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P P A N 

Univerfal Hiftory, 


Earlicft Account of T i m i, 
VOL. V. 

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• - r -** #- i t 

"J •/- 

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Univerfal Hiftory, 


Earlidl Account of Time. 

Comj^kd from 

ORIGINAL Writers. 

■^^■^— ■ ■ — ■ — - - - 

By the Authors of the Antient Part, 

-- -■ — • — • • - — • — ' 

VOL. V. 

LOTi D O N: 

..tinted for & Richardsok, T. Osborne, C. Hitch, 
A. MiLLAK) John Rivincton, S. Crowoer, 
P. Datey and B. Law, T. Longman, and CWarb. 

M.DCC.LIX. J2 :i 3 Dgl^yGOo^e 

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Modem Hiftory: 

B ElKd A 



BOOK il. 1-^ n t 


Tie Hifiory of Jenghiz KhahV Sutteffors , 
in Tartafy and China. 

"the keiga of Timiirj tdM hy the ChincfeS Chlhg. 

Af T E R the death of Hu^i-ldy (or Kublay)^ Pe-yen^ as Sticthi 
prime minifter, knd general of the irmy, gaVfe the nc- Khin 
ceflary commands, to prevent all diforder; iind in-TimWi 
Vited Timur to come immediately^ and be acknowleged emperor^ 
pnrfuant to the laft will of his grandfather-. This appoint- 
ment he alfo notified to the princes^ and other generals of the 
troops ; giving them to underftand, at the fame time, that he 
Would fiot fiiffer the leaft oppofitiop to it; The aflembly 
met, by agreement, in Jpril 1294 5 where, notwltliftahding, A. D; 
feveral princes intended to declare fomebody elfe empercr. 1 294^ 
Then Tuji Timur fpoke ; and faid, TTtat it was proper, Vith- 
ont delay, to inftal Tim^r, according to the intention of ffu-^ 
P'l'lay, Pe-yen feconded Titjl Timur ; and, drawing hi^ 
fword, declared he would never acknowlege any Othe^ em* 
Mod, Hist. Vol. V. A ogzed^fS^ogle 

2 JcRghfz Khan?j Succejfors B. II. 

Sixth, peror than Timur, The general Twe-chechar, great grandfon 
Timur, orof Porgu, one of JengMz KhurCs four intrepids, was of the 
Ching- fame opinion, as well as all the other generals : it was known 
tfong. ^fo^ j^at the Chinefe great men would declare for Tmur. 
^ '"7 Hereupon Kanmala^ eldeft fon of the late prince Cheng-kin, 
gave his vote for Tiinur, his youngeft brother ;■ the other 
princes did the fame; arid, 'Tn fhort, all fell on their knees 
before that prince, to acknowlege him for emperor. Notice 
was immediately given of this to all the tribes, generals of 
troops, and mandarins of the provinces of China : a general 
amneffy was publilhcd likewife, according to cuftom. 
His fir ft One of the firft a£ls of Tiviur, who is known to the Chi- 
a6ts. fiejes by the name of Ching-tfong, was, to give the title of 

emperor to his father, and that of emprefs to his mother. 
He likewife erefted monumems to the memory of his father 
Cheng-kin y grandfather Hu-pi'lay, and the prmcefs his grand- 
cnfother ; punftually paid what was due to the princes and 
princelTes of his houfe, to the generals and mandarins : 
ihewed great marks of confidence to his brother Kanmala^ 
and declared him his lieutenant-general in Tartary. He ap- 
pointed generals tooppofe Hay-tu, and other princes of his 
party. -He-pFOvided-for the-fecurity of -the pFevinces by a 
choice of good officers, giving full powers to Pe-yen, Tiiji 
TemuKy Twe-chechar y TtitMa, and others, in all matters what- 
foever which concerned war. He caufed the finifliing ftroke 
to be given to the hiftory of Hu-pi-lay ; made peace with 
the king of Gan-nan * ; and ordered commerce with India to 
be renewed, which had been interrupted by the war with 
^a-wa f . 
Death rf \^ December this year died, the famous Pe^yen, at the age 
Pe-yen. of fifty-nine, with the reputation of being one of the greateft 
men whom either China or Tartary ever produced. The 
emperor^ the princes, the generals,* and univerfally all the 
officers,, mourned his death a long time; and the Chinefe 
v" hiflorians have beftowed on this general a magnificent elegy i 

The year 1295 is marked for the iirfl of Timur*s reign 
by thG.Chinefes,. who ufually reckon to the deceafed emperor 
: that in which he dies (A). At the beginning of it, lands 
were given, in tlie fouth^n provinces, to the foldiers, on 
- condition, to keep in awe the Myau-t/e: a kind of independ- 
ent people, who inhabit certain mountainous parts of Se- 
chwen, ^ey-chew, Hu-quang, ^ang-Jt, ^ang-tong, and 

* Containbg Tong-kitig and (A) Altho' this rule or euf- 

' Kochin China. tom is not always obferved, 

t Suppofed to be near Ai7//7« many inflances being found to 

* i^ja* the contrary. QauhiL 

'■ ' elfcwhcre* 

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C* 6. In Tartary and China. j 

dfewhere ; having languages and laws different not only from Sixth. 
the Chinefe^ but from one another, la April there happened Timfir, w 
a grievous famine, on which occafion Timiir ftiewcd his ^iftg- 
readinefs to fuccour the people; he caufed large alms to be ^ ^°^'. . 
diftributed every-where to the poor, and the public granaries % "^ 
to be examined : henceforth alfo he forbad the felling of civil 
employments *. 

In 1296 the daughters and fitters of the Mungl emperors, GWri;pr- 
as well as the princes and grandees their hufbands, were pof- lation* 
fefled of very great privileges. By little and little they had 
affumed to themfelves the right of judging, and putting to 
death, their vafTals and domeftics. Several abutes on this 
occafion determined Timur to make a law, that no perfon 
whofoever fliould condemn another, without having the em- 
peror's confent ; which regulation is highly praifed by the 

In 1297 the emprefs-mothcE had a mind to go to U-tay- 
Jhan^ a mountain near the city of U-tav (B), to fee the tem- 
ple which file had built in honour of Fo, As this journey a. D. 
muft have been very chargeable to the people, and, befides, 1297* 
was not agreeable to the emperor her fon, who, through 
refpeft, would not oppofe it openly, the Chinefe great men, 
deeply averfe to the worfliip of Fo, prefented that princefs 
with a petition full of fpirit and eloquence. After delicately 
fctting forth her known tendemefs and compailion for the 
people, they exaggerate the number of perfons ruine,d, or dead, 
on occafion of that temple ; . and make a difmal reprefenta- 
tion of the evils which fuch a progrefs would bring on the 
inhabitants of Pe-che-li and Shan-Ji\ nor did they fpare to 
exclaim againll the. worfliip of Fo Hereupon the emprefs 
defifted from her defign ; and, as flie faw that the emperor 
did not approve of it, ftie was unwilling to give him the leaft 

TIMURy when he appointed his brother Kanmala for his Hay -t4 
lieutenant-general in Tartary y and Twe-chechar for general oidefeated, 
the troops, ordered them to follow the counfels of T^t^ha, A- ^^ 
prince of Kin'cha{Q), who had beaten prince Hay-td in feve-*^?7- 
ral engagements. T4tuha died in 1295, ^^ Stven-htt-fu in 
Pe-che-Ii, as he was fetting out for Tartary, to command one 
of the armies defigned againft the fame enemy He was fuc- 
ceeded in his titles and honours by his fon Chohangdr, who 

» Gavbil. Hift. Gentel. p. 223, & feqq. 

|B) In the diftria of Toy (C) The ^ fame with Kaf* 
Tnven'-fut capital of Skan-Ji chdk or KifydL 

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• 4 JcRg^fz KbanV Strerefforf Bi It 

. SixfJIf. wad as great a captain as his father, under whom he always 

't iMr, or Ccrved^ with diftinftion. This general, being in 1297 aj^- 

Ching- pbihted to oppofe Hdy-t^^ who was advanced as hr as the 

•tfange country of Parin, marched a?t the head of his trobpsrf Kin-^ 

ci'd ; and, finding him encamped along the river JrA, pre- 

jfared to attack him : but in O^ter he fled, and retired to-^ 

wards the norths Next year prince Tuwa, Hay-ttlf*^ brother^ 

was defeated by Chohangur, to the weft of the mountam Jl^ 

idy^ towards the fource of the river Irtijb, In Augttjt a de- 

tbchment of Hay-tu^s army, being met by prince Ko-H^ki't/e, 

'Ci;^ho had married the €mperor*s daughter, he defeated them* 

A\tct times : but, falling from his horfe, was taken, and car* 

i*ied to Hay-Hy, whofe great ofiers he refufed„ chufing to 

Be flain, rather than pro¥e unfaithful to Tmur^ 

TlmSr'/ ^^ January 1299 ^^^^ monarch fent mandarins' mto aHtftitf 

charity, provmces^ to examine into the lofles which the people had 

Jk Di fufiered ; the damages which the tt-oops had caufed ; the fa* 

1 299. milies of mandarins, who had not wherewithal to live on,. 

fuitable to their condition ; and the peafants, who could not 

iCultivate the lands. Thefe commiffioners gave a real relief 

to the poor, the difeafed, the old officers who were no Ifen* 

get able to ferve, and to thdr families. This conduft loaded 

Timt^r with the publick applaufe : he refiried continually to 

declare war againft Japan, altho' fevcral Mz/Tg'/j, who de-. 

lighted in blood and flaughter, urged him tait. If^e em- 

feror declared, that he would live in peace, and banifti the 

vices which reigned In the empire. He daily inquired inta 

the iTiiferies of the people, and feemed to be fenfible ooly of 

^ the glory of making them happy. 

The hiftory, however, felame&TTmitfr for having lent 2 
bonza, in quality of envoy, to Japan, in February this year : 
k pr^fes the emperors, who fent deputies to foreign courts j 
and adds, that, for fiich commiflions, it is neceflary to chufe 
out men of credit and titles, and fuch as do honour to the 
empire by their magnificence, gravity^ and w of grandeur^ 
worthy the dignity of their prince. 
jfn ediffe T^^- tribunal of mathematics having foretold an eclipfe of 
' mjiaken, the moon for Aiiguft, which did not happen ; the great lords, 
to favc itS" credit, reprefented to the emperor, that heaveii 
had for that time, in his majefly*s favour, caufed a change in 
the motion of the fun. Timur did not believe what they 
faid ; yet, without punifhing the tribunal, fent them notice 
to fet the liars in order again. 

In the year 1300 Lyew-Jhen, a general of the troops,, 
reprefented to the court, that the kingdom of Pa-pe-ft-fsl 


Digitized by 


C6- In Tbt^tj and Ch]M: ^ 

(D) would not receive the calendar of the empire; "and Sixth. 
.pmyed his majeily to permit him to compel the inhabitants to TimAr, or 
.TpDow the form of the ChineJ^year, and reckon their months ^*"€?' 
iike the fubjefts of the emperor^ One of his minifters, called ^ ^°j' 
Wan-tfc^ conHdeiing this as a ferious affair, perfuaded ^^i**''*^''^^''^ 
emperor, in Decemher^ to attack the kingdom of Pa-pe-ft-fH. ^^ ^^^n^ 
Alaafitn opposed that Tcfolutbn ; alleging, that the people, ^^ 
whom they wouid attack, were barbarians ; that, ind^d, 
they m^ht be inftrufted, if his majeifty thought fit ; but 
that it would be of no ufe, as well as dangerous, to make 
war upon them. The emperor faiJ nothing to the minifter 
Alaajun ; but, contrary to his cuftom, he fell la a paffion at 
another mandarin, who went about to give his advice. la 
eflfeft, Ly^w-Jben was ordered, with 20^000 men, to attack 
Pa^pe-fi-f^ K 

B o T it was not long bcfore'Tnmtfr Tepemed this unfortunate 
war : mofl of the troops periflied by famine or ficknefs, anJ 
the province of Tim-nan fuffered much. The bordering 
people, who, till then, had lain quiet, took arms, and plun- 
dered feveral countries fubjeft to the emperor. This war at 
length became ferious ; many excellent officers died in it ; fo 
that the troops of HA-<jiuiingj Se-chwen, Shen-Jiy and Yun- 
9ian, were obliged to march ; and Koko (E), fon of HA-pi- 
iay, had orders to fupport thofe troops, in cafe of need. 
Tefiitar (F) and Lyew-kd-kyay -(G), after many difficulties and««^/"i* 
lofles, fttbdued Pa-pe-fi-fi, and pacified the troubles which ^«^^^* 
the Myaii'tfey and the pepple of the frontiers, had excited : 
npr was jt till the year 1 303 that an end was put to the war. 
The emptor often Jet Alaafun know, that he repented hav- 
ing not fiiUowed Ids advice : which occafion a great manda- 
rin laid hold of to reprefent to his majefty, that, for thirty 
years paft, the empire had been at exorbitant expences to 
make war on Japan^ Gan-nan, ^a-wa, and Lyew-Kycw, . 
wiibout fhe leaft profit. He compared thofe wars to &at of 

* GAVBfuubifup. p. 225, & feq. 

t©) A pretty larige cotmtry, (F) He was the fon of JN^r/w- 

between futt'Tfan and BtngSiki ijfent general wtAtrMengks and 

Luiiai but the air isvery.<ttfi. Hi-pi-lay, GaSiL 
whalfoine, andtiid pe|^e poor ; ( 6 ) . A tatar of Nj^-che, and 

and were, at that time, cmel one «»f the heft oi&ers in the 

and baHiat ous. Gaitkf. epijure : great praife^ is beftow- 

(£) He had theptle^f re- ed on the conduft of prince 

{ulo jof Tftn-m^ti. This is the JCoko, and thefe two |;eneral8. 

Fince whom M PoJo calfs J&- GauiiL 
Zr^ia^ Q.auhiL 

A3 ^^ 

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6 Jenghiz KhanV Suceejfors B. II. 

Sixth. Pa'pe'Jt'ft^ ; and added, that the honour of the emperor re- 

Timfir, squired that he fliould put to death the general Lyeyu-Jheriy 4s 

Ching- having deceived his prince. Several of that general's friends 

"^"g- represented^ that he ought to enjoy the amnefty : but Jla* 

u.'-«v«-ii^^^ made the fame reprefentation as the mandarin 5 and 

Lyew'Jhen had his head'ftruck off. 
ReheUion A LORD of the kingdom of Myen (or Pegu J, having re- 
in Pegu, volted againft his king (H), feized him, confined him in a 
ftable, and, in May 1360, flew him. The king's fecond foa 
efcaped to Ta-t^, and, on his knees, afked afliftance from the 
emperor. Timur, by advice of his council; granted his re- 
queft, as being a tributary prince ; and Suechawr, great ge- 
neral in Tun-nan, was ordered to enter Myen, and attack the 
rebels, tte did fo ; but was worfted, with his lieutenants, 
who returned to Tun-nan, after fpreading a report, that^ they 
had made all things quiet. However, the court had intelli- 
gence, that feveral great officers had been corrupted by the 
rebel ; who, being tryed for the fame, were found guilty, and 
put to death : nor did Suechawr efcape punifhment j for he 
was degraded,' and his goods were confifcated. 

The fame year died Pu-hu-cM, one of the miniflers, a 
Kangli by nation, and one of * the wifeft men of his time*. He 
held the chief employments in the empire, and yet died very 
poor. His children inherited his probity, and love for the 
fciences. His wife, who had as much virtue as her hufband, 
was continually at work with her hands, nor was afhamed to 
make ufe of them to maintain her family. 
Hay- TIMUR had fent his nephew Hayfhan into Tartary, to learn 

fhanVy«<r.-the art of war under the gtntvdX^Tive-chechar and Choangtir^ 
cejfes. This prince had defeated Hay-tu in feveral engagements ; but 
A. D. the latter, tho' always beaten, was ftill in a condition to make 
' 3°^ • himfelf feared ; fo that the emperor was obliged to have great 
armies continually in. that country, commanded by princes of 
his family,' and his bcfl generals. ' Hayjhan, having, Jn 1301, 
joined together the five great bodies of troops which had 
been employed in different parts of Tartary ; in Augujl had 
feveral bloody battles, between Karahrom and the river 7k- 
mir, with Hay-tu and his brother Towa, whbfe tropps were. 
Death of for the mbft part, cut in pieoes. Jii^y-ti, who, for more 
Kay-tu, than thirty years, had madewv on the princes of . his family, 
on pretence that they had tifurped'the empire of Ogotay, or 
Oktay, to' hk pi'ejudice, died with vexation. • > His- brother 
Towa was,4angeraufly wounded,- but efcaped with a few fol- 
' lowers. Such *a continued run of loiles, " and bad fuccefe, 

(H) Called in the Chine/e hiikory Tt'H-pu-'wa'na'na'ti-ti'ya. 

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C6. InTzniry'MdChinz. ^ 7 

at length induced moft of the princes who were af'tf^^^i^s- Sixth. 
party to acknowlege Timur for the true fucceflbr of Jenghiz T'mur, #1* 

In January 1302 died prince Kanmaia, the emperor's eldcft , !^°£ * 
brother ; whofe excellent qualities, joined to his Hdelity and T^^ 
courage, made him lamented. In March thc.coUrt was under Kanniala.r 
great uneafinefs on account of the emperor's illnefs i but he/v. D. 
recoFCPed his health, and learned, with a f^nfible joy, how 1 303* 
mudi the people had been affli<fled to hear he was Qd^ He, 
on his part, caufed great largeljes to be difb*ibuted» and a 
general pardon to be publifhed. In Jpril he removed, as 
nfual, to Shang't^ ; and, in May^ an eclipfe of the fyn hap- 
pening, which the tribunal had negle^ed to calculate, the 
mandarins thereof were puniftied, by lowering the d^ees of 
fome, turning out others, and lefleiDiing the falaries of the 
reft. The eftabli(hing of an imperial college at Ta-t4 gave 
great fatisfa^Hon^to the Chinefe literati : but they could notKonfufias 
forbear expreffing their concern, to fee that a palace had not honoured. 
been built to honour the memory of Konfufms. This being 
reprefented to Tim^r by Alaafun^ that prince, who had a high 
efteem for the philofopher, and underftood his do6h:in«, caufed 
a magnificent palace to be ereftcd for him, which J5 ftlU feea 
at Pe-king'^. 

JENGHIZ Khin brought with him into Tarfary, from 
Perjia, Khorajfan and great Bukhdriuy a confiderabk number 
of Mohammedan families, among whom there were iiiany ex- 
cellent officers ; and, ever after, the Mohammedans were very 
powerful at the Mungl court. There were, of that religion, 
generals, and whole bodies of troops ; chiefs of merchants, 
and mandarins in all the tribunals, , efpecially that of. the ma- 
thematics ; doftors, and even minifters of ftate, of whom, 
in Jufyy U'tU'p^'ting was nominated one, ^, 

In '1303 Tim^r^ ever attentive to the good of the empire, TimfirV 
fent judicious perfons into all the provinces, to inforfn them- humanity. 
felves how things ftood. One of his views was, to procure 
an exaft account of the mifery of the people ;. and to ^nd out 
men of merit, who were not employed, either for want of 
money, or friends at court. The emperor; in regard to thfli 
evils which had been occafioned by the long wars with Hay-^ 
t& and T&voay appointed generals to commend in the terrhjory 
of ^ua-cheiv and Sha-chew (I). There he ordered, magaoines 

. • ' to 

« Gavbil, ubifup. p. 228, ^'fcq. . 

(I) Cities to- the north weft of the weft end of tKe wiall, and 
CUna^ between Kya-ju fuan, at KhaHhu^ 6x Hafm, in LUiie Bui* 

, A 4 ■ baria. 

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t Jcn^tAt Tihin's Suiceffm B. II, 

SixA. tib^'^skS^ for the troopSi and lodgments for them in fevct 

Timur, iTrral pSa^^ feetwo^ Kan-tbew^ in CW«a, and Sha-chew. This 

^^"^g- monarch grew daily mpre beloved ; and the Tatar prince^ 

^^^' 'vrwe <h$r0ied with his int^rity, clemency, and liberality. 

^ST^ I^INCE TJnvtf , tired with fo long a war, affemblcd all the 

trfrv >S' ^^^^y Ws vaflals, and declared he was refolvcd to admowl^e 

^^y 7»to^, whom he h^hly praUM. CAd^ar, eldcft fon of Hay. 

fjj, did th? feme. Th^ other princes followed thek examr 

pie ^ an4t ^^^^ having caufed the emperor to be recognized 

}ft 4h^* frf^oftive territories, fent deputies in their names, ta 

knplot^ his pardon, and reckon them in the number of his 

{t&j^s. TrniAr granted their rgqueft, and, hy that aft, faw 

iHl Tartdry united to his empire ; a defign which his grand- 

fadjer ffi^'pi'-tay could never compafs. Titn^r, pn this occa- 

ibn, toitferred great honours qn th^ prince Choang^K, iq 

Jhifyj, He g^ve him, %vith his own hand, a gold feal, jewels, 

and halsits, in prefence of the whole court : he praifed hi^ 

merit, and beftowed on him the principal pofts in the army. 

]Pat that which redounded moft to this prince'^ honour, was 

what paflU in the aflcmbly; where the princes leagued 

with Hay-iA and Towa refdived to fubmit. One erf them 

frid, iiait^ Choangur bring appointed to govern Tarteryj they 

reckoned they fhould be more foundly beaten than they were 

ill the thttc of Pe-yen and Ttl-tA-ha ; which refleftion Was 

One of the chief motives that induced them to a fubmiffion. 

. ^ In Oihbit this year the Han-lin, whp were appointed to exa- 

ft)ifte the Ctfinefe hiftory, and write annals, pr^fented the em-: 

peror wkh the annals of Jenchtz XMn, Ogotay, ^tey-yew^ 

ly^y, and Merigko (K). 

lf.eUgkus The TvifdH^ or Mungk^ had, by tradition, their certain 

fermonies nfiSfisa^tfrit^ fiw the Worftiip of Heaven : but they had neir 

f^^^ ther fixed ceremonies, places, nor times, few facrificii^ thereto, 

''^' Therefore, !n 1305, Tim^rkt ablepcrfons to examine what 

^•^?^' *hM been the prafifice an. that head, from the foundation of 

^ €fiftnefs empire to his own time. Alaafwiy with fome 

dlhe^s who were Chinefesj reported to the emperor the reliih 

htwiii. Sha^he*w is the Siuhir The work fpoken of is, accord- 

MiH^iMa^Polo^ according to ing to Girv^V, pne pf tiH^ belt 

€muii/f who obferye*, that this which the Chine/e have on thq 

city and ^c^-^y^roi/ have alw^$ fabjeft of their hiftory; and 

^d Cbine/e garifons to cpver the therefore, in great efteem. "He 

weftcrn fronrier5. has fpoken pf it at large in a 

(K) Thefe are tlve thm^ diiTertatida on the antient hif- 

f ^mes for J(n^i% i^^4^, Oi- ^oiy of the Qhine^s. 

t^ji taajftfij'Tilij, rand ^h^-o* 

Digitized by 


C. jl in Tarliry and ChineL 9 

of their icfistii^es^ and iettled the ocreniDmes vfiieh ^iteft Stn^uhk 
iheooeforth to be obfiwwed to ^the wc»fl^x>f MotveA. The Haji&ali, 
habryfpesiks thfcyeat 6f preck^ ltenwi:alted-15>»tt''»,:&id ''O^' 
|by the^roftemww^thimtsi^r fixty . ^"^^ 

TiMUK hal c^c fon ca&d y^^/Steu;, Md one aaughttr 'by ^ j^^(^ 
Pe-yeu^ die ^ioc^ cfiftngJtHa. f^-Jbew ^wks appomted heir ; ^;^^^ 
hiK died ii^diocit d»idren during ^the QfeOf his fatfaa- ; who 
£ed t4<ki^^'^ fkiwofy 1 307^ in hb fofty^fecond year, \rith- 
oat dtber teafWsg il&e, ^r iisamfaig a fiK^eflbr. 

Tff IS pr Uwe piflW, fn Ae jni^osent c^ the Chinefssy for a ^,v ci&if* 
pifeft^Q^^etor. The wife coado A wfaidi heobfaved in t^raaer^ 
war againft Hay-tu and i\^^^fi ; the judicious choice whitth 
lie nsade ^ ^^erak and ndniftars ; tlfe conftant anrlon 
trbidi te AsiiflBd for thip'rites whidi n^ but rob often tn 
die cCMAxa Df fNrinces ; ^Md die^disMrdinary cute «phkh h<^ 
ftN:Acto «cwfolt the people ; j^ve a fa%h idea ^ this pitec^ 
liblfilks 1^ ^mim&RU Ae %as fiith kliln of T^/^ry^ «h4 

f^ ^f If ^/H*y Ihan, <aM^ the Chincfes V^t&ng,' 

WHEN the Ox^ror rmir4iei, a^^fian, ^ieHfoaeSSitffnfi 
Talamapdia (A)f tte &0 pf Cheng-lm, the ion (^ M- ^^^^n 
>j-iiy, W4S )iei|ieni»^"^iei^ uiTirtory, and at theheeid of H*y^*"^ 
4 ^icat nmy to the i^ith of K^ahrm. This prin^ "fm 
^Seeokei by tnoft of tbf princesof his Wiif, whom be had 
bmk m Tart^ny, «9d had gained repittatibQ in the war vith 
Say-tA. {fe bad )itewife.a coniid^hk intereft among the 
grandees, nianjr 9f v^^bom eKpreflcd ft define to fee him em- 
peror \ wi]^ 900^ iee»ed tc^ think of feftic^ any of the fons 
of Ki^m^y aldeft fon of Cheng^Un^ on the throne. Mean 
time the emptife Pe^ya-A, widow of TtmAty having conceived 
^ hatred dj^inil a princes oi her own hopfe» the wife of ^ 
TaJqntapala^ C^vtf^i her to he banUhed to Whay-chrw, at 
^^mt Whaynkin H, In Honan^ ^th h^r fon Jyyulipali^ata j 

"4 GAir^BiL . obi fop. p. :;30. 

(L) That is, three millton; of it in onr power to give them in 

livres, or about 150,000/. fttrl. their true orthography; iince 

(A) Tbefe, and other names, neither our author Guubil ha^ 

Ap' TiUnriitfi, yat betog tran. done it, nor have we any ac- 

fcrJbcd fhwn the Qhiniffe ahara- count of them, except a few, 

fters, differ more or Icisfrom in our cxtra6U from the orien- 

the true prcRTMinciatioa: s»r ia lai writers;. 


Digitized by 


ip Jcnghlz Khzn's Succ^ors B. IL 

Seventh, and, fearing the refentment of Hayjhan (who w^ aKb her 
Hayftian, fon, and fecredy enraged at her treatment), in cafe he became 
^V**" emperor, fent for the minifler J-^l^tay^ prince Mingli Te- 
i ^^ , m«r, ^th feveral other princes and gramlees of hfer court 
'"^ To them (he propofed the prince Honantay ddeft fon erf" 
Mdngkola, third fon of Hu-pi-Iay^ who then governed the 
provinces of Shen-Jiy Se-ckmen^ and Tthhet^ as his father had 
done before ; and ufually rcfided at Si-gan F^, capital of the 
iirfl of thofe provinces. Honanta^ who readily embraced the. 
offer of the emprpfs, came by poft to Ta-H ; -wlijle the par- 
ties above-mentioned took meafures >o hinder Hayjhan's re- 

Honanta The firft thing they, did, Was to gojjjhe palace, and in-. 

his compe-xxesx the emprefs to pull down the curtain (B), in order to 

titor, pve audiences, and govern the fldte, till Honanta was in- 
flailed. After thi§, yj^-ri-^^zj^ aflembled . the grander at the 
palace of the anceftors ; and, under pretence of confulting 
about the fucceffion, they began by force to perform the ^ce- 
remonies which are ufually obferved after the recognition of a 
new emperor. Two great mandarins^ oppofed this attempt ; 
and infifted, that they ought firft to fee the name of the new 
emperor. Ho-whey, one of the prime mandarins, declared 
the fame thing. Hereupon A-'H-tay fell in a paflion, and 
threatened with death the oppofing lords : but, as they ftood 
firm to their principles, the aflembly diflbhred. 

/laafonV On the other fide, Alaafun^ as prime 'minifler, feiring the. 

tolicj. fcals of the tribunals, caufed the treafury to be fhut up ; 
likewife the chambers where were kept the robes, and jewels 
of the crown. Then, in concert with the officer of the inner 
guard of the palace, fuffered no-body to enter. At the 
lame time he feigned himfelf fick; andj in fpite of the re- 
peated orders and threats of the emprefs, remained firm; 
fending underhand fome trufty lords to Hayjhan and Jyyuli" 
falipata, to haften to the court. This latter, haying received 
the exprefs in February, wais at a lofs what courfe to take. 
Hereupon Li-mcng his mailer quoted him the law of Shi-tfi 
(C), which e^^cluded baflards from the fucceffion ;. and repre- 

(6) This is in allufion to an the children of other ladies than 

anticnt cuftom obferved by the the iirft emprefs, or thofe born 

C^z»^ princefles, who.govemed of his other wives; excepting 

during the minority of the thofe five who had the title of 

princes their fons. GauhiL emprefles ; but \t, is clear, that 

(C) The Chinefe tide for ^». Honanta^ who was the cldcft fon 

pi-lay. But it is diiBcalt to oi Mangkola^^Uu-pp-lay't third 

know with certainty whether fon, was looked on as illeg^ti* 

the law of Hu-pi-lay excluded mate. GaubUj p. 238. 

3 ' fcnted 

Digitized by 


C. 7. In Tartary and Chma. 1 1 

fented to him, that, as his brother Hayjban was above a Se^intb. 
thoufand leagues from the capital, he ought to fet out with Haylhan, 
the princefe his mother for Ta't4. U-meng, who was but or Vft- 
little known at the court, went before; and, counterfeiting ^ tfong. 
the phyfician, as fuch, was brought into the chamber of j^la-^-^^ 
afutt. A lord, fent by the emprefs to know how the mini- 'g^g^^ 
fter did, was with him when Li-meng entered ; yet, nobody fi,.aja£em. 
fufpefting him to be other than a phyfician, he had opportu- 
nity enough to deliver what he had to fay on the plrt of y/y- 
yulipalipata. After this, he took poft-horfes ; and, while j4la^ 
afun prepared every thing neceflary for the reception of that 
prince, Li-meng travelled day and night ; fo that the emprefs 
was much furprifed, when foon after fhe was informed, that 
Ayyidipalipatay and his mother, were arrived in the city. 
They made their entrance into the palace early in the morning, 
followed on horfeback by their retinue in deep mourning ; and 
were introduced, by the officers of the guards, into their old 
apartment *. 

The partifans of Honanta agreed to declare him emperor Pallpata 
on the third of March ; and chdTe that day, under pretence cf arrives. 
celebrating the birth of AyyuVipalipata. Alaafun promifed 
Honanta to aflifl at the ceremony ; and, the fame night, gave 
Ayyulipalipata notice ; acquainting him, that it was neceflary 
to prevent the authors of the plot, without waiting for the 
arrival of Hayjban. Prince Ftilay who was great captain, un- 
dertook forthwith to condu6t an army ; and, two days before, 
entered Ta-tti at the head of a confiderable body of troops, 
without declaring on wiiat defign: but the emprefs could 
cafily perceive, that the prince would never fufFer Honanta to 
be proclaimed emperor, and, from that time, was in very great 
fear. Ayytdtpalipatay feeing himfelf flrengthened by an army 
at his devotion, caufed a report to be fpread, that Hayjban 
had fent a conmiifBoner to inquire into what had pafled with 
refpeft to Honanta, Then prince Mengti Ternary bdng feized, Tht con* 
was carried in chains to Sbang-t^. A-u-tay, and the other fpirators 
mandarins his accomplices, were condemned to death ; hutfiized. 
execution was flayed till the arrival of Hayjban. Guards like- 
wife were placed at the gates of both the palace and city ; 
fo that the emprefs, and prince Honanta, faw themfelves quite 
difabled from proceeding in their defign ; and, as it were, pri- 
foners in their own palace. 

Mean time the princes of Ayyutipalipata'% party propofedLi- 
to him to aflTume the empire: but he refufed ; and declared meng*/ 
plainly, that the crown ijelonged to his elder brother. lA^mod^y. 

* GAUBit, abi fopra, p. 23 j, & feqq. 


* Digitize^ by VjiU\.7VlV^ 

I a Jcnj^lQun'j Suceeffirs KIL 

Se<venth: added, that the |«rofecutiojeis Jie Jiad (et s>n foot were tin fa- 
Hayflian, vour of Hayjban^ and to punifti thofe who bad the audacity 
to attempt to violate ^e rules of the fucceiDon. U-mcng 
was nominated for one rf die chief employnieats, and to hav^ 
had a general infpeftion oyer all ; but he -declined the fame. 
He had never. feen Hayjban ; and, as foon as he heard that 
prince was on the road, he difappcared ; nor was the place of 
his retreat known, the love ot ftudy and retirement havic^ 
induced him to conceal it. 
HaylhanV As foon as Hayjban received advice of his uncle Timir^s 
re/olution, death, he repaired from the mountain Jntc^y^ or Jttay, to 
Karakorom ; where he aflembled as many princes and great 
men as he p6ffibly could, in order to deliberate what he had 
to do. The troops, who loved him, were defirous that he 
ihould be acknowl^ged emperor in that antient capital; but 
Hayjban would not agree to it. He received an exprefe from 
the princefs his mother, by which he found, that ibe was in- 
clined to have Ayyulipalipata elefted ; induced thereto by the 
words of an aflxologer, who had promifed theempire to that 
prince, at his departure from Whay^hew. On this advice, 
Hayjban fent for TotOy who had brought him the news of 
Timur's death, and told him : " That, as he was older than 
" JyyuKpalipatay the fpeech of an aftrok^er ought not to 
' # " difturb th^ order of the fucceflion : that he knew how to 

*' punifli thc^e who had infttfed fuch fentiments into his mo- 
** ther; and that he was refolved to fet out for Shang'tu, 
" there to take poffeffion of the throne of JengMz KhAfi:^ 
Having fpoken thus, he ordered Toto to go before, to acquaint 
liis mother, brother, and Alaafun^ with the other princes 
and faithful lords, with his refolution. 
Vlarcha HATS HAN d^olt 30,000 foldiers out of the army at 
tvwarRs Karakorom^ appointing the prince Ganvthey and Choang4r to 
Ta-tu. command them. Then, putting himfelf at their head, made 
them march in three bodies, and at an eafy.rate, to avoid 
fatiguing them. The princefs, Hayjhan\ mother, charmed 
to hear from T<ito the true intentions of her fon, fent that 
lord back ; requelUng him to fpeak in her behalf xq Hayjban, 
and efpecially to explain to him fully in what fenfe ihe ieemed 
to wifh to fee Ayyulipalipata <xi the throne. Mean time this 
Jatter prince camfed his brother^s approach to be pubiifhed ia 
Ta-tu ; and, after he had provided tor the (ecurity of that dty, 
• fet out with the "guards, .accompapied by fcyeral princes and 
grandees, for Sbuag^i^ to prepare every thing for the recep- 
49a of Hayjban \ 

^ G4uix;.,ubifm>. P^:?535f ^J^^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C 7 J^ > T^mry asd China. xy 

Th^ piiacea^edted with impatiencs the retcim of To^d; Snninh. 
cnd» fisdng him at a cUftinc6» rde up ia lus chariot, aad Qr-Ha|n(haa»« 
dered iuik to come aad fit by him. Toto was accompanied ^ V&* 
by his bredwr J/k^dwia, fent by the princds. Ha^Jbam ^^Z- 
waa never tired with liearing 7b/o rektc what his mother aml^— "^7^ 
brother bad faid to him. He i^pointed Afbafthjifha tojat one^||^^^ ' 
of his minifters ; and, being near Sbang-td, drew^p hk^'"^^^* 
troops. He entered that dty in Maj^^ attended by liis gene* 
nis, amt was condis&ed m die pala<^ by the imperial guard, 
throog^ the aodamations of the people. As fooa as he faw 
his brother, he advanced to embrace him, both fhfddiog 
MHTS^; ttemked lum for liis^ aeal, and pasaifed hb manager 
nsma. After this, the two priixies went to pay their duty to 
lite prinoefs. dieir mother, who reclamed this the moft ^o-^ 
xiomrday of her life. H^yflxm was then acknowleged empe-* 
lor t^di much pomp. He declared' his mother emprefs ; and 
pf9e to hiis fedier the title of eu^eror : He likewifeappdnted 
1^ brother heredits^ prince : which ceremonies being ovsr^ 
die court fct out fiar Td^t^ 

W»teM riiey were anriTod there, Hayjban^ attended \xfHMliouourt 
ptinees^of Ms hotife, went to the palace of his anceftors^ xo^isanct' 
h^ioor the memory of Tay-tfu or Jtt^Hx Khhiy O^ayJ^^^* 
^wy-yi^, MmgkQ, Tpkyj Shi^t/Aot HA^i4ay^ 7tm4r, Cheng* 
kin, and TaJamapala, who, by the advice of Ho-ni^hey and 
Maafim, were ranged in the foUawing order. The tablet 
of Jenght% KMn being placed in the middle, on the. eaft 
were, i-. Taiamapala; 2. Imitr : to the weft, i. Tpby^ ^ 

1. Hi^pi-lay y 3. Cheng^kin. Taley and Cheng-hin had, be* 
fides, p»tlcukr palates, where they were honoured. The' 
abo^ arrangement was ^ade apart from the taUets of the 
emperors Ogofay, ^ey^yew, and Mengko, Hereupon the 
hiftory blames thofe two mandarins^for committing two eflen* 
tial faults, contrary to the Chinefe ceremony; in which thqr 
Were thoroughly verfed : firft, to build palaces, to hohbor 
Aofe princes as emperors, who had not been emperors^: ' 

fecondly, to place princes, who had not been emperors, above 
thofe who had been. Thofe princes, tbo* brothers or fatfaets 
of emperors, were no more than fubjefts, and therefore were 
inntled only to the honours due to fubjefls^ 

After this ceremony of refpeft paid to his anceftors wasG?«^/rtf- 
tover, Hayfban ordered the fentcnce of death, obtained }y^ tors put u 
jfyyuHfyaRpata againft the mandarins pf fftmanta'^ party, to^^'^' 
be carried into execution :. he likewife put to death the em- 
prefs Pe-ya-^, and prince Honanta, as well as the minifter 
A-H'tay, In July he canfed to be diftributed through the 
empire the Mungl tranflation of the book written \yjKonfu- 

Digitized by VjVjOyiC 

14 ]enQhiz>Khki*s Suecefori. R. IL 

Siventk Jias, indtulcd, Hy ducking; with an exhortatkm to the Tii/ar 
Hayflian, princeg and grandees to read that Ixkik, and conform to the 
doftrine contained in it. . Afterwards, alluding to the paios- 
that phUofopher hajd taken to put thexlaiBcal books in (Mrder, 
.he iays : ^* That, but for Konfufi^s, they would have known 
** notlmig of the anti^tiages; nor would the fages of the 
*/• times pofferior to thofe of A(?«/ij^vir have had examples 
^* of the antient and true virtue ta imitate/' 
HaylhanV/ The year 1308 is reckoned the firft. of the empei^or ^oy-: 
cbara^er.Jbany whom xht Chinefs intitle Vu^tfmg, He was warlike, 
equitable, generous^ mild, and a patron of learned. men « 
but he had three. £u]lts;. was too much attached to. the la* 
tnas, loved wine, and was fond • of women. In Janttary: 
^Jbap^ivhaj a fiithful minifter, fell ot his kn^s, and, with: 
tears in his eyes, conjured him "to. take care of his.bealth, 
f* which was fo dear tb'the.emirire; afluringfeim, that wiact 
*f and women would foon put an end to his life." As- the 
emperor loved J/bapmuha^ he did not take that le£lure ill^ 
and would have him di'ink in hi3..prei!snce a glais of good 
wine A few days after,' thegreat n^andarins c^mes in a body, 
to fdidtate his jnajefty on having a futjjeft fo fincere as j0ian 
fiwha. To this latter, who was brotJier*= of 7V^,.a^dgrai][d- 
fon of the kmg of Kangli^, Hayjhant^w^ the title -of count 

of Kang. 

Jnfolenceof . LLP I^ one of the great mandarins, of Shang-t^j, intend- 
kmas. ing> to punifh a lama, who had abufed fome of the common-i 
alty. ; that lama, and feveral others, .armed with fticks, entered 
his tribunal, beat and confined him in a little room : yet» 09 
complaining, he had no redrefs. At the iame time another 
kma had the impudence to ftc^ the chariot of a princefs oq 
-the road, and get before her.; and, when her attendants 
attempted to feize him, he beat the princefs, and then went 
pn. Neither cpold this great perionage obtain any fatif- 
faction from the emperor : on the conjtrary, an imperial 
order was publifhed, importing, that the hand ftiould be cut 
off which ilruck a lama j arid the tongue of him who abufed 
any of them : but the prince appointed heir revoked that 
order. The hiftorians fpeak with great vehemence againft 
thefe a£ls of injuftice ; and add, " that the lamas ruined the 
" empire of th^ Twen : that the dynafty of the weftern Han was 
" deftroye^ by the relations of die queens ; that of the eaftr 
** em Han by the eunuchs ; diat of the Tang by the great man- 
** darins ; and that of the Song by bad fubjefts.' 

,« GAubil, ubi fup. p. 238^ 8c feqq. ' See before, 

the years 1257 and 1258. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. 7. In Tartary and China. ' 15 

The Mungl emperors laid out a great deal of money ia Si'ventb. 
rare birds, jewels, pearls, precious ftooes, and rarities of all Hayflum, 
kinds. As they had giv^ commiffions to the fordgn mer- ^^^* 
chants of the weft to fearch for fuch things in the proraices, , "^"g* ^ 
the fea-ports, and dfcwheref thofe ihangers travelled overV, r^ 
the country with a mark at their girdles. (D), to.ihew ^^^jx^^^ 
they belonged to the emperor ; and, in that quality, todfc ^ 
poft-horfes where-ever they came, undef pretence of feardir 
ing for curiofitics for the court : but, in Nevember^ there ap* 
peared an ed^, forbidding thencefdrward to fumifh the 
weAem merchants with poft-hodes. In the fame month, 
Chapary eldeft fon of HaytUy the eldcfl:fon of TatA .(E)^ 
and others, came In peribn to the court,, to, acknowkge Hay^ 
Jban for thdr ibvereign. At the end- of the year Aladfim 
died at Karakorom in Tariary^ where hd had been reiporcd 
on the following occafion : j > 

A'V'TATy the minifter before-mentioned, who was for iii- Alaafaa 
(laliing Honantay being a perfon of fo great ftretigth,' ^iMki^fffracii* 
DO-body durft attempt to feize him^ it/vyas feared he would 
have efcaped. Upon this, prince Tilt^ dcfcended from Ogp^ 
tay^ by MyeK, undertook the tafk j .took him with .a<.grc8t 
d^ of refolution, and bound hitn. In cpnfideration o^.dns 
f»ece of fervioe, Hsyjban conferred oii Inni the title of ret 
gulo of the country of Ywe, AlaafUfiy otL thisi occaiioii, re* 
prefented, thatitwasagaihft the rules of the imperial' faiftily 
to ^ve that title to alprioce (^ fo remote a branch as TAla^ 
was. Tida^ in revenge, ^x.\&A.Ak^n\ and (hewed his 
name among thofe who were to ha^ve inftaJled HorUsMa. I'he 
emperor knew the charge to be falfe ; yet, feeming to be angry 
with Alaafufij reduced his tides fome ifcgrees : but apprinted 
him govemor-gendral and prime minifter at Karakorom^ whidh 
was one <rf the firft pofts in the empire. 

ALAASUNrtpiircd to that anti^rit capital of Tartary^Death and 
and it was there that he difplayed his talents in their fullC^^^^^r. 
light. He b^n by putting to death a Tartar lord, the head 
of a gang of robbers who defh-oyed the country: he be- 
flowed large ^fis on the poor officers and foldiers : took a 
great number bf oxen,, cows, fheep, and horfes ; giving, in 
"exchange, fdks, linen, rice, and tea : he fentior flolful, fifh- 
•crmen, plowmen, labourers, and peafants, from China 5 taught 
the Tatars y who dwelt along the- lakes and rivers, to fifh ; 
caufed canals to be dug for waterii^ the lands, and rendering 

(D) Perhaps they wore a fometimes allowed to the ^on- 
yellow girdle, or fajh, which is peror's envoys, 
- (E), Perhaps it fliould be Toua. 

^ther J 

Digitized by 'LjOOQIC 

»6 Jcnghto KiAn's Sm^^s $. th 

S^sHJtettfA tHcRtfitforcttkttrc; likawifc cora and ricei to be fowa 5 and 

tikhlidiai public granaries, poft8> and carnages. In the dif« 

tancc ^^T twcnty^five or tSi^ty league tbcre were ten poft-^ 

boufes^ where one met wkh vi&uals and dxitik, vpimre^ and 

gaacds* InxvtoDd^ the emperor was agrcae^bly Airpri^sdtQ 

uad^rftaisd, that the department of Karahrdm was m a conr 

dltton to.^mifli fnbfiftfsnce to <jie armjr, aod fill magazines* 

Alaa^ was of tfa^ hord of Waiam (ov Mam^ Al(m)y who^ 

MAte^ PtikrCijSf Were Chriftians. Uki/HU ^^ gfleat grand* 

fetker, was an kitimate friend of Jfeug^z Kbin^ and h^ 

fo^his; la& Qpon ai certain occafipa: they two lovod. each 

oth^r arif diey^ had been brothers. 

TiT/w mo' Ik fmmay 1309 psince Tiia was gltttt]^ «f 'WWU of re-' 

^- fpoft tio the emperor : ho was brutifby as/fi^ aa addtded: tc^ 

A. D. ^ijg J and; as «rfr badcoilfequcnces werfe to be f^redfirojn 

*309- his outrageous temper, he was put to death. Hayfimi^ dbc»^^ 

this thiie> examUkcd inta the Hate of tit» finances; and or-* 

detedr Icafliesi or o^ppeit denial tQ be caft. New tidtetb 

tufn^lilocuiftr iffiied, e&cb bearii^ ttie nhte of an oOib^ <^ 

fil^, irte kadie^ were of tlree ibrU: each of the fij-fk 

fevrwas worth one K (F) ^ one of tbc fecond kind conmined^ 

wiifci»a.fiidi nteier, ten.of tike fiifi % and each of th^thnxl 

fort wasL worth fevel^ kifliesy curceat vxAsx, the.djynaAiesof 

the TmguASang (O). 

dfht \» Mruary « coafpiracy ^vas difisoveced, at riie hestd of 

^^co^vfr^VLwhiciv was Ar<rf(7^ fon (^ the ttdfom M^pi^M^ and the fon 

ofi prince Tilitv Twenty-four hmas; who were, in the ploe^ 

vktc puettied ^hh d^tb, and the two princes baoiffaed* Is 

J^W^ the lands of ch^ bonzas of the kfb of ib and Tcm, 

w4mc}i hftd been eK^H^t frotn^ pajkig tribute, were dectered 

iheneeibrward liable to^ the tax, as well a^ thofe of othei' 

people. In November the dilute, which had ariien in thd 

rei^ d TMtt^ touchfaig an article in the worfhip o£ Hea- 

' ven on the days of the two folAices, was at length decided. 

Vnjujl ex* One of the great mandarins, of Ta-rt w?s a foreigner^ 

€cution. named ^Jl^^ whd was much bred by the^pjaople, aad 

efleemed 1^ the icddiefs : but being accnfed, by ibme of his 

enemies^ of a defign to. revolt,, was beheaded, with his bro-* 

tiier, and ieventeen other p^ons. The' people cried out 

T^mAy That Arfl&n was innocent ; and, in^ efie(^, his iono- 

cetkeitppeared, when it was ^o late. On this occafidti the- 

hiAory folaines Hayfian much, for hating, on fnch Ikmdoi' 

(F) Ten li make a fen ; ten kalhes of all thefe kiads, which 

ft?h one tfyen; and ten tfyen are prcferved by the carious. 

one ounce. Gdubil, Gaubil* 

ffi) There arc Hill extant 

Digitized byV 

C. 8. In Tartary and China. 1 7 

grounds, pat to death a foreign nobleman, invefted ^th a Siventh. 
great employment, and in reputation for his virtue. Haylhan, 

In January 1311, the emperor Hayjban died, at the age ^^^' 
of thirty-one. He had no children by the emprefe Chenko^ ^ ttong. ^ 
princefe of Hong-kila ; but he had two by two of his q°^^> hTTXTT'^ 
who were both afterwards emperors : the eldeft was nzmtij^J 
HofhUa, the other TdtemUr «. He was the feventh khin of^ 
the Mungls, and third of the Chinefc dynafty of the T^en. 

q H A p. vni. 

fbe reign of Ayyuli-palipata, ^/&i by the Chinefc 

AS foon as Hayjban was dead, his brother Jyyuli'fialipata, Eighth. 
*"- who had been early declared the hereditary prince, was Khan 
acknowleged emperor, and ftiled by the Chinefe Jin-tfong. Se- Ayjroli- 
veral minifters, during the reign ot his predeceflbr, had abufed P*bpatt. 
their power, and taken advantage of that prince's inclination ^^"^'^ 
to pleafure, in order to inrich themfelves, and committed a 
thoufand afts of injuftice, which the emperor knew nothing 
of: the new monarch began his reign, by making examples of 
thefe bad minifters ; he put fome to death, and banifhed 
others, not fparing even the princes of the blood. Orders had 
been given to new-cafe the ancient walls of Ten-king (A), and in- 
large it ; but, as this work had been very inconvenient to the 
inhabitants, Ayyuli-^alipata caufed what had been already built 
to be demoliflied, and fatisfaftion made to thofe who had been 
fofferers. After this, he chofe mandarins, remarkable for their 
integrity, to aft at the head of affairs. 

In January 13 12, the emperor gave orders concerning theSeveral 
tribunal of hiftori^ns of the empire; and had always a great ''f^*^- 
inclination for the fludy of hiflory. In February the famous''*^' 
(B) ftones on which Sven-vang (C), emperor of the Ch^ race, had 
caufed many Chinefe charafters to be cut, were, by his com* 
mand, depofited in the imperial college at Tatit. The depart- 
ment which depended on Si-gan F^, called that of Gan-fi^ was 
thenceforth ordered to be named the department ot Tong" 

^ Gavbil, obi fupra, p. 240, Sc feq. 

(A) Now Pe-kinz* or vtry or ten of them ftill fcen in thi 
near it. Sec \^. IV. lib, ii. college at Peking* The dia- . 
c. g. fed. I . meter is one f$»ot, and the height 

(B) They are aHltii She-ku, three. GauhiL 

that is, ftme drums ^ on account . ; (C) Or $*uien 'uang. He lived 
of their figare. There are nine before the ChriUlan asra. 
Mod. Hist. Vol. V. B y-wen 

Digitized by 

Google , 

1 8 Jcngbiz Khan'j SucaJ[ors B. IL 

Eighth, ywen (D), apd Ho-Un (or Karakorom), was called Horning. As 
Ayyoli- the emperors have often caufed the tablets of learned men to 
p«}ipata, be placed in the temple of KonfufiuSy to honour their memories 
^P^' atftated times, ^yyuti-palipata commanded, that, for the fii- 
^^^ tare, thofe ceremonies (houH be performed to Tfo-ma-quangy 
\^^ Chd'hi, ShaU'kang-tfye , Nan-hyen^ Chew-tung^ Ching-haut 

Chang-tfay^ Lxi-tji'kyen^ and Hyu-heng (E). 
Public ca- The emperor Hupilay had promifed the literati to inftitute * 
lamiiies ; the examination of men of their clafs : but that defign w^ 
never put in execution, till November this year, when Jyyidi' 
palipata iflued a mandate for that purpofe* About the fame 
ti|ae> JJimating, a foreigner, prefented the emperor \wth a 
new kalendar, which, hefaid, would fervc for ten thoufand 
years ; but no mention is made either of the author, or the 
principles it was formed upon. As this emperor loved the 
people, he beheld, with grief, the ravages which epidemic 
difeafes made in his capital: with no lefs grief he faw, that^ 
fipce his acceffion to the throne, the fun had been eclipfed, a 
;^_ comet had appeared, and there had been two earthquakes; 

bcfides^ the famine, drought, and inundations of rivers, had 
imputed to ruined feveral provinces. On occafion of thefe calamities, he 
the hnzas. zfftmhled the grandees : fome faid his majefty ou^ht to imitate 
tbc example of Ching-tang, founder of the Shang dynafty ; 
others, that the falfe woriWp of Fo had caufed fo many evils. 
The emperor readily drew up writings, wherein he deplored the 
misfortunes which befel his people ; and even declared, they 
were fent by way of puniftiment, for the faults which he had 
committed in government, and promifed to correft : but whe- 
ther it was that he believed the worfliip of Fo to be good, or 
that, in policy, he ought to tolerate i% for fear of cauiing a 
revolt in the princes of his family, and his Mungl[ub}c6t$y who 
were bigotted to the doftrine of the bonzas, he would not hear 
of aboiyhing that fuperftition '. 

» Gaubil, p. 243, & feq. 

(D) The changes often made different provinces, and wrote 

ill the names of aties and coun- under the Song dynafty, cxcept- 

tries, by order of the Chintfe ing Hyu-heng^ fpokcn of before, 

emperors, is- one of the greateft in the reign of Hupilay^ at which 

difHculties in the Cbinefe hiftory time he Houri(hed. Tfe-ma-quang 

and geography. There are in- is one of the bcft hiftorians of 

deed Ms of thofe names ; and the empire ; and moft of his 

if a man, who writes on thofe ' works are 011 extant. C^-bi 

fabjedts, would i>e exa£l, he muft compofed the great work on the 

hkve them con#naally bdbre Yii^ovyciUXtiTong'kyeH'J^ang-mu^ 

him. Gauhil. beiides others on the claffical, 

(£) AU- thcfe authors were bf books. Giiuhii 

*k . ' ' ' 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

C $. ' h T^rt^ry atd China* 19 

In Jainjiiafy ^'i^A* the emperor ordered a fearch to be made iightb. 
after fuchmea of karmng and virtue, as were dther unknown, Ayyuli- 
QF without employment ; and in Marchy made new regulations P^P*ta# 
for the imperial cpl^je at Tat4y and that of the Whey-M (F), both ^^^ 
of which were much declined. In Jun€y taking into confider- ^_ J* » 
atioa the cvUs wUch had, by their authority, been brought on 
the preceding dynaftics, he ordered, that they fhould not be mad^ 
mandarins. Commmaries were likewifcf fent into the fouthenji Learning 
provinces, to examine into the faleable and cultivated lands : encou- 
they found many refiDrms to make ; and reftified the land-ta^ r^i^^^. 
according to the |>rice of goods. 

In March 1315, Jyyuli-paltpata inftitttted'" examiuations ^^^«tf««* 
among the doftors, who were divided into two bodies, one dttions efta- 
MungJs, the other oiChviefes ; and, having aflembled them, made \^ii 
them compofe, in his prefeace, upon a fubjeft, which he gav^ t/ 
them himfelf. Three of each body were to be chofen, that they ^ ^* 
might have titles and rewards conferred on them. TJie fame 
oiftom is fHll In force 5*but no diftin<5tion is made between the 
Chiaefes and Tartars. Tht Chinefe hiftorians, on this occafion, are 
hvifticrf their elogies on Jyyuli'palipata, and confider him as the 
moft illufbioi^ emperor of the2%^n .* however, they cenfure him, 
for having, the next month, conAituted an eunuch a great mai^ 
dario, after the prohibition vhich he had ifTued to the contrary. 

TXE'MU'TXEL, one of the principal majidarins for thtEfftasof 
finances, finding fault with the taxes impofed in 13 14, ^xxf^-oppr^oni 
mented them in the fouthern provinces. One erf his chief con^- 
miflioi^rs^ qamed Ni-cha-ma-ting, a Mohammedan^ committed 
all forts of vexations in Kyang-fii and his avarice carried. hini 
fofar, as to rob the fepulchres, in hopes of enriching himfelf. 
The city of Kan-chrWy in Shen-fi, revolted ; and one of the 
fcditious aflumed the title of emperor. The great mandarins 
of the province fBfled this rebellion in the beginning : the Ma- ' 
hammedan was puniftied ; and the people were eafed, not only 
in Kyang'fiy but alfo in Che-kyang^ Kyan^-nany and other pro- 
vinces ; which happened cm the following occafion. 

In the beginning of this year, 4yyuli^paHpata fent commifr and a co' 
fioners into all pans of the empire, to examine into the con^ met, 
duft of the mandarins : he knew rikat the people in the fouth 
had ftiffered feveral grievance^ from thofe ma^ftrates ; and that 
die revolt of Kan-chew was the effeft of their ill condudt. The 
emperor, who feared nothing fo much as an inteftlne war, be- 
came very uneafy ; 2^i his apprehe^flons increafed, on thfe ag- 

(F) Whey-hu i* one of the q^ Afih: Thclcknc^si and qha- 
Maies given *by thfe Chinefe to rafters taught among the Wh^ 
Mebammedam^ and denotes, ift hi are called Teje-ti-fif, Gau- 
general, the people ef the weft M. 

B 2 pearance 

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20 Jcnghiz KhanV Suuifors B. 11. 

Eighth, pearance of a comet, which happened in November, The people 
Ayyuli- were ftruck with the fight of this phaenomenon, which they 

palipata, confidered as fent to inform them, that heaven defigned to 
^'iy^' punifh the emperor (G), by taking from him the dominion, to 

■ ^"f' . give it to a perfon more worthy of it. j^yyuti-palipatay who 
was one of thofe princes beft acquainted with the genius of the 
ChinefeSy as foon as he faw the a)met, caufed a general pardon 
to be pubBJhed j and difcharged the provinces of Kyang-fi and 
Chc'kyangy which had fu(Fered moft, from all kinds of taxes, 
for two years : declaring, that it was to indemnify them for 
the wrongs whith they had fuffered. The other produces (H) 
were eafed in proportion ; and the literati took care every- 
where to beftow great encomiums on the emperor (I), who 
had attached them to him by his love for the fcicnces, as well 
as the examinations inftituted for their order in general, and 
the doftors in particular. 

Mcng-tfe In i 3 i 6, the prince Hofhildy eldeft fon of Hayjban the late 

bomoured. emperor, was appointed to govern Tun^nan : at which, being 
difcontented, he left China, and went to refide to the north- 
weft of the mountain Kin (K). Several great men followed him ; 
and he was receii'ed with open arms by the princes of the im- 
perial houfe, particularly by prince Chakotay, Mean time, 
Jyyuli'palipata ordered a palace to be built kt Wey-^hey^ in 
Ho-nan, to honour the memory of the celebrat^ Pi-kan ; and 
another aLtChang-ping-chrWy a city of Pe-che-li, to honour that of 
Ti-jin-kyay. He declared the famous Meng-tfe^ or Mengius, a 
count ; and gave a title to his mother. At the end of the year, 
he appointed his fon, a prince of high efteem, to be his heir *. 

^ Gaubxl, p. 245, 8c feq. 

(G) The remarks which the thors, books, and fcicnces. It 

literati have made on the Ori- was written by Ma tu-on-llny of 

ginal and fcnfc of the title of Lo-fingy in the fame county, to- 

Son of heaven^ which is given to wards the end of the Song dy- 

the emperor, have often afforded nafty ; and, being a veiy ela- 

occafion to deceive the people, borate work, was ordered, by; 

and induce them to revolt : and the emperor, to be printed, is 

the great men have frequently 1314. Gaubil, 

zhx&i this notion of the Son of (1) It is well known that, i^ 

heaven^ as well as the celeftial Chifia, the literati are in great 

appearances, to feize the em- credit with the people, and have 

pire, take up arms, excite tr6u- no fmall afcendant over their 

Dies, and the like. Gauhil. minds. GauSU, 

. (H) The imperial commif- (K) A celebrated mountain 

fioners found a book in the in Tartan ; but I know not it^ 

dif^i^l of Jau'che^y in Shen-fi^ diftancelrom mount Altay, Gam- 

which is a bibUotheque of au- tiJ. See before, p. 36. 


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C. 8. In Tartary and China. 21 

In Febmary 13x7, the emperor caufed the public grana* Eighth. 
ries, through all the provinces, to be vifited, and put in good Ayyuli- 
condition. This year that monarch difcovered Ws love for P*lipau» 
wine; and feveral times drank toexcefs: but he was brought ^^^' 
off that vice by Ma't/ti-cbang, a foreigner, of the weft (L) ; ^°g* 
who was one of the coifors o( the empire, and efteemed for his '^^ • 
hiowl^ in mathematics and other £:iences. 

I N February 1 3 1 8, the clafGcal books of the feft of Fo were C/aJ/ic 
written oat, in gold characters. A mandarin likewife crofled^^wlr 0/ 
the fea to Korea, carrying back an exiled prince, with defign to ^^* 
flir up the people in his favour : but that officer was taken, 
and condemned to death, with feven of his accomplices. 

In 1 319, the emperor, who tenderly loved the prihce his A. D. 
bdr, had an inclination to cede the empire to him ; ajid moft i3^9* 
of the grandees approved of his defign. But one of the great 
lords of the court havir^ induced them to change their lenti- 
ments, his majefty defifted : however, he declared the princq^ 
lieutenant-general of the empire, and gave him the management 
of all affairs. Shotepala had a great foul, as we)l as a true filial 
aSe^on for the emperor and the emprefs. 

In January 1^20, Ayyuli-palipata fell fick; and his difeafe A. D. 
bring judged mortal, the young prince never left his father's 1320. 
chamber, day nor night, fo overwhelmed with grief, that \l7hecm' 
had like to have killed him. Without acquainting any perfoUj^^'w* £is^ 
he one day retired to his own apartment, fell on his knees, and 
addreffing himfelf to heaven, offered to die in the room of his 
fether : but a few days after his father died (M), being in the 
thirty-fixth year of his age. The hiftory praifes lum for his 
averfion to hunting, and other pleafures; his application to 
affairs ; his duty to the princefs his mother ; and the protection 
which he gave to the fciences, and learned men. 

j^TTULI'P J LIP JTJ married Jnojho/beli, princefs of Hong- 
kila^ by whom he had Shotepala, the appointed heif. He had 
alfo another fbn, called Utufu-puwhay and a daughter ; but it 
is not laid that he had them by the princefs of Hongkila : how- 
ever that be, this emperor never was given to women. 

In the banning of his reign he had war with a prince Choang*^ 
of his houfe, called Ifyen-pivjhay fupported by feveral other gur'^ ^Jf 
princes: but their army was defeated in the country of Ite-P^^*^* 
hayrmjb, by Choanggdr, then one of the generals of the troops, 
which were very numerous about Karakorom. He afterwards 

(L) Born in the country of month: and we have already 
ftng-H: but Gaubil knows not iben how much the fuperftitious 
where it is. Chincfes have, for a long fcrics 

(M) There happened a total of ages, dreaded fuch phaeno- 
^lipfc ou the firft day of the firft mcna. GaubiL 

B 3 beat 

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22 JengMz KMn*j Succeffhrs B. H. 

in the country of ChtmeykaH -; 

^s the country of Chayr^ near 
^). The account of this war, 
\ no mention of, is take?n from 
, This laft ^vas prince ctf Kin*- 
oaded with hononrs by the em- 
n, and Jyyuli'pahpata. He died 
le privy-council •. 

eighth khin of the MungJcta* 
iperor <iix!dtChmefe dynSfty of 

C H A P. IX. 

^bcJRjtign of Shotepala, called iy the Chinefe's Ing-tfohg, 

A S foon z.s.Jyyuli'pa!ipafa ^^s dead, the appointed hdr was 

-^ faluted emperor ; and, to gratify the emprefs his moAer, 

declared Tye-^u-fyel ptifhe mhiifter. This Mungl lord had- 

^ been often employed in affairs under the late njonarch. tfe 

ces; ahdhadfrequently paid great fuths off 

efides, a great deal of wit and cunniiig, 

le people, as \^ell a$ i!he great men* ; iitid 

difgrace at the death of the late empa-or, 

;d tinder-hand by the emprefs. This- e^- 

ud With his new elevation, committed" ^ 

and threw every thing into diforder. - lix 

fe pretences, he caufed Syau-pay^chiTcnA 

'o of the m'oft judicious l6rds of the cotrrt, 

they had belonged to Ae tribunal of im- 

lade known the flagrant afts of injuftice 

which he had done. He put to death fever^ other perfons ^ 

and threatened to give the Wife of Tang-tunffi' to a flave. Aa 

ibon as this lady, who was no lefs remarkable for her wifdom," 

modefty, and honour, than her beauty and high birth, had 

notice of his menace, fhe caufed her hair to be cut off, disfigured 

• her face, and took an oath to remain a widow. 

The «/«/- S o many violent proceedings incenfed the grandees ; but 

/^rV 1//V- they dared not complain, cither to the emprefs, ox Shotepiila^ 

f'ic0u -^ho was acknowleged emperor in March. After the inftall- 

atioii, Tye-mu-tycl became more powerful than before ; iaud 

« Gaubil, p. 248, & feq. 

(N) A famous gorge of the (A) Tiie firft a Tartar, of 
liiouncains to the weft of Scmar^ Nyu-che, or Eajfern Tart dry ; the 
kandy in Great Bukharia, where other of Ning-hyay in Sben-Jt. 
the war here fpoken of was car* Gaubii 
w4 on* CaubiU 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. 9- A Tartary andChmz. ^3 

to revenge himfelf on the ftge Xi-meng^ his enemy, put him a :NiM/h.^ 
d^ree l6wer m the dafe of mandarins ; and dcmqliihed a ilone Skotc- . 
monumeat, . which the emperof s Tiad raifed in honour of him P***i ^ 
and his anchors, in the plac^ of their fcpulchres, li-mg^ f'^^^^' 
ieemed very little concerned. at thle difgrace which was put upoB ~ '^ 
him ; and the emperor was fucprizei-to fee, that he did not fp 
much as utter one murmuring cxprellSon againll the author of 
it. Taking from thence an occafion to inform himfelf of JJr 
meng's aftions, he repaired the. monuments of ftonc.and marbk, 
reft<M-ed him to his titles and employments, and warned Tye^ 
mi'tyel to be very careful, for the future, not to accufe perlow 
of fo much virtue \ 

Wicked naen vefted with power can never, xefpon. ThlsPay-chi 
minifter faw, with great uneafinefs, that the emperor had much^'^ «w- 
efteem for Pay -My general of the imperial guard. Paj»- *"/'''• 
cW, defcended from the famous Mil-hu-li ^, by Gan-tong {B), 
was a young lord, learned, brave, handfome, modeft, and ir- 
reproachable in his manners. Shotcpala^ who was of the fame 
charafter himfelf, had always a great liking to Pay-chA^ which 
increafed> in proportion as he became acquainted, with the ex- 
cellent qualities of his favourite. The emperor refolved, at laft, 
to do nothing without the advice of his dear Pay-M ; and, after 
feveral refufals, ob%ed him to take on him the charge of prime , 
minifter. TTiis lord began his miniftry, by making known the . . . • 
injury which Tye-mil-tyel had done his majefty, and concealed 
nothing of what had pafled. The emperor Shotepala Was equit;- • - . 
aWe, and very ienfible on- the point of honour, tie caufed an 
inqniry to be made aftej thofe who had been fufFerers, and re- 
Tolved to make them fatisfaftion, as far as he was able. He did 
not indeed think it yet convenient to remove Tye-mi^tyely but 
he put no manner of confidence in him, and took care that be 
Ihould nbt treat any body ill. 

Mean time, fending for fuch lords and princes as he kn^v^ Shotepals 
were inen of moft wifdom, he employed them about Hsot^nnfits tbi 
After this, he made himfelf thoroughly acquainted with ^ 
ceremonies which are obferved in the temple of anceftors, widi^ 
but dlfclofing.his defign : but, when they leaft thought of it^ 
be fent for the princes of hishoufe, and declared to thpni^^ 
that, in T^cwembery he would go to the hall or palace o^ an- 
* Gaubil, p. 250, & feq. ^ ^ See before, VoT^ iV.l.. li. c. 5^ 

(B) The mother of Pay-cim ^t the age 6f twenty .two year% 
was a princefe of the ^e-fyt yet never would many again, 
tribe, of the family of the prii^- ffefblving to employ her ttmt 
cefs Sarkutnoy wifip of folej^'^i^ Iwjkolly i|i educating her fon Paf^ 
mother of the emperors Mengke chu, GaubiL 
Bad Bifilay. She was a widow 

B 4 ceftors, 

Digitized by VjiU\.7 VI V^ 

14 Jcnghiz Khan'j Succeffors B. II. 

Ninth. ceftoi:s, in habit of ceremony. TJie Chine/e great men had 
Shotepa- orders to make every thing ready ; and habits were prepared 
la, or ing-for the guards, grandees, and all the officers. This news cre- 
^®*8* ated a general joy in the city among the Chinefes : the empe- 
J^*^Y"^ror and his retinue appeared in the ftreet^ on horfeback, mag- 
M^fiors. ^'ificently dreffed. This fight charmed the people ; but, when 
•^ * they found that they were not hindered from feeing the empe- 
ror, they made the ftreets ring with acclamations, and wept 
for joy. Shotepala was the firft of the Mwwg*/ monarchs wh6 
jperformed this ceremony ; and, as he had not appeared in pub- 
lic before, every-body was delighted to fee their prince difco- 
Ver fuch an air of grandeur, mixed with popularity : nor did 
ever any monarch receive from his fubjefts more encomiums, 
\ and fincere wiflies, than Shotepala did on this occafion. It 

was known that Pay-chu had counfelled the emperor to per- 
form this ceremony : the palace of that lord w^s continually 
filled with the Chine/e great men and literati ; the people con- 
gratulated him loudly as he pafled along ; while every honour 
done to Pay-M, gave Tye-m^-tyel the greatefi anguilh. A ge- 
neral pardon had been already publiftied throughout the em- 
pire ; and, from Ta-t^y the rejoicings fpread over all the pro- 
vinces. Both Chinefes and Tatars promifed themfelves every- 
thing from the reign of Shotepahy whofe firft year was 1321. 
Jakes good As this prince, called Ing-tfohg by the Chinefes y loved hurit- 
mdviee. }ng, he propofed, at the beginning of that year, to aggran- 
A. D. ^Q ^{^g places fet apart for that exercife in the neighbourhood 
'32*' of Shang'tAy by building, at proper diftances,. palaces, ftables, 
and lodges, for the men aflifting in the chace. Pay -My tho* 
he loved hunting alfo, yet did not approve of this defign* 
He reprefcnted to the emperor, that it could not be executed 
without great expences, and incommoding the people. Here- 
upon Shotepala dropped his pi^ojeft; and protefted, that he 
would think of nothing but eafing the empire. In y^pril a 
confpiracy was difcovered, formed by Jfan (C), and feveral 
other great lords ; who, by the advice of Pay-My and the em- 
prefs grandmother, were condemned and executed. Tye-m^" 
iyely who, by means of the emprefs, mother to Shotepaky ftill 
maintained his ground, caufed the prince Tutemury fecond fon 
of the emperor Hayfhany to be banifhed to Kung-chew (D), 

(C) This Jfav feems to be (D) Latitude, by obfervatioii 

the fame fpokcn of in a note, of du Tartre y 20^ o* ^7" i Lon- 

f, 2:40» by pur author Gauhi/; gltnde, by the bearings, and 

who /ays, be was a foreigner of meafured diftances, from JTmr- 

the weft, very onderftanding ill ton, near three degrees more 

affairs, and one of the principal weft. GaubiL 


• Digitized by VjOOQIC 

minillers of flate* 

C. g. In Tzxtuj and China. 25 

capital of the ifland of Hay-nan. Towards the end of the Nintlu 
year, the emperor judged it would be for his honour to make Sbotcpa- 
magnificent prefents to the lama who had been his inafter,^*>?''"B* 
and had a mind to return to T^bet ^ . ^_°j' 

SHOTEPJLJ, who was a zealous belieyef in the doflrine^^' 
of Fo, in the beginning of the year built a magnificent tem-^^/^' 
pie to that falfe deity, in the mountains to the weft of P^d^ath* 
king. While the work was going forward, feveral cenfors of 
riie empire made ve^ fmart reprefentations upon the o^ca- > 
fion. The emperor, contrary to his cuftom, falling into a ' * 

paffion, caufed fome of them to be pu( to death, and baniflied" 
others. One of the moft illuftrious among the former, was 
To-yau-el Hatimifbi (E), a native of Hamif or Khamilf. iu 
Utile Bukharia. The hiftorical elogy of this lord afcribes his 
death to the calumnies of Tye-mA-tyely and his (on Sonan; who, 
bearmg him, as well as the other cenfors, an ill-will, told his 
majefty, that, inftead.of {^ving him noti(;e of what pafled, ' 
th^ did nothing among themfelves but fp^ ill of him. The 
Chinefe literati, who were great enemies to Fo, \>m full of 
efteem for Shotepala, piraife exceedingly the courage of thcfe 
cenfors. Some time afjgr, the memory p^ ^Jtieje m^ndjaqn^ 
was re-eftablifhed ; and tne emperor was^ ^00 ,ivife noj toj^» 
pent having fo imprudently followed the motions of his ang^r^ 
In Jpril he caufed the temple which the Whey-hiy or wefterri 
Mohammedans^ had ^XShang-tiy to be demoliflied ; andafterr 
wards forbad thofe foreigners to buy young boys and girls of 
the MunglSf in order to give or fell them again for Haves to 

In 1322 Pay-chu had obtained leave to go into Lyau-tong^^^^ ^ouri 
to raife a monument of marble, with an infcription x)n it, in^tformed* 
praife <rf Gantpng his grandfather, who died in the reign erf 
II4'pi'lay. Tye-mi-tyely who, thro' vexation, kept for fome 
time in his palace, without ftirring out, took the opportunity 
of Pay-chA^s abfence to go to court ; but the guards ftopped 
him at the gate, and told him, they had orders not to let him 
enter. The anguifh which this difgrace gave him, threw him 
into a fit ci ficknefe, of which he died in Aiguji^ hated by 
everybody. In June 1323 he was deprived of his titles ;A. D. 


* Gaubil, ubi Tap. p. 2{i, & feqq. 

(E) Hisi grandfat)ier, in the other expeditions. His grandfa- 
fburth degree, was an officer thers in the third, fecond, and 
under Jengbix Khdn^ and fol- firft degree, as well as his fa- 
lowed him to the firft fiege of ther, were all illuftrioas officers. 
f#-iif|Bf l.and afterwards in hi^ GaibiU 

, the 

Digitized by 


a6 Jmg\\ti%Mt\*sSuccefors B. 11. 

ttgbtb, diiB monuments 6f ftone and marble, inscribed with his.elogy, 

Shot^pa- were pufled down, and his goods confifcated. Mean time 

^ItT P^y-^f^ caufcd the taxes and annual tribute, payed by the pro- 

^ tfong. f iances, to be remitted; and, withal, conUderable fums of 

^*"^**"^ bounty-money to l>e dillributed every-where. Debauchery, 

avarice, luxury, and other vices, were banifhed from court ; 

fo that the Chinefe great men could not but admire fuch wife 

conduft In a Tdtaf' prince only twenty-one years of age. 

Pay-chft ^ While things feemed thus to promife happy times, Tye- 

and the ^e-mii'tyel, and one of the principal 

thoughts wholly on contriving how 
)ntdone his fether, and the confifca- 
ler to this, he firft founded the in- 
itented princes, with tbofe of the 
e mandarins who had been put to 
: which, be engaged feveral officers 
On the . third of Se^temhpr^ thf 
«?, and not "able to compofe )uinfelF 
tol)e faid to .R?. Tyerjbe^ and his 
nth. fear. Th^y had prevailed on 
facrificeAhould be offered to Fo^ 
J the evils which threatened the em- 
pire. Pay-cM fent away the lamas, treating them " as mea 
** who thought of nofhing T)ut how to get money, and, in 
•* reality, ' proteftied wicked people.'^ Thefe words being 
Sreard bythe afTociates of Tye-Jbe^ who was one of the com- 
manding officers ih the jguards ; the lords Chinkin Tefn^r, Syen 
Tem^r, formerly miniftera, prince GJ^n/i'/ttwAtf^ and others, 
immecUately met, and consulted how to prevent the. meafures 
jOf Pay-cM, whofe probity, vigilance, and valour, they feaied. 
i/pperor ^^ ^^me night, therefore, Tye-Jbe, followed by feveral foldiers, 
ajaffftt' flew that lord ; and then entering the tent of the emperor, 
ntid, who was in bed, killed him with his own hand. The place 
where this aflaflination was committed, is called Tfan-po, to 
the fouth of the city Shang-tti, 

The emperor ShoUpala married SukofaJd^ princefe of the 
tribe of Ikilye, and daughter of Ilihaya, daughter of the em- 
peror "Ttmur : but he haA no children by her ; nor doeis the 
hiftory fpeak of his having any other wife"^. He was ninth 
emperor of the Mun^ls^ and fifth of the Chinefes. 

* GhVUiL. ubi fup. p. ^50, fc feqq. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C H A P. X. 

Ti^ reign of Ydupi-tcmAr, j^ted hj Jic Oundb T^- 

/VT&etinie when die above-meatioQedlxmipi^^ Tentb. 

-^^ i^g oa at Shof^-ti^^ r^m-tapmr^ fidcft foB of piiooe Yefon- 
Kawmda^ hFOther ^of the emperor TfmiSr, tommaQded to<tfaetem6r, §r 
iM^th of the CrsAt KM, ix Sarufy D^rt, m 7ir/»r>r;,^wdTay-tmg, 
encamped Dear the river Lor^-ku^ or PancMm (A), laaious for 7'~*~'. 
the cmh made there by J^gbt% Kh6a, aod bis adheponta. 
TJiis piiace had in hU coyrt ^ tord iMMPOed 74M/(x/!iav ifhofe 
foa Hafun waa ao officer in the ^imperial guards oader th^ 
cpmoiaBd of J^^-cM ; bat, as bie ' ji^ew of a loQg ti^ae, th$CK 
^^kiteiided tokUl hcgenei^ be<}«ifttcd.l^ te> 

Mo/v^ this yiear, i3[23» a maodaii^ caj|ed Tiuhte, leavk^tl^ 
courts ioforaied TaJq/ba^ that th^ em[^drgr 4ki'B0t«<»0e iw 
TeJun-temAt ; and^ k was -to be feaFod> ^vt^uld, in a bttle um^- 
pttt hissk to death.. After this iatdligeiKe; the two became. 
iB&Biate 6ieQds» 7V^*^biv betorebci [puthisdefiga ia 4«eiCDr 
don, fent a mandarin, named tVdiu't/e, to acquM^ tFatjf^^/iatfromotes 
that he, JUfan^ T$fyeu-40mik'^ andsotther$i as foc» <as fthc^ kad/^« iroi^i^ 
hr9^bt iheir plot to bear, would |irocbdm the you^ piinQ^^^^'^ 
Tefwt'^em&r entperc^t. r l . . - 

As fooa as this s^flidr was commumoated to Te/uiv-^miftiri }e^ 
caafed/F^itf-i^ to be (arreted; and i&ftesidy diipatd»d iewml 
oouriers to inform the aaperor oi: what was ^tttUg agaioft. 
him : b«t the meflfengefs attived too kce. The prince <7i9;zli« 
^MihStf, 4md TefyM TmnAr, having iiazed'the ieal, a%d iittperial 
r^bes, hafted over «he defert ; aad^.O!^. their anivid at tbeijmr 
hmg-ku, Yeftui'temur caufed himfelf tp be proclaimed empereit 
ia SdptmAer. After this, he publiflied ^general pardon, apd 
dedaced Taulqfbfi his prime minifter : he likewife appointed 
Tyerjbe, and his accosBtplkes, to be bis principal maiMlarind. 

As Sb&t^pah was the delight of the people^ the news dUnt^fo^H' 
Va death fpread .a^g^ieral ibrrow among the prince, gnuidee8y<^^t 
tad due& of trS^es, ^ well as the^';i^ mandarins and lite-^ 
TWk. On the^^thec hand, tbefprio^eesaad lords of the family of 
MiMU, whidi was eiiei>f themoft powerful and confiderable 
aoieqg die MuHglsy wore impatient toobtain jnftiice for a murder 
conmiitted on one of the principal perfons of their houfe, 
who was geoe^ of tlie- imperial guards, aad prime ntinifter, 

•(A) Our woAxsih -CAi&r A dotfs notdoiow tke txaft fituati^ ofthis 
riw. . 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

2« Jenghlz. Kban V ^uccfjfgnrs B. H. ^ 

7intb. The ne^ emperor might eafily fee, that he was in danger of 
Yefon- fufieringy for haidng had a hand in the aflkflination of the 
tcmftr, «r prince, and his mioifter. Prince Mayni^ defcendcd from the * 
Tay-ting.grandfether {B) of Jmghiz Khi^^ fincUng the emperor inclihed 
^■"*V"*^to make ufe of Tye-Jhe, and his accomplices^ and even to ad- 
vance them to be great mandarins, reprcfented to him, that 
fnch a condu A would not only lofe him the afie^tion^ both of 
the Chinefes and Tatars ; but that pofterity would reproach 
' his majefty with dipping his hands in the blood of his fove- 
•' ' rc^, and that of a minifler fprung from the great Muhtdu 
tut $ them ^^ w^hom the Mungh owed the empire of the Tatars. Yefun- 
t9 death: ^^^^^* ftruck with this idea, ordered Tefyen Tem&r^ Wang- 
ehe^ Turhefiy and other Wds, to be put to death that inftant, 
in the camp of Long-M, He likewite ^patched officers to 
Ta-i4i to fdze Tyejhe^ atfd his aflbciates ; who were all exe- 
cuted on thefpot, their families extirpated, ahd their eflfefts- 
confifcated. Sonariy fon of Tye'm)&-tyel, had only been fen- 
t^flced to be banifhed ; but^ on reprefendhg tHat he was the 
firft who ftruck Pay-M *on the fhoulder with his fword, the 
dmperor ordered him alfo to be put to death, and his goods to 
be forfeited^ altho' the l^ter part rf the Tentence was not 

put in execution. 

ei^yers ha- The liVes of Ganti'Puv^a, and other princes who were in 

mjbed. ' fomc fort parties in Tyt-Jbe"^ treafon, were fparcd *, but ttey 

were all baniftied, and carried the brand of their infamy along 

with them. Tefun-temiiry arriving at' Ta-tA in November^ 

feftored the memory of the two lords whom Tye^md-tyel had 

caufed'to be put to death in January \'^xo. The emperor 

did the fame juftice to thofe impeached the year following by 

that miniftcr, and his fon Sonan ; fome of whom were put to 

death, and others baniftied, on their accufations, which were 

declared to be malicious* 

LeBures In 1 324, which is the firft year of Tefun-t^mttr^ ftyled by 

€» govern- th€ Ghinefes Tay-ting, one of the minifters pfopofed to his 

ment^ majefty to appoint doftors, wtofe bufinefs ftiould be to ex- 

A- 1^- pound daily, in the palace, fuch books as were moft proper to 

'324»* form the princes and grandees for government. The emperor 

approved of this defign ; and ordered his fon, as well as thofe of 

other princes, to go every day to hear the le^res. The firft 

book pitched upon was the Chinefe hiflory, written by Tfo- 

ma-quang ; and thi$ cuftom is ftiU obferved. Chang-queyy the* 

(B) MaynH was the fifdi d^- tenmr ito^mented hi^ revenues 

fcendant of Talichiriy fourth fon and titles ; which exceedingly 

of Pmiitan, father of Te/k-ia^t plea&d t)|c iamtly of Pay-chm^ 

father of Jettghiz KJb^n. Ye/un" a^d all the grandees. GaubiU 


Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C. lo. In Tarcary oMd China. 29 

])rojeftor of this fine infticdtion, was one of die moft fleady TeatL 
and difceraing minifters the Twen ever had. He was the fon Yefon- 
of general Chang-hong-fan^ and educated by a great mandarin ^wnftr, tr 
of the iSowf empire*. This mahdarin, being in the fleet of J^' ^°g* 
Cbang-Jbt-kyay, near Ae mountain Ay-Jban^ when Hong'fan * '^^ \^ 
came to attack it **, was going, Avith others, to throw ^"^^^^{^^j^^ 
into the fea : but the general hindered him 5 and, finding that^^^^* 
he was a great lord, and a man of merit, kept him, and de- 
fired his uiendfiiip. The mandarin, out of gratitude, would 
never quit the houfe of -Chang^hong-fan^ and undertook to 
educate his fon. 

Soon after the above-mentioned leftures were eftablifhed, jy/^ 15^. 
the emperor declared his fon Afkkepa the prince inhaitor. ;y;^^ n,^. 
Mean time thcChineje grandees and literati, who were watch- «MnW 
ing for an occafion to make known to pofterity their fenti- 
ments touching the treafon of Tye-Jhe^ the worihip of Fo, and 
fever^I other abufes, met with one in April ; for, during that 
month, wherein the emperor made a progrefs to Shang-t^, 
there happened a violent florm, an earthquake, and a total 
cdipfe erf the moon. Thefe, they publicly declared, were 
fent m punifhment of the murder of Shotepala and Pay-cUU 
The emperor, fHzed with fear, fent for the grandees, and or- 
dered them to draw up a memorial, fincerely fetting forth their 
fentiments. Chang-quey was pitched on by them to' per- 
form this talk ; which he did with much freedom, and addrdfled 
it to the emperor. *- 

He demanded, in the name of the empire, " that, in 6mc,agaift/eBf 
" jufHce (houid be done on all concerned in the horrible^M>^>4t- 
" crime of Tye-Jbe : that the fons of So-nan^ who ftill zp-^orj, 
" peared at court, and were even in the guards, fhould be 
** bani(hed ; and the eflefts of their father, which had been 
" reftored them, coafifcated : that Ganti'puwha^ and the 
" other princes who had been convifted of being accomplices 
" in the treafon, and were only baniftied, fhould be put to 
" death, as unworthy fubjefts, who difhonoured the imperial 
" family : that prince Toto (C), governor of Lyau-tong, hav- 
" ing, in the ^me of the t^-oubks, taken away the lives of 
" feveral princes and princefles of the blood, and confifcated 
" their goods, inftead of being rewarded, as he was, ought 
*^ to be punifhed, by confifeating his own eflefts, refuminghls 

* Gavbil, ubi fop. p. 255, & feqq. ^ Sec befbrCt 

Vol. IV. 1. ii. c. J. fea. 2. 

(C) He was defcended, in the fifth degree, from Tyfmuio, bro- 
ther of Jenghix Khin. GaubiL 

" titles. 

Digitized by 


$0 Jfiogfttz Jihkt's Succors B. H 

fnuk. << tiMs9» and baoHhiog UmTelf ; fcr that, if foefa cnmet were 

Yeftto*. <« left uapamfticd, tterc would be reafon to fear the ruia of 

•wa6i, tr** ^ji^ empire wta new at hand : that as, during the mkufhy 

Tay-dBg .<t ^ Tyt-inu^tytl, and Qiice T^fe-Jbe's confpiracy, many inaocent 

^** pcrfoiis had been put to daith, an inquiry ought to bemad* 

'' after fuch* and fiitisfaftion made to their Families : and 

" that, coofidering how many viUains thofe evil minifters em- 

^ ployed, as w^ as aAs of injuftice they committed them- 

** fehre9» it was to be feared many innocent perfons (till groaaed 

**^ under oppreiSon; the priibns, therefore, oa^t to be vifited, 

*^ and the Hate of the cities and villages inquired into : that 

" commiffioners ought to be fent to the frontiers, and regard 

** had to what the troops had fuiFered : that care fl^ould be 

'^ taken to fend the bpdiee of the dead into the countries where 

" dieir parents lived ; and to give them wherewithal to interr 

<^ the corps : that remedies, and other afEftance, ought alio 

'' to be adminifiered to tl:^ fkk poor : and the fifliing for 

*^ peu'ls in the province of Kanton prohibited, as occaficHung 

« the death erf too naany people." 

and ether BESIDES thefe dcsnands, the flotemorial (rf Ctrng-quey pointed 

manda- out fevoral abufes which required a reform. He complained, 

Hmj } ^^ that two mandarins, who had been convidled of counter- 

" feittng the emperor's orders, and ourryiag off an oiEkxr's 

*' wife, had been pardoned : that, under pretence the court 

** wanted |»recious ftonea, a fordid conunerce was carried on 

" by certain perfons, who wercl^not a(hamed to make his nu^ 

^ jttfty pay ten times more for diem than they coft : that fuch 

'* perfons cared not if whole families and provinces were rumed, 

^^ fo they could make .their court by prefenting precious ftones, 

** which, in reality, were of no ufe : that a prince ought not 

•* to think of governing the empire any jother way but as a 

religion of *^ father of his fubjefts ; and that it was not by the bonzas, 

Fo, ^ or priefts of Foy that he ihould feek to be happy: that 

** fim:e the bonzas, the lamas, and the tan-tfe, made fo many 

^ prayers and iacrifices to Fo, heaven had fhewed continud 

>< marics of ita difpleafure ; and that, till fuch time as they 

^^ &W the worihip of Fo abolifhed, and all the bonzas driven 

mndufelefs " put, they might expeft to be unhappy : that the palace of 

sjgicers, " the emperor "wzj filled with idle perfons, eunuchs, afttx)ld« 

*' giecs, i^yiidans, and others, whcrfe qiaintenaDce amounted 

" to exorbitant fums : that, as the empire was a family, of 

.^ wMch the emperor was father, it was not fit that any of his 

" children (hould die for want of care ind affiftance ; much 

" lefs was it fit that a prince fhould think it inconfift^nt wth 

" his dignity to liften to die cri^s of the nriferable.** 

3 The 

Digitized by 


C 10. /« Tamry mi China. 3» 

The emperor read this dUbourie of Chang-quey with, pica- Tnuk, 
fore : but durft not aboHfli the worihip oiFo^ for fear die Ydfon- 
Mungls fluMild revolt : nor would he put to death prince Ganti- tcmiir, •r 
fuwha. With regard to the other articles, he appeared to be'JV-^jJ^g^ 
pretty indifferent : on which occafion the hiftory, on one fide, ~^~"*^' 
pr^fes the lords, at the head of whom Chan^'quey fpoke with 
io much zeal ; and, on the other, deplores the onhappiaefs of* 
the times ^ 

Prince Tutemir^ youngeft fon of Hayjban^ who had tt^Vbumftn 
turned from his exile m Hhy-nan^ was ordered to go to Kytn^wded. 
Awa, now Nan-king^ there to refide. Yefun-temAr^ this year, 
(fivided into eighteen great governments the empire, which 
was before parted into twelve. Thofe twelve governmenU 
depended on a council (D) called the hrds of provinces. It is 
remarked alfo, that the rice fent by fea from the fouthem 
provinces, for provifions of the court, amounted to 170 van 
of tan ; and, tlie following year, to 335 van, and 1000 tan. 

In 1326 there was a great farnne in Pe-che-li ^od Sian^ 
tmg ; of which the emperor ha^ng received the particulars 
from Chang-quey^ at his return from Pau-ting W, where he 
had been to lee hds relations, that prince followed his fage ad- 
vice, in fuccouring the people of thofe two provinces. TheLamai in- 
lamas were all-powerful at court, efpecially with the princefles.y^/'f*^' 
They had patents to take poft-horfes (E), and ran about with^*"**''- 
the equipage of princes, They were a great charge to the 
pjM>ple, who were obliged tptfurnifh th^m with horfes and. 
provifions. Their lives and manners were often very difor* 
derly ; and the Chinefes on aU fides made moft bitter com^ 
plaints of them< The emperor, being at length informed of 
thefe abufes, put a ftop to them. It being found, that more, 
money had been given to the occidental merchants, who traded' 
in precious ftones, than they ought to have had, the fame was 
coniifcated : but Upetula (F) and Taulajba (G), who, either 
through intereft or inclination, were much attached to them, 
caufed the money to be returned them ; and put many manr^ 
daiins, who had been turned out, into their piaees. again* 

« Gaubil, ubi fup. p. 257, Sc feqq^. 

(D) Marco Pohf ehap. 22, M^ or ObeyttclUdf^ « Ji&iim^ 

fpeaksof this council. GaubiL mdan mmc. 

(E)Thsy carried news every. (G) Doab^t(& Tifim^mir^^ 

wtiiere, aad. ei!en as far as the prime minifter, mentioned be*; 

frontiers.. QanlnJ, fore. 

(F) This feems to be Abcr9lr 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

$2 Jenghii Khan'i Succejfm B. 11. 

Te9ith, In 1327 the grandees invited the emperor to go in perfon, 
Ycfun- and facniice to heaven : but his majefty refufed ; and cited a 
tmhr, ^rjawof Hit-pi-lay, importing, that the emperor fhould perforni 
?jy ;^ ° ^ that facrifice by a deputy. On this occafion the hUlory re- 
G / T^prcfents Tefun'temur as a prince who was not exaft in obferv- 
lamities, ^°8 ^^ duties of his ftation ; and that he was puniflied for his 
faults by the fliortnefs of his reign (H). It is added, that this 
year all forts of evils afflifted the empire ; drought, famine, 
inundations, the falling or finking of mountains, an earth- 
quake, and an eclipfe of the fun. In June the emperor caufed 
the great work of Tfe-ma^quarig^ intituled, Tfe-chi'tong-kyen^ 
containing what pafled under the emperors from before Chrift 
to a long time after, with very elaborate notes, to be tranflated 
into the ^tt«^/ language. In December (I) died the illuftrious 
Chang-quey^ regretted by all the men of worth in the em- 
pire. ♦ 
Care about In the beginning of the year 1328 the emperor caufed prints 
fik. to be diftributed through the empire, whereon was delineated 
^'^' the art of rearing filkworms, and making filk, with the man- 
'5* ner of cultivating lands. Befides thefe prints, he ordered a 
book to be printed, and diftributed, confifting of fourteen 
chapters, wherein the antient method of doing thofe things 
was treated of. In Febntary his imperial majefty went from 
Ta-tu to Shang't^, and left the guard of the former to Ten^ 
tenter. His majefty at the fame time ordered Tutemur, fon 
Emperors of Hayjban^ to go to Kin-chew, a city of HA-quang : but, in 
Jeathf July^ Tefun-temur died, at the age of thirty-fix, leaving the 

court full of intrigues and faftions. 
marriages f This emperor married Papuhan, princefs of Hongkila, who 
had the honours and titles of emprefs. Befides this princefs, 
he likewife married his own niece, by one of his elder fifters ; 
and two other ladies, of the houfe of Hongkila, near rela- 
and/oni. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ emprefs. The hiftory gives him four fons, of 
whom AJukipa, the prince inheritor, was the eldeft. It like- 
wife remarks, that the emperor Shotepalay thro' bad advice, 
removed from court Hojhila and TAtem^ry the two fons d 
Hayjkan ; fo that, after his afTafSnation, Tefun-temury taking 

(H) Yet the roign of amiable emperor with a lion and a leo- 

SbotepaJa was not only as Ihort, pan!. The cities of Nichaftir^ 

but iiis death tragical ; which Terpen (or Derhend), Bagbdadt 

ihcws the abfurdity of fucli fu- Jfefaan, Ku-fa, Suntama (or $•!' 

pedlitious conclufions. tania)^ and others, are put in 

(1} It is related, that in this the kingdom o£ Pu/ayn. Gau* 

year, 1327, a ftranger from the ArV. 
country of Pu/ayn prefented the 


Digitized by VjOOQICl 

^,if. -ft Tar^ry (wji^ China, * ^3 

advantage c^ their abfence, had himfelf p^oclai;;le4 cmp^f? TentL 
farther, that Jyyuk-palipaia and Hayjha^n raa4e. an agreement, Ycfun- 
whereby the tvo families were altern^tejy to jxjdels the eip-J5^^^! ^ 
pirej ajod that the former broke his word, in declaring his" (on ^^ ^"^"^ ' 
Shote^aia hereditary prince*^. -'r^ .'t 

YESiiN'Tendr was tenth khan of the MungU, and fi^t^ 
pxyperor of the Cbinefe Twen. 

C H A P. XL 

Tbi Reign o/Hofhihj known to the Chinefes hy the title 
of Ming-tfong. 

A FTER the death of the emperor Ttfun-ieMr, the pntk'gk*v^i 
^^ prds Paf>uhan, in the name of the prince inheritor, herKUn* 
fon, lent the iilinifter UpetAh to Ta-Hy in order to fecurc ^eHoihiit. 
Teals, as welj as appeafe and gain the people. On die other ^ ■■%■■■># 
hand, Ten-tem^ri ^ governor ^nd commander-general In that 
capital, poiled troops in all the quarters, reinforced the guards 
at the gates both of the city and palace, and refolved to raife 
to the throne if^Ai and T&temiri the two ^ns of Htyjhan^ 
Yen-tem^fy one of the greateft captains of his tlm^, was th^ 
third fbn of ChohangAry prince ot fSn-cha (or Kipchak). His A. T>. 
fine pcrfonal qualities, join.ed tQ his bjrth, j^nd the fervic^ 1318. 
which his father and grandfa^ther had done, made bimeAeemeA 
at court. As he had b^en rajftd \^y Hayjian to th^ prini? 
dignities, and was loved by th^t prince more thjtn any oth^r 
lord of his court, Ten-temkr thought hlmfyf bound in grati- 
tude to be attached to his family. .-.-,... 

In tjiefe fentiments Ten-tem^ry in concert ^ylth the rcgujp qfYcn- 
Can-fu great grandfon of H^-pi^layy by Mangioldy gating ^«">"f*^ 
picked out his ofEqers, and mofl rcMute fol4iers, 9n the day*^ 
TCyaw of the eighth month, fuinmone<J the gr?at. 'mandarins 
tt) one of the hdls of the palace. All the lords beinff afleni* 
bled, reiP-temtir, followed by feventeen men of his party, 
proppfed the two fons of Hayjhan to be empero|-8 ; ^d feid, 
he would put to death oa the fpot ^ny who mould ofpofe thjit 
refolution. After thefe words, he ordered his men to feize/^rHa- 
yp$tiilay and feveral other of th? great mandarins, ^ho did not fhanV fii- 
concur with hiip, and conduft them to prifonr He'thcn ap-»M^. 
pointed mandarins of his own party ; and gave ftili po;v'er to 
general Chau-Jhi-pj^n (A) (or QaurjUyen)^ Tjie fu^altjrn pfii- 

* GAv^a, ohi fejp, fit ?6o^ Si feqq. 

(A) A dcfcendant of general glory in the y^ar^ of Jtfg^i(i 
Cancbor^ who ferved with much lOxin, GgubiL '- . ^ 

Mod. Hist. Vol. V. ' C* ' cers 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^4 JtnghizKhsin'sSucceffors RII. 

EU%Mn{i. cers knew nothing of what was intended ; and the generals 
Hoftila, who were in the fecret, ha\dng aflembled the troops, ordered 
or Miag. them to kneel, with then* faces to the fouth, and beat the 
tfong. ground with their heads : by which ceremony they perceived 
^'"^'^•^that Ten*tem4r defigned to proclaim 7W/^m<^r emperor, at that 
time baniihed into Hd-quang, For a whole month this gene- 
ral appeared always on horieback', and but a few perfoiis knew 
where he flcpt at night. He had taken right meafures to haftea 
Tiltendr to Ta-ttl^ and giVQ Hq/bila notice, who was in Tar- 
tarji' : • at the fame time he fpread a report, that the firft was 
advancing' by great journeys ; and that the latter would foon 
return from the north, with the princes of his family (B). 
Hiif^Mt WjHEN Pe-yen^ governor of Ho-natii a Merkithy n^on, 
aahvity. *nd one of the beft officers of the Twen^ knew Ten-temur's 
dcfign, he entered into his views ; and, putting to de^th feve- 
ral officers whom he diftrulled, made the troops declare for 
Tf^temitr. Sat tin, brother of Ten-tefnur, feized the impcH-tant 
poft of Ku'yong-quang \ and Tang-ki-Jbi^ Yen-tendr's fon, 
- ^ook Ku-pe-H (C). Mean tune that general ufcd the neceflary 
precautions for executing his defign at Ta-t^ : on which prin- 
ciple he put to death prince Koko-chu, and fome other great 
lords, who went about to fupplant him : but h^ compaflS all 
, which he undertook, by his refolution, aftivity, genius, and 
the reputation he had gained in the opinion of the troops, 
Afiikipa While Yen-tem^r was thus bufy at 7i-/j^, in favour of 
/et.uf. Tfkemury Taukjba caufed Afukipa^ known to the Chinefes by 
the namcf of Tyen-Jbun^ to be proclaimed emperor. This 
V paiiy was powerful : for, befides many princes of the blood, 
; and governors of provinces, moft of the weftern officers and 
foldiers were inclined to follow it ; and, according to the Chi- 
nefe law, AfAki^a ^as the lawful emperor ; having been ac- 
knowlqged for the prince inheritor in the life-time of the* em- 
peror his father. Prince Wang-chan (D) alfo had given air 
army to general Tajbe TemAr^ Ton of the miniiler Toto^ prince 
of Kanglit in order ta oppofe that of Ten-temi^r. 
TfttcmAr \ At length, in Augujl^ Tutemur arrived at Tartu, and, by 
proclaim' ^s ^refence, excccdinaly ftrengthened his party. He made a 
id. promotion of mandarins ; and bellowed a great dignity on 

Tim£'p4wha, a prince defcended from IttiM (or IM^t), prince 
. (pf TAr/dn, who put faimfelf under the protection of Jenghiz 

(B) He had a brother called the wall of China, to the north 
Wa<k*irt(y, the father of TotOf of Finking, - 

both famous for the great poib (D) SonofSongJhan^ Ton of 
they held. Gaubil. , Kanmala, and ccaiin-german to 

(C) A fortrefs and gixt in Afikifa. GaubiL 


Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C. 1 !• In Tartaiy and Chini* 35 

Khin. 1a September Ttltemir fwt Upetdla to death ; anHJf/^w/wS- 
banHhed feveral other mandarins, whom Ten^tem4r had im- Hoibiia, 
prifoned. This general prefled Wm to be proclaimed cmpe-*^^"*g" 
ror. He put it ^, laying, he would wait the return of nig ^°g' 
brother Hojbilay and yield the empire to him. However, zi '^^ ^ 
laft he fullered himfelf to be prevailed on, and was declared 
emperor. r?«-/rmj^r was immediately declared generaliffimo^ 
and Pe-yen^ governor of Ho-nan^ was likewife much advanced. 
Manifeftos were fent into all parts \ and it was affirmed, that 
7utem&r was refolved to furrender the empire to his brother 

Prince Wang-chauy being advanced as fiu* as Tulin (E), Affikipa 
was there flopped by Satun, brother of Ten^tem^ry and rerproclaim^ 
cdvcd fome lofles : but taking advantage of Ten-tem^r's ab-'^' 
fence, who had been fent to the frontiers, to opppfe prince 
Tejyen-tem^r, reduced Ku-yong-quan, On advice of this, that 
general returned ; and, in two battles, defeated the prince, near 
tjie river Tu (F), . and obliged him to retire int6 Tartary. 
Wang-chan^ though full of courage, yet being young, and 
without experience, was no match, for an old ^warlike com- 
mander, like Teri'tem^r, Prince Koko, who declared for Jfit* 
kipa, with the troops of Shen-Jiy feized the important pofl of 
Tong-quan. Prince Tefyen-temitr likewife entered Shen-Jiy and 
proclaimed him emperor. Tyemilko, the Tatar general, fol- 
lowing the fame party, advanced with a great army to thrbor- 
ders of Ho-nan and Hti-quang, where he made great conquefls* 
Ho-nan was at this time full of fornudable armies of^ both 
parties'. ' ... 

Mean while Tefyen-temdry wTio had marched from Shen-Ji His troop^ 
into Pe-che-ii, reduced Tong-chew (G); and, being ititrSotctAtitfuttuL 
by many fuccours, drew near Ta-^Uy in order to befiege it. 
On this news, Yen-temtlr took his beft troops, and, attacking 
the prince vigoroufly, cut his army in^pieces. The moft valu- 
able officers belonging to Afuklpa were flain in this battle "jf and 
the prince had much ado to efcape with the ruins of his army. 
Prince Ulatay, who alfo declared for ytfukipa, made great 
inarches with his troops, in order to join Yejyen^temitr. He 

* Gavbil. ubi fap. p. 262, & feqq. 

(E) A fmall city of PecheU, and falls into the Pe^bo, or rivcc 
ibout five mileS' eaft of Whay- Pe. Gauhii. 

5ffy hytn. Gauhii. (G) A city on the weft fsde , 

(F) A little river which pafles of the river ?<;, feme leagres 
«? Ku-^ong'^uangi in Fi-ehi'Jii (about twelve miles) to the eaft 


C q^ Digitizedl^OOgle 


Jei^z }Ch»n'^ Sucetffai^s 




Bif*utnth. Had tatkrfn Tfehhin-quan^ an important poft in P^-cb^'li, ^©4 
Uofhiia* abnoed the whole country : but when he came to the bridge 
en Ming'Qf Ltirkewkyau, he thcr€ heard of the prince's total defeat; 
'^^ and, fearing to be overwhelmed by Tert'temur, n^tired. 

When Pi-wha^temir^ paternal uncle 9f Tm-^emir, who 
was great general of the Mungls in Tartary^ to the weft, norths 
4nd north-^dl, of Lyau^ong, knew that Ti-temur had btei 
iaftaUed at Ta-tu^ he invited prince Tvjelu-temir (H) to jpia 
bim ^yith his troops ; and both went, in OQober, to lay fxfs^ to 
Siang't^. Ti^ula/ba defended the place at firft with much 
courage ; and, followed by the princes and great men di AJ%' 
kipa's party, feveral times attacked the bcfi^)irs> but was 
always repulfed.; and, being at length reduced to extremity^ 
fnrrendered at difcretion." He delivered up to Twelu-innir all 
the- jewels, precious Acnes, and whatever elfe belo^gied to the 
emperor Afikipa., Prince Wang-chan fled ; prince Toto^ bere- 
tofore gOYernor of Lyaw-iongt was killed : but it was not 
known how Afukipa died. 

On the news of Afukipa's death, and taking of Sbang-ti, 
the princes and great lords, who were leagued againft Tutemwr 
in Shen-ftt Shan*Ji^ Hu^qiumg^ Che-kyang, Lyau-tongy and other 
countries, laid down their arms; and, in Novembir^.Tutemur^ 
feeing himfelf without a rival, fent a lord to his brother Ho* 
Jbila ; baniHied to Tong^gan-chew (now called Tang-gan-hyen) 
(I) the emprefs Papuhauy wife of Tefun-temur ; and put to 
death the general Taulajha^ with the princes /r<z«f-r^/w, Te- 
fyfti'temur^ and others. He would have done the fame by sdi 
the Tatar and Chinefe grandees taken at Shang-tu, if a great 
mandarin had not told him fuch a proceeding was unjuft, and 
might caufe a general difafFeftion. The hiftory, on this occa-i 
lion, fpeaks of Tutemur as an ufurper, who, without reafon»j 
f ut to death the princes and great men, for having fbpported 
their lawful fovereign. He is blamed likewife for exihng the 
(impr^fs Papuhan. Mean time Ncmkyaiay, one of the com- 
manders in Tun-narit got himfelf proclaimed emperor, 2nd 
i^spointed minifters to aft in afFaus. 

; Prince Ho/hila, having been informed of what had paflcd- 
in January 1329 decamped (K) ; and, marching fouthwardsj 


put to 


A. D. 


(H) fJiu^/a/-/m^rwasdefcend- 
ed, in the fifth generation, from 
Sho'chi-ban, fecond fon of Te- 
fikay, and brother of Jenghix 
I^hdn, Gtmhil, 

' (f) Acity inP^-r/^^-//, alittle 
to the fouth-eaft of Fe-king. 

(K) The hiftory fays HoJhiU^ 
encamped in fummer on moan^ 
Wa-h-U'chay. I know rot i\ 
this be the moxrai Alt ch ay ^ whicl| 
M,?olo fpeaks of, and where I14 
fays Jenghix.Khan'n bujied Ttuj 
(Altchay) is mount Ahay. GaztB 

Digitized by 



C !!• In Tartary andXXm. ^ §> 

encamped to the north of tjic city Ho-ning (L) (or Karako* Elevntb. 
rom)f and caufed Wmfelf to be proelaithed emperor. This Hofhila, 
iaftanatkm was performed whh the cdncurrfetjce of Tktm^:) or Ming- 
and the lords of both courts made great rejoicings on the 6c- ^ tfong. ^ 
ifcafion. lii March Tutemur fent Ygn-umihr to carry the feal of^-^»^^ 
the empire^ with the imperial habits and ornaments, to H6* 
JbUof who declared him prhne minifter, and general of the 
troiDps ; and Ttkemthr was appdnted the prince inheritor. For 
tfi tins, l^fmUt, in reaKty^ carried himfelf as emperor, inde^ 
Ittndem of his Imthei^. He fent k lord into Se-^/men ; who 
|>tri>lifliing that the emperor Tutem^ would pardon Nan-kya^ 
tuy^ whO) towards the etid of 1^ y^ar, was proclaimed empe*- 
fWy thift general fubtokted } btit was immediately put to 
thstth. Mean ^ne Hojhila pre})ared fo go to Shdng^tu ; and 
ietog arrived, in Auguft, within twc^ days journey oi that dty^, 
"^ntmit went diither to faldte him : bat» foon after, HqftiU 
'wasfouna d£ad m his bed. The fecodd of that mondb he 
jgavca greact entertainment tp the lords of both xx)Urt8 ; and, Hisfudden 
tetheiixth, died fuddenly. The hiftorians accufe ntMilt^'^^^- 
Vlth hfiWdiig, Out of ambition, ^ocured his brother^ death. 

HOSHILASs the emperor whom the Chirufi £all MiBt^ 
i/bng: he gatre the title of ehiprefs to {he priiicefs Fnptj/bd, 
who wa3 of the tribe of Naykanchin, by whom Ae had a 
prince named Ilinchipin^ who was proclaimed emperor, las the 
^rwder witl fee hereafter. When fid was hi TSirUry^ he mar- WintdsiShd 
fied alfo th« jft^incefs Majliayti ^, daughter of 'N^LhuniM, dut-fi^- * ' \ 
fended from prince ArJWi^^ who came from the wfeft to fub- ' " ' 
nut to y^ghiz KMrky and had large territories glren him to 
the north of the Great K(M, or D^arf. Kofhlla had, by the 
fiticrfs MayUyiiyTcvihan^tetnun^ who was the laft emperor of 
3dte MuHgls in' China, He had Bkewife another fdtt namdd 
Hdn-chi-pan,' ^^o reigned before his brother id»ut t^o 

• HOSMfLA^v^ theeletettth khin of r^rf^ry, kild feyeilth 
«fflp^r<ar <rf thi^ Tv^en, who reigned ^ver the Chin^^Sn 

*> Gaviil, ttbi fupra, p. ^^, & feqq. •« ^cehtfotc, 

Vol.lV.i.i.x. i.&a. 1. ^ Gaubil, ubifup. p. 267. 

(L) OiherwJfe called Ho-lin. Gauhil, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

gg Jcnghlz KhanV Suecejfor^ B. II. 

tbeRtignof TAtcmAr, ftyled by the Chincfcs Vcn-tfong. 

jTwil/tb. A S foon as Hojhila was dead, Tutemur fent for the feal of 
Tiitcmfir, ^ the empire ; and, after he had performed the laft duties 
or Ven- to the decoded, he. returned to Shang-tu, where, on the fif» 
tfong. tecnth of the fame .month of Auguji^ he was acknowleged em- 
*'*'*'^^'*^peroir ; and appointed that the year 1329 flipuld be reckoned 
the fecond erf his reign. This lame y?ar Tutemur ordered the 
book, intituled, King-Jbi-ta-ty^ny to be compofed in CInnefe 
by the mofi able dehors of the empke. It is often dted in 
the great hillory of the Mungls \ by which quotations it ap- 
pears (A) to contain many curious matters relating to the ori- 
gin, government, conquefts, and geography, of the Mungls. 
One of .the doftors, appointed to be concerned in this grand 
work, was Shen-fcy a native of Khoraffdn^ and a Mohammed^ 
an : but, as he could never ^ee with the other doftors about 
iitveral articles, treated of in that book, which yet are not 
mentioned, he obtained leave to write on other fubjcfts: 
among the reft (6), he compofed, in Chinefe^ a geography of 
the wefl.eincountrfe? of Maj to which he has Subjoined re- 
marks upon their dofbrinal books, with a large caulogue of 
thdr eminent men. 
iMHon In March 1330 prince Tukyen revolted In Tun-nan^ and 
-in Yon- aflumed the title of king. He committed a thoufand dif- 
**^' orders ; took, the cities, flew the mandarins, and ftirre4 up 
the Myau-tfCi with other people who live independent in the 
neighbouring provinces, to rebel againft the emperor, ffere- 
upon the prioce AlatenaJbdU fon of prince Tula^ was ordfsred 
to march with an army to oppofe the defjgns of Tufyen. Mean 
time, the empreft PMafili,^ or Putajheli^ of the l^oufeof ^^j-- 
kilay and wife of Tutemur, not able to endure the emprcTs 
dowager Papijba^ employed an eunuch to make away with 
her. The . tiiftprians . ^e oceafion from hence, to rcpre- 
fcnt the dangerous confequences of a bad example in princes. 
Tutemur^ fay they, caufed his brother Hojhila to be fent out 
, of the worid ; and that .wicked example induced Putajili to 
dc&roy Papufia. 

(A) The author, when he dcr the K$fi dynafty ; the books 
wrote this, had not yet found of Lau-tfe and Ciywan-tfe, &c. : 
that book, the books of Zhen-fe remain in 

(B) He compofed feveral his family; nor does Gauhil 
ether works on the Chinefe claf* know if they were printed, 
ficil book$ I the great men .«n- 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C 12^ Ib Tartary j;^. China. , 39 

In OSlober the. emperor went to the temple of heaven, and Ttvil/th. 
there facrificed in perfon, honouring at the fame time ^/u^tz-Ti^tcmur, 
Khdn, founder of the dynafty. Tutemur was the firft of the ^'^ Vcn- 
Tiven (or Mungl) princes who in perfon had been at the tern- , ,^l!"f ,' ' 
pie of heaven, and made the folemn facrifice, which, before .^^^JY^ 
that dme, had been performed by others. After this <^t-^^jV , 
mony was over, a general pardon was publiihed ; and a i^'^fices. 
was made, that, among the emperor's wives, only one ftiould .^ 

bear the title of emprefs. It is remarked in a note; in the . 
great hiftory of the Mungls^ that Jenghh KhAn had twenty*^ 
one ladies, who, befldes the princefe of Hongkila, his princi- 
pal wife, had the title of emprelTes ; and that the other em- 
perors, down to Shi-tfu^ or HdhpUl^^ ,had five or feven x, 
which xruftom was fallowed by his fucceflbrs, till Titanur\ 
who limited their, number to one. ' ■ ^ * 

In December the emperor declared his fon the prince Alate* Yun-ntn 
natala prince inheritor: but, in January 1331, this princcLA^*^''*^* 
died, to his father's gteat affMion. 'Mean time the prince ^* ^* 
Alatenajbeli^ ^^ an army^of more than 100,000 men, car- '33*« 
ried on the war againft prince Tu-^yen^ who defended himfelf 
with courage ; but, having been beaten in above twenty bat- 
tles, in April both Tun-nan and Sie^cbwen fubmitted to the ' * -1 ; 
idftor. However, foon after one of the rebels, named Lu-yu^ 
who had lam concealed for a while, e3«:itcd new troubles, fup- 
ported by the brothers and fons of Tu-kyen. But Kyay-lye 
<C), great general of the Mungb^ made a terrible flaughtcr ' • ^ 
of his followers, and intirely difperfed them, Two brothers 
and three fons of Tu-kyen were killed ; and another pf his 
brothers fled as far as the (ea, where he perifhed. 

Mean time one of thelamas, of the coontry of Igur^ which-' «^ 
abounds with them, was then chief of the lainas of the cm+ con/piracy. 
fire, and what rq^ded their reli^n ; fevcral of the bonzas 
€S Igur formed a confpiracy in favour of Twelu^temurf foa 
of the prince Honanta, whom the emperor H^yjbm put to 
•death. - 

TEN'TEMUR^ who had. been created a vang, <x regulo, 
by the emperor, had a fon called Targay j which yoiing prince / r 
Was fo beloved by his majefty, that he would have him edu^ 
<ated in his palace, and fent his own fon Tentye^kutje* to be 
bred up in th^ palace of Ten-tem^t. He lUtewife this year 
<oirferrcd on Pe-yen.t!tieMerkit the title of Fang {or Wang ), 
which is the g^eateft honour that the emperor can beftow 

(Cl Or^^i^f, is the naraic yuttnan ; but I knbw not if this 
of a general from the weft, who ' be the fame, or one of his- fk- 
did great ferviccs for //« //-/ay in mily. GaubiL 

. . C 4 .- ..• . . 'Oft. 

Digitized by 


40 Jcnghlz ithan^i Succeffors i. 11. 

Tnfjiifth. on one of \&^ fobjcAs; aad is attended wlt& penfions^ but. 
Tafitmftr,notcilate$. . 

•r Veil, jjj 1^ j^ TktMurs accordu^ to cfuftom. removed in the 
■ ^^^' , fpriog to Shdng-tii j where he fell fick, and dfeil, in JuguJ^^ 
hr^jT^in t^ twenty-ninth year of his age; ordering, that one bt 
j^^, tfe^ fonk X2f ^ik.t»rother No/hiJa ftiould be t>roclaiiiied emperor ^. 

^ D^ TUT£MUg was the twelfth khan of tfic Mungh^ and 

I33«* ^1^^ pf dMS ^Ti^^n dynafty m Chinas where he was knowa 
under the title of Ven-tfong. 

» Git^feiL. ubi ftp. p. 267, & fttin. 

CHAP. xm. 

fbe )ieign of T6whah<etn6rj fiyled ty ii>c Chinefcs 

S E C T. I. 

fU "i^SOim md rtbeUiom wbicb iOmdid his b»d 

mmenth. A FTER the death of Tutermir, the miriftcr Tert^emiy 

Towhan- 1\ ^^^^ y^^ ^^ cmprcfs Putq/heU, md propofed td advMk» 

^Sh ?''h^ fob Tenip'kiit/i to the empire 2 but /he rejefted kha!t mo- 

* tibn ; and^ ^urfuant to the intention of her d^?cafed hulband^ 

ItUfcd the prince JUncbipin, fecond fon of ffq/hila (by tht 

ftmpitfe Papl^a, vfhoth Oiehad j)ut to death), then no more 

thkn feVien ycsiri old; to bfe proclaimed. This new emperor^ 

known in Cbka under the title of Nbig-tfimg (A), dying U 

MwfeiA?/-^ J^n-ftmAr agaSh propofed to enthrone T)fray€kiiife : 

but P'dta/hefi wouid by no means confent to it; deeiarbig^ 

ttmt the eftipire bdongcd to Towban-tm^ (B), foh of HoJbUm, 

by thiB prih^s Aldylaytii who was at thb time thhtech yeara 

of Bgt. After the death of the cmprefe PafUJba^ he wa^ ha- 

niftied into Korea, from whence he had been removed to i^^- 

ftn Fi^ the (Sipital of ^ang*Jl. 

Xtforts 0/ The emperrtr of the Amg^ who was carried into Tartaty^ 

bim, ilnd became ^ liama% had &mds in that cbuntry, where, k «s 

fS^d, he marrlbd a fjrince^ and had duldrcD by her. This 

pHhcdTs, atcoit^ to iomky y^ts Miylayti $ and had, by iSm^ 

^TVwbim^tMit. After this, prince Jf^Uta cont^ufted a friend-* 

'* ^6t btfbrt. Vol. IV. !. ii. c. 5. fija. 2. 
. (A) But, at he lived only note at the end of this d/na^ 
f^o moAths, be is not rebkon^ of Ae fhven, 
Wong "tiiclClfeiVf^ emperors. S6c (B) 'Written TJhoahrtnwit m 
Dm Hahir, China, Vtill.f:2X% ttA "MlSOx GMtt/. 
Ibl edit. Wc ftall obfervt in a 

4 ^ T fcip 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


doa for 
TKele f i 
ie lefs 

be fai^ X 
lent a ' 

lities 5 but he was cruel, and void of modefly. He became 
Humoured vn^ ojie of the wives of the emperor T^fpmH^T9tU)\ 
Md had the raSiH<& to msik^ her ; k thingiafanpft Msthdlit exf- 
turiplei In B^ttrch he died 6f Wsfexcseflfes ; tod his death ft- 
cured 'tiie empire to T<fwhkn-tM^t .• '<vhd, itftfoViflg Viridi Wis 
^Jotart to SJitf 5^-/1?, the ririprcfs itgeht ddcfei^d 'th^ laft wiH ctf 
^iAnir ; iitfi thV^Andees kgfeed to declare thie prmce em- 
'jjiercfr. /......' -^ ' • 

roiVBAn^'l^tJ'k (t\ wjiom, the C5//j^/ i^ssMtShm-ii, Is pro* 
'at Erii^ave all power to the cmprefs Putafbeli^ and conferred ^^'^^* 

^ (G) The ^eifhie/e bocffct tuf 55few-«fr««iug!i(ter8 dpronTedT'-rf- 
^ii|raphy fay, that one ^f mcrlan^ to whom they give the 

Digitized by Vj^O^lC 

4^ Jtnjghh KMnV Succeft^rs 6. IL 

prefs-grandinother ; .but, from,that time, 
)f her. This princefs informed her fon 
ur's will, and of what had paflcd betweca 
^ayjban. The new emperor, to gain the 
:o his iatereft, in Jug^ caufed his wife' 
emprefe. ' 

UR fpon difcbvered his inconftarit and 
. ^ ^ , L averfion to ftate-affairg, and his inclina- 

tion to pfeafure. jHuwhentenuir, the eighth in defcent from 
the emperor^^ofiy^ perceiving his natui^ indoknce, fiidwed: 
, him the great number^of faults he would commit, in cafe he' 
governed by himfelf i he therefore advifed hidi to feave that 
toil to his Tnihifters;'ind, by that pernicious counfd, ^as 
the firftxraufe of the deilruftioh of the empire of the Twen (D); 
Tbwhim-'temur followed his advice, and thonght of nothing but 
gKMdfyihg his paffiohs. ' Sat&riy eldeft brother of Ten-ternAr, 
M^s honoured xyith the title of regulo (or vang) as well as 
Tarigkt/bi, eldeft fon of Ten-temur^ and brother of the empre& 
Peyaw, SdtUn and Pe-yen were the 7>rime minifters ; anrf 
were, befides, the great generals of the troops. The hiftory 
loudly exclaims agairift the advancement of Pe-yeh to this high 
pbft, reprefcnting him as a man of bad principles; debauched, 
and void of honour : it adds, that heaven fhewed mark^ of its 
difpleafure the fame day that fo much honour was conferred 
on him ; for the earth quaked, and a mountain fell. 
Calamities The hiftory likewife records fevcral prefages, in 1334, oF 
9/ bis the unfortunate rcign of To-whan-temir ; as that; in the ibuth- 
reign. cm provinces, no fewer than two millions two hundred and 
AD.,, feventy; thoufand families, that is, inore than- thirteen mlUions 
'334* of people, died ; and fhaf," In Augujl\ there was an earthquake 
.. at Ta-tit. The Chinefe hiftorians, who cortipoftd the fiiftc^f 
^ of the T'wen^ or Mungl racej lived at thebeginnhag^tlic dyi 

liafty of the ilf/>25'(E), who ruined that of ^the'ra^i?/!. Thefc 
^ . : ; authors 

dtlc of fumot that is, fon in- kong, who rendered tfiemfclvcs 

law of the emperor. GauBiL-^ famous by the fage advice which 

This anfwers to the title of Kur they gave the emperors of their 
.£f^ given to that prince by the * refpeSive times. Gamiil, 

oriental hiilorians, which iigni- (E) Among the C^iV^, the 

HosJo/t'in'la'W'o/ the khdf^^ jSee rule is, daily to confimit to wr>- 

D*Herbeloti Bibl. ' orient, art. tine the aflions of their princes, 

- Timitr^p, 878. . . . and drop thc-papcrs into clbfe 

(D) The hiftory blames the chefts, which are neVer opened 

pnric&JliiwhentemurtZnAmzkes while the family then xdgniiig 

■an odious comparifon between poiTefs the empire. On the ac- 

kim and Kau you and Chenjo^ cefl^on^. of a new fax^ilyt ' the 

^ cbets 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. 13. In Tartary and China. 43 

authors hare takeo great pains to render this mperor oidomTbirteentb. 
on alt occafions : they have reprefented his faults in their Towhan- 
full light ; and fet down all the famines, inundations, popular ^cmiir, w- 
ficknefles, earthquakes, falls of mountains, cornet^, eclipfes, ^hun-ti. 
and other events: which they thought proper, to ihcw, that^ ■—v^'^ 
TowhoT^temur ought not to have been emperor ; and that 
the Ming (or Ta-nungj wrefted the empire from the Mungls 
with juftice **. 

In OElober a queftion was decided, which had exercifecl the J point dr- 
wits of .all the Chinefe literati. Several empr^fles, and, among «*^<4 - 
the reft, Ching-ko, firft wife of Hayjban^ ^had no tablets in th^ 
hall of anceftors, near thofe of their hufbands, un ' 
that they had no children ; while princeflcs, who w 
fecond or third wives of emperors, were honoui 
blets, becaufe they had borne fons who afterwards 
dtle of emperor. The mothers of Hqfbila znA 7 
their tablets, and were there refpefted as cmpreflei 
they lived in the time of Ching-Jto, who was the chief wife, a3 
well as the princefs who had the rank and title of emprefs. 
Ope of the great mandarins, whom Pe-yen cpnfulted, anfwered, relating f 
that C/nng'ko, altho* without iflue, ought to enjoy, aft^ htitabUts. 
death, the honours of emprefs ; and that i( was an indecency 
to honour as empreHes thofe who, in reality, were no more 
than concubines. Another mandarin, enemy to him who fpokc 
in favour of Ching-ko^ cited the example of Tay-tfong, empe* 
ror of the Tang dynafty, wl^o, he faid, gave two of his ladies 
the title of emprefs. , The mandarin, who wanted Ching^ko 
only to have tablets, no-way embarafled with, the objeftion, 
infteadpf flaying to confider the paflage of hiftory cited by 
his adve^ary, ran for another, to oppole it, as high up as the 
emperor )fau \ afiirming, that the prince did not put the ta- 
blet of nis jnotl^er near th^t of Tuko his father, becaufe the 

^ Gaubil, hifl. Gentchis, p.'ajo, &feqq. 

cliefts are opened, and the hi- in them. It Js faid, that TV- /(^, 

ftory of the preceding is com- father of Tau, had four Wives ; 

piled from the memoirs foand biit 'tis difficult to prove that, 5h 

inclofed therein. Altho' the'caf- his tttne, thei^e were tablets in 

torn of havii^ a palace, with the palace t>f ancellors ; and 

halls, for honouring the anceftor$ that, in caie there were, none but 

ofpHoceg, is as anticnt as the the tablet of the firft wife, who 

mouarchy itfclf j yet it is not was emprefs, was placed near 

cafy to fix the time when the fe- his. The feries of fa£ls and 

veral ceremonies for that pur- limes before Tau is uncertain, 

pofc were fettled, much Icfs of Gauhil. and, in our opinion, 

the changes that have been made for many ages after. 


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44 Jctij^ Khan'i ^ucceprs fe! II. 

thirteenth, mothci* of fdu was not an erhprefs. E\fery-body applauded 
Towhan- this anJfWer : Pe^yeri rewarded the mandarin ; and thing'h 
temtir, ^r had her tablet (et up near that of her hiilband Hayjhan. 
^Shun-ti. jj^ J 22^ Satun^ brother of Ten-iermt^ died ; and &at death 
5tcaflohed the ruin of his illuftribus and powerful family^ 
Tangkijbiy a prince naturally fiery, arid apt to fpeak his mind. 
Anding ill his uhde^s places, of which he expefted no fmali 
(hare, riven to Pe-yen, who, by that njefuis, became the firll 
ford of the court, <f6mplained loudly of the injuftice done 
him ; ahd. On this o^cafion, cried up.thc fervices Whfcii his 
ailcefloi*s had done thfe empire, more than became him. At the 
fyttit time he ttn down Pe-yeh, laying, he was too ihconfidcr- 
ible k "perhti fo be rifed fo high \ Und, in concert with Tal" 
y^iiili, hi$ paternal uncl6, took mcd\ire8 for fctting on Ch^ 
^tont WJfahg'bo'femiry fon of the ret)el prince Suiki, thSA 
' Ih Tdrtary m the feign of tti-pi-tay, Tafyentali had pft(fli 
tefufed fo 'ol5ey the orders fcnt him to come to court, T*h6 
pldt A^as difcovcfed by a prince of (he blood ; dad Pe^yeh 
Wks ebfiiiliiffibricA fo'feizc the confpirators. Ih June Tang'- 
tifbi conc^cd ia troop biF foldiert to the caft erf" SAang^-tu, 
phefe the court then Was ; and, the tWrtieth of tile famfe 
itoonth, dafighed to attack th6 palace on all fides. "But Pe- 
yen prevehted hiJn, and'fcSzed both him and his Wother Tar- 
'gay, Who Were then in the palace. Tangkiftn waS kiUed ifn- 
medidtdy ; but Targay fled, arid, trembling, ran to the chkm- 
*bei- 6i the femprrfs his fitter. This Voungprincrfs was firight- 
^d to fee hei- brother Wounded, ahd, with t^afs, b<^iiig his 
life of her. The eihprefs, being inforined of What hUd paffed, 
"fought to itave her brother : but (he fbu^tlft Vam; fof 'pi^- 
ierifly the lords entdred her chamber With their Waked fWord^, 
"dud flew him in her prefence, 
Emprefe Wft£^ Ithey hatd ddne their WtSrk, f^-yen Wdtr affd tf- 
put to formed the emperor^: who, ipftead of feverely puniftiing them 
deaths for daring to ehtfeVthe- diainber'of the empre(s,with arms in 
their hands, conftnted that Pe-yen fliould even take, and put 
'her to death, furfuant to this horriii permiflion, that bloody 
minifter turned executioner, went direftly to the «mrtincnt 
of .that princeTs ; who» perceivu^ that he came to ieixe her, 
fet up a loud cry, and fell on her knees before the emporor, 
intreating him to (pare her Mfe. The hard-hearted hiiiibaiid, 
after reproaching her with the revolt trf her linck tiid tWo 
'biWthers, 'tdd her he could not favfe her. Thefe crtrd Words 
Were her 'fentence 6f death. Pe-yth took her away, ltd hir 
"to a houfe in a neighbouring village, and there fleWher With 
Vis oWn hands. Tafyentali defended hunfelf the belt he could^; 
-.arid, after feveraj'frultlers efforts with the lords of Ms canTpV 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

uJLea^ andkilt^f the prince flew hunfeif. Towhan^ 

NbTWjTHSTA,NDiNG the rcprefentatioQS of the literati, a^cmftr, or 
great Mungl lo^d caufed the examination of thdr ord^r to be Sljun-ti, 
fappr^fled. The Chtnefe$, who every-wherc tcftified their dif- *«^^~H 
content ^t this proceeding, fct themfelves to inquire into di^//^^*Jj^* 
Kfe of that Ta^ar ; gnd fcon fonnd/aults enough in his ^^"^^ j^jrj^t^ 
dtift, to render him fufpefted by Pe-yen^ who thereupon fent^^ 
^ i^to baniOyjoiQiit, ^^^ ^^ 4^^ not loi)g after. 

Ijj 1337, troubles a^ofe in theprovihces of ^ang^ton, H(h A. D. 
nan^ Se-chwen^ and the province of Keko^nor, where the people i U7* 
appeared difcpntented with Towhan'temir^ and cenfured his^^'f*^^' 
conduft. The Cfnnefcs were forbidden to inftruft the Mungls,^^/^* 
and to I^eep j^rms. Mean time, the emperor dcplared a princef^ 
<rf Hor\g^kUa cmprefs. to May9 a pomet appeared, which wa$ 
fifible for fixty-three d^ys, ^d had its coude bom the Pkiadej^ 
to the head of Scorpio (F). 

My^CHJRTAT^ youBgeft brother of Pe-yen, had the goo4 
qnalines of that mimller, without his faults : he was a good 
genci^l ; and eftcemed by the troops. The emperor would 
have given him the title of wang, or regulo, but he conftantlju 
declined it. As one of Pe-ym's bad qualities was cruelty, and 
a bloody difpofition, he propofed to the emperor to have all 
thpfe put to death, wbofe Se-ing (G) was Chang, f^ang, lyrw, 
la^ and Chau, The occafion of this barbarous demand is nojc 
mcationed ; but it was rejefted, and drew on Pe-yen an in- 
^nite number of enemies ^. 

TO TO, fon of Machartay, was one of the officers of the A. 1>. 
guards ; and, by his prudent behaviour, foon became eftcemed ^34®* 
by the emperor, as well as the great men at court, with whofe, J^^^ *''" 
intrigues he was thoroughly acquamted. He knew x}^2XTowhan'^^ " '* 
tem^r was grown fufpicious of his uncle Pe-yen, ever fmce 
Nov,ember 1339; wh^i that lord, under a falfe pretence, had 
put to death Che-che-H, great graadfon of Mengko, by Tuhng^ 
tajbe, his fourth fon. Pe-yen was hated by all the world; 
and had an intoleEajbl^ pride : for feme time he weijt abroad 
with the ftate erf* a great king ; and Toto was one day witnefe of 
his pompous train, at a time when that of the emperor was very 
moderate. The Mungl monarch himfelf obferved it, and wa^ 
pffended. More than this, he believed that Pe-yen had ill d?-- 

^ Gaubil, p. 272, & feqq. 

(F) Thi* Chimfe maiwier of ' (G) We thint this pa/&ge 

exprcffing the courfe of the co- needs explanation, as much at 

mec,<ie&i;ves explanauo^* ^m^ ^^^ ^s that relating to tl^e co- 

^'^* , UW?- ^ * 


Digitized byCjQOQlC 

•4* ]cnj^hKhkn*sSuccejfors' B/H. 

7hirteenthS\gn% in his head (H) ; and 7b/o knew for certain, thar7<?- 
Towhan-^ ujhari'temAr intended to deftroy him. Toto informed his father 
temfir, or Machartay of what had pafled; and confulted U-chi'Vang^ a 
.Shun-ti. chint^e litcrato, inwhom he had much confidence, as having 
^■'*"^^'**'^ been his governor. U-ch^vang cited the paflages, which teach. 
That a man mujl facrijice his family tojufiice ; arid that a great 
mandarin ought to have no other ohjeB in vi&w^ than fidelity to 
the empire. 
feixi,hit TOTO^ Who was a lord of parts, having found a favourable 
uncle, opportunity to fpeak to the emperor, fell on his knees, and 
{aid. That he renounced his family to ferve his maje/ly, To" 
ivhan-temur, who believed there'was diflimulation in his words, 
pretended not to underftand his meaning. Moft of the lords 
who were 4bout the emperor were creatures of Pe-yen. Shi- 
kyay and AlH were almoft the only two With whom he durft 
intrufl a fecret. Thefe he ordered to found the fidelity of 
Toto, whofe motions they narrowly * infpefted ; and then ac- 
quainted his majefty, that they would anfwer for his integrity. 
Hereupon Towhan-temur fent for Totb, and fhed tears while he 
fpoke to him of his uncle's behaviour. After this Toto and Shi- 
kyay^ having become intimate friends, refolved to feize Pe-yen; 
which they did, with the emperor's approbation, in the follow- 
ing manner. 
i^c-ycn'/ TOTO placed new guards in all the pofts, arid augmented 
death. the number of them ; ordering them to give him an exaft ac- 
count of all Who either entered or went out. Pe-yen was fur- 
. prized to fee the guard reinforced, without having had notice 
of ir, as great general ; and, on that occafion, chid his* nephew : 
who anfwered, boldly, " That too good a guard could not 
^ "be kept in the palace where was the emperor.** On thefe 
words, Pe-yen thought fit to ftrengthen his own guard ; and 
concluded, that he could not depend on Toto, After this, Pe* 
yen acquainted the guards, that he wanted to fpeak to his ma- 
jefty : they afked what his bufinefs was ; and underftanding 
that it was to invite him to a hunting, Toto difluaded the em- 
peror ; fo that Pe-yen repeated his inftances in vain. Towhan^ 
temUr ordered Yentye-kotfe to encamp without the city : at the 
fame time, Pe-yen heard, with aftonifhment, that Toto and 
Shi-kyay had caufed the city gates to be (hut, and kept the 
keys, after porting troops, devoted to them, in all the quarters 
of Tati^. At night thofe two lords advifed the emperor to 
change his apartment ; and made prince Tentye-kotfe to return 
into the city. They Ordered Pe-yen to be watched ; and, in Fe- 

(H) Pe-yen was accufcd of a peror or killing him, and fetting 
dcugn either of feizing the em« another on the tlirone. GaubiL 


Digitized by VjOOQI(l 

C\ rj. In Tsirtary and China. ', 47 

hrmry^ on the day named IS-iay, all the tides and pUxxs^THrtutttL 
which that mimfter had at court, were taken £rom hun ; andTowhan- 
he was ordered to fet out for Ho-nan^ there to exerdie the*«"^» f 
office of a mandarin. He dcfigned, brfore he went, to falute S^^-*>* 
the emperor, which wa^'refufed him; and, when he was on ^ 
the road, a iecond order overtook him, to let him know, thai 
he was banifhed. After this, he continued his journey : but 
fell iick near Nau'chang-fA^ capital of Kytmg-Ji, where he dled^ 
hated by all the great men, as well as the pebple (I). 

Upon this chagge, 75?/^, and his father Machartay^ ^^'^jiffmrs ai 
new employments ; but the latter ftill refufed the tide of vang, court. 
and even diat of targhan, or tarkan, which implies beuig ex- . 
cmpt from impofts and farvice. However, the change ot mi- 
zuffary went no farther : public notice was given the mandarins, 
that they had nothing to fear, and would be continued in their 
employments. In Jtme, Towhan'tem^rhdngztSiang'ti, caufed 
a manifefto to be publiihed through the empire : wherein he 
fet foi:th all which the emperor T4tem£r and the emprefs Ptau" 
Jbeli had done agdnft Hojbila and the emprefs Pap^Jba t he 
tomf^ned bitterly, for that they had exiled him, without 
havii^ committed any ofience ; and endeavoured to makie him 
pafr for the fon of another perfon than Hojbila. After this, 
he deprived Pi/Ztf/J^fi of the tide of emprefs grandmother, and 
bamfliedhcr; which treatment fhe did not long furvive. Prince 
Tentye-kotfe was ordered to depart for Korea : he fet out ac- 
cordingly 5 but was killed on the way (K). The tablet oi 7Vi- 
tenUur was taken out of the temple of anceftors ; many of the 
mandarins, put m by him, were difcharged ; and feveral of 
the lords punifhed; who had ferved him. In Auguji^ Ttnvhari' ^ 
tem&r returned to Tat4\ and, in December , re-eftabliftied the^^^^^^* 
examination of the literati ^. Jlored. " 

In 1342, the famine was fo great, that the people ate hu- A. D. 
man fldh (L)* Two or three leagues to the north of the 134J. . 

•* Gavbil, p. 276, & fcqq, 

(T) When he came to Ching^ (K). Ten-tye-ku't/ehAd been, at 

^i'fit he afkcd feme old men, firft declared prince inheritor by 

who prefcnted him wine, if they Toiufhan-temur. The death of that 

had heard the afBiir of a fon prince is the only thing which 

who would have killed his fa- the hidory reproaches the em- 

ther ? allading to what Toto )iad peror with,in what he did ^gainfl 

done : one of them anfwered, Tutajheli and Tutemur; Gduhil. 
They had not { bat that they (L) The hiilory mentions, for 

heard there were fubje^s who the reafon before recited^eclipfet 

woald have killed their fov^- of the fun, which happened in 

reign. GauiU. . Auguft and O^obir. GaubiL 

bridge t 

Digitized by VjVjOQIC 

4^ ^ J^nskfiff^W^§imffm .]Mt 

Mr9]K4.. Jfi JT^fiif^fJ^ tl¥^ year, r^^j, fon 9^ #yfea|f, 
and P^, as l^(^§;^^ -a^tl^^sig^f A}f fif^ ^ap\<ffa)fej tgf 

^S4^ iimj^9f^v^ ^^ W(Jp the ^gfr^ t^ ygax;, ^9!tt.l|b» 

^W«J:^to»iSs;. iMMl tfe? bppff ^ ^ $)FA ^ F8P? wl*^?! 

A. D. Mf/iPfli^V, ^ $h^ tl^gk^^ of % feijjn, C(^n|aanded tji^ 

Hi/lories ffe.JJs8Wi(e, ^ijf^ jijie: ^ftnji^9i?i ojf t^ *Si)«g dyqafty, gave ^ 
Jimjhed. ijriaiQtfete CPlRgftf jfee Wftwry pf the ^^^^y ; but, x}Oftwitl?ftan^- 

iog fte ,wters ,oMi»§ m^^* ^ W ,fefiCf4Pf §^ dmfe hjftow? 

ijWrQ R9t finiftiert. JBeroRpof^ ki j ^43, ?V«>^ ioft 9t U(i^jirty[ ; 

Urtfi.y aod Q^ef ftJWe dpftqr$ ; w^c agpijifc^ for ih|s gr^^ 
work ; vl^ich \|E4s, ^t leogth, cofiipl^^i W^der T'o-wia^^t^^^, 

"what is well executed in them, is ow]^gi;^tbe labour cKt^^f^ 
jfccwu/' ofytms-;^^* Ip feW% Wrk, befuie? tijc annals of th« cpip^prs 
thwf. IsdPQgiQg tJ> tte tk^ dy^^ftj^t jChere.^^efeparate rfiaptf^St 
which contain the feveral kalendars, and auronomical methods, 
with the aftronomipal qj^fervations ^f tj^f ni^thematical tribu- 
nal. There is likewife an ample catalogue of the great men of 
the Fflfpeftwe dyii«i3to, wth ajconcjfe ^cciwn*; of what tljey 
Ji^ave done ; and it is there yoti t^eet with the :WQd&$ whicb tfaft 
learned of the time have compo^. The. authors ha\?e thcie 
inferted what they knew rf fgreigii geography ; and there you 
f nd defcriptipn? of the countries fiibjeft 6r tributary to die 
ptinees, w;hpfe hlftory is fet forth. The hiftoiy of die Song 

(M) A Cew leagues to the weft ^Kf^/^JA to be unifefftDod* (?««• 

(N) By which, without donbt» (0) 'XiM&^sA: Chang<ha^ la 

Hv-qtiang, GauHi* 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

G, ig. Tn Tattary HM Chinz. 49 

hath, befi(tes thofe accompaniments, a kind of Chinefe h\kiio^7lnrtientk* 
thcque, where the books cdmpofed in China^ on aU forts of Towhon- 
fubjcftsj are divided into clkffes (P). 'Ti^ from thefe three hi- 1«»^ f 
ftories, that the Nyen-i-tfe and Tfu-pyen^ inferted in the Tbng- ^^^^^*^ 
hyen-kang-mA^ have taken the greater part of what they relate^ «-v""*^ 
lonceming the dynafties of the Lyau^ jfSn, and Song. 
' In Odlober this year, the emperor Tcrwhan-temir went to ^Ancefttrs 
palace of anceftors, to honour the princes of his family : bvitbmmnd. 
when he was before the tablfet of Ning-t/bng (or IHn-chipan)^ 
his youngeft brother, he made a difficulty to kneel. Here** 
upon the great Chinefe mandarins allied the example of tl^ 
two brothers Hi and Min ( QJ, counts of the country of Irf, 
in Shan-tmg\ faying, that Hi^ though the elder, did not 
fcruplc to perform the ceremony to Min^ who reigned beford 
him. To fupport this pailage of hiftory, another mandariii 
reafoned'thus ; Tour majejiy was no more than afuijeSi^ whtri 
your brother was emperor i noWf afubjeSl ought to kneel before 
Usfovereign. Tvwhan-teml^r^ objeftion being thus removed, 
he fell on his knees, and honoured his brother Ning-tfong^ by 
nine beats with the head. 

In May 1344, Toto was honoured ^th the title of r^[ulo$Toto>i««& 
and AIM, the fourth defcendant from Po-eul-chA, or Porji^ntang. 
one of Jenghtz Khdn's four intrepids, propofed by him to fill 
his place of minifter. In the fame month next year, died A. D. 
Nau^nau, fon of P4'h4-chi9 of Kangli (often mentioDfid be- «34S« 
fcre), much r^etied by the emperor ; who highly efteemed 
him, and was not offended at his frequent admonitions to love 
virtue, and govern by himfelf. He pafled for a man of great 
virtue, and was withal one of the moft learned doftors of the 
empire. He had likewife a younger brother, named Whey^-^ 
whey, or the Mohammedan, who was a perfon of great abi^ 

In 1346, Perku-piwha, fon of the mlnifter A^-tay, GslnHisfktiet 
by order of the emperor Hayfhan, having lodged an zctafsL^ban^ed. 
don againft the great general Machartay ; Towhan-temAr ba- 
nifhed that officer to Si-ningy a city o( Shen-fi (at the end of 
the great wall) : and Toto^ having in vain endeavoured to Ward 
off die blow, followed his father. The general being, by a 
(bcond order, exiled to Sa-fe^ in the weft, a lord of the coun- 
try of Tirfdn^ a great mandarin, exclaimed againft thofe who 
thus maltreated a great lord of merit, inncH:ent of the crime 

(P) The author forbears men- ( Q^) Two of the tw.elve 

toning an infinite number of princes of Z«, whofe annals 

other articles treated of in thofe Kwfufius has Written, intituled, 

diree hiftones; becaufe he de- Qhun-tfyew. Gaubil* 
figns tafpeak of them ehe»rhtre^ 

Mo0- HwT- Vol. V, D laid 

Digitized by 


5f> Jenghi2 Khin'i Suc^effirs B. IL 

fkirtifnii^.bid tcf his charge : hereupon Machart^^ was ordered to live at 
iTowhan- Kan-chew^ in Shen-Jiy where he foon ^ter died. But the 
tcmiir, or world did him juftice : every body was perfuaded of PerM* 
SkoB-ti. ^-tt/Aa's malice, MacAar/ixy's virtue, and the emperor's weak* 
•'^^/^ ^nefs«. 
A. D. In 1348, Kya-lif native rf Kau-ping, in Shan-Ji, who kne^ 
1^8. fixnethii^^ of geometry and kvellii^ was fent to examine the- 
Whanp- courfe of the Whang-ho^ and its antient bed, in Pe-ffjC'U. He 
^prye^. made a map of it, accompanied with a di(a>ttrfe ; wherdn he 
propofed railing banks along that river, and turning it into a 
new channel. Kya^A was fupported by (bme great lords ; and 
had infpeAion over the tribunals which were eredled f<»r carry-' 
mg on of public works. We fhaU fee hereafter what were the 
, coc^equences of this projeft. In Augufif Tu'chi, one of the 
Bioft renowned doftors of the empire, died, at Li-ckwen, ia 
the diftrid of FA-chew^ in Kyang-fi, his native Goontry : he 
bad a tronfiderable hand in the work, intituled^ lOngrcAi'ta^ 
tytn. In 1333, Md'tfi^hang^ a great mandarin, ori^oally of 
5ie weft of J(ia^ gave out, that Yu-chl was the parfon who 
had written an ediA of Titemilr ; wher^ that prince related 
what he bad faid touchif^ the birth of Towban-t^n^r. Tw^hi^ 
ttpon this afperfion of his enemy, retired, of his own accord ^ 
and although the emperor invited him toreturn» he sdways do- 
elined it. 
Thi JttfjBf- In November this year, a great lord» following the example 
fters cor- q£ thofe who, in all timesy have hazstfded both tbdr eftates 
ruff. and lives, to tell the emperors their faults, laid befcire 7i- 
^haH'temir the evils wWch the empire fufiercd : he com- 
plained, that the mifdemeanors of the great men were not pu- 
nlihed ; and affirmed, that fuch u^^l^ would ruin the em* 
pire : he reminded him of the crimes of Pe-yen the Merkit^ 
and faid, it was a fcandal to fee ftill at court bis brothers, fons^ 
ahdgrandfons. Another mandarin prayed the emperor, to de- 
prive his wlie, the princefs Air, who came from Korea^ of the 
honour and title of emp^, which he had given her, although 
the emprefs, princefe of Hongkila^ was ftill Irving (R) ; allegbg, 
io fupport of what he demanded,, a writii^ of Hi^^lay^ la 
which he took aa oath, never to contraft affinity with the Ko^ 
. TMins. The emperor was paffionately fond of the princefs Ajf, 
who Was^motlier of the prince whom he deftgned for his heir ;. 

• GatVbil, p. 278, & feq<i, 

(R) 7o^han'tem^ liad three paid no regard to the order of 
i^ives, who, at the fame time, ^utemur^ not to give chat title to 
bore the tide of emprefs i and more than one wife. Gaubil, 


Digitized by 


C. 1$. Im Tm^tf dmt Oik». 51 

whereas the chUdreri which he had by the priaceTs of Hong^fhirteenttf^ 
kik were all dead. In effbft, he rejefted the petitions of both Towhan- 
mandarins. tcm^r, or 

iH 1349, Tay-ping, a lord of great wifdom, moderation, ^^°1^'' 
and int^ity, was ^t the head of affairs ; and, as he could not jD,^\i[ 
bear to tee innocence opprefled, he, in fpite of the difficulties ^^^^^ 
ilfhich lay in the way, demanded, and obtained, the recall of 
Trto. Thk prince, on his return, was reflored to his place of 
minifler ; and, not knowing that he owed his good fortune to 
Tay-ping^ who made no mention to him of the fervice he had 
. done him, joined with that lofd's enemies in an accufatioil 
againft him. Tay-ping "wzs hereupon turned out of place) 
and his accufers were going to pufli their malice farther^ 
when Toto^s mother threatened to renounce him, if he did not 
defift ; tellii^ him, that Tay-ping was not culpable, and that 
he had dofie him no injury. 7o/9, who lored his mother ten** 
derk, and did not care to gtre her any uneafinefs, ceafed to 
protecute that lord. Some time after this, Toto came to know the 
ebligadons which he had to Tay^pingf aad was extremely forry 
that he had done fo much injury to his benefactor. A friend o^ 
Toy 'ping having advifed him to kill himfelf ; he anfwered, / 
bave committed no fault : for the to kHl myfelf 'would be to c^rt- 
fefs myfe^gtdlty ; let us leave the matter to heaven (S). Here* 
upoo he retired, with his family, to Si-gar. fi^ mShen-Ji. 

Towhan*temAr bdng defirous that his u>n ihould learn the 7"^ pffnce 
Chinefe charaders and literature. Toto^ who Was well (killed in^**'^^ 
both, was {Htched on to cfireft the education of the young 
prince; and U-hau'wen was appdnted his pr^eptor. Som^ 
lamas werd, at the fame dme, chofen, to inftruA tte prince in 
the do^ine and books of Fo. Li-hau-wen took much painj 
with his pupa : he made an i(bridgment of the Chinefe hiilory 
to his own time, and of the claffic books ; with reflections on 
the caiifes of the ruin of dynafties, and other remarks, in the 
Chinefe tafte, proper to form a prince for government. But hi* 
ichoiar had no indination for the fciences ; and Was much taken 
with the worfhip of Fo (T). He was an enemy to pains ; . and to Chlneft 
the ftudy of the Chinefe bo^ required a great deal oi appllca-/ifiir»i»^* 
don. All that his preceptor uttered, appeared to him obicurei 

(S] He fpeaks here of the of a different eharaCler from Ay* 

emperor, whom the Chinefe call yetujhilitata, the prince inhemtof 

^^Sonofhean^en. They believe mentioned hereafter, page 58 1 

. that his power comes from hea- but, for want of the name of 

veil; and that his orders ought the prmce mentioned here, we 

to be obeyed like thofe of hea- cannot pretend to determine th« 

yen. Gauhil, point. 

iT ) This prince feems to be , 

Da ^uU 

• Digitized by VjOOQI^ 

52 Jcnghiz KhanV Suectffhrs- R IT. 

thirteenth, full of empty words, and very unprofitable One day he faSd, 
Towhan- in Li-hau-wen's prdence^ " That he did not yet underftand 
temur, or « any thing which he had explained to him ; whereas, in one 
Shun^u. a night's time, he had comprehended the whole doftrine of 
\^^^^T~^ «« Fo." Thefe words fet all the literati and Cbine/e doCtors 
againft the prince, of whom th^ ever had but a contemptiMa 
opinion j judging him not fit to govem,their country : becaufcr 
he either would not, or could not, underftand the books, which, 
according to them, are fo proper to teach the art of governing 
well^ ,, 
Jrhitrary AMJ'2iTiA Sive-fwe^ two brothers, natives of the country 
fr9ceeding*oi Kangli, were at this time very powerful at court; and, 
though remarkable for their diforderly courfes, had free accefs 
to the palace of the emprefs JG, which they were continually 
going to. The cenfors of the empire, and the Chinefe grandees, 
exclaimed againft fuch liberties ; and two of them made their 
complaints of it to* the emperor. Amay upon this, by artful 
ftories, ftirred up the refentment of the emprefs ; who com- 
plained to Towhan'temiry requiring, that he would punifti the 
two mandarins, as calumniators, who endeavoured to ft^n her 
reputation. The emperor, enraged at what he had heard, ba- 
nifhed the mandarins, one of whom died in the place of his- 
exilow This tonduft appeared tyrannical to the ChinefeSj fince 
the mandarins had done no more than their duty. j4may who^ 
befides many other bad qualities, was exceffively lewd, appeared 
to them to be the perfon who contributed moft to corrupt the 
emperor, whom they faw devoted to the moft enormous de- 
baucheries, and iptirely to negleft affairs of government ; placing 
all his confidence in men of diilblute morals^ and without either 
honour or capacity. 
7he In 1351, the refolutions taken "mth regard to the new 

Whang- courfe propofed to be given the Whang-ho (U), ox yellow river^ 
Yiofrojea confiderably augmented the troubles and difcontent. Kya-Uiy 
fupported by TotOy as hath beai already mentioned, had per- 
fuaded the emperor to make that river pafs, as formerly, through 
the country of Tay-ming-ft^y in Perche^liy and fall into the fear 
of Tyen-tfin-wey. Mean time Cheng'tfuny prefident of the tri- 
bunal of -public works, with the mathematicians of Kay-fong- 
fity in Ho-nan, went to Tay-ming-ft^y and other places in Pe* 
che4iy to examine the ground ; and, after taking, the level of 

^ Gavbil, p. 281, & feqq. 

(0) On this occafion, our au- Whang-hoy ox yellow river, has 
thor Gaubil gives an account, Aiffered in its courfe, from the 
from the Chit.efe authors, of earlieil times, 
fhe feveral changes which the 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C X5- /» TarUiy and China^ 53 

ky affinned, that to dear the old channel was impra^cable ; Tbirteentb. 

that it would require too grc^t an e](pence ; and that Shan- Towhaa- 

tong would te ruined. All forts of means were tried to prc-^^™^> ^ 

vail with the prefid^t to change his opinion ; but he an- ^han-ti. 

fwered, ^t be w»uld rather die than fpeak contrary to his ^ '^^7^ 

judgm^t in a B>atter of fo much importance to the Public, ^^'^y*' 

Cheng-tfuH was hereupon difinifled, and his place given to '^^ ^^' 

Kya-I&^ whofe advice was followed ; and to the titles of his 

patron s Toto^ was added that of targhan b. 

. The works, which were made for turning the Whang-ho^ 

ruined an infinite number of people^ and caused new taxes to 

be impoied ; while the peafants could not bear to lee their 

lands taken away, and themfelves tranfplaoted elfewhere. The 

difcontent becoming general, difierent chiefs of parties in every 

province ftirred up the people ; fo that the mandarins were 

^eady embarrafled. 

. HAN'S HA N-TONC, born m the diftriftof C^V/m^-Han- 

fi ^\xiPe-'{:bc'li\ who had been banifhed, for his mifdeeds,fl>an-tong ^ 

into Shan-tQng ; taking advantage of the troubled ftate of ^^ 

things, pi^evailed on great numba^ of people to rebel, in Sharf- 

tong^ Ho-nan^ and Kyang-nan. They made him pafs for a 

defcendant of Whey-tfong^ eighth emperor of the ^o^ ; and 

took an oath to obey lum, iacrificing an horfe, and a black 

ox. Thoie concerned in this aflbciation were diltinguiftied by 

a red cap. The mandarins found means to feize Han-Jhan^ 

tong; but his w^ and children efcaped. Lyew-fA-tong alfo,Lyew-fa- 

an intrepid man, who fuppprted Han-Jb^n-tong^ dn May^ ap-^®'*8''*^A 

peared in the ftdd, near Fong^yang-fif in Kyang-nan. He 

was prefently joined by more than 100,000 men, and fortified 

himfelf in the diftrifts oi Nan-yang-fA and Ju*ning-fll, in Ho- 

rum. At the fame jitnQure, a. pirate, named Fang-que-cben^ 

fcoared the coafts of Cheeky ang and Kyang-nariy with a great 

tet, entered the rivers, plundered the towns and villages, and 

mined trad^. One of his defigns was, to hinder the tranf- 

portation of com, rice, and merchandizes, to the court. The 

armies £uit firft agamft Fang-que-chen were deftroyed, and their 

generals taken prifoners* After tlus, tlie pirate making a (ham 

accommodation, the great mandarins concealed his revolt t 

they even caufed tides of honour, and employments, to be 

^en to him and his brothers. Mean time, the rebel kept th^ 

ports continually blocked up ; and did, with impunity, whatf 

ever he pleafed, for want of hpneft captains and foldiers to op<» 


f Gavbiw .p« Z^\* ^ fcqq« ^ Se^ before* 

P 3 Th8 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

54 Jenghiz Khan'^ Succeprs B. II. 

fhitteenth. The cmpCTOT having, on his return from Ta-ti^ m Augu/l, 
Towhan- oxiiatiTefyen-tem&ry brother of TotOy to aflfembie the troops, 
temftr, «r and march againft Lyew-fA-tongy that general retook feveral 
Shan-ti. places in Ho^-nan^ and put to death fome rcbek/j but, in rea- 
^^^~^|ity, Lyrw'ftt-tong's party grew in ftrength. In OEkher TfH' 
chew- cbew'whey took arms in BA^uang^ and caufed himfelf to be 
vhey proclaimed emperor at JG-JM-iy in the diftrift of Hm^-chew* 
fi. He gave a napie to the dynafty which he propofed .to 
found : and the year 1351 is fet down, in the hiftory, for th«j 
firft of his reign. In November ^ comet appeared, whofe tail 
pointed towards the weft : on which occafion it was indnflri- 
oufly reported throughout the empire, that heaven, by feveral 
vifible marks, n^ade known, that it would take the empire from 
Tc^han-temfir ; and the hiftcM-y relates the fuperftitious reflec- 
tions which were made upon the appearance of this comet. 
froelaimd ^^ 135Z Tfit-chew-whey took Han-yang and Fi-chang 'm 
0mperor, JJA-quatig ; and, after having feized other pofts of import** 
A. D. ance, caufed a fleet to be fitted out, and undertook the fieg^ 
135?' of Kyew'kyang'ftiy on the Grand Kyang. WhetW through 
frcachery, cowardice, or difguft with Tcmhan-temir^s fervice, 
a great number of Tatar mandarins in Hi-quang and Kyang^ 
fi fled '^t the approach of the Chmefes ; and PohtenAry gene- 
ral of a great body of troops which encamped along the Kyang^ 
abandoned his poft, with his Munglsy who difperfed merely for 
fipar of Xfii'chew'wbey : thefe things pafled in the firft months 
of the year. On this occafion Li-fiy a Chinefe grandee of Fong^ 
yang-fi in Kyang-imfiiy fet the Mungls a fine example of fide-? 
lity to theirfovereign : he fcnt couriers to all the neighbouring 
Tillages, to cut ofF the retreat of Polotemur's foj^cies, and oblige 
them to do their duty. Yejyen-temiry a Tatar officer, feconded 
iiyjj \ and, having joined their troops, defeated a detachment of 
*t'/i'slfew^hey*s army, confifting of 20,000 men. After this, 
jj'fi prdered a great number of trees to be cut doxvn, and tq 
be thrown, tied together, into the Kyang, to hinder the paflage 
ff the rebel fleet : which, coming down the river foo.n after in 
fuU fail, met. with this unexpefted bbftacle ; fo that they could 
neither approach Kyew-iyang-ffiy nor efcape the fiery arrows, 
which, Ihot by Li-ft's trpops, burnt feveral barks K 
Glorious While X^/2 was fozealoufly employed to ferve Towhany 
hhan;i' ternary the general T^kyenptnvha fled out of the cky by the 
9ur* nojrth gate. Mpft of the Tatar officers foHpwcd his per^ciout 

example ; and the army- of 7f^chev>-whey wer^ prepanog to 
enter Kyew-kyang-fA. Upon this, Li-fAy taking w^hat troops 
(e^5L\n^ fajthful, and with pne of his nephews, vfho was. aU 

\ pAUBiL^ybi fup. p; 1^85, ^ C^qq, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C tj. ' h Taitary 4md ChimI 55 

ways near him, mounted the ramparts, to prevent any imjitriitShhttentb. 
The enemy firft burnt the weft gate ; th^m came to attack thel'ow^n- 
eaftcm; and, fpte of all Li^'s efibi^, entered the cinr.^^* f^ 
That brave man ftill defended himfelf in the fhx»ts on horfc- ^ ^:^ ' 
back; but, wanting forces, he called out aloud. Kill me, but^^^^ 
/pare the inhabitants : at theie words he and his nephew were 
ctit to jneces. The citizens lamented his death ; and Towban^ 
tendr conferred great titles <^ honour on him. U-fA was 
one of the principal mandarins oi Kyew^kyang-fb^ and th^ 
annals of that city have ranked him among the moft iUuftrious 
of its governors. 

T«is year there happened an extraordinary earthquake at^«*ff^«- 
Lmg'fi in Shen-ft^ which felt its (hocks for one hundred Azy^^^"^^^^** 
fucceiOSvely. Bones were alfo found nine or ten feet long, whofe 
antiquity could not be determined. At the beginning oS the 
year 900,000 fouls perilhed by&mineand ficknefs (W). The 
^nperor ordered likewife, that employments fliould be given, 
in the tribunals, to the Cbinefes in the provinces fbuth of the 
Kyang% who generally, till then, were preferred to places which 
only concerned commerce and Uterature. His majefty, about J^i^AjAr* 
the lame ^imc, heard with great concern of the death of ge-c^/j/W. 
neral Tay^puwha^ who waaflain by the troops d Fan^que'cben^ 
on the cc«ft of Che-kyang ; being led, by a relation of that 
pirate, into the fnare unawares : but, when he percdved that 
he was betrayed, he flew the traitor, with others whom he 
difhnfted ; and then, being furrouhd^ on all fides, was killed 
himfelf, after a brave refiftanoe. Mean time the army of the 
rebel LyewfA*tong difperfed that of Tefyen-temkr, brother oif 
T^to ; who abandoned the open country to the enemy, and 
(hamefully fled to Kay-fong-ft^ capital of Hi-nan* 

Thb emperor fent another general in his fbad ; and was 
content to £iy, ^t TefyeU'tenSr did not underftand the bufi* 
neis of war : b^t feveral great mandarins accuied him of hav- 
ing deftroyed an army, and, by his cowardice, difhonoured thd 
empire of tkeMnngls. Towhan-termiry infteadof making anTotoV 
example of fo great a mifdemeanor, intrufted the examination/x^i^iV^. 
of the rfair to Tofo, who behaved very ill on this occafion ; 
for he not only defended his brother, but even accufed and 
turned out feveral mandarins who had accufed Tefyen*temlir^ 
Among the lords of merit, and moft capable of terving th« 
(late, v^as Tor-chipan, defcended, in the fixth generation, fron^ 
the iUuftrious MoboH (or MuhAH)^ He had at firft \x^ minii» 

(W) In the dift?ria of Ta^ died of famine, i»7Ww,5oo,oo« 
mng-/H in Pe-^bi-fi^ only, ther^ ferfims. Gattiil, 

P 4 iter. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

SS Jcngblj^ KHnU $ueciffors B. H. 

Thirianti.RiTf and was very capable of re-eftablUhing affair^ : but he wis 

Towhan*. difgufted that nobody would attend tq his prudent advice ; and 

tmftr, ^^ would never be any-way poncem^d in the crimioal intrigues of 

> I^^ * thofe who governed the mind cSTowbanrtemin Tor^Upanvm 

^^"^- verfed in the Chinefe fciences : was learned in mathematics, and 

Tofchi- the art of war. But, as he was one of thofe who appeared 

pan ba- moft incenfed againft Tefyen-temir^ Toto caufed him to be ba- 

nijbed. niflied : foon after which he died at Whang-chnu-fii^ in HA^ 

Jt^ang, at the age of forty. This feverity towards one of the 

firft and moil illuArious lords of the empire did much injury 

to TotOf and infinite hurt to the emperor's af&irs. 

nr rehls The court was greatly alarmed at the news of the takii^ of 

wnjfed, Hang'chew'F^^ capital of Che-kyang, in July^ by the troops of 

• Tfu'chew'ivhey. Hereqpon Towh.anrtendr, fearing the lofs of 

^e fouthern provinces, fent a great tumy under the ccMnmand 

pf Kyau-wha and Tong-po-fyau, The army ha\ing croffed 

thf great Kyang, Kyau-vxha demanded the advice of the other 

general officers. Tong-po-fyau faid, that, as the rebels were 

infdlibly plunged in all fcMts of debaucheries in fo rich and 

delightnil a city, they could not be in a condition to reilfl ; 

from whence he concluded, that they ought to go and attack 

ffang'chew F4, After much debate, this advice was followed, 

and the city was aflaulted with great refolution. On the 

other hand, the rebek often {allied, and fought feven moil 

(Mr tw9 ^r-iJopdy battles : but, after a cruel (laughter of them, the city 

cmfioas. ^ji5 taken. This great check much weakened the party of 

Tfu'chew'whey^ who loft there excellent officers, and more 

than 40,000 men. In the enemy's army they found many ma- 

gidans, bonzas of the feA of Tau^ whon^ they put' to death, 

and burned their books of mag^c^ 

Jiefeat ihi In Jugufi Toto a(ked leave to go and befi^ Tfu-chew, a city 

Muogis J cf Xyang-nan^ poflefled by the troops of LyeW'f&-tong ; which 

was granted him : and, on this occafion, Mieulmahmo (X), pre* 

fident of the tribunal of war, made extravagant elogies upon 

that minift^. Toto attapked th^ city by the weft gate,: th€ 

^ Gavbi^, ubi (up; p. z88, & feq. 

(X) This is a Tingle word : divided any but fach a^ are On^ 
he was a foreigner. Gaulil.'^ nefe nam^s ; altho* all the reft 
This fecms to imply, tha? the mud confiH of two or more mo- 
names of perfons which our aa- nofyllables, as being writtea 
thor has given, for the general, commonly from the Chtnefe cba- 
confift of more words than one, rafters, and according to the 
^tho' joined together, as if but Chinefi pronunciation^ 
one. Howevecy we have fddoi^ •",..' 

. . bcfiegedt 

Digitized by VjOOQ It • 

C. f 3^ j}y T»t»ry and Omi ^7 

befi^^ made a great fally; but, bang repulfed, ^^ievtTUrtwttJk 
was taken and ruined. The minifter was hereupon rewarded, Towhan- 
and ordered to return to court unmediately. scmfir, vr 

General Jrjldn, who commanded the Mungls in Kyang^ft, Shun-tL 
})eii^ much beloved by the Myau'tfe (Y), on hearing of Tfu" ^ "^u~'^^ 
chev)'ivhey's revolt, inlifted 50,000 of thofe mountain peoplQ, 
and went with them to LA-chew^ a city of Kyang-nan. Aa 
^rmy of Myau-tfe in the heart of China was a very odious 
Ught ; fo that they were difmifled, upon the remonftrance of 
Tu-que, who had orders to command the troops in that pro- 
vince. This mandarin fortified Gan-'king on the Kyang ex- ' 
ceeding flrongly, and kept his grotmd in the midft of the re- 
bels : for at that time moft of the province Kyang-fi was in the 
hand^ erf" Tfu-chew-whey's party. On the other hand, the general 
Sing'ku having re-aflembled the troops, reduced Kyew-kyang 
and Hi-kew. He then marched to attack the rebels, who 
plundered.^ the places along the rivers; but, being fur* take their 
rounded, and wounded by an arrow, he was taken. Sing-kigtuerML 
had the reputation both of a good man and a hero. As (oon 
as the rebels knew his name, they fell on their knees, and fet 
viftuals before him : they treated him for feven days, in a hut, 
with all forts of refpeft ; and were greatly concerned that they 
could not cure his wound. The general, perceiving death to 
be near, made a fhift to raife himfelf up ; and, having made 
his reverence to the north, expired : this happened in Novem" 
beu Sing-ki was of an antient family of Ning-hya^ at the 
great wall m Shen-Ji ; and had done great fervices to the em^ 

TQTQ, who w^ under obligations to j4may being become Ama^M^fr 
• prime minifter, brought that lord into the management ofmimfter 5 
?iffairs, and got him appointed . one of the minifters of fkte. A. D. 
Jmay fypported by the emprefs Aj, by degrees made himfelf 1353* 
independent of Toto^ and intirely corrupted Towhan-tem£r. 
He brought into the palace feveraJ young debauches, and la- 
mas of Tibet ^ whofe hearts were corrupt, and minds poifoned 
with fuperftition : their heads were filled with notions of ma- 
gic and forcery, the confequence of which was revelling and 
lewdn^Si They perfuaded the emperor, that he fhould \^dehattches 
Dvenvhelmed with happinefs, if he would but praftife their //^^ court i 
abpnm^bl^ art, which is called by them Tenjher and Pimi{Z). 

(Y) A fort of wild and inde- (Z) The fignification of thefe 
pendent people, mentioned be- two words was not known to 
fore, who poiTefs the mountain- fliur authc^ GauiiL 
pus parts of feveral provinces 
ff G^/fftf to the fouth-w'eft. 



Digitized by 

5$ Jwghlz Kiiin'/ Succiffors B. If. 

fbhtttath.Tim anfoitanate prinoe^ infoifible to the crib of the ftaue, 
Towhaa- and ruin of his dynafty, thonght of nothing but to perfeft 
temftr, #rhiinfeif in the art which the lamas tavght Urn. It griered 
8hiM i-ti. aU the Ta/orx and fih»i^/» who had any zeal for die empire, to 
^■^^'fce that all forts of debaudieries were by him cominittcd in the 
palace, in coippany with jhma^ and his brother S'mc'fwf^ Tolo^ 
tfrnir, his brother-in law, and fefcrai other lords, beiides the 
lamas. AyyiwJbUitdta, fon (^ the emperor,, and eroprds Ajp, 
•eyer would give into the debauches of his father, and did aH 
in his power to dtire the lamas from the court ; but his at- 
tempts were fruitlefs. The hiftory obfimres, on this occafion^ 
that, had the bones of y^ntf been cut in a thouiand pieces, he 
would not have been fufficiendy puniflied, as havk^ been the 
firft catile of all the evil. 
^fianfs For fome time the pirates had taken every thing which came 
Toto, by fea ; fo that Ta-ti fufered much. To remedy this, Toto 
kol for a great number of hufbandmen from the fouth, on 
whom he beftowed utenfds, cattle, and a good deal of money. 
His view was, to have com fown in the environs of the cajn- 
tal, and thence be fupplied with provifions, which before came 
by fea ; but this expedient did not anfwer the purpc^e. And 
IKywtUi^fiellintogreaterconfufion than ever. Thatminifter 
quarrelled with Ama ; and this latter, to be revenged, fup> 
planted him. 
A. D. In Dicembtr 1354, Ama impeached Toto of having carried 

1 554; on the war very ill, and converted the revenues of the empire 
W9is tohisownufe. His brother r^/a-^^iwJr was at the fame time 
hamjbtd. accuW of being a dcbauche. At this junfture Ama was abfo» 
lute nufler of the emperor's will ; {o that, to defhpy a man, 
it was fuffident to aocufe him, without pronng the charge. 
They began by depriving Toio of his titles ; ato" which, h^ 
and his brother wore removed at a diflance from court. 
^bf empt' Mean while the emperor thought of nothing but entertain* 
r#rV effe- ments, parties of pleafure, and new ways of gratifying his 
«>^^^/ paffioQS. Sixteen young girls, called the fixteen celefHal fpi* 
nts, were appointed for the dance ; other perfoos were cond* 
Stt;dly employed in prayers and facrifices to Fo ; others to difi 
cover what was to come, byforcery; others to fing, and play 
on mufic : thefe were 4l die al&irs of importance which T6- 
whanttemAr troubled his head about. This prbce catifed a 
bark to be made 1 20 feet long, and twenty broad. It wa$ 
aowied by twenty^four men magnificently drefl^, and d^figned 
(Jither few carrying his majefhr sdong a great lake, from th^ 
palace of the north to that ot the fouth ; or elfe for going a 
pleafuring'Vlth him on the fame lake ; and, while it paShd 
^Ipng, one b^h^ld ^ dra^on| wbpf^ eyes, h^d, ^d gl^ws, were 


Digitized by 


C. 13; In Taitaiy mi Chmfi^. ' 59 

ja motiw. In the palace was a larg^ prefer on whlc& Wta zTJUrtmtti^ 
aicfae called that of tbe ihreefages. In the nikldle of the prefe Towhan- 
was the Bcprefenution of a girl holding a needle, to ih«w the^*"*^> /^ 
hours of the day and night, according to the CHwufe dlvifion^^*^*^- 
of time. When the needle was at the hour, , water Ifliied out. \'~^'1~~^ 
On each fide was die figure of an angel : one holding a htVL^J^^^y 
the other a copper bafon. When the time of night came, thofe^^^^^/ 
two fpirits beat the Chinefe watches, conformable to the hour 
marked by the needle ; ixAf at the fame time, feveral ftatues^ 
rqirefendng lions and eagles, were in motion on the fides. To 
the eafl and wefl of the prefs was ieen a reprefentation of the 
courfe of the fun and moon thro* the zodiac. Before the 
figure reprefenting the twelve figns flood fix antient iimnortals ; 
who, at noon and midni^t, marching two and two, pafled a 
bridge called the holy bridge, and, entering afterwards th6 
niche of the three fages, returned to their nrft pofl. They 
highly extolled the contriyance, as WeU of the bark, as the other 
maK:hines, the like of which they had never feen before ; and 
the emperor himfelf pafled for the inventor of them K 

At the beginning of the year 1355, a body of rebels, fioni Han-lin« 
ffo-nariy crofled the JVhang-ho ; and, in February, Lyew'fi^tong^^^ fro- 
caufed Han-lin-^ui, fon of the rebel Han-Jhan-tong, to ^claimdm 
prddaimed emperor. This new ufurper named miidfters and^* ^' 
generals : he gave to his dynafly the title of Song, and fixed '5SS* 
his court at Po-chew, a city in Ho'tian. The hiflory has mark« 
ed the years which this power continued. 

TOTO, upon his diifface, was firfl. appointed one of the 
mandarins of JVhay-ngan F4 in Kyang-nan, and afterwards of 
Etjina (A). But, this being reprefented as too flight a pu» 
niihment for his faults, his goods were confifcated, and He 
was banifhed to Tun-nan. Ama, not content with this, coUn- 
terfidted an order from the emperor, for killing him as foon a$Toto 
he arrived in that province. This 'order was fent to an o^cj^xjlain^ 
of the army, who had his family with him ; and, inflead of 
killing the baniftied minifler, treated him with honour an4 
£flinAion. But this benevolence did not continue long : fof 
the officer, having propofed one of his daughters^ in marriage 
OB Toio'% refufing the offer, thought it done in contempt \ and 
faufed him to be flain, in the torty-fecond year of nis a|;e. 
This unhappy great man was a Merkit by nation, and very 
((qoiiring p the Chinefe literature, as well as affairs of goverqix 

\ GAUBiL.ubifup. p. 293, & feq. 

(A) A city of ti^rtiny^ bqw in ruMisi, to the nerdi of Xsan* 
fhe*^', in Shen-fi. 

j( , ment: 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

6o JcngMz KhatiV Succeffkrs B. IL 

fUrteentb.maxt i t>Ut the love of glory, and his brother Tefyen'temAr^ 
Towbaii- made him commit many faults. His conduft, particularly 
^^>/''with rq^ard to Tor-^ckipan, had rendered him odious to the 
Shcn^fi.^ i>fi/«f / princes and grandees. 

ijiiT^-M-J' J.Q return to the civil wars. The general Tajhepart^f ar- 
riving, in OSlober^ at Huy-cbew in Ho-nan^ obtained a great 
viftory over Lyew-fi'tong. But altho' this rebel was defeated 
a feccmd time by another Tat at, yet he always retrieved his 
^ofles ; and, after being beaten, (till found himfelf in a con^ 
Vbeimbf dition to undertake new defigns. The emperor, havbg or-» 
rtr ^^-d^red a great council of war to be held in July^ to confidor 
nijbedi of means for fecurity of the provinces attacked by the rebels ; 
a great mandarin hud hold of the occaflon to admonifh him 
of hb faults : hefaid, *' that thofe meafures were unavailing, 
<< while his majefty continued to live in diforder, and without 
** minding the afOirs of government ; adding, that he ought 
** to b^n by looking into the ftate of the court, and of the 
♦* emi»re, with his own eyes. In the provinces, faid he, the 
^* officers and mandarins think of nothing but pleafure, mo- 
♦* nqr, *nd good cheer ; and, after the example of the prince, 
** appear infenfible at the lofs of cities and provinces." The 
hxt iff ^icourfe of the mandarin was commended : but Tviuban-temar 
^fMftp never thought of mending his conduA ; and left to others the 
care of reforming the mandarins. 


Tb^ Rife of Ch<^, or Hong-vfl, and Ruin of the Ywcn 


jti/e of IfT V^ ^Q 7^^^ ^ yc^ ^^^ ^ licad of a party named 
Ch6. -*" CM (A), fetting out from Ho-chew (B), pafled the Kyang^ 
and took Tay-ping : let us hear what the hiftory fays on this 
occafion. The Twen^ coming from the north of Sha-mo (C), 
made themfelves mafters of China : the love of pleafure caufed 
them to degenerate ; and on all fides they iaw revolts. Amoi^ 
the. troops, there was no fubordination : the years were bad, 
and the people could not live , It was in the year of the 
Black Dragon (D) that Tay-tfu raifed troops in the city of 

(A) This is the famous C^*- Chinefis i and, by the Mungls^ 
nift who afterwards aiTumed the Kobi, or Gobi, whkh fignifies » 
name of Hongim, and founded defart. 

the dynafty of the Ming, or Tay- ( D) Which is the twenty-ninth 

'fnif^ ; to whom the Chinefes give of the Chine/e fexagenary cycle, 

the tide ofTay-tJu, and fifth of the Mogul cycle of 

(B) A city of Kyang-nan. twelve years, anfweiin^ exa^y 
<C) The great '^^Mi^ Dofari to that of Chrift 135^* ^^* 

called Wtf-wff, or ^^«-«w, by the biL 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C I g: In Tartary Md duna; 6t 

Jfau (£) : his intention tW», to gm peace ta the tirorld, and v^Thiritinth: 
lief to the people. With this view, he aflbdated to hiinielf men Towbaa* 
of virtue and courage : at the head of whom heTednoed T'lt-temftr, or 
chew, a city of Ky angina ; and, the next year, took Ho^hew^ ^^^^ ^ 
where he ^ve evident marks of his love for the people, hisi^'^Y^ 
greatnefs of foul, and his knowl^ in the art of goveramcnt, ^^^' 
He was quite at a lols how to pa(s the Great Kyang, fbrwant 
of bttrks, when an unexpected fucoour of iO|Ooo men, and 
looo veflels, came to his affiAanoe. On board of thefe Cb^ 
embarked, with his beft officers (F) ; and, pafling eaftward, 
they reduced Nyew-chi^ki and Tay^ping (as before-mendoned). 

AM J, whO| fince the balniihment of Toto^ was prime mini* AmaV 
Iter, in 1356 became ftruck with the melancholy ftate to which/^^^ ^fi^j 
the emtHre was reduced ; and afhamed to fee that he himfelf ^^^* 
had been the principal caufe of it, by what he had. done to ?* 
debauch the emperor's mind, and divert him from affiurs of' ^^ * 
government. He was informed of the fevere refleCHona which 
were made, in all places, on his conduft ; and (aw that he was 
aUiorred by all the honeft men in the empire. Night and day ' 
thefe thoii^ts troubled his mind ; and he thought ferioudy , 
how to remove the evils which he had brought in. He judged 
that the beft way would be, to oblige Towhm'temAr to refign 
the throne to the prince appomted heir ; 6y whom, and the 
emprefs Ki his mother, he was fure to be fupported in his de- 
£gn. But, as he ftood in need of other helps, he opened his 
mind to his father ; and, after prdfing the talents of the prince, 
affiired him, that the emperor was beoodiie ftupid, and incapa- 
ble of govermng *. 

This difcourfe h^pened to be overheard by jtma^s fiRer^SamJ^ed, 
who was married to T&h Tendr, a companion of the emperor««^AM»* 
in his debauches ; and ihe told her hu(band of it. This lord 
was fenfible that he was hated by the prince, who did not love 
debauchery; and, jud^ng that he had reafon to fear his dif- 
pleafure, in cafe he fhould become emperor, difcovered to To^ 
'uhan-temir the defign of his minifter. The empercn*, who 
was more than any thing piqued with what Ama had (aid of 
his ftui»dity, was for putting both him and his brother Sv»i» 

* Gavbxl, ubi fapra, p. 293, & feqq. 

(E) Now Fofig-yong'/u in mentioned in the text, are^ ^«- 
i^axr^-»a»;ofwhofediftriA was ta, P^ng^que-yongf SJjfou-JoHg, 
Cbu, or Hong'wu, and moil of Tong-Jbo, Li-Jhan^chcmg, Chang* 
the generals who at firft affo- yu-Qhan^ ^eng-you, Keng-kun-yopg^ 
Qated with him. GaubiL f>iau'fudng, and Lyau-yorg'gan, 

(F) The names of them, as 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

mritntti/we fa dehAk that tnAaiit 2 but, as both had beeti tdrnpankxift 

Towhan- in hi^ debitiicbes, and their mother had mirfed the emperor 

^^^^*f^ Ilinthip>tmy he changed hb rrfcrfution ; and was content to for- 

S]mn*d« MA them the palace, and hare them watched. After this, Sbo* 

^"^^^^Jt^kyoHi one crif the^ sumfters, was ordered to profecute them ; 

zoAf on the repeated aecofationa of the great men, they wero 

fenteneed to be banifhed. They fet out accordingly^ but were 

]fil]«dion the road* Erery body beUeved that Ama had h^etk 

^fi^oyed f<>r iKittidg T^to to death ; and few people knew the 

r4al catiiis of his misfortune. 

Chu takes - |m Mureh CM dfefe^ted the Mimgli ndar Nan-king^ capitd 

Nan. of Kyangmani and took that dtyi into wMch he made his 

kiftg* eiitrjr* Bdng thus become pofleiied of it, he did no hurt tO 

. any petfod 1 he continued the mandarins in (heir empb^naent^^ 

and did gdod to all tWpo6r. From this time it Wus eafy ta 

finrefisie^ £a«) in a lltife i^ite, he would be mailer of the great- 

ti* ^tet of China. With n^rd to die other chiefs who were 

in armi, the rebds had been now five years beiie^ng the city 

of Whay^gim-fi in Kymng-ndn^ defended hyChu-putuha the g^o^^* 

s6r^ affifted by Lyew-^kya^ an <^cer of merits with a courage and 

<adkaiicy almoft with<)ut exampk. But ChA-puwha hamaig 

icettibd to the emperof a general, in the Bei^bourhood, of ne- 

gk£)} of fenrke ; this lattef , to be revenged^ refolved to facii- 

A. I>. fiee tine gted q£ the fiane, by ^viag hmi no afliiVance* Fer. 

>35^* th&purpofe, at the beginning of the year 1356, he ordered 

h^MVi^ky^ tOt cfecamp from before Whay-gmnrf^^ under pFetence 

fif iexfeding b&m to attack a detachment of the rebds > who 

thereupon invefled the city on all fides, dug trenches^ and laid 

tiidieiivirons undef wafer. 

Wbay«- Mban time the treacherous gdnef^l remained quiet, wlthoot 

ganj/VAZ/.tuKfiog the kaA fucootirs to the pJacC^ *which he mi^t eaiily 

hor^ ctond. €hit*pttutki^ uj>on th^ ipj^d to the n^ghbouT'* 

kig gDtersOrs of ci^s ix aid, no fewer than nineteen times^ 

yei receii^ no anfwer. The inhabitants and foldiers, finditig 

themfdves thus abandoned, refolved to die with their com- 

xaanlct, whom they h)ved as theur father. After they had 

eatett adl the aaiitials^ vef mill, and leather, tot be found m the 

city, they were reduced to kill thofe who fell doWn through 

weaknefs, in the ftreets, and feed Oft thdr flefh. At length 

Whay-gau'f&y which, before the iiege, was very populous, 

fmrafideredi for want of inhtd>itarits to ^end it. ChA-putuha 

was «fleefl, i^th his fon Pan-ko, %hting to fecure the weAem 

gte, and both were cut to pieces. The elogiac hiftory of hit 
e feys, that, during the fiege, he fuftained more than onehmi- 
dred engagements with much valour. Altho' a foreigner, yet 


. Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C 13. U Ta*ttry andCHfm: €$ 

die (%if^ IBU boaft of the coorag^ aixi fid^ 

and compace him to thecdd>rated Cbang^tjun (G). Towhtt'^ 

In February the Aw^f rebels hanng ravaged the diftrHl citemhr^ f 
Si'gan*f4 in SUfcn-J 5 the general, and prittce AtatinqfbeR^ do* Shaii^u^ 
fcraded from Jagat&y^ fecond fon of Jntghtz Kh&n, had^^*^*^ 
thoughts of learag^the dty^ when a vBOBoifAxi prqpofod fead^ 
11^ for Chohantemirf governor of Ifo-moH* Thk getteral cant 
urith 5000 cnimfiers^ ndcat mpieoes the bodjr of idxlai 
but he was ibrpriied to hear that Ktg^firtg*ft, cauphal of that 
pRmaoe, had been talcen in j^lugttft by Lyem^/i-iong : and^ 
for an the lofs whichrthe Stmg reodvttl near Si^n-ftf oUtM 
rd>els of the £ime patty qipeaitd near Fong^tfyang^fi ; but 
GfdfontemAr^ matching twenty leagues in one day and idght, 
MopoB and defeated diem, when th^ leafi expelled an at-* 
tKk. Meantime C*iM madegneat advances in Kyang-nan, and^ 
among other dtieis^ took CBang*chem*fk and Yang-ckiw-fA^ 
While the rebels of I'fii-clmi^mefs party iisized, this year^ 
the capital of Si-ckwet^ add becaaae flay powerful in that pro* 
vinoe* , 

The general rift-jrK^^^asieseceedhig flrongly fortified in (7^-GattJuag 
img'y aod had placed good troops in thepofts which art ontakem 
Che two baaks of die Gratt /^ang, in dK part where that 
river pa0es between the mi)\moam Sya-M, m die diM€t c£ 
iyew'fong-'byen ia Kydtig-nan. Hamofer^ Cben^ymo-fyang^ the 
general of Tfu^ch^m^wl^, attacked diefeimpdrtant pofts ; and, 
fightm^r for four (ky^contisMsdly^both by land and water, madd 
hunfelf mafierof then, iar feiteof the floittrefiftanoeof the 
commander. The pai&ge of the Kymg bdng thus hidopeii^ 
the rebet genera) weoc and laid ^cgs, to Gtm-hmg. TA-qyt 
drore Um off at fifft: but die rebeia, who wore enc^nped at 
Jim-ebrw-ft^ in Kyofig-Jij ^amt and attacked the weft gate^ 
wtele Tem'fyM^ a(foiU^ diat ci the eaft ;; and both partief 
had aAoaUy toled the walls, when T4*fiU, at die head dF 
the towi^JBiea, who were wil^rig to h^ard their lites, fallii^ 
boldly ^n, (lew a gieat number of them, and made the rell 
give way. For all this, the rebels returned to the charge with 
more fury than before ; fe.that there wa» x gnat (hughter on 
both fides. 

In January 1358 thtf body of rebels wMch was zxCjii-chew-hy Yew.^ 
fll in Kyang-nan came and attacked the eaft gate ; that of the tyanj^ 

(G) He v^ViH of Nan-yang'fu talned at feveral times in the 

in Ho-nan, and one of the befl year 757, is one of the fineff 

officers of the Tang dynafty. adions to be met with in the 

The fiege of ^ey-te-fu, in the Chinefe hiftory. GaubiL 

fame province, which he fvif* 

Digitized by 



^4 Jenghiz Khin^i SiicciffBrs B. IL 

^hirteenthSo^^ ilirsis nndertaked by the troops come from Jau-jchew^ftt ^ 

Towhan- and Term-lyang af&uitcd that of the weft ; while the enemies 

tMiur, fr fleet covered the Great Kyang. TA-que, ,invefted thus on all 

;^^^^'\ fides» after placing the officers in tlmr reifpeftive pofts ; at the 

^ head of his braveft foldierSy fell on the enemy, of whom he 

inadb. a ^reat (laughter: but, while he fought with greateft 

ardour, the rebels forced the three gates, and took the city* 

Ti^^e^ perceiving thismisfortimeby thefimwhich were lighted 

on the occafion, and having already received ten wounds from 

the multitude of enemies who befet htm, ran himfelf through 

with his own fword» His wife, fons, .and daughters, threw 

themfelves headlong into a well : the officers of the garrifoa 

likewife flew themfelves, rather than furrender ; and a confi* 

derable part of the inhabitants chofe rather to caft themfelves 

into the fire, than be fubjeft to the rebels. T4^ue was 

cfteemed and beloved by every-body : his tomb is flill to be 

jeen at Gan-king. He was born at Lwchew in Kyar^^nani 

tut was originally of the country of Tan-gi **. 

Rihh ^^ March one of the generals of the Song rebels fpread an 

flunder alarm fkr and near, by the reduftion of Tfi-^nan-fAy capital of 

Shan^ Shan-tor^. The iatar commander of Tong-chang-fi (in the 

long. fame province) abandoned both the city and country. Abcmt 

the ftoie time Mau-quey, one of the beft Sang officers, came 

from Ha-kyen-fi (H) ; and, joining with him who had taken 

Tfi-nin^chev) and Tfi-nm-fi (I), the rebds plundered Shan- 

tong^ and the country about T^-fiJ. The firft detachment of 

the Smg attacked an important poft near that imperial city, 

* whofe commander was (lain ; and, the reft of the Sar^ troops 

arriving, the court was in great apprdienfions. Several of the 

grandees counfellcd the emperor torcture, and remove his refi- 

dence elfewhere. The mmifter Tay-ping oppofed that advice, and 

Take the called in troops on all fides. Lyew Kara^puwha attacked the 

eafital. enemy fome few leagues from the city ; and, defeating them, 

conftrained Mau-quey, who commanded than, to retire back 

to Tfi-nan-fH. ' Tay-puwta, a Tatar general m Pe-che-li^ of 

^ GaVbii.. Hift. Gentel. p. 296, & feqq. 

(H) A city in the province of may be often led into a miftake. 

?e cbe-li. For inilancc, meeting with TJin- 

(I) In the French it is only chenv^ he would be apt to take it 

Tft'tiin and Tfi-nan. The au- for a citjr of the fecond rank 5 

thor freauently leaving out whereas it is a city of the firft 

the lift ly liable, which diftin* rank in 5^<i«-/e«^, only the final 

guifhcs the rank of the city, Fu is omitted : but this defe^ 

the reader is not only deprived we have generally fupplied. 

of that ufeful lAformaiioD, but 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C» ij. Iff T^rt^ry and Chinz. - 6$ 

theilluftrious family of Hong-kila^ being an. enemy to Yay-Thirteenth. 
ping, would not obey his orders ; hereupon that minijfter ac- Towhan- 
cuted him of neglefting the fervice, for which he Was con- ^^^^^^ «"* 
demned to die, Shun-ti. 

, Mean time CM became admired in the fouthem provinces. ^JTY"T*^ 
In December^ at the head of 100,000 men, he took ^'cf^^^ ce^u 
(K) ; and, aflcmbling his generals, it was determined neither 
to commit flaughters, nor plunder. While this head of a 
party (L) took good meafures to maintain his footing in the fou th, 
^tan-fyen-fengy one of the Song generals, penetrated into 
Lyau'tong, plundered Lyawyang, and then marched into Ko" 
rea. On his return from that country, he attacked Shang-t£y Shang-tfi 
which he took, and burnt that beautiful city, with the magni-**'^^* 
ficent palace which the emperor Hi-pi-lay had built there. 
On this occafion a mandarin prefented a memorial to the em- 
peror, wherein he exhorted his majefty to reform his manners^ 
dnd follow the law of heaven (M). The mandarin was praifed 
for his zeal, but that was all the effeft of his harangue. The 
love of pleafure had rendered Towhan-temAr quite infenfible of 
the evils which affUfted the empire ; and there are but few 
inftances to be met with, of a prince, fo powerful as hfe, who 
few his dominions loft ^th fo little concern. 

MAU'^UET, one of the principal Song generals, was 7*^^ gong 
killed, at the begmning of the year 1 3 59, by a Chinefc in Shan* i^inMi. 
tong. Hereupon feveral officers, who had ferved under him, A. D. 
came on purpofe from Lyau-tong to revenge his death, and 1359. 
flay the murderer. Thefe aflaflinations begat divifions in the 
Song party, which from that time dwindled every day, 

PETEN'PUWHATCekln, an Ig^r prince, defcended from 
ItigA (or IdiHt) fpoken of in the reign of Jenghtz Kh^n^ 

(K) This, we prefame, is V- not to be underdood the facred 

thtW'fu^ in the caft borders of book a of Foy or any other reve- 

^Mongfi but are lefs furc, as lation: for the C;5r/«^ literati, 

our author is not iiundlual 'in who follow thedodlrine of Kon-^ 

adding the final fyllable Which fufius, their chief philofopher, 

diftinguifhes the rank of cities, pretend to none : but by thofe 

as we have jud now obferved in words is meant the law of na- 

the preceding note. ture, or reafon, which is, or may 

(L) It is obfervablc, that Chu properly be called, the ellablilh- 

is no-where called a rebel, as ed religion of China ; and of 
the other heads of parties arc, ' which the emperor, as Well as 

nor his followers rdbels, becaufc all the ofiiccrs both civil and - 

he proved fuccefsful i and the military in the government, muft 

Chinefes looked on him a» their be, by the conlHtution of that 

deliverer from the Mungl yoke, great and happy monarchy. 

(M) By the law^of heaven is 

Mod. Hist. Vol. V. E in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^ Jcnghlz Khah'j Succeffbrs fi. lU 

ThirfeenthXa the year 1358 commanded at Ku-chew-fi (N), a confidera- 
Towhan-ble city of Cheeky ang. When this prince, who was brave and 
teiiidr, «r experienced, knew that Sin-chew (now ^ang-fm-fA) in Kyang" 
Shtth-ti.^ ^ was befi^ed, he fet forward to fuccour that Jjlace. At his- 
'- ^'^^^--^pproach, Ta-Jhing-niy a prince of the blood, and general 
HayAi'tingy a foreigner from the weft, came to meet, and 
Sin-chew gave up to him the command. After this he entered the city 
taken with hi§ troops, m fpite of Chen-yew -lyang, who lay before 
A. D. it ; and, having vifited all the ports, took an oath to defend 
^359- it to the laft extremity* Ta-Jhing-nily Hay-li-tingy and the 
other officers, did the fame : fuch an impreffion had die gallant* 
defence of Gan-king and JVhay-gan-fi made on the mind of 
many commanders. It is needlefs to relate here in detail the 
jtffaults that were fuftained, and the Tallies which were made z 
the adverfe parties were continually fighting; and Puivha^ 
Tekfji, with the other officers, (hewed their valour in its full 
luftre. At length, provifions failing, the inhabitants fed oa 
human flefti : at the fame time one ot the rebels got into the 
city by a fubterranean paflage. Ten days together both par- 
By Yew- ties fought with great obftinacy ; after which, for want of 
lyang. foldiers and provifions, the place was taken in June 1359; 
when the three commanders before-mentioned, and other offi- 
cers, chofe rather to die than furrcnder. 
Kay- While thefe things were doing in l^ang-L the general 

fong-fu Chahan-temuKy who had rendered hlmfelf illuftrious in 1358, 
retaken, by feveral viftories gamed over the rthdTSong in Shen-Ji^ af- 
fembled troops from feveral places j and in 1359, at a time • 
when leaft expefted, went and befieged Kay-fong-fu, capital 
of Ho-nan. This grfeat city was then quite unprovided of 
every thing ; and Chahan *^, after the example of Su-pe-tay **, 
caufed it to be inclofed with a ftrong palifadc. One day he 
gave a general aflault at all the gates, and took the places : 
but Tfu-chew-wheyy with his mafter Han-lin-eul, made their 

Mean time Peyen Temtlr, prefident oE the tribunal of ^va^^ 
and Tq/he Temur^ gtnerzl in Che-kyang, arrived tt Hang-cheiv- 
fu, capital of that province ; and, having gotten together 
. great quantities of rice, fent it up the JVhang-ho into Ho-nan, 
where it was conveyed by land to the river Wey : by which it 
arrived 'fafely at Tong-cheWy and from thence at Fa-tu, A 
confiderable number of troops were employed to convoy thia 

« Gaubil, ubifup. p. 2:99, & feqq^ ' See before. 

Vol. IV. l.i. c. I, &6. 

(N) Or KjU'chew.fuy writtca only Ku-ehenu itt the French. 

Digitized by VjOOQ It 

C. 13. In Tartary and China. 67 

provifipa ; fo that the rebels never dared to attack them. k%fhiruenth. 
the fcardty of viftuals had, for feveral years before, occa-Td^ban- 
fioped grpat fainine$ in the imperial city, this relief came very ^cmftr, or 
opportunely. Shun-ti. 

HowEvpR, the joy which this fupply gave the court was^T"'^^"'^ 
damped by the lofs of Nan-chang-filt capital of Kyang-fi^ I , 
taken by Chen-yew-fyang* As foon as the news reached Tfu* 7 ?' 
chevf-whey, the rebel emperor of the Song, he embarked on ^^^ 
theCr^^z^ Kyang fpr that city, refolving to keep his court there. 
But his general, who had other defigns in view, being deter- 
mined to prevent him, hafted tq Kyew-fyang-fH (in the fame 
province) ; and, having ordered the gates .to be fhut, flew « 

thofe who were about yt^'ch^w-whey^ whom he afterwards kepp 
as a prifoner, leaving him nothing«but the title of emperor. 

The ambition o( AyyewJbiKtata^ the prince appointed heir, Difirac 
caufed AO lefs troubles this year at the court of the emperor ^''««J »t 
Ttywhan-temHry which, befides, was full of intrigues. *Thc^^*''^* 
prince took a great deal of pains to get his father to renounce 
the empire ; and this was the view dfo of- his nipther the env 
prefs AT/, who left no ftone unturned to gain the mimftcf 
Tay-pingy without whofc concurrence nothing that way coul4 
be done. But all her efforts were ineiFeftual. The miniilej 
anfwered neither one way nor the other. The prince, upon caufid ly 
this, thought to ge* 71z^-///zg, and other lords, accufed : but'^^^^"^'* 
the gr^t men made the emperor fuch pompous elogics of tljijB 
minifter, that the prince found he pnly loft rime in attempting 
to remove him. However, to be revenged of thofe grandees, 
he caufed feveral of them to \)t accufed ; and had his ends f9 
far, that fome of them were imprifc^ied, and Cpntenced tp 
die : among them were men of wifdom and authority. This 
unjuft proceeding gain^ the prince powerful enemies, and 
fowed divifion among thp great men, and generals of ti;e 

Oke of the principal pninifters was Nyew-fi-hayy who d^'Themimf- 
icended from PorM, and had governed both the eaftern an4 ter retires. 
weftern Tartary. His air, his prudence^ and experience, join^jd 
to his high birth, and poft ot minifter, made him appear tf> 
great advantage. He was Tay-ping^s intimate friend ; ax]4 
it was he who fupported that minifter againft the attacks of / 
the prince, and the emprefs Ki. Niew-ti-hay fell fick; an^, A. D. 
finding himfelf near hjs end, at the beginning of the year ,1 369, 1 360. 
fpoke in praife of Tay-ping\ and^told his friends, thatminift<a* 
.could not continue long at court. He died qiuch regretted bjr 
the emperor, and the grandees who had at heart the honour 
x>f their fovereign. Tay-pin^y feeing himfelf now withojit^a . 
jprop, and every day expofed 'to the intrigues of his enemies, 

E'a retired 

Digitized by VJ^WVIV^ 

68 Jenghiz Khan*j Succejfors Bv II. 

mf^teetttk retired to his own houfe. Thus Towhan-temur loft his beft 
Towhan- fcrvants ; and all the authority fell into the hands of two 
tcm&r, fruiifcreants : one an eunuch named PH-pAwha'y the other ^ a 
^^"-"- great lord of ^te-fye, called Sho-fe-kyen. Thefe execrable 
^^JJ^'^^T^men let aU be loft, never acquainting the empetor with any 
antsTuc ^'^"S* ^^^ minding ainy thing but to inrich themfelves. 
ceed. ' CHEN-YEW'LYJNG, general of the rebel emperor Tfii'' 
chew-nuhey^ having taken from his mafter all his authority, as 
before has been mentioned, in May this year caufed him to be 
killed, and aflumed himfelf the title of emperor ; giving the 
Han dj' name of Han to his new dynafty. Mean time new feuds daily 
najly. arofe among the Mungls. Chahan-temAr^ governor of Ho- 
nan^ having recovered from the rebels a confiderable part of 
Shen-fty pretended that thofe conquefts ought to make a part 
of his government : on the other hand, Polo-temtir, general 
of the troops at Tay-tong-fd in Shan-fty alledged that Shen-Ji 
Nenu di/- was in his department. Thefe two generals were alone able to 
traSions. havexe-eftabliftied the affairs of the empire ; but their difputes 
made a noife, and caufed an irreconcileable hatred between 
their families. The emperor undertook to fettle the limits of 
ihcir jurifdiftions : but Polotemur thought himfelf injured, 
and took up arms againft Chahan : his majefty afterwards gave 
Polo content, and difcontented Chahan^ who, in his turn, made 
war upon Pob : fo that both parties had armies in the field to 
oppofe each other. The prince inheritof at length brought 
about an agreement between them ; but it was only a coun- 
terfeit one, as will appear by the fequel. 

• In Jugufi 1 361 Chahan-temtlr retook Tfi-nan-fiy capital of 
Shati'tongj with the greater part of that country. At the 
'fame time Ch^ wrefted Kyevx-kyang-fA, and Nan-chang-fd^ in 
Kyang'Jif out of the hands of Chen-yew-lyang. 
A Mungl The emperor Towhan-temttr having often fent officers into 
rebel 'Tartary, to defire the princes of his family to fend their 
troops to his affiftancC; Jluwen-temtir, eighth grandfon of Oga- 
fay, by Myeliy came at length with a formidable army. When 
this prince was fome days march from the great wall, he fent 
to let Towhan-tem^r know, that he came to recover the empire, 
, which he (the emperor) held in wrong to him ; and required 
that he would furrender to him all his right and title. Here- 
upon Torwhan-temur, inftead of receiving aid^ againft his old 
enemies, found himfelf obliged to fend an army againft this 
new one : but his forces wxre beaten, and forced to retire to 
Shang'ti. Jltlwcri'temur, encouraged by this fuccefs, pro- 
pofed to enter Pe-cbe-li ; and was already in the neighbourhood 
of SAang't^, when the prince inheritor marched to meet him. 
delivered The officers of Al^wen-tenitlr^ who certainly imagined they 

Digitized by 


C. 13J In Tartary and China. ^9 

came to faccour the emperor, delivered their gcheral to the prince, ThtrteentL 
by whofe order he was flain in September^. Towhan- 

MING'Yil^HEN, general of TJ^'chew-v^hey, who had^«'«*^''» f 
fobdued the province of Tun-narit being informed that Chen- ^^^ ^'^^ 
yew'iyang vrsLS proclaimed emperor, was refolved alfo to beV.^' ,~^ 
independent ; and^ proceeding to make conquefts on his ^^^^^^r/ 
account, took feveral places in Se-clrwen, and the weftem parts 
of Shen-Ji. , 

In Jtme^ while Chahan-temttr was befieging I-t& in Shan^ 
tmg, Tyen-fong propofed to vilit the quarters of the imperial 
camp. Chahan followed his advice ; but, when he Was entered Chalian- 
into the traitor's tent, an officer ran him through with his^^"' 
fword. Koko'tefnitt^ his nephew, but fon by adoption, having^*'** 
fncceeded him in his titles and dignities, fwore to revenge his 
lather's death. By a paflage which he caufed to be made 
under-ground, he entered /-/<J; then feizing the principal re^ 
bcls, particularly Tyen-fong^ and him who had murdered his 
fetber, he facrificed them to his manes. The emperor, by the 
death of that illuftrious general, fufiered a very great lofs, for 
he was die beft officer in the whole empire. 

If has been obferved before, thait the emprefe A7, mothtr jfffairs of 
of the prince inheritor, was a Korean^ and had a great afcend- Korea, 
ant over the mind of Towhan-temur, Th^ relations of A7, 
proud to fee in their family a lady of fo much dignity and au^ 
thority, aflaffinated Reyen'temihr king of Korea. The emperor 
degraded Peyen-temAr, named another king, and declared a 
lord of A!if's family prince inheritor of that monarchy. Bu? 
the Ab/Vtfnj ordered Towhan-temi&r to be told, that they could 
ndther fuffer thefe new impofitions, nor the memory of the 
old king to be defamed. The emprefs Ki caufed their memo- 
rial to be rejefted ; and a general to march into Korea, with 
forces, to execute the emperor's orders. The general, being 
arrived with 10,000 7Jf««g^// near the river 7k-A?, within the 
borders of that country, was furrounded by an army of Ko- 
reans, who cut them all to pieces ; excepting feventeen horfe» 
who ran fuU-fpeed to carry home the news of this misfortune. 

In January 1363 Ming'-yti'-chen took the name of emperor W^ Hy a 
at CUn^.tH'fuy capital of Se-ctrvjen, and gave his dynafty t'he^«^* 
tide ot Hy a. Mean time Lyew-fA-tongy who had made^ fo 
great a noife, and was the foul of the Song, was killed' in 
iCy^^-Wtfw. The rebels, who followed this party, again plunder^- 
td Shang'H ; that is, what litde the flames had left of 1%. What 
was ftill worfe, the animoflti^ between KoMo-temir and Polp-^ 
tmir ^very day increafcd, each party raifed troops to oppofc 

• GaVBIL. ubifup. p. 301, & feq[(j. 

E a the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ya ^ Jcnghlz Khan'j Sucttjfors B. II. 

W/V/^^T/^.the other 5 and thefe domeftic quarrek did inere hurt to To* 
Towhan- whan-temur than the revolt of the Chinejes. 
tcmur, or The moft fonnidahk enemy Chu had to deal with m the 
Shun^ti. fe^^.^^ was Chen-yewlyang^ ftyled emperor of the Han : who> 
■^ being fenfibly grieved for the lofs of Nan^chang-fi in Kyang" 
ft^ exhaufted his coiFers to raife new forces, and equip a fleets 
with a refolution to befiege that city j which was furniftied with 
a good garrifon, commanded by Chii'Ven-cheng% one of the 
beft generals bdoi^ng to Ch&. Hecaufed bucklers to be made 
for defence of his foldiers againil arrows and ftoaes ; after 
this, he undertook the fiege, which he commanded in perfon ; 
and, having given feveral aflaults, at length mounted the 
walls, from whence he fhoutcd for joy, oincluding that he 
SVas already niafter of the city : but he was much furprifod 
to fee new retrenchments within, very flrongly f<»:tifiQd> aad 
confequently that he had new fatigues to undergo. 
defeated - Meai4 time ChaU'te-Jheng^ one of ChA-veri'-cheng's Eeute- 
4y CW ; nants, found a conveniency of fending exprefles to iaform ChA 
of the danger they were in. On this notice, GW, without 
'delay, caufed a fleet to be fitted out at Nan-king ; on Which he 
embarked 200,000 foldiers, commanded by his beft officers, 
and put himielf at their head. Then fetting fai}, foOn arrbred 
with his forces at H^-kew (O). As foon as Chen^yew-fyang 
was informed of his enemy's approac^h, he raifed the fi^ge of 
Nan-chang-fS, which for dghty-five days he had clofely be- 
leaguered ; and gave orders to go and attack Chi^ whofe anna- 
ment he met in the lake Po-yang, near the mountain Kantian 
(P), on the fourteenth of September {QJ^. CUt^ having di- 
vided his naval force into twelve fquadrons, Swta, Ciang'-yu^ 
^hun^ and other of his commanders, attacked and routed die 
firft troops of Chen-yeiuAyang ; who began to fear die confe- 
quences of this firft defeat. Next day all the fquadrons umted, 
in order to come to a general battle. Durii^ the fight, €bk 
took advantage of a high ncH-th-eaft wind, and burnt ooa 
hundred of the enemy's fiips ; in which feveral of Ye^u^ytmg^ 
brother^ periflied. 
rtnttdfmd On the feventeenth (R), Yew-lyang attacked C%i2 wi& frefh 
. S^i9- i\n^ : but, after the fight had continued ixoax feven in the 

( O ) mienu^ fignififes the {?) In the Ukc, fere or fix 

muth tf the lake ; for here one leagues fouth-weft, or S, S.. W, 

enters from the Great Kyang in- ai Jau-chew-fu. GaubiL 

the Po-yang Hu, or lake of Pe^ (CL) Called the day U^t/e of 

yang. It is a town of kyang- fi^ Xhe fcventh month. dauhiL 

^rtveWc or thirteen leagues to the (R) The day CaHcd Sinmam. 

oa^ of fyw'fyang'fH Gauhil, Gaubil. 


H|^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C.i3* /i>TaitaiY4«^Cliiii4. Jfi 

iQormBg to eleven o'clock (S), he was defeated; and his lobThirteentb. 
was fo great, that his iofiipportaWe pride was confounded at A owhan- 
the fight of his army. Ope of his generals attempted to iaze^®"*^*"' •^ 
the poft of the mountain Ifyay (T) ; but CM ordered him to Shun-ti. 
be indofed, fo that he could not retire. The fame . night his ' *~w~'-^ 
fleet cafi anchor at Tyb-li, i|nd continued three days facing that 
«f Tew'fyaag ^ vho, on the dghteenth of Odlober (U), refolv- 
ii^ to breaH thro' his enemies at any rifque, made an attempt : 
bat ChA prevented his defign, and attacked him on all fides 
torn five ^ (even in the evening (X). The battle was fought 
with ^pal ob^inacy on bodi fi^ : at length, Tew-lydng hav- 
ing been killed with an arrow, his fleet difperfed. The fon, 
whom he h^d appointed his heir« was taken prifoner ; and his 
generajs, with their troops, their horfes, and barks, furren^ 
d^^ . to the viftor. However, Chang-ting-pyen, one of Ws 
generals, efi::q>ed by night, in a fmall bark, with the corpfe of 
Tev»4y4ngj and one of his fons, named Che^-li. This famous 
viftory did great honour to Chu ; who not only gained a rich 
})ooty, b^t becajile confiderably more powerful by the acceffion 
of fo many fcH?Qes. 

T^fy-'l.TJNG was one of the greateft captains of his ^nv/rou- 
lime ; and forty-four years old when he died t but his death i/w arifi. 
Wias of fiasall advantage to the Mungls, wfaoie affairs grew 
daily nvorfb. ^ A Chinefe grandee, abufing the wedcnefs of thdr 
power in fh^ fouth, fet up for himfelf in Si-cbew-flif a great 
^ rich ;dty of Kyang-nnn ; refufing to let the imperial conl- 
fiufliooers feave the provifions which they wanted to fend from 
tbsoce to the court. On the other hand, Pdo-temiry notwith- . 
flancUog die emperw's compiands, entered with his troops 
-1^0 ^ diftrift of Koko-temur : but his army was routed, and 
two of his beft generals taken prifoners. Mean time the prince 
id^eritor* who could never forgive Tay-ping for having dif- » 

fuaded his father from refigning the empire, fet on Sho-fe^ 
iysn to accufe him. That nunifter, who was void of honour, 
undertook "the iniquitous taflc in November ^ and Tay-ping was 
bamflied into Tibet : but the prince procured him to be fkski 

^ G/IUBI4.. ubi fap. p. 304, &&qq« 

^S) ^roin the hour of die half S. S. W. of ^*-^/w. Ctff- 

Dragon^ which take? up from hil, 

foreu to «inp5 to the hour of (U) The day Gan-^u of the 

the Horfe^ which includes from eighth mpnth. Gaubil, 
eleven to one o'clock. Gaubil. (X) From the hour of the 

(Tj in the lake, a league and Dmgon to that of die Hen, Gmtb. 

E 4 ^ Two 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

.72 Jcn^hiz Khki^ s Succiffbrs B. II. 

IThirteev^b, Two cunuchs and Sho-fe-kyefiy who were at this time ab* 
Tow.iau- folute mafters of the will both of the emperor and prince Ay^ 
temur, oryg^jj^iiif^f^^ gQt a mandarin, celebrated for his probity, to 
^^°^ be turned out of place. Chen-tflt-jiny a cenfor of the empire, 
^T*'^^^T**^prefe no fewer than three petitions to Towhan-temilr^ ex- 
b^ied ^^''^^ W°^ ^^ P^^ ^^^^ covivt the two eunuchs and Sho^fe^ 
'^ ' kyen\ to alter his conduft, and open at length his eyes to the 
evils which he had brought on the empire by his irregularities : 
in fhort, he told him the ruin both of the empire, and his fa- 
mily, would quickly arrive, unlefs he followed the rules of 
virtue. Tf^-jin was "feconded by other mandarins : but all 
their reprefentations were ill received ; and CherftJ^-jin^ in par- 
ticular, was baniftied to Kan-chew in Shen-Ji. As this was in 
December y hie fuffered much on the road by the rigour of the 
feafon : his exile was the caufe of great difaffeftion 5 and the 
Chinefes complained loudly of thefe afts of injuftice. 
Chft fro- In January 1 364 the generals of Chii prr^pofed to have him 
claimed prodaimed emperor 5 but he declined it, and at firft was con- 
iing^ tent with the. tide of king of U. In this quality he appointed 
A. D. Li'Jhen-chong and Suta his prime minifters and ^nerals : he 
'3^4' afterwards named other officers; and, having aflembled the 
grandees, told them, *< That they ought to confider, that he 
^* had not accepted the title of king, but on condition to en- 
** deavour to make the Chinefes happy : and that it was necef- 
** fary, in • the beginning of his reign, to agree upon good 
*' laws ; in which point the Mungls had been wanting. With 
<« regard to the rites and ceremonies, faid he, ufed in reli^<Hi, 
** I am of opinion, that, in the firft place, each of us ought 
" to think ferioufly of reforming his own heart. He added, 
" As you have been my dear companions, affift me ; have no* 
^* thing elfe in view ; think only of beginning well." 
fgj^es Vii- In February that prince fet forward, to condnue in perfon 
c'h^ng-fii, the fiegc of VA-chang-fu^ capital of Hu-^quang, The city was 
taken : and Chen-H, who had fucceeded his father Cheney ev}* 
lyang^ furrendered, with the officers of his party. ChA gave 
orders to relieve thofe in mif(?ry, encourage the literati, and 
neither plunder nor deftroy aay-body. This wife conduct pro- 
cured him an eafy conqueft both of Kyang-Ji and HA-quang^ 
The Chinefes fubmitted to him in crouds : arid were proud to 
fee a prince fo generous, and moderate in his paffions ; a friend 
to men of letters ; affiible, and ftudious to govern the nation 
a.ccording to antient laws and cuftoms. 
Cruelty of Mean time the court of Tow han-^t emir was divide into 
iie frince^l^er^l powerful parties, who thought of nothing b,ut how t;o 
fiipplant and deftroy each other. The prince inheritor, inAead 
of fe-ioufly ead^avpuring to gain tbQ IpvQ a^d ^ftcem of the 

Digitized by 


C. 13. In Tartafy and China. 73 

officers, in order to engage them to fupport the throne, minded TJiV/fw/*; 
only to gratify his private hatred againft feveral lords. HcTowhan- 
made ufe of the eunuch Pu-p^wha, and the minifler Sho-fe- tcm6r, #r 
fyen, to accufe whomfoever he would. They invented crimes ; Shun-tu 
and were not afhamed to imprifon, and even put to death, '~ ^ ' 
great lords, whofe only mifdemeanour was, their oppofing the 
criminal intrigues of thofe two inftruments of evil. One of 
thefc unjuftly-accufed lords was Lau-ti-Jha, who, to fave hi$ 
life, retired to Pok-temiir at Tay-ting-f^^ in Shan-fu The em- 
peror was informed of the innocence of thofe perfons, and of 
the murmurs which every-where were heard. Many reprefent 
tations were made thereupon to the prince : but Jyyewfhili* 
tataw^ little acquaintjsd with his true interefts ; and, inftead 
of defifting from his accufations to niind the public good, 
engaged himfelf very indifcretely in meafures, which, he might 
ea&y have forefeen, would complete the ruin of the em- 
pire (X). 

KOKO'TEMUR was a mortal enemy to Polo-tem^r; zmdandinsim^ 
each of them had his friends and agents at the court. InJHfi^^^ 
Jpril the prince caufed the general nkyen-tem^r to be accufed ; 
and, when Polo-tem^r, his intimate mend, pleaded his inno*- 
cence, inftead of hearing his reprefentations, they deprived 
himfelf of thei dignity of general at Tay-ting-f^. As Polo- 
femur knew that this order had been given, without the em- 
peror's knowlege, by the brigues of P4'j>4'wha and Sho-fe-kyen^ 
he did not obey it; and, having conferred with the zccvSc^ Checked hj 
lords, took up arms, with a refolution to oblige the emperor Polo j 
to drive thofe from about him who gave him fuch bad coun- 
feL TAkyen-tem^ir being detached to poffefs the pofl of Ku" 
yong-quan, the prince marched from Ta-0 to oppofe that ge- 
neral ; but was repulfed, and obliged to retire into Tartary, 
Hereupon Tttkyen appeared before the imperial city ; which 
direw every thing there into confufion. This made the empe- , 
ror inquire into the afFair ; and, having thoroughly informed 
himfelf, fent for Tt^yen^ reflored Polo'temun and delivered up 

(X) To one who has read the head is bad, and the majority of 

hiftory of the former Jl/«»'^/ em- minifters and courtiers are cor- 

pcrors, it may ftem furprifing rupt: for then the head will 

}iow this, who w^^ fo weak and n^ver want evil indruments, who 

bad an one, (hould be fuffered to will aiTift him in all his d^figna ; 

reign fo long, or the prince to and, for reward or ambition, 

deftroy fo many gr^at men by deftroy the good men, and even 

falfe accufations. Bat all this one another, to ferve his pur- 

inay be accounted for from the pof^^s^aQd fupport hi$ tyranny, 
mtme of a court where ' the 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

74 JtnghizKlAn^s Smtfftrs B.H. him, both P^pAiuha and Sho-fe-kyen* After this, the army 
Towhan- under Tikyeh was fent back to Tay-tong-fA ; and the pnncp 
temiir, or jjiheritor returned to court by his father's order «• 
Shun-ti. rpjjg prince, who now thought of nothing bpt to te re- 
venged on Polo'tem^r, mkde choice of Koka-temAr to pcecute 
his dcfign. He raifed an army of 100,000 men, divided intQ 
three bodies ; and fent a general, with 40,000 of them, to 
attack Tay-tong-fi. Polo-tenUir, who had friends and troops 
levery-where, left officers to guard that dty ; and took mea- 
fores with Lau-ti-Jha and TMyen-temur to make himfelf niafter 
of the emperor's palace. He put himfelf at the head of his 
troops, and ordered Ku-yon-quang to be taken. In Septemher 
the prince marched to oppofe lum, but his army was routed ; 
and, not thinking himfetf fafe at Ta-t^^ v/hxthtr- Poh-t^mur 
followed him with expedition, he left it acain with a body of 
troops, and retired to Ta-ywen-fA^ capital of Shan-Ji. Poh* 
temAr, bring arrived at the djy, left his forces without the 
^tes ; and, on the ninth of the fame mcmth (Y), catering the 
^ palace, followed by feveral lords, prefented himfelf befiore the 
emperor, on his knees, and affured him, that, with regard to 
^hat had pafled, the fault was none of his. Towhan^iemfir, 
who on this occafiqu let fall tears^ declared him generalifliaH> 
and prime minifter^ Lau-ti-Jba and TAkyen had poft^ undo* 
him ; and, in all the tribunals, they had men of their owfi 
mndmaftir POLO-TEMUR began his miniftry by cauling Tdo^tpn&r^ 
mt court, the principal companion and inihtiment of the emperor's de- 
A» D. bauches, to be killed : he drove the lamas from court, a&4 
J 366. forbad the exercife of dieir relig^n. Ifad this general ftopp^ 
tiiere, things might have gone well : but hepa0ed thebo^w4s 
of prudence ; and, without the advice of his beft friends, ftt* 
tempted to get the prince inhei^tor fet afide> and JC^^-temfir 
degraded. Befides this, he gave himfelf up to aU Jgio^ of 
debauchery, and that was what ruined him. In MarcA 1366 
the prince took the field, with a refolution either to perifii, or 
deftroy his enemy : his army was numerous, and commanded 
by Koko'tetfdr, a general of confummate experience. As foon 
as Polo'temur was informed of yfyyevf/hilitata's march, hecaiuied 
the emprefs Ki to come otit of thepakoe; and compelled 4mr 
to fign an order for |he prifice to come to her : but he did 
'not think fit to obey it. 

9 GAUBiL/tibi fup. p. 307, 8c fcqq, . 
(Y) The <ky U^f/i of the fcvcnth mondi. Gfiuii/. 


DigiUzed by VjOOQIC 

C. i^ Im Tartary and Qhba. 75 

While Tikyeii^emur was on his march to Shang-iAj toTHrteenih^ 
oppofe the prince's party, Te/ti was detached to make headTowhan- 
d^dnH Koka-tetnur : but, when he arrived at Lyawg'-^^w^, I^c'q?^^' ''' 
took counfd with the officers, in which it was refolved not to , ^'l^^* 
obey Poh'temur, as being a rebel. T^i went on to Yong-ping- ^»*^-* 
fi (in P€'che'li)y from whence he fent an exprefs to Koko* 
ttmkr ; and then marched into Lyau-tong, to confer with feve- 
ral princes of the blood, who were in thofe parts. The mi- 
nifter, incenfed at this aefertion of Tefi^ fent an army to at- 
tack him : but, he having defeated it, and flain the general^ 
PohUmur, more enraged ftill^ marched himfelf ; yet was ob- 
. bilged to return without doing any thing, by a heavy rain 
wWch continued for three days and nights lucceffively. meaxilnfnapid 
time the emprefs AS, knowing the fcribfc of Poto^ pKKured him h t^^^r 
feva^ young g^ls of great beauty, by whofe means fhe ob-/^''^'* 
tained her liberty, and returned to the palace ; where, under- 
hand, ihe effeAually ^«^t>ught thedeftruftion of that ounifter^ 
by amnfing and loihariDg him with the gratification of hia 

TiUNciB being in thispofhure, H^Jha^g^ one of the prind* 
pal lords of the courts c^tained fecret orders from the^mpe- 
ror to kill Poh-^temAr ; in which enterprize Shang-tltrma^ Kin- 
mt'hay^ aad Petar^ three young lords of refolutioo, engaged 
to affiii him. They took the opportunity t>ne day in icptem^ 
her^ when that minifter came to acquaint his miyefW wit)^ 
the reduction of SIuMg^i^ in Tartary, by the general TAfy^ff 
teadr. The emperor being at this time m a ^reat hall, with 
iBGaay ooprtiers about him, Petar Separated himfelf from Hntisjlaitu 
Rft ; and, placing hkifelf at the door, ilew Polo^ttnUtr (2) at 
kewas s^bmt to «nt^» Lan'4i-Jha ho'eupon fled towards th» 
Mth : l>ut, a pcodamatioa being iflued to kill him, he was 
tstoi, and put to death* Tukyen^timAr^ who was then at 
Sbang'4Aj and did not hear of what had happened at Tn^ti^ 
tiU feveral days after, would alio have made his elcape widi 
feveml cuirafli^s ; but was taken and flain* Thegatespf ?«• 
tA wese ffaut for three days/on accoimt of theie tzmibles : bati 
ia the mean time, feveral detachments of the princess arm; 
anrmog in the ndgbbourhood, thefe troops fcaled the walls, 
opebed one of the gales, and fluodered great part <of the 

(Z) He was of the herd ^^/m- father Tajhe-^emtir^ grandfather 

ifit and one of the chief Mungl Tejutar^ and great grandfather 

fonilies, defceiided from Polo- Njienv-Jyen, were famous com- 

tajf, an illuflnous oificer in the manders in chief of the impe- 

^u^y of JenghH JPfdn, His rial armlet. Gaubii. 

Digitized by 


y6 Jenghfz KhSm's Succeffars B. II. 

Thirteenth. TOIVHAN-TE MUR, having thus dcftroycd his new mi- 

Towhan- niftcr (or rather matter), fent his head to the prince his fon, 

temiir, tfrwith orders to repair to court. He came efcorted by Koko- 

Shnn-ti. t^Tn^r, who was appdnted minifter. In the tenth month he 

V T^*'"^was declared r^iilo, and generaliffimo of the armies. He ap- 

. ^ .^ 'peared at court with a train and equipage almoft equal to that 

^a^^ of the emperor. The prince made inftances, that he might 

be permitted to carry on the war in the fouthem provinces : but 

his motion was not complied with. About this time the true 

emprefs, who was of the Hongkila family, dying without arqr 

children living. A/, who before was only nominally emprefs, in 

the twelfth month fucceeded to the rank and honours of the 


Caufes At the beginning of this year Koh^temir^ going into Ho* 

newhroi/j.nan, had great difputes with the generals of tl^ province of 

Shen-Jif who would never acknowlege his authority ; fo that 

at length they came to hoftilities. Thus the empire of the 

Vwen was attacked in all manners, both within and without : 

The great men lived independent ; the emperor minded nothii^ 

but pleafure ; and the prince, befldes other great faults, had 

hot talents to re-unite the nunds of the people, and bring them 

to labour in concert for the good of the public •*. 

jfffairs of At the beginning of the fame year alio the Whang-ho^ by 

the reie/i. Its precipitate courfe northward, made great ravages in Shan-^ 

tong and Pe-che-U. Ming-yu-chen^ pretended emperor of Hya^ 

died in the third month ; and was fucceeded by one of his 

fons, no more than ten years of age. Han-Un'eul, who called 

Mmfelf emperor of the Song^ died alfo in the thirteenth month. 

With r^rd to the proceedings of CAtf , he took Whay-gan'^A < 

in the fourth month ; and caufed a fearch to be made for oM 

bobks in the fifth. In the ninth month he fent -two generals, 

with 200,000 men, to make war upon Chang-Jhi-cheng^ who 

fet up for king in one part of Che-ky^ng and Kyang^nan. 

They beat his* troops four times, and took H^-chew-fi^ one 

tf the moft beautiful and rich cities of Che-kyang. At the 

fame time ChA made himfelf mafter of Hang-chew-fA^ capital 

of that province, Shau-hing-fAy Kya-htng-fA^ and other im^ 

portant places, In the twdfth month he caufed one palace tt> 

be built for h^ court, and another to honour bis anceftors in. 

The prime To return to the diftrafted afliirs of the Mungl court. The 

'V^n"^' P^^^^^ \^t\xig near Ta-tA^ in the year 1367, the emprcfe Ajt, 

^^' nls mother, fent a trufty lord to compliment him, and tell 

' J"7' him, that (he prefled Towhan^temur to refign the e^mpire. Koko* 

imur^ who knew this defign, fent the efcort troops, into H^ 

k Gavbii., ubi fap. p. 309, 4^feq()« 


Digitized by 


C 13. In Tartary aniOmz. - 77 

nm\ and, finding the prince appeared difcontentcd, was KA^-Thirteenik. 
liged to go into that province himfelf. The emperor, who Towhan- 
came to be informed of the differences which fubfifted between ^5? *"' V^ 
Mo and the generals of Shan-ft^ fent an officer to decide , _"'V ^' 
' them: but that minifler flew the officer, and feemed inclmed ^^ 
to become independent. Tcwhan-tem^r was, on the other hand, 
follicited to abdicate the empire : but, altho' he ftill refufed to . ' 
part with the title, yet he gave to the prince the whole power, 
declaring him generaliffimo of the armies, ' and lieutenant- 
general of the ftate. This new promotion made Koko-temur 
take new meafures : he oppofed the emperor's orders in fevour 
of Jyyevjjbilitata ; but, at the fame time, was accufed by one 
of his difcontentcd officers. Hereupon Towhan-tem^r cafhiered Koko a^ 
Kokoy difpofed of his employments to others, and appointed A*^''''« 
officers to command the troops of that general. The dif^ 
carded minifler retired to Che-Jh^ (A), a ftrong place in Shan- 
fiy fully refolved to be revenged on the firft occafion. All 
this could not pafs without exciting great troubles ; and the 
Mungl affairs grew worfe than ever. 

While To-whan-tcmurlo^ all by his want of conduft, every- ChftVyW- 
thmg fucceeded with the prudent CM. This prince, tho' of ^^» 
an obfcure birth, and brought up from his infancy among 
mean people {B), yet difcovered moft of the grand qualities 
which have rendered immortal the memory of the greateft 
princes. He publiflied the form of the Chinefe government 
which he propofed to introduce ; and took for a model that 
which the literati boaft of fo much in Yau^ Shun, and the 
three families (or dynafties) of Hya, Shang, and ChA : he 
inflituted the examinations for men of letters, and military 
officers ; nor did he forget what concerned the tribunal of ma- 
thematics. He caufed a diligent fearch to be made for men 
-of merit ; rewarding, like a t;:ue king, both fuch perfon found, 

(A) In the Jefuit's map it is the dregs of the people, was l^e 
^fecbew. fliame of emperors fprung from 

(B) He had been a fervant in emperors ; and the ihade thrown 
a monailery of bonzas ; fome by his reign on that of ^otwhan" 
f^jf in fo mean a quality as that temur, is the fboneer for the 
of fcullion, under the cook : in lownefs of his birth. Of the 
which ftation he continued for fame kind is the famous Laitb, 
many years, till, in the time of Leitb, or Leiz, who, from a 
the troubles, he quitted the kit- brsfier, became king of Iran, or 
chen for the army. Many fuch Per/ta at large, about the year 
heroes might be found among of Chrift 871, and was one of 
the commonalty every-where, the beft monarchs who ever fat 
had they opportunity to exert on the throne of that kingdom. 
their genius. C^u, fprung from ' 

' and 

Digitized by 


78 Jcnghlz Khin'i Succejfors B. IL 

Jbirtauth.axA the pcrfoa fiading. All thofe were acceptable to him who 
TowhaO"^ had aay talent for military affairs, or navigadon, for arts, 
tcm&r- fr{f^et^Qi^9 or mathematics. He was at no idle expence to ferve 
Shuo-tL y ^ plcafures ; and bad an averlion to every thing which tended 
Vr^^~T to dfeminate princes. In the palace, which he built atA^^n- 
cuaiiits. ^S* ^ forbad layiag out too much in coftly furmture, and 
* &ragn curioiities ; elpecially prohibiting, unaer fevere penal- 
ties, mimodeft pidbures and ftatues. He won the hearts of the 
mechanics, huioandmen, and other clafles of the people, to whom 
he difdained not to talk himfelf, and tiifcourf^ about mat- 
tcrs relating to them. Ho took particular care alfo to make 
diofe amends who had fuffered damages, and g^ve them con- 
fiderable relief. Befides thefe good qualities, lie was en- 
dowed with a more than common genius ; fo that, by the con- 
ferences only which he had with tihe literati, he fbon became 
mafter of all that is eflentlal in the Chinefe fdences. His va- 
lour, niuUtary ikill, and greatnefs of foul, joined to his equity 
in die diftribudpn of commendadons, favours, and employ- 
ments, made hiQi highly efleemed by the officers, who were 
Arongly attached to him K 
^V" L ^^ TdXi^ month the gqoerals Suta and Cbang-yu-chun 
tbifouth. j.^qced Sti'chrW'fA^ and the whole pfovince of Kyang-nan, 
They likcwife tocJc prifoners Chang-jbi-cheng^ and all thofe of 
his party, with nine princes of the blood ; who wer^ all con- 
ducted to Nan-kingt where Chang-Jbi'cheng died foon after. 
As for the princes, Qhi ordered them to b^ treated with ho- 
nour ; ^nd fent them^ under the care of a mandarin, to the 
£Ourt of Towhart'temir. After this expedition, troops were 
traniported by fea into the prcfvince of ^tavg-tongy which, 
with ihat of Sj^ng-fi^ fubmitted oi then: own accord : To- 
kytn did the (ame. 
Gemrals ' The fouth bemg thus reduced, CM commanded Suta and 
fi^^^y^^'mm^Cbang-yU'chun to march iato the north, at rt^e head of 
nuwrd. ;^ 50^000 men, almoft all horfe.' Thefe two generals, being 
Vrived in Sian-tong, published a mam£eilo, weU calculated 
tm ex^cite «he Chinefos m favour of Chfi^ and reader Tcmhanr 
tmnir odious. Itt this manifefio they fet forth. That it be- 
-longed to the Chinefes to govern the barbarians ^ and not to the 
iarbarians to govern the Chinefes. After this, they fall on 
the crimes of the Mungl emperors ; a^id the faults of tiieir 
government fince the dme of Tim4r, who fucceeded H^-pi-ky, 
Thfirma- Thty fhew, " that thofe princes have fet afide the order of, 
ni/ejio. " fucccffion : that brothers have poifoned their brothers ; ^nd 
** a fon taten his father's wives :' that there is no fubordina- 

* Gavbil, ubi fop. p. 3x2, $: fcqq. 

" don; 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

d I J. In Tartary and ChiftaT 79 

" don : that they have deftroyed the Chmefe rules o( gotntn'THrteentB: 
•* mart; and paid no r^ard to the doftiiiie (or reli^on) ofTowhan- 
^ tbdrnadon. After this, they conclude dutt the time istemdr, ot 
V come to drive fordgna^ out of the em]Mre. Here they Shu n^d.^ 
" draw the charader of CM, whom they declare to be th«'""*<"^ 
^ perfon choTen by heaven for the mafter of Ciim ; and in- 
'' msec wha^ the people may promife themfelves from the 
" government of ib great a prince." 

This manifefto, fpread thro' the provioceSy had a rtrjgcesiiSitidue 
efiefl. Suta and his coll^ue reduced the whole provni^ of Shan- 
Sian-tor^ without any trouble. During this time die 4if-tong. 
traAioQS continued in thofe of Shen'Jt^ Sh^n^Ji^ and U^'^ktn ; 
occafioned by the difpute betweeft Koto^emir and the gene- 
rals of Shen-Ji, concerning thdr refpedtive jurifdifdons s nor • 
had the empercx* authority eAongh to put an end to it. 

We are now come to the firft day of the year 1368, which Chu/fv 
was one of the mofi folemn days which the city of Nan-king claimed 
ever beheld« Befides the rejoidngs made on account rf its fvtferor. • 
ufhering in die year, CbA chofe dmt day to have bimfctf de- ^""P* 
clar^ emperor of China. He went to the tempfe of heaven, *3^" 
to make a folomi faciifice ; declared his eldeft fon prince In* • 
jieritor, and made feveral wife regulations. They give him 
the tide of Hong-vA (C) j and the year 1 368 is reckoned for 
the firft of his reign. After this, his troops entered Ho-nan^ 
and prefemly reduced that province. In the fecond month 
Towhan-iemury inftcad of endeavouring to-ftop the rapid pro- 
gnefs dE CMy fent troops agdnft Koko'temAr. This general 
h^en^pon retired to Ping-yang-fAy in the fouth part of Bhanrfi ; 
and the other generals of the Tiiren (or Mungls) withdrew in- 
to other cities : more to defend themfelves againfl: one another, 
than againfl the troops of Chu ; whpm we muft now call Hong* 
v^t or Tay-t/iif which is the title giveli by the Chinefes to this 
founder of the Tay-ming dynafty. 

In the third month the troops of Hong-vi reduced line approaches 
fortrefe and gorge of the mountains of Tong'(^uan\ and, m^hecapitaL 
the feventh intercalary month, Koko-temdr and Te-fti were fet ' 

by Tovohan-temur at the head of affairs. Hereupon the ge- 
nerals of Shen-Jiy the mofl illuflrious of whom was Li-tfo-tji^ 
retired towards the wefl. Mean time the forces of Hong-vA 
entered Ve-che-liy from Ho-nan on one fide, and Shan-tong on 
tlie other. In the fame month Suta and Chang-^u-chun de- 

(C) He gave his dynafty the hay were called Daymen Khdn^ 

nzmc of Tay-ming, D'Herbeiot^ that is (fays Gauhil), king of 

p. 991, fays, that, in the time Tay-ming [ovTay-min), 
of Tamerlane^ the kings oi Khat" 

4 Jeatcd 

' Digitized by LiOOgle 

80 Jcngbk^Khan'j SucofJJhrs B. IL 

TbtrtiiMthfesited Poyen-temur, oik of the yjfww^/ generals^ who was flaia 
Towhan- in the battle, fighting valiantly. After this aftion they took, 
temiir, or the city of Tong-chev), but twMve miles to the caft of Ta-ti ; 
^ ^"'^^^^^ and then prepared to attack the capital of the Mungl empire, now 
^"""^v^"^ reduced^ in China^ io very narrow bounds. Hereupon Shelye^ 
meuy one of the miniftefs, went to the temple of anceftors ; 
and, taking the tablets frcttn thence, retired with the prince 
towards the. north. - 
The Ywcn The 25th of Jugujl Ttymhari'temir riomiriated prince Tem&r* 
nvitb' puiuha r^nt of tlie empire of China'; and King-tong kp- 
draw. pointed for defence of the imperial city. Next morning, af- 
fembling the great men, princes, and jmncefles, he declared 
to them, that he would retire into Tarfary. Temh-'puwha, 
and others, fell on their knels, and, weeping, offered to march 
out pf 7k-)frf, and attack the enany ; adding, that it was bet- 
ter to die, than diflionour thus, by flight, the imperial fami- 
ly. The emperor was inflexible ; and, the night foUowng, 
in the midft of his guards, attended by his wives,, and thofe 
of the prince, as well as by other princes and princefles, took 
his way towards the north. Chang-yu-chun, informed of 
Towhan-tem^r's flight, purfued the imperial family as far, as 
the river Pe (D) ; and took prifoner MaytiHpala^ eldefl: fon of 
the prince inheritor (E). The nineteenth of October Hong-vA^s 
army entered ^a-H, after fome fmall refiftance. 
Their dy- THUS ended the empire of the Mungls in China^ after it 
mafiy endsM^A continued 162 years, reckoning from the firfl of JengMz 
' Khdn in 1206, to 1368 ; when. Tinuhan-temtlr withdrew out 
of Chinay and Hong-f^ finifhed his conqueft, by reducing the 
imperial city. The Chinefes reckon only nine emperors of the 
Mungls who reigned in China, as hath been before remarked. 
How many the Mungls compute, does not diftinftly appear ; 
for Gaubil does not exprcfly mention their number. He only 
fays, in a note at the end of their hiftory, that, if Jfilkipa or 
Tyen-Jhun be placed among them, the dynafty of the Twen 
will have fifteen emperors. But this cannot be, becaufe, as that 
dynafly begins with Hu-pi-lay, the four preceding monarchs mufl 
be taken aw ay, which will reduce the fifteen to eleven : and 
if the reign of Afukipa, which is doubtful, be dedufted, there 
will be but ten ; which is ftill one more than is found on the 

(D) Pe-ho^ or Pay-ho, which printed, in the French^ Toucheneo. 

runs by Tong-ckcw above-men* GaubiL 

tioned, and has its fource a few (E)Hi7»g'-i;a treated with much 
leagues to the north of Tu-Jhe- diftindion thofe Munzl princes 
kenv^ an important poft of the who eitjier fell into his hands, 
great wall in P/r-ri;^-//, near the or furrendcred to him. Col- 
gate of the fame name ; mif- ^iU 

3 Chinefc 

Digitized by 


C. 1 1 : /;* 'f artar y und ChinSi 8 1 

Ckinefe lift, Where Ning'tfong, or IRn^chipan^ brotlier of To-Tbirteenth. 
*whantem4r (F), whofe Beign was but of two months, is like- Towhan- 
wife wanting. temftr, or 

But to return to Towhan^terhir, who, though deprived ^^^'J^ 
of the moft valuable part of his dominions, ftill continued g^'^^Towhan* 
khan or emperor of the Munglsy and reigned over Tartafy. (^^{^ 
This prince retired, with his court, to Ing-chang, a city then^/^. 
confiderable> twenty*five or thirty leagues to the north-e^ 
of Shang-t4. Where he lived two years ; and then died in the 
fourth month of the 13^0, in the fifty-firft of his age, after * 
he had reigned thirty-five years as emperor of 6!W«<z and Tar*- 
tary, and thirty-feven ^ khan of Tart ary ^ : fo that his reign was 
longer than thofe of all his predeceflbrs in China put together, 
excepting iW-/i-/ay ; which is the more to be wondered at, con- 
iidering the tyranny and weaknefs of his government. 

After the death of Towhan-tem^r, his fon Jyyewjhilitata Ayyew- 
afcended the throne of die Mungls ; and removed his court to^*^"*^* 
Karakofom ; where, according to xht Chinee hiftory, he founded-'^^^ 
a new dynafty, called the T^en of the north (G). But here, 
for want of matcriak, we muft break off the hiftory of the fuc- 
ceflbrs of ^enghiz Khin in Tartary ; our author Gaubil having 
carried it down no lower than the death of Towhari'temilri He 
indeed, in concludk^ that prince's reign, gave hopes of oblige- 
li^ the world alfo with thofe of his fucceflbrs : but we do not 
fiad he ever performed that talk (H). Nor are we able to fup-^ 
fly the defeft from other quarters : for d^ta Croix has fumiftied 
only a bar6 lift of khans defcended from 7i/ff, fourth fon o^ 
Jenghtz Khduy who reigned in Tariary \ which, for the jreader's 
^tisfaftioB, we have here infcrtedi 

1 . Mangd Khhiy fon of Tw/r. tiflof 

2. Kubiay, hrothcT of Mangfi. He was (ucceeded by ^^^^* 

* GaubIl, Pi ^1^9 &:reqq. 

(F) ilifi-cUpdn tauft be in- (H) This is the more tb be - 
doded in the fifteen emperors regretted ; becanfe^ in all like- 
Mentioned by Gaubil ; otHerwiie lihood, the mifiioners will have 
there would Ibe only thirteen, no more footing in China i and, 

6n leaving Asukipa out df the if they ihouJd, none hcreaftcSf 

lift. , may be qualified for the pur- 

(G) It might be reckoned a pofe: for, of all the Jefuits, ot 
new dynafty by the Chinefes^ as other miffionefs ipto that em- 
having no dominion over them : pire, not one of them feems to 
but muft be confidercd only is have had ^ther Jthr%dgment j 
a continuation of the fame dy» tafte, or ap^iCatton, f6r a work 
nafty, with regard to the Mungls of this nature, as is found in our 
and Tartary. author Gaubih 

Mod. Hist. Vol* V. ? i.Timfir 

Digitized by VJVJ' 


tt Jcnghiz Khan'i Succejfors B. II. 

^. Ttfn£r' Khan^ bis grandfon, furnamed OLyaytIt, fon of 
Hakim^ or JeUkem ; who reigaed twdve years ; and died in 

4. Kujbilay (I) Khdn^ Toa of Jenefik^ fon of Termebilay, fon 
. oi Jekctem^ (on of Kuhlay. 

5. Togyay^ {on of Kujbilay. 

6. 7aj/zi AA<2/7, fon of Ntluk^ furnamed BiUkti. 

7. Jnu/birwan, fon of Dora, coufin of Tiiy zi. This em- 
peror was a prince of excellent morals ; but he gave too much 
power to the governors of provinces, who afted as Ibvereigns, 
and caufed many troubles in tlie empire. 

8. Tokatmir, fon of Tim^r K/?4n. 

9. Bifurdar, 

10. j^yke^ foti of Bi/drdan 

1 1 . I^nk Khan,* 

12. Keytmdr. 

13. JrkitmAr. 

14. EUhi Tim$^r Kh&n ; who went to Tamerlan^ and lived 
in his court, till the death of that prince ; after which, he re- 
turned to Olugh-yurt (K), where he afcended the throne in 


15. Waltav Kh&n : who defcended in a direft line from prince 
Jrtikbuga^ fourth fon of Tuli KhAn. 

16. Orday^ (on of Orday^ fonof Ma lek7tm$lr. 

17. and laft, Jday^ fon of Jrkitmtir 

These two laft khans lived fo obfcurely, that they are looked. 

on in the lame Hght with their great anceftor Jrtikb^ga, who 

never was numbered among the khans. From this time, there 

is no more talk, at Olugh-yurt, of the princes defcended from 

Jenghtz Khdn ; but only of thofe defcended from Kublay, and 

who remained kings of China; of whom there is nientioa 

made K 

from ori' We know not well what judgment to pafs on this lift of 

ifttal rt«- khans, taken from the oriental authors : for it does not ap- 

^^^^h .. pear, from the Chincfe hiftoEy, that- there were any khans in Jtbc 

eaftern part of Tartary^ much lefs at Karakorom^ during the 

dominion of the MungU over China ; who governed that vaft 

r^on by their ^[enerals, or lieutenants, and feem to have re- 

fided at Karakprom. And this is the more probable, as we find 

Jyyewjhilitatai in the year 1370, removed his court to that 

J De la Croix, hift. Gengh. p. 400, & feq. 

(I) This is doubtlefs the fame (K) Olugb-yurty a city but a 

ntfme with Hojhtia, in the Cbinefc litdc way diftant from Karako- 

hiftory ; but wc will not fay 'iis rw». /)# la Croix , p. 397. 
tlie name of the fame perfon. . 


3 Digitized by GoOglt 

C. i^^ h Tartiry and Chin^ g ^ 

capital ia Tartary ; which can fcarcely be fuppofed to be faft, 
in cafe there was any khan of a collateral branch reigning there 
at the {ame time, as, according to de la Croix's lift, there muft 
have been. Nay, according to that lift, they continued to 
rdgn there, without interruption, during four fucceflions, after 
the fifteenth century ; for Elchi Timtir Khdr^ is faid to have af- 
cended the throne in 1405. 

It therefore feems moft likely, that the above-mentioned w/ exaS.^ 
lift of khans is fpurious, .or, at beft, . drawn up by the oriental 
hiftorians, from uncertain reports and memoirs, wherein gor 
veraors of provinces, or the princes of certain powerful trills, 
have been miftaken for the khans of the Mungls ; and the ra- 
ther, becaufe D'Herbelot informs uS, that the only fucceflbrs 
^ljenghi% Khhiy who are mentioned by the oriental hiftorians, 
with due exaftnefs, are thofe of the branch which reigned in 
hin^ or Perfia at large ; of whom that author gives a iUl, and 
of none elfe «"• ' 

However that be, we cannot but wonder that Mr. Guu 
gueSf who undertook to give an abftraft of the hiftory of the 
Turks and Mogols, from the Chinefe annals ; fhould, in fpeak- 
ing of the expuliion of thefe latter out of China, and their 
re-eftablifhment in Tartary, quit thofe guides to follow the 
above erroneous lift of princes given by de la Croix, His words 
are ; " The pofterity of Kublay, who reigned in China, main- 
" tamed their footing there, till Hong-vd, founder of a new 
" Chinefe dynafty, drove out Toliatmur Khdn, The fon of this 
" latter, named BifHrdar Khdn, repafTed into Tartary, retiring 
" beyond the great defart ; where he fixed a new dynafty, or 
" rather continued the Mogol branch, whilft another branch, 
" .defcended from Mlakii KhAn, reigned in Perfta "." 

This is related by Mr. Guigues, as if taken from the ChinefeXj\tig\jiC% 
hiftorians, whom he quotes in the fame place. But it appears, cenfured. 
from the above hiftory, that the emperor and his fon, who 
were forced out of China by Hong-vA, were different princes : 
nor does de la Croix fay Tokatmir reigned in China ; or that Bi- 
fiirdar either pafled from thence into Tartary, or \yas his fon. 
Befides, if that lift was to be followed, as nine Mogol emperors 
reigned in China, Ayke, the tenth' khan, muft have been him 
who was expelled that country : for the princes mentioned 
therein are reckoned not from Kiiblay, but from his father ^ 
Tuli, What renders Mr. Guigues's memoir of lefs fervice is, 
that he does not, by references, or otherwife, fufficiently di- 
ftinguifh the words of different authors, either from one an- 
other, or his own conjeftures. 

* D'Herbel, bibl. orient, p. 382. art. Genghez Khanian. 
* Guigues, mem. fur Torig. des Huns & des Turct. 

F2 In; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

J4^ Jenghfz Khan'j Succ^ors B. IT* 

In fine, for want of a continued hiftory of the fucceflbrs of 
Jenghtz Khdn in the eaft parts of Tartary^ we mnft content 
oorfclves with fuch fragments of it as arc to be met witb^ and 
thofe relating to affairs only near our own times^ 


Mijlory of the MuDgIs, after their Expulfion cut efClaim^ 
to the frefent. 

TBr ArrEmHILITjrA fucceeded his father TowBan-temar 

Mungls, -^^ in the empire of Tartaryy as hath been already mei^ 
ji^en tioned : But we meet with nothing concerning the reignf 
of either him or his fucceflbrs, for above 200 years after ; 
excepting that he, and the other princes of his family, had? 
great wars to maintain againfl Hang-vuy and feveral of his foc- 
joeflbrs, in China. Si^-fa^ Chang-yu-churif Li-vsn-chong, and 
either generals of that nation, pafled the great wall, and har- 
Fafled the 7'i:irf^r^ with frequent invafions *. Nor wore the 
latter on their fide backward, when any opportunity offered, 
to repay the injury, and endeavour to recover their footing iiv 
China; the lofs of whofe rich and fruitful provinces they greatly^ 
• regretted. As the extrafts relating to the Ming dynafly, given^ 
by Couplet and Du Halde^ fpeak of the wars which the Chinefes^ 
had with the Tatars, during the reigns of thofe princes, it may 
xiot be amife to biing together here, what little thofe author? 
fay concerning them. 
hywdthe After the death of Hong-vi, who drove the Mungis out 
glifitrt, of China, and profecuted the war agdnfl: them in Tartary r 
Ching-tfuy ovTong-lo, his' fourth fon, and third emperor, pur- 
fuing vigoroufly what his father had begun, puihed them be- 
yond the great kobi, or defart, above 2co leagues north of the 
great wall, with a defign to extirpate them : but, on his re- 
turn from his third expedition (A), he was prevented, by death,. 
which happened in 1425**. The Mungis, taking heart after 
Tong4o'% deceafe, to .be revenged for the damages that prince 
had done them, invaded the empire, in the reign of Siven-tfongf 
the fifth emperor : but this monarch, at the head of his artoy, 
inarched againft, and defeated, them. 5w«-f/&w^died in 1435^ 
and was fucceeded by Ing-tfong, only nine years old. The- 

• Gaubil, hift. deGentch. p. 317, ^ DuHaldc's China^ 
Vol. II. p, 255^. 

(A) Tbefe expeditions againft the reign of Hong-n^u, by eithev^ 
tii6 Mungli are not mentioned in CoupU^ox his tranilator Du HaUf^ 


Digitized by CjOOQ iL 

C 14; /» Taitary onf^. «5 

Mungls (6), taking advantage of this emperor's yout1% mzdft taJb tbt 
ccmtinnal irruptions into the provinces of China which Izytf^or 
fieareft their country, and committed all forts of rapine. htP^^M^* 
length Ing'tfongy in the year 1449, and fourteenth of his A. D. 
feign, DMurched beyond the great wall, at the head of a nu- 1 449. 
merous ju-my. Bat his troops, weakened for want .of provi- 
iions, were intirdy defeated; and himfeif, being taken pri^ 
loner, carried iato the remotefl: partof Tartary. 

At the news of this furprifing eisent, the emprefs ioitZnvhoh 
great quantity of gold, fdver, and filks, for her \i\x^xi&!%ranfomi. 
ranfom ; which the Mungl king received : but, after he had 
brought the captive emperor to the borders of Chinas he carried 
him back again, not tanking the ranfom large enough. Ne^ 
verthelefe, a new agreemoxt taking place, fome of the great 
lords were fent to receive Ing-Sfong : but the khan was dif^ 
pleafed, thinking all the chief men of the empire ought to have 
•come to meet fo great a monarch, with the greateft pomp. 
He was conduced, by a numerous rednue, to the frontiers of 
-China ; and, when near the mountain Taftg-kya-lin, fent to 
acquaint the xourt, that he renounced the empire to his bro* 
ther King'tiy who had ufurped the crown fr®m the fon of Ing^ 
Sfongy who afterwards afcended the throne a fecond time^ In 
the reign of his fon and fuoceflbr Hyen-tjong^ ninth emperor of 
the Mingy the Mungls, from time to time,, came and plun- 
<Iercd th^ prcmnces; but, in I4j5^5, the fecond year of his 
empire, he cut in pieces their army. From thenceforward we 
hear nothing of their depredations, till the year 1 504, which 
was -remarkable for their irruptions', and the great booty they 
carried away. 

In 1 509, the Mungh renewed their ravages, the year "beforeT'i&i^ 
the death of Hyau-tftrngy the tenth emperor ; whofe fucceflbr, Mangk 
VA-tfongy in 1 518, would needs march againft them incognito, ^^'^^|J 
in quality of generafiffimo:; from which defign he was, with •^- ^• 
much dfficulty, diffiiaded by his miniflers. Next year, he ^S*^- 
prepared to retire into either Kydng-nan or Che-^yang. Here- 
upon his minifters prefented frefli memorials ; reprefenting, 
that, as tlie Tatars (or Mungls) would look on this journey as 
a fhameful ffight, they would grow more infolent ; and that 
his abfencse would expofe the nOTtbern provinces to their ir- 
rapdons : but he was nolefs obftinate tWs time than the for^ 
Hier, till, atlaft^ he was diverted feom lus defign by an in>-/^^chi- 
ondation, which he took for a bad omea. His fucceflTor, Sii-^^^^p^^ 
i/bngy or Kya-tjingy repdred the great wall which feparatesq;,af^j^ 

<B) Called all ^Hon^ Tartars formity, as well as propriety and 
in our aathors ; btii we life the diftitidion. 
nsmt Mungls f fox fake of nsi* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

86 Jenghlz YAAvi' s Saccejfors B. IL 

A. D. China from Tartary. For all this, in isSo> the twenty-ninth 
155°- of his reign, the Mungls drew near Pe-king, with an army of 
60,000 men; but it was intirely cut to pieces, and above 
200 officers taken prifoners. Next year, the Tatar king fent 
an ambaflador, to afk the emperor's pardon, and leave for hi$ 
•fubjefts to fell horfes in his dominions. Shi-t/ong readily con- 
fented : but finding afterwards, that this permiffion was the 
ground of continual quarrels between the mandarins and the 
merchants, and often occafioned revolts, he abfolutely prohi- 
bited that trade. 
Ceafe their About the year 1560, Lyew-han^ general of the Chinefi 
attempt., army, marching beyond the great wall, the Mungls, on news 
of his arrival in their territories, fled, and hid themfelves in 
• their fbrefts : fo that there were no more than twenty-eight 
of them killed in this expedition, and the whole booty taken 
was only 170 dromedaries. In 1 574, the fecond year of Shin- 
tfongy or Van4yey eleventh emperor of the Ming, the Mungls 
made an irruption, into Lyau-tong, but were intirely routed; 
A. D. and, in 158^, they received a notable defeat, by the general 
'^^^» Li'Mn, lofing i«,o6o men. Next year, the rivers were frcfeen; 
which facilitating their irruptions into the empire, they came in 
fwarms 5 but were cut to pieces by the Cbinefe troops. After 
•this, we are told, t\i2Xth^ Mungls (called weftern Tizf^rj, and 
Tan-yu (*) by the Chine/esj gsivc over to difturb the empire, and 
lived quietly within th^ir' own territories; while th'^ Man- 
chews (named in the. Chine/e hiflories eaftern Tatars, and Nyu-^ 
che, or Nu'che) began to grow formidable, and, at length^ 
fubdued both the Mungls and Chinefes *". 
Submit to Had the fuccefTors'of Tong-lo vigoroufly profecuted what he 
the Man- had begun, they might have intirely reduced the Mungls to a 
Wws. (j^^^Q Qf fubjeftion : but, as they neglefted that affair, or pur- 
fued it but remifsly, thofe enemies of China began, by degree^ 
to take heart, and fpread. Hereupon the princes of the houfe 
of Jenghtz Khm, each feiziilg a territory, formed different 
hords, and grew into little fovereignties. Th^ title pf emperor 
of the Mungls remained to the chief of thefe princes, called 
Chahar Khan, or Hdn ; who was defcended from the emperor 
Kublay, or Hu-pi^lay, by the elder branch. And tp this khan 
the other Mungl flates (including doubtlefs the Kalkas), and 
the Eltlths themfelves, were tributary ; till, about the beginning 
of the feventeenth century, ha^ng made hi? government ia* 

^ Couplet, nppn. fmic. t^bl, p. 8i.— Dv Halp^, ubi fupr^, 
p. 220, & feqq. 

(♦1 Of Tanju, from th^ tjrje of tfteir anient wpcrora. Sp> 
V^l. IV. p. 42, & fe^q, 


Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C. i^r In Tartary cnly. 87 

fupportable, by his cruelties and debaucheries, his fubjefts 
called in the founder of the Manchew nionarchy* Thus the 
Mungl prince became a vaflal to the Manchew empire ; and was 
obliged to quit the title of han (or khan), for that of ^^g, or 
Wang, given him by the great grandfather of the late emperor 
Kang'hi, who fubdued intirely the Mungls about the great wall. 

This prince, called by the Chinefes Tyen-tfong^ who began j?w«//, 
his reign in 1 627, on the death of his father Tyen-ming ** ; take-^ Wait- 
ing advantage (as fome write) of the inteftine divifions whicb,y«^<^* 
at that time, reigned among the Mungl princes, found means; 
to reduce them, one after another, not excepting the chief of 
the family,^ who retained the name of emperor ; and was forced^ 
by his own fubjefts, to fubmit like- the reft, in the year 1 630. 
Ajfter the conqueft of Chinay the title of king (vang) was be- 
ftowed on him, and feveral other of the moft potent printes of 
the Mungl family. But, in the minority of the emperor Kang* 
hiy the Vaflal khan refolved to attempt not only to throw off 
his new yoke, but even, if poiEble, ta recover the empire of 
China. With this view, he b^n to reunite the other princes 
in his intereft, by a league ; which coming to Kang^i's know** 
lege, before the defign took effeft, he immediately fent a final! 
body of troops from Lyau-tong, againft the revolter {Chahar 
Khan). The Mungl 'prince feeing Himfelf attacked, before he 
was prepared for his defence, was obliged, with what forces 
he could bring together "in hafte of his own, to fight the em* » 
pcroi:*s army: the event was, that he was intirely defeated, 
and, in the purfuit, taken prifoner, with bis brother and 
children e. 

From this time, the Mungls remained obedient to the power Remain^ 
of the ManchewSy who at prefent reign in China : although, ^tfuhjeS^ * 
are told, that the head of the Mungl princes, who are defcended 
from Towhan-temur (the laft Mungl emperor of China)^ and 
very numerous in Tartary^ ftill preferves a great fuperiority 
over the princes of the other branches defcended from Jenghiz 
Khin, and his brothers ; who are at prefent chiefs of the Tatar 
tribes, known tmder the denominations of Mungls and Kalkas ^ 
On this occafion, it may ndt be amifs to obferve, that, as botl> 
thefe nations are the fame people (at Icaft confidercd as fuch)^ 
under different names, the Mungls are thofe who always re- 
nuuned in Tartary, and the Kalkas fuch as were driven out of 
China : who, by way of diftinftion, perhaps, took that nam© 
from the river Kalka, one of thofe on whofe banks they, fettled j 
wa third branch or natlou gf Mungh go, a.t prefeni;^ by tbe^ 

' * Du Halde, ubi fupra, p. 225. * Bouvet, hift. of Kang-^ 
Wi p. 18, ^ieq,^, ^ Ghv»ii^ ubi fupra, 3^17. 

f 4 fuuao^ 

Digitized by 


89 Jcnghtz KiAn's Smeprs B. It 

name of ElAths, or JlHths^ known aMnmonly in Euro^ by the 
denomination of KMm4ks. 
Kalkas The nation of Kalkas^ Khalkhas^ or Halkas, for fo th^ 
iniUfend' ^ord IS varioafly prononnced, or written, which is the mod 
'^f numerous, as well as celebrated, of all the Mungl iM-anchcs, 

ppcferved thdr independency for fifty or fixty years after the 
Mungls had loft theirs. Thi princes of this branch had at firft 
a monarch, under the title of khan, or king, although tributary, 
as the other Kalkas were, to the Mungl prince Chahar Khmiy 
before-mentioned. But the Kalkas increafing vaftly in tim^ 
and thofe defcendants of Kublayy who had only the tide of 
tayki, growing numerous, the more powerfiil among them be- 
came, by degrees, independent of one another, and of the 
ijchin himfelf, to whom they paid only a flight homage. Before 
the war broke out between them and the EltHths^ towards the 
endt>f the laft century, they were divided into feven ftandards, 
with each its chief ; three of whom recdved, erf the great lama 
pf Tibet y the title of khan : although moft of the tay)ds, who 
were under them, afted as fovereigns in their refpeftive terri- 
tories ; and paid their khans no farther deference, than to allow 
them the firft place in thdr affcmblies, held to determine dif- 
ferences, and confult about public afiairs. 
undir three The eldeft of thefe three khans was named Shaffakf^y and 
Ifhans. pofleffed the country to the eaft of the^ J?/«#A/, extending firom 
mount Jltay to the rivers Selinga, Orkhoriy and T^la. The fc- 
cond, Tujhetiiy or T^Jhekti KkM, was the moft powerful ci 
tjie Kalka princes : his territories rftached fix)m the three Taft- 
mentioned rivers to mount Kentey, whence the Kerlon and 
nia derive their fources. The third, Cheching Khduy refided 
towards the fource of the Kerhn, along which river his people 
fpread themfelves, to its fall into the lake Dalayy or KSJotLf 
tpA alfo beyond, as far as the province oi Solon* Thefe two 
liaft princ^ took the tide of khan forty or fifty years ago (C) j; 
but the firft long before. Thefe Kalkas were fo powerful bdwq[ 
the wars, as to give uneafinefs to the emperor of China him^ 
felf. They were no few^r than 600,000 &nilies, and very 
rich in flocks and horfes : but they were ali»bft ruined and 
deftroyed by that calamity ; the occafion of whi9h is as foli 
troubles A TATKi, or Kalka prjncf, called Lppzang-hvm Taykiy 
arJ/e. whom our author GerbiHon faw at the aflembly of the ftates of 
Tartary^ attacked ShaffakH Kh$n ; and having taken him pri- 
foner, not only put him to death, but feizcd his eftate, with 
yvt of his fervanta. The reft, with his children, fled to tujbeti^ 

<C) That is, about ^650 or 1669. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. i4t JnT^itjonfy: 89 

Kh^, who fending m account of what had happened to dl 
the heads of ftandards and prindpal taykis, invited them to 
jom againft the-ufurper. They imrocdiatdy aflcmbled their 
forces, attacked Lopzang-hum^ took and fcnt him to the great 
Jama, to be puniihed ; requefting that pontifFto inveft the eldeft 
(on of Shaffaktu Khitn with his Other's dignity. Their requeft 
was granted, and the fon re-eflabliftied in his father's territo- 
tories; but neither his flocks nor {ubjefts were reftored : for 
fijhetii had fdzed them for his own ufe, by advice of his bro- 
ther, who was one of thofe Ho-fo'Sj or living Fo% fo numer- 
ous in Tartary. ** 

This lama,' called Tftng<hung-tumba (D) KMUkti, hadKhfttftk* 
bfen eight years a difdple of the great lama at Tibet / where hetft'^/«*^. 
had acquired fuch a reputation in the fchool, that he refolved 
to fet up for himfelf j pretending to be a living Fo as well as 
his maftcr- He played his part fo well, that thofe Kalkas 
adored him as a divinity ; and his b^-other went regularly, on 
fet days, to worfliip him, gave him the upper-hand on all oc- 
cafions, and was intirely manned by him. This pretended 
immortal, by his pride and ill conduA, occafioned the de- 
ftniftion of his family, and the empire of the Kalkas. Shaf- 
/akt4 Khan (E) being thijs kept out of his efFefts, contrary to 
a decree of the aflembly ; fent ambafladors to the grand kma, 
intreating him to interpofe his authority with njhet^ KhAn^ 
and his brother the lama, for a reftitution. The dalay lama 
accordingly difpatched a lama envoy, who, being corrupted . 
with prefents, contented himfelf with fair promifes. Shaf- 
faktu Khdn, defpairing of jufUce from that quarter, fent his 
^cond fon, to befeech the emperor of China to efpoufe his in- 
tereft. At this time the Kalka princes paid a dromedary and 
nine white horfes, by way of tribute, to Kang-hi, for a free 
trade to China : although they were not very regular in the 
payment. H0-eupon his miajefVy difpatched an ambaflador to China i»^ 
the great lama, to engage him to fend, by a time appointed, /^/^/. 
a perfon of cohfidcratlon into the country of the Kalkas ; in 
order to meet a^andee of his court, to difpofe thofe princes 
to an aCcommc^tion, and to prevent a war ^. 

Mean time, ShaJJaM Khdn dying, hiseldeflfon, who was 
in alliance with Kaldan, khan of the ElM^^ his neighbour on 

< Gerbillon ap. Du Halde, ubi fupra. Vol. II. p. 259. 

(D) His name is written dif- (E) By ^is the fon feems to, 

ferently in Gerbillons trails, al- have had the fame name as the 

inoft as often as it occurs ; i;/k. father ; or Shaffaktu was a title 

Chep7:,uin'tamha, Chempfin-tamba^ which defcended in the family^ . 

and Qhunfezun-tumb^^ ^ W^lJ ^s that qf Kk^^ 

Digitized by 


90 Jenghfz Khftn'i Sucajfars B. IL 

Commif- the weft, fucceeded him as khin. The envoy c^ Chtna^ and 
Jioiurs that of the dalay lama, being arrived at the court of TAJheti 
«w#'« Khan^ they convened a fecond time the ftates of the KaUta 
princes. The imperial envoy, named jirghi (F), fat as pre- 
fident oi the tribunal ; which is much of the fame dignity with 
the fix tribunals at Peeking. As the envoy of the great lama (G) 
reprefented his maAer, every one yielded him the firft place, 
excepting the brother of Tujbeti^ Khhi (H) ; who being alfo a 
lama, and prQieiTmg himfelf a living Fo, pretended to be equal 
to the high-prieft hunfelf, and would be treated with the fame 
diftin6tion. The envoys of Kaldan^ who were alfo at the af- 
fembly, to fupport the intereft of their mafter's friend (I), ex- 
claimed againil the pretenfions of the Kalka lama, which they 
looked on as an incroachment on the refpefb due to their com- 
mon pontiff; and, on his making no conceiEon, retired in great 
difcontent. In fhort, to avoid a greater quarrel than that 
which they came to determine, the envoy or the dalay lama, 
' was obliged to confent, tnat the king of Kalka'% brodier fhould 
£t oppofite to him. After this, affairs being foon regulated in 
the affembly, Tujbetii Kh&n, and the khdtiiktu his brother, 
folemnly promifed, that they would faithfully execute what 
had been there agreed up<m. But, when the eftates were fe- 
parated, inftead of keeping dieir engagement, they delayed 
performing it, as before-mentioned, under divers pretences. 
Kaldan Mean time, the Eliith king, oiFended at the little regard 
•fftndid. paid to his envoys, and the affront offered the dalay lama, in 
the perfon of his l^te, being prefled alfo by ShaJfaktA Khm 
to haflen the refUtution of his effects ; fent an ambaflador ta 
Tifbeta Kharu and the lama his brother, to exhort them to 
perform their promife : and efpecially to complain of the lat* 
ter's difputing precedence with the legate of the dalay lama, 

(F) Bentink, in his notes on whence 7u/bitu feem to be ufed 
Jhulgbaxi Khdn^ hifbry of the fynonymonily, as in Juji or Tiv- 
^urks^ Sec. names him J*u€rna Jhi^ the eMeil fon of Jengbui 
Akanayha^ p. 549. Khan. 

(G) He was doubdefs a lama; (1) According to Btntink^ the 
but Bentink fays, he was the quarrel of Kaldan againft Zaim 
dava (or tipa) of T'ibet, who is Khan was on his own accounts, 
the great lama's viceroy, who Bat we muft prefer the account 
governs in his name in fecular of Gerbillon, who received his 
affairs. information from the Cbinefi en-» 

(H) Bentink calls him Zain^ voy, and the mandarins who ac* 

or ZuKM (Juji) Khany prince of companied him. Indeed the qaar« 

the Monguls ; by which muft be rel became, in part, Kaldan^i owiA 

underftood the Kalka ^MonguU^ afterwards. 

ox Mungls, or Juji and Tufri^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. 14; In Tartary onl^. 91 

who had been their common piafter (K). The khutuktfl could 
not bridle his rage, but loaded the ambaflador with irons ; and 
having fent a threatening letter to Kaldan, put himfelf, with 
die khan his brother, at the head erf a great body of troops, 
to furprize Shajfaktu Khdn. That prince, who expefted no- 
thing lefs, falling into the lama's hands, was drowned by his 
order : he alfo put to death one of the moft confiderable tayki's, 
and feized his dFedls. Not content with this, he invaded the 
territories of the Eluth Khan (L) ; and furprifing a brother of 
his (M), cut off his h^d. Then fixing it on a ipear, expofed 
it to public view j at the fame time fending a domeftic of that 
unfortunate prince with a moft abufiv^ letter to Kaldan, 

The khan, although thoroughly enraged, yet ftifled Kisln^va&s 
refentment, till he was in a condition to declare it. Mean time, the Ral- 
he aflembled his people, and next fpring, 1688, approached kas. 
the territories of TuJhetA Khan. The khutuktu, who expefted ^ . D. 
no lefs, had demanded fuccours of the other Kalka princes ; *"8^* 
alleging, that he had put to death ShafjaktA Kh^n^ for having 
entered into a league with Kaldan^ to make war on all the 
other Kalkas, Hereupon moft of thofe princes came, with 
confiderable forces, to the rendezvous on the. frontiers. The 
khan of the Eluths being advanced, and finding the enemy's 
;uTny much fuperior to his own, tliought it beft to encamp, in 
hopes that divifions would foon arife in the army of the Kalkas* 
As he had conjeftured, the chief of one of the moft numerous 
ilandards decamped firft, by night, with all his people, Che- 
ching Kh&n foon followed hi» example ; and all the reft, one 
after anqther, marched off, leaving Tiijbetii, Khdn, and the khu- 
tuktu his brother, with none but the troops of their own 

As {Qon2s Kaldan underftood this, he fell upon the enemy, iWi?l« 
who, making no refiftance, w^re eafily routed (N); the two^^^^- 
brother chiefs, and their families, having had niuch ado to*^^^^- 
efcape, with the lofs of almoft all their baggage, befides the 
greater part of their army and flocks. All the Kalkas of Tti^ 

(K) For Kaldan himfelf had tin}t% account agrees pretty well 
be^bred a lana at Lajfa^ as with that of Gfrbilhn. 
appears afterwards. (M) Bentink calls him Dorzi- 

(L) According to Benthky zap; and fays, he was (lain 
Zaxn (or Tujhetu) Khan, invaded among thofe of the khSn's van- 
the El$ih dominions, by the ad- guard, which was defeated. 
ynctoi Kang' hi tmi^QTGtoi China f - (N) BinHnk (siys^ he got the 
Pzcepting in this particular, ^nd vidtory , by feigning a flight, and 
the occabon of the war, men- thereby inducing Zain Khan to 
tiQ9^4 a np^e pr two before, Ben- divide his forces^ io order to pari 

fae him. 
. • JbctA 

Digitized by 


^z Jcnghiz KMnV Succejfors B. If. 

fieiA KhAn^s family, wherever found, were put to the fword. 
He himfelf was obUged to abandcm his camp, and the khu* 
tuktu his refid«ice, where every thing was plundered or 
. burned ; and two fine temples, which the latter had erefled 
at his own expence, were intirely demolifhed. Kaldan, after 
this, fent troops, with orders to deftroy the country with fire 
and fword ; but efpecially to kill all the Kdkas^ who now fled 
on every fide (O). Tijheti Khdn^ and his brother, having re- 
treated to the foutherii part of the defart, near Chinay fent to 
befeech the emperor Kang-bi to take them under his proteftion, 
and defend them from «n enemy, whofe ambition and cruelty 
they highly exaggerated. His majefly hereupon fent an officer, 
to know of Kaldan his reafon for carrying on the war. The 
khan anfwered, withrefpeft, " That he had undertaken it to 
** revenge the death of his brother ; and refolved to continue 
** it: that he thought no prince would give refiige to fo wicked 
** a man as the Kalka lama ; who being the principal author 
** of fo many barbarities, he was determined to purfue him, 
^* wherever he retreated : that his punifhmcnt equally con* 
■** cerned the emperor ; fince he had fo notorioufly idolated the 
"** path made before his majefty's ambaflador, at the aflembly 
^^ of the ftates, and fliewn fo little regard to his mediation.'* 
Furfues Th£ khutuktfi knowing, that if Kang-hi abandoned him, 
the khu- he mufl: infallibly fall into the hands of his enemy, as the dalay 
$iktu» lama was his utter adverfary ; in order to fecure himfelf, of- 
fered to become the Emperor's perpetual vaflal, with his bro- 
ther, family, and fubjefts: likewife to engage all the other 
\ Kalka princes ; feveral of whom, during this negotiation, foK 
lowed his ex4mple. ^A^cWw^AJ^ dying the fame year, hiswidow 
alfo befought his majefly to receive her fon for his vaflal, and 
invefl him "v^th the title of khan, which was not to deicend to 
his family. Kang-bi, on this, exhorted the EMth Khan to b^ 
content with the deplcM^ble condition to which he had reduced 
his enemies, and dcfifl : but Kaldan remonflrrated, that the em« 
peror was equally concerned to puniih the violation of a treajty 
guarantied by himfelf and the dalay lama. However, he of» 
tered to withdraw, pro^dded the Kalka lama was delivered up, 
to be judged by the fovereign pontiff. But the (7A/«^^monarch 
jinking it unworthy his dignity to abandon princes applying 
to him for refuge ; and, befides, having nothing to fear from 
the RuffianSy fince the l^te treaty of Ni-pqcbeix} (oc Nerchinjloy), 
took the KaJka princes under his prpteAion, and granted them 

, (O) According to Bentinky h^ a horrible flaughter was made: 

fent to the place of liis reiidence and then, with 30,000 men, drove 

pine camels loads of eans and his enemy within ;he wall of 

^cks of h^ir ^ whence he judgcji Cbinft^ 

r I ^' 

Digitized by VjOOQ VL 

C. i4» A Tartary onfy. ^§ 

part of his lands in Tartary to fettle on : v^ch gave occafion 
to the war between him and the khan of the E^hs \ 

This prince, towards the end of Jufy 16^, advanced, /jrwnfo 
at the head of a finall but well difciplined army^ to the iroorthitf^ref 
tiers of the empire. He flew or cnilaved all the Kalkas en- 
camped along the Kerlon^ whofe conrfe he had followed for 
the coQveniency of forage ; and purfued the murderers of his 
brother to the very retreat which the emperor had affigned 
them. On the firft rumonr of Kaldan's march, his majefty 
drew together all the Mungl forces wliich had been his fniA 
jeds from the be^nnii^ of the Manchew monarchy ; and^ be- 
ing encamped without the great wall, are in fome ibrt the 
out-guards of the empire. ^Thefe, reinforced by fome Man' 
chew troops (who ferved as cbnvoys to the prefidents of the 
militia), and the iWwnf/ officers, were CMrdered to the frontiers, 
to obferve the motions of the EUkhs. The two prefidents, 
with a defign to furprife the khin in his camp, amu&d \&a% 
with a treaty of peace ; aftd, when he was kail on his guard, 
attacked him in the night : but they were vigoroufly repulfed, 
and purfued within t^r own territories, where they fecured 
themfelves by tsddng poft on the mountains. 

On this advice, Kang-hi fent a great army from Pe^king^fig^^ '*^ 
which he defignedat firft to command in perfon: but, on^^"*^^* 
bong diffiiaded by his council, appointed his next brother ge< 
neralijlfimo, and ordered his eldeft fon to accompany him. 
Kaldan was pofted to advants^e about fourfcore leagues from 
Pe-king ; where, altho" he wanted artillery, and had but very 
few troops, herefolutdy waited for the enemy. At firft hif 
Tan-guard fufi^ed much fit>m the Chinefe cannon, wMch ob- 
l^ed him to ge^ out of their reach, by chan^ng his poft : but 
as he had a great marfh before him, which prevented his bdng 
farrounded, he defended himfelf with great bravery till n^ht, 
when both parties retired to their camps (P). The general 
of the ordnance, who was the emperor's maternal uncle, wai 
killed, towards the end of the a6lion, by a muiket-ihot| at 
be was drawing off the artillery. 

*> Ger^illon ap. Du Halde, p. 260. 

(P) According to Bentink^ the troops were fo brave, or thofe 

kkkn defeated feverai bodies of the emperor fo bad, that, at 

ieot by Amukn Bogdoy Khan one time, 1000 Kalfnuks (ot 

(fo the Ruffians call the Man- Eluths) beat 20,000 Chinefes i 

tbew emperors of China)^ one and another time 1 0,000 ov^* 

•fter the other ; aad that his threw 80,000. 

I ' Next 

Digitized Joy VjOOQ IC 

94' Jenghte Khin's ^utcejfors E ff* 

comes to a Next day produced a treaty, of which the refult was^ 
treaty ; that Kaldan fhould have leave to retire with his army ; firft 
taking an oath, befbre his Fo, never to return into the territo- 
ries of the emperor, or his allies. In his retreat, part of his 
troops periftied for want ; and his nephew Tfe-vang Raptan^ 
whom he had* left regent, withdrew into a remote country, 
with all who were difpofed to follow him. This was fuch a 
terrible blow to Kaldan^ that he was three or four years re- 
cruiting his army (Q_). However, the imperial generals, at 
their return to Pe^ingy were impeached, altho' they had the 
better in the engagement : for it is a law among the Man^ 
chews f that, if a general gives battle, and obtains not a com- 
plete viftory, he ought to be punifhed. The emperor's bro- 
ther, with fome other general officers, were fentenced to lofe 
three years of their revenue, and the reft to be degraded five 
degrees. They would have fuiFered much' more, but for the 
interpbfition of his majefty : who, on the other hand, beftowed 
extraordinary honours on the meinory of his uncle, killed in* 
the aftibn, whofe eldcft fon fucceeded to his pofts ; and re- 
warded all who diftinguifhed themfelves, as well as the kin- 
dred of the flain and wounded. Next year Kang-hi held an 
aflembly of the ftates of Tartary, wherein all the Kalka 
princes, with one confent, paid him folemn homage. 
rene^sho' The khan of the Eluths continued in the territories for- 
pUtUsi merly belon^ng to Shaffaktu,KhAn, and Tujhetu Kh&a, till 
1 694 ; when, l)eing recruited with frefti troops, he fcoured 
the banks of the .Kerlorty and cut to pieces all the Kalkas 
who fell into his hands. Thence advancing to the borders of 
[ Korchiny hefent propofais to the chief prince, to join with him 
againft the Manchews. " What greater indignity (fays he), 
** than from mafters to become flaves ? We are Mungls, and 
" under one law: let us unite our forces, and regain the 
*• empre, which is outs by inheritance. I will ftiare the glory 
" and fruits of my conquefts with thofe who will ftiare 
" the danger. But if there fhould be any Mungl princes, as 
** I hope there are none, fo bafe as to chufe flavery to the 
** ManchewSy our common enemy, let them expedl to feel the 
" firft efforts of- my arms." The king of Korchin, as a proof 
of the fidelity which he had fworn to the emperor, fent him 
the letter, which made his majefty a little uneafy 2 for, altho* 
he knew the Einths were too weak to venture to attack him, yet 
he did not like a confederacy of tlie Mungl princes, fupported 

( QJ It could not then have but it had perhaps fuffered bc- 
been fo fiuall as 'tis reprcfented ; fore in the expedition. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C.iJ^ JuTartarywfy. 95 

by the dalay lama ; he therefore refolved either to (Qctirpate 
the Eluths, or compel them to a firm and lafting peace, 

WiTJi this view, in 1696 he invaded Tartary ,vfi^ three fV intirely 
armies, in order to inclofe them on all fides (R). One of thefe rouud. 
armies obtained a complete viftory ; while that under the em- 
peror ftruck every place with terror. In fliort, this year, or 
the next, all thefe Tatars were either deftroyed, fubdued, or 
difperfed. The deftruftion of the Eluths was fo great in. this- 
laft war, that, in all thefe vaA countries, there remained no ' 
more than ten or twelve thoufand families of them (S) \ and 
the death of Kaldofi in 1697, while the emperor was torching . 
to feek him out in his retreat, completed their ruin ; the re- 
mains of thefe unfortunate Eluths being obliged to implore his , 
mjyefty's clemency, or take flielter with Tfe-vang Raptariy the\ 
only furviving prince of that people. The war thus ended, 
we are told that Kang-hi became abfolute mailer of all the em- 
pire of the Kalkas and Eluths ; and extended his dominions in 
Tartary as far as the great defarts and forefts which make the 
firontiers of R^|Jia K But this is to be underftood' of the EU^tb 
dominions gained chiefly from the Kalkas on the eafi: of mpunt . 
Jltay : for it does not appear, that the Chinefis made any con- 
quefts in the country to the weft of that grand barrier which 
remained in ppfleffion of Tfe-vang Raptan, 

Having brought down the hiftory of the two firft MungineEXtibA^ 
branches, the Mungls properly called, and the Kalkas, to ih&hipry. 
prefent time, it remains to handle that of the ElMs : but 
here our memoirs are ftill more fcanty and imperfeft. It does 
not appear, from any authors yet come to our hands, either when, 
or on what occafion, the Mungl tribes, who go under the 
denomination of EMths, threw off their dependency on the 
Mungl khins reigning at Karakorom (or m the eaftern parts of 
Tartary), and affumed that name ; or by what fteps tiiey ar- 
rived at fo great a power, as to become fuperior td the other 
two branches of Mungls, There is one circumftance, how- 
eva-, namely, that the khans of the Eluths are not de- 
(cended from Jenghtz Khdn, but Timlir Beg, or Tamerlan, 
which might afford fome light into the queftion, provided we 
were fnre they were all of the fame family from the firft of 
them : for then it would follow, that their empire did not be- 

* Gerbillon. ap. Du Halde> p. 257. 261. 

(R) Bentink fays, his army (S) Our author Gfr^r//to fays, 

conHfted of 300,000 men, ac- that Raptan found no more 

coxnpanied with 300 pieces of Eluths remaining when he came 

canooik to fucceed his uncle. 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

5^ Jengblx KhaaV Succeprs B. IL 

gjtf ^ after the year 1400, perhaps about the time of tong- 
lo : who, having reduced the fucceflbrs of HA-pi-lay^ or ATi/-* 
hlay Khdriy and the Mungls in the eaft, to a very low ebb, 
gave thofe more at a diftance, in the weft, an opportunity of 
throwing off thdr dependence, and fetdng up a khan or khans 
of their own. 
OnchonV However that^be, we find nothing confidcrable of the 
mfortum. Eliths^ till about eighty years ago (T) ; at which time, we ar€ 
told, all the ElAth branches were united under one cWef, or 
king, called Ochirtu-chechin Khan. Prince Jblay^ his brother, 
having rebelled, was defeated, and forced to retire a vaft way 
towards Siberia. - The khan had under him feveral petty 
princes of his femily called Tayki (U), who were abfdute in 
thdr refpeftive territories, and paid him what homage and 
tribute they pleafed. One of them, Patiri H4mj was very 
rich, and had been nuich honoured for his exploits in thd 
wars of Tibet. He left feveral children, of whom Onchon, 
the eldeft, fucceeded him. This prince, during the wars with 
the Hajfak P4r4h (X), falling fick of the fmall-pox in his 
camp, was, according to the ciiftom of the Mungls in that 
<Hftemper, left alone in his tent ; which the Mohammedan Ta-^ 
tars, pofted oppofite to the ElMs, took pofleflion of, and, 
with proper care, recovered the fick prince. 
fiain hy ONCHON^ not thinking it proper to difcover his quality, 
ficngha. ferved three years as a common flave ; during which, the fe- 
cond brother Sengha, not doubting of his death, married his 
wife. At length the prince difcovered hinafelf to the Hajfaks 9 
and promifing, upon oath, in cafe they releafed him, never 
to repew the war, they fet him at liberty, and gave him a 
guard of one hundred men to cfcort him into his own terri- 
tories. Being arrived on the borders of them, he difpatched 
a courier to acquaint his brother with his adventure and re- 
turn. Sengha, gready furprifed, confulted his wife, to know 
whom flie would chufe in fuch a conjunfture. The lady 
anfwered, that flie had married him on a prefumption that her 
^6rft hufband was dead : but, fmce he was living, ftie was in* 

(T) This muft be underftood (U) OrTaygbi. Tlit Ruffians 

itom the time Du Halde wrote, call them Tayfiia, and Tayflii. 
tkot Gerbil/o/i i otherwife it will (X) So the Eluibs call the 

carry this faJSt back to about the Uzbek Tartars, who, in return^ 

year i6io» which is too high up nickname them Kdlfnuks ; and 

for the father of Kaldan : we from them this name came to 

thfrefore fuppofe Chechin Khan us^ by way of the Rt^am., 
to nave been in this power about 
the year 1650 or. 165$. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. i^. Ih Tartary only. $i 

difpeniably obliged to return to him. Sengha^ whofe love Was 
equal to Ws ambition, under pretence of honour, fent trufty 
pofons to maflacre the prince, and all his retinue. The crima 
being committed, he gave out, that he had defeated a party 
of Haffak P^ruJts, without mentioning any thing of his bro- 
ther. But, the murder foon coming to light, 'one of the bro- 
thers, by the fame mother as Onchon, aflembled forces to re- 
venge his death ; and, having killed Stngha, reftored the fon 
of Onchon to his father's poflcffions. 

KALDAN^ third fon of Pat^ri-hum Tayki, by Sengha'% Kaldan* 
mother, had been educated by the grand lama of Tibet ^ as one rrvenge. 
of his principd difciples ; after which he fettled at the court 
of Ochirtu-checbing Kidn (♦), who treated him with great marks 
of difltndion. This prince, having had notice of the fore- 
goii^ tran&ffions, alked leave of the high pontiff to quit the 
profeflion, ia order to go and revenge the death of his bro-^ 
ther. Leave being granted, he immediately formed an army 
of Sengha^s old domeftics, and fome troops lent him by Ochir^ 
ti ; With which he took vengeance on the murderers, and fdzed • 
on all the effeAs of his brother, as well as the eftates of Sengha. 
He then married the prince's chief wife, the daughter of 
OchirtA Khdn ; and, his forces increafing daily, he found him- 
iclf in a condition at laft to difpute the kingdom with his 
fether-in-law, to whom he owed his prefcnt fortune. * 

A qjJARREL between their fubjefts was a pretence for de- Crented 
daring war ; after which he marched with his army into the kbdn. 
country of Ochirtit, who received him at the head of his troops. 
The fight was near the great lake Kizalpt^y where KaMan got 
the viftory; and, having taken his father-in-law prifoner, 
caufed his throat to be cut, the better to fecure the con<^ueft 
of his dominions : thus he became the head of all tht El/iths. 
The great lama, to reward his perfidioufnefs and crnfelty, gave 
him the title of khan (Y), that is, king, or emperor. Frpm , 
chat tune Kaldan (Z) enjoyed his conquefts, and had no wars 

(*) Tht OMurfi Khan of , (Z) Bentink calls him Sofi§ 

Avrifs im^rfcH SLCConnt, Sep or Bofugto Khan\ rather, perv 

lii» Trav. p. 150, & fcq. haps, Bujfuktu khan.. Bujfuk 

{V) Gtrbilhfn fays it ihould be fignifies broken^ ^he n^me given 

written Han^ inflead of Khan 5 by Ogim Khan to his three eldeft 

Hami for Kami ; Halkas for KaU fons, according to Abulghdzi 

kasi and the like. But, as the Khan, Hill. Turks, &c. p. 2|. 

H is a ftrong afpirate, or guttu- Bujfuktu feems to have been his 

raly it feems beft exprefTed by title, or furname, and iuz/^/ffT? his 

Kb^ as it ought to be written, proper name. The fame author 

and not with a fiogle K or C, fays he ufually. encamped on the 

as is commonly the pradice. lake Tamijh^ and in the neigh- 

bourin^r defarts. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. V. G ^but 

Digitized by 


1^ . Jcnghlz Khan'j Succejfors B. II. 

but vfith tht Hafak Piruks {or Uzbeks) till 1688, whca he 
invaded and fubdued the Kalkas : but> carrying his refentment 
. too far (A), he was ruined in his turn by the emperor of CAi- 
na ^y as hath been already fct forth. 
ffitally BE NT INK relates the drcunxilanc^ of the khan's death, 

ikf44^ttd^ which might be more eaf4y known to thi^RuJftans than xhtChine/es. 
According to this author, the lofs of the laft battl6 did not fo much 
^ift the Elfith prince as the death of his wife Gum, or Jni, who 
was flain in the route. Her body having been found among 
the dead, the emperor caufed the head to be cutoff, and cu- 
rled it along with . him to adorn his triumph. Provifions and 
forage beginning to fail in the neighbouring mountains, where 
he Imd witji difficulty efcaped, moft of his followers and hqrfes 
died for hunger ; fo that he returned almpft alone into his 
own dominions, where he fpent two years in great affliction, 
cxpofpd to the reproaches of his fubje<5ls. Percdving he had 
nothing for it but to negotiate the affair, he fent his fon Sep* 
tenbaldius to the dalay lama, to defire his mediation, which 
he before flighted. But Ab(toUah Begy governor of the city 
of Khamul (B), altho* dependent on the khan, c^uf^ him and 
his fmajl retinue to be feized in paffing thro' his government, 
^nd fent thepi to the emperor ; who cut off their heads, and 
confirmed the traitor in his poft, 
T^fons The news of this difafter threw the khan into defpair. H^ 

himjilf. affembled all his fubje^s, exhorted them to live in peace and 
tinity ; and then, giving them liberty to retire every one where 
be jdeafed, tookpoifon, and died. This was the end of Bojiq 
KhMy a prince of great genius and valour ; who, by a (eries 
of fucceffes, had njade himfelf terrible to all his enemies, and 
acquired a great deal of glory. 
Succeeded kJL,DJN '^ras fugceeded by his nephew, ddeft fon of 
4; Raptan Sengha, called T/e-vang Rapt an (C). This Raptan is faid be- 
fore to Jiave left his uncle's court, while abfent in the war s 

* Gbrbillon ap. Da Halde, p. 257. 

'(A) We think Kang-hi was the Ma»^//, who are fubje£b to 

to blame for protecting, and not China, Bentink calls him Zigam 

'giving up, the murderers of his J^raptan^ which is the n^me ufcd 

^^lly and brother, whom ir<z/^^« hy \\i^ Rujpam. -Which of theni 

iiad ? right to demand. is the true name, if cither b^, 

(8) fG}amil,ox Hami (as the we cannot tell; all nations hav- 

Cbhie/es pronounce it), at the ing that ill cuftom of corrupting 

very eaftern extrepity of Little or i^npofing nances. However, 

P^kharia, and edge pf tbc great that of Araftan^ Raf tatty or Rdth^ 

fiefart between it and China. ' datt, a? it is alfo fpelt, doubdefs 

^C) This is the name he went belongs to it. Perhaps Z/^rt» is 

by in Qhitta^ and perhajps among a corruption of T/e-^vang, 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

C.i4» In Tartary only. , 99 

and, by carrying away the greater part of his forces, much his •#- 
diftrcflfed him in his affairs *. The occafion of his defertibn /^<*k^ 
was this. A princefs, daughter of OcMrt/i Khdn^ had been pro- - * 

mifed him in marriage : but Kaldan^ felling in love wth her, 
took her firom him ; and, not content with this injuftice to his 
nepheWy hired afliaffins to murder him; who, mifling their 
blow, only ftruckout one of his eyes. But Bentink fays, his 
eye was fhot out accidentally, by one of his domeftics, when 
hanting ; and that his flight happened a little before die war 
ifl 1688, on the following occafion. The khan, who bred up 
at his court three of his brother's fons, took an averfion to 
the ddeft ; and, finding no caufe to put him to death, he had 
recourfe to a man of great ftrength, who, under pretence of 
wreftling with the young prince, handled him fo roughly, that 
a few dajrs after ie died. Ztgan Araptariy the youngeft of 
the three, alarmed at fuch a proceeding, which the khin would 
have put off as an accident, fled with his friends and domef- 
tics : nor could his other brother Dankhinamb&y whom the khan 
fcnt after him, prevail with him to return. Altho* his eldeft 
brother might have been of a haughty turbulent fpirit, as the 
other reprdented ; yet he was relolved, he faid, not to truft 
an uncle who was capable of committing fo unnatural a 

As foon as Arabian (or Raptan)y who kept hidden all this His injial* 
while, heard of Ws uncle's death, he prefented himfelf to the nunt. 
KahnAks, and demanded the fuccefiion ; which they could not 
deny him, as being next heir. The B4khars (or thofe of X 

little Bukhdria), whom Bufuktu Khdn (or Kaldan) had con- 
quered fome time before, followed then- example ; and the 
other provinces, which refufed to come in of themfelves, were 
obliged to it by arms. When things were thus fettled, the 
Bukhars condufted him one day to an agreeable grove, con- 
lifting of not more than a hundred trees, very buftiy, and of 
a particular kind : where, after being feafted by him for fome 
days, they folemnly invefted him with the title of Kontaijby 
which fignifies a grand monarch ; forbidding, under pain of 
death, to caU him by his former name. This prince well de- 
fcrved that diftinftion, as having been endowed with great 
talents : he was remarkable for his genius and mildnefs (D), 
courage and piety *. 


' Bbntink apiid AbMgh. hift. Turks, ilrc. p. 252, U fcq» 
* Idem ibid. p. 253. Girbillon ap.Du Halde, p. 257. 

(D) Btntinhy as an inftancc of not only ^>ardor a I the domeftic 
his moderatioii.. tells o8> that ic who had fliot lis eye out, but 

Digitized by 


100 - Jct\i^hVi\^n^s Succejfors fc. it. 

Conquirt ThE hcw khan at firft liv«i quietly in his territories, with. 

Tibctt all but the U^eks^ and encouraged agriculture ; his flpcks not 
affordii^ competent fubfiftefice to his people : but his actions 
afterwards fhewed, that he was no lefs enterprifing than hia 
lincle Kaldan. No6*long after his advancement to the thronci 
Ydrkian {Irghen^ or Jurkent), capital of K^gar^ revolting, 
h^ reduced it by force, and feverely puniihed the rebels. 
About the year 1 703 Jyuka (or ^yuki)^ one of his coufins^ 
flying from his court, under pretence that he was in fear of 
Jiis lif(^, paflcd the river Jdik^ with the tribe of TargautSy and 
put himfeif under the proteftion of Rvjfia^. About 1716. 
Kontaijb conquered Tib^t ^ : but, four years after, the pro^ 
vinces of Khamil and Turf An, in Little Bukhdriay were takea 
from him by the Chin^Sy on the following occafion. Kon» 
faijb having been informed, that there was, to the eaft of the 
Cfeat Gbbi (Kohi)^ or Defart, at the foot of the mountains 
which feparate his lands from thofe of China, a gold mine, iS 
rich, that it might be worked without much trouble, he fent 
pne of his murfas (E), with io,oqo men, to take poflefficm of 
it ; but the- Chincfes and/ MungJs, fallii^ on them in great 
numb^s, routed, and purfued them to the defart. This the 
Kdlmuks r^pafled, by favour of certain very fertile vallies, hid- 
den by the h*^ mountains which crofs the Gnbi on that fide 
fron> \fcii to eaft, and were till then unknown to the Chi^ 

Ifojfef in TifE late emperor J^ang^hi, to try if any Advantage could 

Bufehairiji, be made of this difcovery, fent a powerful army that way^ 
with a gppd train of artillery, under his third fon (F) 5 ac- 
companied, as was faid, by a Jefuit, very underftanding in for^ 
tifications and firerworks, to affift him with his advice in this 
expedition. That prince, having pafTed the defarts by the 
fame rpad which the Kalmyks followed in their retreat, entered 
the provinces of Khamil and Turf an ; and, finding that Kqu-^ 
taifb advanced to meet him with a fine and numerous cavalry, 
againft whom he durft not vepture his army in the vaft plains 
pf thole provinces, he bethought himfeif of building forts a| 
proper diftances, which ^ took care to furnifli very well with 

" Gerbii.lon, uhi fup. p. 257, Bentin«, ubi fnpra, p. 539, 
• G^RBiL. ibid. p. 384, 386, 

li)fo gave him his libcrity, \o Jian word Nkrza, which figni* 

make hi^ amejids fcr tile dan- £es PtiHce. 

ger he had run of lof ng his life (F) He (acceded his fatker 

<m that ocpafioTii b^th^ enraged In 1726, nndcr the aame or 

fCakmtOs: . . ... txddiii tofg'citing. 
{Jf,) A corru ption of thecPv*- 

^ 1 cannoi 

Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C. u ii»Kipj&k, #riC4pohakf « loi 

caonpa ^4 iofentry. By favour of thpfe forts he adranced 
condnually forwards in the lands of IContaj/b, and made hlm- 
&lf at length intire mafter of the aforefaid provmces ; the 
f(aJnmks not being able all that vhile to bring him to a battle. 
UiSi^is^VfoiiKwtaj/h, who faw it was impoffibk fof him 
^ repd the Chine/es without infantry and ordnance, the ufe of Offert H 
iriiicii h^ been till then unknot tl to the Kalmttks ; in the year ^ullia. 
^?Q fent emba/EuJors to Pet&r I. emperor of RuJJioy then at 
«!&; Petirpmrgy oSeriog to become tributary to him, provided 
^ wouU fend lo^Qoo r^ular troops, with cannon^ to his 
afliftance; obli^ng hiinfelf with that fmall aid, to drive the 
Qmefis out ugain : ^)«t the war with Sivtdctiy which was then 
on foot, joined to the views which the epperor Peter began to ' 

have uppn Perfia,^ hindered him from accepting of thefe ad- 
vantageous propofals. Mean time the Chinejfes feized all which 
Wonged to Kontaijh, lying to the eaft of the defarts, toTVards 
m^ frontiers oiChfmt -and have there fettled colonies of Idungh j 
lipt did not meddle witji the territories of the dalay lama p. 
.Jiowevcr, that prince muft have recovered thofe territories not 
191^ after; iince we are informed by GauhiU that, in 1726, ^^^^^^ 
.^ Tatars of Hami (or Khamil) and Turfdn, as well as Jk/ti, jt^i 
JCiftjgoTy Irghen (or Jarkien), and Anghien (G), were then ^jj •^' 
4[iader his prxite(SUon. His refidence was called Harkas (or 
T^^g^f)* on the river JU ** (by fome called Konghis), of which 
an accoumt has been given in our defcription of Tartary. 


C H A p. I. 

^ht Hiftory of Juji, or Tuflii Khin, and bis defcend^ 
snts^ who reigned over the Kipjaks, wilh that of the 
kbdns of Krim Tartary, 

THE Ki/>JMs, or Kipchdks (A), inhabit the weftcm part Kfjjfrtrti 
of Tartary ; and formerly their country was of very thetr 
great extent, comprifmg the vaft plains reaching in ctmntty^ 
ireadth from the Cafpian fea to the borders of Ruffia^ v^iich 


"^ Bentink, ubi fup. p. 546, §: feq. * Sot^ciET. ObC 

Math. &c. p. 176, 177. 180. 

(G) D'^rviik, in Ids map, p. 179.) (ays, it lies fome Uapi^ 
places this town on the river to the fouth of the fource of 
i>, or Sihun, about fixty miles that river. 
N. W. froip its fource; but (A) They are called alfo ^>- 
QauhiJ, in Soumet [Oh/i Math, chdks, Ka^dks, and RafJhMs, by 

Q a authors. 

Digitized by 


*I02 Tcnehiz Khiin's Succejfors B'.II?: 

; narrow bounds; and extending 
enest weftward, a confiderable way 
the Cafpian fea : fo that not only 
md Kajfariy belonging at prefent to 
^» ewife all Little Tartary^ and feme 

. es of Europe^ were included in it^ 

rge empire. This is to be under- 
iteft extent : nor does it feem tb 
lan thefe laft-mentioned countries, 
enghtz Khdriy reduced it under his 

I. Jugi We have already mentioned the exploits 'of Jujiy or Tujbi 

Khan. (B), who accompanied his fiither in the war againft Mohammed 
Karafm Shah, The khan was fo pleafed with his conduft, 
tliat he foon after gave him the fovereignty of KipjAk, the 
country of the Jetah, or Getes, and Turkejldn^ This prince 
fettled his refidence in KipjM : where, after making confidera- 
ble conquefts, he died in the year 1226, fix months before 

* . . his father ; much regretted both by the Mttnghy and his new 
fubjefts. We have but few materials from whence to give 

•^ . • our readers a fatisfaf^ory hiftory of the fucceflbrs of Juji Khdn, 

* ' in this part of the 7i/a';2j/ empire : for we are beholden chiefly 
to no more than two funds, and thofe very fcanty ones, being 
little elfe than lifts or catalogues of the khins : one, com- 
municated by JbH^gh^zi Khdn, of Karazm, m his hiftory of 
the Turks, Moguls, and Tatars ; the other by De la Croix, 
at the end of his hiftory of Jenghiz Khm. Thefe catalogues 
difagree likewife conftderably with each other, as to the names 
and number of the khins, as well as the dates of aftions. For 
jnft^nce, De la Croix reckons forty-one khans to Haji Keray, 
f>v Ghctay Khaa ; and Mulghazi KhAn only feventeen : but 
wechufe to follow the* latter, as he was a defcendant oi Juji^ 
and reigned in a country not far from Kipjak, Whence it may 
.,..,. be pcefumed, that he was better acquainted with the hiftorv 

^^ ' / ^ of that region than the Perfian authors, from whom De fa 
^ , Croix made his extract; and the rather, as we have alrieady 
obferved,. D'Hcrbelot informs us, that the oriental authors 
liavc not tranfniittcd the hiftory of uny of the branches of the 
'MioigJ empire with tolerable exaftnefs ; excepting that which. 
'reigned in Pcrjia, of whlth Hulagd was the founder. • 

'TL\i%\\<^fs\ as 1 arh"' been \ ^ready pain country, confining of wide 

Val^en r.otrccr of. Tbeir-land^is extended plains.- 
na^mzd Dei/, t Ki'ija^, ortheP/hw (B) And Chuchi^ as written in 

'5/* Kipj^k, from its being a cham- the Chiftefi hiftory* 

«• "' Upom 

Digitized by VjOOQ iL 

C« u h Kipjak, 9r Kapcbik. ^O^ 

Upon the death of Jufi Khdni his father fent immecliately t. fi&ta 
his brother Bdgatay Utezkim into Dajbt Kipjdk, in order to Khan, 
create Batd (C) (or Baclu)^ khan, in the room of his fathtt, A. D* 
Thatprkice went to meet his grand uncle, and condufted '**^* 
him to the ufual place of his refidence, where he was put in 
polleffion of the throne ; but the foiemnity was fcarce over, 
when news arrived of the death of JmgMz KhAn. Hereupon 
Utezkim returned immediately to Karakum (or Ktirakor9m)^ and 
was followed by BatUy called alfo Saghin KhAn^ accompanied 
by his brothers, exceptii^ Ti^^jf Tivdr^ the youngeft ; who, on 
this occafion, was left as regent during his abfence. Being 
arrived . at court with the reft, they affifted at the inftalment of 
Ugaday^ or Oktay KhAn^ whom afterwards they accompanied 
m his expedition to IQtay. 

The grand khan, pleafed with the conduft and bravei-y 
which he had obferved in Batti Saghin KhAn^ at his return 
gave him a numerous army to go and fubdue the Uris^ of 
Rujfiansy Cherkaffians, BuIgarSy and other neighbouring na- 
tions. He likewife ordered his fon- Kayui, who lucceeded him, 
Mangu (or Mengko), fon of Tawlay (or Toley)^ and Baydar^ 
fon of Jagatay KhAn, to bear him company in this weftem 

On his, return to KipjAk, Togay TimUr feafted him and all tils con-^ 
the princes fplendidly for three days. After this, BatA gave> quifts^ 
in his turn, a feaft, which lafted forty days ; at the end of 
which he fet forward on his intended conquefts. His expedi- 
tion was crowned with the fuccefs which, fays our author, 
every-body knows ; and the khan, having filled all the weft 
with the glory of his great exploits, at length returned to 
J^ajbt KipjAk, where he died fomc time after, in the capital^ 
of the country, called Kok-Orda ». De la Croiy: puts this event 
of his death in 1256 (D) ; and fays, he conquered the Alans ^ 
JJfiteSy Ruffians or MufcoviteSy Bulgars, and feveral other 
cations : that, a^ofCng thro' Ruffia, he even ravaged PgUnd, 

* Abulghazi Khan. hi{t« Turks, &:c. p. 19J, Sc feq. 

(C) Called alfo Baatu, Batty Batu wjts of the religion of 
and Badu ; which, according to Jenghiz Kkdrty which confifted 
Kondamiry fignifies Jlrength and folely in the worihip of God* 
hardnefs in the Mogul language. He, by his authoiity, eftablifhed 
D'Herbclot. Bibl. Orient, art. Mangu Kk&n on the thrdne of 
Baiu. the Munglsy in the caft of ^ar- 

(D) Wtierheht^ from Konda- tary \ and even facilitated the 
*i'r, or Mirkondy does the fame 5 conquell of China, Bibl. oricn^* 
fo that he reigned thirty years, p. 190, art. Baci^. 

G 4 Moravia^ 

Digitized by VjiU\._/VlV^ 

I04 Jen^ Ki^'s Succeffors MIL 

Moravia, and Dalmatia. Then marched mtx) Hungary, with 
a deiign to go and befiege Conftantinople, but was prevented by 
death ; which contradifts Ahulghdzi KhMs account, who foytf 
he died in Kipchdk. De la Croix adds^ that Bati perfonned 
feveral other confiderable expbits, and was reported to havft 
been the moft Uberal and generous prince in the world *>. 

3. Burgha BA TU Saghin Khan was fucceeded by his brother Burgha .• 
Khan. who, on that occafion, gave a very magnificent fbaft to aU his 

vaflai lords \ and diAributed feveral confiderable prefents aoKM^ 
the chief of them. Nor did he forget to fend fome ci an ek* 
traordinary richnefs to Koplay {Kublay, or H&'fn-lay) KiAty 
in order to obtain his confirmation of the choice which his 
fubjefts had made of him in the room of Bati. Bvrgha 
Khdn reigned with no lefs glory than juf&e, and was muck 
dreaded by all his neighbours. One time, as he was on the 
road to vifit Koplay Khdn, he met with merchants of great 
■Mukhdria ; and, faUing into difcourfe with fome of them about 
the M<ihammedan worfliip, was fo affefted with the account 
they gave of it, that he forthwith embraced that reli^n. 
He alfo in time brought over his younger brother T&gay Thnur, 
who accompanied him ; and, at his return, published an order 
for all his fubjefts to embrace Mohdmmedijm : tut he died, 
faith our author, before he could complete fo falutary a work, 
after he had reigned twenty-five years ^. De ia Croix fays, he 
reigned but ten, and that he died in 1266 ; but, by Jbulghdzi 
Khdn's account, which we prefer, his death mufl ^ave hap- 
pened in 1 28 1 . The firft of thefe authors, befides taking no- 
tice that Bereke, as he calls Burgha, turned Mohammedan, 
adds, that he was engaged in a very bloody war with Hulaku 
Khdn oL Perfia ; and that afterwards, being defirous to exe- 
cute part of Batu's defign, he marched as far as Conftantino* 
pie, ravaging all the country in his paffage **. 

4. Mangu BURGUA Khdn had for his fucteflbr his brother Mengu 
Timur 7^mur (E), who was a prince of much ^urs^e and condu6l. 
Khin. Some time after his advancement to the crown, he gave a 

tribe, fubjeft to him, called Ak Orda (or The IVhite Orda), to 
Behadr Khdn, fon of Sheybani Khdn ; and the cities of Kaffa 
and Krhn to Ordn Timur, fon of Togay Timir. After this 

** De la Croix, hift. Gengh. p. 387. * Abuloh. uU 

fup. p. 195. ^ De LA Croix, ubi fup. p. 387. 

(E) Dc la Croix fays, he was named J&Vi, which was the name 

named Mongatmur , or Manku- of Jenghix Khan% great great 

. tern ; 'that he was the fon of grandfather. HiH. Genghifc. 

Z>->^rt/r, thcfonof^a/K, andfur- p. 387,&fc^. 

% ■* . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C i: . In Kip^, or Kapchak. . 105 

he took the field ^[ainft the Bulgars ; and haviag, In tWo 
years, made confiderable conqnefts on that fide, returacd to 
bb own dominions. From thence he not long after marched 
towards the country of IrAn (or Perjia at large), i^nft 
Ahka (or JMa) KMn, who came to an amicable i^eement 
with him ; which continued with fo much friendftup,* that 
every year they fent each othd: prefents. But his fBcceflbr 
Ahmedy fon of HidcM KhAn^ hxvmg been flain by his {Mka's) 
(on Argun ; as foon as the news reached the court of Mengd 
Tim^ KhAn, he fent Tarkay and Turkuchayy two of his ge- 
nerals, with 80,000 men, towards the frontiers of IrAn. On 
advice of this, Argun Kh&n detached AnAr T^gatur^ one of 
his beft officers, with a good body of troops, to meet them, 
and followed in perfon with all his forces. The two anhies 
coming to an engagement, in a place called Karahakh (F), 
that of Mengu TmAr was defeated ; -whidi afflifted him fo 
much, that he died foon after®. 

Upon his deceafe, Tuda MangU (G), fon of BaftlitMn, r^^^ 
afoended the throne of KifjAk : but, as he overburdened his Meng^ * 
fubjefts with taxes, Tokhtagit^ fon of Mengu Thnur Kh&n\ Khan, 
thought himfelf obliged to reprefent to him the injuftice of 
his conduft. This was taken fo ill by the khan, that he wajj 
conffrained to leave the country : however, he found means to 
return thither not long after, at the head of a powerful army ; 
and, having gained a battle, m'wVich.'Tuda Manguwzs flain, 
got himfelf to be acknowleged khJn. > 

TOKHTAGU Khdn (H) reigned with the Univerfal ap- 6. Tokh- 
plaufe of his fubjefts, and fubdued a great number of neigh- tagu 
bouring cities : but he was carried pfF by death in the midft Khan« 
of his conquefts, after a reign of fix years ; and was buried 
in the city of Shari Sarayjik (I), purfqant to his laft direc- 

l/Z^^JTfucceeded his father Tokhtagu\ and, though but 7 Uzbet 
thirteen years old, reigned with much prudence and refolu- Khan. 

* Abuloh. ubifup. p. 195, &fcq. 

(F) Or Karahag, called alfo (H) De la Croix calls him 
^ttr^ag Arrant a noted place in Jokta^ or Beigaha, 

Arran (a part of Armenia near (I) This feems to be the fame 

the river Arras)^ famous for fc- place with^/^or/ Saray: the ruirw 

veral battles fought there. of which are on the eaft fide of 

(G) In place of this prince the Wolga^ a little to the north 
*^e la Croix puts Kaxas^ fon of ofZarizaf or Zaraygrood; uRu/- 
Jazax (called alfo TuJatenkay], fian city, on the weft fide, in the ^ 
fon of Dogan. part where that river and tly 

Dan approach each oth^r. 


» Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

io6 Jenghfz KhanV Sacajfofi % IIL 

tiOD. He introduced the Mohammedan worftip thro' all the 
provinces of his dominioos ; which procured him the afledUoQ 
of his fubjefts to fuch a degree, that, as a proof of it, they 
affumed the name of Uzbeks^ which they have ever fince re- 
tained, and never had before. After this event^ Uzbek Khan. 
tried his fortune twice againft Jbu Said Kh&n^ who reigned 
in Iran: but without reaping any advantage by thofe expedir 
tions ; and died at his return from the laft ^ According to 
Kondamtr^ the firft of thefee}fpeditions was in the year 1 3 1 8 ; 
the fecond in 1335 ; occafloned by ^z^^i's laying daim to the 
<crown of Irdn ^, An account of thefe expedition? will be given 
hereafter in the reign of Jbufaid, one of the fucceflbrs of Hu-^ 
lagu» De la Croix, probably by fome miftake in the pointing 
of bis author, calls this prince Ertek ; and fays, he is reckoned 
the founder of the tribe named Rus Ertek : it fliould be Rus 
Uzkek. He makes him alfo the fon of 2«/, the fon of Kili ^ 
before-mentioned . 
8. Jani UZBEK Khdn had for his fucceflbr, in the throne of the 
BekKhan Kipjdks, his fon jani Bek, who got the reputation of a very 
virtuous and devout M(J)ammedan. He ufually refided in the 
city of Shari Sarayjii, and continually applied himfelf to the 
good of his fubjefts. During his reign, Maiek AJhrif, fon of 
Timur Tajb^ had feized the kingdom of Jzcrbejan in Irdn^ and 
the neighbouring provinces : but, as he was a great tyrant, and 
led a fcandalous life, many of his fubjefts left the coun- 
try, and went over to Janibek Khan* Among the reft was 
Mohuzo'ddhiy a chief man of the law : who, pne day, in* ex- 
pounding the Kiirdn in the Masjid (or molk), before the khan, 
and a great many perfons of ran^k, took an occafion to touch 
on the fcandalous life of MaUk Afir^f', and then addreiEng 
himfelf to Jani Bek, told hin^, that, in cafe he did not do his 
utmoft to put an end to the infamous conduct of that tyrant, 
both he (the preacher) and his fubjefts would accufe him, 
before the throne of God, o£ all the evil which might accrue 
from thence. 
conquers THIS menace made fuch an impreflion on the mind of Jani 
Azeibi- Bek Khdn, that he, without delay, afTembled all his forces, 
Jan. and marched into Ir^n : where, having defeated and (lain 

Malek Ajhrhfy he feized all his dominions, with his treafured^ 
which he divided among his fubjedts, amounting to 400 ca- 
mels load in goods and jewels, bcfides other valuable eflfcft^. 
After this, leaving his fon Birdi Bck to govern the conquered 

^ Abulgh. tibi fup. p. 197, & feq. e D^Herbelot, 

Plbl. orient, art. AbufaVd ben Algiaptii. *» De la CroijC, 

ubi fup. p. 38S. 


Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

tu In Kipj&k, or Kapchlk. tcf 

provinces, he returned to hb own dominions. There falling Gck 

immediately on Ws arrival, he difpatched couriers to his fon, 

that he might fee him before he died ; but, finding death not 

wiUmg td allow him fo much time, he enjoined the lords of his 

court to acknowlege Birdi Bek for their fovereign. Soon after 

this he expired, and was buried in Shari Sarayjik, in the year 

of the Hejrah 7 58 (of Chrift 1 356), after he had reigned fcven 

years K De la Croix, with more probability, places the death 

rf Jani Bek in 1349 (K), The fame authof* fays, that he 

marched by the wky of Derbend {in Sbirwdn) into AzerbejAn ; 

which had been lifurped from the children of j4M/a}d by Ma- 

lek jtfbrqf^ who had been his waift*, or vizir ^. 

. BIRDI Bekyhdng detained, by affairs of importance, in 9. Birdi 

Ae provinces of Irariy for two years after his father's death (L), BekKhfiik 

at length arrived ; and, having fpent three days in lamenting 

'that lofs, caufed himfelf to be publicly acknowleged khan. 

After this, he abandoned himfelf intirely to tyranny, and a 

bmtifh life. As he reckoned he had a long time to live, he 

-put to death A\ his relations ; for fear any of them fhould at- j 

tempt to thnlft him 6ut of the throne, which he poflefled fo | 

unworthily.' But his debaucheries fooh put an end to His 

life, which happened in Hejrah 762 : and as, with this khan, Hcj. 762. 

the pofterity of Mengi Tmir KhAn became extin6f, ^ the A. D. 

icqptre of the countries of KipjAk was conferred on the other 1360. 

d^ndsLTits p[ Juji khdn K 

After the death of Birdi Bek Khan, Uris Khdn, fon of 10. Urus 
Sadakul Oglan, fon of Khoja, fon of Jvas Tim^r, fon of To- Khan. 
gay 7m4r, youngeft fon of Jvji Khdn, feized the fceptre of 
the Kipjdks, and reigned for fome years very peaceably : till 
at length Toktamjb (M) (or Tokatmijh), defcended from To- 
gay Timttr, by another branch, attempted to thruft him from 
tiie thrones but, his troops having be^ defeated - by f/r?/x 
Khan, he was obliged to fly for refuge to Jmtr Timur {or Ta- 
merlon) f who refidcd at Samarkani, in Great Bukhdria, A few 

* Abuloh. nbifup, p. 198. '^ De la Croix, ubi fup. 

j>. 388. ' ^ Abvlgh. ubi fup. p. 199. 

(K) Taking from thence fe- Kond^mr, happened fcven years 

yen years, for that khan's reign, before. Perhaps y,3«/;5^/f reigned 

It Will bring the death of JJ^ek longer than feven years. 
Khan to IJ42. This does not (L.) De la Croix fa/s he lefjt 

agree with th^ account of Abul- Tauris Immediately 
^bd$u Khdn, who fays, it hap- (M) Tokiamij 

pened at his return from his fe- ^okul Kh<ja Og 

cond expedition againil Abufdid rihe,a% fon of ^ 

Khdn \ which, from the date of of Togay limur 


Digitized byCjOOQlC 

Hcj. 777" 
A. D. 



j^oS Jenghfe KWipV Stiffs B.IB. 

liays after i^igi^/ Mangap, who h^ p;at h^gifis)!' into thp fiaF«> 
vice of Tokatmijh, followed him j with tiding^ that LTjriJj ^iM/r» 
and ^ his forces,, might c^Afy b^ furprife^* bec.^iJli? h^in^ebei 
:owards Gr^^a^ Buth^ria, Idigii M(mgai(^ ^.^ 
ik Kahay a m»fi of diftioAio^ >Mi^<i^ th^ tribf 
[or ^A^V^? Murtgk)i. wbp^ icteighfcer 7«7wr h^4 
;e to one of hi6 fpQ$, qf whidi ai^ag^ 7Sfz4f 
ifTue. Upon thi^ ^ice yS^««(fr 77JW<r fent To* 
numecous ar^ agE^qil Uriis ,fk4M; 1^QP9 
and. (lain in: the battle, he fi^i>4. o^ difi^ul^ 
roue in 771^ ^ (of Chrift 1375).* 
with a inore p^r^cul%r accouQt of this waft: 
between Tokatmijh and I/r/tfj iTy&^a in <he,,iifi^ of TintfiK Bek^ 
written by Shartfo'ddin ^^V a P^/[)tf^ip.a\ith0rjJt may brpPOr- 
per to give an abftra^ of jt oa this o^c^oq. . WhUe ?^^ 
was on his return from hig expe4it|pn ^^^ K,i^^^'ii4Jin^ pdioto 
of 7^'/^, or th^ Gates y ii^ the year of thi? ^'^Sr^'777 ; Hftrft* 
ceived advice '\i\2iX> T'okatnUfi) -^1^1%^ jeaien^'bf "yr^/ Al^^i >f^ 
on the r9ad, to put himfeif. under his pr<]^:e{li(>n4 - Hereupo|i 
L he {ent arv i/z^/?it officer . of d^Hiinftion . ij^k bring iiHfl to court ; 
* where he arrived foon rfter .ijiat o^aarch: hftdireaphed his czt 
pital. He, was receive^ with tfeegreaieft bQiK>i3r^ by Tirriiri 
who alfo beftowed pn Mm ,th^ gpvenu^i^tjd, of c/J/^r^jv, QtrAr^ 
Saganak^ Say ram, 'Siir^y^;9^^; othjer/gl^/^ the emfw.rf 
Kipjdk, which were in his .pofleffi.oii. . Thie'prisice was fcaccc 
fettled in his new depar tm^iQ. before he W^, l^hUgeil to mArch 
agaioft Kotluk Biiga, fon <^'Vrih KhAn\ aai ^Itho* this litter 
was ilain in the Hght wi^h/.ai^ ^fTow, y^%-^fiii»tn^^, leaving 
his country to be jSund^icd b^ tlp^ enemjfi^-MfeW.iOhfiged Ko-Bf 
to Timur; who receifVeij^ i^ -^A^Uh .gr^^ JkoteiDiir thai jSC 
firft, ^fld fent hifl> bacfew^th fr0(h foifces. . . 
/ff'i;^//^j As foon as- TuMai ^^j<i»i; .^4eft-foa of Urfis^ KhAity hiA «§»- 
TimftrV vice of this, he m^arQt^d wi^ a. very seumeroda wmty^ and .der 
dominigm. feate4 Tqkatmjh', who, Ui^bi3 flight, wa? purfucdvand wofoadr 
ed in the hand with, an arrow, as he paffed the river Sihun (or 
Sir): B^ing. gotten to^ the other fide, Fie entered a wAod 
alone, naked and wqundefi : wfcere cafting himfelf ^n . th^ 
ground, to get fome reft, his doleful moan foon brought thi- 
ther one of his old captains, who fbund "him Juft recovered 
from a fwoon ; and, aft^ taking proper qare of him, brought 
him to BokMra. Thnur, who wis there encamped, ordered 
another equipage to be mad^ for him,^ as magnificent as the 
formere . M^an time a commander, named Jjideku, of the tribp 

>^ Ab^i>&h« ubi fup. p. 200. 

Digitized by 


C. I. * , /^ICipjak, ^r Kapchifc. io^ 

of Mangut (N), brought advice from the court of Urus Khin^ 
that he was marching agaiuil Timurf and fought every-^here^ 
for Tokatmifi : at the fame tune embafTadors arrived from the 
khan» to demand that prince to be given up; otherwife to 
(teclare war. TinaUr aofwered, that he would proteft 'tohaU 
mi/bf and fooa meet their mafter in the field ; as he did at 
^4naky twentyfour leagues from Otrdr* 

These vaft armies were ready to engage, when there fell a Returns, 
prodigious quantity of rain and {now, followed by fo exceffive a ^^^ ^^*^ 
cdd, that the limbs both of men and beafls lofl all motion. 
At t}^ end of three months, during which this weather conti- 
nued, Timir, weary of being fo long in fight of the enemy, 
and yet out of a(tion> fent a detacihment to attack them in 
the night ; which, meeting with 3000 horfe, commanded b/ 
Tmtkr Makk ^gkn, fon of Urus KJ^An^ defeated them, the 
prmce himfelf being wounded in the foot with an arrow, 
Hcreupcm UriU KhAn^ defpairing of fuccefs, returned home» 
Tmrnr lifcewife marched back to Great Bukhdria : but, as fooa 
as die feafon permitted, he fet forward again, with defign ta 
invade Ki^k ; and made fo much expeditiou, that, in fifteen 
days and nights, he arrived with his army at Jeyran Kamijh^ 
that is. The reeds for deerSy a town in that country, whofe in- 
habitants he found faft afleep. Here, being informed that 
Uriis Khdn was dead^ he eftabliftied Tokatmifh fovereign of 
Kipjiky and the reft oif the empire of Tu/hi (or Juji) ; after 
which he returned to bis own dominions "• 

This accoant of Urus Khin's death is doubtlefs moreexaft Confnfion 
Aan that of MulgMzi Khdn ; becaufe, had he been killed in ''«Kipjak* . 
battle, it would have afForded a fubjeft of triumph to Tmur'% 
hiftorian, De la Croix places no fewer than nine khans be- 
tween Birdi Bey, or Bek, and Urus Khan ; whofe names, ac- 
cording to him, are, Kildi Bek, another ^ Jani Bek's fons ; 
Noruz, who pretended to be a fon of Jani Bek ; Cherkfs Khdn^ 
who was Jikewife fet up for a fon of the fame prince, fuch 
were the cofyuaftures rf that time ; Kheder Khan ; Mazud 
Khun, fon of Kheder Kh&n ; Bazarchi Khan ; Tokay, fon of 
^htihi Khan ; Tokluk Timtir Khan, Tokay's nephew ; Murad 
Ksja Khan, brother of the former o. But thefe are not to be 

" Hift. Tim. Bek. 1. ii. c. 20—23. P- «7^ — 186. • De 

lA Ckoix, hift. Gengh. p. 388, it feq. 

(N) This feems to be the crroneoufly written ; but wc can- 

^iighi Mangap of Ahulghd'sd rot fay where the fault lies in 

Khdn^ in the tranilation of whofe die prefcot inflancc. 
hiftory the nam^s ar« often ver/ 

confidered j 

Digitized by VjvJOQIC 

itQ Jenghlz Kban'j Suaejars. B. IIL, 

confidered as fo many kbans, who reigned fucccffivdy one 
after the other ; but rather as pretenders, or ufiirpers, who 
laid claim to the whole, or feized part of it, and reigned at 
the fame time, till they were fupprefled by the forces of Urus 
Khdn, Bvit to vttmvi to tokatm0y: *^'^ 

11. To- Altho* Tb^rt/mj/^ feemed to be now fecurely eftablifhed 
katmifh in the throne of Ktpjdky yet his pofleffion did not long conti- 
Khan nue quiet : for Tukta Ktya, eldeft fon of t/rus Khdn^ dyii^* 
foon after his father, his brother TJmrfr Malek Jgien afcended 
Hej. 778. the throne; and, in ,778, marching with a powerful army 
A. D. kgainft Tokatmi/b, after feveral fldraiifties, once more intirely 
1376' vanquUhed him. But, by means of a very fleet horfe, given 
him by the emperor, to ferve him on fuch occafions, he efcaped, 
eftahlified ^^ got alone to court, all his troops being difperfed. The 
J^Timur; generous Tim^r again recruited his lofles, and fent him bade 
with feveral commanders, who had orders to replace him on 
the throne of Kipjdk : which they aiccordingly. did, in the city 
of Sagahak ; and, purfuant to cuftom, fprinkled on him gold 
and precious ftones. Mean time Orki-timiir, taken prifoner in 
the late battle, made his efcape, and informed Timtlr Bek^ 
that Timiir Malek fpent both night and day in debauches : 
that he flept till ten in the morning, which: is dinner-time^ , 
iio one daring to awake him, whatever affairs of importance 
required it ; and that all the people of Kipjdk defired Tokat^ 
mijb for their fovereign. On this news, the emperor fent to 
advife that prince to march with all expedition to attack his 
rival, who had pafTed the winter at Karatd (O). Tokatmijb 
Jglen immediately departed from Saganak ; and, coming up 
with the enemy, defeated them ; by which viftory he recovered 
the throne. Timdr Bek was fo rejoiced at this news, that he 
fpent many days in feafting, and releafed many prifoners. Ai 
for Tokatmi/b Khati^ he returned to pafs the winter at Saga* 
nak ; and, raifing a great army in fpring foUowmg, went and 
reconquered the kingdom of Saray (P) and Memak^ with the 
reft of the empire of Tujbi Khdn ?. 
ifi'vades bis When Timiir Kutluk^ before-mentioned, grew up, he went to 
dominions, dwell in the country of the Kipjdks, and Idighi Mangap put 
himfdf under his proteftion. This greatly difpleafed Tokat* 
mtfb Khdn ^ v/ho, having befides entertained a fufpicion that 
Timur Kutluk fought to fupplant him, endeavoured, without 

P Hift. Tim. Bek, 1. ii. c 24, 25. p. 187 — 190. 

(O) Karataly a place in Ktp^ or Saricy, above- men tioned, was 
jak. the capital, 

(P) Of which ^hari Sdrayjik, 

* noUe^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ' 

C. I. In Kipj4k, cr Kapcb^k. 1 1 1 

poifey to .get rid of -fo dangerous a rival. But Ttm^r Kufluk, 
having difcovered the khan's defign, fled for refuge to Creat 
Bukhdria, whither he was followed fix months after by IdigH 
Mangap. Mean time, while Jndr Timur invaded Irdn with 
all his forces, Tokatmijb Khdn entered Creat Bukhdria, then 
deflitute of troops, with a great army ; and, having taken 
Sdmarkant, put to the fword a great number of the inhabit- . 
ants. After this, h^ fet out for his own dominions : but jimir 
Timir^ who,* on the firft news of that prince's piarch, had 
returned homewards, followed him with fo much diligence, 
that he overtook him on the banks of the At el (or JVolga)^ 
Tokatmifb Khdn^ finding there was no way to avoid a battle, 
gave it with all the refolution imaginable : but, the good for- 
tune of Timur having prevailed over all the conduct of the 
khan, this laft was obliged to efcape by flight, after having 
loft all his army in the engagement. 

After the battle, TimUr KMuk, who was in the aftion, Timftr 
^th Jmir 71m^r*s confcnt, went to look for his fubjefts, Kutluk 
whom he had bafely abandoned, for fear of Toktamijb KhM ; retirej^ 
and, having met with a great number of them on the banks oS 
the j4tel, prepared to march with them to Samarkant. But 
Uighi Mangap advifed him not to put it in Amtr Timor's 
power to deprive him of his futyefts, by diftributing them in 
the cities belonging to his dominions : he told him, that would 
neceflarily reduce him to a fbte of abfolute dependence on 
Timur ; and therefore counfelled him to go fettle elfewhere ' 
with his people : which the other accordingly did ; and retired 
fo fecretly, that it is not known whither he went*' (Q^). De la 
Croix puts two of UriU Kf^dn's fons between him and Tokat- 
mi/b, whom he m^es the twenty-third khan ; viz, Tokta 
Kaya^ (eldefl fon of Vrus^ who died in 1376, the fame year 
with his father), and Timur Malek Aglen ^ 

TOKATMISH Khan, at his death, left dght fons (R) : 12. Ka- 
but Kaverchik, fon of Urus KhAn, feized the KipjAk fceptre, vcrchik 
and reigned after him. Khan. 


• ^ Abulok, ubi fup. p. 201, & feq. ' Db la Croix, ubi 
fup. p. 389. 

JQ) Timur mz^t fe vera! ex- (R) Their names were, 1 . 7^^ 

^ itions, befides thb, into Kip- lalodcTtn ; 2. JabarBirdi ; 3. Ka- 

jak^ againft Tokatmi/h, wliich yuk i 4. KanmBirdi; 5. JJkant 

fliall be related in the reign of dtr ; 6. Jhti-fdid ; 7. Khoja $ 

that prince; who, asDela Croix 2. Kadir Btrdi : but, of the fix 

obferves, defeated him in 15^8, mentioned by De la Croix, three 

1391, and 1395. are not to be found among 

Digitized by 


lit Jcnghiz Kl^'slSiiae^ors B/IIT. 

13. Barak He Was fucceeded by his fon Barak Khdn •. De la Croix 
Khan. makes this' the thirty-eighth khan, placmg fourteen between 

Tokatmijb and him, in the following order : TtmUr Kutluk 
Jgleriy fon of Timilr Malek^ who had ferved Tmur in the 
Wars againft Tokatmijh Khdn ': Shadi Bek, notwithftanding the 
Jnftallation oi Koyrichak Jglen, hy Timur, in Jpril 1395: 
Pu^ai, fon of Shldi Bei, dtho' Timur did not acknowlege 
hifli for khan : Timur/ (on of Timur Kutlui, altho' not ac- 
knowleged by Timur, who had iriftalled IdeHKhAn : Jalalo'd- 
din ; Kerim Birdi ; Kepek Khan ; Bahhira ; Kadir Birdi: Thefe 
five laft were fons of Tokatmijb Khan: Kadir Birdi was killed 
In battle againft Idek^, before-mentioned. The fame, Idekii : 
SidiJhmed) Dervijhy fon oi Aljhi Khdn\ Kuchuk Mehemed^ 
fon of Tokatmijh ; Dolet Birdi Kh&Uy fon of Tajb Ttmilr ; . 
Barrak Kh&n, fon of Kavarjik ^ It appears from this great 
number of competitors for* the Kifjdk throne, that the coun- 
try was in much confufion j which daily increafed, inftead of 

14. Mah- Upon the demife of Barak KhAn, Mahmat (S), fon of Ha^ 
jnatKhan.J/J;z Oglan^ fon of Jabina^ fon of Tolak Timur ^ fon di Saricha^ 

fon of Avas Timur , fon of Togay Timitr^ feized the fceptre 
of the country of the Kipjdks. 

1 5. Jani MAHMAT Kh^n had for his fucceflbr AbAJa'id, furnamed 
BckKhan. Jani Bek Kh&n, fon of Barak Khdn^ who left nine fons: lraji\ 

Mohammed \ Kajtm, who gave battle to Mohammed Khin Shey* 
baniy in which the latter loft his life ; Aytik ; Janijb ; Kam- 
her ; Tamijb ; Aivjfak ; and Jayik. The Uzieks affirm, that 
the khans of TurkeJicLn are defcended from Janijh Soltdriy fifth 
fon of Jani Bek Khdn. 

16. Ghia- After the death of Jani Bek, Chiazo'dcSn, fon of TmUtr- 
Xhl^^"^ /^/&, fon of Mahmat Khdn, pofFefTed himfelf of the throne of 
J^ikan. Kipjdk, and was fucceeded by his fon Haji Garay ". De la 

Croix; inftead of multiplying the number of khdns from Ba* 
rah, or Barrak, inferts only two in his lift ; Kayazo'ddin Sha£, 
Bek, and Mehemed, fon of Timur Khdn ^. It maty' be pre- 
fumed, xhsLt Ka^azo^ddtn is the fame v^iih. AbAlghdzi Khan*s 
Chiazo*ddin (or Gay^tho'ddin, Recording to the pronunciation 

• Abulgh. ubi fup. * De la Croix, ubi fop. p. 389, 

$c feq. ^ Abulgh. vlbi fnp. p. S03. ^ De la Croix, 

. ubi fup. p. 390. 

them ; 'viz. Kepek Khart, Bah- were all khans in the order men« 

hira, and Kuchuk Mehemed Khdn. tioned hereafter in the text. 

The other three are, Jalaloddin, (S) Or rather, perhaps, Mab^ 

Kerim Birdi y and Kadir Birdi, mud. 

who, according to that author. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

of the Ardis), notwithftalttdl^ that H(^eKtf^\$ rq)refentod 
as the foa of Mehemed, bythe authdrs ftifide ufe of by !.« 
Croix ; mho are not to be^depended 6n fo pimh, as the khali 
rf Karazm, for the genealogy of the princes of his own na* 
tioQ» and the country from whence the Uzbeks ^ his fnbjeCl^ 
or^natty ca&nc. 

HA J I Garay («) ffihyiray, or Keray) KMn, ^ho fticceeded 17. Haji 
his father Gbiazo'Mn, left dght ions : I>awUaT<ir ; Mr Davi- Garay 
ktKbJh; HaydarJChdn^ Knthk Saman, Kildifik; Mm^T^^^^ 
Garay idmn ; Tarn Gurji; and AvAs Tkldr* Thde ib^ 
after thor Other's death, divided his domidioiia^uaobg ^hemi; 
bat thdr defcendants did not long enjoy their rdpefttre pof- 
ftflioos : for the Urits (or Ruffians) feized the -whole couotrjr 
of Kipjik in the year 961 <rf the H^rah \oi Ohri/l 1553)$ 
tfid, fincetiiat dme, we hear no more mentibn of the pofle- 
lYty of Hcgi Garay Kh&n. Att we know for tert^nis, that the 
Udns of Krtm are fprung from one of his fons : biu> as .that 
country is at too gir^t a*dlfbqoe fron^ vl% yrt cannot fay which 

This fe ^ die account Arm by Abpl^&u Kh&n (rf the 
1d4ns who have reigned in Kfyak j to whkh fomething, by-. 
way of fujpply, may -be it^atd from La Croix, relating to - - ^ 
H(gi Keray Kh&n, and his fucccflbrsin Ktim'^'Tartary. A^- 
confing to this autjior, Haji Keray Kh&n Aied in 147 5, and 
left nyelve fons ; which gr^t number of princes was tnecaule 
that the empire of Ki^jl&k fdl into confufipn, fo tl^t three of 
them Were fceh to reign as khans at the fame time. This oe- 
cafioned a war w!;dch rliined fcveral provinces, whereof the 
Ruffians got-pofleffion : in fliort, the great empire oi Kifjik 
had, if Soft An Mohammed II, whofubdutfcl 
^oriftantinopie, touched with the misfortunes of tkcrfe princes^ ' : 
had not taken care to fuccoti^ them. For tfiis purpdfe, he lent 
Chec^k Ahmed Pajha, who toe* the^dty itf Kc^a<^ from ^ ^* 
the Geno.efes, and then that of ManMp. ' / 

HEREliefOTndiWs«g^«fi brMenkeli Ker^] <bn t/£ Hi^i Keray Kbdns ^ 
A*4(z, who loflWslibeitywiththerefl of the inhabitants. He had Krim, 
"beenkfasln of Kij^aft for fomc few days ; but, having been van- - ^ 
quiihed by his brothers, fled for refuge to the Chriftians, smd 

* Abvlgh. oKi fc^p. p. 203, & feq. ^ 

{*} 7^f3^e this name, (ee from tl^em, and ^ftabliihed there 

iVTofv. Mem* 4es Mif, I^vftnt, the (eat pf the^ ^cctmmerce |n 

torn. i. p. 13^. the eafi j but '\t waj t^ken from 

(T) This city fell early into them In I474,.aft^r they h^d • 

the hands of the Tatars: but been in pouefllon of it abolit 

they did^not keep it long; for^ jsoS^yeiu-s. * 
about 1 266, the Genoefes took it . , ^ 

*foD. IJisT. Vol. Y* H waited 

Digitized by VjiU\.7VlV^ 

M4 —J^figiUt^.^kk^Sme/pfs' B. III. 

iwaited an-o^portmiity to remount the throne; on* which Afcr 
iantmed fooa after replaced him L According to , the Turks^ 
Hej. S76,JCyffa (or .A5i^),.with the reft pf Krim, was tak^ ii> 876 
A. D. oi tht Hefrdhy which atifweis w that di:Ghryi^ .147V* jtf 
*47*« /b, the deatl^ .0f' Haji Iferay^M^,)!^^ been fqur or fivf yc^ 
earlier, at leaft, than La Croix puts it; especially Jf, ^ 
. ..^I .- : ithey feyi Mtngicti Keniy ha4 k^ a' long tip^e^iij J^at with 
V'-:: • his'bnilier, JbSfwe he took 4'Qtu^ with die Cena^es* They 
-nrrji vadd. farther, tha^ the jfol^ wt only appointed this. prince 
(khan; of: the Ki^imi oa cert^n confiderations, .but alfo fcnt 
hhu with an army of Othmdj7s\atoJCaJH:lHik {otJKipj^^^ which 
Jie fopn ireooyered by their afliftance, after defeating -^and kill* 
ing his brother,'. This was the^^^ft khan of Tartary ap- 
j)ointed t>y!the Tmt^x; and-^th^,fifj0; who, in the Jf^im, ott 
dered the Kh^tidt.k^ t^e nang^j^^ of ^q, Qtlm^n emperx^f;, to ^ 
:.ufed in th^ prayg:^^. They a(5jme the title of. Pa^fh^^ or 
.-emperor* '...)' > . .. : 1.. 1 *. \ . 


iS.Meng- J'! JLfENGHELIKeray {cxQhyemy) AT^iw fucce^jded hisfa- 
hcliXeray^.: -^^ ther, La Cr^ix reckons him the forty-fecond khan of 
Khan. ,Ktpjcik : but he was no more than the eighteenth, according 
-la JbfUgMzi KhAn; v^ofe numbering thus far, being more 
fei^gft^ w^ ft^ll fc^Jow in the margin, to carry on the fiicceflioa 
:of the khans oi^iSpjdk :■ and at the fame time begin a new rec- 
koning with this prince, at the head of the axdcle, and conti- 
-laue it thro' the fubfequent reigns^ .to fhew their number, as 
, khans of Kr im^^nd Little Tartary .only; of whom La Croix 
;b,as fiirnifbed a.pretty accurate liil, with the dates of their re* 
ffpeftlve de^thjj or advancenjient.. 
i9.Mehc-: 2. M^HE]}i£D K^eray Kh^ -fucceeded his father Meng- 
jned Ke-^h^li Keray KhAn^'m thp don>kiioa,Qf Kipjdk^ as well as that 
ray Khan, ^f tl^ Krtm. \ Apd here it may h^ proper to obferve, that all 
the knans, who fucceeded Menghli K^ray, took or retainol 
\ ' " .A ;the name of JC^roy, €erc^ ov, player ay ^ as the Turks and 

. ...- f^^ji'fjrj pronounce it. ^ : •.. 

.20. Ghi 2,;. MEHEMED was fucxceded by his (on GiTu Keray 

KcTzy I Khdii^ who was depofed, after a ^elgn of fix months. 

Khin. 4. SJADEX'JCerd;^ KhSri^ .who gave his brother Sahhib 

zi .Saadet j^^^^y ^^^ j^ hoftage to ^Soltdh Selim I. ^eniperor of the Oth- 

S^f A^^ ' indns. From this time the T^rks gave one thonfaiid and fifty 

afpers pey- day 'as a penfion4a the khans of Krfm Tartary, 

^ and other penflbn^ to the lords of .the Tatar court, as appears 

! from, the book Kimhd*l J^khbar^ 

r La Croix, ubifup. p. J90. ^ * Caktemir, Lift. 

Cthm. p. 112, & feq. 

Digitized by 


C. I . In ; Krlm Tatary only. 

J. ISLAM Ktray KHn^.k^ of Mehemed Keray. In his 22/ Main 
rdgn the kbgdom was divided between two faft ions ; onead-JK«ray 
hered to Saadet Keray. Khhi^ the other to IJlam Keray Khan. Kiiin. 
At length, v^. ijfy, the two parties came to blows on the 
baDk$ of ^Nttpar^ sx.Bortfihmes ; and, thofe on Ke^* 
ray's, fide gmt^ the advaotage^ Saadet Keray ^vfSLS obliged to ' 
fly to Con/iantinopU, where the Othm^n emperor gave him a 
penfion to fi\ . After tl^s, IJUim was killed by, 

6. SAHHIB Keray Khdn, wbofeized the throne;; but was 2^. Sah- 
hhnfelf, after h^kig reigned a.toog time, depbfcd .by So/ey- l^ib Keray* 
Tii^U. Mm cfrithe Turks. Tbs Rufians, who had been ^^^^- ' 
vaflals to the Tatars till the reign oi Czar or Tfar Ivan Ba^ 
fiHwitZf^ took th^.^ty of Kazdn, or Ka/dn, fituate on the river 
Ka/iinkd, a little to th^ eaft of the fVolga, from this klian, on 

the ninth of July 1 552 * ; and, in i year or two more, con- 
qnered the Idngdom pf y^n^^o, to the fouth of that of 
Kaz4nt with thcreft of Ki^di tp the weft of the river-7a/>f .• 
fo that Sahhih keray Kkin n^ay .}>raperly be faid to be the laft 
khan of the race of Juji Khdn. who reigned in Kipjdk ; except- 
ing that part called Little Tartary^ which became a part ra- 
tiier by conqueft than original, occupation. After the fubjuga- 
tiqn of this large couQtry, the feyeral tribes of KIpjdkj and ' ^ 
Tatars fubmitted to the Ruffians ^ aod ftill remain in their an* 
tient territwes. ^ . i - . . 

7. SAHHIB JKeray was Succeeded by I>det (or Dawlat) 2^ Dokt 
Keray Khdny fdn of Mobarek, fon of Mengheli Keray Khdn^ Keray 
and died in 1577. f , Kh^n: 

8. D LET Keray, h^ii fpr his {ncctSbr Mehfmed A^nzy 25.Meh.c- 
Khdn, who was depofed for. having difobeyed the Othmdn ^^^ ^c- 
foltan. .< . ray Khan, 

9. ISLAM Keray Kkin{}J)^ who had becaimprifoned at 26.Sakhib 
JWoty, was i-f^ftpred: he died in 15884 refiorei. 

10. GAZI K^ray Khhn fucceeded : he was a learned prince, 27. Gazi 
an excellent po^t,. and able injufician. The Q.thmtn fdtan in- Kerly 
CTeafed his penfion to gbout five'} pounds -Ewg'/j/S per day ; be*^*^**^ 
canfe he had done great ferviqes to the Turkijb empire, in the 

War with Perfia^ where he difccw^ered all the qualifications re- 
quiiite in agrea^ officer: yet ,be .^vas depofe^ for' fpme time^ 
but was afterward^ reftored ; and died ini 1 607. . \ 

1 1. FAT EH Keray Khlh^ W-ho was depofcd.almoft as foon 28. Fateh 
as he was advanced to that dignity. . 1 . v Karay 

* ' •' ^ Khan, 

*Xa Croix, ubifup./p. 391. 

(D) This muft be a miftake prifotied at Rhodes : IJlam Kiray 
^ Sahbib Keray ^ Who was im- was killed, ,\- 

fi 3i ' ' U. He 

Digitized by 



yr6 JeagMz KtAxfs SucttJfA^ B. IIP 

29, Sela^ r2. He was futceeded by Sdhiet K^ay KkAh (foQ ciDdet 
nietK«- Z&rtty A*^if), who died in 1616. 

rayKWttu 13. J^^^/ »ek K^ay Kh^ Succeeded Sdhrm Ksi^ay-, tod, 
30- J*»i in 1 61 7, marched into Ptrfia i>y wd^ 6f tft^ Part. «€ like*-; 
^* KhI' ^^ ^^^ '^ befiege JCtf/it, at the heitd of 40/500 Tiftrr/ *' 
ray Julian, jjgygrthelefs, he was depofed in i6ai j but re-iftabllftied Cst 
years after, in 1627. ' 

3i.Mehc. 14. JA'Nl £^i had ft* his fiflcctfibir MA^it Ktlrdy KhAtty. 
xnckKtP who tfai killed the iame year. 

»yrKhan. , 5. AN J YET K^ay KMk, (6tt dGiti m^ity Kh£n, 6^^ 
32. Ana- pojjj ju i6j7 . an^l aft^niqaurds p«it to dw*h the feme year at 
^t Keray Qmfianiimfle *. Accordit% «> other account^, h6 was inikcd* 
*^^^* flain this year by a nephew of his eoinpetitiri- l^'nteih^ ; whkh 
latter was put to death at G^njidntmofk^ fbl- Idtiihg a Tatar. 
As ^«4k^ had fliaken off much of his triJ)eA for Ae Othm^ 
emperor, hi&mutder^vas appbudedat the Pm i who ^ tip^ 
his brother, then ^tfaifiiAMXviRim^oi fh^^eM^^ rbOm*. 
3. Be- j6. BEHADk Ket^y KMn, (on of 5rf^»w# *i*rwy 'A?W^ 
adr Ke- fucceeded yInJfyet, and died in 1641 <>; Tli^ MiaSi is <aU^ 
ray Khan. jj^iyJiV (J^i^rtfy by others. 

34.Mehe- 17. ME HE MED tCeray KMn, aftolhei^ fdft ftf &tef»i* 
med Ke- Keray. He was depofed in kd44, and reftor^ : %a 1^^ he 
ray Khan, was depofcd a fecond arte. , 

15. Iflam 18. ISLAM Keray Khin, a fon alfo of St^MA Ktr^f^ 
^ay Hb carried on a war with PtAnn^ fi* foWteen yfea^> and died 

f6. Adel 19/ A DEL Keray Kh&n, fon dF Chublth KS^y khin, 
:cta)r. He wis dcpofed in Sr6yi ^ and fent bilck |^oier to Mhodei^ 
Khiti. fitim whence he hiidi bee^i ijalwii, 

37;Siajih 20. SELIM Keray Kh&n, who reigned in 1673. Wfe-iW 

Keray infdhnttd by )>itece KdlntdtUrf thkt ^Ae 7%^/^ Sk&ol^g Ihe 

Khio. fidelity of Seltm, after the battle of ViSm^, aS^^flted Kkf^ 

^ Qyeray, of the 6*4^6ft (Ty^^tj; femJly, t6 th6 ^hity lof kfiin ; 

but that in a few months he was de{x)fi^, and \9ie ^nf^ht 

racfe of Gytray replaced on the throne* Tfe^ ¥<n3ior adds/ 

that it is tiiought the €htihdn Cyeray will na^ %4e to the 

feme honour affain, altho' they may eftjdy the offibe of g^^ 

i^ltan, nuro'dmn, and the like, which are m ^ pow^' of 

their relations % But, if the memoirs of La Croix be troef 

cue of the family of thdX^kdtdn Gyeray (X) Ilthinif, wets on the 

(X) Cbuban, or CMan.Gy/^ ^AJtafic fide, OVeKag^i^ft thi 
ra9y fignifies Gyeray thejhefher^. Krim^ between it and Cbirkaf- 
Tnc CbUban Tatars Kve on the Jrd. 

^ La Croix, ubi fup. p. 301, ic fcq. ^ See Jierea6er» 

tke hfftory of the Odiman Turks. ^ La Cro^x, ubi fop^ 

p. 392. • CANtEM. WftOthm, not. p* nj. 

^ V throne 

Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

tbmie of Krim TarU^y brfbfe, in the peripn of AddKn^ 
Kbin. The re^qp ajfi^gnod for the fuppofitio^, <hat oone ^ 
the CMM Gyer^ BunUy wiU be adyimcted fqr the future, i?» 
that th^ are of a fpurknis nu^ : ^vfaic|;i reflc^flioQ they roioiti m, 
A&r tjm^cnAeGy^ri^s o( Krtm. ifowevertlMy«^idkxw«cl,^ 
by the 0/ibnJit emperors, toiivcat J(MMi'(^r$9erly 7^zih^% 
befoce^meotionedt which is the doitin^ ieat q[ the T^tMr 
priooes ^ He was 6iw>as ia the We war ; f^r, in oue cam? 

bcm twice khao, he abdicated, on his return finom Meiim } 
but fadng made khan the third tiode by the Part^ in place ot 
his hn, the laMr revested ; yet wa$ reduc^ by his brother 
kixisL Cm Keray, in 1702, when the khan wa$ about fyjctf. 
Hewasvery haodfome and weU^-nade^ : w#s f^oc^eded by fohfo 
Cazif named 

zi. DVlETKenyKh^, ktkdiS^llmKeri^Kkin. Thisdl.Dola 
prinee was muoh beloved by his^ubjeft^ and accounted a gceat Kera^ 
foldier : but lie was depci^ by the P(^t^ and feat £i£ to Kh&n. 
iUKckSs and then to I^. 

22. KAPLAN Keray KMn. Iliis prince banog been de^ 39. Kap« 
iJDatdl in Clirkafia^ by fome rebds, whom he went to reduce, Ian Keray 
the foltin depofed him, in 1708 ; and re-eftabUihed in to ^^n. 
room Dokt Ktrity KMn S w^o had been depofed before himi 

and is, according to La Croix, the iixty-fourth kh&n of Ki^^. 

23. i>i?££7'A^4yiCM», whobeganhisfecondre^in 170I. 40. Defcc 



216^ Hifiory of the princes of the race ^ Jenghiz 
Khao, who have reigned in the Great ii«i/ Little 
fiukfa^ia^ with part of K^mm. 

C H A P. I. 


TyUKHJRIJ, BokhAria, Boidria, Bogiria, or ^^*4rif, Bukhiri* 
#J as it may be varionfly pronounced, is the name ^ven zt in gmn-al^ 

prefent to all that regiod or traft of land lying between 
Karazm and the great kobi or fandy defart, bordering on 
Cbina. It fignifies the country of the BukhSh .• Buki^^-, as 

* Cahtem. hi^. Othm. note, p. irj. * Npuv. Mem. des 
JAiff, I^evant, vol. i. p. 102, Sc fe^q. 130, &feqq. ' s JLa 

C$ojx,ubifaf»,f.>93. . 

Digitized by Vji^\.7VlV^ 

lis Jtn^izKhiti'l^ucciffoPs. B.IV. 

JU*lghku KMn informs us, being tl Mungl word, importing; 
a learned man ; becaufe all thofe (formerly) who had a mind 
tobeinftrufted in the? languages and fdences, went, for that 
purpofc, into Bvkhdria ^. Ifcnce it appears, that this name 
was impofed originally by the Mimgls^ who <x>nquered diis 
country in the time d£ Jenghiz Khin, This vaft region is di- 
idded into two p^rts, the Gredi aad the Little BuihAria. It 
feems fomewhat ftrange> that the above-mendoned- authorj^ 
Who fpeaks frequently of the. fbrmei*, fhould never once men- 
tion the latter : which name, perhaps, may not be lb much in 
vie with the Uzbeks^ or may hate come in ufe only* iince the 
Ef'4ths or Kalmyks conquered the* countries comprb:ed under 
that denomination, in the laft century. Both names are in ufe 
with the Ruffians^ and it is from them that they came taothec 
/ Europeans. 

Itsfimer^d Xhe country dt Great Bukh&ria is nearly the fame with 
names. ^^^ called by the /^rahs Mawara'lnahr ; which fignifies, v)hai 
lies beyond the river, meaning the JiMn, or Jmd, the Oxus 
of the antient Greeks, and is little other than a tranflation of 
' Tranfoxana, the name given formerly to thofe provinces. 
Under this denomination was comprised all the extent of 
country poflefTed by thofe powers, the Greeks and Arabs, be- 
yond the above-mentioned river ; which country^ kt different 
Mawa- times, had different dimenftons. Indeed, for the general, 
ra'lnahr. Mawara'lnahr fignified all the fpace or lands intercepted be- 
tween the JihAn and the Sih^n, now called Str, which fepa- 
tated them from the territories of the Turks, who, durii:% the 
dominion of tht Arabs in thofe parts, fpread themfelves very 
far over Great Tartary. However, although Abulghdzi Khdn^ 
in fome places, feems to ufe the words Great BukhAria, and 
Mawara'lnahr, to denote the fame country; yet, in other 
places, the firfl name feems to be more limited, and even re- 
ftrained, to the territories of the khan of Bukhdra, or Bohr 
hAra, one of the three provinces into which Great Bukh&ria is 
at prefent divided. 
TurAn. • GREAT Bukharia is alfo comprifed under the name of 
Tur&n, or the country of the Turks : which is likewife given, 
by the Arabs and Perftans, to the country fituated to the north 
of the river AmA, in oppofition to IrAn, or Perjia at large, 
lying to the fouth of that river 5 and includes a confiderable 
part of what fell to the fhare of Jagatay KhAn^ fecond fon of 
Jenghiz Khan, from whofe defcendants, the Uzbeks, of the 
race of Juji, or TAJhi KbAn, conquered it. But he^e it may 
be requifite to obfervCi that Abu'lghAzi KhAn employs th^ 

» Abu'loh. hiil. Turks, &c. p. lo?, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. I • * ■. DBfcriptim ^ Great Bukhfiria.' . 119 

wwrd 7^iB^it\tk a difFcrenrfcnfe, namely, :toj}cnotc the rcf^ons 
lying between the river «Slr and the icy fca, or perhaps more 
particaferly Siberia ; except die word Tzirdu has/ through fome 
miftakei been infertcd inAead of T6ra, as the EngU/b traaflator 
of that author is inclined to think ^. 

After the conqueft of this country by the MungUy and Jagatay 
gt^t thiK-eof to Jagatay KhAur it took the name oljagatuy^ Uzbek. 
or Zagatay, fis opr geographers write it ; ^vcn to it by the 
PerfiafLSy or perhaps the Mungh themfelves, in honour of the 
new proprietor. This name continued fo long as the khins 
defcended from him reigned in thofe parts. Upon their ex- 
pulfion by the UfTheksy the Perjians gave it the name of the 
country of Uzbek *=, as before they had done to that part 6f 
Tartary beyond the Sir^ which they then inhabited : but it 
does not appear that the UTieks themfelves called either 
country after their own name ; at leaft, AhiiHghazi Khhn never 
does. However that be, they have been communicated, by 
their neighbours, to the Eurdpeans ; whofe geographers, for 
the general, ffill ufe them, and even thofe which have been 
long iince out of ufd among the Aftatics. 

. GREAT. Bukhdria (which feems to comprehend the Sog^ Shuation 
£atta and Baktriana of the antient Greeks and Romans, with «»^ ex* 
their dependencies), is fituatfed between the J4th and 46th de- ^^'' 
"grees of latitude, and between tiie 76th and 92d degrees of 
longitude. It is bounded on the north by the river Str^ which 
feparates it from the dominions of the Elttths, or Kahnuks ; 
the kingdom of K^Jbgar, ih Little Bukhdriay on the eaft ; 
by the dominions of the Great Moguls and Perfia^ on the 
fouth ; and by the .country of Karazm ofll the weft : being 
about yyo miles long, from weft to eaft ; and 730 miles broadj . 
from fouth to north. 

According to Bentinky nature has denied nothing to this SoilanJ 
fine country, to render living in it agreeable : the mountains produce. 
abound with the richeft mines 5 the valleys arc of an aftonifti- 
ing fertility in all forts of fruits aiid pulfe ; the fields are co- 
vered with grafs the height of a man ; the rivers fwarm with 
excellent fifti ; and wood, which is fcarce all over Grand Tar^ 
tary, is found here in great plenty : in fhort, it is the beft 
cultivated, and beft inhabited, of all the northern Afia, But 
all thefe bleflings are of very little ufe to the Tatar inhabitant?, 
who are naturdly fo lazy, that they would rather go rob and 
kill.thtir neighbours, than apply themfelves to improve^ the be- . 
nefits which ijature fo liberally offers them **. ' • 

^ Abu'lgh. hift. Turl^s, &c. p.4i;2i &feq. ' • Tiixnaa, 
hift. Perf. p. 319, ^ AbuYgh, ubi fopra, p. 409. 

H 4 ^ GREAT 

Digitized by 



Divtfion GREAT BmkhSria ii divided oito thre^ bcg& ^tr^ieeti 

into fro- mmdj, Proper Bukhiria^ Samdrhant, and BAlkf taiA ^\riiHJt 

miaces, f^^ commoiAy. its pardcular khUa : altho' tomtdn^ <m^ hf 

oonqneft, i^ mafter of two proviaces, as happcined to be tlie 

cafe about thirty years ago, "Mysa the kfain of Prap^ SukMaria 

was in pofRX&otiiaifd df Samarkaht ; aikd this omy fHU be the 

^caf<^ forahytbiiigwekiiow, ktthisdtfiioce^ to. tteoootrarfi 

t. Prdvincc d/TvoperBvkhiniu 
Proper ^ »Tp H E orpvioce of Proper BukhAria, ox BokBdria, is the mol^ 
Bukbaria. X weftera of the three ; having on the weft, Karaztn ; on the 
i^orth, a clefart called by the Jrabs Gazjiah ; on the ^ft, the 
promce of Samarkant ; and on the fouth, the river Ami. It 
l»ay be about 390 miles long, and 320 Broad. Jibi'lghiai 
Khan, in the hiuory of his own wars, mentfons feveral pro- 
vinces and towns belonging to Proper Bukhiria (fome of whic6 
the French editor giyes an account of), as the provinces of 2}«- 
ragdnata zadGordiJb^ large provinces towards iTortfaiiff/Atf. 
jin and Karmina, towards the middle of the country. The 
towns are chiefly Bokhara, Zam, Wardanji, KdraknJ, Siufffbala^ 
^ Kai^i Zarjid, N^rfemt and Kcaviina. 

Bokhara The city of Bokhara, ox Bogbdr, as our Jehkinfon calls, it 
^*(y» is, according to that author, fituated in the loweu part of afi 

the country ; and, by his own bbfervation, in 39 degrees 10 mi» 
nutes of latitude ; twenty days journey from Urienj, the a^ 
fitaX oi KaraTun. It was, in 1559, of great extent, and for** 
tified with a high wall of earth ; was divided into three parts, 
whereof the caftle of the khan, who i^cfides here, made ohej 
the murfas, officers of the court, and tl^ofe belonging to tfe 
khan's retinue, took up thefecond part; the third, which was 
the biggeft, being poflefted by the burghers, merchants, and 
other linhabitants. In this laft diyifion, every trade or pro- 
feffion has it§ particular quarter. The houfes are generalty 
only of earth ; bi^t the temples, and many other ftruftures, as 
well public as private, are of ftone, fumptuoufly built, an^ 
gilded; efpecially the batlis, which are fo artfully contrived, 
that the like is not to be feen any-where elfe» . 
Wafer un- A LITTLE river runs through the city, whofe water is very 
Hvboi/cme. bad, breeding in the legs of fucK as drink it, worms an ell long, 
^between the defh and tne &ia\ which working out about an 
.inch every day, are rolled up, and thus extrafted ; but if they 
•break tin the (;^>eration, the patient dies. For all this incoA- 
vcnience, it "is there forbidden to drink any other IJquor than 
water and mares milk*; fuch as break tTiat law being whipped 
^through the markets. There are officers appointed to fearch 
^ Jioufe9focaqwa.vitae, wiae, O/brag (orbraiga) ; and in cafe 
**iy b^fcund, tKey bieofc the veflels, fpiU tb^ i&iok, and pu-. 

n T ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

9i(htiM0WB6is: aay, ofi^ if a maa'i hmth fiiitllft offtftm 
fiqnor, be inairs a haajHeme b aftopitdo, Thb gfretc AriAaeft 
i$€fviriag to the metropolitaa7<»' ^^^ ^^ ^ 1^^) ^ BMiri^ 
yrbo is mcn^ obeyed than the luit^ lumfelf : he even dbpofiis 
iuaatpleafure; as he fenred IxHh the kifig ^he feigiied vhcd 
opranth^ was th^e» aad.his predeecflbr^ H^fiOg him iorUs 
chamber m the n^ht. 

The king (or khin) has nether gte^ pfffKF oof weahlii 
As Us revenues are b^ fintU, be i$ ittaiatalned <katAj by the : 
dty: for he takes the tythe of all thif^ fold there* tbdiegnit . . 
uapoirerifliment of the ))eo|>le; and when he tants mebtf ^ 
pay his debts» fends hi^ officet^ to feize gQod» fitttn the tusfh 
keeper, npon credit, whether they will or not. Thus lie nShoi^ 
to pay J^kinfon for foto^ ffleces of k«ffcy. fiteiPtVer, that * 
jnerchaat was very civilly treated by him, wlto roigoed irhm 
hewasthere, in the year abdve-mentioo6d« He often fiaitfioi, 
and dMcouried with, him, ^)0fit the few^ teligtdb, and pdlirer, . 
of the EuropMn countries. At his r^Qvfcft, fihewife, he leqt 
100 siea in purfoit ei robbers (who hadattndded his IcBrawui), 
aod recovered part of his goods. 

As the country <^ BiighAr was fortatily fufcjeft to the Pifr- Languagt^ 
jianst the Perjian language is ftili fpoken dilere. But ^e Bofi- 
htriMs are coatiniially at war with thtP^JiOHs thdr neigh- 
bours, on account of td^ion, although both nations are Mi' 
hmmedani (but of dilferent fefts) They Hibewife quarrel with 
jthem, becaufe they do i)pt (have the upper lip, astbey, andatt 
other Tatars, do : for this reafon, they call themJkafrs, that is, 
nnbelievers, as they do Chriftians. They have no gold coin in rw«» 
Bukiaria ; and only one piece of filver iA)v worth twelve pence 
Englj/bf which the king raifes and fallsib frequently, that thdr 
oopper money, called PuU, is «tto#e twtff^t^ whetdbf itJb 
make the filver piece. 

As to the trade <^ S^ihAraf Jenhi^fbn obferves, that, la Ids ^^j^^ trade* 
time, there w^ a great refort of kartfwaos, from India, Penfui, 
BStkj Ruffia, and other countries ; but be adds, that the mer* 
chants are fo poor, and bring fo few wares, which yet they 
amft waitvwo; or three years to fdl, that Ih^e ane no hopes of 
any trade in this place worth following. The Indians broughe 
nothing but white calicoes ; and carried back wrought fifics, 
ttd IttAdB, flaves, hor£ls, and iiich4ike : btit lv6Md not deal 
^irith our »ithor fe^^Woc^n cloths^ which they had firom tbfs 
ftrjit^ ^d the ^ffians % 

« JivKiNsoii's fofft^ to Boghar. in Purch. pilgr. Vol. ifl. 
>. %i^ & ftq. 

(A) Binfink hfh Jbc money ^ f^Jim^MA {ki^MeshcmM^t 
i/9m!9iS9. BEN- 

Digitized by VJIU\.7VIV^ 

122 ' -Jei'n^iz Ithan'j Succ^Jfors. B. Vf\ 

BE NTTNK o\Amye» farther, that this dty is convemcfttly 
fituated for trade with the abovi»^mendoned countncs ; and 
that the doties do.not amount to quite three per cent, : hiit 
that the extraordinary opprcfiions which the foreign merchants 
have met with, have reduced commerce there to a very k)M^ 
ebb.. -However, that from hence the dominions of* the Great. 
Moguly and part of Perfia^ are fupplied ^ith all forts ^ dried 
frtdts, of an exqulfitie flavour ^. 
iCarmina The fame author gives, an account rf three or f<^r 'ihorc'6f 
iUj. the cities belonging to Proper BukMria. Firft, Karmma ; thi^ 

^ace is fituated in a provinie^ of the feme name, towards the 
borders of Karazm, to the north-weft of Bokhara ; and is but 
inconftderabk at prefent. 
Wardanfi, f^JR bj^NS I lies to the weft of Karmina, near the borders 
of the feme county. It is a pretty large fcambling town, in- 
. habited by the Bukh^s, who tr^aiSc into Perfia and Karazm. 
Kar(hi. . KARSHI&znds to the north of the .riVer ^^wii, and is, at 
prrfent, one of th^ beft cities in Great Bukh&ria^ being laf ge; 
populous, and better built, than any other in that country (B). 
The neighbouring lands are eKceeding fertile, in all forts of 
fruits and pulfe ; and its mhabitants drive u great trade in the 
north parts of the /wAV/. 
Zamin, or ZAMIN (C) is a finall town on the right (or nofth-fide) of 
Zam. the Am&^ towards the borders of Perfia, remarkable for no* 
thing but its paflage over that river ; which is of great ad* 
;vantage to the U^^beks of Great BukhAria^ in their expeditioni 
onthatfide.^ ^ ^ 

2. ^e province of S2imzxkzxit.. 

Bounds 'THIS province, which is q2S\€A MawaraUnAhrhj Bentinkf 
and e'x" li^s to the eaft of Proper Bukh^ria, and north of B^k. It» 

tent. extends as far as the the borders of KAfbgdr^ in Little Bukhi* 

ria% being about 540 miles long, froin weft to eaft ; and 500 

broad, from fouth to north. 

^ Abu'lgk. hit Turks, p. 465, &feij.' « Ibid. p. 464, 

& feq. ... • ' .*'..'■'. 

• ■- . . ^ - ■• . * ' • ■ '/ ' 

' (B) It lies l^etw^en Bokhara built, two leagues and an half 
znd Samarkant. Timur B/k (or dlfkzni; (or Karjht 9 in the Min«l 
Tamer/an) ufually encamped with ]anguag(&, ^gntAcs a palace. XV 
his army near this city, which //i'Cri/>, hill. Tim. Bck. p. 65. 
(^ds on the river fian, Nak- book i.,cap« 134 
fieb, Nefef^ and Karjhi, are the ' (C) Called alfo Samn^, or 

fame place ; it had this lad name Zam. 
frosi the pala^ . which. /u'/zf . 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C, I. * Ikfiription of Gt^at B'ukham.* 123 

This country was fonnerly full of fiburifhing dties ; Imt Samar- 
moft of them are, at pr^nt, cither in^cly ruined^ or much kant dty^ 
Men to decay. The capital of the province^ and indeed of all 
Creat Bukhdria, taken in the largeft fenfe, is Samarkant, or 
Samarkand (D)» Ihuated on a river, and in a valley, both which 
bear the name of Sogd ; from whence the Sogdiana of the an- 
tieDts had its denomination. It is feven days journey to the 
north-eaft of Bokh&ria ; and, according to the obfervation o£ 
Vkg Beg (grandfon of 7im&r Beg^ or Tamerlan)^ who reigned 
herein 1447, lies^ in 39® 37' 23'' of latitude. Although it 
fails fliort, at prefent, of being fo fplcndid as in times paft, yet, 
Bentink fays, it is IHU very large, and well peopled. It is Ibr- 
tified with fbong bulwarks of earth; and its buildings are 
mnch in the fame condition with thofe of Bokhara : fonie of the 
private hou£bs are of ftone, dug out of quarries which are liear 
the town \ AHHfeda fays, that the ftrects were paved in his 
dme : that it had a wide ditch r^und the walls : and that 
water was conveyed frx>m the river, by leaden jnpes, into the 

The academy. of fcienccs ifi this dty is one of the mofl jtt ad- 
eminent to be found athong the Mohammedans^ who x^oxt tjantagit^ 
thither to fhidy, from all the neighbouring countries. The 
/ilk-paper made here is faid to be the moft beautiful in all 
Afta^ and therefore in great requeft throughout the eaft. The 
kSi produces pears, apples, raifins, and melons, of an exqui- 
fitc tafte ; and in fuch plenty, that the empire of the Great 
Moguls and part of Perfia^ are fupplied with them. The little 
river (that is, the Sogd)^ which pafles by the town, would be 
of great ufe to the place, by opening a communication with 
the ndghbburing dominions, if the inhabitants had but the 
tndQifa7 to make it navigable. 

The other remarkable cities in this province were, Otrir^ ©/^^ 
Zarmik, Tajhkunt^ Kcjand, Kajb, Saghanian, JVaftjerd^^nA dties. 
Termed: but of thefe we meet with fcarce any account in mo- 
dem travellers. Otr&r^ called by the Arabs Far&b^ is the mofl: Otrar. 
difhnt city from the capital, and lies almofl due north. It 
ftands in the moft north-weft part of the province, on Jt fmall 
river, which, two leagues thence, falls fouthward into the 
Str^ This place is fatoous for the death of Tim&r Beg^ in 

. * Abu*lgh. hift. Turks, p. 462. * Abu'lp. defer, Cho» 

rafinke, p. 6t. 

(D) Kanti Kenf^ and Kunt^ language, fignifies a city or 

as "tis varioafly pronounced by town ; of which Kofid^ or Kend^ 

people who fpeak different dia- are mad^ \>y pther nations. 
Icdi of the Muttgl ot Turkijb 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1-405 ^t and, chcRigh not opofiderable at prefeBt» vis the ca- 
pital city of Turkeftins when that kingdom or empire was is 
ttB flourtOiiog lUtc, under Kdvar, orKurKbdn, ashathbocft 
already ^ iet forth. 

TASHKUNT^ at prefimt, Uoqgs to Turkeflik ; fo«r days 

joiimtfy to the foothof which, and^eaoorth^-eaftof SkniMr- 

Kojand. kantt flaads Kojandf or Kyatd, and Kbt^emU on the &r, bdi^ 

Termed, t fanoot paflage over that rsTer* as Termed is over the Ami. 

SaghmuMn and JVqfbjerd are (eated cm the rivor Sagbamn, 

Kalh« wUch falb into the AmA. Kajb^ or J:;^» lies not &- to the 

Ci^of Akig&\ aadibnthof £di9Mr/LM/. Timitr i^^ wis prince 

of thisdty, before he rofe to bis future greatneia. , 

' To thefe places i^ay be added AngUfn^ which is themoA 

esftem town of jooteia all Grf^ Bukkiris: ftaading near its 

borders, towards K^fbgar^ and not |ar &om the fcnroeof the 

Sbr^ on whofe nortlMrn fide it is fituated ; in the Jatitode of 

4od^rees, accordii^ to the Jefuits map of Tiirf » ibawufroin 

te joutn^ of (7Ai/}<^ aiid To^r trateUers. 

3* Tbe frwhui §fWk: 

iottndt THE piovince of jWft, or B^kt, lies to the fouth of the 
mndex' ^ pwvwotof Samarkast, tod &dko{ Pr^crBukbSr^ Tu 
tnu. idxmt 360 fldiles loi^ and 250 broad. 

. B E NTINK cbmy^ that although this promce is the 
(malleft of the three, yet, beiog extremdy fortik, md tho 
roughly cultivated, the prince draws a fyk rofenue out of it 
The a)untry particularly abounds with iiUe^ cf whiflh the ifi^ 
habitants make very pretty manufaAures* 
r Tiis Uzheh fubjeft to the Ichan of Bilk, are the moft <t 
filized of all the Tatars inhabitii^ great BukHria, ^wi^g* ht 
^. : aU likelihood, to their commerce with the Perfians ; odther 
ife fa ^ven to thieving as the reft: they aire litewife more la- 
duftrious ; but in other refpe£ls are the fame fort of people. 
.; Thb country of BSik is divided into feveral prondnoes ; die 

moft remarkable whei>eof are, KhHlim^ or Kat^ Toktofiifi^ 
9BABadagshSn. Its chief cities are, BiA, tariy^ T<Abin^ 
fia^^g^MB, and Anderih^ 
City of 4 The city of iWtt is fituate towards Ae borders <rf Ptf^s, 
B^k. about 50 miles to the fouth of Termed^ and on the river De-* 
ib^;. which, aboitt 40 miles from thence, to the north-weft, 
falls into the AmA, Bentink informs us, that BiBt is, at pre^ 
fent, the moft confiderable of all the towns poflefled by the 
JHohammedan Tatars^ being large, fair, aud w^ peopfoi 

» Abv'lch. ubi fupra, p. 46a, k fcqcj. ^ S^ebefojc. 

V,: ^ Mfift 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Moft of ks btif£tigs ikfe of ftone or bride ; and its for^ca* 
dons coniift of eaitheh bulwarks, lined on the outfide with sr* 
ftroi^ wall, high enougJi for its defence. The khan's cafUe 
iiurgwR AtjStw^ Ast the diAerft ftjKoDv bu9t ^d^^ 
wholly of marble, dug out of the neighbouring mountains. 
The chief caufe to which this prince owes his preferyation, is 
life jcaloafy wlilch feigns am6ng tht neighbouring powers ; fc^ - ' ^^^ 
tiat he is €^ays fure of bdng afBfted by one, when attacked "* 


. Ab fiw^igners^ feive'frcc liberty to' trade in this city, it is 
become the refcwt of all the bufinds carried on between Oi^ai 
BMAfim ttfld th« hiMiu • To this the fine river, beft>re-men- 
ti^nedi -which paflel^ through its fuburbs, contribute* not a . * 
Iktld. GkKxb^ pay 4 percent, going ind coming ; but pallen- * '^ 

gM )fkf noting at all. 

' AND ERA B is the moft fouthem city pofleflcd, « pre^ Andcrib; 
fi»t, by dife Uthia ; being fituated at tiie foot of thfc mcmn- 
tatei 'i'^^h divide the dmnintens of the Creaf Mogul and P^r^^' 
fi^ from ^reat BukMrid. As thate* is no other way of croflSng 
thbfe tdountains toifards Jn£a, with beafts of carriage, blit 
byfiie wad through this city ^ all travellers, and goods, from 
C¥^Mi SukMria, defigned for that country, muft pafs this way,' 
^ylng 4 percent Ofi this account, the khin of B&Oi ttmn^ 
tdte a igidod ttumfeer of foldiers in ttre plate, which otherwSfe 
is (^ no great ftrength. For the reft, Jnderdb is very rich zxtS 
p^^lo^ C«Mifid^*^ig It is but fmrfl. The heighbourii^ monn- " " ^ 
ttftid yield noMe qusSies of lapis lazuB, in whidi the BiAhAri 
driv^ i gi^eat trade wkh Peffia and In^. . ' 

SjbAV3lHAPr (or Badakjbin) is a very antlent city, anff^Badag* 
«cde£^ fti'Ot^, by \^ fitnaSon, at the foot ^f tihbieldgh {ban. 
tfl&dBfi^^ wfaid^ fepara^e HmMft&n from Great Tartatj. It 
Monga te the khin of Proper BuiMrid, and fervcs him for a' 
iStd of ft^e-^ifon, to fectre thofe hels jealous of. Althotrgh 
the #owii is not vety big, yet it is Well enough built, and very 
we!l p6epkd T%e inhabitants are ?nriched by the *inei of 
gdki, fdver^ and pttMes^ which '^ in the ndghbourhdoa;* 
Thfj who live at tJje foot of the inountains gathdr a great 
mmatity of ^Idand fihrer duft in spring, brought down by 
lie toriients,- irhcn^e^ow-meltsoathe-topm. - ■ 

The mountains above-nientipned are called, in the Mtt^/jr/^^>«4-^ 
^tige^e, Bekir Tig, or tie dark motmfatns ; in which rifes tioii* ^ 
tte river y/f»i^, ihere called J?arr/if. -^^ttfaf i*i^ ftands on tte * V 

north fide of it, above loo miles from its fource, 230 hqm 
m^.aiid 2M bom AngMeUf in thp proviiK£ of iS^^^ibntfc 

« Bent. ap. Abu-lglu.ubi'fBfura^ p. 466^ icA^ ^^ iv^ 
\ - I It 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

It Is a great thoroughfare fpr the karaw^ ddigned for l^tk 
BukhAria^ which take the iame road. 

Qf tbr inbatihofts of Great BukharU, their manmrs 

^ cufiomsi' 

Inhabit* *?rHE inhab^ants of Great Bukhiria are of three forts. 
4tntu -*• I vT^e Bukhdrs, who are the anti^t inhabitants^* 2, The 

jagatays, or Mungfs, who fettled there under Jagatay Khint 
f^cond fon of Jeiighiz KhAn^ And, 3.. The UzbekTaia^s^ 
who are the prefent poileflbrs. . . 

Wf Buk- - I. All the great towns, both of Gnat uad Little Buk" 
bars per' h^ria, from the borders of Karazm, as far Sis China, ai^ io^ 
fom. habited by the BukMrs', who, being the antient; people of 

thofe provinces, have that name given to them thrpu^out the 
e^. ^Btit the Tatars commonly call them 7k/t^x ; which 
Wpr4} in their language, fignifies nearly the bm^ as burge&, 
or citizen (E). The Bukh^s are well-fet, and very fair j cpi^ 
lidering, the climate; have generally large eyes, black, and 
lively ; their faces are welUfhaped ; their nofes hawked 5 ha^ 
black, and very fine ; their beards thick. In fhort, they.hayp, 
nothing of the deformity which appears in the Tatars^ amoog 
whom they inhabit. /The women arfe generally large, and 
weUrihaped, with fine complexions, and very beautiful fea-i 
^heir BoTH men and women ufe calico (hifts and drawers, over 

drefs. which, tjie men wear a veft of qtiUted .fijk, or calico; which: 
reaches to the mid-leg, and is tied aboiui; the middle by a iilk- 
c^pe girdle, whicjirgoes feveral times round. When they go 
J abroad,v they fling over it a long cloth gown, &ced, and eveB. 
* 4^^^."^ winter, with fur. Their head is covered with around 

dojtht txwinet, like tkt Pohjb, with a large fur border : fomct 
wear^ turbans, like, the Turkijh, Their boots are made like 
the Perfian bufldns,, tut not altogether fo neat ; and they 
bavje a very fmgular art of preparing horfe-hides for the pur-? 
pof^./ The women wear long gowns, full,, and loofe, of the* 
lame materials. They let their hair hang in trefles, adorned 
wi^h pearls, and other jewels. Their bonnet is fmall, flat,) 
afid coloured. ThQir flippers like thofe worn in the north of 
. the At//«; • 
Jteligton All the BMirs profefe the Mohammedan religion, nearly 
and trade, after the Turki/b form, excepting in fome few ceremonies.. 

' (ED They give them this ap- ing merchandize ; whereas the 

pelk^ion, as a nickname, by 7^/«r/ prefer the fi^d, and treat 

way of contempt, for their Hv- commerce as a bafe, mean em- 

ing whoUy in towns, and IbUow* ployment. 

S ' They 

Digitized by 


C. 1/ DeJ^ariptm of Great BukbaHa. -izj 

Thej live by following mechanic trades, or commerce^ 'which 
is wholly in their hands : but, as feldom any foreign merchamt^ 
arrive among thcmj efpcdally in thofe parts where the Moham" 
medan Tntars zvq maftei-s, they refort in numerous karawans to 
China^ the Indies, Perfia^ and Siberia, where they traffic to 
coofiderable advantage^ Although, they^xiilefe all the tcf^Hjn^ 
of thefe provinces, they never npieddle \vith anps, leaving liie 
huiineis of war and government to t]xe Eli^thSf &^ K6{hn4ks^ 
^ Uzbek Tat an, who are, in poffeffion, the latter qf Qreat^ 
the fbrjner of tittle, Bukhdria; to whom they pay tribute, 
which is regulated every year. Oft. this account, the Ta/^r/ 
dc^ife them extremely, as cowardly, fmiple.people ; of which 
feveral inftances occur in Abu'lgh&zi Khdn'i^ hiflory, ' 

The Bukhars are utterly at a lofsas to their origin ; further Their ori* 
than that, by tradition, they came thither from fome diJftant couur gin un- 
try. They are not divided into tribes, like the Tatars, and many known* 
joihex eaftern people;; whence maj:iy furmife, that they are the 
d«fcenHants of the twelve tribes carried, by Salmanajfar king 
of Jffyria, into Media ;, to which, their havmg the appcarancp 
of Jews, and many cuftoms like theirs, feems to add weight, 
.But our author thinks fuch confcMinities too weak for conj- 
vincipg proofs ; and we are of opinion, that the Btikhirs not 
bcmg divided into tribes, is an argument againft, inftead of 
.for,, that idle notion. 

2. ri^ Jagatay Taurs. 

.TCVE;R fince the reign of Jagatay Khirif fecond fon off^^ Jaga- 
- J^nghiz KhAn, who had, for his fhare. Great Bukhdria, tays. 

, and part of Karazm, thofe provinces bore the name of Ja- 
gatay, and his Tatar {ovMungl) fubjefts, whom he brought 
along with him, ihsit of Jagatay Tatars ; till. ShabakhtSoltdn, 
having driven out the defcendants of Timur Beg {or Tamer Ian), 
the name of Jagatay gav^ place to that pf Uzbeks. Yet our 
geographers continue to give the name Jagatay to Great Buk- 

.Mria, although it has ceafed above 200 years ago. However,, 
it is flill ufed, to diftinguifh the defcendants of the Tatars 
who firft poflefled'that region, from thofe who are the prefent 
matters of it, although both, making now but one mixed 
body, are comprifed under the general name of Uzbeks. On 
the other hand, the troops, and other. crown officers, of the 
Great McguLoi Hinduftdn, are called Jagatay s by. the orientals, 

, becaufe they were the Jagatay s who conquered that couiUry ^> 

* Bejit. ap. Abili'lghv ubi fupr^, p. 45 8, U feq. 


Digitized by Vj.OOQIC 

1^ JtrtgU^IOikn^s Suicefm/ JffiTlt^ 

fiBder Mtin Bahr, after he had been expdied out of Great 

3. Uzbek Tatars ^/ Great Bukharia, 

Uzbeks ^T*HE Uzbeks^ who pofleH^ this region, are generally repute* 
dre/s, Met. '^ the moft civilized of all the Mohammedan Tatars ^ although 
rhey are great robbers, like the reft. They are cloathed;, both 
men and women, like the Perfians (but not fo neatly), as low 
as diefr boots, which are very douterly ; and the chief of them 
wear a plume of -^ririte heron feathers on their turbans. Thdr 
hioft delicious viduals are piUaw (which is rice foddea ih 
broth) and horfe-flefti. Their common drink is kumis (or 
* kammez) and arak, both made of mares milk. Thqr language 

is a mixture of the TurWh, Perjtan^ and Mtmgl tongues ; yet 
they are able to undemand the Perfians^ arid the Perfims 
them. Their arms are much the fame with thofe ufe4 by tfeb 
^eftoftheTi^^frx, viz. thefabre, the dart, the lance, and Afe 
bow, of a larger fize than ordinary, which they manage with 
much fhength and dexterity. They have ufec} mu&ets fdr 
Ibme time paft, aft^ the Perfim manner. When they go to 
war, a great part of then- cavalry we^ coats of maal, an4 > 

little buckler, to defend them. 

Robuftand The Tatars of this country value themfdhres on bdng tlte 
h^wve. moft robuft and valiant of all the Tatars ; and they muft 
needs be people of odiirag^ lince the Perfians ^ naturally very 
brave, are, Jn fome meafure, afraid of them. The womgn 
alfo of Great Bttkh&ria pique thentfelves on account of th^ 
valour. Bernier iriates a very romantic ftory, w{uch was told 
hka by the Idiin of Samarkant's ambaflador fent to Aureng 
Zeb. The truth is, that thefe women often go to war with 
their hufbands ; and do not fear engaging hafid-to-hand wiljh 
the enemy, when occafipn requires it. They are, for the moft 
part, veryi^'ell made, and tolerably handfome; nay, fome<£ 
them may pafs for perfeft beauties' in any country. 
Aliisap at The horfes of the Uzbeks have neither breafts nor buttocks : 
m:ar. -^th the neck long and ftreight, like a fHck ; with the l^s very 
high, and no belly : they are, befides,.frightiEully lean. But, for 
all this forry appearance, they are e^cceeding fwifi, and almcft 
indefadgable ; very eafily maintained withal : for a little gra^^ 
or mo6, though ever fo indifferent, fatisfies them in time (bf 
need ; fo that they are the fitteft horfes in the world for Ac 
life which th^ Tatars make of them. Their mafters are com- 
monly at war with xhtPerJians^ their incurfions being enccra* 
raged by the fine plains of Khorajfan : but the mountains, in- 
acceilible to their cavalryi hinder them from penetrating into 


Digitized by 


C. 2. Defcription of Little Bukharia: l^9 

the dominions pf the Great MoguL Such of them as feed on 
their cattle, live under portable huts, like their neighbours the 
Kalfnuks^' encamping wherc-ever they fee convenient. But 
they who cultivate lands, dwell in the villages and hamlets ; 
very few of then^ living in the cities or towns, which arc all 
poflefled by the Bukhars, or antient inhabitants ^, We fliall 
ipeak of the origin, and other particulars, relating to the t/a- 
ieks, when we come to the hiftory of Karazm^ 

C H A ?! II. 

j4' Defcripion of Littk Bukhlim. 

THE name of Little Bukharia is given to this country, not /// name^ 
becaufe it is lefs in dimenfions than the Great Bukhdria, 
bdng in reaHty much larger : but becaufe it is inferior to it, as 
to the number and beauty of its cities, goodnefs of the foil, 
abundance of inhabitants, and the like. The adjunfts of 
Great and Little feem to have been impofed, by the Uzbeks, 
to diftinguifli fuch part of the Bukhdrs country, as is pof- 
fefled by themfelves, from that which was not fubijued by 
them ; and yet the name of Little Bukharia is never 
ufed 4yy Ab^Ughdzi Khhn^ who fpeaks of Kdjhgar^ tar- 
kian^ and other countries belonging to it, without com- 
priiing them under any general denomination. Before the Uz- 
beks conquered part of the Bi4khdrs country, the whole went 
by the name of Jagatay, or the country of Jagatay^ fon of 
Jenght% Khdn, to whofe fhare it fell. It was alfo called, by 
the Perfmns, the kingdom of Kijhgar, from that province, 
which was the neareft and principal part of the whole. In 
the hiftory of Timur Bek, Little Bukharia is confidered as 
part of Mbgulifidn, and the country of Jetah, or the Jetes ; 
ivhom the Per/ian geographers place in that part of Tartary 
which lies contiguous on the north. 

LITTLE Bukhdria is furrounded by defarts : it has, on bounds and 
the weft, Great Btihh&ria ; on the north, the country of the fxtititi 
Ekiths^ or Kalmyks, in Tartary ; that of the Mungls fubjeft 
to China, on the eaft ; on the fouth, Tibet , and the north-weft 
end of China ; from both which countries it is feparated by 
two kobis, or defarts, of vaft extent, which communicate with 
each other. It is fituated between the 92d and 1 1 8th degrees 
of longitude, and between the 35*^ 30' and 45th degree of 
latitude J being in length,- from eaft to weft, about 850 
znlles ; and in breadth, from fouth to north, 580 : but, if its 
dimenfions be taken according to its femicircular courfe from 

• Abu'lgh. ubi fup. p. 459, Sc fcq. 
Mod. Hist. Vol. V. • I the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1^ ' ^' ■ JtnghizKMn^s Succejfors. B. IV. 

die foatli to thie north-eaft^ its length will be 1 200 miles, but 
: its breath niv^r exceed 140. 
4w>, mines i This region is populotis and ilertik enough ; but the great 
elevatioh of its land, jcnned to the high mountains which bound 
At in fcveral parts, efpecially towards the fouth, renders it 
much colder than it ought naturally to be (A) by its fituation. 
-It -is very rich in mines of gold and filver ; but the inhabit- 
ants reap little benefit by them, becaufe ndther the EMtks 
(or Kalmuks), who are matters of the country, new: the Bui- 
idrs^ care to work in them. However, they gather abund- 
ance of gold. every fpring out of the gutters made by the 
torrents which fkH from all fides of thofe mountains, when the 
V fnow melts ; and from hence comes all that gold-duft whidi 
the BukhArs carry into India^ China, and Siberia. Much nuifk 
precious ^^ likewife found in this country; and all forts of precious 
ftones. ftones, even diamonds ; but the inhabitatits have not the art 

of either cutting or polifhing them *. 

Nature of All Uttk Bukh&ria cpnfifts of one long chain of moun- 

tbefoil ; tains, with its branches extending through the kobi, or (andy 

defart, which, towards the foot of thofe hills, is intcrfperfed 

with fruitful plains ; fo that it may be compared to a long 

teef of rocks and iflands riiing in the fea. Rtg}s obferves, 

that between the cities in this country there are no vi&cges (B) : 

whence it happens, that, in travelling a whole day fircoi 

one to the other, there is not an houfe of ^ntertainm^it to 

be found. He attributes this partly to the genius of thcti- 

tarsy who prefer tents to houfes ; and partly to the nature rf 

the country, which is fo divided by branches of the koU| 

that it is habitable only in fome particular places. 

dsvtfien. LITTLE Bukhdria contsuns fcveral diftinft dates, or 

countries ; but their exatt number, bounds, and dimenfions, 

are not afcertained by authors. In the time of Goex the Jc- 

fiiit, Who travelled thro' it in 1603, it confifted of two kii^- 

. doms, K0gar m the weft, and Chalis in the eaft, both wnicr 

one fovereign : at prefent it may be convemendy divided mto 

* Abu'lgh. hift. Turks, Sec, p. 469, &feq. 

(A) This feems to be contra- (B) Yet Bentink, and the aa- 

diaed by 7he prefent State of tltor of Tbb Defcription 9f Bok- 

Bukh^ ia, where this country js haria, fay, the towns, which are 

&id tu aix>und with all forts of about twenty, have a great nam- 

fruits and vines ; but that the ber of villages depending en 

heat is fo exceffive, that there is them. JbuUgb, ffift. TwkSf 

no beaCring it without-doors. p. 471. 
Jknlgh. liift. Turks, p. 477. 

Digitized by 


(^±% I}^^/^/» ^/ Little BukhftrbL qr^] 

four parts ; the kingdom of Khfbgar^ and the provintes of 
^fk^ T-nffBn^ and Kharrdl, call^ by the Chinefes Ham 

I . KASHGAR is the moft weftefn province of the four ; cfr Kafbgar 
Bes, more properly, to the fouth di Akfk. It hathi In the/'vv/w. 
weft. Great BukhAria ; irom whence k is feparated by k dou* ' 
ble chain ofmountains, with defarts between them. On-^' 
ftnitfa lies Tibet ; and, to the eaft, the great kobi, or (kfart^ 
nt^iich extends as for as eaftem Tartary. It may be a^ut 
430 mifes in length from fouth to north, and 350 broad 
feom weft to ^aft : within this compafs we do not meet with 
lEKHre than eight or cine towns mentioned by authors, of which 
only three are of any great oonfideration, viz. K^Jbgar, Tar' 
iianf and Khotam, 

I. KASHGAR, written by the Jefuits Haftkar, is called C/Zy 0/ 
alfo Ardiikaniy according to AM'lfeda. It lies to the north- K^^g*^* 
Weift rf the otfici: two cities, towards the frontiers of Great 
Bukhiria, at the foot of tli^ mountains which fepartte that 
prbivince from the lefler. It fbnds on the eaft bank of a river 
which falls from thofe mountains, and lofes itfelf in the defart, 
thirty or forty miles difbnt from the city. It was formerly the 
capiat of the kingdom : but, as Bent ink obfcrvcs, is very much* 
declined fince the Tatars have been matters of it i however^ 
Acre is ftill a pretty good commerce carried on with the neigh^ 
bouring countries, tho' very inconfiderable to what it was ^i 
This city, before Tenghiz Kh&n's conqueft, was, for a time, 
the capital of TnrlteftAn, or the dominions of the Turks y m- 
Tartary; likewife oif the weftern Lyau^ or Karakitayans t 
fince then alfo it has been the feat erf" kings defcended froni 
Jagatay Khhi^ who fecm to have reigned there till the con- 
q^ dE Uttk Bukhdria by the EMths in 1 683 . 

The city of Tarkian^ or Terkian, according to Beniink, 'wh6 Yarkiaft 
vrikes Terkeen and Terkehen (C), is at prefent the capital oi thecafi^ 
all Uttk Bukh&riay ^d fituated to the north of Kkjbgaf, ontaL 
the banks of a fmall river, whofe waters are not reckone^: 
Wholf^e: But, as^ its fituation, he was probably mifirt*^' 
formed : for the Jtrfuits, in their map of this country (v^^hlcli 
they ihdodie m that of Tibet), place it to the fouth^eafl: oif 
Kijbgat, about ninety miles diflant, and on a river, which 
fi^ifi-tte mountains, about the fame diftancc to the fouth* 
weft, and falls into the lake of L?/, about fix hundred miles* 
£rom its fource. Theiame author adds, that lf(Lrkian i$ krgf$« 

^ Afiu^tctt. ubifap, p. 471. 

(C) Othierst Irkenf Irghtn^ Jarkan^ farkhaff, YurkenJ^ an j Hiari' 

la and 

Digitized by 


iga . Jenghlz Khan'i Succejfors. B. I^ 

tnd pretty well built in the eaftcrn way, altho' moft of the 
hou(es arc of fun-burat bricks. There is a caftle in this dty, 
where the khan of the Kluths comes to refide for a time, when 
his afiairs require it ; whence it is miilakcn by fomc.for the 
place of his ufual refidence. The country round Yarkian is 
very fertile in all forts of fruits and .pulfe. 

This city muft needs be very populous, and the BukhArs 
rich, as it is the centre of all the commerce carried on be- 
tween the Indies and the no^ of Jfia^ Tibet ^ Siberia^ Great 
BuUdria, and China. The late emperor of JiuJ/iaf Peter I. 
intended to have fettled a regular trade with Yarkian^ by the 
river Irtijbf which would have proved very advantageous to 
his dominions. ^ 

Khotam, The city of /C6^j;72, or Notom, is varioufly writtcy^ by au- 
tfrHotom. thors : 'tis called by Marco Polo, Kotam ; Hotom, in the map 
of the Jefuits j Koton, in other maps ; Khateen by Bentink ; 
and Khoton by the oriental hiftorians. Jbfflfeda ^ys, it was 
incredibly large, and that its inhabitants were ori^nally of 
Kitay ^. It was probably built by the Karakitayans (D) before- 
mentioned, who conquered this country, and founded a dy- 
nafty there in 1 124 **. This city lies to the fouth-eaft of Yar- 
kian, on the river Hotomni/olon, according to the above-men- 
tioned map. According to Bentink, it is fubjeA to the grand 
khin of the Eliths ; and ft'dl in a pretty flourifliing conditbn, 
on account of its great ^^ck with Tibet and the Indies. Li- 
berty of conicience is allowed here by the inhaUtants, who 
arc moftly Mohammedans, to all their pagan ndghbpurs. The 
houfes are built with bricks, and the circumjacent country is 
exceeding fruitful. The citizens pay a certain tribute to the 
khan of the ElAths for his protcAion, and arc^not incommoded 
by his people. 
Country of a. The country of Alfu lies to the north of Kajbgar, and 
Akfl. weft of the province of Turf An, about 350 miles in length, 
and feventy in breadth. Jkfd (£), the chief town in this re- 
gion is frequently mendoned by travellers ; but no account 
given ci it, farther than that it belongs to the kingdcnn of 
KA/hgar. Accordmg to the Jefuits map, it ftands on the north 

< Defer, Cborafm. p. 80. edit. Hudfon. ' Sec before. , 

Vol. IV. p. 57. 

(D) Whrthcr the name be (E) jikfi fignifies wohite <wa- 
tOfoton, Kttm, or Hpton (which, ter i perhaps from the quality 
in the Mungl language, fignifies of its river, 
a city), or IChotomt fcems uncer- 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. 2. Befcripiion of Little Bukharia. 133 

fide of a fmalt river, which runs fouth-eaft, and lofes itfelf 
in the fands. The rivef Hi has its fprings in the mouatains in 
die north-eaft part of this province ; and rans north-weftward 
iflto Tartary, where it fells into the lake Palkati, about 120 
leagues from its fource. On the eaft-Jide of this river, to- 
wards the faid lake, the late khans of the EMths ufed to fix^ 
their encampments, called Harkas, or Urga^ as others write 
it. More to the weft rife the Ciui Muren and TkAzj Muren ;- 
on which laft ftands the town of Sayrhrty according to the in- 
formation of the Jefuits. Both thefe rivers, after a courfe of 
about 1 80 miles, fell into a lake fituate in Great Tartary. 

3. To the eaft of AkfH lies the province of Turf An '^ which Tarfan 
may be about 200 miles long, and 80 broad. It contains fcve- frovinct^ 
ral towns, of which Turf&n is the chief. Goes i-eprefents it 

as a ftrong, well-fortified city t but the later miffioners give: 
no account of its prefent ftate, farther than that it is a confi- 
derable city, and that it is fix days journey from Hami (or 
Khamil)y over a branch of the kobi, or defart ; but ten days,* 
by the' hills, to the north of this laft* city, which is the fafer- 

4. The province ofiKhamuly Khamtl (F), or Hami,zs the Chi- Khamil 
nefes call it, is about 1 80 miles long^ and 80 broad. It con- frovince. 
tains only one finall city, of* the fame name ; but is full of ' 
houfes, and has a few. villages, as laid down in the Jefuits map. 

The inhabitants are a large-bodied people, and very robuft ; 
well-fhaped, and very neat in their houfes. It ftands ninety 
leagues from the gate in the great wall of Chifia called Kyayu- 
quariy and has lands enough round it ; yet extends no farther, 
becaufe that whole tra<5l is nothing but a dry fand, and the moft 
barren part of all Tdrtary. 

This country, thp' formerly inhabited by idolaters, 1$ now R'iigfonf 
free from them, being poflefled by Mohammedans. The foiiy^'^* 
fcarce produces any fruit, except melons ; but thofe of an ex- 
cellent flavour, and which will keep beyond the feafon, fo as 
to be ferved up at the emperor of China's table all the winter **» 
Gerbillon indeed fays, th^ country produces plenty of good 
fruits, befides melons and grapes ^ But then he was not in 
thefe parts, as the other miffioners were, from whom wc have 
taken the former account. 

« Du Halde, Defer. China, Vol. II. p. 253. ^ Idem 

5hid. p. 262. 

(F) Marco Polo and Goes the Jefait, write Khamul, B4ntink Kha- 

I 3 Th« 

Digitized by 


Country of Thb proviiice$ rf Tttrfin aad Khamtl fecm to have com- 

/^f Vi- pofed the country poflcflcd fiwrmeriy by the Vig^trs, OygArs, of 

g&rs. Igirs^ whofe capital, accordmg to the qripntal authors, was 

BJjlAalig : bat Qaubil (daces it eight or nine leagues to the eaft 

of Turf in, and names it Ho-chem (according to the Chmefi)^ 

^ fays, it is fHll called Pcting'tuM-fit \ whereas Bi/bbalig 

is fituatcd, by him, to tht nordi qf Tuifdny and the country 

qf Ahudeg to the weft of that of BiJbbnHg ^* The Igirs wer^ 

likewiie m;^lers of the neighbouring parts of Ta^rtary^ as far 

as the river Irttjbt and monnt Altay. 

The ad-, The above-mendoned dcfjurt, lying between Kbamil^sA the 

joimmg dt' great wail of China^ is part of the fliarmo, or kobi. As it affords 

f^^* . ndther air nor water, travellers, in croilh^ it, frequently lofe their 

borfes ; fdt this reafon the Tatars make ufe rather of dromeda- 

lies, who are content with li^c food, and can be five or fix-days 

without drinking. However, th^ whole defart is not included 

within this fpace of ninety leagues : for it has feveral branches, 

M^uch, fpreading here and there like fo many infefted veins, 

divide the country into as many plots, fqme dry, and quite un-> 

inhabited; others fertile enough to fubfift a few Tatars ^ 

^( InbaiUants of Little Bukhliria. 

l^haktt^ T^HE inhabitants of this country, tho* under the dominion 

pi/i, their ■*• of the Eluths^ are, for the gener^, Bukhirs. Thefe, ap-. 

Jhafe. cording to The Prefenf State of Little Bukharia, are generally 

fun-burned and black-haired ; altho' foihe of them are very 

fair, handfome, and well-made. They do not want politenefs \ 

^d are a4difted to commerce, which they carry on with China^ 

th(j In^esy Perjia, and Rujia. They who deal with them 

will be furfs to be over-reached, if they be not on their guard. 

jTij drefi The habits oi the men diflfer very little fi-om thofe worn by 

' " . the Tatars. They fall ^ low as the calf of the leg, with 

fleeves very wide towards the (houlders, and clofe about the 

dbows. Their jgirdles are like thqfe of the Poles: The gar- 

Hients of the women difier in nqthirig from thqfe of the men, 

wd are conunonly quilted with cotton. They w^ar l^bs \^ 

jncirears twelve inches long; part and twift their hair in 

trefles,' which they lengthen with black ribbands cnibroidered 

wdtfa gold qr filver, and with great taffels of filk and filver, 

lyhicb \fSiT^ down to their heds (A): three other tufts of a 

« Gau^il, hifl Gcntch. p. \x, 1^6. la?. * Dv i^ALpi^ 

ijxb'fup. P.S53.' • ' • • -1 

(A) Thcfe are the fame callr wom<in, qf wl^fe ^reft he has 
^ by Grueber northern TarUuy given a prinC 

-'"" '^ ' '* ^ %aller 

Digitized by 


C. a. DefcripHm cf Dctle fiukhlruu 13$ 

fioalkr fize cover their breads. They have neckbces orha- 
^mented ¥dth pearls ; linall pieces of cdn, aod icv^ baables^* 
either g^ded or iilvered over, which make a flaring (hew. 
Both fexes carry about them prayers wrttteo by their priefts^ 
and kept in a fmali leathern purfe, io the nature of relicks. 
Th^ prls, and fcxne of the women, tinge thar nails ted, with tf both 
the juice of an Jherb called, by the BukhArs, ^ena : they dry^^^'* 
and pulverize it ; then, mixing it with powder^alum, exppfe 
it in the air for twenty-four brars before they u(e it, and the 
colour lafts a loi^ time. 

Both fexes wear dofe breeches, and boots of Ruffia lea<* 
ther, very light, and without heels, or leather foles ; putdog 
on gaUocfaes, or high-heeled flippers, like the Turks^ when 
they go abroad. They wear alfo the fame fort of bonnets, and 
covering for the head ; only the women fet off theirs with 
trinkets, fmall pieces erf* money, and Chinefi pearb. Wives 
are diiHnguifhed from maidens only by a long piece of lineu 
worn upder their bomiete ; which, fading round the neck, 
they tie in a knot behind, fo that one end of it hangs down 
to the waift*. 

The Bvkh&r houfes are of flone, and pretty good ; but Houfis ani 
their moveaM^ are few, and not very handfome; confifting/«r»//tfr<. 
only of fome China trunks plated with iron. Upon thefe, in 
the day, they fpread the quilts which they make ufe of at 
qight, and cover them with a cotton carpet of various odours. 
They have likewife a curtain fprigged \dth flowers, and other 
^ures ; alfo a fort of bedflead half a yard high, and four 
yards long, which is hidden in the day with a carpet. They 
go to bed naked : but always drefs when they rife. They are TbeirtTieti 
very neat about their viftuals, which are dreffed in the ma^ 
fter's chamber, by his flaves, whom the BukMrs either take or 
buy from the Kalmyks, Ruffians, and other neighbours : for 
this purpofe, ther^ are in the chamber,' according to the large-* 
nrfs of the &mily, feveral iron pots, fet in a kind of rang^, 
near a chimney. Some have little ovens, made, like the reft 
ef their walls, with a ftifF clay, or brides. 

Ti|£iR utenfils cpnfift in fome plates and porringers c£ . . 

Capua wood, or of china, and in fome copper veffels to boil 
tea and water, A pi^e of coloured caUico ferves them in^ • 
Head of a table-cloth and napkins. They ufc n€;ither chairs 
nor tables, knives nor forks, but fit crofs-le^^ed on the ground ; 
and, the meat bdng ferved up readv cia, th^y pull It to. pieces 
with their fingers.. Their fppons rdemblc our wooden ladles *** 

• tiENTiNK ap. Abfi'lgh. hift, Tivk«x *^- p- 476* ^ fcqq- 
^ Idem ibid. p. 475^"" (c fi^ch 

J 5 T^fiH^ 

Digitized- by 


i^e . Jtnf^zKhki's Sttcctffors B. V. 

Their ufiial food is minced meats, of which they make pies 
in form of a half*moon : they ferve for provifion when they go 
long journeys, efpeciaily in winter, carrying diem in a bag, 
after firft expofii^ them to the froft ; and, when boiled in 
water, make very good broth. Tea is* their common drink, 
of which they have a black fort prepared with milk, fait, and 
butter ; eating bread with it, when they have any c, 
ptarriaze* ^^ ^^^ Bukhdfs buy their wives, paying for them more or 
eeremtmy ; ^"^18, according to their handfomenefs'; fo the fureft way to be 
rich, is to have many daughters. The perfons to be married 
muft not fee or fpeak to each other from the time of their con- 
traft, till the day of marriage ; which is celebrated for thiee 
days with feafting, as they do three great annual feftivals. 
The evening before the wedding, a company of young girls 
meet at the bride's houfe, and divert thcmfelves till midnight 
in playing, dancing, and finging. Next morning the guefts 
ailcmble, and help her to prepare for the ceremony. Then, 
notice being given to the bridegroom, he arrives foon after, 
accompanied by ten or twdve of his relations or friends ; fol- 
lowed by fome playing on flutes, and by an abus (B), who 
fings, while he beats two little timbrels : then he makes a 
horfe-race ; which being ended, he diftributes the prizes, fix, 
eight, or twelve, in number, according to his ability. They 
confift in damafks, fables, fox-(kins, callico, or the like. The 
parties do not fee each other while the marriage-ceremony is 
performing, but anfwer at a diftance to the queftions afked by the 
prieft. As foon as it is over, the bridegroom returns home 
with his company ; and, after dinner, carries them to the bride's 
houfe, and obtains leave to fpeak to her. This done, he goes 
back, and returns again in the evening * at which time he 
finds her in bed, and, in prefence of all the women, lays him- 
fclf down by her in his cloaths, but only for a moment. The 
fame farce is afted for three days fucceffively. But the third 
night he goes to-bed to her in earneft; and, the next day, 
carries her home. 
CJ!fiy' Some hufoands, by agreement, continue with their parents 

iemring. fome time longer, and often a whole year, the wife remaining 
the fame time with hers. But if /he dies in the interim with- 
out children, her relations keep all which her fpoufe gave her, 
unlefs they are pleafed to return him one half. The women 
are reckoned imp&re forty days after their delivery, and dare 
not fay their prayers all that time. The child is named the 

* Bentink ap. AbCi'Igh. hlA. Turks, &c. p. 422. 

(H) The abus is a kind of prieft* 


' Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C2. Defcripti&n of Uttle Bukharia: 137 

tMday after it ii born, by the father, ' or fome relation ; who 
make it a prefent of a bonnet, piece of linen, or coat, as he 
can afford it : they are circumcifed at the age of Ifeven, eight, 
or nine. ' , 

Altho* polygamy is looked on as a fort of fin by the Polygamy. 
Mh&rSf yet it is never punifhed ; fo that fome have ten 
wives, or more. Any man may at pleafure fend back his 
wife 5 but then fhe is intitled to whatever he gave her during 
thdr cohabitation. The woman alfo muy part from her huf- 
band ; but then fhe cannot carry away the leafl thing which be- 
longs to her. 

When a BukhAr falls fick, a mullah is fent for, who reads Diftempirs 
to him a paflage out of fome book, and breathes on him feve- hinucured. 
ral times ; then, with a very fharp knife, makes feveral cuts, 
oyer and on the fide of his face. They imagine that, by this 
means, they cut the root of the diflemper,. which they fay is 
caufed by the devil. When any of them dies, the priefl lays. 
a koran on his breafV, and recites fome prayers. After this,. 
the body is carried to the grave, which they'cdmmonly make 
in fome pleafant wood, and indofe with a hedge, or pali- 
fade**. ' , ' . 

The Bukhdrs have no money but copper kopeiks, which ^oney^ani 
weigh near one-third of an ounce. When they have filver or language. ' 
gold to receive or pay, they weigh it, as the Chine/es and other 
narions do *. Their language, according to Gerbillon^ is appa--, 
rendy that of the Uzbeks^ differing from the Mungl : but he adds, 
that this lafl is commonly underflood, by tocans of the great 
commerce between the two nations ^ 

Altho' the prevailing (or eflabliflied) religion, In all the J/l reli- 
towns and villages throughout Little Biikhdria^ is the Moham- gtons tolt' 
mlariy yet all others enjoy a perfeft toleration ; becaufe the rateJ. 
Kcdntiiks (or El^ths), who are maflers of this country (though 
grofs idolaters) think they ought not, in confcience, to fuffer 
people to be molefted on account of their belief. According 
to The Defcription of Bukharia, the BuhMrs fay, that God 
fiffl communicated the koran to men by Mofes and the pro- 
phets : that afterwards Mohammed explained and drew a mo- 
ral from it, which they are obliged to receive and praftice. 
They hold Chrifl to be a prophet, and have a Angular notion 
about his birth. 

The virgin Mary, according to them, was a poor orphan ; Legend of 
and her relations, difagieeing about the charge of her educa- Mary, 
tion, propofed to decide it by lot. They threw a feather into 

* Bentink ap. Abu'lgh. hift. Turks, p. 482, & feq. « Idem 
ibid. p. 478, f Du Halde, ubi fup. p. 261, & feq. 

a veflcl 

Digitized by ^ 


13S JeiighJ^&KhloV^r^^. B.L 

a Ycffd faU of water, and agreed that he, to wbo(e fiag^r U 
ftuck, (hould have the maintenance of the child ; wt^ hf 
that fbeans, fell to Zakhariah's care ; for the feather, tbo' fm^ 
to die bottom, rofe, and faftened to his finger, the very yiftant 
he put it mto the water. Qne time the bufine^ of tbe»ieoiple 
having kept him three days firom home, Ojpon recaUe^Hng that 
he had locked the child up, he ran back as faft as lie could : bat, 
inftead of finding her dead, as he expected, (he was furrouoded 
with all forts of eatables^ which, as ihe told him, God ha4 
(ent her. 
CmafiioM* The firft time thb hdy maid was taken after the manner 
of women, ihe went to bathe in a fountain which was in a 
great foreft ; where, frighted on hearing a voke, fhe ran to 
her cloaths : but prefendy an. angel appeared, and told her, 
Ihe fliould become with diild, ordering her to name him Ijfay^ 
Mary replied wifely, that lying-in would be painful to her, aa 
fbe never .had to do with any man. Hereupon the angel, 
breathing on her breaft, made l;ier Comprehend that myftery ; 
and inftrufted her in what it was neceiflary for her to know. 
In fhort, Mary con<peived from that inftant ; and, the time of 
ter delivery approaching, went to hide herfelf, for fliame, in 
frhrs the feme forefL There, falling in labour, flie leaned againft 
/trtHttj' a decayed tree, and, in that condition, was delivered. When, 
behold ! at the fame inftant, the rotten trunk began to put 
forth leaves, and the country all around to bloom as in fprisg. 
The angels came alfo ; and, having bathed the new-bora in- 
fant in a fountain, which fuddenly appeared within two paces 
of the place, returned him to his mother ; who, going back tQ 
her relatk>ns, was received with curfes, and ill treatment. 
She took it aJl very patiently ; and, without juftifying herfelf, 
only defired her fou to plead her caufe. This he did inune* 
dlately, with fuch ftrength df argument as^ intirely vindi^ted 
his mother; explaining to them the whole inyilery of a Wrth 
fb miraculous, and contrary to nature. 
J Young J/ay, in time, became a great prophet, and a dpAor 

I of high authority: but was generally hated and perfecuted^ 

; I rfpecially by the great men, who often fought to flay him % 

f; and at laft fent two confiderabk perfons to make a^ay vrith 

Bis m/' him ; but, jull as they were about to execute thdr defign, God 
■ Jmaftion. took him up to heaven, and puniftied the afMins in a fingu-i 
! lar manner : for, transforming them one after the other to the 

ibape of I/ay, they tecame expofed to the fury of the people j 
who, deceived by the. refemblancf, put th^ to a mifcrabte 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. a. DefiriptiM 0/ lit^e Bukb&ria. 139 

Altho' tbe. Buibirs, as appears from wliat has been re- FtAn 
kted, hav€ no notion of the fuflefuigs of Chrift ; yet they/4^'* 
believe in the refurreAiony and another life : but canndt be 
perfuadedy that any mortal BasOX be etecoaUy damned; on die 
contrary, they believe, that, as the (fipncions led them into fin, 
fo the punifliment will £m on them. rThey betieve pioreover, 
diat, at the laft day/ every thing but God will be annihilated ; 
and, coniequently, that all creatures, the devils, angels, an4 
Chrift himfelf, wUl die. Likewife that, after the refurreflion, all 
men* excepting a few of the eleft, wUl be purified or chaftifed 
by fire, every one according to hi^fins, which will be wdghed 
in tbe balance.. , , 

Thet fay, there will be eight diiFerent array, or paradifes, Eight /«• 
for the good ; and feven hells, where Tinners are to be purified rtuHfu^ 
by fire : that thofe, who will fufFer moft, are lyars, cheats, and 
Baafce-bates : that the eleft, who do not feel the fire, will be 
chofen fi:akq;^among the good ; vix. one out of a hundred men, 
and one out of a thou&nd women ; which Tittle troop will 
be carried into one of the paradifes, where they fliall enjoy 
all forts of felicities, till it fhall pleafe God to create a new 
world, in the room of the prefent. It is a fin, according to them, 
to fay that the Ddty is in heaven : God, fay they, is every- 
where ; and therefore it derogates from his omniprefence, to 
fay he is confined to any particular place. 

Thet keep yearly a fail of thirty days, from the middle oiVhtir\jKs^ 
July to the middle of Auguji: during this time they tafte no-y^. 
thing all day ; but eat twice in the night, at fun-fet and mid«- 
night : noc do they drink any thing but tea, all ffa-onjg liquors 
bei^ig forbidden. Whoever tranlgreflcs thefe ordinances, is 
obliged either to emancipate his moft valuable flave, or give an 
entertainment to fixty people : he is likewife to recdve eighty- 
five ffarokes on the hare back with a leathern fbrap ^led dura, 
by order of the aguns, or chief-prieft. Yet our Author ha^ 
pbferved, that the commpn people do not exaAly keep this 
£)ft ; and that workmen are allowed to eat in the day-time. 
Thqr fay prayers five times a day : before morning ; towards % 
noon ; i^temoon ; at fun-fet ; and tn the third hour of t)ie 
night J notice being given them by their abus, or priefb^ 

% Bbntivk, ul^ fup. p. 47I, ^fcq. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f40 Jcnghiz Khki* s Succefcfs B.IV* 

The Hiftory of Great Bukharia. 

Of Jagacay Khin, and bis Succeffbrs. 

Empire of Of A GAT AT [oxChagatay) Khtn, fecond (on of Jmgkh Khin^ 
Jagatay. ^ ^^s a moil accompliftied prince, and excelled the reft of 
his brothers. He was alfo more equitable ; and obferved, with 
greater exaftnefs, the laws made by his father •, whereof he 
.. was the keeper and adminiftrator. He had fomething fo fe- 
vere in his countenance, that e\'cry-body was afraid to look at 
him : however, he was mafter of a great underftanding ; on 
which account Jenghtz KhAn gave him, for his (hare of the 
empire (A), all the country of Great Bukhiria^ and half of 
Karazmi likewife the country of thcyigirs (or Ig£rs)^ the 
cities of K^Jhgar^ BaJdgsbdn^ Bdlk, and Gaznah, with thdr 
dependencies, as far as the river Str^bidi (or Indus) ^. j^hffl- 
faraj, and Mirkond agree nearly with this divifion ; only the 
former throws in all Knrazm fo his lor, and adds Al Malig * ; ' 
which yet tnay be comprifed within the countries of the Vigurs 
and Khjhgar^ that is, Utile Bukhhtna. 
i.Jagatay This prince, after the death of his fether, chofe the dty 
Khan. of Bijhh&lek (in the country of the Jgurs) for the place of his 
refidence : however, he lived almoft continually with his^ bro- 
ther Oltay^ who loved and refpefted him as his mafter, akfao' 
younger than he. In his abfence his dominions were governed 
by Karajar or Karajbar Noyan^ whom Jenghtz Khdn^ at his 
death,, gave him for his wazir, to prefide in his counfels, and 
command his armies. This lord w^as one of the moft powcr- 
ftil among tiie Miingls^ and the fifth great anceftor, or grand- 
father, of the fitmous Ttmir Bek, or Tamerlan ^. 
^f^^fi As the country was governed with great wifdom and mode* 

prophet, ration, nothing difturbed the peace of it till the year 630 ; 
lie). 630. 

' ' « La Croix, Kid. Gcngh. p. 394. *» Abu'lchazi 

^ Khan; hift. Turks, &c. p. 165. « D^Herbelot. 

hill, orient, art. Gjagathay, p. 391. La Croix, ubi fupnu 
' D*Herbel. ubi fup. p. 390. La Croix, ubi fop. 

(A) 'Tis doubtful whether pire were dependent ;tiU, by d^- 

Jenghix Khan made any fuch grees, they (hook off their de- 

diftribution'; but he, as well as pendente on the immediate . foe- 

Bmtu in Kifjdky governed under cefTors of Jenghtz KhoM in the 

Oif/iy, on whom and his fuc- eaftern parts * of Tartary and 

♦•efTors, all the parts of the em- China, 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Cg. In Great Bukh^ria. 141 

when MahmAd^ furnamed Tardhi, from Tardi, a country 
town fix leagues from Bokhara, having, by his falfe miracles, 
deluded an army of people, went at the head of them, and 
took that city. After this, he marched againft the Mungl ge- 
nerals, who could not venture to attack him for a thick duft 
with which they were incommo4ed ; infomuch that, although 
Mabmud was flain by a random arrow-fhot, in the midft of 
his camp, yet neither the enemy, nor his own foldiers, knew 
any thing of the matter. Mean time the Mungls, attributing 
this extraordinary duft to the impoftor*s fkill in magic (B), fled 
for fear ; and, their (hameful flight animating the Tarabian 
rebels, they purfued then^, killing above 10,000. At their 
return, they were furprifed not to find their general : but be- 
ing told, by thofe who were in the fecret, that he had difap- 
peared for a while, the credulous difciples fet up his brothers 
Mohammed and Alt for his lieutenants in his abfence. 

By this means the flame fpread, inftead of lofing ground ^ Hisfol- 
fo that Karajbar Noyan (or Nevian)^ feeing the principal cities lowers tx* 
daily reduced, at length aflembled the chief forces of the eta-f^rmin^ited* 
pire, in order intirely to fupprefs the rebels. He began with 
the city of Bokhara^ which had favoured them ; plundered the 
territory belonging to it, and flew a great number of the Inha- 
bitants. This obliged them to fue for pardon to Jagatayy 
whofe clemency eafily granted it ; while his troops deftroyed 
the Tar&biam without mercy. 

JJCJTu4Y.Khdnd\Qii in the year 638, which anfwers . to Jagatay 
the Mungl year of theC^t/, or Out^ that is, the Ox^ : thus writes dies. 
Kondarmr. But Jbu'lghdzi Kh&n puts his death two years later, Hcj. 63S. 
and gives this account of it : The khan had in his court a A- 1^- 
forcerer, who could deceive people's fight, fo as to make them '^4?« 
think they faW whole armies march before them. Jagatayy 
haviqg had the curiofity once to fee fome fuch reprefentation, 
conceived fo great an averfion to the man, that, on fome com- 
plaint agaihft him ftxortly after, he ordered him to be caft into 
prifbh, botind hand and foot, where he died: but the khan^ 
hiTDSg^ was feized not long, after with an incurable difeafe, 
which carried him off., * 

Among a great many wives and <5oncubines, Jagatay dif- Wivesand 
dngulihed two above the reft, who were fifters, the daughters children. 

• D'Herbel. ubi fupra. 

(B) They are infatuated with rain, bail^ and duft, may be 
a ^opid notion,. that {torms of raifed by incbantment. 

Digitized by 


14^ JcngMz Kh&nV Succeffors B, IV* 

of Kaba N^an, chief of the tribe of Kankrats (C). The 
firft, named Baffiitun^ bore him many fons, whcnn he loved 
beft of all his childreEu The name of the fccond was Tar- 
khAn Khatun^ whom he married after the death of the firft. 
His foos "Were ^even in number ; Mutugan^ Migi^ Baida 
Sh/th, Saghin^lalga, Sarmans^ Buffumungd^ and Baydar^. 
According to Kondamir, the ddeft fon of Jagatay Khdn was 
usaxs^ Manuka, who had throe Tons, Sayjfur, Kara Hulagk^ 
and NaRga, who fucceeded each other. But the fame author 
hys^ he had no fiicceflbr who fucceede^ to all his dominions : 
for thkt his fons, and neareft relations, divided his empire 
among them ; and thofe who had the longeft fword, obtained 
fhe greateft fhare ^ However, we are told 'that thirty-one 
l^tim^, who were either his fons or nephews, reigned in xHeis 
country, caHed, after him, Jagatay. 
a. Kara The fit ft of thefe , according to La Croix, was Btfimien- 
Hu^kd. kay Khin ; the fame doubtlefs with the ^ftffimunga of JM'l- 
gh/kd Khin ; who yet does not reckon Wm among the khins 
of Jagatay, placing KaraHulaM as his immediate fncceflbr, 
Ckt die other hand, the authors made ufe of by La Croix 
fey, that Kara HulaM, fon of Metuka (D) (or Mutagun), 
afccnded the throne after his brother Bijumenkay, by the affift- 
ance q£ Kara/bar Noyan, who died during his reign, in die 
year 1254* 
3. MuM- MUBAREKShih, fon of Kara Hulaki, fucceeded ; but, 
ick SMfc^ as he was very youi^ at his fether's deadu, his mother ArgMa 
Khatun took the r^ncy during Ids minority. La Croix 
calls her Argana Khatun, daughter of NAr AIM Girkhhi, and 
makes hst the third fucceflbr <rf Jagatay Khht. 
'4. AlgA. I'^fi fucceflbr <rf MubArek ShlhvTBsAIgd, fon of Baydar^ 
fevtoth fon of Jagatay Khhn \ who, adcnowlc^ng Koplay for 
grand kh4n of the Mungls in the eaft, had for ms (hare aU the 
country from the river AmA, boundii^ Ptrjia, t» mount -*tf- 
tay <• La Croix calls ti^ khin NaKgi, and lets him bcfixe 
Mobdrek SMh* 
5. Barak BARAK, or Serrai Kh&n, fon of Tafmta, Tins prince, 
iLhin. iQ the fe^^nd year of hfe re^, embraqsd Mohiam unKfi n , and 
took the name of Gaya'zo'ddhi\ KmmarAr j&ys, he wa$ tiie 
fon of Bayjfur, fon of ^Manuka (pc Mufagm) bcfore-mcQ- 

^ Abulcb. ubi fop. p. 166. f A»v'L<7H.,obi fop. p. 163. 
167. ^ Id. ibid. &D*Hbrbblot. art. Bar^ Khan, p. 183. 

(C) Kongorats, as Others ; call- (D) Called, by oibtn^ ifir« 
ed Hongkila in the Cbintfi hifto- wAa. L4Cfri^.^ 
Tj, at has been often obfcrvcd 


Digitized by 


Cj. iiir Great Bultldina. ^43 

tioned : that' he was one of the moft confiderable princes of 
Us time ; and attempted to take Khoraff&n from his coufm 
Ahaka Kbin^ fon of HolaH^ who rdgned in Ir&n^ or Pirfia 
at large : that, not fncceedii^ in his defign, he filmed his 
arms againft Kablay Khdn, who reigned in the eaftem parts of 
Tartary and Cbma^ where he made g^eat ravages, but was 
forced to return ixdthoat fubduing any one confiderable place : 
be died in 1260 K But, if fo, he could not have had a war 
widi JbUa Kh&n^ who did not afcend the throne till 1 264 (£)• 

After BarAk KhM% death, the dignity of khin was con- 6. BqjU 
fenned on Bigbiy fon of Sarmans^ fon of Jagatay. La. Croix K1imi» 
calls this prince Nikepey^ fon of Saryofu 

BUG A (prBuia) Tindr, great grandfon of iWiu/^f wn, fuc- 7- Bagi| 
ocedcd BeghiKhhi. Timikr 

DOT J I Khhn, fon of BdriA Khin, fuccecded BeghiKiim, KluUu ^ 
and was iieckoned a very juft king : he b called by La Croix \J^^ 
lyavaKMi. ^■**- 

Re was fucceeded by his fon Kojtja Kh^^ called by La 9. Koojs 
Croix Kavenjik Khhn. Klwa, 

BALIGA (or BaUgff) who was alfo a grand&n of MAta- lo.Biliga 
guriy facceedcd Konjiu • KWbu 

The fbcceflbr of BaUga in Great Bukb&ria was ffan Bu^a^ it. Ifuk 
feccHid fon of Doyji Kh^n. He was named alfo Amul Khqja \ Bu|^ 
and, on the death of Hyas or EUas Khoja, fon of Tegl^i 7i- Khan, 
ift^, was invited by the inhabitants of K4/hgar, and the reft 
ef iJttle BuihAria, to take the fovereignty of that comitry 
Dpon him, as will be related hereafter. 

ISAN Buga KhBn was fucceeded by his brother Dm ft' if^Diii 
mir (left, we prefume, to rdgn, up6n the other's removing to Timfir 
K^gar). This prince is called Dava Tindr by La Croix i Khan, 
who i^ces, between him and BaligAy three kMns, namdy, 
t. jfSnfvka^ fon oi Dava {or Doyfi) kb^n; 2, Kepek Kb^y 
.^. Elchi Keiay Khikn^ fon of Dava Kh&n ^. 

DUl Tfmir had for his fuceeffor his brother Tarmafbir % \%. Tar* 
who reftored ^ Mohamrnedifm^ which, from the time of Bar^k mafliit 
iQM», haU fo declined in Creat Bukhdria, that fcarce any ^^^ 
footfteps of it remained. This khan was flain by his brother 
Butdn Kh&ty who afterwards feized the throne. Th&Perfian 
MftDiians, who name this prince Turma/hirin, make mm the 

^ D^HsaBBU ttbi lap. p. 391, LaC^oix, ixbi fop^ ^*395r 
^ ABtr*LCH. Sc La Ckoix, nbi Tap. 

(£) Poffibty this date is a the reign Cf{ Atoka Kii», in die. 
Jteiftake for 1 270. See hereafter line of Hukku. 

I fixteenth - 

Digitized by 


144 Jcnghtz Khan'j Succejors B. IV, 

fixteenth khan, and place his death ia 1336: they fayalfo, 
that he was much feared by his neighbours \. 
14. Butan BUT AN Khdn \sras fucceeded by his nephew 
Khan. JANG SHI, fon of Ulugan, brother of Butan Khhn. The 

flu Kh"^' ^^'^^^^^ ^f ^^ prince, named Tafun TJmur, ambitious of the 
*"• throne, formed a defign to make him^ away : but their mo- 
ther, fufpefting his defign, advifed Jangshi to be on his guard. 
Hereupon the khan immediately took the field againft his bro- 
ther ; but had' the misfortune to lofe the battle, with his life. 
La Croix calls this prince Jinkejbi, and makes him the imme- 
diate fucceflbr of Turmejhirin Khhn. 

16. Yafun TASUN Timur; having thus by force afcended the throne, 
Timur. to be revenged on his mother for difcovering his confpiracy to 

his brother, like another Nero, caufed her belly to be ripped 
up. La Croix calls him Bi/tin Timur Kh&n, fon of Abuken, 

17. AH . During the reign of Tafun Timir^ Alt Soltdn, a prince 
Soltan of the poflerity of Ugaday, or Oitay, became fo formidable. 
Khan. \]^^ neither the khan, nor the other princes defcended from 

Jagatay, were able to make head againft him ; fo that, after 
the death of Tafun Timir^ he brought Great Bukharia under 
his fubjeftion. La Croi;c makes Alt Solthn the nineteenth 
I S.Kazan After the death of AH Solt&n Kh&n^ Kazan Soltdn re- 
Khan, entered into pofTeflion of the dominions belonging to the 
houfe of Jagatay Khdm This prince was the fon of Jafur 
(or Jafur Aglen), fon of Urek Tim&r Khdn, fon of Kutugay, 
fon of Bofay, fon of Mutugan, fon of Jagatay : fo that there 
were, in all, fixteen khins of this laft prince's pofterity (F), 
who reigned, uithout interruption, 109 years over the pro- 
vinces of MawaraHnahr (or Great Bukharia). After them 
there were indeed other khans in that country : but they were 
fuch as only bore the name of khan, without having the 
power : each head of a tribe affumihg the liberty of doing 
what he pleafed, and obeying the khan no farther than he 
thought fit", . , ^ 

Hcj. 733. ' SOLTAN KazAn began his reign in the year 733 : but 
A. D. was very cruel ;. and fo tyrannical, diat, when he fent for the 
1 33 2* princes his dependents to court on any occafion, they com** 
Death ami monly made their wills before they went. Hereupon Mir Kd- 

' Abu'lgh. & De la Croix, ubi fupra. Hift. .Timur BBk, 
VoL I. p. 18. « Abu'lgh. ubi fup. p. 168, &fcq. 

(F) The Perjtan hiftorians only the eighteenth, and the fix- 
make him the twenty-iirft khan teenth of thofe who defcended 
ol Jagatt^ i Aiu'/^hdzi Khan from Jagatay Khan. 


Digitized by 


C. 3; Ik 6rcat Bukhdri*; 14^ 

^agan, one of the moft conflderable princes of his time, in 
Conjunftion with others, took up arms againft him ; but were 
defeated in 746, and their Jeader wounded in the eye with an Hej. 746, 
arrow by Katdn himfelf ; fo that he not only loft that eye, but A- ^^ 
was wholly blinded for a long time after. The grand khan '345- 
hereupon returned to Kar/bi; where he had the misfortune to 
lofe fo many horfes by the feverity of the winter, that almoft 
all his cavalry was reduced to march on foot. MirKazagan, 
who had advice of this, without lofs of time went and at-* 
tacked the khan ; who was flain in the battle, in the year 747. 

After Kazdn Khdn's death, Mtr K&zagan fet on the throne '9* pafli- 
a prince of the race of Oktay Khhn, called DAjbmenja Aglen ^^^J* 
(G) : but foon after put him to death, and at length advanced ''^"•'*- 
to the dignity of grand khan Bay an Kuli^ fon of Sorg&di^ fon 'o.Bayau 
of Dava (or Doyji) Khan (H). This prince Was efteemed for ^"!? 
his juftice and liberality ; while Mtr Kazagan^ who took on ^*^"*» 
him the government of the kingdom, acquitted himfelf to the 
fatisfaftion of every-body, and his own glory. After his death, 
which happened by the hands of his lon-in-law, on occafioil 
of feme affi-ont, in 759, he was fucceeded by his fon Mirza ^^i'7S9* 
AbdoUabf who confirmed Bey At Kuli Kh&n in Ws dignity : but ^ ^* 
foon after caufed him to be aflaffinated, to obtain the emprefs, '357^ 
with whom he fell in love (I) ; and placed Ttmir Sh&h Agkn 
on the throne. 

riMUR Sh&h Khin was fon of Bif4n (or rafun) Timir ^'7^^^ 
Kbdn, fon of Ulagany fon of Doyji KhBn. But he did not |.V^ 
long enjoy his dignity : for the princes, fliockel at Abdollah'^ •*^™"^ 
proceeding, made war upon him ; routed his forces ; and, 

(G) Hescarfen, a modem Turk- account ^^trX^ySbarifo^diinAJt^ 

ijb author, calls him Z>M^OT^Vi author of 7V«r«r Be1C% hiftory* 

Kban^ fon of Ifiir Aglen, accord- cannot well fail of being the 

ing to a note in the hiftory of truth in thefe two particulars, 

Pindar Bek^ tranflated by La we have therefore chofen to 

Crmx\ which (hews, that the follow him. 
hft given by him, in his h^ftory (H) According to Ahfflgbaxi 

of JengMx Khan^ is taken from Kbdn^ he was fon of ^urga^ fott 

Hexarfem hut AiiPIgbatii Kban, of Dax;i Kbdn, fon of Bsrrak 

inftead of Danijhmanja, nuts Kbdn^ the fifth of thofe before* 

AaurKasuiganh\mk\ii2XiA\2iys^ mentioned, 
he was the fon of Danijbmanjay (I) According to Ahitlgbazi 

fon of Kiyduy fon of Kajhi, fon Khdn^ p. 170, Beydn Kuli Khan 

of Ugaday (or Oktay) ^ fon of had him (lainy on fufpicion of 

Jenpnx Kbdn, He fays like- having a criminal correfpond* 

wjie, that he was flain after a ence with his wife : but Sbarif^ 

fwo years reign ; nor was it oV^tf A/if our author^ 11 mort 

{known by wh m. ^ But, as the to be relied on. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. V. K having 

I Digitized by CjOOQIC 

44^ JtriQhU Klmi' s Succejfors B^IV;, 

having t^n his brothers, with the khan, put them all tQ 
death ". La Croix makes him the twenty-fom-th khan ; and^ 
in another place, fays, the lords ufarped his authority, be- 
caufe he was very weak in his undeyrAanding ^ : hut the ufurp- 
ation did not begin in his reign. 
22. Adel JDEL Soltin Khan fucceeded Ttmir Skah j and was the 
SoUan fon of Mohammed Piilad, fon of Konza Khan, fon of Doyjt 
Khan. Kbdn. According to Jb0ghazi Khutiy tvvo heads of tribes, 
.Amir Tim&r^ znd Amtr Huffhyr}^ nephew of Jbd^Uahy fon of 
Jnur Kazagojif. feized the khan ; and, binding him hand and 
foot, drowned him p. It muft be cfcierved, that this author 
is a great enemy to thefe princes, efpecially T{?nnr, for talking 
the power from the defcekdants of JenghH Khtn. However, 
' *tis Ukely the khan was made away With by Huffayn .'; for there 
is no mention at all of Mm» in ,the hiftory of ^mur Sek^ by 
Sharif o'ddtn Ali, excepting occafionally ; where it is faid, in 
, fyeaking of his fervices done to Hujf^yn^ that the khan Adef 
Sohdn having fled from Hidfayn^ of whom he was jealous, 
altho' he haa raifed him to m& throne, Tiinur even pyrfued, 
and feized hioa, after fome refiftance, and fent him to that 
prince ^'^ La Croix places Togal TimAr^ and his fon Elias 
Khoja (khans of K^gar), between Timur Shdh and Jd^l Sol* 
tMf whom he makes the twenty-fixth Idian ^ 
23. Kabul KABUL Soltdn Kh^n; fon 6f. Dorji, ton of IlJaHay, Ion 
S<rkan of Doyji Khdn, was, after the death of Jdd Soltdn Khan, 
Khan. eftabliflied in his room by the mo lords above-mentJoned ; 
who, in his reigp, feized the cit^of B4l^, and flew the Jchan*. 
Hej. 765. This happened m the year 765, according to SharifoWin Alt ; 
A. D. who, without mentioning any thing of Jdei Soltdn Khan, fays, 
^S^S- that, after the defeat erf" the Cjetesi, the princes of Great But* 
h&ria aiming at independency, Timur and HtiJ[ayn, to pre- 
vent things running into conf^flon, fqund it necef&ry to efcft 
a. grand khan : whereupon .^ii^/iS^^ifr^Z?/} was prQ$>Qfed» asKi 
chofen in a general affonbly ^ 
24. Soy. After the d^th of Kah^lSok^ Kh&n^ Soyruk TamiJhvroA^ 
ruktamilh advanced to the dignity of khan. He was thofon of Dam/b- 
KJian. manja, fon of Kaydu, fon of Kajhiy fon of Vgaday or OHaj 
Khan "• La Croix calls him Siorgatmijh Agkn, fon of Da- 
mjhmend\. and fays, Tii^M^r gave him the empty title of khan» 

* Sharxfo'b. Kid. Tim. B«k, eh. 1, a. p. 4. 14, & feq, 
• Hift. Qengh. p. 396. p Abiu'lgh. abifup. p. 171. "iHilL 
Tim. 1. i. c. 26. p. 1 18, & feq^ . ^ Hiil. Gengh. p. J96. 

« Abo'lch. ubifnp. p. t'jx. } {iift. TtM. B^x^, 1. i. c. lu 
p. 53. ^ Abu'lgh. ubi flip, p. 171.V 


. Digitized by 


C 4^ In Uttk BukhirJa; - 147 

%rbhcWt tsk^tig Mm the leaft part of the power '^. JHfe was 
i&ade1cha6 ift 13^ by TmtAr\ who, after HuJfayrCs death, 
orctered tke khin, KaMShdh ^rSx^ft^), made by that prince^ 
to -be fl^n *. Sicrgatndjb reigned nineteen years, dying at 
3<^iBfv^ hi tf^eyesir 1388, while Twwi^r was in his march to 
fytaam He was buried at KJJb, uiidcr a monument which 
b6 had ««6ted himfelfi Tm^r, us foon as he returned to 
S^maf^kakt^ 4eflsiMi(ked feltfth MahmM, the late ^an's fon, in 
his father's placed. 

MA-MMUD khdH: whofe name T?wrfr caufed to be writ- 25. Mah^' 
t«a on %he top of his orders ; to make the people believe that ^^^ SoU 
kc -obfer^dl *6tew& of Jenghtz fChdn^, that is, in acknow- ^ ^l^^*, 
teging x>fte ^ his <kfcendajits for khan. This titular prii^ce 
i^aw&l ^ftnaH^ ItL his expeditions, particularly that againft 
Bayetii"^ dirfi w^s cften fent to make inroads into the Othnan 
te ^l tt ij te s^ ifi one of which he died, in 1402, near Kattala 
ift AnaMid (K), where he wiis feized with a violent diftem- 

La ^c^ adds another khan,' as the thirty- fifl:, whom f^jg j^^^„i 
he nimes fumen Kotktk Agkn ; aiid fays, he was crowned hvfufpreftd* 
ThrUh-^ \xi f 690 : which cotrM iiot be, fince Mahm^d livei 
f#ehe ^e^rs afifer. This, thcrrfbnef, is the laft of the khani 
df thfe liace of JmghH KMn,- 'W^ho reigned in the empire of. 
fMgatay ; for, after Twmr's death, the dignity 6f khan was 
fy[pppeRkd by his futcfeflbrs, who governed in their own name^i 
6^ fottflded ft new dyna%. 

C H A P. IV. 
Itbi Hiftory of Little Bukhari^ 

Of the pefiendants of Jagatay Khan, wbif reigned in 

' Little Bukharia. 

A LTHO' J&gatay iShctn had to his fhai* both the BukhA'^ 
■" rias ; jTftt, after his de^k, the empire, as hath been al* 
xe^y mcnponcd, became divided among the princes of his fa- 
miy, every qne feizing a part, according to his power. 'TiJs 
likely, therefore, that Uttk Bukharia feparated very early froni 
the Gr^aier ; and had a fucceffion of khans, till about the be- 
£liuu^ of the fourteenth centvrry : when, by fome means or 

^ Hift. Gef^. p. 396. « Kift. Tm. EekJ p. 124. 128, 

y Idem, p. 316.' » Idem ibid. * Idem, 1. v. c. 54. p. 270. 

(K) Ahulghdzd Khdn^ip. 175^ to death: b^t neither fecms td 

fays, Timur put both Mohammed be the faft^ 
^or Makmud) Khan and Bayezid 

V K i other. 

Digitized by 


148 Jcnghlz Khan' J SucceJJors. 5- IV. 

other, not mentioned by the authors yet come to hand, the 
line happened to fail. On this occafion, therefore, we are told 
by a Tartarian author, that the inhabitants of the dtics of 
Kaft'gar and Tarkian, and of the countries of j^latahh and 
the Vigurs (or Igurs\ finding none of Jagatay*% poflerity 
among them, who was capable of filling the vacant throng 
faw themfelves under a neceiSty to call in Amul Khoja^ who 
then reigned in Great Bukharia^ under the name of Jfan Boga 
ti Amul This prince, who was the fon of Doyji Kh&n (and eleventh 
khoja in that fucceflion), having no children by his wife Satil 7i- 
lUian. mijh, got a flave of his, called Manlaghi^ with child. Here- 
upon Satil Tamijhy being incenfed, one day, when the khan 
was gone a hunting, gave her in marriage to a Mungl chirf, 
tiamed Shiragol^ and obliged him to carry her with him into 
his own counuy. Amul Khoja, at his return, wa? informed 
of what had been done ; but, not caring to have.^y words 
with his wife, feemed to take no notice of it. Some. time 
after this he died; and, as he left no ilTue, the ftate be- 
came rent in pieces by the different faftions. In this ex- 
- *- faremity Afitir Talawji, one of the principal lords of K^Jhgar^ 
fent Tajh Tim^r in queft of Manfaghi ; whom at length he 
found, with her fon, called Togalai (or Togluk), playing with 
his brother-in-law. After this, watching his opportunity, he 
carried off the boy ; who, on his arrival at K^gar, was im- 
mediately proclaimed khan by Amir Talawji, under the name 
Hej. 748. of Togalak Timt^r Khan. (This happened about the year 
A. D. 748.) r 

1 347- A GREAT part of this khan's reign was fpent in fuppreffing 

^'^r^^l ^^^ faftions which oppofed him in the countries above-men- 
UkTimur ti^Qed : but, when he had fettled his affairs there, he entered 
^* ^th a powerful army into Great BuMria, and brought that 
province alfo under his obedience (A). Then, leaving his fon 
MJias Khoja to govern in Samarkant, he returned to die city cf 
of Kafhgar^ where (about two years after) he died. 
. TOGALAK Timur was the firft defcended from JengJAz 
, Kh^tiy reigning in Kajh^ar, who embraced the Mohammedan 

religion. As he was one day hunting, he obferved fevenal fo- 
reign merchants in the place which he had pitched on for 
aficmbling the game, contrary to his expre(s proclamation. 

• Acu'lch. hift. "Turks, kz. p. 176. 

(A) This was about the year at large hereafter, in the hiflor/ 
pf the Hejrah 762, of Chriji of f/Wr Bek, or Tamerian. 
1 360 J and will be related more 


'^ Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. 4: In Litflc Bukhlria. ' 149 

Hereupon, in a paffion, he ordered them tobe brought bound 

befcMre him ; and afked, how they came to infringe his laws ? 

Sheykh SamaJo*ddiny who was among them, anfwered, that 

they were ignorant of any fuch prohibition, as being ftrangers 

ifrom the country of Kaitak. The khan replied, It is like 

you are Tajiks, and^ con/equently^ worfe than dogs. If ive 

'were not true believers^ rejoined the flieykh, there 'would be 

grounds for making no more account of us than dogs : becaufe^ 

in that cafe^ notwithjianding the reafon we arc cjidowed with, 

we fbould yet be lefs reafonable than beajls **. 

This anfwer having touched the khan*s heart, at his return TuntsMo- 
from the chace he fent for the fheykh, and, in private, faid hammed- 
JO him, U^hat is your religion, that you durji make me fuch an an ; 
anfwer a while ago? The fheykh, upon this, explained the 
articles of th^ Mohammedan faith : wherewith Togalah TimAr 
was fo fully i:pnvinc§d of its truth, that he ordered him to 
repair, at a proper feafon, to concert the means for eftablifh- 
ing it in his don^nions. The /heykh dying foon aft«r his 
return home, his fon ftieykh Rafhtdo'ddin, purfuant to his fa- 
ther's orders, repaired to Ktifbgar: byt, not bei«gable to get 
accefs tp the khan, he w^nt on^ morning to a hill near the 
caftle, where he faid his prayers fo Ipud, that he awaked To- 
galak Timur ; who thereupon fen^ to him, to knpw the reafon 
why he bawled fo dreadfully. The fheykh lakirig this oppor*- 
eunity to execute his (^DmmifTion, that prinipe would no longer 
^efer embracing Mohammedifm. All the lords of his court <u'/M all 
followed his example, excepting pne ; whp, ftanding forth, hisfuhjeSls. 
offered to put his converfion on this ifEie ; There is, faid he, 
among our people, a man endowed with extraordinary gifts : now, 
if the fheykh will venture a fall with this perfon, and throws him, 
I will embrace his religion ; otherwife Iwillndt. The khan was 
unwilling to permit fuch a trial of flcill ; but, the fheykh prefP 
ing for liberty to accept of the challenge, he at Jength con^. 
fented. Rajhtdg'ddin hereupon advancing up to the Mimgl, 
-with on€ back-flroke of his hand on the ftomach, laid him 
Alt on th(? floor, wh^re for a good while he remained motion- 
Ids. At length, getting up, he fell at the fheykh 's feet, and 
cleclared h^ was ready to bqconic ^ Moflem (B). The lord, 
-Who had jH-opqfed this t^ft, did the fame : and all the Mungls 

* Apui.oH. uhi fup. p. 177, & k<\. 

(B) All this might have bec.n* the reft of his fubjc^s 5 for, 

^ politic contrivance of the khan» otherwife, it was a foolifh and 

^]ie better to confirm, and bring precarious way of proving the 

^iwal, this great change with truth of any thing. 

i who 

•Digitized byCjOOQlC 

i5Cf JcBgMfe KhSafiV Arr^^e^r/ , B.IV. 

Vho Were fubjeft to Togalak Tirmr Khdn^ to the number o^ 
^ l!6o,Qoo, followed their example. 
%. Ilyas Aui^TaJaavJl, who was inftrumcntal' m the khan*s ad- 
Khoja vancement, happening to die, Togalak conferred on anur Khu- 
Khan. daydat^ tho' but feven years old, all his father's empjoyments. 
Hereupon Kamro'ddtn^ the youngeft of the amir's five pa- 
ternal uncle>, defired that he might officiate for his ne|fliew 
till he came of age. This requdl the khan not thinking pro- 
per to graat, Kamro'ddiriy who was very ambitious, as well as 
powerful, conceived a mortal hatred againft him ; yet cpn- ^ 
ccaled it during his life : but, after his death, revolted againft 
lis fon Ilyas Khoja (or Elias Koja)y who fucceeded in the throne 
of KdJbgar\Q), and caufed him, with all his family, to the 
number of eighteen perfons, to be alTaflinated ; then, feizing 
the government, gave the people liberty, by proclamation, to 
kill any of Togalak Timor's kindred, who were to be found. 
This khan was bom in the year 730(1329) ; came to the crown 
at the age of eighteen (that is, in 1347) ; and died at the age 
of thirty-four ^r in J362). 
'4. Kamr- At the time of Kdmro'ddin's revolt, J^ir Jga Khatiriy one 
o'ddin <rf Togalak'% wives, being delivered of a fon named Kezra 
fifurfs^ IKhcjah ; to fecure him from the tyrant, truftcd him to the 
care of amir Khudaydaiy who never could be prevailed on by 
his uncle to deliver up the young prince ; and, war breaking 
out afterwards between amir Timur (who reigned in Mawa^ 
roHnahrj now Grectt Bukhdria)^ and the ufnrper, Khudaydat 
took that opportunity to fend him, under a trufty guard, to 
the mountains of BadhgsMriy where the jafpcr is found. This 
war was carried on for fome years with much fury / and fiich 
equality, that, after five: bloody battles, it feemed doubtful 
which would in the end get the advantage. At length Ttmur 
advancing with a powerful army, at a time when Kamro'ddtn 
fell fick, the troops of Kajhgar, deflitute of a. chief, betook 
themfelvcs to flight, not daring to wait for the enemy. As for 
Kamro'ddtn^ he was, in this confufion, carried, for fccurity,, 
into certain defarts to the eaft of the capital city : but, aftec 
the retreat of Timor's army, he never could be found (D) ; 
altho* a great while after his fubjeft§ underftood, that he re- 

(C) Sec inore of thief prince ^375, or 1385. Sec hift. Tim. 

in the hiftory previous to ^he I ek, 1. ii. c. 19. p. 176, &c.4«. 

reign of : hJi' Bek. p. 235 ; alfo tbercugo^Oif Turfr 

(I)) It does not appear whena hereafter. 

|his happened, po^bly. about 

Digitized by 



C.4- In Little BukBaria; 151 

fided with one Makk Jjdn (E), a man <rf whom yet nothing 

Amir Khud^dai (P), laying hold of this opportunity, 5. Kczra 
brought back Kezra Khaja from his oblcurc retreat, and caufed &hoJ4 
him to bepcodaimcd khan, with the ufiial folemnides. This KhaiL 
prince reigned thirty years over the count/y of K^fhgar ; and 
all thofe who have fince poflerfed that throne, have been of 
his pofterity ^. We know i^ry little of the aftions of this 
prince, excepting what \^e find in the hiftory of Ttmur Bei, 
* who made war on him in 1:339, ravaged his country, and ca- 
jMtal city Jymal G^d ; purfiied'him, on one fide, beyond the 
river Irtijb^ and, on* the other^ to Talduz (or Talis) and Karo 
kdja (or Aramutby nau- Khamily in IJttti BukhAria) ; in ftiort, 
drove him out o^Jetah. Next year he made another expedi- 
tion into the lame country; and, at Jl MaUg^ hearing oi 
Kamro*ddiny followed him- beycmd the Irtijb^ driving him into 
tfte woods towards Tawlai •*. 

This is aU the account we can find relating to thife branch ^uccrjpw 
of JagcLtay Khin, excepting a few fcattered particulars Among '^^i^* 
thereft» McAanud vf^)d[^n oS the kingdonisof Kd/hgarond 
Chalis (that is, of Little Bukhiria)y in. 1603^ when Goes the 
Jefuit travelled thro' the country, in his way to China] fo that, 
by the foregoing authority of JhuHghAzi Khhn\ he mull have 
been defcendisd from kezra KhtjOy zs well as the khin, who 
reigned ia 1665, when that prince finilhcd his hiftory : but 
dghtecni years after, vi%. in "i^'^y Little BMitria was fub^ 
dB»?d by the Eluths^ or Kabnslks, as hath teen before re* 

* Abv*lgr. ublfup. p. 179, &fcqq. * Hift. Tim. Bik, 

I. ii. c. J. p* 3^5. M c. 9. p. 345. .' S^ before, p. 99* 


(E^ It appears from the fame found. Sec hereafter, in the 

hiffoijr of fitrjir Bek^ 1. iii. C. Q. reign of Timur. 

p. 346* ihat he wa$ living m (F) Or Khudadady a name 

r390, at which time he fled common among the MungU: 

acrofs the Irtr/j, towards the dty Timur had a general or two of 

of Tam.las, into the woods, the fame name, 
wliere fables and ermins ar^ 

K 4 B O O K 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

152 Jcnghlz KWb*/ Succeffm B, V, 

B O O K V. 

Hifiory of the Defc^ninnts ^ Jcnghiz Kh^n, nvha 
reigned in Jr^n, or rcrfia at l^irge. 

C H A P. I. 
^bt Reign of HuligA Khin. 

Wtftem T^ROM the death of Jenghtz Kh&n^ which happened in 
t^ejition, r{ 62$ of the Hejrabf of Chrifi 1227, the country of 
•^ Irin (or Perfia at large), with the neighbouring coon-i 
tries which he had conquered, were governed by officers ap« 
pointed by his fucceflbrs, who reigned at Karakorom, in the 
eaftem parts of Tartary^ till the year 651 ; when Mangu (A), 
fourth khan of the Mungls, with a dcTign to extend his emn 
pirc, raifed three great armies : one of them was fent towards 
/iindujidn, or India ; the fecond to Kor^a ; and the third into 
sff/d^Ha- Irdn. This laft, which was the moft confidera6le of the three, 
*^^' the khan intrufted to the conduft of his brother Huldg^y who 
had a general under him of great learning and experience, 
palled Aokin, This army, in the Chinefe hiftory, is (aid to 
have been defigned againft the khalifah of Bdgl^Sd*; wherc-> 
as, according to the Perfian hiftorians, the khalifah was at- 
tacked by the perfuafion of a famous Perfian aftronomer. Pofn 
fibly it had no particular defUnation : but was (ent in general 
to make &rther conquefts, and keep the countries already fub- 
dued more in fubjeftion ; by the prefence of great forces, and 
a prince of the blood, who was to unite the whole under one 

We have already given fome account of this expedition rf 
fful^i from the TAi/i^ hiftorians ** ; who, having had very 
impcrfeft and confufed informations of the affairs of the weft's 
ern parts of the Mungl empire, we ftiallmake no ufeof them 
here ; but follow thofc who IJved on the fpot, or in the neigh- 
bourhood of the countries which were the fcenes of aftion. 
fnttrs ' HUL/IG U (B), the fqn of TuH Khdn, fourdi fon of JengMz 
Iran. Khdf^, was furhamed II Khan ; from whence his pofterity took 

» Gavbii*, Gengh. p. 113. 136. . *> Sec before, 

Vol. IV. 1. iii. c. 4. 

(A) In the Chhefe hiftory, (B) Called alfo HaliA^ toA 
named Mengko^ which feems to Huldg^, 

be the Chini^fii pronunciation. 

Digitized by 


C xJ In Ir^, ^ Perfia at large i> 153 

thetitleof//iAtfmtf;2/S This prince crofled the 7iW« In the year A. D, 
653, to enter Irdn. He was accompanied by his brother Sontay 1 255- 
Ogul^ and feveral great lords from clivers parts. He carried with 
hun alfo his eldeft fon Jb&ka^ and anothei called Tajimun *, with 
his wives Dukuz Khatin^ a Chriftian lady, and At Jay KhaHn. 
In the ninth of Shaahan 652, arriidng before Samarkant, he en- 
camped there, and loft his brother Sontay OguL Soon after amir 
Argun (made governor of the countries to the foxith of, the 
Jihun in 650 (C) came to wait on him, with feveral lords of 
that province**. The firft thing Hulakii did, after examining 
into the ftate of the country, was, to purge it of the Ifmad" 
urns, who had for a long time committed great diforders 

These Jfmaehans were certain princes, who reigned ovtv AJf^S^tf 
part of Perfian Iriik, and Mazanderhn (D). Their fubjefts ^^*^^ 
were fo devoted to them, that, at their command, they under- 
took to kill any prince, or other perfon ; which procured them 
the name of ajfTaflins. There was another dynafty of them 
in Syria ; whofe prince is the fame mentioned by the writers of 
the crufade, under the name of the old man of the mountain ; 
which is only a bad tranflation of the Arabic Sheykh al Jebdl 
(E) ; which word Sheykh exprefles not the age, but dignity, of 
a prince. The Mohammedan writers, moreover, lay to their 
charge errors in faith; ana, for this reafon, give them no 
other name than that of MelAhedah^ or Molhedin (F), which 
fjgnifies impious. 

Their dynafty confifted of eight princes, who reigned theTA«> ^ 
fpace of 170 years, till 654 ; when HuldM put an end to itynafy. ^ 
in the perfon of Rokno*ddin Khuz Shdh, the laft king, from 

« D'Herbel. bibl. orient, art. II Khan, & Holagd. • Abu'l- 
?ARAj hift. dyn. p. 329, &feq. 

♦ In other copies, Tafinerug. Jehdl, a part of Perfian Irak ; 

(C) He held the government fo called by t)>e Arabs ^ being a 
of them for ^hirty-pine years, as tranflation of the Perfian name^ 
is noted in the reign of Ba^du Kuljefidn, which fignifies the 
Khan. mountain country. In this fenfe 

(D) In Kuheftdn (that is, the Sheykh al Jebdl is to be under- 
mountain country), which makes flood, if applied to the Ifinaelian 
the northermoft part of Irak ; prince of Kuheftdn \ but, if to 
and Rudbdr^ a territory of Ma- nim of Syriay it muft be render- 
zMfiderdn. ed prince of the mountain. 

(£1 Sheykh al y^^i/ fignifies (F) Meldhedah Kuheftdn nva 
not properly the prince of the Rudbdr, the impious of Kuhef^ 
Boomain \ but the prince of ed tan and BSidhdr^ 


Digitized by 


^54., Jtnghiz KUh's Succeprs &1 T. 

whdm he took all tus caftles ia Jf-^^dl, which were ttceediag 

ifarojjg, and well provided with aecef&ries *• 

Caftles This prince had but juft fucceeded. his fedier j^ku^Mft^ 

ukgfg* when Hukku ordered his commanders to attack* hb caftles ; 

iive of which be demoliihedr as act being judged tenable. 

Before the order reached K^ran, Ka^uka had s^^ady takoi 

the oaflle of ShaheMz (G), zxid three other caftles, froin< them. 

llKhhi, therefore,, mmxxg^^x. AbhfabaJL (H)., Rokna'dMn fent 

a youth but fevea ot eight jiears oldv who pretended to-be his 

lbn„ in token of {uboufSon. HulMal, altho* aiware €if the de« 

cei6» received and difmifled the child with honoftr. After that, 

he fent his brother 5A/r^n SfM, accompanied by 300 per&AS, 

Vfhoxa the Mwvgl prince feat ta Jam^labM^ near Kazwin ; 

bm difbiiled Shiran Sbdh to tell liis' brother, that te would 

Rokno'd- allow him only five days to fubmit himfeif. Rokno'ddin iigai* 

din/uA' fied by aa eoibailador,. that he dared not then come out, for 

^'^f» fear of his people, who would fall on him ; but would wait 

on him. the firfb opportunity. EuMMf finding that he wanted 

only to protraA the time,, raanrhed, and encamped before the 

caftie of Maymun Darah^ Hereupon' Rokno*ddin declared^ h« 

woultib immediately come forth : but,, bdng prevented; by the 

JHcMhedai and Fed^i^ Huldhw bid him wait a while. Thea 

orderiag his troops to attack the cafUe, Rokm'dMn xooik. the 

opportunity, while his people were engaged in repulfiiig the 

befiegers, to retire to the Mungl C2impy with his fons aad' chief 

fa;?ou£ites ;, where he was kindly receded* by // KMn. 

jUr tcrri' Thck&e ia the cafUe, perceiving wirfi how much honour thdf 

/«>r/>i re* pcH^je was-treated, prefently furrendiere A the fortrcfe ; which was 

^'^' demoli(hed by the Mtlngls, who foon reduced all the caftles 

whichi were ia that valley; After- thia, the goveraor of M 

Mut (or AlMawt) (*) was fummoaedtofurrender that tbrtre&i 

and refufed : but, on the approach of a great body of troops, 

delivered- it up in the eleverith mrnitft. At the fiane tfine 

^itmfi'ddtn^ governor of the caftles belonging to Kahejtetn (I), 

which were fifty in number, received orders tt) demoliilr thetn ; 

m which he was afflfted by thofe who accompanied Rtikno^dditu 

AS. of them wer^ tak^n, excepting, two,. Kazdh&kub ^ad Lant' 

^ D'Heilbsi»ot. ublfupv p* 503.610. art. I&iaelioim k Mot* 

hedoAin. ^ 

(-G) In other cQpics, Sbahe- (*)Thatiff,tHecaftIcof</«i/^. 

fiir. (1) A mifiake, periiaps, in 

(H) A^dzahdd,^ in Other ^o* the^ copy, for Kibtfttm a Y^9X 

yies. pf Ferfiav Irik. 

Digitized by 


C. r: Tk Wn, #r Pferfiia aflar^l V55 

jWr (K),*wliich conM not be redtrcetf iir left tbatn wcycar*. 
The d^ylem alfo made peace with Huf&Hy oit condition to dtf- 
ftroy thdr caftles. Afro* whicfr, that pnacc returned in Dhul' 
hajjeh to the^r^, n^^ HamaMn^ zx^i^ViX Rt)kncfddiit^. wkh • 
Ids fens and 'wdves, to Kazwtn. ' 

' In 655 Rokno'ddin Khitz, SBoH. dcfiring to- be feit ta MangA ^^If 
Khhiy to payhisrcfpefts tp that monairh, he fetotrt, accent ^J^^b 
panied by ninq of his retinue, and two embafladbrs diftatcfted ^*^''* 
from Hul^. When he arrived at Karahtranit, iuftead of be- j* * 
1^ admitted to the khan's prefence, he was ordered to retnrq^ 
and prevail on his governors to ftrrender the two caffl^ before- 
mentioned ; after which, he was toid^ that he might repafr to 
court, and fliould be received with honour. With this hope 
Rokn6*ddtn left Karakuram; but, in the way back, was- Rmsx, pttt f§ 
with thofc. who accompanied him. HulMu fikcwife received a deatbJ 
manda^te from his brother Mangttj to e^^tirpate the MolMedkh 
intirely, and leave no footfteps of them remaining; Upon 
this, he felt Kara Kay Afyabtahtaji to Kavwhiy where he put 
to death all' Rvkno'Mn's family,, and flew all the Mol&hedah, 
forces : at the feme time Utkuhdna Nowayn (L), having af» 
fcmbled iz,ooq fubjefts of the ymatlians^ put them all to the 
iword ^ 

The' feme yeac HulAM ordered Azzo'ddiH mjd Rhhw'ddin Affairs of 
to divide the dominions of Rum between them. The firft of R^ni. 
thefe two brothers had dethroned the other, and imprifoned 
him : but, in 653, BayejAy the Mungl general m.Jzerbejdn, 
being obliged to remove his quarters, to accommodate ffuldkii 
with them, demanded of y^zzoW/;! a place to winter in. Thfe 
prince, imagining that he fled from Huldku,, marched to attack 
him, and was defeated^ Hereupon Bayejtt relealed Rokno'ddin 
out of prifon, and placed him on the throne. On the, com- 
plaint, therefore,, of y^zzo'(i5«, in 655^ iyz//iW ordered the 
partition above-mentioned ; purfuant to which, Rokn^'dc&t^ 
repaired to BayejA's, camp,, and Axzo'ddhi returned to Kmiya 
(or Jkonium) : but> being afraid of Bayej£„ aflembled aa army 
c£ K^rdsy Turkmans, and Jrahs ; which, however, was (fifperfei 
by Bayej4 and another Nowayn : fo that Malattya^ and fev«* 
ral other places, fubmitted to Rokno'ddin. But, -ffa^^^i^ being 
foon after recalled towards Irdk ^j things took a tunr again ia 

^ Abu'lfaiv. ubi (fip, p. 330, & feqq^ J Idem ibid, 

P' 330—334- 

(K) In fomc copies* Ksrdkvh, Kudki^, and Ymfer. Bihl. oiir 
tpd Lamjhabr; ill D'Hiri^^f, cnt. p. 503. art. Ifmaslioun. 

f^L) Ikujaha, in iome copies. 

5 favour 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

156 Jcnghlz Khin* sSucceprs K V. 

£ivour of Azzo'ddiriy as hath been elfewhere .related ^. Let 
us now return to Huldk^. 
Halakft ' This prince, during the time that he was befieging the 
marctes caftles erf the Moldhedahy fent an embaflador to the khalifah 
AlMbJtaaffem^ to defire his affiftance. The khalifah would hare 
anfwcred his riequeft; but the Wazirs and princes oppofed 
it (M) ; alledging, that HuUku did not want forces, but made 
the demandoSy to weaken j9dJ^Aiaf(N), that hemi^ht the more 
eafdy take it When the caftles were reduced, R Khtn fent 
another embaflador to reproach Al Mojlaajfem for negledHng tp 
fend him fuccours. The prime wazir, being confulted what 
was. to be done on this oocafion, told them, that the prince 
ought to be appeafed with very rich prefents : but, while they 
were getting them ready, ZXtti^^j/^ and his party infmuated as 
if the wazir contfponded with the Tatar i^ and intended to 
betray them ; for this reafon the khalifah, inftead <rf many 
• coftly thmgs, fent only a few of little value. Hul&k^^ pro- 
voked more at this, gave the khalifah to undcrftand, that h^ 
Ihould repair to the camp himfelf, or (end thither either the 
wazfr Donvaydar^ or Soleyman SML But, as npne of them 
would obey Jl Mqftdajfem's command to go, he fent others ; 
which not Satisfying Huldk^y he ordered Bayej4 Nowayn an4 
Simjak Nowayn (O) to march by the way of Erbel (or Ar- 
iela), while himfelf took the road thro' ffolwfin. 
/9 attack On this advice, DowaydAr fet out from B^ghddd^ and ad-» 
Baghdad, vanced ntzxTdakuba : but, hearing that 5^^^^/^ had pafled the 
Tigris^ and encamped on its weftern bank, in the belief that; 
HuUku was there, left Taakuba, and polled himfelf over-againft 

^ Sec before. Vol. IV. p. 258, & feqq. 

(M) According to the authors 
mentioned in the next note, thofe 
minifters returned a very inju- 
rious anfwer to Hu/dktPs letters ; 
and threatened him with the 
anger of God, and the khalifah. 
Lower down, this anfwer fecms 
to be afcribed to other perfons, 
and to be fent pn another occa- 

(N) According to the authors 
inade ufeof by D'Herbelot, Hu- 
laku intended, after deftroying 
the Ifmaelians, to have marched 
direftly, thro' Anatolia^ to Con- 
fiantiiiople j but was diffuaded by 

Nafftro'ddin al Tujt^ the famous 
aftronomer, who advifed him to 
turn his arms againft the khali- 
fah, out of a private pique, 
Bibl. orient, p. 453. art. Ho- 

(O) Or Sowinjai. According^ 
to the Perfian authors, Huldgt^ 
did not immediately marcl^ 
againft Baghdad; but fpent ai 
long time in making marches 
and counter-marches, to conceal 
his defign. At length, in 6^^ J 
he of a fudden turned on tha( 
fine. WHfrhdott as in th^ nG(t^ 


Digitized by 


C. I. In Iran, cr Pcrfia at targt. iH 

BayejL Mean time A^ <i/ ^i^^fe*, one of the khalifah*$ 
amirs, having feUen into the hands of the Mungl fcouts, they 
brought him to HulSk^. On the promife of fecurity, he un- 
dertook to condud his army ; and wrote to his fiiends at 
B^hdMf advifing them to confult thdr own fafety^ by fub- 
mittlM to the Munglsy for that they were not able to cope 
with foch numerous forces. But* they, in anfwer, haughtiiy 
a&ed, ** VJho was Huldki, and what liis forces, tooppoTe the 
" family ciAbk^, who held the empire of God himfelf ? and 
*' even threatened him with the anger both of the Deity and 
<* the khalifah, for daring to fet foot within his dominions" (P). 
They added, " If he defired to make peace, that he fhouLt 
** return to Hamaddn, while they intreated Dowayddr to in- 
** tercede for him to the khalifah, who poffibly might pardoff 
" his fault." When Ibeg (hewed the letters to HuldkH, that 
prince only laughed, considering them as an inflance of thdr 
vanity and rafhnefs K 

After, this, DowaydAr^ hearing that the Tatars took the The dtp 
road to Anidr (*), marched againft them j and, meeting Su- befi^f^ 
winjdk N&wayn^ put his troops to fli^ 2 but, being met by 
Baytjuy he obliged them to turn back with him; and falling, 
with all their forces, cm the vlftor, defeated him, and flew 
mo& of his foldiers^ fb that he efcaped to B^ghddd with only 
a few followers. Mean time Huldktl, in the middle of Mo- 
barram 656, encamping oppofite to a gate of the city, the 
MunglSf in one night, built a fiba, or wall, incloling theeaft- 
cm fide; wbUe Buka Timtir, Sttwin/^k Ntnvayn, ana BayejA 
Norwayn^ did the fame on the weft fide. They likewife dng 
deep ditches within the fiba 5 and, placing their battering-rams, 
wittt other endues of war, againft the city, on the twenty- 
lecond of the fame month the attack began ; when the khalt 
fah, percd\dng his inability to defend tl^ place, fent his pre- 
iident of the diwan, and Ebn Damns, to make fubmiifion to 
HulAku, with prefents of no great value ; left, if they were 
cofUy, it might be interpreted as a mark of great fear, Bdng. 
sfked, why Dowayddr and Soleymdn Shdh did not come to him ? 
The khaU&h fent the wazir J/kami', who faid, in the perfon 
of his mafter, " You demanded one out of the three; and I 
** have fent the wazir, who is the greateft of them." Ilu' 
ldk/2 angered, " When I was at Hamaddn, any of the three 

* Abv^lfar. ubi fup. p. 336, i^feqq. 

(P) As having been, in the (♦) A city on the Ettphmtest 
opinion of Mohammedans ^ con- about two days jo.ttmey from 
fecratcd ground. Baghdad, 

«' woujtj 

Digitized by 


^* -would hai^ dQne,i bat now I ihaU |iot>b6 filiaflid witk odfc 
" 0f them." 

MidtaktH, Mean time, as the ikgp veaton v^gjLM^osfly ob ever)r fick;^ 
BuUAu ordered arrows to he ihot iate Sdghdad% with !biUetd^ 
profiiiikig iccarlty to the dofiior^^ aod all j^ch a9.did.n0t beat 
^ms, theSr families aad e&6ts. ^On the <tW6Qi^*iixth ths 
il^qgZf forced the walk of the city 4 and watched the rivcr^ 
tlha,t none might eifcapc 6y water. Thea Hulakt^ ordered Ihw* 
ayMr -mA Soi^jmin Sh4i tp come to him. ; but left the JUiailfah 
at Uberty^toido as iie. thought fit. Thofe two lordi accord' 
ingiycame £:>rth, attended b; a g^eat Aftmber cf the ndbi^ 
fity ; but^ xm the w:^, Douta^J^ txroed back, under pretence^ 
of takiQg ca^ left ;the ibldder^i who wer« {Kitfted in the fboet) 
and lanes, ihoukl KlU any of the Mur^s i yet text monang, 
when he came out of tl^ city^ he wa$ iulkd himfd^ Tht 
inbabkants, after thi^, fent 4lq^es to iotreat. ]»foCe£Bon: 
and the khalifah, feeing there was no way to axroidlt, on €b» 

* fourth of Siaffar cepaireii to the can^ w^th leave of MnWtA^ 

who ordered him to loc^e in the igate called KainM. Then 
enterhi^ the dty, to. iiee the khaUfah's pakce, he cottmanded 
that pnnce to be i6rotight before him. Mafi&affem nlade him 
a pcefent of pnecioui^ Aones aad pe^rlsj . which fa^ diffai^ 
buted amongft Us ^ommanderf. |n ihe evemqg* returmng 
to his ^amp, h6 prd^ed the . khalifa to fet apart aU the 
Vromen belongii:^. toi hiqai ^r his fons^ arBOuntiAg to 700 % 
whom^ with 3PP :euritt/9hs in thdr ferrice> he brought fordi* 
After the Mungls i^ plundered the city for fe)^en tiaya^ they 
ced^ ^ther to ilagr, or make any more captive. The fouT'^ 
tcenth of the iame month Huldku departed from fi^ghdid ; and, 
when he was encaaa^ped . at night, ordered the l^ialifah, his 
nuddlemoft fon, and ijbc eunuchs, to be put to death ^. . 

ly the KO NDJMIJ^^ and other oricatal hifWiafti, ttJate this iiii- 

treachery portant event with other circumfiancesv According to dicm, 
BuJaku^ being locenfed with the aafwer of thekh^ifah's mi** 
nlAer^ to his letters, XNxlered lus generals to march oa both 
fides of the Tigris^ tobefiegp B^dad, The Mungltrooep^ 
which daUy increased, ra\caged the ne^ghbourihg country to 
fuch a degcee, that in a little time it was lAtirely ruined^ b 
that they had difficulty to find even grafs for. their horles. 
The T^AT army, which confiftedwholiy in cavalry^ having no 
longer wherewithal to fubfill, HuldkCi muft have been forced 
to raife the fiege, mid retire with /bame, 2^ w^ ^s lofs, if it 
had not been for the treachery of Atude ebn Amrhn^ a flavc of 
a jseighbounfig igoveraor ; who, aecordiiig to the Nighmrtftitn^ 
4FeaBied, the yaxc before, that the houte of the children of 
* Abu'lfah. abi fup. p. 338, & feq. 


Digitized by 


Jbbas^ was on the poiat of felling^ and that he himfel/flioyM 
become mafter of BdgMdS^ and the domkuoasof tbelLhalifah* 
Ehn jimran^ who happened to be amonc; the befieged, no 
fooner heard of the (iiftf efled condition oT the enemy's army;, 
but, by a letter fliot into their c;^inp with an arrow, he in- 
formed tTuldkU, that }f he coHld pievaii on the khalifah to fencj 
one Ehn Amran to him, he would find means to fnpport his 
army for a whole paopth, 

HVLAKVy on this advice, did not fail to demand this ofajla^ei 
man of Moftaaaffm^ who, bdng reduced to fuch a ftate, that| 
had his fon been demanded, he would have gratified him^ 
caufed'j^^w Amran to be fought for, and fent him to the Mungl 
prince ; to whom he difcovered, that, in the city of Takuba^ 
or Akaba, of which his mafter was governor, tliere was a pror 
dkions quantity of grain laid up in pits. By means of this in- 
tdiigence, the Mungh were faved from ftarving with hunger, 
and enabled to take the great city of Baghdad 'y which wa^ 
plundered, and intlrely ruined, by them, in |the year ^56. Hej. 656. 
HuldM, who owed this <onqueft to Ebn ^mrdn, thought he A. D, 
could not do better than confer the government of the city^ 1258. 
and its dependencie§, on the traitor ; who thus f^w his cjream 
fulfilled » 

Other authors afcribe the caufe of the khalifah's ruin chiefly, and the 
to the perfidy of his prioie wazir Morwi^aio'ddm al Kami > whq, 'wazir. 
piqued about fome reKdons pjsccadiUo. difljanded the trpops, 
when there was gre^teft neeiaaf them, and concealed the 
ftrength of the enemy from Mofldajfeki. He llkewife corref- 
ponded with HuldHi and gave him notice of the beil time to 
march x<mzx&^ Baghdad. The khalifah was the more cafily. 
perfuaded to cfifarni himfelj^ as he was very covetous, and ad- 
dicted to pleafure : nor would be give over his debauches, fo^ 
all the reprefentations of the principal lords of his court, tiH 
advice was brought; tliat a great detachment of Mmgk, under 
two of their beft generals, were near the' city. Then, whe^ 
it was too late, 10,000 men were, in a hurr}^ got ready,, and 
fent to reconnoitre them. Thefe meeting the enemy, encamped 
on the Tigris t to the north of Bdghdid^ a mpft bloody battle » 
Was fought, with doubtful fuccefs : but the Mungls having, 
in the night, cut the bank of a canal drawn from the Euphrates ^ 
near which the army of the khalifah wa$ ill pofted, their camp 
was laid under-water, ^ fuch a d^ree, thsA the greater part 
Were drowned, and the reft put to the fword. 

Mea^ time, Huldku arrived, with the grofs of his army, be- ^^f ^hn- 
fiare B^ghMd^ and 1^ fiege to it ; while the khalifah continued ^if^^'^ 


^ D'Hehbel, p. 453, art. Hulakl 


Digitized by 


l5o JcnghJz Khan'j Succeffors B. V. 

his debauches, without minding his affairs, as if the enemy 
had been at a great diftance. At the end of two months, the 
traitor Alkami retired, with his family, to the camp of HuldM^ 
who presently after took the city, in the month of Saffar 656 5 
where every thing was put to fire and fword ( QJ by the Ta- 
tdrs ; who plundered Baghdad of infinite wealth : for it was, 
at that time, the moft rich and powerful city in the world. 
The khalifah Mqftdajfem being taken, with one of his fons, 
after fome confultation, was wrapped up tight, in a piece of 
felt, and, in that condition, dr^ged through the ftreets, where 
he foon expired, when he had lived forty-two years, and reigned 
above eighteen. His fon, who remained, was put to death ; 
the other having been fMn at one of the city-gates, which he 
defended (R) courageoufly. 
Mmuchery Thus an end was put to the race of khalifahs, which be- 
rndfrUe. gan in the perfon of Jbtib^kr, the eleventh year of the Hejrah, 
or flight of Mohammed, and had continued in the family of 
Jbb^s for the fpace of 520 years. 

This laft khalifah, although he had neither courage nor 

conduft, reigned with greater pride arid magnificence than 

any of his predeceflbrs, who were fbvfereigns in temporals as 

well as fpirituals. When he went out of the palace, on any 

occafion, he commonly wore a ma(k, or veil, over his face, 

to draw the more refpeft from the people, whom he did not 

tfiink wordiy to look on him « : and 'tis probable, fays D'Her^ 

Mot, that the Mungls put him to that kind of death, to punifh 

his infolent deportment. 

BJ^hdld After this execution, Huldkii appointed the prefident of 

rtjtond. the diwan, the wazfr, and Ebn Dunus (or Damti/h), to reftorc 

Bdghddd to its former ftate. Buka Tim&r was fent xoHella (*), 

to try what he could do with the inhabitants ; after which, 

he marched to Wafet ; where, in one week, he put to death a 

multitude of people ; and then returned to Hulhki, whom he 


Maufel Ab foon as Badro'ddln Wi, lord of Mai^el (or Mu/ol), 

Jubmts. heard that BdghdM was taken, he fent' his fon JiMdlek al Sd- 

' leh Ifmael, with part of his army, to the afCftance of HulaM ; 

" KoNDAMiR ap. D'Herb. ubi fup. p. 628. art. Moftaaflcm. 
» Abu'lpar. ubi (up. 359. 

( Q^) Mirkond fays, all who had been taken, and was flain 

ucre found in Bdghdddy and the by Huldku% order, by the gate 

neighbouring country, were flain, called Kal^dd, 

to the number, as was reported, (*) Or Hellah, a city on the 

of 1,600,000 people. Teixeira, Euphrates, where ftood Babylon: 

hift. ?erf, p. 309. two fiages S. by W. oi Baghdad, 

(R) ^/a'^r^fpeaksasifhe 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. I.' In Mn, or Perfia ai large! i6i 

who, looking on him with a ftcm countenance, reproached i. Khan 
him and his father with their backwardnefs in bringing their Hulaku. 

fuccoars ; iaying, " You waited to fee who fliould get the ^ -v " *^ 

" bc^er; and if the khaltfah had been viftor, would have 
*' gone to him, inftead of comii^ to me." Badro^dcHn, terrified 
when he heard his fon repeat , thefe words, which he con- 
fidered as prefaging no good towards him, immediately refolved 
to prepare a magnificent prefent : to make up which, he not 
only employed all the precious ftones and jewels that were in 
his own treafury, but itripped his rich fubjefts of their wealth ; 
requiring the very bracelets off the arms of their women, and 
the pearls out of their childrerts ears. When all was ready^ 
he fet out for the mountains oi Hamad&n, to pay his refpefts to 
Hul&kH ; who recdved him very kiadly, in reverence to his 
years; made him fit befide him, on the fame efbade; and 
permitted him to touch his ear-rings, in which were two union 
pearls of great price. Badro'ddln^ after payirig homage, re- 
turned to Maufely filled with joy, few his own good fuccefs ; 
and wondered at the power, majefty, and wifdom, oiHul^4. 

The fame year, Al AJhrAf^ lord of Miyafarekin^ made a Miyafarc- 
vi/it to Al Mdlek al N&fr^ lord of Halep (or Aleppo)^ defiring kin block- 
aid, rf'him, that he might hinder the Mungls from entering «^^* 
Syria. But Al Nhfr^ looking on his apprehenfions as alto* 
gether groundlefs, paid no regard to his inftances. Hereupon 
Al AjbrAf vf^xiX. away in anger ; and, on his return to Miya- 
farekiriy not only drove out the Mungl governors, but hung 
up a certain prieft, whom the kaan (or khan) had fent tohim 
wUh mandates. Mean time, the Mungl nrmy^ led by Tajhnit, 
fon of Ifuldk^y following him, came, and invefVed the city. 
In one day and night they furrounded it with walls, a^d a 
ditch ; then placing their engines, vigoroufly attacked it. But, 
finding the place was not to be taken by force, they turned th% 
ficge into a blockade*. 

In 657, Hulaktt fent an ambafTador to Al Maiek al Ndfr, Hej. C^j. 
lord of Halepy with letters, exhorting him to fubmit himfelf, A. D. 
and avoid the khaltfah*s fate, by coming to his camp without 1258.. 
dday. As his lords would uot permit him to obey this fum- Halep 
mcMjs, Al N&fr^ in a great confternation, fends his fon Al Md-J^^^^^^^^ 
lek ai AztZy "wdth a large fum of money, and rich prefents. 
After Al AsAz had waited the whole winter, he received this 
anfwer ; " We required to fee Al Mdlek al kdfry not his fon. 
" If therefore he be really for us in his heart, let him come 
'* to us ; odierwife we will go to him." When Al Nhfr heard 
thefe words, he was greatly terrified, not knowing what courfe 

o Abu'lfar. p. 344, & feq. 
Mod. Hist. Vo^. V. L ^ to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1 , Khan to take. After this, Huldkii fent for Jz^*Mn^ iiiag oi Rm^ 
HulakO. aod his brother Rokno'ddin ; who, obeying his fummons, were 
i >^* ^,yM^ received with great honour and Wnclnefs. THen, having di- 
vided the doipinioa between them, he began his nxarch for 
Syrhi taWng >vith him the Seljik princes; who, on their 
arrival at the Euphrates^ were permitted to retuin into their 
Qj^n country. 
HeJ. 658. In 65 3, he arrived at HarrAn^ with an army of 8o,qoq nsien, 
A. D. "vyjiich city, with Roha (or Orfa), furrendered on conditioQs; 
1259. nor were any of the inhabitants injured : but t^ofe of Saruj (§) 
Syria in- >j^ere ^ put to the (word,' for not obeying the Mungl mandate. 
njaded, ^fj^ this, Huiak4 U Kh&n ord^ed three bridges to be laid 
oyer the Euphrates 'j one near Maktiyay another at Kald- 
Ok rim, and the third not far from Karkifia (T) ; by which all 
his. forces haying crofled into 5ym, they made a great flaughter 
tov^ards JV^^ (U). Then the army dividing, in order to 
reduce the cities and caftks, only a few fddiers took the rout 
c^ ffahp* Hereupon Jl MMek al MbadSam, ddeft km of 
Salabo'ddiV' (or Sakdin), advanced to meet them 5 bat, being 
fait to flight, returned to the city. The pa;-ty which marched 
to Moarrq^h (or Marrah), ran&cked that place : hut Hamih an4 
kerns. Surrendered on terms. When Al MHek al mfir hear4 
of thefe misfortunes, he betook himfelf,^ yath his wives, child- 
yen, and mojft valuable efFefts, into the defarts of Al Karak 
and Al SUfoa/ubak for ihelter. 
andfuh' When the Mungls came to Damajlus^ the principal meok 
du(d. delivered up the city, .which received no manner of harm fie^ 
the eniemy. • if z<A?># ^limfelf pitched his camp before Hakk* 
and having raiied a mount, $0 command it, began to play Us 
engines^ Th^ attack wa$ chiefly made againfl: tM gftte o^Erik 
(or /r4*), which was found to be the weakcft part : {9 that 
being forced iti a few days, the Mungls entered, and flew mcnre 
people than they had done at Bdghddd, Nor did the csiftl^ hold 
• , : out k)sg. Then proceeding to die caftle Al H^reni (X), the 
inhabitants were willing to furrender ; but, not.cax^iig tp truft 
to Ills word, nequked the oath of a lifoflulman for th^ fe- 

(S) Baruj lies to the north of fhratts, fome kagaes to th€ 

Bohoy Roha to the north of Har- north of Rahba^ or Rjohoj^ 
raft, {bppo&d eo be the andent (U) ilf^iy^^ isajcorruptioRof 

Haraii Tjvi Kar^roi. MoMiei^ or Mfmk^ or Btn9h» 

(T) Malftha is. a. Uttlje with- thQ a9tient Bamk^e, • or Bt'tr^h' 

4mt the bounds of Syrian, Kald- po/t'j y called by Pipffi Ma^t^^ ia- 

iol Rwn^ or, as p^onoijnce4, (l^adofAf^^^, tfee^r/on nijn^i 

KaIdco\rumfhhttwQexiSome^fat^ an error uhporrefted in Ear» 

or Samofat, and Al Btr ; and dvwin^ kft edition. 
Karkijia ftood at the cpnfluence (X). Towards Antiokh. 
of the Al Khabuf with the Eu- 


Digitized by VjQOQ IC 

C. I.' /» hkn^ cr Perfia at large. i6g 

canity. 11 Kh&n confentedj and they chofe Fakro^ddin^ go- i. Khaa 
vernor of the caftk of Halep^ bccaufe, they laid, he was a Huliku. 
fiaccne, honeft man : who being fent to them, took all the ^^ ^ *^ 
oaths they propofed to him ; and then they opened their gates, 
by whkh a great multitude of people went out, and the Mungls 
entered. But HuldM made them pay for their fufpicion : tor 
he firft orders Fakro'ddin to be flain, and then all thofe who 
had been in the cafUe ; without fparing any of either fex, or 
even the children ^ their cradles P. 

AFTEit this, Buldkii returned eaftward, leaving in Syria a Mardin 
great commaader, named KetMgdy with io,aQO horfe. When taken. 
he arrived al Tel Bqfber, he was joined by the army, which 
had taken MiyafareMn^ and brought ,with them M Ajhrt^ its 
prince ; after putting to the fword the few inhabitants whom 
the famine had (pared : but for which calamity the Mungls 
cooid not have taken* the city. // Khan caufed Al Jjhrdf to be; 
fltift ; which he afterwards was forry for, and gave the go- 
vernment IX) one of that prince's commanders. When he drew 
near to Mardin, he fent for the lord of that place, who, un* 
wiUing to obey the fummons, fent his fon Modaffero'ddin ; be- 
caafe he accotopanied HulaM, when in Syria^ along with Al 
MMek al Salek, fon of foltin Badroddin Ulu, late lord of 
MaufeL HMhtl bid him go back to his father, and command 
him to repair to the camp, and not turn rebel ; in which cafe, 
he faid, it fliould not fare well with him : but the father, in- 
ftead of taking his fon'rf advice, imprifoned him. 
- UpdN this, tjic Mungh beiieged Mardin : but Could not Syria ni 
faave takea it is lefs than two or three years, had not the king, cover ed, ' 
and Bioft of the inhabitants, died of the peflitence : after which, 
AlModilffer furrendered the caftle, and all the wealth belong* 
isg to itl When the king erf the earth, Huldktly was informal 
vfaat that prince had filled, he treated him with much af? 
fe6Hon, and appcnhted him king> in his father's room. Mean 
Ane, kftMga^ who was Irft in Syria, having found out Af 
MMek al N<^'i lurking pkce, fent men to feize and carry him 
XoHulalAi who was pleafcd to fee him, and promifed to re- 
Aorc him to his kingdom. But, while fortune feemed to flat- 
ter his hopes, news arrived, that Kotuz, foltan of the Turk- 
«»4«x^*),whoreignedin£g7/^, hearing that Huldk4wsiS returned 
liQitiewaiids, and had left Ketbiga behind him, with no more thaa 
io,obO'm€», rdlfed.a great army, and attacked that general} 
wiiDwas Jdlled iii tbe.^tle, his forces defeated, and his child- 
ren taken prifoners, on the 27 th of Ramazan, When this ad- " 

P Aeu'lfar. p. 346, & feqq.' 

(») Third of the Bdhrsfe Mamltiku 

L a Tioc 

Digitized by 


164 Jcnghfe Khan* J Suc^efors B. V. 

1. Khaa vice reached H KMn, who was then in the mountains of M 
Hulakfi. Tak (Y), he was enr^ed ; and ordered y4l MMek al Nifr, wdi 
C-./-.J hi, fon y^/ M3/r;fr 11/ Dhaher^ and all belonging to him, to be 

pat to death ^. 
Al Nafr The execution was performed in the fcrflowing manner, as 
fain. Mohayo^dSn al Magreb'ty the only perfon who efcaped the 
flaughter, told our author. One day, while Mohayo'dAn at* 
tended Jl N&fr^ who was aflcing him fotne qneftion about his 
fortune, there came a Mungl commander, at the head of fifty 
horfe, whom the prince went from his tent to meet, and aiked 
t6 alight : but the officer defired to be excufed ; &yii%» he 
came to acquaint him, by order of Nuidk4, that, as d^s was a 
day of rejoicing, he was defired to be prefent at the feaft, widi 
his brother, fons, and all his retinue, excepting the domefBcs 
and flavcs. Upon this, they all, to the numbo* of twenty, 
mounted their horfes, and fet forward. But, when they were 
Come into a narrow valley, with high rocks on every fide, tbdr 
efcorte made them all alight, and then furrounding, fell to bind 
them : which when JMohayo'ddin faw, he cried out, That he 
was an qftrologer, viho confulted theftars^ and hadfcmething tf 
moment to reveal to the king, the lard of the earth. Hereupon 
they fet him afide, and then flew the refl, none efcaping ex- 
cept two of y// N^Jfr's fons, and the aftrologer ; who was joined 
as an affiftant to Khoja Nasiro'ddin, in making affa-oaomi^ ob- 
fervations at Maragha. 
Affairs if KOTUZ^ foltan of Egypt, after the viftory above-moi- 
Syria. tioned, recovered Syria ; and having placed governors in Ha- 
kpy Damafius, and the other provinces thereof, returned hcnne- 
wards, to recruit his forces, in order to oppofe the Mungls .• 
but when he had gotten as far as Cazzoy Bihar 5^ called AL 
Btindokd^r the leffer, rifing againft, flew him, and fdzed the 
kingdom. This foltan, who became very famous, toc^ from 
the Franks all the cities and cafUes which they poflefled along 
the coaft of Syria, However, in 659, the Mungls entered Syris 
Hej. 659. a fecond time, under the command of a general named ^i$^i/- 
^' ^- ki\ and having proceeded almofl as far as /^^mx, making great 
'2^- fpoil, and deftruftion of people, returned to Hat^. There he 
ordered all the inhabitants, and villagers who had retired thi- 
ther, to go into the plain ; under pretence of numbering and 
condufling them to their refpeftive homes : but, when th^ 
had gotten a good way on the journey, he faid to them> 
[* If your hearts had been fincerely towards us, you would not 

« Abv*lfar. p. 348, & feqq. D*Hbrb. p. 454, 

(Y) Another copy reads Al Atlak^ 

'^ hatrc 

Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C I. In Iran, cr Perfia at large. 165 

** have fled from us," and, without any more ceremony, put i. Khan 
every foul of them to the fword ; fo that none of them efcaped, Hulakii. 
excepting thofe who were wife enough to ftay in Halep, In the ^ 
mean time, as foon as^the Egyptians underftood that the Mungls 
had evacuated Syria^ they entered that country, and feized it 

The fame yes^x, Jlao'Mrij fon of Badro^ddin LM, lord of Maufel 
Senjdr^ fled into Egypt ; and, foon after, wrote to his brother revo/tu 
Jl Mdiek al Sdieh Ifmael^ prince of Maufel: fetting forth the 
power oC Bundokddr ; and adviiing him to become a valTal to the 
foltan, who, after driving out the Mungls, would make him 
Icrd Hot only of Maufel, but feveral other provinces. When 
y^l Sdleb had read the letters, he laid them under his bed : but 
Shamfo'ddtn Mohammed Ebn Tdnes al Bdafhiki, one of his fa- 
ther's commanders in the country of Ninivehy watching his 
opportunity, took them, and, departing forthwith, rode off 
to BdafUka. As foon as the king miifed the letters, he fu- 
fpefted Shamffddiny and fent for him back, with defign to put 
him to death : but Ebn Tiines, making the meflengers drunk, 
fet out, in the night, with his family and effefts, towards 
Erbel (or Jrbela), giving out, that Jl M4lek al Sdleh intended 
to deftroy all the Chriftians in the country of Niniveh, and 
then retire into Syria : upon which rumour, atooft all the 
Chriftians of that quarter flocked to Erbel ^ 

Next morning, the meflengers, not finding Ebn Tunes, Confufion 
imagined he was gone before to Matfel. But when Jl Sdleh th^re. 
faw that diey had returned without him, taking it for granted, 
that he was gone to bring the Mungls upon him, he, in great 
confternation, left the city, with many of his principal men, 
and what effefts they could carry off; and went direftly for 
Syria, without fpoUing and then deftroying the Ninivitifh 
ChrifHans, as he at firft deflgned. Soon after he had departed 
from Maufel, a difference arofe among his commanders, fomc 
of whom followed him, and others returned to the city ; among 
which latter, was Jl Amo'ddin Senjar : but Tarkdn of JCa- 
razm, wife of Jl Mdkk al Sdleh, Tafan, a judge, and their 
partifans, ftiut the grates agaioft them. However, being let 
in by Mohayo'ddin £bn Zehellak, at the head of a great body 
of the citizens, Tarkan, and her friends, retired into the 
caftle : the contrary party, at the fame time, fell upon the 
Chriftians, filing and killing all, excepting fuch as turned 
MohammeJiuis. Al Scdeh had likewife, before his departure, 
agreed i^ith the Kirds, to come down with theil* forces upon 
JViniuh ; which they did two days after, and, after fpoiling 

' Abu'lfar. p. 350, & foqq. 

L 3 the 

Digitized by 


iS5 }t)[igUzKhiin'sSuc€ij[[ors RV, 

1. KMn the CKrlffians dwelling there, dther killed, or earried vmf 
Hulaku. captives, all who remained. 

'— -y**^ Mean time, a nimouf being fpread, that the Mungl forces 
The city ^gjg advancing through Ji Jazireh (or Ms/e^otamia), the 
hJffgeJ, ^j^jj. ji jjpo'jjin Senjar, with his party, left the city ; and, 
being joined by the Ai^r^ commanders, went to meet the 
Mungfs, led by Turin, judge of Maufel : by whom they were 
furrounded, and all cut to pieces. After this, the affairs of 
Maufel ran daily more into confufion, when, towards the end 
of fummer, a report flew, that the Mungi zrmj waj comii^; 
and, in effeft, not long after, it did come, under the com- 
mand pf SamdagA, a great general, who favoured th^ Chrilfr 
ans, and befieged MavfeL In a little time, advice being btxDught, 
* that Al Mhlek al SdUh was returned from Syria^ the Mtingis 

withdrew a little way from the city, to let him enter ; and 
then fat down before it again. In one night they built a wall 
round it, and then began vigoroufly to attack the place. At 
length, provifions failing in the city, Samdagi^y to delude Al 
Sdleh, made him very fair promifes, and even forbore hoftili- 
ties. During this cdTation of arms, advice was brought, that 
an army from Syria was on its way to aid j4l Sileh, under the 
conduft of a general named BarlA, Hereupon the Mungls fet 
forward ; and meeting the enemy near Senjary farrounded, aod 
flew them all, carrying away much fpoil. 
'kitdfur- After this, Samdagu fo far wrought on Jl Mdlek al Sakh^ 
rendered, hy his artifices, that the former, opening the gates, came out 
to him, without any apprehenfions, preceded by muficians and 
jeft«^. But he was rxo fooner lodged in the camp, than the 
Mungl army entered tl^e city; where,* for eight days, they 
plundered it, and killed an infinite number of people, befides 
thofe whom they niade flavcB of. Among the reft, there was 
flain AlaoHmalk (Z), fon of Jl MdMt al Sitleh, whom, having 
intoxicated with wine, they cut lo two, by the waift, near tte 
caftle. Then making Shamjb'ddin Ebn T4hes governor of the 
city, * Samdagu departed, carrying with him JlMdlek alSaleh 
to HuldHy who ordei^d him to be put to death* But Sham" 
fd'ddin did not long enjoy the fruits of his perfidy : few, in 
Hej. 66i. 66i, one Al Zaki, or Erbel, accufed him of defrauding th« 
•A- D. family of Ba^ro'ddin of moneys and jewels ; an^^fo of poifcm* 
»«6a. ing him, by means of Mowdffek, a Chriftian phyfician. Ehn 
T&nes, denying the faft, was baftonadoed, to extort a cxMifcf- 
fion : but, whUe he underwent the puniflimcnt, a paper dropped 
from him, contaming feme verfe of the Koran ,- wiiich ^l ZiU 

(?;) In another copy Alaoddin 4 ^ollt. 

'>^ m 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. tl In Mn, or Perfia at Idrge. 167 

feki was a charm againft the Mungls. Hereupon he was pot 1. lOian 
to death, and his accufer made governor in his room *. Holaku. 

Mean time, HuldMy who, after his expeditk>n into Syria, J ^ ^ 
had returned into Azerbijdn, there to take feme repofe, af- ^f^^^^^ 
fembled the. principal aftronomers to be fotind in the Mohamr \^^r^^' 
medan countries : to whom he gave large penfions, and fur- *^' 
nifhed all forts of fteceflary inftruments for making obferva- 
tions, at Mar&gha (A), where he built a famous oWervatory. 
He died in 663 (B), after he had reigned abfolutely fix year?, 
fince the death of his brother ' : for the authors made ufe of 
by D*HerbeIot fuppofe, that this prince, during the life-time of 
MangA Khdrit governed /r^, as his deputy ; but that, on his 
death, in 657, he fucceeded as fifth khin of the Mungls, in that Hej. 663. 
part of JJta n. However, it appears, from what has been elfe- A; D. 
Vhere related, that Koplay Khhn was the immediate and trnfc 1 264. 
fucceflbr of Mangi, not only at Karakorom, but in all parts Hulakft 
of the 7tff//zf/ dominions, or empire ; and that HuldM aftually '^'^'' 
acknowleged Koplay as fuch *. 'Tis true, his fucceffors iii 
IrSin did, at length, throw off their fubjeftion to the fucceflbr* 
of Jenghtz Khdn, in the eaft : but it is not exprefly mentioned 
under what prince this happened. 

One of the principal wives of this monarch, named Dughiz Histvi^veu 
Khatyn, was a Chriftian, and accompanied him in all his mi- 
litary expeditions ; being much efteemed by him, for her pru- 
dence and knowlege. She died not long after him ; and was 
buried near her hulband, in the fame city. It is imported, that 
HuJdku demanded in marriage the daughter of Michael Paled- 
hguSy emperor of Conftantinople (C), who drove the Franks out 
OT that city : but *tis more probable he aflced her foi: his foi^ 
and fucceflbr Jbdka Khkn ; who married her, on her anival, 
in 664, which happened after his father's death. 

The dominions which HtilaH left at his death are reckoned and largt 
up by Ebn Shohnah s as follows : The great province of Kbo- dominions* 
tafdn, ofvrhkhNiJhaburv/zs, at that time, the capital : ^y^- 
bdly or Per/tan Irdk, the country of the Parthians, whofe ca-^ 

• Afitj'tFAR. p. 353. < D*HERBfL. ubi fup. p. 4r4, 

• Ibid. « See Vol IV. 1. iii. c. 5. fed. 1. 

(A) A city on the lake of the met zxCafarea (in AJi£t Minor^ 
$hS^, about forty miles to the with a meuenger, with the new* 
tofB^h'Vfc^ofT'abriz, or Tauris, of Hul£kus death; but, as fh<? 

( B ) Or 664, according to could not return to hor owa 
feme authors. country, (he proceeded to the 

(C) Abulfarai fays, Huldku court ofAbdka, wha took her 
demanded the emperor's daugh- to'Jiimifeif, 

ter in marriage : liizJt^if was 

C^ L 4 Pital 

Digitized by 


i68 JcD^ Khao'i Succejfm B. V. 

Holakn. prifii^ A^ria (or Kstrdtftan and KhaUea\ whofe metropolis 
I ■iv^'-^ lyas BdgUAd : Jdherbejun {oc Jzerbejan)j that is. Media, its 
chief dty Tabrtz, or Tdurit : Pitrs, or Pnper Perfuiy its ca- 
pitai Shir&z, fonnerly caikd CyropoBs ; for Efiekhar, or P^r- 
Jepolu, lias then in mins : Kburcftin, or Khuzeft^i, the an- 
ticQt SufiAiiay whofe capital was T^^r, or Shufter, formerly 
called 5i(/ii, of P«r^ .- Diy&rhekry which comprehends part 
<^ AJfyriay or Kurdejian, and ^/ Jazireh, or Mefopotamia^ 
Vihiaeof Mujfal (or Aloful), built near the antient Ninivcb, was 
the capital : lafUy, the country of ^lim, or the Romans^ contain- 
ing JrmtmOf Georgia, and y^a Minor, whofe capital was 
Koniyd, the antient Ikonium K 
emdcon- The lame author remarks, that the Mtwgls, or Tatars^ in 
f«^/. ^ the conquefts uhich they made, were never defeated, ex- 
cepting that (mce under Kctbuga, as before-mentioned. But 
it is not faft, as D'Herbelot affirms (perhaps without ^ny au- 
thcMity), that all thofe countries were conquered by Hulaku ; 
for /rJ/», or Perfia at large, was fubdued by Jenghiz Khan, 
Nor does it appear, from what goes before, that any coniidcr- 
able part of it had revolted, or thrown off its fubjeftion to the 
Mungls, excepting the country of the Ifinaetians. On the con- 
trary, there feems to have been no confidcrable change in the 
ftate of thofe countries, from the account given by AbtHfaraj * ; 
who informs us, that Munkdka (or Maugu) Khan, in 650, the 
jnear before Hulaku was fent into Iratiy had appointed Argun 
Aga to govern the kingdoms of Khorajfan dnd' If indu/idn, Jlla- 
zander^n, IrAk, Pdrs, Kerman, Lur, Arran, Azerbejdn, Cor- 
jefthn (or Georgia), Maufel (or Mefopotamia), and Syria, It 
appears alfo, by the proceedings of Bayeju Nowayn^ that the 
khan's authority extended even to Anatolia. So that HuIdkA 
came to the government of nearly as many countries as were 
in his hands at his death ; and may be faid rather to have 
more fully fettled and completed the old conquefts, than to 
jiave added new ones. 
Founds the The Oriental hiftorians begin this dynafty oi Mungl fvinct^ 
dfnafy. i^vith Jenghiz Khan, as hath been obferved above : but zs Hu- 
lakA was the firft of his defcendants who reigned in Irdn, we 
ihall fet him at the head of it. Abu'lfaraj dates the com- 
mencement of the Mungl dynafty in /rJ/i, or Perfta at large, 
from the deftruftion of the khalifat, in the year 6^6, Tho 
Perftan hiftorians give him a reign of fix }*ears only, reckoning 
from the death of Mangu Khhn, in 657. 

y D'Herbei.. ubifup. * Hift. d/naft. p. 327. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C 2. In Iran, or Perfia at large. '169 

According to Miriondy HulakA^ before his death, divided i. Khin 
his dominions among three of his fons, Ab^a (D), Tajbmuty Hulak^. 
and Tandon ; to the firft he gave the kingdoms of /r^. Ma- *'*'"\^*^ 
zanderhiy and Khorajfdn;^ to the fecond, Ar^^ or Armenia, 
and Azerbejdn ; to the third he ailigned Dly^bekr and Rabtya^ ' 

which are two provinces of At Jaztreh and Mefopotamia, Ifw 
laku had, befides thefe three fons, two others, Nikudar Oglan, 
and Targahe (or Targhiyeh) Khdriy who had no fhare in their 
father's partition of his dominions ; yet one of them obtained 
the empire himfelf, and fo did the children of the other *. 

C H A P. II. 

The Reign of Abaka II Khan. 

AFTER the death of Hulakti, his fon Aidia was, in an 2. Khan 
aflembly confifling of his fons the princes, and the ladies Abaka. 
his Mridows, unanimoufly acknowleged for his fucceflbr. He ' --v""^ 
was a prince endowed with prudence, capacity, learning, and ?'J^^^* 
knowlege : which good qualities rendered him dear to every- V 
body, and gave hhn fuccefs in all his tranfaftions, both domef- *^ "** 
tic and foreign *. 

As foon as this prince afcendcd the throne, he fent one of His firft 
his brothers to Ddrbend^ on the Cajpian fea, and another into re^la* 
Khoraffhiy to (hut up the paflTages into his donunions from the ^'*^* 
defcendants of Tujhi or J^gi Khan on one fide, and thofe of 
Jagatay Khdn on the other. He declared Sunjak (or Sowenjak) 
Noway n general of his armies, and his lieutenant throughout his 
empire : gave the employment of grand wazir, and prefident 
of his councils, to Shamfo'ddin Mohammed^ who made Baha- 
o'ddin, his fon, wazir of J^pdhdn ; and Alao*ddin Athao'I MolJt, 
his brother, waztr of Baghdad. Under the wife government 
of this latter, that capital recovered its luftre, which it had 
loft by the arms of Huldku ; the people flocking from all parts 
to fettle there : on the contrary, Bahao'ddin exercifed fo much 
rigour at Jfpah&n^ that; he often involved the innocent in the 
fame punifhment with the guilty ; nor could the advice of his 
father Shamfo'ddiny to whom frequent complaints were made, 
reclaim him, till death freed the inhabitants from his feve- 

• MiRKOND ap. Tcxeirahiil. Perf. p. 309, & fcq. » Ab'ul- 
FAR. ubifup. p. 355. 

(D) Texeira fpells moft names kay Kan ; and, for Yajhmut^ Hy* 
of perfons and, places very ill ; axemet* 
for Abaka Khdn^ he writes Hayb» 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

JtnghhKlAri's^iiceeJlbrs . B. V. 

Ar the beginning of Abiia^s rdgn, ^arkah KhAn (A), of 
the race of Jagatay KhAn, who reigned in Great Bukhtiay 
'haying marched with forces On the fide of Dat^bendyvA^ de- 
i^Vh fig^ ^o break into /^^/yfi, Shamat, brother of y/W/fa, who was 
H 66 P^^^^ ^° ^^^^ ^'^» opjxrfed his entrance; and, after a battle, 
^'jy^ ^' which he obtained agdnft him, obliged lihn to retire in 664. 
126 c .' ®^^ ^^^^ defeat did only irritate that prince : for, foon after, 
he fet on foot an army of 300,000 men, 'With which he threat- 
ened utter defolation to Perfia, had not j4b&ka KhAn marched 
in time with all the forces di his empire. Barkah Khdn, after 
condufting his numerous fquadrons through the vaft plains of 
Kipjak, round the north fide of tke Cdfpian fea, had forced 
the narrow paflages between that fea and mount Kaukafus^ com- 
monly called the Iron Gates (B) ; and was already arrived oa 
the banks of the river iMr, when JbAka KhAn appeared at 
TefliSy capital of GurjeJiAn^ that is G or} a^ or Georgia : but, as 
the two armies were on the -point of giving battle, Barkah 
KhAn^ very happily for Perfia^ was taken out of the world •, 
fcMTy immediately on his death, his army divided, and returned 
into Tartary^. 
iw//Borak In 666, Borak Oglan (C), who was alfo of Jagatay Khin's 
Khan. race, fent to the court of JbAka KhAn one Majfud, under pre- 
He]. 666, tence of a compliment : but, in reality, to pry into the ftate of 
^'R' ^^""^ > ^^ obferve the roads which were to be taken, in order 
**°7- to attack Perfia. This being perceived by a foldier, he gave 
advice thereof to Shamfo'ddin the grand wazir, who continued 
to treat him with great civility, as if he fufpefted nothing ; re- 
folving to have him fdzed, or cut off in his return : but Majjud 
bad taken fuch precautions, by caufmg hcdes to be placed 
^ong the road, that the men fent after could never overtake 
lum. Borak KhAn, having received the neceflary iirformatioDS 

• *> KoNDAMiR ap, D'Herb. p. i. art* Abaka. 

(A) Called alfo Berrak Khan: language, Damtr Kdfi, the fame 
Jie was fifth khan thereof ; fee with Z)Ar^f»</, which, in F^fl»» 
before, page 142 : but, as there fignifiesthe^«/^a//. ThtArahs 

' he is faid to have died in 1 260, call it Bah al Jbnvib, fhi gatt 

and it is not likely he would go cf gates. 

fo far about, thro' the domi- (C) This, doubtlcfs, muftbe 

nions of another prince 5 pofli- Bereke, or Bar hah, fiftti khin 

bly this might be Bereke, third of Jagatay : but then his death 

khdn of Kipjak, whofe death is muft be placed, tot in 1660, as 

placed by La Croix in 1 266, co- it is in D'Herbelot and La Cni^* 

Jnctdcnt with that of Barkah but in 1670, or later ; and fo 

Khan. See before, p. I <54. indeed His diftaocc from /W«W 

(B) In the Murg/ or Turkifi feems to rc^uir«, 

DigitizQd by VjOOQIC 

C 2. In Mn, or Perlia at large. 

from tWd^fpy, in 667 paflfed the Jih&ny or AmA, with 100,000 
horfe ; and, having prefently reduced the great province of 
Khordfflk$y where he met with finall oppofition, he advanced 
as far a& Jzerbejdny where Ahdka had the bulk of his forces. 
The Yatarsy who came fbremoft, were foon repulfed : and at 
leogth, the year following, the two armies faced each other not A. D. 
far firom Herat. Ther^ a bloody battle was fought ; wherein 1 269. 
viftory, after a long fufpcnfe, declared in favour of AMka, 
who became mafter of the field, with all the baggage and 
booty o£ the enemy. Bomky after this defeat, was obliged to 
lepafe the Jnd 5 and Atdka, having left his brother Benjbin 
with troops fufficient for the guard of KheraffSn, returned to 
Azerbej^ *, 

The fame year that Ab&ka was proclaimed khan. Bundok" TheM^m," 
i&r (D), lord of Egypt, fent to invite H^tem, king of Armf' luks ra- 
ilia (E), to fubmit to pay him tribute, and fettle a commerce "^eif 
between their refpeftive fubjefts -As Hdtem would not con- Hej. 663. 
fent to this, for fear of the Mungls, Btindokd&r, without more ^' ^' 
cer«xx>Qy, invaded his dominions. The Armenian king, upon * * 
this furpife, made a journey, to crave aid of N^i, the 
Mungl governor in Rtim (or Anatolia) ; who anfwered, that he 
could not aflift him without Ahdkd's order. Mean time the 
b'Others and fons of Hatem marched, with what forces they 
conld raife, tooppofe the entrance of the Egyptians, but were 
defeated ; and, one of the king's fons being flain, the other 
was taken prifoner. • For twenty days the enemy plundered Sis ' 
and Ayy^y carrying away great numbers of people ciaptives. 
At length, when they were gone, Hatem came with an army 
of Mungls and RUms (F) ; who, finding nothing but a waftc 
country without people, fell to making good cheer, and con- 
fumed every thing which the Egyptians had left. 

HATEM, grieved fbr the devaftation made in his country, LeffcrAt^ 
but more for the lofs of his fon, fent to offer Bundokd^r cities menia \ 
and caflles, with a good fum of money, for his ranfom. Bun- 
dokd^ made anfwer, that he would rekafe him, provided only 
Sankar alAJhkar, who was a flave among the Mungls ^ fliould 

* KoNDAMiR ap. D'Herb. p. 2. art. Abaka, 

(D) He was fourth foltan of flages to the north of Skanderun,, 
ihcTufii/h Mamluks, or flaves, or ^/fjir/zWrf^/tf, was the capital, 
wha reign^Bd in £^^^/ after th^ Hatem is the fam^ name with 
family of Ayuh, or of Salaho'd' HuytonyHaithon, ovAiton, among 
din, Suropeans. 

(E) This is to be underftood (F) ,That is, people from ^«w, ' 
of the Lejfer Armenia in Anato- or Anatolia ; probably for the 
iJa 5 of which SU, about two ipofl part Greeks. 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

1 7 a Jenghiz Khin'i Succejfors B. V. 

2. Khan be fcnt to him. Hdtem, on this, made a journey in 668 (G> 
Abai^a* to the court of AbAka ; who, pitying his tears, bad him go 
^^^TV^*^ back, and promifed to fend AlAfbkar to him, if he was to be 
S^- 668. f^mjj^ Accordingly, next year, Al A/hkar was conveyed to 
^^' him from Samarkant ; and, being tranfmitted to Bundokd&r^ 
**^* this latter returned Hatem'% fon in exchange. Afterwards Ha* 
tern made another journey, to intreat that he might refign the 
crown to his fon : to which Ab^a confented. But the joy 
tliis favour created, was greatly allayed by a dreadful earth- 
quake, which,'in 670, happened in Armenia ; and^ bdides over- 
turning many cafUes, deftroyed above 100,000 people, not to 
mention the catde **. 
md Ana- In the year 675, Ah^a Khan went tb pafs the winter at 
folia. BaghiUd. About the fame time died the celebrated Khcja Na- 
Hej. 675. iiro'ddin al Tift^ Who was eminent in all kinds of philofophy, 
-A* ^' and wrote many books on different fubjcfts^ This fame year 
1 276. ifatem\ fon, now king of Armenia^ underftanding, by his cot- 
refpondents, that Bundokddr intended to invade the country of 
Rum^ thro' the inftigation of fome of the natives, gave notice 
to the Tlfi/^g"/ commanders to be upon their guard : but, Ber^ 
iiranah having perfuaded them tha; it was a falfe alarm, they 
ileglefted their fecurity j fo that the Egyptians came upon them 
when they were in liquor, and (ie\y them all, with 2000 Geor- 
gians, out of 3000 who were along with them ; however, they 
did not fall unrevenged, a multitude of the ^nemy having 
been flain. After this fuccefs, BundokdSr marched to Kayfd' 
rtya (or Cafarea\ where he ftaid fifteen days, but did no man- 
nef: of harm to that city ; faying, he came not to ravage the 
country, but deliver its lord from flavery. 
Jt^ from When this news reached the court of Abaka H Kh&n^ he 
Abaka. was gready enraged ; and, afTemblii^ his forces, marched to- 
wards the country of Rum : but, before he arrived, the Egyp- 
tians were withdrawn into Syria. Then fending for Bcrwd- 
nahy he received him without feeming at all oiFended ; and car- 
ried him to the camp, under pr^encc of confuking with hiift 
what number of men would be fufficient to fecure Rftm againft 
the Egyptians. There, at a banquet, he plied Berwcinahyr^ 
with mares milk, for he drank no wine ; and giving a fign, 
when the latter went out to make water, an officer In waidng 

(G ) According to Mirkond^ he Buihdria), but was defeated, and 

had war this year with Bora forced back. Texeira, ubi fuprii 

KJi?an^ who marched with an p. 3x0. 
amiy frdm Chagatay (or Great 

^ Abu'lfar. ubi fup. p. 356, k feq. 


Digitized by VjOOQ It 

C. 2. In Iran, or Perfia at Urge. 17J 

followed, and killed him. BundokdoTy on his way to Egypt ^ 2. Khaa' 
died at Hems in Syria ; fomc fay, of poiibn ; others, of a Abaka. 
wound in the fight, from a Mungl arrow •. < ■ ->^— .^ 

KONDAMIR relates. concerning this war, that, as toon Piece ef 
as Bundokdar had afcended the throne of Egypt y he was re- gaUmtry. 
folved, brfore he ventured to engage with the Miingls^ to in- 
fpeft himfclf into the condition of their forces. With this 
view he fet out, accompanied by three or four perfons only, 
and yifited all the countries which the MungU poileflied on this 
fide of the Euphrates. At his return, he fent a courier, by 
way of gallantry, to Jb^ka Khdn^ who had then newly fuc- 
ceeded his father Hulaktiy acquainting him : that having, for 
his diverliony made a tour over his {Abdka's) dominions, he 
had left, in a cert^ inn which he named, a jewel of value, in 
pledge of the debt be had contra^ed, to defray his expences ; 
and defired that he would fend it to him. Jbdka was fo com- 
plailant as to remit the jewel to the foltan by another cou- 
rier, with very obliging letters on the occafion ; and thus mat- 
ters palTed between the twa princes, without coming to holK- 
litics^ But, as the contrary appears from Jbu'^araj, we 
perceive here a great defeft in the Perjian hiftorian ;'who, be- 
fides, mentions nothing of Abdka's expeditions into R4m and 

In 6y^ Sayfo'ddtn Kelawriy fumamed Jl A//1 (H), having MangU 
fmed the dominion of Syria and Egypt, after the death of invade 
Malek al Sdleh, fon of Bundokdar , Sankar al Ajhkar before- Syria, 
mentioned, who had oppofed his advancement, fled to Raha- ^^J* ^79* 
ha (on the Euphrates), and confederating with Ifa ebn Mohdnna, ^'P' 
SL Bedwia (I) prince; fent an embaflador to invite Abdka II *^ * 
Khdn into Syria, promifing to deliver into his hands both that 
country and Egypt. On this engagement an army was fent, 
in the year 680, under the command of Kungortay, a younger j|ej. 680. 
brother of Abdka ; but when, in winter, they arrived in Syria, A. D. 
Al Ajhkar y bdng afraid to join them, fhut himfelf up i^ the 1281. 
cafUe of Sdhydn. The Mungl's, for all this, advanced as far 
as Halep ; and, having deftroyed all the places in their paff- 
age, returned ipito Irdn. However, next year (K) they in- A. D. 


* Idem^ ubi fup.p. 357, & feq. ^ Kokdam. ubi fupra, 

p. 2. 

(H) He was fcvcnth foltan of (K) Kondamlr, in J}" Herb kt^ 

the Turkijh Mamluks, or third places this in the year 669, 

from Bundokdar. twelve years earlier; but that 

(I) The Bednvins, or Badwim, cannot be, fince Bundokdar lived 

commonly called Bedo*vitKs, are tiU the year 6^6. 
the field Arabt, 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

They are 


ahiut Tt, 

jetjghfz Khan*j Succeprt B; V. 

vaded Syria again with 50,000 troops, under the conduft of 
Munga^ Ttmdr, youngeft brother erf" kbika, accompanied by 
the king of j4rmenia, with all his forces. The enemy, led by 
Al A^i and Al Ajhkar^ who were now reconciled, met them be- 
tween Hamhh and Hems^ where a battle was fought, in which 
the Mungls prevailed : but, when they ^erc on the point of 
gaining the viftory, and had even put the Syrians to flight, 
the Arabs of the tribe of Bdni Taglab rulhed out of an am- 
hufcado on the left wing of the Mungls i who, thinking them- 
felyes {unrounded by numax>us troops, took to flight, fd- 
Icnved by the main bodiy. Mean time the righjt wing, in which 
was the king of Armenia^ With 5000 Corjans^ not minding 
the ambufcades, put to flight the Egyptians who oppofed them ; 
and, purfuing them to tl^ gates of kemsy kUled-a conGderable 
number ; nor gave over the llaughter, till the news of the 
flight of their companions drew them off. In their return, 
they fell in with certain troops of the enemy, who fdlowed 
th^ flying fquadrons : hereupon the batde was renewed, in 
which many were flain on both fldes; but at length they re- 
turned laden with fpoils. 

While Munga Ttmur was on his march bade through M 
Jazirehy fome of his doa^ftics, who had been tampered with, 
gave him poifon one day, after he came out of the bath. The 
' prince, finding himfelf much out of order, turned off towards 
NifiHuy where • he died. The people of the country were 
feized with great fear at this difafler \ and, laying tn^d of 
^Al S^ al iSirkubiy bound him, and carried him round dl 
the market-places in Al Jaztreh, after which they put him 
to death. This year was fatal likewife to Abdka II Kh&t him- 
fdf- He made a progrefs firft to Bdgbddd, from whence he 
went hack to Hamaddny where he celebrated Eafter day with 
the Chriftians, in their church (L). Ne9ct day one Bahnhn^ a 
Perfianj gave him a magnificent feaft s but on Ttujday he 
found hhnfelf very ill, and became delirious ; fo that be died 
an Wednefday the twentieth o{' DhuHhajjah, after a reign of 
feventecn years *. 

On the occafion of the death of this prince, Kondandr tt- 
lates, that, foon after the defeat of his army in Syria, under 
his brother Munga Tim^Ky great troiihles arofe at coort : for 
one Magdo'lmolk Yezdi having, in concert with fome of the 
princtpal lords, prejudiced AbdJfa Khdn againft Shamfo^ddia his 
prime wazlr, the authority of this miniuer daUy dimiuMKed* 

(L) Somo anthers fay he was a ChrlRian. 

» Abu'lfar. ubi fup. p. 360. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C 3. In Iran^ or Pcrfia af iaxie^ ty^ 

he had likcwUe the mortifics^tion to fee his brother AtMmolk 2. Slhla 
arrefted, aad called to account for matters laid to his charge. Ai>aka. 
At the fame time Jhdia happening to die pretty fuddeoly at ^n ^^ ^iiJ 
Hamadda, it was judged that his death was hafteaed by a 
draught which SifamfoWin bad caufed to be gjiv^ ^im \ 


S E C V, L 
The Reign of Nikfldar O^an, ^ Ahmed Kh^n, 

/1BAKA IlKhdn being dead, the (Wnces of the^-blood, and 3. Khin 
^^ the great men, with one confent,. conferred the govern- Ahmed, 
ment on Ahmed, fon x>f HulAku by Kutdy Khdtihi ; as judging ^^^i-^v*^ -* 
him moft worthy to reign, and that the empire belonged of W®}* ^^* 
right to him after his brother. To all the qualities requifite in ^'P^ 
a prince, be joined a great knowlege of things, and was very '^^** 
jnunificent. Aaccordingly, one of his firft afts was, to diftri- 
bute the treafures which he found, among his fons, the gran- 
dees, and the army ; nor was his benevolence confined to the 
Mtmgh alone, but Was extended to thofe of all other nations, 
efpeciafly the principal men among theChriftians *. His Mungf 
name was NiHdar Qglan (A) ; but, after he had embraced 
HfohoTftmedi/m, which he did the firft of all his family, he af- TumsMo-^ 
fumed that of Ahmfd. On occafion of his converfion, he wrote hammcd- 
a long letter (B) to Al MdUk al Manf^r Kekwn, folt^n of *"• 
Egypt and Syria f who was at that time the moft confideraHe 
of all the Mohammedan princes ; to let him know that he 
would publicly profefs the Muffulman religion ; and offered his 
fkvour and proteftion to all the profeffors of it. According; 
to the Perjlan hift6rians, he fucceeded Abdffa, in prejudice to 
y^rg4ny that prince's fon ; and confirmed Shamfo'ddtn and Atho'l- 
mofk his brother in aH their employments ; delivering up to 
chera 'MagdoUmolk, their capital enemy^ to cBfpofe of as they 

' KoNDAM.ubifup. p. 2. » Abw'lpar. ubi fup. p. 361. 

(A) That is, according to the blood of ilf^^^i»i»g cob^ 
t^ii^,iTi'FeA;eir0,JfiHd^t^ tpary to his priiwipkSi. herhrf 
goadjbn^ therefore put a ^op Qe th^ wsm 

(B) Jiu^ar^j h,4s giv^en a which had been ie^refd ia the 
copy of tha^ long letter ;.\vhcjter kurikay* or diet,. c;dkd by hi^ 
in he acquaints UTe foh^ny that brother ^^^a ; that Ae had pro- 
he hajl an inclination for Mq- vi^ed for the fecarity of thQ 
Jhmifin from his youth, and de- pilgrimage to Mehka ; and given 

£r0d to live in peace with theMa- liberty to all foreign merchants 
haffm€dan'^T\siZ%x\ thAt, to- fpill to trade in his dominions. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

tj6 Jtnghh Kl^^ s Suc^efors B. V. 

gf. Khan fliould think fit. This foltan's change of reKgion exdted 
Ahmed, great troubles in his family, and. at length throughout his do- 
^ — "^y^*^ minions : becaufe the Mungls or Tatars of thofe times had 
an extreme averfion^ for the Mohammedans^ although they 
loved the Chriftians; fo that this prince, though endowed 
with feveral excellent qualities, could never gain their affec- 
Argun These troilbles began in the very firft year of his reign, 

revolts, at which time ^tho'hnoU: departed this life. His nephew Ar- 
giln, who could not. bear to fee him upon a throne, which, 
he pretended, belonged to himfelf, retired inunediatcly into 
the province of Kharajf&ni where he made preparations to dif- 
pute ^ fovereignty with his uncle ; but did not declare him- 
Hej, 683. felf openly till the year 683, when he came to encamp 
A. D. with his forces at Damegiin. As foon as Ahmed received ad- 
1285. vice of thefe motions 2X Bhghdhd^ he caufed his forces to 
march, under the conduct of Al InM (C), a fage and valiant 
commander, who foon difperfed the troops which Argun had 
aflembled. This young prince, being thus left without an 
army, was obliged to return to Khorajf^, and at length td 
(hut himfelf up in the caftle of Burdeh ; '^hither Al InM did 
not fail to go and befiege him. However, without ufing force, 
he drew him out, by promifing to reconcile him to bis uncle ; 
but, as foon as he arrived at the imperial camp, he was con- 
fined by the foltan's order, and guarded by 4000 m^n. 
Ahmed After this, Ahmed, believing that he had no fort of dan- 

defo/edi ger to fear, refolved to return to B^ghdM, there to enjoy the 
{wcGi$ of peace. Before his departure, he gave diredUons to 
the amir Btiga, who guarded Argin, not to let him live above 
feven or eight days. But B^pa, in concert with feveral other 
lords of the court, who could not reli/h the foft and delicate 
manners of the foltafi, refolved to fet Arg&n at liberty, and 
fall upon the quarters of Al In&k. This defign being imme- 
diately put in execution, Al Inak was flain, MWth the principal 
officers of the foltanwho had remained in the rear-guard of 
the army ; which latter was on the n^ch. Argun put himfelf 
at the head of the mofl refolute troops, and purfued the fol- 
tan ; who, having received information of this revolt, 'efcaped 
from the city oH Esfarayn, where he then was, to the ^mp 
6f his mother Kutay Khhtiin, which was towards Serah in Aziff^ 
h^hn. But thefcouts of Argdn followed hhn fo fwiftly, that 
they foon overtook, and brought him to the camp of his ne- 
phew. This prince forthwith delivered him into the hands of 
and tut to foltina KAngortAy, his mother-m-law ; who put him to death, 

(CJ Or Airau^J^tZikiJiul/arsif. 


Digitized by 


t s. /» Ir4n, dr If^epfia at Ufgil 177 

10 cevei^ tile lofs of her children, whom he had ferved in the 3. Khah 
fame manner* This happened in the year 683 *», after he had Ahmed, 
itigned two year$ and two^months. • ^'•■**»«^ 

AccoiLDiNG to Jb^'^araj, Ahmed had ordered Al YanAk to 
bring ^^an after him to his mother's relidenc6, for which he 
intended ito fist out next ^noming : but that, at night, break- 
ing the affidr to a certain great lord, he faid, lie could not be 
.&cure, uolefs he made away whh ArgAn^ and the reft of his 
nephews* When the amir Buga. came to underfland Ahmed*i 
intention, he ftaid ibehind the fokan next day^. under pretence 
of bufineis; and, when night came, made known to all the 
princes oi the blood what Ahmed had refolved upon. The , 
princes, pierced with ai^r at this news, went all in a body, to 
the place where Atgkn was confined, and brought him forth • . 
then, mounting him on a horfe, they rode to the quarters of 
M TanSik ; and, rufhing on, flew him, and all the great men 
concerned with him, In the tent. * After this, they ordered 
what they had done to be publifhed through the camp^ 
Which jremained very quiet on the occafion. Next mom-i 
img they fent a numerous body of forces' to purfue Ahmedf 
whom they.ioverto6k; and, having pillaged his Whole ord;^^ 
J>rought lum back with his hands bound. Hereupon they de-* 
.pofed Ahmedy as not fit to govern ; and fet Arg^n on his fii^ 
■ther's throne, on Wedmfday the eleventh of Jmada prior ^ ill 
the year above-mentioned. 

Many of the amirs and great lords were fdf having the de-^ 
'po&d khan put to death. Argin t6ld them, thlt he ^itrould 
i2ot confent to have his uncle flain/ but (hould leasve it to 
Kungurtay^ his mother-in-law, and her fons, to dlfpofe of him 
as they thought fit. This being refolved on, he was deliverecl 
into theirpower ; and, after a feW days refpite, her fens de^ inrHidia* 
prived him of life, on Wednefday the feeond of Jbmaia ftfie- Hon. 
rior^ to revenge the blood of thdr fether, which he had (hed *< 
On his death the crown returned to the fons of Abika JOfin* 

^ s E c T. n: 

^be Reign iff ,Ar^nt\&n, 

Ji frfobn as Argtln was upon the throne, . he gave the cfeief 4. IChaii 
*^ poft in the empire to Bit^a^ or Boga, wh6 difpojTed qf Argun, 
tvery thing with an aimoft abiblute power. ShdrnfcTddm Satd, v— «v^i--J 
who was,prcfid,ent of the diw^i\, that is,, cfelef pf . tbf coijn- ^^J- 5^ J 

( A. Urn 

^ KoNDAMiR, ubi fup, p. 7a. art. Ahmed, * Abu^lfar. **^' 

*fOD.4IiST- Vol. V. U c^s. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1 78 Jcflghiz KhAn'j Sucajfon B. T. 

4. Khan cils (A), in the rdgn of Ahmed^ upon that prince's depofitioa, 
Argun, retired from court ; and had: already left IJ^hdUy in order to 
^"■^""^ go into HinMft&n^ \^hen ArgAn^ whofe good-will he fufpedted, 
. fent for him, and confirmed him in his office : but BugOy find- 
ing his authority thus divided, prefently dontrived how to get 
rid of him. To do his buflnefs the fhortefl way, he accnied 
Said of poifoning his father AbMa ; and the tcx> credulous 
prince, without examining the depofitioos of the .witnefTes, 
facrificed tiiat great man to the ambition c^ his oval, who 
wanted to put in his pbce a creature of his own \ 
ffheivazir This is the account of Kondamir the Perjian hiftorian: 
Sa';d but Aim 'Ifaraj relates the affair with othd* circumfknces. Ac- 

cording to him, Argun receiYied the information (but itis not 
tncntioned from whom) in the rdgn of Ahmed ; and thereupon 
ient Shamfo'ddtn to acquaint the khin his uncle ; defiriog, tt 
the fame time, that Said might be deUvered up to him« As 
Ahmtd refufed to grant, his requeft, Arg4n concluded that he 
. was pleafed with his father's death. When Argin was fettled 
in the throne, the prcfident of the diwan fled to the mouB- 
, tains of AJkt^Az^ to the tribe of Kurds named jti L&r y whofe 
prince, T^f^f Shdh^ delivered him up to the khan. Sham/o^d' 
dln^ uitet offering 100 tumans in gpld to fave his life, defired 
time to raife more money, by felling the refidue of his eflate, 
.and borrowing of his friends, Ha\dng, by this o^ans, made 
up eighty tumans more, he brought them : and, on deUvering 
tiiem, £ud. This is all I am able to raife ; do with me what 
you dhifik fit. Hereupon ArgAn ordered him to be put to 
death ; and he was accordingly executed on Tuefday the fifth 
of Skaahdn 683. • 

put t9 - * ^ ^-^ ^^' ODTX IN was a man endowed with great under* 
^kath. ftanding and experience ; perfeflty verfed in all the art of 
government, and eminent for his humility : he always fainted 
ihofe he met firft, and fuffered no man to prevent him\ Se* 
veral .elegies wei:c compofed, to confole the people for his iofs 1 
and the hiflorians report ^is circumflance of his death, that, 
when thecxecutioncr entered; to; perform his office, he made 
the ablution ufual before their prayers ; and then opening the 
koran, to draw thtfdiy or good lot, met with thefe words: 
" They who fay to God, 'Tis you who are our mafler uand 
** to thofe who walk in the right path, and conformable to 
^ /' that belief, God will fend angels to comfort th^m in thdr 

• 1Co*^i5AUii:^ap. D'Herb: p. 126. art. Argoun. -^ AbvV 

FAR. p. 368. , . 

(A) A dignity fuperior to that of prime wazir. 

Digitized byCjOOQl(^ 

Ca j# In Hn> cr Ferfia at largi. if^ 

*' afli£UoaS| and aflure them of the paradife \¥liich>has beea 4- Khan 
** promifed to them." Arjg6q;' 

. However fhis be, Bitga, feeing from J ■ ■"y!^'^ 

fuch a collegue, fet no bounds to h: & to ^ jew 

fuch a pitch of authority^ that he h r* to 'wazir. 

become mafter of the iwhole. At ienj lafk ; 

and, in 686, revolted openly againft InotH^. 686. 

pufh his fortune any great length ; for he was flain miferably, A. D. 
m the midfi: of his enterprile. After Buga's death, a Je^, 1187. 
named Saedo'ddawlety. by profeffion a phyfician, and very 
agreeable ii^ converfation> became fo much in favour with Soi- 
tari Argun^ that ^ the affairs of -the greateft lords of the em- 
pire depended on him. He put many of his own nation and 
religion into employments ; without hurting, however, the in- 
tereft of the Chriftians, who were veiy powerful at court. 
The MuJJulmant were the only people who had no credit there^ 
efpecially fmce the death of Said ; which made them murmur 
continuahy againft both. Argun, at the folicitation of thefe 
latter, had taken from them (the Mtijfulmans) all the places 
belongii^g to the judicature, a^ well as the finances. In /hort, 
the two ruling parties carried things fo far at laft, that they 
denied them accefs to the foltin's camp ; and, in the end, for- 
bad them to appear at court. 

• ARGUN, fay the hiftorians; "had promifed the Chriftians Death cf 
to convert the temple of Mekka ifito a church ; where, inftead Argfin. 
t)f worihipfwng the Almighty God, they would have adored fta- . 
tues and images. But t^rovidence, which always. watches over the 
prcfcrvadon of Mt^lemifniy arid the prayers of good Moham^ 
medansy prevented this great- revolution ; for Argini^fick 
iit that very junfture. All they, throughout the empire^ who 
had an intereft in the life of that prince, fpared father prayerd * * ' 
nor alms ; and the Jew Saed6*dd^awlety who was prime mini- 
fter, fent exprefe orders into all the provinces, to re^eftablifli 
riie things which he had unfeafonably changed/' But, as-the 
moment of the foltan's death was fixed, neither their prayers 
nor alms availed any thing. Mean time Argttn grew extremely 
ixreak, and was even near his laft agony, when he had the mbr* 
tification to underftand that his favourite the Jew was afiaifir 
naced by his enemies. In fine, the foltan died in the year 690 ; Hci. 6go, 
and the MuJfubnanSy reckon^g hts death among the miracles A. D. 
of Mohamntedy fay, that it reftored Mojlemifiny which l;iad re- 1291. 
ceived a great diftionour under this prince's reign. 

Some Arab, hiftorians, as Abti'V'eda, r.elate, that the favou- 7^^ jewf 
rite Jew was put. to death on a mfpicion of having poifoued majjucred. 
ills Mkfer. Whether this accufation was .u*ue or iaUe, it, is 

M.« .^ .certain^ 

Digitized by 


lie Jeii^h khin^s Succef(^s ' KVl 

4. Khfii certain, that the aiemlea of the Jews, who haS* beheld, with 
^A^^; envlottsejes, the great authority they wefem,and;"it maybe, 
"'^ ^ ^ fntfeircd manv mjuriet at their hands, took this occafion, after 
the death of the fottan and his minifter, to be revengal, by 
making a cruel ndSacre of them. 

It was- Jrgun Kh^n who coni5rmed MaffM^ fon of Kny 
XawSf laft foltan but one of the SelJ^h of Rim, in the do- 
minions which his family then pofleffed in Afia Minor \ 

s p c.T, m. 

The Reign of GanjatA Khan. 

;. Khan HrHIS prince, named alfo Kajfkt4 (A), and KayhitA, was 

GanjatO- •*• the fon of Abdka Kh&ny and fticceeded Atgtn Khin in the 

' empire of the Mungls in IrAn. Kondamir, the Perfian hiflo- 

rian, remarl{;s, that the true name of this prince was AyktdA^ 

or CaykatiHy which, in the Mungl language, fignifies marvel' 

9^Jiy fine andjbining. He addi, that this prince,, notwith- 

ftandif^ his debauches, was the moft liba:^ of aU the <fe* 

fcendants of Nulak4 ; and adminiftered jufticc with fo qitich 

circumfpeftion, that, under his rdgn, no innocent perfoa fafr 

fered death. Bahi Boky or BqfH Mcg^ was generaliffimo of tbd 

annies of this j>rince, uiidet- Ac title of jSrAroH Omara ; and 

Khmx^eh Sddrd'dJin Khaled Ze$^i was his prinie waztr. 

dntreus, GANJATU Kh&n fullied all the good. qualities which he 

hut de- was poffcflfed of, by his ex<^e$ve lewdi>tfs. At length, feveral 

hauched. l^rdi of his court, wfaofe daughters he had fdzed to put k 

^2 r?^ bis haiim, confpired ag^nft l^n^ imd fobicf of thf «i were vb^ 

^' ^- jMifoncdon the occafion : but tte reft fent privately' to BayHi 

"^ Qg^h kaxdiTkrgay (B), andgrandfooof HuhH, then gji* 

yei!nor of BagbdM^ mforming him ; that, to jcafe h^ took me 

^d without d^y, he might eafiLy become uiaAer of theem<' 

fMre. Baydiy having gadtiered wh^t - trobpfi he could ^t lb 

^hort a warning, advanced tawardaMii^Ai (C), Wh^e Caf^s$£ 

waited for him with his army : but th'^ prince, finding biffAH 

Betrayed and abandoned by his gerierak, e&aped to' a c^rtw 

grotto ; whither being. followed by chofe Idnd^ whom h^ hid 

. r ■ .CoiapAM. ^bifup« p. 126, &feq. 

* (A) This happens by change-. Pocgci,, fup)^» ad hlft. dyqaft. 

|ng the .puD^iuatloD,. or dia- p. 2. 

-i ' fritical points, of the xun and ' " " (C) A great plain- in Azethi- 

^' ' jhn, fo as to cohvcrtthofe let- ji^n^ bounded 'on the mnth-br 

^ters'into^jii AnH-kba, the riveri Afi^s and AjSt* awl 

^A^JBI^farghit or Tsr^ytb, See oa the edl by the CaJ];ian fea. 

imprifoncd, J 

Digitized by VjOOQ It | 

C^r* J^Mn, oK^cr&L as target iti 

im{fe-^>n^ aod who had b^eo nelealed by the reft of the con* s* K^^i^ 
fpirators, he was by them aflkflinaCed, in the year 694 ». Ganjatu. 

This is the account of K^ndamtr : but his Uxkcr^Mirkcnd SrvrrW 
Bdates the occaiipa of the rebellion differ^tly. Accordii^ to ^^J?. ^ - 
dus authoi^y he would have introduced paper, ^oney into Per* ^^^'^^. t 
j£», to pafi, aa it did in Ketau Kotan (D) : but i^ met with ^'^'^ 
gre^t oppQfitioQ,<;hiefly frixa his qnck Badu, w^ho^ on this pre* 
tenoe, mack wat on» aaid il^'bisi^ m 693, aftcc ^.had reigne(i( 
^ three years ^. . j • : ^ 

S E C T. IV, ^ 
rbe ^eign cf fiaydfi Khan.^ • 

'T^HE partifans of this prince, having flain Canjatiy faluted fi, Khaa 

'-■*. him emperor in the city of HwmadArii and afterwards Baydik. 

caufi-d him to be proclaimed thfo' all the provinces and cities " 

6f the emph-e. The firft thing he did, on alcendii^ the throne, 

was, to teftlfy his gratitude to Dogajar^ who had been the 

principal inftrument of his advamrement, by pving him the 

chief command of all his troops ; at the fame time be made 

Mi friend Jamdh'ddtn prefident of the diwan, or his council. 

Mean time GdzAn^ or KhzAn, who, from the death of hit fa-* 

A«-, poflfefled the government of Khorafftn, refolved to re- 

vaige the death (rf Ganjati; and, for that purpofe, confulted 

with the amir NevjrAz Gdzi ; with whom, for fome time paft, 

he had been in friendftiip. This amir was the fon of Argm 

Aga^ who had poflefled Khoraffin as governor, under the de«» 

imdants of Jenghtz Khhi, during ^he fpace of thirty-nine 

yvtrs (A). After his father's death, he became an officer iq 

At court of the emperor Argun KMn^ where he continued 

iHl fuch dnc as that prince put to death Bega^ his friend and 

relation : for, beii^ in fear of meeting with the feme fate, he 

fled to the moft eaftem part of Irdn. There, making open 

foxfeffion of Mohammedani/m,^ he waged war upon the ene- 

nies of that rdigiout and gained feveral great advantages over 

Aem On this occtfiop he had many quarrels with Gdzan; 

vho then governed the province of Khoraffiin : but at length, 

matters h^g accommodated between them» the amir came to 

* KoNBAifi tbifup. p. 159. ait, Ganga, ^ ^Muxond 
tp, Texeira, p. Jii- 

(D) Bjr this mud be under- wfit in 6co, at mentioned ib tike 
food iptfajr» or periiaps Litttk rttoi of i&Aii% he -maft have 
9iiiBdria. died in 689, the fiztfa er fetenth 

(A) As he was made gover* jms oiJr^KU/it.wtiffi. 

M 3 *iC' 

Digitized by 


Jenghiz Kimi' sSucceprr B. V; 

klfs the feet of that prince, and thenceforth became his beft 
friend. » . 

' GA'ZAN having confulted Ne^r&z abotft die msmner of 
Gazan wrefting the provinces of j^zefh^An and Ii^hk out of the hands 
$aMesarmf. ^f Baydu, to join them to Kh&raJJf&n, which he already pot 
feflid ; that amir told him boldly, that, if he would embrace 
MohaTTtmedifin; he woald do his ntmoft to^ put him in pof- 
fefEon of the empire, and expel his rival, G&zan, witliout 
bcfitation, gave himfelf up to the direftion of. Nevjriz ; and, 
foon after, made public profeffion of M9jlemifiny in the city 
of Firuzkuh : where a great nurnber of ^perfons embraced the 
fame faith, and entered into his party. When this was done, 
he fet forward with a numerous ^riny, fhaping his march to- 
wards Rdy : and, bemg arriyed near that dty, fent an em-* 
baflador to Baydi4^ Xo demand the murderers of foltan Ganja* 
V tu: but no regard was paid to hi$ application. Hereupon he 

refolved to naake ufe of hoftilities ; ^and his fcouts having met 
with; the van-guard of Baydtf's army, defeated, and took moft 
of them prifoners ; while the reft carried tbQ news of this, 
rupture to their camp ^. 
Comes to GAZANy after gaining this advantage, having reqourfc to 
Urm^ artifice, fent a fecond embaffador to Baydu^ to cxcufe what 
had happened, pi^etending it was. done without bis knpwlege* 
This apology having been accepted of, it was ^reed that the 
two princes fhould have an interview, each accompanied with 
a certain number of perfons in his train. They met, and a. 
conference was held ; in which, after many coi?apl}aients on 
both fides, G&zdn demanded of Baydfi the government of th|t 
provinces of Pars and Irfik^ to hold of him by way. of h<^ 
mage. The khan (B), who defir^d nothing fo,much as peaoBt 
, yielded to his'requeft : after which it was agreed, that^ the 

day following, a iplendld entertainment fhould be made, for 
joy of . this accommodation ; and that the two princes (hould 
vilit each other in his tentt But Ga%an^ having been infom^ 
that a plot was laid to aflaflinate him on his entering the khap's 
tent, bi'Qke off the cQnferen(:e, ^nd immcdiatdy returned with 
bis army into /T/f'ora^a/?. 
5ayd4 However,, fo foon as h^ arrivigd m that province,. he ienta. 

eludei , third ambafTador to acquaint Baydd^ that the caufe of his hafly 
^i^m, fctum, without taking leave rtE hiiji^^ wa^ fbcyadvic^ h^ b^d 

« KoNDAM. ubifop. p. 178. art. Baido. 

(B) Our Okititdr codHnoitlyi if^ Icing, or fov^rcign |irlnc«^i 

WjSo,th?^IWfr being ^^nanwr/' -^ ' 

■ '* ' - ^'^ ^' ^reccivfd 

Digitized by LjOOQIC:,* 

C. 3.' In Hn, OP Ptrfii at larger 183 

received of a revolt among fome of his officers ; and prayed; ^. Khan 
at the fame time, that he would fend his orders into the two.. B^j<iu. 
provinces above-mentioned^ for delivering them up to him, ^***^'^'^ 
purfuant to his grant. Baydil diflembled the c^iagtin whicl^^^ 
GAzdn's abrupt departure. had givea him ; and directed Jamdl^ 
, c'ddin, his wazir, to difpatch the orders for putting the offi- 
cers of that prince in pofleffion of thofe provinces. Jamdl* 
c^ddin did fo : but, at the fame time, gave orders underhand 
to the contrary; fo that Cdzdn's officers were obliged to re- 
turn without accompliflung the bufincfs which they were fent 
about. Hereupon the amir T^ewruz^ who managed the affairs 
of Gdzdn^ periuaded that prince to depute bin* fo go to the 
fpltan's court, under pretence ^f foliciting his intereft tlier^^ j. 
but the real end of fis embaffy was, to form a party againft) 

Baydi, in favour of his mafter. In effeft, he managed his ^ ^., 

intrigue fo well, that, having gained l)ogdjary prime minifter 
of Bayd&^ they agreed togeUier to dethrone this prince, anJ ' 
fet up Gazdn in his room. ' * \ 

Mean time BaydH^ who had fome fufpicion of NewrAz^jsJeceinfti 
caufed him to be watched, and would riot fuffcr him to ftir by New* 
out of his palace r but that amir aflured him, with fo many ruz. 
oaths, that, if he would permit him to return to KhoraJJin^ 
he would deliver GAzAn bound into his hands, that at length 
he obtained leave. It is reported, that, as foon as Newruz 
returned to Khordjfdn^ to fave his oath, he fent a kettle tied 
up in a bag to Baydu; thus joining raillery to his knavery : for 
G&z&n^ or KAz&n (which word is pronounced indifterently ei- 
ther way), iignifies, in the Mungl or Turkijh language^ a kcttU^ 
The foltan perceived, by this proceeding, that he had made a 
falfe ftep, in letting the amir Newruz efcape out of his hands x 
but now there was no help for it. In effeft, that lord:, after 
having corrupted the principal officers of Baydt}*s court, went 
back, to difpofe Gdzdn to put in execution the defign which . 
he had long thought upon ; while Shamfo'ddtn arrived very 
leafonably to forward the enterprife : for he iiiformed Cdzdn^ 
who was then at Sebzivar, of the divifions which reigned 
among the lords of Baydit's court, and the general averfion 
which the people had to his perfon. 

GAZAN finding, by this intelligence, that things were D^firtei^ 
arrived at the pafs he wiflied them at, loft no time, but fent andfioiuk. 
NewrUz before with the van^guard of his army. This con;i- 
mander fet out immediately, and fpoiled the country where- 
ever he came : at the fame time he made fuch hafte, that, in 
one night's fpace, he reached a , camp, which was only two 
days joutney diftant from t;bat of the foltan^ So foon as J9a- 
^^ar, lUKi thofc of his cabal, who had the chief pofts in the 

M 4 ih^*$ 

Digitized by 


1 8i J^ngbtz KUti^s SuciUph. ' B. V, 

6. Khitt kWbi^s army, heard that Nev)ri% was arrived, they, like bafe 

Baydik. trsdtors, left theh* camp, and went over to his troops. The 

V^ry**^uxrfortunate l)rince, thus abandoned by bis army, had oodiing 

for it but to fly ; and, thinking he taigHt be fafe in Nakh- 

fvv&n (or Nak/hivduy in Jrrdn)^ took the road^lo that city: 

but Newriz purfucd hiin fo hotly, that he overtook him by 

tile way, and put him to death (G), after a reign of no more thaa 

c^ht mpnthS;, iu flie year 694**. 

S E C T. V. 

. > ^be Reign of Gazap or Klzin KhK , . 

y.Khin' Yp>^^^Ary;5^«, ^yho took the name rf MahmM, after he 
Gazan. VlT turned Mohammedariy was the fon o\ ArgAn KHn, Tfe 
W^y^'? prince, was no.fobnerori the throne, than he received advice 
th^t fome of his kindred had pafted the Jthun, in order to 
dnpute it w|th him. Hereupon he fent Ne'wru% againfl them 
... , with a potent army ; who ci>Uged thofe princes to return, and 
* *" ;. \i3iVt G$zan to enjoy in peace, a kingdom, which he governed 
with much "syifdoni and equity. *^. liji 'effe<ftj, he oft^n fat him- 
felf in his cpurt of juftice, wKere all his mbjects might freely 
i4ak6 'their.cQ9iplaints againfi the greateft lords and prime mi- 
nUlers of hts'cpurt ; whom he obliged to make fatisfaftion, acr 
cording to"n\eVrongs which they had done*. 
fH^i /a The 2Li[a\tNewruz, who had rendered his mafter fuch fig-, 

f^f!'* nal fervices in Kboraffar\y was again fent thither in quality of 
governor : but he was no fooner arrived, than feveral lords of 
the country, who fought that preferment, and envied his ad-5 
vanceinent, created a fufpicipn of him ^t court; this they 
, (;onfirmed, hy means of a letter of Newr&Zy which they pre-, 
tended to have intercepted, and fent to Sadro'ddin Kh^edy pre-, 
fident of the dUvan ; by whi^h "he feemed to enter into com- 
bination with the king of Eg^.pi^ to make war on GH&Jiy 
As ibon as the foltan was informed of this plot, he, without 
inquiring farther into the matter, immediately affembJed hi^ 
Hej. 696. troops, in the year 696 ; and, fending them into Klorajfan^ 
' A. Di under the conduft of Kutluk Sh4h, ordered that general not 
I Z96. tp return to cpurt, till he had puniftxed Newruz for his re- 
^isge'keraJ lyQiiiQ^ Gdz&n was at this time at Hamaddn^ where he ufii" 
Newriujjj •' ^ .'.,.•-•■■•■ ~ , 

* KpNDAM, u^)i fup. p. 178. ait- Baidfi, ^ Ideni,i;bi fup, 

p*. 365. art. ^ajzan. f ococic. fuppl. ad Abu'lf. p. %, ' 

' (C) Mtrkdndi mTei^eiray faj^? tnere djfpatched him: J)af JTwi- 
the waztr, who f^ized him, cat- /iamr- fays, he was pat to'4earf^ 
rl^d him ba^k tp Tauris, and at NuihJkiiAiun. 

■* \ «aj 

Digitized by 


C: 3; . A TiAn, or Perfia at Imgc t%i 

aHy nefidfed, alAo"^ Itt had btea cro^me* !a Tauris, the capltaF 7. Khai> 
of his empre ; becaafe the cRfptttes whkh he had in: Syria, Glziti. 
with the king of Egypf, obfiged hito tcxbenear Aat pfd-'^-^V"^ 
vince (A). Ktaluk SM^, having entered KhoraJJhi^ pifefently 
conftrained Newr4z tt> abandon his government, and retire 
towards FakrcfdMn Mihk Itirty who was his fon-m-law and' 
preature: but thi« faithlrfs prince, forgetting all his obliga- 
tions, a^ well as duties of alBance and hofpitsdity, deliver^ 
him up, loaded with ch»ns, into the hands of Kutluk ShAhy , 
who pat him to d^ath on the fpot, and. fent hb head tor 
Ci^n. ■ ■ ' '^ 

In 697, G^4te4« gave the government oT Jf ,^2 

At-^d^u (or j^'jaytu), iSi brother; who ha 
with Mdlek KArty on account of the rteame 
mon« : but at length they came to an agreem 

. the mafd SheMbo'ddin JkrM. In 699 G&tiifi 5^ 

Sadr%^dMn Jlenjdm, fornamed Sadr JeKhty D, 

f«- nlifmanagements in the finances ; btirt, ii ^9. 

y&m of the great "\Vealth which he pofltflet 
having been pot to death, his emplojrmcnt wa$ divided between* 
two coftfiderable officers of ftate. ' . ! 

The fame year GSzdn entered Syriay afid gave battle }o jfffvadts 
Naffer y fon of Kakwn, fdtan of Egyft, near the city of j^erhs ;^ Syria, 
in which the latter, being defeated, efcapedwkhnomorethan' 
feven horfemen. After this, Kutluk ShAhy the ^wng/ general, 
took Damajkus by comp^'fitioii> arid illihe reft of Syria was 
fubdned : but^ (hortly after CtUn iLpiropsLSkdih^ Euphrates y 
to return to ffamadfm, the Syrians cut the thioats of all the 
^^«g^/ garrifons thro* the Couiltry. In- 76a GAz&n niade a'H^'. 703/ 
fecpml expedition into Syria, and came to Hiakp y where, hav> A. D. 
ing i^nt fome time ^ divert himfdf, he lefit the caCre of recover- ^i30£. 
iBg that province \o Kutluk ShM, and his other generals. Mean , 
fupsie Naffiry hearing of his return into Syria, ws^s come witH 
a powerful army to Dam^fkus ; where he waited for the khaa^ 
who had^ready pafled the Euphrates, in his yay back : while His foraq 
his generals, deceived by their fpies, and knowing nothing of def sated. 
Jf4fffer*$ ai-rival, advanced towards Damafiusy e^pefting to 
forprife it j when, of ^fudden, their van^ard, having: -de- 
fcried the army of Najjery\ was obliged to come to an engwe-'^ 
ment. The battle w^s long and bloody (EJ) : but altho' 3ie 

(A). But Tatf^is is as near Sy* tbe moil famoos. geograpli^ of 

fia sksHamaddn. the eaft, ^yas in the arm'/ oJF 

(B) ABuIfeda Ifmaely prince Kajfer when this batde was 

^ ^i22y^i&, a gr^at liiftor|aK\, ^a4 C'^^S'^^ ' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

if6 Je»^z K]^'sSu££ifffbrs KV: 

7. Khait amtr JubAn did furpitGog things, yet, not b^ig Vdl fup- 

Gazan.. ported hj the other Mungl officers, who turned their backf 

V*ry*^ to the enemy, the latter gained a complete ^ftory. 

fifgj jeath; KUTL UK Sh&hy having been thus vanquiflied, retired with 

' his forces^ of which he had loft 10,000, into Perjia\ and, 

near Kazwhi, joined the foltan, who raif arded the valour of 

the amir Jfubdn, and punifhed with the korrah, or whip, ac- 

cording to the Mungl difcipline, thof^ who had not done thdr 

duty. , Not long after this, he becsuae bedriddea; and died, 

greatly lamented by all his fubj^ds, in a place named Sbht 

'mia3s. Gazan, that is, the Damaikus of Gazan ^. This was a town 

built by this emperor of the Mungls, near Tauris, in.iinitadoa 

of the Syrian Damq/kus, and adorned with a ftatdy mofque ; 

wher^ he was interred in the year 703 • It was the only fc- 

jwajcre of the ^ufigis^ which ijemaincd ftanding in the time of 

. Konda^r,^ ^bout '^00 years after. He built two odier cities 

to which he gave, the names of Kaherah (or Kayro) and Halep. 

In the year 702 this prince eftabliihed Kaykobid^ fon <rf Ftra* 

foorz^ laft fpltan of the Seljiiks of Rhn^ or Anatolia, in the 

fpvereignty of thofe dominions S G&z,&n, according to Al Jan- 

nabii died the thirteenth of the month Shawal, near Hamadin 

(others lay in Ray) ; and thence was conveyed to Al Shdm, near 

Taufis^ ^xj^h^\i^^ e^ht years aad about ten months* 

Spw fey bfr was ^ak^n off by poifon. 

The Reign of Aljaytu or Aljaptu Kbin, 

S. KhSn *T* HE^name Jof this prihce, who rticccedcd his brother Gdzin 
Aljaytu, A . iu 703^ is vanoufly written by authors ; as A^aptu, or 01- 
' laptUy and Oljaytu, according to the authc»* rf the Magmu Al 
RaJMdiab (A), who dedicatal his work to him. This laft 
,VF0iA is written alfo Aljaytu, and, with fome little variadO!i» 
jfijAyUA, wluch, accordii^ to Al Jannibi, fignifies the great 
emperor^ He rdinqoiflied the religion of Jtnghiz Kbkn, and 
became a Moharnmedan % upon which oecafion he aftiimed the 
mune cf Gaydtho]ddtn Mohammed KhodHbandeh} which laft word 

^'Konpam ttbifup. p. 363. art. Gazan. « D^H^UBSi** 

p.775. art Sham Gazan. 

(A) This was the waztr ^a- had mot with among thcArais. 

fiildoddln^ mentioned afterwards. He was author alfo of the Ja- 

It is agreat collc6Uonof^r^^c maUtanvarlk, or hiftory of the 

learniii|;> and to be found' in the turkijh trijjes, mendoned vol. iv. 

king of^Prance'^ library, N* I. ; p. 20. See alfo D'Heri. p. 7,11, 

being the largeft volume, an4in art. Ra/cbidThabii. 
tjie b^ft order, ^f any D'ff^rhkt 


Digitized by.VjOOQl(^ 

C 3- ^ 7«Iran, cr Vcr&a at large, y 187 

iignifics, in Perjian, tbefervant of Gad : but, inftead of KMd" 8. Khia 
hanJkh^ as ^/ JannM and othcs have it, Jbtt'lfeda and -r4^m^i AljaytiL 
/te ri^ write Kborbandd \ K,,^ymmU 

This prince came from the province of Khorajfdn to Arra- fiuUJt 
jan (B), where he was crowned emperor ; and gave the poft SoUania^ ^ 
of j47r^r al Omara (C), whigh is that of generaliffimo, ta 
Kotluk Shdh\ dividing the office of prime wazfr benveen -ffa- 
Jhido'ddin and Saedo'Mn : but thi^ latter, being fome time after 
fufpefted of. committing certain mifdcmeanours, was put ta 
death, and bis place afligned to Ali Shdh. In 704 Aljaytu 
built the city of Soltania, and made it the fea^ erf* his em- 
pire (D). In the time of his abode here, feveral lords of Syria 
and Egypt came to implojre his affiftance againft Malek al Na/' 
fer, fon of Kelawiij, whan of Egypt. Jljaytu, who 2rdtndj 
defired to recover- Syria, which his anceftcMTS had poflefled, 
pafled the. Euphrates in 7 1 2, with a great army, and encamj^ed Hg .711, 
at Ruhaiaty ntzr^DamaJhvs. Several ftirmifties happened be- A. D. ^ 
tween the Syrian and Mungl forces: but they never came to 131a. , 
a pitched battle (E) ; for the wazir Rajbidy by his ihanagement, - 
brought about a peace between th^ two powers \ and Aljaytu 
returned to Soltdnia. 

He was no fooner arrived there, than.he received advice xhzt Reful/es 
Kepek Khan and Bijfur Oglan, twp princes of Turkefiiny had /i^Turici,. 
pafled the river Amtiy with a defign to reduce the province of 
Khorajfdn, Thgfe invaders had already defeated Tejfawl and 
AH Kitfbjiy the principal commanders in that province, when 
Aljaytu marched againft, and compelled them to repafs the 
Ami with great precipitation. This Irruption of the Turh 
induced the khan to confer the government of Kh^raffhi on 
his fon Abifaidy fending with him confiderable troops to de- 
fend that province ; and the amir Suncj to direfti his affairs. 
The young^rince began his government by puniihing the two 
generals bdore-meijtioned, who had fled from the Turks ; and 
caufed fuch exaft juftice to be obferved in all refpefts, that 
he quickly rcftor^ peace and commerce to tljat large proving. 

» KoNPMd. ubi fap. p. 8f . art, Algiaptu; & Poc, fpppl. p. j^ 

(B) Or Al Raj^fty a city of he built this city in 7054* and re^ 
Mhwufian-y but, by fome geo- moved his feat from Taurisp^ 
graphers, afcribed .to :/'«r(, or where he before refided ; and^' 
Proper Perfiay one day Vjoi^m^y the nefct year, pofT^ed himfeir 
Jfom the Perfian^L of the province of Gbeyjdn and, 

(C) Amr al Omara (\^Ats Rajbt^ fc^iray p. 312^ , ^ 
t9mmanderofeommwtder$\ Qptarat (E) A^cordiog^o Mirkondy la 
)»eing the pluralof ^iRVir. Texeira, he rccov^od 5W)w, or 

(D) A^^Qrtinj to Mirkondi J?atpajim, 

Digitized by 


J^ Jctigliz i[hh\^s Suceeffbrs^ R.V. 

S^KhSn ' Not long after this, ffifur OgUn, havkig qmlwcd the i^ 

Aljayta. tereftc^ KepekKhdriy went over toAb4fiud% which turn m«A 

w- jui^ '^^^ ocqJioned a great war beto^eea tte neighbouring powers-? 

^•***^*bat the. death cf A/jay tu, which happened ia 7^f(^ prevented 

•^' J^^ the ftorm. This prince died at the age of thirty-fix, after 

1 Ji6.* ^^ ^^^ reignpd twelve years (F) ; and made juftice flourifli ib 

liis dominion^ more, than ^ny other of the family of JengMz. 

Kh^n. He Wad a great zeal for Ithe Mohammedan religjlon ; and . 

AonouFed the chief profeflbrs of it, efpecially thofe of ^e fe6fe 

<>f JfK^ ia favour of whom he catiled the names of the twelve 

ixjwofi to be engraved on his (XAn \- ■ \ . ' 

, ' S EC T. Vih 

: ^ ^ki Reign of Aht^m Kim. y 

9. KBln ,j4\B^US-AiIl, furnamed Bel:^^ Khin% fucQ?ed,ed h!g fethor 

AhftfaSd. '^^:AiI/^y^^^ 3^d fvas. ci:owEed ia the city, qi SoMnu^. IJc. 

^ 00m^ ^ m^ ^ inaaaSedi^tely /confirmed Rq/bid and AH SJ)4hy his father's wa- 

zu?s> in their employments ; and made JUan Noydn (A) ge- 

neraliffimo of his for<ies, who governed the empire as tutor tft 

- tbeyoung prince, then but twelve years pf agie^ 

Bij. 71 R. Jn 7x8 M ShU fb far wrought upon the amir Jpb^ by hit 

A. D. nwnag€S»ent and prefeut?, that RaftAo'd^n w^s turned out of 

1318. bis office, and fome time, after put to death. The fame year 

Jmt"^ J&- ^ayfwTy a prince of the ray^ blood of* the JMiungls^ revolted 

baanrgir^y/. ajpinil Abifdid; and, advancing from Khoraff&n into Mazdn-i 

der4^^ t|u-eatened to march oa to Solt4nia itfelf, if the foltiq^ 

I^^l n(?t f(?nt a potent army, under the couduft of the anvr 

It4fayn Kurkhki^ to redi;ice him to obedience. The foltaa 

a( tfah time pafled tbp winter at Ka^rntkigh (in Arrin) ; whcr» 

^Vdvice came, that UikekKhin (B) ha4 crQ0Qd qv^ the grea( 

* KoNPikM. uhi fop. p. ??. mt. Algiaptu, 

*{F) Twelve years and nine ^tPtrfums often nfing the / for 

months, according to Hfirhud, the ^^ii^ ^. A^ulgbaxi fays, 

WW) fays, he firft brovght up the the ehiefs of the tribe of SuiSu^ 

coftqm of taking 4way th<^chil- from father to fop, bore ths^r 

dren of (Birifitans atid Je^s^ to' name. Hlft. Turfesi &c. jp. 18$. 
ddocdte them in thejr n^anner, (B) Called afterwann S^JSk 

and be ferved by them. ' Vxi^ ^ the titlei of Sbii^ SbU 

^ (A) Written by ipv^e Fo^- tiny Kbi», and fometimcs Hj- 

A, by others Nevi4$> This /r>(| being given ipdi^erently b)F 

rbn is nam^ alfo amir JibS». die oriental hifbrians, to the 

Abffbhdzi Khmi't hiftory kings or (bvevdgns 9f4iffneii^ 

ZipStiy m^is, yup4itiiy Of CM' nations, wkh na fm^ iioprcH 

iani | aii4> in Te^eira, Chibin ^ Jsn/W^ 

Digitized by 


ddkrt €^ Kaffik (or NifffH), ^tid made hkafelf jftufter^die 0* KUb 
dty of DArk^. Tto obUged him to depiut iaiJlKdtaldy, Abftf^i>^ 
*idi the few troops winch he had abont him, to ^o aadett- ^^ ^"^ 
tampoa theXtfr, ki order to binder die T^nri fr^ paffiqf 
Ihat river. Oi the other hand, the amir ^iin, who had &1t 
lowed die amtr ^Mayn, to appsde ibc tnOuble^ ra^ in uKb<* 
ri^, no fooiKr heard of the imipiio& of the tnemy,. thtt 
he mroed back, to fcrengthen ^he army df ScitljxJkyk'ii. 

As the Tatars had hidierto done nothiiig bvt phmder the RefMw 
tofiBtry, without mdertakii^'any thmg of confeqoeiloe, their #Ar U»- 
anny wits mochnfrnkridied ; fo that Shiih Uziek^ finding hmoh ^^^^. 
fielf no eqnal match for Ac folt^ whofe forces were aiM' 
coniiderably increaied by reinforcements, refolded lo-hreiUi op 
his camp, and redre : tat, being followed at the beds fay.'the 
amSr JAhhiy he loft a gresit number of men In his'reirett. 
Afto: dds fuccds, whSe AhAfiHd marched bade to Soban^ 
die^iAieral caofad iisveral of die principal <Qffie^ 
irmy «o ht whipped, aooordii^ to d^ Msmgl difiapliiie ; ftr . • 
M>t ktving done their doty in hb afcienoe, and then proceeded 
towards Oorja (or Geoirgia}. lilean dme the officers, wfaoJuUl 
ncitvM the am£don, plotted to revei^ that di^nee; and 
tngigeA in AAr party itvend officers, who bore itnth imp*-* 
Muce Ae feVcre humoor (^ the amir jV^i»\ 

Tim malecont«at5» havfaig formed a pretty confiderable BU imfi 

tatty ttiong themMves, followed that general,, who had air revolt. 

ready entered Cona ; and, while he had left his caaap^ to gn 

#a tome enterprife againft the enemy, they £azed on, and jS- 

liged it. After tins fnrprUe, which redooed the am2r tagreat 

want of every ddng, they gave batde to, and defeated biau 

JUin flood in need of all his courage, but more of his wit 

and addreft, to iave his perfon ont c^ foch imminent dax^es* 

In edeft, by making ufe of feveral firatagems,^ he at kngdi 

efeaped ; and, by marching many roand-about ways, anivel 

at Soltdnia. The khan, not thinkii^ himfidf .£ife in his ca^ . 

pital, while the rebels conddued in arms, gadiered dl thfc 

troops he could in hafte, and* marched to diafdfe theai. lilic 

rev^ilrers, loikg all refpcA for the foltin, gave him battle, bnf 

were defeated ; and it was on this occafion that A^fdii^gifi 

4ie fertiame c^ Bdhidry or Brave, by ruihing into the midft 

t3f fehe enemy. 

lb- /f9 the amtr H4ffayn tCurkhdn, who was at War with MmrUs 

Bayjur in Kh^raff&n, obtained fo many advantages over him, h\Mbff$ 

chat he atlei^h confbaiaed him to repafs the AmA into Great fift^i 

8ukMria\ where he was flain fome time after, in fight with a^«j- 7^9* 

A. D* 

* KgaoAii* ap. D'Herb. p. 32. art. Aboufajd. '3>9» 


Digitized by 


190 JcngWz Khah'i Suc^^m R V. 

9. Khitt prince rf the race of Jagatay^ foh of J^ghiz Khht. In 

Abftfaid. 721 the fdlan married ,his fiilcr, named Satibeg^ to the amir 

\m ^ <^ m J Jitbin^ whofe Bopdals ixrere celdw^ed wth great magnificence. 

Next year TmArtaJb^ fon of J^ban, who was governor of the 

C30untry of Mm^ or Jnatolia, revolted s^ainft AbAfdid ; fettiog 

tip for fovereign in his department. The arnh*, on this advice, 

tfio'' id the depth of winter, fet out with a powerful army, to 

bring him back to his duty t which the fon no (ooner under^ 

ftbod, than he Idd down his arms, and put himfeif into his 

^ ^ fecher's hands ; who carried him as a prifoner to the feet of the 

ibltin. By this meads AbAfaid was s^ppeaied ; and^ pardonu^ 

^die fon, in confideradon xA the father's fervices, reflored him 

'to his government* 

Kfibliga - In 713 AU 3h&h the wazir died ; a)id his ppft was ^ven to 

bim. Sdyitf lieutenant-general ol the amir JAbin. Some time after 

Hcj. 723. ^thisy die amtf ga^^e his daughter, named BdghMd Khdifin^ one 

A. D. .of the gi^teft beauties ia all Afta^ in marriage to the amir 

»32j. Haffan IlkharUy fon of Sheykh H4iffayn (G) s but this marriag* 

proved very &tal to him ; for Soltan Abiifd'id^ having fallen ia 

love with that lady, demanded her in marriage of her father* 

New, according to thelaws.of the MungU^ every ^ii^e per- 

4os^ was obliged to repudiate his wif<s, when th^.ki^i^had 9 

mind to efpoufe her. For all this, the amir Jub&o^ never woi)14 

cdnfcnt to his daughter's divorce ; and ^en uttered difrefpeft- 

' fnl words againft this young prince^ who. required QOthk^ 

contrary to the laws, or his own duty ^ 

Outoffa-^ ABU SAID at that time diffemblcd the refentment whicli 

%^r. he conceived at tlus refufal : while the amir Jubin^ thinkii^ 

^ cui-e his paflion by abfence, fent his fon-in-la>v and daughter 

ti^Kdrabhgh\ and carried thefoltan, againft his inclination, to 

S4ghdMy these itoi pafs the winter. Bnt /^bu/dicf^ love, far 

from diminiflung by this feparation, only increafed the more. 

Mean time the wazir 5ijy« inflamed the averfion of the prince 

i^ainft JubJtn, by feveral falfe reports which he framed, re- 

iarin^ to thecondttft of the amir and his fons. As thefe 

pr^aices of the wazir came to the knowlege of Damafbk Kho- 

imajeb (or Kboja), fon of the accufed, one erf" the chief officer© 

of the foltan's houfhold, and who had ofteneft accefs to hioH 

be took care to fend his father an acconnt of tbein. Oft. this 

occafion the amir Jubdn took a very bold ftep : for, under pre- 

r tence of gc&ng to quafli fome iitfurreflions which w^i^b^un 

* KoNDAM. ub] fup. p. 32. art. Aboufaidl.- ^,. 

(C) The fame with the amir Eujfayn Kurkhdn\ mcntigioed a littl# 

Digitized by 


C. 3. In IraHt or Pcrfia at hnxi. 151 

in Khorajptn^ he departed haftiljr from Bi^hMd, and went to 9. Khan 
Soltdnia, carrying with him the warir Sayn, as it were by Abufaid. 
way of hofta^ for his fon, whom he left at court. ^ -^■•■J 

This fon remained there, to dire£t all affairs :^ for JMdrif Bis fin 
who had the intice management of them, communicated them Damaihk 
10 none but him. It bippened, at length, that Danutfhkf 
abufii^ his Esther's authority, difpc^ed fo abfolutely of all 
things, that AHfdid bad Uttle left to^ him biefid^s the name of 
folcuu This prince, weary of bdi^ always under guardian- 
fiup, di&overed his diilatisfaAion to fome of his confidants; 
and they informed him, that D§majbk carried on an intrigite 
with one of the wives dF the late fok&n yti}ayt4, his fether. 
On this advice, the prinqe ordered Dama/bk to be watched, to 
difcover the truth ; and, in a fliort time, was himfelf witnefe 
of a rendezvous made by the two lovers. The folrin, wounded p^^ ^ 
in Jiis honour, as well as authority, by t1^ infcrfent minifte^:, ^^^. 
would readily have figned the order for hi& death : but as-none 
of his domeftics durd undertake fo dangercHis a taflc, he fouikd 
there was a neceffity of leaving things to chance ; which foon 
tnmed out to his wiihes. For it happened, at ttus very junAure, 
in 727, that fome heads of men, who had revolted in the pro- HeJ. 727* 
vinces, hatving been brought to the foltan^s palace, a report A. I>« 
was {pread, that they were the heads of the amir J4bdn tod his * 3*^« 
adherent which had been ient from KhoraMn. This rumour 
fo fr^hted Dama/bk^ that, without inquinng into the truth 
of the matier, be left the. palace, in the night, with only ten 
men, and took to flight. As foon as JM/aidv/as informed of 
this, he fent after ham M^fr Khowig^hy one of his confidants?, 
who overtook, and cut <^his head, which he brought forth- 
with tothefohan. 

This piince, deliv^ned froih the fon; propofed foon alf^ Rat/ei «« 

to get rid of the father : for this purp6<b, he fent ftrif! orders army. 

to the c^fccrs o( IGmraffin to feize the perfon of Ji^bM ; and 

couriers to thofe of other provinces, to put to death all who 

could be founc^ either of Us relations^ dependents. But as 

tbefe officors lived in good underftanding with that general, 

inftead of executing the foltan's mandate, they immediately 

gave Jum notice c^ it. Upon this intelligence, he loft no time : 

for^ making nie of the favour and credit ofhisfiiends, hefet 

on foot an army of 70,000 horfe, with which he moved to* 

wards Kafbin % whither the foltan was advanced, with all the 

forces which he was able to ^mble. JMAn^ before he kft 

Khoraffhiy caufed the wazh- Sayn to be fldn, by way of re- 

prifkly for the death of his fon ; and Ahiifaid^ to be even with 

him^ appointed for wazir Cay^th'ddin Mohammed^ a perfon of 


Digitized by 


102 JfogMi £Ubi'j JSuuiffori B. T. 

Q. Kh$n. lear^g, ipn oiyRqfhWMny wbpsx the amir had alfo put to 
Abufaid. ^earf]^ -as bc|brc hath boea rdatod. 

.!br>^'^ Mean time, rfie amir yi^4« marched forwa^, ^xdth'deiign 
d^Art^'^'^ .tonjakc himfelf ©after of the court, and the peribn of the fol- 
'^'*^'' tan, When hecagie to SemnAn (in Kumes\ he made a vifit to 
Rgkno'ddin, Jlao'ddawkt, whpfe tomb is ftiUreipeaed there, 
tby Mohammedans^ for bis great fan^iity ; and, after fcxne cob* 
'ferences with him, proauied^ on Oacfa, to follow fbiiSUy his 
adidce in Av^ithipg: propofrng, as a tdOimony of his fince- 
nty, that ^the ih^yllh ihouldgo from him to the i<dtan, to dc- 
jDiand tbe.mui^^r.s Qif his {on, and, die conditions of a gdod 
peace, AbAJaid received th^ flM^kh with i«fped, and <Ud him 
]a thoufand honwfs: but refufed either to deliver up the af- 
jTaifinSy pr, in aay^fprt, treat wiih JUin. The amtr, em^ged 
rat this cefufal, hq longer kept any meofures with the fokao'; 
ax;4 ^samt to^ienomp mthin one day's, march of his ordu, or 
.'imperial c$mp> in a .place named Kuha. But he did not con- 
;tinue long in that poft : fen: feveral of his principal officers, 
who intirely owed their fortunes to him, abandoned him, widi 
30^000 hoiie, and went over to thdr fovereign. 
Etrt^ As the amir J^bin^ after fuch an inftance of inoonftancy in 

triMti. £0 confiderable a part of his troops, could not prudently con- 
fide ia the reft of them ; he quitted his camp, and took tbe 
jroad dF the defart c^ NuhendtjAn^ with defign to retipe into 
JO)omffin. This loag and difficult march, jdned to a farther 
• 4lerertion of his officers, (b weakened his. army, that, being 00 
longer able to fupport hb party in that prorinoe, he refomd 
to repair to Turk^M : a country whece there were iTevend 
great princes, who often made Incurftons into the dominioDs 
of Jbi/aidy as hath been already remarked. This refelutioo 
would prdbAiy bav^: ^oVed very advantageous to the amtr, 
had he purfued it : b<it his evil deftiny fo cHtlered it, that; 
when he came to the river Morgib^ he of a fuddea changad 
hbnnnd, and turned back, to thnow hunfelf into the armaof 
GayAtho*4din, furnamed M^ek KAft\ whom be had bred up 
from his y/smth, ^nd advaooed to the.pciadpal pofts in t faeaiarict 

'Betraytjp MALBK Kurt fTOft^. t0t more, faithful to him 'than tfat 
sHdJlain, feft: for h^nqg, «t the &met time, iieseived an eicpie& from 
the foltin, with difpatehes &11 of greatjoffers and pramifcs, if 
he woukL (end him Jibin's head, tiie firft vifit of this^ingrtte 
was that : which be. made him by €)i& executioner. The amtr 
could never obt^iii jb much as thofavour to fee him : fo that • 
finding he^|auft die,* he required three things -of him. flrft, 
<rhat,'a9 feoA as his head 4W«is fevered from his body, h^ Aadd 
ffad on^ of his hngers, which was double at the end^ to the 


Digitized by 


C jr JJf If^, ^r Perfia at largdl ipj 

. <amp of JhifiCid. Secondly, that he would caufe his body to 8. IChan 
be fent to Medinah^ there to be buried in a chapel which had Abiifaid. 
been built at his expence. And thirdly. That he t^rould convey ^*^'w'^'*^ 
his foQ Jalayr^ whom he had by Satibeg^ to the court of Soltdn 
Ahifdid Ms uncle. Thcfe three requefts being granted him, 
the executioner cut oiF his head : which MMek Kurt fent im* 
mediately to the foltan ; and fet out foon after himfelf, to re- 
ceive the reward of his perfidy. But he was much furprifed, 
when be underftood, on the road, that Sheykh Hajfan had di- 
TOTced his wife, the daughter of Jitban^ and fent her into the 
foltan's haram. What ftifl more increafed his chagrin was, that 
Sheykh Hajfan^ by this fubmiflion to the defires (^Abtifdidy had 
obtained thecmployment which he cxpefted at court; and 
rfiat B^hdM Khdt^n (D) had gotten an intire influence over 
the niind of the prince *• 

This difagreeable news made Tiim refolve, before he pro- by Malclj 
ceeded any farther, to fend his orders into Khorajfiriy to put Kurt, 
to <ieath Jalayr^ fon of the amir JAban ; whofe life he had 

f>referved, at the requeft of his father, though contrary to the 
bltan^s orders. After this fecond execution, he continued his 
Tout towards KarabAgh (E), where JHlfaid then refided : bu^ 
dirough the great credit which Bdghd^d Khht^n, who was 
married, in a u>l^mn manner, by the foltan, pofleflfed at court, 
he received but a very cold reception ; and was confidered ra- 
ther as the murderer o^ the foltana's father, than a perfon who 
had rendered a great piece of fervice to Ab&fdid. He was eveii 
tnade to wait in the camp, all the time which the corps diji* 
bat^ and his fon were bringing from Khorajfan to Avjjht^ 
wl^re the foltan ordered them to be put into the hands of the 
pilgrims of Mekka^ to bury them "at Medinah, To defray thisf 
expence, he caufed 40,000 dinars to be paid to then^ ; and 
gave to MUek Kurt to other reward, than the permiffion of 
returning to his own country. With regard to the amir JV- 
baUy we fhaH only obferve farther, that he had always pafled 
for a good man, a lover of juitice, and ia great zealot for bis 

c JCoNDAM. ubi fup. p. 33. art, Abfifaid. 

(D) According to Mirkond^ bookiih. 'Tis added, that hi^' 

In Texeira^ Abufdid gave her judgment was found, and hi$ 

the tide of Khdndekar, which perfon graceful. 

was the royal ftyle; and that (£) According to the fame 

he put the whole gcrvemment author, Janndbi^ and the l^i* 

into her hands, which fhe ma- vhiariftdn, he fpent his fummera 

naeed with much wifdom and in Soltamyai and jus wintei's at 

discretion, while Ke diverted Karabdgh, . 
himielf with reading, being very 

Mod. Hist. Vol. V. N I^ 

Digitized by 



8. Kh&a 

Hcj. ^2, 



HcJ. 736 

A. U. 





Jcnghlz Khan'j Succejfors B. V, 

In 73^ fome perfoos envying the good fortune of Sheykh 
Hajan, and uneafy at the great power which the foltana had 
in affairs, began to whifper about, that this princefs ftill' 
carried on a fecret intimacy with her firft hulband. As thefc 
reports came, at length, to the foltan's ears, he banifhed 
Sheykh Hajfan to the calUe of Kamakh (F) ; and fliewed great 
coldnefe to his new fpoufe. But the falfity of thofe infinua- 
tions having been difcovered, and the authors of fuch black 
calumny puniihed, Ahifdid reftored the foltana and the fheykh 
to his favour ; and even conferred on the latter the government 
of part of Rimy or Afta Minor ^ which, at that time, belonged 
to his dominions. 

. In 735, Shah Uzbek made a fecond irruption into the terri- 
tories fubjeft to Soltan Abufdid; who, next year (G), marched 
to fight his enemy : but he was fcarce arrived in the province 
of Shtrwariy when the heat, and malignity of the ah-, threw 
him into a dangerous ficknefs. For this, his phyficians pre- 
fcribed bathing : but one day, after taking medicines, while 
he was in the bath, he fell into a fwoon, and died not long 
afterwards. The author of the preface to the Jafer Nhiw) 
writes, that the foltana BaghdM KhdiAtiy perceiving a change 
in this prince's afFeftions towards her, gave him poifon, which 
tool^ away his life, at the age of thirty-two, of which he had 
reigned nineteen years. His cbrps was tranfported to Soltdniydf 
with a pomp worthy of fo great a monarch, and inhumed m 
the fepulchre of his anceftors (H). Arbah KMn^ his focccflbr, 
caufed the foltana to be put to death, who was accufed of beii^ 
concerned in the death of Abufdid \ and had been convifted of 
correfponding with Shah Uzbek, who difputed the crown with 

^ KONDAM. ttbi fup. p. 34. 

' (F) Kamkh, or Kemai, as fome 
authors write, Hands on the Eu- 
phrates, twenty-one miles to the 
fouth of ArxenjaHf in BUm, or 

<G) This yearj 736 of the 
Hc^ah, of Chrift I33S> ^as 
remarkable, as well for the bkth 

of Tin^ Beg, or Tamerlan, is 
for the dealh of Abufdid. 

(H) He was buried near Ids 
father Kbodabandeb, under the 
£ne dome of the mo(k of SM 
mya ; on the walls of which, 
the whole Koran is written, 
eolden charadlers. La Onixi 
Eiil. Gengh. p. 404. 


Dibitiied by Google 

C. 4i //^ Iran, ^ Perfia at large. 195 

C H A P. IV. 

Dynajiiis which ff rung up on the Death ^/ Abftfaid Kh4n. 

C\^ the death of JM/aid^ in 736, the empire of the Mungis Confujion 
^^ in Irdn, or -P«yJii at large, fell all to pieces, and into '*» Iran* 
great confiifion : for, after him, they acknowleged no fingle ^' ^» 
monarch ofthe race of 7^^A/«A!>t^«; but canto^ themfelves '335* 
in the feveral provinces, which were plundered by the frequent 
wars wMch the lords waged among themfelves, every one aim- 
ing at the fovereignty, and to reduce the reft under his power. 
Nor did thefe diforders ceafe, till the time of Timur Begy who, 
after the conqueft of the countries to the north of the JihAn, or 
Andy turned his arms againft thofe to the fouth of that river; 
and, in a (hort time, brought all the jaring princes of Irdn under 
his obedience. 

Among the petty dynafties which, during this interval pf h P^*^ 
diftraftion, fprung up in that great region, hiftorians mention 4f^oft^€s* 
two Mungly which rofe out of the ruins of their empire, im- 
mediately on the death oiAMfdid. The firft, called // Khdnian^ 
its princes being defcended, in a direft line, from HulM Khdn^ 
famsimed II Khan. The fecond,, named Jf^bdnian, or CHbdnian^ 
as being founded by the family oi Jubany or Ch&ban. The firft 
had four princes, who reigned from the year 737 to 813, the 
fpace of feventy-fix years. The fecond had but two, who held 
die fcepter only twenty years, that is, from 738,. two years 
after the death of Abufaidy to 7585 though fome make their 
dominion end two years fooner. The H Khdnians rdgned in 
Arabian Irdk and Azerbejdn ; the Jdbanians in this latter pro- 
vince, and the Perfian Irdk. Although thefe two dynafties 
were cotemporary, and their affairs blended together, yet we 
fliall treat of them feparately ; but avoid all repetitions, ex- 
cept what muft be ufed to make the neceflary conneftions. 

S E C T. T. 

^be Bynafiy of the II Khaniaqj. 

keign of Sheykh Hallan Buzruk. 

•Tp His d3mafty had four foltans, or princes ; the firft of whom i , Soltim 
-■" was amir Hajfan, or Hajfan Nowydn, fon of the amfr Huf" Sbeykb 
/ayn Kurkhdny one of Ab^fald Khdn's generals, mentioned m Haflan 
thejrdgn of that foltan. Hajfan married the famous Bdghddd ^Buzruk. 
KhdiAn^ daughter of the amir jUan^ or CMpan, with whom *^ 

N a JbH' 

Digitized by VJ^\.^VIV^ 

19^ • Jcnghiz Khin'i Succejfors B. V. 

1. Sehin JM/a/J was enamoured ; and, after the death of her father, 

Shtyi^ divorced her, to gratify that prince: who, in 732, conferred 

Hailan on him the government of the Mungl dominions in Rum, or 

Buzruk. ^^ country of the Romans, meaning chiefly yinatoUa. Thi» 

rrT^f*'"*^ Hajftn was fiirnamed Buzruk (A), or the great, in the Mungl 

J* '' or Turkijb language, to diftinguiih him from Hajfan, fumamol 

^ * Kujuk, or the leffer ; who, near the fiime tknc, foonded the 

dynafty of J^bankms ». Arab Shdb feys, that Haffan Buz- 

rukvifos At (on of If uj/ayn; and Huffayn, thefonof y/* Buga\ 

tiiat Ak Buga was the fon <^ Li Kh&n ; and that Id KAdn de- 

fcended from SherfcfdJin Sibih Alk^, or Ilkhin Arg4n, foo 

x£ Ahifdid, Arabjhih does not fay who this AhAfdid was ^ ; 

' yet I>Herbilot will have him to be AHtfdid Kh&n. But this 

cannot be > fince Haffan Buzruk was cotemporary wirfi Ab6^ 

/did Khin, and, from circumflances, older : where;^ his an* 

ceftor AHfdid was, at leaft, five or fix generations earlier than 

Ab&fdid Kh&n. The fame author fiimiflies no more matecials 

relating to this founder of the IlKhAnian dynafty. But AbuH- 

gh&zi KhAn gives us (bme farther particulars of hk tiiftory. 

According to this author, on the death of AHJaid, tho(e of 

the tribe of Suldus, the heads of which bore the name of 

Zipanu or JApani (B), put the fceptre into the hands of 

Avbt Arpa^ or Aria KkAn, defceodcd boon Artofdmga (C), fcm of 

KW». Ta-wlay (or Tuli) Khin. 

' Some time after thisy APt, a chief of 2 tribe of the Vlrafs^ 
by the great credit which he had in the city of Baghdad, cauied 
Miifa, defcended- from HuWd (D), to be proclmmed khan 
there : who marching to attack Arpa Khan, defeated, and Qew 
him ; whereby he became mafter of all his territories ^. This 
Arha Khin, according to D'Herbelot, reigned no more than 
Ax nuxiths (E) ; and, on his ed&ung to the crown, put ta 

* D^Hbrbel. p. 489. art. II Khan. ^ Arabshah, hift. 

Tin^r, L iH. i 5. « Abu^lghazi Khah, hift.Turks, p. i88« 

(A) In the Englijh tranflation of Tuli, fon of JengMz Khan, 
cf La Croix's hmory of GenghSz D'Berbeiot, p. 382. art. G«f : 
Khan, p. 404, he is named Bu- ghiz Khanian. La Croix makes 
icure Haffan ; a mi(Uke, per- Arpa Khan the {on of AU, foa 
haps, for Bmcurc, or Buzurk, of Baydu Khan, fon of Traggf 
as that author feems to hare (or Tarighi), fon of HuIdJaL 
read it. Hift. Gengh. p. 404. 

(B) Ji^am, or JUani, is the >(D) Mu/a was the fcn of ^/V 

fen tile name of Juban, formed fon of Baydu Khan, fon of 7#r- 

y adding the final i, gay (or Targhiyeh).y foo of HuIUm, 

(CJ Arba Kh&n was the fon Kbdn. 

of Sififrbigdn, fon of Mmltk TV- (E) According to La €mr» 

Psur, fon of Arfaka Buga, fon be died in 1335. 

5 deati^ 

Digitized by 


C. 4^ In Iran, cr. Perfia at larfe^ tgy 

desith Baghdad Kidttin, the beloved wife of ^«/&ii/A3M« ^ for i.Spltdn 
the rcafoas already mentioned, in the reign of that prince. Shtykh 

As foon as Shcykh HaJJiin Jalayr (F), called alfo Sheykh ^aflan 
Hajjan Buzn^ky who was then visry powerful in the provinces ^ _ _ \ 
t£ RAm (or Jnattflia), heard that the people of B6ghdM had JjJ^J^f**^. 
proclaimed Miifa in qviafity of khan, he caufed Mohammed, a -gj^^ 
defcendaat of Huldkt^ {G), to be acknowleged khan of the 
Mungh in that country* This prince^ immediately on his ad* 
vancem^nt^ got together a great army, and marched &om Mm 
to the borders of JrAn. At the news of his approach, Mufd 
Khan marched as fir as Tabriz (or Tauris) to meet him : but 
coming to - a battle, was intirely defeated ; and having in thV 
a£Hon lofl AH (H), by whofe interefl he had been raifed to thi^ 
throne, he fled for (belter to the Virats. 

Advice of this revolution coming to theknowkge of Shcykh MbhaiaS 
Alif fon of the amir AU Kqfhji, who, at the fame junfture, "^^4 
commanded in Khoraffm^ he hafted to Baftdm^ and there pro- Khan, 
daimed Togay TimUr, one of the defcendants of Jujikar, bro» 
ther cf Jenghiz Khan, who formerly refided in MazAnderdn. 
Soon after, being joined by Mufa KhAn^ they all three went 
In qucftx>f Mohammed KhAn t but the Iheykh Haffan Jalayr ad? 
vancing againft them, with a powerful army, gs far as Tagarm 
Rudh (I), intirely routed them. Mufa Khan loft his life in this 
oAion (K) : but Togi^ TitnAr and Sqeykh Ali efcaped into Kh* 

When Shcykh Haffan Kujuk (L), who <Jommanded on the Togay 


^ D'HcRB. p. 34, k 382, art. AbuTaid ic Genghizkhanian. Khan. 

(F) . By this, he feems to have which, in the Per/tan^ is called 

been of the tribe of Jalayr. Sol- Rtidh : the S being founded liice 

tin Ahmed likewife 11, by Sha- thy xnthemy this, &c. 

fifi'ddinn in the life oi Tipdir (YL) Mohammed c^MieAYihh^zi- 

Beif called Ahmed Jalayr, to be cut off. This happened in 

(G) Mohammtd Khan was the 1336. La Croix, p. 405. 

fon of Yol Kutluk, fon of Timiir, , (L) This is the grandfon of 

fon of Aftharyi, fon of Mangu, Hajfdn^ fon of the amir Juban, 

ia^ of Huldhu Kh4n, according founder of the y«^<w7fa»dynafty, 

to AhfflghaKi Khan : but La Ahuhhdxi KJjdn, to diftinguifli 

Croix makc$ him the fon of Ma • hi m from Shey kh Haffan Buzrui^ 

juni, fon of Amvjin^ fon of Hu- calls him Sheykh Hajfan Khoja j 

laksi Khan : be puts his death in poflibly, becaufe the authors he 

1337; and fays, fome call him made ufe of do not add the fur* 

^MabmAd, Hi^. Qengh, p. 405 « name of Kuiuk^ which we, to 

(H) La Croiu cails him AH prevent confufiop, have putiu« 

Shah ; sind fays, be was another llead of Khoia ; as, afterwards, 

khan of Hu^kff\ race. Hift. we have fuhilituted Buzruk for 

Ccfi£h. p. 404. Jalayr. 

(I) This feems to be a river I 

JI .3 ' bordei'9 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

198 ]tngUzKhsm.*s Succeffbrs B.V. 

I . Seltan borders of RJiniy in the time of JMfa'id Khdn^ received iofonn- 

Sheykb ation of the ill fuccefe of this battle, he gathered in hafte a 

HaiTan numerous army, arid took the fidd againft Mohammed Khan, 

B^zruk. ^jj jj^g sheykh Hajfan Buzruh After fcwne ikirmifhes of no 

^■^^'^■•■^ moment, the competitors came, at length, to a decifive battle, 

near Jsfakhjhivan ; in which Mohammed Khan being killed^ and 

- his forces defeated, Sheykh Hajfan Buzruk fled for fhelter to 

the city of Soltdntya, On this occafion, Sheykh Hajfan Kujuk 

conferred the government of Tabriz (or Tauris) on a lady 

named Satibika (N), while he marched in purfuit of his ene- 

jnies, Sheykh Hajfan Buzruk^ perceiving the viftor prei&d 

him clofe, and that that there was no likelihood of efcapiag 

out of his hands, implored his clemency, and fnrrendered him- 

felf at difcretipn. After this, Sheykh Hajfan Kujuk returning 

to Tabriz, Satibika delivered him the keys of that city, after. 

fhe had governed there a whole year; and the iheykh, to re» 

compenfe her fidelity, married her to Soleyman, a lord de-. 

fcended (O) from Hulaku. 

Tchan Some time after this, the Sheykh Hajfan Buzruk, having 

Timfir found means to efcape out of the hands of his conqueror, fled 

Khan. to BaghdM, and cauied Jehan Ttmtir (?) to be proclaimed khan. 

A. D. This done, he fct forward, to try his fortune once more againft 

' 3S^< the flieykh Haffan Kujuk : but, liaving met with another defeat, 

he retreated to that capital ; and believing he had reafon to bo 

. diflatisfied with JehanTimir, depofed him, and feized the fur 

preme authority himfelf «. It do^ not' appear that he had any 

tartticr ^onte|l witji fl^an Kujuk, whofe death f<?emB to hav» 

^ Abu'lghazi, ubi fupra. 

, ( N ) This muft be Satibeg^ Ahmed, whom feme called ^he» 

daughter oi Ah^fdid Khdn, and med, (on o£ Htddku Khan. Thf 

marned to the amir Juban, fame author makes him the fe* 

grandfather of this Hajfan, who venth khan; and fays, his wife 

was Ton oi^tmurtajh. La Croix gave him thattirie, in 1338. 
names her Shah Zddeh Shdhibek (P) Jehdn Timur was ion of 

Katun; and places her as the Alfrdn, ion of Kajeytu Khan, ioVi 

fixth khan among the eight ox Ahdka Khan, fon of Hutalit 

khans which, according to his Khan, Kcjiytu of Abulghau 

authors, reigned after the death Khan is the fame with iSiikiu, 

of Abufaid, or Ganjatit Khan ; that is, the 

(O) Soltfmdn was fon of Mo- eighth khan of La Croix, wha 

hammed, fon of Sangu, fon of feems to have made his foor^k 

Ynjhmut, fon of Hufaku Khan; and fifth out of Togey Tiwmr: 

fo writes Abitl^hdzi Khan. La the firft called Tagur Kbdm tllfi 

flroix, lefs accurately, fays, he fecond Bul^liim^ Khan. 

\y^s ^he fon of Sanki, fon qf 

Digitized by 


C. 4! In Iran, cr Perfia at large. 199 

happened not long after (QJ : nor do we meet with any thing i . Soitdn 
relating to him further (R), than that he died in 757, after a ^^kh 
reign of twenty years ; and left for his fucceflbr his fon Soltan ^*^^ 
Avis* , _ _ \ 

^e Reign of SoUdn Avis, or Wcls. 

yjVJS, or Awts (called alfo Veis, or tVels^ and commonly 2. Soitdn 
'^^ 5heykh Avis, or VeU\ on the death of his father Sheykh Avis. - 
Haffan Ilkhani^ furnamed Buzruk, fucceeded to the ftates which ^-""V*^ 
|ie poflefled (S); at a time when feverai Mungl princes, de- 
icended from Jenghtz Khdn^ had divided the empire of Ab4- 
fatdKhariy the laft fole monarch oi Irah^ amongft them. In 
759, Sheykh AvU entered Azerbejariy with an intent to con- HeJ. 7^9, 
quer it; and defeated Akhijuky who was mafter of that pro- A. D^ 
yince (T), although attended with a poweHul army. Akhijuk^ *357- 
on this dtfafier, fled to Tauris; but, not thinking himfelf fafe ^^^T^' 
inthat city, he abandoned it to his enemy, and retired to Nakh^ Azerbc- 
Jbivdnp on the bort^ers of Armenia. AvU would have found ^ * 
no more enemies in all that great province, if he had not pro- 
cured them himfelf, by his feverity : for having put to death 
forty of the principal lords of the country, he fo alienated the 
minds of the reft, that they joined with ^*A/;V>5, and put him 
in pofleiEpn of all ^hich he had formerly loft. Thus Avts 

( Q^) Viz, \rx 745 ; for he is 
reckoned to begin his reign in 
73?, and to hdve fat on the 
throne fcven years. 

(R) For we know not what 
to make of what La Croix fays, 
tkat Buxruk Haffan at lail got 
himfelf crowned king of the 
Medes (he mufl'mean Jzerhejdn), 
and afterwards of Khaldea^ by 
ihtrtdiXx&ioTiof Bdghdddy Hilleh^ 
Wdfety and Bdjraby which had 
been poflefled hy'MaUk AJhrdf 
the Chuhaniany unlefs ^r^had 
taken them from him before. 

(S) Haffan Buxruk feenv to 
have been mailer of Bdghddd^ 
and the places dependent on i^ 
or of Arabian Irak at mofl, at 
Ait^tz^\i€AHaJfanKuiuL Tis 
pofiible he inlarged his domi- 
nions in the remainbg eleven 
jr^ars of his reign, and during 

that of Mdlek AJhrdf (the fuc- 
ceflbr oiUaJfan Ku/uk), who waS 
a debauched prince. 

(T) Here we meet with a 
difficulty. Azerbejdn was con- 
quered by ^ani Bek, eighth khan 
oi Kipjdky in Hejrah 756, A, D^ 
115 c : then returning, he left 
his ion Birdi Bek, who did not 
return till two years after his 
father's death, which happened 
in 758 : fo that Birdi Bek muft 
have flaid in Azerbejdn till 759^ 
if not till 760. Yet, in the text, 
we are told Akbijuk was mafter 
of chat provinte in 75^ How 
happened this? did Birdi Beit 
leave it to Akhijuk ? , or did Ak- 
hijuk fcize it after Birdi Bek*% 
departure? This feem^ to be 
the cafe ; fince La Croix tells us; 
that Birdi Bek left the country of 
Azerbejdn to Soltan Avu. 

M 4 being 

Digitized by 


200 Jcnghlz KhSn*j Succejfors R V^ 

t* Soltan bring conftra'mcd to abandon hjs new conqueft, retired withj 
Avis, a ftiattered army to Bdghddd, which h^ made his refidencc, 
V*V^ However, he did not lofc courage pn this r^verfe of fortnnc,; 
A. D. but ftUl purfued his firft defign : for, the next fpring, he 
1358* caufcd fr^fli troops to march towards Tauris.\ where ha^dng 
furprifed Akhyuk^ who had been diftarbed a^ the winter by 
another eneniy, named Mohavpned Modbaffer (Q), or Mozaffer^ 
ii^ feized Ws perfon, and put him to death; 
^ilb a In 765 Avts was engaged in troubled at home : for, while 
rebelihn. h^ Was in Azerbej&n^ Kbow^a Merj^n^ with whom he ha4 
Hcj. 765. ^cre left the command of the troops in his abfence, refiif^ to 
A. D. pbey iiis orders ; and obliged hinl to come in peribn, at the 
^irh liead of his forces, to bring him to, his duty. But this cxp^-^ 
dition was foon finifhed : for Merjdn opened the gates to hun j 
and received pardon for his tranfgreffion, on makmg new pro^ 
teftations of fidelity. After taking one year's repofe in his ca- 
pital, he of a fuddcn fell upon the cities of I^dful and Mar^ 
m Biy^rbekr^ and reduced them both in a very fhort fpace, 
Jlej. 772. tn 772 Soltan Avts marched againft the amir Veliy who ha'd fubii 
A. D. dued the province of Maz4nderdn, after driving out Toga 
1370. TimtlrKba^ (D), whom' he put to d^ath; and, having de- 
jTeated him iii battle, purfu^ him as far as Sefhn4n, toward^ 
the borders of KhoraJ^n, 
JiJs death. After this viftory, Avrf returned toB^ghd&d^ where ha 
A. u. refided in peace tiU 776, when he fell fick j and, his diftemper 
-'?74' increafing, the, principal minifters intreated that he wpuld ^ve 
orders about the fucceffipn j for he left four fons, Bajfan^ Huf". 
fayriy Ahmed^ and Bayeztd. His anfwer was, that he chofe 
Bujfayn for his fuccefibr ; and that Haffan fhould be content 
with the government of BdghdM. . The minifters replied, thit 
Hajfarty being the ^Ideft, would poifiWy not reft fatisfied wi4 
that difpofition. Upon which tiie foltan faid, Tau Anow that 
ivhkh muft be done^ By thefe words the minifters concludti^, 
that the foltan gave them power to do that which they judged 
moft for the good of the ftate, feized Hajfan, and put him 
under a ftroi^ guard. As Ai^h loft his fpeech not long afier,^ 
fo that he could not explain himfelf farther with relation ta 
tfajfatiy as foon as his eyes were clofed, the minifters of ftate, 
who w<fre d^fir^us to f^cure the ^rqwi^ tp U^ayn^ put Hai^ 

(C) This might have been where he reigned, fbrty-twa 

"Jdobaraxoddin Mohammed^ foun- years. 

fJerof the M?«^i/r/tf« dynafty in (D) Before tailed ^Togtg Ti* 

fdrsf or Profit P^rfia J in ^18^ mr X^^^fktia^hySh^pihjSi. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. 4* i^ Iran, of Perfia at larger ' tot 

Jan thdr prifoner to death, acid buried bodi the fisher andfoo t. SeUdM 
on the fame day *• Avi«. 

SoLTAN Avis reigned nineteen yeats. According to Arab* ^ ^ f^i^ 
JbMy he was ^ religious, good, and j^ prince : had few vices | ^" ^^4* 
and many virtues, which ^ere vifible in his afpeft. He was ad ^^^*. 
excellent conmiander, and v^ courageous ; a great warrior, 
and fuccefsful in 1^ expeditions : was well beloved and re^ 
fpefted by all degrees 6f perfons >, But, in what the iam« 
author adds, that this prince reHgned the crown to Huffkytt 
(whom he calls his eldeft ibn), to lead % devput life, on account 
of a dream which he had of his death ; and that he died, 
^er having lived holily more than thirty years, he fe^ms to 
)iave been miftaken : fince the Perjian writers are filent as to 
any fuch thing ; and what is related abov^, appears more pr6*-s • 

The Reign of SoMn Hu%n, 

TjVSSATNy fecond fon of Sheykb Avis^ or Trf/, had die 3. ^oMn 
J--^ fumame of Hurkhdn ; becaufe hi5 was nearly rebted t6 Huflayn. 
the 7krf/;ig/ foMns of the race of J^wg-WzASiJ^jas weUas that of ^--v** ^ 
JlKh&nu ^ bong defcended frcmi HuldkA. This prt^c^ who 
tiras poHHIed of Arabian or Babylon^ Ir$ky and Az€rh€}t% 
purried his arms into P^rfian IrAk ; and probably would have 
fnbdued that province, had he not been prevented by the re^ 
bellicm and fratricide of his brother Afmed^ in the following 
manner. In the year 784 Soltan Huffayn fent Adel Aga, gene- Hej. 7^4. 
ral of his troops, to befiege certain caftles belonging to the A, I>4 
city erf R(^y or ^ey^ in Perjian Jr$ki and having, for that >382» 
purpofe, ^ven him the greater p^rt of his forces, Ahmed ^oo\i 
the opportunity, under pretence of fome difcontent, to retlwj 
from the city of Tabriz^ oc Tauris, where the court then was, 
to that of Ardeifl (about thirty miles diftant). The folt4n, 
bdng informed of this retreat, immediately fent an cxprefs 
^ter him, to order his return 1 but this prince, who had great 
defigns in his head, refiifed to obey the command ; and, at thb 
fame time, raifmg what troops he could, came and furprifed 
his brother, who remained in a manner difarmed in his capital. 
JHtiffkyn, not being in a condition to make refiftance agaiiift ^i^mly 
this unexpefted attack, endeavoured to conceal himfclf, that he Ahmed* 
might not fall into Ahined!s hands : but he was foon difcovcred, 
|md brought before 14s upnatural brother, who* ordered hiih to 

• KoNDAM. ap. D.Herbel, p. 149. art. Avis, ^ AaABs^; 
Ubi fu|>« 1. iii. ^. 3. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Jcnghfe Khan'j Succiffirs 

B. V. 

t: Scbam be put to death *• Arahjbiih relates, that JhrnedrvrcHtcA, m the 
Hiiflayn. latter Jornada of the year 7835 and, after keeping his brother a 
V ^^V""**^ year in niifcry, put him to death ; at which time he was turned 
cH twenty. According to the fame author, this prince, whom 
hp names JaMlo'ddth Hujfayn^ was the moft wtuous, and wor- 
thy to reign, of all the fons of Sheykh Avis^ in whofc fteps he 
trod : he was good to his fubjefts^ and very generous, full of 
courage and magnanimity ^« 

"The Reign of Soltdn Ahmed. 

4.&//& ^7\/T0GHITH0'DDIN Ahmed, called alfo Ahmed Jdayr 
Ahmed. •^'^ (A), third fon of Sheykh Avh, ha^g put his brother 
\m mm ymi^ ffufayfi to death, immediately afTumed the tide of foltan ; but 
was in danger of loiing it almoft as foon as he had ufurped 
it : for his younger brother Bayezid, frighted at the horrid 
murder which he had committed, fled for reftige to Adel Aga, 
who commanded the army. This general, fliocked at the hor- 
rid aft no kfs than the young prince, inunediately acknowteged 
him for lawful foltan, and marched in purfuit of .Aimed ; who, 
- . not having forces fujfEdent to refift his, fled in his turn, and 
retired to Marvand. However, while Adel Aga perfifted to 
.purfue Ahmed, and had almoft gotten him into his hands, the 
principal officers of the army mutinied againft him, in favour 
of the ufurper ; fo that he was forced, to retire with his neir 
foltan to the city of Soltantya. Ahmed, on this advice did not 
fail to throw himfelf immediately into Tauris : but he wa$n(> 
fooner arrived there, than he received the pews that Sb^tii 
Alt and Ptr Alt were advancing to befieg^ him. 
Bxpelled AH ME D, tho' not fufficiently prepared for fuch a fudden 
4tndre' attack, yet, being full of courage, marched out of Tauris to 
Jkred. give them battle. The two armies were now in fight near a 
place called Heft Rudh, or the Seven Rivers, when Omar Kip- 
m . chdH went over with his troops from Ahmed, and joined Sheykh 
Alt. As this piece of treachery loft him the viftory, of which 
he feemed already fecure, he found he had no other courfe left 
but to retire in hafte to the city of Nakhfhiv&rty and obtam 
fuccour of Kara Mohammed the TurkmAn, firft prince of the 
dynafty named Kara Kuyunlu, or the Black Sheep. This prince 
indrely re-eftabliflied the aftairs of Ahmed : for, joining him 

* KoNDAM. ubi fup. p. 149. & 464, art. AyisSc Hooflain ben 
Avis. ** Araesh. ubi fup. 

(A) Called Moghitho'Mn in Arahjkahi and Ahmed JiJs^yr in 
Sbati/oddin^ life of Timur Bd. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

G. 47 In Mil, or Pcrfia at hrgi. aog 

with 5000 horfe, they marched agaiaft their enemies ; and de* 4. 89!tin 
featedthemfo effeftually, that . both Sheykh ^i and Pir M Ahmed, 
were killed on tBe fpot. After this viftory, Jhmed returned ^■ " n ^ *'M 
in triumph to Tauris ; but he did not remain quiet long : for 
Adel Aga (till maintained his ground in Soltdntya with Soltan 
Bayezidy and gave him no fmall uneafinefe; till Ttmilr Bek^ 
in the year 795, fubdued Perjtan Irdk^ when that city, with 
the reft, fell into his hands. 

But at the fame time Timir took this thorn out oT jAhmei% ^^ttj^^ 
fide, he thruft a worfe into its place : for, the fame year, that h Jf irofir, 
(;onqueror marched to beiiege him in Bdghdady from whence ^^' 795* 
the foltin fled, leaving his capital at the mercy of the enemy* ^' 
A party of Tatars purfued him hotly as far as the plain of ^' 
KerMa, on the weft fide of the Euphrates : where, after feve- 
rs fldrmiihes, Ahmed, by ftratagem, efcaped out of theii* hands, 
with Kara T^fef the Turkmdn \ who had accompanied him ever 
fince the great fervice which he had done him at the batile of 
ileft Rudh, After this narrow deliverance, tjiey continued their 
road, new: flopped till they arrived in Anatolia : but, not find-^ A. D. 
ing themfelves fafe enough there, they pafled into Egypt ^ under ^ 1 39^« 
the proteftion of Al Mdlek al NSjfer Farraj, fecond foltan of the 
CherkaJ/ian Maml£is, who began his reign in 80 1 . This prince, 
who, through fear o£ Timtir's power, was willing to hold a 
good correlpondence with him, did not fail to fend him no- 
tic^ of the arrival of thefe two new guefts. 

TIMURy on tiiis advice, wrote to Farraj^ that, i( he would Detained 
g^ve him fome proof of his friendfliip, he jQiould fend him m Egypt. 
Soltan Ahmed under a ftrong guard, and keep the Turkmdn pri* 
foner. Th^ king of Eppt, wiUmg both to preferve the laws 
of hofpitality, and in fome nieafure fatisfy Timur^ fet guards 
upon the reftig^ princes : but, as they had liberty to converfc 
tc^ether, they formed a league among themfelves, by which 
|hey engaged to remain firm in the foltan pf Egypt* ^ alliance, 
and to aiSu ^ach other againft all oppofers, as foon as they fhould 
recover their liberty \ which did not happen till the year 807, Hcj. 807^ 
after the death of TlmAr. As foon as Farraj received this news, A. D* 
he loaded his prifoners with carefles, and difmifled them: but >404» 
fcarce had Kara T4/ef gotten out of the Egyptian dominions, 
when, putting hi^ifelf at the head of his Turkmans, he feized 
great part of Irak Arabi, and Al Jazireh, ot^Mefapotamia^ , 
Farraj^ highly incenfed at this irruption, complained in fharp 
terms to Soltan Ahmed, on whofe account that conqueft was 
inade : but, receiving no fatisfaftion, he intirely withdrew his 
protection from him. 

Mean time Ahmed^ lofing no courage, altho' he faw him- Recovers 
{^ abandone;^ by fo powerrul ^ ally, had r^courfe to ftra- B5ghd4d. 


Digitized by 


ao4 Jcngiiiz Khan'jr Suecejfors B/V; 

4. 5<7//tf«'tagemt he ]^ut lumfelf, withfomc of his people, in the habit 

Ahmed, of mendicants ; and; by that means getting into Bdghddd xxh" 

^^rw— "^ difcovercd, ftirred up a great tumult againft the governor, who 

there commanded in behalf of Omar Mirza, to whom T^tmur 

hkd given it. The etfeft was, that the governor was driven 

out ; and then Ahmed^ appearing among the inhabitants, was 

A D, proclaimed foltin by them. Towards the end of the year 

i1qc[ 808, vfh&Q Mubekr M^rza^ grandfon of Timdr, was engaged 

in the fiege of IJpdhMf Sheykh Ibrahim^ king^ of Shirwdn, 

came and reduced the city of Tauris* On this news, Ahmed 

immediately fet out from Baghdad with his ^my : but, on hir 

:ipproach, Ibrahim returned to Shirwdn ; while the foltan, cn^ 

tering that city, became again in poflcflion of all his domiT 

jQtons, on which account he made great rejoicings. 

defeated NEXT year Sheykh Ibrahim^ after he had reduced IJ^ibdn^ 

0tdJUHnf rtfolv^ to pay Ahmed a vifit ; and, ha^ng mardied to Tauris, 

obliged *him to leave that city, and fly full-fpeed to Sd^hddd, 

In the mean time Kara Tifrf^ taking advantage of the divii* 

ftons which reigped among thefe neighbonring princes, wha 

made war upon each other, fell with bis frefh and warlike 

troops upon the province of Azerbejdn, and fubdued it intirdy 

within the fpace of two or three years. Ahmed, unable to (^ 

Hej. $iZ' this conqueft without regret, refolved, in 812, to attack th^ ' 

I A. D. Turkm&n ; and wreft out of his hands a country which he con-. 

1409. fidered as the patrimony of his anceftors. For this purpofe 

be took the opportunity, when he was moft employed in the 

' war which he then cartried on againft Kara Othmhn (prince of 

the White Sheep dynafty), in the Greater Armenia, and furprifed 

Taurts\ which he entered in 813, without any refiftance, 

Kara Tdfef no fooner heard this trick which Ahmed had played 

• him, than he marched with his troops againft the foltan-, who 

advanced to meet him with all his forces, two leagues from 

7aurts, where a moft bloody battle was fought between thefe 

two princes. , 

If Kara * '^^^ Ttcrkmdfi obtained the viftory iri {p complete a man* 

liTuicf. ^^^y ^^^^ ^^^ foltan had fcarce time to fave himfelf in a ndgh-^ 

-bourtng garden, where he remained hidden for fome time; 

but, being at length difcovered, he was prefented to his van-! 

iquiiher; who reproached him with his late treachery, but 

without depriving him either of his life, or the title of Cdnn, 

However*, he difpofed of his dominions, and laid him under 

^n injunftion never |o attempt any thing againft his authority. 

But, not long after, the principal lords of IrM Arabt, who 

who were ijicenfed againft the foltan, cqunfeUed Kara Tifef to ' 

cut him off; alledging, that this prince, who was naturally of 

\ rcftleft difpofition, woyld jigt remain ioug witbgut; invdv^ 

Digitized by 


C/4* -S^ Iran, $r Perfia at largel 105 

log them in fome new war, which would complete their ruin* 4. So//ai^ 
The Turkman followed their advice ; and commanded both him Ahnacd. 
and his children to be put to death that fame year, 813. (A). ^ ■ *\^*»J 
Thus ended the family of Sheykh Hajan Buzruk, which had ^^J- ^» J* 
raifed.itfelf to a very high pitch of grandeur as well a5 power; ^' ^* 
and that of the Kara Kuycnlu, or Black Sheep, fucceeded ia *4<o* 
its room*. 

It appears from the above hiftory of this prince, that he His cha* 
was of a cruel, tyrannical, treacherous, and turbulent difpo- nSer. 
£rion ; which is agreeable to the character givea of him by 
Arabjb^ : who informs us, that, after he was become mafter 
of Baghdad, by the murder of his brother Huffayn, he gave a 
loofe to his violent and unjuft humour, by treating his fubjeAs 
very ill ; and never ceafed from doing mifchief, depriving them 
rf their effefts and lives at pleafure. In (hort, his debauchery, . 
cruelty, and rapines, grew at length fo intolerable, that it wa$ 
reported the citizens of Bdghddd called in Tirrmr to relieve 
their nufery. The fame author recites two lines which this 
foltin wrote to that conqueror, when he fled before his army : 
the fcnfe of which is, Jf I have been maimed, fo that I cannot 
fight ; yet I have not beenfo lamed, but that I am able to run. 
Thefe verfes were cutting, as they hinted at a lamenefs in th© 
arm aad 1^, fuch as TtmAr is reported to have had \ 



Tb^ Djnajly of the Jubanians, or Chubanians.' 

^be Reign of Sbeykb Haflan Kujuk. 

SHEYKH Ifqffhn Kujuk, or the Lejfer, fo called to diflin- i. ^^Itirt 
gnifh him from Sheykh Hajfan Buzruk, or the Greater, Hailan 
founder of the dynafty of the Ilkhanians ; was tlie fon of Timftr- 
tajb, fon <rf the amir Jubdn, or Chubdn (B), who was tutor 
to AbiifdidKhhn, and general of his armies. In virtue of thefe 
great employments, he afted as regent during the minority of 
his pupil; and difcharged his truft withfo muchjuftice and 


■ KoNDAM. ttbi fup. Avis, Ahmed. 

Arabshah, ubi 

(A) The reader will meet 
with fcvcral other particulars 
relating to this prince, in the hi- 
ftory oT Kara Yufef and Timitr 
Bek ; which it will be neceflary 
to caafait, in Order to explain 

fome obfcurities which may oc^ 
cur in the text. 

(B) It has been noted in the 
former fedlion, that this name 
belonged to the chief of the 
tribe of Seidus. 


Digitized by 


fto6 ' Jcnghlz JCh^nV Succeffirs B. V. 

Soitan fidelity, tK^t, as foon as he heard that his fon Tttn&rtajh had 
rebelled in the country of Mnty or Anatolia^ of which he was 
governor, he marched againft him, and brought him in chains 
* to the foot of the throne, for Ahiifdid to difpofe of him as 
he thought fit : but ha^ng afterwards difobliged that prince^ 
by refufing to confent to the divorce of his daughter, whom 
he had married to Sheykh Hajfan Buzruk^ and give her up to 
his embraces, conformable to a law among the Mungb, which 
intitles the khan to the wife of any of his fubjefts ; Abufaii 
never refted till he found an occafion of deftroying turn, as 
hath been already related in the hiftory of his reign. 
Kfe and As for Tim^rtajby that prince not only pardoned his crime, 
fowir. the amir JibAn bdng then in favour, but alfo reftored him to 
the government of Rihi^ where, for the future, his condud 
was free from blame : but, not thinking himfelf fafe in that 
country after the death of his father, in 727, he took fhelter 
A. D. in the court of At M&lek al Naffer, foltan of Egypt. Thus 
1335. inatters flood with his family till the year 736 : when, on the 
demife of AkA/ai'd KhAn, who left no iflue, Hajfan^ fumamed 
Kujuk (A), fon of Tindrtafbj feeing the governors of pro- 
vinces fet up for foverdgns in their refpeftive departments', 
and aflume the title of foltin, or prince, believed he had no 
lefs a right to afpire to a crown. In order to compafs his dc- 
fign, he returned to the country of Rurriy where his father had 
many friends; and, aflembling a confiderable number of 
troops» marched into Azerbejdn, againfl Mohammed Khiti'^xA 
HaffanBuzruky whom he vanquiftied, killing the firfl in battle; 
and fo diftreffing the latter, that he at length furrendered himfelf 
into his hinds. It is true, Buzruk made his efcape to BdghdU 
fome time afterwards ; and, having fet up another khan in 4e 
room of the deceafed Mohammed^ marched to try his fortune 
anew againft Hajfan Kujuk : but he was again defeated, and 
took rrfuge in Bighddd, as has been before related in the fore- 
going feftion. 
Murdered Mean time Hqffan J^w/wJt became every day more formida- 
iy his ble ; and it is not known how far he would have carried his 
'ujife. conquefts, if he had not been cut off, in the midft of his ca- 
reer, by a violent death, in the following manner. This prince 
having caufed one Tiikub Shdh to be arretted on fome occafioa 
or other, his wife, who had an intimacy with that perfon, ima- 
gined the fecret had been difcovered ; under which apprehcn- 
fion, fhe took the opportunity, while Sheykh Haffan was 6ft 

* D'HsRBBL. p. 403. art. Gioban. 

(A) Abfflghazi Khan calls him Sheykh Haffim Khoja. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

€. 4* ^ ^^^9 ^ Vtti\z at ldrg;il 

afleepy after hard drinking, to cut his throat. It is remark^ 
able, that, not\^thftandinff this fheykh was fo powerful, he 
neyo* aflumed the title ot khan ^. This prince founded the 
dynafty of the Jib&nians in 738, two ye^s after the death c^ It • 
Ahufaid Khtriy and rdgned feveri : during which time; he was ^^' ^ * 
always at war with fome or other of his'neighbours, and made ' * 
faimfeif mafter of Azerh^^ and Perjian Irak ; which domi- * 

nions he left to his brother M&lek Ajbrif^. ^ 

ne Reign of Malek al Afliraf. • 

CHEYEH Haffan Kujuk having come by an untimely death 2. Sobam 
^ m the manner above related, his brother TkM/p* al Ajbr&f^^^\^ 
fucceeded him in the ufurpation of the fupreme power ; and, Aihrafc 
inmiediately afteo conferred the dignity of khin upon Naw. 
Shirwan, one of the defcendants of Hul&M KhAn : fcut, ia a 
ihort time, repenting of what he had done, thruft him from 
the throne to which he had advanced him, and feized it for 
himfelf As this prince was very tyrannical, and led amoft 
fcandalous life, great numbers of his fubjeds, and, among 
others, the chief jufKce, left his dominions, and went into 
KtjyM, where Jd^ni Bek Khdn then reigned ; to whom they 
reprefented the aftions of MMek Ajhr^ in fudi a light, that 
he thought himfelf obliged in confcience to invade his domi- 
nions *• Accordingly he fct forward ; and, after a long march, 
entered AzerbejAn 5 in which, advancing as far as the city 
Khui^ or Koy, he was met by MMek Ajbrtf with nearly equal 
forces ; but, viftory declaring in his favour, the latter was 
defeated and flain, in the year 756. Hereupon JAni Bek KhAn Hej. 756. 
feized his dominions ; and divided among his fubjefts all the A. D. 
tr^ure of thatufurper, which amounted to 400 camel-loads i3SS« 
of gold and jewels, befides other valuable effefts. After this, 
the khdn returned home, lea^ng his fon Birdi Bek to govern 
the conquered countries ^. The oriental authors give to Mdkk 
d Ajbr£f2i xtvgfk of thirteen years, 

^ Abu'lgh. Khat), p, 190. ^ D'Hbrb. ubi fupnu 

* See before^ p. io6, >* Abv'lghazi Khan hid. p. i^» 



Digftized byCjOOQlC 


^be Hifiory of Timikr Bek, CQmmonly called Ta-| 
irierlan, and bis Succeffbrs. 

C H A P. L 

^i tranfaHifn^ f receding Timftr'j Reign. 

$harifo*d- A MONG the many oriental authors who have written 
^ All. /"^ the life of this great prince, two are particularly 
^ '^ famous. The firft is the muUa Sharif o'ddin M, a na^ 
tive of tezd^ in Pdrs, or Proper Perfia ; who wrote in Per^ 
Jian (A)> ^t the command of Ibrahtm Soltdn, fon of Shah Rukh, 
/on of Titnur^ in the year 1424, nineteen years after the death 
of that conqueror. Not only kbndamir, but all other hifto- 
xiansy agree that he is the moft valuable of all thofe who have 
suvritten on the fubjeft, on account both of the delicacy oE his 
ilyle, and completcnefs of his work * : nor is this to be won- 
dered zt, when the reader is informed, that it was compiled 
from a journal, or memoirs, wherein the minuteft a£Hons zaA 
iHfcourfes of Timiir on all occafions were penned down by 7i- 
tar and Perjian fecretaries, who always attended him for, that 
purpofc. To thefe were added, reports of fafts, by feveral 
officers zad great lords who Were upon the fpot ; after they had 
(been verified, in the prefence of TtTnuTy by other credible wit- 
,'iiefles, whom he examined himfelf ^. 
Jfliliined The fecond author is Ahmed ebn Jrab/hihy a Syrian^ wto 
Arabfliah. wrote in Arabic ; and, thirty-five years after the death erf Ttmir^ 
publifhed his hiftory, which is reckoned by GoHus to com** 
prife ull the elegance of that language *= (B). But 'this authqr 
Hved at too great a diftance to be acquainted with the adioQS 
of that prince fo well as 4he former ; befides, being prejudiced 
againft Timur^ like feveral other Turiijfb and Jrab hiftoriaas 1 

• Hift. Tim.B^k, ,prcf. edit. p. 6, & feq. ^ Ibid. pref. 

^auth. p. 30. ^ Ibid. pref. edit. p. 8. ,Sc Vatiers Tra&fl|t« 
of Arablh. pref. p- 6, &. 11. 

(A) This hiftory is intituled, finy, in the life and affiant •f 
Zafer Nameh Amir I'itnur Gur Timfir ; compofed hy AhmeA^Jtm 
Khan; that is. The hiftory of ^ ArabMh. TJic hiftory of .4? 
conquefis of prince Timar, fon- Hafen^ or Hajfan^ and others, tie 
in-lanAj of the khan, full of fables, and not much tO 

(B) The work is intituled, A be regarded^ 

memorial of the njuondert qf dt* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fer lttrf{ii^<x$lfl^fed their cottntries, he takes all ocoafions to 
i4^ a^ kahcken his charaiftcr* ThefeHrriters make .him ori- 
I^D^y K OMpti^, whd raifed Ms ibrtdne by robbing oit the 
hsghm^f : ^cf ha^ changed his name &om Timiir'B^t; or 
Beg^ td fJr^w*- L^i, which fignifies kmcf jn-ctendhig that \tt 
Uras hx^(^ b^ ad arrow, wich which l>e v^as Aot by a ifaepherd 
ip^iiofe ihaep Ike-^iras fteaiihg; anfd from henoe Europtans hove 
•formed the fi»ttfte <rf ThTnerldin, or Tamhurkw^. 

As file ftift of thdb Wo authors (C) is. hi many refpefts, I'hifirfl 
€d b« |Jrrferred> we jndged we could not do letter dian ^Ytfollo^cd'y 
Ae reifidep fib' abfkaA of his hlftctty ; yet adding, by way of 
tm^i wtef %e thoti^t proper, from EH Ara^Jhhb^ and . 
otha^. t)iJr gWng the IflftcH^ of this prince, as wett as /w- 
;^2i JCM», IB fome detail, may ierve td moke the reader l^tsii^ 
^taiem^ for the fcanty meinOtrs relatir^ to the im^rmediaib 
foccdibrs cf Ae latter. And indeed^ from the rei^n of *oflc 
great pitetfe, wfe reoeive niore tiffeful kniywlege^ bj^ the variety - 

of e:fttraordinary ^en«ts. which happen, t^A fiom thoftf of 
jsteny odiers-, who haVe made no great figbft hi the world* 
Bat, before wi* enter dSri^ftly npori the^^eignof T/f/w^^^/*, it 
"iHiSk be prop^ M^ recount -certain fr^friflfens^whldh? pusceded 
it, and, in eflSft, pre^re* d»e way to fci6 ftitnrt gfaitttetrf^ ' 

It Imth been already mentfdhed*, in die l^tety of? tlteldi^ Confujioi 
who fdcceeded Jagata^ in^ Great BvHhdridi iMt, ^fter thfc »«Jagatay^ 
death erf KSzSrt KhAn, in /47, the prinoe^''DF l9ie c*M«rd af- n^. -.-i 
fbtiied the govd-rfitti^nt, and made the kMns aft pleafnre ; feaiih A. D. 
tag them Btde^moj^e than th^bare title, while themfeiv^ nfurped 1 346, ^ 
all the authority. .The firft of thoie princes w^amfr ATi^z^i- *. '^ * ' 
g'iw; who, in tlie adminiftradon of affairs, acqWifted hiihfelf 
-iHth a condnft which defcrves fd^be immortalized in-hiftory^ 
' ApIter the death rf Jb^did'Khdny ^^hth fucceflbr of-Hu- 
i^d m Irin, or Perfia at large, >dto didd in I33*5vtheafiaiirs * * '^ 
of that country feQ intp^confufion for want of a fucceflbf of. 
Jht rate of Jenghtz Kh&n tofuCceed iti his dcJffiinions, T^Wch 
the princes and govd^nors divided amdilg themfelves; and a$ 
ih^ iurks, Moguls^ and Tatars (D), had no longer the fa\^ew ^ 

*' Hift. Thni Btek, prcf. edit. p. 8. *& VArri^R* Tranflat* of 
i^ab^.-prelL 6Sciii « Page 145; 

(C) Tiiey haiye been tranf* and ()«dk are valnable, fior ths 

|9^ lAto Frincb^ the (M by confiderable Hght which- th^ 

IWf. ?^i/ La Croix the fonj the give into the geography of fc* , 

iccood by Mt. Vatier. ; and Go-- yerAl countries of 4fi(i. 

lius gave an edition of it in Ara- ' (D)' 'f hefe names, with that • ' 

^/V. The hiftory of ^in.ur Bek of Jdgatayi^ are pronwfcyiouily 

li^s been tranlktcd into EngUJh ; ufea by OUr aVfthOT. ' 

Mod. Hist. Vol. V. Q xelga 

Digitized by V3^\.7 VI V^ 

Hijiory of the Moguls and Tatan. BLr Vt 

reign powcr'm Khoraffin, MMek Hujfayn^ funuuned Moaz^ir 
din, (on <rf M^k kayaz$"ddtn, prinCc erf" Heritt capital of 
' that cotintry, took advaatage of the conjnnAure to extend hiis 
Malck auijiority. MaffH, furnamed Vtjedtn, kii^crf the Serheddls, 
HdUyn. ^^jj^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^ JM/atd, had formed a finaU kingdom 
at Scbzwdr, a fhrong city towards NiJbBbury to put a check to 
.thiarival, march^ from that fcM-trefs in 743 (1342). The 
armies met near Zhv^, between both pities j and that of M&- 
' lek Hujayn was defeated. But this prince, rallying 300 horfe, 
feUon the SerbeddU YfKiic they were plundaing 4iis camp, 
kiUed their general, made a groat flaughter« a^d took all their 
icamp, the youi^ king cfcaping by fl^ht*. On this viftory 
JUilek Huffdyn aHiimed the authority of a king ; and, k|K>'mog 
. that KAzdn's tyranny had thrown ;74^^/^^ into confuAon, made 
tindirfions as far .as the borders qi Andekud ^xhA Sheburgkn^ 
Oppofedly^^t Bdlk, in Khorajfiin, Mif Kazagdn, on this advice^ pafled 
lLzz2Lgk\x,^tht Jihun, <4 4^9 with the grand kh^ and princes c^ the 
empire, and m^ched, towards Perikt\ near which MAlek Huf- 
fdyn, with 40QO horfe and 1 5,000 foot, expefted him : bat, 
after aQ obiHnate batde, his troops were defeated, and he fled 
5oy^ the dty only with his guards. Next day the Jagatays 
be^cged the pl^e, which hdd out vigoroufly for forty dap; 
at ihc etid whereof, Huffayn, weary of the leaguer, with the 
^ . j: [ * cOfifent of his lords, propofed> in crfe Mtr Kazag4n would 
- — ;o. withdraw hia forces^ to go next year, and aft pardon of the 
• .:v -gra(id)chan and; him. ^if^ KazagAn^who was of a fweet 
>.ad merciful teniper, confe^ted on thofe terms, and returned 
Hcj. 752. to Cre^t fiufffytrMAn 752 ^ 
A. D. :. M^AV time the ccM?imanders of Mdlek HtdfayrC^ army fet 
1351. tij^ this brother Mdlek Baker : but he was reftored next year, 
^vbo is iy the bounty of Mir KazagAn \ who, now having fent his fon 
A**- .Mtza Abdaliak\ to conquer Karazm (which he cflfefted), 
after pafliag the fpring, as ufual, at Kajfdnver, went to fpend 
the fummer and autumn at the city of Muneky for the convc- 
niency of hunting, Oner day, parting unarmed from 54// Ai- 
/>iy with only fifteen perfons, he croffed the JihAn, with de- 
fign to hunt }n the country of Arhenk : but, while he was in 
ihe chaCe, Kotluk Timjlr, his fon-in-law, in revenge for an 
affront, fell on him with a company of robbers, and flew this 
great prince ; but fome of his officers, purfuing the aflafGn, 
overtook and killed him ; then carried back the body of Mir 
Hej. 7cg. *^^^^^« toSaii Saray, in 759. Upon his death, all the 
A .' D. F'i'^^s paid homage to his fon the mirza AbdoHlah, who imme- 
1357.' diately confirmed Beyan KM in the dignity of khan. After 

• Hlft. *rim. Bek, 1. L €.'5. ' ^'Ibid. p. 6 — 1 1 ^ 


Digitized byCjOOQlC 

wluchy contrary to the advice of the princes, he rdmbvfcd to A. D. 
Samarkant with the grand khan, whom he caufed to be aflaf- ti57- 
linated, to fecure himfelf of the cmprefs, with whom he had " 
fellen in love ; placing on the throne finiur Shah Agten^ (on 
of B'ifun (or tafun) timur Kh&m 

TiMVR Shdh Khdn did not long enjoy his dignity : for^ the Timftr 
princes offended at Ahdo'llah\ proceeding, Bey an Selduz^ the Sh&h 
chief of them^ raifed an army at Hiffdr^ or Shaduman% and, KhaUi 
bdng jcMned at Kejh by Haji BerldSy Ttmur BeVs uncle, marched 
to Samarkant: where Mdo* I/ah (E) being routed, and his bro- 
thers taken, they Were both put to death, together with the khin 
of his makings The two princes, who were at that time nk 
great reputation and authority, made themfelves mafters of the 
country, and took on them the government- Beyan Ssld&z 
was of a good-natured and pleafant difpofition 3 but, as he 
loved wine to exceft, and feldom parted eight days Svithout a 
debauch of that kind, it bred ^eat confuiion in his kingdom^ 
and made the princes fet up for fovereignSj fome thrO' ambi- 
tion, and others in their own defence ^^ 

Ti^E city of Kajbf or Kejhy with its dependencies, remained ifnpiri 
in the poffeiSon of the princes Tim&r and Haji BerlASf as it di^idedi 
Kad done from . the time of Karajhar Noyan^ the lieutenant of 
Jagatay Khhi, The country of- Kojend v/sis in the h^nds cf 
prince Bayezid Jalayf ' Mir Hvffayky fon oi Mufellai fon of 
Mh" Kazagdn, made himfelf mafter oi Kabul ^ and ieveral other 
lor4ftups; where he maintained himfelf, as long as he Was 
able, in the dignity of his grandfather : Oiaja Boga Seldus be- 
came foverelgn of BMk : and Mehemed Koja.Aperdtj prince of 
the Naymdm^ took pofleffionof Sheb^rgdn : the kings of Ba* 
d^shdn fortifiisd themfelves in their mountains ; while Kej^ 
KhofrA and Olaja Itu A^erdi feized Katldn and Arhenk : laftly^ 
Kefir Tefi^iy prince of the tribes of .J^r/^?/ and Taiww, aflumed 
the title of king. All thefe princes were continually at war 9 
and fome were flain in battle^ particularly Mehemed Kqjd Aper^ 
ili, in a rafh attack upon MAlek Huffayrty prince oi Herat. 

TOGLUKTimitrKh^ny prince of 7^^aA (F), fori of ^WTogldfi 
K^a (G), fon of Dava (or Doyji) KMuy to whom the crox^n Timiir 
of this country belonged j taking advantage of the eonfufion Kh^i 

. t HiH.Tim. Belc,.p. li— 15; 

^ (fe) This youtig prince fled t6 ridy with' jiertaps the ilcigh- 

AnJeraby a city of the little bearing parts pf Tartai^ on ihft 

kingdom of Badaghdriy wheref north. 

he ipcnt his days* (G) Or >f/«W Kojuy the fame 

(F) He was king of Kdjhgary with Ifan Buga, eleventh khaa 

«r# naorc properly. Little Bukhd- of Great BukhsriA* 

O % iKrbictl 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Hijhry of i9e Mogufc and Tatars. B. VI. 

'which at this time -reigned there, m j,6i invaded h with a 
great army, by way of TSjhkunt and Khojeiid\ the prince of 
'whidi, Bayeztd Jalayfy judged it prudent to jorri thena. Haji 
j^rWjr,. after raifing troops at Kajhznd K&rjhi, thought fit 
to retire iota Khoraffan. Prince Tim^r Bek, \vho was but 
twenty-five years old, and had juft loft hrs father Tragay,, 
concluded tfec only way for hkn to fave his patrimony, and 
ierte^his country, was, to give way to neceffity, an<J fubmit^ 
to the grand Jdian. This fvibmiflion was fo acctrptablc to Ta* 
fflui 7im£r*3' commanders, who had entered Great Bukharza^ 
'that they conferred on him the command of a toman, or 
'tp,obo men, which had belonged to his great ^nodkor Karajhar- 
^oydn ; and the principalLty of K^^, or Ke/b, with its depend- 
encies. Soon after this, a diffenfion arifing between the faid 
commanders^ they marched out of the country, to attend theij- 
' Ticn^r Mean time Amfr Hltjjayn, mtiMiding'to m^ke war on Beydn 

ttfjfts ^eldUz, fent to defire aid of rimiir Bek,. Ke/i&re YefuH, and 
Htiflayn pny.ezid. Thefe princes agreed to affift him ; and, "^hile the 
two firft went to join him, the thifd was fent, tp excufe this 
ft^p; tt) Toglui TimAr Khdn r but finding, when he came to 
Kojendy that the khan was returned home, he proceeded no 
ferther. The other two princes having jpined Amir Huffc^n, 
they aH marched to Hi^ar, or the fortrefs of Shaduman ; and 
Beyan SeUuz, not being in a condition to oppofe them, fled 
to BddUgsh&riy whither th^ purfued hinu This obliged the 
Jdn^, Shah BaJiad'ddtn^ to fly aifo ; by which means the whole 
country fell into the hands of Amfr Huffayriy who afterwards 
put to death Key Kabad, brother of Key Kofrfi, prince of 
Katlan. The w^ being thus finiftied, Timtir Bek and Kefer 
TefUri returnjedhjome; but were not there long, before Amir 
Hujfayn fent again to defire their affiftance ^inft Toghik 
iSeldiZy who had broken the peace by feveral aifts of hoftility,. 
The princfes: hafted to his aid : but the enemy fled, on the 
»ews of their approach^ 
agfjM, I^IMUR Bek, being on his way back, was informed that 
other His uncle Majl Berlds was on his return to Ka/h ; and had 

pritues^ joluedMlrBayezid^ withdeflgn to attack if^r T^r/. Here- 
upon he joined prince /ifl^r with his troops,, and marched to- 
wards that city : Haji Berth, on this advice, marched thither 
alfo^ The t^o armids meeting, a bloody battle was fought ;. 
m which Ti'wi^r gained the vKlory, and obliged his uncle to 
% to Bayeztd at Sdtnarkant. The two princes refolved to 
fellow him thither : but, in the way, ?A1 the troops of K<^^ 

^ Hift/Tim. Bek, p. ' 1 5— 2». c. 3 ^c 4. 

Digitized by VjOOQI(l 

C.i. Stie Reipi isf Timur Bck. 

by what motive is unknown, abandoned i^mHry and -went over 
to jffaji B^r/^. This defer tion caifed a jealoufy in Ke/er Te*- 
Juri ; which he making known both by his words and beha- 
viour, TiMur at length quitted him, and returned to his owa 
country ; wher^ his uncle gave him a kiad receptien*, an^, 
conduced him to Mir Bayeztd. 

These refolving to renew the war againft Kefen; '^^^*,JEfcdpam 
Tvho longed for an- occafioii to revenge the af&ont, readily plot. 
jjoined with them, and marched at tW head of t!he van^guard. 
He met the enemy beyond the mountain of Kajb\ and, after 
aa ohftinate %ht, oWiged them to 'fly. This viftory fecured 
Bay£zid\ji the throne, and Jiuji SerUs in pofleiEoh of his 
territories. Yet theie two priaces had a confultation, the next 
day, to the disadvantage of Tiimr : who, iilbovering it ia 
the council, jpretended his nofe bled ; and went out : then,. 
TetHrning home, he mounted Ws horfe, and retired with his arma 
into the field; by which means he avoided the fnare. As fooa 
as his uncle heard of has departure, he fent to defire him tQ 
jraife the troops of die defart, and return to his afliftance; 
againft two princes who threatened them with war. Timur 
did as he was intreated ; and defeated ylU Gitrguri^o^^ T^jy 
tnedj which he catered ^ 

Mean time Togluk TtTnAr Khkriy of J^tah (or the €eUs\ Toglut 
venewing his defign of conquering Great Bukhdria, in y6z Timiw 
marched on that fide with a great anny. As foon as he ar- Kh^n 
Tive4 at Kojtad, Mr Bayezidy prince of that place, paid him -A- 1^* 
fais re^pefts : BeyM Selduz went to meet him as far as Sa- ^3^^ 
TiuLrhant \ and Hajt BerlaSy at this time, made no fcruple to 
-wait on him. But, the khan having feized and put to death; 
jyitr Bayeztd^ Berlds, for fear of the like treatment, fled with 
a few troops, and ci'ofled the y/7j;?;2 (or Am). There, being . ,7 
<?verttk€n by the regiment of Kajhmr, a bloody battle was 
fought, in wliich Shugu77t Berks was killed ; yet Haji Berlas^ 
vith his brother Idektl, efcaped, only to be (lain by robbersat 
the village of Kora/b (dependent on Scbziunr) j which, 6n the 
reduftion of Khorajjhi foon after, Toghk Vvmur Khim gave to ^ . - . 
Tlm&r Beky who flew the murderers of his uncle. The khan 
Uke\»4ie coafirmed him in the foverdgnty of KaJJj\ and of a 
^laaa which defcended to him by the death of Hdji BerJas.' 

After, this, Togluk Ttmur Khan marched againft ArtJir iivf-.p^moits 
Jayriy who waited for him af the river Vdkcjh : but Key'Ko/ru, Timikr* 
priace of KatMn .(whofe brother. Key Kol^idy Buffayn had pot 
to death), going over to the Getes^ that prince fled ; and was 
purfued aaofs the Jihun^ as far as Kondoz, The khan, after 










Digitized by Google 

Hifiory of the Moguls and Tatars.^ B. Vi; 

this, returning to Samarkant, put to death Bey in SelMz^ on 
fufpidon of harbouring inclinatiohs to revolt*: but behaved 
^ pbligingly to thofe whom he judged to he fimrerdy in his in- 
tereft ; and, having brought the empire of f^gatay Xo fub- 
mit to his authority, gave the government or the <;onquered 
countries ^o his fon Elias Kcja Aden. Several lords and great 
" ' officers were ordered to attend him, undo: the command of 
BUiJsk; and Titn^r had the principal adminiftration of afEura 
under the prince : after which, Togluk Timfir JCban returned 
to his capital ^^ 
mA:ho Joins WHEN the khan was gone, prince Timtir, obferving that 
l?\»ffap, Bikijek's proceedings^, in contempt of his mailer's authority, 
would throw things into confufion, thought fit to withdraw 
from court, and repair to Amir Hujayn, in the defA-t of Ai- 
vak. The two malecontent princes went to Teiily the go- 
vernor of Kivai; but, he ha\ing a defign to feize them, they 
left him. Te^il purfued them with looo horfe: but, tho^ 
they had only fixty meo, they ipade fo brave a ftand, that, 
when they had but feven men left, the enemy were reduced to 
fifty ; who ftill continued the fight, and had twice flain Hv/* 
fayn^ but for Tim(ir. At length, the firft having difmounted 
Tekel with an arrqw-fhot, the latter difpatchcd him with a 
pike ; whereupon the battle ended. After this, the two princes 
thinking it fafer to part, Timir crofled the defart, with his 
wfe Turkhan Aga^ ffujpiyn's fiftcr, and came to JArfeyy where 
he was furrounded by Turkmans ; and muft have fared ill, if 
he had not been known by one of them, who prevented their 
attacking him, and put him in a condition to join his brother- 
in-law at a place called Mahm^di, in the defart. 
faienfri". Me AN time All Bey^ having advice of their arrival, with 
finer ; fixty horfe, fyrprifed and carricjd th^m prifoners to Makhta 
(H) ; where he detained them for two months, notwdthftand- 
ing the remonftrances of his brother Mohammed^ from This 
(or Majhhdd) ; he alfo feized the pxefents which Mohammed fent 
rekafed them, and difmiffed them with one lean horfe, and an old 
fg^n. camel. I(i this diflrefs. Mobarek Shdhy prince of Sanjer^ went 
^ in queft of them with feveral fine horles, and other neceffa- 
ries ; which enabled them to purfue their defign of returning 
privately into Great Bukhdrm., Timir, being known at Sa^ 
markant, T^tkcd to. K^, and thence to J^ndakirK Froiz| 

^ Hift. Tim, Bel^, p. l^-r-^i. c. 6^ \ Ibid. p. ji — 37,1 

9ap.7, . • - 

(H) Or Afa^tfjy, achy mKhoraf- {7JrAio\i9LVtxt^'dvDXoAJuiMinm\ 
J^, frpfl^ when9^ ^5 Qf^^^d"^ %r^ cm the i^ption of the Mimgls. 

- ' Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C.U ^e Reign of Timtr ^k. s %t$ 

hence, at the requeft of the prince of SiflSn (or Sgefl&h), • A. D. 
they marched to his afliftance with looo horfe. In thdr re- >3^*- 
torn they were intercepted by fome people of the country ; in ^*-*v*^ 
which confBft, Tim^lr was forely wounded in the hand (I). 
At length, arri^ng at Jrjif^ near Bakaldn^ they were there ' 
joined by feveral princes, and bcklied of men. Others, hear- 
ing of the fuccefs of their afFalrs, broke wth the Getes^ and ' 
went to meet them in the country of B^k. There dicy were 
oppofed by AMfdid^ fon of Tayf&^ MengheU Buga SekUz, ' 
and Hayder AndeHdi^ three princes, their enemies, with 6006 
men. The batde, whkh lafted from morning till night, was 
renewed next morning; and, altho' the troops of the two 
princes were much inrcrior in number, yet, by 7lmtir*s valour, 
they gained the viftory. 

Of two thoufand horfe, whidi remained, Ttm^r took one g^fg^, 
moiety; and, pafling the Jihtin at Termed, fent fcouts to Ae?- Great 
luga, or tie iron gate. But thefe, ftlling afleep, were fur^^ Bukl^ria. 
pnfed by AJ^niy brother of Bikfjek; fo that, while Ttmihr 
thought himfelf fecure, both the fcouts and enemy arrived at 
his camp. The foldiers, not having time to dratvr up in . 
order, were under a necfeffity to repafs the river; which they 
did in barks, while Timur made a fiand in an ifle, to favour 
their defign. The two parties remained in fight of each 
other for thirty days; after which, Tjfw^r, having burnt the 
barks, went to join Mtr Hujfayn at Kulm, on the borders oF 
Balk. From thence they marched towards Badagsh&n : and, 
having gathered troops, went and encamped near Ghulek. Her© 
they learned that a new army ci Getes was arrived In Great 
BukMria; and that feveral princes were encamped between 
JJUa, and the bridge of Sengkin, with 20,006 troops, Thia 
news caufed 6000 men to defcrt the princes : yet 7m4r, not 
difinayed, marched with aooo men to difpute the pafTage of 
the bridge". 

This prince, after maintaining the fight from morning till Defiats 
m^t, finding Umfelf n6t ftrong enough to execute his de- /ArGcte«% 
Ugn, had recourfe to policy. He left 506 men at the foot of 
the bridge; and, fwunming over the JiMn wkh the reft, in 
the night, went and polled himfelf qn the Wife. Next morn- 
ing the enemy, percdving, by the tracks of horifes, that troops 
had pafTed the river, abftained from fighting that day^ Wlwn ' • 

« Hift. Tim.- Bck, p. 37 — 44.. cap. S. / 

(I) Thiswemnd feemstohave lame 6f H 1^. Thts he re- 
hflBedhim; and heoce poflibly v€0|ed.afterwaids jO-^/^/y, by 
cbe Zuriifi hiHorians make him putting to aeafih the author of it. 

O 4 night 

Digitized by 


A, D. night <aiac, T/wr orckred his laep to appco^'itlwm, aad 

. 1 5^^- light fu3C$ Qji tte tops cf ^e hills. This ftrvck the CeU^ 

\ m ^ T*m ^ with fych fea:> imaginiog themfelves furroun^cd with a jiu- 

merous wmy;, th?it dxey fled ip difpr;der ; but ^ot towards the 

bridge, bec^ufe they believed the mea pofted ^cre to be much 

more tiumerotis than they were. Mean toe Tii^ur, perceiving 

the effeft of jbis ftr^tag^, qya?^i49W9 frw.fW.^^uatains^ 

aad, beiog jpifii^d by HuJ/kyn, niade a great ilaught^ of th^ 

ei?emy. Thi&d^e^t ^ned gteat reputatio/a to Tifiiur, wha 

r^p^yer^Jf^ by another ftrg^t^gem, 

'Jnofher Abo^t this time Eiiaf Kya^s who was cncanaped at Tifk 

overtbrotv jifighly four leagues fropi Kajkj rec^iv^d advice (^ the iita^ 

Hej. 765. of h|s father Tqgluk Timur Khhi. But Tim4r, whpfe Xfooff^ 

^'P' "^^^ much increafed fince the late viftory, propofed to pay 

'303' .hiiw a vifit before his departure, tfeo' his army was greatly ia^ 

• feripr to that of the enemy. He encouraged tJi^ni by ckchM»** 

J . ing, th^t, in hi§ fleep, a voice fmd to him, F^ar notiiifg;fBr 

the mofi high Cod will gracioiifty giue thee the vi&^ry* V»tl| 

tlus aipSirance, they marched againft the GeUs m two bodies 1 

JHuJfayn conunandedthc rjgh^ wij^, afid Tim&r the left. Th© 

n^ cnaperor likewife divided M? army into two t>odi^ ; aodf^ 

pitting hknf^lf at the head <4 Jb« left wing, gave the. oondu^ 

fuJttbgreai of tlaie right to Mir, Tokaffi^uf and prioioe ^kyek^ Thp twa 

faagher. zTsmoi being at length engag^, TimUr hrqkc thro* ^e en^ay 

V{ith fuch fury, that he threw the right wing intpdifiwrder, ,aadl 

dipve the fir A rank upon the (econd. H;aving put &engk tq. 

j^ght with great flaughter, he advanced to attack Biktjek v^ 

Thk4?in^ur in the rear, whom Hiijfayn had engaged ip &pQ| ; 

£9 that, gotwithftanding the number of their troops^ aad bra^ 

v^y of their generals, they were compelled tp foJlj^w thw 

cqmpaiiions, ^I'okatmur^ wi^h other generals, wfwe Hltolit 

aiid Biktjeky with EUas Keja Kim himfelf, befides other gre^. 

commanders, taken : but thefe two being known by fom^ g^ 

^^ , .Trier's Ibldiers, they generoufly gave theipoL their hcirfes, ^d 

Jet thenj efcape. Ttni^ purfued the ^eqiy to the river Tam^ 

where he m^ade a great flaught^^ ; then cvp(&ng th^ Sihm (or 

iS^/^), at Kyendy ]fi PHrfuit pf th^' khan> ^^pe4 ^ ^4^ 

ItutU. . - - > ' . 

JVra; Ihm ; "T^^: ^^ prince^, ©hfer^'ing tlm.t the r^, who Had jomed 

ik^cd. th^m^gaioft th^ OfUf^ p^id "t;li^ np gr^%t d^r^Rfie* a»<l 

aimed at \jeing independent, found the only way to prevent 

things running into, cpijfiiiipn^^w^, tp eicQ; at, grand khan; 

and, having reprefented this in a general aflembly, propofed 

Kafiul?h4k ^gl^\ lyho WftS 5K:Q0wiingly chofai zt Skn^r- 

lu^. . Thca, caufing iiim to afcend the^ throac^ they prcfented 

- -- ' - • ''' • ' ' few 

Digitized by 


him with the royal c^, after the diftQin of tb^ 7«/:*^ }^5?$. -^^^ 
aijd bowed mne tim^s before ki^ °* -I3r+i 

After the ekftioa of Kabtil Khi^n^ Tim 
feaft ; which being av«r, he prop^fed to 4cU\ 
Anir HanUdj lieutenant-general of the CeU 
had been his friend, ^nd prince Efk^id^r his <; 
fiyn confcnted, altho* the latter wa^ his enem; 
who a/fifted at th^ ^ffeml^ly, were returned h" 
two amirs to rdeafe the priloners : but their k< 
amirs at a diftance, and imagU^og they cam< 
to death, to fave them the ti:9ubTe, knocked 
cnt off his head. This miilake proved fata 
der: for,* when Amir Huffayn heard of it, he toit tp demand- 
that prince ; who was fent to him, and put to death. 

Things feemed now to be in a fettled condition ; when, iST^^w /«• 
the beginning of next fpring, news was brought that ^fvafion 
Getes were marching towards GtRat Bukharia. The. princes, 
having pafled the SMn at Kojend^ iQet the enemy at Ezam^ 
between T^Jhkunt and Chinaz : the amir Hujfayn commanded 
the right wing, and Ttmur the left. The CeUs wsere led by 
the emperor Elias Koja himfelf j and, tho' they were by far in- 
ferior ia number to the troops of the princes, yet they overcame 
them by help of the ftone Jf^di (K), which, ftecped in water > . . 
at a certain hour, has power to produce tempefts, rain, and 
thooder. However that be, fucha ftorn> and deluge fell,. that 
the earth fhook like a fe^ ; and this excefllve moifture bred the 
(ftfria, a cruel dillemper, which renders the limbs paralytic, 
and 4ries up the body to fkin and bones. 

FoBL all Als> when the rain was over, the princes attacked ^f th 
th? caemy couragieoufly : but the CeUs, who had covered Gctcs. 
tbem^^es and horfes with fdts, brought for the purpofe, re* 
cevred them with fuch vigour, that their forces were obliged 
to fly, Timur at length rallied them, and a terrible carnage 
^i/ked : every man muft have been (lain, had not Shem Ktm 
NoyJtn (brother of Amir Hamid before-mentioned, who com- 
B^yiA»fl the enemy's right wing), been flain by prince Taku B^r-> 
ds, SLB he was rifiug to flrike Timur with his fabre. As fbon 
IS £/uu Koja Kh&n heard that his general was killed, he re^ 
re»ed with hi^ troops^ who were purfued by Tijn£r. Meaiij . 
ime tfae left wing of tb^ G^Us prefled on the right wiag, even' 
g tb42 guards of An>ir fiujp^yn%. The %ht was bloody, and, 

^ Hift. Tifl;uBek> p. 44^53. cap. 9, ijo, 1 p, 

(It) ^^t have already takca notice of this fuperiilition amdiig 
1^ fi^MngU and Tataru 


Digitized by 


Hifiory of the Moguls and TzXml B. VI.' 

the enemy triumphing, \<^hcn Tim^r advanced, and put Shm^ 
fi'ddin^ one of the generals, to flighty This gave ku/aynzn 
^ opportunity to rally his troops ; and he might have obtained 
the viftcMry, had he followed Timor's advice to advance : but, 
whether thro' envy or prefumption, he twice abufed the mef- 
fengers fent, for that purpofe, by Tttn^r ; who, feeing fo far 
an opportunity loft, thro* Huffayn*s caprice, gave over the at- 
tack, and refolved to be revenged. When the other was re- 
'covered from his ill humour, he fent feveral meflages to Tfwar, 
to intreat him 16 come and fee him : but this prince, weary rf 
his manner of afting, refufed to go. 
Tim&r Next morning the batde was renewed, and, the Getes' 

defiuutd. being foon put to flight, Ttm^r purfued them. In the way, 
his men perceiving the ftandard of prince Shamfo^ddtn^ who 
was feparated from the reft, with a great number of troops, 
they gave over the purfuit, and turned towards the white 
ftandard: the enemy likewife, percdving them, rallied, and 
returned to the charge. The fight was bloody ; and at length 
Ttmur*^ forces were defeated : a great number periflied in the 
floughs and marflies ; many more were killed in the purfuit*, 
more than 10,000 were flain in the whole. This fanious batde, 
called that of Lay^ or Thejloughy was fought in RamaMn^ in 
Hq. 766. 77^' After this great defeat, Hujfayn, and the other princes, 
A. D. ctofled the Jiht^riy and returned to Sheberto : but TimAr fbdd 
1364. in the country, with a refolution to oppofc the Gefes. How* 
ever, finding his endeavours vain, he in fome time repaired to 
BMky where he took no fmall pains to augment his forces <>. 
Samar- Mean while the Getes laid fiege to Samarkanty at that -time 
kant'^r- without a citadel. The inhabitants defended themfelves a long 
Jtegnt. time very bravely : but, provifions at length beginning to fail,' 
they muft have furrendered, had not the lofs of three-fourths 
of the enemy's horfes, by a mortality, obliged them to retire. 
The principal men of the city hereupon afliimed a fuperkxity 
over the reft, and caufed great diforders in the place. On ' 
this advice, Timiir and Hujfayn, having renewed their firteod^ 
ftirp more ftrongly than before, agreed to be at Samarkant the 
beginning of fpfing ; where they put to death all the SerhdMs 
who had ufurped the authority, excepting Muldna ZMe (L), 
HoflaynV whom Trm&r faved thro' a motive of piety. It was now that 
mvarUe. HuJJayriy feeing all obftacles removed, discovered his infatiable 
avarice, and meannefe of fpirit. Altho' Timir had as much, 

« Hift. Tim. Bck, p. 53-^63. cap. ii, 12. 

(L) They were alU or mo& of thexn> ccdcfiaAicSy and tlus Mr- 
Una the chief of them. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. i; The Riign of Timftr Bek, 

or a greater, fliare m the war, he even taxed his domeftics. He 
cxafted v^ fums of the princes who had loft all in the wars ; 
and, altho* Ke faw his lifter's jewels among the cafti which 
Ttm&r lent diem to make up the demand, he did not hefitate 
to receive them. Indeed, when Titnur gavp his horfes, to fatisfy 
fpr 300 dinars (or gold ducats) which, remained unpaid, he 
would not take them ; but 'waited till Timur difcharged that, 
debt another way. 

The lords, highly incenfed at this conduft oi Hiiffkyn^Omfidera* 
refolved to break off the union between him and Tim4r: xocy i^mnfi 
whom, after humbling the other, they propofed to pve thc^'*'* 
abfolute power ; as he was of a fweet temper, generous foul, 
and, in fliort, poflefled of every virtue neceflary to form a 
great prince. To bring this about, they wrote Hvffaynvfoxii^ 
that Timilr, offended with the grand khan and him, was railing, . 
forces to attack him. Hvffayn^ on this, fent to delire Tim&r 
would come to Samarkant, to confront his accufers. Tim&r. 
hmnediately went thither, and his accufers fled to Kojendz 
tut, finding Hujfayn ftill harboured his fufpicion, and know-" 
ing his temper, one day opened his heart to the princes, de- 
claring his intention to remedy the evil. Shtr Bahrdm, and 
Bahrdm Jalayr^ on this, took off the mafk ; declaring their 
hatred, and defign of all the princes to break with Hujfayn :. 
hereupon they entered into a treaty with Timur to make war 
on him, and then retired. Shtr Bahrdm, having raifed troops. 
at Katkn, began hoftilities againft Hujfayn : but this politic 
prince, by his artifice, gained him over to his intereft. For 
aU this, Timdr purfued his enterprife ; and, having at length, 
railed an army, conlifting of the moft valiant men of the em- 
{ure, in autumn ^6^ detached prince Seyfo^ddin^ with the van- Hcj. 767, 
gnard, againft Hujfayn; who, on this, lent a treaty, drawn. A. b. 
MP in the moft inticing manner, to foften Ttmur: hut this iJ^S* 
prince would pay no regard to his overtures. . However, as 
the governor he had left at Samarkant (M), and fome other 
princes, had befdre gone over to Hujfayn i fp, on this occa-* 
fion, the tribe of T^t^ri deferted him p. 

Mean time Hujfayn ftt forward with a great army: hvit^ His trea^ 
aiining IHll to over-reach his rival, fent another letter to him, cbtrj. 
ivith the korin ; and, declaring th^t, by virtue of that book,. 
Jxis intentions were fincere, prQpofe4 ^ conference at Shcki'^ , 4 

? Hift. Tipi, Bck, p. 63—73. cap, 13, 114, 

(M) About the fame time alfo {oft the cement of anion with 
^fcJk\M>9idt^0Uijai:urkhdnAga^ ^imir^ 
^et^ of Hufaj^n j Wb<^ tl^«by 

Digitized by 


Hipry of tbi Mogpls ani Tatars. ^ B.,VK 

cheky t2iQh. to be accompanied with namorc than loo men, 
Tm^r^ convinced of th6 deceit, was not for going : but, to 
' gratify the princes, who chofe. peace, if it could be had, w^^ 
He took 300 men ; and, leaving aod- at fomc diftancc, ad- 
vanced with the reft to the place of interview. Hi^ayn^ after 
putting Shir Bahrdm to death, detached 3000 men to fur- 
prife Ttmur at Dehno ; of which a peafant^ who had been \ 
domefBc of this prince, fled from the enemy to ^ve him no- 
tice. But the officer, who flood centinel at the palace, not 
giving credit to what the man faid, fent him away,* without 
mentioning the matter to Timtir : fo that, when this prince waa 
near the place of rendezvous, he was alarmed with the ap- 
pearance of thofe forces ; whofe march he flopped in a narrow 
paf&gc, and then made his retreat fighting. 
Timftr The army, to whom news was brought of Mujayn's trea- 

futfrifes dicry, concluding aU was loft, difperfed themfelves ; and 7i- 
Haxiid^ m^ry with the other princes, retired to MaiMru in Kbon^in^, 
where he kept a faray of women. There he rfoppeci all die 
karawans 5 and, when he gave them leave to depart, took th^ 
road to Her^ in their fight, as if he defigned to go to that 
city. This the merchants reportir^ when they arrived at 
Kdrjbiy Amir M^ijfa left the fortrefe, intending, with 7000 
men, to vifit i7z<«nf .• but "T/wiir, when the karawans were 
at fome diftance, returned to bis old ftation ; and, having ilaid 
while the merchants might be going to K&pjtiy fet out for die 
ftme place, altho' he had but 200 men, and there were 1 2,000 
in the neighbourhood of city, which makesv the aftion fo 
much more remarkable. Being arrived near K&rjbi^ with ie- 
veral lords who accompanied him, he went with only two 
more ; and, walking round the walls with great precaudon, at 
, length perceived a proper place for fcaling. On this, Timut 
returned ; and, fending r 00 men with ladders, to mount the 
wall, went, with an hundred more, to wait for the opening- of 
the gate in the morning : but the fcalers, having fucceeded in 
their defign, came and opened it for him, after flaying the 
drunken guards in the arms of their miflreflcs, Timur made 
himfelf mafler of the city, while the troops feized the caAle, 
where they took Mehemed Bey^ fon of the amir Muffa. 
"Defeats This lord, being very young, was fuffered to eicape, tiut 
Amir the news might caufe his father's troops to difperfe. Inflead 
IrtiiiTa* of this, he and MUek Behddry next day, invefted the dty 
with 1 2,000 horfe : but they were fa harafled and beaten by 
the Tallies of only ico men, that at length Mujfa fled with his 
ypQo horfe \- and left M^kk, who ftiU ftopd lua grownd, vith 
5000 koronas (N) : yet, as iboi) as he perceived Jitrfr ad* 

^N} Koronas ^ff) a militU. 


Digitized by VjOOQ1(c 

vancing with his horfe, he fl^d Hkewife ; and, being purfued, 

his men difperfed. In the pnrfuit, Timilr, per 

of Amir Mi^ffii^ who fled whh Mdtek BahMr, < 

qnit her,' M/ilek, to fave his life, which, on 

was proitrlfed him, abandoned the lady, and fl< 

all this, the lady continued her flight full ] 

Ximtir alone purfued, a fervant offered to flioot. 

The prince, who had neither buckler nor arro 

for a better archer than he was, flopped, til 

joined Mm ; and, covering his head widi hiib 

the pnrftiit. On this, the valet let fly at him 

lib aim, he fled as fafl: as the reft, fo that Dt 

not able to come up with them. AzS Mulk^ tl 

gone with child, was fbon after delivered of a ] 

T&mhi Aga.^ who was afterwards married to Timur "• 

This prince wintered at K&rjhl: where he gave the govern: Rettres i6 
ment of Am&ya to Nikepeyfia^ and that of BokhAra to Mii- Makhka. 
nUchd'; whofefon-in-faw, MT^iri, came and fubmitted with 
his trfbe, after often refiiCng to obey Tl^^wr's funimons. Amilr 
Miiffayn was aftoniftied at the rcdtal of what had pafled : yet; 
having railed an army, he fet out from Sdli Saray ; and -feat 
Amh" MuJ/a before with io,ooo koronas,' who encamped a^t 
SbekediiUk. Thi^r at firft intended to attack them in the 
night ; but, having only 200 men, he thotght fit, after ap- 
pearing in fight of the enemy, to retiJte to Bokhara ; and from 
thence to Makhan, by way oiMer^. ' Mean time Hujfayn came 
and befieged Bokh&raj where Man&cha and Alt Tefhri made 4 
brave defence : but their foldicrs, having fufFefed by venturing 
too far in a fally, could not be brought to fight afterwards! 
This obliged them to fly by night to Makhdn^ and leave the 
city to the enemy. Soon after, Tim^r fet out with 600 mea 
to reduce Nikepeyjbd, governor of Jmuya ; which having don^ 
h^ ivcnt and defeated the army of the koronas', encamped near 
Bokh^a; then returned to Makhdn. 

TJMUR, unable long to be idle, crofled the JiMn again Jfterrpts 
with 600 men, and fat down before KarJIn : but, bearing Karihi. 
500 koronas were at Kuziynonddky he marched to attack them, 
not knowing that they had been joined by feveral other troops^ 
However, after a bloody fight, he drove them back as far as 
their main army, which he advanced to reconnoitre : and, oh 
their approach, rufhing forward like a lion , in lefs than an 
hour, mtirely routed this vafl: multitude. In the purfuit 'to 
Sheked^'iky they took the principal officers "prifoners, wjth a 
great booty. Tm6r refotved not to give the enemy time to 

^ Hift. Tim/Bck, p. 73— —35. cap 15; 1- fcq. 

<- recover 

Digitized by VjVJ' 


tiifiorj of the Moguls and Tatars. B. VI, 

recover thdr lofs, but march againft amfr Hujfayn : howe?ery the 
princes refufing to affift in that enterprifc, he returned to Sa^^ 
' tnariant. At his approach, the governor UJBdra BahMr (allied 
out with the Amir Mujfa's troops, but was routed, and hardly 
efcaped 5 yet he made another fally, with 1 500 raw fbldiers, 
who fled at the cry of Timir's men. While this prince di- 
verted himfelf in the delicious valley of Sogd^ news arrived, 
that a great body of koronas was encamped on the Titm, and 
Amir Hujfayn with a numerous army at K&rjhi. 
Crojfit the On this advice, Timiir thought proper to defer his revenge j 
^- and, difl)anding his other forces, with his firft 600 men redred 

, towards Kyend, where he crofled the SiMn. Underflanding 

here, that Key Kofru and BahrAm Jalayr were at Tajbkunt^ 
with 7000 CeteSy juft brought from Jet&hy he turned that 
way ; in hopes Bahrkuy who had by his means recovered his 
patrimony, and had fworn to join hun againft Hvffayn^ would 
affift him, when now in his power : but not finding the fricnd- 
fliip he had reafon to expeft, . he reproached the amir with his 
ingratitude. On the contrary. Key Kofriy who was fon-in- 
law to Togluk Timiir^ khin of JetAh^ entertained Tim^r mag- 
nificently, at his palace, for a month ; promifed to join him 
againft every body, and to give Rakia Kh^n^ his daughter by 
another wife, to the Mirza Jehdn Ghtry Tim^r^s ddeft fon r. 
De/i^ts Mean time, ^mlr Huffhyn having entered Seb'z, with a 
$b$ iMi/^. gr^at army of koroftas, font before 29,000 men, under the 
command of Amir Mi^, and his moft confiderable generals ; 
who, through fear of TTmur's valour, detached three great 
fquadrons, by different roads, to intercept that prince's paf- 
fege. Tm£r, accompanied by Key Ko/r4, and 2000 GeUs^ 
on this advice, crofTed the SMn (or Sir) ^t Kqjendi and, with 
1 500 men, in the night, attacked Jehdn Shah, who had with 
him the fame number, and difi)erfed them. ' Next day, he de- 
feated Kherman, with his 1 000 foldiers, at Dizdk : then, with 
200 horfe only, departed, to attack Mdlek Bahddr, who had 
with him 3000. When the enemy faw the thirty men fo well 
equipped, who were fent before, advancing with great bdd- 
nefs, they were furprifed ; and, taking them for the van-guard 
of the Mungis, that is, the Getes, began to fly. Tlmur pur- 
fued; while the fugitives approaching the main bodyundei' 
M^Jfa, caufed them to fly full fpecd alfo, to rejoin Huffayn.^ 
teace When this prince faw them, he was wroth; and, departing 

^ith with the khan, fent 10,000 choice men as fcouts, to attack 
Huffayn. the two princes ; who marched to Barfin with 1 500, and 
there caufed the trumpets to be founded ; the noift of wluch 

? Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 8$— 100, c. 3Kvi— xx. 

3 ^ 

Digitized by 


C. i; TbeRiigno/TimtrBek. 

fo frighted the enenqr, that they fled back to Huffayn. After 
wl^cji. Key Kofrd went to wmter at Otr^r^ and Ttm&r at T&(th 
hint. In fpring, the meflengers, whom TimUr had fent to ^ 
jfctahf returned ; and brought word, that a numerous army was 
coming from thence to his aiSilance. As this news foon reached 
Huffayn^ he refolved to make peace with 7tm4r; and, the 
better to fucceed, applied to the doftors of Kqjend and T^/b- 
Aunt, to difpofe him to it. The moUahs undertook the tafk ; 
and urged the danger which the ftate was in of being ruined 
by war, and the Mu/hndns being plundered, as well as 
Slaughtered, by idolatecs (O). Thefe remonftrances, with a 
dream which followed, determined Tim^r to refolve on peace, 
and to go himfelf to Jfuffayn, as the moft effcftual way, to 
agree on articles. He was met near S4li-/aray by the amirs , 
J^^Ja and Olajia My on the part of Huffayn^ to afk pardon 
for all that had pa(fed. When the peace was fettled, the 
princes di(handed their armies ; and having regaled themfelves 
with diverlions, 77w^r returned to i&i/&, to enjoy the fweets of 
this delightful kingdom. 

Not long after, while Am!r Hufjayn and the khin were fwho /»• 
gone to reduce the kings of Baddgshan^ who had revolted, pairs 
MMek Huffayn, prince oiHerdtj fent forces to ravage the pro- B^Uu 
yinces about Balk, which were fubjeft to the amir. On this news, 
Thnir fet forward, to repulfe the enemy, who^did not wait fol- 
him. After which, he went in queft of the khan and amfr* 
who, meeting him at Kondoz, renewed their friendfliip. They 
ihen marked to rcdmct Pulad.Buga and Jk Buga, who had 
revolted at K^ul; which, after fome lofs, they efFefted. In 
their return from this expedition, Hujfayn afked Ttmur\ advice 
in relation to^ defign he had to refide at Bdlk. Ttmir en- 
deavoured to diffuade him> by the example of his uncle Mirza 
j^ido'l/ah; who, contrary to the advice of his lords, would re- 
move.his feat to Samarkant \ Although Hujfayn could not but 
approve of Tim4r*s counfel, yet he did not fbUow it : but pre- 
Taiicd on him to go to that city ; where, as foon as he arrived, 
he began to rebuild the fortrefs of Hendw&n. This was in A. Di 
769'. 1367. 

Mean time, advice arri^ng, that an army of CeUs were WattUi 
on the march towards Great Bukhdria, the two princes fet for- the G^si. 
ward to repulfe them : but, while the enemy wintered at T'^/J- 
kunt, difcord arofe among the lords of Jetah. Kamro'ddtn, of 

• Sec before, p. 2x1. « Hift Tim. Bek, p. too— iio» 

c xxi — ^xxiii. 

(O) The Getes, or MungU^ of tary eaftward, were, for thej c* 
X^fig^t and ihc part3 of Tar- ncral, idolaters. 

Digitized by 


WJiory tfAt Moguh ^td'XtXzn. R V^J 

tke trib6 oiV^lat^ KepekTirfiit, itnd S^rawt^ }6iflcd'^Aft 
ffaji Jrkermt, whorcfolved to gtvt them' Battle, l^heh tllcy 
' were ready id engage, a peace w^ chpped up ; and Jrkeni^t 
returned home. But the other two, inftead rffoUewing him, 
retreated with their troops; and ShiruwNion cut ^S Arke*^ 
nufi head : which putting the Getr army into fifo#(fer, obliged 
them to retreat. Tm^r Was for ptjrfuing chcm in ttia coo- 
fufion : but, as th6 king of Baddgshdn had renewed hH imrp^ 
tioiis Into tfuffayn'^ dominions, this prirtee prcvaSfedwifli hkh 
to march on that fide.. Oi» hrs approach die enemy fled : yet at 
length they fought, and Were roirted; Shejkh AR, the &n^ 
being made a prifoner. 
In gnat HowfiVER, part of thofewho fled having dxitdt^tA JehSn 
danger, * Mulk^ Am!r Hiijj^ayn's fort, who purfued them, and fafegn 
630 horfes ; Tim^r, enraged, afccnded the mom^an : but as 
his foldiers, being fearful, would not follow him, he, wMl 
only thirteen horfe, feized a narrow pafe, where he fdl oi 
furioufly, and defeated the enemy ; although he confeflfed th6 
was the rougheft battle he had ever been e!^g^ iiu Mdm 
time, fifty of their fbot, covered with their buiikle^, boldly 
marched up, and let fly a fhower of arrows at TtmA^ ': at thi 
fame time, 200 more advanced, to fccond th^m. But die 
|)rince efcaped this danger, by the addrefs of Elchi B^ga; wft6 
ruuoing up to them, on foot, began to wheedle them, touched 
theiB leveral times on the neck, and ipeaking in a fbotfiiM 
manner : The per/on you fee, feid he, ir thegrtdf Timflr: i£r 
wll rejlore yxni your Jlaves : ivhy then do you fight to no piJtf^ 
pofe ? Tou khowy if you are' either killed of made prtfiners, 
you iviJl hear the blame of hccving your fiavcs taken* When tho 
foldiers heard that prince's name, tftey gave over fi^tms; 
kilfed the earth, in token of fubmiffion, and fent two of thOT 
number to beg pardon. ' Timur profnifed to return tKdr flave^ 
provided they brought the holfes and bucklers they had takei^ 
i^ext morning, to his camp ; which they performed. 
HttffajiiiV Not long after, Amir Huffayn having fetit \xi acquaint Mm; 
jtatQuJy, that Mehemed Bey an Setdttz and Key Khojy^ had* made war oit 
him, Tim^r left Badagshhi : On which notice, the rdbtif 
wrote to him the caufe of their difcontent, and begged his 
affiftaoce. As the prince knew this letter was intercepterf %f 
. fftifayti^ he became jealous thaft Hujfayn did not Aetr it 
him at their interview : and, at his isetunt to KefBy three p«^ 
^a$ c^-ie to tell him, /^rf^j/ndefigned tp furprUebim. This 
wa- confirmed by a lord, who (hewed Him a letter from th^ 
Kh^n Kabul Shuh (P) : importing, that Amir Mtijfa had orders 

(^) It is the '• ban Adef^oltdn for Kdhul Sldh was now khaa^ 
in our author, by 4bme miilakc ; and fuccecdcd AM Khiu. 

y Google 

Digitized byV 

C u the kngn of TimAr Bek. . ii^ 

to watth ait b{>portunily to feize him. Timiti far frorfi dif*- A, 0. 
tnifting fo m^uch, or fearing danger, went to Rnbw the truth' ?368; 
of this frotti Hujfdyn^ whonl he met on the bank of the J'Mn ^ ^ ' "v ^" "^ 
(or Amfi) f but, as he was about to fpeak, word came, that 
the enemy was rteir ; Jlnd being defired to march forthwith 
againft theiii, he fet forward with the troops ; on whofe ap-^ 

!>roach, Sheykh Mehemed and Key Kojri fled. After the pur-^ 
bit, litmtir returned to Kefh j and Hujfayn went to idlk^ td 
refide iil the caltfe of Hendwdn «* 

Although TirrfAr*s attachment to HvJJhyh was all the lat- Tliii6f 
ter's fbppotf, yet he ceafed not to do him ill ofTices. He fent fof declarn 
ali that prince*s fubjefts in Kajb, to people BAik, dnd to britig ^^''J'^* 
away TirfitlFi fitter : becaufe her hufband, Amir Muyad, hac^ 
ih his drink, killed a man, and fled. He likewlfe difiniflecl 
prince jehdfightr^ whom Timiir had placed near hirii. Upon 
an thefe provocations, he took counfel with Amir M^JJa, and 
other lords: who after havinjg concluded to make war oii 
Buffkyn^ as a prince not to be tru-ded, as well as an opjireflbr 
of the people, th6y began the rupture, by the death of Alii 
brother of K^zer Tefdri: and then Tifn&r boldly declared wai* 
againft him at once. 

Having ralfed troops, he kept With him Mdjfa^ td com* ^<?/Wify 
xnand the rear; and, aft^r confulting his aftrOlog€rs, departed^^^/'''»^'« 
from Kaftj: but, at Kiizaty that amir, as ufual, feized with a 
pianic fear, returtied to Samarkant, Ttmir feemed to take no 
liotice of this aftion : but fertC Siorgatmijh Jglen, with tha 
Amfrs MuyddiMiA Hujfayn Berlds before, as fcouts, who found 
thofe of Amfr Hujfayn at Termed* At Boya^ within thre^ , 
leagued of that city, TinUir met the holy Seyd Bereke, ih.^ moft 
conGderable of the (harifs, or defcendants of Mohammed : Who 
prefenting hiih with a drum and ftandard, which are the ufual 
marks of fovereignty, as if infpired, feng a hymn, predifting 
^/m^r's future grandeur. Herd that prince contrafted an in^ 
^olabk friendimp \\dth'-this great fliarif; and ordered, that 
^ter his death he ihould be buried in the lame tomb, \Vith his 
face tamed fide-ways : that at the 4ay of judgrrient, when every 
one (hould hold up their hands to heaven, to implore afTiftance 
erf" fome intercelTbr,- he might lay hold on the robe of this child 
of the prophet. 

TIMUR^ having palTed the fihun, or Am^,y ^nd Encamped B-J^'^^is 
^X Kulni, -Was there joined by a great number of princes, who BalK4 
h^ted HuJJ'ayn^ and came from all parts with their troops. 
>%:p!ong the reft, were the Amir Olapa liu, placed in Kondoz 
Ify Hufayn ; Shigykh Mehemed^ king of Sadagshan^ Whom TV- 

<< Hiit. Tim. Bek, p. iii-^n;, c. i'^, 25?. ' 
iloD. Hist- Vol. V. ^ f^^f 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

226 Hijiory of the Moguls and Tatars. B. VI. 

/v. D. mJir liad invited ; the Amir Key Kofrtl^ who had fkd from 
1368. Katldn, to avoid Hujfayn ; the Amir T^it^ with the troops of 
^* ^ ¥'**"^ th^t country ; and Zende Hajham, with the hord of J^erdi : 
fo that Tim^r faw himfclf at the head of a powerful army* 
Then he gave Siorgatmjb Jglen me title of khan 5 and having 
regulated his army, departed for Bdlk. As foon as he arrived, 
he blocked up the city on all fides, and befieged the citadel, 
called Hendwhi, The enemy made a vigorous defence : they 
fallied out to rdpulfe the confederates; and the two armies 
fought with unparalleled courage till night. In this battle, 
prince Oyrtar Sheykh, sl fon of Tim^r, fighting bravely, though 
but fifteen years old, was fhol through the foot with an arrow; 
and though the furgeons drew a hot iron through the wound, 
he bore it with extraordinary patience *. 
Hoffayn Next morning, at fun-rife, the befieged made another 
furrendjn: f^Hy^ and renewed the fight. Hujfayn^ who at a diftance be- 
held this terrible encounter, perceived his affajirs to be in a 
defperate condition. Timur fent to acquaint him,'. that, if he 
defired his life, he mufl: fubmit, and deliver up the fortrefs. 
Hujfayriy for once, afting with prudence, fent two of his fbns, 
with the khin he had fet up, offering to refign his crown to 
Tiinir ; and only requefting a free paflage out of the citadel, 
in order to go in pilgrimage to Mekka, Tim&r having granted 
this requeft, the amjr fent again to acquaint Mrii,' that he would 
depart the next day •,. and requefted a prOmife, that no jperfon 
fliould attempt atfy thing againft his life, Timur yielded to his 
defire : but Hujfayn was fo accuftomed to break his word, that 
he fufpefted the prince could not keep his pfomife ; and there- 
fore went out the fame night, with two fervarits. After wan- 
dering for fome time, not knowing where to go, he arrived at 
the old city of Bdlk ; and, when morning came^ through fear, 
got upon the minora (QJ of the principal moflc, where he hid 
taken ^ and This prince might have efcaped, if the time fixed by fete 
Jgainy for j^jg death, lays our author, was not come : for a foldier of 
Timur, who had loft his horfe, going up, to try if he could 
perceive it from thence, fpied Hiiffayrij whom he knew. The 
amir, who, in his profperity, had never the leaft generofity to 
a foldier, flung down a handful c^ pearls; and, promiiing 
greater things, made the man fwear he would not difcover 
him. But the foldier, as foon as he got down, ran to Timir, 

» Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 118— 125, c. 26, & feq. 

(0-.) Steeple, or turret, built cryers, proclaim the times o£ 
near the masjeds, or mcfks, prayers. La Qroix. 
kom whence the muzim^, pr 


Digitized by 


and related the whole. When the officers and foldiers heard A; D. 
this, they ran to the moflc; while fftj^^n, who perceived i368, 
them coming down, hid himfelf in a hole. Biit, ftill purfued ^**v** " ^ 
Ky ill-luck, a Hurt' of his garment happened to bi feeii : fo that, '^^*^ ^'^ 
bdng taken> he was carried bound to Hfnun whOj unwilling-^^' 
to break his promife, faid to the amif s who were near him, 
*? I renounce the right I have of ttiking away his life; and 
" Cancel the fentcnce of his death, by which I might revengd 
" myfdfe** But when Hujfayn was difmifled from Timir"^ 
pefenccj KAy Kofrlt^ prtece di KatlHrii defiried that the amir 
might be delivered to him, in order to do juftice On him for 
taking away his brother's life. Timir exhorted that prince t6 
for^ his rrfentment ; while the remembrance of his antient 
friendfhip, as well as alliancej with Hujfayn^ melted hiin into 
tears. Upon this Olajia It4f an amir of years, and great ex- 
perience, imagining, that if Hujfayn efcaped, through Timur'% 
afiediou, they might all repent ci it afterwards, made figns 
to Kay KofrA and Muyad to go out of the aflembly : which 
they did, without afking Thnfir^s leave ; and, taking horie> fol- 
lowed Huffayn, and flew him. 

At length the fortrrfs of Hetukjdn being taken^ KonfaiJl The citadel 
and Noriz S^ltArti two of HvffayrC^ fons^ were burnt, and deJiroyeJ. 
their aihes fcattered in the air. His two other fons, Jehin 
Mulk and KaUl Soltdh, fled into India, where they periftied. 
The khan whom Huffayn had fet up was alfo put to death (R). 
Timfir got all the treafure which that prince had amaflfed with y^ xr y 
fo mttdi avarice ; and kept four ladies of his faray^o himfelf; ,^*^^^^^ 
thefe were, Saray Mulk Kbdn^m, daughter of Ktlzdn SoltM 
Khdn ; Olds Aga, daughter of Boy an Seldiz ; IJlim Aga^ 
daughter of Kezer tefiri ; and T(^i Turkhdn KAtdn. He gave 
the great queen, i$evenj Kotluk Aga, daughtei: of Turme^ 
fiirtn Khan, Huffayn's firft wife, Diljbad Aga, <o Zende ; 
and the other ladies to confiderable lords. He likewife or- 
dered, that the inhabitants of BAlk, who had fliut thfemfelves 
up in the citadel, -mth their late prince, fliould return to the 
old dty^ and rebuild it. The citadel, as well as palaces of 
Huffayn, were all razed to the foundations ; and every thing 
beloi^ing to him deftroyed, that there might remain no foot* 
fteps of a prince fo hated J". 

y Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 1^5, & feqq; 

(R) This was Kalul Shdh (or Soltdn) Khdn, 

1^% CHAP, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hifior^ 9ffh$ Moguh aitd Tatars: B. VL 

CHAP. 11. 

The Exphiu of Timfir, from his Enthronement^ to the 
ReduHion of Iran^ or Pcrfui at large. 

Timur«i. AFTER the takW^ of Balkf fH thd amfrs, princes, and 
throned. -^ generals of the army, thd khans of Termed^ a»l Seyd Be* 
rekcy chief of the ifharifs, who had predicted Thnur't advance* 
ment to the throne, aflenlbled in that citf^ and tmanhnoiifly 
choTe Ktta to fit) the imperlel feat 6( Jagatay. Wheh the hicky 
how arrived to perform th* ceremony of coronation, Tindr 
afcended the throne, piaeed thd.ct6vrn of goid on his head, 
and g^ed hkafelf vi4th tht imperial belt, in prcfence of the 
princes ci the blood, and the reft, vkho aU kiieeled down be* 
fore Wm ; andv haVkg Iviihed Wfti porofperity, made him fom- 
ptudtis prefentsf, fprinided handfuk of gold and precious ilooes 
upon his head, and gave him the titli of Sahkb Kararty which 
words figflify, the ejr^eror &f tie dge^ and conqtteror of the 
luorld. This happened in the Mimgl year of the Dog^ which 
Hej. 771 . anfwer? to that of th^ itejrirfi 7? i , in the month of Ramaz&n. 
A. D. He treated the inh^tants \y'ith the mmoft rigbtir, beheaded 
1369. fome, imprifoned others, enflaved their wives arid children, 
bnrnfl their houfes, feized their richds, and raviged the coantry. 
Thus he rooted out the rebels, ahd, at the fame time, diftri- 
bnted the pladdef am^mg his le(rds and officers, 
A plot dif' From Bhlkj ThhUr returned to Kqfib; where he appcssted 
eovend, oi^cers of ftate, both military and^viL He then repaired to 
SaTftarkanfy which he made the feat of his empire (A). The 
Amk Miffhf who had deferte'd Timur through difcontent, as 
is befofe-mendoAcd, on th^ prince's Aiecefe, fled to TnrkeftStn ; 
but, being purfued, fled back to Zetde Hajbdm^ at SkeHirgan 
in Khoraffdtiy and ptevjliled on him to revolt. TimAr having 
ordered the ktb-ultay^ or dyet, to be held ; and Z^nde Hi^bim 
not appearing, he ient hhn a tfireatening fuinmohs : but this 
yoimg prince, inflead of obeying, unprilbncd th6 meflfengers. 
Hefeupon the emperor 'v^ent with an army, and beiieged him 
in S^ddety or the white fort. At the fight of the imperial 
troops, Zende Hafbam loft courage ; and, having fued for par- 
don, delivered up the Amir M&Jja: whom, inftead of puniih- 
ing, TifiiAr feafted, knd loaded with favours, giving him the 
command of a tribe, and a province. For all this, Hajbam re- 

(A) This removal was con- moving from ^^/r ^^^r4Jr to ^i/ii 

trary to his own advice given as a thing highly imprudent, 

before to Huffaytty whom he and dangerous* See p. 223. 
. Would have < difTuaded ff om t«- 

4 ' belkd 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. 2- Tie Reign rfTimtvt Bfek. 

belled a (econd time ; but being befi^ed in Shehurgirty fub- 
mitted a fecond time, was pardoned, and received among the 
officers of the court *. 

In the year <rf the Hcgy wfiich anfwers to 772, Timir In'vades 
crofled the Sihin (or Sir), to invade the country of the Getes ; thGetcs. 
two of whbfe princes, komze and Orenkitnuiry fubmitted to ^^J- T7^* 
him, with their tribes and countries, the government of whidh •^* ^* 
fad^ve to Kepek T^m^r ; vAio foon after rebelling, he marched * ^7°' 
agaioft him, by way cfSayrdtn, on the borders of Jfetal^, and, 
in a month, reduced the enemy. Mean time, the Amir Mitjja, 
and Zende Hafkhn^ forgetting all their obligations, confpired, 
with AM Is-hAk, and others, to feize Ttm&r, while hunting : 
but the plot being difcovered, the cdhfpirators were tried, 
and convifted : yet the emperor put none <^ them to death. 
He pardoned MAJfa, on account of his great age, and rclation- 
(hip by marriage ; only baniflied two fheykhs, as defcended 
from Mohammed ; and condemned Zende Hajbhn to a dungeon 
at Samarkant, 

As foon as Timltr was returned to his capital, he fcnt am- Attacks 
bafladors to Huffayn Soft (B), king of Karaztn, to demand Karazm. 
refUtution of the countries of Kat and Kivak (C) ; whkh he 
had feized five years before, during the troubles, though be- 
longing to the empire of Jagatay. Hujfayn^s anfwer was, That 
he had conquered them by thefword\ and that Timur might re^ 
caver them the fame way, if he could. Hereupon the Mullah 
Jal^o^ddiHy who was the emperor's mufti (D), to prevent 
bloodflied, defired leave to try what he could do : but the 
Karazmian, inftead of liftenihg to his advice, imprifoned the 
mullah. On this notice, Tim^r, in 773, marched at the head Hej. '•73. 
of his army, by way of Bokhara ; and, at Scpaye, on the Jihitn A: D. 
(or Jm^)y defeated the enemy's fcouts. From thence, they 1371. 
arfived at Kat, which they invefted. Mchey Malek was ordered 
to go down into the ditch, but being afraid to venture, the 
Chau(h KomAri readily obeyed. He was folbwed by •thers ; 
who advancing towards the breafl-work, Sheykh Jli BehMr 
firft laid hold of it, and would hiive mounted. Mobajhcr^ 
envying him this honour, took hold of his heel, and both fell ; 
yet Mi returned, and got upon the parapet. Then the foldiers, 
having forced a paflage, on all fides, into the town, feized the 

• Hifl. Tim. Bek, p. x 30-^141, 1. ii. cap. 1—4. 

(B) ^on oi Tanghaday^ oith^ place with JT^^j^w^, \n Abrt* Ighdzi 
tribe of Konhgrat, called alfo Khd^z^ s hi([ory , Sec the deicrip- 
Kunkuratf Kongarat, an4 by the lion of iTtfr^^w hereafter, Vol, VI. 
Chinefe, Honhila, (D) Or chief prieft, who de- 

(C) This feems to be the fame cides affairs of the law. 

P 3 governor. 

Digitized by'' 


Grants ^ 

mfiwy of the Mogub and Tatars. B- VI, 

governor, and pat the greater part of* the garrifon, as well a$ 
the inhabitants, to the fword ; carrying away the wives and 
children, whom Tindr next day fet at liberty. As for KAcbey 
M4Uk^ be ordered him, for his cowardice, to be baftonadoed, 
and then led to Samarkant^ ti^d tp th? tail of an «is. 

After this, he advanced, and his van-guard having de- 
feated the enemy, at Jiwi Korlan, he order^ inroads to be 
niade on every iide ; fo that all the provinces of Karazm v^ere 
mined. Hujfayn^ bdng in no conoition to defiend hinUelf in 
the city of Karazm (E), feixt to bq; pardon, and demand 
quarter: but, diverted by Kay Kqfri^ who promifed to gp 
over to him, with his Tomtriy he marched out with his troops 
to the river Kawn^ fix miles fix>m the cafutal. However, be 
was repulfed ; and finding himfelf blocked up in his fortirefs, 
foon died with grief. His brother I/tif (or Tvfif) S^, who 
fucceeded him, had recourfe to fubmiiCqn : ai^d as 7!m«r 
thought that Sruini Bey, commonly called Kh&n Z$deh (F), 
the daughter of jlk S^, V^f's brother, who was reckoned 
the greateft beauty in the world (G), would be a fit match for 
his ion Jehdn Chtr, he granted peace, on condition of the mar- 
riage. On his return to Samarkant, he ordered Kay Kofri 
Katlani to be arrefted, and profecuted for his intrigues with 
Hujjfayn Soft : of which having been convifted, he was deli- 
vered, hound, to the officers of Amir Huffayn, who put him 
to death, to revenge the murder of that prince ; ^nd his pro? 
vmcc given to Mehemed Mirekc, fon of Shir Jfahrdmt his rela- 
tion **. 
Jifarrm When Kay Kcfri was apprehended, his fon Solt&n M^, 
Jch^n mMy with two other lords, left the court, and retired to Abt 
Ghir. razm\ where they perfuaded Ifi^fSofi to violate the peace: 
and accordingly, in autumn, he laid waAe the country of Kat. 
Hej. 774. But, mRamazM 774, on the newsof Twa^r'sm^rch, hefent 
A. D. perfons to intecede for him, and renew the treaty ; p^miii!^ 
4 372. forth\^th to fend the princefs Khiin Zadeh to Sdnmrkant, Next 
fpring, 7in:ur difpatched ambafladors, with rich prefents, to 
conduift to his court that princefs ; who ftt out with a portton 
of precious ftones, jewels^ and fiirniture, of gr^t value. Ttrmit 
gave her a magnificent reception ; and the marriage with his 
|on \vai folcmnizcd with the gr^ateft pomp, jtfter the happy 

* Hid. Tim. Bek, p. HS-rrlS^* c* ?•— u. 

fE) The fame with Utjtvgh, 
called K^kattj^ ai^d Jorjania by 
^le Perjians. 

(F) That is, tbi daughter of 

( G } The poet^ fay, fi^cc 
jjam ; and that (he had the ge« 
nius of an angel, and ibape of Mi 

Digitized by 


C 2; The Rtign of Timfir Bck. 231 

moment had been fixed , with the exafteft care, by the moft A. D. 
learned aftrologersy and profound philofophers. '373* 

In the month of Shawal 776^ which was the beginning of ^n— -v— ^ 
the Mungl year of the Hare^ Tim^r fet forward on his march Marches 
to Jet^, fendmg before his fon, the Mirza JehUn Ghlr, with ^^\]^'^' 
the van-guard. When they had paflcd Sayrdm, and were ar- J* 27 ' 
rived at Jar&Uy a town of JetAh^ they were informed, by a ^.'' 
prifoner ; that Kamro'ddtn (H), prince of the tribe of Vglat^ ^ ^^ 
was encamped with an army at Gheuk Tt^pa^ or the blue hill, 
where he waited for Haji Bey, not expefting any enemy. On 
this adidce, they haftened their march : but Kamro'cUin, getting 
iatelGgence of their approach, retired to an inacceifible place, 
called Birkey Girian, where there are three defiles of moun- 
tains, extremdy ftee(> ; and three great rapid rivers. Jehan 
GhUr T^as now advanced to the third defile, where Kamro'ddin 
had fortified himfelf, and having attacked his forces, with 
great flaughter, till night, they took to flight. Next morning, 
the prince purfued them ; and Timur^ coming up at fun-rife, 
detached fome of his chief captains, who fwam along the ftream 
of the river Abeile (I). When they got on the enemy's lands, 
Aey {dundered all who did not fubmit ^. 

Ttmur weht on to Baytak ; from whence he fent the mirza Avoids a 
his fon, with a great army, to fight aJid feize Kamro'dSri. The con/piracy. 
prince, having ruined the cantons which are in Uch-fenmny 
found his enemy in the mountains, whom he purfued, and 
obliged to abandon his troops. He ravaged all the country, 
razed his palaces, and, among other ladies, feized on his wife 
Buy An Aga, with his daughter DilJbad'C^a. After Timur had 
watted fifty-three days at Baytak,. he received this news ; and, 
on Ms way home, married the princefs Dil/bad-aga. Then 
fetting forward again, marched by TAffi Daban, and encamped 
at Ozkunt, Here Adel Shih, fon of Bohr Am Jalayr, now dead, 
gave him a fjplendid entertainment, and prefented him with 
fome fine hortes. Under this mafk, his defign was, in concert 
with two other lords, to have feized Tmur : but conceiving 
llrong fufpicions, by the motions of the confpirators, he left 
the aflembly, and thus fruftrated their plot, During the win- 
ter, when he was returned to his capital, they came and con- 
f^OH tbrir- crime; whil^ Timur politicly pretended to have 

« Hift, Tim. Bek» p, 157 — 165, c. ii,— 14. , 

(H) He ofurped the kingdom Hi, rifmg in Litt/e Bukhdria, oa 

of Kdjhgar from Ilyas Koja Khan, which the khan of the Eluths en- 

as related before, p. 1 50. camped. AbMi fignifi^s the fwa^ 

(1) This fepms to tic the; river ter Ili. 

I P 4 « known 

Digitized by 


Hifi^Kj gf the »fo||Bu|8 an4 Jn^n. . B, VJ, 

known nothing pf \k, and, at the iamc tu^e» bigMy coidled 

Jdcl Shdh. 

In the beginniug of the year 777, the troops were ordered 
to affemble, as if to invade Karazr». As foqa as the amirs 
arrived at the imperial city, tl\e Sheykh Mehemd Say4n SeU 
ddz (oiie of the ^oafpirators in the late plot) was apprehended ; 
* aad his crime Wing been fully proved, he was delivered into 
the hands of Heri M^k SMuz, his relation, who put him to 
death, in revenge for killing his brother. Jli D^rvQb an(i 
Mehemed Dcruijb^ being equally guilty, wer^ aUb put to death, 
Jo fpring, Tim&r fent feveral amirs, with 30,000 horfe, into 
Jetdby with orders to fearch diligently for Kamro'ddin^ and, 
ivhen found, to put him to death. After this, he marched 
, with a great army towards Karazm ; and being come to iS^- 
faya^ on the Jihun, faw Turkh^a Erl^i another qf the con- 
fpirators, pafs over with his troops, as willing tp join him ; 
but, through fome fudden fear, he immediately returned to bis 
orda, ne^r Korzwdf} Pu/ad, who was ordered to purfue h^m 
day and night with fqme troops, having palled Andk4d, over- 
took him at Farab (or Otrar)^ on ih.t Sikun. The two parties 
' fought likp lions : but, at length, the enemy flying, the 
viftors purfued, and PuIMdXoia^ overtook Turkh^n ; who, find-r 
ing his norfe tired, got pfF, and brought down Pul4d*s with 
an arrow. He let fly another at his enemy, before he was able 
to get up : but, as it went through his cap, without hurting 
him, Piilad rurtied on ; and clofing him, after a long ilru^le, 
flung him on the ground, and cut ofi^his head. At the wme 
time, an oflic^r brought the head of Turmijby brother of T^r- 
kMn, and both were laid at the foot of the throne ^. 
Jmtn re-: AMONG the amirs fent to Jetah^ S4r Bugq ^ad Adel Sb^^ 
woli' confpiring with Katay Bahadr^ Elcbi Buga, and ffam^^ whom 

T.mhr had left governor of Andekbitn, on the frontiers of Tur- 
ff&Jlan, got together their ordds of Jalayr and Kipjaky and 
inarched to Sapuirkant, which they bcfiegpd. Hereupon Jk 
JJug^f the governor, wrote word of this to TTf^^r; who^ 
though he had already pafl^d by Kai, and was arrived at Kbas, 
iinmediately returned. .While he encamped near BoUjAra^ 
the Mirza JehCtii Gbir, who advanced before, met the rebels 
(obliged to ralfe the fiege) at Kapntna, and defeated them. 
After which, they retired to the defarts of Kipjdk, and lifted 
thcmfelv<is in tjip feryic^ of Urus Khdn, emperor of that 
frotintry. Sar Bpga and AM Sh^h had not been long m the 
ferv5(:e of that prince, before, they -fled from bis court, after 
^ying kill^4 his Ijeut^^nt, ^nd went tp J^tdh,^ where thejf 

f HUi.Tim. Bafc, p. 165-^.176, q. 14,-^16. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. 2. . tbg lUigm iff Titntt fd?. 

perfiiaded Katftro'ddin to join them, in Boakiog wtranfimir. 
Hereupon that pr\nce inarched to the county of Jndekhin^ 
where Omar Sheykh^ Timur's fecond fon, was governor : but, 
being deferted by the Y\s22XVi oi Kidaky he retired to the moun- 
tains, and £ent his father word> th^t the eneiny, with a great 
army, had ruined JrulekMu. 

This news fo incenfed TimAr, that he immediately fet out Kamro'd* 
for Jetdb. On which ad^dce, Kamro'ddin commanded Iiis din de* 
houihold and orda to leave Jtb4/hiy while he remained in zm-fiated^ 
iMifli with 4000 hc^. Timur coming to the pUce, aopd fu« 
fpe^ling no fuch i0tty fent his amirs, with all the army, in 
purfuit of the enemy ; while he followed, with no more than 
aoo men to accompany him. Kamro'ddiny glad of this occa- 
iion, fallied out with his men upon the emperor ; who, no 
way difinayed, fpurred his horfe againft the enemy, and, being 
obiiged to expofe his pa*fon, performed furprifmg afts of va- 
loiur ; which were fo well ieconded by his fbldiers, that they at 
Jei^h defeated that ni^merous hoA. After this, he met Kam-^ 
ro'ddin again at Seaghez j^g^jeh, and conftrained him to fly. 
Ucbkara pnrfucd him fo clofely, that, at length, he obliged 
him (o return,, with eight men only ; who being furrounded 
by the amir's foldiers, Kamro^ddiriy after having his horfe 
killed, had much ado to get off on foot, wounded in feveral 

BEFORE the lafl battle, Timitr dreamed; that in one of the Dtath of 
fiotrty-fix vifions, which are efteemed prophetic, he faw thejchan 
Sheykh BirhAno'ddin Klich;, and having humbly begged of him Ghir, 
to pray for his fon Jehdn CMr, then fick at Samarkanty the 
holy man only anfwered. Be with God (K). This, with an- 
other dream he had afterwards, increafed his melancholy, and 
a>Dvinced him, that he fhould lofe his dear fon ; whom ho 
fonnd dead, at his return to that capital. This prince, who 
was but twenty when he died, was buried at Kajb ; and left 
two fons : Mohaitmed Solt&n, by KB^n Zadeh ; .and Pir Ma- 
hammed, a poflhumous fon, by Bhkti Mulki Aga^ daughter of 

TIMURy about this time, being informed, that Adel ShAh and Add 
Jalayrw2& in the mountains of AiirdfrAw^, beyond Otrdr, fent Shah. 
thither two amirs, with fifteen horfe ; who having found him 
at ^kjdma^ a fjpy-tower on the top of mount Karajik, put him 
to death, according to law. Soon after, Mirza Omar Sheyhj)^ 

(K) We infert fuch particu- a dupe to the fuperftltious folly 
lars, as proper to (hew the cha- of dreams and fortune-telling, 
ra^er of^this prince $ who, tho', owing'tb (He forcp of bad inftru- 
a great, and, in other refpefts, ^ion when young. ''' 

a wife, judicious man, was ye( 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

H0ory of the Moguls and Tatars: B. VI. 

with-feteral amirs, trere fent againli Kamro*ddin ; whom they 
met, and .dcfeated> on the borders of Aiiro/ii, a country of the 
' Getes c. 

War in The troops Were no fooner returned, than Timir refolved 
Ktpjak. to march in perfon into Jetah ; and his van-guard were fo 
lucky as to come up with Kamro^dMn^ at Bugam Jji Chad:. 
where, after a furious "battle, they put him to flight, ravaged 
his country, and reduced his fubjefls to obedience. After 
purfuing him as far as K4char, 7tm4r returned to hb ca]Mtal, 
by W9kf of Oynagit and Uzkunt. That prince, when at Kdchdr, 
bring informed, that Tokatmtjh <or Toktamtjb) j^glen had with- 
drawn from the court of XWx, khan of Kt^hk^ in order to 
cogie over to him, lent TianenTtm&r Uzbek to meet and con* 
duft him to Samarkant ; where he was received with great 
honour. Tbnir heaped favours on him, and gave him. the 
government of feveral places for his fubfiltehce. He likewife 
affifted him againfl UrAs KhAn^ who foon after attacked him ; 
entered iiis dominions with a great army, and placed Toktamjb 
on the throne of KifjAk. This prince bdng driven out, he 
A. D. reftored him again, in 778. But as thefe wars have been al- 
1 376. ready related more at large, in the hiftory of that empire ^ we 
(hall fay no more about them here. 
TimurV The fovere^ty of Ti'nwJr feemed now to be arrived at the 
greafne/s, fummit of felicity, many of his officers bearing the titles of 
khin and foltan ; when, to increafe his tappinefs, in the year 
Hej. 779. of the Serpent y and that of theHcjrah 779, in the month of 
•^* ^' Rabiyo' laker y the Mirza ShAh Rukh was bom. , Soon after this, 
'377- Timur made a fourth expedition into Karazm. Whilft he was 
at Oirar^ to obferve Urh Kh&riy Ifi^f Soji, king of that country, 
fent an army to Bokh&ra^ which ravaged the province, and 
carried off whatever they could meet with. Timiry on this, 
fent an ambaflador, to complain x>f thefe hoftilities : but -$8/i 
inftead of ftiewing any reafon, threw the ambaflador in prifon. 
He did the like to a fecond envoy ; and fent Tui Bcgay, fur- 
named the robber, with his followers, to carry away the cattk 
of the Turkmans, which were about Bokhdreu However, Ti^ 
mur let him alone for this year, the remainder of which he 
. fpent at Zenjir Saray, after he had married Tuman Aga^ 
daughter of the Amir Muffa ; for whofe fake he adorned Sa* 
markant with.feverd beautiful monuments, and, among th» 
jfeft, a pleafure-houfe, to the wefl: of that city, call^ R^ti 
Behijhty or, the garden of paradife ^. 

,^ Hift.Tim.Bek, p. 170— 178, c. 16-^18, ^ See before, 

^1^107. ? Hift, Tiin..B?kj 1. ii. p. 178-^193, c ig — a6. 

Digitized by 


C. 2* ^i Reign of Tim6r Bck. 

In Shanval 780 Ttmir fct forward with his army ; arid, en- 
tering i&mzm, invefted the town of Ejhi Skuz (L), while fe- 
veral parties ravaged the country. On this, Ifuf or TufefSofi 
feat a challenge to TimAr ; who, putting on his armour, con- ^^''azm 
trary to the prayers of his commanders, went to the edge of ^^H^^^^ 
the ditch, and called on Tufefxo come out : but that prince 
thought it fafer to keep within the walls. However, Tim^r, 
having received fome melons from Termed^ judged it might be 
thought uncQurteOus if he did not fend Tufef fome, when he . 
was (o near him : this was done in a gold bafon, delivered at 
the wall. But Tu/ef had fo little courtefy, that he ordered 
the fruit to be thrown into the ditch, and gave the hdfoti to 
the town-porter. After this, the befieged fallied; and fre- 
quent fkirmifties drew on a general battle ; in which the enemy 
were defeated, and retired into the city. After this, TUmth* H^.ySu 
ordered the ^mirs to b^in the fiege of the capital ; which A. Dl 
having continued near four months, in which time the caftle 1379. 
was ruined, the khan TufefSofi died with grief, as the empe- 
ror had predifted j(M). At the fame time the batteries being 
fenewjed, and breaches made, the town was attacked, and at 
ki^th ta^n, after a very brave refiftance. The city was pil- 
laged, many of the inhabitants killed ; and all the learned m^n^ 
as well as tradefmen, fent to Kafb, 

This city, which had long before this been a feminary of Ka(h 
learning, hence was fumamed Kubbet Elihni Veledeb, ths-t is, <walieit. 
The Dotne of Science and Virtue : it was alfo called ShAhr SebZy 
pr The Grem City, from the verdure of its gardens and mea- 
dows. At the end of the year 781 the emperor declare4 it 
his ordinary rcfidence in fummer, and the fecond feat of the 
empire. He therefore inclofed it with new walls ; and built z. 
new palace, called Ak-faray^ froln the exceeding whitenefs and 
height of its walls. After this, he divided the city among his • 
amirs, and the troops of his houfhold. 

In winter Timir fent to fummon Malek Kaykzo^dMn Pir Malck 
AH (fon of Mdlek Huff&yn, prince of Her&t, who died in Kaya- 
1369) to the kuriiltay, or aflembly of the ftates, which was zo'ddin 
to be held the next fpring. Pir AH pretended fubmiffion to fi^"^^^ 
the fumn^ons : but delayed the mefftngers with excufes, in or- 
der to finifh the fortifications of Herdt ; which he had encom- 
pafled the year before with a wall two l^gues in Circuit, in- 

(L) This, poffibly, was the (M) The author, on feveraj 

f>ld city of Karaxm, kbrianj, or Qccafipns, intimates as if Tifjtur 

Vv^'^g^* or fome part of it ; for, had the fpirit' of prophecy. La 

by what follows,- it was this city Qri?/;r. 
I^hicli was befieged. 

4 ^lofmg 

Digitized by Vj^WVlC 

^36 Hipry of tbi Moguls and Tatars. B. VI. 

a, D. clofipg the fubnrbs, and gardens without the wall of the old 
.i379« city. Thefe things were reported to Ttmir at the time whoi 
*jili Bej/y fon of Argun Shah J4n Garhani^ returned to his obe- 
•diiiqce, aod was pardoned. The emperor even confented that 
llis da^lgbter fhould marry his grandibn Mehemed SoltUn^ ion 
^f y^ii Ghtr ; and conferred with him about his defign upon 
fier^y whither Ali ^<?y promilcd to go ia fpring^ 
TimikrV ^^ ^^ Tmdr's ambitbn of univerlal monarchy which made 
amhition. l^ undertake fuch glorious things: he ufcd to fay, that it 
V»af neither Jit nor decent that the world Jbould be governed by 
two kings. About this time many rebels had feized the pro- 
^ces of Jran^ and fet up for independent monarchs. This 
ei^ceedingly difpkaled Tirnur ; who, having conquered the king- 
dom of Ti^an, which Jenghlz Kh&n formerly dinded between 
^is fons Tujhi and Jagatay^ he refolved to fubdue the em- 
pire of b'^i or Perjia at large. Preparatory to this, he 
pade his fon, the mirza Mirdn Shdhy then but fourteen years 
of age, governor of Khoraffin; and fent him thither, accom- 
panied with feveral amtrs, and fifty companies of horfe. The 
9V#<fr troops, having eroded the Jihuny pafled the autumn, 
and 190ft of the winter, ^nBdlkzndSbektirgdn; but, towards 
the end <^ that l^on, took from Mdkk the town of Bad- 
Heinvades TowAKPS the end of th^ year 782, 77«rfr, having raifed 
Maiek. a great army of Turks and Tatars, crofled the Jihun, and 
Hej. 782 advanced within the country of Kh§raffan. When he arrived 
A. D. at Andekudf his devotion prompted him to. vifit the illuftrious 
'3^0. Santon Baba Senku, one of thofe darwifli who make pro- 
ieflipn of folly (N). This perfon, in an enthufiaftic fit, flui^ 
a bteaft of mutton at the emperor's head ; who, believing this 
|o be a good augury, faid : " I am perfiiaded that God will 
♦* graat me the conqueft of Khoraffhif becaufe this kingdom 
** has always been called the breaft, or middle, of the inha- 
** bitable world." This prediftion, fays our author, had its 
effeft. TimitrXdt Andektid; and, as foon as Mdiek Mehemed, 
brother of MMei Kayazo'd&n, who was then in the fortrcfs 
of Sarahs f had notice of his march, he came before the throne, 
and bad the honour to kifs the imperial carpet, as well as to 

^ Hift.Thn.Bek, p. 194—201. c.26— 29. 

. (N) Thefe are natural fools, tbcm before their creation, and, 

or blockheads, at leaft they pre- on that account, did not endue 

tend to be fo, of whom the call them with reafon ; fo that they 

is full. The }Aohammedam h^ve are incapable of offending. La 

an extraordinary veneration for Qroix 
them ; and fay, that God loved 


Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C. 2: : f%e Reign ofTiaAr Bek. a^f 

receive many careflfes and prcfents. When, after a long ih^fch, A. D.- 
the army had paflfed by Maru ArrMy Commonly called Mor- 1380. 
glA, they at length encamps at Ckekedalek, eleven IfeagueS from ^' "^v^" ^ 

HEitE the ediperor feftt to defire Alt Bey to raife troops Ftt-(hcnj 
forthTf ith) aod joki hini, according to the league between tefiegid, 
them : but he not only refufed to obey, but imprifoncd the 
envoy. As M&lek KayHo'ddin had that day taken Nijb&b^r 
from the Sarkedalsy Ttmir marched to Jam (O) and KiifApa^ 
that the enemy's troops, who were in thofe parts, might not 
j(Mn MAlek. The governor of A'l^/tf went to meet the em- 
peror J who, after paying a vifit, at TayhMy to the learned 
and virtuo&s doftor Zayno'ddin Jht^kr, marched to Fujh^j, 
afoom twenty-five miles fhort of Het^y and befieged it. This 
town was fuironnded with high ww, a good rampart, and 
deep <fitch, full of water. Its other fortifications were fo 
ffaxmg, Aat no citadel could compare ^ith it : yet the foldiers, 
croffing the ditch on plaidcs, advanced to the wall, and made 
a great flaughter of the enemy with their arrows. Tim^r, 
who often r^de totni the place without armour, to enccrurage 
Ms men, Was woiind^d with two arrows. Mean time fome and tukvf* 
2mit^ mounted the waliy While others forced the gate ; and, 
enterif^ alfo by the breaches, put to the fword all Who eicaped 
their hands bdfore. Thus Fijbenj was takeii at the firft af- 
fault ; after which, the army marched to fferdt, and laid fiege 
to that city*. 

The troop of GAris (or Gowris), reckoned the moft va- Herdt 
liant men of Irdn^ made a fally : but bring forced to xt^M^Jurr^nder^ 
after a Hoody conflift, the citizens, to feve then* lives, and 'd. 
fine honfes froni deftruftion, refufed to make refiftance r fo 
that Mileky feiding he could not bring them to a fecond filly^ 
was obliged to fubmit ; and, coming out to beg pardon, killed 
the imperial carpet on his knees. 7?m4r gave him a veft of 
honour, carcflcd, and then difmiflbd him. This was in Mnhar' 
ram^ the firft month of the year 783. Then the conqueror op-Hej. 783. 
dered the treafures, and oriier riches, which the Gowri, or Gaioriy A . D . 
kings had amafled for feveral years (confifting of filver coin, 1381, 
brute {M*ecious ftones, the richeft thrones, crowns of gold, 
veflels of plate, gcM and filVer brocades, with other curiofi" 
tieo), to be carried away : he likewife commanded the walk; 
both old and new, to be razed. A tax likewife was levied oa 
the inhabitants, for their ranfcwm ; and the gates of the city, 

* Hift. Tim. Bek, p; 201 — 208. c^jo — 3.2. 

(O) Jam is about fcventy miles, to the caft of Nifiahur. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Bijlofy of tbi M<^s and Tatars. B. Vl 

corered with iron plates, and adorned with fcniptures and 
infcriptions, were carried to Kajb, After this, M^k Kaya- 
^ zo*ddm was ordered to deliver up the fortrefs of Ejiilj, called 
alfo Amdn-Mh ; then governed by the amir Gowri, his youngeft 
fon^ reckoned the moft brave and experienced lord in thd 
kingdom, whom Mdiek prevailed on to deliver up the place, 
accounted by him impregnable. 
Other TIMUR, highly pleafed with his fuccefs at H^^, fent 

f laces fui'^^^P^ to conquer Nijbab&r and Sebzwdr: but, as the affair of 
mit. ^ii B^y difturbed him, he marched in perfon to Kellit and 

Tujb (or Majbhad)^ making a vifit to the tomb of AM M^ 
jUm Mer4zi (P), in the way. Ali Bey^ on advice of thecm* 
peror's march, came out and fubmitted ; fo did the governor 
of Sehzw^r ; and both were received with favours. He then 
proceeded for ^j/'^r^^ln UJ, belonpng to the Amir ^^ff, (or 
iVali)^ prince of Mazdnderdn, The foldiers immediately ruihed 
on lie walls, in which they made confiderable breaches ^ and^ 
catering the place, put to the fword a great numbo: of peo- 
ple, and demolifbed all the houfes of that great city. After 
this, Tim&r fent an ambaflador to the Amir Veli ; who (nh* 
mitted, and promifed fhortly to repair to his mafter. While 
the emperor diverted himielf at the pleafure-houfe called Ogit 
TattiTaylaky they put to death the robbers oiK^raJbe\ who had 
l^ed the Amir Haji Berl&s and his brother, Tim4r*s near re-f 
lations, as befcM^-mentioned. 
Ali Bey TIM U R, having made feveral regulations in the political flate 
revoift. of Khoraffduy confiraied M^ek K^dzo'ddin, prince of Her^^ and 
the other amirs, in their refpeclive governments ; after which, 
. he returned to his own dominions, and pafled the wintor at 
fiqkhara. But, while he diverted himfelt in that proud -city, 
his pleafure was imbittered with the lofs of his daughter T(^i 
Khdn^ called alfo Akia Beghiy married to MehemedBey^ fon of 
Amir Mujfa ; a princefs who had fcarce her equal in beauty 
and virtue He was fo deeply afflifted at her death, that, when 
advice was brought that Ali Bey^ in conjvnftion with the Amir 
Veli^ had befieged Ali Muayd, whom he had left governor of 
. i . ^ Scbzwdr, he was no-way moved ; nor would have refentcd die 
infult, but for tjie remonftrances of his fitter Kotluk Turkhkn 
^ga^ who urged the bad confequenccs which would attend his 
negledt of affairs. Roufed by the words of this princefs, ho 

(P) General of Ahul Abbas. (QJ A city between iVJ/^i?* 

taffah^ firft of khalifahs of the bur and Jorjan^ dependent on 

houfe of -^^^«/, to whom thefe the former j called alfo -/^/ Jlf(fi^- 

princes owed their ftdvan^emeRt. ejin, Lm Croix^ 

La Croix^ 

Digitized by 


C.i: Tb^ Reign ^Timtit^k: t3§ 

aflembled his forces ; and, tho* it was in the midft of wihter, A. D, 
fet forward from Bokhara. Ha croffed the Jihun with liis 13^81. 
army, over a bridge of boats ; and, havii^ paflcd by Mak-* t ^m^m^ 
hdn, encamped in the ndghbourhood of Kellt, where Jli Bey 
ihut himfdi up } nor could be prevailed on to fubmit, eith^ 
by threats or promifes ; relying on the mountain whereon that 
fortrefs was buUt, which he imagined to be inacceffible K 
. TIMUR, to decdvc the bey, went down to KsrAn, de-Kclat^. 
pendent on Ahfwerd (RJ •, where he gave out, that he intended/'^i'^ 
to invade MazAnder&n. On this report, AH Bey took hwt ;. 
and fent the horfes, fhe^p, and other animals, which had been 
/hot up in the fortreis, to graze again in the meadows : when 
on a fudden the emperor Ranged his route, and returned to 
Kel&ty which he invefted on all fides. Ali^ feeing himfelf 
thus'unexpeftedly befet, had recourfeonce more to TimAr'^ 
ckmency ; and promifed, in cafe his majefty would come to 
the gate of the town with only a few perfons, that he would 
repair to the gate, and aik pardon for his &ults. To which the 
emperor agr^. The walls of Kel&t were built on the brink 
of a high mountain \ and along them was a narrow paflage 
among- the rocks, which way was ihut in by a gate, and joined 
to that of the town. Here the treacherous All Bey placed men 
in ambufhr with orders to kill Timufj who went to the place 
appointed, with only five horfismen : but the adailins, by ibme 
mUlake, ftaid in thdr coacealment beyond the time, and ^ven 
forgot to leave open the door by which the emperor was to 
have entered; fo that, after waiting a long time for Ali B^y, 
he returned to his camp. 

As fpon as he arrived there, in Rahiyo^lawel 784, he ordered Tcnfliiz 
the troops of Mekrit and BaMgfhdn^ the fitteft in the world reduced. . 
to clamber mountains, to fcale the walls. They were followed Hej. 784.' 
by Tiniur with a troop of brave officers ; and made fuch a A. D, 
(laughter, that Ali Bey promifed by oath to make his fubmif- H^^* 
iion next day to Timiir, at the gate . of the town ; which he 
did. But as he \#as indulged in his requeft, not to repair to "- 
court till next day, be in the night barricaded the palTages by 
which the imperial troops had afcended the mountain, and again 
violated his engagement. Fourteen days after, the emperor 
went to the fortreis oi Kahkahay in the road to Bawerd, wliich 
he rebuilt : but fent Siorgotmljb KMn^ \^th the Mirza Ali^ 

* Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 208— 'Ziq. c. 32 — 37 

town to the north 
e defart of Kivak, f 
merly called Bajerd, La Croix 

(R) A town to the north of Alfo Bawerd and Iburd^ as in 
Tus, in the defart of Ki^jak, for- Abu'lghaKi Khans hiilory. 

and ^ 

Digitized by VjO-OQIC 

A, ly. and t&it br^te SA^fl^h ^JTA StMdti to bldck up th^ paRages to 
\^H. Kddt; #hate Ke^w^Wtt t&rtd\ik:e1^^r/&f2. Thisiaa ftmotts forttefe; 
^i^V^alkiMl hiiatctffibld, as l)eifag fiteat^ in the too^nWtts ; and 
xtcftc^i^ im{Htghab)e, tbr \ti High Walb, and di^^l^ wKfe aixt 
dwp: iflirAsg^i(bh^iifkh(?iWr/'/ia^vrien^prcMde^ 
sitrnd and priaVifiehsv The ^rt^&iy w^t-e fo obftlhate, that they 
would itt)t €Vadi!ia*e th^ jAaee at tn^ commaAd of MiM Kay At* 
eMn hlmfetf: bttt, !he ^vdb and breaftWOrk» beihg bat* 
t(»ed down, th^ b^f^d foi* quarter ; aAd Were intdled, for 
tli«r brav«?y, itt ^m«fl5 ti^6ojps». 
7heamtr AbOtEjhr thkVitt^ JMl^Mn SMk'SkuJa^ king ci Pin (of 
Vclia«i/ fHpir Perfia), ftAf oft^ of hfe principal officers, with a letter, 
tb atfiif* fh^ empe^r ctf his ferVices and finc^Te friendfhip, ac- 
Obsipatiie*! by rich prefects. In ^^vlth ftft wMeh, Timar feat 
dthers^ \/ifh an ^nVoy, tb d^And the daughter of that prince 
fei- toMifza P/r mheM^,' fott of the kte »Br7a 7>A^ d?*lr. 
AftiJir thfe, hemai»fefced to^M* Maz^d^Sn ? tit which netrs 
tJie Alttfr r^A* had rfec6tiffe to fiibmiffion J and, pi^omifittg fooa 
to #e^jri# K^ cotti't, 7?^ifr withdrew again Wif h his arply. Mean 
itee SheyWl AH BtthOi- ttomited the wilfe of Kel&t b the 
rfight, With only a ft\^ domeftics s but, ttkiftaking his way iii 
thfe dafk^ %as perceit^ by the eiiemy, who began a bicody 
All Bey fight: yit, when their qiii\rers werd "emptied on both fides, 
fuhmit. fi^ peHbitts> thro* a niBgJdns ntottve, brought about an ac* 
coltt«3dAtidft. M'B^ nfet atid embraced the'Bheykh AH Ba^ 
Mdf ; arid, affei* emtertainittg Hm fbi- fevehjf days, went 'widi 
hife to th(* imperial caiiip it htdekh&n ; •^herf he was recdved 
into favour, at the interceffion of the flieykh, i^ith whofe bc^ 
ha^out* on this 6cedfioh il^ir Was highly pleafed. 
Put n The eihperoi*, haiKtig how intirefy reduced the kingdom 

dgafl^* af KktifaJSn utidei* the obedience of the Mfrza Miran SMb, 
• dtfrtiiflfed his troops, aild hailed to his capital. All Bey, with 
the Amir Otnvri, dnd his brother Mdlek Mehtm^d, fans of 
M^Uk KdyiWddhi, Were fent bound to the MirZi OtnatSheykh 
at Andekh^ .-. but ;^/4Arl himfelf, and his ddeft fon Pit Mthe- 
med, were kept at Satnarkant. Thefe were all put to death, ex- 
cept Ptr Mehertted, on the following occafion. During the win- 
ter, MAfeU Mehemed, foh of MAM fakrd^Mn (S), to whotf 
Titnir, ihj^ty df his poverty, had given the government of 
G<ywr ; being joined by Ahltfa'id Efpahed, Whortt that monarch 
had alfo releafed out of prifoii, marched to Herat with a troop 

* Hift. Tim. Bck, p. 219 — 227. c. 37-^39. 

(S) This Mdkk Mehemd and td Mdlek Uvjfayn, father of Ui- 
his brother were coufin-germans hk Kayazodiitu 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. 2. Tie Reign tf Tim6r Bek. 

rf GowrPs, and, affifted by other rebels, committed all forts of 
diforders. The governor, and other officers, having retired to 
the fortrefe of Ektiaro'dMriy the rebels burnt the gate, and ' 
put all the Turkijh garrifon to the fword, who had jumped off 
the walls to fave their lives. On this advice, the Mirza Mirdn 
SMb marched from the river Morgd^, where he was then en- 
camped, to IferM ; and flew fo many of the rebels, that his 
foldiers built a high tower of their heads ". 

In 785 died the princefs Dil/hadaga^ wife of Tim^r; dnd, Jetali/*. 
a few days after, Kbtluk TurkhUn j4ga^ his ddeft fifter : famous nja^ii* 
for building hofpitals, mofques, colleges, and other publicworks. Hej. 785* 
Thefe lofles deeply affefted him for a long tune : but at length, ^'P' 
refle£ting that an hour only, employed by a prince in executing '3^3^ 
jufticCf is of more importance than the ivorfbip given to God, 
and all the prayers made during one^s whole life, he applied him- 
felf by d^ees to public affairs. Having learned that there weri 
fome commotions in the country of the Getes, the greater part 
of whom were not Mohammedans, he ordered the Mirza AH to 
march thither with an army, and dcfVroy thofe feditious people 5 
then to purfue Kamro'ddtn, the author of thofe troubles. He 
fent after them Sheykh Ali Bahddr, and other amfrs, with 
io\ooo horfe ; who, at Atakom, met the firft party on their 
return, they being defeated and plundered by the people of 
Bahrin ; but afterwards took revenge on them with great flaugh*- 
ter. They all went back together^ in purfuit of Kamro^dMn\ 
to Iffigbeul, and thence as far as Gheuk-topa (or the Blue Hills) ; 
but, not finding him, returned in autumn. 

Mean time Sheykh Da W, whom Tim4r had made chief Cruel fsf^ 
commander in Sehzwdr, having flain tiie governor Taban Ba» nijhment^ 
hMr% the Mirza Mir^n ShAh laid fiege to the place, and flew 
abundance of the rebels : but the Sheykh Dawd efcaped to 
the fortrefs of Bddrabdd, which the prince fent troops to in- 
Vefl. On this advice, the emperor detached the Sheykh AH Ba^ 
h^dr, and Uchkara Bah&dr, at the head of a great army, againfl 
the Amir Veli, prince of Maxtnderdn ; and marched himfelf 
towards the country of Sifim (or Sejejldn), which was in re- 
bellion alfo. At the beginning of Ramaddn 785, his army fat A. D* 
down before Herdt, whofe inhabitants, as was mentioned, were *3^3* 
joined with the Go-wri rebels : from thence he marched to 
Sebzivdr, which was attacked and forced. Near 2000 Oaves, 
taken, were piled alive, one upon another, with mortar and 
bricks ; as a monument to deter others from revolting, and pu- 
nifti the. inhabitants of that city. After this, he fent his van- 
guard to Siftdn ; and followed with the reft of his army, which 

« Hift. Tim. Bek, p. a«7— 233. c. 39 — 41, 
Mod. Hist* Vol.V, Q^ con* 

Digitized by 


Hiftefy rf the Moguls and Tatars. B. VL 

conflfted of 100,000 warriors. In his way, prince Sh^ Ja- 
lalo'ddin^ of F^ah {or Pdrrah), came and fubmitted to him. 
* The army likcwife took the fortrds of Zdreh (T), with the 
flaughter of near 5000 foldiers, of whofc bodies they made a 
mountain, and with their heads eredled a tower. 
Siftan ie- WhIsn the emjperor arrived at Stfldn (U), he raided his 
Jieged'y army round it in form of a crown. Prefently there appeared 
fome lords deputed from Shah Kt^thbo'ddtn^ to offer tribute to 
Tim^r, and the ufual cuftoms : but, during this confcraice, 
the befieged fallied out in multitudes with gpod troops. Tt- 
mur, who knew of their defign, placed 2000 men in ambufti; 
while an amir advanced with a few horie to begin the fight, 
and then turned to the right, pretending to fly. The enemy, 
who were only foot, encouraged by this feint, purfued them 
vigoroufly to the place of ambufcade ; where the horfe; rulb- 
ing out, after a bloody fight, drove them to the gates of the 
town. Next night 2000 of the enemy fallied out tofurprifc 
the befiegers, and advanced as far as the tents, and even to 
♦ the middle of the camp : but they met with fo warm a recep- 
tion, that thofe, who efcaped being killed, witlj great diffi- 
culty got back to the town °. 
saien, and Next day the army affaulted the, place on all fides, and at 
deftroyed. the fame time the befieged made a faUy ; but were repulfed bj 
the Mirza Alu with 500 horfe, who entered the town with 
the enemy. However, they were oppofed by a ftrong party, 
who fhut thenx in, and b^an a furious engagement : but Akit- 
mur Bahadr^ being informed erf what had happened, hafted 
with 1000 horfe, and, cutting the gate to pieces, ddivered 
Mirza AH and his men out of the hands of the enemy. The 
king, Shdh Kothbo'ddtn^ defpairing to defend himfelf, came out 
of the town to aflc pardon of the emperor ; who granted it, 
and diftinguiftied him from the other princes by his favom-s. 
Mean time between 20 and 30,000 of the populace. Hiding 
down by the walls, advanced to attack the befiegers, who 
repulfed them with great flaughter. Then, purfuing their vic- 
tory, they gave a fecond aflault ; and, having nude feveral 
. . breaches in the walls, entered the city, which they left dcfo- 

" ' » Hift. Tim. Bck, p. 233—241. c. 41 — 44. 

(T)In5//?tf»oriVy;wra« province. The province, which has the 

near a lake of the fame name. fame name, is otherwife calltid 

(U) It is alfo called Sejeftdn^ Nimr^z, (that is, the foathcra 

' or SajfJidn,2LndiZaranj, It ftands coxintry). La Croix, Thfs author 

on the river Senarudy a branch fays, it « a part of KhBra£m % 

of the HifWwfW, which falls into but it is indeed a diftinCl pro- 

the lake oi Zirth {ot Zargh), vincc, of donfideraWc extent. 


Digitized by 


C; i: The RiigH pf TvaSa Bek. 

late : they not only demolifhed the walls and houfes^ but 
flew all the inhabitants^ men/ women, and children. Thus 
was this fine dty deftroyed, and all the treafures of the Sif- 
tin kings carried away, in the month of Shawal. The king 
Kotbbo'dd^Tii generals of the army, and governors of pro- 
vinces, were tent to Samarkant. 

From Sijtin the army marched to Soft (W). In Htmr Othrcitia 
paflage they took the fortrcfs of Tak : and> >^hen they came ridmad^ 
to the river Hirmen (or Hendmend)^ deftroycd an antient mo- 
nament there called The bank of MJlem. Being informed at 
Kuke Kala^ that T4men Nikudari, revolting, had befieged KiJ 
in Mekrin^ the emperor fent the Mtrza Mirin ShAh'Ttxth troops 
to reduce him ; and altho' the Amir Sayfo'ddin^ his old friend, 
Arove to reclaim him, he continued obftinate, and was killed 
in the firft onfet. As the arniy marched by the upper part of 
the Hirmen^ the prince of Mam KaH waited on Timir with 
prefents : but, as Tim^r knew him to be the perfon, who, 
when he returned from Siftin with the Amir Hujjdyn^ had 
wounded him in the hand, he ordered him to be feized, as -« 

foon as he was gone out from his prefence, and ihot to death, 
.After this, the troops, on theur march, took the city of Mam 
Kati and Kala Surk^ that is. Red Cajile. Then arriving at 
HezarpeZf where 3000 of Timen's fubjefts had fortified them- 
felves in the mountain, they took it by aflfault, tho* deemed 
impregnable ; and put them to the fword, to punifh them for 
the diforders they committed. The like was done at Dehne^ 
another citadel, which the tribe of Tagdchi had feized, and 
towers built of their heads, as ufual. 

The army proceeded next to attack the Owgani (X) of KindahSr 
Kulf Soleyman^ a fbrtrefs on a mountain of that name, who '*^^* 
had lately fubmitted, and were now revolted, A bloody battle 
was fought, in which feveral brave men were killed : but, the 
place being at length taken, the Ougani were all put to death, 
according to the laws of JengMz Khin. From thence Jeh&n 
Sh&h YaH BahMr was fent to Kandahdr^ which he carried by 
aflault ; and, feizing the governor of the province, fent him 
to court, where he was hanged. TimAr^ on his arrival there, 
rewarded JehAn Sbdh; and then difpatched him with forces to 
KeUt (Y) ; which, after feveral aflaults, he took and demo- 
liflied. Sijidny Zable/ldn^ and their dependencies, being thus 

(W) AtpwnofSifdn, on the (X) Thcfc are the A*wg4ns^ 

borders of Zabuleftan^ or Zablef- A^wgwans^ ovAfgdns, who lately 

tdn. La Croix, Others, with De Caufed fuch troubles in Perfia, 
Pfftty place it in Zabulejidn^ on (Y) A town in the kingdom 

the borders of the province of of Koran ^ nezr Kandabdri ditfer* 

Kendahir. ent from Ktlit in Khorajfdn, 

Qjl brought I 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hiftory cf the Moguls md Tatars. a. fl. 

brought into fubjeSion, the emperor dUbanded the amirs, 
officers, and troops ; then fetting out for Samarkanty he ar* 
^ rived there in fourteen days. Soon after, a fon was born to 
hint, named Ibrahim Soltdn ; but this prince did not live bqg, 
dyitig very young. 
Invades T- After Timur had ftaid three months in his capital, to pafe/ 
tttiafrefi. the delightful feafon, he refcdvcd to march to Mazdrtderin* 
H«;j. 786. He ftaid fome days at BM, for the arrival of fevcral bodies pf 
vA.D. troQpg. which, amounting to 100,000 men, confidcrably ia* 
'3^4* creafed his army. Being come to the river Margib^ he toojt 
the road of Burkey Tajb\ and, coming down from Sarah, 
-Went to Bdverd (or Jbiverd), and theirce to Neja (Z), where h^ 
learned that the Amir Veli had fhut himfelf up in the citadel of 
Dur4n (A). On the way thither, his van-guard met that of 
the amir, and came to a battle. Mobajher, who began the 
attack, was /hot in the face with an arrow, which, entering 
near his teeth, went out at his neck : but, notwithftanding hi^ 
wound, he ru(hed on his adverfary, and cut off his head. 
The enemy, feared at this aftion, fled ; and Tindr rewarded 
MohaJljer\ courage. The army, on their arrival at Dur^n, 
befjeged it; and, after feveral ' affaults, took k, putting the 
governor and garrifon to the fwcrd o. 
Aftarabad From D/irun they marched by ChUawn^ a country full of 
df/irojrd. villages ; and, paffing the river at Jorjariy encamped at Sha' 
fiiman :' there, the two armies meeting, a bloody fight en- 
fued, Thefe (kirmifties continued twenty days ; at the end 
whereof, the Amfr Veli advanced, and fought with heroic va- 
lour ; but was at length obliged to fly, and many of his bcft 
officers fell in the purfuit. Toward evening, Ttmur ordered 
thirty companies to lie in ambufcade ; and, in the night, the 
Amfr Veli (allied out 6f the fortrefs upon the right wing com- 
manded by prin<;e Mirhn Shah, who niarched againft hhn; 
and, at the fame time, thofe in ambufcade fell on : fo that, 
being, put to flight, many of his troops fell into the ^its which 
they had dug to entrap the enemy. After this, the army, 
marcliing forward, arrived in the morning 2X Afi&r M>ad (B), 
capital of Mazdnderin^ where they burnt and deflroyed every- 

° Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 241 — 253. c. 44—48. 

(Z) Nifayy or Nefayj as in (A) A city of Khor^Jfan, now 

Alu l^ha%i Khdri\ \i\^oxy'. it is belonging to Karafm^ to the 

called alfo Little Damajkus, La north of 'Nefa, towards the ri- 

Croix fays, it is a 017 in the de- ver Amu, 
fart of Ki'vahy bptvVeen Khoraf (B) t^ituated at the footh-eaft 

fan and Karazm. corner of thi? Ca/pian fca. 

• - ' diing, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

G. 2. ^be Riign of Timiir Bek. • 245 

thing, without fparing even fucking infants. This war hap- A. E). 
peoed m the month of Shawal 786. ^J^^.. 

The Amir yeli fled the fame night, with his wives and chil- !— p^7*-^ 
dren, by the way of Langaru^ to' Damg^n ; and, leaving them Lo'^man 
in the fortr^s of Shirdekuh, marched to Ray, or Rey (C). '| he n^iored. 
troops fent in purfuit almofl overtook him at that city f which 
made him fly into the woods of the country of Rujteynddr^ 
and thus efcaped. This amir was fon of Sheykh Mt Bifud^ 
one of Taghitm&r Khan'% coipmand«rs, who was flain, ^t the 
fame time with his maftcr, by the Sarbedals. VeVh who was 
prcfent, efcaped ta Nefa ; where at length becoming powerful^ 
he marched to 4ftAr obM^ which he reduced : while Lpkmdn 
Pidi Shdhy fon of Toghitm^r^ fled, and wandered from place 
to place ; till, lifting into the fervice of Timir, this monarch, 
' after taking that city, reftored him to the government of it. 

The emperor, leaving above two-thirds of his army to win? Sohdn 
ter at Aftir oMd, marched with the reft towards the kijig- Ahmed 
dom of Ray, Soltan Ahmed Sheykh Avis Jalayr, who was then //«/. 
at Soltdniya in Irdi, alarmed at this unexpefted approach, 
left a OiroDg garrifon there, under the command of his foo 
Akbuga^ and retired to Tauris. Mean time Oniar Abbds^ a^ jjej. 787. 
tfie h^d of threefcore horfe, fct out towards Soltdniya, in th^ A. D. * 
terrible fnows, to gain intelligence. The enemy, on thenew^ ^3^S' 
of his march, departed in great haftc, with their young prince^ Soltaniya 
for Tauris ; but, a^ they were not all gone out when Otna^ taken, 
Abids arrived, that commander entered the place fword in 
hand, and mad^ himfelf mafter of it. Ttrntlr, who, in fpring, 
came to Soltdniya^ having fent to Shtriz for Sarek Adel (pne 
of the greateft lords })elonging to Sheykh AviSy then in the 
fervjce of Spitan Zeyn al Abo'ddin, fon of Shah Sh^ja, lately 
dead), cqnferrijd on him the government of that prpvlnce, and 
the territories dependent on it j leaving with him alfp ^ army^ 
to fnbduc the neighbouring countf ies. , % 

Aftbe this expedition, TimUr, returning from SoltMy^i , • 

ptered the mountains of RufieyndAri and, as. the princes of . 
the country fl$d, he eafJy bccaaoie puifter of it. T^i^ Amfr . 
yelh cm thU 8^«, fled %lfo from Talus ; whil^ the army turned 
' towards the cities of Amol and Sarye (or Sari) ; but the 
princes, who pofleflfed thofe places, prevented the danger, by 
offering to pay tribufe, an4 obey Lokman Pddijbeh^ prince of 
AJidr abdd. 77mur, having thus reduced Iran, as far weft- 
Ward as SohfiniyeLt returned to the fiat of his enipire; Kipjaks 
DtJRiNG thf? wmter, T^katmifl> (or Toktamtfix), ^)kin of take Tau^ 
ftnt an army of n<^ 9Q,oqq n^cn, by way of l>^bend^ r>8* - 

{Q) In s^ll probability the antient Raf^au, or Rages, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Hiftifj 0f the Moguls and Tatars. B. VI. 

to attack Tauris. In this army, who were for the mpft part 
infidels, of a mercUcfs nature, there were twelve Jglens (D), 
^ princes of the' royal blood of Tujbi^ with feveral amirs. The 
inhabitants' of Tauris having, by advice of the Amtr Veli, 
yrho had retired thither, fortified their city, repulfcd the 
enemy for eight days ; but at length the army of Toktamijb 
Khdrtf being more numerous than that of the befieged, be« 
jcamc mafters of the place, where they exercifed aU manner of 
cruelties and abominations. Then having, in fix days, pU- 
laged all the treafures; which had taken up many years to 
amafs, they carried them off, with numerous fiares, to thdr 
own coui^tryP. 
^orcftin TIMUR, when he heard of this devaftation, was greatly 
redueed. incenfed at it, and confirmed in his resolution to conquer 
Irdn : which, being in confufion for want of a fovereign, 
was fubjeft to fuch invafiotis, and liable otherwife to fall into 
the hands of fome other power ; which might prove detri- 
A. p, mental to himfelf. In the year 788, therefore, he croflcd the 
J 3 86. JMn with a formidable army; and, after a long march, ar- 
rived at FiriizMh (E). Here b^ing informed of the outr^ 
committed by the people of Lureftdn^ or country of Lur {Lor, 
or Lawr)y who had lately attacked and plundered a karawan 
of pilgrims, paffing thro* their country to Mekka ; he thought 
' himfelf obliged to chaftife fuch villains. Therefore, taking 

with him every fifth man, he marched thither with all expe- 
dition ; ordered Urujerd, with the neighbouring places, to be 
plundered; and at length reduced Korram abAd^ an ahnoft 
impregnable fprtrcfs, whither the robbers of LAreftdn were 
rctu"cd ; the greater part of whom, being token, were thrown 
headlong from the tops of the mountains. Havmg thus fub- 
dued this little principality (F), he rejoined his army at NiJkt" 
wend (a city not far off, to the fouth-weft). 
f<tUt This monarch, having received advice that Sok&n JhrnfJ 

Tiaris. falayr had raifed troops at BAghdM^ and returned to Tanris^ 
hafied tqvvards this kft city, at the head of his army : but 
the fokari, not willing to Urait his coming, fled. Troops, 
being fcnt to purfue him, overtook and plundered his bag- 
gage. 'Hereupon he aban^ned his army, acpompaaied with 

t Hift. Tim. Bck, p. 25}— 260. c. 48— Ji. 

(b) Ail the princes tyf the Ptrfian Irqk^ a few leagues to 
•^« : blood of Tujhi (or Ju^i) *rc for- th^ N. E. of Ik<^, 

^^t^Agltn,. LaCr^ix. - - (F) Its pdnce y^2sMdkkJ%ei 

(E) A fortress in Kuhefidn^ ox t»ddin\ biit it Is nbt faid ^lax 

became of bipi. 


Digitized by 


C. 2. The Reign of Timflr Bck. 

fome troops : but, at the falt-pits of Nemekzar, beyond Nak- 
chivdn^ was overtakei«gain by Elias Koja, fon of Sheykh Ali 
BafufJr, with a finall number of horfe. The foltaq made a 
brave refiftance ; and Elias, having been difabled by a wound, 
gave him an opportunity of efcaping. On this occafion there, 
happened many diforders at Nakchivdn ; where, among other 
damages, the great dome of the palace of Ziao'l Mulk was 
burnt. Mean time feveral great lords and ftiarifs of Jzerhe- 
j&n came to fubmit to the emperor : and a fum of money was 
impofed on the inhabitants of Tauris, by way of ranfom for 
their lives. 

The whole kingdom of Jzerbejdn being now reduced, the Axcrbc- 
court remained at that capital during the fummer. Here Sa- }^^ ^y 
rek 'Adel (G) was put to death by a ling from the walls ; and ^^^^^^' 
the moft (kilful matters in every art and fcience were fent to 
Samarkant. At the fame time the Amfr Veli was feized wan- 
dering in the province of Kaikal{*), and put to death. In au- 
tumn the army marched to Merend (or Marand) ; and then to 
the river Ur^s (H), which it pa/Ted, over the bridge of Ziao'I 
Mulk, one of the moft magnificent in the world, built all of 
ftone, of a vaft length, and flat at top. It i$ in the territory 
df Nakchivdn, near the town of Tulaha (I) : one of its arches, 
which joins to a mountain, at whofe foot the river runs, is 
fety cubits wide : there is another of fifty-five cubits. There 
b alfo a great gate at each end, made out of the rock : the whole 
not to be equalled for beauty. 

The army, after reducing the citadel of Korni, and town In^vades 
of Surmalu, on the river, which they found in their road, Georgia, 
came to Kdrs : a town with a citadel fo ftrongly built of ftone, 
and difficult of accefs, that thofe of the country deemed it im- 
pregnable: for all this, the governor Piruz B&kht, 2LTurkmdn^ 
after a very brave defence, was obliged to furrender the place ; s 
which was plundered, and then razed to the ground. As 77- 
nttir's aim, from the firft, was to make war on the infidels ; 
becaufe it is recommended by God to Mohammed, as the moft 
excellent of all aftions ; fo, being at this time fo near Georgia, 
he refolved to make war on that country, which he had long 
before meditated. With this view he decamped from Kdrs^ 
tho* in very frofty weather ; and, by W5iy of A7//J, arrived at 

(G) He ha4 fled from the lafii^or rather Jul/a. The bridge 

ooaitofthe//ii^^d^ffkings(orof is mentioned by TatMmier^ c. 4. 

Soltan Ahmed) tothatof TYxvur. p. 19. ; who tells u$» it was dc- 

(*) Part of KJbiJ&t, otGbildn. ftroyed, with the city, by Shah 

(^) Ot Jras, o{ o\d,Araxes, Abbas, to prevent the Turks 
(I> CoiTiblf^ a miftukc for Ju^ from fetding thert . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hijlory of the Moguls and Tatars. B. Vh 

Ti^iSf capital of that country, which was well fortified with 
ftroDg walls, befides a dtadd : but, by the valour of Time's 
^ troops, the city was taken, and prince MSiek Ipokrates brought 
id chains to the camp.' After this, the emperor took the din 
verfion of hunting : the foldiers firft made tl;e circk called 
^e Nerk ; and then performed the Jerk^ by approaching tOr 
wards the centre, fo to inclofe the gameq. 
cndfiih' The army being encamped at Sheki^ near the mountains, 
4ius it. feveral bodies were fent into different parts of the country, 
which reduced many cities and provinces. The Lckeziam 
were pillaged, and moft of them flain : the provinces of Tenk» 
gut and Jkjeb were fubdued. The camp removing to Kabala, 
or fCambafa, the amirs razed Ka!a Surk, pr the Red Caftle ; 
^d from thence, by Karabagh-furkab^ came to the Kur [ox 
Cyrus)^ which they croffed, over a bridge of rafts. Then, 
marching to Berdaa (in the province of Jran)^ that dty fub* 
# mitted without any oppofition. When they came to Kara- 
Hgh (or the Black Garden)^ Timur fent for. Ipokrates ; and 
ufed fuch convincing arguments, that he turned Mohammedan, 
He prefented the emperor with a coat of mail, reported to 
have been that which the prophet Dawd^ or Davidy forged in 
a fmith's fliop ; and made proof, by foaking and dying it fe-. 
veral times. Ti7nur, in return, made him feveral prefents, 
and permitted him to return hom^ : which good treatment of 
their princes induced moft of his {ubjefts to embrace the 7J%?- 
7)24n faith. 
Shjrwan At this time the Amfr Sheykh Ihr&himy prince of Shirwin, 
(uimits, diftinguifhed for his power, honefty, and noble defcent, came 
and fubmitted to Timur. Among other parcels of prefents, 
^there was one of eight captives, whom he had bolight ; and, 
as fome perfon faid that the ninth piece was wanting (K), be 
prefented kimfelfy to make up the number : which aflion fa 
highly pleafed the emperor, that, befides other bounties, he 
beftovvcd on him the kingdom of Shtr-wdriy and its depend- 
encies, with the title of king ; under which he became famous. 
Other fovereigns followed this prince's example ; particularly 
thofe of Ghilan, or Kilan^ who, confiding in tlieir mountaiosi 
and woods, marflies and Houghs, which rendered acc^s diffi- 
cult, as well as in the ftrength of their walled places^ bad not 
obeyed any king for many ages. 
pefeats TiMURj having paiTed the winter at 'Karabaghy on the 

ih Kip- banks of the UnU (or ^lras)y in th? beginning of the year 785^ 

Hcj. 789. % HiA. Tim, Bck, p. 3^60—260. cap.. 51— r4. 



IZ^7' (K) It h ^be Cttftoxp alfo to prefent ain^ yiecea of a fort. 

■ *"• .' ^ 'r ' ^ " ^'^ I 


Digitized byV 

C. 2. The Reign of Timfir Bck. 

marched to Bardaa. Here he received advke that Tdhamlftf, 
khan of Kipjdk, had revolted ; and fent ao army to make an 
irraption into Azerbejiriy by the way of Dirbendy contrary to ' 
the counfel of his principal lords 2 but AH Bey^ and Kazanfin^ 
who had killed his own fiather, having found accefs to him. 
perfueded him to break off friendfhip with the emperor, and 
become his enemy. As foon as they were arrived near the 
Mr^ troops were fent^ver to obferve their motions ; who were 
defeated : but, a ftrortg body being detached to fupport them, 
under the command of the MIrza Mirhn Sh&h^ Haji Sayfo^d* 
din, and other princes, the enemy were foon put to a fliameful 
flight. They were purfiwd as far as DArbend, and a great num- 
ber taken prifoners, whom TimAr gcneroufly releafed 5 after 
mildly refl^fling on their khin*$ breach of treaty without any 

From the Mr he marched to Gheukche Tenghiz, that is, Deftrty^ " 
the Blue Sea, where the cmprefs Saray Mulk Khardm arrived, Alenjik. 
with her two fons, from Samarkant. At length he proceeded 
to Menjiky where there was a fortpefe belonging to Soltin 
Ahmed. Three days after, his foldiers, in the night, afcended 
the mountain adjoining to this place ; and, at day-break, at* 
tacking it, made themfelves mafters of the lower dtadel, which 
diey deftroyed. Thofe, who guarded it, fled to the upper 
fortrefs ; where, for want of water, they at length capitu- 
lated, pnHnifing on oath to depart. But, juft as the be-* 
ficged were going to perform their agreement, fo great a rain 
fim, that, in twenty-four hours, all their ciftems were filled 
with water ; and the people, having quenched their thirft, 
pat the enemy to defiance : who, fuipcfting no fach contra- 
i^cntion, had defccnded the mountain, andretumed to the camp. 
Hereupon, the ficgc being renewed, the walls were at length 
battered down, and the water turned off; fo that in a fhort 
time the fortrefs was taken, and razed to the ground \ 

At this time advice arriving, that the Turkmdns -were con^Cb^ifn 
tinually niolefting the Mohammedans ; that they robbed the the^ Tur^- 
karawans, not fparing even thofe of Mtkka ; and that nobody mans, 
could pafs in fafety by the places where they dwelt, Tim^r 
left the province of Nakchivin, and marched towards them. 
In the way, he ordered the baggage to repair to Alatak ; and* 
when he arrived at the caftle of Bayez\d, formerly calkd Jy^ 
dm, his troops pillaged it, and^carried off all which the va% 
k4b;taats had left in the adjacent country, Fafling farther to 

? Hi(l. T^m. ?ck, p. 269—278. c. 54^58* 

Digitized by 


Hifiory af ibi Moguls aM Tatars. B4 Yl* 

fatrAOi z cextaan nnmbar of heads : hat ooMy feAdiers^ wh^ 
were unwilling to kill the Mu/uhndns, bought heads of the 
' executioners, to make up their re(pe£bive quotas. At firft a 
head was fold for twenty dinars Ku^ghi 2 bit, when every qw 
had the number he was taxed at, it yielded only half a dinar; 
and at laft no perfcm bought any* On the other hand, the 
ididiers, who werelefs fcrupuions or humane, killed all they 
met ; zxAy by the tracks of feet in the fnow which fell, traced 
thofe who fled to their hiding-places, where they put them to 
death* According to the r^ilers of the divan» the number 
of heads amounted to 70,000 ; which were laid in heaps on 
t the walls, and afterwards piled up in towers, as ufual. This 

terrible (laughter happened on Monday the fixth of ZuHKaa- 
dehy in the year before-mentioned. 
FSrs and After the reduftigtt of IJ^ab&n^ Tvm&r marched towards 
Xerman SMr^ : on which vinoSfZayno'labeJcSn, prince of Pars, off 
jii/ds Proper Perjia, fled with Jiis troops to, join Shah Manjnr^ go» 
vemor of Tcfiar (T),.hi8 coufin*getman : but bis foldiers^ 
bring bribed, went over to ii£z;i^r; who^ fetztng the impm* 
dent prince, firft imprifoned Mjn, and afterwards his treache* 
rous tnoops, confiicatii^ all their efiefbL Mean tioifi the cmt 
V peror arriving at Shirdz, on the firft of Zulhajeh, that metrch 

pedis, with the whole kirigdom^ fubmtttcd to him. The go- 
vernors/ aflembting, igreed to pay -1000 tomans (U) K^egM; 
and the kotbah was read, in TimAr'% ^name. i^^ Shah Tahta^ 
piince of Tazd, a dtiyd^P^r/^ nepheMr of the late Shah Shpa ; 
Soltan Jbmed, prince ^sl" K^man, brother of th^ fame.^ih^ t 
zndJhu IJbAk, his grandfen, from Sjrjmn^ all the sdghbour- 
ing fovetsigns ; alfo the atabeks of L^. (W),and CurgMan 
Lar (X), came elnd nude their fubmiffion ; while the troops w»^ 
to pillage the countries which refufed ta obey die fommons ^ 

< Hid. Tim. Bek> p. ^0—^9. c.'6©-r^2. 

(T) Formerly called iT^^i^Z/r (U)A.toiKum ^s worthtwea^ 
(or Shi^ter)i in the projiFiftce of Frend> crowns, ta Croix. 
JUifwdz, which is p^ft of fC^u^ (W) A nation in Khuxfftfam 
^fiin. Ahulftda faj^a, this town La Croix* Some place them ift 
'^s tie mofl ^tient in the world. Perfian Irak, 

Croix. (X) A city and province qf 


. Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


C3* TiftlUignofTimiir'Bek. • 25 j 

CHAP. m. «387. 

^ars with the Kipjaks and Getes. Conqueft of the 

Countries to the Euphrates. 

IN the interim advice came, that Tdktamijh, khin of Kipj^, '^?^'^'^ 
•*- defeated by Tim^r in tlie weft, had gone round, and at- miihKhaii 
tacked his doniinioiis in the eaft. His army, having paffed by refuJ/iJ. 
SaganSk, fat down before Sabrdti; but were obliged to raife 
the fi^e. However, as they continued to ravage the coun- 
try, the Mirza Omar Sheykh marched from AndekMn i and, 
being joined by the troops left at Samarkant, crofled the SiMti 
(or Sir) in autumn. They met the efieray's army in the field 
of Juklik, five leagues to the e^ft of Otrdr ; and fought till 
night : when Omar Sheykh^ carried by his intrepid valour, 
breaking thro' the enemy's army, was mifled by his own ; who 
thereupon fled. However, the mirza cfcaped to Andekh&n ; 
and, having rallied his troops, fet out a fecond time : but, 
when he got to Kojendy news came that Jnkatura^ nephew of 
the Amir Htyi Bey^ of the tribe of Irkan^ty fbrgetting the 
emperor's favours, with an army from Mogulefthriy was already 
arrived at Sayram and Tajbkunf. Omar Sheykh immediately 
returned to cut off their retrea.t ; and came up with them be- 
fore Akfiket, The armies, for fome days, marched along the 
banks oi the Sihun^ in view of each other, waiting for an op- 
portumtyof engaging to advantage*. 

At length, one night, Jnketura, leaving 1 000 men in his TheGetcs 
camp, with orders to light fires, that the mirza might think de/eatid. 
all die army was fHU there, marched with th& rdft of his 
troops, and crofled the Sihin in a convenient place. At the 
faihe time Omar Sheykh advanced againft and fought him : but, 
as the enemy far furpafled him in number of fofces, he defifted, 
and entered Jndekhdn. Jnket^ra purfued him, and aimed to ' 
feizc all the avenues t but the mirza, to prevent him, fallied' 
Dut, and fell upon the G^fes^ rufhing into the midft of his ene- 
mies ; till Tukel Bahadr made after him, and led his horfe back 
3y the bridle : after which, Anketura^ weary of the expedition, 
eturncd homewards. Mean time the troops of KifjAk pillaged 
he towns of Great BukhAria ; and, being met, at Bokhdra^ by 
mother body of their army, befieged that city. But, as they 
,vere always worfted in their attacks, they raifed the fiege, and 
nade incurfions through the country ; in one of which,, they 

* Hift. Tim. Bek, p, 290—299. c. 60—62. ^:? : . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

tiffin of tie Moguls tf»rf iTatart: B. VJ. 

burnt Zenjir Saray (A), (one of the emperor's palaces) whi- 
ther they were conduced by Soltan MahmAd^ fon erf* Kay KofrA 
* Kattdni. 

New con- When 'Timir received advice of this invafion, he gave the 
fpiefisfit* government of ^hird% xo%W;\Tahia^ nephew of Shah5%d; 
iltd. that of Ifp&hhn to Soltan Mehemed^ fon of Shah ToMa ; that 

of Kirmhi to Solt^ Ahmed^ brother of Shah Shujas and in* 
vefted the Soltan Abu If-hik^ Shah Shuja^s grandfon, in the go- 
vernment of the province, as well as dty and caftle, of Sirjidn^ 
which he beftowed on him and his heirs for ever ; figning all 
their patents with the imperial fignet called Alttm^a, that is, 
the mark of the Red Hand. Then the emperca: fent all the 
great amirs belonging to the court of the late Shah Shi^a, 
with all the handicraftfmen of SMr&z^ to Samarkant : after 
A. D. which, he fet out for that city, at the end of Moharram 790. 
> 388. As fopn as the enemy heard that he had eroded the Jihitn with 
his army, they thought fit to fly back to Kiijdk, and were pur- 
fued as far as Bilen. . . . ^ 
CoTvardice As it appeared ftrange to this monarch, that, in the battle 
tunijhed. of Juklik^ the army of Tokatmijb Khdn fhould get the better 
of his troops ; he ordered the amirs, who were in that battle, 
to be exao^ined in council, and the tranfgreflbrs profecuted. 
Among the reft, Berat Koja had his beard fhaved (B) ; and, 
after bdng fevercly reproached for his cowardice, they painted 
his face v^dth cerufe and v^milion ; put a coifFe on his head, 
as if he had been a woman ; and made him run barefoot 
thro' the city. On the other hand, Kuche MAlek^ who, with 
thirteen men only, had attacked, in the night, 300 infidels of ' 
Ankaturd's troop, and delivered feveral prisoners out of thdr 
hands ; received as a reward, among other favours, a prindpa- 
lity, for him and his delcendahts, with the pri^dl^ of TW-- 
kdn \ 
Jfair} of In the beginning of the year before-mentioned, T/mtfrde- 
Karazm. parted for Karazm; and, when he came to the river Shedris (C), 
Hej. 790. learned by a deferter^ that Ilitmi/b Aglen (king of that conn* 
try), and Sokyman Sofi^ had quitted that kii^dom, and re- 

*> Hift.Tim. Bek, p. 299—305. c. 6% — 63. 

(A) Two leagues from Aa;^«. tions, than to have the beard 
Which Infultwas revenged after* ihaved, after it is once grown} 
wards by the burning of Saray^ cfpecially if done by the com- 
capital of Kipjdk. See La Croix, men executioner. La Croix, 
hi*. Tim. Bek, 1. iii. cap. 60. (C) Which runs into the Ji- 
p. C 14. fj&n ; and divides the kingdoms of 

(B) There is no greater re- ya^ata^^nd Karazm. La Croix* 

(ffoacfa among the eailern na- 


Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C. 3* The Reign of Timflr Bek» 

treated to KipjAk. Hereupon he fent fome troops in pnrfuit 
of them, by way of Komkint sind Kiz; who, overtaking them, 
made a great flaughter, and plundered their baggage. When 
he came to the capital of Karazm, he ordered the inhabitants 
to remove, with their goods, to Samarkant; and razed that 
great dty to the very foundations, fowing the ground with barr 
ley, to punifh his enemies making war upon him. However^ 
three years after, in 793, M^k bdng fent by Timir to iCi- 
raxm^ he repeopled the country, and brought it up to its aa- 
rient fplendor- He furrounded with walls not only the cities 
of JCdt and Kivdk, but likewife all the demefnes of the khan ; 
that is, the part of Karazm which Jenghiz Khdn gave to Ja* 
gatay Khan. 

During ThnAr^s cicpediiion into Karazniy Mehemed Mi^Rey^kof 
reke, fon of Shir Bahrdm, whom he had made governor of Mircke 
KdtUn, and honoured in marriage with his daughter Soltdn. 
Bdkt Begum^ revolted ; and marched to Termed^ but could not 
take that city. On the firft news of this rebellion, the Mirza 
Omar Sheykh purfued the rebels, who thereupon difpcrfed ; , 
which broke all Mireke^% meafures, who fled to the kingdom 
of KatUn. Being followed by the mirza, he hafted to the 
oarrow pafs called Darey DarvAz^ to feek proteftion of Shdh 
Jalah*dMn (D), who refufed him entrance into the caftle : to 
add to his affliAion, moft of hb domeftics abandoned him. 
Mean dme Omar Sheykh could , get no tidings of him : but, 
while he ftaid in Katldn, waiting the event, one of his officers^ 
in his way to Samarkant with fome domeftics, arrived at a 
fountain in Katl^ : where obfcndng the tracks of horfes which , 
had gone out of the common road, he had the curiofity to fol- 
low them ; and had no fooner paflfed fome hills, than he per* 
cdved Mehemed fitting with four fervants, while their horfes 
fed on the grafs. He immediately furrounded, feized, and 
bound them : then fent notice to the mf rza, who ordered him 
to put Mireke to death. 

At the fame time that Mireke rebelled, the AmJr Jehin and'B\iL* 
Shih departed from Kondoz with the tomans of Burulday^ Tay rMday 
khdn, and j^perdL In their march, that of Btlr^lday revolted, >//^''C^^'^* 
and returned back : the amh*, with fome troops, purfued 
them to Bakalan, and pillaged their houfes. After which, 
hearing of Mereke's rebellion, he prepared to march agi\inft 
I him ; and hafted to the Ji/?^n with part of the forces : where 

(D) Prince of the frontiers of flood of the country of Li/tle 

^ibet^ inhabiting the mountains Tibet, to the north of Ka^rmrt 

between that county and iui//a/j. \vi Hindujidn* 
La Cra/;r.— This muft be under- v. , 

Digitized by 


Hifiory of tbs Mo^^atfand Tatars. B. VL 

he was to be joined by two other commanders with the reft. 
But, as foon as night came, Junayd Burilday^ and his brother 
; Bayezld, revolting with the fquadrons they commanded, con- 
fifring of 3000 horfe, fell on Jehdn Shdh, who had no more 
than fixty men : yet this valiant general, having the river oq 
his back, advanced with his foldiers againft the rebels; and, 
when they had emptied their quivers, had recourfe to their 
lances and fwords. Mean time Koja Tufef^ fon of Olajta Hi, 
fent JMn Shdh word, that he was hajfting to his affiftance. 
This news giving the men new heart, they held firm till night; 
when rzi/^ arrived with 100 men, and fell fo vigoroufly oa ' 
the enemy, that they fled, while many were flain in thepw- 

When Tmur was on the way to Karazm^ Siorgatm^fh Khk 
fell fick at Bokhara, and died there ;' and, at his return, Soltan 
Mahmiid Mahmd (E), fon of the deceafed, was eftabli/hed in his place 
eleSed After this, he married the Mirzas Mehemed Sok^^ his brother 
ibdn. Pir Mehemed, and the Mirza Sh^ Rukh. 
fi^Kip- At the end of the fame year, Toktamijb KhAn^ of Kipjik, 
Jaks de- brought a numerous army into the field ; compofed of the 
featedp troops of Rujfia, Chirkaffia, Bulgaria, KipjM, Kritn, Kaffa, 
Hej. 791. jllan, and Jzdi. Timur, on this news, departed, with the 
P' troops of Samarkant and Kajh, to the place oi rendezvous, 
*3^9' fix leagues from his capital ; from whence he fent orders thro' 
. the empire for his troops to repair thither : but, before any 
could arrive, advice came that Ilitmi/h Khdn^ with a vaft num- 
ber of horfe, had croffed the Jihun at Kojend, and encamped 
not far diftant. The emperor, without waiting lor any other 
troops, contrary to the intreaties of his lords, fet forward, 
through the fnow, which was already fo ddep that it touched 
the bellies of the horfes. For all this, he marched night and 
day ; and, fhortly after,' was joined ty the Mirza Omar SheyU, 
with the troops of AndekhAn. 
*imth^eat TIMUR then fent a body of horfe to fall on the enemy'* 
Jlaughter^ rear ; r^nd block up the pafFages, to hinder their retreat. Next 
morning they came in fight of the enemy ; and unmediatdy 
made the great cry Sirun, to begin the fight. After a bloody 
battle, the enemy were obliged to fly ; and, being purfoed, 
many flung themfelves into the Jihdny to avoid the fword; 
while the reft, meeting with the troops fent to cut off thdr 
retreat, were hemmed in, and the greater part cut to pieces. 
Timur then returned to his capital ; and, in die month of 

« Hid. Tim. Bek, p. 305 — 315. 1. iii. c. i, & feq. 

(E) By miftakc, called in the hiftory Mihemed, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. j: • ThReipt of Tim^rBcL . . 257 

Safar 791, encamped near that city j waiting for the troops A D. 
from all parts of the empire, which arrived, in the . beginning 13^^' 
of fpring. In the month of Rabiyo'la'wel he departed for ^—V**^ 
Kipjdk ; and parted the Sihin at Kojend, over a bridge of 
bcwts, at the head of a formidable army. The vaA-guard fur^ 
prifed the enemy's fcouts, and cut moft of them to pieces i • 
the reft fled to Toktamijb Khdn^ who had llaid fiege to Sabr&n^ J. 
but was obliged to raife it ; and, as foon as he heard that* 
TmAr had pafled the river, fled with precipitation thro* the 
defart. He was purfued for fome time as far as Sdrek Uzdn,, 
on the river Jrch, by a body of troops ; who killed feveral pf 
the enemy's rear, and then returned ^to Akfuma (F), where the 
emperor was encamped, 

TIMUR then advanced forward ; and, having pafled the Sarbcdal 
town of BilAn, and Sg,rek Uzdriy at length came to AMfun^ a kingdom 
vilhge of Kipjii. Here being informed that the SarbedM f^^^^*^ 
princes (G), and Haji Bey Tun Carbdni, were revolted, with 
the garrifons of KeI4t and Th, he fent the Mirza Mirdn ShAh 
to KhoraJJirij vidth the main body of the army. In his way^ 
he caufed Mdlek Ptr Mehemed, fon of Mdlek Kayazo'ddtn^ 
prince of Her At ^^ and his fon Mahmkdy to be put to death at 
Samarkant ; , fo to remove the caufe of the diforders In Kho* 
rajjin. He did the fame by Zfiyn al Abeddtriy prince of SM" 
rkz ; fo that there remained not one of thofe Kurd (H) princes* 
fA Bahrab&d (near TiJj) he met the SarbedM kings, who 
fought with great refolutipn : but, being furrounded by the 

: mfrza's troops, were all cut to pieces, excepting prince Mal4k^ 
and two or three of his guards. Mean time the Amir Jkb^ga^ 
fcam Herdt, who had befieged Tui^ took it ; and, tho* Haji 
Bey fled, he was feized at Semndn in Kiimes ; and, being fent 
to the mirza, was put to death. 

,^ Mean time Timur was prevailed on by his lords to quit the Timfif 
farther purfuit of Toktamtjh KhBn for the prefent, and turn marchu 

• his arms againft Kezra Koja Aglen (king of Jetah) and Art' 
Mtira. He parted from Alkujhun in 791, and tqpk the rolidHej. 791^ 
' .if mount Urnak (I) ; beyond which, being in great want of A. !>• 

', rater, they found in the defart a vaft meadow covered with 'i^9» 

i^ (F) A fpy- tower in Kipjak, Sebzivar: the laft of thefe kings 

i :^KDtioned before. was Keja AH Muayd^ who died 

:. (G) S/zrheddl, OT^erheddl, {\g' in th& camp of Th/jur. La Crotx, . 
y ttes Head on the branch ; be- (H) Perhaps, rather Goivfi' , 

Jiofe the fadious among them princes. 

^ »ng their turbans on branches (1) The refidence of Oguz 

f trees, in token of refolutipn. Khan, founder of the Mungltm^ 

• Vclvc of them reigned forty- pire ; called alio Urnak Lornak, 
fe years, from 737 to tS?, in La Croix, 

^ Moi>. Hist. Vol. V. R ke 

Digitized by 


Hi/torji dftic Mogpfe ami Taters, B^ Vf, 

ice and {ho\y, tho' in the midfl of fnmmcr,. which relieved 
both men and cattle. Having hunted at Aygher Tali (on the 
' river !f/*), they at length came to the town of Shipar Aygherx 
where they defeated looo horfe belonging to Ankaiurn^ who^ 
diey l^rned, was at Uronk^ or Uronkyar^ another town ctf 
Jet of). The army hafted thither : but^ the guide haviog loft 
lis way in the nig^t^ Timi&r next day divided it ipto tiwo bo«* 
i^y c^e he kept Wmfelf ; ^d ggiye the other to tic Mirza, 
€imr Sheykh, to feek the cn^myJ After pafling, thro' many 
iOWB^and villages, be encampea at Karaguciur,. a. temple of 
^ Mungls 'r while the mirza, taking another road, at length 
came up with AnkatAra, at the town of KAbak : where he de- 
feated and made him fly to Kakamaburjt (K) ; leaving to the 
vi^r hi* cattle, and daughters,, who were exceediag- hcauti- 

iw/<7jdt«Jb; 0^^^ return, he was ordered to go hi qneft of part of 
the. army fent out before on another occafion. Hewas.acG^im-r 
^^\ti. only with fifty perfons; but they were aU, princes^ 
amjrs,. and generals. When he arrived at the plain of Ichmas 
Ala^heut (L), they met with 800 of the enemy's horfe ; whom^ 
tho' fix to one more numerous^ they defeated, after a hloodf 
fight, and returned, with their c^tle to the camp at-JSuxi^-. 
Mr, AsTimur ftaid here to fatten his.hafes, he detached 
3O4POQ men toward Jrtijh (M), in qucft of. the enemy. Whoa- 
they arrived at the Irti/b (N), they marched along that ri?er^ 
and- many pafled into the ifles, and other places, where thef 
ileyr, and took a great number of prifbners, with thdr efibfts. 
At their return, the enemy decamped ; and, paiSng the great 
ii(<LXi, after m^ny. days journey, arrived at Aymal Cuju (car 

^ Hift. Tim. Bek, p. J15— 328. c. 2— 5. 

(K) A^ aiitient caftle on the fame, perhaps, wvth^^,ofteA. 

frontiers of Jetahy and north of mentioned id the reign of 7«» 

Turkejidn. La Croix, — By Tur- ghiz Khan, 
keftin the author mull mean here ( N ) Formerly called Jrtijb » 

the country o£ Kdfogar in little a river which -runs thro' all thc^ 

Btkh6rU\ which is fo called at country of J a ah and Ui^ 

one time by the oriental writers, ejldtiy and falls into the Ohi, U 

becauie Kajhgar was the refi- Crpix.'^By Mogulefian^ is not to 

denceof the khans of the7»r^x. be underftood the antient coun- 

(L) A plain in Jetah, near try of the Mun^h^ to the caft of 

the river Irtijh, where there is a mount Altay\ but that part of 

fait lake. La Croix > Tartary, On the weft fide,, pof- 

(M) Artijhi or Irtijh^ a town ffefied by the Elutks or iW- 

^-Mogultfiart, La Creix,'^ The muks^ 


^ ^ Digil^edbyVjOOQlC 

t. 3; The RJtign vffimht &Ic; I59 

J)ital of Jetdh) (0) ; where he lodged in the palace of Saray A. D. 
Urdam, with great magnificence. "3^9- 

ApTfei^ this, Twiilri in order effeftnally to root out the ^^^^-^ 
Cetes^ divided his army into feveral bodies, under fo many ^^^fi^^ 
geflferals, who were to take difierent routes y being provided 
both 'vVith fiplidesy and memoirs of the rpads» -The Mirza 
Omalr^ 3heykh, croffing the.riiountain DUefhin Andur (neir the 
lake Artdkgheul)y went as feras Karakgd (P)^ three months 
journey of the kaniwan fix)m Samdrkant : another parity went 
to the town of Kam Jrf, and valley df SMr^jIuk, in Mogul- 
eftdn: KodMad HuJJayni^ wiih a body of 20,000 men, ar- 
riving^^ at BiMty by way of UricM^ towns in the fame coun- 
try, met with the tribes olBylgdji and Ilkeri whom they ilc^ 
feated, after a bloody battle, which continued for twenty-four 
hours.. -Thofc, who efcaped, fell into the hands of Trmrfr} 
who, with his guards and houfhold troops, having taken the 
road oi.OM Kul (Q_), met them at the hill o£ SichkhAn Da- 
ban (R), and cut them to pieces. A' fifth body Went as far 
as high and Cheveyar; toivns in MogtiUftdn^ 

Several amirs, who had been ordered to follow Tiwifr- In KcfraKo^ 
this expedition, after maiiy days journey, came to Urdahan ja Khah^ 
(a mduritain of Jetahy near Great Bukharia) : then drofled the 
river Jlbeile (S), and arrived at Sutgheul (T). At length they 
advanj:^ to Chicheklik and BalaykhAn, towns 6f Moguleftarii 
which they plundered. When they aime to that of Molzt^ 
d4, they met Vfith Kezra Koja Aglm^ king of MoguleflAn^ at 
the head of a great army : as they were much bferior to the 
enemy in number, they difnibunted ; and, tying the bridles of 
their horfes to their girdles, let fly their arrows : they fought 
back to J^ack, turning on all fides, without ftirring out of the 
place for forty-ei^ht hours 5 at the end of which, they made 
a treaty with the en^my, -and «ctire4 "to Tulduz, the place of 
rendezvous. ^' 

(O) Capital of yeiaffi and (R) Daian' fignifiei a mount 

frOTMicT of MogukJIan. La Croix, taiif. LdCfQix. 

— It is difficult to fix the fitua- (S) It i-uns into the Sihin. La ^ 

tion or bounds of thefe conn- Cr^/jr.-^Wc rather conjedurc it 

tries, according to this author, to be the river ///, on which th# 

who fcems often to vary in hia khan of the Eluths ufed to en- 

dcfcription of places. camp, as wc have obfcrvcd bc- 

(P) A toivn in Moguhftany fore, p. 231, note (I). 

called alfo Aramuth. La Crcix. — (T) A town Qn the bank of ^ 

Aramuth is in Little Bukharia^ the great lake' of fwcct water. 

near Turf an. La Cr$ix. 

( Q ) 'The great ftreain of tKc 
rirCT IrtzJ^i. La Croix, 

k a Whim 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hijioryi of the Moguls and Tatars.' R VI 

When Timtlr; ^vho was then at Keyti (U), heard this liesf^X 

he joined the toman of Mahm^d Khdn ; and, paflirig by Kon^ 

ghcz (W), arrived at Tuldiiz ; where, chufing out the hraveft 

r^joJ^^^^^ men of his anny, he eroded the river at Uiakiatmvir (X), and 

^ #Ct^- follawed the track erf JCezar Koja Jgien. After pafling the 

great dcfart, he arrived at KarabtUak (Y) ; from, thence he 

u«nt fo Taherthfb (Z) ; and, coming to Kijbon Kay (A), dif- 

cQ^cred the enemy's army, wlio fled under cover of the nighty 

and, as they topk different routes^ many fell into the hands 

of Timurs troops,, and were flain. The emperor, having paffed 

the mountain Nayrin Keutei, purfued the enemy as far 2& 

Kt^ratfifhy another mountain : and thus coaftraincd the king of 

Jet ah to abandon Ws kingdom^ after fujfFering infinite fatigues, 

and feeing all- his warriors cither flaln or taken prisoners, as 

well as his wives and children, together with the inhabitants of 

this country : which befides was intirely ruined, as fiu: as K&lart 

Keutei (B), and the, cattle all carried away^ 

^^ at After this, Timur began his march homewards; and, 

fi^^:^. wheahe came io.jalijb (a town near Bikut), he divided the 

H^ • immenfe booty among his foldicrs. From thence, paffing by 

. vtbe town ©f Kajkt^y and mountain BUajiry he arrived ar 

Tuldiiz (C)v.that is> The morning Jhar\ fo called from the 

beauty of its fountains and paflures : a moft deBghtfiil place. 

TThe grafs there is fo nouriihing, that it fattens the leaneft 

Jiorfc^ in a week*s time. . From thence the Mirza OmarSheykh 

xl^ fc^t home, by the way of the Iron Gate^ named Kaluga ;. 

j^^yond which he met the prince Kitblik^ one of the great amirs 

c the Geiesy whom he defeated witli great flaughter; and^ 

, ^jjig takeft, his head was cut off, according to the hws of 

^.fi^htz Kbm^ The mirza, having feizcd his eficfts, and ex- 

.' ^J) A town of McguUfi^T frontkr oF Kalmd^. LaCrolx,-^ 

r^ t\i^ Irtifli, La C^^^^- / ^ Thii^iuthor places Kalmak to the 

n^^tif) ^ton rvrCirf^Ki^y/tf^/on north of the river -^;w«r or-S^- 

/,l;i - r^ ^^® gi^cat lake j^trai ghalian. 
!^ /. ' ^0'*.— It fignifies (B) A mountain, at the cxtre- 
'^W li^ ^f ^^^ '^urks. Perhaps , m'ity of Mogulcfan, towards G/- 
^l^ CaX^^ called above, Jnak na. La Croix* 
tl^e. y (C) Diflant from Snrnarkant 

^^ V*^ A P^^'^S^ over the river ^vo months journey ofthekara- 
j.y -tf T^^'%'^^':/^^'^- la Croix. . wan, or 480 leagues, at the rare 
fv\ A famous fountain at the of eight leagues per day. ItJ5 
rStl^ the mountain Benghiar. called Cyalis, in the travels of 
r IX' Bcnedia Goes th« Jefuit toKata;f, 

^-,%T A villasc dependent on and is in the road from i?///W to 
i^lthrom. Li Crcil, China, La Croix, This is called 

T A> A village in MoguUPan, the Greater TulJuz. 
V^' "^ *• * terminated 

Digitized by 


C. 3-' The Re/^» of TimHirBck. t€i 

terminated his fubjefts, continued his route by Kuzan (D)^ A. D. 
Ucheferman (E), and the great city of Kifljgar (F) ; from 'S^g. 
whence at length he am ved at ^W^ifiin *. c—^^^*^^. 

TIMUR, having finiihed his expedition againfl: the Getes^ Returns u 
left Kechlk TulduZy or the Leffer TulduZy in order to return, ^^"^^r- ^ 
after a march of above looo leagues. When he came to Oluk ' 
TulduZy or the Greater Tulduz (G), he made a magnificent en- 
tertainment for the generals and officers of his army ; on whonar 
he bellowed xobes of honour, and belts adorned with pre-, 
•cious ftones. Then fettiqg forward the fixteenth of Shaaban; 
he arrived .at Saniarkant the fev^nth of RamAzdfi, that is, iiv 
twenty-two days^ though reckoned two nK)nths journey by 
Jcarawan. In winter he weat to Bokhara ; and paffed' th^fea- ' 
fon at Gbeul'fcrketiy^ near that city, where he took the diver- 
Con of fowling ; the ponds being ftocked with an Incredible 
number of fwans, and other kinds of bird^* Hei?e he gave 
the princefs SgltAyi ^akt Begi&my widow of Mepeke, to the Amir 
Solcyman Shhh ; and married the young Mirza Abubekr to tho 
daughter of the Amir Haji Sayfoddtn : -but the joy on thef© 
occaiions was allayed by the death pf Kudak Khutduy his fa- 
ther's widow. ' . 

W.H£N winter was o\ser, TimJir went to encamp at J^mr,. PJitical 
in the meadow of Kajb^ on the bank of the i^iver Kojhka {H).' regulation: 
As the officers were become very rich by the fpoil they had Hej. 792. 
gotten in the wars, he thought it advifeable to augment the ^' ^' 
regiments ; that, by increafing the expences of the conim4nd- ' ^^^' 
exSy he might diminifh their wealth, which might feduce them- 
from thdr obedience. For this purpofe, he alflembled the ku- 
rultay in 792 : which being over, he gave the grandees a^io- 
ther jnagnificent feaft ; and^ oa thifii occafion, married hi^ ,♦ 

grandfon, the Mirza Omar Sheykhy %o the princefs Sevinj Kot- 
iuk Aga^ daughter of Sheyrin Bey Aga^ who was very hand- 
ibme. After this, he difmifled the aflembly, and returned to' 

« Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 328—338. c. 5, &feq. 

-(D) A town oiTehet, ot Tibet, fided there for fomc time before 

LaCroix. — Hisroutecouldnot,in the reign oi Jenghtx Kkdn, it 

«ttr opinion, lie near that ooun- has been called the capiul of 

try. furhji^n^ of which if cnade a 

{E) A town cf Turkejljdn, La part. 
Cr^/x.— That is, of Kdjhgar, (G) That menttoned before. 

(F) Capital of T'ar/J^/iw. La (H)*It runs into the Tum^ 

4Zroix. — Properly capital of the which falls into the Jilmn. La 

.country of the fame name : but Croix^ • 
tte khans of the firix having re- 

^ ' Digitized by VjVJOQIC 

2^2 Hifiory of the Moguls and Tatars. B. VI, 

A. b. Samarkant : but, in a few days, came down to the oieadow 
1390. of 'i?^<jz/^^*, without that city. 
^^-^"^■^ At the beginning of the fame year, the emperor fent an 
Kamro'd- ^j^y jj^^^ ^^ic country of the Getes^ under command of the 
i^y '*" ?^'"^ Soieymdn Shtih, Kodadad Hupyn, Shamffddtn JbUs, and 
r^ his brother C>zw4>2. Having crofled the Sihun (or Sir) at 

Tdjbkunfy they marched to IJ/igheitl (I), and from thence to 
Gheuktopa (a hill mentioned before) •, from thence they took 
the road of the naountain Jrjaku (K), deftroying the country, 
flkying or inflaving the pepple, and .carrying away their efFefts. 
Thus they went thro' all the provinces of the' Getesy and ad- 
vanced as far as Al Mdlegh •, v/herc, having fwam over the 
fiver Jbeile (L), th^y arrived at Karatdl, a hord belongiflg 
to Ankatura, There being informed that 400 men, detacKcd 
before to get intelligence, had met with Kamro*ddhi ; that mod 
pi the foldiers on each fide were flain, and that the faid prince 
had marched towards Ichna Buchna (M), they departed in 
fearch of him ; and, having pafled thro' that town, arrived a^ 
Vker Kaptaji, another ; where they left their baggage, and 
f ode poft towards the frti/h. When they came to that river, 
tiiey learned that Kamro'ddtn had crofled it, and was gone to- 
y^dxds Tawlas (N), into the woods wher^ fables and ermins 
ate found. The amirs pafled the Irtijb in the rafts and boats 
which the enemy, had left behind; and marked their arms with 
fire' on the pine-ti*ees, as an evidence tp fucceeding ages of 
their conqiiefts beyond that river. A^ter they had been abfent 
fix months, they returned by jit^n Kawrke, a town op the 
great lake of Atrak Gheul (O), where there is a great road 
made along its bank$ ^ 
Timftr/«- Iii autumn Timur got ready hi$ troops to make war in Kip-, 
'vades j^k. Having yifited the tomb of Sh^kh Majlahet^ where hurny 
^ipjak. miracles are faid to be wrought, he crofled the Sibun at Ko- 
jend ; and went to Tqfhkunty between Barftn and Chinas , whl\ 

f Hill. Tim. Bek, p. 338—3^7. c. 7—9. 

(I) A lake n^ar Berkef, in (M) A tow^ of TurJ^e/aft. Zk 

Jetah. ' Croix, Thh is TurLr/tdn iniiit 

' (K) In Jet4ib,nt2S Al Makg. large fenfe bcfore.mentioned. 
La Croix, . ' (N ) A town of TMrtary. La 

(L) Which 'difcharges itfiftlf Croix, ':^? rltr IFilUam de Rulru- 

into the SHiin, La Croix-^ Bu| qjdifi mentipns a town, in hi? 

MMaleg is at a great diiflance jourjiey thro'T^rZ/ir;, called ?tf- 

jrom that river: which Circum- ias-, but whether th? fame widi 

fiance fcenjs to confirin whatWjO this, we cannot determine, 
have faid in a former note, coii- (O) In Turkeftdn, on the bor- 

^erning the river Abeile. ^^'ipf Mozuleftdu. La Croix 

Digitized by 


C i2 The Reign ofTimtv Bclc «<3 , 

<Wigft lo pafs the winter m that city, -where he lay danger- Hcj.^93. 
<»ifiy fick for foi'ty days. On his recovjery, the Mirzia Miran ' ^ 
-SA^* ferdved with the troops oiKhoraJfan ; «nd, on the twelfth 
*A Safar 793, Timtir began Ws march, condufted by Ttmiir ' 
Kc^Uik Aglen^ fon of ??w«^r MMek, khan of ^/^y^^^ ; Kor^e 
j^gkrij another prince of that country ; and AydekH XJziek. 
JHte Irft the Mtrzas ?ir Mebemed and Shiih Rukh to ^bvekn thie 
fem|Mre of Jagatay in his abfence ; and fent away all tne la- 
dies, excepting kic favourite ^©Itana Chulpan Mulk Jga^, da^Jig}^ ^ 
tcr of Haji Bey, of /^<2*, 

When they arrived nt KAra Suman (a town of KiQd)i% Refufes m 
jambafladors arrived from Toktamtjh KhAn, wkh a letter ; and trnth- 
prefented him with a fhonkar (P), and nine very fleet horfes. dnrm* 
Altho' Ttmur took the bird in his hand, he fhewed the ambaf- 
iadcn^ no marks of a good reception. In anfwer to their 
maft^r's letter, which b^ged pardon for what was paffed, 
and prdnjifcd fubmiflton for the future ; after reproaching his 
ii^[ratltcde, and ^D^each of oath, he feid, Toktamtjh was not 
to be irufted : however, that, if he fincerely defired peace, h^ 
ihonldiend Ah Bey^ his firfl: minifter, to 'treat withiiis gteat 
lamik-s. He then regaled them., and gave them vefts of gold 
brocadic. They werjc ordeted to follow the army ; which, 
March the fifth, fet forward to conquer; the empire of TuJhL 
They paflfed by Yajft^ Karachoh (Q^), and SahrAn : but, in three 
•weeks, for want -of water, the horfes were reduced to extre- 
mity. At length, on the twenty-fixth, they arrivjed sat Sarek 
Vzan^ where, the river bang high, their want was fuppUed, 
Ha^ng fwam avisr the ftream, they continued their march m 
the great defaft ; and encamped in places where there were 
wells, to avc»d th^ Uke inconvenient p. Here two fervants Bed 
to the -enemy. 

On the ninth of A^ril they came to a mountain called iCu- His armf 
ahek TM; and, in two nights and one day, to Ukik Tak (RJ ; di/treffei, 
from whence he viewed the vaft defart of Kipjak, which, for 
its extent and verdprc, looked like the fea^ Tliere he ordered 
a ftone ob^lift to be erefted, wjth the date of Hs expedition 
frat thdreon. From thence tKey hunted to the river lianjuk (*), 
which they eroded ; and, in eight days, arrived at Anakdrgu 
^a tribe in KipjM). In aU this fix or jljeven months- march 

{PJ A bird of prey, defcrib^d the great mountain). Thqr are 

Vol. rV. p. 2^9. in Ki0dky between the rivers 

(QJ A town of-iS%*^, be- Arch 2Sid lldnjuk. La Craijt. , 
Iween Tenghlkunt and Sahrdn^ (*) Which runs intothc river 

La Croix. . fik. La Crw>.— ^-Tbis feems to 

(R) (That is, the }ittl6 and b^ the Tm. 

R 4 ^<3» 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hijidry of the Moguk and Tatars. B. VL 

from Tijhkunty they had not met with a fmgle man, oc aay 
cultivated land. Viftuals were now extremely fcarce : and a 
' pound of bread fold for fixty-feven dinars Kopeghi', fo that 
they were forced to hunt for their food. Among other game» 
they found a fort of ftags, larger than bufFalos, called Kanda- 
gay by the MungJs, and Bitken by the Kipjd^s, After this 
huntmg, Timur reviewed his army : on which occaflon the 
^uftom is, for cv^ry cpmmander to pray for the emperor oq 
his knees, and fpeak an elogium in his prefeuce. Among the 
reft, we are told, that, havmg advanced towards the regimeqt 
of Mahmud KhiLn^ this general (S) fpoke as ufual, and gave 
prefents to the emperor ; who, in his turn, cafefled and praifed 
him for the good order of his troop. 
Zee\ the When the review was over, Timur^ refolving to fend a ge- 
fnsmj. iieral to command the mangalay, or van -guard,, the young 
Mirza Mehemed ^oltin fell on his knees, and befought his fa- 
ther to honour him with that poft. The emperor, much pleafed 
' with'his refolution at fo tender an age, granted his requeft ; 
• letting him, at the fame time, know : " That he had need dF 
" great prefence of mind, a ftrong conftitution, and perfeft 
" aftivity, to acquit himfelf of an employ which was the pria- 
" cipal part of war, and on which the fecurity of the army 
** intirely depended.'* On the twenty-fourth oi Jpril, the 
hour being fixed by the aftrologers, the mirza put himfelf at 
s the head of the fcouts^ to go in queft of the enemy. ^ They 

found a beaten road, and fires in many places : then pafled 
the river Tupal (T) ; but no figns of an enemy. At length 
they met with ten troopers in a wood, who gave them tidings 
eiTokatmiJh Khan, Aftet paffiiig feveral lakes and rivers, May 
the eleventh they arrived at the river Tik (U) ; which the army 
were two days in fwimming over', becaufe 77;««r fufpefted am? 
bufcades at the three pafTages. Six days after, coming to the river 
Semmir (W), the fcouts heard the cries of the en^my ; and one 
of them, being taken, declared, that many of the ordas had 
. encamped there, but had returned as foon as fenfible of Tirmi/$ 

^etintef- The emperor, on this advice, advanced in order-; and, 
f^gence. May the feventeenth, arrived at the river Jyik (X), (or Jdik)i 

(S) So that the kh^n was one Kifjdk, which falls into the Caf- 

ofT/WA generals, and behaved. //^« fea. hfi Croix. 
asafubjea. (W) It falls into the TVi. Z# 

(T) Which falls into the fii. Croix. 
^4 Crotx, (X) Or ^aik, a river which 

vU) A river of KafJhSky ox falls into the Ca^iah fe^. It 

Croix, ^ 


Digitized by 


C. 3 J The Reign of Timfir Bck.^ 265 

which the army crofled partly over a bridge, and partly by A. D. 
fwimming. Three of the enemy, who were taken, related, 1391. 
that the two fugitive fervants above-mentioned firft informed **— -v^^ 
Tokatmtjb KhAn of Timur's invafion : that the khan, enraged ^,^^^^*' 
at this news, faid, he would raife two armies' ; and fent to ^^^ * 
aflemble troops fix)m his camp, then at Kerk Gheul (Y) : that, 
expc<5ling Timur would crofe the Tik at the ordinary paflages, 
he idy there in ambufcade to furprife him. After receiving 
this account, the emperor marched with great precaution, and 
bad lines drawn round the camp every night. The army wa§ 
greatly fatigued with pafSng the floughs and marflies they met 
with in this country. At length three regiments of the enemy 
came in view, but foon difappearcd : however, the fcouts 
found a troop of horfe in a wood; who making refiftance, 
many were killed, and forty taken. They had repaired to 
Kerk Cheuly according to proclamation; but, to their fui'prife, 
finding no troops aflembled at the place of rendezvous^ they 
wandered in the woods : after m^ing this difcovery, , they 
were all put to death. At length they brought the fon of the 
prince of Memak (Z), who had been wounded. He faid, he wad 
on the road to Saray (capital of IGpjak), to meet the khan ; 
but did not find him at the rendezvous, nor could give any 
account of him^. 

Mean time the fcouts, afcending a hill, difcovered thirty Meet the 
companies of /'horfe in armour, watching to furprife the in- fiouts. 
vaders ; and then retired without noife : while JykutmAr flaid 
behind with fome horfe, farther to view the enemy; who, ob- 
ferving what pafled, fell upon him fuU-fpeed. The valiant 
amir made a brave refiftance : but, having two horfes fliot 
aader him, he was furrounded on foot, and cut in pieces by 
the Ki^dksy who did not know him. His death was followed 
by that of Heri Mulk, fon. of Tadghiar Berlds ; the famous 
Ramazdn Koja ; and the cetebrated MehemedErldt : who were 
the greateft captains Titn^r had : but their death was foon re- 
venged ; for the army, advancing, attacked, and put them to 
flight, wth great flaughter. After this, the fcouts of the ene- 
my appeared, and fkinniflied every day with 77m/Jr's foldiers. 
At ler^th,the two armies coming in fight, on the fifth of Jufy^ 
that monarch ranged his army with great care, dividing it into 
feven bodies : and, as this was never praftifed before among 
his troops, 'twas beUeved to be done by fpecial infpiration, 

8 Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 347 — 366. c. 9—12. 

(Y) A lake in the country of (Z) A province bordering on 
fiagayA in Kifjdk^ between the that of Sartr^ in Ktfjdk. La 
Woiga and the Jdik, La Qroix, Cnix* 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The ep[^r^ gxvp tb^ f:^9mm«fld of the fkft body, vUi^ 
ierved for die va|i-giw4> tp Solt^ M^JmtM Khda ; and the 
Amir Soleymin Sh^ w^s bis lienteoaat-gieneral. He placed 
Or4fr of the Mirza Mebmsd Softdn at the head of the fecond di?ifio«, 
itf///r. which pafled for the Wf^ bpdy^ The third, which femd 
as the rear, or bpdyc^ r^ferv^ coof*fti^g erf the regiment of. 
guards, and tweaty compgnl^^ of feled veterans, was coi^ 
dufted by Ttmir himfelf ; ^^4 poikd behind the fecond body, 
to reinforce the other diyifions, m cafe of need. At the ijcad 
of the fourth, which ferv^ for ^ right wisg, was the MJrza 
Mirdn ShAh ; \i/hofe lieutenant-general was the Prince Mehe- 
Pied Soltdn Sk^h. The fifth body, defigned as a Yan-goard 
to th^ faid right wing, w^ kd by the Amir Haji Sayfo'ddt% 
who ufu^lly ^Qg^ed io the moft dfuigenous enter]nriies. The 
iixth, coaS(ifting of the troop? of Jodikkan^ compofed the kft 
wing, and had for its leader the Mirza Ornar Sheykb, Laftly, 
the feventh body f^ved for a van-guard to the IdEit wii^, and 
was commanded by Birdi Bey, fon of Sir Buga, and by /Codk" 
dad Huffayn, amirs of undaunted bravery, and approved coo- 
duft. The army of Tok^tmijh Khin^ which exirecded that of 
Tim4r'^ by fome companies, was divided into three bodies, as 
ufual. His o|5eers were all priacses of the blood of Tufi^ 
and his foldiers completely armed. The battle began at dw 
^und of the great tnin»pelAV/r^/i4[y.(*). T/w^r prayed to God 
devoutly for fuccefs, aod Seyd Bereke. promifed him viftory. 
^he fight T*^^ ^^^ ^^^ Sayfo'ddh Was the firft who rufhed on the 
iegitts. enemy's lei^t wing, and overthrew it. A party of Kifjiks ad- 
, Vaniced, ta att^k his rea*' j but were forced to return, \ij 

Jch^n SMh BtiMdr, who marched agiinft them with has wgi- 
ment, out of ^ body of t^cferve. Mean time, the^Qrza l^rin 
$h4h, with the right wing, put their cavalry into €onfufioo> 
^nd overthrew thdr left wing; while Mebemed SoHSn^ wMi 
the maia body, broke through that of the enemy^ Omar 
Sheykh^ with the left wing, did great execudoo ; and Bini 
$ey^ with Kpdadad Ht^ayn^ put their right wii^ to flight. 
The other generals had no lefs fuccei^. Tdkatmjb Khin ob« 
(erving how h^s troops d^nUi^d; aad finding he ccmld not 
Y^ithftaad the fqus^Q^s ^yliUfch TimAr' conBtmantied in perfon, 
^tacked xh^^lAn^Oimr Sheykh:^^!^i^^Q/i^^ tattapiarpofe,yct 
h^ after fell on the ord^ of SMAz^ with focU ftsry, that, for aB 
Sheykh Tmiir Hat>Ak"st br^ve refiftanccj. tkisJOff^s hsA iieariy 
defeated him, rufhing^into th^ middle of the fquadrons; and 
were about to poft tliemfelves bAind the imperial army, with 
a, refoUitio^ to keep. th«ir, ground^, and, g*in. the viilqry, 

(*) Of a 9iw|(l;w«6 fi»$, very deep fo\«;i4, and heard iewal 
miles pf. 


Digitized byV 

C. 3. ^ki R^ig^ 5f Timjur Bek.' 26^ 

' TIMUR, who was in purfuit of the.c )• 

being informed of this, turned his troops c • 

ibon as Tokatmtfh Kh^n^ whom Oniar Shej "^ 

gaged, perceived the imperial ftandard m( 

he loft courage, and fled. The other ge ^^ 

example, the Mungl army ^as intirely 
viftors purfuing, made a dreadful flaughte 
leagues together. The emperor, having 
thanks for this great viftory, and received 
{lis generals, detached two thirds of his cavalry, tp deitroy 
the remainder of the eneipy ; whofe flight beipg obftrufted by 
the river Wolga^ very fe^Y of them efcaped the f^rords of theiir 
purfucrs ; who carried away theh: woqaen, childre 
and other efFefts. After this, Kanje Jglen, Ttmm 
len, and Jydekf^, thre^ princes of jthe blood of 
bore an antient hatred to Toktamijh, froni whpm tl 
obtained leave of Timir to go in quell of the tribes 
formerly commanded, prqmifing tp bring them 
fervice : but Kt>nje only, who was very familiar v^'i^h thp em- 
peror, returned, with part of his fubjefts whom he fQuniJ: 
the other two, afpiring to the crown of Ktfydk, fled, with 
theh; claps, into the defart ^. 

Mean while, Timur, following the troops which |ip had ^f^f '"^ 
fent in purfuit of the enemy, arrived at the IVolga, a^4 en-i^'V^*-?'^* 
camped in the plain di Urt^pa, wl^ich, for its verdure, and 
pure air, furpafles all others. Here he gave a rnagnificepjt fe^ft 
to his amirs, at which was fung and played a piece of inuflc,^ 
called the triumph e/Kipjak. This plain was the feat of Tuflf{ 
Khdn, and his mcceflbrs. All the army had a (hare in the di- 
verfiqns ; and th? twenty-fix days fpent in pleafure, made the 
ibldiers forget all their pafl: fatigues. As, after this viftory, 
there remained no mor^ euemies in the defarts, or the ifles p£ 
Wolga, Timur fet fprward'on his return, foJlow^4 by a gr^t. ^ 
train of captives. All the poor men in fervice of the army, 
who before could fcarc^ find fuftinenc^^^ wei*e now inpoflef^ 
iion of fo many horfes and flieep, that, jiot ablq tp 9grry ^ 
away with them, they \vere obliged to leave part behjiuji ftpfW^ 
gver, they carried off the tents of Kipjqh: which ^e. fixed, 
with very little trouble, and need not be tjak^n to piec^ a4;.dc» 
camping, being made portable, fo as tq.b^ carried by dromc'* 
daries from place to place. 

When the army arrived at the Ttk^ Konje Jglen^ who but a Timiir 
little while before had returned, with his fubjefts, to the returns. 
^mp, now fled with theia into the defart. Spmed^ys a^tpr 

\ HifL Tim-Befe, p. 366-733 79« c. i?~H' 


Digitized by VJJVJWVIC 

Hiftory of the Moguls and Tatars. B. VI. 

the army had crofled that river, Timury leaving the Amir Haji 
Sayfo'ddin, with other commanders, to conduft the body of 
' the army, and baggage, went before, through the reft of tlie 
defart, to Sabran and Otrar ; then, croifing the Sihuriy arrived 
at Saniarkant ; where he was received with the ufual fo- 
lemnity. After this, he began his journey for Ttjhhinty and 
repaffing the river, encamped in the great plain of Barfin, 
Het. 704. ?^^^ ^^^^ ^^^y ' where, in the be^nning of the year 794, the 
X^J), Amir Haji Sayfo'ddzn arrived, with the troops: fo tha.t this 
1392. important campaign continued eleven months. Towards fpring, 
. the emperor returned to Samarkant, by way of Kojend ; where 
he entertained the court with a general hunting ; and appointed 
the Mirza Pir Mehemed, fon of JehAn Ghir, governor of the 
kingdom which formerly belonged to the Great Soltan Mah- 
viM; that i^, all the country from Gdzna and KMid^ as far 
as Hindtlft&n ; and from Kandahar to the river Indus (A), called 
in Perjian, Ab Send^ 
Marriages As many princes and great lords begged leave of hita to 
€tlebrated. marry their children, he not only cohfented, but, to let them 
fee he fhared in their joy, would alfo be pi-efent himfelf at 
their feafts. A royal banquet was prepared for this purpofe, 
in the meadow of Kanigheul; where the tables were ranged 
like an army in order of battle, Timur being placed at the 
head of them, on a throne of gold. The bridegrooms were oa 
one fide, and the brides on the other. To honour the occa- 
" fK)n, the Mirzas Ptr Mebetnedy and his brother Rufteiny mar- 
ried the daughters oi Kay^zo'ddin Terkhdn ; and the Mirza AbA 
Bekvy fon c^ Mir an Shdh, efpoufed the daughter of the Amir 
Haji Sayfo'ddin K 
Expedition WHILE Timur was on his return from Kipjak^ he jrefolvcd 
iuio Iran, to make an expedition into Irdn (or Perfia at large), to fup- 
prefs the diforders which, during his abfence, had gotten foot- 
ing there. With this view, he fent into all the provinces, to 
aflemblc the troops, for a campaign of five years. When he 
was near Bokhara, May 25th, he was feized with a diftemper, 
which held him till June loth. The 6th of Ramazdn {July 2} 
he departed^ at the head of his troops, having fent the Mirza 
Mehemed Soltdn before, with the van-guard. He crofied the 
Jihitn ' (or Amu) at Amuya, and, by way of Makhan and Ahi- 
verdy arrived at Tajfi Daban ; where,, on the appearance of the 
n^w mooji, he read the prayers of Bayrdm, which is the grand 

* Hift. Tim. Bek. p. 379—386, c. 14— -16. 

(A) Otherwife called Ah-fcnd of Behre, near Labor (in Hindu- 
<that is, ri'ver Sep.i)^ and Meb- fd.t. La Croix^ 
ran. It fprings from chelake * 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C 3; The Reign of Timtir Bckw 

feaft of the Miifulmans. At Ugazigaj KahAJbhn (B), he. joined 
the Mirza Mehemed Soltdn; who commanded the body of 
fcouts ; and, at length, arriving in the territory of Afiarahhd^ ^ 
encamped on the river of Jorjdn (C) ; where Piri Pajbd^ foa 
di LohnSn Pq/hd^ paid his devoirs to his majefty. 

The army, after three days march from JJlarab&d, came Affairs of 
to a very thick wood, through which they opened three paf- Mazan- 
fages, and infenfibly arrive4 ^l S&ri (D); whence SeydKamdl' dcran^ 
oWlw, lord thereof, had fled to Seyd Rdzio'ddin'y at Maha- 
nafdr. Thcfe are thrcfe towns, fituated four leagues from 
AmoU on the ftiore of the Cafpian fea : where they had built 
a'fort on an adjacent hiU, which joined the fea on one fide; 
and, inftead of ditches, was furrounded with precipices, 
wafhed for the fpace of a mije by the fea, which, in turbulent 
weather, flowed within the rocks. Round the wall, they had 
fixed great trees, fo clofe together, that they ferved inftead of 
a fecond wall. . Hither the princes of Amol and Sdri, the rich 
inhabitants, and foreign merchants, retired, with their fami- 
lies and efFefts, confiding in die ftrength and it\^cceffiblenefs of . 
the place. Tim^r, informed of thefe particulars, pafling the 
lakes and marfhes, arrived, in three days, at Amol; where he 
ordered the Seyd Kayqzoddin to go and advife his father to 
cdme to him. * 

TIMUR, after ordering all the water in the cifterns of Mahana- 
Atnol to be fpilt, followed with his army ; which could march far be- 
no more than three miles a day, becaufe obliged to cut dovmjf^gfd, 
trees, to render the marfhes and floughs paffable. September 21, 
the fcouts on both fides met, and fought. Three days after, 
the Seyd Kamalo'ddtn Derdz, and Muldna Amddo'ddin, came, 
and implored pardon ; which Timur granted, on condition, , 
that the fharifs, who commanded in all thofe quarters, fhould 
fend him part of the goods of the inhabitants, and one <^ their 
children ia hoflage. The fharifs not liking thefe conditions, 
Tim^r fent fome officers, with the maflers of the barks of the ' 
Jihdn, to feize the enemy's vefTels ; which they did ; and 
carrying the foldiers, by Squadrons, to the foot of the walls, 
ihey befieged Mqhanafar in form. ^ Thofe who defended the ' 
out-works being foon obliged to fly into the plage for fafety, 
the foldiers at the fame time fcaled the walls. 

On the 25 th oi November y the enemy obferving Timrfr X,o andfur^ 
approach the place on horfeback, through fear, came out in rendered. 

(B) A village betwecn^^;Vrr^ Cafpian fea (at Aftarahid), La 
^nd Afiarabdd, JLa Croix, Croix, 

(C) It pafTes by a city of the (D) A. city of Ghtldn. La ' 
Came name, and falls into the Q-oi x^^R?iihcr of Mazdftderdn. 


Digitized by VjVjOQIC 

; Hiftolj aftbe Moguls dhi Tatars. B. Vti 

compaMes, . and implored hrs protqftion ; which appeafed his 
wrath. After tills, he maae tTiem preferits, and exhorted them 
to epat^race t^e orthodox feft'of the SuhnU in whofe maxims 
he m/triiifted' them, , and io renohnce the errors of ^thc iUay^ , 
which th?y followed, iymur fiaid foine dstjrs at JJluh/mafar^ 
to difpofe of iiie great riches, which were lodged there,, 
amofig his fomiefs } and then ordered the place to be reduced 
Cruel mat' ^^ ^ heap of rubbirfi. After this, fie commanded all the />- 
/acres. ^^^ ^\* "^^^ ^^^ ^^ nUmCTous in this country, to be put 
to t^e iwoi-d ; which was accordingly done. Thus the pro- 
vince wa§ freed from the diforders which thofe aflaflins.caufisd 
there : for, if they found a man whb had a paper or book in 
his pofleffi6n, no matter whether a lawyer, philt)fopjier, pr 
man of Jettg-^i they Held it lawful to put him to death, ^- 
hindef She^tU^ to i;evenjge the deatfi rf his father, ^nd qdier 
s . relations, (lain Ijy the Darvifbes^ difciples of ^eyd KaiJDamo% 

dln^ ihVeflqd Anol,- that no man^ might efcape his wrath ; 
ancfimde the moft terrible maflacre ip. th^t city ever mentioned 
in hiffoiy. Scyd Kam^lo*iMin, an4 his fon, wei^e Cent Ia a vef- 
fel to' l(afdzm\ the Seyds Mtirtdza and Abdaliah, with their 
foris>, and feveral otliers, were carried to T^kunt ^. 
Irik /«- IThe province o^ Maz&nderhn being intij^ly brought under . 
njaded, f^bjeftion ; Tvmfiry in the beginning rf the year J^s^ ^nfed a 
H^f- 795^ fine palacfe'tq be built at Shafrru^n^ in the neighbourhood of 
. A. EP. forjanj and lodged tKeirei At the end of winter, he prepared 
'J^'* fo'^ continue his coiiguefts; and fixecf t|xe campaign of that 
y^af fpr* the kingdoms of Pars and Irak. ^ He departed ,fjrom 
JftazdnJeriri the 20th of January : having fent the Mtrza 
MehemecC SoliM, at the head of the van-guard, accompanied 
by ' Ks- brother Vh Mehemeiy the Sheykh M BahMr^ and 
onier amfrsl. He gave tKe command, of ano^er van-g^ard to 
i!c^iMriiSio^ AiShy and went himfelf to Yildk Veii (P). The 
^^iifza j^efiemed Soltdn, and his brother, on their arrival at 
Kazvthr defeated, and took prifoner, the governor Shib Souar. 
On their approach, the governor of Soitdmya fled. .They pr* 
rilbned the place, and marched towards Baghdad.. ^In tHe way, 
a courier brought an order for them to reduce all the inhabit- 
adts o£ XurdyfaH] and free the country from thofe robbers* 

fc HiftlTim.Bek; p. 38^—396, q. 16— ig. 

(P) The fame whom £»ro^^/7«j Hulaku had extirpated abeui 

call-alTafSns. Lai2roix\—T\xty lOo years before. 
9ir€Cz\]edI/mae/jafrs,Batafti\sind (F) A town on a' mountain, 

hf other nainies, iii tHe oriental where the Amir Fi^ ufcd to pais 

hiftorians. They f^efm to have" the fuinmer. LaCrcJx. 
been the reliques of thofe whom 


Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

HoTopod tfie Shxykti M dahidr Was fent widi z bodfy c^ A. IX 
troops upoa tkat ea:peditioni, accon^patt^ed by one of the chief 1593. 
lacii of the comtry, irho'o^redtobelAgt&fc. * ■■■* J fc., a 

IBRJHiMShdhf jw&ice of thofe pkces^ ]?ecdvcd Sheykh Kftrdcftaa 
>^/i very friendly, and £mi: his fon S^A^it Shdi Math pitfents ioMmits. 
the piiii60S ;' ^rho^ contenT.^th ti^ &&!^Ik>ff, bi'dered Sheykh 
AMmttvam. He a^cordli^ begftft Ms^ ^tfch r but, on'the 
rMKiy fais guide, firoftt^ted' of Ins hopes, b^ hiigr peace with^ 
Otrabini ^hUh^ ireacheroully flev him with a ki^fe,^ as he was 
eatings The allaffin wa^ Immediatdy feized by Sheykh y^fi's 
nten, vvha pat him to d^th, witSi the moft cruel tormentsf, 
ami afterwards burnt hii body to aAi^^s. 

Mean time, 7&»*/'haviR|r proceeded froffi'rM FWf, by JSam- Khuzc- 
^A* and Semn&n^ dtiiS of .Kiiw^/, to i^djv ShShriar^ ur Perfian ftin re- 
/rjyft, thei« took a iUe^ body ef meii, and marched to UfrAd- duced. 
j^ed^). He arrived' tiifer^ tfi^ ^Sthc^Februatyy and was joined 
by the Mtrza (?mtt>* S^yl^, Wtio^had taken the road of Ava'^ 
tile fbm^fs oi^Kiow, Mat^vAr, $cai iCtrBeri^ ; all towns of 
KAh^kAtty wUch fobmktedi excepthlg^iB^rtt;, but it was eafily 
reduced^ Thn^ Ifeft^ a govembi' for Nahh-wend (H) ; and, " 
three days after,, aii4ve* a* i8b/r^i^iilW«f (I), whofe go^hior 
had fled. Then leaving troops to befiege the place, he itnt 
parlies of he»*B mtxx 2S' q^swrters of torefiSn^ taroot otit the 
robbers ; and (tepaftfe* foi* T(fiar (^). In ^evetf days. He: 
came to the l«-idge>of' thtfi^r^ yi^^^(lL) ; and, vStd Mritt 
5WA-retQnied fit)m*A75^^^(M), ^»4ilch fubmittca, (At Omar 
Sbiykh to Havtza^{if), wMdi madie ftbf reflftkice, its gover- 
vertiDr, for Manfi^ Idhg ci'F&Ysy beinf^ fled. The bridgp over 
tl^ j^zil^ which is boUrof {tone and bHck^ ^ith great beauty^ 
and ftrengch, ha» tWenty-eigh^ lofty m^ificetitardies, each of 

(G) k' t:\\^ oi KS^fimf in (L}Arivct^ichrai»lfhrottgli 

ir^, eighteen leagues. fr^in^«* Kbusaeft^ by To/tar; and fails 

m4uldn^ La Croix. into- the Ferjian gulf at /f^ 

(H) Otherwife called Kuha- MdhdL 'Tis famous for an aque- 

nvendy a town of Kuhefidri: built dud a mile long, built by Sha- 

\>y Nuhf or Noah y ou a moon- hlif (Ot Sapores) king of Ferfict*. 

taitSy fourteen leagues iibfathft^m La Croix. 

l£amMd£ny W2is Urlgerii: Hci'e (M) A town of A&f/?^*, three 

TWsui^erdi laft kiirg of P^/yS^r,. days jooifney from i/^/^^xr; where ' 

v^sLS vanquiihed, in J. D. 638. porcelain is dug, with which the 

luf CrviJt, Wdls and Kou^ of the F'trJhMi 

{!) A foTtrth of Lorefldf/y ntzr are covered. La Croix. 

ihc town of Lor, and reiidence of (N) Corruptly fo called, from 

the prince ofLoreftdn, LaGroix. Al?n^}d% (which is the true name), 

( K) Capital of Kureftdn (a a city of iu^«z^^», on the rivcjp 

aTiiakefor7^«a;^^«), betWeeft 4b%dL La Croix, 
F't^r-s SLud Irdi Arahi^ LaCriix*. 

\ which , 

Digitized by 




fhe city 

tiijioiy tf (hi Mcgub and Tltars. B. Vi; 

which has a lefler. At the foot of it is. z town, called Dezfil^ 
whofc governor prefented 77w^r.with twenty loads of 4fiWer. 
When Tim^r arrived at Tqftar, he fent troops to pillage the 
country-, and> croffing the Chehar Dmhf March i8th, en- 
camped in a foreft of palms, near that city. 

We have already mentioned, that, on TimAr^^- inarch to 
i^j", in 1390, Soltan Zayn Alabo'ddin^ king of that country, 
retired to Shah Manfur, governor of Toftar^ who/eized, and 
imprifoned him in the caftle of Kerikerd, four leagues from 
that city : but, at length, efcaping, by the afEilance of friends, 
to Malek Azzo'dd^n Kerii, at Urudjerdy this latter condudted 
him to Ifpdhdn ; of which he poflefled himfelf, by means of 
the officers, who were in his intereft, while Soltan Mehemed 
retired to thefortrefs, and, a month after, withdrew by con- 
fent. Then ShahykT^w^r marched with an army to Skraz\ 
and, being let in by the fharifs, Shah Tahta retired to Tazd. 
Soltan Zayn Alabo'ddin^ ima^ning that the amirs of Shah Mart' 
fur would come over to him, becaufe moft of them had raifed 
themfelves in his father's court, marched with a fmall army 
towards Shtraz : but, being met near the fortrefs of JJia- 
har (O) by Shah Manjur, was obliged to fly back to Jfpd- 

. Mean tinae, the Pehlavan Muhaddeb, governor of Atrkih, 
fearing left iShab Man/ur, who threatened his town, fliould 
become mafter of the whole kingdom, piade an alliance voAi 
ShaK Tahidy and then invited him to his city : but TaMa, at 
the inlligation of his courtiers, breaking his oath, feized the 
pehlavan, and fent him in chains to Tazd; where he was put 
to death, by that perfidious prince's order. On advice <rf this, 
Siiah fllafi/ir went with a formidable army to befiege Abrkuh ; 
and, leaving troops to block-up the caftle, marched to attack but,:underftanding by the way, that Shah' Tahta, to 
prevent the vifit, had ordered the governor to deliver the fort- 
refs, he retuhied, and received it without oppoCtion. In his 
way back, he harrafTed the country about JJpdhdn ; and, as he 
repeated the fame devaftations next year, Zayn AlabQ'i&n. 
afked afliftance of the Soltans Ahmed prince of Kerm^j and 
Aku Is'hdkf of Sirjin. They joined their forces, and marched 
towards Shtraz i but, being met by Manfiir , were defeated, 
aqd returned home 1. ' - 

:In the fdlowing fpring, this prince marched again to Ifpd- 
h&n ; and, as foon as he arrived, fent for one whom, 'twas 

. , ^ Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 396-^409, c. 19 — 23. 

(D) SuppofedtobcPf»yS;^/;V, pie, n9W called C/^i7 Jlf«i«r, Of 
by the ruins of a galace, or tern- the forty ftllan 


Digitized by 


|i9ifiMMd» il9 topt thflrd to cany on bis intrlgaeii^ tot, tht 
momtaC he was gote, the iiihabiiaj^& ddlTered up the city. 
The ^t&n fled ; buty bddg (akra bcttmeen Veramn and iSy^si^ * 
. ri4ri 8Mh M^mfir ordkrid his eyes to be pat Out with a ho( 
iroB^ ^tftef tb^, ho mitrched twice ,td Yavi: but, by tht 
pirfiui^OBS of his motbcr, kft it in pofMbn of T^A^ his eldof 
pr^tb^. Whoi TrniAr idncampcd without Ttij^ar, this wal 
the condition of the kingdom of Fan (or Perjia)^ to which 
A^&t y^i^tio fewer lih^n ten |>retefiders, all 6f the houfe of 
fiUmt^ert wiio natiirally deUghtiz^ to make war oft one an« 
QCbfff^ ^utthe SBipire of Irhi into great difi>rder : for which 
feafoiiy Timitr reibii^ to lubdii^ thole turbulent princes, ani 
lettartf peac«fi 

Wrrif tiit^ view^ Aptil iff ht left r^^r, wbfch he made Timftrr#- 
^folf jAafter of^ and Inarched with e^ipedition towards iM- ^«^^ 
r^fcp. Tto aody he ericjantpcd at Roth Hermez. The 25th| 
cNadfe^.did rircr Margtin (F). Next day, he got to Lajbtet 
{^ greilt towQr of FAfs) ; ^adnd the 27tfa, encamped at the head 
of the ri^tar HmiMdak <^^* The 30th, he crofled the Kdvi^ 
Hn (R) > and went to lie at Nuhejgian (S). May f , he 6i>* 
nnfed at ^ loot of 1:^^ .9^ (or the *uihiu eafiie), one oli 
the ftroogeft cit^dek in all Afia. It ftood at the top of a v^ 
ip^ggedF iQoOfitain, where there was but one flip|iery wsiy td* 
^dbid ; and fo made, that, in any narrow ftra^t, three rtieft 
imgbt hindeir f do/3oo fr6n» paffing. Ofi the top was-a* fitie plai4 
twdh^ miles in c6rapafe, ftockei with water, animals, trees^ 
tad otltitated lands : ib that they werefecure agarnil: famine $ 
and, as it was deemed inacceflible, as well as im j>regnabte, n6 
prince had cve^ yet Befi^ed it. 

HowfiVEit, TnTtt^r afccnded the mountain, with his offic^, KalaaSe* 
to die gate of the Ibrtrefe, followed by feveral tro6ps. The fid.' 
tiiH]f vings^ encamped on another mountain, whkh joined th^ 
ptece. Orders being given for a general aHatrit, the army at^ 
tadttd the, citadd on ail fides. Next day, the attack was re** 
ne^yed;*- ^ad the ibldiers broke the rock with plcka3tes, t6 
ctextr- the way. At la^th, Akhikga, an officer, mounting a fted^ 
rbeil, the enemy Were fo furprifed to fee themfelves attacked id 
a> p^ce which they thought none dared to afcend, that thejr 
g^Me over fighttng-: fo that the foldiers advancing on all fidesi 

fP) A river which divides gulf, near Bander Mk. La 
iOtSzefiSft from Pdrs, rtms by Croix. 

Snmirem^ and faHs into the ^- . (R) A river which pafli^ b^ 
K^c/. La Croix, Kaicrottj attd falls into the Per* 

iOJ ]x falis into the Perfiem fiait gulf, la Croijt. 

{$) A ci«y Offir/. 

»fo9. Hist. Vol. V. S tU 

Digitized by 


Hiflofj of the Moguls and Tdtars. B. VI. 

the for'trefs was taken,! aiid the garrifonr precipitated from die 
top of the mountain. The governor Sadet was put to deadi; 
' but he honoured the blind Soltdn Zayn Alabeddin, who was ' 
kept here, and promifed to revenge him on the cruel Manfkr, 
As iovAkbuga, who firft mounted, the rock, and had but one 
horfe before, he gave him fo much filver, women, flaves, goods, 
horfes, and other cattle, that, to his peat furprife, ht be- 
came a rich man at once. 
Manfur The 3d of May, Ttm^r fet forward, in queft of Shah Man* 
aitacked. fir : and coming to Shiraz, percdved, in the fields ^thout 
the city, 3 or 4000 horfe, armed with coats of mail, helmets, 
and brcaft-plates of leather, lined with iron; their horfes co- 
vered with a kind of cuirafles made of thick filk, and their 
enfigns difplayed At the head of thefe men, inured to vrar, 
and expert archers, Manf&r advanced like a furious lion ; and 
attacked Timor's main body, compoled of 30,000 Turks (T), 
the moft dexterous men of their time : yet he overthrew Aeir 
fquadrons, broke their ranks, made way into the midft, and 
gained pofts behind the army, pofls of the utmoft confequencc. 
Then returning, furious as a dragon, to the fight, he ran di- 
reftly up to Timur, who had flopp'd, with fourteen or fifteen 
perfons, to confider the extreme vigour of this prince ; and, 
though he had not his lance at hand to oppofe him, yet the 
emperor flood till Manf&r came up, and ftruck him twice with 
his fimitar on the helmet, which waf ded off the blows. THen 
Adel Aktajbi held a buckler over TimHr^s head, and Kmart 
Tefaiil advanced before him : he did feveral great actions, and 
was wounded in his hand with a fword. 
Killed hy Shah Manfur y having been repulfed from before the em- 
^hdh peror, fell Upon thelnfantry of the main body ; while the Mirza 
R^k. Mehemed Soltan fo brifldy attacked the rijht wing of theP^r- 
y£f «/, that it gave wiy, and being purfued, a terrible flaughter 
was made. The Mirza Pir Mehemed bravely defeated thdr 
left wing. Several regiments which were in the main body, 
having been routed by Shah Manfltr, rallied, of thdr own ac- 
cord ; and the Mirza Shah RM, who fought near Timir like 
a lion, re-aflembled a whole battalion of foldiers who fled. 
In ftiort, this young prince, although but feventeen years old, 
behaved with fo much valour and conduft, that he hemmed in 
the ihah, cut off his head, and caft it at the feet of the em- 
peror his father. This lucky accident fo difcouraged the Pe/fan 
troops, who, till then had fought well; that they fled. But 
-while Timir, after returning God thanks for the idftoiy, and em- 

(T) Turks, Mogmis, and Ta- fi^ddin Alt, ofcd fynonymoufly, 
tan, aj-e>4)y the author ^hari- as hath been already obferved. 


Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

braqi^ his^loGLSy was prefeated, by the amfrs, with the' goU 
cup, 9ca»rdiog to tbe^uftom gf theMungls, they, onafud- 
den, &w a body of the enemy advaocing behind to attack ' 
them : howeyer, they were qui<±ly repuUi^> and cut to pieces 
ia their flight m. * 

After this viAory, Ti'm^r made his triumphal entry iutb Musafie'* 
Siirdx, and lodged in the ^te of S^bn^ which alone of nine "an 
was left open. The treafures of Shah Manf&r were then di»i^'f^^' 
fiributed among bis amtrs> airi a ranfom levied on the mha-^'^^* 
bitants.. The like Was done at If^&han. the princes of the 
family oiMuzx^tr^ having no place to retire to, refolved, in 
good earneft, to fubmit, and made rich prefents to the em* 
peror: but the fheykhs, dolors, and ima^ls, with the chief 
inhabitants, of Fan and /na*, having prefcnted him petitions, 
(in which they fet forth the diforders brought in by the Muzaf^ 
ferian princes, and.requcfted that his majefty would no longei* 
truft the cpmmand of twp kingdoms in the hands of thofe 
mants) he» in the middle of /fz/i^, ordered thofe princes to be 
ieized, loaded with chains, and their houfes pillaged. He ap- 
pointed govediors in their room ; placing over the kingdom of 
Fars^ .which is the moft full of cities, towns, and villages, of 
any country in Jfia^ his fon the Mirza Omar, Sheykh ; and re- 
Ibred Ptr Ahmed to the. government of the Ifttle kingdom of 
Lorefiariy or Malamlr^ of which Shah Manf&r had deprived 
him. In fine, towards the epd of yune, being arrived at the • 
village K&mjhay near Ifpahftn^ he iflued out that famous order, 
foremarkable in hiilory, and much defired by the people, that 
the princes of the houfe of Muzaffer fliould be put to death (U); 
which was rigoroufly executed, according to the laws of /ifn^^z 

. TIMUR, after five days ftay, left If^hhan, ancl came, in YciJdii//.; 
two days, ,to Jerh&dekhan. Next night he arrived at AnMdnJ^^^^'^ 
whofe inlwbitants, being atheifts, had fortified themfelves in 
caverns and rocks : but the army drowned them, by forming 
rivulets along the mountains, and then breaking down the 

», Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 409—419, c. 23— 2 j* 

(U) ThcTe were $hah Yahia^ exc«pting Prince Zhebeti^ wKofil 

lA^ho reigned at Ta%d\ Soltan eyes had been put Out by his 

^Ahmed^9XKermdn't%o\\ixiMehdiy father Shah Shuja\ and 'Lajn 

fbn of Shah ^%tf, and Soltan Alaho'ddiriy blinded by Shah 

Gudan/erj who were at SMrdz ; Manjur: thefe two were fent t(> ^.>y 

Soltin Ahu Is-bak^ who. reigned Satnarkant^ and had fome of thd ^* 

^"^ Kermdn, In ihort, all the beft ground of that city afligncd 

jyrinces of that houfe were put them for thtiir mainteliaiice. 
CO death, who could be found, 

S a bank!/ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

\fSLiafcs, let th^ miter Mtmi fai Conines in^ M» IlKkiig 
places. InJ^ iOi, liehMttdia^pU^ fbt 

'x3th, heddetmpedi aad eAin0 10 the iieadoilir of Ak/Jfisrimi. 
l!lie' idth; took tioiFfe. AodI 1^ iMi, ^noaqytd iq tb^Bkm 
of ffamadAn\ where, to divert the conrt, he" n^^ a flUjgii- 
&eat feaff . After thk, W reoompea^ the kmees o( the 

^yh^ h|^ the ^overdgnty of AzirMin, XMe/Un pL}, Sih* 

cipupitr^ as far as Rtht, oc J/tdUlia^ §St\^e& to the Qt^mJki: 
on wfaidx occafion, the n^irza gate ^ fiithor i^aagaiiBc^'«> 
• tejrtamment at Hamad^. 
Gbebrs TIMUR departed froto IkmaMu d^ 3d ofAigi^f ail 

maJfacTid. feeing asrived 'at MU^ti^ a town' of K4ritfiAfi^ 1^ ki ks 
troop; ^Sa;i?A the robber &ir^A Mehenud^ the 7}«i:)b»^; 5x^ 
t^ad fo^ifi^ hhhieif in the mountaiBSi when he had a dtaM 
\^ed ffaffofbil The foldi^a 0>t up to the topof themouR- 
tain jf^rm^^ and fought fo refelatdjr, that^ in th^ai|h«i tkf 
^rknfans retired to other mountidns : but were purfiied^ sail 
|fumbers of tiiem kiUisd ; their Ixigg^ likewife, aod ca^ 
MTCFC feh:^. As there was another ^ace in thole parts, ib 
which, a great number of ghebrs (Y) were goctcn Ipgetli^ 
firiiAr ^c^ed it to be fubdoed. The fiege kfted for feoi 
ti^ne : inxt, being, at length taken, it was reduced to mhKfl^ 
and the people, piit to the fword^ After tMs, the ^fiI>zi IHSfk 
Bh$h took, and ruined, the ca^cs of Kurgan and Kariiii ia 
K^rd^dn. The court being arrived at Jk B4lmk (Z)> (^t 
tbf himazltii t^re. When it was over> the Great BMfii J^ 
ro'ditn AbdarMmAriy famous for his- leacnii^) caiM as aa- 
bjiflador from ^(Aikci Ahmed Jalayr^ of BdghdMy with^jfc* 
of iybmimon, andprefents: M^iich tbeen^eror.'dldBaMt- 
ceive ^r h^is ufud kHid manner % beoaufe be fti^;>e^te^.^MiMft 
Itncerity, in regard the pray^-s wer^ not reaid^ &oi^MB«f 
cqined, ^ Mghd&d^ in his name^ 
TimAr Howevrr, Thnir honodredtthe mu& fep- hjp'flitritt- boi 

manbts difmifled him, without any pofitive anfwer; becaufe he ^^ 
folved to biefiege BAghddd : towards w4iicb city/ he b^an his 

(X) Inftead of Raf, Deriend^ d^ nprth^eaC^ p^ qf w&ifk 
a^d !^4>f»} as in tl^e original, we R,ay was the cpipitah 
ha^ infrrt^ K^eftdni which (Y) Adorers of fire, wpofeSsg' 
fignJ\Bes tbemount£um countfjt and the ancient rcHffioq 0/ t{ie /V* 
anfwers to Jebal of the Arabs ; fiam. 

bcin^ the fame wjth Perfian, (Z) (Or thf njJfHe fimnti^V 
Irak : or, in a piqre limited fenfc, a town ncai; BrpeJt qt Arbeit, d 

^urdeftdnp fsa Q-oifc^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ffifenh ^eMkr ^d, Ht mtfched dsf und O^ti Hb eRisim^ at A. >. 
fkit *riW (A). ThAiKe hd wcttt to A»fa Airf-jJ^flfe (B) 5 *»*> * ^^L* 
fteat nm-dkig^ Act Me^wned, jprifKre ^ the TSrJtWWr, ^cah ^sc^^jMfiJ 
hi rosmi^' it the head tof todi hdfe. At ShMrzitr (6>, tt 
itehihcd in a litter, c»ndtiAifcd hy choice rib, through h^W 

lik{D), helnqufatddfdv^iDftabifants^ #heUi& thSy iij[d. fittt 
{H^dons to B-J^hdiJ, to |^ notice df Vfk. approach df hii 
thaf i wad, on th^ aniwering hi th^ allfiirf^e, ipide ^tA 
IrtMflO&thtfr UUet, importitig; that tbe dhlH which they bU 
fitiirM at a dUhmce^ tf^ catibd by ^^ TurkBms, ivho ^ 
to ^dd nMr. Thii fettfei* waiS tied iiirfir tht wing df I 
pigla^, \vfai<^h foimediatdy fled td ih hdnft it kt^hdith 
Shi aitHoiigh tK9 ^iHlde gate SdMn ^Uimi ft^ eoora^, y^t 
he did tkn idtfrcly toilfide ih it; having, 6h tht receipt of dwi 
Bfft^ lirdewd Ks ftllTlittire to be carried ovdr the Ti^m ^. 

'ftoB lOtH df (%Wte^, ij^rhen TJm^/- irriverf at Sd^lMSId^ fce /b B^]^ 
faltis had ^btady cfdfl^ the H^r^ l^oft&i fti Inidj^, ^ddad« 
fedk the Boats, flyteg by ^he >¥ay of ftitm (E). tite rifa/ 
tit)6p9^ trlw covered nedf t^¥6 league of grotthdj dft tticflx- 
fiK^iliiodietirater, with k grfeit cf-y, ihd paflcd the Tigriii 
totwltfaftan&ig its rapidity. fiMi^ W^t tin ieagiieii \A jfhit- 
fidt (rf* the feitan^ and theh returhed to bdghdiS, at ffie b- 
tftttty 6f hi* Mitci, in^hb colltiflufcd thdr route. Obftfvfi^; 
Irtien they arfii^ed h. the Euphrates ^ that the foltSn had brbke^ 
die bridge, and funk the boats, they marched doag ^e fhore, ^ 
toey fdtmd fbnr bbats^ iM then croflfed it, >^ith the army : Bni 
Ar Votim tf the f(ddidri bHftg fatigued, the amirs were obliged 
•or ptirflie tlte foltiii tfitthfiavdS, Th^ firft came up With bH 
hdfgq^tt itsS at iei^ ovettbbit him, in th^ {)iain of Ktrbeld^ . % 
wttb tL€ai zQfOO hdfffe, ^6<^ (^^hdm turh^d on the amirs ; Md; 
§pi&og biS th^ botf<^, /h^ort th^if drroW^, and thus rej[>uire(l 
thfift twioe4 The third tiihe tfifcy returned to the charge, witH 
great idgour % many were killed on both fides i .and the amira. 
jKufucd them rib^ldAgdr. 

• Hift. Thtf* Bfck, p% 419—432, c. 25— 30W 

(Ay A VUhge near dte (kmd (D) A place of devotiott (oa 

fSice, La €rtix, the Tigris), twenty-feVen kagues. 

^ (JhT A vimu afJOrSf^Aii nt^ nOth of Bighd&d. laCrnx. 

Sigbrxur. UGr^ix. {t.) Ot IhUah, znd HeUa$ 

(C> A. city of im^Jlifir fr^n- ^^«'' i^^^V.^ a city of Irak JraH 

^Bix of ka^d^iti. Lk Odix.-^ (6n the eaft fide of Euphratts)^ ' 

t^ afc pretest 6clo%s td Mrdc- hetwetn Baghdad iniiu^st. U 

Digitized by 


J^Jtprj of the Mogak MiTttars. B. VL 

That day bdog extremdy hot, and the plain oCKerbda (F) 
afibrding no water, the foldiers expeAed tp perUh' for want of 
^ drink. On this occafion, Jybaje Jglen and JdMI Hamd feat 
^^t^" A men to feck for water, who could get no more than two pots 
Anmed ^^^ . ^^ ^ Ayhaje drank one, without quenching Jristhirft, 
'^'^'' he told JalaU diat, unlefs be gave him his potalfo, he ihould 

certainly die with drought : hereupon the amir generonily 
yielded him the water, yet efcaped deith himf<^; which 
aftion, when told to TimAr by Ayhajty at their retuin, greatly 
pleafed him. They then departed, and came to MaJbM, 
where Hujfayn^ fon of Jli^ was flain : every one kiffed the 
. gate of the holy place, and paid his devotioft. After this, they 
returned^ having taken prifoner Jlao'ddawkt^ fon of Soitaa 
jihmed^ who fled towards Syria^ and fome odier of his chil- 
dren ; befides his wives and ,domeftics, flaves arid fpoil. • 
7i&«K(lrdi About the fame time the Mirza Mehemed Soltan returned 
/^ffnJJ^d, from his expedition againfl: the Kurd robbers ; whom he fo ef- 
feftually reduced to obedience, or exterminated, that one or 
two men might travel fafely thro' their country : wheres^, be- 
fore, large karawans, guarded by loo archers, were obliged to 
take by-roads. Soon after, he was fent governor to Whfst (G), 
and the Mirza^ Afir4n Shih to Bafrah. The foltan's wives and 
children, with all the learned men of BAghd^^ and mafters of 
arts, were conveyed to Samarkant. After Timur had fent am" 
bafladors to invite Malek Azzaher (H) Barkok, foltan of Egypt 
and Syria f to a treaty of amity ; he fet out, November nth, 
for Takrit, a place on the Tigris, efteemed impregnable, to 
deftroy the robbers who were harboured there : for, theddivcr- 
„ • ^ ing of the countries from fuch pefts, was one chief end of his 
A D ^P^^*^^'^* ^^ g^^ thither, by the way of AnnaA (I), on the 
• V 2oth. The town was built on a high rock near the !:iverj 
^^^' tlie paflages were clofed up with ftones laid in morter; and 
it vf2L% fo well fortified, that it could never be taken by force «. 

• Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 43a— 443, c. 30—33. 

(F) A plain on the (well iide near the mouth of that rifer, 
of) Eufhrateh where Imam Huf' and the Perfian gulf. 

fayn^ fon of Jli, was flain by (H) This is the Pfrjian^ 
ii^asiutya^ iirfl kbalifah of the nundation ; Al Dhaherf or Ai* 
houk, of OTKmyah. La Croix, dhakir, ^t ArJnan\ the U 
Hvjfayn^ilomh is in the plain, being fpunded. like the fi^/ 
a place of pilgrimage with the ^b in the, this, &o. 
Per/tans. (J) The capital of J>^/>«- 

(G) A city of Irak Arahi, on ^ hia, fituate on both fides of die 
the Tigris, half way between ' Euphrates. Timir arriYcd Acts 
$dghJdd and Bapah ; commoD^ On the fifteenth. 

1/ called BaJjfQra and Balfitr^^ 


Digitized by 

C. 3. ^e Reign of Timdr Bck. ' 279 

The Amir He^an^ who commanded there, fent fevend A. D.. 
times to oiTer fubmiifion ; but ftill feared to come^ out. Mean 1393. 
while the foldiers, having advanced to the. foot of the wall, v— y*^^ 
fell to iapping ; the whole army, confilling of 72,000 men, Takric 
bdng employed in the work. At length part of the walls fell ^'^«^^^<4 
down ; but the befieged repaired this great breach, and fought 
dcfperately. December the fixth, fire being fet to the wooden 
props, moft part of the walls fell on a fudden, with a great 
tower. Yet ftill the robbers, armed with planks, and great 
bucldcrs, continued to defend themfelves againft the foldiers ; 
wl\>mdvanced to the very middle of the place, where there was 
# moft bloody batde. Hereupon Timur ordered the r^ft 6f 
*§ie walls to be undermined , which bringing down a confider- 
able baftion, Haffan was terrified, and retired with his foldiers 
to the edge of the mountain. Some of the befieged, feeing and taken. 
this, came out, befeeching the amirs to intercede for their lives j 
but Tim&r anfwered. Let him come, or not, no quarter (hall 
now be g^ven. The foldiers, . animated by thefe words of the 
emperor, at length got 'to the top of the rock ; and, feizing 
the Amir Hajfan, and thofe about him, brought them bound 
neck and heels to Tim&r : who ordered the foldiers to be fepa- 
rated from the inhabitants, and put to death. He likewife 
ordered part of the walls to be left ftanding, for pofterity to . 
wonder at his performance ; while towers were built with the 
heads of thofe robbers, for a terror to others. 

After thjs, Timur returned, December 17, to Harbi^ z Marches t§ 
town between yinnah and Takrtt^ which was the rendezvous of Koha. 
all the troops j and, when all thofe had joined him who were . 
out oin other expeditions, he departed for Diyarbekr. At 
croi&ng the Tigris^ he caufcd a report to be fpread, as if he 
was on his return home, that the enemy might be lefs on 
their guard. He marched to Tuk^ and then to Karkuk (K), 
where the princes in all thofe parts came and fubmitted to 
him, efpecially he oi Alttm Kipruk. The 20th, he arrived* 
at Brhel (or Arbeld)^ and from thence marched to JSUffel (or 
Muzol). There he vifited the tombs of the prophets Jonas and . 
Georges 9 giving 29,000 dinars Kap^i for raifing domes over 
them, with much alms to the poor. Then taking Tar-ali, 
prince of that place, for his guide, departed. He pafled by 
Mardin: and, at Rds al Ayn (L), fent to pillage the lands, a. D. 
fabjeA to Hijfayn^ called the Bh^k Sheep,, and other princes. 139^ 

(K) Towns of Mefototamia. fiwitmn^ Here arc feveral 
Lm Gr0f;^.«^ Rather ox KMrdef-^ fprings, from whence the river 
tSn, , Al Khabur has- its rife. 

(L) That 15, the head of the • 

S 4 o» 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Hiftky^ ofihe Wi^ dhd Tatars. B. Vt 

Obi hit a(>proach to R^ht (M), its prlfice^ named Mkzd; Bel 

vdth fome inhabioiats to a high mddntaki ; but they ^nero poti^ 

'foed and taken. TmUr catered the eity fakl to be buik taf 

Nimrod: and, vA^h his court, bathed in the foantab^, wlueh 

(as the Mohammedans believe) fprang up ia the fdaot of a (ur« 

oace wherdn Jbraham had been caft, and qneoched the Bxm* 

Omar Thb emperor fpent nineteen day» at RUta la play^ 6^ CO" 

Sheykb tert^nments, while feveral prinees €»ne and fiibm^tcd % amoog 

Jlaiu, the reft, the prince of Hefn Keyfa (N). But Soltan Ayfii^ j^boe 

of Mardin, ret ufi^ to come as he had promised, 7!m^ iftarched 

back to reduce him ; as he did^ A Jn h is way^ the piineea of Ak^ 

zina, Batman, and Ji Jaztreh (O), -On his approach, A^fa 

came out, and begged pardon ; which was granted hkd. WhiU^ 

the army lay before Aiardtn, news arrived of the defltii o^ 

the Mirza Omar^ Shtykk This prince^ v4io was the head gene^ 

ral under his father when in Pdrs, had reduced all that pco* 

vlnce, and then went to befiege Sirji^n in Kirnt^ r but, bdng 

fent for to court, left his troops before that dty, and haAed 

t<> ikirdz. In his way through the country of tie Kfbfds, bt 

flopped at Konnattiy a little fort inhabited by a fiiw people} 

and, getti ig on an eminence to view the place, was (hot wiA 

an appo^ in the vena cava, which kSJed him do the ^t, m 

fb^ruary 1394, wh^ he was fb'-ty ye»s old* The fotdWsi 

to revenge his death, deftroyed all wdio were in the place, aiMl 

razed it to the g«-ound. The eorpfe wa^ carried to SMndmt^ 

and afttt^ards to Kafh, where it was interred. Ttle kine^dom 

of Pars (or Proper Perfm) was g^ven by TmiAp^ to the-Mkva 

Pif^ Mehemed, fon of the decea&d, s^thcMigh but fbM^n, yean 


Aljaztreh Although- Solt^ Jyjk came out of MtrdiH, f^iA 

ravaged, bt^her and the* inhabitants reftiftd to ddivep tip tiW |*»ci^|^ 

which being found to be the efFeft of yfyfif% CM-dew, ha w«t- 

put In fifetters : and, thcfftnot bemg gmfe encm^ foip the ea^ 

▼ilpyi Timur deferred the fege^ for this time-, b his way \» 

j^6nj, flich a terrible tempefiof lightning and rain flfU, that 

the hcM^es were in water up to theiir ears ; and Ae army HW 

{{^c^ to remove thti^ quarters, leaiving' aft didr bi^|p|^h^ ' 

> Hill. Tim, Bek, jh j^^^^^fx e.^'^jT^' 

(M) Qiherwi{^ oal](;d Orjd, (O) .The two^ M ^f tNk 

the anticnt Edffa. cities are in Kurdefiam \ the laft 

(N) A city on the T/^j, in iqan. ifland of tht^ Tijptfi, and 

Htfopotamia, LaCroix. — It was. afcribed te^Z)^*4^.i6^* ^QAedD^t 

very ftrong placQ,;. the caftlfi. Jumrm ekn OmOTn 

K (m a iQc)^ 


Digitized by 

}mif for fiw of Wfig dromted thtajfeivos; ThSsttiAt Mi*' 
Uk /tis^'Mrii priiiee ^ Jathtb^ who ha^ before fabmiitdd^ 
rtfQQpg tcf delhrer up ta aniir^ who tttd Aoten cdrtida curio- 
fittest which Tmiir was fendiog to his fe^s at S^httyd % 
the emperor fet out haftily with his troops, and, next day,' 
comisg QS the enemy by fuhprife> took two or three £xtreiles, 
wkh 9, |re»t booity^ In ttte ocnfufidi^ A2^(^i fell intd tfa^ ' 
kai4$ w a fiddier *, who took from hkn many rali^able tlungs, 
audi not kpowiog ^^ho he ^ras, kt Mtu eTcape. Being thus 
drivm out rf Jazirrk, and that city, with his country, ravag^ 
the emperor returned to Mardlm and> inrefting it next day, Mardlb 
affiiul^ and took the city, while the befieged fled intoi this/ubmtu 
fcMTb*^ named KAh, fitaaied on the ri^e of a mountain^ 
The ibldiers folfewod to the foot of tfar \iraiH ; and, nttt day, 
getting oa the monntatn, which was kvd with the top of the 
wall, the befieged^ findkig themTdTres difbdTed thereby, came 
o«t with rich f»-efettts, and oficrcd to pay a ytarty tribute ^ 
wli&ch ,w^ ti^ niore raadily accepted,, as news arri^ved juil 
then c(f the birth ef a fon» on ^il 9; to the heir of thi^ ' 
oowa, Mina ^^.RM, who was catfed OMt Bey (P). 

TIMUR^vt Mardin to Sdtin Sakt, brother of ^<j^i 
and thflo fet forward?, thz army marddog m {jsrveral bodied, 
by A&reat road** The ^xiperoc took ttot of Sattr, accom* 
pwied h^ Mirea SkU Rakh ^ ani^ oil h& arrival at the T^rh, 
new that place» ftaid throe days^ with defign to return to* 
JtlatA (m Armma) : biit recdiring advice, from the Mirzad Amid, ur 
MehemedS(Jtan and Mirdn Shah, that the idiabhants of Kar&cke Diy ar<. 
K<i€k (Q^), coftWK^ly tdled JKw»«/,: ifefeafed to fubmic, hehckr, 
miunched thUhet in t!kOc da^s. aodooie n^t; dke TS^r^r being 
fo^ fikaOowv that d>e tnoc^ pafled k oa focrtr. The (Irength 
06 ^is city confifls inidtt ^ight of tts w^fs, which are built 
cS free^^hnue ; «id in their thicknefa^ whidiis: fudi, thar two 
hfin^ may pafs abneaft on them. On the top of this wall, 
tWe. ia bi^t another, the height o£ a: mail; and on both therO' 
19 a terrace^ on tbe^ outfide of which there b another fkmo 
waii^ with battleme»ts« Thus^ aa there* are two ftories in th^ 
gftsi^ wei^ ;. fo,. whem il rain^ or is, either exceeding hot oc 
cold, thefQldie^ma|r%ht m thirbawerftoey;. Befide9, thens 
^refa^tiPM^eiaii&efin cnfaita afoadnr; and, iia the middle of 
^e town, two fountains of xa^ water, with many fine g^t 

(F) SMid ^iVt&ikit^Ukj^ (<^) If ami, or J^ed, is call- 

fat OJuk i and Jl/y, Bik^ or eii 2^0- Kara Amid, or KarMd^ 

Jf^h tot* Ajr* He reigned af- and Dtydrhekr. La Crdx. fTencc 

ttfThis- IMer^ ntiA- wa» a great ^^jy/^/r, inhis maps^mabes du-ec 

^s^poorager of {earning. cities of it 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

dens. Thefe walls are ^d to have been buiU 4300 years ; 
and that the place was never t^ken by force of arms> : indeed the 
^Khalifah KaUd, (bncS JVaHd, after befi^ng it a long dme, 
entered it, with ibme troops, by a common fewer, and made 
himfelf mafter of it. 
iefiegid As foon as Timir was encamped without the dty, he qti 
and taken, dered the aflault to be g^ven next day. rthe foUiers advanced, 
covered with their bucklers, and difcharged a Ihower of ar- 
rows into the place ; while the bedded caSi down abundance 
of ftones on them. Mean dme the min^ s carri(^ on the fap ; 
and, breaches bdng made in feveral places, the walls were 
fcaled in different parts : fo that the city was carried in le{s 
than three days, in thie banning of May. The foldiers, en- 
tering the place, pillaged it, and fet fire to the honfe 5 while 
moft part of the garrifon were killed in the breaches. The 
officers b^n to pull down the walls with axes, and other 
inffaruments : but, as they found it would be a tedious work 
to demolifh any confiderable part, they only beat down the 
tops. Tindr, the ninth of May, took the road to JlatJJ^ : 
and, three days after, Taik S4fi, tlie greateft amir in the left 
wing of the army, next the princes of the blood, bcSng ac- 
cufed by an Uzbek foldier with fomenting a rebellion, and de- 
figning to fly in the night, confefled hi$ crime, and difcovered 
his accomplices. As he had been often phoned before for. 
the like offences, and yet promoted by the emperor, his judges 
ordered him and his fon to be laid in irons, and all his a^com- 
plices to be put to death. 
Alenjik After he had pafled by MiyafarkiUy Batmtn^ AJlimd, and - 
hejieged. Siv&Jfer, he arrived, the nineteenth, at Sahra M&Jbi (R) ; and, 
paffing Come high mountains deep with fnow, came to Bettts (S)? 
whofe prince, Haji Sharif, the moft. courteous of all thofein 
Kurdeji&n, came to falute him, and make a prefent erf fino 
horfes. Timur confirmed him in his pofleflions, honoured hioi 
with a veft, belt, and fword ; and left Taik iSt}fi to be kqrt 
prifoner in his caftle. Then, ordering the roads to be fet down 
in writing, he fent a detachment to befiege Jlenjik; at whofe 
approach Kara Tti/ef, vnth his Turimins, fled. Bdng come 
to Jkidt (T), he gave KakhAn, prince of JdeUaws (U), the 
lordihip of JklSt, with its dependencies, for ever. Then part- 

(R) A little town, with a fine (T) Capital of Lower Jme^ 

meadow, two days joorney in ma, or KSurdffian, near the lake 

length ; the fame diilance from of V&n. La Croix. 
Miyafarkin^ and three from Ak' (U) A town on the lakeof WSf^, , 

lit \S»x KJdt), La Croix. between Jrjifi and -<^<ii5&. im- 

(S) A city near the lake of CmW, 

Van. La Croix. 


Digitized by LiOOQlC 

C..3. The Reign of Timftr Bck. 

iag finom the army, to meet the young prince^ and empreflcs 
comhig from Soltdniya, he palled by Alijhgherd ( W) ; and en- 
cateq)C|d the fame Evening at Uch Kilija, that is, the three 
i^urches of Alatak (X),^ where he found them. On the 
twenty-fourth of June, he fet' out for Jydin (or Bay^ztd)^ - 
whofe inhabitants, iM^fenting him with all their effefts, begged 
quarter ; which he granted, after blaming them for their re- 
miflhe^, and reftored them all their goods. After this, he re- 
turned in one night to Uch Kilfja ; where Tahdrten, governor 
of j^rzenjdn, came to pay his refpefts to him, and was ho- 
nourably received *». 

The fecond of July, Timur, refolving to make hlmfelf ma- Avcnik, 
fter of Jvenik (or Van), whofe prince, Mejfer, fon of Kara or Van, 
Mehemed (Y), refufed to come to court, departed from IJch invefied. 
KiHffa, and came to Alijhgherd (or Malazjerd ; from whence, 
pafling by Khjatak, in two days he' arrived at Jvenik, The 
foldiers immediately took the town, and razed the walls : 
hereupon Mejfer retired, with his ; Turkmins, into the fortrefs, 
iitnated on a fte6p and craggy mountain, all the paflages of 
which were blocked up and fortified ; a wall being alfo built 
oncHieiide, on the very edge of the mountain. The amirs, 
^id braveft foldiers, alighted to attack the gate ; while the ' 
horfemen, mounted as high as the walls, (hot arrows on thofe 
who appeared on the breaftwork. On the fifth, Mejfer fent 
lus {on and lieutenant, with confiderable prefents, to demand 
pardon ; which Titnfir granted : but, on their return, he re- 
newed hoftilities. After Tah&rten had argued the cafe with 
him, he fent his fon, and a near relation, with more prefents, 
to afk pardon \ but Titn^r, perceiving he had no defign to 
qnit the place, caufed the meflengers to be arrefted. 

However, next morning, the emperor ordering MeJ/er^s TimiirV 
fon, who was but fix years old, to be brought before him ; clemency. 
he was fo moved with the fuppllcations of this young prince, 
that he faid, '*' Go, my child ; I will give your father his 
** life, on condition that he appears before me." Then he 
gave die child a veil, and fixed a collar of gold about his 

« Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 457 — 470. c. 37—43. 

/"W) Or Malazjard, a town near Eri'vdn, from which it is 
of Kurdejidn [ptLonjuerArnunia), diftantthrjeelea^gties tothefottth- 
X«<» Crrix. , weft. 

(X) A town of Kurdejtin (or (Y) TheTurkmdn, founder of 

jfrntemm), where are the three the dynafty of the iCetr<i A^^Wv, 

cbHPtrchtu of Jchmiadxin, the feat or Bhuk Sheep, whofe hiftory is 

or cBe patriarch of Armenia, near given in the &cth volume. 
f/4f4/^'van. La CmV.^Rather 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hsjl0f;ftf tieMOgak OdTttsn. B. VC 

9Bck-, findiBg hiia back le J\4^r wtth a Tvrj oUi^ng htafi 
When thebefiq^adfswthe yonog pridce in tfab Condi^ft, dttf 
^ applauded the emperor ; and mnaniirti 9gsdidkM^et, whi 
&U would aot i^efolve upon goii^ out/ Hon^direri the Jktw^ 
iog ei^oes having b^bten down (e^dni hSnfta, MeJ^^ tt^ 
tber came to beg quarter ibr her f<>n $ aUed^ng his feafs ^ 
the only caufe of his oppoTition* Altho' Thttki^ promttid l# 
(pare him, in cafe he left the place imm^attij^, y^ the ^u\rk^ 
m&n continued obftinate< At ledgth, 1 todjiif ^ or hill iiftds tf 
earth and trees, beii^ raifed higl^ than the wails df tbe fort^ 
re(s, the place lay quite expofed to the engine. Tbefe pMfid 
in heaps di huge ftonetf, Whkh. ruined tte Hoitfes apia^^ iind 
beat down the arches Ujpod the foldiers h6kbt They Ivete aUB 
reduced to fuch extremity for want o^ liratei*^ th^, Jvfy tto 
thirtieth, they turned oat all th€f ifthdbitants who did Mk 
^ht. MefftTy therefore, in defpair^ fedt hia ti^tenitot ddci 
more to b^ quarter ; which was gr^nted> prdtided he weKdA 
repair xo thexamp *. yet imi tb2^i^riiK:ea>&^u6d fiubbom^ 0< 
Mefler Mean tinre Kya Shaf^n, and feven othef bf^ve foiSm9i 

/khmti. moundng one of the arches in the liight, . got lo the fodt-of the 
' walls <^ the place; and there Ughfir^ fires> tck^e iil^tlc^ 
two amirs aicended the mountaia ill the fadie place, and dticA 
to a very narrow arch ; where the beiieged attacked them, ^tc^ 
in ^ dark, Jm^JhJU> Kaianeji, bdng dangeroufiy womiddd^ 
returned to the camp : but Arginjh^h, add ffieieft, getting os 
another arch, above 300 cubits ^^e^ arrived ai ^ f%ot ol 
the Walls, which they began to fap. The officers ahd gani^ 
ion feeing themfelves thus hard prdfed, fome flunj^ t h c mfd ye ^ 
off the mountain ; while others exclaiited ^gsanft ^^^i fim% 
dovm their arms, and begged kate to^ (kpart*- M^efi, to 
appeafe them, fent his mother drice more to beg his Itfe. Thnt^i 
touched with her affliftion; fkld, that, fof her fidce, he would 
iparehim^ provided he came hhirfelf to alkj^krdon: yetiWrfJl^ 
did nqt go ant that day ; and would hilve confinued to drod 
bimfetf, if his domeAics had not Quitted him, aHd lea^ aff 
the walls. Then, tying a handkerchief about his neck, andwid^ 
a fword in his handv he came out of the fortrrfs J Aid, apply- 
ing himfelf to the Mirza Mehemed Saltan, by his means obtained 
■ieiicy'. He wa^ ferit to Samariant) ancf his tWaflfuTfei diAri- 
bnted* aihong tht>& who had behaved w^U 'm t6^ ftege. fiiktlft 
filfo conferred the principaJity'of Jrzenj&n on Tah&rti^\ prtJ» 
ftetinghimv oii thaf ddcaSfion, wfth f cSrd#it ^ridMlfofg^W 
^<;1^ vA^ pt'eciQUs ftbii^S^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C* 3. 9%« Reigu p/ Timiit QekJ ^^5 

BfiBJMCtkefeiran&iftbnSy tbearm]r»w)iichbefi^ed^ A. Jl>. 
gave fadk ^afiderable ai&ults, that the Amir Bayi$4d (1)^ 1)94. 
fiince thereof, dqpan^ ^ tni?^ ; promifiag to depart as ^" "V' ^- J 
^boaa&ftbe ibices ihould decamp from before the walk. The ^^/^^ 
^eaeral ZinkTqkit caofenting to the pcoppial, Bay0%id went-^'^^"^^ 
fou i^ the mpbt, urkhout hiaknowie^ 9 and, anivinjg at It- 
w^rH camp, fell at ^ emperor's feet : who, pleaiJBd mth ^s 
foodi^A, Goafirmed him in tfa^ principality, with a power to 
eAaUiih a gqiwroor in the town lof AytMn ^ 

: TfJ^JIfU^i, in purfiuMiceaf Moioim/Mfs advke to his lot Georgia 
lowcrB, t^ make war oa tho^ who profefs a did)brent refigioa invaded. 
IkojoOt tbeir own, £91 out to make war in CurjiftMy or Gsorgia^ 
igftinft Jkdkdy prince of that conntry ; and, having pa^d 
1$ the foccAs of Alatdk widi a very numerous army, arrived ' 
tt iLSnx/ wbm news was bron^t of the birth of prince Ibrd- 
Hm Solt^y fo^ of the Wru S^ Rukh, on Sapten^er the 
■iath. I^lext day TimAr decamped &Qm the fine meadow of 
ifdjcf , fat t))e p^bia of 3/Unek 6J)iul (A). Shortly after, the 
aiaira, whom (m had fent into Georgia^ having gained feveral 
hattles, conquered great part of the country,* and taken many 
flroi^ places, returned with the fpoils, and congratulated the 
emperor 4^ the birth of his grandfon^ 

On this Qccafion, a fpien^d banquet was prepared. The Spltndid 
cents 1100k up two leagu«;$ of ground. TmArh was under zfiaft* 
^aoopy liGUlsined by forty piU»?s, and as- ipaciou$ as a palace. 
When every thing was ready, hi^majefty camey with the crowa 
OB hie beadv ^ iceptre in his haad, and fat ol^ the throne, 
wliidi was ereOsd in the i^die of the tent, adorned with 
piiecioiis ibn^ V M>d a gf«^ nuo^Lb^r of the mdft beautifol 
huiiee of Afia ^sufi&iq^ eachildes H^veib of rich brocade, 
bedecked wiA jewels^ Themvfi^ was ranged 'm two rows \ 
the Toioes^ oa th^ right, and inflrumeats on the left. Nine 
obaufh, as ilewairdbs^ with ^den w^ukIs m their hands, marched 
feejbi« the di(h$8 which were^ iJerved up : they weF& followed 
by Gup-bearecs, hiving4n their handfe cryftal botdes and- golden 
cups, withfed witie^of SbhMz^ white <^ Ma^^Hderdn, grey- 
cokHired'O^A^^^T}) and-wat^oKceedin^^ian Nor ^ the 
conveFfaiion of cbapmkig women, whoie hai)r hong-in^ trefib to 
die> very ground, add aimril lufh:^tothJj^gr»id aflembfy; at 
which were prefeh t manjr fordgn lords and princes from IntSa and 

» Hift. Tim. Bck, j. 470—478. c. 43 — 4J. 

(ZO Perhaps, from hi^i the (A) A vilfagexjearthemoun- 
city took the name of -S<?j'r«;<^ t^U^,J>idt^ ii^Cicorgia. 
which it at prcfent bean, 

3 Greece, 

Digitized by 


HiJhfyo/ibeMoBoh amtTatm. B.VI. 

Greece^ After this, the Mirza Shdh Rukh fet out for Samar'^ 
kant, of which his father coQferred on him the government. 
TIMUR'% zeal for reli^on promptmg him to make the 
war hlmfelf in Georgia^ he entered the mountains, defbtiyiog 
all before hun^ The Kara KaUtdnUk (that is. Tie Black Buck'^ 
Jers) having fortified themfelves in cafVles fituate on very fleep 
mountains, he marched into their lands, vanquifhed and put 
them all to the fword, feiung thdr efieds. After, repoiing 
his army for fome.time, he marched to Teftis, cajntal of Gtor^ 
gia ; and from thence to Sheii (B), fix>m whence, troops were 
detached to pillage the lands of prince Bertaz. A fecond body 
entered other mountains, called the KHhefian of Georgia, go- 
verned by S^di Alt, pf Sheki, prince of the houfe c^ ErSt s 
who fled, and left his houfes and effefls to be deftroyed by 
die enemy . But, while Tvm&r was haraifing the Chriftians in 
this manner, news was brought, that the troops of Tokatndjb, 
khan of KipjiA, had pafled by Ddrbend, and ravaged feme 
parts of Shirwan. Hereupon he immediately departed .from 
Sheki, and arrived at the Ab Mr (or river Kdr) : but, on ad* 
vice of his march, the enemy (hamefully fled. When Tmir 
came to the plain of Mahm&d obM, he encamped in that <£ 
Kalin Gonbed, near the town of Fakrahid (in Georgia). There 
he fent for the emprefles and princes from Soltdniya ; and the 
Mirza Mirdn Sh&h quitted- the iiege of Alenjik to come to 
court ; being informed, on the road, of the birth oi a fon, 
whom the emperor named ^^i/^/*. 
invades WnpH winter drew towards an end, Ttmiir departed, March 
Shirwan. '^^^» ^^^ KipjAk, at the head of a powerful army, to make war 
on TokatnAfb (or Toktam\fb) Khan : who, having re-eftabli(hed 
himfelf in his kingdom, was daily making irruptions into theem- 
peror's dominions, to repair the lofs of his laft defeat. Thmk-^ 
pefore this, had fent that prince a letter, to know his refolu- 
tion, and reafon for invading his territories ; which, with the 
arguments of the amh^CEndor Shdm/o'ddin Ahndleghi, fo wrought 
upon him, that he would have concluded a treaty, if his cour* 
tiers and generals, whofe intereft it was to make war, had not 
perfuaded him againft it. Shhnfo'ddtn, at his return, found 
Tindr on the river Samnir, which runs at the foot of mount 
AlbHrz (C), reviewing his army : which extended from theoce 

• Hift. Tim. Pek, p. 478 — 487. c. 45 — 50. 

(B) A city between Ti?^/ and is to be underflood the ridge of 
the river Cyrus (now Kir)* La mountains called by EMrofemm 
Croix, Cauca/us; fomc call it Jlbrmsc^ 

(C) Or AUOrzKifbihyyfhlQk waA Brisc 

Digitized by 


C. 3. ne Reign of Timiir Bek. ^^ 187 

to the fea, five leagues'diftarit, and was the greateft that had A, D. 
been fince the time of Jenghtz Kh&n. Tirrihr^ who was en-- *^35'4» " 
raged at the rudenefs of the anfwer, and unpertinent reafons ^''*^'"^ 
aUedged by the khin, marched in order of battle ; and, when 
the army had pafled Darbend, they fnrprifed and cut to pieces 
the orda of Kayt^g^ which encamped at the foot of mount 

Here an ambaflador from Tokatmtjb was coming to the Timir. 
c^mp ; but, on fight of the army, he -returned through fear, mett hifui 
At Terii (D) word being brought, that the fcouts of the ene- 
my were encamped on the Kby (E), Tim4r, with choice men,- 
hafted in the night ; and, furprifing them in the morning, cut 
moA of them off. Thence he continued his road to the Sa* 
venj (F), where he encamped ; at the fame time that the khan, 
widia formidable army, encamped on the banks of the Terk (G), 
furrounded with wagons : but, on Tim^r^s approach, he re- 
turned back, either through fear, or to gain a more advanta- 
geous jground. While Tokdtmtjb arrived at the K&ra (H), the 
emperor crofled the Terk, and marched towards the country 
of KAiat (1), in quefl: ofprovifipns. The fcouts having brought 
advice,, that the kh^n had rallied his troops, and was marching 
by the lower part of the river, Tim^ir ranged his army in , 

order ; and, always preferving the rifing ground, wheeled 
about to face the enemy. 

Next morning the two armies began to move. Timir di- Famous 
▼ided his into feven bodies, placing at the head of them thofe^^^^<^- 
who had the title of Baha^ (or courageous) ; and the infantry 
before the cavalry, covered ^th their bucklers. The Mirza 
Mehemed SoH&n commanded the main body, ftrengthened with 
the braveft men of the army; while Timir placed himfelf at 
the head of twenty-feven chofen companies, who compofed the 
body of referve. The battle began with ftiowers of arrows, 
accompanied with the cries Give arid Jldy, Hold and take. 
After this, a great detachment from the enemy's right wing 
attacked the left wing of Tim^r'% ; who, upon notice thereof . 

(D) A town of Ddrhend, La and the Koy^ which falls into the 
Crptjc-^lt is the capital of Da- Cajpian. La Croix, 
gbeftM^ or Tdghejtun^ chat isy (G) The fame as the 7Vm^^/, 
the jaiountain country, on the riiing on mount ^//i^rs:, and fall- 
ihore of the Cajpian fea, above ing into the Cafpiant La Croix, 
100 mi\c% TiOxtYi oi Ddrbcnd. (H) A river in Kipjdk, be- 

(E) A river of Ddrhendy near tween the Kayju and the ^£rk\ 
Terki [rather Degheftdti\\ which it rifes in mount Alhur%y and 
falls into the Cafpian fea. La falls into the C/^/pian. La Croix, 
Croix. (1) A fortrefs in Georgiay near 

(FJ A river between the Terk T^Hs, on the Terk. La Croix. 


Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

$9% HiftpfjpfibeVi^^i^JUm. B.VI, 

'194* th(i(CQaipswKg purfiui^ thm to thc^ inaio bodyi ^% raUied* 

V^i^B^aid SMde thcai ^qu, ia tbtir ujfg, ypon the odw coBma- 

nic^ wko, by this o^eaiHB, yta:t brok/^, aad begsm to fly« 

Tfa^ Kiif&ks, \f Ui^ to ofl^kc thei^ s^dvW^ of thi^ dUb^dltr^ 

%4^vjux;ed npoo tjbe oKhor^ aa £ur. a^ ^wi^e TiWr X|ias po(l<4^ 

Timftr /« whom they boldy attacked ; and, notwithffanding his vigoroQg 

dattmm^ sefiA^Mpcf^ |1^ >^hifcb be dM c b ^fg pd all bU arrows, and bc^ke 

^^^ ^ |iaj^*pil^ to O^^ff^T W bfimiBcd him in, if the AaMr 

£4qv^ JMrp'A^ i^M A<^ difnaowM^ by hkn» wkb fift j.otjiei% 

a84 )^^ off ^ f Qco**; ▼^^ tbdr acrows» 

The •«mei»r's (|n,^ff b^OTg^ moce^to bisaffiAanGC s Jfir^ 
i&#m^/ii(2A/,^bi?0|tIitt 4ii^h^^ %x^Tuzel Bamrfii^ too^ tllMt 
9^ the. faev^'ft w^ggQiasr and jofaied them juft before TjMt^ 
4^ fix4K9?i9* thft £n«iHy« aad try ^bceak the fanks^ AttA' 
S44 c^Ltntf ¥^ hisfakhiMi c^mpaay ; »ady difiaonfttiag^ plftc^ 
hkifttf P<ar tl^ 9heyJUi N^t^'Mn. Hujkym Mdiek Kdetim 
ipri 2^A X4K/i ariin^ witbtbeir cinbanen. Th6reg^meat» ^ 
yaa^d^ caoM ^iSfK ^th the^borfttail (OPefbed; aiid Ufioni^ wfk 
]|aft coiapafl^s peAed; bimfeli hefaiod ibe gcuwdB. AU diefe 
jMdkc^, ha^^ d^foKMH^tod^ <^paied tbo enenaf ; luriio^Bahdo 
CfOntiaual attac;k».oa tl;irai» and peEfom^ a^oos of the of 
90(1 i^ur. mJdJM HuffoLywy who conducted the van-^iard 
of TinUir's left wing, advanced bet\yeen Kottfi Ag}m^ who 
oimiaaaded the eneoif 's- ri^t^ s^id f lanted hioifeif behiDud 
Jkti^y^ who bokUy facsd the emgeror. Mean tirae>theMin^ 
Jf^hernal SokM mc^i to the left of his fatiier^ with, hk 
^ecFturs.; who braveljf puibid oa^ ths ea^my^ aad) with- theiif 
^etffi^ andl^H^^, ranited th«r n^fr wteg^ ai|d GoaifaauBed 
Bravely Twb Ami% B^ SojififMn^ w^ commanded thd^^tatv-gaarA 
fupported. of the rightwiag, JFound hiaifiatf laorr prefled tha^the omrs^:^ 
fiac he was iaciofedby the. eQatoy's-laft > fo thoty defpaiiai^ o( 
his Ufe,, ha difinooated- with his itoman. But, altho' the Kiff^ 
Uks. coatmoaUy iacnbafedv aiui.feli o& witb their lances ami 
{words, yet Sayfo'ddin'% foldiers, holding their bnckicrs before 
ibcm, did not ceafe repalfiag them with thdr arrows; till 
Jehdn Shah BahSck^. coming:' to theii^ affiftance from aaochei) 
parr of the fields fblkimpetuouflf wkb his toman on'the^ene' 
my; Hereupon an obAinate fighf began, and af horribte flatigh^ 
tcr was made : but at length the-rafl'-giiard of the Kif/dla left" 
wing gave way. Mean ttait the Mirza Rxtft^m^ fon of Omar 
Sheykh, tho' k> very youi^, ruflled imjjetuoufly on the- jnaia 
body, and put them to flight.. 

< Hift. Tim. Bek, p* 487— -45J. c. 5P— £i» 
t. TuiNCS 

Digitized by 


THiKbs bdbg in this fitnation, Tdghiibi Bahrin, a favourite 
and relation of Tiokatn^Jb, advanced vnth a toman of brave 
men,, and called oat to OzmAn Bah&dr to meet him« Ozmiin ' 
advanced at the head of his toman, and attacked him : after ^f"*^ '^^ 
they had broken their fabres, they feizei on their war-clubs '^'^^O'- 
and poignardsv; then grappled like two enraged lions. Th« 
ibldiers of their tomans imitated their chiefs, and fought hand 
t0 hand with great fury. At lengdi Ozm&n Bahddr overthrew 
bis antagonift ; and then fell on his troops with fuch vigour, 
that he intirdy defeated them. All the other generals per- 
formed their duty fo well, that, after a long and obftinate 
batde, they put the enemy into diforder : yet they were not 
certam of the defeat, till Toktamljb Khhn (hamefully turned his ' 
back, followed by the. princes, and generals ^of his troops. On 
this, Tnnur'% foldiers rallied ; and, joining together, fell upon 
the enemy, crying Fi6iory I They flew a vaft number, and 
afterwards hung up many of thofe whom they took alive. 

TIMURy finding himfelf fure. of the viftory, gave^ God Purfms 
thanks on his knees, received the congratulations of his offi- Tokta- 
cers ; and, getting an exaft information of all who had ferved mxih» 
weU on this occafion, diftributed his treafures liberally. Parti-' 
cularly, on the Amir Sheykh NAro'ddin^ who had fo fignally 
cxpofed his life to fave his prince, he conferred a higher pofl;;* 
prefentcd him with a horfe of great price, a veft of gold bro- 
cade, a belt fet with precious ftones, and 1 00,000 dinars A/j- 
^ghi. Befides thisj he made a general promotion of officers. 
Being come to the fCoray (K), he left the baggage and bcpty ; 
then marched, at the head of his beft troops, in purfuit of 
tokatmtjh : but, when he arrived at th^Wolga^ the khan' hav- 
ing crofled it, he ftaid at a paflage called TAratA. There he Mahs 
crowned Koyrichak Jglen, fon of Urus Khdriy who was an offi-^^y"- ^ 
cerof his court, emperor of Kifjdk ; and fent him, with xh^^^^^^* 
fquadron of Uzbeks, over the Wolga^ to gather the troops of 
his nation, and govern his new fubjefts. Mean time' the Ja^ 
gatayans purfued the fugitives as far as Ukek (L), flaying and 
taking captive^ a g^eat number ; while others crofled the JVolga 
on floats : and Tokatmijb, feeing himfelf clofely prefled, fled 
bto the impenetrable forefts of B4ldr (M). The acmy ad- 

(K) A river in the Kuheftdn bray^ fifteen leagues from each, 

of Georgtat which falls into the La Croix. — Elfewherc he fays, 

Ca/pian, to the north of Terii. neB.r Bteigdr and Samera, 

La Croix > (M) Bu/dr is Bu/gdr (or BuU 

(L) Oiukek, or Okak, The lad gdria), reaching as far 2$Siberiaf 

town dependent on Saray^ Qn the along the nver Kamdl {or Kama), 

^^o/ga, between Bu/gdr and Je- to the ley fea. La Croix, 

Mod, Hist, Vol. V. T vanccd 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

viuiced cm the weft. fide. of. thci rins^ dtt: thqfbOMHe* opppfite 
te tlie pUce wbera they, had boeain .dm^fisft) campaign tinhki» 
' is near^ the. dark oceim^ oc/e^. fea.; aad^ ia>tb6tr. returaiy, nh. 
vgged the. country^ bringing away an immeafeJiooty o£:gold^ 
fdvfir^ precious ftooes^ fpottod^ and fiu»» wih boys and {^1^4)6 
gimc b^uty^ 
KaraYu'. * WKiLE T/nsivr. was. om this .expedition^ £tm. Ttf/i^ aflbn*' 
iti files, bkfl a. troop of Turkmans abcHit y^/^if (or . UdfiTSUja},^ witii> 
dpi^P to attack Koy : but tbe..emperory afiet th&Jat^JMttlor 
haYtog f<mt troops, into /njn and GreAt Bukiaria^. toi preveat 
d^ordersi tbe^Mkusi Ph- Me^emad^ Mrhajcoipmandadi tlL&ibi^ 
n»art marched to Kpy,; and from. thence^ b]^theid^fi^of «£&«» 
D^rra (N), to BmdAUbi (O), where Airra Wj^lay encamfK 
ed^ buty on Jiis .approach^ that rd^berfied^ and.;wa«xpcu;^iei 

Timiir Me^i« tiaiiS TimiK^ reviving * to cooqnerv the* jeftfof: >^r 

ifimtules on the iidexf . K^jak^. entfired the gce^t defart^ which^ead^ iato 

EMrgf>a^ ac^ the great river Uzi^ or.Borifibenes. H&vCf at a 

tQWB called MankuTMUy on- that, river, he found. iSi^-^aroi 

Jglen,. mthothtii.Ujibek Tatars ; nM>fbo£.whamiWer©^utt^ 

p^oes^ and , their effisfb pillaged* Bqfh Tcmir'^gl^iZudJk^ 

t^.CUfff&i ibt^Uzi, and fledintatke country of J/^nRA/a> (P); 

M^bok inhabitants^ being thei^.enen^ies^ fo harai&d them, tl^ 

the tomaq of Jkiaa flod to Jfra ^akaiaJl^, or JnatoHa^ aa^ 

' ther« fettki. 

aftdrama' TJMC/RthcHf changing hia rottte, marched tow^s JWkj/^ 

^ej KuiTia.covyy VLXidCreat RvJJia. At . the -Tlwa/f (or Don) tht army 

again oxe^took, Bik Tarok, and^purfued him^^as-iar- a& A4tf{v» 

Si.XQ^)y\yn of Great. RnjffiayvAndx they piil^ed*' His 

' wires. and children, who^feil inta> their* hands, were kindly 

tneated by the emperor. This - prince went , in perfon ta Mof- 

km,^ which 'was 5)illai^ -, while, parties .were fetit - to ravage 

. all the -provinces of, jGreat Mufcovy^- z.nd,>UrHsjiJ^f or^- Lktk 

Ruffia; who. returned with prodigbus. droves of cattle, aad 

beautiful captives, befides inuncnfe riches, of ^11 kinds. 7?^. 

mur^ after this,, departed towards Bdidmiin (or the PahiS 

' (Ni A de:file of, mpuotalns, Foft by a kind 6f -fluicei La 

at prefent the bounds between Croix had crofied if. 

Pirr/tM and Turiy : the French (P) A country between the 

traoHator has pafled them. La B^ryfihena and - Btamh^, La 

Croix. Croix. 

(O) A little river, wher^ they (Q) Otherwife called A#r^ I 

{hot up the £ih of the lake of on the frontiers of Poland^ La 

' - ^ Craix, 

Maotis) ; 

Digitized by 

Google ' 

dji flti Reign ^^T!im^^ \ ^9^ 

M^sy;tnd, beipg5:arriifed' fLt.J?4k'(R,)l ordered that; thfe A. D; 
Mokammedans ihould be fet at liberty, and the other inhabit- i394* 
aotS pot' to: the fwoW. Rrdm'Jicnce be.mdrcheA his trc>aps ^— %-^ 
fl>&*«i'(S) : but, ^3.thc Curias had deftroyed all the pafturd 
gKmnd? bctiween thdfe two t©whs; a gfcat nuiriber of hobfes 
dW,^ and: they fiiff^tcJd uiilc^lFor dgKt days. From Kuban thS 
Wrm' Meh^'(tSoItMt dSixd'Mrdn Shih wett (ef^t to conquer 
Gierhqffia r'wMch they ciFe6ted, bringingJaway. infinite fpoif"* 

A^TBit this, Ti^wi^ retTlrftca towards mbunt AMrz. On Ritams to 
tte way^ feme ftjrry fellows^ who aFe neyer wanting in the Georgia. 
Wtteof^jlrinces^ acctifed,X?ziri^;z Abb&.oi cAwx$ which had! 
i^/ounditiori :,butl,* as 7?mtir had before fufpefted <2zm<j»'«: 
fttelitj^ hq'drdefdd' that iUiiftricJbs amfr, who', oil fo inany od* 
cafibns*, had .ghrcjcr proofs oif his conra^ and condoft, t9 be * ' 

piit:t6[ death-. .Tberempc?or,:h^ng»adefign to deftroy thi^ 
infidels,' lA^rched: tp\«Af ^s B&rdubetdi, . to" attatk . Buraiehl 
prlpcr.of the nation X)f 4^i H^ afcchdcd mount JlMrz^ f<^ve- 
ral times attacked the Georgians, pat! a great nnmbeSr of thenii 
to the f*bra ;.aml tlfinM^th&forln^ds, ^w^h they had deemed 
inocceffifele. On hi§ riotej', hcinadc ^.fplendid feaft, for joy 
of his fucc^s" ; aftef\whic*h, he'ag£n.left ^he hod^ oFthe armjr^ , 
to attack the fortneflei (A Mia ahd Tkii/i in Georgia^ fiturfte bw 
nft)9jntaiii8 inhabited by ^ the^ feme' peppiCi' as thofe of mount 
Atbiirz'% and fo 'fteep^ tHat' one is dazzled to look at themV 
That, bn whofe ridge Taw/ Hands, is fo highi that no archer 
can hit it with his arrbW. 

TJMUR ordered the toiMn*of 3f^*n>x, tfie moflr dexterous' Fortre/s of 
inthe'wortd at climbing mouhtairisi toafcend the rock : but, Tawi, 
aftei'going'rotmd it; they could not find one Tiiigle paflkge to' 
tha cwle. The emperor, concerned at this', at length caufed* 
a greatt nuihber of .ladders to be made, whith might' be jdned' 
together. Bdng gotten, by thefe hclps^ to the top of the 
fim ridge^f the inotmtain,' a troop of the forlorn hope bound- 
thcmfelVes with cords; and, having faflened theends.of the* 
cords to the ridgerof the mountain, came down even witH* 
the place, where the befiegcd overwhelmed them with ftones; 
and flew them ia:heaj)s.' But, as the whole army were conti- 
nually mbuiiting the ladders,' and defcendihg before the places^' 
the beii^ed Ipft courage; (6 that they could not hinder the' 
cafHe from being taken by thcjagatays^ wh6 put to the fword' 

■ Hift. Tim. Bck, p. 495-*-505. c. 53—56. > 

(R) The fame with J/bf (as (S) Capital of Cherkajfta, La 
the Europtans call it) at the mouth Croix . 
of the Don, 

Digitized by VjC50QIC 

292 Hiftory of the MogiHs ani Tatart. B. VJ^ 

A. D. all thft men of the nation of Irkawn who had retired thimer : 
1 394* the governors of the place, and he of KMa, were alfo put^to 
'—v^ death. 

and Pulad From .thence the army marched towards the fcMtrefs of Pu- 
imken ; lad, by the way of BaiakhAn\ where they were all fixr^hed 
with honey, the quantity was fo great. The governor, named 
Pulad alfo, refofmg to deliver up UiarH, one of the great 
amirs of Kif>jdk, who was retired- diither, tim4r ordered a 
paflage three leagues long to be cut through a thick wopd, in 
order to come at the caftle, which is fituated on at very fteep 
defile of mountains. The enemy b^a^i the attack firft :' 
but, being quickly defeated, the Ja^atays entered the place, 
and put to the fword all who were capable of bearing arms* 
However, three companies of Ceorgians, and UiarM, fled : the 
companies were purlued to* the top of a mountain ; and, after 
their defeat, were all caft into the fire: while 7i'»ii)r followed 
UtarH to the middle of mount JIMrz, in a place called 
Jb^fa ;- where he was at length feized, after an obftinaife de- 
£ence, and loaded with chains 
nuith other THE army, having pillagcil all the inhabitants of this great 
places. and famous mountain, marched againft the country oi Sem- 
fern : whofe lord, Mehemed, fon of GayAr KMn, came to 
offer It, with his fubjedls ; «and was enrolled among the officers 
of Timor's court. They then afcended the mountain, whi- 
ther fome of the inhabitants had fled ; who bdng taken, the 
emperor ordered them to be bound, and precipitated from rht 
rocks. There were feveral places in Georgia, out of which 
neither horfe nor foot could get, without gently Aiding down the 
, fteep hills : yet no difficulties diverted HmHr's zeal, who at 
length cleared this country of the infidels, deftroying their 
images and churches, as well as their houfes. Thence 'he 
marched, by mount Jwhdr, to Bifbkunt (T) ; whofe inhabitant? 
he rewarded with largefles and lands, becaufe they had long 
Koflak before offered him their fervice. He then proceeded, and ra- 
robbers \5aged the countries of the Kojfdks of JutAr (in Georgia), pnt- 
Jlaiti, jjj^g all thofe robbers to the fword. From thence he went to 
Bogdz K&m, a defile of mountains, where the inhabitants of 
Mamkatu and Kazi KomAk came to make their fubmiflions. 
There now remained unconquered in Georgia only the ifles ; 
whofe inhabitants, called Balekchian, that is, jifbermeriy con- 
' fided in their fluid rampier : but,, as it was winter, and the 
waters were frozen two cubits in thickiiefs, the foldiers pailed 
over ; and, having pillaged their houfes, brought them away 
prifoners to the camp. 

(T) A town of Georgia. 


Digitized by 

Google ^ 

C. 32 Thi Reign of Tirnftr Bck. 129 j 

, 4^T this time Timir receiving advice from his lieutenant in A. D. 
/Ttf/i 7Vr*A^ (or 4*r^A2;|), of foAe treafonable praftices in i3?4- 
'Mahmidiy the kelonter (or governor) began his match thi- ^TTyT*^ 
ther, altho* the winter was. extremely fevere. The walls of ^^l^ ^^^' 
this city are clofe to the fFolga, which runs round them by ^ *y 
means of the ditches, and U> fervcs for a rampier : but, as 
the river is frozen in winter, they ufually build a wall of ice; 
as ftrong ^ one of brick, on which they fling water in th6 
night, that the whole may congeal, and become one piece 5 
wherein they make a gate. 7i»«2r, being come near Haji Ter- 
kMn, approached the city with only a few men : and, as Mah' 
m&di was obliged to go but to ibeet the emperor, he was ar- 
refted, and fent towards- Saray, under the conduft of the 
Mirza Pir' Mehemed; who, in his way, having pafled the 
Wolga^ which was frozen, purfuant to the orders given him, 
'thruft his prifoner under *the ice; When he came to Saray ^ 
capital of Kipjdk (U), he mad^ the inha:bitants go forth, and 
then reduced it to a(hes ; to revenge the burning of Zenjir * ' 

Saray ^ the palace of Soltan Khazhn Kh&n (in 1387), when it 
was without a governor, and there was no king in Great Buk- " 
hdria. After this, Tim4r returned to the winter quarters at 
Biigdz Kom ; and,- as his army had been extremely weakened 
by the fevere weather, which had killed moft of the horfes, 
and rendered provifions exceffively fcarce (W), he ordertd the 
{polls of Saray and Haji Terkhdn to be divided among th6 

" All the countries of Ktpj^ and Kefer (X), with the weft Georgia 
and north .parts of xht^Cafpian fca, werfe now reducted under Ar^^^ ^ 
Tim^r^s dominion : the towns and provinces of thofe climates' '^'^^,^^^- ' 
h&d likewife all been plundered, as Ukek, Majdr (or Hungary)\ "^; 79^- 
Little RiiJJia, Cherhaffia, BdJbgQrod, (Y), Mekes or Mojhow\ '" ^' ^• 
j^zdk^ KUhhriy and Alki (Z). All tfie princes of thofe coun- *^ * 
trids had, moreover, given afTurances of their obedience ; and 
t^ie cnenjy fcatter^d. At the beginning, . ther<ifore, of the year 

^ Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 505^^5 14. p. 56 — 60. 

•( P) Where refidcd the Tir- (X) The province betwisen 

tar kings of I>iJ/^/^tfrif«, which Khoraffan and the Cajfian fea. 

is tlie^r^^Bameofi^;^^[ra- I^a Croix. ' 

ther KafcMk,Kafjdk, or Kipjdk}, '^ (Y) A town (of Ki't/aL La 

Btv^tcd on the fFo/^a. La Croix. Croix, 

{ W) A pound o^ millet fold (Z) A town and country be- 

«fbr fevcnty dtnirsir<?/ff^r*; the twttTi Georgia ^^Vi^riit Black Se0. 

hcskidi of anpx for 190 jand that Lu Croix, 
4^f a ihcepfoi: 250, 

' • - ' T 3^ 79«» 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

returru to 

tered ia tj^J^^ J^,5Y?^ *^^4?V#. §^^ ^^f¥f^ 

Jt A) A cm^^^ (ajid toT^pJ of 44-45^/ c^ P^if^^ ^ f^^' 

Croix. S>^i^J?£ifiS^^m^k^^V 

by. confoundt^* tup oufaaf 

Min^relta. La Creix. 

1%) Tb»8 (ccms iQ te tj\g cr- 

timcsinferis names an4j?.¥pjja^^- 
tions of his own in the text. The 

towns of 

^ween Darkled: ?»d ,, , 


Digitized by 


B^l^jfjm, tjr»<j^f^,Tn JK^f^^w, vhich Irad fufferea a 
•ik^^bf ^-flifte yifers, was fo preflcd by ShM ShihAn, and the 
*ttoiSip% ci*^^&ntta^\oytA thefeih, that 'all the ihhabifaiits, jis^ .^ 
•%^'is gait!foftf were flain in the uflkults, i&xcepting Gudcrz ^^^^^ 
'the'gbvehidr, and fix others; '^Vho, being at length obliged ^^^'^^ 
to 'fiii*rctidfer the jplace, was put to death for his obftihacy. 
'After this, trhHe Ttm&k KUchiny governor 6f Tdzd^ was goiie 
Ho 'the impciial cadip, 'the Soitdn Mchemed, fon of 'Aha f aid 
^^befiy with ^fometltxitfe, 'fotitierty in'the ferviCe of the princes 
^6i*Mttzaf^, 'flew Tewifki iietlt^ndnt, with feveral of the _grcat ' 
•dEcers of that city ; ianfl/feizing ^he public treafure, -with fe- 
'irferal loads of fluff, Hefi^nedfor the femprefs, aflertibledkn iii- 
'Uttite Tiumber of profligate 'fellows, Whom he cloathed, and 
t'gare money to. On *a3vice of this fedition, Ptr Mchcmed^ 
^ta-trf" Om^ Bheykhy marched from Shtraz with the army ik 
P$rs : and, being joined by thofe of the neighbouring prb- 
'iKiit^, went and befieged 7^2^/. Ti?m1r nKo fent thither the i 
.^iltrzz <Pir Meh^medy fon of Jehdn Ghir^ with confiderable 
troops ; who gave two aftaults each day, yet could not reduce 
ihe.pkce by force: but, after a long flege, in which 30,000 -^^^^/f/^-/- 
'ilted of famine, the eneitiy dug their way out under thd ditch. /^^^« 
"However, being puffued, thfcir leader Mchemed was killed near 
^fMn^rd (*) ; while Tome oif hi^ followers were flain, aad 
tte r^ft burnt alive. Ttrrtdr^ pJtyitig the poor inhabitahts, 
foi^ve the drears of taxes ; and put thdr city, which had 
teen rumed'by the rebels, in a flourifliing condition again \ 

Tinlir invades and confers Hinduftan. 

^^^JMUR, being arrived at *S^W/7()/<j, releafed Soltan ^)y2r, Timfir. 
^ prince of Mardin, and reftored him to his territories, returns. 
He then mardied to Hamadhny, and then fdnt troops to Nah'ti- 
'^wend (in Perjian Irdk), againft Behlul,^ who had llain the ge- 
Berons Atr^ir Mezid Berlds, gOA^ernpr .of that city, and re- 
volted. Thofe forces, having, with abundance of fatigue,. 
taken the place, cut in pieces all the rebels who defended it, 
and burnt their ringkader aHve ; the amirs, who commanded 
it the fiege, were after\vards ordered to exterminate the rob- 
berg of Lorefttn ; and then march to the Perftan gulf, and 
hidg under his' obedience all the maritime places, as tar as. 

* Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 514 — 524 c. 60—64. 
(•) A city ofKhoraffatt^ Otherwifc called Mchrejdn and Bsferayn^ 

T 4 the 

Digitized by 


Hiftory of the Mogub and Tatars. B. VJ. 

the borders of Harmtiz, or OrmAz: which they at length ef- 
feftcd. Timur^ after hunting in the plain of Hamaddn^ dif- 
' banded his army ; and, July the 30th, fet out for Samarkant, 
marching in one day as fax as others would in three or four. 
Havmg pafled through Verami (**) ^nd Bejiam (f), he entered 
TLhQrdJfariy of which h^ made the Amir Allahdad infpeftor- 
g^neral, Th(?n crofljng the JiHn in boats, at Am&ya^ he 
went to his palace of Ak-Jaray^ in Kajh \ where, after receiving 
the compliments of all the great lords of divers provinces, who 
came to congratulate his return, he made a fole^ feaft ; and 
then went to Samarkant^ where he was joyfully received, and 
made another f^aft. After this, he gave the fharifs, and 
men of letters, part of the fpoil he had brought home ; pu- 
niftied bad governors, againft whom complaints were mad^, 
putting fome to death ; and exempted all the fubj^fts <^ his 
empire from taxes for three years. 
fimfalact tN fpring 799, Timur ordered the palace of BAgH-JhemM to 
built, be built, In a garden tb the north (A) of Samarkant, by the 
Hcj. 799. moft flcilful architefts of PArs and Baghdad, It had a pavilion 
A. D* at each of the four corners ; and the w^ls were painted in 
' " * }97- frefco, with fuch art, as furpafled the \\ox\%o{ Art enk Mdni{B), 
feveral of whofe pieces Timur was poflefled of. The c<^^ 
was paved with marble ; and the bottom of the walls, both 
'V^ithin and vVithout, were covered with porcelain. Wh^n thie 
■ whole was finifhed, Tbnur ordered a royal feaft, with fumptu- 
Shah • ous banquets, plays, and diverfions ; at which he invefled hp 
R&kh fourth fon, the Mim Shdh Rukh Bahadr^ fovereign and abfo- 
made king. \y^^^ prince of the kingdoms of Khoraffan, Sijldn, and Mazin- 
derdiiy as far as Firuzktlhy and the city of Ray : deeming Afo- 
rajfdn^ by its fituation, fitteft for the feat of his kingdom, as, 
lying between the two empires of Ir^n and Turhn. (of which 
he was mafter). Then, having appointed amirs and generals 
to command under him, he tenderly embraced, and, having 
kifled his ieyes and forehead, difmifTed him. The new kbg 
croffed the Jihun in June-, and, arriving 2itHerdf, chofe for 
his refidence the palace of B^gh-zaghdn, that isj^ the Gardm 

{♦♦) A town of Kuheftdn (in Kajbijty in the road to HWIf, 

Iraky^hxi the territory of Rej a. La £fteen days diflant. 

, Croix.—ByReja {or R£^a}he(eem^ (f) Or Befadm^ a town of 

to mean Rey^ or Ray, Jt is ijien- ^offiUSy fauth of Maxdndtrdn. 

\\ont^ in the journal of the Perr (A) fidgbi-foemdlix^^ tit 

I jfian merchant taken from Aamu* Garden of the Ncrth, 

fio by Hakluyt, Vol. I. p. 357. (B) The moll eminent paint- 

and placed fix days loarney from er of China and Perfa. La Croix. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C. 4. ^^ Rt^^of TimfifJBck. 29^ 

qf Crows ; where, the 25dxof September^ ht had a foh born, A. D. 
whom the emperor, his father, n^xati,' Bay fankar^. ^ '397-.. 

Mmn. time the Mirza Mehemed S^tin^ marching by J9^x- 'i^— v***J 
raBJerd(C) and7kr<9» (D), wenttaHarmiz (or Ormfiz), where Harroiiz 
he was met by troops which had taken diiFerent routes. At ^^^'^^^ 
the foft onfet, they reduced thefevftn fortrcfles, which are the ' 
bulwarks of that kiifigdom ; whofe fovereign, Mehemed Shdh (E), 
was obliged to retire to Jertmy where he was conftrained to make 
peace, {wearing to pay sOi annual tribute of 600,000 dinars. 
When the Mirza was on his return to Shirdz^ a perfon named 
Jum&Wddtriy a native of the mountain of Firdzkuh, who rode 
at th$ fide (rf his horie, ilruck him with a knife, but only 
wounded him ilightly. The villdn, thinking to efcape, got 
jip to the ridge of the mountain ; but, ftumbling as he ran, 
fdl into a predfMce, and was killed. This prince, having 
finiflied the campaign, returned to the court at Samarkant : 
where Timtir, at this time, made feveral rich prefents to Shama 
Jeh&nt fon of Kezer Kcja Aglen (king of Jetah) ; and fent 
him to his father, accompanied by KayHo*ddin Terkhan^ to 
demand his fiiler^ Tukel KhArdm^ in marri^. 

At the fame time he built a magnificent palace in the midft Another 
of ^e -garden, caXleA, Bighi Dilenjba (F), jufl: then finiflied, in JpiemUd^ 
the plaia of Khani Gheul^ without Samarkant, and gave \i palace. 
thp name oi his new miftrefs (G). This palacje was fquare ; 
each 'fide 1500 cubits long; and, in the middle of each, a 
very high gate. The edifice was three ftories high, and the 
roofs exceeding lofty. The cielings were adorned with flowers 
in Mofdih work, and the walls cov^ed with porcelain of ATa- 
Jbdn. It was adorned with all the beauties that could be de- 
vifed ; builf^ceedii^ flxong ; and furrounded with a colo- 
nade pf m^rWe, which gave it a majefiic afpeft. The garden 
Wa$ iqoft elegantly laid out in parterres, wilderneflc^, and 
allees, bordered with fycamores, and delicious fruit-trees. At- 
each of the four ccMrners flood ^ very lofty pavilion, covered 

^ Hift. Tim. Pck, p. 52^—534. c. 64 — 6%. 

(C) A city of Fdrsy or P^r/, from Texeira, is given, Vol. VI. 
where they find fait of all co- P. 65. yerom, or Jerun^ is the 
lours : in the midft of the tQAva iHand of Ortptix ; but tKe fort- 
is a hill of free-ftone. LaCroix, relTes werp on the continent of 

f D) A city of Fdrs^ near Seyr- Terfia. 
jdn (or Strjdn). La Croix i. (P) That is, the garden ^wbicb 

(E) This prince is not men- rejoices the heart. 
<i#ned among the kings of Har* (G) It was the cuilom to dcr 

^i^, or Ormu^f^ >^hpfe hiftory, dicace palaces to ladies^ 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

^th porcekiQ ringed wiih ttary .ddiote .AaSowii^, -aitfl 
ranged with admirable :flcilL 

^FTE& thi^, the ciqfKmrtd^xtftdL ior fDA/bkum^ 'tifitk^ 

in Jiis way, dieiomb of ^Shqddi.^^hMri:; -and, ^hen 'wioter 

was aver, bearing that 4lb0i pAdc^s i^s tta the tdad, ftU the 

' ladies and amirs of the cottrt^wi^e fast oniioHebattk, (vsLt^m 

days journey, to meet .her^ IHatvingmfctJnr, :ihey fprinyed 

^old and pnecious ftoaes 0b kervhnd.; didilmi^ this hotK>tfr 

diu; to a.great Que^ni on^ imnkiag.'flftagidficBdrfi&lfts at ev^ 

prda th^ arrived at, 'bre«ght ^ar litlleo^^oOdfm^r . Theb 

];ie^aveordeiB for« gRaodTfeafl-; xtd, icnttA^diag the diidf 

Aiuti, theiazi*s, atid^ed^rs of ifhekw, te^dome before him, 

^y married him acoai^iiig to Jthe Moh/maaabm^txs. 

Emhajfy J^BO u T -tfass im^ ambaf&dfOTS aorwed tfhim V^aim^z Wj&fu, 

from eraperor of Kat^ (H),.*wllii \Br3r caiEbiu \pMfi5ilts, and were 

China. foQ^ di^bufled. Tiimr 'Aen hfqxMmed nhe M6^ 'Mek^meU 

SnbM, ^QvemaTfOf tfal; froitiers loljM^ukfi^, with Orders 

to build a.fortrefs tbercu at the tovm ^f u^&i^^ atid 40,000 

)u)rie under his <omimild« AfKer -this, in the ^b^jil^i^ of 

fpring, he left CJmits^ «Dd came to StukBtkam ; fttto Ih^Kt 

Jie'^A;}^. Ob ^ anad, £v^ imagoes from ^ ftA 

city, itfaere as 41 fiountain^ dCmt tff MUh :^Higs u rt«c||- ; ^md, 

jijiis beii^ -an ^gree^^k pbc^ ^e iCitif^eior tird^ed n jgi«i^ 

^den to be4aaade tiiare ; and, cm fiie top of ft lock> in ^ 

middle ^ i^, a fiea&ro^il^ to iie bcltt, to^t^Mch 1^ gavt 

the name of Tikt XtLrJkJte^ thatis, the Slack 7»mitK 

Hiinvades. ^FTER the deadi «f firrfz *S«* (I), mtipetor «f Mfa, 

Hinduf. ^^/A^ A%in and Sarmk^ two ibrotheis, ^b# bid tfiete Us ge- 

tin. jutrals, fdaced hifi gD«^n fidltan MaimM M «ile tthrone ; 

})U£» at the fame time; ufnrpiqg lAtt iiirdMtgn'pMf^thaiH 

/ebes, ilfaM^ refided ^ 2>r/i (K), MemcMalmiii^ vbrt 5^irmi( 

|it^4//iSA{L). On^dusoccafioo, Tiiii^, bdUg peitmiSed l^ 

»» Hift. Tfan. Bek, f . 5^-^**- «.<4*-7<^ 

fH) Or JT/z^vi by which is of KhsrqffSma apudin Hindufm, 

to be undeiHood China in gene- infl fuccceded that of the GdzK 

ral 1 altho' Kit^ properly in^ in the year 11 cc, 
eluded only . tke provinces to the {K) Cilled afib belU^^t^ more 

north of the IFhang-bo, Tht pfoj>erl/,/)^i*. It vwasthcB, u 

emperor deitgned by T^m^s; was it is now, the capital of Hiu' 

Hong"vu, founder of the family di^tdn^ or the Mogols empire ; 

pf the Ming^ fa-wingj Or fay* aim confiib of thncc towuifSari, 

ming, who £ed the year after. Jehan-pena. and OldDeii, 

(I) He was probably a de- (L) A* city fituatcd on tfcf 

fcendant of the family ofCaurii river JB4<&/. 

orGciur, who rcighed in Gtfs«<r ' 


Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 



The inhabitants of this place h^vjng ^pqityjalne^ jfhat ^ Attach 
idolaters of mount Ketnef, an^ tjie Si(ip/i/hes\i^), exji,%d^. Ket^cr, 
<^S&m fums oiF the Mohammedans^ under the de^pmiijatijpji ^f 
^uilinte ; and that, on failure of pajrment 
ind made flaves of the women arid childr 
.againft diem. Being ^niye^ at Perjd 
jkirza Mftem to the left, witji ip,boo ji 

fAJbes\ and, following his road, c^me tp ^ 

found a demoliihed djtad/sl, wh;ch he CJ 
^ie amirs bc^n tp gicend the mountai 

fatigae ; find,' as the infidels dwdt in jiarrc 

pices, and the roads to thenj, were ^ov^red 

^ot to the top, ibme of them, as wejl as i. 

fjy ropes, while others i[lid aD^vn the (i withgrea^^ 

fort of raft for 7tm^r, 2^x\d let it down difficulty. 

long, faftened to rings ; and, yr)\s:j^ h^ g 

place in the fnow lor Him tp f^an(^ pn, 

'five times in this m^nq*, il^f^j^ he i^a 

(*) A city to thq north of Bu^4ria. The SiafuJ^es arc^^ 

Jdiibkn. ta Croix, idolatroas natipn, doatjipd jn 

j[M) That 18, a religious war, black, iphabitlngthe mpant^in& 

}i^e the crvii?d^ of Romamfii ; fouth of Baddgshm* Lk Croix. 
^r, k fignAfieft Qi^ Wl^o cq^i^l9 (O) A la^yn of BadsgsJ^dm^ 

jn fach wars. two days journey from Anderdb^ 

(Ny Ketijfrt Of ^eta^t^, ^s ^ pe^ the 4ktfi/hgi. La Croix. 
mountain in the kingclom of Ba- (P) OyKu^\ sl town at the foot 

4^tf»,intiie!?aJ?jarji9f^^^ ^{^S^Xjf^^t4er. La Croix. 


' Digitized by VjiU\._/^lV^ 

Hifiory of the Moguls and Tatars: B. VL 

motintaia. Some of his horfes were let down by iwstfaes ; 
1>ut only two got lafe ; the reft, for want ci care, fell head- 
long, and periChed. Then he took a ftaff in his hand, and 
Valked a good way; after which^niouadi^ bis norfe, the army 
' followed on foot «. 
^«/ the The infidels of this country, who go all naked, are ftroi^ 
Siapftibcs. men, and large as giants. Their kings are named Oda and 
OdaJMh : they hare a peculiar language, whidi is neither Per- 
Jian, Turkijhf nor Indian » fo that, but for their oe^bours, 
who ferve* for interpreters, they could neither underftand, nor 
be underftood. They had a citadel, at whofe foot a great 
river pafles, with a bridge over it ; and beyond the river was 
a high mountain : but, on Timur*s approach, they fled, with 
their efPefte, to the top of this mountain, imagining it to be 
inacceffible : but the Jagatays foon got up, with the lofs of 
fourteen, who fell from the top headlong ; and attacked the 
enemy on all fides. The fight lafted three nights with un- 
lieard rf obftinacy : but at length the infidek, after the lofe 
of great numbers of men, begged quarter, ft was granted, 
on condition that they fubmitted, and turned Mohammedans ; 
which they did on the fourth day : but, at night, having pot 
to the fword an intire rq;iment, except a very few^.the whole 
army got upon the mountain ; and, following Mohammed's 
precept to fpare the wpmen, cut to pieces all the old and youi^ 
men ; then raifed towers- of their heads, and left a marbk 
engraved n^th the hiftory of this aftion. 
t>ifirn$ Mean time the Siapiifhes^ on the approach of the Mirza 
ihiiiu Rujlem and Burhdn ^glen^ left their fortrefles, and retired to 
* the mountains ; where they lay in ambufcado. In a very nar- 
row paflage. Thefe, when tht Jagatays palled by, iffucd 
forth \ and, falling fuddenly on them, Burhdn Aglen^ thro* 
great cowardice, threw off his coat of mail, and fled without 
fighting ; which caufed the defeat of his troops, and flaughter 
- of ihany men. It happened that, at this inftant, MehemedAzJ4» 
fent as a reinforcement by Timir, met the Siapijbes on their re- 
turn ; and, after a (harp fight, intjrely defeated them. He thcp 
Went to join BurhdnAglen with thehone which had fled ; but could 
not prevail on him to remain th^e all night : for he gpt to the 
top of the mountain, whither he was followed by his troops. 
Burhin was the only prince of the family of Kay it (Q^), 
"whoy^xnct Jengbiz khdriy had committed the like infamous 
|ii6Uon. This general had indeed doiie the fame in the wsr 

« Hift. Tim. Bek, 1. iv. c. i— -3. p. x— 10. 

(Q.) 7^iht)s, Kkdn was himfelf of ihi^ftock. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C. 4*^ The Reign of Tmiit Btk: 

of thc^ Uzbeks : but Timir had not orily pardoned, but conti- 
mxcd to honour him ; and had fent him on this expeditiba^ta 
retrieve his credit. 

When thefe two generals had rejoined the imperial army af PuniJhBs 
Kaiik, Timur would not admit BurMn Aglen into his prefece. cowarMce. 
He treated him vdth fcorn, as he met him by chance ; and, to 
fliew his infamy, feid : " The koran affures us, that twenty 
'* zealous Muffdm&ni are able to conquer 200 infidels ; and ' ' 
'^ ^et Burbht^ at the ihead of 10,000 men, fled from a hand- 
" ful of unbelievers," He then declared him crimipal; and, 
as a mark of difgraoe, banifhed him the court. On the other 
hand, he gave rich prefents, and the command of a r^ment, ' 
to Mehemed Azad% who, with only 400 men, had, on foot. 
Hood his ground againft the vanquifliers of Burhitn^ flufhed 
with victory, and flain a ^eat number of them, ^ter this, 
the Mirza SIM ^i/W departed fi*om KaXik for Herki ; and 7i- 
tn^r marched to Tulle (R) : then croifed the mountain JfenM 
K^; pailed by PenjeMr (S), and encamped in the country erf 
Barmy five leagues from KMrul: where he caufed a great canal, 
called Mahighir, to be made, five leagtws in length, pn which 
afterwards were built many large vil]^;es •*. 

Mbak time there arrived in the camp ambafladors from £^^-, 
feveral jninces, particularly Kezer Kqja Jgien, king of^ 
to afliire Timtir of their obedience. Tayzi Aglen (*), who, iot frinctf. 
fome difference between him and the khan, at Olug-yirt (T), 
fled frcMtt the kingdom of Kalmdk (U), came alfo hither for 
proteftion, and was received with great honour. Nor was the 
Amtir Sheykh Niro'ddin lefe welcome ; who brought with hmt 
an immenfe treafure, the revenues of Perfidy and prefents of 
an ineftimable value. At this time Malek Mehemedy brother 

•Hift. Tim. Bck, p. 10—19. c. 3 — 5. 

(R)' A little town of Baddg- of the kings of Kalmdky or ra- 

Jhdu. Ln Croix. ther of the Mogul khans. La 

(S) Commonly called Penjir Croix. 

(or B^if^/^jr), at the footof the . (U) A kingdom, formerly 

mountains of Kajhmir^ to the called Karakitny, in Mogukftdny 

weft. AbSlfeda fays, there are* north of the kingdom ofGurgfy 

two filver mines here. 2^4 Cm;):, ox Lyau-tong, La Croix, — ^This 

(*) Called Elchi Timur Khdriy is a very confufed account : yet 

p. 82. This happened twenty feems to intimate that the M^^«/f,- 

years after the MunglKhdtiy be- ovMungls^ intheeaftof 7/zr/<?ry, 

ing driven out of Chinuy re- went then by the nickname of 

{ctdcd zt Karakorom. KaImdhyOtKaImitks;giventhe(tiy 

(T) That is, the Great Orda ; donbtlefs, by the Mohammedmn 

it flands nezr Karakorom^ capital Tatars or Miwgls. 

q£ Kalmdky and is the rc^dence 

Digitized by 


i6^»- that M&Jfa, prince ot the Kerkes, had killed his brotto^^vHioi 

'--S^^^-^^^valitolilfccrTdF tkb efiiperor,MAdVuineii bjib^{V^%.^Uai^i^ 

hiS'^teftsmsf^aiAl.'robtM ofi^fflb-'gRkcroac&I- 7iV7n^'drdte9 

7mi;4it# ccKKcal hhhMisI wMle-he fent foi* M^^ty court ;4 

^<Mto3\^3'«r«eiyed'Wi*Mrtteiof'HBiAiur'b3^hi^ airf. 

oMiraJ:! t6:>rebQlM l9pUr. Jmjb^wcnt bttie-* tj^ dKeyrtKrxnr'* 

d<r^, ' aIi^^\Aeb:)tfa^^^l^0rfe'^l^a9^Uflb0d;: thb anpaUr* ji&rd^ 


-^jf ©//rr/i . Al^hUld«t%ncd t«f T«Kf t€f 'dfaWt * iW|^ -and^jA aocdmpiiccs^ 

yir funijb' htMRMMML^ the^ ffl ^ wh iiUi 'tofuftjr aByrof themrtOTd-efatcr* 

. ^' tia^^m, ak0r once they vriim obi. * Nor wa^tMs bardei^ gIVeD* 

\tohbdt gaWs^rtafon^ QA';,SefHmhef i6th,' Timrfr lAi*i^ 

uiiKK) faolft, toi\i€tv liie'piBeep aecofmpaincd byj mattyfpiiixbw* 

art* gttiemii^-'ok^ fodt,<> he^ xfti^^p^Fceivctf* bf f<hriii'-of ' A&fa^'. 

lll«irt:rir^.fm»f art n|tptt^\^tfddw*oPa*'hdffet)awfaA'taie-of' 

tte'g«fW^>wfcb4e^flyIa^h**^'Witfi^AalgI» to-kSlhWafrtbtt? 

tlitr\vWaJo* tIl»^lte)W<oi!lj^ftarflca<Whoi:fe- Thmf, vtpaS 

tlfii^ M^tfriBUd^thct clt/V! Hflrithet^ g^-*, and toiiirefifciy^caUBi^ 

Mujfa and his paitifah«"to bcrfefeed : 200 of whomr,- Widrthcfr: 

chW? heaMiMcrt*W'ilfiMVlMr^ \vha,'affifte*by}tfi%c 

oP^hte'»rd^^ts,l cut ofF theft heaft, . tsr rcrenge ,hh- brofhcrt'^!d<^ni«te^'toi^vei^*of theinV His ^fubjcfts ;Wttc- plum" 

ddrdd ; "amd^thd v^mwrf, chlldifen; and'gDods;'<tf thde'^yhuits,' 

gWn'td^'inAJtonMy'^the' pirol)!^ of Irjdk; whidti pjiaripilhy^ 

Croffes the S^S^P^E^e^^Rf'ijth, Tfwiar' rtatdfea'-tdv^rd 'Sie/hi^ix} 
Indus. vt^heflrti^neftcinped/ afti^r ^fficq^ievendrforefts^and naonntnhs. 
T*e'2»<h/ heiirrii^A'at^e^fortrcfsof Nagaz^vrhichi^ixac 
newly rebuilt by his order. Here bdng ii^ormed, that the na* 
tion of Pervianti a i&tA^dl'UgAns (or -//agTwiJiw^, nnfeftcd the 
roads, "he- entered the mountains ; and, in three days, came 
up\with' and cut them to pieces, burnt their dwellingB, aiid 
carried off their children and eHefts. Mean time the* Ainir* 
S^leymim Skah^tmXtA the /uf/a^f^/, another * nation of' the 
Ugini,' vefy'ftrong and nuitterous, in the famfi manner : but 
tHeVM/ a third T>rAndfi of 'the latne pebble, came; aiid, fdb* 
Hej. 801 . Df!tt?ng; were loaded whh favburs: The firfl'day of the y«tf* 
A. D. Sbt [Sipt^fbi^r''^^), 7i;;t*/dfeparted far '-^anjJj then march- 
*39^- . ing from thence, ^^^*^r' 7th arrived at ihc India ^ iii theTcry' 
place where Sol tan Jal^lo'dJih, kiri^ of Karaxm] f\^am ov^" 
that river, in fight of Jenghiz Khdri. The emperor croffid* 
it. on -a bridge, of boatd. • At this place he difmijSed the am- 
balfadors of foreign princes : ambng the reft, was one fror; 
the fharifs of Mekka and ^ledina^ who courted a vifit fix)ia 
(W) A city four days journey diftant, towards Imiia. La Croix. 


y Google 

Digitized byV 

them» and ^kfircdi^W^'prptefllon (X): Eikewife tKe aoAaf^ 
fgdor of' Bfkdkdir^Snk, P"^^^ oi Kajbmtr (T), who offered.* 
cJt>edieBce; and Siras t)rd&ed'tQ meet ttte emperor, at JDjrj^^^/>j^ 

TJMURi hayihrpafltdtlte./ffita mthlii&anny,ena 
at- the-eRttaocej- oFthe' great dtfart of ' J^r^^ Mdiich is called Shah i- 
«rf 7^;. ftpoi^Jdm/d^X taKlfig^ meifcr ia it. Here, the bo'ddiOa. 
Rdfos of the-mount^in" JP4A, T^^rf (fouth-eaft otK^bmir) cam© 
tB^fi*H»c*thcmfel^l. and, as they had been kind to.his troopa 
ftrac'iHonilirbefQre, tHeyvrere very well received.^ Wheni^ft 
amved^at'the tivcr ,^^''(2), Oilober. ly^^ ne. ordered 
Sheykh TTitro'ddtnxct attack* an ifland therein, fortified with a 
dhch and walk; belonging' to prince SlJahSbo'ddju J^iobdrek% 
who, after fubnutting^ta the Mirza Pir^Mehemed JebanChtr^ 
in- his way to Mitftariy * had "revolted. The amfr, With. his. tOK 
man, emci4hg;thfe river, a njfoft/fiirious.batde was fbughts. 
Then ShkhSibd'^n came^with'io,ooa m<en.tOvattack4:he«-7^<2Ji 
t^s in . the rear, . di^ng; the Jiight ; , but, after feVeraLvigqr.0«s 
oafets, weredeifeatedby.Sheykh\A^rVit//wv Qn'this,; princa 
MobArek fled, wkfeliis domeftics^ in 200 jflit-bottomed boats, 
^ow^ the JamMi to- Ucha> Faffing on from .thence* towardsr 
Multauy the paflage was obllrufted by Soleymdn JShdb, atrtha 
head (©f • the fcouts* oi\PifMehemed and the, yLivtzSh^-Mkh^ 
who, feizing the bbat$, ,cut them to pieces,, while the. unfor-y 
tunate prince, cafting his wife and children^ .into.. the. riven 
hal&dead, gdfled tht iank ; and fled, .with- many of .his. fubn 
jefts, into the woods 5 whfere, being purfucd,,, great mutibers 
w««-flain, and their: goods piilagdd.' 

After this, fucceis, th6 army -marched, five, 'or Gx,.dzY^ and other 
along xht'Jamadi and feucamped at a fortrefe where that river /ri»w, 
and the J^ihre (A) join, with waves refembling the tronbled 
ooean : however, Ti^nAr ordered a bridge to be built over it; 
xvhich is the firftto be met .with in hiltory, madeacrofs this 
river: for Turmejhirtn Khhu^B)^ who formerly pafled it, was 

« HiihiTSin;^B*> p* 19—28.* c. 5—9. 

(X) They offered to .declare (k)Jenafm,oiChena^,w\iicl^ 

^£mur khalifah, aitho' Bayezld falls into the Ravi^ above Mul- 

^v as invefted. with that highrdig. tan* 

ixicy^ L^ Croix. (B) Defcended from J^nghi^ 

(Y) A province' of hdlth Kbdm: he conquered India m 

Wlioie capital, is Ndgf^r.^La 1240. ia ^;m>v— This mtift 

Cr^ix* be fome miilake. Turme/btrtn 

{Z) A river near th^. Indus \ Khdn^ khan oi Jagatay^ who 

ic is the continuation of the D^«- fcexns to be the prince here 

i/^^/7, which comes from Kajh- meant, died in 1336. 
rrr^r-. La Croix, 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Mifiory ff the Kf oguls lani t'«ars. B. VI. 

obKged toXwim over. The emperor, having croflcd the united 
ftreain, went to encamp pver-againft the town of T^lonba^ 
thirty-five guriih (C), or 'miles, from Mii/tdn : then paffing 
die river of that town', taxed it at two millions of crowns, 
part of which was paid ; but, the inhabitants making a diffi- 

* culty of paying the reft, the foldiers, in the night, iacked the 
place, burnt the houfes, and made flaves of the people, the 
fharifs and doftors only excepted. November the 5th he left 
Tihnba ; and, next day, encamped by a deep lake, iituate oa 

• the fide of the river Siah (D), withui' fight of Shanavaz, a 

Ctand populotis city. He then marched againft Nufret, 
her of Sheykh Kukeri, who had furrounded the lake widi 
a wall, and lay behind it with 2000 men : but they were fooo 
defeated, and cut to pieces. 

At Shanavaz the {pldiers fupplied themfelves with corn : 
then fetting fire to the granaries,. November 10 went down the 
Biahy and crofled it over-againft the town of JenjAn. Next 
day, the Mirza Pir Mehemed camefrom MultAn^ forty nules 
diftant, to the imperial camp. That dty having been reduced 
to eat dead bodies, after a fix months fiege, Sarenk the go- 
Ycmor was obliged to fly ; fo that the prince quickly took it : 
Bur, having l®ft moft of his horfes by a mortality caufed by 
an inundation, the Rajas of the country revolted, and ad- 
vanced iq the night to the very walls of M^lt&n ; till, on ad- 
vice of Timur's approach, they withdrew. The army left 
fetydn the 15th, for Shudl; the i.8th came to Afwtn (E), 
and at length to Jehaivl (F). The 2 ift he arrived at JjMUi ; 
and next day, crofflng the Denay encamped on the hill of Aa- 
lejkuteliy ten miles from y^jtiddn, and fifty fi-om Batnir ; at 
which place he arrived the 23d, after crpflmg the great defart. 
Batnhr is a city, with a fortrefs, the ftrongeft and moft noted 
in all India, fituate in . a defart out of the common road. 
The inhabitants have no water, excepting from a great lake 
hear the gate of the town, which is^ never filled- but in times 
of inundations. Hither the inhabitants of Dipalpur, Jj^dan, 
and other places, fled for refuge in fudi numbers, that, the 
place not being large enough to contain all their cattle and 
effects, great part of both were left without the town*^. 
f Hift. Tim. Belc, p. 28 — 40. c, 9 — 14. 

: (C) G(iruh, as the Indiafts call 
the meafure of three m:Ies, 
makes a farfeng, parfeng, or 
Perfian league. Skanfo'd. Hift. 
Tim. Bek. l.iv. c. 14. p. 40. 

(D) Or Biyaby near Labor ; it 
Halh into the Hwvi. La Croix. 

(E) Towns fouth of d>c Binh- 
La Croix, ' 

(F) A town between Lahr 
and DipalfuTi fouth of the Bid* 
La CrcijX, 


Digitized by 


These the foldkrs, on their ftrrrr^l, fdzed, an'd imm^dktelV A: I>; 
tnarched qp to Batnir; where^ Ra^dAIjtn the governor reigned 1 3^8. 
as foverdgn, and rcfolved to refift, having had a great many ^' ^ '^''^ ^ 
foldiers and domeftics about him. The out-parts and fub-. Batmr 
nrbs were taken, at the firft attack^ with great flaughter oiJ^^^^^^** 
the Indians: they tbokalfo the counterfcarp, and theu af- 
fauhed the town, Ranvduljin pofted himfelf at the gate, -with 
the braveft of his foldiers : bur, being vigoroufly attacked fe- 
veral times by the Jagatays, when they were on the point of 
gaining the plac^> he demanded quarter, protoifing to repair 
next day to the camp. However^ not keeping his word, they began 
to fap the walls with fuch refolution^ that the Indian princ^ 
fubmitted, and was honourably received. Fivfe hundred of 
the inhabitants of Dipalpitr were put to the fword, for having ^ ^■ 

treach«roufly flain Meffafer Kabuli, and 1000 horfemen; part 
likewife of the people of AjMin, who had abandoried 7S»wrf^, 
were dam ; and the reft made prifoilers/ after being plundered^ 
Thefe>.«xecutipns fo frighted Kemdlo'ddin, brother of -Rawdtil^ 
jin, that he fhut the gate of the town: but fooh opened k 
again, on the approach of the Jagatays. : ^ 

However, as among the rajas, and other chiefs, difput^ Great 
arofe, about the tax for (aving the people's lives, which qoxAA flaughter 
not be terminated wit^jput 'conunotions, Ttmur^ in a paflion, '^^''^* 
ordered'that this rabble fhould be put to the fword, and the 
houfes of the infidels razed. The foldiers haidng fcaled the 
walls, and entered the place fword in hand, the ghebfs and 
idolaters f«t fire to thrir own houfes, calling their wives, chil^ 
dren, atid goods, into the flames ; and the Mohammedans cut , 
the throats of theirs* This done, the men, uniting, 'vMho wete 
exceeding ftrong and courageous, fought in a mof): cruel and 
obftinate manner, fla^ng many of the Jagataysi The Amir 
Sbeykh Niro'ddin alfo, rufhing into the midft of the enemy. 
Was with difficulty refcUed out of their hands* At length, 
Tiiftory declaring for the befiegers, they flew 10,000 Indians y 
burnt their homes, and ruined the walls of the town^. 

After the ruin of Eatnir^ Tim^r departed November 30 Comes t9 
far Dehhy cajrital.of India. Having pafTed by the caftle bf Jchan 
FiriisL, with the. towns of Serefiiy Fdtabdd, Rejebowr, and Numay. 
yihr^rn^ on the 5 th of December he came to the village of 
^Ah^ne^, in k ct)utiQy ii^khabited* by Getes^ ^vho robSed and 
murdered on the highway.* At his. approach, theyjfleJ; but, 
bciiig purfued', aoo6 of them \Vere cUt off. Next day, hav- 
ing palled the cafl:lie of Mtinek, he entered the defajfts aSd 
woods where tha Oetes had -retired, and /lew 2000- mofe. 

t Hift. Tim. Belc, Vol. tL p. 40—44.* - ,^ 

MEoD.HisT. VoL.V- ■ U Then,^ 

* • Digitized by VjOOQIC 

4. p. Then, the tovn of Sfmine, Jie came to the mer 
?J9^r kehkar^ which he crofled, over the hri(^ cf FHkuhl\ where 

t— V««s^ l^c >ya$ joined by the foldicr* <rf die left wio^ commanded bj 
S<;d^Q Maimud Kidn, n^ho. had t»k$Q another road^ from 

•^ theoce he mwrched to KuteyU feventeen nail^ front S««a«<; 

thento^nif, feventeen farther; and, five more, XQ.TM%k^ 
ffir : the inhabitants of vhidi city,- caRed^aJAfoi, held two 
principles 5 one the author of good, the oth^ of evil, fhey 
Hed on the approach oi the army ; who burnt thdr houfes, iUni 
then marched twelve miles to Panip(ur. At length, G^c^ 
hr 24, they .arrived at Jchdn Numdy (G), a palace built b]f 
Soltin Firuz Shah^ on the top of a monnta^n, two leagues 
ftom Dehl't^ at the foot of which runs the great rivor Ja^vm (H). 

Moft cruil TJMUX went then to the town of Uhii, fituated betweea 

butchery, the two rivers of ]fawn and Hilen; which kttcr Firaz Shah 
pnA firom the.river of Kalini, which unites with the Ja'wn tear 
Ihe city of Brizatad, Uhii was taken in one day^ and all ' 
•^ ghebr inhabitant^ put to the fwocd, but the Mdtamudm 
ji^ere i^>aredw Nesdt morning tbe emperor went to Jehist Ik* 
may, to fee that palace, and from thence pitch on a placefcr 
%" batt^ : afoer whkh> he encamped to, the ^of lJmi\ wheft 

-s;.: , ihe Shih Zi^f^ or emperor's children, and the amirs who had 
• ' been makitg incnrfions, j<^ned him. ||bre he harangued then 
tnpon the art of fighting Ixittles ; 6( breaking the enemy 'siaols; 
jmd rallying one's^ own troops a6er a defeat. The amy> 
^nce they pafied the Jkdus, having madci a vaft nismber of in* 
Sans, eaptivca^ nxoflly, gh^s and idolifeers, it was fearei^ dnt» 
in any» obfttnate battle, they would join with the peopk of 
Dehli ; Tzm4n, therefore, ordered, that they, who had any A* 
dian. ilaves, ihould put them to. death. : in coniequence of wiudi» 
in kfs than one hour,^ more.ths^n loo^ooo were put to deatk^ 

His forces , TJMUR fct out for DgkM, December 30th : and, when the 

affroac^ aftrologers difputed about thcvafpefls of the planets, he tdU 
them, that fortime did nqt depend on the Aars, but on Ji» 
-Creator of them; and that, when he had once fbrmediiis de^ 
'%ns with proper care, he would not delay the executiea d 
■'. Aem. onemoment, to wait for a Endcy time. Yet he tonfobed 
tioc jkoran, and met with, a favourable anfwer (I) ; 'which eDr 

-: ^ Hift. Tim. Bekr VoL IL p. 44^54.* c. 15—19^ 

(G) TYidXiSf the mirror r/tli^ was guilty of anpdier ; nay* 

f^or/^, beca/^fd of its fin^ pror coald flatter himftif-wif^ Ha?* 

*^'eft. ' ing the favour of Goa, jttl^ato 

' t^) Orjuenga. ' dettroying,incoldi)lood,i6o,OQO 

(I) If Timur was free firojn pn^^ of ijij cr^t^K^s at once, 
fi^gerftition, Hte many otKcrs, he 
^'i:-: ■' i .. - - 16red 

Digit>zed by' 


t. 4V * ' ^f Reign cfTiftitit Belt* ' 

f&fed'hlitt of viftc^, and encourageil the whole ^rAJ. jftf- 
ftudty thft'flf ft ( 1 3^p^ he CroTeS theTiz-U/n, And encamped on the 
otHet ffdrf; The- ^d he drew up hit irmy in order of batrfe ; ^ 
gi^i^ the cotetti^nd of the right wing to the Mitta Ptr Mehe^ 
ihfd pfyht (fiir : the left wing was led by the Mfrzas Soltek 
Ht^ayfi afttd KaRlSoltdn : the r6ar was put under the cohdud 
oi A^'Mfr^ liiytfrn : and the maJn body was commanded by 

'The enemy marched likewife ia order of battle. Thefr^^Tiid!- 
i^t ^m was brought! up by Taji KMn, I^r JK Koja, and ^^ *^* 
tiSitt Jkmrt princes ; the leTt had for Its leaders MAl^i Moy- 
n^ddin, irid- others : and the main body was commanded by 
Soltpn Mahnud Khdriy emperor of /«^/a/ who had MelUi^ 
KMit for his lieu te*n^t-g6neral . This krmy confiftdd of i o, 060 ' 
horfc, well equipped ; and 40,000 foot, armed to advantage! 
Bfefides fcteral: elephants of war, armed with cuirafles, haying 
bdtS^e^ their long teeth great poifoned daggei^s ; and onxheir 
ba^^ WoOd^ towers, Iti form of baftions, filled with crofs* 
bowmen antf archers ; on the fide of the elephants marched 
thofc who filing fire and mdted pitch, with rocket^ armed at 
the" end with iron, which ^ve feveral blows one after anothei^^ 
wherc-eyer they fall. , ' , . 

The Jagatays were not much dlfturbed about the Indian ^f^^^ 
army : but they had conceived flraiige notions of the elephants', "<#^*^'* 
which they had never ken before. Thef imagined that the 
afi^W arid fword could not pierce their bodies : that th^y were* 
fo ftrOi^ as, to overthrow trees, by only fhaking the earth, as 
tfitfjr p^d along : that they could ihove down the firmeft 
tmailings : arid that, in battle, they would tofs both man and 
doiie to a vafl height in the air. This difpirited many in the 
::amp ; fo that, wljien the pofls were fixed for the officers and 
ords of the court, TirnUr^ who always fhewed refpeft to men 
>f learning, afked thofe near his perfon, what ports they would 
:htrfe. Several of thefe doftors, frighted at what they had 
cad aild heard of elephants, anlwered fmmediately, " If it 
^ pleaffe your majefly, we chufe to be near the ladies." 

1/^1 MURy to guard againft this panic, ordered a rampart the Battk 
f bucklers to be made before the ranks, with a ditch before ^if^'»J« 
^at ^ he llkewife caufed buffaloes to be tied neck and heels, 
ien |)laced clofe together ; with bu(hes between and on their 
eads^ Theire Were, befldes,ftakes prepared, with three-proAged 
>rks at the ends : fo that, ^hen the elephants advanced, they » 

^eter to be planted in their way ; artd the brambles to be fet on 
ns, to put thofe ajiimals in diforder. When the two armies 
er^ iti vifetsif, Timur got upon an eminence, near the hill of - 
ik/btfy BehAli, from' thence to obfcrve their motions ; and, 

U 2 as 

y Google 

Digitized by V 

tiijl^ of the Moguls and tat^.' B. Vi* 

as fooo as the fight began, he fell on the ground, often bow* 
ing^ to beg for viftory. While he was at prayers, there hap* 
' pened, fays our author, a ftrange accident : for tfie amirs of 
the rear imagined, that, if the emperor Ihould fend recruits 
iFrom the main body* either to the right wing or the rear, it 
^\rould be a certain token of viftory# Now this the emperor 
aftually did ; which fo encouraged the Jagatays^ that the /«t 
dians were conflrained to ^ve ground, and the elephants {of- 
fered themfelves to be driven like ox^n. ^ 
Tbi Indi- So hot a battle never was feen, nor fo frightful a noife.of 
ans Ji- warlike infiruments heard, before. At length, Timir^s vao* 
footed, guard, perceiving that of the enemy to advince, retired beKoi 
the right wing, to lie in ambufti till they had pafled by, and 
then tell on them with fury^ killing in an^inftant four or five 
hundred men. The Mirza P!r Mehetned, at the head of the 
van-guard of the right wing, aflifled by the Amir SoUymin 
Shdhf attacked the left of the Indians with fo much conduft^ 
that he drove them beyond the bafon of Havijkas (K) ; theOj 
falling on the elephants^ forced th^m to enter th^ ranks of the 
fame wing, and caufe a farther difordet. Mean time the left 
wing of the Jagatays repulfed the right of the enepiy, with 
great flaughtcr, as for as the city-gate. Then the main body 
of the latter, fuftainedby the elcphanti, advanced in good 
order againft the rear of the former, and began a moft bloody 
battle ; in which ,sfieykli Muro'Jdin, and the other amirs, be- 
haved with great valour, overthrowing the caities on the bad? 
' of the elephants, and cutting off the trunks of tfiofe animab, 
with great /flaughtef of the Indians, fo that at length they 
» turned their backs ; and Soltan Mahnuut, with his h^ gOK* 
ral Mellu (or Mellow) Khin, fled into the city. 
7hi city Then Timir, fpurring his horfe towards the gateof i)^i£, 
invefted^, carefully examined the fortifications. On his return, the ' 
^Ifrza Kalil Soltdn, who commanded the left wing, though | 
but fifteen years of age, brought him one of the elephant? | 
bound with ropes, whoife giuards he had overthrown, after j 
mauling th^ animal with his fword. Tim^r, on this 6^\ 
burft into tears of joy . Was ft not furprifing, fays our aoAoi 
that this great prince fhould at this time have fo tender a hcaf 
who, on fome occafiofis, could exdrcife cxtra'ordinary feveritiei 
Mean time Soltan Mahmud and his general, not thinking them 
felves fafe m Dehli^ left it at midnight, and retired into the dA 

(K) It is round, at)d above an water for a whole year : ea i< 

arrow-ihot in diameter As, in bank is th^ tomb of Soltan fi 

any inundation, it is filled with ruz, Sbdb, Who made it. Ski 

water, it furnilhcs Debli with rifS*ddin. 

Digitized by 



C. 4: • Tie Reign of Timflr Bck. ^ 

fertf. Several amirs being fent in purfuit of them, they 
brou^t back the ^Afict Sayf Khan^ furnamed M&lek Shartf- 
iddiriy and the prince Kodadhdy fon of MellA Kh&n. The amir 
Alahdad feized the gates by which the princes fled, and guarded 
the others, that no one might cfcape. 

' JANUARTxht fourth, Timur erefted his ftandard on the ^ndfur^^ 
walls of JD/rM; and, going to the city-gate, fat on Xht avjah»^^'^^^^' 
tt throne, whereon the Indian emperors fit in their royal robes, * 
on the great feaft-day. This gate is in the quarter of Jehdn 
Pendb, over-againft the bafon of Havizkas, where the army 
was then encamped. There Fadhallah Bikjhi, Mellit Khdn*s 
Beutenant, at the head of the whole divan of Deli, the flia- 
rifs, kadi's, and principal inhabitants, came to make their fub- 
miifion, and begged for ipercy. The elephants ^nd rhinoce- 
ros's themfelves came and fell down before the emperor in an 
humble pofture ; and made a great cry, as if they demanded 
quarter. Tl^efe war-elephants, 1 20 in number, were, at his 
/etum, fent to Samarkant, and to the provinces where his 
fons refided. Two were carried chained to Tauris, one to 
SMrdz, five to Merdty one to Sheykh Ibrdhim, prince of Shir- 
tvin^ and one to the lord Tahaften at Arzenjdn. After this, 
it the requeft of the court-lords, Tim^r made a great feaft ; at 
tvhich he diftributed prefents tb the princes, and great officers. ' 

DEB LI Sit this time confifted of three cities (L), Seyri^ Old Dehli de^ 
Debit, and Jehdn Pendh. Seyri was furrounded with z\v^,/tnted. 
in form of a circle. Old Dehli wa? the fame, but much larger, 
lying fouth-weft of the other : thefe two parts were joined on 
each fide by a wall ; and the third, lying between them, was 
caDed Jehdn Pendh, which was larger than Old Dehli ;' this laft 
had ten gates : Seyri had feven ; three of which looked to-- 
wards Jehdn Pendh, which had thirteen gates, fix to the nqrth- 
weft, and ifeven to the fouth-eaft. Every thing feemed to be 
in a quiet pofture, when, January in2, the foldlers of Timur, 
bdng afilembled at the gate of Dehli^ infulted the inhabitants 
of the fuburbs. The great amJrs were ordered to put a flop 
to thefe diforders : but their endeavours ^<'ere not efFeftual. 
The foltanas having a curiofity to fee the rarities of Dehli, and 
pardcularly the famous palace, adorned with 1000 pillars^ 
buik by Mdlek Jun^t that antient king of Indi^, they wwt in , 

* Hiff. Tim. Bck, Vol. 11. p. 54—62. c. 19—^0. 

(L) This is as it was in the ' cnt place by, JaldWddin Jkhar, 
9atl\or^s time : the prefent DehU father of Hutndyun, aad called^ . 
W ^ ncwcit^, built in 9 diffei*- from \i\m,'> ^kbaraHd . la Croix. 

^10 Hifi^ry ff tkf ¥9ipih find Tatars, B* VI, 

A. b. ^th all the court ; aad the gate hdr^ I^ iy>ep, go tbatcf;- 
1 399. (afion, for every ]x>dy, above 1 5,000 foldiprs got ip iiQ{|pe 
fery??y^ wvcd. But ther^ w^ » far ^eater iiuml)?r of trpqps fy^ 
large place between Debit, Styri, and 7(fA^« P/izffc i?fe)attr 
pditted gr^t diforders In the two lafl places. This g^ 
th^ ghehrs, in defpair, to fall on th^ ; j|nd feireral'^f thpn, 
fettmg fire to their boufcs, burnt tb^ wives aqd fh}i4w. 
The Jagatays, feeing this confufion among tl^e chebrs, did ^ 
^ng but pillage and bum their houfes ; whil^ the xji^Wf^ 
. was in^realed, by more troops let in, to leize the inhabioum 
of the neighbouring places, who had fkd tjuther for Qieltef. 
fhigtty The amirs, to puta ftop to this mi&;hief, cauiedthe^ 
ftjifroyed. to be ihut, to prevent m9re troops from entering : bpt tkft 
foldiers within opened them again» and rofe in ms^mjv^ 
thdr officers. So that the whole army being cntcr^ \fi dw 
] 3th, in the morning, this great smkI proud, dty was deilrpycd. 
$ome foldiers carried out^ 150 fiaves, men, wpmea, aB4 
children : .nay fome of their boys had twenty flayes a piece ^ 
^heir ftiare. The other fpoils, in previous (lones, jewels, j^ 
and m^uf^dures, were Innumerable : for the Indian wt^ 1 
ind gjrls were adorned with precious ftones, W had bii?o^ 
4i^d rings on their hands,, feet, and even toes ;' fo that ^ 
' foldiers ^tr^ loaded with them* The 1 5th> in (M DM ^ 
fndians retired into the great moflc, to defend themfelvcs: ^ot 
|he Amir Sh&b M^lek, and JU Soltin^ cpt^rxng it with soa 
men, fent to theabyfs of hell, fays our good J)fu/ukiMVi' 
^or, th^ foulsi of thofe' infidels, of wbofe heads they creft«[ 
^owers, N^ver was fuch a terribje flaugbtei: and ^tevadafij^ 
teai"d of. Several days were employed (Qpiak^ the inhnl)itao^ 
qmt the city, which was plundered ; and as they wein, t^ 
amirs took a number of them for their fervice. The aroz^ 
yrere alfo diflributed among the princes and commandcn: hH 
the mafons were all referved for the emperor, in ctrdcr to j)UiU 
^m a fpacious ftone^ moflc ^t Sairukrkant ^. 
Mirtha JANUA 7J r 1 8 th, TT.mur decamped (rom Dehli, and jnardi«4 

hfisxed. down to Firuzabdd, three miles diflaat frpm the jfeiu*. ft 
:|l^yed th^re to fay a prayer in a flone moik, and then ^quon 
to the other fide of J^Un Numay, ne^ W^irahM^ w!bg»M 
was prefented with two white parrotsy from Bahi^ N^x 
pnnch of Kutefe, who had fubimtted to his envoys, Tbcfe 
birdsi lived ^v^r fince the reign of Tcgluk Sb^h, and Jiad bcca 
^cpt many years in the antechambers of the indian emperors, 
from thence the army paffing through A^d4ia, beypnd the 
^yjn^ kepy and BAghbuK^ a delightful |^4eo, cam? to i#^ 

\m, Tiift. ?9k, Yo^ II. p. ^-67. 

Digitized by 


fimue becvFeen^et^Mi Thde plac<^ ^re *fik 1^^ fifun^ Ai I>. 
der. Tmir, refehrteg tt> t^fee «h« city 6{ Mi'fia^ oht ctf i^^^' 
the moft noicd places of the empire^ Wenty liUte frdin /ij^fr, ^ ^;^ 
Buvcfaed thith^y at the head of i6,dbo tntti^ lA t\^ days and . 
one night. As the ghebrs riftifed td filbihit, he lahleitd th^ 
ivdbto be undermiiied; arid the M^tkm^h having, by th^ 
tnaelt was nigbt, advanced tm 6t fifteen tubhs breadth tch 
ivards each b^dn and ctonnine, the befie^^ v^&c fo greatljr 
ifarfnifed, that cbey deM«d to d^f<^ thenifelve^. 

Nkxt diy, bdftg the 216th, th^ Amtr ^IbMM, With hi^TaienBja 
ic^Mieat xi The KmUni, ilaiAed /)9^ fctitffaU having atta<tked %• 
theg^te, 5aMj^, tiJyAifiglad, ode^f hisdmnefties, carta nrt 
ttpon the t^ttlensent, and boldty dduntM the ivalk. He \jv^ 
, iaiknred by RAftm betidi^ and a great tnany ^her&, ivh^ 
rnfl^ed into dte t!«)nini. T^ey bd^nd J?AVij l/^i>zf, and tfi^ ii>t[ 
ciMttUtm MktA ToMn^f^i, gov^niors of the^ ^laee, Whotif 
day ^istttd 5 but the ghebr Sefi, one of its prkcei, ^§s flftSfl 
in the affinilt. They flay'd dive all the ghebiis, tfnS inacfe 
ifaves of thefe' \rtw21s iiA cbiidreH. Every thing W^-bnmedi 
ttd the xrdls rat«(. All this was qtiicfcly <lo»iW, though 
Turmjbirtn tChin, a g^t emperor in Afia, td^* n6t rfidcd 
Umfetf maAttr c^ &is town. On this 6ccafion, tiinfir jgave £ 
fihgntkr iiirtanoeof his modefty: for -when, fn ^ kind letter, 
wfakb lie iad c^dMd td- fe6 ^i^^n fo the Id^bitatlts; he 
found thefewwd$, fl^fy A yoU ibrkpare vs io Tlirmeftiirin 
KhJa? he reprimanded Ms feereftary; fayii^,-1F\iifeefhtrm 
'Was a greatir hfd than /, (ffiriilet vlrfue, and^mt cahdue i . *^ 

and w6vh6. hoifbfftr ifce letter t^ b^ condijfded. ' 

Ttor fiim^ drff, fa^ intt^cWed fi* ma^ tci Mdnfirh\ ^i the Thegbehrs 
ry^ <!tif^t fyriti& to PiHisfn^r, en like cAgi^r {U). mMzj- 
enomped five toBa !6v»^er, nbt ablle to firid^' fife piflkge • ^'''** 
lhDaglvPl!r;»foAi?»tek/>'ftVefta atoirs, and • part 6ft!h6^rmy,- 
ftWn ofsr Che rttr«f, yet not without great d9ng^^ Froni 
thmce he went twenty mile& farther td Tokluk'Pih] on th6^ 
hangar, havk^, by i3i6 way, ferit 50,000 h6i-fe %aihft th6 * '-^ 
^Mtaps, who were gathered on its baoks. Wctfi he was fdzed • : - ^ 
wWl.a vwy tr(>«d)l^onte ftirefting in his arm • 6ut it did not 
idog confimie« Mean time, a rA number of ghebrs; ih' forty^ 
d{g^ great fiat-bottomed boats, having advanced tosvacds thb 
camp, he fet out to meet them, with 1000 of his pfficers ; fe-^ 
veral of wltem spurred their horfes into the wate^, and ad* 
vandn^, in fpite qf their arrows, entered their boatsr. and cut • 
them in pieces/ With thefe boats they attacked t^n others. 

(M) Which is called, is Pfr//a», Dariya Koni, ot tit fia ^ 

Digitized by VjVjOQIC 

by nuater 
and land* 

P^fle of 



^fte^ed ^Qge^ler, iof better defence ; l>u^ ^he J^gtOAp boaiM 
^enit and ^t thof^ wbp iofMiQ^ thep jia pieces. . ^ ?5th, Tw^f i^xTokWk P4r, and, a Iktk ^ter, 
^ofTed the. Ganges^ at jpa eafy pafT^ge. He then advanced 
s^alnft Mokdrek KHuy who, not far off, expeded the Jaga-. 
fays^ with 10,000 horfe. As the Indians were for more nn- 
merous, the two wings oi the^army Wng at .a gxsx diAaoce, 
^tmur was^ in no fmadl perplexity ; but, juft at that inftant, 
500 horfe, who had croil^ the riv^ to make inroads, arrivedi 
^8 if fent by heaven, fays our. author, . to fuccour the emperor; 
^hp, after returning God ..thankSj, fei|t the Amirs ShShMM 
^AMi^hd^d^ with lOQohorC^, to attack the. enemy. Tbefe 
fhialu^ theiQ to be' only the van-guard of a great army juft 
behind them, fudder^y gre^ afr^4» ^d fled into the woods; 
•Vjrhere thpy were purfu^d, and a great number put to the 
f]ivord* ^ The bopty tak^o, with thdr wives and cbUdren, was 
fpnfid^able. At the fame tinie, Ttmir having rec^ved advia, 
that a great number qf gh^brs.were aflembled in the defikrf 
Kupele^ tp tlie eaft qf the Ca^ges^ he departed, with 500 horfe. 
pn his arrival at th^ mquot^s^ he met a .body of them, whom 
his amirs fp^ ^routed : but, being feft with only 100 of his 
guards, ^ ghebr,' named Maiek Shpyka^ f^l briftly upon Win. 
with f lig fanj^e numb^ir of pen. However, Tindr (hot him in 
the i}e|ly yi\t\\ an arrow,, and. then unhorfed him» by 9 cut of 
his fwor4 op the head, . d which he prefently died *, 

Some time after, adv^^ ^^yas brottght, that a great fiianjf 
ghebrs were gathered in tjie d^fije ofKupeh^ two nulesdiftant! 
and, though Tm^rvfSiS in wji^t of flfcp, he mardied thither, 
mth fome oncers of his yan-guard, through almoft impai&Ue 
woods ; anjd* being Joined by his fon Prir Il^hemed, they made 
f-gr^^.t flangh^er pf^ the cneniy, fr<)m whpjn they toek a con*' 
f5dera.ble booty, Thus Tpn^rw^ in three battlea th^fiuM 
day ; which never happened to any prin;» before him. ^ 
defile of lt4J>fle is fituat^ ^t the fopt of a mountain near the 
Gangfs \ suii) fifte^ ipiics above it is a fto^, carved Jo ixt^ 
pf a cow, frpjm whence this great river fprings (N). For this 
reafon, the Indian^ zAore. fhat fton^; and aU the inhabitants 
within pne day*s journey turn towards it when they pray. A^ 
th^re yet remained a prodigious number of ghebr$ in the mooih 

' Hift. Tim. Bck, y. ^J-rrl^i c. 21 — 24^ 

(N) This reUtion is cpntrary doe^ not fsiy* that cither f/«»^f 

fo late accoimts, which place the or any of his troops, were at the 

^icad of the Oanga^ or Ganges, a place to view it : fp that what 

' great way diftant in 'Fihet:' and he dcliarers maft be only ^^ 

it is pbfervable, that our author unce^aj? rcport*^ 

Digitized by 


C 4; :' the Riign of Timfir Bck. 
taios of IGipek^ "wfao poflefled a great quantity of riches, cattle, 
and other cfFefts, January 30, Timir inarched towards the 
defile, where the mfidelsf were gathered ; but, on his approach, 
they loft courage, and difperfed themfelves through the inoun* 
tains; whither bdng portped, many of them were ^flain, and 
their goods carried away. ' 

After this, TtmUr returned, and, crofling the (Ranges, en* Mountmn 
camped five miles lower on that river. Then, being fatisfied Swalck 
with having marched to the eaftern borders of the empire 6f 
India in one campaign, and acqmred the merit of the gazi, 
he refolved to return to his own dominions. With this view, 
the 31ft of January^ he left the Ganges. Next day, advice 
bdng brought, that a great number of Indians, were afiembled 
in SivdUk, one of the moft confiderable mountains of India, 
flretcfaing over two thirds of that vaft empire, February 4th, 
he departed for that mountain ; where a raja, named BehHiz, 
had pofted himfdf, with a great number of ghebrs, in a narrow 
pafG^e : but the Jagatays falling fuddenly upon them, they 
made but a weak defence : fo that thofe who efcaped the 
fword were taken prifoners, with their effefts ; which fo loaded 
the army with fpoil^ that they coidd not march above four 
miles a day. The 5th, they came to Bekre, near JBekeri, com- . 
monly called Meliapur. 

r The 8di, they croffed the Jaiun^ and encamped in another thwrei^ 
part of . the mountain of Swdlek ; where an infinite number oigbebr^. . 
Indians bring aflembled, under one Raja Ratan, Tim^r marched 
aU night, and next morning came up with them, between the 
mountains Swdlek and Kike : but ti^y fled, on his approach, 
into the woods, . where a great many were flain. He continued 
his progrtfs in the mountains for feveral days, flaying the In-t 
dians, and feizing their effefts. > In fliort, there were twenty 
battles fought in thirty days ; during which time, feven of the 
moft important places in all India for ftrength were conquered. 
They were one or two leagues afunder ; and the inhabitant$ 
were always at variance among themfelves. One of them, by 
perfaafion of the Mohammedans who lived there, fubmitted tq 
ThnUr :. but when the tax for faving their lives \vas impofed on 
them, they made ufe of tricks, to avoid paying it. To enable 
them to do it with lefs reluftance, an amir propofed buying 
their old bows, which they fold at a good price. Then it was 
pi-dered, that forty ghebrs fliould be lifted in the fervice : but 
they would not conlent; and flew feveral Mufulmans. Upon- 
this, the Jagatays y treating them as enemies, befi^d the 
place in form ; which they took, and put :^qqo ghebrs to the 
(word «». 

? Hi(l.Tii^aBk, p.76- ?6, 9. %A—^^^ 

•^ ^m . 

y Google 

Digitized by V 

Hift^ 0ftbc Mdgub Oii Tittars. B. Vt 

The gbb on the monn^uns x&Sv^ikk bdng finUhdd, Tx^ 
ndrdcpmei from ManfioTi ^^ lOthof Mareb, and encamped 
' fix miles from theoce, at Bayk ; a town of the prdmce d( 
fjH^'i CMmA, ivfade iiihal»tants were vaUant men, and tfamr forefts 
Chama. Df diffiadt acce&t yet, on the army's af^jroacb, they abaih 
doned the town, to be entered and ixll%6d by the foldiers^ 
Mean tiaie, Shih Efidnder, prince icA IG^mAr^ bdngarmed 
tt febban^ in his way tb the camp, and diere infors^, that 
the arnhr^ of the diwin had taxed him at 30,000 faorfes, and 
100,000 darefts erf* gold, each wdg^ng two medikals and one- 
half, be returned, to odleft the lame. Ttmttr, on adrice of 
this, dilapproved of the order, which had laid on E/iindem 
tax more than his little kingdom was worth ; and fent to tim 
to return in ten days to the bank of the Indus. The 1 Jth, 
they encamped over-agavxft Chindy cafntal of the proi^ioeof 
that name. Next day, 7%mlr entered the defile, from whence 
^mgs the river oi Chdmi, which the army had croffed fevcral 
^es» It is fituated at the foot of a moanta|a, on the left fide 
of the city Chitmiy having on its right the town of MerA, it 
was inhabited by ftrong and tatll Indians ^ who had intrefM^ 
thcm&lvcs in almoft macceffibie woods, upon a craggy moao* 
tain, with their king at their bead, refohed to defend Aaf 
ftt JkhP TIMUR judged it better to mfiiare diem Mf artifice, t&ta 
$aieii. attack them in fo dangerous a place. He therefore ordered Ms 
troops to leave them, and go piHageJJfew4 : they ItlEewifc en- 
tered Chdm4, and brought away abundance of fpcnl. Theo 
foS&xg fome raiments m the woock, departed with the c^ 
Yafay.' The 17th, he crofled the river Ck^ni, and encamped 
four miles thence, oa the fide of die Jendve (or jfimaw), m a pWn 
four leagues long, full of pallurage. As ibon as the army had 
^tted the defiles, the Indians came out of their mountain, to 
ft-enter thdr houfes.; but were foon attacked by the ambrf- 
lade, who cut them in pieces, without giviiig any quarter, ex- 
cq)ting the king, and fifty officers of confidi?ration. On tMi 
fticcefs, Timur bleffed the Ahnighty, who had dtelivered the 
cnemiesf of the faithful into their hands. Great cars was-takcR 
©f the Idng of Cb^mu, who had'been wounded in the fight, in 
prder to get more eafily, the money due for feving the Kfwrf 
him apd his people. This, joined to the difcourib of dKJfe 
^bout him, concerning the Mohammedan religion, prevalM 
efa him, when cured, to embrace that 6dth, and eat die fkik 
, of oxen. Upon this, Timir made a treaty with> ;md received 
|iim under his proteftion. . 
Lahor Mean time, news arrived, that the forces f^nt to Lah^ {ofLo^ 

fill^ffd, hur) had;nad^ t^^mi^lv^ o)^^s of il^ dtjf, hatf aftually r«- 


Digitized by 


C;4; fifc^^i^ff (jf Tw^rJBafc 

my^i th^ i^ija tv^, awi.w4e ^Mkty J^ktt^ .pfifiice thortof* 
brifoner. This prince, at the beginning of the war, accompaosed 
5^r.evi?ry-whpre, ^d y^^dn gj^mt hfowr ; : Utti, ikt kngth, ' 
teve being crated h^ t^ r^pmrn K^^lohor, Iw itewed a dtff 
r^;ard for th^ J^^gat^-Sy which 4r<w on turn Tiwjrfr's refeat*- * ' 
©epfc whjo ord^d l^ <:Qiifiuy |o be piJtoged, and hi$ pcrfon 
i^ed. ^JiwfA ?9ri^, tJw?.^«lfWEpr ^lO^ th^ J<?iiwit/, and cur* 
c^Bfijf^ iivc oiilf$ 'tjifi^f . r{^^t d^y, |h^ anny croflsd tlaie 
fiyqr. I^e ?2d, tl^ puffed th^ D4ndaHa. And the dajnfoU- Tbearm^ 
Ipwi^ 7/f22i2r Q^derodi that all tb« ami>s of both \nog6, the diJhamUd^ 
colonels of f^im^nts, and the captains of companies, fliould 
peti^rn home, oy the differqit routes parked out for them. He 
^n nxadi; prdfents to them, according to th^ rank and merit. 
He did the like to the lords of India, amirs, and fharife, who 
had accompanied him, ^nd perqiitted th^m to return ; affignn ' 

ing the government of the city and proyiace oiMultdn to Kaier 
Kb^Jh y^9f hnprifoQcd by S4r^nk, m the citadel, cfgapcd, 
and 4?4 6?"^ ?^ ^iuda^y ft M^bflnmifdan, Wng of Biana^ dc» 
pendent on Dehli ; and then to Timury on lus arrival in. the ' 
^ojunjtpy p. 

'X^^' ?4th> the f^mi ^H^»mped at JeHM, « dclightfttl re* Kalhnrfr ' 
fidenpe, q;^ ^e b0Jjdei:-s of Kq/hmir This country is a prin-^ de/inhnfn 
^p^ty^ ni^f if^, of an oval form, and furrOundedvon aUiidei 
^y )^ffi mountains* To the fosth, it has the cq»fitry of DthS^ 
tix thp nof;^h^ BaddkJhM ai^ Kbor^^Jfin ; to the weft, iheiJg&A 
^ibes J ^4 ^P the ^, T^bbgt^ or Tihei. Jiccording to tba 
p^tiv^ tlie/iifclv^s, tj^Gs^ s^ in this province, i ci,ooo itooriflung 
Yi^l^s : ^ut 'tb the comnAot^ opinion* thAt, both in the moonn 
j^ns ^nd. plains, there ^e not hyvpx tj^m xoo,ooo. The^aat 
country Jalftw^n the mowitains i$ tweaty leagues in breadth^ 
The women ajre beautifuJl, to a proverb. aEW!)ng the P^ans^ 
!rhe air and wa^r very whpl? fome. They have vaft quantkiea 
gf good fruits : b«t .j^he winter is hurtful, becanfc of the 
sdwndanoe of A¥>^ TM fummer fruited as dates, oranges, 
aod citrons, n^^r cpp^ W HWlturity; but are brought from 
^(icaixner oo^mxies,. "Jh^ prioce r^(^9 at Nagaz (O), whkck 
U^the centra;, aqd capital ql die whole* Through the middle 
gf the f^tf runs ^r^ver, as \9^g^ ^ the 7%ra at Bdgbd4d^ and 
|s excee^^g raf^d, though fojPSE^d froiQ a fii^le fountain ii^ ' 
the fam^ counti^ ^ed thf foi^kjOUft of Pat* Th^ inhabitantas 
^ve cro0e4 it %.inoi^f tha^ tl^JtQr bridges of boats, beiides 

» Hift. Tim. Bek,,p, §6-^^44 c. 45?— s^. 

(O) Doubtlefs ihe fame now gar, the Aralnc r and « diflfcring 
^sMedKoj/XmarsindMnagar. Mi- only b^ a jpioint oytrthe latter. . 
^4w is perhaps a fuftake % JVi|r 

Digitized by VjOOvi^' 



316 mjhrypfibeMoQiWandTztm. B. VI. 

A. D. diains at the chkf paflages ; fevea of which bridges are in 

1399*. Nagaz. 

■*^"y-^ Whbn this river has pafled ont rf Kajbmtr, it takes dif- 
Ri'ver wid £erent names, firom the countries it wafhes, as Dmdana and 
Jamad. Above Mvkkn^ it joins the Jenave (or Jenarw) ; and, 
havii^ pafled that dty^ falls into the RAvi^ vrhich mns by die 
other Mtdtin. At length the river Biah joins them ; and, near 
the town of Uciot they all ra(h into die Ah-fend^ or Indus^ 
wUcb is loft in ths fea of Onrnian (or Arabia), at the end of 
the country of Tatta. The mountains which fnrround Kaflh 
miry (erve as a fortification againft enemies ; and over them 
are three roads into it : that from KhoraffSn is fo very difficult, 
that the inhabitants are obliged to carry the merchandizes, and 
other burdens, on their Nacks, with beafts of carriage : thc^ 
road of India is equally difficult : that of Tobbot {ToH, or TiMft) 
h eafie^l, but, for feveral days, travellers meet widi ven(»nous 
herbs, which poifon their horfes. Thus God has given the 
country natural defences ; fo that the inhabitants have no oc- 
cafion for arms or armies. 

MARCH 25th, Tifw^r, leaving Jebhin, marched to the 
Dandina, four miles diflant,' and crofled it.o^er a bridge, 
which he caufed to be made. Next day, he departed for Sa- 
markant, before the army ; and having marched twenty miles 
along that river, encamped at Sanbq/iey a town in the moun- 
tain of Indis. The 27th, he came to the cafUe of Beruji 
then entering the defart of Jalali (or Jer£), got out of it, and 
^ame to a cavern, three miles from Beruj, where he encamped. 
Next day, at ten in the morning, he arrived at the Indus, which 
he crofled, over a bridge of b^ts. The 29th, he ftopped at 
Ban6. April 2d, he fet out ; and next day came to Nagat, 
a caftle; built by the Am!r SoleymAn ShM, to curb the Ugans. 
April 6th, he arrived at K^bul; the 7th, ztGarbAn. The 
8 th, having crofled the mountain and dcSle of Sk^berti, bdi^ 
ftruck, fays our author, by fome evil eye, or malign influence, 
he fell fick, and had on his feet and hands' painful ulcers : 
fo that he was forced to be carried in a litter. Thu^ he pitl&d 
a very narrow defile of the mountain Siap^h ; in which fpacc, 
they crofled the river of the d^e forty-eight rimes : twenty- 
fix from the b^inning of the defile to the mountain, and 
twenty-two from the mountain to the epd of the defile. The 
1 2th, Tipisir recover^.. Tkt 1 3th, he reached Bakalin ; from 
whence parting through Semenkan a^id Kulfn, be arrived at the 
JiMn on the,i4tR, and croffed over to Termed. From this 
place, by the way of KoWga, or the iron gate, he came to 
Kajb ; and, having made fome days ftay in this city, departed 
fpi" Sam^riant the pth of Ma^^ aud ajcriv^ ibm c^ the i6th^ 


to Samar- 

Digitized by 


C. 4:^.^ - ' the Reiin of tittidv Bck. 

Soon after, he diftributed the curiofities and riches whidilie 
had brought from India, among the princes, of the blood, the 
fliarifs,.ind principal men of tibe kingdom- To crown this* 
/«/wn expedition, Tim^r erefted a magnificent mpik in his 
coital, large enough to contain all the faithful in that great 

TlMUR had not been returned abov^ four months, when Ajffkirs af 
lie found himfelf obliged to undertake a new expedition into Iran 
hin (or Perfia at large), to put a ftop to the diforders which 
had crept in there, during his abfence ^n India ; chiefly owing 
to the mifc6ndu£k of the Mfrza Mirhn Sh^h, Viceroy oi Azer- 
bejin, whc^e underftanding had been impaired by an accident. 
This prince, while hunting near Tauris, in autumn 801, faW 
a roebuck, which he was defirous to take with his hands : but^ 
m ftooping, he fell off his horfe, though one of the be(l horfe* 
men in all Jfia \ and the violence of the fall caft him into a . 
fwoon, in which he lay a long time* He continued in fits for 
three days ; and his phyfician being an ignorant fellow, or ra« 
ther a l^iavc, the mirza was feized with a vjertigo, which im- 
paired; his feufes : fo that, on a bare fufpieion, he flew a man^ 
fquand^ed away the public treafures, and deflroyed the moft. 
noted buildings. He marched with his troops to beflege B^gh* 
dady at an improper feafon of the year : but, two days after 
Ke had invcfted it, was' obliged to raife, the fiege, on* account 
' (rf the revolt of Tauris ; where, on his arrival, fie put to the 
fword all who Were accufed of being in the confpiracy. 

After this, taking it in his head, that the Sh2n\i Alt, in great 
prince of Sheki, intended to revolt, he, without farther exa- difirden 
mination, fet forward with an army, to ravage Ms country. 
The Chriftian Georgians, before this, had revolted. When they 
imderfl:ood how little the mJrza applied himfelf to public 
affairs ; and to revenge this invafion, in conjunftion with the 
Sharif Ali, went with a great army, to relieve Soltan Tdher\ 
fon oi Ahmed, f^itan of Bdghd&d, who had be(^n befieged a 
long time in Alenjik, by Soltan Sanjer, fon of Haji Sayfo'ddtrt. 
they entered Azerhej&n^ and plundered the country. Ot\ which 
advice, Sanjer raifed the fiege ; and, being returned to Tauris, 
Miran Shah fent his fon the Mfrza Abubekr to repulfe the Geor^ 
gians4 Thefe latter having fent away nher', and placed Haji 
Sdleh, with three oznawrs, or chief lords, of Georgia, in Alen* 
jtk, in their return met the army of Tauris ; which, being far 
Icfs numerous, would have avoided fighting : but, as they 
were oblig^ to engage, the Georgians broke through both 
their wings, at the firft onfet ; and the Sharif AH perceiving 

^ Hiil. Tim.Jck, p. 94^—105, c ^—36. 


Digitized by Vji^\._/VlV^ 

Mifiwy of the Mt^tA W Tatars. B: Vf. 

jtbibiiti rdttad onliiHi with his f^ord : but tki3 jcotf^fftasi^ 
though b«t 6)gki«m ye»ii» old, A^ hfm ddtf ii^ldfiEfi^^i^, 
' ^wfaich ftock ia his nock) : how^vW, thd didrgidHs defealetf ^ 
tntops P. 

to <what 'I'HB* Mtrza. ^firJ^ ih^^ Umcj tfY^txtei ftifi m^rc^ in Kis 
fvvi'jr^. debauches ; for he fpent almoft all his time in drinking and 
I^Mng. One 4*7 tae rdpfoachdd Md ^^ife, A^ I^iincrfs'^^ 
^ddM, tritb a bet which mycmded h^ l^disr. Sfa^eodei^ 
YQMIrffitodifitoverttegrottddSdf if; ia Whi^h hiqob]^ fei^dral 
fsrftmsdf hoth facts w«pe!&»i£ked. l%e a'^^erfrofti be^^aafc 
the mkza and her ftai increafi^, (be r^red ^ StAikLfkihfi*i 
where anivkigy juft at die tfaae whed Ttm4r wad ttuSttteA 
HxdhecftonhuliAf (he aflured hfaif ^ th^/ if he did noc naarcfi 
ftrthwith into IriHf her hnlbftttd, who> tlk^otigh Ms ^rSaim^i 
dreidy flighted hb manda^«es» would certainly result. The 
emperor, wha ibid been before infont^d of tte miicOii^^of' 
ills (bn, rcfehed to Mow tUs ddvke ^ fti^ imtinfedi^tely MRMd 
orders to aflfanHc the troops^ for a cam]paign of {&fertj^i3^. 
'The MitTSi SkJUf H^k, on &-ft notice, got re^d^tiit ttd^is^ 
Kha-a/fttn ; a&d fent his Wazir ScteymJfn Shah towards -taurt/it 
with his yan-guard, following with the reft ctf his arnjy. 77* 
ffiAr (et out from Samarkant O^tAir 1 1 th, r399'; and, croAi^ 
the JMn (or Jimtt) 21X Termed, C^xAt to BM\ ^Ftottl fhencei 
after feveral days march, h^ arrived at Sdrek Khhijb Jint; 
' • whepe he vifited the tomb rf the celebrated Mufti Jhmed Jam. 
From thence he fent the lAirm Rufttm to his eWeft brothd- 
• ' Ph- Mehemed, at ShirM^ wi$h orders for them to marcfr to 
B^MM. Their continuing his road by Nifht^r irndBeffM^ 
yh^ and Khawar, W Jyuaniky he was there joined by ilic 
Mfea SHh Mkhy who ha^ marchied by Shafuman, Jftarabod^ 

*rheau' ' MttAN rime, t\m AttAr. ShUf^m^ ^&h, bring arrived at\%r, 
thors pU' in his way from Merit to Ta\iHi\ heard of Mtr^rt Sh^ff% la» 
nijbil. nacy ; and not thinking it fafe to go thither, rdblved to march 
to kamad&n. But, at theinvimtion of the Mirza Abubekr, the 
imlr went thither ; and even pcrftiaded Miri^n Shdh to fet our, 
twor days after, to meet the empercw^ ; which he did, at SMdf* 
Har\ but was not received, with any tokens of kiridnefs. Then 
T&wJr fent commiflaries to Tauris, to inquire into that prince's 
deportment ; and it appearing, tliat his exceflfes wertf chiefly 
owing to the inftigation of certain profligate mufidans, and 
others, the emperor ordered that they fhould all be hanged; 
without exception, for a warning to others. Amoc^the^mefi 
of parts, who fu^ered on this occa(ion> was the inconipamUt 

p ^ift. Tim, Bck, Vd.II. 1. v. c. i> p* ro8-iii- 

Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C.4. ' The RiigHrf^ixai^Btii: '$t| 

MuUna Mdtmed KMeJMnii fo famoib for dU Icisnctt, jind fd A. D, 
celebrated, a poet, whofe converfadon and agreeable nirit had 13994 
rendered him the wonder of hi^age. < . im^^ ' i ^ 

TIMUR^ kavii^ Sbairiar, proceedcid hy ScbMya and Kd* TimOr 
rade^ra to Arddftl\ and, having hunted in the {dakis of TIM* arrinjiu 
kin and /^i<2»72 (towni c^ Azerkgan), eroded the river ArAna^ 
to ^arabAgb Arrhn^ Here Sfhartf 5m£ Ahmed, fon of Sharif 
^^ king of Siekiy by the mediation of She]^ lirMm, king 
^iBMrwan, was pardoned, and confirmed m his ^principality, 
\ifTtatir ; merely on account of Ibrahim, whom he Ibved, for 
Us &u:a:ity, and diffinguifhed among his greateft officers. The 
iheykh, to welcome his majefty's arrival in his country, made 
a fmnptuous banquet for the court, and afterwards o&red hi$ 
preients, which were very confidoable* Mean dme, the couYt. 
recdeed advice ci the death of fevo'al great princes.; as Ttmir 
Kotluk Aglen, who having been raifed by the emperor to the 
throne oi K^ky. after the defeat oi Toktamtjb Kbdn, had 
afterwards m^ war on his bene£aAor ; likewife of Barkok, 
Ipagoi Eg)i^ and Syria ; Tamg4% Khin, emperor of China ; 
and Kezra Koja Aglen, kiM[ of Jetdh, upon whofe deceafe 
(Jiflentions aroie among his four fons, Shama JehH^ Mehemed 
AgUk, Shir AHy and Shah JehAft ^. ^ 

Nbw^ arrivsod alfo of the MirrsiE/iander's fuccdfles in Mo' Hisfuccefi 
gul^t&n. This prince, though but fifteen years old, taking in Jetab. 
9dmta^ of the di0entbns which arofe among the Getes 2^t 
Ae death of Kezra Koja Aglen, left AfidekMn, at the bead dF 
hk troops, and entered into the lands of the Moguls (or 
Mangh)., ' Being come to K4figary they jiflaged tjb6 city cf ' 
T^Hkeni (P) (or TarMah)^ and then proceecUng forward, phm- 
^ssT^'^iA^^XAfmJky Keiapine,. Ah Gheut, Tir KurgAk, Char- 
ts, Mdi^Key^ Bdgb.{(\}. They at length arrived at the 
province of Atvj, moft of whofe tribes fubmirted : the reft they 
carried prifbsiers. irowardt die citadel of AkfA, confifiing of three 
caftles, wdiick hate^ a. conunanication with each other ; and is 
eikemed fo ftcong, that the inhabitants <^ aU the' neighbour^ 
ii^ pcovinces coaAder it as a. fafe retreat in time of war. Butt 
the rnkzaixonrtogc^nied aflauks tabe given, one after aYiatfter^ 
for near forty days, the befieged were forced to fiirrender. 
After this, he fent troops to pUlage th« towns of ^^j, Kujht^^ 
. and 7'dr^*rt. 

' ^ Hift. Tim. Bqk,;p. 1,12—121, c. ir-./fc. 

* fP) The prefcnt ca]^ita! of* . (QJ AH t©iynsof^o'^/^i&r. 

' " • 'Digitized by VjOQQIC 

Of Mirza 



These conqudib-finUhed^ the MirzaiS/^^irrmarched from 
j^kfu to Kotan (j^. This place is thirty-five days journey froitt 
Kara Koja (or Aramuth), aiid*fiftcen froto Kajbkar^ which is 
twenty-five from Samarkant, In Koian are two dyers, Orak* 
kajb and Katakq/b, the ftones of which, being jafper, ace 
carried to othyer countries. The mirza behaved with fo much 
prudence, that all the towns and caftles of this frontier pro-" 
VMice were reduced. From Kotan he went to Kardngu Tag, a 
fteep and rugged mountain, in which the rivers of Kotan have 
their fprings, and to which the inhal;ntants of that and the 
neighbouring places fly for refuge in time of war : but, finding 
it inacceifible, retun^, to winter at Kajbgar. Frc«n hence 
be fent prefents to the emperor, and ^e Mirza Mehemed Sd^ 
tdn, of three beautiful women of Katdn : but the latter refufed 
bis prefent, being greatly incenfed againft Ejkander ; becaufe,, 
having entered Turkejlan with an army, in order to join him 
againft the Getes, the youi^ mirza, that he might not fervo 
under Mehemed Saltan, inftead of waiting for him, as he ought^ 
marched before into Moguieftdn, while his coulin, in di%afi^ 
returned to Samarkant. , 

When fpring was come, Ejkmder returned to AndekUbt^ 
and thence fct forward to vifit Mehemed Solt&n. But, leamii^ 
on the road that the latter intended to feize him, he returned, 
and entered the caftle of JnJekhdn, There, bdng taxed by 
two amirs with a deilgn to revolt, they afiembled the milioa, 
and befieged him. Upon this, ffjidnder came out, and haidng 
talked to them with much good-nature, went to lodge in a 
garden made by his father Omar Sheykh, Then liaving iozcd 
his domeilics, they, by Mehemed SoltinS order^ carried them, 
with the miiTa, to Samarkant*,, and having bound him, pot 
to death his atabek (or governor), with twenty-*fix of his 

To return to Tmir, This prince, having chofan three 
men out of every ten, to ferve as fcouts,- fet out from Kara* 
bagh Arr^n ; and croffing the KHrj^Gx a bridge of boats, was 
joined by Sheykh IbrMm, of Ship^, and SUi Ahmed, priocs 
of Sheki (S), by which city the army pailed, and took the road 

(R). This city Is iJ7 dajrs 
jourftey from KambJilek (or iv- 
king) ; for, from Kotan to Kara 
Koja, are thirty five ftages j 
thence to Tetkaixsl^ in the bor- 
ders of China, thirty-one, where 
there is a wall betweeti two 
mountains, with a great gate, 
aiid feveral inns ; fr«m hence to 

Ghen-jan H, a city of ChinM, 
fifty -one days ; and forty ^eocf 
to Kambdlek ; 'tis alfo fony from 
Ghen-jan Fu to Nem-na;^* S&a- 

(S) A town on the (buth bor- 
ders of Georgia, near the d^m 
fea. La Croix* 


Digitized by 


ti> the (i^ cUKmfifa (belonging to a prince c^ tiidt fi^iftie)^ 
iMiere the infidel? d^xrdt. As this defile iflras ftilt of unpafTable 
^^oods, the fddiers> ^th their axe^ knd ikws, mad« fl r6ad^ ' 
tefr days journey in length, and broad enbugh for ii* com* 
pjftnies to march in front. Althongh it fnoi^ed very hard^ fot" 
twenty days together, yet the army entered Georgia'^ and fell' 
tipon the infidels in the mountdn, giving quarter to non6« 
Ktmjbd^ the chieJF of them, £icd, kavnig his ^ily and efFe6lsi 
They deftroyed Ms vi!lag«s^ with the churches, and plucked 
tip the vine-trees. Which the inhabitants, who Were very fond 
of wine, bad carefully pdanted. After a month's flay in thld 
defile, the roads being impaflable, through die feverity 6f th^' 
Weathcrj TimAr returned to Karab&gfi ; where an inquiry be* 
ifig niade into the behaviour of the* officers, who fought th^ 
Geetgitms in thdr returti firom Alergik^ fomc were puniflied 
With the baftonado, and all the principal officers of the Mfrza • 
MrAn SUh fined. The Prince Buth^AgUn (who had beed 
re(bred to favour) Was put to death, for his mifdoings in fe^ 
Veral fkirmifhes ; and his fon treated in the fame manner : but 
the ^arza AMbekr was much honoured, for his valour fllewil 
in that a^Hon '. >; ' 

The Mfrza Rujim, fent from^ J&m to ShtrK; ^^ before- P!r Me* 
mentioned, being arrived at that city, was handfomely received hemed^iSf*. 
by- thte Mirza Ptt Mehemed : and fet out for BdghdM loon after^ t^J^^* 
according to his orders, leaving Pir Mehetfied behind to follow 
him. He palled by Tojtar and Rdmhermes, to Mendeli (T) \ 
where he arrived m March 1400;* and, defeating Amfr y^/i Hej. 8oa* 
Kal^tndef the governor, pillaged the toWn* Mean while, thd A. D. 
Mtrza Pir Mehemed, after a long delay, fet out for Bdghdad: '4©^* 
bnt^ after forte days march, turned back again, on pretence 
of ficknefs ; and, by the infligation of certain perfons, Under- 
took to compofe poifons and fafdnations. The Amir Sdid Bet* 
I6i^ governor of Shtrdz, being informed hereof, imprifoned 
the mtrza in the caftle, and gave advice to 77^^ 5 Who im* 
mediately fent AllahdMy to profecute the offenders, and place 
R4ftem on the throne of Pdrs, in the room of his elder bro- 
tbM-> whom he. was to bring botind to c6urt. This amtr put 
to death ibme men of quality, concerned in corrupting the ^ 
prince ; While Mfteniy coming from Mendehy on notice ^ven 
bimi wasi by letters patents, eftablifhed in his place< 

^ Hid. Tim. Bck, p. 121— ^i Jo, e. 4-*6. 

(T) A town of Ardia [rafter tf^ Jrait]i dependent On Sd^l^ 
iad. La Croix^ 

Irfop* IbsT. Vol. V. X WkEif * 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

tlift^ of the Moguls md Tatars. B. VI. 

When Mr Alt Kalander arrived at B&ghd^y with an ao- 
CoMTit of what had pafled at MeruUli, Soltan Jhmed, in great 
^ perplexity, ordered the gates, to he Aiut, and the bridge de- 
u* KPd ^^^^^* fil^^ ^^ ^^^ more alarmed at the confpiracy formed 
*^*8 • againft him by Sherwdn, This lord had been made governor 
of Khtizefidn by Timur ; but, having conmiitted feveral irr^ 
gularities, in extorting money, and even putting to death go* 
vernors of cities, he revolted, with looo horfe, to the foltan. 
He had not been long at B^hdM^ before he began to confpirc 
againft his proteftor, by bribing his principal officers with vaft 
fums of money. The plot was difcovered by an officer, who 
finding the memorandum of the monies paid, which SbtT' 
vjan*s fecretary had loft, carried it to his nlafter, at fuch time 
as he had ordered the gates to be*ftiut. The foltan, more 
affrighted at this treafon than before, fent orders to theamin, / 
who were on an incurfion with Sierwany tocut oiFhis^ead*,/ 
and, in lefs than eight days, put to death above 2000 of his 
own officers in Bdghddd; he flew, with his own hand, mod 
of the ladies and officers of his {Shenvdn*s) houftiold. 
SoUdn After this, Soltan Ahmed ftiut himfelf up in his faray, 

AbmcdV not fuffcring any one to come near him : even when the 
Jiight,, ftewards brought him his dinner, they delivered it at the door, , 
without entering. He fpent feveral days in this manner ; and 
then croffing the Tigris, in the night, by boat, with fix per- 
fons only, rode to the country of Kara Tufef, Mean time, 
the ftewards, as ufual, delivered the king's diinncr at the pa- 
lace-gate ; fo that he returned, with Kara Tufef^sA his troops, 
before the people knew any thing of his abfence. In Jvij 
Ahmed hearing that Tim^r was on his march to Siwds (in Ana, 
ioHa)y fet out. With Kara Tufefy his family, and treafures,- 
that he might get thither before the roads were ftopped op by 
the emperor's troops. At HMepy he was oppofed by Tmk' 
tdjb, who conmianded there ; but having defeated his troops, 
he continued his road. 
Timur in- To return to fimir. When winter was over, this prince 
n;ades called a dyet, wherein the war of Georgia being confidered as 
Georgia, preferable to all others, both on account of religion, and in- 
creafe of power, he departed from Karabdgh for Georgia ; 4c 
roads and provinces of wJiich, he ordered to be defcribed in 
wridng. In ten days he arrived in the plain of Berdaa ; where 
he gave audience to Tahdrteriy prince of Arztnjdny on the 
Euphrates. The emperor honoured him with the marks of 
fovereignty, and then difmifled him, with orders to watch the 
motions of the Othmdns, After feveral days march from Ber- 
daa, he arrived on the borders of Georgia ; ^rom whence he 
fent to Mdlek Ghtlrghirt, king of that country, to demand 

Digitized by 


C 4.' fif^ J^^^fi of tiinAr M; • Jl J 

Tiber^ fdn of Soltan Ahmed: but^ inflead of complying^ A. D* 
CMrghin returned a very uncivil anfwer. Upon this, the Ja- 140'^- 
gatays entered his dominions, and deftroyed every thing they *'*'**4r**^ 
niet^th, even the vines. The af&ighted inhabitaftts, who 
cfcaped the fword, fled, >^ith their effefts and [irovifions, to 
the high mountains; where they had fortified caverns and 
houfes, built on craggy rocks j fo that Uo power had ever yet 
conquered them. 

For all thii, Timor's foldlerS, -Without cohfidering th^ Maiij 
dangers, afcended the mountkins ; and then, laying themfelve? great Jlfa» 
in boxes, were let down by cords to the caverns of the in* '^ock* 
fidels; which they entered, making a terrible flaughter. Some, 
of thefe craggy places were fd well defended, that, as well to 
difperfe the enemy, as to bum tKeu- houfes and intrenchmfents^ 
tlie army were obliged td make ufe of combuftible matter* 
Thus they took fifteen noted places, giving quarter only to 
fuch as turned Mohammedans, Tifnur left a ftrong garrifon iii 
Taflisy ovTeftU, czpitsl of Georgia, and then went to encamp 
Jn the plain of Mokran. Bang Ghurghin fled into th6 defarts ; 
but the greater part of the Oznawrs came to the camp, and fued 
for pardon. When the country was reduced, the tetnples and 
monafterieft were razed, and chapels and moiks crefted in their 

After this cotlqucft, Tlm^it refdlved to attack 'the ptJier faiis di 
provinces of Geofgiay and marched next towards the defile difortre£uk 
prince Jani Bek, whofe country being pillaged, and people 
flain, he foon came to fubmit himfdf^ Among other fbrtrefles, 
there was one named Bil, at the entrance of the defile, which, 
though {landing very high, and of difficult accefs, was pre- 
fently taken, and razed. The army, having ravaged other parts 
of the country, ^ent to encamp in the true antient Georgia J 
from whence at length removihg, they croflfed the Altfr, ladeil 
tvith fpoils. During thefe tranfaftions, a great number of 
Oznaivrs retired into the caftle of Zerity fituated on thd 
ridgd of a narrow mountain, and ntver before taken : but Tlni^f • • 
having befieged it, after feveral attacks, on the feventh day 
a general alfault was given, aiid the fort being taken fword iti 
hand ; it Was d^moliftled, and all the Geofgians flain. After 
this, on advice that king GMrghin was iti the to-^vn of Sivanitf 
the emperor marched thither. With dne half of his army : but thtf * 
king, not daring to wait his coming, fled towards AbkhaZ (U)^ 

* Hift. Tim. Bck, p. 130-^x^9, c. 7, S, 

(U) A towii of Georgia^ 6ii country of the Ahkhdfty to th« 
the frontiers of CherkaJJia. La weft of Mingreliai. ^ 
Croix. -*-*— Perhaps rather th« 

X% The 

Digitized by 


Wfiwj.of the MoguI$ mi T^itars. B« VI^ 

The troops carried Sw^it at the firft aflault ; and then "went 
in purfuit of GMrghin: but that prince, croiSng the riiers 
' J^ygar and Korlan (X), had the good fortune to ekape. 
7be iittg iHE^ing of Georgia feeing himfelf reduced to the laft ex* 
futmis4 tremity, by protcfting Prince Tdher^ he obliged him lo retire 
to his &ther, in the Othmin dominions ; and then fent an aia- 
baffiulor to b^ Tmir*s pardon, with a promife, on oath, to 
pay the annual tribute, and fend any number of forces into hia 
iendce. The emperor, on thofe conditions, withdrew out ot 
his country, and marched towards the territories fuhje£k ta 
Jyv&nu one of the moft powerful fovercigns of Georgia. A$ 
there was no army to oppofe them, the foldiers difperted them- 
felves, ruining the towns and caflles, and deibroying cvwry 
thing with fire and fword. They did the like by the country 
and people of Kara Kalkdnh% Who were armed with black 
bucklers, and good mountain horfemen. After this, Ti$n^ fet 
forward on his return : but, receiving advice, when at flak orTey- 
lak Mcnkil^ that the enemy had aflembled again in Farafgherd^ 
in Georgia^ he marched thither ; and, in five days, made him- 
felf maAer of feven fortrefl^, which he razed, after flaying 
an infinite number of the infidels ; and then returned to AUn^ 
ML Here ambafladors arrived from an European prince, to 
make an alliance with him. They brought with them the foo 
of Amtr Morhd (or Amurath\ the Othm&n emperor, whom 
they had taken prifoner. Tvm&r received them with great ci- 
vility, granted them what they defired, and, having ^ven themr 
rich vws, difmifled them, to return by way.of Trabizond \ 

C H A P. V. 

TImfir overthrows Bayezld, and reduces Georgia. Dia 
on his March to conquer China. 

Tlmftr^- TOURING the two months that Ttndr encamped in Men- 
fended, *^'> he prepared to march againft Bayezid, fumamed. 

Ildriniy or the thunderer. TKis prince, who had esitended 
his dominions confiderably on every fide, had not only taken 
Siv)^ and Malatiya, from princes in friendftiip with 7nnAr\ 
but had fummoned Tahirten^ though ^e knew hinx to be 
under the emperor's proteftion, to come to his court, and to 
fend the tributes oi Arzenj&n^ Arzer&m^ and their dependencies; 
to his treafiiry. Of this Tahdrten fent advice to Timdr j who 

« Hift.Tim. Bek, p. 139—145, c. 9— 12. 

(X) ^v^n ^i Kapfidk {or Kiijdk). La Croix. 

* 4 * there- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

t. 5. Tbi Riign of Tunftr Bck. 

'tho^iipon wvDte a letter, to advife A^ynli to keep whhh hit 
own boQnds, and not ofifer to go beyond thole lunhs. But, 
as that letter contained many re]»t)achfttl expreiSpii3, the Otb^ * 
man made anfwer to the envoys, that he had loi^ defired to 
have a war with their mafler ; and that, M Timwr did not ad* 
vance againft hun, he would go feck Timur^ and drive him 
beyond Tauris* 

Thb eniperor, 00 die retnm of his envoys, immediatBly mmrk$ 
marched tawwcdsJnatolia. Being arrived at Aventk (or Vta)^ agmnfi 
Jie was met by the Amtr jfllahdM, who brought with him, BaycsKL 
fi*om SMrAz^ the MIrza Plr Mehemed, bound lUce a oimioal. 
TaEnnfr ordered that the Mir2a (hould be exammed, inacouncU 
of i^ar, and puniflied according to his deferts. He was fen« 
tieoced to recdve thebaflonado, accordhig to the yafa (or laws 
^ Jenghiz Kh&n) ; and, having undergone that punifhment, 
his chains were taken off, and he. was m at liberty. By the 
iame laws, the Sheykh ZMe Fertd^ and Mob&rek Kqa^ wer« 
pat to death, for baring corrupted the mtrza, and taught him 
magic. After this, the emperor marched forward, at the 
head c^.his army; and, at his arrival at Arzertan^ viras (a* 
Jn^d by TahArten^ prince of Arzevjin. September I,, he 
entiered the country of the Othmans^ and attacked ShoAs : but, 
as we intend to give a pretty drcumftantial account of 
thb war, in our hiftory of the Othmins, we ihall only lightly 
aouch.on thofe tran{a£tions in this place \ 

SI WAS (or Sehafie)^ a fine as well as ftrong dty, fub- Ti^i// SU 
fluitted, after dg^teen days leaguer, to Timir ; who ordered w^* 
4000 Armenian cavahy to be buried alive, and the walls to 
be razed, for an example to other places. He then fent troops 
in purfuit of Soltan Ahmed^ who had entered AnatoRa^ and 
others, under the Mirza Shab RAkb^ to deftroy the Turk* 
mdn robbers diAbAleftAuy in ZulkAderia, who had carried oflT 
ibme horfes. The folt&n and Kara Tu/ef efcaped, with thf , 
lofs of their baggage, and a foltina ; but the robbers were 
cut to fneces. After this, he marched againft Malatiyab^ 
which he took in one day, the governor and his party flying 
at Ms approach. Then he fent out troops, on all iides, to 
rnin the country of Malatiyab ; which they did, and returned 
with abundance of fpoil. Thus the frontiers of AnatoBa and 
Syria were, in at fti<5rt time, brought in fubjeftion ; and as the 
fbltan of Egypt had offended Tim^r no lefs than the Otbmin 
emperor, he refolved to invade his dominions, before he pro- 
:reeded any farther againft Bayezid^ who had no army yet la 
the field. 

• Hid. Tim. Bek, p. 145— is** «• >3— «5« 


Digitized by VjVjOQIC 

Hiftory of tie Moguk and Tatars, B. VI. 

T^/MUR, in the year 795 (1393), after he had reduced 
B&ghdAd^ having fent an ambaflador to Soltan B&rkok^ then 
^ reigning in Egypt, as hath been before-mentioned, this am- 
b^ador> on his arrival at Rahaba, on the Euphrates , was 
-feized, according to cuftom, and fent to Egypt \ where, by 
the perfuafions of Soltan Ahmed, he has put to death. After 
this, Kara Tuf(f having, in battle, taken prifoner Atihnf/b 
JQchirtf 7im4r*8 governor of Jvanik, while that monarch was 
in Kipjak, fent him to Bfirkok, who confined him in prifon, 
and continued his hofHlities againft the Jagatays. The em- 
peror being now on the borders of Matatlyah, fent a letter to 
Farrfij, who had fucceeded Barkok, to demand Atilmtjb : bat 
Farr4j, after his father's example, ordered the ambaflador to 
be imprifoned at Hdlep, where he had been already flopped, 
as ufual, till notice was given to die foltan of his arrival, 
TimAr, enraged at this infult, refolved to be revenged ; and 
although, at firft, the amirs befought him to difl>and his troops, 
who wanted repofe, after fo many late fatigues, yet, perceiving 
him to be firm, they applauded his refolution. They marched 
on to Behefna, and encamped on an eminence near the caftle, 
which is in a defile where feveral torrents flow, built Mdth very 
high and flrong walls, on the ridge of a fteep mountain **. 
74*« An- While Tif7«/^r was viewing the place, agreatftone, fhotat 
Imp. him froip an engine, fell near his tent, and rolled into it. En- 

raged at this, he immediately ordered his troops, who had 
taken the lower town, to beficge the fortrefs, in whofe wall 
they foon made breaches with their engines, fapping them, 
at the fan^e time, in other places. The governor MokM, 
feeing himfelf in this diffa-efs, fent to beg quarter. 77m*^ 
promifed him his liberty : but faidj he would take the place 
firft, to fhew, that though reckoned impregnable, it was not 
fo to him. The 7th of Odiober, fire being put to the props, 
the towers began to fiall : after which, the emperor' nqt only 
fpared Mokbel, but the whole garrifon. The army then marched 
to Ant^pa (or Jniap) (A), a city, whofe walls were built of 
ilonc, exceedingly ftrong; furrounded by a ditch thirty cubits 
. fieep, and near fevcnty wide, wth a draw-bridge. Thecoua^ 
Icifearp, which was of ftone, Iwl a coveredrway, broad enooj^ 

^ H^ft. Tim, Bpk, p. i52-'-i6a, c. 15— n 9, 

(A) Arahjh^ fjiys, that 77- pn him : yet he owns, that, by 

fi\tr\^hJ^alatorrum{oxthfcaflU the computation of Kartzmx 

(j/'/itf Romans), without faring Timurs comptroller, his army 

to attapl^ it, on account of it9 amounted to 800,000 men. 7t« 

flrength, although the com- tnur did what was necefTaryi 

P^def inmlf fcYcrfU fallies up? f^nd Ambjhdb hat^d him. 

Digftized by VjOOQIC 

C.5' * The Reign c/Timta^k. 

for a man ohTiorfeback to pafs along it ; which poft was af- 
figned the archers. When the Tatars arrived, th^y found the 
principal perfons all gone out (B) ; and only a few poor inha- 
bitants left, wjio immediately opened the gates to Timur, and 
put him in poliefEon of abundance of goods, as well as am- 

Mean time Tem^rtq/b, governor of Ildlep, having fent ad- Pf'ocee^s 
vice to Kahera (or Kayro) oi \h^ enemy's proceedings, the '* W^*^P» 
ibltan fent orders for all the troops of Syria to march to that 
city. When they were arrived, TemHrtaJb aflembled the chief 
commanders, t6 confult whether it was beft to fubmit to a 
poweiful prince, whofe fucceffes and conquefts he fet forth to 
advantage,- or oppofe him. The moft experienced ' officers 
approved of the motion : but the majority, and efpecially 
ShoMriy governor of Damajkus, taxed him ^\ath cowardice (C) ; 
vaunting, that the towtis of Syria Were not built of mud and 
brick, fike thofe of the countries conquered by Timur, bu^ 
with folid ftone; and that taking but a few men out of every 
village, which, the regifters reckoned to be 60,000, an army 
might be ralfed fufficient to withftaild any force. Whjle,^ ther^^ 
for^ it was fefolved to defend ffdlep, Timur advanced to- 
wards it. The two firft days he marched fix or feven leagues 
each.; but ^terwards ordered the army to move no more thaa 
half, a league per i^yi fo that in a whole week they pro- 
ceeded but one day's journey, and that with great precautions. 
The Syrians, imputing the flownefs" of the enemy's march to 
fleaf , abandoned their firft refoiution of keeping in the town, 
and drew out in the open field.' 

The 8th of November the army of Timur arrived near HS.- T>efeatx -. 
kp : and, the tKrd day after, marched to attack the enemy ;r\ the e^m;^< 
<»rder of battle : every one had oii a coat of mail, a culrafs, . * 

and helmet. The right wing was commanded by the Mirzas 
Mirdn Shih and Sh^h Rukh ; and the van-guard of it by the 
Mirza Aldbekr. . Soltan Mahmud led the left wing, wliofe van^ 
gjiard was conduced by Soltan Hujayn, The main body wa^ 
commanded by Tim^r himfelf ;* who had before him a rank 
of bulky elephants, which ferved as a rampart, with towers 
on their backs, -filled with archers; and flingers oj? wild-fire. 
The battle began by the flcirmifiiers; who rufhed into the 
midft of the entoy'i batallions, and either killed, or brought 

(B) According to Arahjhdh^ (O,) Arahjhah fays, that 7V- 

<^^Wa* the governor rallied out; murtdphviA ajgreed with Tiptut 

and, being abandoned atidwouH- to betray the foltan oi S^fi. 
ded, fled to Hdlep, but was not . , "! , 


X 4 off 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

j.l8 Hiftory^ibiH^^m^T^icm. B.VL 

A. D. olF fome no^ perfpn (Mifop^c. The rkht ving then ftll €ift 
ifoo. th^ Syrians left wing, which was routed by the valour of the 
y^ y *^ Mir^ Jbfibekr. Their left wing likewife defeated the eocmy't 
right , while the n^ain body pcnonned the like fervice* Itoe< 
upon Shadiln and Tem^irtSjb fled iato the aty, followed by 
their troops, who difperfed. The major part took the roa4 • 
to Damajku^ : but, bdng purfued* only one borfegiaa of all 
that great army efcaped to carry the news to that city ^ 
'r"h€s thf As for thofe who retreated into H^^ the difocder was fb 
J J, great in the cWrf ftrcet of the dty, and the g^ues fo p-ouded, 
that one could hardly p^s* Here was the greateft flac^jhtor 
ever mentioned : for, tp ^void the fiiry of the (Wool, tbqr 
fiung themfelves upon one another into ihe ditches* On tiia 
other hand, the Jagatays^ with a fmgle pike, oftea ran three 
or four of the eoemy through at a time, in the throng of the 
gate •. fo that the dead bodies were piled upon ooefmodiflr, to 
the very plinth of the walls ; and at length a paflage wasmade over 
the ditch, ujpon tho& bodies>ievel wim the di^w-hri4gp« There 
one might iee the horfes ^d their riders muuad {Mrofl^iicuoafly, 
and pQvered mth blood and dirt ; fbme pierced with arrows^ 
and others with th^ brains dafhed out ) one with a eoajt <tf 
mail; his head bending beneath the blow <^ a war-cbib ; aiw 
other falling without his head, bis fword faft elaipi^d in his 
hand. Mean time other troops w^e employed in pillaging the 
enemy's camp, where they met with abandaiKe of ipdl. At 
length the whole army marched to the genend afl^ult the fiune 
day, and entered the dty ; which they plundered of it» great 
Wealth, carrying away the women and children* bdries and 
fhfcafik^ ^^yi^2>l^A^ and Tiw^rf^ had rehired to the fortrefe, which 
fikrren^rr was built on the ridge of a high fteep rock (D), fnrcoandcd 
^? with a ditch thirty cubits wide; and fo deep with water, as to 

carry a \>o^X (E). From the furface of the water to the caftle^ 
wall, it is about loo cubits; and the (hdving ib imooth and 
jle^p, that it is impoflible to afcend it on fopt, becaufe it is 
covered with |tee-ftone, and poliftied bricks. As foon as the 
Jagatays h^d furrounded the ditch, they (hot arrows fo in? 
ippifantl^, th^t th^ be^eged dared not appear on the walls } 

^ Hift. TJnj. ?cl^, p. 16^—172, c. 19—91, 

(D) The caftle of Jl^o is have f^en the dlteb» any more 

|iot built pn a rock, hot a moun- than the callle ; for if the ditch 

t^iq of earth, covered with frep- was full of water, a4hip might 

^ne. La Croi^. fail i|i i^ La Cr^, 

^ff) The author fecjns not to 


. Digitized byVjOOQ I' ^^^ 

C 5- tie Iteign ^ Timftr Bck. 

while the iitppersy craffing the water m floats, began to work 
at the bottom of -the mottntain^ and ihake the ftones. This 
bdng penxived by the befieged, five of the braveft men» 
gomgdown 4>y a rope tied to their widft, the ends of which 
were fadd by others on the wall, ran fword in hand aponthe 
%pers; iuBt the Tatar Sf "who had orders to fappprt them» 
iallied out of their tents, and flew them with meir arrows. 
After the dead bodies were drawn up, no foldier wonld ventnre 
to (hew 1»8 head. Upon this, Tlmiir wrote a letter to the " 
tiro generals, exhorting them to fave their lives, and furrcn- 
4er, This tbey did, upon a refielHon on their drcumftances ; 
and, being put in irons, with odier chiefs, and looo foldierSt 
TMr lent one of them to acquaint the king of Egypt vAdi 
their condition ; and that he muft fortiiwith fend Jttlmijb to 
Urn, if he would prcferve thdr Hvcs. 

Thers were in this dty treafures of an infinite value, con- Hama n^ 
lifting of that laid up l^ fevcral kings ; and the riches carried ^^f^^* 
in by the citizens, in hopes of faving them. Part was diftri- 
bot^ among the folcfiers ; and the reft lefk in charge with 
dght ^nfrs, who were appointed to govern this ftrong place. 
l^hen, after fifteen days ftay, he marched, to continue his 
conquefts in Syria. J&e had fcnt before th6 Mirzas Pir 
Mehemed and JbAbekr as fcouts towards Harm (F); the 
town rf which they took, but could not reduce the caftle : 
yet, en the appearance of the innumerable troops which TitrUir 
tMTOUght, the garrifon begged quarter; which was granted, 
but the fpoil was given to the fcouts. The emperor ftald here 
twenty-two days : during which tipie tiie amirs made another 
attempt to induce him to ftop here ; reprefenting, that, for 
two 3^cars, they, had been continually on the march, or in 
batde ; and that the enemy*s troops were in much better con- 
dition ttetn theirs. They therefore defired that they might go 
and rcpofe themfelves at Tripo/iy on the fea-coaft ; fo that, at 
the beginning of (pring, they might march with vigour againft ' 
the Syrians, 

But Ttmir would not hearken to their reafons ; alledglng, Utmtjuri 
that they ought not to give the enemy any time to recover rendmd. 
themfelves. Hereupon he ordered them to march towards 
Hems (or Emeffa) : and, as a great amir was fent before for a 
fcout, he prevailed upon the inhabitants to fubmit, on promife 
Itoth of their lives and efFefts. Accordingly the principal men 
went ont, loaden with prefents, to meet Ttm{ir ; and received 
ius protcftiou. The emperor then continued his road towards 

(F) A eityof^^'rmj.ofwhkh JMtl/eda v/as prtncc. La Crn'x^ 
he ^pogFSLfhex (or hiilprian) It is (he ancient Bfifhania. 


Digitized by VjVjOQIC 

Hijiory of the Mo^ and Tatars. B. VI. 

Bialbek s and, in the way, detached troops to pillage the coaft 
of Said (or Sidon) and Bardt. When the army came before 
^ B4albek, they admired the beauty of its walls. Among the 
ftones, which are of a prodigious fize, there is . one at the 
corner of the caftle, facing the gardens, wbioh is twcnty-ei^ 
cubits long, fixteen broad, and ieven high. Its buildings are 
very lofty ; and it is believed to have b^n raifed by dsemons 
and genii, at the command of Solomon, who had an abfcdute 
power over them« For all this, it, was quickly reduced by 
the JagataySy who found abundance of provifions. After 
which, they marched towards DamafiuSy which is feventy 
leagues diflant; from HMep, through fnpw and rain, it bdi^ 
the third of January ; and, having made one day's journey, 
Timur halted to vifit the tomb o£ the prophet Noai **. 
Jttempt of Mean time Farruj, foltan of Egypt, to whom Syria belong- 
g^jjim. ed, raifed a great army, chiefly of cavalry, which were the 
beft in the world; and came to Damafkusj which he put in a 
good pofture of defence. But, relying more on policy than 
flrength, he fent to Timur an eloquent villain, in quality of am- 
baflador ; who, the better to cover his intentions, put on a 
religious habit. He was accompanied by two aflaffios, who 
had orders to murder the emperor during the aipbaflador's 
audience. When Timur drew near Damq/his, thofe viUaias 
joined the court, and were admitted to pay their compliments. 
They had thus feveral favourable. opportunities : but, the em- 
peror being protefted by Heaven, they could not exectitetheir 
defigns. However, K(^a Jllajfa^d Semnani, one of the great 
fecretaries of the council, fufpefted, by their behaviour, that 
tjiey had fome evil intention. This being related, by a third 
perfon, to Tim4r, he ordered them to be fearched ; and poi- 
foned daggers were found in their boots. The chief of the 
villains, perceiving their plot difcovered, confefled the truth ; 
and was, by the emperor's order, flain .with the fanse dagger 
• which was found about him, and his body burnt. The two 
aflaifins had their nofe and ears cut off, with defign to fead 
them, in that condition, with a letter to the foltaa of Egypt. 
Farruj TIMUR, being arrived at Kobbey Sey&r, ordered Sbadmh 

feigns fuh' and the other prisoners, brought from Hahp, to be put to 
mijjion. death, farther to be revenged on Farruj. The fame night 
there happened an affair as ridiculous as extraordinary : The 
Mirza Solthn Hujfayn, after a debauch, was excited by fome 
feditious perfons to revolt againft his grandfather (G). Ac- 

** Hift. Tiin, Bck, p. i72-*-i8i. c. 21 — 24. 

. (G) According to Arahjhah, to ice hire with his army in fo 
he quitted T//ui^, being aihamed mi^srable.a conditio a. 


Digitized by VjOOQ It 

C. 5. • ^he Reign of Timiir Bek. 

cordmgly he went to Damajkus, and lifted himfelf In the ^^- 
rian fervice. This adventure gave the enemy much joy 5 and 
Farrujy in policy, treated him Svith all poffible refpeft. Next ' 
day the army went an^ encamped towards the fouth fide of 
the city 5 building a wall, the height of a man, about the 
camp, and digging a trench round the wall. Two days after, 
Tmur fent a letter to the foltan, to demand AtUmtJh ; and 
offer peace, on condition that he caufed money to be coined 
in the emperor's name, and his name to be read in the public 
prayers. The ambaflador was received with great honour ; 
and, being difmifled, was followed by feveral lords, who, from 
Farruj, promifed' obedience to Ttrmir^ and to fend Atilmljb to 
his court wthin five days, 

TIMURy b^elieving thefe lords to be fincere, received them Attacksthe 
kindly, and prefented them with vcfts ; but he was foon unde- Jagatays, 
ceivcd : for, fome days after, having ordered his army to re- 
move their camp to Gauta (H), that the horfes might feed in 
that delicious place : they had no fooner begun to move, than 
the whole army of Syria fallied out of Damajkiis, imagining 
that this march eaftward proceeded from weaknefs, and an in- 
tention to fly. They thought likewife, that fo numerous an 
army could not decamp without falling into fome diforder ; 
and that, if they took the opportunity to attack their rear, they 
could not fail of defeating them. With thefe hop^s, the fol- 
dlers, ifluing forth, and joined by prodigious numbers of the 
populace, ' armed with fwords, flicks, or ftones, fell on the 
rear of the Tatars; who thereupon, facing about, fecured 
their front with the bales of baggage. When the whole army 
were come together, and ranged in order, Timur fent to the 
Mirzas Mirdn Shdhy Shdh Mkh, arid Abubekr, who commanded 
the right wing, to attack the enemy on one fide, while th^ 
amirs ci the left wing prefled them on the other. As the 
two wings, backed by the main body, fell furioufly on th^ 
Syrians f they were defeated, after an obftinate battle, and re- 
pulfed to the gates oVDamaJkus ; after having above half their 
Ibldiers (lain, and a great part difperfed : who; being purfued, 
were for the moft part cut off*. 

This fignal viftbry was gained January 19th, 1400, Dm^ Defeated, 
ling the heat of the battle, one of Shdh RM's officers fell in and flies ^ 
with the Mirza Solt&n Hujfayriy who commanded the Syrians 
left -wing ; and, having feized his horfe's bridle, brought him 

« Hift. Tim. Bek, p. 181— 189. c. 24—25. 

(H) A great plain to the eaft vers watering that city fall in an- 
©f Damajkusi where there is a uniced (l^eaip, 
ycry large lake i into which the ri- 

Digitized by VjOOQTC 

mjiiirj af the Moguls on^ Tatars. RVT. 

to his maftePy who gave advice of it to ThnAr. This prinfic 
ordered him to be put In prifon, loaded with chains : but he 
' was fbon after delivered, through the interceffion erf" Shib 
Rukhi yet not till he had received the baftonadc^ according to 
the yafa; and, befides the reproaches%e met with, was never 
after fuflcrM to enter the emperor's hall. Next day Tinmr 
ordered the army to march towards the city in order of batde, 
with the elephants at their head, to ftrike farther terror into 
die inhabitants : and it is remarkable, that, from the end of 
the right wing to the extremity of the left, it took up bctwcco 
ihree and four leagues of ground. The foltin, on this^ h^ 
a council ; wherein it being agreed for hiin to return to JSgypt^ 
'andieave the foldiers to defend the city, with the inhabitant!^ 
he fent an ambaflador to excufe what happened the jday^ be« 
fot^, as a poplilar fedltion ; and promifed, that, if ^s h^^ 
nefs would grant a ceflation of arms for the prdTent day only, 
lie would next morning execute whatev^ he fhould com- 
Damafkus THfe emperor, on this mefTage;, ordered his army to returo^ 
hipipd^ ^nd encamp a fecond time : but, when night came^ Fam^j 
accompanied by the principal fords of his court, departed from 
Damajkus. This flight being difcovcred by a Tatar deferttr, 
^imi^r fent after him a great body of horie ; who overtook 
thd . foltan, flew feveral of his men, and ob%ed the reft to 
abandon their equipage to fly the fwifter. Next day he or- 
dered the city to be invefted by his whole army* This fo 
tefrifled the inhabitants, that the fl:iarifs, kadi's, and other fliea 
of the law, opened the gates ; and, going to the camp, agreed 
to pay a tax to fave their lives. The city being thus yieldec^ 
Ihey invefted the caftle, which was one of the moft noted f<Mt- 
fefles in the world. Its walls, confifting of great pieces of rock^ 
veiy high, ind regularly built, were encompafled with a ditch 
withgreat about twenty cubits wide. The foldiers having raifed three 
wigour.^ platforms high enough to command the city^.' the battering- 
' rams, and engines to caft ftonesand wild-fire, began to play: 
while the fappers, after the ditch was drained, fell to under- 
ft^ning the walls on every fide, notwithftanding the great ftones 
and wild-fire fhowered dpwn on them by the befi^d. They 
heated great pieces of the rock, by putting fire underneath, and 
cafting vinegar thereon : and then, with their hammers, broke 
them out ; placing wooden props, to keep the reft.from fail- 
ing on them. When they had done fapping the baiHon of 
Tarma, which was brgeft of all, fire was fet to <he ftiorings ; 
when prefently this high and famous tower fell, arid made a 
▼afl: breach by its fall : but, as the foldiers ran to enter this 
breach, on a fudden another part of the wajl fell ; which, crufh- 


y Google 

Digitized byV 

Q. 5.. the ReigH of Timflr Bek; j3 j 

ii^ fourfcorc of them ta pfeces, fo damped the ardour of the A. D. 
re^ that they would advance no farther. 14^*^^^ 

Thb b^fieged, taking advantage of this refpite, dofed up ^— *sr*^ 
the bfjBach, and fortified themfelves behind it ; but, great part ^^M- 
qf the caftle fellmg foon after, they loft alLhopes: fo that.'"'*^'^'''^- 
Tezddr, the governor caufed the gate to be opened, and car* 
ried thekjsy-s Mmfelf to Timur ; who ordered him to be put 
tp death, for having deferred fuirenderii^ too long. They, 
found in the caftle abundance of riches^ The garrifon, cqn- 
fifting moftly of Cherkaffians^ Hahahans, Zenji^ and Manf 
Mis, were all made flaves ; fo were the cituens. Timtir, ob- 
ferving with indignation, that, while Damajkus, abounded with 
fin^ edifices, the xorob% q£ Omma Selma and Omma Habtba were 
n^ieftedy ordered two magnificent marble domes to be built 
oyet* them, adcxned with feveral works in fculpture. He like- 
yin£c caufed gold and filver to &e coined in place of the Sy^ 
rum money, which was coarfe ; and fent troops to ravage the . 
fea-coaft about the city of Jkkia ' (or Mia). 

During thefe tr^aAions, Timir was attacked vnth vin Dreai(fu/ 
Impofthume'in his back, which was very grievous for the time, maffacr** 
but foon went off. After this, aflemblSg his privy-council^ 
he t(dd them, " He had heard that the Syrians ^ encouraged 
** the Omndyan khallfahs in all the cruelties they exercifed 
^* againflr. Jli^ in the wars whidi they carried on againft him ; 
*^ and could not concdve how a nation fliould be thought to be 
** of the feft of a proptet, which united "^^th the moft cruel 
*^ enemies of his family. He added, that fo rigorous a punifh** 
" ment, as had then fallen on them, was a proof that the 
** fkid tradition was mie." This refleftion of Tmdr^ being 
communicated to others, fo wrought on the minds of the fol- 
dicry, that, March aSth^ 1401, they broke into thecity with- Hej. 803^ 
outCH-ders, and made a terrible flaughter; enflaved the reft A. b. 
of the inhabitants, and feized thdr efFefts (I). The riches i^u 
were fo great, that the beafts they had taken between S'mas. 
ind Dama/kus not being fuffident to carry them off, they were 
obliged to fling away great part, fuch as gold and filver bro- 
ades, curious belts oi Egypt y Cyprus^ and the like. 

As the two upper ftories of the houfes of JOamaJkus are of 
vood^ the loweft being of ftpne ; and moft o^ the cielings, 
iS weU as walls, are vamiflied, next day the city took; 

' Hift.Tlm. Bck,.p. 189—198. c^ 25— 27, 

(I) jfrah/hdh inVeighs againft count, he feems to have b^c« 
'im^r for the havock made at the .caufe; of it« 
"^ami^kus i and, from this ae- 


Digitized by'' 


7he city 


Ham ah 

Bir and 



Hiftory of the Moguls and Tatars; B. Vt 

accident^ and burnt down ; nor was it poffible tb quench it^ 
Befides the wooden roof of the famous Ommtyan moik, co« 
vered with lead, the eaftcrn menaret, built of ftone, was re- 
duced to aihes : yet that of jirus, named alfo Munar Beyza^ 
on which the Mufulmans believe Ifa^ or Jefus^ will defcaid to 
judge the world, though made of wood, remained intire. 
After this, Titnur^ refolving to return out of Syria, ordered 
all the flaves taken in that country, as well as Damajkus, to 
be fet at liberty. He then fet forward, the 31ft of March; 
and fent for the Mirza Mehemed Soltdn from the fronde)^ of 
Mogulefldn, to inveft him with the empire of Htddk^y which he 
deferved for his merit. When he arrived at HemSy he font 
the Mirzas Ruftem and Ahuhekry with 10,000 horfe, to the 
city of Tadmtr (or Tadmor)^ built by Salomon, the houies of 
which are of free-ftone, to jnllage the fubjefts of Zuikaider, 
who were in its neighbourhood. The Mirza Solt&n Hujfayn^ 
at the head of 5000 horfe, marched , to Antiokh s and the 
Mirza Kaltl Soltdn, with 1 5,000 horfe, was detached againft 
the Turkmdns of Kubek, who were encamped on the Eu" 

The firft party, having made the ZulkMerians fly into 
Arabia, and brought away 200,000 ftieep, went on to the 
Euphrates. The fecond party pillaged the city and country 
of Antidkh; znd then, joining the third at ffdlep, marched 
towards KalutoyrUm, and the Euphrates. Here, meeting the 
Turkmans, they were vigoroufly attacked : but the Sheykb 
Hujfayn, fon of Kubek, their leader, being flain, his brothers 
fled with the reft of thofe people, who left a great prey of 
cattle: fo that, with what the other foldicrs had gotten, they 
reckoned 800,000 fheep, which fold for a dinar apiece, and 
were obliged to leave the other animals behind. Mean whilff 
Timur proceeded on his way. When he came to Hamah, he 
ordered the town to be pillaged, the houfes plundered, and the 
inhabitants made flaves ; to punifti them for deftroying the 
edifices which the Jagatays had built at their firft arrival* 
The walls likewife of the ciaftle of Hdlep were razed, and the 
houfes burnt, by the amirs, who then joined the imperial 
army, which in four days marched to the Euphrates, where 
the other detachments met them. As the Mirza Sdtdn Huf^ 
fayn performed feveral brave aftions in his expedition, he 
obtained pardon for his former feult, and was received into 

The army crofted the river, by fwimming, over-againft the 
city of Btr ; from whence two boats were fent to carry over 
the baggage of the emperor, who confinned the goverBor in 


Digitized by 


C. 5. ^be Reign of TimCir Bek; 

his poft. Here Kara Ozm&n^ governor of Malatiya, arrived 
alfo, and was handfomely received. After Timtir's departure 
from hence, he had a mind to hunt in Me/opotamia : hereupon a ' 
circle was made by the two wings, five days journey in circuit, 
of which the fountain of Rdfo*l Ayn (K) was the centre ; where • 
they found fuch abundance of game, that they took them with 
their hands. The hunt concluded with a feaft ; in which they 
ate of antelopes and roebucks, whofe flefh is very tender, and 
the beft of all the animals of the defart. In their paflage, the 
inhabitants of Roha^ or Orfa^ came out with prefents, and were 
kindly treated : but a caftle beyond it was razed ; and the 
Armenian robbers, Nvho held it, cut to pieces* The army Mardin 
then advanced to Mardin ; whither the foltans of Hufni re'velts. 
Keyfa (L) and Jrzina, and other lords in thofe quartere, 
came to faJute the emperor : only the foltan of Mardin^ who • 
had been fct at liberty and reftored by Tmtir, not having 
followed the army into Syria with his troops, or fent any of 
his brothers on that duty, dared not come to meet his high- 
nefe. Timur, however, kindly afked after him, and fent for 
him in very obliging terms : but he refufed, confiding in the 
ftrength of the place. And, as the emperor was fenfible it 
would require a long fiege to reduce it (M), he was contented 
to ruin and burn all the houfes of the lower town ; at the 
fame time ordering Kara Ozmdn to block up the fortrefs fo 
clofely, that not a man might^efcape g. > 

TIMURy having fent the Amir Allahd&d to take care of the Alenjik 
frontiers of Jetah^ departed from Mardin. After which, he reduced* 
detached the Mirzas Soltdn HuJfayUy Pir Mehemed^ Omar 
Sheykhy and Abubekr, with a great body of the army, to Alen* 
jik ; with orders, after taking that fortrefs, to march into 
Georgia : but as they had heard at Fdn, that Alenjik^ after Georgia 
two years fiege, had been forced by famine to furrender, they in'waded. 
turned off towards the right for Georgia ; and made fuch 
hafte, that they furprifed the inhabitants, and ravaged their 
country. Hereupon Malek GiUrghtn fent to acquaint the mtrzas, 
that he was furprifed dt this invafion, feeing he was one of the 

« HifL Tim. Bek, p. 198—208. c. 27—30. 

(K) From hence fprings the fhould be i!f^7/« or H^ i^, that 

river Al Khabur, which falls into is, the caftle of Keyf. 
X\it Euphrates 2X Karkifia: (M) Arahfhdh fays, that 77- 

(L) Corruptly called Uafan w^r could not take the caftle of 

Kuf% a city on the Tigris^ be- Mardin^ becaufe fituated on an 

tween Amed and M^el. La inacceffible rock, large enoueh 

Ov/;r.— *'Tisalfo, by travellers, to contain much plowed lands, 

-^Viritten A/an Kief ind Chief: it with feveral fprings of water. 


Digitized by VjVjOQIC 

emperor's moft faithful fervants; and that, a$ (ooir ar YSt 
hig^efs (hoold come into thofe parts, he v^onld not £til ttr 
' pay obedience to him« Upon tllis» the mirzas cesUed ravag^ 
his country ; and fent to know if Thnir would grant that 
king -quarter, waiting at MenMl the return of the courier. 
Baghdad At the fame time die Solfan MahniAd KhAn and the Iffijrsr 
bifieged. Mftrnn^ with feveral amirs at the head of their tomins, ac^ 
cording to orders, fet out for MghdM. Where, as (bon as thef 
tfrri?od, Farrujf of the- JWfyr tribe of MungU^ who was go* 
vemor, fupported by vaft- multitudes of Turks and Jr^^ 
(allied out, being joined by feveral princes and amtrs of iHtt 
jirabi : from the «ift, came the amfrs Alt Kal&ndef^ of Men* 
deli, and Jin Ahmed Baki\ from the weft, Farrukjbdb^ dP 
HUlehf or Hella^ and Mtkatl, of Sib, with 3000 men. Thr 
Mirzta Riftem immediately took horfe, with his troops ; anx^ 
furrounding the enemy, repulfed them as far as^ the Ttpix^ 
where a bloody battle enfoed. Jiin Ahmed was flain, with 
many of the bravcft foldiers ; and others drowned in thcri- 
ver. For all thfa defeat, Farrtj would not furrcndcr; pre- 
tending that Soltan Ahmed ordered him to deliver tip the dty 
to Tiwi^r, if he came in perfon, but not clfe. Of this thie 
amirs f(tot advice to the emperor ; who, after die fubnuffion of 
Nifihtn^ having pafled the Tigris at Mufely in his way to 
'Tauris, immediately fet out for Bdghdid, accompanied by the 
bravcft men in his army, by vnj oi Altun Kupruk (N). As 
foon as he arrived at that city, he encamped at the lower part 
of the river, oppofite to the gate called Kariet Ulakah ; and 
hb troops, furrounding the walls^ dio' two leagues in compafs^ 
began to fap them. 
Its vigor- Mean time Far ruj, dcfirous to know if Tlm/lr was conie^ 
CMS dt- fent to him, as an ambaflador^ one who knew him ; who was 
fime. admitted to audience, and honoured with a veft : butaltho* 
this perfon was, a confidant of the governor, yet, at his returui 
he imprifoned him, under pretence that he told what was not 
faft. On the other hand, Timur caufed a bridge of boats tor 
balaid acrofs the Tigris^ below Kiriet Vlakah ; and took all 
neceifary precautions to block up all the paf&ges i^di his 
troops : in ffiort, it was fo inclofed on all fides, that, altho' 
the river nm thro* the middle of it, and was covered with boats^ 
yet it was impolEble for any body to get out. In the interioiy 
Farruj^ and the inhabitants, thro' defpair, rather than bravery^ 
performed anions which almoft exceeded human power : fcr^ 
as, fooa as the Tatars made a breach by (apping, the befi^gMl 

(N^A bridge on the xiUiAitunSu (or water of gold), BCflf 


Difitized by VjOOQ It 

Jro^^jaWy tapair^ it wi^ morter ^ hricl^ ami eatrencW 4* !>• 
ttmaf^yn^ behM. Th? heat was oow fo violejot, tJut the i^Oh 
bk«U tirll 4owQ dfad> ^a4 the foidieri melted lUce w^ UDcler 
tfadir Gqira(fe6 t for all this, they I'aifed a pla^orin which eom- 
dyuaded th^ cHy, from w^eQ€e thjey iaceflantly call ftoQiss wltK 

Tub 9mki W ofun hogged to make a geQer4a0aUlti T'^^f^i^^ 
but ThtAr would 0Ot giveljeaY^, iq hope^ the eaemy wpulji ajim/tk 
a^^t i but, at tha ^od of forty days, <^n the 23d of Jufy^ * < 

1ir|;NEa the ioM>ftant8 wi^re forced* by the heat of the fun. to 
gfwt tlirwtllsy aad retke to their houfes^ leaving their W- 
iAQts irtaffed qo ftic^s iqi their places, the army adva^iced fju- 
ctpH^y to ithe 'walls^ aodi bayipg iixed their fcaling-ladders^ 
<ie jAinfr ^**?yW ff^ro'ddtn mouuted fjrft ; then, foundjM th^ 
drums end trumpets, all the commanders followed^ and the 
{roo^ entered fword In hand. The inhabitant^, endeavour-^ 
ii^ in TjUQ t0 fly from the place to avoid the fword, xait 
ttonfelvips into the Tigris. Several got into boats f and 
.Olbfsrp fwwd, to defcend the river : hut Were no foon^i^r 
caose 'to the bridge, than tliey were fhot by foldiers placed in 
e8d>Qih. Howei^cr, Farruj found means to efcape by water, 
irith liie dai^hlcr i but, being clofely puriued, and hot abk 
fkfcsr tQ (k&nd himfelf, or get off, caA himfelf, with his d^gh'* 
ter, jolio Ifce dver, wh^ re ^cy were both drowned, and the 
hofixikvi^ AfifTwards Jb^ body was taken up, and thrown 
OQ «he bafdc ^ 

As fereril TJrfiW had been flain In the aflault, each ibidier Sdrh/trOui 
^Ka5 onfared to l»"ing one (O) head of the men of B&ghdMy maffofre*. 
in executing which command, they fpared neither old men of 
fettrA»re, nor cbiidren of fight years old : the number of 
dbe dead was fo great, that the officers could not count them ; 
and of their heads they made towers. Altho' no quarter wad 
given to either rich or poor, yet fome leam^ men found 
meaois to^t accefs to Ti^ri who pardoned them^ gave them 
refts, end a convoy to places of fafety. After this, the mar- Baghdad 
ketSy l(arawaa&mys, monafteries, palaces, and all other build* defiroytdi 
inga, utere razed, excepting moiks, colleges, and hofpitals. 
Thae w beajmir^ infefted with the ftench of the dead bodie?, 
the camp was removed to the upper part of the river^ neai* 

* Hift. Tim. Bek, p: ^8^215* c. 30—31. 

( O ) Arahfidh fays, two % of the heads, piled tip together 

ind that 90,000 were (lain in ift* towers^ to «he utimbisr of 

::o!d blood. Th^y flung awiy t id. 
jie bodies ; and xnade trophies 

Moi5.Hi<T-Vot*V, T ife# 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hiftory of the Moguls and Tatars.^ B. VI. 

the tomb of the great imam JM Hanifahy chief of the foor 
orthodox fefts among the Mohammedans^ whofe interceflioii 
' TimUr implored. From this place he ordered Soltan MahmM 
Khdn and the Mirza Kalil Soltdn to make inroads in the neigh- 
bouring places. They accordingly paflcd by tiilleh^ as far as 
MaJbhU Nejef (P) ; and thence to W&fet (on the Tigris), 
"■ They ravaged the two cities : but paid their devotions at the 

holy place of Majbhdd, inftead of attacking it. 
TbiKurds TIM IT R took the road to Shebrez^r and Kalgii, Icav- 
funijhed. jng the main body to come after with the baggage. As, « 
this march, the K^rds attacked all who feparated themfdves, 
' tho* at ever fo fmall a diftance, from the army, the emperor 
placed foldiers in ambufli round the roads; who, fallyingont 
as foon as thofe robbers appeared, feizedj and banged them or 
' the chefnut-trees which gi-cw in the highways (Q^)* At the ri- 
ver jfagai^, the emprefs Sa^ay Mtdk Khanim^ and other wives of 
the mirzas, with their children, met his highnefs ; and at Jk' 
ziaret the fharifs, doftors, and principal lords, of IrSn^ came 
to wait on him* During his ftay at this place, he invited the 
learned to difpute on points of religion. When he had pa&d 
•by Ujun ^R), and was encamped at Hejbt RMd^ or The eight 
rivers, he received advice that Bdyeztd, who, during his fby 
in Syria, had taken Jrzenjdn from Tahdrten, was marching 
' towards the eaft. Hereupon Timir ordered the troops wl» 
were at MenhU in Georgia to join the Mirza ShM RM at 
.4vfntk (or Vdn)y and oppofe the OthmAns. .Bpt a meflenger 
arriving from TahArfen, with advice that BAyezid'dcfired peace, 
and would make him fatisfaftion, the mirza fent notice to court, 
. and ftaid for an anfwer. 
J fairs of 'Me AN time Ttmur, being arrived at TauriSy a few days after 
Georgia, niarched towards Georgia ; and, when he came to Kofst-tipOy 
ordered the Kojd Jfmael Kavafe to be hanged before the market* 
place of the camp, for the tyrannies he nad exercifed over the 
people. He afterwards cfofTed the Jras, and encamped it 
NakhJbivAn ; from whence he went to fee the caftle of Akn* 
* • • ^j^ky which is near that city. About this timt Tah^ten ar- 

• rived at court with a letter from BAyeztd ; and, by his inter* 
ce/fion, obtained pardon foi the Othmdn. Here being joioec 

(?) The fame as Majhlad Croix believes he miftook tli4 

llujjayn, in the plain of Kerbela, Oak 3% which have that proprrt/i 

near t\it Euphrates, often men- for chefnut trees; which, he fay 5| 

• tioned before. ar« ;very uncommon in Sjri^u 

(Q^ ) The author was inform (RJ A town o^ Axerbejdn, ncani 

ed by credible perfons, that thcfe Tauris, La Ooix. — Hirhcrt caDi 
trees one year produce chefnuts, . it 0;W. 
and the next gall nuts : but La 

Digitized by 



^by Sbdh Rikh^ an,d, the other. mirMfi, rwith .their troops, 'the 
army marched to the defile of. Shdhbuz^ atid : ^entered thi 
mountains.. From, th€;nce they .pafTecl by Gheuhieyjtonhez to ' 
Uemkiir^ a town of Georgia:, whither the cpnypUfarj, fcnt to 
MMek Ghurghtn^ returned .with that prince's brother, who 
hrought the tribute, and rich- prefents ; . prpmi/ing,:, in the 
king's name, due otedience,. and to keep troops always j:e^dy 
for the emperor's fervice. vThe pdnce feeing. ^ifrniiTod, with 
orders for Malek to fend' an . army forthwith to jojn: -the 
imperial troops, 7/VniJr. removed his camp t9 Karakul Topd% 
from whence, marching hy Ghenjeh and Berdaa^ he. came^ the 
1 2th of December^ to Ifarab^gh ^rr^n^ where he wintered. 
Here ambafTadors arriving from Kipjdk^ to alTure the emperctf 
of the khan's obedience, diyertedhim from his intended ex>» 
pedition ii)to that country in thefoUowjng.fpring, .Here^alfo 
the Mirza Mehemed SpltAn came, from^ Samarkanty and was re* 
ceived with great honour, his father placing a crown of gold 
^pon his;^cad. He brought with him boipid the Mirzaf/J^^z- 
(ler; who, havirtg been convifted, before- the divan, of a fault .. : . 
fommittejj *,, received the baftonado ; but at length .his chains • 

•were taken off, and he was fet at liberty''. ^ , 

As (pon as Soltan y^Wrf heard that TinturMd lef? Bagh- SoU^ftAh^ 
^dMj he returnied thither with a defign to rebuild thj^t city i ^^^Z'^'* 
DQt TiwziJr, being infornied of this, fent four bodies of tfoops^ 
under the mirzas, by different, roads, to ravage the country, 
.^d prevent his intention. One .party, pafling through the 
wuntry oif the Kitrds (who, dqring tjie wkiter, 'v^er^ enj:amped 
in the plains), put an in^nite. number, tgv the fword-^* -Thje - '-. ' 
Wn2i,Ab^bekr, who ^ook the road ,to Bdghdadi ar/iyed-th^rc '• • • 
fo fuddenly, that the foltan, with his fon Xdhep^ ^nd fon^e do- * * 
raefUc officers, crofling the T'/jr/V io a. boat> /led to .^i^/kA^ 
w&ither he was body purfueJ ; but, by breaking, the bridge 
behind him, efcaped into-tlie illes-of Khihd and Mdlek iii'the 
Buph fates. Another^ detachment pillaged •Mfndelli^- and/, dcr 
fcated the governor Ali ka,ldndeK,i whije, a fourth adyanced :to 
Wafet (on the Tigris), and plundered ^e Arabs^ of *^W^. (S), 
from whom they tooka cpnftderabic fpoil in horfes and c^pieU* 
.When winter: wsis over, all. ^he,na:oopsjoined^x.ab9|it,i^i)^§lrvc - 
leagues from BdghJdd, and marched together to the ixnpcjri*! 
catnip. •'',.: ^..-^ •-' r-' >.: • ,^ '; .:w;r ,;: ;^ 

' Sec before^ p. 32Q. . ^ Hifi. Tfe.Bftlc, I* .v/-e> 3a— '37, ... .»^.. 
p. 215 — 2j?6.. ;. ..v- • .-,•'' . *. : ^' ■■ 

(5) A. tQwn of-4r^/^/WjOh, tlie „J^£r/a;: gUlf^, XiC^.paJrAj, or 
b9racrs, of Ifdk'Arati, on tlie *liaj?hra. La Croi;e^ 

Y a £jrS- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

BATEZ*4^ hiving ^Jrcn pH^rcftiott eo Kara ftfif* ^*^ 
htd b^n tfreft xm n^ pafTei^d^. iAd even infiilted ffie t«Ht* 
* win ot JV*W<f , Tm^f^ refolvcd to mtkc war on him : biit^ t^ 
.the inhabitant bf ./^te/DAi , #h6 had tireidy cxpdHafioed ftls 
/»r/ from ^oAarCh^i pow^, rtjpTcfenfcd Ae deflroAibn which wouH a^ 
^^^" • tend the arte tf fo forihiifabk an enemy ; the foWn hsQk its^ 
tnffiuibn to KkrdMgh, SkMi )i let^, afting ptfrdon for wbt 
«^aa pa/Ied, atid pron^ng obedience JFbr the iamb \o tboe. 
7f*M>, un^ ilfing to hart k prt*ce who Hvas at waft- wMi ftfc 
infidelt of ^n^ tt>Id them : thathe^^tsMd fbrbd^ faeffiOfc^ 
fn>virf«d ih^tr mH^ wtyuM rither pat JTi^nt Ti/^ to dttdi; 
ftodhidi to thtTatarcsttip, otexpd Dim outef hrstlottiiidoiDl 
After this, he did them p^ticular hottOurs^imdidHmSksa ifhBti, 
acoompamed With im ambafflKlbr of his oWH ; teffic^ ^km, 
dMR tit wodM march ki fpni^ to the bedkirs cf Jte^ 
whcrt he WooW wilt for an adfwer, wWA >«rortd iftfiettrnfife 
wheth«r thetf mafier ddired peace or %itr. 
Timftr/r- WkilB Tmur was httntrng In Ae pliflfc of .ilSMtot {MA 
re/o/iuc' t)f >//rix)> to whkh the Othnin ainbafeiors Wert ftnStfcd, 
he perceived an oM canal mined by time, wMdi he rtfehd 
to rcftore by means of his fokHers ; who carrieA ^oh tlie %wt 
with fo mudi vigour, that, in a mowth, tWofe^ncs tjf tt, ^tcp 
enough for a boat, were dog. The l^rteg-hcad is at ti pbct 
catfed SuriapU', and it falls into the .4rris, at anothK^ taHiA 
Kiojhk €h€nghlfki. The emperor gave it the name of i^nJIfr- 
Mi, or River if 6eri^ • and. on its banks Ae inliabit^riitS Yat^ 
fine© boift ferefri to^vns, ♦iHages, ani pleaaferfe-hotrfos, ^ 
Hcj. S04. gardens and vine}1irds. When fprlfeg ^ame^ T^wifr U-aJs ffill 
A. I>. tin fdfjpeftfe Whether he Aonld fnarch ?(;aiDft B/fyezid, tholigh 
H^^- he kaew him ro be his enfemy : in conftdctatiob, partly, ttet 
ht fo 'zealctoHy maintamed a refigions war againft infidels ; sad 
fsit^ becaufe die Ott^min •cihpire abounded with Vafiant as 
>nrtU as martial troops. On riie odier hand, the J^gattjs 
iieinfe gtcatly fatigued with a long Condnt^ fervice, the amifs 
'ttideavdured todmuade ll^tAr from the eX{3^Mon % pHl^S^, 
amcttg otfwr retffon^, that, m the campaign agMBft the On- 
WHH's^ there appeared m the hetfveits, according fo *thfe kftro- 
4oget^ «n inevitiible misSbrtnne attending the fagattiy^ 

QmfuJts The emperor, upon di», fent {or Mul&ns Ah^*llah\^y 

thi afir$' one*of the mod famous court-aftrologers; and, to remort 

4figtrs. * the ^ppreheniSotis of the amirs, ordered ftim to (fedafi^ \^kat 

the different afpefts of the heavens portended. Jbdo^ibfb hdt- 

upon laid, " It appears, by the ephemeridcs of the prefiait 

'-*' yeaf, tjiat the afcendant of thb cm|)irc is iJi die hig^ 

Digitized by 


(;. Sy ^ R^fft of Tioiftr 9cku 

** 4c|5rc? of ftpepgth, ;^nd th^t o >emy iSi thp Iqwcft, 

** d?|p:e!? of weakneft. ' A conwt ^ w: }a /^i*/ ; and an 

" armv, vhic^ qome^ from tji^ ^ jciaKe *ri iotire con- ' 

** aueft of Jriatolia^ the priope < ^ will be taken pfi-. 

" wner (T).*' All objeftions beiiig loved, Tim^r, in th^ 

cn(|H)f >//^r4 d^^rt^ froB 

dHa ^nd QhenfeB^ arrived at * 

tovf^d% AlatM {\J]. Havir 

dCT§ of Ce§rgia^ he QgBie> 

whfch pl^ce he. f^t ^ fecon^ 

?f<f. TOpprtiflg ; thafe in a 

^ad defined, i^nd WQiild del 

^hi?li had ^^i> a^way? fnbj 

dia^ce of Tim^r, J^q wquW 

hj^efe, l)ut e^en fu^ooiir him with ni§ troops ', 

"^ " "^ ^ . - - . ^j^^ Marches 

ted ^^'^^''^^ 
Q^ Anatolu.. 

the f|xth d^y pf th^ fi^ge/ qind put all the Geargiaks to th^ 
fword. He ft^id a* ^t;^??i4 (Qf V4n} for the return of hi? 
anit>a/&.dQrs fent jo B i^ 02,(4 :, ^u.t^ wheo two pionths wp:^ 
paifed beyond the time agre<4 ?^ finding all his ende^voi^ra 
to preferve Anatolia were Truftrated, he continued his march 
tpwfkrdsah^t CQ^ptry. When he came to. Arzerim^, the Mirza - - 

Mekemcd SoltSk^ bc^^d leave to gp aJ>d conquer the, caftle y©f 
X1?;?ML*, vhich luj^^a.ther gr^nt^ ; and, when he arrived ^ 
)^t 4rzenj&ni heTent the M|rzas AhUehy KalU Softdn^ Soltaiji 
Ru/p^Hf Ofnd E/idj^c(er, with more troops, to his aififtance in 
the fiege. The ca/He of K^mak (X) is one of the moft noted 
I^ alj \/^a : k is ^ti^^t^ on a high fteep rock^ axid fu^rounde^ 
Wth ^ de^c in, form gf a latyri^nth. 4* die bottom of it^ 
Valjs an^ gardens, ai>d parterres of flow^s, on the ba^k qf 
^ E^fJjraWi ^rjd np prince h^d ^ver taken it py force. Se- 
veral jpoets baye compared It to the terreftr^ paradife, b^ 

' Hifi. Tip. Bek, 1. r. |t zzg^aj?. c 37-^*1 • 

(T) L44 Ovtfff infke n^argin, pr only added -by the- hiflori^n 

yqt^ Ailmrai((s p:e4iflm ^«^ ""pm report, which always mag^ . 

nfirpUger: as' if n^ believed H^ n; lies or changeii fads. 

tihat iaie fdenee, or rather ini- ' (IJ^ Perhaplit (hould be -^vf^* 

pofing art; and took it for mi, or Van, 

granted^ that tM p^ediAion was (VV.}0%tl^J^»/^ri>/^f, twenty, 

made accordtnfi; to. its rules: one miles roiith of vjfr^f^'^ff. 

wherqas it niight iiacve been <X) Kamek,Kamak;jiT'&f^kK 

I^Qiod to «A0Q9rag9 the amy \ as in dte Hubim gooj^aphy^ 

y \ caufc 

Digitized by 


ty V the Moguls arid Tatars. B?Vl) 

; f or three days together, little birds as tig 

, unfledged, fall but of the air ;. which the in;, 

up, and preferve failed in pots. If they dft 

i thi*ee days, their wings grow large enough, 

to fly awiy. ^ . , ^ 

TakttKc' The troops ' no fdoner came before Kcmak, than they' be- 

jnak/or/- iiegcd it in form. They made their approaches for ten days ; 

r^, during which fime they cut off the water which fupplied the 

place. * Ncxt"day.they made rope-ladders ; and, In the night. 

the Mekrit (oldiers, who ran up the .fteepeft mountains like 

roebucks, got to the' top of the roclc j from whence thfy let 

downcjor'Hy by which jtgreatnunibei'of brave men mounted^ 

armed vith cuirafles, during the darknefs. When the betieged 

perceived them, they caft doM^n great ftones ; and feyeral, 

miffing t^e fteps, fell down;* Nei^t morning the foldiers tnount- 

ed to thQaflkult; while wildfire flew from the engines' on both 

fides. *The bfccers of the Mirza Jhubehtf who himfelf dii 

wonders, firft fcaled the walls, and erefted the horfetail: at 

the fame time others inourited . 6n all fides, and became ma^ 

fters of the place. When 7y;/«r rec<jived advice that Kemak 

was tal^frt, he came before* 'it; iibd gave the government to 

%W;/^;;,'t)ecaufe It vya^.'Ao more than feven leagues from 

P( feats : After ',rhls; 77w^r ' marched* forward ; arid at Siwas^ or 
^»// tahs Sebafit,' was, met by hi^"' apbaflador, with two others from 
B^ye^id. -B^tyezfcli wl^ofe anfwcr.was fo unfatisfa<5lory, that the cmpe- 
tor refitf^4 ^'f^ir prefent's, and bid them tell their mafter, thd^ 
inuft prepare!for wah Hating reviewed his army, he departed 
from StrdfJif,;' and, fendiog froops to take the.cafile of Haruk^ 
marched towards Kayfdfiya^ or Cafarcay in Kappadocia ; to 
whofe inhabitants he gave 'quarter; and then fet Out (or An- 
'hrn (Y), meet IS^yezid, who was advancing on that fide. 
The Arrifr 5/J^i Jlf^Ar*, who was fent before to get intelff- 
"gence, with- ^ thoufand horfe| lay in' ambUfCa'de, 'to furpHfe 
the Othman's fcouts ; an({ defeated, thengi,. ^ayczi4\ fon, on 
the other han'di formed an ambuicade near the cump of Timnr^ 
but to no cfFeft, The emperor, being come to j^nkora^ laid 
Tiege to h r but, on advFce that ^ff^Iy^2/rfwas B^pproaching,* he 
'ordered it ' tp be raifed, a'lid^ the' sfrmy x.6 ttarch ' toward tfe 
^9€my^. Nei^t day,;being> the fir A of Jufj/y the two armies 

.-' - . w Hrfl* T}iz^»3ek, l^v. p. ji j5-r-.242, c. 441, iSc fcq. 

,'• { Y ) .:The . fame as jinkth-Ia^ ra city towards the north part of 
J^'f;:f:n-2iit)^?£Q;iirn sU ; dp ■ van- ^jipaplia^i and .aboac thcmiddk 
pufly >v;itcen the anti^at Ancjra ; from eatl to'wclt. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

C:5. ' neRiignjffTmttBck, ' . 

rtet, and came to kn engagement, the particulars^- of which We 
have related elfe where " ; and therefore (hall only mention here, 
thatTowjJr gained the viftory; and Bayezid was taken ,pri- 
foner, with his fon Mttffay who were treated witli great huma- 
nity and honour •. 

Upon this great drfeat, Ankara fubmitted ; and Timir fent Ankuria 
the Mrza Mehemed Soltdn towards Pru/a, to feize the treafures>^'w^<^'- 
of Bdyezidf and other riches of that city. While the Mirza 
Ejidnder was detached to Kontya {Kogni, or Jkoriiwn), Ak* 
fohhr^ Karahiffar^ Satalia, and other places, the Mirza SMh ' 
Rikh was fent io^GhulhiJfary and Tim^r himfelf marched to 
Khyutahia ; from whence he fent out parties towards other 
dties, to ravage all the country of Jnatolia, while he recre- 
ated his court and great officers with feafts and rejoicings. 
Although the Mirza Mehemed Saltan made the greateft hafte to Prufa 
Prufa ; yet Mujftihnan Chelehi had gotten thither before, and ^^^-'^^ 
fled with the treafures : the principal inhabitants alfo fled dif- 
ferent ways; but were purfued, and brought back. Baye* 
ztd's wife and two slaughters were taken at Yenifbahr (Z) ; as 
was likewifethe daughter of Soltan Ahmed, king of Bdghdad^ 
whom B^yeztd had demanded in marriage for his fon Mojiafa. 
The Mirza feized on what treafure had been left at Prttfa^ . 
confiding in abundance of plate and rich fumltiire : afteri 
tt'hich, the pillage was given to the fowlers'; who, when they^ 
had done plundering, fet the houfes on fire. 

From thence the Mirza Abibekr, being fent to Jfntk, orlfnik/rV* 
Mf^, took' atfd pillaged it ? he alfo reduced the whole country. '/a^^^/. 
Then, marching with the Mirza Mehemed Solfdn to Teni/hdhr^., 
mm\ed Bdyeztd's eldeft daughter. Mean time the Mirza Sol- 
Un Huffayn, detached to make inroads in' the ibuthern parts, • 
took Akjb&hr and Karayfer (or Karahijfar), plundering the 
towns as fer as Kontyah ; while others ravaged the province of t . \ 
^ydin^ and the fea<:oaft. 77»wr^generoufly fent to Bdyezid \,-^* 
his wife D^ina (A) ; and reftored the Amir Mehcmvd, fon of 
Karamdn, Viho had been twel\% years kept in chains by Bayc^ 
^tdy to the gov^nment of all Karamania. After this, he left- 
^yuiaiiya, where he had ftaidanumth, and marched towards^ 

. ■ See/ia a fabfeq^ent Volume, the Hiilory.of the Othman Turks. 
' Hift. Tim. Bek,<h v. p. •242-^-257; c. 4^ — 49. 

'(Z) Four leagues. from /?r«A, tA) The European romapce^^ 
and fix days journey from Con- call her Roxxna \ and ^Z!^. Timur 

fianttnopUi the fame as Yemch^. . 
La Croi si.^—lt fceiris riilher to 
lie ten Icagnes from £ru/a, or ^ 
^^'ffy^^ It is cafted alfo Shahrhp: 

kept h^r for his own i\fe. La 

y 4 Tanguzlik. 

Digitized by VjVjOQIC 

A. D. Tamg0$l(ki Is the hf%j^ lie UCifd out a fevepe order, that iha 

140^' brave SainU{ Moure mi Ua brother MorM (houkL be. pat ta 

^■•■V^^ dieathi for fevoral crimci they had commhted j with h*» fan* 

and other brodiers t ^'a /intz^ priqce of ^ YWi» (B)^ W4jr 

treated in the fame maimer. At the fame titnefeafts<^ 

pared $ to whieb Bayezid V92^ iavited> tfad trfafeed witb^ grfat 

honour s iorther to comfort Um^ 7i;iNb' coB^mred qi> himt W 

patqnts^ the kiq^ooi of JtuOoHA^ aad had the «row» pbic^. 

on his head ^. 

Kgypt W The i^mg b^kig over, Ttrti^, 08^^ 25tfa, ieat an 9t» 

Turky balTadGt to F^rri(/, foltaa of Egyj^^ with a letter, thveatemag 

^brei^en'dy to march to K^hnA^ or ^o^ra, D(ile& be ordet^ mooef ta 

be coined with his {ik^ emperor's) hepreTs } the lootbah to be 

mad^ in lus oame \ and Atihnifh tO; be feat him wUhout de* 

lay. Two other ambafladoria were fent to the TekMr^ or 

^^^ emperor, to fummon him to pay tribute, and the oaS* 

tools: l^wife meffengers to MuftJman ChUUy whohadied 

to W^a Yakay and refkted at Gbuwh^ar^ wMdi his £Mber ha«t 

beiu above Cortfiantino^^ threatening to fend over tfa$ an&j^ 

If he did not fi^thwith repair to conrt, or at leaft lead 7Mr 

nxxi^y. Some time after, the amba(&dors, fedjt to thr Gr^ 

eaftperor^ retirned with two others^ to. loake hjs ibbmtflioiii 

and agree to pay the impofed tribute. At MMi he was over-) 

taken by the m^engers fei^t to Mujbhnan Chdebi^ and an aitn 

ba/Iador, with a letter from thit prince, prbmifin^ to tolBtf 

and throw him&lf at Tiw$f^ keu After thiS)^ advice was 

. broB^t, that SoitSin MdhamMfd Kk^nt^ titular emperor ^ J^ 

S<4V» Who^ by 7?;*ii(Jr'fr otdv, was gooe t<y mato mread% 
d died 6f^ vioimt diftemper, with Which he had btefi Umi 
at Kechtt Birli^h (in Ghermdsn^iU) ; at whkh news TinMr waa 
yety mii^ ^fflifted. 
'Anatolia Mfi'Aif time KechU BthrUgh, Jkya^ aiki Stiials^ ituatad 
p^^agid, M.the fea-coafl^ were ravaged. Aft^Wards the ptoyine^ ef 
' Mente/hd and Tejia-ili were ruined> by the amfrs (axt fttt* thtt 
purpofe, who tetntncd to court loaden with booiy. Duri^ 
anitumh^ the mpcror ky ^ncampod at TangizHk^ where, the 
^ ^ bang infected by tb^ violent h^t> itve^ ibldiem died, al 
well as by drinHing the wat^ of a fpring at this place, which 
pdrifies when it ^agnates. Ttmir, having fettled th;e wlticer-; 
quarters for his troopsi fent die Mirza Meheined Sob$n to Afitg--* 
^afiah^ in the province of Serhan4li (or SaiiikMn)y and SMh 
MX^h t6 qtsarte^ m fhe pfo.v^n^ ef GhmitlTi-Hl^ beiw^en^ ^g 

t HIA. Tim. fecfit, 1. Y. p. 25*— -267. c. SOr'-yj. 

(B) That is, Turfy i^ £uhf^. La Crois^. 

Digitized by VjOOQI(^ 

C, 5. Tk€ Rjfign of Tioa^r BclC. : 

BArl4^h znd Kechik BMtig/f. After this, the emperor marched 

t9 ]MgirIik\ aad, havihg <ron):d the Menduras^ came tb' 

Chuzttbiffar (C) ; from' thence he paffed oti to Jydzlik (D); . 

theo to 7iV<2, on€ of the moft noted Citii^s of, Anatolia^ whoife 

iotabltai^, libe tWe of other places, tvdf^ obliged to pay 

the raaf6m for thcfr lives, 

B£iN& iofprmed at this place, ihat, on the fe^-coali, thfehe: Smyrna 

were two exceedir-R ftrong fc taigk^ • 

Tw), one polleffed by Ctriftii 

•who were inoeflantly at war o 

it his duty to deliver the . 

finemiesi Herfupoo be fent 

dhnat Sbeykhf to fummon th 
. feith : but^ on the news cf i 

nor, oraving aid of all the i^ 

ooniiderabte forc^. 77wii?r, ] 
id petfoa to attapk the plac 
aU his troope^ laid fiQge to 

fhall ^ve an accx)mit Ui the andnd^d, 

va^ tabea» Uie inhabitants W( 

few, who Iwam to the (hips 

dcmoHdied* As all this was 

pie of the country were aftori 

the flr^r^th of the placq, an 

taken bcrore by any Moharnmei 

of BAyeztdi had feveral time 

bk army, purpofe ; an 

to it for ieven. years m tain ^ 

I>uiL[KO thefe traiM'^i^iis, ambafladors arrived again from^ Foja and 
M^ulman CheUbiy and from Ifa CJJ^&W, another oi Biyeztd*s K^hio 
ibns» promifing the utmoll obedience ; ^th whole misfortunes J'^^^^- 
the emperor was toiiched. Fojay anotber Chriftian caftle, a 
day's journey diAant from Bzmir, fubmitted, on fight of the 
troops of TJwiJr.; who afterwards, haviM; furnilhea the Mu- lie], g^j, 
JiJmdnSi who inhabited the other caftle of Ezmir^ \trith arms A. D. 
to ri^pulfe the enemy^ went to encamp at Jydzlik: Ther^ H^S* 
Soiuiy sax European prince of ^he ifland KXio^ iii which grows 
MiMc, ieot an amba/Tadcr to Tim^r, of^ring fiibmiffibn, and 
to* pay the tribute ; upon which W ^^ taken into the empe- 

^ Sew a fabfcqucnt Voluinc, » Hift. Tim. Bela 

1, T. c. ,5^^r^S7^ P- 267-^7-8. 

f^y This H the fame with <D) Or Jydi^aM, Ac fymt 
UAgmefia, CO die AfMtid&r; the 48 Efik/ns. 
fame as Menduras in the text* 
by Qthers^ called. Afcu^f. 
* ror-a 

Digitized by 


^4^ . , f the MoguU and T^tzn. B.VI/ 

4^'P* roi *:i ^i Tangftzlik the army marched to 5o//«fl 

\JUO^^j}iJfa> mur gave the dtics of Khytitahia^ Tan- 

L^^^mmmj jrj^2,li ' ^with the province of GherTman-irij to 

I'JittL [cd from BdycTad to the elriperor, and 

Wa^ t Being come to U!ug B&rlugh^ which 

. '- had -not yet furreod^rcd, he gave orders to attack it. It \vas 
(oon tskcfi ; and, as the *Amir JaWo'l IJlam was flaln before 
It, the mcQ were all put to the fword, the women carried 
away cap.the, and the place demolifhed. Here Tiniir ordered 
the Mil za Mchcmci SrMdn to march by the road of Jnkora, 
aaJ rejoiii the camp at Kayfdrtya. 
Other . After tliis, \tx\\xig,Uluk Burtugh^ in two days and nights 
places he reached EgrUur, a city built with free-ftone,* in the pro- 
wien. \iacc of Hamid-iU, It ftands on the bank of a frefli-^vater 
kike, called by fome FrJak ahfJ, fives leagues long,, and four 
broad. Three of its fides are fuirounded by the lake, and 
the fc/arth by a mountain. In the inicW^^ of the lake are two 
^ , iilc8„ CI:u!i/idtt and Xcfuin] in which laft is built a fbrtrefs, 
. wliivher tiie neighbouring people "hid retired for fafety with 
their effce^s. . As Tjmtir thought himfelf obliged ift honoor 
to t,$ ptace, he or Jefed it to be attacked by his troops: 
HhQ, fuoncnufing it, put the inhabitants to the fword, ex- 
cepting a fcTT, vvlio efcaped in boats to N:fJ\in\ wliich ifland 
U;cy rcfulved to attack next. To this purpofe, the mirzas and 
ajnirs having cn.flcd over on floats made of the ikins of oxen 
^nJ' hcrfts the gc\lrnor immediately went out and fubmitted. 
Thence the court marched to Ahjhhhry where the Amir I^- 
K .• ' hpn^d K:irnf?j^n cntnc from Koni/a; andy under the name 06 
\" , ranfom, among other things, prfefented fuch vaft fums of fil- 
^ " \cr, that it Wiis thought he did more than he was able, con- 
fidcring the fmiill extent of his. country ; which made Tmir 
hop.our him the iiiore. 
Death ef About this time J?4>r2;f/ fell fick, and ibon after died at 
BavtzlU/ this place; whofe death Tiwr/V bewailed with te^rs, having 
intended, after the conqueft of AnatoVia, to re-eftablifh him 
- ' pn'the throne.' Hebeftowed feveral largefTes on that princess 

officers ; and prcfented his (an Mtijfa Chclebivnxh a royal Tcft, 
a load of gold, and other rich things,, and then difiniffed 
him; telling him, that his 'father fhonld be^ buried \vitli the 

freateft pomp. . >lean time advice came, that the Mirza Me- 
cvicd Soltiin was likewife falleil'ill ; and, that, thro' the tin- 
fkilfulncfs of his phyfician, he was become delirious. ^Uponthis, 
ftim&r immediately dc^iaftcd from AkJlMfy fof the place where 
bis grandfon lay fick ; ar\d, having haralTed.the bmds <& ^ 

,.. . V) CxTralln. • • - ^ • ^ - r 


Digitized byCjOOQlC 


e. 5. - ^* 72^1? Rekn af Tlttiut Bek. ' '^ i^y^ 

Du'rggt . 

TOther, ; <»j 

fc^putiD ^ 

fhi'ee da 


he had j r-p 

him. H <^ 

whence, . / 

h SoMn 

%v^s tran 

found a \ 
Twfr\ w] 
Would b( 
and pra] 
dors, anc 
with thi! 

Being th ^3^ 

remove ^ 

\urks, ^) 
4nd, ha^ 
on the b 
which ar 
they rev< 
of Kddhi 
of this'lj 
*gave the 
ceeding ii^u <tiiu puwcuui. • ^ , ^ •, {.r,f 

'As Timur's defign of removing them was to repeople ^etafi, ^^^* '^^- 
ha.' treated their 'chiefs with great honour, and liJoewiCf ^" ''^^^ 
'tnade-them prefents, when they came to falutq him : .but,'l^p^ 
'there, were betvveeil thirty and forty^ families of them^ He op- 
'derecfhis arni'y to fiirroiind the plains of Ama^a and ]Xay/a- 
riya (E), where they dwelt, that none might get away, ^d then ,.^ • - ^ 
Tent for tHclr chiefe;.\Vlio, after being. told his refohuipn to t i.^,^^.; \ 
"Carry tliem -back into itartary^ feemed readily to fubmit to his v.v. 

''CvTll •' Jlndj^ being <iiftributec( among "his troops, . began their 
march with theiii out of Jliatolid. "Whpn Timur ai'rivedat 

-. :. '. ^ ^.^ ^.^ Bck; 1. v.'p. 279— 28;. c.'^'j-^'jz. 

{E)"l'l3eh^v^k'lbouId rathef- W^if/^;::;-^^^ La Croix. 

4 Kayjartya, 

Digitized by VjVjOQIC 

348 Hifior^ ^ th ^fo5Pk w4 Tatars. B. YI. 

A. D. Kdjffarty^ tbeinhibitahts, through f(;ar, d^egded tliecR^^y^ 

^4^3' mlti&'his m)6ps ; but, being overpQwer^g, w^^ sdl cot t|> 

^*"V^ pieces, 'Ftpm tbeoce he w^t to Si'w4s 5 wlicre lie cot^^^ol 

ftveral honours oti J&m OzmM, ^d feat bun b^k tQ ^ 

prmdpdhy. At jfrzenjdn he wis eomplioTfntgd by the ^tf|- 

fb! Tahdrteify an v/hptn he befto^^ed a rpval v^. Fropi t|ifnco 

Timfir fe pa(fed oa to ^rzefM; and ^t lepgtji caine to Jv^k (op 

^MMi ## Vih), vrhcre thcemprefles ihfet htai, clothe^ in blad^ fc^ tjij 

y«^* (fj&th of the Mirta Meh^ned Softdn ; which fdng now ina<fc 

faown to the priAcefe Khdn-zid^y 0^ fwoon^d away, gnd tore 

herfelf like one <Wb^ftcd. ^ 

AFTiH thi^ excefs of mpurtihigji Tm^r, for tfee gP9d pf 
the dcceafed prince's^ foot, J^vc 9im$ to the popr j ;iqid ^o* 
tided a ftmeral bandndt/'tm^e the fl^artfS| doftpi^ grapdees^ 
ttid noblej^ of di J^d^ iffembled on tliis bcc^oji, Ipiey 6l 
«own, acc(Jrdic5g; to thefr rink, at die emperor's table : ^ 
fcoi'in wasr read ovar Several .tjmes. The tocyiet was favjrf 
tip by his noiajefty'a fte^^ds ; ^he fljirza's brrf^ drwi w^ 
be^rten ; whereat tl^ ladies, ^iri^ a^d fbldiers, inade 4 ^^ 
ctVj and '^t bitterly j after ^^ch,. it was broken to py^d^ 
sfecprding to the cuftom of tbe Mun^U\ . 
Inters ' ' MfeAN time MJkk )Shir^hin^ king b£ GJor^ia^ havjngfejfe4 
Georgia." td come, ,^t the tJme appplnted, to qzR. Morfelf at Tim&f% 
feet^ ahd beg pardof)^ t!hat monarch marched into his coujEi- 
iry ; and, being arf}v6d' ^flfenW^ receiyed the ftibiniffiqp cf: 
ijWekf^a (or ^y/aj, prthte of .Mar Jin^ w>oj w|th hiVh^ja^ 
uncovered J ^^^^4 j[>ardQn on his k^iees. Tf'he epiperor, .aRef 
tcpriTti^ding,TQrgaVe him. As this prince brought with .^im 
th^tfibnte for ^everal years paft, and made abundance of haod- 
Totne j)reients, Tiw^A-gave him a croWn, a royal veft, apd|L 
hdtt <et with precious ftones. As ^n addition to thofe ^vpjguj^ 
Ms daughter was betrothed to the Mirza 4Hhekr 5 and thw 
bad the honour to be allied to. the emperor. At the (iunc dmc 
^ow^if grandfon of Jkhuga^ si Cforgian pnaoeiy ^nd KufioH' 
, tBfy brother to Mdlek Ghurghin^ befides the lords and prino^s 
iif ^air the neighbouring places, came with prefeats to pay thqjr 
1ioih?(ge. Titerfr received them with grea^ civility ; and, pre^ 
Tenting them with vefts, difmifled them, 
Mtrstt In the neighbourhodd of Menkil^ the empercMr s^gsun W^ 

Abftbckr vefted theMfrzaPIr Mehemed, fon <£ Qrnar Sheykh,^}^ ^ 
^vt goverttmetxt of Shtr&z^ capital of Pars^ or Perfia^ then fcftt 

him away: and at the feme time difpatched orders to t!ie 
Wtt^Mftetriy at iShirdz, to repair lb court. At tjmfdr^ a 
place dependent on Jerb^dkh^n^ Jie received a pac(cet from 

S Hift. Jm- J8«^ L y. -p. ?85j-r ajj^.j6, 6*^hS5, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

court, ftg^hig ^t the tmperor had gi^en 1 

ment of J/p4Mn, capital, of Perjian Irak ; and 

reib&il^ Afe fortitft iX OrMiytbi, it Orty^d; 

*fter j^QJrtin)? with MsfeDther j?£r lAehemd, wl 

^j fe feb way tb SAlfa;fe. When lte cbuf 

KSks^ \st ihvefted tht MfrtA Ahthekr With thi 

«« ^pd'niKje of /rAt ^roi/, a$ fasrias /T^/^f , ia 

M^fi^, i>ij^irhekry ind ^fd^. tie ^ve hi 

OenreMgBddd, Mtrhich had been dddfoyed : aU 

ail diftutbers df the ptrH&c peact'; imd begin 

J8f the TurhtrAfi, Nirfio hard tokde hittifelf tti^cr 

Tims briace, liivitig fled from that provini ^mnft 

troops xX Tmir, its !rath been befbre metiti ^ara Yft- 

iWwi, icfr :/ftiatolid v t)ttt, tclteh the T^^r armj ''^» 

j&ff^ {Ift Its thkrdh agaSnft fe4;<?irfi), he fte 
i^At ; -^here having •afffettilAed allthfe Turkman \ 
nt Piiyan JWf • 5oMti 2ihmd'zt i3ie fame th 
iMiWatf t6 hfe foh Soltan tih^ ; btxt bdffg 
femPs amirs, Who feared Ahhted^ :tt) revolt, 
l)fi(%e dttriag the tiight, and eticamped on thi 
ver. ^ When the foltan was informed of it, he broke doWn Ae 
bri^; trtid, takrchlng along thfe rivet, flopped in prefence of 
thfc rtbds. Prom thttite he f^t an expreft for Kara T^rfi 
vf^\i2mx^ joined hSm, they paffled the river together \ aiid, 
coining to a battle, fihet 'was Vanqii^ed, and fled : but, cn- 
desroitring, with his arnxottr tm, to leap his hiorfe over a 
bn6<^ both feU in, and he was drowned. 

Af¥er this drffeatt, tahet"^ troops difperfed^, axjd Soltan '^^ *^ 
Abmed, growing >albtts of ^dru njhf, returned to iBdghdad^ BigluMr 
bttt fixis httcfr, coming foon after from HUleh with his army; 
tbok that x:ity. The fbltih Hid hiffifelf : but was perceived 
by tJrie KkriL H'djfan^ Who hekfed him to efcape during the 
f£^t, tarrying him on his Arotilders to a place near five 
l&igues diftant ; wtere, mieetliig a man with an («, Ahmed 
Inotnfted, and came with his deliverer Xdl^akrlt. Being here 
jdted by ifeyeral of hi^ offidei^, he went tb Damajkus^ while 
ferir i^i^becattie peaceable poflfeflbr of If&k Arah'u Wheu 
, the Mtrza AbtAtkr<i!txtit ^h Erhil '{or Arbela), he feized Abd'r 
Ic^l the -^ovembt^ and bth^r chij^fs of the rebels ; theq^ 
|.-itl*t*mg XjCfBo^idd, frelWem In purfnit of Kara T^fef-; andr 
"ifeihg jcfinc^d by the Mifza Mfieniy from Urujerd, with other 
imtrs, a^nd their troofs, near Hilhhy they paffed the Euphrates 
:ogfetKe}r-; and W^ me TWrkifian prinCe bppofite the town of 
\$ihy more to the fouth, on the other fide of NahroUg^nam; 
h6fe^ titli6^"hfc"Wa^ entrenched 'with a tiumerous army, and 
3 tht 

Digitized by 


" a; p. Iioufand inen,r they refcd^ed. to attack 

^;;:^'"V"^ divided tJieir trOops into two bodies, 

yt^^^^' 1 on both fides at once : then I^ttftm 

and pes, ^ ^^ ^^ enemy with great relblution ; 

id the like on his part. Nor did the 

le Jcigatays ; but at length they were 

into Syria^ with fbme of his doinef- 

\ confifted of between i o and 1 5,000 

and camels, were plundiered. , His 

)ff his horfe in tl\e battle,, and had 

. .. wife, the xqueen of the Turhnins, 

. ^ >uf t^ and relations, . were taken pri; 

. ' vaniquiihed Noayr^ abfplute fove- 

es of the defart ; with feveral other 

5, till that time, had never fubmit- 

fter this, Jbubekr emplpyedhimfelf 

flourishing as ever : he enconra^ 

\ht people, obliged them to cultivate the lands^; and caufed 

ihe city of Biighdad^ ^yhich was almoft ruined, to be re- 

. MtN. * • , . • : " • 

Georgia Mean time Jtm^r, having decamped from the neighbour; 

'in'vadcdf hood of /C<^rj, entered C'^org-w ; whither . Sheykh JJriAfwzi 

J>rince ^bf'ijA;ny.^/2, pailing thio' Armenia , had gpAe before, 

knd feized fpme defiles* MMek ChArghtity furprifed at thq 

pews of tj)is march, . fent ambafladors to court, with prefents, 

Tignifying **' Kis obedience ; and that he was ready, on the 

^0., y *^ firft order, , to feud either money or Ttiijops : tha^^his fear 

^. , ,. ■** had .hindered him to repair to court > but that, as {bonasit 

*' was over, he would run to kifs his majefly!s feet, as the 

** prince of Mar din, and other governors, had .done ; would 

** proftrate himfcif ,]befp"re the tlirone,. and Te^eive.. his orders 

** as hisflave." 7/7^2^<ic. * wo did ~not hearken to wbat the. am^ 

.bafTadors {aid, nor receiyi^. their prefents. Retold them, " Thai 

'** the c^fe of . their. mafter,.'who was'a Chriflian, differed from 

*** that pf the other .princjjs (he, mention^), who were Mo- 

^' hapimedans •; and therefore, on the fcore of religion, inore 

'*' in titled to favour : that, if he defijed Kfe^^ he muft Inrmedir 

'*' ately repair to court ; and, if God ihould not give hkn grace 

'"to turn Mohammedan, the tribute of Karaj would be inir 

;** pofed upon him; after which, he. would leave hipi oner 

/' more the government. of his countiy, and fufFer his fubjefiLs 

." to live in peace : th^t the tmfevorof Coii/iantinopie, as a 

^ ITift. Tim. Bek, 1. vi. c, x, 2. ix,. p. 299—305. 325, & 

"- •• Chriftiaci. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iL 

. C. 5; . Tie Reijficf TimA^ Bjdj;; -\ 

^ ** Chriftian, was on the fome^ fiooting with .hhjji' : ' in ihort,.th^t 

^* if he came to court, he fhpuid be well received ; .'but. tlia^, 
** if he made the leaft difficulty of coming,,, none .of hU ^- 

.** cufes fhould be accepted of." 

The ambafladors bei^g difmifled, ar and cruelly 

the Georgians approaching, to prevent 1 rwvaged* 

fent tioops into thar country, .who drp^ 
and, carrying off all the corn and .pulfe 
elfe. There. is a very fteep , hill mGeot 
fituated between two very deep defiles j 
rock, which furpaiTes it in heighi;^ . and 
and cords. There is but one way ieadli 
very narrow as well as crooked ; befides^ tl 
round it, hinder an army from encamp . . 

T)^ Georgians h2id fortified this mount 
houfes on it, and a gate at the very e: 

^to preferve rain-water.. This fprtrefs, 
commanded by Trdl, a Georgian prince 

. thirty great Oznawrs ; and ^ ftro^g ga 

. want, their cifterns being filled with wa 
delicious wines, and the place ftpred with. IwLne .and iheep^ 

TIMl/R, apprifed of the importance of this place,'TefoIv.^ Fortrr/s of 
to iake it, notwithftanding the difficulties which might ^i^iteiul Kortenc 

. the fiege ; as it was in the midft of. the enemy's jcounjLry, ^Ojd 
neither vidluals nor water enough was- to be found for tlie 
troops required to carry it on : fo that every one was furprifed 
at this undertaking, and belieyed it imppijibie to take, tl][e 
place. As foon as the imperial llandard arrived .'before tl^e 
caftle, ^z/^w/? i^th, the inhabitants fent to offer .X/Wf': pr^- 
fents and fiibmiffion : but, finding they coold hot divert.- ]^tje 
ftorm, they declared war by a dilcharge of ajrrows'and ftpue^. 
The amirs having taken the quarters affigned them,; Shah.ilil^- 
leky who was pofted on the fide of th^ gate,, was ^, ordered Xo 
build a fconce oppofite to it-; which,. to the admiration' of ajj, 
he finiftied in three days, though capable >pf cpntaining 3000 

^men. Two other amirs were likewife ordered to build, two. 

.fconces in different places; this was done,, that, i<J|cafe .;d^e ' .." . 
fiege lafled too long, garrifpns might be put in them, to in- * 
commode the befieged. . ' . 

TJMUR encamped in a place behind the fortrefs, proper ^gf^erattly 
for maldng battering and other engines ; where he commanded befieged. 
a meljiir, or platform, of flone and wood, to be built high 
enough to command the place. This work . being finiflied in 
a week, on the 20th Bikijek, a Mehrttj fkllful in jnarcliing 
over mountains, found means, during night, to get upon t/ie 
. ^ . . . . r- rock 

Digitized by 


Hiji^tf fhMo^ afktTMirs: B.Vh 

rock fouthrf the caftfc; to the top of wWdi he carried a goat, 
•which he took ill hi* way up ; and, havmg kffled k, placed it 
^fat a fignal, and then dttcended un%n b^ the Ge^tgiaru. 
Next day he told this advegture to the emperor 5 who ixmnc' 
<)iatcly ordered ftroi^ conk to be made of raw filk and thread, 
for m^ki^ Mders. When thcfe were fim&ed, fefur othw 
M^Mts amended the rock, ^nd drew up the ladders widi long 
cprds* Then mon^tkig by ttn arth, which a goat could fcarceiy 
pi^, ^d faftcning die ladders to a tnsc whieh grew out « 
the very ridge of the rock, fifty d^ the braveft Titris of Kk- 
raffltn immediately afccnde^. At dajr-break one of themtrried 
aloufl, Allah Jkber, and Heflfed Mohamttfed .* at the fame time 
f}/tahttftAdf an officer, founded has trtnupet ^. 
mad iaieti. Th8 watch, alarmed by this noife, roufed the fleeing gtr- 
rifon; while thcfcalers b^n to advance towards the j^ceby 
a yray very najrow and dangerops, w>- more than thfee per- 
fous tdng able to tnarch in front. One of then^ went £rf, 
ft^owed by two others, hoUBnjg; his buckler b e fe f c him: 
)bnt, bring fcot In the mouth wmi an arrow, he fell back- 
wards, and the enemy fei;ted on his buckler. Jbd*alla6 SeiZ" 
wdri advanced ^ord in hand, and flew fome Georgians; tiB, 
being mprtrily woond?ed in ten or twelve places, he feU, diro' 
weaknefs. Ihe Turk Mahmid fell on the enemy with a heavy 
dnb, with which he broke the leg of a very coufiderable Ox' 
' fiAwr. In ftiort, of the fifty men who had mounted to the 
afiault, fevcral arrived at the caftk-gate ; where ?l bloody bat- 
^e enfued* Some alfo continued to attack the fface from the 
meljUr, or platform j fo that at length the gate was brokea, 
and the troops entered the cajftle on the 22d of Avguji. The 
befieged begged for quarter on thdr knees : but moft of the 
OznawrSf or officers, were caft headlong from the walls. The 
governor Tirif was bbund, and carried to the camp, with the 
whole garrifon ; who were all beheaded by Thnur's opder, 
and their wives and children enflaved : but he made a prefcnt 
of Trdts wife to Sfaeykh I^r^htm, prince cf Shirw&n. 
Theparri' TH^empcror heaped honours and riches on Bikljek, and the 
fonjlmn* other bftve men who had firft mounted the rock. He made 
Mekemed TurAn^ fumamed Iflng of Bawran^ one of the prind- 
pal lords of Khoraffhiy governor of the place ; with orders 
not to fuffer the Georgiahs to g^n any more footing in the 
neighbouring conquered countries. He was likewife to convert 
the church into a moflc, to build a ifiche in place of die akar, 
and, inftead of bells ^d croffes, to provide muczhns, and read- 
ers of the korin. 

** Hift. Tim. Bck, L vi. p. 306— $iO. c. 3—5. 


• Digitized by VjOOQIC 

€. ^ . Tie JRe^H of TimdrBck. . 353 

During thefe tranfaftions, all the great officers, and go- A. D: 
vernors of the feveral provitices and cities of KboraJ/an znd H<^3- 
fr^k, came to cQurt,,to pay their homage. After the taking \" T^^,'^ 
of Kortene^ Timdr marched for MKhAZy which is the northern ^^""gia 
fronfier of Georgia ; and the van-guard having opened a road "^^fi^^* 
through the thick woods, he enteVed into the middle of the 
kingdom : where-he plundered 700 towns and villages, laying. 
Wafte tjie cultivated lands, razing the Chriftian moiiafteries and 
churches, which Were built of marble and frce-ftone. 

The Georgians y to avoid the enemy, retired into caverns, Z^^tff/ 
among rocks and mountains, by means of ladders, which xht^g^^ntei^ 
drew up after them : but the foldiers being let down in boxes, 
by great ropes, from the top of thfe mountain, to the caverns, 
as in former expeditions, entered them, though fome (contained , 

near 1 00 Georgians ^ and put them to the fword. When Midek 
CMrghin^vj2LS informed of this defolation, and progrcfs quite 
through his country, by the lords who were (laves in Timiir*s 
army, he fent ambafladors, offering to fend dll his riches to 
court, the annual, tribute, and the troops whkb fhould be re- 
qmred. " The amirs, on tiieir knees, Intr^ated him to accept 
of thefe (ubmiiEous : but, not being able, to abate his zeal for 
the continuation of the gazi (or religloiis war), they propofcd 
the air^ir to. the doftors of the law, and to the mufd's ; who 
unanJaipyOy declared, in the imperifl council, That, fince the 
Georgians confentedjo pay the tribute, and not to injure the 
MuflUImans, they ix>ere obliged^ by their law, to grant them 
quarter, without doing them any farther harm, either by 
Jlaught,<r or pillage. Upon this concluiion of the dpftors, 
Tii^r nodded to Sheykh Tbrahtm (king of SMrw&n), one of 
the interceflbrs, in token, that, in refpeft to him, he cpndc- 
fcen^ed to the requeft of king ChurgUn. The ambafladors^ 
who were difmifled, between hope and fear, foon returned, 
and jbrought 1009 gold medals, ftruck in the name of TimUr, 
1600 hones, gold and filver plate, with a balafs ruby, of a 
beaut;iful colour, weighing eighteen medikals, there beirig few 
which weigh fo jmuch; they likewife obliged themfelyes, by 
oath, to pay the tribute *. 

,Xhen Timur decamped, in order to return; and, after B«y^tai| 
Tome days march, arrived at TefRs, having ruined all tht^f^^^r 
churches and monafteries in the neighbouring parts. When he 
had gone two days journey beyond the river Kur, he refolved 
to marcli to Karabdgh, and rebuild the city of Baylak&n (F) 5 

* Hift. Tim. Bek, Vol. II. p. 311—319, c. 5— IB. 

(F) Called alfo Bilkdn, and Pilkdu. 
Mod* Hi&T. Vot. V, t near 

^ ' . , ■ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hiftory ofjbe Moguls and Tatars. B. Vt. 

near ivhich laft he encamped, from hence removing, to win- 
ter at Karabdgh; although the feafon was very cold and rainy, 
' yet he fet the work forward, in which the foldiers, under the 
infpeftion of the fliihzadehf (or mirzas), and the amirs, 
wrought with fuch diligence, that the buildings, which were 
of brick, were finiflied in a month. The circuit of the walls 
was 2400 cubits, of large meafure, the thickne^ eleven, and 
height fifteen.; the ditch was thirty cubits wide, and twenty 
deep. At each angle gf the place was a great baflion ; and in 
the middle of each curtain, a gallery, with battlements, and 
an engine to caft ftones. Timur gave the government of this 
new aty to Bahrdm Shdh ; and invefted the Mirta ^a/il Soltk 

* with that of Baylakdn, Berdaa, Ghenjeh, the cpunfry of Jrriny 
jfrmenia, Georgia^ and Trebizofid, He likewife ordered a canal 
to be cut, fix leagues in length, and fifteen cubits in breadth, 
to convey the water of the Jrrds into Baylakdn : and this is 

^ one of the mofi mag^fficent monuments of his grandeur and 
' power, ' ^ 

TxmiirV During Timur's flay at this place, the princip^ lords of 
'uigilance Ir&nvddt Turin iame to court, where an iaflembly of themaft 
c learned mca was held ; the emperor being very curious in hear- 
ing the chief queftbns of the law explained ;. with the di- 
ftinftipn between pofitive commands, and thofe which contain 
only matter of advice. One day the converfation happening to 
fall upon* the words of Mohammed^ That God orders princes to 
.praflicejujlice and beneficence \ ?7m«r afked the doftors, ifoiff 
they came to negle£i to tell him what, he ought to do, dndixjbat 
be ought not to dof they anfwercd,. That his highnefs <fid not 
. /land in need 0/ their c$un/els ; buf, on the contrary^ theysmgbt 
profit by imitating him. The emperor foM them, he did not 
' Cke that fort of compliments, which looked like flattery : add- 
ever £9'* ing, his meaning was, that, as they could not bnt be ac- 
vtrnorr. \ quainted with the affairs of the provinces they came from, and 
' conduft of the feveral officers in authority, he expefted they 
ftiould inform him, whether they diflributcd jnflice or not„ 

• th^t he might remedy evils, and deliver the weak from oppref- 
fion. Hereupon the doftors having reprefented the conditioQ 
of their refpeftive provinces, Timur chofe the moft experienced 
among them, and fent with each . an intendant, to whom he 
gave a full power to make» or difpenfe with, laws, for the 

' better adminiftration of juflice. He likewife permitted them to 

' ireftore, out of the treafiiry, what fums had been extorted ftoa 

poor peopk, and to puniih the oppreflbrs, in an cpcemphry 

manner. Then Timur made this memorable fpeech, whicb 

wa£ taken down by a lord* who was prefent at the aflembly : 

^ Ml 

Digitized by 


C. 5^ The Reign of TimiiT'Bck. \ 355 

" My heart hath hitherto been fet upon enlarging the li- A. D. 
** mitsof my vaft empire : but now, I take up a refolution to H^S- 
" ufc all my care in procuring quiet '-and fecurity'to my (iib- <— v^-^J 
** jcfts, and to render my kingdoms floudftiing. It is my will, ^f^t^^', 
" that private perfons addrefs their petitions and complaints im- ^^^^Jt^*^°* 
" mediately to myfelf : that they give me their advice, for the 
** good of the Mujfulmansy the glory of the faith, and the ex- 
** tirpation of the wicked difturbers of the public quiet, I am 
" unwilling, at the day of judgment, that my poor oppreflcd 
" fubjefts fliould cry out for vengeance againft me. I am not 
** defirous,- that any of my brave foldiers, who have fo often 
" expofed their lives in my fcrVice, fhould complain againft 
" either me, or fortune ; for their a£3iftions touch me more than 
" they do themfelves. Let none of my fubjefts fear to ccMne 
" before me with their complaint^ : for my defign is, that the 
" world ftiould bfecome a paradife under my reign ; knowing, 
" that when a prince is juft and merciful, his kingdom is crowned 
" with bleflings and honours. In fine, I defire to lay up a 
" treafure of juftice, that my foul may be happy after my 
"death." - 

Towards tjie e.nd of Novembery a Cherkafflan officer came A great 
to the c^mp before Baylakdn, with the head of Mdlek Azzo'Mn, ffprefof^ 
king of Lor Kucheky who had revolted. His 'fldn had been 
flayed off, and hung up, ftuffed with ftraw, for an example to 
others. About this time, Tim^fTikewife performed an aft of 
iuffice on the perfon of the famous doftor, Mu/dna JCothbo'ddIn 
Karmiy who was come to court, with the other officers of the 
diwan of SMndz : becaufe, at his departure, he had taxed the 
inhabitants of Pdrs (or Proper Perjia) at the fum of 300,000 
iinirs kopeghi, under pretence of a prefent to the emperor. 
His majefty, being highly offended at this tyranny, which he 
5^as informed of 'privately, by MMna Saed, a doftor of the 
fame country, immediately ordered the Sheykh Darivijb AUdhi 
X) bind his hands, and, placing the forked branch about his 
icck, fent him, in that figure, 10 ShtrAzy with the fum he 
iad extorted from the inhabitants, to be reftored to thofe who 
lad paid it. Argun y Kothbo'ddin's intendant, was condemned /tt»^^^ 
X) be hanged, on account of the troubles which he had brought 'with in* 
m the people, by his mailers order : and fentence was exe-A'^J'' 
Jnted on him, as fpon as MAldnq Saed returned to Shirdz y. 

The Friday following, the inhabitants of "the city and 
leighbouring villages, being aflembled in the old mofk, M4-^ 
ma Kothbo'ddin was expofed, at the foot of tjhe .preaching- 
)bair, which was of fi*ee-ftorie; from whence Muldna Saed 

f Hift. Tim. Bek, Vol. II. p. 319— 32^ C 9^13. 


Z 2 


mjiorj of the Moguls -ani Tatars. B. VI. 

-having told the people what Tim^ir had ordered him to (ay on 
the occafion, the mofk ecchoed with tlieif acclamations. After 
' this piece <rf" juftice had been done on the perfon of one of the 
greateft lords of the kingdom, the Mirza Pir Mehemedy fon of 
Omar Sheykh\ took off his fetters and forked branch, and fent 
him back to Samarkant, the intcndancy of the finances of iSii- 
rdz bdng given to another. 
Eflclnder When Baylakdn was intirely built, Tlmur marched to pafe 
Sheykhi ^j^^ winter at Karab4gh, in koria's, or thatched houfes, built 
revBiti. £qj. ^^^ purpofe. Here advice being brought, that Ejkamkr 
, Sheykhi, prince of Daniawend and Firuzkuh, had revolted, the 
Amfr Soleyman Sh^h had orders to go to Ray, to obferve Efiki- 
defs motions ; and the Mirza Riifiem was fent to affift him. 
They were direfted to give him a handfome reception, in cafe 
be returned forthwith to his obedience : but to profecute him 
to the utmoft, if he continued obftinate. About this. time, 
Jbrdhim, king of Shirwdn, regaled the whole court with a 
banquet ; and A%r Jlwerd, fon of Soltan Jhmed, of Cagbdid, 
ShgykB dghteeh years old, was brought from Irak Jrabi^ The ¥e- 
Berekc jierablc Sheykh Bereke (G) then aHb arrived at court ; and the 
mrnva. pous Tintur went oat of his tent to meet him. The fimtcw, 
having perceived the emperor, flung off his turban,. and. paid 
his compliments ci condolence on the death erf" the Mirza Ude- 
hemed SoItAn. T/mrfr embraced, and wept a kmg time with 
him. -The learned of Great Bukharia came to. court on the 
fame occafion of condolence •, and every^ evenings after the 
emperor had done with -the affairs of ftate, he h^d themdSf* 
. pute on fome quefKons of learniog and religion. 
Jjf'airs rf ^s the princcs of Child?! bad ciily fent a few fmaH. prefeus, 
Ghilan. ; Inftead of coming to court, Timitr fent the • kafawl, or itn- 
,^ard, 2Mdith.tMin:aLShdh Rukh, with his troops, toKz^Aj 
{ot Kezeligaj). The princes, alarmed at thefc naotions, con- 
fented to pay a great fum,- under the name of Kara}, and&it. 
the Scyd RAzi Kiya^ erne of the princes of i)/iW7r, ofMohamm^^s 
race, with another prince, to give aflurances of thdr obedience. 
The emperor hojaoured the Seyd Razi in a particular manner, 
ma^e him vaft prefents, mid gave him the government of the 
cafUe of KemAky on the borders of Jnatoliay which Shhns^ a 
relation of the Amit Abbh, formerly poflefled (H), with troops- 
^he^Jheykh to go thither. Soon after, the Sharif 5^^i Bereke fell fickat 
^^^» A'^r^W^^and died., Timur wept bitterly for the lofs ofbis 

beft friend; and caufed his coffin to be buried at JndMd* 

(G) He is mentioned before, (H) Timir gave it,' not long 
as prophefying vidojcy to TV- before, to Tahdrtetr, prince of 
mui\ r.zi^. - w^r2;fi2/^«. See before, p. 342. 

' , Then 

^ DigitizetibyVjOOQlC 

C. 5. TB^ Reign of T\m\!ir Bck. gsy 

Then he gave to the Mirza Ejl^nder the government oi Hor A. D. 
maddn, Nehawendy Urujerd, Lor-kAchek^ and their ctependen- H03. 
cies. «^-*-v^-**^ 

Whem winter was over, MMek IJfa (I), pritioe of Mardin, Hty R06. 
canae to court, with his daughter, betrothed to the Mirza A. D. 
Jbuhekr. Mdlek Jzzo'ddhi Sh/r csime alfo from r<j/?^w, with '404- 
a prefect (rf numerous horfea. About the fame time, the em- ^^j^^'f ^^- 
peror iflued out a general order to all the greater and kfler S'd^^"- 
officers of the kingdom of Huldku Khdn^ refiding in Azerbejdn 
and IrM Arabiy to fend each a brother, or fome relation, to . 
refide at Samarkant : and, to prevent delay, difpatched officers 
to the refpe£live places, to bring them away forthwith. In the 
month of Ramazdriy Timtir made a funeral banquet for the 
Prince Mehemed Soltdriy in which the poor chiefly were regaled. 
The ftieykhs, doftors, and imams, from all parts, were pre* 
(ent at thisfeaft; where the iqtire A!(?r^n/Was r^ead over; and 
which concluded \vith prayers for the rcpofe of the- mirza's 
foul. Afterwards the Princefs Kh&n Zddeh went to Solt&nlya^ 
and conveyed from thence the mirza's coffin to Scmiarkant. 

^^MURy after this, took the diverfion of a grand hunting, Mtma 
in the plains oi Ahtaniy beyond t\itArrds\ in which, bcfideaOmar 
dogs, were employed leopards, with gold chains ; fwift grey* promoted. 
hounds of ffr^^t:/?, and uncommon beagles. But, what were moft . 
remarkable, huge European mafiifs, as ftrong as Jfrican lions, 
terrible as enraged tygers, and fwift as arrows. When the 
chace was over, the emperor diftributed among the learned of 
Great BukMrla an infinite number of curiofities, brought from 
Anatolia. And finding there was nothing in Afia which he 
was not. mafter of, excepting Chinas he leit Karabagh on the 
8 th of April y with a refolution to go upon the conqueft of it ; 
and, crofling the Arras, encamped near the town of Nimct^ ' 
oBadj on the canal of Berlds. HeYe, at a great feaft, he in- 
vefted the Mirza Omar\ fon of Mirdn Shah, with the govern- 
ment of the empire of Huldk^y containing the countries of 
y^zerbejariy Runiy or AnatoUay and Syriiiy as far as' Egypt ^ H0 
iikewife obliged the princes who governed Pars and both the 
Ir^Sy to be fubjeft to his jurifdiftion ^. 

Mean time, the Mirza Ruftem znd.Soleyman SMh, whoEflindcr 
were gone to Rayy to inquire into the conduft of Efiarider p^*^'f^^''l- 
Sbeyktiy found that he had revolted ; and, having placed his 
family -in the fortrefe of Firt^zkuh, was fled to the mountains 
Iq ^he forefk of Chelaivn and Rufternddr. The generals here* 


» ICft. Tim. Bck, Vol, H. p. 328—338, c. 13-17 


(I) Calk4 elfewhore Soltan Ay/a. 

Z 3 ^«P^ T 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Hifiory of tbe Moguls and Tatars. B- VI. 

upon drew 2000 men out of the garrifons, and, emertng the 
foreft, took and razed the fortrefs of Mr. Here M^k KayH- 
^ marrezy an enemy of Ejkdnder^ coming to meet them, they 
fent him to Ejidnder^ thinking to oblige him with a kind in- 
vitation to a treaty in his favour : but, not daring to truft 
them, he accommodated matters with Kayhnarrez^ and began 
hoftilities. On advice of this, Timitr fent feveral troops be- 
fore ; / and following himfelf , with the reft of the army, by Ar^ 
dehil and Soltdniya, arrived, May 1 5, at Kajbtn ; where, at 
Mirza Abubekr'% requeft, he permitted Miran Shdb, his fa- 
ther, to go to B&ghddd^ to refide there with him ; and then 
{cnt him to join Rujiem at Kitjur, where they kept entrenched 
till the arrival of the army : after which, they cut roads through 
the forefts, and marched to feek the enemy. 
Firdxkfih The 22d, TtmAr came to ^ay ; then paffingby the caftleof 
^aken. Ghulkend^riy at the foot of mount Dam^wend, and afterwards 
by Damdivendf arrived at FirAzMh ; a citadel, famous in hi- 
ftory, fitnated on the ridge of a mountain, and walled widi 
the utmoft fb-ength. The 3 ift of May, the fiege was formed, 
and the throwers of wild-fire b^an the attack. As one of the 
^^ towers of the place was built on th^ bank of the river, and 

reached as high as the level of the mountain, at whofe foot it 
ftood, the erieray made ufe of it, to draw up water from the 
river : but the befiegers turned the courfe pf the ftream, and 
fpoiled the water which was left, in fpite of a vigorous oppo- 
iition. During night, Mehemed Jzdd, Akbuga, and other brave 
men, got up to the foot of the walls ; who, being perceived 
by the garrifon, were refolutely attacked, and feveral wounded :" 
but, after fun-rife, all the foldiers afcended, by different places, 
and gave a general afTault. The foa of Ejkdnder Sheykhi^ go- 
vernor of the cafUe, and thofe with him, being feized with 
fear, though the garrifon confifled of 300 fbong men, furren- 
dered the place, after a two days fiege. 
Kara Ta- Next day, advice came, that the Kara Tatars had revolted 
tars re near Damgdn, and wounded almoft to death their deroga. The 
'vo/t. other bands, hearing this, refolved to fly : but the Amirs Shhnf- 
o'ddtn, and other captains, who had the conduft of them, faU: 
ing on the mutineers^ flew above 3000 on the fpot. Scmie were 
brought away, and the reft fled to the forefts oiJftarabM\ bo^ 
. being purfued by way of Bejl&my were overtaken at Karatugan^ 
on the CaJJ>ian fea, and defeated, though far more numerous. 
Above 1000 were flain, and more than 10,000 &milies were 
taken prifbners. After this, 7m4r marched in pcrfon againft 
Ejkander Sheykht, over high mquntains and deep vallgrs, to 
. Chelav)ny where he arrived June 1 1 ; but, not being Ale to 
find the rebel, returned the fame day. In tl^s road there i$ a 

Digitized by 


very deep defile, full of woods, always covered with mifts;. 
and in the middle runs an exceeding rapid torrent, which one 
can neither ford nor fwim over, Thi^ grekt difficulty there is ' 
in palling this ftreight, has given it the name' of the defile of 
hell', and as Ejkinder had broken the bridge over the torrent^' 
his purfuers were obliged to build anothw* of woocf, which 
Timtir crofled, and encamped on the top of a mountain be- 
yond it *. 

Parties being fentout e\^ry way, in fearch of the fugi- Efcander 
tive, one of them met with him, on the 17 th of June^ in the/'c/^^^*^* , 
middle of a wood, near the Cafpian fea, at the head of 20a 
foot, and thirty horfe, with which he fallied out of his litde 
camp, and prepared to attack his purfuers ; who, though but 
twenty in number, fearing Timur's reproaches, refolved to 
die rather than fly. Ejidnder, followed by his horfemen, at- 
tacked them feveral times with their pikes : but the Jagatays 
fo plied him, that he at length fhamefuUy turned his back, 
though famed for intrepidity, and fled, with his foldiers, far- 
ther into the foreft. They pillaged bis camp ; and^ next morn- 
ing, m,et with his fou^ the Atnir JB, and daughter, his wives, 
aad dpmeftics, who were ajl made flaves. The fcout«, being 
joined by the Mirza Soltdn Huffayn^ and feventy men, conti-. - 
nued the purfuit ofEjkdnder; and meeting him, about noQn, 
in the midft of the foreft, with 200 foot, and fifty horfe, fell 
furioufly upon him j then retreated, as if he would have fled. 
The enemy, upon this, boldlj fallied out to attack his men ? 
i)ut they turned on them fuddenly, in good order, and made a 
^rud flaughter of the foot. Two of the horfemen were taken 
prifoners ; and Ejiander, re-^nteriog the f(jreft, went out by 
the iide towards Childn ; nor was ever heard of more : although 
feme fay, hie took the hi^bit pf a monk : others, that he died 
for grief in the woods. 

The amirs being all returned to the cs^mp, Timur reproved TimArrr- 
them for not continuing the purfuit, and fent them back again turfu 
on the fame errand : but, on advice that they could not ei^- 
^amp in the woods, which the rains had made exceeding miiy, 
he fent orders fpr them to return, after they had fufficiently 
fatigued themfelvcs. Then Timur marched to jthe caftle of 
Harjiy towards Gb'ilan^ and from thence to tl;ie meadow of 
Kelare D^Jht, Aft^r he had fent the mirzas to their refpeftive 
governments, he departed for Samarkant. In a few days, he 
came to the kioftik, or pavilion, of Jr^^n Khdriy ^t the foot of 
mount Damdwend, in the country of Ur; and Jufy loth, 
encamped at Firfizk0^ the government of which, and Ri2yf 

' » HiA. Tim. Bck, Vol. II. p. 33^— 347» <^' 17^2^- 

Z 4 ^vlt^^ 

Digitized by 


Hipry of the Moguls and Tatars. B: VI. 

with their dependeacies, he l^ft with the Amir Soleymcin Sbah^ 
The 14th, he arrived at Beftam. The 20th, left Nijbabur% 
' and paffing ^..w, came to the river J&Hjeran. From hence, 
^by KeHan, he went to the river Morgah\ where Jpaktdlpa^ 
governor of ShifhcktUy was, for opprefling the iohabitantSi^ 
hanged, with his head downwards, after having had his feer 
tOred through. 
/a,Samar- Then contintiing liis route by Jndti4d, the defile of Ghez^ 
kant. and J!iab<J, he at length eroded the Jihun (or Jm^) at Ter^ 
med, and came to Kajd. From whence he made foch haftc ta 
Samarianty that the principal perfojis had not an opportunity 
to proceed far to meet him. He arrived there in Mohaihtem 
Hcj. 807. S07. Soon after, MaJfaUd Dawd^ and Mehemed Jilde^ who 
A. p. had been the principal fecretaries, ^nd, during Tirk^r*s ab- 
1404, fenge, performed the funftion of waZiVs, w cf e condetoined, for* 
J^^/' doing inji^ftice ; and both hanged, by his oj-cfer, at Khdni Cbeul^ 
during the banqutt there. 'Afterwards, Ttm^r went to th^ 
garden of f lanes, where he gave audience to an amballador of 
JdM, Emperor of Kipjak^ who prefented* him with a {honki^-^ 
He next vifited the ^rden Of Dilen Shah, where he received atf 
ambaflador froiti one of the ^reateft fovei*eigns of Europe (K), 
who made hiih feveral curious and magnificent prefents ; par- 
ticularly, fome pieces of tapiftry, wrought w^th fo much art, 
that, were the great performances of the painter Mani, on the 
cloth of Artene, to be compared with them^^ Mani wpukl bluflx» 
iud his works appear deformed ^ (L), ' 
Mngntfi' After this,. Timur ordered a palace to be built by the 
am fa- Syrian architefts, Jn the garden fouth of Bhghu Shamdl, most 
l^e, jjarge and magnificent than ^ny he had founded before* It wa4 

tL fquare, each fide being 1500 cubits in length. Thedilftf 
Ornaments '^^t of m^ble,^ in fedptu^e, 4nd yil^. work 0^ 

^ Hift. Tim. Bek, Vol. II. p. 347rr-357. e. ?i— ?4r 

(K) This, dovbtiefs, was J^ But this appears to be falfe 11^ 

GonzaUs de. C/aqjiJo, fent by fadj and alio {he\ys the ambat 

\HfnryUI, y^]Y\g ot CaJIiie. He fad or had left Samarkant^ zai 

let out 21 Mtzy 1403, and re- pbcained his audience. For ha^ 

tnrned to *^pain 24 March 1406. he been at Samarkant (as be }n- 

Jle mentions the feall made by timates) when Timur died, be 

Timur, on the marriage of his muf! have kqown that ccb* 

children, and to which he was queror did not die in that city^ 

invited : but not a word of hi« See la Coix, pref. to Timitt 

audience of leave, an4 the rich ^^i, for an account of this cmt 

prefents he received, pn the bafiy. 

contrary, he aflure3 lis, he never (L) This is doing grttat ho- 

had one ; becaufe Timiir died nowr to European manuiiadures. 
about that time, at ^/?»/<7r^^.7f. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iL 

Cs^*, the Reign of 'l^tti^v1S^^\ 

various colours. The outfide of the walls wa? covertd'\v!tH 

pbrceiaiti oi Kajbihy and tfie fouhtains, wer^ beautified with 

infinite jet d'eaus of f^veral forms. The Emperor fbleninized'^ 

the fiftifhingf 6f it wi^h a* fpl^ndid l^ariqueti to which the Eu^ 

foptah atobafladors w<re invited '>fyr the ka,]feu lays oqr authoVi. 

huvt atfo their j>ldce in th^fea (M), - , 

'tIMUR reiblvlng, before he made* his irftended expedition^ Kind of 
to Chinay to m^rry his grandchildren, ordered a grand fe'aily«?^^'^^f 
to be mad^, in the plain of Kh$ni Gheul (N), whither he wen|" 
to lodgci, on the 1 7 th of QEioberl The governors of orovinces, 
generals, and great lords* of the 6mpire, aflembliea in this'. 
place, and pitched their tents in order. People from all partsi 
of JJia repaired, to behold this folemji rejoicing 5 where all 
ibtts of diverfions were exhibited, and the richeft curiofrti^si"' 
ibid, in magnificent fhops. Th^re was built" a charfaky of 
Itophitheatre, covered with brocade and Ferjian carpets, fur-^ 
Hlfhed with feats for the mufic, and places for the buffoons* 
^d jefters, to fhew their fkill. There was another chartak* 
lot all forts of tradeftneii, and 100 of a different manner, ffllef . 
"^itk thofe who fold fruit, each of whorii Had a' kind of gar- 
4eii, of piftachio$, pomegranates, almoiids, pears, arid apples* 
The butchers drefled up fldris of animals in very ludjcrous" 
^gures. Women imitated fpeaking goats; with horns of gold^ - 
and ran after one another. Some were drefled Hke fairies and 
jingels, with v^ings ; whilft others affum^d the appearance of 
^ephants and fheep- 

The fkinners alfo appeared m mafquerades, like leopards^ Feafl^ ani 
Jons, tygers, foxes, with whofe {kins they were covered^ <*^«^^» 
The upholders made a camel of wood, reeds, coWs, ana 
fainted linen, which walked about, as if alive ; and the mad 
within' it, drawing a curtain, difcovered the workman in His 
^wn' piece. The manuf^fturers of cotton made birds of cot- 
ton, arid a high minareh, qr tower, of the fame material, with 
the help of reeds, which every body imagined to be built witSi 
brick and mortar. It was covered with brocades and em-, 
broidered work, carried itfelf* about, and on its top was placed! 
^ ftork. The faddiefs (hewed their Ikill in two litters, opeii • 
fit top, carried on a camel, with 'a beautiful woman in each> 
who diverted the fpeftator^ by aftiohs with their hands and 
feet- The mat-makers gave a proof of their dexterity, by two 
liiTes of writing, in Kujik^ a^d Qtli^r larg^ ^^laradi^rs, worked 
Vithre^ds, . , ^ 

(M) This fef m$ to be fpoken corn, which is feen on the fur* 

^ith great contempt ^of_the am- face of the fca. La Ctoix. 
\jafiauors : for the kafs i§ a little ( N ) That is, a mine pf 

anilna), ^e iizq of a barley- flpwcrs, 

V Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Hijfory.c/iic Moguls and Tutzrs. B.Vl 

Thus every one contributed to celebrate the marriage of 
the young princes, who were the Mirzas Ol^k Bek and Ibrahim 
Soltdn, fpns of Skdi MM; Jyjel, fon of Mirdn Sh&h\ Ji- 
Princes ^^j^ Seydi Jkrjud, and BUrd^ all three fons of the MIrza Omar 
marrkd. Sheykh. The aftrologers having chofen a happy moment, the 
firft officer of the houftiold drew the curtain of the imperial 
gate. The kadi's, iharifs, imams, and doftors, of the em* 
pire met the emperor ; and having agreed on the articles (^ 
marriage, the great doftor SheyUi Shamfo'ddin Mehemed al 
Jfazdri was pitched on to read them to the aflcmbly. The 
grand kidii of Samarkant, MUldna Salaho'ddin^ received the 
mutual confcnt of *the parties, which he regiftred ; and then, 
according to the Hanafiyan rites, joined the princes and 
princcfles together in marriagp j on whom every one iprinklcd 
gold and precious ftoncs ^ 
Cnat The emperor being feated on his throng, the banquet was 

magnlfi' ferved up to the brides, and other ladies oi the court, by the 
c$nc$ mod beautiful young women of his faray, who had on crowns 
compofed of flowers. The princes of the blood, amirs^ ne- 
vians (or n^yans), fharifs, and foreign ambailadors, were 
feated under a canopy, fupported by twelve coluoms, *nd di- 
ftant about a horfe*s courfe from the nuptial-hall, Here were 
longed earthen urns, with ftrings of precious (tones about 
thefn, filled with gold, andfilver pilaftres, on the tops whereof 
were cups of gold, agiate, and cryftal, adorned with pearls and 
jcwds e all which veffels were prefented on falvers of gold and 
lilver, to thofe who drank ; tJie liquors being kammez (0), 
oxymel, hippocras, brandy, wines, firma, ^nd the like. It is 
reported, that the wood of feveral large forefts was cut down, 
in thi to drefs the viftuals for this banquet. There wer^ tables fur- 
ftafi^ nilhed in different places throughout the whole pl^in, and 
flaggons of wine fet near them, with infinite balkets of fruit. 
Bcfides thefe preparations for the court, there were jars full 
of liquors, ranged all through the plain, for the people's drink- 
ing : and, that their joy might be complete,, they were allowed 
to purfue whatever pleafures they thought fit, without any re- 
ftraint, by proclamjition, in thefe terms; " This is th^ time 
" of feafling, pleafure, and rejoicing. Let no perfpn repri- 
" mand, or cqmplain of, anoth^ : let npt the rich infult the 
*' poor ; nor the flrong the weak : let no one af^ another, 
* '* Why have you done this \ ". 

^ Hift. Tim. Bek, Vol. H. p. 357—364, c. 24—26. 

(O) Or kemis, made of marcs milk. See before. Vol. IV. 
. r 3®2. . ^ ^ • 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C, 5t TbeR^igncfrimtu:B<k: 

Th^ elephants, w}th thrones on thdr backs, were ir%\yn 
out on this occafiph. When the feaft was over, a vaft quan- 
tity pf curious moveable goods was, according to cuftom, laid ' . , 
upon mules and camels, for the n^w-married princes ; among ^"^ ^i^'' 
which were all forts of rich habits, ^owns, and hefts, fet/^IJ'> ^f 
with precious fliohes. The mules had coverings of fattin, erp-^ . 
brbidered with gold : and their little bells, ^s well as thofc of 
the camels, were of gbld. This pompous equipage pafled be- 
fore the admiring people. • The bridegroQms, with their brides, 
yrere clothed nine times in different habit$^ iS^t pff witl^ crowns . 
and belts. Each tim^ they changed their dr^fs, th^y paid th^}r thi m^ 
refpefts, as ufual, tp the emperor ; while the ground was co- ried 
vered with the gold, pearls, and precious ftones, whiiq^^ were /r/W 4. 
Iprinkled on them, and became the perquifite of their do- 
•iheftics. At night, illuminations were made,* with l^nthoms., 
torches, and lamps; and the new-married princes entered the 
i}uptial-chamber. Next day, 77m«r honoured them with jv 
vilit at their refpeftive apartments, accompanied by the em- 
prefles, great amirs and fharifs of the court. Nor w^re the 
rejoicings confined to Khdni Ghent: for there was not one placq, 
in th4 'whole empire, from theike to TKj (or MaJbhM)^ in 
Khoraffariy where the found pf drums ^qd trumpets was no^ 
hekrd. . • 

The marriage-feafts lafled two months ; after which, the 
adembly was diflblved, and the licence which had been granted 
during the feaft recalled : fo that, for the ftiture, no perfoi^ 
was allowed to drink wine, or commit any thing unlawful. 
After, this, Timur retired to his clofet; where *' he thanked 
** God for his favours, in'raifing him, from a petty prince, tp 
f * be the mofl migh^ nionarch in the world : in giving him 
f* fo many viftories and conquefts; maintairiing him in fovc- 
^* reign authority,, apd making him his chofen fervant.** 

TIMUR^ having taken a (hort repofe, refolved to put in fbe nuem 
execution his defign againft China. To this end, he fummoned ofQYi\s^9, 
the mtrzas and great amirs of his council to court ; and made 
f fpeech, whierein he told them, his dear companions, ^ he 
failed them, " That as the vaft conquefts he had made were 
** not obtained without fojne violence, which had occafioned 
" the deftriiftipn of a great number of God*s creatures, he 
" was refolved, by way of atonement for his paft crimes, to' 
f * perform fome good aftion ; namely, to make war on the 
f * infidels, and exterminate the idolaters of China (P) : that it 

^* waji 

(P) He intended to atone for 9f his ^e^tiu-es : to atone fof 
the deftriidion of God's crea- one crime, by committing ai^* 
t«re9> by ft farther deilrudUon other. Koc only the Chineje ido« 

* ' Utcr» 

Digitized by 


Hifiory of /Aif Moguls and Tatars. B. VI/ 

was fitting thofe very troops, which- had been the inftru- 
ments whereby thofe fatilts were committed, fliould alfo be 
the inftruments of repentance ; he therefore required, that 
" they fliould march into Chinay to acquire the merit of that. 
•* holy war, by dcmolifhinc the temples of the idols of fire, 
♦' and ereftiog mofks in their place$." 
fffilved in The council.having approved of this pious expedition, orders 
fmncif^ were immediately iflbed for aflembling the forces erf the empire 
ztTdJbkunty which was to be the general rendezvous of the 
army. Tim&r then went from Khdni Gheul to Sdmarkant ; 
where having done particular honours to the ambaflador of 
Egypt y he gave him leave to depart ; (ending with him an am^ 
bafTador of his own, with a letter to Soltan Tarnq^ feventy 
cubits long, and three in breadth, written in letters of gold, 
in anfwer to what that foltaa had written, relating to Solfia. 
Ahmed and Kara Tufsf, He likewife granted particular ho- 
jrours and favours to the ambafladors oi Europe (Q^y, Dajbt 
Kipjdky Jetahy and other parts, ^nd permitted them to return 
liome. He gave the Mirza Omar Bek the government of "the^ 
tDwns of Td/hkunty, Sayrdrrif Tenghiy Jjbira, and all the king- 
dom of Jet&h, as far as China : likewife to the Mirza Ibrgl^ 
Soltin^ xhaxqi Andekhdn^ Jkfiket, Taraz, 2iXi<iKaJbgar/2isidj> 
Timftr Whfn the troops were affembled, the Amir BerendSk re*, 

JtH out. viewed them, by Timor's order ; and brought account, that 
there were hi the army, which 4ie defigned to carrylnto Chinot. 
100,000 men complete, , confifting of the forces of Greal Buh 
hMdy Turkefldn, B&ik, Badakfban\ Khorajpin, SiJ&n, -Ma^ 
thndcr&n^ the Kara Tatar $y with the colonies frotfn Ptrs^ Azer-^ 
hejan^ and Irak, The emperor was pleafed with the good con«» 
dition they were in ; and, having diftributed his treafum 
among them, commanded them to begin their march. The 
Mirzas Katil Soltin and Ahmed On\ar Sheykh^ ' with the troops 
of the right-wing, were ordered to pafs the winter, at 

^'.Hlft. Tim, Bek, VoMI. p, 364^37?. c. ^6, &feq. 

laters were to be rooted out, but dienc^ of leave of TVWr, who 
atfo thofe who were not idor was reported to have been ver/ 
feters, under the n^me of infi- fick; whence, in the 5^/iw}^ re- 
dds, lation, he is faid, through mif- 
(Q) The Spanijb wnbafla- take, to have been dead. La 
dors, whom we have mentioned Croix* — This fcems to be a pal- 
in the preface, were difmifled liation: Ti^niir died zt ptrar\ 
^t the fame time as thofe of and it docs not appear thathq 
(^ff, without obtaining an ^u* . w^s {\(;\inxSamariafft. 

Digitized by 


•C 5* The Riign of Tm^t Bck- 

Tqfhkunty Slnihrukhtya (R), and Say ram; while' the Mirza 
Soltdn Hujfayn was to remain, with fome troops of the left- 
"wiog, at T^i and Sabrdn. At length Timiir fet out froni Sa-, 
markanty the 23 of Jomazio'lawel, in 807, in a happy mo' 
ment fixed by the aftrologers (*) ; and although the rains, fnows, 
wind, and cold, were extremely violent, yet he continued his-JanuaryS* 
inarch to Akfulat^ where cottages and houjScs had been bulk 
to lodge in. Here the emperor being informed, that the Mirza 
Kaltl Soltan had, a fecond time, concealed, in his apartment, 
Sh&di Midky pjie of the concubines of the Amir Sayfo'ddin, 
Whom he had xt^uried for love, he ordered her to be put 
to death : bu^ by means of the great emprefs, it beijpg p^p- 
tend^ (he was with child, the loroer was countermaaded, apd 
the lady committed to the care of the black eunuchs (S). 

TIMUR took Tucb care with regard, to prQvifion axid arm?, Arrh/astf 
that every horfeman had enough of l)oth to fervc ten 4Ja^fL Ouii* 
Befidcs this, feveral thoufand loads of com wefc parried Jq 
^'aggons, to fow the fields on their road, to fupply thwi.iia 
their return. .Several thousands . of camels alfo w^ce in the 
train, that, on preffing occafions, tieir milk might fcrve, ft)r 
ixourHbinent to the ioldiers. Thefe^p^mutions were aeceflkry 
in an army fo^numerous, as not to be matched in antiquity (X)* 
Although the cpld was fo extreme, that feveral men and horfes 
periflhcd on the road, fonje lofmg their hands and feet, othors 
their cslts and nofcs, yet Timurkt for^yard from Akfill^t, god 
croflj^ the SikHn (or Sir), .ovjsr the ice, at Zarn^k, Fehruary • 
27th,* arrived at Oirhr. This, river was frozen fo hai*d, that 
tb^ wjerc obliged to dig twp or three cubits to .get water : 
3ind, .during the .months of Jarvmry-^vA. February y waggoQs, • • * 
men, ^dlpeafts, could .pafs either the Jih^n or SiMrij' in any . 
part of them. The fame. day, one corner of the roof of the Jboii 
palace where the emperor lodged took fire, by means of, ^ omen* 
chimney ; which acj:iaent was confidered by the courtiers, who 
before had been feared with frightful dreams, gs a prognoflic 
of fome misfortune to his majefty % 

^ Hift. Tim. Bek, Vol. II. p. 372—380, c. ly^ig. 

(R) This place, formerly (*) Who could not foreffse 
called FefMkuttty was intirely bis death. 
ruined by Jenghi% Khans army ; (S) To prevent the mirza's 
but, in the vcar 794 of the He- having any futu^^e commerce 
jrah, and'of Chrift 1302, TViwwr with her. , , 
ordered itto be rebuilt, and re- ( T) Then it mull have con- 
peopled :' and, as he then gave iVftedof more than 200,000 men. 
It to the Mirza Shah Rukh, it Nay, Tmnr himfelf had more 
was called after him Sbdhrikhiya, numerous armies at other tinier 

Ar' ' 

' Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Hiftory of the Moguls and Tatars. B. VI. 

At this time, an ambaflador arrived from Tokatmtjb Khan, 
formerly emperor of Kipj&k, who had, for a long time, wan- 
dered as t vagabond in the defart^ of that country, confeffing 
his mailer's ingratitude, and imploring forgivenefs. Timur 
not only gave Kara Koja a magnificent audience, but alTured 
him he would, at his return from Chinas again conquer the 
empire of Tujbi Khan, arid give it to ToUtndJb. The 25th of 
March, his majefty was attacked with a burning fever^ and 
believed he heard the hiiris fay, Repent ! for you muji appear 
brfore God. On this, he became fincerdy penitent for his 
crimes, and refolved to make fatirfaftion for them, by good 
works. Although his ficknefs daily increafed, yet he was con- 
tintially inquiring after the cohdition of his army. ' When he 
found death approaching, he fent for the emprefles, and prin- 
cipal amfrs. ** He hid them not weep, but pray, for him. 
** Said, he had hopes God would pardon his fins, though 
** ntimberlefs; and had this confolation, that he had never 
** fufFered the ftrong to injure the weak. He ejthorted them 
** to procure eafe and fafety to the people, as an account wotild 
** berequireH of all Jp power, at the day of judgment." He 
then declared hi^JSr P£r Mehethed Jeh&n Ghtr his univer&I 
heir, and lawful fuccefTor ; commanding them all to obey him, 
and facrifice their lives to maintain his authority. After this, 
he ordered all the amirs, great lords of the court, and generals, 
to come before him, and made them fwear to fee his will exe- 
cuted, and to fuffer none to oppofe it. He commanded that 
all thofe who were abfent fhduld take the fame oath. 

The lords burft in* tears, and promifed to fulfil his tefta- 
ment. They propofed fending for the Mirza Soltan and amirs 
at T&fhkunty that they might hear his majefty*8 will from his 
own mouth ; alleging, that their declaration could not have 
the fame force with them. But Timur forbad it, as they could 
not come time enough to find him alive ; and faid, he had no 
other defire than to fee the Mirza Shah Mkh once more 5 but 
that it was impofSble. After recommending the obfervance of 
his will, and the avoiding of difcord, to the princes his child- 
ren, he ordered ode of the' doftors to read the Kor&n at his 
bed's-head, and oft?n repeat the unity of God. At ni^t 
(about eight o'clock), he feveral times made profeffion of his 
belief, That there is no other god than God', and then gave up 
his foul to the Angel Efrajiel (or Ifrael), on the 17th oi Shor 
idn 807 (U), after he had lived feventy-one years, and rdgncd 

f Hift. Tim. Bek, Vol. II. p. 380—3^7, c. 29—31. 
(U) Which anfwcrs to Wednefday the I ft of April 1405. 


Digitized by VjOOQ It 

C. 5- ^^^ R^^S^ ^f Tim6r Bek; 

TIMUR was remarkable for his fincerc piety, great* vene- 
ration for religion^ ftria juftice, and unbounded liberality; 
which have been fufEciently exemplified in the foregoing hi- '