds, and other precious Hones' ; if to thefe we add the 
excellent fituation of it for commerce, the richneis ^d vaft. 
extetit of it abroad, the many navigable rivers and nusiber*^ 
fefs canals for carrying it on at home ; the infinite variety oS 
their carnages both by land and water ; the healthioefe ai^d k^ 
renity of then: dimate, and induflryof the inhabitants, the en* 
couragement given to it as wdl as to the arts and fcieaces, hj 
its politic government, and the happy genius of the nation for 
promoting and improving every kind andy branch of them % 
x)r, laftly, the vaft power aiKi riches of the fovetdgn, the 
excellence of their laws and government, and the remarkable 
fondnefs of the people for that as weU as for antient laws, 
cuftoms, religion, ijc. ; it will no longer appear furprifing, 

^ Le Comfte, ubi fup. Sc p. 2. lett. i. Magaillan, Kao» 

cUict. We have followed that newer accounts publiftied by /)» 

of the mandarin above men- HaUe ; as will further appear, 

tioncd, on the authority of Fa- when we come to give the nom- 

ther Maguilian^ ^^ being the ber of them belonging to each 

t)n>ft likdy to be authentic, and diRin^ provincf. 
being the moil agreeable to the 


by Google 

C. r: -srfe Bjiory af China* . i|- 

tht ao empire, ^v^eh enjoyed fuch a vaft number of advan- 
tages, feoold hare maiotained itfelf in fuch a height of wealth 
and fplendor during fuch a long fcries of ages. The wonder 
will rather be, how they came, after fo long and glorious ji 
contknance, to degcnCTatc fo far from their valour and poli- 
tics, as to fufier their whole country to be over-run and con- 
qooe^ and their monarchy overturned,, in almoft as few 
years as k had flood thoufands. But, before we come to 
ijpk rf that ftramge event, and the changes it hath wrought 
iathat vaft cm|Mre, it will be nccefEu-y, according to our ufual 
BWhod, to ^v€ a general defcription of the country, ^^ o£ 
iwry tfai^ that Is moft remarkable in it. 

S E C T. IL 

A topographical Deftriptihn of the Fifteen Provinces 
of China. 

'THE fituaiiony limits, extent, and divifion, of the Cfnnefe Fifieei$ 
-^ empire, hath been (hewn at the beginning of the ,kft /r^wrr^* 
fcftiott ; wterc we mentioned Its being divided into fifteen dejcribtd* 
provinces, viz. fixfiyled northern, and nine fouthem (exclu- 
five of that of Lytm-tong, "which, being fitu^ite without the 
wall, will be fpoken of in a more proper place) ; the other 
fifteen are reckoned in the following order: 

I. The province oi Pe-chelu alias Lipafu, but moft com- i.Thepra^ 
WBiy tailed, from its great metK)pdis, Pe-king, which is ifiice of^ 
now the feat of the empire, is bounded on the eaft by the Pc-^chclu 
ycUow fea ; on the norrii, by the great wall which divides it 
from eaftem Tartary \ cm the weft, by the province of Shan-fi j 
and, on the fouth, by thofe of Shang-tong and Ho-nan. It 
is now the firft and chief of the whole empire ; and extends - 
itfcjf, in a kind of triangular form, from the 36th to th© 
41ft degree of latitude, and from the 1 13th to the i ipth* of' 
eaft longitude. It is divided into nine dlftrlds, each of which 
is under its capital city, fl7led by the Chmefe F4^ or city of 
the firft rank ; ivooi wUcha number of other cities depend (A), 


(A) It will be neceffary here named Cheijo and Hyen^ ^cavf* 

tD obierve, once fcr all, that each of them depend on their , 

every province ik the Chtnefe refpedlive F«, as here oiir baili-% 

empire 15 divided into a nam- wicks, cr inferior courts, do on 

berofdiMds or jurrfdi^Hons, the fuperior ones. The prefi- 

called by the Chtnefe Fu, cr city dent of the fupreme court is 

fend a lefler fort of di Uriels, city of the firit rank, the next in 

"^ ordtr 

of the fipft rank. On thefe de- ftyled Chi-fu, or governor of a 


by Google 

Digitized b 


i^ The tiijhry of Ciniwr B. !• 

VIZ. 2o of the fecoad rank, or Chtw ; and tao of die thirds 
or Hyen $ befides a great many large towns, and villages 
without number*. 
7U cli' This province, though the moft northern next to that of 
mete, foi^ Lyau-tong, in the whole empire, is blcflcd with a very dear 
find pro* air ; and, tho* exceffive cold in winter, enjoys a very ferene 
iky, which is feldom overcaft u4di any doudS) even during; 
that hard feafon. The rains are not very frequent ; but that 
defeA is amply compenfated by the fruitfol dews« The coun* 
try affords but little rice ; but abounds with other grainsu 
puUe, and varied of cattle. The inhabitanu are ftout and 
warlike ; but are more unpoliflied and ignorant than in tho 
fouthem provinces. The rivers are often frozen, more or 
lefs, here, from November to March 5 and yet the weather is 
nothing (o piercing as it b in Europe^ under the (ame cU* 
> mate. 

This provipct reckons about 140 cities, amongft which 
thoTe ftyled Fi0, or of the firft rank, are, jPe-^ng, al Shtni'- 
tyen-fi^ the metropolis of the whole, under which are twennr- 
fix diftriAs, or cities of the fecond and third rank ; tnz, ux 
of the former, and twenty (^ the latter ; whofe namea we 
ihall not trouble our readers with, much lefs with their de» 
fcription, which would fwell beyond our bounds. It will be 
fufficipnt to add hor, to what we have find of thdr large** 
nefs, opulence, and populoufiiels, that they are for the moft 
part built c^ a fquare or oblong-fquare form, as much as the 
ground would permit. Their walls are high, diick, and 

lis iiiiis. 


KjietAj of 

* Lb Compte, obi fap. letter 3. 
U ali fup. citac. 

D0 Haldb, p. 65, ar feq« 

et^txChi'chew, and thelaft Chi 
Hyen, Hence in every Fu there 
is always a Sluan-fu, or manda- 
rin with the tide of Chi-fu, and 
at leaft another with that of C^r- 
Hyen, But in the great cities 
oi all, who£e territories are fo 
Targe as to be divide^ into two 
inferior diftridls, each of thefe 
have th^ir particular Chi-Hyen. 

When mention is made here 
of a Hyen, or city of the third 
rank» the reader rouft not fup- 
pofe it to mean a diftrid o( a 

( I ) Se^ Du Uald* in E'^gHJh, f. a. 

fmall extent, there being man]f 
of them of 60, 70, or even 8o« 
leagues in circuit, and whick 
pay feveral millions into the em- . 
peror*s treafury (i). Neither 
muft it be imagined, that thof« 
other towBtywhich are excluded 
from any rank* are inconfider- 
able ones, there being many of 
them as large as cities ; the rea^ 
fon of their being denied that 
title, is, becaoTe they are^ncom* 
paiTed with neither walls nor 
ditches, as the cities are ( a), 

(1) U. p, 67; Vid. «r £r Cmpte^ 



by Google 

C t. Tie Hiftory (ff China. 1 7 

ftrong, adorned with lofty towers. The gates arc fpadouf, 
deep, and (lately ; and the great ftreets flrait and broad, and 
intCTfcftcd with others which crofs them at right angles, and 
both fides filled with houfcs. The fijuares, or piazzas, arc 
wide, and adorned with noble ftrufturcs ; and fome of them, 
as well as fome of their ftreets, with triumpfial arches, and 
other decorations, particularly with ftately towers, fome round, 
others oftogonal, from fix to nine ftories high, embellilhcd 
with galleries, carvings^ gilding, and variety of other oma- 
ments (B). 

The city-walls are moftly high and ftrong, and encom* 
pafled with broad ditches, fome dry, and others filled with 
water. As for their edifices, efpecially their public buildings, 
fuch as their temples, palaces, monafteries, ifc. they arc more 
remarkable for their \^ extent, than for their magnificence. 
Their private houfes are likewife large, but low, few of them 
exceedii^ one ftqry in height, and without aiw windows to- 
wards the ftreet. The (hops are delightfully let out with all Sbofs/tuii 
their rich merchandizes, fuch as china-ware, filks, japan cabinets, fy fit #k/, 
ftreens, and other fuch goods, with great variety of gold and 
filver work, jewels, and all other commodities both domeftic 
and foreign. Before each door ftands a pedeftal, to which i$ 
faflened a board, from 20 to 2a feet high, on which is cither 
carved, painted, or | gilt, the ftiopkeeper's name, his fign, and 
fooae of his principal wares, with thefe words at the foot, 
Pu'H^ in large charafters, that is, he will not cheat you. 
Tlus double row of pilafters, fet up at equal diftances, yields 
likewife a very agreeable profpeft **. The misfortune is, that Strttts 
thofe ftreets that are not paved (and few of them arc fo in dupy and 
China) prove fo dufty in dry and windy weather, that it is ^'■(^•. 
not only very oflfenfivc to the vaft crouds that continually 
throng them, but hurtful likewife to the fine merchandizes 

^ hz CoMVTEy ubi fup. letter 3. Du Haldb, ubi fup. p. 64. 

(B) We ftall, for the fatif- the reft ; as they, generally 

lidion of our readers, find a fpeaking, obferve pretty much 

proper place for giving them a the fame fymmctry in their 

ftetch (^ one or two of the moft form, buildings, &r. That of 

curious of them, by wav of Pe- king, efpecially, which is the 

(ample, when we come to {peak metropolis of this province, and 

of their artificial rarities 1 as the prefent feat of the empire, 

Hkewife for defcribing fome few deferving a more particular no* 

oftheirmoftconfiderable cities, dee, win be diefcribed at the 

public ftradures, &r. in the dofe of this article, and the 

coorfe of this fedion, fo as to others in their courfe. 
give tbcm a fufficient idea of 

Mop. Hist. Vo^.VIII. * B that 


by Google 

1 8 ^he Hifiory of China. fi. I. 

that arcexpofed; infomuch that they arc obliged to cover 
them With fome fort of cloths, to prevent their being fpoiled. 
Thefe clouds of duft, which are ftill increafed by multitudes 
of horfes, chaifes, carts, waggons, and other carriages, not 
only flick upon their filken clothes, and fpoil the fine luftre 
of them, efpecially thofe made of fattin, which they com- 
monly oil, to give it a better glofs ; but pepctrate even into 
their very houfes and clofets, though they have no windows 
towards the ftreets : fo that, take what care they will, their 
furniture is quite covered, and the people almofl choaked, 
with it. They do indeed endeavour to prevent it as much 
as poffible by frequent watering of the flreets ; but they are 
either foon dried up again, or clfe become dirty and inir}\ 
In rainy weather they are flill more incommodious on that ac- 
count ; fo that, winir or fummer, they are very troublefome, 
and even unhealthy, to walk int This great inconvenience is 
not confined to their inferior cities, but runs thro* all their 
moft confiderable ones, and even to the very capital itfelf *^, 
as the reader may fee by the defcription we are going to give 
of it. 
Cities of '^^^ ^^^'^^^ ^f ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ province are, i. Shun- 
the frft tien-fdy fmce called Pe-king; 2. Pau-ting-fA ; 3. Ho-kyen- 
rank. f^ y 4- Ching-ting-fA ; 5. Shun-te-fH ; 6. ^taiig-ping-fu ; 

7. Tay-ming-fu; S. Yung^ping-fA : 9. Swen-ivha-^u, 
I. Pe-king ^- SHVN'TTEN'Ft/, fince ftyled Pe-kifig, or the north- 
defcrihed.' ^^^ court, on account of its being become the imperial refi- 
dence, and metropolis of the whole empire, is pleafantly fitu- 
ate on a large and fertile plain, ' under the 40th degree of 
north latitude, and 1 1 70 30' of eaft longitude, about twenty 
miles fouth from the great wall. It was formerly of a fquare 
figure, and about four leagues in compafs : but, fmce the 
conqucfl of the empire by the Tartars^ the Chinefe being ex- 
cluded out of it, and permitted to build a new one adjoining 
to it, it is now of an oblong fquare form, and about fir. 
leagues of 3600 paces in circuit ; or rather is become two 
OUand cities, the old one of which is called the Tartar^ and the 
ne^ citj. other the Chinefe, town; and this l^fl, though the leaft, is 
reckoned the mofl populous (C), 


* Le C0MPTE9 ubi fup. La Martiniirb, & ah 

(C) Father Le Compter who as the houfes are but one flory 

mcafured it by the emperor's high, the flreets very wide, and 

order, reckons it te be about the imperial palace in it, toge- 

four times as big as Paris: hvX, ther widi its parks, gardens, ca- 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. i; The Hiftory of China; 19 

The walls of both cities are (lately and ftrong, being 7hi city 
computed by fome 40, by others 50, cubits high, which 'walk. 
quite obftruft the fight of their fineft and ftatelieft edifices, 
and are thick enough for feveral men on horfeback to ride 
abreaft upon them : they are moreover flanked with (lately 
towers, at the diftance of a bow-{hot from each other, and 
all kept in good repair ; a horfeman may afcend thofe of th^ 
new city by means of a ramp, or flow afcent ; and in feveral 
places there are houfes built to ferve for a corps de garde ; 
and fome of the towers are capacious enough to lodge a corps 
de referve. 

The gates are nine in number ; three on the fouth front, Stateh 
and two on the other three fides. Their flrufture is altogether gates. 
magnificent, and beyond any thing we fee in Europe (if wc 
except the architefture). They are of a furprifing height; 
and inclofe a fpacious court within four flout walls ; over 
two of which, viz, on the city and country fide, are built 
ftately lodgings, or rather caftles, which yield a very noble 
pro^peft, being about eight or nine ftories high, each ftory 
being perforated with windows and loopholes. The loweft 
ftory is a large hall for the officers and foldiers, who are 
either upon duty, or going to be relieved j and before fome 
of thofe gates, in the city of Ching-ting-fA, is feen a fjpacious 
area, or parade, about 360 feet, encompafled by a lemicir- 
cular wall of the fame height with thofe of the city. 

The flreets are fpacious and beautiful to a great degree, be- NvhU. 
ing all laid out with the line, and moft of them at leafl a league Jireets.; 
in length, and about 1 20 feet wide, with flsopg for the mofl part 
oti both fides ; but the houfes, which are but one ftory high, 
. bear no proportion with the largenefs of the ftr^ets : however, thronged\ 
they are very fpacious within, and fo crouded with inhabitants, 'withfeoi- 
that it is furprifing to fee what a number of families they /'<^* 
hold. This makes the city. to be fo thronged with people^ 

nals, i^c. take up a vaft extent whole, that eacT? of thofe capi-' 

of its ground, he doth not take it tali contain about two millions 

tolodge a much greater quan- of people (3) ; wliich, if true 

tity of inhabitants than that of Pe-iing, is near double the 

French capital ; though he owns, number at lead of what will be ^^ 

at the fame time, that the inha- found either in Pm/f, or even 

bitants of Pe-king hardly take in London, which is allowed the' 

up half the room in their lodg- bigger, and more populous, of ' 

iogs that the Parijians do : he the two (4). 
computes, however, upon the- ' J^-^^j,'' ^, 

(l) Lt Compu, ubi ff4p» f 4j Sit Maitlanfs and other Surveys tff 

B z ^ ^i* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The Hifiory of China. B. T^ 

a? well as horfes, mulf?s^ camels, afles, carts, waggons, i;c. 
that many of our great cities in Efirope are faid to loo|^ likjp 
folitades, in coniparifon with them : Infomuch that people of 
quality are forced to have men on horfeback to clear the way 
before them ; and the very tradefmen chufe to ride in their 
chaifes, not only to break through the crouds, but likevfife to 
avoid the dufl and dirt of the ftreet (D). What is more fur- 

(D) We lately took notice, 
that mod cities in Chinay for 
want of beine paved, labour 
alternately under thefe two in- 
conveniencies : which is not a 
little furprifing in a country 
feemingly (b well regulated in 
every thing elfe, and much more 
io to fee fo noble a metropolis as 
thp \% more plagued with them 
than any other ; at leaft this 
was <he condition in which Fa- 
ther Le Compte found it when he 
was there (5). However, we 
are informed that it hath been 
TcfUhed fince (6); and that 
nQtonly every citizen is oblieed 
to fweep before his door, but 
that tlie very foldiers are em- 
ployed to keep the new city 
clean, even when the emperor 
is abfent; fo that it is chiefly 
the old city, which, by reafon oif 
the nai-rownefs of its ftreets, is 
more negleded, and left to lie 
in niud and dirt. 

* As to the city in general, there 
may indeed be many caufes af- 
iiffned for its being more croud- 
ed i^nd thi;o^ged than any of the 
reil, beiidcs the vaft number of . 
its inhabitants. 

For,, I. Great multitudes of 
people daily lefort thither from, 
all the adjacent parts for many 
ini^es round, who bring all man- 
ner of provifions to it$ market* 

2. As no river comes up to 
die city, all kinds of merchan- 

(S) Stt Lt C^m^tit third Utter, 

dizes, and all manner of other 
neceflaries, that are pouring in- 
to it from' morning 4to night, 
muft come thither by land car- 
riage, which fills their ftreets 
with continual droves of carts, 
waggons, and beafts of burden i 
infomuch that, at the opening of 
the city gates in the morning, 
they are fo thronged with them, 
that many of them muft wait 
fome hour^ before they can get 

3. The great concourfe of 
quality that ftock to the court, 
and the great retinue that at- 
tends them, the mandarins, and 
other officers, in their formali- 
ties, the princes of the blood, 
and other perfons of diftin^ion, 
who are always efcorted with a 
numerous train of horfemen anil 
fervants, do all contribute more 
or lefs to fill up the ftreets, fo as. 
to make the city appear more 
full of inhabitants than it really 

To all thefe we may add the 
vaft numbers of carmen, porters, 
chairmen, and other people, that 
ply the ftreets; and a much 
greater of handicraftfo^n, fuch 
as taylors, fmiths, brafiers, car- 
penters, ^c, who are obliged to 
go about in queft of budnefs ; 
tor, as few of them work at home, 
but at their cuftomers houies, 
ereat crpuds of them muft be 
luppoled to turn out daily in 

(^J See Du Balde, f. 67. 



by Google 

. C. i: rbe Biftdf^af China: 4i 

priiiDg, IS, that, arfion^ thofe vaft throngs of men, there is 
not a woman to be feen. The streets, as every-where elfe. Their 
bve all their proper names, apd the great ones of all fome mmm. 
pompous one ; fuch as, the ftreet of the king's relations, of 
the white tower, and the nobleft of all is ftyled the ftreet of 
eternal reft. 

This laft, which runs from eaft to weft, is terminated at Form* 
Ac north end with the walls of the imperial palace ; and, on 
tteoppoffte fide with the city tribunals, and the palaces of men 
of quality. Its breadth is computed about fixty yards, and 
its length above a league and a quarter ; and is adorned on 
£adi fide with the fineft edifices. All the great ftreets, which Guard. 
run in a ftrait line parallel with the walls from^ gate to gate, 
kave thdr corps de garde ; where the foldiers, with fwords by 
their fides, and whips in their hands, keep watch dav and 
Bight ; and chaftUe, without difHnftion, all that caufe any 
fifturbance, and confine fuch as make any refiftance. There 
is the feme watch kept in the lefler or crofs fbeets, which ter- 
minate in the great ones, and are ftiut up at each end in the 
night with wooden crofs-bar gates, through which the watch 
ih the greater fh-eets may fee all that pals in the lefler : and 
both cities are kept under fuch ftrift regulations, that, except 
the great hurry of the day, occafioned by the throng lately 
mentioned, which ends with or fooil after it, every part of the 
town is kept under the greateft difcipline and quietnefs, peace 
and fefety (E). 


fach a city as diis, and help to can give a good account of tfieir 
increaie the tfirdng ; efj)eciaily errand ; fach as fetching a phy- 
as many of them, either for fician, furgeon, or midwife, or 
want of better employment, or being fent about the govern • 
aatoral indolence, will fiand mint's b^finefs. Even tbefe 
ftariog in large groups at every laft, if their anfwer is fuch as 
joggler and mountebank they gives the oftcer any caufe of 
lee ; or liftening to fortune-tell- fufpicion, when <^ueflioned bv 
ers and ballad-fingers, which him, are confined in the guard- 
are to be met with in every part room till the next morning, and 
of the town. th6h brought before a proper 
(E) Each watth is obliged to judge. The ofiicer of the guard 
|)iitrok an thb i^ight in their ]ikewife,thatis kepton thehigh 
r^peOive ftreets, as foon as the pavilions over the city -gates, 
fiinal is given for the (hutting and beat the watch on large 
(/diem up at night i fothat no kettle-drums, having full view 
qaarrel or difturbance can hap- of aH the ftreets, is obliged to ^ 
pen, or even people pafs unper^ fend fome of his fubalterns to 
ceiTed. None arc fuffercd to examine the quarters belonging 
walk in the night/ except they to the gates where they are 

B % pofted^ 


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22 The Hipry of China. B. I. 

Suburbs. Besides the old and new city above-mentioned, every 
fide hath likewife a capacious fuburb without the walls, of 
which that on the weft fide is the largeft. The ftrects in 
thefe are built much after the fame manner as thofe within, 
being parallel to each other, and to the city-wall, and crofling 
each other at proper diftances : fo that, if thefe be added to 
the reft, the circuit of Pe-king may be computed to extend 
^ou/es. about a 5 miles. The private houfes, both within and with- 
out the walls, are low, but deep and long, and moftly built 
with brick, and covered with glazed tiles 5 which, when the 
fun fhincs upon them, make fuch a glittering as is painful 
to the eye. They make but an indifferent fliew without, ex- 
cept in their fine ftiops ; but are exceeding neat and conve- 
nient within, though neither richly nor degandy furniftied, 
and moft of them crouded with families. 
Tlenty of What is the moft furprifing of all, in this great city, is 
all things, the plenty and cheapnefs of all forts of commodities and pro- 
viiions ; efpecially confidering its vaft concourfe and number 
' of its inhabitants, and that it is fituate in one of the moft 
barren fpots in the empire. But it muft be remembered, that 
all the merchandizes and treafures of the Indies^ &c. are tranf- 
ported hither from all parts by means of the eaftern or yello-w 
How /up' fea, and of the royal canals : that feveral thoufands of the 
fliid, emperor's veflels, befides a much larger number of others 
belonging to private perfons, are continually employed in 
fupplying both court and city with every thin§ that can be 
wiihed for, cither for the fupport or pleafure of life ; fo that 
it is a common faying among the Chtnefey that, though no- 
thing grows about Pe-king, it never knows the want of any 
^hegover- thing. The governor of the city is the perfon who has the 
nsrj office, diredlion not only of the foldiery and guards ; but his jurif- 
didlion extends over all the people, in whatever concerns 
the civil ftate, and the public peace and fafety (F). 


pofted. All thefe are kept un- often comes upon them when 

der fuch ftrid difcipline, that they leaft cxped him (7). 
the leaft negleft of duty is fc- (F) This grand officer, who 

verely punifhed the next morn- is a Manchew Tartar, is ftyled 

ing, and the officers broken for Kyu-men-ti'tUf or^eneralof the 

it ; and what keeps them ftill nine gat?s, and hath a quantity 

more on their guard, is, that the of miniflers under him, anfwer- 

governor of the city, who is able to his great poft. And fuch 

likewife obliged to go the rounds, ftrid difciphne is obferved under 

(7) hi Comptt, ubifup. Vu Halife, ubijup. f, 67, aU 

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C. !• The Hijlory of China. 23 

It is time now to fpeak of fome of the public buildings Public eJi- 
which adorn this metropolis; fuch as the imperial palace, ^<''. 
temples, monafteries, ifc. We begin with the firft of them, 
as being the mou fpacious and magnificent of all, and one of 
the greateft curiofities in the whole empire. 

It is fituate in the very heart of the Tartar cit}% fronting The impe- 
the fouth, as all the public buildings there generally do ; and rial palate 
is, properly fpeaking, a prodigious group of edifices, vaft def,.ribtd. 
courts, 'gardens, parks, ponds, ijc. all furrounded with a 
(lately brick wall, of an oblong fquare form, and confiderable 
height ; and about twelve Chinefe li's, or furlongs, in com- 
pafs. This wall hath battlements along the curtains, and is 
adorned at each angle with little pavilions ; and over each of 
the gates is another pavilion, ftronger and more lofty than the , 
former, and furrounded with a gallery fupported by pillars 
refembling our periftyles ; and this laft is properly the palace) 
becaufe it contains all the apartments of the emperor and his 

The outward wall which furrounds the inclofure above- ^he outer 
mentioned, is fifteen li's, or furlongs, in circuit ; and the fpace inclofure f 
between it and the inner is chiefly taken up with the houfes or ^^^^s 
apartments of the chief officers of the emperor's houfhold, '^P^^^' 
with the feveral tribunals, treafury, ftorehoufes, wardrobes, ^'"^^'' 
and eunuchs belonging to it. Thefe laft, in the time of the Eunuchs 
Chinefe monarchs, we are told, amounted to 10,000 '/zxiifupprejfed. 
were at length become fo powerful and corrupt, that they 
proved the main caufe of their ruin ; for which reafon the 
wifer Tartars have fo fupprefled them by degrees, that there 
is but an ineonfiderable number left of them, who are now 
looked upon as an ufelefs and dangerous weight to a court. 

To fome of thefe officers is committed the care of provi- 
ding neceffaries for the fervice of the prince ; while others 
are to preferve good order, decide the differences, or even 
ponifh offences committed by the domeftics of the imperial 
family. Thefe apartments are fpacious and ftately ; but /„^^ ^. 
thofe of the inner indofure much more fo^ being adorned partmenn 

him, both by the foldiery and Chinefe ; all which is owing to 
citizens, that one fhall hardly the excellent order which is 
hear, in feveral years, of an kept under him, which makes 
Iwufe being broken open, or a it next to impoffible for anr 
man murdered ; which is fo fuch crimes to be committed, 
much the more to be admired and the authors efcape their 
among fuch an in6nitc miilti- due punifhmcnt (8). 
tudc and mixture oi Tartars and 

^%J Le Cmfte & Du Halde, uh^fu^rsi 

B 4 "with 


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14 • ^bi Hiftory of China. B. I. 

with parks, gardens, fumptuous baths, pleafure-houfes, halls 
of ftate ; the whole embellifhed with every thing that is de- 
Jfn artifi' lightful and magnificent ; particularly an artificial lake, of 
€iallak(. about a mile and quarter incompafe, full of variety of fifli, 
and furrcfunded with fumptuous buildings, gardens, baths^ 
itc. In the middle of it is the imperial, and a number of 
other barges, for the court to take the diverfion of fifhing* 
Each facade of the double inclofure hath a lofty gate, or ra- 
ther three gates, one in the middle, and one at each end ; 
the former of which is the moft lofty and rich, and is only 
opened to the emperor ; and the others fland open from morn- 
Vhe gates Ing ^iU night, to all comers and goers. Each gate hath a 
ftrialy draw-bridge, and a proper guard (G) ; and none are admit- 
keft, ted to go over them but mandarins, officers in the highcft 
pofts, or fuch as bring an ivory ticket from them, fpecifyhig 
the bufinefs they are lent thither for. 
Hall of The great hall of audience, or, as it is ftyled by them, 
mdiena. the hall rf the great uniofiy is a lofty building, about 130 feet 
long, and of an almoft fquare form ; the cieling erf which 
is aJl of carved work, varnifhed with green, and adorned with 
gilt dragons in bas-relief. The pillars that fupport the rcx>f 
are about fix or feven ifect in compafs, and embellifhed with 
a kind of raifed work made of parte, and japanned over with 
vermilion. The pavement is covered with a kind of tapeftry, 
and the walls are waihed with a fine fliining white, but with". 
out hangings, looking-glafles, branches, or any other fort of 
f'i^/y&rt;;?^. ornament. The throne ftands in the centre of the hall ; and 
confifis of a lofty alcove^ very neat, but neither magnificent 

(G) Some authors have af- lace, they have no other armt 
firmed, that the emperor's ele- than their broad fcymetars, and 
phanti ftand guard at thefe are nothing fo numerous as they 
gates ; which cuftom, we art were in the time of the Chinefi 
fince told, hatk been left off, moiarchy, the Tartars feeming 
or, which is perhaps more like- to dcfpift a great deal of that 
ly, was only a roiftakc : for pomp and political grandeur, 
thefe creatures are lodged with. However, they have always a 
in the palace, in two verv noble vail number of mandarins, and 
^partm^Qts, or courts, the one other officers of difUn^p, at- 
for the fummer, and the other tending the emperor at all audi- 
for the winter ; thefe laft are ences, and other folemD occa-t 
^ not only fmaller, but are kept fions ; and who pay him fuch a 
^ warm like (loves, without which profound refpedl by their aw- 
they could not bear the rigour lul diftance, geftures, and pro- 
of the feafon. ilrations, as come very near to 

As for the guards of the pa- a kind of adoration of him (9), 



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C I, TJbe Hifijary of China. tg 

in oTDaments or infcriptioDS^ except that it betrs the iracd 
Sbing, which fome writers have tranflated iofy^ tbo* it more > 
properly ftgnifies excellent, mqfi wife or perfeB. On the fiat- 
iorm before it flands a very large ami thick veflcl of l>rafs, 
vherdn ar^ burnt fame £ne perfumes duriog the whole oove^ 
rnoay ; and candlefUdcs, caft ia the fliape of birds, are made 
to hold a number of lighted flambeaux. On tins pUtfoim, LeJferhaOg 
wJ^ch is continued northward beyond the hall of zaibasot^ htbind the 
are reaied two leiler halls, which are hid by the former; one grest mn 
of them is a handfome rotunda, with windows aU around, tod 
fimuog with vami(h of divers colours ; and here they tacfy the 
emperor repofes fometimes, either before or after the ondkuGe, 
and changes his clothes ^. 

Bvj the mofl magnificent of all is, that which they ftyle 
the innennofl court of all ; and in which the emperor and 
cmprefe, his wives of the fecond rank, » and fome of his fa- 
^urite concubines, live, in all imaginable fpiendour and de* 
light. This court is not only the moft magnificent, but the 
k^tiefl of all ; as the others are raifed one higher than the 
other, the nearer they approach to this. The afcent to it, 
from the next, is by a flight of fix fteps on all fides, fur- 
rounded by a noble baluftrade, adorned with lions, dragons^ 
and other embellifhments. In this laft quadrangle, amongft 
other infignia of the Chinefe magnificence and luxury, fiandt 
a tower of gilt brafs, fourteen cm: fifteen feet high, fiady 
wrought, in which were conftantly burnt the moft coiUf 
gams and perfumes, the (moke of which came out at a great 
tmmber of little holes or windows of curious workmanfhip» 
and difperfed itfelf all over the palace : but whether the Tar- 
tarian monarchs keep up this cuftom conftantly, or only ia 
times^of audience, and on other folemn occafions, we cannot 
be certain. And thus much ftiall fuflice for this fiiperb edt« 
fice: thofe who want a fuller defcription, may read it to 
the authors laft quoted. ' 

Next to the imperial palace, the pagods, or temples, are The fa* 
the noft fpdendid aiKi magmficent, and In the greateft nam- gods, •r 
kcr, both in the city, fubufbs, and parts adjacent : and, in- tempieu 
deed, both Chinefe and Tartan, nobles and people, !are fo 
feperftitious, Aat they rear and adorn thefe ftruftures, at 
immcnfc charges, and with vaft numbers of coftly ftatues. The 
roofis are particularly reaiarkable, for the luftre of their yeUow 
tiles, numberlefs figures of dragons, lions, and other crea^* 
tares, ^urioufly wrought painted, and gilt, and other de- 

' Le Comfte, letter 2. MAftfiNiERe, fob voc. Pe-king« 
Pu Halde, p. 67, & i^^^ Sc al. ^or. 



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a6 ^he Hijfory of China. B. T. 

coratioQS, after the Chinefe tafte, and fome of them fumptuous 
and coftly, beyond defcription. It is obfervable, however, 
that fomc of thofe that belong to the Tartars are abhorred by 
the Chinefe^ and vice verfa (H). Thofe that are in the country 
about, commonly ftand on eminences, wther natural, or reared u p 
artificially, with a great deal of cbft and labour, and, by their 
height, and fumptuous ornaments, yield a moft delightfirl 
'profpeft. As it would be endlefs to dwell upon a defcription 
of them, we fliall give a (ketch of one of the laft fort in the 
ipargin (I), and content ourfelves with defcribing here that of" 
the Sun ; which is a very curious edifice, not only on account 
of its richnefs and grandeur, but as it is that to which the em- 
peror repairs once a year, at the entrance of that planet into 
the winter folftice ; not with that pomp, fplendor, and nu- 
merous retinue, that ufually attends him on other folemnities. 

(H) This is partly owing to 
the difference of their deities, 
ilatues, and way of worfhip. 
But what is moft (hocking to 
the Chinefiy is, that the Tartars 
have fome of their idoh carved, 
or painted, naked ; for the for- 
mer profefs an utter averfion 
to all fuch nudities, either in 
temples, hoofes, or in any other 
way ; and, upon that account, 
were highly offended at the 
drefs of the Europeans^ as dif- 
coveringtoo much of the naked- 
nefs of die body, which they, on 
the contrary, (Irive to conceal, 
by their long gowns, wide 
flecves, breeches, and boots. 
Much more, confequently, mnft 
thofe naked idols, fo com- 
mon among the fartarsy appear 
(hocking to them. There is, 
among the red, in this metro- 
polis, a [\ztt\y Tartan an itm^Xty 
m which the Deity is reprefentcd 
in the figure of a naked man, 
of an extraordinary bignefs, and 
which it would be a fcandal for 
any Chinefe to fet his foot into. 
. (I) This furprifing edifice is 
built on an artificial mountain, 
raifed in the form of a fugar- 
foaf^ of fuch a height and big- 

nefs, and with fuch tranfverfe 
perforations, or chafms, that it 
looks like a huge parcel of 
mountains thrown one upon an- 
other, with horrid caverns be- 
tween the interilices, and the 
whole fo rough, that it caii 
hardly be behe.d without dread. 
But the Chinefe^ it feems, are 
fond of fuch monflrous curiofi- 
ties of art. 

On the top of the mountain 
(lands the temple above-men- 
tioned, which is likcwife very 
lofty and fpacious, and richly 
built. Near it is reared a (lately 
tower, of moft curious work- 
manfhip, of a round form, twelve 
ftories high, with galleries, win- 
dows, and other decorations, 
like thofe that are commonly 
feen in fome of their cities, a 
tafte of which we (hall give 
our readers, in a proper place. 
Round the uppermoft gallerjr 
of all, are hung, by lonz chains, 
or wires, fifty bells, which are 
fo eafily moved, by the leaft 
blaft of wind, that they keep 
a continual tinkling nieht and 
day, and are feen and heard 
at a great diftiance. 

. .tut 


by Google 

C. I. 91&< Hiftory of China. ijr 

but in a plain homely drefs ; without gold, jewels, or even 
the yellow garments, which colour is peculiar to the imperial 

This vaft- and noble pile of building ftands about half a Tbetemffi 
mile from the eaft gate of the city, and is furrounded with a oftheS$HM 
wall, near a mile in circuit. Within this iticlofure, are reared 
feveral ftately apartments, and groups of lofty trees, and in 
the centre a fpacious round hall, of a coniiderable height. 
The dome, or roof, is fupportcd by eighty-two columns, cu- 
rioufly painted with gold and azure, reprefenting the (ky. 
Hither the emperor repairs, at the feafon, and in the homely 
garb, above-mentioned, and facrifices a great number of bul- 
locks, rams, goats, hogs, i;e. The whole ceremony is per- 
formed in a proper manner, to cxprefs the deepeft humility. 
The three otlier temples, for the other cardinal points, are no 
lefe curious and rich, and ftand at the fame diftance without 
the wall, each at it proper point of the compafs from it ; and 
in thefe are likewife performed fome particular ceremonies, at 
the fun's entrance into each of thofe cardinal figns. Befides 
thefe, they have alfo a number of others, for the fun, moon, the 
feven planets, twelve figns, twenty-eight conftelladons ; and an 
infinite variety of others, both public and private, which we 
have not room to mention ; and fhall conclude this head Mdth of tht 
a remarkable ceremony, which is performed yearly, at that Earthm 
which is called the temple of the Earth, and by every new mo- 
narch, upon his acceffion to the throne ; and is as follows : 

Immediately after his coronation, he iscondufted, with Armaria 
all the royal formality, to this temple, which ftands on the able cere^ 
weft fide of the city, and at a fmall diftance without the wall, fmttfftr^ 
Here he divefts himfelf of hisf itnperial robes, and cloaths him-y^'**»'^4F 
fdf in the habit of a common ploughman, and, in this humble *^' ^"^ 
guife, proceeds, with his numerous retinue, to a fpot q^^'^^^*"* 
ground, kept for that purpofc, within the cinfture of the 
temple. Here he finds a plough, finely varniihed and gilt, 
to which two oxen, with gilded horns, are faftened; and 
taking the plough in his hand, drives it the length of two or 
three furrows. Whilft he is at this laborious exercife, his 
emprefs, attended with her ladies, prepare fome homely di(h 
for Jiis dinner, arid bring it to him, into fome private apartment, 
in the moft ordinary veflels, and fit down and eat with him. 
This excellent cuftom is of Chinefe extraft, and great anti- 
quity, and was defigned to put their new monarch in mind, 
that his revenue was owing to the fweat and labour of his 
fabjefts } and that he ought to abftain from all fuperfluous 
cxpences, and eafe them of all needlefs burdens •. And thus 
• Lb Compte, Martinierb, Dv HALDE^ubi fup. 


by Google 

9$ The Hifiory of China. B. !• 

mich may Tcrvc, to give an idea of the pagods in this* city ; 
dieir ftatoes> and other r^refentatioos of their deities, mona* 
fieries, eSrtr. will be beft feen, when we come to fpeak of their 
Kwhkmtfi As to the palaces of the noHemen, mandarins, and other 
houfes officers of diftinftfbn, they have nothing worth defcribingy 
MTtfff. bdfig all but one ftory high, and ratlKr convenient than 
famptnons. We are even told, diat it would be a crime in 
any of them to cxcd m this ^ay (K). Neither are they more 
cnrioas in fiirnitorc, and honlhold otiuiments : and, indeed, 
confidermg how liable they are to be deprived of their digni- 
*C8, ttpOB the Icaft fufpidon, or diflike, it would be hnpru- 
dcnt for them to do otherwife ; bccaufe thefe palaces belong- 
ing properly to the emperor, whatever additional furniture they 
bring into them muft remafai there, for the ofe of thofe that 
fucceed thtrn* 
f& imfe- Bkkdri wc leave this nietropcJis, it will not be unaccept- 
rialohftr- aUe to our readers, if we give them fome (hort account of 
^^^» its fo much'boafted imperial obfervatory. The Chine/e had 
fadi an opinion of it, we arc told S that they thought no- 
thfaig in the umverfc could come up to it ; and fome En- 
nfpean travdlfers, upon their credit, had cried it up to fuch 
a hc^t, that one of the moft celebrated mathematicians of 
ihc toyal academy of PariSy hath made no fcruple to repre- 
fciit it as one of the greateft prodigies of art and ingenuity, 
of heaut^ and magnificence (L) : and yet, when this cele- 

« Li GoMFtE, letter j* Dv Haldb Eiigli&,vol.ii. p. 138, 
h feq. it al. > 

(It) Our autlior ( 1 o) gives us " fall brazen machines, which, 

atlinftanceofit,iaachiefman- "having been, during thefe 

darin, who having built him an " 700 years, cxpofed on the 

BorfefemeAing mor* lofty than ** plaCfotirts of thofe large tow- 

tbe fcft, was accofed for it be- ** ers, are fbll as fair and intire 

ftffe the emperor, by thofe wbofc «* as if they were but neV^-ly caft. 

province it was to take notice of " The divifioas of thefe inftru- 

fttch crimes. Whereupon the " mcnts are mofl exAd, th^ diC- 

nobleman, fearful of the event, « pofition moft proper for their 

made haftt to putldoWn die ^' defieri, and the whole work 

hbufe, white the bufin^fs was «* performed With an inimitable 

undei^ ^xaminatioh. and bfefore ** ncatneft. In a wo^d, it feemed 

iC was decided agaittft him. ^ (^t CM^a ittfulted h^r fiftei- 

(L) His words are to this ef. *• nations, an if, with all their 

feft : " Nothing in Etitbfe is tcr " learningaiid riches, they dould 

'« be compared ta it ; whetik^r " not ceme wf with her iii that 

Hfor the magnificence Of ths " point (11)/' 
" place, or the largenefs of thefe 

li4, U CoH^tf, tettw 3. Oj) W. 'fc , ■ 

• ^ bratci 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

br^t^ (bufbote came viewe4, by; more proper wi Wr 
bi^d judgi^^ it, appears to have beg^.of littk worth a$ to iis 
^iiieot machines, and lefs as to its fituatkxi ; and that all that ia 
it is now valuable for, is owing to the improrementi which h ^ff^ 
^mc made to it. by Fadier VertiiJL, a Fififi|/i Jefiiit» in high Verbictt 
repute there, and who cauied a new fet of inftrumentft to be 
made, with extraprdinary care, neatne&, and exadhiels. The 
difficulty was to get them introdiiced into the obfisnratory; 
and fnch was the Cbinefe fondoefs for their old defective ones, 
above the moft perfeft new ones, that they could never have 
been prevailed upqa^ to admit them, if they had not bee^ 
forced to it, by, aiji exif^fs^ ocder from the emperor Kang-hu 

This fabric Awdsia a court of a moderate extent, and isiiferiiii* 
built in die form of afqnare tower, fuch as were formerly 
aied xo fortify the dty waUs, and is contiguous to that of the 
city on the infide, and raifed but ten or twelve feet above its 
bulwrjirk. The afcent up to the top is by a very narrow ftair- 
cafe; and on the platform above were placed all the old in* 
ftruments, "which, though but few, did yet talte up the whole 
room, till Father yerbiej^ imtiKKjuqedhis new ones, wJiich hp 
difpoCed in a more cpnvenknt order. Thefe are laiige^ well 
caft, and embellilhed with repidjen rations of dragons,, 6a» 
and, was but the neatnefs or the diviiioi^ anfwerable to the 
work, and the telefcopes fafbened to them, acccMrdiqg to the 
new method, inflead of pins, they would be equal to thofe of 
Europe : but the Chinefe artificers were, it feems, either too 
negligent, or incapable of following his directions. The 
reado" will form a better idea of their difpofition, as well a$ 
of the wjbbole platfpi:m« by the draught h^e annexed, and by 
the deicription of the dtki inftruments, which he will find 
in the following note (M).- As to theold ones, they were, by 


(M) Thefe are ; lines, inta ^60 degrees, and 

I. An armillary or zodiacal each decree mto fixty minutes^ 

fpbere, fix feet in diameter and theie laft into portions of 

(marked a in the plats), and ten feconds, by fmall pins, 
iapported by foui^ra^ons heads, 2. An equinodial fphere, of 

whofe bodies, after iome wind- fix feet diameter (marked b)^ 

ings, are fattened to the ends of fuoported by a dragon, cafi ia 

two brafs beams, laid acrofs, a iJeeping pofiure, whofe claws. 

diat bear the . whole weight of extend to the four corners of the 

die fphere. Theie beams are pedeftal. This laft, like the' 

fopported by /four lions, of the preceding, confifts of two croft 

(ame metal, whofe heads may oeams, borne by four fmail 

be raifed, or lowered, by fcrews. lions, which ferve to level it.* 

The circles are divided, both The defign is grandj and well 

iathcla andotttfide^ bycroff executed. 

3. An 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

30 theBpfy of China. B. I 

T^rder of the emperor, fqt afide, as ufelefs, and laid in th* 
hall near the tower, where they may be feen through a crofs- 


3. An azimuthal horizon 
(marked c), fix feet in diame- 
tcr» which confifts of one large 
circle, placed horizontally. The 
double ruler, which is juft its 
diameter, and Hides over the 
whole limb, carries round along 
with it art upright triangle, the 
upper angle of which is fa- 
ftened to a perpendicular beam 
fixed in the centre of the hori- 
zon . Four twilled dragons bend 
their heads underneath the great 
.circle, to keep it firm, whilft 
two others, winding round two 
fmall pillars, raife themfelves 
on either fide, in almoft a femi- 
circular form, as far as the top 
of the axis, to which they are 
firmly fixed, in order to keep 
the triangle fleady and upright. 
* 4. A large quadrant (marked 
#/), of fix hct radius, and gra- 
duated at every tenth fecond. 
The lead, which fixes it in 
a vertical pofition, weighs a 
pound, and hangs from the 
centre by a very fine brafs-wire. 
The alhidada, or ruler, eafily 
Aides round the limb; and a 
dragon, folded in feveral rings, 
holds the parts firmly together, 
left they (hould ftart from their 
due pofition. The whole body 
of the quadrant hangs in the 
air;. and an immoveable axis 
runs thro* its centre, by which 
it may be turned towards any 
part of the heavens. And, to 
prevent its weight (haking it 
out of its vertical pofition, two 
other beams are raifed, one on 
each fide, and firmly fixed be- 
low up. n two dragons, and 
fattened to the middle axis by 
carved clouds, which feem to 
defccnd from the Iky. The 

whole work is firm, and well- 

5. A fextant, of eight feet 
radius (marked e), rcprefenting 
the fixth part of a great circle, 
fupportedby an axletrcc, whofe 
bafis is concave, and is held 
fteady \)y dragons, and croiTed 
in the middle by a brafs pillar ; 
on the end of which is fixed a 
machine, with wheels, which 
facilitate the moving of the in- 
ftrument. To the middle of this 
machine is fattened a copper 
bar, which reprefents one of the 
radii of the iextant, and keeps 
it immoveable. Its upper part 
terminates in a thick cylinder, 
which is the centre round which 
the ruler turns ; and the lower 
part reaches about two feet be- 
low the limb, for the engine, 
which ferves to raife and lower 
it, to take hold on. Thefe un- 
wieldy machines, however, are 
fo difficult to be moved, that 
they are rather an ornament to 
an obfervatory, than of any ufe 
to an obferver. 

6. The laft is ja celeftial 
globe, of fix feet diameter 
(marked/), which is the hand- 
fomeft, and beft made, of all 
the reft. The body of it is caft 
exadly round in brafs, and 
neatly polifhcd; the ftars are 
well formed, and in their true 
places, and the circles of a pro- 
portionable breadth and thick- 
nefs. It is like wife fo exadly 
hung, that the leatt force will 
turn it round ; infomuch that a 
child may elevate it to any de- 
gree, though it weighs above 
2000 pounds. A large concave 
brafs bafis, with a chanel round 
its edges^ is fupported by four 


by Google 

C. 1 : The Hiftory of China; 3 1 

barred \rindow, all covered with ruft, and buried in obll- 

Our author tells us, however, of a gnomon of Chinefe in- ^^ miri- 
Ycntion, which is pretty well contrived, and might be of ufe dia/tg9§\ 
to a careful aftronomer. It is placed in » lower room of the *•*•• 
fabric, and the flit which lets in the fun's rays, and is made of 
two copper-plates fufpended, which, by being moved to and 
fro, do make the entrance larger or fmaller, is horiaontally 
placed, about eight feet from the ground. Under it lies a 
table, trimmed with brafs, in the midfl of which there is 
ftrack, lengthwife, a meridian line, fifteen feet long, divided 
aaofs by other lines, which are neither exaft nor fine. On 
the fides they have alfo cut a number of finall holes, wherdn 
to put water, in order to fet the table exaftly horizontal* 
Tlus, and the infbuments above-mentioned, is all that b re- Fh>i per^ 
markable in this famed obfervatory, in which there zxt fvve/ons em^ 
mathematicians employed night and day, each in a proper apart- pity^^ '" 
meat on the top of the tower, to obferve all that pafles over «w^'*^«*- 
thdr heads. One of them is gazing towards the zenith, and-^^'***'^''*"* 
the others towards the four points of the compafs, that no- 
thing may efcape their notice. Their obfervations extend 
themfdves not only to the motions of the heavenly bodies^ 
but to fires, meteors, winds, rain, thunder, hail, ftorms, and 
other phsenomeua of the atmofphere ; and thefe are carefully 
entered in their journals, and an account of them is brought, 
every morning, to the furveyor of the mathematics, and re- 
g^ed in his office ". And thus much fhall fuffice for the 

"> See Le Compte, Martiniere, Du Halde, and others 
above cited. 

imf-(hapcii dragons, placed at centre of the concave, arc all 

equal diflances, whofe briftly moved at pleafure, without ftir-> 

hair fuflains a magnifioent hori- ring the bafis, which ilill conti- 

zoo, of a confiderable breadth, nues fixed. This makes it eafy 

and corioufly wrought and or- to place the horizon level, fo as 

namented. The meridian, which to interiedl the globe juft in the 

fopports the axis of the globe, middle. The whole is a$ well 

is apheld by clouds ilTuing out finifhed as if it had been done 

of the balls, and Aides eafily by thtbcfk European 2imfi; and, 

between them j its motion be- as mod of thefe fix machines arc 

ingfacilitatcd by hidden wheels, ten feet high, they are, for the 

by which the whole globe is convenience of the obfervers, 

eafily turned to any elevation : encompafTed with marble ftcps, " 

befides this, the horizon, the in the form of amphitheatres, 

dragon', and the brafen beams as the reader may fee by the 

wMchcrofs each other at the plate (12). 

(12) U Cmpif, ukiftip* Du Hald*^ W. ii. p. 1 38, ^ ftf» & m!. 



by Google 

34 Thi Wftory of Qhito. B. ] 

City otPe-kingr', in defcribing which, we have been the mot 
diffbfe, as it is the metropolis of this vaft. empire, and is, a 
it were,, the foul of it, which puts in motion, and keeps I 
ordfer^ every part of it. ^1 that needs be added is, that i 
hath jurifdiftion over fix cities of the fecond, and twenty o 
tfie third' rank, befiHes the general one which it hath over tii< 
"Whole realm, by its fix fupreme courts which fit in it j an ac 
count of which will be given, wjien we come to fpeak of theii 
government. The other head cities of this proviace, and 
their inferior ones, are as follow : 
t,nedty 2. PJLf-TING-FUy the refidcnce of the viceroy ; which 
^Pau- three cities of the fecond, and feventeen of the third 
ting fu. rank. It hath a lake in the middle of it, which is chiefly 
filmed for producing vafl quantities of a fort of flowers, called 
by the Cbinefe lyen-ivha ; and which the reader will find de- 
ftribed'in the margin (N). 

&Hq^ 3. HO'KTEN-FUy fo called, becaufe it is feated between 
eorfii; . two rivers, is near four miles in compafs ; and hath two cities 
of the fecond, and fffteen of the third rank, under itsjurif- 
4. Chin- 4f CHTN-TING'FU, feated near a fine river, is of an ob- 
ting-fu. I6ng figure, well walkd, and near four miles in circuit. It 

(N) This flower feems to be 
the fame with our nymphea^ or 
water-lily, which, tho' little va- 
lued ' by ^us, is mtrch admired 
and efweiBcd' by the Chinefii 
both for its beauty and medici- 
nal, qualities. The truth is, 
they bellow fo much pains in 
improving it, particularly in 
their aitifcial fKhponds, that it 
gpws large, doable, 'and very 
•lively in its colours, which are^ 
commonly a mixture of white 
and violet, or red and white. 

This flower (hoots up about a 
yard or more above the water, 
not unlike our tulips and con- 
fifts.of alitdeballfup^rted by 
aJxnalLfUament, nuich like that 
winch, is found in a lily ; its 
fincU is^ pleafant, and its fruit 
of the bigaefs of a hazel-nut, 
and^contains a white kernel, ve- 
ry, grateful to the tafte ; the root 

is knotty, like that of reeds, its 
pith and fubftance very wHite. 
There is nothing in this plant 
but what is of fome fervice 1 
and they make even a meal of 
it, which they ufc upon feveral 
occafions. The leaves are long, 
and float upon the water ; they 
are fattened to the root by long 
ftrings, and are ufed by garden- 
ers to wrap their ware in. 

The virtues which the Chinifi 
phyficians attribute to this plant, 
are, that it is a great refrefher and 
nourifher of nature and a great 
rcftorer of decayed conftitunons. 
But, as to what Kerchtr^ and 
fome other authors, add, that 
its root will foften copper, t^ 
being put into a man*s moath 
with it (13), it hath been finct 
exploded by thofo who tried th« 
experiment with lets prepoT* 

(\l) Ktrsber, Du Ba/Jf, p, 12, ^80. 



by Google 

C. I. ^ Hift&ty e/" China. |^ 

hath thifty-two cities under it, viz. five of the iecond, and 
twenty-feven of the third rank. North of it are mountains 
which produce a great variety of medidnal lierbs ; and upon 
which are feen feveral ftatdy monuments reared to thdr he- 
roes, and one in particular confecrated to the memory of the 
firft emperor of liic dynafty of Han. 

5. SHUN-TE'FU hath but nine dries under it, all of the J. Shun. 
tMrd rank ; but which arc very confiderable, and wdl peopled. ^-^^ 
The whole territory is fisrtile, and well watered ; and, ambng 

other things, produces a fine fand, which is ufed for pdiihing 
of predous ftones, and the beft touchftones for gold in the 
whole empire. 

6. ^ANG-PING'FUy fituate on the fouthem part of6.Qua«g. 
the province, hath only nine cities of the third rank under its ping-fA, 
jorildiftion, and nothing particular worth mentioning. 

7. 7AY-M1NG-FU hath one dty of the fecond, and7-.Tay. 
dghteen of the tlurd rank, under it. ming-ffr. 

8. rc/^(7.P/iV^-FC/ fa advant^icoufly fituate, being en- 8. Yung- 
compafled by the fea, by rivers, and by mountains covered ping-fiu 
with very fair trees. It hath only one dty oi the fecondi and 

fi?e of the third rank. 

Not far from it is the fort di Shang*hay^ which fa as It 
were the key of the prorince c^ Lyau-tong, and is fittiate 
near the great wall, which extends itfdf, mm the bulwark 
built in the fea, for the {pace of aleague, in a plain country, 
before it afcends the hiUs. 

9. SUTEN'JVHA'FU fa a large, well-built dty,* full of 9- Swcn^ 
inhatntaats, and feated among the mountains, not. far fix>m wha-fiL 
the great wall. It hath two cities of the fecond, and dght 

of ^ tUrd rank: befides feme forts alpng the wall, fbongly 
garrifoned, to guard the entrance between China and Tartary. 
Its mountains produce fine cryfhd, marble, and porphyry, and 
a fwt of yellow rat, larger than thoie of Europe^ whofe fkins 
are in great requefl among the Chinefe. 

II. ^he Province of Ky^g-nan. 

T^HE next provioce in dignity (for, in fuch hiflorical works t. Ky- 
■■• as thfa, we think it much more proper to mentioa them ang.^au. 
tfooat&iag to then- rank, than as they ftand contiguous to each 
other, as is done in geographical ones) Is that now called 
Kyang'-noHj or Nan-king, aild is the moft fertile, trading, and . 
wealthy, of the empire. It is bounded on the weft by thofe "~ 

^ Ho-nan and ff^-quang; on. the fouth by Che-kyang. 3,nd 
Ifyang'Ji ; on the north by Shan-tong ; and, on the eaft, by 
die gulf of Nan-king. It extends itfdf from the aotji 
Mod. Hist. Vol. Vm. C to 


by Google 

^ ?*r a^^ ^ Chinas B. 1 

' to»the aytli dbgrecft iatitude, and from the j 12th to du 

' i)i9th of caft iongittidc; fo that, for its extent, as wcU a 

op ilence, it jufily dderves at kail the ieoond raaky thotigl 

*l^ Chifiefe imter Km^ in his furrcy, places it hat in' «hi 

-«£d h. We have afready obferved, thatt thedntieat «»pefOR 

ke,3t their conftant refidencc at its motropofis trf Nan^king 

•Qi, for reafons of ftaite^ they remored it* tso Pe^tig ;. ^lot 

withftanding 'which confideraHe lot, it hathv by the jadnan 

ta^e of it^ masitiine ocMmneree, as wdl as the ndbnefe of it* 

:(al, and vafl nuiaber and induAry of tts inhahitaotiB, -beefi 

F^ /r/- ;€aabled to keep up its mtknC fpkndor aod rank v iftionuch 

hute to tbt that the yearly tribute it pays to the emperor in tice, fittcs, 

st$%uH. cotton, fait, ijc. atfAwnts, cannkimtas annky ^cording to 

Martinif who had it from, the then govBrnor 0^ ihe pcK>¥iocc, 

to near 32 suUians t^ tads (O),. or dixcats, eaKbifive of tite 

duties arifiog^ itom all that is itoported or exported, £>r the 

receiving of which ther^e are pudper tiffiaers affighod *. The 

pumber of fiunQies in it is computed, accordkig to the CM- 

nefir rogifterB, to 1,^9,816^ and the jncn to* 9,^67,42% or 

inear ten miUicms ; amocig whom, the city of Bhang-^Kty^ 'aod 

villages belonging to it, are faid to contatm £Oo,6oo, employed 

in weaving of caUico. 

yunfdtc' KYANG'NJN bath fourteen ^ft^ or cities of the fitft 

tion, .Kank J. under which areiBacty-thi»e of the fecMKi atad dnrdr 

.befides towns and viUage^ without nu«ber, all of theei large, 

ManufaC' populous, and wealthy ; for all the oommodities that ceace 

^res from d Ay of the cities, but dpeciaily it€«n the tapital of this 

t^imed. province, fuch as thofeof japan-work^ ink, paper, and odwr 

> See^Ls Combts, MAjtrriii, BvHALDa>, amdeympsabo^ 


o. (O} Equiyakat to sl difie/e 4mmu/, to 5«99{fe34 iack^ ; rajf 

ounce of filver, or to about filk to 6863 pounds ; wrougb^^ 

eight fhillings and feven pence ditto, 28,452 pieces ; linen to 

fterline (14). 2,077 pieces; that of cotton is* 

Perhaps it*wiH not be unac- paid iniilvev, and is no lefs coo- 

ceptable to the reader, if we fiderable ; and the reft of thein 

fubjoin here a fuller account of cemniodities bears a proportion 

this tribute, by way of fpadmen; to their affluence ; but that of 

feeing all the other provinees the fait, which is ^ here made 

. pay the fame, and the difference in vaft quantities along the idt* 

^iB only in the more or lefs of coafts of the province, k th» 

.each commodity. That of the biggeft of all (15). 

jice here amounts, communibus 

ft^) SeeDu HafJe. Engtifh, p, 73, fib mu (1%) Stt M/btini^ 


by Google 

ttMUzfaftuies, in which they drive a vaft tr^ck, arc more 
fiftfiemed, and bear a greater pnce, than thofe of any other 
|nmaQe$. The inb^tante of kyang-nan are pcdite and Liormd 
caudsoDSi and have a jaore thaa ordinary "difpofition for the mem. 
iomoes; iofcN&uch that it is famed for the great number of 
ixbrs it pcoducesy who, by their merit, attain the higheil 
foAs and dignities of the em^. It hath but few moun- 
tUQS, except towards the fouth ; aJ^ the reft is a fruixfol 
chaafMin, abouiKliz^ with all the noce(Iari<& and convenien- 
des flf life. It abounds with oonvenient fea-ports, reibrted Gnta 
<p by an tnnmaf raMc quantity of ve&ls from moft ptrts-of /r«i^. 
J^'t and a. g^oeat number of canals, aod fome navigable 
niGTS, for the convemenQC of import aod export. The ntok 
cooiiderahle of thefe are the Tang-t/e^ which runs quite thro* ' 
tfaeaiddle of it; and the /fS^dnig'-^,. which bounds, it on (be * 

This province, befides its Idurteen diftn£b, each under 
its proper capital, is divided uito two govemments, (he eaft- 
em aod wefhsm, each undcra nef|A:^iTe viceroy ; the former 
of whom hath hisrefidence at Si-chew-fi^ and the latter at 
^ang-hing-fti. The order in which they ftand is as follows : 
I. Nan-king ; 2. S4'chnv ; j. Song'fyang; 4. Chang^cbew i 
j. (Mn^yang ; 6. Whay^ngang: 7. Tang'chnv i 8. Ngan* 
imgi 9. Wbey-chew i 10. Ning^ue ; ii. On-chew i 12. 
7<gf-^g;; i^, Fong^yang; 14. lyu-chew. - 

To tbrfc may be added the ifland of Xfong^mng^ which 
fikenrife belongs to tbds province, and of which we £alLfpeak 
at the Old of this article, after we have given a ihort defcrip- 
tkm of what is moft remarkable in thofe fourteen capitak, 
Had dpecially in that of Nan-king. 

N'AN'KING, alias Kyan-ning-ftty capital <rf the whole Nan-king 
praaince, andonceftyledtbefpadous, ftately, opulent, none- ^cnW. 
&ch, ifc. ftandsin latitude J2, and eaf): longitude 116, or 
two degrees 38'' eaft fixmi the meridian of Pe-Aing* It is ExtenK 
by far the largeft city in the whole empire, though much .re- 
duced of its antient extent j of which the Chinefi tell you, 
that if two horfemen fet out in the morning at one of the 
gates, and galloped around it at different Ways, they would not 
meet tilLthe evening (P). The Q^rjp ,o( .Nan-Mng is one of 


(P) The furvey of DJony/us. been confiderably larger ^ info- 

£b0 between iixteeQ and much that feme writers have 

[eventeen French leagues, that computed it to have h^eaxhirty 

isi about forty-eight miles, in leagues, or ninety miles. How 

circuit : but it appears, from mmch i^ hath (hrunk from ibac 

the ruios of it^ ola wall, to have time, may be reckoned from the 

C a ' laft 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



and other 

1%e Hifiory of^ China. B. 1. 

the moft irregular in the whole province, if not in the whole 
eiDpire ; for which Du If aide, who hath given us a (ketch of 
ity gives this reafon : that the hills within it, and the nature 
of the ground about it, could not well admit of a more re- 
gular form. Its decay hot only fyom its antient extent, but 
from its priftinfe grandeur, wais owing to the removing of the 
imperial refidenct, and fupreme tribunals (on which account 
it had the title bf Nan-king^ or fouthem court), to that of 
Pc'king, fince Which the Tartars have given it the name of 
Kyang'Tiing ; and tho*, in common difcourfe, it be ftill called 
by its old one, yet it is never fuffered to be ufed in any pub- 
lic inftruments. tt hath not only loft its antient name, but 
all. the other monuments of its royal grandeur. The impe- 
rial palace, once a moft magnificent ftruAure, hath nothing 
now left but its ruins. I'he ftately monuments of its an- 
tient monarchs, and other public buildings, are all run into 
decay ; and even its once fo famed obfervatory lies now ne- 
gle&ed« and almoft demolUhed ; moft of tbofe fuperb edi- 
fices being deftrbyed by the avarice of the Tartars^ who firft 
invaded it, and out of hatred to the Chinefe dynafty then 

NunAerof ABOUT one third part of the dty hath fince lain wafte; 

'vejels. the reft, however, is not only well built and inhabited,, but 
drives on a very confiderable commerce by means of the Tang^ 
tfe above-mentioned, which, being a large navigable river, i^ 
ever bringing in a prodigious number of barges ; fome of 
which, efpecially the imperial ones, are nearly as big as, if 
not exceeding, our middling vefieis. All thefe come into that 
river, from other parts of the empire, by the help of a good 
number of canals ; and in fuch quantities, that a ftranger 
cannot fiDrbear being furprifed at the vaft hurry that reigns 
through the whole city ; nor at the prodigious number of 
thefe barks, which, we are told, were thought by fome of the 
Jefiiits, and firft European adventurers, to have been fuffident 
to forni a bridge between that capital and Eurtpe. What 
adds to the wonder, is, the richneis of thofe veflels, not only 
in their coftly lading, but in their fine paintings, carvings, ai^d 
r gilding, and the vaft crouds that are feen upon them, and 
' make it appear like a great fair kept upon the water 

lafi furvey which Du Halde tells 
us was. taken of it, which gives 
it) wail no more than fixty- 
fcvcn CJ^neJp lis, or live leagues 

and half, oftwemy to a degree, 
and about 466 mihom over, 
which is ihort of eighteen mSei 


(ti) Du Haldf, uhi fup.f. jg. 


pigitized by VjOOQIC 

C I. The Hifiory cf China. J7 

The ifreets <^ the city, though narrower ^y much thaa Prt/mf 
thofe of Peeking, and other Chinefe towns, arc however cuiri- ^«**iw«r. 
oofly paved, and OHiieqaently freer from duft and dirt. Sooio 
of diem are covered m the middk with hrge myble flabi ( 
lad 10 the fides with variety of pebble and other ftoiic$/fo neat* 
If inlayed, that it would be a delight to walk [thro* them, if 
they were not fo gready thronged from morning to nigbt. The PukUe 
city-gates, (bme of the pagods, palaces, arches, towers^ and huiUini$i 
other public bnlldings, appear quite fplendid, efpedaUy the 
palace of the vkeroy, who always refides here. But the moft 
cnrioas and fiat^ly fabric in this city, is its oAagon tower, 
which will be more properly defcribed in the /equel, amone 
the artificial rarities <^ this country. The number of its in- 'Nnmhert^- 
h^tants is no lefs furprifmg.; and hath been computed by inhahu^ 
Dionyfius Kao, Father Le Compter and others, to amount to ams^ 
two millions of fouls, exclufive of its great carrifon (Q). 
The tribute which it pays to the crown, and the cuftoms for 
imports and exports, .come to an immenfe fum : but, befides 
thcfe, the city fends every year to Peeking five large veflels 
laden with the fineft fillcs, clothes, and other rich comnuxli- 
ties, in order to ingradate itfelf with ihi&Tartar monarchs (R), 
and to fecure the proteAion of its commerce. 

Nothing is more pleafant than the territory about this Territory 
dty, which not only abounds with all neceflaries, but is ^ut it. 

(QJ We muft, however, ob- caafe the emperors bear tha 
ferve, that fome later writers dragon in their arms, are fo re- 
have ftrack off near half that fpeSed, that every veHel it ob* 
namber, exclufive of its garri- liged to lower their fails to them, 
fon, which coniiUs of 40,000 There is likewife another fett of 
men, and which the governor or them, which go from Nan -king * 
Heuteoant-general of the fouth- to Pt-Jting every Afrilxx il%, 
ern provinces is obliged to keep with great qaantitiet of a peca* 
ap here (17). Du Halde hath liar fort of fifh caught in this 
faid nothing precifely aboat it ; neighbourhood, and which are 
fo diat the reader is at liberty to covered with ice to keep it freih. 
believe which fide he will; but And, tho' thefe two cities are 
to us it feems, upon ^he whole, above 600 miles diftant from 
as if this laft calculation came each other, we arc told thcfe 
as much too ihort as the other vcffels muft perform the vbyaae 
may be fuppofed to go beyond in eight Or ten days, under ic* ' 
die real mark. vcre penaldes, that fi(h beins 
(R) Thefe vcflHs, which arc rooftly for the emperor's uiS 
ftyl«d lung-y- chew, or the fliips ( 1 8 ) . 
of the dragon's doathing, be- 

(n) C9r»eHlnkaivu t^ Hartiaiert, & at. (%%} Bimikii, Dm 

C 3 mow* 



by Google 

58 . ; fife Hifiory^fVAm. B. L 

moreo^r adcwted with the greajteft variety of villaft, pleafarc* 
houfes, turrets, gardens, orchards,^ and other embellifhinetttfl;; 
V^.ayfmng that can heighten the profpeft of it. The moft delightful 
trof^uh. objeft of all thefe is a wood of about twelve miles in com- 
pds; and planted with ftatcly pincs^ in the heart of which \» 
raifeda tfiount of a fufficient hdght to overtop them, which 
.. . is.<:i6vered .with temples, and other fcpulchral monuments of 
- the antient Chinefe nionarchs. It ftands about fix mUes from 
Xht city ; and about the fame distance from it, on the faoie 
plain, is another mount, upon which is raifed a fpacious terraee 
of lai^e fquare ftones, with four flights of marble fteps, aid^ 
on that, a temple truly royal and magnificent. The roJof is 
fupported by two rows of marble pillars, finely carved a»d 
polifhed, twenty-four fefcthigh, and of a proportionable thicks 
• nefs : . every thing elfe, both within and without the ftru6hire» 
is anfwcrable to it. . The gates are lofty, and Curioufly carved 
in bas-relief, and inlaid with gold and filver, The windows 
are fenced with a fmall kind of wire^net, of the fame metal ; 
and lb furprifingly fine, that it can hardly bfc perceive^* 
Within-fide are feveral ftatdy thrones, inriched with pearls^ 
and other precious ftones of inimenfe value, and the moft cx- 
" . ccllent workmanfhip; We omit many other curious things 

belongii^ to this city, both within and without it, iot want 
Learned • of room « ; and ihall only add, that it abounds with men erf 
tpen* learning in all fciences, and with many noble libraries, as well 

as rich bookfellers fhops, fumifhed with the grcateft plenty 
and variety of valuable books. The paper, ink, and other 
faiftruments for 'sVriting and printing, do here excel all othet^ 
in the empire. Nan-king hath only eight cities of the thirc( 
rank under its jurifdiftion. 

Having dwelt fo long on the defcription of thefe two ce- 
lebrated capitals of the Chinefe empire, we fliall be much more 
\>nti in the remainder not only of this, but of the other pro- 
vinces, and content ourfelyes with juft mentioning what is 
rooft curious in every one ; referring our readers, for z fuller 
account of them, to the authors laft quoted in the margin. 
S<i-ckcw. ^. The fecondcity in the province of Kyang-nan is Si^' 
chtuj^ the capital of the eafterh divifion called I-tong, and is not 
only large iand populous, and rich enough to vie with Nah' 
'king laft defcribed, hut is, fqr its commodious and pleafeD? 
Ctu^tion, cfteemed an earthly paradjfe. It is compared to 
Venice, on account of the many canals that run through its 
ftreets y but with thi^ difiference, that th? ©ne ftands on th^ 

i. \ >. Dc ba^ tjd.^LE CoMi»Ti, CoauBiUi, MARTiKtBRE, At- 
l^AffSincnf. Dutch anibaK tp Chiba, Dv HaI'PB,& al.plar. ' * 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

(ea, aad ,tbis La freflx w^r. The caoals are cap^doos «noii{^(/V/ «« 
to csurry , the largeft barg^ ana are coQtIauaUy crouded wuii/^^ 'm'a* 
thcnu Siirchew^ like fame others ia CJ/nii, may be reckoned '"^• 
three cities ; one of which, within the wall^ is computed 
^ve fbqr leagues in comf afs ; another ia the uiburbs, which Faft nMm- 
eacteods a great way on both £d^ of the canals ; and a third Iftr o/^ve/' 
ia the barks, which are £b many floating hoafe6» ranged od fi^^* 
Che water in ieveral rows, above a league in length, many of 
whi^ are equal if bulk to onr third-rate, (hips ^ 

The tcnitixyaboHtic^aQdof thecitiesunderitsjuririiflion. Commercu 
b fertile and delightful, rich and opulent ; and all carry on h 
codideraUe commerce not only with other parts of Chinas 
bat with Ja^oHy itom which this province is divided by a nar*> 
row chaady which the trading vellels commonly crofs in two 
or three days, with a fair wind. The chief manufaAores Manvfmc^ 
here ace brocades and embroidery, which ace the. fineft and twres^ 
cheapeft in proportion in the whole empire* The city hath 
jix ftately gates tOFwards the water-fide, and as many towards 
the knd i and a jarifdi6tioQ over one city of the fecond, and 
feven of the third rank, all of them beautiful and rich, and 
abont one and an half or two leagues ia compafs^. 

The other cities of this province have nothing more re-, ^ 

fflarkable than what hath been already obferved, except that . 
of Wbn^-chew^ whofe mountains have mines of gold, filvcr,. jyi>^^ ^ 
and copper, and whofe territory is faid to produce the beft bqU^ ^, 
tea- Thzt Kif Fong-yang-fA, the birth-place of ^wf-z;!?, the 
&ft emperor of the preceding dynafty, was once defigned by 
chat monarch for his imperial refidence, and a plan was 
drawn for making it one of the nobleft cities in the empire : 
but the unfitnefs of the ground, fcarcity of water, and other 
reafons, made him exchange it for that of Nan^ktag^ to whicli 
he removed his ieat. It retains, however, fome marks of 
the royal magnificence, fuch as ^ fi^tely temple, ij^tnc pagods, 
andjQonuments, which th# reader may £ind in the author laft 
quoted. '^ . 

The laft thing to be mentioned of this province, is the IJUndif 
jifland oi X/hng-mingt feparated from it by a fmall chanel of Tfong- 
five or fix leagues. It is about twenty leagues long, and fiv^ ™^"g ^^ 
or fix in breadth ; and was formerly a barren de{art, to which A'*'^^* 
robbers and banditti were banifticd, and left to ftarve : to 
tfoid this, neceffity foon drove th^m to cultivate it ; after 
which, fonac poor Chinefe families came over, and helped td 
improve it, as far as the ground was capable of it ; fo that 

y DuHaLDE, ubi.fup. P* 74^ Le CplylPTE,MARTiNIER|E 

C^RHEILLSi fub voc. <Sr al. • * lid. ibid. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

40 the Hijt0ry of Oamz. B. I 

/// pro-' WW (ome fpots of it yield wheat, rice, barley, and oiEb4 
ilffci^ coarfer grain; cotton^ limons, and other fruity: but till 
greateft produft is fait ; which is here made in fuch plenty 
as to ferve the inhabitants, and is tranfported in Vaft quatitd 
ties into the continent. This fait b made out of a (brt O 
greyifti earth, which grows difperfed in fpots here and ther^ 
on the north fide of the ifland, and of the largenefs of sui 
acre or two. 

Another part of the ifland, towards the north, [pro- 
duces naturally a great plenty of reeds, of which they driv« 
a confiderable commerce: with fome of them they build 
very handfomc country-houfes ; and the reft is fold to fervc 
for fuel not only to the inhabitants, but likewife along the 
co«fts. Their other lands ^eld them two harvefts, the .one 
in May 9 wlych is of com, rye, barley, and rice ; and the 
other in September, which chiefly confifts of cotton and rice ; 
which laft is here moft curioufly cultivated. 
City and THERE is but one city in the whole ifland, which is of the 
iovfM, third rank, and encompafl^ vdth high' walls fupported by 
good ten'aces, and furrounded with a ditch full of water : but 
there are in the arable lands fuch a vafl number of villages, 
that they feem contiguous to each other. The air is whol- 
fome and temperate 5 and the country pkafant, but interfered 
with a great number of canals, to prevent its being laid under 
water •, 

III. The Province of Kyang-fi 

Kvane-fi T^ bounded on the north hy Kyang-nan ; on the weft by 
dJcriMf Hi-quang : on the fouth by ^ang-tong ; and, on the 
caft, by Fo-kyen and Cheeky ang. It extends Itfelf from the 
24^ degree and one-half to Ae 30th of latitude, and from 
the iio« to the ns<* io' of eaft longitude. Thcmoun- 
tdns which part it from ^ang-teng and Fo-kyen are almoft 
ioacccffible and barren (S) i but, being once j^fled over, dif* 


• Dv Haldi, ubi fup. p. 78, k feq. Lettres cor. & cdif. 
' ' vol. xj. p. £34, ic feq. 

(S) The vaft ridges of moun- Chinefe or TarNn-if and keep 

tains which run betw^n this themfelves fo by the inacceffible 

province and thofe of Fg-fyen height and raggednefs of their 

und ^ang'tongj or Canton^ are habitations, which are for die 

inhabited oy a rude and favage mofl pare in deep caverns on the 

fort of people, who pretend to tops of thofe mountains. From 

be iadependent from either the thefe they come frequently down 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C« x« tbi Hifi9fyof China; 4k 

oyvtr very firmtfiil vaHies,aiid]^ains exceedioffly weQ ImproiFed. 
The iR^le province is \veU watered andfiertik ; but is fo j)o- hs f^pm* 
pnkms withal, that the lower lands can fcarce fnffice to nir* tomjnifsih 
m(h them with a foffidency of com and rice ; fo they are €mMferf 
ifXQoi to live very parfimonionfly ; and are, on that account, -A**^* 
become rhc fubjeft oi fcom and raillery among thdr n^h* .^ 
boors (T) t yet ^ley commonly are endowed with an excd- 
loit genius; and majay of them advance themfdves to die 
l%hdl pofts by thdr learning and merit. The number of 
people are computed to amount to 1,363,629 fiunilies, or 
^549»Soo inen ^. 

The country abounds with lakes, brooks, and rivers ; £^^^ ^ 
(bme of the laft very large and navigable, pardculariy the ^#ri,lec. 
G»r, or Kofiy al. Kyang^ which runs through the whole pro* 
rioce, and recdves a great number of others in its courfe. 
All thefe yield a great plenty and variety of fifti', pardculariy 
ialmon, trout, and fturgeon ; and the mountains which en- 
oompa& it are dther covered with woods, or are famed for 
their minerals and medidnal herbs. The lake called Po^kyang^ L^h •f 
hi is pardculariy remarkable for its largenefs and depth, it Po-yang. 
being 300 miles in circuit, and navigable by the largeft (hips : 

^ Le Comptb, Martinibre, Cornbillb, & al. < Mar- 

Tim, CORNEILLB, & al. 

in bands to plunder the lower didnefs, and for which they give 

grounds; but dare not venture them the dde of mice. There 

nr from their dens, for fear of are indeed vaft numbers of 

falling into the hands of fome them ; who, not bdne able ta 

of die garrifons, which are here fubiift at home, wander, about' 

kept in ftrong cafBes in good the empire under the nodon of 

numbers, and from whom they fortune- tellen, jugglers, conju- 

can tx^cSt no mercy. rers, &r. } and fome of thra. 

Great pains have been uken who have had a learned educa. 

at different times by the govern- don, are taken into famili^, 

meat^eithertofubdueorexdrpate and ferve as tutors to their 

lhefewildfreebooters,butasyet children. It muft be owned, 

without fuccefs ; tho^ their redttc- however, that the generality of 

don would be fo much inore ad- tbe people of this province are 

vantageous,asthevallies between much given to fuperftidon, and 

d>em are very fruitful ; and fome hold the dodrine of the tranf- 

of the mountains have mines of migration of fouls ; obferve a 

gold, copper, and lead (19). number of heathenifh fails, and 

(T) The neighbouring ))ro- many other fuch fuperfddous 
vinces defpife them for their fooleries, above any other pro- 
frugality, which they iyle for- vince (zo). 


19) C»nmUi di^, LMMartinitrit Dm UM, &gl, (20} L§Mariimif 



by Google 

41 ncHf/htyifCbkgu B, !• 

kit* (aid to receive ail the rivers ia tl^ froYiofcy^ad h^th 

its borders covered with large to^q^ and yllla^, vibaifk drive 

« co&fiderable trade upoa it. Ther^growlikewifegrcat quaiw 

titiee of the lyea-wfea^ or water-lily, upoa the, fcrface elf it j 

which pkat we have defGribed in a former aofe ^^ 'W^t rea- 

tinepor- ders this lake Rloft famous^ is, the fine china-ware that is 

€tlain ma- made in fome of its neighbourhood, particularly in the tow^Q. 

mnfaaure of King-te-fim^ or, more properly, Kina-u^ching^ in thcdif- 

^/ King- ^1^ of ZhaU'chew'fA ; and is the fineC moft ia requeft, ami 

«c-ching. jua^g Jq ij^g greateft quantities, of any in the whole empire. 

The caufe of its er.traordinary beauty is fuppofed to be toruG 

- peculiar property in the water ; iincc wc are told, that the 
Tame oiateri^ls and woriooen wiU sot producethe like in any 
other pbce ^. 

7hat nahU This jttftly-famed borough, which is as populdUs as tacdk . 
town de- oities' ia China^ and o^y wants the walls to merit die name 
/cribe/L of one, is computed to have above a million of inhabitants^ . 
moiUy employed in tiiat maaufaAure ; the reft being the 

- merchants who deal ia that wafe» whole hpufes take up a 
great deal of room,- and who empl<^ avail number of work- 
men (U). The town extends itfelf along the banks of a fine 
river, a league and half ; the ftreets are long and ftrait, tho* 
rather too narrow, crouded, and noify ; and interfef): each 
other at certain diftances in a very regular manner, and not 

Vumher of^^'^ f^r^P ^^ wafte gfound Is to be fpared in it. They rec-^ 

furnaca. i(C»he4 aildently but srfKiut 300 porcelain fiunaces in the fd^Kre^ 

wliich, We tre tcdd, are now increafed to above 500 ' : th^ 

clouds of Cnoke and flames of which, afcending in diflerent 

parts, ftiew at once the length, breadth, and circumference 

< See before, p. 32. note (N), « N^vahett a, L^ 

CoMPTE, Martiniers, Du Halde, S^ al. ^ Du Halds» 
p. 80, & ftq. 

{!)) They are reckoned to employmen found for young and 

confume in this pl^ce, one day old, ftrong and weak; and evea 

with another, 10,000 loads of the lame and blind, may get a 

rice, and one thoufand hogs a living by grinding of colours,, 

d^S befides other animals, lifh, fcfr .* There is likewife a vaft 

fowl, tff. which makes pro- number ofhands kept; employed 

vifions much dearer than in other in the barges that ply to an4 

parts of this province; notsvith- from this place, and extend 

Aahding which, it is become the thenfelves in two or three rows 

refuge of an infinite number of on the river, fome miles in 

poor families,Jwho could fubfift length (21). 
no- where fo well ; for here is 

(ai) La Martiniet* Juh, vof, he C^mptfj Du Hjldt^ ^ 0I 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ff k $ ^i^ich, \a the iugiu» appears like z krgt dty «I1 m ~ 
SxCf or Uie a huge furnace, with its vail n«mber of vcaltf 
kofes. Str^Bgersrare not admitted to Aay» or ereo lodge at 
f<^, at King'U-chmff^ urdefs fome refponfiUe peribos of 
t£ town wiU aafwer for their good behaviour. This rq^u* 
ia^a, joined to that which is obferved day aad aight ia i^ 
and which is the fame as in the great citie8> keeps all thic^ 
iegDod order, and fecures tbe place £rom tbe attempts of an 
ia&^e number of robbers %. 

T31S province hath 1 3 fu% cm: o^ital^, which, with tbe Capittd 
diifai^ ^ tbe iecoad and third order^ under them, are ^cities tf 
follow :; 

I. NANG^HANG^ the metropolis of the whde; which i. Nang^ 
iiadione dtyc^ the iecood, and feven of the third rank, ua- flun^ 
4er Its jurififiAion. 

X. ZHAU-CHEWhzAi only feven diftiifte of die tlurdi. Zhau- 
order, befide* tbwns and villages in great number, . chew. 

J. ^ANG^SIN, which, though fituate in the midft of 5.QH*ng- 
fi^-rae^Btf^ns, is yet well cultivated and inh^ited. « It ma-* ^^ 
BB^Ames a good fort of paper, and the beft candles in all 
the empire ; and hath only feven diffari^s <^ the third nmk 
«iwfer 'm jufifiiiftioa. 

4. NANG'KING, or Nan-king-fA, is pleafaotly fituattf' Nangi- 
on the lake Po-j^^^ lately mentioned ; and abounds with fiib, l^g* 
corn, rice, <bc>\ and a kind of hemp, of which they make 

ft good fidnm^ doth. Its jurifdiftion extends only over four 
dd^ of die third rank. 

5. KTEW'KTANG is fituate about four miles oi^ the c. Kyew-L, 
Borth-weft fide of the lake Po-yang^ and on the fouth fide ^yang. 

of the famed river Tang-tfe^ which, though here at the di- 
flasGe of near 100 leagues from the fea, fumifties it with 
pl^ty o£ laknon, dcdplms, trout, i;c. The river, which 
runs along the walls of it, ebbs and Hows at the new and 
full moon ; and runs fo flowly thence hito the Tea, that its 
toBrfe IS hardly pferoeived, Our author doth not tell us 
what jorifdi^lion this city hatli. ^ , 

6; KYEN'CHANG hath but three citiesof the third rahk 6. Kycn- 
imder it 5 and is only noted for a good fort of wine made of chang, 
nee, and a kind of linen mucheibemed, and worn during 
the fummer-ht^ts. 

7. Fd'CHEW, or Vi-che^v, hath fix cities of the third 7. Ffi- 
nmk. Its walls are of a large extent \ yet it hath hardly chew. 
j;o,ooo inhabitants, it having been facked, and almoft de^ 

I py Halpb, ttbi fup. Lk Qovlvtj, fi al. 



by Google 

J4 ''^^ ^i^^ '^/ China. B. J 

ftrbyed, by the Tartars in the late wars ; and a great par 
of its antient buildings lying in ruins. 
S. Lin- 8. LIN'KTANG hath no more than fo\ir ddcs of th^ 
kyang. third rank under it. Its chief trafEck confifts in cnangesy witl 
which the furroundtng mountains, which are cut into tcr^ 
races, are covered, and from whence they are fcnt into th< 
ndghbouring provinces. . . 

tt. Ki- 9« KI'NGAN hath mnc cities of the third rank. Th< 

ng^ Karif, or Kyangj river, on which It is fituate, runs there {o ra- 
pid, among a number of rocks which are even with its fur- 
face, that it requires all the (kill of a good pilot, as weD as 
fbrength of hands, to pafs the current fafcly. 
-<o. Shwi- lo- SHWI'CHEW is divided into two parts, or cities^ by 
chew. the river Kan^ wMch have a communication vdth each other 
by two ftout bridges ; one of ftone, with ten arches ; and the 
other of boats, which rifes and fidls with the water. The 
north fide is ftyled the mandarin ci^, becaufe both the great 
and fmall of that dignity dwell in it ; whilft the other is chiefly 
inhabited by burghers and tradefinen. How far its jurif- 
diftion extends, we arc not told ; but it is fo happily ita- 
ated both for health and fertility, that it is ftyled the happy. 
1 1 . Yven- ' ^ • ^ ^^ N-CHU hath only four cities of the third rank 
cW. under if; but is blefled with every convenience of life, and 
furnifties the reft of the empu-e with vitriol and alum, with 
which the country about it abounds. 
i2.Kang- 12. KANG-CHEW hath twelve cities of the tMrd rank 
chew. under it; and is, befides, a place of great traflick^ as it is 
fitnaie on the river of its name, which receives another at a 
fmall diftance ; at the confluence of which is a large bridge 
built with boats ; and, near it, the cuftom-houfe, where vd- 
fcls are fcarched, and examined whether they have paid duty. 
The country about it abounds with thofe trees frcwn which 
the gyran, or varnifti for japanning, diftils, and is fome of 
the beft that CAiAZfl affords. 
I J. Nan- 13. The laft and moft fouthern capital of this province is 
ngan. called Nan-ngariy and hath four cities under it. It is lai^ 
populous, and rich, on account of thegri^at fefort of veffds 
to it, becaufe all the maxhandizes that go to, or come from, 
the province of ^ang-tong are obliged to land here : and 
thus much may fuffice for this third province **. 

* De his, vide Lb Compte, Corneille, La MartihiWi 
Dv Haloe, k al. 

IV. Tfc 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C i; Tie Hijicry of Cluna« 45 

IV. ne Previme of Fihkycn 

TSbooodedonthe eaftby thcfea; on the weft hjKyang-fip IV. Vo^ 
^ kft defciibed ; on the ncxth by Che^hang; and, on the kyen ^* 
fcoth by ^ttang-tGitg. It is one of the finaUeft provinces vafa^^^* 
the cni{nre ; and extends itfelf only baok the 23^ and an half 
^ the 280 20^of latitude, and from the 1 14^ to the 118^ 
of eaft km^tude ; bnt it is fo adyantageoufly fituate for navi^ Site mJ 
gation and comniercey as to be efteemed one of die richeft % tmmir^H 
and hath a great many forts built along the (hore» to defend 
itscoafts. Thefe are fo irr^;nlar9 by reafon of the number 
and variety of its bays, that it g^ves the inhaUtants an oppor- 
tunity of carrying on an illicit trade with ftrangers, in ijnte 
of all the Cbkntft proUbidons, <rf^ diamonds, and other pre* 
dous ftones, gold, qukkiliver, fpices, amber, and* 
mo^des, of wfakh they make a vaft traffick and gain* Thqr Vajt mum- 
maintain fach a vaft number of fhips» that, when the emp^ hir •/ 
ror of C>$ma was threatenkm; a war agafaift that of Japan^ this A/'* 
province is (aid to have offered to rurnifh him with fuch a 
nmnber of them as ihould be fuffident to make a bridge that 
flionid reach firom one country to the other. And indeed 
moft of their mountsuns, which are here in great number ( W), 
are covered with forefts full of large and lofty trees, fit for 
building of (hips. Some iJL them have rich mines of iron and- 

(W) The Gfo'ff^ have an ex- diat everyfoge or terrace from 
ceUent way of improving thefe the top to the bottom is plenti- 
moontains, by catting tbofe that fully ibpplied with water to 
are of a fott nature into the nouriih whatever grain is fown 
form of amphitheatres and ter- upon it. 
races, one above another, and And here it mud be obferved, 
fowing them with corn, rice, that the mountains which are 
l^c, i and, as the latter only formed in this fhapc, are com- 
grows in water, di^ take care mdnly of a fofc nature: bAt,^ 
to fopply each fuch fpot with it, where the rock is too hard to be 
either fromthefprings thatcome fi> cut, or where the water can- 
down from the mountains, or not be eafily conveyed in the 
from thofe of the plains, which manner above mentioned, .they 
they have the art of raiiing up content then^^fclves with plaac- 
to die higheft mountains, and of ing fuch mountains with variety 
conveying from one mountain oftrees for building, fuel, {ffc. 
to another, by pipes made of according to the nature of the 
bambo, which this province foil, or their own exigencies ; fo - - - 
iaia care to cultivate in grea^ that no fpot of gfoui^ on them 
^untitles fox that purpofe ; fo is lefrancaltivated (22}. 

. . c 

(%%) Di tis nfii^ N^vrHtB, Msrtini^ Le Cemfte, Martinigrt, Dm Halde^ ^ 
slmk* * > 

a' tin. 


by Google 

4^ m Sl^l^ifXimk. M. 

dn, and others of gold and filver ; but thefe two laft arc fc 
bidden to be QfWffl, <|n«^r jjfjft^ ^9§^. 
Chief com- The commodities with which this pro^nce abounds, b 
mfi$Ui^ iSdes thofe alrsady nattefl, «i», mu/k, Atb, lumpctt ar 
caUi€(» cl6ths, fted, and aU; kuB lof .vtMofilsicinkNiAy aaad 
^r« ThoTe dtt£ am impoElod;, aie, dov^, daouBQu, peppe 
ikndec-wiQod, coral, aaxber» and&ijh-ljk& The qoauttrtes tb 
li^ades witby ace, J^n^ €ornufii^ tbe Pbilip^ne ^amdsy Siam 
find atfae»» aloi^ ihQ& jfiailficn coafts. The diputie j» he 
^ (kkry in fununer, l»it ieoeoe and h^dtehy; io tbu it pro 
jiuces the &me grainy, jfeoits, fbc^ with.theotbor parts of th 
tsninre, and ibme ia great;|Qr p^srfeAioB ; padkuitarly oiau^gef 
•vhi(;h ace haa^ much lai^cr, and of ^ saore bsaittifid ted 
and hate, -befr^ a fine sDD&adiae tifte^ fl^onr. 
J>tfiinB - The people of tfaia prcmn^ oot aokf ifaJk a la^gpagi 
lanffULge* -qioitediiFereiitfrom tbe^Vi^,; faut^ wlatisiljU maceiaaan 
inodious to tbofe thattrKvel thctoghtt, evcvy diftrift iiach i 
-dialcft of iits0»m: even the mandaria language, wliichistb 
jooly one ihat is genecailj ipdcen dicoiigjh the eBUuce, is im- 
Tormerly derftood but by few oi ihoDi. But it moft bt fibkanBod, that 
a fsparatejxi^en was fettmedy a &parase kingdom ; thougb wfaetfaer 
^gdom. tributary to (!^imf, or no, \|fe camot leam ; . and tise prince 
,vAlo gOYemed it at the tiaoe of the TVtartt^ioFafiao, who vii» 
'1K> le^ potent than .courageous, hdd out againft fihofe tnva- 
lifars long a£i^ the reft ^ die 4ro(yiofXsliadfi}famitce^ 
yoke. We fliall ffjeak more fully ^ that war when we come 
to the hiftorical part ; and only iiint here, that diey were ^ 
lei^th fubdued, not Iqr 6ipeiior ibei^;th or vakHir, but by 
• downright treachery ; and to this day brodc their febje6tion 

very unwillingly ; and hence that difference of lanjguage, and 
»theu: averfion to the Cbinefe. They have,, however, many 
learned men among them, who are not a little fond of the 
fdences. The reft of the people are ^gen^^y iniduftrioos, 
. witty, and ajSabk; bt^t, aocordiog |o cqmmoa repprt, ^)«a 
to aU manner of vices; and nptocious, above aU the GUnefi^ 
for cheating thofe they deal with. >• . 

FO'KTE N hath nine fu's, or cities of thefipft rank (amoDffft 
which they reckon Tay-wan^ or Tayovariy the capital of me 
ifland of Formofa^ erf" whidi we ihjdl fpeak at die end of this 
article), and fixty hyens, or cities of the third rank. 
Ca^tatsof The fu's, or cities of the firft rank, are, uEi-cieWt the 
Fo-kyen. metropolis; 2. Tjwen-chew; 3. Kying^ningi 4» X^ng-^i ^ 
5. Ting-chew; 6. Hing-nvha; 7. Shau-i\ 8^ Ckan-cinv; 
^.Tay-iuhan; to thefe may be alfo added i(ji^tf#7iw, or the' {jprt ., 
of /l-mixy, .or Amoy ; and tlie ifhnd of Ppn^-iu, which doth . 
likcwift belong to this province, '•*••''• - 



by Google 

Th£S« cifles afe remarkable chiefly for rinir faro;cnefe; ttcfi- 
BcTs, and papuIoa&fi&, aad fucb other general advasuntaget, 
mot worthy however, a fiirtfaftr deibiptioo ; ^vhat n moft 
worth Qcydce ia faiii& of thcm^ k as fcdlows : Tfrneu^ckew k TAven. 
&i^ for a Aae tempk, ttdornad wkb two ftatdy towervbuih ckcwV 
«f ftoae and marble* fevca ftorks high ; each Aory hflitb a tnnoftan^ 
.gmery 9q the oatiide, arouad wfakfa ooe may >vaik,' ind *^'^^''*^ 
WW the beautks of the city tad coublry. It hath hkeviie « 
'tfMge of ^traQrcUnary kogth aod breadth, bailt with a 
'ikcUAi floiie, and fupported, D%t with asches, but with 300 
Aooe piUaiPs, ending on the two lides with an acute angle, to 
keak the force of the ftreaau It 19 f^ud to have coft the 
foreraor that Imilt it 1,400,000 d«:ata. 

CHANG-CHEW, the dghth and moft fbothem city in AmAh 
lUs protincey is fltuate .on a river which dtbs and ilows ; over hrid^^ 
which it hath a ftatdy bridge, of 36 very high arches, and 
faofld eaoagh to adiiiit of ihops on both fides, which are 
ifc»ed wi^ aU f<»rts c^ rich merdiaQdizes, both of Chwa and • 
"dbe InSes. Its viciniQr to Amo^y % place of taft commeroe, 
»ocafk>n« a co^ftant trafiick to be odntinualiy carried on be-' 
twaeit thrm. The netghbouriogmoontains produce the fineft 
<ryftal> of which they sake buttons^ iink^ ^ares of animals, 

HXA-'MEU, or the iiland and port of A-mmy, Etrm^y er Tort of 
Jbmyy is ope ^f the moft €on?eni€nt and &fe harbotfrs in Amoy ^2 
jU /«£«, on aocoont di die road which is foratisd by that ifland fcribei. 
'JMveea it aad the csntiiient ; which is fo deep and capactons, 
iAat k ^m f ecehe 1000 fiiips of the largeft five, which can 
i^pme as eear to knd as they pXdajfe, and ride fafe item aU 
wiods ; on which aco^rnt its commerce hath increased to fuch 
^ d^SFde, tha^ there is conftantiy a vaft number of Cbimfe 
isaafp^its that trade from thence 10 other parts of Indiu ; and 
1^ emperor keep? there a ^^u^ofon of 6000 6r 7000 men, 
-«sdar die comKnand of a Cbin^ geocraL Our Eq/^ imba 
company*^ Jt^ once a isi&pty In dm iJEtand, wiilch hath been 
fimre removed to ^ang-tong, or Canion, where the merchants 
-Sfe hetter treated. Anoy ftands in abouf 2 50 3 3' of latitude, 
and 115® 50^^ of eaft longitude. There is a number of other 
finall iflands, not worth mentionmg here, except that of Pm^-- 
hi, and the more large and confiderable one of Fortmfa. 

PONG'HU is rather a group erf fmall iflands, lying un- IflanMand 

der the ajd d^?ree and hdf erf latitude, and i xj^ o£ eaft^^''' ^f 

^ Pong ho. 

* De his vid. DiowYs. Kao apud Iftrandz Tdes, p. r4B, Be 
'fcq. MARTi»r Atlas, Lb CaMW*, La Mart;n.ierb, Liu 

* ' ' • ?■ Jongltudc^ 


by Google 

48 ne Hf/hry cf Chlm: B.I. 

lofl^mde, ahd forming a Mod of Jrelnpelago between thofe 
of Jmoy and Formofa. They are all rocky and barren, and 
obliged to have all forts of neceflaries, and even firings from. 
China or Formo/a : however, the port is good, and fecure 
lagainft all winds, and from twenty to twenty-five fathoms 
deep. The Dutch, when they were mafters of Toy-wan, buil^ 
a kind of fort at one end of the ifle of Pong-hi, ta guard tho- 
entrance of it ; of which nothing now remains but a few- 
ruins, vrbixii the Chinefe call Hong-mau-chay, or the fort ok the 
red-habed men; However^ this port of Pong-hu is thoughr 
abiblutely necelTary for the prefcrvation of Formofa, or rather 
Tay-vian^ which at prcfent, it feems, draws but feven or e^r 
feet of water, and is unfit for large veflels ; and theretoi^ 
there is a literary mandarin now refiding in it, to watch the 
fhips that pafs and repafs from China, and bring a confident- 
ble revenue to the ftate ^. 
JJtaniof But the moft confiderable of all the iflands belonging to 
Fonxiofa. CtAna, is that commonly ftyled by the £ttre^flnx Fonwg^^ or 
Hermofa, and, by the Chinefe, Tay-van, or Tay-wan, whidi 
is fituate over-againft the province of Fo-kyen, and is ievered 
from it by a chanel of about twenty leagues, where narroweft ; 
and ftretches itfelf from.fouth to north fomewhat above ihree 
degrees and a half, that is, from the 22d to the 250 4</y 
• being crofled a little fouth of the middle, by the tropic of Can-^ 
cer. It fpreads itfdf in breadth a litde nK>re than one de- 
gree, or fixty miles, that is, from the 117© 25' to ii8* 36' 
of eaft longitude, where broadeft ; but 4s much narrower at 
When dif- each end. The land lies high, and is very mountainous ; not- 
€9vered withftanding which, and its neamefs to CInna, it doth not 
andfub* appear to have been known to them till the dynafty of Ming, 
^^' that is, about A. C. 1430 ; nor to have been in the pofleffidn 
' xrf the Chinefe till above two centuries after, even by the Chinefe 
hiftorians ; it being then looked upon as a barren uncultivated 
country, inhabited only by barbarians, and not worth th«r 
regard (X), efpeqially as China was then^ miferably rent by 
. their inteftine wars. 


k See Du Haldc, ubi fop. p. 90, U feq. Dion. Kao apod 
Ifbrands, p. 148, & (eq. CanoidiusNiswuopf, & al.. 

(X) The account which the where, finding the coontiy |tt 

Chinefe hiftorian gives us of its delightful as the inhabitants 

iirfldircovery,is. thatoneofthe were barbarous, he ftaid feme 

emperor^s eunuchs, called Wan- time, in hopes of naldne fome 

' fan-pau, returning home from difcoveries, which might be 

the weft, was driven upon it ; worth carrying to hii mafter ; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. 1. T'U tiijiory of China.' 

About the end of the year i6ao, a Japanefe fquadron 
kilding on the ifland, the commander, thinking it worth 
conquering, left part of his men there, with orders to get 
^rhat intelligence they could to forward his defign. Not long 
after, a Dutch (hip was driven into it by a ftorm, in its courie 
to and from Japan ; and landed in it, the Japanefe being in 
no condition to oppofe them j and, finding the country to 
their Uking, and very commodious for trade, did, by a fubtlc 
ftratagem, obtain leave of them to build a houfe, which was 
not to contain more ground than an ox-bide would indofe : 
but, having cut the hide into very narrow thongs, gained 
ground en6ugh to build a large fort, which they called Cajiel 
Zelandia, Jnno 16^^. The Japanefe highly refented the 
treachery, when they found that the fort made them ma- 
tters of the only paflage by which a large fhip could enter 
the ifland : but, whether they found themfelves too weak to 
rcfift them, or whether they heard no more of their com* 
mander, or on fome other cUfcontent, they left them maften/ 

land at it, 
/^f Dutch. 



tW all the benefit he reaped 
from bis inquiries, was only the 
knowlegfe of fopie few plants 
andmedicinal herbs, which have 
been ufed in China ever iince' 
with good fuccefs. 

The next was the commander 
of a Chimfe fquadron, named 
Tu'ia-yenu, who, in his cruife 
on the eaftern fea, had a bloody 
tngagement. A: C* 1564, with 
aconair, who had feized on the 
ifland of Peng-H; and, after five 
kwTs fliarp conleft, had forced 
him to retire towards the coming 
ODof the night. Lin -tauAjen, who 
commanded the corfair, thought 
of having refreihed his^ troops in 
that ifland, and to have renewed 
theonfet the next morning ; but 
found the entrance into it block- 
ed up by part of Tu-ta-yenvs 
fquadron, whom that experi- 
enced commander had fcnt bn 
that errand : fo that, finding 
his men too much weakeried and 
mtimidated to force an entrance 
ttto the port, he judged it more- 

prudent to fleer Jbis courfe to- 
wards Formofa> Tu-ta-ye^w ^\XT' 
fued him thither ; but, being 
unacquainted with the entrance 
into the port, and finding the 
fea too (hallow, he returned to 
the ifles of Pong'im, made him- 
felf matter of them, and left a 
ftrong garrifon in the port. The 
news of his fuccefs were . re- 
ceived at court with joy, and a 
literary mandarin was fent from, 
thence to govern thofe iflands. 

In the mean time Lin-tnu* 
kyen, who was landed in For^ 
tnofa (which the Chinefe hifto* 
rian, quoted above, fays, was 
then uncultivated, and inhabited 
by barbarians), finding it noC 
anfwerablc to his ambitious 
views, maflacrcd all the natives 
that fell into his hands j and, 
by an urparalleled piece of 
inhumanity, made ufc of their 
blood to caulk his Ihips j and 
failed thence to ^ang-tong, 
where he foon after died mifef * 
dbly (23). 

Mod. Hi9T, Vol. VIU. . D 



by Google 

jo^ irhe Hiftory of C\i\nzi. B. T 

of ft, and returned home. . 'this is the account we have oJ 
their firft fettlement there, partly from the Europeutz ^^ 
'Becomi and partly from their own writers ; to which we fliaH onlj 
mafters of add, that the Dutch, finding themfelves now fole mafters oi 
He ijland' the ifland, the natives not being in a condition to oppofc 
them, built a new fort, with four demi-baftions, over-agaiirfl 
that of Zelandia^ by which they quite fecured the entrance 
. " into the p<^. How they were afterwards driven out of it, 
and that ifland y or at.leaft the wellern part of it became, ^ivil^ 
■^ the reft of the Chinefe empire, fubjeft to the Tartars , will be 
beft feen in* the hiftorical part. It is now time to fay fome— 
thing of the ifland, and its inhabitants; 
The edafis The coafts of ft are rocky, and high all around, and with-* 
and court' out any harbours or creeks to. €ome into it ; which makes it 
try de- ftrong by nature, and difficult to be invaded, there being bnt 
firibed, one bay, viz, that of Tay-vxany which is at the mouth trf" a^ 
rivet", at which any fhip of bulk may approach it ; and this 
k fo narrow, and fo well defended by forts and high rocks on 
each fide, that there is no entering it by furprize ; tho*, when 
the fhips are once got in, they are fafe, and flieltered from ali 
Climate. Windsk The climate muft of courfe be very hot in funmier, 
when the fun is v^ticaL over it ; but, as it lies high from the 
• fea, the air \s mofUy ferene and healthy, and the fultry Heat 

Soil^ pro- allayed by conftant breezes which fan it x>n all fides. The 
duce, foil is moftly mountainous, cfpecially on the north fide ; and 
yet is fertHe enough to produce a. more than fuffieient quantity 
of jice,. whifh is here ufed inflead of wheat, to Support its ^ 
inhabitants, befides a great variety of excellent fruits, fome 
of them unknown to us ; as the bananas, ananas, papayas, 
goyavas, cocoes : others fuch as ours, but vafUy finer, *as 
peaches, apricots, figs, grapes, pomegranates, chefnuts, and* 
feme of the fineft citrons and oranges. It Ukewife produces 
feveral forts of fpices, phyfical and other herbs and roots, and 
great plenty of fugar, tobacco, tea, and other ^plants. And 
much greater plenty and variety might the ifland produce,, 
were the natives ingenious and induftrious in cultivating and 
improving every fpot to the beft advantage, like the Chinefe : 
but the men are, it feems, above mindiqg agriculture, as fit 
only for women and flaves ; wKilft hunting, fowling, and other 
fuch manly fports,. are thei** chief exercife and delight, the 
country abouncUng every-where with all manner of game. 
They have fome large rivers, which, though not of any length, 
yet fiirnifli them with plenty of fifh. Their mountains have 

^ See Du Halde, ubi fnp. p. 90, & feq. Dion. Kao apud 
librands, p.. 148, &fe<j. Canoidiu* Niewhoff, k al 



by Google 

C. I. The Hifiarj of China; 51 

rich mmes of gold, iilver, copper, and fulphtir : this laft in Rich 
fnch great abundance, that it makes the LQand liable to mimu 
frequent and dreadftd earthquakes. The vallies alFord 
plenty of pafture for their cattle, oxen, (heep, goats, hogs, 
oad deer of variocls kinds ; and the woods, we are told by Btafy. 
iaot authors, are no lefs infefted \^th tygers, leopards, and 
odier wild creatures, of the furs of which the natives niake a 
confiderable traffick. This is the account we have of the 
iflaod, not only fixMn fome of our Europeans^ but likewife 
from the Chinefe writers : but thefe extend it only to that, part 
of it whidi is under their dominions, which they ftyle the 
Dorthem ; but which is at beft but a (mall and inconfiderable 
flq> of it, in comparifon to the whole, as the reader may fee 
by the account and map which the Jefuit miflionaries have fiace 
p?Bn us of it, in a letter to Father Du Hcdde^ written Anno 
1715, and publiihed by him in his Recueil^ Anno 1720 f ; 
from which it plainly appears, that the €hinejfe dominions in it 
extend but little more than three degrees along the coafts ; and 
but a few leagues to the inland, which is interfedled all the 
way by high and inaccei&ble mountains^ over which they never 
venture to pafs. 

As to the fouthem, and by far the largeft, part of the The ChU 
Maad, we much queftion whether they have any kno\dege of n«fc «r- 
it However, they have ventured to defcribe it, and its in- ^**' ^f 
habitants, after their ufual w^ ; the one as a rocky barren ^yP^ 
^demefs; and the other as fo many wUd lavages, but one^''*^ 
degree removed from brutes. But, as their Angular contempt 
for all other nations gives us but too much i^on to think ' 
didr account of the ktter to be exa^erated to their difadr 
vantage* and with a defign perhaps to mfinuate as if the whole 
iflaod had been much aUke till the former became fubjefb to 
them; we (hall give the remainder of their contemptuous 
piftore of it in the mar^ (T) ; and go on here with what 
we find moft worthy of credit on this head. 


t Lettres cdif. $c curicuf. vol. xiv. p. 16, & feq. 

(Y) The Chinefe divide this above ; but the other they rc- 

ifland into two parts, which, prefent as barren, wild, and in« 

dieyfayyaie fevered by fuchhigh habited only by barbarians given 

ridges of mountaihs, that they toail manner of vices, and Ibran- 

bare hardly any commonication gers to even the moil common 

one with another. The one, virtues, and without any traces 

which is neareft to China, and of religion or morality, Ac; 

BOW fubjed to it, they defcribe cording to their accounts, thefe 

ifl the manner we have done live in poor cottages made of 

D z dirt 


by Google 

52 The Hiftory of China. B. I. 

Theinba^ SuRE It IS that the Chine/e vniter often quoted^ (who. By 

hitamts the way, nMes no fuch dUUoflion between the ncirthem and 

df/criM. fouthern) 

dirt and bamboes^ and covered 
with ftraw, raifed on a kind of 
terrace about three or four feet 
wide, and bailt in the form of a 
tunnel inverted ; the largeft of 
them from thirty to forty fee: in 
diameter, and with partition- 
walls ; all of them without 
chairs, benches, tables, beds, 
or any kind of moveables. In 
the ipidfl is a kind of hearth, or 
fire-place, raifed about two feet 
from the ground, where they 
drefs their diet, which is com- 
monly rice, and otherfmall grain; 
and the game, which they either 
kill with their arrows or darts, 
at which, tho' they are of the 
plaineft make, they are fo ex- 
pert, that they will (hoot phea- 
fants, and other birds, with as 
mUcb certainty as we can with 
a gun ; or, which is dill more 
farprifing. which they catch by 
dint of running, they being 
fwiftcr of foot than the fleeteft 

They arc no lefs flovenly in 
their diet than in their boufe- 
furniture, having neither diihes, 
fpoons, plates, trenchers, or any 
thingtoput their viduals in, ex- 
cept a piece of wood, or mat, out 
of which they feed themfelves 
with their paws like monkeys. 
They eat their flefti and fi(h 
half-raw , and their beds are 
only the leaves of fome trees 
common to their country, with 
which they litter their bed- 
chamber, and fo lay themfelves 
down to fleep. Their whole 
apparel is a fingle cloth, which 
covers them from only from the 
waift down to the knees i but. 

in lieu of other finery, they have 
a much more coftly way of ad- 
orning their bodies than the 
proudeft of our beaux and belles, 
'viz. painting or imboiUng on 
their bodies the figures of beails, 
birds, plants, &r. the operation 
of whiph puts them to fuch ex- 
quiiite pain, that it would in all 
likelihood kill them, were the 
complete ornament to be pot on 
at once ; to prevent which, they 
take up fey end months, or even 
a whole year, to go through it ; 
fo that they mull be contented 
to undergo every day feme con- 
fiderable torture, to obtain their 
finery, anddifHnguifb themfelves 
from the vulgar : for it is not 
every one that is permitted to 
wear thefe marks of diflin^on, 
but only fuch as have, in the 
judgment of the moft confidera- 
ble men in their canton, or vil- 
lage, excelled in fome manly 
exercife, fuch as hunting, run- 
ning, feff. whilft the rell muft 
be content with fome few fears 
over their faces, arms, (^c. 
They are all allowed, however, 
to blacken their teeth, wear bobs , 
in their ears, bracelets above 
their wrifls and elbows ; collars 
and necklaces coniiiling of feve- 
ral rows of fmall grains of dif- 
ferent colours, with coronets of 
the fame round their heads, 
which commonly end on the top 
with a large tuft made of the 
feathers of cocks, pheafants, 
fcfr. which they pick, and (lick 
up with great care. So that, 
according to our author (24), 
whoever can form an idea of 
thefe fantafUcal ornaments on 

fa4; Du Halde, uhi fup» p. 1%, & ftf. 



by Google 

C. f . The Hiftcry of China- 5j 

foothem) ^ves the whole country in general a much higher 
charafter, when he fays, that it is a very beautiful ifland, 
naturally fruitful, and blefled with a ferene and healthful, as 
well as temperate air; extraordinarily well fituate, in the 
neighbourhood of Japan^ China, and the Manillas , and capa- 
ble of carrying on a confiderable commerce eafh^ard and 
wcftward ; it being poflible for fhips to fail to and from it 
the whole year round ^ ; and, as to the charafter of the na- 
tives, even of thofe that are flill unfubdued, Du Halde givef 
OS a fhort relation out of their Chinefe accounts, which is 
far more to their advantage than to that of their polite inva*' 
ders, and as well worth inferting here* 

The Chinefe, fays the account, who knew there were gold A horrid 
mines in Formofa before they fubdued it, went in fearch of inflance 0/ 
them as foon as they got pofleffion of it. But, as they found Chinefe 
none in that part of which they were mafters, they refolved treachery. 
to examine the eaftern part, where they were affiired they 
lay : but, being unwilling to hazard their lives in croffing 
the high mountains that parted them, they equipped a fmaU 
^P> to go thither by fea. The inhabitants received them 
with furprifing kindnefs, offering them houfes, proyifions, 
ind all forts of afliflance. They continued there eight days ; 
but flill found all their inquiries after the mines to prove in- 
cffeftual (whether by the fault of the interpreter, who might 
perhaps have apprifed the natives of then* defjgn, or elfe 
through their own politic fear of giving them caufe of fufpeft- 
ing them, whom they knew to be but too jealous of the 
Chinefe power) ; fo that, of all the gold they came in queft 
of, they found none but a few ingots lying in the cottages, of 
which the poor people made no account. But thefe proved 
a dangerous temptation to the Chinefe ; who, vexed at their 
itt fnccefs, refolved at leafl- to get at them, though by a moit 
inhuman Ibratagem ; and, having equipped tjieir fhip, by the 
help of thofe hofpitable natives, wl^o furnifli^d them with 
ill neceffaries for their return, they invited them to a great 
entertainment, by way of acknowlegement j and, having 
njade them all drunk, cut their throats whilA they were 
aheep, carried off the ingots. The confcquence of this bloody 

' DiQN. Kao, ubi fup. p. 149. 

the body of a man of a flcnder two or three feet long, and co- 

cafy fliapc, olive complexion, vering him from the waift to 

with fleck hair haiieing negli- the knees, will have ^ true pic- 

gendy over his fhomdcrs, and tare of a native of the fquthern 

all his clothes a piece of linen part of Fortnofa, 

D *3 treachery 

, Digitized by VjOOQIC 



"The Hiftory of China. B, !» 

treachery was, that, the news of it being fpread through the 
eaftern part of the ifle, they all* armed, and entered into the 
northern part belonging to the Chinefe^ and maflacred man, 
woman, and child, without mercy, and fet fire to fome o£ 
their habitations. From that time thefe two parts of the 
ifland have been at conftant war with each other " ; and hence 
moft likely it is that the Chinefe give them fo difadvaatagcous 
and undeferved a charaftcr. 
European The European writers have not been more favourable to 
•writers them; and Candkdius^ the chaplain to the Dutch faftory 
Mcountof^Qxt (whom, by the way, Niewhoff^ and moft of the reft, 
'^ have either copied, or taken moft of their accounts from him, 

and left out what appeared too abfurd to be credited), and 
who pretends to have refided fome time among them, hath 
painted them even in more difagreeable, tho' difftrent ccdours, 
than the phinefe. The reader may fee the fom of what they 
fay of them, and of their religion, cuftoms,' i;c. in the mar-^ 
gin (Z). What the Chinefe add concerning that p^t which is 


■» pu Halde, ubifupra, p. 87, 


(Z) Accordkig to Candidius^ 
and his followers, the Formo/ans 
are tall, flout, and fwartby, rude 
and barbarous, and go quite 
naked fix months in the year. 
They have neither religion, 
laws, nor moral virtue ; though 
others, likely upon better evi- 
dence, have fince reprefented 
them as polite, affable, and in- 

§enious« and cove;ring their mid- 
le parts with a girdle,' when 
the hot feafon dom mot permit 
them to wear any other cloath- 
ing. Their women* who arc 
9i\\\ more inqdeft, wear a fhort 
petticoat about their thighs, and 
a fhort cloak about their fhoul- 
ders ; which, however, they 
make no fcruple to pull off three 
arfour times a day, to wafh 
themfelves at their own doors. 
They are fmaller of flature, and 
lefs fun-burnt, than the men, 
and agreeable enough in their 
perfons and temper. Men may 
marry two or thrtc of them^ 

but not till they are fifty years 
old : neither are their ^i^ives (of- 
fered to bring forth children 
till they have pafTed the thirty- 
feventh year of their age. li 
any of them be found pregnant 
before that time, the juibus, or 
prleftefs ( for they have no priefts 
in the ifland), 11 fent for, an4 
obliged to flamp upon their belly 
till they mifcarry. 

This is the account Cnmdi£ut 
gives of that unnatural cuflom ; 
of which it is hardly needful 
to obfarve the abfurdity, finc^ 
fuch an unnatural violence would 
wholly incapacitate thofe fe« 
males from pregnancy long be- 
fore the thirty eleventh year of 
their age : befides, k is well 
known, that, in thofe hot dime^ 
women begin fo early to bear 
children, that they feldom, if 
ever, have any after the thirti* 
eth year. However, our au? 
thor, if you will credit him, 
gravely afTures us, that he had 


tized by Google 

C u 93?^ Hijlory of ChinaJ SS 

fubjeft to fhem, is as follows : Thefe, being fimate feme de- Thar 
gre€5 more northward, cover themfdves with the flcin^ ofdrefi. 
ilags, which they kill in hunting, and of which they make 
themfelves a Ibrt of coat without fleeves. They wear a bon- 
net made of the leaves of bahanas, in form of a cylinder, 
which they adorn with coronets placed one over another, and 

converfcd widi one ofthofe wo- 
men, who had been forced to 
(bbmit to this Ainnatural caflom 
feventeen times ; bat told Mm^ 
that (he, having now attained 
10 her thirty- fcventk year, was 
in no fmall hopes of becoming 
the real mother of fome children 

The ceremonies ufed towards 
their dead~ are no \^k ftrange 
and unnatural. They neither 
bury nor barn them; bot lay 
their bodies to dry over a flow 
fire, made under a kind of low 
fcifold made of bamboes, which 
caafes the body to give a moil 
difagreeable fmell. From this 
ceremony, which lafts foil nine 
days, thjjy proceed to the next,, 
which is, to wrap up the dried 
corps \vk a mat, and lay it on a 
higher icaffold raifed within the 
hotfe, ov^r which they rear a 
kind of canopy made of fhreds 
of filk, cotton, linen, &r. It 
is left to lie in that ftate till the 
tftird year, when they take it, 
or what is kit of it, down, with 
fome kind of folemnity, and 
depofit it in ^ proper place un- 
dcr-ground. At feach of thefe 
three ceremonies an entertain- 
ment is made to the relations 
and friends, accompanied with 
mafic, dancing, fc^r. at which 
^ jebufes, or priefte^, are 
^kewife invited to ad their an- 
lick part. 

Thefe prieftefles ire rather a 

kind t>f jugglecsy who, in theft 
worlhip, which conMs in the 
facrifice of fome hogs, deer, 
rice, t^c: work themselves into 
a kind of phrenfy by their fongs, 
indecent poftures, invocations, 
(sTr. after which, Aey pretend 
to fee ftranee vifions, to teH 
fortunes) to foretel the weather, 
drive away evil fpirits, Uc, aH 
which is readily believed by the 
people. And in thefe, and fome 
other fuch-like fuperftxtioua ce* 
remonies, oar authors tell .us, 
conitib all their religion, and 
without the kail (ign of their 
having any notion of a Deity : 
tho* others, with much greater 
probability, affiire us, that they 
nave temples and idols in al^ 
mod as great number and va- 
riety as they have in China % 
and if what fome add, of their . 
laying a pitcher or veflel of 
clean water near the dead bo- 
dies, for the foul to come and 
waih itfelf every day, be true, 
they muft be allowed to have 
alfo fome imperfect notion of 
its imnK>rtality, and of its being' 
in fome ftate of blifs or punifli* 
spent ; which fome tell us they 
believe to confift, the one in 
their heing removed into fome 
places full of all manner of re- 
frelhments; and the other, in 
their bein^ confined to others 
full of ^1 manner of filth, 
ftencb, and mifery'(26). 

(ti ) Candid. Dtfcript tiful Ftrmof, (iS) Id, ih. Nltwboff, Mitbttren, ^ 

D 4 fcftened 


by Google 

g6 fbe Hiftory of Chm. . B.I. 

faftencd with very narrow bands, or little, locka of hair, of 
various colours ; and the top they adorn with a creft, or tuft 
of feathers, like thofe in the fouth. -The drefs of the women 
differs but little from that of the men, except in their coats 
being fomewhat longer and finer, and their head-tire a little \ 
more bedecked with finery. 
IFi/i nvay Jn their marriages they are lefs barbarous than the Chinefe : 
§f tourt' for they neither buy their wives, nor fuffer the parents, or go- 
jf^if and betweens, to fettle thebargajn, without the liking of the par- 
p^rriagf, ties moft concerned ; but every young couple chufe each other, 
without regard to fortune, family, or any inducement but 
reciprocal affe6lion and liking, their parents having fcarce any 
hand at all in th^ match. The courtihip is commonly begun 
by the young man ; who goes, at the head of fome muficians 
with their inftrum^nts, and ferenades the lafs he hath taken 
a fancy for, at her own houfe, for feveral days. If flic ap- 
proves of him, fhe goes out without any farther ceremony. 
' and fettles the terms with him ; and both acquaint , their pa- 
rents with them, who then prepare a marriage-feaft for t;hem. 
This, contrary to moft other nations, is done at the bride's 
father's, which the new fon-in-Jaw from thenceforward looks 
upon as his cwn, and himfelf as the fupport of it,, never re- 
turning more to h\s father's houfe but as a vifiter. Hence the 
parents look upon daughters as greater bleilings than fons, 
becaufe they procure fons-in-law, which become the fupport 
of their old age. 
<?wfr»-, I^ ^'^^^^ "^^ of government, they ftill. retain fome of tlieir 
mmt* antient form, notwithftanding thdr'fubjeftion to the Chinefe ; 
each town chufing three or four of the antienteft, or br^ho 
greateft repute for probity and wifdom^ to be their judges, 
to determine all caufes and differences that arife among them, 
abfolutely ; and if any one refufe to fubmit to their decifion, 
he is immediately driven out of the town, without hopes of 
ever being re-admitted into it ; nor dares any other receive 

From that time the C5/«^ have divided their lands into 
three hyens, or diftrifts of the third rank, each under a par- 
ticular governor, and other officers, fubordinatc to that of 
the capital of Tay-wan^ as this laft is to the viceroy of Fo-kyen^ 
Triiufe. ^^^ metropolis of the province. The tribute they pay to the 
Chinefe court ^onfifts chiefly in rice^ and the (kins or tails of 
ilags, and other fuch commodities as the ifland affords ; to 
xl^vy whichy there is in every town or diftrift a Chinefe officer, 
who learns their language, and ferves as an interpreter to the 
mandarins. And both thefe treat them with fuch tyranny and 
pppreflion, as quite tires th^r patience : infomuch that, of 



by Google 

Ci. . ne Hi/iory of ChiM. S7 

twelve diftrifts that were fubjcft to them on the fouth, three 
of them have fince revoked, driv^ their interpreters away ; 
and united themfelves to their eaftern countrymen, who live 
free from tribute and foreign ftibjeftion. The Chinefe^ how- 
ever, pretend, that many other cantons have fubmitted them- 
felves to the prefent emperor, and that they are in hopes that 
the reft will in time follow their example. However, it plainly 
enough appears from the map that was fince made of their 
dominions in it, and pubMied by the Jefuits /^nno 1 720 », 
that they have rather loft than gained ground in it ; and, from 
all that we have hitherto met with, that they were never 
mafters of one-eighth part of it. 

We may add, that, notwlthflanding its vicinity to Cbindj ffow and 
it doth not appear that it was diicoyered till about the year '"'^^ ^f" 
1430, in the reign of the emperor Siven-ti, of the Ming dy- <^^^^ 
nafty, when the eunuch Owan-fan-paOy in his return from a 
voyage into the weft, was caft upon it by a ftorm. Here find- 
ing the country inviting, tho' the people feemed to him fome- 
what favage, he ftaid to get what intelligence he could of the 
iiland, to bring to that monarch ; but to no purpofe ; and 
all he could bring away from thence, was only a few phyfi- 
cal plants, which have continued in great vogue among the 
Chine/e ever fince f. How they came afterwards to make 
thenifelves mafters of it, will be more properly feen in their 
fnbfequent hiftory. In the mean time we will conclucje the 
diarafter of thefe iflanders in the remarkable words of our 
author ". They are ftyled barbarians by the Chine/e^ yet 
app^ to have truer notions of wifdom than fome of their 
philcpghers. One finds among thedi, even by their own con- 
feffion, neither cheating, thieving, quarreling, nor any law- 
foits, except againft their interpreters. They praftice all the 
duties of equity and mutual benevolence ; and whatever is 
g^en to any of them muft not be touched by him, till thofe, 
who fliare in the labour, partake of the wages. 

As to their religion, we fliall only add to what hath been Some 
laid in the lafl note, what fome Dutch writers affirm, that many Dutch - 
of thofe iflanders had been converted to Chriftianity during ^^^'^ts 
the ftiort time of the Dutch faftory at Tay-wan o. And Du ^^^K 
Haide accordingly tells us, that, upon the Chine/e coming thi-^ 
dier, they found feveral of them who underftood Dutch, read 
didr books, made ufe of their charafters in writing, and had 
fome fragments of Scripture in the fame language fUU ia 

• Lcttr. cur. & cdificat. recuail 14. p. 18, & fcq-- f Id. 

ibid. p. 56. " Du'Halde, ubi fup. p, 90* . • Can- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

58 ff^ Sifiory of China. B._ I. 

their haads. Thefe, fays the fame author, worihip no idols, 
and even abhor every thing of that nature. They neittier' 
perform Ireligious worfMp, nor fay any prayers; yet we have 
met with fome of them who had the knowlege of one Su- 
preme B^ing, Creator of heaven and earth, in three Perfbns, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft. They Jjfccwife knew that our 
firft parents- were called Adam and Eve ; and that they had, 
by thpir difohedienjce, brought down the anger of God on 
themfelvcs and their pofterity ; and that recourfe was to be 
' had to baptifm, to wafli out that ftain. They were llkewife 

acquainted with the form of that facrament, tho' they could* 
not tell whether they had been baptized, or not. Thus far 
-Tty'wan - -^g fj^all condudc the account of this iflahd with a de- 
ft Je/cri' fcriptfon of its capital, and its commodious harbour. We 
*^' have already taken notice, that it was called Tay-^wan, or 

Tayovan, and was one of th^ nine fu's, or capital cities, of 
the provinpe of Fo-kyen. It is large, populous, and -well- 
built, and drives a confiderable commerce ; infomuch that it 
is reckoned little inferior to mojft cities in China. It abounds 
Commo^" with all forts of commodities and provifions, either of its ovra 
tiis* produce, or which are brought tWther from other countries ; 

fuch as rice, corn, fugar, ^ine, tea,' tobacco, fait, and a kind 
/W of dried venifon, much admired by the Qhinefe, The ftreets 

greets* arcibjiit as a line; and covered, during the feven or eight 
hot months of the year, to keep off the heat of the fun» 
They are not above thirty or forty feet wide ; but all well 
paved and clean, and fome of them about three miles long. 
tbofs^ kc^ All the houfes on (each fide belong to dealers, whofe fhops 
. are ftored with aU forts of rich goods, fuch as filks, china- 
ware, japan-work, gold and |ilver utenfils and trinkets, drr. 
all ranged in a moft delightful manner, in which art thip 
CHnefe excel ; fo that thefe ftreets look rather like the galle- 
ries of our e^cchanges, where nothing is to be feen but fliops 
richly furniftied ; and would be viewed with greater pleafurc, 
were they not fo continually thronged. Both the Tartars and 
Chinefe live in this and the other two cities very peaceably ; 
and more of the latter would in all likelihood come over, and 
fettle in it, if the former, jealous of their becoming too nu- 
merous, and fliaklng off theyokp, djd not prevent it (A)^ 


• Candidiui, Niiuhoff, k al. 

(A) There is no doubt but this ifland would in4uce a much 
the commodious fituation of ereat^r number of Ci>iif</Hami- 

• Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C I. 5^ lUhrf^f China; 59 

There is likewife a goc4 number of nadvcs that live among 
them, but they are moft of them ferranb to the other two. 

The city of Tay^an hath neither walls, nor any fortifi- G^rrifim 
cations, but is defended by a numerous garrifon* The 7ir- f^^'^ 
tars have in the ifland no le& than 10,000 horfe and foot, 
under the ccnnmand of a Ueutenant-g^eral aad two major- 
generals, and a propordonable number of other officers, who 
?re all duly changed every three years, or of icncr, if need re* 
quire it. The two other, byens, orcides of the third rank, 
aie Fong'Jbau and Cbu^loy which arc moftly inhabited by On* 
nefes, and k^pt under by a fuflBdcnt number of troops. They 
have likewife fome c(«ifiderable viihgw ; but no forts, ex- Ngan- 
cept that of Ngan-ping^ fituatc at the- foot of the caftle of pingy*»tj 
Zelandia^ and mhabited by about 400 or 500 families. The 
garriibn of it amounts to 2000 mcp, under the command of a 

The port is pretty good, and fhelterod from all winds, Pir/ 
but the mouth of it becomes every day more imd more difficult. 
Irhad formerly two entrances 5 the one called Td^kyang^ where 
the greateft /hips might ride with eafe ; and the other Lo'ulh^ 
men^ where the bottom is rock, and hath not above nine or 
ten feet of water at the higheft tides. The firft of thefe is htmfat* 
now become imprafficable, fome places not having aboVe five ^•^fsfe 
feet of water, aqd thofe where it rifes higheft not above feven, kfir 
and is moreover choked up by the (ea rolling daily frefh quan* 
tides of iand intq it *! : to which we may add, what a modem 
traveller was told there, that the Tartars, after their conqueft 
of Clnna^ ordered this l^urbour to be fpoiled, to prevent the 
Cbhu/e, then in rebellion againft them, firom fortirjring them- 
felves in it ; and annmanddl the foreign merchants to come 
and trade m the main \ But the Dutch formerly entered the 
port by that way ; at the entrance of which they had built 

^ Du Halde, ubi fupra, p. 88. & al. ' See Dam« 

?iBa*s voyage, vqI. i. p. 42^ 

lies to come and fetde in it, for it. The reft are, on the con« 

the fake of tra^ck ; but, as trary, very careful* to examine 

that cannot be done without a allpairengersthatgoto,orcome 

particular naiTport from the C&/* from, the ifland; left, if diey 

mfi mandarins, nor this b^ fliould become too powerful 

obtained without giving fome there, they ftiould i^^ize on it, 

(bficient fecnrity to them, there and caufe fome great troubles ' 

arc very few who venture to in the empire; and it is -to pre. 

gnmt them, except fome of the vent it, that they maintain there 

npadons ones, who do it on* fuch a number of forces, to 

dtrhand, and are well paid for keep them in awe. 



by Google 


.* The Hi/cry of Chim. -B. T. 

Ae two forts laft mentioned, to prevent either Chinefe or ^^- 
panefe veflels coming into it. 

Thus much may fuffice for .the ifland of Formo/a; in the 
defcription of which, we have wholly overlooked a fabulous 
^count of it written in Englijb, and tranflated into other lan- 
guages about forty-nine years ago, by a pretended 'rati ve of 
the place, and convert to Chriftianity ; but in fuch a romantic 
ftyle, and fraught with fuch ihonftrous abfurdities, as if He 
had rather defined to ruin, than to eftablifh the credit of 
it. Our chief motive, therefore, for mentioning it here, is, 
that that author, who is ftill in England^ having long fince 
ingenuoufly owned it to be a vile forgery, to his acquaintance, 
and within thefe few .years, in print, in a late geographical 
work t ; and exprefled a defire that thofe, who had read that 
work, fhould know what judgment to make of it, from his 
own free confeffion ; we thought it would not be unfervice- the public, to hint thus much of it here, till that more 
full account come out which he hath written concerning that 
(hameful impofture, and the fatal mean^ by which he ^vas 
unwarily drawn into it ; and which, he there tells us, he de- 
figns to Have publilhed after his death, when there will be 
lefs caufe of fufpefting Kim of having difguifed or palliated 
the truth. 

vince of 
ang de- 

€ind opU' 

V. The Province of Chc-kyang, or Tfe-kian. 

THIS province, formerly the refidence of fome of the 
"*■ aatient monarchs, and one of the moft confiderable on^ 
account of its maritime fituation, extent, riches, and popu- 
loufnefs, is bounded on the fbuth by Fokyen^ laft defcribed ; 
on the north and weft by Kyang-^nan and Kyang-Ji ; and, on 
the eaft, by the fea. It extends itfelf from the 27th to the 
3 1^ 20' of latitude, and from 1 1 6^ to almoft 1 20^ of eaft 
longitude, according to the meridian of Paris, The climate 
of it is ferene and healthy ; and the inhabitants very ftout 
and numerous, amounting, according to their regifters, to 
1^242,135 'femilies, or 4,525,700 men. It is fo rich and 
fertile, that the Chinefe fey of it, that, next ro Nang-kbig, 
this is the paradife of arts, and the paradife of the gods % 
on account of its plentiful flow of all things. The country is 
fo beautifully variegated with well cultivated mouaitain?, fruit- 
ful vallies, and plains, that there is not a fpot in it which is 

t See the Complete Syftem of Geography,* part ii. p. 25!. 
* Kao, ubi fup. Martini, Le Comptb, Martinierb, Di; 
Halde, & al. 



1 by Google 

C I. Ti/ Hiftory of China. 6% 

aot turned to advantage. It is moreover interfefted by 1 
mnltitade of rivers and canals, the lafl cut wide and deep» 
and lined on both fides with fome hewn ftone ; the plains of 
which on both fides have a communication with each other 
by a vaft number of bridges ; fo that one may travel through 
the whole province either by land or water ; and the many 
fprings which fell down from the mountains and large lakes, 
with which it abounds, contribute no lefs to its fertility. 

But their greateft manufafture b that of fdk, which is f^ohleJUk 
here the fined, and more richly and curiopfly wrought with manufac^ 
gdd and fdver, than in any other province, ; and yet is fo tun, 
dieap, that a good filk fuit will cofl lefs than one of the mofl 
ordinary doth in Europe. The tribute they pay of it to the 
emperor is faid to amount to 370,466 pounds of raw, and 
2 574 of wrought, befides fome other quantities 6f the finefl, fent 
as a prefent to the court, by the imperial barges called. Ltt«g- 
y-cbew.' What is fent befides from this province into others 
of the empire, and what is exported into Japan, the Philip- 
pine I/lands, India, and Europe, amounts to an immenfe quan- 
tity, notwithflanding their having flill a fuificicncyleft to fup- 
ply their own wants at fo cheap a rate. The truth is, the Improve^ 
inhabitants employed in it are not only very numerous, but htent on it. 
have an excellent genius at cultivating and improving every 
branch erf" that manufafture from firft to laft ; and as expe- 
rience hath taught them long fmce, that thofe worms yield 
the fineft filk which sire fed on the tendered mulberry-leaves, s 

they take fuch care to have a conflant fupply of young dwaif 
mulberry-trees for that purpofe, that they are able to produce 
the greated quantities of that kind. 

This province is famed for making the bed hams, and for 
the great quantities of candles which they make from a 
certdn tree called U-k^evj-mu, or tallow- tree, of whiclj 
we (hall fpeak among their natural rarities. They have like- Curious 
wife here a curious fhrub, with a fmall white flower, not plants and . 
unlike our jefTamin, but with more leaves ; and of fuqh fra-/tfw^/. 
grancy, that one fingle flower will perfume a large room, 
fome fay a whole houfe. Thefe fhrubs are in fuch edeem 
among the Chinefe, that they cultivate them with the fame care 
as we do orange and other exotic plants, to preferve them 
from the rigour of the weather. Some piarts of Che-kyang 
produce fuch infinite quantities of mufhrooms, that they fend 
them, falted and dried, all over the empire ; ancj thefe, when - 
they have been foaked awhile in water^ refume their frefh- 
fle& and tafte as if they virere newly gathered.. 



by Google 




GtUs of 

chew de- 


The Bpry of Clmti. B. I^ 

Tun lakcd and rivers yield great variety of .excellent GUi^ 
j)articularly the golden one, which will be defcribed anioog 
the natural rarities^ and the fineft crayfifh in all the ^uiLZry4 
"This province likewife produces the greateft quantities oi 
bamboes, there being in fomc parts whole forefts of them. 
Thefe are very large and hard, and of vaft ufe to the Chinefi^ ^ 
and, though hollow within, aqd divided into jomts, are very 
ftrong, ^nd will bear a great weight. They are eafily flit 
into thin flips, of which they make their mats, boxes, combs^ 
ebc. ; and, being hollow from end to end, are likewife ufed 
other to convey water from place to place, or for telefcopcs, 
or to ferve as tubes, cafes, and other fuch utenfils. The whole 
country is not only evefy-where cultivated to the beft advan- 
tage ; but the plains are interfeftcd with a vaft number of 
canals, which fwarm, as well as their rivers, with multitudes 
of veflels of all forts and fizes, fome of them beautifully carved 
and ^t without, and neatly furniihed within. The inhabit-> 
ants are ingenious, polite, and courteous to ftrangers, but 
are reported to be horribly given to fuperftition •* 

CHE'KTANG hath eleven capital cities, or cities of* the 
firft rank, and feventy-feven of the fecond and third rank % 
befides eighteen fortrefles, moft of them upon the fea-coafts^ 
and large and populous enough to pafs in other countries for 
coniiderable cities, to which we may add a prod^ous number 
of large, towns and villages. 

The chief cities, or fu's, arc, i. Hang-chew : a. Kya* 
hing: 3. Hu-chew ; 4. Ning-po; ^. Shaw-hing: 6. Tay» 
chews 7. Kin-wha; 8. Kyu-chew : 9. TeU'chewy or Nyen*^ ' 
chew; 10. Wen-chew: li. Chu-chew* 

I. HANG'CHEW, the metropolis of the province, and, 
according to the Chinefe, the paradife of the world, is one 
of the largcft, moft populous, beft fituate, and richeft, of 
the empire. Its circumference, which is almoft oval, i$ com- 
puted near twelve miles, befides the fuburbs, which arc of a 
prodigious extent : and the number of its inhabitants, which 
amounts to a million (B). The walls of the city are loity, 


* Kao, ubi fup. Martini, Lb Compte, Martinibrb, Dv 
Halde. & al. 

(B)FatherJlftfr/f»/ hath made the Fenetian had defcribed tiff 
It pretty evident (27), that tkis der the name of ^in-fay, and 
is the very fame city that Paul particularly with relation to the 

(tji Mai Sintuf. fub ^h'faj^ 



by Google 

C. I. Tie Hifory of China. 65 

ftroog, and thick ; the ftreets fair and ftrait, though narrow; 
and the /hops richly and beautifully fet out. It hath a pro- 
<%ious number of bridges over the canals that run thro' it, 
and thegreateft variety of arches, and triumphal monuments, 
crefted to the honour of mandarins, and other confiderable 
efficersof the Mgheft rank and merit ; all which are beauti- 
ftllyerefted in the piazzas,, and places of greatcft refort. It 
kath, befides, four large towers of confiderablc height, ad- 
orned with galleries, carvings, gildings^ ifc. after the Chinefo 
niamer. The commerce it drives in all forts of commodities, 
bat cfpedally in its fine and rich filks, filver and gold bro- RtcbfiSu 
cade^ ire. equals that of the moft trading cities ; and both 
town and fuburbs abound with plenty of all provifions : the 
only misfortune k labours under, is, that the waters of the 
canals, efpeciaily within the walls, arc bad and unwholfome* 
But what fufficiently fiipplies that defeft, and renders the The *wefi 
fituadon moft delightful and convenient, is a little lake named ^^ <^ 
5i-M, which is about two leagues in compafe, and comes fif^^M. 
almoft dofe to the walls on the wefl fide of the city, aad whofc 
water is exquifitely clear and fweet. The fides of it, where 
the water is low, and covered all over with the beautiful flower 
lym-ivha, already defcribed^; and, on the banks round 
about, they have, reared upon wooden flakes, a kind of fa- 
loons, or pia^zas^ fupported by pillars, and broad caufeways 
paved with large fquare ftones, for the convenience of thofe 
that walk ; and have openipgs left at proper places for the 
boats to pafs.; and handfome bridges buUt over them, for 
paffcngers on foot. 

The lake hath two little iflands, whither the people ufu- Jfi^ftifi m 
ally repair after they have taken the diverfion of rowing in />. 
thdr barks ; and where they have built a temple, arid houfes 
of recreation. Th^ fides of the lake are likewife adorned 
^th variety of temples, fine'pleafure-houfes, and fome large 
monafleries for the bonzas ; and more particularly with a 

* See before, pv 32. (N). 

10,000 bndges he affirmed it to are ieen in the large fuburbs^ 

hive over the many canals that and parts adjacent, efpeciaily 

^ thro' and around it ; which thofe about th^ lake Su bu^ on " 

Wmber Martini^ and others, the eaft fide of which the city i* 

think is not at all exaggerated, fituate ; and which amount to 

rf wc fuppofe him to have in- fuch a vaft number, that, when 

dudcd a prodigious number of added to thofe of the city and 

^^phal arches built over fuburbs, they may be well 

them in the city, and a vaft enough fuppofed to am«int to 

umltitttdc of other bridges which the number above-mentioned. 

fmaii , 


by Google 

64 "The Hipry of China. B. I 

fmall but delightful palace, for the ufe of the emperors, whei 
they travelled into the fouthern provinces (C). 

Garrt/on. HANG-CHEW^ as metropolis of the province, hath i 
garrifon of 3000 men, under the viceroy of it ; and anothei 
of 7000 more, under a Tart^ar general : but thefe laft live ir 
a large fortrefs, feparate from the city by a wall. The rivei 
Ciew-tang, which runs on the fouth fick of it, is computed 
by fome two miles, and by others 3, German league, in breadth *, 
and is always covered with a vaft number of vefTelsof all forts ; 
and both that and the canals, efpecially without the 'walls, 
with floating villages, in which whole families live, and carry 
on their bufmefs. The reader may guefs at the populouf- 
nefs of the whole city and fuburbs, by the confumption of 
eatables which arc devoured in it, of which he may fee a 
fhort fketch in the margin (D). The laft thing worth men- 
tioning, of this great city, is the mountain of Ching-ho-ang^ 

JJineixja- qj^ ^^^ich ftands a high tower, which, by the help of a large 

terdtai, ^^ater-glafs which is made to turn the hand of a dial, ftiews the 
hour of the day at a confiderable diftance ; the figures of the 
hours being gilt, and about eighteen inches long. Hang- 
chew hath feven cities of the fecond and third rank under its 
jurifdiftion, which are likewife rich and opulent ; but we 
have neither room to defcribe them here, or any of the others 
of thefirft rank, except that of 

Ning-po. NljyG'POy or, as the Portuguefe call it, Lyang-po, or 
UampOy which is a handfome fea-port OQ the eaftern fea, 

" Conf. Dion. Kao, ubi fupra, p. 137. & Lb Compte, La 
Martiniere, Du Halde, & al. 

(C) Thofe who have read whether thofe fumptuous ftruc- 
Martims (wollen account of turcs have beea fince dellroyed, 
this lake,'and its adjacent ftruc- or gone to ruin, which is not 
turcs, will find thrs, we for us to decide, we have no 
chiefly taken from Du Halde^ to reafon to fuppofe that the lake 
come vaftly Ihoxt of it.: but makes a better figure now, than 
Father Lt Compte had already that in which Dzii/a//^ hath de- 
retrenched fome confiderable ex- fcribcd it. 
aggerations of his brother Jefuit, (D) It is computed to amount 
with refpeft to its largencfs; to 10,000 facks of rice (each 
and efpecially of its pretended fack containing as much as will 
ilately palaces, and magnificent fufEce 100 men) and lOyOOohogs 
buildings, which he rather re- fer day ; oxen, cows, iheep» 
prefents as a parcel of wooden goats, fifh, fowl, ^r. in pro- 
houfes, reared up either for con- portion ; all which are here 
venicnceordiverfion. Whether, fold very cheap, and ^aten in 
therefore, Martinth defcription great quantities, 
was deiigncdly exaggerated^ or 

/ over-agakift 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. I. The Hiftory of China. 6s 

over-agaiofl the coafts of Japan ; and ftands on the conflu- Canal. ^ 
ence of two fmall rivers, which form a canal thence to the 
fea. The plain ground is a kind of fpadous oval bafon, ter- 
minated by hills, which extends itfelf a confiderable length 
and breadth, and is exceedingly fertile. The town, which 
/lands near the centre, is encompafled with a ftrong wall of 
free-ftone, and 5074 geometrical paces in compafs. Thefe 
have five noble gates, two of which look eaftwards, towards 
the port ; befides two large arched water-gates, at which the 
barges come in and out. The port is defended by a citadel Cmmerct 
built on a very high rock, at the foot of which fliips muft ne- 
ceflarily pafs within the diftance of half a piftoKhot. One tide 
brings them up along the fine chaael above-mentioned, which is 
here above 1 50 fathoms wide, and every- where feven or eight 
deep. The entrance of Ning-pOy however, is difficult, efpe- 
dally for large veffels, there being but fifteen feet of water 
at the bar m the fpring-tides ; but that doth not hinder its ivitb Ja3 
carrying on a great traffick with Batavia, Siam^ and efpecially pan. 
with Japan, Nanga-zaki being only two days failing from it ; 
and it was pardy on this account that our Eajl-India company 
did once endeavour to have eftablilhed a commerce with it. . 

A30UT eighteen or twenty leagues from Ning-po lies the 
ifland of Chew-Jhan, whofe port is pretty good, but not fo 
convenient for trade ; and there it was that our Englijb (hips 
put in by accident, not being able to find out the way to 
Ning'po, through the many iflands that lie fcattercd along 
Aat coaft: the reader may fee the ifland defcribed in the 
margin (E). The chief commerce of Ning-po confifts in the 
fine filks which arc manufaftured in this province, and which 
are exported into foreign parts ; efpecially japan both r^w 
and wrought, together with fugar, drugs, faJt-fifh, and flefti 

(E) Chen^Jhan^ Shufan, or well walled and peopled ; and * 
Cbe^'Xawj is about JFourteeti here it was that our Eaft-lndia 
leagues in length, and three company began to trade, Atino 
or four in breadth, under the 1700 ; as they were not per- 
tbirtieth de^e of latitude, and mirted to fail to Ntn^ po, the 
between the fifth and fixth of town having a very convenient 
eaft longitude from the meridian bay. There is a great number 
of Pt'king. It is moiUy inha- of fmall iflands round this of 
bitcd by Chinefe^ who fled tbi- Cbenv-fl^an ; but none of them 
tbcr from the invading Tartars \ wor.h notice, except one called 
aodfo well peopled, that it hath, Pouto, 'vhich is chiefly famed 
wcare told, no lefs than feventy- for its great rcfort, on account 
two cities, or large towns, feat- of fome extraordinary worfhip 
cd along the coafls, and within performed there by the idola- 
thebay(28). The capital bears troas bonzas (29). 
tbe name of the ifland, and is 

(28) AtUt Stnfnf. fuhv.c. (29) V. ib. Vid. S drntiltt, t€ Mar 1- 

«■«••. Du Halde, 6f #/. • J 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VIII. E (***^M^ 

Digitized b 

66 the- Hipry af China. B. I. 

(F), wine, i^c. in lieu of which, they bring back copper, 
filver, and gold. 7V7/?^-/o hath four handfome cities under 
its jurifdiftion, befides feveral fortrefles, which we iiave no 
room to dwell upon '^. ^ 

VL The Province of Hu-quang. 
Ho- npHIS is the firft in rank of the inland provinces, and is 
quang de- X furrounded on the eaft by Kyang-ft and Kyang-nan / on 
fcribed. the fouth by ^lang-Ji and ^ang-trng : on the weft by ^ey- 
chew and Se-ckixten ; and, on the north, by Shen-fi and Hg^ 
nan. It is a very large province ; and extends itfelf from 



M"^ 45' 

to 33^ 2o' of latitude and eight degrees in weft 
longitude from the. meridian of Pe-king ; and the ilvcr Tang" 
t/e, which erodes it in the middle, from eaft to weft, divide* 
it into two parts, or viceroyfhips, the northern and thcfotithem. 
It is little inferior to any other province in fertility, hcalthi- 
nefs, and opulence ; the greateft part of it bdng a rich flat. 
foil, interfered with a number 6t rivers, befides the Tang-tje 
above-mentioned ; and a vaft multitude of canals, and ibme 
confiderable lakes (G) ; all which greatly contribute to its 


(F) The people of Ningpo fignifying a lake, and quang a 
not only drive a vaft trade of ' " - - — 
this falt-fiih and Hefh abroad, 
but eat it in fuch quantities, that 
it is a common faying among the 
Chineft; that their bodies, after 
death, cannot corrupt, becaufe 
they have been faking them all 
tlieir lives againft it Some par- 
mud be either in their fait, or 
way of faking thofe meats, which 
prefervcs them,whilft alive, from 
tlie fcurvy, and other difeafes, 
which the too frequent ufe of 
that fort of food is known to 
caufe : neither is ic the fcarcity 
of other provifions that makes 
them live fo much upon this, 
the town abounding with as 
great a variety of others as any 
one in the empire, 

(G) This province of //«- 
fuang feems to have its name 
from thofe lakes, or at lead 
from one of the largcftof them, 
of which we ftiali fubjoin 4 
ihort dcfcription (the word Hu 

(19) Mi^ iSmJu/, [ubvoc, Vid»iffihrnnlU, Martinitrt, Dm BaulM, Of aA 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

territory). It is called Tcng' 
ting-hii i and is computed about 
400 miles in circuit, and is iita- 
^e very near the middle of the 
province. It hath on the north- 
eaft end a communication with 
the river Yang-tfe^ and with a 
vaft number of otKer rivers and 
canals ; fo that there is always 
a prodigious quantity of vefTels 
na;i^igating to and from it. 

Jt is, however, apt to be very 
ftormy and dangerous at iome 
feafons, whence many consider- 
able (hipwrecks happen upon it. 
One in particular is recorded in 
their hiftory ; in which 300 la^e 
tranfports, with 50,000 men, 
perilhed all in one night (29). 
In other refpe£ts, it is not only 
of vaft benefit to the province, 
on account of the great com- 
merce above-mentioned, but of 
the prodigious quantities of fiOi 
and wild-fowl that breed in and 
about it. 

C. I. tbi WJkry of Chirm. 67 

fati%» and &dUme 'vs coauoerce. What mouotafaifi there Pmiuff. 
aie kit do iikewlfe {)roduce fomething that helps to inrich 
it: iomeare coftered with fbtely piaes, and other trees, fit 
ix the^UeH flru£tunes ; xnhers abound with medicinal and 
other mbs aad plants. Some have mines of cr}'flalt iron, Un» 
titeaa^ and other hale joetals ; toiay aothii^of thofe of gold 
asdillver, which are next permitted to he digged ; for, from 
Aofe mouatains is wa(hed down fome 4)uantity of ^old bj 
the torrents that jSow from them. As for wheat, rice, and 
other jpai^, fruits, be. it yields fuch plenty of them, that 
it is emphatically ftyled Che granary of China^ and fends ac- 
cordingly vaft quantities yearly into other provinces. 

But the greateft manufaf^ure of this province is that Jlf^«^. 
of cotton, which grows and is wrought here in vaft quanti- aura. 
ties; and of a fort of paper made of bamboes, which grows 
in great plenty in the low-lands. The plains lyfiewife nourifh 
an intinite number of a little kind of worms, which pro- 
djKea'fine wax, cf which we &all ipesk. in a proper place. 
Tlus pravince was formerly governed by a great number of 
princes, defcended from the imperial fanaily of Hong-vti, who 
madealmoft as great a figure as the Chineje emperors^; hut Antient 
Aatiioblcand luraierous race hath been intirely extirpated h'^frinces ex^ 
isi Tartars'. tirp^ted. 

HU-^UJNC hath fifteen cities of the firft rank, ^'ght of 
wludibebng to the northern, and ieven to the fouthern part 
rf it The foumer hath alfo fiatty of the fecond and thh*d 
^^; and the latter fifty-four, befidcs eleven military ones> 
^ other iartrcSes, and towns and villages in much greater 

Tee dght cities belonging to the -norrfiern part are, i . ^w- CifUs of 
*^f; l.Han-yaugi 3. Ngan-lo^, A.* Syang^yarig ; ^[X-wen-*^^ north* 
y^i 6. Te-ngan; 7. Km^heiu : 8» Whang-chew. ^^9 

Thos£ belonging to the fouthern part are, i . Ckang-cha, of the 
4e capital of it; 2. To-chew ; 3, Pau-ku^g; 4. Hcng-c/^rw ; /outhern, 
J. Chang-^tes 6. Chwg-chew ; 7. Tong-che^. part, 

y^'QHANG^ metropolis erf the whole province, as well Vu-chang 
*s rf the Hu'pey or northern part, and the refidence of the defcnhd* 
ycrtKT, or -viceroy, is feated, as it were, in the centre of the 
^^^wi^ empire ; and, by means of the river Tang-tfe^ which 
f^ns through k, hath an eafy communication with ev^ry pro- 
^ of k, and hath a great refort from them. It fufFered 
'cry much, as well as the reft of the provibce, during the 
)*^ wars, but hath fo well recovered itfelf fincc, that it is 
inferior to any other in China^ either for largenefs, 

* K40, MAaxiKi, LeC^mfti, Marthixirk, Du Haldb, 


E a pdpuloufnefst 

- Digitized by VjOOQIC 

68 ^he Hijiory of China. B. I. 

Ofuience, populoufncft, or opulence. Among other of its c^agmficent 
traffic, Sec, edifices, it flill fhows the fumptuous palace of its antient 
princes, and five ftately temples, famed for their largenefs and 
elegance. The vaft concourfe of veflels to it, which^^ fel- 
dom fewer than 8000 or 10,000, and lie ranged fomc miles 
in length upon the riverj many of them of a large fize, and 
finely built, joined to the fine profpeft of the city, is, 'when 
viewed from fome neighbouring toincnce, efteemedone of 
the inoft delightful villa's that can be imagined. 

VU'CHANG ftands in latitude 30° 34', and weft longi- 
tude from Pe-king 2° i J'^ ; and hath under its jurifdiftion one 
city of the fecond, and nine of the third rank, befides military 
ones, forts, 6^. The refl of the cities of this province have 
nothing particular worth mentioning. 

VII. Tbe Province of Ho-nan, 

VII. TS bounded, on the north, by thofe of Pe-cheli and Shan-Jti 
FFo nan X on the wefl, by Shen-fi; on the fouth, by Hit^qiiang ; and 
defcrtbed, ^^ ^^ ^^^^ y^^ Shan-tong ; it is likewife watered by the Whang* 
ho, which runs acrofs the north part of it, from wefl to eaft, 
and divides it from Shang-fi, and part of Shan-tong. The 
Chinefe give this province the title of Chong-tuha, or, the 
flower 9f the middle, becaufe it lies in the heart of the em- 
pire; and, confequeptly, according to their deep knowlege 
of geography, in the heart of the world. It extends itself 
from 31"^ 20' to 37*^ of latitude, and from 6° 15' of weft to 
Fertile o° 2o' of eafl longitude, from the Pe^king's meridian : fo that 
climate the mildnefs of its climate, joined to the fertility of its lands, 
arJfoiL render it a mofl delightful abode. The Chinefe affirm, more- 
over, that Fo'hi, the great founder of their monarchy, fixed 
his court in this province, whofe reign, according to fome au- 
thors, began 2592 years before Chrift ; which, if true, would 
confirm the chronology of the Septuagint y. But we hope that 
we have elfewhere fufficiently exploded that pretended anti-. 
quity of the Chinefe monarchy ^ ; and fhall fay much more on 
the fubjeft in the fequel. 
Once the Ho WEV^K. it is not improbable, that the delightfulnefs and 
feat of the {^xxXiX^j of this province might invite fome of their antient 
^"'^* monarchs to choofe it for their refidence ; and, accordingly, 
the Chinefe hiflory affirms the city of Kay-fong-fd, the metro- 
polis of it, to, have been the feat of the empire, during a long 
fucceffion of monarchs, till it was, at length, overflown, and 

y Du Halde, fub Ho-nan, p. 102. » See before, Univ. 
Hiftory, vol. xx. p. 109, & feq. 


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C I. TJbe Hifiory of China. 69 

covered with fand % by a great inundation, of which we (hall 
fpeak in the fequel. It is indeed fo healthful and fertile, that Grna 
it abounds with every thing for life or delight. The eaftern ^/r»/|. 
part ofjit, cfpecially, is fo rich, and well cultivated, and fo 
vari^ted with gardens, orchards, pleafure-houfes, noble feats, 
iic. that one may travel through it above feven days with 
fnrprifing delight. The weftern part is, indeed, more moun- 
tainous ; but thofe mountains are no lefs rich, in fine timber^ 
Yariety of metds and minerals, plants, ifc and the vaft quan- 
tities, as well as variety, of com, rice, fruits, and other pro- 
doft, which both the hills and dales do yield, as well as the 
tribute the province pays for them, and for filks, cloths, cot- 
tons, and other commodities, is almoll incredible. It is like- Fim filks. 
wife famed for a remarkable lake, which draws to it great 
numbers of thofe who are concerned in the filk manufacture, 
on account of the inimitable luftre which its water gives to 
diat commodity. There is likewife, in • the neighbourhood 
of the city of Nan-yang^ a kind of ferpent^ whofe (kin is , 
(peckled with little white fpots, which (kin theChine/e phyfi- 
dans infufe in a phial fuU of wine, and make ufe of the infu- 
fion as an efieftual remedy againft tfie palfey ^., 

HO'NAN hath, befides fortre(res, caftles, and military G/iVr, 
towns, eight cities of the firft, and 102 of the fecond and 
third rank. Thofe of the firft, are, i . Kay-fong-fJl j 2. ^e- 
it; 3. Chang'te : 4. Vekyan ; 5. Whay-king i 6. Ho-nan : 
7. Nan-yang : 8. Vu-ning, 

KAY'FONG'FU, or Shai-fongy the metropolis of the pro- Kay-fong 
vince, and once one of the nobleft in the empire, was fituate 
in a large fertile plain, about four miles and a half from the 
Whdng'ho, ox yellow rivers and in latitude 34° 52', and lon- 
gitude weft from Pe-king i^ 56^ ; but its low iituatioii beneath 
the waters of that river occafioned its ruin, in 1642, when 
being clofely befieged by the rebel Ly-chudngy at the head oidefirtyei* 
100,000 men, the general, who was fent to relieve it, con- 
trived the fetaj defign of drowning his army, by breaking the 
great bank, which had been reared, at a vaft charge, to pre- 
ferve the country from being overflowed by that great river (H). 


• Vide Kao, ubi fupra, p. 128. ** Dv Halde^ ubi fuju 

p. loz. vid. & al. fup. citat, 

(H) This river, it feems, runs (ible the violence of its waters, 
fo much higher than the adja- their monarchs had caufed-Migh 
cent lands, and had made fuch and ftrong dikes to be thrown 
honiddevaflationsgimongthem, up along its banks, the length 
that, to prevent as much as pof. of about thirty leagues. Yet 

E 3 thofe 


i'zed by Google 

ftls projcft ftxcGceded indeed ; but proved die mint avd d^ 
ftru6tton not only of this noble capital, bu4;'of 300,000 of its 
inhabitants, by the violence and fwiftnefs of the overffccw <=• 
jLehuilt. By what is ftill to be feen cf its ruins^ it appeans Co have 
been three leagues in compais. The aanotator or* Dionyfias 
Kao adds, that it had lain ever fince like a pond, or morafs ; 
and that aH the vaft pains and cxpence, to drain and refisorc if, 
' had proved fo unfuccefsful, that the court had given over all 
further thoughts about it ^. However, a new ond hath been 
rebuilt fince (asmoft authors tell us, on the other fide of the 
river, though Du Halde takes no notice of this kft particular)^ 
on which great pains and coft have been fpent, to raife it to 
hs priftine grandeur ; but it comes ftill' very fhort of it. ifow^ 
ever, its jurifdiftion is ftill very extenfive, and contaias four 
cities of the fecoad, and thirty of the third rank. The others 
have "nothing particular worth ourmentioning here, except 
Ho-nan. ^^^^ ^^ Ho-nan^ which, though fituate in the midft of moun*- 
tains between three rivers, is of fete kecome very confiderablei 
both for its wealth and noble buildings, particularly feme 
ftately temples, dedicated to antient heroes. The Chinefe^ who- 
calkd their country the navel of the earth, ftiled this city the 
center of the navel, becaufe it ftands in the center of the em- 
pire. Its diftrift extends over one city of the fecond, and 
Afamea thirteen of the third rank. In one of tfhe latter, named Teng^ 
phfer^va- foYig-hyen, ftands the high tower built by the celebrated Chevj^ 
for^M kong, where he ufed to obferve the ftarsT" They fticw you 

there likewife the inftrument which he made ufe of to find 
the meridian ftiadow, in order to difcover the height of the 

^ Dv Ha^pe, ubi fupya. * Vide notes on Ifbiandasr Ide^ 
p. 128. 

thefe fametimes proved ib weak it throws itfelC into Tartmjy and 
againlt the violence of its cur- flows a coniidierable way along 
rent, that the adjacent cities the great wall, at which it re- 
were obliged to c^ up new enters Chinas between the pro- 
ones, at fome fmall diftance vinses of SLan-Ji and Shen-fii 
from their waHs, to fuppreft its thence it continues its courfe 
rapid fury (30). * through this of Ho-ttan ; and, 
This river. Father Le Compte, having crofled part of that of 
who calls it the Hoamho, tells Nan^king^ and flowed about 
qs, hath its rifcf among the 600 leagues through the land; 
fartheft part of the mountains it difembogues itfelf, at laft,. 
which cover the province of into the ea^ fea, not far from 
Su'cSwefif in the weft; whence themouth of thei^7wi?g'(3i). 

i^r.) MAHlni^ ^las. La Murtimtr, Dm Hai^f^ Of #/, (31) le Ccmptt, 



by Google 

C. 1. Tlh Hijhry of Cirina; 71 

pofe. They attribute to him the invention of the mariner's 
compafe, thKHigh he Eved abofve 1000 years before Chrifl •. 

VIII. the 'Province ^/Shan-tong. 

CHAN'TONG, Xan-tun, Can-tong, Shan-fan, is bounded VIII. 
^ on the weft by Pc'cheli, and part of Ho-nan^ laft de- Shan- 
fcribed ; on the fouth, by Kyang-nan, by the Tong-yang^ or tong de^ 
caftcra fea, on the eaft, and on the north, by the fame fea, firibeJ. 
and part of Pe-cheR. It extends irfelf from 34® 30' to 38° 20' 
of latitude, and from i® to 6*^ 25' of eatt longitude, from 
Pr-king ; and is one of the moft fertile provinces, and fineft 
cfimates, in all China, It not only produces every thing that Fertility. 
is iKcefikry for life and delight, but in fuch great plenty, that 
(xie crop is &fGcicnt to afford its inhabitants feveral years fu- 
ftraance, though this is pardy owing to its not being fo po- 
pnloos as fome other provinces of the empire. 

It hath a good number of lakes, rivers, and brooks, which Ri'vers. 
contribute to fertilize and enrich h, befides the great imperial 
canal, which crb/Ies fome part of it, and by which all the 
barks that come from the fouthern parts do fail to Pe-king ; 
vhere the very tribute of the vaft quantities of merchandizes, 
6c. which they bring, is computed to amount to more than 
ten miUions '^ : fo that nothing can obftruft the richnefs and 
fccundfity of this province, but either too long a drought (for 
it rains but fddom in it), or the great havock which is fre- 
quently nnade by the locufts, which breed in the plains, in a 
dry feafon, and deftroy every thing they come at. 

These infefls are reckoned one of the three plagues with Thru 
which this province is infefted. The next is, the vaft droves pi^gi*^^ 
of wolves which range among the mountains and plains, 
which are very fierce and ravenous, and do a great deal of 
ffiifchief. The hft is, the numerous gangs of robbers which 
infeft the highways over the mountains, and often come down 
into the plains, and plunder and ravage the villages ini open 
towns. In other refpefts, Shan-tong enjoys a ferene and mild 
climate, a fruitful foil, arid a good traffic. 

The inhabirants, which are computed tcj amount to Number tf" 
770,555 families, or 6^759,675 men, are healtny and dowtf fiu/s. 
infomuch, that the boys are commonly feen to go naked in the 
coldeft weather, and take a pleafure in foufing one another in 
water. They manufafture filky in great quantities and va- Jparficu^ 
ricty 5 and, befides the conaaon fort, which is produced by the l^^ M^ ^f 

* MaRTIMI, AdaS^MARTlNlEREy Du HALPf, (ifr. ^ I<1. 

bW fopra. 


by Google 

72 the Hiftory of C\i\r\su .B. I. 

filk-worms, they have another fort, which is found upon 
trees and bufhes in great plenty, which is fpun by a kind of 
worm, not unlike our caterpillars. This laft, though coarfer 
than the common fort, is ftronger, and more compa^ ; and 
of both thcfe they drive a great trade, by means of their ri- 
vers and canak. 
Curious Among other curious fruits, which this province produces 

fruftf. in common with the reft, that which they call y^-(/^, which 
are a peculiar kind of figs, no-where to be met with but in. 
China^ grows here in greater plenty than in any other pro- 
vince. Thefe do not ripen till the beginning of autumn ; and, 
being dried as other figs are, contraft a kind of cruft of can- 
died fugar, which gives them a delicious tafte : fo that thefe 
are fcnt from hence into all the provinces of the empire, and 
even out of it, in great quantities. By thefe means, it hath 
been able to raife itfelf to its priftine fplendor, frdm which it 
was funk into the loweft degree of defolation, having been al- 
moft totally ruined by the civil wajs, on* account of its being 
fo often forced to fhift fides, and thereby becoming a prey to 
both. However, what renders this province molt venerable 
among the Chine f^ is, that their great philofopher Kong-fu-tfe, 
commonly called by us Confucius^ drew his firft breath in it g; 
of whom we fhall have occafion to fpeak more fully, in a pro- 
per place. 
C/V/W. SHJN-TONC hath fix cities of the firft rank, all very 

populous and flourifhing ; and thefe have no lefs than 114 of 
the fecond and third /ank, befides a great number of towns 
and villages, and fifteen fortrefles, fome of them very large, 
and all of them built to guard the entrances of their ports, 
and the mouths of their rivers. There arc likewife feveral 
IJIandi* iQands fcattered along the gulph, which are no lefs popu- 
■ lous, and afford convenient harbours for Chinefe tranfports, 
and a quick and eafy paifage to and from Kareck atid ^.yeaa- 
tong h (I). 


» Dioii Kao, ubi fupa, ch, 3, p. 121, ic feq. * Vide 

Martin^ Lb Compt^, Kao, Martinibrs, Du Halds, &c. 

(I) The three mod confider- who built the great wall. This 

able of them are, Fcu-xuy Xa- prince being a confummatewar- 

muent sindTen-Jbenj^i the I all of riour, but a mortal enemy to 

which is famous tor being the all philofophers, ordered them 

dreadful flage on which 500 all to repair to a certain placa, 

CA/»^ philofophers were mur-' under pretence of confulting * 

dered, by order of the emperor them about fome important 

AJ'w, oxChi-'wan^'ti, the fatne yointi bur, tiaving got them 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. r. Tbe Htj/ipry if China. 73 

The ddes of the firft rank are,- i. Tfi-nan; 2. Teng^ 
eiew; 3. Tong-changs 4. TJing'chew s 5, Tcri'chevt : 6. Loy- 

TSI'NAN^ Zi-nan, Ci-nan, metropolis of the province, Tfi-ntn 
is coQFcniently fituate on the fouth fide of the river Tfing-ho^ defcrihii* 
otherwife called Tfi^ or Li, by which it hath a communica- 
don with the great canal, and carries on a great comrnerce by 
It into other provinces. It is large, and well peopled, and 
fiSDs^ for its many public buildings, fome of them of exqui'^ 
lite beauty, and for having been the refidence of a long feries 
of monarchs, whofe ftately monuments yield a moft noble 
profpe<5l, from the adjacent hills, on which they are reared. 
Seventy-two of thofe monarchs are celebrated, in the Chinefe 
annals, for their pacific reigns, and the many ftately temples, 
monafteries, arches, bridges, and other public edifices, which 
they built, as well as for their fingular application to religion, 
and the welfare of their fubjefts. 

TSl'NAN hath four cities of the fecond, and twenty-fix 
of the third rank; and {lands in 36° 45' of latitude, and in 
0° 39' eaft longitude, from Peeking. The others have no- Chinefe 
thir^ particular in them, except the great borough of Ten- gla/u 
thing, famed for the manufaAure of a fort of glafs, but more 
britde than that of Europe^ and which breaks wheaexpofed to 
.toolharp an air ^ 

IX. The Province of ShBii^R. 

CHAN'S ly Shang'fi, Xan-Ji, or Chan-Ji, is bounded bn the IX. 
^ eaft, by Pe'che-ii; on the weft, by Shen-Ji; on the fouth, Shan-fi 
by Ho-nan ; and on the north, by the Chinefe wall, which defcriha^ 
parts it from Tartary, It extends itfelf but a litde way from 
eaft to weft ; viz. horn i'' to 6° 23' of weft longitude from , 

Pf'king'y but from north to fouth much more; viz. from 
34*^ 37' to 40'' 50' of latitude. It is affirmed, by the Chinefe^ 
to have been the firft inhabited province in the whole empire ; 
and, though it be nothing fo large as fome of thofe we have 
defcribed, yet is to the full as fertile and populous, in pro- 

^Du Haldb, ubi fupra, p. 105, & al, 

all together, (hipped them off" to alllearning, and learned men, 

to this ifland, where they were as we (hall have occaiion to 

all mardered ; though others (hew, when we come to fpeak 

(ay, they drowned themfelves of his reign. 
(32}. He was no lefs an enemy 

^ (32} X>/Mt JCv> ubi fufrd, /• I2Z. & ah Ji^, (tat. 

4 portioa 

by Google 


74 ^b€ Htjhrj cf China. B. t 

Vaft high portterv Xo i» extent* Its clintata is fereue and mUd, thoogh it 

ptouHtains. bath » great mimber of moafitains, and ic^^e'of tkem ^f a 

frightful height and ruggcdnefs ; but the greateft part of tht 

reft are well cultivated, and cut into tcrraflcs from top tc 

bottom, and bear plenty of corn, and other grain (K). 

The plains are ftill more fertile, but have not fo great ^ 
qnamity of canals fo irrigate them ; on which accoant, the^ 
do not yield fuch abtmdance of rice as other provinces do. 
Their vines produce excellent grapes, of which the Chinrfe 
night mak« wine, did they not prefer the eatii^ of rhem 
ilried, and fending the remainder into other parts of the em- 
Frodua. This province furni/hes alfo abundance of mufk, porphyry; 
marble, jafper, if€. and hath fome mines which yield great 
ftore of iron, which is fabricated into variety of utenfils, 
efpecially culinary, which are fent into other provinces. The 
people are ftout, and obliging, but iUiterate; and the ^women 
much admired for their beauty, and flender fhape. 
Cities. This province hath five cities of the firft rank, and eighty-five 

of the fccond and third : thofe of the firft rank are ; i . Taj^ 
yvien: 2. Ping-yang ; 3. Lu-ngan ; 4. Fwen-chew ^ 5. Tay- 
tmg. The number oi famffies-in )/i amounts to abotit 58 9,9-55;-, 
or 5',o84/>r5 men. 
Tay-y wen TAT-TWE Ny Tai-ven^ Tha-yen-fi, metFopolis of the pri> 
itfirihtd, vince, is fituate on the river Fwen-hoy in 35° 53' of latitude, 
and 3® 55' of weft longitude, from peeking. It is antient, 
populous, and large, its walls meafiiring about three leagues 
frt eompafs; but is much decayed of its former fplendor, 
Whflf the prloccs of the blood, of the imperial family of Tay- 

(K.) Scfflcoftlicfemountahis, report of t\kt inhabitant?; otk^ 

w« ace told, are (o loft on the that they open, iti foodry places, 

iurfacr (93), that ofts may dig in the form of firey wells, tko* 

fbur Of &ve feet deep, without without flame ; (b that, by nar- 

meeting the leaft ^one ; and rowing the mouth of them, oae 

fome of them have very fpa- may lo concenter the h^at as to 

cious plains on the top. They lay pots, kettles, ^yinff-pans, 

arc, moreover, remarkable for and other culinary vefiels, and 

their inexhauftible mines of drefs viftuals over them. The , 

coals, which the fnhabitants fire, fte adds, burns but dimly ; 

ufe for fewel, where wood is and if; to accelerate the he*tj 

fcarce. one throws any wood iivto thcffe 

There is oi^e very remarkable holes, it will hardly flame, 

tfiing, which Mirr//ff/ tells as, of but will burn like oar chur- 

thcfe mountains, not indeed of coal {34). 
liis own knowlege, but on the 

(5;^ Du ShUe, ^JM^rg, f, lo^ (3^) jftht Simrtj: fmk Chaw-fi. 

L ^ > 


by Google 

$mg^ refided m it, ^ffaofe ftttdy fRlaoes mt fince rvn iDto 
decaf, and fome of them lie is rttin% none darings to neboild . . . 
tbem. The dty hath a fruitful and delightful territory arooud fj'^t 
k; and the adjacent mountafau yield a curious ^cfydEt of '^^ * 
royal monumeats, aU dther of mai ble or hewa AonCy and of 
t coofiderabk extent ; befides triomphai arches, ffaitues of 
kroes, figures of lions, horfes, and other animals, in dif- 
iareit attitudes, and rety natnraL Th)e whole is encompaftd 
with a kind of fbreft of aniient cyprcis, planted chequer- 

The jurifdiftion <rf Tay-ynoen expends oier Sore cities of 
the fecond, and tvrenty of the third rafik. 

X. rhi Fr^^mci of Shm^Ci. 

TNSN'S^Iy X^n-Jh Xben-fiy is boUiided on the eaft, by the x. 
^ Wmtg-bs^ which parts it from Sban-fi^ laft defcribcd; on the Shen-'fl 
fooih, by Se-chueHy and Hu-q^uang ; on the norths by Tartar/y de/criM. 
^thcgreat waU;andoatheweft,by theM?gd/7dtrftfry. It 
extends itfelf, in forae parts, from 32° to 40"^ of latitude, and DMJion. 
from 5*^ 40' to almoft 16? of weft lonf^tude, from Pe-king, but 
» a very irr^ular manu^. It is ditidied iato two parts, or go*- 
wnments, the eaftern, and the weftern, which contain ei^ 
citiesof the firft, and 106 of the feoond and third rank, befides 
agKat nimaber of fortrefles, caftles, redoubts, built at proper 
diftances, along the great wall f. Among thofc fortrefles, or, 
as they may be mcw-e property called, miUtary cities, thofe 
cTpedally of the firft, being as large, rich, and populous, as 
Boftof the inland' cities, and are twenty-ihrce in number, 
the two following are moft confiderable; viz, Kan-chew said 
iunhew ; the former of which is the refidence of a viceroy, 
aod feveral mandarins^ the principal of whom receive their 
orders from none but the court ; and the lattier is equal in 
ftrength, and its governor in power, with the former, only 
this is divided into two parts, one of which is moftly inha- 
Mted by Cbme/e, and the other by ftrangers ^, Here are, be- 
fides the twenty-three above-named, a good number of others^ 
of a fecond and third order, but nothing fo large, though 
very ftrong, and well garrifoned, befides the forts and to- 
doubts, which aue chiefly defigned to guard the great wall. 

S HEN'S 1 19 one of the antienteft and largcft proviiiccs in Govern- 
the empire ; and had formerly three viceroys over it *, though^ ment. 
at prefent, it hath but two, exclufive of the two governors 
above-mentioned, who are independent on them, 

t Sec before, vol. Jv. p. 363, & feq. ¥ 0u Halde, 

*» fup, p. io«, 1 Kao, uW fup. p. I z6. 


by Google 

y6 T^te Hijiory $f China. B. L 

C/imate. < The kit here is very temperate ; and the people more civil, 
and afFefted to ftrangers, than in any of thcfe northern pro- 
Soi'l. vinces. Thp foil is rich and fruitful ; and fome of the moun- 

tains have mines of gold, though forbidden to be opened 
Golden under the fevereft penalties ; but the rivers and torrents, ^Jvhich 
fofid, flow from them, bring down fuch quantities of that metal, 

that an infinite number of people maintain themfelves by the 
bare profit that arifes by \yafhing and feparating it from the 
Bradu^, fand. The plains yield but fmall quantities of rice, for want 
of a fufficient number of canals : but they make ample amends 
for it by the prodigioi^s plenty of corn they produce, bcfides 
medicinal and other plants, rootsv itc particularly rhubarb, 
which is here excellent, and cultivated with great care. One 
misfortune, however, this produce labours under, viz» frequent 
S'lvarms of 2ind extraordinary droughts, which never fail of being followed 
grajhop' with fuch prodigious fwarms of gra(hoppers, and other infedls, 
Z^'*^' as quite darken the fun, and eat up every herb, bufh, and even 

the fmall boughs of the trees ; at fuch times the whole coun- 
try come out, and kill them as faft as they can, and eat them 
as a great dainty. In fome parts of iSAi'n^//, ' particularly in 
the neighbourhood of its metropolis Si-'gnan, or Sigan, is a 
fort of fait earth, Which, being boiled and cryftallized, makes 
a very good white fait ; and, in fome other places further, the 
ground, after a good ftiower of rain, emits a kind of froth, 
which is made into an excellent foap. The head cities be- 
longing to this province are as follow : 
Cities. ^^ ^he eaftern part, calhd I'tong, are^ i. Siangan; 2. Ten* 

ngan; '^. Fong-tfyang ; 4. Hang-chong, 

And in the weflern, Called iji, 5. Ping-lyang: 6. Kong' 
chang : 7, Lyng-tau; 8.^ Kin-yang, 
Si-ngan SI-Nd N-FU, the metropolis of the whole province, is 
defcrihed. ^ very large city, commodiouQy fituate on a delightful afcent 
on the fouth fide of the river IVhey^ in latitude ^4^ i6^ and 
famed ^^^ longitude frov[\ Pe -king j^ 35'. Irs walls are ftrong 
mjolls. ^^^ lofty, about four leagues in compafs, and flanked with a 
great number of towers, of an excellent fabricature, which 
hath given rife to the faying, that it is girt with a golden 
girdle. Among other noble buildings that adorn it within, 
is ftill to be feen the palace of the antient kings who reigned 
in this province, and who were once very powerful, and ppf- 
fefled a vail traft of the empire ; fome ftately temples, trium- 
phal arches, drr. 
Carrie tt* The principal forces of the Tartars , defigned for the de- 
fence of the north of China, are garrifoned here, under a ge- 
neral of their nadon, who, with his troops, live in a feparate 



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C. I . Th Hijlory of China. 77 

part of the city, divided from the reft by a walL The chief 
mandarins of the pro^nce, who are here like^rffe/in great 
nnmbers, are mofUy Tartars. The mountains adjacent 
abonnd with deer, hares, and other game ; and produce, 
among other foflils, a white kind of earth, which is much 
valned by the ladies, who infufe it in water, and whiten 
thdr complexion with it. 

It was near this city that Father Lg Compte tells us there A Cirijti* 
was a monumental marble table dug up Anno 1645, which *»*««««- 
was ten feet long, and fix broad ; and on the top of which ^^^ ^ 
was engraved a crofs ; and a little below it an infcription, in "f* 
charafters partly CMnefe, and partly Syriac, importing, that 
an angel had brought tidings of the Meffiah's being born of 
a virgin in Judea, and of his birth's being manifefted to eaft- 
ern kings by a new ftar in the heavens, who came and offered 
the divine infant their prefents ; that fo the law, and prediftions 
offonr-and-twenty prophets, might be thereby accomplifhed ; 
and that Ohpouen came into China in the year of Chrift 636, Chrifth 
where he met with a kind reception from the emperor ; who, unity fa- 
having examined his law, and acknowleged the truth of it, floured By 
iffiied out an edift in favour of him and his religion (L). It '^^ ^'^t^' 

pears '••'''• 

(L) The copy and contents " pies which fuppofc that the 

o[ the whole infcription, and " world had a beginning. This 

hifioryofitsdifcovery, may be ** law, which teaches the way 

fcenin Kercher*a China Wuftra^ " of falvation, cannot but be 

^ and in Father Le Compte ** extremely beneficial to our 

above mentioned (35); and the *• fubjeds. I therefore judge 

pirpoit of the edid, according " it neceflary that it be taught 

to ihcir verfion, runs as foH '* to them." The infcription 

^s: goes on with an account of that 

" No particular name com- monarch's ordering a church to 

" prebends the true law ; nei- be built, and of his appointing 

** ther are faints confined to twenty -one perfons to officiate 

" any one place, but are di- in it ; of his fon and fucceflbr 

** fperfed thro' the world, that Tay-loutnz highly honouring the 
" they may be univerfally ufe bi(hop Ohpouen y and promoting 
*' fol. A man of Jud.Uy of this religion with the fame lau- 
" exemplary virtue, arrived at dable zeal ; fo that the bonzas 
" our court; we have examined were alarmed at the progrefs it 
" his dofirine, and found it made, and ufed all poflible 
** worthy of admiration, and means to put a Hop to it. They 
** without any mixture of pride, accordingly raifed a bloody per- 
" and built upon thofe princi- fecution ; but which, in a little 

(35) Vrtjtr.t Stau of China, part 2, letter 3. 



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7^ ^a>e mjkry Iff Ciiwgu B. L this infcrif iicm, therefiare, that ChriftiaoUjr Bou- 
rifhedin ti\t€biaefeem:p\x£iro\xi the year 636 to 78 z, vdien 
the monuxneatahove-jneoHoned wa^ fet up. Our author lells 
us^ that the emperor then rcigoiug, when it was firft digged 
up, ordered it ^o be kept in a pagod, or temple, about a 
mile from this cityj, wheteit is iuppofed to be flUl at this 
time ". 
AtrpM' ^**^ other cito vf^ pafs by, as having nothing particu- 
gioutiM- l^ly remarkable ; excepting that called Han-chong, the high 
qjui^ j-oad to which* oypr the high .mountains that fucround it, hath 
fomething vaftly furpriflng, both with refpeft toithe number 
of men who were employed in making of it, which amounted 
to 100,000, and the gi^et diiHculty, and quick difpaJtcb, of 
the work ; to complete which, tjhey leyelled high hills, made 
lofty arches from one mountain 20 another, and fupport^ 
them with pillars wliere-evcr the intervening valley was^ too 
wide. Thefe bridges, which form part of t;he road, are in 
fome -places io high, that one cannot behold the vaft precipice 
below without dread. They are wide enough for four hcwrfe- 
jnen to ride abreaft over them ; and, for the better fecurity 
and convenience of the paflengers, are railed on both fides, 
and furnifti^d with villages and inns at proper diftances, for 
their accommodation ".- There are many more fuch ftupen- 
doos works in other paits -of China^ efpecially among the 
moivitaiBOtts parts of it<^, fome of which we may have occa* 
fion to mention among thdr other artificial rarities \ though 
this, with refpeA to its length, height, ifc. feems to CKcel all 
the reft. 

■ Kekcher China Illuftr. Le Com?t€ Prcfeirt State of 
China, part 2. Iet:er 3. " Vid. Du Halde, xthi fopra. 

p. 109. ^ De his, vid. Kerch lr, Navaretta, Mar- 

tini, Le Compte, Du Haldc, & al. 

time, ferved only to make it it with all their m^ht, but much 

break out with greater luftre, more by their pious examples, 

and meet with greater encou- and by the mod fignal inllances 

ragement from the fucceeding of piety ; in memoiy of which 

monarchs. In the mean time wonderful change, this monu- 

Ki'ho^ a new miflionary from mental infcription was fet up 

Jtuieoj arrived, who met with ^. T.. 782. This is the fubftancc 

the fame kind reception and fuc- of the infcription, which the 

cefs that Bilhop Olopouen had reader may fee at full length in 

done before ; and the Chinefe the authors above quoted. 

monarchs not only encouraged 


XI. rbi 

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C i» T6f Bifiory $f Chma. 79s 

XI, Jbe Province of Sc- chwcn. 

TE-CHWEN^ SeU'ciu, Su-cheu^ Su-chuen, is bounded on XI. Sc- 
^ the north by Sben-Ji^ laft defcribcd; by Hu-quang on chwen 
Ac eaft ; by ^ey-chrw and Tun-nan on the fouth ; and by H^^rihii. 
Ac kffigdom of Tibet on the weft. It extends itfelf from 
t4« JO* to 32^ 50' ^^ latitude, and from dP 20' to 150 25' 
weft loi^nde from Pe-king. It is a large and fruitful pro- 
TiBce; but is one Gf thofe that fuffered moft, and was almoft 
hid wafte, by the kte civil wars '. It hath, however, reco- 
Wred itfdf fo far fince, as to vie with fome of the beft north- 
ern ones in ferdlity, populouCnefs, and opulence. The great Great 
rarer Tang^fe^ which runs through it, not only enriches its trajgUk. 
hods by the imildtude of canals cut from it \ but much more 
fo tlif inhabitants, by the great trade that is carried on by 
Its means, of vaft^ quantities of filk, iron, tin, quickfdver, 
fopr, excellent loadftones, lapis Armenius^ muflc, rhubarb, 
cliia-root, and other commodities, which are exported into 
Qifcr provinces. The country, being moftly plain, and well- Produ^^ 
watered, produces plenty of rice, wheat, and other corn ; . 
«lbmuch that the bare tribute of the former amounts to 
6,106,660 facks. The only neceflary thit is wanting here is 
fait: which, byreafon of the diftancefrom thef^a, cannot be 
fo tonveniently brought thence. To fupply which defeft, 
they dig up wells in the mountains, whence they draw a kind 
rf fait water, which, being evaporated, leaves a fait beliind, 
but not fb good for feafoni^g as that of the fea *>. 

We are told of a petty monarchy in this province, fltuate Afmall 
on the mountains which part it from that of Ho-nan on the monarchy 
north-eafl, and called the Idngdom of Kingy which is quite in- '^'^^^'^ '^» 
dependent from the Chinefe^ and is governed by its own princes. 
It was founded during the late wars, when the Kingiangs, a 
brave people, to avoid being inflaved by the Tartars^ or 
being expofcd to their cruel ravages, went and erected them- 
fdves into this little flate, among thofe high and jugged 
inountains, where they live free and unmolefted, and avoid • ^ 

all commerce with the Ttzr^^itrj, Chine/e, or any other people ^ 

The province of Se-chwen hath ten jurifdiftions, or cities Citiis* 
ef the firft rank, and eighty-eight of the fecond ani third, 
befides five military ones ; nine large fortrefles of the firft, 
and twenty-five of the fecond order, and forts, cafUes, 6r. 
depending upon them. 

'Dion. Kao, ubi fup. p. 141. Id. ^ Vid. ct Martini, Du 
Halde, & aL ' l>utch Ambafly, La MARrisJiER^, et al. 

5 The 

I Digitized by VjOOQIC 

So Th Hipry of China. B. I. 

The ten capitals of the province are, i.Ching-tu: 2. Pau- 
^ngi 3. Shun-king; 4. Su-chew ; 5. Chong-king s 6. ^uey' 
chew: 7. Ma-hu ; 8. Long-ngam 9. Tfun-i ; 10. Tl^/atg- 

CbiDg^ta* CH ING'TU'FU, the metropolis of the pro^ance, and 

fo rw/f/</ formerly the royal refidence of fome of the Chinefe monarchs, 

hy the was one of the largeft and fineft cities in the whole eoipire, 

wars. till the civil wars, under which it fuffered moft of any, quite 

Jte-efta- ruined it, and the whole province, Anno 1646 j and, though 

mjhed. It hath in fome meafure recovered itfelf, yet doth it fhcw 

little of its prilline grandeur, except in the fad remains of its 

once (lately palace, fome few temples, bridges, and fuch- 

like, and in its prefent populoufhefs, and the great comnierce 

it now carries on. It is feated almoft in the heart of the 

province, and in a friiitful territory, the only* plain one in the 

province, which is by that means interfered with a great 

number of navigable canals. Cut from the river 7i, or Ta- 

kyan^f whofe courfe here is rather flow than rapid : but, 

when the canals are reunited to it, and its waves increafed by 

the confluence of the Hin-Jba-kyang^ it becomes exceeding 

rapid and dangerous, being much incumbered with rocks, 

cfpecially in its next courfe through the province of Hu- 


ClflNG'TU (hnds in latitude 30^ 41' and 12^ 1 8' weft 

longitude from Pe-king. Its jurifdiftion is confiderable, and 

extends itfelf over fix cities of the fecond, and twenty-five 

of the third rank. It is chiefly remarkable, Martini tells us, 

Jtt extra- for a finall extraordinary bird with a red bill, and the fineft 

^rMnary variety of feathers. It is called Tong-hoa-fang^ that is, the 

Ur-d. bird of the flower Tong-hoa^ from which they pretend it to 

be produced, and to live no longer than that doth ; and is fo 

like it, that one would imagine it to be a living flower *. 

XII. The Province of Quang-tong. 

.XII. riUANG-TONC, ^ang-tmg, ^toang-tung, ^uan-tm, 
QH^"g- J^^ Canton^ and, by fome, ^lang-chnvy from its metropo- 
tong di ]is^ is bounded on the north by Kyang-fi; on the north-eaft 
/cnbed. {^y Fo'kyen ; on the weft by ^tang-ft^ and the kingdom of 
Toug'king, or Tonqiiin ; and the reft is waQied by the Nan- 
hdy, or lea of the fouth. It is reckoned the mpft confidera- 
ble of all the provinces; and extends itfelf from 20° 15', 
or, if you include the ifland of Hay-nan, which is under 

'^ Atlas Siaenf. Martinibre, et al. 



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C. I. The Hi/ory of Chind. 8i 

its jurifdiflrion, from i8^ 20' to 25** 33' of latitade, and 
from 10 eaft, to p'* 8' weft, of longitude from Pe-ktP^g. It 
is no lefs fo on account of its vaft commerce, opulence, po- 
puloufiiefs, advantageous fituation, and the great number of 
its commodious ports ; fo that though it fuSered incredibly 
during the late wars, both from the Tartars and the Chinefe^ ' 
and other pirates, its traffick and fertile foil foon rcftored it 
toitsantient fplendor, by the extraordinary induftry of its 
inhabitants, who are computed by the regifters to amount 
to 383,360 families, or £,978,029 men. 

The foil is fo fertile, that it yields two crops of corn F(rtiltfj% 
yearly ; and produces in the like plenty all forts of grain, 
fruits, vegetables, and every thing that can contribute to the 
pleafures of life. The climate, though warm, is clear, and 
the people very ftout and healthy ; hence they have a 
common faying, that ^/ang-tong always enjoys a (ky w Ith- 
out fnow, trees always laden with fruit, and men that con- 
tinually fpit blood ; by which laft is not meant any diftemper , 
of that kind, but their chewing a medicinal root which gives 
the ialiva the colour of blood. 

The commerce which this province, but more efpecially Manvfk^ 
that which its metropolis drives, is one of the richeft and turn. 
grandeft ia all the Chinefe empu^ and extends itfelf to the 
moft valuable merchandizes, fuch as diamonds and precious 
ftooes of all forts, pearls, gold, fdver, and other metals cu- 
riouily wrought, and for all ufes. They are famed here for 
a fort of gun-barrel which never burfts, or, at moft, only 
fplits itfelf, without farther hurt ; and for an odd kind of 
rice manufafture, which they turn into all kinds of utenfds, 
and which bears a fine natural glofs, but is only fit for fight/ 
Silks of all forts, cottons, and other linen, are likewife ma- 
nufaftured and exported in great quantities, and beautiful 
variety, as well as thofe of gold, filver, copper, lead, tin, 
china-ware, japan-work, and in all which infinite multitudes 
are conftantly employed ; infomuch that, though the country 
here be as fertile as any in Chiriay yet it doth not produce fuf- 
ficient provifions for its inhabitants, but is afflfted by fome of 
Ac neighbouring provinces. They ufe the fame way here of Eggi 
hatching and potting of eggs, efpecially" tliofe of ducks, which hatched in 
are in great plenty, in ovens and drtnghils, as they do in ^'«'* 
^SH^t; but have a particular one of preferving them fre(h all 
the year, by covering them with a fort of pafte. We are 
told a curious fingularify of the ducks and chickens fo hatch- 
ed; VIZ. that the owners carry tl^m in boats to the fca-fide^ 
at low-water, where they feed on oyfters, cockles, and other 
fuch fea-infefts, and where one drove naturally iptermlxcs 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VIII. F with 


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Tbi Hifiary of CWna. B. I. 

with another, as there are great multitudes of tbefe boa\8 
fo employed : bat, as foon as the droves-owner ftrikcs on a 
bafon, every flock returns to his own boat, as pigeons do to 
their holes K Some other Varieties this province affords, which 
the reader may fee in the marg^ (M). 

^U A NG'TO NG^ being a maritime province, and 
the moft removed from the court, is one of the moft con- 
fiderable in the whole empire, efpedally as he, who is 
the Tfong'tu^ or viceroy, of it, is iikewife fo of that of 
^tang'jti for which reafon he commonly refides at Ghau- 
king, to be nearer at hand to communicate his orders to 
both provinces. He keeps alfo a great number of foldiers 
under him, to fupprefs the highwaymen and pirates, whkh 
would clfe grow numerous enough to deftroy the commerce 
betw;een them. There is, for the fame end, a great number 
of fortrefles, both on the fea-coafts and in the inland, moft of 
them like large cities, very ftrong and well garrifoned, be- 

' Du Halde, ubi fup. p. 113. 

(M) Among the great variety 
of fruits which here grow in 
great plenty, they have a parti- 
cular fortoflimohrfnll as thorny 
as the citron-tree, but much 
larger. It bears a white flower 
of an excjuifite odour, which, 
when diililled, yields a very 
pleafant liquor. The fruit, 
which is almoft as big as a man^s 
iiead, hith a rind much like that 
of common oranges ; and its 
fubflance within. Which is either 
white or reddiih, hatha taHe be- 
tween fwect and four. They have 
another fort of fruit, the largefl 
that is any-where to be feep, 
which grows not on the branch- 
es, but on the body of the tree ;, 
Its rind is very hard ; and with- 
in is fe^n a great number of 
cells, containing a yellow pulp, 
which is very Sveet and agree- 
able when the fruit is fnll-ripc. 

Another kind of rarity in this 
province is the tree which the 
Portuguefi call ir§n-*wo$^f which 

refembles that metal in colour, 
weight, and hardnefs, and will 
fink in water. That which they 
call rofc-wood is no lefs ad-^ 
mired ; and is of a blackifh co- 
lour, inclining to red, beautifully 
veined and ^ckled, and cfed 
by joiners to make tables, ^fcH- 
toires, chairs, ftools, fcTf . Their 
oficr is Iikewife fo pliable and 
tough, that they make cable and 
other (hip- ropes of them. We 
omit a number of other fuch 
natural rarities, which Kercber, 
Martini, and others, fpeak of, 
which are not fo well attefled. 
The lafl and moft remarkable 
of thofe that are, is the crab 
that is taken on the coafl of a 
lake in the ifland of Haj-nmif 
which, they tell ns, petrifies as 
foon as it is taken out of the 
water, and grows as hard as 
flint, and is laid to bp a good 
remedy againfl; burning fevers 

(36). ; 

(36) Du Baldi,uhifuf. f, si}. 



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C. I. The Hiftory of China. S3 

fides inferior ones, fons, cafUcs, ijc. difp^rfcd In proper 
jdaces. ^ 

^ANG'TONG is divided into ten capital jarifdlftions > Cities^ 
whrfe cities arc, i. ^ang'chew^ or Canton ^ the metropolis 
of all ; 2. Shau-chev); 3. Nan-yong : 4. Whey-chevi / 5. C^^iw- 
Aem; 6.ChaU'kmg: 7, Kau-chrw: 8. Lyen-chew: 9. Loyy* 
cAra;; and, 10. Kyun^henv^ which laft is the capitd of the 
iihnd of Hay-nan, 

^ANG-CHEW, vx\%2A^ ^ang'tong, ^uan-tun, Airn-C*"^** 
ton, and commonly, by the Europeans, Canton, is fltaate on the defcribtd, 
mouth of the Ta-ho, or great river, which is here wide and 
fpadons, and forms the bay called Hu-men, or the tyger's 
gate, thongh it hath nothing terrible in it but its name, and 
feme few torts, which are only built to keep off the pirates. 
Itfbnds in latitude 230 12', and longitude 30 31' Weft from 
the meridian of Peeking; and is not only one of the largeft, Grea^ 
being computed, with its fuburbs, to be above twenty miles trajki* 
in compafe (N), but likewife on account of its advantageous 
fitoation, one of the richeft, fineft, beft peopled, and moft 
tradii^, dties m China, the largeft veflels being eafdy brought 

(N) ^uang'chenumzy be pro- 
perly' iaid to confift of three 
cmo, each of them furrounded 
vitk its own ftrong and lofty 
walli; yet fo as to have a com- 
manication with each other by 
ftately gates, which are only 
fiiot up at night. The land- 
fdiape which offers itfelf on 
each iideof the river which leads 
to 4c city, is one of the moft 
ddig^ful profpeds that can be 
imagined. It is various, ani- 
mated, and gay, all the way. 
On one fide we behold a vaft 
extent of lovely green-meadows, 
tenninated only by the hori- 
zon 5 on the other, groves and 
litdc hills appear, which rife up 
inform of amphitheatres, which 
*rc afcended by fteps made of 
green fods. Here your fight is de- 
I "ghtedwith ^ligh rocks covered 
Jth mofs; there with country 
fcais half-buried ^niongft ver- 

dant copfes : now one meets 
with canals variegated with 
fmall iflands, and beautiful 
banks adorned with ftately trees, 
which yield a moft delightful 
(hade, verdure, and fragrance ; 
and there fomefpacious villages 
encompafTed with plains, woc^s^ 

Among others of thefc vil- 
lages, there is one to be {ttn 
within about twelve miles frcm 
Kunton, called Fo-Jhan, or Fw 
xan, in which are computed to 
be at leaft 600,000 families, or 
a niiHion of fouls, moftly cm- 
plowed, in manufadturing of 
goods for the mark A of that 
metropolis. It is computed to 
be nine miles in coznpafs, and 
is become very rich fince the 
civil wars ; during which, that 
city was almoft ruined, and 
moft of its manufactures re- 
moved thither (3 7)* 

(r?) Hu lUUt, Ui fuf, p. 1x6. f^U. & It Camptg, Martini, ^ a!, fup. 

f 2 to 


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STitf Hipry of China. B. I. 

to the fine canals that fnrround it, and the port and dty bemg 
perpetually thronged with fhips and merchants, and ftorcd 
with the f ichcft comtoodities of all kinds from Europe, and 
moil parts of Lidifi. 

The number of its inhabitants, cxclufive of ftrangers, is 
computed to be at Icaft a million ; forae {ay near two mil- 
lions, but that is exaggerated. However, the city is better 
filled with them than moft in China, bec^ufe it bath but few 
gardens and orchards, and no wafte-ground. The ftreets 
are ftrait and long, and, excepting fome few of the better 
fort, which are adorned with palaces, temples, triumphal 
arches, and fuch-like fplendid edifices ; the reft are rather 
narrow than wide, but all of them neat, and well-paved ; and 
the (hops beautifully furniAied, and fet out with the richeft 
wares. The harbour, quay, and canals, arc covered with 
fuch an infinite multitude of barges, boats, and other veflels, 
and fo clofe together, that they appear like a huge floating 
city. Every ftreet hath a gate at each end, which is not only 
(hut up yvery night, to confine every perfon to his proper 
quarter ; but likewife in the day-tinjie, whenever any difturb- 
ancc happens, in order to prevent its fpreading to the next. 

The mandarin, who refides here as viceroy, hath a ftately 
palace at one of the moft diftant parts of the city ; which 
makes it very inconvenient for thofe )vho are to apply to him, 
and ftill more fo, bccaufe the building is very deep, and a 
number of courts muft be crofted before one comes to the 
hall of audience, where he adminifters juftice in great ftatc: 
the rcafon of which is fuppofed to be, either to prevent fii- 
volous complaints, which would otherwife too frequendy 
happen among fuch an infinite multitude and variety of inha- 
bitants, or perhaps more probably to keep up the -greater 
grandeur and ftate (O). His government, befides the metropolis, 
ejttends over feventeen cities ; viz. one of the fecond, and 
fixteen of the third rank "• 

■ Du HalBe, ubi fupra. 
fup. citat. 

Li CoMPTB, Martini, et al. 

(O) We arc told accordingly, 
thathefeldom ftirs abroad with- 
out a retinue of about too offi- 
cers of ditTcrent ranks, befides 
his ftimdard -bearers, and other 
inferior attend ants. He is com- 
monly carried oh the fhoulders 

of eight lufty fellows, in a chair 
of ftate like a throne, with a 
large canopy over his bead ; and, 
as his power is very great, fo 
the fame refpe^t is paid to him 
as to a little monarch, wherc; 
ever he appears {38). 

{38> Du Hilde, I: Cvm^ft, Martini, & al»fi^» fV^f, 



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C. I. Thi Hifiory of China. 85 

On the entrance into the bay of ^iang-tong Rands the Cfty of 
femed Portvguefe port of Maiau, or, as it is vulgarly called, Macao 
MacaOf ifx latitude 22® 12', and weftlongitude from Pe-king ^{f^^f^* 
f rp'. It flands on a fmaU peninfula, or rather finall ifland^ 
(becaufe feparated from the continent by a river, which is in- 
larged by the tide), and is joined to it only by a fmall ifthmus, 
OT neck of land, acrofs which they havti buUt a wall. It is a 
convenient trading port, of which the Por/i/^^ obtained the • 
poflefllon, on account of their having afliiled the Chincfe in 
driving away a famed pirate who infefled thofe feas, and had 
befi^ed the capital of the province ; and obliged him to re- 
tire to MakaUy where they flew him fome time before the 
year 1660. Some authors tell us, that they built the city, 
the ifland before being inhabited by none but banditti, who 
enly lived in huts and woods '^. However that be, they forti • 
fied this place with ftrong walls, and other works, and drove 
a great trade with other parts of India ; but were afterwards 
fodifturbcd by the Dutch, that its traffiqk, as well as ftrength, 
hath been very much reduced ; and they now only maintain 
a fmall faftory and garrifon, and are fo very poor, that thp 
Chinefe defpife and lord it over them (P). 

There is alfo in the city a Chinefe mandarin, as well as a Govern- 
Portuguefe governor ; the former of whom hath his paj^cp ment. 

^ Gemjell. Careri. voy. part 4. 1 1. c. 1. 

(?) They were reckoned in Annum, afld fo proportion ably 
CemeHTs time about 5000 of the to the inferior ones : which 
former, mod of them mongrels, charge is defrayed by a duty of 
bom in JnJia, and of I/u(ia» ten per Cent, on all Portuguefe 
women; and above 15,000 of good$,and two /^r&ff/. on mo- 
tile latter. The former chufe a ney ; over and ao6ve wbatis paid 
magi&ate from among them- to the C&/;r^ government (39), 
fclves, who hath the manage- and other impofitions from the 
ment of all civil and criminal mandarin that commands in it ; 
affairs, but with whom the lat- and the viceroy, who comes often 
tcr are not concerned ; their po • to viiitit,and muft be entertained 
litical government being under in a grand manner, and glutted 
acaptain-gcncral,appointedby with high prefents, ^c. To 
the king of Portugal, and the all which hardfliips they are 
fpiritual by ?l bilhop. All thefe forced to fubmit, becaufe, all 
and other ofHcers are maintained their provifions coming to them 
by the city, which allows the from the Chinefe, they might be 
captain-general h piece of eight flarved by them upon the leaft 
/wday, and 3000 every three diilikc. 
jcars; 500 to the bifhop per 

* (39T Geme Careri, voy, part 4, /. 1# 

F 3 in 


by Google 

iQ the h^^t of it, and commands in chief ; fo that whatever 
he will have done, muft be complied with, efpeciaUv "wlxcre 
the Chinee intereft is concerned. To that end> the tortifica- 
tions of the town are kept in good repair, ;and well provided 
with cannon ; and, as its fmall garrilon is fupplied with sM 
neceflaries by the Chinefe^ who are more numerous in it, 
thefe hardly think it worth their while to become maAers of 
I1ta*vy it. It pays to the Chinefe court a tribute of 10,000, others 
$rihtf' ^fay ioQ,ooo, ducats, for the lil;)erty of chufmg their magif- 
trat<?s, and the exercife of theii^ religion and laws, befldea a 
heavy impoft on every veffel and merchandize which is ^rougbt 
into the port ; the entrance of which teing guarded by the 
Chinefe, no fhip can come in, or go out, without their luipw- 
lege and leave, 
buildings, XHfE town is well built, though not large. The houfes 
are after the Surope(in manner, but low ; and the churcheF, 
and public buildings, pretty handfome for that country. 
The ground on which it (lands is very uneven, being hifl, 
Harbour, valley, and plain ; and defended by three forts, all of them 
<tc/. , built on fome advantageous eminence, which, with the reft 
of the city terminates the fight on that fide from the fliips 
that ride at anchor : but betwixt this land, which is of fome 
. extent, and the town, there is a fafe and commodious port, 
along whofe ftiores the city extends. The commerce of it 
was formerly fo confiderable, whilft the Portuguefe were per- 
mitted to trade vvith Japan, that it was a conunon laying, 
that Macao might pave its ftreets with filver : but, fincethcy 
were forbidden to come thither mider fuch fevere penaldes, 
they are dwindled into fuch a ftate of poverty, and fendtude, 
that the town and port are gone quite into decay, haWng but 
five ihips of their own to maintain all the vaft charges above- 
mentioned : and thefe inftead of the 300 per Cent, which dicy 
were wont to return from Nangazahy bring in now but an 
inconfiderable profit ; which will be leflcned ftill, fays Carery» 
' by The fetting up of the new E aft- India compapy, which for- 
bids their refort to feveral ports, and their trading in {ome 
j^anday forts of their commodides ^, . Before we take our leave of this 
^{J$r^nt, port, we muft take notice of one remarkable Angularity re- 
lating to it; viz. that the Sunday vi\\^ them is the Saturday 
with the Spaniards in t\\e PhiRppine IJlands : tjie 'reafpn of 
which the reader will fee in the margin {Q_). 

^ C£Me;«I'. Careri, ubi'fupra. 


(Q^) This difference, which other days of the week, dodi 
^;vtcods itCelf e^uall^ co all the not proceed ff0i9 any difference 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

'{^ Ci. JJfc H^pry of China, 8; 

^' The M thing we have to mentioh ccHicenlii^ the pro- IJUHzy 
: nacc of ^ang-tong^ is the ifland of Hay^nan^ which be- ^^ ^' 
^' loDgs to its jarifdi^)^, and lies oppofite to it, on the goUiiArited. 
^ dCochin-Chtna^ being parted from it by a very narrow chanel, 
\' (b that it may be eafily deferied from the oppofite coaft, in a 
cfearily. It is a pretty large ifland, and extends itfelf from 
^ 180 10' to 200 8' of latitude, and from 50 55^ to 80 3;o'of 
i feftJoDgitude from Pe-king ; fo that its greatcft length from 
1" eaft to weft is between fixty and feventy leagues, and from 
^r oorAtofouth between forty and fifty, and its circumference 
^^ jbout 160, 

It is moftly mountainous, except the length of about FirtiRty^ 
^ ffitonlc^cs from the north coaft, which is plain, and well 
iQtercd by rivers. The inhabitants, who are pretty nume- 
-^ JOBS, cultivate their ground fo well, and the rains fall down 
\ fcfea&mUy, tiiat the country produces rice, and other com, 
^ j enough for their fuftenance, and conunonly yields two crops 
]j ^7*'« befides which, they have plenty of fruits, venifon, ^ 

T lae, ijc. The only thing they want, efpecially on the 
^] wwhera fide, is wholfome water ; for want of which they are 
\ Aiged to boil a fuflRcient quantity of it in the morning to 
IJ fee them all the day y. 

^1 ^^^ ^^iff^/^ are not mafters of the whole ifland, but only Go'Vim- 
^1 or moft of the coafts,* and fome of the plains in the inland, m^nt, 
r; thfch the natives abandoned to them, that they might go and 
J •WAdrfiberty on the high mountains, where they adually 
J ^independent, and never have any commerce with them, 
i ' Z?^ ^^. ^*^*^°g® ^^^^ ^ ^^ gold-duft which they gather Traffic^ 
! ^ fhcir rivers and torrents, for Chine/e fait and clothes : 
^» though they are fuppofed to have ibme rich mines of gold 
*wfiJver, yet they are either too indolent or inexpert to turn 
™«i to any advantage.- There are hardly any coafts on the 
«tai fea which produce larger and finer pearls than the 
*?4ern ones of this ifland. The inlands yield a great varieity 
.jjp^nt woods, and of b^utiful colours, particularly thole 
^^ eagle, rofe, violet, and ebony-wood^ all which arc 

^ Martini, Atlas Sinenf. Dv IIal'de, p. 117. 

^1^0^^^^^ W^ecTithofe two between them, they have failed 
f *?'' ^^^ich is inconfiderable, round the world, by oppofite 

V J^^^^^^i^erentwaysof fail- points 5 in doing which, there 

y M thoFe two nations : for the mull of courfe, be the lofs of 

. {^^^'Aincominghidierfrom ' ' 

j*i^ t?!:^'^^^^^^^^; whereas 

'^^Y'^^^^^U^A (0 that. 

one day, as eveiy one knows 
that hath learnt the bare ele- 
ments of the globe. 

F 4 bonj^l.t 

by Google 

Digitized b 

$S ne Hipry of China. fe. I. 

bought up by the Ckinefe, to make houfhold ornaments, or 
for dyeing. It breeds likewife variety of fine birds, beafts^ 
and a particular kind of black monkey, with a face the nearctf 
to human. 
p-^fi of The iflanders, both men and women, wear their hair iaaj 
the peoflt. ring on the\r forehead ; and a hat on thdr heads, made ol 
ftraw, or rattan, and tied under their chin. Their habit is 
only a piece of callico, either black, or of a deep blu^e, which 
covers them from the waift to the knees ; befides which,' the 
women wear a kind of waiftcoat of the fame. Thefe ffa'eak 
their cheeks from the eyes downward with indigo : both men 
and women wear ear-rings of gold and filver, fhaped like a 
pear, and well made. Their weapons are bcws and arrows, 
at which they are not very dexterous v and a kind of hanger, 
which they carry in a little bafket faftened to their g^dle be- 
hind ; and this lad is all the tools they have for cutting down 
timber, or for carpenters work. 
Capital The capital city in the ifland is called Kyun-cbew-fA. It 

4efirihed. is fituate On a promontory ; and the Mps come tp anchor un- 
foru der its very walls. The port, which is about two leagues 
diftant from it, on the nprth fide of the ifland, is formed by 
a pretty large river, .whofe mouth is defended by two fmall 
forts : but, as it hath not above ten or twelve feet of water, 
any vefTels made after a different manfter from thofe of ChinA 
would find it difficult to enter it. Between the port and the 
capital is a fine plain full of beauriful|CAiw^ fepulchres ; among 
which is one with a crofs on it, in which lies interred an Ita* 
fr^tft. , lia}\ miflionary, and the firft who landed in that ifiand. Kyun" 
cheiV'fii hath under its jurifdiftion three cities of the (tconi^ 
and ten of the third rank, moft of them feated along the 
fea-coafts. Jt ftands in latitude 20<^ i\ and weft longitude 
from Pe-king 6® 40', and is governed, by a literary and a 
military mandarin ^ (R), 

Xra. Tbi 

? Martini, Atlas Sincnf. Du Halde, p. 117, Sc fcq. 

(R) Near th}s iilarid is that a WU : and behind it is a fflwH 

fmall qnc called Sancton, or plain,>vithtrees onone fidc,and 

Shang'chenAjen^Jban^ and famed gardens on the other. 

for the death of the ipodein The ifland is not defart, as 

apoftle of the Jndm^ Francis was reported ; but hath about 

)taviery whofi^ tomh is dill to five villages, inhabited by poor 

be feen, and is much reforted to filhermen. The Portugueje Je- 

by travellers. It (lands on a fuits built a chapel here above 

}iit|e eminence, at the foot of fifty yeilrs ^go, which, though 



by Google 

C. I.' fU I^fi^ cf Chhnu I9 

XIII. Tbe Province of Quang-fi. 

QUANGOS I, $uan-Ji, ^lam-Ji, hath ^tang-fong, laft XIIL 
ij^^dcfcribed, on the footh-eaft; Hu-quang and ^#y-Qpangfi 
ckm on the north ; Tun-nan on the weft ; and the ocean, ^fir.iid^ 
with part of the kingdom of Tonqidn, on the fouth. It e]^- 
teods idielf only from %i^ 50^ to 260 15.' of latitude, and 
from 4« lo' to 1 10 48' of weft longitude from Pe-king. It 
is for the moft part mountainous, and ftiort of the fertility of 
other pnmnces ; yet hath fome vaft fpacious plains, cfpecially f>,^i/y/. 
on the iouth, fo well cultivated, that it is able to fupply that 
of ^^umg'tong with rice and corn for fix months in the year. 
It is watered by a great number of rivers, which flow from 
die mountains eaftwards into the Ta-ho^ ox great river which 
nms into ^ang-tong. And, as feveral of them are naviga- 
ble on the €aft part, the people are more ^ven to traffick, and 
much more polite, than thole on the weft and north fide, who 
are a rude fort of mountaineers, difdain all fubje^ion, and live 
fikcindependentfavages. , 

These vaft ridges of mountdns are covered with large Moun* 
forefts, though many of them abound with mines of gold (S), tains, t 
lilver, copper, iron, ire* feveral forts of curious woods ufed 
by the joiners ; among which there is one particular fort of 
tree, which, inftead oi pith, contains a foft fubftance, which 
they grind into meal, and doth not tafte amifs. The infedl 
that produces the wax is in great plenty alLover the province, 
which breeds likevdfe ^rrpts, and other fineiirds, rhinoce- 
ros's, porcupines, and other wild beafts. The cinnamon which Manu/ac- 
grows here is better, and more odoriferous, than th^t of the tures. 
ifland of Ceylon; and the filks that are manufaftured here 
bear a good price : but the chief one of this province is that 
of porcelain, which is made much finer than in other parts, 
though one of the ingredients is brought from that of Nan* 

only of plafter, doth yet look charge, on condition they paid 

?ery neat ; the Chinefe having the emperor 40 per Cent, and 

japanned it over with red and his officers attending on it five 

blue vamiih (40). per Cent, out of the profits ari- 

(S) There was a rich one, in iing from it ; but that monarch 

particular, which the inhabitants iince took it into his hand, and 

of the diflrid obtained a patent worked it at hi3 own charge 

from the court to have the pri- (41). 
vilegc of working at their own 

(40) U Comfte, PhHM, &ah (41) !>» HaUe, ubi Jup, p, 120. 



by Google 

"9« . "tie Ifijldfy tf Oiiik. -tR I. 

king ; it being obfcnred, ^hat the water of the former, and 
the fand of- ^^ latter, muft coecar- 1& make that ware com- 
plete. The number of inhabitants was once computed to 
amount to 196,719 femilies, or 1,054,760 men. The pfo- 
vince is divided into twelve jurifdiftions ; whofe capitals, arc 
C/ieu iw follow: ^te^'lirtg, the metropolis of the whole ; 2. Ly^rw- 
cheiu^ 3. Kin-ywen: 4. Se-ngen: 5. Pitig-h ; 6. IT^cherw ^ 
7. Strt'cheiv ; 8. Nah'*ning ; 9. Tay-ping / to. Seaming / 
il. Chin-ngan; it. Se-ehin. 
Qucy- ^E T'L INO'FU^ the metropdis, is faid to have its name 

Kfigftt, from a flower, which, though very commoa in Chma, jet 
dtfcribei. grows in greater quantity thete (T). It is fittiate on a 
river which falls into the Ta-ho ; and runs with foch rapi- 
dity through the narrow valUes, that, though large, it is not 
tiavigable, or of any fervice for. traffick. The city is large 
and ^irell-built, and infome meafure after the manner of otir 
antient fortifications ; but is ftill vaftly inferior to moft other 
capitals, and is furrounded with favage and barbarous people, 
who are fettled in the mountdns, and, as was lately hinted, 
live in a kind of independence from the mandarins. It flands in 
latitude 25^ I3^ and weft longitude from Peeking 6^ 14', 
and hath a jurifdiftioh over two cities of the fecond, and (even 
of. the third rank. The bird called King-hi (U) is caught 

(T) The word fignifies t4ie (U) This rare bird, whofe 
fbreft of the flower ^^, which name fignifics the golden hen, is 
^flowcr grows upon a tree not much ^lleemcd for its extraor- 
^mlike our laurel, and yields a •dinar3r beaoty both of colour 
^ fine tafte and fmell, and, when and fhape, as well as for its ex- 
dried, is commonly mixed witk quifite taile, which is affirmed 
fome forts of cakes, to raife their to excel that of our pheafants. 
flavour and reiifh. There is a Its feathers are of a delightful 
mount likewife on the caft end mixture of blue and red, finely 
of the city, which bears the /haded towards the extremities 
fame name, from the vaft qoan- of the wings and tail, and inter- 
tities of that flower with which mixed with variety of other 
it is pcrpetiially covered, and colours. The 4x)dy is finely 
which perfume the whole coun- ftiaped, and the head crowned 
try : for it is obfcrvable, that with a beautiful creil (42). It 
iio fooner one falls, but another is very.common m this and the 
breaks out in its place. Some next province we are going to 
think, however, that ^ey-tlng fpcak of. 
•hath its name from the river 
Sluey^ which runs near its wal b. 



by Google 

Ci; S»rflS[^«ry^ China. 91 

vithk this territory^ wbofe feathers are Tarkgt^ vnth (oA 
hc^tcoloursy that tbey weave thtmia their filk»\ 

XTV. Th Prov$$ui cf Ym^mn. 

TUN'NJN^ ru'HM^ ym-nan, is bottoded m tte north XIV. 
' by Se-chew^ and the territory of the lamas ; on the weft YaQ-naa 
by the kingdoms of jhni^ P^gy* and fome unknown barba«^^Ss^*i«<^ 
Km nations ; on the ibuth by the kingdoms of Law^ or Lau^ 
cbwa^ and Tong-king,- and, on the esul, by the provinces of 
^uang'^SLDd ^uey-chew. It extends itfelf from ai"" 34' tb 
tV" of latitude, and from 10^ id^ to i8<> 34' of w^ k)n^- 
todefrom Peeking, It is faid to be one of the richeft and 
■oft fefile of the empire, bdng evcry-whcre watered by ri- 
1BS, fev^rai of which rife from fome cooTiderable lakes \ and GpUm 
others deiceiul from the mountains, and bring down great mwf • 
qoantides of gold fand, and fome precious itoiies, particu- 
kly rubies of fingular beatity are dog out of thefe mountains ; 
and, if the golden mines were fuffered to be opened, they 
voold in all probability amount to, immenfe fums. They 
Hkewife produce, among other bafer metals, one called Pe- 
t^^ which is white within and without, but an other refpefts 
is much like the common copper; and, among other valuable 
fioQcs, the lapis armenus^ a kind of reddUh amber, and a 
fine fort of marble of divers Colours, whofe veins naturally 
leprefeot flowers, trees, n^ountains, rivers, ebc. and of this 
they make tables, and other ornaments. 

The country produces plenty of com, rice, and all kinds produ3m 
of prorifions, medicinal plants, roots, gums, mufk, 6r, bc- 
fides plenty of lilk, cotton, and flax. It likewife breeds va* 
xktyof animals, particularly elephants, horfes, and a curious 
^ of flags, which are neither ndler nor thicker than our or- 
torydogs, and are kept by the'^rich in their gardens for 
thdr diverfion. Here is alfo bred the golden hen, defcribed 
iQ the laft note, and other curious birds. « The whole pro- 
vince is divided into twenty-one diftriAs, or jurifdiftions, of 
the firft rank, which have under them fifty-five others of the 
(econd and third, befides eight military cities, and a good 
nomber of fortrefles, caftlcs, drc. The cities of the firft c/iia 
nnk are, i. Tim'tian^ the metropolis; 2. Ta-Hs 3. Ling- 
' «?<««> ^Chu'byang; ^.Ching-kyang; 6. Kiiig-tong; 7. ^an- 
fum: 8. ^uang-Jts 9. Shun-ning ; 10, Kn-tfmg; 11. Tau* 
I tgan; 12. Ko'ldng; 13. Vu-ting; i/^\ Ly-kyang-fu;.!^. Twew * 

* Du Halde, ubi fop. p. ug, & feq. Vid. Sc MAariRL 
; 4tfas, La Martin iere, 8c al. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

9ii iTbeHifiotybf China. •^. I. 

Jty^'zg' ; 1 6j!'^^^g-'wha f 17 . Yung-chang ; 1 8. Yung-nin^-tu j 
19. Tung-^.;^ %o^ Kay-Vf^a; Q:i^ Sarw-ta, - 

Yun-nan TUN-NAN^ Ju-nan^ J^-nung-fu, metropolis of the pro- 
defcribed. vince, is fit})^x?f> tlje horthTerift fide of a large and deep lake, 
or, according to the language of the country, on the coaft of 
• .- -thefouAfc^ialalitudeas^d'itodweftloagitudefroniP^-i^/jsrg- 
.... ^3* 37'- It WAS.notlong ^jovery remarkable for its beauty, 
. • . . . and the number of its ftatdy buildiagfi and fine gardens within 
*its walls, which^are three miles:(if not rather leagues) in compafs, 
' it having, beqa. the refidence of fcycral monarchs. At ihe time 
of the 7i»''if/wiii^ding it, they gavie the then reigning prince 
the infieftiture of the province,' with the title of king (W) : 
J>ecay^ but, he, growing, wq^ry ,o£> the yoke, and having taken op 
'Whence, arms againftthe emperor, Atmo 1679, his family was ruined ; 
.. an^, he dying foon after of old age, his army foon difperfcd 

itfelf, and his kingdom, andftately ^aces, as well as his court, 
leli into ruin and defolation ^. 

The metropolis hatk not fered much better; though it is 
ftill the. refidence <rf the Tfong-t^^ or governor^general of the 
provinces of Tun-nan and ^ley-chevj^ as well as of the vice- 
, finffick, .royoi:' the province.. Its-traffick is chiefly for metal, which is 
Sti inma-gx^zxtv here' than in any other part of the empire ; and its 
nufac' principal maoufafture i particular fort of fattin, made of 
n^f' .twifted filk, without flower or.glofs, and dyed of aU ccJours 
like the common fort, but which are neither bright nor lively. 
They likewife make here a fort of carpets of the fame kind of 
\ twifled filk. The inhabitants, who are here a ftput, count- 
.. geous, and aftive people, and given b6th to agriculture and 

arms, hive a breed of horfes, which, tho* fmall, are ftrong 
and fleet, and which they ride with only a carpet inftcad' of a 
faddle under them. Tun-nan hath in its diftrift four cities of 
the fecond, and feven of the third rank. 

^ Dv Haldb, ubi fup. p. 11^2, tc feq. Vid. et Martini 

Atlas, La Mar,tinierb, & al.' 

(W) This prince's name, AT^^r called in the Tariars to fiipprcfs 
tells us, was Fu/attgui(^i)y or, the rebels, and, by that unad- 
as Du Halde and his traaflator vifed flep, proved the canfe of 
write it, V-fan^ghey {44), who ' the lofsof theC/?'/»^oaipi|^ a^i 
was the unfortunate perfon that will befecn in the fp^u^l, 

(43^ A^*dJJbrand9^1des,p. 14?. (^) Pa^, |2j, 

i XV. -321^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ'IC 

C. 1. Tbi Hifiory of China. 9 j[ 

XV. S^bi Province of Qucy-chcw. 

QUEr-CHEJV, one of the fmallcft provinces of the cm- XV, 
^^^ pire, hath ^latig-fi, on the iouth ; Hu-qnang on the Qucy- 
catt; Se-chzven on the north; and Tuh-nan on the weft^^^^^* 
and extends itfelf from 24® 40' to 29' oi latitude, and from 
7** to 12° 30' of weft longitude from Pe-king. ' The whole Vaft 
country is naturally barren, on account of its vaft, rugged, ^^«/' of 
and inacceffible mountains, which are here in fuch great ^5«*^- 
quantities, that it looks as if the whole body of them had,^'^'* 
made it their rendezvous. The late, civil wars have rendered it 
ffill mc^-e diiagreeable and uncultivated, and fo thinl)r peopled, 
that the emperors have been obliged .to fend colonics thither 
iiom other provinces, and fometimes difgraced governors, with 
their whole families (X). As for the natives of the province^ Wild fori 
they bear an exadt refemblance to the country, and are a rude, ^f ^^^^' 
barbarous, and lawlefe people, who live in conftant defiance ^^iw/#. 
vith the Chinefe government, make war or peace with it as 
bed fuits their intereft or humour, and often harrafs and ra- 
vage them in their fettlements : for this reafon they are ob^ 
figed to have here a vaft number of military cities, fortrefles, 
cafUes, isc, all ftrongly garrifoned, to keep, them in awe ; 
for, this province being the diieft and only road i6 that of 7V«- 
nfl/2, there, is a neceflity to keep it open at any rate ; and fuch 
a number of forces they keep here in pay for that end, that 
the tribute which is levied upon the country not being fuffi*- 
dent to maintain theip, the. court is obliged to make up the 
deficiency by new fupplies every year. 

The mountains, however, arc rich in mines of gold, fil- Mtne$ of 
ver, quickfUver, and copper, of part of the latter of which gpld^ &€. 
the fmall coin that is current in the empire is moftly made. 
The vallies between are fome pf them large, fertile, and well 
watered ; and would yield mucji better crops, if duly culti- 

(X) This province is much redes, under the protedlion of 

the fame to the Chinefe that Si- their governors and foldiery ; 

hiria is to the Mufcomtes ; and whilil the natives, who inhabit 

thofc mandarins and governors, their high and rugged moun- 

who arc fent thither with, their tains, avoid all commerce, c;c- 

families, and fometimes for life, cc^t that of making fome plun- 

are only fuch as have been guilty dering excurfions upon them. 

of fome ftatc crimes. Thefe* Great pains have been taken by 

Qnnefe colonies live in their the government to fupprefs them, 

firong walled towns and fort- but hitherto to little e^ed (4^)^ 

C45^ Martitd, Kfio, La Martiaicre^ Du HafJe, & ah 



by Google 

^4 31fe Hi^ory ef Oiina. B. I. 

vated. They carry on no manufafturc of dthcr filk or cotton 
here ; but make themfclves ftuffs of akuil of yegetables, not 
Cattle. unlike our hemp, which is a proper wear for fummer. The 
iahabitants breed vaft herds of cows, hogs, ire. and the bcft 
horfes in all China. The wild fowl Is in the greatcft pkntjr 
and variety, and of excellent tafte. The only commerce be- 
tween the Chinefe and the natives confifts in a frequent ex- 
change which the latter are obliged to make of fome of thdr 
, gold-dttfl:, cattle, wild fowl, <bc. for a fupply of fait, callicoes, 

and the like goods, which they want. Upon the whole, the 
, province abounds with all forts of provifions, and moft of 
them very -cheap. It is divided into ten diftrifts of the firft 
rank, tinder which are thirty-eight of the fecond and third, 
Ciiieu befid« military cities, fortreffes, iscl The capital cities 
(Which, by the way, are vaftly inferior in largenefs, beauty, 
and wealth, for the reafons above-mentioned) are, i . ^ey- 
yangi the metropolis; 2, Se^chenv : 3. Se*nan : 4. Chin;- 
ywen: 5. Sbe^tfyem 6. T&ng-jin; 7. Ngan-cham 8. 71/- 
yum 9. Ping-y%}en; 10. Wey'ning^, 
Ciucy- ^Er-YANG'FU, metro|)oli8 of the whole, is oneyof the 

yang-f4 figsialkft aad worft built in all China ; its walls being (carcdy 
defcribed. ^^ixtQ niiles iii oompafs, and the houfcs moftly of earth and 
brkk. It ftands in a pleafant and fertile plain, on a fmall 
river, but which bears no boats ; whence the commerce of the 
town is inconfiderable. It is encompafled at a diftance with 
Teiy high and deep mountains (Y), whieh are inhabited by 
a people of different extraft from the Chinefe^ whence they 
Sina-ni, ^^^ called Sina-m, or weftcm barbarians, becaufe they laV 
^^^' weft of China ; and, after their reduftion, were with much 
difScutty brought to conform to the Chinefe cuftoms. We 
read of fome few flately buildings within the city, which, 
though gone to decay, fhew it to have been formerly in a 
more floiirifhing condition, or, as fome fay, a royal refidence. 

« Du Halde, ubi fup. p. 119, & feq. Vide ct Martini 
Atlas, La Martiniere, & al. 

(Y) Among them, tWe that fo deep and ftrait, that ftw 

follow are worth a curious read- creatures c^ ciimb up to it. 

cfanotrcej i.To»g-eo, or the A third, called Fenpif which 

copper kittU'drum^ \>tC2iXi(e iris (lands by itfelf, on the fouth iicfe 

ooferved to make fome fuch of. the city, and is cut in the 

kind of noife at particular fan- fiiape of an iibfceles €one,whicl' 

fons, efpecially before rain. 2. terminates in an . acute point 

That of Ntmg'huang, which is (46). 

(46) Kfnbtr, Uarfini, Gardtn, ^ fU 



by Google 

C I. Xbi Hificry of China. -95 

But there flaods, without the walls of it, a large lemple, (aid to 
hare been built by the Tartar family of Twerif and allowed 
to be a magnificent edifice. - 

^UET-TJNG (lands ia latitude 26^ 30', and 9** 52^ weft 
. loBptode, from Peeking ; and hath a jurifdiftion over three 
dtiesof the fecond, and four of the third 1 iink, befides a great 
number of forts, with which it is in a manner furrounded. 

We have now gone through the fifteen provinces within 
the walls, and the principal iflands belonging to them; and 
fliaU now clofe the geography of this great empire with a (hoct 
aapDDt of the province of Lyau-tong^ which is (ituate without 
the walls, ai^d on the frontiers oxTattary^ but is, like the 
odier fifteen above-defcribed, fubjeft to the fame govern*' 

^ht Province qf Lyau-tong, or Quang-tong. 

THIS province, which is now proved, on all hands, to Lyan- 
* bciituatc without the great Chinefe wall (Z), which parts it ^otzdf* ^ 
froft that uiPc-chfk ont hefouth-weft ; is bounded, on the ea(l, firiJcJ. 
by the kingdom of Korea ; on the north, by the mountains 
of Talovj, or Tartary ; on the fouth, by the gulf of its 
owft oame ; and on the wefty by the country of the Moguls. 
I'is but a fmall province, compared to thofe of China we have 
gOBC through ; and extends itfelf only about 270 or 280 
nib, where longeft ; but, in other parts, is much (horter-^ 
breaches from 390 to almoft 43<> of latitude, knd 2*^ 30' t© 
ahioft 9® eaft longuitude, from Pe-king. It was reckoned, 
^^^umKao's time, the fixteenth province in the Chine/e cm* 
pfrc, though feated without the wall <* ; but hath fince loft * 
^ dignity under the Tartars ; and is now treated as a cop* 
Q^^cred province, for reafons we (hall have occa(ion to hint 
*^ ia the fequel. 

* VidcKAO, ubi fup. p. 115. & 129. & fcq. Lb Compt£» 
viuiEST, Martini, & al. 

(^} Nieuheff^ and, after him, plainly appears from what yf% 

'^niy were the firft wjio have quoted above dut of the 

P'Jftd this province within tlie Ckinefs geographer D. Kao^ at 

^A. The firfl, in \a% map well as itomVtrhUft^ who tra^ 

^'•ted to his Dutch Ambajfy \ veiled thither with the courts 

^ the latter in his AtkiS. But and Le Cofi^tt^ and other mor* 

^kwas'an overfightiathem, modern writers (47). 

f47) Vide Kao, uhi Jup. p* u^ & fff, \2$* ^/y. te Comptt, Brntat^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

9^ The Hifiory of Chini. B. I. 

£ot/i The land is fertile, and well cultivated, though moftly 

mountainous and uneven ; and had formerly a great number 

GtUs df' of large cities and towns, which lie now in ruins, having 

caj^. been moftly deftroyed during the wars with the Tartars^ 

without ever being able to recover themfelves fiace *• On 

J great the contrary, we are told, that the Tartars have, inflead of 

number of them, built a great number of military cities, fortreHes, and 

fortrejes. caftlcs, to prevent it, and to keep the Lyau-tongers under, 

who are a ftout and warlike people, very numerous, and un- 

eafy under the yoke (A). Some of thefe fortreflcs are indeed 

fo large and populous, and have raifed themfelves to fuch a 

degree of fplendor and opulence, as to be little inferior to 

fome of thofe of the firft and fecond order in China ; and the 

inhabitants, foldiers, as well as others, are grown very rich 

and powerful in them, and drive a good commerce with the 

northern provinces of China^ particularly with the ca]Mtal one 

of Pe'chcii, whilft the LyaU'tongers are, for the moft part, kept 

in a ftate of fubjeftion and flavery under them. 

CharaStr They are, however, a very ftout, tall, ^nd brave people; 

Qftlje and their frequent wars with their neighbours, on all fides, 

feofk. have rendered them expert and warlike. But though they 

• Vide Kao, ubi fup. Lb Compte, Verbiest, Mahtihi, 

(A) Dhr. Kao^ lately quoted, 
telli us, that this province was 
the way through which the Tar- 
tarsy now reigning in China, 
came into it (48) : from which 
his tranflator, in his notes on 
him, concludes, on what autho- 
rity is not eafy to guefs, that, in 
gratitude to them for their affifl- 
ance, and eafy paiTage through 
It, they hiadc it a new province 
of the Chintfe empire, and en- 
dowed it with the fame privi- 
leges with the other ^fteen. 
Whereas by thefevere treatment 
they have received from them, 
one would be apt to think they 
had rather oppofed their en- 
tr^ce, and mewed too much 
fidelity to the Chine/e, 

And, indeed, that writer 
plainty telle us, that the TVzr- 

tars made an irmption into 
Lyau'tong, where they met with 
a repulfe from the Cbinefe em- 
peror Vamg'ty^ or Van-U (49) ; 
oy which it feems as if the 
Chimfe were then mailers of 
that province ; for the getting 
it into their hands was one of 
the moft elFedtual means to fe* 
cure China from invaiions from 
that part oi^artary ; and either 
that, or fome other Onneft 
monarch, might endow the 
Lyau-tongians with the privi- 
leges of his Chinefe fubje6b, 
ei^er as a reward for, or to fe- 
cure, their fidelity to ^t Chinefe 
government : we may oflFerfome 
further conjectures on this head, 
whetf we come to their hiftpry, 
and their wars with the Tar- 


(48) Vidt Katf ubi /up, /. 115. & 116. and nttttt 

(49) liid. p. 119- 



by Google 

pSTtake more 5f the temper of the Tartars ^ tb^ are afitfttied . . " 
to be fonder of the Chinefe government, religion^ an^ ctt- 
Aoms ; which, in fome.meafure, coofirms what we obferved 
ia the laft note. They are much given to agriculture and ^rojjicl 
tttf ck ; by the former of which, they hare made fuch im.- ^^^ 
«>¥ements on their lands, that they are become mtich more ^^fi^^^\ 
Iprtik than they naturally were ; and tho/e who live near the 
boi carry on a good commerce with (Mna^ Kor^a^ and Ja^an^ 
die chirf- part of which confiAs in fur$ of beavers, fables, and 
^iitfier wild beafts, and a much largtr would they, in all pro- 
bability, drive, if they were not kept fo under by their mar 
4^. Thejt do not feem, indeed, to have fuch a happy g^ 
aips for arts ai^ fciences as the Chintfe\ but the former 
fcoriftiing conditicm of thdr country, though deprived of 
©any fingular advantages, of foil, climate, rivers, ifc. which 
Qina enjoys, (hews that they were at Icaft equal to them in dili- 
gence and induAry . So that if thdr noble antient cities are now 
left to go into ruin, if their trade and manufaftures languifh^ 
9ii. their wealth is now pafled intp other hands, it can only 
^ owing to .the opprelEon they fufier under the pixfent go^ OppreJftoKl 
vernment, under which they appear to have groaned ever fince 
the conqueft of China^ of which it was then the fntteenth * 

province : for though one might li^ve expefted that the Tart 
tarSf after they were become roaftcr$ of the whole Ckme/i 
impire, would have left this province to ciyoy its antient ja-i- 
i^l^es ; yet, for fome reafon gr other, probably, thofe wc T 

tinted at in the laft note, they thought fit to deprive it of 
tliem, and reduce it to the condition of a conquoed or tri- 
butary one (B). 


(B) This fcems fully con- fovereign trjbunals^ to judg<^ 

£rmcd, by a letter of Father without appealj of all matters 

y<?f/, a Chinefe miflionary to the relating to the Tartars : for 

general of the Jefuits, atino Lyau-twgi fays hi, is now 

1703, concerning the then ftate erteemed as a province of Tar^ 

lof their million ; wherein he ac- tary, and the LyaU'tongers ars 

q|Baints him^ that they had not no longer looked upon as Cki- 

a yet made any fettlement at nefe, but as native Tartars (40). 

Ijam^tongi but that they^ad Thus far the miffiotiary, who 

formed a projefi of making one might more truly have (lyled 

ift CBifP^yangy capital both of them fubjedls, or flaves^ to the 

tbat ^Kpvindle and of all Eajiem TartarsSincQ their condition is no 

fitrtary. That city, contmues better, whilft the Chinefe^ more 

Jbe, is very confiderable, the favoured than they, enjoy the 

emperor having eftablifhed four fame advantages and privileges, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

(40) Lettr, ed:ff,antt fom, nU p» 68« 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VIII. G f«nii 

^t fie Hiftory of China. B. L 

CiiUs. Wb read bat ci two capital cides, or cides of fhe firft 

rank, in Father MartinVt time ; the firft oS which was called 
Leao^yung, which name, he tells us, was given to it by the 
Tartarian family of Kina; and the other King-yvjen^ or 
Ning-yuen ; neither of which have any thing ^xro^th fart)icr 
notice, they being botlvgone into decay. Since then, Jather 
Fountenay, a Jefnit, who came from €lnna about the bo- 
ning of this century, at well as Father Noel, mention^ in 

Ntw ca- the laft note, make the dty of Chin-yang to be the metro 

fitml. polls ^ From which, we may fnpppfe the Tartars to have 
made fome confiderable alteradons in thcgovernment of this 
province, fince this laft is likewife filled the metropolis of 
Eq/lern Tartary, and the refidence of the four grand tri» 
bunals. Thofe of the fecond and third rank muft fHU be 

fortreffes. more inconfiderable ; but their fortrefles of the firft order are 
Aid to be as large, populous, and opulent, as (bme of the 
capitals of China. Theie are eleven in number; befides the 
metropolb above-mentioned. The fame number theit are of 
thofe of the fecond rank, and about feven or eight of the 
tturd ; which laft are more remarkable for their ftrei^ and 
ganifons, than for their largenefs or opulence. 

TtrtiSty. The country produces plenty of com, millet, and other 
|;rain ; but very little rice, for want of fuch rivers and canals 
%% the Gnnefe have. They abound wth variety of wild fowl, 
and 'wQA, beafts, fruits, herbs, and roots, both culinary and 

Xm/ Jitt* inedidnal. Among the laft, the famed root, called Jin*fengt 

ftng. Cing^fen, or Jin-fen^ fo mudi efteemed among the Qm^ 
phyiicians, as an infallible n^didne to reftore decayed con* 
ftitutions, and renew the vital heat, grows here in great 
plenty, and is reckoned of the beft kind. The doftors give 
it in beAic, peftilential, and other defperate fevers, and dan- 
gerous difeafes, but prepared, and mixed with other drugs (C). 


' See Lettr. ediffiant, vol. vii. p.'68. & 147. 

fome fewpoints excepted, which care mnft be taken thnt the pot 

they did undct their own roo- be well covered, elfe itt virtue 

narchi, and fcarcely feel the will evaporate, 
weieht of a fordgn yoke; as According to Father U 

will be more fully feen in the Compters defcription of this ex- 

fequeL cellent root, which he higUy 

(C) The dofe of it, fach is commends, they have hardly 

its extraordinary virtue, is no any in China^ but what comes 

more than two or three grains, from thb province. The Gin- 

minced, or pounded fmaJl, and fen^ iays he, which js at prefeat 

boiled in chikenbroth, or, if ufcd, is brought to us front 

that fail, in fair water; but Lyau tong, a province kfV9^^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Ci; Jh Wftary oj Cluiuw 9f 

Tbqrefleem tix)& roots which arelai^ bright, smd wt^hty, 

isthebeft. They wrap them up in jpaper, and keep them in 

dijemb, and fome alfo in pepper, tor ofe <• 
This provinoe hath a confiderable (hare of mountains^ JKw«» 

fane of which produce tinjiber for building, others metals and ttdm. 

nioersb. Thofe that are worthy of notice, are, the great 
lidg^ called Ecng-fte^ one end of which lies dofe to the 
j'aoB where the CInne/c wall b^ns, and extends itfelf quite 
uto Tcrtary. It is of a great height, and hath a lake about 
e^ty furloDgs in circuit, and of a prodigious depth, out of 
rtfch fpring the two fan^d rivers Tah^ which runs mto 7ir- 
Urjft and ^ng-tong, which, after a courfe northward, of 
we length, winds eaftward, and falls into the Tau ; which 
hft empties itfelf into the yellow fea. The other mountain 
worth mcntiomng, is, that called Ou, or Jfw, which forms an 
ffland on the gulph of Lyaurtong, on which is built the fort- 
refe of Xan-giay. There are fevaal other iflands on the fame 
gfllph, OFcr-againft the cities of Kay-chew^ IGm-chtw^ and 
^'pien, fo conveniently fituate, that they torm a good 
Mteroad for (hips h. 

And thus much may fuffice for the defcriptbn of this pn> 
Jjjx, and of the Chine/e empire. As to what relates to the 
^ory of the Lyau-tongers, it chiefly confifting of their wars 
^ the Tartars and Chinefir, we fliall refer our readers to 
^ we have ahready (aid on that head, in the hiftory of the 
™»cr ♦ and to what we may have farther to add in that o£ 
flatter f, we are now upon ; by which we ihall avoid fwell* 
log this work, as much as pof&ble, with needlefs repetitions. 

• See Lettr. ediffiant vol. x. p. 172. & feq. Kao, ubi fup. 
l'H\* Le Compte, ubi fup. letter 8. p. 230. Si feq. Sc aU 
"P.citat. k Id. vid. & Martini, Atlas Sinenf. La Mar. 
^«iue, & al, fop. dtat. ♦ Sec before, vol. iv. p. 343; 

37f k feq, f See the laft feaion of this chapter. 

^Oiw, and fituate in J?^ province. The fame author 

/^.Whichwords we chiefly adds, with refpc6t to the famed 

J^ Mre, becaufe it confirms root, that it ought not to be cut 

^wthavcfaid a little higher, with a knife, becaufe iron di- 

^ Wag fituate without the miniflies its virtue; but advifes 

^ ^ and of its being rather to bite it in pieces with 

'*««td&om being a Qbine/g one's teeth [^i). 

(41} Lt CwHfte, Uacr i. ^* 25* En^l eHt% 

Q t 3 E C n 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ioo ^be H^ofy t>f'Qnik. B. I; 

S E C T. 11- 

Of the antient Religkn^ and new SeSsj mimng the 

tUUgioH \X7"E have already given an account of the antient retlgioa. 
eftbe " of the Chinefey in a fwrner part of this work »» out of 

ChiDcfe. their canonical books ; from which it appears to have beat 
(b like that of the antient patriarchs, that many learned meD 
have looked upon it as a pregnant proof (among maoy otixerft 
they have alleged to fupport their hypothefis), that Noah^ or 
fome of his near defcendants, did at firft people this country \ 
But as that point did not appear to us to have been fofli* 
ciently deared, we contented ourfelves with a bare recapitula- 
tion of all the arguments which had been, or might be, ob- 
jefted againft it ^ ; not fo much indeed from any diilike we 
had to it;, or its learned authors, as in hopes that we ihould 
excite thereby fome of our judicious corr^fpondents, whom 
we knew to be well verfed in that curious controverfy, td 
commufticate their thoughts, or what farther difcoveries they 
had made in it, to us. it was not long, accordingly, bef<x^ 
we had the pleafure of feeing our expeftations fully anfvirered, 
from a certain quarter, and the fyftem above-mentioned handed 
to us, in a quite new light, all the material objeAions againft 
it fairly anfwered, all its difficulties removed, and a new fett 
of proofs in favour of it, added, which we flatter ourfelves wiM, 
with every impartial reader, give it the appearance of fomer 
thing more .than a probable hypothefis. But as the chief evi- 
dence depends on one certain faft relating to their chrono 
logy, and confirmed by our own Hebrew otic, and all thfe 
collateral ones are founded upon inferences fairly deducible 
from feyeral articles of their religion, laws, cuftoms, drc, we 
fhall poftpone the farther particulars to onie of the laft fe£Hons 
of this chapter, which relates to the Chinefe chronology ; hf 
which time the reader, having run over, and got all thefe fe- 
veral points frefti in his memory, will be the better able to 
judge of the validity and merit of the whole. This, we hopc^ 
cannot but be acceptable to him, as the fubjefl is no lefs iai*> 
portant than curious, and, as we may venture to fay, will be 
treated there in a manner fuitable to its dignity, aiid fuch as 

« See before, Univ. Hifl.* vol. xx. p. 126. &feq. * Vide 
int. al. HowEL, effay on the primitive language, 8c and. ab 
CO citat. Shukfort, conned, oft. vol. i. book 2. ' Unir, 
Hift. ttbi fup. p. 109. & fc^« 



by Google 

C 1. ntffifi^ pf Chim. loi 

viU firike a variety <A new lights upon the ori^ and fbanda* 
tknof that antient nation and monarchy. In the mean tune. 

With refpeft to their antient religion, as deducible from 
dttrcaMoiad books, the topic we are now npcHi, we cannot 
botobienre, once for ail, that the later date we allow to the 
teter, the longer will the Chinefe appear to have preferved the 
ibnoer ia its primitive purity, and untainted from the idola- 
ftifls, faporfHtions, and frdfe' notions of the Ddty, which 
&i fo early ipread themfelves kph^ the face of almoft the 
whole earth, and, at length, over a great part too of their own 
coantry : for, if we may believe a late writer of Chhufe af- 
iurs'^, this idolatry was l»-onght to them from fome ndgh- Idolatry ^ 
\Kmag part of the Indies ; and though it is fuppofed to have 'wben in*' 
began fo earfy as 300 years after Behts^ yet it doth not appear tr^duad. 
to have takoi footing m China till about 1200 years after » ; 
to which we may add, that it neither was nniverMy received, 
»id made the rdi^on of the pountry, nor did it prefentiy fink 
here mto that low degree of fuperftition, folly, and impiety^ * 
as ^ find it to have done among other polite nations, fuch 
9& the AjjyrianSy Chaldeans ^ Egyptians, Canaanites, &c 
They neithier deified. their monarchy and other great men, 
sor introduced any of thofe impious and unnatural rites into 
tbor idolatrous worfhip, as were'pra^fed by other nadoas^ 
iniwhen a bold attempt was once made for introducing the 7A# 4m. 
^'orihip of demons and evil fpirits, it was prefentiy after fup- tient doe* 
fwftd, the whole race of thofe pretended inchanters de- trine pre^ 
ftroycd, and religion reftored to its antient ftateo, fo great y^'^^^* 
was the care of the government to prevent any innovation 
tbt may prove prejudicial to it (D) ; and to that is owing, 
that the antient Chinefe doftrine continues dill to this day to 
kthe prevailing feft among the learned, 

■ T>v, vol, i. p. 639. & 647, Engl. edit. " See his 
fr>aflator*s notes, p. 647. • See before, vol. xx. p. 129. 

(B) This, we are told by a main fupport to the antient 

fti Htddey was chiefly owing Chinefe religion, even to this 

to the tigikace of a fupreme very time, inforouch, that thd* 

tribunal eftaWifticd among them, the mandarins; who compofe 

Anoft from the foundation of it, are fomctimes obfervcd to 

tfctKmj^c, and llyled the iri- pradife certain fu perditions in 

^'''^ of rites, which has power private, yet, when aflembled 

to fappfefs asd condemn any in a body to deliberate about 

jM^ion tkat may be intra- them, they openly condenm 

■■^» TWs cotirt hath proved them (42). 

<4a) Set Du Halde, Ert^f. edit, vol u />. 647, 

G 3 Therk 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

toa ^he Hifiory of CV\vi%. B. I. 

Jddlatry There arc, however, two others, which may be reckoned 

mftin among the principal fe^s; namely, that of .the idolaters* 

««5g«^» mentioned a little higher, a$ brought hither from Tn£a, 

about thirty-two years aftar Ae crucifixion of Chrift, and 

13 called the feft of Fo, or Foe, which is the deity they 

worfliip, and is pretty rife, and univerfally received, among' 

the common people, whofe fondnefs for aU kinds of iuper- 

ftitious and idolatrous (hew hath rifen to fuch a height, that 

Thih^ the whole body d[ philofophers hath been carried away with 

Jbphers the torrent, and, though againft their confcience, have beea 

/•rcfd t9 forced to jcrin with it, to prevent the cflfefts of thdr fury. 

€on^h Thi« therefore may be looked upon as the moft prevailing 

•<** *'* fcft amon^ the bulk of the nation, though not as the efta^ 

bliihed religion of the country, and to owe its, fettlemoot ra» 

ther to the exceilive power and afceikhint t^ an unruly po» 

pulace, than to the confent or approba^on of either the phi* 

jofophers, or of the mandarins, that ccmipofe the tribun^ of 


The third fefl: is, that of the difciples of Lau-kyun, which 
if nothing but a mixture of the moft extravagant and impioiis 
opinions. The reader may fee a fketch c£ them in the fol« 
lowing note (£), whilft we ^vq him here 41 fuller account of 
the dofUines and rites of the other two. 


(El) This feA, which is callcci ones» to^ have often repeated this, 

Tmt'f/ff had its rife from Law That the tay^ or law of reafoo^ 

ij^iiff,above-mentioned,Qfwhom had traduced one% 0U bad pro* 

< Jusdifciples have recorded many duced t'W9t iv}9 had produced 

inonftrous extravagancies I facn three, and three had produced all 

as his laying foar|core years in things. His morality, like that 

Jits mother's womb, and break- of Eficurus, confifts in quelling 

ing his way out through her left the pafHons, in eftabliihing the 

ice. His books are all extant, foul's tranquility, and freeing 

but are fuppofed to have been it from anxiety and eares, as 

altered by his followers, and enemies to life ; and, in order 

abound with noble maxims to to exempt it from the unav#id« 

condudl men to real happineis; able fear of death, they pretmd 

fuch as, the love of virtue, con- he found out an elixir whick 

tempt of riches, and raifingthe snakes them imaiortal. 
jGduI to a fenfe of its own felf- They are eommonly great al» 

fuiRciency. He tanght, that chemifts, and pretenders to the 

the Deity was altogether cor- philoii^hers-ftcMie, as likewife 

Soreal ; and yti, as if he had to a familiar imercooife wkk 

ived into A>mc of the deepeft demons, by whefe aSftaace 

noyfteries of it, be is reported, dieyeanpemnnwondessi waA 

Miong many other memorable dQaftual]y,Qur«iidierlays(45)A 



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C u ne Hi/tciy pf Chixau [iO| 

Thb firft, and prindpal one, which folloWf ^ CUn^ ThiM 
caoooical books, we have already fpoken of » in the antient ^^^riM 
lUxxjP; and all diat needs be added to it here is, the im- Vj^^'^ 
movements which it received from the writings of thdr truly y 7®*^* 
qodlent philoTopher Kon^-fii-t/e, or, as he is vulgarly called, ^"**J 
a^uchis : for as for thole canonical books, whi^ are Ayled 
tftbefecond rank» they are no more than comments on the five 
ones of the firft, and iince written by fome of their karoed 

P See before, vol. zr. p. 126. & f<;q. 

deeelve the people with fuch 
{io£gks, as cafi be afcribed 
tftming but to the power of 

fiythofe juggling tricks, bat 
c^xoally by their pretence of 
fcnderiag men immortal,, they 
have not only got mandarins, 
and other perfons of diftindion, 
c^pedally women, to learn this 
P^tended magic under them, 
wtlikcwife feveral of their mo- 
B>rchs became their difciples, 
2Bd Drotedors : fo that (lately 
tanpiea were erefled, and a 
woHhlp paid, to thofe demons, 
tijroagh moil parts of the cm- 
fire. The fqcceflbrs of the head 
of this fca are all honoured 
^tbc title of great manda- 
'JM, and refidc in a town of the 
province of Kyanj^-fii where 
% have a magnificent palace, 
towhkh crouds of people rc- 
iVt, from all the neighbouring 
Fovinccs, either to procure re- 
^K^i«s, or. to have their for* 
tunes told J and, for the mo- 
"*F they readily pay to thofe 
Mers, they receive a billet, 
^ widi magical chara^ers, 
^wck is to ^wer all their 

^on^ thofe monarchs whQ 
Wet can-ied away by their de- 
JfBi, Qbin^tfimg, the third of 
wftd^fMfty of Sonf^ was infa- 
Jj^ enough, to go on foot, 
iDfetdiabook of theirs^ which 

they had hnng, in Ae night, on 
one of the principal gates of his 
metropolis, and pretended to 
have dropped from heaven ; and 
to carrv it, with the greateft 
veneration, lb his own palace ; 
where he indofed it in a eolden 
box, and kept it with lijtmoftcare. 
The book was filled with nothing 
but magical charadlers, and fen* 
tences for invoking demons, the 
number of which they mnlti* 

Slied at pleafure, and wor*. 
lipped as deities; infomuch^ 
that one of the great Chinefi 
dodlors attributes the extirpa- 
tion of that dvnafty to the im- 
pieties which thefe lorcerers had 
introduced under it, and which^ 
' like a plague, had infedled the 
whole empire. Theviftimsthe^f 
offer to thofe infernal fpirits are 
of three kinds ; 'viz* a hog, a 
fowl, and a fi(h ; and, in meir 
invocation of them, they ufe very 
furpriiing poilures, make hi« 
deous outcries with their throats 
and nofes, with their drums a,nd 
kettles; pretend to (hew Urange 
fights in the air, and many other 
fuch impoftures, to intimidate 
and amufe the people : fo that 
the fafcination fpreads itfelf 
from thofe of the higheft to 
thofe of the loweft rank. Such 
of our readers as want to know 
niQI'e of this pretended magical 
and diabolical fed, may con- 
fult the author laft quoted. 
C 4 mea» 


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\ -. 

teany \t Tfario«i& tunes, and fo need no fnrtbai toiki^n Itere ; 
efpecioily, as Confuciusy abovermentioned, hadi extrafi^. tlie 
very quintedenoe out of them into lus own writings ; whidi 
bare been held in fuch great veneration ever fince, tha.t the 
leaft alteration made in, them would be puniOied as a great 
irime, ^«id a quotation out of them never fails of ending any 
edntroverfy amongft their learned men, and to flop the mouth 
of the mdft obftinate wrangler. ... 

This truly great man, a fcantling of whofe life and ^writ- 
ings we ftiall give, in the following note (F), feelned defigned 
. , by 

(F) Confucius was, as has been 
ilready obferved (44), born in 
the province of Shan-tong^'hyxt 
then Called the kingdom of 
Lu, in the twenty firft year of 
the reign of Ling-nvafig, the 
twenty -third cmperof of the 
race of C/je'w ; that is, accord-, 
ing to fome, 300, according to 
others, 5po, but, according to 
JDu Halde, 551 years, before 
Chrift, and two before the 
death o^T hales y one of the fe- 
ven wife men of Greece: fo 
that, according to this laft, he 
moll have been cotemporary 
with Pythagoras and Solofty and 
fdmewhat earlier than Socrates, 
He was but three years old 
when his fat];ier Sho-lyang-be 
died, in the feventy-third year 
of his age, who, though he had 
enjoyed the greateft offites in 
the kingdom of Songy yet left 
him no other inheritance, than 
riie honour of being defcended 
from Ti-he, the twenty- feventh 
emperor of the race oF Shangy 
^nd, by his raother^^/;?^^ from 
the illuftrious family of Ten, 

He ihewed, from his tender 

years, great tokens of fagacity 

>and virtue ; and, about his 

fifteenth year, gave himfelf up 

^to the ftudy of the antient' 


(44] S^fgagiyzuft^^lums^ 

r .1 ; 

He married at nit^etieen, and 
had ai fon named i'^f-i&if, and by 
him a grandfon named Tfu-tfe^ 
who, by his extraordinary naerit 
and learning, raifed himielF t<^ 
the higheft pofts in the empire. 
As for himfelf, he was ioon 
taken notice of, for his admire- 
able qualities, learning, and' 
virtues, efpecially thofe of ha- 
mrlity, fincetity, temperance, 
difintereftednefs, contempt of 
riches, l^c\ ; arid though every 
ftate in the empire, as well as 
his own, was over^runwith the 
oppofite vices, yet was he (bon 
raifed to feveral places of emi- 
nence in the magiftracy, which 
he accepted chiefly as means 
of promoting his intended re- 
formation, both in religion and 
in the ftate, maugre all the 
oppofition he expelled, and 
did actually find, from the 
grandees of his own, as well as 
of other provinces. But, as 
foon as he found that his en- 
deavours did not meet with de- 
fcrved fuccefs, he threw up ali- 
bis employments, though very 
coniiderable, to go In ftarch of 
foroemore tradable people, who' 
would reap a greater benefit from 
his excellent dodrine. 

In the fifty-fifth ycat of \a% 
age, he wasr again invited, and' 

DuMaldt^ itkfup. p^^iS* 



by Google 

C u ne Wficrj of Chin*; 

^bfinr^l^idbnii, both by his doftrines and praAice, the 
€omipd(xis whkfa had been a loi^ while predominant, both 



laifttd to fome of die higheft 
pofts in his own kingdom of 
Ui where the prince then 
nigfling paid fuch regard to his 
firtaeSy and falutary counfels, 
thatyin lefs than three months, 
Bot only his come, but his whole 
^omiaioiiy weie totally changed 
lor the better ; infomach, that 
tlie neighbouring princes were 
almned at the fudden reforma- 
^ ; righriy judging, that the 
1^ of Lu would Toon become 
too powerful for them, if he 
connnued to follow his new 
coiDfellor*s rules. 

The king of TJiy in particu- 
^i after many confultations 
with his grandees, bethought 
Mtfifelf of an expedient, the 
Boft likely to defeat all Confu- 
nut I ineafures : and, accord- 
n^y, under the fair pretence 
Of an ambafiy, font him, and 
^fioUes, a profent of a great 
ittmber of beautiful young girls, 
^0 had,, from their infancy, 
ken brought up to dancing, 
^nrg, and all other capti' 
▼Kbg arts. Tkefe were not 
•riy received with open arms, 
Wth by the king and court, but 
^itertained wkh fuch frequent 
feafliiigs anddWeriionsythatthey 
prefendy abandoned the bufi- 
■cfeof ftate, to give themfelves 
«^tDjrtcafare. The king himfelf 
became inacceffible to Ms moft 
^ous minifters. Among the 
^ Confucius having tried, in 
^, all poffible means to re- 
oil him, divtfted himfelf of 
^ his oftces, *ieft the court 
M kingdom, to go in queft of 
Aoredoeile minds to follow his 
aaxims ; but, to his great mor- 
tifcatiaD, fbmdUs do6lfine and 

morals dreaded, in every king- 
dom through which he paflM. 
So that^ by that time he was 
come to that oiSbtng, he found 
himfelf reduced to the greateft 
indigence ; yet without lofin^ 
any thing of his greatnefs of 
foul, and ufual conftancy. 

This obliged him to refume 
his former functions of a private 
fage, in which he met with bet- 
ter fuccefs. His learning and 
merit, and, above all, his great 
modefty and condefceniion, 
gained him a vaft number of 
difciples (fome fay 3000, 500 
of whom did, in time, raife 
themfelves to the higheft pods, 
in fevefral kingdoms) ; and all 
of them continued firmly at'- 
tached to hi« perfon and doc- 
trine. Thefe he divided into 
four claiTes 1 the firft of which 
was, to make virtue their chief 
ftudy and pra£iice ; the fecond 
was, to learn to reafon and 
write clofely, juftly, and ele* 
gantly j the third was, to ftudy 
the ait of government, and to 
inftru6t the mandarins and great 
minifterff in their refpedlive dui 
ties ; while the laft was to learn 
to write^ in a concife and ele- 
gant ftyle, the principles of mO' 
rality. In all thefe claffes ^ he 
had fome very eminent ones; 
but one efpecially in the firft» 
Whofe premature death cauied 
his mafter to ftied abundance of 

As his praftice ftlU laept con- 
ftant pace wkh his excellent 
philofophy, princes fometixnes 
invited him to their court, that 
they- might reap the benefit cS 
hisinftrudiona; and Ihewed tho- 
greater jregard to Jus learning 


by Google 

|o6 She Hificty of ChjM. RI. 

in religion and in the ftate/ and was eactowed ifith all the 
proper qualities for fuch a noble work. We are told, that 


tnd merit. At other times, 
upon the death of one of them» 
by whom he had been highly 
honoured, he has feen himfelf 
become the contempt of the 
conrt, and the ridicule of an in- 
fnlting populace; yet, under 
ihofc extremes, he never Ihewed 
the lead change in his looks^ 
or behaviour, but preferved 
fitll the fame fteadinefs and 
tranquility. His reliance on 
the divine providence was ftill 
more remarkable, infomuch, 
that he hath beheld, without 
the lead fear or emotion, an 
' officer of the army, named 
Wban-ii^ by whom he was 
hated, come fnll-drive at him, 
with his fword drawn, and hath 
given this anfwer to fome 
nieiids, who advifed him to 
hade aWay from the danger, Jf 
Tycn froteSs us^ of 'wbi<b tve 
hnfi now a fenfibU proofs nvbut 
harm can the rage ^Whan-d 
de to as, though he is frefident of 
$be tribunal rftbe army f 

^ Confucius lived to finifh his 
philofophical and hiftorical 
works, aiTd died in the king* 
dom of £», his native country, 
in the feventy-third year of his 
age, ^eatly lamented, both bv 
tl^ king and court, and much 
snore by his difci]^es, who had 
the hi|;heft veneration for him. 

A little before his lad ficknefs, 
he told them, with abundance 
of tears, ^hat the diforders ivhicb 
reigned in the empire bad miell 
nigh broke bis heart i and began, 
Irom that time, to lan^uifli till 
^e feventh day before his death, 
when he told them again, in the 
iame melancholy tone. Since 
bingj rffy/e tQ follow nymetmtntt I 

am nonv no hnger uftful apsn earthy 
audit is necejfary that I fhould 
lean)e it. He fell immediately, 
after thofe words, into a le- 
thargy, which laded/even days, 
at the end of which he expired, 
in the arms of fome of his dif- 
ciples. They built him a hand- 
fome fepulchre, on the river 
Su, near the city of Kjo-few, 
on the fame fpot where he nfcd 
to ademble them. It hath been 
£nce inclofed widi a wall, and 
now looks like a fmall cityi 
and the veneration which all 
good men had for him in- 
creaiing with time, he came, at 
length, to be refpeded as the 
chief do6tor of the empire. 

He was tall, and well pro- 
portioned, his bread and fhool* 
ders were broad, his eyes large, 
complexion olive, nofe Hat, and 
beard long, and his voice drong 
and piercing. His works, wbidi 
are edeem^ a perfect role of 

foverttment,and contain all that 
e had colleifted out of the an- 
tient laws, are as follows : i. His 
Tay-hyo; that is, The grand Sci* 
ence, ox School of Adults, a. The 
Chong'-yongt or Immutable Me* 
dium, 5. That called Lun-yut 
or Moral and pithy Difcourfit. 
4. Meng'tfe, or The Book of 
Mencius 1 u> called frcMn one of 
his difciples, who is fuppoied 
to have compiled, or finidied, 
it from his mader's writings, 
and contains a perfed rule of 

fovemment. Thefe four are 
eld in the greatededeem, and 
are the chief ones among the 
canonical books of the iecond. 
rank ; to which they add two 
more, as the next, if not equal* 
to them in 'authority; v/«« 


by Google 

C f. fbi Hiftary of China. lejr 

heoondefflned the idolatry, which was then become very rife, 
ID CMfia .' if fo, it is a wonder that his difdples {boold af teiV 
WBrds rear ftatues, altars, and temples, to him. However, 
itphinly appears, that his main defign was not (b much to 
ifllcnneddle with the outward, as the inward and cflcntial, 
ftttof rd^on, the reformation of the hearts and lives of his 
ommtrymen ; aJl his ftndies, leftnres, wridi^, precepts, and 
fnftice, were chiefly tending that way ; and in this, not- O^M 
wiAlhmding the great oppofition which he met with fix)m h '^ 
thcTO^s mandarins and grandees of every court (for thou^ grmaduu 
csdi prorince was under the emperor, yet thofe petty kings 
that governed in diem were, in fome meafure, delpotic, and 
frcqi^tly became formidable to the imperial throne, and 
were not only very debauched th^nfelves, but fufiered thdr 
ffliidfters to be fo too ; and this was the real date of the em* 
{are, at the tunc that Confucius was ftriving, with all his 
id^t and fagadty, to introduce his intended reformation) ; 
p in this, we fay, notwithftanding all their oppofition, he 
iad the pleafure to fee his excellent morality at leaft univer- 
H^ admired : and defervedly fo, not only for the beauty HhfiA* 
tod ooblenefs of his precepts and maxims, but much' more i^ ^fff^ 
for die judicious way he took to inculcate them, and to ^ri"*^ 

5' '^Hyam-Ufig, which treats 
^ filial reiped, and contains 
^ anfwers which Confucius 
Bade to bis difciple Tfomg, con- 
ttrmag the reverence doe from 
AUien to, parents. 6. The 
SjM'lyff, or 7hi School or Set* 
9Ht of Qtildren ; which is a col- 
lAoQ of fentences and ex- 

31es, extradfed from antient 
modern authors. It w6ald 
cany 08 beyond our bounds, to 
CMcr into a farther detail of 
Aofe books. Thofe that are 
ainoos to know more of them, 
say confolt the Latin vo^oa 
wWdi Father VoeU one of the 
aodent miffionaries into China^ 
^ given of them, printed at 
fcarar, armn lyii, or die ex- 
tsaa which Father J>u HaUU 
kath made of it, and printed in 
Jill defcripdoii of the Chinefr 

empire (44). One thin? w« 
cannot forbear obferving nere, 
concerning thofe books, that^ 
though the four firH contain 
the moft fablime dodrines of 
morality, and are univerfalljp 
held to be of the greateft audio* 
rity, next to the canonical ones 
of the firft rank, of which wc 
have formerly fpoken, yet they 
have had bur few followers 
among the degenerate Chinefe \ . 
whereas the two laft, which 
treat of the duty of children to 
parents, are fo univerially ob« 
ferved throughout the empire* 
that one may venture to affirm, 
there is not a country in the 
world where parents are moro 
refp^ted, both during their life, 
and after their deadly as wo 
(hall more fully Ihew in dit 

(i«) J)« IMi, wkiPt* ^ 4<S. ¥J^ 



by Google 

w»8 ' m ffi/li^ iff Qina: B.%. 

make virtue appear lovely and defirable to al| his difijpks aoA 

jeaders. . ^ 

His philofophy, though fuhlimci wa$ quite £r«e froai 
'thofe fubtile and intricate queftipos and inquiries, with which 
that of the befl Creek philofophers were moftly dogged : and 
Confucius, inftead of diving into thofe- phyfical and Mirufc 
Nohle no- notions about the nature and attributes cxf the fupreme beio^ 
ti(msofthix!tiQ origitt of the world, of evil, and other fuch fpoculative 
Deity. points, too high fcM* unaffifted reafon ; or of dogmatizing about 
the nature of rewards and puniflmients of virtue and vice^ 
confined himfelf to fpeak with the deepeft regard of the great 
Author of all beings, whom he reprefents as the moft pore 
and perfeft eflence, principle, and fountain, of all things^ t^ 
infpire men with greater fear, veneration, gratitude, aad 
Jove, of him ; to aflert his. divine providence over all his 
creatures ; and to reprefent him as a being of fu^ infinite 
knowlege, that even our moll feqpet thoughts are not be 
hidden from him, and of fuch boundlds goodnefs and juftioe^ 
that he can let no virtue go unrewarded, or vice unpunifhe<t 
He had likewife a moft mafterly hand at painting the on^ i^ 
its moft lovely, and the other in its moft deterring, colours-; 
and to inforce the praflice of the one, and abhorrence of ibe 
other, by the moft powerful arguments, worthieft motives, 
• and, in the beft of methods, his own extraordinary exatmple, 
which may be juftly ftyled a pattern of moral virtues. And 
jhough it muft be owned, that neither the one nor the other 
had the good effefts they deferved, and that he hath had but 
few followers, except among his moft celebrated difciple^, 
%ho have made it their glory to copy after him, yet his writ- 
ings, as well as his feft, have been always, and are ftill, held 
in the higheft efteem *'. So that it Ihows, at leaft, fonxe kind 
of merit in the Chincfe, that they can ftill profefs fo univer£J 
admiration for him and his do£lrine, though fo few di tbea 
do care to praftifc it, 
Zeii of?Qf The other prindpal feft, and indeed the moft predomi- 
fitnt of all, is that of Fo, Foe, or Fwi, whom fome writers 
have confounded with the Fo-hi, who was the founder of thiS 
.monarchy, though it is plain that this worfhip was not 
brought hither from India till fixty-five years after the birth 
muhetif tf«^ of thrift, as was lately hinted f . The oc^von of its being 
bonv, introduced into Chinas where it made fuch fwift and rapid 
ff^ught progrefs, was a dream whicli the emperpr Meng-ti, of the 

/rom In- 

^ See what Has been (sjd under the laA note. See jl^ NoBi^V 
I.atin verfion of Confticius's Ethics. Le Compte, Couplbt, 
Du Halde, Sc ill. . t. S^^pge loz of tbUtolume. 

5 dynafty 


by Google 

C. tt -fhe fflftory of OilnsL. 

jynaftyof ifan, hsid abont that time, which put him In mini 
rf a fentence which had been often in the mouth of Confu* 
ms, that the Hoij One was to be found in the lueft. Upon 
irhkh he immediately fcnt ambafladors in fearch of him, and 
fridi exprefs cwders not to return without bringing a full acr 
oottnt of him and Ws religion. But they, whether difcou- 
nged at, or tired with, the length and difficulty of the jour- 
acy, proceeded no farther than InJ&a ; where having met with 
the WOTftiippers of the idol ¥oy or Foe (G), they brought it 



(G) It is not eafy to gnefs in 
vbtpart of hidia this moi^er 
ifpea^, or whether he was 
Dan or devil ; if half of what 
Us difciples have rcpbrted of 
lum were true^ he could be. no 
other than a devil incarnate. 
We ihall give our readers a few 
nuticulars, by which he max 
judge what credit is to be given 
to the reH of what thofe In^on 
vonder-mongers relate of him. 
His father, whofe name was 
h'fa^g-wau, was, they fay, 
king of an Indian territory , call- 
ed by the Cbinefe Shun-tyen-Jho ; 
hismodier, named Moye, the moft 
of the time of her pregnancy, 
dreamt that fhe had fwallovyed 
I white elephant, or, as others 
will have it, that ihe conceived 
hy that animal, or by the devil 
io his ihape ; and hence arofe 
that veneration paid hy the In-, 
ia» kings to the white elephant. 
However, fhe was delivered of 
lum thro^ her rieht fide, and died 
foon after. They add, that he 
fiood upon his feet as foon as 
he was got oat of her womb, 
and walked feven fteps, point*- 
ing with one hand to heaven, 
tnd with the other to the earth ; 
and then pronounced the follow- 
ing words diftindtly : fhere is 
Mone either in the beamen^ or in 
the earth, *wbo ought to be adored, 
ktlalone^ ' 

At the age of feventeen he 
marHed diree wives $ and at 
nineteen forfook them, to retire 
into a folitary place, under the 
guidance of fo«r fazes ; and^ at 
thirty, he was transtornied on % 
fudden into a god ? from which 
time he minded nothing but the 
propagating his dodrine, and 
how to make himfelf adored hj 
the vail n amber of mirackt 
which he wrought, and with 
the account of which his bon- 
zian prieils have filled feveral 
large volumes. There were nf 
lefs than 8o,oOo of his difciplei 
employed in difperfing his im- 
pious tenets throughout the ea^ 
a^d, amongd them, ten of g 
more diilinguifhed rank and dig- 
nity, who publi{hed 5000 vor^ 
lumes in honour of their mafler. 
The Chinefe call his followers^ 
or priefls, ^ong and Hojhmng \ 
the Tartars, Lamas or La^ma* 
feng ; the ^iankfe^ Talapoins; and 
the JrApanerSf and, from tbem^ 
the Europeans^ Bonzas Qt Bon* 

This flrange god, however^ 
found himfeif mortal, and died 
in the feventy-ninth year of hit 
age, or, as his difciples believe, 
paffed into the (late of immor- 
tality ; and, to crown all his im* 
pieties, Ending his death ap- 
proaching, exprefTed himfelf to 
the following purpofe to his 
difciples : 


by Google 




withtheoi, and, with it, the doOrioe rf trmnfii^atioii, ml 

other ^1^ foperftitioDS, and athdftical notioos, witbwfaidi 

the Indian books are filled : all which were greedily received 

at coart ; from which the coata^on quickly fpread itfelf tfaro^ 

other provinces, and in a little time through the whole empire^ 

which was already but too much infef^ed with the mag^im- 

piedes of the fed of Lau-kyunp mentioned in a late note ^ 

^rtiSly From that time this chimerical god met erery-where with 

9t€nHHilm worihippers ; the greateft number of idds, altars, and tern* 

CUba. pies or pagods, were reared to him ; fome of them ms^mfi- 

cent to the higheft d^rce, whilft the bonzas, who becamehis 

priefts, filled the country with large volumes of his pretended 

miracles and prodigies, which they alfo reprefent in prated 

%ure$, after their manner ; infomuch, that he is now celdnted 

' Vid. Martini hift. Sioic. Lb Comptb State of Cliioa, 
part 2. letter a. J>^ Haldi, k aL 

difciples: / htm hitherH cmt- 
temltithf imibt andj^e fytm 
theft firtyyemrt in far obits and 
€mgma$ i htt mw i am going t§ 
ittnHjtm^ ItmilrfPtalttyouibt 
nuhtlt mfitry tf mf do/Srint • 
Learn, tbeu^ that thtrt is no ttbtr 
frincifk of all things hut trnfti* 
mtfi and nothing ; from nothing 
all things frocetdtd, and into jt^- 
thing 'will they all return ; and this 
is the tnd of all our hope (45). 

Tbefe iaft words caufed a kind 
of fchifm among the bonzas ( 
fome of whom became die heads 
of an athei^cal fed, which 
hath continued ever fince ; 
whilft the much greater number 
adhered to his former dodbine, 
cndeavoariog to palliate thb lafl 
by a fttbtile diftindion of exte- 
rior and interior do6trine, which 
is merely evafive, and means no- 
thing; and to propagate his 
wormip bv the moft impious 
cheats and fables, particularly 
by pretending that he had been 
bom 8000 times, and tranfmi- 
grated into the bodies of a great 

▼ariety of amroals before be 
was deified, in whofe fbrins he 
hath been fince worftippedbf 
his infiituated followers^ The 
next note will give an accoont 
of the villainous methods which 
thofe bonzas take to dekdt 

As for thofe bonzas who (iJI 
in with Fo\ Iaft atheifBcal doc- 
trine of all things being pro- 
duced out of nothing, t!fe, tho* 
they and their difciples are few- 
er in number, in comparifon of 
the oppofite fed, they have like- 
wife endeavoured to refine upoa 
their mafler, by introducing a 
great variety of fubdle notioos, 
on the hypochefis of a vacuom, 
which they fuppofe pregnant of» 
and producing, all things, and 
then fwallowmg them up again 
into their primitive nothing; 
but thefe are ever expofed, not 
only by the other bonzes, hot 
likewife by the literati, a ftiB 
more modem fed, of which we 
ihall fpedk by-andby (46). 

^45) Du HalJt^ vbi fyfrs, f, 630. Lt^Qomptt, »bi hf* Mtttim, S ti 
(^J Itd.ibtd, 

4 ^ 


by Google 

C.I. fbi Hi/tory of Qinz. iii. 

bfhb followers as the (aviour of the world, great law-^ver of 

Baokind^ fent by heaven to teach them the way of falvation^ 

laf even, accordii^ to L^ Compte % to make atonement for 

tb fins of all men. The emperor, who is a Tartar^ follows ^^ #«i^ 

Ae idoktry of hisKiwn nation, which differs little from the '^'^ ^^ 

Omefe, excepting that the lamas, or Tartar priefb, worfhip ^^'^^^ 

their deity, which Le Compte tells us is the fame with the ^*^J^*h 

Omefe Fo, under the fhape of a young man, who, they pre- 

loxi, never dies. He is kept in a fbtely temple, attended 

iridi nizmberlefs lama$,~ who ferve him with the greateft vene* 

Jtiati ; and, when he dies, they chufe another from among. 

tiniblves, as much like him as they can in fbiture, features, 

id to pafs on the people for him : whereas the bonzas, or 

(Snefe ptiefls of Fo, worfhip him in feveral forms, fuch as 

tfaole of a dragon, ape, elephant, ire. through which they ^ 

preteod him to have tranfmigrated before he was deified K 

The lamas that are in CMna, only ferve the Tartar nobility 

there as chaplains, whilft the bonzas engrofs his worfhip to 

thoaielves in all the Chinefe temples, and make a vafl gain of 

it by the vileft and moft impudent impoftures on the people. 

Ik emperor, to outward appearan(;e, pays an equ4 refpeft 

^ both, but defpiies their legends and fuperftitions in his * 

beat; and, if we may believe the Jefuits accounts, worfhips 

01% the fuprcme Lord of heaven and earth. They own, 

bowerer, that he p^d the fame honours to Confucius^ and 

ofes die fame facrifices in the heathen temples, that the reft 

(i^ Chinefe did ; but this, they tell us, he only fubmitted to ^^^her^ 

fcrreafons of ftate ; which, they add, was the main obftacle ChnfiUm 

to his declaring himfelf a Chriftian, though they pretend to ^^^J 

beficrc him to have been one in his heart. 

We ihall have occafion to examine this matter mott dofely 
^jlica we come to that great r>*onarch's reign. In the mean 
time we (hall only obferve here, that fuch a fuppofition is quite 
inoonfiltent to a declaration, ^which, they tell us, he once 
BJsrfe to them : That, if he could be fatisfied once of the 
tnttb of their religion, he would not delay one moment to 
unbrace it ; though he was fenfible, that, if ever he declared 
tiafctf a Chriftian, the whole empire would do the fame in a 
^ years. For, if he had been really a Chriftian in hig 
httrt, what could divert, much lefs deter, him from pro* 
feing it, when he knew that his whole empire would fo foon 
Wbw his example ? Father he Compte^ therefore, feems to 
OS to have more rightly judged, that it was partly the fear of 
difobliging his fubjefts, and partly the gratification of his * 

\ Uhi fuf ra. * Vide and. fupra citat. 



by Google 

Itt The Bifiory cf Qiih%. B..1, 

predominaiit paffion, whkh he knew wai oppofite to the 'fpi^ 
rit of Chriftianity, that were the maia obftaclcs to his em^ 
bracing a religion, which, how much foever.he might adimirc 
it, was neither fuitablc to his.prefcnt circumftances, nor to the 
fuperftitious temper of his fubjefts, much lefe to the tafle 
and intereft of the whole jnggliDg and rapadous bonauiic 
tribe, who might eafily caufe an univerial revolt iu the cm* 
Counte- And this was, doubtlefs, the motive which made him not 

nances /^^ only outwardly cpm ply with their rites, but exprefs fuc^ aa 
honzas. extraordinary regard for their perfons, as to fufFer fome of tiiofe 
of the firil rank to live in his palace, whom his mother had 
^heirfad formerly fettled there. Though he could not but be fenfible 
cbaraaer. that the greateft part of that fraternity \yere the vileft cheats 
and villains in his whole empire, as well as the moft impudent 
tyrants on his bigotted fubjefts, if thofe of another focdety 
have not painted them in worfe colours than they deferve. 
The reader may fee a fketch of fome of their moft flagrant 
impoflures in the next note (H) ; and a greater detail xA them 


(H) They make the greateft 
fliew of fandicy, abftinence, 
mortifkation, fefc, by which 
they pretend to atone for the 
fins of the living and the dead ; 
but, in truth, are given to the 
moftfcandalous vices, even thofe 
of the moft unnatural kind. 
They will drag heavy chains, 
faftened t > their arms and legs 
in fu(5h manner, tbat they wound 
every ftep they ^o. They beat 
their heads againft the ftones 
and pofts, till they fetch blood, 
to extort alms from the people : 
fome, we are told, have got 
themfelves carried about in a 
kind of fedan, with nails drove 
on every fide with the points 
towards them, fo that they 
could not ftir without wounding 
themfelves \ and thefe nails 
they fold to the gazing popu- 
lace for a few pence, as amu- 
lets, and prefervatives againft 
all harms, and as efHcadons 
means of bringing down bleff- 
ings upon the buyer and his &•' 

mily. Thefe jugglers at the 
fame time declare, that the mo- 
ney thus given to them is not tq 
be applied to their own jprivatc 
ufc, but to build temples, altars, 
l^c. to Foy who will not fail of 
proportioning his favours to 
them, according to their muni- 
£cence to him. 

The dodrine of the tranixnir 
gration of the foul is another 
never-failing fource of gain: 
they pretending to know precife- 
ly the prefent ftate of the dead, 
and the future one of the living, 
that is, into what kind of bo« 
dies the former are tranfmigra- 
ted, and even to know the very 
identical creature or perfon into 
which they are paft ; and into 
what kind of one the livieg 
will ftiortly go. Jn the firft ca£^ 
which they leldom fail of repre- 
fenting to the furviving friends 
as either dreadful, miferable, or 
uncomfortable, they extort mo^ 
ncy'from them|to procure the dc- 
ceafed a fpeedy rtieaftj and par- 


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mLe(imff^uDuIfaJde9boycqtioisd\ for which we haive 
i»iO(HD» ia a work like this. 


* Lb CoMPTSy ubi fapri; 


%e loto a better ftyte, as oat of 
adog^fiiake^ or infed, intoaa 
ckphint, a pkilofopher> man- 
mn, ai^ the like. In the 
odker, by threatenittg the living 
w^animhappjr traiuinigration» 
the/ dcher get money of them 
tOKQcarethem a happier one» 
0r leave them to live in dread 
tf the fatal change. 

Lf 0>mft$ tells us a dory of an 
old man, whom theie bonzas 
biaade to bdieve that his 
M fiKHiki, in her next migra- 
<ioo, pafs into the body of one 
^ the emperor's poft hcnrfes. 
They had likewife advifed him 
toeat fparingly, and bear it pa- 
tiently, that fo they might the 
iboDerfend him into a better 
habitation. The poor man, un- 
able to reconcile hirofelf to fuch 
1 change, could neither flecp 
■<l*y or night, through the dread 
of it; but grieved at fuch a 
nte, as would foon have ended 
his days. Happily for him, he 
learned that the fouls of the 
Chriftians had a particular ex- 
toption from thefe kinds of me- 
tamorphofes; upon which he 
^lied himfelf to one of our 
jciiuts, and earneftly begged of 
^^ that he would make him 
aChriftian; afTuring him, that 
l»c would rather be of that, or 
any religion, than be turned 
mo a poft-horfe. The good 
™er, who could not but pity 
his fimplicity, took care to in- 
^ him firil with better mo- 
tives of becoming a Chriftian, 

and then readily granted his 
reoueft (47). 

He relates another inftance of 
the knavery of the bonxas, to 
the following effed: A young 
prince of the blood, being in- 
confolable for the lofs of one of 
his molt amiable companion's, 
applied himfelf to them, to know 
into what' ftate his foul was 
pafTed. To which they anfwer- 
ed, that he was now turned in* 
to a Tartar boy, whom, they 
told him, they could procure, 
for a fum of money, to be 
brought to him. The prince 
readily agreed; and a Tartar 
boy was accordingly prefented 
to him, as the perfon into whofe 
body the foul of his favourite 
was tranfmigrated ; and he waa 
accordingly received into favour 
as formerly, to the no fmall com* 
fore and fatisfadlion of the 
prince, who failed not to give 
thofe jugglers fome tokens of hit 
generonty {48). 

The fame authors relate feve- 
ral other inftances not only of 
the fame unprecedented villain* 
ous kind ; but fome of them of 
fuch an atrocious and barbarous 
nature, as can hardly be read 
without horror, or rather per- 
haps without diiSdence, though 
related by pretended eye-wit- 
neiles. Of this kind, we are 
told, is their privately feizing 
on men and women, and hur- 
rying them away into a clofe fe- 
dan, where nothing is to be ieen 
but the tops of their heads, and 

/47 J D9 BalJe, Le Compte. part 2. let z. Martin,', & al, (^%) U Cdwpfe & 
^MU.ubifrp. ' ; 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VIIL H the*-- 


by Google 

Theprinci^ Ai to thcv p^cipks^ they pifet^d that thdr^god Fh hadi 
//« c//i&^/ left them ten commandments. Xhc firft of them is, pot to luil 
jfif^' any living creature, of what kind foever. 2. Not to take 

a'Way another man's goods. 3. Not to indulge in afts of im- 
purity. 4. Not K) lye. 5. Not to drink wine. What the 
others are, \ye are not told; but they lay.a g|-eat ftrefs on 
afts of mercy, charity, jknd iti building of temples to. Fo, 
monafteries for his priefts, and providing for thw njaiutenaacc, 
as the moft effeftual meaas to partake of the benefit of their 
prayers, mortifications, penances, and other xtKeutariousad^iOAs, 
tpwards the atonement of their own iins, and obtaining -u 
Tranfini- happy tranfniigration in another life* Oa • the other hand, 
£ratton of they threaten no lefs thofe who with-hcdd their bcnefaftions 
the foul, from them; telling them, that they will tranfinjgrate into tHc 
bodies of rats, horfes, mules, and other fuch creatures 4 whicli 
lad point feldom fails of making a deep impreiBon on t^e 
There- credulous vulgar, infomuch that they often perfuade . diegi 
njoardand to biirn paper gilt, or- waflied with filver, filk, ck>tjl> ai¥l 
funijhmeni other garments, which, they t^U them, will be turned iato 
in the next fuhftai^tial gold and filver, clojd^fs, <bc. in the other woiid, 
^' for the uj3e of their deceafed parents, friends^ and relations, 

.or elfe Ipc laid up for them againft their coming thither : for, 
fay they, you muft not imagine that good and evil are as coil- 
fufed in the other world as they are in this ; for there are re- 
wards for the good, and punilhmcnts fcirlthe bad, according 
to every one's merit, or accordmg as they have taken care, ^ 
their generous benefa<5lions, to make fure of a title to tbo^ 
of their teachers *. 

> Lb Compte U Du Haldi, u^h jbprt. 

their eyes moving in a dreadfal ment ; and yet Father Le Comptt 

manner, to the next river or alTures us* that he faw an in* 

canal, and drowning them with- ftance of it ; and, by diicovej^^ 

out mercy, before whole crouds ing the impofture, had faved a 

. of fpe£tator5,wJio are harangued young man, whom they were 

by one of the, fraternity into a violently dragging into a ffvcr> 

firm belief that the perfons had firom becoming a vidim to their 

earneftly requeued to be thus inhuman knavery and impiety, 

difpatched out of tae world, in But this may fuffice to give our 

order to obtain immortality in reader an idea of thofe rdigious 

the next. One can hardly think cheats (49) : thofe who defire to 

that thofe jugglers, bad as they fee more, or greater variety, of 

.may be, would dare attempt them, may confult the authow 

.fuch atrQfiious enormities, in fo above quoted. 
polite and regular a govern- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Ci. fie Sijhry df CMnsu I15 

One ^lAig they partkularly rccommendy viz. the often call- Fo/rf^ 
uf iqxMi him for happioefs a^ ialvadon. Fo, in one of his yui^itAf itf 
books, had mentioned another ddty more andcnt than him- "ffoMfy 
itf, called Q-tmtOt finqe \?orftui)ped by the Japanners like- ^ ^^* 
vik, under the name erf A^mida^ who formerly had appeared ^ ^*'*. 
11 the kingdom q£ Bengal^ and had raifed himfelf to fuch ^^* 
Mght of power and merit by his great fandtity, that the bare 
kyoking of iiina was foAiciefit to obtain the pardon of the mod 
daioable crimes. Hiifti tiie bonzas have conpled with thdr 
f#;^¥hence the Chtnefe-tsi this feA have continually in thdr 
moAs the words O^-to-f^ which, tbeir mailers tell them, 
itibfficieat to expiate for their blackeft fii^. All thefe pleafing 
oodoDs to corrupt nature £ul not to gun greatly on vuglar 
■iods, and to fai^ihe them "^th an uncommon gen^ofity to 
Adr foothiag teachers ; whilft the ^(er and better fort pity 
til foraacT for their fimpiicity, and defpife the latter for their 
cxoavsigandes aod iatpiety ; being but too well convinced, 
tktthegp^e^ieft part <^ them are arrant cheats, and men of 
debauched lives, not^thftanding their fan£ti&d looks, and 
i^Kioos pUBtonces to mortification and hdinefs "f. 

Besides die various reprefentations under which they wor- Hunu n^ 
% their god Fq in their tempks, among which that of a-dra- fnfcnttL 
gw is efteemed the nobkft, and next to it the elephant, they 
kwc a variety of others, which, whether they look upon m 
<&£reQt deities, or dtffbent images of the fame fb, is not 
■Jpoed. Two in particular they have in their pagods, com- 
W»ly about twenty feet high, and pretty much m the lame 
Mtkikle ; thq one is called the god of immortality, and is re- 
prdeated iu the form of a groS fat man, fitting crofs-l^ged, 
withafiuiling er laughing countenance, and a monftrous pro- 
Bineat belly, quite bare ; the other not quite fo thick, and 
€Wercd before with a thin drapery, and in the fame fitting 
Fofture, w^om they ftyle the god of pleafure. Between thefe 
two is commonly placed a third, richly clad, with a rich crown 
oa his bpad, and fome ornamental drapery hanging loofe from 
it. This laft is called the great Idng Kang, and is thirty feet 
i^h, and richly gilt and carved. To thefe we may add an Other rt^ 
innoBacrable variety of odiers of all fixes and forms, which t^^M^^'^ 
tbeyfetupintheh'houics, ftreets, fhips, fields, burying-placefe, '^*'''* 
«wi4fiKh-like, tovrhoin the bum* incenfe, and other perfumes, 
ttd offer up their prayers, and other parts of the fame wof- 
ftip which is performed to them, in their temples. They are 
ftjfied by their votajries their* Jbaufliold deities, and are to be 
found among the pooreft, as well as among the richeft, and are ' 

? ti Cqisfti, part z.lct.». ^IXuHAtDi, ubi fup. 653, * feq. 

H 2 o;tV 


by Google 

ii6 The Hiftory of Chirta. B, I 

often fl-eated in the fame contemptuons and vindi^ive mannei 

as the Portuguefe are faid to nfe feme of thek favourite faints 

Their cha- that is, after having prayed to them a good while, and wkl 

* fiifi^int fomc importunity, if they do not anfwer thehr petitions, the] 

yben they grft upbraid them for their negleft and ingratitude, and thei 

do not tttt' proceed to chaftifc them. This laft is commonly done b] 

pravirs ^^^ baftonading, dragging them alo'ng the ftreets through dirt anc 

mire, dunghils, isc, : which done, they throw them by, aj 

• ufelefe, into fome obfcure comer of dicir houfes : but, if thcj 

happen toobt^ the elFeft of their prayers, they then fctcr 

. the poor idol out with great ceremony and refpeft, reftore him 

to his place, with a promife to have him new painted or gilt. 

.They then fall down and adore him ; confefs that they have 

. been as much too hafty towards him as he hath been remifs 

' and negligent towards them ; b^ of him to forget and forgive 

what is paft, which cannot now be recalled ; and that he will 

be more dil^nt and kind to them, and they will be more 

' careful of thdr duty, and more lavifh of th^ incenfe and 

.perfumes to hhn », 

An unwary reader might be naturally inclined to bdieye thefe 
to be fables, invented merely to expofe fome of the like kind 
of fuperflitions praftifed in a neighbouring church, were they 
not conveyed to us by fome of her moft eminent miffionaries % 
one of which tells us a long, and ftitl more furprifing, ftory, 
which happened at Nan-king during his ffay tliere ; the fub- 
Om of 'ftance of which is : That a man, who had lofl his only daugh- 
themjued ter, notwithftanding his moftferverft prayers, facrifices, oftcr- 
hy his vG" ings, ifc. to this god, and the promifes of the bonze that flic 
taryi ,w6uld recover, refolved to fue the idol before a magnate, 
cither as a faithleft or impotent, and therefore an unworthy 
or infignificant deity. The caufe was dragged from, one tri- 
bunal to another; and the judges, bribed by the bonzes, ftiU 
adnfcd him to drop his profecution ; whilft the priefl endea- 
voured to perfuade him, that, if he did, the god would make 
him ample amends for the lofs of his child. The man, whe- 
ther through grief or refentment, proved deaf to both ; and, 
^dcoff 2fter fevcral hearings, carried his pdnt. The idol was con- 
demned, demned to perpetu^ baniftimenr, as ufelefs to the nation ; the 
temple to be demoliftied ; and the bonzes that attended it to 
be (everely chafUfed, tho' not degraded from officiating at fomn 
other pagod ". Thefe ftories are not indeed fo confonant with, 
what thefe authors elfewhere tell us of the Chinefe learning and 
politenefs, and would induce one to believe them to be told 

... * Lb Compte & DuHaldi, ubifap. Vid. & Martin. Ca-' 
.Hfcki,Ni£WBOPF« kdX. *LbCompt£9 uhifup. part 2. let t. 



by Google 


C. i. yii Hi/iirj of China.' 117 

bythafe reverend authors with t defign to palliate the faper- 
Aidoi» of their own church, by exaggerating thofe of the CU* 
nefe : but, whether fo or not, it is allowed on all hands, that 
Ade extravttgaodes are defpifed and condemned by the wifer 
fcrt, and efpecially by the feft of the Ktcrati^ of whofe rife 
and tenets we ihall now give a Aiort account, before we dif* 
aHs thb article. 

This feft, which is a very modern one in comparifon of the ^ht fia §/ 
itft, may be faid to have fprung up from the dregs of thofe ^^f^ttera^ 
two laft fpoken of, Lau-kyun and Fo ; by both which the whol^ aJ^^ 
country had been for a long feries of ages immcrfed in all-^*^*^* 
kiods of magical witcheries, fuperftitious idolatries, and the 
soft univerfal depravity of manners ; all which, tc^ether with 
infrequent wars and devaftations which naturally flowed froni 
fc general a corruption, had driven the antient religion and 
kumg in fome meafure out of the empire. There were t^ut a 
ftaall number of Confuciuj's difdples left to keep it up, and thefc 
W odther credit nor courage enough to awaken the reft out of 
their lethargy. At length there ftarted up a fmall number, 
dxwt the years of Chrift 1070 and 1200, who, by their 
writii^ and example, eiFeftually ftirrcd upmanyof thewifer 
ibrt to the love of learning ; fo that it began to flourUh again 
bjr degrees^ infomuch that, Anno 1400, Tong-lo^ the then Supfarted 
reigning emperor, and "a great encourager of it, made choice h ^^' ''«« 
of e^hty-two of the moft learned doftors of the empire to/^''^' 
compile a fyftem, or body, of doftrines, agreeable to the fen- 
timents of the antient writers, which might ferve as a pattern 
ordireftory foe the learned hereafter. The emperor's autho- 
nty, and the reputation of thofe doftors ; their concife and 
fdkc ftyle, together with their high boafts of underftanding * 
^ antient writings ; foon gave a reputation, and gained a 
pttt number of difeiples, to their fentiraents. 

But thefe doftors, inftead of reforming the corruptions ^heir te- 
and errors of the Chinefe religion, according to the antient »^'' ^ ^'«^ 
liooks; and' particularly to the writings of Confucius^ rather ^^^']/^* 
ftx>ve, by forced interpretations, and falfe glofles, to diftort 
tbdr fenfep agreeably to > their own prejudices, and intrp- 
doced a new ^d of concealed atbeifm, and licentious free- 
dom from the worihip of God, at the fame time that they 
^Kte of him in the fame magnificent expreffions which the an- 
tienti had done. They acknowleged him to be the moft pure 
tad perfeft ^nce, fountain and origin of all beings ; but 
i^Jrdcnted hkn, at the fame time, as nothing differing from 
nature, that is, from that power, energy, or natural virtue, 
which produced, and ftill keeps all things in the fame con- 
ibat «rd€r« They tether explained themfeives to mean by 

H 3 it 


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126 The Hiftory of CMna. B. I. 

Thus much we thought ncccflary to fey of this fo £aiQea 

new Chine/e feft, and their princiideg ; but whether or ao 


«* fore which fuch facrifices 
•* were offered, bears this in- 
** fcripdon, To Sbang-ti, that 
•* is to fay. To the fapreme 
•* Lord : that is is from a deep 
" fence of refpeft to that fu- 
*' preme Being, that none of 
'' them prefttmes to call him by 
*' his proper name ; and that 
*• they chufe to invoke him by 
** thoie of fupreme heaven. 
** boamifiil heaven, univerfal 
** heaven/ in the fame refpedt- 
<' fal manner as when fpe^ing 
•* of the emperor, they call him 
" not by his own name, but fay, 
** tbeftefsofbittbrMey tbt fu- 
•* fretne court of bis falace, and 
'* fuch-like: and, laftly, that 
*« thofe names, .tho* exprefled 
** in different terms, arc never- 
•* thejefs the fame with refpe£l 
^* to their import and fignifica- 
** tion.'V The emperor, upon 
another occafion, in which he 
ivas fpeaking in public, afhrms, 
that the Icarnea Chinefe fay, 
like him, that tbefrineifie of all 
things is called Tyen, bgaven, in 
mn txaltfd aifdfguratinfeftjkt in 
t be fame manner that (be emferor 
is called Chau ting, from the 
name of his palace^ nvhicb is the 
flace nvbere the imperial majefiy 
Jhiites with the greatefi fpUndor 

The fame author farther af- 
fures us (53), that that 'mon- 
arch, not content with having 
pybHihed the abovefaid edidl in 
the mo(l authentic ^manner, got 
it moreover confirmed, andfub^ 
Ccribed to, by a great number of 
the mod eminent mandarins, 
.^o^ors, and other members of 

the fe£l, with their prefiiient St 
their head ; all of, whom ^ 
peared furprifed to hear tlliit 
they had been fufpcfted by the 
learned of EuroU of having 
honoured a Ufelefii and inanl- 
mated being as the material 
heaven ; and univerfally ac- 
knowlegc, that they underftood 
by 7yen and Sbangti^ and as 
fuch worlhipped and invoked, 
idxtfufremi Lord of beoH^em, frht- 
ciplt of all things, tbedif^fer tf 
all good J tvboft all'inpnmng aid 
all'fieing pronndence gi'V4s us fftf 
things. This one would think 
fufficient to clear the literati 
from the fufpicion of atheifin 1 
bot yet there were many of 4e 
miflionarics who ftill fuipeded 
the imperial declaration, as wtB 
as that of the literati ^above- 
mentioned to have been the ef- 
fe£l, the one of politenefs, and 
the other of complaifancc, efoc- 
daily as both are conceived in 
fnth ambiguous and equ^vQ^ 
terms as no atheift would reMe 
tb fubfcribe to. Nor need #« 
indeed greatly to wonder Aat 
thcfe good fathers, who arc fuch 
adepts in the art of eqoivoca- 
tion, fhould fufpedk thofe literati 
of the like prevarication. ^ 

However, if we may judge 
by their jpraftice, and that be 
not likcwife niifreprefcntcdi^ we 
(hall have but too much ream 
to join in the fufpicioti i and 
though we may in charity be* 
lieve that fome of the wifcr 
and better fort may ftill adhet 
to the antient doArinc, and 
really acknawlege a fupreme 
Being, and his divine pwvir 

fS^JDu Balde, p. ^o- f^%) W fapra. 



by Google 

C. I. 7ii Wftory of CAni. t2i 

thi^ be i«aifyibfi«e from downright athdf^ as diej |)retendt 
dtttdoth not Under them from dealing in all the magical and 
Afolical fuperftitions of that of Lau-fyun : for all the Chine/It 
kgeneral, (^whatever feA, rank, or condition; are extremdy 
ftod of' adl foch kinds of witchery ; and even thdr greateft 
JMB will pti£ttfe a great variety of them in private, tho* thcg^ 
Kk chimed to condemn them in public. They are likewi» 
tMiery fond of the notion of all ibrts of fortune-tellers, of 
mvokiDg and dealing >vith good and bad fpirits* of appari^ 
tiQQ^ exofcifms, incantations, and all the whole tribe of for- 
coy and ibrdle^ous trafh ^ ; neither the philofophy of their 
|NSt CmfuaMSy a<Kl other learned men, nor the new refined 
jAdfinof tMr literati, nor their pretended fuperiorlty of 
wkxk and kno^e^ above all other nations, having hitherto 
hmaUe to root thofe abfurd notions out of their minds* 
Stome of thdr fefts likewife pay a kind of worfhip to the fun, i/^^rjhif 
noon, ftars, planets, to mountains, rivers, 6r. ; and moft,^^v/#/i» 
f not all of diem, to the fouls of their anceftors, to whom^, &c. * 
tbqr rear ftatnes, altars, chapels, and even temples, according To th§ 
to thdr rank and faculties : and the nodon that is propagated^^tt/r rftht 
^WNigft them, that thofe ibuls are ftill prefent, and take par- ^^i^; 
ifSxixc nodce of the aftions of the living,' generally proves as to thofe of 
peat a determent from vice, and fpur to virtuous actions, as eminent 
the many vcdumes of morality of their philofophers can be. •^* 
. The fame fort of worfhip, but in a higher degree, they pay to 
ftdr deceafed monar<;hs, great philofophers, and other «m- 
fient perfons, who have done any iignal fervices to their coun* 
tqiytoallof wh^n they build temples, altars, triumphal ardies^ 
^« And as. this laft kind is the' worfhip paid to Confucius ^ 
iftd to fome of then- htfk mcmarchs and great men, and ftyled 
tf the philofophic and learned feds a civil one, fo was it 

' MAarini, CovrLET, Le Comptb, Du Hald^e, k al. 
%. ciut. 

tee, which, we are told. Fa- enemies to all religion : for this 

ther foFvre proved agaiafl an lail clafs is known to be as 

tfcnbly of 3CX) literati, from much addi£led to all the ex- 

Ac authority of their canonical travagancies, and ridiculous no- 

tooks, laad without the leaft tions, of demons, magic, wiich- 

<fpofition from any of them ; craft, and other fuperltitions, as 

£the far greater part Aoy in the profeiTed difciples of the 

r hearts, difbdicvc it, what- other two fefts, and pra6iife 

<^ declarations to the con- thenr as much in private as they 

trtrjr they may fabfcribe . to, pretend to condemn them in 

ttereiy to avoid the odium of publia.' 
itbeifii^and of b^iog thought 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

cdimpfied ilridi by the Jefiiit mUEootriet^ aad pehnittod to tbote' 
profe^tesy nnder that nodoo^ tbo' highlf ccodeamed aod icoov. 
plaint againft by thofe of tha DaminicMt Fr^ncifiuui, ind olt^r 
orders^ as idolatrous^ nod a (caiidal to tbe Chriftiao reli^oa*. 
Whende arofc tho^ fatal dafcords botii^eeQ tben^ ^ppeate (O 
i?om^y and other feuds, which ended -ia the atmoft lotal end** 
£on of Chrlftiamty in this empire, as iv:e ihaU fee at the cMe 
of this chapter. And thus much may fuffice for the rdi^Oot 
ami feds of the Chinefe. 
fhe Mo- We have akeady taken notice of Mohammedan^ iatro- 
hammed- during itfelf Kkewife iatotbe empire, thro' fomeof die north- 
^lff'7 ^^^^ provinces bordering upon T^^aty. This kfX \mk 
^ i^ead itfelf thro' moil provinces of <!lpma; and hath been to^ 

krated by the reft, ^^thout any great diftur baoce, on aocoQat 
of th^ peaceable behaviour, th^ never entermg hKo diip«ia 
with others 5 but quietly enjoying their llberqr, without fta-? 
dying to propagate their doctrine, «ven by intermarriages, oat 
Makes hut ^ ^^ ^^^ kindred. They are indeed neither (o«fidierablc 
mfttmll enough for their number or wealthf to harbour any fuch views, 
fignTf. there being reckoned no more than about jooo or 6000 fa* 
milies of them, and thofe difperfed thro* the whole ^mpfll» 
and, for the generality, of the lower rank, as huibftridaien, 
artificers, isc. Befides, we are told, that 19 thofe places 
where they are mod nutnerous, and make the beft %ur«, as 
in fome territories beyond the Whang-ho^ where they hav^ 
been fetded durii^ feveral generations, in fome of the towns 
along the canal, aiS have very high moiks built after a dijfierent 
manner from the Chinefe taftc, they have boe^.ftill looked 
Often in- ppon as of foreign extraft, and hatve been fi^ucntly infused 
jilted. by the Chinefe people. Even a few years dgO, in the cky rf 
Haag'-chew, in the pitsvince of Hu^iuutgi^po^vA:^^^ UpoH 
fome diflike taken at the Indifcrete behaviour of fome of them, 
made uo fcruple to deftroy flteii* fine mofks, nptwithiUndmg 
all the endeavours of the magiftracy to prevent it *. . ' 

It is not eafy to gnefs, from the Chinefe accounts, when 

M*)hammedifm was firft introduced into Ghinay fome pkchrg k 

no earlier than the bcgit^rfn^; of- the fixteenth dynafty, add 

The empe- others carrying it as far back as the thii*teenth. 'However, 

ror not a from the finall encouragement they have had, and ftill meet 

Moham- with, as well as from what we have lately obferved of the em-^ 

inedan. peror's religioo, upon more occafions than one, it is plain, 

that thofe monaichs are not of that religion, as hath be^ 

affirmed by Mr. Collier ; nor own any of Mohaonmei^ doc* 

nines, except that of worftvpping one fupremc Bciog 5 oa 

« Du Haldb., ubiiuprk, p. 76U • *♦ ' - 



by Google 

C. I, fbiBjiory tf Chhwi. 113 

id|ki iccount only, both they, and the fcft of the Htcrad, 
iiiril»aght fit to tolerate them*; 

IhiBTHER dirlftiaidty was preached in diis empire fo CMJHam^ 
«i^a5 the times of the apoAks, hath been a matter of con* /(; tvhm 
tmtfj among the laamed. That Stl Thomas carried the flantfd. 
gojrilnto Ethiopia^ Perfia, and fev^ral other parts of India, 
wefcwe liewn m a former part of this work * ; but that h0 Whither 
fWCKfled fo far as Chtna^ we have no other proof for, than h^^" 
88 aadent Malabaric breviary, written in the Chaldaic tongue ; Thomai. 
kimt ci the leilbns and anthems of which, mention is made 
of that apoftle's planting Chriftianity in Ethiopia, Perfia, In* 
ififlj-ttiid China. To confirm which, another proof is fetched 
(wa the fccond part of the fynodical conftitutions (ch. 19.), 
viBrtiir mention is made of Chinefe metropolitans. Odier 
pwofe, drawn from fome antient erodes and monuments of 
fli«ore doubtful authority, we omit, all of which the op- 
pohe fide think fufficiently confuted by one avowed faft ; 
vitfsax the firft miffionaries, who fet foot in China about die 
I ©idfle rf the fifteenth century,' found not the leaft footfteps 
of k b any part of the empire. 

I filTT that this is no conclufivc argument againft its having 
[tell formerly planted and propagated in fome provinces of 
k, il pkin from that antient and venerable monument which 
Wdag up near the city of St-mgan-fiif in the province of 
^htt^-fiy and of which we have given an account in the lad 
fcffiai^; by whi^h it appears to have been brought into this Iniroducei 
tft^ y/. (7. 782 or 7?3 ; to have been readily received by the An. 782. 
Afa^igning monarch Lyen-tfong^ or rather Tay-tfongy and 
h^ encouraged during the reigns of feveral of his fuc* 
cdhfe, under whofe aufpices they freely propagated the go- Itsgretilt 
fpd, built a good number of churches, monafteries, \iQi^\^ frogrefu 
^1. &r. maugre all the oppofition of the bonzaic feft. And 
AoBghit is not eafy to know from the Chinefe records, which 
fcldom meddle with any events but thofe which concern the 
ti|^flpvernment, when, or by what means, U was afterwards 
fi^^ed>' fo as to have left no traces behind; yet it is com- Total fi^p* 
"WO^bdieyed to have happened about the year 845, in which frejjion. 
?%ierition ati idjft pf the* emperor Vu^tfong^ given in the 
Wifear of his reign, and condemning, among other bonzas, 
Ajfetf Ta^tfing^ or Judea ' (and fuppofed to be the Chriftian 
friaftj^^ in namber 3900, to return to a fecular life '. Such 

• Lj Coiim, obi Top, Sec alfo Du Halde, & al. * Ant, 
Dtfr. ijai. vol. XX. p. 106, & fecj. & (H). ^ Sec before, 

5'77i (L). ' Sec Dv Halde, vol. 1. p, 196. & ii. p, z, & 

5 ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

114 ^^ Hyiory cf China. B. I. 

an authentic teftimony, therefore, puts it beyond all doubt 
that Chriftianity was preached, and had made a confiderable 
progrefs, in that fpace, whatever be the canfe of its having 
been fince fo throughly abolifhed and obliterated at the time 
of the Raman miiBonaries arrival thither ■. 
■ fhtjefuits In this ftate of fuperfiition and grofs idolatry it had cooti- 
Jrft at' nucd above fevcn centuries ; during which, fevere kws were 
tempt to enafted againfl all foreigners entering into any part of the em- 
Ptflant It. pjj.^ . ^jjgjj Xaverius found means to land in it undifoovered, 
with a defign to replant Chriftianity there; but died fooa 
after, in a little ifland we have fpoken of in Ae firft fefticMi ". 
Above thirty years elapfed before any other of that fodety 
ventured to come thither : but thofe who were fettled at the 
city of Ma-kau^ or Macao, lately defcribed, were all that time 
contriving the moft proper means to gain a fafc entrance mto 
SharpO' '^ » '^^ order to which, leveral of them were perfe^ng them- 
g^j^ felves in the Chinefe toi^e ; and Father VaVignau^ the then 

fuperior-general of the mifTion, was procuring a great number 
di European curiofities, fuch as watches, clocks, maps, quadrants, 
globes, and all forts c^ mathematical inftmments, and a mul- 
titude of other valuable things, as the moft powerful intro- \ 
Queers of his brethren to the greedy mandarins and grandees, 
andlhe moft likely means to recommend them to the imperial 
court. They met accordingly with a very kind recepnm, 
father *"^ encouragement from the viceroys and grandees ; but were i 
Ricci geti l'^" ^^^ ^ fternly repulfed. At length, after dWers at- 
into fa- tempts. Father Rlcci found means to recommend himi^ \Q 
Hfour at the court of Pe-king, and became a great favourite of the 
court. emperor (L), and was permitted to fettle at that metropc^; i 


^ Vidr Kercher China 111 aftrat Le Compte, nbi fup. Lh 
Martiniere, Dv Halde, & al. " Seebefore, p. 88» (R)* 

(L) Though we are obliged viceroys and mandarins, who^ 

to abridge the account of this being apprifed of the vahaUe 

celebrated miflionary, the read- curiofities he had brought wl6 

mud not thence fuppo(e his him, were all greedily gaping 

fuccefs to have been fo quick as for a (hare of them. He was 

we relate it ; on the cpntrary, likewife imprifoned, and met 

we are told, that he fpent twenty with many other :obftacles and 

years from his firil attempt to difficulties ; but his prefcnls at 

fettle at Pfiing, to his obtaining length overcame them all, and 

leave to do it ; during which he procured him the fetrleoienlrhe 

met with the moik mortifying had fo long endcavoi^red aft^r. 
difcouragements and repulfes The prefentK he made to the 

from the rapacious and jealous emperor, in particular, were, a 
4 fine 



by Google 

C. I. Tbi Hificry of China. 125 

vtore he and his companions took a handfome houfe, had a 
peafi6a fettled upon them ; and were allowed the liberty of 
OK of tl^ courts of the palace, into which none but the offi- 
cers of it w^re allowed to enter. Here he foon gained an ex- 
traorcBnary reputation, on account of his great (kill in the 
attdiematics, and the rich prefents he made to the emperor, 
ad his court ; infomuch that bis houfe became the receptacle 
of all the grandees and learned men, and particularly of the 
piindpal Koiau^ or firft officer of the empire, who gave him, 
4M1 all occafions, the greateft marks of his efteem. 

RICCI^ thus firmly fettled in the favour and efteem of the Pn^« 
emperor and his court, began then in good earned to fvo^TL- gatesCM^ 
§lte the Christian religion in that capital ; and (if we may A^'(J' 
4tptaA. upon the rdations given us of it by thofe of his y'^^fT^^ 
Adety) with incredible fuccefs and reputation ; and,' among-^^^^* 
edior judicious precautions, ordained, that no converts (hould 
be admitted to baptifm till they had made a public and folemn 
proteflation, expreffing their abhorrence of their pafl lives, 
and the fincerity with which they embraced the golpel ; and 
Ais they were obliged to comply with, to prevent all doubt- 
Jig about their fincerity, and real fentiments. The reader The sud 
may fee the form of it in the author often quoted o, from that •/ the nenm 
vUch was made by a celebrated mandarin, named Li^ which cowveriu 
.Wtt deiigned as a model to all the reft, and which runs in 
ihe moft pious and fincereft ftrain ; and concludes with a 
prayer to God, tha^ he would enable him not only to live up 
to die rules of his holy gofpel, but to fit and permit him to 
preach the fame faith to others, and with the fame fervent 
2cal as he had embraced it. 

LPs example was foon followed by a multitude of other 
ffandees, mandarins, and literati, and by much greater num* 
bfts of people of both fexes and inferbr ranks, who aU be- 
cime not only zealous profefli^s of the Chriftian filth, but 

Et promoters, and advocates for it. They likewife proved 
Uberal contributors tbwards the building of churches 
llld oratories, that, we are told, there were built in the 
province of Kyang-nan no lefs than ninety of the for- 

^ Du Halde, vol. ii. p. 7. 

fiiepidureof oar Saviour, and to an honourable place in the 

anotocr of the Virgin Mary, and imperial palace; aid a fine 

a clock of cxtraordinarv work- tower was built fpr a rcpofitory 

ntnihip ; the former of which, of the latter ( i ). 
we are told, were conveyed in* 

(i) Vide Mtnifi^ MAgMtU', It Cmpte, Du Baldf, ^ mK mufi. 



by Google 

p^^ aikt forty-five of, thelatrer. They were tia kfe cauifiii 
to tranflate feme of the Chriftian commeats on: the gpfpt^ 
together with, other reDgions books, fiich as the lives of tbp 
Candida'/ faints, and others of thd like nature \ all which one flnglp 
gnat libi' lady, a zealous convert, caufcd to be printed at her owii 
ratify. charges, aad to be difperfed ^road among the unconvecMi 
Honoured of aU ranks (M). For thefe great -aSs of piety and liberal*^ 
iy ihi em' ftie was fo highly refpefted ^t court, that the emperor hin%- 
jeron felf honoured h^ with fei«ral .rich pjjefents, and with the 
titlie of Sho'ijji^ or virtuous woman^ This raifed a nobfc 
emulation in other great ladies of quafity to imitate her ex- 
ample; who, by their zeal and piety, brought their hufbaa4l 
to become not only profelytes to, but great fupporters o& 
the Chriftian caufe ; fnfomuchthat the churches. mliltLpliedi^ 
every province of the empire, notwithfEanding Uie ibreauoqs 
dppofition of the bonz^» who leftuafbne uatum^d tQ ga^ 

(M) This excellent lady, who 
wai at her baptifln named Can- 
elrday was the daaghter of Syn^ 
one of 4ke moft celebrated lite- 
latiy and one oi the eftvlieft and 
jBoft^sEealQiK cQttrerts. that Fa- 
ther JiicdYiiA made, I& daju^- 
ter„ beii^g vldp becpnue s^ ilnoere 
Cbi^iilian, wa«r nogaqiiied ax the 
a,^e of fixteen ; and, by ber 
wifdom and piety, converted 
her hufband, who left her a 
widow at ^irty. From this 
time (he fpent the remainder of 
'^ life in the fervice 6f reli- 
gioQ, and the cducadeo o^^ht 
cbildseft (he had had by hSn ; 
ad^, (hough (hepcoyida^ hand» 
ibmely for them alii yet, by her 
good Gbconomy,(he faved enough 
of ker fortune, not only to de- 
fray the charges of printing fo 
great a number of books, bat 
likewife to build fome churches 
in the provinces ofKyang-Ji^ Hu- 
quango tLndSe-chiven (into the laft 
*«£ w&chihe followed her fon^^^r- 
/iiktSf who held fome confidera* 

ble pofts there); after whichi 
(he invited fome of the miffioA* 
aries to. come and take care of 

Her eharity extended to the 
poop infants and chiidren,whom 
the poverty of their pancnti lofcad 
to Qxpo(e to the wide wodd: 
for thefe ftie ene&ed an hoM- 
tal, which was prefendy an^ 
fo filled with thefe obje^ tM» 
notwithftanding the care of this 
nurfes, arid thofe about themt 
200 of them died commutfitis 
amis. The very loweft die« 
o# peepkt the old and Im^ 
et pietekided Co, wha went sd>oat 
the ftreets cheating psoplsi ent 
of their money^ under. pr^Mce 
of teUing ihem their fortaoi^ 
(he caufed to be taken ap» io* 
flru£led, baptized, and provided 
for. She Kved forty-three years 
in widowhood, and ia all fuch 
kinds of charities ; and died, as 
{he had lived, an eminent an4 
exemplary Chriftian (i). 

(a) Du Halik, wit ii. ^. 8, &/ef. 



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ifm ife ^veiA^of airw religion, wJucb W9S fi> ostrKry 
10 Adr pafioQstml ioteicft (N). 



fW) Tkett it ftircghr «ny 

Toen to foppofe tkat thei^ per- 
wuBtun are antcfa. cxa^gcntod 
Af the fflifionancs, w)^d we 
cvnUer the in£uDOBs ckarader 
of die wlnlebonzaic tsibe ; tho* 
dot is great ftaibo to belirve 
t^X iuHre cbe maBf mirfculoiis 
mmsos ui whkii tie divine 
Pkmiciice is faid to bsre is 
iBfafiMi in £uroar of the per- 
fitttei. Hie reader wiUreadilx 
jidgp al k ii)r tiNfe two that 
Aiioiil ttd whiflfc i»e have in- 
^OQt of a grett vmnecj of 
odMnwhieh Hefeattered amoi^ 
tiiarother aocouait*, as fa maa^ 
^ttkntic atiefbcit>nt of Ood't 
^coBding their endeavours, and 
(Mieg att tbenudidow ^bvices 
i^thttr cnemioft to hXL 
tfi^otn heads. 

^NMBedtaftop the prngrefs of 
Mcf AVo^f cosiveifiaiis, h^ 
^^rfi]^ a fcaadaloaa lampoon 
^MQt^ccmrt, in which tkcf 
^ochU dw cuyceoi of having 
^Nhdicd ftM his oht reli. 
9^ and bebg becone a piro* 
al|ie and pi^ingeefi of this now 
^wfakh they fcraplod aat 
^^tin the snoft odious oa- 
•J*»j as wen as its preachers ; 
^tttfck of their wife fcheme 
2J« ^tat they wete all appro- 
^^ ^n<i pomQied in the 
*^«ttl and moft mortifying 
^i^^er; and that the prindp^ 
Ijwog thca, tho' a man highty 
*'P'^ at court, and rcvc- 
"^«daj a prophet by the peo- 
lp» was condemned to fach a 
'^^adfulbaftonado, that he ex- 
Pwtdundtr it; whilft Father 
{^f« had the pleafurc to fee 
»»» crsdit and faccefs increafc, 

in pfopertion fia their opfnfitioxi 
againd him. 

After th0 death of Father 
Rieci^ his coUegue J4tm $^i«e/ 
was no iboner chofea piecefiar 
to the young emperor Kang-ki^ 
thaa a petition was presented m 
the agents, by one of lh« lil*> 
rata, fail of the bittareft iaveo* 
tires agauiA hhii» aad thtos 
others of his ibctety; aad a 
■aoft dreadful peHacutita was 
raifed ag^iaft them* Theyweoe 
ail elapt into gaol, loaded with 
chains, and very feverelji uied 
Jam 1664^ *^> ^ ^^ "^^^ 
year,Cbritfbanity was profcribedg 
asidfeaodperaieioMs;, andi-'a- 
ther Jdam coademned to Iw 
teingledL Bat, that being 
thoagk too honouriUe a deaths 
they exchanged it for a moia 
infamous aad cruel one 1 whidi 
was, that he Bioald be brought 
ant,, and enpofcd in a pobisc 
place, and, whilft alive, be cut 
into ten thoa&nd pieees. The 
featenea wa» fent to the princes 
of the blood, aad regent maa- 
dflrias^ for their confirmatto»» 
when God was. pleaded to iater- 
pofe in a fignal OKumar ; for, 
everyt time they attempted to 
readmit, a iodden eacthqaake 
Ihook the haU with fuch vehe- 
mence, that they all ran oat of 
it, to prevent being crufhed un- 
der its ruins. We are not told 
how often this was repealed; 
but only* thatit threw the peopTe 
into the gteateft confternation, 
and made tham believe it occa- 
Eoned by the ui^iift fentenoe 
againd Father ^^jii. But^ adds 
our author (3)* the earthquake, 
which was renewed more vio- 
lently than ever, aad a 6re 

(l) Du Ralde, ubifu^, f» 15, ^ f*f. 


by Google 

128 The I^hry ef China. fi. I. 

Tms is the account g^vea by thofe miiBoQarles <^ didr 
firft plandng the gofpel in this great mnpire ; and dioug^ ive 
may reafonably enough fuppofe^ that they have fet it out to 
the greateft advantage, yet^ all thii^ impartially confidered, 

wldcli confumed moft part of 
the palace, with feveral other 

concomitant prodigies, opened 
the eyes of, the onjuft jadgei, 

and convinced them that Hea- 
ven interefted icfelf in favour of 
the pifoners, who were imme- 
diately fet at liberty ; and Fa- 
ther if^m permitted to return 
to his place, till the young en^^ 
peror ordered it otherwife (3). 
Thefe two inftances may ferve 
as famples of the reft, which 
ireiat quicmnque *vuU ; •nly one 
cannot forbear wondering that 
Providence fhould difplay itfdf 
In foch fignal nunner in favour 
0f thefe preachers of ChriM- 
anity ; and yet fufFer them to 
fall fo foon after into fuch vio- 
lent and nnchriftian divi&ms, as 
proved the main caufe of its 
utter extirpation out of the cm* 

However,' thofe good fathers 
did not fo far truft to thefe mi- 
' racles, as to omit other means 
.to recommend themielves, and 
their religion, to the Chinefe na« 
tion : and we muft not omit one 
fignal advantage which they 
gained over the means 
of feme quinquina t or jefuits* 
powder, then altogether un- 
known in Chinat and brought 
thither from France by Father 
FounteM^^ one of their fociety. 

^ The emp6ror had languifhed 
fome time under a tertian ague, 
which was very uneafy to him ; 
and, upon the proclamation be> 
ing made at Pe kin^^ according 
to cullom, that thole, who knew. 

any effednal remedy agadift diat 
diftemper, (hould come and de- 
clare it at court, one of the 
bonzas came, and pretended to 
cure, as is ufual in fuch cafes, 
feme perfons* alHi^led with the 
fame difeafe, by a elafs ^f wa- 
ter, over which hehadra>eated 
fome words, and fmotantii 
fome magical ceremonies. The 
medicine not fueceedittg, two 
eminent Jefim piopoM the 
trying oi the fuinqmna i which 
effe^ally pertbrined tiie cure. 
Father Fwtomutfn when infn^- 
land in dia year 1703, told the 
Royal Soctecy one circnmiance 
which Du Hmhk hath omitted ; 
n)i$i. that they prepared three 
dofes of it, one of which the 
emperor was to chafe for Kim* 
felf ; and-they to drink the odicr 
two before htt face, topioveat 
all fuipicton of poifon. The 
emperor, by that means, was 
eafily pofuaded to take it, and 
was perfedUy cned by tiie firft 
doiie ; andingratttude to them, 
for having, as he expreiled it, 
faved his life, aligned them a 
no'ble apartment in the Whm^ 
chinw^ or firft conrt of his palace, 
caoMd it to be fitted up for them ; 
and, being informed by them, 
that it was not ufual Ibr Jefuits 
to have houfes without a church, 

f ranted them a large adjacent 
eld, on which tl^y built a 
ftately one, which was finifli- 
ed, and opened with great ce« 
remony on the 9th of Decemttr 
1702 (4> . 

('i) Du UalJe, tih'fu^ra.p. 15, $^fiq» 
Utirei •i.ifijnt* vpI, vii. f, 222^1» /*f. 

(4) Hid. p, 29, ajtf. ni 


by Google 

Cn. 9^ Hfft^y of Ch\nt: I19 

^bm «n 00 &ubt be entertained of its having «i«<le t very 
Ub as well as confiderable progrefs through moft of its pro- 

fiflces ; and which might, in all probability, have proved much DMjSons 
greater, and more lafting, had not the unhappy divifions, whicji ««w»^ 
Dttan to reign among the feveral orders of thofe miflionarics, C^//tf«r 
iWthe perfeutions which the Jefuits raifed againft cardinal^*'. ^ -^ 
JWwa, and other fellow-labourers, for too freely cenfuring '^ 'i' ^^' 
Mr Ihamefiil comfl^ance, and that of their profejytes, to ^'^^'^ 
ftne pag?ui rites (0), put a ftop to it, 


(0) Wc lately mentioned a 
ttiof worflup which the CbU 
<#P«y to tht feuls of their 
«Kdten,of fomc of their great 
AOBtrcb and eminent men, and 
«^i«Ily to their great philo- 
tophcrand lawgiver Confucius i 
wfakworihip, however, we arc 
^ is ftyled by the phHofo- 
fken and literati, who arc ob- 
1^ to coflipty with it, a mere 
ovil wor^p, in order to avoid 
•♦echafgc of idolatry. The 
Moits Tcadtly took hold of this 
^i^inftion (if they were not 
«% t^lc aathors of it) ; bc- 
«afe, as they alleged to the 
!JP«» tkat paid to the great men 
jw-mcniioncd, being eiU- 
J«d iy the law, could not 
Wfpcnfedwith withoot mani- 
tt danger to Chriftianity ; and 
«at paid to the fouls of their 
•wws was fo deeply rooted 
U ^"Cbinefe nation, that few, 
■«f» woald have cared to 
jcwic Chriftians, if that had 
•prif ed them of the liberty of 
P^nmng what they eftcemcd 
* *nt!al and delightful a part 
<r ilial duly ; upon which ae- 
J^t they thought it very cxpc- 
*^ to indulge them in it, 
H for both thefe, they were 
«gWy Warned; and at laft com- 
pWncd againft both to the pope, 
•^ to the fodety de propaganda 

feU% and the diftin^Uon be- 
tween religious and political or 
civil worfhip expofcd as a mefe 
fubterfuge, to palliate a eom-» 
pliance which diey j udged high* 
ly injarions and fcandiUous to 

The truth is, thefe complaints 
were made by odicr miffionaries 
of the DomtnicaUf Franeifian, or 
fome other order, none of whom 
ever loved that of the JefUits ; 
and were, in all likelihood, 
joined with them in the miflion, 
by the political conrt of Rome, 
to be a check upon that fubtle 
and infinuating fociety. Upon 
which account their charge may 
be reafonabiy enough fuppofed 
to have been in fome meafure 
aggravated, and profecuted with 
too great animoutv. However, 
the Jefuits, to diiculpate them- 
felves, procured, by their great 
intereft at court, an explanation 
of thefe Chine/f ceremonies to 
be drawn up by two learned 
mandarins, and to be approved 
and confirmed by the cmperor> 
to the following efFeft (5) : 

** When the Chxne/r honour 
«« Con/ucius, they do it to fhcw 
** their reipeA to him on ac- 
«* count of the do€lrine which 
*' he hath left among them s 
-** and, having once embraced 
" it, how can they better pcr- 

.(5) Jtfufi Ittters, Set alfo tht hik dh<mequ9ttd, Di Cidtu Zinttifum. 

Mod. Hut. Vol. VIII. I « form 


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ISO The Hijiory of China. B. I. 

After having faid thus much on fo remarlcaMc a tranf- 
aftion as the intl'oducing and propagating of Chriftianity thro' 


form thefe dae honours to 
him, than by pfodrating' 
themfelves, and touching tiie 
ground with their heads, to 
him whom the \»hoIe empire 
acknowleges as their ma- 
tter. As to the libations, 
and other rites, performed to « 
their deceafed parents, they 
are only paid as a mark of 
refped, and acknowlegement 
that they revere them as the 
heads of their race and fa- 
mily. And as to the pidlures 
(ftatues itlhould rather be) 
which they fet up in honour 
of their anceftors, they do 
not mean by it, that their 
fouls reilde in them, neither 
come they to afk any favours 
from them ; but only fet 
meat, and other prefents, be- 
fore thofe pi£lures, to exprefs 
their conuant love towards 
them, and their forrow for 
being deprived of them. 
** As for the facrifices which 
the antient kings and empe- 
rors were wont to offer to 
heaven, they are fuch as the 
Chinefi philofophers ftyle 
KiaO'cbetth2Lt is, the facrifices 
which are made to heaven 
and earth, by which, they 
fay, Shang'tif or thefovereign 
Lord) is honoured; and it 
is for this reafon that the 
little pictures, before which 
thofe facrifices are offered, 
bear this infcription toShang- 
tty that is to fay. To the fo- 
vereign Lord : from whence 
it is evident, that they do not 
offer facrifices to the vifible 
and material heaven, but only 
to the Lord and Creator of 
heaven and earth ; and, be- 

" eaufe their' veneration and 
*' refpeft for him will not per- 
*• mit them to call 4iiin by his 
'* proper name, they invoke him 
** undeft^the appellations of the 
** y*5^'*«»^ beanjen, the hountifml 
** heaven f the unimerfal bea^en^^ 

The emperor Camhi*% (or ra- 
ther Kang-hVi) approbation was 
to this effba : " That which is 
'' contained in this writing is 
** very right, and conformable 
** to the grand dodrine : to pay 
<* our devoirs to heaven, to our 
*^ lords, to our parents, to our 
*' matters, and to our anceftors, 
*^ is a law common to all the 
** world. The things contained 
** in this writing are yr^ry true, 
'* and need no amendment** 

But neither this declaration, 
nor any other apologies which 
the Jeluits made for their coo- 
dud, could hinder its being 
publicly condemned by the 
pope*s legate at Cantcn^ Aum 
1707, by a decree dated from 
that city, forbidding all Chrif- 
tians, both profely tes and others, 
to pay any fuch honours either 
to Confucius^ or to the pidnret of 
their ancettors. Upon which 
they found themfelves obliged 
to procure a more favourable 
one in their behalf from the 
pope, Jnno 1715 ; which or- 
dained, that the word Tyen-chi, 
that is. Lord of heaven, ttiould 
be ufed to fignify the true God, 
as had been long fince done by 
the mittionaries; and that the 
fame condud fhould beobferved 
with refped to the ceremonies 
to be allowed to Chrittians, 
confining them only to fuch as 
were purely of a political and 
cinnl nature: and, laftly, that 

4 the 


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C. r. 

^e Hiftory of China. 


this vaftempire, we fhall not go fo hx out of our bounds or 
province, as to enter into a detail of thofe difputes which oc- 
cafioned the total fuppreffion of it ; much lefs of the intrigues 
of the Jefults at the court of Rome^ and the pope's partial be- 
hanour to that fodety, the fubjeA being fo well known to mod 
of the learned in Europe ; even thofe who only read Father Du 
Haltk's account ot it p, and coniider that he was one of theofi, 
and writes rather a vindication of his brethren againft Cardinal 
TwrnoTit bifliop Maigrot, and other of their oppofers, will 
cafily perceive where the fault chiefly lay ; and thofe, who arc 
dcfirous to fee thofe tranfaftions more impartially dated, may 
read it at full length in a book intituled, De Cultu Sinenftum^ 
printed at Cologne^ Anno 1 700. 

All that we need to add, by way of conclufion to this 
aitide, is, that, after the cpnqueft of China by the Tartars^ 
the two emperors Shun-chi and Khang4i likcwife favoured 
them with their fpecial friendlhip and proteftion during their 
whole reigns ; but, immediately after the demife of the latter, a 

P Du Haldb, vol. ii. p. 7. 

the apo(!olic comminary, and 
yifitor-gencral, for the time be- 
ing, in Chinay or his deputy, 
ihould be confalted, if any dif- 
fculty arofe upon that head, 
Thb decree was direftcd tp the 
pope's legate, bifhop Tournon^ 
with the title of cardinal ; but 
ladled before it arrived, and, 
84 is fuppofed, of grief, on ac- 
toont of the perfecutions raifed 
«|ainllhimby the Jefuits. 

It proved, however, a means 
Ofincrcafing, rather than of re- 
ooyine, the difficulties about 
which both parties contended ; 
^ ftill differing as much as 
ever about what ceremonies 
were parely civil and political, 
•r not fo. Upon which the 
Wc thought fit to fend a new 
*cgatc thither, to compromife 
4ofc difputes, j^nno 1720 : but 
he was, foon after his arrival at 
Cwr/wr, not only forbid to come 

to court, but received expreft 
orders from the emperor to leave 
China, with all the other mif- 
Aonaries ; for that the pope*8 
decree beine inconfiftent with 
the laws and ufages of the em- 
pire, the Chriflian religion could 
no longer fubiift there. He 
was, however, permitted, Du 
HaJde tells us, to wait upon the 
emperor ; and was received and 
difmifTed with fingular honours, 
and permitted to leave China 
only to go and give the pope aa 
account of the flate of the 
Chriftian miflion, and with a 
promife to return back in three 
years with the fame charader ; 
but the death of that monarch, 
which happened foon after, and 
was followed by the total pro- 
fcription of Chriftianitjr, put a 
flop both to his legation, and 
the further progrcfs of that 
milBon (6j. 

W Jtfuit slitters See o/fojbe book abcvt quoted^ De Cu'ju SiKeiJium* Vid, 

I % number 


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j[32 . fbe Uificry^ of C)mn. P. ^ 

J^emon- number of petitions and remonftrances were prefented botji 
firarces' to his fon and fucceffor, ind to the tribunal rf rites, againll 
mnd ediBi the Chriftian religion ; upon which it was profcribcd by fevc« 
againji the ^^\ edifts, and thefe publiflied in moft of the capitals of the 
^' " '" empire The tribunal above-mentioned save this dccifioii 
againft the miffionaries (or, as they are there ftyled, Eurp-* 
peans) : That fuch of them as were at court might be Hept 
there, as they were ufeful for reforming the calendar, and 
other fervices.; but that thofe who were difpcrfed in the pro- 
vinces, were not only ufelefs, but dangerous, as they built 
churches, and drew the ignorant people, both men and wo- 
men, to their religion ; and fhould therefore be all fent awajr 
to Ma-kau (a Portuguefe town on the Chinefe coaft, and 
lately defcribed). This order was confirmed by the emperor, 
in words to this efFeft, written with the red pencil : That it 
fhould be done according to the above decree ; and that the 
Europeans, as foreigners, fhould be fent to Ma-kau : but that, 
to prevent any infult being offered to them in their way thi- 
ther, a mandarin fhould be appointed to conduct them feffe 
thro' every province, and convenient' time allowed them for 
repairing to that place. 

The Jefuits made ufe indeed of all their arts, and intereft 
they had with the emperor and mandarins, to ward off the 
fatal blow ; but all they could obtain from him, was, to have 
the city of Canton, inflead of Ma-kau, to be the place of 
their exile ; and this only on condition that they behaved fo 
as to give no caufe of complaint. This lafV order was imme- 
diately publifhed in all the gazettes, and in all the provinces of 
the empire ; and the miffionaries, without diftinftion, were all 
driven out of their churches, and condufted either to Pe-klng 
or Canton \ the emperor further declaring, in a new book 
written for the ii^flruftion of his fubjefts, that he tolerated 
only fome few of them, on account of the advantages which 
the empire received from their fkill in arts and fciences, Pur'% 
fuant to thofe edifts, more than 300 churches were deflroyed* 
or turned into paged s, fchools for the literati, and other 
common ufes ; and above 300,000 Chriftians derived of their 
paflors, and expofed to the mercy of the unbelievers, and 
without any profpeft of feeing their religion reftored. 

The Jefuits, however, have flill three Chinefe natives, and 

tion of 


rfdhrijii' the fociety dc propaganda fide a few priefls of the fame ^oun- 

anityat try, who privately mingle with the new converts, and offi' 

fre/ent, elate among them ; and, as thefe are too few for fo great a 

number of converts, they employ fome of the moft flulful 

catechifts, whq difperle themfelves among the provinces, fur- 

«ilb them with calendars, books of devotion, and other helpsj 



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C. /. Itie Hifiorf of China. 133 

aod endeavour to keep up the fpirit of Chriftianity among 
as many as they can ; for the doing of which with more 
fcfety, they put themfelvcs under the proteftion of fomc 
mandarins, which is not to be obtained but by fome confider- 
able prefeatsi and this is the prefent melancholy (late of 
ChrilKanity in the Chinefe cmpu-e *>• 

But this is far enough from being the only country in ^^^^^ ^*« 
which not only the Chriilian religion, but the very names of ^^^Jo** 
Chriftian, Praguay or Portuguefe, and European, are held ^^^^^ 
inthe utmoft abhorrence, thro' the mifconduft, or rather ill ^^^iL^ 
Aligns, of thofe who are fent to propagate it j and where, 
after a moft promifing profpeft of a plentiful, if not an uni- 
vdai converfion, and the greateft encouragements given to 
tkmby^the reigning monarchs and great men, all their hopes 
kve been quafhed as in an inftant ; the preachers, and their 
profelytes, perfecuted with the greateft feverity, their religion 
frofcribed and detefted ; all farther avenues clofely flopped, 
«wl carefully watched againft ; and as many as have fince 
attempted, under any difguife, or upon any pretence, to gain 
admittanec, have been put to the moft fpeedy and excruciating 
deadis. That this has been the cafe of a great number of Ww th§ 
Aofc Kmijh miflionaries, not only in Ton-king^ Cochin China^ mijjsona^ 
and Korea, aS we have feen in the preceding volume, but in ''^^f ^^ 
Jfl>««, Siam, Tibet i and the greateft part of Indujian, v e ^/'^>. . 
lave from their own teftimony, and the letters that have been ^''^'^fi^^^* 
tranfmitted from time to time from thofe parts, and are to be 
found in that large coUeftion printed at Paris ^ under the title 
rf lettres curieufes et edifiantes ; and with this aggravating 
prcumftance, that thofe miffionaries, who attempt to penetrate 
ttto any of thofe ImUan dominions, to avoid the fufpicion of 
IJttng either Chriftians, Praguay s, or Europeans, which would 
not fail of proving fatal to them, are obliged to difguife them- 
fclvcs under the name, garb, and profeffion, of eaftemy^in- 
J'/V, or penitents, fuch as we have defcribed in a former 
^ptcr, and to conform to all their rules of living ; that is, to 
*fen from eating any thing that has life, drinking any thing 
^^rating, to eat but once in twenty-four hours, to lie and 
*ehard, Seep little, and rife by the earlieft dawn, and obferve 
*peat number of other aufterities peculiar to that feft ; the 
<*^on of any one of which would render them fufpcfted, 
ind defpicable to the brotherhood. To avoid, moreover, the fjyg nami 
**fpicjon of their being Europeans, on account of the differ- ofChrifii" 
®cc of thdr complexion, they affeft to call themfelves north- an and 
^/<^«/#, or teachers ; and tell the Indians, that they come European 


< Du Haldb, vol. ii. p. 35, & fcq. 

I 3 • among 

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Digitized b 

134 ^ Hifiory qf Ching. B, L 

' among them with no other view than to inftruft them in a 
more worthy way of worlhipping the fupreme Creator, to 
give them more juft ideas of his attributes and perfeftions, 
and to direft them into a better way of obtaining his fevour 
and bleffings in this and in the next life, than any they have 
been able to learn frcttn- their own teachers. By thefe, and 
fuch-like difrnterefted fuggeftions, they introduce themfelves 
among them ; by their learning and addrefe they quicldy gain 
the cftecm and proteftion of the great ; whilft the aufterity 
of their life draws upon them the eyes and admiration cf 
the vulgar : the refult of which is, that they foon make a 
fufScient number of profelytes to build a church, and per- 
form the divine worftiip. The mlflion goes on and flouriflies, 
without meeting with any oppofition, except from the idola- 
trous priefts, who arc great enemies to, beqaufe great lofers 
by, this new religion, which is levelled againft their own. 
But no fooner is the pretended fanjajfi difcovered, or even 
barely fufpefted, tQ be an European, and his doftrine that of 
the Praguays^ or Portuguefe, than a dreadful perfecution is 
raifed againft the preacher and his converts, and their religion 
is profcribed and forbidden, under pain of death : fo odious and 
detefted^are become the very names of Chriftianand European 
all over the eaftern parts of India, even to the farthermoil 
boundaries of the Chinefe dominions *• 
Wheihit Whether any Jews, were ever fettled or tolerated in CUna, 
there nvere hath been a queftion among us in Europe till the be^nning of 
finy]^v/s this century ; though whoever confiders how they {warm in 
i« China. Spain and Portugal, where the laws are fo fevere againft 
them, could hardly |ind any room to doubt of their being 
invited in much greater numbers into that rich and opulent 
empire, by the fame profpeft of a gainful commerce, where 
there are not, that we can find, any laws, or imperial edifts, 
to interdift them from it : but all that while our news from 
thence made no particular mention of them.- Father Ricdt 
and fome others of the firft mlffionaries, feem indeed to hint, 
that there were fome of that nation difperfed about the coun- 
, try ; but, whether they met with any difficulty in it, or did 
not ibink it worth their while to find them out, we heard no- 
J^Jyna- thing farther about them till the year 1 704, when Father 
gogue of Paulo Gozani, a Jefuit miflionary, being come upon fome oc- 
fhem tn cafion into the province of Ho-nan, had the good fortune to 
(iQ-nan. And ^ confiderable fynkgogue of them, and, as they them-' 
felvcs told him, the only one in the whole empire, in the city 
of Kay-f^ng'fit, the capital of that province, and fituate iQ 

♦ V}d. Recu^il de L^^tres qur. ^ cdifiant. paff. 


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C. I.' ne Hifiory of China; 135 

the very centre cf the Chmefe dominions. He foon contrafted 
ao acquaintance with feme oi their learned chiefs ; who, on Their /k- 
account of his charafler, (hewed him a more than ordinary cred booh 
refpeft, introduced him into their fynago^e, and fbewcd him »« He- 
one of the volumes, *oi- parchment rolls, of the pentateuch f , b^^w. 
written in Hebrew ^ and in fair ind legible charafters, together 
with fome others of the Old Teftament, als thofe of Jojbua^ 
the Judges, Samuel, Kings ^ fome of the prophets, and fouie 
(rthcrs containing their liturgy, commentaries, and the like : 
theie laft much worn, and kept in boxes under their feats ; 
but all of them written in the Hebrew tongue and chara- 
fier. They owned to him, that they had loft fome of the 
&cred books, and fome of their targums or paraphrafes, ex- 
politors, <bc, by a violent overflowing of the great river 
Hoam-ho {Whang-ho), or yellow river, which had laid that ca- 
pital wholly under water, and had likewife much damaged- 
thdr thorali, or roll of the pentateuch : upon wWch they J'<wehi 
ordered twelve fair copies to be taken of it, which are ftill new copies 
prefervcd in the like number of partitions in the tabernacle, of the ten* 
where it is kept. tateucL 

Thet informed him, that they divided the Chin-kin^ or 
five books of Mofes, which they diftinguifli, like all other 
JtwSy by the name of the firft word in each book, as Bere'^ 
ftntb, EUeJhemothy &c. into fifty-two parafliah's, or leflbns, 
one for every fabbath-day throughout the year ; which divi- 
fion is fuppofed to have been inftituted by Ezra J. They 
retain the fame ^number of letters, which they reckon twenty- 
feven, including the five final ones § ; but whether th^ have 
admitted the ufe of the vowel points, we are not told ; our 
author not being, as he frankly owns, acquainted with the 
Hebrew tongue, and confequently not capaole of making all 
die inquiries one could have wiihed, about this and other 
curtous matters. They acquainted him furthermore, that 
two famed Jefuits, viz. Fadier Roderigo de Sigueredo, who 
flouri/hed under the laft dynafty, and Father Enriquez, who 
fiourifhed about the beginning of this, had had frequent con- 
ferences with the then chiefs of that fynagogue, but without 
coming to any agreement ; from which, as well as from thofe 
two learned men neglefting to get a tranfcript of their pen- 
tateuch, he fuppofes that they found it corrupt and muti* 
lated : and concludes, firom the whole, that thofe Jews arc 
of the Talmudift feft. 

t Dc his, vid. Antient Hift. vol. iil. p. 104, J Ibid* 

▼ol. X, p. I94f k fcq. § Vid. ibid. vol. iii. p. 2fi; $t 

1 4 THEia 


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Their J^' Theih fynagognc is there built mUch after the fluumof 
nagogue that they are in other parts of the world, excepting dsitff- i« 
defcrihcd, \^ turned towards the weft, that is, towards JerufsUeMy to- 
wards wluch tl»y mm thdr face when they prxy, a$ all others 
did, which were fituate e^ftward of that mctrcqpoils, once tbe 
centre of their worfhip. It is moreover divided into chreef 
ailes, OT partitions; but whether in imitation of tte threi^ 
courts of Solomon's temple^ as Father Gokien, thepubBftier d 
thb account, would infmuate in his remarks, at the &id of it, 
or no, is fcarcely worth inquiring after, or eafy to det^^nkid 
from the imperfeft fkotch here given of it : but, if fo, it 
differs in that particular, from all thofc we have feen in Eu* 
repCj if not from all that are in the world. 
JteaJing" ' In the centre of the middlemoft aile is placed their rcading- 
dejk. ddk, or, as it is ftyled, Mqfes's chair, where the law, an<f 

other portions of the cid Teftamcnt, and their ufual littirgy, 
are read with great ceremony. This chair, or defk, otir au- 
thor tells us, is grand and lofty, and richly adorned with 
crimfon velvet, with gold fringe, taflcfe, Sc. with ftatdy 
candlcfticks, and large candles, perfume-pots, and other €*• 
naments 5 and over it, inftead of the emperor's arms, which 
their law doth not permit them to reprefent, is fixed a fine 
large board, ^ith his name and titles luperbly infcribed upoa 
Th taher- it. At the farther end of the fame aile, and facing the chair 
"%^^j • above-mentioned, is the tabernacle, or repofitory of the fit* 
railed tn. ^^j ^.^jj ^f ^j^^ ^^^ ^£ ^j^^ xwehc tranfcripts 4ately fpok«l 

of, each of them in' a fcparate niche, fhut up with folding* 
doors, and a rich curtain drawn before it ; the whole indofcd 
within a handfome baluftrade, into which none but their kba* 
Farms jtam, or chirf officer, is permitted to fet his foot. The reft 
in/crrp' ^f ^j^^ fynagogue is decorated vdth inforiptions taken from tho 
^'°"^' pcntateuch, and other facred books, and proper to iolpis^ 
them with devotion ; they alfo cover their heads with the iSfiiM 
fhaled, or veil, all the time they are jM^ying. 
fheir Thet flri6Uy retaini the rite of circumcilion, and obfervance 

rites the of the fabbath, during which they fufFo* no fire to be kindled 
^Tr '^f*^ ^ *^ houfes : the three grand fcafts, of the paffover, wed» 
thofeof 0' Qj. pentecoft, and of the tabernacles, together with other oc* 
^^^'* J^^*' cafional feftivals, fefts, and other antient inffitutioBS, art! 
Kkewife kept with great fh-iftneft among thtm» tho^ kt f<«M 
pther cafes they readily comply with Ae Onmrfe euftoms, ani 
religious ceremonies. They call thcmfclves KtA^^kin-kia^ * 
name which was at firft given to them by the Chinefe^ on ac- 
count of their abftainlng from blood, and their peeulitfr ^ay 
^ killing the wimab they tat 5 but which th^ gladly tc- 


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Ci u The ti09ry of Chma." 137 

tskid^ te Order to dUKngnifh thcmfelves Ir<Mh the Mohofn* 
mdM, who art aJled Tee-mo-kiaOy with whom they cnter- 
tdo not the Icaft commerce; and frdtri whom they affeft to 
(fifltogoifh themfclTcs by fomc peculiarities in their drefs, and 
the Mxtm tnra <rf* their whifkers. 

Tatf caM the Supreme Being by the Chinefe name Tyen^ Namts •/ 
aad^torMphim under the titles of C'/i^tm-f/^, Chatn'tiySham'ti, Ood hr* 
(xtvixaShang'tyen, the Lord of heaven, Shang-ti, thefupreme rowed 
Lord, TeM^van-tfoe-tche, or Creator of all things, and of ^f? f^f 
fm-voi'tchU'tcaiy or Governor of the univerfc ; which names, ^*"'^®*^ 
they owned they had taken from the Chinefe books, that of 
Tiym fignifying properly heaven, as we have already obferved 
ttpofl another occafion ♦. Their law they call Tyen-kiao, or 
Ae law of God, or of heaven ; they Hkewife ftyle it fomc- 
times KoiV'kiao, or the antient law ; and J/Iaeh Kiao, or the 
hrof I/rael: where, by the way, we cannot but obferve, 
that they have, by long difufe, loft the pronunciation of the 
^, for which t;hey fubftitute the L, as do the Chinefe, among 
whom that letter is never ufed, when they pronounce fome 
^opean name that hath it, as j^alon, Mliam, inftead of 
^mn, Miriantj &c, 

AoiiN, as they have their Kterati and graduates, our au- Ccnfirm 
4or afked them, whether they paid the ufual honours to nvithfe've* 
^ikius that the reft do ? To which they anfwered, one and ^^^ Chi- . 
A^ the affirmative ; and added, moreover, that they per- °"^ '''^'* 
Wfflcd the fame ceremonies that other literad did, at the halls Pay bo' 
rfthdr great men. They likewife owneS to him, that they ^^g' *" 
jflcoitfonned to the folemn rites which are performed to their 9®»f«- 
^ftors, with this only difference, that, inftead of offering ^^^\ ^^^ 
WfieVfldh, whkh is forbidden by their law, they fubilituted ^^JJa^s 
'^ of fome other clean animal ; and that, in their more ufual ^ 
^fOftonies to the iteceafed^ they contented themfelves with 
fettiag brforc them fotne diihes of meat, fweetmeats, and 
prtimes, ferved in china-ware, accompanied with profound 
?oftratfons, after the manner of the country. 

Tbev condufted our author to this grand hall of ancef- fheir hall 
•W» which is ccmtiguous to their Ly-pai-fou, or fynagogue, defmhid*, 
^where thofe rites are performed every fpring and fall. 
B»e, inft^d of fuch pi^ures and figures as are irfed by the 
j^, but fbrlndden by their law, they had only a number 
* perftime-pans, or boxes, anfwerable to that of their ^>5/w- 
M, or great men, the largeft of which Was that of their, 
Nt fatha Jtrahafn, and was placed in the heart of the halL 
«txtto that were thofc of Ifaac and Jacob; and, next tQ 

f S^e bcforo, p. 119 (!]• 



iby Google 

1^8 ^he Hiftpry of China. 3. 1/ 

them/ thofe of his twelve fons, whom they flylcd Che^cum-pdi- 
tfe^ patriarchs, or heads of the twelve tribes. The next in 
rank and dignity were thofe of Mofes^ Aaro% Jojhua, Sa,^ 
muel,^ Ezray and other illuftrious perfons of both fexes, be- 
longing to their nation ; excepting, however, that the maa- 
darin, who is over them, is intitled to have hb tablet fct up 
in this hall, infcribed with his own name, and all his titles. 
Never The miffionary, being thence condufted to a houfe of en- 

Jbeard of tertainment, took occafion to aflc them fome queftioiis about 
Jafiu the promifcd Meflias ; and tells us, that they fecmcd greatly 
CSr//?« furprifed at what he told them concerning Jcfus Chrift : biit 
gave him no other anfwcr, than that their facred books made 
indeed mention of one JefuSr the fon of Sirach; but that 
they had never heard any thing concerning the other of whom 
Conform' he fpoke. He took likewife that opportunity to compare 
ty of their fome parts of his owii bible with their Hebrew one, particu- 
hihle ^ith j^rly that which relates to the lives of the patriarchs from 
9uny Adam to Ndah; and afliires us, that they agreed exaftly in 
hut not every particular. Now,, if his bible was the vulgate Latin^ 
nmth the of wWch there is not any room to doubt, that being the only 
fiftua^nt. one authorized by his church, it follows, that their Hebrevj 
is exaftly conformable to thofe. we have in Europe^ becauie 
the vulgate is fo } and, confequently, that the sera between 
Adam and Noah^ or the creation and the iSood, according to 
the feptuagint, exceeds them by 6o6 years, as the reader 
may fee by the tables we have given of it at the b^inning 
of the antieni; hiftory f . As for the occafion of this prefent 
remark, it will be beft feen when we come to fpeak of the 
Cbinefe chronology, towards the end of this chapter. 
the time of ^^^ ^^^^ needs be added concerning thofe Jews^ is, the 
their firfi ^"^^ ^"^ which they firft fettled in that empire ; concerning 
eoming in- which, they told our author in general terms, that it was du- 
ta China, ring the Han-chaUy or fifth dynafty, which began 2o6 years 
before, and ended in the 220th year after, the birth of 
Chrift ; but in what part of it, they did not tell, and, in 
Jftruey ^1 likelihood, could not inform him : but, fuppofing it had 
thtf could been at the very latter end of it, it is plain they could not 
notheT2X' be Talmudiftsy as he fufpefts them, much lefs guilty of mu- 
mudilh. tilating and corrupting their facred books with their felfe and 
fabulous glofles ; feeing neither of the Talmuds^ nor any of 
their fabulous traditions and commentaries, are of fo old a 
date by feveral centuries, as we have fliewn in our antient 
hiftory X* Neither is it juft, on the Qther hand, to fuppofe 

t Vol. i. c. I. fcft. J. p, 143, & feq. % Vol. x. p. 490, 
& {e(). 8i notes. 

% tho 


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C X. ^be Hifiorj of China. 139 

the TabttuJi/ls Xo\i2,\t corrapted the facred text, which diey 
have been fcrapalous to preferve/ even to a fuperfUtioas de- 
gree, thoogh they have ^afibly perverted the fcnfe of it by 
their ^Ife ^ofles and comments. Our author, therefore, feems 
plainly to have miiapprehended what they told him out of the 
htier to have been quoted out of the former : but as their Butufr9» 
adopting the fabulous traditions of the Mijbnah and Cbe- babiyMm^ 
marra fiiews them to have been infefted with the Tabnudic tedattd. 
leaven, fo they muft of courfe have impofed upon him with 
refpeft to the time of their firft coming into that country, 
and that it muft have been of a much recentcr date. This 
is no ftrange fuppofition, efpecially from a Jew to a Jefuit ; 
and, if fo, may we not as juftly fufpeft what they told him 
about thdr having no other fynagogue in the empire ; and They art 
what they further added to him, probably from the feme reduced f 
fpirit of diffidence and fear, that, though they were frcttjfi*^/^ 
numerous at their firft coming, they were at that time reduced *"*'''• 
to fevcQ femilies, whofe names were Thao, Kin, Che, Theman, 
Li, and Ngni ♦. 

Thus far our author's account goes, of thofe that he met 
with in that great city. How many thoufand more there may There art 
be of them, difperfed and difguifed throughout the empire, probahfy 
and who outwardly conform to the religion and cuftoms of the '»^'*' tf 
country, as they do in Portugal, Spairi, and other Chriftian '^'^ ^* 
countries, where, inftead of being tolerated, they are pro- ^'f^/^»* 
fcribed by the laws, can only be conjedhired by thofe who '^'^^ 
know what ftratagems they will ufe, what hazards they will 
nin, for the fake of gain. , But we have dwelt long enough 
ipon this one article, and (hall now proceed to a new topic. 

S E C T. m. 

Oftbe Government^ Laws^ Politics^ &c. of tbeCYintk. 

T'HE CbinefenzAon had been, from its firft beginning, fo Chinefe 
"■• mured to, and, we may add, fo highly delighted with, govern- 
a monarchical government, that, when the 2>tt/rAambai&dors ^^j^, *'*•' 
made thdr firft application to it, they found it very difficult ^^^^^^fi 
to make them comprehend what they meant by the high and ^ ^^*' 
ffl^ty lords, the ftates general, and the republic of Holland. 
What thdr antient form and ftate was, we have already pven 
tt account of in ^ former p^t % as &r as could be coUefted 

• Sec Lcttrcs cur. & edifiant. vol. vii, p. 4-— i*«28. » Se« 
Ant. Uwv. Hift. vd. xx. p. 124, & fc^. 


• Digitized by VjOOQIC 

t46 , Tk Hijiofy sf CKxm: S. t 

ff ooi the Chinefe records, for no mention is made of it in any 
other authors) ; neither is there any reafon, fix>m the fingular 
tenacioufnefs of that nation for its anticnt laws, cufloms, iic. 
or from what we read of the reigns of fo long a fuccefiion " 
of monarchs, to fuppofe that it ever received any coniidera* 
ble alteration ; fo far from it, that we find their very con- 
querors, contrary to the ufual prafticc in fuch cafes, of altering 
and inverting, have fhewn a fingular readinefs to confcwm toit^ 
and made as few changes In it as they poiEbly could : aijd this 
xiot fo much out of complaifancc to the conquered, as from 
an unavoidable efteem and regard for the excellency of their 
laws and conllitution ; infomuch that, in this refpcft, they 
feem rather to have fubmitted to, than to have ^en their 
laws to, their new fubjefts. 

It cannot, however, be denied, nor indeed is it at all to 
be wondered at, that this vaft overgrown ftate hath formerly 
fplit itfelf into a number of petty kingdoms, fomc of which 
(tho' all of them according to the fundamental conflittitioD 
of that monarchy, were dependent on a fupreme emperor) 
would yet nov^-and--then (hake off their fubje6tion, and ;nake 
themfelves defpotic in their refpeftive dates ; but time and for- 
. tune have never failed to reduce them back to thdr former 
dependency (P) ; fo that there is no reafon to doubt of its 
having continued,, in the main, mlich in the fame defpotie 
form of monarchical government in which the Tartars found 

(P) This is plainly hinted by a lofs what to make of the 

the Chinefe author often quoted pompous language and titles 

(7), whofpeaks of feveral fuch ufcd by the Dutch ambafladors 

revolutions, civil wars, i^c, to them, as we lately hinted 

which made a fhort alteration in out of Nie'whoff'(i)) ; much lefs 

the form of government, but at their not being able to -com* 

which foott after difappeared ; prejiend, as the fame authdi' 

after which, thngs returned to adds, how fuch a political 

their former ftate. He adds, ftate (which appeared to theta 

that the empire was one while rather as a monfter with many 

divided into loo, nay, into 300, heads, the fpurious offspring of 

partsor polyarchies, and after- lawlefs ambition and .^bborn-* 

wards reduced to feven, then to ncfs, begotten and bred, as they 

three, and at length to its pri- fuppofed,in times of anarchy a^ 

initive ftate of one intire mon- confufion) could pofiibly fubfii^ 

archy, folely fubje£l to one fo- without fome fovereign power 

vereign (8). to curb and fupprefs the one. 

We need not therefore won- and fteer ^nd govern the Otter 

ierthat they (hould be at fuch (10). 

(7) Dion. K10, apudJJbrandialdes, eb, a^, (%) Ibid. (9) Dutch 

fMafy to China* (10) Li Compte^uh fup. part a« letter i« 


by Google 

Ci: ThOJipry of C\m^ f4f 

it at the time of their conquering. it : iincQ that time it U 
become, if any thing, rather more abfokite and arbitrary than 
ever; feeing the power of thofe new mooarchs e3(tonds itfelf 
.pot only over all civil and military, but, as we have Icct| 
nnd^ the laft article, is abfolute and uncontrouled in ail reli« 
gipas matters. 

TjjP Chinefe monarchs, belldes their own proper names, EmferoHt 
were wont to afTume fome high and fwoUen titles, fuch ^fomfut 
hd]ifins (f heaven f lords of the whole worlds file governors titles. 
over the earth, great fathers of the people, and others of the 
like pompous found ; befides which, when Jthe government 
pa/Ted from one branch or family to another, he who was thQ 
M or head of it gave his name to it, which continued as long 
as the dynafty remained in his family, which was, from him, Dynaflee^ 
called the dynafty (or rather, as ^Chinefe word Chau imports, yr^/o 
the epocha, or term ci years) of fuch a king. Since the (x>n» "^h^m 
qu?ft by the Tartars, tfiat monarch ftyles himfelf Cham, or *"w«^/* , 
Ki«g, or emperor; and his power extends itfelf not ovi:^ ^heir $^_ 
OTcr all the iixteen provinces defcribed in the firft fedticm, temfiv^ 
butfikewife over feveral others of eaftcrn Tartary, over fome /^'"-^^ 
of which he hath an abfolute fway, whilft others are only 
tributary, aad fome of them only pay a kind of homage to 
lum; but is no-where more defpotic and arbitrary than ig 
tWe his new<onquercd dominions. 

Here he hath the power of life and death not only over Jhfilufi 
^Hhis fubjefts, but even over all the princes of the blood,/^^/* 
Hs will is the fole law, and his commands admit not the leaf): 
difpute or delay, under the fevereft penalties. He is indee4 
obliged to govern according to the laws 5 and to confult hi« 
proper courts and council in all important matters, whether 
dvil or criminal, military (x religious : but, as he b the fu* 
preme and uncontrouled interpreter of the former, and bear$ 
w abfolute fway over the latter ; or, in cafe of any too ftre* 
nuous oppofition from thefe, can difplace, punifli, or new*- 
mould them at pleafure ; the whole government muft centra 
>t laft in his fole wiD. The crown is hereditary in his fa^^ Croiun 
niily ; yet he hath the power to alter the fucceffion, . and ei^f hereditaryl 
tber dtmag his life, or even on his death-bed, may name his 
fccceffor out of what branch of it be pleafes, or even out of 
it, as fome affirm ; but, in this laft c^e, his choice muft be <rheir 
cwifirmed or ratified by his great or fupreme council, which grand 
«Hififts of princes of the blood, and the chief rainifters of council, 
fete ; for tndr concurrence is efteemed of fuch confequence, 
4at not only the Chinefe moiwrchs before the conqueft, but 
«^ea thofe of the Tartaric race, have always thpught it ne- 
ccflary^ before they ventured to enaft atjy new laws, to re- 

j verfe 


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I4i ^e Hiftory of Chirta. ft. I. 

verfc or fufpend the ofd oties : infomuch that We read of 
fome ioftances, in which, though the emperor and his T^ar^ 
tars have agreed upon paffing fome decree, efpecially in mat* 
ters of religion, or fuch as related to the antient Chinefe la^vs 
and cuftoms, yet they have chofen to lay it afide when they 
have found too great a majority of the Chinefe againfl: it, ra- 
ther than run the hazard of a rebellion *. But thefe inflances 
we may fay, happened when thofe monarchs were not quite 
fo firmly fettled on the throne : for it hath fmce plainly ap- 
peared, that the late emperor Kang-hiy both in thefe religious 
matters which were brought before him, and in his appointing 
his fourth fon to fucceed him, ventured to aft in a more de-» 
fpotic and uncontrouled manner ; and no wonder he (hould, 
% when he faw himfclf fo firmly fecured of the whole imperial 

authority, and the intereft, happinefs, lives, and fortunes, of 
all his fubjefts, fo intirely at his difpofal *. 
Qreat ho- The honours paid to thofe monarchs, both before and 
iamr4 paid fipce the conqueft, is next to, or rather, a kind of adoration. 
• /« the em- They feldom are feen but on folemn occafions, -and with the 
ter9r, greateft fplendor and retinue. They are never approached 
but with deep proftrations, nor fpoken to but with bent knees : 
neither are the grandees of his court, nor the princes of thi 
blood, nor even his own brothers, exempt from this cere- 
mony ; but all bow before his throne, with their faces to the 
ground, whether he be prefent or abfent. There are more- 
over certain fet days in the week, or month, in which the 
nobility by turns are obliged to appear at c(Durt, and pay him 
that homage, and acknowlege his authority, by the moft 
refpeftful genuflexions, proftrations, and other marks of the 
during his deepeft fubmiffion, whether he be there, or not. When he 
Jicknefs. |g yj^ efpecially if dangeroufly fo, the palace is filled conti- 
nually with mandarins of eveiy order, who fpend whole nights 
and days in a large court, in habits fuitable to the mournful 
oecafion, and invoking heaven for his recovery. Neither rain, 
fnow, cold, or any other inconveniency, will permit them to 
difpenfe with this duty, as long as he continues in pain or 
danger ; and any one, who faw the people at fuch a time, 
would think that they had no other fear or concern but about 
the lofs of him ". Nor is this to be wondered at, confidering 
how much their intereft, their happinefs, or even their lives, 
depend upon his recovery ; and the great changes which com- 
monly happen under every new reign, as he is in moft refpefts 

• Palafox Conqucfl of China. Martini, Le Compte, 
J)u Halde, & al. * Vid. Du Halde, vol. ii. p. 30, & 

feq. Le Compte, ubi fupra. Martini, Du Halde^ U aL 
^ Le CoMFTE^ &al, ubifup. 



by Google 

C. i. The HiHitry i?/ China. 14$ 

dte Ht difpofer of all ibte dignities, of all places of honour 
smd truft, both civil and military *• 

However, though their power be fo dcfpotic and nn* Their fm^' 
cofltrouled, yet they feldom make fuch an abfoiute ufe of it, preme 
as to go contrary to the anticnt laws ; but, in all things, c^undls 
confult their fupremc councils, to whom all matters relating 
to the emjHre are referred, and commonly decide them ac- 
awding to their advice : and this they are obliged to do, 
upon two accounts ; viz. to avoid the fufpidon of tyranny, 
vrfiich is fo contrary to the repeated maxims of their old law- 
giver, which all condemn it, with one voice, and fo hated 
bjr the whole nation, that it feldom fails of occafioning fomc 
revolt or infurredlion ; for which reafon, they are very fear- 
ful of forfeiting the endearing title of fathers of the people, a 
tide for which they are always mod applauded and loved by 
their fobjefts, and is a more confiderable topic in ail their 
panegyrics on them, than their power, grandeur, learning, 
or any other princely quality. The other reafon is, that as 
the emperor is to be informed with all matters of importance 
that arc tranlafted in his empire, and every fentence of the 
inferior courts, efpecially in capital cafes, muft either be ratified 
or reverfed by him, he would be overwhelmed with the mul- 
tiplicity and variety of matters, that are continually brought 
before him, without the affiftance of thofe councils, whoie 
bufmefs it is to examine, digeft, and prepaire them for his »iaft em^ 
definidve fentence. So that though he is reprefented, by fomc fiojment^ 
writers, as living and wantoning in eafe, with his wives, con- 
cubines, and eunuchs, in his feraglio, like other eaftern mo- 
nawis, and many of them have, doubtlefs, done fo, and left 
ftate matters to the care of their kolaws, mandarins, and other 
officers, and commonly to their own great detriment, if not 
total ruin ; yet thofe, who give fuch a conflant attendance on 
die affidrs of the empire, muft be fo far from living in eafe 
and luxury, that they muft be fuppofed to be the moft bufy andaffim 
and aflSduous of all their fubjefts ( QJ. And fuch have beenV«/>y. 



^ Lb Compte, & al. ubi fup. , 

( Q^) This will ftill more to make to him, either againll x 

plainly appear, if we add the himfelf, or any of his viceroys, 

petitions that are faid to be governors, the princes of the 

continaally prefented to him ; blood, generals, and other of- 

the grievances which, from all ficers. All which, we arc.told, 

pans of the empire, are laid he is obliged, \iy the conftita- 

Deforc him ; the repre/en rations tion of the empire, to read him- 

ivhidhis mandarins are allowed f<;lf, and refer to fuch of his 


' Digitized by VjOOQIC 

toaaay pf tho& mootrchs, if we may bcUeva the tdadoas ipe 
have from thence ; according to which, this goveminent is 
one of the tnoft r^ular in the world, in which the tiibunals 
and magiftracy are eflaUiflied in the oioft exa£t and umform 
jnanner that hyinan prudence can contrive, bx the due ad- 

xouncils, to whofe cogntKance 
the cafes properly belong, in 
order to regulate his determina- 
tion according to their report. 

We read of feveral reprefent- 
ations which have been made 
to thofc m on arch s, for their not 
ading agreeably to the confu- 
tations of the empire : but thefe 
are not often attended to ; and 
fometimes meet with a feverc 
repulfe. Le Comptt gives os fome 
inftances of both. In t}ie one,. 
they laid before him the ill con- 
fequences of bis fo often going 
into fartary, and his making 
fuch long ftay there, to the 
great prejudice of his fubje£is, 
&r. ; but this he paid fo little 
regard to, that he fcarce gave 
them any other reafon for thofe 
journies, than that they were 
for his health. Another was 
made to him, by three eminent 
kolaws, relating to the educa- 
tion of the young prince; for 
which they were all turned out 
of their places. But as irkfome 
and nnfuccefsful as this kind of 
xemonib'ances may be to their 
nonarchs, there want not thofe 
noble and public-fpirited mi- 
filers, who will not be afraid 
of preferring them, at all ha- 
zards ; of which we may have 
occafion to give fome fignal in- 
ftances in the fequel. 

As for diofe again ft the gran- 
idees, or even princes of the 
blood, they have met with bet- 
ter fucceft. We read, in the 

fame avtbor, of one that was 
prefented againft three koUvr^, 
or chief minifters of ilate, who 
had under -hand taken mo- 
ney, for fome fervices done in 
the execution of their office. 
Upon which the emperor im- 
mediately cafhiered and dif- 
miifed them. What bcfel to 
two of them afterwards, our 
anthpr could not learn ; hot the 
third, ^yho had been< a loaff 
while a mag^ftrate, and in hig^ 
efteem for his learning, and jne- 
vered for his old aee, wa^ ire- 
duced to the condition of a 
common foldier, and forced to 
ftand centind at one of the p^l- 

Another was likewife pr«« 
fented to the fame emperor, 
againft fome of the princes of 
the blood, intimating, that tb^ 
unworthy behaviour was Jikcly, 
in time, to bring their rank intp 
contempt. Upon which he ilTued 
out an edi6t, tha( none fhould 
(torn thenceforth bear th;it ti- 
tle, without his exprefs leave i 
which he took care to give only 
to fuch who, by their virtue* 
prudence, and diligence in tbfjr 
ofEces, had rendered themfelves 
worthyof it (ii). 

Thefe few, inftances will fof- 
ficetoihew, what a C&f»^ em- 
peror'^ employment m^(^,b^ in 
his retirement, who hath the 
good and welfare of his fubje^ 
at heart. 

(ii) LeCm^U, uhijitf. Mdhini, Du HaUe^ ^ «/. 



by Google 

C i: STie Hffiory ef Chinas 24^ 

mimflnuioa cf juAke, and the exa£l difcbaige of all the oF- 
te of a i«eU regulated ftate ^ 

For the more eafy management of fuch a great variety Two/k* 
cf 9&m, thole monarchs are aflifted by two fovereign freme 
apadls, which fit at Pe-kingp the capital of the empire ; comtdb. 
the one ftyled extraordinary, and compofed of the princes 
of the blood only ; and the other ordinary, coflfifting of the 
&iQe princes of the blood, and of a good number of kolaws, 
orchttf miniilera irfftate^ The firft of thefe only fits upon 
extraordinary oceafions ; but the other, like our privy-coun- 
dl, is conftantly attendh^ on affairs of ftate. Bcfidcs thefe 
two (which, by way of eminence, ^are Ayltd /upreme), and 
(bbordinate to them, are fix courts, or fuperior tribunals, for Sixfiipi^ 
dwl, and five for military, affairs, all likewife refiding in rier tri^ 
that m^opolis, -whofe authority extends to the whole em- bunah^ 
pire; and each of them hath its particular province, or bufi- 
oeft, affigoed to them, in fuch a manner, as that they fliall 
be a conilant check upon one another ; and, in matters of 
great confequence, the concurrence of three or more of them 
moft be had, before the bufinefe can be difpatched. Thofe 
tribonals are as follow (R) : 

I. The 

Le Comptb, k al. ubi fup. 

(R) Thefe mandarins have 
^0, from the earlieft times, 
<lividcd into nine orders, in fuch 
pcrfed fobordination to each 
wbcr, that nothing can exceed 
tkcrcfpcaand fubmiflion which 
tic inferior bear to the fuperior 

The firft order is, that of the 
«>Iaws, or chief minifters of 
te, chief prcfidcnts of the 
wpreme courts, and other prin- 
cipal officers of the army. Their 
aumbcr is not fixed, but de- 
pends on the will of the em- 
pror; batis^fekiom more than 
aye or fix; and thefe have their 
Annals and apartments in the 
palace. He who is at the heiid 
»f lliem is ftyled Shenxt-Jhyang^ 
*wl is prefident of the council, 
^"^ in the greaicft confidence 
^^^ the emperor. 

Mod. HisT. Voi^ Vllt. 

The fecond order are a kind 
of affiftants to the iix^y and bear 
the title of Ta-he-fsy or literati^ 
and are men ofapproved capa- 
city. Out of their number are 
commonly chofen the viceroys, 
gav^nors, and prefidents of 
other tribunals. 

The third order, ftyled C^wjrf- 
fiu'kot or fcloQol of mandarins^ 
zx^ the emperor's fecretaries, 
whofe bufinefs is to write down 
all matters that are deliberated 
by the fevcral tribunals. Thefe 
are taken out of the fourth fifth, 
and iixth orders, and, with the 
two fuperior ones above-men- 
tioned, compofe the emperor's 

Out of thefe three orders are 

chofen the prefidents, and chief 

members, of the iiyi, trib^unn $ 

above-mentioned : with this dif- 

K iercftce. 


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The ti^(h7 of China. 

B. I: 

1. Li-pu. i^ The court of Li'/>u, or Li-pou; that Is, thteourt^ or 

tribunal^ of mandarins \ which prefrdes over all the m^nda-' 
lins, aad other miniflers of ftate ; and ts to fbrhifh all the 
provinces with prbpcr officers', to watdi ovier their conduct, 
examine their qualifications; and give an accdttnt thereof ta 
the emperor. Thefe ma^ be properly ftyled the inquifitorr of 
Jlate ; according to whofe report, thofe officers under their 
Cognizance are either advanced to higher pofls, 6r are' de- 
graded from their old ones, according to their merit or de- 
merit, though not without the emperof^'s approbation pircvi- 
oufly obtained (S). 

2. Hu pu, 2. The court oifid-fiiy oxHou-poii ; that is, the high treafurer 

' of the king ; hath the care of the treafmy, finances, togetTier 
with the private cftate, treafure, revenues, and expenccs, of the 
emperor ; of paying all the'falaries and pcnfions to the petty 
kings, viceroys, and other mrnifters of ftate. This tribuii^ 
^ hath likewife the keeping of the rolls, and regWefs, which 

are made 'every y6af, of all the families, numbef of men, 
meafure of land, and the duties arifidg froni them to the em- 
peror. * ' 

3. Li-pu. - 3. T^E court of Li'pUy or Li'pou, ot trihmal of rights (T)^ 

infpefts all religious matters, as, the obfervation of andent 


fercncc, that the Tartars have, 
fince the conqucft, doubled the 
number of members of thofe 
courts, both fupcrior and infe- 
rior,by placing as many of their 
own nation as of the Clhineft, in 
every one ; by which means the 
former was broufi;ht into the ad- 
miniftration, without excluding 
the latter, who might, in fuch a 
cafe, have beenjlefs able to brook 
the Tartarian yoke (12). 

(S) Every one of thefe fix tri- 
bunals hath a number of infe- 
rior ones p aiTift them, and 
proper matters for their infpec- 
tion ; but it would carry us too 
for to enter into a particular de- 
tail of each tribunal. This of 
Li'pUi for inflance, hath four of 
them. The firft of which is 
charged with the choice of thofe 
who^ by their learning, virtue, 

(12) rid, Du Haide, lol, i, 

and other qualities, are intided 
to ferve in the higheft pc^« 
The fecond examines the eon* 
duA of thofe candidates. The 
third feals all judicial af^s, af- 
figns and examines the refpec- 
tive feals of the mandarins fo 
diofen, as well as thofe of all 
the difpatches to and from the 
court, whether they be true or 
counterfeit The fourth exa- 
mines the merit of all the gran- 
dees of the empire ; that is, of 
the princes of the blood, petty 
kings, dukes, and nobles of all 

(T) Though this tribunal 
fecms ^0 be called by the fame 
name as the fird. yet it is plain, 
from their different provmces, 
that there is a manifell difference 
between them, which, however, 
is only determined by the pro- 

p. 2-iJ. & aL/tf,tit^. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. t. tie tiifiity rf Ghlw; t47 

rites and asremooks, all arts and fdeoces, and thofe that are 
. caodidates for degrees. It defrays the charge of the temples, 
facrificeSy ifc. ; and receives and diibUIes foreign ambafla* 

4. The court of Ping-pu, or tribufuU^ anns^ fnperin- 4. Ping- 
tei^ all the ibldiery in the empire ; examinrs their arms, f^ 
eaercifes, itc.\ grants commif&ons to the army and fleet; 

orders levies to be made for both $ repleniihes the magazines^ 
and keeps all the ^urifoo^, towns, and fortrefles» in repair, 
and fiiraiflies the foldiery with arms. 

5. The QE>urt of Hir^-pu^ or Hini'^Mf fnperintends all ^. Hlng- 
criminal caufes brought hither from the inferior courts, by pti* 
jq)peal, and palTes a final fentence in all crimioal matters: 

and under it are fourteen fubgrdinate tribunals, according to 
the number of the provinces^ 

6. The court of Kong-pu, or Cam-pw^ or trihurud cfS. Kong* 
^ ptibUc works y fnperintends aU public ftruftures ; fuch as, the pft. 

iing's palaces, fortifications,, public roads, put>lic temples, 
palaces, fepulchres, bridges, towers, triumphal arches, dykes, 
navigable rivers, lakes, canals, ifc, ; and hath four inferior 
courts under it, who prepare matters for their infpedlion^ 
Both upper and lower tribunals haye likewife different cham- 
bers, or committees, appointed to their refpcftive bufinefles, 
for the more regular and ready difpatch of them. Every 
high court hath a chief infpcftor appointed by the emperor, 
who g^ves him an account of their proceedings, as well as of 
thrir failings and milbehaviour. Thefe are commonly of the 
firft rank of mandarins, or kolaws ; and are in fuch authority^ 
that the very princes of the blood fland in awe of them U 

Of the four, or, according to others, five military courts^ Thefcuf^ 
wWch are, in fome meafure, fubordinate to the fourth fupe- mhiat) 
rior one, called Ping-pUy or tribund rf drms 5 the, firft dif- tribmiuis* 
pofcs of all military employments ; and fees that the troops be 
well armed and difciplined. The fecond diftributes the officers 
and foldiers into their refpeftive ftations, for the fecuring the 
public tranquility, and the cities and high-roads from robbers 
and highwaymen. The third fuperintends the horfes of the 
empire, the pofts, ftages, imperial inns, and barges appointed 

y Le Comptb, ubi fup. Vid. & Dv Haldi, vol. i. p. 248. 
&feq. , ^^.| 

nanciation* In this, Z/ fignifies of found in th^ firft monofyllable/ 
Rights and /», or pou^ tribunal ; it iignifies/>^^ tribunal of the man* 
but in the other, by fmall change darint (13). 

(13) Du Haldt, ^* !}*h P- *49« 

K a to 


by Google 

148 The Hijiory of China. B. I. 

to convey provifions for the foWiers to their refpe^ve ftadons- 
The fourth ordiers the maldng all forts of arms, and layfeg 
them up in arfenals *. t 

7he courts THERE are feveral odier courts of the military rank, of 
infpeaed which we (hall take notice, when we come to fpeak of the 
hy proper military government; and only obfenreiia^, that all thefe 
ojficen^ tribunals have Hkewife an infpeftor fet over them by the 
emperor, who gives him an account of every thing that fe 
tranfafted in them, and of the behavioar of every member ; afti 
thefe arc obliged, by then* office, not only to aiBft at aH thmer 
aflcmbliies, and watch over their conduft thert, but ^evea to 
pry into their more private management (U), and mftke a 
feithfiil report of all to him. This obliges every member to 
an a check fpeak and behave with the utmoft circumlpeftion. And feveral 
to each provinces of thofe courts are fo prudently linked together, as 
^tberl to be a check to each other. Thus, foe inftance, the army, 
which is under the Command <A the Pin-pu, or fourth tri- 
bunal, and 'paid by that of the Ho-pttj fhall be ordered to 
march by the former, but cannot ftir till their fubfiftence- 
money is fent to them by the latter. 
Viceroys^ SUBORDINATE to the above-mentioued tribunals, are the 
an^ other viceroys and governors of provinces, judges, and magiftrates, 
magi- and all inferior <^cers, in city and country, for the eafier 
firatesi difpenfmg <rf juftice to the fubjefts, and maintaining the peace 
fubordi' of the empire. It is even affirmed, by moft writers, that aH 
nate to the ^^^ viceroys, governors, inc. are obliged, from time to 
ri una s. ^.^^^ ^ tranfmit to court a full and juft account of their ad- 
miniftration, and with it a note of all the mifcarriages and 
. mifnianagements laid to their char^, to be examined by the 
fuperior tribunals ; and, in cafe they be found to have con- 
cealed or paHlated them, are liable to be feverely punifheJ. 
This was indeed prafticable enough before the conqutft, - 
when the Chinefe monarchs had, befides the infpeftors over 

'\ Dc his, vide Martini, Lt Compte, DuHalde, & al. 

(U) Thefe infpeftors, or, as princgs, and perfons of the 

the Chinefe call them, ko-taus, highett rank, and to run. the 

are commonly men of fiich pe- rifque not only of their places, 

netration, that nothing hardly but of their lives, rather than 

efcapes thein ; and therefore, defift from what they thought 

irmch dreaded hy the minilterj* juftice and equity, and the 

oflUte, and other officers. Some ^ood of the ftate/ exadkd from 

of them have been intrepid thexn {14), 

enough to cenfure and accufe ' ' 

(H) Du Halde^^ ubijuf. p, 23c. Le Ccmpte, 'uhi fup Sf ah 


' Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. r; Tbe Hifiory »f Chiiwi; 149 

every court, fixne private ones in eviery province, who were 
to give tiie emperor an account of every fraud, bribery, and 
opprefliCHi, committed by any of thofe cheers. But the 7kr- h/^eBort 
tarian mooarchs found afterwards, that tboie fpies, or in- ofthefro' 
formers, had fo grofsly abufed their truft, by making their *^^^cfffi^ 
reports rather according as they wer^ bribed, than to the.^^'* 
merit or demerit of thofe under their inipeftion, that they 
th(Might fit to fet them, wholly afide, and only oblige the per- 
ibns in the adminiffaration to be their own accufers, by {end- ' 
wg the above-m^itiooed tranicript of all their go6d and bad 
adions. Tha^ this, however, is feldom pca^fed, is very 
plain, ^om ihe ccanmon complaint of all thofe writers againft 
the ayarice, bribery, and corruption, which reign through Chiade 
the whole empire, from the higheft tribunals down to the ^^^^^ 
loweft offices ; infomuch, that he who can bribe higheft is *^*X/^« 
morally fure to carry his point, let his merit or demerit be 
what it will. It is therefore in vain they tell us, that the Chinefe 
govermnent and laws are^the bdl calculated to make a people 
happy, above all others, if thofe that are at the head of affairs 
are fuch rapacious creatures, as to make all places, and even 
juiHce itfelf, venal; and if their laws, like thofe excellent ones, 
of a certain country in Euro^^ are fo little ohferved or re- 
garded, that minifters, magiftrates, and people, arefuffered 
to aft not only in contradiftion, but open defiance, to them, 
and a circulation of bribery is left to run frpm the higheft tq 
the loweft rank. , 

Besides tbefe tribunals, which do always rcfide at Pe^ Pro^vif^^ 
iin^, every, province hath a fupreme one, under its viceroy, ^'^ tri* 
or governor ( W), and that hath feveral inif^rior ones under it,, ^^^^^-f* ' - 
and a certain* number of inferior ijiandarins, to affift that mi- 
nifter in the difpatch of affairs, - Next to the provincial ones, 
are ihofe of the FA's^ or capital cities of each province, of 

. (W) There is a diffl^rence of them the imperial ceanmanda 

names, as well as dignity and are tranfmitted, and by them 

power, between thele govex- diiperfed through all the other 

nors ; the one, who is called cities and diilricls of the pro- 

Fu-ycivefi, is only viceroy of vince. On]y the 7/ortg'tus6[g^ 

6ne province; and the other, ' nity is reckoned more consider* 

ftyled T/offg'tu, hath a govern- aWe, as it is more extenfive ; fo 

ment over two or three. Both that he cannot be advanced to ' 

are nominated by the emperor ; a»y higher, except he be m^de 

iind both are at th« head.of the a miniflcr of itate, or "prefi-. 

fupreme tribunal of the pro- dent of one of the faprcmo 

vince, wherein all caufes, civil courts (15). 
and criminal, are decided. To 

(15) Dm Hald4, & al uhi fupra^l 

K 3 which 


by Google 

1 5p Wf Hifiory 9f China. B- \. 

which we fp<!*c, in the firft feftion (rf Ais chJipter ; and thefe 
are under a mandarin, who is fiyled Chi-fA, tinder whom ar5 
the Chi-ehews and Chi-yienSy or mand^ins of the ddes of thp 
fecond and third rank, with thdr re^jeftive inferior tribnnals ; 
and thefe are fubordinate to each other, and aU to the fu- 
preme or provincial one, which hath none abote it, ocoqit 
that of Peeking. And thus much may fuffice for Ae dvil ; k$ 
us now take a fliort view of the military govefnment *. 
Military We have already taken notice of the four tribunals fnb- 
goverti' ordinate to the fourth fupreme cme, called Ping'pu, sod thdp 
ment ; particular provinces. There are five others likewife refiding 
fnJfrue at Pe-hng, ftyled CZ/^a^; that is, the Jive claps ^ 9r tr^, ^ 
f^V^h '(he military mandarins % the firft of wWch is, that of thtf 
mandarins of the rear-guard ; the fecond, that of the left^ 
« wing ; the third, that oi the right ; the fourth, th«t of the 

main body ; and the fifth, that of the van-guard. Each rf 
them hath a prefident, and two afEAants, who are of the firft 
prder of mandarins ; and all of them are ftibordinate to a fu- 
preme tribunal of war, called Tmg-ching-fA^ whofe profident 
is one of the greateft nobles of the empire* and hath autho- 
rity over them, and all the officers and foldi^s t)f the court, 
He hath likewife a mandarin, and two inlpcftors, to be a 
check over him : and his tribunal is fubordinate to the fourth 
and fixth fiiprem^ ones, which prevents his abufing his ex-! 
•fcnfive power. 
^anJa" ^^^ ^^^ military mandarins are obliged to undergo die 
rins\ homj fame examination as thofe of the literati order; that is, as 
fjfanstiiud^ thofe muft give proofs of their knowlege and learning, to be 
admitted to their refpeftivc degrees, fo muft thefe df tbdr 
ftrcngth, courage, dexterity, and experience, in the art dP 
^^^rar. The principal military mandarin, anfwering to onr 
general, hath a number of inferior ones under him, airfwert 
ing to our Jieuteaant-generals, eSrc. and all of them have a 
train and infignia fujtable to their rank, and are always atn 
Sol^ersy tended by a company of officers under thdr command. Thefe 
/jo^ ixfr- are obliged to occrcife afid review the foldiery often ; but 
^J^^' . thofe excpcifes have nothing r^^pilar in them, confifUng only 
iu fomc diforderly mJ^rches, when they attend their mandat 
lias, or in forming of fquadrons, marching, filing off, rally*? 
ing, eneountering each other, at the found of their horns 
or trumpets, and in a dexterous ufing and handling tbeir 
fiibres^ i)Q^s, inuikets, ^uirafles, helmec<» 6c. and ^pH)g 

% Martini^ Le Com pt|, Dv Ha;.db, nbi fvpi p* 249. 


by Google. 

them cfean, and in right order ; and as die military life Is 
neither kborions nor dangerous in time of peace, it is be- 
ftowed, as a favour, on tiiofe who can make mod friends 
with the nulitary mandarins, their fervice being commonly 
confined to the places where they dwell, and have their fami* 
lies, fo that they may at proper times follow their own em- 

The military mandarins are computed to amonnt to 1 8,000, Numhtf 
and die foldicry to above 700,000, who are all difperfcd thro' •fthem* 
the feveral provinces, efpecially the frontier ones of the em- 
pre, and along the Chinefe wall, and are ftationcd in the mili- 
ary dties, towns, fortreflcs, and cafWes, we have elfewherc 
ckicribed; and, being commonly well doathed and armed, Hfic aw* 
make a very good appearance either m their marches or rc-/^/*^# 
views ; bnt come vaftly fhort of thofe of Europe in courage fiMtbeJ, 
er difcipline, and are eafily put into diforder, and routed ; ^f^^* 
•fflad, as the country hath now been a confiderable time free 
from foreign or domeftic wars, they have had little employ- 
ment, except in fuppre/Hng the highwaymen and banditti in 
the inland, apd the pirates on the fea-coaids, and in guarding 
the frontier towns. Their pay is about fiv^-pence and about 
a pint of rice per day, and the horfe in proportion *. 

Their artillery, till the Jefuits taught them a better way Their or- 
of cafting and uftag it, was very pitiful, and hardly worthy ^'^^^ '*^'" 
of that name (X) ; and though it be allowed, that they had P^P^^ 

. the 

^ Mahtini, Lb Compts, Du HaldB, ubi fup. p. 249, U 

(X) All that we find men liandfome ones, which the For* 
tloned of their old artillery, is tuguefe of Makau, or Maca^^ 
only a few (hort and thick bom- made a prcfem of to the* em- 
hards, kept rather for (hew than peror, Jnne 1 6s i> together with 
nfe, at the gates of Nang-king ; proper artiils to manage them, 
hot antient enough to (hew. The firft trial of the^i was 
tiiat they had fome notion of made before fome mandarins^ 
cannon, thoagh little or nothing who were much furprifed at thci 
of the European way of ufing novelty ; and much more at 
them. We read likewife of oneof the pieces recoiling, ahd 
ibme fort of patereroes, which killing a Portu^ne/e, and tn^o 
they had in their veflels, of the Cbinefey who did not get out of 
ttfe of which they knew little the way time enoagh. Th^y 
more than of that of their bom- were ftill more terrified at the 
hards. ' havock which they faw them 

The firft they ^ver faw of the make among the Tartetrs^ who 

Etaropean fabricature were three came in fwarms towards the 

K 4 ' g'*^^* 


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That of 
and ad- 


c-'Jh fome 
of cannon. 

His *way 

the invention of cunpowder much earlier than xht Europeans , 
they hardly ufed it for any thing but fireworks, in which they 
excel. This made them at firft be much furprifed and terri- 
fied at our Euroiean guns, and the havock they made both in 
their being fired, and their recoiling ; infomuch that they fled, 
from them in the greateft panic, and could hardly be per- 
fuaded to come near them again : but, fince then, the good 
miiEonaries have not only reconciled them to thofe frightful 
engines of deftruftion, but taught them the way of cafling 
and ufing of them, fo that they are now as well uncjerftood by 
them as by us; efpecially as Father Verhiejl^ the emporor's 
chief mathematician, did, by his order, caft, in one year, 
132, and, in a little time after, 320 more, after the beft Eu^ 
ropean manner ; and foon after publifhed a treatife on found- 
ing and ufing of cannon, and prefented it to that monarch, 
with forty-four tabled, or cuts, fhewing the whole art, and the 
manner of ufing the inftruments neceflary for levelling them. 
For this Angular piece of fervice, Father Verbiejl was highly 
honoured by that monarch, and all the military tribe of man- 
d^ins, who were prefent at the trial of them, and furprifed 
at the exaftnefs with which they hit the mark ; whilft the 
good father was feverely lampooned for it in Spain and Italx^ 
as a perfon who deferved to be doubly exconununicated, for 
furniftiing an infidel prince with fuch deftru<^ive arms : how- 
ever. Pope Innocent XI. did not fufFer him to labour long 
under thofe ccnfures ; but; by a particular brief, highly ap» 
plauded what he had done, as tending to promote the con- 
verfion rf the Chinefe \ andcxhorted him to go on in the feme 
laudable track, promifing him his apoftolical bleiling, and 
pontifical affiftance and proteftion in it. Befides, thofe pieces 
appear to have been of a reKgious caft, and had been blefled 
in a folemn manner : for the good father had before erefted 
an altar in the foundery, with a crucifix upon it ; and, 
in his furpHccand ftole, paid his homage to it, with the fame 
proftrations and ceremonies as the Chinefe ufe to their images ; 
and gave each gun the name of a he or (he faint, which he 
caufed to be engraven on their breech ; which, we are tol4, 
was done to prevent the Chinefe ufing any of their fuperflitious 
ceremonies about them, who commonly offer facrifices to the 
fpirit of the air, mountains, rivers, lakes, <bc. according to 

■ great wall, infomuch that they 
fled from them in thie greateft 
fright and confufion, and ne- 

ver dared come near them more 

(16) Du y^ie, Mbi fyp, Vii, Q Martini, Le Ctmptt, & al 



by Google 

C i: 9ife Hiftvry if China. 155 

the natnte of the work they go about, or pnt the laft hand 

Having taken thus far a view of the cIvU and military Govern- 
government of the empire, there remains, that we (ay a few mentoftht 
words of that of the provinces, capitat dties, and of the di- frovmc.s^ 
ftrids under them. We have already hinted, that every pro- citUs^ Uc 
viflcc hath a viceroy, or governor, who commonly refides at 
the metropolb of it, and is the fupreme judge and magiftrate 
of it, cxccjptiog oidy his being lubordinate to the fupreme 
tribonals ot Peking. He fits as prefident of the provincial 
coBTts, and fuperintends all the govemcH^, judges, and mem* 
ben of the inferior ones, as well as the governors of all the 
dties ci the firft, fecond, and third order, and all the infe- 
rior fiiagiftrates of every diflrift. Every city, befides its own Warif^ 
governor and tribunal, is divided into a certain numbei* of 
wards, every one of which hath its own refpeftive head, who 
is as anfweraWe to the governor for every mifdemeanor that 
happens within his precinft, as the matter of every family is 
to him for what is done within his own walls, whether by 
children, fi^-vants, or lodgers ; and, in fome cafes, as of a 
tumult, robbery, murder, and the like, the houfes on each 
fide are fo for what is committed in that one. Not only the Guard mU 
gates of each city, but even of each ward, are fliut up at *^*^«^- 
nights, and kept by a fufficient guard, who watch over all 
that pafles within their refpeftive boundaries ; feize on all dif- 
ordcrly perfons, fufpicious ftrangers, and all night-walkers, 
who can't give a good account of their errand, and bring 
them on the next morning to the governor, to be either pu- 
nifhod or releafed : but, for this, we (hall refer the reader to 
wh^ hath been faid in the firft feftion •. One thing, which we Commm 
did not there take notice of, we jfhall add, concerning their ex- proftitutes, 
treme care of keeping every part of the city in the profoundeft Apw toie- 
peace that is poffiWe; viz, that they fufFer none of their rated. 
common proftitutes to live ^within the walls, but in fomc 
outflcirts of the fuburbs, beeaufe they are apt to caufe dif* 
turbances. Some of the governors will oblige a certain num- 
ber of them, as tenor more, to live togetter in one houfe, 
and nnder the care and government of a man, who (hall be 
anfwerable for their behaviour. Some governors will even 
deny them the liberty of living within their diftrifts, and 
fcverely punifh as many as are found to do fo after fuch a 
prohibition *; fo that they can, at the moft, be faid to be but 
bardy toleratejU^ 

• Du Halde, ubi fup. p. 262, & feq. *" See bprore,p. 21, 
^fe<i. &IE). « Du I1ald£, ubi fup. p. 265. & al.fup. ciut. 



by Google 

154 Ttn ffijfpfy tf CStM. «.l 

The via- Bte^y province bcftdeis its owa vioecoy, hMk ieverfl 
ray and his orders of mandarins, which are fubordinate; and might bi 
mandarins {Jich an cficftual chcck to him, that it would be impoffible fd 
join in op- ^^ ^^ be guilty of mal-adminiftration wkbooc thrfr lEfK>Mfr 
*^^^ J^^ and connivance : but the misfortune is, they imd it t\ 
fea^. iiiuch their intcreft to wink at one another's crimes, tiuit thi 
j)eo{de are fleeced and oppreded by diem all in their txma. 
The firil clafs oi thefe mandarins are the judges of the coartd 
who determine civil and crimind caufes ; the next attend tM 
affairs of the treafury and revenue ; and die third commanfl 
Some 'wife over the militia* All thefe, according to the Chine/econ&i^ 
fiate fna- tutbn, ought to renuun in their offices no long^ than three 
xim. ycaj-s . and are never to be natives of the province whei^ 
they officiate, left, if they be of mean defcent, they fiieuU 
be defpifed ; and, if rich, they fliould be too well refpeded, 
or become too powerful, in it^ This is efteemed one of then- 
wife maxims in politics, in which they excel ; to which we 
may add anodier, equally juft and falutary, if ftrifUy kept, 
viz^ never to fell any office, but to confer them on perforii 
merely out of regard to their merit, learning, and probity; 
and to allow them fufficient falaries, that they miy be enabled 
to difcharge their offices, and adminifier juitice vridiont fiees 
or bribery. 

Their palaces, and places of refidence, are likewife pro- 
vided for them at the charge of the government, to prevent 
l^ludedhy dieir running into profufion of furniture, eb^. notwidiffamd- 
^^^* ing all which wife precautions, thofe governors and manda- 
rins find means of amaffing vaft eftates in thofe few years, and 
to conceal their extortions from the emperor ; fo that it 
plainly appears they all in general combine to conceal them 
from him, that they may more eafily di\dde the fpoil among 
Extortion themfelves. Thus we are told the fupreme tribunal at Pe- 
and fraud' king extorts vaft fqms from the viceroys of the provinces, and 
run thro' dicJe again from the mandarins under them, who, by confe- 
thenvhole qnence, muft fleece their inferior officers; and all of them 
v^t:on, JQ-jjj hands ia oppreffing the people, who dare neither reiifl 
nor complain, for fear of being ruined. Upon the whole, 
the Chineji appear to be litde better than a nation of fignal 
hypocrites, who boaft of the equity and excellence of their 
laws, and ftick at no violation of them ; and, under the faireft 
outfide, and pretence of juftice and probity, indulge them- 
felves in all manner of extortions, fraud, and villainy : for 
we muft not imagine this fliameful depravity and corruption 
to be confined to the placemen, and officers of the government, 
it being obferved to run no lefs through all the iirferior ranks, 
from the richeft merchants and tradefmen to tb^ loweft porter 



by Google 

« Mdtflife^ ixrho, thoBgh they catfAMop^refe like the grett 
MeS| are comioooij'^ttk to chei^t^ aad coeening all they 
dealtritk; ic^much that there kfearce any country in this 
aA, wh^opptfeffion, corropcioii, and all manner 6f fraud, 
is Biorei»uvemUy pra^Hlady ascordii^ to the unanimous report 
of all who have written of it. 

Tmi^b ixAjht added another caufe of Ah general cor- NoUlhj - 
rapdoQ ; viz. th^lr conflitution not allowing of hereditary not btrtS* 
aobi%,ordKHnAion of quality, but fuch as^fes from their ^^« 
oictt, and the dignities beftowed on diem by the emperor ; 
ib Aat the' a man be arrived at fome of tfie higheft of them» 
yet his childrtin have ftill thdr fortunes to malce ; and if they 
^ther ^rant ability, oc are given to pleafbre, may, and do 
flfcn, defcend to the loweft rank and occupations : the pre- Another 
D^fldi^ <^ which, by making fome handfome provifion for c^ff ^ 
Acm, Of getting them into fome civil or military pofts, by ^^^ 
dint rf prefents, proves a new fource of avarice and corrup- ^^^ 
tioa; to fey nothaig of the figure, flate, and retinue, which '^^'^ 
thofemimfters are oU%ed to keep up ; all which, added to 
theexaftioQs they labour under from thoTe above them, help 
to keq) them poor, craving, and extorting. 

Even the princes of the blood, who are alone intitled to 
tbe digaity rf nobles by bkth (except the family of the great 
Confiicius, of which we fliall fpeak by-and-by), are fubjefted 
to the fame neceffity <rf bribing the kolaws and infpcftors, in 
Wder lo get into, or preferve thcmfelves in, fuch high pofts 
vtiie emperor is pleafed to nominate them to ; and, in order 
to ieep up. the grandeur of their rairic, prove often as vora- 
^ as the mandarins ; and as for thofe who cannot obtain Priftets •/ 
'omefnch advantageous pofts, they are c^en forced to Qon- the bUod^ 
Wd the only bad^ of thdr rank (which is a yellow girdle, wabd. 
2nd is common to all the imperial race), becaufe they cannot 
appear In an equipage fuitable to it : and yet it muft be ob- 
fenred here, that, by thefc, are not meant the defcendants of 
^i(xmex Chinefi mpnarchs, wl^fe race is quite extinft (Y), 


(V)Wefhallfcc,inthchifto. loweft poverty: the crcatcft 

W part, how every dynafty part of them deftroyed oy the 

fodeavoored to extiipate thole pirates, who made themfelves 

•^thcfbrcgoifig. We are told, mafters of P^-^/»^ ; and thofe 

1^^ at ^ time of the con- who efcaped were forced to lay 

fRtt, there were fUU above a(ide their yellow girdle, change 

3000 fi^niilies of thefe princes their names, and mix themfelves 

of the dynafty of Ming^ in the whh the people. It was but 

^ty of J^ang-cbew, feveral of lately that one of them, who 

?ltom Mrerc ' rcdqccd to the itfu reduced to be a fervant of 


by Google 


The Hiftory of Gha»; 



mily the 
cnfy nohU 



but thofe of the Tartaruin emperors, who arc nof confe* 
quently above five generations backwards ; but who are, how- 
ever, multiplied 'to fome thoufands in th^t ihort time ^ poly- 
gamy, as well as poverty, caufing them to increafe to fucb a 
degree, that their penfions and appenage are therein continually 
lellened, for they are allowed neither lands npr eftates^ 

As to the family of Kong-f^-tfe^ dr Confucius^ above-men- 
tioned, they are ftill to this day looked upon as the moft re- 
fpedlable, or indeed the only, nobility, not only on Account 
of the extraordinary merit of that excellent philofopher, but 
likewife on account of its great antiquity, it having been con* 
tinned in a direft fucceffion for above 2000 years, from cwJ of 
his nephews, who is, on that account, ftyled Shing'jinrti-Jbi'el^ 
or the nephew of the great fage. There has been always one 
of the family honoured with the titlex)f Kong^ or duke, and 
the place of that pliilpfopher'^ birth hath been always go- 
verned by a mandarig pf that family. Upon the -wlKjle, tf 
we except the princes of the blood, and the Confucian famjly, 
the Chinefe nation may be rightly faid to be divided only into 
three clailes ; viz, the- mandarins, the literati, and the ple- 
beians; which diftinftion (eems to have been thus fettled by 
the Tartarian emperors fince the c^iiqueft, as the moft effec- 
tual to keep their new dominions in greater fubje^on and de- 

, There is one more excellent piece of politics among thofc 
monarchs, worth taking notice of, *and which we fliall dofe 
this article with ; viz. their obliging the petty kings, their 
tributaries, the viceroys, mandaiins, and other great offices, 
to fend their children to court, under pretence indeed of 
giving them a better education, but in reality to remain there, 
as hoftages for their fatliers good behaviour /and loyalty, 
and to prevent their forgetting their duty to the emperor. 
With the fame view he obliges thofe great minifters themfelves, 
as well as the princes his vaflals, to refide at courf during a 

^ Du Halde, & al. fup. citat. 

the miflioriarles, being di fee ver- 
ed to be of the royal blood of 
Mittg, was forced to flee,, to 
avoid a worfe fate From the 
Tartars^ who were in fearch 
after him ( 1 7) ; fo that none arc 
now flyled princes of the blood, 
but thofe who are related to the 

prefcnt imperial famfly ; and, in 
favour of thefe, they have cre- 
at*;d live honorary titles, the 
higheftof which, that of Kong, 
anfwers to our dukes, and the 
others to our marquifes, earls, 
vifcounts, t^c, ( 1 8). 

(17) DtrHaUcy uhi Jupra, p, 269. 

(18) Nievjboffj Navarttt.&sl 



by Google 

Ci. the Biftory of (Xitiz. 157 

ceriun dme, to attend on the prince by turns; during 
wUch tinae none of them dases, on any pretence, repair 
dther to their refpeQive governments, or to their own pa- 
ternal dftates, without his particular leave, under the fc- 
vweft penalties ; ndther dare any of them difpenfe with 
this attendance, «icept by a fpecial licence, without the ma- 
nifeft hazard of expofmg their families to the fevereft refent- 
meirf of thofe jealous monarchs* ; and this we may alfo look 
upon as another fource of the avarice and corruption of thofe 
gftat mimflers ; who are not only obligal to appear them* 
Aires, fauc to maintain their families there, in the greateft 
ifhndor tHat their drcumftances can poffibly allow ; ail which 
an aeva- be done by theu- bare falary, if what moft authors 
tei4is be true, that the higheft of them doth not amount to 
nneh ^dx>ve 2000 crowns a year K ' 

IBt what we have juft now hinted of the numerous and TbeJ^Un- 
f]^did appearance of thefe grandees, the reader may eafily dor of the 
gnefe at the mtagnifkence of the imperial court j and indeed, imperial 
by all the accounts we have of it, nothing can be imagined ^^»'*^* 
mote grand and fupei4), efpecially when that monarch makes 
his public appearance, as he commonly doth four times in a 
month, at wMch times he is accompanied by all thofe tribu- 
tary kings, viceroys, mandarins, and other officers in wait- 
ing, to the number of 4 or 500Q. As often as he is called Vqfi rtti- 
otfl of his palace by his imperial funftion of high-prieft, and nue. 
tile only perfon fit to offer facrifices to Tyeriy or to perform 
aay other religious rites, he is always attended by 8ooci men, 
four elephants, a great number of trumpets, feveral hundreds 
of horfemen, with banners and other infignia, all drefled and 
adorned in the moft pompous manner ; whilft he himfelf ap- 
pears commonly on horfeback, the harnefs covered with gold 
tiffiie, and glittering with the richeft variety of precious ftones* 
The umbrella that is carried over his head, and covers him 
and his horfe, fparkles fo with diamonds, that the eye can 
hardly bear the luftre of thiem, efpecially «n a clear funfliine. 
One hundred large gilt lanterns with flambeaux are carried 
before it ; and, after him, follow all the tributary kings, 
princes of the blood, 200 mandarins and minifters of the firft 
raok, 2000 commanders of his army, 500 youth of quality, 
attended each by two footmen dreffed in fine coronation filk, 
richly embroidered with gold, filver, ifc* 

His retinue is ftill more numerous whenever he goes out 
of his capital upon any particular expedition, or to vifit feme 
places at a diftance from it ; at which time his attendance 

2 Du Halpe,& al. fup. citat. '^ lid. ubi fup 

^ * looks • 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f5t TbeHi/hrfo/QAii. B.l 

Hmthg htkt more Kbe a little army than a piteoily dcorte. Biitthc 

divirfiyn. mndeft of all b, vfacn he goes out to take the ofiial ikn- 

Ion of hantii^^ as he commonly docb in the promoe of 

Lyau'tongf wi£oiit ihegreat wall ^ or in fome of the fimfis on 

the frontiers of Tatrtary t at which dme he is attended with 

an army of 40,000 boHe» ftadoned at prefer diftancesaiong 

the road, 3000 Tartarian archersy and a party of baCBrs 

riding before and after him, beii^es his uftial cetimie of 10- 

bles, Tioeroys, oovrtiers, ire. 

Bomamt ^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ooca£ons thai; the Tartarian princevJi 

p^j ^ tafids or tributaries, to the number of thiirty or fbrty^ a? 

kirn fy his obliged to oome aad pay their homage to him, in the Ml 

Hfaffk/t. (pkadid eqmpages, and with a retinue fuitable to their raoki 

for, tho* Taflals, or tributary to him, they are AiU ferwiad 

to bear the title <£ Chams^ or emperors, and ifaive to JMb 

the nobkft appearance thqr can, and to outne one ansdier 

in the fplendor of thrir train : dl which ftill adds moreli^ 

and magnificence to that of the Chin^ monarch, and it to 

eflfeftnal means of keeping thofe princes more fteady in tbetf 

obedience; becaufe he commonly obliges them widi bm 

marks of his favour on,all fuch occafibns, either by beftowiog 

ibme of his daughters on them, making them fome couiider- 

able prefenis, or afSlting them with fome of his forces, to 

protefl them from the weflem or Mufcoviti Tartars. 

y ft g^ It is not eafy to reckon what the imperial rerenue amoonts 

^^^ ' to, becaufe a great part of it is paid in goods as well as in 

foecie. Niew^ computed it at about thirty-feven millioDS 

fterling per annum^; and L/ Compte ^y t» tweaty-oneor 

twenty-two millions ' ; others, as Magaillan^ Martini, and 

Navaretta^ iliU differ from them, and from each other} 

which fhews there muft be cither fome confiderable flwftaadoo 

in it, or, which is more likely, too great a difficulty to come 

at an cxaft calculation of it. The laft author that wrote 

upon it makes the whole to amount to about 200,000,000 d 

taels"*, each tael weighing an ounce c^ filver, worth 100 

- French fols, or fomewhat above five of our fhilUogs, wbidi 

will be above equivalent to fifty millions fterling. That of 

In goods, grain, fuch as rice, wheat, and millet, is computed, somm- 

nibus annis, at 40,155,490 facks, each fack weighing no 

pounds; the fait to 1,^15,937 loaves, each loaf wagWi* 

50 pounds; beans for his horfes, 210,470 facks; truffi^oi 

4 See before, p. 94, k feq. See Martini, Navaketta, Lb 
CoMPTE, Dv Haldb, Sec, k'Duxh AmbafTy. ' Stati 
of China, part 2. let. l- °* Dv Haldb, obi fupw* 

p. 224. See alfo beforei p. 34, Sc k<{, k alib« paiT. 



by Google 

du 'fhe Hiftory of Chinz. 159 

fiijand Rtxw, ^^>598>597 ; wrou^t iilks and ftufis, 191,530 
pomds weight, each pound of 20 onnices ; unwrought filk» 
409,396 pounds ; callico, 367,480 pieces ; linen cloth, t;6o,28o» 
idUes vsdi quantities of veltet, fatdn, damafk, and other 
lifts ; chma-wai^e, varnifh, oil, oxen, fheep, hogs, deer, 
Md and tame fowl, fifh, pot-herbs, meal, bifcnits, butter, 
itMgar, fruits, fpices, and other provifions, and feveral Ibrts 
0I wines, ifc. ; all which are annually brought into the 
palace by the imperial barks, amounting to 9999, or, accord- 
.kg to others, 10,000 (Z), and employed by the emperor ia 
doAemg and bringing his revenue from every province to 
. Ill czp&l \ All diefe provifions are levied on the fubje£ls, Tritmii, 
H particular duties on their refpeftive lands : for it appears J^ow 
'mm ail our accounts of that empire, that lands are there en- raifid. 
jiftd in property, and* ncTt- at the prince's difpofal, as in 
Aer parts of Aulia ; and hence it comes that the tenants Lan^bcw 
'ite here commonly very poor, becaufe they farm the lands held mid 
from the owners at the rate of half the crop, out of which Ittt^ 
ibelafldlord i^ys the taxes'; and the tenant, out of his, pays 
lie tillage and manure^. 

' Another part of the revenue arifes from the tribute Ijud 
en erery male in the empire that is above ao, and under 60, 
years of age ; and is laid to amount to an immenfe fum, 
though we are not told how great (A). The third is levied 
♦ out 

° See Martini,,Lb Compte, Navarbtta,Du 
Haloe, &c. See before « p. 12* ^ lid. ibid. 

(Z) Moft authors tell aSf tKat kidded another barge, out of 

the former is the true number of contempt to the Cbineje fuperfti* 

tbfe barges, which the Chimfi tion or folly, we are not told, 
prefer to the latter, as carrying (A) There have been rcc- 

4 more pompous found: for koned formerly, we are told (zo)^ 

which reafon they will not add above 58,000,000 of perfons 

ooe more to it (19). Whether that paid this tribute; and, at 

the Chinefe were ever guilty of the poll taken in the emperot 

fc low a piece of pride, or whe- Kanghi'n reign, there were 

thtrit was not rather done out found 1 1,052,872 families, and 

of a foperfticious regard to the 59,788,364. men able to bear 

aomber 9 four times repeated, < arms, exclufive of the princes 

wc will not affirm. Du H<{lde officers, civil and military^ 

makes ufe of the round number difcharged foldiers, literati, li- 

to,ooo ; but whether to conceal centiates, dolors, bonzas, and 

their weaknefs in that p int, or all males under 20, and above 

hecaufe the Tartars have iince 60 ; all which muft amount to 

(»9) ^« Batdi^ i^ifmp. p, 224. Sit be fori, /. xa., ^ fej* (lo) Td» ibid. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i6q The Wftory of Cjiiiia. B. I. 

out of the mines and manufaftures of the country : befides 
all which, the emperor hath power to raife new taxes on the 
people whenever the exigencies of ftate require it ; but, thofe 
already fettled being commonly more than fufiicient to anf^ver 
all his expences, he is fo far from making ufe of that power, 
that there fcarcely pafles a year in which he doth not eafa 
Ibme one or more provinces of a great. part of their tribute, 
if they happen to labour under any faniine, or other public 
calamity p. 
/ n^ / ^^ polygamy is allowed both in Tartary and China, the 
J[J^^^^^ emperor hath commonly a good number o£ wives, tho* but 
ioncHiiftis. ^^^ ^^^ ^^ properly called empre/s^ or fele^ confort, who 
alone is allowed to iit at table widi him. Among thofe of 
the next order are reckoned nine of a fecond, and thirty of 
the third rank, and all of them ftyled wives. Next to them 
are thofe ftyled queens, but are in reality rather concubines, 
and of thefe he 9«viccs as great a number as he pleafes, and 
keeps them in different apartments from the former, except 
he fhould take a particular fancy to any one of them, and 
bring her into the inward court (B). But, in general, he 


' MARxrNi, Magaillan, Lb Comptb, Navaretta, k, 
- Dtr Halde, ubi fup. p. 244, & feq. 

an immcnfc number, feeing the emperor's charity, till they have 

very bonzas are computed at confumed what is equivalent te 

above 1 ,000,000, and the licen- their arrears ( 2 1 ) < 
tiates, or literary bachelors, to (6) Martini relates a (ingolar 

90,000. ftory of one of this laft fort oi 

The whole land, and the ladies, named Pan^ who, for her 

number^of families, being duly wit, beauty, and fingular pru- 

forveyed, it is eafy to compute dence, was become fuch a great 

what each province, city, and favourite of the emperor C^/;^- 

diftri6l,,is to pay yearly to the hi^ or Kanghiy that he could no 

tax-gatherers ; but thefe, it longer brook that fh^ fhould 

feeras, are not permitted to lodge in outward and inferior 

feize the goods of thofe who palaces, allotted to thofe of her 

are flow in their payments, or rank, butrcfolved to bring her 

even refufe it, which would into one of thofe more fplendid 

ruin their families : the only ones of the inward court ; but 

courfe they ^take, is either which (he refufed, with a rxko- 

baftonading or iinprifonment, defty peculiar to her, and in 

or quartering upon them fome woids to this efFedl : ** I have 

of die old men of each city, ** learned from fome of our an« 

wliich are maintained by the " tient paintings, for 1 am ig^ 

(213 Du EaUe, ubi fup, f, 244. 

•' norant 


by Google 

C. i; 

n«^liO^0/ China. 


i^tn tbe wtA ttfyxSi and fsronr to thofe tirioD bring Mm 
moft chUdfoOy and efpedally to the motber of the firft fon, 
iboQgli thef 9i?e aU inferior. to the imperiai confort, ani 
0h%ed to ^nOt on her wbilft fhe fits at taUe with him. How^ 
eror, with vefpeA to their children, tlioie of the lower rank 
ftwdasgood a chance to fncxeed in the empire as thofe of the 
ftrft> foine of rthem having been raffed to diat dignity by the 
bare v3L and nomination of the emperor ; for tho' he com^^ 
fSionly beftows fone high title on thoile women he takes to his 
bed> iefpeciaJly when tbey are the danghters or fifters c^ fome 
Tartarian princes, yet doth it not appear that he e^'^ enr 
dows her by any contract, or other engagement, as (hall in- 
Ikle her ifliie by him to the fucceffion; no, not even the em- 
fK£% confixt, though ihe be at the head of all the reft (C) ; 
ibr that right of naming a fiicceflbr he wholly referves to 


iy capable 
ing to tki 

BOraat of letters, that good 
enperors adi^it^ed none near 
their perfons but the wifeft 
and mod Eaithful roinlders ; 
aad that bad ones, on the 
contrary, delighted to have 
fuch^wonien about them as 
debauched them into the 
greateft irregularities and 
crimes. You are now defi- 
reus to prefer me to your own 
imperial confort : but take 
care, left, by fuch a ftep, you 
do not begin to tread in thofe 
of wicked monarchs. As 
for me, who have a fincere 
love and efteem for you, who 
am always proud of being 
commended by you, and the 
height of all whofe wifties 
is, to (ee ypu excel daily more 
and more in all kinds of 
princely virtues, I cannot con- 
lent we fhould increafe the 
number, you of bad empe- 
rori, and I of wicked wo- 
men. You have a worthy 
emprefs at the head of your 
other wives , and it is her 
whom you ought to keep 

** near your perfon, and not 
<' f|idh a one z% I, who am only 

" % fervant to you both." Tfejf 
fignal inftance of female mo* 
d^^Y^ our author add«, was 
highly applauded by the em- 
peror 5 and much more fo by 
the emprefs, who failed not to 
fend her her thanks, as foon as 
fhe was apprifed of it (2 1 ). 

(C) It is alfo upon the fame 
politic account that none ot 
thofe wives, or other ladies, arp 
allowed any ihare in their go^ 
vernment and councils, though 
there have been inftances q£ 
fome of them being much fitter 
for it than thofe that fat at the 
helm; but this is a maxim which 
runs through moft eaftern coun- 
tries, that that fex is excluded 
by nature from all government, 
either civil or even domeftic % 
and for that reafon it is that 
they call Europe the kingdom of 
ladies, in contempt; where, they 
have been told, they were fut* 
fered to fuccced to the crown, 
and to be invfefted with the fo* 
vereign power ijii). 

(ii) mUrtin, Uiftor, Sinie, /. x. timp. Ii« 
le Cornet, Niewhoff, 6f al. 

Mm. Hist. Vox-* Vni. 

h At 



by Google 

As fobn, tKereFc»'e» as he hath once named one* 1p it, wlie- 
thcr elder cm* jpunger, all the reft readily fubmit ; and Kve hi 
palaces aiSgned to them, either in the capital, or fdme othef 
cities, but without any government, and never rcmdvc from 
them without the emperor's leave. Thdr appenage is duly 
paid to them by the treafurcr of the province wheice they rc- 
fide, and live as private gentlemen ; nor dare they ever com- 
plain of an injury being done to thdr birthright, thqugh the 
p^rfon nominated to the fucceflion, ,or upon the throne, be 
ever fp much younger, which, in either cafe, would be inter- 
preted as no lefs a crime than treafon. 
Theimpi' HAVING mentioned the various apartments, or rather pa* 
rial palace laces, of the imperial wives and concubines, it may be ex- 
defcribed. pefted that we fhduld fubjoin a particular defcription of theift 
Jiere: but, as that would unavoidably carry us beyond our 
bounds, we fhall content ourfelves with referring our readers 
to what wc have faid on this head in the laft feftion, when we 
were defcribing the metropolis of Pe-king ** ; and oidy mention 
here that ftately part of it called the hdl of audience, where 
foreign ambafladors are admitted to the imperial prefence, m 
order to give them a clearer idea of that auguft ceremony, 
Hallofau' This noble fabric ftands in one of the inner courts of the 
dience de- palace, and in the centre of a fquare folid bafis, of an extra- 
Jcribed. ordinary bignefs, the top of which is furrounded by a fpa* 
cious balullrade, and over It another building fomewhat left, " 
and over that three more, all decreafing in fize as they do in 
•height, and all of them of white marble. 0» the upper- 
moft of thefe is a large room of ftatc, fupported by four 
TOWS of pillars of a corifidei*able hisight, and beautifully gift 
and varnifhed, where the imperial throne is placed, and the 
roof covered with fhining yellow tiles. Thofe vaft bafes, 
with their baluftrades, which are dipofed in form of an anv- 
phitheatre, make a magnificent appearance ; and, with their 
Reception .varnifh and gilding, quite dazzle the eye. Here the empe- 
efambaf' ror, attended by a great number of his grandees, and prime 
fadon. minifters, in their robes, by the princes of the blood, tribu- 
.tary kings, (be. all prollratc on their faces before the throne, 
and each of them at a proper diftance from it, according to 
their rank, gives audience to the ambafTadors, who are coo- 
dufted to the throne by fome of the viceroys in waiting. The 
throne is raifed about three or four feet from the ground, in 
the fafhlon of an altar, and covered with fables, on which the 
.emperor fits croii-legged, after the manner of the Tartars* 
ne throw Ix. is placed * againft the farther wall, facing the eaftem en- 

< See before, p. 23, & fcq. 

.'. \ . • - traace ; 


by Google 

traaoe $ aod opens with two folding-doors^ curioufly canred 
and painted. It is about three ^thorns high, and as many in 
breadth ; and before it are two afcents, with fix fteps each, 
adorned with rails beautifully wrought and pit. The plat- 
form on which it is raifed is Ukewiie encompafled with a ba- 
lofhade of curious workmanihip, and either of beaten gold» 
4u of lilver deeply gilt. ' 

The hall itfelf is about thirty fathoms long, and ten broad ; 
the fides and top curioufly pannelled, carved and varniihed i 
and the floor covered with carpets rcprefenting landfchapes 
and hiftories, with variety of figures and ornaments. As to 
what relates to the ceremony of receiving, and giving audience 
to, foreign ambafladors, the reader may fee the moft material 
part of it in the next note (D), as we have chiefly taken it fi-om 
the rdarion which his excellency Mr. Izbrands Ides^ formerly 



(D) He was, he fays, coo- 
dofted to die palace by three 
nandarins, in their robes of 
ibue, richly embroidered with 
|old on the breaft and back, 
ioBie with figures of dragons, 
others with lions, and a third 
fort with cranes and tygers. 
Thefe brought him fifty horfes 
for him and his retinae j; and, 
being alighted at die gate of the 
outward court, he pafled thro* 
£ve others, and came to the 
hall of audience. Here he 
found his majefty feated upon 
ius throne, attended by a vad 
number of mandarins, and de- 
livered his credentials to him ; 
aod, after a fhort foeech^ was 
leconduded to his houfe with 
the fame ceremony and attend- 
ance. The emperor was dreiTed 
in a dark - coloured dama& 
waiiboat, a coat of deep-blue 
ftttin, lined with ermines; he 
had a ftring of corM about his 
neck, and on his head a cap 
fsced with fable, with a red 
filk tuft or knot, and fom^ pea- 
cock-feathers hanging down be- 
hind, and boots or bufkins of 
black velvet oi^ his legs.; but 

had neither gold nor jewels 
about him^ 

He was afterwards invited to 
an entertainment at court, to 
which he was conduced by the 
fame attendance as before ; and, 
after having crofTed fix courts, 
was introduced into the palace, 
where, foon after his entrance, 
the emperor feated himfelf on a 
high throne, attended by fome 
penons who played very finely 
on the fmall flute, and a life- 
gaard of twelve men with hal* 
belts ffilt, and without any 
point, t>ut adorned with leO" 
pards and tygers tails. As foon 
as the emjperor was feated, the 
mufic ceafed, and the halberdiers 
fat down crofs. legged on each 
fide of the throne. The vice- 
roy, the emperor^s uncle, and 
two other grandees, flood on 
each fide of his majefty^ and 
the ambafifador was at firft placed 
about eigh^ yards dlAance ffom 
him, but was prefendy after or- 
dered to come nearer to him. 
The viceroy, who received his 
majefty's command on his knees, 
conducted him, by the hand, 
four yard^ nearer to the throne, 
L z whilft 


by Google 

t^4 ne tiyiity^ CXmu E7. 

iMnbyEiddf to the emjscrdr Skang-th frotn Ab cSar of MuJSny^ 
luth jgivcn us 6f his owh '. That of Padier Le Compfe waiih 
tfccd loinc>^t diflaent fr(^m it ; Which ^^ 

'* Ch^.r4,fefeq. 

filed wi<!h iMn/i ni {r«fAr2ii 
li^udr, (kid to be dilUUul'Sdn 
inmresiiiilk) wn handed tDbiii 
by theVicefoy; an^ ^^^^ 
liaving drank feme of it, jp 
retiiitte« being ordered to il- 
vance fife or Sx yards iieimv 
were treated likewife #ith'lt 
l^refently lifter tliac ceitMif^i 
the viceroy conduAtd hiiii lb 
hit former place ; ^ere» after 
haTing (at about a qaarter of 
an hour, thi emparor luofe; 
"aady (albtiag him, retired toUi 
own apartment i.aod thdn tk 
inandanns condndcd his end- 
lam to fea a Cbhrnft pla^. «f 
. the faeibic lend, aid interkidd 
'with a farce of t^^'tBa 

In his aadieace of leaver le 
ob(erred a new kind of cot- 
bony, which wai Ofed opob^ 
eimperor't being feated on Us 
thnyne; ^«. ^ herald catHss 
aloud tothegtasdeet diea pre* 
(ent to (land sp, aiid bow them- 
fehres to the earth } which dvf 
did three tibies, the drmnt bett- 
ing, mufic plaviw, and bells 
fingingi all me whOe. His ex- 
celtoncy was^iitibwaidsbro^ 
up, and vtacdd witlhin Aine or 
ten yards of the throne, b^ 
'tween two Tartarimn loi^a, and 
there 'matichii compiimeBtirib 
the emperor ; ^after wiudi, be 
tKras reconduAed to his ova 
boQ(e with the ^al cereai^» 
andinenrbf the emperor's cbt- 
' riots, drawn by an elepbata 

iirhilft his ^tinue w^ plac^ 
about ten or twelve yards 'bfe- 
Jiind him. Here the emperor 
lent 'again the viceroy to inqniie 
.after the ezar^s healdi ; and re- 
4or|»0d hif excellency** anfw^ 
,to. hi|B in the (ame kneeling 
po&ifc; , . 

The covering of the empe- 
tor's table, which was of yel- 
low damnk, being taken off*, 
die ^bafladpr, whp had one 
Tpread '^ him(blf, was deAftfft 
to fall t9,,as we^e alfo 'abotti 
^too mandarins more, who were 
feated two and two at th^ir Hr- 
btes alfo. They all fat crofs- 
legged upon d(rpees, 'Ahd the 
ambafiador was forced tb (bb- 
mittodiatoneafyjpolhire. The 
cntertainmdit confined of cbhl 
meats and ftliits : and, ittOr^ 
'the fbnriet, the itorperor fent 
his excellency a cold goofe, )i 
pig, and a Imn of mutton, 'all 
roafted. Th/ee Jefuits being 
afbrwards fetit fbr to ferte is 
' interpreteri^ ^and havfng paid 
their refpefts to th^ throne Ob 
'their knees, one of them Was 
ordered to alk his excellency 
- feverid queffions concemiYighU 
' 3ourney, thelebgth and ma:nner 
of it; arid, havibg commtml- 
' eaced his anfwer to the t^tt- 
; rorj-thc viceroy Wis 'agkin bM 
to briitg hiflA tiearer to his 
throne ; and^ having led htm 
five or fix Heps higher, tethik 
at the table onpbfite to the tin- 
' jpcrial one, whfere, if^er mkiiy 
*%ilm qiiilAions, a golden <% 

(13) iaaiOt'MfijUi^i, u 4, 6f h\ 



by Google 

C. i; '^SUHifioty of China; iSs 

teenmore'^table to the cbtra^ler in whkh he appetm), or 
ferhaps, .as ttelj, to the mourning which the emperor an^ 
tourt were tiiea in £or tbe death dl his mother, yiibo there* 
ibre chofe to be feen in that ftate, rather than in the ufnal 
fpkndor of a Chimfe monarch '. However, either pf thofe 
lodienoes fu£cient^ ftiews the politenefe an^ magnificence of 
tkat'pqurf, as well as the vaft rcfpeft it pays to its princes. 

Ve hare alr^dy taken ^otfce, timt the ^i6m^ laws had f^^Chi* 
thdr ordinal ^m th^ canonical book$ of the &ft and iecond oeTc ^^' 
rfok, oT ^ch hool^ we ^v^given an ac9ount Ui a former ^^^ «« 
put of this woric \ Bqt, ^ tfew jyc^archs are the iUe in- r^.. 
t^rpietei^Qf thtsm, b that no feoteoce c|n be valid, Mother ^^^'^'^^^ 
la civil or criminal cafes, how conformably ibever to chcfe 
hws, till it bath bepn ratified and confirmed by them ; and 
IS atl the edi(l$ and declarations have the f^ce of laws, and 
idnut of po difpute or demur, under the ievereft penalti^ 
foone may fay that the fole legislative power \& locjged in their 
Wft, abd whoUy dp|)ends upon their wi|I. Whether thdr 
power wa$ ajitiently lb extenfive; w^ iJai^e pot fay ; the con- 
trary (eem? rath^ more prebable, both from their hiftory, 
and from ttie imperii adle^oos di edidh of the feveral dy- 
nafties, iincc compiled by order of the emperw Kang-U, wifli 
his judicious remarks at the end of a|moft every one, and 
written with the fed pencil, that is, witK his owa hand, and 
tranflat^ into Latin by Father Hervieu, one* of the miflion- 
aries in Cfnna. t^rpm both thefe it appears, that fcveraj of 
ifok antient emperors h^vc repealed and apnuUed Tome of 
^dr did edablifhed laws ; and fabAituted others in their ftead, 
ynbich fhty thought m<^ beneficial to t|ie commonwealth, 
though it muft be alfo owned, that they feem rather, from 
die tcncMT of their declarations, to have recommended the do- 
ing of it to their fupreme courts and councils, than to have 
done it by their fole authority : fuch, for inftance, were fome Seme^ 
d the declarations of the ^peror Ven-ti^ in one of which, their ex* 
viz. againft profecudng dK>fe that criticifed upon the theticellent^i* 
form OT government^ after having ^ven his reafons againft cUreticns. 
.^ law that cbndemnpd them to be profecuted, he concludes 
•In thefe words: Nos J gan never ft^er the continuation rf 
fuch a laWf and therefore let it be repealed ; and in another^ 
which fubjeded the parents, children, and relations, of a 
criminal, to the fame punifhment, which he calls a cruel and 
imjufi one^ he concludes with faying, fuch that law^ feems ta 
me, of vihich I cannot fee the good tendency : let it he maturefy 

• ^tate of China, part i. let. a, < See before, Ui\, 

Hift. vol. XX. p. iz6» & ^^. . 

L 3 deliberated. 


by Google 

i6^ thi JSpry of Omz. B.I. 

deliherdted^ whethir it bi not neceffary to have it repealed. W< 
(hall give our readers the fubftance of two or three other fuch 
declarations in the margin (£)> that they may fee not only how 


(E) That againft involving 
the innocent relations in the 
punifhment of a criminal^ runs 
m words to this cfFcd : " Laws, 
•* being, the rules of govern- 
«* ment,* ought to be faultlefs j 
** and fhonld not only punifli 
*' the guilty, but proted the 
" innocent : yet I find, among 
^* our laws, one ftill in force, 
'' by which, when a man is 
•* criminal, his father, mother, 
^^ wife, and children, arc in- 
•* volved in his punifhment^ and 
** the leaft puniftiment they 
♦* have to dread is flavery. 
** This law I can by no means 
*• approve of : it is a fure ma- 
♦* xiro, that laws, when per- 
" feaiy juft, are the furcft 
'^ means of keeping the people 
^* in their duty. When punifti- 
** ment falls only on the head 
" of the guilty, all the world 
** commends rfie judgmei^t. 
** The firft duty of a magiftrate 
** is, to guide the people like a 
*^ good fhepherd, and to pre- 
♦•vent their going aftray. If 
'** our magiftrates have not fuc- 
•' ceeded in this, and have ftill 
*' laws to judge by, which are 
^* not corififtent ^ith the ftrift- 
•• eft equity, thofe laws, though 
" well defigned at firtt, turn to 
•• the prejudice of the people, 
** and favour of cruelty." Such 
is the law I have mentioned j 
and therefore the emperor Kang- 
bi's remark upon it is as fol- 
lows : 

Thsfe lijifs princes y the antient 
[Chinefe] emperors^ afien de- 
Jcendedfrotn the majefiy of their 
iJfrane, to bewail and nveep over 
the fui/(f^ Ho<w unreafonafik U 

it to include^ in the pumfimtent rf 
amalefaSor^ bis father ^ bis mo* 
tber, his ivife, and children ^ 
Ven-ti fwas for the aholijhing of 
that laWy and therefore *w€ may 
conclude him to have been a good 

Another declaration of the 
fame emperor Ven-ti ^ for the 
promoting of agriculture, is x% 
the following purport : " They 
•' who have the government of 
" the people in their hands, 
*« ought to infpire them with 
<* all poflible concern for what- 
«* ever contributes to the good 
« of the ftate : foch, without 
<< doubt, is agriculture. 

<« For this reafon I have been 
<* recommending it to them 
" thefe ten'years ; yet I do not 
** obferve that they have fuffi- 
" ciently cultivated their new 
** grounds, or caufed a greater 
•• plenty of grain : on the con- 
" trary, I fee hunger and want 
•* painted on the face of the 
" poor. Surely either the ma- 
*♦ giftrates, and fubordinate offi- 
** cers, have not had a due rc- 
" gard to my ordinances on 
*« this head, or they are un- 
" fit for the rank they polTefs. 
*• Alas ! if the magiftrates, who 
«' are immediate witneffes of the 
•• people's mifery, arc regard- 
" lefs of it, what cflfeaual rt- 
" medy can I apply for their 
♦• relief: this muft be thoagjit 
" of. In the ,mecMA V^mt I re- 
*' mit half of my revenuc^in 
«* grain for the current year.*' 

The empsror Kani^hVs rtflc- 
xion upon it is no lefs remark- 
ably beautiful ; and runs to tills 
eCelft : Nothing can be more ptf 


by Google 

C 1 . ' Tie m/i^rygf Chim. iCg 

jxmch foBie of thofe excellent moiutFchs had the peace^ and Condefcen' 

welfare of their fubje£)3 at heart, 

but alio how tender ^'^^/y** 

than this declaratum^ «r more «/<- 
mrahly exprejfed \ e<veu to this 
^ it is affeBing^ and nvbat muji 
it ha*vi been 'when it nuas firft 

The reader may fee, by thefe 
two inftances, in how amiable a 
•manner they endeavoured to in- 
ftfce the obfervance of their fa- 
ktary edi^s, and the repealing 
of fach old laws as tended to 
the detriment, rather than the 
peace and fafety, of their fub- 
3eds; and in how different a 
ftylcthey recommended the one, 
and condemned the other, from 
what we ofually obf^rve, not on- 
ly in moil of the other eaftem 
monarchs, but even among 
thofe in our weftern kingdoms, 
where their power is neither fo 
cxtenHve, nor their wealth or 
ftrengthfb great, to fupportthem 
in their tyrannic government. 
The reader may fee a much 
-greater number of them in the 
above-mentioned <;oUedion, all 
.rooning in the fame gentle and 
fatherly flrain. We fhallonly 
fingle out one more, which^ for 
its excellence in this way, may 
.be termed an original in its 
kind. It is from the fame ad- 
mirable prince; and the occa- 
fiqn of It, the many conttant 
prayers and fupplications offered 
,hy his miaiflers on his behalf, 
whilft they negleded their duty 
.towards his fubje(is« It is to 
this purport : 

" I am now arrived at the 
** 14th year of my reign ; and 
** the longer it continues, the 
" morel amTenfible of, aud 
** confounded at, my want of 
f' i^bilities : ^nd thQug^ I have 

*• not hitherto omitted the year- 
** \y difcharge of thofe ceremo- 
'* nies prefcribed to Shaft^-ti^ 
" and to my anceftors ; yet I 
«* am fenfible, that, in thofe 
" ceremonies, none of thofe 
'* antient and wife princes had 
•* any view tp their own private 
<< intereil, or offered up their 
** petitions for what is common- 
•* ly termed happinefs. On the 
" contrary, they fet all confi- 
^* derations of blood or family* 
" intereft afide, to promote an 
** able worthy man, though no 
** way related to them, and 
*• preferred the wife counfel of 
" another to their own natural 
'* inclinations. Nothing can be 
'' more commendable or wife 
'* than fuch a difmtereiledne£i 
" in great princes. 

** A preient I am given to 
" underftand, thatmany officers 
•* llrive to outdo one another. 
** in their prayers for the j?ood 
*« fortune, of who ? not of my 
'< people, but of my perfon. 
«* This is what cannot by any 
<< means be agreeable to me. 
" CouW I approve that officers 
*< unmindfal of their duty, and 
** unattentive to the welfare of 
•* my people, (hould be wholly 
" taken up with promoting that 
*^ of a prince who has fo littfce 
^< merit as I have, I ihodd 
*^ think it no inconilderable ad- 
<^ dition to my other failingf. 
<< I therefore ordain» that my 
•• officers, inftead of their pom^ 
" pous petitions for me, dp 
'' give all poffible application 
^' to a conicientious difcharge 
« of their duty." 

This dedaratioii, like nioft 
L 4 othm^ 


by Google 

they ^ira« tf wttMidifig tha amiefit c^rititetkm of tte 
empim by too defpotic a «£i of dm power aedmtlieritft 
ferooe may plainly fee, that it was diiefly owing to this 
AriA obfervaoce of the fandamtntils of their govemmeQt, 
that the (Mu/e have been able to preferte it in ftidi weakh 
ttd fplendor during fe lom^ a ieries of ages; and flill confi* 
eue to do, even under a fordgn yoke. It is no leTs viCbfe 
Ukewife, that the prefent peace, wealth, and grandew:, whkh 
both they and the Tartars enjoy under this new fett of cm- 

ErorSy is no leis ondng to the tender rqprd whkh tbafe 
ve» a8 £u: «« poffiUe, (hewn to tlte aodentCSUn^ oonflaa^ 
JmiiMUdh ^i^A * <^ <^^ °^y pbdnly jtidge liow msdi the iaie empcnr 
/i^Tarta-Jt^jT-'Af admimiit, as well from the ftrift obfivvance he paid 
fian Mv- to it, as from the judidons reflexions he made on the dedi* 
f€rm^ rations above-mentioned* We may add, that he could not 
have fallen upon a more efieftual means to endear the ChmA 
n^don to him, and make bis yoke fit eafy upon them, than if 
caufmg thofe declarations of the heft antienttTi&tii^ kiqgp 10 
be colleAed and pubMied, with his (agMJous ammadverfiov 
and encomiums upon them ; by which 1^ ieemed to give the«i 
•ft moral fecurity, that he defigned to make them the model «f 
lus own conduct and government*. Accordingly we find; 
^dMtt he admitted none in his cdUeSdon, but thofe ^x^ch d* 
ther propofed the repealing of fuch old laws as were mani- 
ibftly hurtful to the fubjeds, or the enacting fuch new ooei 
as were bcft calculated to promote their peace and welfaie; 
tas the reader may fee by the heads of the moft reffi«rkabk^ 
them, which he will find in thq next note (F)« 

■ See fiv Halm Ctigl. v«L i. p. 454, t^ fbq. 

%ikei^, it fobfcribed, and much ^W-/i afbibed all the def^rfh 

^wywywd, hy the wife emperor that happened hi die ftate 10 hb 

4tkfigjbi f and with this j«di- efwn feff ; but with regard ID 

*ciouB obArvauon, tiuit it is a happinefs, he difcbuned it all« 

^pMSi^ vkwe, and net the dfer^ -except where kis fufaje^ haft 

4agB'and pil^s of other peo- • their common ibare in it; 4i 

ipte, tiiat d]<aws down bleffings which he was a worthy imitam 

'1tm^ Ty4t9 (heavfn) unon him : and 'flKxeffinr of our antieiit 

^whidi<MiratfChor adds air ob- monarchs (14). 
-ftnriMitkMi tf one of the famed (P) Befides the tiuee fingulitr 

<}ke9ati|nttiied7/£Ki^/»-j^v«u;,ivho one» above-mentioned, die col* 

4oitriflMd Minder Che flynafty of leCtion mentiqns diefe ^h^^l* 

^5»ttyi qphw the 'geoS eto^ptrot Ipw; 

4. 4 


by Google 


fit Hljtay «/ CMna. 


Wb mtj fiuttier oblerve mdtr thig bcid, from tbf tenpr ^^t«^ 'v*^* 
of JcYCfal of thofc impeml dcgkr^tow^ that tbQugh thfiptutioM 

4. A ckchmtdon of die (ame 
tnperor Ven-tiy on occafion of 
aDfdipCe of die fmi, in die ^ays 
of Asar ; wkerein he ackiiow- 
^gcs due jfcaeiK>iDeoon to be a 
waving m>ai f>rii <ifMico)« 
iiQ&io^im aodJuifuh^eififi^of 
fomefatnre calamitj; and, as 
bad piinces often draw them 
xa^ die people^ he ^efiret bi^ 
aiiaiAersand fubjedls to examine 
^Nh the otmoftari&nefs into hi$ 
co&dnfi;^ and to acquaint him 
idfli What they find amifs in ic, 
diatbe may^ by his reformation, 
and good example, induce them 
to do die like, and thereby avert 
the threatening omen. One of 
the i^lofles cpon it adds, that 
diis 18 tiie firil time that a C&i- 
9^ emperor had, nponfucfaan 
occafion, de&red to be told of 
his faalts ; but that, fince the 
days of Ven-ii^ many of thofe 
monarchs had followed his ex- 

5. A declaration of the fam^ 
for exchanging fome/fevere mu- 
dlations, infiided on ofFenders, 
into fome milder paniflupenti. 
In this the good emperor be- 
wails himfel^ that under the 
itign of Sbunf a prince of ex- 
traordinary wUdom, the execa- 
tii^ delinquents Jn e^ie was 
deemed fumcient to keep peqplc 
^^lin their duQ^; whereas, ip 
his d^s, the moft fevere mad- 
lations, fuch as cutting off, the 
■oie, hand, foot, brandii^ in 
the forehead, could not otXex 
men frqm the blackeft cdmcfi. 
However, he ordains the ex- 
cbanffing of thefe for fuch other 
^awhmeftti,«diicji, tbo*iavere 
according to the nature of the 
k&s, 4h^ not fix an indeUble 

brand, but rather prove a means 
of thdr amendment^ and being 
reftored to the common privi- 
leges mf a fubjed. 

6. Another of the feme, cliar« 
t;inc all his minifters, fraim the 
kighfft to the bweft, to inquiae 
airmen of die moft appr9ve4 
virtue, merit, learning, l^c. and 
xt> pre(entthom to him % and» 19 
the mean time, that tho&, whp 
were in the higheft pofts, flu)uI4 
afiift in examining the four fol- 
lowing eflendal points i 'viz^ i. 
His daily and perfonal faults^* 
2. The defcfts of the prefent 
adnuniftradon. 3. The inj^^ 
dee of the ma^i&ates. 4. Tho 
neceifides of we people. 

7. Another of the fiune, giv,- 
ing his reafons for notting W^ 
end to ^ bloody ana ^penAve 
war, and makmg peace witjl^ 
Tan JU9 a Tartarian prince, M 
thd north of China, and which 
he concludes with dieie remarks 
able words : In this i^twr, I ca9 

fay liawf Jicquittid ngfe^oftbt 
firfi dut^f ancumknt on a frince^ 
njffhich Ut to tfiaUiJb ftace in bit 

8. Another of the iame, in 
which he exhorts his fubjefU tp 
give him their advice in his ad«- 
miniflration, tofendhim people 
jof virtue and. cxpedence, toaf* 
4ift him widi their ,cipunfcls,;qid 
to iyn>ly.and fpcak to him ;ijvit)i 
freedom. This declaration pro* 
Q^aed him a memorial ifoni 
one of bis head minifters, ii» 
much to .his liking, that Jie i£- 
ined out.a 

9th, to the fame purpofe with 
•the •former, but ftill more ear- 
neft and preffing, .to the reft ef 
his officers, to come and acqnsunt 


by Google 

Chinefe conftitutioa be cried up as fuch an excdieot model of 
goveroment, yet it had originally, or at kail antiently, feve. 
ral fevere laws, that favoured rather of tyranny, than of a 
well-cllculated polity between the prince and his fubjefts. Of 
this nature was that which condemned all the relations of a 
criminal to the fame punifliment with him ; and another which 
hurried the condemned perfons to execution, without allow- 
ing them a fufficient re{pite for farther inquiry ; fo that great 
luimbers of guiltlefs perfons had been unjufUy put to death, 
whole innocence had manifeftly appeared afterwards, when it 
wa^ too late. The reader may fee many others of the fame na- 
ture in the lift below, as like^dfe in that of thofe new ones fince 

him with every defeat in the ad- 
miniftration', and to tfdvife him 
bow to remove them in the moil 
efFedual manner. 

I o. A declaration of the em- 
peror Suen'tt\ ordering perfons 
remarkable for their filial piety 
to be prefented to him, out of 
every government in his em- 
pire, in order to their being 
promoted by him according to 
their merit. 

n. Another of the fame, 
which grants an exemption from 
all attendance on pamic fervice 
to thofe who had loft their fa- 
ther or mother, grandfather or 
grandmother, till they had per- 
formed all the ufusd duties of 
mourning to fuch parents. What 
thefe dutie€ are, will be feen in 
the fequel. 

12. Another of the fame, by 
which he difpenfed, for the fu- 
ture, with a fon's accafing his 
parents, or a wife her hufband ; 
fcnt made it capital for a father 
or a hufband to conceal certain 
crimes of his fon, or of his 

1 2. A declaration of the em- 
peror Chingti to the great mini- 
iters of his empire, recommend- 
ing to them the care of fup- 

(iO See Wrvieu*s CoiUaion M^i^fuottd^ Du Hsldik v$rfim 9/ ii, Mtldtii 


preffing all unneceflaryexpences 
of equipages, clothes, entertain- 
ments, weddings, houfes, farm- 
ture, gardens, ponds, &r. and 
forbidding all people to go be- 
yond theirrank in any of thefe. 
13. A declaration of the em- 
peror Ngayti, for the reforma- 
tion of muiic, and fupprefling 
that kind of it which infpired 
people with watitonnefs and 
effeminacy, and difcharging his 
own band of mniicians, by way 
of example to his fubjeds, and 
by which, the glofs obferves, he 
faved the yearly falary of uo 
perfons. We (hall go no far- 
ther with them ; but only ob* 
ferve, that thefe excellent de- 
clarations from the throne com- 
monly produced fome good me- 
morials, or difcourfes, on the 
fubjeft they treated of; which 
were handled with fuch polite- 
nefs, and ftrength of reafoningf 
that they feldom failed of the 
defired effed : they being chiefly 
written by fome of the wifdl 
,and moft experienced miniftcrs 
of thofe monarchs, and by thofe 
confirmed, anddepofited in their 
archives, for the oenefit of thofe 
that were to come after (2j;}« 


by Google 

tasi&ed, by which it will plainly appear^ that the Chinefi go- 
vemmoit did not arrive to that mildxiefs and excellency, but by 
degrees^ and that it was chiefly owing to thofe wife and good 
princes, who made it their chirf ftudy to reform and improve 
It by their wholfome ediAsy and laudable example. 

Neither can it be faid that this reformation hath been fo Some tru" 
cflfeftually and tmiverfaUy completed, as to anfwer the great eltia/UU 
<hanifter which fome have pven us of this government ; wit- t^^^M* 
aefs the corruption and depravity which full reign amo^gft 
them ; and the great power, or rather tyranny, which the 
viceroys, or governors, fUll exert againft the fubjeAs, in the 
fines and corporal puniihments they infli£l upon them : for . 
though, as we hinted above, no criminal can be put to death, 
aooording to their laws, till the emperor hath confirmed the 
fotence, ye^t whether the reducing them to begary by fines 
aad confifcation, torture and imprifonments^ or baflonading 
them till they expire under the blows, or become poor mifer- 
aUe nipples by it, as is commonly, and impunely, done by 
tfaofe mercilefs mandarins, be not much more cruel than the 
worft death the law condemns any criminal to, and do not 
argue a defed in their conflitution, more fit to be reformed 
tt^ any of thofe mentioned in thefe declaradons^ will hardly 
admit of a queftipp. 

Their puniilunent$ are dther capital, as in c^fcs of rebellion. Various 
murdor, ifc^ corporal, as in lefler crimes, or pecuniary. Rebel* pt^ijb- 
Bern and treafon, being efteemed the greateft of all crimes, are «wj; 
punifhed vrith the greateft rigour, viz. by cutting the criminal/^ ''^* 
into 10,000 pieces, in the following manner : The executioner,-^" • 
having firft tied him to a ftake,^ tears the (kin off his forehead 
and head, and lets it hang over his eyes, to prevent, as fome tell 
us, his feeing how dreadtuUy the reft 6f his body is mangled ; he 
next (lafties the other parts with a kind of cutlafs, till he hath 
cot almoft all his fleih in pieces ; and then abandons him to 
the cruelty of the gazing populace, who commonly difpatch 
Urn in the fame butcherly manner. This puniftiOfsnt, how- 
ever, isfeldom executed to the laft rigour, unlefs it be under 
fome cruel princes ; for, according to the kw, it confifts only 
in cutting the body of the criminal into feveral pieces, ripping 
up his belly, and taking out his entrails, and throwing the 
carcafe into a river, or ditch, as is commonly done to greit 
nalefeftors ^ (G). ^ The 

* Du Halde Engl. vol. i. p. 4i3» & feq. Martini, Lp 

C0HPT(, & al, 

(G) This pum{hl^ent, as was ufcd to be infli£lcd on all the 
iMQted in the laft A0t6 but one, near relations pf the criminal, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ijt fBr Hijhry. of Ch&ia.; .B. 1. 

For difih' "^^E ncxt crimt to cpbi^oii, or tr«afon, tgamft thff «mp6* 

i/w»ff /« jForj i^ that again^ the ^jiitn% vj^hSchU'pmilked ^rtlh ^ 

/or/;?// •• ^e, if ifLOt greater, fevcrity. tp this cafe, If ii fathec Aatgcs 

nis fen witfilt bdbre a m^iftratc, no ferthcr proof is recmii^ 

9pd thp criqunal is imme<@t?eiy ooBrf^mncd and executed, thb* 

\t be but for obMnate djfot^cncc, or diffy^eSEt ; but if it 

%|nounts to a higW guilt, racH as'^ mockery, Infult, or Hftifig 

|ifP a hand againft tlrem, cfpedaTly Ibiking them, the vrtwfe 

country is alai-med, and the ^poiritirig of his puniftlment^1^ 

Tiisr ferved for thie emperor bimfett. In tms lafE cafe, the maglf- 

great n- tr^tes of the place are tufnei out wi^ diferace, and the whofe 

fiia to Ij^^igihbourhood is threatened with fome fi^ere puniftimcnt, finr 

tbm» fe^ving given birth to a monftcr, find fiiffered it to grow by 

yegyees to that pitch of wcjccdnefs, without infbnmng AA 

^governors oi it. The criminal is condemned to be cut, like 

f traitor or rebel, into io,oqo pieces, and afterwards burAt ; 

ijs lands, houfe or hdufes, and the houfes next to hb, to 

1^ deftrpyed, and to remain fb^ as a pionument againft fe 

jj^cteftable. a crmip "(H)/ 

till the emperor Vm'ti caufed Even the einperors al^e obliged 

* fl^it jQ^} \w to be repealed : by them to (n^w as deep a re- 

kjfid it may, in the fame manner, foe£t to them as the meaneft of 

"have been mitigatjed, with re- tJieir fabje£b; and we rcadtJf 

'^^ the execution of the en- - one of them, who, having ba- 

ininai; by that or fome other nifhed his own mother for eo. 

monarch, tho' originally it was tertaining ^ criminal cOQViBrfa- 

Erformed aocording to the tet- tIo{i .with p^c of his jcomt^^y 

, aod *8,tHe n^pie .pf xk^p pa- ^as fo iipportuived by his mini- 

luflvinent impli/ss; fo that one nifters and fiibje^ with p^U- 

.jija^y jyruJy ffiy of fome pf the tions for her recall, and widi 

j^^^j^l W^ oiChina% what the daily remonilraaces ^|;ainft his 

Cr/eh{2Lid of thofe of Draco the breach of filial diity, in bani/h- 

, Athpiian lawgiver, that they ingTier, that 'he was forced at 

were written in blood (26), till length to yield to them, thoag^ 

' they were afterwards mitigated not till he had rfied? to d^ 

Jby princes of a milder diipo£- ^ucm isov^. apji^ing to \xm *^ 

Vtwii. hex behalf, ;^t pnly by fopc 

: (^) Thwje is no A^ )w^ich fjeyerc edicts, but by putting <a 

the (^tnifi ^aws fo mjich re- death fevcralip'f thpfe^zcfljous in- 

i^|]^e, or lay fo great a Itrefs on, tefceflbrs : in^pmucli .that his 

as obedience to parents, whofe grandees entered into a combi- 

^^tbority /caches, in fome cafes, nation aojt to let 01^ .day pafs» 

even beyond their funeral, as without one of them prwrriAg 

we ihall fhew in the fequel. a^tition to him in tneir tari^ 

{2^} Smh/ir*fJ/jiiv.]^ifi. v$Uyi ^as^j §f/es^ 



by Google 

^ Mc7ki>«tttlBEew^f)iuifliediirith4etf|^ 

tetare of U» If a nam kills his ijivrfa^ in^ a doel,. tm H fmt^bUlf 
ftaiglec^ which is th«:e:r^oned thelefla*puaiflanent| ^sStftrmnzUttg 
if £y aflaffitiffcltoD^ 6r irirh aajr i^gravadqg drcumfbnices, ht ^^&- 
is Ueadd, which is m^oded the mere di&oao«nib)e^ Un. ^*^H^ 
CMtk Us h^d» ^ principal {)art of a fosa^ U icvawd 6^9 
^body, ib th^t be dodi riot go out of l^ wotld wiih Ae 
fiflK'faidFe body with whic^ he came into it : in either cift^ 
perfaos ^diove the commtai rank are always oinried to the 
fiack of execntion <^er in a ledfti^ or % oovered cart. Tfak 
eofkrar, when he cosiBrm$ toy of thefe fentenees of dckthi 
CDnmobly fubfcrib<^ thexlead warraat ^<!cording to the Hating 
€f iSe crime ; as, when it is df aa atrocious kiAd> 'with 
diefe words, Asfion m fits order is received iy you, let him 
hkxecuUd witiout dny iklay : bnt When die crimie is of a 
cbmifaoa hature, ^nd hath tothing to ^gnavate it, he wrii^ 
ddsfoiteiKe'tindcr tt^ JM the crimiml^ iej^ in fri/bn^tt 
autmmh andihen b^ e^ecut^; fyr thei^ is ^ fixed day in 
thatieajbii, on Which ^ eriminlils cf this tiature are io be . 
fat to death tfaib* tfatecm|>ir6 \ 

* Du HaliHe 
Coj4pYe, &al. 

EiigL vol. Lrp, ^tj, ^ (cq. Martini, h% 

Aoagh fore to be cut off" fox it 
ok die i^ot, till picy had carried 
^^ur point J AccorHmgly two 
if t&em tiAie on di^^i-entdays, 
kfrd wei^ imniediately pot 'to 
dSiflil and onthe jie^cidtfe a 
iMfd, iifho bi^itghtMs Isefk^vasd 
cofin widrkim, 'and left k at 
4e ^ate of -the [plalace ; and, 
findmg'the emperor fti 11 more 
jncenied at what he called his 
infidence, fpoke tohim to'thT^ 
rtffcft: iVbat JhaU we lo/e by 
nr* death, hut the fight b/afriiAe 
iiffm *wh6m tve cMot^hok but 
ym kJbill'notht^ us, '^e <uM'p 
eaidjeek yvur,'imdihe emfrtfsytkr 
'weekef^s, ameflarsi ihey *will 
hear dur eomplaints : and you *wi/i 
fnoffahif, in the darkfiienceef the 
m§f»t, bear our aud their ghofit 

V^oach yeu fir your injafilcAi 
Tiiis noble fpcech Uriew upoa 
hitii the moll druel ddafh tKit 
inott^ch coikld dlmfe ; which 
was, hO#evcr, fo far from deter* 
riiig, that'it fporred a hutnhdt 
of odi^ihandari&s to followhi^ 
tncatttj^, and to cotne daily ^ 
die' martyrs to the caufe i tilltiie 
emperor, wearied with ^acri* 
ficii^ fo many worthy lives, and 
fearing it might occafioh fomc 
Yctolt, was at length obliged m 
recall Ydr ; fo tcnatious is th^ 
Chfftefirnsi^n of their antie^ 
laws with refpea to this fsliat 
dtity(27), that they wonld^nol: 
fttfi^ra-moi^rch to Ihew a jut 
refemi^entagainft amot^r whp 
had (6 fiiamefully Tallied thc^hor 
nour of his family. 

{%7) te CftH^te, part a, letter x. Martini b\fi* Sim, /. Ui. imp. 28, ^41/. 

4 Adwltert 


by Google 

Brm^ing Thbrb Jue certain eoormite, fwJuditheoffindflrsar^ 

•Htbt feiQrfit on the foreheacl« or on the mrochoeks, witha Chhutf^ 

ebeik. charafter, ngnilying the cnme: &r others they coodeiBa t^ 

Bamjb' baolftitn^t, which is often perpetual, if the place beaiqrpar^ 

*'*^' of Tariary \ and thefe are commonly condemned to rccOTc t 

certain number of "blows of the haftonado, acf or di n g to th^ 

nature of their crime, before they fet omt. In liomc oafey 

they condemn theoflfender to tcrworrow in the imperial tek^ 

for a certain fpace, which feldom exceeds throe y^us. Som^ 

ether punifhmeHts they haye for IdTer offences, fuch as canyi 

hg a weight on their Leads from fix to tea cr more poimik 

according to the dire^on of the mandarin who prdudes u 

the tribunal. 

Wr tor* 'I'he Y ufe two fortsof torture in Cbma. tocxtort OMifeffion j 

1^^ . ' the ordinary one, which jsiiowever veryacute and painfiil, i^ 

a Idnd of engine, which they clap the hands or feet, or bothi 

of thennhappy peribn in, which diftorts the bones to fuch a 

degree, that that on the feet fqueezes the ancle-bone quitd 

flat: Jiowevei:, we are told, that they istvc £>me reowdies t(^ 

diminlfli, or even Jftupefy, tbe eKqiufitQiie& of die pun; «pd 

others to r^bie tbou* lin^ in aiew days, after havstng 4)001 

unrmr- & tmribly distorted. The exmuvcfiaary tortufe is mkfk 

JUutry. vM, lauipt ia otfes <£ treafoii'and rcbellicm, and incite 

to oMn the |ieribn totdisfe liis accomplices, itfter the fift 

hftAbeenpttrfei. TWslaftisliDnety oitthiglBg^tgifttt 

M^the body, mA Rrippii^ off the fldn In nanow Wfi or 

fiSets^. Thefe are the punUhments moft in vogue : food 

there 'have l)een, Indeed, of a much more cruel natusi^ &r- 

ineFly inBi£led by fome of their lysanmc mooArch^ «Qoea 

pardcular not unlike in ittnoffeAs, as ^ritU as harbanqr^ • 

ihAtof ^AUbm'a bull (L); but tbofepriacei were not ooif 


« Ste tlv ilAi.R9 ubifupn, p. 313, -k bq. 

Ife'raft-to pMcoie a weddings tion, «niong'Mkerfoclid«(eAed 

k^ Shc£mn faood « moi tyrants, the emperar G^fw> 0*^ 

mho went aad dcmandtd kar, of whofe concubiiies, on ^boii 

«ft«lK>(econditiens,oftiie'matt- tepaffionately'dested, wastbr 

^budnj who pasd kitt the mo- inrsntoeft of this new Iciad ^ 

oey accordingly, und ddivcrcd panKhment cdled Fem-k* ^ 

<lier-np, frtefromker vwas a bnifs toiler, orcdlttmB, 

AamefllaiidnaireiafappdrtaMe twemy cubits high, and e^^^^ 

^cke (129). diameter, And hollow ia ^ 

(L) .Tke Ci&/»^}recordatM»- 'middle, with tkfee epeniags^ 

(29} Fstk, Ctntamn afttdDu ffgUt, 9tki fu[f. ^* 3tS.] 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C I. The Hifiwy of ChinaT 177 

detefled daring their life, but their memory hath been erer 

odious to this day. > - ". 

One thing muft be (aid in praife of the Chinefi^ with tc- Prifint 

fpeft to the prifons in which they confine their oflfenders ; viz. it^tirhfi 
that they are much more capacious, airy, and fwect, than the ^^'^ - 
common gaols in Europe^ cfpecially in England. They arc "^P^*- 
generally large fpacious courts^ on whole four fides ire the ' 
apartments of the criniinalsy raifed upon wooden columns in t 

the form of a gallery ; and on the four corners are fecured the 
more notorious rogues> in! ftrong cells and fetters ; and thefe 
are never let out in the day-time, as the others are, who are 
allowed the freedom of die court, and of converfing with 
each other. The women are confined in a fcpanfte cour^ 
where no man is admitted to come to them, or even to fpeak 
to them but through a grate, or the turning-box, by which 
thdr viftuals, and other neceflaries, are conveyed to them; 
Both prifons arc very well guarded, and kept at nights in ^^^ 
profound filencc. The centinels are relieved every hour ; the V*^^^, 
reft of die guard are ordecrd to patrole all the night ; fo that 
all attempts of refcue or efcape prove not only vain, but dan- 
gerous. Every gaol hath a mandarin, who is trufted with 
the care of it, and is obliged to vifit it frequendy ; and, if 
any prifoner is fick, to provide him vdth a phyfician, and 
proper remedies for his recovery ; which is done at the em- 
peror's charge. If any dies, the emperor muft be ac- 
quamted^th it (or, in the other provinces, the viceroy), who 
rftcn fends a fuperior mandarin thither, to examine whether 
the inferior one hath done his duty. And thus much may 
foffice for criminal cafes. 

The dvil ones are determined by proper tribunals. We CMl 
took notice in a former feftion, that every city of the firft, caufahix^ 
fccond, and third rank, had their proper courts and judges, Jwgul. 
the latter fubordinate to the former, and all of them to that of 
the metropolis of the pro\dnce, unto which a plaintiff or de^ 
fendant might appeal ; or even, paffing by all the inferior 
pncs, bring his caufe to, if he thought he fliould not obtain 
jofHce in th« inferior ones. Ip greater matters, a man may 
even appeal to the fupreme tribunal of Peeking ; but in mooe 

potting in of fuel. To this they and foon after reduced them to 

^cncd the imhappy objefts, alhes, in the Drefence of this 

making them embrace the pillar . monfter of crueff, who it feems 

with £eir arms .and legs. A took an unnatural delight in 

gfcat fire was afterwards kin- fuck dreadful fpcdacles (39). 
^cd within ir, which roaftcd, 

(30) Fjtf^. Cantawein a^ud Du Haide, ^.314. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VIU. M tf 


by Google 

178 . . the nifidry of Chmz: B. 1; 

-Not ma- of thefe cafefi is the appeal, or even the caufc, brought to a 
va^id by court by lawyers, advocates, and attorneys ; but every roan 
tfmyets (frjs to be hi^own counieUor and manager, unkfs he gets per- 
mtnr^tys. jjgpj fome oipert perfon to draw up his plaint or cafe for him, 
Law'fuih '^ ^^^^ ft meaner and form ascuftom requires; which being 
ko^ car* jdone, be b to bring it hknfelf to the tribvnal ; and, being 
jried M. Arrived at the fecond gate^ beats on a drum, and then falls on 
his knees, with his hands lifted up as high as his head, and 
prefents his plaint to the officer m waiting, who comes out to 
him at the iound of the drum. This laft takes the paper from 
him^ and carries it to the tribunal, where it is examined by 
the ju(^(i& ; and» if the fuit proves u> be of a frivolous or 
j^exatious nature, or if the jplaintifT cannot make good his al- 
. lq^taon^ he is coiamonly lent home with a found drubbing 
jdT the bauonado : but ^ the plamt be juft, and well fup- 
ported, the defendant or accufed is fent for by a proper officer 
cf the coUrt» and obliged to appear in perfon, and to make 
ih^ bed defence he can (M). Xn ibme c^ the judges allow 
them a longer day ; ts when the defen(|ant's wi^tnefles are at 
Ibnie Aiftance, or any circiimAance happens, that requires a 
lusher ;acaminatim \ dtherwife the controverfy is decided 
.'upon the fpo^ according tso the appearing merit of it. If ei- 
ther of the partis is diiflati&fied ^th the fentence, he may 
-appeal td a fuperkir court; and, from that^ to a higher; and, 
whether thisy do, or not, the judge of the inferior is obliged 
to tranfimt an account of every foch uyal to the next fuperior 
court, to be there f urth^ eitamined, and be either confirmed 
or cafliiered : for, if the fentence g^ven appear uojufl, the 
fiiperiof couft is dbliged not only to rcverfe it, and do juf- 
lice to die iiyured perfon« but to puailh the inferbr judg«» 

(M) Thislaftdrcmnftanceof fuch as that of the CbiHefft to. 

/ununnniae the defendant b not forejudge any man, before htf 

.mentioned oy Ma^ailUn^ or any be permitted to offer what he 

other writer, noi; in what mah- has to fay in his own defence, 

ner be is to make his defence This may likewifc be concludcit 

before the tribunal ; which was from fomc of the Chineft ftorici 

an unj^ardonable overfight in which Z><r H^^/e hath inferted i« 

them. However, we have ven- the hiftory of that conntrvj 

tured to infert thus much ; as it wherein mention is made ol 

is impoiiible for the judges to fuch kind of tryals, and their 

determine any caufe regularly, manner of proceeding (31)1 

without hearing both M^ ; it which may be reafonably (up* 

being unjiift and illegal ia any pofed to be founded on the bM 

well governed nation> efpecially and cuiloms of the country. 

(ji) Shva a, f. is«, «r jif. 



by Google 

£r ootlisviBg done it, whtdicr an/appeti belodged againft 
him, or no. This, one would imagine, moft be a moft ctr 
cdleat 11^7 of admiaiftriQg juflicc to the fnbjefts, and ba* 
jdfliingfinand and comipdoB fr^m thofe tribncols, by making 
the fnperior ones to have fbch a powerful check over the low- 
er: bat, as we have lately had occafion to obierve, all this is Tribunah 
mere formality and grimace ; and there it fuch a fellow-feeling corrupted 
between aU thofe tribunals, or rather the higher ones do fo i^ irittfy* 
prey on the lower, that a phdntiff will ftand but a poor chance, ' 
let his caufe be ever fo juft, if he doth not back it vnA fuch 
round bribes as may turn the fade on his fide. Notmthfland- Som of 
iog all thefe difcouraffements, we are told, that the people m /^^^ feofU 
imc diftriOs are fo Hdgious, that riiey will mortgage thehr v/rjr isti*^ 
lands, houfes, goods, :md aU they have, for the pleafure diff^^* 
fgAag to law, and procurii^ a baflonado to be riven to an 
antagooiil ; thou{^ it often happens that the dmndant, by 
privately bribing the mandarin with a lugho* fum, vrill divert 
die blows fk>m his own to the plaintiff's back. Hence arife 
mortal difcords and enmides among them, which wiU flick in 
thdr hearts tUl they find new oppdrtunities of fatisfying thdr 
revei^ ; whilft tboie miniAers of iniquity, mc^e intent on 
their gain than their duty, or the peace and welfare of the 
iubject, rather fhive to blow up, than to fupprefs, the flame, 
in hopes of new presents and gains, to fatlsfy their boundtefs 
avarice •. 


Of the Leamin^^ Arts^ Sciences^ Language^ &c of the 

TTHE Chinefe have doubdcfs been too much crigd up by Learnings 
^ the miffionaries for their learning, and as unjuiw under- arisMc.^ 
valued by other writers for their want of it ; neither is it /^^thi- 
poflible to reconcile what we are told, on the one hand, of ^^^^ 
their having carried fome of their fciences to fuch a high de- 
gree from the times of their earlleft monafchs, feparatQ. as 
tiiey were from the refl of the world, with the fmall improve- 
ments they have finc^ made to them during the fpace of near 
4000 years ; whilfl the Europeans^ who received theirs fo recently 
from the ^r^tfA^ and Romans ^ have fo far outflripped not only 
them, but the Chinefe^ within the compafs of two or three 
centuries. This may be clearly feen by what we have a,lready 
dbferved of their maps of the world, and of the heavenly 

* Du Halde, vol. i. p. 278, LeComptE;Macaillan,& al^ 

M z conftellations. 


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180 The Hi^my 4f Chinz. B.l. 

conftelladoiiSy as irell as 6t>m theimpcrfeft apparatus of their 
£uiied obiervatorj of Pe-kingK What incUffereiit aftrono- 
inen» and worie geographers, they were when the firft Eitrth 
f€an miffiooarks came into thofe parts, is no le& naanifeft, 
from the reception which they gave to thofe learned ftrangers. 
The prpgrefs they have fince inade under them in thofe {dences, 
plainly Ihews that thdr inferiority to Host Europeans was not fo 
Their n* much owii^ to want of cenius and capacity, as to their bdng 
fituate at U) great a diftance from them, and to their being 
debarred the benefit of travelling, and correfponding with 
other learned nations of the world ; ib that, all things con- 
lidered, it ought to be rather a wonder that they had made 
fo great a prcgrefs in them, with thofe flight ailiftances they 
had only from themfelves, than that they came fo far behind 
Bs in every point. And it appears no inconflderable ohd- 
mendation of their underftanding and capacity, that they (o 
readily fubmitted to be taught by a people of whom they had 
fcarccly heard before ; and to be inftrufted in fuch a variety 
of branches of learning, which they were not only flrangecs 
to, but which were fo veryoppofite to thofe which had, till 
then, paded kr current among them. It is true, indeed, 

. that the Jefuits took care to be well backed by the impend 

raged by authority add favour, before they ventured upcm any thing of 
the empe- that kind ; eUe the literati^ who, till then, had looked upoo 
ror. all kinds of fcience and knowlegc to be centred in them, m^ht 

have given them, in all likelihood, a quite contrary recep- 
tion, for picfuming to introduce a new kind of learning, which 
caft fo diiadvantageous a reflexion upon their old. And thig 
is no other than what Father Verhieji intimates in fome of 
his letters, that it was with great difficulty, and not widioot 
. the emperor's interpofition, that the generality of their kamed 
fubmitted to the exchange •. 
Their However that be, whether by compulfion, or thdr own 

great fro liking, they foon found reafon more than fufficien't toacknow- 
grefs. lege the fuperiority of the Europeans with refpeft to fevcral 
branches of the mathematics, and other fciences ; and to ad- 
mire the furprifing experiments which were /hewn to them in 
optics, hydrolbtics, pneumatics, ftatics, catoptrics, perfpeftiv^ 
fir. as well as their various inftruments for navigation, allro- 
nomy, mechanics, i:c . their watches, clocks, chimes, organs, and 
other fuch curiofities, as were not only perfectly new to them, 
but were looked upon, if not as fo many new and ftrangc 
automata, fuch as the vulgar imagmed them, yet as machines 

• Apud Lc Comptc, ubi fup. part ;. let. 3. ^ Idem ibid. 


ries encou 


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Tbi WJlory of China: 


tiftly exceeding human capacity and contrivance (A}» dU, by t 
looger continuance with them^ they were let into both theory 

(h) One of the moft furpri- 
fiiig eacperiments in optics^ 
wiiich they (hewed to that mo- 
narch, was a pretty large femi- 
cylinder, of a very li^t kind 
(i^wood, in the middle of whofe 
axis was placed a convex glafs, 
which, being turned towards 
any objedk, reprefented it within 
the tube, in its natural figure. 
This was fi) mach admired hy 
that monarch, that he ordered 
a machine of the fame nature to 
be made, and fet up in his gar- 
den at Pektngy by which he 
might fee every thing that paff- 
ed in the fh-eet^, and places ad- 
jacent, without^ being feen : 
which was accordingly done, to . 
hb no fmall fatis?a£Uon and 
wonder; but moch more fo of 
his emprefs, and other |>rince^es 
of the court, who, being con- 
fined within the palace, could 
have no other way of behold- 
ing what was done abroad ; on 
which account the objedl-glafs 
was made of a larger compafs, 
in order to take in a greater 

Father Gri«M?M gave the mo« 
narth another inftance of the 
wonderful efieds of optics, which 
albnifhed all the grandees of the 
empire. He made, on the four 
walls of the Jefuits garden, a 
haman figure, of the fame length 
with the wall, which wa? fifty 
feet ; ,and, as he had ftriaiy fol- 
lowed the rales, there was no* 
thing to be feen on the front 
bn^ hills and dales, foreits, 
duces, l^c, ; but, from a cer- 
tain point of fight, one obferved 
die figure of a man handfomely 

(haped, and well-proportioned. 
The magic4antern, catoptric 
in^uments, telefcopes, micro- 
fcopes, and other glaifes, which 
thev prefented to the emperor, 
and other grandees, did no lefs 
excite their admiration ; parti- 
cularly a tabe in the form of an 
octagonal prifm, which, being 
placed parallel to the horizon, 
exfaibitM eightdifiFerent fcenes in 
fo lively a manner, that they 
were eaiily miilaken by the Chi" 
nefe for the objedb themfelves. 

Among other hydraulics, they 
prefented that monarch with an 
engine of a newinvention,which 
threw up a continual ftream or 
cafcade, and gave motion to a 
very regular dock, which exhi- 
bited the motions of the hea- 
vens. Thefi^ and a great va- 
riety of others in the flatic, 
pneumatic, and mechanic way, 
fome curious barometers, ther* 
mometers, inftruments , for dif- 
covering the degrees of moiflure 
and drinefs, prifms, clocks, 
watches with chimes, alarums, 
and other contrivances, which 
would barely ferve for amufe- 
ments to our learned in Europe^ 
we only mention here, to ihew 
how ignorant the GhineJexkZXiork 
was in thpfe various branches 
of the mathematics ; fo that we 
need not wonder if fuch a great 
variety of new inftruments, 
experiments, books, ledareQ,and 
demonftrations, in fome meafure 
abated their natural pride, and 
caufed them tp look upon the 
Europeans as fuperior to them 
at leafl in all thofe refpefts (i}. 

(i) DuHalde^ ubi Jupri^t p. 3x1. voii.p, 117, 6f/f. 

M 3 ac 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

X 8i ne mpry of China. B. t 

and pviStlU i t&d confoudded to find, that aoy itation io dt"^ 

ftant from, and till then unknown to, tbem, ihoiild have ar'" 

rived to a height of knowlege fo for (vtrpaiiCvag thdr own. 

Kang-hi The eiiqperar Kang-M^ in particdbr, was fo cfcarnidd with 

€igreatai' ©very tMng he faw and heard frimi them, that he feemed w 

mirer of 0^ge every moment he was'abfent frcmi ^em, and conttnaed 

thein dieir ftcdfeft inend and benefaftor fo long as be lived. His 

Uaming. example, and the Angular favours and honours he (hewed to 

thofe miJEonaries, foon encouraged the whole court, and the 

reft of the grandees, to ieek their fiiendQiip and acquaintance, 

and to e$j)r^fs ^n uqcommoa de£re to be inftru£led in thde 

liew branches of Eurapean learning ; fo that in a litde time 

the greateft part of the Uterati and nobles became dieir diio- 

ples, admirers, and patrons ; and, by reading the books 

tvhich they wrote, hearing their leftures, and aflifting at their 

cxperiihents, became themfelves almoft as well acquamted 

ivith theip as their matters ^, 

This hath been their cafe ever fince ; and tho* they have, 
^s we have fhewn in a former feftion, expelled all the miffion- 
arie^ out of the empire, yet they ftiil take care to culrivate 
what they have learned from them, and to teach it in ail thdr 
academies : but it will not be amifs, before we go farther, to 
give fome idea of their learning, before it received the im- 
Jfir6nom^ provcments above-mentioned. Aftronomy was one of the 
ho^ culti' fciences which they valued themfelves moft upon, as having 
voted. been very intent, according to their accounts, in obfcrving the 
motions of the heavens ever fince the foundation of their mo- 
narchy ; and having fome fevere laws to punifti thofe who were 
entruftfed with that employment by the ftate, for every n^lefti 
Calculate- *^» ^ *^^^^®® t&ks^ even with death. And if what we are tdd 
ing of by *lic Jefuits be true, of the cxaftnefs with which they cal- 
ecliffis: oulated eclipfcs from the earlieft times, infomuch that, of the 
thu*ty-fix mentioned by CmfiiciuSy there are but two 6dfc and 
two doubtful, and all the reft have been inconteftably verified 
by fome of the beft aftronomers of their fodety % it muft bd 
owned that they excelled all other nations in that fdencc x 
but we hope we have elfewhere given fuch reafons for our 
doubting of the truth of that aflertion **, as will at leaft in* 
ciine an twi prejudiced reader to fufpend his judgmait about it. 
Thofe ftate aftronomers might, in dl probabiKty, only record 
thofe early eclipfes, together widi the exaft time when, and 

* Ve RBI EST apud Le Compte, ubi fup. part z, letter 3. Ma* 
GAitLAN, Navaretta, Martini, & al. Du Haldb, v«l. ii- 
p. 126, & fcq. ^ Du Hah?b, ubi fup, vol. ii. p. i«8, 

k fcq. * See tefore, Ua. Hill. voL ;tx^ p. 150, * feq. 


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£gfi where, th/ey fa^pcoed, 9S tfaey did ^41 otbo* cekftial 
f^seoemeiu that came under thdr <A>fer¥ati(»i8 ; «k1 in pro^ 
ceis of time, when the way and methpd were fovad put olt 
cakulatiog them, rhofe records m^h^ be made to paTs for 
cakolatioos or predkHons (B). ratJio' Gaubil, who hath 


(B) There is, however, a 
fingular pafTage in on6 of their 
ftnttent books, chilled Sbu-kingt 
die fenfe of which, if rightly 
given OS by the dranflator (2), 
mil, if not quite explode what 
we have offered above as a 
probable conjedure, at leaft 
prove, that they had the art of 
calculating eclipfes much earlier 
than any other nation we know. 
It contains a charge againd Hi 
and Ho^ the two ftate aftro- 
Boners, who^ drowned in wine 
and debauchery, had negle^ed 
to give timely notice of an 
eclipfe which happened on the 
£rH day of the moon, which 
was alfo the time of the au- 
tumnal equinox, at eight in the 
morning, not far fron^ the con- 
ftelladon Fa?tg (a ftar in the iign 
Scorpio). But J fays that writer. 
Hi and Ho pretend they knenxf 
wthing of it. Our antient em' 
feron/e*uere/y punijhedthofe tjuhofe 
hufinefs it 'was to examine the ce* 
lefial mot ions i and didnot exadly 
foretel them. It is ^written in the 
la*wsf *which they ba*ve left uSy 
that if the celeftial pb/enomenon 
he not truly Jet dtyvjJi in the ka- 
hndar, or hath 'not been predi£led^ 
Jucb a negleQ ought to be punijhed 
ntiitb death. 

Now, if Ju, fpeaker of the 
above fentence, was really co- 
temporary with the emperors 
Yau and Shun^ the eighth and 
ninth in defcent from Fo^hi, as 
is there affirmed, it will evi- 
dently follow, that they had 

(2) Du HaUi, ubifu/t. W. ii. f. la?. ^ fip (i) ^^- '*''' P- '^*« 

^/<?. (4) FtJe Univ. Hifi. ifoh xx. p. 109, ^ f'i- & m^^- '^- ^'^^^ 
(S) Bid. faff, 

M 4 grciitly 

this art much etriier than ibme 
modern authors are willing to 
a)low them, even though we 
ihould retrench fome centuries 
from the pretended antiquity of 
Fo'hii efpecially, if what Dm 
Halde adds may be depended 
upon, that the above-mentioned 
eclipfehathbeenfmceverified by 
feveral eminent mathematicians 
among the Jefuits, and was fuch 
as could not be feen in any 
part of Europe or Jfia, but i4 
China (3). 

Buty if what we have fot* 
merly obferved concerning the 
great uncertainty ofihicCbineJk 
dironology (4) be allowed to b^ 
well founded, it will appear tp 
be more probable, that this 
quotation out of the $bu king 
might imply no more than that 
Hi and Ho neglefted to make, 
and record, their due obferva- 
tions on this eclipfe, they bein|^, 
as the text favs, drowned nt 
their cupi and debauchery when 
it happened; which is more 
likely to be the cafe, than tha^ 
they ihould do fo when they 
were compiling their kalendar 
for that year, if aily thing like 
that was really done in thoft 
early days. LalUy, if thofe 
antient records have been de- 
ftroyed, what could hinder thcfe 
who pretend to have recovered, 
or. revived them, from repre- 
fenting things in a more advaor 
tageous light, than ever they ap- 
peared in thofc protocoh [y]l 


by Google 

J8^ the Wfiory of CKina. B^ I; 

greatly extoQed theur (kill in aftronomy, doth himfelf acknow* 
lege. That he was not yet certain of their method of calculi 
ating ; but only that they exprejfed in numbers the quality of ^ 
ihofe ecUpfes^ the quantity eclipfed^ the parts where vifible^ 
&c. He adds, that the figures were written above loo years 
before our Saviour ; but that the numbers^ are obfcure, and UU" 
derjlood, at prefenty but by few Chinefe. 
The cer- BuT whether thofe early eclipfes were really calculated, 
tatnty of q^ only obferved, and recorded, by thofe antient afh-onomers, 
theQsii' nothing can give us a morp irrefragable proof of the cxaft- 
"^^^'' Bcfs, and confequently of the authenticity, of their annals 
and records : and we may add farther, that the various teili- 
monies alleged in favour of their early (kill in, and cultivatioa 
of, aftronomy, are, notwithftanding all the difficulties alleged 
againft them, fufficient to convince the moft incredulous, that 
it manifeftly bears a much older date than any other nation 
can pretend to. But we Ihall not here anticipate fome curious 
hints and obfervations, which have been lately communicated 
to us, by fome of our learned correfpondents, upon this fob*- 
jeft, and which, we flatter oiMrfelves, will ffaike a much greater 
light upon thefe dark and controverted points ; but which, 
we think, will be bcft deferred, till we come to fpeak of the 
origin, chronology, and antiquity, of the Chinefe nation, 
wWch they more properly regard. 
Motions The fame Father Gaubil further afTures us, that they had 
andaffeSis ctirious diagrams of the pofitions of the heavenly bodies, 
•f*he computed above 120 years before Chrift, exhibiting tte 
flatlet's, pumber and extent of the conftellations,, what ftars anfwered 
to their folftices and equinoxes, the declinations of the flars, 
with the diftance of the tropics and the poles. They were ac- 
quainted with the motions of the fun and moon from weft to 
^ft, and likewife of the planets and fixed ftars, though they 
did not determine the motions of the latter till 400 years 
after Chrift. They likewife had a pretty exaft knowlege of 
the folai; and lunar months ; and gave nearly the fame revo- 
lutions, to Saturn^ Jupiter^ Mars, Venus^ and Mercury^ as 
we do, though they had no way of accounting for their 
feeming retrogradations and ftations. Some fuppofe the hea- 
vens and planets to revolve about the earth \ and others, 
though few in comparifon, about the fun : nor is there any 
thing to be feen like this laft fyftem, in their aftronomical cal- 
culations, but only in the writings of fome private perfons ^. 
Thus far that learned Jefuit. 

* Gaubil, apud Soucict. Obfcrvat. Math. Vid. & Du 
HALPt, ubi fup. 


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C. ^; Tbe Hiftory of China. i 85 

Wb arc told by others, of their antient obfemtory at jintimt 
Nang'king, in "^R^ch were large globes, armillary fpheres, quad- ot/erva* 
rants, aftrolabes, i;c. not unlSke thofe of that ciPe^king^ which tmes. 
we have elfcwhere defcribcd ', and whicb*Father Ricci, who 
viewed them fome time after the year 1 599, when he firft 
came into China^ fays, looked as fine and beautiful as any 
he had feen in Europe, though they had been expofed above 
ooo years to all the injuries of the weather (C) ; but, as to 
tikdr ufe and exaAnefe, they flood, like the others, iti great 
need of improvement, or rather were fet afide, to make way 
fac a better fett. They had another pbfervatory at Tong-fong^ flat c/ 
a dty of the third rank, in the province of Ho-nan (ofwhich Tong- 
we Have likewife given an account, in a former feflion 8), and fong« 
which the Chihefe pretend to have been built by Ciew-kong, one 
of the moft expert mathematicians thdr nation ever had, and 
who is faid to have flourifhed 1200 years before Ptolemy was 
bom, and to hate fpent whole nights in obferving the rifing, 
motions, and figures, of the confiellations. Among their No righ 
other obfervations, upon record, of eclipfes, notable con- notion of 
junftions, i;c. we meet with fome relating to the tranfit of comets. 
comets ; but it doth not appear that they had any right no- 
don of thofe bodies, their motions, orbits, nature, periods, 
6c. but looked upon them as fome portending meteors, fuch 
as they interpreted every phanomenon they could not account 
for : and as for the reft of their aftronomical obfervations, 
they -were no more exaft, till they received their farther im- Kalendat' 
^TQvements from Schaal, Verhiejl, and other miflionaries, zip^ mended bf 
pointed by the emperor Kang-hi to reform, or rather to new- the Je» 
model, their old kalendars; for thefe, notwithftanding ih&M*^* 
pains which the Chihefe aftronomers pretended to have taken, 
if they really did fo, to regulate them according to the ca- 
nons formerly compiled by Father Ricci^ were yet found fo 

' See before, p. 28. & feq. t Ibid, p. 70. & fcq. 

(C) It is not cafytorecon- kingdoms and countries planted 

die what thefe good fathers tell about it as fo many diminltive 

0$, of globes, armillary f])heres, minifters attending on their 

andotherinilruments, which ne- over-grown empire, as, it fcems, 

ccflarily fuppofe their having a all their maps did reprefeht it, 

right notion of the figure of the till the Jefuits gave them a jufter 

earth, wth what they tell us elfe- notion of it. The reader may 

where,oftheirfuppofingittobe fee what we have faid on this 

flat and their <:onntry in the very head in the firft Tcfilion (6) . 
center of it, and all the other 

(6) Sit kifore, p, 6. (D). 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

dcfc£ttv^ at the bcj?nwng of that jnoD^ch-s re^» ^ to 
Sand in need of frejb corrcAIoh, ^d foine facther aniend- 
Calendar We fliall add another Ecwark, which will much Icflcn th<e 
mended by credit of the Chinee natloij, with regard to th^i^ great appli- 
the Je- cation to, and b<afted jj^ill in, aftronomy, though they^bad 
A'*^- attained to a greater decree of it thai they really appear to 
hare done ; which is, that their cxjccflSvc fondncfs for that 
fcience was owing to a fuperftitious infatuation for aftrology. 
Chinefc They believed, and dp fp to this day,' that every ftar or coa- 
much ftellation, and every planet, hath a particular influence on all 
gihen to fublun^iry things, cither good or bad, according to their i^- 
ajirdegy. j^rg^ q^ various configurations ; and that if was poffible to 
foretei a vaft number, if hot all events, by calculating before^ 
hand their motions, traofits through every iign, and their 
various afpefts to each other ; infomuch, that, Uke- the ge- 
nerality of our aimaiiac-mak^s, they point out the lucky aod 
unlucky days in each yea^rly ephemeris, and pretend to fore^ 
tel wars, famines, ficknefs, droughts, good or bad feafons, 
neir and a vaft number of other fuch trafh : and it was, in all 
afiroiogiad probability, to prevent the many frauds and abufes that were 
tribunal i committed by thofc pretended aftrologei*, and to have thofe 
'planetary calculations more exaft, and the predif tions from 
them more furc and regular, that there was an alhological 
tribunal erefted \ which is oqe of the moft confideiable in 
in pMee. the empire, and fubordinate only to that of the rites ; whofc 
bufineu; it is to prefent to tlie emperor, every forty-five days, 
a complete fcheme of th<j heavenly motions, and afpefts, for 
the next forty rfive day? ; and tp fet down the alterations of 
the air/ according to thj? various feafons ; together with their 
jprediftions relating to difeafes, drought, pl^ty, or fcardtyj 
the days on which there will be winds, rain, hail, thunder, 
fnow, ifc. y and to give a particular account of the eclipfes 
that are to happen within thatfpace; together with their 
duration, the day and hour when, the place of heaven whei-e, 
<he nunibcr of digits obfcured, and die efle^te-they fuppofe 
it will produce, according tp the figns they happen in, and 
the configuration of the heavenly bodies at that time. Thdc 
. accounts muft be prefented to the emperor fome months be- 
fore the edipfe happens, in order to have them conveyed, by 
proper officers, into every one of the fifteen provinces, exaftly 
calculated according to the longitude and latitude of each 
of them, and there to be pubUfhed, in a moft folenrn man- 
ner, and with fuch ftrange ceremonies, as ftiew their great 
fondo/efs for aftrology and fuperftition, rather than a true and 



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vdtfomided fldU to aftmwoqr; is tht rtator magr ifce by 
tbpfe fe«r we we hsfc taftvtcd in the foOowisig note (D). 

THBift geonetiy k fliU more fuperfidal ; and their me* GimHfy% 
tbod of ftMng ef prdUoas b nther by indn^tion tban any 
fettkd pniK^des, they hsirii^ neither theory nor praAice, in 
aoytGlmibfe di^ree; they are indeed more ezaftinmea^ 
fitriag, tbrir method being both eafy and eieaA. But what Exallim 
^ moft excell in, according to Du Haider is their vAi\i^writbmiticm> 
metic, io which are ftnmd til the roles far adding, fubtraft* 
log, malti4[>lyfaig, and dividing, esadly kod down in thrii^ 
hooks ; act indeed by arithmetical chatafters, like onrs, from 
I to 9, which thrir know not the vfe of, bnt by the help of 
aa inifantment, which they call Swan^pan^ wludi the leader 

(D) The ceremony of it is 
as follows. Fixft, there is af- 
fixed, to all public places, fome 
days be fore- hand, a fchcme of 
the eclipfe, the time when, 
dBration, and other particulars, 
above-related. The mandarins, 
having likewife had previous 
notice, are to appear on the 
day it happens, drefied in their 
Wmalities, at the agronomical 
tribonal, and to have tables iet 
before them, on which the whole 
procefs is delineated , in order 
to obferve the exaQ time of its 
be^ning and ending, and other 
particulars, compare them with 
Ae fcheine, which lies before 
tiiem, and to commanicate to 
each other their remarks upon 
the whole tran&^on. 

As foon as they perceive 
that die luminary begins to be 
darkened* they fall upon their 
knees, beat their heads againd 
the mund ; while the drums 
and kettle-drums make a fear- 
ful noife along the {b-eets of 
dtt city, accompanied with the 
fliontsof the people I purfuant 
to an old notion they have had, 
from the earlieft times, that the 
aoife fuccoured thofe two ufc- 
fol planets, and frighted the 

dragon away, whofe horrid 
daw, they imagine, hath Mt ' 
hold of the luminary, in oroer 
to devour it, and is the cauib 
of the defeat of its li^ht For 
though the wifer fort are, by 
this time, fenfible enough, thac 
ecllpfes are natural effects, yet 
can they not diveft themfehret 
of the old prejudice, that they 
commonly portend fome finillMi 
events to their nation ; and, for 
that reafon, the fame care- 
mony is obferved throughout 
the whole empire, in hopes to 
avert the omen. 

Whilft the mandarins, and 
other officers, continue thus 
proftrate, all the time the eclipfe 
lalls, there are other perfons em- 
ployed in~ obferving and exa- 
mining, with the utEioft cardfui« 
nefs, the beginning, lengthy 
end, «ind , other circumftances^ 
of it, and comparing it with 
the fcheme delivered to them. 
Thefe obfcrvations are after- 
wards to be brought, written 
with their own hand, and fealed 
with their own feal, to the em- 
peror, who compares them with 
thofe he himfeU hath made on 
it, with equal attention, in his 
own palace (7). 

(7) Vi4i lUvaretta, Martini^ te C^mpte^ Du Haldff Cf «/• 


by Google 

1 88 ^ Tie Hificry ^ ChSU: B.I. 

will find dcfcribcd in a former part of this work *, it bein^ 
affirmed to have been invented by a learned ko-lan, ever fincc 
the reign of Whang-ti, their third emperor, and to have cx>n- 
tinued in nfe ever fincc. By this inftrumenty we are told, 
they are able to difpatch any arithmetical opo-ation, vrith 
toQirt furpriiing eafe, quickneis,^ and exaftnefs, than the heU 
^ Bxailer in that art can do in Europe, either by counters cm- 

figures ^. How far that method wiH extend beyond the four 
general rules above-mentioned, whether to decimals, frafHons, 
feUowflup, ire. we are not told; yet, confidering what a 
trading nation they are, and that they have no other way of 
reckoning but this, one would fuppofe, that it*muft take ia 
all thofe branches. Some notion they leem to have of algebra^ 
by the ufe they are faid to make of fome of its problems, in 
jtheir geometry i ; but in this, as well as other parts of the 
mathematics, they are ftill very imperfeft, much lefs were 
they furniihed with any fuch excellent helps as our tables of 
fines and tangents, logarithms, 6t. fo very neceflary and ex- 
peditious; and exafb, in all agronomical calculations; except 
the miflionaries above-mentioned have thought fit to inftruft 
them in the ufe of them : but that is what we can hardly fup- 
jpofe any of than ever did, the Chinefe, in general, being na- 
turally averfe to every kind of abftrufe learning, and inca- 
pable of too clofe application ; and thefe they could not be 
taught, without being made previoufly acquainted with the 
European 'arithmetic ; which, befides its novelty, would have 
appeared to them an infurmountable tafk : and this, joined 
to their reluftance to be beholden to ftrangers for any branch 
of learning, could be but a fmall encouragement to the Jefuits 
to force fo fure and expeditious a one upon them, the cort- 
cealing of Which would ftill fecure them a vifible fupcriority 
over them. 
Varmga" THEY continue^fHU very unfkilled in the art of navigation, 
tien and though they pretend to. have had it from the earlicft times, 
fiifping. ^xiA to have failed, fome thoufand years ago, over all the In- 
dian feas, as far as the Cape of Good Hope^ and that without 
the help of the compafs ; which, though they boaft themfelves 
f o be the firft inventors of, yet they did not difcover till a 
long time after. 
Whether The learned Huetius, in his treatife of the navigation of 
ihejf ever the antients, hath endeavoured to confirm this, from a paflT- 
y^V/£ to age in ^iiat jj^ calls the Annals of the City of Ormus ; in 
the Cape 

of Good y Univ. Hift. vol. xx, p. 141. & feq. »» Vide Martini, 
*^P^» Hift. Sinenf. lib. i. Le Compte, ubi fup. letter 8. Carreri, 
Navarettjv, &aL * Le Compte, ubifupia. 

1 . which 


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C. I. fbi Hi/hry of ChiiuL iSf 

whkh it is affirmed, diat 400 Cbmefc vcfleb' htvebdea ob» 
ferved to come into the Perfic gulf, and to lade and unlade a 
prodigious quantity and variety of the richeft merchandizes. 
The oisfbrtune is, that that learned prelate doth not give 
OS any account of thofe annals, nor about what time fuch a 
prodigious number c^ veilels >vere feen in that gulf. Neither 
dcttfa it appear, hrom any of the Chinefc recohis, or in any of 
what is flyled their clai&p books, if we may believe the cele- 
brated Jefuit Parremn *. From which he conjefturcs^ that 
the word Ta-Uu>cban^ which the Chinefe pve now to the cape 
abore-mentioned, and fignifies no more than the mountain of 
hi^ waves, might have been formerly given to fome of thofe 
which they met ^^th in their filing to Batavia, Siam^ &c. : 
and many fuch there are, doubtlefs, along, thofe feas, and to 
have been fince appropriated to that far diftant one, out of a 
food ambiticm of beii^ thought to have extended their naval 
commerce fo far beyond whatever they did, or indeed couM 
poffibly do, confidering the unfitnefs of their trading vefleli^ 
and their imperfeft fldll in the art of navigation. 

Their (hippii^, indeed, as it is at prefent, and hath been Shifs^hm 
cm fince the coming of the Europeans, appear altogether Aw2f* 
unfit for fuch long and dangerous voyages ; and though they 
have them of all bulks and fizes, yet the very beft of them 
hm only defigned for thofe feas which furround their coun- 
try, and the rdk for failing on their lakes, rivers, and canals* 
The former are properly no other than flat-bottomed veflels, 
with two mafb, and not above eighty or ninety feet in length. 
The forepart is not made with a beak, but rifes up fome- 
what like two wings, or horns, and makes but a very odd 
figure ; and the flem is open in the nuddle, to receive the 
rodder, and fhelter it from the beating of the waves. This 
mdder, which is about five or fix feet broad, may be eafily 
raifcd or lowered, by means of a cable faflened to it from the 

These (hips have neither mizzen-mafl, bowfprit, nor 
fcutries, but only a main and fore -mail, to which they fome- 
timcs add a fmall top-mafl, of no great ufe. Their fails are Sailf* 
of nuts, made of bamboo, divided into leaves, like a pocket- 
book, which fold and unfold jn the fame manner as a flcreen, 
and are joined together by a pole, made alfo of bamboo. On 
the top is a piece of wood, ferving for a fail-yard, and at the 
bottom a fort of plank, above a foot broad, and four or five 
inches thick, which keeps the fail fteady, when they hoi A it 
ap or down. In a word, thcfe (hips are only made to fail on. 

* Lettres. edifiant. vol. xxvi, p. 7 3. & feq* ' 



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<^90 ^ Bi/hfy $f OSftiZ. B. I. 

tboTe fttSy aad woold be of little ufe in the hands of any but 
Chimfes^ who know how to manage them ;'and though thqr 
take in and retain' more vnnA^ on acoonnt of the ftiUbtls of 
thdr fails, ytt they k>/e that advantage in other re(pe6l% by 
being built fo diflo^ntly from ours. 
WooJen Their anchors are made of a hard and heayy fort of wood» 
mcb^rs. which ^ey call Tye^mu, or iron^^ood^ which, diey fay, k 
fiot fb apt to bend as thofe made of iron : however, they tslee 
cart to dp both flukes wkh that metal. Their ihips are 
canlked, not with pitch and tar, as ours, but with a kind of 
gum, which is fo good, that a wdl or two at the bc^tom of 
the hxAA is fuiBcient to keep the veflbl dry ; for, hitherto, they 
know nothing ^ the ufe of the pump, but draw the water 
out ^ih buckets. Theu- (hips have'ndther mafter nor |Mlot 
on board, but are left to the management of thofe that fteer 
them, who are commonly pretty good jnlots in coaftii^ 
though indifib^ent ones in the main fea, and would be (till 
more fo, were they to take any long voyages (£)• 


(E) Their method, it feems, 
is to lay the head of the fbip 
ujioa tke riMimbon which they 
pcopofe to fail, and hold on 
tkeir courfe, without giving 
themfelves any trouble about 
the deviation of the veflel; 
which is done by the help of 
a iilken thread, which divides 
the fttrfaceof the card into two 
equal parti, from nordi to fonth. 
rnUs may be performed two 
ways; <zmc. either by patting 
.the rhumb parallel to the keel, 
and then tumin? the veflel 
(fuppoiing they oefign to fail 
north-eaft}, till the needle be- 
comes parallel to the ftring ; or, 
Which anfwers to the fame, by 
putting the thread parallel to 
the keel, they make the needle 
point to the north-weft. How- 
ever, the main difEcuhy is 
to keep the vefTel fteady on 
its rhumb, which is next to im- 
podible, confidcring the fmali- 
ncfs of their rudder, and the 
ftrctching and wabbling of the 
ropes to which it is faiiened. 

Their compafs is ftiU 
defedlive, beiag only a bos, 
the rims of which are divided 
into twenty-four equal parts, 
and make the different points 
or winds. This box they place 
upon a bed of fand, or Some- 
thing of that foft nature, not fo 
much to keep the needle fteady 
from the agitation of the (hip, 
which is ever jogging it out of 
its equilibrium, as to hold the 
paftil with which they perfume 
them every moment : for fuch 
is their fnperftition, in this re- 
fpedt, as not only to regale the 
winds with fuch perfumes, but 
even to offer inAuals to them, 
bywayoffacrifice. The needle 
of the largeft compafs is not 
above three inches long, and 
hath at one end fomething like 
a flower- de-luce, and on the 
other a kind of trident : but 
for thefe, we are told, they are 
beholden to the Japam/ei for 
they are brought tO them Arom 



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C. i: ne BJi^y of ChihsL. 191 

We have already fpokcn of the 10,000 imporiil barki, State/j 
which carry the tribute and provifioBS froai all rfie provinces tarh ; 
to the city of Pe-king^ a&d are, by far, the ibeft and largeft, 
and of equal breadth from head to ftero. The next cm% b» 
that of thofe which are kept by theempcroTy to convey the vice- 
roys, gpviemors, and mandarins, to their refpeftive govera- 
menrs, of which he hath iikewife a great number, and all of 
them finely gilt, carved, and adorned without, and fofniftied 
with moft ccMnmodious and handfome apartments within. 
Next to them, are thofe which belong properly to the princes nfariow 
of the Uood, to the nobles, grandees^ literati, and, laft oi forts of 
aUj thofe that belong to merchants and tradefinen. All of '^^* 
diem are built, adorned, and Curxuihed, moi*e or le& fump* 

This account of their method 
rf failings vcffel, tackle, ^c. 
wloch we have cxtrafted out of 
the obfcirvations which five Jc- 
fok mifiionaries made, on their 
palage from Siam to Ch^a^ in 
a vcflfel belonging to Can- ton ^ 
sMMo 1687 (7), will Tffice to 
five our readers an idea of the 
rdt, and ferve to convince them^ 
that if the Chtnefe were fuch au- 
ttent failors, and the real in- 
vestors of the compafs, they 
hive reaped but (mail ad van. 
tages from, and made but very 
poor improvements in, both. 

Thefc needles, whether they 
were brought from Japan^ as 
thelaft quoted authors afErm, 
Or made in Chinas as Du Halde^ 
and fome of his fraternity, feem 
to intimate, do not receive their 
viftae, if we may believe what 
another of the fame order tells, 
npon the authority of one of 
their fancied Chinefi books, 
fix>m the loadftone, though they 
have it there in great ^enty ; 
but from a ftrange mixture of 
orpimeBt, dnabar^fandrakj aiid 
filings of fteel, all reduced into 
, a fine powder, and made into a 
kiad of pafte> by a fufficient 

quandty of blood drawn from 
the comb of a white cock. 
This pafte, in which the needles 
are to be put, and clofely rolled 
in paper, is to be kept feven 
dafs and nights, over a clear 
and coufhmt charcoal fire ; after 
whkh» they being takea out, 
and worn, three days longer, 
next to a man's ikin, will be 
found £t for ufe, and point di- 
re^ly to the north ; and, what 
is ftill more furprifin'g, without 
being liable to thoic fVequent 
variations with thofe that are 
touched with the loadftone (*). 

Our author doth not feem 
indeed willing to think foch au 
odd mixture, and much lefs 
with fuch a procefs, likely to 
produce fuch extraordinary ef- 
fe6b. Neverthelefs, from the 
Chtnefe being ignorant or in- 
fenfible of the variation of their 
needle, fo much complained of 
by other mariners, he fcems to 
conclude it probable, that thofe 
which are in ufe among them 
have chat peculiar quality, above 
thofe which arc touched with 
the loadftone, whatever be the 
means by which it is conveyed 
into them. 

(7) Dn Haldi, ahi [up, nnl. i. p. <>a9. ^ /»^» 
Heo/eil dt Lett, edifiant, v§l^ xniu p* 464. j^f . 

,(*} D^ Entrfcolfet^ in 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

192 the Hifiory of Omz. B.I, 

tuoufly, according to the rank of the owners, yet fo, that 
thofe c^ the loweft order are ftill very beautiful and conve- 
nient, and in fuch number, as to make a very noble fhew on 
their canals and rivers, and efpecially in their moft confider- 
able cities, for concourfe, where they appear in fuch vaft quan- 
tities, as to extend themfelves for fome miles together, in 
cxaft rows, three or four deep, on thofe rivers and canals. 
But thofe which belong to the princes and nobles appear quite 
magnificent, and more like cafUes on the water, being divided 
into a variety of fumptuous apartments, for ftate and convc- 
WindonjQs. nienc^. Their windows and doors, which are made like 
grateV^hAve oyfter-fhells, or fome fine linen or filk fpread 
over with fine white wax, inftead of glafles, to let the light 
through : and even thofe t^rhich are employed, to the number 
of 365, to carry the emperor's fifti from fome diftant pro- 
vinces to Pe-king, together with fome of the fineft fiUcs^ bro- 
cades, and other rich merchandizes, for the court, are all 
painted with a fine vermilion, curioufly gilt and carved •- 

All kinds of veflels in general, that fail upon thofe canab, 
rivers, lakes, ifc. (F) ar# under th« befl: r^ulation ; and all 
^re obliged to flrike to thofe which belong to the emperor, 
and the reft to each other, according to their rairic : a^d a^ 
the whole country abounds with lakes, rivers, and efpecially 
artificial canals, fo one may behold there, with pleafure, an 
infinite variety of veflels failing on them, fome for diver/ion or 
grandeur, others for commerce and carriage, all fwarmlog 
with people bufily taken up with their various employ- 
Floating We (hall clofe this article with a word of their floating 
'Ullages, villages, and their rafts on the rivers and canals. The for- 
mer of thefe are flat-bottomed barges, neatly built, with 
little houfes upon them, in rows, fome larger, fome fmaller, 
in which live feveral families, who carry on fome fort of 
bufinefs or manufafture, and feldom go on fhore, except to 
Timber buy or fell, but live wholly in thofe veflels. The other, viz, 
Jfoats. the rafts or floats on the rivers, do moftly belong to the fait 

(F) To thefe we may add a feet water ; and, as their oars 

a kind pf gallics, in great afe do not reach to the oppofite 

amongd them, not only along fide of the fhip, as ours do, 

the coails, and between the but are placed on the outfide, 

iflands, but alfo on the nvers, in a poiitioh almoft parallel to 

canals, and lakes. Thefe are the body of the bark, each oar 

likewife Hat- bottomed , and is eafily moved^ with few bands, 

about as long as onr merchant- and the veficl made to go very 

men of between 300 and 400 fwiftly. 
tons, and dra^w not above two 


by Google • 

C 1. ^bc Hiftory of China. 'i\^ 

and dmber-merchantSy who are commonly the richeft in China. 
Theft, inflead of bariu to carry their goods, make uie of thofe 
rafts; which are made in the following maimer. After the 
tifflber, which they cut down in the woods and forefts of the 
profince of Se-chwm, b brought to the river Kyang^ they 
take what is nccdSary to make a raft four or five feet higli^ 
and ten or more loi^ ; then boring holes at each end of the 
j&sces of wood, run through them twifted oilers; by which 
theyfaflenthereftof the timber togetho-, fo as to foroi a raft 
d any length, to float upon the river, fome of which will ex- 
tend half a league, or more. The feveral parts of the raft, 
being thus put together, are eafily moved any way, like the 
£nks of a chain, and four or five c^ the foremoft men guide it 
vith th^ poles or oars ; while others, placed at proper di-^ 
ibmces along the fides, help to conduA it. Thefe men build 
upon theai little huts, covered with mats, or boards, from fpaoe 
to fpace, and there keep thdr moveables, drefs thdr viAuab* 
and take their reft. At every city they touch at, they fell 
tbdr houfes along with the timber. In this eafy manner do 
thoie floats perform thdr coiurfe upon thofe lakes and rivers, 
the longeft of which is reckoned above 600 leagues, when 
diey carry their wood to Peking ^. And thus much will 
filffice for their (kill in navigation. 

Should we carry our inquiry higher, with relation xoJ^ffi8iv9 
Aeir (kill in other arts and fcieuces, we fhail ftill find them *^ o^her 
more defeftive. They know but little of natural philofophy, ^'Z' ^' 
Aat is wdl founded, but what they learned from the £ft-^'*^^* 
ropeans. Some of dieir greateft virtuofo'a appeared quite 
aftoidlbed at fome common experiments the Jefyits fh^ed 
them, foch as, caufing hot water to freeze before a large 
fire, the petrifying or making of artificial fione only vnth two 
di£Eerent liquids, the efie^s of the aurum ftdminans, and 
others of the like nature \ and owned, that nothing lefs than 
ocular demonftration coidd have comdnced them of the pof- 
iibility pf them. Much more were they furjprifed, at leaft 
inwardly, to have thofe e£^s clearly explained to them, from 
natural principles, and that by ftrangers, bom at fuch a vaft 
diftance from them, who had, till then, imagmcd aU kind of 
learning confined within the limits of their own empire *. 

As to moral philofophy, tht>ugh they have more good books 
written on that fubjedt than on any other, and think them* 
felves to excel all other nations in it, yet a little acquamtancc 

* De his, vide Magaillaii» Navarbtta, CAERiat, Ma»-' 
TiMi, Le CoMPTB, Du Haldb, & al. * Parrinin, ubi 

fup. vol. xxiv. p. 5 1 . & feq. 

MqjP.Hjst. Vol. VIII, N. witl|^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

4g4 ^ Hi/iory of China.' B. I. 

with their writings will cafily convince an unprejudiced reaiier, 
how (hort they come not only of ours, but likewife of feme 
of the bcft heathen philofophers. The whole of it is reducible 
under the two following heads ; viz. the relative duties of 
parents and children, and of princes and thdr fubjefts. They 
make no diftinftion between morality and politics, between 
the art of living and governing well. In thefe, fays Du Halde^ 
their fages, who are very numerous and voluminous, have 
endeavoured to excel, not fo much in high flights of elo- 
quence and rhetorical ftyle, as in adapting tfieir realbnii^ 
and perfuafives to the meaneft capacities, in order to make 
mankind wifer and better by their writings. 
l^hty ha^e LoGic and rhetoric, one would have reafotiably expeftcd 
neither lo- to have been in no fmall perfedtion among a people who value 
gic nor themfelves fo much, and have been fo highly cried up for 
rhetoric, ^j^gjj. j^f^ ^^^y ^f reafoning, and polite method of fpeaking 
and writing; neverthelefs, what talents they have in that 
way appear to be intirely natural to them, fince they have 
not one rule to teach them how to argue clofely and regularly, 
nor ibt fpeaking or writing politely and elegantly, but truft 
wholly to the light of their reafon, and the juftnefs of coin* 
paring their ideas together in the one, and in the dear and 
luccinft arrangement of their periods, lively and energetic ex- 
prelfions, bold metaphors and allufions, in the other. To 
this iaft, however, they add conunotily the wife makims and 
t fentences of their feges, which being in higheft repute among 

ttiem, and couched in fuch a concife and myftic ftyle, as to 
contain a great deal of reafoning, and variety of thouglits, in 
few words, conimonly make a much ftronger impreiOon than 
the boldeft figures of our artificial rhetoric, or at Icaft will 
not fdl of filencing, if they do not altogether convince, an 
antagonift '* 
PS^^, Physic, they pretend to be as antient as thdr good em- 

peror Whang'tiy or H^ang-fi, the third in fucceffion from 
Fo'hi^ their founder. This good prince, they f^, obfcrvit^ 
that mankind, being tormented by the rigour of the feafons 
from without, and by their pafTions and intemperance from 
within, did feldom live their full time, ordered three eminent 
perfons of his court td examine the nature and oeconomy of 
the blood-veflels ; after which, he appointed proper medi- 
cines for every difeafe " ; thefe were chiefly of the vegetable 
kind, to which they have made fome few improvements finc«, 

/ ' Parrek(in, ubi fup. vol, xxiv. p. 51, & feq. « Mar- 

tini, Hift. Sinic. imp. 3. Dv Haloi, ibid. U al. 

4 hardly 


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C. t. the Hiflpfy of China; 195 

hardly worth BEkentiomog ; fuch as introducing foih^ of tbt ml» ^ 
oeials into nfe, together with iweating, cauteriiing, and fome'» 
dmes (though very fcldom) [Alebotomy. As to purging, vo* 
midog, and dyfters, they have but a mean opinion of their 
efficacy^ if there be not, perhaps, fomething in them that 
ofeids their oKxiefty, and makes them averfe to them. How- 
ever, as their fldU in anatomy, natural philofophy, phyfics, 
6c, Which are the foundation of that noble fcience, is fo very 
fiaall, we cannot expeA them to have made any great pro* 
ficiency in it. 

They pretend, indeed, to an extraordinary knowlege in Skill h 
pQ^, and to difcovcr not only the nature and degree of a/»^'* 
patient's difiemper, but likewife how long it will laft, and 
whether it will prove mortal, by the fole feeling of his pulfe ; 
aad, if we may believe the miflionaries, their fkill in this 
way b furprifing, though not fo fure, but that they are 
ibmetimes miftaken. The misfortaane is, that they are more 
expert at difcovering the diflcmper, than happy at prefcribing 
prq)er remedies ioc it; though this feeming defeat may 
probably enough be owing to avarice, that they may keep 
their patient the longer under their hand, and ply him with 
a greater quantity of medicines: for they have no apothe- -^^f/*/^ 
caries among them ; but every phyfician prepares his own ^^"'» 
piefcriptions, which they- commonly adminifler in pills or 
bolus's, and feldom in draughts. 

In moft forts of pains and aches, which they attribute Ca»//r- 
commonly to fome malignant wind, they apply burning-hot ifi^g*' 
needles, or irons fhaped like fmall buttons, and cautoriie and 
toRoent their patients, upon the flighteft occafion ; and in 
vident cholics, which are caufed by indigeftion, and attended 
with vomiting, i;c. they will even apply a hot iron {date to 
di^fok&of the feet. But thofe who treat their padents in 
a le(s butcherly manner, will rather have recourfe to cordials, 
which are extraAed from alexipharmic herbs and roots. 

They are feldom afflifted with gouts, fciatica's, ftonc, or Meifidtmt 
other chronic difeafes, which is commonly attributed to their ^^''^'* ^^ 
finapient drinking of tea ; befides wluch, their country abounds 
^ntfa great variety of excellent herbs and roots, and, among 
the latter, thofe called Jin-'fmg, orGen^fengy and China^ or 
Pm root, of which we (h^ fpeak under another head, and 
which are efteemed excellent fiidorifics, and correftors of the 
blood. To conclude, every man is permitted to pra(^ife phy- 
fic; no degrees or qualificattons being required, but a good 
aflurance, and a gres^ pretence to aftrolc^y ; without a fuf- 
ficient iklU in which, a man would i« thought a fool or a 

N a kna7>;, 


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^gS The Hifiorynf Chiaa. JB. I 

^ knave, that- fliould fet up for a phyfician ; fo that, upon the 
whole, they are no better than quacks n. 
Great To what we have hinted above of their ignorance of phytic, 

a<verfion to let US add their extreme averfion to anatomy, at leaft to that part 
anatomy of it which is called dU&^ng ; and which is fo rooted iato 
anddif- them, that no kind dl benefit, that can be obtained from it,hath 
fe^ions. ^ycr bfeen able to reconcile them to it, or make them look upon ic 
in any other light than as a moft inhuman praAice. To fuffer 
the body of a dead parent, or near relation, to be opened, to 
know the diftemper he died of, would be looked upon amongil 
jthem as a naoft horrid facrilege ; and to difleft a human body, 
though, executed for fome heinous crim!e, is cried dow;i as a 
jnece of injuftice done to the criminal, to which the law had 
not condemned him. Much more ui^uft do they deem it, 
to cut and mangle any other dead body which dies a natural 
death. If, lay they, the very apprehenfion of being treated 
in fuch a butcherly maimer, sifter one's deceafe, would make 
a man miferable all his life, how much more grievous mull it 
be to the foul, to behold the horrid operation performed ? Islt 
therefore juft or rcafonable to fuffer fuch a crud practice, merely 
for the fake of gaiiiing a little more fkill in the art of curing 
difcafesj and lengthening life a few .years, which could fcarccly 
be juftified, could it enable thofe inhuman manglers to render 
men immortal ? Thus they reafon, or rather exclaim, againft 
the anatomizing of human bodies : and it is much to be que* 
ftioned, whether the principle upon which they argue hath 
not faved more lives among them, than ever anatomy did 
among us *. However, this may ferve, at prefent, to flicw 
our readers what Idnd of furgeons, as well as phyficians, the 
Chinefe are glad to take up with. We may have occaiion, b 
the fequel, to fay fomething more on that fubjeft, when we 
come to fpeak of their difeafes, and theu: manaer cf curing of 
^he cir-' them. AH we {hall further obferve here, is, tibat, accordiDg 
culation o/^ to the generality of authors, who have wrote of this nation, 
t%e hlood the circulation of the blood hath been known amongft them, 
knmMi of from time immemorial ; though, for want of a tolerable fkill 
old among in anatomy, they neither know how it is performed, pot how 
tki^' to make thofe improvements from it, which they might other- 
wife do, in their common practice of phyfic f. 
Uufic^ Music and poetry, though feemingly adapted to die airy 

w-y crude, genius of the Chinefe nation, are to this day very crude and 

» Martini, Hift. Sinic. imp. j. Du Halde, Le Compte, 
i& al. * Vide PARasNiN, in Recueil de Lettrcs Edifiantei, 

vol. xxi. p. 148. & fcq. t Id. ibid. p. 135. & fcq. M- 

vol. xvii. p. 389. Vide k Lb Compte, Martini, Nata- 
RBTTA, Du HALDi,^& id.plur. 



by Google 

C. I. 7%e H^0y of China. \^>f 

irregolar. The former, they pretend to have been brought 
to its highefi perfeftion, and to haye been in the higheft efleem 
among Acm, long before Confucius*^ time, who was himfelf 
t great admirer and mafter 6f it. Bat their books, which 
treated of that art, having been fince loft, that art is dwindled 
into a mere uncouth jingle of founds, without harmony, con« 
traft, 01? variety of parts, and, at the beft, is but like our 
common airs, and confequently not deferving the name of 
mufic. They know nothing of the ufe of notes, but learn 
all dicir tunes by the ear (G). Their inftruments are ftill Mtt/icat 
more uncouth ; feme like bcUs, others like drums, of feveral 'V''*- 
fi2C8 and makes ; one fomewhat like our trumpet; and a few *^''»^^ 
of them like our viols, and other ftringed inftruments; two •*^^^^* 
or three kinds of flutes ; and one of them compofed of about 
twelve or fourteen pipes, of different lengths, made of cane, 
and not unlike in found to the open flute of our organs, ex- 
cept that it is blown with the mouth, and not above fifteen 
or dghteen inches in length, and about three or four in di- 
ameter, the pipes being ftuck, drcular-wife, into a focket, 
which ferves for the founding-board, and receives the wind 
ky a mouth-piece. They now feldom ufe either vocal or 

(G) The Tefuits firft taught out of their books, was (o taken 

Aem the uie of notes, when with it, that he ordered a mu- 

being invited, by the Emperoc fical academy to be erected, 
K<uig4>it to a Cbinefe conifl^ compofed of the moil fkilful 

i& which an air compofed oy perfons in that art, and com- 

ikat emperor was to be played, mitced the care of it to his 

Father Ptinra took out his third fon, a prince of uncom- 

pockctbook, and having prick- mon genius. Thefe began with 

eddown the whole tune, whild reading all the authors that had 

the muficians were playing it, wrote on the fubjeft, and rc- 

Kpeated it from end to end, ducing all the inibnmenta to the 

widiOQt miffing one note, to the antient ftandard, except where 

aofmall forprize of the audi- that was found defective, or 

<Bce, and much more of the capable of fome improvements 

performers, who had been at from thofe of Europe. Which 

iflch pains to make themfelves being done, they compiled a 

aaftcrsofit, book, in four volumes, inti- 

The emperor being made ac- tuled, The true DoSlrine of Li- 

^uainted with the fecret, and hi, written by the empecor^s 

Wing, with pleafure, heard order; and to them added a 

wme mufical performances af- fifth, containing the elements 

ter the European manner, and of European mafic, compofed 

fcehcld the method by which by Father Feirera^ above-men* 

each performer took his part tioned (9). 

(9) Vide Le Ctmpte, Martini^ & mL : 

N 3 inftru- 


by Google 

f 9$ Tbf Hilary of Chim. B. I. 

biftrumenul mufk, except in plays, faUb» .marriages, fa« 
nerak, and other fuch folemoities : and xhc very bell of it 
never yet could appear tolerable to any of our Europeans, ex- 
cept they be played by a very good hand, or fuog by a vej 
good voice o. 
P§ghy^ Their poetry is ftill more difficiik to defcribe to thofc 

v€fy dm' "who have no knowlege of their laoguage, and confequcntly 
ffr/e^. cannot be eaiily mzdt to comprehend in what the beauty, 
el^nce, cadence^ and harmony* of it confifts. Thofe who 
know that their language is chiefly compofed of monofyllables, 
will be ftill more at a lofe to conceive the polEbility of re- 
ducing it into any rq[ular and harmonious verfe : and it molt 
be confcfled, that the beft of their performances in this kind 
come infinitely Ihort of ours, thdr poetry confifting chiefly 
in a kind of relative proportion, which one verfe bears to an- 
other, both in rhyme and the tone of the feet ; which laft is 
what dillinguifhes the variety of fignifications which evoy 
fuch word hath. Neither are their compofitions of that length, 
much lefs of that fublimity of thought, variety of imagery, 
boldriefs of metaphors, 6c. as ours are, but rather rcfcmbk 
our founets, madrigals, or epigrams, whofe beauty cinefly 
confifts in varying the length of the verfes, the choice of fuch 
vords as are to be pronounced in a mufical tone, and, we 
may add, that carry fome quaint or witty idea with them, or 
fome pathetic exprdfions and allufions, that ferve to enliven 
Jnpther the ftyle. They have another Coti of poetry, without rhyme, 
kind of it. which confifts in a continued antithesis, or oppofition of the 
thoughts, that form the piece ; fo that if the firft thought 
rehtcs to the fpring, the next fliall relate to autumn; if the 
one fpeaks of fire, the other ftiall mention water ; and foon. 
Which kind rather requires patience, than (kill or genius; 
though one meets, in even fome of thefe, fomething of the 
poetic enthufiafm, and now-and-then fome noble metaphor, 
which gives an elegance to the contraft P. 
fla^s t^nd The laft thing we Ihall fpeak of, under this head, is their 
^wiis. dramatic pieces and novels; neither of which have indeed 
any other excellency in them above thofc of Europe, except 
that they arc generally calculated to inftruft and reftwm, to 
recommend virtue, and expofe vice, to inculcate the nece(&ry 
ireward of the one, and punlflmjent of the other : whereas 
ours, at leaft thofe of this laft century paft, feen\ rather de- 
figned to captivate and inflame the pailions, by dealing fo 
much in love-affairs, intr^;ues, and other inamoral fcenes and 

• Martini, Hid. Sin'c. imp. J. Du Hald?, Le ComptIi 
Ice l^ lid. ibid. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

G. r. The fSJiory of China. t^ 

charafters, as commonly produce a quite contrary effeft. In 
other rclpefts, their dramatic performances, which are moftly 
of the tragi- comic kind, interlarded perhaps with a fhort 
force, have litde of the fublime or heroic, and have a mani* 
fcft defeft rmming through them all, which fticws the po- 
Tcrty of their genius ; viz. that, inftead of furj^-ifii^ their 
audience m fome imperceptible way, and as it were node- 
fignedly, ^th the charafter of the pcrfons who compete the 
drama, they oblige every aftor to declare it, at his firft ap- 
pearance on the ftage, in fome fuch words as thefe :* I am the 
emperor or king of * * *, and a declared enemy to all ty« 
ttnay and cruelty ; I am the great general ♦ ♦ *, or prime 
Bumftcr of king * * *, and a ftedfan fHend to, or irrecon- 
cileabk enemy to, fuch aftd fuch, meaning fome other chara* 
ftcr in the play. The reader may fee fome few inftances of 
their gfnius, in the dramatic and novel kind, in Du Jfalde % 
by vMch he may form an idea of the reft, "without our in- , 
laij^i^ any farther upon them. 

As to their hiflory, if we may rely upon what both the H/^ory^ 
Omefe, and the generality of writers, fay of it, no natioQ 
ever took more care to prefcrve and tranfmit a faithful and 
ftcdnft ones of their empire, from the very foundaticm of 
it, and to record the annals of their good* and wicked mon^ 
archs with greater impartiality, and free from that flattery 
and fycophaacy which thofe of other empires are commonly 
fraught with (H), This was then: praftice> iK>t only at the 


^ Ubi fup. vol.ii. p. 143, &c. 

(H) Their method for doin^- gotv hi* dignity, and gave too 

it effiB&ually is admirable, and great a loofe to his paifion. On 

<lefervcs an aniverfal imitation, mch a day, unmindful of every 

There is a fett number of doc- thing but his refcntment, he 

tors, of known probity, whofe unjuftly condemned fnch a per- 

bofintfs is to obferve all the fon, ordifaunullcd an aftof the , 

words and a£lions of theempe- tribunal, without a caufe. Jn 

ror, and, unknown to one an- fuch a year, day, ^c, he gave 

j^cr, to fee them down in a fuch a fingular mark of his pa- 

loofe fiieet of paper, which is temal afFedion for his fubjefts ; 

*ftawardf to be put through a undertook a war for th^ defence 

& into a cheft made for that of his people ; or put an end to 

P^^fpofe. In that paper they an expenuve one to eafe his 

relate, with great freedom and fubjefts, or for the honour of 

finccrity, every thing that hath the empire 5 was congratulated 

wcu faid or done by him, whe- by his whole court, ^c. for fuch 

tW well or ill. For inftance, an adlion, law, or fpeech, and 

•0 fuch a day the emperor for- appeared with an air full of mo- 

N 4 dsfty. 


by Google 


9^ BJhjj 4if China: B. 3. 

imperial €Ourt, but ia every kingdom under its dependency, 

and in every province of the empire ; infomuch that not oiJ.y 

every eovcrnment, but every city belonging to it, hath beea 

obliged, from time immemorial, to publUh an account of 

every confiderable tranfaftion which happened within its, dif- 

triA. This account extends itfelf to the iituation, boiinda- 

ries, climate, foil, and the moft remarkable places in it ; the 

genius, commerce, and number, of its inhaUtants ; the per- 

fons who have been moft diftinguifhcd for their valour, learn* 

ipg, probity, 6c. not excepting thofe of the female fex wlu> 

have fignaUzed themfelves for their chaiUty : conjugal, pa- 

rci^tal, or filial, piety; nor even the monftrous births (I), and 

other prodigies, that have happened at any time ; all which^ 

if they could but be ftripped of the marvellous and fabulous, 

for which thofe biftorians betray but too great a fondnefs, would 

doubtlefs be of great fervice to compile and inrich the hiflorj 

of their nation '• 

But though we Ihould allow that they have been thus 
careful in prefendog thdr records for a great number <^ ages, 
y^t, with refpeft to thofe of their earlieft times, we have fuffi- 

^ Vld. Martini, Le Compte, Du Halde, & al. . 

defty and humility, in the midft 
of the praifes and applaufes of 
hb people. 

The cheflr, wherein thcfe pa- 
pers are carefolly prefcrvcd, i$ 
never opened, either while the 
prince is living, or any of his 
family upon the throne : but, 
when the crown paiTes into an- 
other houfe, or branch of the 
royal family, then all thefe me- 
moirs are carefully coUedled, 
examined, and compared, in or- 
der to difcoyer the truth ; and, 
from them, the hiftory of that 
monarch is compiled (lo) 

(I) There is hardly a prodigy, 
or the inoft abfurd and incredi- 
' blc ftory, that they will not in- 
fert in their local records. Thus, 
in thofe of the city of Fu-che^w^ 
they relate, that a woman was. 
brought-tOr^ed of a ferpent, and 

fuckled it; in another place, 
that a fow brought forth a little 
elephant. Stones of appari- 
tions, hobgoblins, £ffr. often oc- 
cur, efpecially where the bonzas 
have had a hand in the repel- 
ling, expelling, or fuppreffing, 
them ; fometimes alfo fome rich 
perfons of both fexes will, by 
prefents, or ibme kind of bru 
bcry, to the governort, to 'get 
themfelves recorded in thofe an« 
nals for fome remarkable piece 
of merit ; though none can ob* 
tain that honour, unlefs he be 
found deferving of it : and, to 
prevent any abufes of that n^- 
tAire» all the mandarins of every 
city aiTemble once in 40 years, 
to examine thofe records, in or- 
der to expunge whatever part 
of ^exa^ they difiE^pprove of ( 1 1 }. 

(;o) Dm ^Ut^ uhifi^. W, \uf. 146. , (11; U, ih\i. t^fip W. tbifup. 



by Google 

^^ tii Hijt9ry of OmiC lOt 

^ihewnm a former part dF this work, bow little dq)end- 
be had either on the antient Chinefe records, or on 
ire find written concerning thofe early monardis, by 
\ who lived fo long after aU thofe antient and venerable 
'^fF^P bad been defignedly deftroyed by fome of their ty- 
tkiAfiinces *. We may indeed more fafely rely on thofe 
iaiiifjoltare of a more recent date, and after the time of 
at Cot^iicittSf when they began to be more r^- 
arcff Aept and digefted after his model : but, as to that, we 
'kiMtkr our readers to what hath been alr^y faid of it ia 
iyjlii'nt hiftory above-quoted, and to what we ihali havf 
r occafion to add in a fubfequent le£tion. 
laft thing we have to fpeak of, under this head, is Antienf 
which doth the more properly belong to it, Chiaeii^ 
tira^ thorough knowlegc of it is one main branch of the Chi^ 
kiiBlBnung, and fuch a one as cannot be attained to without 
/ and application ; but, once acquired, is the moft 
[ direfl road to the higheft preferments and dignities 
l^government. What the antient language of the Chimefe 
' \ primitive xoots, and affinity to the Htbrew^ and other 
pt tongues, we have in fome meafure fhewn in a former 
" this work ' : neitho: ihall we here enter into the con** 
fy about wtuch of then^ is the moft antient or primi- 
[language, which is a fubjeA too copious to be difcui&d 
ght to be, in a work like this; but only obferve iVkSnM 
that it is not without good grounds that feveral very fnptmia . 
.dmen have given it the preference above all the antient /'•^ ?f 
that of the Mcfaip books not excepted, as carrying a '^' ^^. 
I greater variety of fuch charafteriftics as one would rea- . ^1^^ 
blyexpeft to find in an original or primitive tongue ". '''^'^ 
^paucity of its radical words (whkh to this day exceed ^^'^ * 
^330), and the fmiplidty of their founds, pf which we. 
"I fp«dc in the fequel, cannot but be allowed to be every 
\ anfwerable to the beft notions we can frame of thofe ear- 
\ times, wherein mankind could have but very few ideas, 
Ifuch as could be eafUy conveyed by the fimpleft wcM'ds or 

On the other hand, iheur chufing to fplit diofe original ^^eirfew 
words mto fuch a vaft variety of fignifications, according as '"^^^ 
ttcir ideas gradually multipl^, rather than coin new ones for *^^/J/l//^^ 
e^ new id«^ muft needs appear to every unprejudiced per- ^^ ^^ 

. number of 

' See Univ. Hifl. vol. zx. pag. 10^ & itq* & 150, k feq. ffuaningi^ 
^ Ibid. p. 131, & feq. • De hoc, vid. mt. al. Howsi^'s 

F% on the C^hinefe language, paffix^. Qaybe, Mtt£ic. Sixuc. 

W£L?£R, ShUCKFOUP, ^ 9\. 


3d by Google 

«oa n^HilicryofQim£ B. L' 

fon a manifeft proof of their tenacious fondneTsy or perhaps 
rather, we (hould fay, refpeft for thrfr mother-tongue ; efpe- 
cially if he confiders how much eafier it would have been 
for them to have ccnncd new words for all fuch new ideas, 
than to exprefs them by the mere difference of f®und or- accent 
of their old ones ; but that is a point we have neither time 
according nor room to enlarge upon. It muft be eafy to every reader to 
to the in- guefs to what a prodigious height the introduftion of arts 
mafi ej and fcienccs mbft in time have multiplied the variety erf iooiuls 
tbiir ideas. ^^^ accents, and confequendy of their charafters or hierogly- 
phics ; and accordingly fome autiiors make them to amouat 
to no fewer than from 60 to 80,000, a number too great fiw 
any one, efpecially a ftranger, to attain in fo fmall a fpace of 
time as three or four years, as fome of the Jefuit mifl^naries 
pretend to have done, unlefs we fuppofe there is either ibme 
alphabet, or (bme other equivalent expeditious way of coming 
to the knowlege of fuch a variety of combinations than thqr 
have been pleafed to acquaint us with. 

We, and other nations; who make ufe of an alphabet, and 
combine our letters lengthwife, which feems the eafieft and 
ifnoft natural way, and clog them with fo inconfiderable a 
number of accents, plainly fee what time it requires, even 
with all thefe advantages, for a youth to become fo far a 
matter .of his fpelling-book, as readily to catch evwy fuch 
combination, aftd form it into a charaftcr or word ; for that, 
we take for granted, every reader is fenfible to be the cafe : 
for, as foon as he is once bcconk a tolerable proficient in 
lading, he no longer joins letters into fyllables, and thefe 
into words, but takes at one glance of the eye the whcJe word, 
be it (hort, or ever fo long, as the Chinefe do one of thdr com- 
pound charafters ; fo that, unlefs he chance to meet with fome, 
irregularity in the word, as when it is wrong fpdt, the letters 
mifplaced, inverted, and the like, which recalls his alphabet to 
his mind, he runs over every one of them, as over fo many intire 
charafters, and the exotic words elephant^ hieroglyphic^ Confian^ 
tmoplcy &c. offer themfelves, under that notion, with the feme 
eafe and fpeed as his own native monofyllables ox, fheep, bread, 
wood, isc. But if this eafy method of ours doth yet require 
fome years to be attained in any tolerable perfeftion, what muft 
it be fuppofed to do in an European who attempts to acquire 
the fame readinefs In the Chinefe charafters, which, beCdes 
their being combined in a quite different manner, are clogged 
with fuch vafl variety of accents of fo many different imports, 
as to multiply the number of thofe charafters to above 60,000, 
unlefs there be fome particular, fome fundamental due, equi^ 
valent to our alphabet, to f^ciUtate die learning of them ? 


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C. 1. %be Hifi^fy of China. tp^ . 

Especially if, to what hath beea mentioQed itready, \Pe ThHrtbru 
add, that there are, properly fpeaking, three foru of Ian- languages 
guages in China ; vk.. that of the common people, which \%^ t^'M^ 
only ufed by them, and in compofitions of the lowefl clafe, as ''^ ^' 
being by iss the rudeft of the three, and fplitting itfelf into a 
great variety of diale£b and pronunciations. The iieju is that 
which is called the language of the mandarins and literati, 
and is tt£»i by all the politer part, and higher rank, of the 
Ciiaeft, In this fecond fort, which is properly rather a te- fht wmn 
fioemeat, or more polifhed d^e^, of the former, arc written darin^ U$ 
an infinite variety of hiftories, novels, and other compofitions ^ff- 
of the like nature, in a ftyle no way inferior to our bcft wri* 
rings either for clearnefs, elegance, purity, or politenefs. This 
is the language which was formerly u(ed at court, and hath been 
fince propagated among the more polite and neighbouring pro- 
vinces to it : and hence it is that it is befl fpoken in tbofe that 
are next to that of Kyang'Uan ; but it was with no fmall dif- 
ficulty, and by very flow degrees, that it was afterwards pro- 
pagated through the reft of the empire, for the convcniency of 
the government. 

The third is that which may be properly ftyled the Ian- TJIfi tvnt' 
guage of the learned, or of books, that is, of thofe that are '^» ^*»- 
not written in the fame familiar ftyle as that of the two former, S^^i^^ 
but in fuch a one as is vaftly fuperior to them in fublimity, 
majefty, and brevity. This laft is now no longer ufed in 
common difcourfe, but is only written ; and runs with fuch a 
noble flowing harmony, when read by thofe that are mafters 
of it, that the niceft car may hear it with delight, notwith- 
Handing its furprifing concifenefe, and the variety of accents 
in which it is to be pronounced. But as the knowlegeof this ^^f pan- 
third fort is only a kind of dead one, and chiefly known by "^ ^f}*' 
the leamed.of the higheft rank, we fliall only add, to whai we''*'^''''"' 
have faid of its Angular concifenefs, that each thought is ge-*^^*^ 
nerally exprefled in about four or fix charafiers, and with- 
out any pointing ; fo that the learned are left to judge where 
the fenfe concludes, by the mere nature of the diftion, and 
yet they are feldom, if jever, miftaken in that particular. 

But to return to the mandarin or polite language : it hath 
(his peculiar property, to be the moft conciie, and barren 
of words, and the moft copious and extenfive in fenfe, of any 
either antient or modem, in the whole world. The number ^ 
of its words doth not amount, as was lately hinted, to above 
330, all monofyllables, indeclinable, and for the moft part 
ending with a vowel, or with zxin ox ng\ and yet contains Vffi *v«- 
fuch a variety of meanings, according to the accent or tone ^^^y 9f . 
Chey are pronounced in, as. to ierve in all exigencies, ajjd to ^"^:^^"'* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

%{f4 3*^ Hificry €f China, B. t 

be extreme^' copious and fignificant. Again, the compound- 
ing of thofit inonorylkd)les multiplies their prinutive fignifica* 
lion into a vaft variety pf new ones ; all which doth fo inrich 
it, tHat,they are never at a lofs how to exprefe themfelvcs, not 
only in all exigencies relating to human life, but in all thdr 
various arts and fdences, in the moft {^oper and intelli^bte 
targe manner. We cannot give a more pregnant proof of ^he almoft 
Chinefe infinite variety of ideas which are conveyed by the few mono- 
^^»i¥iry. fyUabks above-mentioned, than the diffionary whkh wa^ 
comjMled by order di the late emperor Kang^hiy which^ tho*^ 
printed in a finall charafter, yet amounted to 95 vcdumes, 
jBoft ot them very thick; and yet was found fo (hort oi com* 
prehending the whole langu^e, that they thought it neceflarjr 
to add a Supplement to it of 24 volumes more. As there is 
therefore no language in the world that would not be exhaufted 
in left than half the number of thofe vdumes, fo there can 
be none fo copious as the CMnefey or that can boaft to have 
exifted fo many thoufand years in the fame ftate in which it 
continues to this day. 

We have ftill a more pregnant proof of the richnefs rf 
this language, from the number of inflexions by which they 
aker the lignification of original words. Thefe are chiefiy 
five ; the feft of which confifts in fpeaking it in a plain even 
tone ; the fecond, in raifing it a note or two higher ; the 
third, in giving it a very acute found or pronunciation ; the 
fourth, a fwift defcent from the acute to the grave accent, 
or from a higher to a lower note ; the fifth and laft, in de- 
fcending ftill lower. There are ftill fome other accents, fa 
peculiar to their nation, that it would be impoffible to give 
any idea of them to an European^ and which yet ferve to the 
'fame end. But, from thefe nve, our readers may eafily judge 
of the whdle ; for if we can, by the combination of 24 let- 
ters, form fome myriads of words, what muft be the refnlt 
dt thdr 330 original words, when multiplied by all thofe in- 
piffieuliy It \yould be an ufelefs talk to carry our inquiries farther 
pf learning into the geiuus, grammar, and other peculiarities, of this 
itfrom language (K), which the curious may fee in thofe authors who 
koeks^ ^ have 

* Vid. Magaillan, Ex Comptb, MAariKi, Du Halds^ 

(K) From the fcantling we be, and what a deal of time and 
have given above, our readers pains it muft t»keto come cvca 
will eafily guefs how difHcult at a tolerable knowlege of fuck 
and endlefs Tuch ^ talk would a copious and intricate Ian- 

3 guage. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C i; Tki Hijtcry of Chins* i«| 

hmwiitten ni^oa \t ex prtfeffb^^ or tx> dwdl longer on tMt 
difficulty of kaming it, e^geaallyto ftrangers, from theM- 
rioos /ignifications which ^ woixls acquire by that variety of 
aooeots, as well as from the difficulty of rightly difltngtMiing 
tfaem. To give an inftance of it ; the word Chu^ or SiA^ 
pfooounced in the l^her note, and lef^fthening the vowel % 
%ufies a^after, lord ; in a lower tone, a hog ; pfonoimoedl 
flxHt, it iignifies a kitchen ; and with a ftrong malctiMne tone^ 
a piUar, or column. Aocordii^ to tho fame variation of ac« 
cents, the -word Poj though fo fbon a monofjdlable, liath nio 
Ids than eleven different itgnificatioos \ in the one it fignifiei 
tglafs^ in another to boil^ in a third to fan or vmrmv com, . 
iaodiersitmeansto^rAsA, toj^, towater, to pr€psre,tn 
tldwwum^ a Jlave^ a Bberal man, a prudent peribn, and it 
Btk. Very near the £une riling may be fidd of all theur other 
fdmidve w^s, and the creat difficulty a reader will find to 
inwffigate tlidr variety of figoificadons, from any rules ht^ 
tfaerto g^ven us, and much greater fUU to comprdiend the 
di&ent founds, fix the various meanmgs from the feveral 

' LvD.. ToMAM* Gloffiir. Univerf. BAria, Gr 
Sinic* 1. ik & Mufic. Sinent ScHiKdi^ia. Pcotagl. MAaTt«« 
Hift. Sinic. lib. i. pas. 22, k fe^. hz Compt« State of Ckiiui^ 
lett. 7. Dv Hai^de Engl. vol. i. p. 359, Sc feq. ii. 140, U feq. 

euagc. Magaillan doth indeed Hkewife a very retentive memor 

fappofe, that an European might ry ; and even with all thefe a 

eatily learn it in a few months, man may dill mifcarry, whole 

and with more eafe than the ear hath not been accuftomed 

Qrnk or Latin^ becaufe all the from his infancy to diftingnifh 

words that compofe it might be that great varie^ of founds^ and 

leant in a day. He might at wiio hatk not framed his voice 

well have affirmed, that muik to a right modulation of them ; 

nught be learnt in an hour, as feeing the leaft deviation from 

he Compte juflly obferves, be- it will zive the word another 

caofe the few notes of it may be and perhaps a quite oppofite 

learnt in lefs than a minute fenfe. The fame may be faid 

(12). of a good number of their con- 

The primitive words may be fonants,efpecially the compound 

hdeed eafily learnt ; butthe dlf- ones, as tY-ng ; and of their gtit« 

ference of accents, tones, modu- turals, wnich have a quite dif* 

htioDs, and other changes of ferent found from that we are 

tbeir voice, by which their great ufed to give them ; and can ne- 

variety of fignifications is con- ver be perfedly attained, except 

veyed to the mind, is not only peoole begin to learn them 

a work which requires the great- when they are young, 
eil 0udy aad application^ but 

(1%) Vbi fuf, ti^.j^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

soft S'bi Hiprjt tf ChiMi B. I.' 

w&y»of fpeffing by which the miffionaries, and other Euro^ 
pion writers, have endeavoured to fexprefs thent ; (o thai^ 
^ter the molt curious and intenfe application in confulring all 
the grammars and lexicons of the Chinefe tongue, and oblerv<* 
ing th^ vaft difoencc in which thofe authors fpell the very 
fame word; and what pains fome of the latter fort, particu- 
larly Father Du Halde, and his i?;j^/i/& interpreter, have taken 
to fix fome more certain rules for writing that language \vk 
our European charafters, and how fliort they thcmfeives own 
they have come of the mark ^ ; it will not be a wonder if, afeer 
aU thefe pains, they do not fet down at the foot of the account 
' , Labour lost. 
Great *va* For it is not only the vulgar Chinrfe (which hath as manj 
riety of different dialefts and pronunciations as there are cities and 
£ale£ts9 villages) that is thus hard to be attained, but the fame difE- 
eulty runs, though not in the fame degree, through the man* 
darin or polite language, which is moft univerially fpoken 
and pro- through the empire ; for not only every province, but every 
nunciit' city and town, and it can hardly be otherwife, pronounces it 
tiom. in fome different way ; which, confidering that this chiefly 
fixes the various fignifications of the fame word, ixmkes it 
quite unintelligible to all the refl, except fuch as, by travel or 
Gonver&tion, have accufl<wned thcmfdves to that variety ; fo 
that it often happens that a man, who hath perfedHy learned 
the pronunciation of one province, will find himfelf as it were 
in a fh-ange country as foon as he pafTes into another, and will 
be forced to rack his brain to underftand what is faid to him, 
or to make himfelf underflood : and though the Chinefe of 
one province may, by cuftom, obiervatioa, or fome kind of 
rote, be able to underAand thofe of ^another, the cafe will be 
found quite mherwife with a ftranger, who, after he hath 
fpent tlu-ee or four years in learning it, and can make fhift to 
IVammer it in fuch a manner as to be tolerably well underftood 
by thofe that are ufed to his jargon, will be forced, after all, 
, to have an interpreter whenever he happens to be among thofe 

he never faw before. We will only add, that, befides the 
various ways in which each province founds the vowels and 
confonants, and the different accents or tones in which th^ 
pronounce the words, they obferve feveral degrees of lenity 
and rapidity in fpeaking them, to exprefs their proper fig- 
nification, which may eafily efcape the nlceft ear that hath 
not been early accuflomcd to them ; for want of due attention 
cvei;i on which nice particular either in the fpeaker or hearer, 
men will, inflead of underftanding each other, cither be 

y Du, abi fupra. 



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C. I. 7he Uytory ^ ChiM. 

playing at crds-purpofes, or be forced to be ever repeadag 
what diey have faid or heard ; fo that, upon the wholei the 
Cbinefe language can never be learnt to any tolerable degree, 
except it be done from one's very infancy *• 

Their writing is ftill more diJlicult and intricate, becaufe, Wri$imii 
as we ktely hinted, they write not with letters, or an alpha- 
bet, as moft other nations do, but by charafters fignifyii^ a 
fyllable or whole word, and which, though chiefly com- 
pofcd of fix principal ftrokcs, fuch as the reader will find 
dcfcribed in the margin (L), yet may be, and are, combined » 

« Du Haldb, ic al. Tup. citat. 

(L) As, oar writii^-maders 
tell us, that moft of the letters 
of oar alphabet are compofed 
of the j and o ; fo the Chinefe 
pretend, ^at all their chara^ers 
are, properly fpeaking, formed 
of diefix following ftrokee (13): 

bat bow, and by what rules, 
thefe are combined to gether, to 
compofe fuch an infinite variety 
of charaders, we are not told ; 
and whoever will be at the pains 
of analyiing any large quantity 
of their charaders, will foon 
difeover a great variety of their 
nembersywhich are by no means 
redodble to the ^x above-men- 
6oDed, thou^ he ihould allow 
himfeif the liberty of altering 
their pofition all manner of 
ways, as a tranfverfe into an up- 
right, or even turning them up- 
fide down, or about to all points 
ofthecompafs. This pretended 
rale feems therefore to as ra- 
dier an amufement, calcalated 
by the faperior daft of the lite- 
lad, or dodors of the firft rank, 
merely to conceal the true my- 
ftcry of combining them not on- 
ly from the vulgar and Gran- 

gers, but from the lower claffes 
of their learned, or rather per- 
haps to difcoura|;e them from 
attempting the difcovery of it, 
. by putting them upon a wrong 
fccnt, which, they well know, 
will foon make them defpairoF 
ever coming at it. 

Were we to allow ourfelves 
the liberty of following the con- 
jedure of a few learnra men im 
fome of our foreign academies, 
which, though hitjierto unfuc* 
cefsful in unravelling the whole 
royftery, yet have dived fo far 
into it, as to give one vtry 
ftrong hopes that the founda- 
tion is juft ; and may in time, by 
proper helps and application, 
and a |;enias foitable to the taik, 
be fet in fo clear a light, as to 
put it beyond all pombility of 
doubting; we fhould tell our 
readers, which is no more than 
w^ believe, and are in a great 
meafure convinced of bv our 
own experience, that all this in- 
finite variety of charadlers is 
as reducible to a regular alpha- 
bet, as our infinite Variety of 
words is ; only with this diflTer- 
ence, that whereas we difpofe 
our vowels and confonants in 
one way, that is, one after an- 

(13) Du Ba!de, ubi fvp. wA i. p, 3<9. 



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9le Hijfory of China. 

B. !• 

more in' 




Into fuch a procBglous variety, as exceeds the capadty of mofl 
men to learn in a whole life, though natives, and men of 
letters ; and it is to this vaft multitude of characters, and the 
difEculty of learning their foveral combinations> that mofl 
writers impute the fmall progrefs and improvements which 
the Chinefe. nation hath made in the fciences, there being fo 
great a part of their time Ipent in learning to read and write 
thdr own language. 

Antiently they only ufed hieroglyphics, and rather 
painted than wrote : a round circle fignified the fun, a crefcent 
the moon, a fquare the earth or a houfe, a crooked line bead- 
ing in and out, a river, a triangular figure, a mountdn, a groap 
of trees, a foreft, isc^ which might be eafUy done, when the 
number of ideas was contdned withih a fmall compafs, and 
ixehanged coitfned to things tangible, vifible, "iyc. ; but when they l)e- 
forthepre- gan to multiply, and extend to fuch objefts as could not be 
fent cha- reprefented , by drawng, they were obliged to have recoarfe 
to thefe charafters, of which we have ^ven an account in a 
former part of this work*/ and whkh, whether proper 
hieroglyphics, or not, are combined in fuch a regular, manner, 
as to aiifwer to all the vaft variety of terms ufed by ckem, both 
in all exigencies of life, and in all their arts and (ciences ; but 
the manner of joining and combining the fcvcral original 

» Sec Univ. Hift. vol. xx. p. 133, & fcq. 


other, in the fame order as they 
are founded, and with the accents 
over tlie letters, they, 01^ the 
contrary, place the confonant 
in the moft confpicuous part of 
the character, and the vowels, 
accents, and other critical points 
or marks, on the top and bot- 
tom, and on either fide, accord- 
ing to fome certain rules pre- 
fixed and agreed among them. 
All this may the more eafily be 
done in their langus^, by rea- 
fon of the ihortnefs of their 
words, wliich feldom exceed 
two confonants and tt^Q vowels, 
and perhaps an accent or two, 
cither conical or grammatical. 
It would even be eafy to (hew. 

that the mercantile part nmft 
have fome more expeditious 
way to read and write thofc 
charaders, which barely relate 
to their profeffion, their religion, 
and morality ,t than that tedious 
and intricate way we have beca 
fpeaking of; becaufe we are 
told, they are commonly in- 
fhuded in them from their in- 
fancy, down even to the chil- 
dren of the meaneft mechanics; 
and they contrad^ thereby fuch 
a habit, or even deHght, io 
reading, that one ihaU hardly 
fee any of them, when their 
hands are off from their buii- 
nefs, without a book befbie 
them ( 1 4). 

^14; Martini, Le Comfte, Jfbana^ Kircher Chin, VluJIraU NUuboff, Dm 
HaJJe, &* aL ^ 



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C. i; f^ Hijforj of China: apj 

ftrokcs which compofe it, and run through the whole, is a 
myftery known only to the higheft ckTs of the learned. 

These charafters have been fince multiplied to fuch a de- Faft num^ 
grce, as to amount to 25,000, according to fome ; to 30,000 ^^ ^f 
(T 40,000, according to others ; and by fome of the latter '^'*** 
writers even to 80,000 ; though there are but few of their Difficulfy 
literati who underftand half of them, and he is reckoned a rfjj^^rning 
Fery learned man amongft them who is matter of 1 5,000 or *"^' 
20,000 ; becaufc the greater number of them a man knows, 
the greater quantity and variety of books he is able to read. 
By this, if it be really the cafe, one may guefs what length of 
time it muft take to learn fuch a prodigious number of them^ 
to diltinguifh when they are or are not compounded, and to 
remember their refpeftive fignifications and .fliapes ; if what The trm 
we lately hinted do not make it more than probable, that tMithod 
dieir higheft ranks of literati are poflefled of a more expedi- P^^^^fy 
tious way of attaining this kind of learning, which they yet J!"?^^l> 
may defignedly conceal from the reft, to prevent the too great ^^J^^^ 
increafe of competitors to the higheft preferments in the ftate ; 
and to referve to themfelves and families the (horteft and eafieft 
way to wealth, honour, and grandeur, and, what they fecm Their 
to affeft above all the reft, to the diftinguifliing prerogative 'wearingof 
of wearing long nails (M). And this may probably account ^"g^^^h 
for the (mall number of thofe eminent literati in comparifon of ^/^^. 
the reft, who attain their knowlege in the learned books by ^^^^^^^ 
the mere drudgery of labour and ftudy ; though even in this 
laft cafe, it muft be owned, that thofe who can advance fo 
fer^ tobe able to read about 10 or 15,000 characters, may 
ftill be learned eno^h to exprefs themfelves clearly in their 
own language, and to be able to read a fufficient number of 
books to pafs for men of learning, and be intided to fome 
confiderable pofts in the government (N). 


(M) It is efteemed a charac- xicons and vocabularies, in 

teiiftic and prerogative of a which that vaft variety ofcha- 

profoond fcholar, or a man of radlers is ranked in feveral claf- 

deep learning, among the Chi- fes, pretty much in the fame ^ 

mfe, to wear their nails of a method as the Hebrew ones do 

coi^fiderable length ; infomuch all their words under their re- 

that fome of their moft eminent fpedtive roots. Tbus^ for in- .^ 

dodors will have them as long ftance, every thing that relates 

II their fingers. to hea'ven^ emrth', mountain, man, 

(N) Tq cafe the learners as hor/e, SiC, is to be looked for 

much as they think proper in under the character of heaven, 

this difficult tafk, thefe doctors earth, mountain, man, horfe, 

have compiled fome forts of Ic- fcfr. Thefe vocabularies arc 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VIII. O more 


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ftto ^hi Bfiory of Chiiu, B, i 

Jn old Besides the chancers aboTc-mentioncd, ^ey have a very 

fortpU in ontient fort Ml in ufe among them, tho' chiefly in dtles, infcrip- 

Hpf" dons^ feais, and devices, and in fome old books, which, for that 

r^on, the learned are obliged to underftand. , They have 

alfo a common rUnning-hand for deeds, bonds, afls (^ joIBce, 

ifc. And, lafUy, they make ufe of a letter or peculiar cha- 

rafter for difpatdi ot buflnds ; bat which requires a more 

than ordinary ftudy and af^licatbu^ on account of the grsat 

variety of ftrokes, abbreviations, ligatures^ and other fi^- 

larities, which make it difScult to learn ^. 

- Their ftyle'in writing, efpecially among diofe of higher 

rank, is grave, concife, abftrule, and all^orical ; and {osm* 

times fo obfcure, that its requires a perfeS knowkge of the 

charaAers, as well as a deep attention to them, to ^void 

making frequent miftakes in reading them. Their allegories are 

bold, and oft^n fublime ; but that which gives the greateft 

ornament to their ftylc, is the frequent interfperfing it with 

ieiatences out of the canonical books. Next to that, they value 

tbemfelvcs t\tix'ncly for writing neatly, drawing their cha- 

rafters trui) ml beautifully, for that they prefer to fine paiBt- 

ing ; and ecu the unlearned will pay an uncommon reg^d 

for a fcrap of paper on which the charaders are finely writteo, 

though they know not what it contains. 

Wi^ of Their way of writing thofe characters (contrary to moft 

nioriting. other nations) is from the top to the bottom. They begin 

their firft line on tlie right fide, and fo go regularly on to the 

left. They obfervc thz fame rule with refpeft to the order 

of then: pages; fb that the fartheft of them towards the 

Inftru- right is always the firit. They ufe pencils inftead d pens, 

mints. which they hold, not obliquely, but upright, and fcarcely fcf- 

fer their hand to touch the paper. Their ink is a compound 

of lamp-black, made of fome forts of burnt woods, or oil) 

and mixed with a kind of gum-water, which gives it a con- 

fiftency ; after which it is caft in oblong fquare cakes, for ofc, 

after having firft mixed with it fome quantity of muik, or 

** Athan. Kerchbe, Chio. Uluftr. Martiki^ Lb Coum* 
Du Halde, & al. 

more or lefs extenfive, that is, or more ; but the moft complete 

comprehend a greater or Icffer it that which they call the ti^* 

number of cKarafters, as fuits pyatt in which they mxf find 

beft with theexigence of the lear- any of thofe.which are wandflg 

ner. Some of them cpntaining in the lefier ones (15]. 
only about 8000, others 1 0,000, 

C\S) Martini, Le Cow^e, Atb^aL Kinbir Chitu Jllujir, NioH^ ^ 



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e. I- . Tie Hifiory of Chkuu 2f I 

odier perfume, to take off the difagreeable finell of the lamp* 
black, which is alfo more or lefs fetid, according to the nature 
of the oil or combuftible of which it is made. When ink 
hath been preferved a confiderable time, it is then feldom ufed 
for writing ; but becomes, according to them, an efiefhial re- 
medy againft the Uoody-flux, and convulCons in children* 
They lock upon it as an excellent alcali, and fweetener of the 
Uood, by abforbing the (harp juices of it. The dofe is com-* 
monly about two drachms of it to a grown perfon, in a glafi 
^ water or wine. 

Their paper, which has been commonly fuppofed amongft Pi»^» 
us to be made of /Uk, by reafon of its thinne&, and beautim 
wlute (hining colour, is made of the inward bark of the bam- 
boo, and ieveral other trees (O). They have feveral forts of 
k; which, with their various ways of making, whitening, 
lilvering, and preferving, it, the reader may fee at large m Du 
HaUe, and other authors ^» It is fo thin and tranfparent, 
that it will not bear bdng written but on one fide ; and, when 
they are obliged to write oh both fides, they generally double 
the leaves, and join them together with a fine glue, which is 
fcarcdy cUfcemible ; the paper being fo fmooth and even, 
and the glue fo thin and clear, that irftiU Ipoks like a fingle 
leaf. And this b the method they ufe alfo with refpeA to 
their bound books, whether written or printed, as well as 
with the prints or cuts that are interleaved with them. The 

^ AriftiN. Kercher. Chin. Illuih'. Marti if i. Lb Compte, 
Du Halde, & al. 

(O) That which is moft in wafhed it, mix it with the feed 

file among them, is called Ku- of the Seja-mou (which is the 

chif from the Chu^ku, or Ku-cbu^ fame as tne Portuguefe call G^- 

titc, from whofe inner rind it gelino)^ and fcatter them toge- 

is taken ; which tree in figure ther, at random, upon the 

nearly refembles our mulberry, ground The Gergeiino will 

bat, by its fruit, is rather a Iprout out with the fir ft fhoots 

kind pf fig-tree. of the Chu-ku ; but you muil 

Theirherbalsprefcribeame- take care not to cut it in the 

tiod of cultivating this ufeful autumn, nor in the winter, but 

plant, fo as to prodnce the flay till the next fpring, and 

|;reater quantity of bark, and then fet fire to the field. That 

an the perfection that is required very year you will fee the plants 

for making this fort of paper; of the Chuku increafe confider- 

wluch is as follows. At the ably ; and at the end of three 

vernal equinox, take the ker- years it will be fit to cut, and 

Bel of the tree, and having make paper of ^i 6). 

(i6) Du Halde, uhi fuf. p, 36S, B h' 

O z invention 


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212 ^be Hijlory of China. B.I. 

iavention of paper in China^ according to their account of it, 
is reckoned to be almoft as old as our Chriftian aera, or vdthin 
about fifty years of it* : before that time, they rather en- 
graved, than wrote, with an iron tool, upon thin planks of 
fome hard wood, or of bamboo, which were confequently 
more lafling than any parchment. At leaft all their canonical, 
and other valuable antient books, were couched upon fuch 
hard and durable materials, and hot upon paper made of the 
bark of trees, as fome late writers have abfurdly imagined, 
and even ventured to affirm f . In procefs of time, they came 
to write with the hair pencil upon white fattin ; and, after 
the invention of printing, upon fome fort of paper, but fuch 
as was far enough from being fo friable and brittle as hath 
been pretended ; efpecially that which is brought thither from 
Korea, and is very near of the fame toughnefs as vellom ; tho', 
' had that which they ufed for printing been lefs durable, the 
planks would have ftill remained the fame. 
Printing The art of printing hath been in ufe in China from time 
Sfferent immemorial, but in a very different manner from that which 
from ours, we ufe in Europe ; though it is not improbable that the cele- 
The hint brated John Fuft, or Fauft, of Merit z, took the firfthinuof 
taken from }jg difcovery from them, his firft eflays being exaftly after 
^^^' the Chinefe manner, by wooden planks, and with the fame kind 
of ink, and only on one fide of the paper or parchment % till 
his fon-in-lawP^/^r Scheoffer invented the fiifile or metal types, 
and, with them, a new fort of ink made of varnifh, or boiled 
oil, the fame which hath been in ufe ever fince ; but this im- 
provement would be abfolutely imprafticable among the Chi- 
, nefe, on account of the vaft number of characters they ufe, 
which would require cafes of fome hundreds of yards in length 
Way of to contain even one bare half of them. Their method is, 
printing, whenever they want any thing to be printed, to have the copy 
Wjcll and exaftly tranfcribed by a good writing-mafter ; after 
which, every page is glued very fmoothly on a feparate block 
of fome hard wood, like thofe we ufe here for wooden cuts ; 
fo that the engraver hath nothing to do but follow the exaft 
ftrokes of his copy, by cutting down with a Iharp-pointed 
knife all the wood that lies under the white of the paper, and 
leaving all the black ftrokes untouched, which by that means 

^ Atham. Kercher. Chin.IIluftr. Martini, Lb CoMrri, 
Du Halde. & al. Du Haldk, vol. i. p. 372. t Rinodaut 
ap. P. Prcmar. in Recueil de Lettres edifiantes, vol. xix. p. 47^ 
& feq. * Vid. Malincrot &Trithem. de orig. art. 

typogr. Chevalier La Caillf Fbrtel Orig. de rimprimcric 
Orlandi Origine della Stamper. Mattair. Annal. Typ^''* 
Palmer Hid. of Printing, lib. \. k dl, 

3 become 


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C 1. Sr^ Hiftory of China. % i^ 

become emboflcd, and prominent enough to receive the Inlc 
upon them. In this way of printing, which requires as many Jd^van- 
blocks as the book contains pages, there can be no long time tages of 
fpent in correfting the proofs, feeing the graver works by '^^'> ivay 
thcftrokes of the cppy itfelf ; and cannot poiGbly err, if the of printing* 
manufcript be exaft. There are feveral other advantages in 
it, which oars hath not ; one is, that thofe planks, when en- 
graved, may ferve for as many editions as the work will bear, 
and at any diflance of time, without the neceility of a new 
compofition, or other labour, than perhaps retouching the 
feces of the charafters when they are battered by long»ufe. 
Another is, that they only print the flieets as they are befpoke ; 
fo that they are in no danger of lofing by over-printing them- 
fclves, as is too commonly the cafe in Europe, A third is, 
when a book is become fcarce, and not eafdy to be got, one 
may go to the printer, and get a fingle one printed with eafe, 
cheapnefs, and expedition ; there being no more required 
than the looking out the blocks, and bringing them to the 
prefs. The laft advantage we fhall mention is, that they caa 
print books in any other language in the fame way, and with 
ail the ornaments ol initial letters, head and tail-pieces, (i;c, 
and, provided the copy be but exaft, and finely written, it 
may be not only fairly and exaftly cut, but even receive fome 
imjM-ovements from the engraver. The only inconvenience it DifaJ- 
hath, befides that of being printed only on one fide, is, ih^t ^vantagem 
it requires a vaft deal of room to keep thofe blocks in, and 
fuch as, were books to be printed with them in fuch vaft quan- 
tities as they are in Europe, no printer could poflibly find 
ftowage for ; fo that, all things duly weighed, our European, 
method is vaftly preferable to it (P). 


(P) We are told, however (17), that are engraven by the beft 
that they have fince fallen into hands. If that be true, which 
a way of printing by feparate we much queftion, it can never 
types, not indeed of metal, as be done with fo litde difiiculty 
ours arc, but of wood ; and, by as he pretends : for, if we fhould 
the help of them, corred and al- allow thofe books to require no 
ter their Pr^/;/ 5/ii/^ ^ China, more of thofe characters than 
which is printed at Pe-king every 1 000, and we can hardly fnp- 
three months. Our author adds, pofe that any of them can con- 
on the authority of common tain lefs than 1000 different 
report, that the fame thing is words (that, efpecially, called 
done at Nan-king and Su-chenv, The Prefent State of China, one 
where they print little books as would rather fuppofe to require 
neatly and corredly as thofe at leaft double that number) ; a 

O 3 ^fe. 


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U4 W# H0dry of China. B, I. 

We have already taken notice of thdr folding tx donUing 
die paper, as its tranfparency will not admit of its tAang 
priottd on both fides, wit|ioat confounding the charafiers. 
Hence, in the binding of their books, they take care to harc 
the fold at the edge, or outward mamn, and the opening at 
the back, at which they join one leaf to the other ; and, in 
order to direA the binder how to place the fiieetsv fo as to 
anfwer each other exaAly, there is a black line drawn upon 
the folds of the (heets, which runs through the ^ole nund)er 
of them, and ferves to the fame pnrpofe as the r^ifter or 
point-hoks which are made in our printed (beets, which not 
only direct the preflmen how to place them exaAly at the 
roteration, but likewife the binder how to fi:dd them up ex- 
a&ly, and according to thdr form. Their books are com- 
monly covered with a kind of grey pafteboard, or, if for the 
carious, with a fine (atdn, or flowered filk. Some of the ncher 
(brt are covered with red brocade, interfperfed with gold and 
filver flowers, and appear neat enough to the eye, dio' none 
of them dther fo convenient or beautmil as oars ^. 

' MAaTiwi, Lb Comptb, Du Haldb, & al. 

cafe, containing looo boxes, ing and warping of the wood, 

cannot be To eauly reached, nor it would be in fooie metfnre 

everv charaAer fo readily found impoffible to keep the lines ftraic 

oat Dy a compofitor, as he ima- and perpendicular ; or, thongh 

gines. To which we may add, the form be kept ever fo ckne- 

that feparate wooden types, ly locked up, to prevent feme 

(hould we fuppofe them to be ofthofe charaders ftartiDg np 

-even a qaarter of an inch fquare, above their level, or even qaitc 

will be apt in time to twift and out from the reft> which woaM 

warp with the weather, and foon (hew them the neceffity of 

much more by the dampnefs of exchanging them for fafile or 

the Chtntfe ink, which is not metal ones; for this, we are 

made of oil boiled into a var- told by the writers above-qoo* 

^(h, as that which our printers ted, of the origin of priotij^ii^ 

^ufe, which neither their wooden £«m^, happened to the M 

.blocks or types, nor their Toft difcoverers and imj^rovers of 

paper, could admit of i but it that art, whofe ircuaent mif' 

18 ofa watery, nature, Uke that .carriages with thoie woodea 

we write with> e^^pt that it qrpes put them upcp excogi- 

.is mixed with a fmall auantiiy taiing the more folio inet^l oa^ 

pf glue, to give it a confiftenc? : ( 1 8). 

(9 tlMU, by the frequent fwell- 

, * - i. . 



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C H Thi Hifiory af China. | ,| 


Of tbi Agriculture^ Silk Mamfaaure^ Cbituhwart^ 
Jdpan^ Varnijb^ and other inferior ArtSy of the Chi- 


A MONG tkeir other inferior arts, we (hall begin with that ^griaJ^ 
*^ of agriculture, not only as tfie moft antient and benefi- ^regtMt^ 
dal among, but as beft underftood, encouraged, and im-^ ***••• 
fiwed, by, them, beyond any other nation in Hie whole ^^^^* 
world. We have already given, in a former part of this 
work*, feme account of the vaft encouragement and ifflpRyve* 
ocQt which it received from Shin-nong^ their very fecond em- 
peror : their hiftory fumifties us with many other fuch fignal 
aamples, particularly that of then- feventh monarch Yau^ 
who, according to them, began to reign 2357 years before 
Chrift, and who preferred a worthy hufbandman, named 
^ to his own fon, to fucceed him in the empire. Shun^ 
aod his fucceflbr 21s/, who was chofen after the fame manner, 
oot <mly promoted hulbandry with uncommon zeal, but the 
l^ter wrote feveral books on that fubjeft, taught them how 
^dma the lowlands, to till, dung, and water th^, in the 
c^ aod moft frugal manner. Their examples were fol- 
Wfidby fo many ot their fucceflbrs, that it inlpired the fub- 
jcftswith an extraordinary efteem and fondnefs for all kinds 
^'f agricnlture, and made them readily fubmit to thegreateft 
%ues and Wdfiups of it, not fo much from a r^ard to 
die emoluments accruing from it, as from a kind of facred 
vcQcradon they had conceived for thofe antient and royal pro- 
*JM)ters and encouragers of it. 

Hence, as is currently believed, took birth that grand and Afefihvd 
foloiui fisftival which is celebrated every year in all the dties in f its In* 
^^ m the day of the fun's ingrefs into the 1 5th degree affiour. 
4*ttTw, which is with them the beginning of the fpring (QJ ), 


* Sec before, Univ. Hift. vol. xx. p. 13a 139, &feq, 

JQj The ceremony of this that folemn manner, ou>W8 to- 

'Aval is as follows : The go- wands the eaftcm gate of the 

vemor, or cUef mandarin, of city, as it were to meet the 

•^erycity, is canied oat of his fpring, attended with fever^ 

Palace in a chair of ftate, pre- litters painted and adorned with 

^^ by banners, tordies, and variety of carious iilk tapeftij» 

n^ofical inftruments. He is exhibiting the portraitures of il- 

^^Hith flowers, and» in laftriouspcrfous, whohadprae. 

O 4 ti&d 


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ti$ Tie Hiftory of CWiuu . B. t 

as well as that other ceremony performed by every new onpe- 
ror, in the rural way, of which we have given an account in 

PtrfoHs a former feftionh. One further encouragement fome of their 
frcmoted ^y^ nionarchs have given to hufbandry, is worth obferving ; 
forthetr ^^^^ ^y^^^ every governor of each city is obliged to fend an 

fifftca ion j^^^y,^ every year of the perfon who fignalizes himfelf mod 
by his induflry and application in this way, who is thereupon 
raifed to the dignity of a mandarin of the eighth order, and 
intitled to the drefs, infignia, and other honours, belonging 
to that rank ^ ; and fo intent are thofe at the helm upon this 
point, that, upon the arrival of the deputies of the govemcn^ 
at court, the emperor never fails of afking them in what con- 
dition the fields appeared to them ; and, when a dearth hap- 
pens in any of the provinces, either through a long drought, 
a fwarm of locufts, 6c. thofe monarchs commonly remit to 
them a great part, if not the whole tribute of gnua of that 
year, as we have formerly feen by fome of their declarations 
from the throne ^. 

Fprh'Iiiyof 1t muft be owned, that the foil, for the moft part, as 

(be foil* well as the happy temperature of their climate, doth richly 
defcrve, as well as amply reward, their care : and though, 

h Sec before, p. 27, & fcq. 
CoMPTB, Martini, & al. (up. citat. 
p. 166, (E). 

* Vid. Du, Le 
k See before. 

tifed hultandry, and other hifto- 
ries on thatfubjedl. The (beets 
are covered with tapcftry, and, 
at proper didances, adorned with 
triumphal arches, lamps, and 
ether illuminations. 

Among other figures carried 
in the proceifion, there is a cow 
of earthen ware, with gilt horns, 
a idof fuchamonftrousfize, that 
forty men can hardly carry her. 
Behind the cow follows a young 
child with one foot (hod, and 
the other bare, whom they 
Ayl« The gittius of labour and in- 
dufiry^ and who ftrikes the cow 
continually with a rod, a$ if to 
make it go forward. Behind 
him follow all the hufbandmen 
playing upon fome inftruments. 

and attended by companies of 
maiked comedians, ading foBte 
kind of rural plays. In this 
manner they proceed to the 
governor's palace, wliere they 
ft rip the cow of all her or- 
naments; and, drawing out a 
great number of leflcr ones 
made of the fame clay, out of 
her belly, prefent them to the 
multitude, together with the 
fragments of the great one, 
which they break into fmall 
pieces. The ceremony ends 
with a (hort (jpee^, which the 
mandarin makes to the people* 
in which he recommends huf- 
bandry to them, as one of the 
moft conducive things to the 
welfare of the ftate (19). 

(19; Pn Halde^ voU u f* 275. 


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C. i; nt tiiftory «/ CMna: 21 y 

in fo vaft a trad of ground, there muft t)ey of comfey a great . 

Tari^ of foil, fome more and others lefs fertile, yet fuch 

hath been the indefatigable induffary of the Chinefe nation, 

that every fpot hath been improved, and made to produce ^'veryj^ 

fome of tiie"conveniencies of life, from the higheft barren improved, 

mountdns down to the fertile vallies and plains ; infomuch, 

that there is fcarcdy a province which doth not yield a fuf- 

ficient maintenance for its numerous inhabitants, and fome of 

them, efpecially towards the fouthern parts, almoft double 

what will fufiice them. So careful are they of procuring every Way of 

kind of manure (R), that may enrich their land, that they manwingi 

will purchafe it at a high rate ; and fo fearful of lofmg a foot 

of thdr ground, that one fhall not fee either a hedge, ditch, 

or even tree, in their corn-lands. They will even deprive 

themfelves of the pleafure of planting flower-gardens, fin« 

walks, and other fuch ufdefs gratifications, as they ftyle them, 

for the fake of making them produftive of what is more i<x 

the public good. We have already taken notice, in our de- 

feription of the feveral provinces of Chiruiy that the fouthern 

ones produced a double crop of grain every year, befides a, 

vaft variety of the fineft fruits, herbs, isc. Thofe that are 

fituate more towards the north and weft, though not fo fer- 

.tile, yet ]^eld plenty of wheat, barley, millet of various 

ftwrts, tobacco, peas that are always green, and a kind of 

black and yellow foit, yrhich they give to theh: horfqs inftead 

of oats. 

Nothing; can be more fruitful than their low-lands, which TertiUtyef 
are interfefted with fuch a vaft number of canals, as conftantly tbefUUut^ 
fiimifti them not only with a fufficient fupply of water, but 
alfo with oth^r manure, which is brought thither in barges : 
and inthefe low-lands it is that the beft rice grows, and in the 
greateft plenty 5 becaufe that grain thrives beft in watery 

(R) Of this they have great a cherifhing warmth to the 

variety, fuch as dung of all ground. They have a great 

forts, none excepted, which they many^ other ways of manuring 

take care to temper with a pro- and cultivating their lands, 

portionable quantity of water, which we have no room to ex- 

to prevent its burning up the patiate upon, and can only add, 

young plants. Hair of all kinds, that if thofe who wrote on the 

as huknan, hog*s, horfe's, ^c, fubjedl of agricnlture among 

are found to give ftrength to them, had been more verfed in 

their lands, efppcially to thqfe phyfics and natural philofophy^ 

- fown with rice, and lime mixed they might have ftill made much 

with water, to dellroy. worms, * greater improvements in that fo 

infers, ^nd w^^ds^ and to give ui^fol ^nd neceiTary art. 



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The Hiftory of China; B. 1. 

wolves, foxes, and a variety of others not known to us, 
among thofe *of the deftruftive kind ; but which aflford the 
Chinefe the diverfion of hunting, as well as the commerce and 
profit of their furs, which are commonly very fine, and va- 

These, and a good number of others we ftiall name under 
this head, may, by fome readers, perhaps, be thought im- 
properly brought in : but as it is no inconfiderable brapch of 
good hufbandry to promote the increaie of all ufeful and 
profitable creatures of the animal, ^ well as of the v^etable 
lund, and to deftroy or fupprefs the growth of thofe of the 
contrary fort in both, and to adapt, as much as poifible, 
|he nature of their lands, fo as to anfwer thofe two main 
%nds, we hope it will not appear quite irregular, upon fecond 
thoughts, if we exhibit to them, at one view, the Chinefe 
management in both, firft with refpeft to the animal, and 
next to the vegetable, part of the creatures which their 
country produces, 

' Among thofe of the wild and deftruftive kind, with which 
their woods and forefts abound, we do not hear of any lions ; 
but tygers are here not only in great quantities, but efteemed 
as fo niuch the more dangerous, as they fally out for their 

Uance to mankind than any 
other apes, both for the fa- 
cility in which it walks on its 
hind-feet, and performs fcveral 
other a6lions. There is ftill, no 
doubt, a much greater variety 
.of ftrange creatures, wkich, they 
tell us, are found in the moun- 
r tains and foreds of this great 
empire, than our Europeanshayc 
been able, as yet, to difcover ; 
but many of which' have fuch 
an air of fable, that they hardly 
deferve mentio;iing, much lefe 
belief: fuch is that which they 
relate of the horfe tyger, faid 
to differ only from a horfe in 
its having claws like a tyger, 
and fcales all over its body, 
. and in its leaving the river in the 
fpring, to prey upon man and 
bead. This roonfter, the mif- 
iionaries, who travelled throu^ 
Uioft territories where it is faid 
.to breed, never could fee or 
Ji^3^ of, thou|h the people were 

very fond of (hewing and en- 
tertaining them with every cu- 
rious thing that was to be feea 
in that province (Hu-quaf^J; 
and therefore juftly looked upon 
itasa fabulous one. But, leaving 
thofe monfters to their books, 
where they are only to be found, 
thofe woods and forefts breed 
two wild kinds of mules, one 
fort of which, fit only to be 
eaten, is very fleet, can never 
be tamed ; but the other may, 
and is chiefly ufed for the fer- 
vants of the mandarins to ride 
on. Camels, dromedarieSyhorfes, 
oxen, and bufialo's,.are likewife 
in great ufe among thero, the 
former for land-carriage, and 
the latter to plow and plain their 
lands : but that which they feed 
moft on is the hog-kind, of 
which they breed the greateft 
quantities, both in the upper 
and low-lands. 



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C. i: ^e Hytory of China: ^21^ 

pre]rin large droves^ and are exceeding quick and fierce. 
Bnt diey have plenty of odiers of a more valuable kind 5 par- 
dcularly thdr mufk-cat, a profitable creature, which carries Mufk-cMt^ 
that noble perfume in a bladder under its navd. They have «»^ 
likewife a fort of roebuck, which they call Hyang-thang-tfe, r$eiacL 
or odoriferous roebuck, the male of which hath a bag of a 
Tcry odoriferous kind of mufk. This creature, which breeds 
moftly 6n the iK)rthern ridge of mountains beyond Pe'king, 
is firft hunted, then killed ; immediately after which, they 
cut off* the bag above-mentioned, and de it very hard, that 
it may lofe none of its effluvia. The flefh is alfogood to eat; 
but the bag is effeemed of more value than the reft of the 
carcafe : and to this, as well as the other, or real mufk, they 
afcribe fundry noble qualities ; fuch as, purifying the air, kill- 
ing feveral'fcMTts of infefts which breed in the ftomach ; and 
e^iedally that of the roebuck hath the virtue of fhipefying of 
ferpents ; which creature, though large, they are affirmed to 
live upon, and to receive their odoriferous quality from (XJ). 

But the moft delightful of the whole quadruped kind, is Litfb 
a finall flag, which is bred in the province of Tun-nan, 2ndft^£^ 
no-where dfe ; but is bought far and near, and at a high 
rate, by the princes and nobles, merely to be kept for fight 
in their gardens. Thefe are exaftly fhaped like the common 
fort, but their lize fcarcely exceeds that of our ordinary dogs, 
on which account they are eftecmed as curiofities. But they 
have a great variety of flags of different kinds in the other 
provittces, fome of which are reckoned as extraordinary for 
thdr.largenefs, they being little inferior to the fmall horfes of 
the protinces of Se-chwen and Tun-nan ™. 

Birds and fowl, both of the wild and tame kind, are here Birds* 
in greater plenty and variety than we h^e room to dcfcribe; 
fnch as eagles, cranes, ftorks, hawks, falcons, pelican^ 
birds of paradife, peacocks, pheafants, partridges, turkeys, 
geefe, ducks, fwans, cocks and hens, and a vaft variety o£. 
water-fowl on their lakes, rivers, and canals, where they 

■ Martini, Navaretta, Nieuhoff, Lb Compte, Du 
Haldb, Sc al. 

(U) This, we arc told, is fo by carrying about them ftmit of 
certain, that the people who that mnik, which never ^Is of 
hvant after thefe roebucks have flupefying them to fuck a de- 
no other way of defending gree, that they cannot come 
themfelves againfl the bite of near enough to hurt them (22). 
tbofc overgrown ferpents, but 

(22) Dtc Ha/de, v»l, ^. /• 324* 



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fyano Id vaft droves ; and facb ds are fit to eat are feld at fo 
low a price, that one would hardly think it worth the people's 
vhile to lull them. Among the tame and curious fort, they 
have ^ variety of beautiful parrots, no way inferior either in 
plumage, colours, or facility of talking, to any that are 
fhifm ^^^^V^^ ^^ Anurica. Bijt the moft fuiprifing and delight- 
yUAi- ful Q? 41 the flying kindy is the little bird called JCm-ldy or 
g^fdm herif which is commonly found in the promces of Tm- 
natit Shen'Jit znd Se'chwen. 

This admirable creature, which hath nothing that re- 
(embles, much lefs that comes up to, the exquiute fineneis 
^it$ /hape, the beauty, luilre, and varier|r, of its plumage, 
the compile mixture and arrangement of light and ibade, 
hod;i b it? yings and tail, and the fine plume that crowns its 
head, w<ts, without doubt, called the golden hen on that 
account. But what render) it ftiU more valuable among the 
Epicures, IS the delicate tafte of its fleih, which, we are told, 
greatly excels that of phealants ; for which, it is thought b; 
our author », of all the bh-ds in the eail, the moft de&rviog 
to be brought into Europe. 
fbijkwir Theke is Aill, if we may believe the Chinefe gec^phers, 
Utii iuqkJ thofe European writers who have followed them QPOQ 
iruft, another one o^re furpriilng, and if not for the exquiu^' 
hefs of its tafte, at leaft for that of the colours of its foitkrs, 
the fine rednefs of its bill, and the fhortnefs of its life, whldi 
exceeds not that of the flower Tung-wha, from which it takes 
its name of Tung-v^ha-fung, ^d upon which it is (aid tp 
t)reed, and to ^e its beautiful Ixkenqfs from the flower 
we have had occaflon formerly to defcribe **• The mis- 
fortune b, that the bird is no- where to be found, but in 
Ih^ books of the Chinefe geographers, and that in ^ the 
curovince of Se-cbwen, and even in the territory of the city of 
vhing'tn-fiy where that flower blows in vaft quantities, and 
•where that burd is faid to breed, the inhabit^ats, we are llncc 
mtuitMke .told, know nothing of it P : fo that it is now much queftioned 
tke fhm- whether it be not as fabulous a one as that which the fame 
mx, fuf' geographers call the Fong-whang, and which, by their noble 
^^^' defcription of it, is fuppofed the fame which we call the 
phoenix, if any fuch burd there be. For our later authors affurc 
u^ there is no fuch bird to be feen or heard of> either in 
the mountains or cities, faid to be called by its name, in the 
province of Shen-Ji^ nor in any others, either in China or Tir* 
tary^ where thofe writers pretend it is to be found. There 

■ Du Halde, vol. 1. p. 15. ♦ Sec before, p.^« 

f 6ee Dv Halde, ibid. 


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is, uideed, a moft noble ooe bred in tBat province; and In AwAh 
fane parts of Tartary^ called the Haytfing^ which is a lund>*Awr. 
of falcon^ not inferior to thefineft of ours, but excels them 
iabigne&andflrength, and, for its beauty and courage, may 
be called the king of the birds of prey : but it is very fcarce^ 
and in fuch edeem, that as (bon as it is caught, it moft be 
forthwith brought to Fe-hing^ and prefented to the emperoo 
who ccnnmits it to the care of his own falconers^* 

CHINA feems tp be defigned by nature to produce not ^rmtt fr- 
ooly all the fruits which grow in other pafts of the world, ^*j^ ^ 
but lifcewUe feveral excelloit ones peculiar to its foil and cli- ^^ ^•••* 
mate ; fo that, if they have not ib great a plenty and variety ^' 
(f the fcmner as they might, it is rather owing to thdr ne- 
gbA of cultivating them ; for, generally fpeakmg, they grow ' 
naturally aknoft in every province, and siany of the more deucate 
kind in the foutbem parts to a greater perfe^on than any in 
Europe. Apples, pears, plums, quinces, apricots, peaches, ngt, 
pom€^anates, mulbenies, neAarines, grapes, oranges, linoooSy 
dtrons, mebns, to fay nothing of walnuts, chdnuts, {Hoe* 
apples, and others in common with us in Europe^ grow almoft 
cvery-where in great plenty : the only difference is, that they Chintfii 
are not fo curious as we are incultivatinfi; and improving them, »^fif— 
but rather content themfclves with havu^ three or four dif- ^^^ 
ferent forts of apples, feven or right forts erf" pears, peaches, *• 
bc.\ and as for their cherries, they are hardly worth eating. 
The only finits that escceed ours are their pom^anates, a fine Some of ir 
ibrt of mufcadine ^pes of exquifite tafte and flavour, and bitter fori 
thdr Tfe'tfe^ called by the Portuguefe Macau, which is a kind of tiatg ouru 
fig, i£& defcription of which may be feen in the margin (W). 

^Dehis, Yid. Magaillam, CARaEai,MARTiMi, LeCoiipte,- 
NiEUHOFF, Du Halde, k al. 

(W) It grows upon a (lately of them, feme having a ruddier, 

tree, not unlike our middling thinner, and more uanQ>arent 

walnuts, the leaves of which are rind ; whil ft others, to be brought 

of a fine green, till about au- to that fine colour and flavour, 

tamn, when they change into muft be laid to ripen in ftraw ; 

an agreeable red. The fruit is but all are agreeable to the 

about the bignefs of a middling fight, and good to eat. They 

apple, and grows yellow as It will grow almoft every-whcre, 

ripens ; but, when dried, be- but in greater plenty in the pro* 

comes mealy and fweet like a vince of Tun-nan, zn^ 2}! along 

fig, for whidi reafon the Portu* the fides of the Whang bo, or 

ffiefe give it the name of Macau, ^ello'w ri^er { 23 ). 
w fig. There are feveral forts 

(23) Vid, Du Hglde, vol, I p. 8. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

244 ^ Hifiory df Chim: B.I. 

As for the reft, they hardly excel ours ; and fome of Aem, 
for want of improvement, are much iirferior to them, fuch 
as, their apricots, peaches, cherries, ire. which, in fome pro- 
vinces, are rather unwholfome, and, if not eaten with cau- 
tion, will caufe dyfenteries and the bloody-flux. 
Olf'vis, Olives are here in great plenty and variety, and which, 

though different from ours, have a very fine tafte ; but whe- 
ther out df diflike, or that they do not think it worth their 
while, they extraft no oil from them (X). 
fii Li- Among thofe fruits which grow in the fouthem provinces, 
fcbL *nd are of an excellent tafte and nature, but unknown to us, 

the Li'chi is moft efteemed. It is ftiaped like a date, and 
hath an oblong ftone, like that. The fruit is full of moifture, 
of an excellent tafte and flavour when fuU-ripe ; but flirivels, 
and grows blackifti, like our prunes, by keeping. Next to 
that is the Long-yen, of dragon's-eye, which is round, yd- 
lowifti, and the pulp white, and a litde acid. Both thefeare 
efteemed very wholfome, efpecially the latter, which, they fay, 
never hurts, if one eats ever fo much of it, but is rather takea 
to create than to fatisfy the appetite. 
thBer Jftt' They have likewife fome Angular as well as ufeful trees, 
ptiar trees, particularly that which they flylc the pepper-tree, which bears 
a fort of grain like a pea, but of too hot a nature to be 
eaten ; but the hufk, which is lefs pungent, is ufed by the 
common people inft^ad of it. The pea-tree, which pro- 
duces a fort of pea, which, for figure, colour, pod, and tafte, 
is much like our common pea, only a litde more rank. This 
laft tree is very tall and large, and grows in moft pro- 
Tallow' vinces of China. The tallow -tree is no lefs common 
tree,. and profitable; whofe fruit is contained in a«rijid, ^^ch, 
*' when ripe, opens in the middle like our chefnut, and yields 
two or three kernels of the bignefs of a common hazel-nut, anfl 
the pulp of which hath the properties of tallow, anc^ being 

(Xj Their books treat of ten than we, in gathering them, vh, 

forts of olives, the beft kind of not to beat them down with 

which is that called by them long poles, which is apt to 

^anglan, which is large, and bruife them, and hart the bran- 

of a £nc tafte ; and it is proba-^ ches ; but to make a hole in the 

ble, that, if the Chinefe had the body of the tree, and, putting 

art of preparing them as they fome ialt into it, flop it up 

are in Europe, they might all clofe, by which they will in a 

have as good a tafte : though in few days drop off of tbemfelves 

Qiie thing they are more careful (24). 

(24) Du Ralde^ imL i. f. %^ 


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C 1. gji&i fl'^^ */ China. 225 

laeltcd with a fmall quantity of common oil and wax, Is made 
into candles, and ufcd all over the empire (Y), Their wax- lVax'tr;e% 
tree is fo called from the wax that is produced on it by a 
kind of little worm which runs up, and faftens to its leaves, 
aad quite covers them with combs. This wax is hard, fhine- 
ii^ and coniiderably dearer than that of common bees ; 
tho' this laft they likewife have there, and in much greater 
quantities. When thefe worms are once ufed to the trees of 
any difh-ift, they never leave them, unlefs fomething extra- 
ordinary drives them away ; and, when that happens, they 
never return to them, fo that new ones muft be procured from 
thofe merchants wlio deal in them. 

The Chu'tzcy or what we call in Europe the bamboe or Bamhoe. 
bambu, grows here in vaft quantities, and of an extraordi- 
nary height ; and, being hollow within, is ufed, the larger 
fort for water-pipes, and the fmaller for telefcopes, and other 
tubes, and the pulp vdthin is made into paper. The Nau-mu Naa-mn- 
is a mil ftrait fort of a tree, whofe wood is incorruptible like *^^^* 
the cedar, though its fhape, leaves, iyc, differ from It. It 
is commonly ufed to make pillars, doors, windows, i;e, or 
oraaments for their palaces, temples, and large buildings 5 
but it is in other refpefts much inferior to the Tze-tau^ or Roft^ 
rofe-wood, which is of a reddifti-black, flreaked and full of 'uooJ. 
fine veins, which one would believe to be painted by fome 
artift. The furniture, ornaments, and other jomery, made 
of it, are much efleemed all over the emph*e, and fell at a 
greater price than thofe which are varniihed or japanned* We 
omit a great variety of other valuable and curious trees, fuch 

(Y) Their way of feparating the candleftick. They burn 

the tallow from the fruit is, by well ; and, when put out, give 

pottoding the fhell and kernel no ill fmell, becaufe the wick is 

together,, and boiling them in made of rulh ; but would give 

water, upon which, when cold, a much clearer light, and fweet- 

an oil rifes, which condenfes er fmell in burning, if care 

like tallow, and is (kimmed off. was taken to defecate the oil 

To ten pounds of that, they that is mixed with the tallow, 

mix three of linfeed-oil, and and a cotton wick ufed inllead 

fome wax, to give it a hard-, of a rufh, wiiich is apt to burn 

ncfs, and prevent its flicking to to a coal, and break Ihort, and 

one's fingers. can only be fnufFed with u keen 

The candles are like the feg- pair of fci/Tars Thofe who are 

ment of a cone, the broader curious mix vermilion, and otler 

part of which is lighted, and colours, with them (25}. 
the other goes into the focke't of 

(25) Du Halde, vol, \. ^. 9. 35—94, & fe?' & 3T9. yitl. & Marii?:/ ji.\'as 
Juhvoc, Kin-wha, in proi/inc. Cij kyang^ Le Com^te, & al. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VIII. P a» 


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'7.i6 ^e B/ioty of Chm. «. : 

as the cedar, ebony, faundprs, pines, oaks, 6r. which ^ 

have not room to defcribe, 

Varnijh B u T tha t which is juftiy efteemed the m<^ profitable amor 

and oil- the Chip^Jt^ and hath moft excited the eni^ of the European 

trees. is their Tj^^/iJw, or varni(h-tree, from which they ^xtraftths 

^gnm with which they make their fine giran-vardfli, or japa 

(Z), which keeps fuch an infinite number of hands employe 

in tnoft provmces of the empire, and fufniflies it with fuc 

'a prodigious variety of chefts, cabinets, bdJCes, and oth€ 

^oufiiold ornaments, fo beautifully painted and vamiflie^ 

'and fent abroad into moft parts of the world. The nei 

to that in ufefulnefs is the Trng-Jhuy or oil-tree, from whid 

a liquor, or oil is drawn not much differing frofii the varnii] 

'above-mentioned, and ufed Almoft to the fame end, bu 

chiefly in larger work, fuch as pillars, ccMTiices, galleries 

triumphal arches, fine floors, and the like, for whkh ttet ii 

not quite fo fit. This oil, when boiled info a confiftenqr, 

not only preferves the wood over which it is laid, but gives 

it a ftie luftre, and, like the vamifh, may be mixed with aiqf 

• colour to great advantage. 

Jtm-wooJ. The laft of the tree-kind, worth our particular notkse, is 

what they call Tie-li'inu^ or iron-wood, from its ^tremebard- 

nefs, and of which they commonly make their anchors, as 

hath been formerly hinted. It is indeed very remarkaWe for 

its ftrength, and durable firmnefs, beyond any other wood; 

the tree is as tall and fpreading as our large oaks, though the 

^runk doth not come up to ^ their thicknefs, and the wood 

is of a much deeper brown, as well as more weighty ^ 

Shrubs. tough 'I. 

Thet havenolefs a variety of flirubs, which we have no^ 
room to particularize in a work like this : but fliall conteni 
ourfelves with fingling out thofe that are moft worth noticci 

^De his, vid.MACAiLLAN,CARERi, Martini, LECoHfTip 
NiEUHOFF, DuHald.e, & al. 

(Z) This gam, or liquor, di- in the fpreading it for variii/o| 

ftils only off the tree drop hy to emit fuch poifonous effluv 

drop,iikethat of the turpentine- as prove detrimental to tho 

tree, but may be made to yield that deal much with it; ao 

a greater quantity by incifion ; from tlie ill effed^s of wWc 

but then the tree is obferved to they ffave as yet no other wa 

perifh much fooner by it. to pfeferve themfeU es, than b 

Jt is likewife found either iji avoiding as much aspoflibletlii 

the boiling into a confiltency, fucking them in with th« 

or even pouring it off cold from breath. 
one velfel to another, as well as 


by Google 

at the b&A cf which we may juAly place that famed and Tm. 
moft profitable one which they call Cha ; and corruptly, in 
foa^ mgritime provinces, Tba, or T(;ha ; from which the 
,Euro6^af2s l^Yc^ven it the name of Tea, or Te. The profit 
which the Cbinefe make of this plant, fince it is become of 
ibch univerfal de in Murope^ is inmienfe ; and the virtues ^^ ^i^ 
jrJiich both they, and fome pf our European writers, have tmtt. 
.afcribed to it, are very ^traordinary, if true '. The reader may 
fee.a larger account of them in Father. /X?^;?//^, and others of 
Jus &dety, than we. dare vouch for ; neither is it poflible for 
js to judge of them from that which is brought to us from 
tibence ; fu(d which we are alTured, by good hands, is ;fo Adulter^ 
adulteralsed, wd mixod ^th other leaves, which, though o/r/. 
,.they.hear a refemblance to it, may have quite different qua- 
4ities, jth^t we need not wonder if it comes fo vafUy ihort 
of jttot which they ufe upon the' fpot. We may add, that, 
. lip^ fudi vafl exports have been made of it, they are neither 
fo curious in cultivating, nor in curing pf it, as they were 
formeijy ; and that which is fo, they take care not to let go 
,abri»dm its purity, but either keep it for their own ufe, or 
mix it with lome of a worfe fort. What other frauds, and Frauds 
jaboo^nable tricks, are ufed in it by our retailers, after it is commttei 
.j4us hrought to us, are too fadly known and felt to need men- *wiV^ iu 
jdoDiog here ; all which, put together, have fo debafed and 
corrupted that leaf, that it is impoffible for us to find in ft 
-the tenth part of the good qualities which are afcribed to it ; 
or ipdeed npt to experience many ill efTefts from the ufe of it, 
which it would be wholly free from, could we have it in its 
purity and perfeftion, as the Hollanders have theirs from J[a-. 
iaut and be more careful and prudent in the ufe of it (A). 


'.Debis, vid. Magaillak, Careri, Martini, LeCom-^te, 
.Ni&uHOBF, Du Halob, & al. vid. & TEf^ Rhin. de frucke 
TfUa. Jacob. Breynius in hort. Malabar.& al. 

(A) It is indeed rather a mical drops, fafFron, fpirituous 

wopder, all thmgs rightly weigh' liquors, ^r. to fay nothing of 

ed, that it is not attended with their irregular and indifcrimi- * 

more dangeroos eiFe£ts, confi- nateufeof it, without' regard to 

, dering that moft people among particular tempers and conftitu- 

118 help to corrupt and adulterate tions ; and, by fome, both (Iron- 

it.ftill more, in dieir conttant ufe ger, and in larger quantities, 

of it, either by the immoderate than even the Chinefe do their 

quandty of fugar they drink, pure and genuine fort. • 

and the pretended corredlives Hence we may reafonably in- 

they mix, with it, fuck as che- fer, that thofe flatulencies, indi- 

P 2 gcftioni. 


by Google 

2i8 fhi Hiftory of Piina. B. L 

f^r Dutch It k certain that no nation takes more care in coltivatif^ 
kft it to their tea than the Japanners, nor is more honcft in felling it 
•dvoH' pure and uncomipt ; neither do any people drink it more jden- 
^W^ tifaUy than the Dutch^ yet fo far are they from feeling thofe 

inconveniencies from it which moft of ours do, that they reap 
the greateft benefit from it ; and indeed, confidering the damp- 
ncfs of their climate, and their high and grofs way of feeding, 
it is to be qnelKoned whether they could be fo healthy, and 
free from difeafes, as they are, without fuch a fine dilutcr, 
/// pW and purifier of the blood. But then it mufl be owned, oa 
qualities the Other hand, that the good cfFcfts they receive from it are 
**^X'" in part owing to their drinking it in its genuine purity, and 
nutne, without thole correftivcs mentioned under the laft note**, fo 
that, without running too far into panegyric in favour rf that 
plant, we may fafely a(firm,' that tea, duly cultivated and 
cured, and drank moderately, both as to quantity and Ihez^ 
(B), and efpecially either without, or at leaft with only a 
fmall quantity of^ fugar, and without any additional correc- 
tives, is a fmgular diluter, and purifier of the blood, a frrength- 
ener of the brain and flomach, a promoter of digeltion and 

geilioDs, vapours, colics, low- ting fo long at die tea-table, as 

nefs of fpirits, diabetes, and we do, is unknown onto than, 

other difafters, which commonly and is only an idle^ luxoricws 

attend it, may be no lefs owing refinement (or rather abufc), y/c 

to our indifcretion in uftng it, have made upon their way of 

than to the cheats that are prac- nfing it. 
tifed in it. See the next note. We are likewife aflnred, diat 

(B) It is plain that neither the the difcovery of that infufioa 

Chinefe^ Japanerst nor any other was originally owing to the 

eaflem nation, drink it either fo bracki(hnefs of their water, ef- 

ftrong, or in fuch quantities, nor pecially in the lower provinces, 

fohot, as wedoin£«^Aixr^; but where they were not only 

ofe it rather as their common very nnpleafant, but unwhol- 

drittk, and without any fugar, fometo drink ; till, afrer a mul 

or other fweetener. They com- titnde of experiments tried, in 

monly keep, efpecially i n large order to correct them ,t hey ftum- 

families, a boiler, or iome other bled upon this (hrnb, which 

velfel, over a fire ; and, when- not only anfwered the end, but 

ever they are thirHy or faint, was found to have feveral other 

they put a few leaves of it in a qualities to recommend the ofe 

baton, and pour the hot water of it, fuch as thofe which we 

upon it, and, as foon as it is have particularly mentioned a- 

cool enough to drink, fwallow bove ; upon which it gradually 

it down, and go about their buii- became in great eftecro and 

nefs i fo that the cuftom of fit- vogue all over the empire (27). 

(17) Martini, Li Cmpte, Nieuhtff^ Kamffer, Da lla!df, fif ai, 

circulation , 


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C I. The Hiftory of China, 229 

arculadon, of perfpiration, and oAcr fccr^tions, a cleanfer 
of the reias and urethra, and a great prefervative againA 
chronic difeafes, as well as an efFeftual, tho' flow, remedy 
figainA them. The Chinefe make no fcruplc to give it in 
great quantities in high fevers, colics, and other acute dif- 
tempers. Neither are thofe rare virtues confined to its native 
foil, but extend their efficacy to any other country or climate,^ 
where it is ufed, particularly in England, France, and Hot- 
land. And thus much may fuffice concerning the genuine ' 
virtues of that plant, could we have it as genuinely conveyed 
to us. 

There is now a great variety of teas in China, which, a§ Great v4h 
it ftill increafed i^ the gre^t exports of it, hath obliged the ^^^* 
natives to propagate the growth of it in feveral parts, where '^'''^^^ 
the foil or climate was more or lefs agreeable to that fhrub ; 
for moft of their difference is owing to that, thejr being ori- 
ginally derived from, and are in all other refpedls, the fame 
plant. Hence proceeds that difference of taftc, flavour, co- 
lour, and other qualities, we find in them ; fome being very 
rough to the tafte and ftomach, and others as fmooth ; fome 
exhaling an extraordinary fragrancy, and others having fcarce 
any fmell ; fome being found more balfamic, others more fto- 
machic, diuretic, ifc. than others : and hence alfo that variety of ^nd of 
nam^ they are called by, either from their different qualities, or names, 
the places they grow in. Thus the Songlo, which is a moft Songlp 
elegant fort of green, and much eftcemed and drank by the ^^d Vu-i^ 
richer fort, hath its name from a mountain in the province of ^*' ^b^^*^ 
Kyang-nan, which is quite covered with it.; and the Fu-i, or, ^^"^ '^^''^ 
as we call it, Bohea, from the. mountain of Vu-i-JIjan, in the '"''* 
provin<;e of Fo-kyen, where it grows in great quantiti^^ an4 
i$ excellent in its kind (C). 

This laft is the moft univerfally, and we may add juftly, 
cileen^ed,*not only for its fine t^e and flavour, but mugh more 

(C) So fay Le Compte, Da monaileries, and inhabited by 
Halde^ and others ; but fome bonzas, who are fond of that 
are more inclined to think it excellent irifufion, and, hav- 
hath its name from the dark- in^fo much time on their hands, 
brown colour it bears, in which niSy fpend fome pan of it in cuL- 
it differs from all otl^er forts, dva iog, and bringing it to thaC 
both in the leaf, and in its infu^ perfedlion ; unlcfs we (hould ra- 
IJon. l^o;- is it a wonder that thcr chufe to. fuppofe thenx to 
the mauntain above-mentioned ha,ve been the inventors of thia 
^oald prodi^ce fuch plenty of ?i.ew way of cukivating; con- 
it, and of a better fort than cerning which, fee. tliQ niextj 
common, feeing it is covered, note. 

11^ a^re tGJd, wiUi^ teipj^lea and 

d by Google 

Digitized b 

230 ^e Hijiory of Oiiriiat ,B. I. 

for its medicinal and other excellent qualiti^, plrticularly 
that of its reftifying the blood, recovering decayed conftitu- 
tions, and being fo friendly arid agreeable to the weakefV fto- 
iriachs. Hence it is that they give it in large quantities to fick 
- people, valetudinarians, and in all cafes of ah inward decay ; 
whilft thofe that are in health forbear to drink of it in the win-; 
ter, as being apt to open the pores too much, and t6 bring colds 
and coughs upon them ; but in funmie^ indulge themfelves 
with it in large quantities, in order to fiipply thofe liquids^ 
which are exhaufted by pcrfpiration, v^ith its cherifhing and 
balfamic juices, to which they moftly afcribe that fat corpu- 
lency which is fo common and admired amongft them. 
Whether WHETHER this and the green tea were originally different 
the fame plants, or whether the fame, only differently cultivate, is i 
Jhrubnjjith c^tKion that hath for a long time exerc}fed the talents of the 
the green, curious, and is not as yet thoroughly agreed on. The Chi- 
nefe could eafily refolve it, if they pleafed ; but are too my of 
the Europeans^ to give them any the leaft light into it; fo 
that we are wholly left to refolve it frqm the beft;obfervation 
we can make upon them. According to which, the former 
hypothefis feems the moft probable, from the manifeft differ- 
ence not only of their colour, tafte, flavour, fyc, but much 
more from their different effefts ; the one be;ng rough, and 
grating to the palate and ftomach, ev^n to the degree of an 
emetic, if taken too ftrong ; the other fmooth, pleafant, and 
healing, and in no cafe offenfive to it : the one a ftomachic, 
and ftrong diuretic; the other rather a fweetener ahd purgef 
of the blood by gentle perfpiration, and nourifliing and in-' 
riching it by its balfamic quality: yet, after all, the latter 
notion hath at length prevailed ; and this diffferencc of their 
f ffefts has been, with no fmall probability, fuppofed fb proceed 
from the different times in which the leaf is gathered, viz. 
that of the bohea about a month or five weeks earlier, ^Mlft 
the plant is in its full flow, and the leaves full of its juice ; 
whereas the green, by being left fo much longer on the tree, 
and that fweet juice either dried up or infpiflated by the 
warmth of the fun, changes its colour into a fine grijen,. ^d 
' eontrafts tliat bittiernefs and roughnefe which we find it to 
Bohea^ a have. What feenw to fonfirm this hypothefis is, that the 
ne^ im- cultivating the bohea in th^ above-mentioned manner fc6m$ 
provefuent, to be a difcovery and improvement of a centurj or two^ 
jftanding, before which they knew nothing of it ; at feaft It ii 
plain, from the account which Mr, Ten I^hine, v^ho. refid^d 
ibme time in Japan, and vyas phyfician to the emperor about 
a century ancl half ago, hath given of it, that it was not thea 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


. C I. fie Hijhry cf Chini. 

knowD in Japan (D), though it hath been iince introdoced 
aod cultivated there to a much greater perfection than any we 
ever Jiad fixxn China ; fo that it is fuppcoed that this difcovery, 
being then but recent, had not yet reached Japan when that 
celebrated botanift wrote his account of the tea of that coun- 
try, which mentions no other but the various forts of green •. 
We flull* only add, that as none of their antient herbals fpeak 
of the yu'i, or Bohea, and fome of the natives fpeak of it 
35 a more modem difcovery, there is reafon to think it an 
improvement on that x>ld fort; but whether found out by 
Andy or chance, we can no-where find. But it is agreed, 

* WiLLiBLM. Ten Rhein. excerpt. deObfervat. fais Japonic, 
de frutice Xckia, ad fin. et al. ab eo citat. in hort. Malabaric. 


(D) That learned botanift 
tells us exprefly, at the end of 
his defcription of that plant, 
that though he had heard of a 
ctfitain ibr^ if black or brown 
tra in afe among ^he Chine/e, 
yet he never faw any ; only he 
liad obferved. that the coarfer 
die leaves of the tea were, the 
2Q0ire yeilowiOi or rcddiih infu- 
iioa tbcy gaivc, and the more 
difagreeable to the palate, as 
well as to the eye ; by which it 
b plain he fpeaks only of the 
coarfer fort of green (28). 

It 16 plain, moreover, to ever^ 
cunoua obferver, that there 19 
no difierence of (bape between 
the leaver of the green and bo- 
hea, except that the latter is 
ibmewhat more roundifh; but 
wheth^ the reafon of that be, 
as fome fuppofe, its being ga- 
thered fo much earlier,, and be^ 
ibre it hath expanded itfelf to 
its fuU length, we dare not af- 
im, tho' we think it far from 
mpioJE»able. We are inde&l 
told by (bme travellers who have 
bee]iin(>f>a?iand pretend CO have 

been particularly carious in exa* 
mining this goint, th it they had; 
ieen plantati3ns of both forts, 
and apart from each other, and 
never obferved any thing like 
both forts of leaves being ga-f 
thered from the fame tree, and 
at different times. But admit- 
ting there were nothing like that 
done now, it will not follow 
that it was not fo formerly, and 
by way of trial, in order ta 
difcover the difference of their 
virtues; and that being afler* 
wards fully fatisfied, that thofe 
leaves, which were gathered ear- 
lier, had a more fmooth and 
balfamic tafte and yirtue, they 
might not, by way of improve- 
ment, examine which trees, op 
what climate and grounds, pro- 
duced the bed bohea, and which 
the beft green, and fo appro^ 
priate them accordingly, and 
dtfpofe them into different plan* 
tations ; only obferving the old 
method of fbipping thofe of the 
former fo much the earlier in 
the year, as they do to this day. 
See the next note. 

/2SJ Mlfartinif l^Cmpte, NUuhtff^ Kampfer, Du Haldfj ^ al, 

F 4 . ^ - " that 


by Google 


fb^ Hijhry^ of Chini. B. I. 

that the different degrees of its gopdnefs and fincii^fs are owing 

to the earlinefs of the feafon in which it is gathered (E). 

torftempers The Chinefe not only ufe the infuiion of it by way of com- 

againjt mon 6r diet drink, but take it alfo in powder, either in water, 

which the or mixed With other ingredieots, and made into a bolus or 

Chinefe ^eftuary. Their phyfical books afcribe almoft as many vir- 

prefcribe' ^^gg ^q [^ ^g q^. quacks do to their pretended panaceas. They 

'^* prefcribe it againft the tcnefmus and haemorrhages, againift 

coftivenefs, pains of the bead or heart, Ibwnefs of fpirits, 

itching of the fmall-pox, imppftumos in the head, rein% 

l^ladder, ijc ftoppage of the menfes, ^ainft coughs, phthific, 

and other rheumatic defluxions and aches, and a number of 

other .difeafes ; and, to conclude with one of their moft fia- 

gular prefcriptions, they tell you that the Tu-chu, or finefl 

tea, powdered, and mixed with an equal quantity of alum, 

and taken in a glafs of water, is a remedy ^ainft all forts of 


t See Du llAt.nE, vol. ii. p. 223. 

(E) This we have confirmed 
by feveral bands, particularly 
trom the account which Mr. 
Cunningham^ phyiician to the 
Englijh at Chufan^ fent of it to 
;he Royal Society ; wherein he 
tells them, that the fineil, or that 
which is called the firfl bud, is 
gathered in March ; the Eing^ 
or Imperial^ in April or May 5 
the Songlo, or Green, in May or 
June. To this in a great m t-a- 
Aire agrees Father Du Halde 
(29) ; who adds only, that that 
called the, Imperialy or Mau-cha^ 
is the leaf gathered from the 
fhrubs newly planted, or, as the 
Chinefe ftyle it, the Jirji points of 
the leaves : but this fort is io 
fcarce and precious, that it is 
feldom ufed but in prefents, or 
fent to the emperor. 

The Xame almoil may be faid 
of the flower of tea, which 
tears an exceffive price, and is 
only ufed by the richer fort, and 
that chiefly on particular occa- 
fions,^s feafts, marriages, grand 
entertainments, ^c. This laft 

is indeed beft whoi mixed with 
the fineil K»ives, otherwife it 
hardly , colours the water, and 
rather gives a fragrance than a 
tafle to it ; and that is the rea- 
fon why the Mawcha^ or Impe^ 
rial, is preferred to it at court. 

All that need be farther ob- 
fifrved on this head is, that what 
Mr. Cunningham^ and others, 
call the firft, or earliefl bud, is 
indeed the fineft of the bohea 
kind ; but that there are a great 
many degrees below it of fine- 
nefs or coarfenefs in the leaves, 
according as they are more or' 
lefs blown and Ipread, and ac« 
cording to the part of the tree 
from which they are gathered ; 
for, during all the time of their 
being on the tree, the leaves on 
the top are always the fmalleft 
and fineft, and cdniequently the 
deareft,and grow prpportionably 
larger and coarfer the nearer 
they come to the bottom. The 
fame may be faid of the tiees, 
that the/(^der they are^ the 
coarfer their leaves (30). 

(30) Vii, auH. fypn titat* 



by Google 

C I . The Hifiory of China. 333 

Tea is propagated chiefly by fowing ; for that which grows Tea how 
xrild and fpontaneous is both raking, and hath fuch a difagree* propaga^ 
able tafte, that none bnt the poorer fort, who have not the ''^» 
niceft palates, care to nfe it. The time of fowing it is in the A"^ ^^ 
fecond moon of the year ; at which time, having prepared ^''^^ 
their groand, they throw nine or ^en feeds into a hole, from f^^^^'* 
which fometimes only one or two, and fometimes more, flirubs 
willfpring; which, at a proper feafon, are tranfplanted into 
another ground, which is alfo prepared by proper manuring. 
Thepkmt is cultivated with great pare ; and that which grows 
oa the lighted ground, and hath the greateft ihare of the 
fonth fun, is reckoned the iineft, and thrives bell. T^he flirub 
or plant hath been varioufly defcribed by authors, fome ralfing 
it to the height of a tall tree, and others lowering it beneath 
the degree of a common (hrub. The truth is, that, if it be 
left to run up to its full height, fome of them will (hoot up 
above that of our talleft filberds, and, by that means, quita 
d^enerate: but the Chinefe xzk.c czxe. to prevent it, by ftintrng 
them to that of fix or feven feet. They commonly tranfplant 
them In regular rows upon little hills, and about three or 
four feet from each other. When they have once taken deep 
root, they will grow in fpite of rain, fnow, or any weather. 

They have feveral \vays of curing and drying the leaves, Horwcund 
when ftript, in order to make them fit for ufe, which we can- ^«^ ^fifp- 
not dwell upon. The bohea is at firft dried in the fhade ; ^^* 
after which, the leaves are again expanded by the fte^m of 
hot water, and expofed to the warm fun, or, if that fails,, 
over a flow fire, in copper or earthen pans well glazed, till the 
heat hath crifped and contracted them into the fmall compafs 
they come to us in. But thofe of the green fort being com- 
mcmly lefs juicy, are dried up and crifped in the (ame manner 
as fooa as gathered. As for other niceties relating to their 
management of that flmib, and its leaves, we mufl refer our 
readers to the more copious account given of them by the authors 
often quoted. The tea-root is commonly large and yrell- ^^' ^^^'« 
fpread ; but, if we may believe Nieuhoffy is only fit for burn- 
ing, tho' the Chinefe afcribe fome great virtues to it. 

The tree commonly bears leaves from the top to the bot- Leipves^ 
torn ; but the nearer to th^ top, the finer. The leaf is ob- 
bng, and ftiarp at the end, and indented round like thofc of 
our rofe orfweetbrier ; and the flower not unlike that of the ^-^•wtrr, 
latter, only hath more leaves ; pr, according to others, is like-^'^f ^^^ 
that of the double jeflamin, with fix upper and fix m^Ati^J^^ll'^^' 
leaves. The fruit or apple is of the bignefs of a finall pp--^^ ' ' 
pin, but more finely flavoured ; and hath a fpicy tafte, not 
uplike ths^t of a- clove. The feed is blackifli, round, and of 
^^^ the 


by Google 

2^34^ The Hijiorj ^f China. & L 

the b^nefs of a; fmall hazel when greeo, or of a- large pea 
when dry. When put into one's mouth. It yields at jEurft a- 
fweet, but, being kept longer in it, a bittenfh, tafte* TZhe 
Chbiefe extraft an oil out of it, which th^, cfpecially ki, the 
province of Fo-kyen, ufe as a kind erf fauce to thdr vifhials. 
Leivon They likewife have a way of pickling the fine green tea4oavcs, 
fickled, after they have been infufed,* and eat them with their ineat^ 
Cotton The next beneficial ihrub is that which produces the cot- 

Jbrub, how ton, the manufafture of which into fuch variety of Xhii{s is 
propaga- one of the moft confideraUc, next to that of filk. and c&iiia* 
M* ware. The feed is commonly fown on the very fame day 

that the hufi^andmen have got in their harVeft ; nothing more 
being required thanr to tear a little the furfece of the gratmd 
with an iron rake. After the rain or dew hath fufficiently 
moiAened it, there (hoots up gradually the fbrub, till it is 
got about two feet high^ the flowers of which appear about 
the middle of Augiifi : they are commcmly of a yellow co- 
lour; and fonietimes more upon the red, and are fucceeded by 
a button or pod of the bignefs of a nut. This pod, which 
c^ns in three places about forty days after the firft appear- 
ance of the flower, difcovers three or four bags of cotton, 
exceedingly white, and of the fame fcH'm as the cod of a 
filkworm. To the fibres of the cotton are fattened the (eeds» 
which are to ferve for the next year, and from which they 
muft be feparated by a kind of wheel, or engine, which the 
reader will fee defcribed in the margin (F) ; ^ter which, the 
cotton is carded and fpun for ufe ". 

It would be an endleis ta(k to defcribe the other uncom- 
mon roots, ftirubs, trees, plants, flowers, and other vege- 
tables, with which this country abounds ; and we hof>e 
our readers will be fatisfied with our having mentioned the 
moft remarkable for thdr beauty, ufefiilnefi, or rmgularity, 
dther in the geographical defcription of thofe provinces, 
where they are moftly to be found, or under this general 

■ Vid* and. fap. dtat. & 0u HALDE,.Qbi fupra, vol- i. 

p. 319- 

(F) Itconiifts of two rollers, them, nothing can pafs between 

about a foot long, and an inch bat the cotton, which the hand 

thick, the one of wood, and the applies to them ; whilft the 

other of iron, which turn each feeds, meeting with a ftop. 

Other by means of a foot-wheel, break off from it, anfd fall into 

They are fo dofcly joined to- a proper receptacle (31). 
geth^r, that, in the tarniig of 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C i\ ^ tlifiorj of China. i^S 

head of the Chinefe agriculture ; ^^t fhall thercfoi-e dbfe this 
ardde with a Ihort accotlnt of two or three moft excellent- 
plants and roots that are in the higheft efteetn amoog thenn- 
and us, for their fingular virtues. We xni^t here b^in with Jin-feng 
that moft celebrated plant called by them Jin^feng, Cenrhng^yplaMi. 
^or Cpn-fen^ that is^ human plant, which is the moft «d« 
mir^ and in greateft requeft, all over the empire. But as th^ 
beft of it is only to be found ineaftern Tartary, and that which 
grows in the province of Se-chvieny which, tho' the neareft- I 

to it in all China^ ijs not in any cafe comparable to it, we /halli 
rder our readers,* for the further difplay, powth, and won- 
derful qualities, of if, to what hath been laid' ia our natural- 
hiftory of what we may call it& native foH f ; and CMily obferve 
here, that it is cried up by the Chinefe doftors and bpmnUl^ 
as th^ greateft cordial of all the vegetable fort, and as % kind 
of panpbarmacon againil all fprts of dUlempers, dpedally' 
pf the venereal kind. 

Their roots of Tang^que and Hu-hun are alfo in great Tang-qoe 
pfe and efteem among, them, for tlieir fingular virtue of re- V'^i^^ 
covering decayed conflitutions, prolonging life, and even * 
dianging the white hair, caufed by oJd»age, into a youthful 
bla^k. Their rhubarb and China root are alio (aid to be 
there excellent in th^ir kind ; the misfortune is, that it is ^ 
next to impoiEble to get them genuine from the natives, wha 
make no fcruple to put the Europeans off with counterfeits ; 
particularly with refpeft to the latter, inftead of which they 
fell them another fort, not unlike it in fhape and colour, but 
which is neither fo weighty, large, nor by far fo efficacioUd^ 
when tried ^; and indeed* it is the univerfal complaint of all 
wSq have been converfant with them, that they are the greateft 
Acats in all the eaft, and make no confcience to corrupt and 
adulterate ^very thir^ they fell or exchange with other na- 

However, from what we have faid under this head, of China, 
Ae richnefs of their foil, and their various admirable ways of though fi 
cultivating and improving every fpot. of it to the beft advan-/^'*'^'^* w 
tage, their invincible indufhy, religious attachment to agri- J'^'/^^* 
culture, and the fingidar encouragement it meets with from 
the throne, and from all the grandees of the empire, there 
c^ be no doubt but China is, what all the writers of it have 
affirmed it to be, the moft fruitful, rich, and populous, of 
all the eaftern countries, and produces the greateft plenty and 
variety of every thing that is neceflary and ufeful for food, 

t See vol. vii. boqk 1 2. ch. !• '^ JLe Comfxe>Nievhoff, 


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238 fhe flifi^pf.C^iM. 3. 1 

.4Biecd^«cUz<^ efpe^i^y their oiedicuial 4(?^» .A^^^l^^ 
ipoo,p4r cmt. Tbeir trafEck with thcEur^eans is mao|fefi 
- coufiderable bi;ajQch. The]^ ha«e it^d^ed fcarde any^pQrr^>pel 
.to them, except that of ^ang-tong, and that only at cert^j 
times of the year : neither.arc they fuflcred to iail up quit 
to that city, .but ,arc forced to caft anchor at, /P^a/^-rjw, 1 
f place ;ibout foqri?agues flioft of it, ,where the river Is-fi 
crouded with trading veflfels for miles tjcg<ethcr, tl>at it Jbxil^ 
)jke^ large city on tJie water. 

This trade was once very advantageous to the Eurof>e^^s 
.who brought thither clothes, (words,, clocks, ftriking and othcj 
watches, lookingrglalTes, diamonds, cryflal, telefcopes,, apdoth^; 
mathematical inftruments, and fold thepi at a vaft rate ; but ou; 
company hath fmce fo wellfuppDed, if not rather overftocked 
them with thofe commodities, tt^at xht trade is greatly dwindlpd 
and is hardly worth carrying on in any thing but filyer, andex 
changing it for gold (H) ; which, we^c ^old, iapommonlj ibic 
^inore or kfs dear, according to the time of the year, it bein{ 
much (Cheaper in Inarch y J^ril, and May, th^ frqm Juru 
to January y bccaufe this laft is the feafon when there is th< 
* grea^ number of vcflels in the port,^or xoad to^M<^ing^ta>ig ^, 

Other commodities brought from thence are too well knowr! 
Chinefe ^ to need ^ny fartl^er ideation ; 'aad all that needs to be a^ded 
to it is, that the Chmefe are fuch.»arnvit.dxcats,, that thcj 
think it neither crime nor ^me to over«reach thofe they deal 
with, no not even thofe of their own Ration and neighbour- 
hood (I) ; fo that pne cannot be too watchful over them. 


y Vid. Magaillan, I^avaret. 
NiEUHOFF, Du Halde, & ah 

Martini, ti Comptb^ 

-(H) Moft of the gold that is 

. bought dX^ang'tong is brought 
thither froin other parts, efpe- 
cially from Japan and Cochin- 
Chifia; the latter of which is 

, chiefly fold by the king of that 
country. Some indeed is fold 

.there by his fubjeds privately ; 

. but is not fo fine by a great deal, 
and muft be refined at^ang-tong 
(33): and is there divided, as 
all other gold is, into alloys, 
from 90 to 100 carats, in the 

fame xi^anner as we do >ni.£W-! 

r^e. j 

(I) They commonly go ap(»i! 
this principle, that every bnyerl 
being willing to purchafe at a&l 
cheap a rate as he can, or even I 
for nothing, if that could be! 
done, the ieller hath no lefs a ; 
right to fell as dear as he can» 
and to make ufe of any art or 
method to raife the price of his 
own ware : whence they infer, 
that it is not the latter that de- 

C? j) Du Halde^ vol, ii. f. 319, (§ feq, W. i. f, 334, Fid. & LeComptt, fi^ 
MuB. fuf, ciutm 



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Ct. fie l^hrf ^f CbixoL. 2^ 

'SuT wixat tiiey chlefty dopead opoa is thdr home trafEclTy ^tMr- 
fffl'whkh we may look upon every province as a iepsrate ftate frmdi 
«r kingdom, fome of vi^hich abound with cexrtain commodi- 
tiies, or provifions, which others want'; and, to communicate 
'Vfakh to all the reft, the beil methods have been invented, 
•both by land and water-carriage, that each country vdll admit 
•of. Thus the provinces of ffu'ifuang and Kyang-Ji^ which mofleme9u» 
HboaoA with rice, fupply thofe that want it ; Cheeky ang fur- raged^ 
•Bifhes the fineft filks ; Kyang-nan the fineft ink, vamifh, and 
«B forts of curious works ; Tu-min, ^her^fi^ and Sbanfi^ ykW 
•]lenty of brdn, copper, and other metais, horfes, moles, furs, 
ir. ; F<h4iyen the beft fugar and tea ; and Se^chvien the great- 
tft variety xif mtdicinal and other plants, ^c. ; all which are 
not only conveyed from one province to another, either by 
(their rhrers and canals, ot by la«d<arriage ; but, when 
-krought to the place of fale, are commonly difpatched in a 
4iw days. The very mandarins encourage it ; and have a (hare 
in the gain, by putting their money into the hands of the mer- 
. , -chants, to be improved in the way of trade. In a word, there ^^ 
4? hardly a fiamily, how poor foever, that will not put itfdf ^^^'''^ '^ 
on fame way of it ; and, with a (mall ftock, hardly amounting ^^* 
to a crown, will, by labour and iiiduftry, not only maintain 
tfaonfdves, and their children, but, by degrees, inlarge their 
ftoek, or fall into fome more profitable branch, and live more 
at their edfe. Thus every town and village, but much more 
their great cities, fwarm with indulbious hands all the day 
long, and all the year round : there being no intermiffion from 
any bufinefs, >^cept on the two firft days of the firft nKx>n, 
which are ccwnmonly fpent in diverfion *. 

The next branch <rf their wealth arifes from their manu- Manufac- 
tb&ures, of which they have great vaiiety. We (hall only tium. 
fpeak of fome of the mcrfl confiderable, fuch as their fdk and 
cotton, their porcelain and japan-ware, or vamKh. 

We begin with the filk, the invention of which xhtChinefe fhat of 
records attribute to one of the vdves of the emperor Whang- filk^ by 
ii: fince which, many other emprefles have been recorded for tu&cm in^ 
the Angular care they took to encourage it, by breeding the 'vented. 
fflkworms, fpiiining the fdk, and delivering it to the proper 

' * Vid. Magaillan, Navaret. Martini, Le Compte, 
NiEUHOFF, Du Haldb, 5f al. 

celvcs, but the former who de- makes of his chapmstn's fimpli- 
ceives himfelf, he being under city, is looked upon as the fruit 
no compuKion to give the price and reward of nis own induf-- 
that is aiked ; fo that whatever try. 
extraordinary gain the feller 



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«4C STAi? Hiftory lof CHiUa- B. I. 

Much en- wotl^aen and wom^, to be woven (K). Their ^m|de conld 
cQuragei. not fail of exciting the refl: of their fex to put their hands to 
fuch a profitable as well as delightful work, by which they 
were intitled, among other advantages, to exchange their old 
drefs, which was chiefly that of the Ikins of animals^ for the 
more eafy and elegant one of this new and valuable commd- 
dity ; fo that in a lijttle time the manufaAure became lo a 
manjier uniyerfal, and by d^rees fplit itfclf into the great and 
beautiful variety in which thf^ChineJe once excelled moft other 
nations ; though it muft be here obferved, thatfom^ provinces 
vaftly exceed others in the goodnefe, beauty, and workman- 
fliip, of it ; particularly that ot Ch^-kyang^ which, as we 
have already obf<?rved, bears the bell above all the reft for 
>richnefs, foftnefs, and for producing the grcateft quantities 
Become the of it. But, upon the whole, that manufafture hath been fo 
common well cultivated among them from time immemorial, that not 
miear. Qjjy (j^g princes, grandees, literati^ and other perfons of dif- 
tinftion, but their domeftics, the merchants, tradefinen, and 
mechanics, can afford to clothe themfelves with it ; none, ex- 
cept thofe of the meaneft fort, and the peafants, who com- 
monly wear a blue? cotton, appearing in any other but a filkcn 
drefs. The quantities they fend abroad of it are no lefs 
prodigious ; and muft, one would think, have long fincc in 
, • fome meafure exhaufted them, were there not an infinite mul- 
titude of hands employed in it; fo that it is not without rea- 
fon that China is ftyled the filk country. 
7hetrlkill NEITHER are they to be lefs admired for their forpriiing 
andinge- ingenuity, diligence, and (kill, in the management of every 
nuiiy in it, branch of it, the beautiful contrivance of thek looms, and 
other inftruments for fpinning and weaving it in that beauti- 
ful variety of colours, patterns, isc, and thejr great care and 
{kill in breeding, hatching, nourifhing, and propagating, of 
their worms, prxjviding againft, and curing them, of fundry 

(K) We are told, that there dies of the court, to this or- 

was a fpacious orchard afligned chard; and there, with her 

within the precindl of the pa- own hands, gathered the leaves 

lace, and planted with mulberry- of three branches, which fome 

trees, the leaves of which are of the maids of honour beat 

the proper food of that valuable down to her. They add, tjiat 

infedt ; and that in memory of the fincft pieces of filk, which 

it, as well as to excite the rell were wrought under her eye, 

by her own example, the em- were devoted to the ceremon/ 

prefs went once a year, attended of the grand facrifice offered to 

with the queens, and other la- ^hang-ti [i^). 

(34} V>u Haldci w/. T. p. 353. %id. & U Ccmfu, ©T aL fup.dtat, 



by Google I 

d. t. rk tiyhry of CWtta. 241 

diftempers they are liable to» as well as in thdr ^cdlent way 
l)f cultivating their mulberry-trees to the beft advantage for 
thdr nouriOiment ; the preparing their diferent apartments, ' 
fiHtaUy to the vanons fbages they go through, from the time 
of dieir being hatched to that of their fpinnii^, and laying 
thdr eggs (L) ; and a great variety of other niceties relating 
to them, vrhich we have not room to dwell upon, but which 
thofe who are curious in fnch things may read a particular 
account of in the author laft-quoted ■. . . 

That of cotton is another very profitable manufaAure, Cohan ma* 
though it doth not branch out into fuch great variety as tht nujc&ur: 

* Du Halde, ubi fup. vol. i. p. 355. 

(L}TheC^i»^ have not conten- 
ted themfelves with ftudying the 
bell methods of improving this 
corioas and ufeful manufaaure, 
but have written feme treati^fes 
upon it for public ufe. Among 
them was a famed author, who 
became afterwards one of the 
£rft minifters of the empire ; and 
was fo thorough a mafter of 
ihat fubject, that his experience, 
and wife obfervations on the 
bell method of propagating and 
aourifhing that ufeful infeit, 
have proved of excellent benefit 
to his nation ever ilnce. 

He tells them, among other 
things, that the apartments ap- 
propriated for breedine them up 
ought to be agreeably htuated, if 
poffible, upon a riiing ground, 
and near fome rivulets, becaufe 
the eggs muft be often waftied, 
and running water agrees bell 
with them. Their lodging ought at adiilance from dunghils, 
finks, and other naufeous fmells, 
^om cattle, and all kind of 
soife, for that the lead difagree- 
able fmell or noife, even the 
barking of a dog, is apt to caufe 
ftrange diforders in that tender 
bK>od, efpecially when newly 

The rooms ihould be fquare^ 

Mod. Hist. Vol. Vm. 

dofe, and warm, the door as 
near to the fouth as can be» 
but never to the north ; and with 
a window on every fide, to let 
in the frelh air, as often as oc- 
cafion requires. Thefc win- 
dows, which are moftly kepi 
fliut, are of white tranfparent 
paper; behind which are move* 
able matts, fo placed, as to ihut 
out or admit the light, as their 
condition requires. Qnats and 
flies» which are apt to fit upon 
the filk cafes, and to make ble- 
mifhes on it, as well as render it 
difficult in the winding, mull be 
kept out of their tenements, or« 
if ppilible, the worms {hould 
have done their work before the 
air is infeded with them. There 
is a great number of other fuch 
curious remarks in that author, 
for which we refer our reader 
to Du Ualde% extrafl of him % 
but which {hew, that the Chintf$ 
are much more nice and curiout 
in the management of their filk- 
worms than oxnEurofeanrnXxont 
commonly are, who never give 
themfelves any thought about 
thefe fecming niceties, fo tha,t 
we need not wonder if their 
produflions come fo far fliort 
of the Chinefe. 

O filken 


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ahut it* 

flheoooe. Wd have almuiyfhewB bow thc]rfeiiraiid|Mt^^ 
gate their cotton; and, as to the various doth^ ihey mak« 
g£it» asttiiftin^, caUkbes, 6c. thdr exiceUsnc way of dydng 
and printbg tb^, they are fo well known to us, that wa 
peed not expatiate longer upon it. 

Th£ T/e^ki^ or, as we ftyle it, porcelain or china-*ware^ 
maDU&fture, is of (o old a date amo^ them, that their le* 
Qords mention nothiog dither of its inventor or difcovery* 
There is a great variety of it made in feveral proidnces of tb« 
empire ; but that which is the fineft, and doth alone deierve 
tiie name of T/f-ki (M), is made no-where bqt in the town 
of King'te-ching^ in the province of Kyang-fi^ which town 
is above thr^ miles in length, and contains upwards of a 
million of fouls, moftly employed in that fiogle branch. The 
Chinefi were always fo very Ihy of letting the Europeans get 
any light into«ny of their affidrs, thofe efpeclally of the giran» 
or japan-vamifti, and this of the china-ware, that we have 
been led by European writers into feveral ftrange and abfurd 
notions, relating either to the materials of which it was 
made, fuch as egg-ihells, according to fome ; the (hells of 
fome forts of fi/hes, according to others ; or the length of 
^dmc they took up in preparing aad perfecting,. viz« 30^ 40^ 
or even 100 years, merely as their fancy foggefted it to thon^ 

(M) We need not tell our 
readers, that the name of per- 
cclain is anknownto t\it Chinefiy 
and moft likely of Portuntfe ex- 
traft. The anticnt books that 
treat of it have not fe much as 
a name for it, bat ftylcd it the 
prechttnn^ihf] au-chew (which 
is the difltiA to which King'te*- 
thing belongs) ; or elfe the fnt 
chtna-ixjore -tviptch is of a lo'vehf 
Jhining tvhitt, and a clear Jky* 
blut% and comes from King-te- 
ching. And it is indeed by 
thofe two qualities that this fort 
is known and diftinguifhed from 
all others that are made xnChina^ 
none of which come op to it ci- 
ther for colour, luftre, or fine- 

We are farther told of fcve- 
tid attempts having been made 

of makine it in ether places, bjr 
carrying the materials and work- 
men thither, particularly at F»- 
kyen and Can-ton^ on account of 
the great trade which tKe Emr§^ 
peons carried on at A-mnm^ ot 
A-moy ; but without any fiic- 
cefs. Even the late emperor 
Kang'hi, who was very carioM 
in all thing! of this natum* 
caufed fome of the workmen, 
and all proper materials, to be 
brought to Pi'king; where, hav- 
ing tried their tttmoft to fucceed 
under that monarch's eye, at 
lead to all appearance, the pro- 
jea mifcarried afreih ; fo thai 
the town of King-ti-ching is ftill 
the only place which 1 applies 
the whole country with that fine 
ware (35). 

{Z^yDu JUldt,'UDl, u p, 3S3. Vid. fif Lt C$mptf, & Mkfup, chat, 

4 tiU 


by Google 

. rtU we had tt lengA a more perfcft account of' dl thofe par- jf truer 
ticaiars from'an cye-wttncfs, of judgment and probity (N),/«'«i/rr. 
who commnmcated the whole £ecret^ and its proeefs, to his 
brethren in Europe. 

Whether that which hath been fince mads m Saxmy^ A finer 
and fo much exceeds the Chinefi, cfpecially in the beauty ai fort made 
the coburs, and finenefs of the painting, be made after the ««Saxony. 
jame maaner, and whether the firft difcoverer of it took the 
hint from the Jefuit's account, we know not ; but as that 
COflStmodtty is now fo far outdone in Germany, and is likely to 
be imitated by ours, and fome other European nations, with 
good fuccefs, it will of courfe excufe us from dwelling longer 
OR the Cbinefe way of working, making, glazing, painting, 
and baking it ; the procefs of which, though curious, is too 
iong and complicated for a work like this^ and may be beft 
fcen in thofe two pieces which the Jefuit above-mentioned fent 
,of it, and which are publiflicd among the Lettres edifiantes of 
the miffionaries, or in the extraft which Father Du Halde 
hath given us of them in his defcription of the Chinefe em* 


All that may be farther obfervable about it is, that tho^ ^he oU 
the notions of the earth being fo long in preparing, to make china fiill 
it fit for the work, or of the china-ware, when made, rccdving P^^firabk^ 
an additional beauty by lying long buried in the earth, fecm '^ "'***'^ 
quite confuted from our author's obfervations on their prefent 
way of fabricating it ; to which we might add, by way of 
corroborating them, the new method found out in Saxony, 
which is pretty nearly anfwerable to it ;yet it is not unlikely that 
. the Chinefe h^d formerly fome fudi longer procefs in bringing it 
to its h^heft beauty, but which they thought fit afterwards to 
iet afide, or difpeofe with, as incompatible with the great 
call they had for that commodity from Europe^ and which ncw^ 
feoned to require a more expeditious way of management^ 

^ Lcttrcs edifiantes, vol. xii. p. 258—360. Ibid. vol. xvi\ 
p. 320 — 366. Du Halde, ubi fup. p. 338— •353. Vid. & Li 
CoMPTE, Martin. Navaret. Nieuhofp, & al. fup.citat. 

(N) This perfon was Father deiired of inquiring into every 

IXEntrecolles^ a Jefuit, who had branch of that manufadure, as 

a church at King-te-ching^ and a well as into the records of that 

good number of converts who town about the invention of it, 

either worked at, or were great concerning which, he tells us^ 

dealers in it ; fo that he had all he could nnct no fatisfaclory ac* 

the opporcunity that could be count (36}. 

("fi) BktrafT det tettres edifiantei ap, Du Haldg^ vrL u ^. iit, & pq* 

Q^a though 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

a44 ^^ Hlfiory of China. B. 1% 

though at the lofs of a great deal of its beauty and goodnefs. 
7be $ld What inclines us to think fo, is the vifible difference there 
eount^r- IS between the old and new china in both thofe refpeAs, and 
ftittd. the great value which the Chhiefe themfelves fct upon the for- 
mer above the latter ; infomuch that fome of them have 
found means to counterfeit it in fuch a manner as not to be 
cafily difcovered by any but a connoifleur. We might add 
that that much finer fort which is made in Ja^an^ and of 
which we (hall fpeak in a fubfequent chapter, is, by the con- 
fefEon of the very JapanfUrSy affirmed to owe its excellence 
not fo much to the goodnefs of the materials, and manner 
of working, as to the length of the procefs in preparing the 
earth for the work ; but we (haU fay the lefs of that, as we 
are in fuCh a fair way of being fupplied with that beautiful 
commodity much nearer, and, in time, at a much cheaper 
Their *vnr^ The laft manufaAure worth notice is that of their vanufh^ 
nijbf 9r or, as we ftyle it in Europe^ gyran, or japan- work, which, tho' 
jafan, it be vaftly inferior to that made in Japan, is yet thought va- 
luable enough to be bought at a great prioe, and fent atn-oad . 
in great quantities, efpecially into Europe. We have already 
fpoken of the liquor or gum which gives it that beautiful 
luftre ; as well as of the poifonous quality of its effluvia, 
which fo fadly affcft the head and limbs of thofe who work 
at it : but this doth not hinder its keeping a prodigious num- 
ber of hands flill employed in it, in almofl every part of the 
empire, though not with equal beauty and goodnefs in fome 
The Jinefi^ as in others. The very befl of all is made at Whey-chew^ in 
m/hfTi the province of Kyang-nan ; and the next to it at Nan-king^ 
««^- the capital of that province ; in both which, it feems, the 
workmen have a better art in laying the vamiih finooth, and 
Whyworft yf\^ ^^ beautiful and lafHng glofs. But the place where the 
at Kan- grcateft quantity of it is wrought, though neither fo beautiful 
or ferviceable, is at Kan-ton, where the Europeans befpeak 
and have it wrought in great quantities, and according to 
-their own direftions (O). 


(O) And this is the main fmooth, nor in giving them time 
caufc of its being fo inferior to to dry, as that fort of work re- 
Chat which is made in other quires : for the beauty and lad- 
places ; for the workmen being ingnefs of it cpnfifl chiefly in 
• obliged to ftay till the Europeans . that there ihould be no fewer 
are come, in order to receive than nine or ten fuch grounds 
thofe diredio'ns, they can nei- laid, the thinner the better, and 
ther take that due time inlay, at leafl the fpace of three or 
iiig their grounds fo thin and four days, or even more in damp 





C 1.* TheHsftory of Chint. 245 

There are two forts of varnifli ufed in China, the one fo The tranf* 
tranfparent as to difoover all the beauties of the wood under- ^w-^w/ 
neath ; and yet fo folid, as to look like a piece of glafs laidy^^^ 
over it ; and at the fame time, by foaking into the pores of \t^ 
prcferves it from corrupting. This fort, however, will bear 
gilding, or being painted upon, without lofmg any of its - 
glofs ; but is mofUy ufed upon fome forts of curious woods, 
which are fo beautifully veined and variegated, that it looks 
like the work of art. We have very little of this fort brought 
into Europe. 

The other, which is better known to us, is laid on with 7-^^ mort^ 
a body in very thin grounds, as mentioned under the laft note, foUd, 
and that commonly on a kind of maflic, or pafteboard, made 
up of paper, flax, lime, and fome other materials, well 
beaten together, and glued on upon the wood, and with a^ 
very fmooth furface ; and on thai it is that they lay firft their 
oil, and then their varnifh, which is moftly of the^ black kind, 
tho' they may make it of other colours, and then paint and 
gild it in the manner we fee it in thofe cabinets, tables, and 
other trinkets, that come over to us. And though the beft 
6f that fort, which is made in China, be vaflly inferior in 
beauty, colour, andhardnefs, to that which comes from Ja- 
fan ; yet, when rightly made, it will pf efcrve ifs native glofs 
and lufbre a confiderable. time, except fome difafter happens 

We ihall conclude this article of their trade and manufac- Chincft 
tures with a fhort account of theu: coin, which is one main cain^ 

weather, allowed between every long or fo fine, were their materi- 

one, that the laft may be .tho- als in other refpedis equally good, 

roughly dried before a new one and the workmen as dexterous, 

is laid on. Another confidera* here as at any other place, 
ble interval of time is likewifc (P) It is obferved that the 

required between the laft layer fpilling of any hot liquor u^on 

and the polifhing, paintine> and that fort of work will deaden 

gilding; all which would, if duly its laftre, becaufe it will make 

ebferved, require a whole fum- the varnifh grow dull, and turn 

mcr, and more : but, as they yellow. The means of reftor- 

have not a fulHcient time al- ing it to its priftine (hining^ 

lowed them for it, they content black, fays dLClinefe author, is, 

themfelves with difpatching it to expofeit a whole night to \ 

at any rate, fo it doth hut white froft, or, which i5 ftill bet* 

pleafe the purchafer's eye. And ter, to hold it fome time in th^ 

nence it is that they neither fun (37). 
keep their glofs nor colour f« 

(ji) Du UM» vol. i. f. 337, & fiq. 

Q^j fprltig 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fpri^ ^ fupport of them. They Inive but two covrent 
m«Ui& in all C^W, viz. iUver aad copper ; gdkd being on tbe 
fame footing there as precious ftones with iig ^ and pofcbaiJedp 
lik^ other valuable merchandizes.^ acxxwding to its weight and 
^l^er mt fia^nefs. Silver, though ufed in payment, is not coii^y b«»t 
cmed'j gjj. jutQ pieces, fmaller or larger, as occafiou reqttires j fo 
but cut, that its value is rated according to its weight and ffoodaeis* 
w/ hed ^^ ^^^ ^'^^ ^^ prince's lou^. This makes it, however, 
^^'^ ^ ' very inconvenient to the tradefeaen, who muft be ever ctttrtkig 
ana weighing it (Q^) ; and, which is ftill worfe, be trying^ it 
on the touchftone, becaufe it \» often below the ccnamon 
flandard ; in which cafe, a propoitioQ muft be g^en in. the 
weight, to make up that defcft. Neverthelefs, the Chimfe 
^hufc to have it in that manner rather than coined, as ours is» 
becaufe, as they fay, it would make every provioce fwarm 
with clippers and coiners^ and force the dealers to have flili 
recourfis to their fcalea aad touchftone. And as» ia the fre- 
^9m» hp quent cutting it, it can hardly be avoided but forne ftnall p»r- 
if. it. tides of the metal will fall 00 the ground, fo there are nunH 
bers of poor people tak^n up with gathering and waflung die 
^t that is thrown out of daie ftiops into the fbreets, and who 
commonly ftnd enough among it to fubfift by. The only ex* 
peditious way they have t^ pay aiiy fum in filver, is, to keep 
by them a variety of plates of that metal, beaten, cither thto^ 
ner or thicker, according to the prefent exigence (befides the 
ingotSj, which are refervcd for larger f^ins), arid which, by Jong 
ufe, they can cut to a very great nicety,, and hardly exceed 9 
grain either above or under the weigh^t they defign it for. 
Copftrthe TifE only coin, therefore, prMcrly fo cilkd, inufeamoog 
gf^ll ^oift. them, or which they have had from time immemorial, is ct 
oopper, and of a very inconfider^bk value, on accdnnt of its 
^oc\rfencfs, as well as finallncfe^ ft fcarcdy amounting to the 

(QJ The fcales, or rather they may more cafily weigh thci? 

Milliards, with which they pieces. Thcfc kind of ilil- 

'V^'eigh their filv^r or gold, and liards are fo exceedingly cxa^ 

iVhich they commonly carry for weighing any money, or 

about them in a neat japan cafe, fmall pieces of filver, that ji-om 

confift of a Hi tie round plate, fifceen, or even twenty crowns^ 

^n ebony or ivory beam, and ^ down to the twelfth part of a 

tl^eight. The bearn, which is peny, and l^fs, may be wei^hei 

divided into minute parts on in them with fi) great a nieety, 

fhree fides, is fufpended by fine that the loootb part of a crowd 

jillcen firings at pne of the ends; wi^ tur^ tjie fcale (38J. 
in ^hr^e different points, that 

^38^ M4>rti»t\ Le Commit, Hu ^ildt, & ah 



by Google 

C. !• 

ne Hi/hry tf Chibt. 


tMrd port of Me <^ our fertUngs. It is of a rtxmd figure, 
idth Mse (h^iii^ dianiders on each fide, aad a fquare hole ia 
the mkkfie, through which they nay be fining to any nam* 
ber, tmt cetmnonly aa htntdved or a thou£iBd in one firing ; 
* whkh lad is equi^^ent to a Chinrfe cirown, and fomewhat 
above one of ows ; aad in this laft every hundred is divided 
by a ftrif^, which hangs at the laft piece, for the greater dif- 
patch of tdKng then. They have, it icms, no other name 
finr what we call money, than the old one of Tfyen^ which 
properly ^goifles the watir 4f a fountain that runs without 
^^fi^y I>7 which they exprsiled the continual circulation of 
it from one hand to another; which word they ftill retain 
ivMi refpe6i to both metak, calfing the one Tmg-tfyen^ or 
copper-money (R), and In^tfyen^ or filver-nKMiey; which laft 
name diey gi^e at Kan-ton aUb to the piaftres, French and 
Engfijb crowns, which are pretty current and comsion in that 
trading city c. 

< D*CNTaE<:oLLC< ap. Da Hal4e, toL i. p. ^%o, & fcs). 

(R) Thitcoi«, incxnfiderable 
at k B» sndBOt damped, baton- 
If otft, tiioagk formerly coiaed 
la two^and-twenty places of the 
eaipire, was nevertheiefs for- 
bidden fince, by an imperial 
cdi£t, to be caft any-where but 
at the court ; fo that none of 
^tuc petty kings under that mon- 
asth dares attempt it. Their 
laws maiDe it even capital to 
comterfeit it; though Fadier 
lyEmtreeoiies (ays, that fome of 
dieir monarchs have contented 
thtmielves with puniihing fuch 
offenders with the lofs of their 
hand, or with banlAiment (39). 

The Chinefe have, however, 
had, in the antient times, a 
great variety of coins of gold 
and filver, and in a great variety 
of forms, all which are now 
only to be feen in the cabinets 
of the curious, and more parti- 
cularly in that of the late empe- 
lur Kaug'hit who caufed a no- 

ble colle^^ioo to be made tof all 
that could be fouad of that 
kind in the empire, and to be 
deported there among his othet 
rarities. The reader may fee the 
mod curious and remarkable in 
the plate given us by />« Hald9^ 
as they were taken by Father 
D^EntrecoHes out of the impe- 
rial coikdion above -mention^ 
ed (40). 

fiefides thofe of gold, filver, 
and copper, they have had fome 
of bafer metals current in C6/W, 
to fay nothing of others of clay 
damped with fome names or 
charadtefs, and baked, (hellsA 
(lamped paper; {^r. ; and what 
is molt obfervable is, that none 
of them were ever damped with 
the head of the prince ; it being 
deemed there an indignity to 
the imperial majedy, to have his 
image pafs thro' the hands of 
tradefmen, dealers, and th^ 
dregs of the people. 

^39^ D'^ntffctHts af, VuUaldt, vol. up. 33P, &fef» 



(4^) Ja\m 

by Google 


248 ^ht Mijtiry of China: B. C 

ChineTe In order to have fome nodoa of the Cbirufi motyef, wfa^er 
nueights. antient or modem, it moil be ob(enred» that thdr pomicl> or 
Pound, Lyang^ v^hs (ixtecn ounces, bat is divided into only ten 
boyj tU' parts, called Tfyen^ this into ten Fwen^ wMdi arc eqniiralcnt 
itkA'^^ to ten French fols, or about fevcn-pence EngUfb ; the Fv>€n 
\jj1j into ten Fi of iilvcr. The beam rf xhi^Chimfr fcale carries 
thcfe divifions no farther; and yet, with refpi^ to gold of 
iUver of a conHdcrable Mieight, the divifi<fti b more minute, . 
and aUmoft extends to imperoeptible paru ; for which reafon 
it is (carce pdffible to convey a juft idea of them in our Ian* 
guage. They divide the Li into ten IVha^ the IVha inu> ten 
Se^ the S^e into ten Fit, the F4 into tea Chin^ which laft figni- 
fies a grain of duft ; this again into ten Tay^ the Tay into tea 
MyaUf the Afyau i(ito ten A&, the Mo into ten Tfytm^ and 
the 7/$^im into ten &un. But even when one underftands all 
thefe diviiioQS, it will be Ml impoi&ble to afcertain the value 
of the antient coins, though the w^ht is marked upcxi then^ 
yet fome of them pafled for much more than their intrinfic 
value came to. There were times in which the fcmrdty of ipedes 
obliged their monarchs to raife the value of the (mall coi^>er 
pieces fo exceffively hkh, that one of them was worth ton of the 
fame fort current in former dmes, which hath occafioned very 
great tumults among th^ people ; becaufe the merchants raifed 
the price of their goods in proportion. This fcarclty of cop 
per coin (which w^ occafioned ^ther by fome violent irrup- 
tion of foreignei^, wlio ^me and loaded their barks with it, 
and carried it aw^y, or through the cautioufne^ of the 
people, who buri^ it in time of w^, and died, perhaps 
without difcovering where it lay hid), hath been {o terriUy 
felt, that, at one time, an emperor bath caufed near 14^ 
temples of /b to be demolifhed/ and all the images and cop* 
per work to be caft into coin ; and, at other times, the people 
have been exprefly forbid the ufe of any veflcls, or other 
\itenfils, of copper, and obliged them to deliver up thofe they 
|iad to the mint. And thus much fliall fuffice for thdr C011I5 
an4 commerce. 



by Google 

C. 1, Tke Hipry §f China. 249 


Of the CbaraSfer^ Genius^ Manners j Cuftoms^ Mar^ 
riagesy Burials^ Feajis^ and Feftivalsy of the Chi- 
ncfc ; with an Account of the natural and artificial 
Rarities of that Country. 

TXT E have had frequent occafion to fhew, how much the CharaSer 
^^ Chinefe nation valued itfelf, above all others, fK>t only ^.^^ - 
in point of antiquity, but likewiie of wifdom, learning, po* ^'^'^^^* 
litenefs, and other valuable qualities, in comparifon of whom, 
they look upon the reft of mankind as fo many rude favages, 
jDonfters, or, at beft, as creatures in human ftiape, but either 
^uite deftitute, or, at beft, endowed with a very little ftiare, 
of reafon ; on which account, they made it a very conftant 
maxim among them, never to entertain any commerce tvith High con- 
foreigners^ but juji as much as fbould be thought necejfary to ^^'t of 
procure their homage andfervice. This was the high notion '^'*5/^^*^''» 
they had of themfdves, and were brought up in * ; which was 
ftill farther confirmed, by the fmgular deference which the 
Tartars^ Perfians^ Indians; and other neighbouring nations, 
paid to them, in point of wifdom and learning ; infomuch, 
that when Xaverius came to preach Chriftianity among the 
Japanefe, a people not inferior to them in fcnfe and politc- 
nefs, their objedlion againft it was, that fo wife a nation as 
the Chinefe had not embraced it. 

But, abating this overgrown conceit of themfelves, ofThicha- 
which they were foon cured, after they became more con* ^^^^ rf 
vcrfant with the Europeans^ it muft be owned, that they were '^^.'^*'^^' 
once endowed with many fhining qualities, though they have ^1^^^*^- 
fo for degenerated from them of late ; that they muft have 
been a wife, prudent, and politic nation ; that they had true 
and juft ideas of government ; that their fundamental laws 
•were excellently well calculated for the public good ; and that 
the jseople were no lefs endowed with a fincere regard for, 
. and a natural difpofition to oUerve, them. And hence it 
was; that, whatever ftrange revolutions have happened among 
them, during fuch a feries c^ ages which their monarchy hat)\ 
continued, they commonly proved of fliort duration; and, 
as foon as they came to be ever fo little at their own difpofal, 
they returned to their own form of government again : and 
one may fee, to this very day, in fpite of all*the changes, 
corruption, and d^^^racy, which hath been introduced lin^c 

f §€? before, P. 6. (D). & feq. 

• th^ 


by Google 

tSO The Hijhry $f OxM. B.I. 

their laft conqueft^ fome plain footfteps of their prUHne w- 
tne, and veneration for their antient laws and form of govern- 
ment. And though the for greater part of them do now con- 
tent themfeives with the btrc outwtf d fliew of probity, public 
fyirit, jnftice, generofity **, itc. yet one can&ot forbear con- . 
^ duding, that there was a time when thofe noble qiialkies 
were the diflinguiihing charaAer of the Chineft nation ; and 
that thofe princes and great men, who enaAed fuch excellent 
laws, left behind them fuch wife maxims of government, and 
encouraged fuch a noble fyftem of morality, both by thdr 
precepts and example, were every way quaUfied to reign over 
fuch fkithful fubjefts. 
Of the The Chinefi are naturally ingenious, lively, and induftri- 

frefint ous, and thofe of the lower rank laborious tocxcefs. They 
Chincfc. have no great genius for fpcculative fciences, as we have for- 
merly obfervcd, but a furprifing one for almoft all forts t>f in- 
ferior ones, as wdl as for mechanics, cither for ofc or diver- 
fion. They are quick and witty, but afieft a gravity with 
it > outwardly afGd>le. and civil to, but jealous and miftruftfiol 
of, ftrangers, efpecially fuch as they fafjpeft ^f coming to pry 
into their manufaAures, fome of whom they lutve made nd 
fcruple to ^ifon, upon the bare fufpidon (^ it ; but, where 
only traffick and gain are in view^ they are exceedingly watch- - 
ful to obferve the tempers and inclinaHons of their chapmen, 
and keep up the fairdft correfpondence with them, in order 
to over-readi them : fo that whether a ftranger tmfts to hia 
own judgment, or to the probity erf the Cinnefs dealer, or 
employs a Chinefe faftor, he is, for the moft part, in dancer 
of being cheated, and laughed at, unlefs Ik be cxoao&g 
careful who he deals with ; for there are ftili manyinftanoos 
among them, not only of honeft and fair dealing, and opn 
and generous ufage, but even of fiddity, incapable of being 
corrupted. They are exceedingly apt to refent afTronts and 
injuries, though they do not, as we do, retaliate them by 
duels, fighting, or other public hoftilities, but mil rather 
feem patient under them, even to infenfibiUty, dll they have 
a fav(Mirable opportunity oi indulging thdr revenge to the 
Much gi' higheft degree. Both nobles and artificers are extremely ^vco 
^mt9 to gaming, and will fpend whole days or weeks at it ; and the 
^an^ng. ^^^ ^^y j^f^ ^^ fm^5 ^^ j^^ ^^^ fometimcs all they are 

worth, even to their vdves and children, wh^ they meet whfe 
a bad run of fortune ^ (A). In 

^ Secbefprc, p. i$4. & feq. ^ D^his, vi4eMAQAiLLAii» 
L£ CoMPTE, Maryini, NiEUHOFF, Dv Haldb, H tL 

(A) All forts of gaming are and even th)t of chefs, though 
(orbi4d^n by the Chinefe laws j fo n^^ch admir^ bjr the whoio 


by Google 

C 1. Tii Uifisry cf China. t^i 

Ih other cafes, they are very good oeoonoimlby and ob* 
ferve great firu^tty in their iioiilbs, and way of living, from 
irhkh tbey feidom depart, but upon feme great occaflons ; 
ffich as their national fieftivals» their birtb-£iys, weddings, Suf/^tmu^ 
borials, ^c. at which times they ftrire to outdo each other, /efiivait. 
m the rpkiKlidne(s of their tables, furniture, and the various 
methods of entertaining their guefts (B), in which they fre-^ 
qnently run to excefs, and beyond what their drcnmilancet 
will admit of. Among the variety of fnnqmious difhes which 
commonly adorn thdr tables at foch times, dogs ^efli, dif- 

latiott, is yet highly cenfared 
by tkeir literati, as taking up 
too much of that time which 
ought to be better employed ; 
and yet they are fo very fond 
both of that and many others 
which are in vogue amongthem, 
Azt they will even venture their 
whole eftate upon the chance of 
a game» or even upon a fingle 
card, or caft of a die. Upon 
this account, as well as the fear 
of the laws, they are very care- 
ful to indulge tnis pa0ion wiih 
as much privacy as poflible ; 
though they might eafily be pre- 
vented f]X)m it, if the manda- 
rins and magiftrates, who are 
equally gnilty of it, did not 
wank at it in their inferiors (42). 
And, it is iH>t improbable, that 
thefe being fo often hurt by it, 
is one main caufe of their being 
fo g^ven to cheating in all their 
mercantile dealings. 

(B) All thefe kinds of fefti- 
vals are commoniy accompa- 
nied not only with variety of 
mafic and dancing, fuch as it 
is, but with tumblers, rope- 
dancers, jugglers, pofture-ina' 
Sers, • and o^r fuch diverfions, 
which are there exhibited, by a 
parcel of ftrollers hired for that 
parpofe, and are furprifingly 
dexterous at their refpedive 
parts. Thofe of the middle fort 

Will add fome ihort farce, or 
dramatic performance, to the 
reft i and thoie of rank, a re- 

fular play, with all its proper 
ecoracions, interludes of mufic, 
dancing, (*fc. ; there being al- 
moft every-where a fufficient 
number of thofe ftrollers to be 
found, who are ready to a6t any 
jplay which the company ihall 
call for. 

Thefe players are a kind o£ 
vagabonds, . that wander from 
place to place, where they are 
moft likely to be hired j and are 
always paid by the matter of 
the tcaft, among thofe of the 
higher rank 5 but among thofe 
of the lower clafs, by the vo- 
luntary contribution of the 
guefts. They comznoniy go ii^ 
companies, of , both fexes, and 
have a kind of head over them, 
who either keeps them in pay, 
or diflributes their hire among 
them, according to the parts 
they a^L Theie men, in their 
rambles, make it their bufinefs 
to buy (and often to fteal) all 
the handfome girls they can get 
from the poor people, whom 
they afterwards either debauch 
themfelves, pr proftitute for 
fome fm^l funi, in order tot 
harden and fit them for theif 
bufinefs (43). 

(^i) Martint\ Lt Ccmft^ Du Baldi, (^ al* 



by Google 

252 The H0cry of Chkia. B. !• 

ferently drelled, feldom fails of being one; whatever plenty 
of other fle(h, venifon, fiih, fowl, ifc. there be befides. Ye^ 
Sobriety at even in thefe feafts, they affeft a more than conunoa gravity 
ibcM, and Iilence, and will drink but fparingly of wine, and other 
ftrong liquors, even when, the cups are put brifldy round by the 
mafter of the feaft, but will only take a finall quantity at the 
bottom of the cup, as if they feared being overtaken with, or 
betrayed into, fome indecorum by it : but they are foon re- 
lieved from their gra^dty and fears, by the diverfions above- j 
mentioned, which commonly fucceed the third or fqurth 
fTof of They neither ufe fpoons, knives, nor forks, at their tables ; 
gmting, but every gueft comes furniihed with two fmall and long ivory 
or ebony fticks, with which they help themfelves, wth won- 
derful nicety and eafe, to every thing that is fet before them, 
without touching it with their hands : and this makes napkins 
to be likewife needlefs at then: tables, every difli of meat^ 
fi(h, (be being commonly cbt into fmall bits, before it is 
ferved ^. 
New The public or national feftlvals are various, and regularly 

yearns obferved all over the empire ; particularly, the two firft days 
feftivaL of the year, which are celebrated with feafting, mufic, 
dancing, playing, tomedies, and other diverfions, and with 
fending of prefents to their friends and patrons. This folemn 
time, which, among the great ones, lafls from the end of 
the twelfth moon of the laft to about the twentieth of the 
firfl moon of the new year, is properly theu* vacation ; during 
which, all bufmefs ceafes, ail the tribunals are fhut up, the pofts 
fuipended throughout the whole empire, and the generality 
of the people fpend then: time in rejoicing, and all ibrts of 
diverfions (C). 

<* Dc his, vide Magaillan, Li Compte, Martini, Niiw- 
HOFF, Du Halde, & al. 


(C) This feftivity, or vaca- the laft days of the old year, 

tion, \vhich lafta abqut three when they uke their leave of 

weeks (44), pr a month (45), it, with great folemnity ; and 

is llyled, by the Chinefe^ the the inferior mandarins pay their 

jbuttingupofthefeah\htc2i\x^^9 homage to their fupenor, the 

at the Deginningjof it, they do, children to their parents, fer- 

with great ceremony, (hut up vapt^ to their roa(le;rs 2 and every 

the little coffers wherein, the family concludes the d^y with 

feals of each tribunal are kep^. a fumptuous fupp^r. 
But the greateft rejoicing is on 

f4.4) Chinefe Ambajfy, f, 76. W, ^ jp|q». Kaf, ^, itmJ, ihtd. p, »So. 

(45) ^°9 yi^fapr^ 



by Google 

C. I. ^be Hiftory of China. 253 

But the moft folemn and pompous part of this feftivity, Tbmtoftht 
hcgLTiS on the fifteenth day of the fame firft moon, and is, by Umtboms. 
the Chinefe, ftyled ^tfeqft of the lanthoms. It is commonly 
ufhered in at court, and the capital of Pe-king, pretty late on 
the preceding night, by the ringing of a vaft large bell ; the 
firft found of, which is no fooner heard, than it is accom- 
panied by whole vollies of cannon, fix)m the palace and city 
ramparts, the beating of large kettle-drums, the found of 
trumpets, and a great variety of other inftruments. The 
fame notice is given in all other parts of the empire, efpe- 
dally the great cities, about the fame time, and much in the 
(ame way, the ^non excepted. Immediately upon which. Fire- 
they every-where kindle fuch vaft numbers of fires, hang up *i4wi/,««/ 
fuch infinite numbers of lanthorns, and play off fuch variety «^^^- 
of fire-works, fome reprefenting caftles, towers, (hips, dra- •w**^'**** 
gons, elephants, horfes, fifties, and other creatures, that the 
whole atmofphere feems to be in a flame. They have like- 
wife a very dexterous way of intermixing their lanthorns with 
thofe fire-works, fo as to reprefent horfes, and other animals, 
in full career, birds flying, ftiips failing, armies fighting, 
princes marching with their whole retinue, and a great variety 
of other fuch furprifing fcenes 5 whilft the ears of the fpefta- 
tors are entertained with the beft mufic their country affords, 
^nd with the joyful acclamations of the people ; all which are 
anfwered by the trumpets, bells, and other inftruments, of 
every temple and monaftery. 

Ma. IJbrandz Ides^ who was prefent at one of thefe feafts *, fr^fe re- 
(ays, that the noife at Pe-king, which continued the fame ttU jmingr, 
the next day at noon, was as great as if an army of 100,000 
men had been all that time in a clofe and fierce engagement. 
And Father Le Conipte^ who was likewife an eye-witnefs of 
this grand folemnity, at the time he was there, favs, that the 
number of lanthorns, commonly lighted at thefe illuminations, undnum- 
through the whole empire, was computed to' amount to at her of 
leaft 200,000,000. Duringthefeftival, the ftiops are clofely lanthorns^ 
ftiut up ; all bufmefs is fufpended ; the ftreets crouded with Streets 
proceflions of numberlefe idols> carried about in great pcMnp, crouded. 
the monks and priefts attending them, with their cenfers, 
fongs, and mufical inftruments ; the very women, of all 
ranks, who at other times are not fuffered to appear in 
public, are then permitted to ride through the ftreets of Pe- 
king ; thofe of common rank upon afles, adorned with ribands 
and other trinkets ; and thofe of quality in their two-wheeled 
chaifes, covered on every fide but the front, and either fing- 

♦ AxabafTy to China, part. i. ch. 15.. p. 76: 



d by Google 


rbi Hiftory rf Omt. 


ieg, or gently touching feme mufical inftroment, or cvca 

fmoaking a pipe» ind attended with a maid-ferTant riding 

behtad them, and playing likewife on fome mufical itiAns* 

Ricbnefi 9/ menu Some of thoie Ian thorns are fo vaftly rich and beauti- 

iife Ian- fuj^ that the price of them amounts to 1 500 or 2000 cro^rss, 

iifoms. ,jmj ev^ beyond ; and not a houfe but hath fome fort cl 

them, the beft they can afford, burning, both before and 

within it (D). In a v/otd^ the Cfnnefe are fo ambitious of j 

making the moft magnificent figure on this feftival, tiiat they 1 

will retrench from their oonunon expcnces the year round, 

that they may do fomething cxtraorcfinary at this time, and, 

abating the mafqueradjog, will allow dsem&lves in all tl^ ex- 

' bi ^^n trftv^ancies of a Fenetian carnival •. But what the caofe of 

tmkMOwn* all this jc^, or the ori^ of this grand feftival is, Aey dtfaar 

do not care to tell us, or probably kirow nothing of it them- 

felves (E). We ftiall, bbweveri in the fcquel of this chapter, 


• De his, vid^ & Mahtini, Navaretta, L« Comfte, Dir 
Halds, 6c al. fup. citat 

( D ) Thefe JantKoms are 
iadorned with beautiful carving, 
gilding, and japanning, and 
nave about fix or eight panes 
of thin blue £Ik, made tranf- 
parent by a fine varniih, and 
|>aiii£ej with figures of trees, 
mett, horfes, teds, ^c. ^ 
ficilfuUy difpofed, as to receive, 
as it were, life, from the great 
number of lamps, or candles, 
burning within them. Others 
are made of blue tranfparent 
horn, through which are feen 
fimdry kinds of creatures, paint- 
ed to the life, and Teeming to 
move, through the motion of 
the fiam^ within, and repre- 
fcnting a variety of fcenes, to 
entertain the fpe£lators. The 
common forts of them are about 
four or five feet high, and have 
their tops adorned with curious 
ftreamers, waving in the wind ; 
but thofe of the nobleft fort are 
above twenty feet in diameter. 

and illuminated with lamps and 
wax-candles, the fides of which 
reprefent to the eye varions fi- 

fures of men and women, in 
ifferent charafters, or exhi- 
biting fome theatrical repre- 
(entations, with gellures fuit- 
able to their parts. TheOe are 
moved by wires, by people 
placed underneath, like our 
puppets, or, according to one 
of their own authors, are aded 
by living perfons {45). They 
have likewife bonfires, and 
other fire-works, in all the 
parts of the cities, towns, and 
villages ; and the whole nation 
feems to run mad with joy for 
they know not what. See the 
next note. 

(E) Whether they are reallf 
ignorant of the occafion of diis 
fedival, or defignedly conceal 
it from Grangers, it is certain, 
none of our authors, who have 
fpoken of ic, nor even Kao, x 

(45) Kao, ubi ju^tiu 



by Google 

C- I. ^h€ Hifiory of Oixn. 

jbid a proper place for offering a ocmjeffaire of outb, ccttK^em* 
ing the origin, and extraordinary rejoicings^ of that famed 
femval, wJuch^ we hope, when weighed with other concur- 
ring drciunilances, may, though new, appear to give a more 


Chini^ natire, have given any 
fa(isfa£l9ry account oflt Some 
tell OS, it was inilituted in me- 
' mory of one of their monarchs, 
' who had caufcd a magnificent 
palace to be built, which he 
Hluminated whh a prodigious 
fiufttber of thefc lanthorns, that 
4he day might not be diftin- 
guiftied from the night. Others, 
that it was in remembrance of 
n great mandarin, whofe fa- 
vourite daughter drowned her- 
felf ; and that he having go- 
verned them with uncommon 
humanity, the country, in gra- 
titude, flocked to him with 
lanthorns, to help him to find 
her out, though without fuc- 
oefs ; in memory of which, they 
isftttuted this ceremony, which, 
in time, fpread icfelf through 
the whole emph-e. 

Laftly, as their records men- 
tion, that the Emprefs Ta-kya, 
wife of the Emperor Cbe^ (both 
of them of a tyrannic difpofi- 
tion), had, either through fear 
of' a rebellious attempt, or for 
Ibme other motive, accufiomed 
lierlelf to have the imperial 
palace illuminated with a pro- 
digious numbe^ of candles, to 
fupply thp abfence of the fun, 
and to prevent any furprize by 
night, lome infer from thence 
that this fellival was inftituted, 
by the people, after her death, 
'in memory of their deliverance 
from that cruel tyranny. 

But, as none of thefc carry 
any tokrablc probability, may 
we not rather thinic, that the 

origin of its inftitotion is either 
forgot, or, which is more pro* 
bable,is concealM from drangert 
out of fome fuperftitious wlum ? 
For, we are told, that, with re- 
fpc6l to that of the ne^ year, 
' they are, in fome parts of China, 
io cautious of having a ftranger, 
or even fome of their neareft 
relations, at their own houiey^ 
at that time, left they (houM 
catch all the good luck which« 
they fuppofe, attends the mo- 
ment of its entrance, from the 
family, that they will not ad- 
mit any one to (hare in the 
feftivity of that day with diem, 
nor join in the common re- 
joicing of the feafon, till the 
next and following ones (46). 
However, by the uncommom 
ma|;nificence and profufion 
which reigns through the whole 
empire, and the univerfal joy 
that appears in every look, and 
the ftrange forts of diverfions 
which are in vogue, during the 
feaft, one would be apt to fup- 
poie, that ib iblemn, fo joy- 
ful, and fo univerfal a feftiva!, 
owed its origin to fome extra- 
ordinary event, or blefling^ 
which they either are careful to 
conceal, or have loft the re- 
membrance of; or, at leaft, that 
they expeft, from their magni- 
ficent way of celebrating it, 
fome great and public bl^ng 
will fall on the whole realm, 
and that thofe who beftowed 
the moft coft on it, or behaved 
moft franticly, were to have the 
greateft fhare of it (47). 

(46) Du HMldf,'tfoLu />. 292. (47) De bte, r-iJc Magaillan, Lt 

Campte, Martini, l/branJvt, Kao, DuUalde^ &c, u^Jjtfra, 



by Google 

tS^ Tie H0ofy of Chm. B.I. 

probable account of it than any we have hitherto met widi, 
either from the natives or ftrangers. 
The tnvo The next in rank and folamnity, are the two grand fefti- 
f,fthuaU ofsiH^ inftituted in honour of their famous Confucius^ and are 
C >nfu- celebrated, the one in the fpring, and the other in autumn. 
^*** * The public honours paid to that great philofopher, ufed for- 
merly to be performed before his ftatue, Tet up in the great 
hall dedicated to his memory, till their new conqueror Kang- 
hi, deeming it, we are told, a kind of idolatry ; and fearmg, 
or pretending to fear, left his new fubje^s fhould, in time, 
offer the fame worfliip, and prayers, to him, forbade the ce- 
remony to be performed before his ftatue ; inftead of which, 
he ordered a large label, or board, to be ereAed over a table, 
wkh his name and titles written, or engraven, upon it, 
with fome beautiful leaf-work, and other ornaments, carved 
the ctre» or painted about it. The ceremony is now performed, by 
MMjr ff kneding before the infcnpdon, and proftrating the body nine 
*him. times brfore it, till the h«ul touches the ground : after which, 
the ufual offerings are made to it, of wine, viftuals, fruits, 
ifc, in the fame manner the great families do to their deceafed 
friends, at their mourning teafts ; of which, we fhall fpealr 
in the fequel. The fame exchange was likewiie ordered to be 
made in all their fchools, colleges, and other places, where 
that great man's pifture was formerly fet up, and where no- 
thing but his name is now to be feen ^ We have formerly 
taken notice of fome other feftivals, in which the emperors 
bore the grcateft fliare in the facrifices, and other ceremonies 
performed at them, and need not enlarge upon their other* 
public ones, which are inconfiderable, in comparifon of thofe 
we have now g^ven an account of. 
Ftafttngs The private ones are either on their birth-days, marriages, 
•* hirth' or funeral obfequies, all which they fh*ive to celd>rate in the 
^^yi* grandeft manner that their circumftanccs can afTord. They 
always obferve their birthdays with fuch feaftings, dancing, 
mufic, and other diverfions, as we have already defcribed, to 
which the guefts join their good wifhes of long life and p^- 
fperity ; • and fome of them add either a panegyric, or copy of 
verfes, on the pcrfon. The whole day is fpent in civil treats, 
mutual congratulations, and mirth, even among thofe of the 
loweft rank. The fame rejoicings and feaftings are obferved 
at the birth of a fon, efpecially the firft ; and, in both cafes, 
the guefts commonly accompany their congratulatory compli- 
ments with fome real prefents, fuitable to their drcumfiancei ; 

^ De his, vide & Martinj, Navaritta, Lb CoMPTE,Df7 
Halde, & al. fop. citat. 



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C i: The Hifitny of China. 257 

the greatdl princes riot thinking it beneath tKeir dignity to 
have fuch kind of fubfkntial honours paid to them. 

Their marriages are celebrated with no lefs poqip. The Marri* 
married couple are commonly brought together, without any ages. 
previous acquaintance with each other, the bargain l?eing 
ftruck by their parents, or by fome go-between, and after- 
Wards ratified, by prefents fent by both fides. The bride N9 dowry 
brings no dowry with her, but is rather purchafed by her brought by 
fix>ufe, who, befides the price he pays for her, commonly tbi bride. " 
fpends, in the marriage ceremony, double and treble the pre- 
fents flie brings along with her, efpecially among thofe of 
higher rank (F). The young couple arfe never fufSred to fee Wedding 
each other, till the marriage contraft is figned and fealed, by ceremony. 
the parents or friends, and the prefents be exchanged on both 
fides : but, as foon as that ilover, the bride is fent home to 
her bridegroom's houfe, in a kind of pompous cavalcade, and 
with a numerous attendances of friends and fervants ; fome oti 
horfeback, fome on foot ; fome carrying the infignia of the 
family, others playing on variety of inftruments ; a third fort 
carry torches, flambeaux, even at noon-day, and burning 
odoriferous perfumes ; whilft a fourth bear the prefents fhc 
brings along with her. The bride, if of quality, is carried 
in a ftately fedan, covered all round with a large and rich 
canopy of ftate, borne by a dozen or more lufty fellows, in 
the livery of the family, and guarded by fome relations on - 
horfeback. The whole retinue appears in the mofl fplendid 

e Seethe cavalcade defcribed by Du Hald£, vol. i. p. 303. 

(F) The laws of the country furnilh the richer fort with 

making it an indifpenfible duty children, when their wive^ 

for every man to marry ; and prove unfruitful ; and this is 

many of the poorer fort not done either clandeftinely, and 

having it in their power to pur- then the good wife pretends to 

chafe wives, the government be pregnant, and, in proper 

gives them leave, in fach cafes, time, to be delivered ; and this 

to go to the foundling hofpitals, is oftener with than without the 

and beg one ; which favour is confent of the hufband. The 

feldom denied, if the man have other is done by publicly adopt- * 

any tolerable charaftcr for pro- ing the children fo bought j but 

bity and induftry. This me- as this cannot be done without 

thod not only faves a poor man the leave of the government, 

the charges of buying, but con- nor that be obtamed without ^ 

^ tributes to make the wife more great expence, the former way 

obfequious and obliging. is the more frequently cho- 

Thefe hofpitals do likewife fen (48). ^ - 

(48 > De hoc, vide Magaillan, Xe Compte, Martini, JJbrands^.^ Kto, ^» 
Haltfe &c. vhi jupra, 

■ Mod. Hist. Vol. Vm. R. dreflesj 


by Google 

%^ rhi Hifipry ef China. B. I. 

drefles; and in this manner they m^cb from her father's 
houfe, to that of her fpoufe.; who is tnere ready^ with a vaft 
number of his own relations, all likewife richly drefled, to 
receive her. The fedan, in which fhe is brought, i^ clofcly 
fhut vp on all fvies, the door of it* is locked, and a trufty 
fervautiis intrufted with the key of it, which he is to deliver 
- t(? no«e hut to the bride^i^opj^, who V^its at the door, to 
flu bride's imroduGc her into an aut;er court^. Here (he is no (ooner fet 
ricepti<ij2, down, than he unlocks the chair^ "With fome oageroefs ; and 
is then a judge (if he never few her before, which is com- 
njU?nly the cafe) of his good or ba4 fortune (G). If be like^ 
her, Ijie hands her out of th^ cliair, and condufts her into 
tbp gr^at hall, where they make fo^ur \q\\ haws to Tyenr^ ajEtcr 
. \yhich, fhe doth the lame to hy hufhand's relations j and is 
. tjien JP^t into the hands of the ladies invited to the ceremony^ 
>yho l^ad her into a ftately apartment, and fpend the remainder 
t^f the day with her, in feafting, dancing, and other divgr- 
iions ; whilft the bridegroom doth the lame, with his male 
relations, in another. The fealUng lafts more or lefs, ac- 
cording to the circumilances of the perfons ; and, when once 
ended, Ihe is from that dme fecluded not only from the com- 

; [G] It* {bmetimes happens, her back, nor to divorce, or 

that a man. When he receives ufe her ill. The laws likewife 

his wife, and find* her beauty oblige both fides to have a due 

not anfwerable to ^he character regard to an equality of age, 

given hiii of it, or the idea he and rank ; but this laft is often 

conceived of her, will immc- overlooked, through dint of 

diately lock her dp again, and, money. 

in the fame fedan , fend her The common people obfcrvc 
back to her parents, choofing Icfs ceremony in this cafe ; and 
rather to forfeit the money he the man may have fome oppor- 
gave for her, than to take her tunities to lee the woman, be- 
Some. 3ut this, of late, is not fbre he engages; and, when 
^often the cafe, the female re- the marriage is agreed on, the 
Jations of thebridegFoom taking bride is fent to her hufband, 
all the proper precautions, not in the handfomeft manner that 
only to fee' and converfe, but their circumftances will allow, 
to view, and examine her, when cfpccially with mufic, torches, 
ihe is in the bath^ and be fatif- and fome retinue of her friends 
fied,, that (he is free from any and is conveyed thither in a 
fficH defe^ls, as might render clofe fedan. The ceremony of 
hef difagreeable to him. On her reception is much the fame 
the other hand, her parents take with that of the great ones, 
care to oblige him, by the mar-' abating the magnificence fTp). 
^ riage contra^, neither to fend 

(49) De h9e, vidt Ma^atVan, Le Compte, Martini, IJbrandx, Km9, Dm 
lUide, &c. ukifypra. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. I. The Hiftory «/ China. 254^ 

panfy but evon firotn the fight^ of all men but her hufband ; 
except, perhaps^ the father, or fome near relation, and that 
only on fome extraordinary occafion ; unlefs they have con^ 
tradled before-hami with Wm, for the liberty of enterfeining 
a gallant now-and-then, which, we are told, is fom^times done^ 
by an indulgent parent, and agreed to by the no lefs indulgent 
fpoufe, though feldom, if ever, without fome valuable con- 
fideration *•. . 

The Chinefc laws allow but one wife to a man 5 but they ^he laws 
are pernuttcd to have feveral concubines, who are brought «^-^<'*"'*^*' 
into his ho«fc» without aiiy other ceremony, than a promiflbry one wife to 
note erf the fum agreed upon, and of ufing her well ; but the ^*"^*;. 
lawful wife is g^erally miftrefs over them, as well as over all %/>!?^ 
the fervaats in the houfe ; and the children of the concubines ^ 
are deemed to beloi^ to her, and have an equal right to inherit. 
She alone bears the title of mpth^, and, after her deceafe, is 
honoured with the parental mourning of three years. Both Second • 
the man and the woman may marry a^in, after the death of ^wrr/^g'//^ 
dther ; in which cafe, the hufband is no longer confined ^>ow far 
within his own rank, but may take any woman he pleafes, or ^l^wcdp 
even one of his concubines, to be his wife ; and this fecond 
wedlock is attended with but few ceremonies. As for ,wi- 
ctows, efpecially thofe that have had children, they become 
their own miftrefles, and may marry, if they pleafe ; but that, 
among thofe of high rank, is reckoned dilreputable, though 
Q?z had lived but one day, or even a few hours, with her 
kuAand. But with thofe erf" the middle rank, the cafe is 
qaite otherwife, though frequently lefs in their favour, 
' through the avarice of the deceafed's relations (H). 


^ See Martini, Le Compte, 8c al. fup. citat. 

(H) Thefe are often forced the above fum to be repaid, or 

by the hufband's relations, efpe- * turn bonzefs, or nnn,* which 

cially if it be one that hath had few care to do. The poor wir 

no children, to marry fome dow being thus fold, whether 

other man, in order to hav« the with or without her knowlcge 

money given for, or fome part or confent, is immediately clapt 

of it, refunded to the family, into a clofe fedan, and conveyed • 

The bargain is Often agreed . to the purchafer, under an efcort 

with the new hufband, without of fome trufty pcrfons, and fre- 

her knowlege ; and if Ihe has quently long before her mourn- 

a daughter ftill unweaned, (he ing is over, which is exprcfly 

goes along with her to him. againft thelaw. But if this out- ^ 

Neither can ftie avoid the op- rage hath been complained of 

preflion, unlefs fhe can procure to the mandarin, and he be 

R z found 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

26a ' The Htftory of China. B. I. 

^ he fad UpoN the whole, it muft. be owned, that the marriage 
State of the ftate is but an uncomfortable one to the Chinefe women, of 
married any rank, inflaved and immured by their jealous hufbandsr 
i^omen, j^ (q^^ cafes, liable to be fold, with all their children ; in 
others, to be divorced from them ; and when widows, con- 
demned to obferve a long and fevere mourning, and then either 
to live a fingle life, or to be fold to the higheft bidder ; without 
one good law in their favour, except that which permits 
them to marry again, if the hufband abfents himfelf from 
his home above three years (I). The Chinefe women are ge- 
nerally very handfome, fprightly, and amorous ; and employ 
themfelves at home, either with their own children, or with 
ibme forts of curious works, as painting, japaning, embroi- 
dering, (be. Thofe of diftinftion feldom ftir abroad, and 
when they do, they are commonly carried in a low clofe 
chair, or a covered two-wheeled chaife (K), and are, confe- 
• . quendy. 

found to have connived at, 
inftead of remedying it, he is 
liabk to bc/ feverely punifh- 
cd (50). ^ . 

(I) In this cafe, fliejs obliged 
to apply to the mardhrins, who, 
after due examination of it, will 
licenfe her to take another huf- 
band ; for, without this forma- 
lity, Ihe would be feverely pu- 
niflied, if fhe ventured to do fo. 

With relation to men felling 
their wives, the law is, that a 
woman that elopes from her 
hufband may, aftej- convidliofi, 
and receiving the correftion ap- 
pointed by the law, be fold by 
him to whom he pleafes ; but 
without fuch a convidion, both 
the. buyer and the ft* Her would 
be liable to be punilhed ; and 
yet, wc are told, that fome men 
have fold, or even played away, 
their wives and children. 

• The cafes in which divorce 
is allowed, are ; r. Adultery ; 
hot which feldom happens, by 
reafon of their being fo clofely 
kept. 2. Antipathy, or con- 

trariety of tempers. 3. Excefs 
0/ jealoufy, difobedience, or 
indifcrction. 4. Barrennefs, 
5. Some contagious diftempcr. 
Yet thefe divorces, we are told, 
feldom happen among thofe of 
higher rank, it being only 
among the common people that 
inftances of it are to be met 
with (51). . 

(K; Thefe Cedans are of two 
forts : thofe belonging to thcr 
lity are borne on two, or more, 
men's fhoulders ; and thofe of the 
inferior rank have only one pole, 
put through a ring on the top, 
and rather refemble a large 
cage, carried between two men, 
much in the fame manner as our 
draymen carry a barrel of ale, 
the hindermoll holding it with 
both his hands, from jogging to 
and fro. 

Both forts are made fo very 
low, that, the perfon, who fits 
crofs-Iegged on a culhion at the 
bottom, doth almoft reach the 
top with her head. Thofe of 
the lower fort, which Are com- 

(so) De hoc J vide Magaillan, Le Compte, Martini, JJbrandx,^ Kas^ Vide Db 
Ralde, vol, i. p, 305. (51) Id. ibid, vide & aL/u^.citat. 



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.C !• The Hifoty of China. 261 

quently, never to be feen K We •(hall defcribc theif drcfs in 
a more proper place. 

The laft pompous folemnity we fhall mention, as cele- Funerals, 
,brated by private families, is that of their funeral obfequies, ctnd deep 
which, among people almoft of all ranks, doth, *by far, ilill ^ouniing. 
exceed whatever is obferved by them upon any other ©cca- 
iions. And' fuch is the Angular regard which the Chinefe pay Singular 
to thp memory of their de'ceafed friends, efpecially to that of regard to 
their parents, -and near relations, that they think they can <i^^^ pa- 
never fufficiently exprefs it, either by the coft they beftow ^^^*^' 
on their funerals and anniverfaries, or by the deepeft tokcas 
of grief for their lofs. According to their antient laws, the Vength 0/ 
common term of mourning for a parent was three whole their , 
years (L) ; and though jt hath been fince reduced, m (oiViO, ^tcurning, 
cafes^ to twenty-feven months, yet do they not abate, in any 
other . refpeft, of their antient aufteriry on fuch occafioiis, 
but fpend that whole time in a6l9 of the molt pungent grief. 

A child "that hath loft a parent is neither permitted, nor 
,will, upon the greateft exigency, indulge himfelf in the ufe 
of a bed, during the fpace of lob days, but choofes to lie all ' 
that time upon the bare earth, lamenting, in the bittereft 

^ De hoc rita, vide KerCher, China illuftrata, Martiki, 
Hiilor. Sinenf. Le Compte, Careri, Du Halde, & al. 

monly of japanned wood, have ( L) This term of three years 

either fome fmall holes, or ob- mourning for a parent, was or- 

long narrow flits, not only to dained to exprefs their gratitude' 

let in the air, but give them for their parents care during 

that are in it a glimpie of what the three years of their he'pleU 

paiTes in the ftrcets 'through infancy, wherein they flood in 

which they are conveyed ; but need of their affiftance : audit 

thofe of the better fort are co- is fo carefully obferved that if 

v^red over with fuch rich filks, any of the emperor's mini tiers, 

as not only fhut out the light, of what rank foever, lofes a 

but even the frefh air. father, or mother, he mufl lay 

fioth forts, as well as the down his ofHce during all that 

two-wheeled chaifes, are only time, and dedicate it to mourn- 

ufed in the cities, or for fome ing, unJefs the emperor fhould, 

fhort jaunts out of it j but in for fome extraordinary reafo.n, 

longer journies, the quality diipenfe with it, which is rarely 

eommonly convey their wives done ; nor can he rcfume his 

and female retinue in coaches pofl, till the three j^ears are 

and littery ; and all like wife fully expired (53). 
ihut up clofe on all fides (52). 

(5 a) De boc^ -vide Mag ail fart. Le CsmptCj Martini y JJhrandii, Kao, Vi > Du 
H'^lde, ubi fup, l^tde ^ aL fup.' citat, (53) yide Martini, L C nptf, 

Cemel Careri, Du Halde ^ <^"al, ] 

R.3 terms, 

, , Digitized by VjOOQIC 

, Jnni'ver* 
fary obfe- 

262 The H^ory of China. B. L 

terms, their incxpreffibk lofs. They ve not to convcrfc wth 
any body during a whole year ; and, which is ftill harder, 
muft abftainjrom all connubial intercourfe with their whts 
and concubines, under rery fevCTe penalties : for fhould any 
of them be found to have been got with child during that time, 
both they, and niuch more the hulband, would in£dliUy be 
condeifined to fo*me heavy puniihment. In the matrimonial 
ftate, the wife is obliged to mourn, in the fajne deep«m^ner, 
three whole years, or at leaft two years and a quarter, tf not 
of Wgh rank, and the hufoand a whole year for a dead wife ; 
which laft is alfo the common term, more or lefs, of Aoum- 
ingfor other relations, according to the degrees of their pro- 

Neither is this filialregard confined to the ftated time of 
three years, but is ftill continued with annual* obfequies per- 
formed at his grave, with fomething near the fame mournful 
ceremonies ; to which we jpay add, that if a man die before 
he hath married all his children, the eldeft fon is obliged to 
take that care upon him ; and, being then inveftcd wth a 
paternal authority over them, is efteemed as the reprefenta- 
tive or fubftitute of the deceafeS. Nor are thefe funeral ob- 
fequies continued to parents only, but to grandfathers, 6f. 
up to the head of the family, for whom they keep anniverfary 
fplcmnities, vifit their tombs, in the fame mourning guife, 
and offer upon then^ tlyj ufual prefents of wine, viftuals, ifc. 
as if they were ftill alive (M). 

Noi^ need we to be furprifed at this extraordinary duty to 
their anceftors, if we recoUeft what was formerly hinted, on 
another occafion, that they are brought up with a belief that 
their fouls are ftill prefent, though in^rtfible to them, and be- 
hold all their aftions, and either approve or condemn, reward 
or punifti, them ; which notion is of excellent ufe, to deter 
Monarch them from vice, Ind excite them to wtuous deeds. Neither 
not exempt ^q their greateft monarchs think themfelves^ on any account, 
from them. jj^Qj-e difpenfed from this filial duty, than the meaiieft of their 

(M^ This extraordinary re- 
gard was- founded on a wife 
Cbinefe maxim, that monarchs 
ought to have the tcndernefs of 
a parent over their fubje^', and 
fathers the authority of kings 
over their children ; and, when 
young perfons behold what vt- 
neration 4» paid by their parents 
to their own progenitors, it can- 
not fail of infpiring them with 

a deep fenfe of obedience and 
fubmiflion to them : and, as 
their fages have jufUy obferved, 
this fubmiflion naturally pre- 
ferves peace in famfilies; this 
produces tranquility in cities, 
prevents infurreclions in pro- 
vinces, and fecures peace and 
good order through the whole 



by Google 

. C. I. Tii Hifiery of China. t6^ 

fubrfefts, but rather ftrivc to 6utdo them in it 5 idbmuch, that 
^read of foBae of them who have refufed to attend on any 
thing bat that, even at a time when then: dominions have been 
invaded by a foreign power (N). 

The fiineral rites arc performed, among the rich, with Funeral 
much the lame pomp and magnificence (if not rather greater) '''^■^• 
a$ their marriages, and with the addition of a vaft number of 
bonza§, and other priefts, who adorn the fumptuous cav^- 
ca(jie, fome fmging, in a mournful tone, the encomiums of 
the decerfed, others playing on a great variety of inftruments ; 
fome carry the tables^ on which are depofited the ofiferings of 
wine, viftuals, ifc. to be fet on the tomb, others the per* 
fumes to be burnt upon it, and one of them precedes the bier, 
bearing the table, or label, on which are written the names 
of the deceafed, and thofe of his progenitors^ The corpfe,''-''^r/^<?»* 
which is dreffed in the beft cloaths, is carried in a ftately 
coffin (0), covered over with white damaflc, or fome other 


(N) The Chinefe annals re* 
cord many inllances of this filial 
duty, and particularly, in the 
lingular piety of Ven-fongy king 
ofTJtttg, who, being forced to 
travel out of his father's domi- 
nions, to avoid the fnares of an 
ambitious mother-in-law, and 
being there informed of his fa- 
ther's death, and of the lofs of 
his kingdom, gave this extra- 
ordinary anfwer to a prince, 
who offered himhisaffiftinceand 
foldiers to recover it : •* That, 
** being become, as it^were, a 
*' dead man fmce his retreat,and 
'* exile, he no longer eileem6d 
** any thing but virtue"^ and 
'* piety towards kis parents; 
^ that this was his treafure; 
" and that he chofe rather to 
*' lofe his kingdom, of which 
'* 'he was already difpoffeffed, 
" than to be vXinting in thofe 
" laft duties, which did not 
** I>ermit him to take arms, at a 
" time deftined for grief, and 
** ^e funeral honours which 
** were due to his father (54)." 

( O ) Thefe coffins, about 
which the Chineft are fo foUi- 
citous, that they will have them 
made in their life-time, and 
fome fons will mortgage^ them- 
felves, 'to procure one of them 
for *a parent, are commonly 
made of planks about half a 
foot thick, and of a lafting fort, 
and fome of them of precious 
wood, and are fo well pitched 
within, and japanned without, 
that no bad fmell can perfpire 
through them. Thofe of the 
richer fort are finely carved and 
gilt, and coH from 300 to 1000 

Before the corpCe is laid in 
them, they commonly thiow a 
little lime at the bottom ; and, 
after it is laid, clap on a pillow, 
or a good deal of cotton, to keep 
the head fteady, and fluff every 
vacuity with cotton and lime, 
to foak up any moiflure that 
comes from the body. 

We took notice above, that 
fome, out of a more than com- 
mon regard for their parents. 

(54) Stt Du Hality f. 306. 


Digitized by 


264 ^i>^ Hifiory (/China. B.L 

rich filk, which is the colour that is ufed by all the Chineje in 
their mournings ; ^ver it are the infignia of the family ; the 
whole carried by twenty or more lufty men clad in mourning, 
attd covered with a vaft ftately canopy, which is likewife borne 
by a number of men in the fame mourning drefs. The rela- 
tions of the deceafed, both men and women, follow next, ac- 
cording to their nearnefs to him, all clad in white fackcloth, 
girt about with a coarfe rope, with ftraw wrapped about thdr 
feet, and rags about their heads ; only the women relations, 
fuch as the wife, concubines, daughters, and other female 
kindred of the deceafed, are carried in clofe fedans, or chairs, 
' covered over with white curtains. 
Burying' In this manner they proceed from the deceafed's houfe to 
f laces. the burying-place 5 which muft be without the walls of the 
» city, and at a diftance from any towns, or inhabited places 
(unlefs they chufe to keep the bodies in their own houfes, in- 
clofed in fach coffins as we defcribed in the laft note) ; but, 
generally fpeaking, thefe fepulchral places are on fome moun- 
tain, or eminence, ^bout two or three miles from any city, 
a^d are inclofed with pine, cyprefs, and other trees, and fome 
^owhs. with a wall. The tombs are raifed like little houfes, but are 
differently fhaped in different provinces. Thofe of the man- 
darins, and princes of the blood, are of a magnificent flruc- 
ture, about twelve feet high, and eight or ten in diameter ; 
and near them flands a table of white poliftied marble, of a 
confiderable length and breadth, on which are fet a perfuming 
pot, two vafcs, and two candlefticks, all of the fame flone, 
and curioufly wrought. On each fide are placed, in feveral 
rows, a great many figures of officers, eunuchs, fddiers, 
lions, faddle-horfes, camels, tortoifes^ and other animals, in 
different attitudes of grief and veneration. As for the mean- 
er fort, they content themfelves with raifing a finall kind of 
pyramid of mould or earth over the coffin. 

' cHufe to keep their dead bodies of all dainty meats, wines, con- 

at home ; and this they will do verfation, and other comforts j 

at lead during the whole three and if they are obliged, on fome 

years of mourning, during which urgent occafion, to ftir out of 

iheir feat in the day-time is a their hoiifes, or to go out of 

llool covered wi|h white ferge, town, which few will do till a 

and at night they lie down near certain time (/ the mourning be 

the C9ffin, on a bare matt made over, they are commonly carried 

of reeds. They deprive them- in a clofe chair covered with 

felves, during the whole time, white ferge or cloth (55). 

• (S§) Set Du Halde, />. ic6, ^ fef, Vii^& U Comje^ ^ aU fifrs 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. I. ^bi'^iftory of Chiita. 265 

They feldom bury maay, per,foas in one grave, and are ex- 'Regard f^r 
ceedingly curious and careful about the bodies of their de- thehoiies. 
ceafed friends. They would deem it an unheard-of cruelty 
to have them opened, and the heart and entrails taken out, as 
is done among us; and they would lopk with horror on 
our charnel-houfes, and fee the bones of different, perfons 
promifcuoufly laid one upon another. And this makes 
them fo fond of thofe coflSns lately defcribed, which fome 
will purchafe not only at a great price, perhaps from 50 to 
100 crowns, but even with their laft peny, and keep them/ in 
their houfes 10 or 20 years beforehand, and efteem them as 
the beft piece of furniture they are matters of. 

When the proceffion is arrived at the burying-place, the Feajfghffm 
fervants of the deceafcd, while the funeral ceremony is per- ^^ tf^e im^ 
forming, »are bufied in preparing an entertainment for the O''^ ' 
company, which is fet on tables, and in a kind of halls reared f^^^' 
for that purpofe. Some of the relations will partake of them, 
. whilft others will chufe to' keep clofe to the fons and daughters PFofui 
of the deceafed, and join with them in their loud crie;5 and mourmt^^ 
woful complaints, than which nothing can be imagined more 
lugubrious and fcdemn ; except that to an Europearij who is 
not ufed to them, they appear too formal and regular to in- 
. fpire him with the fame fentiments of grief. The burying- 
places of the grandees have commonly feveral fuch halls or 
apartments reared up, in which many of the near relations 
will flay a month or two, to repeat their mournful ceremo- 
nies every day with the fons of the deceafed. They are not/ 
contented to celebrate their annual obfequies at their tombs ; 
but every family bath a hall, which is called the hall of the Ualhfilm 
anceftors, at which all the feveral branches of the family vlt^ ancefiors. 
obliged to repair on certain times in the year. Thefe 
branches, which in fome families have fometimes amounted to 
between 80 and 90, or to 7000 or 8000 perfons, meet at th« 
ceremony promifcuoufly, no diftinftion being then made be- 
tween a great mandarin and a mean mechanic ; and, if any 
preference is given, it is to the oldefl, whether rich or poor. 
Only the richer fort commonly prepare a fumptuous entertain- 
ment, to which the wbole family is invited as foon as the cere- 
mony is ended. 

One thing more we may obferve under this head of filial 
duty tp the deceafed : that many of the Chinefe will not let 
•the d^d corpfe be carried out at the common doors, left their 
grief fhould be renewed every time they paflcd through it, but 
caufe a new one to be made for that purpofe, which is imme- 
diately clofed up after the funeral is over. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^66 mHiJiofy^/thkm. Brt 

Mourning VfHf^ an etnpicror dies, the whole empire goes into motirn- 
for an em- ing, and the fame refpeft is paid to his mother or grand- 
f^rw. mother. When the mother of the late Kdng-hi died, a deej) 
and univcffal mourning was obfcrvcd fifty whole days, doring 
which all the tribunals were IhUt up, and no kind of ftate-affiiin 
mentioned to the emperor.**^ The mandarins fpent the whole 
time ^t the palace, and in all outward eXpreiSons of grief; 
and fcveral of them pafled whole nights in the open air, tho' 
then very cold ; and even the emperor's Cms flepl in the pa- 
TJkfuni' lace without pulHng off their clothes. Ail me riiandarinJ, 
ral of clad m white, and ftripped of ^elr red ornaments, which co 
Kang-hi'i lour is then forbidden, went on horfeback, with a very fmall 
m^fr* retinue, to pay their mournful refpefh before her image, 
three- days fucceffively ; after which, the corpfe was carried 
wi^h fuitable pomp to the place wha-e it Was to lie in ftate (P). 
This was a ftately palace out of the city, and all built of new 
mats, with courts, halls, and other apartments, for the corpfe 
to remain in, till it was thence conveyed to the imperial bury- 
ing-place ^ ' 

Education This extraordinary regard for their deceafed parents is nor 
•f children. ^^Jy owing to the laws which give the Fiving ones fo great 
an authority over their children, but liktwife to then: excel- 
Parents ^^^'^ way of educating them : for even here the laws have 
funijhed taken fuch care to oblige them to it, under fevere penaltitt, 
for negle^ that if any of them happens to commit fome crime, or great 
•f it- mifdemeanour, and abfconds himfelf from punifhmc6t, the 
father is commonly made to bear it for him, at leafl for not 
having done his duty towards him. There are feveral excellent 
treatifes likewife written on the fubjeft of cducaition, by fome 

* Dehoc ritu, vid. Kercher China Uluftrata, Martini Hift. 
Sinenf. Le CoMpte, Careri, Du Halde, k al. 

(P) We are told, howevw, their attire, and prepared thcm- 

th^t the emperor would not fol- fclves, according to the ulagc of 

low what he mtfcalled the Chi- the Tartarsi to accompany her 

11^ fuperftition of caufing nsw intotheother world, by faaifict- 

. « eatcs to be broke open, but or- ing their lives before her corpfe, 

dered the corpfe to be carried which that monarch would not 

through the public ones of the fuifcr them to do. He likewife 

palace. He ftiewed the fame abolifhed another cufhmt, till 

contempt JFor fome of the an- then in ufe among thent, of 

tient culloms of his own nation, burning rich furniture, and even 

particularly with rcfpedl to four the dgmeftics of great mca, 

young ladies who ha^ waited with their bodies on the funeral 

en his mother, and had tsdcen pile (56). 

(56) rU. Du Ilalde] & al. uhifu^. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. I. Ithe Hiftory of China. 267 

of their learned doftors, wifli proper direftions to parents and 
fchoolmafters how to bring them up in the moft effe^ual man- 
ner in the love of virtue, and averfion to vice, which, they 
fay, ought to be the chief oUeft of all their care; and, next 
to that, to train them up to kannng, if capable of it, or tor 
induftry in fome other calling ; in doiqg which, thofe doftcMTS 
advife the ufe of mild and gentle means, preferably to {harp 
and fevere ones,:confidering that youth is averfc to conftraint; 
and eafily difcouraged by roughnefs. Inftruftions and repri- 
maiKls, they fay, flxould come like vernal winds and rains, 
wWch gently promote the groV^th of plants ; and not lik« 
hafty (bowers or ftorms, which root them up, or wafli them- 
away. They have likewife old ftory-books^ fome in profe, 
others in verfe, but in a Angular ftyle, fit for children, and 
written in commendation of virtue, obedience to parents, ho- 
ncfty, induftry, ifc. The education of the boys, as well as Wfots 
of the girls, is intrufted to the wife, till the former are fit to havt tU 
be fent to fchool, and the latter come to be married : but all ^^' ^f 
this, however, under the eye and direftion of the father, ''^^.- 
who commonly referves to himfelf the power of ufing fcve- '"'*'/ 
rity, when other milder exhortations and encouragements-^^''*** 
prove inefFeftual ; and, after the father's death, the eldeft 
fon takes the authority over as many of the family as ^re 
ftfll unmarried. And as, among thofe of the middle and 
lower rank, there will happen now-and-then fome wrang* 
lings and quarrels, through the indulgence or indolence 
of the matter of the family, the magiftrates are obliged to . 
look carefully to the good order and oeconomy of it ; and, 
in cafe of negieft, are themfelves liable to be puniftied, as 
well as the offenders within-doors (Q^). 

The Chinefe are generally very grave, formal, and cere- Ceremonies 
monious, vn\S\ each other, as well as towards ftrangers. Their ufedy -and 
falutation to an equal is by laying one hand to the breaft, manner of 
and bowing the head; to a luperior, or more venerable per-y^*^*''"i^* 
fon, they Jay both hands to the breaft, and bow the whole 
body as low as they can ; and, to a mandarin, they fall down 
on their knees, and touch the ground with their forehead. In 
laluting a fuperior either in his own houfe, or in any other 

( Q^) Thus we arc told of a the quarrel, made a report of it 

mandarin, who, going throagh to the emperor, who ordered the 

aflreet, heard a mother-in-law fon and daughter-in-law to be 

crying out, and curfing her fon chaftifed, his father to lofe his 

and daughter-in-law ; and, hav- head, and the magiflrate his 

ing inquired into the occaiion of place (57). 

^ f 57; Cartri^ & ai^ 


by Google 

26t The Hijhry of <:hiaz. BJ. 

place, the pcrfon bends one knee to him, and continues in 
tljat pofture till he takes him up by the hand, which is com- 
monly done immediately. But it is unufual and uncivil to 
falute a maglftrate in public, unlefs one be fummoned before, 
or have fome particular application to make to, him. The 
reft, it feems, muft only ftand with their arms acrofs, and 
their eyes fixed to the ground; for it is an affront to look 
In their them ip. the face. In their vifits they ufe a great deal of cere- 
n^ijus. mony in their geftures, though they are very laconic in dieir 
compliments. They are no lefs curious in feating their vifiters 
HumBle according to their feveral ranks ; and in the flyle in which 
fiyhin they receive the honour of the vifit, never fpeaking in the 
/peaking to firft perfon, I or me, but Your fervant ; an4, to a perfon of 
'^^''"A/^- diftinftion, Your humble, poor, or unworthy flave ; and, in- 
^^'*' 'ftead of You to the perfon they fpeak to, they fay My lord; 
as. Let my lord permit his hunible fervant to, &c. ; Let my 
lord accept of fuch a thing from hisferimnty or poor flave. If 
a prefent be the product of his own native place or province 
and the country be ever fo celebrated for it, as fome of them 
are for their manufaftures, others for tlieir fruits, <i;c, the 
ftyle muft ftill run in the fame ftrain with relation to that ; as. 
Let my lord permit his fervant to offer him fuch a thing, ivhicb 
his poor city or province affords : but if the prefent con^p from 
the country of the perfon to whom it is prqfentqd, then ft 
muft be, for which ^ your noble city, or province, is fo juflly 
Maffers. f^^^^^* The fame humble 'ftyle is obferved between the fcho- 
lars and thdr mafters, to whom they never ufe the words I or 
you, but Your fervant, or Your Scholar, did fo, or read fo ; 
and, Our mafter or doflor lays or ordered, i;c. ^. Now, tho* 
this way of fpeaking may appear to fome of our readers ex^ra* | 
Sfillin ufe v^^^^> ^^^ ^^^^ grimace, yet, to thofe who are ever fo little 
amefn^ the verfcd in that of the antient eaftern languages, it will appear 
eaftern na- quite natural and uniform with them, and to be the very 
ti(ms\ lame as is ftill in ufe amongft moft of the eaftern nations at 
this time ; fo that it would be not only uncouth and abfurd, 
but to a great* degree uncivil and anronting, to exprefs one's 
etndfomeofiAi in any other. Nay, the fame n\ethod of fpeaking is fHllie 
the Euro- fome degree preferved by the politer part among feveral European 
peans. nations, particularly the Spaniards and Germans. To which 
we may add, that it is the very ftyle of the antient patriarchs, 
'and of all the Hebrews before the qaptivity of Baiylon, and 
even fmce, till they came to corrupt it by adopting the idioms 
of the Greeks and Romans ; and how much and juftly that 
(lyie is admired by all the learned for its humility and fimpli- 

H Martini, Le Compte, Du Kalde, & al. fup. dtat. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. i: 7he Hifiory of China: 

city, we have formerly fliewa in the ^ntient hiftory of the 
Jnvs K 

The Chineje are no lefs formal in their vifits, whether be- 
tween inferiors and ftiperiors, difciples and mafters, which are 
indifpcnfabi« at particular feafons, or between relations and 
friends (R) ; and as tea is the common liquor the Chinefe treat 


^ See Univ. Hift. vol. iii. p. 207, & feq. 


(R) It is among them a flated 
rule not to viHt any perfon with- 
out fending a Tye-tfi, or vifiting 
bill, by tlS porter, to the per- 
fon. This Tye-tfe is commonly 
a (beet of red paper, flighdy em- 
bellifhed with flowers of gold, 
and folded op like a /kreen ; on 
one of whofe folds is written 
the peifon*s name, with fome 
refpedful addition, according to 
the perfon to be vifitcd. They 
write, for inftance, The tender 
and Jincere friend of your lordjhipf 
and the perpetual difciple of your 
doQrine^ prefents himfelf in that • 
quality to pay his duty and bis bo- 
mage to you down to the ground. 
If the viuted be a famihar ac- 
quaintance, the ftyle abates 
fomewhat of that humble fbrain, 
and a white' paper will ferve 5 
aa|l the fame fort mufl be fent 
in if the perfon is in mourning 


Ifthcviiit be made from a 
perfon of diftindion to another, 
' and the latter have not time or 
inclination to receive it, he fends 
him a civil meilage by a f(f rvant, 
fignifying, that he need not give 
himfelf the trouble to alight ; 
and then it is efteemed as a real 
Ti£t, and is accordingly repaid, 
either on the next, or in few days 
after. If the vifit be received, 
the vifiter is permitted to pafs 
through the two firfl courts, and 
as far as the hall, where the vi- 

iited comes to receive him. Here 
the formalizes begin, which are 
to be fnited to the rank of both 
perfons, and as they are fet 
down in the Chinefe ceremomaly 
where one finds the number of 
bpws that mull be made, the 
titles to be given, the mutual 
genuflexions, the feveral turns 
to be made either to the right 
or left (for the place of honour 
is diflferent in different places), 
the fllent geflures by which the 
mailer of the houfe invites hi» 
vifiter at the hall-door, and fays 
only the words Tfn^ tfin^ Go in, 
go in ; to which the other is to 
anfwer, Pu-can^ I dare not; the 
falutation which the former 
makes to the chaii on which the 
latter is to be feated, which he 
mull alfo du:ft with a blow or 
two of his long flieeve, or with 
the flcirt of his garment. 

As foon as the parties are 
feated, the vifiter, in a moll 
grave and faccind manner, is to 
qeclare the occafion of his com- 
ing ; to which the other, after a 
certain i < mber of bows, gives 
an anfwer. Care muft be taken 
to fit upright in the chair, and 
not loll on either fide, or lean 
againft the back. The feet 
muft be placed exadly even, the 
legs upright, and the hands muft . 
be laid on each knee. The eye 
muft not be permhted to ftarc 
about, but be fixed towards the 

(sS;. Du Halde, ubi Jup, p, 296. 



by Google 






The Hifiory of Cbina*^ Kh^ 

their vifitcrs with> they are no lefs ceremonious and aice iiv 
themaanffof prefo«tt»g, reocmng, and returning, the cup ;j 
every di(h that is thus drank being attended ^th the Kame' 
bowng aai criogipg, compliments and thanks, even though; 
the cup i» coaunonly tendered by a fervant. The fame ard 
obfeirvad wboa the vifited treats his vifiter with a pipe of to- 
bacco ; thofe that are ufed in the^ reception and difmifCoa 
wx>uld appear ftill more troublefome and irkfome to our Eturth 
feanSy there Xxkog (b much formality ufed on both fides at 
every door they go in or out at, at their fitting and rifing, as 
If the ceremoni^ pafled with us between fome great ambaf* 
fador and the firfl: minifter of flat?&: and yet the Chine/e will 
by OP means difpeofe with them, unlefs it be on ordinary 
vifits between femiliar friends or near relations, and even in 
tbde we Atoutd think them rather too punAilious ; but in 
formal vifits, efpecially among thjs great, the ieafl omilfioa ' 
op either fide would be looked upon and refented as an affiont' 
to the other ; and on this account they make it a part of 
tbeiir educatioa aod ftudy ; and theore are books printed amoi^ 
them, which fettle all thdi points of civility in fo clear and 
eafy mf^ OKler» according to every rank, diat none can weO be 
Ignorant of them. As for flrangers, though the fame exaft- 
^Srfs be not abfolutely required from them, yet the nearer tbey 

git>und. Afier a very ihortcon- 
verfation, a fcrvant cOmes, and 
bringa as many diihes of tea as 
there are perfons ; which mull 
be taken, drank oat^ and re- 
tamed, with the flaced formality 
of bowing and cringing. The 
converfktion being over, the vi- 
fitcr or vifiters, and vifited, have ' 
again a ntumber of bows and ce« 
remoni^s to interchange, till the 
former come to their chairs, 
wImm they are renewed, till 
each pcpfoR is got into his ; and 
tkeik a few more mutu^ bows 
pais, till the portershave got the 
chair on their ibonl^rs, and 
then a general adieu concludes 
the ceremony. 

Thofe that pafs between the 
fuperiors and lAferior^ of qua- 

(5<) Du BaUe, vbi fuf, f. 296. 

Iity, as between a maadario, t 
kolaw, or a prince olFthehlood, 
are ftill more clogged wi^ ptutc- 
tilios and formalities, aad auch 
more (Ull thpCe which areob- 
ferved between a foreign am- 
bailadc^ and the imperial mmr 
fters : but we have dwek loog 
enough on that fabjedt (58). 
Qnly one thing we muft not for- 
get to ohferve, that the Cbiaefi, 
like other ea^era nations, are 
fo far from uncovering their 
heads in token of refped, ihatit 
is looked upon a3 an affront for 
any to ftand bareheaded before 
their betters ; and it was on diis 
account tbat the miffioaarief 
were difpenfed b^ the popedom 
uncovering the head in their 
churches (59). 



by Google 

G* i; fbe Hifiory of C\mu 271 

ttome up ta it, the better they will be received. Evert the Amhaffk- 
foreign ambaffadors are allowed forty days before they appear dmuught 
in public ; durii^g which they procure matters of ceremonies h maftms 
to infhna them in all the forn^ities belonging to their <:ha- ^ ctrtmt' 
ra<St:er \ and if they fhould chance to mifs in any of them, for *'^* 
want pf having beqn rightly inftrufted, the mafter is liable to 
be feverely pun}(hed for his negleft"*, by the tribunal of 
rites, tjefore whom*tJiey are obliged to perform and go thro* 
every part of that tediou$ exercife, not once nor twice, but 
tijl the members of that court pronounce them peifeft in 
every one of them. 

Even thofe of thjc middle, or even lower rauk, tie them- Recepthn 
fclves to fuch formalities as we fhould think not only ufelefs, ofjiraw 
but ridiculous and troublefome. Thus, for inffence, when a ^f^^^ . 
perfon hath been viiiting, or entertained at a houfe, and \^Y^fi^^ 
ready to mount his horfe, in order to go home, the very cere- ^^^ 
mony of parting will take up n^ar half ^n hour. The mafter ' 
of the hoiife comes out tb fce him on horfeback ; whilft he, 
on his iide, protefts that he will rather fee the worid turned 
upiide down, than mount before him ; at length, with much 
intreating and proteftations on both fides, the mafter retires 
out of fight till his gueft is mounted, and then appears again,' 
and wifhes him* well home. This produces a frefh volley of 
compliments on both fides ; the one will not go into his doors 
till he is got quite out of light ; and the other vpws he wiil 
not move one ftep till he hath feen him in his houfe. He 
complies :^gain to his gueft, and fteps in ; and, as foon as 
the other hath move4 a few paces, comes out, and halloos a 
frefti adieu after him, which he muft in civility tack about to 
return with frefli bows and cringes ; and, if the peffon live atv 
a good diftance from him, he will not let him go very for be- 
fore he fends a fe^vant after him, to wifh him a good journey, 
with new compliments, and wifhes of feeing him again foon. 
This latter kind, of civilities are moft in vogue among the among tht 
mercantile part. Who are always moft obfecjuious and obHging mrcantilg 
to thofe they get moft by, ' of can beft cheat or over-reach ". Z^'"'- 

The Chincfe vary very much in their ftiape, air, and com- Their *vu^ 
plexion ; and it is hardly poflible to be otherwife in a country riws 
of fuch vaft extent, ^nd different climates 5 fo that it is notJ^^P^*» 
difficult to diftinguifh a Ibuthern from a northern one, whp ^^^^\ j 
live thirty or more degrees afunder^ the latter being as fair ^'^'^' 
and fmooth as any Europeans/ and the former brown and 
fwarthy like the Tangierines and Moroccos of Africa\ and, 

" Martini, Nieuhoff, Careri, I.i C^mptb, Dv Haldb, 
k al. . n Id. ibid. ' ' 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

lyi The Hifiory of China.' B. L 

with rcfpcft to thefc, it muft be farther obferved, that though 
they gciierally are inclined to the brown and fun-burnt com- 
plexions, yet there arc degrees of it ; not only as they draw 
nearer to the fouthern verge of the empire, but as they are, 
by their rank or occupation, more or lefs expofed to the (corch- 
ing. beams of a vertical fun : for, even in thofc hot and fultry 
climates, one fliall fee *among the gentrjr, efpecially among 
the female fex, who feldom fUr out, perfons of a good com- 
plexion, and not much inferior in cleamefs of fldn to thofe 
who live in the more noithem ones j though the generality of 
the reft be pretty deeply tanned, efpedally thofe wha travel 
much by land or water, or work at the kilns, and other la- 
bours that expofe them to the fun ; and who, during the hot 
months, have hardly any covering on their bodies, but a thin 
pair of breeches, like the waiters at our bagnios, or the guides 
at the bath ^ 
Cerfuient Thb men are no admirers of a fine flender (hape, but afleA 
^^es. rather a fat kind of corpulency, rather fquat than tall. Their 
faces are mofUy broad, their eyes and hair black, beards thin 
and long, their nofes (hort and flat. If a man be of a middle 
iize, or fomewhat above it, have a large forehead, little eyes 
and mouth, flat nofe and long ears, a long beard, fat brawny 
limbs, prominent belly, and a big voice, he is looked upon as 
a Complete handfome man, and fo far fit to be made a manda- 
fr^men rin or magiffa^te. The women are commonly of a middle 
Jiiuier. fize, genteelly fhaped, (lender and (halt, but have ^no tafte 
for a Snail waift, and a protuberance of the breafts and hips, 
but rather ftudy to carry an uniformity of bulk from the neck 
downwards. They have generally handfome faces; thdr 
Tale com- nofes are fhort, their eyes black, fmall, well-cut, and in all 
flexions^ likelihood would have a vivid complexion, did they not deem 
it a fign of boldnefs, and fbive to conceal it by rubbing thdr 
faces with a white kind of powder or paint, to make them 
look of a pale and languid, or, as they efteem it, a modefl, 
bafhfui hue, though at the expenceof their fldn, which k in 
time much impaired and wrinkled by it p. 
Small feet* But theif greateft beauty conCfts in the fmall nefs of their 
feet, though this is likewife to the great disfigurement of their 
legs, which become thereby fwoUen and large, and all of a 
Ttry in- bignefs from top to bottom. Neither is that the only damage 
€Qm)enient they receive from ttiis artful piece of beauty, which is impofed 
t9 tbcm. upoa them in their infancy, by binding them fo clofe from the 
time they are bom, as to flint their further growth ; for they 

® Vid. Martini, Le Compte, Careri, Dv Halde, & al. 
fop. citat. P lid. tbid. 



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C 1. Th ISJfery ^ Chmz. 273 

plainly appear to feel no finall cqnftraint from it, by the (iow^ 
nefs and uneafinefs of their gait, and their liablenefs to trip; 
(o that they may be faid rather to waddle than walk, and that 
only upion their hed ; for their (hoes are made fo, that the 
fole never touches the ground ; which is in fome mcafure the 
fiime as walking on ftilts, and mull be as painful to them as 
it is di^reeable to ftrangers. Yet fuch is the power of edu- 
cation aAd cuftom, that they not only readily fubmit to thofe 
faoonveniencies, but contribute to them by the conftant care- 
they take of fwathing and pinching, and ftriving to make 
them ftill lefs, merely for the pride they take in (hewing them, 
as they walk, to thofe few dome(Kcs and acquaintance who 
are admitted into their apartment : for we hive already ob- fTomen 
ferved, that they are fddom permitted to ftir out of it, or to cU/ely 
be (een in it by any but female fervants ; and the apartments ^ept. 
wherein they are immured are generally in the moft retired 
part of the houfe ; but yet, fuch is the common vanity of 
thdr fex, that they will fpend feveral hours in the morning 
in dre(fing and adorning themfclves. 

What might be the rife of this odd cu^ftom can only be TJbeir 
gueited at, the Chinefe themfelves pretending to be ignorant y«w///?f/, 
of it, unlefs it were to keep that fex in fubjeclion. But it is 'wbencg* 
more likely to have been introduced to keep them more clofely 
confined at home, that, if their modefty could not allay their 
incUiKition of gadding abroad, the pain and uneafinefs of go- 
ing might the more eafily reconcile them to their confine- 

Their drefs is very decent, comely, and agreeable to the Thar 
fingular modefty 0/ their looks. Their head-drefs ufually dn/s »w- 
confifts in feveral curls of the hair interfperfed with here and </^/. 
there tufts of gold and filver flowers, or fine feathers, on each 
iide, which fdl down beautifully to their (boulders- The 
red is made up behind 10 a kind of roll, and faftened by a 
bodkin. In the northern provinces they wear a gawfe, or 
thin filk, over their hair ; and in cold weather they wrap up 
their heads in a kind of cornet, or hood. The young ladies Head or- 
of quality commonly wear a kind of croWn made of pafte- nammt. 
board, and covered with fome fine filk, the fore-part of which 
rifes in a point above the forehead, ^nd is covered with dia- 
monds, pearls, and other rich ornaments.. The top ctf the 
head is adorned With natural or artificial flowers, intermbced 
with bodkins with jewek at the end ; but tliofc who are 
advanced in years feldom wear any thmg but a psece- gf fuper- 
fine fdk wound feveral times about their heads (S). 

(S) Some of the ladies will with the figure of a. i^o^-wj6tfi!J't 

adorn their heads, we are told, a fabulous bird, formerly mcn- 

MoD. Hist. Vol.. VIII. S tioncd. 


by Google 




the nuH. 

rkf Hiftory of Omz. B.L 

Their bodies are covered with a fine vcft, loi^ enoi^ to 
reach to the ground^ and tied about the middle with a ^dle. 
The elderly womea chufe theirs of black, or deep purple ; 
but the young ones, of red, blue, or green, according to 
their fancy. Their hands are always concealed within dieir 
wide long flceves, which would trail on the ground, if they 
did not uke care to hold them up ; and whatever b offered 
to them, is taken with their hands wrapped up in them. 
They never fliew their necks or breafts, but conc^ both, ci- 
ther by the clofenefs of then- veft, or by fome very (hort cloak, 
which is wrapped about the neck and flioulders. Ova: the veft 
they wear a loofe gown with very wide fleeves, which would 
likewife drag to the ground, if not held up : fo that, upon 
the whole, their drefe is not only very dec^t, but the bell 
contrived to conceal their bodies in the modefteft manner. 
, That of the men k no lefs fuited to the gravity and mo- 
defty they feem to affeft (T). Their heads are covered with 


tioned (60), and made either of 
copper, or filvergili, as they can 
am^rd it Its wings are gently 
fpread over the fore-part of 
their head-drcTs, and embrace 
the upper part of the temples. Its 
long fpreading tail makes a fort 
of p^ame on the top of the head ; 
the body is placed over the fore- 
head, the neck and beak hangine 
down upon the nofe. The neck 
being joiiled to the body by a 
fecret hinge, the head eafily 
plays up and down, and vibrates 
al every motion of the head, the 
bird being fixed on it by the 
feet, which are fattened in the 
hair. Some of the firfl quality 
ladies will wear an ornament 
made of feveral of thefc birds, 
which, interwoven together, fur- 
round their heads in die form of 
a crown (6 1 j. 

(T) They pretend to foch a 
high degree of modefty, as to 
condemn our European drefsj as 
expoiingtoomuchtJie lineaments 

(60) Stt before. A. Z2X, 
Cmpte^ & al. 

of the body ; whereas they ftrivc 
to conceal even their arms, legs, 
and thighs, by their long gowns, 
wide breeches and fleeves, vA 
ill-fhaped ftockens, or boots. 
They likewife feemed much of- 
fended at many of onr pitoci, 
as immodeft, and even tbofe 
which we ihould rank aaoodl 
the moil modeft ; as where m 
drsLjpcry is fo nicely difpoCed by 
the fkilfuhardft, as to difcover 
the true fhape of each limb or 

But, for all their fpedous pre- 
tences, all this modefty is com' 
monly fet af4e at home, witk 
rcfpeft to the mensdrefs, during 
the hot months ; for then they 
feldom wear any thing aboot 
them but a thin pair of breeches, 
whether matters or fervants; 
and in mott cities, efjjccially in 
the fouthem parts, their carmen, 
and other labouring people, and 
more efpecially their watermen* 
work naked all the hot weatben 

(60 ^i> HaUe, ufifkp. /. i%u U 




C. I. ^bi Hifton «/ China, %ys 

a Idnd <^ cap, which hardly reaches down to their ears ; and 
their feces are fcreened from the fun by a fan, which they 
always ca^ry with them. They (have their heads all over, 
except one lock behind, which they either leave to hang down, 
or make up into a roll, and tuck up under their caps or hats ; 
thefe are commonly made in the form of a bell. Thofc they O^s^ 
wear in fummer arc of fine mat, lined with fattin, ajid ad- 
orned on the outfide with a tuft of red filk, or hair, hanginff 
down to the rim, which either covers it all over, or elS 
waves in the wind by its exceffive lightnefs, and appears 
tcry beautifal at a diftance. The top of the hat hath a large 
button, faftened to it, of amber, cryftal, or fome other ihining 
material, nefitly wrought and poli&ed. The emperor, princes 
of the blood, mandarins, literati, priefts, bonzas, i;c. have 
their hats differently Ihaped and ornamented, according to 
their refpeftive ranks ; all which, as well as their different 
forts of dreffes, it were fuperfluous to defcribe. As for the 
poor people, they go with their heads quite bare, or at befl 
nave only a flight fmall cap, not unlike the crown of one erf 
our hats, but not half fo deep. 

The men's vefb arc long enough to reach to the ground, ^ifis. 
and fo wide as to fold over the breaft ; and are faflened on the 
left fide by four or five buttons of gold, filver, or bafer metal, 
as they can beft afford it. The flecves are wide, and long 
cnou^ to come down to the fingers ends ; and the fafh, or 
girdle, that ties the garment to the body, is commonly of filk, 
curioufly wrought, and hangs down $o the knees. They go 
with their necks bare in- fummer ; but cover them in cold 
weather either with a fattin cape fewed to the veil, or with a 
tippet of fable, or other (kin, four or five fingers broad. 
Over their veft they wear a fhort loofe coat or gown of blue^ Coats. 
green, or fome other colour, with flecves that come down no 
farther than the bending of the arm. When they receive 
vifits, they throw a third loofe raiment over the other two, 
and each of the three are of ^ different colour. Under them Shirts and 
both men and women wear a kind of fhirt, or rather waifl- drapers of 
coat, of white taffety, which wraps over the breafl, and is ooth fixes. 
tied or laced on the right fide, and with narrow fleeves. 
Both fexes likewife wear drawers of the fame fine filk : but, 

oratmoflhave only a napkin brought thence in as indecent 

tied round their middle.. And, and vile attitudes as any that are 

as to piftures and ftatucs, it is done in Italy } and fome of thefe 

plain they have Jong fmce abated as exaaiy imitated as their im- 

muchof their boaSed modcfty, perfeft fkill in painting would 

fince wc fee. many of them permit them to do. 

S a ia 


by Google 

^y6 the Hifiory of KMxiZ. B.l 

in winter, the fliirt is of linen, and the breeches are wider, 
like trowiirs, and reach iovm below the calf of the leg ; and 
thefe laft are made of coarfe (attin quilted with cotton or raw 
Shoes and filk. The legs are covered with a kind oi boot at the fame 
fiochtns. quilted filk, about half an inch thick ; and the ftjot is made 
to go into a flipper. Thefe are commonly of coarfe blue or 
purple fattin, flowered with white, with a very thick folp 
ftitched with packthread, and covered over with a white 
coarfe kind of a ftiagreen filk or cloth, without any heel, and 
with the foot turning up. They wear hanging at their girdles 
a pouch, in which they carry their pipe, which Js <rf brafs, 
their tobacco, handkerchief, and the two fticks they eat with. 
When they travel in bad weather, their caps, upper coats, and 
fefts, are crufted over with a fort of oil, which turns green 
when dry, and defends thein from the rain. In winter the 
quality wear rich furs, and the inferior fort lamb and other 
Ikins, or quilted cotton. Every mandarin hath upon his 
dothes fome emblem of his dignity, embroidered before and 
behind; That of the civil magifl:rates is ufually a bird ; and 
thjt of the military mandarins, and officers, either a dragon, 
lion, tyger, or fome fierce creature. All thefe wear alfo 
broad fwords hanging on their left fide "J, with the pcnnt for- 

The womens flioes, the longefl: of which among the la- 
dies are not much above half a fpan long, are likewife of /ilk 
. finely embroidered, commonly by themfelves, and with a 
round heel about an inch high, and of equal bignefs from 
top to bottom^. Their fVockens feem (as far we can gadier 
from their piftures, and there is hardly any poffibility of 
coming at a nearer examination of the premifes) to be a kind 
of appendage to their drawef-s, if not of a piece with them, 
and to hang loofe about their legs, down below the ankles, 
where they are gathered up with fome ribbon, below whidi 
liang about the feet fome four ,or five inches in breadth of 
the fame filk, like a kind of furbelow, or ruffle ofaftirt- 
fieeve, in order, as may be fuppofed, to hide rfie protuberant 
deformity of the leg ; and thus much may ferve for the pre* 
Forced to fent drefs of both fexes. It will not be amifs, however, to 
charge obferve under this head, that this which we have been de- 
their old fcribing above is not the original drefs of the Ch'mefe, which 
dr els for had been, according to their account, th€ only one that had 
thii. ht^xi worn by .them fron} the foundation of their monarchy 

to their conqueft by the Tartars ; but rather that which the 
conqueror forced them, not without great difficulty, to ex- 

* Martini, Le Compte, Du Haldb, & al. fup. citat. 



by Google > 

C I. 7^ Hiftory of China. 877 

raaoge for their antient one, in order to enure them the more 
eifeftually to the yoke, by abolifhing all diftinftion of dre& 
bct'A^een his Tartarian fubjefts and them, % as will be further 
feen in the fcquel. 

We have already mentioned their luxury in their feftivab, Their M$t 
in which they indulge themfdves in all the variety they cKnanddain" 
afford. In their common diet they are lefs profufe and^^V'. 
nice; and not only eat of all manner of flefh, filh, and fowl, 
?w we do, but even cats, dogs, rats, ferpents, graihoppers, and 
other vermin. Horfe-flefh, however, is one of the dainties 
the moft efteemed ; and> next to it, that of dogs ; but of 
all of them they eat very fparingly, and commonly boiled 
with a good deal of rice, or fome pot-herbs, and made in- 
to broths* or foops, after the manner of the French and Spa^ 
niards ; but, like them, they live moftly upon rice, pulfc, 
niillet;, herbs, roots, and other garden-ftufF, and variety 
rf fruits in their feafon. The fk(h, fowl, or fifh, whether 
boiled, roafted, or broiled, is commonly brought to the 
lablc ready-feafoned, and carved into finaH bits ; To that nei- 
ther fait, pepper, or other condiments, are feen upon it, 
any more than knives, forks, fpoons, or napkins ; they ufing 
only two fmall fticks to feed themfelves with, as hath been 
latdy hinted, without touching the meat with their hands. 
They corampnly ufe high chairs and tables at their meals, fab/es. 
contrary to all other eauern nations, who fit crofs-legged on 
the ground, and either ufe no taUle but the floor, or at moft 
have them about a foot high from it. At their entertainments 
every gueft hath a neat little japan table fet before him, on 
which are ferved the feveral difhes defigned for him, either in 
bowls of the fame japanned ftuff, or of china, or coarfer 
earth, according to the circumftances of the perfon who 
gives it. 

The moft delicious food of all, with which the rich enter- ^tags ^V 
tain their guefts, are, the flags pizzles, birds nefts, and bears ^f^' ^"^ 
daws, of which the reader may fee ah account in the mar- birds-nefis., 
gin (U), Upon the whole, their cooks are furprifingly expert 


^ See Palafox Conqueft of China, & al. fapracitat. 

(U) The fonnfer of them they gravy of a kid, well-feafoned 

dry in the fun in fummer, and with fpices ; and this they efteem 

roll them in pepper and nut- as one of their fineft dilhes. 
meg; and, when they are to be The birds-nefts are fuch as 

dreSed, they foak them in rice- are commonly found on the fides 

water, to make them foft, and of the rocks along the coalls of 

afi^wards boil them in the Java^CocbinibinafTong-king^iiC. 

^ S 3 where 


by Google 

278 3^ Hijiory of China. B. I. 

in the variety of dilhes they .make of one fort of fle(h, fifh, 

fowl, pulfc, grain, ifc. and the variety of colours, taftc, and 

flavour, they glvfe them ; and the mandarins are no lefe fond 

of thofe, not only which are the moft nourifliing to the body, 

but which are the moft apt tcr create an. appetite to venery, 

and a (aitable vigour for procreation' ; on which account they 

eat moft <rf their difhes very hot .with fpice. Thdr bread is 

commonly made of rice ; and, though they have plenty of 

wheat in feveral provinces, yet they feldom make any but a 

fort of flat cakes, of a tolerable tafte, and thefe are fome- 

times mixed with particular herbs apt to create an appetite ; 

Cqrn- . but they ufe little art in grinding thor corn or rice, that bc- 

tnifls, ing commonly done over a flat ftone placed horizontally, by 

rolling a ftone cylinder over it, which, by its weight, forces 

the grain out of its feveral hulks. This muft be done at &• 

veral times, in order to bring k to its purity and whiteoefi. 

The firft throws off* its outward (kin, which is as coarfe as 

that of our barley ; the next is of a reddifh hue, and is taken 

oft* in the fame manner, and after a fecond foaking ; and fo 

the third and fourth, which are of a finer and paler cdour 

and texture ; after which, you have the rice in its pcrfeftion: 

but the poor people content themfelves with ftripping it of its 

firft, or almoftof its fecond coat. The cakes or loaves they 

make of it are commonly baked either in.a kind of BaJneo Ma- 

* Martini, Le Compte, Nieuhoff, Dy Haldb, &a]* 

where they are built by birds, quitted their nefb, the neigh- 

which, in their plumage, refem- bouring people arc very eager 

ble our fwallows, and are fnp- to get them down ; and fome* 

pofed to make them with little time$ load whole barges with 

£fhes they catch at fea, and fo them, and fell them ^t a good 

fa,flen tp the rock by fome vif- price. Thefe ncftsrefemblcthc 

cons juice which diilils from rind of a large candied dtroo, 

their back^. They have (>een in (hape as well as in iize, and, 

alfp obferved to take fome of mixed with other meats, give 

the fcum that floats on the fur- them an agreeable reliih. 
face of the fea, and to cement The bears paws, efpedally 

ihe parts of their nefts, as fwal- the hindmoft ones, which are 

lows do theirs wit:h mud. This eHeemed by far the fineft, tie 

patter, though white and foft dripped of their fkin, and dried 

^hilfl it is tre(h, contrafis a wi^h fpice, and (b pneferved for 

tranfparcnt (olidity, and green- ufci, much in the fanfi^ way V 

|(h kind of hue^ when dried. As the flag's pizzle (62]. 
foop as the young on^s have 

(6*) pf ^h, vtfU I^artfni, Le QmPte, Niahf, Pa HaUf, f ^^ ff 

9S^h •••■■• . • 1 ■ f 


by Google 

C i; X^e Hifiory of China. 279 

rif, or elfe in a vdfel which contains the fire in the centre, 
and cafb fo great a heat, as to bake them in lefs than a quarter 
of an hour. 

Their ufual liquor at their meals is tea, which they drink Commm 
hot. The common rule is, contrary to oilrs, to eat cold, and «'^*^» 
to drink hot; fet the weather be ever fo fultr)', or them- 
felves ever fo thirfty, they will patiently ftay till they can get 
it made boiling hot, before they will drink it. Wine, we Made 
have formerly obferved ', they ao not make of grapes, tha' ivina 5 
dicy have plenty of them, efpccially in the fouthern provinces^ 
aad erf" an excellent kind. This drcumftance is commonly 
urged to prove, that Noah, the firft planter of the vine, could 
not be the founder of the Chinefe nation ; whereas a more pro- 
bable one could hardly be brought for his being fo, and for his 
forbidding the ufe of the juice of the vine, on account of the 
dilafter which happened to him on his drinking too plentifully 
rfit : but we Ihall have occafion to difcufs that curious 
point in a more proper place. In the mean time, though the fnadt of , 
Qnnefe have been all along very ftrift in their forbearance from '•'^^> ^*^»* 
the juice of the grape, till their late conqueft by the Tartars, ^^' 
4ey had, from time immemorial, fubftituted to it other li« 
quors, equally ftrong, intoxicating, and pernicious, both 
taewed and diftilled, either from rice, wheat, and other grain, 
orexprefled from feveral kinds of fruits, or made of the liquor 
which diftils from the palm, and other fnch trees, when 
tapped at a proper feafon ; all which they have always in- 
duced themfelves in the free ufe of, eipecially the two for- 
mer ; which encourages fuch a vaft coniumption of thofe twot, 
kinds of grain, that it is juftly looked upon as the chie^ieaufe 
of thofe dreadful dearths and famines which fo frequen^ h^p*^ 
pen in the empire. There are indeed fome fevere laws againft The vaft 
the brewing and diftilling rf corn and rice, beyond a ftatcd confuTnp^ 
quandty in every diftrift, which, if duly executed, would tion of 
cfeftually prevent their immoderate and deftruftive confump- ^^^!" ' 
tkm ; but tKe mandarms, and thofe under them, bribed partly '^'"Mat. 
by the diftillers, and induced partly by their fondnefs for thofe ' 
liquors, readily wink atit, and fuffer that complicated abufe 
to fpread ftill farther its pernicious cffefts (W}. 


t Sec Univ. Hift. v6l. xx. p. 113, & (A). 

(W) This enormoas confum- fare of their daily bread, evca 
ption of com a^^ rfce by brew- in time of plenty, and ftarycs fa 
ersand diallers, which deprives many monads to death in tipna 
the Uboturi^g fort Ui fonve m,ea- of fcarcity, i$ attended with fe-% 

S ^ veral 


bigitized by Google 

2 So 



The Hifiory of China. B. I; 

Those liquors, which are made of rice in particular, are 
in the greateft vogue, and are faid to grow ftroi^er by age, 
and to keep good above 20 years. Thefe are in great cfteem 
among the grandees, efpeciallv thofe which come from fome par- 
ticular parts of the empire \ mch as that which is made '2ixVu'Ji' 

vcral other deftru6live cffeAs, 
which chiefly afFe6l the rich and 
Wealthy, and m fome fort doa- 
\Ay retaliates upon them the mif- 
fortunes which tbey occa£on 
among the poor. 

We are told by a confiderabl^ 
, eyc-witnefs, that the Chinefe 
have contracted (how long is not 
eafy to guefs) fuch a peraidous 
foDdnefs for thofe liquors which 
ai'e diftilled from rice, and other 
grain, that from the higheft 
mandarins down to the wealthy 
merchants and tradefmen, they 
feldom fail of-indulgine them- 
fqlvcs in a large dofe of it, juft 
before they go to bed, by way 
ol opiate ; and, what is dill 
worfe, that few of them drink it 
before they have previoufly fet 
at on fire, and'burnt it fo long 
ad to make it as warm as they 
can poffibly get it down; by 
whicii means their throat, o^ 
cef(;^agns, becomes in time fo 
con traded, that they can fal- 
low nothing either liquid or fo- 
lid, but pine and die for want 
of nourifhment ; a misfortune 
which OUT author afTures as f 
frequently happens amongft 
them. Ano^he^ difafter which 
thefe private night dofes often 
occafion, is, that the pcrfons 
\^hQ take them being generally 
fatigued with the bufinefs of the 
day, and the chambers in- which 
they fleep built very low, and 
l^e furniture very light, and. 

eafily inflammable, the blaze of 
the fpirituous liquor is apt t9 
get up to the cieling, or taka 
hold of the cartains,^ and fet tlw 
whole place on fire before they 
are aware of it ; the flame of 
which foon communicates itfdf 
to the reft of the houfe, and 
thence frequently to a great part 
of the city ; fo xhzx fome hunr 
dreds, and fometimesthoiiiands, 
of houfes, are reduced to a(heS| 
before it can be quenched *. 

As for the rice of which their 
wine is made, though it bedif- 
ferent from that which is com- 
monly eaten, and of a coarfcr 
nature, it is neverthel«fs in gre^t 
requeft, on account of the hquoV 
drawn from it^ 

This is done by fevcral wayi^ 
every country or city having its 
own peculiar method ; but the 
mod common is, by foaking the 
rice \ii good fofc and frefh water 
(or, where that cannot be got, 
by correfling it with fome other 
ingredients), about ao or 30 
days, and afterwards boiling it 
till it be diffolved ; upon which 
it will appear covered with a 
li^ht froth, Hke that of our new 
Wines, occafioned by the fer- 
ment of the liquor beneath it 
This laft they pour off dear into 
veftels well glazed ; and of the 
lees that remain, they draw off 
a fpirit not unlike our brandy, 
or rather ftronger, and more ca- 
fily fetonfirel63). 

, + De bcff •vid. Farenin. in J^ettr, 

f. 303. 

h'd. />. 8 1 , fi3* J^. vid, ^ w/./«j>» citJU 

edijtcwt. voK 3txiv. p* 65 82, & fif' 

(63) BtiyaUi,r^.U 




by Google 

C.t: me Hiftopy of CUnz. 281 

fysn, in the province of Kyang-nan, and owes its qccellcncc 
to the goodnefs of the water ; and that of the city of Shati- 
king, which is efteemed ftUl mucji wholefpmer, and is moftly 
pfed at court. Some other ftrong liquors they likewife make 
by diftillation, fuch as we have hinted at in the laft note ; and 
fome others, which the reader may find in the next (X). 

T^HE only two liquors, which we find mentioned by our Hock- 
fe^en, as moft to thejr tafte (for, as to tea, they ufually leave ^^^ ^ 
that fort of beverage to the natives), are what they ftyle th^ Sam-wu*. 
Hack'Jhue and Sam-Jbue. The former of thefe is of a deep- 
brown colour, but very clear and ftrong, faid to be brewed 
from wheat, and taftes more like mum than beer. The other 
is faid to be diftilled from rice, and is either of a pale or red- 
difh hue, and is by feveiral travellers called wine. But nei- 
ther of thefe, for aught appeaft, are ufed any-where but on 
die coafts and fea-port towns, no mention being made of any 
fuch being drank in the inland parts. ^ 

CHIN Ay as we have already hinted in the geography of Fine roads 
it, is for the.moft part the finefl: country in the world for for travel- 
travelling ; the roads being of a fpadous breadth, that is, Ung and 
between 20 and 30 yards wide, and reaching from one end commerce. 
pf the empire to the other ; the mountainous parts being ei- 
ther levelled, lowered, or cut through^ or having large gal- 
leries along their fteep declivity, built of timber, dreadful 
indeed toftrangers to go over * ; but fo familiar to the natives, 
that they ride over them without any fear ; and others, laftly, 
having jflrong and ftately bridges, built from one mountain 
tQ another, lome of. which ve have elfewhere defcribed. To 

♦ Vid. int. al. pg^. 78. ^ 

(X) They diftil, wt zxt tald, 0d (64) ; and we may condade 

a ftiongfortof fpifit frommut- this head with obferving, that 

ton-fiefh, which the kte empe- intoxicating liquors are com- 

jTOr Kang-ln drank fome^es ; monly ufed by the Chinefe and 

b«t this is drank by few except Tartars, though not in fuch 

^e Tartar s, on accdunt of its quantities, and deftruftivc va- 

ftrong and difagreeable tafte, riety, as they arc among us • 

and intoxicating qudlky. and much Icfs by thofe oi the 

Some other liquors are made female fex, who feldom talle any 
ia dHFerent provinces, both by thing ftronger than tea, unlefs 
brewing and diftillation, which in fome particular difeafes, in 
It were ntedleis to particularize, which they are indulged with 
We have mentioned one fort of fome fort of cordia1s,made fo ra- 
the latter, with which his Excel- ther by fpiccs and warm drugs, 
lency Mr. Ixbrands Ides, ambaf- than by any brewed or diftilled 
ijldor from Mit/covy, was treat- liquors (65). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

' th^fc, 

tSz the Hiftory of China. B. I. 

ttiefe if we add the furprifiag contiguity of their dtics and 
towns, efpecially along the high roads ; fo that one is no 
fooner got out of one, but one comes within fight, if not 
into the very fuburbs, of dnothep ; the great number of 
their navigable rivers, and the infinite multitude of their 
(ianals for water-carriage, and continual bridges over them for 
thofe who ride, or travel on foot ; the wooden towers about 
30 feet high, and at the diftance of a mile and half from 
each other, upon which are written, in large charafters, the 
names of the towns to which the roads lead, and their di- 
ftances from each other, as exaftly meafured at the public 
charge ; the forts, or redoubts of earth, caft up at proper 
diftances, and guarded either by the foldiery or milida^ to 
keep as much as poflible the roads clear from robbers, to 
forward the difpatches fent bj^ the government, and to exa- 
mine with utmoft care every traveller that goes by (Y) ; and, 
laftly, the vaft crouds of people that frequent, or rather 
croud, thofe roads ; it muft be granted, that no country on 
the whole globe hath made better and more efieftual provi^ 
l}on for the eafe and IJpcurity of travelling and commerce, as 
well as for the delight of all that are concerned in either. 
Way of Their way of travelling is various, according to the dif- 

traveiling^ ferent provinces, and the various bufineffes of people. In 
general they ufe horfes, mules, camels, and, in fame coun- 
tries, buffaloes; and the poorer fortafles, either for riding or 

(Y) Thefe forts, which are taken to keep the roads fafc and 

fituate on eminences, and feen at free, and the trafiick from one 

a great diftance, by the imperial part of the empire to the other 

flag fet up on the top, are gar- eafy and uninterrupted : and 

rifoned by a certain number ei- hence it is that there are fo few 

ther of the militia, or of regular robberies committed anywhere, 

troops, under fomc proper offi- except in the woody and raoun^ 

cers ; and thefc are not only to tainous parts, where they go in 

prevent any robberies being largQ gangs, notwithftanding the 

committed on the highway, by great mmtitudes 'of beccflitotts 

patrolin^ about the length of people that fwarm every- where 

their limits, or any pther difor- (66), and the rich booties that 

4ers happening, from the vaft are always to be met with. on 

multitudes qf travellers and car- the roads : but this laft may be 

ridges, but to (lop and examine one main reafon of it, they be- 

every Oine |ha^ goes armed, ex- ipg fo continually thronged widi 

cept they produce a pafs and travellers, that it would be very 

licence for it ^ fo that the utmoft difficult to meet with an oppO(> 

^^re and cau(icin is ^yery -where tunity ,of robbing ihem (67). 

r66) See htfnre^ p. 12. & 131,§r tf/(^. (^l) M^g*iliaffi.MMmv,Cwrk 


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C. I. The Hifiory of China. 283 

carriage but in the Inland parts they employ ticket-porters Goods car^ 
to canyltheir goods from city to city, which they do by rudhy 
flings, two to a burden ; or, if too heavy for two, they will ''Vi##- 
join two more ; and thefe carry it with two poles on their t^^*^** 
ihonlders, with fuch furprifing quicknefs, that moft of them 
will travd with their load at the rate of five miles an hour. ' 
TTiefe are numerous in every city ; and have a matter over 
them, who is anfwerable for them.; and who, being applied 
to by the merchants, diftributes their feveral loads among 
them : he gives them at the fame time a ticket, which they 
muft deliver up, with the goods, to the proper perfons, at 
thdr journey's end, and bring another from them to him. 
Thefe are chiefly employed for the carriage of goods which may 
be damaged by being conveyed in waggons or barges, or« 
where thefe cannot be had; and fometimes for expedition, 
they ridding double the ground that any waggons can do. 

In travelling, the richer fort have their coaches and cha* Coaeha 
riots, tho' we are not told of what kind thefe laft are ; and andiba* 
may be only calafhes, or chaifes with two wheels, fuch as are ^^^'^ 
in ufe among the Tartars ; and litters for the fick, carried 
cither by lully fellows, or, which is more common, by mules 
or camels. The Tartars here ufually ride on horfeback, in 
towns, as well as on the roads, and are generally good horfe- 
men; their faddles are much like thole in ufe among the 
Turks I and, like them, they ride very fhort, and with their 
knees almoft as high as the top of the^feddle ; fo that, upon 
any rencounter either with an enemy or robber^ they raifc 
themfelves quite upright upon their ftirrups, to give the 
greater force to the intended blow. The quality, both Chin fhe rich 
nefe and Tartars^ chufe to travel in the night all the fummer, travel bj 
not only for the conveniency of the coolnefs, but in feveral nights 
parts to be free from the tygers, and other wild beafts, which 
they keep off by lighted torches, and other artificial fires, they 
carry with them ; and which are fo contrived, that neither 
wmd nor rain can pi^t them out, but will rather make them 
bum the fiercer. But when they travel with a great retinue, 
and well armed, as the mandarins comnjpnly do, that precau- 
tion becomes needkfs; 

These, as hatH been formerly obferved 7, have their inns 
at proper diftances, for their reception and conveniency, and 
kept at the charge of the government. But it is far other- Badimi$. 
wife wirii other travellers ; ft^r thpugh the common inns be in 
great plenty in all the high roj^dis, yet they meet but with 
V^ftfhed accommodations Ia them, unlefs^ they bring them 

7 S^c before, p. I?, 


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tfS4 ^^ Hifiory ef China. B. \. 

along i^dth them (YY) ; and this is one of the two inain ia- 
Roatls *oii' conveniencies of travelUng in China : the other is, tBe prpdi- 
rj dufy, g^OHs dflftinfefs of the roads, which, though kept in the beft 
• * . order imaginable, yet in dry weather, efpeciaUy when the 
wind blows hard, fuch clouds of dull are railed, as quite darken 
the fky, and ftifle the travellers. Nor is this to be wondered 
at, codfidering the vaft and conftant crouds of people, horfes. 
Waggons, he, which are continually paffing backwards and 
forwards ; fo that they are obliged, at thofe dry feafonsj to 
go with their faces covered with a thin veil, and wittglaffes 
before their eyes, to prevent being ftifled or blinded by the 
clouds of light duft^ through which they muft make their 
way. In other refpefts, a man cannot wifh for a better coun- 
try to travel in, cither for fpeed, fafety, convenieoce, or de» 
light *. 

- But what adds ftill more to the pleafurc of it, is the vaft 
and almoft conftant variety of curious objcfts, with which the 
eye is delightfully entertained almoft all the way ; and this 
naturally brings us to the two laft things with which we were 
^o conclude this feftion, v/z, the natural and artificial rari- 

^ Vid. Navaretta, Martini, Kerchbr, & al. fup citat. 

{YY ) The generality of thofe traveller can get a bit of meat 
public irins, except here and or fifh to eat, or any tolerable 
there one upon the great roads, liquor to drink, excepting in 
* are wretchedly built, an^H worfe fome places, where one meets 
furnilhed. They are common- with wild fowl or fi(h very chekp ; 
ly of mud, without pavement or but even there you muft take ap 
boards; and thofe who do not perhaps with their way of drcf- 
bring their bedding with them, fmg it, which may prove as dif- 
muft take up with a matt, and agreeable. The inns in the 
lie in their own clothes: but great cities are fome what better, 
the poorer fort of travellers are being built with brick, 2xA 
fo uied to this way of accommo- large and handfome, and com- 
dation, that they will lie quite monly afford better provifions 
naked on them, wrapped about and coriveniencies. In the north- 
only with a (ingle coverlid lined ern provinces one meets with 
with linen. The greateft part what they call^«^/, which are 
of their inns are fo ill co^^ered, large alcoves of brick, ba}ltth<i 
riiat one may fee the light thro' wb^le length of tl^e roam, with 
tlie thatcli and rafters, and per- lloves underneath, and matti 
haps .feel the rain or fnow thro' made of reeds on the top, 
^bem. whereon a man may lay his bed 

Their provirionsarenot much if he hath Qne(6S). 
better ; and it is a chance if a 

^68) Mi'-oVlan^ Martini, Careri^ Nieub^ff, Q ^^ /«/• f'^*'« '^'^' &^ 



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C- I. fif fiipry tf China. 285 

ties of the country. Of thic firft fort we have already mcn- 
fiofied fcfveral, as they came in coiirfe, either in the geography, 
or natural hiftory. 

TitosE of the moft^remarkable kind, not yet taken notice Natural 
#f, arc, 1. Their volcanos, many of which are not inferior, rarities. 
•ither in the height of the mountains out of which they ilTue, ^oUanos. 
Ac dreadfulnefs of thdr flanks and fmoak, and the torrents of 
fclphur, and other minerals, which they vomit up, to thofe 
famous ones of Italy we have formerly fpoken of ^, or thofe in 
Americay of which an account will be given in its proper 
^ace. 2. The great number of catarafts and cafcades, of an CataraBt. 
extraordinary height and breadth, and no lefs dreadful and 
bud, particularly that near the city of H&ai-gan, or Noay* ' 
min-gham, in the province of Kyang-nan, which falls into the 
canal of that city, near the river Noay, with fuch violence, 
that it Is with great labour and coft that they prevent its 
dreadful effefts ^. 

There are many fuch citarafts in other rivers, particu- Remarka" 
larly in the Whang-ho, or Tellow River ^ formerly mentioned, r/wr/, 
and fo called from its extraordinary rapidity, and the vaft 
quantity of mud it fweeps along with it. Le Compte tells us 
of another, which is always red like blood, probably from 
much the fame reafon ; and of a third, in the province of 
Se-chwen, which hath a furprifihg luftre in thfe night feafon, 
occafioned by the vaft number of precious flones that glitter 
dirough its waves, and for which the natives give it t^ie name 
of the Pearl River. We read of a fourth near Fo-ming, which 
turns blue in harvefl, at which time the inhabitants on each 
fide are ufed to dye that colour ; and of a fifth, near Pan- 
gau, whofe waters are too light to bear up any timber ; of a 
fixth, near Ching-tyen, aflSrmed to be Iweet-fcented ; of a 
feventh in the province of Fo-kyefi, whofe waters are of a 
grecnifli hue, and are faid to turn iron into copper. We omit 
mentioning feveral others, remarkably for fome medicinal or. 
other virtues, which we have no room to dwell upon ; but 
the moft furprifmg of all is, that which rifes yearly on the 
1 8th day of the eighth month, with fuch a prodigious high . 
tide, before the city of Hang-chew, that multitudes of peo- 
ple flock thither frpm all parts to behold that furprifing phas- 
nomenon, which neither theirs, nor any of our philofophers, 
could ever yet account for. We might add fome others, 
which are no lefs famed iov their gold fund, particularly one 
which on that account is flyled the Golden River f . 

* See before, Univ. Hift. vol. vi. p. 452. vii. 656. k al. pnf'l 
^ Martini Atlas Sinen. t Id. ibid. Kercher, Le CoMPrt, 

*c They 


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28$ I'he Htftory df China. B. L 

They have likewUe extraordinary fprings and fountains, 
fome of which ebb and flow ; others rife, fome hot and fome 
cold, at a fmall diflance from each other. NUukof tocntiotis 
a ftrahge one near the city of Jung-chan, which iffucs inta 
two branches out of a ftone cut into the refemblance of a 
man's nofe, one of the noftrik of which throws out , hot, 
' and the other cold water. Some others, fiill more furpriiing, 
the reader may fee in the margin (Z), for which we have not 
quite fo good an authority. They likcwife fbound with mi- 
mineral neral and medidnal fprings, dther for drinking or bathing ; and 
ffringst fome of them fo intenfely hot, that the people can boil thdr 
viftuals in a kind of Balneo Maria in them, in a very little 
and other- time. Some other forts of water are noted for petrifying 
luatersj every thing that is thrown into them, particularly thofe of i 
firmge Jake, or river, m the ifland of Hay-nan^ which will petrify 
Ukes^ &c. £fiies, lobfters, isc. and fpoken erf in a former feftion^. 
Other lakes are faid to turn copper into, or at leaft give it the 
refemblance of, iron. Some others which will bring on Aorms 
of ram and thunder, upon the flinging a ftooe, or any heavy 
thing, into them ; pai:ticularly a f^med one faid to be in the 
bowels of a prodigious high mountain, full of deep and 
dreadful caverns, and into which if a ftone be caft, it will 
g^ve a loud roaring report, like a great clap of thunder, and 
raife a thick mift, which in a little time wiU diflblve itfelf 
into water again. Thefe, and many more. of the like na- 
ture, which fome of our miffionaries have in all probability 
taken from the Chineje books, not altogether to be relied on, 

* Kercher, Martini. Vid. &Du Halde, vol. i. p. W^* 


(Z) Of this nature is thst mention is that in the city of 

which the Chine/e tell you is to Kyng-cheng^ in the province of 

b^ fecn at Kan-ton, and is Shen-Ji, which is no lefs furpn- 

looked upon by them as mira- . fing, it being about five feet ia 

culous ; and, if what they fay of depth, and the water on the top 

at be true, is litde lefs than fuch, cold ; but at the bottom fo hot, 

it being affirmed to caft out of that it fcalds any thing that 

the fame opening hot and cold reaches it (69). Thefe, and 

water,which afterwards feparate many other fuch, being rather 

from each other. Much of the taken from the Chineje booki, 

fame wonderful nature is that in than attellcd by any EutoUom 

the province of ^ang-fi, one half eyc-witneflcs, fhall fuffice for a 

of whofe waters run clear, and fample of the natives fondncls 

the other muddy ; and, if mixed for fuch kind ef prctemataraJ 

together, will feparate again im- rarities, 
mediately. The lall we ihall 

(65) KtHhir Chini llhjir. Martini Atlai Sincnf, ^ V. 

4 bicaa/e 

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Ci. the Hiftory of C\i\^z. lij 

bccaufe not confirmed by more modern experienced authors, 
we fcave to the choice of our readers either to believe, or not, 
but which, if true, would aifbrd no {mail delight to a curious 
traveller to take a view of in his way. 

We omit here their many rich mines of gold, filver, quick- Metals^ 
filver, copper, iron, and other metals and minerals, and of mineraUt 
a great variety of precious and other curious ftones (among and f ««r- 
which fome mention the albeftos, or iucombufHble (lone, fo **'*'/. 
femed among the antients, and as abfurdly exploded by fome 
of the moderns, as the produft of fome of their mines) ; 
their various quarries of porphyry and marble, fome of them 
fo beaudfuliy vdned with figures of men, horfes, trees, ci- ^ 

ties, mount^ns, isc. as if done with a pencil ; and many 
others of the mineral and vegetable kind, befides fome among 
Ae quadruped and volatile fort ^^ But there is one fort of 
fifli among them, which, for its furprifmg beauty and nature, 
may be reckoned one ot" the greateft rarities belonging to the 
watry element, which defcrves a particular notice, and with 
which we ihall dofe this head. 

This beautiful creature, which, firom its colour, the6*A/- 7he goldm 
nefe ftyle Kin-yu, or Golden fjb, is commonly about the length andfiiver 
of one's finger, and proportionably thick. The male is oizfP* 
beautiful red from the head to above half way of his body ; ^^«> 
and the' remaining part, together with the tail, is fpangled *^f ^ ^ 
with golden^ fpots exceeding our fineft gilding. The female ^^'"(f' 
is white ; the tail, and fome parts of die body, having the 
perfeft refemblance of filver. The tail of neither kind is 
fiuooth or flat, like that of other fifti ; but forms a fort of 
tuft, thick and long, which adds much to the beauty and 
fine fhape of that little creature. They commonly fwim on 
the furface of the water ; and fhew fuch a furprifing agility 
in their motion, that it gives an exquifite brightnefs and va- 
riety to it : and it is on that account that they are fo admired 
by the richer fort, that they keep them, in all their pleafure- 
houfes, in little ponds made for the purpofe, or elfe in bafons 
more deep than wide, and adorn the courts, and other parts 
of their houfes, with them, where they afford a fingular di- 
verfion by their play, they being exceeding . tame and aftive, Tamefiefi, 
and, as one would imagine, knew their matters, and thofe 
that feed them, by the readinejTs with which they come up at 
their appi'oach. The misfortune is, that they are of fo ten- Tender 
dcr a nature, that the leaft inclcpiency of weather is apt to »^^''^- 
injure them ; and the extremity oflneat or cold, ftrong fmelis, 

loudnoifes, efpecially of thunder, or the report of cannon, will 


^ Of thefe, fe© before, p. 80. 219. & alib. pafT. 



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bow pre' 

the Hift^ty 9f Ct&nz. B. L 

go near to deftroy them (A). Thafi?, therefore, ^«ha bare the 
'care of them, always provide the© with a fhelterat the bottom 
of their litde poad, which is commonly made with an esfcrtben 
pan full of holes, and turned upfide down, into which they 
retreat when the fun, weather, or any thing elfe, difcommodes 
them. Care is alfo taten to fliift mdr water three or four 
times a week ; and in fuch a maoQer, as that the vefiel may be 
always kept full ; and to throw fome fort of weeds on the 
forface of it, to fhade them from the fun. 

Their common food is the litde imperceptible worms that 
are bred in the water, or the little earthy particles which are 
mixed with it ; but the owners will now-and then throw fomc 
litde bits of pafle, or, what is ftiH more agreeable to them, 
fome wafers, which, being foaked in the water, are greedily 
fwallowed down by, and is the propereft food for, thofc 
litde creatures. They breed exceedingly faft in hot countries, 
provided their fpawn be^carefoUy ikimmed off the furfeoe of 
the water^ where it fwims (which they would otherwife de- 
vour), and be put into particular vd&ls, to be hatched by 
the fun. The-vefTel muu likewife be flidtcred from wind, 

^( A}This is the account which 
Father Le Compte gives of them ; 
to which Du Halde adds, that 
thcbcft way of prefwrving them 
in the winter is, to give them 
ao food all that time ; and that 
they will live three or four 
months, that is, while the cold 
weather lads, under the ice, 
without any other f^iftenance 
than what the water underneath 
affords them, even in the large 
open ponds. As- for thofe that 
are taken into the houfes, and 
kept in china veflcls clofely cover- 
ed, it is certain they live without 
anyodicrfood; and yet when the 
fpring CQmes on, at which time 
they are again removed into 
their ufual bafons, they will 
move and fwim with as much 
agility and brifkneft as they did 
the year before. T-he nobility 
and richer fort are fo fond of 
them all over theJcingdom, that 

they make it ope of their diitf 
pleafures to feed them ) and 
will give three or four crowns 
apiece for thofe that are the 
raoft beautifully coloured and 
fhaped ; there being perfons 
evcry-where who make It their 
chief bnfincfs to breed, and fell 
them to them. As for thofc 
which are bred up in large 
ponds, they become fomewbat 
larger and hardier ; and ixt on- 
ly preferved there for th»ir 
fpawn, which^ when hatched ja 
the manner above-mentioned, 
raifes them to that beauty, and 
variety of colours, which inak€ 
them fit for thofe of the better 
rank. The way they have to 
call thofc which breed in ponds 
to the top of the water, is by 
the noife of a clapper, wbick 
the perfons who fted them coft' 
monly ufe for that end (70 J. 

(-0) Vu Halde, voL I />. 15. Gf 3T6, ef/rf, Vid, & Li &mpte, Uttf 4- 



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C. I. . Tkt Hifiory of China. 4S9 

rain, and cold, till they are hatched : at which time the Colour., 
yoang fiy appear firft of a black colour, which fome of them 
ftill retain ; but the greateft part change by degrees to red or 
white, to gold or filver, according to their kind, which dif- 
playsitfelf firft at the tail, and thence fpreads itfelf more or 
kfs towards the middle of their body ; and, when grown to 
in inch in length, may be fafcly removed into their native re- 
fervoirs, there to be admired as a wonder of nature *. 

'Their artificial rarities are various and numerous, and Artificial 
much more frequent, and entertaining to travellers. We fliall rarititu 
fingle out fome of the moft curious and remarkable amongft 
thOT ; fuch as, i . Their famed long wall, which is the firft 
and nobleft ftrufture of all, and offers itfelf to a ftranger at 
the very firft len trance into that empire by land ; 2. Variety 
of artificial mountains, bridges, and caufeways ; 3. Some of 
their ftately temples ; 4. Coloffian ftatues ; 5. Their high 
and fumptuous towers in fcveral of their great cities ; 6. Their 
ftately triumphal arches ; 7. Some of their large bells, efpe- 
cially thofe of Pe-king and Karrg-ton, which excel all the 

We begin with their celebrated wall, which is juftly efteem- Tie great 
ed the moft ftupeqdous work of ^hat, or any other kind, that nval/, 
the wprld can boaft of; it being in Jength, according to Ma* Length. 
gaillarCs computation, 405 leagues, exclufive of its wind- 
ings; and, by Le Compter 500 French leagues, or near 1500 
mUes, wth the windings ; and fortified all the way, at proper 
diftances, with ftrong kigh towers, to the number of 3000 
(B), which, before the conqueft of China, ufed to be guarded 

• Li Co^ptb, Du Haldb, & aL 

(B) That is, according to ber of thcfc towers according to 
fome, at every two bow-ftiot ; the extent of the wall 5 whereas 
but more abf^rdly, according to they might ftand at much great* 
others, every mile or two miles ; er diftance in other parts that 
ferin nehher cafe could they wcfc more difficult of accefs ; 
amount to 3000 ; fo that, if the for they have committed much 
Wall was 1 500 miles, and thefe the fame error, with rcfpeA t^ 
towers equidiftant from each the ftrength, materials, height, 
edier, there could be but half a and thic&iefs, of the wall it- 
mile fpace between each of felf, judging it to be every^- 
them. where tte fame as they faw it ia 

The troth is, fome have mag- the neighbouring parts of Pe- 

nifiedthat work at a ftrarigc li-hz, yv here it is built of ftone 

rate; and, from their nearnefs and brick ftrongly cemented, 

to each other in fome parrs, and v^ry high, ftout, and folid ; 

kavc perhaps inferrtrd the num- whereas thofe? wlio have fince 

Mcfo. Hist. Vol. Vlll. T takca 

'* Digitized by Google 

^90 ne Hifiorj of Oxixau 6.1. 

Jntiimi by a million of foldiers : but, fince then, they only keep garri- 

garnfoaj. fons in thofe places which ^ moft eafy of zccefs, viz. at Fwen- 

fuy Tay-ton^-fUf Ning-kia^ Ta-lin, Siang-chnvy Sian-ning^ and 

So^he^ } befides which, the mountains within the wall are 

reckoned fujfficient to defend China againft the Tartars ^ : how- 

cver, as it was originally intended to cover the three northern 

provinces of Pe-che4iy Shan-fiy and Shen-Jiy from any attack 

Exiiwi. ttom that quarter, it begins at the latter of them, which lies 

on the north- weft of China^ in about 38 degrees of latitude^ 

and is carried on, over mountains and vallics, rivers and deep 

marfhes, firft to the north-eaft, as far as the 4 2d degree of 

latitude, then fouth-eafterly to the 39th, and terminates at 

the fVhang'hay, or Te/low Sea, at the 40th degree, where 

(lands the famous gate called Shang-hay-quan, and from which 

it diodes the province of Pe-che-li within from that of Lyau.- 

tong without ; ajid thence, weftward, the other two prcv- 

^^J^ mces from Tartary. But though the diftance from one end 

mtiuSf^s. of |jji3 ^all to the other be hardly above 700 or 800 miles, 

in a direct line from weft to eaft, yet, if we take in alfo the 

various windings north and fouth, and the many afcents and 

defcents over the high hills and dales which are between, 

we can hardly allow lefs than twice that number to the whole 

kngthof the walls. 

tywiom This ftupendous fabrfc was built, according to fome, by 

Am//. the emperor Chi-ho-hani'ti ; and, according to others, by Shi' 

whang'ti, or, as others call him, Shing-Jbi-whang, 21 5 years 

before Chrift ^ ; and is built here ^d there on fuch 

' Sec Hiftoric, Obfervations on Tartary, ap. Da Halde, vol.ii. 
p. 263. < lid. ibid. vid. & Martini, Klrcher, Nieu- 

HOFF, ic al. fup. ciut. ^ Dv Halve, vol. i. p. 20. 172. 

262. k alib. Lk Comptk, letter 3. U al. 

taken a more accurate view of earth, or is rather a kind of 
it (7 1 ) , afliire us, that it runs at mud rampart, not only^ very de- 
moft but about 600 miles in that fedtivo in many places, info* 
manner, that is, from the much that they were obliged to 
Whang'b99 or Teliovj Sta, to the build, at every four leagues di- 
Droirince of Sham-fi, where it . ilance, ftrong forts on the in- 
hath feveral other faces beiides, fide, to defend them, ^t the far 
which form double, and fome* greater part of the towers be- 
times treble, inclofures for the longing to it were of earth; 
fecurityof themoftconfiderable thole that were of brick or 
pafies ; but, from the entrance done being but few in compa- 
Into that province, to its very rifon of them, 
end in the weft, it is all built of 

i%i) rU. OhftrniMt. Hifiirk. w TMrtarj, ^, Dm iUUf, W. ii. p. *6%. 



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C. I. T$e Hijf^ of ChinZi 19 1 

rocks and mountains^ as feem altogether inacceilible ; and In 
other parts over wide and rapid rivers, and fuch marfhcs and 
fandy hoUofWS, as one would judge incapable of admitting a 
fufficient foundation to lupport fuch a prodigious weight. 
The heieht of it varies according to the ground ; but is no- Height: 
where lefs than 20, nor higher than, 30 feet ; and the breadth 
about 1 5 feet, or wide enough for five or fix people to ride 
abreaft (C), and extraordinarily well paved al^the way. It 
is continued fi*om one end to the other without any interrup- 
tion, except at the entrance of the U^hang-ho into the Chinefe 
empire, and near the city of Se-ckwen^ in the province of Pe^ 
cbe-li^ where, inftead of it, the country is guarded by high 
and inac^reifible mountdns ; but is continuous every-where 
elfe : and though other rivers flow likewife from Tartary into Ri<virs 
the Chinefe territories, and fome of them run in and out di run under 
them more than once, they all run under ftately high arches ''^« 
made in the walls ; and fo ftrongly built^ that their current, 
though rapid, hath not hitherto caufed the leaft breach or 
detriment in them. The fame may be faid of the wall it- ^trtngthl 
fclf, and its ftout high towers, fo far as both are built with 
brick and (tone, though both have lain expofed ta all winds 
and weathers almoft 2000 years : but as to the weftern part 
of it, which, as we ftiewed in a former note (B), is built of 
earth, it is gone to decay in many places, and hath been fe- 
vcral times repaired by the government. The former, how- 
ever, is only cafed on the outfide with brick or ftone, and 
the fpace between them filled with fome ftrong morter, fand, 

(C) So fays Father Regis^ who tains, dr at the bottom of them, 

was employed by the emperor and in the plains, that is, four 

to make the maps of the em- fathoms, or twenty-foor feet, 

pire, and had been often on according to fome ; and thirtjr 

the top of it ; thbugh IJbrands feet, according to others ; which 

Ides^ and others, make it wide difagreement itfdf would be 

enough for eight horfemen to fafficient to convince us of the 

ride abread upon ijt; fo that c6ntraiy,didnotthereafonofthe 

when Le Compte tells us it is thing, and the known oeconomy 

but four, or at molt five, feet in of the Chinefe nation, perfuade 

thickncfs (72), it is plain it us that they would hardly have 

muft be fome error of the print- beftowed equal coH and labour 

er, orof histranflator, and that every-where alike, merely for' 

he muft. have meant at leaft the fake of obferving an uni- 

yards, if not toifes, which are formity in the work ; for that 

equivalent to two of our yards. would rather expofe their folly 

Some tell us, that its height than wifdom, for which they fo 

is every-where alike, whether highly value themfelves* , 
on the top of the hijgheft moun- 

(jz;. Lt Cmps, letter 3. ' • 

T 2 «tt4 


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2^1 The Hifiory of China. B. I. 

and other rnbbifli; but fo ftrongly cemented, as to be of 
equal hardnefs with the reft. 
^hejirft The bulwark, at which this noble wall begins, at the eaft 
bulwark ^j^j js a large pile of ftone raifed in the fea, upon a founda- 
fnun^ed tn ^^^ j^y ^^ ^ number of ftiips funk into it by a ftupendous 
thefea. -weight of iron, and huge ftones with which they were laden, 
in order to fecure the fuperftrudture from finking. The work 
is well tcrradeil and cafed with brick and ftone ; and the ar- 
chiteft was obliged, under pain of death, to cement them fo 
ftrongly together, that a nail ihould not be driven between them ; 
which cement runs through the whole work. This buhvark 
taflern ftands in near the fame latitude with Ve-kingy and at a fmall 
gate. diftance wefl^vard from it is to be feen.the firft gate called 

Shang'hay -quango of an extraordinary height -id ftrength. 
The other gates are built much in the fame manner ; and 
every one or them is defended by a ftoift fort built on the 
Qhinefe fide. Upon the whole, it is a ftupendous work ; and, 
confidering the height of fome of the mountains on which it 
runs, and the marlhy, dry, fandy, and barren grounds, on 
which other parts are built, one cannot but admire how it 
could be carried on to that height and thicknefs, and fuch t 
raft length, confidering that in many places the bricks, ftones^ 
5aorter, and all other neceflaries for the work, ifauft have 
bepn brought thither from a great .diftance, and with incre- 
All fintjh' dible. coft and labour : and what adds ftill more to the won- 
ed in Jive ^g^, if we may believe their records, is, that the whole was 
v^rj. ^niftied in five years^ time*. They add, that the emferor 
obliged every third man out of each province of his emp';:e, 
who was of an age fit for the werk, to help to complete it ; 
fo that he lived. to fee his dominions fenced on every fide, and 
fevered in fome meafure from the reft of the world by tht 
flrongeft barriers ; viz, on the north by this new and extra* 
ordinary rampart ; on the weft by high and inacceflible moon- 
tains, and vaft fahdy deferts j and by the wide ocean on the 
fouth and eaft. 
Artificial The next fort of artificial curiofities of China^ that we read 
motmtains, of, is their mountains fabricated into various ftiapes of men, 
'whether horfes, birdfi, i;c, which, if really, fuch, inuft be works of 
regityjucb. \j^t^q^{q labour as well as time ; and being, to all appearance, 
'defigned merely to pleafe the fight,- and to fet the fpeftators a 
gazing, Ciin ferye no other end than expofing the ill taftc of 
"the Chiiicfe, forbeftowing fo much of either upon fuch fan« 
Jtaftic ^^nd' unnatural oddities. But this feems to us too oppo- 

« DwHalde, vol. 1. p. 20. 172. 262, & alib. Le Compte, 
letter 3. &c al. fup. citac. 

i -; , * fit* 


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C. r. The Hiftory of China. 2^3 

iite to their natural prudence and oeconomy, to be eafify cre- 
"dited ; and though we are told, that their notion of them, 
efpecially among the fuperftitious vulgar, is, that they are the 
M'ork of demons, and the refult of a deep infight into ma- 
gic ; which feems to intimate, as if they bore fo near a refem- 
blance to thofe creatures, as could hardly be given to them 
by human art; yet, till we have better authority thatt'We 
have of their doing fo, we ihall look upon them rather as the 
cffeft of chance, affifled by a ftrong fancy, to fupply what is 
wanting to complete the pretended refemblance. However 
that be , we think ourfelves obliged to give our readers one 
inftance at leaft of them, that we may not be blamed for 
omitting what other authors have fpoken of with fo much admi- 
ration, and that fhall be one of the moft remarkable of alt the 
reft ; viz. the famed mountain of the five horfes heads ; and 
fo called from its five fummits, which are faid, at a diftance, 
to bear a near refemblance to them. It mu ft be owned, that 
none of them pretend to have gone near enough to kn6w whe- 
ther that feeming likenefs was wrought by dint of labour of 
the chiflel and mallet, nor whether it appeared the fame at any 
point of fight, or only at that which they vie\ved them from : 
fo that the only wonder feems to be in the number of heads ; 
for, as to other mountains that are faid to bear a refemblance 
of a bird, horfe, dog, or any other fmgle animal, thofe who 
have but travelled over the Jlps or Pyrenees, will find enough 
of fuch cragged rocks on the tops of thofe mountains, which 
a warm imagination will eafily conceive to bear a near refem- 
blance to thofe, or a variety of other creatures ; and where, 
did fuperftition and prieftcraft reign fo much as they do iri 
China, the people might be made to believe them to have been 
the work of demons, or of fome famous conjurers. 

Not but there are other mountains m China, fabricated in Others of a 
fiich a manner as muft appear the work of art, and to have liferent 
required inimenfe labour ; at leaft we read of fome that are A^'*'^^- 
perforated quite through in many places, and fecm rather a ^"''^' 
parcel of irregular rocks, or fmall mountains, cafl: up at ran- 
dom one upon another, and have on the top either a temple, 
monaftery, or fome other curious building ; of others that 
are filled with large fpacious caverns ; a third fort that have 
roads cut through them of a confiderable length ; fome clofe 
on the top, and others cut open quite up to it. There is Noble 
one, in particular, in the province of Fo-kyen, and near the ea^fe<ivajs 
city of Hing'-wha-fii, or, as others call it, Hingoa, which is ^«^ thro 
cut between two mountains, of a confiderable height, ici ^^*^' 
aiccly paved the length of twelve miles, and fluded on each 

T 3 fida . 


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254 ^^ Hiftory of China. B. I. 

fide by trees planted at proper diftances all the way ^ ; but 
indeed moft of the roads round that city are paved in the 
fame manner with fquare ftones, and planted with fhady 
trees, the towfis and villages about it ftanding fo thick, that 
they feem to be but one continued town^ ; and it muft be 
owned, that the Chinefe are not wanting in any coft or labour 
to make their caufeways vand roads as eafy anS pleafant for 
^ travellers as they pofliWy can " ; and this makes them build 
fo many fine ftately bridges, not only over their rivers and 
canals, but even from one mountain to another, which is a 
third fort of their artificial rarities. 
Bridget. We have already defcribed feveral of them in th^ geogra* 
phic part ; but, as it would be endlefe to fpeak even of the 
moft curious of them throughout the country; (for the other 
fort are without number), we ftiall content ourfelves with de- 
fcribing two or three of the moft celebrated, to give our 
readers an idea of the excellent tafte of the nation in thefe kinds 
J ftately of work alfo. That called Lu-ko-kyau, feven or eight miles 
cne near weftward of Peeking, was one of the fineft that ever was feen, 
Peking, before ^^xx. of it was broken down by a land-flood. It was 
built all of white marble, curioufly wrought and polifticd. 
It had feventy pillars on each fide, divided by cartridges of 
fine, marble beautifully carved with flowers, foliages, birds, 
beafts, and variety of other ornaments. On each fide of the 
entrance on the bridge, at the eaft end, ftood two lions, of an 
extraordinary fize, on two curious pedeftals likewife of mar- 
ble, with feveral other fmaller lions in different attitudes ; 
fome climbing on the backs of the great ones, others leaping 
off, others crawling between their legs. 
Toufl ' At the other end of the bridge' flood likewife two other 

others, like curious pedeftals, on which were carved two children with the 
each other^ fanje fldll, and all the reft of the work was anfwerable to it °. 
ofagreaty^^hitt Gerbillon mentions two more of the fame kind, of fine 
length ««« marble, and exaftly like, each other in their fabricature, oma- 
^^^(y* ments, 6c, ; one on one fide of the city of Cha-hoy 50 ffs 
from Pe-kingy and the other on the other fide of that place ; 
their length was 60 geometric paces, and their breadth be- 
tween fix and feven, and the pavement and parapets were of 
huge blocks of the fame ftone ©. This fort of bridges is the 
moft common in the empire, and of which we may fay that the 
Chinefe fpare neither for length, breadth, beauty, nor IbeDgthi 

^ Kercher, Martini, La Martiniere, & al. fop. dtat. 
' lid. ibid. « See before, t>. 78. » Du Haldb, 

vol. i. p. 288. • Travels mtowefternTartary,ap.cimd. 

vol. ii. p. 274. 



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C.I. The Hiftory of OxiTiz. 295. 

in the boildit^ of them ; fome of them cooflfting of upwards 
of 100 lofty arches, and are above 160 fathom in length, as 
is that of the city of Fu-ehevt^ or, as others caH it, Ox-u^ ca- 
pital of the province of Fo-kyen^ which is built acrofs the bay, 
all of fine white ftone P (D). 

They have a fecond fort, which are built upon barges, Jficond 
fome of which are of a very great length. One of thefe, in/^t hmU 
particular, built over the river Kyang^ at the place where thc^ h9au. 
Kan falls into it, confifts of 1 30 barges ftrongly chained to 
one another, yet fo as to be parted, and to open a way in 
any part of it, to let the veflels pafs which continually fail 
up and down the river. There are great numbers of this fort 
likewife all over the flat oountries, they being much more 
convenient in thofe parts where the trafficic is diicfly carried 
on by water. 

P Du Halixe, Jk al. fup. dtat. 

(D) There is one ftill more 
ftnpendous at the city of Swen- 
ihiw'fuf which is built over the 
point of an arm of the fea, 
which otheryirife mufl b6 croiTed 
in a bark, and ver^ often not 
without danger. It is 2^20 Chi- 
ntfe feet in length, and 20 in 
breadth, and is fupported bv 
2$ 2 huge piers, 126 on each 
iide. All the flones of it are 
of a greyiih colour, and of the 
fame length and thicknefs, as 
well thofe which crofs fiom pier 
to pier, as thofe which are laid 
acrofs, and join them to each 
other (73). The greateft won- 
der is, how they could cut or 
place ftones, of fuch enormous 
weight as thefe are, high enough 
for large veflels to pafs under- 

As for the more common fort 
of bridges, their way of build- 
ing them is more eafily under- 
ftood, and appears to be this : 
As foon as they had Eniflied thp 
fides of the arch next to the 

land, or, if of more arches than 
one, the piers that ftand be- 
tween them, they proceeded to 
lay on the ftones, which are 
commonly not above four or 
fi^e feet long, and half a foot 
broad, alternately upright and 
crofs -wife, fo that .the key 
flones lay always horizontally* 
The top of the arch is ufually no 
thicker than that of thefe ftones $ 
and becaufe the bridges, efpe- 
cially thofe which have but one 
arch, are fometimes 40 or 50 
feet between the [Hers, andcon- 
fequently much higher than the 
caufeway^ the afcent on both 
fides is by eafy flat fteps, not 
above three inches thick, which 
makes it foinewhat inconvenient 
for horfes and carriages to go 
up and down them (74) ; and 
might be eafil/ obidated, b/ 
m wng the afcent and defcent 
more even ; but, in other re- 
fpeds, they are generally well 

(1%) ^* ^•^i «^»M /• '7t 

(74) J^d* h ^7* 




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%^ Tbf Hijt^ry ^f China, R !• 

J third THfiftfi h (till a third fort, more furprifing than the two 
/art, from fermer, which ar$ built fome syvev rivers, and others over a 
mountain yaUey, and join two mountains together. Of this fort, W€ 
to ^oun' 5^<i of 0nc which confifts of but one intire arch, whidi is 
^** reckoned 40Q cubits lone;, and 500 in height, and is, by 

travellers, ftylcd PQns voJans, or the flying bridge "*, " That 
which was formerly built over leveral high hills, on the road 
to Hang'chong'f^, in the province of Skfi/?, is ftill more ftii«< 
pendous. We are told, that 100,000 men were employed in 
K, to level fome of the hills, and to build arches fr(Mn moun- 
tain to mountain, fupporting them with pillars, of a monftrous 
height and thickriefs, where the intervening valley proved too 
wide. There are feveral of, thefe bridges that form part of 
the road abovt-mentioned ; and fome of them of fuch height, 
that one cannot look downwards without terror ; for which 
reafon, they are ^ well railed on c?ach fide, for the f<?curity 
of paflengers ^ And thus much 'may luffice for this third fort 
of artificial rarities % 
friumfhah . The ne%t kind of curiofity that Entertains the travellers, ia 
arcbet* daeir b^utiful triumphal arches, which ^re to be feen, in 
great numbers, pot only in all their cities, but on the moun- 
tains and eminences along the roads. Thefe were originally 
erefted in memory of their heroes, whether princes, generals, 

!>hilofoj)hers, or minifters of ftate, who had fignalized them- 
elffes for fome great aftions, or fome eminent fervices, donQ 
to the public. The. number of thofe that have been erected 
t;o fuch heroes is computed to amount to above 1 100, amongft 
*> which, there are near 200 of exquifite beauty and grandeur. 
Some There is befides, a fmall number of others, no lefs noble and 
ire£led tcr beautiful, erefted to feveral of their illuftrious women, whof<^ 
nffomisn. wifdom and virtue have intitled them to the fame glorious mo? 
imments, as well as to a place in the Chinefe hiftory, and in 
Ae works of their mofl: famous poets (E). 

These monumental ftrudlures confift moftly of one, or, ^ 
moft, three ^ches, the middle of which i$ lofty and fpaciouSj 

, 9 Kerchir, Maktini, &11I. » Du Halde^ & al. fup, 
citat. ' • lid. ibid. 

(E) The male worthies re- whether virgins, wives, orwi- 

Iqcrdcd in their hiftorv, including dews, who arc recorded for 

thofe who hav? been lamed for their chaftity, piety, or any 

their virtuef and piety, ms WcH other eminent virtues, either on 

as for valoar, learning, l^c. thofe monumental arches, or in 

amount to about 3636 ; and the Chinefe annals, to iJbottt 

the number of the females, 208^ (75).' 

(75) ^f Comfti,^Vit HM^ Murtint't & eh 




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C. i. The Hijhry ef CMna. tj/ 

and the other two on each fide of it are of a ftnaller fize and 
beauty. Some of , them are of wood, except the marble pe- 
deftal ; others are of (lone, and others' partly ftone, and partly 
wood. Some of them arc wrought with exquifite fkill, 
cfpeciaUy thofe of th? oldeft {landing ; while moil: of thofe of 
a more modern date are fo clumfy, and ill-defigned, as to de- 
ferve fcarcely any attention (F). Their height is commonly 
between twenty and twenty-five feet, few above; the whole T'/^ftV 
variegated with figures of men, antics, birds, bcafts, ire, in ma^e^ 
various attitudes," feftoons, and other ornaments, indifferently height^ 
carved ; the relievo's of fome of which are fo bold, that they ^^' 
feem to be feparatcd from the work. Upon the whole, though 
they are but (lightly built, yet, when placed to advantage, as 
in a narrow ftreet, where tWo ftreets crofs each other, or 
in the center of a fquare, and if in the country, at a due 
diftance from the road,, and a right jioint of fi^ht, afford no 
difagreeabl^ delight to the beholders ^ 

To thefe, we might add their burying-places, and the Sefukhrt^ 
noble buildings reared on thofe of great men, which; at a Monu- 

< Le Compte, Martini, Kercher, & s^l. fup. cita(. Vide 
k 'Dv HAtDE, vol. L p. 17, ic 2881. 

(F) The ornamental part of fince their late conqueft, feeing 

thofe antient arches is fo ^uri- that few of thofe antient monu- 

oufly wrought, the feftoons and- ments are of much more than - 

flowers fo neatly cut, and the 300 years ftanding (76). 

lurds and other animals carved However, it muft be owned, 

in fuch lively attitudes, that Fa- that, excepting the beautiful 

ther Le Compte looked upon neatnefs of the carving above« 

them as Chinefe lyafter-pieccs mentioned," their bell architec* 

of that kind ; and indeed they ture, of any kind, comes valUy- 

appear fo wonderfully detached ihort of ours, both as to tt^ 

from each other, as if they were proportion and difpoiition of 

only joined to, or run into, each the parts. Thev have neither 

Other, by fmall cordons,* and cbmices nor ' chapiters ; and 

without the leail confufion ; that which bears fome kind oi 

which fufficiently {hews the fuf likenefs to our frizes, is of 

pcrior fkill of their antient ^fuch a height, that it rather 

workmen ; whereas in thofe of fiiocks the eye of thofe who are 

later date, the fcuJpture is fpa- unaccnftomed to it } though ic 

ring, looks coarfe, heavy, ^ and is ^o much th^ more agreeable* 

wiuiottt any piercing, or va- to the Chinefe tafte, as it affords 

liety, to enliven it. Which is more fpacc for the ornament^ 

a plain indication of their ge« which adorn the infcriptions en^ 

nius having been, in a great graven on them {774, • 
meafurc, cramped and debafed, ' 

\l^ U Compit, Dh HBldt;^ Htttini, ^ 4J. (77) Dn HaUk, uH fuf^ 

f. 17. 6f »«7. 



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298 The Hijory of China. B. I. 

(fiftance, appear like towns, being moflly built on (bme con- 
fpicnous eminences along the road, and yield a very pleafanc 
profpeft ; but of thefe we have already fpoken, on another 
occaiion ". 
9^tely But, of all their artificial curiofities, their fine ftatdy 

tiwers. towers are the moft delightful to ftrangers, though built in a 
ftile peculiar to this country, and unlike any thing of that 
kind among us. Thefe are mofUy to be met witli in their 
great cities, and are every-where built much in the fame form ; 
10 that the defcribipg on^ or two of the moft beautiful, will 
^be famed fuffice to give our readers an idea of the reft (G). There arc 
$nt at two of thefe without the walls of Nan-king, the moft bcauti- 
Nan- ful of which, ftyled the porcelain tower, becaufe it is lined 
**"8* all over the infide with china tiles, delightfully painted, is the 
moft admired by all travellers, for its height, fymmetry, and 
variety pf carving, gilding, and other otnaments. It is of aa 
oftagonal form, nine ftories, or 200 feet, high, and forty 
feet m diameter ; fo that every fide is fifteen feet in length. 
%The whole is built on a large bafis of brick, ftrongly ce- 
mented, which forms a ftately perron, or flight of nine or 
ten fteps, likewife of an of^onal figure, by which you af- 
cend to the firft ftory ; and this perron is furrounded with a 
/// height, baluftrade of unpoliftied marble on the outfide. The firft 
mfceMt^hc. ftory, or, as it is called, the hall, is tjie higheft of all, but 
- bath no wmdows, nor any light but what comes in at three 
fpacious gates, which open into it. The wall is &id to be 

" See before, p. 264. U feq. 

(G) Thefe (lately ftruaures, eight and nine feet high, and 

which, we are told, are to be the lowermoft about twelve, 

jntt with at every metropolis But, as they are alfo built for 

of a province, and in fome other ftrength, as well as fliew, feme 

of their cities, fome within, and of them having ftood confider- 

Others without, the walls, are ably above three centuries, diere 

chiefly defigned as ornaments, is a prodigious deal of timber, 

they being feen at a great di- aswell'as work, in them; which 

fiance by travellers, and, from yet, as Le C$mfti rightly ob^ 

their top galleries, affording a ferves, rather oetrays the ig- 

beautiftii profpedl of all the~ norance of the Chtnefit arclu- 

country round. Their height teds, who have not yet dif- 

js commonly from feven to covered that lovely fimplicity, 

sine, though, Du Halde aftures wherein the ftrength and beaoty 

BSr there are fome twelve and of our jE«r(>^f4iv buildings con- 

• thirteen, fiories high, every fift{78). 

ftory being commonly between 

(73) Du Bfildi, ikiftp, p. 2X9. L$ Cmfie^ biter z* Minim, ^ si 



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C I. ^be Hijlory of China. 299 

about twelve feet thick, and eight and a half high, and cafed 
with porcelain, but of the coarfer fort, and nqt a litde da- 
maged by duft and rain. From this, you afcend to the fe- 
cond, and thence to all the other ftories, which ace all of 
equal height, by a narrow, and very inconvenient, ftaircafe, 
the fteps of which are ten inches high, and very narrow. 
Every ftory hath eight large windows, one at every front. 
They all leflen, as they mount one over the other, fo as to 
form, in the whole, a kind of cone, or fugar-loaf ; and be- 
tween each of them is a penthoufe, or fhed, which projefts 
feme yards from the wall all around, and leflens in the lame 
proportion the higher they go, Thefe divide the ftories from 
each other without, as the timber and the floorings do with- 
in : and each room is adorned with paintings, and other or- 
naments, after the Chinefe ftile, both on the fides, and on 
the cieling, whilft -the outfide is embelliihed with variety 
of work in bafs-felievo, niches, and imagery, in the fame 
tafte (H) ; all which make an ^e#ible kind of inlaid work, 
very beautiful at a diftance, though both that and the paint- 
ing and g^ldiilgs, are fomewhat impaired by the wind and 
rain. But the moft beautiful part of the whole fabric h a Cupola imi 
kind of cupola, which arifcs thirty feet higher than the up- *5?-^- 
permoft ftory, and is fupported by a thick maft, fixed at the 
bottom of the floor of the eighth ftory. This piece feems to 
be inclofed in a large iron-hoop, all the way, and which 
winds round it like a fpiral line, or fcrew, at the diftance of 
feveral feet ; fo that the whole looks like a hollow kind of 
cone, pierced through, and rifing in the air, and fupporting 
on the top a golden ball, of an extraordinary bignefs. Such 
is the ftrufture of that famed tower, which, whether of brick, 
marble, or whatever other material, is looked upon, by Le 
ComptCj and other authors, as the beft contrived, moft folid, 
and magnificent work in all the eaft "". 

NIEUHOFF adds two circumftances concerning it ; viz. When^ani 
that the ball, or pine-apple, on the top, is reported by the ^ nuhom^ 

^ Lb Compte, letter 3. Martini, Nieuhoff, Kercheh. 
&al. mult. 

(Hj^Ty^utfide appears to be it feems, furprifinglv (kilful in 

of frnx fort of wrought marble, ftamping all forts of figures on 

or ^l&ed ftone, ^ilt over ; but their bricks ; the earth of which 

texkwite rather imagines it to being much finer, and bettier 

jbe of Drick, fo cail in proper tempered, than ours, is much 

Inoulds, in the manner of our fitter to take any impreflioa 

plaiftcr-WQrk ; the Chinefi being, from the mould (79). 

{^) U Compter uhififrg. 



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300 The Hijfory ttf CKink. B.I. 

Chinefe to be of mafly gold ; and the other, that the tower 
hath ftood 700 years ; and was ereftcd by the Tartars^ as a 
monument of their having made themfelves mailers of the 
Chinefe empire ; whereas Le Compte affirms it to have been, in 
his time, of no more than 300 years ftanding, and to .have 
been built, together with the temple of gratitude, by the 
Emperor Yong-lo \ to which Du Halde feems to fubfcribe '. 
Belhhang' MosT of thcfe forts of towers have, either in the upper- 
ing on the .moft penthoufe, or gallery, and others in every one of them, 
angles and at every angle, fmall b^lls, hanging at fome diftance, by 
Viitbout, chains, or wires, which ^re eafily moved by every blaft d" 
wind, and make an uncommon fort of tinkling ; which is, 
never thclefs, agreeable enough to the Chinefe X.'S&t, Of this 
nature is that we have clfewhere defcribcd, which ftands near 
a ftately temple built on a Veiy high mountain y. But the 
greateft delight which thefe kinds or ftruftures afford, is from 
the vaft charming profpeft one hath from their upper ftories, 
or galleries, of all the co^intry round about, which is com- 
monly befpangled wi<h great variety of houfes of pleafure, 
orchards, gardens, fepulchral monuments, and fuch agree- 
able objefts, far and near. 
ttaiely Their temples are no lefs ftately and curious. They have a 

umples^ prodigious number of them, both in their cities and towns, and 
in the country at a great diftance from them. The moft cele- 
^«/7/ 1» /&- brated of Nvhich are mof)ly built in barren mountains*, to 
iitary which, however, ,the induftry of the natives hath given bcan- 
flaces. ties which were denied them by nature ; fuch as, canals, cut 
at a great expence, to convey the water from the adjacent 
heights, into proper refervoirs, for the ufe of the bonzas, and 
their votaries ; gardens and groves for their ufe and diverfion, 
and deep grottos cut into the rock, to ftielter them from the 
exceffive heat ; all which do not a little contribute to render 
thofe folitudes delightful, Thefe flruftures, ^hich, whether 
large or {mall, are built much ^er the fame manner, conlift 
partly of fine porticos, j^aved with large fquare poliftied ftenes, 
and partly of halls and pavilions, which are reared on the 
corners of the courts, and have a communication with each 
other, by galjeriesi adorned vdth ftatues either of ftone or 
Their htzk. The roofs of thefe buildings ftilne with beantifid j^)an- 
fainted ned tiles, of green or yellow, and are embelliftied at the comers 
roofs^ Sec, with dragons of the fame colour, which projeft a great way 
forward. The reft of thofe buildings are built of timber, and 
moft of them have fome fuch high tow^ as thofe wc have 

* Lb Compte, ubi fupra. Du HaldEi vol. i. p. 28^, 
y See before, p. 25. ^ft^v and »o^(H). 



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C I. the Htfisry of CHna. 3«r 

beea fpeaking of iQ the laft paragraph. We read of feme of 
thefe tearples that are of a prodigioas length and breadth, 
and have ilatues m them of a Colof&an magnitude (I)> to 
which the bonzas, who have their apartments rounc^ about, 
offer their wine, rice, tod other provifions, which are brought 
thither by their ftupid votari«, whenever they come to confult 
them about their temporal af^rs. The reader may fee what hath 
been (aid, in a former feftion, of the various impofitions of 
tbofe religious charlatans on the fuperfUtbus and in&tuated 
vulgar *. 

Most of their dties have fome large bells fet up in their Their largi 
high towers, by which they gife notice of the difierent hells ; 
watches (rf the night ; and thofe which have no bells do it *^'^ ^» 
by large drums. The. firft watch is notified t^ a fingle 
ftroke, which is repeated at certain (hort diftanccs of time, 
U Cmj^tt fays, every moment, till the fecond watch begins, 
which they notify by two ftrokes ; the third by three, and fo 
on. Some of their bells are of a monftrous bignefs and wdght ; 
but the largeft of all are thofe of Nan-king and Pe-king. Le ^ 

Compte t^ls us of feven they have in the latter of thofe cities, ^ 
that wdgh 1 20,000 pounds, which is near five times the 'weighty 
weight of that of Erford in Saxony, which, Kercher fays, 
weighs but 25,400 pound?, and is, by him, fuppofed to be 
Aelargeft in Europe \ though he ought, at leaft, to have ex- 

* See before, p. 112. & feq. and notes. 

(I) Nreuhoff mtmons One of of the firft rank; and thofe of 

Aofe temples, in the province the inferior fort a*e almoft with- 

of?f-fi&f./f, which is 165 fedt but number, efpecially if we 

higb, and large in proportion, join to them thole that are bailc 

in which ft anas the ftatue of a not to their gods, but to their 

virgin 1064 feet high. The great men, of which they rcc- 

CMiiefe fuperilition makes them kon above 700, which are very 

generally more profufe in thefe grand, ana fome even mag- 

kiods of ftru^lures than in any nificent, beiides the triumphal 

thing elfe : they build them, arches and fepulchral monu-' 

for the moft "part, very lofty ments, already fpoken of. But, 

tndfpacioQs, and embellifh them as ^is latter fort of temples « 

with great variety of idols, be- were chiefly built by the an- 

forewhichltang an infinite num- tient nobility, in honour of 

her of lamps burning with coftly their families and anceflon, and 

perfumes. The reft are alfo em- thofe illnftrious families have 

embcUiihed with all the other iincc dwindled away, great 

ornaments of painting, carving, numbers of thofe fine flradlures 

g,.&^f. They reckon no have like wife gone into decay 

toan 480 of thofe drudures and ruin (80]. 
{80} MkrHitif Kercbtr, teCofffn, & gh 


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302 ^be Hijhryof Omz. B.I. 

cepted that monftrous one of the dty of Mofcow^ whofc 
height is faid to be nineteen feet, diameter twenty-three, com- 
pafs fixty-nine, thicknefs two, and weight 366,000 pounds, 
and of "which we (ball have occafion to ipeal^ in a more pro- 
per place. Thofe fcven of Pe-king'we s^t nowipeaking <rf, 
are twelve feet high, befides the ear by which they hai^, 
which is three £b^ more, thirteen in diameter, and fcMrty in 
circumference. But, if we may believe Father Le Compte, 
all the Chinefe bells are vaftly inferior to ours in found, their 
clappers being made of a hard wood, which they call iron- 
wood, of which we have elfewhere fpoken » ; their metal 
is moreover very coarfe; 'and ftdl of knots, and Acir 
mndill Ihape ill-contrived, they beii^ almoft as wide at the top as 
Jbape and they are at the bottom, and their thicknefs gradually leflen- 
fouttd, ing from '•the bottom upwards. So that, upon the whole, 
they are mere unwieldy mafles of metal, without mufical 
tone, or any thing worth notice, but their huge, dull, heavy 
found, and monftrous weight ^ (K). 


• See before, p. 190. & p. 
TiNi^ Le Compte, k al. ^ 


^ Magaillan, Mak- 

(K) Thofe who have read 
Father Magaillan\ account of 
that which is in the imperial 
palace of Pe-king, who affirms, 
that its found is fo clear, de- 
lightful, and harmonious, that 
it feems rather to proceed from 
fome muiical inilrumqat, will, 
doubtlefs, be furprifed at what 
we have faid above of all their 
belh in general, on the autho- 
thority of other miffionaries, 
who pretend to have had as 
good an ear as he : and, it is 
not improbable, that what Le 
Compte objedls as one of their 
defcdls, %;/«:. their wooden dap- 
pers, might be the main caufe 
of that fweetnefs and harmony 
which his brother Jefuit ad- 
mired i becaufe, the more thefe 
abkte of the loudnefs of the 
found, the more they are found 
to add, in proportion, to the 

harmonious fweetnefs ; it hai^g 
pretty near the fame tSeEi upon 
the bell, or rather the ear, as 
its being rung at a diftaoce. 

Le^Comptt adds, Uiat thofe he 
faw were almoU in the form of 
a cylinder, except that they 
fwelled about the middle, where 
the circumference was equal to 
the bottom ; and that the lowjcr 
brim was fix inches and a half 
thick, but the, top only two, 
which he could as eaiUy mea- 
fure ; becaufe they had fome 
holes bored through that part 
to increafe, as he fuppofed, their 
found (81). . So that, upon die 
whole, nothing can be more 
different than the Clnueft and 
European way of bell-foundins, 
whether theirs or oars be al- 
lowed ^o exceed the others io 
fweetnefs and harmony. 

(Sx) U Compte^ uhijup* Utter p ^djlu^ 



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C i; Tbe Hifiory of Chioa. 303 

The laft artificial curiofity we ftiall mention, and dofe Fire- 
this fcftion with, is their furpriling fire-works, in which wflrii^ 
they may be juftly faid to exceed ail other nations. We have 
already taken notice, that this was the chief ufe they made 
of gunpowder, which they had among them many centuries 
before it was found out in Europe ; and that they were wont to 
exhibit thefe fire-works at their foiemn feflivals, and other 

End occafions, and in a great variety of figures and repre- 
tanons. What increafes the wonder, is, that they give all 
that imagery not only its true form and fliape, but natural 
colour. Thus Magaillan relates, that he faw one of them, 
with tio fmall delight and furprize, which reprefented a idnc- » 

arbour, that burned without confuming, the root, branches, 
leaves, and grapes, of which, burned, but by flow degrees, 
and all in their true fhapc and colour ^ ; the grapes were red,- 
the leaves green, and the ftem and branches fo curioufly imi- 
tated nature, as to have deceived any fpeflator. And, fince the 
late peace hath occafioned fo great a variety of them in feveral 
parts of Europe y^ our readers will not, perhaps, be difpleafed, 
if we give them a (hort defcriptlon of one, which the late 
Emperor Kang-hi caufed to be played off, for the diverfioQ of 
his court, from the account of thofe mifEonaries who be- ^ 
longed to his train, and were prefent at it. 

* Magaillav, Martini, Le Compte, & al. 

But, after all, we much que- heard at a much greater diilance 

ftion whether their boring holes than one made of ever fo hard 

on the top of theirs be not done wood, is what every one will 

with the lame defign that t|iey readily erant ; but which of the 

prefer wooden to iron clappers, two will give the mod melodi* 

n)i%, to fweeten ' and ennoble ous and agreeable found, at a; 

the found, rather than increafe nearer approach, wefhall readily 

its lottdnefs ; and whether their leave to the reader to conjedlure* 

ca(ting them fb much thicker All that needs be added on this 

at the bottom than at the top head, is, that the Cbinefe have 

do not very much contribute a cuftom of giving .pardeular 

to that foiemn melodioafnefs names to thofc large bells, not, 

of their tone, which Father indeed, that of he or fhe faints, 

Magaillan {6 much admired, as thofe of the church of Rome 

but which his brother Jefuit do, but of a more trivial im« 

mjudidoufly mifcalled a dull port : thus, of the feven above- 

lieaVy noi/e, becaufe it did not mentioned at Fe-king^ one is 

anfwer to the loudnefs of thofe called the Hanger^ anothei; the 

of the fame fize, which he had flyer y a thurd the Eater ^ a fourth 

heard in Europe, That a metal the Sleeper, ^and fo pn (82). 
hammer, or clapper, ^will be 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

304 f*^ ti^oty of China. B. L 

A nohk It began by fetting fire to half a ddzen qrllnders, : which 
mu pitted were planted in the earth, and fpouted flames into the air, 
^Jf ^' and, at the height of twelve feet, fell down again, in a kind 
mmi. of pjden or firey rain. This was followed by a fort of bomb* 
cart, fuppot^ted by two ftakes, or pillars, from whence pro- 
ceeded a ft>ower of fire, intermixed with many knthoms, 
which had fentences written on them« in large charaders, of 
the colour of burning fulphnr,^ and half a dozen of branched 
tandkfticks, in form of pillars, confifting of feveral, rings of 
light, one above another, which caft a whitifli or filver-co- 
loured flame, and, in a moment, turned night into day. At 
length the emperor, with his own hand, fet fire to the whole 
machine, which, in an inflant, appeared all in a blaze, and, 
being eighty feet long, and forty in breadth, difplayed a very 
great variety of objcfts, and other curious fcenes. The flame 
having foon after cau^t hold cf feveral poles and paper 
figures, placed on all fides, a prodigious quantity of fquibs 
flew up into the ahr, and a miildtude <rf branches and lant- 
horns, fuch as we have elfewhere defcribcd, were lighted all 
over the place. The flicw lafted abcxit half an hour longer; 
and, from timetotime^ there appeared*, in one part or other, 
fkmes of a bluifti or violet colour, in the form rf bnnches of 
grapes hanging on a vine-arbour ; which, joined to the bright- 
nefs of the lights, that (hone like fo many blazing ftars, yielded 
a mofl delightful profped to the fpeAators **. 1 

^ ^ s E c T. vn. 

Of fame remarkaUe Difiafis which reign among At 
Chinefc, and their Manner of curing them y Mr 
hoafted Skill in Pulfes^ Phlebotomy^ Cuppings Cat- 
Urijingy Inoculating^ and treating the Small-pox \ 
and Method of EictraHing of the Camphiri from tht 
Tree of that Name. 

Dtfeafes^ T[T wepe an endlefs tafk to go through the bare mention of 

end their **• the various difeafes, which muft be fuppofed to reign in 

mtthodof fo vaft and extenfive an empire, and through -fuch a great 

turing^ difierence of climates and countries, or of then: methods of 

curing them, which differ more or lefs in every province, and 

ftlmoft in every prccinft, notwithflanding the vaft multitudes of 

bocjcs which have been pnbllfhed among them upon that ample 

febjcft. We hare already had occafion to hint what wretched 

phyficians and furgeons the gena-ality of then- praftHxtioner? 

' Dv H^^di; yoL ii« .p. 292. & feq. 


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A^i. fi€ Hi/hry of CKma. 305 

of cither of thofc ufeful branches arc, for want of better fldll 
in anatomy and natural hiftory '. They might, indeed, hxvt founded 
made a much grater progrefs in both, fince the coming of the; chiefly 
Europeans among them, if they could have overcome thdr ^P^ •** 
natural reluftance to every kind of foreign learning, as •^ell-^'^*^'**^ 
as their extreme averfion to the difle^Ung of human bodies, 
for the fake, as they flyle them, of a few paultry difcoveries 
in the animal oeconomy, which may be more furely and co* 
pioufly attained by experience and obfervadon, by a thoroush 
knowlege and underflanding of, and due attention to, the pul&y 
and other fymptoms and prognoftics leading to them ; in all 
which branches, they pretend a knowlege hx exceeding that 
of s^ll nations of the world. 

Ik this perfuafion, they are contented to go on inthcir old Prefer ' 
beaten traft ; and how much foevcr our theory may exceed gentle me^ 
theirs, it will be well if their praftice, uppn examination, didnesand 
doth not prove more fafe and agreeable than ours, whilft they*'^''^^*^^* 
draw the main part of their medicinal afliftance from the long 
experienced virtues of the vegetable kind, from, gende purga- 
tives, emollients, alteratives, and other ialubribus remedies, 
calculated to ftrengthen, rather than fatigue and weaken, the 
fbmach, to aiBil and invigorate nature, rather than to ftorm 
and endanger it : and, it muft be owned, that they have 
fome very expert practitioners in this excellent way, as well 
as the greateft plenty and variety of medicinal plants and 
roots, exaftly fuited for that purpofe, rf any nation in the 
world. They are, indeed, feldom, if ever, troubled with Why free 
rheumatifms, gout, ftone and gravel, and other chronic dif-y^m ehret" 
tafes, which feem to require a ftronger re^men ; and this is »'^ ^f' 
pardy owing to their confknt ufe of thofe noble diluters and ^^^^ 
purifiers of ^ blood, their green and bohea tea, and pardy 
to their frequent chewing of ghin-feng, rhubarb, and other 
phyfical roots ^, But, were they fo, we much queftion whe- 
ther they would not ftill prefer their gende, though flow, 
.method of curing theip, to thofe 0/ aquicker, butmore violent 
mature. The misfortune is, that their very beft and moft T'l^/r/i^ 
^approved phyfical books do. commonly clog every receipt and ficaicom^ 
.remedy with fuch mixtures of roots, leaves, feeds, gums. He. pfffi^^* 
jprefcribe fo many rules and, puoftilio's, in the choice, weight, ^ ^i 

5uantity, and preparation, of them, as make the P^o^^^tu^' 
ifficult and tedious ; fo that the far greater part of thdr'^'^* 
very praftitioners; are quite difcouraged from following of 
them, though the whole ftrefs o£ then: fiicccfs, according to 

■ See before, p. 194, & feq, ^ Vide Li Comtts, Da 

.Halds, Sc al. fup. cicat. 

^ Mod^Hist; Vol. VIII, U thdt 

• Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^o6 The Hifiory tf Chkia. B. f. 

tiielr antfaorSy feems to depend npon a fcmpnlous obfervation 
of every rule, und minute circumftance, and chufe rather at 
til hazards to follow their own experience ; which they may 
the more &fely do, as thetr medicines are all of die gentle 
Pretended, NEXT to the knowIq;e, and due mixture and preparation, 
Jkiilin of xhax materia medico^ they Ukewife challenge a fuperior 
f^fi'* (kill m the puUc above all other nadons ; and pretend to judge 
exa^y of die kind and degree of every difeafe, what part of 
the body, cither inward or oiitward, is afidfted, whether it 
be curable, or no; and, if the latter, ho'ttr many days, weeks, 
Various OT ycars, the padent may linger under k. They make a 
firttof pardcular difference between thepulfeof a m^n, atidof-a 
thm. voman ; between that of perfons of tall or flibft ftature. 
corpulent or lean ; between that of youth, imddle, and old 
$^ ; between that of one feafon of the year and another, 
^)edally fpring and autumn, fummer and ^nter. Th^ vsh 
fietv of puUes they diftiugoiifh by fundry odd names, as- wd 
as thofe wfakh are caofed by the natuiie di the diftemper ; -tiiftt 
is, not by the obvious ones of quick and ^xs^^ weak and 
Anong, and die like, but bf fuch candng ones, if our author^ 
have righdy tranflated, as ar^ only underftood by diemfelves. 
. Thus they ftile one fort ^t fuperficial^ another the JHJirig^ 
they&ur, xhttremubuSf the roUing^ the /catfered, the le^ 
ingf Jwimnungy ehuUient^ and many others of tbe like (enfe 
emd man- «ad import. They do not content ihemfidves with api^jinfi 
mr^ffiel* their fingers to the wrift, without diftinftfon of rirfrt and 
i»gtb$nu igft;^ between which theyfuppofe another material difference, 
but move them from one pArt of the body to another, ac^ 
cording as they find them more or lefs affected with the diC> 
cafe : if it be the heart or liver, they feel the wrift of the 
left ; if the flomach or reins, that of the right. They dwdl 
•a cottfiderahle time upon it, and at different dmes, in order 
to difcover, as near as poffible, every irr^ularity in the pul- 
tons, bdbre they venture to give their judgm^t, or adml- 
. ' ' mfter any medidne to the patient''. 

Itukifir They likewife pretend to fix the right number of dales 
j}^^ . Ae puUc ought to beat, between every refpiration, in a per* 
^ff^^^ fon that is in full health, v/z* four, or, at nioft, five duHJI; 
ibin^. jf above that, they infi;r fome diforder to be in the bo^, 
greater or lefs, according to the number of beats ; if fix, \ 
jdenoles jonly ibme flight indifpofidon'i if feven or eight, tfa^ 

^' Du Halde, vol: ii. p. 184, & fcq, Le Comptb, Nav4* 

J^LaTT^i & ^- f«P- citac. 



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C. t. Tbi Hifiory 9f Ci&m. I67. 

judge the diftemper proportionaUy dangerous ; and, if above 
that numbery mortal. 

Thet obfervc a multitude of other formal ceremonies^ 
imd punflilious niceties, both in the difcovering the root» 
ifeaty and dq^ree, of a diilemper, as well as exa<^ a great 
nomber of others from their patients^ which it would be 
tedious to mendon ; efpecially a& there i? fo much reafon to 
queftioQ their fo much boaAcd Ikill In botany and pulfe, apd 
whetlncr the tenth part of their theory or practice be really 
foondedy as they pretend, upon reafon and experience ^ ; efpe- Mrohfy 
dally when we coinfider, that the bads of both Is laid chiefly w ^afito/ 
oa a thorough knowlege in affarologv; and that, according ^^^>/ib* 
to diem, there is no part of the body, .no fpecies of the ve-^*^* 
getable^ mineral, or animal kind, but what are under the 
influeiKe of fome plaiiet, fign, or conftellation, whofenatur^ 
▼irtaes, jjdaces, periodical times, and other fuch whunfi^I 
drcumfiances, muft be diligently confulted, before any vege* 
table can be gathered, or any medicine applied with any. fuc<- 
cds: Infomuch that thdr almanac-makers were obliged to Times fir 
msLck out the iMX>per day$ and times for blieeding, purging, BUedingp 
fweatii^ ire* as well as for plandng, fowing, reaping, jour- f^^g^ 
neying, and other fuch fuperftidous fooleries, till that care was ^^; ^^^* 
tamed over by the emperor JT^wg-W to fome of the learned Je- '^'* *^'^^ 
(iiitSy who, on that very account, declined the talk (A), till ^^■""•^» 


* Da Haldb, vol. li. p. 1B4. 
iral. fup. citat. 

LS COMPTB, Navarbtta^ 

(A) Theyexciifedtbemfclves,. 
we are told, to the emperor, 
ftQm having any hand in thefe 
almanacs, though much better 
qualified for it than the Chi- 
nefti not Only on account of thcT 
ridiculoufnefs of the afholdgical 
roles and obferTacions of |^od 
and bad, lucky and ualucky 
days, which were always care- 
ffllly inierted in them, bat like- 
wife becaufe fuch kind of fuper- 
ftitions, which were incontiltent 
with their religion, might be 
impn^d to them. To this the 
emperor replied, That is not 
what I de^ of you, and you 
Audi be excufed from that part ; 
aeidief do- 1 give any more cre- 
dit to diofe lidiculotts wh^m^es. 

than yoa: I require nothing of 
you but what regards the kalea» 
dar, and hath relation to aftror 

After fuch a declaration, they 
Had n6thiQg taiore to obje6(f, 
and were obliged to comply % 
but as tkey forefaw, that the 
Chinefe would not be contented 
with f«ch maimed produdtionb 
from the obfervatory, and that 
the pretended defed would be 
fupplied from other hands, they 
took particular care to pr6teft 
agaii^, and condemn, foch fu- 
perditious foolerie&i b^cauf&h^* 
man a6Uons could in no refpe^ 
xlepend on the infioetice of the 
ftars, but only on the wHdtom 
by which tkcfv were condiid- 

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30 S 'The Hijiory of China. B. I. 

that monarch had confented to their leaving all the aftrolo- 

gical trafli out of them * ; which yet doth not hinder others 

from ftilj fupplying that fuppofed defeft, 

Circula- We have formerly obferved, that the circulation of die 

tion of thi bipod was known to them long before the coming of the Eu* 

blood ropeans among them ^. Their old phyfical bocrits make frc- 

known. (^tnt mention of it, thongh without pretending to account 

how it is performed ; ncverthelefs they are very fparing of 

thcufe of phlebotomy, unlefs in cafes of abfolute neceffity ; 

and even, then they take care to make but a very little orifice, 

and. let but a very fihall quantity of blood at a time, feldom 

Way -of above the value of half a poninger. Thofe who have no 

hUtding. lancets, will make their incifion with any other jfharp tool, 

or even with a brpken piece of china. They apply n6 tandag'? 

pr Knen over it, but only fprinkle the orifice with a few 

grains of fait. They.ufe, in fome particular cafes, another 

\vay of bleeding, which may be called acupunfture, or prick- 

^ ing feveral holes on the part affeftcdwith a large needle: but, 

' ais this curious invention was brought to them from JapaH^ 

* we (hall defer the farther defcription of it till we come to 

/ ' * {peak of that ejnpirp, ^where that operation is performed in 

much greater perfeftion, 
CarfMcaA.. ',. The Chinefe in;geaeral attribute the greater parts of th«r 
colics, aches, and other diftempers, to the malignity of fore 
ftagnated and corrupted winds which breed in the body, atd 
yi(bii?b they encka^jour, to draw away by topical application, 
fuch as the acupunftion lafl mentioned, cupping, or, if thofc 
fail, by cauterifing the part affected. TherS is one diftemper 
very common and dangerous among the lower clafs of people, 
bccaTioned, as is fuppofed, by the badnefs of their diet ; 
which at firft feizes the ftomach and bowels, and caufes into- 
lerable gripings ajad vomitings, and other inward pains and 
Convulfions; and, if aot timely removed, throws the patient 
Cauttrife- .iato a profound letl^u-gy, or atrophy. In this cafe, their 
ingtn the ^xMjunon method is, fio apply a red-hot iron bullet near enough 
Mhorn j^ j^ f^;^ ^ jjjg fgg^ j^ j.^.f^ ^ \m.tx. If the patient 

^^ ^^^' becomes fenfible of the- pain, they withdraw the bullet, and 
he commonly recoter* foon after ; but if he continues fenfe- 
iefs, they apply it dofer and dbfer, jtill the flefh is burnt tvp 
to the very bone. 

^ Du Ha-lde, vol.ii. p. 133, & al. <^ See bcfoit, 

f.ic)4, &feq. 

^. "" . ' 

^- /Which precaution the em- well as the manner in which 
perw h^ly . commended, as theyexprcfled themfelves (i). 
V : ..... /i; Du Amide, 'mli^ ^. 133. £1^/. ft6>, 



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C I . The Hijfofy of ' Chi na. ' 309 

The nfe of clyftcrs might prove of excellent ufe to them- Amerfiun 
in feveral of their colicky ailments, but that was wholly ud- *• cljfiirs^ 
known to them. The Portuguefe of Macao tried to intro- 
duce it among them, but without fuccefs ; the fhinefe being, 
oa the one lund, too averfe to all European novelties to ad- 
mit of it, and, on the other, affWHng too great a degree of 
modefty to give it any better name than that of the barba^ 
rim retnedy, which is that which it goes by all over their 

There is hardly any nation in the world, among which Difiemfen 
one naay fee a greater number of purblind and quite blind •/ the eya 
fijlks, or a greater variety of diftempers of the eyes. This is/reque^tt. 
commonly attributed to the quantity of rice confumed among 
them at their daily meals. Whether that graiUi which In 
other refpefts is fo friendly and nourifliing to the body, have 
any fnch pernicious cSe£k upon that curious and moft valua- 
ble part of it, or whether it be not rather owing to fome 
other caufe hitherto unknown, and particularly to their drink- 
ing fo much of it dUlilled and burnt, which may probably 
affeft the eyes, as much as it is found to do the throat and 
fwrallow g, we will not pretend to determine. 

Among the great variety of diforders in the eyes, we (hall AJingular 
fingle out a very extraordinary one, which is very little, if inftana of 
at all, known in Europe^ but is very common all over China ; ^ j.^J^* 
the natives g^ve it the name of Ki-mung-yen, which, in their ^'y . ^* 
language, implies, according to our author •*, a darkncfs in ^ ^^^* 
the eyes, like that which is natural to fowl and poultry, by 
which they pretend to explain the caufe, but doth by no means 
come up to it, this laft being only a heavinefs of the cyefids, 
occafioned by the abfence of the fun's rays ; whereas the dif- 
. temper we arc fpeaking of, and which EtmuUerus calls NySfa' 
lopia'i, doth not confift iii a bare dimnefs of fight morniqg 
and evening, but in an almoft total darknefs during the whole 
night, not to be removed by any artificial light, whilft the 
pticnt ejyoys a perfeft fight all the reft of the day, Jn the 
ai^t, the flame of a wax-candle, brought near him, appears 
lite a large and dim globe of fire, without enabling him to 
difcover any other objeA dther near or diftant : in the day- 
time he fees every thing as dHtinftly as thofe who enjoy a 
perfeft fight. We flxall not trotible our readers with the va- 
rious conjeftures of the learned concerning this periodical 
focceffionof light and darkqefs, but only fubjoin thie method 
of cure wWch the Chuuje dodlord vf^ik& ufe of, and which, 
'",.-.» ♦ 

• Scetbifwe, p^ zSo^fubmit. c* J>fi«tft^coi»L»« in Let. edff. 
fpLxxiv. p. 130, & ftq, i Vid. & Dift. Art. k Scicnt. in voc. 

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310 ^te IBfiory 0f Chiiwu B. L 

fircm theiaftaaces whidi our author gives asi appears to us ta 

))e eflfeAual; the receipt of which is as follotirs : 

Ji9n» Take thfe gall of a black-headed ewe or wether* cut it 

ovvA {rom the liver* not with an iroa, but a iharp bamboe knife ; 

ftrip it of its nerves* pellicles, and filaments* and fprinkk 

It over with falt-petre ; wrap up the whole drfe in a leaf of 

t^enubar^ and ftew it oyer a flow fire in a propordonaUc 

qus^ntity of wat^r : let the patient keep ftirring it all the time* 

holding a flieet fprcad over his head, to keep in the fleam 

Irom evaporating* but that it may be all recdved by him at 

the nofe and eyes ; which will caufe the latter to run* and bf 

that means diuiiarae the morbific matter, and qpm^te die ^ 

cure. Some advi(e the drinking of the Uqucnr in which the 

^all is dewed ; and others pretend chat the patient will be 

' cured without it, and even tbons^ the ewe or wether's head 

were of any other colour than Uack, bur all agree that the 

fumigation is the chief caufe of the cure ^. 

The reader may fee in the author laft quoted* and in Du 

JJalie^ feveral curious extraAs out of the Chinefe phyfical and 

• botanic books ^ for which we have not room in a. work of 

this extenfive natnre, and which, at the beft* would prove 

Jnocuh" agpreeable but to few of our readers ; We (hall therefore con* 

tion afthe tent ourfelves with fclefting two of the moft curious and re- 

(mUji^x. markable ones out of them ; vi«. th^ir method of inoculating, 

or, according to their own more fignificant term, Tchung-teou 

(B), q{ /owing thefmall-pox\ and the defcription of the fit- 


> Deutrbcollis, ubifup, ' Hift. of China, volii. 

p. 183* $c feq. 212, & feq. ic alib. pafT. 

(B) The verb Tchung, we arc culating, may likewife be in aH 

told, properly fignifies to (bw, prpbabilicy (aken fromtheirine- 

an4 te9Uf Of teoo, is the name thod of commumcatine it,whkh 

they eive to tbe fmall-pox, and is not by inJefHon of the poi. as 

>to a miall eadne pea they have ours is, but by bkwinf toe 

among them r io that it is pro^ fmall quantity of the pow^ of 

, bable this name might at ^rft be a dried puftute into the aoMb 

pven to that diibmpjur on ac^ of the padents. The M hbt 

count of the likcnefs df the of it, it isf«ppofed» wstsfcea 

paftules It raifes on the Ikin to from the violent itdbiag iadtit 

the coh>ar and figure of that part, which was obferved to be 

fmall pcdfe, there being Ho ^f- the foremnner of that difieopcr 

ference either in the writing ot in children; from which they 

, pronoancmg of that word. - rightly inferred, that the place 

The teAi fowing, which they where the firft feeds or (ymp* 

ifeia&ea4^ grafting aadriilo* «mu of it appealed a^^be 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

e. 1. The Hift$ry tf Omz. 311 

viOQs caxnpbire-tree, the method of exuaAii^and pniifyiofl 
its gum^ together with the various virtues they attribute both 
to that, and to the wood Jtfelf. 

That the Chinefe had the art of inoculating the fmaU-pox» Known In 
in order to prevent the di'eadful havock which that diftcmper China, 
made among them, long enough before we knew any thing W/r«i«* 
of it in Europe^ or in dl probability the Armeniam at Can^ ^O' ^^ 
ftantinople^ from whom we firft received it, is eiddent from ^ 
their J)hyfical books which treat of that diftcmper, and of tkwi '"'* 
propereft methods of communicating and curii^ it, and vin- 
dicate and recommend it as a moft (afe and beneficial difco* 
very. » • 

This lafl circumftance, joined to the great vogue which, k 
hath gained throughout the empirej^ may be looked upcxi ^ 
a fb-ong prefumption that the Chinefe were the firft authors 
of it (C), it being quite contrary to the maxims and practice 

the propereft place for fowing 
them in other peribns, and the 
moftlikelv to convey it with 
cafe and ipecd into the reft of 
the body (3). 

(C) $ome of our Eng^/^vm^ 
ters,wlio received the Srft news 
of this Bf w method from Cm- 
ftimtsMopUf and other parts of 
the Othman empire, where it 
was pra£ii(ed only by a few Ar- 
mnnans about the 1 7th century, 
have imagined that they had 
brought it from fome of the 
coumriei adjacent to the Caf- 
fioM fea; which conjecture, if 
^nie, mi^ht incline one to be- 
lieve, that the (Mneft mi^ 
likewife receive it from thofe 
parts by the means of the fame 
Armenian caravans which have 
traiicked into that empire a 
confiderable number of years : 
bac'if we take in the account 
^R^lick the Qnnik themfehres 
^veof it, it will oe much more 
ynlable that both the Amu^ 
ffMw^aod thole coondiea thro* 

which they travelled, had it ori- 
ginally from them. 

But it is kardly credible that 
thofe tartaric nations about th^ 
Cajpian fhould have the leaft no* 
tion of £0 vatoable a fecret, who 
knew not fo much as how to 
fence againft that diftemper, and 
were wont, upon the£rft ap[>eas- 
ance of it, to^ flee from it ai 
from the moft dreadful pefti- 
lence, abandoning their neareft 
relations, when once infected 
with it. Add to this, that if the 
difcovery of it had been brought 
by the caravans of thofe parts 
into theC^iir^ empire, the pro* 
vince of ^^#i^-/» which is con- 
tiguous to it, muft have had it 
before that of iQMm^-««», which 
is iituate on the fouth-weft of 
it, and is that where the Cbine/e 
affure us the author of the difco- 
very then lived ; fo that, every 
thing duly weighed, we may 
venture to agree wiA that au- 
thor (4) in giving the credit of 
that uieful difcovery to theC^« 

Cl) DtmntUhkin Imrtt MiMHt\ vU, xi. p, 306, & ftf. (i) U. iM* 

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3t? i}>e Hiftory of China. B,I, 

of that polidc nation to admit, at leaft with fuch xcal and 
readincfs, any new arts or inventions, how promifmg and 
ufefui foever, much lefs fo uncertain and dangerous a one as 
this muft appear at firft, which comes to them by the hands 
By nuhom^ of ftrangers. Accordingly their books tell us, that the fijft 
tfWwi&^Tf.iJifcovercr of this new. method flouriftied in the province of 
Kyang-nan, near the frontiers of Kyang-Ji; and that it began 
to grow in vogue about the latter end of the dynafty of Mwg, 
or about 120 or 130 years ago. 
Its great But that which gave it the greatcft reputation and autho- 
/uccs/i in nty, was the great ferwcs it did afterwards in Tartary, about 
Tartary. the year 1724, whither the emperor fent fome of the moft 
expert proficients to cxercife it upon the children 6f his Tar- 
tarian fubjefts, kxnotkg whom the fmall-pox was looked upon 
as the worft of all peftilential difeafes ; infomuch that when- 
ever any of them, whether qld or young, were attacked with 
it, cvery-body, even his n^areft relations, fled from him, and 
left him to take his chance, either to die of it, or, which 
feldom happened, to overcome It by the help of a Ilrong con- 
ftitution. ' 

Prtcoura. ANOTHER motive which induced that excellent monarch 
'gtd By the ^ ^ake this precaution, was the dreadful havock which it 
emferor. made among not only his pandees, and other officers, who 
brought from thence the ufual tributes and presents to him, 
but likewife among the merchants who came thither to traf- 
fick, as foon as they arrived at Pe-king^ which is feldom 
free from that diftemper ; fo that few of them efcaped being 
feized with, and mbft of them of being killed by, it. 

Those phyficians, according to his orders, foon went and 
difperfed themfelves into feveral parts of Tartary ; where 
they, by their prudent care and management, had fuch fur- 
prifmg fuccefs, that they returned fome years after laden wirfi 
the moft valuable conunodities of that country, and became 
immenfely rich, and in high efteem at that .prince's court, 
who, we may be confident, did not fail of encoutaging fo 
ufefui and beneficial a difcovery. But it is time now to give 
our readers an account of their method of proceeding in it» 
as it was, not without great difficulty and fecrefy, communi- 
cated to our auti^or by fome of thofe phyficians then attend- 
ing the court™ (D). , 


" DentrecoIles, ubi fup. vol. xx. p. 315, & feq; 

(D) There were three of account of his Qiethod; the £rf 
thofe phyficians who were pre- of whom, though the. moft con- 
vailed upon to g^ve him each an cife, hath given as explicit and 
t fatisfadory 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C.I. Tie Hfjiory of CKma. 313 

Provide yourfelf with a good quantity ^of the dried fcales Their me- 
which fall of! the bread or back of a young healthy child, be- fhoJ of 
twccn one and feven years old, efpecially if he be gone thro* /'•<?f^^^*«X 
the fmall-pox in thirteen day?, and the puftules appear to '" ^^• 
have been full and clear ; preferve thofe fcales in a china 
vcflel clofely flopped with wax, by which means they will 
keep good a whole year ; whereas leaving them expofed to 
the leaft air would fpoil them in a fev/ days : let the child, 
on whom you defign to inoculate the fmall-pox, be at leaft 
a year old, and in full health, and his body be rightly and 1 
duly prepared by proper medicines. If the fcales you have Convffflk 
for ufc be fmall, take four of them ; if large, only two % difettfe Sy 
and put between them about a grain of muik, and wrap up thenoflrils^ 
Ac whole in fome fine cotton, in the form of a tent, which 
you fliall thruft into the left noflril, if it be a boy j and in 
the right, if a girl ; taking previous care that the future of 
the child's cranium be well clofed, and that the bod^ be nOt 
inclined to a loofenefs, or any ailment which is contrary to the 
operation. If after all thefc cautions, the puftules do not 
appear in three days after the fever hath begun to ftiew itfelf, 
ften 00c may fafely promife one's felf ^hat dght or nine in 
ten will go through it with fafety, and do well after it ; but 
if they put forth on the fecond day after the fever, it is z 
queftion whether one half of them, and, if oh the firft day^ 
whether any of them, will outlive it. . 

Thus far the firft phyficians ; from whofe account, though 
fliort, one may ftill fee what wile precautions they take ia 
every ftep of their progrefs. As to the mixture of the muflc Mujk/whj 
with the fcales which are put into the nofe, it may perhaps added t» 
appear to us a trifling nicety ; and fojne authors t«U us, that thefcaUs. 
they ufe no other ceremony than that of blowing the pow»- 
dered fcales into the child's noftril through a funnel <Mr comet : 
but this can be at beft but a ftovenly way, and ufed only 

fatisfaflory one as oar readers of them unknown, and of little 

wodd care to read. The other or no ufe to us in the like cafes ; 

two differing in no eiTencial part for thefe reafons, and to avoid 

of the procefs, but having only necdlcfs repetitions', we fhalb 

added fome further minute di- only add fuch material direc* 

re^ons and receipts towards tions oat of the two laft, as the 

preparing the patients, and pro* firit had omitted in his ; and re- 

jnoting the procefs of the ope- fcr thofe of our readers, i^dio 

ration; but which confill on- are defirous to be more fully 

I7 of feme compofitions , of acquainted with the Chinefe piau 

plants, and other drugs, moii £lic«, to theaathor ]^mfelf,(5)^ 

.1 ' ^ 

^ (5) Dentrecollti, uii fiff, /. 320— 361* 


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314 The mfUry of Chi|^ R Ir* 

among the poor vulgar ; for, befides its carrying fiich a great 
force with it, as may caufe the nofe to run, and difchar^ 
the morbiferous powder, if we confider that the ufc of thofe 
high perfumes is in great vogue amongft theqi, and enters 
into a great number of their phyfical compofiticHis^ k is not 
without mature deliberation that they^ apply the mu(k in this 
prefent cafe, not only as it b a ftrengthener of the brdn, hearty 
fend ftomach, and confequently a promoter of the intended 
fecretions ; but as it may, by its balfamic quality, corrcft the 
acrimony of the fermentative virus, as well as the naufeouf- 
nefs of die efflu^a which arife from the morbific fcales. 
AiM>S(r- Yjjg other two doftors are fomewhat diiFufe and intricate, 
'^ '**' efpecially the laft, which might be defigncdly done, dther to 
^^^y^ difplay his (kill and accuracy, or more prolxibly to perplex a 
^r$ctfi. procefs which he rcluftantly communicated to a ftranger, 
* and to prevent his reaping any advantage from it. However, 
as ndther of them differs from the firft in any of the mate- 
rial poiifts above-mentioned, we fhall readily fubjoin what- 
ever we nject with in the two latter, that may fervc as a 
fupplement or improvement of the former. And, 
Profir First, As to the proper time for performing the opera- 

ifmifirtt, ^^^ ^^ exclude 6ttreme hot or cdd weather, when the 
animal fpirits are either difperfed and exhaufted^ or elfe too 
clogged and flagnatea ; and recommend the fpring and aa- 
fumn as the fittcft feafon, when they are free, and in full vi- 
gour. Upon the farne account they commonly chafe ferenc 
and clear before rainy and foul weather ; for we muft remaor 
ber, that it is not fubjeft to fuch fudden changes in tboje 
countries as it is with us. 
f he fcales s Seconi^lt, With refpeft to the (cales to be ufed in th^ 
whence n> fowing of the diftemper, they prefer thofe that come off Ac 
ie taken, ^ack or ftomach before thofe of any other part of the body, 
ttpGCtiSHLj the forehead and feet : and as thofe that are receodj 
gathered arc apt to convey too great an acrimony into dw 
blood, they ulually correft that defeft by holding them fonac 
laxnt in a thin gawfe over the fteam of hot water, in wiwi 
have been infufed fome flices of liquorice and fcorfonera root J 
but thofe fcales which have been kept above a month haveaD 
need of this correAive, and may be fafely ufed urithoot it. 
ThefatienP THIRDLY, Wkh regard to the treadng of the patient, 
htf*w to be they preferibe the £une regimen which is commonif ufed io 
j; treated. .^ namral finall-poX; only the laft of the above receipts 

I * :adds the admitiifli^ff to die decumbent about two or thiee 

^ feales puhrerifed in hM a pint of the broth ca3kd<3unmat «> 

be dnmk on the fecond day after the inf€nioa« 

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C I. Th BJicrj of CMm. 

If the jpoftules do not appear oa the fourth or fifth day, 
dieinorbinc tents muft be taken out» and recourfe be had to 
the dofe prefcribed to be taken before the infertion, by way of 
preparative^ the compofiuon of which the reader will find in 
the mai^g^ (£) ; and which> the third phyfician afiures us^ 
vnll as ^^ually prcferve die patient from ever having the 
diflenper, as if the moculation had had its due efleA; efpe» 
dally if the fame be repeated on the fourth^ fifth, eighth^ 
and ninth, moons after his decumbiture. 

This, by what our author could learn, is all the purgative 
they ufe by way of prepariM their patients, if the gcntlcnefs 
of its operation may admit of that name. Emetics, bleeding, 
and other more fivcing remedies, they carefully avoid, left 
they (hould debilitate rather than af&A nature, and obflruft 
the iecretion and excretion ; inftead of which, when they find Ofium g^ 
the fever to continue, ai^ no puftules appear, fome of them '^'^ '^ 
mix a finall quantity of opium with their other medicines, ^^ '^ 
which helps to reunite the fpirits, and aflifls them in throwing -^^*^*^** 
out the morbific virus. Thus hi their method of fowing or 
inoculating the fmaU-pox, which, whether more eafy and fafb 
than that of conveying the morbiferous pus by indfion or 

(£) Take of red, green, and 
Uack peas, and fliced liquorice, 
of each one ounce J let them all 
te finely poonded and fifted, 
and put into the hollow of a 
piece of pilled basaboe,- leave* 
mg the knot at the two ends; 
and let them be ^pped very 
cloTe with two pieces of fir- 
wood, covered ail over with 
wax. Sofpend the faid ftick, in 
the winter, in the foil of a 
A£M-ra»f ,or houfe-of-office, du- 
fing the fpace of a month or 
two. When tidcen oat, cleanfe 
die ontfide thoroughly, and dry 
^ powder in the (hade : and 
add to every oance of it three 
Mafst or three Yenth parts of an 
ounce, of ^hc flower Moeitfiy a 
kind of ^Id apricot, which 
blows only m winter, and bears 
IK) ftoit, wdl dried by a fire, 
tnd powdered. The doie is 
&om one half to a whole Mafs^ 

or from half an ounce to an 
ounce, in proportion to the 
child's age ; the whole diluted 
in a deco&on of the ftalks of a 
^#-ii04,orkind of oblong wild 
ffpard, which are &id to have a 
dittretic, carminative, and re* 

Some Chitufi books give us. 
however, a more cleanly, fhort* 
and eafy way, of preparine this 
medicine^ by boiling all the 
above-mentioned ingredients in 
an earthen veiTel, till the whole 
becomes of a moderate thick* 
nefs, and giving it in a double ' 
quantity ; but whether or no it 
will have the fame virtue, we 
will not wairant j only our mif- 
fionary afiiircs us, that the red 

C expel all peccant mattqps 
i the heart, the bkck frcNn 
the reins, and the grem fi:oai 

(^J 'Otwtlrtcau, wkifwf. f. ^3d| ^fip 


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'3 1 6 • Tie Hijiory of China. B. L 

Jjunfturc, as Is praftifed by the Greeks in Turky, and by our 
iir^eons in England^ we will not take upon us to determine ; 
much lefs whether it ought to have die preference before the 
neir no- natural one. If our reader fhould be defirous to know wliat 
iion of the account the Chinefe books give of the latter, we can only tell 
natural them, that they feem unanimoufly to agree, that every child 
fox. brings the morbific poifon v/ixh him from the womb ; bat 

whether it receives it from the father or mother, they are not 
agreed ; neither can they give any tolerable account why or 
how it difplays itfelf in fuch various fhapes, produces fuch 
different cfFefts, and at fuch different and diftant periods of 
life ">. 
fhe cam- The laft thing we propofed to mention, under this head 
fhfri'tru of phyfic, was the famed camphire-tree, their method of ex- 
defcribed, trafting and purifying its gum, and the Virtues they afcribc to 
it,, as well as to the wood which bsars it. This noble tree, fo 
famed for its largenefs and prodigious height, is called by the 
Cfnnefe Tchang, and the camphire Which is extrafted from It 
Tchang-nao, The account we have of it, and of the Chinefe 
way of extrafting and fublimating its excellent gum being 
taken from an old Chinefe book, which the emperor Kang-hi 
caijfed to be reprinted, with the obfervations of fome of the 
.mofl learned and curious virtuofos and literati of the empire, 
carries its own authority with it,, and confutes feveral erro- 
neous notions we l^i^ of that procefs here in Europe (F) ; for 
which reafon wc hope our readers will not be difpleafed to 
.have a more clear iatKl authentic account o£ it than they have 
hitherto met with, as it hath been communicated to thefe 
£«r(?jj^^i« parts by the fame ingenious miffionary, from whom 
we had the curious* procefs of the Chinefh inoculadon, men- 
*tioned in the preceding article f i 
Its vajt . The tree itfejf is of fuch a monftrous fize, that fome of 
height W them rife to above 300 feet ; its thickijeft is proportionable to 

« DBNTRBCOLLESy ubi iiip. f Idcjn, ubi fup. vol. xxiv. 

p, 406, & feij. . 

(F) Amengft th^fe we may inci(ion{7),andt)iatitisbroogbt 

reckon that of the famous Mr. crude from thence by theD«/d; 

Ltmerjy who aiBrmed the cam- all which is plainly confuted by 

phire to diftil from the trunk the more curious accoonc given 

and the larger branches of the us by the Clnmfi book abore: 

.tree;:aadt^tof £/4ii^/i?ir, and mentioned, as the reader will 

others after him, who p^fien^ fee by what follqws. 

Ihat it ic drawn from the tree by ^ ^ 

li) Piffipt,^(t,,9f'fSfi4nt'Jniv9c^Cdmik9u 

-■ '^ ■ ' ». 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. I. 7le Hilary of Cbint. 51 7 

it, info^uch that 20 men can hardly embrace its tnTnk. The 
branches fpread a conliderable way ; and the wcx)d, which is 
very hard and durable, is of Angular ufe for the conftruftipn 
of large (hips, aS well as for other more curious pieces of 
joinery, by reafon of the beauty and gloflinefs of its furface, 
and the great variety of its veins. Their texture is fo tena- 
cious and clofe, that it is very common to fee many of them 
above 300 years old. ^ ^ 

They neither yield their fine gum by diftiUadon nor by f be gum 
incifion ; an operation fo eafy, and well known among the h(yw ex* ^ 
Chinefcy that, if it could be got by that way, they would rea- traded, 
dily adopt, as they do with regard to the fir and other re- 
fmous trees, preferably to that tedious and difiicult one which 
they are obliged to take to extraft it fix>m this ; and which is 
as follows ; They take fome of the neweft branches, and faw 
them acrofs in thin flips of aboui an inch in thicknefs 5 and 
thefe they chop again into fmall fguare bits, and' foak them 
three days and thite nights in well-water^ by which time they 
are fuJflBciently macerated to be fet a boiling on a moderate 
fire. They fUr them all the while, with a &: flick, till they 
have yielded their gummy juice, which is eafdy known by 
its flicking like a white jelly to the fir-flick : they then flrain pereoktedp 
the whole, taking fpecial care that none of the faeces, or other 
filth, be intermixed with it ; and pour it gently into an earth* 
en vefTel well varniflied, in which they let it fland and cool a 
whole qight, and on the morrow is found the camphire coa- 
gulatec^ into a mafs or cake. 

This mafs is afterward purified or fuhlimated in the fol- purifad^ 
lowing manner : They take a bafon or flattiftx ve(rel-..of red ^«^y«*&" 
coppery and put into it a layer of the pulverifed earth of ^•^^^^^ 
fome old mud wall, and over that one of the mafs ; they add 
a fecond, third, and fourth, layer of each, and cover the 
whole, firfl with a frefh layer of the leaves of the plant Po^ 
or penny-royal, and this with another copper bafon of the 
fame bignefs, turned upfide-down upon the firfl; and fo 
flrongly cemented together, that none of the effluvia can eva-^ 
porate through the joining, which, would otherwife mar not . 
the procefs. The firfl bafon being thus filled, and clofely . ^ 

covered, is fet on a moderate fire, which mufl be neither too 
fierce nor too flack, and care be taken that the cement be the * 
cracked by the heat, or any accident ; and, after having been 
a fufficient time on the coals, which is moflly gained by expe- 
rience, it is taken off, and left to cool'; and, upon parting 
the two bafons, the camphire will be found incruflated ana 
fublimat^, flickmg on the top and fides of the uppermofl 
one* If the fame experiment be repeated in the fame manner ' 



by Google 

jiS Tbe iiift9ry of O&cau HI 

fht •firo' twice or three times, each operation will yidd a frefli qmn- 
tionre* tity of the fame odoriferous gum. Thefe muft likewife be 
/r«tf«/ put between two earthen veifels, well dofed together with 
cement, or with wet paper, to ftop all evaporations ; and be 
fet upcm a moderate fire, in order to make it fit for nfe ; 
and, when taken ofT and cooled, the camphire will be foand 
in its utmoft perfection, and ready for all ufes. 
IThetherk ' Jt is not unlikely, omtinues our Jefuit, that Iboie expert 
m^ not It Suropean chemift/ who could procure a quantity of thofe re- 
ikm in a Cent branches, might find out a more eafy and expeditions 
fwVi/r way of extrafttog this valuable gum from it% and fublimate- 
^^* ing it to the fame d^ee of perteftion ; and yet it b no le(s 
plain, that the Chlnefe are neither ignorant of, nor averfe to, 
a (horter way, fedng they can fublimatc even mercory be- 
tween two well luted common crucibles ; fo that they moft be 
fuppdfed to have fome crounds for keeping up to this more 
laborious procefs, in order to have it in its true purity and 
perfeAion ; though, from the notion of Lemtry^ and odiers, 
of its bdng brought crude and foul from thence into Holland^ 
one may e^dv conclude, that they do by it as they do by 
their tea, ana other commodities ; and dther extraft it in a. 
more flovenly way, or adulterate it with (bme heterogeneoas 
mixture ; the cakes of it, which are brought from thence by 
the Dutch^ or perhaps rather by the Batavian natives, who 
commonly trade thither, appearing as if they were caft in tha 
nd of a porridge-pot. However, it is plain they make ftifE- 
dent quantities of the purer fort for thdr own ufe, fince it 
bears no higher a price at Pe-king than about 2d. fer ouncey 
and is fUll cheaper in the difbnt provinces, from whoice they 
Tte dnUe foch it. There is moreover a double advantage in extn^ng 
4uhjaH' It in the tedious manner above-mentioned ; the one is, that 
iages of it may be done at all feafons of the year, whereas there conld 
ibis long be but one feafon for doing it by iodfion 5 the otiier, that 
^^* the lopping oflP the branches dotii not hurt the tree like the 

wounding of it ^. 

FirtMis of The virtues the Chinefe book above-mentioned attributes to 

the cam- the camphire are various. It is of an add and warm nature, 

f^*'^' and in no adfc prejudicial or hurtful; it helps to* carry offthe 

phlegm and flime from the ftomach and bowels ; it purifies 

the olood from filth, and reftifies the cfiforders which are 

caufed by cold and dampnefs ; it eafes the moft violent colics, 

iand cotera morbus^ loathings and flatnlcncies in the ftomach ; 

it cures the itch, fcabs, and other curicuiar ailments ; fixes 

■ DiKTaECOLLEs, ubi fop. p. 422, & fcq^ * Id. ibid. 

p. 4«4, 

I looft 


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C. u fU Hijhry of China. . 319 

bofe teeth, aAd cleanfes rottea ones ; and is an excellent pre-. 
fenradve, as well as an effeftual remedy, againft bodily ver- 
mm. Th& wood of it is likewife affirmed to have all the Of$be 
wtnesof the gum, though in a much inferior degree, the de- «uW. 
coflion of it bring fuccefsfully ufed againft all the abovc- 
mendoncd diforders; and* if taken in a lacge quantity, workg 
as a gentle emedc, and cleanfes the ftomach and bowels itom 
peccant humours. Laftly, and to name no morje, ftiocg^ 
the fofes of which are made of this wood, cure the 
feet from exceffive fWeating, and are a great ftrengthener o^ 
them. And thus much may fuffice for the virtues of this 
tree, and its excellent guifi \ though the Chinefe^ it muft b« 
owned, is univcrfafly allowed to be greatly inferior to that 
wiiich comc^ from the ifland of Borneo p. 

To condude this article, one may fafely fay, that thq 
whtfle Ml of the'Cffine/e praftki^oners in phyfic, among 
whom the Lamas are reckoned fome of the beft, confifts 
chiefly in the knowl€;ge of a .certain- Atimber of plants and 
drugs, and the pofieffion of fome Approved receipts, trai^* 
mitied as aa ini^i^ritance from fat^i^lr to fon> ;and ^referved 
vith die utmoft fecrecy in their famjiied ; and which, if mif { 
appBed through inadvertency or ignorance, w;hich is often 
iec^ atwl fail of the promifcd 'feitcefs, thofe pretendeis 
are w^ at a lofe far fome fpecious cxcufe, by tliix>wing the 
Wame either on die weather, the irregularity of the patients, 
or the careleflhei& c£ th<^ who.ftttend them : whereas the C$mptat 
i^^mx Kang^hi had been fo wdl eiHiwiced, that moft oitreatifeof 
thdr mifcarrtages were ow^ng to thcSi' ^ant of (kill in ana- anatony 
toay, that he ordered one <rf the beft European treatifes on ^^nfl^^ 
thatfabjeftto hctmnflated into th&Tartarian language, and i^f^!^-^ 
adorned with idl the variety rf cuts that were neceffary for i!L^" 
iocha worlc, Irhidi were thofe of the famed BartoUnus : all ^^* 
which was executed with the utmoft care, under the dir^ion 
of Fatker Parrerdtt, and highly admired at court, when 
thcworit was comfdeted, that prince, rccolleiting that he 
had fi^en, among ciber o£ his rarities, a ftatue about three 
&^ high, caft in copper, on which were, as he imagined, all the 
ydns aod arteries delineated in their ^r<^per places, he ordered 
it to be bit>ught orut, and compared with thofe of the treatife. 
To thdr great furprize, they found thofe lines all parallel to 
caA xjthor, and almoft all of the fame length, without any 
thekaft ref<miblanoeather to veins or arteries, or anfwering 
' to their true fituation and number* The ftatue having at 
length been examined by two of the experteft phyficians bcr 

' DtKiNtscoLLf s, ubi'fup, p. 42S, k fe^^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

jio The Uifiory of China. . B. 1. 

longing to the ,palace, they foon found that thofe Hues were 

tl^ced on the figure with no other view than to point ou^ the 

places that were proper to let blood at, by the operation 

lately mentioned, called acupunfture, or by the help ^<x)arfe 

^he empe- needles, m cafes of rheumatifm, gout, fciatica, ire. Upon 

rorsjudg' Which the emperor told them, that he remembered that there 

mentontbehzA been a difleftion of a human body under the forgoing 

difeSHon dynafty of Ming, which was the firfl:, if not the only one, 

rfcrim- that had ever been made in China : Though, added he, IJbould 

■^*^* not be againft' their beifig often repeated on the bodies of crimi- 

ftalSf for the fake of the advantages that may be rec^pedfrom 

if, provided it were ddne privately, and only in the prefenu 

tf phyficians and furgeons ; /> being hut juft . that thofi 

ttfretches, who have done fo 'much mi/(:hfef to the public in 

their life-time, Jhoiild be doomed'to make fome.ufefid amenJffor 

' it dfter^heir death 'i. -But the difficulty -'is,- how to induce 

the Chihefe to think in the |aqie juft rpaooer. . . 

, • , ., ^ *.'■''' ■■'' .; ' ; '• 'r • . 
\ , SECT. VIII.;. , 

yOfjh Origin^ Jnh^uity^ oftd CbrmdUg^y Hffik 
Q)xmt{t Nation. / 

Origin and \l7E We already, in fome of the for^oii% feftJons*, had 
antiquity . occafion to inform our readers, ^t, with regard to 
o/'/;5r^ Chi- the account we gave of the origin, antiquity, and fim peo- 
neff ^ piling, of the Chinefe natioQ, we contented (»irfelves widi fol- 
lowing the moft received opinion, which fuppofes them, as 
well as the Tartars, -ta be defcendcd from Magog,, Meflltei, 
- \/ . . and Tubal ^ ; and accordingly laid, before our readers afcrics 
of the moft material arg^^ments which have hitherto been 
> urged againft the hypotheiis of the late leatmed Shuckfori, of 
Noah being the fame . with the Chinefe Fo-hi, die founder ti j 
that monarchy \ Thefe we endeavoured to fet in the ftrongeft 
light,, not fo much as our real opinion, as with a vi^w oi 
eK<:iting thereby fome of. Our ingenious dorrefpoiKknt^, ^^hoto 
we know to be on the contrary fide of the qneftidn, to cOffi* 
municate their thoughts to us on that- curious and fo mttdi 
controverted fubjeft, in hopes. of receiving fome fiutber 1^? 
from their difcoveries, which might cither corroborate **«- 
JIfr.Shuk- plode the general opinion of the learned. Our hopes have 
ford'i ar-^O^ heen fruftrated ; and«we dare flatter ourfelves, that'th* 
ffumfnt many judicious hints w^c have fince recdyed fix>m a certlia 

• ^ Parr^esin. ubi fup. voi. xvii. p. ^86, &:feq. * Seebcr 

fore, p. ICO. Sc Antient Hift. vol. xx, p. 109, 8c feq. * l^^^ 
200, Sc feq. ^ Connexion, part 4, p. 99, fc f^q. . 


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C.I. The Hifiiry tf Clanz. 321 

quarter have now enabled us to refume the argument In fa- 
vour of Dr. Shuckford's fyftem, not only in a manner almoft 
intirely new> but backed with fuch fre(h and authentic proofs 
as will, we doubt not, appear to every unbiailed reader more 
than equivalent to any thing that hath hitherto been ob- 
jected againA it, and on that account jufily to deferve a place 
m a work like this ; that, by a fair comparuon between them, 
every one may be enabled to embrace that fide of the que- 
ffioa which appears to him to carry the greater weight. And 
this we judge the. more incumbent upon us, as the greater 
part of the authorities we (hall produce are fuch as have not 
hidierto appeared in public, at 1^ in the clear light in which 
they will be found in the following pages, and which we' are 
not without hopes jnay afibrd matter for greater improvement 
among fuch as are beft verfed in thofe remote andquities : for I^s J^JIem 
though we readily own, that the ingenious Dr. Skuck/orcts clogf^ 
hypothefis, on the foot he hath propofed it, and fix)m the ^ ^^ 
mcdiod he hath undertaken to prove it, appears (Hll closed ^Jp^^^ 
with fuch (eeming infurmountable difficulties, as might eafily 
deteraune a hafty reader to (rejeA it in the lump (for which 
reafon we (hall follow it no ferther than we can plain the 
way before it) ; yet if thofe feeming difficulties can be clearly hu nvtkt 
removed, and fuch new proofs be broujght, as will make it ap- «rr jw# 
pear not only extremely probable and rational, but (which is ««^ /« ^ 
the mofl important, though difficult, point to carry) cafily '^■•w^ 
reconciled with, and by fome authendc &61 fhewn to be qtdte 
cooMent with, our Hebrew, as well as with the antient Chi* 
ne/e chronology ; it is to be hoped that the mutual evidence 
yMch jthefe two will be found to refleA on each other will 
eaiily oatwdgh all that can be urged againft it, dther on ac* 
ocNuit of the newnefs or fingularity of it : and much more 
ib, if, by their mutual help and agreement, we (hall be en- 
dded to fix the Chine/e chronology, from the very foundation - 
of its monarchy, upon a furer bafis than hath been hitherto 
attempted, or thought upon. But as this laft is the moft im* 
portant point of all, and fitted to precede Immediately the 
hifbry of the Chinefe monarchs, we fliall defer it till then ; 
wfailft we now go on with the other topics, by which we 
intend to fhew the great probability of Noah bdng the fame 
with Fo'biy and the founder of the Chinefe monardhy. 

This hypothefis (for we will not yet venture to call it by Arguments 
affax>nger name) hath been in a great meafure already Qon-ffti^pro' 
firmed by various learned pens, by a much greater number ^^^!y ^ 
of arguments than our defigned brevity will permit us to in- p ^»^ 
fift on ; for which reafon we Ihall confine purfclres to fuch only ^^.' ^^ 
as either carry the grcateft weight, or as have not yet been urged ^ f 
Mod. Hist. Vol. VIU. X in^ ' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


J22 ^^ tiiftory of China. B. I. 

in favour of it by any author." Wc begin with the former ; 

which arc as foUow : 

Affinity of I. The affinity and analogy of the names ci Noah and 

their Fo-hi ; together with other particulars of their hillory, too 

nsmis» trite and well known to need a longer detail here, as fome rf 

the moft material will come in more properly in the fequel. 
WWe CO' 2, NOAH and Fo-hi being contemporary ; a point which 
•^aU hath been partly proved by Dr. Shuc^ord''^ but will be more 

fully fo under our lad head. 
Other re- 3. SEVERAL remarkable particulars which Chinefe hlftory 
tnarkahle records of Fo-hi^ and do in a great meafurc agree with thofe 
€o-in€i' which Mofei hath related of Noah^ are another ftrongpre- 
^'■^* fumption of their being the lame pcrfon (A). 
CppoJUion 4. A POURtH argument is the vaft and almoft unhrcrfcl 
between oppofition which is found between the Chinefe^ and all other 
theChi' the defcendants (rf lNoah\ particularly with r^;ard to their 
^^^^ fnd religion, laws, government, learning, arts, cuftoms, 6f. and 
It;!!!^ more efpedally Sill with refpeft to their language ^ ; from all 
whjthit is'juftly concluded, that they muft have been a dif- 
ferent people from thofe who were difperfed foon after the 
building of the tower of Babel^ among, whom there ffiU re- 
mained a fufficient conformity in all the above-mentioned r^ 

^ Conneftiony p^ i. p. loz. ^ Bayer Gramm. Sinic. | 

ic Mufic. SiiMC. Kercher Chin. lUuftr. Le Compte, Mar- 
tini, & al. plur. Web Primitive Language, ShtUckford, 

(A) Thus Fo^hi is affirmed nomenon. 3. Fo-bi is faid to 

by the Chinefe to have iia4 tio have carefully bred up feven 

father; and iVi^^^^, all whofe forts of creatures, which he ufed 

anceftors perifhed by the flood, to facnfice to the fapreme Spirit 

being the firft patriarch of the of heaven and earth. iW is | 

poftdiluvian world, ftands there affirmed by Mofes to have taken 

as if he had no father, no men- into the ark of every cleaa 

tion being made of any in the beaft, and foWl of the air, by 

Chinefe annals. 2 . Fo-hfs mo- fevens, and to have offered diera 

ther is faid to have been im- up a burnt-offering unto the 

pregnated by the rainbow ; a Lord (2). LafWy, The Chinfft 

conceit mofi probably arifing dcriVe the name of Fo-hi from 

from its being given by God as his oblations {%); and Mefis \ 

a pledge to ^^^ and his poile- gives Noah his name on account 

rity (i) J and agreeable enough of the grant which God made 

to the imperfed notion which to him in confequence of his 

the Chinefe retained of that phac- offering (4) . . 

(t^ G^ef.'ix,!^. (2) UU, v\u'%, (3) Ste Murtwif le Ccmpe, 

Du Haide, & at. (4) GeneJ, vui. 20, & fef. 5« alfo Antunt tiif- «/• • 

.5 ■ fpefti I 


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' C i; STfe Hijiory of China.' 323 

fpefts to help one to trace them to their common ori^nal : 
for if all the difficulties that are raifed againft the pofTibility ' 
of Noai's leading a colony into China^ and founding a mon- 
archy there *, long before his death, can be efFeftually re- 
moved, as we hope they will in the fequel, what can he more Noah^- 
rationally inferred from this furpriling difference between xhtparates 
Chinefe and all other nations, than that the good old patriarch, htm/elf 
finding his authority too fmall to deter the greateft part oi\i\& f^om his 
dcfcendants, grown by that tune too numerous and untrafta- ^^'^-Sj 
ble to be deterred from their deteftable defign of fortifying ^ ^*°®^- 
themfelves againfl the power of Heaven (B), .wifely feparated 
faimfelf irom them ;~^and, taking as many with him as ab* 
horred that impious confpiracy, led them far enough eaftwards 
to be out of the danger of being involved in the punifhment 
which he had caufe to fear would quickly fall on thofe re- 
bellious mifcreants 5 till, by flow and gradual migrations, he 
at length reached fome of the northern px>vinces of China. 
This fuppofition, which we fhall endeavour to back in the Rgafons 
fequel with much ffaronger proofs, will then eafdy ^iCQoxiSLt ivhy the 
not only for the vaft difference between the Chinefe and the refl Chinefe 
rf the world, but likewife for the Angular contempt they ^fferfrom 
have ever had for all other nations ; their interdifting all com- ^J^/^^r 
merce and intercourfe with them; their {hutting up the en-' 
trance into thdr dominions againft all ftfangers, unlefs by 
way of ambaffy ; and then: forbidding their natives to go into 
fordgn countries, without the emperor's permiffion, left their 
rdigionf, laws, and cuftoms, fhould become corrupted by 
ftfch intermixtures. Now, if the impious confpiracy above- 
mentioned be allowed a fufficient caufe for Noah's feparating 
himfelf and finall colony from the refl of his rebellious off- 

« Sec Anticnt HiHory, vol. xx. p. lit, & feq. 

(B) It muft be obferved, that whole tenor of the Mofaic ac- 

fome commentators and bold count, particularly from his in- 

critics have given themfelves troducing the Divine Providence 

fome pains, not only to palliate, as exprefly defcending from hea- 

but even to commend that a£>ioa ven to view and blaft their en»- 

as a very laudable one, and as in- terprifc, that it muft have been 

tending no more than the build- of a more malignant nature, and 

ing a kind of metropolis, which calculated to defend themfelves 

might be as the centre of their againft a fecdnd deluge. But 

future empire, and a citadel of this we ihall find a propter 

which might be (bong enough occafion to fpeak more fully in 

for its defence (5), It plainly the fiequel. 
appears, however, from thfe 

(S) Vlie Tojht, Piircr, Li Chre, & dl, in Gcmf. xl 

X 2 fpring. 


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324 The HiJIory of Omz. B.l. 

fpring (and a more radopal and laudable one cannot well be 
imagined) ; then it will be no longer a wonder that the rdigioo, 
laws, government, ire. which he eft^lUhed in his new moa- 
archy, which were, without all doubt, the fame -which he 
received from the antediluvian patriarchs, fhould be in all re- 
fpedls fo oppofite to thofe of a mutinous crew, whom the 
Divine Providence had thrown into a ftate of confiifion and 
anarchy; and, being difperfed over different parts ctf'thc 
world, and fplit into various governments, rather fought how 
to enlarge their dominions by fraud and forcey than how to 
fettle the old patriaithal religion and government among them ; 
for this plainly appears to have been the cafe of all the moQ* 
archies which were formed after the general difperfion at Babd^ 
whilft the empire of China alone, by thdr dofe adherence to, 
and improvements on, the old patriarchal maxims of rdi^ 
and government,, lived in plenty and fecurity, promoted all 
' the ufeful arts and fcicnces, and rather ftrove to cultivate 
' thdr own territories to the beft. advantage, than to enlarge 

them at the expence of their own peace and happinefs. M 
to the difference of their language, it muft of OMirfe be ex- 
pelled to have been ftiU greater, if we fuppofe Noah and his 
colony to have feparated themfelves frwn the reft befiore the 
And mofily confiifion at Babel. Accordingly we find fo litde affinity bc- 
in their tweeu the Chinefe and thofe tongues that were formed juft bfr 
language, f^^^ ^^ difperfion, that it is juftly, and on all accounts, al- 
lowed to carry the marks of an uculoubted priority to them ; 
io that nothing can be more extravagant tlu^ to fearch out for 
any of the roots of the latter out of the former, fedng the 
more it differs from all the reft, efpecially as it bears fucfa 
vifible marks of i* primitive one, the fairer it bid$ for bciif 
that of Noah, and of the antediluvian world. 

5. For, if this prodigious difference between the Chinefi 

f and all other nations be fuch a flrong argument of their bring 

originally a diftinA people from them, as hath been fbllj 

proved by the generality of Chinefe writers, and other learned 

Re/jfms ^ pens ; and if no properer time or occafion can be probably 

/<>rNoahV affigned for this fcparation, than the confpiracy above-men- 

feparattng ^^^^^^ ^t the tower of Bahel ^, what other part can we rea- 

fromhi f^^^^^Y f^PPofe ^^e good old patriarch to have afted on fncb 

defcend' ^ junfture, than firft to ufe all his rhetoric and authority to 

ants. diffuade ^nd deter them from it ; and, when he found it to 

prove ineffeftual, to abandon thofe wretches to their deftiny, 

and fave himfeif, and his fmail number of adherents, from it, 

by leading them into fome<rf' the remoteft dimates from thofe 

f See Gen. xu 3, & feq. 

5 cnrftd 


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C. r; Tbe Hiftory of Chinar 32^ 

curied plains, and fetding them in fome more peaceful abode, 
where they might quietly enjoy the fruits of their piety, and 
the benefit of his farther inftruftions ? This will at once fuf- 
ficiently account for the vaft difference above-mentioned be- 
tween his own colony and the reft of his offspring, that is, 
for the primidve fimplicity and purity preferved in the for- 
mer, and the exceflive depravity of the latter ; and likewif<> 
for Mofes's furprifing filence concierning the remainder of the 
good old patriarch's life, whofe name is not fo much as men- 
tioned by Mofes^ in the fequel of his hiftory, except where 
he acquaints us with the year in which he died ; which feems 
plainly to imply, that he wholly withdrew himfelf from the 
reft of hisdefcendants : for, had he continued ftill among any 
of them after the general difperfion, is it credible that the in- 
fpired hiftorian would have let him fink fo foon into utter , 
oUimn, whilft he is fo parricular in his account of the mi- 
gration^ and fetdements of his three fons, and their numerous 
defccndants ? But there may be ftill affigned a more powerful 
reafim why Mofes concealed this remarkable particular from 
the Jewtjb nation, if not rathdr for God's concealing it from 
him ; VIZ. to prevent any intercourfe between thofe two na^ 
tions, which might in time not only degenerate into a fuper- 
ftitious veneration for the fepulchre of that patriarch (for this 
feems to be the very motive why the Divine Providence took 
fuch care to have that of the Jewifb lawgiver altogether un- 
known) t ; but much more ftill to prevent their contrafting 
fuch a fondnefs and admiration for the purity and fimplicity 
of the Chinefe worftiip, as might infpire them with fome ftrong 
and invincible diflike againft the great number of rites and 
ceremonies which he, for very wife ends, was going to impofe 
upon them. 

yi. Another proof that China muft have been peopled China ' 
by fome fuch early colony as we arc (peaking of, is, that \t peopled *vi^ 
plainly appears to have been not only inhabited, but very O' *^^h* 
populous, much fooner tl^an it can be fuppofed toliave been 
by any other rf Noah's defcendants after the general difper- 
fion: had any of thefe, whether Tubals Mejbech^, or any 
other, been the firft peoplers of the Chinefe empire, as they 
are allowed to have been of the north-eaftern parts .of -Tiir- 
tary^ confidering the 4engdi and difficulty of the way, and 
the flownfefs of their migrations, which were chiefly occa- 
fioned through want of room in proportion to their gradual 
multiplying, not only the kingdoms mbft contiguous to Shi^ 

t See Deuter. xxxiv. 6. See alfo Ant. Hift. vol. Ui. p. 444, 

X 3* vaar^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

3^6 rbe Hipry, of CKiM. B.I. 

• naarr as Babylon, Perjia, &c. but a great number of cpun- 
tries to the eaftward of it, muft be fuppofed to havefw^med 
''with inhabitants before they could have reached, or at leaft 
before they could have tolerably peopled, any of the Chinefe 
> provinces; for this plainly appears to have been the cafe of 
^ ' . the north-eaftern7ar/^ry, which we have formerly fhewn was 
thinly peopled even fo late as the time of Madyes's expeditioa 
Their early '^^o JJia *. But that this was not by any means that of CMna, 
- mrmies and Other eaftern trafts," may be eafily inferred from that no- 
azains ble refiftance which they made againft the prodigious armies 
Winus. of Ifinus and Semiramis : for though we fhould, as we juiUy 
may, fupgofe the accounts of it to have been greatly exagge^ 
rated by antient hifloriansS;'^et, as we have no rcafon to 
think theni more fo on one fide than on the other, we may 
ftill fafely conclude both the invaders and invaded to have 
been upon a par ; and that the latter were ftrong and nume- 
rous enough to repel the forces of the former, whether or no 
they were really fo many as they luve been reprefented. No- 
thing, therefore, can fo fully account for thofc remote eaft- 
ern parts being fo ^vell inhabited and populous at fuch early 
timfes, as the fuppofition of fome fuch colony, whether under 
Noah, or any other chief, feparating themfelves from the reft, 
cither before or about the time of the difperfion, and march- 
ing ftill direftly eaftward, till they fettled themfelves there ia 
about a century oir two afier. 

How much more than probable fuch a fuppofition is, will 
be made to appjar more fully ftill under feveral of the fubfeqoent 
Double ad' heads : at prefent we ftiall content ourfclves with obferving 
vantages y^hat double advantage fuch a colony, how fmall focver in 
ttnftr all j^ gj.ft beginning (C), muft have had over all the other people 
thereji. '^ ° " ^^f 

♦ See before, Ant. Hill. lib. xx. p. 5, Sc fcij. no, k fcq, 
8 D. SicuL. 1. ii. Justin, Li. 

(C) By that expreffion the given, yet the Chinefe recordi 
reader may obferve, .that we give him a numerous iffue ; ia 
'! parpofely avoid entering into a which they agree with the 
Ij tpo nice difquifition, whether P/^i^//j-jB<?r^«j, who makes them 
I". iimb had any Tons after the to amount to thirty, whom hci 
flood ; and, if he had, whether ftyles Jitanes, a word which im- 
|: they only, or any number of his plies no more than eaftcrUngs, 
1] other de.ccndants, accompanied or people fetded in the eatoa 
i( him eaftward. parts of the world ; it being de- 
li As to the firft, though Mofes rived, as we have formerly 
; makes no mention of any, pro- fhewn, from the old Cdtit ff, 
bably for the reafon. alr<;ady and tan, which, in that Ian- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C !• ^be Hijhry of Chinar gay 

pf the difperfion, with regard to its growth, in fiumber^ 
ftrength, and opulence ; for, as they were united into one 
body, and under one head, thdu: ftrength, and capacity of 
promoting the welfare of the whole, xvas greater in propor- 
tion than that of the reft of mankind, who were foon fplit 
mto fo many governments, as muft of courfe greatly diminifli 
their power. 2. They lived in peace and plenty, in a rich 
and fruitfiil country, and under an excellent climate and* 
government ; and fo could [nropagate and multiply much 
^fter than thofe, who, befides their being kfs happily fitu- 
ated, were ever warring- againft and depopulating one an- 

VII. From what hath been hitherto faid of Noah's fepa- ^^ ^if" 
rating himfelf from the reft of his defendants, either a little ^^^'^ ^^^*' 
before, or foon after, the confufion of Babel, the reader may \^ ^^ >. 
etfily conclude, of how ditde import the much difputed point, „J^l^rgf 
whether the Ararat of Armenia, or that of India, be that on quenci in 
which the ark refted,'is to our prefent argument. The latter, this cafi. 
which is that of Dr. Shuckford, makes indeed that patriarch's 
migration into China much eafier and fljorter ; but the former, 
^^ch is the moft commonly received, is far enough from 
making it appear fo imprafticable and abfurd as is pretended 
by thofe on the oppofite fide : for, if he and his defcendant^ 
could travel from the Armenian Ararat to the plain of Shi- 
naar in about 70 years (D), by which time they were grown 

gnage, fignifies the houfe of from Shinaar to China, were 

Src 1 1 a very pi'oper and figni- more than folHcient to enable 

/iqant expreflion for the iun,* hinv to bring ^hither a numerous 

from whence that of Titanoi, and powerful ^colony enough to * 

or 7V/fl«^/, was' commonly given found his new empire upon; 

to thofe people who were i^ated confjdering the then great in- 

neareft to the fun-rifihg, creafe of mankind, their longc- 

As to the fecond point, we vity, health,, vigour, and other 

think it highly probable, "that advantages they tnjoyed above 

not only Noah's poftdiluvian the reft of the difperfed tribes, 

fons, but a much greater num- from whom they fcparated them - 

bcr of his other dcicendants, felvcs. 

chofe to follow him into the (D) The difperfion is faid by 

faft, rather than join in the Mofis to have happened about 

impious defign of their bre- the looth year of the flood, out 

thren: but let the number of of which »umber lefs than thirty . 

his followers have been ever fo cannot bt fuppofed to. have,, 

finall, yet the 200 years, which, been taken up in hatching, ri- 

We (hall fhew in the fequel, he pcning, and executing, the im- 

iad they took up in travelling pious deiign that occafioncd it, 

t See before. Ant, Hift. wi. vi. p, 6. 


by Google 

32< fbe Wftcfj of Qunar B. I; 

Uttmerom and ftubborn enough to form that con^iraqr» ^i^iere 
can be the impoifibility, or even unlikelihood, of their reach- 
ing to the frontiers of China in a much lefs dme than the 
250 years which he lived after the difperiion ? Add to this, 
that as, in his firft migration from Ararat to Shinaary it doth 
not appear that he had any other inducement for it but the 
diange of pafture and climate, fo his joumies might be made 
as imiirely as he pleafed ; whereas in his fecond, from Shi* 
naar to Chinas he hafted away from a crew of determinate 
rebels, bent on their own ruin, from whom he could not 
part, too ibon, ncH' gQ too bcc^ to avoid (haringin .thdr punifh- 
Armeni* ment- However, though we feem thus far to give up the 
an Ararat p^int in favour of the Armenian Ararat ^ we are fo far from 
Vf^f looking upon the main argument infifted upon in proof of 
Senna^ it, viz. the fons of Sennacherib fleeing thither for reftige, to 
cheribV ^ ^^ ^^ concluiive on that fide, that we think it might with 
murdertrs niuch more reafon be urged on the other 5 and that the vi- 
tofiee ta^ cinity of Armenia to Ajfyria^ if it was not then fubjeft, or at 
kaft tributary to it, would never have permitted two fuch 
facrilegious parricides to flee thither for fandluary, or to 
raife forces for their own faf^ty j efpecially if we confidcr 
that, in their flight from Nineveh thither, they muft be 
forced to crofs over too canfiderable a part of the Affyriaft 
empire, and be in continual danger of being feized : where- 
as by fleering their courfe towards the north-eaft, or towards 
the other Ararat^ they could be much fooner out of thofc 
, dominions, and be in greater fafety when got to thdr joar- 
Th argu- ney's end. We beg leave here likewife to add, that the argu- 
«»<«' ment urged by Dr. Shuckford in fiivojir of the Indian Ararat^ 
i^^f . ftoax Mo/es*s expreflion of the builders of Babefs tower com- 
/^ **^^ ing tanpo from the caft ^ b fer enough from bring fetif- 
7hm%e f'^^^^^y anfwered by the oppofitc fide*; and that the indue- 
eajt not ^^^ ^^ ^^^ *^^ ^^^ doubtful parallels, allowed to be irregu- 
fujidently ^i ungrammatical, and ungeographical, and which is the 
an/'wired, only one in the whole Old Teftament in which the pardcle D 
appears to bear a different fenfe, is not a fufficient authority 
to detennine in anjr other cafe that is free frbm,thofe defefts. 

^ Gcnef. xi. w. * See AnticntHift. vol. xx. p. 116. 

the procuring the proper mate- latefl they can be fuppofed to 

rials, and the rearing of their have com* to the plain of Shi- 

ftupendous edifice to fome con- naar muft be about the 70di 

flderable height ; fo that the year after the flood (6). 

(6) Cenef, xL X, &ftq. See affo UJb$r^a Aanah Mtbett ytMK 

% . ifl 


by Google 

Cir ^ fSfi^ry of Omz. 329 

In' the parallel infifted upon, the geographT of the place 
plainly fliews, that, in the words Mtkeddeniy the particle mem 
cannot figmfy, as it cvery-where properly doth, /rwn, but 
rather' ^^, or towards (£) ; bat, in the other cafe, the point 
from which thofe builders fet out, whether from the eaftera 
or wcftcm Ararat^ bring the matter in difputc, muft be de- 
termined by fome better proof than that ; and the learned 
Mr. Ba/nagtW3s fo far from being fattsfied, that, in thislafl 
cafe, the words Mikeddem might be taken to fignify towards 
tie eqft, notvdthftanding die parallel aboye-mentioned, that, 
to aydd- ^ving them fuch an unnatural and ungrammatical 
ienfe, he haslnade thofe builders to fetch a wide compafs 
about, from Armenia to Mefopotamiay m order to bring them 
from the eaft into the plam of Shinaar. The truth is, that 
thofe learned pens, who have declared in £ivour of the Ar- 
mman Ararat ^ have endeavoured to overwhelm theif anta- 
gooifts with a confiifed heap of teftimonies from antient au- 
thors, geographers, lexicographers, hiftorians, (be, Hebrew^ 
Cbaldee, Arab, Greeks and Latin, which have lived a vaft; 
number of centuries one after the other, and all of them at 
fome thoufand years after the flood ; to fay nothing of the 
pretended antient' arts, relics, common tradition, medals, and 
other fuch precarious arguments, as if their number could be 
of any decifive authority in a point of that remote antiquity, 
and make up. in bulk what is wanting in evidence ; altho' the 
grcateft part of them have been fince fo efieftaally confuted, 

(E) This we fay upon the have gone to Baal-Jehuda^ to 

fappofitionthat the if<p^r^<i«; word fetch the ark from thence» the 

wasori^naliy fo written \ where- grammar requires icitohave been 

as, from the well known fitua- originally written ^7^33, Bt* 

don of the places, one would haalt, inftead of >7y30» M- 

be apter to lappofe it to be an hehale^ that is, the particle 3 

error of the tranfcriber, who inftead of D> or to inftead •f 

nuftook a 3 for a 0, and wrote from. 

Idiktidim^ from the eaft, inftead If we (hould be afked wh/ 

•f Biktddem, into or towards the the fame error may not have 

eaft s fuch oversights not being crept in both, as well as in one 

unfrequentin the books of the of the texts ? we can only fay. 

Old Teftament. This plainly that we ftiall be ready to ac- 

appears from the inftances men- knowlege the poftibility of it, 

tioned by Bafnage{\) out of the when the one can be proved as 

book of Kings (2), / compared ungrammatical and ungeogra- 

with the parallel text in the phical as the other ; neither of 
CbromcUs (3) ; and that in the* which can befaid of that Which 

former, where Da^uid is faid to we are now upon. 


(1) Atttif^Ju^if, ttm. ii #. 1. § t$. (%) Kingi Vu 2» (3) 1 CSrm^ 
ziii. $9 


by Google 

^a ^ Bifiery of Chma; B. I. 

that'thcre \% juft reaibo to \^oader they ifaould ajipear afirdli 
in print f. ' . 

So that, for aay. thii^ that hath hitherto been urged on 
cither fide, though we rcadUy own that ^istJrmeman Ararat 
^ is commonly meant by the iacred hiftorians in moft places 
\ybere that word occurs, yet the /iK//an may fHil be that on 
which the ark refled, if ttesy are not indeed (mly parts of one 
and the/ame continued ridge, reaching quke haok Armema 
to India* 
7be diffi' '.VIII. Neither need we here be much deterred at the in- 
r»///w /«/V furmonntable difficulties which are thrown in Noatr% way to 
in their China^ whether he fet out from Shinaar^ Armenia^ or India. 
'^^ ^f , Thofe pretended impenetrable forefts, long and inlurmounta* 
grounded, y^ ridges <rf mountains, and vaft fandy defarts, which lie 
now between them, are mere illufions, which could have no 
being fo foon after the deluge, to whatever caufe they migkt 
Noforeftsf owe it afterwards s for, i • With regard to thofe monftroos 
forefts, the whole globe muft be fuppofed to have been too 
well peopled at the time of the flood to hive any room for fuch 
wild plantations ; or, if any fuch there had been, they moA 
have been all pulled up by the roots by the violence of the 
tnaccejjihle wj^ves which covered the whole furface of the earth. 2. As to 
Vi9tinuin5, the long and high ridges of mountains which lay in the way, 
what infurmountable difficulties can we imagine there could 
be in going over them, if we righdy confider the condition 
they muft have been in inunediately after the flood, and da* 
ring fome centuries beyond, that is, with their vallies filled 
ana choaked up with a thick incruftated mud, which every- 
where fubfided after the waters were dried up ? Can we call a 
gradual declivity on both fides, covered with a pleafant con- 
tinued verdure, an infurmountable difficulty ? for this is all 
that can be fuppofed thofe mountains could then prefent, to 
obftruft thofe travellers journey, till the rains and the rivers, 
which fprang from the tops, had gradually wafhed away all 
that mud and earth ; which could hardly be done tiU foDOfc 
centuries after. * ' 

nwfandy The fame may be faid, jdly, of thofe now unpaflabk 
defarts y fo defarts, whofe fands muft, by their own weight, have fub* 
foon after fided under fuch a thick cruft of the fame mud and earth, as 
the flood, nothing but a vaft length of time could wafh away, or fink 
through them. If luch, then, was the furface of the earth 
for a much longer number of years than were fufficient for 
Noah and his colony to have reached the Chinefe territories, 

t SeeAnt. Hift. vol. xx. p. 113, &ftq^ Ba^snac, Antiqoit. 
Jodnc vol. \u c. 2. J 20, & feq. 


by Google 

C.i. TbeHifiury «/ China. 33^ 

thou^ they had fet out even from Jtmenia; or for his'de- 
Icendants to have inarched from' the Ba6lrian hills to the 
plains of Shinaar^ as Or. Shuckford fuppofes ; is it not a 
mere ilhrfion to lay fach pretended infurmountable obftru6Hon9 
in i\\m way, as were not in being till fome centuries after, 
and then reprefent fuch journies as abfurd, monfh-ous, and 
againft the nature of things ? But, ' 

IX, There was ftill an edier and fpeedier way for Noah Noah 
and his colony to have reached China, namely, by water. He ^ghtget 
c»>uld not fo foon have forgot the ftrufture of the ark, which '^ China 
hadpreferved him in a more perilous navigation; fo that, h*^^*^* 
upon his meeting, in. his way from either place, cither with 
the Indus f Ganges, or any other large river, which he coiild 
not but conclude muft difembogue itfelf into fome fea, or 
large refervmr, he had nothing to do but to fit out a fufficient 
number of veflels for himfelf and company, and fail down 
it, and thence fteer his courfe as nearly as he could eaftward, 
till fome milder climate than thofe fultry ones he had left be- 
hind, or theprofpeft of fome pleafant and fertile coafts, in- 
vited him to the fhore. He might alfo proceed farther into 
the country, either by land, or by the help of fome of thofe 
noble rivers with which Chhia abounds, till he met with a 
fcttlement to his liking ; the farther from his other defcend- 
ants the better, and* more out of danger of their difturbing 
his new colony. What would almoft determine us to conclude 
that this was the way which, that patriarch took to come into 
that country, is, that the Chinefey and their defcendants, are 
the only people in all the known world, who, in the fabri- 
cature of their trading veflels, have kept ftriftly up to the 
oi^nal modeled the ark, as will be fliewn more fully under 
a mbfequent article, gut if the Chinefe tradition be rather 
followed, which tells us, that Fo-hi firft fettled in fome of 
the northern provinces, which- are at a great diftance from the 
iea-coafts, it will be more probable that he came thither all 
the way by land, unJefs we will fuppofe that he firft landed 
00 fome of the fouthern coafts ; and, either for conveniency 
or fafety, removed farther northward, till the vaft high moun-^ 
tains which divide that.part of Chma from Tartary, appeared 
to him a fufficient barrier to fecure him,, on that, from any 
iuvafion or difturbance from the other fide. 

As none of the fuppofitions above-mentiot^ed can appear Honv bf. 
^erwife than rational and feafible (efpedally if we can, as ^^m to 
We doubt not to do, remove all the other objeftionS urged A/'' fi 
againft Noah's being really cotemporary with Fo-hi, and con- ^'i^t. 
•fiquently more probably the fame with' him), the only diffi- 
culty remaining with r^fp^fl tQ the poli^t in hand will be, how 
, , ' that 


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332 Tie Hifisry of Chmz. B.I. 

that patriarch, who muft of courfc be fuppofed to hare bcea 
but very little acquainted with the nature, form, and fuper- 
fides, of the poftdilttvian world, particularly with refpeft to 
its difierent zones, climates, foil, dir, ^r. came to Aeer his 
coorfe fo happily and judidonfly, as to hit upon one of the 
pleafanteft and moft fertile fpots in the whole world. To 
this it may be anfwered, that he might acquire a great part of 
of that knowlcge, by obferving, as he travelled eaftward, how 
parched and ^ren every foil, and how fultry the d&nate, 
the nearer he approached to the fun, and vice verfa ; fo that 
i^^could Qqt be long at ^ lofs how to make the beft choice. 
And as to the extraordinary fertility of the countiy, we have 
already fhewn^ in the geography of it, that it is more owng 
to the ingenuity and indefatigable induftry of the inhabitants, 
than to the mere natural fecundity of its foil or climate. As 
to the other part of the difficulty, it being raifed on a wrong 
fuppofition, that the antediluviaas had but a very imperfiaft 
knowlege of what we call the fpherc, or gl^, we (hall now, 
in the 
1[ht mtte- Tenth place, make it evidently appear, that whatever not 
dHwvians only the antient Egyptians, Chaldeans^ Babylonians^ &c, but 
majien of ^^^^ jjj^ Chine/e, knew of aftronomy, was, for the moft part, 
aflr94omy. jf ^^^ wholly, derived from them. This being a curious point, 
which hath not hitherto been fufficiently dezted up, we fliall 
beg our reader's patience^ if we dwell a little longer upon it, 
than we have on the former ; efpecially, as the furjMi/ing har- 
mony and uniformity which reign through the fundamentals 
of their feveral fyftems, will afford us a fiarther, and, as we 
think, a very convincing proof of -the Chinefe having received 
their own from no other, but the immediate hand of the patri- 
arch Noahi after his fettling himfelf with them in that country. 
Conm^ it To , make this clear, we beg leave to obferve, that the 
aiike to all whole bafis of what the antient nations above-named compre- 
tke pofidi' bended, under the notion of aftronomy, was every-Mirhere the 
Iwfians. fome, not only with regard to fuch points as were demon- 
Arable from obfervation and deductions, but likewifo to^nany 
more, which were altogether arbitrary, and, which is (fill 
more furprifing, with refpeft to a much greater number of 
fuch as were imaginary, doubtful, and groupdlefs, or ab- 
folutely ridiculous and falfe. We fhall, for the fake of fuch 
of /Our readers as are not fo well acquamted with thefe ab- 
.ftrufe matters, fubjoin an inftance or two of each fcMrt, in .the 
fubfequent note (E), by which they will eafily perceive, how 


(E) Among thofe of the firft, reckon the divifion of the hea- 
•r demonHraDle, fort, we may venintazones) and other drdcs, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C I . ^e Hijtory of China. 

early the fuperftitious and ridiculous notions of aftrology ia- 
termixed themfdvcs with the more ufeful and noble difco- 
veries in aftronomy, amoifg all thofe antient nations, how fe- 
parate and diAant foever from each other. 



the dcclenfion of the ecliptic, 
the difiance of the poles from 
the equator, the coorfcf of the 
ftto, moon, and other planets, 
(5f . ; of the fecond, or merely 
arbitrary, fort, were the divi- 
fion of the ecliptic into twelve 
figns (whence came the twelve 
JDO&ths of the folar year, which 
we have formerly (hewn, from 
Mffis'z account of the deluge, 
were in ufe as well before as 
fince that time), that of the 
iignsioto degrees, and that of 
the red of the heavens into con- 
fielladons, and others of the 
like nature. Among thofe of 
the third, or imaginary, uncer- 
tain, or erroneous, kind (which 
areftill more numerous and va- 
rious, as fuperdition and falfe- 
hood commonly propagate far- 
ther and f after than truth), we 
jnay reckon the whole tribe of 
fuperititions rules, which make 
op the aftrological art i fuch as 
dividing the ecliptic into four 
triplicities, anfwerable to the 
four elements, and allowing 
^eefigns to each of them ; as, 
T, Jl, and j^, to the fire; 
y, /K, and yr, to the earth 5 
1« :£b, and ss?, to the air ; and 
and die remaining three to the 
water. The aligning to each 
planet a different nature and 
influence, as hot, cold, moiA, 
dry, malevolent, or benevolent, 
as alfo certain houfes, or figns, 
in which their influence is more 
more or Icfs ftrong and power- 
ful; thus, ^ , which is allowed 
the mod malignant of all, hath 
hb night and day -houfes, and 

is reckoned ftrongefl, in XT and 
t^, is exalted in ^, detriment - 
ed in ^ and £1, which are op- 
pofite to, or half a circle of 300 
degrees diftant from, his two 
houfes above-mentioned, and 
hath his fall in T » oppofite to 
the place of his exaltation ; % p 
which is allowed the moft be- 
nevolent of all the feven, hath 
his two houfes in f and X, is 
exalted in S, detrimented in 
n and ttKf and hath his fall in 
Vfi and fo of the reft; only 
with this difference, that the 
fun and moon have but one 
fign, or houfe, allotted to each 
of them, whereas the other five 
planets have each of them two. 
3dly, Of the fame uncertain or 
fabulous kinds are the diftbrent 
influences of thefe planets, ac- 
cording to their afpefts to, that 
is, their diilances from, each 
other; thus, a fextile, or di- 
ftance of two figns, or fixty de- 
grees, is reckoned 'good\; a 
iquare, or three figns, bad ; a 
trine, or four figns, beft ; and 
an oppofition, or fix figns, worft 
of all. From thefe various con- 
figurations of the planets, and 
the nature of the figns they 
chance to be in, and from nam- 
berlefs other rules of their art» 
equally uncertain, not to fay 
imaginary and fabulous, they 
pretend that all fublunary af« 
fairs are fo intirely governed, 
that not only the conception, 
birth, life, death, Ijfc. of every 
living creature, the produdlion, 
growth, perfedion, and virtues, 
of all vegetables, minerals, ifc. 


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334 The Hijofy of CbkiSL. B. I. 

How it Neither were the former confined to a mere fpeculatiye 
tame to be theory, or embraced only by a few crazy enthufiafb, but taught 
intermixed hy the mod learned, encouraged by the moft powerfial, men 
nuitb ]\ every kingdom, and confultcd by great and finally in the 
afrologi' moft important emergencies. Now there are but tWo ways 
€mlfigures. ^q account for this general conformity, both in theory and 

{)ra£tice, as well in points of an arbitrary, uncertain, and fal- 
acious, as in thofe of a more certain and demonftrable, na- 
ture ; viz* dther by fuppofing, with feveral learned men, that 
Jda^ was created with a perfeft knowlege of the nature, 
courfcs, and influence, / of the heavenly bodies, and tranf- 
mitted it to his pofterity, by whom it was, in proccfs of time, 
corrupted with an intermbcture of the aftrological and fuper- 
ftitious notions mentioned in the laift note ; or elfe, that his 
defcendants acquired it, by the help of thofe frequent obfer- 
vations, which their longevity, ferener atmofphere, and other 
advantages, they then enjoyed, enabled them to make, till, 
in procefs of time, their degeneracy, and natural propenfity 
of prying into futurity, funk them into all the aftrological fu- 
perftitions we have been fpcaking,of. 
Bothjlvw^ Let the reader then fuppofewhich of the two cafes he will, 
idfr^m the he muft be ftill forced to conclude, that the aftronomical fciences, 
M to the as well as the aftrological fuperftitions built upoti it, muft have 
new immediately flowed from the old into the new world : for, 

nmrld. had thofe two fyftems been the produft of the poftdiluvian 
world, they muft have been both completed, dther before 
the general difperfion, or fince. The former is altogether 
incompatible with their condition fo foon after the deluge, 
that is with the fmallnefs of their number, the fhortnefs of 
the time, their frequent migrations, and the few opportuni- 
ties they had of maikiog fo many exadl obfervations on the hea- 
venly bodies, under fuch difadvantages. 

Neither can it poffibly be fuppofed to have been done 
after the difperfion ; for then^ inftead of that furprifii^ con- 
formity, which we obferve to have rdgned among all their 
fyftems, as well of aftrolc^ as aftronomy, we fhould have 
met with nothing but the wideft difierence between them ; at 
leaft, this muft have been the cafe among nations fo vafUy 

but the rife and fall, good or and foretold by that pretended 

or ill fate, of empires and coun- art, in which the aftrologers of 

xx\t% , good and bad feafons, all nations followed almoft the 

wars, peftilence, drought, fa- very fame rules ; and, from all 

iDine, and, in a word, all the which, we cannot but of courfe 

good and evil which happen in conclude, that they muft all 

this world, is inrircly owing to have received them from the 

iheni, and may be forefeen, fclf-fame hands, 



by Google 

C I. Tbe tii/ory of China. 335 

diftant from each other, with regard to the arbitrary points, 
and all the imaginary and groundkfs parts of their feveral 
aftrological fyftems, whatever agreement there might be in 
thofe more demonftrable ones of their aftrotiomy. And as 
for the Chinefe^ as they were the moft diftant from, as well 
as leaft converfant with, the reft, they muft, of courfe, have 
diflfered more widely from them all ; whereas, by all that we 
can judge from .their antient writings, either in the aftrono- 
mical or aftrological way, they plainly appear to agree ndth 
them in all the fundamental rules of both, whether of 
theory or praftice. From all which, we may fiairly conclude. The Chi- 
that they, as well as the reft of the eaftem nations, muft nefc r^- 
have received them fit)m Noah and his three fons, fome time cei^ved 
before either he feparated himfelf from them, to go eaftward, theirs from 
or they were difperfed from one another. But how incon- Noah. 
Cftent this is with the contrary fuppofition, of China not being 
peopled till fome Jong ferics of years, or rather ages, after the 
flooNd, let the reader judge. 

How the aftrological came fo foon to intermix itfelf with TheJIo^v 
the aftronomical part, we fliall endeavour to account for in ^ndfmall 
the fequci ; but, with relation to the latter. We beg leave to P^^grefs of 
add, that nothing can more plainly evince their having re- ^J^^onomj 
ceived it from the antediluvians, than the litlle progrefs and ^'^ '^^ 
improvements they made in it afterwards: for, can it be-^^ 
imagined, that the few men who were then in the world, by 
the mere ftrength of their genius, and by the help of the few 
occafional obfcrvations they made within the ftiort fpace, 
which elapfed from the flood to the general difperfion, could 
be able to compile fo exaft and excellent a fyftem of the 
heavenly bodies, and yet not be able, in a much greater num- 
ber of ages, to raife it to any higher j)erfeftion ? And yet 
nothing more clearly demonftrates this, than the great ig- 
norance we find aU thofe nations in, tiU we come to the time 
of the Greeks ^d Romans , . concerning the caufe, and methods 
erf calculating, of eclipfes, and the jejune hypothefis of epi- 
cycles, by which they pretended to folve the fwift and flow, 
the ftationary and retrograde, courfes, which they obfervcd 
the inferior planets to move in; which epicycles, however 
ftrange and irregular, did yet pafs current among all the old 
aftronomers, till within thefe two centuries, when the Coper^ 
nican fyftem opened their eyes to a more fatisfaftory folution 
of that,^ and other puzzling phenomena, of the Ptolemak* 

The reafon of this xiniverfal negleft of aftronomy, appears The cliff 
plainly to be their fondnef's for aftrology ; and that their f^«/^^/>.^ 
learned only ftudied Jthe former, for the fake of diving ileepei*, or, 
at feaft, of being thought fo to do, into the pretended m yfteries 



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33^ Tbi Hifhry of Omz^ B. I 

of the latter ; and, as this was the moft encouraged, and 
fought after by the great ones, and, of cotirie, the moft gain- 
ful to the profeflbrs, it is no wonder they (hould n^left the 
other, though the more noble and ufeful, for the fake of 
7bihoafted xbsx. The Cbine/e, equally wrapped up with the famefn* 
fiill$ftbe perftition, are the only andent nation that pretends to have 
Chineie oiade any confideraWe improrcments in it, and to have found 
uncertain, q^^ the art of calculating eclipfes, from the eariieft times; 
and yet we have fufficiendy fhewn, in a former feftion, that 
Conjtftid all this boailed {kill codified rath^ in a diligent and curious 
rat her in obfervation, and recording of thefe, and other heavenly 
tMemjtng phaenonaena, than in , foretelling them. In the former, no 
than in nation was more careful and exaft.; but that their Ikill fdl 
ealculati' ^afUy ihort with refpeft to the latter, plainly appears frooi their 
'**• being wholly ignorant of the above-mentioned irregularity of 

the motion of the inferior planets ; inibmuch, that they never 
took any notice of it, much Ids did they ever attenapt to ac- 
count for it, either by the fuppofition of epicycles, or by any 
other way, till the whole matter was traravelled to them by 
the European fniflionaries ^. 

Thb fum and fubftance of what hath been faid, trader this 
tenth head, is briefly this : 

I. That the cxaft harmony which we have obferved to 

reign between the aflronomy and afh-ology of the Cbinefe^ 

tnd that of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and other antieot and 

far diftant nations, from them, not only in demcmflrable, but 

in arbitrary, uncertain, imaginary, and erroneous^ points, is 

tn evident preof of its bdng derived to them all from Nook, 

and hi$ three fons, as it was to thefe from the antedilavi»ii 


Jntedilu* 2. That all (his great variety, both of true afhonomical 

wians bad knowlege, and pf aftrological fuperflition, could neither be 

fimefirt of ^rektvti by mere ftrength of memory, nor conveyed by bare 

'wraing* oral tradition (F), but plainly fuppofes thofc antediluvians to 


« See Father Gaubil's Remarks in Du Haldc, Engl 
partii. p. 129. ' 

(F) It is, indeed, hardly to 
be fuppofed, that they could 
prcferve, much lefs convey, the 
ideas of fuch a great number of 
circles, lines, k^fc, as compofe 
the celeftial fphcre, together 
with the figns of th: zodiac, and 

' all the otherconftellations, with' 
out fomc fuch method as we arc 
fpeaking of; efpedally, if wc 
take in the names, nature, mag- 
nitude, fituation, diftancc, tf^t 
of thofe fixed ftars that compofe 
cachconftcllation. Withrefpcft 


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C. I. The Hiftory af China. 337 

have had fome better helps, whether by painting, delineating, 
engraving, cutting in wood, ftone, or metal, or by fome other 
way, near equivalent to our writing or printing. The age 
of ' the w6rld, and the longevity, vigour, and other ad^ 
vantages mankind then enjoyed, will not permit us to doubt 
of their being capable of making fome fuch inponfiderable 
difcovery, for pref^rving and communicating their knowlege ; 
and the plainnefs and iimplicity of the original Chinefe cha- 
rafters ", which they boaft to have received from their 
founder, makes it highly probable, that "the art of writing 
was at leaft brought to that low pitch about the time of the 
deluge. If fo, then it will as probaby follow, thkt Noah, The beft 
who had lived to fee the greateft improvements made either records 
in that, or any other branch of learning, fpent fome time in ^^^^/ 
that long 100 years warning, which God had given him of ^^^^*^* 
the approaching deluge, in collecting and fecuring the beft of 
thefe monuments, for his own and his pofterity*s ufe and 
infiruAion, and efteemed; them as the moft valuable relics of 
the old world. 

Accordingly, we are told, by Jofephus ♦, that Seth firft 
began to reduce aftronomy into a regular fyftem, which was 
gradually improved by his defcendants, down tp the time of 
the deluge ; which they might the more eafily do, confidering 
then: extraordinary longevity, paftoral life, ferene (ky, and 
other advantages, already named. Noah, who was 'heir to 
all their difcoveries, and, without doubt, added many coa- 

" See them defcribed in Ant. Hift. vol. xx. p. xn^ * Jp- 
8BPHUS Antiq. 1. i. c. 3. & feq. 

to thefe laft, we are told (6), atmofphere, or whether, fince 

that fome antient Cbimfe maps the flood, by any other inilrti- 

exhibit a number of them 1 ments unknown to us, is not in 

which, though not vifible to our power to divine. We are 

the naked eye, are yet found in indeed told, by Diod* Sku/ui, 

their proper places (allowing on the authority of Hecateus, 

for their progreiiive motion), that the antient druids nude 

by the help of a good telefcope, ule of fome fuch ioftruments , 

an inftrument which doth not by which they could draw the 

appear to have been known in moon fo near, that they could 

Cbina before the coming of the perceive feas, mountains, ifc. 

European miifionaries thither, in it. But if the C^/x^ had ever 

But whether thefo ftars were any of that kind, they have 

difcovered by the antediluvians, fince quite loft all remembrance 

•who, probably, enjoyed a bet- of them (7). '' 

ter fight, and, doubtleis, a clearer 

(6) Fide Father Kfpf^w ap» Du Ila/de, E»gi v4, ii. p, 230. (7) Father 

trJ'Ailap. tund» ih\d, p. 129. 

MoD^JlisT. VoL.Vni. Y fiderable 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

j3l S'^^ Hiftpry of China. a I 

fidenble ones of his own, all which he took ctrc to commu- 
fUctte to his three fons, is, on that account, rightly foppofed 
|o be the Jtlas of the heathen writers. His defcendants (b 
&r isutated his example, as to be able to make ibme very 
confiderable obfervations on the planetary fyftcm; particu- 
larly, that relnarkablc one which is recorded by thdfe two cc- 
lebnited idb-onomers of antiquity, Jdrqftus Cyzicenus and 
Z>w. Ni$,polittSy to hare happened in the planet fVitc/j, in the 
feign of Ogygts^ when that luminous planet was obferved to 
lui\«e i^ccivwi a very great change in its courfe, magoitHde, 
colour, figure, ifc. This Angular {^lenomeaon is Hkawife 
mmtioaed by Ct^/hr^ and from him by Varro^ and from them 
by 8t. Jugufiin f. It is true, none of the afore-mentioned 
authors €dl us in which of the Ogyges's iieigas it happeoed; 
but it is commonly fuppofed to have been that who is fur- 
named Prifcusy and is reckoned to be the fame with the Pa- 
triarch Noah ; and that this wonderful chaise was occafiooed 
by the vktnicy of that planet to the earth, at the time of the 
general deluge t; which is highly probable, confidering, that 
the Is Aeardl of aU the feven to the earth, except tbeoHX)fl ; 
and thalt, during the ten months in which the waters pre- 
vailed on theglebe*s furface, (he came at lead: three times to her 
«pog^e, or greateft nearnefs to it ; fo that it can hardly bc&p- 
•pofed, but that (be muft have received fome very coofideraNe 
<hai^e, or knpreffion, from the vaft atmofphere of ffciid tbit 
then furrounded it on all fides, and much more fo ftill, asoften 
as (he came in conjunftion with the moon. Which being granted, 
doth plainly fhew, not only how foon after the flood they be- 
gan to make fuch curious obfervations on the planetary fyflem, 
but likewife that they mull have received the theory of them 
much earlier, viz. from the antediluvians, otherwife they 
could never have taiken notice of this furprifing change, info 
inany particulars as are above-mentiotied. Origen accordingly 
tells us, that there had been found in Arabia Felix fcvaJ 
Bmnufcr&pt copies, moftly treating of aftronomy, which •were 
«niverfally allowed to have been tranfmitted to the newworid 
l)y Noah ; and Tertttllian, who had feen, and read, fome of 
-them, laflbres os, that they were written on that fubjcft; 
tiiough, as we may probably fuppofe, not without fome hi- 
termixture of the then reigning aftrological ftuff, foifted ifl 
T)y the tranfcribers of them. 

^ Hence thofe who kept clofe to, and were moft converfimt 
with, that patriarch, mull, of courfe, have received a doribk 

t AuGusTiN. Civit. Dei, 1. 21. c. 8, J Sec Buw«t'« 

Theory, Warren's Gcologia, k al. 


, Digitized^y VjOOQIC 

C. I. Tie Hift^ry of Cbipa; ^^^ 

^dvant^ by it, above thofe that difpcrfcd themfelves from 

him; for, in the firft place, though it be rcafouable to fup- 

pofe, that he imparred his Juiowlege to them all aUke, y^t 

the latter being forced, after the difperfion, to fufpead th»t 

fiady whilft they weat in fearch of new fettlcmeats, aod fdpn 

after that in the purfuit of their frequent wars againft each 

other, that fcience muJd have fuffered no finall decay; where- The great 

as the former, whom we ftyle Noah's caftcyna colony, had not ^antage 

only the conftant ufc of his valuable records, but Ukcwife ^^ f^^^ 

the beoefit of his expofitions and lefturqj, both during tKeir 'Jf^^'*^^ , 

per^rination, and after their fettlement in China ; fo that i^^^j^^^^' 

is no wonder that they fliould make fo much earlier f progrefs 

ii^it than the reft of the world : and accordingly the Chinefe 

anngls^ tell us that Fo-hi laid the firft foundation of that, ai^d 

other arts and Iciences, and that his four or five immediate 

fucceflbrs (O) brought them gradually to the perfeftion they 

vere raifed to afterwards % till the arrival of the Europeans 

sunong them* 

But, 2dly, there was ftill a much greatw advantage which 
4ey reaped from the leflbns and example of the good old 
patriarch above all his other defcendants, namely, that it pre- 
ferved them from falling into the horrid idolatries which tho 
reft gradually funk into ; for though, like all other ancient 
nations, the Chinefe afcribed fome particular influences to the 
heavenly bodies, to which all fublunary things were \\x fome 
ffleafure fubjeft (H) ; yet neither they, nor their defcendant$, 
ever d^enerated fo far as to worfhip them, till after ieveral, 


• See their feveral xeigns in Martini, Dv .Halpb, and 



(G) Thefe five laft we (h^ll ftances,£jrf. circiunfcribed with- 

prove in the fequel on the aii- in certain limits or lines, fo as to 

thority of our Hehre^ chrono- reprefent in fome meafure the 

^^Vf*t to have been cotemporary creatures whofe names they 

with Abraham^ I/aac, Jacohy bear, can, at bed, be fuppofcJ, 

Amram^ Levi, and Mo/es, when thus arbitrarily joined in- 

(H) What is ftill more fur- toonefignor figure, to acquire 
prifing is, that ihey, as well as a new virtue, in the fame man- 
all the other antient inations, ner as a certain quantity of me- 
ihould fo unanimoufly agree in dicinal drugs of various natures 
afcribing fuch particular influ- do, when jumbled together in 
cnces to the very conftellatious, one compound : and yet we find 
which, being no other than a this unaccountable influence not 
colkvies of fixed ftars of differ- only acknowleged by all the 
€at natures, magnitudes, di- antient aftronomers, but even 

y a taken 


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th Hijiory of China. B. I. 

centuries, that is, till 64 years after Chrift, when the accurfed 
herefy of Fo was accidentally brought thither from Itidia^ and 
with it an inundation of the mbft abominable idolatries, bat 
which are neverthelefs held in the greateft abhorrence to this 
very time by all their philofophers, literati, and better fort of 

From what hath been obferved under the laft article, one 
may be enabled to make a probable conjecture at the nature 
of the epidemical fin which occafioned the deftruftion of the 
old, and the fo fpeedy difperfion of the new, race of man- 
land. The former, we have fhewn, were infefted with the 
abfurd notion of the heavenly bodies having a confiderablc 
influence over all fublunary events : from this they might gra- 
diftdly degenerate into that' of their being the only direftors 

taken particular notice of in the 
book oijob(%)^ where the Al- 
mighty being introduced, by the 
inipired writer, as making ex- 
prefs mention of their virtues, 
would incline a ferious perfon 
to think that notion betcer foun- 
ded, than the almoft inHnice di- 
ilance of thofe bodies feems to 
admit of. 

The words of our veriion, 
though ihort of the energy of 
the original, run thus : Canfi 
thou bind (prevent, or reftrain) 
thefijoeet injiutnce ^/i&f Pleiades, 
or let loofe the bands of Orion ? 
Canjithou bring forth Mazzaroth 
in hisfeafoni or guide Ar£lurus, 
njcith his fans f Knffvoefi thou the 
ordnances of hea^veny or ho^w to 
appoitit them their dominion o<ver 
the earth ? How far our ver- 
iion hath hit the right names of 
^thefe conftellations, is out of 
our province to inquire ; the 
reader may confult the com- 
mentators about it, and more 
particularly the curious difTerta- 
tion publifhed by the learned 
Mr, toft er^ q{ Oxford, on that 
fubjed. It is enough for us 
that the Hehrenv words Chezid, 
Mazzaroth, Hay, &c. are agreed 

to fignify fomc certain conftclla- 
tions; and that the terms of 
binding, loofing, bfc. imply 
fome kind of peculiar virtue or 
influence belonging to them, hy 
the appointment of their all- 
wife Creator. And thus far all 
nations might agree in eeneral ; 
but that they ihould all be fo 
unanimous in afligning to each 
its proper influence, can hardly 
be otherwife accounted for, than 
by fuppofmg that they all re- 
ceived the fame theory from one 
perfon, that is, from Noah, In 
which cafe it will be equally 
difficult to conceive how the 
Chine/e, the moft remote froni» 
and unacquainted with, the reft 
of the world, ftiould retain (o 
great a (hare of it in common 
with them, if not led and fetded 
there under him. Had their 
country been peopled by the 
fame latter colonies that peopled 
north -eaft Tartary, they would 
have been quite as ignorant of 
aftronomy and other fciences as 
they, inftead of cultivating and 
improving, as they did, from 
the beginning of their mon- 

(8) C16. xxxviii. 31, &Jrf, 



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C. I. The Hiftory of China. 341 

sukI goreriKM-s of this lower world, and confequcntly the only 
objefts of thdr worfhip ; than which notion, nothing could 
be more qapable of finking them into that univ^al corrup- 
tion and degeneracy, ii; which the deluge overtook them p. 
We muH, however, here except the righteous line of Sethy Preftmfed 
among whom alone the true religion, that is, the belief d[ from Jink- 
aa over-rujing Providence, was ftill preferved ; the laft of '^g ^^^^ 
wiiom were Noah and his fons, who were on that account ^^°*^**y- 
referved to repienifti the new world with a more hopeful 
progeny. However, it but too plainly appears, that thefe ^-^^ ^^y«' 
three laft were not all perfeftly cured, by that fevere pumfh- t^P*^^ 
ment, from the antediluvian contagion, fince it fo quickly ''*''. ^^'^ 
raged afrefh, and infefted the greateft part of this new ofF- ^^ ^^ 
fpring in lefs than feventy years after the flood : for what ^^a ^ 
€i{Q, could they mean by buUdinc fuch a monftrous high tower, 
but to fecure themfelves againft a fecond deluge ? and what 
ihould put fuch a wild and impiou9 notion into their heads, 
but a firm perfuafion, agreeable to the antediluvian belief 
above-mentioned, that, as the firft was caufed by the power 
and influence of the ftars and planets in fome certain configu- 
ration, fo the fame might again, or would moft likely, hap- 
pen whenever thefe heavenly bodies came to meet' again in 
the fame pofitionf , It is true, they had an exprefe promifc 
and affurance to the contrary from God himfelf ^ ; and no 
donbt the good old patriarch took care to urge that, and all 
other proper topics, to deter them frdm that wicked enter- 
prife ; but the cataffarophe fhews how little regard they paid 
to either, or. even to the punifhment that foclofely followed 
their rebellion, feeing they had not been long difperfed from 
one another, before we find tliem all alike immerfed in the old 
idolatry, and the worfhipping of the fun, moon, and ftars, and 
all the' hofts of heaven, whilft even the bare notion of an 
over-ruling Pro^dence feems to have been quite extinguifhed 
among them.- 

XL This confideration affords us another probable argu- ^^^ C^*- 
ment of Noah being the Chlneje Fo-hi^ and planting his colony ^^"^^^ 
there ; namely, the juft and conftant idea which that nation "^^^^ 
hath religiouAy preferved, not only during a long feries of /^p^/* 
ages, but doth ftill to this day amoag their philofophers and ^^^ce^ 
better fort of people, of a divine over-;*uling Power, who 
direAs and governs all things, knows the fecrets of all hearts, 
and to whcMn all men are accountable for their thoughts, 
words, and aftions % Had China been peopled by Tuhal^ 

9 Vid, Genef. vL c. t Sec Jqs^phus Ant. lib. i. 

f^ 5. ^ Geneu ix. 8 — 13. *" See their Sl\u-king, 

Cpb' F VCiv^'j Morals, and other phih>fophic^l wQCks, 

y 3 MeJbt€K 



342 ^^ Hijiory of China, ' B. L 

pie^ich^ or any Qthet rtmote defccndatits , from Nbah^ vfe 
flibiild hive found them, like all the reft, iminerfcd iti idola- 
try, and WOffhipping the whble ftariy and phuetary tribe, 
uader the ftames of Baal, Aftdrte^ 3iiho77i, Chemojb, I>ag<m, 
and fiich-like, without the leafl notion of a fuperior power 
over-rUlldg therfi. Even thf very heads of the line of Shem 
wei-c (6 taiktfed with the fame idolatrous infeftion, that it 
was the very reafon why God called Abraham from among 
them, when he riiade choice of him to be the reftorer of his 
And other trUe religion atid worfhip': whereas the Chincfe appear to 
fartsofthe have retained, from the earlieft times of their monarchy, the 
anttent re- fublimeft Ideas of, and deepeft regard to, the divine- and 
liftion and over-ruling Lord of heaven, not only from their Shn-king^ 
nfjorJBtp, ^jj J other canonical books, but from the conftant and tegular 
factifices which they offered up to him at all proper fcafons, 
atid the folemn manner'in which it was performed ; infomuch 
that no perfon, however gi^eat, wife, or good, w^s deemed 
worthy to perform the prieftly funftion, but the emperor him- 
felf, as we have elfewhere (hewn f. 

To this we may add another equally antient and laudable 
cii/Vom o? theirs in all public calamiticsi ftich as civil wars, 
. peftUence, famine, great droughts, <bc. of applying them- 
ftlves In the humblefl: manner to the Supreme Being alone for 
itUef \ and returning their mofl: folemn thanks to him alone, 
ti foott a5 they had ojjtained it (i). H^w oppofite-tras this 


« Sec Genef. xiii. & feq. Joih. xxiv. 2. t Sec before 

' if^S?- See alf6 vol. v. p. 32, & alib. paff. 

(T) Wte Jnd atcordingly, in and jullice could aot be other- 

^e Chincfe annals, many frngn- wife ap]>eare<i, he would let the 

br inftances of their pious an- efFe£ks thereof fall upon then 

tient monarchs, who, in all fuch alone ; and that their lives 

public calamities, went at the might be accepted by him, as a 

head of a numerous court, all propitiatory facrifice for the reft 

drefled, as'well as themfelves, of the 6atk)ft. The blcffing, 

in the meaneft garb, and Other otice obtarncA, Wa^ celebrated 

fiarks of the ddspeft humility with public aAd ft^tfmii thanks; 

nd repentatice, to intreat the te >hich thofe princes addel 

Lord 6f heaven to divert his vaft donatives,* and triba im* 

i'tiftjodgments from them; and munities, to the podrer ibrtdf 

leite the gobd nK>narch9, ad- their fabjeds, efpedaUv to fuck 

dreeing themfelves to that Su- pfovmces as had beta tne gr^* 

f' remc Being in the moft hum- eft fuffercrs. We fhall havcoc- 

fe and pathetic terms, eameftly cafion, In the fequd of this 

%efi)ught him, that, if his anger Kftory, to give fome remtrkt^ 


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C I. The Hipry of China. 343 * 

to the praftice of all other nations, who, upon all fiich occa- 
fions, ufed to celebrate folemn feftivals to their fklfe ddties, 
carry their images about in folemn proceffions, and afcribed 
the glory of all their bleffings and deliverances to them ! 

It muft be owned, indeed, that the Chine/e were infefted, TMr a/- 
like all the reft of Noah*$ pofterity, with the fuperftitious troUjiy did 
contagion of the ftarry influence over all fublunary bodies, notexcludt 
and from the earlieft times dire^ed moft of their aftronomical ** f*'^'"' 
obfervations to that end : but there was ftiU this difference ^^f^J'i^^^ 
between them, that whereas the other nations believed thofe *^^^*^^* 
heavenly bodies to be free and powerful agents, and applied 
to them as to the fole direfters of all fublunary events, the 
Chinefe looked upon them only as necefl^ry agents, whofe • - 
power and influence were imprefled upon them by an almighty 
hand, who had ftill the fupreme rule and government over 
them, and, as fuch, addrefled themfelves to him in all great 
emergencies, without the leaft regard to any of the ftarry 
ttibe, which they believed to be no other than inftruments in 
his over-ruling hands ^ But how they came to judge and 
diftinguifh fo' juftly of both,^above all other nations, will b^ 
difficult to account for, unkfs we afcribe-it to the flngular 
care which their good old patriarch muft be fuppdfed to Have 
taken to forewarn them againflf that dangerous error, which 
he fo well knew bad been the main caufe of the deftruftionof 
the old world, and of the fatal degeneracy of the new, and 
the chief motive of his withdrawing hinfelf fo far from 
thorn (K). 

Xin. This 

* See their Shu-king, and other canonical books. 

ble nftanees of this fingular Supreme Being, fo much of the 
piety, in which thofe monarchs, aftrological fuperflition, and did 
ashi^.priefls of the whole na- not rather endeavour to extir* 
tion, feem to have a€ted fo very pate all the remains of that old 
conformably to the office of die antediluviao leavea \ it may be 
fecriftcacare, both before and anfwered, either that the notion 
binder die J^aujh law, that we of the influence of the flars on 
could mot forbear taking parti* this lower world might not ap* 
cular notice of it. pear to him fo falfe, abfurd, and 
^) If it ftrould be alked, ill-grounded, as it is now corn- 
how io wife and good a man as monly judged *,noria any other 
hecoitld^ufo' this favourite CO* way dangerous, than as it ex« 
^y to imepmix ^U with foch cloded the belief of an over- 
bblime and )aft notions of the roliog Providence, which laft 

* Sa hi/ore, ntit (H}> m Jtk XXxviiL %l. Jtn^* ^r, lo, Cf tiUb, paff, ^ 

7 4 ho 


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tient reli- 
gion, fhi- 
&c. ^wor- 
th of 

Bome ex' 
cellent doC' 
trims of 

the Hiftory of China. B. h 

XII. This laft confidcration naturally leads us to a new 
and no Icfs probable argument in favour of our hypothcfis ; 
namely, Wie excellency of the religion, laws, government, 
policy, morality, philofophy, isc of the Chinefey above alt 
other antient nations, even thofe which are allowed the moft 
learned and polite ; and confequently ^very way worthy of fa 
divine a patriarch and lawgiver. This is indeed a pcnnt we 
could with pleafure dwell longer upon, had it not been al- 
ready fo learnedly difplayed by much better penSj, that it is 
now univerfally allowed by all fides ; but, on that account, 
we fli^ll content ourfelves w?th r?f(?rring our readers to the 
ftiort flcetch we have formerly given of them ", and (hall only 
add here a remark or two from the whole, which will ftill 
ferther confirm it. 

First, then, it is well worth obferving, that, among the 
. f ublime ideas which their canonical books give us of the Deity, 
beyond what is to be met with in the theology of other an- 
tient nations, it mentions, in particular, the care which the 
Divine Prp^ddence takes to forewarn mankind by figns, pro- 
digies, and other awakening methods, of th^ impending judg- 
ments which are going'to mil ujron them, in order to excite 
them tp avert the divine vengeance by all proper afts of re- 
repentance * \ which es^^cUent qotion, taken in its full extent, 

" See Ant. Hift. vql. i. p. 261, & feq. vol. :cx. p. 124, & 
feq. ^ Spe their Shu-king, and other canonical book$. 

he doubtlefs was careful to pre- 
vent both by his leflbns and ex- 
ample; or elfe it may be rea- 
fonably enough fuppofed, that 
fome of the feeds of that fuper- 
Hitious notion might be pri- 
vately prefcrvcd by fome of his 
people, and fuffered to fpread 
itfcif by degrees amongit the 
reft, unknown to him, or per- 
haps, more likely, againft.all 
his endeavours to fupprefs it ; 
fo. bewitching was that belief, 
and ftlil is among the greateft 
part of the world. 

Wc have dweh fomewhat the 
longer on this fubjeft of the 
aftionomy and aftrology of the 
^ntients, as it is a point which 
hath been but flightly, if at all, 
confxdered, either with refpeft 

to the inventcrs of it (the ho- 
nour of it being generally given 
to the Eiyptians^ Chaldeans ^ Ba' 
byldttians, Sec, and by few, if 
any, to the antediluvians) ; or, 
Secondly, with regard to the 
Cbinefe, fo far as they have ex- 
celled all otlier antient nations 
in cultivating and improving it ; 
nor, lauly, with refped to the 
proofs which might be,and which 
we hope we have, aftually 
drawn from its univerfal con- 
formity , of Noah being the Cfe- 
nefe Fohi j which we therefore 
flatter ourfelves will be a faffi- 
cientexcufe for the extraordi- 
nary length of this article ; we 
fhall endeavour to be more foe* 
ciocl in thofe that follow. 



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C !• ^J^e Hifiory of China. 345 

can hardly be fuppofed to have flowed from any other fourcc 
than from the threatnings, warnings, and dreadful omens, 
which the good old patriarch had been a mournful witnefs to, 
4aring more than a whole century before the flood : for, tho* 
other heathenifh nations not only looked upon all fuch dire 
prodigies, but even upon every uncommon phaenomenon, to 
be the forerunners of fome public calamities, yet it doth not 
appear that they looked upon the former as direfted by the 
divine goodnefs to forewarn mankind againft the danger of the 
latter : much lefs did they entertain any notion of repentance 
being the only effeftual means to avoid it ; chufing rather to 
have recourfe to fuch horrid rites and Sacrifices, as %ere ^ 
mare likely to haften than avert the impending judgment. 

Secondly, We find that they had, among their moft va- PropbecUs . 
Juable records, fome fignal prophecies of theMeffiah's being ?/*^^^^^'»- 
to appear in human flefti in fome of the weftern parts of the^^^^^^' 
world ; and which were fo plainly underftood, fo firmly be- ^^^Jr^''^ 
Jieved, and fo religioufly preferved, that their great philofo-.^' ^/^^^ 
fher Confucius^ who lived near 500 years before our Saviour, *^^y/^^ 
could point out the very year of their cycle, or fexagenary, fgj^i„^ 
in which he was to be born. And we are farther afTured, ^"^^ 
that in that very year, which was that in which the world's 
Redeemer was born, the then reigning emperor Ngai (which 
name fignifies viftorious) exchanged it for that of Ping^ 
peacrfuty or pacific ^ ; from which we may reafonably infer, 
that they muft have Ukewife had fome clear notion of the cha- 
rafter, and peaceable reign, of that divine perfon ; and it 
^as from a firm perfuafion of this prophecy that the philofo- 
pher above-mentioned ufed to comfort himfelf with th« 
thoughts that the Holy -one, as he ftyled him, was to come 
from, or to appear in, the weft *. But how the Chinefe, of 
all the defcendants pf Noah^ came to preferve fuch lively 
traces of the promifed Mefliah, when aU the reft, and even 
the family of Shem^ of whom he was to be born, hardly 
retained any notion, till he was more clearly revved, to Abra^ 
ham and his poflsrity, can no otherwife be accounted for, than 
by fuppofing that Noah left fonfe authentic records of it 
among them, and that Confucius had been fufiidently conver- 
Iknt with them as to be able to find out the year in which he 
•was to be born, and the j^rt of the world where he was to 
make his appearance. If it be aflc^d, how even iVfoaA could 
ib exaftly know the time of his birth, whilft the latter Jevjs^ 
yAio had much cl^er revelationa concerning it, and we may 

7 ^ARTiifi Hift. Simc. lib. iv. p. 149. x. p. i^t * Ibid. 
Vid* & K^RCHERj Li ComptBi Du Halqk> & al. 

' ^d4 


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34^ ne Hijhij of Chma. B. I. 

Whence add the Chriftians too, are at foch variance about it ? The an- 
ihey had fwcr is eafy, there being a conftant tradition in Noah'^ family, 
this lafi. as -well brforc as after the flood, that Chrift was to be bora 
either at the very clofe of the fourth, or the entrance of the 
' fifth, millenary (L) ; fo that the difficulty among the Chrif- 
tians and Jevjs^ about fettling that remsuicable poriod, pro- 
ceeds merely from the ditference of their chronologies with 
• rcfpeft to the age of the world, of which we have given an 
ample fpecimen at the beginning of our antient hiftory f. 
fhe anti' If, therefore, the Chinefe could fo exaftly point out that re- 
/^Chi- markable epocha, and Ex the end of the fourth millenary {o 
ncfcr^o- rightly, all that can be inferred from it is, that they have pre- 
nohgy ferved their records more carefully, and in greater purity, at 
/^wf to '^^ ^^^^ ^^^ creation to the birth of Chrift, than any other . 
h more ^^^^^° ^^ know of, whatever corruption they may have been 
pun. fufFered fince to undergo, either to make them tally more exaftly 
with the feptuagint chronology, or to give the Chinefe nation 
a greater antiquity : for it is hardly to be foppofed they could 
have any other rule to fix that epocha by, but the tt-adition 
in that patriarch's family, of Chrift appearing in our flefh at 
the end of the fourth millenary ; and fince, as it plainly ap- 
pears that he was bom exaftly at that year, according to 
our Hebrew chronology ; and that, in the very fame year, the 
then reigning monarch did, out of regard to his charafter, 
, exchange his name of viftorious into that of pacific ; we can- 
not but look upon this as a ftrong prefumption that Chinefe 
chronology would be found more exaft, and agreeable to our 
Hebrewy if it had not been lengthened and disfigured, to 
anfwer fome of the finifter ^nds above-mentioned. This is 
not, however, the only proof we have to oflEer on that head, 

t See before. Ant. Hift. vol. i. p. 142, & (eq. 

(L) This tradition, which is law, aooo under the law, and 

affirmed by the Jenvs to be as 2000 under the Kfeffii^, after 

antient as the promife made to which was to follow hit glo- 

Adum after the hX\ (9), is ftoon* rious and uaiverfid eeign of 

d«d on i\» creation being imifli- 1000 years, ftyled by them tiif 

Mii in fix days, and God refting great fabbath, and by the Chn- 

on the feventh ; from wiuch» ttians the millemuum, of which 

computing; a day for athoufand we have given an acconpt inth^ 

years (10), ^hey concluded that antient hiftory of the Jev$ 

i?he worfd would laft 7000 (11). 
9rears, that is, 2000 before the 

(9) Gene/, ill. tj. (r©) Sti ii. Feter d dSf. «»/. i» (ll) ^ 

^»', Slifi, laL lilt ^. 39* ' 


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C I. The tHJiory of CKini. 347 

though the propercft place in which it could be mentioned. 
The remainder, which we hope will be allowed of much 
greater weight and authority, will be better rcfervcd foi a 
fubfeqncnt article ; in which we (hall difplay fach farther har- 
mony between the Chinefe and Hebrew chronology, from fomc 
anthendc fafts recorded in both, as will at once make them 
refleft a mutual and furprifmg evidence on each other, dif- 
cover the fallacy of the pretended Chinefe antiquity, and of 
its boafted agreement with the feptuagint, and enable us to 
fix the beginning of their monarchy upon a more rational and 
authentic foundation than any hitherto extant. 

But, bpfore we difmifs the topic of their excellent reli- Their reli' 
gion, laws, ifc. we beg leave to obferve how inconfiftent the gion a 
fappofition of its having been foimded by fome of the more fSS^^jf, 
remote dcfcendants of Noah muft appear, to any unbiafled Noah ^^- 
reader, vdth that purity of their antient worftiip and doc- ^-^ \ "'* 
trine, which difplayed itfdf fo wonderfully from the earlicft ''*'''*' ^* 
times, whilft all other nations were funk into the loweft 
kind of idolatry, the moft unnatural and inhuman rites, and 
fcarcely retained the leaft awe or notion of a fupreme and . 
over-ruling power. If Noah muft not be allowed to have 
gone into China^ but to have fettled any-where elfe amongft 
his other defcendants,' how comes it that neither the excel- 
lency of his doftrine as a preacher of righteoufnefs, nor his 
authority as their common parent, could preferve them from 
the general corruption and d^eneracy in theory and praftice ? 
And how can a fiew late ftragglers, who, by gradual and long- 
contmued migrations, fcarched for new fetdements, be fup- 
pofed to have been the only ones who preferved their faith 
and manners fo Ipng incorrupt, and lived in a manner the ' 
moft agreeable to all the precepts and example that fuch an 
holy patriarch could have given them, had they been under * 
his immediate care and government • ? Is it not more rational 
to think that they received their religion, laws, philofophy, * 
morality, learning, and way of life, from him; and that it 
was their deep regard to his authority that inifluenced this 
people to obferve them with that conftant tenacioufnefs, which 
Hb&y have ever fince maintained ? whilft^all his other defcend- 
Mts (the Egyptians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Celtes, Scythi' 
0tns, 8rc. down to the Creeks and Romans), chufmg rather to 
be guided by what they called the light, though noo crfteii 

^ Dehoc, vi^. Triot.and Chr. e%ped, ap. 8in. lib. i. Smed* 
Kelig. Smar. p. i. c. 18. Niiuhofp ArobafT. partii. Purch* 
Pilgrim, lib. iv. &.ali^. ; KsRCHCitSia. Ilkft Mxrtini, ts 
pHCfTB^ DuHalob, ^aoallan, & al. fup. cicat 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Thir an- 
tient cha' 
mint of 
Noah be- 
ing their 

The Hiftory of China. B, I. 

mor« truly the corrupt appetites, of nature, than by hb 
excellent maxims and authority^ gradually funk into the moft 
extravagant follies, monftrous impieties, and inhuman rites 
and fuperflitions, as every reader may fee by the account we 
have formerly given of the religion and cuftoms of thofe an- 
tient nations, in each of their refpeftive hiftories : but it is 
time now to pafs on to fome other arguments. 

XIII. The Chinefe records afcribe the invention of their 
antient charafters, of which we have formerly given an ac- 
count *, to Fo'hi^ and his immediate fucceflbrs ; and we have 

* lately obferved, that the antediluvians could not but be pof- 
fefled of fome fuch way of preferving and imparting their 
knowl^e, of which Noah^ apprifed as he was fo long before 
of the approaching deluge, and of his being defigned to re- 
people the new world, muft be fuppofed to have made the 
beft colleftion. But as thofe charafters, wliatever they were, 
could not prove fufficient to anfwer all the variety of ideas 
which he had acquired by the different fcenes which the new 
world continually offered to his obfervation after the flood, he 
muft of courfe be under a necelBty of inventing fome ne;v 
ones anfwerable to them. And hence probably proceeded 
both the primitive fimilitude, and the accidental difference, 
between thofe of the antient Chinefe and Egyptians^ the two 
moft diftant nations, not only in point of fituation, but like- 
wife with rclpeft to their religion, learning, ifc. whilft the 
defcendants ot Shem and Japbet feem to have wholly neglefted 
that ufeful art ; at leaft it doth not appear that they had it 
among them till the ufe of lettei's was divinely revealed to 
Mofes. However, as to thofe antient charafters, or hierogly- 
phics, there can be no doubt but that the vaft alterations 
which were made on the new world muft have required a 
frefh fupply of them ; and who could be fitter for fuch a 
taflc than Noah^ who was fo well acquainted with the old 
ones ? on which account he might eafily enough be flyled the 
inventer of the whole; and it cannot be denied that thofe 
afcribed to Fo-hi bear the undoubted marks of a primitive and 
ori^nal one. 

If, upon the v/hole, therefore, Fo-hi and Noah can be 

^ (hewed to be coeval, the invention of tliofe charaflers will 
ftill add to the probability of their being the fame perfoo, 
only under two diiferent names ; and at the fame time account 
for the lingular and even religious regard which the Chinefe 
f^ve ever p^d to that way of writing, fince^ in that cafe, they 

^ See An^ HifL vplapc. f 153^ &fc^. 



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C. I. The Hijhry of Cliini. 349 

could not but look oa the author of it ks a perfon dhinely 

XI V. And hence may alfo have proceeded that furprifing Their reU-^ 
zeal, and tenacious fondneis, they have -always retained, ^'<^^y^"'- 
above all other nations, not only for thdr religion, laws, di- *?^/*^ f^ 
faphne, ifc. but likewife for their antient cuftoms relating to "^ 
education, behaviour, drefs^ eadng, drinking, converfation, ^^^^""^^ 
ceremony, ceconomy, and the like : for it is plain that they ^^j^j^ ^, 
look upon all the maxims and rules concerning every one of f^, 

them to be plainly either expreiTed or implied in their canoni- 
cal books, which they efteem to be of divine authority ; in- 
fomuch that their monarchs thought themfelves indifpenfably 
bound to obferve them; and thofe are moft celebrated in 
their annals, who paid the greateft regard to them. And 
under thiis head may we not juftly infift upon that fingular 
and extraordinary refpe£i which we have elfewhere obferved 
^ is paid by the whole nation, from the higheft to the loweA 
' rank, by children to their parents ? This is indeed one of the 
dudes the moft ftrenuoufly infifted upon in their canonical 
and other philofophical writii^; and the unparalleled in- 
ftances we have formerly given of its ftrift obfervance, fully 
(hew to what a height they have carried it above all other 
people we know or read of : but, whether in this, or in all 
other refpefts above-mentioned, how can it be fuppofed that 
a lefs audiority than that d the good old patriarch, joined to 
a deejdy-rooted confdoufnefs of the efficacy of parental bkflF- 
ing or curfinff, fuch as they had feen a remarkable inftance 
of in the cafe of one of his three fons, could have ever in- , 

forced fuch a religious and indelible fandlion on all his infti- 
tutes, and infpired a whole nadon with fo lafting a r^ard to 
them, as even to defpife and hate all the reft of the world for 
not obierving them ? 

XV. TriE fame may be ui^ed with relation to thdr agri- ^^^^ 
ailture, the invention of which they afcribe to the fame F#- H^^^ 
hiy as Mofes doth to the patriarch Noah foon after the^ flood *». ^j^J^"^ , 
From the words, indeed, of the facrcd hiftorian (^^Noah^^^^^^ 
began to he an ku/bandmariy ar^ as the original imports, b^an 

his firft eflays in huft>andry) we may reafonably infer, that the 
antediluvians were not much verfed in it ; and therefore his 
^ft atteo^pts feem to have been only of the rude and common 
kind, as plandng, fowing, ifc: but, by that time he had 
travelled through fo many different climates, and variety of 
foils, in his flow and gradual migrations towards the eaft, 
he might become (b perfeft a mafter of it, as to be able to 

* Gen. jx. 20. 



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350 - ^e Hijhry pf China. B. I 

leare hts defirendants fucfa ufeful ruies and obfenratipo^ as 

might juAly intitle him to the honour of being the layentcr 

of it. 

No'ivbire ^ ^^ ^^ manner die Chinefe records tell us, that Fo-hi 

mure tn- left fome fiich excellent direftbns to his fnccefibrs, for the 

couraged encouragement and improvement of it ; and that they proved 

mndim- fach diligent and ftrenuous obfervers of them, that tb^ ea- 

fro'vtit, afl;ed fundry laws, and caufed divers treatifes to be writtes, 

far the promoting and endearing it to all their fubjefb. And 

ihe reader may judge, by the deicription we have given of 

that whole country in a former feftion, to what a degree of 

* perfeAion their genius and inde&tigable induftry have boot 
xaifed it ; infomuch that no nation under the fun ever cnlti- 
tdted it to better advantage, or gave greater encouragement 

Tbeir mo- to it, than this. We fhall only add, that even their gteateft 

ttarcbs ob- HKMjarchs are not exempted by their laws from putting their 

^^^y, hands to the plough ; but, over and above the many imnum- 

extreme tt. ^^^ ^^ other favours, they are under a neceffity of grant- 

^ iog to the hufbandmen, in times of drought, £unine, and tbe 

fike^ are obliged, at fome particular feafons of the year, and 

more eipecially foon after thdr acceffion to the throne, to 

£veft thcBsfelves of the imperial grandeur, and, in the home- 

Jieft rural garb, to perform fome of the loweft exerdies in 

itgricukure, as we have eUewhere fhewn c : fb that, upon the 

whfile, as no nation ever more dofely followed die Aeps of 

iChe £rft poftdiluvian patriarch than this, it can hardly be 

fuppofed that a lefs authority than his could have eofonred ib 

iftridand long an obfervation of thofe laws which are there 

• enabled in favour of that mofl ufeftd arf*. 

Tbe for' !XVX. THE^ubjeft of agriculture naturally leads us to ac- 

biddingtbe pthfir argument on this head ; viz. that the Chinefe are the 

ttfeofnuine only people that we know of, before Mohammed's time, that 

^^_ cviar itttjerdifted the ufe of wme, or ever fo leligioufly abfbiined 

m^ffiauM. fxpsx it, from the eailieft date of tfadr monardiy down al- 

moft to their late conqueft by the Tartars *• This fingula- 

ffityhath imfeed been urged by the oppofite fide as an argn- 

iment that Noah never fet his foot in the Chitufe territories ; 

imcethis branch of hufbandry is there wanting, ^ich that 

patriarch is recorded to have made one of his firft eflays ^ 

but how juftly or judlcioully, let the reader judge. Noah, 

irfiilft yet widi his foos, planted a vineyard ; and being tt 

thftt thne, as is moft likely, quite unacquaimed with the 

^ Soebefoi"^ p. 27, ^'fiec Ka*CKM, Mai- 

TINT, Le Compte, & 9L fijpra citat. * lidem ibid. 

' Genef. ix. 20. 


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C. I. .^ie Hffiery 4/ China. 351 

firange efFefts of its juice, drank fo plentifuUf of it, that it 
thiiew him into a deep £bep, in wliich he lay ^vilh his body 
(o expofed, that two of his fons were put to no fmall diffi- 
culty to cover him with a truly filial decency ; whilft his third 
had* mofl dreadful curfe pronounced on him ^nd his poflerity, * 
for expofing him 5. If, therefore, there had not been one 
Angle vine growing in the whdc Chin^/e empire, could a htt- 
^er reaibn be given or imagined, why the good old patrianch 
would not fufieTffuch a dangerous plant to be propagatecl 
within his dominions, than the dilafler which befel hiAi by 
-it, let it have been of what nature it would f . C(»dd he 
-exprefs his difpleafure at it in a ftronger manner, than by the 
<bteiEi%s he bcftowed on the two former, and the curfe he 
vented againfl the latter ? or could any thing be a fboi^er 
aaotive for his interdiftiag the ufe of that dangerous liquor 
to his defcendants, though Mof(^s hath not taken any n«tioe 
jof it ? And indeed to what purpofe would it haitre faeon for 
him to have meniioncd it, when he fo well knew that all the 
reft of the world, Ws own Mndred not excepted, fhewcd ib 
little regard for it, and die CUmfi alone were the only j)eo|ib 
that paid a due and Skn& ohedienee to it ? But, what Aill 
'more redounds to their honour, and confirms our bj^K^thefis, 
Is, that vines ape as much cultivated among them as inanqr 
other nation, whatever be pietended to the contrary by the 
oppofiti? fide, .and afford as great a variety of the fineft grapes 
(M), which they conlent themfelves with eating^elthqr xipe or 
-dried, and only abftain from the juice of them. 

XVII. The Chinefe are the only people that we know of fy^ Chi- 
in the whole world, excepting the ^^oni?/^( who have taken nefei;^ 
it from them), who, in the ftrufture and dimenfions dF their yJ/r madt 

t Sec Ant. Hift. vol. i. p. 268, (L). « Genef. ubi (up. 

vcrf. 2.5, & feq. 

(M) We are told accordingly refide. Since, therefore, thov 

by Mar tint J SmedoyNiiuhoff^ and Chinefe allow themfclves the ufe 

others, that the provinces of of other exhilarating and into • 

Sban-fi ^ndi Shen-Ji are famed xicating liquors, which are nei- 

for the beauty and fweetnefs of ther fo palatable, nor fo ealily 

their grapes ; and thofe arc more made, it will be hard to account 

particularly celebrated which for their abftaining from fuch 

,£rowin the neighboufhood of fine wines, as they might exprefs 

the city of Pyngyimg, where out of theirnoble grapes, if it 

Tauy their eighth emperor, and be not done upon fome fuch 

great promoter of agriculture, religious account as we have 

who was a great lover of thenu been ipeaking of. 

did, on that account, chufe to 


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552, 3'be Hiftory of Chinal. B. I- 

Sifter the trading and other vdfels of burden, have rctahied the original 
modA of model of the ark. i . They allow them fix breadths to their 
• NoahV length, which Mofes tells ns was exafUy the proportion of 
ark^ ano- j^ooh's ark ** ; whereas other nations allow theirs only three 
ther argu' breadths, except only in fome fmall canoes. 2. They build 
^^^& them flat at the head, ftern, and bottom ; wh^eas all other 
^^. ^^^^y nations have them fharp. 3. They commonly g^ve them 
Fo-bi. ^i^:ice& tiers, or ftories, one over the other, and each oi them 
parted by long galleries reaching almoft from end to end, aud 
fttbdividal into fmaller apartments of different fizes ; fbme 
for flowage of merchandizes, provifions. Ar. and others for 
lodgings for paflengers, and thofe that belong to the vcffil ; 
all which is likewife exaftly acc(M:ding to the fhrufture of the 
ark, and quite different from all other nations. This cannot 
but be allowed to be very lingular ; and, though we will not 
enter int6 a needlefs contefl, about which of the two methods 
be moft preferable, or befl contrived, either for fafcty, expe- 
dition, or for carrying the greateft burdens ; but readily own, 
-that' the latter is an improvement of the former ; yet wUl it 
then be (till mare, hard to concdve how the Chinefe, who are 
in no way inferior to any other nation in ingenuity, and have 
moreover been inured to the maritime trade from the earlieft 
ages of thdr monarchy, came to g^ve all aloi^ the preference 
to their old way of building, unleft we fuppofe it to b6 out 
of a Angular refpeft they ever paid to the divine model above- 
mentioned, and to tjie venerable builder of it (N). 

- xvin. !• 

^ Genef. chap, vi verf. 14, & fcq. 

. (N) In fpeaking of that for- inftitutor ; but which is fo oft* 

priilng flru^ure, we know not fuitable and unworthy of the 

whether we may not add ano- folemnity and grandeur with 

Aer Chinefe cuftom, which feems which it is kept, that the wifcr 

very probably to have tak^n its fort juftly look upon it as ridi- 

rife from it ; «i;/«, their famed culous, though they cannot fob- 

feftival of lights or lanthoms, of ftitutc a»better to it. 

which we have taken notice in May we not therefore mort 

a former fe£^ion t> as having reafonably conjedure it tohave 

been obferved throughout the been inftituted, from the very 

whole empire from time imme- beginning of that monarch/i in 

morial, and with the greateft memory of the many lampi 

pomp and folemnity. We have with which the good patriarcli 

there (hewn what a lame and was obliged to enlighten hit 

uncertain account fome of their gloomy habitation, daring the 

writers give of its origin and twelve melancholy months of 

f See before, . /. 25^, fif /r^, ST (D), 



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C I. Tbt mjh^ <f China. 353 

X¥!H. To all the topics lately urged from the extraordi- Their reli' 
imry r^ard they paid to every thing wiiich they thought to be gtousre* ^ 
derived to thcni from their worthy founder, we may add the g^f'^^^o 
facped antiquity and authority which their philofophers and *^^'^ V^ . 
literati have dways attributed to their Shu-king, and other ^^"^'"^^'^ 
CEBonicd books, as weQ as to their other antient records, X/«^«.- 
^t dl other nations. Of this we need no greater proof than, f„fjttf^ 
!*, Tie m^y comments which have been written on them, ,>. 
and the high encomiums they have beftowed on their authors, 
^rtwrn they «fteemed as men infpired by heaven, and endowed 
iwib t divine charaifter and authority. 2. The great veneration 
that 18 paid by the learned to. their commentators and expofi- 
tors, fadi as M^ncius, Confucius, and others. And, 3dly, 
Acj^nerous ufe they have always made of thofe books and 
comments, for the good and inftruftion of the people ; and 
that moft juflly too, fince there is nothing to be found in 
them but wliat plainly leads their readers to their original 
fwint^n the great Fo-hi, and his immediate fucce/Tors, without 
the uf^al parade of any fuch obfcure, remote, and incredible, 
antiquity as we meet with in thofe of the Egyptians, Chal- 
demSf and other antient nations : neither did they contain 
any thmg but what was coiiducive to make men wifer and 
tetter, m proportion to their being converfaht with them. It fhegene* 
is tftnefore.Tio wonder if, inflead of fecreting them from rouj ufe 
pttSicnew, and locking them up as the great arcana- of their ^^y ^^^ 
rdigton and government, as was done every- where elfe, they ^'^^*- 
cfteemedit their duty and glory to publHh and explain them 
to all who had capacity or inclination to dive into them ; 
rightly judging, that that was the moft efFeclual way to pre- 
teve to thofe antient writings the veneration they fo juftly 
Merved ; anl to prevent at the fame time their being abufed 
and corrupted by defigning men, as thofe commonly are moft 

* De his, vid. Hbrodot. Manetho, Sanchoniath, &aL 

Ws confinement in k? And may with them, his fird facrifices to 

notthoife (hews, wkich we ob- God, and the like j the remcm- 

^d .arc exhibited in fomc of brance of all which, by length 

*hofe lasge lanthorns by pup- oi time, became obliterated, as 

pcts,and othermachinery, have well as the reafon of the inftitu- 

neen originally dcftgned to re- tion of that pompous feftival : 

prefent lome of the fcene^ of but thefe conjeilures we fji^mit 

^dreadful tranfaAion, fuch to the reader, only as being at leaft 

ts his conveying all the living more probable than any which 

creatarcs into the ark, feeding have been hitherto offered coi»- 

^ttn there, his coming out cerning it. 

* * 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VIIL ' Z liable 


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chief ob' 
jeSiions a 
7he pK£' ' 
Undid fa- 
not afuffi- 
cient argu- 
ment ' 
their ge- 

^be Hijlorj of China. ^ B, 1. : 

liable> which arepurpofely kept from public fight, and | 
can only be admired by the ignorant. 

XIX. To what hath been urged' under the laft head, fomc 
feemingly confiderable objections have been ftarted, which we 
(hall now endeavour to clear up under this. 

I. It is pretended, that there are many falfe and fabulous 
things inferted in the fix or feven firft reigns, which quite de- i 
ftroy their authority ; and tliat the length which is allowed | 
to them in their annals is very much difputed, naydifcredited, 
by the moft judicious Writers, and 6ven by thofe of that na- 
tion. To the firft of thefe it may be eafily anfwered, that 
there hath been fcarcely any antient people under the fun 
that have not had fomething in their origin, and firft bc^- 
nings, which hath the air and appearance of fable, bu^whicb 
would carry a quite different afpeft, were we better acquainted 
with their mythology, antiquities, idiom, characters, and ! 
other the like particulars ; fo that all this pretended feries of I 
fables may, for aught that appears to the contrary, be intirely 
owing to miftake and ignorance, and that in no cafe more \ 
probably than with relation to the Chinefe, whofe original j 
character, language, i;c, were underftood by fo few of their | 
learned, and fo liable to be mifunderftood. And as to the I 
length of the firft reigns above-mentioned, though they arc 
allowed to be much queftioned, or even difcredited, by the 
partifans of the feptuagint chronology, or even by feme of the . 
Chmefe Writers, out of an affeCtation of a greater antiquity ; 
yet if we can prove, from good authority, that thofe which ; 
have intervened between Fo-hi^nd Tau do as exaftly tally, as | 
iany thing of that nature can do, with the coeval generations j 
recorded by Mofes between Noah and Jojhua, whom we fhall j 
likewife prove to have been cotemporary with Fo-hi and Tau, i 
according to our Hebrew chronology, it is to be hoped that i 
this will be looked upon not only ^s a fufficicnt anfwer to the | 
objection above-nientioned, but likewife as no fmall confirma- i 
tion of the Cbincfc annals, fo far as relates to the length of 
thofe reigns ; efpecially as nothing material hath been hitherto 
urged againft it, except its difagreement with the feptuagint, 
/and C'^'w^ chronology ; according to which, that of aU the 
fi'.bfequent dynafties and monarchies is calculated and deter- 
mine-], or rather hath been ftretched out and lengthened at 
plenfure, as will be more clearly -feen in the fequel. | 

' '^Mb^f'EVER, 'bating that one point, in which, to reconcile ! 
two chronologies together, they, have been forced to fpin out 
the period between the reign of Yau and the birth of Chriil, 
by near 900 years above what our Hebrew makes it, there 
can hardly bt any queftion, but in all other refpcCls the hiftory 


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fe u Tie Hifion of China; \g^ 

is as exaA, Mthful, and well tompUed, as. any extant ; and 
more particularly fo with relation to the ferifes pf dynafties, 
the names, fucceflionSy and exploits, of eacfi royal family, and ^ 
refpeftive reign, as Dti Halde hath lately fhewn^^ ; and if, in 
this laft xefpeA, it be confefled to be le(s Copipus and particu- 
lar than thofe of fome other nations, it will alfo bie found 
kfs fabulous, and confequently more to be depended upon, 
than they, as W€ fliall fliew in the fequel. 

But to this two things are objeAed, which feem to carry* ATo^* the 
fome weight ; viz* that their great Cor^iicius^ who is faid tq/cardty o/\ 
have lived about 500 years before our Saviour, cqmplainedA^J* ««^ 
much of the great fcarcity of materids^ then to be found io- other rna- 
wards compifiig fuch a hiftory as might be worthy to be ^'^^^"* 
tranfimtted to pofterity ; infomuch that he was forced to con- 
tent himfelf with thefe few obfervations on fdme extraordinary 
phsaomena, and fuch other common events as he could find 
upon record, inftead of the illuftrious atchievements with 
which he wpuld much rather have chofen to have embel-i 
lUhed the reigns of thofe antient monarchs, had any fuch been 
tranfinitted down to his time. Well, be it fo ; can the ileri- 
lityof thofe old records deftroy the credit of thofe fafts 
which they take particular UQtice of ? Is it not rather a mark 
of their faithfulnefs, that they tran&ait nothing to us that 
might be liable to be queflioned ? The characters and ex- 
ploits of thofe antient monarchs might have been, as too com* 
monly is the cafe, gready exaggerated in their favour 5 "svhere* 
^ fuch uncommon phaenomena as ace there recorded^ and 
could be obferved by the whole nation, and more (afely fdiei 
^pon, were things which they juftly thought more worthy to ^ 
be tranfinitted to pofterity. We fhaU have occafion, tinder our 
Bext head, to inftance in one or two particulars, which will 
ftfficicndy fhevv how curious, exaft, andjuft, they were in 
obferving and recording fuch kinds of remarkable events^ 
vhiift they appeared to have been quite negligent of .others, 
which we (hould judge more weighty and proper for a national 

But, adly, the univerfal deftruftion which Shi^whang-ti All the an- 
€aufed to be made of all the Chinefe books and writings which *^^»t re- 
Klatcd to hiftory, or any other fcience, except law and phyfic, ^°^^J^^'' 
H hereotyefted againft the credit of all their antient records; ^L y . 
^dfrom this general havock, which happened, according to ^^^l,y^ 
Aeir chronology, about 213 years before the birth of Chrift, shi. ^ 
%iaferthat little elfe could be recovered but fome fcraps and whang-ti, 
fragments, which were fo liable to be mangled and corrupted 
tjthecoUeftors, that no credit can be fafdy given to, or dc- 

* See Engl. edit. vofl. i. p. 136, & fcq^. « 

Z -a pehdcncc 


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35^ ^9 fiifi(ffy «f Chifiju B. !• 

pet^enee hAdti{y6Q, th^n; ibfomuch, diat thefe hypercrkks 
much qtreftbn >(vbether any of thoTe editions of dian, wlikh 
Wert fiftce pttUilhdd, baar ally refiMti^^ 
though the Chm&f^ atmrii lyflTor^ us, that V'u-4h ^ "^ft^ ^sA 
txcmeot fuecdibf tsf the tyrsmt ftfeove«iiieiitiODdd» caalbd tfaon 
to be €Tcry*iirtief e fought for, and witten uncw, Mdthitt BttI* 
more than feveuty^ree ytMffS after, imd to be tav^i in ^ tfatt 
That dt' academies of the empire '• To t^hich it fimy theltsfoie b« 
ftruBkn juflly anfvered, that it is- abfwd to fuppofe that ftich an 
amli net ufiiverfal deAruftion of book« fo higMy efteoned, coaM evor 
h ««/vfr- j^^ch through etery pt6tt <3f fo cXttittfitfe to empire, let the 
^'* tyrant's authority hate beett ever fo great, or his e<fi€l «v«r 

fo fevcrely executed. 

THfc Shu-king, and other canonical books, as well as th* 
ll^itSttgs of Mencins, Coffudus^ and other gr^t ph&^^i«rs, 
trene Md in too great efteem, to be fuppofed to have been 
thus tamely given up to the flames, in e^ery piwiBGe, and 
by every owner of them. It b much «Aore ftafonable to 
think, from the ihoft fjp«ce of time it took up to have At 
grcateft part of them re-poblifticd, and *lperf(wi, that a good 
humber of cfiipia were pieferved ititire, either in fottie of At 
remotdl provinces, or, at leaft, in fome of thofe petty king- 
doms, which were only tributary to, <» independent on, Mm» 
Much more unfikely is it, that the many other Idngdooia 
\Vithout the limits of die empire, fome of which were vet^ 
cbnfidertdrfe, and among whom thofe venemWe wridii^ were 
held ih eijual ^jftcem, ihould all tfens bafely jofe ki to exe- 
crable a deiign. SM^whang-fi's whrfe rwgn, which laftcd 
thirty-three years, could hardly have fuffiotd for the dlfco* 
very of ftrch a vaft tiumber of vohimes, fcatttit-d fer and WKff, 
^thout, as wdl ^ withhi, his domiifions, much lefe to have 
fenced i3iem out xsf their owners Tiands ) how much more fo, 
tf we cowfideir that his edift did not come out tiH the latter 
J/I thofe ct^ of his reign, as m4H be feen iii the fequel ? Let it tten 
books- re- be but fuppofed, that two 0£ three auAenttc copies were 
cohered prcferved intire,. either within or without his empire, and 
foon after. alFterwards purdiafed by Vwiiy would tliey hot have been 
fofRcient not only to have fupplied the empire wJA a Qjeedy 
and copious fetof ncW ones, but fikewife to have prevenied 
thdr being mutH^ted or tx>rruptcd by the tranfcribers <i 
them (N) > Thus 

^ See Martini, Dv Halde, at;4 An. Hift. vol.xx. p. 15J. 
&feq. &(D). 

(N) With refped to the ca- following remarkable ciraim* 
ponical Shu'kwgj and its recO- ftance : that an old man, named 
lery, their records memion the Om^ofeng, who ,was ftill alive 


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C i# Tii Hiftory ef China. . 357 

Thus far thca we xxwy fairly cx)ncliKk> that ikAih^ oi The nature 
th« two above-^ncntioned objeftions, plaullble as they mdy ff their 
appear at firft, can be of weight fuffideut to inv^date the ^^f^'*^^- 
authority of thofe canonical and other valuable books, much 
le& the credtt of the antient hiflory, which, abating ibme (ew 
ieeming^exa^erated encomiums on their founder, and his 
three or four next fucoeflbrai contain little elfc than an ac- 
count of f<;»ne preternatural 'or remarkable events, which are 
recorded to have happened in the fubfpc^^uent reigns ; and 
from which we can only infer, that the writers were more 
diligoit in obferving, and tranfitiitting, fuch uncommon things, 
than curious xx% enrich their hiftories with the exploits, whe- 
ther real or ^bulous^ of their antient nionarchs. 

Amongst that number, n^ have ventured to rank that Confu'. ' 
remarkable record concermng Chrift, and the year, and part <^>"s'j >•'•* 
erf the world, he was : for it can hardly be fuppofcd, ^^^^^^^^ 
that ConfuctHs had it by immediate infpiration, which he doth ^l^^P ^^ 
aot appear ever to have pretended to, but to have repeated it "^ ' 
frequently, as a comfortable promife, handed down to, and 
well underftood by, all the learped of his nation, both before 
and after him, as may be. plainly inferred, from what we lately • 
. obfisrved of the reignicg monarch, at the time of Chrift*^ 
birth, changii^ his name ; and from what we have formerly 
mentioned, dL the Emperor Ming-ti's fruitkfs ambafly mto 
India, in fearch of that holy and miraculous perfon *, about 
iixty-four years after. If therefore we fupppfe Fq-hi tg hJlVQ 

• Sec before, p. 109, & (G). & 345, & feq. 

when.fhe fearch was made aAer been recovere4« together with 

the loft bopks, did boaft of the writings of Confucius and 

Jtiaving that one intirely by Mencius, fo foon as the reign of 

heart; upon which he was im- Hiao-kingf Fen-ti's fucccffor, 

mediately ordered to pen it and were all p^iblifhed afrelh in, 

down, according to the beft of that of Hia-ou, about fcventy- 

)ms memory. He did fo ; and, hyt years after the burning of 

opon its being afterwards eom- the old ones. We omic fome 

pared with the original, newly other frivolous objedlions urged 

recovered, they were found to againft the authenticity of thefe 

agree in every thing, except in new books, by fome membera 

fpme few words, which, never- of the French academy , an^ 

thelefs, made no difference in which the reader will find fully 

the fenf^ (i). We arc told anfwered by the author laft 

by the "^famc author, that quoted, in his letter tp thcmoiv . 

die five books called iuf/f^ had that fubjed (z). 

(i) See tb* Colteff, o/Lettrei edjfijntt & curieuf, vol xxi. ^ izi. (^ U^ 


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•g8 ne Hiftory of China. B. I, 

|)cca poftcrior to Noah, it cannot but appear very probable, 
that he received that noble prophecy from him, as a